UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The wilderness myth : wilderness in British Columbia Davies, Eric Owen 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A8 D38.pdf [ 10.24MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101688.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101688-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101688-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101688-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101688-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101688-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101688-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101688-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101688.ris

Full Text

THE WILDERNESS MYTH: WILDERNESS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  by  ERIC OWEN DAVIES B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 196  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography  We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  April  1972  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available for.reference  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  and  study.  c o p y i n g of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head of my  Department or  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t written permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  thesis  my  ABSTRACT  The  e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  has been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by man's a t t i t u d e s towards h i s environment. These a t t i t u d e s have e v o l v e d from the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l legacy o f Europe as w e l l as from c e r t a i n  unique  North American c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As an u l t i m a t e l y i r r e p l a c a b l e r e s o u r c e , w i l d e r n e s s serves as an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s environment. However, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i f f i c u l t t o document, r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f such d i v e r s e aspects as the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l  sources o f w i l d e r n e s s  a t t i t u d e s ; the v a r i o u s v a l u e s p l a c e d on w i l d e r n e s s ; the t r e a t ment o f w i l d e r n e s s as r e f l e c t e d i n parks p o l i c y ; and an approximate knowledge o f the e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Attempts t o i n t e g r a t e these can a t b e s t o n l y p r o v i d e a p e r s o n a l view o f the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n , but t h i s seems u s e f u l i f t h e r e i s t o be p r o g r e s s towards the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s environment. The North American's p e r c e p t i o n and treatment  of wilderness  have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by human h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y and North American myths s p e c i f i c a l l y . Only ^  i n the l a s t seventy t o  ^eighty years has i t been p o s s i b l e f o r North Americans t o r e g a r d w i l d e r n e s s without  a'.great d e a l o f f e a r and d i s d a i n . Up u n t i l  t h i s time the w i l d e r n e s s was an area o f the unknown where man ventured  i n f e a r o f h i s p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l s a f e t y .  With the advent o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y t e c h n o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , w i l d e r n e s s has come t o serve as a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  important  symbol  f o r a growing number of people. Wilderness man's o r i g i n s and o f h i s i n i t i a l community. I t symbolizes v a l u e s t h a t man  may  stands as a symbol o f  r o l e as a member o f the e a r t h  a c o l l e c t i o n of g o a l s , i d e a l s ,  and  pursue as a l t e r n a t i v e s to pure m a t e r i a l  achievement. A l s o , because i t i s u l t i m a t e l y an  irreplacable  r e s o u r c e , w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l freedoms and  the number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e  to  future generations. The  predominantly  have f a c i l i t a t e d  n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards w i l d e r n e s s  and encouraged i t s hastened  removal from the  North American scene. C e r t a i n l y B r i t i s h Columbia p r e s e n t l y possesses  v a s t amounts of w i l d e r n e s s . However, g i v e n  relatively  s h o r t p e r i o d of time  the  s i n c e the date of i t s o r i g i n a l  European s e t t l e m e n t , the r a t e o f w i l d e r n e s s d e p l e t i o n must be regarded  as s i g n i f i c a n t . In examining w i l d e r n e s s  f i v e time p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from 1923  to 1970  i t was  the g r e a t e s t a l i e n a t i o n s o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g WW Vancouver I s l a n d and  l o s s e s over found  that  I I , notably  on  i n the mainland area south of 54°. While  the r a t e s o f w i l d e r n e s s l o s s i n these two  r e g i o n s have slowed  somewhat, the. mainland area n o r t h o f 54° i s c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g w i l d e r n e s s l o s s a t an a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e . In 1970  l e s s than  40%  of the mainland area south o f 54° c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  as  w i l d e r n e s s . T h i s same f i g u r e f o r Vancouver I s l a n d was  discovered  to be l e s s than s i x p e r c e n t . Study of the mainland area of 54° i n d i c a t e d t h a t 84% of t h i s area was t h i s f i g u r e was  based on i n s u f f i c i e n t  wilderness,  north although  data.  In l i g h t of t h i s w i l d e r n e s s view f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, e i g h t s p e c i f i c reccommendations on p r e s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s a t both  the  F e d e r a l and  P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of Government can be o u t l i n e d :  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of .purposes and  objectives, greater  between governments, implementation o f a p u b l i c  cooperation education  program, p r e s e r v a t i o n of f u t u r e a l t e r n a t i v e s , a g r e a t e r emphasis on long-term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and policy decisions.  a broader b a s i s f o r  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i  L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t of Figures  v i i  L i s t o f Maps  viii  Acknowledgement  ix  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 2 A CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  7  CHAPTER 3 WILDERNESS VALUES The U l t i m a t e I r r e p l a c a b l e Resource  29  Wilderness  31  Values  CHAPTER 4 WILDERNESS AND BRITISH COLUMBIA'S  PARKS  The N a t i o n a l Parks  50  Summary  70  The P r o v i n c i a l Parks  72  S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park  81  Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park  90  Conclusions  96  V  CHAPTER 5 DETERMINATION OF WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION Introduction  Page 99  Definitions  101  Approaches t o Mapping the W i l d e r n e s s 1. Sampling  I l l  2. A c c e s s i b i l i t y  115  3. Mapping  116  CHAPTER 6 WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION Introduction  121  W i l d e r n e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n Over Time  124  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n  143  Summary  1970  162  CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS  164  BIBLIOGRAPHY  17 3  vi  TABLES Page I.  Land Areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia  124  II.  Amount o f Non-Wilderness a t Given Time f o r Regions o f B r i t i s h Columbia  139  I I I . Area o f A d d i t i o n a l Non-Wilderness as I n d i c a t e d from Examination o f N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s Maps a t a S c a l e o f 1:250,000  143  IV.  Percentage o f W i l d e r n e s s Contained i n Each U n i t o f G r i d  V.  Residuals  Prom Sample  VI.  Residuals  f o r Each G r i d U n i t South o f 54°  V I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between W i l d e r n e s s and Elevation  148 ..  153 159 161  vii  FIGURES  Page l a . Change i n W i l d e r n e s s Area Over Time f o r Mainland Regions South and North o f 54 ..  134  b. Change i n Amount of Non-Wilderness f o r Each Time P e r i o d f o r Mainland Regions South and North o f 54°  134  2a. Change i n W i l d e r n e s s Area Over Time f o r Vancouver I s l a n d and Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands  137  b. Change i n Amount o f Non-Wilderness f o r Each Time P e r i o d f o r Vancouver I s l a n d and Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s  137  3. 4. 5. 6.  T o t a l Amount o f Non-Wilderness a t Given Time f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Percentage of W i l d e r n e s s a t Given Time f o r Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia Average S i z e o f W i l d e r n e s s Areas i n P r o v i n c e a t Given Times Percentage o f W i l d e r n e s s i n Each Row  '.  141 141  Horizontal  of G r i d  7.  Residuals  8.'  New Q u a n t i t i e s o f W i l d e r n e s s f o r Vancouver I s l a n d as Obtained from Three Map Sources 1970 T o t a l Value o f R e s i d u a l s f o r Each Row South o f 54°  9.  139  From Sample  149 154  156 156  viii  MAPS  Page 1.  N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n B r i t i s h Columbia  51  2.  Ybho and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks  67  3.  S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park  89  4.  Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park  94  5.  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1923  125  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1937  126  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1948  127  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1957  128  Wilderness D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1970  129  10. W i l d e r n e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1970 (revised)  146  6. 7. 8. 9.  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would f i r s t  l i k e t o thank Dr. Gary Gates and Mr.  K.G. Denike o f the Department o f Geography, U.B.C, f o r t h e i r h e l p and encouragement throughout this thesis.  I am e s p e c i a l l y  the development o f  i n d e b t e d to the s p i r i t o f  academic freedom p r o v i d e d by Dr. Gates. I should a l s o l i k e bo thank Dr. C.S. H o l l i n g  o f the  Resource S c i e n c e Center, U.B.C. f o r s u p p l y i n g me w i t h f i n a n c i a l support from the F o r d Foundation. a l s o be extended  Thanks must  t o the Department o f Geography, U.B.C.  f o r the a d d i t i o n a l  f i n a n c i a l assistance provided. F i n a l l y  I should l i k e t o thank my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r  continued  encouragement and my w i f e Diane who has p r o v i d e d both moral and  financial  support.  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION We have met the enemy and he i s us. (Pogo, by Walt K e l l y , date unknown) From the time o f the f i r s t European s e t t l e m e n t s , North America has been s u b j e c t e d t o a c t i o n s based on s e v e r a l myths.  Two o f the most b a s i c o f these have been  the myths o f " p r o g r e s s " and "overabundance."  The former  r e f e r s t o North America's c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o g r e s s as meaning i n c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a t v i r t u a l l y any cost.  A tacit  assumption  i n p u r s u i n g p r o g r e s s has  been t h a t the attainment o f m a t e r i a l wealth would  ensure  the e v o l u t i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r e and a w e l l - a d j u s t e d society.  I t was seldom q u e s t i o n e d t h a t m a t e r i a l wealth  was synonymous w i t h p r o g r e s s and t h a t t h i s was a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e g o a l f o r a new n a t i o n s t r i v i n g  for recognition.  The myth o f overabundance has n i c e l y complemented the myth o f p r o g r e s s , based  as i t i s on the premise  r e s o u r c e s o f t h i s c o n t i n e n t were i n e x h a u s t a b l e . w i t h an e n d l e s s supply o f r e s o u r c e s i t was easy t o envisage  a continuous  I t was t h i s combination technology  t h a t the Thus,  relatively  flow o f m a t e r i a l growth.  o f myths coupled w i t h an advancing  and unbounding human e n e r g i e s t h a t rushed a  f r o n t i e r across a c o n t i n e n t and i n the process  enveloped  the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the l a n d a t a t o t a l l y  unprecedented  rate.  - 2 The  myths of p r o g r e s s  and overabundance are  r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o those myths t h a t have e v o l v e d around wilderness.  The  first  of these c e n t r e s around the under-  s t a n d i n g and p e r c e p t i o n of what w i l d e r n e s s it  symbolises.  The  i s and what  second i s merely a s p e c i a l case o f  the myth o f overabundance, t h a t i s , t h a t v a s t areas w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e n t l y e x i s t and w i l l i n the f u t u r e w i t h o u t  any  continue t o do  conscious e f f o r t  of so  towards  p re s e r v a t i on.  The h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e o f North America have p r e d i s p o s e d i t s peoples  to p e r c e i v e w i l d e r n e s s i n a  p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g a t i v e manner. was  t h a t area which harboured  The  unconquered w i l d e r n e s s  savage men  and animals  w e l l as c o u n t l e s s demons o f the i m a g i n a t i o n .  as  I t was  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f s h o u l d become  inevitable, inbued  w i t h the same n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t e s .  The  frontiersman  the c o n d i t i o n of very e a r l y man  was  f o r c e d to remove  who  shared  the f o r e s t s i n o r d e r to b u i l d s e t t l e m e n t s and to p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n from w i l d animals r e q u i r e d the conquest  and n a t u r e .  Both s i t u a t i o n s  of w i l d e r n e s s , which at the same  time p r o v i d e d a measure by which man  c o u l d assess h i s  p r o g r e s s i n h i s e f f o r t s to a t t a i n a " c i v i l i z e d "  status.  Thus, w i l d e r n e s s was  the enemy whose s u b j e c t i o n was  necessary  to s u r v i v e .  i f man  was  absolutely  - 3 -  T h i s a v e r s i o n t o w i l d e r n e s s was  a p a r t o f the  o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r ' s European h e r i t a g e and encouraged h i s enthusiasm  f o r i t s removal.  o f progess  was  The e a r l y American  t h a t of the advancing  back the w i l d e r n e s s .  The  frontier  symbol  pushing  d e s t r u c t i o n of wilderness  c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l i n s e v e r a l ways.  I t removed a  n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t e o f the country, i t p r o v i d e d s a f e f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and most important, m a t e r i a l resources so necessary  i t provided  and what i t symbolizes some, w i l d e r n e s s i s any  although  of e x a c t l y what w i l d e r n e s s i s has been slow i n e v o l v i n g .  Others parks  For  area t h a t does not c o n t a i n  o r s i d e w a l k s , a c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n t h a t at ensures  ".  "wilderness"  assumed some measure of a c c e p t a b i l i t y ,  a g e n e r a l understanding  areas  the  to ensure "progress  In more r e c e n t y e a r s , the term has  was  a v a s t and e v e r l a s t i n g supply o f the  roads  least resource.  p e r c i e v e no d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l and w i l d e r n e s s .  Wilderness  viewed as a very expensive  has  a l s o come t o be  and e x c l u s i v e type o f  park:  Our i n d u s t r y ( f o r e s t r y ) i s not opposed t o the d e s i g n a t i o n o f parks as w i l d e r n e s s areas when t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d use i s r e q u i r e d f o r r e s e a r c h purposes or to p r o t e c t h i s t o r i c a l areas o f unique n a t u r a l phenomena, but we f a i l to see how huge l o c k e d up areas w i l l a s s i s t any b u t a very few who have the time, energy and money to h i k e i n t o v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y (Gordon Draeseka, October 19, 1971 Vancouver P r o v i n c e ) .  - 4 Such a statement  i s q u i t e t y p i c a l o f the  d i r e c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n manner i n which w i l d e r n e s s  i s most  often perceived.  However, w h i l e one  segment of the North  p o p u l a t i o n has p e r c e i v e d w i l d e r n e s s overcome, another  American  as an o b s t a c l e t o be  s m a l l e r , more i n t e n s e segment sees  w i l d e r n e s s as b e i n g something much more than mere v e g e t a b l e , and m i n e r a l .  T h e i r concern  animal,  goes beyond the  considerable u t i l i t a r i a n value of wilderness.  I t more  c l o s e l y i n v o l v e s man's r a t i o n a l e f o r e x i s t e n c e and f o r life.  They q u e s t i o n whether man,  powerful  animal, has  creatures.  as the e a r t h ' s most  the r i g h t to a n n i h i l a t e h i s f e l l o w  There i s a l s o the commonly e x p r e s s e d  t h a t man's greed  f o r m a t e r i a l i s m has  caused  him  fear to  l o s e s i g h t o f l i f e ' s more b a s i c v a l u e s and g o a l s , t h a t i s , perhaps North Americans have p a i d too h i g h a p r i c e for t h e i r material affluence. lies  A further consideration  i n the commitment t o t h i s and  future generations.  To remove w i l d e r n e s s i s to e f f e c t i v e l y  remove t h e i r  o f c h o i c e and t o reduce the number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s  freedom available  t o them.  For these people  (wilderness advocates)  wilderness  i s much more than a p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e to be u t i l i z e d f o r r e s e a r c h and r e c r e a t i o n , i t i s a symbol.  I t stands  a symbol of man's o r i g i n s , of h i s i n i t i a l  r o l e as a  as  - 5member o f the e a r t h community r a t h e r than malevolent of i t .  Wilderness  ruler  o f f e r s man the chance t o r e g a i n t h a t  measure o f h u m i l i t y t h a t w i l l  allow him t o see h i m s e l f  as an i n t r i c a t e p a r t o f the u n i v e r s e and n o t as a t o t a l l y separate  i d e n t i t y l o c k e d i n t o an aimless  existence.  Wilderness  symbolizes  and d e s t r u c t i v e  the a l t e r n a t i v e a v a i l a b l e  t o the pursuant o f complete m a t e r i a l i s m .  I t represents  a c o l l e c t i o n o f p o s s i b l e g o a l s , i d e a l s , and values  that  man may pursue.  represents  U l t i m a t e l y then,  i t s preservation  the c h o i c e o f one p a r t i c u l a r mode o f l i f e  and t h e r e j e c t i o n  of another.  A r e j e c t i o n of wilderness  p r e s e r v a t i o n would  be viewed by many as a s e r i o u s blow a g a i n s t freedoms. t o accept  individual  A f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n would not have the freedom or t o reject wilderness,  would have a l r e a d y been made.  the i r r e v o c a b l e d e c i s i o n  The i n d i v i d u a l would have  l o s t h i s freedom o f choice and the number o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s as he was f u r t h e r " l o c k e d i n t o " a g i v e n As nature's  ultimate i r r e p l a c a b l e resource,  s u c c i n c t l y symbolizes is  the one-way process  system.  wilderness  i n which man  involved.  T h i s paper attempts t o d e f i n e and c l a r i f y the concept o f w i l d e r n e s s and  through d i s c u s s i o n o f the term  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i t s present  role i n British  Columbia.  Two Chapters are deovted t o an examination o f w i l d e r n e s s  - 6 per se.  The  f i r s t places wilderness i n a c u l t u r a l / h i s t o r i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t c i t e s some o f the o r i g i n s o f the  North  American's p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e s towards w i l d e r n e s s .  The  f o l l o w i n g Chapter  p r e s e n t s some o f the reasons  t h a t have  been o f f e r e d f o r w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , drawing on w r i t i n g s o f some o f the w i l d e r n e s s more g e n e r a l w r i t i n g s .  the  " e l i t e s " as w e l l as  Having h o p e f u l l y c l a r i f i e d somewhat  the q u e s t i o n of what w i l d e r n e s s i s and what i t s v a l u e s a r e , the paper proceeds to d e s c r i b e what measures e x i s t for wilderness preservation. o f parks p o l i c y and  This e n t a i l s  l e g i s l a t i o n o f both the F e d e r a l  P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f Government. P r o v i n c i a l Parks  The h i s t o r i e s o f  and the e x i s t i n g l e v e l o f concern  or denying  and two  are a l s o g i v e n i n some d e t a i l to p r o v i d e  examples of the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g of parks  The  examination  legislation  f o r wilderness preservation.  remainder of the paper i s devoted  to confirming  the myth o f an overabundance of w i l d e r n e s s i n  B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t d i s c u s s e s the d e f i n i t i o n a l problems  i n v o l v e d and p r e s e n t s a number o f d i f f e r e n t  approaches  t o e s t a b l i s h i n g the q u a n t i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s . The  chosen methodology i s d e s c r i b e d and the r e s u l t s  p r e s e n t e d , p r i n c i p a l l y i n the form o f maps and These r e s u l t s i n v o l v e two o f changing  stages o f study, an  are  graphs. examination  w i l d e r n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n over time and a more  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the 19 70 d i s t r i b u t i o n .  More s p e c i f i c  d e t a i l s concerning d e f i n i t i o n s and methodology are g i v e n i n Chapters  5 and  6.  CHAPTER 2 A CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  The  term " w i l d e r n e s s "  i s fraught with  d i f f i c u l t i e s of interpretation.  countless  I t s meaning i s as  v a r i a b l e as the number o f w r i t e r s u s i n g the word f o r as many d i f f e r e n t purposes.  Roderick  Nash has s u c c i n c t l y  d e s c r i b e d the dilemma by n o t i n g t h a t "while  the word  i s a noun i t a c t s l i k e an a d j e c t i v e " (Nash, 1967, P . l ) . I t i s i n t h i s r o l e as an a d j e c t i v e t h a t w i l d e r n e s s so many s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . of wilderness  possesses  Not o n l y does p e r c e p t i o n  vary between persons a t any g i v e n  time,  but over time a person's own views are s u b j e c t t o change. .  Webster's d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s w i l d e r n e s s as "a d e s e r t ; a t r a c t o f l a n d o r r e g i o n u n c u l t i v a t e d and uninhabited  by human b e i n g s , whether a f o r e s t o r a w i l d  b a r r e n p l a i n " o r as "a sense o f d i s o r d e r and c o n f u s i o n " . Wilderness context  has a l s o taken on many meanings o u t s i d e o f the  o f the p h y s i c a l landscape.  Thus, the urban  centre has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as a w i l d e r n e s s  i n the  sense t h a t i t i s a n t i p a t h e t i c t o the needs o f p e o p l e , or t h a t i t i s an area o f " d i s o r d e r and c o n f u s i o n " . S i m i l a r l y , a mental w i l d e r n e s s  i m p l i e s the e x i s t e n c e o f  deranged thought o r a mental v o i d . has made e x t e n s i v e  use o f w i l d e r n e s s  The C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n as a p l a c e o f sanctuary  -  8 -  and c o n v e r s e l y as a d e s o l a t e area of banishment. gamut of use the term s t i l l  remains l a r g e l y t h a t of a  s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g about a n a t u r a l landscape. an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s i s w i l d e r n e s s , f o r him,  The  temptation  i n d i v i d u a l to m a i n t a i n h i s own  acceptable  i s to a l l o w each  personal  understanding  and to i g n o r e the d e f i n i t i o n a l problem. at t h i s stage of a d o p t i n g a w i d e l y  What  i s wilderness.  Such a broad range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s d e f i e s an general d e f i n i t i o n .  With t h i s wide  It is precisely  acceptable  definition  t h a t p o t e n t i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n has  f a l l e n short  because no two  identical  understanding  groups are able t o a t t a i n an of the term.  A l o g i c a l extreme t o the s t r i c t l y  personal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that of a rigorous d e f i n i t i o n that s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y the a c c e p t a b l e a t t r i b u t e s of a w i l d e r ness.  While such an approach f a c i l i t a t e s  any d i s c u s s i o n  o f w i l d e r n e s s , i t must a l s o i n e v i t a b l y c o n t r a d i c t the p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a g r e a t many p e o p l e . another  a l t e r n a t i v e i s forwarded  Yet  by Nash's concept  of  a spectrum o f environments r a n g i n g from " c i v i l i z a t i o n wilderness"  (Nash, 1967,  P.6).  T h i s appears t o be  to  the  most s a t i s f a c t o r y and r e a l i s t i c manner i n which to a p p r a i s e the s i t u a t i o n .  I t i s c e r t a i n l y the most g e n e r a l l y  a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h a t both terms may  be  as opposing  lying  extremes w i t h a l l o t h e r environments  somewhere between the two e x t r e m i t i e s . t h i s spectrum, one  Thus, i n t r a v e r s i n g  c r o s s e s from the very densely  urban c e n t e r s t o areas w i t h fewer and  viewed  populated  fewer people  until  - 9 f i n a l l y one by man.  i s confronted with true wilderness  unaffected  T h i s i d e a of a spectrum based l a r g e l y on  densities  o f people w i l l be examined f u r t h e r i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the l o c a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s  Given  areas.  the innumerable d i f f i c u l t i e s  and  conflicts  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f w i l d e r n e s s i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e to r e c o g n i z e the source of many o f problems through  an examination  and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t .  these  of the term i n a  cultural  In a d d i t i o n to c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s  unique t o t h i s c o n t i n e n t , the North American's p e r c e p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s has been shaped by the e n t i r e long and h i s t o r y o f Western  man.  From h i s e a r l i e s t most p r i m i t i v e  beginnings,  man's c h i e f o b s t a c l e i n h i s s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l the w i l d e r n e s s .  Not  o n l y d i d the w i l d e r n e s s  man's community expansion  Thus, e a r l y  quite j u s t i f i e d i n regarding wilderness  most n e g a t i v e f o r c e opposing alive.  As man  e v o l v e d he was  as the d i s c o v e r y of f i r e ,  animals,  and  as a  h i s every e f f o r t t o remain a b l e to e x e r t a g r e a t e r  c o n t r o l over t h i s h o s t i l e environment through such  restrict  and savages t h a t were  a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t to h i s d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . was  was  and h i s a b i l i t y t o t r a v e l ,  but i t a l s o harbored w i l d b e a s t s  man  complex  innovations  the d o m e s t i c a t i o n  the r a i s i n g o f c r o p s .  Each of these  of advance-  ments f a c i l i t a t e d the removal o f w i l d e r n e s s which i n t u r n made l i f e t h a t much more p l e a s a n t f o r  man.  - 10 The p a t t e r n then, was s e t - p r o g r e s s i n v o l v e d the d e s t r u c t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s .  The degree o f " c i v i l i z a t i o n "  a t t a i n e d by a people c o u l d be measured i n terms o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f conquered w i l d e r n e s s .  The i n i t i a l  chore i n  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any community would be the removal o f as much o f the s u r r o u n d i n g w i l d e r n e s s as p o s s i b l e . T h i s would be f o l l o w e d by f u r t h e r c l e a r i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes  and the n a t u r a l expansion  o f t h e community.  In p l a c e o f the w i l d e r n e s s , man grew crops and "domestic" gardens,  as opposed t o the d i s o r d e r e d f l a u r a o f n a t u r e ,  p r o v i d i n g n o t only a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y , b u t a l s o o f comfort  and enjoyment.  "garden p a r a d i s e " .  Wilderness  domesticated was t h e  Nature came t o be viewed as b e a u t i f u l  when i t was u s e f u l , t h a t i s , i n the form o f o r d e r e d f i e l d s o f crops and o r c h a r d s .  Thus, the nature t h a t  was l a t e r t o be lauded i n the c l a s s i c a l Greek and Roman l i t e r a t u r e , was s o l e l y o f a domestic,  pastoral  variety.  The w i l d e r n e s s remained an area beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f man, c a r r y i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s o f an e v i l and h o s t i l e environment.  In common w i t h e a r l i e r  peoples,  the f o l k t r a d i o n s o f t h e Greeks and Romans c o n t a i n e d c o u n t l e s s t a l e s o f s u p e r n a t u r a l and e v i l c r e a t u r e s t h a t i n h a b i t e d remote and d e s o l a t e r e g i o n s .  The t r a v e l s  of U l y s s e s are r e p l e t e w i t h numerous encounters  involving  t e r r i f y i n g monsters, the m a j o r i t y o f whom dwelt i n caves on d i s t a n t i s l a n d s from which they preyed on t h e i r One o f these was S c y l l a ,  victims.  f o r m e r l y a b e a u t i f u l maiden,  - 11 -  but transformed i n t o a hideous  six-headed monster w i t h  an e q u a l number of s e r p e n t - l i k e necks t h a t allowed her t o reach down from h e r cave and snatch s i x s a i l o r s a t a time, as she d i d from U l y s s e s ' s h i p ( F i t z g e r a l d ,  1963).  U l y s s e s a l s o had t o contend w i t h the L a e s t r y g o n i a n s , the Cyclopes and C h a r y b d i s .  Chimaera, Geryon, and the Gorgons  were o t h e r monsters o f Greek mythology Anson, 1964;  B u l f i n c h , . 1970) .  (Finlay,  1963;  B e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e o f  these monsters i n s t i l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f e a r i n those Greeks who  dared venture beyond the known bounds o f  civilization.  I t was  n a t u r a l t h a t these f e a r s s h o u l d  a l s o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the unknown w i l d e r n e s s t h a t s h e l t e r e d these c r e a t u r e s .  These f e a r s e x i s t e d i n v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the Western c i v i l i z a t i o n s .  While not so numerous as  the Greeks, the Romans too had t h e i r share of such as Cacus, the huge g i a n t who t r a d i t i o n , by l i v i n g  remained  true to  i n a cave from which he  f o r t h t o p l u n d e r the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e 1970).  Northern Europe,  perhaps  monsters,  ventured (Bulfinch,  because o f i t s l e s s  h o s p i t a b l e c l i m a t e and many t h i c k l y  forested, uninhabited  r e g i o n s , had a more i n t e n s i f i e d f e a r of w i l d e r n e s s . P r o b a b l y the best-known of i t s legendary monsters was man-eating b e a s t Grendel who hero Beowulf. these myths was is,  The dominating  was  the  terrible  e v e n t u a l l y s l a i n by  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l of  t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards w i l d e r n e s s , t h a t  those areas most removed from c i v i l i z a t i o n . These  were the areas o f the unknown, o f the e v i l and s u p e r n a t u r a l .  - 12 -  areas where man  journeyed  f i l l e d with fears f o r h i s p h y s i c a l  and s p i r i t u a l s a f e t y .  Fear of the w i l d e r n e s s then, had s t r o n g  foundations  t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d from the most p r i m i t i v e t o the r e l a t i v e l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d o r i g i n s of man. has  a l s o been a most i n f l u e n t i a l f o r c e i n shaping  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s -predominantly  wilderness  the C h r i s t i a n  w i t h r e g a r d t o North American development.  religion  There are  p r o f u s e r e f e r e n c e s t o w i l d e r n e s s c o n t a i n e d i n the Then, as now,  Religion  Bible.  the term i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l p a r a d o x i c a l  attributes.  For example, the d e s e r t w i l d e r n e s s was  used by God  as a weapon to t h r e a t e n or punish people  "to of  be banished  to the w i l d e r n e s s " .  Adam and Eve who  Such was  or the p e r s e c u t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y .  tested.  from enemies  I t c o u l d a l s o be  c o u l d be c l o s e r to God  or where one's f a i t h and  I t was  s t r e n g t h c o u l d be  f o r these l a t t e r reasons  that r e l i g i o u s  w i l d e r n e s s where they hoped t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r in a life  an  (through d i s t a n c e  l e a d e r s and hermits o f t e n f l e d from s o c i e t y i n t o  w i t h God  case  At the same time,  however, the w i l d e r n e s s s e r v e d as a s a n c t u a r y  from man),  -  were f o r c e d to abandon t h e i r garden  p a r a d i s e h a v i n g y i e l d e d to temptation.  area where one  the  often  the communication  of g r e a t e r s i m p l i c i t y and p u r i t y  (Anson,  1964) .  These mixed p e r c e p t i o n s of w i l d e r n e s s i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l major occurrences  i n early  Christianity  It  - 13 -  was w h i l e i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s Ten  t h a t Moses r e c e i v e d the  Commandments and was t o l d t h a t the I s r e a l i t e s might  escape from t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f Canaan.  and i n t o the promised  Thus, w h i l e the w i l d e r n e s s  land  had o f f e r e d momentary  s a n c t u a r y f o r Moses and h i s f o l l o w e r s , i t was s t i l l as a harsh and i n h o s p i t a b l e environment.  regarded  There e x i s t  numerous examples o f f o l l o w e r s o f C h r i s t removing themselves t o the d e s e r t intimacy  (wilderness)  w i t h God.  t h a t they might o b t a i n a g r e a t e r  Jesus h i m s e l f went i n t o the d e s e r t  f o r f o r t y days, where he was tempted by the D e v i l , r e j e c t e d t e m p t a t i o n , and emerged as the v o i c e o f God. wilderness  Again,  may be seen as a h a b i t a t o f e v i l , o f f e r i n g  s a n c t u a r y from s o c i e t y , b u t a t the same time exposing the v i s i t o r t o c e r t a i n e v i l  forces.  Northern Europe was i n t r o d u c e d  to C h r i s t i a n i t y  by m i s s i o n a r i e s , whose primary task was the c o n v e r s i o n o f pagans t o the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h .  Because many pagan  ceremonies were conducted i n t h e w i l d s , the removal o f the s u r r o u n d i n g f o r e s t s t h a t s h e l t e r e d t h e i r r i t e s was viewed as a p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t h a t a l s o served measure o f t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s ' Christianity.  success i n i n t r o d u c i n g  T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n h e r e n t  apprehension t h a t these Northern t r i b e s f e l t wilds.  as a u s e f u l  f o r the  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r many myths and legends  t h e r e were many s u b s t a n t i a l reasons why they avoided the unpopulated woods. s o c i a l outcasts, not  These were areas i n h a b i t e d by  t h i e v e s , and g e n e r a l l y those who d i d  f i t w i t h i n the accepted c o n f i n e s  of c i v i l i z e d  society.  - 14 It  i s understandable  woods was  then, t h a t t r a v e l through  viewed w i t h some m i s g i v i n g s and i n t u r n ,  the w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f negative  the that  s h o u l d be imbued w i t h these same  attributes.  The  a n t i p a t h y o f Western thought  towards  w i l d e r n e s s , n o t a b l y through i t s r e l i g i o n , i s even more emphatic  when c o n s t r a s t e d to t h a t o f the F a r E a s t .  Genrally, Eastern r e l i g i o n s  felt  t h a t man  p a r t o f nature r a t h e r than the conquerer  was  an i n t i m a t e  of nature.  The Japanese S h i n t o r e l i g i o n d e i f i e d the f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , c h i e f l y those more dynamic f o r c e s such mountains, r i v e r s and storms, d i v i n e b e i n g was  f o r i t was  felt  as that  more p o t e n t i n these e s s e n t i a l l y w i l d e r -  ness s e t t i n g s than i n the r u r a l p a s t o r a l scene. China, Taoism was  i n i t i a t e d as a r e l i g i o n by  who  taught t h a t "the sum  man  i s t h a t he a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o t h i s o r d e r  and h i m s e l f r e l f e c t p. 76).  the  Lao-tse,  o f wisdom and of happiness f o r  the way  In a s p i r i t  In  (nature)  the w o r l d moves"(Ross,  1956,  s i m i l a r to that o f t e n expressed  today, the e a r l y T a o i s t s r e f e r r e d t o a p a s t "Golden when men  l i v e d i n peace and harmony because they were  n a t u r a l and f r e e from a r t i f i c i a l i t y . primary g o a l s was nature was of  Age"  of t h e i r  " t o get back t o n a t u r e " , where  understood  a l l things.  One  t o be the n a t u r a l and p r o p e r  At a s l i g h t l y  l a t e r date,  way  Confucious  turned t o the Tao and t o n a t u r e , d e c i d i n g t h a t the b e s t  - 15 man c o u l d do i n the world was t o f o l l o w nature and harmony.  The North American p i o n e e r s ' a t t i t u d e towards w i l d e r n e s s was c o n d i t i o n e d by a complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f forces.  There were two s t r o n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a b i a s  against wilderness.  The f i r s t o f these was as a p h y s i c a l  t h r e a t t o h i s s u r v i v a l - h a r b o r i n g savages, and o t h e r insundry c r e a t u r e s o f the i m a g i n a t i o n .  Second, was the  w i l d e r n e s s as a s i n i s t e r symbol as d e r i v e d from mythology and the European c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . the North American p i o n e e r s d i f f e r  religion, Nor d i d  from t h e i r a n c e s t o r s i n  f e a r i n g the m o r a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e powers o f the w i l d e r n e s s . Like t h e i r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n predecessors,  they f e l t  that  the w i l d e r n e s s was able t o remove man's m o r a l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and change him i n t o a c r e a t u r e o f the w i l d s . In the p r e f a c e t o The C r u c i b l e , A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s p l a y concerning the Salem w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s ,  he w r i t e s t h a t  "the Salem f o l k b e l i e v e d t h a t the v i r g i n f o r e s t was the D e v i l ' s l a s t p r e s e r v e " and t h a t " t o the b e s t o f t h e i r knowledge the American f o r e s t was t h e l a s t p l a c e on E a r t h t h a t was n o t p a y i n g homage t o God" ( M i l l e r , 1959, P.3). In a s i m i l a r v e i n , N a t h a n i a l Hawthorne d e s c r i b e d Goodman Brown, i n h i s s t o r y o f the same name, a w a i t i n g h i s acceptance  as a convert t o the worship o f the D e v i l .  While he stands  among those a l r e a d y i n i t i a t e d  "there  came a sound, as i f the r o a r i n g wind, the r u s h i n g streams,  - 16 the howling b e a s t s , and every o t h e r v o i c e o f the unconcerted  w i l d e r n e s s were m i n g l i n g and a c c o r d i n g w i t h  the v o i c e o f the g u i l t y man all"  (Waggoner, 1965,  i n homage to the p r i n c e o f  p. 118).  Such was  the s p i r i t  with  which the P u r i t a n p e r c e i v e d the w i l d e r n e s s .  I t may  be seen from the a t t i t u d e s o f  these  very e a r l y s e t t l e r s , namely the P u r i t a n s , t h a t w i l d e r n e s s c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be and contempt.  looked upon w i t h a n y t h i n g but f e a r  Roderick Nash and P e r r y M i l l e r tend t o  d i s a g r e e upon the e x a c t sources o f these f e e l i n g s .  The  l a t t e r a s s e r t s t h a t the P u r i t a n s were i n i t i a l l y  intending  t o l e a d a Reformation  later  and t h a t i t was  t h a t they became i n t e n t on conquering (Miller,  19 56) .  P u r i t a n conquest  the  o f w i l d e r n e s s as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f (Nash,1967).  