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Attachment behaviors in young children experiencing two primary caregivers Vinay, Marie-Emmanuelle 1973

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c i'  ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN EXPERIENCING TWO PRIMARY CAREGIVERS by MARIE-EMMANUELLE VINAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  permission.  Department o f  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  -p<&|rkoItp^vy  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  s h a l l not be  thesis  publication  allowed without  my  i  ABSTRACT  A t t a c h m e n t b e h a v i o r s i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c i n g two c a r e g i v e r s w e r e s t u d i e d i n g r o u p homes o r g a n i z e d f o r The n i n e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d i n age f r o m f i v e observed s e p a r a t e l y w i t h t h e i r their in  g r o u p home d u r i n g  the a d u l t - c h i l d  mothers  the day.  to  27 m o n t h s .  Only s m a l l q u a l i t a t i v e  i n t e r a c t i o n were o b s e r v e d .  Little  The t h e o r e t i c a l  for  discussed.  concept of  attachment were  mothers.  They were  and w i t h t h e a d u l t  and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y were s e e n . the  single  primary  in  charge  of  differences  fear  of  strangers  implications  of  results  ii  T a b l e of  Contents Page  Abstract List  of  i Tables  iv  Acknowledgements  v  Introduction  1  Theoretical Explanations  of Attachment  Behavior  .  1  Psychoanalysis  2  S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory  2  E t h o l o g i c a l Theory  2  Pertinent  Factors in  Validity  of  Criteria  for  Attachment  F e a r of  the F o r m a t i o n of Strangers  Attachment  8  and S e p a r a t i o n A n x i e t y  as  Attachment  10  Behavior in Non-nuclear Family Situations  Experiment  14 16  Subjects  19  Apparatus  19  Design  21  Procedure  21  Results  24  Discussion  29  Conclusion  36  Theoretical  Implications  R e m a r k s on t h e S i n g l e Mothers  C h i l d r e a r i n g P r a c t i c e s of t h e  36 Young 41  iii  Page T a b l e s 1 (A)  and 1 CB)  T a b l e s 2 (A)  a n d 2 (B)  •  4  5  46  Table 3  4  7  Table 4  4  8  Table 5  49  Bibliography  50  Appendix  56  iv  List  of  Tables Page  T a b l e 1 (A)  Frequency of look,  smile during  intervals T a b l e 1 (B)  of  Frequency of  T a b l e 2 (B)  Table 3  behaviors and o f Table 4  Table 5  the  talk,  occurrence of  . . . . .  the 46  c a m e r a when  look, the  ( E p i s o d e I)  46  Ss e x h i b i t i n g  the p r e s e n c e of  the  certain  mother  caretaker  47  during  w i t h the mother  and w i t h t h e  S e x and age d i f f e r e n c e s to  strangers  45  look,  talk,  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s  reactions  talk,  ( E p i s o d e I)  and n of  in  45  seven  c a m e r a when  i s present  Proportions  seven  touch,  the f i r s t  occurrence of  s m i l e t o E and t h e caretaker  talk,  Episode 1 w i t h the c a r e t a k e r  i s present  Frequency of  the f i r s t  occurrence of  s m i l e t o E_ a n d t h e mother  touch,  Episode I w i t h the mother  smile during  intervals T a b l e 2 (A)  of  Frequency of look,  occurrence of  the  in  three  episodes  caretaker  . . . . . .  48  t h e S^s' 49  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My t h a n k s Mothers,  go t o  the s u p e r v i s o r of  t h e G r o u p Homes f o r  o p e r a t e d b y t h e YMCA, who k i n d l y  made a r r a n g e m e n t s  o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s and the m e e t i n g s w i t h mothers the mothers  and t h e  to  c a r e t a k e r s who w i l l i n g l y  during  t h e s e s s i o n s and g a v e s o much t i m e t o  study,  a n d t o M i s s R. H a r r i s who h e l p e d w i t h t h e s h o o t i n g o f  Grateful Kimball for advice i n  thanks  the  My  the v a r i o u s phases of the  camera.  the T . V . equipment  c o n d u c t i n g of  the  cooperated  a l s o go t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , D r s . W i l l i a m s  the l o a n of  the  T.V.  for  and c h i l d r e n .  thanks  s e s s i o n s w i t h an i n n e r - c i r c u i t  Single  research.  and f o r  their  and  patient  the  INTRODUCTION  Early in  life  m e a n i n g f u l way. the n a t u r e focussed  the I n f a n t r e l a t e a to h i s mother  To know w h a t  this  attachment  and t h e m e c h a n i s m s u n d e r l y i n g  truly  constitutes  is  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  to  of  define this  relationship.  T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n s of Attachment Various analytic  theories  theorists,  centers i t s  Behavior  c l a i m to p r o v i d e  s u c h an e x p l a n a t i o n .  Social Learning theorists  h a v e come up w i t h d i f f e r e n t  while  in a  explanation  accounts of  around the  Psycho-  and E t h o l o g i c a l  the p r o c e s s .  concept of  object  theorists  Psychoanalysis relationships,  the  Social Learning theorists  and t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s  the terms  d e p e n d e n c y and a t t a c h m e n t  respectively.  use  Psychoanalysis According to Psychoanalytic theory, r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r  through  instincts  choice i s  (Freud, tion,  since object  1959).  the f i r s t  After  object  choice.  object  This f i r s t  choice w i l l  proximity  s o as t o " i n c o r p o r a t e  explanation  c h i l d ' s behavior w i l l  of  infant  roots  the  tie  it  into  are  in  energies" satisfac-  e m e r g e f r o m b o t h e g o and  choice i s  F r o m now o n , t h e o b j e c t w i l l  and t h e  strongly  c h o i c e which has i t s  "cathected with l i b i d a l  object  isfaction  "oral"  and t h e  a p e r i o d of n a r c i s s i s m w i t h a u t o - e r o t i c  external  sexual instincts.  object  the mother  c a l l e d the  anaclitic  become t h e s o u r c e o f  aim at b r i n g i n g the ego"  between the mother  the o b j e c t  ( F r e u d , 1959). and t h e  sat-  infant  e m p h a s i z e d b y p s y c h o a n a l y s i s t s , who s e e t h e i n f a n t  as  into  This is  very  loving  2  " w i t h h i s mouth"  ( E r i k s o n , 1959).  has s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n v a l u e ; a c h i e v e d when t h e i n f a n t  In  its  beginning this  true a n a c l i t i c  object  p e r c e i v e s h i s mother  object  choice is  as an e x t e r n a l  choice  only object.  S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the S o c i a l L e a r n i n g theory holds child's  attachment  his needs. will  t o h i s mother  Because the mother  be the f o c u s of  Attention  is  i s due t o the major  l o c a l i z a t i o n of  seeking, following,  the f a c t  the  is  ( S e a r s , Rau a n d . A l p e r t , that  gratification  separation  the mother  different  the s o u r c e of  or u n l e a r n e d , r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  gratification  Gewirtz  (1961)  v i e w i n h i s e m p h a s i s on s t i m u l a t i o n  The s t i m u l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e mother w i l l  g e n c y w i t h p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s become r e i n f o r c i n g .  dependence i s Ethological  due t o h e r  the mother  this  1953)  b e c a u s e she meets a important  as an u n l e a r n e d through  contin-  However, C a i r n s  the m o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e p e r se as b e i n g r e i n f o r c i n g .  " s a l i e n c e " and " i m p o r t a n c e " o f  in  Sears  p r o v i d e s an  reinforcer.  "weight",  aspects of  she a c q u i r e s the v a l u e of  to t h i s  sees  function  G e w i r t z , and C a i r n s .  modification  (1966)  Al-  1 9 6 5 , a n d S e a r s , W h i t i n g , N o w l i s and S e a r s , is  she  are  to d e f i n e dependency.  slightly  t h e b a b y ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s , and t h u s primary,  s o u r c e of  s e e n as h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c i n g  f u n c t i o n have been emphasized by S e a r s ,  stresses  t h a t she s a t i s f i e s  c l i n g i n g and d i s t r e s s a t  most s o c i a l l e a r n i n g a c c o u n t s , t h r e e  the  c h i l d ' s dependent b e h a v i o r s .  commonly u s e d b y S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s though the mother  that  Thus  as a s t i m u l u s  the  for  constant presence.  Theory  Bowlby,  the p r i n c i p a l proponent  of  the E t h o l o g i c a l theory  of  the  3  development of  attachment  argues that  the  concept of  a c o n n o t a t i o n of h e l p l e s s n e s s . a n d i n a c t i v i t y Bowlby r e j e c t s n o t i o n of theory  this  i d e a of  the a c t i v i t y  of  to h i s mother relatively  h i s mother  i n d e p e n d e n t of of h i s  1969).  each other  child.  the  become i n t e g r a t e d  In  The m o t h e r ' s  proximity attachment  i n s t i n c t u a l responses which  a n d w h i c h emerge a t  the course of  attachment.  chiefly  The b e h a v i o r s  three kinds; o r i e n t a t i o n a l ,  signalling  implies  elici-  real  Bowlby uses the  word  attachment b e h a v i o r s are focussed at  tachment w i t h d r i v e r e d u c t i o n s i n c e the i n f a n t a c e r t a i n amount o f m o t h e r i n g .  five figure  first  Furthermore,  (1969) d o e s n o t e q u a t e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s r e f l e c t i n g  ponent of  with  mediating  f a c e , v o i c e and s o on a r e s p e c i f i c  o n one and o n l y one p e r s o n , i . e . , t h e m o t h e r f i g u r e .  a "need" for  are  different  development, the  t h e s e b e h a v i o r s so t h a t B o w l b y ' s f o r m u l a t i o n  indicate that  of  and f o c u s s e d on a s i n g l e mother  the b a s i s f o r  can be s a i d to be o f  monotropy to  This  a product  The i n f a n t ' s  " m o n o t r o p y " w h i c h goes f a r beyond o r a l n e e d s .  Bowlby  the  These r e s p o n s e s are s u c k i n g , c l i n g i n g ,  and c r y i n g .  constitutes  and e x e c u t i v e .  is  i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s environment,  1958).  (Bowlby,  responses w i l l  of  (Bowlby,  thus o r i g i n a t e s from f i v e  following  attachment  to h i s mother  a number o f b e h a v i o r a l s y s t e m s t h a t h a v e  t i m e s as a r e s u l t  tors  of  dependence and i n t r o d u c e s i n s t e a d  a child's tie  as a p r e d i c t a b l e outcome"  and t h i s  on t h e p a r t  attachment which i s based u p o n ' i n s t i n c t u a l b e h a v i o r s .  "postulates that  smiling,  dependence has  cannot be s a i d to  Ainsworth, another  t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , p u t s more s t r e s s o n t h e  athave  pro-  interaction  i m p l i e d i n attachment b e h a v i o r w h i c h she d e s c r i b e s as " a b e h a v i o r  4  through which a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , is  differential,  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a person or object  response from the o b j e c t w h i c h s e r v e s to 1964).  and thus  of  initiates  the i n f a n t  distance receptors are emphasized.  a c h a i n of  general excitement;  orientation;  This is  lifting  the mother  burying  in  attachment:  through  the  leaves;  smiling;  as a s e c u r e b a s e ;  (Ainsworth,  1967).  flight  the mother's  t o m o t h e r a s a h a v e n "of  attachment  o n l y i n Uganda.  J u s t as e t h o l o g i s t s  hands  exploration.  the m o t h e r - i n f a n t  reached through  ration balance.  is  by Kagan  an  are proposed by the e t h o l o g i s t s .  guishes four main phases:  at-  counterin  attachment-explooperational  (1971).  E x t e n s i v e developmental d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n attachment  present  Thus an e q u i l i b r i u m  T h i s e q u i l i b r i u m has been p r o p o s e d as an  attachment  these  c o n s i d e r the systems u n d e r l y i n g  b a l a n c i n g s y s t e m s s u c h as t h a t o f relationship  with  Ainsworth  as e s s e n t i a l l y d y n a m i c , t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  of  ap-  security;  from the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of the c l a p p i n g of  and  greeting;  lap;  B a s e d on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e v i d e n c e ,  b e h a v i o r s , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of  definition  fol-  crowing  c l a p p i n g hands i n  the face i n  list  differential  locomotion; embracing, hugging, k i s s i n g ; exploration  c o n t e n d s t h a t one c a n i n f e r  tachment  infant's  c l e a r l y apparent  arms i n g r e e t i n g ;  s c r a m b l i n g over the mother; proach through  greeting  (Ainsworth,  as w e l l as t h e  s m i l i n g and v o c a l i z a t i o n ; c r y i n g when t h e m o t h e r  lowing; visual-motor  clinging  interaction  relationship"  o f b e h a v i o r s , w h i c h A i n s w o r t h s e e s as r e f l e c t i n g crying,  relationship  and w h i c h t e n d s t o e v o k e a  c o n s o l i d a t e the a f f e c t i o n a l  Active participation  affectional  orientation  species-wide Bowlby  regularities  (1969)  and s i g n a l s w i t h o u t  distin-  discrimination  5  of  figure;  criminated  orientation  and s i g n a l s d i r e c t e d  f i g u r e s ; maintenance of p r o x i m i t y  b y means o f  s i g n a l s and l o c o m o t i o n ;  procal relationship.  Ainsworth  which c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  (1967)  tive  differential  identified  tachment.  present  Schaffer's  of  stranger phase.  quite  similar  (1963)  a phase of  and a p h a s e o f  awareness;  tion  thought,  sought  during the  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s ; the  Schaffer  the e v o l u t i o n  attachment  i.e.,  to  the  of  appearance of  of  at-  early the  social  and u n f a m i l i a r  stranger  and  (1967),  t h e development by t h e i n f a n t  toward h i s mother;  as-  a l l human b e i n g s ;  According to Yarrow  evolve through:  initia-  (1963)  from a l l p a r t s  s e l e c t i v e responsiveness to f a m i l i a r  expectations  a reci-  interact;  t h r e e s t a g e h y p o t h e s i s assumes an  indiscriminate  a confidence r e l a t i o n s h i p , specific  figure  Although u s u a l l y not  accounts of  s p e c i f i c attachments.  