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Myth in the work of Apollinaire Strange , Derek Ernest 1972-4-12

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MYTH IN THE WORK OF APOLLINAIRE by DEREK ERNEST STRANGE B.A. University of Warwick, England, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL-FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of French We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Throughout the work of Apollinaire are to be found references to mythological figures and incidents, drawn from many different areas of myth ology and legend, both ancient and more modern. Apollinaire had a taste for somewhat bizarre and esoteric detail, such as these references. But they are clearly not interspersed throughout his writing in a gratuitous manner: it would seem that each one fits into a larger plan of the poet's inspiration and creation. The aim of this examination of myth in the work of Apollinaire is to try to trace a link between his interest in, and references to myths, and his own artistic expression. There appears to be a synthesis of the two elements of traditional mythology and personal expression, .which transforms both elements into a peculiarly Apollinairian form of myth. Personal inspiration draws upon mythology and, at the same time revitalizes the myths themselves, freeing them from the immobility,of tradition. For Apollinaire, myth becomes a constituent part of what he called"1'esprit nouveau", which was a new, free form of spiritual adventure. After attempting to define the areas of mythology and legend from which Apollinaire draws most often, we shall use these precisions in studying some aspects of Apollinaire's poetic imagery, to see how he incarnates and animates certain aspects of myth in his own way. In this is to be found an important aspect of Apollinaire's renovation of myth,, in which myth merges with new, sur prising images of the new kind of poetry that was being formed after the Symbolists. The solar myth, and other myths of fire, for example, are taken u by Apollinaire to the end of a personal poetic expression. Similarly, water, music or shadows are used to illustrate or dramatize Apollinaire's individual ii interpretations and transformations of myth. Finally, as a kind of cross-reference, we will turn to Apollinaire's biography in order to discuss the possible role played by mythology in his views and attitudes towards his own life and experiences. In some poems, for example, he likens himself to certain aspects of the figure or myth of Orpheus or Christ. His own life, and above all, his writing, bears this imprint of mythology, and, on the other hand, the myths that he uses bear the imprint of Apollinaire himself. From a reciprocal transformation such as this comes a new attitude to myth, which becomes part of the "new spirit", and also part of the vague legend of Apollinaire himself. Apollinaire's treatment and use of myth thus appears, in the context of early 20th century poetry, as an overture to a new poetic vogue, the themes of which were to be embellished by the Surrealists. His poetic and mythological example shows that 20th century poetry had not entirely broken with the former spirit and tradition of poetic mythology, but had merely adapted it to reflect the spirit of its own creation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I Page Introductory definitions of myth 1 Chapter II Ancient myths and mythological characters 14 Chapter III Myths of creative and destructive fire 39 Chapter IV • Myths of death and rebirth in water, shadow, music and flowers 55 Chapter V Apollinaire: personal life and myth 73 Chapter VI Conclusion: towards a new myth 95 Bibliography 103 Appendix 110 1 INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS OF "MYTH" A study of "myth" in the work of any writer must necessarily start from some general notions of what "myth" is, and of its different constituent parts. It is therefore necessary to attempt to define and clarify the terms to be used, before embarking upon consideration of the work itself. For this reason, we have chosen to distinguish between five words which would appear to relate to five distinct, yet sometimes overlapping aspects of "myth". These are: "myth" itself, the word which will be used to encompass all the variety of facets to be discussed, but which has a significance peculiar to itself only; legend, which must be considered separately as one particular aspect of what is loosely called "myth"; symbol, archetype, and image or metaphor of all sorts, which are seen as further abstract aspects of "myth", as well as the "plastic" manifestations, the material by which "myth" is often expressed and illustrated. All of these are to be found in the work of Apollinaire, and they provide interesting landmarks in his work, and in the "myth" of his work, or his imagination. Some interesting definitions of the meaning of the words "myth" or "mythology" are to be found in the works of those who have specialized in the study of "myth". Professor C. Kerenyi collaborated with C.G. dung in the writing of Essays on a science of mythologyJ An attempt to establish a "science  of mythology" seems perhaps unnecessarily technical, and risks destroying the essential beauty of mythological creation, though it may shed an interesting 1 ight" on- the- psychological processes of such a- creation. However, for- our purposes, part of the definition of Kerenyi will serve as a good point of 2 departure: A particular kind of material determines the art of mythology, an immemorial and traditional body of material contained in tales about gods and god-like beings, heroic battles and journeys to the Underworld - "mythologem" is the best Greek word for them -tales already well known but not unamenable to further reshaping. Mythology is the movement of this material: it is something solid? yet mobile, substantial yet not static, capable of transformation. Kerenyi goes on to emphasize the creation of mythology as being an art: "held fast as the mythologems are in the form of sacred traditions, they are still in the nature of works of art". In these words Kerenyi points out one of the principal characteristics of the creation of myths, which is its sacred, or religious nature. The myth is a pattern for human behaviour within a society and civilisation. The creator or the re-shaper of myths, the artist, takes on something of this religious sanctity in the very act of creation, or re creation. The artist is then, a founder who draws strength from, and builds upon the original source of myth. This is one of the peculiarities of myth as distinct from legend, symbol, archetype, and so on. "It is no groundless generalization to say that mythology tells of the 4 . origins or at least of what originally was," writes Kerenyi later on, and his "generalization" is supported by the theories of other myth-specialists. One other such specialist of note is Mircea Eliade, who emphasizes the met aphysical importance of myth in writing: Myth narrates a sacred history; it relates an event that took place in primordial time, the fabled time of the ^beginnings" The actors in myths are Supernatural Beings. Eliade goes on to give a point-by-point definition of myth which it will ~ be interesting to bear in mind when thinking of "myth" in the writings of Apol 1 i na i re: In general it can-be said that myth, as experienced by archaic societies, (1) constitutes the History of the acts of the Supernaturals; (2) that this History is considered to be 3 absolutely true ... and sacred; (3) that myth is always related to a "creation", it tells how something came into existence, or how a pattern of behaviour, an institution, a manner of working were established ...; (4) that by knowing the myth one knows the "origin" of things and hence can control and manipulate them g at will ...; (5) that in one way or another one "lives" the myth ... In the life and "mythology" of Apollinaire we will find evidence of most of these aspects of the myth, as defined by Eliade, not least of which, its "sacred" aspect, with which Apollinaire closely identifies the poet, the artist, and himself. For Apollinaire, the artist, as creator, and "founder" in contact with the "origin", is himself a divinity: Avant tout, les artistes sont des hommes qui veulent devenir inhumains. lis cherchent peniblement les traces de 1'inhumanite, traces que I'on ne rencontre nulle part dans la nature. El les sont la^ve'rite et en dehors d'elles nous ne connaissons -. - aucune re*al ite. What more clear confession of aspiration to divinity, and of belief in the myth of the artist? It is not contradictory to what has been said up to now, to say that myths are not necessarily about gods. They^are not necessarily sacred or religious. Indeed, the sort of myths to be found in the work of Apollinaire are often of a secular type. :. They become divine particularly when associated with the personal aspirations of the poet towards the divinity of a creator. Poems such as "Le Larron" or "Les Collines" will be discussed in this light in a later section. When speaking of the "secular myth", however, we encroach already upon the territory of legend, which is the second thing that pure myth is not. Myths, specific though they may be in their depiction of character and setting, are usually set in a timeless past. Details of contemporary life may appear in myth, but these are probably the complications of the influence of legend. Myths are not folktales, whereas legends often are. Philippe 4 Renaud, in his work on Apollinaire, points out a further distinction between myth and legend: ... le mythe a pour protagonistes les dieux, la legende des mortels, qui sont bien souvent des heros dans I'acception antique du mot: des hommes cherchant „ £tre dieux, des fi demi-dieux de naissance. So the artist, as creator, in identifying himself with the sacred and with the "original" is not himself mythical, however closely.he aligns himself with the examplary characters of myth. He becomes rather, as he presents himself in his life or work, a case of legend. That is, he can create around himself a hazy aura of mystery, which will give rise'to legend. Rimbaud's life in Africa has something of the legendary about it, being mysterious and relatively undocumented. Alfred Jarry, in assuming the identity of his own Pere Ubu, intentionally became a living legend, a curiosity and a mystery. Apollinaire too, created an air of legend around some of the facts of his own life, probably to.emphasize his taste for the bizarre, which has itself become legendary. As these examples show, legend, as opposed to myth, relates to mortal men whose lives offer material of interest to the imagination that will elaborate them into legendary dimensions. The historical truth of events and personalities is re-shaped into legend just as the tales about gods were seen to be for the formation of myth. Symbol, as we have said, is one of the other constituents of myth. It is one of the devices used to illustrate the content of myth. In his book on Myths in.French literature, Pierre Albouy clarifies what he sees as the role of symbol in the creation of myth: Aussi bien le symbole est-il, plus que 1'allegorie, proche du mythe ... Le symbole, en supprimant la distinction entre 1'image et la notion, rend plus difficile et plus incertain le raisonnement qui permet de traduire la signification de l'embl_me; II se revile 5 susceptible d*interpretations variees ... C'est ce qu'est plein-ement le mythe; 1'apologue, la parabole visent a laisser