The  point  academic i n terms o f a t t i t u d e s towards w i l d e r n e s s ,  as i t s conquest as one  the w i l d e r n e s s  Nash, on the o t h e r hand, regards  t h e i r h e r i t a g e and r e l i g i o n i s mostly  not u n t i l  through westward expansion  was  recognized  o f the g r e a t e s t achievements of the P u r i t a n s .  Again c o n j u r i n g many h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s those r e f e r e n c e s t o the New Garden P a r a d i s e .  World as the  Ignorance p e r p e t u a t e d  an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e was  to be  are  long-sought the myth t h a t  found i n the New  World,  a p a r a d i s e w i t h a temperate c l i m a t e and r e q u i r i n g a minimum o f l a b o u r f o r food and s h e l t e r .  Bruce Hutchison's  F r a s e r , o f f e r s s t r i k i n g examples o f t h i s l i n g e r i n g  The ignorance  - 17 i n which Englishmen  were l u r e d i n t o t r a v e l l i n g o v e r l a n d  t o the C a r i b o o Gold Rush.  In 1862, an o f f e r was made  by a London-based o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t r a n s p o r t people England  t o B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the grand sum o f 42 pounds  Sterling. was  from  The route from Saskatchewan t o B r i t i s h  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i r advertisement  as p a s s i n g  a l o v e l y country u n e q u a l l e d f o r i t s beauty o f c l i m a t e " (Hutchison, 1965, p.81).  Columbia  "through  and s a l u b r i t y  C r o s s i n g t h e Rocky  Mountains and s h o o t i n g the r a p i d s o f the F r a s e r R i v e r i n crude  l o g r a f t s d u r i n g Autumn and e a r l y Winter  d i s p e l l e d any n o t i o n o f an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . o f cannabalism  The occurrence  on one o f these runs would a l s o  reinforce  the a n t i p a t h y o f the p i o n e e r s towards w i l d e r n e s s 1965,  quickly  (Hutchison,  p.96).  I f the New World c o u l d n o t o f f e r a r e a d i l y made p a r a d i s e , then i t must be c r e a t e d from the w i l d e r ness, r e p l a c i n g c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r d e r w i t h and o r d e r e d landscapes.  In removing w i l d e r n e s s , t h e  f r o n t i e r s m a n was g i v i n g a broader scope t o h i s d a i l y l i f e  orchards  and more profound  - the p r o g r e s s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n  c o u l d be measured i n terms o f the r a t e o f i t s d e p l e t i o n . For a n a t i o n w i t h a n e g l i g i b l e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y ( f o r Europeans),  t h e conquest  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a unique advancing  o f w i l d e r n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d the American c u l t u r e .  The  f r o n t i e r was the h e r i t a g e o f America.  It is  not i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t p r o g r e s s i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o as a "conquest".  The w i l d e r n e s s  itself  - 18 -  had  taken on, more than at any o t h e r time i n the p a s t ,  a l l o f i t s n e g a t i v e connotations w i l d e r n e s s was the enemy.  and a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The  Thus, again and a g a i n , w i l d e r n e s s  was spoken o f i n m i l i t a r y metaphors t h a t added a g r e a t e r meaning and purpose t o the c l e a r i n g o f l a n d .  The f r o n t i e r s m a n  was not merely removing f o r e s t s , he was c o n d u c t i n g  a crusade  a g a i n s t the w i l d e r n e s s .  was  T h i s concept  o f a crusade  s t r o n g l y augmented by the n o t i o n o f conquering i n the name o f God, a n o t i o n s t r o n g l y supported  the w i l d e r n e s s by European  h i s t o r y and the o r i g i n a l P u r i t a n s e t t l e r s . In s h o r t , t h e r e has probably been no o t h e r time i n h i s t o r y i n which such a s t r o n g f o r c e o f f e e l i n g , capable o f a c t i o n , was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the w i l d e r n e s s .  I t s h o u l d not.be o v e r l y s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s d i d not b e g i n i n the w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r i n the more densely centers.  populated  The p i o n e e r , who was d a i l y p i t t e d a g a i n s t the  w i l d e r n e s s c o u l d not be expected  t o i n s t i g a t e any movement  t h a t e x t o l l e d the "charms and beauty" o f the unconquered forests.  The s t i m u l u s towards w i l d e r n e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n  was p r i m a r i l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l one w i t h i t s p r i n c i p a l r o o t s i n Europe.  Nash a t t r i b u t e s a g r e a t p a r t o f t h i s  change o f a t t i t u d e t o the Age o f Enlightenment, accepted Century  as t h a t p e r i o d c o v e r i n g the l a t e  Seventeenth  and the E i g h t e e n t h Century, which saw s c i e n c e  i n t r o d u c e an e n t i r e l y new view o f the u n i v e r s e 1967).  generally  (Nash,  - 19 -  The those was  r a p i d l y developing  o f p h y s i c s and  sciences, especially  astronomy, i n d i c a t e d t h a t  there  a g r e a t d e a l more harmony w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e  on the e a r t h i t s e l f than was 1959;  Day,  1963).  I t was  and  ever b e f o r e suspected  (Clifford,  f a s t becoming p o s s i b l e t o  accept  a l l p a r t s o f the e a r t h as God's work, - i n c l u d i n g mountains, f o r e s t s , and these  areas  r i v e r s , - and i n e v i t a b l y , w i l d e r n e s s .  Once  c o u l d be acknowledged to be the work o f  God  and not the D e v i l , i t f a c i l i t a t e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f beauty even i n w i l d c o u n t r y . strengthen  t h i s new  An  a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s e r v i n g to  a t t i t u d e was  the e x t e n s i v e  effect  o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , which by t h i s p e r i o d had d i s f i g u r e d g r e a t t r a c t s o f the c o u n t r y s i d e and had  significantly  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s w e l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s o f cities  (Day,  1963).  The  age-old  s u f f i c i e n c y of the farmer was  concept  of the  s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h i s was  Again, i t  not a g e n e r a l  a l e i s u r e d upper c l a s s .  c o u n t e r p a r t s , the workers i n the new  age were not i n a p o s i t i o n to a p p r e c i a t e any the p e r c e p t i o n of  new  l i m i t e d to a c e r t a i n m i n o r i t y composed  o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s and pioneer  self-  f o r e v e r broken as everyone  depended to some degree upon manufacturing.  a t t i t u d e , but was  the  Like t h e i r industrial change i n  nature.  Romanticism may  a l s o be seen as a s t r o n g  i n t h i s changing a t t i t u d e towards n a t u r e . upon whether one was  factor  Depending  h o s t i l e t o , or i n favour of  the  - 20 -  R o m a n t i c i s t s , they were viewed idealists.  as e i t h e r e s c a p i s t s o r  In support o f the former may be c i t e d  g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the p a s t - o f medieval Greece,  and even the p r i m i t i v e .  their  times, a n c i e n t  They c a r r i e d t h e i r remoteness  i n t o the p r e s e n t as w e l l w i t h t h e i r p r a i s e o f o r i e n t a l i s m and the noble savage, remained  the s e m i - m y t h i c a l i n d i v i d u a l who  pure through d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e .  Certainly,  the R o m a n t i c i s t s may be seen as r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t the concept o f r a t i o n a l man as forwarded d u r i n g the "Age of Enlightenment".  They p r e s e n t e d the i r r a t i o n a l  man,  seldom d i r e c t e d by f a c t s and reason, b u t more by h i s subconscious  and e m o t i o n a l d e s i r e s .  Through t h e i r  efforts  they wished  t o e x p l o r e the t r u e source o f human m o t i v a t i o n  and purpose  (Canaday, 1963; Day, 1963).  In t h e i r own minds, the R o m a n t i c i s t s saw as l i b e r a t o r s and c r e a t o r s . was an i d e a l i s m t h a t sought  themselves  "Common t o a l l o f the Romantics f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r  s o c i e t y t h e f u l l e s t o f freedom and e x p r e s s i o n " ( D a y , 1963, p.325).  Day goes on t o ennumerate what he c o n s i d e r s  t o be the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Romantic a t t i t u d e t h a t i n c l u d e d a " l o v e o f the w i l d and the p i c t u r e s q u e i n e x t e r n a l and human nature"(Day,  1963, p.331).  He a s c r i b e s  t h i s new a t t i t u d e t o the Age o f Reason t h a t removed the superstitious  f e a r o f n a t u r a l phenomena and t o the I n d u s t r i a l  R e v o l u t i o n t h a t promised  t o tame the w i l d s .  I t was p r e c i s e l y  t h i s w i l d aspect o f nature t h a t the Romantic wishes t o reflect  from h i s own i n n e r t u r m o i l .  The b i r t h o f Romanticism  - 21 a l s o s i g n a l l e d the b i r t h of the p r e s e n t dichotomy between art in  (humanism) and s c i e n c e  (technology)  the contemporary works of C P .  so v i v i d l y  Snow (Snow, 1961).  With a l l of these f o r c e s at work t h e r e a s o c i a l p r e s s u r e on any person to  o f p o s i t i o n or  was  intellect  demonstrate h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the w i l d s of n a t u r e .  Thus, j u s t as a young man undertake the "grand E i g h t e e n t h Century, same breed o f person wilderness  of l e i s u r e f e l t compelled  to  t o u r " of the c o n t i n e n t d u r i n g the so i t became f a s h i o n a b l e t h a t t h i s s h o u l d t r a v e l to America and  f i r s t hand.  were somewhat ambivalent was  illustrated  Those who  view  d i d praise wilderness  i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n t h a t seldom  i t p r a i s e d without q u a l i f i c a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y of a u t i l i t a r i a n  nature. stage.  Wilderness I t bears  acceptance  was  still  in a transition  r e p e t i t i o n t h a t these were s t i l l  the  a t t i t u d e s of a m i n o r i t y and t h a t f o r the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n the dominant f e e l i n g towards w i l d e r n e s s remained of  one  antipathy.  The  d u a l Romantic n o t i o n s o f the noble  savage  and the a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of w i l d e r n e s s were not e n t i r e l y new  concepts, but had never b e f o r e  such a p i n n a c l e o f p o p u l a r i t y . poetry  reached  In a d d i t i o n to Romantic  (which was' not the most p o p u l a r poetry o f the  g e n e r a l p u b l i c at t h a t t i m e ) , t h e r e was Jean-Jacques Rousseau and D a n i e l Dafoe.  the w r i t i n g of The  latter  had  - 22 -  a broad impact w i t h h i s n o v e l Robinson Crusoe,the  semi-  b i o g r a p h i c a l account o f a man t r a p p e d on a d e s e r t e d island.  While t h e p r i m i t i v e e x i s t e n c e was n o t p r e s e n t e d  as t o t a l l y  idyllic,  i t s advantages  were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d .  over c i t y  living  Although Defoe's work,  which s l i g h t l y preceded t h a t o f Rousseau, r e a l i z e d a more immediate  g e n e r a l acceptance, Rousseau a s s e r t e d a  g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e E i g h t e e n t h Century Romantic p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l as on f u t u r e w r i t e r s and p h i l o s o p h e r s who had been concerned w i t h human freedoms  and the  r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  Of e q u a l importance  t o the changing p e r c e p t i o n  o f n a t u r e were t h e works o f the Romantic p a i n t e r s ; men such as Gros, G e r i c a u l t , and D e l a c r o i x . p r e s e n t e d complete o f the p e r i o d .  Their paintings  chaos when c o n t r a s t e d t o the C l a s s i c i s t s  While the C l a s s i c i s t sought t o p r e s e n t  the r a t i o n a l , the s t a t i c , the o b j e c t i v e , and the o r d e r e d , the Romantic pursued t h e i r r a t i o n a l , t h e dynamic, t h e s u b j e c t i v e , and the confused  (Canaday,  1963).  The  acceptance o f t h i s type o f a r t a l s o s i g n a l l e d an acceptance and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f those w i l d e r p a r t s o f n a t u r e .  To accept  a c e r t a i n degree o f the d i s o r d e r e d was t o overcome one o f the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n s t o w i l d e r n e s s - i t s a b i l i t y t o confuse and overwhelm both the human s p i r i t  While European  and body.  c u l t u r e s t r u g g l e d w i t h the many  innovative forces r i s i n g within i t ,  t h e Americans  searched  - 23  -  f o r an i d e n t i t y on which to b u i l d a c u l t u r e . have been d i f f i c u l t ,  i f not  impossible,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s c u l t u r e on long-established  the  I t would  to attempt  the  foundations o f  the  European t r a d i t i o n s , and  thus i t was  necessary t o seek those q u a l i t i e s which c o u l d be as u n i q u e l y was  American.  The  first  and  logical  described  reaction  t o t u r n to n a t u r e , an a t t r i b u t e e x i s t i n g i n s u p e r -  abundance.  However, the v a r i o u s  laudatory  n a t u r e , such as grand mountains and exclusive  r i v e r s , were not  f e a t u r e s o f America a l o n e .  The  e q u a l l e d t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s  I t was  Alps not  in physical  but were a l s o endowed w i t h an i m p r e s s i v e c u l t u r a l heritage.  aspects o f  splendor,  historical  necessary, therefore,  the Americans t o seek out t h a t one  and  for  a t t r i b u t e that  not be matched anywhere i n Europe.  only  could  C l e a r l y , the s i n g l e ,  most obvious d i s t i n c t i o n l a y i n the v a s t q u a n t i t i e s o f wilderness  t h a t remained v i r t u a l l y untouched i n the unmapped  areas o f the West. wilderness  was  In a d d i t i o n , " i f ,  as many s u s p e c t e d ,  the medium through which God  c l e a r l y , then America had Europe"(Nash, 1967,  p.69).  a distinct  spoke most  advantage over  Nash a l s o notes t h a t  same l o g i c enabled the Americans to b e l i e v e t h a t o f the a e s t h e t i c and they were d e s t i n e d (Nash, 1967,  p.69).  i n s p i r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of  for a r t i s t i c This  and  literary  this "because wilderness  excellence"  a t t i t u d e i s confirmed by  Thoreau:  In l i t e r a t u r e i t i s o n l y the w i l d t h a t a t t r a c t s us. I t i s the u n c i v i l i z e d f r e e and w i l d t h i n k i n g i n Hamlet and The I l l i a d . . . t h a t d e l i g h t s us (Thoreau, 1893,  p.  272).  - 24 Indeed, a g r e a t many N i n e t e e n t h Century American w r i t e r s used the w i l d e r n e s s as the s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r works.  In the area o f n o n - f i c t i o n , the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s  o c c u p i e d a prominent p l a c e i n American  l i t e r a t u r e , most  n o t a b l y through the w r i t i n g s o f Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.  The T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s were r e b e l l i n g  a g a i n s t an i n c r e a s i n g l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i e t y and a t t e m p t i n g to  renew c o n t a c t s w i t h n a t u r e .  While t h e i r w r i t i n g s  were o f t e n e x c e s s i v e l y weighty and s e r i o u s , they n o n e t h e l e s s e x e r t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on American t h a t i f n o t immediately f e l t ,  culture  a t l e a s t was l o n g - l a s t i n g .  There was no doubt i n t h e i r minds t h a t America's hopes for In  s a l v a t i o n and c u l t u r e l a y i n i t s f r e e w i l d e r n e s s . the words o f Thoreau:  We go eastward t o r e a l i z e h i s t o r y and study the works o f a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , r e t r a c i n g the steps o f the r a c e ; we go westward as i n t o the f u t u r e , w i t h a s p i r i t o f e n t e r p r i s e and adventure ( Thoreau, 1893, p. 267). A few paragraphs l a t e r appears perhaps h i s most  familiar  quotation: The West o f which I speak i s b u t another name f o r t h e W i l d ; and what I have been p r e p a r i n g t o say i s , t h a t i n W i l d e r n e s s i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the World (Thoreau, 1893, p. 275). In making t h i s statement, Thoreau was n o t i n t r o d u c i n g  - 25 any  r e v o l u t i o n a r y concept,  i n which i t was expressed.  p e r s e , i t was more t h e manner The v a r i o u s p a r t s t h a t were  i m p l i e d by t h i s statement - the b a s i c a l l y w i l d  nature  o f man, t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the n a t u r a l s t a t e , t h e good t h a t e x i s t e d i n w i l d e r n e s s , and so on - these i d e a s had a l l been p r e s e n t e d  b e f o r e , p r i n c i p a l l y by the Romantics.  What was i n n o v a t i v e and somewhat s h o c k i n g many, was the d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n and man.  to a great  made between w i l d e r n e s s  the fundamental p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l o f Today, with the numerous problems p r e s s i n g i n on  modern man, Thoreau's words c a r r y an even g r e a t e r impact and a more urgent  meaning.  American f i c t i o n w r i t e r s were a l s o eager t o u t i l i z e wilderness  as a u n i q u e l y American d e v i c e .  The  works o f Fenimore Cooper are good examples o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e s t o i d e n t i f y an American c u l t u r e and t o c l a r i f y the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r o f w i l d e r n e s s . o f h i s c o n s t a n t dilemmas, found  F o r example, one  i n almost a l l o f h i s  works, concerns the a n t i t h e s i s between nature and civilization,  and between p e r s o n a l freedom and t h e law.  T h i s was a problem t h a t governed the e n t i r e westward movement and a p p a r e n t l y  still  poses a c o n f l i c t o f  i n t e r e s t s t o the contemporary American.  Leatherstocking,  the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n c r e a t e d by Cooper, was c o n s t a n t l y p l a c e d i n the midst contradictions.  Although  o f these s e v e r a l apparent  not e n t i r e l y the noble  savage,  - 26  -  L e a t h e r s t o c k i n g possessed t h a t he gained  a n a t u r a l m o r a l i t y and  from l i v i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s .  j u s t s h o r t o f the p e r f e c t c h i l d o f nature Indian.  Representing  nobility  He  - the  falls idealized  "good" at the o t h e r extreme o f  the s o c i a l spectrum are those r e f i n e d persons from distinguished families. fall  the v a s t m a j o r i t y , those who  the o t h e r , but who character. "is  Between these  by  The  p.  are n e i t h e r one  nor of  c h a r a c t e r of L e a t h e r s t o c k i n g h i m s e l f symbol o f the n a t i o n a l  o f adventure a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t "  (Smith,  66).  In h i s n o v e l , The  P r a i r i e , Cooper  p r e s e n t s h i s predicament o f i n c o m p a t i b l e 1950).  extremities  certain imperfections  f a r the most important  experience 1950,  possess  two  goals  F i r s t , he views the westward moving  f r o n t i e r as e v i l .  clearly  agricultural  I t r e p l a c e s the t r a n q u i l s o l i t u d e  o f the f o r e s t s w i t h the b o i s t e r o u s l i f e of the w i t h t h e i r accompanying v i c e s and wastes. encroaching  (Smith,  civilization  settlements  It is this  from which L e a t h e r s t o c k i n g  f l e e s , and r i g h t l y so i f the above d o c t r i n e i s t r u e ; that i s , that c i v i l i z a t i o n , which.is  i n h e r e n t l y bad,  d e s t r o y s n a t u r e , which i s i n h e r e n t l y good. this  Opposed t o  f i r s t view i s t h a t which p e r c e i v e s the westward  movement as good.  T h i s s t a n d i s supported  by the under-  s t a n d i n g t h a t the expanding f r o n t i e r b r i n g s w i t h i t the kind of s o c i a l progress  t h a t i s able to produce  r e f i n e d , a r i s t o c r a t i c product  the  previously described.  - 27 Cooper i s unable t o r e c o n c i l e these two n o t i o n s .  With  only s u b t l e changes, contemporary America s t i l l has not  r e c o n c i l e d these same c o n f l i c t s .  Roderick Nash c i t e s an example from e a r l y American p a i n t i n g o f the ambivalence i n the North American i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward w i l d e r n e s s 1969b, p.70). of paintings painter.  This  dichotomy i s r e f l e c t e d i n a s e r i e s  by Thomas Cole,  the great  landscape  This s e r i e s o f f i v e p a i n t i n g s  Course o f Empire, was completed d u r i n g depicted  the e v o l u t i o n o f a n a t i o n  c i v i l i z a t i o n to desolation.  e n t i t l e d The the 1830's and  from W i l d e r n e s s t o  B r i e f l y , the p a i n t i n g s  i l l u s t r a t e d the b e g i n n i n g s o f America, as a and  eventually  r i s i n g t o become a g r e a t  presumably due t o i t s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  desolation,  to wilderness.  and  goal  The l a s t p i c t u r e i s . one o f complete  d e p i c t i n g the p r i c e o f a c h i e v i n g  civilization;  wilderness,  civilization,  However, i t a l s o suggests t h a t a t t a i n i n g t h i s i n f l i c t e d a cost.  (Nash,  a great  although hope i s p r o f f e r r e d f o r a r e b i r t h  renewal, as evidenced by a s i n g l e mountain peak  looming above the man-made chaos.  From t h i s , Nash suggests that, i f w i l d e r n e s s had  been the only b a s i s o f American p r i d e the h i s t o r y  o f the American's a t t i t u d e towards i t would have been much s i m p l e r .  P r i n c i p a l l y what he means i s t h a t Americans  - 28 have d e r i v e d equal s a t i s f a c t i o n  from the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f  w i l d e r n e s s , p e r s e , as w e l l as i t s c o n v e r s i o n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . Thus, the " n a t i o n a l ego i s f e d both by p r e s e r v i n g and conquering  w i l d e r n e s s " and "as a consequence, the i n d i v i d u a l  tends t o be ambivalent  toward i t " ( N a s h , 1969b,p.72).  A l o g i c a l sequence t o the p r e c e d i n g would be an examination the l a t e N i n e t e e n t h  history  o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n movement from  Century t o the p r e s e n t day, although  t h i s would n e c e s s a r i l y be almost e x c l u s i v e l y a study o f i t s development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s - a development which does not have a p a r a l l e l i n Canadian H i s t o r y .  Canada's  l a c k o f a c o n s e r v a t i o n movement may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a number o f f a c t o r s , p r i n c i p a l l y c e n t e r e d around Country's s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n and v a s t s i z e . s t a t e d "Canadians s t i l l  As Nash has  r e g a r d themselves as p i o n e e r i n g  people w i t h an overabundance o f w i l d c o u n t r y " 1969,p.79).  this  Nonetheless,  the b a s i c h i s t o r i c a l  (Nash, forces  t h a t have shaped the American's a t t i t u d e s towards and perceptions of wilderness  are shared e q u a l l y by Canadians  and have been o s t e n s i v e l y r e c o r d e d  i n this  Chapter.  - 29 CHAPTER 3 WILDERNESS VALUES The  U l t i m a t e I r r e p l a c a b l e Resource We may not a p p r e c i a t e the f a c t ; but a f a c t n e v e r t h e l e s s i t remains: we are l i v i n g i n a Golden Age, the most g i l d e d Golden Age of human h i s t o r y not only of p a s t h i s t o r y , b u t o f f u t u r e h i s t o r y . At an ever a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e we are squandering the capital accumulated i n the e a r t h ' s c r u s t d u r i n g hundreds o f m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s . How long can t h i s spending spree go on? (Huxley, 1956, p.141) Huxley d i d not presume t o a f f i x some d e f i n i t e  date when man  s h o u l d f i n d h i m s e l f i r r e v o c a b l y s h o r t of  certain c r u c i a l resources. o f t h i s time p e r i o d may  As he p o i n t s o u t ,  vary c o n s i d e r a b l y between  i n d i v i d u a l s ; but what i s important the supply is_ f i n i t e .  estimates  to r e c o g n i z e i s t h a t  Numerous books have been w r i t t e n  concerning themselves w i t h the q u e s t i o n s o f w o r l d  resources  and the q u a l i t y o f man's f u t u r e e x i s t e n c e on t h i s p l a n e t . P r e d i c t i o n s vary.  H a r r i s o n Brown (19 54)  presented  three  p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the most l i k e l y o f which he thought  to be  r e t u r n to a b a s i c a l l y a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y . s i m i l a r date  Writing at a  (1955), S i r George Thomson foresaw s h o r t -  term gains through  t e c h n o l o g y , but t h a t i n the l o n g run  p r e s e n t trends would continue w i t h i n t e n s i f i e d between i n d u s t r i a l and n o n - i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s . Baade (1962) f e l t t h a t i t was sufficient  although  p o s s i b l e f o r man  food f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s  catastrophes  a  and  t h i s was  disparity Fritz to produce  (barring certain  assuming a s t a b i l i z e d w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n ) , not a l i k e l y o c c u r r e n c e .  More r e c e n t l y  a book has been produced e n t i t l e d Resources and Man  (1969)  JU  -  that d i s t i l l s  -  the ideas o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s p e r t a i n i n g  t o e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r f u t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y . They a l l f r e e l y admit t o an i n a b i l i t y  t o o f f e r any p r e c i s e  date r e g a r d i n g the t o t a l e x t i n c t i o n o r dangerous of any p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e .  shortage  There are simply t o o many  u n p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a b l e s , the primary  one b e i n g t h e r a t e  o f p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Another common denominator i n most resource w r i t i n g s i s t h a t c u r r e n t problems may be s o l v e d , o r a t l e a s t m o d i f i e d , through  v a r i o u s d i s c o v e r i e s and the  advances o f technology.  T h i s v i e w p o i n t i s f a r from  unanimous, however, and has been l a b e l l e d the "Myth o f S c i e n t i f i c Supremecy" by Stewart  U d a l l ( U d a l l , 19 63).  Whatever the case, t h i s l a s t p o i n t i l l u s t r a t e s the unique attributes of wilderness.  In i t s p u r e s t sense i t i s t h e  ultimate i r r e p l a c a b l e resource.  There can be no new  technology  t o i n c r e a s e man's r e s e r v e s o f w i l d e r n e s s n o r t o improve its quality.  While c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e requirements  offer  hopes o f s u b s t i t u t e s and/or a s t a b i l i z e d demand, the q u a n t i t y of wilderness w i l l  always be d e c r e a s i n g even as the demand  f o r i t i n c r e a s e s a t an a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e .  F o r example,  w h i l e the p o p u l a t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s expected t o double between 1960 and 2000, p r o j e c t i o n s made f o r t h i s same p e r i o d i n d i c a t e a t e n f o l d i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l mandays o f w i l d e r n e s s use (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resource Review Commission, 1962; N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , 1969).  - 31 W i l d e r n e s s Values How come n o t h i n g ' s l i k e i t was u n t i l i t s ' gone? ( W i l l M a s t i n i n Yes I Can by Sammy D a v i s , J r . ) Any  attempt t o j u s t i f y t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n  w i l d e r n e s s may be l i k e n e d advocating r e t e n t i o n increasingly the  of  i n many ways t o an argument  o f the human element w i t h i n an  technocratic  society; that  i s , f o r many  d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e t a i n i n g these a t t r i b u t e s i s a  self-evident  t r u t h , w h i l e f o r o t h e r s the argument  a s o l i d economic f o u n d a t i o n .  requires  These types o f v a l u e  a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t i n v i r t u a l l y a l l aspects o f modern life  and are concerned w i t h what may be l o o s e l y  described  as the " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " .  With r e g a r d t o the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s  available,  the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s n o t t o be regarded as a n e u t r a l condition  - i t i s one o f the extreme a l t e r n a t i v e s .  For  example, i n the realm o f p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l , the extremes are r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o n t i n u i n g barring  a c a t a s t r o p h e , a zero growth r a t e .  that despite  former extreme.  rate,  p r o c e e d i n g i n a d i r e c t i o n c l o s e t o the Without making a d e c i s i o n we are n o t  a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n where l i t t l e  we are u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y extreme.  I t i s clear  p r e s e n t e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l the b i r t h  we are c u r r e n t l y  in  e x p o n e n t i a l growth o r ,  i s happening,  instead  committed t o the one p a r t i c u l a r  L o g i c then s h o u l d seem t o d i c t a t e t h a t  r a t e s h o u l d be more s e v e r e l y  the b i r t h  curbed u n t i l such time as the  complete range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s  can be f u l l y  evaluated.  - 32 T h i s same thought p a t t e r n may the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s . is folly  t o be making  o b j e c t i v e s are not stated.  be a p p l i e d to  In both i n s t a n c e s i t  (or not making) d e c i s i o n s when the  c l e a r l y understood and  explicitly  Without a d e c i s i o n , or an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s a s t e r ,  the p o p u l a t i o n  t r e n d i s i r r e v e r s i b l e - man  i s locked  i n t o c e r t a i n g l o b a l r e a c t i o n s t h a t must occur w i t h overly high population. although  In an even more r e s t r i c t i v e  on a l e s s desperate  - i t can never be  original natural condition. non-decision  Again,  The  r e s t o r e d to i t s  e x i s t i n g trauma o f  does not perpetuate  but r a t h e r i t narrows the  There appears to be  continue,  number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s .  the s t a t e o f n o n - d e c i s i o n  s t a t u s quo,  i s an  allows t h i s i r r e v e r s i b l e l o s s to  s l o w l y removing the remaining  f i e l d of  s u f f i c i e n t evidence  that  wilderness  or perhaps improve, the p r e s e n t q u a l i t y o f l i f e accompanying system o f v a l u e s .  As J.A.  the  choice.  i s not o n l y d e s i r a b l e , but e s s e n t i a l , i n o r d e r to  its  sense,  l e v e l , at l e a s t i n terms  o f p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , the l o s s of w i l d e r n e s s i r r e v e r s i b l e process  an  maintain,  and  Rush s t a t e d :  When man o b l i t e r a t e s w i l d e r n e s s , he r e p u d i a t e s the e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e t h a t put him on t h i s p l a n e t . In a deeply t e r r i f y i n g sense, man i s on h i s own (Quoted i n Brower, 1969, p. x v i ) .  It i s d i f f i c u l t  to compile a s a t i s f a c t o r y  of the p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f w i l d e r n e s s  because  list  they  - 33 operate on so many p l a n e s .  Perhaps the most encompassing  i s t h a t o f the moral and e t h i c a l v a l u e s .  These are  p o i n t s c o n s t a n t l y emphasized by c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , n o t a b l y by Aldo Leopold who  forwarded  a l a n d e t h i c which "changes  the r o l e o f Homo sapiens from conquerer  o f the l a n d  community t o p l a i n c i t i z e n and member o f i t " 1969,  p.204).  He  e t h i c s are s t i l l  f u r t h e r p o i n t s out t h a t  it  While  "land-use  governed w h o l l y by economic s e l f - i n t e r e s t ,  j u s t as s o c i a l e t h i c s were a century ago" p.209).  (Leopold,  1969  the i d e a of a l a n d e t h i c i s not a new  i s becoming more and more r e l e v a n t as our  land areas decrease upon one  (Leopold,  another,  and we  one,  available  a l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent  Man's e t h i c s and h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f  e t h i c s were a l s o q u e s t i o n e d by A l b e r t  Schweitzer:  The g r e a t e r r o r of e a r l i e r e t h i c s i s t h a t i t conveived i t s e l f as concerned o n l y w i t h the r e l a t i o n s o f man t o man A man i s e t h i c a l o n l y when l i f e , as such, i s s a c r e d to him, t h a t of p l a n t s and animals (as w e l l ) as t h a t o f h i s f e l l o w man (Quoted i n K i e r n a n , 1965, p.214).  S t i l l w i t h i n the category o f e t h i c s nonrenewable aspect o f w i l d e r n e s s . to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ?  lies  What i s the  In a very r e a l sense  the  obligation  the contemporary  world i s d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c i n g t h e i r freedom o f c h o i c e . I f the r e s o u r c e s o f a w i l d e r n e s s are to be u t i l i z e d , t h a t is,  the w i l d e r n e s s d e s t r o y e d , what are some of the s h o r t  and long-run t r a d e - o f f s i n v o l v e d ?  On  a short-term basis  t h e r e would most c e r t a i n l y be economic g a i n .  In the  -  long-run,  34 -  the cost o f r e p l a c i n g t h i s wilderness  w i t h an  i n f e r i o r s u b s t i t u t e would l i k e l y dwarf the o r i g i n a l  immediate  gain.  Recent years i n both w i l d e r n e s s 1959  have w i t n e s s e d an a c c e l e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t  use and c o n s e r v a t i o n .  Between 19 47 and  t h e r e was a f o u r - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n man-days o f use on  designated States.  n a t i o n a l f o r e s t wilderness  areas i n the U n i t e d  P r o j e c t i o n s made f o r the y e a r 2000 i n d i c a t e an  i n c r e a s e o f 10 times the 1959 l e v e l f o r the t o t a l man-days of wilderness  use (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  Commission, 1962, p . 8 ) .  Resources Review  These are r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e f a r  exceeding even the most extreme p r e d i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n rates.  Although Canada does not possess n a t i o n a l l y  wilderness  areas,  number o f v i s i t s  to i t s  Parks.  The  reasons f o r t h i s  r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n  f a n t a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n outdoor  are numerous and complex, b u t a r e  p r i m a r i l y involved with population supply,  designated  the same a c c e l e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e o u t -  doors i s r e f l e c t e d i n the r e c o r d e d National  growth  growth, a f i x e d  and i n c r e a s e d d i s c r e t i o n a r y p u r c h a s i n g  land  power. N a t u r a l l y  a l l o f these f a c t o r s are i n t e r r e l a t e d as w e l l as b e i n g responsible  f o r c e r t a i n other s o c i a l a c t i o n s .  F o r example,  the North American m a t e r i a l a f f l u e n c e t h a t has i n c r e a s e d d i s c r e t i o n a r y purchasing  power has a l s o i n c r e a s e d  o f l e i s u r e time a v a i l a b l e t o the average c i t i z e n 1961).  t h e amount (Holman,  When these two f a c t o r s are combined w i t h v a s t l y  -  35 -  improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks and more economical modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t more people be  foresaking  the c i t i e s  and j o u r n e y i n g  should  i n t o the c o u n t r y .  C l e a r l y , however, these are merely the means by which the p u b l i c i s able t o c a r r y out a p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e .  The  d e s i r e i t s e l f i s i n s t i l l e d by i n c r e a s i n g l y c r o w d e d . c o n d i t i o n s , a r e j e c t i o n o f automation and t e c h n o c r a c y , a f e a r o f d e g e n e r a t i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , and an awareness t h a t the " d e s i r a b l e " environments o f our C o n t i n e n t are r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r i n g more b e s i d e s  are f i n i t e and  - a l l o f these f a c t o r s and many  are d r i v i n g people out o f the c i t i e s t o seek  some measure o f r e l i e f through n a t u r e .  I t i s becoming  i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious t h a t the r o l e o f u n a l t e r e d far greater use. only  nature i s  than t h a t o f merely a source o f c a s u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  I t s existence  has become an a b s o l u t e  n e c e s s i t y , not  f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t a l s o f o r those who are  able t o f i n d s o l a c e s o l e l y from the knowledge o f i t s e x i s t e n c e .  Increasing  urbanization  and the l o s s o f the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t y have g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d the demand f o r w i l d e r n e s s .  This  fear of losing i n d i v i d u a l  freedoms has been noted by Nash: The e x i s t e n c e o f w i l d c o u n t r y , they thought, would be i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t the c r u s h i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y by a t o t a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y . With George O r w e l l ' s f r i g h t e n i n g f o r e c a s t i n mind, S i g u r d Olson was c o n v i n c e d t h a t the stakes o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n campaign i n v o l v e d i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y as w e l l as w i l d e r n e s s (Nash, 1967,p. 232).  - 36 Olson's f e a r s o f e v o l v i n g s o c i a l  trends  are s t r o n g l y supported through the w r i t i n g s o f Aldous Huxley i n Brave New World R e v i s i t e d s p e c t i v e look at the p r o p h e t i c Brave New World  The f o u r t e e n y e a r s  that  have s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d the m a j o r i t y  of h i s p r e d i c t i o n s .  amplify  (19 49).  the w r i t i n g o f Huxley's r e - e x a m i n a t i o n  of g l o b a l trends  trends  accuracy o f h i s own  (1932) compared w i t h George O r w e l l ' s  Nineteen E i g h t y - F o u r have f o l l o w e d  (1957) , a r e t r o -  H i s remarkable i n s i g h t i n t o  and t h e i r p r o p h e t i c  social  accuracy would c e r t a i n l y  those f e a r s expressed by O l s o n .  Yet another f a c e t o f the e t h i c a l i n v o l v e s the p r e s e r v a t i o n  of w i l d l i f e .  question  In some  respects  t h i s p o i n t may seem redundant i n terms o f Leopold's l a n d e t h i c ; however, i t s i n c l u s i o n i s f e l t necessary t o introduce  p a r t i c u l a r aspects c o n c e r n i n g  morals and e t h i c s .  In a d d i t i o n t o i t s o c c a s i o n a l u t i l i t a r i a n value of food and c l o t h i n g , w i l d l i f e  i n the form  i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e has  much t o t e l l the s c i e n t i f i c community and mankind i n g e n e r a l . That the study o f animal behaviour may y i e l d d i r e c t p a y - o f f s f o r man i s h o p e f u l l y  recognized  as i n d i s p u t a b l e  fact.  I t may be f u r t h e r presumed  t h a t the a c t i o n s o f an animal i n c a p t i v i t y bear remote resemblance t o h i s a c t i o n s i n the w i l d ;only i n the w i l d does he f a c e those p r e s s u r e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s which give expression to h i s t o t a l nature (Ardrey, 1966, p.22).  -  37-  Beyond those  l a r g e l y o b j e c t i v e reasons looms the  great e t h i c a l visage. man  has  Through the p r o c e s s  become the most i n t e l l i g e n t  animals and  capable  s p e c i e s o f mammals. 120,  In 1600,  or 2.16%  t h e r e were 4,226 l i v i n g  o r 2.84%, are p r e s e n t l y i n some (or great) S i m i l a r l y , o f 8,694 l i v i n g s p e c i e s  b i r d s e x i s t i n g i n 1600, 187,  of a l l  Since t h a t time, 36 or.85%,have become  danger of e x t i n c t i o n .  and  and powerful  o f a c c e p t i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g or a n n i h i l a t i n g  his fellow creatures.  e x t i n c t , and  of e v o l u t i o n ,  94 or 1.09%  of  have become e x t i n c t ,  are p r e s e n t l y i n danger of e x t i n c t i o n .  Only one q u a r t e r of these mammal and b i r d s p e c i e s have d i e d out n a t u r a l l y and  an even lower percentage of those  i n danger were p l a c e d i n jeopardy causes.  (Hornaday, 1913;  now  by n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r y  A l l e n , 1962;  S i l v e r b e r g , 1967).  The day b e f o r e y e s t e r d a y we f o l l o w e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y what we c a l l e d Nature; y e s t e r d a y we t r i e d c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y t o conform t o n a t u r e ; but today, our power having grown c o n s i d e r a b l y , i t behooves us sometimes to p r o t e c t nature and sometimes to arrange i t i n ways t h a t seem more f a v o u r a b l e . We have somehow become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v o l u t i o n A r e a l i t y i s t o be c o n s t r u c t e d , events are no l o n g e r t o be awaited (G. Berger, quoted i n Forbes, 19 68, p.60). Man  i s not the s o l e l i v i n g i n h a b i t a n t of t h i s  although  with  a minimum o f e f f o r t  c o u l d r e a d i l y achieve  planet,  i t appears t h a t  this condition.  he  - 38 An  important  c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r r i n g theme i n  the d i s c u s s i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s resource.  i s the i r r e p l a c i b i l i t y  of the  T h i s i s sometimes a p o i n t of debate, t h a t i s ,  i s i t possible to restore wilderness?  Such a q u e s t i o n  r a i s e s a l l o f the d e f i n i t i o n a l problems o f the term. problem i s p a r t l y one values.  of semantics  and a l s o o f p e r s o n a l  P a r t of the d e f i n i t i o n a l convention  paper i s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s thus denying  to any  The  used i n t h i s  i s v i r t u a l l y untouched by  man,  s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , grades of w i l d e r n e s s .  T h u s , j u s t as t h e r e are no grades of v i r g i n s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l a b e l any  g i v e n area as 70% or 80% w i l d e r n e s s .  then t o the q u e s t i o n of  Returning  restoration:  the answer depends upon the v a l u e s or elements of the w i l d e r n e s s environment t o be r e s t o r e d . . . . almost by d e f i n i t i o n . . . w i l d e r n e s s cannot be r e s t o r e d t o the p o i n t where i t p r o v i d e s a l l v a l u e s (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resource Review Commission, 1962, p . 9 ) . Having c l a r i f i e d somewhat the  irreversible  c h a r a c t e r o f w i l d e r n e s s , i t i s e a s i e r to s t a t e t h a t wilderness  i s an u t t e r l y unrenewable r e s o u r c e w i t h  s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d t h a t i t s v a l u e s are t o t a l l y I t s very e x i s t e n c e , whether safeguarded must serve as an a r r e s t i n g p o i n t f o r man  or  the  unique.  threatened,  when he must  q u e s t i o n h i s r o l e on t h i s e a r t h and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h all  l i v i n g t h i n g s - i n a p h y s i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  sense.  I f p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l i s the s o l e primary  ethical  goal i n  - 39 life  t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n .  However man's a b s o l u t e  needs are much more complex, as may v a s t numbers who  have devoted  f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , but  be t e s t i f i e d t o by  or g i v e n t h e i r l i v e s ,  f o r a s e t of v a l u e s .  value can be g i v e n to a w i l d e r n e s s area? it  i s g i v e n today,  not  What  Whatever value  i t must c e r t a i n l y i n c r e a s e i n the f u t u r e  as d i c t a t e d by an a c c e l e r a t i n g i n c r e a s e i n demand and best a f i x e d supply, or i n r e a l i t y , a decreasing Economically, o f t e n misted  such  the  supply.  a s i t u a t i o n should h e l p to c l a r i f y  i s s u e of the s h o r t - t e r m versus the  w i t h r e s p e c t to e v e n t u a l t o t a l c o s t .  at  the  long-term  A l l o f which p o i n t s  to a d e f i n i t e o b l i g a t i o n to conservation f o r future generations.  I t has  a l s o been suggested  that wilderness  serves a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n as a bench-mark, o f f e r i n g completely  u n e x p l o i t e d t r a c t s of lands to be  used  by c i v i l i z a t i o n as a s t a n d a r d by which i t may the c o s t o f i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s d e p r e d a t i o n o f the p l a n e t . increasingly d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e w i t h any  Even now  through  measure the  i t i s becoming  i n c e r t a i n areas  for scientists  degree o f e x a c t i t u d e the n a t u r a l  s t a t e o f a v e g a t a t i o n f o r comparison w i t h i t s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n as a f f e c t e d by v a r i o u s p o l l u t a n t s .  At  same time i t i s necessary  community  t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c  be able to study these completely  n a t u r a l communities  i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h more f u l l y the of l i f e  and t o perhaps p l a c e man  the  interdependence  i n a more humble p o s i t i o n  - 40 w i t h i n the b i o s p h e r e .  On  a more u t i l i t a r i a n  n a t u r a l l y h e a l t h y specimens o f animal needed f o r comparative to  human h e a l t h .  b e i n g found  and p l a n t l i f e  F u r t h e r , more d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s  such as replacements  are  s t u d i e s and i n d i c a t o r s o f dangers  f o r p l a n t and animal l i f e  are  f o r use i n m e d i c i n e ,  f o r a n t i b i o t i c s i n those cases where  a n t i b i o t i c s cannnot be used Spurr, 1969).  level,  Speaking  (Cowan, 19 69; D a r l i n g ,  1969;  as a s c i e n t i s t , Frank F. D a r l i n g  has s t a t e d t h a t "the value o f w i l d e r n e s s to s c i e n c e , put badly  i s the p r o v i s i o n of study areas of p r i s t i n e  conditions"  ( D a r l i n g , 1969,  p.  201).  The m a j o r i t y o f r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o w i l d e r n e s s concerns values.  i t s e l f with i t s d i r e c t  recreational,  These have been o u t l i n e d i n many forms by  numerous w r i t e r s , each p r e s e n t i n g a somewhat p e r s o n a l i z e d view o f c e r t a i n common themes. a l u c i d d e s c r i p t i o n as may  be  Aldo Leopold has  found of the v a r i o u s  r e c r e a t i o n a l components t h a t he c o n s i d e r s t o be to w i l d e r n e s s enjoyment  (Leopold, 1969).  The  most b a s i c o f these i s the i d e a o f t r o p h y . i t s e l f may  presented  important  first  The  trophy  e x i s t i n a v a r i e t y of forms i n c l u d i n g  animals, h i d e s , f i s h , s o u v e n i r specimens, o r  and  stuffed  photographs.  There are s e v e r a l v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o the attainment o f the trophy, no matter what i t s form.  T h i s i s seldom i t s monetary  v a l u e , but r a t h e r the a s s o c i a t i o n s i t c a r r i e d w i t h i t . For each person  the trophy r e p r e s e n t s a unique  involved with i t s capture.  set of  experiences  I t s e r v e s as evidence t o o t h e r s  -  t h a t some s k i l l its  -  o r f e a t o f endurance was n e c e s s a r y f o r  attainment.  T h i s i s as apparent  rugged landscape of  41  i n a picture of a majestic,  as w i t h an animal trophy.  F o r the owner  the trophy t h e r e i s always the deep s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p o s s e s s i n g  something unique, be i t p h y s i c a l l y o r i g i n a l o r i n the sense of  a t o t a l l y unique  experience.  The uniqueness its  o f a trophy i s l a r g e l y what  determines  v a l u e , o r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , f o r the r e c r e a t i o n i s t .  To capture h a l f a dozen t r o u t i n an a r t i f i c i a l l y - s t o c k e d lake cannot  compare t o the l a n d i n g o f a s i n g l e f i s h a t some  i s o l a t e d lake.  The capture o f the l a t t e r r e q u i r e d an i n i t i a l  e x t r a e f f o r t j u s t t o reach the l a k e as w e l l as g r e a t e r skill  i n the a r t o f a n g l i n g .  The sense o f achievement  is  g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d i n merely  of  numerous o t h e r persons.  in  the capture o f the p r i z e , the g r e a t e r i t s v a l u e .  The more e f f o r t and s k i l l i n v o l v e d  e x e r t i o n and endurance enables to  d u p l i c a t i n g the r e s u l t s  the w i l d e r n e s s  f e e l the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f having escaped  Further  recreationist  the crowds,  r i s e n above the norm, and e x e r t e d a measure o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The  capture o f a trophy then serves as a measure o f p r o o f  of  h i s unique  experience.  In an age when the i n d i v i d u a l  is  s t i f l e d i n t o c o n f o r m i t y and g i v e n fewer and fewer a l t e r n a t i v e s  towards a c h i e v i n g some l e v e l o f uniqueness  and i n d i v i d u a l i t y  the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e o f f e r s a r e f r e s h i n g c h a l l e n g e and o p p o r t u n i t y .  Perhaps the s t r o n g e s t , arguments f o r w i l d e r n e s s  - 42 -  are those immeasureable items t h a t i n v o l v e emotional and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s .  In t h i s more s u b j e c t i v e c o n t e x t ,  the most common theme among w i l d e r n e s s w r i t e r s r e v o l v e s around the a b i l i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s to e s t a b l i s h or t o r e - a f f i r m man's p l a c e on t h i s e a r t h , or i n a more metap h y s i c a l sense, w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e .  Ashley Montagu has  said that:  I f man would simply have the grace and the h u m i l i t y t o acknowledge h i m s e l f the made-over ape t h a t he i s , he might be a b l e t o see the world o f which he i s a part i n truer perspective.(Montagu,1969, p.129) . The  f e e l i n g s t h a t are shared by so many have  had d i f f i c u l t y b e i n g expressed way,  i n a c o n c i s e and  general  and have thus been p r e s e n t e d i n numerous p e r s o n a l  interpretations.  The  r e l a x the i n d i v i d u a l . t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e man  q u i e t and s o l i t u d e serve t o The  f r a n t i c , j e r k i n g motions  i n h i s urban s e t t i n g simply  not e x i s t i n the w i l d e r n e s s . wildlife  movements o f the  are s w i f t , but f l u i d and at one w i t h  environment. time, man  The  do  the  Given a s u r p r i s i n g l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f  can adapt  t o become an accepted p a r t o f  h i s w i l d e r n e s s surroundings  as he allows h i s mind  and  h i s body t o become attuned to the smooth t e n o r o f n a t u r e . The  g r e a t e r t h i s harmony becomes the more t r i v i a l  those problems t h a t comprise  our everyday  i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o view l i f e perspective.  seem  e x i s t e n c e as  i n a much broader  - 43 -  I t i s not the n o t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s f o r i t s own sake t h a t i s of v a l u e , but the awareness o f one's r e l a t e d n e s s to i t , one's u n i t y w i t h i t , t h a t deepens and extends the scope of human l i f e (Montague, 1969, p.128). What p r e c i s e l y the essence experience  of the w i l d e r n e s s  i s , a p p a r e n t l y i s dependent upon the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of i t .  I t i s worthwhile  and  i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare the views of s e v e r a l w i l d e r n e s s leaders.  F o r i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m 0. Douglas  f e e l i n g s s i m i l a r to Schweitzer's  reverence  expresses for  life.  The w i l d e r n e s s t e l l s us t h a t a l l animals s h o u l d be a b l e to walk w i t h man. Like man they are l i f e t e n a n t s . So t h e r e u l t i m a t e l y comes a p o i n t of time when man - immersed i n the w i l d e r n e s s and possessed by i t s wonders - no l o n g e r can kill. L i f e i n a l l o f i t s forms becomes too i n s p i r i n g t o d e s t r o y . That I t h i n k i s the u l t i m a t e l e s s o n t h a t the w i l d e r n e s s teaches (Douglas, 1969, p.118). In d i s c u s s i n g the phychology o f w i l d e r n e s s , Donald McKinley  has summarized t h a t :  The h i g h e s t value of w i l d e r n e s s i s not t h a t n a t u r a l phenomena are p r e s e r v e d i n u n a l t e r e d form f o r t h e i r own sake. It i s t h a t people who enjoy i t achieve a r e s p i t e from the u s u a l t e n s i o n s o f l i v i n g and a t t a i n a sense o f r e j u v i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n (McKinley, 1966 ,p.35). S i g u r d Olsen wrote " t h a t i n w i l d e r n e s s all  i t e n t a i l s i n the b r o a d e s t  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  word, i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the human s p i r i t "  (Olson,  1969,  values,  p.135).  The  s a n c t i t y of l i f e ,  spiritual  - 44 -  and u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s c o n s t i t u t e t h r e e broad t h a t r e c u r throughout  the w i l d e r n e s s  themes  literature.  That  i s not to say t h a t they are the o n l y t h r e e - t h e r e c e r t a i n l y o t h e r s , such as h i s t o r i c a l and  are  cultural  themes, - but the former t h r e e have a more immediate and d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to contemporary w i l d e r n e s s  A few  articles,  fewer than might be  have been w r i t t e n concerning psychology W i l l i a m Gibson  and  use.  expected,  wilderness.  o f f e r s a r e l a t i v e l y general presentation,  s u g g e s t i n g i n broad  terms t h a t modern urban l i f e i s  damaging t o mental h e a l t h and t h a t w i l d e r n e s s may as a reasonable a n t i d o t e in his a r t i c l e  (Gibson, 1966).  "Are Beavers Too  serve  L o w e l l Sumner,  Busy?" suggests  that  t h e r e are t h r e e stages c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the mental  and  emotional breakdown so p r e v e l e n t i n contemporaty s o c i e t y (Sumner, 1964). beavers).  First  i s Phase I , More People  T h i s i s a p e r i o d i n which the environment  no l o n g e r support o f the s p e c i e s .  For the beavers  i t i s a time when  l o n g e r be e a s i l y  Phase I I then f o l l o w s w i t h More Complicated Having reached  achieved. Living  an optimum p o s i t i o n between  the p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and the supply o f aspens and the beaver p o p u l a t i o n has these  can  the c o n t i n u e d r a t e of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n  l i f e ' s n e c e s s i t i e s can no  Conditions.  (or  willows,  c o n t i n u e d t o expand c a u s i n g  foods to be more d i f f i c u l t  to o b t a i n .  The  beaver  -  is  45  -  f o r c e d t o t r a v e l g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s and take  r i s k s to a c q u i r e s m a l l e r amounts o f food. no l o n g e r has  greater  The  beaver  the time r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n h i s o r i g i n a l  dams and c a n a l s l e t alone to c o n s t r u c t the needed ones.  He must now  work harder  and  new  l o n g e r f o r l e s s reward.  In economic terms, he i s a v i c t i m o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s .  The  s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of the beaver  colony begins t o erode.  I t s most a c t i v e members l e a v e  the area e n t i r e l y i n the hope of d i s c o v e r i n g more hospitable conditions.  Those remaining  i n e v i t a b l y grow  weaker and are i n c r e a s i n g l y v i c t i m i z e d by the p r e d a t o r s . Accompanying t h i s s t a t e of m a l n u t r i t i o n i s a d e c l i n e i n the f e r t i l i t y o f the community. may  colony  e i t h e r disappear altogether or, given a favourable  environment, i t may  regain i t s strength.  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to  At t h i s stage the  t o t r a n s f e r the beaver's  those o f the contemporary American.  conditions  L i k e Huxley, Sumner  l i k e n s our p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n to the " l a t e a f t e r n o o n o f our Golden Age". to  A myriad  of f a c t o r s are now  i n h i b i t our q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  C i t i e s are  overcrowded g i v i n g r i s e to a housing  crisis,  combining  uncomfortably to  traffic  congestion, to f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n ; p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s over-used;  p o l l u t i o n p r e s e n t s a t h r e a t to h e a l t h ; and  perhaps paramount t o Western man, are b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d . to  are  h i s p e r s o n a l freedoms  A l l of these c o n d i t i o n s are  e x e r t a ponderous complexity  o f p r e s s u r e s on the  uniting individual  as w e l l as on the p r e s e n t s o c i a l and economic o r d e r s .  - 46  For many these p r e s s u r e s  Which b r i n g s c y c l e , namely S t r e s s . animals he  -  are simply  too  great.  us to Phase I I I o f Sumner's  pressure  In d e s c r i b i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n f o r  c i t e s evidence  that:  ....when animal communities m u l t i p l y u n t i l they reduce t h e i r h a b i t a t to a b i o l o g i c a l slum, normal f e e l i n g s o f s e c u r i t y and t r a n q u i l l i t y g i v e way to mounting i r r i t a b i l i t y toward companions and n e i g h b o u r s . B i c k e r i n g and s t r i f e greatly increase. T h i s lowers the p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f the e n t i r e community and i t s a b i l i t y to a d j u s t to the s t i l l - m o u n t i n g p r e s s u r e s brought on by the over-crowding (Sumner,1964, p.99).  He  a l s o p o i n t s out  t h a t post-mortem examinations  o f such animals r e v e a l d e f i n i t e evidence o f s t r e s s damage such as inflammation o r u l c e r a t i o n of the d i g e s t i v e or c e r t a i n m e t a b o l i c derangements. are r e - a f f i r m e d by patterns and  F. D a r l i n g who  of o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n  notes t h a t  "the  These  tract  observations  also describes  the  cyclical  growth l e a d i n g to d e c l i n e ,  common f a c t o r i s s t r e s s " t h a t  to the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the community  leads  ( D a r l i n g , 19 70,  p.11).  R e f e r r i n g t o s t r e s s i n p e o p l e , Sumner c i t e s m e d i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s as s t a t i n g t h a t c h r o n i c e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s now  i s a major cause o f over 50%  o f a l l i l l n e s s and  i n c r e a s i n g numbers are a c t u a l l y dying diseases  which are p r i m a r i l y due  that  from types of d e g e n e r a t i v e  to s t r e s s .  Again, i t  i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y to enumerate the c o u n t l e s s  sources  - 47 of stress that presently e x i s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the  larger  cites.  I t seemed worthwhile of t h i s a r t i c l e p r i m a r i l y  and r e l e v a n t t o d e t a i l p a r t s  f o r two  reasons.  of such s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n s between w i l d l i f e  First,  evidence  and human  communities s t r e n g t h e n s those arguments f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f pure w i l d e r n e s s areas f o r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . i t may  be extremely  difficult  f o r man  to r e c o g n i z e t h a t  c e r t a i n s u r v i v a l l i m i t s have e i t h e r reached or w i t h i n h i s own  community, much may  While  surpassed  be l e a r n e d from  animal  communities w i t h t h e i r more r a p i d r a t e of t u r n o v e r . as noted by Sumner, i s the need t o escape from  Second,  stress  situations.  So i t becomes c l e a r t h a t as the p r e s s u r e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n continue t o i n c r e a s e , the t h e r a p u t i c b e n e f i t s of w i l d e r n e s s and n a t u r a l a r e a s , the p h i l o s o p h y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and s e r e n i t y d e r i v e d from c o n t a c t w i t h them w i l l be more and more needed by everyone (Sumner, 1964,p.101). Donald  McKinley  i s a l i t t l e more s p e c i f i c  i n a s s e s s i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s 1963,  1966).  For example, t r a v e l i n the w i l d e r n e s s w i t h  c o n g e n i a l companions g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e s the a c t i v i t y and thus  " l e s s p s y c h i c energy  f o r the f a m i l i a r cues t o b e h a v i o r " He  (McKinley,  role-playing  i s required i n listening  (McKinley, 1966,  p.33).  a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l , i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h  o t h e r p e o p l e , i f o f t e n p s y c h i c a l l y h u r t through  some human  -  encounter.  48 -  While the memory o f t h i s event may be p a r t i a l l y  and/or c o n s c i o u s l y f o r g o t t o n , t h e r e w i l l person-to-person  experiences  that w i l l  they r e i n f o r c e the unpleasant  stems the importance little  cause a n x i e t y .  From these areas  factors with  o f man - areas where i t i s p o s s i b l e  a l l o f those p o t e n t i a l  person-to-person  c o n t a c t s t h a t a c t as t h r e a t s t o the i n d i v i d u a l . man, nature  events.  continue t o be viewed  o f b e i n g able t o v i s i t  o r no evidence  t o remove v i r t u a l l y  c r e a t e s t r e s s because  memory o f these p a s t  Thus, c e r t a i n types o f s i t u a t i o n s w i l l as t h r e a t e n i n g and w i l l  always be f u t u r e  Unlike  i s not p e r s o n a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g , i t i s t o t a l l y  i n d i f f e r e n t t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  McKinley  t o o , p r e s e n t s t h e theme o f u n i t y w i t h  nature when, d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e n s a t i o n o f a m a g n i f i c e n t view, he d e c l a r e s t h a t :  The viewer a c q u i r e s a sense o f extreme littleness. Man, i n the f a c e o f t h e s i z e , c o m p l e x i t y , and i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f nature i s f o r c e d t o concede t h a t there i s something which he can l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l . He has no c h o i c e b u t t o s u r r e n d e r t o i t s dominance, r e l a x and enjoy i t , and f e e l a sense o f b e l o n g i n g a t the c e n t r e o f a much g r e a t e r whole (McKinley, 1966,p.34). The  r o l e o f w i l d e r n e s s i n d e f i n i n g and  a s s e r t i n g man's p l a c e on t h i s p l a n e t and w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e has been a common theme among w i l d e r n e s s w r i t e r s . Through the w i l d e r n e s s man i s b e s t able t o see h i m s e l f i n a t r u e r p e r s p e c t i v e - as o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f a v a s t and complex  - 49 system w h i l e  -  at the same time the w i l d e r n e s s  allows  to r e c o g n i z e h i m s e l f as an i n t r i c a t e p a r t o f t h i s and  thus g i v e man's e x i s t e n c e more depth and  Having once accepted  t h i s r o l e , man  and  o r d i n a r y member of the  "land community" and  h i m s e l f from t h i s  p.  275).  man  As man  becomes an  as such must further alienates  l a n d community, the meaning of Thoreau's  words c a r r i e s an i n c r e a s i n g l y important wilderness  the  the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e  Through w i l d e r n e s s  the r e s u l t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  meaning.  recognize  of i t s disappearance.  accept  system  must view h i s p l a n e t  i n a much l e s s s e l f i s h p e r s p e c t i v e , and u l t i m a t e importance of w i l d e r n e s s  man  message t h a t " i n  i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the World"( Thoreau,1893,  - 50 CHAPTER 4 WILDERNESS AND BRITISH COLUMBIA'S PARKS  For t h a t which i s common t o t h e g r e a t e s t number has the l e a s t care bestowed upon i t . ( A r i s t o t l e , quoted by H a e f e l e , 1970). The  National  Any  Parks:  consideration of wilderness  contained  w i t h i n p a r k l a n d s r e q u i r e s an examination o f the p o l i c i e s and  l e g i s l a t i o n o f two l e v e l s  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l . and  o f government, t h a t i s ,  While numerous  d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t i n assessing  complexities  the r e l a t i v e powers  o f the two, i t i s r e a s o n a b l y s a f e t o examine t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s and o p e r a t i o n s  as s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s  the two when i t i s e x p e d i e n t o r n e c e s s a r y .  respective  combining  The s e n i o r  government's a u t h o r i t y stems from t h e B r i t i s h North America Act o f 1867 t h a t serves 92 i t s t a t e s  as Canada's C o n s t i t u t i o n .  In S e c t i o n  that:  In each P r o v i n c e t h e L e g i s l a t u r e may e x c l u s i v e l y make laws i n r e l a t i o n t o matters coming w i t h i n the c l a s s e s o f s u b j e c t s next h e r e i n a f t e r enumerated; t h a t i s t o say (5) The Management and S a l e o f the P u b l i c Lands b e l o n g i n g t o the P r o v i n c e and o f the Timber and Wood thereon ( L a F o r e s t , 19 69) . I t continues  i n S e c t i o n 109:  A l l l a n d s , Mines, M i n e r a l s and p r o p e r t i e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e v e r a l P r o v i n c e s o f Canada.... at the Union ....shall b e l o n g t o the P r o v i n c e s (LaForest,1969).  NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL PARKS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. Map 1  - 52  The of  apparent  the A c t was  -  i n t e n t of these p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t the management and s a l e of  s h o u l d serve as an important Provinces.  source o f revenue f o r the  Provinces  f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Governments.  Thus, i t i s important to  the  r e s u l t o f t h i s a c t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  f a c t t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f lands w i t h i n the now  lands  Whatever the success of t h i s i n t e n t ,  most obvious  Sections  i n terms o f w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  r e a l i z e t h a t there are no l a r g e r e s e r v e s o f F e d e r a l  land such as e x i s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  I t would be  f u t i l e t h e r e f o r e , f o r the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t a Wilderness  to c r e a t e  A c t s i m i l a r to t h a t i n t r o d u c e d by the U n i t e d  S t a t e s i n 1964  (Douglas,  1965).  There are simply  no  F e d e r a l lands i n the P r o v i n c e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f those a l r e a d y i n N a t i o n a l Parks, t h a t c o u l d be p l a c e d under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n .  One  o f the p r i n c i p a l c o n d i t i o n s o f Canadian  f e d e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the admission the Western P r o v i n c e s , was l i n k i n g the West Coast t h i s westward expansion to  of  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l w a y  to the r e s t o f Canada.  Through  the F e d e r a l Government hoped  s t r e n g t h e n i t s c l a i m to the west as w e l l as to  utilize  the v a s t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the area to p r o v i d e a  - 53 -  much-needed f i n a n c i a l l i f t  t o the f l e d g i n g c o n f e d e r a t i o n .  At the same time, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway hoped t o b e n e f i t from the expected  flow o f f r e i g h t and passengers  (Brown, 19 69).  I t was d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f e x p l o r a t i o n f o r a s u i t a b l e r a i l w a y route through the i n c r e d i b l e grandeur prominance.  the Rocky Mountains t h a t  o f the area a c h i e v e d p u b l i c  There was l i t t l e  t h a t c o u l d be done  although once the CPR was completed  immediately  t o Vancouver i n 1884,  the government was b e t t e r a b l e t o d i r e c t i t s e n e r g i e s towards d e v e l o p i n g and s e t t l i n g the broad expanse o f l a n d between Vancouver and Winnipeg.  In 1883, d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the CPR, the m i n e r a l hot s p r i n g s were d i s c o v e r e d on the s l o p e s o f what i s now Sulphur Mountain j u s t above the p r e s e n t townsite o f B a n f f .  The government f e l t  that this n a t u r a l  phenomenon s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d from p r i v a t e  exploitation,  w h i l e a t the same time, i t saw the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p r o f i t a b l e t o u r i s t development.  Thus, i n 1885, 6,400 acres  o f l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g the h o t s p r i n g s were r e s e r v e d by Order i n C o u n c i l because they  "promise t o be o f g r e a t s a n i t a r y  advantage t o the p u b l i c "  ( N i c o l , 1969,p.38).  In o t h e r  words, the p r i n c i p a l reason g i v e n f o r r e s e r v i n g these  lands  was p u b l i c s a n i t a t i o n , although i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t development o f a spa-type  r e s o r t was c l o s e r t o the t r u e  -  eventual  intent.  54 -  Two years  l a t e r , and e n l a r g e d  t o an area  of 2 60 square m i l e s , the Rocky Mountains Park A c t e s t a b l i s h e d the Banff  area as Canada's f i r s t n a t i o n a l park.  the CPR had completed c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Banff  In 1888, Springs  H o t e l , the f i r s t o f s e v e r a l l u x u r i o u s developments t o be e r e c t e d w i t h i n what i s now Banff N a t i o n a l Park and  (National  H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 19 70a).  The Banff  p a t t e r n o f development t h a t e v o l v e d a t  e s t a b l i s h e d a d e f i n i t e precedent i n the c r e a t i o n o f  the western n a t i o n a l parks, revenue.  namely as sources o f t o u r i s t  Most parks were l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y on the l i n e s o f  the Canadian N a t i o n a l and Canadian P a c i f i c Railways, o r on major highway r o u t e s .  T h i s was i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o  e a r l y n a t i o n a l park development i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s which  was based on a p o l i c y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case o f Yellowstone N a t i o n a l Park  (Nash, 1969,p.73).  While Canadian Parks p o l i c y appears t o be r a t h e r h e a v i l y d o l l a r - o r i e n t e d i n c o n t r a s t t o American  policy,  i t must be remembered t h a t Canada was a younger n a t i o n possessing  a much s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n  expected t o p r o v i d e to maintain in  the l e v e l o f f i n a n c i a l support  the degree o f p r o t e c t i o n given  the U n i t e d  virtually  t h a t c o u l d not be  States.  necessary  to r e s e r v e s  I t was not only e x p e d i e n t , b u t  a n e c e s s i t y , t h a t Canada should  receive at l e a s t  some f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n from the development o f n a t i o n a l  parks.  - 55 I t s h o u l d a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d , t h a t i n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o u r i s t development was  one o f the o n l y ways i n which some  l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  ( N i c o l , 1969).  a d m i t t e d l y the s t y l e o f accommodation i n the parks  While  was  both e l e g a n t and l u x u r i o u s , the prime a t t r a c t i o n was the n a t u r a l beauty  o f the s u r r o u n d i n g s .  Needless  still  t o say,  so l o n g as the t o u r i s t b u s i n e s s p r o s p e r e d , n e i t h e r the government nor the CPR t h a t might mar  were eager to a l l o w any  activity  t h i s image.  In 1886,  two  areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia  s e t a s i d e as park r e s e r v e s - those areas around  were Glacier  and F i e l d , l a t e r t o become G l a c i e r and Yoho N a t i o n a l Parks r e s p e c t i v e l y .  While both o f these areas were l o o s e l y  r e f e r r e d t o as p a r k s , they were n o t , i n f a c t , g i v e n n a t i o n a l park s t a t u s u n t i l and Park A c t .  1911  under the Dominion F o r e s t  In G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l Park the CPR  Reserves once  again f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n park development, w i t h i t s t r a c k s p r o v i d i n g the s o l e means o f p u b l i c access the opening o f the Rogers Pass Canada Highway i n 1962  S e c t i o n of the  ( S c h a r f f , 1966).  i n 1886  and  d i d much to p o p u l a r i z e the  Park w i t h mountaineers  and v i s i t o r s  world"  p.9).  ( S c h a r f f , 1966,  Trans  In a d d i t i o n ,  "the famous G l a c i e r House, b u i l t by the CPR opened i n January o f 1887,  until  from a l l over  To have an i d e a of the e x t e n t of CPR  the  influence  - 56  -  i n park development, i t i s worth i t e m i z i n g some o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t took p l a c e  i n Yoho N a t i o n a l  Mount Stephen House, a l a r g e h o t e l b u i l t i n 1886 railway  s t a t i o n , was  In 1890,  one  o f the  the Company a c q u i r e d  f i r s t CPR  22  to a l r e a d y  owned s t a t i o n l a n d and  of F i e l d .  The  acres  e s t a b l i s h e d the town  lands.  In 190 4, a road  Emerald Lake Lodge.  Company b u i l t a c e n t r a l lodge and  and  a y e a r l a t e r by  cabins  was  access to  In 19 21  the  at Wapta Lake,  a group o f cabins  at Lake 0 H a r a 1  Takkakaw F a l l s i n Yoho V a l l e y as w e l l as r e s t houses  at Abbott Pass and overnight 1922  1925,  government  completed from F i e l d t o Emerald Lake, p r o v i d i n g j u s t e r e c t e d CPR  the  of land i n a d d i t i o n  Company m a i n t a i n e d t h i s l a n d u n t i l  i n exchange f o r c e r t a i n other  followed  near  enterprises.  at which time i t r e l i n q u i s h e d c o n t r o l t o the  the  Park.  Summit Lake.  accommodation was  ( S c h a r f f , 1966;  A l s o , a teahouse w i t h  erected  National  and  at Twin F a l l s  in  H i s t o r i c Parks Branch,  1970c).  The was  government's p o l i c y o f t o u r i s t promotion  w e l l supported by the e f f o r t s o f the CPR.  With  these e a r l y p o l i c y implementations i n mind, i t i s c l e a r how  present  park c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t  development and historical  to p h y s i c a l  p o l i c y , have been l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d by  precedent.  - 57  -  A major change took p l a c e i n 1911  with  enactment o f the Dominion F o r e s t Reserves and P r i o r to t h i s date,  t h e r e was  per se - park matters had  Park A c t .  no n a t i o n a l parks  been looked  the  a f t e r by  administration the  F o r e s t r y Branch o f the Department o f the I n t e r i o r ( N i c o l , 1969).  However, the  1911  Act  from the F o r e s t r y Branch and  took parks  administration  c r e a t e d a Commissioner o f  Dominion Parks as the r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l . ment p o l i c i e s and not undergo any by the Mr.  While govern-  a t t i t u d e s towards the parks system d i d  major changes, improvements were i n s t i g a t e d  f i r s t Commissioner o f the N a t i o n a l Parks o f Canada,  J.B.  Harkin.  In o r d e r to o b t a i n funds f o r the  proper  maintenance and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s the parks,  Harkin  of  h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d the s u b s t a n t i a l revenue  t h a t c o u l d be d e r i v e d from the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y  (Nicol,  1969) .  Before legislation  proceeding  to more r e c e n t  f e d e r a l parks  b r i e f mention s h o u l d be made o f those  other  n a t i o n a l parks l y i n g w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, namely Mount R e v e l s t o k e and  Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks.  Revelstoke N a t i o n a l Park stands out as one to the r u l e i n t h a t i t s i n c e p t i o n was with  the r a i l w a y o r w i t h  T h i s park was enthusiasm and who  requested  not  of the  exceptions  connected  a government t o u r i s t  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1914  Mount  promotion.  l a r g e l y through  e f f o r t s of s e v e r a l residents of  the  Revelstoke  t h a t the area be g i v e n park s t a t u s .  - 58 The  normal p a t t e r n of development was  resumed,  however, i n Kootenay N a t i o n a l Park, " e s t a b l i s h e d i n to p r e s e r v e  the n a t u r a l landscape, n a t i v e w i l d l i f e  n a t u r a l phenomena along Highway  ( N a t i o n a l and  1920 and  the route of the Banff-Windemere  H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 1970b, p.  13).  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  this  highway, which began i n 1911,  by  the B.C.  jointly  financed  Government, the F e d e r a l Government, and  Again, a m i n e r a l and  was  again  hot s p r i n g s was  the CPR  was  i n v o l v e d i n p a r t o f i t s development; Springs  1923.  Two  s i g n i f i c a n t p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n were  enacted i n 1930.  The  f i r s t o f these was  Resources Agreement which saw  the T r a n s f e r  In B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s s i d e of the CPR  acres of l a n d i n n o r t h e a s t e r n  the p r o v i n c e s  a half million  B r i t i s h Columbia, g e n e r a l l y  r e f e r r e d to as the Peace R i v e r Block  impossible  provinces.  i n v o l v e d 20 m i l e s on e i t h e r  t r a c k s p l u s t h r e e and  T h i s t r a n s f e r of power was  of  v i r t u a l l y a l l previously  F e d e r a l l a n d t r a n s f e r r e d back to the Western  now  CPR.  the c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n ,  t h i s time i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Radium Hot Lodge i n  the  (LaForest,  significant  to e s t a b l i s h any  1969,  i n t h a t i t was  N a t i o n a l Park w i t h i n  without the d i r e c t c o o p e r a t i o n  of  the  p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c i a l government. R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t between 1930  p.  and  were r e l a x e d , o n l y s i x r e l a t i v e l y  1968, small  point  when r e s t r i c t i o n s  31).  n a t i o n a l parks were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the whole o f Canada ( N i c o l , 19 69).  In the same year the N a t i o n a l Parks Act passed which f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  the n a t i o n a l parks  a d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y and g u i d e l i n e s f o r parks p o l i c y .  The  is stated i n Section  Act:  4 of the  was as  s e t out some  purpose o f the parks  The Parks are hereby d e d i c a t e d t o the people o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , and enjoyment....and such Parks s h a l l be maintained and made use of so as to leave them unimpaired f o r the enjoyment of f u t u r e generations (In N i c o l , 1969 ,p.40). While the Act adopted a new the word was any  concept of  not so e x p l i c i t e l y d e f i n e d as to  s i g n i f i c a n t new  p o l i c y change.  change c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Act was  the f a c t t h a t i t  changes c o u l d be made by parks now  to the Act whereby  c r e a t e d only by  t h i s Schedule by Act of P a r l i a m e n t .  amending  Whereas p r e v i o u s l y  the Governor i n C o u n c i l ,  r e c e i v e d important p r o t e c t i o n s i n c e  Parliament  introduce  A more d i r e c t l y p o s i t i v e  d e f i n e d a l l parks i n a Schedule a t t a c h e d a l l subsequent parks c o u l d be  "unimpaired"  the  only  c o u l d c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l park or change i t s  boundaries.  A l s o w i t h i n t h i s A c t , S e c t i o n 6(3)  empowered  - 60  -  the Governor i n C o u n c i l "to purchase, e x p r o p r i a t e , otherwise  a c q u i r e any  or  lands o f i n t e r e s t t h e r e i n . . . . f o r  the purposes o f a p a r k " ( T u r n e r ,  1971,  p.43).  However,  c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were s t i p u l a t e d f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f park  lands:  (1)  The  minimum s i z e of 35,000 a c r e s ;  (2)  Natural  (3)  T o t a l t r a n s f e r of n a t u r a l resources  (4)  T r a n s f e r of a l l l a n d t i t l e  (unchanged) e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ;  free  to F e d e r a l c o n t r o l ;  (Ahrens,1970a, p . 4 ) .  N a t u r a l l y , p r o v i n c i a l governments have been most r e l u c t a n t to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l o f p o s s i b l e revenue i n the form o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s purposes o f park use.  Unfortunately,  solely  f o r the  t h i s problem i s  compounded by the f a c t t h a t none o f the p r o v i n c e s park l e g i s l a t i o n as f i r m l y d e d i c a t e d to s t r i c t l y use  possess park  as t h a t o f f e r e d under the N a t i o n a l Park A c t .  