focussed r e l a t i o n s h i p s  dis-  responsiveness at a d i s t a n c e ; the a c t i v e  phase d u r i n g which o p t i m a l a r o u s a l i s environment;  of  f i v e phases  differential  s o c i a t e d w i t h the E t h o l o g i c a l s c h o o l of (1967)  formation  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e l e m e n t s w i l l  p h a s e ; and t h e f e a r  Yarrow  one o r more  to a d i s c r i m i n a t e d  and f i n a l l y ,  u n d i s c r i m i n a t i v e p h a s e ; the phase of phase of  toward  anxiety;  people; of  and s e p a r a -  anxiety. In  sum, t h r e e  e x p l a n a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d  a c h i l d becomes a t t a c h e d attachment.  All  object  three explanations are i n f e r r e d  the b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e about s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . counts ends.  to h i s mother:  of  the i n f a n t  But h e r e a f t e r  for  t h e way i n  relations,  dependency,  f r o m some r e s p o n s e s  t h a t seem d e s i g n e d t o all  For i n s t a n c e , the e t h o l o g i s t s  which  similarity  in  bring  among t h e  ac-  concern themselves w i t h  the  6  behaviors of while  the m a j o r i t y  of  infants,  the S o c i a l Learning t h e o r i s t s  Ethologists  identify  t i o n g r a d i e n t may r e s u l t  elicitors  species-specific behaviors),  emphasize i n d i v i d u a l  a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l as the p o i n t  tachment b e h a v i o r s , w h i l e  responses.  (i.e.,  for  of  Social Learning theorists  i n other  differences. l o c u s of  a generaliza-  individuals eliciting  dependent  Ethologists also consider fear-producing stimuli for  attachment w h i l e  at-  Social Learning theorists  as s p e c i f i c  do n o t  (Maccoby  and M a s t e r s , 1 9 7 0 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o caregiver  the study of  shows t h a t t h e n o t i o n  dominated the l i t e r a t u r e . tihat t h e i n f a n t w i l l that other  f o r m an i n i t i a l  become e s t a b l i s h e d , i s t o b e more c o m p l e x . that while  of monotropy has u n t i l  But as S c h a f f e r  attachments w i l l  the c h i l d ' s  (1971)  attachment  tie  to  recently  points  out,  a picture  to  hold  t o o n l y one p e r s o n and  b e p o s s i b l e o n l y when t h a t f i r s t  to s i m p l i f y  a single  one h a s  t h a t r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d  A s f a r b a c k as 1964 S c h a f f e r a n d E m e r s o n h a d  the m a j o r i t y  of  their  s u b j e c t s d i d f o r m an i n i t i a l  found  attach-  ment t o o n l y one p e r s o n , 29% d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a t t a c h m e n t s  to  individuals.  individuals  A fifth  of  their  s u b j e c t s became a t t a c h e d t o  who d i d n o t p r o v i d e them w i t h p h y s i c a l c a r e a n d who w e r e n o t present  in  This  the s u b j e c t s ' is  i n o p p o s i t i o n both to  without  attachment.  monkeys and mother  (Sears'  Lorenz'  the r e i n f o r c e m e n t  always  environment.  and p r i m a r y - n e e d - s a t i s f i e r views of  several  of  the "mouth l o v e " v e r s i o n of  (1935)  (psychoanalytic)  Social Learning  c l a s s i c a l works on  f o o d and H a r l o w ' s  theory)  imprinting  (1958) work w i t h r h e s u s  s u r r o g a t e s had a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d b a s e s f o r  questioning  7  these views. mother  is  Cairns'  (1966)  the r e i n f o r c e m e n t  these f i n d i n g s .  thesis that for  t h e mere p r e s e n c e of  attachment  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f  is  a l s o c o n t r a d i c t e d by  forming s e v e r a l i n i t i a l  ments i s w e l l d e m o n s t r a t e d i n s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h families.  M u l t i p l e a t t a c h m e n t s a r e f o u n d w i t h dogs  w i t h bonnet macaques where p o l y m a t r i c r e a r i n g i s 1971).  Schaffer  (1971)  the  found t h a t attachments  attach-  polymatric (Scott,  the r u l e  are l i k e l y  1958)  and  (Rosenblum, t o be  formed  to  several individuals right  from the b e g i n n i n g i n f a m i l i e s where  there  is  opportunity  of  is  evidence that priori  to  this  the b r e a d t h of  social interactions.  the attachment  e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e i r  d i f f e r e n c e d i d not their  questionable.  function  Thus, there cannot be s e t  be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n a t u r e of  S c h a f f e r and Emerson (1964)  b e shown l a t e r , is  a variety  one p e r s o n b u t w i l l  environment. cared for  for  mother  reach the  criterion  found a tendency f o r  t o be more " a t t a c h e d " .  .05 l e v e l of  for  attachment,  However,  d i s t r e s s at  study of  institutionalization  effects,  contains  relevant  on a t t a c h m e n t  information  Stevens looked at  polydependent.  A l t h o u g h moi&.akin t o  Stevens' study  (1971)  in non-nuclear  in  maternal  Indeed mothers i n t h e i r  can h a r d l y be g e n e r a l i z e d !  more  and m o t h e r s  r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e , saw p r e n a t a l  as c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s .  will  separation,  m a t r i c group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h o s t i l e , dominant a n d / o r  settings.  children  C a l d w e l l a n d H e r s h e r ( 1 9 6 4 ) who f o u n d s l i g h t l y  monomatric f a m i l i e s , j u s t  Such a f i n d i n g  social  s i g n i f i c a n c e and,as  c o m f o r t a b l e and i n v o l v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i n f a n t s  differences  the  a  the  nonetheless family  an e x t e n d e d p o l y m a t r i c s i t u a t i o n where e a c h  8  infant about  received mothering s i x p e r 24 h o u r s .  criteria  for  tachments.  attachment,  of  n e e d s was n o t  related  attachment  was n o l o n g e r  " h i s " nurse.  to  of  24 i n f a n t s  t h a n any o t h e r  charge of  and  Indeed p r i o r nurse,  Schaffer's  to  of p r i m a r y  other  nurses of  the baby most  the n u r s e ' s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to  of  this  the  in  However,  time.  that baby.  nurses  the baby;  attachment  N o t h i n g was . s a i d t o Stevens concluded that  attachments  factors  in  o c c u r and t h a t f e e d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n was  study of  the F o r m a t i o n of  fostering  one-year-olds  operation,  stress).  of  only  Attachment  infant-adult  attachment?  (1971)  companied by a " h e a l t h f u l "  of  the  provides  a c c e p t a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y  w i t h the mother  sen-  formation.  Which aspects then of responsible for  to  explain  specific  Pertinent  thus:  caused that nurse  and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o s o c i a l n e e d s c a u s e d t h e f o r m a t i o n  consequential to t h i s  as  the  sitivity  to  of  feed  c o u l d be summarized  a nurse caused attachment  the  visceral  that nurse did not  £ r u e o n c e s h e was r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e o t h e r events  at-  the occurrence  nurse i n the p a v i l l i o n .  sequence of  and  as s u b j e c t s b e f o r e  Gratification  a particular  The t e m p o r a l  r e c o g n i t i o n by the  nurses per week,  developed s p e c i f i c  became u n a v a i l a b l e  attachment.  toward  the r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of  be i n  12 o u t  t h e d a t a was c o m p l e t e d .  t h e b a b y more o f t e n this  13 d i f f e r e n t  According to both Ainsworth.'s  A b o u t 15 i n f a n t s  collection  specific  from about  attachment  as a s e c u r e b a s e ,  relationship  Ainsworth's  et  a good c l u e .  be  extensive  Accessibility,  to  the  child's  in  the  child  intensification  al.  will  s i g n a l s were  (i.e., of  in  ac-  exploration  attachment  However, i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y or  co-  in  times  sensitivity  9  to  the  child's  mothering of  produced i n  attachment  striking  the  This  child behaviors  to  the  proximity,  mothers  and d u r i n g v i s i t s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of b o t h the b a b i e s ' these s i t u a t i o n s  ploration  of  and A i n s w o r t h  children during frequency  in  at  of  of  display to  distress  the e i g h t  observations  e p i s o d e s of  An e x t e n s i v e behaviors  c o u l d be  during  established proximity-ex-  c o n d u c t e d a home o b s e r v a t i o n o f the f i r s t  c r y i n g and o f  and e f f i c i e n c y  of m a t e r n a l  as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f  year.  crying  and t h e  c r i e s d i d not  the  actions.  the d u r a t i o n  t h a t prompt r e s p o n d i n g to  extensive  o b s e r v e d and t h e  cries ignored,  l a c k of  or high  the homes.  t h e number o f  contrary,  after  during  the b a b y ' s  (1971)  each quarter  and d u r a t i o n  types  feelings  and t h e m o t h e r s '  the mothering  balance present  Bell  at  was made and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between the n a t u r e  from untimely  in a stressful situation  ambivalent  c a u s a l i n f e r e n c e was a r r i v e d  situation"  ranging  insensitive  mother.  23 o n e - y e a r - o l d s and t h e i r  "strange  and c o m p l e t e l y  or heightened e x p l o r a t i o n  avoidance of  when r e u n i t e d  of  signals, interference,  26  They a n a l y z e d clusters  the  in relation  to  of maternal unresponsiveness interventions.  strengthen  They  the  crying  found response,  the S o c i a l L e a r n i n g theory;  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s seemed t o  i n c r e a s e the  on  frequency  the  of  crying. It  appears that the  development to  of  attachment:  following the  variables  sensitivity  t h e b a b y ' s s i g n a l s o f need and d i s t r e s s  promptness  and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  of h i s  of  are c r i t i c a l the adult  and t o h i s  in  for  the  responding  s o c i a l needs;  r e s p o n s e ; t h e t o t a l amount  the of  10  infant-adult the  adult;  come a t  interaction the extent  as w e l l as t h a t s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n i t i a t e d  to which the a d u l t ' s  the b a b y ' s t i m i n g  rather  p l e a s u r e both d e r i v e from t h e i r last  interventions  than the a d u l t ' s ; interaction.  v a r i a b l e s h o u l d n o t be m i n i m i z e d .  by  and r e s p o n s e s  and t h e amount  The i m p o r t a n c e of  D a v i d and A p p e l l  of  this  (1969) o b s e r v e d  that mutual p l e a s u r e creates mutual responsiveness l e a d i n g to a " r e s onance phenomenon" ( i . e . , Hence, importance; findings quality  in itself  present will  qualitative in  the q u a l i t y  tion anxiety  of  the  in infant  differences  of  paramount  the  equivocal  the e f f e c t s  separa-  of boys tend to  babies, exemplifies well  the  may a c c o u n t  g i r l s , who f o r  and t h e n a t u r e  of  Thus  c r y i n g , everyday  That mothers  b a b i e s more t h a n m o t h e r s o f  e x i s t i n g between sex d i f f e r e n c e s  d e a l of  relationship  i n t h e amount o f  their  seen to be of  and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s .  i n the m o t h e r - i n f a n t  l o o k and v o c a l i z e more a t  going).  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  in individual  or greeting responses.  (Lextfis and B a n ,  is  e x p l a i n a great  research.  for variations  and t o u c h t h e i r  Validity  interaction  quality w i l l  be r e f l e c t e d  large part  keeping the i n t e r a c t i o n  their  the  rock part  relation  of.the  interaction  S t r a n g e r s and S e p a r a t i o n A n x i e t y  as C r i t e r i a  1971; L e w i s , 1972).  .'Fear of  for  Attachment The " u n i q u e n e s s " o r " m o n o t r o p y " lower i n  of  importance i n the a d u l t - i n f a n t  originally, formulated. q u e s t i o n i n g the  the a d u l t  f i g u r e may  relationship  rate  t h a n w h a t was  Several developmental^psychologists  are  c o n c e p t o f mono&Dpy and a r e s e e k i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n  d o i n g so i n d a t a o b t a i n e d from c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n p o l y m a t r i c  for  families.  11  C o l l e c t i o n of t h i s type of d a t a i s r e l a t i v e l y new  and  cannot but  alter  the p r e s e n t v i e w of attachment. Amongst the f i r s t changes t h a t may  be expected are a d i f f e r e n t  view of f e a r of s t r a n g e r s and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y .  F e a r of  strangers  has been c o n s i d e r e d by some as a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n f o r attachment i n the sense t h a t i f a baby d i s p l a y s f e a r of a s t r a n g e f i g u r e he i s a t t a c h e d t o a f a m i l i a r one.  But Moss e t a l . , (1969) found t h a t g r e a t e r or l e s s e r  s t i m u l a t i o n of d i s t a n c e r e c e p t o r s at t h r e e months i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the amount of f e a r of s t r a n g e r s d i s p l a y e d at e i g h t and n i n e months. S i n c e g r e a t e r s t i m u l a t i o n seems t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s f e a r , the s t i m u l a t i o n o f f e r e d by some p o l y m a t r i c s e t t i n g s may w i t h o u t weakening attachment.  Brody and A x e l r a d  discourage  fear  (1971) a l s o found a  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between degree of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n by mother and the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s Rheingold  of the i n f a n t a t s i x months.  and Eckerman (1971) found t h a t few of t h e i r s u b j e c t s responded  w i t h c r i e s t o the presence of s t r a n g e r s and strangers  the  i s a poor c r i t e r i o n of attachment.  concluded t h a t f e a r of Moreover, R e b e l s k i  (pre-  p u b l i c a t i o n d r a f t ) found t h a t a t t h r e e and a h a l f months i n f a n t s were more r e s p o n s i v e  and  cooed more t o a s t r a n g e r  and n o v e l o b j e c t i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ) . S c h a f f e r ' s sample (1966) f a i l e d a t any t o e v i d e n c e any s i g n of f e a r .  (who would be an i n t e r e s t i n g  I n a d d i t i o n , 30 t o 50%  given point i n h i s followup  When a d i s t i n c t i o n was  f e r e n t i a t i o n between the mother and the s t r a n g e r concentration, reserved  of study  made between d i f -  (i.e., intent visual  f r i e n d l i n e s s , d e l i b e r a t e i g n o r a n c e ) and  anxiety  responses to s t r a n g e r s , Yarrow (1967) a l s o found t h a t a good many i n f a n t s  12  n e v e r gave c l e a r - c u t and A x e l r a d "fearful" anxiety  foundtthat  at s i x months;  and a t one y e a r ,  always occur.  Hunt,  s t r a n g e r s does n o t  that "multiple  mothering  s o c i a l shyness or f e a r . " criteria  behavior child  is  f o o l i s h , but  (Stevens,  1971)  a s t u d y of  of  the f o l l o w i n g  has o f t e n been  as w e l l as what  figure;  of  of  in  and q u a l i t y  called,  asserts  that  raised infants  so  against  techniques are used of  s t r a n g e r s may  (i.e.,  anxious r e a c t i o n ' t o a mature n a t u r e "  an e f f o r t by stranger)  it  is  a "normal maturational A better  he i s  the  understanding  a l l his  alone or w i t h a  and t h e  (1971);  infant's  external stimulation;  t h e p r e s e n c e of: t h e s t r a n g e r ;  of  accompanied by  t h e b a b y h a s t o meet a s t r a n g e r of  children  milestone"  l i s t e d b y B r o d y and A x e l r a d  as i f  the  (Brody and A x e l r a d ,  s t r a n g e r s would be o b t a i n e d i f factors  fearful  which  s t r a n g e r s i s never observed i n young  s e e n as w e l l  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  the q u a n t i t y behavior  is  (1966),  show t h a t f e a r  e n d o w m e n t ; m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s ;  when t h e s t r a n g e r  showed n o s u c h  as an i n n o c u l a t i o n  seems t o b e e q u a l l y f o o l i s h . fear  stranger  E m p h a s i s t h e n s h o u l d n o t b e s o much o n  a normally  fear  still  and  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u c h as what  to say t h a t  the occurrence of  drive  acts therefore  ego f u n c t i o n i n g  To s a y t h a t  Brody  122 showed n o  occur i n p o l y m a t r i c a l l y  event.  through  denotes " e a r l y 1971).  as i t  as on " b e n i g n o r c u s t o m s " i n s p e c t i o n  to work  of  q u o t e d by S c h a f f e r  and d e s c r i b e f e a r f u l b e h a v i o r ,  not be a n o r m a t i v e  out  85 i n f a n t s  anxiety,"  are used to d e f i n e f e a r  to e l i c i t  A l o n g t h e same l i n e ,  between " b e n i g n i n s p e c t i o n "  82 i n f a n t s  Thus t h e " e i g h t - m o n t h  does n o t  anxiety.  ( 1 9 7 1 ) who d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  behavior,  anxiety.  f e a r of  evidence of  l e n g t h of  state familiar  as w e l l the  as  mother's  time  13  necessary for  t h e c h i l d t o r e c o v e r f r o m t h e s t r a n g e r ' s p r e s e n c e as  as t h e d u r a b i l i t y of  strangers  Is  this  of  this  recovery.  Fearful behavior in  c a n b e t a k e n as a r e f l e c t i o n  also true for  separation  of  the presence  infant-adult  relationships.  anxiety?  S e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y has a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d a " m i l e s t o n e " i n tachment b e h a v i o r .  However, A i n s w o r t h et  27 w e e k s o n l y 18% o f and t h a t Tulkin  her subjects  a t n o age d i d  (1971)  al.  t h e mean o c c u r r e n c e o f  left  the room.  the f i r s t  Bell  response of learning,  the  statement  r e t u r n except perhaps to  test  for  the other  terms of in  his  for  all  s i d e of  that  the f o u r t h q u a r t e r attachment  may b e  less  short-term  coin"  (1972)  separation.  is It  the  of  attachments  b e e r r o n e o u s i n many i n s t a n c e s .  If  to  to  found t h a t about  Hence, Bowlby's  far  statement attach-  from being t r u e ,  follows  that  a particular  separation anxiety  half  the  at  Schaffer's  1971, whereby s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y p r o v i d e s a c r i t e r i o n  the f o r m a t i o n  of  subject  the " i n e s c a p a b l e c o r o l l a r y of  the  of  However, here a g a i n ,  look at h e r .  is  room  60 s u b j e c t s  t h e " a v e r a g e " b a b y r e s p o n d s i n n o s i g n i f i c a n t way t o  ment b e h a v i o r , in  al.  at  phenomenon,"  return which i s  s i n c e Ainsworth et  i n 1960 t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y  least  even i n  the study of  c h i l d on the m o t h e r ' s  i n order  time  mother's  to  the  T h i s shows c l e a r l y  a c c o r d i n g t o L e w i s and Ban ( 1 9 7 1 ) .  caution is of  the  More r e l e v a n t  left  at-  c r y i n g e x c e e d e d 28%.  an u b i q u i t o u s  and S t a y t o n , 1972) n o t  year.  mother  No c r y i n g was r e p o r t e d  i n everyday s e p a r a t i o n i s not  (Ainsworth,  observed that  O n l y 40% o f  the s e v e n s u b j e c t s whose mothers h e l d j o b s . "anxiety  (1972)  c r i e d when t h e i r  observed 10-month o l d g i r l s .  c r i e d when t h e m o t h e r  well  individual does  not  to  would  14  represent its  a f o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e , how s h o u l d i t s  o c c u r r e n c e and  absence be c o n s i d e r e d ? T e n n e s and L a m p l ( 1 9 6 6 )  only p o s i t i v e l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s  vational reports) inhibition  of  but  a g g r e s s i o n , so that  separation anxiety  t i o n of  libido  a l s o w i t h the mother's  mothers had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  maturational  f o u n d t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y was  higher  c h i l d r e n w i t h moderately  can be p r e d i c t e d  to  landmark i n attachment,  Ainsworth et  al.  (1971)  a disharmonious or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Must a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of be f o l l o w e d by an e s t i m a t e of q u a l i t y  does not  occur not because i t  example of  of  sees s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y  can be s e e n i n  If  proximity-seeking  of  the s t r e n g t h  of  infant-adult  the strength  of  attachment?  can vary  attachment,  concluded that "the  Attachment  him.  as w i t n e s s i n g  situationally  pair.  interaction An e v a l u a t i o n  strength. or  This  al.  is  could be  individuals.  the s t u d y by A i n s w o r t h e t  babies displaying insecurity unsatisfactory  qualitative  An  (1971).  attached. of  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e the n o t i o n of  attachment  and m a l -  relationship with  flavor  Behavior in Non-nuclear Family  The n o t i o n o f  inhibi-  the m o t h e r - c h i l d  of  mother w o u l d h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d as s t r o n g l y  overrides  a  and c o n t a c t m a i n t a i n i n g b e h a v i o r s had b e e n measures  adaptive b e h a v i o r s because of  tionship  in  e v a l u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways by d i f f e r e n t  this  is  toward  quality  attachment  that  b u t b e c a u s e of t h e m o t h e r ' s  relationship  mother's  hostile  T h i s means  n e c e s s a r i l y mean a n e v a l u a t i o n o f  so b e c a u s e s t r e n g t h subjectively  of  the  obser-  and w i t h t h e  t h e c h i l d ' s a g g r e s s i o n and t h e m o t h e r ' s h o s t i l i t y  Similarly,  authors  (measured by  libido  anxiety scores.  not  Thus,  the these  the attachment strength  of  rela-  attachment."  Situations  is evolving.  In  t o o many i n s t a n c e s  the  15  o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of attachment f a l l s s h o r t and cannot account f o r the o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s .  T h i s i s so i n p a r t because the d e s c r i p t i o n  r e f e r r e d o n l y t o n u c l e a r f a m i l y l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , so t h a t f a m i l i e s t h a t d i d not meet t h a t requirement samples.  I n 1964,  were d i s c a r d e d from  experimental  Bowlby urged t h a t " s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n of a t t a c h -  ment b e h a v i o r i n c h i l d r e n brought up i n o r d i n a r y homes" be done as w e l l as on "those brought up i n a t y p i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . " p l e a about o r d i n a r y homes was homes.  Unfortunately, his  heard more than the .one about a t y p i c a l  But even from t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h s e v e r a l w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f s  about attachment a r e not supported  —  f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t f e a r of s t r a n g e r s  and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y are r e a s o n a b l e measures of attachment. more, i t may  Further-  be p o s s i b l e t h a t " a t y p i c a l " homes are the r u l e r a t h e r than  the e x c e p t i o n .  Hence t h e r e i s a r e a l need t o study what happens to a t -  tachment b e h a v i o r i n f a m i l i e s where t h e r e i s more than one c a r e g i v e r . Such a f a m i l y i s d e s c r i b e d h e r e by the term n o n - n u c l e a r . an i n f r e q u e n t s i t u a t i o n today, nor i s i t a new d i t i o n a l f i g u r e s i n Europe.  one.  This i s n e i t h e r  Nannies a r e  tra-  I n c e r t a i n I n d i a n and B l a c k c u l t u r e s , c a r e -  t a k i n g of a young one has been and s t i l l i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s e v e r a l individuals.  Lusk and Lewis (1971) found a s u p e r i o r i t y over the  age l e v e l o f 1 1/4  expected  month on the B a y l e y m e n t a l i n d e x s c o r e s and o f an  average o f two months on motor s c o r e s f o r 10 Senegalese i n f a n t s who  had  i n general three caretakers. I n our s o c i e t y mothers are i n c r e a s i n g l y j o i n i n g the work f o r c e . C h i l d r e n of w o r k i n g mothers u s u a l l y have more than one or c a r e g i v e r .  mother-figure  A concept of attachment based on a s t r i c t  mother-infant  16  d y a d may n o t  be a p p r o p r i a t e  b e n e c e s s a r y and i f  for  these s i t u a t i o n s .  s o , i n what ways?  term s e p a r a t i o n r e p o r t e d by T u l k i n w o r k i n g m o t h e r s may r e a c t working  than i n  f i n d i n g was n o t  children entirely  anxious attachment  mothers  in  at  short-  that babies  of  non-  of widowhood, patterns  t a s k of  the  former  situation.  This p l u r a l i t y  which could greatly Does t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  influence of  children.  If  not,  in  The  apply  is  caregivers  to  of  childrearing The  a need f o r in  status  other  a non-nuclear  creates  a  situation  the attachment  function.  c h i l d r e n r a i s e d by  n e e d t o b e made?  expected to be c l a r i f i e d  c h i l d r e n r a i s e d by s i n g l e  present  because  behavior developed through  what m o d i f i c a t i o n s  the questions  signs  Be i t  i s known.  resulting  the b r e a d t h of  children in nuclear families  mothers?  thus of  attachment  group.  o f w e d l o c k , new  u s u a l l y means t h e r e  the young c h i l d r e n ,  centers  An i n c r e a s i n g number  raising  which  and y o u n g c h i l d r e n who  are b e i n g c r e a t e d about w h i c h l i t t l e  caregivers for  study  She a l s o o b s e r v e d  infants  caregivers.  d i v o r c e , or b i r t h out  of b e i n g a s i n g l e mother  behavior  in  behavior i n  are f a c i n g alone the  (1973)  c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n day c a r e  r a i s e d a t home.  a l s o e x p e r i e n c e two p r i m a r y  few of  indicates  reproduced i n B l e h a r ' s  and d e t a c h m e n t  study examined attachment  of  (1971)  cries  i n d i f f e r e n t ways f r o m b a b i e s o f  showed more c r y i n g b e h a v i o r  family  The a b s e n c e o f  modifications  mothers.  This  of  Will  studies  single  These are a  by s t u d y i n g  attachment  mothers.  Experiment In  the  city  of  V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , s e v e r a l g r o u p homes f o r  single  17  m o t h e r s h a v e b e e n s e t up u n d e r who t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s usually  t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e YWCA.  organization  a r e g e n e r a l l y young and  come t o a g r o u p home w i t h t h e i r  child  after  measures as l e a v i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h g r a n d p a r e n t s A few o f t h e s e mothers  are newly  g r o u p homes a r e s t r u c t u r e d school during  the day w h i l e  c h i l d r e n i n the house.  This caretaker  particular  or i n a foster  and d u r i n g weekends t h e  children.  situation  departs  from the n u c l e a r  situation  primary  c a r e g i v e r s and t h e y o u n g age o f t h e m o t h e r ,  to  i n more w a y s t h a n o n e , i . e . , a b s e n t f a t h e r s ,  provided  a unique opportunity  c h i l d r e n who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d d a i l y  givers  from a very e a r l y  made i t  possible to look  mothers.  However,  as t o p r o v i d e  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  i n terms  of  interaction  This p a r t i c u l a r  w i t h two c a r e -  family  the observation sessions w i l l f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f young  Some s t u d i e s  i n w h i c h most e x t r a n e o u s  behaviors  situation of young  also single  fashion.  be reported so mothers.  a r e measured v a r i e s  are conducted i n experimental stimuli  two  accessibility  was n o t done i n a n y s y s t e m a t i c  i n which attachment  family  i t was s e l e c t e d  at the c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s  some i n s i g h t  The e n v i r o n m e n t  tories  age.  the l a t t e r  O n l y r e m a r k s made d u r i n g  The  c a n go t o w o r k o r t o  rearing  because i t  husbands.  home.  i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e house on a  At night  are responsible for their  While t h i s  the mothers  temporary  a c a r e t a k e r i s i n charge of a l l the  more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t b a s i s . mothers  such  separated from t h e i r  so that  Mothers  can be c o n t r o l l e d .  