transpar-aftre un sens clair; le mythe se veut difficile, et, moins encore que le symbole, se laisse reduire a une explication unique. The meaning of any symbols to be found in the works of Apollinaire will, in accordance with the theory of Albouy, be seen to be open to numerous interpretations. The symbol can serve a multiple function also. The immediate poetic predecessors of Apollinaire were, of course, the symbolists. Apollinaire has often been said to show strong traces of their influence, particularly in his earlier works. Indeed, he wrote in La Phalange nouvelle: ... Les symbolistes furent les premiers objets de nos enthous-iasmes, et tous ceux qui, depuis 1895, ont cree de la poesie ,Q doivent de la reconnaissance aux martres aimes du symbolisme. The symbol would appear to offer the poet, be he symbolist or Apollin aire, an expression of the unknown by analogies to the known, and also, in Jung's words, "ignotum per ignotius", the unknown through the even more unknown. Symbolic experience appears to go beyond rationalization, comprehension of it being attained by means of image, rather than by abstract concepts alone. Jung saw some overlap in the roles and definitions of the symbol and the archetype - one of the psychological concepts with which he was part icularly concerned. Jung held that all human beings possess an inborn tendency to form some general symbols which are manifested in the mind through myths, dreams, fantasies and folk-tales. As evidence in support of this theory, Jung said that certain general symbols such as "mother earth", "the sun", "the animus and the anima", etc., do recur frequently in myths and dreams, as if by instinct. We are verging now on a definition of the archetype, which can most simply be said to be a sort of "static symbol". The "static symbol", or the archetype, cannot be reshaped itself, as ca.n,-thermyth5; the legend or aven: tha lit arary\ syinbol: But a:n a^ch.2*yp.e;..i.s: -• 6 nevertheless in itself a kind of symbol. In Renaud's book on Apollinaire, we find Orpheus described as "archetype et patron des poetes qui veulent forcer les limites de 1'humanite, decouvrir les mysteres et reveler un univers sacre . .."^ Clearly Renaud wishes to emphasize the exemplary, pattern like aspect of the figure of Orpheus for Apollinaire, this being one of the major characteristics of the archetype. However, the role and function of the archetype is more complex than just this. Without delving too far into the technicalities of psychology, it is interesting to return to some of the ideas of Jung. Jung sees the archetype as being an inherited pattern of behaviour or scheme of functioning, which man expresses in the form of archetypal images and forms - such as the image of Orpheus as described by Renaud. In an interview with another psychologist, Jung described arche types in this way: They are Instinctual images that are not intellectually invented. They are always there and they produce certain processes in the • unconscious that one could best compare with myths. That's the origin of mythology. Mythology is a pronouncing of a series of images that formulate the life of archetypes. So the statements of every religion, of many poets, etc., are -jp statements about the inner mythological process ... Myths and archetypes do have certain features in common, as Jung points out, and archetypes appear in myths, as for example, does the "archetypal" figure of Orpheus. But archetypes appear as involuntary manifestations of unconscious processes whose existence and meaning can only be guessed and interpreted, whereas myths deal with traditional, thus more intentional forms of cultural history. Archetypal behaviour by the archetypal figure in an archetypal situation becomes an example within the context of myth, just as Renaud points out that Orpheus is, in a sense, an example to the poet searching out a myster ious and sacred universe. However, the archetype may be finally only an image 7 that is held in the unconscious mind, to which some external reality, be it mythical or living, must correspond before the archetype will function as an artistic or narrative device. A good example of a "matching up" or an application of archetypes to the end of artistic analysis is to be found, for example, in Gaston Bachelard's book La Poetique de la reverie , where the writer adopts the Jungian distinction between the archetypes of "animus" and "anima" to use them in an evaluation of the mental state of poetic reverie that may precede poetic creation. The most commonly found of the components of myth in the work of Apollinaire is the image, or the metaphor. Certain metaphors and groups of metaphors recur frequently in his writing, and they play an important part in the creation of an Apollinairian mythology, as we shall hope to show. Charles Mauron, a prominent figure in the field of literary psycho-criticism, has entitled one of his critical works Des Metaphores obsedantes au mythe  personnel. Introduction a la psychocritique."^ Although we will not attempt a psychocriticism of Apollinaire's works in this study, it will still be interesting to approach not only his personal myth, but also his whole use of myth from the point of view of the "metaphores obsedantes" that can be most easily discerned and interpreted. Roland Barthes would doubtless call such an analysis "thematique". The theme, for Barthes, is not only seen as part of the realm of ideas and ideology, but is seen as an object or a being that demonstrates a certain quality or sensation that recurs repeatedly, seemingly . expressing some sort of obsession - which brings us back to the ideas of Mauron. Alcools, for example, is a subtle combination of external qualities and'sensations: fire, water, stars, inebriation, flowers, and" so on, that appear frequently, and-of ideas of a cultural, spiritual, religious or mythol ogical kind. The external images and sensations are often used to illustrate 8 or to embroider upon some mythological or ideological framework. Thus, when an image is noticeably recurrent it may well be that the underlying ideology or obsession also recurs. Images, as part of the literary fabric of the writing, can in this way offer indications of some possibly hidden significance of the ideas or of the mind of the writer. Baudelaire expressed the same idea in these words: La Nature est un temple ou de vivants piliers Laissent parfois sortir de confuses paroles; L'homme y passe a travers des forests de symbol es Qui 1'observent avec des regards familiers Comme de longs exhos qui de loin se confondent Dans une t£nebreuse et profonde unite And in his book on Apollinaire, Renaud points to the possibility of a similar "correspondance". Les donnees fondamentales d'Alcools: mort, dispersion, regard, chant, remembrement, mythe orphique de la poesie ont des liens necessaires avec des schemes dynamiques profonds ...; elles en ont d.'autres, importants aussi, avec des formes de pensee -heritees de la poesie et de la mythologie. Apollinaire uses a. theme at various levels of consciousness, thus drawing fully upon the psychological depths of the inspiration afforded by that theme. It is not amiss to speak of Apollinaire's imagery with such strong reference to its possible psychological sources. The poet himself was beginning to be aware of the importance of the mind's processes in poetic creation when he spoke of "1'esprit nouveau", and when he wrote "Onirocritique", but his immediate successors, the Surrealist poets based much of their work on an exploration of the mind's workings, of the imagination. Also, as Albouy says: "L'etude du mythe est, en fait, inseparable de celle de 11 imagination et de 1' imaginaire" . ^ Baudelaire had called the imagination "la reine des facultes", and had already pointed towards the importance of the imagination in an exploration of new and marvellous worlds of experience: C'est 11 imagination qui a enseigne a I'homme le sens moral de la couleur, du contour, du son et du parfum. El 1e a cree, au comm encement du monde, l'analogie et la metaphore. El 1e decompose toute la creation, et, avec les mateViaux amasses et disposes suivant des regies dont on ne peut trouver I'origine que dans le plus profond de I'cime, elle cree un monde nouveau, elle produit la -,g sensation du neuf. L'imagination est la reine du vrai, et le possible est une des 2n provinces du vrai. Elle est positivement apparentee avec l'infini. In these words Baudelaire seems to foresee the interest that Apollinaire would have in the "merveilleux" of the artistic imagination, of which he speaks often in his discourse on L'Esprit Nouveau and in his articles on Les Peintres Cubistes. Later on the Surrealists too were interested in the mystery and the "merveilleux" of the image and the imagination. Breton wrote: II faut rendre grace aux decouvertes de Freud L1 imagination 2i est sur le point de reprendre ses droits. and again, on the subject of the "merveilleux": ... le merveilleux est toujours beau, n'importe quel merveilleux 22 est beau, .il n'y a meme que le merveilleux qui soit beau. As we said earlier, myth has a certain mystery-content, and a certain rel igious mysticism about it. The imagination that gives birth to an image of the sort implied by the words of Breton certainly draws on the "merveilleux" and explores it. In examining some of the images and patterns of images 5 in the writing of Apollinaire, it is their content of "merveilleux" that may shed some light upon the mysteries of his myths, his legend, his symbolism and" his mind. The strangeness of an image can point to* some myst'erfbus depth of consciousness, or to some magic inspiration that is part of the myth of his art, or of his mythical thought. 10 So, the image provides some guide into the imagination of the poet, where the creation, and possibly also the significance, of myth, legend, symbol or archetype are to be encountered. For this reason, an examination of the themes and images that are used to express the myth and its many contributory forms will occupy a major part of this study. ***** The intention of this study of Myth in the work of Apollinaire is, therefore, to try to trace some link between mythological references as they are formulated in the poet's mind, and his own poetical creation. Out of the synthesis of these two factors will emerge some idea of Apollinaire's 'literary myth', which is defined in this way by Albouy: Le mythe TitteYaire est constitue par (le) re'cit, que l'auteur traite et modifie avec une grande liberte, et par les sig- 23 nifications' nouvelles qui y sont alors ajoutees. The synthesis is that of the two basic ingredients of personal inspir ation and cultural, mythological heritage, which at the same time links and transforms both elements. Personal inspiration draws upon myth and draws closer to a mythical reality in so doing, and myth itself is liberated from the immobility of history in becoming more personal and more alive. In the case of Apollinaire, myth can become part of the expression of "1'esprit nouveau", for example. We will firstly try to distinguish some of the areas of classical mythology and legend in which Apollinaire is most interested, and from which he draws most in the mythological references to be found in his writing. Certain mythical characters would appear to be more significant to him than 11 others, as we shall see. Secondly, we shall attempt an analysis of some of the most important aspects of Apollinaire's imagery in the light of the discoveries made about his mythological preferences. "Myths" of fire constitute a large part of his imagery, and a certain link with a mythological framework would seem to underlie them: the Sun and the solar myth, in particular, interest Apollinaire. Similarly, underlying the images of water, shadow, flowers and music, as they are used by Apollinaire, would appear to be some reference to mythology, which make these images part of Apollinaire's own universe of "myth": these images, as he uses them, echo and illustrate or animate certain mythical incidents. . In the last section, we shall deal more specifically with the possible role played by mythology in Apollinaire's own life, and in the formation of his personality. Certain aspects of his personal life bear interesting similarities to mythology, of which he was certainly aware, and which, as we shall show, he exploited in certain of his poems. He relates himself to Christ or Orpheus, for example, or his unhappy love-affairs are likened to the effects of the sirens' song. Finally, out of these references to direct personal association with some myths, arises the legend of Apollinaire himself. As he portrays himself in his writing,1 he himself offers at least one example of a fusion of myth and living reality, which in the tradition of myth, as we defined it earlier in this chapter, can offer an example to posterity, as Apollinaire did to his poetic successors. 