P r i m a r i l y because o f the requirements,  there was  a c q u i s i t i o n o f lands  very  little  aforementioned a c t i v i t y i n the  f o r n a t i o n a l parks d u r i n g the  three  decades f o l l o w i n g the passage o f the N a t i o n a l Park A c t . I t was was  not u n t i l the e a r l y 1960's t h a t any  taken to r e s o l v e the stalemate  the two  l e v e l s o f government.  and p o l i c y between f e d e r a l and may  be dated  positive action  t h a t e x i s t e d between  A major change o f a t t i t u d e p r o v i n c i a l governments  from the Canadian Resources f o r Tomorrow  - 61 Conference h e l d i n 19 61 and i n v o l v i n g those people i n t e r e s t e d i n resource administration p.7).  .(Ahrens, 1970a,  A d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h i s Conference was the f i r s t  F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Park Conference which was h e l d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , and f i n a l l y  i n 1963, t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the  N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada.  The e n t i r e Canadian Parks o r g a n i z a t i o n has s i n c e b e n e f i t t e d i n the s e r i e s o f annual c o n f e r e n c e s t h a t have f o l l o w e d t h i s i n i t i a l merging (Ahrens, 1970a). in  o f governments  A most s i g n i f i c a n t motion was made  19 64 i n an announcement by A r t h u r L a i n g , the then  M i n i s t e r o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources, ( N i c o l , 1969, p.47).  G e n e r a l l y , i t suggested t h a t t h e  o v e r a l l parks p o l i c y be d i r e c t e d towards of  the p r e s e r v a t i o n  n a t u r a l and e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and a l s o t h a t  type r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  were n o t i n keeping w i t h t h e  g e n e r a l purposes o f the n a t i o n a l parks 18,1964; i n N i c o l , 1969).  urban-  (Hansard, Sept.  T h i s same statement goes on,  however, t o make i t c l e a r t h a t government p o l i c y i s s t i l l f l e x i b l e and t h a t  "artificial  r e c r e a t i o n " s t i l l has,  and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o have, a d e f i n i t e p l a c e w i t h i n most, i f not a l l , o f the N a t i o n a l Parks  (Turner, 1971, p.88).  S i n c e the f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g in  19 63, Ahrens  notes t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government has  shown an i n c r e a s e d impetus  towards  a s t r o n g e r and b e t t e r  d i r e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f park l a n d s , both i n terms of p r e s e n t o b l i g a t i o n s and f u t u r e p l a n s p.7).  New  (Ahrens, 1970a,  p o l i c i e s were developed which c l a r i f i e d  r o l e o f park management and prepared the way park development.  the  for further  A d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s more f a v o u r a b l e  atmosphere has been the d e c l a r a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h 85 n a t i o n a l parks by 19 85. minimum g o a l o f 40 new  While  new  attainment o f even the  parks by t h i s date may  be o v e r l y  o p t i m i s t i c , the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o f d i r e c t i o n and  explicitness  o f p o l i c y b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d o f f e r a good d e a l o f hope f o r the Canadian  N a t i o n a l Parks.  In the realm o f f e d e r a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f lands d e f i n i t e p r o g r e s s has r e c e n t l y been made.  While  land  must s t i l l be t u r n e d over unencumbered from the P r o v i n c e to the F e d e r a l Government, a number of changes have been made t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n .  F i r s t , there  are j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l s i t e s e l e c t i o n surveys r e c o g n i z e and attempt  to assess r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s  the economic impact of park e s t a b l i s h m e n t . the two  that and  In a d d i t i o n ,  l e v e l s o f government have e n t e r e d i n t o v a r i o u s  c o s t - s h a r i n g arrangements f o r the purchase of p r i v a t e holdings.  A l s o , the time-base  f o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g a park  has been lengthened so t h a t land may convenient phases  One been markedly  be o b t a i n e d i n more  (Ahrens, 1970 , p.12).  area i n which the f e d e r a l government has slow i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l a n d r e s e r v e s has  - 63 been i n the Yukon and are s t i l l areas parks,  -  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  o p p o r t u n i t i e s to at l e a s t designate  i n these  rwo  although  regions  various  f o r f u t u r e development as n a t i o n a l  these o p p o r t u n i t i e s would appear to  fast diminishing.  j u r e , not de  i n c r e a s i n g l y more power has  f a c t o , and  been given to  o f N a t i o n a l Parks,  o r any  that  Territorial  are "adament i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to  establishment  be  As p o i n t e d out by Douglas P i m l o t t ,  the F e d e r a l c o n t r o l i s de  C o u n c i l s who  There  the  form of l a n d  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t would l i m i t o r r e s t r i c t the e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources  " ( P i m l o t t , 1968,p.7).  P i m l o t t proposes  t h a t f e d e r a l money might be used to remove those  financial  encumbrances accompanying p r o v i n c i a l l a n d s , which i n B r i t i s h Columbia would l a r g e l y i n v o l v e a c q u i s i t i o n timber the  rights.  Such a c t i o n has  of  a l r e a d y been taken by  f e d e r a l government i n the o b t a i n i n g . o f c e r t a i n lands  f o r the purpose of w i l d l i f e  reserves.  In A p r i l o f 19 71, the N a t i o n a l and  Historic  Parks Branch o f the Department of Indian A f f a i r s  and  Northern Development h e l d a number of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s concerning  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o v i s i o n a l master  f o r Banff, J a s p e r , Yoho and  Kootenay N a t i o n a l  plans  Parks.  Included w i t h i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s was  an o u t l i n e of suggested  N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y t h a t would be  f a r more e x p l i c i t  i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n than any  other previous  statements.  - 64  -  The  o v e r a l l purpose o f the N a t i o n a l Parks i s g i v e n i n  two  c o n c l u d i n g p o l i c y statements t h a t are i d e n t i c a l  those 196 4.  to  g i v e n by A r t h u r L a i n g i n h i s p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e While not as y e t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the  o f l e g i s l a t i o n , the continued statements warrants t h e i r  use o f these  of  context two  policy  inclusion:  (1)  The b a s i c purpose o f the N a t i o n a l Park System i s t o p r e s e r v e f o r a l l time areas which c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t geographical, g e o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , or h i s t o r i c f e a t u r e s as a n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e f o r the b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , and enjoyment o f the people o f Canada.  (2)  The p r o v i s i o n o f urban type r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s not p a r t o f the b a s i c purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks. Such r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n harmony w i t h the purpose and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a park may be i n t r o d u c e d as r e q u i r e d t o meet r e c r e a t i o n a l needs; but always to minimize impairment and not at a l l i f s u b s t a n t i a l impairment i s i n e v i t a b l e ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 1969, p . 5 ) .  Without d e l v i n g i n t o e x c e s s i v e d e t a i l at  the  n a t i o n a l l e v e l , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to note c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l p o l i c y proposals for  t h a t were forwarded, p r i m a r i l y  the purposes o f l a t e r comparisons w i t h  p o l i c y and  legislation.  of w i l d l i f e  and nature  provincial  For example, under the h e a d i n g p o l i c y , i t i s suggested t h a t :  The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s are d e t r i m e n t a l to n a t u r a l h i s t o r y v a l u e s and s h o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d i n a N a t i o n a l Park:  - 65 -  (1) G r a z i n g o f domestic s t o c k ; (2) P o l l u t i o n o f a i r , s o i l o r water; (3) C o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power i n s t a l l a t i o n s and o t h e r water d i v e r s i o n s or impoundments f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes; (4) The mining o r h a r v e s t i n g o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the land o r water f o r the primary purposes o f commercial g a i n ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 1969,p.5).  While t h i s does not r e p r e s e n t a t e r r i b l y e x t e n s i v e s e t o f r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t does p o i n t towards a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v a t i o n , at l e a s t i n terms o f h a l t i n g resource e x p l o i t a t i o n .  A zoning system was a l s o proposed on the b a s i s o f an area's n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o e x i s t i n g developments, w i t h s t a n d v i s i t o r use.  and i t s c a p a c i t y t o  I t was f e l t t h a t such a system  would b e s t s e r v e the v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c demands and a t the same time f a c i l i t a t e park management. The f i v e c l a s s e s s p e c i f i e d were:  Class I  S p e c i a l Areas - These are o f two t y p e s , namely e c o l o g i c a l areas and those areas c o n t a i n i n g p r e h i s t o r i c , h i s t o r i c or c u l t u r a l  features.  The primary purpose i n both cases i s p r e s e r v a t i o n .  - 66 Class II  Wilderness R e c r e a t i o n Areas - These areas are devoted  to camping, h i k i n g and r i d i n g , w i t h  access by any type o f motor v e h i c l e  C l a s s I I I N a t u r a l Environment Areas  prohibited.  - These areas  are  b e s t d e s c r i b e d as b u f f e r s between the w i l d e r n e s s zones and more i n t e n s i v e - u s e a r e a s .  C l a s s IV  General Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Areas  - Physical  developments, such as campgrounds and highway c o r r i d o r s , c h a r a c t e r i z e these a r e a s .  Class V  I n t e n s i v e - U s e Areas - These areas c o n t a i n much more i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y than C l a s s IV,  primarily  i n the form o f townsites  Historic  Parks Branch,  f  1970a,p.4).  ( N a t i o n a l and  Map 2  - 68 -  Map  2  -  shows these areas t h a t might be  designated  as w i l d e r n e s s under the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and r a t h e r severe  l i m i t a t i o n s imposed upon the  of any s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  establishment  large wilderness areas.  It also  i l l u s t r a t e s the dominant r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks i n n a t i o n a l park development.  A f i n a l s e c t i o n of the p r o v i s i o n s a l p l a n s t h a t warrants  a t t e n t i o n i s that dealing with c r i t e r i a f o r  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s .  I t stipulates that  two d i s t i n c t n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s must be first,  recognized;  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the Canadian h e r i t a g e , and  second "to ensure t h i s and  f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s of Canadians  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o use, enjoy, and b e n e f i t from the values o f n a t u r a l w i l d e r n e s s " Parks Branch, 1969,  p.21).  ( N a t i o n a l and  Here, a t l a s t ,  Historic "wilderness"  r e c e i v e s mention, a l b e i t i n a r a t h e r l i m i t e d  sense.  With r e g a r d to w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , the i n t e n t o f the f e d e r a l government seems encouraging p r o p o s a l s f o r the zoning of c e r t a i n areas as  in  wilderness  and a t the same time p r o v i d i n g some form o f p r o t e c t i v e legislation.  However, i f the 19 71 p r o v i s i o n a l master  p l a n s f o r the Western parks must be some doubt expressed of these i n t e n t i o n s .  are an i n d i c a t i o n ,  there  as t o the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s  Numerous roads have been proposed  - 69 -  t h a t i n d i c a t e a s u b s t a n t i a l emphasis i s s t i l l on t o u r i s t promotion  through  Most o f these proposed  roads  being placed  f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a v e l by c a r . are former  trails  that lead  to  p a r t i c u l a r s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s , r e - a f f i r m i n g the c o n t e n t i o n  of  J.G. Nelson  trail one"  t h a t "the p r o g r e s s i o n from a w e l l - d e f i n e d  t o a g r a v e l and then a paved road i s a r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t (Nelson, 1969 ,p.137).  Even though park  a u t h o r i t i e s endeavour t o make  these roadways as a t t r a c t i v e and u n o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e , t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n but t h a t they a c t as d i s t i n c t i n t r u s i o n s i n t o n a t u r a l areas.  The problem i s compounded  by t h e f a c t t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l roads a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n v a l l e y bottoms, which a l s o happen t o be t h e areas c o n t a i n i n g the g r a s s l a n d s l o p e s and shrublands serve as w i n t e r ranges 1969,  p.934).  that  f o r the l a r g e game animals  T h i s p o i n t s e r v e s t o emphasize  (Cowan,  criticisms  made by Cowan t h a t the ecology o f an area i s one o f the l a s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t i s made i n park p l a n n i n g .  This  d i s s e c t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s by r o a d s , coupled w i t h severe a r e a l r e d u c t i o n s , d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u e w i l d e r n e s s w i t h i n the p a r k s .  the 100,000 acre s i z e requirement  While  i s a somewhat a r b i t r a r y  v a l u e , i t does r e p r e s e n t a r e a s o n a b l e approximation o f the area r e q u i r e d t o a l l o w a f u l l w i l d e r n e s s In  view o f the reduced  u n i t s proposed,  experience.  such an e x p e r i e n c e  would n o t be p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f most, i f any, o f B r i t i s h Columbia's n a t i o n a l  parks.  - 70  -  Summary: The  scope of any  f o r the n a t i o n a l parks has  future wilderness  legislation  been s t r o n g l y predetermined  by the h i s t o r i c a l development o f n a t i o n a l parks p o l i c y . The  p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the m a j o r i t y  the parks was revenue.  the promotion o f t o u r i s m  T h i s g o a l was  l o c a t i o n and  as a source o f  r e f l e c t e d i n the c h o i c e  of  consequent development o f t h r e e o f  f o u r major n a t i o n a l parks w i t h i n B.C. N a t i o n a l Park b e i n g  the  -Mount R e v e l s t o k e  the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n .  were chosen p r i m a r i l y f o r the reasons of  The  other  area.  For example, both G l a c i e r and Yoho N a t i o n a l Parks  also responsible i n the two  three  accessibility  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s o f the  t h e i r o r i g i n s t o the e x i s t e n c e  of  of the CPR,  who  owe  were  f o r most of the commercial developments  areas.  S i g n i f i c a n t p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n was  introduced  i n 19 30 by the N a t i o n a l Parks A c t which f o r m a l l y  recognized  the N a t i o n a l Parks as a d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y . The  most noteworthy f e a t u r e of t h i s A c t , however, was  the  f a c t t h a t a l l n a t i o n a l parks were i d e n t i f i e d i n a Schedule attached  t o the A c t which c o u l d o n l y be  Act of P a r l i a m e n t .  T h i s now  amended by  meant t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f  parks or a l t e r a t i o n of park boundaries c o u l d o n l y determined by P a r l i a m e n t ,  an  whereas up u n t i l t h i s  be  time  a l t e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out through the a c t i o n s of Governor i n C o u n c i l .  the  - 71 -  A major d e t e r r e n t to e s t a b l i s h i n g n a t i o n a l parks s i n c e 19 30 has been the T r a n s f e r o f Resources Agreement o f t h a t y e a r whereby v i r t u a l l y resources  l y i n g w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e s  j u r i s d i c t i o n o f those P r o v i n c e s . a h i g h degree of c o o p e r a t i o n  a l l l a n d and  came under'the  This action necessitated  between the two l e v e l s o f  government i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f lands  for national  e s p e c i a l l y on the p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government must " t r a n s f e r a l l lands Government.  title  parks, that  f r e e " t o the F e d e r a l  The r e l u c t a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l governments  t o r e l e a s e sources o f present i s understandable.  and f u t u r e resource revenue  Thus, i n the whole o f Canada, o n l y  s i x r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n a t i o n a l parks were e s t a b l i s h e d between 1920 and 1968.  The formation  o f the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l  Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada i n 1963 was an important step towards c l a r i f y i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s ' p o l i c y and increasing opportunities  f o r cooperation  F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments.  between the  Since t h a t time,  s e v e r a l measures have been taken t o f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l lands e s t a b l i s h i n g n a t i o n a l parks. j o i n t assessment o f resource  f o r the purpose o f  These measures have i n c l u d e d c o n f l i c t s , a phasing o f  a c q u i s i t i o n p e r i o d s , and v a r i o u s c o s t - s h a r i n g agreements.  One o f the outcomes o f t h i s r e v i t a l i z e d i n t e r e s t  - 72 i n e s t a b l i s h i n g n a t i o n a l parks has been an e f f o r t t o encourage p u b l i c involvement  i n f o r m u l a t i n g park p o l i c y .  In the S p r i n g o f 1971, a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were h e l d t o a i r o p i n i o n s on the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans f o r the western parks.  T h i s event marked a new p l a t e a u i n the  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Parks' p o l i c y .  While the  g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by these meetings and p l a n s was encouraging,  some o f the s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s were n o t  so p r e s e r v a t i o n - o r i e n t e d as may have been hoped f o r by conservationists. Parks  Given the c o n d i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g N a t i o n a l  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the g r e a t e s t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r  l e g i s l a t e d w i l d e r n e s s must l i e w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l N a t i o n a l Parks w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e .  The P r o v i n c i a l  Parks  B r i t i s h Columbia e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n on J u l y 20th,  1871 under v i r t u a l l y the same terms as the  o r i g i n a l members - w i t h one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n .  Paragraph  11, S e c t i o n 146 o f the 1871 B r i t i s h North America A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia would convey t o the Dominion Government a t r a c t o f l a n d 20 m i l e s i n width on each s i d e o f a r a i l w a y t o be b u i l t  to the B.C. Coast.  In a d d i t i o n , f o l l o w i n g v a r i o u s disagreements and changes, 3.5 m i l l i o n acres o f l a n d i n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t were a l s o t o be put under F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n 1969,  p.31).  I t was not u n t i l  (LaForest,  1930 w i t h the T r a n s f e r o f  Resources Agreement t h a t c o n t r o l o f most o f these  lands  was  t u r n e d o v e r t o the P r o v i n c e .  t r a n s f e r t h a t allowed  I t was t h i s d e l a y o f  the establishment  major n a t i o n a l parks w i t h i n B.C. Long Beach N a t i o n a l Park  o f so many  (four)  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  (1971) has marked the s o l e  a c q u i s i t i o n made by the F e d e r a l Government w i t h i n  British  Columbia s i n c e 1920.  The  P r o v i n c i a l Parks A c t o f 19 0 8 may perhaps be  viewed as the i n i t i a t i n g p i e c e o f l e s i g l a t i o n f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n o f lands  f o r parks i n B.C.  T h i s e a r l y attempt  at c r e a t i n g parks was aimed a t the "low q u a l i t y " s e t t i n g comparable t o today's urban parks - r a t h e r than any c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s Administration  and e c o l o g y .  o f these areas was managed by l o c a l Parks  Boards i n the r e s p e c t i v e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and C i t i e s . a few years  a more conscious  be s e t a s i d e w i t h  need was f e l t  f o r areas t o  the s p e c i f i c purpose o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e  w i l d and n a t u r a l s t a t e o f these areas p.34).  Within  (Greenwood, 196 8,  T h i s need was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a  Park  Act o f 1911 which s e t a s i d e a v a s t area o f 561,179 on Vancouver I s l a n d  acres  ( S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1911) .  T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n p r o h i b i t e d the s a l e , s e t t l e m e n t o r occupancy o f these lands w i t h  the primary i n t e n t o f p r o t e c t i n g  the l a n d from mining and l o g g i n g i n t e r e s t s (Greenwood, 1968,  p.34).  C e r t a i n other  areas were a l s o s e t a s i d e ,  p r i m a r i l y as r e s e r v e s plans were put  forward  d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n  f o r f u t u r e use  i n t h a t no  f o r t h e i r development.  formal However,  w i t h the government s e e k i n g  to create  employment v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s were c a r r i e d out i n the development o f the p a r k s ,  a development t h a t has proceeded at v a r y i n g  r a t e s t o the p r e s e n t  day.  In 19 40, p r i n c i p a l l y parks a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  f o r reasons o f expediency,  p l a c e d under the B.C.  Forest  S e r v i c e of the Department o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Reserves.  U n t i l t h i s time the parks had been the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the M i n i s t e r of Lands. R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n of the B.C. 8 years  Water  The  direct  Parks  F o r e s t S e r v i c e was  and created  l a t e r , o f f e r i n g a somewhat g r e a t e r degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  Then, i n 19 57, of Recreation  an Act was  passed which c r e a t e d the Department  and C o n s e r v a t i o n .  which brought t o g e t h e r  T h i s was  a Crown Department  the major elements o f outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch. Columbia's r e c r e a t i o n a l , resources were now by a s p e c i f i c Act and responsibility  a l s o there was  now  recognized  direct  ministerial  (Dooling, 1970,p.3).  A c e r t a i n degree of hope was wilderness  British  p r e s e r v a t i o n i n 1964  Nature Conservancy Areas:  offered for potential  when Cabinet  Order e s t a b l i s h e d  - 75 WHEREAS f o r t h e purposes of managing P r o v i n c i a l Parks" i t i s c o n s i d e r e d necessary to d i v i d e parks i n t o . z o n e s i n which n a t u r a l environment i s p r e s e r v e d to v a r y i n g degrees; AND to r e p o r t t h a t i n areas o f s u p e r l a t i v e n a t u r a l beauty, o u t s t a n d i n g w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y , or unique f l o r a and fauna, i t i s necessary to preserve a l l n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f r e e from commercial or i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . . . ...zones i n which a l l n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s are p r e s e r v e d i n the n a t i v e s t a t e (B.C. G a z e t t e , March 19th, 1964) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a l l such  areas were t o l i e w i t h i n  a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g parks which meant t h a t those areas were simply those t h a t had escaped  resource  chosen  exploitation,  and were not n e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r " s u p e r l a t i v e n a t u r a l beauty and o u t s t a n d i n g w i l d e r n e s s  The b r o a d e s t for  quality".  and most s i g n i f i c a n t parks  B r i t i s h Columbia was  legislation  i n t r o d u c e d i n the Park Act o f  At a f i r s t  g l a c e the g e n e r a l t e n o r of the A c t  admirable,  even i f i t i s somewhat ambiguous and  1965.  appears inexplicit.  Before examining the Act i t s e l f , however, i t i s necessary to  note c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t are used i n r e g a r d to the  system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . of  In 19 65, there were two  areas t h a t were so d e f i n e d t h a t they may  q u a l i f y as w i l d e r n e s s . Conservancy Areas,  The  types  be s a i d to  f i r s t of these were the Nature  those areas which c o n t a i n e d :  s p e c i f i c a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g examples of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y u n i n f l u e n c e d . b y the a c t i v i t i e s o f man, whose purpose i s to p r e s e r v e u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l environments ( B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 19 65, p . 3 ) .  - 76 -  V7ilderness parks were then d e s c r i b e d as areas c o n t a i n i n g expanses o f unoccupied l a n d , whose purpose i s t o p r e s e r v e c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those which p r e v a i l e d b e f o r e the advent o f European s e t t l e r s and t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o observe the r e g e n e r a t i v e processes o f nature ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1965, p . 4 ) . To date, the term " w i l d e r n e s s as an o f f i c i a l  classification  f o r parks  11  has not been used and no a r e a has  been d e s c r i b e d as w i l d e r n e s s , although d e f i n i t i o n s o f w i l d e r n e s s are s t i l l  maintained w i t h i n the Parks  Branch  vocabulary.  A more e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n o f Nature Conservancy Areas was c r e a t e d a t a l a t e r date  and i s d e s c r i b e d i n  current L e g i s l a t i o n as:  r o a d l e s s t r a c t s w i t h i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks. They c o n t a i n o u t s t a n d i n g examples o f scenery and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , u n i n f l u e n c e d by the a c t i v i t i e s o f man and d e d i c a t e d t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l environments ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1969, p . l ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were t h r e e c l a s s e s o f parks  stipulated:  C l a s s "A" parks are i n t e n d e d t o p r e s e r v e o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l , s c e n i c , and h i s t o r i c f e a t u r e s o f the P r o v i n c e f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . They have a h i g h degree o f l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n . C l a s s "B" parks are a l s o p r i m a r i l y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n s , but o t h e r r e s o u r c e use i s p e r m i t t e d , p r o v i d e d i t does not unduly i m p a i r r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s .  - 77 -  C l a s s "C" parks are P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r the use o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and are g e n e r a l l y managed by l o c a l parks boards (Ibid, p . l ) . With r e s p e c t t o w i l d e r n e s s i s c l e a r that only Class  preservation, i t  "A" parks o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t  legislative  p r o t e c t i o n , although b l a t e n t weaknesses a l s o e x i s t i n this sector.  An example o f such a weakness i s the system  o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t h a t was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d o f the Park A c t .  as a p a r t  These c a t e g o r i e s were g i v e n as f o l l o w s  based on the main purpose d e s i g n a t e d  f o r the park:  Category 1  .... p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i t s p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere, environment, o r e c o l o g y ;  Category 2  . . . . p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n to the p u b l i c o f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c , or s c e n i c nature;  Category 3  ....enjoyment, convenience, and comfort to the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c ;  Category 4  . . . . r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o the p u b l i c o f a p a r t i c u l a r community o r a r e a ;  Category 5  ....specific recreational activity;  Category 6  ....establishment o f the park f o r two or more purposes. ( S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Ch. 31, p.179).  1965,  These s i x c a t e g o r i e s may be a p p l i e d t o C l a s s "A",  "B" o r "C" parks,  power of e f f e c t i v e l y  and thus have the p o t e n t i a l  " r e c l a s s i f y i n g " any park w i t h o u t  technically altering i t s class status.  At p r e s e n t ,  of  - 78  -  the 1,623,726 acres t h a t are c l a s s i f i e d as Nature Conservancy A r e a s , o n l y 44,032 a c r e s , or 2.7% C l a s s "A"  parks  l i e within  ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department of  and C o n s e r v a t i o n ,  1971).  w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e ,  In terms of t o t a l park acreage  t h i s f i g u r e represents  t h a t i s both p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s as much as p r e s e n t  Recreation  and  only  at l e a s t  0.67%  protected  l e g i s l a t i o n allows, that i s , designated  as Nature Conservancy and  l y i n g w i t h i n a C l a s s "A"  T h i s area i s o n l y 0.018% o f the t o t a l area o f the  Having dispensed i s now  Province.  w i t h t h i s p r e p a r a t o r y work i t  p o s s i b l e to proceed to the 19 65 Park Act  In p a r t , S e c t i o n 8 of the A c t  No  park.  itself.  reads:  i n t e r e s t i n land w i t h i n a  (a)  park o f C l a s s "A" o r C l a s s "C" s h a l l be granted, s o l d , l e a s e d , pre-empted, o r otherwise a l i e n a t e d or o b t a i n e d or made the s u b j e c t of a l i c e n s e except (when i t ) i s necessary to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o r maintenance of the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s ;  (b)  Park o f C l a s s "B" s h a l l be granted, s o l d , l e a s e d , pre-empted, or otherwise a l i e n a t e d or o b t a i n e d except by a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g park use permit, the i s s u a n c e o f which i s not, i n the o p i n i o n of the M i n i s t e r , d e t r i m e n t a l to the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f the park concerned (Statutes o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965). The  to C l a s s "B"  use o f the word " d e t r i m e n t a l " w i t h parks,  respect  leaves the q u e s t i o n o f p r e s e r v a t i o n  open to a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . A  similar  - 79  -  phraseology as a p p l i e d t o n a t u r a l resources parks i s given i n S e c t i o n 9 of the  within  the  Act.  Of prime importance i n any  a p p r a i s a l of  Park Act, however, i s the message c o n t a i n e d  the  i n Section  7, which s t a t e s :  The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may c a n c e l or r e - e s t a b l i s h any park e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s A c t , and may r e v i s e the boundaries o f any such park or i n c r e a s e or to decrease the area o f the park or to c o n s o l i d a t e two or more parks or to d i v i d e an e x i s t i n g park i n t o two or more parks ( I b i d ) . The  Lieutenant-Governor's o n l y o b l i g a t i o n i s  t o ensure t h a t "the t o t a l area of parks and areas i s not acres"  recreation  l e s s than s i x m i l l i o n three hundred thousand  ( I b i d , ) . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h i s t o t a l acreage  be C l a s s "C"  park l a n d .  As i t i s w r i t t e n there  i s no  adequate P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n f o r any c l a s s park l a n d , l e t alone of  to p r e s e r v e  the h i g h e r  first requirements  wilderness.  In t h i s r e g a r d , the Parks Branch of Columbia has The  could  1965  from one  o f f e r e d s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of  v e r s i o n , which has given two  d e f i n i t i o n was i n 1968,  years  contained  British  wilderness.  a l r e a d y been quoted, d i f f e r e d  p r e v i o u s l y , and y e t a t h i r d i n a g l o s s a r y of terms produced  which d e f i n e d w i l d e r n e s s  as:  - 80 -  A t r a c t of l a n d s e t a s i d e t o p e r p e t u a t e a n a t u r a l environment. I t has the q u a l i t y o f expansive s o l i t u d e , and u n s p o i l e d n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s p r e s e r v e d , as a r e t r e a t from c i v i l i z a t i o n and f o r outdoor enjoyment, i n s p i r a t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c study. M o t o r i z e d equipment i s b a r r e d from w i l d e r n e s s areas except i n emergencies o r under very e x c e p t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l circumstances ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1968, p.10). F o l l o w i n g t h i s the w i l d e r n e s s d e f i n i t i o n  as  c o n t a i n e d i n the W i l d e r n e s s Act o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s (1964) i s o f f e r e d ; presumably alternative  as e i t h e r an a d d i t i o n o r as an  (Douglas, 1965).  C e r t a i n l y the i n t e n t  expressed  i n e i t h e r d e f i n i t i o n i s admirable enough - what i s m i s s i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i s an area w i t h such a d e s i g n a t i o n .  Having g i v e n a b r i e f survey of p r o v i n c i a l parks l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  i t i s of i n t e r e s t to  observe a few case s t u d i e s t o o f f e r some i n s i g h t the a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . chosen  into  The two  parks  f o r examination were S t r a t h c o n a and Tweedsmuir  P r o v i n c i a l Parks.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r l a r g e s i z e w i t h i n  the parks system - 561,381 acres and 2,424,400 a c r e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , these two parks a l s o c o n t a i n over two o f the P r o v i n c e ' s Nature Conservancy Columbia  acreage  thirds  (British  Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 19 71).  They are a l s o of i n t e r e s t because  o f the numerous  which have taken p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s .  activities  - 81 -  1. S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park: The P r o v i n c e ' s f i r s t  l a r g e p u b l i c park was  e s t a b l i s h e d by the S t r a t h c o n a Park A c t o f 1911 which s e t a s i d e 50 4,176 acres o f rugged mountain c e n t r a l Vancouver 1911).  Island  t e r r a i n on  (Statutes o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  The A c t s t i p u l a t e d t h a t lands o f the area be  "withdrawn from s a l e , s e t t l e m e n t , and occupancy", w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f p r o t e c t i n g the area from particularly  from mining and l o g g i n g  development,  (Ibid).  Before t h i s  l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted, the area was c a r e f u l l y surveyed and most o f those timber l e a s e s l y i n g w i t h i n the boundaries o f the proposed park were a c q u i r e d by the government.  At  t h i s e a r l y stage i t appears t h a t the government extended c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t towards e l i m i n a t i n g any p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f u t u r e d i s p u t e s over ownership o f park l a n d (Turner, 1969, p e r s o n a l communication  from R.H. A h r e n s ) .  During the next two decades s e v e r a l a c t i o n s took p l a c e t h a t g r e a t l y reduced the degree o f p r o t e c t i o n t o the park.  afforded  In 1918, the o r i g i n a l S t r a t h c o n a Park A c t was  amended t o p e r m i t "the l o c a t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n of m i n e r a l c l a i m s "  (Statutes o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1918).  These same p r i v i l e g e s were a l s o extended t o the g r a n t i n g o f timber l i c e n s e s .  Yet another amendment was i n t r o d u c e d  i n 1927 which allowed the C a b i n e t to g r a n t l i c e n s e s t o " r a i s e the water l e v e l o r t o use f o r s t o r a g e any water course o r l a k e w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the Park" B r i t i s h Columbia, 1927).  (Statutes o f  Two y e a r s l a t e r , the government  - 82 made e f f o r t s t o r e v e r s e and  gained  the i n c r e a s i n g trend of a l i e n a t i o n  c o n t r o l o f s e v e r a l timber h o l d i n g s  edges o f B u t t l e Lake, although o t h e r  around the  large t r a c t s s t i l l  remained i n the c o n t r o l o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s .  Also,  World War I I , a number o f o t h e r p r i v a t e l y h e l d timber along  the s h o r e l i n e o f B u t t l e Lake were r e c o v e r e d  during claims  by the  Government, o f f e r i n g a d d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y t o the park  (Haig-  Brown, 1966).  The  greatest disturbances,  and those  t h a t have caused the g r e a t e s t c o n t r o v e r s y , s i n c e the e a r l y 1950's. i n v o l v e d the p r o d u c t i o n  have  activities occurred  The f i r s t o f the two major c o n f l i c t s o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power f o r the  Campbell R i v e r area through c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam at the o u t l e t o f B u t t l e Lake. which i t was estimated  A r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d  i n 1953, i n  t h a t the proposed f l o o d i n g would  i n c r e a s e t h e t o t a l area o f the l a k e from 11.9 5 t o 14.78 square m i l e s 1953).  and r a i s e the l e v e l by 2 8 f e e t  ( L a r k i n ; McMynn,  I t was concluded t h a t t h i s f l o o d i n g would endanger  the e x i s t i n g f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s ,  p r i m a r i l y because o f i t s  major depth f l u c t u a t i o n s which would most e f f e c t the shallow waters where spawning takes p l a c e .  Conservationists  also  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f l o o d i n g would t o t a l l y inundate any e x i s t i n g beaches.  Despite  p r o t e s t s from t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n  s e c t o r o f the p u b l i c , the dam c o n s t r u c t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n 1955.  - 83 A second and more prolonged the purchase o f mining B u t t l e Lake.  c o n f l i c t arose  c l a i m s near the Southern  over  end o f  In 19 57, S t r a t h c o n a had been t r a n s f e r r e d  from the p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s own s p e c i a l A c t t o C l a s s "A" park s t a t u s under the p r e t e x t t h a t t h i s would b r i n g t h e park p r o p e r l y i n t o the park system and o f f e r even g r e a t e r protection  (Haig-Brown, 1966) .  Mines L t d .  (NPL) purchased  and w i t h C a b i n e t  There, years l a t e r , Western  23 c l a i m s along Myra Creek  a p p r o v a l they then Optioned  15 a d d i t i o n a l  c l a i m s and staked 128 o t h e r s i n the same area.  By l a t e  19 62, Park Use Permits had been granted t o enable t h e Company t o commence work on i t s c l a i m s  (Turner, 19 69) .  With h i s appointment as M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n  i n 1964, one o f the f i r s t p r o p o s a l s made  by Kenneth K i e r n a n was t h a t C l a s s "A" parks open t o mining  and l o g g i n g .  