UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Attachment behaviors in young children experiencing two primary caregivers Vinay, Marie-Emmanuelle 1973

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c i' ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN EXPERIENCING TWO PRIMARY CAREGIVERS by MARIE-EMMANUELLE VINAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of -p<&|rkoItp^vy  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ABSTRACT A t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s i n young c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c i n g two p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r s we re s t u d i e d i n g roup homes o r g a n i z e d f o r s i n g l e m o t h e r s . The n i n e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d i n age f r o m f i v e t o 27 m o n t h s . They we re o b s e r v e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s and w i t h t h e a d u l t i n c h a r g e o f t h e i r g roup home d u r i n g t he d a y . O n l y s m a l l q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a d u l t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n were o b s e r v e d . L i t t l e f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y were s e e n . The t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o n c e p t o f a t t a c h m e n t we re d i s c u s s e d . i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t i L i s t o f T a b l e s i v Acknow ledgemen ts v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n s o f A t t a c h m e n t B e h a v i o r . 1 P s y c h o a n a l y s i s 2 S o c i a l L e a r n i n g T h e o r y 2 E t h o l o g i c a l T h e o r y 2 P e r t i n e n t F a c t o r s i n t h e F o r m a t i o n o f A t t a c h m e n t 8 V a l i d i t y o f F e a r o f S t r a n g e r s and S e p a r a t i o n A n x i e t y as C r i t e r i a f o r A t t a c h m e n t 10 A t t a c h m e n t B e h a v i o r i n N o n - n u c l e a r F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n s 14 E x p e r i m e n t 16 S u b j e c t s 19 A p p a r a t u s 19 D e s i g n 21 P r o c e d u r e 21 R e s u l t s 24 D i s c u s s i o n 29 C o n c l u s i o n 36 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 36 Remarks on t h e C h i l d r e a r i n g P r a c t i c e s of t h e Young S i n g l e M o t h e r s 41 i i i Page T a b l e s 1 (A) and 1 CB) • 4 5 T a b l e s 2 (A) and 2 (B) 46 T a b l e 3 4 7 T a b l e 4 4 8 T a b l e 5 49 B i b l i o g r a p h y 50 A p p e n d i x 56 i v L i s t o f T a b l e s Page T a b l e 1 (A) F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t o u c h , t a l k , l o o k , s m i l e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e v e n i n t e r v a l s o f E p i s o d e I w i t h t h e m o t h e r 45 T a b l e 1 (B) F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t o u c h , t a l k , l o o k , s m i l e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e v e n i n t e r v a l s o f E p i s o d e 1 w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r . . . . . 45 T a b l e 2 (A) F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t a l k , l o o k , s m i l e t o E_ and t h e camera when t h e m o t h e r i s p r e s e n t ( E p i s o d e I) 46 T a b l e 2 (B) F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t a l k , l o o k , s m i l e t o E and t h e camera when t h e c a r e t a k e r i s p r e s e n t ( E p i s o d e I ) 46 T a b l e 3 P r o p o r t i o n s and n o f Ss e x h i b i t i n g c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s i n t he p r e s e n c e o f t h e m o t h e r and o f t h e c a r e t a k e r 47 T a b l e 4 Sex d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e e p i s o d e s w i t h t h e m o t h e r and w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r . . . . . . 48 T a b l e 5 Sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he S^s' r e a c t i o n s t o s t r a n g e r s 49 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My t h a n k s go t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e Group Homes f o r S i n g l e M o t h e r s , o p e r a t e d by t h e YMCA, who k i n d l y made a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t he o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s and t he m e e t i n g s w i t h mo the rs and c h i l d r e n . My t h a n k s t o t he m o t h e r s and t h e c a r e t a k e r s who w i l l i n g l y c o o p e r a t e d d u r i n g t he s e s s i o n s and gave so much t i m e t o t he v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t he s t u d y , and t o M i s s R. H a r r i s who h e l p e d w i t h t h e s h o o t i n g o f t h e s e s s i o n s w i t h an i n n e r - c i r c u i t T . V . c a m e r a . G r a t e f u l t h a n k s a l s o go t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , D r s . W i l l i a m s and K i m b a l l f o r t h e l o a n o f t h e T . V . equ ipmen t and f o r t h e i r p a t i e n t a d v i c e i n t h e c o n d u c t i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h . INTRODUCTION E a r l y i n l i f e t h e I n f a n t r e l a t e a to h i s mo the r i n a t r u l y m e a n i n g f u l way . To know what t h i s a t t a c h m e n t c o n s t i t u t e s i s t o d e f i n e t he n a t u r e and t h e mechan isms u n d e r l y i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s f o c u s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n s o f A t t a c h m e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i o u s t h e o r i e s c l a i m t o p r o v i d e s u c h an e x p l a n a t i o n . P s y c h o -a n a l y t i c t h e o r i s t s , S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s and E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s have come up w i t h d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t s o f t h e p r o c e s s . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s c e n t e r s i t s e x p l a n a t i o n a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i l e t h e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s and t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s u s e t h e te rms dependency and a t t a c h m e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s A c c o r d i n g t o P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , t h e mo the r and t h e i n f a n t a r e r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r t h r o u g h o b j e c t c h o i c e w h i c h h a s i t s r o o t s i n i n s t i n c t s s i n c e o b j e c t c h o i c e i s " c a t h e c t e d w i t h l i b i d a l e n e r g i e s " ( F r e u d , 1959). A f t e r a p e r i o d o f n a r c i s s i s m w i t h a u t o - e r o t i c s a t i s f a c -t i o n , t h e f i r s t e x t e r n a l o b j e c t c h o i c e w i l l emerge f r o m b o t h ego and s e x u a l i n s t i n c t s . T h i s f i r s t o b j e c t c h o i c e i s c a l l e d t h e a n a c l i t i c o b j e c t c h o i c e . From now o n , t h e o b j e c t w i l l become t h e s o u r c e o f s a t -i s f a c t i o n and t he c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r w i l l a i m a t b r i n g i n g t h e o b j e c t i n t o p r o x i m i t y s o as t o " i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o t h e e g o " ( F r e u d , 1959). T h i s " o r a l " e x p l a n a t i o n o f t he t i e b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r and t h e i n f a n t i s v e r y s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d b y p s y c h o a n a l y s i s t s , who s e e t h e i n f a n t as l o v i n g 2 " w i t h h i s m o u t h " ( E r i k s o n , 1 9 5 9 ) . I n i t s b e g i n n i n g t h i s o b j e c t c h o i c e has s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n v a l u e ; t r u e a n a c l i t i c o b j e c t c h o i c e i s o n l y a c h i e v e d when t h e i n f a n t p e r c e i v e s h i s m o t h e r as an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t . S o c i a l L e a r n i n g T h e o r y G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s mo the r i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t she s a t i s f i e s h i s n e e d s . B e c a u s e t h e mo the r i s t he m a j o r s o u r c e o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n she w i l l be t h e f o c u s o f l o c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s dependen t b e h a v i o r s . A t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g , f o l l o w i n g , c l i n g i n g and d i s t r e s s a t s e p a r a t i o n a r e commonly u s e d by S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s t o d e f i n e d e p e n d e n c y . A l -though t h e mo the r i s s e e n as h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c i n g f u n c t i o n i n most s o c i a l l e a r n i n g a c c o u n t s , t h r e e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s f u n c t i o n have b e e n e m p h a s i z e d by S e a r s , G e w i r t z , and C a i r n s . S e a r s ( S e a r s , Rau a n d . A l p e r t , 1 9 6 5 , a n d S e a r s , W h i t i n g , N o w l i s and S e a r s , 1953) s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e mo the r i s t h e s o u r c e o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n b e c a u s e she meets t h e b a b y ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s , and t h u s she a c q u i r e s t h e v a l u e o f a p r i m a r y , o r u n l e a r n e d , r e i n f o r c e m e n t . G e w i r t z (1961) p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h i s v i e w i n h i s e m p h a s i s on s t i m u l a t i o n as an u n l e a r n e d r e i n f o r c e r . The s t i m u l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e mo the r w i l l t h r o u g h c o n t i n -gency w i t h p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s become r e i n f o r c i n g . H o w e v e r , C a i r n s (1966) s e e s t h e m o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e p e r se as b e i n g r e i n f o r c i n g . Thus t he " w e i g h t " , " s a l i e n c e " and " i m p o r t a n c e " o f t h e mo the r as a s t i m u l u s f o r dependence i s due t o h e r c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e . E t h o l o g i c a l T h e o r y B o w l b y , t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o p o n e n t o f t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f t h e 3 d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t t a c h m e n t a r g u e s t h a t t he c o n c e p t o f dependence has a c o n n o t a t i o n o f h e l p l e s s n e s s . a n d i n a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d . Bowlby r e j e c t s t h i s i d e a o f dependence and i n t r o d u c e s i n s t e a d t h e n o t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t w h i c h i s b a s e d u p o n ' i n s t i n c t u a l b e h a v i o r s . T h i s t h e o r y " p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s t i e t o h i s mo the r i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f a number o f b e h a v i o r a l s y s t e m s t h a t have p r o x i m i t y as a p r e d i c t a b l e ou t come" ( B o w l b y , 1969). The i n f a n t ' s a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s mo the r t h u s o r i g i n a t e s f r o m f i v e i n s t i n c t u a l r e s p o n s e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t of e a c h o t h e r and w h i c h emerge a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s as a r e s u l t o f h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , c h i e f l y w i t h h i s m o t h e r ( B o w l b y , 1958). These r e s p o n s e s a r e s u c k i n g , c l i n g i n g , s m i l i n g , f o l l o w i n g and c r y i n g . I n t he c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e f i v e r e s p o n s e s w i l l become i n t e g r a t e d and f o c u s s e d on a s i n g l e mo the r f i g u r e and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b a s i s f o r a t t a c h m e n t . The b e h a v i o r s m e d i a t i n g a t t a c h m e n t can be s a i d t o be o f t h r e e k i n d s ; o r i e n t a t i o n a l , s i g n a l l i n g and e x e c u t i v e . The m o t h e r ' s f a c e , v o i c e and s o on a r e s p e c i f i c e l i c i -t o r s o f t h e s e b e h a v i o r s so t h a t B o w l b y ' s f o r m u l a t i o n i m p l i e s r e a l " m o n o t r o p y " w h i c h goes f a r beyond o r a l n e e d s . Bow lby u s e s t h e word mono t ropy t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s a r e f o c u s s e d a t f i r s t on one and o n l y one p e r s o n , i . e . , t h e mo the r f i g u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , Bowlby (1969) does n o t e q u a t e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s r e f l e c t i n g a t -tachment w i t h d r i v e r e d u c t i o n s i n c e t h e i n f a n t c a n n o t be s a i d t o h a v e a " n e e d " f o r a c e r t a i n amount o f m o t h e r i n g . A i n s w o r t h , a n o t h e r p r o -ponen t o f t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , p u t s more s t r e s s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i m p l i e d i n a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r w h i c h she d e s c r i b e s as " a b e h a v i o r 4 t h r o u g h w h i c h a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , d i f f e r e n t i a l , a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a p e r s o n o r o b j e c t and w h i c h t e n d s t o e v o k e a r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e o b j e c t and t hus i n i t i a t e s a c h a i n o f i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h s e r v e s to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " ( A i n s w o r t h , 1 9 6 4 ) . A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t he i n f a n t as w e l l as t h e i n f a n t ' s d i s t a n c e r e c e p t o r s a r e e m p h a s i z e d . T h i s i s c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e l i s t o f b e h a v i o r s , w h i c h A i n s w o r t h s e e s as r e f l e c t i n g a t t a c h m e n t : d i f f e r e n t i a l c r y i n g , s m i l i n g and v o c a l i z a t i o n ; c r y i n g when t h e mo the r l e a v e s ; f o l -l o w i n g ; v i s u a l - m o t o r o r i e n t a t i o n ; g r e e t i n g t h r o u g h s m i l i n g ; c r o w i n g and g e n e r a l e x c i t e m e n t ; l i f t i n g arms i n g r e e t i n g ; c l a p p i n g hands i n g r e e t i n g ; s c r a m b l i n g o v e r t he m o t h e r ; b u r y i n g t h e f a c e i n t h e m o t h e r ' s l a p ; a p -p r o a c h t h r o u g h l o c o m o t i o n ; e m b r a c i n g , h u g g i n g , k i s s i n g ; e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h t h e mo the r as a s e c u r e b a s e ; f l i g h t t o mo the r as a haven "of s e c u r i t y ; c l i n g i n g ( A i n s w o r t h , 1 9 6 7 ) . B a s e d on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e v i d e n c e , A i n s w o r t h c o n t e n d s t h a t one c a n i n f e r a t t a c h m e n t f r o m the c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f t h e s e b e h a v i o r s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c l a p p i n g o f hands p r e s e n t o n l y i n U g a n d a . J u s t as e t h o l o g i s t s c o n s i d e r t h e s y s t e m s u n d e r l y i n g a t -tachment as e s s e n t i a l l y d y n a m i c , t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o u n t e r -b a l a n c i n g s y s t e m s s u c h as t h a t o f e x p l o r a t i o n . Thus an e q u i l i b r i u m i n the m o t h e r - i n f a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e a c h e d t h r o u g h an a t t a c h m e n t - e x p l o -r a t i o n b a l a n c e . T h i s e q u i l i b r i u m has b e e n p r o p o s e d as an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t by Kagan ( 1 9 7 1 ) . E x t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s p e c i e s - w i d e r e g u l a r i t i e s i n a t t a c h m e n t a r e p r o p o s e d by t h e e t h o l o g i s t s . Bowlby (1969) d i s t i n -g u i s h e s f o u r m a i n p h a s e s : o r i e n t a t i o n and s i g n a l s w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 5 o f f i g u r e ; o r i e n t a t i o n and s i g n a l s d i r e c t e d t owa rd one o r more d i s -c r i m i n a t e d f i g u r e s ; m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r o x i m i t y t o a d i s c r i m i n a t e d f i g u r e by means o f s i g n a l s and l o c o m o t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , f o r m a t i o n o f a r e c i -p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . A i n s w o r t h (1967) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e p h a s e s d u r i n g w h i c h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e l e m e n t s w i l l i n t e r a c t ; t h e u n d i s c r i m i n a t i v e p h a s e ; t h e phase o f d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s ; t h e p h a s e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s a t a d i s t a n c e ; t h e a c t i v e i n i t i a -t i v e p h a s e ; and t he f e a r o f s t r a n g e r p h a s e . A l t h o u g h u s u a l l y n o t a s -s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e E t h o l o g i c a l s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , S c h a f f e r (1963) and Y a r r o w (1967) p r e s e n t q u i t e s i m i l a r a c c o u n t s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a t -t a c h m e n t . S c h a f f e r ' s (1963) t h r e e s t a g e h y p o t h e s i s assumes an e a r l y p h a s e d u r i n g w h i c h o p t i m a l a r o u s a l i s sough t f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; a phase o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a t t a c h m e n t t o a l