12 NOTES All page-references for poems and plays by Apollinaire will throughout be indicated in brackets immediately following the quotation. The page number given is that of the "Pleiade" edition of the Oeuvres poetiques of Apollinaire, as listed in the Bibliography. References to writings by Apollinaire other than poetry or plays, such as his prose works or art criticism, are indicated by individual footnotes. ***** 1 Jung, C.G. and Kerenyi, C. Essays on a science of mythology. trans. R.F.C. Hull. Bollingen Series 22. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. 2 ibid. p. 2. 3 ibid. p. 3. 4 ibid. p. 7. 5 Eliade, M. Myth and reality, trans. W.R. Trask. World Perspective Series 31. New York: Harper and Row, 1963. 6 ibid. pp. 18-19. 7 Apollinaire. Meditations esthetiques, p. 48. Oeuvres completes. Paris: Ball and et Lecat, 1966. •8 Renaud, P. Lecture d'Apollinaire. Lausanne: L'Age d'homme, 1969. p. 73. 9 Albouy, P. Mythes et mythologies dans la litterature francaise. Paris: Colin, 1969. p. 8. ~ 10 quoted by Renaud, Lecture, p. 75. 11 ibid. p. 73. 12 Evans, R.I. Conversations with Carl Jung and reactions from Ernest  Jones. Princeton: D. van Nostrand Company, 1964. p. 48. 13 13 Bachelard, G. La Poetique de la reverie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960. 14 Mauron, C. Des Metaphores obsedantes au mythe personnel. Introduction  a la psychocritique. Paris: Corti, 1963. 15 Baudelaire, C. "Correspondances". Les Fleurs du Mai. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1961. p. 13. 16 Renaud. Lecture, pp. 21-22. 17 Albouy. Mythes... p. 13. 18 Baudelaire, C. "La Reine des facultes". Curiosites Esthetiques. Paris: Louis Conard, 1923. p. 272. 19 ibid. p. 274. 20 ibid. p. 275. 21 Breton, A. Manifestes du surrealisme. Collection "Idees". Paris: Gallimard, 1969. p. 19. 22 ~ ibid. p. 24, 23 Albouy. Mythes... p. 9. 14 ANCIENT MYTHS AND MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS References to ancient myths and mythological characters in the work of Apollinaire are evidently drawn from a rich fund of erudite detail in the poet's mind. He uses certain myths recurrently to illustrate some of his pet ideas, in fact, to illustrate parts of his own "myth". And he uses certain aspects of these myths often in a symbolic manner, in order to obtain a universal significance for his particular example. This, as we saw in the previous chapter, is one of the main reasons that many Greek or Roman myths were created - in order to serve as generally applicable examples. Before any attempt to define and examine the use of ancient myths by Apollinaire can be made, we must first distinguish the main areas of myth ology and legend from which he draws. In the play entitled Couleur du Temps, is to be found a long enumeration of deities and myths from many areas of human history: ...Les dieux de Babylone et tous les dieux d'Assur Voici Melquarth le nautonier et le moloch L'affame' qui toujours nourrit son ventre ardent Baal au nom multiple adore sur les cStes Ce tdurbillonnement Belzebuth Dieu des mouches Et des champs de batailie ecoutez ecoutez Tanit vient en criant et Lilith se lamente Et sur un trone fait de flammes etagees D'anges epouvantes et de betes celestes Terrible et magnifique entourl d'ailes d'or De cercles lumineux a la lueur mouvante Jehovah le jaloux dont le nom £pouvante Arrive fulgurant infini adorable Voici des dieux toujours des dieux toujours des dieux Toujours les antiques dieux venus des pyramijdes Les sphinx les dieux d'Egypte aux tetes d'animaux Les nomes Osiris et les dieux de la Grece Les muses les trois soeurs Hermes les Dioscures Jupiter Apollon tous les dieux de Virgile Et la tragique croix d'ou le sang coule a flots Par le front ecorche par les cinq plaies divines 15 Domine le soleil qui-1'adore en tremulant Voila" les manitous les dieux americains Les esprits de la neige et leurs mouches ganiques Le Teutat^s gaulois les walkyries nordiques Les temples indiens se sont aussi vides Tous les dieux assembles pleurent de voir les hommes y S'entretuer sous le soleil qui pleure aussi. (p. 949-950) The appearance of such a diversity of gods and mythological figures is perhaps more characteristic of the poems of a Parnassian poet such as Leconte de Lisle, for example. In the works of Apollinaire, the range is somewhat more limited than this long speech by Nyctor, the poet-hero of Couleur du Temps, would seem to imply. But most, if not all of the types of mythology commonly used by Apollinaire do appear here': Greek myths, figuring characters such as Orpheus, Icarus or Ixion; Roman myths, used more sparsely by Apollinaire; old German myths, used principally in the two series of "Rhenanes" - one of Alcools and the other of Le Guetteur Melancolique; and what we will call Biblical "myths", or legends, which play a clearly important part throughout the poetry and prose works of Apollinaire. In addition, the figures of some of the women that fascinate Apollinaire appear here: the Muses, the sphinx, and Lilith. Ancient Anglo-Saxon legend appears on several occasions in Apollinaire's verse, in references to "Rosemonde", who is one of the legend ary women who interests the poet especially. Nordic myth is limited to two or three references to the "mouches ganiques", but otherwise seems to play no part in the index of mythological references of Apollinaire. Similarly, Oriental mythology and legend play no apparent part in his work. In this study of Apollinaire's use of mythological reference, and its significance for his own writing (with which we will deal mainly in later chapters) the approach taken will fall mid-way between that of Philippe Renaud, author of Lecture d'Apollinaire^ and that of Scott Bates, author of 16 2 Guillaume Apollinaire. Renaud's discussion of Apollinaire's work is based largely on the medieval and semi-biblical myths associated with the figure of Merlin, the "enchanteur". The importance of these myths for the structure of Renaud's study can be seen in chapter-headings, such as "Alcools, ou Merlin", "Ondes, ou Lancelot" (part of the Authurian legend) or "L'enserr-ement de Guillaume", which ressembles the "enserrement" of Merlin, who also becomes L'enchanteur pourrissant. Renaud uses these myths as the main framework for his discussion of the work of Apollinaire - he also, of course, uses many other areas and types of mythology in his excellent and detailed study. The book by Scott Bates on Apollinaire takes a somewhat different line of approach, in that it does not use a mythological context as a point of departure for its analysis, as does Renaud, but rather uses mythological detail as a point of reference in its discussion of themes, sexual and other wise. A combination of these two approaches, such as we shall attempt in this chapter, presents clear advantages. References to ancient myths and mythological characters, such as are to be found in the works of Apollinaire, provide some indication of the interests of the writer, and of the traits to be found not only in his works, but also, as we shall see later, in his personal life. What are the gods or demi-gods that appear most often in his writing, and to what end are the significant characteristics of these figures used by Apollinaire? What are the predominant features of the exploits of Apollinaire's legendary figures, that appear to interest the poet most? In a poem entitled "A Jean Cocteau", Apollinaire says: Nous parlerons ..: ... de tous les dieux nos sujets A nous rois de la poesie. (p. 834) 17 Just how important are these "sujets" for the main outlines, as well as for the details, of Apollinaire's work? It is possible that they provide some interesting landmarks in the tracts of his poetry and in the labyrinths of his unconscious mind. Le Bestiaire, the first published poetic work of Apollinaire, is sub titled Cortege d'Orphee. It seems therefore appropriate to turn first to the figure of Orpheus, who is, indeed, the central figure of this early work. Orpheus, the mythical tale of his adventures, and the symbolical significance that he represents, provides a frequent source of material for Apollinaire. He is mentioned several times by name in the most famous collection of poems by Apollinaire, Alcools, and the tale of his death, for example, undoubtedly forms the basis of the death of the poet Croniamantal in Le Poete assassine, the prose work published in 1916. In a dictionary of Greek mythology we read: "Le mythe d'Orphee est 1'un des plus obscurs et les plus charges de symbolisme que connaisse la mythologie hellenique"Before seeing what use Apollinaire makes of the myth of Orpheus, it is useful to recall some of the principal events in the myth, and some of the mythical, symbolic meaning of Orpheus himself. Orpheus is the son of Calliope, one of the nine Muses. He is, first and foremost, a singer, a musician and a poet, who plays his lute and "cithare" so beautifully that he can overcome the enchantment of the Sirens' song, and can charm even the infernal gods of the Underworld into submission to his wishes. He saved the mariners of the "Argonaut", in search of the Golden Fleece, from death-by-enchantment by the voices of the Sirens, and, in a more famous exploit of his life, he descended into the Underworld in search of his beloved Eurydice. By reason of his being insufficiently 18 constant, he failed to return Eurydice to life, and from that time to the time of his death, he wandered the earth, inconsolable. Orpheus met his death at the hands of hordes of jealous Thracian women, who possibly ressemble the frenzied Tristouse Ballerinette of Le Poete assassine, who tore him into pieces. His head is supposed to have continued to sing with unmatchable beauty, long after his death. Certain aspects of this myth can be interpreted with interesting results relevant to the work of Apollinaire. Paul Diel, in a study of symbolism in Greek mythology, writes the following of the myth of Orpheus: "Toute son histoire le montre hesitant entre le sublime et le pervers, entre Apollon et Dionysos. Symbole de la splendeur de I'art et de 1'inconstance de 1'artiste, Orphie. accompagne son chant a la lyre d'Apollon, et la puissance de ses accords entraine apres lui jusqu'aux arbres et aux rochers de T'Olympe; mais il est aussi le charmeur de fauves, 1'enchanteur de la per-versfte".