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Social flexibility and integration in a Canadian Inuit settlement : Lake Harbour, M.W.T. ; 1970 Lange, Phillip Allen 1972

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at.  SOCIAL FLEXIBILITY AND INTEGRATION IN A CANADIAN INUIT SETTLEMENT t LAKE HARBOUR, N.W.T.; 1970 by  B.A.,  P h i l l i p A l l e n Lange  C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e C o l l e g e a t Long B e a c h , 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY- OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1972  In  presenting  this  an advanced degree the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  freely  p u r p o s e s may  for  It  financial  is  D  a  t  e  ^  of  gain  B r i t i s h Columbia  8, Canada  &^£r/t>l_  British for  extensive by  the  shall  not  the  requirements  Columbia, reference  copying of Head o f  understood that  of  The U n i v e r s i t y Vancouver  of  be g r a n t e d  written permission.  Department  fulfilment•of  available  permission for  representatives. thesis  it  partial  I  agree  and this  be a l l o w e d  that  study. thesis  my Department  copying or  for  or  publication  w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT The f l e x i b i l i t y of I n u i t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n may be d e f i n e d as a l a c k of s o c i e t a l p r e f e r e n c e among s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t courses of a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h the concept o f f l e x i b i l i t y has w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n to I n u i t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h i s does not s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a complete l a c k of s t r u c t u r e and o r d e r . Some of the parameters of f l e x i b i l i t y a r e d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h b e h a v i o u r w h i c h i s e i t h e r d i s a p p r o v e d or r e q u i r e d . Two theses a r e advanced. One i s t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y a l l o w s creative a c t i o n which i s p o t e n t i a l l y adaptive and/or i n t e g r a t i v e . T h i s p o i n t i s d e v e l o p e d by showing a v a r i e t y of ways i n w h i c h d i f f e r e n t I n u i t men i n Lake Harbour e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e c o m b i n a t i o n s of h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g , c a r v i n g and w a g e - l a b o u r , each i n a manner unique to h i m s e l f . The o t h e r t h e s i s i s t h a t I n u i t s o c i e t y i s i n t e g r a t e d w h o l l y through m u t u a l l y c o n s e n s u a l d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There are two ways i n w h i c h the importance of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s h o w n , i n Inuit l i f e . One i s l a c k of imposed a u t h o r i t y ; the o t h e r i s the r i c h v a r i e t y of r i t u a l and o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h are e i t h e r based o r seen to be based on the consensus of the two p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the i n i t i a t i o n and c o n t e n t , of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . L o c a l group l e a d e r s h i p shows t h i s c l e a r l y as men r e c o g n i z e a man as l e a d e r o n l y w h i l e he p r o v i d e s them b e n e f i t s . The c h a r a c t e r i s i t c a t t r i b u t e s of l e a d e r s h i p (age, s k i l l i n h u n t i n g , knowledge, p o s i t i o n as head of a l a r g e k i n group and ownership of a b o a t ) do n o t r e s u l t i n l e a d e r s h i p i f a man i s unable to p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s to o t h e r s . The i m p o r t a n c e of m u t u a l l y c o n s e n s u a l d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s shown t h r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n and o r p h a n s , who r e c e i v e what E u r o - C a n a d i a n s c o n s i d e r to be t r a u m a - i n d u c i n g abuse and r e j e c t i o n , y e t appear to d e v e l o p h e l a t h y p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h r o u g h a c c e p t a n c e and n u r t u r a n c e on the p a r t of peers and s y m p a t h e t i c a d u l t s . Because of the d y a d i c c o n s e n s u a l n a t u r e of I n u i t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s i n t e g r a t i o n r e l i e s c r i t i c a l l y on I n u i t v o l u n t a r i l y e s t a b l i s h i n g t i e s of dependence and s u p p o r t .  TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE  i  INTRODUCTION . .  1  A BRIEF HISTORY OF EURO-CANADIAN CONTACT AT LAKE HARBOUR, N.W.T. AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE SETTLEMENT The Weekls A c t i v i t i e s  ©8 13  SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN LAKE HARBOUR  19  INTEGRATION THROUGH CONSENSUAL RELATIONSHIPS  70  CONCLUSION  82  FOOTNOTES  90  BIBLIOGRAPHY. MAPS  . ... ...... 93 ,  South-East B a f f i n I s l a n d S e t t l e m e n t o f Lake Harbour  PREFACE The r e a d e r w i l l f i n d s e v e r a l usa.ges i n t h i s p a p e r which a r e perhaps u n f a m i l i a r t o him. the  The term "Euro-Canadian" r e f e r s t o  White p o p u l a t i o n found i n the Canadian A r c t i c , f o r Canadians  and Europeans form i t s l a r g e s t p a r t i a l t h o u g h the term White i s a l s o used.  E u r o - N o r t h American i s used when d e s c r i b i n g modes o f  thought common t o Europeans and N o r t h A m e r i c a n s .  The Word I n u i t  ( s i n g u l a r Inuk) r e f e r s t o Eskimos,, f o r the l a t t e r term i s d i s l i k e d by some I n u i t and, i n d e e d , o f t e n has a ^ p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n i n such c e n t r e s as F r o b i s h e r Bay.  I f anyone o b j e c t s t o r e j e c t i n g the  term "Eskimo" I can o n l y say t h a t i t seems a s m a l l t h i n g t o c a l l a. group by the name which t h e y p r e f e r . Canadians as p e r c e i v e d by I n u i t .  Vallee  "Ka.bloona" r e f e r s t o Euro(1967)  made t h i s term  "Kabloona" c u r r e n t among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and so I use h i s s p e l l i n g a l t h o u g h i n o t h e r d i a l e c t s i t would appear d i f f e r e n t l y .  If  a l l the v a r i a n t v e r s i o n s of the word were used from d i f f e r e n t  dia-  l e c t s by w r i t e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t o r t h o g r a p h i e s , dozens o f permutat i o n s are p o s s i b l e .  I have seen k r a b l u n a k , k a d l u n a k , k a l l u n a k ,  qa.lunak, qadlunak and q a l l u n a a q . Dozens o f p e o p l e deserve thanks f o r t h e i r p a r t i n f u r t h e r i n g this thesis.  I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to the Lake Harbour I n u i t  who h e l p e d me t o l e a r n what l i t t l e I know o f t h e i r way o f l i f e . Many helped me, toq,  e s p e c i a l l y Sandy Akavak, T i m i l a k P i t s i u l a k , A r l u k -  K u t s i a d j u k and Qipa.niq.  To a l l of them " q u j a n a m i k l " I a l s o  thank the Hudson's Bay Co. and George C r o s t o n , Lake Harbour H.B.C. manager, f o r v a l u a b l e a c c e s s t o much i n f o r m a t i o n on f u r and yields.  skin  I n w r i t i n g my t h e s i s I was h e l p e d by Dr. W. W i l l m o t t ,  my  t h e s i s committee Kew.  c h a i r m a n , and b y D r . K. 0. B u r r i d g e a n d D r . M.  T h e i r a i d was i n v a l u a b l e .  George D i v e k y and S c o t t  a r e f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who h e l p e d w i t h v a l u a b l e T h i s t h e s i s i s based  Burbidge  comments.  o n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d on f i e l d  w o r k done  i n L a k e H a r b o u r f r o m December 19^9 t o S e p t e m b e r 1970 w h i l e I was a member o f t h e " I d e n t i t y a n d M o d e r n i t y i n t h e E a s t A r c t i c " r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o f t h e Department  o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ,  Memorial U n i v e r s i t y o f Newfoundland.  The p r o j e c t was f i n a n c e d  t h r o u g h g r a n t s a w a r d e d b y t h e Canada C o u n c i l a s p a r t o f i t s K i l l a m A w a r d s Programme.  W h i l e a t M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y I r e c e i v e d much  a i d and encouragement from Frank A l l u r e d , Dr. J e a n B r i g g s , D r . M i l t o n Freeman, D r . R o b e r t P a i n e ( p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r ) and P a u l Y e a r gans.  I s i n c e r e l y t h a n k them  all.  s p a  «1  4^ ON O  e  f:  M c o . r  0.6-  2?  1 7W*oo$y at  - //V<W  &3  o/rr's  £<£sc<c  B.4 /fee*  /9P/»/<otsr«4ro£'s  Z<t> flues*** f<c 28  3/  S.e.C  srui>e*>r  XJ3L  &rente  /jfc*re<.  Jiesws-^ce  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Many r e s e a r c h e r s have t r e a t e d I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y as a l a c k o f b e h a v i o u r a l r i g i d i t y i n I n u i t s o c i e t y and i n response t o t h e p h y s i cal  environment ( B r i g g s  (Willmott  i960).  1970) (Guemple 1970) (Honigmann 1959» 119)  I n t h i s p a p e r I propose t o examine t h e n a t u r e and  parameters o f t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y and t o r e l a t e I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y t o the i n t e g r a t i o n o f I n u i t p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . The  word " f l e x i b i l i t y "  i t s e l f can have d i f f e r e n t meanings. I n  Websters New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y could  t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l meanings which  r e f e r t o t h e I n u i t s i t u a t i o n "...2. y i e l d i n g t o i n f l u e n c e ;  3. c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g o r c o n f o r m i n g t o changing o r new s i t u a t i o n s " (Gove 1970» 869).  Honigmann was t h e f i r s t t o a n a l y z e I n u i t  i n terms o f i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , w h i c h he d e f i n e d  society  a s " . . . a r e l a x e d mode  of p r o c e d u r e s and t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s towards demands o f l i v i n g " (1959» H 9 ) »  However, r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t t h i s p a p e r t o a s i n g l e  d e f i n i t i o n o f f l e x i b i l i t y , I w i l l a t t e m p t t o demonstrate t h e n a t u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  ( b o t h w i t h s o c i e t y and environment) w h i c h among  I n u i t are characterized  by a l a c k o f r i g i d l y s p e c i f i e d a c t i o n s i n  response t o s o c i e t y and environment. the term " f l e x i b i l i t y "  U n l e s s I am s p e c i f i c a l l y u s i n g  i n a n o t h e r w r i t e r ' s terms, t h e r e a d e r can  assume t h a t I use i t t o d e s c r i b e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s no s t r o n g s o c i e t a l p r e f e r e n c e among s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . L e t us l o o k f u r t h e r i n t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e on I n u i t  flexibility  to see what i m p l i c a t i o n s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has on my t o p i c .  - 2-  Honigmann f i r s t suggested f l e x i b i l i t y a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f I n u i t c u l t u r e a s one o f s e v e r a l o t h e r r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s w h i c h were a l l subsumed as p a r t o f t h e ethos o f I n u i t c u l t u r e a t G r e a t Whale R i v e r , P.Q. (1959).  T h e r e f o r e , t o understand h i s use o f f l e x i b i -  l i t y , one must f i r s t examine h i s idea, o f ethos t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e concept o f which f l e x i b i l i t y forms a. p a r t . He d e f i n e s ethos a s " t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s " a b s t r a c t e d from a r t i f a c t s and b e h a v i o u r ( i . e .  c u l t u r e ) "...an attempt i s made t o  e x p l a i n t h e e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f an a c t i v i t y , thought o r a r t i f a c t i n terms o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d r i v e t h e o r y " (1959» 106)?. To a m p l i f y the  above q u o t a t i o n , Honigmann c o n s i d e r s two o t h e r c o n c e p t s a s  b e i n g v e r y s i m i l a r t o h i s ethos c o n c e p t i  K r b e b e r ' s " s t y l e " and  Weakland's "form" (Honigmann 1959« 106-109).  Y e t t h e s e l a s t two  concepts a r e n o t u s e f u l i n d e f i n i n g Honigmann's ethos c o n c e p t , f o r they seem t o have l i t t l e t o do w i t h e i t h e r i t o r I n u i t s o c i e t y . - ^ For  m y s e l f , h i s ethos concept i s so vague t h a t I cannot even con-  c e i v e o f what i d e a l l y a r e " t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e " and t h e r e f o r e cannot e v a l u a t e t h e concept as such. Yet d e s p i t e t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e n a t u r e o f h i s concept o f e t h o s , Honigmann does i s o l a t e o u t what t o me a r e some o f t h e most s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f I n u i t c u l t u r e , which I can o n l y a p p r e c i a t e and u t i l i z e . To g i v e an o v e r v i e w o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f I n u i t c u l t u r e w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h f l e x i b i l i t y , were a b s t r a c t e d from Honigmann's d a t a , a l l s i x a s p e c t s o f t h e G r e a t Whale R i v e r ethos a r e l i s t e d ! A.  A f r a n k f r i e n d l y g e n i a l and r a t h e r spontaneous demeanor i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , t o which i s r e l a t e d , p r i o r to m a r r i a g e e s p e c i a l l y , an easy r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h memb e r s o f t h e o p p o s i t e sex and a c a p a c i t y t o form deep emotional attachments.  -  3  -  B.  A c o n f i d e n t and o p t i m i s t i c approach t o a t l e a s t t h e o r d i n a r y problems o f e x i s t e n c e .  C.  A n a r c i s s i s t i c i d e a l i z a t i o n o f the s e l f along w i t h a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's a c t i o n s .  D.  A r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o h u r t and t o f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o a c a p a c i t y f o r empathy.  E.  R e j e c t i o n and a v o i d a n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n .  F.  F l e x i b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o many p r o c e d u r e s ( b u t n o t t o t h e ' p o i n t o f d i s o r d e r l i n e s s o r u n d e p e n d a j b i l i t y ) accompani e d by a r e l a t i v e absence o f m a g i c a l i t y .  Remembering t h a t Honigmann d e f i n e s I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y as " . . . a r e l a x e d mode o f p r o c e d u r e s and t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s towards demands o f l i v i n g " , he a t t e m p t s t o g i v e a q u a l i t a t i v e comparison by n o t i n g t h a t I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y does n o t approach t h e d i s o r d e r l i n e s s o f t h e Aymara and Kaska ( i b i d i 1 1 9 ) . R a t h e r t h a n g i v e s p u r i o u s  compari-  sons o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s l i k e t h i s , I w i l l compare t h e n a t u r e and ext e n t o f I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y and b e h a v i o u r  t o t h a t o f t h e Whites i n  the A r c t i c , n o t i n o r d e r t o use Euro-Canadians as a c o n t r o l group (which c o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y ) b u t r a t h e r t o y i e l d data on t h e c u l t u r e complex which a f f e c t s I n u i t most a c u t e l y and w i l l i l l u s t r a t e and h o p e f u l l y e x p l a i n some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c u l t u r e c o n t a c t i n t h e Canadian E a s t A r c t i c . . An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t I n u i t s o c i a l l i f e i s n o t completel y impromptu and haphazard, f o r Honigmann n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s o r dering i n behaviour  and t h a t , f o r example, a l t h o u g h  food l i e s a c -  c e s s i b l e t h e c h i l d does n o t d i v e i n t o i t whenever he f e e l s hungry but w a i t s u n t i l mother feeds him. He n o t e s t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y i s n o t as h i g h as i t c o u l d be t h e o r e t i c a l l y ( i b i d t 1 2 0 ) . H o p e f u l l y , I w i l l be a b l e t o s e t f o r t h some o f t h e parameters o f t h i s  flexibility.  - 4 Willmott g r e a t l y c l a r i f i e d the e f f e c t s o f I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y , n o t by s e e i n g i t as a p a r t o f a c u l t u r a l theme, b u t by d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i f i c areas of I n u i t c u l t u r e (family o r g a n i z a t i o n , k i n s h i p  ter-  m i n o l o g y , community o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n ) and then d e s c r i b ing  the e f f e c t s of the f l e x i b i l i t y observable i n the a c t i v i t i e s  of those a r e a s .  He a l s o drew o u t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  Inuit f l e x i b i l i t y . and  The q u e s t i o n s  t h a t he r a i s e d about t h e n a t u r e  consequences o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n I n u i t s o c i e t y s t i m u l a t e d  this  p a p e r and i t s two t h e s e s . I n a s s e s s i n g the importance o f I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y begins w i t h the household, the b a s i c s o c i a l u n i t . t i a l needs which i t e x i s t s t o f u l f i l l  Willmott  Yet the essen-  ( f o o d , sewing, e m o t i o n a l  s u p p o r t , s l e e p i n g space, sex) a r e o f t e n s a t i s f i e d e l s e w h e r e .  Post-  m a r r i a g e l o c a l i t y depends on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s and can be desc r i b e d as f l e x i b l e .  There i s a wide range o f f a m i l y t y p e s , and  a d o p t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t means o f household r e c r u i t m e n t  (16% a t  P o r t H a r r i s o n i n 1959» 13% a t Lake Harbour from 1961 t o 1970). Kinship terminology  i s f r e q u e n t l y n o n - s p e c i f i c and i s more "appro-  p r i a t e t o the nature o f the personal i n question  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e two"  t h a n t o g e n e a l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n and k i n terms a r e used  between u n r e l a t e d p e o p l e ( W i l l m o t t 1960t 5 1 ) . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n has v a r i e d from t h a t o f s m a l l f l e x i b l e bands w i t h o u t c l e a r l y marked l e a d e r s h i p , t h r o u g h s t a b l e camps w i t h q u i t e p o w e r f u l to settlement  l i v i n g without long-term l e a d e r s h i p  leaders  (ibid« 4-9, 5 1 ,  52-5*0. A f t e r reviewing  the o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n , k i n -  - 5 ship t e r m i n o l o g y and community o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h have been a p a r t of I n u i t e x p e r i e n c e , W i l l m o t t s u g g e s t s t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n has been " r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f c o n f l i c t a t ( P o r t ) H a r r i s o n " because  "action  p a t t e r n s were n o t r i g i d n o r h e a v i l y v a l u e - l a d e n (and) t h e y couild adapt t o t h e c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e Eskimo f e e l i n g an o v e r whelming sense o f l o s s " < • ( i b i d i 5 5 ) . Changes i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e r some e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r - c u t examples o f t h i s .  Willmott  c o r r e c t l y n o t e s t h a t I n u i t o f t e n r e a c t t o changes wrought by b o t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and tiy Euro-Canadians i n t h e same manner« by a c c e p t i n g and a d a p t i n g t o t h e changes.  This acceptance i s o f t e n  accompanied by t h e arunamut a t t i t u d e w h i c h s a y s , i n e f f e c t , "One a c c e p t s w i t h o u t p r o t e s t because n o t h i n g can be done aibouitfiTt"» and t h e i s s u e i n q u e s t i o n can be a r e f u s a l o f c r e d i t , a drop i n the  p r i c e o f f u r s o r c a r v i n g s , even mandatory s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e  for  children.  W i l l m o t t has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t C l n u i t ^ f l e x i b i l i t y  has a i d e d acculturation»(ibidi 55-56).  But a d a p t a t i o n t o c h a n g i n g  c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l s o o c c u r s when I n u i t t a k e c r e a t i v e a c t i o n t o u t i l i z e f a c t o r s p r e s e n t i n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a c r e a t i v e manner which I b e l i e v e i s p e r m i t t e d by t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y .  And so one t h e s i s o f  t h i s paper i s t h a t " f l e x i b i l i t y a l l o w s c r e a t i v e a c t i o n and t h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y a d a p t i v e and/or i n t e g r a t i v e " .  Crea-  t i v e p r o c e s s e s a r e t h o s e which re-combine elements p r e s e n t i n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t o new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . a l t e r e d environment.  A d a p t a t i o n i s a d j u s t m e n t t o an  The d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n t o be used i n  t h i s p a p e r i s from an a r t i c l e by Landecker (1951',^0) i n which he d e v e l o p s Smend's approach t o i n t e g r a t i o n as " t h e c o n s t a n t u n i f i c a t i o n " o f t h e members o f a group.  - 6 The second t h e s i s o f t h i s p a p e r r e l a t e s t o i s s u e s n ? a i s e d by W i l l m o t t about t h e r e l a t i o n between I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f the various l e v e l s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y i  "For i f patterns  o f b e h a v i o u r a r e n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d as v a l u e s . . . w h a t produces  soli-  d a r i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e s o c i e t y * i n t h e l o c a l group o r i n the f a m i l y ? " of I n u i t  (1960t 5 7 ) . Because t h e household i s t h e b a s i c  unit  society*  "One would t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t i t t o be h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d * w i t h s t r o n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e n o t o n l y on t h e economic l e v e l , b u t on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y l e v e l a s w e l l . But t h e r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which c h i l d r e n a r e passed from one f a m i l y t o a n o t h e r , and t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f p e r s o n a l i t y damage t o c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g from even r e p e a t e d a d o p t i o n s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t i e s between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n a r e e a s i l y b r o k e n , e a s i l y made... ( S ) i n c e we know t h a t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f y i s l e a r n e d from r e l a t i o n s h i p s , how does t h e c h i l d g a i n h i s sense o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ? How does he l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s s t a t u s a n d . . . h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e society? I t has been assumed by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . . . t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f y comes from t h e unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t and c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y mother and c h i l d . I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y may develop w i t h o u t such a unique r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . ? " ( i b i d ) . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l group i s a l s o p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r k i n s h i p i s n o t t h e p r i n c i p a l means o f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n and b o t h economic c o - o p e r a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p  can v a r y from t h a t o f a h i g h  o r d e r t o r e l a t i v e l y none. Again, I believe that I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y fosters a s i t u a t i o n i n which o r i g i n a l , c r e a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r can e x i s t and so I suggest as t h e second t h e s i s o f t h i s paper t h a t " I n u i t i s integrated  society  through consensual r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e created  by t h e a c t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n them".  Hopefully t h i s thesis  - 7 -  w i l l v e r i f y t o some degree t h e p o i n t t h a t among I n u i t t h e r e i s no i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p whose i n i t i a t i o n and c o n t e n t can be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d — n o t even t h a t between mother and c h i l d .  CHAPTER I I A BRIEF HISTORY OF EURO-CANADIAN CONTACT AT LAKE HARBOUR, N.W.T. AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE SETTLEMENT Lake Harbour (62°5l'N, 69*53'W) i s l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h e r n c o a s t o f B a f f i n I s l a n d , a t t h e head o f N o r t h Bay.  I t i s seventy-  f i v e m i l e s southwest o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e a t F r o b i s h e r Bay.  T h i s d i s t a n c e c a n be t r a v e l l e d by s k i d o o i n from f i v e t p  e i g h t hours (see Map, page i i i ) . When Boas d i d f i e l d w o r k i n 1883-1884 he l e a r n e d o f t h r e e groups t h a t i n h a b i t e d t h e s o u t h e r n shore o f B a f f i n I s l a n d ; t h e S h i k o s u i l a r m i u t , t h e A k u l i a r m i u t and t h e Qaumauangmiut (I8881 1 3 ) . He r e p o r t e d i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t s between t h e f i r s t two, because o f a long uninhabited the l a t t e r two.  c o a s t , and f a i r l y f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t s between  One o f t h e w i n t e r camps o f t h e A k u l i a r m i u t (and  o f many Qaumauangmiut) was a t N o r t h Bay.  Boas r e p o r t e d t h a t Amer-  i c a n w h a l e r s had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a s t a t i o n i n A k u l i a r m i u t , and the I n u i t t h e r e were amply s u p p l i e d w i t h f i r e a r m s and o t h e r European t r a d e goods. as f o l l o w s 1  Whalers e s t i m a t e d  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t shore  f i f t y S k i k o s u i l a r m i u t , tw6 hundred A k u l i a r m i u t and  f i f t y Qaumauangmiut, t h e p e o p l e b e i n g s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t i n many camps ( i b i d i 14, 55» 6 0 ) . Lake Harbour was t h e s i t e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f i r s t permanent r e l i g i o u s m i s s i o n on t h e s s m t h % m shore o f B a f f i n I s l a n d . A r c h i b a l d Lang F l e m i n g ,  under t h e a u s p i c e s  o f the Anglican  I n 1909 church,  - 9 l a n d e d t h e r e and began l e a r n i n g t h e language,  t r a n s l a t i n g the Bible  and t r a v e l i n g both e a s t and west, i n s t r u c t i n g and t e a c h i n g t h e people.  By 1920 t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e seem t o have  been c o n v e r t e d , f o r i n t h a t y e a r Fleming r e p o r t s t h e b a p t i s m o f the one shaman from t h a t a r e a who had been t h e most i n s i s t e n t i n r e f u s i n g t o h e a r and a c c e p t t h e g o s p e l ( F l e m i n g 1965« The  203-205).  c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e I n u i t t o A n g l i c a n i s m seems complete f o r I  encountered  no evidence o f shamanism whatsoever, and C h r i s t i a n  t o p i c s e n t e r n a t u r a l l y i n t o everyday  conversation.  On l a n d i n g a t Lake Harbour, Fleming found t h a t t h e S c o t s w h a l e r A c t i v e had been l o n g a c t i v e i n h i r i n g men t o mine mica from an i n l a n d mine.  I n a d d i t i o n about e i g h t y I n u i t men were  h i r e d y e a r l y t o work on t h e s h i p h u n t i n g w h a l e s . f a m i l i e s accompanied them on t h e s h i p .  