labora-  Such a  s e t t i n g was u s e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b y C o x a n d C a m p b e l l (1968), A i n s w o r t h and W i t t i g  (1969),Fleener a n d C a i r n s  (1970), B a n a n d L e w i s  18  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , B r o d y and A x e l r a d  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , R h e i n g o l d and E c k e r m a n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a n d  C o a t e s , A n d e r s o n and H a r t u p was u s e d b y Y a r r o w Ainsworth, a few,  of  Bell  B e l l and S t a y t o n  in their  control  (1967),  (1972 a and b ) .  A more n a t u r a l  and A i n s w o r t h  (1972),  and L e w i s  home o b s e r v a t i o n s o f  (1971), Bronson (1972),  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  procedure.  In  outside  their  study  that  it  was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t  could result  usual surroundings while  the complete freedom of  a strictly  at  from seeing the  naturalistic  child's (1971) of  at  circumstances  could  comparability  t h e same - t i m e , g e t  a s much a s p o s s i b l e o f  " t y p i c a l " everyday r e a c t i o n s .  T h i s a l s o a v o i d e d , as  has c a u t i o n e d , the n e c e s s i t y to r e s t r i c t  the r e s u l t s because of  perimental situation g r o w s and i s  child's  t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of t h e e v e n t s t a k i n g  was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n some d e g r e e o f  s i t u a t i o n s , but  avoid  Thus, a  i n which the  when E was p r e s e n t and of t h e t o y s w i t h w h i c h t h e c h i l d Thus, i t  to  allowing  situation.  b e h a v i o r was a l l o w e d t o v a r y b u t w h e r e some e x t e r n a l through  each  children  t h e same t i m e n o t  c o m p r o m i s e was a c h i e v e d b y s e t t i n g up a s i t u a t i o n  were c o n t r o l l e d  t o o b t a i n some  between the b e h a v i o r s observed d u r i n g  the present  the p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n  little  Both types of p r o c e d u r e were  used by A i n s w o r t h , B e l l and S t a y t o n i n 1971 i n an e f f o r t i d e a of  (1971),  t o name o n l y  young c h i l d r e n where  t h e s i t u a t i o n was a t t e m p t e d .  setting  too great  and t h e n a t u r a l  the  play. across the Lytton  generalization  a d i s c r e p a n c y between the conditions  place  i n which the  exchild  socialized.  The p r e s e n t  r e s e a r c h compares a t t a c h m e n t  c h i l d r e n when d i r e c t e d  toward  their  mother  behavior in  young  and when d i r e c t e d  toward  19  their  regular  caretaker.  homes i n a s i m p l i f i e d  The c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d i n  "strange situation"  P o s s i b l e sex d i f f e r e n c e s of  their  own  as d e v i s e d by A i n s w o r t h .  i n the q u a n t i t a t i v e  and q u a l i t a t i v e  the b e h a v i o r s m e d i a t i n g attachment were a l s o  nature  investigated.  METHOD Subjects Nine child-mother four  different  and c h i l d - c a r e t a k e r p a i r s w e r e - s t u d i e d  group homes.  The mean a g e o f  w i t h ages r a n g i n g from 5 t o 1 4 . 8 m o n t h s and t h a t o f  27 m o n t h s .  the g i r l s  15.2 months.  A l l Ss h a d b e e n i n t h e  t h r e e months p r i o r  testing  for  to  t h e same l e n g t h o f  time.  t h e S>s was 1 5 . 5 m o n t h s  T h e mean a g e o f  g i r l s were o b s e r v e d .  y e a r s , w i t h a g e s r a n g i n g f r o m 18 t o  33 y e a r s  t h e b o y s was  F i v e b o y s and  g r o u p home f o r  a n d h a d known t h e i r T h e mean age o f  in  present  four  at  least  caretaker  t h e m o t h e r s was 2 1 . 3 old.  Apparatus T e s t i n g was d o n e i n one o f r o o m was s e l e c t e d f o r for  its  the f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n  t h e rooms o f  familiarity  episode of  room c o u l d n o t b e u s e d f o r  all  the  to  the  feeding.  t h e g r o u p home. c h i l d and i t s T h i s meant  suitability  that  c h i l d r e n i n one h o u s e .  The  t h e same  T h i s was  so b e c a u s e e a c h g r o u p home was d i v i d e d s o a s t o p r o v i d e maximum p r i v a c y for  each mother.  s h a r e d b y two o f two l i v i n g  In  two g r o u p homes a k i t c h e n and a l i v i n g  the f o u r mothers,  rooms i n e a c h o f  thus  h o u s e , and i n  t h e r e w e r e two k i t c h e n s  t h e s e two h o u s e s .  t h e r e was o n e l a r g e k i t c h e n and l i v i n g  room w e r e  room f o r  In  the  all  and  t h i r d g r o u p home  the mothers  in  the  t h e f o u r t h h o u s e e a c h m o t h e r h a d h e r own k i t c h e n and s h a r e d  20  only  the l i v i n g  room.  each m o t h e r - c h i l d the m o t h e r ' s 10 m i n u t e s mothers  R a r e l y was t h e r e  pair  u s u a l l y ate at d i f f e r e n t  timetable.  of  Because of  feeding time),  a different  name " m o t h e r "  terminology to  Thus, to  obviously refers  i s used i n  or to b o t h .  to  the  their  Three p l a s t i c a ball,  toys  as a s e c u r e b a s e .  and t h e i r  of  one  for  to  The name the day.  The o p e r a t o r  of  the  the mother or  in a crib.  These toys  convenience  of  for  The t o y s w e r e p l a c e d a t chair in a part  of  provide  children  caregiver. equipin  T h i s was d o n e s o t h a t S_ w o u l d n o t immediate p r e s e n c e of  about  three  the  the jSs'  e x p l o r a t i o n when t h e  c a m e r a a n d E_ s t a y e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r  s c a r e d away f r o m t h e -toys b y t h e  the  c o l o r s were used  However, a c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n  toys.  The  and t h e name  s e s s i o n s were r e c o r d e d by p o r t a b l e v i d e o t a p e  r o o m a n d away f r o m t h e  giver's  the  "own"  Toys were u s e d so as t o  c l o s e p h y s i c a l contact w i t h the  The t e s t i n g  E_.  (i.e.,  exploratory behavior while using  own t o y s was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a n i n d e x o f stay in  report.  of b r i g h t  a c a r and a d o l l  sessions.  a clear operational definition  of  episode  a S in his  c h i l d ' s mother,  attractiveness  w a s h i n g them b e t w e e n t e s t i n g  ment.  this  i s used i n a g e n e r i c sense to r e f e r  were s e l e c t e d f o r  did not  test  t h e YWCA e m p l o y e e who came d u r i n g  as e x p e r i m e n t a l t o y s :  caregiver  to  child.  "caretaker" refers  caretaker  the f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n  i n some g r o u p h o m e s , s e l e c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t  The f o l l o w i n g  "caregiver"  times according  t h e k i t c h e n was g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t e d b y  as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room.  kitchen implied,  a common m e a l i n t h e s e h o m e s ;  to four  feet  t h e r o o m w h e r e t h e l i g h t was  the  the be  camera or  from the  care-  appropriate  21  for  filming.  Design F i v e of the mothers. their  Four of  Ss,  t h r e e b o y s and  t h e Ss,  caretakers.  groups.  b o y s and  two  two  T i m e o f day  for testing  testing sessions with  took p l a c e  g i r l s , were seen f i r s t  c o u l d n o t be  a t a r o u n d 9:30  the  t h e day  caretakers  a.m.  (i.e.,  s e s s i o n s w i t h the mothers were scheduled  girls  in  of the  counterbalanced  or i n school.  took place  snack time). a t s i x p.m.  since  Seven of  at noon,  and  F i v e of the  and  their  with  to e i t h e r order  a b o u t t h e same number o f b o y s and  most of t h e moMiers were a t work d u r i n g the n i n e  g i r l s , were seen f i r s t w i t h  C h i l d r e n were randomly assigned  t e s t i n g while keeping two  two  two  nine  f o u r at noon.  Procedure Two with At the  weeks b e f o r e  the approval  t h e same t i m e , caretakers.  the  T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y m e e t i n g was the  caregivers I n t h r e e of  c h i l d r e n were a s l e e p .  I n one  to put  arranged  the houses t h i s  house, the  the  to t e s t i n g .  behavior in  fact  the  c a r e t a k e r s ) were t o l d  t h a t E_ was Since  s m a l l d a y c a r e c e n t e r s , t h e y had  t h e economy i n t i m e and  effort  they  the  t h i s m e e t i n g , the  of c h i l d r e n i n daycare c e n t e r s . like  see  afforded  these  with  t h a t E_ c o u l d  c o u l d be  c h i l d r e n saw  I n none of the houses d i d they During  so  them a t e a s e and  actual testing.  t h e m o t h e r s and  'phone  a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e made b o t h w i t h t h e m o t h e r s and  instructions.  camera p r i o r  by  o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e g r o u p homes f r o m t h e YWCA.  s p e n d some t i m e w i t h them t h e  t e s t i n g , t h e mothers were c o n t a c t e d  to  give  d o n e when  E_ b e f o r e  operator  of  caregivers  interested  the  in  (i.e., the  g r o u p homes w e r e  been s e l e c t e d because to observe the  of  children.  22  It  was s t r e s s e d t h a t  the  of  observations.  that point,  the  At  c h i l d r e n and n o t  e x p e r i m e n t a l room f o r  preliminary  visit.  D e s c r i p t i o n s of  were a l s o read to  the  T h i s was r e p e a t e d a t t h e  while  eating his  E_ a n d o f  the  the f a m i l i a r  familiarization  lunch or supper.  the  experimental  caregivers during  time of  The p r o c e d u r e c o m p r i s e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t were p r e c e d e d by a time of  testing.  episodes.  These episodes  d u r i n g w h i c h S^ was  Thus, the  impact of  filmed  the presence of  a c t i o n of  eating.  F i l m i n g l a s t e d from three  of  the meal.  to  five  F o r two S s , t h i s was  m o d i f i e d so t h a t  t h e y w e r e f i l m e d when e a t i n g a s n a c k w i t h a l l  c h i l d r e n and t h e  caretaker.  Experimental testing  c h i l d r e n went d o w n s t a i r s  taker.  One c h i l d  mother  ( s h e was i n  started  the o r d e r of  t e s t i n g where the  caretaker  this  i n the  events taking place during  z a t i o n p e r i o d , the b e h a v i o r s of  When t h e started. (i.e.,  t h e j5s o r o f  the caregiver i s present)  b e g a n when t h e  the  c h i l d f i n i s h e d e a t i n g , E p i s o d e I,  the  the  other  is  careher  first)  Because  this  of  familiari-  c a r e g i v e r s were  not  period.  Attachment b e h a v i o r s of  Episode I I I ,  slightly  e a t i n g when t e s t e d w i t h  h e r s u p p e r l o n g b e f o r e E's a r r i v a l .  coded d u r i n g t h a t  minutes  t o p l a y a n d w h e n S^ was a l o n e w i t h t h e  c o u l d n o t be f i l m e d w h i l e  uniformity  of  o n l y when the.  s i n c e she had asked f o r l a c k of  this  c a m e r a c o u l d b e somewhat m i n i m i z e d b y t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  d e p e n d i n g upon the r a p i d i t y  other  focus  one r o o m i n t h e h o u s e was s e l e c t e d a s  each c h i l d .  p r o c e d u r e and i n s t r u c t i o n s  t h e ' c a r e g i v e r s were the  the  child when-stress i s  were r e c o r d e d f o r  S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e , l a s t e d about  caregiver l e f t  the Free P l a y e p i s o d e ,  the room.  minimum  about f i v e  minutes.  three minutes  T h i s e p i s o d e was  and  shortened  23  if  S_ c r i e d v e r y  room.  hard or i n s i s t e d  on f o l l o w i n g t h e c a r e g i v e r  Responses t o t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s departure  r e s p o n s e s t o h e r r e t u r n were coded d u r i n g episode,  f o r a b o u t two m i n u t e s .  strangers  their arrival The g i s t  of the i n s t r u c t i o n s read  had  finished eating.  Episode I I I , the Reunion r e s p o n s e t o t h e two  time. t o t h e c a r e g i v e r s was a s f o l l o w s .  o n t h e f l o o r n e a r h e r c h a i r when h e  She was a l s o t o l d  f r e e t o move a s h e w i s h e d .  while  o f t h e c a m e r a , was c o d e d u p o n  i n t h e house f o r the f i r s t  She was d i r e c t e d t o p u t t h e c h i l d  were coded t h e n ,  The S/s i n i t i a l  as a U n i t , E and t h e o p e r a t o r  out of the  t o remain seated  a n d t o l e a v e S^  F o r t h e f o u r S s who w e r e n o t y e t a b l e t o  w a l k , t h e c a r e g i v e r was a s k e d t o p l a c e  them d i r e c t l y n e a r t h e t o y s .  One S_ who h a d j u s t l e a r n e d how t o w a l k was a l s o p u t n e a r t h e t o y s . one p o i n t  during  t h e s e f i v e m i n u t e s , t h e c a r e g i v e r was a s k e d t o w a l k  a r o u n d t h e room as i f l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g . to take and  the c h i l d  At  i n h e r arms f o r a s h o r t  S i m i l a r l y , s h e was  time.  asked  To p u t t h e c a r e g i v e r  t h e Ss a t e a s e , E t a l k e d t o them w h e n e v e r i t seemed c a l l e d f o r .  D u r i n g E p i s o d e I I , t h e c a r e g i v e r was a s k e d t o go w e l l o u t o f s i g h t . S i n c e m o s t o f t h e rooms d i d n o t h a v e d o o r s ; a d o o r c o u l d b e c l o s e d f o r o n l y f i v e o f t h e 18 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . come b a c k i n t h e r o o m b e f o r e  The E i n s i s t e d  that  the caregiver  t h e t h r e e m i n u t e s w e r e up i f t h e S_ c r i e d  o r i f h e f o l l o w e d h e r o u t o f t h e r o o m e v e n t h o u g h _E t r i e d him  o r t o p l a y w i t h him.  could  With respect  to talk to  t o the Reunion episode, the  c a r e g i v e r was i n s t r u c t e d t o come b a c k i n t o t h e room a n d t o go b a c k t o her  c h a i r , leaving the i n i t i a t i v e  the  child  sought t o be p i c k e d  to start  i n t e r a c t i o n t o S_, i . e . , i f  u p , t h e c a r e g i v e r w o u l d do s o b u t i f t h e  24  c h i l d went  on p l a y i n g ,  the  c a r e g i v e r would s i t  down w i t h o u t  inter-  fering. The o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d u s i n g a c h e c k l i s t the  o c c u r r e n c e of  divided  i n t o 30-second i n t e r v a l s ;  and E p i s o d e I I I ment, all  the  testing  to  into  Csee A p p e n d i x I ) .  