^ A similar dichotomy of the "sublime" and the "pervers", the Apollinian and the Dionysian modes of artistic creation, can be traced far into Apollinaire's writings, as we shall see. Orpheus is, above all, the arche typal figure of the poet, aspiring to lyrical harmonies in his work, and who would also be an enchanter. "Certes, tout artiste dote d'une vision authentique depasse le niveau de 1'artiste-Centaure et participe, dans un degre, plus ou moins accentue, a la nature d'Orphee", writes Diel^, and he continues: "Le chant d'Orphee et sa vie sont 1'illustration du conflit ess-entiel qui ravage la vie humaine, et qui, manifestation evoluee de la discorde initiale, se trouve figuree dans tous les mythes par le combat entre le divin et le demoniaque".^ Directly or indirectly, Apollinaire uses most aspects of the myth of Orpheus at one time or another. The notes to Le Bestiaire provide the most 19 explicit indication of what Apollinaire's conception of the character of Orpheus is: "... Quand Orphee jouait en chantant, les animaux sauvages eux-memes venaient ecouter son cantique. Orphee inventa toutes les sciences, tous les arts. Fond£ dans la magie, il connut l'avenir et predit chretiennement Vavenement du SAUVEUR" ' (p. 33) The link of Orpheus with Christianity is particularly interesting and will be discussed further on. For the moment, the magical power noticed by Apollin-7 aire in Orpheus is of note, since, as Renaud points out , the tradition of the Orphic myth upholds and affirms the power of man over nature, a power which derives from a knowledge of the secrets of the Gods, such as that gained by Orpheus during his descent'to the Underworld. The poet, in emulating this archetype of poets, Orpheus, thus holds some power of enchant ment over his natural surroundings, over ... cette troupe infecte Aux mi lie pattes, aux cent yeux: Rotiferes, cirons, insectes Et microbes plus merveilleux Que les sept merveilles du monde... ("Orphee", p. 15) Such powers of enchantment are illustrated also by a poem such as "Vendemiaire", or by references to "I'amphion" such as is to be found in the fifth stanza of "Le Brasier" (p. 108). The main act of enchantment taken from the myth of Orpheus by Apollinaire, is that in which Orpheus overcame the charms of the Sirens with his singing. This is used in two poems: "Vendemiaire" of Alcools and "Languissez languissez" of Poemes divers: II trompa les marins qu'aimaient ces oiseaux-la II ne tournera plus sur l'e'cueil de Scy'Ila Ou- chantaian-t les^trots"' vo-tx s_a!ves,ve# seretne^5" (pp. 151 and 567) In Alcools, Orpheus is used both in the "Poeme lu au mariage d'Andre Salmon", and^i.n,"Le, Larron", In the former .poem, the,,',me.ntrlon,..is:-Gif "le. 20 dernier regard d'Orphee" and of "le regard d'Orphee mourant" (pp. 83-84). Neither mention would seem to have any special significance, (other than the fact that both Salmon and Apollinaire are poets, as is Orpheus), probably due to the fact that the poem was only written, according to Apollinaire, on a bus, on his way to Salmon's wedding! (p. 1054). "Le Larron" is of greater interest, however, in that it offers a possible comparison of Orpheus with Christ, depending on the identity given to the "Larron" him self by the reader: ... Que n'avait-il la voix et les jupes d'Orphee Et les femmes la nuit feignant d'etre des taures L'eussent aime comme on 1'aima puisqu'en effet II etait p&le il e'tait beau comme un roi ladre Que n'avait-il:la voix et les jupes d'Orphee... (pp. 94-95) Before continuing a discussion of Christ and Orpheus, in parenthesis, the death of Orpheus must be considered briefly. Orpheus, the poet, as Croniamantial the. poet, dies at the hand of women. Similarly, a kind of emotional and spiritual death is suffered by Apollinaire, poet, at the hand of the various women that he loved. Poems such as "L'Emigrant de Landor Road" or "Tristesse d'une etoile" or "Les Colchiques" bear witness to this minor death caused by disappointed love: Et ma vie pour tes yeux lentement s'empoisonne (p. 60) he writes in "Les Colchiques". The death of Orpheus is succeeded also by the dismemberment of the poet's body, similar to that described in very personal terms in the poem "Cortege": Le cortege passait et j'y cherchais mon corps Tous ceux qui survenaient et n'etaient pas moi-meme Amenaient un a un les morceaux de moi-meme (p. 75) And there are other direct analogies to be made between Apollinaire himself 21 and Orpheus. Both are of Slavic and Mediterranean origin, for example. Apollinaire, as Orpheus, seeks to conquer death by immortalizing whatever is dead (his loves, his past life, etc.) in the song of his poetry. Both, as we have said, waver between the poles of the "sublime" and "grotesque" of Hugo, the "ideal" and the "spleen" of Baudelaire. These similarities fall into the realm of Apollinaire's own "myth", rather than into the discussion of his use by direct reference of the myth of Orpheus, and hence will be further examined later on. A final aspect of interest in the figure of Orpheus is his link with Jesus Christ, which Apollinaire does not ignore. As we have seen, he wrote in his notes to Le Bestiaire: - ... il (Orphee) connut 1'avenir et predit chretiennement 1'avenement du SAUVEUR. (p. 33) Similarly, one of the verses entitled "Orphee" in Le Bestiaire reads as follows: Que ton coeur soit 1'app^t et le ciel, la piscine! Car, pecheur, quel poisson d'eau douce ou bien marine Egale-t-il, et par la forme et la saveur, Ce beau poisson divin qu'est JESUS, M6n Sauveur? (p. 20) The links between these two "sons of gods", of different "mythologies" (the Greek and the Biblical), are striking. Not only is Orpheus supposedly a prophet of the Messiah, but he is also supposed to have foretold the existence of John the Baptist, another prophet of Christ. Christ, as Orpheus, descended to Hell after his crucifixion, and rose again with the secret of Life and Death, which the followers of both were eager to learn. Finally, both Orpheus and Christ embody different aspects of a sublime, aesthetic and moral ideal. They both appear to provide some goat towards which the streak of idealism that runs through Apollinaire's writing seems to be directed... here again, we encroach already on the purely personal myth of Apollinaire, 22 however. o The "legend" of Christ, drawn from Biblical "mythology", is a more frequently used source of inspiration or illustration in Apollinaire's prose and poetry alike. He maintains a certain respect for Christ himself, although often the Christian Church, notably that of Roman Catholicism, suffers under the sardonic pen of Apollinaire: some short stories from L'Heresiargue  et Cie such as "Sacrilege" or "L'Heresiarque" or "Infaillibilite" bear wit ness to this skepticism. Leaving aside for now the Christian Church, let us concentrate on the tone of references to Christ himself, and on the aspects of the Christian "myth" that seem to preoccupy Apollinaire. Scott Bates sees in the figure of "Le Larron" a portrait of Christ, and he presents a convincing argument in favour of such an interpretation of the poem. If the figure of the Thief is in fact a symbolical portrayal of Christ, then this poem provides an interesting reference to the birth of Christ, which is strangely simiTar to the birth of Apollinaire: Ton pare fut un sphinx et ta mere une nuit (p. 91) he writes. Part of the very nature of the Sphinx (and here too there is a coincidence of Greek and Biblical mythological reference) is its mysterious dependance upon a riddle. The Sphinx is undone only after its riddle has been solved by Oedipus outside Thebes. The identity of God the Father, in the Christian Trinity, is also nebulous and riddle-like; and as we shall see later on, the identity of Apollinaire's own father is still something of a riddle to his biographers. Further references to Christ occur in poems of all Apollinaire's major collections of verse. In Alcools alone, Christ is mentioned in "Zone"(p. 39), "La Chanson du Mal-Aime"(p. 46), "Palais"(p. 61), "Le Voyageur"(p. 78), 23 "Le Larron"(p. 91), and "L'Ermite"(p. 100). Oblique references to Christ occur in the notion "resurrection" in "La Maison des Morts" (p. 66); in a reference to the "Madonne" (and to the "Vierge") in "Les Fiancailles"(p. 128); in the poems written in La Sante prison(pp. 140-145); and finally in "Vend emiaire" (p. 149) where mention is made of "la croix", of "le lys" (the flower of Easter) and of the "triregne". In the collections of Calligrammes or II  y a a similar, though slightly lesser emphasis is placed on inspiration derived from the figure of Christ.^ It is interesting to note the mixture of respect and veiled cynicism in some of these references to Christ. Some lines from "Zone" point up this duality of tone well: ... Tandis qu'eternelle et adorable profondeur amethyste Tourne a jamais la flamboyante gloire du Christ C'est le beau lys que tous nous cultivons C'est 1'a. torche aux cheveux roux que n'eteint pas le vent C'est le fils p&Te et vermeil de la douloureuse mere C'est 1'arbre toujours touffu de toutes les prieYes C'est la double potence de Thonneur et de I'lternite C'est T'etoile £ six branches C'est Dieu qui meurt le vendredi et ressuscite le dimanche C'est le Christ qui monte au ciel mieux que les aviateurs II detient le record du monde pour la hauteur (p. 40) In these lines, the awe inspired by Christ is built up to a crescendo effect, where Christ is a sublime figure, "C'est Dieu...", before being suddenly deflated by the semi-mockery of "holding the world-record for altitude", a perverse, physical detail. Similarly in "L'Ermite", "Seigneur le Christ est nu... As-tu sue du sang Christ dans Gethsemani": these words are sincere but the mockery returns in the words: ... Car jjai trop espere en vain 11hematidrose J''ecoutais a genoux toquer les battements Du coeur le sang roulait toujours en ses arteres Une goutte tomba Sueur Et sa couleur Lueur Le sang si rouge et j'ai ri des damnes 24 Puis enfin j'ai compris que je saignais du nez A cause des parfums violents de mes fleurs (p. 101) The contrast between the religious fervour of the hermit praying to see Christ sweat blood (1'hematidrose) and the ridicule of his own bleeding nose attains an extremely, yet subtly, ironical tone. To equate Christ with a "larron des fruits" is surely also to display a certain degree of skepticism about Christ: Bates goes as far as to say that: '"The Thief is the most direct and violent attack Apollinaire ever made on Christ and Christianity's Jewish patrimony; it is a barbarous, clanging-poem, full of dissonances and ambiguities, erotic puns, drunken verbalisms, and an extraordinary compendium of the pagan marvelous culled from his already considerable knowledge of anc-ient lore". Again in the "Elegie du Voyageur a:ux pieds blesses" of II y a, Christ is seen as an entirely human young/man, and is addressed familiarly: Le gars! 6 1'homme aux pieds blesses! Tu fouTes les-dieux sous tes pas (p. 337) But in the "Chant de 1'honneur" of Calligrammes, on the other hand: Le Christ n'est done venu qu'en vain parmi les hommes (p. 305) And in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime": Le grand Pan 1'amour Jesus-Christ Sont bien morts et les chats miaulent Dans la cour je pleure a Paris • (p. 50) This is the sense of loss and disillusionment that leads to Apollinaire's cynicism about Christ and Christianity, which is the "pervers" side of his attitude to the New Testament "myth". References to Christ provide, in fact, another indication of the "sublime" and the "pervers" duality in the work of Apollinaire which will become even more apparent in later chapters. 