Their entire  T r a d i n g was a l s o c a r r i e d  on ( i b i d t 5 6 ) . The Hudson's Bay Company e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t a t Lake Harbour i n 1911 and has c o n t i n u e d t h e r e t o t h i s day. Hence t h e j o c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H.B.C., "Here B e f o r e C h r i s t " , does n o t a p p l y t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r community.  Whereas t h e w h a l i n g c a p t a i n s had  t r a d e d European goods f o r v a r i o u s f u r s and b a l e e n , t h e H.B.C. s t r e s s e d the trapping o f white f o x t o the e x c l u s i o n o f other economic p u r s u i t s ( F l e m i n g 1965» l 6 * f - l 6 5 ) . The R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t i n 1924 on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e f j o r d .  I t s d u t i e s have remained  almost  the same from t h a t y e a r t o t h e p r e s e n t j t h e maintenance o f l a w  - 10 and  o r d e r , t h e i s s u e o f r e l i e f c r e d i t s , and c a r e t a k i n g o f Canada's  A r c t i c s o v e r e i g n t y and p r e v e n t i n g misuse o f w i l d l i f e The  resources.  Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e now a l s o h a n d l e s m a i l and has  the p r i n c i p a l r a d i o c o n t a c t w i t h F r o b i s h e r Bay. I n t h e summer o f 1970 a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w e l f a r e payments was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e l o c a l A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r , under t h e new N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s government.  As Graburn n o t e d , t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h and  the H.B.C. have had much ifiore e f f e c t on t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e than has the R.C.M.P. (I9631 2 ) . I n 1921 t h e H.B.C. opened a s t o r e a t Amadjuak, b u t i t was c l o s e d i n 1938. The U.S.A.F. opera t e d a r a d i o s t a t i o n a t Lake Harbour d u r i n g World War I I . F o l l o w i n g t h e war a N u r s i n g S t a t i o n was o p e r a t e d ,  f i r s t by  the A n g l i c a n Church and l a t e r by t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e .  Both i t and a. b o a t - b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t opened i n 1953  were c l o s e d due t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s among t h e Whites and between them and t h e I n u i t . D u r i n g the 1950s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Dew-Line s t a t i o n a t F r o b i s h e r Bay a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e w i t h hopes o f wage-work and a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d  of l i v i n g .  Between 1880 and 195^  the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a p r o b a b l y v a r i e d between 250 and 330, but by i960 t h e r e were o n l y 120, f o r most o f * the r e s t had l e f t f o r F r o b i s h e r Bay (Graburn I9631 2 - 3 ) . By i 9 6 0 t h e H.B.C., A n g l i c a n M i s s i o n and R.C.M.P. were a l l t h i n k i n g o f c l o s i n g t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , and Graburn was h i r e d b y the N.C.R.C. t o conduct a s t u d y and from h i s f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t d a t a t h a t c o u l d a i d t h e government i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e o f  -  the  111-  people there ( i b i d i preface).  He recommended strongly that  Lake Harbour not be closed (ibid» 26-29).  Whether pr not h i s re-  commendations were heeded i s beyond the scope of t h i s work, but none of the above i n s t i t u t i o n s closed t h e i r doors, and since 1965 there has been considerable government investment i n two new generators, a new three-room school, twenty-two new three-bedroom houses, a hostel fbrhouse teachers and students from.the camps as well as a two-storey house f o r the Area Administrator.  These  works had been preceeded by an increase i n the population to about 1^-0, ing  l a r g e l y people d i s s a t i s f i e d with l i f e i n Frobisher Bay.  Dur-  the summer of 1970 S h e l l O i l invested i n the construction of  two A,000 barrel o i l tanks.  I f Lake Harbour were closed today  there would be almost a t o t a l write-off of more than $500,000,000 (Higgins 1967« 1 3 3 ) . The Inuit population of Lake Harbour was I67 i n December, 1969.  There were twenty-one households i n the settlement and  four i n the permanent camp of Qiudjuak which i s seventeen miles <2£EG8II the f j o r d .  An extensive input-output analysis of energy flow  i n the camp i s presented by Kemp (1971« 10^-ff). Lake Harbour has been the scene of considerable s c i e n t i f i c research.  Dr. Dewey Soper of the Department of the I n t e r i o r stu-  died the zoology, geology and geography of southern Baffin Island with Lake Harbour as h i s base. are  Dozens of explorations i n the area  detailed i n Millward ( 1 9 2 9 ) . Lake Harbour has long been considered one of the most beau-  t i f u l settlements i n Canada's Eastern A r c t i c , but Euro-Canadians  - 12 -  Who a r r i v e t h e r e today u s u a l l y comment t h a t t h i s was p r o b a b l y  true  b e f o r e f o r t y - t w o b u i l d i n g s were p u t up and dozens o f e l e c t r i c  poles  were e r e c t e d , p r o j e c t i n g up i n t o t h e s k y . D u r i n g t h e f i e l d work p e r i o d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s were a s f o l l o w s t  t h e H.B.C. bought f u r s , s k i n s and c a r v -  i n g s (but no sewn goods)? s o l d b a s i c and l u x u r y goods and advanced c r e d i t ; t h e R.C.M.P. a d m i n i s t e r e d s o c i a l w e l f a r e , t h e m a i l s , p r o v i ded h e a l t h c a r e ( i f no n u r s e was p r e s e n t ) and emergency communication and e n f o r c e d game l a w s ; t h e A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r a s t h e s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l i m p l i c i t l y b u t i n f o r m a l l y oversaw a l l g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s , more e x p l i c i t l y he was s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l (and so oversaw the t e a c h e r ) and h i m s e l f t a u g h t .  The D.O.T. mechanic  officially  ^ o v e r s a w t h e maintenance o f a l l governmental e q u i p m e n t t h i s i n c l u d e d w a t e r s u p p l y , e l e c t r i c i t y , sewage p i c k u p , s t o v e s and f u r n a c e s b u t i n f o r m a l l y he a l w a y s h e l p e d p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s w i t h t h e i r equipment; the m i s s i o n a r y and h i s w i f e h e l d s e r v i c e s f o r both I n u i t and W h i t e s , he a l s o c o n t i n u e d h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s .  The f o l l o w i n g a l l c o n s e c u t i v e l y  f u l f i l l e d t h e above f u n c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d t  three  H.B.C. managers, two R.C.M.P. o f f i c e r s , two A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , two D.O.T. mechanics and one m i s s i o n a r y . eously f o r awhile.  Two t e a c h e r s t a u g h t  simultan-  A l l w i v e s o f t h e m a r r i e d agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  were i n Lake Harbour. A l s o p r e s e n t were two r e s e a r c h e r s , a l i n g u i s t from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto and m y s e l f . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y t h e town's l a y o u t i s most i n t e r e s t i n g .  Most o f  the Euro-Canadians l i v e n o r t h o f t h e stream shown on t h e map on  - 13 page i v ^  The  l a n d s l e a s e d by the H.B.C. a r e d e l i n e a t e d .  On t h a t s i d e  of the stream a r e the q u a r t e r s f o r the H.B.C. manager, the m i s s i o n a r y , the mechanic and the A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  There a r e o n l y t h r e e  d w e l l i n g s f o r I n u i t on the n o r t h e r n s i d e o f town, and  two o f  a r e the o n l y three-bedroom houses to have been unoccuped.  these  The  peo-  ple  c l e a r l y p r e f e r t o l i v e south o f the stream i n the m i d s t o f f r i e n d s  and  relatives. I n the s e t t l e m e n t a l l o f the I n u i t ( e x c e p t f o r two  f a m i l i e s new-  l y a r r i v e d from F r o b i s h e r Bay) l i v e i n three-bedroom houses w i t h k i t c h e n , l i v i n g room and bathroom. to  c t h i i f i f t y  Water i s s u p p l i e d t w i c e a week  g a l l o n tank i n each house by a C a t e r p i l l a r - p u l l e d  which i s mounted on a huge s l e d o r wagon (depending on the The w a t e r comes from a l a k e c l o s e to t h e s e t t l e m e n t .  tank  season).  Sewage i s c o l -  l e c t e d d a i l y i n p l a s t i c "honey bags" and d e p o s i t e d e i t h e r i n l a n d o r out on the sea i c e .  Both o f these m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a r e  carried  out by I n u i t under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the D.O.T. mechanic. The Week's A c t i v i t i e s On Sunday morning the I n u i t e i t h e r v i s i t around t o the houses o f f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s o r remain a t home, perhaps r e a d i n g  the  B i b l e t e x t f o r the day from the s y l l a b i c t r a n s l a t i o n , perhaps p l a y i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , o r even j u s t s i t t i n g , e n j o y i n g a l e i s u r e l y b r e a k f a s t o f t e a and bannock w i t h gam. g i n s a t l i t 0 0 a.m., way.  The morning s e r v i c e be-  but by 10t30 some f a m i l i e s a r e a l r e a d y on  By 10t50 a l m o s t everyone has s t a r t e d .  snow o r mud  the  A f t e r knocking e i t h e r  from t h e i r shoes they e n t e r the Church and s i t q u i e t l y .  - Ik E x t r a c h a i r s and benches w i l l p r o b a b l y have t o be f e t c h e d from the m i s s i o n house by t h e young men f o r a l m o s t everyone comes unl e s s s i c k o r t e n d i n g someone who i s s i c k ,  S k i d o o s can be heard  b u z z i n g a l o n g , l o a d e d w i t h a w i f e and many c h i l d r e n , r i g h t up t o 11tGO  a.m.  I n w i n t e r about twenty s k i d o o s a r e parked  of the church.  i n front  Around 10i55 one o f t h e young boys r i n g s t h e  steeple-bell. F a m i l i e s u s u a l l y s i t t o g e t h e r , and c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s l i k e t o always s i t i n t h e same pew.  Otherwise  i f a male s i t s f i r s t i n a  pew then u s u a l l y males w i l l c o n t i n u e t o choose t h a t one, w h i l e females w i l l s i t i n pews o c c u p i e d by o t h e r f e m a l e s .  By t h e time  the church i s a l m o s t f u l l one i s g l a d t o f i n d a s e a t anywhere. ThenAnglican  m i n i s t e r , a n a t i v e o f n o r t h e r n England,  enters  i n h i s r o b e s , f o l l o w e d by t h e l a y c a t e c h i s t , an o l d e r and r e s p e c t e d Inuk who i s c o n s i d e r e d by Euro-Canadians t o be t h e l e a d e r o f t h e Inuit.  These men conduct t h e s e r v i c e , and t h e m i s s i o n a r y ' s w i f e  p l a y s t h e hymns on a s m a l l organ. i n t h e p e o p l e ' s own  T h i s s e r v i c e and a l l o t h e r s a r e  language.  Whites a r e c o n s p i c u o u s  by t h e i r absence ( e x c e p t f o r t h e s o -  c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p r e s e n t i n t h e community).  The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f  the Euro-Canadians e n t e r r a r e l y , i f e v e r , i n t o e i t h e r t h e c h u r c h o r t h e e v e n i n g E n g l i s h hymn s e r v i c e h e l d i n t h e m i s s i o n a r y * s home. The c h u r c h i t s e l f i s s m a l l and was b u i l t by t h e p e o p l e selves.  them-  I n s i d e , t h e pews a r e s i m p l e and g r a y , and s m a l l s e a l s k i n s  sewn by t h e women s e r v e a s s e a t s and c u s h i o n s f o r k n e e l i n g .  The  - 15 a l t a r has a s e a l s k i n c o v e r a l s o made by t h e women. the L a s t Supper hangs above t h e a l t a r .  A tapestry of  On t h e w a l l i s a bronze  p l a q u e commemorating i n s y l l a b i c c h a r a c t e r s P u d l o , one o f t h e f i r s t c o n v e r t s a t t h e m i s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by F l e m i n g , who l a t e r became a m i s s i o n a r y t o t h e I n u i t o f t h e Baker Lake r e g i o n . A t noon, t h e s e r v i c e ends and t h e c h i l d r e n stream  out,first  p a u s i n g t o shake hands w i t h t h e m i s s i o n a r y who s t a n d s i n s i d e t h e door, then w i t h t h e l a y e a t e c h i s t who s t a n d s w i t h o u t .  The a d u l t s  f o l l o w , each s h a k i n g hands w i t h t h e two men and s a y i n g qu.ia.na.mik ("One i s g r a t e f u l " ) .  The I n u i t o f t e n go d i r e c t l y : t o a r e l a t i v e ' s  house f o r t e a and v e r y l i k e l y a f e a s t o f raw s e a l , c a r i b o u and p t a r m i g a n , ithe men s l i c i n g t h e meat h e l d i n t h e i r t e e t h w i t h k n i v e s , t h e women u s i n g an u l u ( t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r women's k n i f e ) . The a f t e r n o o n i s spent napping <  Euro-Canadians.  o r v i s i t i n g by b o t h I n u i t and  As t h e I n u i t v i s i t , they may c o n t i n u e e a t i n g raw  meat and w i l l c e r t a i n l y c o n t i n u e consuming t e a and bannock.  Vis-  i t s among t h e Whites w i l l perhaps be accompanied w i t h more c a k e s , c o o k i e s and c h i p s than i s n o r m a l d u r i n g t h e week. A t l i O O p.m. the b e l l r i n g s f o r Sunday s c h o o l , w h i c h i s h e l d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n t h e m i s s i o n a r y ' s house.  The c h i l d r e n o f t h e  r e s i d e n t Euro-Canadians o f t e n a t t e n d t h i s c l a s s .  A t 2 i 0 0 p.m.  t h i s c l a s s i s o v e r , and t h e teen-age boys and g i r l s come t o g e t h e r i n the mission's classroom.  Whereas t h e m i s s i o n a r y ' s w i f e  the young c h i l d r e n , t h e Inuk R.C.M.P. s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e the  teen-agers.  teaches  teaches  - 16 The e v e n i n g s e r v i c e b e g i n s a t 61OO p.m.,  and a t 5*55 the  s t e e p l e b e l l i s a g a i n rung by one o f the boys.  Attendance  t h i s s e r v i c e i s always l e s s than a t the morning  service.  at If i tis  Gommunion Sunday ( t h e f i r s t i n the month) then o n l y those who b a p t i z e d w i l l s t a y t o share the sacraments.  are  O t h e r w i s e , a t the  end o f the s e r v i c e t h e r e w i l l be B i b l e r e c i t a t i o n s . book o f the B i b l e i s chosen ( i n 1970 i t was John),and  Each y e a r a those  who  have been asked e a r l i e r by the m i n i s t e r w i l l each r e c i t e as much as he o r she' can remember o f a s e c t i o n t h a t he o r she has A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the B i b l e r e c i t a t i o n the p e o p l e  chosen. file  out as b e f o r e , each s h a k i n g hands w i t h the m i n i s t e r and the l a y reader, saying men  qu.janamik.  There a r e s e v e r a l l a y r e a d e r s , a l l  i n t h e i r 50s, and one o f them may  a i d i n the morning  i n s t e a d o f the l a y c a t e c h i s t i f he i s a b s e n t .  service  ;  The a d u l t I n u i t r e t u r n e i t h e r t o home o r t o v i s i t w i t h a r e l a t i v e or friends.  The c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o b a b l y be p l a y i n g , and  the games v a r y w i t h the time o f the y e a r and group p r e f e r e n c e . A d u l t s a r e u s u a l l y a l m o s t a l l i n bed by m i d n i g h t * * but many o f t h e c ^ i i M r s a n and t e e n - a g e r s s t a y up s e v e r a l hours more; t h i s i s t r u e f o r e v e r y n i g h t o f the week. A t 9»00 Monday morning  the c h i l d r e n are a l l i n s c h o o l , the  wage-workers a r e a t work and those who  hunt a r e e i t h e r w o r k i n g  on g e a r o r h e l p i n g someone w i t h h i s , e n j o y i n g b r e a k f a s t , v i s i t i n g or w a i t i n g f o r t h e s t o r e t o open between 9»30 and 10«00 so t h a t s u p p l i e s can be bought.  Those who  p r o b a b l y gone on out h u n t i n g .  bought s u p p l i e s S a t u r d a y have  Or a man may  d e c i d e t o c a r v e i f the  -  1?  -  weather i s n o t good, i f h i s c r e d i t i s p o o r ( o r g e t t i n g t h a t way) o r i f t h e r e a r e rumours t h a t one o f t h e Euro-Canadians who c h a r t e r a p l a n e and f l y around b u y i n g c a r v i n g s i s coming.  These a c t i v i t i e s  o c c u r a l l wefek except Sunday f o r r e s t i n g on t h e Sabbath i s h e a v i l y stressed. A t noon t h e c h i l d r e n always come home f o r l u n c h and r e t u r n t o s c h o o l by one, as do those who do wage work f o r E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . By t h r e e i n t h e a f t e r n o o n t h e c h i l d r e n a r e o u t o f s c h o o l p l a y i n g , and by f i v e t h e wage-workers a r e headed f o r home, on t h e i r s k i d o o s i f w i n t e r , w a l k i n g i f summer. By/ e v e n i n g , no m a t t e r what day i t i s , t h e h u n t e r s w i l l v e r y l i k e l y have r e t u r n e d , s i n c e o v e r - n i g h t s t o p s a r e o n l y t a k e n i f a group o f men a r e g o i n g as f a r a s t h e Amadjuak-Markham Bay a r e a . Any n i g h t o f t h e week a f e a s t i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r , a c h i l d  going  around t o i n v i t e I n u i t r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . Tuesday evening a t 81OO t h e men go t o t h e m i s s i o n f o r a c l a s s l e d by t h e m i s s i o n a r y .  classroom  They f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s t h e  e x a c t meanings o f words i n o r d e r t o a i d t h e m i s s i o n a r y w i t h h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Old Testament. Wednesday a f t e r n o o n around 3«00 t h e women go t o t h e m i s s i o n c l a s s r o o m f o r a s h o r t s e r v i c e and sewing s e s s i o n .  Sewn goods o f  s e a l s k i n made d u r i n g these s e s s i o n s a r e s o l d i n Canada, t h e U.S. and i n Lake Harbour t o Euro-Canadians, and t h e r e s u l t i n g monies a r e s e n t t o a i d an A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n i n E t h i o p i a .  - 18 Thursday a f t e r n o o n t h e h u n t e r s w i l l l e a v e f o r home e a r l i e r than u s u a l i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e i n time f o r t h e song s e r v i c e night.  that  I t b e g i n s a t 7»00, and t h e s e r v i c e c o n s i s t s o f hymns chosen  by t h e p e o p l e .  A p e r s o n c a l l s o u t i n E n g l i s h t h e number o f t h e  hymn he would l i k e , and t h e n t h e whole c o n g r e g a t i o n s i n g s i t .  At  the end o f t h e s e r v i c e t h e r e i s a s h o r t sermon by t h e m i s s i o n a r y , a f t e r w h i c h t h e l a s t hymn i s chosen by one o f t h e . p e o p l e and t h e s e r v i c e i s over. I f S a t u r d a y i s warm (30°F o r h i g h e r ) a man may t a k e h i s p r e a d o l e s c e n t son o r d a u g h t e r h u n t i n g w i t h him. Any n i g h t o f t h e week t h e r e might be a game o f c a r d s ( p a t i k ) i n someone's house.  A d r i n k i n g p a r t y among I n u i t i s l e s s  likely  f o r t h e s u p p l y o f l i q u o r i s s m a l l ( o n l y t h a t w h i c h comes i n from F r o b i s h e r B a y — t h e r e i s no homebrew), and d r i n k i n g i s opposed by many o f t h e p e o p l e and by t h e m i s s i o n a r y .  A l l of theechildren are  iquite t e r r i f i e d bf d r i n k i n g and a r e s u r e t h a t two cans o f b e e r would be f a t a l . There a r e no "community" a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e Euro-Canadians e x c e p t a t t h e major h o l i d a y s .  An e v e n i n g t y p i c a l l y f i n d s some  o f them v i s i t i n g a t t h e house o f a f r i e n d , t a l k i n g , perhaps d r i n k i n g , perhaps p l a y i n g c a r d s .  The c l i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-  tween Euro-Canadians w i l l be examined i n alt l a t e r  chapter.  CHAPTER I I I SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN LAKE HARBOUR One  of my approaches t o the i s s u e of whether o r n o t  flexibi-  l i t y i s a u s e f u l concept f o r the a n a l y s i s o f I n u i t i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be by t a k i n g the a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s of Durkheim, Smend and Landecker on i n t e g r a t i o n a.nd then a p p l y i n g these  perspectives  to v a r i o u s l e v e l s of I n u i t s o c i e t y to see what p a t t e r n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n can be found. analyzed  These p a t t e r n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l then be  t o see i f f l e x i b i l i t y i s p r e s e n t and  the n a t u r e and parameters o f t h a t  i f s o , then what i s  flexibility.  I n r e a d i n g Durkheim on s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n t h e r e i s a problem i n knowing e x a c t l y what he meant by m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y and ganic s o l i d a r i t y . "...the  or-  A n g e l l i n t e r p r e t s m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y t o be  i n t e g r a t i o n of p a r t s through common v a l u e s and  w h i l e o r g a n i c s o l i d a r i t y i s " . . . i n t e g r a t i o n through dence" (19681 381).  beliefs"  interdepen-  Whether o r not A n g e l l i s c o r r e c t about Durkf  heim, the d i f f e r e n c e between t i e s based on common vaakues and t i e s based on i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s s u r e l y worth p u r s u i n g .  from  So I  w i l l proceed w i t h A n g e l l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Durkheim. L e t us take I n u i t s o c i e t y a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s p o l i t i c a l group,^ the l o c a l group and  the household) and  (the compare  t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n by A n g e l l * s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Durkheim d u r i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of time? the f i r s t p e r i o d of e a r l y cont a c t with whalers,  c a . 1880  (as d e s c r i b e d by Boas 1888); second,  d u r i n g the peri'odtof©intensive t r a p p i n g ( c a . 1920-1950); and  third,  d u r i n g the p r e s e n t p e r i o d o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t o government-subsidized  settlements.  - 20 -  Contact w i t h Whites brought a new p e o p l e i n t o t h e I n u i t environment.  Yet we do n o t know i f o r t o what degree t h i s r e s u l t e d  i n a consciousness mon c u l t u r e .  by I n u i t o f themselves as a p e o p l e w i t h a com-  These new a r r i v a l s were " e x p l a i n e d " i n t o r e a l i t y by-  means o f mythi t h e s t o r y o f t h e young g i r l who s l e p t w i t h a dog and bore t h e f o r e f a t h e r s o f I n d i a n s and Whites i s w e l l known (Boas 1888i  229) (Rink 1875» ^ 7 1 ) .  A more r e c e n t v e r s i o n from Back R i v e r  t e l l s o f t h e e x p u l s i o n from t h e Garden o f Eden as t h e o r i g i n o f I n u i t and Whites ( B r i g g s 1970). Conversion  t o C h r i s t i a n i t y meant t h a t t h e new f l o c k was o f t e n  brought i n t o the s t r u g g l e between t h e C a t h o l i c Church and the Ang l i c a n Church ( B u l i a r d 1963« 73) ( F l e c k 1969» ^ 2 ) , but t h e i r  self-  image a s C a t h o l i c s o r A n g l i c a n s has l i t t l e e f f e c t on s o c i a l  inte-  gration. church  I a l s o f i n d i t hard t o s a y i f membership i n a s i n g l e  i n c r e a s e s t h e m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y o f a l o c a l group.  Suf-  f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t t h e members o f a f a m i l y r e s i d e n t a t Lake Harbour f o r t e n y e a r s , who have n e i t h e r consanguines n o r a f f i n e s , a r e s t i l l t r e a t e d l a r g e l y as s t r a n g e r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n church  affairs.  An emic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e I n u i t p o l i t i c a l group would i n c l u d e those I n u i t who had s i m i l a r i t y o f d i a l e c t and d r e s s and who considered  each o t h e r as r e a l o r p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i v e s and among  whom u n c h a l l e n g e d  and p e a c e f u l t r a d e were n o r m a l .  d i f f u s e e x p e c t a t i o n o f good treatment  There was a  a t the hands o f o t h e r members  o f t h i s group as opposed t o d i s t r u s t and u n c e r t a i n t y when t r a v e l ing  o u t s i d e o f i t t o t h e r e g i o n o f those who were n o t i n t h i s po-  l i t i c a l group.  W i t h i n i t a man c o u l d t r a v e l and r e c e i v e no c h a l -  - 21 lenge from anyone.  However, when t r a v e l i n g t o a camp o r h u n t i n g  a r e a o u t s i d e o f i t he would be c h a l l e n g e d t o a d u e l o r t e s t o f s t r e n g t h which c o u l d end i n death f o r e i t h e r d i s p u t a n t (Boas 1888» «0l).  Boas d e l i m i t s some o f these p o l i t i c a l groups ( i b i d i  5^-57)•  With t h e p e r i o d o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t o l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s (post-1950) many s e t t l e m e n t s drew i n p e o p l e  from d i f f e r e n t p o l i -  t i c a l g r o u p s , e.g. a t F r o b i s h e r Bay, Clyde R i v e r (Stevenson 19721 112) and P o v u n g n i t u k . ^  I n F r o b i s h e r Bay today t h e I n u i t d e f i n i t e -  l y p e r c e i v e t h e d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l groups as c o n t i n u i n g t o be endogamous, and endogamy was one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l group.  Marriage  o u t s i d e o f i t was i n f r e q u e n t .  t u n a t e l y I have no i n f o r m a t i o n 01S whether o r n o t m a r r i a g e  Unfori n Fro-  b i s h e r Bay i s p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h i n t h e bounds o f p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s . Yet, one o f t h e o r g a n i c t i e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l group i s s t i l l  per-  c e i v e d as b e i n g i n o p e r a t i o n . D u r i n g a l l t h r e e o f t h e p e r i o d s d e l i n e a t e d , t h e common v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l group had t h e e f f e c t o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e a u d i e n c e t o which an i n d i v i d u a l ' s shame o r p r e s t i g e was sure t o be communicated.  Concurrent  with t h i s , sanctions  (both  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ) were i n e f f e c t o r p o t e n t i a l l y i n e f f e c t from t h i s l a r g e group.  I n e a r l i e r days communications were by  means o f dog s l e d and boat? today they a r e f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e s k i d o o , a i r p l a n e and t h e C.B.C. ( i n F r o b i s h e r B a y ) . Organic s o l i d a r i t y d e f i n i t e l y decreased  w i t h the a r r i v a l of  r i f l e s (through t h e w h a l e r s ) , f o r a t Lake Harbour as elsewhere.-. (BalikciBL9<64M  k 9 ) t h e communal f a l l c a r i b o u hunt ( f o r w i n t e r c l o -  - 22 t h i n g ) was abandoned i n f a v o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l  caribou-hunting.  Other forms o f h u n t i n g do n o t seem t o have become e i t h e r more communal ( f o r sea.ls a t t h e b r e a t h i n g h o l e ) n o r more i n d i v i d u a l istic  ( f o r s e a l s a t t h e f l o e edge and i n k a y a k s ) . With ithe p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g i t was advantageous  to  be a b l e t o l a y up enough caches o f s e a l , w a l r u s and whale i n  the f a l l so t h a t t h e w i n t e r c o u l d be spent i n t r a p p i n g and n o t h u n t i n g food f o r dogs and humans.  Thus, the ownership o f a l a r g e  wooden boat, which a i d e d i n h a r v e s t i n g and t r a n s p o r t i n g tons o f meat, became i m p o r t a n t i n s o l i d i f y i n g l o c a l group l e a d e r s h i p ( W i l l mott  1959•  68).  The n e c e s s i t y o f f u n c t i o n a l interdependence and s k i n s has decreased  f o r food,  fuel  w i t h the c e n t r a l i z e d settlements, f o r the  f i r s t two r e s o u r c e s a r e r e a d i l y a t hand from Euro-Canadians cash, c r e d i t o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  through  Not o n l y i s economic a c t i v i t y  more d i v e r s i f i e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t than i t was i n t h e camps, b u t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y more d i v e r s i f i e d .  