l human b e i n g s ; and a phase o f s p e c i f i c a t t a c h m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Y a r r o w ( 1 9 6 7 ) , f o c u s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s e v o l v e t h r o u g h : t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s ; s e l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r p e o p l e ; a c o n f i d e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i . e . , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t by t h e i n f a n t o f s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s t owa rd h i s m o t h e r ; s t r a n g e r a n x i e t y ; and s e p a r a -t i o n a n x i e t y . I n sum, t h r e e e x p l a n a t i o n s have b e e n o f f e r e d f o r t h e way i n w h i c h a c h i l d becomes a t t a c h e d t o h i s m o t h e r : o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s , d e p e n d e n c y , a t t a c h m e n t . A l l t h r e e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e i n f e r r e d f r o m some r e s p o n s e s i n t he b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e i n f a n t t h a t seem d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g abou t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Bu t h e r e a f t e r a l l s i m i l a r i t y among t h e a c -c o u n t s e n d s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e e t h o l o g i s t s c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e 6 b e h a v i o r s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n f a n t s , ( i . e . , s p e c i e s - s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s ) , w h i l e t h e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s e m p h a s i z e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . E t h o l o g i s t s i d e n t i f y a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l as t h e p o i n t o f l o c u s o f a t -tachment b e h a v i o r s , w h i l e f o r S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s a g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n g r a d i e n t may r e s u l t i n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s e l i c i t i n g dependen t r e s p o n s e s . E t h o l o g i s t s a l s o c o n s i d e r f e a r - p r o d u c i n g s t i m u l i as s p e c i f i c e l i c i t o r s f o r a t t a c h m e n t w h i l e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s do n o t (Maccoby and M a s t e r s , 1 9 7 0 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e c h i l d ' s t i e t o a s i n g l e c a r e g i v e r shows t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f mono t ropy has u n t i l r e c e n t l y d o m i n a t e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Bu t as S c h a f f e r (1971) p o i n t s o u t , t o h o l d t ihat t h e i n f a n t w i l l f o r m an i n i t i a l a t t a c h m e n t t o o n l y one p e r s o n and t h a t o t h e r a t t a c h m e n t s w i l l be p o s s i b l e o n l y when t h a t f i r s t one has become e s t a b l i s h e d , i s t o s i m p l i f y a p i c t u r e t h a t r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d t o be more c o m p l e x . As f a r b a c k as 1964 S c h a f f e r and Emerson had f o u n d t h a t w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s d i d f o r m an i n i t i a l a t t a c h -ment t o o n l y one p e r s o n , 29% d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a t t a c h m e n t s t o s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s . A f i f t h o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s became a t t a c h e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d no t p r o v i d e them w i t h p h y s i c a l c a r e and who w e r e n o t a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n the s u b j e c t s ' e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s i n o p p o s i t i o n b o t h t o t h e "mou th l o v e " ( p s y c h o a n a l y t i c ) and p r i m a r y - n e e d - s a t i s f i e r ( S e a r s ' v e r s i o n o f S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r y ) v i e w s o f a t t a c h m e n t . L o r e n z ' (1935) c l a s s i c a l wo rks on i m p r i n t i n g w i t h o u t t he r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f f o o d and H a r l o w ' s (1958) wo rk w i t h r h e s u s monkeys and mo the r s u r r o g a t e s had a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d b a s e s f o r q u e s t i o n i n g 7 t h e s e v i e w s . C a i r n s ' (1966) t h e s i s t h a t t he mere p r e s e n c e o f t h e mo the r i s t he r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r a t t a c h m e n t i s a l s o c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e s e f i n d i n g s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r m i n g s e v e r a l i n i t i a l a t t a c h -ments i s w e l l d e m o n s t r a t e d i n s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h p o l y m a t r i c f a m i l i e s . M u l t i p l e a t t a c h m e n t s a r e f o u n d w i t h dogs ( S c o t t , 1958) and w i t h b o n n e t macaques where p o l y m a t r i c r e a r i n g i s t h e r u l e ( R o s e n b l u m , 1 9 7 1 ) . S c h a f f e r (1971) f o u n d t h a t a t t a c h m e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o be f o rmed t o s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g i n f a m i l i e s where t h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h u s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t he b r e a d t h o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t f u n c t i o n c a n n o t b e s e t a p r i o r i t o one p e r s o n b u t w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S c h a f f e r and Emerson (1964) f o u n d a t e n d e n c y f o r c h i l d r e n c a r e d f o r e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e i r mo the r t o be more " a t t a c h e d " . H o w e v e r , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d n o t r e a c h t h e . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d , a s w i l l be shown l a t e r , t h e i r c r i t e r i o n f o r a t t a c h m e n t , d i s t r e s s a t s e p a r a t i o n , i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . C a l d w e l l and H e r s h e r (1964) who f o u n d s l i g h t l y more c o m f o r t a b l e and i n v o l v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i n f a n t s and m o t h e r s i n m o n o m a t r i c f a m i l i e s , j u s t r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e , saw p r e n a t a l m a t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s as c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s . I n d e e d m o t h e r s i n t h e i r p o l y -m a t r i c g roup we re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h o s t i l e , dom inan t a n d / o r d e p e n d e n t . Such a f i n d i n g can h a r d l y be g e n e r a l i z e d ! A l t h o u g h moi&.ak in t o t he s t u d y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s , S t e v e n s ' s t u d y (1971) n o n e t h e l e s s c o n t a i n s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on a t t a c h m e n t i n n o n - n u c l e a r f a m i l y s e t t i n g s . S t e v e n s l o o k e d a t an e x t e n d e d p o l y m a t r i c s i t u a t i o n where e a c h 8 i n f a n t r e c e i v e d m o t h e r i n g f r o m abou t 13 d i f f e r e n t n u r s e s p e r w e e k , and abou t s i x p e r 24 h o u r s . A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h A i n s w o r t h . ' s and S c h a f f e r ' s c r i t e r i a f o r a t t a c h m e n t , 12 o u t o f 24 i n f a n t s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a t -t a c h m e n t s . Abou t 15 i n f a n t s became u n a v a i l a b l e as s u b j e c t s b e f o r e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a was c o m p l e t e d . G r a t i f i c a t i o n o f p r i m a r y v i s c e r a l needs was n o t r e l a t e d t o a t t a c h m e n t . I ndeed p r i o r t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i f i c a t t a c h m e n t t owa rd a p a r t i c u l a r n u r s e , t h a t n u r s e d i d n o t f e e d t h e baby more o f t e n t h a n any o t h e r n u r s e i n t h e p a v i l l i o n . H o w e v e r , t h i s was no l o n g e r £ r u e once she was r e c o g n i z e d by t h e o t h e r n u r s e s as " h i s " n u r s e . The t e m p o r a l sequence o f e v e n t s c o u l d be summar i zed t h u s : t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f a n u r s e c a u s e d a t t a c h m e n t i n t h e b a b y ; t he r e c o g n i t i o n by t he o t h e r n u r s e s o f t h i s a t t a c h m e n t c a u s e d t h a t n u r s e t o be i n c h a r g e o f t he baby most o f t h e t i m e . N o t h i n g was . s a i d t o e x p l a i n t h e n u r s e ' s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h a t b a b y . S t e v e n s c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e n -s i t i v i t y and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o s o c i a l needs c a u s e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c a t t a c h m e n t s t o o c c u r and t h a t f e e d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n was o n l y c o n s e q u e n t i a l t o t h i s f o r m a t i o n . P e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s i n t h e F o r m a t i o n o f A t t a c h m e n t W h i c h a s p e c t s t h e n o f t h e i n f a n t - a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o s t e r i n g a t t a c h m e n t ? A i n s w o r t h ' s e t a l . e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f o n e - y e a r - o l d s (1971) p r o v i d e s a good c l u e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y , c o -o p e r a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e c h i l d ' s s i g n a l s we re a c -compan ied by a " h e a l t h f u l " a t t a c h m e n t i n t h e c h i l d ( i . e . , e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h t he mo the r as a s e c u r e b a s e , i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t i n t i m e s o f s t r e s s ) . H o w e v e r , i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o r i n s e n s i t i v i t y 9 t o t h e c h i l d ' s s i g n a l s , i n t e r f e r e n c e , and c o m p l e t e l y i n s e n s i t i v e m o t h e r i n g p r o d u c e d i n t h e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s r a n g i n g f r o m u n t i m e l y d i s p l a y o f a t t a c h m e n t o r h e i g h t e n e d e x p l o r a t i o n i n a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n t o s t r i k i n g a v o i d a n c e o f p r o x i m i t y , a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s o r h i g h d i s t r e s s when r e u n i t e d t o t h e m o t h e r . T h i s c a u s a l i n f e r e n c e was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f 23 o n e - y e a r - o l d s and t h e i r m o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e p i s o d e s o f t he " s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n " and d u r i n g v i s i t s a t t h e homes. An e x t e n s i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b o t h t h e b a b i e s ' and t h e m o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r s d u r i n g t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s was made and r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d be tween t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m o t h e r i n g o b s e r v e d and t h e p r o x i m i t y - e x -p l o r a t i o n b a l a n c e p r e s e n t i n t h e b a b y ' s a c t i o n s . B e l l and A i n s w o r t h (1971) c o n d u c t e d a home o b s e r v a t i o n o f 26 c h i l d r e n d u r i n g e a c h q u a r t e r o f t he f i r s t y e a r . They a n a l y z e d t h e f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n o f c r y i n g and o f c r y i n g c l u s t e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t he number o f c r i e s i g n o r e d , t h e d u r a t i o n o f m a t e r n a l u n r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and t h e t y p e s and e f f i c i e n c y o f m a t e r n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . They f o u n d t h a t p rompt r e s p o n d i n g t o c r i e s d i d n o t s t r e n g t h e n t h e c r y i n g r e s p o n s e , as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r y ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , l a c k o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s seemed t o i n c r e a s e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c r y i n g . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e c r i t i c a l f o r t h e deve lopmen t o f a t t a c h m e n t : t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e a d u l t i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e b a b y ' s s i g n a l s o f need and d i s t r e s s and t o h i s s o c i a l n e e d s ; t h e p r o m p t n e s s and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h i s r e s p o n s e ; t h e t o t a l amount o f 10 i n f a n t - a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as t h a t s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n i t i a t e d by t h e a d u l t ; t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a d u l t ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s come a t t h e b a b y ' s t i m i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e a d u l t ' s ; and t h e amount o f p l e a s u r e b o t h d e r i v e f r o m t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s l a s t v a r i a b l e s h o u l d n o t be m i n i m i z e d . D a v i d and A p p e l l (1969) o b s e r v e d t h a t m u t u a l p l e a s u r e c r e a t e s m u t u a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s l e a d i n g t o a " r e s -onance phenomenon" ( i . e . , k e e p i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n g o i n g ) . H e n c e , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s s e e n t o be o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e ; i n i t s e l f q u a l i t y w i l l e x p l a i n a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e e q u i v o c a l f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t i n i n f a n t r e s e a r c h . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e e f f e c t s o f q u a l i t y w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s . Thus t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m o t h e r - i n f a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p may a c c o u n t i n l a r g e p a r t f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e amount o f c r y i n g , e v e r y d a y s e p a r a -t i o n a n x i e t y o r g r e e t i n g r e s p o n s e s . T h a t m o t h e r s o f boys t e n d t o r o c k and t o u c h t h e i r b a b i e s more t h a n m o t h e r s o f g i r l s , who f o r t h e i r p a r t l o o k and v o c a l i z e more a t t h e i r b a b i e s , e x e m p l i f i e s w e l l t h e r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g be tween s e x d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e n a t u r e o f . the i n t e r a c t i o n (Lextfis and B a n , 1971; L e w i s , 1972). V a l i d i t y o f . 'Fear of S t r a n g e r s and S e p a r a t i o n A n x i e t y as C r i t e r i a f o r  A t t a c h m e n t The " u n i q u e n e s s " o r " m o n o t r o p y " o f t h e a d u l t f i g u r e may r a t e l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e a d u l t - i n f a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n what was o r i g i n a l l y , f o r m u l a t e d . S e v e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l ^ p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e q u e s t i o n i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f mono&Dpy and a r e s e e k i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d o i n g so i n d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n p o l y m a t r i c f a m i l i e s . 