25 Also in contrast to the references to Christ himself are some important references to Antichrists, of whom there are many in Apollinaire's prose and verse. Principal among these Antichrists are the figures of Isaac Laquedem, the wandering Jew of L'Heresiarque et Cie; Simon Magus, from the short story of the same name in L'Heresiarque and mentioned also in "Zone", along with Christ; Merlin the Enchanter, who appears in "Merlin et la vieille femme" and also in L'Enchanteur pourrissant; and finally the hermit of the poem "L'Ermite". It becomes clear that: "... Apollinaire was acquainted with the opinions of the Church Fathers and nineteenth-century anthropologists about the Antichrist; in addition, he knew medieval and sixteenth-century author ities on the subject..."^ - In "Zone", for example, Christ is in the company of several antichrist figures: ... comme Jesus monte dans Vair Les diables dans les abimes Invent la tite pour regarder lis disent qu'il imite Simon Mage en Judee lis crient qu'il sait voler qu'on 1'appelle voleur Les anges voltigent autour du joli voltigeur Icare Enoch Elie Apollonius de Thyane... (p. 40) The presence of all these antichrists cannot fail to belittle the holy ascen sion of Christ into Heaven after his crucifixion and resurrection. Simon Magus in particular, said to be the originator of Gnoticism, is a challenge to the sole divinity of Christ. Simon Magus is sometimes regarded as an incarnation of some of God's power, and is supposed to have performed miracles, including that of levitation. That other great Antichrist of Apollinaire's work, Merlin, is the son of Satan, rival of God the Father himself: Merlin guettait la vie et Veternelle cause Qui fait mourir et puis renaftre 1'univers (p. 88) 26 Merlin, like Christ or Orpheus, has knowledge of the secret source of Life or Death too. In this alone his divinity challenges that of Christ. The idea of levitation, closely associated with the figure of Christ in "Zone", provides an interesting link with another major mythological figure who features prominently in Apollinaire's writing: Icarus. In "Zone": C'est le Christ qui monte au ciel mieux que les aviateurs II deti.ent le record du monde pour la hauteur and later in the poem: Icare Enoch Elie Apollonius de Thyane Flottent autour du premier aeroplane (Christ) (p. 40) In "Le Voyageur" also, "il s'envolait un Christ" (p. 78) ... The most famous part of the myth of Icarus is perhaps the story of his flight with Dedal us, his father, and of his death after his wings had failed him. Icarus, symbolically, wishes to ascend to the Sun, which is the source of all life and knowledge. He aspires to a state of Christ-like divinity, and to a knowledge of the secrets of Life. The actual incidents of the myth of Icarus are well-known: DedaTus, his father, invented wings with which he and Icarus could escape imprisonment by Minos in the Labyrinth of Crete. The wings v/ere to be attached to the flyer's shoulders with wax. Icarus, young and full of pride and ambition, did not heed his father's warning and flew too near to the Sun. The wax attachment of his wings melted, and Icarus fell to his death in the sea below. The interpretation of this myth by Paul Di el merits some attention, as it sheds interesting light on some of the references to Icarus found in Apollinaire's poems. Diel writes: "Le mythe exprime - on dirait, le plus clairement possible - ces deux significations: le desir exalte d'e'levation et 1'insuffisance des moyens employes. ...En remplacant le soleil par son 27 sens symbolique, 1'esprit, il apparaft que Dedale met son fils en garde contre le danger auquel il s'exposerait, s'il nourrissait le desir demesure de fui'r les regions perverses (Labyrinthe) dans 1'espoir vain de pouvoir atteindre la region sublime par le seul moyen trop insuffisant de 1'intellect (les ailes de cire)".1 In the myth of Icarus also, therefore, as in the myth of Orpheus, the two elements of the "sublime"aspirations towards an ideal and "pervers" reality of man's limitations are counterpoised. Icarus' artificial wings symbolise not the sublime aspirations of the creative imagination, which true wings (those of angels, for example) would represent, but they symbolise rather the perverse imagination, blinded by its own vanity, and blind also to the wise counsels of Dedal us, the true intellectual. "Plus Icare s'approche du soleil, de la vie de 1'esprit, plus ses ailes artificielles le trahissent. C'est 1'esprit qui inflige le chcitiment; c'est le soleil qui fait fondre les ailes artificielles. Icare s'abat et tombe dans la mer'.'J^ The idea of flight, of levitation occurs in various poems by Apollinaire, and expresses a desire to rise above material, terrestrial existence, a desire for sublimation that approaches a state of divinity. The flight of Icarus is similar to that of all spiritual ambition, in which 'pride precedes the fall.'l In Apollinaire's use of the myth of Icarus, the pattern of the fall from the sublime heights of the mind to the perverse depths of carnal desires is clearly expressed. A similar pattern provides the foundation of "Zone", for example. The loves and idealized women of Apollinaire's own life were often the objects of this expression of alternating sublime-perverse desires. In this way Apollinaire fits exactly the description of Die!, who writes: "L'artiste accompli est celui qui sait exprimer avec la mime veracite, avec la meme objectivite, done sans exaltation, la chute et 1'elevation, le '•13''' tourment et la joie.de la vie". 28 In the collection of poems entitled II y a, Apollinaire dedicates an entire poem to the figure of Icarus, and to the significance of his symb olical flight. The poem is entitled "L'Ignorance", which immediately indic ates Apollinaire's awareness of Icarus' fatal fault. The poem begins with the words: Soleil, je suis jeune ... (p. 344) The youthful ambitions of Icarus to become divine echo exactly those of the Greek myth: . • Soleil, je viens caresser ta face splendide Et veux fixer ta flamme unique, aveuglement Icare etant celeste et plus divin qu'Alcide Et son bdcher sera ton eblouissement (p. 344) As Apollinaire notices, it is the "aveuglement", the "ignorance" of Icarus that cause his downfall: Mais, ton amour, soleil, brule divinement Mon corps au'etre divin voulut mon ignorance (p. 345) Elsewhere, Apollinaire speaks of himself in direct association with Icarus, as for example in "Merveille de la Guerre" of Calligrammes: C'est moi qui commence cette chose des siecles a venir Ce sera plus long a realiser que non la fable d'Icare volant... (p. 272) or in "Les Fiancailles" of Alcools: Tous les mots que j'avais a dire se sont changes en etoiles Un Icare tente de s'elever ^usqu'a chacun de mes yeux Et porteur de soleils je brule au centre de deux nebuleuses • (p. 130) These last lines go as far as to express a superiority over Icarus, a disdain for the ignorance and blindness of such ambition: Ailes et tournoyants comme Icare le faux Des aveugles gesticulant comme des fourmis (p. 309) As Philippe Renaud has written: "... 1'image d'Icare est tres frequente chez Apollinaire Nul doute qu'avec Orphee et Merlin, Icare ne soit un des patrons d'Apollinaire et I'une des grandes figures qui permettent de mieux comprendre la nature de son effort"Renaud's list is not quite complete, since he leaves out the figure of Christ. It is indeed remarkable that these four major "mythical" figures are the only ones to whom entire poems are allotted, or to whom consistent reference is made by Apollinaire. Orpheus has a poem named after him - "Orphee" - in the Poetries retrouves (p. 683) as well as Le Bestiaire, of which four stanzas are entitled "Orphee"; Merlin is the hero of "Merlin et la Vieille femme" in Alcools; Icarus is the central figure of "L'Ignorance", as well as.being one of the major images of "Lul de Fal-tenin"; and Christ appears in the poems already mentioned, "Le Larron" and the "Elegie du voyageur aux pieds blesses", as well as in numerous other references. Let us now turn our attention to some of the lesser deities who find a place in the store of myths used by Apollinaire. Prominent amongst these deities is the Sun, Helios or Apollo, considered a divine ideal, and often endowed with symbolic significance by Apollinaire. But the importance of references to the Sun is not so much a mythical, as a metaphorical one, and so discussion of the role of the Sun in Apollinaire's writing will be defer red to a later chapter. Associated indirectly with the Sun, however, is the Greek myth of Ixion. Ixion, a Thessalonian king, murdered his father-in-law, but was absolved of his guil't by Zeus, who took pity on him. Ixion showed' extreme ingratitude towards his divine benefactor, by trying to seduce the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus. In error, he seduced a cloudy image of Hera, from which union were 30 born the Centaurs. Zeus punished Ixion for his deceitfulness by attaching him to a flaming wheel and condemning him to turn eternally in space: Hence the association with the Sun. Apollinaire makes specific use of the incidents of this.myth in two poems, "Vendemiaire" and "Un Fantdme des nuees" (pp. 193-196). In "Vendemiaire", the reference to Ixion is explicit: he is called both "1'Ixion mecanique" (p. 150) and "Ixion le createur oblique" (p. 151). Ixion is the creator of the Centaurs, by his mysterious, "oblique" union with the "fantome des nuees", Hera. In "Un Fantome des Nuees", it is this image of the elusive and illusory Hera, the woman of cloud loved by Ixion, that is used to provide an indirect mythical point of reference for the image of the young "Saltimbanque", the child-wonder of the itinerant and mysterious street-performers. This Ixionic type of creation has a symbolic value for Apollinaire, as an image of the creation of art. "And for this false, yet divine creation out of self which gives birth to a new reality, Apollinaire. finds a striking new celestial trinity, another solar myth, that of King Ixion The vision of the goddess is in the creator ... She is 15 the breeder of art". Before passing on to a discussion of legendary or mythical women, and their use or place in Apollinaire's writing, it is appropriate to mention the presence of Eros and Anteros, the two gods concerned with Love. As in the case of Christ and the various Antichrists discussed earlier, these two brother-gods demonstrate a distinct duality in Apollinaire's mind and work. They provide a further illustration of a "sub!ime-pervers" dichotomy, as these words from "La Victoire" show: Deux lampes brulent devant moi Comme deux femmes qui rient Je courbe tristement la tete Devant l'ardente moquerie Ce rire se repand 31 Partout 0 paroles Elles suivent dans la myrtaie L'Eros et 1'AnteVos en larmes... (p. 311) Of legendary women in Apollinaire's works there are many, including Greek, Roman, Biblical and German folk-heroines. Apollinaire refers to four women with particular insistence: Rosamond, Lilith, Helen of Troy, and Salome; and makes reference to others such as Ophelia in the "Poeme lu..." (p. 84), the sirens and Scylla in "Vendemiaire" (p. 151)^, the Virgin Mary in "Les Fiancailles" (pp. 128, 135), Aphrodite in "Le Larron" (p. 91), Venus in "C'est Lou qu'on la nommait" (p. 218), Berenice in "Merveille de la guerre" (p. 271) or the infantas of Spain in "Tierce rime..." and "Adieux" (pp. 