i n C o u n c i l was passed  s h o u l d be made  On March 10, 19 64 an Order  t h a t allowed mining  developments i n  a l l parks o f 5,000 acres o r more; l e g i s l a t i o n which a l l previous  over-rode  legislation:  Where t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t between the r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d under S e c t i o n 24 o f the Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t and the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Order i n C o u n c i l , i n r e s p e c t of any P r o v i n c i a l Park o f C l a s s "A" o r C l a s s "B" having an a r e a o f more than 5,000 a c r e s , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Order i n C o u n c i l s h a l l govern ( B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e , March 19,1964).  - 84 -  T h i s Order  i n C o u n c i l was  not i n t e n d e d as l o n g -  term l e g i s l a t i o n , but r a t h e r a g e s t u r e o f i n t e n t f o r the b e n e f i t of commercial i n t e r e s t s u n t i l such time as the expected new  Park Act should come i n t o b e i n g .  Certainly  t h i s a c t i o n o f f e r e d encouragement t o Western Mines whose i n i t i a l p r o p o s a l s had appeared harmless  d i s a r m i n g l y simple  and  - a s m a l l h o l e i n the ground and the mined ore  shipped up the l a k e , an o p e r a t i o n p r o d u c i n g a minimal turbance o f the environment.  F u r t h e r encouragement  g i v e n when a Government Order i n C o u n c i l reduced from C l a s s "A" of  t o C l a s s "B"  since i t s establishment, i t i s necessary (B.C. G a z e t t e , March 20.  While  i n the  park  1965).  the a c t i v i t i e s o f Western Mines had  the p u b l i c f i n a l l y became aroused  concern, however, was  passed  Strathcona  i n 19 66 when i t was  t h a t mine t a i l i n g s would be dumped i n t o the l a k e .  learned  The  major  not over the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , but o f contamination o f Campbell  R i v e r ' s d r i n k i n g water s u p p l y . for  Strathcona  to r e c l a s s i f y  l a r g e l y unnoticed since i t s i n i t i a l entry into  or  was  s t a t u s because " i n the face  i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y which has proceeded  the park"  dis-  I n . t h i s r e g a r d , a spokesman  the P r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board  s a i d i t was  decided not to h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g because "on evidence p r e s e n t e d , the Board was  s a t i s f i e d t h a t the  u s e f u l n e s s o f the water w i l l not be impaired" D a i l y C o l o n i s t , November 5,  1966) .  the  (Victoria  - 85 The Western Mines o p e r a t i o n proposed to d i s p o s e of 800  tons o f t a i l i n g s d a i l y - these t a i l i n g s b e i n g  comprised o f f i n e l y ground waste rock c o n t a i n i n g cyanide and o t h e r poisonous  chemicals.  The p r o c e s s o f d i s p o s a l  i n v o l v e d the m i x i n g of these t a i l i n g s w i t h water t o form a s l u r r y , then t r e a t i n g t h i s mixture w i t h chemicals t o make the f i n e rock p a r t i c l e s  f l o c c u l a t e , o r clump t o g e t h e r  i n t o l a r g e r and h e a v i e r p a r t i c l e s .  Roughly  720,000 g a l l o n s  o f t h i s t r e a t e d s l u r r y would then be pumped i n t o the l a k e each day t o a depth o f 140  to 180  feet.  proposed methods o f d i s p o s a l , the B.C. s t a t e d t h a t the proposed  system was  and incomplete e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a . t h a t game f i s h i n the l a k e may by poisonous  In r e v i e w i n g the Research C o u n c i l  based on  They a l s o  inadequate suggested  be s e r i o u s l y  endangered  chemicals and g r i t t y p a r t i c l e s i n the  In a d d i t i o n , i t was  p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e was  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the d i s p o s a l system might  water.  the  cause  upflow  c u r r e n t s t h a t would c a r r y s o l i d s up from the l a k e bottom (Myers, 19 66).  Yet another t o p i c o f debate was  the q u e s t i o n  o f t r a n s p o r t i n g ore from the mine s i t e up the l e n g t h of B u t t l e Lake.  While i t had o r i g i n a l l y been proposed  s h i p the ore up the l a k e , i t was a t h r e a t of o i l s p i l l a g e then chosen  f e l t t h a t t h e r e may  from b o a t s , and t r u c k i n g  as the more expedient of the two  alternatives.  to be  was  transportation  T h i s d e c i s i o n r e s u l t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  - 86 o f approximately  20 m i l e s of road along the E a s t e r n  of B u t t l e Lake.  I t was  t h a t a townsite t o the mine.  a l s o d e c i d e d , by mine  government p e r m i s s i o n  to a c q u i r e the b e s t l a k e  s u i t a b l e f o r government campsites  The  own  One  few  had  o f the f i r s t p i e c e s o f equipment  a sawmill, since t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs  no e l e c t r i c i t y , the Company had  power.  o f the  (Haig-Brown,1966).  r u l e d out i m p o r t i n g b a s i c b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . t h e r e was  frontage  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the mining s i t e i t s e l f  numerous requirements. brought i n was  proximity  and r e c e i v e d  a v a i l a b l e , t h a t area of Ralph Creek F l a t ; one areas  officials,  should be l o c a t e d i n reasonable  The mining company requested  shore  A l s o , because  to generate  their  Tennent Lake, l o c a t e d 2,200 f e e t above the  mine s i t e , was  used f o r t h i s purpose by d r i l l i n g a  f o o t t u n n e l under the l a k e bottom and p i p e l i n e down the s l o p e of Mt.  550  laying a 2 4 inch  Myra t o a g e n e r a t i o n  ( V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , November 17,  station  1966).  S h o r t l y b e f o r e commencing o p e r a t i o n s , y e t another  d i s p u t e arose, t h i s time over the p o s s i b i l i t y  an open p i t mining o p e r a t i o n . the B.C.  L e g i s l a t u r e by Robert Strachan,  t h a t Western Mines had was  A charge was  of  levelled in  then NDP  Leader,  l e d the p u b l i c to b e l i e v e t h a t  to be a t u n n e l o p e r a t i o n when i n f a c t i t was  this  t o be  an open p i t mine ( V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, November 17,1966). In t r u t h , t h e r e was  to be some open p i t mining, t o  the  - 87 e x t e n t o f a 10 acre open p i t area where m i n e r a l s were too c l o s e t o the s u r f a c e t o warrant a t u n n e l , b u t w i t h the bulk o f the ore b e i n g mined u s i n g a t u n n e l o p e r a t i o n .  During  t h e Western Mines c o n t r o v e r s y ,  a number  o f p u b l i c statements were made by Thomas E l l i o t t , manager of the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines.  In  March o f 19 66, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s i s s u e , he s t a t e d :  A q u i c k look at Vancouver I s l a n d shows t h a t t h e r e a r e at p r e s e n t nine o p e r a t i n g mines. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t each o f these mines may occupy about 1000 acres o f l a n d (under a c t u a l development) the t o t a l acreage o c c u p i e d by mines i s so i n f i n i t e s i m a l , i t i s obvious t h i s i n d u s t r y can never do any m a t e r i a l damage t o the s u r f a c e o f the l a n d (Vancouver Sun, March 15, 19 66). The  f a c t s o f the Myra Creek s i t u a t i o n would  appear t o b e l i e t h i s  statement.  In 1957, S t r a t h c o n a was r e c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s "A"  park, o f f e r i n g t h e maximum l e g i s l a t u r e p r o t e c t i o n  a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t time 18,  1957).  Within  ( B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette,  t h r e e y e a r s , a s i n g l e mining company  c o n t r o l l e d 166 claims w i t h i n the p u b l i c l y area.  Four years  "protected"  l a t e r an Order i n C o u n c i l was passed  which allowed mining i n a l l p a r k s , parks  April  i n c l u d i n g C l a s s "A"  ( B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette, March 19, 1964).  However,  to be on the s a f e s i d e , the government a l t e r e d the park  - 88 s t a t u s t o C l a s s "B", (B.C. Gazette, May Parks  where "other r e s o u r c e use  20,  1965).  i s permitted"  A few years ago,  R.H.  Ahrens,  Branch D i r e c t o r , d e s c r i b e d the Western Mines  development:  T h i s r e q u i r e s a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power development, a p o r t a b l e sawmill f o r p i t props, a t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l s i t e , a mining m i l l town, m i l l e f f l u e n t d i s p o s a l s i t e s , many roads, a camp, a town s i t e , barge s h i p p i n g and tugs on a major l a k e , l o a d i n g out works, then a highway through the park (along water grades) - a l l j u s t f o r a. starter. That 10 acre h o l e i n f l u e n c e s 100,000 acres o f the c h o i c e s t p a r t of the park (Ahrens, 1968). A l l o f these a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r e d w i t h  the  a p p r o v a l and c o o p e r a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Where l e g i s l a t i o n was  too r e s t r i c t i v e i t was  removed, o r i g n o r e d .  P r e s e r v a t i o n of a n a t u r a l environment  was  altered,  g i v e n lowest p r i o r i t y i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  The Western Mines o p e r a t i o n i s s t i l l i t s t a i l i n g s i n t o B u t t l e Lake and does not  dumping  anticipate  t e r m i n a t i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e f o r at l e a s t another y e a r at which time wastes w i l l be used to f i l l mine (Vancouver Sun, time  f u r t h e r mining  December 10th, activities  the open p i t  1971).  At the same  are b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n  the Cream Lake area, an area c o n t a i n i n g the s p e c t a c u l a r 1,451  foot Delia F a l l s .  surrounding  In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e r  area  the p r e s e n t Western Mines o p e r a t i o n has been  s e t a s i d e i n which c l a i m s may  be staked without  the  o f the Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n .  approval Nearly  - 89 -  NATURE CONSERVANCY Blocked areas depict Mining Claims and Tree Licences existing within the boundaries of Strathcona Park. STRATHCONA PROVINCIAL PARK. Map 3  -  200 1964  mining  90  -  claims have been r e c o r d e d i n t h i s area s i n c e  (Ibid).  While the p r o v i n c i a l government i s attempting  t o phase out most o f the l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n S t r a t h c o n a Park, i t appears to be a case of too l i t t l e regard to wilderness conservation.  Although  too l a t e w i t h the  s i t u a t i o n i s i n a s t a t e o f c o n t i n u a l change, Map illustrates  a reasonably  total 3  a c c u r a t e assessment o f the scope  o f p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n S t r a t h c o n a as o f January,19 72.  2. Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park  The  second park to be examined i s Tweedsmuir  Park, the l a r g e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19 36, s e t t i n g a s i d e 3,456,000 acres i n what was  at  t h a t time a r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e area of West c e n t r a l B.C.  ( S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936).  This vast  area c o n t a i n e d a wide v a r i e t y o f g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s and wildlife One  as w e l l as s e v e r a l unique n a t u r a l phenemena.  o f these i s Humber F a l l s which o f f e r s a s p e c t a c u l a r  d i s p l a y i n p l u n g i n g a d i s t a n c e t h a t has been v a r i o u s l y e s t i m a t e d between 830  The Tweedsmuir was C l a s s "A"  and  1200  feet  (Lyons,1956,p.58).  f i r s t evidence o f parks management i n a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of park s t a t u s from  t o "B" i n 19 40, producing  a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction  i n the degree of l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n ( S t a t u t e s o f  - 91 B r i t i s h Columbia, was  1940).  based on a n t i c i p a t e d  Presumably, development  t h i s status  o f mining and hydro  i n t e r e s t s t h a t were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y area.  change  a c t i v e i n the  During the 1940's the government undertook a survey  of the park "to l o c a t e , map, e x i s t i n g improvements,  and photograph park  attractions,  means o f access and t r a v e l , t o  l a y a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a master p l a n of development" P r o v i n c e , q u o t i n g Premier H a r t , 19 44). a r e p o r t was  compiled by C P .  30th, 1970 was  "not a v a i l a b l e  From t h i s work  Lyons t h a t  as o f October  f o r p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n or  use"(Ahrens, quoted by B i r t w e l l , 1970). that  (Vancouver  the contents o f t h i s r e p o r t were not  I t must be assumed consistent  w i t h the ensuing government p o l i c y .  Hydro-electric  p o t e n t i a l had been surveyed  throughout the P r o v i n c e d u r i n g the l a t e 1920's w i t h an eye t o a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r y and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e The Aluminium  through the promise o f a cheap  power supply ( B i r t w e l l , 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 5 ) .  Company o f Canada became i n t e r e s t e d  power p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n  Tweedsmuir, s p e c i f i c a l l y  i n the Ootsa Lake a r e a , b e f o r e World War  I I , but d i d not  pursue an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t u n t i l s h o r t l y a f t e r the Amidst r e l a t i v e l y minimal p r o t e s t , Lake and e n v i r o n s was  i n the  War.  the f l o o d i n g o f Ootsa  c a r r i e d out i n 19 53, r a i s i n g the  l e v e l s o f the l a k e s i n excess o f 200  A double l o s s was  feet  (Barteaux,1953).  i n f l i c t e d through the govern-  ment's apparent d i s i n t e r e s t , or ignorance o f , e c o l o g i c a l  - 92 -  damage and l o s s o f timber and l a n d revenues.  Before the  g r a n t i n g o f the l i c e n s e t o f l o o d , t h e r e was no c l o s e survey made o f timber and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , nor was any p r o v i s i o n made f o r damage o f Crown A s s e t s i n the form o f p r e s e n t and f u t u r e timber products (Vancouver Sun, October 30, 19 70). A c c o r d i n g t o the l i c e n s e i s s u e d , A l c a n was to c l e a r and make u s e a b l e , t o water l e v e l , a l l p u b l i c roads and t r a i l ends up t o a t o t a l c o s t , but not t o exceed $250,000.00. (Barteaux, 1953).  Loss o f timber revenues due t o f l o o d i n g  were e s t i m a t e d a t $15 m i l l i o n by Walter W i l s o n , Highway S e c r e t a r y at Burns Lake Sommers, then Lands B.C.  (Lyons, 1956).  In 1953, Robert  and F o r e s t s M i n i s t e r , s t a t e d i n the  L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t the A l c a n p r o j e c t  "has c o s t the  people o f B r i t i s h Columbia an e s t i m a t e d l o s s i n w i l d l i f e o f $2,500,000.00 p l u s a l o s s i n lake v a l u e o f $23,488,000.00" (Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 10, 1953).  The economic  o f t h i s timber may be a t t e s t e d t o by the f a c t t h a t water l o g g i n g i s c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n Ootsa (Vancouver Sun, October 30, 19 70). the date o f the o r i g i n a l  viability under-  Lake  In 19 70, 17 y e a r s from  f l o o d i n g , Ootsa Lake remained a  scene o f chaos:  the v a s t p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s t a n d i n g t r e e s - submerged o r p r o t r u d i n g , deadheads and f l o a t i n g d e b r i s have r u i n e d the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e o f the l a k e s (Vancouver Sun, September 19,1970).  It i s d i f f i c u l t  to g i v e a d e f i n i t i v e  assessment  o f the t o t a l damage caused by such f l o o d i n g as so many o f the e f f e c t s are secondary.  Certain rivers,  f o r exampl  the Nechaka, l o s t most o f t h e i r water, thus a f f e c t i n g v e g e t a t i o n , n e s t i n g grounds  f o r geese and ducks, and the  numerous o t h e r w i l d l i f e t h a t are dependent  upon the  regular cycles of nature.  The e x t e n s i v e f l o o d i n g w i t h the r e s u l t a n t drainage d i s r u p t i o n and channel c l o g g i n g have e f f e c t i v e l y r u i n e d the q u a l i t y o f much o f the lake system o f Northern Tweedsmuir (Greenwood, 1968,p.37).  In June o f 19 55, two y e a r s a f t e r the f l o o d i n g o f Ootsa Lake, a Government Order i n C o u n c i l reduced the s i z e o f Tweedsmuir Park by 1,156,500 a c r e s , t h a t "the above d e s c r i b e d lands are now u n s u i t a b l e f o r park purposes" June 30, 1955). was  By 1967  stating  considered  ( B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e ,  a g r e a t d e a l o f mining  activity  t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the park, and the government  responded i n two d i r e c t i o n s .  They  first  c r e a t e d the  Eutsak Nature Conservancy Area which gave optimum p r o t e c t i o n , a l b e i t i n a C l a s s "B" park, to 629^300 a c r e s o f land i n the Northern p o r t i o n o f Tweedsmuir o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967). the r e s t of the park was  (Statutes  At the same time, however,  p l a c e d i n t o Category 6, which  i s a park " e s t a b l i s h e d f o r two o r more purposes" 1965).  In 1970  encompassing  Rainbow Nature Conservancy was  (Ibid,  created,  121,900 acres i n the South o f the Park  (Ibid  -  94 -  TWEEDSMUIR PROVINCIAL PARK. Map 4  - 95 19 70) .  T h i s now meant, t h a t there were o n l y two areas  w i t h i n Tweedsmuir  ( c o n t a i n i n g a t o t a l o f 751,200  acres)  t h a t were a f f o r d e d any s i g n i f i c a n t p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . In e f f e c t , the remaining  548,300 acres o f C l a s s "B",  Category 6 l a n d , are park i n name o n l y , l e a v i n g l e s s one  q u a r t e r o f the o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d  than  3,456,000 acres as  l e g i t i m a t e park l a n d .  The  d i s s e c t i o n o f Tweedsmuir i s d i s h e a r t e n i n g  not so much f o r what i t p r e s e n t l y i s , b u t f o r what i t might have been.  However, i t i s s t i l l  many m a g n i f i c a n t  an immense park c o n t a i n i n g  and unique f e a t u r e s .  Although many mining  i n t e r e s t s are a c t i v e w i t h i n the park, only three have been s u f f i c i e n t l y encouraged by t h e i r f i n d s t o h o l d park use permits  f o r development work (Ahrens, 19 70c).  o b s t a c l e t o a c t i v e mining has been the extreme of promising  areas.  A major inaccessibility  Presumably, t h i s i s one o f t h e  f a c t o r s t h a t has l i m i t e d l o g g i n g t o a r e l a t i v e l y area on the highway t o B e l l a C o o l a .  small  A f i n a l encouraging  note f o r Tweedsmuir i s the proposed Hunlen Nature Conservancy.  T h i s i s an extremely rugged a r e a , 189,400  acres i n s i z e , and s i t u a t e d e n t i r e l y on a h i g h The  plateau.  area i s thought t o be so rugged and i n a c c e s s i b l e t h a t  the Parks Branch a n t i c i p a t e s access w i l l o n l y be p o s s i b l e by  f l o a t plane  1972).  (Personal communication w i t h Parks Branch,  The Hunlen Nature Conservancy would be a most  v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n to the P r o v i n c i a l Parks System and would r a i s e the t o t a l o f l e g i s l a t e d w i l d e r n e s s of Nature Conservancies acres.  i n the form  w i t h i n Tweedsmuir .to 940 ,600  Conclusions:  Because o f the terms of the B r i t i s h North Act, v i r t u a l l y  a l l o f the lands w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e  America are  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Thus, any e f f o r t s by the F e d e r a l Government  to e s t a b l i s h n a t i o n a l parks r e q u i r e the f u l l o f the p r o v i n c e i n v o l v e d .  Any  cooperation  p r o v i n c e would be r e l u c t a n t  t o r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l of i t s lands f o r a number of F i r s t and  foremost  i s the p o s s i b l e l o s s o f revenue from  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t would be park.  reasons.  " l o c k e d up"  For example, i n 19 64, Premier  an o f f e r from Ottawa o f $10  Bennett  in a national turned down  m i l l i o n to develop  Garibaldi  Park on the grounds t h a t "to accept t h e i r o f f e r would mean g i v i n g up the m i n e r a l and timber r e s o u r c e s o f G a r i b a l d (Vancouver Sun,  February  19,  1964).  On  a more d i r e c t  and immediate l e v e l i s the matter of payment f o r p r o v i n c i a l lands.  I t i s h i g h l y d o u b t f u l t h a t the F e d e r a l government  would be prepared  to pay  the p r i c e t h a t the  provincial  government would deem s u f f i c i e n t .  A much more s u i t a b l e procedure government i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t The  e n t i r e park would now  f o r the  of a p r o v i n c i a l  provincial park.  be s u b j e c t to p r o v i n c i a l  parks  l e g i s l a t i o n which i s n e i t h e r so r i g o r o u s nor p r o t e c t i o n o r i e n t e d as i t s f e d e r a l c o u n t e r p a r t .  A l s o , s h o u l d i t be  expedient,  the park's  97s t a t u s or boundaries  may  be  or the park removed a l t o g e t h e r , simply through o f the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . the two  the a c t i o n s  Whether o r not  l e v e l s o f government w i l l be a b l e t o  and agree on any  cooperate  l a r g e - s c a l e land a c q u i s i t i o n s  become known w i t h i n the next  changed,  should  few years as the F e d e r a l  Government attempts to expand i t s park system.  While the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f some form o f w i l d e r n e s s l e g i s l a t i o n at the f e d e r a l l e v e l are not they appear much more l i k e l y than any at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  Alhtough  individual action  steps have been  i n the d i r e c t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n they not such s t r o n g measures as they might at f i r s t Such hopes have r e s t e d on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  areas i s f a i r l y i m p r e s s i v e  The  p r o t e c t i o n o f C l a s s "A"  are appear.  1964.  contained w i t h i n  these  (1,623,726 acres) over 97%  t h i s a r e a l i e s w i t h i n C l a s s "B" p a r k s , o f f e r i n g limited protection.  taken  o f Nature  Conservancy Areas which were l e g i s l a t e d f o r i n However, w h i l e the t o t a l acreage  overwhelming,  of  only  s i n g l e area r e c e i v i n g the maximum Status as w e l l as d e s i g n a t i o n  as a Nature Conservancy i s the Black Tusk Nature Conservancy which c o n t a i n s o n l y 44,0 32 a c r e s .  This represents only  0.018% o f the t o t a l a r e a of the P r o v i n c e t h a t i s r e c e i v i n g maximum l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n and may  be viewed as  t r u l y d e d i c a t e d to w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n .  being  - 98 The g r e a t weakness o f B r i t i s h Columbia's  Provincial  parks l e g i s l a t i o n l i e s w i t h i t s g r e a t f l e x i b i l i t y whereby any park may  be changed or t o t a l l y removed by the L i e u t e n a n t  Governor i n C o u n c i l . this  Supporters o f t h i s p o l i c y  feel  that  f l e x i b i l i t y o f f e r s the b e s t o f both worlds t o be  a b l e "to have our parks and eat them t o o " . development through economic expediency  However, t h i s  cannot be  regarded  as b e i n g compatible w i t h w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , d e s p i t e the reassurances o f Thomas E l l i o t t who  tells  us  that:  There w i l l always be p l e n t y of w i l d e r n e s s . . . m i l e a f t e r m i l e o f snow-capped mountains t h a t do not possess any r e s o u r c e t h a t can be u t i l i z e d by man except, p o s s i b i l y , timber i n the v a l l e y s (Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 30th, 1966). The h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's  Provincial  Parks p o l i c y would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t , without change, the government w i l l continue t o pursue  dramatic  those  p o l i c i e s which are most expedient f o r the immediate  future.  In d o i n g so, they w i l l be s e v e r e l y l i m i t i n g the number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s remaining of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  f o r p r e s e n t and  future c i t i z e n s  - 99 CHAPTER 5 DETERMINATION OF WILDERNESS DISTRIBITION Introduction  Before d i s c u s s i n g the v a r i o u s f a c e t s i n v o l v e d i n determining  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s , b r i e f mention  should be made concerning  the o b j e c t i v e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s  of such an e x e r c i s e . F i r s t , two  i t should be made c l e a r t h a t  d i s t i n c t s i t u a t i o n s a r e being examined, one d e a l i n g  w i t h v/ilderness change over time and the o t h e r  involving  a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wilderness.  There a r e a number o f r e s u l t s t o be o b t a i n e d , d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y ,  from an examination  o f changing  w i l d e r n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n over time. C l e a r l y , each p e r i o d o f time examined w i l l not o n l y i n d i c a t e the dominant w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , but a l s o those areas o f development. I t i s a c t u a l l y these non-wilderness  areas t h a t a r e b e i n g  examined, w h i l e those areas w i t h no v i s i b l e evidence o f s i g n i f i c a n t human a c t i v i t y a r e c l a s s e d as v / i l d e r n e s s , o r more a c c u r a t e l y as p o t e n t i a l w i l d e r n e s s . In a d d i t i o n ,  for  each time p e r i o d i t should be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y i n g e n e r a l terms the p r e d a t o r y  f o r c e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  d e s t r u c t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s . I t would be expected  t h a t these  f o r c e s would vary between time p e r i o d s r e f l e c t i n g change  - 100 i n economic growth o r government p o l i c y , o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n .  O b s e r v a t i o n s made a t  t h i s stage c o u l d a l s o be u t i l i z e d i n a s s e s s i n g p o s s i b l e trends  i n future wilderness a l i e n a t i o n .  Another obvious r e s u l t to be o b t a i n e d  from  t h i s model i s the a s c e r t a t i o n o f the r a t e o f w i l d e r n e s s depletion. estimates  Again, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may be used t o f a c i l i t a t e of future a l i e n a t i o n s .  Certain patterns of  development may be observed and g e n e r a l when these p a t t e r n s  r e c u r , as f o r example w i t h  of a r a i l w a y t o a r e g i o n . an a c c u r a t e  f o r e c a s t s made the i n t r o d u c t i o n  I t would a l s o be hoped t h a t  assessment o f the r a t e o f w i l d e r n e s s  depletion  would a c t as a t l e a s t a m i l d i n c e n t i v e t o p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s  preservation.  A more i n t e n s i v e examination o f the p r e s e n t wilderness  d i s t r i b u t i o n should y i e l d many o f the same  types o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d from the study o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s over time. negating  As w e l l as n o t i n g the p r e s e n t  f o r c e s , those developments t h a t have been proposed  w i l l be presented,  o f f e r i n g room f o r some s p e c u l a t i o n  as t o f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r wilderness  T h i s more i n t e n s i v e mapping w i l l of a s s e s s i n g the accuracy mappings.  preservation.  also provide  a means  o f the e a r l i e r , more g e n e r a l i z e d  - 101 -  By i t s very d e f i n i t i o n w i l d e r n e s s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , o r more p r e c i s e l y , to  the l a c k o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  The degree to which  this  i s t r u e may be examined a t v a r i o u s time p e r i o d s , n o t i n g the g e n e r a l sequence o f development w i t h r e l a t i o n t o accessibility.  F o r example, r e l a t i v e l y  inaccessible  areas  such as those p o s s e s s i n g mountainous t e r r a i n , would be expected  t o remain as w i l d e r n e s s  f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d than  f l a t t e r , more n a v i g a b l e country.  However, as the c o s t  per r e s o u r c e u n i t r i s e s , the more immediately presumably d i m i n i s h i n g r e s o u r c e s become l e s s and i t becomes more e c o n o m i c a l l y expedient  a c c e s s i b l e and profitable  to c o n s t r u c t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s t o areas  containing higher concentrations  of  o f the c o r r e l a t i o n between  resources.  An examination  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s  and e l e v a t i o n would g i v e  some i n s i g h t i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t e o f w i l d e r n e s s d e p r e c i a t i o n and the degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The to  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f such  a r e l a t i o n s h i p would lend  support  the g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t i v e and w i d e l y h e l d n o t i o n t h a t  w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a case o f what i s l e f t over a f t e r the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . it  In o t h e r words,  i s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p o t e n t i a l  wilderness  l i e s i n those areas of h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s .  Definitions  The  various d i f f i c u l t i e s  involved i n establishing  - 102 an a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters  2 and 3 i n which t h r e e p o s s i b l e  approaches were p r e s e n t e d .  The f i r s t o f these  entailed  a l a r g e l y s u b j e c t i v e p e r s o n a l d e f i n i t i o n i n which the i n d i v i d u a l was f r e e t o i n t e r p r e t w i l d e r n e s s t o h i s own p e r s o n a l conceptions  according  and f e e l i n g s .  Another  a l t e r n a t i v e was the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n that e x p l i c i t l y area.  s t a t e d the r e q u i r e d a t t r i b u t e s o f a w i l d e r n e s s  A f i n a l c h o i c e was o f f e r e d through  Nash's  concept  o f a spectrum o f environments r a n g i n g from t h e urban centre t o absolute wilderness  (Nash, 19 67,  p.6).  Numerous d e f i n i t i o n s o f w i l d e r n e s s have been made a t v a r i o u s times, many more p o e t i c than applicable.  There i s more t o w i l d e r n e s s  area not p e r c e p t a b l y a l t e r e d by man. used by w i l d e r n e s s a phrase  advocates  practically  than merely an  A common  i s the " w i l d e r n e s s  experience"  t h a t i s meant to encompass a m u l t i t u d e o f p h y s i c a l ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , emotional  and s p i r i t u a l s e n s a t i o n s .  not p o s s i b l e t o sample a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e acres o f p r i s t i n e  It is  i n 5000  f o r e s t i f a t the same time one can hear  c a r s and t r u c k s p a s s i n g on a nearby highway. d e f i n i t e l y a s i z e requirement Robert  phrase  There i s  f o r the wilderness  experience.  Marshall's wilderness  c o n t a i n s no permanent i n h a b i t a n t s , possesses no p o s s i b i l i t y o f conveyance by  - 103  -  mechanical means, and i s s u f f i c i e n t l y spacious t h a t a person c r o s s i n g i t must have the e x p e r i e n c e of s l e e p i n g out ( M a r s h a l l , 1969, p. x i i ) . While such a d e f i n i t i o n i s c l e a r l y not  sufficiently  e x p l i c i t to a l l o w d e s i g n a t i o n of an area as w i l d e r n e s s i t does i n c l u d e some of the b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s o f w i l d e r n e s s . A more r i g o r o u s l y encompassing d e f i n i t i o n was by B r i t i s h Columbia's P r o v i n c i a l Parks  presented  Branch:  These are l a r g e areas embracing completely n a t u r a l , undeveloped p o r t i o n s of the P r o v i n c e . Wilderness parks should, i f p o s s i b l e , i n c l u d e i n s p i r a t i o n a l landscapes r e p r e s e n t i t i v e of the major p h y s i o g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s o f the P r o v i n c e . Wilderness parks p r e s e r v e u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l environments so t h a t the park v i s i t o r may observe the t r a n q u i l i t y o f , and g a i n i n s p i r a t i o n from a n a t u r a l atmosphere. They occur, not n e c e s s a r i l y where we would l i k e to have them but where nature put them. A recommended minimum s i z e i s 100,000 a c r e s . C e r t a i n l - they must be l a r g e enough t o exclude the sounds and s i g h t s of what we term c i v i l i z a t i o n . In B.C. parks as s m a l l as 30,000 a c r e s are b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . While the number o f v i s i t o r s i s s m a l l , w i l d e r n e s s atmosphere might be maintained i n such an a r e a , but w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s enjoymen-, the l a r g e r minimum acreage i s a d v i s a b l e ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1963) . Any requirements;  d e f i n i t i o n chosen must f u l f i l l  basic  i t must ensure t h a t w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s  e x i s t w i t h i n an a r e a ; and way  two  t h a t i t may  do  t h a t i t i s d e f i n e d i n such a  be used f o r purposes o f a mapping. With  minor a l t e r a t i o n s , the d e f i n i t i o n chosen f o r t h i s  - 104 study i s t h a t used by the W i l d l a n d Research C e n t r e , which s t i p u l a t e s the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a  f o r a wilderness  area:  1. 2.  Not l e s s than 100,000 acres i n e x t e n t ; C o n t a i n i n g no roads: (a) C o n s t r u c t e d f o r passenger c a r t r a f f i c , i n mountainous t e r r a i n ; (b) S u i t a b l e f o r passenger c a r t r a f f i c , i n deserts or p l a i n s ;  3.  E x i s t i n g as a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h boundaries r e a s o n a b l y free of indentation; With i t s s u c c e s s i o n o f major e c o l o g i c a l stages n o t i n t e r r u p t e d by o n - s i t e human i n f l u e n c e s , except t h a t :  4.  (a) E f f e c t s o f (b) E f f e c t s o f acceptable (c) E c o l o g i c a l acceptable  domestic l i v e s t o c k a r e a c c e p t a b l e ; s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g b e f o r e 1920 a r e e a s t o f the 9 8th m e r i d i a n ; e f f e c t s o f f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n are i n a l l areas.  (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resource Review Commission,1962,p.26). T h i s does not r e p r e s e n t the d e f i n i t i o n i n i t s entirety,  f o r a number o f a d d i t i o n s are made which a l l o w  a broader  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as f o r example, i n p e r m i t t i n g 7  the e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n mountain roads p a s s a b l e w i t h a four-wheel  drive vehicle.  i n t h e W i l d l a n d /Research Centre allowances of  are necessary  t h a t are o n l y As p o i n t e d o u t  Study, these and s i m i l a r  t o ensure t h a t an adequate amount  l a n d may be d e s i g n a t e d as w i l d e r n e s s :  many o f the p r e s e n t v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a c t s depend not on what the l a n d i s b u t what i t appears t o be be - on, perhaps, the i l l u s i o n of a p r i m e v a l landscape. Ecological studies i n a l l p a r t s o f the country demonstrate t h a t there i s no u n d i s t u r b e d landscape l e f t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , except pernaps i n A l a s k a . The d e f i n i t i o n on which t h i s study i s based recognizes t h i s f a c t i n s t i p u l a t i n g that a Wilderness T r a c t be e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e o f t h e more v i s i b l e forms o f human i n f l u e n c e ( I b i d . , P.27).  - 105  -  In o t h e r words, t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n  falls  s h o r t of the extreme  end of the spectrum t h a t r e p r e s e n t s pure w i l d e r n e s s .  The p r e c e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s h a l l now  be  rephrased  t o accommodate the i n t e n t i o n s of t h i s study and  the  p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  first  The  s t i p u l a t i o n i s t h a t a w i l d e r n e s s area c o n t a i n not than 100,000 a c r e s .  The  reasons  less  f o r t h i s s i z e have  a l r e a d y been g i v e n ; p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l  units,  freedom from v a r i o u s forms of p o l l u t i o n - i n summary, l a r g e enough to a l l o w a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . the c h o i c e of a 100,000 acre s i z e requirement somewhat a r b i t r a r y .  Over the y e a r s , v a r i o u s  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s have advocated from 5,000 t o 500,000 acres  Admittedly, i s , of n e c e s s i t y ,  individuals  s i z e requirements  ( I b i d , p.18).  ranging  In g e n e r a l ,  howver, these s m a l l e r areas were o r i e n t e d more towards e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s and p r e s e r v a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r a l phenomena.  The p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  characteristic  i s the a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e .  Clearly  t h e r e w i l l be p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , such as i n c e r t a i n mountainous t e r r a i n s , i n which an area of l e s s than acres would p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t w i l d e r n e s s  100,000  conditions, while  at the same time c e r t a i n f l a t , h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s , such as tundra, would r e q u i r e more than the d e f i n e d minimum. I t i s thought  t h a t 100,000 acres i s a reasonable  estimate  r e q u i r e d f o r most c o n d i t i o n s , although undoubtedly arguments c o u l d be l e g i t i m a t e l y  forwarded  to i n c r e a s e or  decrease  t h i s f i g u r e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to p a r t i c u l a r  areas.  - 106 The  second requirement  s h a l l c o n t a i n no roads.  i s that a wilderness  The W i l d l a n d Research  area  Centre  d e f i n i t i o n does i n f a c t a l l o w roads which i t f e e l s  "do not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t r a c t from w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s , e i t h e r because they are c l o s e d t o p u b l i c e n t r y and are o f low standards o r because they r e s u l t  from p e r s i s t e n t use by a l l - w h e e l v e h i c l e s  but i n v o l v e no c o n s t r u c t i o n " ( I b i d . of reasons,  F o r a number  t h a t are t o be g i v e n , t h i s study w i l l n o t  allow evidence  o f any roads  d e f i n i t i o n of wilderness. Parks  .p. 26) .  to be p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n i t s I t i s e x p l i c i t w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l  Branch d e f i n i t i o n t h a t w i l d e r n e s s i s a " r o a d l e s s  t r a c t , " a f e a t u r e t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the w r i t i n g s of v i r t u a l l y  a l l wilderness  advocates.  At a more p r a c t i c a l  l e v e l , i t i s a l s o d o u b t f u l t h a t w i t h the a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s , t h e p r i m i t i v e types o f roads Research Centre  research  t o which the W i l d l a n d  a l l u d e s c o u l d be l o c a t e d w i t h i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The  e x t e n t t o which a road negates w i l d e r n e s s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a l s o a s u b j e c t open to debate. the N a t i o n a l Parks  Branch o f Canada d e s i g n a t e s  At p r e s e n t ,  a two m i l e  c o r r i d o r on e i t h e r s i d e o f a highway t o serve as a b u f f e r for wildeness,  although  by s e v e r a l w r i t e r s .  t h i s d i s t a n c e i s regarded  Jim T h o r s e l l ,  a two m i l e b u f f e r i s inadequate,  as minimal  f o r example, f e e l s t h a t  c i t i n g a personal instance  i n which t r u c k and t r a i n t r a f f i c , c o u l d be heard  a distance  of four miles i n t o a wilderness  1969,p.10).  area  (Thorsell,  - 10 7 In t h i s study, a l l of those roads l o c a t e d the p a r t i c u l a r maps i n d i c a t e d , have been t r e a t e d t h a t i s , an allowance has on e i t h e r s i d e of any  been made of three  given  roadway.  