Instead of  t h r e e t o t e n f a m i l i e s i n a camp, t h e r e a r e t w e n t y - f i v e o r t h i r t y i n Lake Harbour, and a l t h o u g h one cannot move away from d i s l i k e d people  (as was done i n camps), t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f  •friends and r e l a t i v e s t o v i s i t .  F o r t h e men, t h e s e t t l e m e n t i s a.  much l a r g e r immediate a u d i e n c e f o r p r e s t i g e than t h e camp was. The  f u n c t i o n a l interdependence  o f t h e household was a f f e c t e d  more by c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t o s e t t l e m e n t s than by e i t h e r t h e a r r i v a l of whalers  o r by i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g .  a s s e t co'f o l d f o l k s mho  Old age .pen'si'ons  would have Iteeen  economic  made  am  liabilities  -  before. and  Young men  -  are i n c r e a s i n g l y independent due  markets f o r soapstone c a r v i n g .  h u n t i n g and  trapping  b a s i c gear«  a gun,  paychecks (and for  23  (and  frequently  But  those who  do n o t  to wage l a b o u r  have r e j e c t e d  even have the most  t r a p s o r s l e d ) a l t e r n a t e between h a v i n g f a t  fancycljbithms and  twelve-string  g u i t a r s ) and  l o n g p e r i o d s w i t h o u t work w h i l e u t t e r l y dependent on  r e l a t i v e s f o r even bannock to e a t . t e e n - a g e r o r young man  their  t y p i c a l f a t h e r o f an  older  f i n d s h i s son a l t e r n a t e l y i'ndependent-  minded w i t h n i c e paychecks and t h i n g to contribute)  The  going  then u t t e r l y p d e p e n d e n t ( w i t h  no-  to extremes which the f a t h e r n e v e r exper-  ienced. i  .  i  A l t h o u g h Durkheim*s d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e g r a t i o n by common v a l u e s and  f e e l i n g s , and  i n t e g r a t i o n by f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e  y i e l d s us some i n t e r e s t i n g (but n o t new) gration,  i t does not  insights into Inuit inte-  h e l p us to e v a l u a t e I n u i t  flexibility.  Next, we w i l l c o n s i d e r Landecker's f o u r t y p e s o f  integration.  A l t h o u g h Landecker seems t o be c a l l i n g f o r q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s t y p e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , my and  i n t e r e s t w i l l be more w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e  p a r a m e t e r s i n the A r c t i c s i t u a t i o n . He  ydef-iriiss- c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n as the degree to w h i c h c u l -  t u r a l s t a n d a r d s which r e q u i r e adherence are m u t u a l l y T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y i s emic i n n a t u r e and contradictory  consistent.  i s the d i f f i c u l t y due  demands e x p e r i e n c e d by the  to  actors.  Normative i n t e g r a t i o n i s the degree to which conduct i n group conforms to the c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h a t group.  the  - 24 Communicative i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h e degree t o w h i c h members o f the group a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges o f meanings. One c r i t e r i o n t o use here i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e w i t h symptoms o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n ; t h i s y i e l d s a n e g a t i v e i n d e x o f communicative integration. Functional  f  i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h e degree t o w h i c h members a r e n  l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges o f s e r v i c e s  (1951» 333-340).  One y e a r - l a t e r Landecker p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e w h i c h s e t f o r t h a scheme f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e f o u r t y p e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n  delinea-  t e d above t o f o c u s 6n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f complex g r o u p s . H i s scheme i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g , f o r i t c a l l s o u r a t t e n t i o n t o aspects of i n t e g r a t i o n not stressed t i o n s and a l s o a i d s i n a n a l y z i n g ,  by any o f t h e o t h e r f o r m u l a -  not only I n u i t s o c i e t y , but the  mutual i n t e g r a t i o n between Euro-Canadians and I n u i t and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n each o f t h e s e g r o u p s .  T a k i n g the "compound group"  t o be t h e l a r g e s t u n i t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  and c a l l i n g each group  which composes i t a "sub-group", we t h e n s t u d y a l l o f t h e e x t r i n s i c (between u n i t s ) r e l a t i o n s and i n t r i n s i c ( w i t h i n a u n i t ) r e l a t i o n s o f the compound group and t h e s u b - g r o u p ( s ) .  Thus, t h e r e  are » 1.  Compound-group i n t e g r a t i o n : a) C u l t u r a l compound group i n t e g r a t i o n , b) Normative compound group i n t e g r a t i o n , , c) Communicative compound group i n t e g r a t i o n , d) F u n c t i o n a l compound group i n t e g r a t i o n .  2.  E x t r i n s i c sub-graupg i n t e g r a t i o n (between sub-groups)« a) C u l t u r a l i " t h e degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f sub-group s p e c i a l i t i e s w i t h u n i v e r s a l s o f t h e compound-group and w i t h s p e c i a l i t i e s o f o t h e r sub-groups would be the o n l y r e l e v a n t measure o f e x t r i n s i c c u l t u r a l integration."  - 25 b) N o r m a t i v e ! " t h e degree t o which t h e members o f t h e sub-group conform t o compound-group s t a n d a r d s " ( a s m a n i f e s t e d between s u b - g r o u p s ) . c) Communicativei here measures o f p e r s o n a l i s o l a t i o n a r e n o t r e l e v a n t , i m p o r t a n t i s " . . . t o what degree t h e sub-group i s b e i n g viewed as an 'out-group* by o t h e r segments o f t h e compound-group, and a l s o t o what ext e n t t h e sub-group v i e w s i o g h e r s s e g m e n t s o f t h e compound group a s ' o u t - g r o u p s * . T h e r e f o r e i n d i c e s a r e r e l e v a n t which measure t h e degree t o w h i c h i n t e r - g group communication i s d i s t u r b e d . d) F u n c t i o n a l ! " t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e sub-group i s i n terdependent w i t h o t h e r segments o f t h e compound groups". The h e t e r e o g e n e i t y o f each sub-group i s also important. 3.  I n t r i n s i c sub-group i n t e g r a t i o n ( w i t h i n each sub-group)« a) C u l t u r a l ! $ h i s can r e f e r t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i t i e s o f a sub-group; o r i t can be the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l t h e c u l t u r e t r a i t s o f a subgroup, even those shared w i t h t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e compound group. The c h o i c e depends on t h e f o c u s o f the r e s e a r c h . b) N o r m a t i v e ! " t h e degree t o w h i c h sub-group members conform t o s t a n d a r d s o f t h e sub-group". c) Communicative! t h e " i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s " o f t h e members o f a sub-group. d) F u n c t i o n a l ! " t h e degree t o which...members a r e engaged i n d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r w i t h one a n o t h e r " ( L a n d e c k e r 1952i 395-397).  1(a).  What l o o k i n g a t t h e c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e compound  group i n communities i n t h e E a s t e r n A r c t i c one i s s t r u c k by t h e degree  t o w h i c h c o n t a c t ^between  as p e a c e f u l there  and m u t u a l l y  i s a large  s u r e s and m a t e r i a l in  both  cultures.  Euro-Canadians and I n u i t i s  beneficial  as i t has been  degree o f congruence goods  that  bring  iii tthe  sensual  because plea-  happiness to i n d i v i d u a l s  The Euro-Canadians' a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s took them  t o t h e n o r t h f o r sea-mammal o i l and bone, mica and f u r s , and t h e  - 26 I n u i t were w i l l i n g and a b l e t o h e l p h a r v e s t t h e s e r e s o u r c e s i n exchange f o r manufactured goods.  C o n s i d e r how d i f f i c u l t  contact  would have been i f t h e Euro-Canadians had a r r i v e d as t h e P o r t u gese d i d i n I n d i a and were t o l d i n no u n c e r t a i n terms t h a t n o t h i n g t h a t t h e y brought had any v a l u e . 1(b).  B u t i f we l o o k a t n o r m a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n ( d e f i n e d as t h e  degree t o which conduct i n t h e group conforms t o i t s c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s ) we f i n d t h a t t h e r e i s so l i t t l e  s i m i l a r i t y between t h e  ways i n which members o f t h e two groups g a i n t h e e n t i t i e s  that  cause h a p p i n e s s t h a t t h i s common v a l u e y i e l d s v e r y l i t t l e normative integration.  Yet h a p p i n e s s as a g o a l does make p o s s i b l e a  h i g h degree o f compound-group f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . One f a c t o r which p r e v e n t s o v e r - r e a c h i n g community v a l u e s which would i n c l u d e b o t h I n u i t and E u r o - C a n a d i a n s  :  i s the high  o r d e r o f i n t e g r a t i o n among t h e I n u i t , so much so t h a t t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o d i s p l e a s e a Euro-Canadian and f o r e g o a generous c a s h payment r a t h e r than i n v i t e even a. s m a l l r r e b u k e from one o f t h e i r own p e o p l e . 1(c). to  Remembering t h a t communicative i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h e degree  which group members a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges o f  meanings, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t o n l y i n " o n - t h e - j o b " cont e x t s does t h i s t y p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n  exist.  The s e t t l e m e n t l a y o u t f u r n i s h e s a diagram of. t h e l a c k o f communicative i n t e g r a t i o n between t h e two e t h n i c groups ( s e e map on page y ) .  To t h e s o u t h o f t h e stream l i v e a l l o f t h e I n u i t  -  (except of  f o r a widow).  the stream  How  could  graphically from  -  The agency  ( e x c e p t when a  the m a r g i n a l i t y shown  Association  o f the s o c i a l  And i t was  which  Euro-Canadians  teacher resides  than by p u t t i n g  t h e two groups?  Housing  27  assigned  liver  north  i n the h o s t e l ) .  scientists  them almost the I n u i t - r u n  be more  equidistant Lake  Harbour  the r e s e a r c h e r s t o these  houses. 1(d).  I n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f Lake Harbour t h e r e i s q u i t e a c u t e com-  pound group f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( t h e degree t o which members a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges  group  o f s e r v i c e s and  goods) between I n u i t and Euro-Canadians, as each e t h n i c groups' p h y s i c a l presence and o f t e n esteBtexistencespendependen^ton ?goods or  s k i l l s p o s s e s s e d by members o f t h e o t h e r e t h n i c group.  Yet  d e s p i t e tenuous compound-group c u l t u r a l , n o r m a t i v e and communicat i v e i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e a c u t e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n r e s t s on t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e communicative  i n t e g r a t i o n between t h e two. I t  would t h e r e f o r e be u s e f u l t o develop n e x t (a) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e mutual s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by each group v i s - a - v i s t h e o t h e r j (b) the  c r i t i c a l importance o f b o t h I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y and I n u i t p e r -  c e p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as m u t u a l l y c o n s e n s u a l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g what does e x i s t i n t h e way o f communicative  integra-  t i o n between I n u i t and Euro-Canadians. The mutual s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by W h i l e s and I n u i t a r e d e r i v e d i n major p a r t from t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f each w i t h members o f b o t h groups.  - 28 T h i s quote o r i g i n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d me i n combining of  the study  experience along w i t h that o f behaviourt " J u s t as any t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t f o c u s e s on e x p e r i e n c e and n e g l e c t s b e h a v i o u r can become v e r y m i s l e a d i n g , so t h e o r i e s t h a t f o c u s on b e h a v i o u r t o t h e n e g l e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e become unbalanced" ( L a i n g 1969»^3» h i s emphasis). Our l o o k i n t o t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l dimension o f i n t e r a c t i o n be^,  tween I n u i t and Euro-Canadians w i l l answer two q u e s t i o n s i  first,  what have been t h e t y p i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f members o f each group v i s - a - v i s members o f t h e o t h e r t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d most s i g n i f i c a n t by t h e members o f t h e p e r c e i v i n g group? Second, what a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s on i n t e r a c t i o n between I n u i t and Euro-Canadians? The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f a newly a r r i v e d agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s f i r s t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h I n u i t i s d e r i v e d from  conversa-  t i o n s w i t h new a r r i v a l s , o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e same, and from V a l l e e (1967* 105-, 111-112). A f t e r b e i n g a c c e p t e d f o r a j o b i n Lake Harbour, a EuroCanadian has t y p i c a l l y read F a r l e y Mowatt o r P e t e r Freuchenn.and t h e r e f o r e a r r i v e s w i t h a n t i c i p a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a happy, s m i l i n g , fey  race o f O r i e n t a l s .  I n a d d i t i o n , the h o r r o r s t o r i e s o f the  p o p u l a r p r e s s and t h e warnings©©^ well-meaning  f r i e n d s have him  so t e r r i f i e d o f t h e weather t h a t i f he a r r i v e s i n w i n t e r , he i s sometimes a f r a i d o f g e t t i n g f r o s t b i t e w h i l e g o i n g from t h e p l a n e to  h i squarters.  The f i r s t few days a r e sometimes spent i n f e a r  of  a w h i t e o u t , which would r e s t r i c t him t o h i s q u a r t e r s and keep  o t h e r s from coming t o h i s a i d .  He " r e a l i z e s " t h a t under such con-  - 29 d i t i o n s , i n such c o l d , i f the f u r n a c e were t o go out h i s v e r y would be i n danger.  life  H i s f i r s t few e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h "Eskimos" a r e  t a n t a l i z i n g l y f r i e n d l y , h i s f i r s t e x p l o r a t o r y s m i l e s and h e l l o s meet w i t h even b r o a d e r s m i l e s , some few I n u i t p o i n t a t themselves and say t h e i r names.  The new  White i s a n t i c i p a t i n g g e t t i n g t o  know t h i s hardy, f r i e n d l y r a c e .  And  h i s own  f e a r o f the c o l d makes  him r e s p e c t them, w i t h o u t e v e r h a v i n g known one, because they a r e a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n such a c l i m a t e . Soon, however, he i s a d v i s e d by the o t h e r Whites t h a t the weather i s n o t a l l t h a t f o r m i d a b l e , and then b e g i n s a o f e n c u l t u r a t i o n t o the " r e a l way  process  t h i n g s a r e up here" o r , as  V a l l e e has termed i t , the "Old Hands" t e a c h i n g the "New (19671 105). for  Hands"  Most o f these Old Hands have complete contempt  the I n u i t , h o l d i n g t h a t they were once a s t r o n g , s e l f - r e l i a n t  p e o p l e but now  j u s t l a z e around and t r y t o g e t w e l f a r e , i n a d d i -  t i o n they a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be c h i l d i s h and on n o n - e s s e n t i a l s l i k e candy and pop.  t o waste t h e i r money  F u r t h e r m o r e , many Old  Hands c o n s i d e r "Eskimos" d i s h o n e s t , r e c o u n t i n g s t o r i e s o f broken t r u s t , h a r d - d r i v e n b a r g a i n s and o t h e r a l l e g e d b e t r a y a l s . New  Now  Hand b e g i n s t o wonder i f he had the "Eskimos" c o r r e c t l y  ured o u t — b u t them, he now  the fig-  whatever h i s d e c i s i o n as r e g a r d s h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h knows t h a t he w i l l o n l y be s i l e n c e d f o r e x p r e s s i n g  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards them, f o r t h e r e a r e sure t o be Hands p r e s e n t who,  Old  w i t h t h e i r g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e , a r e o n l y too  w i l l i n g to c o r r e c t h i s ignorance. a l t h o u g h b e f o r e he expected  However, one t h i n g i s s u r e t  o n l y good from I n u i t , he now  half  p e c t s t o f i n d them as they were d e s c r i b e d by the Old Hands.  ex-  - 30 Although  a Euro-Canadian t y p i c a l l y b e g i n s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h  I n u i t w i t h l i t t l e p r i o r knowledge o f them, any Lake Harbour I n u i t do so as p a r t o f a group which has had c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t  eco-  nomic and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h Kabloonas ( i . e . , Whites) f o r a t l e a s t a hundred y e a r s .  So he has heard an e x t e n s i v e body o f  f o l k l o r e w h i c h has a s i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s people. F o r t h e a d u l t I n u i t , Lake Harbour has been s i n c e c h i l d h o o d the p l a c e where one encountered Kabloonas ( a l s o t h e now Amadjuak H.B.C. s t o r e ) .  0  defunct  Coming i n from t h e camps, where o n l y  f e l l o w I n u i t were seen and o n l y t h e i r language h e a r d , t h e r e were always a few Kabloonas t o be seen.  B u t t h e y had a l r e a d y f i g u r e d  much i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y j u s t b e f o r e coming i n t o t r a d e , for  i t was t r u e t h a t , a l t h o u g h  t h e y were f r i g h t e n i n g (because t h e y  g o t angry e a s i l y , f o r no r e a s o n a t a l l i t o f t e n seemed, and they were a l l v e r y s t r o n g - w i l l e d and had t o have t h e i r w a y — i n  fact  had a l l t h e bad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ) they had c o n t r o l o f the i m p o r t a n t  t r a d e goods t h a t t h e p e o p l e needed and had t o have.  To I n u i t t h e r e were many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f Kabloonas, n o t j u s t i n terms o f t h e i r work, o r l a c k o f i t (some were o b v i o u s l y r i c h beyond b e l i e f a l t h o u g h in  they do v e r y l i t t l e work i n d e e d ) , b u t  t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; some were always l a u g h i n g , j o k i n g and  enjoyed d a n c i n g , w h i l e some were v e r y g r u f f and n e v e r happy, and some were generous w h i l e o t h e r s were s t i n g y beyond b e l i e f — e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e they o b v i o u s l y had more than they needed.  The v a r i o u s  a d v e n t u r e s w i t h these s t r a n g e men i n a l l t h e i r v a r i e t i e s f u r n i s h e d  - 31 many s t o r i e s heard by t h e c h i l d who had o n l y seen them from t h e s a f e t y o f h i s mother's p a r k a hood. S e v e r a l t h i n g s emerge from t h i s l o o k i n t o t h e t y p i c a l exp e r i e n c e s t h a t members o f each c u l t u r e have had w i t h each o t h e r , and t h e mutual s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by each group v i s - a - v i s t h e o t h e r has a d i r e c t e f f e c t on t n e n a t u r e o f t h e communicative p r e s e n t i n Lake  integration  Harbour.  One p o i n t i s t h a t members o f each c u l t u r e p e r c e i v e t h e o t h e r ' s behaviour as c h i l d i s h .  The I n u i t a r e q u i t e f r a n k on t h i s s c o r e  and have f r e e l y a d m i t t e d t o v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t they  felt  t h i s way (Rasmussen 1931» 128) ( B r i g g s 1970) o r i n my own c a s e , remarks t o t h a t e f f e c t were o v e r h e a r d . I heard o n l y one Euro-Canadian "Eskimos"  o p e n l y s a y t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d  c h i l d i s h , b u t t h i s i d e a was i m p l i c i t i n much o f what was  s a i d about them.  C o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s were made t o t h e i r a l l e g e d  i m p r o v i d e n c e , l a c k o f sense o f t i m e , l a c k o f f o r e s i g h t , s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s and c r u e l t y t o each o t h e r and t o a n i m a l s .  To be more p r e -  cise?? I n u i t were p e r c e i v e d t o e x h i b i t a syndrome t h a t can be desc r i b e d as being "cunning c h i l d r e n " !  i m p r o v i d e n t and c a r e l e s s y e t  always l o o k i n g f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e advantage o f t h e White man.  These s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d w i t h b i t t e r n e s s o r anger by  seven o f t h e t w e l v e agency Whites who were s t a t i o n e d a t one time o r a n o t h e r i n Lake Harbour w h i l e I was t h e r e .  Only f o u r o f t h e  agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e v e r e x p r e s s e d any p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the I n u i t .  (Only one o f t h e s e e x p r e s s e d b o t h v i e w s . )  There i s a  - 32 s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the term " c h i l d i s h " o r something a k i n t o i t was a v o i d e d because i t c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as r a c i s t and, o f c o u r s e , my p r e s e n c e as a s t u d e n t who was n o t o b l i g a t e d t o any o f t h e a g e n c i e s might have been t a k e n i n a. s u s p i c i o u s l i g h t . Thus, the Euro-Canadians f r e q u e n t l y r e j e c t e d I n u i t as a whole, c o n s i d e r i n g them as p e o p l e n o t d e s e r v i n g r e s p e c t , and t h i s  was  t y p i c a l l y a f t e r an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h a t p e o p l e o f o n l y months o r even weeks. l  z e  The I n u i t , a f t e r l i f e - t i m e s o f c o n t a c t , c h a r a c t e r -  Kabloonas i n g e n e r a l as c h i l d i s h due t o two c r i t e r i a i  their  a l l e g e d s h o r t - t e m p e r s and t h e i r s e l f i s h n e s s i n i n s i s t i n g on t h e i r own way.  To what degree do t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s a f f e c t  inter-ethnic  relations? F o r I n u i t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o u r s e s t a k e n towards dians.  Euro-Cana-  F o r a newcomer, t h e r e i s an a v o i d a n c e o f c l o s e r e l a t i o n s  w i t h him " u n t i l he i s t h e r e l o n g enough f o r p e o p l e ( i . e .  Inuit)  9  to know what k i n d o f p e r s o n he i s " .  Thus, w i t h t h e passage  of  time he m a n i f e s t s h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , and I n u i t w i l l know on what b a s i s t h e y can i n t e r a c t w i t h h i m .  1 0  Here the e f f e c t o f the nega-  t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f Kabloonas s e r v e s t o l e n g t h e n the amount o f time which p a s s e s b e f o r e i n t e r a c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d ; i . e . v i s i t i n g o r t a k i n g a Euro-Canadian h u n t i n g and  fishing.  The t h e s i s t h a t I n u i t s o c i e t y i s i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e c r e a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t o r s would seem t o be s u p p o r t e d by the f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l I n u i t a l s o a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h W h i t e s C ( j u s t as t h e y do among t h e m s e l v e s ) i n terms o f a consensus between the two p e o p l e  - 33  *  i n v o l v e d and n o t i n terms o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o f the W h i t e . D e s p i t e y e a r s o f c o n t a c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s o f government personnel  I n u i t f r e q u e n t l y take t h e i r problems t o the Euro-Cana-  d i a n whom t h e y know r a t h e r than t o the agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t problem.  F o r sejxample, p e o p l e came t o me  with  problems about c h i l d r e n s * s c h o o l i n g and lumber owned by the government.  I n u i t who  l i k e the H.B.C. manager went t o him f o r the  treatment of f a i r l y serious i n j u r i e s . than a f i r s t - a i d k i t and equipped o f f i c e .  Yet he had l i t t l e more  the a c t i n g n u r s e had an e x t e n s i v e l y  By g o i n g t o the p e r s o n whom t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o  have handle the m a t t e r I n u i t were c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n a c o n s e n s u a l framework and not a r o l e framework.  The  transference  o f the i m p l i c i t p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s to those w i t h members o u t s i d e o f the c u l t u r e s u r e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n i s w e l l internalized. These two  strong tendencies  f o r members o f each c u l t u r e t o  see each o t h e r as c h i l d i s h a r e matched by the d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e tendencies  o f the two groups i n v o l v e d .  u a t e anulnuk any one being appreciated.  f a u l t seems t o d i s q u a l i f y t h a t p e r s o n from F o r example, one  n o t c h c a r p e n t e r whose w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d b e a u t i f u l and s t u r d y t r a p - b o a t s that).  He was  o f the I n u i t i s a t r u l y  t o o l s r e g u l a r l y produced  When he began t o make a  c l o s e - t o l e r a n c e door, one  began r i d i c u l i n g him f o r p r o d u c i n g response o f h i s was  top-  (even h i s d e t r a c t o r s admit t o  h i r e d t o make a door.  b e a u t i f u l , s t u r d y and  cause one  When Euro-Canadians e v a l -  o f the White c l i q u e s  a " b l o o d y work o f a r t " .  considered  of the agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h i s man  Be-  i n a p p r o p r i a t e by some  was  r e j e c t e d by those W h i t e s .  - 34 A n o t h e r example concerns an Inuk who by the Euro-Canadians.  was q u i t e s w e l l thought  But something he d i d was  i n t e r p r e t e d by  Whites as a v a r i c i o u s ( a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d have been v a l i d l y made), and t h i s man a t g o s s i p s e s s i o n s as p r o o f t h a t "you  was  of  interpretations  then p o i n t e d out  j u s t can't t r u s t  these  Eskimos'* • Q u i t e a c o n t r a s t t o the p r e v a l e n c e o f these s t e r e o t y p e s which a r e e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y v e r b a l i z e d i s a d e f i n i t e tendency on the p a r t o f I n u i t t o a v o i d r i g i d s t e r e o t y p e s because each i n d i v i d u a l (Inuk o r Euro-Canadian) i s t o a v e r y h i g h degree e v a l u a t e d , commented on and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h as a unique e n t i t y w i t h h i s idiosyncracies. was  own  A l t h o u g h my knowledge o f the language o f I n u i t  f a r from complete,  t i c i p a t e d i n t h e r e was  i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n s I o v e r h e a r d and  par-  c l e a r evidence of t h i s n o n - s t e r e o t y p i n g  tendency. Gubser has d e s c r i b e d t h i s n o n - s t e r e o t y p i n g phenomena f o r A l a s k a n Nunamiutt "As a Nunamiut a c c u m u l a t e s e x p e r i e n c e , he g r a d u a l l y m o d i f i e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n s about the n a t u r e o f ithe environment. The g r e a t e r h i s a b i l i t y t o remember p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and t o compare them, the more c l o s e l y h i s c o n c e p t i o n s w i l l approximate r e a l i t y . " (19651 222). A l t h o u g h Gubser was  t a l k i n g about the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g t o  hunt, I am sure t h a t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a p p l i e s t o the way  in  which Lake Harbour I n u i t approach the s o c i a l environment, and f a c t t h a t Gubser was  the  d e s c r i b i n g an A l a s k a n group perhaps i n d i c a t e s  t h a t i t i s a v e r y widespread  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of I n u i t .  - 35 Next I s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e e x t r i n s i c sub-group  integration of  Euro-Canadians and I n u i t . 2(a).  B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s by w h i c h t h e Euro-  Canadians o r i e n t themselves t o t h e I n u i t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t , I can only confirm Vallee's findings t h a t i "A p e r s o n moving i n t o t h e v ..settlement from s o u t h e r n Canada q u i c k l y d i s c o v e r s , i f he does n o t know i t a l r e a d y , t h a t he i s expected t o adopt a t t i t u d e s and t o o p e r a t e w i l l i n g l y under c e r t a i n r e s t r a i n t s w h i c h do n o t a p p l y i n n o n - A r c t i c communities. He i s e x p e c t e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e o t h e r K a b l o o n a , t o seek t h e i r guidance p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he i s a New H a n d — a n d t o mix w i t h the others i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . L i k e the other Kabloona he i s expected t o be a good example t o t h e Eskimos, t o r e f r a i n from e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g , o v e r t sex p l a y w i t h Eskimo women, s w e a r i n g , o f f - c o l o u r s t o r i e s , and so on i n f r o n t o f t h e Eskimos. He l e a r n s t h a t he must m a i n t a i n t h e appearance o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h otherKKabloonas even i f he i s a t odds w i t h some o f them. With t h e l a t t e r ( t h e I n u i t ) he i s e x p e c t e d t o be f r i e n d l y but n o t o v e r l y i n t i m a t e * some s o c i a l d i s t a n c e must be m a i n t a i n e d (1967» 1 0 5 ) . 2(b).  V a l l e e a l s o n o t e s t h a t a l m o s t a i l Whites a c c e p t t h e i r own  s e l f - i m p o s e d r o l e and image a s s o c i a l i z e r s who mold I n u i t t o "change a t l e a s t some f e a t u r e s o f Eskimo b e h a v i o u r and b r i n g them i n t o l i n e w i t h h i s o r h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e d e s i r a b l e p e r son" ( i b i d i 1 2 9 ) . I n Lake Harbour t h i s r o l e was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a c c e p t e d by e l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e agency Euro-Canadians, and o n l y one seemed t o have enough doubts about such e f f o r t s e v e r t o r a i s e them i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a which I n u i t use t o judge Euro-Canadians  seem  t o be h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a used i n j u d g i n g o t h e r Inuit.  I n f a c t , I f i n d i t hard to say i f they apply c u l t u r a l  - 36 s t a n d a r d s t o Whites which a r e d i f f e r e n t from those a p p l i e d t o unknown o r u n r e l a t e d I n u i t o r those c o n s i d e r e d a. b i t odd and p o t e n t i a l l y frightening  o r even dangerous i f n o t t r e a t e d  delicately.  There i s c e r t a i n l y no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y have agreed among thems e l v e s on a group s t a n c e v i s - a - v i s K a b l o o n a s — a n d t h i s i s t o be expected i f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (including  those  with  Whites) a r e i m p l i c i t l y seen a s r e s u l t i n g from t h e consensus o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  actors.  The emphasis on m a i n t a i n i n g a m i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n i s one c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d which among I n u i t has such h i g h p r i o r i t y i n normat i v e terms ( t h e degree t o which conduct c o n f i r m s t o c u l t u r a l s t a n dards) t h a t t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e are  socially isolated  who a c t h a r s h l y  t o i t . P e o p l e who g e t angry  (see B r i g g s 1970i 225-310) and so a r e those  towards  others.  I f Inuit  s o c i e t y has a  group  s t a n c e , i t i s s u r e l y i n t h e maintenance o f a m i a b l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l relations. 2(c)  and 2 ( d ) .  The communicative i n t e g r a t i o n  o f I n u i t and Euro-  Canadians v i s - a - v i s each o t h e r shows some marked d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e o f t h e i r economic u t i l i z a t i o n o f each o t h e r . I n u i t depend l i t t l e on s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from Whites f o r t h e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s .  When a. Euro-Canadian has  any i n f o r m a t i o n which he c o n s i d e r s o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o I n u i t he u s u a l l y c a l l s a. meeting o r t e l l s those whom he meets about i t . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e news would spread r a p i d l y among t h e I n u i t .  -  37  -  anyway, f o r the o b l i g a t i o n t o share i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r o n g ( t h i s w i l l be developed l a t e r o n ) .  Nonetheless, trading f u r s , skins  and c a r v i n g s , p e r f o r m i n g wage l a b o u r and c o l l e c t i n g s o c i a l a s s i s tance almost n e v e r depend on n o r a r e a f f e c t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n which would be p o s s e s s e d by one Inuk ( o r s e v e r a l I n u i t ) t o t h e i r advantage. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o Euro-Canadians, who a l m o s t a l l depend on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from I n u i t f o r even m i n i m a l  performance  of t h e i r j o b s and c e r t a i n l y depend on d a t a f o r the s u p e r i o r j o b performances t h a t b r i n g p r o m o t i o n .  The D.O.T. mechanic  would  seem t o be the e x c e p t i o n h e r e , f o r where t h e r e i s an A r e a Admini s t r a t o r (now c a l l e d S e t t l e m e n t Manager),  the mechanic's  j o b does  n o t r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n about I n u i t as p e o p l e o t h e r than t h e i r j o b capabilities.  The A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r must know the p e o p l e w e l l  enough t h a t he can make d e c i s i o n s such as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ments and work a s s i g n m e n t s .  allot-  I t would be a p o o r H.B.C. manager  who was n o t aware o f a l l i a n c e s and d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the community as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l economic p o t e n t i a l , r e l i a b i l i t y on the j o b and a myriad o f o t h e r such f a c t o r s .  The m i s s i o n a r y must know the  s p i r i t u a l and c a r n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f h i s p a r i s h .  A t e a c h e r i s more  e f f e c t i v e i f he knows how he i s r e c e i v e d by the p a r e n t s and i f he knows the backgrounds the  o f the p u p i l s .  In order to gain information  Bay manager and the R.C.M.P. have a s s i s t a n c e a l m o s t from the  s t a r t from t h e i r c h i e f c l e r k and s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These l o n g - t e r m j o b s o u t l a s t many Euro-Canadian t r a n s f e r s , and the I n u i t who  h o l d them have good t o e x c e l l e n t E n g l i s h .  t a n t s s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n which h e l p s the new man  These a s s i s -  f u l f i l l h i s job  - 38 a l m o s t i m m e d i d a t e l y upon h i s a r r i v a l .  However, i n k e e p i n g w i t h  the c o n s e n s u a l n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among I n u i t , t h e EuroCanadian who does n o t keep up good r e l a t i o n s i / i i w i t h h i s c o u n t e r p a r t soon f i n d s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d r y i n g up. Wiith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f these two ( t h e H.B.C. c h i e f c l e r k and t h e R.C.M.P. s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e ) , I n u i t d e f i n i t e l y a v o i d g i v ing  i n f o r m a t i o n t o l i t t l e - k n o w n Euro-Canadiansr, even about some-  t h i n g a s innocuous as t h e weather. to  This stands i n r e a l c o n t r a s t  t h e openness and d i r e c t n e s s which Rasmussen (192?» 22-24) and  F l e m i n g (1965* 126) found c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p e o p l e when t e l l ing  ( o f t e n o n l y minutes a f t e r t h e y had met) o f t h e i r l i f e  stories,  t h e i r j o y s and sorrows and even p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e . The Euro-Canadians  who want i n f o r m a t i o n about p e o p l e  c a r r y on a s do a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i  usually  t h e y a r e f r i e n d l y and "good" t o  the p e o p l e , attempt t o joke some and show themselves t o be good fellows.  Y e t anyone who a c t s l i k e t h i s i s o n l y d o i n g a s have  dozens o f Euro|Canadians  b e f o r e him, and i t would be s t r a n g e i f  I n u i t — w h o a r e such p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v e r s o f o t h e r a n i m a l  behaviour  — d i d n o t r e a l i z e what was g o i n g on. These d a t a - s e e k i n g a c t i v i t i e s by t h e Whites a r e n o t o r g a n i z e d group a c t i v i t i e s - - y e t t h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d i v i d u a l W h i t e s , each s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n for  h i s own ends. Euro-Canadians  o f t e n t r y an i n f o r m a t i o n - e l i c i t i n g t e c h n i q u e  which u s u a l l y  misfires  m i s e r a b l y when a p p l i e d  to I n u i t .  In  Euro-Canadian  s o c i e t y a common s i g n o f r a p p o r t between two i n d i -  v i d u a l s i s t h e t r a d i n g o f g o s s i p , i n f o r m a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and p e r -  -  39  s o n a l d e t a i l s o f t h e i r own  -  lives.  We  o f t e n advance o r exchange  such i n f o r m a t i o n as a s i g n t h a t a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e s i r a b l e to one o r b o t h p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d .  By u n c o n s c i o u s l y  assuming t h a t  the same p r o c e s s "works" among Inuit',---many Whites who  want t o draw  i n f o r m a t i o n from I n u i t advance i n f o r m a t i o n o f the type t h a t they want r e c i p r o c a t e d .  Thus, a t e a c h e r who  wanted i n f o r m a t i o n  on  " m a r r i a g e and m o r a l s " t o l d a young Inuk about the c o n d i t i o n s der which young Whites s l e e p t o g e t h e r and f o r h i s f r i e n d to r e c i p r o c a t e . on t o t e l l about the h i s t o r y and and) a g a i n paused, a g a i n i n v a i n .  un-  then paused, w a i t i n g  There was no r e s p o n s e .  He went  d e c l i n e of arranged marriages The  u s u a l r e a c t i o n o f an Inuk  to these p o i n t e d r e v e l a t i o n s i s an embarrassed s i l e n c e , w i t h v o i d a n c e o f eye c o n t a c t by l o o k i n g down a t the t a b l e o r the  afloor.  E x c e p t f o r the s i t u a t i o n j u s t d e s c r i b e d , Euro-Canadians o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o I n u i t as p a r t o f a. f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p and to i n d i c a t e t r u s t . t e r e s t i n g mannen settlement situation.  Yet t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s managed i n a. v e r y i n i t n e v e r concerns Whites who  s i t u a t i o n o r who  are p a r t o f  the  c o u l d p o s s i b l y become p a r t o f t h a t  There i s a d e f i n i t e b a r r i e r r a i s e d here w h i c h  shuts  I n u i t o f f from even the most innocuous i n f o r m a t i o n about E u r o Canadians, and enemies and  t h i s b a r r i e r a p p l i e s as e q u a l l y to the White's  opponents as t o h i s f r i e n d s and  What i s the n a t u r e  of t h i s b a r r i e r ?  i n the Euro-Canadians' e x p e c t a t i o n s worthy of r e s p e c t and  t r u s t and  supporters.  I t seemed t o o r i g i n a t e  t h a t I n u i t as a group a r e  not  i s compounded by what Whites con-  s i d e r to be u n e t h i c a l a c t s by I n u i t .  Note t h a t t h i s o f t e n i n c l u d e s  - 40 t r a n s a c t i o n s i n which I n u i t t r y t o g a i n a s much as p o s s i b l e ( i n c a s h , goods o r s e r v i c e s ) , and t h e y a r e r o u n d l y denounced who attempt t h e same t h i n g .  T h e r e f o r e , much o f White  by Whites  rejection  of I n u i t r e s u l t s from a d o u b l e - s t a n d a r d h e l d by t h e s e W h i t e s . I n u i t a r e c a s t i g a t e d f o r b e h a v i n g i n many o f t h e same ways t h a t the  Euro-Canadians dot  d r i n k i n g , t r y i n g t o g e t as much c a s h as  i s p o s s i b l e f o r c a r v i n g s and f u r s , m a r i t a l i n f i d e l i t y , and n o t w o r k i n g a t maximum e f f o r t .  I n order to maintain the b a r r i e r  Euro-Canadians c o o p e r a t e i n w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about thems e l v e s from I n u i t and p r e v e n t o t h e r Whites from f o r m i n g f r i e n d ships o r romantic t i e s w i t h I n u i t .  When an Inuk and a E u r o -  Canadian become f r i e n d s , t h e y u n d e r s t a n d a b l y have t h e misunders t a n d i n g s common between any f r i e n d s , as w e l l as m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s which r e s u l t from c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  Both t y p e s o f m i s -  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e t r e a t e d by t h e Whites a s p r o o f t h a t "you j u s t c a n ' t t r u s t t h o s e Eskimos".  Again, expectations o f mistreatment  from I n u i t a r e b u i l t up among t h e Euro-Canadians. I t was mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t t h e l a c k o f e x t r i n s i c communic a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n does n o t h i n d e r t h e e x t r i n s i c f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e sub-groups, f o r economic i n t e r a c t i o n s  between  Euro-Canadians and I n u i t a r e v e r y s t a n d a r d i z e d , p r i n c i p a l l y by agency norms.  Still,  t h e r e a r e p a i n f u l c r i s e s w h i c h o c c u r because  of t h e l a c k o f communication between members o f t h e two sub-groups; a baby d i e s and t h e I n u i t f e e l t h a t t h e Whites " d i d n o t t a k e c a r e of i t " , w h i l e t h e agency Whites f e e l t h a t t h e baby's p a r e n t s were criminally negligent.  C h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t American I n d i a n myths  and t h e t e a c h e r i s c o m p l e t e l y unaware o f t h e resentment f e l t by  - 41 -  the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s  parents.  A t e a c h e r t r i e s t o b e g i n a swimming  program* and a l t h o u g h t h e k i d s a r e o b v i o u s l y t h e y always " f o r g e t "  greatly  interested  t o come because t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e w o r r i e d  about drownings and p r e v e n t them from coming. Exchanges o f s e r v i c e s s u f f e r most from t h e l a c k o f communicat i v e i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e communications b a r r i e r s r a i s e d by i n d i v i d u a l I n u i t and by Whites as a group. Although the s t r a t e g i e s which f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e g r a t e  Whites  t o I n u i t a r e l a r g e l y determined by agency norms, t h e I n u i t l y perceive the a c t i o n s  usual-  o f a Euro-Canadian as r e s u l t i n g from h i s  own p e r s o n a l i t y and n o t from t h e d i r e c t i v e s o f h i s s u p e r i o r s .  As  a r e s u l t , I n u i t a t t e m p t t o c r e a t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e an agency employee on t h e b a s i s o f what they p e r c e i v e t o be h i s  personality.  In a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l I n u i t u t i l i z e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  pre-  s e n t i n t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment w i t h g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l .  The argument f o r t h i s  flexibility  l i e s i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s o b s e r v e d , and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y r e s t s on t h e argument t h a t men w i t h l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l s t y l e s o f work have e q u a l p r e s t i g e . g i v e such i n f o r m a t i o n  whenever p o s s i b l e  t i o n s o f environmental exploitation?.  i n the following  descripaction  action.  E a r l i e r I t r i e d t o make t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e I n u i t  character-  i s t i c o f f l e x i b i l i t y a l l o w s a s i t u a t i o n i n which c r e a t i v e is possible.  I will  Individual creative  w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t and then group c r e a t i v e  great-  action  Next I w i l l t r y t o v e r i f y t h a t t h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r  - 42 -  c r e a t i v e a c t i o n i s r e a l i z e d and w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s c r e a t i v i t y by t r e a t i n g t h e ways i n which v a r i o u s men u t i l i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e s o c i a l and economic environment i n order to support t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  I w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e ways i n  which men u t i l i z e wage-work* h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g , c a r v i n g and t h e presence  o f Euro-Canadians.  Of t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e men, seven have f u l l time j o b s , one a s R.C.M.P. s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e , f o u r p r o v i d i n g munic i p a l s e r v i c e s as D.O.T. employees, and two a s H.B.C. c l e r k s .  Two  men have r e g u l a r p a r t - t i m e employment, one a s c a r e t a k e r o f t h e s c h o o l , t h e o t h e r a s S h e l l O i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The o t h e r n i n e t e e n men c a r v e , hunt, t r a p and do s h o r t - t e r m wage l a b o u r whenever i t i s available. The economic p o s i t i o n o f the men who have r e g u l a r j o b s ( f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e ) i s c o n s i d e r e d v-ary good by t h e I n u i t because t h e i r e a r n i n g s a r e such t h a t t h e y almost always have c r e d i t a t t h e Bay. T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o those who c a r v e , hunt and t r a p , f o r these men a r e always i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g o i n g i n t o debt o r s l o w l y w o r k i n g t h e i r way o u t o f i t . The expenses o f t h e s k i d o o a r e so h i g h i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e t u r n from t h e s e a l s k i n s f o r f o x f u r s ( t h e a r e a has n e v e r been n o t a b l e f o r t h e number o f f o x e s h a r v e s t e d ) t h a t ray d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t h u n t i n g can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d a s a source o f cheap and n o u r i s h i n g meat and n o t a s cash p r o f i t , f o r t h e o u t l a y t o maint a i n and f u n t h e s k i d o o i s always more than t h e v a l u e o f t h e s k i n s harvested.  As a r e s u l t , a man who h u n t s by s k i d o o can o n l y work  - 43 his  way s l o w l y i n t o debt.  he i s denied  E v e n t u a l l y h i s debt w i l l  c r e d i t , and then t h e o n l y way t o r e s t o r e h i s c r e d i t  i s through s e l l i n g c a r v i n g s . "carve  t o hunt".  concentrate income.  be such t h a t  I d e s c r i b e these men a s those who  Two o t h e r men have abandoned t h i s s t r u g g l e and  on c a r v i n g so t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s  t h e i r g r e a t e s t cash  These men o n l y hunt i n c i d e n t a l l y and e v i d e n t l y f o r food  as much a s f o r t h e s k i n and so I s a y t h a t t h e y "hunt i n o r d e r t o 13 c a r v e " . -* Y e t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s even between t h e s e two men and t h e ways i n which t h e y u t i l i z e One o f t h e men who c o n c e n t r a t e s  resources.  on c a r v i n g i s a s t r a n g e r t o  the a r e a and has no k i n i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o u t s i d e o f h i s household ( n e i t h e r consanguines n o r a f f i n e s ) .  F o r r e a s o n s t h a t I was n e v e r  a b l e t o d i s c o v e r , he seems t o be d i s l i k e d by b o t h t h e I n u i t i n the s e t t l e m e n t and by t h e m a j o r i t y o f Euro-Canadians, so much so t h a t even h i s e x c e l l e n t and s k i l l f u l c a r p e n t r y and c a b i n e t work bringi? him no p r e s t i g e among I n u i t n o r among most o f t h e W h i t e s . As a r e s u l t , he does n o t a t t e m p t t o g a i n p r e s t i g e t h r o u g h b r i n g i n g home l o t s o f game and c o n c e n t r a t e s  h i s e f f o r t s on c a r v i n g .  Here  he s p e c i a l i z e s i n smooth-faced a b s t r a c t s o l i d s w h i c h a r e f i l l e d w i t h d e l i c a t e and a c c u r a t e in f u rclothing.  e n g r a v i n g s o f a r c t i c a n i m a l s and I n u i t  H i s w a l r u s t u s k s w r i h engraved h u n t i n g  a r e a l w a y s i n demand.  scenes  B e i n g one o f t h e b e s t e n g r a v e r s i n t h e  E a s t e r n A r c t i c , he f i n d s a ready market f o r h i s work a t t h e l o c a l H.B.C, among t h e r e s i d e n t Whites land".at t h e co-op i n F r o b i s h e r Bay. A g e n t l e and q u i e t man, he e n j o y s «ery much t h e few f r i e n d s h i p s he has w i t h Euro-Canadians and makes no a t t e m p t t o s e & l t o them.  ( T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r  men.)  carvings  - 44 The other man who p r i n c i p a l l y carved and hunts o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y uses the a i r s e r v i c e which ©ceastonally f l i e s between F r o b i s h e r Bay and Lake Harbour to earn h i m s e l f a v e r y n i c e income. H i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n l i v e i n Lake Harbour and p a r t i c i p a t e in  community l i f e  there among t h e i r many k i n f o l k .  fully  A flight  into  Lake Harbour o f t e n b r i n g s the husband i n , and he has a quick v i s i t w i t h h i s f a m i l y while he gathers up a supply o f l a r g e soapstone lumps from h&s cache and then r e t u r n s to F r o b i s h e r on the same flight.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , he w i l l spend a few weeks i n Lake Harbour,  s o c i a l i z i n g , h u n t i n g and c a r v i n g .  In e i t h e r case, he always carves  the l a r g e massive s c u l p t u r e s w i t h rounded forms and l i t t l e  detail  which are seen as " r e a l a r t " by Whites and which t h e r e f o r e command good p r i c e s and a ready market a t the F r o b i s h e r Bay co-op. man  This  r e g u l a r l y takes a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to u t i l i z e t h i s f a v o u r a b l e  market. Now  While i n F r o b i s h e r Bay he l i v e s with k i n . l e t us c o n s i d e r the two men who work p a r t - t i m e and the  v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways i n which they u t i l i z e r e s o u r c e s p r e s e n t i n the community and o u t s i d e o f i t .  These men are e x c e l l e n t compar-  a t i v e cases, f o r both have jobs which pay approximately  the same  and which use o n l y a couple o f days p e r week ( a t the most). One man  i s the l o c a l S h e l l O i l L t d . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; h i s r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e the s a l e o f g a s o l i n e and o t h e r f u e l s , and he tops up the stove o i l tanks which supply each b u i l d i n g .  He  feels  t h a t he should s t a y f a i r l y c l o s e to the community because o f h i s job,  and so he does n o t make as many t r i p s to s e l l c a r v i n g s a t  the F r o b i s h e r Bay co-op as o t h e r men  do.  However, when he f e e l s  i  -  45  -  t h a t he can g e t away he p r e p a r e s many l a r g e c a r v i n g s t o s e l l t o the co-op. T h i s man  c o n s i s t e n t l y u t i l i z e s h i s cash c a p i t a l i n what I  would c a l l a s t r a t e g i c manner.  A good example o f t h i s  occured  d u r i n g atwo-week p e r i o d i n which v e r y few s e a l s were t a k e n . of  All  the h u n t e r - c a r v e r s were g o i n g out d a i l y , and because most o f  them were a l r e a d y i n debt they o n l y went as f a r as was to g e t t o p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e i c e .  I n t h i s way  necessary  they g o t as  many t r i p s t o the s e a l grounds as was p o s s i b l e out o f t h e i r r e maining  credit.  Then one March morning t h i s man  l e f t v e r y e a r l y , and f o r a  l o n g time h i s t r a c k s were the o n l y ones i n the s o f t deep snow. The snow d i s c o u r a g e d most o f the o t h e r s from g o i n g , f o r they were s t i l l h u n t i n g b e s i d e the s e a l ' s b r e a t h i n g h o l e and deep snow.made i t almost i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d the h o l e , l e t a l o n e hear the s e a l come up.  L a t e r t h a t same n i g h t a t about n i n e o ' c l o c k , j u s t as  p e o p l e were v i s i t i n g around a f t e r supper, a s k i d o o was in.  heard  coming  He brought i n f i v e s e a l s , a l m o s t as many as had been taken  a l l week by a l l the men I His  s t r a t e g y was  thisi  h a v i n g enough cash f o r a l a r g e o u t l a y  of g a s o l i n e he headed t h i r t y m i l e s west a l o n g the c o a s t t o an a r e a which i s much r i c h e r i n s e a l s t h a n  the  Lake  Harbour a r e a  where he c o u l d hunt by the edge o f the sea i c e .  I n March  and the  edge o f the sea i c e i s a t i t s f a r t h e s t from the l a n d ; t h i s would  - 46 e x p l a i n why  those who  were i n debt d i d n o t go t h a t f a r o u t .  A n o t h e r example o f t h i s man's s t r a t e g i c use o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t as h i g h a y i e l d as p o s s i b l e was  so  o b t a i n e d from h i s c a p i t a l  h i s r e f u s a l t o hunt by the s e a l ' s b r e a t h i n g h o l e - - h e f e l t  was  that  h u n t i n g s e a l s by the fiLoe edge, o r w h i l e they were b a s k i n g i n the sun, o r i n open w a t e r w i t h a canoe, were tfeejonly methods p r o d u c t i v e enough t o be p r a c t i c e d .  He q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y took the time  one day t o e x p l a i n t h i s t o me  i n s u i t a b l y s i m p l e words so t h a t I  would u n d e r s t a n d . T h i s man  a l s o had a few f r i e n d s among the E u r o - C a n a d i a n s , and  he a l s o d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o s e l l c a r v i n g s t o them. The  example o f the o t h e r p a r t - t i m e w o r k e r , the s c h o o l  care-  t a k e r , o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t to the S h e l l O i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mentioned above.  The  c a r e t a k e r hunts l i k e the o t h e r  men  and f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s c a r v i n g s t o the co-op a t F r o b i s h e r Bay. e v e r , he i s unique i n the way sent i n t h e community.  How-  he u t i l i z e s the Euro-Canadians p r e -  Because he has a government j o b he  con-  s i d e r s the Euro-Canadian government employees h i s coworkers and v i s i t s w i t h them o f t e n , a t l e a s t one n i g h t p e r week.  First,  he  seems t o e n j o y s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h Euro-Canadians more t h a n most I n u i t do.  Second, he e n j o y s r e g u l a r d r i n k i n g (which most o f the  Lake Harbour I n u i t do n o t ) , and  since l i q u o r i s i n short  supply  i n the community, the l o c a l Whites a r e the o n l y r e l i a b l e  source  f o r t h i s resource.  T h i r d , h i s f r i e n d s among the Euro-Canadians  p r o v i d e a market f o r h i s c a r v i n g s ? h i s a c c u r a t e l y p r o p o r t i o n e d a n i m a l s and p e o p l e a r e o f t e n q u i t e d e t a i l e d , a n d a r e o f the  type  v  - 47 -  most a p p r e c i a t e d the  by t h e average agency-employed Euro-Canadian i n  settlement. Most i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h i s man r e g u l a r l y u t -  i l i z e s t h e m a i l s and h i s Euro-Canadian f r i e n d s a s t r a n s l a t o r s a n d / o r h e l p e r s i n o r d e r t o e a r n money i n ways w h i c h no o t h e r n a t i v e i n t h e community does.  