331, 332). All these together form a composite image of his ideal woman, and his ideal of beauty: Je vois bien devant moi la beaute L1 adorable beaute de mes reVes Elle est plus belle que dans les livres Toutes les imaginations Des poetes n'avaient suppose Elle est plus belle que ne fut Eve Plus belle que ne fut Eurydice Plus belle qu'Helene et Dalila Plus belle que Didon cette Reine Et que non Salome' la danseuse Que ne fut Cleopttre et ne fiit Rosemonde au Palais Merveilleux... (p. 956) These are the words spoken by Nyctor, the poet of Couleur du Temps, when he finds his ideal of beauty and of womanhood encased in a block of ice in the Antarctic. The irony and ridicule of the whole setting of this speech seems to indicate that Apollinaire does not believe that such a woman, that such beauty truly exists or is ever attainable. In legend and imagination at least, however, his ideal woman exists. From; Greek; legend: springs the poem "Helena" of the Poetes Divers; In this 32 poem, Apollinaire dwells on the magical beauty of Helen of Troy: Sur toi Helene souvent mon reVe reva Tes beaux seins flechissaient quand Paris t'enleva Et savais-tu combien d'hommes avaient tes livres Baise depuis Thesee jusqu'au gardeur de chevres Tu e'tais belle encor toujours tu le seras Et les dieux et les rois pour toi firent la guerre Car ton corps etais nu et blanc comme ton pere Le cygne amoureux qui jamais ne chantera ... et tu dois vivre encore En quelque bourg de Grece belle comme alors (p. 579). The search for a feminine ideal continues with the figure of Rosamond, who appears in one of the "Orphee" stanzas of Le Bestialre (p. 15), in "Palais" (p. 51), and "Rosemonde" (p. 107) from Alcools, and in "Je vis un soir la zezayante" (p. 327) from II y a. Rosamond Clifford was a mistress of Henry II of .England, who supposedly lived in a palace at Woodstock, and was known as the "rose of the world" because of her remarkable beauty. She is a sort of "femme fatale", mysteriously hidden in her palace, and thus un attainable. Her palace becomes a symbol of the goal of Apollinaire's vain search for his ideal: Puis lentement je m'en allai Pour queter la Rose du Monde (p. 107) Vers le palais de Rosemonde au fond du Reve Mes reveuses pensees pieds nus vont en soiree... (p. 61) The emphasis laid.on the notion of his ideal being a "reve" occurs also not ably in the quoted passage from "Helene". Both Rosemonde and Helene are "femmes fatales" whose ruinous powers intrigue and yet are mistrusted by Apollinaire, like the powers of the sirens' song. These women, with others such as Salome, are the cause of man's suffering. 33 One of the short stories of L'Heresiarque entitled "La Danseuse" and an entire poem of Alcools are dedicated to "Salome". Salome was a symbol of the immortal "femme fatale" to nineteenth-century poets such as Mallarme or Oscar Wilde. Her beauty and her grace as a dancer beguiled Herod into agreeing to the decapitation of John the Baptist: Salome, enjolivee, attifee, diapree, farde'e, dansa devant le roi et, excitant un vouloir doublement incestueux, dbtint la tete du Saint refusee a sa mere. ("La Danseuse", L'Heresiarque et Cie) In the poem "Salome", the heroine celebrates her success in bringing about the death of the prophet; and in "La Danseuse" it is her own legendary death that is described in a lyrical, yet gruesome manner: Soudain, la glace se brisa sous elle qui s'enfonca dans le Danube, - ma is de telle facon que, le corps extant baigne', la tete resta au-dessus des glaces rapprochees et ressoudees. Quelques cris terribles effrayerent de grands oiseaux au vol lourd, et, lorsque la malheureuse se tutj sa tete semblait tranche'e et posee sur un plat d'argent. ("La Danseuse", L'Heresiarque et Cie) Lilith is also one of the four mythical women most frequently mentioned by Apollinaire. She is the first wife of Adam and later wife of Beelzebub; she is the satyr of the 34th chapter of the Book of Isaiah: "... and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest". In Hebrew mythology she is a demon who howls in the night, and in "L'Ermite", Apollinaire describes her as exactly this: Et je marche je fuis 6 nuit Lilith ulule Et clame vainement et je vois de.grands yeux S'ouvrir tragiquement 0 nuit je vois tes cieux (p. 102) Lilith is a creature of the shadows, which, as Madame Durry point's out in her study of Alcools, is an important aspect of the imagery of this collection: 17 "Le motif de 1'ombre revient toujours", she writes. For Scott Bates, on the 34 other hand, Lilith is "a widely feared incubus with (in Apollinaire) an attendant train of vices including menstruation, Lesbianism, and flagellation. ...a symbol of frustrated motherhood and sterility in The Putrescent Ench  anter. ... an ingenious symbol of menstruation who had created the Red Sea against the desires of men before turning to deceive Beelzebub with female lovers".^8 In the Poemes a Lou Lilith indeed appears with Proserpine "aux enfers": Nous nous aimons sauvagement dans la nuit noire Victimes de I'ascese et produits du desespoir Chauves-souris qui ont leurs anglais comme les femmes and Lilith herself chants: J'ai cree la mer Rouge contre le desir de I'homme (p. 446) Lilith is, then, a creature of Anteros tendencies, whereas Helen, Rosamond or Salome are rather on the side of the god Eros. The last of the "femme fatale", enchantress figures that we will discuss is taken from Rhenish folklore and myth. This is the legend of the Loreley, taken up by Apollinaire in the poem "La Loreley" of the Rhenanes in Alcools. For this poem, Apollinaire was inspired by a novel by Brentano entitled Godwi, written in the early 1800's. The legend itself tells of a maiden who threw herself into the Rhine in despair over a faithless lover, and who ret urned as a siren-like creature, "une sorciere blonde", to lure boatmen to their destruction on the "Loreleifelsen" of the Rhine: 0 belle Loreley aux yeux plein de pierreries De quel magicien tiens-tu ta sorcellerie (p. 115) In this poem, Apollinaire voices his suffering after Annie Playden had deserted him: Mon amant est parti pour un pays lointain 35 Faites-moi done mourir puisque je n'aime rien (p. 115) As we shall see later, Apollinaire frequently makes use of all the myths we have examined to express a personal experience or sentiment in just this way. As a conclusion to this examination of Apollinaire's references to myths and mythological characters, a clear list of such references has been compiled in order to give an enumerated indication of some of the patterns to which we have been trying to draw attention. From this list it will be obvious that some references have so far been almost completely ignored, as for example those to the Sirens or to the Sphinx. These will be discussed in the course of the examination of some of Apollinaire's recurrent images that is to follow, and in an examination of some aspects of the poet's personal life in a later section. . 36 List of mythological or legendary allusions to be found in Le Bestiaire, Alcools, Calligrammes and II y a. GREEK Amphion: "Le Brasier". Aphrodite: "Le Larron". Attis: "Vent Nocturne". Centaures: "Le Brasier". Eros/Anteros: "La Victoire". Eurydice: Le Bestiaire V. Hebe: "1904": Icarus: "Zone", "Lul de Faltenin", "Les Fiancailles", "Merveille de la . Guerre", "La Victoire", "L Ignorance . Ixion: "Vendemiaire", "Un fant6me des nuees". Jason: Le Bestiaire IV. Orpheus: "Po^me lu au mariage...", "Le Larron", Le Bestiaire I, XIII, XVIII, and XXIV., Pan: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "Chant de I'horizon en Champagne". Psylles: "Les Collines". Satyrss/faunes: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "Elegie". Scylla: "Vendemiaire". Sirens: "Chanson du Mal-Aime'", "Lul de Faltenin", "L'Emigrant...", "Les Fiancailles", "Vendemiaire", "Bonjour mon frere", Le Bestiaire XXIV and XXV. Sohinx: "Le Larron", "Le Brasier". Thule: "Sanglots". Tyndarides: "le Brasier". Ulysse: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "La riuit d'avril 1915". . ROMAN ..... Berenice: "Merveille de la Guerre". Caesar: "C'est Lou qu'on la nommait". Mars: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Minerva: "Tristesse d'une etoile". Rome: "Rolandseck"(?) ("...les sept montagnes..."). Thule: same as for Greek legend. Venus: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "C'est Lou qu'on la nommait". BIBLICAL Old Testament Balthazar: "Merveille de la Guerre". Beelzebub: "Chanson du MaT-Ai'mev". Elijah: "Zone". Enoch: "Zone". • Eve: Le Bestiaire V. 37 (Exodus from Egypt): "Le Larron" ("...cailles...manne"), "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Hebrews: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Lilith: "L'Ermite", "L'Emigrant" ("...La femme du diable"). Lucifer: "Les Collines . Ophir: "Sanglots". Pharoah: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Red Sea: "Chanson..." New Testament Barrabas: "Chanson..." John the Baptist: Le Bestiaire XVIII, "Salome". Christ: Le Bestiaire XVIII and XXVI (and Notes), "Zone", "Chanson "Palais", "Le Voyageur", "Le Larron"(?), "L'Ermite", "Un Soir"(?), "Chant de l'honneur", "Ele^gie du Voyageur...", "Rolandseck" ("Ton Corps si noble..."). Chrysostome (Christian history): "Tierce rime pour votre ame". The Cross: "Vendemiaire". Madonna/Virgin: "Les Fiancailles", "Lorsque vous partirez". Salome/Herod: "Salome". . •... Simon Magus (Christian history): "Zone". The Trinity: "Vendemiaire". "ANGLO-SAXON" Merlin: "Merlin et la vieille femme". Rosamond: Le Bestiaire XIII, "Palais", "Rosemonde", "Je vis un soir la zezayante". (Shakespearean): "Poeme lu au manage..." (Hamlet, Ophelia). GERMAN Rhenish myth and legend of "Rhenanes" ("Nuit Rhenane", "La Loreley", "Schinderhannes"), and of "Dans le Jardin d'Anna". -MISCELLANEOUS Columbus: "Chanson..." ("Desirade..."), "Le Brasier" ("DeWade"), "Toujours". Don Juan: "Toujours" (cf. also pornographic work entitled Les exploits d'un jeune Don Juan). Fairy Yra: "Le Tresor". Orkenise(?): "Onirocritique". Roc, pihis, mythical birds: "Zone". Spanish infantas: "Tierce rime...", "Adieux". 38 NOTES 1 Renaud, Philippe. Lecture d'Apollinaire. Collection Lettera. Lausanne: Editions L'Age d'Homme, 1969. 2 Bates, Scott. Guillaume Apollinaire. T.W.A.S. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1967. 3 Grimal, Pierre. Dictionnaire de la mythologie grecque et romaine. Paris: P.U.F., 1969. p. 332. 4 Di el, Paul. Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque. Paris: Payot, 1966. p. 136. 5 ibid. p. 140. 6 ibid. p. 141. 7 Renaud. Lecture, p. 177. 8 See the brief (and incomplete) list of mythological references at the end of this chapter. 9 Bates. Apollinaire. p. 29. 10 ibid:, p. 34. 11 Die!.. Symbol isme... pp. 47-48. 12 ibid. p. 49. 13 ibid. p. 57. 14 Renaud. Lecture, p. 149. 15 Bates. Apollinaire. p. 80. 16 There are numerous other references to the sirens, which will be discussed later with reference to Apollinaire's personal love-affairs. 17 Durry, Marie-Jeanne. Guillaume Apollinaire: Alcools. vol. III. Paris: SEDES, 1964. p. 52. 18 Bates. Apol1inaire. p. 45. 