as f o r example, between a f o u r lane back road.  equally,  to f o u r  Certainly,  w i l l be numerous examples o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s  on  miles  there  i n such a system,  freeway and  an  abscure  However, w h i l e the major highway network generates  a p o t e n t i a l l y much more d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e i n terms o f traffic  flows,  i t does not, by  more l a n d than a l o g g i n g road.  i t s e l f , alienate What the more  significantly  intensive-use  roadway does generate i s a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s m a l l e r roads.  I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y  Although o t h e r c e r t a i n resource  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks  developments g e n e r a l l y o v e r l a p  do not in  to t h i s r u l e .  and the highway  railways  a s i m i l a r manner, t h a t i s , w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f a  of-way.  three  c o r r i d o r on e i t h e r s i d e o f the r a i l w a y r i g h t -  A s i m i l a r approach i s used f o r o i l and  power l i n e s .  Another s i g n i f i c a n t  eliminates wilderness for  For example, where  the  c o i n c i d e w i t h highways, they have been t r e a t e d  to four mile  and  included  corridor.  networks, t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i s necessary to p i c k up exceptions  access  o f both  o f these types w i l l be e i t h e r l o c a t e d from maps or w i t h i n the t h r e e to f o u r m i l e  total  the g e n e r a t i o n  values  i s the  force that  gas  pipelines  effectively  c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e s e r v o i r s  of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power.  The  effects  of the r e s u l t a n t f l o o d i n g f o r these p r o j e c t s can be  quite  - 108 -  e x t e n s i v e , n o t a b l y i n an e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t .  However, f o r  purposes o f t h i s study, a l i e n a t i o n of lands f o r w i l d e r n e s s purposes s h a l l only i n c l u d e those  I t was  flooded.  a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t a w i l d e r n e s s area  as a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h boundaries indentations.  lands a c t u a l l y  reasonably  free of  Again, t h i s i s a q u e s t i o n o f p e r s o n a l  as i t would be extremely i n o b j e c t i v e terms.  difficult  exist  to d e f i n e t h i s  However, i t i s probably  judgment  requirement  s a f e t o assume  t h a t a w i l d e r n e s s area must be at l e a s t 6 or 7 m i l e s i n width.  Judgments would a l s o be based upon the o v e r a l l  s i z e o f the p r o s p e c t i v e w i l d e r n e s s  as w e l l as i t s g e n e r a l  location.  The f i n a l r e q u i r e d a t t r i b u t e was  t h a t the area  have i t s major e c o l o g i c a l stages u n i n t e r r u p t e d by ons i t e human i n f l u e n c e s .  An e x c e p t i o n to t h i s r u l e  was  t h a t the e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n are a c c e p t a b l e i n a l l a r e a s , an e x c e p t i o n t h a t w i l l f o r t h i s study both sources  f o r reasons  a l s o be  of l i m i t a t i o n s of research  and the complex, o f t e n ambiguous  forest f i r e s .  accepted  r o l e p l a y e d by  T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t r e f e r s to the f a c t t h a t  t h e r e i s a good d e a l o f debate as t o whether f o r e s t  fires  should be allowed t o run t h e i r n a t u r a l course w i t h i n a w i l d e r n e s s area o r whether these  f i r e s s h o u l d be  controlled.  - 109 -  An even more ambiguous problem a r i s e s w i t h the second e x c e p t i o n g i v e n by the W i l d l a n d Research  Centre;  t h a t i s , the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g b e f o r e 1920 i n the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s .  It is virtually  impossible  t o determine such i n f o r m a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  While  dates c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d f o r some a r e a s , even approximate dates  f o r a m a j o r i t y o f the P r o v i n c e would be a p r o j e c t  g r e a t l y exceeding of areas through uncertainty.  the scope o f t h i s paper. A l i e n a t i o n l o g g i n g w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be an area o f  W i l d l a n d Research Centre  the e f f e c t s o f domestic areas.  also stated that  l i v e s t o c k are a c c e p t a b l e i n w i l d e r n e s s  With r e s p e c t t o the p r e s e n t study, t h i s  a c t i v i t y does not seem compatible  particular  with wilderness  although on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , i t i s not expected  characteristics , that  c a t t l e g r a z i n g would be a d i s c e r n a b l e a c t i v i t y .  B r i e f l y then, and p r i n c i p a l l y p h y s i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , - a wilderness  f o r purposes o f  area w i l l be d e f i n e d  as:  1.  C o n t a i n i n g not l e s s than  100,000 a c r e s ;  2.  C o n t a i n i n g no roads;  3.  E x i s t i n g as a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h boundaries  reasonably  free of indentation; 4.  With i t s s u c c e s s i o n o f major e c o l o g i c a l  stages  u n i n t e r r u p t e d by o n - s i t e human i n f l u e n c e . influences include a c t i v i t i e s  such  These  as mining,  logging,  - 110 p i p e l i n e s , powerlines, power.  The  and r e s e r v o i r s f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c  s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t the  e f f e c t s o f f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n are  Before p r o c e e d i n g  any  acceptable.  f u r t h e r , s e v e r a l assumptions  t h a t have been made should be c l a r i f i e d explicit.  F i r s t , Wilderness,  ecological  and made more  as d e f i n e d up to t h i s p o i n t ,  f a l l s s l i g h t l y s h o r t of the " a b s o l u t e w i l d e r n e s s " of the spectrum.  T h i s occurs  f o r a number of  l a r g e l y r e l a t e d to the scope o f the study.  100,000  reasons,  If a single,  acre area were b e i n g examined to determine whether  o r not i t were w i l d e r n e s s , i t would be reasonable s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , p r i m a r i l y o f an nature.  end  to i n c l u d e  ecological  T h i s i s not p o s s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e  Province,  nor i s i t i n t o t a l agreement w i t h the i n t e n t of the  study.  By i n c r e a s i n g the degree o f r e f i n e m e n t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y one  a l s o i n c r e a s e s the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s p u t e .  In a  s i m i l a r v e i n t h e r e are s e v e r a l data l i m i t a t i o n s when d e a l i n g w i t h the whole P r o v i n c e ; d a t a sources b e i n g l i m i t e d , but a l s o i n c o n s i s t e n t over  While i t i s d i f f i c u l t  not o n l y  time.  to s t a t e a b s o l u t e l y t h a t  the i d e n t i f i e d areas are w i l d e r n e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t e c h n i c a l competence e x e r c i s e d , t o p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f y those areas t h a t are not w i l d e r n e s s . r e s u l t a n t mapping i s not i n f a c t one non-wilderness,  Thus, the  of wilderness  but of p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s  and  and  non-wilderness.  - I l lAny  refinement  o f d e f i n i t i o n o r o f r e s e a r c h sources can  o n l y reduce the amount o f p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s . of w i l d e r n e s s i s thus presented  The e r o s i o n  as a one-way p r o c e s s .  Approaches t o Mapping the Wilderness  1. Sampling  For some time the q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s throughout was regarded of reasons  as a r e s o u r c e sampling  British  Columbia  problem. For a number  t h i s approach was e v e n t u a l l y abandoned i n  f a v o r o f a mapping procedure.  There are two b a s i c  d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f w i l d e r n e s s t h a t prevent  the d i r e c t u t i l i z a t i o n o r  a d a p t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g sampling geology  and f o r e s t r y  theory i n the f i e l d s o f  (Krumbein and G r a y b i l l , 1965). Both  problems are r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n a l  requirements  of w i l d e r n e s s , namely the minimum s i z e s t i p u l a t i o n and the semi-indeterminate  Wilderness  nature o f the r e s o u r c e .  i s d e c r i b e d as being  semi-indeterminate  i n nature not o n l y because o f i t s s u b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s , but a l s o because o f i t s minimum s i z e requirements.  This  means t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to examine any a r e a l u n i t o f l e s s than 100,000 a c r e s and s t a t e t h a t any o r a l l o f t h i s area i s w i l d e r n e s s . At best i t may be d e s c r i b e d as nonw i l d e r n e s s should i t possess negating  a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of  f o r c e s o r , l a c k i n g any o f these negating f e a t u r e s ,  - 112 -  the area may be c l a s s i f i e d as p o t e n t i a l w i l d e r n e s s . T h i s same r e a s o n i n g a l s o d i c t a t e s t h a t no such area  (of fewer  than 100,000 acres) may be s a i d to c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n of w i l d e r n e s s . Even should the area o f examination  percentage  be  expanded, t o say 500,000 a c r e s , the same problem a r i s e s ignorance o f land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t s i d e o f the chosen a r e a . While t h e r e may be a w i l d e r n e s s area t o t a l l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s 500,000 acre a r e a , t h e r e a l s o e x i s t s the s t r o n g l i k l i h o o d t h a t a t l e a s t some p o r t i o n o f the remainder can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as p o t e n t i a l w i l d e r n e s s and t h e r e f o r e no a c c u r a t e percentage  The  of. w i l d e r n e s s may be a s s i g n e d .  f a c t t h a t a w i l d e r n e s s area may c o n t a i n not  l e s s than 100,000 a c r e s , but may c o n t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l y more, i n t r o d u c e s a v a r i e t y o f problems. The most fundamental o f these i s the s e l e c t i o n o f sampling b a s i c c h o i c e s i n a s s i g n i n g sampling  u n i t s . There a r e two u n i t s - the use o f  p o i n t s o r o f a r e a l u n i t s . The former would i n v o l v e a random s e l e c t i o n o f p o i n t s from a v i r t u a l l y p o p u l a t i o n and the expansion  infinite  o f the area around  these  p o i n t s t o i n c l u d e no fewer than 100,000 a c r e s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered  here a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same ones c i t e d  p r e v i o s l y . L i t t l e can be s a i d f o r any area l e s s than the r e q u i r e d minimum, w h i l e a t the same time a l a r g e r leaves a t l e a s t as much e f f e c t i v e l y u n d e f i n e d suggested  area  area. A  s o l u t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d has been t h a t any p o i n t  t h a t has been expanded to 100,000 a c r e s and remains be f u r t h e r expanded t o the e x t e n t o f d e f i n a b l e  undefined,  - 113 wilderness.  There e x i s t c e r t a i n areas i n the North o f  the P r o v i n c e that would then e n t a i l the examination o f upwards of 10,000 square m i l e s .  While not so s e v e r e , t h i s  problem would a l s o e x i s t i n the South, w i t h the that w i t h i n a very s h o r t time the supposed of sampling would be t o t a l l y to more c l o s e l y resemble  result  advantages  l o s t as the "sampling" came  an i n v e n t o r y .  The u t i l i z a t i o n of areas t o serve as  sampling  u n i t s would i n v o l v e two b a s i c a l t e r n a t i v e s - u n i t s of 100,000 acres or l a r g e r .  The  former would be u s e f u l o n l y  i n those cases i n which the area c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e i t h e r t o t a l l y w i l d e r n e s s or t o t a l l y n o n - w i l d e r n e s s .  In  a p i l o t p r o j e c t , based on the e s t i m a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s , t h i s procedure was  used and i t was  found  that g r e a t e r than 40% of the sample u n i t s were u n d e f i n e d , t h a t i s , they l a y i n both w i l d e r n e s s and areas.  non-wilderness  I t would a l s o be p o s s i b l e to use sample u n i t s o f  v a r y i n g s i z e s g r e a t e r than 100,000 a c r e s , although as has been p o i n t e d out t h i s approach  l e a v e s as much, i f not  more area, u n d e f i n e d .  Given these fundamental  o b s t a c l e s , there i s  l i t t l e p o i n t i n e l a b o r a t i n g on the v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c  samplii  procedures t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d - w i t h one e x c e p t i o n . A g e n e r a l f i e l d of e n q u i r y o f f e r i n g some hope of success was  that i n v o l v i n g s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y  1961).  Basically,  the f i r s t  (Hirschleifer,  i n v o l v e s the assignment  of a  -  certain  a priori  probabilty distribution  the decision-maker's as  to the s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  then  combined w i t h  investigation  that For  then thos  that describes  s t a t e o f i n f o r m a t i o n or degree o f b e l i e f  unknown p a r a m e t e r may  of  114 -  conceivable values  t a k e . These i n i t i a l  sample e v i d e n c e  t o form  taken  a posterior  that the  values are from  the subject  probability  distribution  d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a e o f knowledge a t t h a t p o i n t . particular  v a l u e s would techniques  study  the establishment  n o t be d i f f i c u l t  based  on g e n e r a l mapped d a t a  operative  the requirements  priori  u s i n g any one o f s e v e r a l  However, t h e p r o b l e m s o f s a m p l i n g fulfilling  of a  such  remain  as r o a d  largely  o f minimum s i z e  networks.  t h e same,  and d e f i n i n g  boundaries.  Most o f t h e major o b s t a c l e s i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n cited  briefly  coupled intent over  with  i n this  section.  the p h y s i c a l  of this  time,  of wilderness  paper  dictated  through These  realities  sampling  specific affecting  t o examine w i l d e r n e s s  e m p l o y e d . T h i s d o e s n o t s a y t h a t no f o r m  is  appropriate or feasible  It  does  of wilderness  t h a t sampling  that given  used  the b a s i c  than of  however,  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  sampling  sampling  to this  problem.  and  i n the context o f t h i s  i s not the best  p r o b l e m . A t t h e same t i m e , out  difficulties,  say, t h a t w i t h i n the range o f c r i t e r i a ,  understanding paper,  for application  been  distribution  t h a t some a p p r o a c h o t h e r  be  have  solution i t should  criteria  to the given be p o i n t e d  as a p p l i e d t o  w i l d e r n e s s , o r as a p p l i e d t o some o t h e r r e s o u r c e ,  some  form of s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y may More s p e c i f i c a l l y , promise was  be e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l i e d .  i n d i c a t e d i n the r e l a t e d  area  of p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n , an avenue of i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggested Mr.  K.G.  Denike who  o f f e r e d a work by Kenneth Abend as a sub-  stantive reference i n this d i r e c t i o n  2.  by  (Abend, 1966) .  Accessibility Another approach was  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i n v o l v e d the  a d a p t a t i o n of an a c c e s s i b i l i t y model  direct  ( W i l l s , 1971). W i l l s  d e f i n e d the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of a p l a c e as the q u a l i t y of i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the e n t i r e system of p l a c e s and  high-  ways being c o n s i d e r e d . The method of a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t h r e e components: a l i n k - i m p o r t a n c e the nodes  index, masses a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  (centers of p o p u l a t i o n ) , and  an approach was  r e a d i l y adaptable  the g r a v i t y model. Such  to d e f i n i n g w i l d e r n e s s ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y through u t i l i z i n g Nash's concept of environments ranging  o f a spectrum  from the d e n s e l y populated  urban  c e n t e r to a b s o l u t w i l d e r n e s s . Thus, a c c e s s i b i l i t y as used W i l l s serves as a most s a t i s f a c t o r y s u r r o g a t e  by  f o r degrees of  w i l d e r n e s s , w i t h those most i n a c c e s s i b l e areas d e p i c t i n g the wilderness  being c o n s i d e r e d  i n t h i s study. The  a n a l y s i s c o u l d then be presented  e i t h e r two  r e s u l t s of  or three-dimen-  s i o n a l l y i n the form of i s o l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g the degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y of an  area.  this  - 116 T h i s model was the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e  and  a p p l i e d u s i n g 100  nodes t o  i n c l u d e d weightings  cover  for four categories  of road q u a l i t y .  In g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s were encouraging,  giving relatively  accurate  assessments o f the two  areas of very high a c c e s s i b i l i t y and accessibility.  extremes,  areas of very  For t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, ten  low  categories  of a c c e s s i b i l i t y were d e f i n e d , t h a t i s , ten l e v e l s of were d e p i c t e d .  N e c e s s a r i l y , most areas  i n betv/een the two  somewhere  extremes, which i n i t s e l f does not  c o n s t i t u t e an overwhelming problem. to  fell  t h i s approach was  the  The  chief objection  lack of refinement  of s c a l e ,  a problem t h a t c o u l d presumably be overcome through a d d i t i o n of many more nodes. viewed f a v o u r a b l y  the  While t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e was  as an i n d i c a t e r of g e n e r a l t r e n d s , i t  did  not o f f e r an adequate degree of r e s o l u t i o n and  was  not used.  was  evidence  Again,  as i n the case of sampling,  thus there  t h a t an a c c e s s a b i l i t y model might prove u s e f u l  e i t h e r by i t s e l f or to supplement'some o t h e r  3. Wilderness  approach.  Mapping  Having r e j e c t e d those  approaches p r e v i o u s l y  c i t e d , as w e l l as c e r t a i n o t h e r s , i t was that the most a p p r o p r i a t e method was  u l t i m a t e l y decided  a simple  mapping  based on c o n v e n t i o n a l map  sources  and F e d e r a l Governments.  I t warrants r e p e a t i n g t h a t  wilderness  isolines  mapping c o n s i d e r e d  as produced by  the  i s i n f a c t a mapping of  Provincial any the  -  117  -  a n t i t h e s i s o f w i l d e r n e s s , that i s , those  features that  p r e c l u d e the e x i s t e n c e of w i l d e r n e s s , w h i l e the area i s b e s t regarded  remaining  as p o t e n t i a l or p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s .  Thus, w h i l e these areas o f p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s w i l l u s u a l l y be r e f e r r e d to as simply w i l d e r n e s s , i n p o i n t o f  fact  they r e p r e s e n t the a b s o l u t e maximum amount of p o s s i b l e wilderness.  More d e t a i l e d examination  may  o n l y reduce  t h i s q u a n t i t y as the degree of u n c e r t a i n t y i s Those areas d e s i g n a t e d as non-wilderness  decreased.  are areas  which knowledge i s c e r t a i n , i n the context of t h i s  about study,  while the remainder must be viewed as areas of u n c e r t a i n t y , areas about which knowledge i s  incomplete.  The manner i n which these w i l d e r n e s s , o r w i l d e r n e s s mappings were c a r r i e d out has b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d under the heading t h i s Chapter.  The mapping was  of the n e g a t i n g  features.  non-  a l r e a d y been  of D e f i n i t i o n s i n  basically a sequential  That i s , a l l of those  examination  forces  which d e s t r o y w i l d e r n e s s values were i d e n t i f i e d and mapped i n t u r n so t h a t each f o r c e and e x t e n t of i t s i n f l u e n c e could  be r e a d i l y e v a l u a t e d . In p h y s i c a l terms t h i s i n v o l v e d  an allowance  of three to four m i l e s on e i t h e r s i d e of  any roadways, r a i l w a y s , gas or o i l p i p e l i n e s and  powerlines.  Areas w i t h i n these c o r r i d o r s were c l a s s i f i e d  as  S i m i l a r l y , those areas s e r v i n g as r e s e r v o i r s  f o r hydro-  e l e c t r i c power were d e s i g n a t e d  as  non-wilderness.  non-wilderness.  - 118 As w e l l as d e t e r m i n i n g the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  i t was a l s o the i n t e n t i o n  of t h i s study to examine changes i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n time.  over  While i t may have been convenient f o r comparative  purposes  t o compile t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r r e g u l a r t e n o r  f i f t e e n year i n t e r v a l s , t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e and d a t a must be accepted f o r those dates a v a i l a b l e . problem of  A second  r e l a t e d t o the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a i s the matter  consistency.  To be o f any value f o r comparative  purposes,  a l l map sources should be reasonably c o n s i s t e n t i n terms of the degree  of refinement.  This c o n d i t i o n prevents  the use o f any l a r g e - s c a l e maps - f i r s t , because time  their  o f issuance g r e a t l y v a r i e s , and second, because  maps are simply not a v a i l a b l e f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s . most a p p r o p r i a t e and f e a s i b l e data sources were to be the comprehensive  these  The chosen  maps of the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e as  produced by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  The dates  selected,  l a r g e l y on the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y , were 1923, 1937, 1948,  1957 and 1970.  The second phase o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the contemporary  concerned (1970) d i s t r i b u t i o n  of w i l d e r n e s s u t i l i z i n g a d d i t i o n a l data s o u r c e s .  The  b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from t h i s more i n t e n s i f i e d examination are t w o f o l d : i t p r e s e n t s a more p r e c i s e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e c u r r e n t wilderness d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  and i t serves as a form of benchmark  by which t o e v a l u a t e the r e l a t i v e accuracy o f those maps  - 119  -  used i n e s t a b l i s h i n g changing w i l d e r n e s s p a t t e r n s over time.  The  f i r s t s t e p beyond the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d u t i l i z i n g  a s i n g l e , f u l l - P r o v i n c e coverage map,  was  an  examination  o f the N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s of maps a t a s c a l e o f 1:250,000 w i t h a l l a d d i t i o n a l d a t a b e i n g mapped on top o f the o r i g i n a l g e n e r a l r e s u l t f o r 19 70.  The  problem  o f c o n s i s t e n c y of d a t a sources i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d a t t h i s stage w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n dates f o r maps r a n g i n g from 1952  to  1970.  The r e s u l t a n t mapping o f t h i s e x e r c i s e was broken  i n t o a g r i d based on l i n e s of l a t i t u d e and l o n g t i d u d e  and the percentage of w i l d e r n e s s was u n i t area. drawing  then  c a l c u l a t e d f o r each  A s t r a t i f i e d ramdom sample was  then  undertaken,.;  a s i n g l e u n i t area from each o f 22 h o r i z o n t a l l y  d e f i n e d rows.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , each of these twenty  two  sample u n i t s would then be s u b j e c t e d t o a more i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s , the new  percentage of w i l d e r n e s s per u n i t  area c a l c u l a t e d , and a t a b l e of r e s i d u a l v a l u e s compiled, the r e s i d u a l b e i n g simply the d i f f e r e n c e between the new percentages. all  In p r a c t i c e i t was  22 samples,  as map  and o l d  not p o s s i b l e t o examine  sources used, i n t h i s case  s t a t u s maps, were o n l y a v a i l a b l e up t o the 56th  land  parallel  of l a t i t u d e .  The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i n the a n a l y s i s o f  r e s i d u a l s was  t o make note of any obvious trends i n r e s i d u a l  s i z e s and t o i d e n t i f y those f e a t u r e s which accounted f o r the g r e a t e s t degree  of i g n o r a n c e , t h a t i s , those p r e d a t o r y  - 120 f o r c e s t h a t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a r g e s t  residuals.  Presumably those areas w i t h s m a l l r e s i d u a l s do not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r i n p u t t o e s t a b l i s h a reasonably accurate assessment o f t h e i r t r u e content.  This allows  more r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d on those  areas  w i t h l a r g e r r e s i d u a l s and p r o v i d e s an optimum a l l o c a t i o n of  research resources.  Although  c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l areas were s u b j e c t e d  to more i n t e n s i v e study, t h e i r i n c l u s i o n was more as i l l u s t r a t i o n  intended  than as an e x t e n s i o n t o a g e n e r a l  methodology and as such were simply i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the results.  - 121  -  CHAPTER 6 WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION  Introduction  S e v e r a l assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the methodology of  t h i s study s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d b e f o r e the v a r i o u s  r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d .  First,  t h i s study does not presume  to p r e s e n t a f u l l y a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l o f the w i l d e r n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n per se.  The  complete requirements  of absolute  w i l d e r n e s s are simply too complex and the area too v a s t t o permit  an adequately  i n t e n s i v e examination.  r e s u l t s do show are areas o f non-wilderness wilderness.  What the  and p o s s i b l e  However, w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the  g i v e n f o r w i l d e r n e s s i n t h i s study, t h i s o f f e r s a reasonable  approximation  "absolute" wilderness.  criteria  "possible" wilderness  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  In e i t h e r case, the r e s u l t a n t mapping  r e p r e s e n t s the maximum amount o f w i l d e r n e s s t h a t e x i s t s . More i n t e n s i v e study o r more r e f i n e d c r i t e r i a may  only  reduce t h i s q u a n t i t y .  The  f i r s t stage o f t h i s study, i n v o l v i n g  d i s t r i b u t i o n s over time, u t i l i z e d  changing  comprehensive maps o f  the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e f o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s , r a n g i n g from 1923  t o 1970.  I t was  assumed i n u s i n g these maps  t h a t a l l maps o f f e r e d e q u a l degrees of refinement However, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e may  and  accuracy.  have been  p o l i c y changes over the years r e g a r d i n g the degree o f  resolution  used or t h a t t e c h n i c a l improvements have p e r m i t t e d a g r e a t e r  - 122 -  refinement o f d a t a p r e s e n t a t i o n .  A s i m i l a r mapping problem e x i s t s when c o n d u c t i n g a c l o s e r examination  o f the 1970 d i s t r i b u t i o n  maps a t a s c a l e o f 1:250,000.  utilizing  I n t h i s case, i t i s assumed  t h a t e q u a l d a t a sources are a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e whole P r o v i n c e , whereas i n f a c t the N a t i o n a l Topographic were used 1970.  S e r i e s maps t h a t  f o r t h i s purpose have dates r a n g i n g from 19 52 t o  I t may be assumed, however, and w i t h some degree  o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t these e a r l y maps, p r i n c i p a l l y o f Northern B r i t i s h Columbia, have not been r e v i s e d because t h e r e has o n l y been l i m i t e d development i n these  Certain d i f f i c u l t i e s  areas.  are a l s o p r e s e n t e d when  c o n s i d e r i n g the s m a l l e r c o a s t a l i s l a n d s , t h a t i s , a l l o f those i s l a n d s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d and the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s .  Islands constitute  special  cases w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f w i l d e r n e s s d e f i n i t i o n s , n o t a b l y w i t h r e l a t i o n t o s i z e requirements.  While  an i s l a n d may  c o n t a i n l e s s than 100,000 a c r e s , i t i s very p o s s i b l e t h a t it  i s able t o p r o v i d e a f u l l e r w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e  i s a v a i l a b l e i n a mainland  area twice i t s s i z e .  than  Also,  a p p l y i n g the d e f i n i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a used i n t h i s study, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t human a c t i v i t i e s would be d e t e c t e d on islands.  F o r example, w h i l e an i s l a n d may be a c t i v e l y  logged i t would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y possess  any roads, and  - 12 3 such roads t h a t might e x i s t , would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be mapped.  Given the c o n d i t i o n s  above i t would a l s o be  t o a s c e r t a i n j u s t when s i g n i f i c a n t human a c t i v i t y began on any given  island.  a minor p r o p o r t i o n  wilderness  of c e r t a i n i s l a n d s l o c a t e d to the east  o f Vancouver I s l a n d where a c t i v i t y was c l e a r l y The  o f the  area, the m a j o r i t y were c l a s s i f i e d as  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  first  F o r these reasons and because  these i s l a n d s c o n s t i t u t e only Province's  difficult  indicated.  area o f these i s l a n d s was n o t i n c l u d e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g  percentage o f w i l d e r n e s s ,  although the areas i n v o l v e d were  too s m a l l as t o make t h e i r e f f e c t r a t h e r n e g l i g i b l e .  Numerous p i e c e s  o f d a t a were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g  the course o f t h i s study p e r m i t t i n g possible presentations. was f e l t  a wide v a r i e t y o f  In d e v e l o p i n g  t h a t there were f o u r d i s t i n c t  t h i s problem i t land areas  c o u l d b e s t be observed as s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s . Vancouver I s l a n d and the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s these f o u r u n i t s was an obvious c h o i c e .  that  Isolating as two o f  I t a l s o seemed  meaningful t o examine the mainland o f B.C. i n two s t a g e s , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the " s e t t l e d " areas o f the South and  the f r o n t i e r a s p e c t s o f the North.  Province a fifth  was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  as a s i n g l e e n t i t y , adding  land category t o the a n a l y s i s .  Table I are those f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g areas t h a t were examined.  N a t u r a l l y , the  Given below, i n the s i z e o f the  - 124 -  Table I  LAND AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ( IN SQUARE MILES ) South o f 54°  168,632  major i s l a n d s  18,373  minor i s l a n d s  1,287 148,972  mainland  197,623  North o f 54° islands  354  mainland  19 7,269  Vancouver I s l a n d  12,40 8  Q. C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s  British  3,545  366,255  Columbia  G e n e r a l l y , the maps, graphs and t a b l e s speak f o r themselves, w i t h o n l y the more g e n e r a l type o f o b s e r v a t i o n s b e i n g made as many e f f o r t s beyond t h i s l e v e l would n e c e s s a r i l y involve a f a i r l y extensive p o l i t i c a l - c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the development o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Without d e l v i n g i n t o  t h i s type o f d e t a i l , an e f f o r t w i l l be made t o i d e n t i f y the primary p r e d a t o r y of wilderness  Wilderness  forces responsible f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n  d u r i n g the v a r i o u s time p e r i o d s .  D i s t r i b u t i o n Over Time  Maps 5 t o 9 d e p i c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1923. (Wilderness areas are shown i n white) Map 5  WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 19 37. (Wilderness areas are shown i n white) Map 6  WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA j9"48. (Wilderness areas are shown i n white) Map 7  W I L D E R N E S S D I S T R I B U T I O N I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 19 5 7 . ( W i l d e r n e s s a r e a s a r e shown i n w h i t e )  Map 8  Map 9  - 130  wilderness,  -  o r n o n - w i l d e r n e s s , throughout B.C.  d i f f e r e n t periods  o f time.  The  f i r s t map  s i t u a t i o n as i t e x i s t e d i n 1923. f o r a l l f u t u r e mappings, and  most d i s t i n c t  I t serves  as the  f e a t u r e of t h i s  a c t i v i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e  o r i n d i r e c t l y one The  which was  i n i t i a t e d i n 1885.  by  time p e r i o d  the r a i l r o a d s .  were s e r v i c e d  p r i n c i p a l r a i l w a y was,  summarize the v a r i o u s  basis  years.  then  o f c o u r s e , the  CPR  I t would be d i f f i c u l t  reasons f o r the  f o r t h i s r a i l w a y except to say  Virtually  directly  of the s e v e r a l r a i l r o a d s t h a t  existed.  the  thus warrants somewhat more  i s the dominating r o l e p l a y e d all  five  illustrates  a t t e n t i o n than those maps e x i s t i n g f o r other  The  at  f i n a l route  to  selected  t h a t i t s c h o i c e was  largely  dominated by p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t y , t h a t i s , by passage through the lowest mountain passes and the d i s t a n c e  travelled.  v a l l e y s and  Ultimately  there were compromises  i n the p h y s i c a l requirements w i t h r e g a r d would be The  s e r v i c e d and  various  through m i n i m i z i n g  political  t o towns t h a t considerations.  complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f a l l of these f o r c e s i n the  s e l e c t i o n o f a f i n a l route (1971).  By  1923,  i s w e l l documented by  numerous r a i l w a y  f o r the s e r v i c e of v a r i o u s  lines existed, primarily  resource  mining communities o f the Kootenays. then i s one  o f s e v e r a l main r a i l w a y  Southern p o r t i o n of the Province  Berton  centres, The  such as  the  overall picture  l i n e s throughout  s e r v i n g as l i n k s  to  the  - 131  -  l a r g e r t r a d i n g c e n t r e s f o r the s m a l l e r " f e e d e r " r a i l w a y s and  roadways.  Map  6,  f o r 1937,  amount o f change.  does not r e f l e c t a remarkable  There are the beginnings  of  (mapped)  a c t i v i t y i n the Peace R i v e r area and a g r e a t e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n South C e n t r a l B.C. caused  The  former  was  p r i m a r i l y by expanded s e t t l e m e n t from the A l b e r t a  s i d e o f the border, w h i l e the l a t t e r was o f f o r c e s comprised expansion  of l o g g i n g , mining,  a  combination  and the  inevitable  of settlements.  S l i g h t l y more development took p l a c e i n the f o l l o w i n g time p e r i o d (Map was  7).  Some of t h i s  merely an e x t e n s i o n o f t h a t c i t e d f o r the  time p e r i o d , although i n t o new  areas.  there were two  notable  development previous expansions  The most s i g n i f i c a n t of these was  A l a s k a Highway, b u i l t d u r i n g World War  the  I I , and which  encouraged f u r t h e r growth i n the North.  The  second  new  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e had only a l i m i t e d immediate e f f e c t i n l i n k i n g B e l l a Coola and W i l l i a m s  Lake. r  The years between 19 48 and an unprecedented p e r i o d o f expansion, the area t h a t had been developed  19 57  witnessed  almost  tripling  i n the p r e v i o u s  time  - 132 -  period.  For example, the area which i s North  the p r e s e n t boundaries was  of  o f Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park  the s i t e of e x t e n s i v e mining  and  logging a c t i v i t i e s  as w e l l as the f l o o d i n g of Ootsa Lake f o r the of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power.  generation  A l s o , development i n South  C e n t r a l B.C.  continued to become more i n t e n s e , due  to  Logging  logging.  o p e r a t i o n s a l s o became more  i n a l a r g e area South o f P r i n c e George. ease o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y was i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n .  encouraging  primarily apparent  Again, i n c r e a s i n g  expanding s e t t l e m e n t  There were a number o f  f o r t h i s sudden r i s e i n development, most o f them w i t h the post-war boom e x p e r i e n c e d by B.C. of r e t u r n i n g veterans  and  reasons connected  i n which thousands  converts s w e l l e d the p o p u l a t i o n  and w h i l e a t the same time i n d u s t r y was  reasonably  prosperous  (Ormsby, 19 5 8).  The on Map  9.  During t h i s time t h e r e was  i n Northern  a marked i n c r e a s e  development w i t h more highways b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d  around mining Terrace.  r e s u l t s of the f i n a l time p e r i o d are shown  a c t i v i t i e s such as those i n the area around  Although  not y e t completed two t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  routes were mapped on the grounds t h a t these areas  could  no l o n g e r be regarded  these  as w i l d e r n e s s .  i n v o l v e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the PGE  The  f i r s t of  t h a t w i l l run  between F o r t St. James and Dease Lake, an o p e r a t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t s the p r o b a b i l i t y o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e x t e n s i v e  - 133 development. route  The  -  second p a r t i a l l y completed  i s the highway which w i l l  p r o v i d i n g Northwestern B.C. In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e  transportation  l i n k Dease Lake and  w i t h a west coast  development has  n a t u r a l gas.  the  W i l l i s t o n Lake u t i l i z e d a l a r g e land area.  and  The  large q u a n t i t i e s of  first  loss of wilderness  graph  of  and  large  resulting  A final  area  Vancouver I s l a n d where mining  logging i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  expropriated  in  To the West,  the Peace R i v e r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t and  o f marked development was  linkage.  occurred  around the Peace R i v e r area w i t h the d i s c o v e r y l u c r a t i v e sources o f o i l and  Terrace,  the l a t t e r , have  land.  (Figure la) d e p i c t i n g  over time, i s not very  because o f the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l  the  dramatic  changes t h a t have taken  p l a c e , although i t does i l l u s t r a t e the more r a p i d r a t e of wilderness is  d e c l i n e t h a t i s o c c u r r i n g i n the South.  f e l t t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e would be  It  f u r t h e r accentuated  w i t h i n c r e a s e d knowledge o f the t r u e s i t u a t i o n , a v i e w p o i n t t h a t i s p a r t i a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d by 1970  a c l o s e r study o f  the  data.  A more d e s c r i p t i v e graph f o l l o w s ,  illustrating  the amount o f i n c r e a s e o f non-wilderness t h a t has over the v a r i o u s  time p e r i o d s  s i g n i f i c a n t increase  (Figure l b ) .  Here  occurred the  i n the a c t i o n of the p r e d a t o r y  forces  - 134 -  200  -o-.. North o f 5 4 ~°--  160 H AREA OF WILDERNESS (THOUSANDS 20 -\ OF SQUARE MILES)  South o f 54 >D  80  -o  40  1923  1  1937  r~  1948  1957  1970  (a) CHANGE IN WILDERNESS AREA OVER TIME FOR MAINLAND REGIONS SOUTH AND NORTH OF 5 4°. ~~  20 AREA OF NONWILDERNESS (TKOUSANDS16 OF SQUARE MILES) 12  8  \ s o u t h o f 54° s  H  /  , - -°  North o f 54  O  4  _— —  M  H  1923  1937  1948  1957  1970  (b) CHANGE IN AMOUNT OF NON-WILDERNESS FOR EAgH TIME PERIOD IN MAINLAND REGIONS SOUTH AND NORTH OF b4 .  Figure 1  - 135 i n the South t h a t took p l a c e between 19 4 8 and 19 57 i s v i v i d l y presented.  While o b s e r v a t i o n s made from the comprehensive  maps would seem t o i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n development d u r i n g the p e r i o d between 1957 and 1970, more i n t e n s i v e examination o f 19 70 c o n d i t i o n s would seem t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s apparent t r e n d , as w i l l be noted i n the second of  this  section  Chapter.  