11 C o l l e c t i o n of t h i s type of data i s r e l a t i v e l y new and cannot but a l t e r the present view of attachment. Amongst the f i r s t changes that may be expected are a d i f f e r e n t view of f e a r of strangers and s e p a r a t i o n anxiety. Fear of strangers has been considered by some as a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n f o r attachment i n the sense that i f a baby d i s p l a y s f e a r of a strange f i g u r e he i s attached to a f a m i l i a r one. But Moss et a l . , (1969) found that greater or l e s s e r s t i m u l a t i o n of distance receptors at three months i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the amount of f e a r of strangers d i s p l a y e d at e i g h t and nine months. Since greater s t i m u l a t i o n seems to be associated w i t h l e s s f e a r , the s t i m u l a t i o n o f f e r e d by some polymatric s e t t i n g s may discourage f e a r without weakening attachment. Brody and Axelrad (1971) a l s o found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between degree of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n by the mother and the s o c i a l responsiveness of the i n f a n t at s i x months. Rheingold and Eckerman (1971) found that few of t h e i r subjects responded w i t h c r i e s to the presence of strangers and concluded that f e a r of strangers i s a poor c r i t e r i o n of attachment. Moreover, R e b e l s k i (pre-p u b l i c a t i o n d r a f t ) found that at three and a h a l f months i n f a n t s were more responsive and cooed more to a stranger (who would be an i n t e r e s t i n g and novel object i n t h e i r environment). In a d d i t i o n , 30 to 50% of Schaffer's sample (1966) f a i l e d at any given p o i n t i n h i s followup study to evidence any s i g n of f e a r . When a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between d i f -f e r e n t i a t i o n between the mother and the stranger ( i . e . , i n t e n t v i s u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , reserved f r i e n d l i n e s s , d e l i b e r a t e ignorance) and anxiety responses to s t r a n g e r s , Yarrow (1967) a l s o found that a good many i n f a n t s 12 n e v e r gave c l e a r - c u t e v i d e n c e o f a n x i e t y . A l o n g t he same l i n e , B r o d y and A x e l r a d (1971) who d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n " b e n i g n i n s p e c t i o n " and " f e a r f u l " b e h a v i o r , f o u n d t t h a t 82 i n f a n t s o u t o f 122 showed no s t r a n g e r a n x i e t y a t s i x m o n t h s ; and a t one y e a r , 85 i n f a n t s s t i l l showed no s u c h a n x i e t y . Thus t he " e i g h t - m o n t h a n x i e t y , " as i t has o f t e n b e e n c a l l e d , does n o t a l w a y s o c c u r . H u n t , q u o t e d by S c h a f f e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , a s s e r t s t h a t f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s does n o t o c c u r i n p o l y m a t r i c a l l y r a i s e d i n f a n t s s o t h a t " m u l t i p l e m o t h e r i n g a c t s t h e r e f o r e as an i n n o c u l a t i o n a g a i n s t s o c i a l s h y n e s s o r f e a r . " M e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u c h as what c r i t e r i a a r e u s e d t o d e f i n e f e a r as w e l l as what t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d t o e l i c i t and d e s c r i b e f e a r f u l b e h a v i o r , show t h a t f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s may n o t be a n o r m a t i v e e v e n t . E m p h a s i s t h e n s h o u l d n o t be so much on f e a r f u l b e h a v i o r as on " b e n i g n o r c u s t o m s " i n s p e c t i o n ( i . e . , an e f f o r t by t h e c h i l d t o wo rk t h r o u g h a n o r m a l l y a n x i o u s r e a c t i o n ' t o s t r a n g e r ) w h i c h d e n o t e s " e a r l y ego f u n c t i o n i n g o f a m a t u r e n a t u r e " (B rody and A x e l r a d , 1 9 7 1 ) . To s a y t h a t f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s i s n e v e r o b s e r v e d i n young c h i l d r e n i s f o o l i s h , b u t t o s a y t h a t i t i s a " n o r m a l m a t u r a t i o n a l m i l e s t o n e " ( S t e v e n s , 1971) seems t o be e q u a l l y f o o l i s h . A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s w o u l d be o b t a i n e d i f a c c o m p a n i e d by a s t u d y o f t he f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s l i s t e d by B r o d y and A x e l r a d ( 1 9 7 1 ) ; d r i v e endowment; m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s ; t h e i n f a n t ' s s t a t e when t h e s t r a n g e r i s s e e n as w e l l as i f he i s a l o n e o r w i t h a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e ; t he o p p o r t u n i t i e s t he baby has t o meet a s t r a n g e r as w e l l as t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a l l h i s e x t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n ; t h e m o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r i n t he p r e s e n c e of: t h e s t r a n g e r ; and t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e 13 n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c h i l d t o r e c o v e r f r o m the s t r a n g e r ' s p r e s e n c e as w e l l as t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f t h i s r e c o v e r y . F e a r f u l b e h a v i o r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f s t r a n g e r s can be t a k e n as a r e f l e c t i o n o f i n f a n t - a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I s t h i s a l s o t r u e f o r s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y ? S e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y has a l s o b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a " m i l e s t o n e " i n a t -tachment b e h a v i o r . H o w e v e r , A i n s w o r t h e t a l . (1972) o b s e r v e d t h a t a t 27 weeks o n l y 18% o f h e r s u b j e c t s c r i e d when t h e i r mo the r l e f t t he room and t h a t a t no age d i d t he mean o c c u r r e n c e o f c r y i n g e x c e e d e d 28%. T u l k i n (1971) o b s e r v e d 10-month o l d g i r l s . O n l y 40% o f h i s 60 s u b j e c t s c r i e d when t h e mo the r l e f t t h e room. No c r y i n g was r e p o r t e d f o r a l l o f t he s e v e n s u b j e c t s whose m o t h e r s h e l d j o b s . T h i s shows c l e a r l y t h a t " a n x i e t y i n e v e r y d a y s e p a r a t i o n i s n o t an u b i q u i t o u s phenomenon , " ( A i n s w o r t h , B e l l and S t a y t o n , 1972) n o t even i n t h e f o u r t h q u a r t e r o f t h e f i r s t y e a r . More r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y o f a t t a c h m e n t may be t he r e s p o n s e o f t h e c h i l d on t he m o t h e r ' s r e t u r n w h i c h i s l e s s s u b j e c t to l e a r n i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o L e w i s and Ban ( 1 9 7 1 ) . H o w e v e r , h e r e a g a i n , c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r s i n c e A i n s w o r t h e t a l . (1972) f o u n d t h a t abou t h a l f o f t h e t i m e t h e " a v e r a g e " baby r e s p o n d s i n no s i g n i f i c a n t way t o t he m o t h e r ' s r e t u r n e x c e p t p e r h a p s t o l o o k a t h e r . H e n c e , B o w l b y ' s s t a t e m e n t i n 1960 t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y i s t h e " i n e s c a p a b l e c o r o l l a r y o f a t t a c h -ment b e h a v i o r , t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n " i s f a r f r o m b e i n g t r u e , a t l e a s t i n te rms o f s h o r t - t e r m s e p a r a t i o n . I t f o l l o w s t h a t S c h a f f e r ' s s t a t e m e n t i n 1 9 7 1 , whe reby s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y p r o v i d e s a c r i t e r i o n t o t e s t f o r t he f o r m a t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t s t o a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s i n many i n s t a n c e s . I f s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y does n o t 14 r e p r e s e n t a f o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e , how s h o u l d i t s o c c u r r e n c e and i t s a b s e n c e be c o n s i d e r e d ? Tennes and L a m p l (1966) f o u n d t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y was n o t o n l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s l i b i d o (measured by o b s e r -v a t i o n a l r e p o r t s ) b u t a l s o w i t h t h e m o t h e r ' s l i b i d o and w i t h t h e m o t h e r ' s i n h i b i t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n , s o t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h m o d e r a t e l y h o s t i l e m o t h e r s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a n x i e t y s c o r e s . T h i s means t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y can be p r e d i c t e d t o o c c u r n o t b e c a u s e i t i s a m a t u r a t i o n a l l a n d m a r k i n a t t a c h m e n t , b u t b e c a u s e of t h e m o t h e r ' s i n h i b i -t i o n o f t he c h i l d ' s a g g r e s s i o n and t h e m o t h e r ' s h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d h i m . S i m i l a r l y , A i n s w o r t h e t a l . (1971) s e e s s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y as w i t n e s s i n g a d i s h a r m o n i o u s o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r . Mus t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f i n f a n t - a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n be f o l l o w e d by an e s t i m a t e o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f a t t a c h m e n t ? An e v a l u a t i o n o f q u a l i t y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean an e v a l u a t i o n o f s t r e n g t h . T h i s i s so b e c a u s e s t r e n g t h o f a t t a c h m e n t c a n v a r y s i t u a t i o n a l l y o r c o u l d b e s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . An examp le o f t h i s c a n be s e e n i n t he s t u d y by A i n s w o r t h e t a l . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . I f p r o x i m i t y - s e e k i n g and c o n t a c t m a i n t a i n i n g b e h a v i o r s had b e e n measu res o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f a t t a c h m e n t , b a b i e s d i s p l a y i n g i n s e c u r i t y and m a l -a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s b e c a u s e o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e mo the r w o u l d h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d as s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d . T h u s , t h e s e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e q u a l i t a t i v e f l a v o r o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p o v e r r i d e s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n o t i o n o f s t r e n g t h o f a t t a c h m e n t . " A t t a c h m e n t B e h a v i o r i n N o n - n u c l e a r F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n s The n o t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t i s e v o l v i n g . I n t o o many i n s t a n c e s t h e 15 o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of attachment f a l l s short and cannot account f o r the obtained r e s u l t s . This i s so i n part because the d e s c r i p t i o n r e f e r r e d only to nuclear f a m i l y l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , so that f a m i l i e s that d i d not meet that requirement were discarded from experimental samples. In 1964, Bowlby urged that "systematic observation of a t t a c h -ment behavior i n c h i l d r e n brought up i n o r d i n a r y homes" be done as w e l l as on "those brought up i n a t y p i c a l environments." U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s p l e a about ordinary homes was heard more than the .one about a t y p i c a l homes. But even from t h i s k i n d of research s e v e r a l widely h e l d b e l i e f s about attachment are not supported — f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t f e a r of strangers and separation anxiety are reasonable measures of attachment. Furthe r -more, i t may be p o s s i b l e that " a t y p i c a l " homes are the r u l e r a t h e r than the exception. Hence there i s a r e a l need to study what happens to a t -tachment behavior i n f a m i l i e s where there i s more than one c a r e g i v e r . Such a f a m i l y i s described here by the term non-nuclear. This i s n e i t h e r an infrequent s i t u a t i o n today, nor i s i t a new one. Nannies are t r a -d i t i o n a l f i g u r e s i n Europe. In c e r t a i n Indian and Black c u l t u r e s , care-tak i n g of a young one has been and s t i l l i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s . Lusk and Lewis (1971) found a s u p e r i o r i t y over the expected age l e v e l of 1 1/4 month on the Bayley mental index scores and of an average of two months on motor scores f o r 10 Senegalese i n f a n t s who had i n general three caretakers. In our s o c i e t y mothers are i n c r e a s i n g l y j o i n i n g the work f o r c e . C h i l d r e n of working mothers u s u a l l y have more than one mother-figure or c a r e g i v e r . A concept of attachment based on a s t r i c t mother-infant 16 dyad may n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . W i l l m o d i f i c a t i o n s be n e c e s s a r y and i f s o , i n what ways? The a b s e n c e o f c r i e s a t s h o r t -t e r m s e p a r a t i o n r e p o r t e d by T u l k i n (1971) i n d i c a t e s t h a t b a b i e s o f w o r k i n g m o t h e r s may r e a c t i n d i f f e r e n t ways f r o m b a b i e s o f n o n -w o r k i n g m o t h e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g was n o t r e p r o d u c e d i n B l e h a r ' s (1973) s t u d y w h i c h showed more c r y i n g b e h a v i o r i n c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n day c a r e c e n t e r s t h a n i n c h i l d r e n e n t i r e l y r a i s e d a t home. She a l s o o b s e r v e d s i g n s o f a n x i o u s a t t a c h m e n t and de tachmen t i n t he f o r m e r g r o u p . The p r e s e n t s t u d y exam ined a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r i n i n f a n t s and young c h i l d r e n who a l s o e x p e r i e n c e two p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r s . An i n c r e a s i n g number of m o t h e r s a r e f a c i n g a l o n e t h e t a s k o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . Be i t b e c a u s e o f w i d o w h o o d , d i v o r c e , o r b i r t h o u t o f w e d l o c k , new c h i l d r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s a r e b e i n g c r e a t e d abou t w h i c h l i t t l e i s known. The s t a t u s o f b e i n g a s i n g l e mo the r u s u a l l y means t h e r e i s a need f o r o t h e r c a r e g i v e r s f o r t he young c h i l d r e n , t h u s r e s u l t i n g i n a n o n - n u c l e a r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . T h i s p l u r a l i t y o f c a r e g i v e r s c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e t he b r e a d t h o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t f u n c t i o n . Does t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n i n n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s a p p l y t o c h i l d r e n r a i s e d by s i n g l e m o t h e r s ? I f n o t , what m o d i f i c a t i o n s need t o be made? T h e s e a r e a few o f t h e q u e s t i o n s e x p e c t e d t o b e c l a r i f i e d by s t u d y i n g a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r i n c h i l d r e n r a i s e d by s i n g l e m o t h e r s . E x p e r i m e n t I n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , s e v e r a l g roup homes f o r s i n g l e 17 m o t h e r s have been s e t up u n d e r t he a u s p i c e s o f t h e YWCA. M o t h e r s who t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y young and u s u a l l y come t o a g roup home w i t h t h e i r c h i l d a f t e r s u c h t e m p o r a r y measu res as l e a v i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h g r a n d p a r e n t s o r i n a f o s t e r home. A few o f t h e s e m o t h e r s a r e n e w l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . The group homes a r e s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t t he mo the rs c a n go t o wo rk o r to s c h o o l d u r i n g t he day w h i l e a c a r e t a k e r i s i n c h a r g e o f a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t he h o u s e . T h i s c a r e t a k e r i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e house on a more o r l e s s pe rmanen t b a s i s . A t n i g h t and d u r i n g weekends t h e mo the rs a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . W h i l e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n d e p a r t s f r o m t he n u c l e a r f a m i l y r e a r i n g s i t u a t i o n i n more ways t h a n o n e , i . e . , a b s e n t f a t h e r s , two p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r s and t h e young age o f t h e m o t h e r , i t was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y i n te rms o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o c h i l d r e n who have e x p e r i e n c e d d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h two c a r e -g i v e r s f r o m a v e r y e a r l y a g e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n a l s o made i t p o s s i b l e t o l o o k a t t he c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s o f young s i n g l e m o t h e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e l a t t e r was n o t done i n any s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . O n l y r e m a r k s made d u r i n g t he o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s w i l l b e r e p o r t e d s o as t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f young m o t h e r s . The e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s a r e measu red v a r i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Some s t u d i e s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n e x p e r i m e n t a l l a b o r a -t o r i e s i n w h i c h most e x t r a n e o u s s t i m u l i c a n be c o n t r o l l e d . Such a s e t t i n g was u s e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by Cox and C a m p b e l l (1968), A i n s w o r t h and W i t t i g (1969) ,Fleener and C a i r n s (1970), Ban and L e w i s 18 (1971) , B r o d y and A x e l r a d ( 1 9 7 1 ) , R h e i n g o l d and Ecke rman (1971) , and C o a t e s , A n d e r s o n and H a r t u p (1972 a and b ) . A more n a t u r a l s e t t i n g was u s e d b y Y a r r o w ( 1 9 6 7 ) , B e l l and A i n s w o r t h ( 1 9 7 1 ) , B r o n s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , A i n s w o r t h , B e l l and S t a y t o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and L e w i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , t o name o n l y a f e w , i n t h e i r home o b s e r v a t i o n s o f young c h i l d r e n where l i t t l e c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n was a t t e m p t e d . B o t h t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e w e r e u s e d by A i n s w o r t h , B e l l and S t a y t o n i n 1971 i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n some i d e a o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t he b e h a v i o r s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g e a c h p r o c e d u r e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i t was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o a v o i d t he p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t f r o m s e e i n g t h e c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e t h e i r u s u a l s u r r o u n d i n g s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e n o t a l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m o f a s t r i c t l y n a t u r a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n . T h u s , a compromise was a c h i e v e d by s e t t i n g up a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r was a l l o w e d to v a r y b u t where some e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s we re c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h t he s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of t h e e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e when E was p r e s e n t and of t h e t o y s w i t h w h i c h t h e c h i l d c o u l d p l a y . T h u s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n some d e g r e e o f c o m p a r a b i l i t y a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s , b u t a t t h e same - t ime , g e t as much as p o s s i b l e o f t he c h i l d ' s " t y p i c a l " e v e r y d a y r e a c t i o n s . T h i s a l s o a v o i d e d , as L y t t o n (1971) has c a u t i o n e d , t h e n e c e s s i t y t o r e s t r i c t t he g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s b e c a u s e o f t o o g r e a t a d i s c r e p a n c y be tween t h e e x -p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d grows and i s s o c i a l i z e d . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h compares a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r i n young c h i l d r e n when d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e i r mo the r and when d i r e c t e d t o w a r d 19 t h e i r r e g u l a r c a r e t a k e r . The c h i l d r e n w e r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e i r own homes i n a s i m p l i f i e d " s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n " as d e v i s e d by A i n s w o r t h . P o s s i b l e s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t he b e h a v i o r s m e d i a t i n g a t t a c h m e n t we re a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . METHOD S u b j e c t s N i n e c h i l d - m o t h e r and c h i l d - c a r e t a k e r p a i r s w e r e - s t u d i e d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t g roup homes. The mean age o f t he S>s was 1 5 . 5 months w i t h ages r a n g i n g f r o m 5 t o 27 m o n t h s . The mean age o f t h e boys was 1 4 . 8 months and t h a t o f t h e g i r l s 1 5 . 2 m o n t h s . F i v e b o y s and f o u r g i r l s we re o b s e r v e d . A l l Ss had been i n t h e g roup home f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e months p r i o r t o t e s t i n g and had known t h e i r p r e s e n t c a r e t a k e r f o r t h e same l e n g t h o f t i m e . The mean age o f t h e m o t h e r s was 2 1 . 3 y e a r s , w i t h ages r a n g i n g f r om 18 t o 33 y e a r s o l d . A p p a r a t u s T e s t i n g was done i n one o f t h e rooms o f t he g roup home. The room was s e l e c t e d f o r i t s f a m i l i a r i t y t o t h e c h i l d and i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n e p i s o d e o f f e e d i n g . T h i s meant t h a t t h e same room c o u l d n o t be u s e d f o r a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n one h o u s e . T h i s was so b e c a u s e e a c h group home was d i v i d e d so as t o p r o v i d e maximum p r i v a c y f o r e a c h m o t h e r . I n two group homes a k i t c h e n and a l i v i n g room were s h a r e d by two o f t he f o u r m o t h e r s , t h u s t h e r e we re two k i t c h e n s and two l i v i n g rooms i n each o f t h e s e two h o u s e s . I n t he t h i r d g roup home t h e r e was one l a r g e k i t c h e n and l i v i n g room f o r a l l t h e m o t h e r s i n t h e h o u s e , and i n t h e f o u r t h h o u s e e a c h m o t h e r had h e r own k i t c h e n and s h a r e d 20 o n l y t h e l i v i n g room. R a r e l y was t h e r e a common m e a l i n t h e s e homes ; e a c h m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r u s u a l l y a t e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a c c o r d i n g t o t he m o t h e r ' s t i m e t a b l e . B e c a u s e o f t h e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n e p i s o d e ( i . e . , 10 m i n u t e s o f f e e d i n g t i m e ) , t h e k i t c h e n was g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t e d by t h e m o t h e r s as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room. T h u s , t o t e s t a S i n h i s " o w n " k i t c h e n i m p l i e d , i n some g roup homes , s e l e c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t one f o r a d i f f e r e n t c h i l d . The f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n o l o g y i s u s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . The name " c a r e t a k e r " r e f e r s t o t h e YWCA emp loyee who came d u r i n g t h e d a y . The name " m o t h e r " o b v i o u s l y r e f e r s t o t h e c h i l d ' s m o t h e r , and t h e name " c a r e g i v e r " i s u s e d i n a g e n e r i c s e n s e t o r e f e r t o t h e mo the r o r t h e c a r e t a k e r o r t o b o t h . T h r e e p l a s t i c t o y s o f b r i g h t c o l o r s we re u s e d as e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s : a b a l l , a c a r and a d o l l i n a c r i b . These t o y s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e f o r w a s h i n g them be tween t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . Toys we re u s e d so as t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r w h i l e u s i n g t h e c a r e g i v e r as a s e c u r e b a s e . H o w e v e r , a c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e jSs ' own t o y s was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e x o f e x p l o r a t i o n when t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t s t a y i n c l o s e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r . The t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s w e r e r e c o r d e d by p o r t a b l e v i d e o t a p e e q u i p -ment . The o p e r a t o r o f t h e camera and E_ s t a y e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n t h e room and away f r o m the t o y s . T h i s was done so t h a t S_ w o u l d n o t be s c a r e d away f r o m the -toys by t h e i m m e d i a t e p r e s e n c e o f t he camera o r o f E_. The t o y s were p l a c e d a t abou t t h r e e t o f o u r f e e t f r o m t h e c a r e -g i v e r ' s c h a i r i n a p a r t o f t he room where t h e l i g h t was a p p r o p r i a t e 21 f o r f i l m i n g . D e s i g n F i v e o f t h e Ss, t h r e e boys and two g i r l s , were seen f i r s t w i t h t h e i r m others. Four of t h e Ss, two boys and two g i r l s , were seen f i r s t w i t h t h e i r c a r e t a k e r s . C h i l d r e n were randomly a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r o r d e r of t e s t i n g w h i l e k e e p i n g about the same number of boys and g i r l s i n t h e two g roups. Time o f day f o r t e s t i n g c o u l d n o t be c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d s i n c e most of t h e moMiers were a t work d u r i n g t h e day o r i n s c h o o l . Seven of t h e n i n e t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r s t o o k p l a c e a t noon, and two t o o k p l a c e a t around 9:30 a.m. ( i . e . , s nack t i m e ) . F i v e o f t h e n i n e s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e mothers were s c h e d u l e d a t s i x p.m. and f o u r a t noon. P r o c e d u r e Two weeks b e f o r e t e s t i n g , t h e mothers were c o n t a c t e d by 'phone w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e group homes fr o m t h e YWCA. At the same t i m e , a p p o i n t m e n t s were made b o t h w i t h t h e mothers and w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r s . T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y m e e t i n g was a r r a n g e d so t h a t E_ c o u l d spend some ti m e w i t h the c a r e g i v e r s t o put them a t ease and t o g i v e them t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n t h r e e of t h e houses t h i s c o u l d be done when the c h i l d r e n were a s l e e p . I n one h o u s e , the c h i l d r e n saw E_ b e f o r e t h e a c t u a l t e s t i n g . I n none of t h e houses d i d t h e y see t h e o p e r a t o r of t h e camera p r i o r t o t e s t i n g . D u r i n g t h i s m e e t i n g , the c a r e g i v e r s ( i . e . , t h e mothers and the c a r e t a k e r s ) were t o l d t h a t E_ was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e b e h a v i o r of c h i l d r e n i n d a y c a r e c e n t e r s . S i n c e t h e s e group homes were i n f a c t l i k e s m a l l d a y c a r e c e n t e r s , t h e y had been s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e of t h e economy i n time and e f f o r t t h e y a f f o r d e d t o o b s e r v e t h e c h i l d r e n . 22 I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n and n o t t h e ' c a r e g i v e r s we re t h e f o c u s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . A t t h a t p o i n t , one room i n t h e house was s e l e c t e d as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room f o r e a c h c h i l d . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e and i n s t r u c t i o n s were a l s o r e a d t o t h e c a r e g i v e r s d u r i n g t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y v i s i t . T h i s was r e p e a t e d a t t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g . The p r o c e d u r e c o m p r i s e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e p i s o d e s . T h e s e e p i s o d e s were p r e c e d e d by a t i m e o f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n d u r i n g w h i c h S^  was f i l m e d w h i l e e a t i n g h i s l u n c h o r s u p p e r . T h u s , t h e i m p a c t o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f E_ and o f the camera c o u l d be somewhat m i n i m i z e d by t he p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e f a m i l i a r a c t i o n o f e a t i n g . F i l m i n g l a s t e d f r o m t h r e e t o f i v e m i n u t e s d e p e n d i n g upon t he r a p i d i t y o f t h e m e a l . F o r two S s , t h i s was s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d so t h a t t h e y w e r e f i l m e d when e a t i n g a s n a c k w i t h a l l t he o t h e r c h i l d r e n and t he c a r e t a k e r . E x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t i n g s t a r t e d o n l y when the. o t h e r c h i l d r e n went d o w n s t a i r s t o p l a y and when S^  was a l o n e w i t h t h e c a r e -t a k e r . One c h i l d c o u l d n o t be f i l m e d w h i l e e a t i n g when t e s t e d w i t h h e r mo the r ( she was i n t he o r d e r o f t e s t i n g where t h e c a r e t a k e r i s f i r s t ) s i n c e she had a s k e d f o r h e r s u p p e r l o n g b e f o r e E's a r r i v a l . B e c a u s e o f t h i s l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s f a m i l i a r i -z a t i o n p e r i o d , t h e b e h a v i o r s o f t he j5s o r o f t he c a r e g i v e r s we re n o t coded d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . When t h e c h i l d f i n i s h e d e a t i n g , E p i s o d e I, t h e F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e , s t a r t e d . A t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s o f t h e c h i l d w h e n - s t r e s s i s minimum ( i . e . , t h e c a r e g i v e r i s p r e s e n t ) we re r e c o r d e d f o r abou t f i v e m i n u t e s . E p i s o d e I I I , t he S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e , l a s t e d abou t t h r e e m i n u t e s and began when the c a r e g i v e r l e f t t he room. T h i s e p i s o d e was s h o r t e n e d 23 i f S_ c r i e d v e r y h a r d o r i n s i s t e d on f o l l o w i n g t h e c a r e g i v e r out o f t h e room. Responses t o t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s d e p a r t u r e were coded t h e n , w h i l e r e s p o n s e s t o h e r r e t u r n were coded d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I , t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e , f o r about two m i n u t e s . The S/s i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e two s t r a n g e r s as a U n i t , E and t h e o p e r a t o r of t h e camera, was coded upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n t h e house f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The g i s t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s r e a d t o t h e c a r e g i v e r s was as f o l l o w s . She was d i r e c t e d t o p u t t h e c h i l d on the f l o o r n e a r h e r c h a i r when he had f i n i s h e d e a t i n g . She was a l s o t o l d t o r e m a i n s e a t e d and t o l e a v e S^  f r e e t o move as he w i s h e d . F o r t h e f o u r Ss who were n o t y e t a b l e t o w a l k , t h e c a r e g i v e r was asked t o p l a c e them d i r e c t l y n e a r the t o y s . One S_ who had j u s t l e a r n e d how t o w a l k was a l s o p u t n e a r t h e t o y s . A t one p o i n t d u r i n g t h e s e f i v e m i n u t e s , the c a r e g i v e r was asked t o w a l k around t h e room as i f l o o k i n g f o r some t h i n g . S i m i l a r l y , she was asked t o t a k e t h e c h i l d i n h e r arms f o r a s h o r t t i m e . To p u t t h e c a r e g i v e r and t h e Ss a t e a s e , E t a l k e d t o them whenever i t seemed c a l l e d f o r . D u r i n g E p i s o d e I I , t h e c a r e g i v e r was asked t o go w e l l out o f s i g h t . S i n c e most of t h e rooms d i d n o t have d o o r s ; a door c o u l d be c l o s e d f o r o n l y f i v e o f t h e 18 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . The E i n s i s t e d t h a t the c a r e g i v e r c o u l d come back i n the room b e f o r e t h e t h r e e m i n u t e s were up i f t h e S_ c r i e d o r i f he f o l l o w e d h e r o u t o f t h e room even though _E t r i e d t o t a l k t o him o r t o p l a y w i t h him. W i t h r e s p e c t t o the R e u n i o n e p i s o d e , t h e c a r e g i v e r was i n s t r u c t e d t o come back i n t o t h e room and t o go ba c k t o he r c h a i r , l e a v i n g the i n i t i a t i v e t o s t a r t i n t e r a c t i o n t o S_, i . e . , i f t h e c h i l d sought t o be p i c k e d up, t h e c a r e g i v e r w o u l d do so b u t i f t h e 24 c h i l d went on p l a y i n g , t h e c a r e g i v e r w o u l d s i t down w i t h o u t i n t e r -f e r i n g . The o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g a c h e c k l i s t t o r e c o r d t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s Csee A p p e n d i x I ) . E p i s o d e I was d i v i d e d i n t o 3 0 - s e c o n d i n t e r v a l s ; E p i s o d e I I i n t o 2 0 - s e c o n d i n t e r v a l s and E p i s o d e I I I i n t o 1 0 - s e c o n d i n t e r v a l s . Th rough t h e v i d e o t a p e e q u i p -m e n t , e a c h e p i s o d e c o u l d be o b s e r v e d as many t i m e s as r e q u i r e d t o l i s t a l l o f t he Ss1 b e h a v i o r s . T h i s c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n done d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g s e s s i o n i t s e l f s i n c e E_ was o f t e n f o r c e d . to t a l k t o t h e c a r e -g i v e r and t o b o t h t a l k and p l a y w i t h t h e S s . T h i s was done i n o r d e r to assume as much as p o s s i b l e t he r o l e o f a g u e s t coming t o v i s i t t he c a r e g i v e r and l e s s e n t he u n f a m i l i a r i t y o f t he t e s t s i t u a t i o n . The c h e c k l i s t c e n t e r e d upon s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r , i . e . , s t r a n g e r a n x i e t y , p r o x i m a l and d i s t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n b e h a -v i o r and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y , shown i n t he l i t e r a t u r e t o be i m p o r t a n t i n a t t a c h m e n t . S i n c e t he p r e s e n c e o f a t h i r d p e r s o n may a f f e c t t h e b e h a v i o r o f b o t h t h e c h i l d and t h e c a r e g i v e r , i t was assumed t h a t t h e r e s u l t s r e f l e c t i n t e r a c t i o n i n t he p r e s e n c e o f an o b s e r v e r . I t was hoped t h a t by d e e m p h a s i z i n g i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s s t a t u s as a s u b j e c t and s t r e s s i n g t h e c h i l d ' s p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n , b e h a v i o r s w o u l d be as c l o s e t o n o r m a l as p o s s i b l e . Two o r t h r e e weeks a f t e r t e s t i n g was c o m p l e t e d , t h e m o t h e r s and t h e c a r e t a k e r s we re shown t h e f i l m s made d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . RESULTS The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a was c h e c k e d by h a v i n g _E and one o t h e r 25 observer score four of the t e s t i n g sessions. They coded the behaviors of the children with 87% agreement. This l e v e l of agreement was consid-ered to be high enough for E_ to do the remaining coding alone. A comparison between attachment behaviors when directed toward the mother and the caretaker showed mainly more smiling addressed to the mother during the Free Play episode. The ^s tended to v i