By m a i l i n g h i s s k i n s and f u r s d i r e c t l y t o  the f u r a u c t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n Canada he r e c e i v e s t w i c e a s much a s he would have r e c e i v e d from t h e H.B.C.  Because o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p  w i t h t h e Whites and because he l i k e s t o t r a n s a c t ; t h r o u g h the A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t e n g i v e s him s p e c i a l r e q u e s t s  the m a i l s , that a r r i v e  from v a r i o u s p l a c e s , f o r example, t h e o r d e r by an O n t a r i o  mosquito  r e p e l l e n t m a n u f a c t u r e r f o r s e v e r a l b a r r e l s o f p o l a r b e a r and s e a l o i l f o r a very nice p r i c e . his  Some o f h i s c o n t r a c t s a l s o come through  b r o t h e r who j s on t h e N.W.T. C o u n c i l . As mentioned e a r l i e r , b o t h men have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  income and r e q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y jobs.  t h e same  t h e same amount o f time f o r t h e i r  Y e t both u t i l i z e t h i s " s p a r e time"  (and I am n o t s u g g e s t i n g  t h a t I n u i t see i t a s such) i n s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s which a r e c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h  time.  Yet t h e argument t h a t such d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e - u t i l i z a t i o n r e presents  f l e x i b i l i t y would p a r t l y r e s t on showing t h a t b o t h men a r e  equally e f f e c t i v e i n maintaining  themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  To judge t h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s two c r i t e r i a seem a p p l i c a b l e i p r o s p e r i t y and p r e s t i g e .  Both men have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  economic  t h e same l e v -  e l o f p r o s p e r i t y a s measured by ownership o f manufactured goods. And  t h e i r p r e s t i g e among t h e o t h e r I n u i t seems t o be about t h e same.  - 48 I f t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s t i g e i t would seem t o r e s u l t from t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and n o t from t h e i r economic e f f e c tiveness. Even among t h e f u l l - t i m e wage w o r k e r s t h e r e a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e differences i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n s , o f t h e i r jobs, hunting-trapping and c a r v i n g .  T h e i r j o b performances were r e m a r k a b l y  o f t h e i r employers expressed  uniform* a l l  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e men's promptly  n e s s , a t t e n t i o n and energy on t h e j o b .  Here a r e some examples  o f w o r k - s t y l e s and l i f e - s t y l e s . The  o l d e s t s t e a d i l y employed man i s i n h i s l a t e f i f t i e s and  works on t h e D.O.T. m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s crew.  He i s q u i t e w e l l  o f f , s i n c e ^ h i s ample income i s augmented by h i s r e t i r e m e n t pay from l o n g y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , a s R.C.M.P. s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e . never carves.  He  A s t r o n g and v i g o r o u s man, he i s so keen on h u n t i n g  t h a t he sometimes h i r e s a n o t h e r o l d e r man t o work f o r a day w h i l e he goes h u n t i n g and/or checks h i s t r a p l i n e . ; A l t h o u g h  his f u l l -  time work p r e v e n t s him from g e t t i n g a s many.seals a s t h e f u l l - t i m e h u n t e r s , he runs q u i t e a l o n g t r a p l i n e (even i n p o o r y e a r s J ^ and 1  checks i t on S a t u r d a y ,  o r d u r i n g t h e week i f he has h i r e d a r e -  placement f o r t h a t day, o r on l o n g week-ends. ranked  As a r e s u l t he  twenty-second i n terms o f number o f s e a l s k i n s t r a d e d b u t  was t h e second h i g h e s t t r a p p e r o f f o x s k i n s . ^ 1  H i s o l d e s t son a l s o works f u l l - t i m e on t h e D.O.T. m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s crew a s a C a t e r p i l l a r d r i v e r .  L i k e h i s f a t h e r , he does  n o t carve and sometimes hunts on S a t u r d a y .  -  49  -  A n o t h e r member o f the m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s crew, a l s o a son  of  the r e t i r e d R.C.M.P. s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e mentioned above, i s n o t a b l e f o r the energy w i t h which he t a c k l e s economic a c t i v i t i e s .  After  a f u l l day's work f o r the D.O.T. he o f t e n comes home and u n t i l bed-time.  He s e l l s h i s c a r v i n g s t o the l o c a l W h i t e s , o r  l o n g weekends o r h o l i d a y s dashes i n t o F r o b i s h e r Bay So e n e r g e t i c i s t h i s man  t h a t he d i s l i k e s h u n t i n g o r  back by t h e i r f r e q u e n t l e i s u r e l y t e a e b r e a k s .  on  t o the co-op. travelling  w i t h o t h e r s because he p r e f e r s to s e t a f a s t e r pace and  he hunts and  carves  f e e l s held  More o f t e n than n o t  t r a v e l s a l o n e , c h a r g i n g a l o n g a t h i s own  pace.  I n u i t a l s o show c r e a t i v i t y on the r a r e o c c a s i o n s when some o f them c o n f r o n t Euro-Canadians who  have f l o w n i n to p r e s e n t a p l a n  o r a change i n the agency norms w h i c h w i l l be used by the agency Whites.  T y p i c a l l y , a Euro-Canadian a r r i v e s w i t h a p l a n  formulated  by h i s s u p e r i o r s .  He o n l y n e e d s t h e t a c i t a p p r o v a l  I n u i t f o r a t a c t i c a l success. a c h i e v i n g t h i s . The  Yet I n u i t o f t e n p r e v e n t him  p l a n e he came to see me and  o v e r t e a s a i d t h a t he would l i k e  to  Would I mind h e l p i n g out i n g e t t i n g the co-op s t a r t e d  experience  Be-  i n t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h f i s h i n g co-ops i n  B r a z i l he f e l t t h a t I would be v e r y u s e f u l .  I a g r e e d , and he r e -  quested t h a t I come t o the meeting t h a t a f t e r n o o n house.  from  o r g a n i z e r g o t o f f the  i n Lake Harbour by w o r k i n g j u s t a c o u p l e o f h o u r s a month? cause o f my  of  f o l l o w i n g example i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t .  Soon a f t e r the government c o - o p e r a t i v e  ask a f a v o u r .  already  i n the  school-  -  50  -  Only t h r e e White p e o p l e were i n v i t e d t o and p r e s e n t a t t h e m e e t i n g ! Lake Harbour's A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z e r , and m y s e l f .  Of I n u i t , t h e r e were two g r o u p s ; t h e f i v e  members o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Committee and t h o s e who performed m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r D.O.T. a t t h e H.B.C.  The t r a n s l a t o r was t h e c h i e f - c l e r k  There was c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r - l a p i n t h e membership  o f t h e two groups o f I n u i t , many were i n b o t h . The government man began t h e meeting by e x p l a i n i n g what he had been d o i n g and why he had had t o w a i t so l o n g i n coming t o see them about t h e co-op t h a t t h e y wanted t o s t a r t .  The Inuk head o f t h e  C o - o p e r a t i v e Committee thanked him f o r coming and s a i d t h a t t h e y s t i l l wanted v e r y much t o have t h e co-op. man e x p l a i n e d t h & t I would be a v a i l a b l e  Then t h e government  t o h e l p e i t h e r government  o r "Eskimos" w i t h m a t t e r s t h a t c o u l d be h a n d l e d by m a i l .  The I n u i t  maintained blank faces. Next he t o l d them t h a t t h e f i r s t problem i n s t a r t i n g t h e co#op would be t o g e t t h e s t a r t i n g c a p i t a l , b u t h i s c h i e f had thought o f a v e r y w i s e p l a n and now he wanted t o know what t h e y t h o u g h t o f i t . I t would work l i k e t h i s i  t h e government would g i v e t h e co-op t h e  lump sum t h a t f o r t h e whole y e a r p a i d t h e s a l a r i e s o f a l l t h e D.O.T. m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s workers ( t h u s t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n ) .  With  t h i s money c a r v i n g s would be bought from t h e p e o p l e and then s o l d to d i s t r i b u t o r s and t h u s t h e money would be used t w i c e , b o t h t o g i v e t h e co-op i t s f i r s t c a p i t a l t o s t a r t w i t h and t h e n t o pay t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e D.O.T. w o r k e r s .  He quoted t h e <hump sum a v a i l a b l e  t h i s way and asked t h e I n u i t what t h e y thought o f t h e i d e a .  - 51 There was a s i l e n c e o f about a m i n u t e , a f t e r which t h e younge s t Inuk t h e r e ( e x c e p t f o r t h e t r a n s l a t o r ) s a i d i n h i s own language "perhaps i t ' s n o t enough".  The o t h e r s s a i d "perhaps s o " and be-  gan c a l c u l a t i n g t h e sum o f t h e i r y e a r l y e a r n i n g s .  I n the midst  o f a l l o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h e government co-op man a s k e d t h e t r a n s l a t o r what was b e i n g s a i d .  He d i d n o t r e p l y u n t i l s e v e r a l men each  d i d a sum o f t h e i r incomes and a l l g o t t h e same r e s u l t s on t h e f i r s t t r y ; they were b e i n g o f f e r e d about t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f what t h e y earned.  W i t h agreement among t h e I n u i t the t r a n s l a t o r s a i d , 1  "Oh, t h e y s a y i t ' s n o t enough, t h a t t h e y a l l t o g e t h e r e a r n  ".  The government man asked each Inuk what he earned and d i d h i s own total.  They were r i g h t .  He s a i d , " W e l l , uh, I don't f e e l i t ' s  r i g h t t o l o w e r y o u r men's wages.  I ' l l have t o t a l k t h i s o v e r w i t h  my s u p e r v i s o r and c o n t a c t you a s soon as i t , i s s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t " . He asked i f t h e r e were more q u e s t i o n s .  There were none and he a d -  journed the meeting. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d from t h i s example how a b l y I n u i t q u i c k l y i m p r o v i s e s t r a t e g i e s i n a v e r y e g a l i t a r i a n manner and w i t h o u t l e a d ership.  T h i s i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y ^ o c c u r s w h i l e men a r e  h u n t i n g (and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r on w i t h t h e i n t r i n s i c tional integration of Inuit).  func-  The young man w h o i f i r s t mentioned  t h a t t h e lump sum was perhaps t o o s m a l l i s w e l l - l i k e d by a l l , b u t c e r t a i n l y i s not a leader.  One s h o u l d a l s o n o t e t h a t t h e i n t e r -  p r e t e r k e p t s i l e n t u n t i l a consensus had been reached among t h e men d e s p i t e p l e a s f o r t r a n s l a t i o n by t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e d i r e c t o r . He k e p t h i s s i l e n c e on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , n o t h i n g was s a i d o r s i g n a l l e d t o him by t h e o t h e r I n u i t .  - 52  -  But most s i g n i f i c a n t i s the u t t e r l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s confrontation.  P r e s e n t were the n a t i v e heads o f the Community  C o u n c i l and the Lake Harbour Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , the man  consi-  dered by a l l o f the Whites as the "Eskimo l e a d e r " , and a man i s v e r y outspoken i n p u b l i c m e e t i n g s .  Yet none o f these attempted  t o i n f l u e n c e the o t h e r s , none t o o k any i n i t i a t i v e , what he thought o r i n any o t h e r way  who  none was  asked  consulted.  Next we w i l l c o n s i d e r the i n t r i n s i c sub-group i n t e g r a t i o n o f Euro-Canadians and members o f any  of I n u i t .  sub-group.  I n t e g r a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l i s between  N a t u r a l l y , t h e r e was  a component o f  t h i s i n the e x t r i n s i c i n t e g r a t i o n o f Whites towards I n u i t because the Euro-Canadians m a i n t a i n a group f r o n t w h i c h r e q u i r e s mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n .  their  However, t h i s i s only;one s m a l l f a c e t o f a  much l a r g e r sphere o f i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s .  I w i l l take  each-ethnic  group s e p a r a t e l y . 3(a).  Remembering t h a t c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h a t "...degree  t o which c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s which r e q u i r e adherence a r e c o n s i s t e n t " (Landecker 1952i 394)  we f i n d t h a t the Euro-Canadians  form a m o r a l community based on m u t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s norms w i l l be f u l f i l l e d . cy norms a r e so f o r m u l a t e d  mutually  I t i s important  t h a t agency  t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e agen-  by s u p e r i o r s t h a t t h e y encourage co-  o p e r a t i o n between agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  They e f f e c t i v e l y dampen  i n t e r - W h i t e c o n f l i c t by (a) s u p p o r t i n g d i f f u s e s e n t i m e n t s o f o p e r a t i o n f o r the good of the community ( b o t h n a t i v e and Canadian) and  the agency, and  co-  Euro-  t h u s o f f e r a r e a d y p r e t e x t f o r de-  e s c a l a t i n g c o n f l i c t s , arid (b) by d e f i n i n g j o b s a c t i v i t i e s so  that  - 53 n o n - c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s d e f i n i t e l y c o n s i d e r e d as p o o r j o b performance. A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h agency norms defuse p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t in  the Euro-Canadian sub-group i s by p r e c l u d i n g c o m p e t i t i o n be-  tween a g e n c i e s . As V a l l e e n o t e s ,  1  " . . . c o m p e t i t i o n i n j o b performanceiztmSfimmany g i v e n p e r s o n a t Baker Lake w i t h o t h e r s o u t s i d e the communi t y r a t h e r than w i t h those who r e s i d e i n i t " . ? ( 1 9 6 7 1 107)* H i s comments a r e e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r Lake Harbour. The Lake Harbour Euro-Canadians a l s o form a>moral community because o f e x p e c t a t i o n s o f " n o r t h e r n h o s p i t a l i t y " which a r e very a l i v e .  still  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say e x a c t l y 1what t h i s i d e a l i s , 1  y e t the most common r e a s o n f o r s a y i n g t h a t someone d i d n o t  fulfill  n o r t h e r n h o s p i t a l i t y was because he/she d i d n o t make a v i s i t i n g White f e e l r e l a x e d and a t home.  T h e r e f o r e I assume t h a t " n o r t h e r n  h o s p i t a l i t y " was l a r g e l y seen as making a l l o f the Euro-Canadians who v i s i t e d f e e l welcome. 3(b).  Remembering t h a t n o r m a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n i s the "...degree  to w h i c h conduct i n the group conforms t o i t s c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s " (Landecker 1952« 3 9 ^ ) , we f i n d a t Lake Harbour t h a t t h e r e was a h i g h degree o f c o n f o r m i t y t o agency norms.  T h i s was so t r u e t h a t  Dunning's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m a r g i n a l n o r t h e r n White who i s a l most a law unto h i m s e l f does n o t f i t t h i s s i t u a t i o n  (1959t 117-  122). The l a r g e s t d i s c r e p a n c y between i d e a l and r e a l b e h a v i o u r was the gap between the i d e a l o f n o r t h e r n h o s p i t a l i t y and the r e a l i t y  - 54 -  o f t h e two White c l i q u e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1969-1970.  I use t h e term c l i q u e a s do C o o l e y (1909» 23-31)»  Homans (1951« 133). Newcomb (1950» 6 4 l ) , and Warner ( I 9 4 l t 110-111) to  d e s c r i b e a p r i m a r y group w i t h a s t r o n g "we" f e e l i n g , w h i c h makes  a l l o f i t s c h o i c e s and none o f i t s r e j e c t i o n s w i t h i n i t s e l f . There were two c l i q u e s among t h e Euro-Canadians whose memb e r s h i p changed as p e o p l e were r e p l a c e d by o t h e r agency r e p r e sentatives.  One was s m a l l ( t h r e e t o f o u r p e o p l e ) and always i n -  c l u d e d t h e two r e s i d e n t s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .  The o t h e r c l i q u e was  l a r g e r ( s i x t o seven p e o p l e w i t h t h r e e m a r r i e d composed s o l e l y o f agency E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . p l a c e d u r i n g spare-time  c o u p l e s ) and was  C l i q u e a c t i v i t i e s took  and were r e c r e a t i o n a l ! g a t h e r i n g  together  i n t h e evening a f t e r work ( o r on weekends) and d r i n k i n g , e a t i n g t o g e t h e r , p l a y i n g c a r d s and g o s s i p i n g about e v e n t s i n t h e s e t t l e ment.  A t these g e t - t o g e t h e r s  leveled  t h e r e was frequent•'heavy  a t members o f t h e o t h e r c l i q u e .  criticism  The c l i q u e d i v i s i o n s  were c l e a r t h r o u g h t h e r a r i t y o f v i s i t s a c r o s s c l i q u e l i n e s and the s t r o n g v e r b a l abuse w h i c h c l i q u e members heaped on members o f the o t h e r c l i q u e . Thus, i n terms o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e White sub-group, t h e c l i q u e d i v i d e d t h e Whites i n t o two m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l ;  groups.  On-the-job i n t e g r a t i o n between agencies'was l i t t l e a f f e c t e d  by these c l i q u e s , f o r agency norms r e q u i r e s u f f i c i e n t  co-operation  to a l l o w each agency t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . From s e v e r a l v i e w p o i n t s t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e sociated with clique a c t i v i t i e s .  f l e x i b i l i t y as-  Membership i n a c l i q u e seemed  - 55 a l m o s t r e q u i r e d f o r those who wished t o v i s i t f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w Whites.  Of the twenty-two d i f f e r e n t Euro-Cana-  d i a n s (agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e i r w i v e s ) who were s t a t i o n e d i n Lake Harbour, o n l y t h r e e were n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a. c l i q u e . Of t h e s e t h r e e , two v i s i t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y w i t h Whites and the t h i r d was a dynamic, c h e e r f u l , e x t r o v e r t n u r s e who wanted t o be on good terms w i t h everyone, b o t h Whites and I n u i t . drank l i q u o r .  None o f t h e s e t h r e e  I can o n l y s p e c u l a t e on why e i g h t e e n o f the twenty-  one Whites belonged t o c l i q u e s .  S h o r t l y a f t e r my a r r i v a l ,  t r y i n g t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h everyone, I found t h a t each v i s i t  while inclu-  ded a. s c a t h i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n o f those who I l a t e r found were i n the " o t h e r " c l i q u e .  Ma\ny seemed t o r e s e n t t h a t I was  with "bastards l i k e  ".  visiting  I t i s easy t o see why a  new-'  comer would soon p i c k a. group where he c o u l d be s u r e o f a welcome, f o r as time went by each c l i q u e seemed t o t h i n k I was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r and I f e l t welcome nowhere. D e s p i t e the p r e s e n c e o f two groups o f Euro-Canadians who i n t h e i r spare time a l m o s t n e v e r v i s i t e d each o t h e r o u t s i d e o f t h e i r chosen c i r c l e , the r e s i d e n t White agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i d n o t p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f as a member o f a c l i q u e .  Each time I used the  term I was c o u n t e r e d w i t h remarks l i k e t h i s t  "We  don't e x c l u d e  so and so; however, so and so r e a l l y d i d wrong when he...(and h i s f a u l t s would be m e t i c u l o u s l y l i s t e d ) and he knows he d i d i t and i s too ashamed t o come around". C l e a r l y suggesting  t h a t someone was p a r t o f a c l i q u e was i n -  t e r p r e t e d as s a y i n g t h a t he was i n h o s p i t a b l e t o o t h e r s , and thus  - 56 v i o l a t e d the i d e a l of northern h o s p i t a l i t y .  And t h e r e s i d e n t Whites  chose t o see themselves as h o s p i t a b l e p e o p l e who were n o n e t h e l e s s notv\dgsi'*'eia by "them" because " t h e y " had done wrong and were t o o ashamed t o v i s i t . 3(c).  The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e two c l i q u e s n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e com-  municative i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Whites.  The f l o w o f j o b - r e l a t e d i n -  f o r m a t i o n between a g e n c i e s i s r e q u i r e d by t h e agency norms, and even men who h e a r t i l y d e s p i s e d each o t h e r exchanged such i n f o r m a t i o n as was n e c e s s a r y , f o r one o f them c o u l d be s a n c t i o n e d by h i s s u p e r i o r i f he w i t h h e l d i n f o r m a t i o n needed by a n o t h e r agency. However, i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was n o t j o b - r e l a t e d was l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the c l i q u e i n which i t o r i g i n a t e d .  S i n c e most o f  the i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w among Whites i s o f t h i s t y p e , t h e White subgroup c l e a r l y had a low i n d e x o f communicative i n t e g r a t i o n by Landecker's c r i t e r i a o f t h e p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h has symptoms o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n (1951* 3 3 6 ) . 3(d).  Remembering t h a t f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h e "...degree  to which members a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges o f s e r v i c e s " ( L a n d e c k e r 1952» 3 9 4 ) , we f i n d t h a t t h e Lake Harbour Euro-Canadian sub-group was f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h agency norms and  cliques. The agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e dependent on each o t h e r t o  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , and agency norms r e q u i r e t h a t t h e Euro-Canadians r e n d e r each o t h e r t h e s e e s s e n t i a l  services.  The s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d by c l i q u e members t o each o t h e r i s com-  -  panionship nature  57  -  w h i l e b e i n g i s o l a t e d i n a s t r a n g e environment.  The  o f t h i s companionship becomes c l e a r when one examines mem-  b e r s h i p f o r t h e common u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s . Some agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were much more dependent on each o t h e r ( o r on one a n o t h e r ) f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r o t h e r a i d on t h e j o b , than t h e y were w i t h o t h e r agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  F o r example,  the R.C.M.P. o f f i c e r and t h e H.B.C. manager c o - o p e r a t e d on a s s i g n ing  w e l f a r e ; t h e H.B.C. manager would s a y i f t h e . f a m i l y was much  i n debt, o r i f t h e y had c o l l e c t e d w e l f a r e and then s o l d a l o t o f c a r v i n g s ( i . e . were n o t r e a l l y i n a s bad a f i n a n c i a l s t a t e a s t h e y had  said).  The A r e a A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t e n had t o make s p e c i a l e q u i p -  ment and s e r v i c e r e q u e s t s  o f t h e mechanic.  F o r a l o n g time a l l  o f t h e agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were dependent on t h e R.C.M.P. r a d i o f o r o u t s i d e communication.  Y e t dependencies l i k e t h e s e l i t t l e  af-  f e c t c l i q u e membership a s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t new agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a d ' ^ d i f f e r e n t c l i q u e a l i g n m e n t s from t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s more o f t e n than t h e y had t h e same a l i g n m e n t a s t h e i r Level o f education for college-educated  predecessors.  d i d n o t seem t o a f f e c t c l i q u e membership,  p e o p l e were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e two  c l i q u e s and a l l o f t h e r e s t had grade t w e l v e .  Other f a c t o r s which  d i d n o t seem t o a f f e c t c l i q u e membership were r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n . Yifet t h e one f a c t o r which showed a c l e a r - o u t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e members o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c l i q u e s were d r i n k i n g s t y l e s .  Drinking  s t y l e here r e f e r s t o t h e r a t e a t which l i q u o r i s consumed o r t h e  (  - 58 r a t e a t w h i c h c l i q u e members would l i k e t o consume i t ( f o r i t was often i n short  supply).  Yet I t h i n k t h e r e i s more t o these d i f f e r e n c e s o f d r i n k i n g than j u s t s e e k i n g amiableecompanionship.  The d r i n k i n g s t y l e s o f  the two c l i q u e s show two d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards l i q u o r t h a t a r e found among Euro-Canadians whether i n t h e n o r t h o r i n t h e i r "normal" environment.  One c l i q u e v a l u e d d r i n k i n g t o t h e p o i n t  t h a t one's judgement and c o - o r d i n a t i o n a r e d i s t u r b e d  enough so  t h a t t h i s and the n e x t dtary'^s hang-over became a dominant t o p i c o f the i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e d r i n k e r s .  The two i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f  t h i s d r i n k i n g s t y l e are« (a) d r i n k i n g w i t h o t h e r s a s a s i g n o f a c c e p t a n c e , e q u a l i t y o r f r i e n d s h i p ("Wassa m a t t e r , you t o o good to d r i n k w i t h us?")  and (b) d r i n k i n g as much a s someone e l s e a s a  t e s t o f O n e s e l f and o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n , o f t e n i n terms o f m a n l i ness-masculinity. A n o t h e r a t t i t u d e found i n Euro-Canadian s o c i e t y sees l i q u o r as an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g accompaniment t o good and  as a means o f h e i g h t e n i n g  conversation  t h e enjoyment'of food and t a l k . Here  t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e a v o i d a n c e o f consuming enough a l c o h o l so t h a t p h y s i c a l discomfort  results.  T h i s was t h e d r i n k i n g s t y l e o f t h e  other, smaller c l i q u e . I n t h e absence o f 6 t h e r forms o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t , v i s i t i n g i s the prime r e c r e a t i o n and source o f ego s u p p o r t o u t s i d e o f t h e j o b and  f a m i l y f o r Whites i n the n o r t h .  considerable  F o r those who s o c i a l i z e w i t h  d r i n k i n g , those who do n o t have i n essence r e j e c t e d  - 59 the one who  e n t e r t a i n s and  minimum he may  l i k e s to be so e n t e r t a i n e d .  the  choose t o i n t e r a c t p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h those who  d r i n k as he does; a l t e r n a t i v e l y , he and those who  At  o t h e r s may  join  also  against  have r e j e c t e d t h e i r e n t e r t a i n m e n t s t y l e s and a v e r y i n -  timate p a r t of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l self-esteem. such t e n s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the two m u t u a l l y  I maintain  that  antagonistic cliques  found i n Lake Harbour d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1969-1970. The  i n t r i n s i c c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the I n u i t sub-group i s  problematic  beyond commonplace g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s such as t h a t each  a d u l t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the economic s u r v i v a l o f h i s household group and  t h a t each p e r s o n behaves so as t o m a i n t a i n  s h i p s and  t h a t p e o p l e s h o u l d be generous and n o t s t i n g y .  