Episode II  10-second i n t e r v a l s .  Ss  1  behaviors.  session i t s e l f  and t o b o t h  talk  vior  and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y ,  i n attachment.  Since  b e h a v i o r of both results  reflect  the  shown i n  the presence of child  and t h e  interaction  in  communication,  exploration  beha-  the  to be  literature  caregiver,  it  and t h e  Two o r  the  was a s s u m e d t h a t  an o b s e r v e r .  prominent  w o u l d be as c l o s e t o n o r m a l as p o s s i b l e .  the  important  a t h i r d p e r s o n may a f f e c t  child's  made d u r i n g  The i.e.,  as a s u b j e c t  films  the  behavior,  the presence of  the mothers  situation.  attachment  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  t e s t i n g was c o m p l e t e d ,  coming t o v i s i t  test  hoped t h a t by d e e m p h a s i z i n g i n and s t r e s s i n g t h e  the  order  the  to  list  T h i s was d o n e i n  of  c e n t e r e d upon s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of and d i s t a l  to  care-  a guest  checklist  proximal  equip-  the  of  and l e s s e n t h e u n f a m i l i a r i t y  anxiety,  intervals  as r e q u i r e d  f o r c e d .to t a l k  caregiver  stranger  was  h a v e b e e n done d u r i n g  and p l a y w i t h t h e S s .  assume a s much a s p o s s i b l e t h e r o l e  Episode I  Through the v i d e o t a p e  This could not  s i n c e E_ was o f t e n  record  i n t o 20-second  e a c h e p i s o d e c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d a s many t i m e s  of  giver  certain behaviors  to  the  It  caregiver's  position,  the  was status  behaviors  t h r e e weeks  after  c a r e t a k e r s w e r e shown  the  study. RESULTS  The r e l i a b i l i t y  of  t h e d a t a was c h e c k e d b y h a v i n g _E a n d one  other  25  o b s e r v e r s c o r e f o u r of the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . of the c h i l d r e n w i t h 87% agreement.  They coded  the b e h a v i o r s  T h i s l e v e l of agreement was  consid-  ered to be h i g h enough f o r E_ to do the remaining coding a l o n e . A comparison  between attachment  b e h a v i o r s when d i r e c t e d  toward  the mother and the c a r e t a k e r showed m a i n l y more s m i l i n g addressed the mother d u r i n g the F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e . f o l l o w the c a r e t a k e r w a l k i n g around  The ^ s  tended  to  to v i s u a l l y  the room as w e l l as l e a v i n g  the  room, w h i l e more Ss p h y s i c a l l y f o l l o w e d the mother out of the room. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s showed t h a t more g i r l s kept p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h caregiver.  the  Other sex d i f f e r e n c e s were o r i e n t e d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s  a c c o r d i n g to the i d e n t i t y of the c a r e g i v e r : the mothers, more g i r l s  when t e s t i n g was  than boys d e p a r t e d from the room and  done w i t h lifted  t h e i r arms t o be p i c k e d up; when the c h i l d r e n were seen w i t h the c a r e t a k e r , more boys than g i r l s d i d so. visually  S i m i l a r l y , more g i r l s  than boys  f o l l o w e d the c a r e t a k e r going out o f the room, p l a y e d i n her  absence and p a r t i a l l y approacher  h e r , w h i l e more boys than g i r l s  h i b i t e d these b e h a v i o r s w i t h the mother. sponsiveness to s t r a n g e r s and m i l d e s t form of  Four Ss showed p o s i t i v e r e -  the remaining f i v e Ss evidenced o n l y the  apprehension.  A frequency count was of Episode I.  ex-  compiled  f o r the f i r s t  W i t h i n Ss and between ^3s d i v e r s i t y  seven  time  intervals  i n the d u r a t i o n of the  o t h e r episodes due e i t h e r t o a c h i l d going out of the room or to the c a r e g i v e r ' s e a r l y r e t u r n d e s p i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s , made i t n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d o n l y the presence  or absence of the l i s t e d b e h a v i o r s .  quency of the f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o r s was  obtained:  The  to fre-  toufih, t a l k , l o o k ,  26  s m i l e to both  c a r e g i v e r s and t a l k ,  The o c c u r r e n c e o f  the other  items  look,  s m i l e t o E and t o  the camera.  o n t h e b e h a v i o r c h e c k l i s t was  re-  corded by a " y e s " or " n o " s y s t e m . T a b l e s 1 (A) seven time  and 1 (B)  intervals.  report  The g r e a t e s t  b e h a v i o r w i t h more j3s s m i l i n g t o Ordered according to behaviors  listed  was p r e s e n t ,  difference  the mother  frequency magnitude  above p o r t r a y e d  m o t h e r was p r e s e n t :  the frequency  than to  and r e g a r d l e s s o f  the f o l l o w i n g  than f o r  the  touching differed  more t o  the  all  although  Ss.  to be l o o k > s m i l e > t a l k  sexes.  frequent,  they  look > talk  Males touched  females. c o u l d be > touch  L o o k i n g a t E_ and  the  c a r e t a k e r and by  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h E_ f o r  show t h e s e q u e n c e o f  behaviors  and l o o k >  talk  present.  t h e number a s w e l l  presenting certain behaviors.  Thus,  times.  t o E_ w i t h t h e m o t h e r p r e s e n t  > s m i l e t o E_ w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r Table 3 reports  caretaker  whereas females  females.  f a v o r i t e way o f  and T a b l e 2 (B)  the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n was  d o n e when S_ was w i t h h i s  t h i s was t h e  T a b l e 2 (A)  both  manner:  m a l e s ; and l o o k > t o u c h > t a l k f o r  c a m e r a was more f r e q u e n t l y  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p when  c a r e t a k e r than d i d  t h e s e b e h a v i o r s was h i g h l y  ranked a c c o r d i n g to magnitude i n t h i s  males,  for  and t h e c a r e t a k e r t w e l v e  Males t a l k e d s l i g h t l y  for  sex,  caretaker.  c a r e g i v e r d u r i n g E p i s o d e I,  seven times  A l t h o u g h none of  caretaker.  changed to l o o k > t a l k = t o u c h > s m i l e .  the mother  The f r e q u e n c y o f  the mother  the  first  smiling  l o o k > s m i l e > t a l k > t o u c h ; when t h e  the order  touched n e i t h e r  the  occurred i n  a c l e a r e r d i s t a l t o p r o x i m a l o r d e r i n g i n modes o f obtained for  count of  In  as t h e p r o p o r t i o n  of Ss  t h e F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e , t h i s was  calculated  27  only  for  the _S's r e s p o n s e s to  around the  room.  the  c a r e g i v e r p i c k i n g h i m up and  A n e q u a l number o f ^ s , w i t h b o t h c a r e g i v e r s ,  t o b e p i c k e d up and w e r e r e l a x e d when i n giver  left  t h e room  some t i m e d u r i n g  (2/9),  and l i f t e d  the Reunion episode  t h a n t h e m o t h e r was p r e s e n t , down on t h e room ( 5 / 9 )  floor vs.  again  3/9)  of  the Reunion episode  (8/9 v s .  (8/8 v s .  (8/9 v s .  7/9);  and s m i l e d  7/8);  When t h e c a r e t a k e r  followed her v i s u a l l y  5/9);  partially  (8/8 v s . 7/9).  4/5);  However, i n the toys  the  4/8)  c a r e g i v e r out  and t a l k e d  of  to her  3/9);  at  rather  (3/9  played  the  Play  down o n t h e  floor  t h e room ( 4 / 9 v s .  (2/5 v s .  3/8)  vs.  during  the p r e s e n c e of the Free  the  during  approached her  during  put  around  played  and f i n a l l y  r e s u m e d p l a y i n g when p u t  followed  (3/5 v s .  arms t o b e p i c k e d up  number o f j5s a c c e p t e d b e i n g  8/9);  m o t h e r more Ss a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e d episode  (3/9).  accepted  ( 9 / 9 ) , c r i e d when a c a r e -  t h e room ( 6 / 9 v s .  (6/9 v s .  and l o o k e d a t h e r r e t u r n  arms  their  a greater  (9/9 v s .  and o u t  the S e p a r a t i o n episode 1/5)  walking  1/9);  during  the  Reunion episode. The o n l y b i g d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e number o f the mother  out  of  since this  last  l e a v i n g at  t h e end o f  a n d who f o l l o w e d  case r e p r e s e n t s  M o r e jSs v i s u a l l y behaviors  t h e room ( 4 )  generally  the  caretaker  s p e n d i n g some t i m e  c a r e t a k e r out  of  t h e room.  occurred with high frequency:  p i c k e d up and p u t  down a c c o m p a n i e d b y p l a y ;  both experimental  toys  coming i n  the  followed  a delayed r e a c t i o n w i t h the  the episode a f t e r  followed  Ss who  and p e r s o n a l t o y s ;  the room; p l a y i n g d u r i n g  1  (1)  child playing.  The  following  acceptance of  active manipulation  looking at  the  the Reunion e p i s o d e .  being of  caregiver Visual  28  following  of  the  caregiver  l e a v i n g t h e room; and w a l k i n g  around  the  r o o m ; p l a y i n g when s h e was a b s e n t and s m i l i n g d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I moderately  frequent.  giver  the room, f o l l o w e d h e r o u t ,  in,  left  tried  O n l y a s m a l l number o f jSs c r i e d when t h e  t o b e p i c k e d up o r  talked during  Episode  o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a c c e p t e d t o b e p i c k e d up  boys ('3/4  manipulated  toys  vs.  lifted  1/5);  and out  (4/5 v s . 0/1).  their  sex i s  of  1/4)  During  it  (2/5  0/5);  vs.  floor  c r i e d when t h e  the c a r e t a k e r out 3/5);  approached the (2/4  of  again  vs.  played during  1/4);  and than  to f o l l o w vs.  her and  1/5),  B u t more b o y s 3/4)  to  ac-  resume  caretaker  a c c e p t e d t o b e p i c k e d up (5/5  vs.  In  4/4).  caretaker  left  t h e r o o m (3/4  vs.  4/4),  vs.  c a r e t a k e r on h e r r e t u r n during  (5/5  vs.  3/5);  Episode  and  4/4)  and l o o k e d a t h e r  1/5)  slightly  and v i s u a l l y  More g i r l s 0/4);  also  smiled  coming more  followed  p l a y e d when s h e was  (3/4 v s . III.  vs.  (1/4  an e q u a l  vs.  terms o f p r o p o r t i o n s , (1/4  vs.  the S e p a r a t i o n episode  approached h e r upon h e r r e t u r n  afterwards  1/4)  (2/4  (5/5 v s .  and p l a y e d d u r i n g E p i s o d e I I I .  vs.  tried  3/5).  the O b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s w i t h the  b a c k i n t h e r o o m (4/4  and t a l k e d  floor  and 4/4)  t h e m o t h e r b o t h a r o u n d t h e r o o m (2/5  and p a r t i a l l y  down on t h e  vs.  (4/4  Table  H o w e v e r , more g i r l s  vs.  (2/4  shown i n  t h e same number  (5/5  arms'to b e p i c k e d up  followed  number o f b o y s a n d g i r l s  girls  left  down o n t h e  playing, visually 1/4)  a n d 4/4).  the Reunion episode  cepted to be put  (3/4  (4/4  c r i e d when t h e m o t h e r  played during  put  III.  During the o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s w i t h the mother,  actively  care-  a p p r o a c h e d h e r when s h e came  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of b e h a v i o r s a c c o r d i n g to 4.  were  absent  partially  (3/4  vs.  1/4)  29  With the no l o n g e r  caretaker,  i n h e r arms  room ( 3 / 5 v s .  2/4),  a g r e a t e r number o f b o y s r e s u m e d p l a y i n g w h e n  (5/5 v s .  2/5),  follower  a c t i v e l y manipulated  lowed h e r p h y s i c a l l y out  (1/5 v s .  0/4)  her v i s u a l l y  the toys  and l i f t e d  (4/4 v s . their  the Reunion episode (2/5 v s .  sex d i f f e r e n c e s ,  although s m a l l , v a r i e d w i t h the i d e n t i t y  More g i r l s  left  t h e r o o m and l i f t e d  their  when t h e m o t h e r was p r e s e n t , b u t m o r e b o y s d i d the c a r e t a k e r . out  of  S i m i l a r l y , more b o y s v i s u a l l y  caretaker. One ^  The r a n g e o f  the r e a c t i o n s  five  of  the  Ss, t h r e e  watching for strangers.  returned  this  in  followed  the mother  serious activity  a few m i n u t e s  after  their  T a b l e 5 shows s l i g h t  initial  the  follows. out-  Of  these  and two w e n t  i n s p e c t i o n of  age d i f f e r e n c e s .  going  approached  (see A p p e n d i x ) .  their  care-  the presence of  females d i d t h i s w i t h  to  enough,  arms t o b e p i c k e d up  t o s t r a n g e r s was a s  S s showed " c u s t o m s i n s p e c t i o n "  folbe  showed s p o n t a n e o u s o u t g o i n g n e s s ; t h r e e Ss w e r e r e a c t i v e l y  going; five  a g r e a t e r number o f  the  Interestingly  t h e r o o m , p l a y e d when s h e was a b s e n t a n d p a r t i a l l y  her at Reunion, w h i l e  3/4),  arms t o  p i c k e d up d u r i n g  giver.  1/4).  around  on  the  The y o u n g e r JSs  n u m b e r e d more " c u s t o m s i n s p e c t i o n " e n d i n g i n w a t c h i n g and t h e  older  £>s e i t h e r  friendly.  resumed a c t i v i t y  after  i n s p e c t i o n or were i n i t i a l l y  T h e r e were no c l e a r s e x d i f f e r e n c e s .  DISCUSSION A l t h o u g h few c h i l d r e n l e f t visual pursuit  of  the  t h e room d u r i n g  the S e p a r a t i o n e p i s o d e ,  c a r e t a k e r l e a v i n g t h e r o o m was more u s u a l  physical following  of  the mother.  Little  Active exploration  of  the environment,  f e a r of  than  s t r a n g e r s was d i s p l a y e d  as a t t e s t e d b y m a n i p u l a t i o n  of  30  the experimental  toys  accompanied by d i s t a n t communication w i t h t h e  c a r e g i v e r , was commonly o b s e r v e d .  Looking  a t e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r was t h e  m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d mode o f i n t e r a c t i o n .  I n t e r a c t i o n through  s m i l i n g a n d t o u c h i n g v a r i e d somewhat w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y S m i l i n g a t t h e mother o c c u r r e d The  frequency  caretaker  of occurrence  and t o u c h i n g .  o f t a l k i n g and t o u c h i n g were h i g h e r  for the  Some s e x d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d i n t h e  o f communication employed w i t h  t e n d e d t o t a l k more w h i l e  of the caregiver.  more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t a l k i n g  than f o r t h e mother.  choice o f the type  talking,  girls  the caregiver.  t o u c h e d b o t h c a r e g i v e r s more.  Boys  No m a j o r  sex  d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d .  