s u a l l y follow the caretaker walking around the room as w e l l as leaving the room, while more Ss p h y s i c a l l y followed the mother out of the room. Sex differences showed that more g i r l s kept ph y s i c a l contact with the caregiver. Other sex differences were oriented i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s according to the i d e n t i t y of the caregiver: when testing was done with the mothers, more g i r l s than boys departed from the room and l i f t e d t h e i r arms to be picked up; when the children were seen with the care-taker, more boys than g i r l s did so. S i m i l a r l y , more g i r l s than boys v i s u a l l y followed the caretaker going out of the room, played i n her absence and p a r t i a l l y approacher her, while more boys than g i r l s ex-h i b i t e d these behaviors with the mother. Four Ss showed p o s i t i v e re-sponsiveness to strangers and the remaining f i v e Ss evidenced only the mildest form of apprehension. A frequency count was compiled for the f i r s t seven time i n t e r v a l s of Episode I. Within Ss and between 3^s d i v e r s i t y i n the duration of the other episodes due e i t h e r to a c h i l d going out of the room or to the caregiver's early return despite i n s t r u c t i o n s , made i t necessary to record only the presence or absence of the l i s t e d behaviors. The f r e -quency of the following behaviors was obtained: toufih, t a l k , look, 26 s m i l e t o b o t h c a r e g i v e r s and t a l k , l o o k , s m i l e t o E and t o t h e c a m e r a . The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e o t h e r i t e m s on t h e b e h a v i o r c h e c k l i s t was r e -c o r d e d by a " y e s " o r " n o " s y s t e m . T a b l e s 1 (A) and 1 (B) r e p o r t t he f r e q u e n c y c o u n t o f t h e f i r s t s e v e n t i m e i n t e r v a l s . The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n s m i l i n g b e h a v i o r w i t h more j3s s m i l i n g t o t he mo the r t h a n t o t h e c a r e t a k e r . O r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o f r e q u e n c y m a g n i t u d e and r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , t h e b e h a v i o r s l i s t e d above p o r t r a y e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p when t h e mo the r was p r e s e n t : l o o k > s m i l e > t a l k > t o u c h ; when t h e c a r e t a k e r was p r e s e n t , t h e o r d e r changed t o l o o k > t a l k = t o u c h > s m i l e . T h u s , a c l e a r e r d i s t a l t o p r o x i m a l o r d e r i n g i n modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e mo the r t h a n f o r t h e c a r e t a k e r . The f r e q u e n c y o f t o u c h i n g d i f f e r e d f o r b o t h s e x e s . M a l e s t o u c h e d n e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r d u r i n g E p i s o d e I, whe reas f e m a l e s t o u c h e d the mo the r s e v e n t i m e s and t he c a r e t a k e r t w e l v e t i m e s . M a l e s t a l k e d s l i g h t l y more t o t h e c a r e t a k e r t h a n d i d f e m a l e s . A l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e b e h a v i o r s was h i g h l y f r e q u e n t , t h e y c o u l d be r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o m a g n i t u d e i n t h i s manne r : l o o k > t a l k > t o u c h f o r m a l e s ; and l o o k > t o u c h > t a l k f o r f e m a l e s . L o o k i n g a t E_ and t h e camera was more f r e q u e n t l y done when S_ was w i t h h i s c a r e t a k e r and by m a l e s , a l t h o u g h t h i s was t h e f a v o r i t e way o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h E_ f o r a l l S s . T a b l e 2 (A) and T a b l e 2 (B) show t h e s e q u e n c e o f b e h a v i o r s t o be l o o k > s m i l e > t a l k t o E_ w i t h t h e m o t h e r p r e s e n t and l o o k > t a l k > s m i l e t o E_ w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r p r e s e n t . T a b l e 3 r e p o r t s t h e number as w e l l as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f Ss p r e s e n t i n g c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s . I n t he F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e , t h i s was c a l c u l a t e d 27 o n l y f o r t he _S's r e s p o n s e s t o t h e c a r e g i v e r p i c k i n g h im up and w a l k i n g a r o u n d t h e room. An e q u a l number o f ^ s , w i t h b o t h c a r e g i v e r s , a c c e p t e d t o b e p i c k e d up and we re r e l a x e d when i n arms ( 9 / 9 ) , c r i e d when a c a r e -g i v e r l e f t t h e room ( 2 / 9 ) , and l i f t e d t h e i r arms t o be p i c k e d up a t some t i m e d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e ( 3 / 9 ) . When t h e c a r e t a k e r r a t h e r t h a n t he mo the r was p r e s e n t , a g r e a t e r number o f j5s a c c e p t e d b e i n g p u t down on t h e f l o o r a g a i n ( 9 / 9 v s . 8 / 9 ) ; f o l l o w e d h e r v i s u a l l y a r o u n d t h e room ( 5 / 9 ) v s . 3 / 9 ) and ou t o f t h e room ( 6 / 9 v s . 3 / 9 ) ; p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e ( 6 / 9 v s . 5 / 9 ) ; p a r t i a l l y a p p r o a c h e d h e r ( 3 / 9 v s . 1 /5) and l o o k e d a t h e r r e t u r n ( 8 / 8 v s . 4 / 5 ) ; and f i n a l l y p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e ( 8 / 9 v s . 7 / 9 ) . H o w e v e r , i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t he m o t h e r more Ss a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e d t h e t o y s d u r i n g t h e F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e ( 8 / 8 v s . 7 / 8 ) ; resumed p l a y i n g when pu t down on the f l o o r ( 8 / 9 v s . 7 / 9 ) ; f o l l o w e d t he c a r e g i v e r ou t o f t h e room ( 4 / 9 v s . 1 / 9 ) ; and s m i l e d ( 3 / 5 v s . 4 / 8 ) and t a l k e d t o h e r ( 2 / 5 v s . 3 / 8 ) d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e . The o n l y b i g d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e number o f Ss who f o l l o w e d t h e m o t h e r ou t o f t h e room (4) and who f o l l o w e d t he c a r e t a k e r (1) s i n c e t h i s l a s t c a s e r e p r e s e n t s a d e l a y e d r e a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h i l d l e a v i n g a t t h e end o f t h e e p i s o d e a f t e r s p e n d i n g some t i m e p l a y i n g . More jSs v i s u a l l y f o l l o w e d t h e c a r e t a k e r o u t o f t h e room. The f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o r s g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d w i t h h i g h f r e q u e n c y : 1 a c c e p t a n c e o f b e i n g p i c k e d up and p u t down a c c o m p a n i e d by p l a y ; a c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s and p e r s o n a l t o y s ; l o o k i n g a t t he c a r e g i v e r coming i n t h e room; p l a y i n g d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e . V i s u a l 28 f o l l o w i n g o f t h e c a r e g i v e r l e a v i n g t h e room; and w a l k i n g a r o u n d t h e room; p l a y i n g when she was a b s e n t and s m i l i n g d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I w e r e m o d e r a t e l y f r e q u e n t . O n l y a s m a l l number o f jSs c r i e d when the c a r e -g i v e r l e f t t he r o o m , f o l l o w e d h e r o u t , a p p r o a c h e d h e r when she came i n , t r i e d t o be p i c k e d up o r t a l k e d d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s a c c o r d i n g t o s e x i s shown i n T a b l e 4. D u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s w i t h t h e m o t h e r , t h e same number of m a l e s and f e m a l e s a c c e p t e d t o be p i c k e d up (5/5 and 4/4) and a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o y s (4/4 and 4/4). H o w e v e r , more g i r l s t h a n boys c r i e d when t he mo the r l e f t (2/4 v s . 0/5); t r i e d t o f o l l o w h e r ('3/4 v s . 1/5); l i f t e d t h e i r arms'to b e p i c k e d up (2/4 v s . 1/5), and p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e (4/4 v s . 3/5). Bu t more boys a c -c e p t e d t o be p u t down on t he f l o o r a g a i n (5/5 v s . 3/4) t o resume p l a y i n g , v i s u a l l y f o l l o w e d t he mo the r b o t h a r o u n d t he room (2/5 v s . 1/4) and ou t o f i t (2/5 v s . 1/4); p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e (4/5 v s . 1/4) and p a r t i a l l y a p p r o a c h e d h e r upon h e r r e t u r n (1/4 v s . 0/1). D u r i n g t he O b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s w i t h t he c a r e t a k e r an e q u a l number o f boys and g i r l s a c c e p t e d t o be p i c k e d up (5/5 v s . 4/4) and p u t down on t h e f l o o r a f t e r w a r d s (5/5 v s . 4/4), and l o o k e d a t h e r coming b a c k i n t h e room (4/4 v s . 4/4). I n te rms o f p r o p o r t i o n s , s l i g h t l y more g i r l s c r i e d when t h e c a r e t a k e r l e f t (1/4 v s . 1/5) and v i s u a l l y f o l l o w e d t h e c a r e t a k e r ou t o f t h e room (3/4 v s . 3/5); p l a y e d when she was a b s e n t (3/4 v s . 3/5); and p l a y e d d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I . More g i r l s a l s o p a r t i a l l y a p p r o a c h e d t h e c a r e t a k e r on h e r r e t u r n (3/4 v s . 0/4); s m i l e d (3/4 v s . 1/4) and t a l k e d (2/4 v s . 1/4) d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I . 29 W i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r , a g r e a t e r number o f boys resumed p l a y i n g when no l o n g e r i n h e r arms ( 5 / 5 v s . 2 / 5 ) , f o l l o w e r h e r v i s u a l l y a r o u n d t h e room ( 3 / 5 v s . 2 / 4 ) , a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e d t h e t o y s ( 4 / 4 v s . 3 / 4 ) , f o l -l owed h e r p h y s i c a l l y o u t ( 1 / 5 v s . 0 / 4 ) and l i f t e d t h e i r arms t o be p i c k e d up d u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e ( 2 / 5 v s . 1 / 4 ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , s e x d i f f e r e n c e s , a l t h o u g h s m a l l , v a r i e d w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c a r e -g i v e r . More g i r l s l e f t t he room and l i f t e d t h e i r arms t o be p i c k e d up when t h e m o t h e r was p r e s e n t , b u t more b o y s d i d t h i s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t he c a r e t a k e r . S i m i l a r l y , more boys v i s u a l l y f o l l o w e d t he m o t h e r g o i n g ou t o f t h e r o o m , p l a y e d when she was a b s e n t and p a r t i a l l y a p p r o a c h e d h e r a t R e u n i o n , w h i l e a g r e a t e r number o f f e m a l e s d i d t h i s w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r . The r a n g e o f t he r e a c t i o n s t o s t r a n g e r s was as f o l l o w s . One ^ showed s p o n t a n e o u s o u t g o i n g n e s s ; t h r e e Ss were r e a c t i v e l y o u t -g o i n g ; f i v e Ss showed " c u s t o m s i n s p e c t i o n " ( see A p p e n d i x ) . Of t h e s e f i v e Ss, t h r e e r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r s e r i o u s a c t i v i t y and two went on w a t c h i n g f o r a few m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e s t r a n g e r s . T a b l e 5 shows s l i g h t age d i f f e r e n c e s . The y o u n g e r JSs numbered more " c u s t o m s i n s p e c t i o n " e n d i n g i n w a t c h i n g and t h e o l d e r £>s e i t h e r resumed a c t i v i t y a f t e r i n s p e c t i o n o r w e r e i n i t i a l l y f r i e n d l y . T h e r e we re no c l e a r s e x d i f f e r e n c e s . DISCUSSION A l t h o u g h few c h i l d r e n l e f t t h e room d u r i n g t h e S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e , v i s u a l p u r s u i t o f t he c a r e t a k e r l e a v i n g t h e room was more u s u a l t h a n p h y s i c a l f o l l o w i n g o f t h e m o t h e r . L i t t l e f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s was d i s p l a y e d A c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t he e n v i r o n m e n t , as a t t e s t e d by m a n i p u l a t i o n o f 30 t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s accompanied by d i s t a n t communication w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r , was commonly o b s e r v e d . L o o k i n g a t e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used mode of i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h t a l k i n g , s m i l i n g and t o u c h i n g v a r i e d somewhat w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c a r e g i v e r . S m i l i n g a t the mother o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t a l k i n g and t o u c h i n g . The f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e o f t a l k i n g and t o u c h i n g were h i g h e r f o r t h e c a r e t a k e r t h a n f o r t h e mother. Some s e x d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d i n t h e c h o i c e o f the typ e o f communication employed w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r . Boys tended t o t a l k more w h i l e g i r l s t o u ched b o t h c a r e g i v e r s more. No ma j o r sex d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d . However, a c o m p a r a t i v e count o f t h e num-b e r o f c h i l d r e n of a p a r t i c u l a r s e x d i s p l a y i n g c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s showed th e p r e s e n c e o f what might be c a l l e d a r e v e r s a l phenomenon. More g i r l s k e p t c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , as a t t e s t e d by p h y s i c a l f o l l o w i n g and l i f t i n g o f arms t o be p i c k e d up, w i t h t h e mother, w h i l e more boys t h a n g i r l s d i d so w i t h the c a r e t a k e r . Somewhat, more g i r l s p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e f r o m t h e c a r e t a k e r , w h i l e more boys d i d so i n t h e comparable s e s s i o n w i t h t h e mother. I n g e n e r a l , more g i r l s showed p a r t i a l a pproach toward e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r ( i . e . , movements n o t t e r m i n a t i n g i n c l o s e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t ) . L i t t l e s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y was o b s e r v e d and g r e e t i n g b e h a v i o r was g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o l o o k i n g a t t h e e n t e r i n g c a r e g i v e r . T h i s s t u d y i s u n i q u e i n t h e sense t h a t i t i n c l u d e d a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s d i r e c t e d toward two c a r e g i v e r s . Most o f t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a -t u r e i s base d upon s i n g l e c a r e g i v e r - c h i l d d y a d s , w i t h the mother i n almos t a l l c a s e s s e r v i n g as t h e p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r . T h e r e f o r e , l i t t l e 31 c o m p a r i s o n be tween t h e p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s c a n be made. The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e l i t e r a -t u r e c o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d i f a t t a c h m e n t i n g e n e r a l was l o o k e d a t w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f the c a r e g i v e r . I g n o r i n g t h e l a t t e r ' s i d e n t i t y i s , h o w e v e r , p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e as f a r as i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . B r o n s o n (1971) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s gave more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r mo the r and s p e n t l e s s t i m e w i t h a n o v e l o b j e c t and t h a t b o y s a r e more i n c l i n e d to e x p l o r e t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . L e w i s and Ban (1971) e x p l a i n e d s u c h s e x d i f f e r e n c e s by p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t boys a r e more e n c o u r a g e d t h a n g i r l s t o g i v e up p r o x i m a l modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t o show i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , h o w e v e r , b o t h s e x e s s p e n t as much t i m e w i t h t h e n o v e l e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s d u r i n g t h e F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e , i n d i c a t i n g no s e x d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f e x p l o r a t i o n . Bu t t h e d a t a c o n f i r m e d t h a t p r o x i m a l modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n we re i n d e e d f a v o r e d by g i r l s when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s . When t h e i n t e r a c t i o n was w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r , t h i s was no l o n g e r t r u e , and s l i g h t l y more b o y s t e n d e d t o u s e p r o x i m a l means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . How c a n t h i s be e x p l a i n e d ? O b v i o u s l y , L e w i s and B a n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can o n l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on t h e m o t h e r -c h i l d p a i r and n o t on t h e c a r e t a k e r - c h i l d p a i r . T h i s l a t t e r p a i r may embody a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f a d u l t s and i n t h e n a t u r e o f a d u l t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h u s , i t may be t h a t c a r e t a k e r s do n o t e n c o u r a g e b o y s more t h a n g i r l s t o r e a c t i n c e r t a i n w a y s , and v i c e v e r s a , as m o t h e r s we re o b s e r v e d t o 32 d o , s o t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e f r e e w i t h , t h e c a r e t a k e r t o engage i n any s o c i a l p a t t e r n t h e y w a n t . C o m p l e t e i m p a r t i a l i t y i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e on t h e p a r t o f t he c a r e t a k e r , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y seemed much l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d , t h e y c o u l d be more r e s p o n s i v e t h a n t h e m o t h e r s t o t h e c h i l d ' s own s i g n a l s . These r e s u l t s c o u l d a l s o s u g g e s t a s o r t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n r e a c t i o n by t h e c h i l d r e n , w i t h t h e boys s a t i s f y i n g a n e e d f o r p r o x i m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n o t i n d u l g e w i t h t h e m o t h e r . The same r a t i o n a l e c o u l d be u s e d t o e x p l a i n t he g i r l s ' b e h a v i o r . Remarks made d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e g roup homes d i d i n d i c a t e some d i s s i m i l i t u d e i n t he c a r e g i v e r s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . A l m o s t e v e r y mo the r t r i e d t o p r e d i c t how h e r c h i l d w o u l d r e a c t t o t he e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n . T h e s e p r e -d i c t i o n s we re g e n e r a l l y w r o n g . H o w e v e r , none o f t h e c a r e t a k e r s made any p r e d i c t i o n s abou t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . D u r i n g t h e F a m i l i a r i -z a t i o n e p i s o d e when t he c h i l d was e a t i n g , t h e c a r e t a k e r - t e n d e d t o t a l k more t o b o t h t he c h i l d and t o E_. F u r t h e r m o r e , t he c a r e t a k e r s u s e d more " b a b y t a l k 1 ! when a d d r e s s i n g t h e c h i l d t h a n t h e m o t h e r s d i d . More c a r e -t a k e r s t h a n m o t h e r s c u d d l e d t h e c h i l d when a s k e d t o p i c k h i m up i n t h e i r a r m s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e no s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f the c a r e g i v e r s ' b e h a v i o r s c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s abou t t h e c a r e g i v e r s ' b e h a v i o r s c a n be made and few h y p o t h e s e s p u t f o r w a r d . A f u t u r e s t u d y m i g h t make u s e o f t h e I n v e n t o r y o f Home S t i m u l a -t i o n , d e v i s e d by C a l d w e l l e t al.