39 MYTHS OF CREATIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FIRE We now come to the discussion of Apollinaire's personal interpretations of "myth", that is compounded of references to ancient mythology and the meaning attached to such references by the poet, and of his own myth or legend, seen mainly in his choice of subject-matter and in his imagery. The aim of the examination of some aspects of Apollinaire's imagery, that is to follow, is to demonstrate certain of his personal tendencies or interests as seen through the images themselves and through recurrent themes. Certain images and their distribution in acomplex network throughout Apollinaire's poetry contribute greatly to the vitality of myths which otherwise may well have remained: as erudite curiosities, sprung from the poet's mind. It becomes necessary to attempt to show how some images,both.feed and transform the myths to which they are related, in being based on the imagination and ex perience of Apollinaire himself: • images can-become the animation and the incarnation of myth, giving it a true poetic value, as we hope to show. It may be that some of the traits seen in his imagery are similar to, or relate directly to the principal characteristics of Apollinaire's "favourite" gods or mythical characters, seen in the preceding chapter. These are figures such as Christ, Orpheus, Icarus or Ixion. The figure of Prometheus must now be added to this list, since undoubtedly, as Renaud writes of Alcools: "La tradition mythique sur laquelle s'appuie Alcools est une tradition orpheb-prometheenne insistant sur les pouvoirs de 1'homme et fort compatible avec 1'idee de progres, y compris de progres technique".^ Prometheus is the divine benefactor of humanity, who stole fire from the Sun to give to man kind in defiance of the order of Zeus. In some myths Prometheus is even held to have created man. Our discussion of Apollinaire's imagery and recurrent themes clearly cannot be exhaustive, so we have taken as a primary guide-1ine for our selection of images to be discussed some words of Margaret Davies, who writes: "Apollinaire's favourite props for his poetic world may seem banal 3 enough: the sun, light, shade, the sea, birds". In addition to these 'elements' we will discuss images of music and flowers, which seem to fall into the pattern of Apollinaire's myth. Many of Apollinaire's critics ins ist on the importance of images of fire and flame, which will be the object of this chapter. Scott Bates devotes two chapters of his Guillaume Apollinaire to "The Death of the Sun", and to "The Phoenix" - a creature of fire and flame. Madame Durry speaks of the "motif ...de la lumiere et du feu..."S and Renaud writes: "...les deux premiers mots-cles d'Alcools sont automne et. flamrne '-.'extraordinaire importance du feu dans ce livre vient de ce qu'il est present a tous les niveaux, et symbolise aussi bien les infras tructures de la vie que les plus 'nobles' activites de I'homme, au premier rang desquelles Apollinaire place la poesie, dont le symbole est pour lui • 5 le feu". Starting, then, with what would seem to be a major image of Apoll inaire's work, we will see later how other recurrent images fall into place around it, giving some coherence to the personal myth of Apollinaire. Gaston Bachelard has made interesting studies of fire and flame in two 6 7 of his works: La Flamrne d'une chandelle and La Psychanalyse du feu. Some of the ideas expressed in these works, on fire and the flame, are echoed in a certain way in the writings of Apollinaire, as we shall see. "La flamrne", writes Bachelard, "parmi les objets du monde qui appellent la reverie, est un des plus grands operateurs d'images: La flamrne nous force a imaginer". 41 Elsewhere, Bachelard had written, in a chapter devoted to "Le complexe de Promethee": "Le feu est intime et il est universe!. II vit dans notre coeur. II vit dans le ciel. II monte des profondeurs de la substance et s'offre comme un amour. II redescend dans la matieYe et se cache, latent, contenu comme la haine et la vengeance. Parmi tous les phenomenes, il est vraiment le seul qui puisse recevoir aussi nettement les deux valorisations A \ 9 contraires: le bien et le mal. II brille au Paradis. II brule a l'Enfer". This is the presence of fire "a tous les niveaux", of which Renaud writes. It will be seen how, in the works of Apollinaire, as in the ideas of Bach elard, there are two types of fire, and how many images of fire have a dual significance: the "sublime" and the "pervers", the creative and the destruc tive, the good and the bad. Icarus, in his ignorance, aspired to a state of solar divinity. His flight was up towards the Sun, source of Life. The Sun for Apollinaire, as for Icarus, holds an apparently symbolic value, as being an inspiration and an ideal of knowledge and divinity to mortal man. It is the Sun's fire and light that gives birth, that creates and recreates. The gods associated with the Sun are Apollo, or Helios - these are the heroes of the solar myth. And Apollinaire, by association of name at least, sees himself as a son of Apollo, a child of the Sun, and thus, a part of the solar myth: In "Les Fiancailles" the identification of the poet himself with the Sun'is clear: Un Icare tente de s'el ever jusqu'a* chacun de mes yeux Et porteur de soleils je brule au centre de deux nebuleuses (p. 130) As Scott Bates writes: "Apollinaire like Rimbaud was a 'fils du Soleil', a son of the Sun"."^ The Sun is at the head of a family of images of fire in his writing, a family that includes flames, stars, alcohol, electricity and precious stones. 42 This close identification of the poet with the Sun, Apollo, has two major implications for his imagery: as child of the Sun, Apollinaire was symbolically killed every night at sunset, and every autumn as the days grow shorter. In "Zone", for example, there are the famous lines on the sunset, that create a direct analogy with death by decapitation: Adieu Adieu Soleil cou coupe (p. 44) And again, at the end of another poem of flames and ardent emotion, entitled "Les Doukhobors", that appears in the Poemes Retrouves, the same image occurs: Les Doukhobors; le soleil qui radiait Dut paraitre \ leurs yeux extasies Esperant des remous Oceaniques Des nations, 1^-bas, du c6te d'Occident ou d'Amerique Le cou tranche d'une tete immense, intelligente Dont le bourreau n'osait montrer La face et les yeux larges petrifies Ala foule ivre . Et quel' sang, et quel sang t'eclabousse, o monde Sous ce cou tranche! (p. 716) Or in "Epithalme" of II y a, the poet's mind turns again to: ...ce pays de feu. Ou T'on tranche la tete au soleil chaque jour Pour qu'il verse son sang en rayons sur la terre. (p. 343) The Sun's rays become streams of blood at sunset in "Merlin et la vieille femme" of Alcools too: Le soleil ce jour-lei s'e'talait comme un ventre Maternel qui saignait lentement sur le ciel La lumiere est ma mere 6 lumiere sanglante Les nuages coulaient comme un flux menstruel (p. 88) For Apollinaire the Sun is so often a "soleil de chair" (p. 88), as in these poems, and its rays are of life-giving blood. The extinction of the fire of 43 the Sun at sunset is thus directly linked with the extinction of Life, of poetic inspiration and of Love. The sun sinking at sunset makes the same journey as did Orpheus into the Underworld, or Christ into Hell after the crucifixion. But, just as Christ rose again, or just as Orpheus returned from the Underworld with an enhanced knowledge of the meaning of Life, so the Sun rises fresher and restrengthened in the morning. For Apollinaire, the Sun is like the Phoenix who: ...s1il meurt un Soir Le matin voit sa renaissance , (p. 46) Dawn thus holds a special lyrical fascination for the poet, as the time of the resurrection of the Sun, with whom Apollinaire identifies himself. In the "Aubade" section of "La Chanson du Mal-Aime"", for example, we read: Les poules dans la cour caquetent L'aube au ciel fait de roses pi is L'amour chemine EI ta conquete La nature, est belle et touchante (p. 49) At the end of two other major poems of Alcools, "Zone" and "Vendemiaire", the dawn is breaking, and bringing with it a lift in tone, a certain calmness and reassurance associated with everday events: Tu es seul le matin va venir Les laitiers font tinter leurs bidons dans les rues (p. 43) Et la nuit de septembre s'achevait lentement Les feux rouges des ponts s'eteignaient dans la Seine Les etoiles mourraient le jour naissait £ peine (p. 154) These dawns of Alcools are tragic and ominous for the sad and weary wanderer-poet; but he cannot help but feel for an instant the lyrical beauty of the urban sunrise, such as- that sketched already by Baudelaire in his Tableaux  Pari si ens. And the poem entitled "Aurore d'hiver" of the Poemes Retrouves 44 is another purely lyrical evocation of sunrise: L'Aurore adolescente Monte peu ^ peu Si doucement qu'on peut Voir grelottante Rosir 1'aurore penetree De la frafcheur de la dernieYe vepree. (p. 710) The cycle of Sun through the day from dawn to sunset follows an exactly similar pattern to the solar cycle of the year from springtime to winter. Apollinaire associates similar feelings with both solar cycles: as the season of the sun is in its decline during autumn, so, for Apollinaire, Life itself wanes and draws near to its wintry death. It descends into its own Underworld. And in Spring, Life reappears with the ascendancy of the Sun to recommence its annual cycle: Void que vient I'ete la saison violente Et ma jeunesse est morte ainsi que le printemps . 0 Soleil c'est le temps de la Raison ardente (p. 314) For this reason, Apollinaire's poems on autumn, his autumnal imagery, have a certain relevance to the theme of the Sun's fire. In the poem "Automne" of Alcools, the Sun dies as autumn succeeds summer: Oh! 1'automne 1'automne afait mourir I'ete (p. 104) This autumn, this decline of the Sun, is close to the frame of mind and to the emotions of Apollinaire, who writes in the poems "Signe" of Alcools, or "L'Automne et T'echo" of the Poemes Divers: Je suis soumis au Chef du Signe de 1'Automne Partant j'aime les fruits je deteste les fleurs Je regrette chacun des baisers que je donne Tel un noyer gaule' dit au vent ses douleurs Mon Automne eternelle # ma saison mentale (p. 125 and p.-588) 45 Finally, in "Automne malade", the autumn succumbs to winter: Automne malade et adore Tu mourras quand 1^ouragan soufflera dans les roseraies Quand il aura neige Dans les vergers (p. 146) The spiritual death and rebirth of Apollinaire, the son of Apollo, the poet-creator and the lover, follows the death of the Sun in autumn. The Sun is that source of Life, "1'eternelle cause/Qui fait mourir et puis renaftre l'univers" (p. 88), and is also the "ardente lyre" (p. 59) of the inspiration and creation of the orphic poet. The Sun, as a source of destructive fire, also appears repeatedly in one of the most frequently used images of war in Calligrammes: the image of the "obus". Artillery shells, clearly associated with death, become agents of a purifying, purging kind of solar fire that fascinates the poet in its ominous beauty. It is indeed remarkable to note that almost all of the images of fire to be found in Calligrammes are of a destructive kind of fire, whereas in Alcools or II y a fire is often an inspiring, ideal, or recreat ive force; it is an "ardente cendre", a "noble feu", the "feu de mes delices", or a "desirable feu". In a poem such as "Du Coton dans les Oreilles" of Calligrammes, by comparison with the fire-imagery of other collections of poems, fire and the Sun appear in this way: Et les trajectoires cabrees Trabuchements de soleils-nains Sur tant de chansons dechire'es (p.