H o w e v e r , a c o m p a r a t i v e c o u n t o f t h e num-  ber  of c h i l d r e n of a p a r t i c u l a r sex d i s p l a y i n g c e r t a i n behaviors  the p r e s e n c e o f what might be c a l l e d  a r e v e r s a l phenomenon.  showed  More  girls  k e p t c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , as a t t e s t e d by p h y s i c a l f o l l o w i n g and l i f t i n g o f arms t o b e p i c k e d u p , w i t h t h e m o t h e r , w h i l e more b o y s t h a n did  so w i t h  Separation  the caretaker. episode  in  t h e mother.  during the  I n g e n e r a l , more g i r l s  approach toward e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r  close physical contact). L i t t l e  greeting behavior  played  f r o m t h e c a r e t a k e r , w h i l e more b o y s d i d s o i n t h e  comparable s e s s i o n w i t h partial  Somewhat, more g i r l s  girls  showed  ( i . e . , movements n o t t e r m i n a t i n g  s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y was o b s e r v e d a n d  was g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d  to looking at the entering  caregiver. This behaviors  study  i s unique i n t h e sense that i t i n c l u d e d  d i r e c t e d t o w a r d two c a r e g i v e r s .  Most o f t h e e x i s t i n g  t u r e i s based upon s i n g l e c a r e g i v e r - c h i l d dyads, w i t h almost a l l c a s e s s e r v i n g as t h e p r i m a r y  attachment  caregiver.  litera-  the mother i n  Therefore,  little  31  c o m p a r i s o n between t h e p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s extent  to which the present r e s u l t s  t u r e c o u l d be determined i f reference to identity  the i d e n t i t y  i s , however, p r a c t i c a l l y  communication i s Bronson  (1971)  to e x p l o r e  Lewis  Ignoring  i m p o s s i b l e as f a r  the  as  found t h a t g i r l s  interpersonal  gave more a t t e n t i o n  time w i t h a n o v e l o b j e c t  their  to  a n d t h a t b o y s a r e more  e x p l a i n e d such s e x d i f f e r e n c e s by t o g i v e up  modes o f  In  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t o show i n d e p e n d e n c e .  however, both sexes spent  amount o f  their  environment.  and B a n ( 1 9 7 1 )  during  presenting proximal  the present  as much t i m e w i t h t h e n o v e l  But the d a t a c o n f i r m e d  longer  true,  and s l i g h t l y  communication. interpretation child pair  i n t e r a c t i o n was w i t h t h e  be e x p l a i n e d ?  can o n l y account f o r  and n o t  embody a d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of  caretaker,  on t h e c a r e t a k e r - c h i l d p a i r .  adults  Thus, i t  may b e t h a t  to r e a c t  in  c a r e t a k e r s do n o t  This l a t t e r  due t o v a r i a t i o n s  and i n t h e n a t u r e  their  of  of  adult-child  in  motherp a i r may  the  social  interactions.  e n c o u r a g e b o y s more t h a n  c e r t a i n w a y s , and v i c e v e r s a ,  of  O b v i o u s l y , L e w i s and B a n ' s  t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on t h e  s o c i a l environment,  the  t h i s was n o  more b o y s t e n d e d t o u s e p r o x i m a l means  How c a n t h i s  in  t h a t p r o x i m a l modes  c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e i n d e e d f a v o r e d b y g i r l s when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h When t h e  study,  experimental  t h e F r e e P l a y e p i s o d e , i n d i c a t i n g no s e x d i f f e r e n c e  exploration.  mothers.  without  latter's  e v i d e n c e t h a t b o y s a r e more e n c o u r a g e d t h a n g i r l s  toys  litera-  i n g e n e r a l was l o o k e d a t  caregiver.  The  concerned.  mother and s p e n t l e s s inclined  the  c a n be made.  agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h the  attachment  of  studies  girls  as m o t h e r s were o b s e r v e d  to  32  do, so t h a t  the  c h i l d r e n are f r e e with, the  s o c i a l p a t t e r n they want. on t h e p a r t  of  emotionally  involved,  child's  the  Complete i m p a r t i a l i t y  caretaker, they  but because they  the  own s i g n a l s .  of  compensation r e a c t i o n by the proximal  These r e s u l t s  not  i n d u l g e w i t h the mother.  the  girls'  relationship how h e r  w i t h the  dictions  indicate  to  any p r e d i c t i o n s  about  the  z a t i o n e p i s o d e when t h e more t o b o t h t h e  child  the  mothers sort  entire  Almost every mother  children's behaviors.  c h i l d was e a t i n g ,  the  Furthermore,  the  the  tried  situation.  However, none of  and t o E_.  p e r i o d of in  explain  contact caregivers'  to  predict  These p r e -  c a r e t a k e r s made  During  the  Familiari-  caretaker- tended to the  talk  c a r e t a k e r s u s e d more  " b a b y t a l k ! when a d d r e s s i n g t h e  child  takers  than mothers  c h i l d when a s k e d t o p i c k h i m up i n  arms.  H o w e v e r , s i n c e no s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f  1  behaviors about  cuddled the  c o u l d be c a r r i e d out  the c a r e g i v e r s ' b e h a v i o r s  forward.  d e v i s e d by C a l d w e l l et  of  child  important  than the mothers  the present  and when t h e  the  study,  did.  More c a r e -  the  few  generalizations  is  to o b t a i n both the mother's  in  charge.  and t h e  put  I n v e n t o r y o f Home S t i m u l a -  al.(1970), b o t h when t h e m o t h e r  caretaker  their  caregivers'  c a n b e made a n d f e w h y p o t h e s e s  A f u t u r e s t u d y m i g h t make u s e o f  tion, the  in  a  could  c o u l d be used to  some d i s s i m i l i t u d e  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  were g e n e r a l l y wrong.  imagine  less  could also suggest a  The same r a t i o n a l e  children.  c h i l d would r e a c t  seemed much  to  caretaker which they  R e m a r k s made d u r i n g  w i t h t h e s e g r o u p homes d i d  difficult  any  c h i l d r e n , w i t h the boys s a t i s f y i n g  communication w i t h the  behavior.  is  to engage i n  c o u l d be more r e s p o n s i v e t h a n the  to  need f o r  caretaker  It  would be  caretaker's  is  in  charge  equally  social  33  s e n s i t i v i t y , f o r example, b y t h e use o f a Q-sort t e c h n i q u e d e v i s e d by Hogan (1969).  Lewis and Ban (1971) found t h a t  as t h e one girls  v o c a l i z e d more than boys a t b o t h one year and two y e a r s o f age. I n the p r e s e n t  s t u d y , boys o f t h a t age range tended t o t a l k more than t h e  g i r l s o f t h e same age.  But because o n l y n i n e S_s were o b s e r v e d ,  only very cautious g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are warranted. Nonetheless,  i t was apparent t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f sex, t h e  c h i l d r e n tended t o s m i l e more a t t h e mother and t o t a l k more t o t h e caretaker.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s w i t h  the mother, t h e most f r e q u e n t means o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h E_ was by s m i l i n g , w h i l e w i t h t h e c a r e t a k e r p r e s e n t , i t was through t a l k i n g t o t h e E_.  How-  ever s m a l l t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s , i t i n d i c a t e s once a g a i n a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mother c h i l d and c a r e t a k e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . was  As  mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e c a r e t a k e r s were more t a l k a t i v e than t h e  mothers and t h i s may be r e l a t e d t o t h e observed i n t e r a c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s . The h i g h frequency  of v i s u a l contacts w i t h b o t h c a r e g i v e r s was i n  agreement w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by L e w i s and Ban (1971). tachment b e h a v i o r s a s a whole a r e c o n s i d e r e d  When a t -  t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s showed  f i r s t o f a l l l i t t l e f e a r o f s t r a n g e r s , second, l i t t l e  separation  a n x i e t y and t h i r d , p a t t e r n s o f attachment u n l i k e t h e ones o u t l i n e d i n the e a r l y days o f t h e E t h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y 1967).  ( i . e . , Bowlby, 1959;  Thus some o f the b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s  Ainsworth,  i d e n t i f i e d a t t h a t time  as m e d i a t o r s of attachment by t h e proponents o f t h e t h e o r y were n o t revealed i n the present  study t o be n e c e s s a r y m e d i a t o r s o f a t t a c h m e n t .  F e a r o f s t r a n g e r s was observed i n a s t r i k i n g l y b e n i g n form  34  e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e e x p o s e d a t o n c e t o two s t r a n g e r s , one h o l d i n g a camera and t h e o t h e r w i t h p a p e r , p e n c i l and a videotape inspected" and  machine.  The c h i l d r e n m e r e l y l o o k e d  ( i n the terminology  t h e camera o p e r a t o r  a t , o r "customs  u s e d b y B r o d y a n d A x e l r a d , 1 9 7 1 ) E_  a n d q u i c k l y a n s w e r e d E_'s s o c i a l  overtures  w i t h s m i l e s , v o c a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n t h e v i d e o t a p e Moss e t a l . (1969) and B r o d y and A x e l r a d evidence of f e a r of strangers it  ( 1 9 7 1 ) who a l s o f o u n d  i n some o f t h e i r  childhood;  e a r l y s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n r e l a t e d t o low f e a r of strangers.  same f a c t o r seems t o b e a t w o r k h e r e .  The c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e  homes w e r e f r o m a v e r y e a r l y a g e e x p o s e d t o many d i f f e r e n t t h e i r mother; t h e i r  e a c h home a t l e a s t  c a r e t a k e r who may h a v e c h a n g e d a t l e a s t o n c e  twice weekly; the other mothers l i v i n g  t h e mother's f r i e n d s as w e l l as t h e other mothers'  who came a n d w e n t f r e e l y i n t h e g r o u p home. t o cope w i t h s t r a n g e r s w i t h  since  visited  i n t h e home;  acquaintances  The c h i l d r e n ' s  s o c i a l c a l m may r e a s o n a b l y  group  adults:  t h e i r a r r i v a l a t t h e home; t h e s u p e r v i s o r f r o m t h e YWCA who  and  little  subjects, attributed  t o t h e amount o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n e a r l y  with high The  equipment.  ability  be a t t r i b u t e d  to e a r l y s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n . The  second s t r i k i n g  result  of s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y n o t i c e d . when t h e m o t h e r o r t h e c a r e t a k e r only a very  short-term  since although  obtained  here i s the very mild  O n l y two c h i l d r e n o u t o f n i n e left  t h e room.  Obviously,  form  cried  this i s  s e p a r a t i o n under o n l y m i l d l y s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s ,  was l e f t w i t h s t r a n g e r s , h e was i n f a m i l i a r  surroundings.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c h i l d ' s g r e e t i n g upon t h e r e t u r n o f t h e c a r e g i v e r was  35  mostly v i s u a l contact.  Such, a reaction to separation i s i n agreement  with, the recent work, of Ainsworth., K e i l and Stay-ton (19721 who reported that the "average" BaBy responded without  anxiety to Brief separation  and greeted the mother i n no more s i g n i f i c a n t way than perhaps looking at her.  It should be rememBered that this i s i n contradiction wxth.  Ainsworth's extensive description of Behavior patterns- r e f l e c t i n g a t ^ tachment i n 1967,  Schaffer's use of separation upset as an operational  d e f i n i t i o n of attachment i n 1963,  and Ainsworth and Wittig's oBserva-  tion of mild to strong d i s t r e s s i n response to short separation i n 1969,  to name only a few discrepant studies.  experimental  The wide v a r i e t y of  procedures used throughout the l i t e r a t u r e may be i n part  responsiBle for such divergence  i n results.  However, the extensive  study conducted Both i n a laB s i t u a t i o n and i n the home By Ainsworth, B e l l and Stayton i n 1971 as well as the already mentioned study of 1972 confirm  the aBsence of separation anxiety i n everyday experience.  Here  i s a good example of the rather marked change i n thinking that i s taking place i n the research on attachment. Thirdly, a picture of attachment Behavior 27 months can Be oBtained from the data. included i n the Behavior (see Appendix).  i n children from f i v e to  Quite a numBer of actions were  checklist on the Basis of the existing l i t e r a t u r e  From the frequency  of occurrence of the Behaviors i n  that l i s t , the following gloBal description of the children can Be oBtained.  In the r e l a t i v e l y relaxed atmosphere of the Free Play episode,  these children engaged i n active exploration of the new experimental  toys  while at the same time readily accepting interruption By the caregivers,  36  r e s u m i n g p l a y when p u t down on t h e f l o o r a g a i n a f t e r b e i n g l i f t e d u p . While p l a y i n g , mainly by l o o k i n g of s e p a r a t i o n , but  the c h i l d r e n kept contact  a t h e r from time t o time.  v e r y few o f them c r i e d .  a s m a l l number f o l l o w e d  outward s i g n of d i s t r e s s at p l a y i n g ) . caregiver's  with  the caregiver  I n the s t r e s s f u l episode  They u s u a l l y k e p t on p l a y i n g  the caregiver  o u t o f t h e room w i t h o u t any  ( a f t e r , i n some c a s e s , a h a l f - h e a r t e d  attempt  During the Reunion episode, the c h i l d r e n greeted the r e t u r n by looking  and t h e n h a p p i l y  manipulation of the experimental toys. to t a l k , smile  and s e e k p h y s i c a l  returned  to active  P l a y i n g was r e r e l y  interrupted  contact.  CONCLUSION The the  child  foregoing  sums up t h e m a i n i n t e r a c t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e  and t h e c a r e g i v e r .  These i n t e r a c t i o n s were assumed b y t h e  p r e s e n t a u t h o r t o be i n d i c e s o f a u n i t a r y This  assumption brings  between  trait  c a l l e d attachment.  o u t t h e n e e d f o r d e f i n i n g more p r e c i s e l y w h a t  attachment i s . Theoretical  Implications  In Ainsworth's  (1964) own w o r d s , a t t a c h m e n t i s a " d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ,  differential, affectional relationship." formation  This  d e f i n i t i o n gives  about t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p by d e s c r i b i n g a t -  tachment as a c t i n g i n a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , d i f f e r e n t i a l manner b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s .  