(1970), b o t h when t h e m o t h e r i s i n c h a r g e o f t h e c h i l d and when t he c a r e t a k e r i s i n c h a r g e . I t w o u l d be e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o o b t a i n b o t h t h e m o t h e r ' s and t h e c a r e t a k e r ' s s o c i a l 33 s e n s i t i v i t y , f o r example, by the use of a Q-sort technique as the one devised by Hogan (1969). Lewis and Ban (1971) found that g i r l s v o c a l i z e d more than boys a t both one year and two years of age. In the present study, boys of that age range tended to t a l k more than the g i r l s of the same age. But because only nine S_s were observed, only very cautious g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are warranted. Nonetheless, i t was apparent that regardless of sex, the c h i l d r e n tended to smile more at the mother and to t a l k more to the caretaker. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, during the observation sessions w i t h the mother, the most frequent means of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h E_ was by s m i l i n g , w h i l e w i t h the caretaker present, i t was through t a l k i n g to the E_. How-ever s m a l l t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s , i t i n d i c a t e s once again a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the mother c h i l d and c a r e t a k e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As was mentioned e a r l i e r , the caretakers were more t a l k a t i v e than the mothers and t h i s may be r e l a t e d to the observed i n t e r a c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s . The high frequency of v i s u a l contacts w i t h both car e g i v e r s was i n agreement w i t h the r e s u l t s obtained by Lewis and Ban (1971). When a t -tachment behaviors as a whole are considered the present r e s u l t s showed f i r s t of a l l l i t t l e f e a r of s t r a n g e r s , second, l i t t l e s e p a ration anxiety and t h i r d , patterns of attachment u n l i k e the ones o u t l i n e d i n the e a r l y days of the E t h o l o g i c a l theory ( i . e . , Bowlby, 1959; Ainsworth, 1967). Thus some of the b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d a t that time as mediators of attachment by the proponents of the theory were not revealed i n the present study to be necessary mediators of attachment. Fear of strangers was observed i n a s t r i k i n g l y benign form 34 e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the c h i l d r e n were exposed a t once t o two s t r a n g e r s , one h o l d i n g a camera and t h e o t h e r w i t h p a p e r , p e n c i l and a v i d e o t a p e machine. The c h i l d r e n m e r e l y l o o k e d a t , o r "customs i n s p e c t e d " ( i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y used by Brody and A x e l r a d , 1971) E_ and t h e camera o p e r a t o r and q u i c k l y answered E_'s s o c i a l o v e r t u r e s w i t h s m i l e s , v o c a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n the v i d e o t a p e equipment. Moss e t a l . (1969) and Brody and A x e l r a d (1971) who a l s o found l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s i n some of t h e i r s u b j e c t s , a t t r i b u t e d i t t o t h e amount o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d ; w i t h h i g h e a r l y s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n r e l a t e d t o low f e a r of s t r a n g e r s . The same f a c t o r seems t o be a t work h e r e . The c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e group homes were f r o m a v e r y e a r l y age exposed t o many d i f f e r e n t a d u l t s : t h e i r mother; t h e i r c a r e t a k e r who may have changed a t l e a s t once s i n c e t h e i r a r r i v a l a t the home; the s u p e r v i s o r from t h e YWCA who v i s i t e d each home a t l e a s t t w i c e w e e k l y ; the o t h e r mothers l i v i n g i n t h e home; and t h e mother's f r i e n d s as w e l l as t h e o t h e r m others' a c q u a i n t a n c e s who came and went f r e e l y i n the group home. The c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h s t r a n g e r s w i t h s o c i a l c a l m may r e a s o n a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o e a r l y s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n . The second s t r i k i n g r e s u l t o b t a i n e d h e r e i s t h e v e r y m i l d form of s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y n o t i c e d . O n l y two c h i l d r e n out of n i n e c r i e d when t h e mother o r the c a r e t a k e r l e f t the room. O b v i o u s l y , t h i s i s o n l y a v e r y s h o r t - t e r m s e p a r a t i o n under o n l y m i l d l y s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s , s i n c e a l t h o u g h was l e f t w i t h s t r a n g e r s , he was i n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c h i l d ' s g r e e t i n g upon the r e t u r n o f t h e c a r e g i v e r was 35 mostly visual contact. Such, a reaction to separation i s in agreement with, the recent work, of Ainsworth., Keil and Stay-ton (19721 who reported that the "average" BaBy responded without anxiety to Brief separation and greeted the mother in no more significant way than perhaps looking at her. It should be rememBered that this is in contradiction wxth. Ainsworth's extensive description of Behavior patterns- reflecting a t ^ tachment in 1967, Schaffer's use of separation upset as an operational definition of attachment in 1963, and Ainsworth and Wittig's oBserva-tion of mild to strong distress in response to short separation in 1969, to name only a few discrepant studies. The wide variety of experimental procedures used throughout the literature may be in part responsiBle for such divergence in results. However, the extensive study conducted Both in a laB situation and in the home By Ainsworth, Bell and Stayton in 1971 as well as the already mentioned study of 1972 confirm the aBsence of separation anxiety in everyday experience. Here is a good example of the rather marked change in thinking that is taking place in the research on attachment. Thirdly, a picture of attachment Behavior in children from five to 27 months can Be oBtained from the data. Quite a numBer of actions were included in the Behavior checklist on the Basis of the existing literature (see Appendix). From the frequency of occurrence of the Behaviors in that l i s t , the following gloBal description of the children can Be oBtained. In the relatively relaxed atmosphere of the Free Play episode, these children engaged in active exploration of the new experimental toys while at the same time readily accepting interruption By the caregivers, 36 r e s u m i n g p l a y when put down on t h e f l o o r a g a i n a f t e r b e i n g l i f t e d up. W h i l e p l a y i n g , the c h i l d r e n k e p t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r m a i n l y by l o o k i n g a t h e r fr o m t i m e t o t i m e . I n t h e s t r e s s f u l e p i s o d e of s e p a r a t i o n , v e r y few of them c r i e d . They u s u a l l y k e p t on p l a y i n g b u t a s m a l l number f o l l o w e d t h e c a r e g i v e r out o f t h e room w i t h o u t any outward s i g n o f d i s t r e s s ( a f t e r , i n some c a s e s , a h a l f - h e a r t e d a t t e m p t a t p l a y i n g ) . D u r i n g t h e R e u n i o n e p i s o d e , t h e c h i l d r e n g r e e t e d t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s r e t u r n by l o o k i n g and t h e n h a p p i l y r e t u r n e d t o a c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s . P l a y i n g was r e r e l y i n t e r r u p t e d t o t a l k , s m i l e and seek p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t . CONCLUSION The f o r e g o i n g sums up t h e main i n t e r a c t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e between the c h i l d and the c a r e g i v e r . These i n t e r a c t i o n s were assumed by the p r e s e n t a u t h o r t o be i n d i c e s o f a u n i t a r y t r a i t c a l l e d a t t a c h m e n t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n b r i n g s out t h e need f o r d e f i n i n g more p r e c i s e l y what attachment i s . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s I n A i n s w o r t h ' s (1964) own words, attachment i s a " d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , d i f f e r e n t i a l , a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n g i v e s i n -f o r m a t i o n about t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p by d e s c r i b i n g a t -tachment as a c t i n g i n a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , d i f f e r e n t i a l and a f f e c t i o n a l manner between i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r t h e purpose o f r e s e a r c h , however, a d e f i n i t i o n s h o u l d i d e n t i f y more p r e c i s e l y t h e b e h a v i o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h e m p i r i c a l knowledge o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f at t a c h m e n t can be o b t a i n e d . Hence, attachment i s b e s t o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as a r e l a t i o n -s h i p i m p l i c a t i n g a b a l a n c e between p r o x i m i t y and e x p l o r a t i o n o r i e n t e d 37 behaviors. Neither type of behavior taken alone, provides an adequate representation of attachment. The concept of attachment -must comprise both the need for the proximity of an i n d i v i d u a l as well as the a b i l i t y to be at some distance from him without anxiety. A proper d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between these two kinds of behaviors can be best achieved through the use of the notion of equilibrium. This idea seems inherent to nature i t s e l f . B i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l sciences have repeatedly shown the need f o r equilibrium i n the universe. Piaget's notion of equilibrium i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the c h i l d i s one example among many of the use of t h i s concept i n psychology. Hence, the dynamic equilibrium that s t r i v e s to e x i s t between proximity and ex-p l o r a t i o n behaviors i s the index of attachment. Furthermore, as Schaffer (1971) puts i t very w e l l , i t i s the aim of c e r t a i n behaviors which w i l l i d e n t i f y them as active mediators i n t h i s system and not merely t h e i r nature. This means that any lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n or catalogue of behavioral patterns mediating attachment i s of l i t t l e use. S i m i l a r l y , no si n g l e c r i t e r i o n can appropriately describe t h i s e q u i l i -brium. Instead, any behavior aiming at proximity or exploration (e.g., separating oneself without anxiety) can be considered as mediating at-tachment. Consequently, the study of attachment should not be concerned with the l a b e l l i n g or i d e n t i f y i n g of c e r t a i n behavioral patterns, but should be concerned with i d e n t i f y i n g the manner i n which an equilibrium between these two tendencies i s obtained. This view of attachment takes care of the question of what i s a "heathful" attachment. If by observing a c h i l d one can say that a proper balance,or 38 e q u i l i b r i u m , i s reached between behav io rs a iming at p rox im i t y and at e x p l o r a t i o n then the c h i l d can be s a i d to e x h i b i t a hea l t hy at tachment. I f t h i s smooth ba lance i s not present and t i p s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , some p a t h o l o g i c a l form of attachment e x i s t s . Such a d e f i n i t i o n of attachment has s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l and methodo log ica l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , no th ing i n the d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s that the b e h a v i o r a l pa t t e rns a iming at e i t h e r p rox im i t y or e x p l o r a t i o n ac t m o n o t r o p i c a l l y . Thus, the nature of the s o c i a l s e t t i n g i s l e f t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of determin ing the b readth of the attachment f u n c t i o n . Second, i t takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic s t r u c t u r e of t h i s f u n c t i o n , as has been recogn ized i n more recent resea rch ( c f . , Bowlby, 1969; S c h a f f e r , 1971). T h i r d , i t w i l l prevent the cho i ce or use of too few c r i t e r i a f o r at tachment. I ns tead , attachment may be indexed by m u l t i p l e behav io rs as long as they r e v e a l the c o n j o i n t o c -cur rence of p r o x i m i t y - s e e k i n g and e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r s . F i n a l l y , t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y of c r i t e r i a w i l l a l l ow f o r v the wide v a r i e t y of behav io rs e x i s t i n g i n a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s due to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The i n t e r a c t i o n s observed du r i ng the 18 t e s t i n g sess ions o f the present study and these t h e o r e t i c a l e x p o s i t i o n s of attachment make i t p o s s i b l e to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : are the c h i l d r e n i n the study a t tached ; ' i s t h e i r s a h e a l t h f u l a t tachment ; and to whom i s t h i s attachment d i r e c t e d ? Behav io rs aimed at seek ing p r o x i m i t y w i t h the c a r e g i v e r i n the form of e i t h e r l o o k i n g , s m i l i n g or f o l l o w i n g , and those aimed at 39 exploration away from the caregiver i n the form of active manipula-t i o n of the experimental toys, as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between strangers and the caregivers,show these c h i l d r e n to be attached. In t h e i r extensive study of attachment, Ainsworth, B e l l and Stayton C1971) considered a smooth balance between exploration and attach-ment to be a sign of h e a l t h f u l attachment. The r e s u l t s r e l a t e d here demonstrated the existence of such a balance to a greater or l e s s e r extent i n a l l the children studied. Indeed these children.could move away from either caregiver to explore; they kept v i s u a l track of the caregiver's whereabouts by looking; they were content to be i n the caregiver's arms:for a; short time and either accepted short separation or followed the caregiver while showing l i t t l e d i s t r e s s . Here then i s evidence of h e a l t h f u l attachment. These findings seem to contradict those obtained by Blehar (1973). She compared young ch i l d r e n placed i n a day care center at e i t h e r 25 months or 34 months with c h i l d r e n r a i s e d e n t i r e l y at home, and found signs of anxious and defensive attachment toward the mother i n the former group. The day care group was more distressed at separation, explored l e s s and showed more proximity-seeking and proximity-avoiding behaviors than the home-reared group. Blehar a t t r i b u t e d these r e s u l t s to the minor separation e n t a i l e d i n attending a day care center. She found support for t h i s conclusion i n Ainsworth's (1973) conviction that r e p e t i t i o n of separation s e n s i t i z e s rather than habituates .one-year olds to separation. Thus, Blehar (1973) a t t r i b u t e d the d i s e q u i l i b r i u m i n at-tachment observed i n her subjects