I  1  l i v e t h a t one  be-  c o n t r i b u t o r t o I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y i s the l a c k o f com-  p a r i s o n s made between a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r and mann 19651  amiable r e l a t i o n -  237-238).  ideal,behaviour  (Honig-  I f Honigmann i s r i g h t , ( a n d , I f e e l t h a t  i s i ) , then I n u i t know when b e h a v i o u r p l e a s e s  he  o r d i s p l e a s e s them'fe  but t h e y do n o t compare b e h a v i o u r t o an i d e a l and  then judge i t  accordingly. A l t h o u g h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l r e v e a l much about the n a t u r e and  l i m i t s of I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y ,  I believe that I w i l l also learn  o f more a r e a s o f b e h a v i o u r which a r e n o t f l e x i b l e , where a course o f a c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d and sanctions.  Along t h i s l i n e , Briggs  the d i s a p p r o v a l and  elicits  given  negative  (1970) c o n v i n c i n g l y d e v e l o p s  r e j e c t i o n o f a n g e r among  the Utkuhiksalingmiut i  (Back R i v e r p e o p l e ) which i s a l s o found (but t o a s m a l l e r degree) a t Lake Harbour.  I w i l l develop below the n e c e s s i t y o f  sharing  - 60 -  information.  I am c o n f i d e n t t h a t r e c o g n i z i n g f l e x i b i l i t y does n o t  b l i n d us t o n o n - f l e x i b i l i t y , i . e . , a c t i o n s which a r e r e q u i r e d , o r s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d , o r t o w h i c h no a l t e r n a t i v e i s a l l o w e d . An example o f d i s a p p r o v e d a c t i o n i s i n t h e h e l p i n g - m e d d l i n g dichotomy which I observed a t Lake Harbour.  Mrs. Freeman, an Inuk  from G r e a t Whale R i v e r , f i r s t made m y s e l f and o t h e r s aware o f t h e dichotomy by t e l l i n g how I n u i t d i s l i k e d r e c e i v i n g h e l p when t h e y d i d n o t seek i t .  She t o l d o f a White g i r l - f r i e n d who was shocked  because Mrs. Freeman d i d n o t h e l p h e r own grandmother c a r r y wet, heavy s e a l s k i n s up t h e h i l l s i d e t o d r y .  As she s a i d , t o have done  so would have been t h e same as s a y i n g t h a t h e r grandmother was weak and i n c a p a b l e .  I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e low key o f I n u i t  interaction,  a q u i t e minor a c t by White s t a n d a r d s c a r r i e s r e a l o v e r t o n e s o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s t o I n u i t ; she warned us a g a i n s t s i t t i n g t o o c l o s e to t h e f r o n t o f t h e s l e d , and n o t t o walk towards t h e dogs.  Both  o f these a c t s would be i n t e r p r e t e d a s t r y i n g t o t a k e o v e r c o n t r o l o f t h e dog team. An example o f I n u i t s e n s i t i v i t y t o o f f e n d i n g w i t h unwanted h e l p o c c u r e d on my f i r s t h u n t i n g t r i p .  As t h e s k i d o o p i t c h e d o v e r  rought shore i c e , t h e t o w l i n e broke and l e f t t h e s l e d stranded.  (and m y s e l f )  Running up t o t h e rope I grabbed h o l d and t r i e d t o p u l l  the s l e d towards t h e smooth i c e . The h u n t e r r a n up and j u s t s t o o d nearby w h i l e I i n e f f e c t i v e l y p u l l e d and s t r a i n e d .  I s m i l e d i n an  embarrassed way and c o n t i n u e d a l o n e i n my v a i n h a u l i n g u n t i l I s a i d " I c a n ' t " ( p i q u d n a n g i l a n g a ) , a t w h i c h he i n s t a n t l y grabbed hold.  - 61 = Yet r e f u s i n g h e l p i s a s n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d  by g o s s i p and  r i d i c u l e a s i s meddling by g i v i n g a i d when i t i s n o t wanted. What i s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two?  A desire f o r  h e l p was o f t e n i n d i c a t e d by a l o o k r i g h t i n t h e f a c e , o f t e n w i t h a l i f t o f t h e eyebrows ( s i g n i f y i n g "yes") o r by an o b l i q u e s t a t e ment t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t a s k , "because t h i s can make one tired"  (taqanagudnammat).  The  helping-meddling  dichotomy can e x p l a i n many i n c i d e n t s  which l e a d Whites t o s a y t h a t I n u i t a r e a p a t h e t i c and ^ u n i n t e r e s t e d i n each o t h e r ' s w e l f a r e .  Many Whites t e l l o f I n u i t g o i n g by camps  f u l l o f hungry p e o p l e and y e t t h e y d i d n o t g i v e r them f o o d .  I f the  hungry p e o p l e d i d n o t a s k f o r f o o d , one c a n see t h a t o t h e r I n u i t would h e s i t a t e t o t a k e e t h e  i n i t i a t i v e t o g i v e and so suggest t h a t  the hungry ones were u n a b l e .  A t Lake Harbour some c h i l d r e n once  bombarded asnewajcanoe w i t h r o c k s and u t t e r l y d e s t r o y e d r e l a t i v e s o f t h e owner s^iro:M eJ3 by w i t h o u t :  i t while  s a y i n g a word.  A poss-  i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t m e d d l i n g would have suggested t h e owner c o u l d n o t take c a r e o f h i s own t h i n g s .  An i n t e r e s t i n g anecdote  from P a r r y ' s 1821 voyage t e l l s o f a man who o v e r t u r n e d  i n h i s kayak,  whereupon " H i s countrymen and women, when t h e y saw him u p s e t , took not the s l i g h t e s t n o t i c e o f h i s d i s a s t e r , but c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r d a n c i n g and b a r t e r , d i d n o t t u r n , t h e i r heads a second time t o see i f he was a l i v e , o r i f any p e r s o n was gone t o his r e l i e f . This b r u t a l i n s e n s i b i l i t y , although d i f f e r i n g from t h e i r b e h a v i o u r when t h e woman's b o a t was s t o v e some days b e f o r e , y e t e x a c t l y a g r e e s w i t h what C r a n t z r e l a t e s o f t h e i n s e n s i b i l i t y o f t h e G r e e n l a n d e r s on s i m i l a r o c c a s i o n s " (Lyon 1824i 25-26). I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t i s w e l l e x p l a i n e d a s due t o t h e  - 62 k a y a k e r ' s kinsmens* u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e a c t i o n w h i c h would sugg e s t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o take; c a r e o f h i m s e l f , f o r Lyon h i m s e l f n o t e d the  a t t e n t i o n t h a t a l l o f t h e men p r e s e n t gave t o t h e women when  t h e i r umiak was s t o v e i n by i c e ; h e r e , s a l v a g i n g a s i n k i n g twenty1  f o o t boat w h i c h was b e i n g towed  a t a f a s t c l i p ( i b i d i 1 9 ) was  p r o b a b l y n o t e x p e c t e d o f t h e women.  T h e r e f o r e no stigma^was i m -  p l i e d by coming t o t h e i r a i d . 3(b).  C o n s i d e r i n g Normative i n t e g r a t i o n a s " . . . t h e degree t o which  conduct i n t h e group conforms t o i t s c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s " , I h e s i t a t e t o g e n e r a l i z e about t h e n o r m a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e I n u i t sub-group i n Lake Harbour because I do n o t y e t have an adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e x t a n t c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s t o judge how much t h e b e h a v i o u r w h i c h I observed conformed t o t h o s e s t a n d a r d s .  F o r ex-  ample, B r i g g s has d e l i n e a t e d anger a v o i d a n c e among t h e Back R i v e r p e o p l e , and I f i n d t h a t , compared t o them, Lake Harbour I n u i t were much f r e e r i n e x p r e s s i n g a n g e r .  I f t h e Lake Harbour p e o p l e see  anger a s l e s s s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e than do t h e Back R i v e r p e o p l e , then t h e two groups have r o u g h l y s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f n o r m a t i v e i n tegration.  But i f a t Lake Harbour anger i s seen a s d e s t r u c t i v e  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a s i t i s a t Back R i v e r , t h e n t h i s B a f f i n I s l a n d p e o p l e have a much h i g h e r d i s p a r i t y between conduct and c u l t u r a l standards.  Only f u r t h e r s t u d y can a l l o w me t o g e n e r a l i z e on n o r -  mative i n t e g r a t i o n . 3(c). the  Communicative i n t e g r a t i o n ( t h e degree t o w h i c h members o f group a r e l i n k e d t o one a n o t h e r by exchanges o f meanings) i s  o b v i o u s l y v e r y h i g h by Landecker's c r i t e r i a o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f  - 63 > p e o p l e w i t h symptoms of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , f o r a t Lake Harbour o n l y one I n u i t household out of t w e n t y - f i v e i s o u t s i d e the web formation flow.  This f a m i l y i s excluded  of i n -  both because they  are  from o u t s i d e o f Lake Harbour and because they have n e i t h e r consanguines n o r a f f i n e s i n the community/ Remembering the e x c e p t i o n noted above, i n f o r m a t i o n was a f r e e r e s o u r c e among the Lake Harbour Inuit» o f f e r e d w i t h no r e t u r n appearing^; n e c e s s a r y .  nearly  i t seemed f r e e l y The  degree t o which  i n f o r m a t i o n approaches b e i n g a f r e e r e s o u r c e among I n u i t i s shown by the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from my  f i e l d n o t e s on a s p r i n g hunt a f -  t e r s e a l s b a s k i n g on the i c e — I was  r i d i n g on the s l e d p'ulled by a  f r i e n d ' s skidoot "Ariuktoq®< had j u s t e n t e r e d an a r e a o f c r a c k e d i c e ( i . e . where s e a l s were l i k e l y t o be found) when he saw someone s k i n n i n g a s e a l . We went o v e r and were soon t a s t i n g raw t i d b i t s o f s e a l . A r l u k t o q asked i f t h e r e were any s e a l s around and he was g i v e n e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i o n s . . . ( i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e ) . . . w h e r e t h e r e were two groups o f s e a l s b a s k i n g . We s e t o f f and he g o t one from each group..." The  i n f o r m a n t was n o t through h u n t i n g f o r the day, and  the i n -  f o r m a t i o n he gave reduced the number o f s e a l s i m m e d i a t e l y  avail-  a b l e t o him, n e c e s s i t a t i n g a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r o u t l a y o f gas  for  him t o have a. chance a t an e q u a l number o f s e a l s .  men  were n e i t h e r f r i e n d s nor opposed to each o t h e r .  The The  two  s o c i a l costs  of e i t h e r r e f u s i n g information or g i v i n g f a l s e or scanty  informa-  t i o n seems t o have outweighed the cash g a i n s p o s s i b l e from so.  doing  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because s e a l - h u n t i n g today  i s p r i m a r i l y f o r the cash o r c r e d i t r e c e i v e d f o r the s k i n and secondayify  fdfeisome^meat.  only  - 64 During  t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g , when the p e o p l e were  a l m o s t a l l l i v i n g i n s c a t t e r e d camps, i n f o r m a t i o n about: h u n t i n g was p r o b a b l y n o t m o d i f i e d o r h e l d back w i t h o u t n e g a t i v e ( g o s s i p and r i d i c u l e ) b e i n g a p p l i e d .  sanction  A f r e e f l o w o f t h i s type o f  i n f o r m a t i o n was v e r y l i k e l y a d a p t i v e n o t o n l y f o r each camp b u t f o r theshousehold,  f o r most ?:game c o u l d be hunted w i t h g r e a t e r e f 1  f e c t i v e n e s s by more than one man ( t h e e x c e p t i o n i s s t a l k i n g s e a l s b a s k i n g on t h e i c e ) , and meat was shared  t h r o u g h o u t t h e camp.  In the c e n t r a l i z e d settlement sharing occurs  settlement-wide  o n l y when l a r g e game ( w a l r u s o r whale) i s t a k e n , and w h i l e t h e cash o r c r e d i t v a l u e o f s k i n s i s c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t ,  t h e men see  themselves a s p u r s u i n g w i t h g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y fewer and fewer seals.  Therefore  I s u g g e s t t h a t one cause behind  the persistence  i n s h a r i n g h u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r each man t o m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f i n t h e g e n e r a l i z e d f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n found among I n u i t , and he can o n l y do so by o f f e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he has; i f he w i t h h e l d i t he c o u l d be sanctioned.(among o t h e r ways) by i n f o r m a t i o n s b e i n g w i t h h e l d from him. 3(d).  L a n d e c k e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n as . . . M  the degree t o which members a r e l i n k e d by exchanges o f s e r v i c e s and goods" i s so s i m i l a r t o Durkheim*s i d e a o f o r g a n i c  solidarity  (as i n t e r p r e t e d by A n g e l l I9681 381) t h a t t h e comments made e a r l i e r i n t h e s e c t i o n on Durkheim a p p l y here a s w e l l .  When t r e a t i n g  the o r g a n i c s o l i d a r i t y o f I n u i t i n c e n t r a l i z e d s e t t l e m e n t s I s t a t e d t h a t "the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f households and i n d i v i d u a l s decreased as f o o d , f u e l and c l o t h e s became more and more a v a i l a b l e through Euro-  - 65 Canadian a g e n c i e s i n exchange f o r s k i n s and f u r s , l a b o u r , o r e v i dence o f d e s t i t u t i o n ( W i l l m o t t 1959'  63-64).  Yet one c r i t i c a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among I n u i t i s on t h e i r f e l l o w I n u i t as t h e group o f s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e , and  f o r t h e numerous  i m p o r t a n t Euro-Canadians a r e s t i l l f o r I n u i t o n l y a means t o  the end o f p r e s t i g e among oifeher I n u i t .  When an Inuk has t o choose  between d i s a p p o i n t i n g and a n g e r i n g a White, o r r e c e i v i n g sanctions  negative  from even one o t h e r Inuk, he w i l l i n v a r i a b l y d i s a p p o i n t  the Euro-Canadian.  T h i s o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y when a Euro-Canadian  a s k s an Inuk t o make a l a r g e c a r v i n g when a l l o f h i s soapstone i s too s m a l l .  R a t h e r than borrow stone from even a c l o s e r e l a t i v e he  w i l l refuse the request. i  D e s p i t e t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g dependence on Euro-Canadian a g e n c i e s for  e s s e n t i a l goods and s e r v i c e s , t h a t c e r t a i n - m e n a r e a b l e t o g e t  more goods and s e r v i c e s does n o t seem t o g a i n them more p r e s t i g e among t h e i r f e l l o w I n u i t .  Damas has p o i n t e d  out' t h a t as more  and more i n d u s t r i a l l u x u r i e s a r e g a i n e d by I n u i t : t h e r i c h man i s i n c r e a s i n g l y e n v i e d more than t h e s u c c e s s f u l h u n t e r (n.d.t  15).  However, I would add t h a t h i s r i c h e s do n o t b r i n g him anyymore p r e s t i g e than t h a t o f t h e good hunter. "' 1  7  T h i s can be shown by  the l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p by t h e s e men and by t h e l a c k o f d e f e r e n c e towards them.  Other i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a on t h i s s i t u a t i o n come from  l o o k i n g a t men's f r i e n d s h i p s .  Two men who have been f r i e n d s f o r  a l o n g t i m e , who v i s i t f r e q u e n t l y , and who have a c l e a r l y t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p are roughly  similar i n prestige.  egali-  I can t h i n k  o f s i x such p a i r s o f f r i e n d s i n w h i c h one o f t h e p a i r had a b i g new o u t b o a r d motor, a new s k i d o o , a c a r p e t , c o n s o l e s t e r e o , and  - 66 washing machine, w h i l e the?-other had an o l d , low-horsepower o u t board motor, an o l d s k i d o o and o n l y t h e f u r n i s h i n g s g i v e n e v e r y one by the government. the In  men  I n f a c t , the two common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  i n such f r i e n d s h i p s a r e t h a t b o t h a r e adequate h u n t e r s .  s h o r t , s i m i l a r p r e s t i g e i s s h a r e d by men who  earn t h e i r  living  i n g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t ways arrdiwith q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ' s l e v e l s o f consumption o f I p u r c h a s e d l u x u r i e s . of  I consider t h i s another aspect  I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y a l o n g s i d e those i n f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  kin-  s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y , community o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n as d e v e l o p e d by W i l l m o t t ( i 9 6 0 1 49-55). Now  l e t me summarize what has been drawn from my d a t a on Lake  Harbour by means o f Landecker*s approach t o s o c i e t a l  integration.  A l t h o u g h b o t h I n u i t and Euro-Canadians i n Lake Harbour s h a r e the  u l t i m a t e ends o f s u r v i v a l and the achievement o f h a p p i n e s s  t h r o u g h m a t e r i a l goods and o t h e r s e n s u a l enjoyment, t h e n a t u r e s o f the  f u l f i l l m e n t o f those ends a r e so d i s p a r a t e f o r the two  that  the  n o r m a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e two groups a s a u n i t ( d e f i n e d as  " . . . t h e degree t o which conduct i n the group conforms t o i t s own standards") i s minimal.  However, the d e s i r e by members o f each  sub-group f o r h a p p i n e s s r e s u l t s i n t h e a c u t e f u n c t i o n a l of  the two  integration  sub-groups.  Euro-Canadians and I n u i t each c o n s i d e r t h e o t h e r group as c h i l d i s h ; Euro-Canadians a r e so c o n s i d e r e d by I n u i t because t h e y are  a l l e g e d l y s e l f i s h and s t i n g y and l o s e t h e i r tempers  easily.  Euro-Canadians t h i n k I n u i t a r e c h i l d i s h because t h e y a l l e g e d l y do not  p l a n f o r the f u t u r e and a r e s e l f - c e n t r e d .  I n u i t show much  - 67  -  more f l e x i b i l i t y i n a p p l y i n g t h e i r s t e r e o - t y p e s t o a c t i o n t h a n do W h i t e s .  While a Euro-Canadian t y p i c a l l y d e v e l o p s contempt f o r  I n u i t i n g e n e r a l o v e r a p e r i o d o f months ( l a r g e l y due t o e n c u l t u r a t i o n by h i s f e l l o w W h i t e s ) , I n u i t t e n d t o c o n s i d e r each  indi-  v i d u a l as u n i q u e , and each Inuk i n t e r a c t s w i t h each Euro-Canadian i n terms o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . the  Next I w i l l summarize  the n a t u r e o f  r e l a t i o n s o f each sub-group i n Lake Harbour v i s - a - v i s the  other. The Euro-Canadians behave l i k e p a r e n t f i g u r e s towards I n u i t , each one b e l i e v i n g t h a t the n a t i v e s s h o u l d behave a s he f e e l s t h e y should.  I n t h e i r exbhanges w i t h I n u i t , Euro-Canadians p l a c e the  maintenance o f a m i a b l e r e l a t i o n s secondary t o t h e i r own  career  g o a l s and t h e i r b e l i e f s a s t o what i s p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r towards Inuit,  Whites o f t e n m a i n t a i n a u n i t e d f r o n t v i s - a - v i s I n u i t .  I n u i t , on the o t h e r hand, r a r e l y / p r e s e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t towards Whites. the  I n n i n e months o f f i e l d work the example g i v e n e a r l i e r  o n l y one o b s e r v e d .  T h e i r b e h a v i o u r towards Euro-Canadians i s  h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the norms e x t a n t i n t h e i r ' own w i t h each o t h e r .  was  relations  One o f t h e s e norms s t r e s s e s the maintenance o f  a m i a b l e r e l a t i o n s , but the means t o a c h i e v e i t a r e open t o c r e a t i v e action. Whites f r e q u e n t l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n from I n u i t b o t h f o r c a r e e r reasons and from c u r i o s i t y , w h i l e I n u i t seldom a t t e m p t t o draw i n f o r m a t i o n from Euro-Canadians, f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n from Euro-Canad i a n s c o u l d o n l y r a r e l y b e n e f i t an i n d i v i d u a l Inuk.  - 68 I n t h e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s t h e I n u i t a r e much more f l e x i b l e than are the l o c a l Euro-Canadians.  W h i l e the l a t t e r a r e governed  h e a v i l y by t h e norms o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a g e n c i e s ,  Inuit  utilize  wage l a b o u r , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g , c a r v i n g , w e l f a r e and o t h e r opp o r t u n i t i e s , each i n a c r e a t i v e , i d i o s y n c r a t i c manner. o f group c r e a t i v i t y by I n u i t a r e l e s s  Examples  frequent.  N e x t , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n t r i n s i c i n t e g r a t i o n o f each sub-group i n Lake Harbour, we f i n d t h a t t h e Euro-Canadians c o n s t i t u t e a m o r a l community due t o agency norms (which r e q u i r e t h a t each White f u l f i l l h i s j o b and c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e o t h e r W h i t e s ) and through c l i q u e s w h i c h a r e based on d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f r e c r e a t i o n . In considering I n u i t c u l t u r a l standards,  one i s s t r u c k by  the low degree t o w h i c h they r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r i n s p e c i f i c circumstances. some e x c e p t i o n s !  T h i s argument f o r f l e x i b i l i t y does n o t obscure the helping-meddling  dichotomy was one d e v e l o p e d ,  a n o t h e r i s t h e s t r e s s on m a i n t a i n i n g a m i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The  h i g h degree o f communicative i n t e g r a t i o n among t h e Lake  Harbour I n u i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e Euro-Canadian sub-group's s i o n i n t o two c l i q u e s .  divi-  The members o f t h e s e c l i q u e s a l m o s t n e v e r  v i s i t e d a c r o s s c l i q u e l i n e s and t h u s formed? two s e p a r a t e  s e t s whose  members t y p i c a l l y communicated o n l y due t o j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s .  I  suggested t h a t t h e f r e e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n among I n u i t r e s u l t e d from each p e r s o n m a i n t a i n i n g him s e l f i n t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , I suggested t h a t a n o t h e r a r e a o f I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y i s i n t h e s i m i l a r l e v e l o f p r e s t i g e shared by men who have veryc  ;  -  69  -  d i f f e r e n t standards of l i v i n g , egalitarian friendships  of  prosperity.  \  A s i g n o f t h i s i s i n the f r e q u e n t  men who  have v e r y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  CHAPTER I V INTEGRATION THROUGH CONSENSUAL RELATIONSHIPS "Kommana, i n o r d e r t o buy my f a v o u r b r o u g h t me a p r e s e n t which he knew I would a p p r e c i a t e s a k n i f e o f anc i e n t p a t t e r n . . . I i m m e d i a t e l y asked him what he wanted i n payment f o r i t but...someone remarked t h a t t h e owne r o f t h e k n i f e was t h e f a t h e r o f Guninama ( f o r Kommana had t a k e n t h e k n i f e from t h e grave o f Guninama*s f a t h e r ) ...She (Guninama) r e p l i e d t h a t t h e k n i f e had belonged to h e r f a t h e r and n o t t o h e r , and t h a t i f Kommana dared t o t a k e t h e r i s k o f removing i t from t h e g r a v e i t was no concern o f h e r s . . . (Stefansson 1 9 1 3 » 3 6 4 - 3 6 5 ) There a r e two f a c e s t o t h e importance o f c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among C e n t r a l I n u i t .  F i r s t I w i l l t r y t o show t h e v a l -  i d i t y o f my t h e s i s t h a t I n u i t s o c i e t y i s i n t e g r a t e d through cons e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e c r e a t e d by/ the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t o r s by t r a c i n g t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d by I n u i t t h r o u g h t h e course o f t h e i r l i ^ e s and i n t h i s way demonstrate t h e i r consensual nature.  I n t h i s way I w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e r i c h  v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which depend on d y a d i c eonsensus t o be i n i t i a t e d and t o c o n t i n u e  operating.  The o t h e r  f a c e o f t h e importance o f c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among C e n t r a l I n u i t Tr.is w i t h t h e l a c k o f imposed a u t h o r i t y and, command among peers.  T h i s w i l l be developed l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r .  P r e - C h r i s t i a n C e n t r a l I n u i t b e l i e f s h e l d t h a t even a c h i l d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g born sometimes i n t e r a c t e d w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e s by r e f u s i n g t o emerge from the womb u n t i l h i s c o r r e c t names o u l was r e c o g n i z e d .  With d i f f i c u l t b i r t h s t h e m i d - w i f e o r mother  c a l l e d out t h e names o f v a r i o u s deceased r e l a t i v e s who sec. s o u l s c o u l d be e l i g i b l e f o r r e b i r t h .  I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t when t h e c o r -  r e c t s o u l was i d e n t i f i e d t h e c h i l d began t o come o u t o f t h e womb.  5 71 Thus, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v e r y i d e n t i t y was but was  manifested  ( B a l i k c i 1970i  by the new  not a s s i g n e d  by  others  c h i l d (from the I n u i t p o i n t of view-)',  200).  Even a mother's l o v e f o r the c h i l d depends on a. r a p p o r t  be-  i n g e s t a b l i s h e d between the t w o — v e r y u n l i k e the b e l i e f i n N o r t h American s o c i e t y t h a t not o n l y must a mother l o v e e v e r y one her c h i l d r e n , but she should l o v e them a l l e q u a l l y .  The  of  mother's  l o v e a n d s a . f f e c t i o n l f p r a . h e r new  c h i l d are seen by I n u i t as d e v e l o p -  i n g through time ( B r i g g s 1970)  (Guemple 1970), and  n o t develop a u t o m a t i c a l l y but can be i n f l u e n c e d d b y One  t h i s l o v e does many f a c t o r s .  of t h e s e i s s e p a r a t i o n from the c h i l d a t b i r t h o r soon a f t e r ,  f o r i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s can p r e v e n t a c h i l d from l o v e i n i t s mother.  S e v e r a l women a t Lake Harbour who  c h i l d to whom she was i t was  due  each had a.  a p a t h e t i c o r even h o s t i l e , e x p l a i n e d  because she and  a t the h o s p i t a l .  arousing  the c h i l d had been s e p a r a t e d  Some b a b i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d  f o r too  inherently  t o appearance, v o i c e o r o t h e r reasons ( B r i g g s 1970» T h i s p r o c e s s o f a. mother's l o v e d e v e l o p i n g  n o t appear v e r y c o n s e n s u a l to W h i t e s , but two k e p t i n mind.  One  long  unloveable, 317)*  through time  t h i n g s should  i s t h a t the I n u i t language " s e e s "  r e c i p r o c a l than does E n g l i s h .  that  may be  l o v e as more  While the standard® formula, f o r  e x p r e s s i n g l o v e i n E n g l i s h i s " I l o v e you",  i n the C e n t r a l I n u i t  d i a l e c t s i t i s phrased n a g l i n a . q t u t i t i  cause one  "You  arouse l o v e " .  The  "You  to love  you",  tagmemic breakdown of the phrase i s i n a g l i q -  ("love), -na.q-(ca.use o n e . . . ) , - t u t i t  (you).  So^ I n u i t tend  strong-  l y to see l o v e as b e i n g aroused i n someone by something, as opposed  - 72 to  o u r f o r m u l a t i o n which s u g g e s t s i n i t i a t i n g l o v e towards  something  else. A n o t h e r I n u i t concept which c o l o u r s t h i s m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p as more c o n s e n s u a l than i n o u r c o g n i t i v e w o r l d i s t h e name-soul w i t h which each c h i l d i s b o r n .  Because t h e name-soul  of a. r e c e n t l y dead l o v e d one animates /the c h i l d from b i r t h , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e c h i l d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h a t p e r s o n , and thus a c t s from h i s own v o l i t i o n animated by t h e s o u l o f h i s dead namesake (Guemple 1969» 4 8 2 ) . In  1 9  trie namesake-giver and n a m e s a k e - r e c e i v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  ( s a u n i k ) as d e s c r i b e d by Guemple (1965) the namesake-giver i s chosen by t h e c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s b e f o r e i t s b i r t h , as i s t h e r i t u a l sponsor (Guemple 19691 4 6 9 ) .  