and a f f e c t i o n a l  For the purpose of research,  d e f i n i t i o n s h o u l d i d e n t i f y more p r e c i s e l y t h e b e h a v i o r a l through which e m p i r i c a l knowledge o f t h e e x i s t e n c e obtained. ship  in-  manifestations  o f attachment can be  Hence, attachment i s b e s t o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d  i m p l i c a t i n g a b a l a n c e between p r o x i m i t y  however, a  as a r e l a t i o n -  and e x p l o r a t i o n  oriented  37  behaviors.  N e i t h e r type of b e h a v i o r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of attachment.  The  taken a l o n e , p r o v i d e s an adequate concept  of attachment -must comprise  b o t h the need f o r the p r o x i m i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as the to be a t some d i s t a n c e from him without  anxiety.  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between these two be b e s t a c h i e v e d through  A proper  ability  description  k i n d s of b e h a v i o r s  the use of the n o t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m .  i d e a seems i n h e r e n t to n a t u r e i t s e l f .  can  This  B i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s  have r e p e a t e d l y shown the need f o r e q u i l i b r i u m i n the u n i v e r s e .  Piaget's  n o t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the c h i l d i s one  example among many of the use of t h i s concept  i n psychology.  Hence,  the dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m t h a t s t r i v e s to e x i s t between p r o x i m i t y and p l o r a t i o n behaviors Schaffer  (1971) puts  i s the index of attachment.  merely t h e i r n a t u r e .  Furthermore, as  i t v e r y w e l l , i t i s the aim of c e r t a i n  which w i l l i d e n t i f y them as a c t i v e mediators T h i s means t h a t any  c a t a l o g u e of b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s m e d i a t i n g  behaviors  i n t h i s system and  I n s t e a d , any b e h a v i o r aiming  s e p a r a t i n g o n e s e l f without tachment.  Consequently,  not  lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n or attachment i s of l i t t l e  S i m i l a r l y , no s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n can a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h i s brium.  ex-  use.  equili-  a t p r o x i m i t y or e x p l o r a t i o n (e.g.,  a n x i e t y ) can be c o n s i d e r e d as m e d i a t i n g  the study of attachment should not be  at-  concerned  w i t h the l a b e l l i n g or i d e n t i f y i n g of c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s , but should be concerned between these two  with i d e n t i f y i n g  tendencies  the manner i n which an e q u i l i b r i u m  i s obtained.  T h i s view of attachment  care of the q u e s t i o n of what i s a " h e a t h f u l " attachment. I f by o b s e r v i n g a c h i l d one  can say t h a t a proper  balance,or  takes  38  e q u i l i b r i u m , i s reached between b e h a v i o r s a i m i n g a t p r o x i m i t y e x p l o r a t i o n then the c h i l d can be s a i d t o e x h i b i t a h e a l t h y If  t h i s smooth b a l a n c e i s not p r e s e n t and t i p s i n e i t h e r  some p a t h o l o g i c a l form of attachment  and at attachment.  direction,  exists.  Such a d e f i n i t i o n of attachment has s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological i m p l i c a t i o n s .  F i r s t , n o t h i n g i n the d e f i n i t i o n  t h a t the b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s a i m i n g a t e i t h e r p r o x i m i t y o r act monotropically.  implies  exploration  Thus, the n a t u r e of the s o c i a l s e t t i n g i s  left  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d e t e r m i n i n g the b r e a d t h of the attachment Second, i t  function.  t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic s t r u c t u r e  t h i s f u n c t i o n , as has been r e c o g n i z e d i n more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h ( c f . , Bowlby, 1969; S c h a f f e r , 1971).  T h i r d , i t w i l l p r e v e n t t h e c h o i c e or  use o f too few c r i t e r i a f o r a t t a c h m e n t .  I n s t e a d , attachment may be  i n d e x e d by m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o r s as l o n g as they r e v e a l the c o n j o i n t c u r r e n c e of p r o x i m i t y - s e e k i n g and e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r s . this f l e x i b i l i t y  Finally,  of c r i t e r i a w i l l a l l o w f o r v t h e wide v a r i e t y  b e h a v i o r s e x i s t i n g i n a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s due to  oc-  of  individual  differences. The i n t e r a c t i o n s observed d u r i n g the 18 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s o f  the  p r e s e n t study and t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p o s i t i o n s of attachment make p o s s i b l e to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  a r e the c h i l d r e n i n  study a t t a c h e d ; ' i s t h e i r s a h e a l t h f u l a t t a c h m e n t ; and t o whom i s  it  the this  attachment d i r e c t e d ? B e h a v i o r s aimed a t s e e k i n g p r o x i m i t y w i t h the c a r e g i v e r i n form o f e i t h e r l o o k i n g , s m i l i n g o r f o l l o w i n g , and t h o s e aimed a t  the  of  39  e x p l o r a t i o n away from the c a r e g i v e r i n the form o f a c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n of the experimental strangers  and  t o y s , as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  the c a r e g i v e r s , s h o w these c h i l d r e n to be  In t h e i r e x t e n s i v e  attached.  study of attachment, A i n s w o r t h , B e l l and  Stayton  C1971) c o n s i d e r e d a smooth b a l a n c e between e x p l o r a t i o n and a t t a c h ment to be a s i g n of h e a l t h f u l attachment.  The  r e s u l t s r e l a t e d here  demonstrated the e x i s t e n c e of s u c h a b a l a n c e to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r extent  i n a l l the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d .  Indeed these c h i l d r e n . c o u l d move  away from e i t h e r c a r e g i v e r to e x p l o r e ; c a r e g i v e r ' s whereabouts by  l o o k i n g ; they were content  c a r e g i v e r ' s arms:for a; s h o r t or f o l l o w e d  they kept v i s u a l t r a c k of  time and  the c a r e g i v e r w h i l e  e i t h e r accepted  showing l i t t l e  the  to be  i n the  short  separation  distress.  Here then i s  evidence of h e a l t h f u l attachment. These f i n d i n g s seem to c o n t r a d i c t those o b t a i n e d She  compared young c h i l d r e n p l a c e d  months or 34 months w i t h s i g n s of anxious and former group. explored behaviors  The  l e s s and  c a r e group was  more d i s t r e s s e d at  showed more p r o x i m i t y - s e e k i n g Blehar  to the minor s e p a r a t i o n e n t a i l e d i n a t t e n d i n g  to s e p a r a t i o n .  proximity-avoiding  a day  care c e n t e r .  She  (1973) c o n v i c t i o n t h a t  s e n s i t i z e s r a t h e r than h a b i t u a t e s .one-year o l d s  Thus, B l e h a r  tachment observed i n her  and  separation,  a t t r i b u t e d these r e s u l t s  f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i n Ainsworth's  r e p e t i t i o n of s e p a r a t i o n  found  attachment toward the mother i n the  than the home-reared group.  found support  (1973).  c a r e c e n t e r at e i t h e r 25  c h i l d r e n r a i s e d e n t i r e l y a t home, and  defensive  day  i n a day  by B l e h a r  (1973) a t t r i b u t e d the d i s e q u i l i b r i u m i n a t -  s u b j e c t s to the s e n s i t i z i n g e f f e c t of  long  40  daily  separation.  similar  to  The g r o u p homes i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e  a day c a r e s e t t i n g ;  attachments were apparent. for  the d i f f e r e n c e Blehar  in  (1973)  however, n e i t h e r  care early  f o u n d an age b y r e a r i n g - ^ g r o u p a later  sudden d i s r u p t i o n  c a r e t a k e r of of  The a b s e n c e o f responsible for  involving  a g r o u p home.  as a p p a r e n t l y  The disruption  s t u d y b e g a n some s o r t  Hence,  an e x c l u s i v e l y m o t h e r - c h i l d  negative aftereffects  interaction.  a g e showed a g r e a t e r  The c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t  or the  defensive  results.  i n i n f a n c y , w i t h the arrangement  baby s i t t e r  anxious nor  S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s may a c c o u n t  s u b j e c t s who e n t e r e d d a y c a r e a t in equilibrium.  somewhat  occurred for  a grandmother,  the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g  in  the group homes.  potentially  operating here i s  relationship, Blehar's  C a l d w e l l et  al.  (1970)  subjects.  an age  part in  factor  s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by  o n c h i l d r e n who e n t e r e d d a y c a r e a t  age than B l e h a r ' s s u b j e c t s .  a  with  balance observed  The p r e s e n c e o f  s u g g e s t e d by the  day  t h e r e was no  a n u n e x p e c t e d c h a n g e i n r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s may b e i n the smooth p r o x i m i t y - e x p l o r a t i o n  of  These authors d i d not  an  f i n d the  earlier  difference  b e t w e e n h o m e - r e a r e d a n d d a y c a r e c h i l d r e n t h a t was o b s e r v e d b y B l e h a r (1973). that  Another d i f f e r e n c e between the present  the c h i l d r e n  the day i n the (1961)  i n three of  familiar  the four  c h i l d remains i n a f a m i l i a r environment formation of  g r o u p homes w e r e c a r e d f o r  everyday environment  has s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i s t r e s s at  s t u d y and B l e h a r ' s  of  their.homes.  separation i s attenuated  environment.  Familiarity  of  attachments by t h e s e  children.  during  Yarrow if  the  t h e day c a r e  p r o v i d e d b y t h e s e g r o u p homes may a l s o b e a f a c t o r healthful  is  in  the  41  Since these c h i l d r e n are e v i d e n t l y h e a l t h f u l l y may a s k t o whom t h i s taker?  The d a t a i n d i c a t e d  although  is directed,  that  Thei s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s  c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s when t h e  i n the i n the  tial  giver  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s on the p a r t A more r i g o r o u s  interacts  t i o n of  or the  w i t h the  differences  care-  to b o t h  caregivers  qualitative  flavor  frequency  of  of  to a d i s s i m i l i t u d e  the adult  e v a l u a t i o n of child  to  the  child's  of  occurrence  communication encouraged by e a c h c a r e g i v e r a n d / o r a  signals.  one  c h i l d was e i t h e r w i t h h i s m o t h e r  c a r e t a k e r may b e d u e , a s e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , means o f  the mother  they were a t t a c h e d  t h e r e may h a v e b e e n a d i f f e r e n c e  the r e l a t i o n s h i p . of  attachment  attached,  of  his  in  the  differensocial  t h e manner i n w h i c h e a c h c a r e -  should permit  a more p r e c i s e  between the m o t h e r - c h i l d  and  identifica-  caretaker-child  relationships. Remarks on t h e C h i l d r e a r i n g P r a c t i c e s o f In  c o n c l u s i o n , the  general healthfully e n a b l e us t o mothers?  c h i l d r e n observed i n  attached to both  say about the kind  On t h e w h o l e ,  of  the mothers  with their subject,  a boy of  explained at  caregivers. offered  with their  What d o e s  by young their  babies.  f i v e months,  of h e r c h i l d .  the mother  expressed a l o t  of  mothering  the  anxiety  like  some  interacting youngest  about  Before the F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n episode,  to E t h a t her c h i l d d i d not  this  However,  than average i n ( a g e 22) o f  in  single  E_ was i n t h e g r o u p homes s u g g e s t e d t h a t  For instance,  length  t h e s e g r o u p homes w e r e  t h e s e women seemed s e n s i t i v e i n  e x p e r i e n c e d more d i f f i c u l t y  child.  eating habits  their  of mothering  and d e r i v e d p l e a s u r e f r o m i n t e r a c t i n g s m a l l r e m a r k s made w h i l e  the Young S i n g l e M o t h e r s  s o l i d food  the she and  42  t h a t she had to r e s o r t  to t h e t r i c k o f g i v i n g two o r t h r e e spoonfuls  of f o o d , then the b o t t l e and then some more s o l i d f o o d , over and over d u r i n g the f e e d i n g .  She wanted E_ to understand  t h i s was a poor p r o c e d u r e ,  t h a t she knew t h a t  t h a t she knew t h a t she should not s t a n d  f o r such "nonsense" and so on.  The baby confirmed  a l l of h i s  mother's p r e d i c t i o n s and c r i e d each time he was switched from t h e b o t t l e to t h e spoon.  However, when he was observed w i t h the c a r e -  t a k e r , none o f t h i s happened. c h i l d was d i f f i c u l t  The c a r e t a k e r acknowledged t h a t t h e  t o feed i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , b u t t h a t he now h a p p i l y  accepted t h e s o l i d food and then t h e b o t t l e w i t h numerous s m i l e s . And so he d i d when E was p r e s e n t .  T h i s mother seemed i n s e c u r e i n h e r  r o l e o f mother and the baby a p p a r e n t l y responded The  to her i n s e c u r i t y .  calm c o n f i d e n c e o f the c a r e t a k e r , an o l d e r woman w i t h grown up  c h i l d r e n o f h e r own, may have been i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d ' s d i f f e r e n t behavior with her. Only one mother out of n i n e spontaneously  asked  f i l m taken when her c h i l d was w i t h the c a r e t a k e r .  t o be shown the  I t seemed t o IS t h a t  they were a l l e q u a l l y c u r i o u s t o see i t , b u t at the same time a f r a i d , i n case the c h i l d behaved b e t t e r when w i t h the c a r e t a k e r .  