The North would appear t o be d e v e l o p i n g as might be expected f o r a r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e area c o n t a i n i n g d e f i n i t e r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l ; t h a t i s , w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e o f development.  T h i s i n c r e a s i n g growth r a t e may be  a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , the p r i n c i p a l ones b e i n g a d i m i n i s h i n g supply o f a c c e s s i b l e , e a s i l y e x t r a c t e d r e s o u r c e s i n the South combined w i t h an advancing t h a t i s overcoming  technology  problems o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n the North,  and perhaps  most important, a b o u n t i f u l supply o f needed  resources.  I t would be expected t h a t development i n the  North w i l l for  continue t o expand a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e ,  the aforementioned  reasons and because  both  o f the  c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Northern r a i l w a y w i l l have, namely those a d d i t i o n s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g made t o the PGE.  In  r e l a t i o n t o i t s s i z e , Vancouver I s l a n d has  e x p e r i e n c e d the g r e a t e s t l o s s o f w i l d e r n e s s , w i t h t h e 1970  - 136  -  f i g u r e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t only (Figure 2) . as w i l l be  In f a c t , t h i s  41%  o f the area was  wilderness  f i g u r e i s a gross e x a g g e r a t i o n  shown l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter.  Such i n t e n s i v e  development i s to be expected on Vancouver I s l a n d f o r numerous reasons.  F i r s t , i t was  (on a permanent b a s i s ) the g r e a t m a j o r i t y from v i r t u a l l y  areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  a l l s i d e s and centres,  of wilderness proved to be the e x i s t e n c e  because  i n c l u d i n g the Lower Mainland.  abundance of r e s o u r c e s ,  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has  accessible  p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable  form o f f o r e s t p r o d u c t s .  t h a t the  Geographically,  been reasonably  f i n a l f a c t o r l e a d i n g to r a p i d development has  Vancouver I s l a n d ' s the  of the e a r l i e s t h e a v i l y s e t t l e d  o f i t s area has  o f nearby p o p u l a t i o n The  one  been  particularly in  There can be no doubt been the primary  on Vancouver I s l a n d and has the source of g r e a t e s t  but  predator  at the same time  ignorance i n  assessing  of human a c t i v i t i e s .  L i k e the Southern Mainland, Vancouver I s l a n d has  experienced a rapid increase  areas have l o s t t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s  i n the r a t e at which land values.  the Southern Mainland, t h i s growth r a t e development) showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e p e r i o d between 19 57 and  The  However, u n l i k e ( i n terms o f  i n the  last  time  19 70.  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s  present  s p e c i a l case f o r examination because of the  a rather  f a c t t h a t they  - 137 -  12 oAREA OF 10 WILDERNESS (THOUSANDS OF SQUARE MILES)  H  6  H  4 H  Vancouver ~ -o  Queen C h a r l o t t e  1923  1  Islands  r  _  1948  1937  Island  1957  1970  (a) CfeANGE IN WILDERNESS AREA OVER TIME FOR VANCOUVER ISLAND AND QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.  25 20 AREA OF NONWILDERNESS (THOUSANDS15 OF SQUARE MILES)  '  Vancouver  Island  10  ~4  5 -A  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s -o  _ ___ ~~1—  1923  1  —• ***  "I  -  1937  1948  1957  1970  (b) CHANGE IN AMOUNT OF NON-WILDERNESS FOR EACH TIME PERIOD FOR VANCOUVER ISLAND AND QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.  Figure 2  - 138  -  are i s l a n d s and because they possess much s m a l l e r than Vancouver I s l a n d .  There i s l i t t l e  from viewing e i t h e r o f the two C h a r l o t t e s , except to say s t a r t i n g and has time.  areas  t h a t can be  graphs f o r the Queen  t h a t development was  slow i n  p r o g r e s s e d at a slow r a t e to the  Keeping i n mind the e x t e n s i v e  i n d u s t r y on Vancouver I s l a n d and surrounding i t s existence,  said  the  r o l e o f the  present forest  l a c k of knowledge  i t i s quite possible that a closer  examination of the Queen C h a r l o t t e s would r e v e a l a s i m i l a r situation.  The  graph i n F i g u r e  i n d i c a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l e n t i r e Province.  3 g i v e s perhaps the  t r e n d o f development f o r the  It illustrates  i n c r e a s e i n the p r o d u c t i o n  best  a relatively  moderate  of non-wilderness up t o  at which time the development r a t e shows a marked It i s speculated,  although i t cannot be  t h a t t h i s development r a t e has  i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y examination o f the  19 70.  This  substantiated,  at  an  conjecture  j u s t i f i e d through the more d e t a i l e d  19 70  Table I I simply  data.  o f f e r s a comparison o f  amounts o f non-wilderness e x i s t i n g i n the v a r i o u s at each o f the  increase.  adequately  i n fact increased  even g r e a t e r r a t e between 19 57 and  1947  f i v e time  the regions  periods.  A comprehensive p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i v e  rates  - 139 -  100 80 AREA OF WILDERNESS (THOUSANDS OF SQUARE 60 ~ MILES) 40  _ - - -°" 20  1923  1937  TOTAL AMOUNT OF NON-WILDERNESS COLUMBIA.  1948  1957  1970  AT GIVEN TIME FOR BRITISH  :  Figure 3  1923 Vancouver I s l a n d  1,458  1937  1948  1,818  2,457  1957 4 ,878  1970 7,317  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s  -  Mainland south o f 54°  20>313  26,694  32,688  54,936  63,819  Mainland n o r t h o f 54°  3,132  5,733  11,439  17,712  30,087  24,903  34,245  46,818  77,985 101,966  B r i t i s h Coluir-bia  -  234  459  738  AMOUNT OF NON-WILDERNESS AT GIVEN TIME FOR REGIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.  Table I I  - 140 of  decrease i n w i l d e r n e s s f o r the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s examined  is  shown i n F i g u r e 4.  areas, the mainland  P r e d i c t a b l y , the two most i n a c c e s s i b l e  area North o f 54° and. the Queen C h a r l o t t e  I s l a n d s , show the s m a l l e s t percentage d e c r e a s e s . I t i s f e l t t h a t f u r t h e r study would serve t o emphasize the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between these areas and the two Southern  regions, with  f u r t h e r examination r e v e a l i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y more a d d i t i o n a l development i n the South w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g l i t t l e change in  the North, although the Queen C h a r l o t t e s may w e l l be  exceptions i n t h i s regard.  A f i n a l i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g changing w i l d e r n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over time i s shown i n F i g u r e 5, which g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s  the d e c r e a s i n g average  size  of  w i l d e r n e s s areas over time.  The graph i s i n d i c a t i v e  of  several i n t e r e s t i n g trends.  There are a number o f  a c t i o n s which might be expected t o o c c u r as development p r o g r e s s e d throughout .the P r o v i n c e .  G e n e r a l l y , the f i r s t  s t e p i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a w i l d e r n e s s area i s i t s d i v i s i o n i n t o two o r more p a r t s by v a r i o u s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks.  T h i s a c t i o n produces  i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f  w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , a t r e n d t h a t has c o n t i n u e d t o o c c u r over time, r a n g i n g from 31 i n 19 23 to 66 i n 19 70. initial  These  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s are then the source o f  f u r t h e r developments t h a t g r a d u a l l y encroach onto the reduced w i l d e r n e s s areas u n t i l such time as they are reduced beyond the r e q u i r e d minimum o f 100,000 a c r e s and  - 141 -  100 -|  AMOUNT OF WILDERNESS (PERCENT)  80 60  o- • o- • o- . oo-  -O  -o' ~o  31  ,o . ~N§Yth «cjf. 54^  -o ~ ~ ~ -o  - ^oQueerr C h a r l o t t e s N-»O_ B r i t i s h  Columbia  "SQuth~of°54  0  *•«.  "*»  40 ~  Vancouver I s l a n d  20 -  1923  T  1937  1948  1957  1  1970  PERCENTAGE OF WILDERNESS AT GIVEN TIME FOR REGIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. ' ~~ '  Figure 4  12-, AVERAGE SIZE OF 9 WILDERNESS (THOUSANDS OF SQUARE 6 MILES) 3 -  1923  T  T  1937  1948  1957  1970  AVERAGE SIZE OF WILDERNESS AREAS IN PROVINCE AT GIVEN TIMES,  Figure 5  - 142 the area becomes c l a s s i f i e d as  non-wilderness.  Thus, the c r e a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l  wilderness  areas i s not a c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g phenomenon, b u t i s r e g u l a t e d by the ensuing formed w i l d e r n e s s  areas.  consumption o f the newly  The u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f the  two a c t i o n s (a g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s i n g , but f l u c t u a t i n g number o f w i l d e r n e s s  areas and a r a p i d decrease  quantity of wilderness)  i n the  i s a g r a d u a l , b u t not i n e v i t a b l e ,  r e d u c t i o n i n the average s i z e o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s .  Such  a t r e n d cannot be viewed as i n e v i t a b l e because o f the remote chance t h a t w i l d e r n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e may be reduced  t o a s m a l l number o f l a r g e r w i l d e r n e s s  areas.  The u l t i m a t e e r o s i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s w i l l when most o r a l l e x i s t i n g w i l d e r n e s s slightly  occur  areas  are o n l y  l a r g e r than the r e q u i r e d minimum.  At t h i s  stage  the w i l d e r n e s s system w i l l e x h i b i t only moderate r e s i l i e n c e i n response  to predatory  forces.  The s l i g h t e s t  i n t r u s i o n w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o d e s t r o y the w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s o f the area.  A small-scale version of t h i s  process may be observed  i n the case o f Vancouver I s l a n d ,  a case t h a t s h a l l r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g section of this  Chapter.  - 143 Wilderness  Distribution  The  first  19 70  task c a r r i e d out was an e x t e n s i o n o f  the b a s i c 1970 comprehensive map through the use o f the N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c a l 1:250,000.  S e r i e s maps a t a s c a l e o f  The a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  various  developments t h a t were a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s more r e f i n e d l e v e l i s shown below i n Table I I I .  Table I I I AREA OF ADDITIONAL NON-WILDERNESS AS INDICATED FROM EXAMINATION OF NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES MAPS AT SCALE OF 1:250 ,000 . Location  A d d i t i o n a l Area  (In Square M i l e s )  Vancouver I s l a n d  450  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s  144  Mainland  South o f 54° .  Mainland  North o f 54°  4,806 63  B r i t i s h Columbia  5,463  With c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s , a number o f t e n t a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s may be made from these r e s u l t s . these concern  the accuracy  o f the comprehensive maps used  f o r c o m p i l i n g d a t a f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n over time. the two more developed Mainland  Basically,  Clearly,  r e g i o n s , Vancouver I s l a n d and the  South o f 5 4 ° , possessed  substantially  greater  - 144 amounts o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were n o t shown on the comprehensive maps.  In o t h e r words, o b s e r v a t i o n s made r e g a r d i n g a c t i v i t i e s  i n these two areas must be made w i t h a g r e a t e r u n c e r t a i n t y than those made f o r the two Northern r e g i o n s .  Fuzzing  the i s s u e somewhat i s the f a c t t h a t the p u b l i c a t i o n  dates  f o r these l a r g e r s c a l e maps vary from 19 52 t o 19 70, w i t h the e a r l i e r dates b e l o n g i n g predominantly t o the N o r t h . While  i t i s likely  t h a t areas w i t h very e a r l y  dates have e x p e r i e n c e d l i t t l e have not warranted  publication  r e c e n t development and thus  a d d i t i o n a l remapping a t t h i s  scale,  t h i s g r e a t v a r i a n c e i n p u b l i c a t i o n dates denies the a s s e r t i o n o f any u n q u a l i f i e d c o n c l u s i o n s .  A l l t h a t may be s a i d i s  t h a t on the b a s i s o f p u b l i s h e d N a t i o n a l Topographic maps produced  a t a s c a l e o f 1:250,000 t h e r e would  Series  appear  t o be a g r e a t e r degree o f ignorance i n terms o f knowledge o f human a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n the Southern more, developed r e g i o n s o f the P r o v i n c e .  The g r e a t e s t source o f these d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the comprehensive  mapping and the more d e t a i l e d  publications  e x i s t s i n p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e development, namely from the f o r e s t and mining i n d u s t r i e s . f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s l i e s  The most l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n  i n the f a c t t h a t t h e comprehensive  maps are p u b l i s h e d w i t h an assumption  o f wide-spread use  by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and thus " p r i v a t e " roads are n o t i n c l u d e d as they might  invite potential intrusions.  t h i s r e a s o n i n g a l s o permits p u b l i c a t i o n o f these  Presumably  "private"  - 145 roads on  -  l a r g e s c a l e maps w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t they w i l l  not have a wide p u b l i c c i r c u l a t i o n and  t h a t most users  o f such maps w i l l want to have a more d e t a i l e d of a l l a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Following 1970  comprehensive  a g r i d was sampling  (Map  10).  was  f o r the purposes o f  g r i d s i z e was  first  the  of w i l d e r n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  over t h i s map  The  The  routes.  aforementioned a d d i t i o n to  version  constructed  basic c r i t e r i a . be no  the  description  d i c t a t e d by  requirement was  l e s s than 200,000 acres i n s i z e .  two  t h a t the  area  T h i s minimum f i g u r e  d e s i r e d so t h a t reasonably a c c u r a t e assessments o f  the percentage o f w i l d e r n e s s per I t was  u n i t area might be  a l s o s t i p u l a t e d t h a t there be  o f areas d e f i n e d  obtained.  a s u f f i c i e n t number  so as to a l l o w a reasonable sample t o  be made.  Two  a d d i t i o n a l requirements concerned the  o f the sample d e s i g n and  the  to the e x i s t i n g data sources c r i t e r i a d i c t a t e d the and  longtitude  chosen then was and  one  a d a p a b i l i t y o f the (namely maps.)  replicability  g r i d format  These  two  u t i l i z a t i o n of l i n e s of l a t i t u d e  as a r e a l b o u n d a r i e s .  The  a u n i t area e n c l o s e d by  degree o f l o n g t i t u d e .  For  grid size  30 minutes o f l a t i t u d e  a stratified  sample conducted on h o r i z o n t a l rows, t h i s g r i d a t o t a l sample p o p u l a t i o n  of 238  ultimately  random created  u n i t s comprised o f  22  rows w i t h an average of s l i g h t l y more than 10 u n i t s  per  row.  those  As much as p o s s i b l e  or as was  practical,- only  u n i t s which c o n t a i n e d c l o s e t o the maximum p o s s i b l e  amount  WILDERNESS DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA ?970 (WITH ADDITIONAL USE OF NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES MAPS AT A SCALE OF 1:250,000. Map  10  - 147 o f a r e a were u t i l i z e d ,  thus o m i t t i n g the m a j o r i t y o f c o a s t a l  and b o r d e r a r e a s .  Once t h i s g r i d had been c o n s t r u c t e d , the percentage o f w i l d e r n e s s p e r u n i t o f a r e a was  c a l c u l a t e d and the r e s u l t s  r e c o r d e d i n the form shown i n T a b l e IV.  S e v e r a l f i g u r e s f o r the extreme  North were o m i t t e d  from the m a t r i x f o r l a c k o f space, an a c t i o n t h a t was on the grounds  permissible  t h a t these u n i t s were not c o n t a i n e d i n the  f i n a l examination because the d a t a sources used d i d not e x i s t North o f 56°.  Thus, w h i l e the sampling was  drawing one random sample from each row,  conducted  o n l y those  first  14 u n i t s South o f 56° were a c t u a l l y open t o f u r t h e r examination.  Before p r o c e e d i n g t o examine the r e s u l t s o f the sample,  an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y  g r i d s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d ( F i g u r e 6 ) .  T h i s graph  from the depicts  the percentage o f w i l d e r n e s s e x i s t i n g i n each row "A"  t o "V".  Here, the t r e n d o f p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  w i l d e r n e s s from South t o North i s c l e a r l y  increasing  illustrated,  r a n g i n g from a low o f 14.26% on the Southern-most a h i g h o f 91.7%  near the Yukon b o r d e r .  from  row t o  Occassionally there  are s m a l l d i p s i n the graph g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t i n g some form o f East-West  o r i e n t e d development.  takes a s m a l l drop at "D"  For e-xample, the graph  an o c c u r r e n c e due p r i m a r i l y t o  -  148  -  PERCENTAGE OF WILDERNESS CONTAINED IN EACH UNIT OF GRID 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  A  61.9  5.5  7.9  0.6  29.3  4.7  6.5  2.3  23.9  B  21.9  37.1  84.1  44 .5  6.7  3.0  52.4  23.7  28.0  16.4  C  35.8  5.2  72.2  48.1  41.3  1.2  30.8  25.9  38.2  59 .8  D  24.8  19.3  81.8  5.0  2.5  0  23.7  51.3  33.1  E  96.5  91.1  77.8  87.8  46 .8  16 .4  27.2  67.7  68.3  68.3  F  100  100  36 .7  29.6  4.5  24 .5  41.2  32.9  71.6  73.5  G  77.0  73.2  76.5  34.6  26 .1  57.5  78. 4  60.7  H  100  96.0  91.3  88.7  66 .2  22.3  38 .4  97.3  66 .8  I  97.3  2 9 .3  88.5  94.6  21.4  0.6  81.8  88.5  J  80.0  56.4  39 .4  31.9  31.9  17.0  K  86 .7  73.1  77.2  30.3  13.1  33.1  L  100  41.9  71.3  17.5  86 .7  M  90.1  69 .5  44.6  90.7  N  92.8  49.6  87.0  0  60 .5  100  P:  97.0  Q  •  4.3  0  0  0  47.6  85.7  51.7  47.5  86 .2  93.7  51.7  69.2  59.4  96, 5  80 .4  78.7  69.5  83 .6  65.9  100  88.6  82.7  51.7  59.7  52.5  84.8  37.4  17.2  90.5  90.5  94.1  81.7  91.9  80.2  18.2  82.2  94.8  85.9  100  100  90.3  100  57.0  24 .4  100  86.4  96.2  84.9  100  100  100  100  100  30.0  R  91.5  96.1  72.3  100  100  100  100  100  100  84.6  S  100  100  78.9  76 .5  100  100  100  100  100  100  T  100  100  96.0  89 .6  100  100  100  85.7  86.7  71.4  U  90.2  100  100 .  100  67.7  100  100  95.1  88.6  100  V  100  78.8  93.3  61.6  98.3  85.8  100  85.0  95.8  84.1  0  H o r i z o n t a l rows are i n d i c a t e d by l e t t e r s "A" t o "V" where row "A" l i e s between 4 9 ° and 4 9 . 5 ° . The numbered columns i n d i c a t e the u n i t areas c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each row. Table IV  100'  WILDERNESS (PERCENTAGE) 754  *  •  50H  •  »  *  25-1  I  A  I B  I I I  I I I I I I I I I I  C D E FG  HI  J  K L M N O  PERCENTAGE OF WILDERNESS IN EACH HORIZONTAL ROW OF GRID.  Figure 6  I I  P Q  I I  R S  I I I  T UV  - 150  -  the highway system which i s c e n t r e d around the Highway from A s h c r o f t E a s t to R e v e l s t o k e . is  Trans-Canada  A second example  l o c a t e d on the "F" and "G" rows t h a t are t r a v e r s e d by  Highway 20 t h a t connects B e l l a Coola and W i l l i a m s Lake as w e l l as the dense network o f roads c e n t e r e d around Highway No.  24.  F u r t h e r North t h e r e i s a marked plunge i n the  graph i n d i c a t i v e o f the c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y North o f Tweedsmuir Park, the E a s t e r n p o r t i o n of Highway 16 out o f P r i n c e Rupert, and the Northern S e c t o r o f the Yellowhead Highway.  An i n t e r e s t i n g e x e r c i s e w i t h r e s p e c t to t h i s graph would be the v e r i f i c a t i o n of a c o r r e l a t i o n between w i l d e r n e s s and e l e v a t i o n f o r each row t o p r e d i c t the approximate  and t o use t h i s  relationship  f u t u r e form o f t h i s graph.  a r e l a t i o n s h i p would, o f c o u r s e , be based  on the  Such  assumption  t h a t e l e v a t i o n might a c t as a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e s u r r o g a t e f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y or wilderness.  A l a t e r part of t h i s  Chapter examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e l e v a t i o n  and  wilderness.  As has been s t a t e d , the i n t e n t i o n i n c o n d u c t i n g a sample was  t o expose c e r t a i n a r e a l u n i t s to more i n t e n s i v e  examination and t o compare the r e s u l t s o f t h i s examination and the two p r e v i o u s l e v e l s o f study. on a South-North b a s i s because  i t was  The sample was  conducted  known t h a t the amount  - 151 of  development decreased i n a South t o North t r e n d as d i d  data s o u r c e s .  From t h i s sample i t was hoped t o d i s c o v e r  which were the areas o f g r e a t e s t i g n o r a n c e , t h a t i s , which areas possessed the most development t h a t was not shown on the two p r e v i o u s l y used map t y p e s .  I t was  suspected  t h a t these would be areas i n the North o f the P r o v i n c e where the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f people and road networks o f f e r e d g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f unmapped r e s o u r c e activities  such as l o g g i n g and mining.  The data s o u r c e s \ f o r t h i s more i n t e n s i v e  examination  c o n s i s t e d o f P r o v i n c i a l Land Status maps a t s c a l e s o f both 1:126,720 and 1:250,000, although a l l b u t two were a t the latter scale.  As noted e a r l i e r these d a t a sources were  l i m i t e d t o those areas South o f 5 6 ° , r e s t r i c t i n g the number of  samples examined t o 14.  T h i s l a s t f a c t o r i s n o t regarded  w i t h too much concern f o r a number o f reasons. of  The  these r e l a t e s t o the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d assumption  first that  i f these maps are not p u b l i s h e d , i t suggests t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t development has taken p l a c e . to  A g a i n , w h i l e i t i s very  t o t a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s as f a c t , l i m i t e d  lends i t some degree  of c r e d i b i l i t y .  tends t o l e n d support t o the f i r s t , between i n i t i a l  evidence  The second  reason  t h a t i s , the d i f f e r e n c e  a p p r a i s a l s o f the percentage  and these more d e t a i l e d examinations  difficult  of wilderness  diminishes  significantly  - 152 from South t o North  i n d i c a t i n g a d i m i n i s h i n g need f o r f u r t h e r  study.  The  r e s u l t s o f the sample are g i v e n i n Table  V, w i t h a s i n g l e sample u n i t g i v e n f o r each row. are t h r e e percentage percentage  f i g u r e s ; the f i r s t  There  i n d i c a t e s the  o f w i l d e r n e s s i n the g i v e n u n i t area as d e r i v e d  from the 19 70 comprehensive map p l u s the N a t i o n a l S e r i e s maps a t a s c a l e o f 1:250,000;  Topographic  the second uses t h i s  accummulated d a t a p l u s the knowledge d e r i v e d from the P r o v i n c i a l Land Status maps; and f i n a l l y  the t h i r d  figure  i s the r e s i d u a l , t h a t f i g u r e which i n d i c a t e s the amount o f ignorance e x i s t i n g f o r the p a r t i c u l a r a r e a .  A large  residual reflects  about the  a g r e a t e r degree o f ignorance  g i v e n area when u t i l i z i n g o n l y the primary r e s i d u a l s o f the sample, expressed  sources.  The  as percentages, are  shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n f i g u r e 7.  A p p l i e d to t h i s study, t h i s approach allows i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the l e s s obvious  predatory  forces.  ready For  example, i n one case the r e s i d u a l was 34% i n d i c a t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f a c t i v i t y t h a t was not r e c o r d e d on the more c o n v e n t i o n a l map forms.  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , the v a s t m a j o r i t y  of the "unmapped" a c t i v i t i e s logging industry.  c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the  In f a c t , the source o f most r e s i d u a l s  c o u l d be t r a c e d t o l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h mining a rather distant  second.  being  - 153 -  RESIDUALS FROM SAMPLE (AS PERCENTAGES) Original Percentage Wilderness  New Percentage Wilderness  Resultant Residuals  A  23.9  14 .3  9.6  B  21.9  17.1  4.8  C  41.3  32.7  8.6  D  81.8  73.1  8.7  E  67.7  33.7  34 .0  F  100 .0  100 .0  0  G  34.6  24.2  10.4  H  91.3  82.0  9.3  I  99 .3  96 .6  2.7  J  47.6  43.5  4.1  K  33.1  25.5  7.6  L  71.3  63.6  7.7  M  78.7  77.3  1.4  N  51.7  50.3  1.4  tu Table V  40 RESIDUALS (PERCENTAGE)  30H i i i i  20H  i i i i  10  \_  T  1 H  c  RESIDUALS FROM SAMPLE.  Figure  7  r /  ~I M  _  _ _  _  1 N  - 155 -  The  sample i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g South t o North  trend  of decreasing values of r e s i d u a l s , r e f l e c t i n g a greater degree o f u n c e r t a i n t y , i n terms o f mapped a c t i v i t i e s , i n the South o f the P r o v i n c e . r e s i d u a l s suggested two Southern  existing  The magnitude o f many o f these  t h a t a more e x t e n s i v e examination  r e g i o n s was warranted.  o f the  Using the P r o v i n c i a l  Land S t a t u s maps, Vancouver I s l a n d was examined i n i t s e n t i r e t y , l a r g e l y because i t c o u l d serve as a complete example o f an area o f advanced development. t h a t i t was reduced areas  I t was advanced i n the sense  to seven r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l w i l d e r n e s s  and was thus very s u s c e p t i b l e t o any p r e d a t o r y f o r c e s .  The mainland area south o f 54° was a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o more d e t a i l e d study, although o n l y those areas w i t h i n the sample g r i d were examined t o enable  the r e s i d u a l s t o be e v a l u a t e d  and compared t o the sample u n i t s .  The  graph shown i n F i g u r e 8 b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s the  s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f unmapped a c t i v i t y t h a t has taken on Vancouver I s l a n d .  place  The o r i g i n a l 1970 comprehensive map  i n d i c a t e d t h a t 41% o f the i s l a n d was w i l d e r n e s s , w h i l e the a d d i t i o n a l use o f the N a t i o n a l Topographic a s c a l e o f 1:250,000 o n l y reduced  this  S e r i e s maps a t  f i g u r e t o 37%.  However, w i t h the use o f the P r o v i n c i a l Land S t a t u s maps, the f i g u r e f e l l d r a s t i c a l l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o n l y 5.4% o f  - 156 -  50' 40 —I WILDERNESS (PERCENTAGE)  — — ,  30"i  2010-  T  MAP  1  MAP  2  1  MAP 3  NEW QUANTITIES OF WILDERNESS FOR VANCOUVER ISLAND AS OBTAINED FROM THREE MAP SOURCES (19 70).  Figure 8  25 2(H RESIDUALS (HUNDREDS OF SQUARE 15H MILES) 10" 5 H  TOTAL VALUE OF RESIDUALS FOR EACH ROW  Figure 9  SOUTH OF 54°,  - 157 Vancouver I s l a n d was w i l d e r n e s s .  T h i s w i l d e r n e s s was  now  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n 3 s m a l l a r e a s , r a n g i n g i n s i z e from 189 t o 252 square m i l e s .  The r e q u i r e d minimum s i z e f o r a w i l d e r n e s s  area i s 156 square m i l e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i s a r a t h e r tenuous p o s i t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d .  With few e x c e p t i o n s , these r a t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s o f g e n e r a l l y unmapped a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y .  To m a i n t a i n  throughout  o f l o g g i n g roads  accepted  the study, only evidence  as an i n d i c a t i o n of l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y .  of Tree L i c e n s e s was not regarded such a c t i v i t y .  consistency was  The e x i s t e n c e  as s u f f i c i e n t evidence o f  P r i m a r i l y because o f t h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t between the time of p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Land Status map and 1970, the w i l d e r n e s s area on the e a s t s i d e o f the I s l a n d has s i n c e The  o t h e r two areas are l i k e l y t o be s t i l l  disappeared.  reasonably  as they were a f f o r d e d some degree o f p r o t e c t i o n .  intact  The Cape  S c o t t area i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y guarded by i t s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , w h i l e the second area i s c o n t a i n e d l a r g e l y w i t h i n the C e n t r a l S t r a t h c o n a Nature Conservancy. the f i n a l v e r i f i a b l e only 6 75 square  Without t h i s l i m i t e d s p e c u l a t i o n ,  f i g u r e shows t h a t as o f 1970 t h e r e were  m i l e s o f p o s s i b l e w i l d e r n e s s on Vancouver  Island.  The mainland area South of 54° d i d not i n d i c a t e  - 158 n e a r l y the same r e l a t i v e Vancouver I s l a n d .  The  amount of unmapped a c t i v i t y  graph o f r e s i d u a l values  i s s u r p r i s i n g l y c l o s e to t h a t c o n s t r u c t e d areas  (Figure 7).  (Figure  f o r the  9)  sampled  T h i s graph d e p i c t s the d i f f e r e n c e i n  the amount of w i l d e r n e s s use  as  i n each row  of the P r o v i n c i a l Land Status  d i s c l o s e d through  the  maps over t h a t amount  found p r e v i o u s l y u t i l i z i n g a comprehensive map  of the  Province  and N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s maps at a s c a l e of 1:250,000. Again, a g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s i n g  trend i n r e s i d u a l values  South t o North i s i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e s i d u a l s i n d i c a t e d between 51°  and  52°.  l a r g e r e s i d u a l s r e s u l t e d from e x t e n s i v e i n a wide area between Kamloops and  The gridded  logging  Williams  The  general  trends  activities s  Lake which several  areas.  t o t a l presentation  mainland area  large  These e x c e p t i o n a l l y  at the same time p r e c i p i t a t e d the c o l l a p s e of border-line wilderness  from  of r e s i d u a l values  South of 54°  i s given  of "unmapped" resource  f o r the  i n Table  activities  VI. cites  p r e v i o u s l y are r e i n f o r c e d i n more d e t a i l , w i t h the  large  r e s i d u a l s l o c a t e d i n the South and between 51°  52°.  A few it  a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may  a l s o be noted.  i s r e a l i z e d t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y  the r e s u l t of l o g g i n g of the  and  of r e s i d u a l s  Once are  a c t i v i t i e s , the p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s  l a r g e r r e s i d u a l s i s not o v e r l y s u r p r i s i n g .  example, r e s i d u a l values  are h i g h  the Coast, an area of i n t e n s e  For  for grid units located  logging  activities.  on  - 159 -  RESIDUALS  FROM EACH UNIT GRID SOUTH OF 54*  A  43.6  5.5  5.5  B  4.8  26.8  C  19.6  D E  0 27.3  0.6  29 .3  4.7  43.1  0  6.7  0  3.9  0  0  13.5  26.5  5.4  2.3  9.6  0  3 .0  23.7  6.0  1.2  7.9  8.6  1.2  30. 8  11.7  0  3.6  0  3.2  2.5  4.4  1.9  4.3  0  5.2  2.6  16.4  27.2  34 .0  0  24.5  28.9  9.7  0  0  1.9  0  0  0  0  F  0  0  2.6  1.3  G  0  0  1.7  10.4  H  0  0  9.3  0  I  0  2.7  0  0  0  0  J  0  0  0  0  2.1  0  7.5 10.5  0 18.6  0  40.2 0  35.6 15.1  7.5 4.1  0  H o r i z o n t a l rows are i n d i c a t e d by l e t t e r s "A" t o "V" where row "A" l i e s between 49 and 49.5°. The numbered columns i n d i c a t e the unit/ areas c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each row.  Table VI  - 160  -  S i m i l a r l y , t h a t p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d area between. Kamloops and W i l l i a m s Lake i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e and very to e x t e n s i v e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  conducive  Another f e a t u r e t h a t i s  s h a r p l y r e i n f o r c e d i n t h i s T a b l e i s the marked d e c l i n e i n r e s i d u a l v a l u e s t h a t occurs i n p r o c e e d i n g North o f 56°. It. . i f i s t o be assumed t h a t these r e s i d u a l s are  indicative  o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s , t h i s would seem t o suggest forest industry i s s t i l l  somewhat r e s t r a i n e d i n Northern  development by l a c k of ready  Although  access t o s u i t a b l e markets.  the g r i d d e d area South of 54° does not  r e p r e s e n t a l l of the South mainland 88% o f t h i s area and may  Land Status maps, 46%  r e g i o n , i t does  thus be c o n s i d e r e d as  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole.  comprise  reasonably  Before r e f e r r i n g to P r o v i n c i a l  of the g r i d area i s d e s i g n a t e d  w i l d e r n e s s , w h i l e use of these maps reduce T h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l decrease experienced  t h a t the  as  the f i g u r e t o  37%.  i n comparison t o those  f o r Vancouver I s l a n d , although the t o t a l r e s i d u a l of  12,000 square m i l e s must be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t ,  especially  when i t i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o one i n d u s t r y .  A f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n was p r e v i o u s l y suggested and e l e v a t i o n .  made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between w i l d e r n e s s  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s based  on the  t h a t areas of h i g h e l e v a t i o n are l e s s a c c e s s i b l e than  assumption low  - 161 areas, i n f l i c t  a h i g h e r c o s t i n t h e i r attainment, and thus  are the l a s t areas t o e x p e r i e n c e development. extremes the v a l i d i t y o f the assumption the i n t e r m e d i a t e range  There  In e l e v a t i o n a l  i s obvious, whereas  i s open t o d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  are a number o f ways i n which t h i s  s h i p c o u l d be at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y  substantiated.  relation-  The  approach  u t i l i z e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i n v o l v e d i s o l a t i n g a l l major areas i n the P r o v i n c e t h a t are over 4,000 f e e t and c a l c u l a t i n g the r e s p e c t i v e q u a n t i t i e s o f w i l d e r n e s s and non-wilderness t h a t were l o c a t e d above t h i s h e i g h t  (Table V I I ) .  Table V I I  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WILDERNESS AND ELEVATION  (OVER 4,000 FEET)  Wilderness  Non-Wilderness  Total  South o f 54°  40,788  18,648  59,436  North o f 54°  55,710  1,584  57,294  B r i t i s h Columbia  96,498  20,232  116,730  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make any a b s o l u t e judgments on the b a s i s o f such l i m i t e d d a t a , although an o b s e r v a b l e t r e n d i s c e r t a i n l y indicated.  - 162  -  Summary  The Columbia was  e a r l y p a t t e r n of development i n B r i t i s h l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e s  chosen  by the r a i l w a y s t h a t were the p r i n c i p a l s e r v i c e l i n k s f o r the Province. ment was  U n t i l a f t e r World War l i m i t e d t o the Southern  I I , the m a j o r i t y o f  develop-  p o r t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e .  Up u n t i l t h i s time the. generous r e s o u r c e supply coupled the l a c k of technology  and people had  a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d remain i n the South. t h e r e was  a new  technology,  assured t h a t r e s o u r c e A f t e r the War,  however,  a g r e a t i n f l u x of p e o p l e , and  r i s i n g demand f o r some of B r i t i s h Columbia's Northern  While mining  and c e r t a i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e  of w i l d e r n e s s , the most e x t e n s i v e p r e d a t o r y Initially,  t h i s was  a  resources.  industries  such as o i l and gas have c e r t a i n l y p l a y e d a r o l e i n the  forestry.  with  loss  f o r c e has been  largely a coastal industry,  but once t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n l a n d , the expansion  of l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s was  assured,  The  problem  of l o c a t i n g logging operations presents i t s e l f  as  g r e a t e s t source o f ignorance  resource  i n the mapping of  the  a c t i v i t i e s , a f a c t r e f l e c t e d i n the l a r g e r e s i d u a l s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to that industry.  On time  the b a s i s of examining w i l d e r n e s s d e p l e t i o n over  f o r p a s t y e a r s , i t would be expected  that general  trends  -  would c o n t i n u e .  163  -  T h i s means t h a t most e s t a b l i s h e d areas  w i l l continue to expand, pushing back the w i l d e r n e s s  and  t o t a l l y removing the s m a l l e r , b o r d e r - l i n e w i l d e r n e s s  areas.  In the mainland r e g i o n South o f 54° t h i s would l e a v e l a r g e w i l d e r n e s s t r a c t s i n the c o a s t a l mountains and somewhat s m a l l e r areas i n the extreme E a s t of the P r o v i n c e . trends may  be used as i n d i c a t o r s , Northern  I f past  development w i l l  be h e a v i l y dependent upon the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s , such as the PGE  l i n e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d between F o r t  St. James and Dease Lake.  The  degree of success  by t h i s l i n e i n terms of complementary r e s o u r c e  experienced activities  w i l l have a very s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia's  North.  CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS For so i t f a l l s out That what we have we p r i z e not the worth Whiles we enjoy i t ; but being l a c k e d and l o s t , Why, then we rack the v a l u e , then we f i n d The v i r t u e , t h a t p o s s e s s i o n would not show us Whiles i t was o u r s . (Shakepeare, Much Ado About Nothing) The North American's p e r c e p t i o n and  treatment  of w i l d e r n e s s has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by human h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y and North American myths s p e c i f i c a l l y . Only i n the l a s t 70 to 80 years has  i t been p o s s i b l e f o r North  Americans to r e g a r d w i l d e r n e s s w i t h o u t  a great deal of  f e a r and d i s d a i n . Up u n t i l t h i s time the w i l d e r n e s s still  the r e f u g e of w i l d animals  and  was  savages as w e l l as  the p r i n c i p a l o b s t a c l e to the American Dream of m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . I t v/as n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p r o g r e s s be measured i n the same manner i n which i t was i n a n c i e n t times, t h a t i s , through  should  measured  the removal o f w i l d e r n e s s .  An e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the American myth s t i p u l a t e d t h a t man  and nature were t o t a l l y  separate i d e n t i t i e s ,  man  was  was  e s s e n t i a l to p e r p e t u a t i o n o f v a r i o u s o t h e r myths  that  born to dominate and e x p l o i t n a t u r e . Such a b e l i e f  as the myth of p r o g r e s s growth. The  t h a t r e q u i r e d a continuous  such  material  net r e s u l t has been t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f  wilderness s a t i s f i e d  s e v e r a l purposes.  of f e a r w h i l e c r e a t i n g new  I t removed an  area  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r settlement  - 165  -  and advancement o f the f r o n t i e r .  More important  i t provided  resources t o meet the a c c e l e r a t i n g demands of i n d u s t r y and a product- o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y .  Today i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  these a t t i t u d e s are b a s i c a l l y the same, but the t o o l s d i f f e r e n t ; B r i t i s h Columbia possesses w i t h a 2 0 t h Century to  technology.  are  a f r o n t i e r mentality  The  Province  continues  push forward i t s f r o n t i e r s i n the r e c k l e s s f a s h i o n o f  a people who  f e e l t h e i r land has no  limits.  while the dominant f e e l i n g s towards w i l d e r n e s s i n B.C.  has been e i t h e r n e g a t i v e or n e u t r a l , t h e r e  been a r i s i n g t i d e o f o p i n i o n i n B.C.,  has  and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h a t w i l d e r n e s s r e p r e s e n t s c o n s i d e r a b l y more than merely a s p e c i a l form of r e c r e a t i o n area. r e a l i z a t i o n i s not a new  one  as i t i s a movement t h a t has  been g a i n i n g momentum f o r s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s . as the amount of w i l d e r n e s s decreases technocracy  continues  to s t i f l e  the 2 0 t h  Wilderness  has  literal  i s b e i n g more the  materialistic,  T h i s i s not g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d as a  a l t e r n a t i v e to the urban way  many people have taken i t as such r i g o r s of s u b s i s t a n c e l i v i v i n g . of  Century  come to symbolize  extreme a l t e r n a t i v e to an i n c r e a s i n g l y de-humanized s o c i e t y .  