But t h e newborn c h i l d a l s o p a r t i -  cipates i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Because t h e a d u l t r i t u a l  sponsor  i n i t i a t e s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e h c h i l d by t h e g i f t o f a l a y e t t e , from t h e I n u i t p o i n t o f view t h e newborn c h i l d by c h o o s i n g some c l o t h i n g f o r h i s r i t u a l s p o n s o r . of  Various pieces  c l o t h i n g a r e p u t n e a r t h e c h i l d and he soon grabs a t one o f  them. of  reciprocates  O n l o o k i n g Whites might c y n i c a l l y s a y t h a t t h e f i r s t p i e c e  c l o t h i n g t h a t happened t o be grabbed by t h e c h i l d was c o n s i d e r -  ed h i s f i r s t g i f t t o . h i s r i t u a l sponsor ( i b i d t 4 7 1 ) .  But I b e l i e v e  t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g here i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y I n u i t a c cent o f h a v i n g t h e newborn c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p for  t h i s has t h e f l a v o u r o f a s o c i e t y based on consensus. E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r I mentioned mothers who a r e a p a t h e t i c  or the  h o s t i l e towards one o r more o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  L e t me d e s c r i b e  importance o f consensus i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n  - 73 into society. Once these c h i l d r e n b e g i n w a l k i n g and p l a y i n g o u t s i d e , become o b j e c t s of p i t y f o r those Euro-Canadians who  are  they  perceptive  enough to n o t i c e t h e i r ragged c l o t h i n g , t h a t they a r e o f t e n s e n t outside  j u s t because t h e i m o t h e r doesn't want t o see them, and  t h e i r mothers s c o l d them p u b l i c l y and  l e a v e them out of candy and  soda-pop t r e a t s shared by t h e i r s i b l i n g s .  Thus, these c h i l d r e n  u n w i t t i n g l y become propa.ga.nda. f o r Whites who t h a t "Eskimos a r e c r u e l and <-  that  use  s e l f - c e n t r e d " , and  them to argue  i f a White  such a. mother, she i s sometimes answered w i t h the I n u i t o f " W e l l , i t ' s l i k e t h i s , I j u s t don't l i k e him!"  (ilal  berates  equivalent iqianammat).  A g a i n , as w i t h the statement of l o v e , the emotion i s n o t seen so much as o r i g i n a t i n g i n the speaker as b e i n g s t i m u l a t e d by the o b j e c t *  or aroused  the above phrase t r a n s l a t e d l . l i t e r a . l l y as "Because 20  he/she a r o u s e s d i s g u s t i n one,  reallyl"  By a l l the p r e c e p t s of Euro-North-American c h i l d - r a i s i n g these childrehoshould  be u t t e r s o c i a l m i s f i t s f o r h a v i n g been so comple-  t e l y r e j e c t e d by t h e i r mothers.  Yet my a d m i t t e d l y  short-term  ob-  s e r v a t i o n s of s i x such c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t they a l l have h a r monious r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r p e e r s and w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e . these r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e y are open, e x p r e s s i v e  and  reciprocate  c i a l l y so w e l l t h a t one would n e v e r know t h a t t h e y d a i l y what Euro-Canadians b e l i e v e should by t h e i r mothers.  be t r a u m a t i c  r e j e c t i o n and  A good example i s a. f o u r - y e a r - o l d boy who  being treated f o r t u b e r c u l o s i s .  She  so-  withstand  separated*?, from h i s mother f o r a y e a r a f t e r h i s b i r t h because was  In  abuse was she  says she has n e v e r l o v e d  - 74 him  (due to the s e p a r a t i o n ) and  she t i r e s of h i s p r e s e n c e .  o f t e n sends him o u t s i d e because  T y p i c a l l y , when he enters?; the house  she abuses him f o r t h r e e t o f i v e minutes w h i l e he stands still,  t e a r s streaming  opening n e r v o u s l y . not submissive follow.  and  stock  down h i s f a c e and h i s hands c l e n c h i n g  and  Yet when p l a y i n g w i t h h i s p e e r s he i s open, f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t s games w h i c h the  others  With o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s h i s shyness i s average  f o r h i s p e e r s and he i s n o t as shy as some who r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r mothersv  have a "normal"  I would say t h a t i n h i s o t h e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s he shows no s i g n s o f h i s mother's r e j e c t i o n . I b e l i e v e t h i s i s because he f i n d s s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h both p e e r s and  o l d e r p e o p l e w h i c h r e f l e c t back an adequate image  of himself. The means by w h i c h these c h i l d r e n have r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s i n the community v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from c h i l d to c h i l d . I n one h a l f o f the cases an a d u l t ( e i t h e r consanguine o r a f f i n e ) f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s care of the c h i l d ; t h i s a d u l t o f f e r s him  tidbits  o f meat, o f f e r s t e a and bannock and an a f f e c t i o n a t e g e s t u r e a l l of the o t h e r a d u l t s p r e s e n t i g n o r e the c h i l d .  No one  t h i s r o l e ; so f a r as I know i t i s n e i t h e r approved n o r  while  assigns  disapproved  o f , but r e s u l t s e n t i r e l y from the p r o t e c t i v e f e e l i n g s aroused  by  the c h i l d , and i t does n o t seem t o be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n any  way.  A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e compensatory mechanism f o r these c h i l d r e n i s the a t t e n t i o n g i v e n them by o l d e r c h i l d r e n — i n a. v e r y p r o t e c t i v e manner an o l d e r c h i l d makes sure the s m a l l e r one g e t s h i s t u r n o r s u g g e s t s a s p e c i a l a b i l i t y such as s i n g i n g , a n i m a l  imita-  - 75 t i o n s , d a n c i n g o r s e x u a l pantomines and i n t h i s way  the o l d e r  c h i l d h e l p s the younger t o share i n the a u d i e n c e ' s a p p r o v a l . Yet a n o t h e r i n t e g r a t i n g mechanism f o r the r e j e c t e d c h i l d (as; f o r a l l I n u i t ) i s the company o f h i s p e e r s .  Lake Harbour I n u i t  i n f o r m a l l y d i v i d e themselves i n t o age s e t s , and the normal  inte-  g r a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p e e r s b e g i n s t o b i n d them to p e o p l e who  w i l l be i m p o r t a n t t o them a l l o f t h e i r  lives.  Among I n u i t an orphan i s a. p r e - a d o l e s c e n t who  has no one t o  c a r e f o r him due t o the death o f a. p a r e n t ( o r b o t h p a r e n t s ) and who  e i t h e r has no c l o s e consanguines  o r those t h a t he does have  do n o t h e l p him (Guemple 1970t 74-78).  Yet a c h i l d c o u l d n o t  s u r v i v e i n the A r c t i c w i t h o u t c l o t h e s , food and a p l a c e t o s l e e p . There were no i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d means o f p r o v i d i n g these goods and s e r v i c e s f o r him (Guemple 1970i 74-85).  The one  complete  l i f e - h i s t o r y we have o f an Inuk orphan i s the a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f N u l i g a k (1971) and i n i t he s t a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e a t d i f f e r e n t times advanced these r e s o u r c e s t o him.  A more emic way  of  s e e i n g t h e i r response t o the orphan* s d e p r i v a t i o n would be t o say t h a t he aroused p i t y i n them and t h e r e f o r e t h e y  responded.  N u l i g a k r e l a t e s how h i s f a t h e r d i e d and he was a i d e d a t v a r i o u s times by h i s grandmother (who sewed and k e p t house f o r him w h i l e she l i v e d ) , by h i s own mother (who kept him i n the household whene v e r one o f her husbands would t o l e r a t e N u l i g a k * s p r e s e n c e ) ; by a. S i b e r i a n couple who and gave him new  were t r a v e l i n g t h r o u g h , saw and p i t i e d  f u r c l o t h e s ; and by v a r i o u s o t h e r p e o p l e who  moved t o h e l p him ( i b i d ) . clear.  him, were  The l a c k o f p a t t e r n i n g i n t h i s h e l p i s  - 76 But some may q u e s t i o n whether such a i d i s p a r t o f s o c i e t a l integration.  Remembering t h a t we a r e d e f i n i n g i n t e g r a t i o n a c c o r d -  i n g t o Smend as " t h e c o n s t a n t u n i f i c a t i o n " o f t h e members o f s o c i e t y , we n o t e t h a t such a i d t  (a) a l l o w e d a p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c e r  o f food t o s u r v i v e t o t h e age where he c o u l d b r i n g i n meat (and N u l i g a k became a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e h u n t e r indeed) and (b) demons t r a t e d t o t h e orphan t h a t p e o p l e were n o t w h o l l y a p a t h e t i c t o him and t h a t he d i d count a s a p e r s o n who ,could p a r t i c i p a t e i n interactions with others. W i l l m o t t notes that i n I n u i t s o c i e t y the:"...household i s rendered f l e x i b l e i n membership by t h e mechanism o f a d o p t i o n , which d i s t r i b u t e s c h i l d r e n between households more e q u i t a b l y than does n a t u r e a l o n e " (I960t 5 0 ) . The a d o p t i o n r a t e among I n u i t i s h i g h ; W i l l m o t t found i t a t P a r t H a r r i s o n t o be 16% o f t h e c h i l d r e n under f i f t e e n , and some o f these were s e r i a l a d o p t i o n s w i t h a. c h i l d g o i n g from one household to another ( i b i d ) .  I n 1969 t h e a d o p t i o n r a t e a t Lake  Harbour  was 13.1%. a l m o s t unchanged from t h e 12.5% found i n i 9 6 0 by G r a burn ( I 9 6 l t 1 6 ) , However, Guemple makes a c o n v i n c i n g argument t h a t f o r I n u i t b o t h a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s a r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y adopt e d , and t h e r e f o r e t h e number o f p e o p l e who have e v e r been adopted i n t h e i r l i v e s r i s e s t o 30% ( B e l c h e r I s l a n d s ) and p r o b a b l y t o 5 0 % 21 i n some groups,  f o r 36% o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e adopted a t N a i n (Ben  Dor 1966) and 37% i n P o r t H a r r i s o n p r o p e r ( W i l l m o t t 1959« 9 3 ) . Related to the process of I n u i t adoption i s the consensual 22 nature o f ' a l l I n u i t consanguineal r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a l lsocial rela-  - 77 l a t i o n s h i p s must be v a l i d a t e d t h r o u g h time by p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t o r they cease t o e x i s t .  I estimate t h a t a lapse of ten years  without  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t can n u l l i f y s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , more d i s t a n t t i e s i n l e s s time.  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h i s i s n o t because  the p e r s o n f o r g e t s h i s l o n g unseen k i n ; when asked  to l i s t h i s  b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , f o r example, the l a p s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p n o t be mentioned.  But i f q u e s t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y he w i l l  will simply  say "Because I have n o t seen him/her f o r a l o n g time" ( t a k q a n i akunia.luk)lta.kunginama). at  Guemple says t h a t u n c o n t a c t e d  relatives  Great Whale R i v e r and the B e l c h e r I s l a n d s a r e c a l l e d by k i n -  s h i p terms but a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d r e a l r e l a t i v e s (1970t  39)•  C o n v e r s e l y , Guemple shows t h a t i n I n u i t s o c i e t y an adopted c h i l d becomes i n t e g r a t e d i n t o h i s new s i b l e i n Euro-North  f a m i l y t o a degree n o t n p o s -  American s o c i e t y , w h i l e s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y main-  taining a f f e c t i o n a t e relationships with h i s n a t u r a l parents.  The  reason f o r t h i s seeming paradox l i e s i n the d i f f e r e n t v i e w s h e l d by each s o c i e t y on the n a t u r e o f p a r e n t - c h i l d bonds. Euro-North  American s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s t h a t "...each p a r e n t  makes a body-substance c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c h i l d a t i t s c o n c e p t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the bond o f *blood' * i s c r e a t e d between the !  c h i l d , i t s p a r e n t s , and s i b l i n g s " (Guemple 1970i' 119)•  T h i s blood  bond i s c o n s i d e r e d so p o w e r f u l t h a t i t i s a. p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t to t i e s c r e a t e d by a d o p t i o n , and so every e f f o r t i s made to p r o t e c t the a d o p t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p from it»  the adopted c h i l d i s then  t o l d , o r a l l o w e d to b e l i e v e , t h a t i t i s the n a t u r a l c h i l d o f i t s new  p a r e n t s ; o r , the c h i l d and i t s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s communicate  - 78 o n l y through an i n s u l a t i n g agency.  I f a. c h i l d l e a r n s t h a t i t i s  adopted i t f r e q u e n t l y s u f f e r s a n x i e t y f o r a t l e a s t two reasons» f i r s t , about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s r e a l p a r e n t s , which i t s h a r e s through t h e blood-bond;  and second, because o f t h e r e a l i z a -  t i o n t h a t i t i s " o n l y " adopted and n o t a " r e a l " c h i l d i n i t s own f a m i l y as i t had b e l i e v e d (ibid» 119-124).  I n u i t view  child-par-  ent bonds v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y : " . . . t h e y s t r e s s p h y s i c a l presence i n t h e household as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f f a m i l y membership;...and they emphasize n u r t u r a n c e — s y m b o l i z e d as the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g o f f o o d - s c a r e i n s i c k n e s s , and t h e s h a r i n g o f a. r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f p e r s o n a l r i t u a l associated with child rearing.•.the giving of p e t names and nicknames, t h e s t e a c h i n g (and l e a r n ing) o f d u t i e s and f a m i l y ' l o r e * , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f persons t o p r o v i d e i n t e r l o c k i n g r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s — a l l these and o t h e r elements s e r v e t o i n t e g r a t e the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o t h e f a m i l y household. Eskimos a l s o s t r e s s a t t i t u d e s and s e n t i m e n t s a s v i t a l t o f a m i l y membership. These a r e phrased i n terms o f l o v e and l o y a l t y " ( i b i d t 124-125). Furthermore,  I n u i t b e l i e v e that the c h i l d takes i t s char-  a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t r i b u t e s and s e n t i m e n t s from i t s r i t u a l (as  relatives  i n t h e name-soul t i e ) and n o t from i t s p a r e n t s o r c l o s e con-  sanguines  (ibid» 1 2 5 ) .  Guemple found t h a t h i s i n f o r m a n t s had v e r y d i f f e r e n t  expec-  t a t i o n s about t h e s u c c e s s o f i n f a n t ass'd c h i l d a d o p t i o n s , as opposed to a d o p t i o n s o f a d o l e s c e n t s o r a d u l t s and t h e s e d i f f e r e n t  expec-  t a t i o n s g i v e us some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f i n t r a h o u s e h o l d i n t e g r a t i o n from t h e I n u i t v i e w p o i n t .  He found t h a t t h e r e was  a n x i e t y about a d o p t i n g a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s because I n u i t  felt  t h e y might j u s t s t a y i n t h e new household and d e r i v e b e n e f i t s until  they saw a. b e t t e r chance elsewhere and would then move on.  -  79  -  But no such f e a r s were e v e r e x p r e s s e d about i n f a n t - c h i l d a d o p t i o n s . The a n x i e t y about a d o l e s c e n t a d u l t a d o p t i o n s a r e p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e r e c i p r o c a l terminology of adoption!  i n f a n t s a r e adopted and a f t e r  a s h o r t p e r i o d c a l l e d "son" o r "daughter" by t h e i r a d o p t e r s and respond w i t h " f a t h e r " o r "mother".  C h i l d r e n adopted p a s t i n f a n c y  a r e u s u a l l y c a l l e d ' p o t e n t i a l son o r daughter" and answer w i t h "pot e n t i a l f a t h e r o r mother" u s i n g t h e -sag p a r t i c l e which means "potential..." or "material f o r . . . " .  A d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s , on  the o t h e r hand, a r e c a l l e d t i q u a k ("adopted"),  and t h e r e i s no  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t they a r e e m o t i o n a l l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e l y bound t o t h e i r adopted h o u s e h o l d .  S e n t i m e n t a l t i e s t o household members  a r e b e l i e v e d t o develop through c h i l d h o o d and a r e n o t expected t o become i n t e n s e when begun i n a d o l e s c e n c e o r a d u l t h o o d , " . . . t h e s e n t i m e n t s a r e more o f t e n g r a t i t u d e and a c c e p t a n c e , n o t those o f familial solidarity"  (ibidj  87-88).  I t i s my view t h a t Guemple r e a l l y e l i c i t e d t h e emic i n t e g r a t i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r a l l j u n i o r f a m i l y members when h i s i n f o r m a n t s t o l d him, i n e f f e c t , t h a t t h e y f e l t c o n f i d e n t about i n f a n t - c h i l d a d o p t i o n s because these l o n g - t e r m r e l a t i o n s h i p s developed  suffi-  c i e n t l y s t r o n g s e n t i m e n t a l and a f f e c t i o n a t e t i e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e addptees  i n t h e i r new households.  I f sentimental-affectionate t i e s are considered s u f f i c i e n t to i n t e g r a t e i n f a n t - c h i l d adoptees i n t o t h e household then s u r e l y they are a l s o e m i c a l l y considered s u f f i c i e n t to i n t e g r a t e the c h i l d r e n o f t h e p a r e n t s , f o r , as i t was p o i n t e d o u t above, I n u i t view c h i l d - p a r e n t bonds as o r i g i n a t i n g from l o n g - t e r m  interaction,  - 80 e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h n u r t u r a n c e (ibid» 124-125).  Conversely,  since  t i e s o f dependence (Durkheim*s o r g a n i c s o l i d a r i t y ) a r e n o t c o n s i dered s u f f i c i e n t t o keep a d o l e s c e n t - a d u l t  a d o p t e r s i n the house-  h o l d , t h e y a l o n e would a l s o n o t keep c h i l d r e n born i n t o the househ o l d u n i t , f o r thestemptations  t h a t draw the o l d e r adoptees away 23 from the household e x i s t a s w e l l f o r them. There a r e two f a c e s t o the importance o f c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among C e n t r a l I n u i t j one has a l r e a d y been i l l u s t r a t e d — t h e r i c h v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which depend on d y a d i c  • consensus f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . l a c k o f imposed a u t h o r i t y and  The o t h e r f a c e o f the i s s u e i s the command among p e e r s .  These p a r a g r a p h s a r e n o t i n t e n d e d  a s a thorough s t u d y o f  l e a d e r s h i p a t Lake Harbour f o r t h a t would demand e x t e n s i v e ment i t s e l f . my  treat-  R a t h e r , I w i l l o n l y r a i s e those i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o  t o p i c of mutually  consensual s o c i a l  relations.  Weyer ( I 9 3 2 i 212-213) c i t e s a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g p r e - 1 9 3 0 sources as saying that C e n t r a l I n u i t l e a d e r s h i p c o n s i s t s o f g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degrees o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o the o p i n i o n s o f one o r more o l d e r , c a p a b l e men»  ( B i r k e t - S m i t h 1929 I i 259) (Boas 1888t  173) ( H a l l 1864i 316) (Hawkes 19l6i 110(}> ( M a t h i a s s e n  1928sli  (iasmussen 1 9 2 7 « 283) (Rink 1887« 27) (Turner 1887« 101).  209)  Later  s o u r c e s w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e Honigmann (19651 234) and V a l l e e (19671 201-204), w h i l e W i l l m o t t  ( 1 9 5 9 « 63-69) r e c o r d s  large  boat-ownership a s a l e a d e r s h i p p r e - r e q u i s i t e a t P o r t H a r r i s o n , ; ; . Damas (1963a8184) and Graburn (19631 17-19) s t r e s s t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s of leaderships  b e i n g a t the head o f a. l a r g e k i n group, ownership  - 81 o f a P e t e r h e a d boat ( o r t r a p b o a t ) and p e r s o n a l i t y . Graburn f u r t h e r s t r e s s e s t h a t a s e c u l a r l e a d e r i s heeded o n l y a s l o n g as he b e n e f i t s h i s f o l l o w e r s (19691 4 8 ) . I bel i e v e t h a t t h i s puts the proper p e r s p e c t i v e t o C e n t r a l I n u i t l e a d e r s h i p , f o r the other three s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a ders mentioned by Damas a r e o n l y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g l e a d e r s h i p i f they y i e l d b e n e f i t s t o h i s f o l l o w e r s .  F o r example, i n  Lake Harbour t h e r e i s an o l d e r man who i s t h e head o f a l a r g e k i n group, he owns t h e o n l y P e t e r h e a d boat and has a v i g o r o u s and considerate p e r s o n a l i t y .  T h e r e f o r e , by Damas' c r i t e r i a he s h o u l d  be a l e a d e r , y e t he i s n o t , w h i l e a n o t h e r man w i t h a s m a l l e r boat i s d e f i n i t e l y l e a d e r o f t h e camp p e o p l e , a much s m a l l e r k i n group.  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two men i s t h i s — i n t h e  s e t t l e m e n t s i t u a t i o n t h e o l d e r man cannot a c t as an i n t e r m e d i a r y towards any r e s o u r c e any more than s e v e r a l o t h e r a d u l t men w h i l e the camp l e a d e r ' s knowledge and d i r e c t i o n a r e o f d i r e c t b e n e f i t to h i s k i n group i n camp.  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION To conclude t h i s paper I would l i k e  to consider several issuesi  one i s t h e b a s i c v a l i d i t y o f t h e f l e x i b i l i t y concept when a p p l i e d to s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t h e o t h e r i s s u e s a r e those problems r a i s e d for  t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t by t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f I n u i t s o c i e t y . I c o n s i d e r t h e concept o f f l e x i b i l i t y t o be most u s e f u l when  viewed as a tendency which i s found i n v a r y i n g degrees i n d i f f e r e n t aspects of a c u l t u r e .  Honigmann n o t e d t h a t i t does n o t suggest  complete p e r m i s s i v e n e s s (1959» 120) n o r does f l e x i b i l i t y mean an i r r e g u l a r , haphazard and u n s t r u c t u r e d m i l i e u , as Stevenson b e l i e v e s (1972t 4, 8 ) . F l e x i b i l i t y s o c i e t a l preference  was used i n t h i s pa.per as a l a c k o f  among s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n .  chose t h i s d e f i n i t i o n because i t f i t t e d  I  my i d e a o f f l e x i b i l i t y a-  mong I n u i t as a s t r o n g tendency n o t t o s a n c t i o n n e g a t i v e l y t h e use o f d i s s i m i l a r means f o r a c h i e v i n g approved ends as l o n g as those means a r e effective;.].  Some o f t h e s e ends a r e a m i a b l e i n t e r - p e r s o n -  a l r e l a t i o n s , t h e maintenance o f i n d i v i d u a l autonomy and g a i n i n g p r e s t i g i o u s d u r a b l e commodities ( f u r n i t u r e , a p p l i a n c e s , e l e c t r o n i c equipment, e t c . ) w h i c h i n c r e a s e comfort and p l e a s u r e .  Earlier,  w i t h t h e m e d d l i n g - h e l p i n g dichotomy, I showed t h a t t h e r e i s a r e j e c t i o n o f some b e h a v i o u r , f o r example, i m p o s i t i o n on an d u a l ' s sense o f p e r s o n a l autonomy.  rigid  indivi-  When d i s c u s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n -  f l o w among I n u i t I suggested t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r an Inuk t o m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f i n t h e f l o w o f communications, and he c o u l d do so o n l y by s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  The importance o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s  -  83 -  c l e a r i n the comments o f a v e r y a c c u l t u r a t e d young F r o b i s h e r Bay Inuk when she was t e l l i n g me o f an o l d man who goes i n l a n d j u s t a two-dog teami  with  there was c l e a r a p p r o v a l i n her v o i c e when  she s a i d , "And you know, he gets those c a r i b o u " . Graburn p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g view o f I n u i t s o c i e t y when he suggests  t h a t behind  the apparent  f l e x i b i l i t y there r e a l l y l i e s a.  l i m i t e d number o f s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s which a r e implemented i n a v a r i e t y o f waysi "1.  2. ;'3»  4. 5«  F o r men, l i f e i s a c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r e s t i g e i n v o l v i n g ! a) the a c q u i s i t i o n o f women by any means p o s s i b l e b) the p r o d u c t i o n o f as many c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e ( e s p e c i a l l y males) and c) the procurement o f s u f f i c i e n t game to feed as many wives and c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e with enough l e f t over to be generous to o t h e r s . Times o f p l e n t y a r e a time f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n and genero s i t y . . . b u t the search f o r p r e s t i g e remains a s a l i e n t consideration. L i f e goods and some o f the marks o f p r e s t i g e a r e f r e q u e n t l y so s c a r c e as to be u n a v a i l a b l e to a seeker unl e s s he makes a concerted e f f o r t to deprive another o f these goods. The f u t u r e i s by no means e n t i r e l y p r e d i c t a b l e and i s o f t e n s u b j e c t to f o r c e s beyond one's c o n t r o l . L i f e l o s e s i t s value f o r one who can no l o n g e r p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the p r e s t i g e c o m p e t i t i o n " (Graburn 1969b« 4 ? ) .  The"personal "1. 2. 3. 4. 5« 6. 7.  s t r a t e g i e s " which r e s u l t from these are»  Consider one's own s e l f above a l l others i n a l l t h i n g s . Take every o p p o r t u n i t y f o r self-enhancement o f p r e s t i g e or s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . Never r i s k s e l f o r p r e s t i g e u n l e s s such r i s k s a r e unavoidable. T e s t every s i t u a t i o n and person to see how much one i s l i a b l e to g e t away w i t h s a f e l y . Manipulate one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n to every advantage. Beware o f and take steps to appease the many f o r c e s o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l . Accept s i t u a t i o n s when they cannot be helped (ajurnaqnamat) ...(ibid).  - 84 He then says t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s a r e "...an a l m o s t c o n s t a n t atmosphere o f c o m p e t i t i o n which l e a d s t o f r u s t r a t i o n , a g g r e s s i o n , r e a c t i o n and v i o l e n c e ...(because) c l o s e - k i n and m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s may f a i l t o p r o v i d e a n e c e s s a r y r e s t r a i n t upon v i o l e n t s o c i a l interactions" (ibid t 48). A s i d e from my doubts about t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e above p r i n c i p l e s , I am s t r u c k byrthe^gap between them and t h e f l e x i b l e , c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r found among I n u i t .  often  And I do n o t see how t h e  warm, m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , e m o t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s found among I n u i t c o u l d develop i n a. s o c i e t y as t e n s i o n - r i d d e n and i n t e n s e l y compet i t i v e as t h a t suggested by Graburn.  I know t h a t h i g h l y i n t e n s e  c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r s among I n u i t , b u t I b e l i e v e t h a t he over-emphas i z e s i t t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f components t h a t do n o t i n d u c e s t r e s s . A s o c i e t y as s t r i f e - r i d d e n as t h a t suggested by Graburn c o u l d h a r d l y show f l e x i b i l i t y ,  f o r h i s i n i t i a l formulation a l l o w s only f o r the 24  escalation of c o n f l i c t . of  F u r t h e r m o r e , he i g n o r e s t h e female h a l f  t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r v a l u e s and p r e s t i g e In  system.  