The s u p e r v i s o r  of the group homes shared t h i s o p i n i o n . S i n g l e mothers a r e f a c e d w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s n o t encountered by m a r r i e d c o u p l e s . home environments.  S u r e l y they p r o v i d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h  different  A l o n g i t u d i n a l study o f these mothers and t h e i r  c h i l d r e n might uncover s p e c i a l e f f e c t s due t o s i n g l e mothering. e v e r , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s i n g l e mothers, any more than  How-  "married"  43  m o t h e r s f o r m a homogeneous g r o u p . which the c h i l d r e n  i n the present  t h e i r mothers does not attached to  rearing  children alone.  A c c o r d i n g to  m o r e and m o r e f r e q u e n t creasingly  healthfulness  s t u d y seemed to. B e a t t a c h e d  r e v e a l any s t r i k i n g l y  s i n g l e mothers suggests t h a t bad problem.  The r e l a t i v e  g r o u p homes  s u c h homes a r e a g o o d s o l u t i o n  several social workers,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  living  single parents.  o b s e r v e i n c h i l d r e n r e a r e d i n some o f  to  adverse consequence  This study of  nowadays and t h i s  witli  it  is  to  a  a problem  arrangement  It  for  is  in-  is reassuring  to  t h e s e homes a g o o d b a l a n c e  b e t w e e n e x p l o r a t i o n and a c t i v e i n i t i a t i o n o f  interaction with  an  adult. Obviously, s m a l l number o f  few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e due t o b o t h s u b j e c t s o b s e r v e d and t h e low h o m o g e n e i t y of  group-home h i s t o r y histories  of  the  to  g r e a t e r homogeneity of situations It  i n the sample.  in early  i d e n t i f y between-subject v a r i a t i o n s a m p l e , and s e c o n d t o  infancy are favoring  m i g h t a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g  to use the  1969) w i t h b o t h t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d  child pair.  which  "strange  (cf.,  pair  attachment  more r e c e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t a t t a c h m e n t  This  and a c h i e v e  social attach-  situation"  Ainsworth  and t h e  T h i s s h o u l d p e r m i t a more e f f i c i e n t  the a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d knowledge of  It  infer  pre-  case  the development of  experimental procedure d e v i s e d by A i n s w o r t h Wittig,  Detailed  the  s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d and s t u d i e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  s h o u l d be done f i r s t  ment.  children  the  and  caretaker-  comparison between  in nuclear families  in non-nuclear  and  families.  w o u l d a l s o i n v o l v e o b s e r v a t i o n i n a somewhat m o r e s t r e s s f u l  situation  44  so that information could be gained regarding the degree of the intensification of attachment behavior due to stress when the mother or the mother substitute i s present. The present data showed the presence of healthful attachments in non-nuclear family settings and also strengthens the .evidence reported in recent studies (Brody and Axelrad, 1971; Ainsworth, Bell and Stayton, 1972) that both fear of strangers and separation anxiety are not the milestone in attachment behavior that they were once thought to be.  Finally, i t was argued that the notion of monotropy  has been inappropriately applied to attachment behavior.  45  TABLE 1  Frequency of  Occurrence of Touch, T a l k , Seven I n t e r v a l s  of  Episode I  Touch  Talk  Look,  Smile During  w i t h the Look  Smile  0  8  11  7  Females  7  9  13  11  Total  7  17  24  18  Occurrence of  Seven I n t e r v a l s  Look,  Smile During  Episode I w i t h the  Touch  Talk  caretaker  Look  Smile  0  8  13  0  Females  12  4  10  2  Total  12  12  23  2  Males  First  the  First  (B)  Touch, T a l k , of  the  Mother  Males  TABLE 1  Frequency of  (A)  46  TABLE 2  Frequency of  Occurrence of  Talk,  the Mother  (A)  Look,  S m i l e to E and t h e  i s Present  Talk  (Episode  Look  Smile  Males  2  16  2  Females  3  10  7  Total  5  26  9  TABLE 2  Frequency of  Occurrence of the  Talk,  Caretaker  C a m e r a when  1)  (B)  Look,  Smile to  i s Present  Talk  Look  Smile  Males  3  20  3  Females  6  15  2  Total.  9  35  5  E and t h e  (Episode  I)  Camera when  47  TABLE 3  Proportions Behaviors  in  and Number o f  Ss E x h i b i t i n g  the P r e s e n c e of  t h e Mother'and  Mother Episode  0  Episode  Caretaker Caretaker  Present  Proportion  N  Proportion  9/9  1.00  9/9  8/9 8/9  .85 .85  9/9 7/9  1.00 1.00 .77  3/9 8/8  .33 1.00  5/9 7/8  .55  2/9  .22  2/9  .22  3/9 4/9  .33 .44  6/9 1/9  .66 .11  5/9  .55  6/9  .66  1/5  .20  3/8  4/5  .80  8/8  3/5  .60  4/8  .37 1.00 .50  2/5  .40  3/8  .37  3/9  .33  3/9  7/9  .77  8/9  .33 .88  .87  II  C r y when C a r e g i v e r L e f t F o l l o w V i s u a l l y Out F o l l o w P h y s i c a l l y Out P l a y when C a r e g i v e r Away  Episode  the  N  I  Accept p/u & Relax Accept p/d p/d-play F o l l o w V i s u a l l y Around Active Manipulation  Present  certain  III  Partial Approach Look at C a r e g i v e r E n t e r i n g Smile at C a r e g i v e r T a l k at C a r e g i v e r L i f t Arms t o b e p / u Play 0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 S^ was t o o y o u n g t o m a n i p u l a t e  the  The t o t a l n d o e s n o t i n c l u d e  S s who p h y s i c a l l y  caregiver  out  of  the  room  the  toys followed  the  0  48  TABLE 4  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the Mother Mother Episode  the Three  and w i t h t h e  Episodes  Caretaker  Present  Caretaker  N  Males Proportion  N  5/5 5/5 5/5  1.00 1.00 1.00  4/4 3/4 3/4  2/5  .40  Males Proportion  N  1.00 .66 .66  5/5 5/5 5/5  1.00 1.00 1.00  4/4 4/4 2/4  1.00 1.00 .50  1/4  .25  3/5  .6.0  2/4  .50  1.00  4/4  1.00  4/4  1.00  3/4  .75  0/5  0  2/4  .50  1/5  .20  1/4  .25  2/5 1/5 4/5  .40 .20 .80  1/4 3/4 1/4  .25 .75 .25  3/5 1/5 3/5  .60 .20 .60  3/4 0/4 3/4  .75 0 .75  1/4  .25  0/1  0  0/4  0  3/4  .75  0 0  3/4  .75  1/1  1.00  4/4  1.00  4/4  1.00  0 0  2/4  .50  1/1  1.00  1/4  .25  3/4  .75  0 0  1/4 1/5 3/5  .25 .20 .60  1/1 2/4 4/4  1.00 .50 1.00  1/4 2/5 4/5  .25 .40 .80  2/4 1/4 4/4  .50 .25 1.00  0  4/4  Females Proportion  Present  N  I  Accept p/u & Relax Accept p/d p/d-play Follow Visually Active Manipulation Episode  During  Females Proporti  II  Cry Follow Visually F o l l o w Out Play Episode  III  Partial Approach Look at Caregiver Smile at Caregiver Talk at Caregiver L i f t Arms Play  0 0  1 S^ was t o o y o u n g  to manipulate  The t o t a l n d o e s n o t  include  caregiver  room  out  of  the  the  the  toys  Ss who p h y s i c a l l y  followed  the  49  TABLE 5  Sex and Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n  the S u b j e c t s ' R e a c t i o n s to  Strangers  N  Proportion  Sex  Customs I n s p e c t i o n (with watching  2/9  .22  M M  5 months 9 months  Customs I n s p e c t i o n (with a c t i v i t y )  3/9  .33  M F F.  10 m o n t h s 18 m o n t h s 24 m o n t h s  Reactively  3/9  .33  F M F  9 months 13 m o n t h s 25 m o n t h s  1/9  .11  M  27 m o n t h s  Reaction to  Strangers  Outgoing  Spontaneously Outgoing  Age  50  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A i n s w o r t h , M.D. in  Patterns  interaction  10,  of  attachment  w i t h h i s mother.  behavior  Merrill-Palmer  infant  Quarterly,  1964,  51-58.  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Bull.,  Toward an e m p i r i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l 1961, 58, 459-496.  of focussed r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (Ed.), Exceptional Infant:  B r u n n e r / M a z e l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967.  during  The Normal  infancy.  Infant,  56  APPENDIX Behavior Reaction to  Strangers  Checklist  ( f r o m B r o d y and A x e l r a d ,  1971)  Spontaneous o u t g o i n g n e s s : Reactively outgoing:  i n i t i a t e s s o c i a l ouvertures responds t o s m i l i n g o r t a l k i n g but does n o t initiate it Customs i n s p e c t i o n : l o o k s a t s t r a n g e r / l o s s of a c t i v i t y b u t no l o s s o f c o m p o s u r e / may r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y o r go on w a t c h i n g f o r a t i m e Unchanging s o b e r n e s s : maintains apprehensive watch w h i m p e r i n g / t u r n i n g away Mild general anxiety: hard cry Strong personal anxiety: S p e c i f i c avoidance of the s t r a n g e r No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : t h e c h i l d t r e a t s t h e s t r a n g e r i n t h e same way as t h e c a r e g i v e r (no a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s t r a n g e r ' s presence) D e s c r i p t i o n of  Coding Episode  the  Behavior  I  jS k e e p s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c a r e g i v e r when s h e p u t s h i m on the f l o o r a f t e r e a t i n g c r i e s t o b e p i c k e d up when s h e p u t s h i m o n t h e C r y - t o be p / u : f l o o r a n d a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e e p i s o d e when p u t d o w n , S^ s t a y s n e a r t h e c a r e g i v e r a n d d o e s Close/no play: not p l a y S_ s t a y s n e a r t h e c a r e g i v e r a n d p l a y s b u t n o t w i t h Close/play: the e x p e r i m e n t a l toys Look/A: S_ l o o k s a t t h e c a r e g i v e r Look/toy: J3 l o o k s a t t h e t o y s S l o o k s a t E or a t the camera Look/obs: Touch A * :  Talk/A: Talk/toy: Talk/obs:  S^ t a l k s S[ t a l k s  or v o c a l i z e s according to h i s to the t o y s  age t o  the  caregiver  S^ t a l k s t o E o r t o t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e c a m e r a Smile/A: JS s m i l e s a t t h e c a r e g i v e r Smile/obs: S s m i l e s at E o r a t the o p e r a t o r of the camera One s p o t / p a s s i v e : S^ a f t e r h a v i n g w a l k e d away f r o m A d u l t , i s i m m o b i l e does n o t p l a y One s p o t / p l a y : S_ d o e s n o t move b u t i s e n g a g e d i n p l a y i n g Finger Finger  in in  mouth nose  Orient/toy: Approach/toy: Passive manipulation: Active manipulation:  *:  Adult  and  t u r n s around to see the toys £[ g o e s t o t h e t o y s S_ t o u c h e s t h e t o y s b u t d o e s n o t do a t h i n g w i t h them S^ t h r o w s t h e b a l l , p l a y s w i t h t h e c a r , p u t s t h e b a b y i n and o u t o f t h e c r i b o r s i m i l a r l y p l a y s w i t h h i s own t o y s  57  c r i e s when t h e c a r e g i v e r g o e s o v e r a n d p i c k s h i m up j> shows p l e a s u r e t o b e p i c k e d up b y s m i l i n g o r h u g g i n g the c a r e g i v e r grabs t i g h t l y at c a r e g i v e r ^ i s r e l a x e d and may e x p l o r e t h e c a r e g i v e r ' s f a c e , k i s s her makes a movement away f r o m t h e c a r e g i v e r when .he w a n t s t o b e p i c k e d up  Cry-p/u: Pleasure-p/u: Tight in Relax i n Avoid  arms: arms:  contact:  Cry-p/u: Accept-p/dr p/d-play: p/d-no play:  c r i e s when t h e c a r e g i v e r p u t s h i m o n t h e f l o o r a g a i n a c c e p t s t o b e p u t on t h e f l o o r p r e s u m e s p l a y i n g a f t e r b e i n g i n the. c a r e g i v e r ' s arms does n o t resume p l a y i n g  Follow-eye: Follow-body: No f o l l o w :  Episode No No  S_ f o l l o w s A w i t h h i s e y e s when h e w a l k s a r o u n d t h e r o o m S^ a c t u a l l y f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r a r o u n d t h e r o o m S_ i s s o o c c u p i e d b y w h a t h e i s d o i n g t h a t h e d o e s n o t l o o k a t the c a r e g i v e r moving i n t h e room  II  cry/eye:  d o e s n o t c r y w h e n t h e c a r e g i v e r l e a v e s t h e room b u t f o l l o w s her w i t h h i s eyes S^ d o e s n o t c r y b u t f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r t o t h e d o o r  cry/door:  Look/door: Look/obs: No c r y / n o Cry/eye: Cry/door:  r  jS l o o k s a t S looks at eye:  Episode  episode  J3 d o e s n o t c r y and d o e s n o t l o o k a t A l e a v i n g G_ c r i e s a n d f o l l o w s h e r v i s u a l l y o u t o f t h e r o o m S c r i e s and p h y s i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r to t h e  Cry/no play: S t o p •' c r y / p l a y : Stop c r y / n o p l a y : No c r y / p l a y : Cry/A-reenter: Follow out:  the door d u r i n g the the camera or a t E  door  _S c r i e s and d o e s n o t p l a y when t h e c a r e g i v e r i s a b s e n t S_ s t o p s c r y i n g and r e s u m e s p l a y i n g S_ s t o p s c r y i n g b u t d o e s n o t p l a y anymore S^ d o e s n o t c r y and p l a y s d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e caregiver  S^ c r i e s s o much t h a t t h e c a r e g i v e r must come b a c k S_ f o l l o w s t h e c a r e g i v e r o u t o f t h e room d e s p i t e E_ t r y i n g t o t a l k and p l a y w i t h h i m  III  Approach/body: Approach/delay: P a r t i a l approach: Stop c r y i n g : Go on c r y i n g :  jS a p p r o a c h e s p h y s i c a l l y t h e c a r e g i v e r w i t h no d e l a y S^ a p p r o a c h e s b u t makes s e v e r a l s t o p s b e f o r e finally going to the c a r e g i v e r S^ s t a r t s a movement o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c a r e g i v e r b u t n e v e r a c t u a l l y goes n e a r h e r t o t o u c h h e r _S who was c r y i n g b e f o r e s t o p s when t h e c a r e g i v e r S does not s t o p c r y i n g a l t h o u g h the c a r e g i v e r i s  enters present  58  Look/A: Look/obs: Smile/A: Talk/A  looks looks  at at  the c a r e g i v e r e n t e r i n g i n the t h e E_ d u r i n g t h a t e p i s o d e  S_ s m i l e s  to  the  caregiver  during  that  room  episode  L i f t a r m s : .'_S l i f t s h i s arms t o b e p i c k e d up b y t h e c a r e g i v e r p/u-relax: i s r e l a x e d when i n t h e arms o f t h e c a r e g i v e r p/u-tight: c l i n g s to the c a r e g i v e r One s p o t - p a s s i v e : Play:  plays  Distress-not  Description Hard cry  does n o t  S i s d i s t r e s s e d but caregiver  caregiver the this  i s not  face:  cry but facial  directed  A fussing  more m u t e d / l e s s  A definite  the  Code  or screaming  Fussing:  and d o e s n o t  r e t u r n of  Crying Behavior  C r y i n g as opposed t o  A dry  the  during,-that episode after  to A :  of  go t o  B  violent  isolated  and n o t  contortion/no  An unhappy n o i s e w i t h o u t  C  cry face  A n u n h a p p y n o i s e and c r y f a c e  repeated  D  vocalization  E F G  play  caregiver to  the  

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