to the s e n s i t i z i n g e f f e c t of long 40 d a i l y s e p a r a t i o n . The g roup homes i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e somewhat s i m i l a r t o a day c a r e s e t t i n g ; h o w e v e r , n e i t h e r a n x i o u s n o r d e f e n s i v e a t t a c h m e n t s we re a p p a r e n t . S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s . B l e h a r (1973) f o u n d an age b y r e a r i n g - ^ g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n . The s u b j e c t s who e n t e r e d day c a r e a t a l a t e r age showed a g r e a t e r d i s r u p t i o n i n e q u i l i b r i u m . The c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y b e g a n some s o r t o f day c a r e e a r l y i n i n f a n c y , w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t i n v o l v i n g a g r a n d m o t h e r , a baby s i t t e r o r t h e c a r e t a k e r o f a g roup home. H e n c e , t h e r e was no sudden d i s r u p t i o n o f an e x c l u s i v e l y m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h n e g a t i v e a f t e r e f f e c t s as a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r r e d f o r B l e h a r ' s s u b j e c t s . The a b s e n c e o f an u n e x p e c t e d change i n r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s may be i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e smooth p r o x i m i t y - e x p l o r a t i o n b a l a n c e o b s e r v e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e g roup homes . The p r e s e n c e o f an age f a c t o r p o t e n t i a l l y o p e r a t i n g h e r e i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by C a l d w e l l e t a l . (1970) on c h i l d r e n who e n t e r e d day c a r e a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n B l e h a r ' s s u b j e c t s . T h e s e a u t h o r s d i d n o t f i n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween h o m e - r e a r e d and day c a r e c h i l d r e n t h a t was o b s e r v e d by B l e h a r ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and B l e h a r ' s i s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h r e e o f t h e f o u r g roup homes w e r e c a r e d f o r d u r i n g t h e day i n t h e f a m i l i a r e v e r y d a y e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e i r . h o m e s . Y a r r o w (1961) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i s t r e s s a t s e p a r a t i o n i s a t t e n u a t e d i f t h e c h i l d r e m a i n s i n a f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t . F a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e day c a r e e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e d by t h e s e g roup homes may a l s o b e a f a c t o r i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h e a l t h f u l a t t a c h m e n t s by t h e s e c h i l d r e n . 41 S i n c e t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e e v i d e n t l y h e a l t h f u l l y a t t a c h e d , one may a s k to whom t h i s a t t a c h m e n t i s d i r e c t e d , t h e m o t h e r o r t h e c a r e -t a k e r ? The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e a t t a c h e d t o b o t h c a r e g i v e r s a l t h o u g h t h e r e may have b e e n a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e f l a v o r o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s when t h e c h i l d was e i t h e r w i t h h i s m o t h e r o f h i s c a r e t a k e r may be d u e , as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , t o a d i s s i m i l i t u d e i n t h e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n e n c o u r a g e d by e a c h c a r e g i v e r a n d / o r a d i f f e r e n -t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s on t he p a r t o f t h e a d u l t t o t h e c h i l d ' s s o c i a l s i g n a l s . A more r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e manner i n w h i c h e a c h c a r e -g i v e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e c h i l d s h o u l d p e r m i t a more p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d and c a r e t a k e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Remarks on t h e C h i l d r e a r i n g P r a c t i c e s o f t h e Young S i n g l e M o t h e r s I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d i n t h e s e g roup homes we re i n g e n e r a l h e a l t h f u l l y a t t a c h e d t o b o t h t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s . What d o e s t h i s e n a b l e us t o s a y a b o u t t h e k i n d o f m o t h e r i n g o f f e r e d by young s i n g l e m o t h e r s ? On t h e w h o l e , t h e s e women seemed s e n s i t i v e i n t h e i r m o t h e r i n g and d e r i v e d p l e a s u r e f r o m i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r b a b i e s . H o w e v e r , s m a l l r e m a r k s made w h i l e E_ was i n t h e g roup homes s u g g e s t e d t h a t some o f t h e m o t h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n a v e r a g e i n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e m o t h e r (age 22) o f t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t , a boy o f f i v e m o n t h s , e x p r e s s e d a l o t o f a n x i e t y abou t t h e e a t i n g h a b i t s o f h e r c h i l d . B e f o r e t h e F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n e p i s o d e , she e x p l a i n e d a t l e n g t h t o E t h a t h e r c h i l d d i d n o t l i k e s o l i d f o o d and 42 that she had to resort to the t r i c k of giving two or three spoonfuls of food, then the b o t t l e and then some more s o l i d food, over and over during the feeding. She wanted E_ to understand that she knew that t h i s was a poor procedure, that she knew that she should not stand for such "nonsense" and so on. The baby confirmed a l l of h i s mother's predictions and c r i e d each time he was switched from the b o t t l e to the spoon. However, when he was observed with the care-taker, none of t h i s happened. The caretaker acknowledged that the c h i l d was d i f f i c u l t to feed i n the beginning, but that he now happily accepted the s o l i d food and then the b o t t l e with numerous smiles. And so he did when E was present. This mother seemed insecure i n her r o l e of mother and the baby apparently responded to her i n s e c u r i t y . The calm confidence of the caretaker, an older woman with grown up child r e n of her own, may have been i n part responsible for the ch i l d ' s d i f f e r e n t behavior with her. Only one mother out of nine spontaneously asked to be shown the f i l m taken when her c h i l d was with the caretaker. It seemed to IS that they were a l l equally curious to see i t , but at the same time afraid, i n case the c h i l d behaved better when with the caretaker. The supervisor of the group homes shared t h i s opinion. Single mothers are faced with many d i f f i c u l t i e s not encountered by married couples. Surely they provide t h e i r c h i l d r e n with d i f f e r e n t home environments. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of these mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n might uncover s p e c i a l e f f e c t s due to sing l e mothering. How-ever, i t i s u n l i k e l y that s i n g l e mothers, any more than "married" 43 m o t h e r s f o r m a homogeneous g r o u p . The r e l a t i v e h e a l t h f u l n e s s w i t l i w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y seemed to. Be a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r m o t h e r s does n o t r e v e a l any s t r i k i n g l y a d v e r s e c o n s e q u e n c e a t t a c h e d t o r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n a l o n e . T h i s s t u d y o f g roup homes f o r s i n g l e m o t h e r s s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h homes a r e a good s o l u t i o n t o a b a d p r o b l e m . A c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s , i t i s a p r o b l e m more and more f r e q u e n t nowadays and t h i s l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t i s i n -c r e a s i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s . I t i s r e a s s u r i n g t o o b s e r v e i n c h i l d r e n r e a r e d i n some o f t h e s e homes a good b a l a n c e be tween e x p l o r a t i o n and a c t i v e i n i t i a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h an a d u l t . O b v i o u s l y , few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e due t o b o t h t h e s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s o b s e r v e d and t h e l ow h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e p r e -g roup-home h i s t o r y o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e . D e t a i l e d c a s e h i s t o r i e s s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d and s t u d i e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . T h i s s h o u l d be done f i r s t t o i d e n t i f y b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t v a r i a t i o n and a c h i e v e g r e a t e r h o m o g e n e i t y o f s a m p l e , and s e c o n d t o i n f e r w h i c h s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n e a r l y i n f a n c y a r e f a v o r i n g t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t t a c h -men t . I t m i g h t a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g t o u s e t h e " s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n " e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e d e v i s e d b y A i n s w o r t h ( c f . , A i n s w o r t h and W i t t i g , 1969) w i t h b o t h t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r and t h e c a r e t a k e r -c h i l d p a i r . T h i s s h o u l d p e r m i t a more e f f i c i e n t c o m p a r i s o n be tween t h e a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e o f a t t a c h m e n t i n n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s and more r e c e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g abou t a t t a c h m e n t i n n o n - n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s . I t w o u l d a l s o i n v o l v e o b s e r v a t i o n i n a somewhat more s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n 44 so that information could be gained regarding the degree of the intensification of attachment behavior due to stress when the mother or the mother substitute is present. The present data showed the presence of healthful attachments in non-nuclear family settings and also strengthens the .evidence reported in recent studies (Brody and Axelrad, 1971; Ainsworth, Bell and Stayton, 1972) that both fear of strangers and separation anxiety are not the milestone in attachment behavior that they were once thought to be. Finally, it was argued that the notion of monotropy has been inappropriately applied to attachment behavior. 45 TABLE 1 (A) F r e q u e n c y o f O c c u r r e n c e o f T o u c h , T a l k , L o o k , S m i l e D u r i n g t h e F i r s t Seven I n t e r v a l s o f E p i s o d e I w i t h t h e M o t h e r Touch T a l k Look S m i l e M a l e s 0 8 11 7 Fema les 7 9 13 11 T o t a l 7 17 24 18 TABLE 1 (B) F r e q u e n c y o f O c c u r r e n c e o f T o u c h , T a l k , L o o k , S m i l e D u r i n g t h e F i r s t Seven I n t e r v a l s o f E p i s o d e I w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r Touch T a l k L o o k S m i l e M a l e s 0 8 13 0 F e m a l e s 12 4 10 2 T o t a l 12 12 23 2 46 TABLE 2 (A) F r e q u e n c y o f O c c u r r e n c e o f T a l k , L o o k , S m i l e t o E and t h e Camera when the M o t h e r i s P r e s e n t ( E p i s o d e 1) T a l k Look S m i l e M a l e s 2 16 2 F e m a l e s 3 10 7 T o t a l 5 26 9 TABLE 2 (B) F r e q u e n c y o f O c c u r r e n c e o f T a l k , L o o k , S m i l e t o E and t h e Camera when t h e C a r e t a k e r i s P r e s e n t ( E p i s o d e I ) T a l k L o o k S m i l e M a l e s 3 20 3 F e m a l e s 6 15 2 T o t a l . 9 35 5 47 TABLE 3 P r o p o r t i o n s and Number o f Ss E x h i b i t i n g c e r t a i n B e h a v i o r s i n t he P r e s e n c e o f t h e Mother 'and t h e C a r e t a k e r M o t h e r P r e s e n t C a r e t a k e r P r e s e n t E p i s o d e I N P r o p o r t i o n N P r o p o r t i o n A c c e p t p / u & R e l a x 9/9 1.00 9/9 1.00 A c c e p t p / d 8/9 .85 9/9 1.00 p / d - p l a y 8/9 .85 7/9 .77 F o l l o w V i s u a l l y A r o u n d 3/9 . 3 3 5/9 .55 A c t i v e M a n i p u l a t i o n 0 8/8 1.00 7/8 .87 E p i s o d e I I C r y when C a r e g i v e r L e f t 2/9 .22 2/9 .22 F o l l o w V i s u a l l y Out 3/9 . 3 3 6/9 .66 F o l l o w P h y s i c a l l y Out 4/9 .44 1/9 . 1 1 P l a y when C a r e g i v e r Away 5/9 .55 6/9 .66 E p i s o d e I I I P a r t i a l A p p r o a c h 0 0 1/5 .20 3/8 .37 Look a t C a r e g i v e r E n t e r i n g 0 0 4/5 .80 8/8 1.00 S m i l e a t C a r e g i v e r 0 0 3/5 .60 4/8 .50 T a l k a t C a r e g i v e r 0 0 2/5 .40 3/8 .37 L i f t Arms t o be p / u 3/9 . 3 3 3/9 .33 P l a y 7/9 .77 8/9 .88 1 S^  was t o o young t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e t o y s The t o t a l n does n o t i n c l u d e t h e Ss who p h y s i c a l l y f o l l o w e d t h e c a r e g i v e r ou t o f t h e room 0 48 TABLE 4 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s D u r i n g t h e T h r e e E p i s o d e s w i t h t he M o t h e r and w i t h t h e C a r e t a k e r M o t h e r P r e s e n t C a r e t a k e r P r e s e n t M a l e s Fema les M a l e s F e m a l e s E p i s o d e I N P r o p o r t i o n N P r o p o r t i o n N P r o p o r t i o n N P r o p o r t i A c c e p t p / u & R e l a x 5/5 1.00 4/4 1.00 5/5 1.00 4/4 1.00 A c c e p t p / d 5/5 1.00 3/4 .66 5/5 1.00 4/4 1.00 p / d - p l a y 5/5 1.00 3/4 .66 5/5 1.00 2/4 .50 F o l l o w V i s u a l l y 2/5 .40 1/4 .25 3/5 .6.0 2/4 .50 A c t i v e M a n i p u l a t i o n 0 4/4 1.00 4/4 1.00 4/4 1.00 3/4 .75 E p i s o d e I I C r y 0/5 0 2/4 .50 1/5 .20 1/4 .25 F o l l o w V i s u a l l y 2/5 .40 1/4 .25 3/5 .60 3/4 .75 F o l l o w Out 1/5 .20 3/4 .75 1/5 .20 0/4 0 P l a y 4/5 .80 1/4 .25 3/5 .60 3/4 .75 E p i s o d e I I I P a r t i a l A p p r o a c h 0 0 1/4 .25 0/1 0 0/4 0 3/4 .75 L o o k a t C a r e g i v e r 0 0 3/4 .75 1/1 1.00 4/4 1.00 4/4 1.00 S m i l e a t C a r e g i v e r 0 0 2/4 .50 1/1 1.00 1/4 .25 3/4 .75 T a l k a t C a r e g i v e r 0 0 1/4 .25 1/1 1.00 1/4 .25 2/4 .50 L i f t Arms 1/5 .20 2/4 .50 2/5 .40 1/4 .25 P l a y 3/5 .60 4/4 1.00 4/5 .80 4/4 1.00 1 S^  was t oo young t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e t o y s The t o t a l n does n o t i n c l u d e t h e Ss who p h y s i c a l l y f o l l o w e d the c a r e g i v e r ou t o f t h e room 49 TABLE 5 Sex and Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n t he S u b j e c t s ' R e a c t i o n s t o S t r a n g e r s R e a c t i o n t o S t r a n g e r s N P r o p o r t i o n Sex Age Customs I n s p e c t i o n 2 / 9 . 2 2 M 5 months ( w i t h w a t c h i n g M 9 months Customs I n s p e c t i o n 3 / 9 . 3 3 M 10 months ( w i t h a c t i v i t y ) F 18 months F. 24 months R e a c t i v e l y O u t g o i n g 3 /9 . 3 3 F 9 months M 13 months F 25 months S p o n t a n e o u s l y O u t g o i n g 1/9 . 1 1 M 27 months 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY A i n s w o r t h , M.D. P a t t e r n s o f a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r shown b y t h e i n f a n t i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s m o t h e r . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 6 4 , 1 0 , 5 1 - 5 8 . A i n s w o r t h , M .D . I n f a n c y i n U g a n d a : I n f a n t C a r e and Growth o f L o v e . B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d : The J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . A i n s w o r t h , . M .D . A n x i o u s a t t a c h m e n t and d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n i n a s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b e h a v i o r a t home. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d at t h e b i e n n i a l m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1 9 7 3 . A i n s w o r t h , M . D . , and W i t t i g , B . A . A t t a c h m e n t and e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r o f o n e - y e a r o l d s i n a s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n . I n B . M . F o s s ( E d . ) , D e t e r m i n a n t s o f I n f a n t B e h a v i o r I V . L o n d o n : Me thuen & C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 9 . A i n s w o r t h , M . D . , B e l l , S . M . V . , and S t a y t o n , D . J . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n o n e - y e a r o l d s . I n H . R . S c h a f f e r ( E d . ) , The O r i g i n s o f Human S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . L o n d o n : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . A i n s w o r t h , M . D . , B e l l , M . S . V . , and S t a y t o n , D . J . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e deve lopmen t o f some a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o u r s . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 2 , 1 8 ( 2 ) , 1 2 3 - 1 4 4 . B e l l , S . N . , and A i n s w o r t h , M . D . I n f a n t c r y i n g and m a t e r n a l r e s p o n s i v e -n e s s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M i n n e a p o l i s , A p r i l 1 9 7 1 . 