h i s case h i s t o r i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who most c l e a r l y exem-  p l i f y h i s b e h a v i o u r a l d i r e c t i v e s a r e murderers and p h i l a n d e r e r s who a r e k i l l e d , abandoned o r a v o i d e d ( i b i d t  50-52).  However, he d e f i n e s f l e x i b i l i t y as "an a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o n f r o n t Eskimo i n d i v i d u a l s and groups" (ibid» 5 6 ) . I support t h i s  assessment.  The n e x t i s s u e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e t h o s e problems i n unders t a n d i n g I n u i t s o c i e t y which a r e suggested by t h e f l e x i b i l i t y in Inuit social interaction.  found  W i l l m o t t o r i g i n a l l y r a i s e d these i s -  - 85 sues ( i 9 6 0 i 57-58), they were mentioned i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , I w i l l approach them w i t h the d a t a and  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s developed  i n t h i s paper. One  i s s u e i n v o l v e d the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the l o c a l group.  Will-  mott noted t h a t " . . . k i n s h i p i s n o t the p r i m a r y mechanism f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z e d  camp, but r a t h e r the economic c o - o p e r a -  t i o n o f the h o u s e h o l d s , p r i m a r i l y i n the use o f a x l a r g e boat" ( i b i d * 57).  The  statement i s v a l i d f o r Qiudjuak camp ( n e a r Lake  H a r b o u r ) , f o r the f o u r households t h e r e c o - o p e r a t e p r i n c i p a l l y one group o f f a t h e r and son-in-law. brothers.  as  son, and a n o t h e r group o f f a t h e r , sons and  T h i s i s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the two C o - o p e r a t i o n between these two b r o t h e r s  fathers  are  i s minimal, a l -  25 though t h e y share meat r e g u l a r l y . t r u e f o r the Lake Harbour s e t t l e m e n t f o r "organized  camp?'' and  i n the s e t t l e m e n t  • Willmott*s i f we  omit r e f e r e n c e  statement i s a l s o  substitute  "settlement"  t o the l a r g e b o a t s ,  which  a r e no l o n g e r a f o c u s of community l e a d e r s h i p .  Other forms of c o - o p e r a t i o n  a t Lake Harbour a r e c l e a r l y more  c o n s e n s u a l i n n a t u r e than k i n - b a s e d , f o r h u n t i n g p a r t n e r s a r e more o f t e n d i s t a n t k i n than c l o s e k i n , and money l o a n s a r e g i v e n  as  f r e q u e n t l y to d i s t a n t k i n as to c l o s e k i n . A n o t h e r problem i s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p ment « "...how does the c h i l d g a i n h i s sense of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ? How does he l e a r n l t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s s t a t u s and cons e q u e n t l y , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r members o f the s o c i e t y ? I t has been assumed by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . . . t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y comes from the unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t and c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y mother and c h i l d . I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y may develop w i t h o u t  - 86 such a unique r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s d e f i n e d as endowed with e x t r a - o r d i n a r y emotional i n t e n s i t y ? ( i b i d t 57). In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r I suggested t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p ment among I n u i t i s f r e q u e n t l y through ego's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h ageset  p e e r s and sometimes w i t h n o n - p a r e n t a l a d u l t s who  r e l a t e t o the  c h i l d s o l e l y from i n d i v i d u a l v o l i t i o n and n o t because o f group p r e s s u r e n o r even a p p r o v a l .  Furthermore, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t  p e e r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t f o r p r e - a d u l t s today i n the s e t t l e m e n t s than t h e y were when the m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e l i v e d i n camps; both I n u i t ( P i t s e o l a k 1971) and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ( g r a b u r n 1969a» 164) have d e s c r i b e d i n c r e a s i n g m i s b e h a v i o u r by young p e o p l e  and  t h e i r l a c k o f response t o p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l as compared t o when t h e y were i n camps.  They a l l c i t e the p r e s e n t - d a y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f  c h i l d r e n as the cause of most m i s b e h a v i o u r .  This indicates that  f o r m e r l y e h i l d r e n s ' p e e r groups i n c u l c a t e d v a l u e s concordant w i t h a d u l t v a l u e s whereas today some a s p e c t s o f " E s k i m o s " ^ down on by the young. c h i l d who  are looked  So o f t e n I heard c h i l d r e n j e e r a t a n o t h e r  had d i r t y e a r s s a y i n g i n E n g l i s h "He  Eskimo" o r t h e y would r i d i c u l e a c h i l d who " f o u r " ; "He  0  very d i r t y , very  s a i d pua i n s t e a d o f  v e r y s t u p i d , v e r y , v e r y Eskimo".  Whether t h i s r e p r e -  s e n t s j u s t y o u t h f u l one-up-manship o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i r or  something  identity  i n between i s d i f f i c u l t t o say.  Yet what a r e some r e s u l t s o f p e r c e i v i n g f e l l o w members o f your e t h n i c group as d e p r e c a b l e ?  I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t p r e s e n t data  a l l o w s us t o answer the q u e s t i o n but I advance two explanations.  One  alternative  i s t h a t i f an Inuk o r i e n t s h i s b e h a v i o u r to a.  g e n e r a l i z e d I n u i t group then h i s r e j e c t i o n o f "Eskimoness" t h a t he would pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o I n u i t v a l u e s .  means  Guemple (1970t  - 87 186-190) and L u b a r t (1971' 42-45) s a y t h a t t h i s has a l r e a d y happened w i t h l a r g e numbers o f I n u i t women who y e a r n f o r a lifestyle  through u n i o n s w i t h male Whites.  Euro-Canadian  However, i f my a r g u -  ment i s v a l i d t h a t I n u i t i n t e g r a t i o n i s s o l e l y t h r o u g h  consensual  d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , then i t seems l i k e l y t h a t an Inuk c o u l d r e j e c t some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f "Eskimoness"  and y e t s t i l l  partici-  pate f u l l y i n l o n g - t e r m r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some I n u i t ? and these would c o n s t i t u t e h i s r e f e r e n c e group.  I see much t o  s u p p o r t t h i s view even i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e g i r l s i n Lake Harbour and F r o b i s h e r Bay who sought White boy f r i e n d s and husbands. They r e j e c t e d I n u i t c l o t h i n g ( i n f a v o u r o f American  I n d i a n o r White  d r e s s ) , arranged m a r r i a g e s and g e n e r a l l y c o r r e c t b e h a v i o u r by I n u i t standards.  Y e t they s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  those whom they l i k e d , took p r i d e i n s p e a k i n g t h e I n u i t  language,  v i s i t e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s who were o f t e n v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l , and r e c i p r o c a t e d work and food w i t h those I n u i t whom they l i k e d .  U n l i k e Guemple and L u b a r t , I saw none who had complete  l y rejected their heritage. The b a s i c i s s u e here i s whether t h e I n u i t group o f r e f e r e n c e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r i s a g e n e r a l i z e d group o r i s i t speci f i c i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o r b o t h , andSunder what c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? to  The l i t e r a t u r e and my d a t a p r o v i d e no answer  t h i s q u e s t i o n , and i t seems a v e r y d i f f i c u l t one t o approach,  l e t a l o n e answer r i g o r o u s l y . W i l l m o t t saw a n o t h e r problem i n t h e h i g h a d o p t i o n r a t e c u r r e n t among I n u i t , f o r t h e r e l a t i v e ease o f a d o p t i o n ( f o r the p a r e n t s ) combined w i t h  - 88 -  " . . . t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f p e r s o n a l i t y damage t o c h i l d ren r e s u l t i n g from even r e p e a t e d a d o p t i o n s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t i e s between^parents and c h i l d r e n a r e e a s i l y broken, e a s i l y made. T h i s would suggest t h a t n e i t h e r p a r e n t n o r c h i l d f e e l s an overwhelming sense o f unique r e l a t i o n s h i p " (I96O1 5 7 ) . As w i t h t h e " n e g l e c t e d " c h i l d r e n mentioned i n t h e l a s t chapt e r , I suggest t h a t t h e r e i s so l i t t l e e m o t i o n a l trauma f o r adopt e e s because t h e i r p e e r group i s a. v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t group o f r e ference.  F u r t h e r m o r e , f o r I n u i t n u r t u r a n c e and a f f e c t i o n a t e emo-  tional interaction f u l l y integrate  c h i l d r e n i n t o a household, while  Euro-Canadians see a d o p t i o n s t h r e a t e n e d by t h e p o w e r f u l b l o o d bond which i m p l i c i t l y t i e s t h e c h i l d t o h i s b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t s (Guemple 1970» 1 1 9 ) . A n o t h e r problem r a i s e d by I n u i t f l e x i b i l i t y i s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n each u n i t o f s o c i e t y , f o r " . . . i f p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e not  s t a n d a r d i z e d a s v a l u e s and d e f i n e d  t o f i n c l u d e deep e m o t i o n a l  c o n t e n t , what produces s o l i d a r i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e s o c i e t y , i n t h e l o c a l group, o r i n t h e f a m i l y ? "  (Willmott  I96O1  5 7 ) . My  argument i s t h a t each o f these u n i t s i s i n a c t u a l i t y composed o f a l l o f t h e d y a d i c c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t between two p e o p l e , and these d y a d i c c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t i n what i n t e g r a t i o n t h e r e i s between I n u i t .  One e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s view  i s the l a c k o f brokerage between I n u i t , f o r t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n does n o t a l l o w "B" t o be an i n t e r m e d i a r y f o r "A" towards "C". A l l such r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g I n u i t a r e d e r i v e d sense and i n f l u e n c e  o f Euro-Canadians.  from the p r e -  I n . f a c t , when l o o k i n g a t  the h i s t o r y o f t h e a r e a one i s s t r u c t by t h e degree t o which t h e  -  89  -  p r e s e n c e o f Euro-Canadians has f o s t e r e d ponse t o e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l boats (Willmott out  I n u i t leadership  as a r e s -  environment t h r o u g h l a r g e  i960) and n o t t o e x p l o i t t h e W h i t e s .  e a r l i e r , t h e f r e q u e n t a t t e m p t s by I n u i t t o u t i l i z e  As p o i n t e d Whites a r e  i n s t i g a t e d by t h e Inuk a s a d y a d i c c o n s e n s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , so t h a t t h e Inuk approaches t h e White whom he f e e l s can be t r u s t e d and/or m a n i p u l a t e d , even though, f o r example, t h e Euro-Canadian i s a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t and the problem i s i n h o u s i n g o r e d u c a t i o n . The h i g h degree o f mutual c o n s e n s u a l i t y i n I n u i t d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t s i n a. h i g h o r d e r o f n e g o t i a b i l i t y o v e r t h e cont e n t o f those r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  An e a r l i e r c h a p t e r p o i n t e d out t h a t  l i t t l e can be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d about any r e l a t i o n s h i p  including  t h a t between mother and c h i l d , a s w e l l a s between p e e r s .  This  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f I n u i t s o c i e t y i s c r i t i c a l l y dependent on p e o p l e v o l u n t a r i l y e s t a b l i s h i n g support.  t i e s o f dependence and  FOOTNOTES 1.  I am i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r B u r r i d g e f o r t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n .  2.  T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e concept o f ethos used i n h i s Kaska monograph, f o r he has e l i m i n a t e d m o t i v a t i o n from c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( i b i d t 1 0 7 ) .  3.  Examining K r o e b e r and Weakland we f i n d t h a t f o r t h e former s t y l e i s "...a c o h e r e n t , s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t way o f e x p r e s s i n g c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r o r p e r f o r m i n g c e r t a i n a c t s " and i t i s "concerned m a i n l y w i t h form and p o s s e s s i n g some c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e forms operated w i t h ; p l u s a coherence o f these i n t o a s e t o f r e l a t e d l a r g e r p a t t e r n s " ( 1 9 5 7 ' 150, 2 6 ) . F o r Weakl a n d , form i s " . . . t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f symbols i n a message" ( 1 9 5 8 » 3 8 9 ) • A l l t h r e e o f these terms ( e t h o s , s t y l e and form) a r e so u n s p e c i f i c as t o make t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n difficult. I can v i s u a l i z e each o f them r e f e r r i n g t o abstractions a t different levels of generality.  k»  Of t h e s e s i x a s p e c t s o f I n u i t e t h o s , o n l y one was n o t found i n Lake Harbour. H i s f e a t u r e "C. A n a r c i s s i s t i c i d e a l i z a t i o n o f p t h e s e l f . . . " and i t s development i n t h e - t e x t i s j u s t n o t s u p p o r t e d , n o r does i t agree w i t h a n y t h i n g t h a t I observed a t Lake Harbour.* Hhe second p a r t o f t h i s a s p e c t i s " . . . a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's a c t i o n s " — a l t h o u g h some b e h a v i o u r was observed w h i c h c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s , I am n o t p r e p a r e d t o s a y t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t n o r t h a t i t i s so i m p o r t a n t a s to deserve b e i n g c a l l e d one o f t h e dominant q u a l i t i e s o f I n u i t life.  5.  Dr. B u r r i d g e p o i n t e d o u t t o me t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s group as political.  6.  George D i v e k y ,  7«  I see i n f o r m a t i o n * f l o w a s a s e r v i c e y i e l d e d by group members f o r each o t h e r . But i t i s j u s t as w e l l t o have i t a s a sep^ a r a t e c a t e g o r y f o r t h i s draws a t t e n t i o n to- i t , a s i s p r o p e r c o n s i d e r i n g i t s i m p o r t a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , I would c o n s i d e r the f l o w o f goods as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n — w h y he o m i t s them i s p u z z l i n g f o r i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e he i n c l u d e s them w i t h s e r v i c e s t o comprise f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n (Landecker 1 9 5 2 « 3 9 6 ) .  8.  U n l e s s s t a t e d i o t h e r w i s e , t h e d e f i n i t i o n s and c r i t e r i a f o r Landecker*s f o u r t y p e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n a p p l y here a s w e l l .  9.  T h i s quote i s from a l e c t u r e by Mrs. M i n n i e Freeman on how a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s h o u l d behave towards I n u i t i n o r d e r t o m i n i mize s t r e s s e s . M r s . Freeman i s an Inuk from G r e a t Whale R i v e r .  i n conversation, February 1 9 7 2 »  -  91  The l e c t u r e was i n November, 1969* a t M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y , S t . J o h n s , Newfoundland. 10.  T h i s sentence r e p h r a s e s Mrs. Freeman's e x p l a n a t i o n o f I n u i t shyness towards s t r a n g e r s ; November, 19^9» M e m o r i a l U n i v e r sity.  11.  And I heard q u i t e a l o t o f t a l k about o t h e r W h i t e s , because the I n u i t seemed to b e l i e v e t h a t I u n d e r s t o o d l e s s than I d i d and they seemed to f e e l s a f e t o t a l k u s i n g nicknames and c i r cumlocutions.  12.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y I have l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on women's f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o u t s i d e of I n u i t s o c i e t y . However see Guemple (1970s 186-190) on the i n c r e a s i n g number o f young I n u i t women who r e j e c t m a r r i a g e to I n u i t and u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r y to marry Whites.  13.  I say t h i s because those who p r i n c i p a l l y hunt have p l e n t y o f meat ( u s u a l l y ) and d i s t r i b u t e i t around w h i l e l a c k o f meat o f t e n seemed t o prompt those who "hunt i n o r d e r t o c a r v e " to go out h u n t i n g .  14.  T h i s i s i n d r a m a t i c c o n t r a s t t o F r o b i s h e r Bay, where e v e r y employer whom I c o n t a c t e d complained t h a t the I n u i t men came to work l a t e , competed among themselves i n s e e i n g how l i t t l e they c o u l d do, and f r e q u e n t l y used up t h e i r v a c a t i o n - t i m e and s i c k - t i m e and more by j u s t t a k i n g o f f and g o i n g h u n t i n g . I p l a n t o l o o k i n t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the two communi t i e s i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l when I r e t u r n t o Lake Harbour.  15*  Men tend to s e t s h o r t e r t r a p - l i n e s i n p o o r y e a r s and l o n g e r t r a p - l i n e s i n good y e a r s . Thus, the y i e l d i n f o x s k i n s f l u c t u a t e s more i n a m p l i t u d e than does the f o x p o p u l a t i o n .  16.  These f i g u r e s a r e based on i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d from the Lake Harbour H.B.C. f u r r e c o r d s f o r 1967 t h r o u g h , and i n c l u d i n g 1970. Mr. George C r o s t o n and the H.B.C. a r e s i n c e r e l y thanked f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s to t h i s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n .  17.  H i s l u x u r i e s do g a i n him p r e s t i g e (and even resentment) among the l o c a l Euro-Canadians, who may even m i s t a k e n l y t r a n s f e r i d e a s from t h e i r own c u l t u r e about a f f l u e n c e and i n f l u e n c e and t h e r e f o r e assume t h a t he g a i n s l e a d e r s h i p because of h i s wealth.  18.  The o n l y case I know o f the phrase n a g l i q t o o , "he l o v e s " o c c u r s i n the New Testament when s p e a k i n g of God o r J e s u s . The p o i n t seems to be t h a t They l o v e us o f T h e i r own v o l i t i o n and n o t because t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g i n h e r e n t l y l o v e a b l e about us degenerate s i n n e r s which c o u l d arouse T h e i r l o v e .  19.  Yet d e c r e a s i n g l y so w i t h age, a l t h o u g h even mature a d u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n terms of t h e i r name-soul r e l a t i o n s h i p s as c a u s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Guemples i b i d ) .  - 92 20.  Mrs. M i n n i e l F r e e m a n r e p o r t s t h a t i n G r e a t Whale R i v e r c h i l d r e n a r e t r e a t e d " c r u e l l y " ( a s seen by the White p o p u l a t i o n ) b u t the mother does so t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c h i l d f o r the t r i a l s t h a t l i e ahead o f i t i n i t s ' l i f e . This i s c a l l e d " b i t t e r i n g " , but I do n o t have t h e I n u i t word f o r i t .  21.  T h i s f i g u r e i s from Guemple (1970i 1 8 ) .  22.  I mentioned o n l y c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s here because I do n o t know how a f f i n e s f i t i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n . I s u s p e c t t h a t t h e y l a p s e even more q u i c k l y than do c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e lationships.  23.  The emic importance o f a f f e c t i o n and s e n t i m e n t i n i n t r a - h o u s e h o l d i n t e g r a t i o n . m a k e s e m o t i o n a l - c o g n i t i v e s t u d i e s such as B r i g g s (1970) even more i n t e r e s t i n g .  24.  I n f a c t he does d e s c r i b e " r e a c t i o n s t o c o n f l i c t " but t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t h i s b e h a v i o u r a l p r i n c i p l e s (Graburn 1969b! 47,48).  25.  I thank George D i v e k y ( g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t U.B.C.) f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Qiudjuak camp.  26.  I use t h e word Eskimo here because o f t h e ^ p e j o r a t i v e connot a t i o n which i t f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e s .  BIBLIOGRAPHY ANGELL, ROBERT GOOLEY 1968 °Social I n t e g r a t i o n ^ i n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , David L. S i l l s , ed., V o l . 7, pages 380-386, M a c m i l l a n Co. and The Free P r e s s . 1  BALIKCI, ASEN 1964 Development o f B a s i c Socio-Economic U n i t s i n Two E s kimo Communities. N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, B u l l e t i n 202, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s No. 69. Ottawa. 1970  The N e t s i l i k Eskimo. C i t y , New York.  The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , Garden  BEN DOR, SHMUEL . 1966 Makkovikt Eskimos and S e t t l e r s i n a L a b r a d o r Community. I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and Economic R e s e a r c h , M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y , S t . J o h n s , Newfoundland. Newfoundland S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s , No. 4. BIRKET-SMITH, KAJ 1929 The C a r i b o u Eskimos. R e p o r t o f t h e F i f t h Thule Exped i t i o n 1921-1924, v o l . 5, Copenhagen. BOAS, FRANZ 1888 The C e n t r a l Eskimo, r e p r i n t e d 1964 by U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , L i n c o l n , N e b r a s k a . BRIGGS, JEAN L. , 1970 Never i n Anger, t h e P o r t r a i t o f an Eskimo F a m i l y . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s s e t s . BULIARD, ROGER 1963 Inuk.  Macmillan,  London.  C00LEY, C. H. .... 1909 S o c i a l Organization. York.  C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r and Sons, New  DAMAS, DAVID . . . 1963 I g l u l i g m i u t k i n s h i p and L o c a l G r o u p i n g s ! A S t r u c t u r a l A p p r o a c h . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 196, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s , No. 6, Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . n.d.  C e n t r a l Eskimo s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and EWorld v i e w , ( u n p u b l i s h e d m.s.)  DUNNING,'R. ». 1959 ."'Eahnii^c R e l a t i o n s and t h e M a r g i n a l Man i n Canada*Human O r g a n i z a t i o n 1 8 f 3 ) ' 117-122. s  - 94 FLECK, JAMES 1969 Steinmann o f t h e N o r t h . FLEMING, ARCHIBALD LANG 1965 A r c h i b a l d the A r c t i c .  MacLeans pages 37-42, A u g u s t . Saunders o f T o r o n t o L t d .  GOVE, PHILIP B. 1970 F l e x i b i l i t y - i n Websters T h i r d New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y , S. & C. Merriam Co., S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s s e t s . GRABURN, NELSON H. H. I963 Lake Harbour, B a f f i n I s l a n d , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S o c i a l and Economic Problems o f a S m a l l Eskimo Community. N o r t h e r n C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Research C e n t r e , Department of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , Ottawa. 1969a  Eskimos w i t h o u t I g l o o s t S o c i a l and Economic Change i n Sugluk, L i t t l e Brown and Co., New York.  1969b  Eskimo Law i n t h e L i g h t o f S e l f - and Group I n t e r e s t . Law and S o c i e t y Review 4(1)1 45-60.  GUBSER, NICHOLAS J . I965 SSheiiNunamiut Eskimos.  Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven.  GUEMPLE, D. L. 1965 S a u n i k i Name S h a r i n g as a F a c t o r G o v e r n i n g Eskimo K i n s h i p Terms. E t h n o l o g y 40-3)» 45-60. 1969  The Eskimo R i t u a l Sponsor« A Problem i n t h e F u s i o n o f Semantic Domains. E t h n o l o g y 8 ( 4 ) t 468-483.  1970  Eskimo A d o p t i o n . I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and Economic Research!, Memorial U n i v e r s i t y , S t . Johns Newfoundland.  HALL, C. F. 1864 L i f e w i t h t h e Eskimo. ( r e p r i n t e d 1938).  M. J . H u r t i g L t d . Edmonton,  HAWKES, E. W. 1916 The L a b r a d o r Eskimo. Memoir 91» G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s No. 14, Ottawa. HIGGINS, G. M. 1967 The South C o a s t o f B a f f i n Island:* s An A r e a Economic Survey. A.E.S.R. #67/2. I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , D e p a r t ment o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, Ottawa. HONIGMANN, JOHN J . AND IRMA 1959 Notes on G r e a t Whale R i v e r E t h o s . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a 1» 106-21 1965  Eskimo Townsmen. p o l o g y , Ottawa.  Canadian Research C e n t r e f o r A n t h r o -  - 95 HOMANS, G. C. 1950  The Human Group. H a r c o u r t , Brace and World I n c . , New York.  KEMP, WILLIAM 1971 The Flow o f Energy i n a H u n t i n g S o c i e t y . S c i e n t i f i c Ame r i c a n 224(3)1 1 0 5 f f , September. KROEBER, A. L. 1957 S t y l e and C i v i l i z a t i o n s . Cornell University Press, I t h a c a , New York. LAING, R. 1969  The P o l i t i c s o f E x p e r i e n c e . Pantheon Books, New York.  LANDECKER, WERNER S. 1950 Smend's Theory o f I n t e g r a t i o n . S o c i a l F o r c e s 291 39-48. 1951  Types o f I n t e g r a t i o n and t h e i r Measurement. American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y LVI (1950-51), 332.  1952  I n t e g r a t i o n and Group S t r u c t u r e ! S o c i a l F o r c e s 301 394-400.  An A r e a f o r R e s e a r c h .  LUBART, JOSEPH M. I969 Psychodynamic Problems o f A d a p t a t i o n - Mackenzie D e l t a Eskimos, N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e Research Group, Ottawa. LYON, GEORGE FRANCIS 1824 The P r i v a t e J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n G. F. Lyon o f H.M.S. H e c l a , D u r i n g t h e Recent Voyage o f Discoveryllnfle.r Capt a i n P a r r y , ( r e p r i n t e d 1970) I m p r i n t S o c i e t y , B a r r e , Massachussets. MATHIASSEN, P. 1928 M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e o f the I g l u l i k Eskimos. Report o f t h e F i f t h Thule E x p e d i t i o n , 1921-1924, V o l . 6, Copenhagen. MILLWARD, A. E., ed. 1930 S o u t h e r n B a f f i n I s l a n d , An Account o f E x p l o r a t i o n , I n v e s t i g a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e P a s t F i f t y Y e a r s . F. A. A e l a n d , Ottawa. NEWCOMB, T. M. 1950 S o c i a l Psychology. NULIGAK 1971  PITSEOLAK 1971  The Dryden P r e s s , New York.  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(Unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver) ? 1  TURNER, LUCIEN ' .. _ 1887 On t h e I n d i a n s and Eskimos o f t h e Ungaya D i s t r i c t , L a b r a d o r . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, V, s e c t i o n 2. VALLEE, FRANK ,.. 1967 Kabloona and Eskimo i n t h e C e n t r a l K e e w a t i n . The Canad i a n Research C e n t r e f o r A n t h r o p o l o g y , S a i n t P a u l U n i v e r s i t y , Ottawa. WARNER, WILLIAM AND P. S. LUNT 1941 The S o c i a l L i f e o f a Modern Community, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven. WEAKLAND, JOHN H. 1950 - F a m i l y imagery i n a Passage by Mao Tse-Tung;', P o l i t i c s o X i 387-407.  World  WEYER, EDWARD M. 1932 The Eskimos, T h e i r Environment and Folkways. Archon Books ( r e p r i n t e d 1969). WILLMOTT, W. E. 1959 An Eskimo Community ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , McGill University). 1960  -The F l e x i b i l i t y o f Eskimo S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n * Ant h r o p o l o g i c a l N.S. l i t 48-59. v  

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