However,  the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s  freedoms, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of w i l d e r n e s s intensely f e l t .  This  of l i f e ,  although  and have adopted the I t does symbolize  the values and i d e a l s t h a t modern man  has had  many  to  - 166 forsake  to obtain h i s present  extensive  goods.  In a d d i t i o n , w i l d e r n e s s  serves  wealth o f m a t e r i a l as the p u r e s t  reminder o f man's o r i g i n s , p h y s i c a l l y and a reminder t h a t denies man other  metaphysically,  from viewing h i m s e l f  as  anything  than a mere s m a l l p a r t o f a g r e a t e r u n i v e r s e .  t h i s h u m i l i t y comes the peace d e r i v e d  With  from the r e a l i z a t i o n  t h a t man's a c t i o n s are u l t i m a t e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t  man  i s not the begging nor the end.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a democracy responds t o the needs and  demands o f i t s p e o p l e , r e f l e c t i n g them i n i t s p o l i c y  and  legislation.  Beyond t h i s , a government may  attempt  to a n t i c i p a t e these needs and wants, an a c t i o n t h a t i s often a necessity The p r e s e r v a t i o n  i n terms o f p r o t e c t i n g f u t u r e a l t e r n a t i v e s . of wilderness  of these p r o c e s s e s , and  i s dependent upon both  that i s , increased  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and b o l d ,  the p a r t o f the Government.  p u b l i c awareness  f a r - s i g h t e d l e g i s l a t i o n on To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t  both  o f these a c t i o n s are o c c u r r i n g , although at a much slower r a t e than the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f  With r e g a r d and  wilderness.  t o parks l e g i s l a t i o n the F e d e r a l  P r o v i n c i a l Governments have f u n c t i o n e d  rather  i n d e p e n d e n t l y , o f t e n to the d e t r i m e n t o f parks development. I t has only been i n the l a s t 10 years t h a t the two l e v e l s o f government have j o i n e d t o g e t h e r parks a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  to f a c i l i t a t e and improve  While n e i t h e r of the two governments  - 167  -  o f f e r s overwhelmingly b e t t e r parks p o l i c y w i t h to w i l d e r n e s s  preservation, certainly  respect  the f e d e r a l govern-  ment possesses s t r o n g e r p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . p r i n c i p a l l y due  This i s  to the f a c t t h a t a l l N a t i o n a l Parks  d e f i n e d i n a Schedule  attached  which means t h a t parks may through an Act of  to the N a t i o n a l Parks Act  only be  c r e a t e d or  destroyed  Parliament.  A g r e a t d e t e r r e n t to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t N a t i o n a l Parks i n t h i s P r o v i n c e virtually  a l l of the l a n d and  lies  resources  N a t i o n a l Parks i s c o n t i n g e n t  come under the  for  the l a n d .  the sum  N a t u r a l l y , a Province  have any p o s s i b l e source i n a N a t i o n a l Park and by  and  the  i s most r e l u c t a n t t o  of n a t u r a l resources  locked  cooperation  through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the amount  Some hopes f o r  i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n were o f f e r e d of the F e d e r a l and  Provincial  Parks A s s o c i a t i o n i n 19 63, an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would appear to be expanding i t s sphere of i n f l u e n c e .  At the s t r i c t l y  up  the same token i t i s u n l i k e l y  sought by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. and  Federal  of money demanded  t h a t the F e d e r a l Government would agree to pay  progress  Creating  upon s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  i n c l u d i n g P r o v i n c i a l Government approval Government's w i l l i n g n e s s to pay  of  i n the f a c t t h a t  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Government. new  are  Provincial level,  British  Columbia possesses a p a r t i c u l a r park category  that at  - 168 least on paper suggests wilderness conditions. These Nature Conservancy Areas provide for all of the attributes of wilderness, except for the size requirements, although in most cases this condition is satisfied. The major obstacle to wilderness preservation, however, lies in Section 7 of the Provincial Parks Act that empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to change the status of, or totally remove, any park area. So long as this Section of the Act remains in effect, the chances for meaningful preservation legislation are rather weak. It is not the intention of this paper to make a detailed analysis of Federal and Provincial Parks policy and legislation. However, it would seem remiss not to include, at least briefly, some of the more general and obvious thoughts and recommendatons on possible legislative measures that may be taken with respect to wilderness preservation. Briefly, they are as follows: 1.  Both levels of Government should redefine their park objectives and clarify the specific purposes of the parks. In this way the appropriate administrative bodies may better implement policy and the public is given a better opportunity of understanding the true function of the parks.  2.  It is important that government policy reflect the stable, long-term goals rather than succumbing to  - 169  -  short-term pressures. pressures  Examples of such  short-term  are p r i v a t e development w i t h i n parks  and  an i n s a t i a b l e p u b l i c demand f o r more roads w i t h i n parks.  3.  An e d u c a t i o n program i s necessary  to i n f o r m the  p u b l i c o f the government's a c t i v i t i e s  and i n t e n t i o n s  and to promote p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n process.  To ensure support of p r e s e r v a t i o n programs  more people must be encouraged to leave t h e i r and e x p e r i e n c e  4.  the  cars  outdoors.  At the most g e n e r a l l e v e l parks p o l i c y s h o u l d  allow  optimum freedom of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e . T h i s simply means a p o l i c y which i s o r i e n t e d more towards p r e s e r v a t i o n than r e c r e a t i o n .  5.  The  f e d e r a l government should a c t to p r e s e r v e  areas c o n t a i n i n g n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s .  6.  There i s a need f o r i n c r e a s e d c o o p e r a t i o n between the two  l e v e l s o f government to prevent  duplication  of s e r v i c e s and to ensure t h a t the advantages of both  systems are f u l l y u t i l i z e d .  t h e r e may  For example/  be d i s t i n c t advantages to l a n d t r a d e s  i n which those  areas d e s i g n a t e d  for preservation  would be c o n t r o l l e d by the F e d e r a l Government.  • - 170 and  r e c r e a t i o n - o r i e n t e d areas might be  by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  The  administered  rationale for  t h i s l i e s i n the F e d e r a l Government's t i g h t e r park l e g i s l a t i o n and is  7.  the f a c t t h a t the F e d e r a l Government  l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to s e l f - i n t e r e s t p r e s s u r e  S i g n i f i c a n t pressure  groups.  c o u l d be taken o f f parks i f  f o r e s t r y lands c o u l d be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, thus a l l o w i n g a g r e a t e r emphasis t o be p l a c e d on p r e s e r v a t i o n i n both f e d e r a l and  provincial  parks.  8.  In parks p l a n n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g "wilderness"  areas, g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d  be  given t o the maintenance of e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s .  The  second myth t h a t t h i s paper i n t e n d e d  to  examine concerned the myth of "overabundance" which suggested t h a t much o f B.C.  was  presently  and would remain so i n d e f i n i t e l y without e f f o r t made towards i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . t h i s study  any  The  conscious  results  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s not the  Vancouver I s l a n d s i x percent  wilderness  (1970) was  case.  found to possess l e s s than  of i t s area as w i l d e r n e s s .  In u s i n g  these  f i g u r e s i t must be kept i n mind t h a t they  represent  a b s o l u t e maximum q u a n t i t y of w i l d e r n e s s .  Refining  d e f i n i t i o n or conducting  of  the the  a more i n t e n s i v e examination  - 171 can o n l y reduce  -  t h i s amount.  Although  the e n t i r e area was  not examined  u t i l i z i n g P r o v i n c i a l Land Status maps, i t would be s a f e t o assume t h a t l e s s than 40% of the mainland South of 54° was for  w i l d e r n e s s i n 1970.  The  figure  the r e g i o n North o f 5 4° i n d i c a t e d t h a t 84% of t h i s  area was  w i l d e r n e s s , a f i g u r e t h a t was  the use o f P r o v i n c i a l Land Status maps. of  1970  region  compiled The  without  accuracy  t h i s f i g u r e must n e c e s s a r i l y remain u n c e r t a i n ,  although i t may  c o n f i d e n t l y be assumed t h a t i t s v a l u e  has been d e c r e a s i n g at a r e a s o n a b l y r a p i d r a t e as B.C.'s North c o n t i n u e s t o e x p e r i e n c e e x t e n s i v e development.  In  the t r a d i t i o n of a f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y ,  British  Columbia's growth has been l a r g e l y dependent upon r e s o u r c e development. mining  The e a r l i e s t wide-spread  a c t i v i t y was  the  i n d u s t r y t h a t f l o u r i s h e d i n many s e c t i o n s of the  P r o v i n c e , most n o t a b l y i n S o u t h - C e n t r a l B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The g r e a t e s t p r e d a t o r of w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s , however, has been the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess  the  exact e x t e n t of i t s r o l e i n the p a s t , but i n r e c e n t y e a r s i t s e f f e c t has d e f i n i t e l y been f a r - r e a c h i n g .  Forestry  has a l s o s e r v e d as the g r e a t e s t source of ignorance r e g a r d t o "unmapped" a c t i v i t i e s .  with  Comprehensive d a t a f o r  t h i s i n d u s t r y i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t or h o p e l e s s l y  - 172 outdated.  I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t d u r i n g 1970 the f o r e s t  i n d u s t r y o f B.C. u t i l i z e d  500/000 acres o f f o r e s t  (Personal  i n t e r v i e w w i t h B.C. C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t e r s , December, 1971). T h i s was the f i r s t year t h a t any such d a t a had been t a b l e d . Given B.C.'s v a s t f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , the p r e s e n t t r e n d o f wilderness depredation expected  through  logging a c t i v i t i e s  can be  t o continue and i n c r e a s e , l e a v i n g the f o r e s t  i n d u s t r y as the primary  The  predator of wilderness.  o v e r - r i d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of wilderness  t h a t makes i t a very unique r e s o u r c e i s i t s i r r e v e r s i b l e quality. any  A wilderness  a r e a may always be r e l e g a t e d t o  r e s o u r c e a c t i v i t y however, the converse  i s not t r u e .  Once an area has been s u b j e c t e d t o any r e s o u r c e it  t h e o r e t i c a l l y can never again be regarded  a critical  as w i l d e r n e s s ,  f a c t o r when c o n s i d e r i n g the q u e s t i o n o f  wilderness preservation.  Today, an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r what  w i l d e r n e s s i s and o f what i t symbolizes throughout  activity,  i s rapidly  growing  North America, n o t a b l y i n the urban c e n t r e s  which r e p r e s e n t the a n t i t h e s i s o f w i l d e r n e s s .  More  are coming t o p e r c e i v e the i n c r e a s i n g l y important  people  role  t h a t w i l d e r n e s s can p l a y i n m a i n t a i n i n g and renewing man's values and i d e a l s .  As the u l t i m a t e i r r e p l a c e a b l e  r e s o u r c e , the e x i s t e n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s  a l s o stands f o r  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a s o c i e t y ' s a l t e r n a t i v e s and an individuals  freedoms.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Abend, Kenneth. 1966. Compound D e c i s i o n Procedures f o r P a t t e r n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Blue B e l l , P e n n s y l v a n i a : P h i l c o - F o r d Corporation. Ahrens, R.H. 1968. "The m u l t i p l e use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n non-urban parks f o r n o n - r e c r e a t i o n purposes - bane o r boon?". Paper p r e s e n t e d a t Seventh F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Parks Conference: A l g o n q u i n Park, O n t a r i o . Ahrens,R.H. 1970a. "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n Canada - p a s t and p r e s e n t " . Paper presented a t S i x t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Short Course on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Parks and E q u i v a l e n t Reserves: V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Ahrens, R.H. 1970b. "The p h i l o s o p h y o f R e g i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks". Paper p r e s e n t e d a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Northwest Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Conference. Ahrens, R.H. 1970c. L e t t e r t o Okanogan Similkameen Parks S o c i e t y , Summerland, B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l e n , Durward. 1962. Our W i l d l i f e Legacy. New Wagnalls.  York: Funk and  A l l e n , S. 1955. C o n s e r v i n g N a t u r a l Resources. New H i l l , Inc.  York: McGraw-  Angus, H.F. (ed.). 1942. B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s .  States.  Anson, P e t e r . 1964. The C a l l o f the D e s e r t : The S o l i t a r y L i f e i n the C h r i s t i a n Church. London: W i l l i a m Clowes and Sons, Limited. A r d r e y , R. 1966. The T e r r i t o r i a l Imperative. New P u b l i - h i n g Co., L t d .  York:  Baade, F r i t z . 1962. The Race t o the Year 2000. New Doubleday & Company, Inc.  Dell  York:  B a i r d , D.M. 1967. Nature's H e r i t a g e : Canada's N a t i o n a l P a r k s . Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. B a r n e t t , H.J.; Morse, C. 1965. S c a r c i t y and Growth: The Economics of N a t u r a l Resource A v a i l a b i l i t y . Resources f o r the F u t u r e . B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s .  - 174 -  Barteaux, Genevieve. 1953. "The"Tweedsmuir give-away". Parks Magazine. O c t . - D e c , 166-173.  National  B e r t i n , L. 1968. T a r g e t 2067. T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada. B i r t w e l l , R.I. e t a l . 1970. A l i e n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia Parks. Course paper i n School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Bodsworth, F. 1966. 4(2) , 3-7.  "Wilderness c r i s i s " . The O n t a r i o N a t u r a l i s t .  Bodsworth, F. 1967. 5 ( 4 ) , 4-9.  "Why  w i l d e r n e s s ? " . The O n t a r i o  Naturalist.  Bourke, Vernon. 1968. H i s t o r y of E t h i c s . Garden C i t y : Image Books, a D i v i s i o n of Doubleday & Company, I n c . B r a d l e y , C. 1952. "Wilderness and man". 37, 59-67.  S i e r r a Club B u l l e t i n .  Brandborg, Stewart M. 1963. "On the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s " . T h e L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 84, 28-33. Brandborg, Stewart M. 1967. "The W i l d e r n e s s A c t i n p r a c t i c e : the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s " . W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y Report. 4 ( 1 ) , 2-12. Brandborg, Stewart M. 1969. "The W i l d e r n e s s Law and the N a t i o n a l Park system o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s " . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1963. C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l Park Lands. V i c t o r i a : Parks Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1965a. P r o s p e c t i n g and M i n i n g i n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . V i c t o r i a : Parks Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1965b. Purposes and Procedures. V i c t o r i a : Parks Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1968. G l o s a r y of Terms i n Common Usage i n the F i e l d o f NonUrban Parks and R e c r e a t i o n . V i c t o r i a : Parks Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1969. P r o v i n c i a l Parks L i s t 1969. V i c t o r i a Parks Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1971. P r o v i n c i a l Parks L i s t 1971. V i c t o r i a : Parks Branch.  - 175  B r i t i s h Columbia  -  Gazette.1957-1966.  V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r .  B r i t i s h Columbia W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . 1968. Report. Mimeographed copy. Brockman, C F . 1959. McGraw-Hill,  Parks  Committee  R e c r e a t i o n a l Use of W i l d Lands. New Inc.  York:  Brooks,  L l y o d . 1969. " P l a n n i n g a Canadian N a t i o n a l Park system p r o g r e s s and problems". The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace ( e d . ) . C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s .  Brooks,  P a u l . 1960. 2, 13-16.  Brooks, P a u l . 1964.  "Man's way  -  w i t h the w i l d e r n e s s " . H o r i z o n .  Roadless A r e a s . New  York:  Knopf.  Brower, David ( e d . ) . 1960. The Meaning o f W i l d e r n e s s to S c i e n c e . San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b . Brower, David (ed.). 1961. W i l d e r n e s s : America's San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b .  L i v i n g Heritage.  Brower, David ( e d . ) . 1964. W i l d l a n d s i n Our C i v i l i z a t i o n . F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a Club.  San  Brower, David. 1969a. "Wilderness i n our c i v i l i z a t i o n " . V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz ( e d . ) . S i e r r a Club. New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books. Brower, David. 1969b. "Wilderness, c o n f l i c t and c o n s c i e n c e " . V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz ( e d . ) . S i e r r a C l u b . New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books. Brown, H a r r i s o n . 1954. The C h a l l e n g e of Man's F u t u r e . New The V i k i n g P r e s s . Brown, H a r r i s o n ; Bonner, James; Weir, John. 1957. The Hundred Years.New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s .  York:  Next  Brown, Robert C r a i g . 1969. "The d o c t r i n e of u s e f u l n e s s : n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and N a t i o n a l Park p o l i c y i n Canada, 1887-1914". The Canadian N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow, Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . B u l f i n c h , Thomas. 1970. B u l f i n c h ' s Mythology. New Y. C r o w e l l Company.  York: Thomas  Burton, I . ; Kates, R.W. 1965. Readings i n Resource Managementand C o n s e r v a t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . Canaday, John, 1963. Mainstreams of Modern A r t . New R i n e h a r t and Winston.  York: H o l t ,  - 176 -  C a r r i g h a r , S a l l y . 1947. One Day a t Teton Marsh. New Pyramid Books.  York:  Chapman, J.D.; Turner, D.B. 1956. B.C. A t l a s o f Resources. B.C. N a t u r a l Resources Conference. Clawsoh, M.; Held, R.B.; Stoddard, C.H. 1960. Land f o r t h e F u t u r e . Resources f o r the F u t u r e . B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s . Clawson, M. 1969. "The development o f r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the N a t i o n a l Parks". The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y Press. C l i f f o r d , James L. (ed.). 1959. E i g h t e e n t h Century E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cochran,  W i l l i a m G. 1963. Sampling Wiley & Sons, I n c .  Techniques.  New York:  John  Commoner, B a r r y . 1966. S c i e n c e and S u r v i v a l . New York: The Viking Press. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1965. " N a t i o n a l Parks a r e f o r people not p r o f i t " . Animals. 7 ( 5 ) , 116-119. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1968. Wilderness - Concept, F u n c t i o n and Management. The Horace M. A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n Lectureship, VIII. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1969. "The r o l e o f ecology i n the N a t i o n a l Parks". The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y Press. D a r l i n g , Frank F r a s e r . 1969. "Wilderness, s c i e n c e and human e c o l o g y " . V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz ( e d . ) . S i e r r a Club. New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books. D a r l i n g , Frank F r a s e r . 1970. Wilderness and P l e n t y . New York: A F r i e n d s o f the E a r t h / B a l l a n t i n e Book. D a r l i n g , Frank F r a s e r ; M i l t o n , J . 1966. The Future Environments of North America. Garden C i t y : N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s . D a r l i n g , Frank F r a s e r ; E i c h o r n , N o e l . 1969. Man and Nature i n t h e N a t i o n a l Parks: R e f l e c t i o n s on P o l i c y . The C o n s e r v a t i o n Foundation, Washington, D.C. Darwin, C h a r l e s . 1953. The Next M i l l i o n Years. London: H a r t Davis .  - 177  -  Dasmann, Raymond. 1969. " R e c r e a t i o n and N a t i o n a l P a r k s " . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . Day,  M a r t i n S. 1963. H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 1600-1837. Garden C i t y : Doubleday & Company, Inc.  Dickermann, E r n e s t M. 1970. "The N a t i o n a l Park w i l d e r n e s s reviews". The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 34(109), 40-49. D o o l i n g , P.J. 1970. H i s t o r y : P r o v i n c i a l Parks of B r i t i s h Columbia. Mimeographed copy. F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of. B r i t i s h Columbia; Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Douglas, W i l l i a m 0. 1965. L i t t l e , Brown.  A Wilderness  B i l l of Rights.  Boston:  Douglas, W i l l i a m 0. 1969. "Wilderness and human r i g h t s " . f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz (ed.). S i e r r a C l u b . York: B a l l a n t i n e Books.  Voices New  Dubos, Rene J u l e s . 1970. The Genius of the P l a c e . The Horace A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p , X. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a . Edwards, R.Y. 1960. "Conserving nature i n the parks o f Columbia". Canadian Audubon. 22(3), 78-81. Edwards, R.Y. 1963. 25, 1-6.  M.  British  "Canada's n e g l e c t e d p a r k s " . Canadian Audubon.  Edwards, R.Y. 1967. "The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s " . Canadian Audubon. 29, 1-7. F i n l a y , M.I.  1963.  The A n c i e n t Greeks. London: Cox  & Wyman L t d .  F i r e y , W. 1960. Man, Mind and Land: A Theory of Resource Glencoe: Free P r e s s . F i s h e r , James; Simon, Noel; V i n c e n t , Jack. 1969. Danger. New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s .  Use.  Wildlife in  F i s h e r , Joseph L. 1969. "New p e r s p e c t i v e s on c o n s e r v a t i o n " . B i o l o g i c a l C o n s e r v a t i o n . London, England. F i s h e r , Joseph L. 1971. C o n s e r v a t i o n as Research, P o l i c y and A c t i o n . The Horace M. A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p , XI. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ; B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n - a . F i s h e r , Joseph L.; P o t t e r , N e a l . 1964. World P r o s p e c t s f o r N a t u r a l Resources: Some P r o j e c t i o n s of Demand and I n d i c a t o r s of Supply to the Year 2000. Resources f o r the F u t u r e . B a l t i m o r e : J i h n Hopkins P r e s s .  - 178  -  F i t z g e r a l d , Robert ( t r a n s l a t o r ) . 1963. Homer's The Odyssey. Garden C i t y : Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, I n c . Forbes, R.J. 1968. The Conquest of Nature. New A. Praeger, P u b l i s h e r s .  York: F r e d e r i c k  Gardner, Helen. 1959. A r t Through the Ages.New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace & World, I n c . Gibson, W i l l i a m . 1966. "Wilderness - a p s y c h i a t r i c n e c e s s i t y " . Wilderness i n a Changing World. K i l g o r e (ed.). San Francisco: S i e r r a Club. Grant, M. 1964. Myths o f the Greeks and Romans. New American L i b r a r y .  York:  New  Greenwood, Ned. 1968. "An o u t s i d e view o f w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia". The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s , v o l . 32, 103, 31-42. H a e f e l e , Edwin. 1970. " S o c i a l c h o i c e s and environmental q u a l i t y " . Annual Report. Resources f o r the F u t u r e , 23-31. Haig-Brown, R o d e r i c k . 1961. The L i v i n g Land. T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n of Canada. Haig-Brown, R o d e r i c k . 1966. B u t t l e Lake. Page S i x E d i t o r i a l , Vancouver Sun, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Hansen, M.H.; Hurwitz, W.N.; Madow, W.G. 1953. Sample Survey Methods and Theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons, I n c . Hendee, John C. 1968. W i l d e r n e s s Users i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , - V a l u e s and Management Preference's. P o r t l a n d , Oregon: P a c i f i c Northwest F o r e s t and Range Experiment S t a t i o n ; U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . H i r s h l e i f e r , Jack. 1961. "The B a y e s i a n approach t o s t a t i s t i c a l d e c i s i o n : an e x p o s i t i o n " . The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s . v o l . 3 4 , 471-489. Hornaday, W.T. 1913. Our V a n i s h i n g W i l d l i f e . New S c r i b n e r ' s Sons.  York: C.  Hutchison, Bruce. 1965. The F r a s e r . Vancouver: C l a r k e , & Company, L i m i t e d . Huxley, A l d o u s . 1932.  Brave New  World.London:  Irwin  Penguin Books L t d .  Huxley, A l d o u s . 1956. Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow. York: Harper. Huxley, A l d o u s . 1957. Brave New Penguin Books L t d .  World R e v i s i t e d . L o n d o n :  New-  - 179 -  I s e , J . 1961. Our N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y : A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y . B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s . J a r r e t t , Henry (ed.). 1958. P e r s p e c t i v e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n : Essays on America's N a t u r a l Resources. B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins Press. J a r r e t t , Henry  (ed.). 1966. Environmental  Q u a l i t y i n a Growing  Economy. B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s Jennings, Burgess; Murphey, J.E. (ed.). 1966. I n t e r a c t i o n o f Man and H i s Environment. New York: Plenum P r e s s . K i e r n a n , Thomas. 1965. A T r e a s u r y o f A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r . New York: C i t a d e l P r e s s . K i l g o r e , Bruce M. (ed.). 1966. Wilderness San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b .  i n a Changing World.  Kneese, A l l e n V. 1970. P r o t e c t i n g Our Environment and N a t u r a l Resources i n the 1970's. Washington, D . C : Resources f o r the F u t u r e . Krumbein, W.C; G r a y b i l l , F.A. 1965. S t a t i s t i c a l Models i n Geology. New York: McGraw-Hill. K r u t i l l a , J.V. 1967. " C o n s e r v a t i o n Economic Review. 777-786.  reconsidered".American  L a f o r e s t , Gerard. 1969. N a t u r a l Resources and P u b l i c P r o p e r t y Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . Landsberg, Hans H. (ed.). 1964. Resources i n America's F u t u r e : P a t t e r n s o f Requirements and A v a i l a b i l i t i e s , 1960-2000. Resources f o r the F u t u r e . B a l t i m o r e : J i h n Hopkins Press. L a r k i n , P.A.; McMym, R.G. 1953. The E f f e c t on F i s h e r i e s o f Present and Future Water U t i l i z a t i o n i n the Campbell R i v e r Drainage Area. Management P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2 o f the B.C. Game Commission. Leopold, A l d o . 1940. " O r i g i n s and i d e a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s " . The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 5. Leopold, A l d o . 1942. "Wilderness 7.  v a l u e s " . The L i v i n g  Wilderness.  Leoplod, A l d o . 1969. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford University Press. Leydet, F r a n c o i s (ed.). 1963. Tomorrow's W i l d e r n e s s . San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a Club.  - 180  Lorenz, K. 1963. World.  -  On A g g r e s s i o n . New  York: H a r c o u r t , Brace &  Lucas, Robert C. 1964. "User concepts o f w i l d e r n e s s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s o u r c e management". New Horizons f o r Resource Research: Issues and Methodology. 29-39. Lucas, Robert C. 1964. "Wilderness p e r c e p t i o n and use". N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l . 3, 394-411. Lucas, Robert C. 1966. "The c o n t r i b u t i o n of environmental r e s e a r c h f o r w i l d e r n e s s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s " . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s . 22(4), 116-124. Lucas, Robert C ; P r i d d l e , G.B. 1964. "Environmental p e r c e p t i o n : a comparison of two w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s " . Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, 54, 428-439. Lyons, C.P. 1956. "New boundaries Parks Magazine.  f o r Tweedsmuir Park". N a t i o n a l  Marsh, John S. 1969. " M a i n t a i n i n g the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada's N a t i o n a l Parks". The Canadian N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace ( e d . ) . C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . M a r s h a l l , A . J . 1966.  The Great E x t e r m i n a t i o n . London: Heinenann.  M a r s h a l l , H.N. 1971. " F o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n on managed f o r e s t l a n d s " . Mimeographed copy of address to the Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t r y , Vancouver I s l a n d S e c t i o n ; Duncan, B r i t i s h Columbia. M a r s h a l l , Robert. 1930. "The problem o f the w i l d e r n e s s " . S c i e n t i f i c Monthly. 30, 142-143. M a r s h a l l , Robert. 1970. A l a s k a W i l d e r n e s s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . McCloskey,M.; G i l l i g a n , J.P. 1969. W i l d e r n e s s and the Q u a l i t y of L i f e . San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b . McKinley, D. 1963. 38-39.  "Why  McKinley, D. 1966. 33-35.  "Psychology  M i l l e r , A r t h u r . 1959. M i l l e r , P e r r y . 1956. Torchbooks.  w i l d e r n e s s ? " . F o r e s t I n d u s t r y . 90(2), of w i l d e r n e s s " . Mazama. 48(13),  The C r u c i b l e . New  York: Bantam Books.  E r r a n d Into the W i l d e r n e s s . New  York:  Harper  - 181 -  M i l l e r , P e r r y (ed.). 1957. The American T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s : T h e i r Prose and P o e t r y . New York: Harper Torchbooks. Montagu, A s h l e y . 1969. "Wilderness and humanity". V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz (ed.). S i e r r a C l u b . New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books. Morse, W.B. 1966. "Wilderness r e s e a r c h - a s t a r t " . F o r e s t s . 72(6), 32-33, 58-59.  American  Murphy, E.F. 19 67. Governing Nature. Chicago: Quadrangle  Books.  Myers, A r n i e . 1966. Report i n Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, Columbia.  British  Nadel, M. 1964. "A handbook on the W i l d e r n e s s A c t " . The W i l d e r n e s s . 86.  Living  R o d e r i c k . 1963. "The American w i l d e r n e s s i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e " . F o r e s t H i s t o r y . 6, 1-13. R o d e r i c k . 1967. W i l d e r n e s s and the American Mind. Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  New  R o d e r i c k . 1969a. "Wilderness and man i n North America". The Canadian N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed.). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y Press. R o d e r i c k . 1969b. "The c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the American w i l d e r n e s s " . W i l d e r n e s s and the Q u a l i t y o f L i f e . McCloskey and G i l l i g a n (ed.). San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a Club. N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s - N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l . 1969. Resources and Man. San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company. N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch. 1969. N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Ottawa, Ontar i o . N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch. 1970a. Banff N a t i o n a l Park P r o v i s i o n a l Master P l a n . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Ottawa, O n t a r i o . N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch. 1970b. Kootenay N a t i o n a l Park P r o v i s i o n a l Master P l a n . Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Ottawa, O n t a r i o . N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch. 1970c. Yoho N a t i o n a l Park P r o v i s i o n a l Master P l a n . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Ottawa, O n t a r i o .  - 182  -  Nelson, J.G.; Scace, R.C. ( e d . ) . 1969. The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary Press. N i c o l , J . I . 1969. "The N a t i o n a l Parks movement i n Canada". The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks: Today and Tomorrow. Nelson and Scace (ed,). C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . Oesher, P a u l . 1964. "A f o o t n o t e to the p h i l o s o p h y of w i l d e r n e s s " . The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 13, 4-7. Olson, S i g u r d . 1938. 395-396.  "Why  w i l d e r n e s s ? " . American F o r e s t s . 44,  Olson, S i g u r d . 1948. "The p r e s e r v a t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s " . The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 13, 4-7. Olson, S i g u r d . 1969. "The s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t s of w i l d e r n e s s " . V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz ( e d . ) . S i e r r a C l u b . New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books, Inc. Ormsby, Margaret. 19 58. B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y . Vancouver: The M a c M i l l a n Company of Canada L i m i t e d . O r w e l l , George. 1949. Books L t d .  Nineteen E i g h t y - F o u r . London:  Penguin  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resource Review Commission. 1962. W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n - A Report on Resources, V a l u e s and Problems. P a i s h , Howard. 1967. 23, 38-43.  "Requiem f o r a park". B.C.  Outdoors, v o l .  Passmore, R.C. 1966. P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n Canada". Audubon. 28(4), 150-156.  Canadian  Pearse, P.H. 1968. P r i n c i p l e s of A l l o c a t i n g W i l d l a n d Among A l t e r n a t i v e Uses. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t Annual Meeting the A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. F o r e s t e r s . P i m l o t t , Douglas. 1968. "Wilderness i n Canada". The W i l d e r n e s s . 103, 5-15.  of  Living  Ross, F.H.; H i l l s , T. 1956. The Great R e l i g i o n s . Greenwich: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc. Royal Bank of Canada. 1960. C o n s e r v i n g Canada's Resources. A C o l l e c t i o n of Monthly L e t t e r s p u b l i s h e d by the Royal Bank of Canada. Royal Bank of Canada. 1967. Space f o r L e i s u r e . The of Canada Monthly L e t t e r , v o l . 48, no. 6.  Royal Bank  - 183 -  S c h a r f f , Robert. 1966. Canada's Mountain N a t i o n a l P a r k s . Musson Book Co.  Toronto:  Schwartz, W i l l i a m (ed.). 1969. V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Club. New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books.  Sierra  S i l v e r b e r g , Robert. 1967. The Auk, The Dodo and The Oryx: Vanished and V a n i s h i n g C r e a t u r e s . S u r r e y : World's Work L t d . Smith, Anthony. 1967. "Park w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n i n g " . N a t i o n a l Parks Magazine. 41(233), 2. Smith, G. 1965. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r a l Resources. John Wiley & Sons, I n c . Smith,  New York:  Henry Nash. 1950. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The P r a i r i e , a n o v e l by James Fenimore Cooper. New" York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston.  Smith, Henry Nash. 1950. V i r g i n Land: The American West As Symbol and Myth. New York: V i n t a g e Books. Snow, C P . 1961. The New Men. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, L t d . Spurr, Stephen. 1969. "The v a l u e o f w i l d e r n e s s t o s c i e n c e " . V o i c e s f o r the W i l d e r n e s s . Schwartz (ed.). S i e r r a Club. New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books. S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1911-1965. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer. Stenton, J . E . 1969. "A c r i t i c a l look a t Canada's N a t i o n a l Parks". Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l . 79(6), 180191. Still,  H. 1966. W i l l The Human Race S u r v i v e ? . New York: Hawthorn Books.  Sumner, L o w e l l . 1964. "Are beavers too busy?". W i l d l a n d In Our C i v i l i z a t i o n . Brower (ed.). San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b . Swannell, L.F. 1963. " C o n f l i c t s i n t h e use o f f o r e s t l a n d i n B.C.". F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . 39(1), 36-39. T a y l o r , G.D. 1965. "An approach t o t h e i n v e n t o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l ' • Hands". Canadian Geographer, v o l . IX, 84-91. :  T a y l o r , G.D.; C l a r k , W.T. 1966. "Proposed methodology f o r an i n v e n t o r y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f land f o r r e c r e a t i o n use". F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . 42(2), 153-159.  - 184 -  Thomson, George. 1955. The F o r e s e e a b l e F u t u r e . Cambridge: University Press. Thoreau, Henry David. 1893. E x c u r s i o n s . New York: Houghton M i f f l i n Company. T h o r s e l l , J.W. 1969. "The mountain N a t i o n a l Parks: some notes on w i l d e r n e s s use".Park News. v o l . 5 , no. 2. Turner, D.B. 1963. The Scope o f the P r o v i n c i a l Park A u t h o r i t y i n the R e c r e a t i o n Resource F i e l d . Mimeographed copy o f paper presented a t Second F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Parks Conference; Ottawa, O n t a r i o . Turner,Robert D. 1969. P r o v i n c i a l Park P l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Towards a Broader and More Comprehensive Approach. B.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Turner, Robert D. 1971. A Comparison o f N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. U d a l l , Stewart. 3-7.  1962. "Wilderness". The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s .  26(80),  U d a l l , Stewart. 1963. The Q u i e t C r i s i s . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. U d a l l , Stewart. 1963. The C o n s e r v a t i o n C h a l l e n g e o f the S i x t i e s . The Horace M. A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p I I I , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ; Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a . Vancouver P r o v i n c e . V a r i o u s dates 1953-1971. Vancouver, Columbia.  British  Vancouver Sun. V a r i o u s dates 1964-1971. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t . V a r i o u s dates 1966. V i c t o r i a , Columbia. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. V a r i o u s dates 1966. V i c t o r i a , Columbia.  British  British  Waggoner, H y a t t . ( e d . ) . 1965. Hawthorne: S e l e c t e d T a l e s and Sketches. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. White, Lynn. 1967. "The h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s o f our e c o l o g i c a l c r i s i s " . S c i e n c e , v o l . 55. Wilderness S o c i e t y , The. 1970. "Many w i l d e r n e s s p r o p o s a l s pending". The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . 34(112), 63.  - 185 -  W i l l i a m s , M.B. 1962. The O r i g i n and Meaning o f the N a t i o n a l Parks o f Canada. E x t r a c t s from the papers of J.B. Harkin, D i s t r i b u t e d by N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, Department o f Nothern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources. W i l l s , M.J. 1971. The Highway Network, T r a f f i c Flow and Settlements i n I n t e r i o r B.C. M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Wright, L o u i s . 1955. C u l t u r e on the Moving F r o n t i e r . New Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s .  York:  Yeomens, W.C. 1970. " B r i t i s h Columbia's w i l d e r n e s s " . W i l d e r n e s s . 34(112), 40-45.  Living  Z a h n i s e r , H. 1955. "The need f o r w i l d e r n e s s Parks Magazine. 29, 166.  areas".  The  National  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101688/manifest

Comment

Related Items