51 B l e h a r , N . P . A n x i o u s a t t a c h m e n t and d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h day c a r e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1 9 7 3 . B o w l b y , J . The n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d ' s t i e t o h i s m o t h e r . I n t . J . P s y c h o . A n a l . , 1 9 5 8 , 3 9 , 3 5 0 . B o w l b y , J . S e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y . I n t . J . P s y c h o a n a l . , 1 9 6 0 , 4 1 , 1 - 2 5 . B o w l b y , J . N o t e on D r . L o i s M u r p h y ' s p a p e r . I n t . J . P s y c h o a n a l . , 1 9 6 4 , 4 5 , 4 4 - 4 6 . B o w l b y , J . A t t a c h m e n t and L o s s , v o l . I: A t t a c h m e n t . L o n d o n : The H o g g a r t h P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . B r o d y , S . , and A x e l r a d , S . M a t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i v e -n e s s o f i n f a n t s . I n H . R . S c h a f f e r ( E d . ) , The O r i g i n s o f Human  S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . L o n d o n : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . B r o n s o n , G . W. I n f a n t ' s r e a c t i o n s t o an u n f a m i l i a r p e r s o n . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t he S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . : A p r i l 1 9 7 1 . C a i r n s , R . B . The d e v e l o p m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e and e x t i n c t i o n o f s o c i a l a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r i n s h e e p . J . Comp. P h y s i o l . P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 6 , 6 2 . C a l d w e l l , B . M . , and H e r s h e r , L . M o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f l i f e . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 6 4 , 1 0 , 1 1 9 - 1 2 8 . C a l d w e l l , B . M . , W r i g h t , C . N . , H o n i g , A . S . , and Tannenbaum, J . I n f a n t day c a r e and a t t a c h m e n t . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 7 0 , 4 0 , 3 9 7 - 4 1 2 . C o a t e s , B . , A n d e r s o n , E . P . , H a r t u p , W.W. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e a t -tachment b e h a v i o r o f human i n f a n t s . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 6, 2 , 2 1 8 - 2 3 0 ( a ) . 52 C o a t e s , B . , A n d e r s o n , E . P . , and H a r t u p , W.W. The s t a b i l i t y o f a t t a c h -ment b e h a v i o r s i n the human i n f a n t s . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 6., 2 , 2 3 1 - 2 3 7 ( b ) . C o x , F . N . , and C a m p b e l l , D. Young c h i l d r e n i n a new s i t u a t i o n w i t h and w i t h o u t t h e i r m o t h e r s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 8 , ^39_, 1 2 3 - 1 3 1 . D a v i d , M . , and A p p e l l , G . M o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n and i t s i m p a c t on t he c h i l d . I n A . Ambrose ( E d . ) , S t i m u l a t i o n i n E a r l y I n f a n c y . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1969 . E r i k s o n , E . H . I d e n t i t y and t h e l i f e c y c l e . S e l e c t e d p a p e r s . P s y c h o l . I s s . , ( I , w h o l e N o . I ) . New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1959 . F l e e n e r , D . E . , and C a i r n s , R . B . A t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s i n human i n f a n t s : D i s c r i m i n a t i v e v o c a l i z a t i o n on m a t e r n a l s e p a r a t i o n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , 2, 2 , 2 1 5 - 2 3 3 . F r e u d , S . C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s . V o l s . I, I I , I I I , I V . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1 9 5 9 . G e r w i t z , J . L . A l e a r n i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f n o r m a l s t i m u l a t i o n , p r i v a t i o n and d e p r i v a t i o n on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s o c i a l m o t i v a t i o n and a t t a c h m e n t . I n B . M . F o s s ( E d . ) , D e t e r m i n a n t s o f I n f a n t  B e h a v i o r . L o n d o n : Me thuen and New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 6 1 , 2 1 3 - 2 9 9 . H a r l o w , H . F . The n a t u r e o f l o v e . Amer . P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 8 , 1 3 , 6 7 3 - 6 8 5 . H o g a n , R. Deve lopmen t o f an empathy s c a l e . J . o f C o n s , and C l i n . P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 9 , v o l . 3 3 , n o . 5 , 3 0 7 - 3 1 6 . K a g a n , J . I n d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e by A i n s w o r t h , M . D . e t a l . I n H . R . S c h a f f e r ( E d . ) , The O r i g i n s o f Human S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . 53 L o n d o n : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . L e w i s , M. S t a t e as an i n f a n t - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n : An a n a l y s i s o f m o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f s e x . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r  Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 2 , 1 8 , 9 5 - 1 2 2 . L e w i s , M . , and B a n . P . S t a b i l i t y o f a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r : A t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n a n a l y s i s . I n M. L e w i s (chm. ) A t t a c h m e n t : S t u d i e s i n  S t a b i l i t y and Change . Symposium p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . , A p r i l 1 9 7 1 . L o r e n z , K. Der Kumpan i n d e r Umwelt des V o g e l s . J . O r n i t h o l . , 1 9 3 5 , 8 3 , 1 3 7 - 2 1 3 . L u s k , D . , and L e w i s , M. M o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f a n t d e v e l o p -ment among t h e W o l a f o f S e n e g a l . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , M a r c h 1 9 7 1 . L y t t o n , H . O b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n : A m e t h o d -o l o g i c a l r e v i e w . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 1 , v o l . 4 3 , _3, 6 5 1 - 6 8 4 . M a c c o b y , E . E . , and M a s t e r s , J . A t t a c h m e n t and Dependency . I n P . H . Mussen ( E d . ) , C a r m i c h a e l ' s M a n u a l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y . ( 3 r d e d . ) T o r o n t o : J o h n W i l e y & Sons I n c . , 1 9 7 0 . M o s s , H . A . , R o b s o n , K . S . , and P e d e r s e n , F . D e t e r m i n a n t s o f m a t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n o f i n f a n t s and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t r e a t m e n t f o r l a t e r r e a c t i o n s t o s t r a n g e r s . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 9 , J . , 2 3 9 - 2 4 6 . R e b e l s k y , F . I n f a n t s ' r e s p o n s e t o mo the r and changes a t t h r e e and a h a l f m o n t h s . P r e p u b l i c a t i o n d r a f t i n T . N . W i l l i a m s , I n f a n t C a r e : A b s t r a c t s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . C o n s o r t i u m on ! e a r l y c h i l d b e a r i n g and 54 c h i l d b e a r i n g , 1972. R h e i n g o l d , H . L . , and E c k e r m a n , C O . F e a r o f t h e s t r a n g e r : A c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . , A p r i l 1971. R o s e n b l u m , L . I n f a n t a t t a c h m e n t i n monkeys . I n H . R . S c h a f f e r ( E d . ) , The O r i g i n s o f Human S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . L o n d o n : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1971. S c h a f f e r , H . R . Some i s s u e s f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e s t u d y o f a t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o u r . I n B . M . F o s s ( E d . ) , D e t e r m i n a n t s o f I n f a n t B e h a v i o u r I I . L o n d o n : Me thuen & C o . L t d . , 1963. S c h a f f e r , H . R . The o n s e t o f f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s and t h e i n c o n g r u i t y h y p o t h e s i s . J . C h i l d P s y c h o l . P s y c h i a t . , 1966, ]_, 95-106. S c h a f f e r , H . R . The Growth o f S o c i a b i l i t y . P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1971. S c h a f f e r , H . R . , and E m e r s o n , P . E . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l a t t a c h -ment i n i n f a n c y . Monographs o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1964, 29 ( S e r i a l 3, n o . 94). S c o t t , J . P . C r i t i c a l p e r i o d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n p u p p i e s . P s y c h o s o m . M e d . , 1958, v o l . 20, 42-54. S e a r s , R . R . , W h i t i n g , J . W . M . , N o w l i s , V . , and S e a r s , P . S . Some c h i l d r e a r i n g a n t e c e d e n t s o f dependency and a g g r e s s i o n i n young c h i l d r e n . G e n e t . P s y c h o l . M o n o g r . , 1953, X L V I I , 135-234. S e a r s , R . R . , R a u , L . , and A l p e r t , R. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C h i l d R e a r i n g . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. S t e v e n s , A . G . A t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o u r , s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y and s t r a n g e r a n x i e t y i n p o l y m a t r i c a l l y - r e a r e d i n f a n t s . I n H . R . S c h a f f e r ( E d . ) , 55 O r i g i n s o f Human S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . L o n d o n : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1971. T e n n e s , K . H . , and L a m p l , E . E . Some a s p e c t s o f m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p p e r t a i n i n g t o i n f a n t i l e s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y . The J . o f  N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1966, 143, 426-437. T u l k i n , S . R . The e f f e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e on i n f a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e E a s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , A p r i l 1971. Y a r r o w , L . J . M a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n : Toward an e m p i r i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n . P s y c h o l . B u l l . , 1961, 58, 459-496. Y a r r o w , L . J . The deve lopmen t o f f o c u s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g i n f a n c y . I n J . H e l l m u t h ( E d . ) , E x c e p t i o n a l I n f a n t : The N o r m a l I n f a n t , v o l . I, B r u n n e r / M a z e l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967. 5 6 APPENDIX B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t R e a c t i o n t o S t r a n g e r s ( f r o m B r o d y and A x e l r a d , 1971) Spon taneous o u t g o i n g n e s s : R e a c t i v e l y o u t g o i n g : Customs i n s p e c t i o n : U n c h a n g i n g s o b e r n e s s : M i l d g e n e r a l a n x i e t y : S t r o n g p e r s o n a l a n x i e t y : S p e c i f i c a v o i d a n c e o f t h e No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : C o d i n g E p i s o d e I Touch A * : C r y - t o be p / u : C l o s e / n o p l a y : C l o s e / p l a y : L o o k / A : L o o k / t o y : L o o k / o b s : T a l k / A : T a l k / t o y : T a l k / o b s : S m i l e / A : S m i l e / o b s : S_ l o o k s J3 l o o k s S l o o k s a t a t a t i n i t i a t e s s o c i a l o u v e r t u r e s r e s p o n d s t o s m i l i n g o r t a l k i n g b u t does n o t i n i t i a t e i t l o o k s a t s t r a n g e r / l o s s o f a c t i v i t y b u t no l o s s o f composure / may r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y o r go on w a t c h i n g f o r a t i m e m a i n t a i n s a p p r e h e n s i v e w a t c h w h i m p e r i n g / t u r n i n g away h a r d c r y s t r a n g e r t h e c h i l d t r e a t s t h e s t r a n g e r i n t h e same way as t h e c a r e g i v e r (no awareness o f t h e s t r a n g e r ' s p r e s e n c e ) D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B e h a v i o r jS k e e p s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r when she p u t s h i m on t he f l o o r a f t e r e a t i n g c r i e s t o b e p i c k e d up when she p u t s h i m on t h e f l o o r and a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e e p i s o d e when p u t down, S^  s t a y s n e a r t he c a r e g i v e r and does n o t p l a y S_ s t a y s n e a r t h e c a r e g i v e r and p l a y s b u t n o t w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s t h e c a r e g i v e r t h e t o y s E o r a t t h e camera S^  t a l k s o r v o c a l i z e s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s age t o t h e c a r e g i v e r S[ t a l k s t o the t o y s S^  t a l k s t o E o r t o t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e camera JS s m i l e s a t t h e c a r e g i v e r S s m i l e s a t E o r a t t he o p e r a t o r o f t h e camera One s p o t / p a s s i v e : S^  a f t e r h a v i n g w a l k e d away f r o m A d u l t , i s i m m o b i l e and does n o t p l a y One s p o t / p l a y : S_ does n o t move b u t i s engaged i n p l a y i n g F i n g e r i n mouth F i n g e r i n n o s e O r i e n t / t o y : A p p r o a c h / t o y : P a s s i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n : A c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n : t u r n s a r o u n d to s e e t h e t o y s £[ goes t o t h e t o y s S_ t o u c h e s t h e t o y s b u t does n o t do a t h i n g w i t h them S^  t h r o w s t he b a l l , p l a y s w i t h t h e c a r , p u t s the baby i n and ou t o f t he c r i b o r s i m i l a r l y p l a y s w i t h h i s own t o y s * : A d u l t 57 C r y - p / u : P l e a s u r e - p / u : T i g h t i n a rms: R e l a x i n arms: A v o i d c o n t a c t : C r y - p / u : A c c e p t - p / d r p / d - p l a y : p / d - n o p l a y : F o l l o w - e y e : F o l l o w - b o d y : No f o l l o w : c r i e s when t h e c a r e g i v e r goes o v e r and p i c k s h i m up j> shows p l e a s u r e t o be p i c k e d up by s m i l i n g o r h u g g i n g t he c a r e g i v e r g r a b s t i g h t l y a t c a r e g i v e r ^ i s r e l a x e d and may e x p l o r e t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s f a c e , k i s s h e r makes a movement away f r o m t h e c a r e g i v e r when r.he wan t s t o be p i c k e d up c r i e s when t he c a r e g i v e r p u t s h i m on t h e f l o o r a g a i n a c c e p t s t o b e p u t on t h e f l o o r p r e s u m e s p l a y i n g a f t e r b e i n g i n the. c a r e g i v e r ' s arms does n o t resume p l a y i n g S_ f o l l o w s A w i t h h i s eyes when he w a l k s a r o u n d t h e room S^  a c t u a l l y f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r a r o u n d t h e room S_ i s s o o c c u p i e d by what he i s d o i n g t h a t he does n o t l o o k a t t he c a r e g i v e r m o v i n g i n t h e room E p i s o d e I I No c r y / e y e : No c r y / d o o r : L o o k / d o o r : L o o k / o b s : does n o t c r y when t h e c a r e g i v e r l e a v e s t h e room b u t f o l l o w s h e r w i t h h i s eyes S^  does n o t c r y b u t f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r t o t h e d o o r jS l o o k s a t t h e d o o r d u r i n g t h e e p i s o d e S l o o k s a t t h e camera o r a t E No c r y / n o e y e : C r y / e y e : C r y / d o o r : J3 does n o t c r y and does n o t l o o k a t A l e a v i n g G_ c r i e s and f o l l o w s h e r v i s u a l l y ou t o f t h e room S c r i e s and p h y s i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r t o t h e d o o r C r y / n o p l a y : S t o p •' c r y / p l a y : S t o p c r y / n o p l a y : No c r y / p l a y : C r y / A - r e e n t e r : F o l l o w o u t : _S c r i e s and does n o t p l a y when t he c a r e g i v e r i s a b s e n t S_ s t o p s c r y i n g and resumes p l a y i n g S_ s t o p s c r y i n g b u t does n o t p l a y anymore S^  does n o t c r y and p l a y s d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e c a r e g i v e r S^  c r i e s so much t h a t t he c a r e g i v e r must come b a c k S_ f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r ou t o f t h e room d e s p i t e E_ t r y i n g t o t a l k and p l a y w i t h h i m E p i s o d e I I I A p p r o a c h / b o d y : A p p r o a c h / d e l a y : P a r t i a l approach: S t o p c r y i n g : Go on c r y i n g : jS a p p r o a c h e s p h y s i c a l l y t h e c a r e g i v e r w i t h no d e l a y S^  a p p r o a c h e s b u t makes s e v e r a l s t o p s b e f o r e f i n a l l y g o i n g t o t h e c a r e g i v e r S^  s t a r t s a movement of a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c a r e g i v e r b u t n e v e r a c t u a l l y goes n e a r h e r t o t o u c h h e r _S who was c r y i n g b e f o r e s t o p s when t h e c a r e g i v e r e n t e r s S does n o t s t o p c r y i n g a l t h o u g h t h e c a r e g i v e r i s p r e s e n t 58 L o o k / A : l o o k s a t t h e c a r e g i v e r e n t e r i n g i n the room L o o k / o b s : l o o k s a t t h e E_ d u r i n g t h a t e p i s o d e S m i l e / A : S_ s m i l e s t o t h e c a r e g i v e r d u r i n g t h a t e p i s o d e T a l k / A L i f t a r m s : .'_S l i f t s h i s arms t o b e p i c k e d up by t h e c a r e g i v e r p / u - r e l a x : i s r e l a x e d when i n t he arms o f t h e c a r e g i v e r p / u - t i g h t : c l i n g s t o t h e c a r e g i v e r One s p o t - p a s s i v e : does n o t go to t h e c a r e g i v e r and does n o t p l a y P l a y : p l a y s d u r i n g , - t h a t e p i s o d e a f t e r t he r e t u r n o f t h e c a r e g i v e r D i s t r e s s - n o t to A : S i s d i s t r e s s e d b u t t h i s i s n o t d i r e c t e d t o t he c a r e g i v e r D e s c r i p t i o n o f C r y i n g B e h a v i o r Code H a r d c r y o r s c r e a m i n g A C r y i n g as opposed t o f u s s i n g B F u s s i n g : more m u t e d / l e s s v i o l e n t C A d e f i n i t e c r y b u t i s o l a t e d and n o t r e p e a t e d D A d r y f a c e : f a c i a l c o n t o r t i o n / n o v o c a l i z a t i o n E An unhappy n o i s e w i t h o u t c r y f a c e F An unhappy n o i s e and c r y f a c e G 

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