- 289). These "soleils-nains" are the bursts of artillery shells; they are the main theme of a poem such as "Fe^te": 46 Feu d1artifice en acier/ Qu'il est charmant cet eelairage Artifice d'artificier (p. 238) and they are the "milie soleils" of "La Nuit d'avril 1915" (p. 243). Images of artillery fire, this terrible destructive fire, recur through out Cal1igrammes under different forms. Two entire sections of the collection are entitled Lueurs des Tirs and Obus Couleur de Lune. Some lines of "Merveille de la Guerre" summarize the destructive yet fascinating power of this type of fire: C'est un banquet que s'offre la terre Elle a faim et ouvre de longues bouches pehes La terre a faim et voici son festin de Balthasar cannibale Qui aurait dit qu'on peut etre k ce point anthropophage Et qu'il fallut tant de feu pour r6tir le corps humain (p. 272) Leaving now the imagery associated directly or indirectly with the Sun, let us turn to the images of the "brasier" and the "bucher" which form the fabric of one of the major poems of Alcools - the poem entitled "Le Brasier". This kind of fire is that which kindles the poet's inspiration, it is the flame of his emotional life, and it is a purging power at. the same time. The effect of purification by this fire is a renewal, a rebirth; it is the life-source of the Phoenix. And for the poet himself it is: ... ce bucher le nid de mon courage (p. 136) Before returning to a consideration of the mythical image of the Phoenix in Apollinaire's writing, it is useful to dwell for a moment on the construction and progression of "Le Brasier". This hermetic and difficult poem is apparently divided into three sections, each with a separate theme, and each theme forming part of a progressive cycle. The cycle moves from 47 the theme of destruction, to that of renaissance, to that of reconstruction. In the first part of the poem, the poet throws his past, his painful memories of love-affairs, into "le noble feu", which is a source of forget-fulness and also an image of poetic inspiration fed by the poet's past experiences. The poet prays for the rebirth of the flames of Love in his life: L'amour est devenu mauvais Qu'au brasier les flammes renaissent (p. 108) The idea of rebirth and reconstruction is thus sown in the poem, illustrated in addition by the image of the Amphion, who built the walls of Thebes by playing his lyre to charm the stones into position. This is the magical power of the singing of Orpheus, and the miraculous power of Christ. In the second part, such magical rebirth and power germinates in the poem, and the fire of the "brasier" purges the poet: Je flambe dans le brasier a" l'ardeur adorable Et les mains des croyants m'y rejettent... (p. 109) These words seem to echo the idea of the descent of Christ into Hell, before his resurrection, or the descent of Orpheus to the Underworld. The poet too, in this section of "Le Brasier" experiences the fire of Purgatory, out of which martyrdom comes a salvation: Voici ma vie renouvelee... (p. 109) Like the symbolic swan of Mallarme's poem "Le Vierge, le Vivace et le Bel Aujourd'hui", the poet of "Le Brasier" is liberated into song from the frozen immobility of his past. His renewed life emerges as a blazing "bateau ivre", in which the poet will journey "aux frontieYes/De I'illimite' et de 1'avenir" (p. 314): • Voici le paquebot et ma vie renouvelee Ses flammes sont immenses 48 II n'y a plus rien de commun entre moi Et ceux qui craignent les brulures. (p. 109) This, then, is the fire associated with the danger and adventure of poetic inspiration and of poetic creation, such as is seen in the 'reconstruction' section, the last section of the poem. In this final part of "Le Brasier", there is a kind of apocalypse of art, spelled out in images of flames: L'avenir masque flambe en traversant les cieux (p. 110) Significantly, the fire and warmth of the Sun return to the poem: Puis le soleil revint ensoleiller les places D'une ville marine apparue contremont (p. 110) A new poetic, cosmos is constructed by Solomon's "ver Zamir", yet another magical constructor.^ This new cosmos is the "Desirade" of Apollinaire, which has issued out of the regenerative fire of "Le Brasier". The theme of destruction-renaissance-reconstruction is the same as that we have seen in the solar myth, where the Sun followed a daily and yearly life-death cycle. It is also the same idea as that of the image of the Phoenix which is important for Apollinaire's work. The Phoenix is, for Apollinaire, a myth ical symbol of poetic and erotic rebirth. It is the creature that rises out of the purging fire of the "Brasier": Le phenix ce bOcher qui soi-me\rie s'engendre (p- 41) And in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" the Phoenix becomes the image of reborn passion: ... mon amour a la semblance Du beau Phenix s'il meurt un soir Le matin voit sa renaissance (p. 46) 49 This is the Phoenix of "le feu sexualise", of which Bachelard writes in La psychanalyse du feu, the Phoenix of Love, both sentimental and erotic. The image of an ideal fire is present also in the "alcools" of Apollin aire's verse. Alcohol, for Bachelard, is "I'eau qui flambe". "L'eau-de-vie", writes Bachelard, "c'est Teau de feu Elle est la communion de la vie et du feu Seule de toutes les matieres du monde, l'eau-de-vie est aussi-\ 12 pr£s de la matiere du feu". According to this theory, the consumption of alcohol is similar to drinking in the elixir of Life itself. This liquid fire offers a form of divinity to the consumer, and, like Icarus, Apollinaire aspires to a state of divinity, to acknowledge of the meaning of Life such as that gained by Orpheus in the Underworld, or such as that offered by Christ and the Christian God. Alcohol, being an "eau-de-vie", and a liquid fire at the same time, opens the possibility of sublimation and ascension to a higher, divine state of consciousness. Alcohol, firstly, physically ressembles a flame, in the imagination of Apollinaire: Mon verre est plein d'un vin trembleur comme une flamme (p. HI) and, as we have seen in "Le Brasier", flames are assimilated to the life of the poet. Apollinaire, drinking his wine, drinks also his life: Et tu bois cet alcool brill ant comme ta vie Ta vie que tu bois comme une eau-de-vie (p. 44) The fire of alcohol inspires an ardour of living and a thirst for knowledge in the poet. This thirst for the fire of Life is the "soif terrible" of "Vendemiaire": L'univers tout entier concentre'dans ce vin Qui contient les mers les animaux les pi antes 50 Les cites les destins et les astres qui chantent Le feu qu'il faut aimer comme on s'aime soi-meme Et tout ce que je ne sais pas dire Tout ce que je ne connaftrai jamais Tout cela tout cela change en ce vin pur Dont Paris avait soif Me fut alors presente Mais je connus des Tors quelle saveur a 1'univers Je suis ivre d'avoir bu tout 1'univers (pp. 153-154) At the end of "Vendemiaire", the poet, who also embodies the city of Paris, seems to reach a state of omniscient divinity: Parce que c'est dans toi que Dieu peut devenir (p. 152) The theme of "Vendemiaire", which is also the theme of Alcools according to Scott Bates, is "the poet's superhuman acceptance of and transcendancy over 13 everything in the universe". The ascension of the poet to this state of 'human divinity' is achieved through the ideal, sublimating fire of alcohol, Apollinaire- has surpassed the flight of Icarus, which failed in "L'Ignorance" of II y a, and has risen to the generative force of Life, the Sun. In so doing, he has "as cended into Heaven", as the Christian catechism says of Christ, and can say in "La Jolie Rousse": Me voici devant tous... Connaissant la vie et de la mort ce qu'un vivant peut connaitre (p. 313) This ascension to 'human divinity', as we have called it, comes about through the element of fire in alcohol. A network of images spreads out from this alcoholic, inebriating fire which inspires the poet. As Madame Durry writes: "... il unit 1'amour et 1'ivresse, le.cieT, les astres, la clarte, la flamrne, 1'ombre rmtme",^ and she quotes these lines of Apollinaire, which will conclude our consideration of the fire of alcohol: Mon ALAMBIC vos yeux ce sont mes ALC00LS Et votre voix m'enivre ainsi qu'une eau-de-vie 51 Des clartes d'astres saouls aux monstrueux faux-cols -,r Brulaient votre ESPRIT sur ma nuit inassouvie In the preceding lines the eyes of the loved-one are 'alcools', fire water, but in a poem such as "La Loreley", her eyes are likened to two other fire-images that are used by Apollinaire: the image of flames, and that of stars. Mes yeux ce sont des flammes... says the maiden of the Loreley, and her enchanted lover replies: Je flambe dans ces flammes o belle Loreley (p. 115) Later in the same poem, we read: - La Loreley les implorait et ses yeux brillaient comme des astres (p. 116) These two images of flames and stars are both semi-creative, in that their fire is magical and enchanting, and semi-destructive, in that their enchant ment leads to ruin and to emotional shipwreck. Stars, in the repertoire of fire-images used by Apollinaire seem to have a peculiarly dual role which changes in emphasis according to the date of .the poem or the collection to which it belongs. In "La Chanson du Mal-Aime", for example, there is the mysterious refrain of the "voie lactee", which has an equivocal tone, being both lyrically attractive and menacing, simultane ously: Voie lactee 8 soeur lumineuse Des blancs ruisseaux de Chanaan Et des corps blancs des amoureuses Nageurs morts suivrons-nous d'ahan Ton cours,1.ve,rs,.d,,a,u,tKes,..n^buleuses (pp. 48, 53, 58) Also in "La Chanson" there appear: Des astres des fleurs du matin (p. 54) 52 In "Les Fiallcailles" stars are neither a threatening nor a destructive element of the imagery, since the poet says: Je buvais a- pleins verres les etoiles (p- 129) It is in the Calligrammes that the stars, as did the Sun, become assoc iated with the destruction wrought by the "obus". In "Fete", for example: L'air est plein d'un terrible alcool Filtre des etoiles mi-closes Les obus carressent le mol Parfum nocturne. (p. 238) And in "Les Saisons", ... des astres passaient que singaient les obus (p. 240) or in "La Nuit d'avril 1915": Le ciel est etoil^ par les obus des Boches Comme un astre eperdu qui cherche ses saisons Coeur obus eel ate' tu sifflais ta romance Et tes miile soleils ont vide les caissons Que les dieux de mes yeux remplissent le silence. (p. 243) Stars have become artillery-shells, and are potential agents of death and destruction, yet despite this, a certain fascination for them seems to linger in Apollinaire's mind. The fire of the stars is apparently neither warming nor chilling, neither "sublime" nor "pervers" for Apollinaire, it is simply the object of lyrical, poetic fascination. In opposition to the images of fire we have so far considered, there are numerous images of shadow and water in the writing of Apollinaire. Both of these are, in a sense, the elemental enemies of fire. Both imply the extinc tion of fire. And if Apollinaire himself is sometimes a "porteur de soleils", as in "Les Fiangailles" (p. 130), he also falls on occasions into a sadly 53 sombre frame of mind, and writes: Dans ce grand vide de mon aime il manque un soleil il manque ce qui eclaire (p. 259) Along with the images of music and flowers, we will discuss these two images of shadow and water, and their significance for Apollinaire's "myth" in the foil owing chapter. To conclude the discussion of myths of creative and destructive fire, let us return to some of the words of Margaret Davies, who summarizes Apollinaire's use of fire-imagery in this way: "The light itself, linked often with fire and flames, is always... the purifying but dangerous agent of the ideal... the sun is a flaming brasier often associated with cruelty - its rays are 16 whiplashes, it represents a decapitated, bleeding head". These words seem to point out well the sublime-perverse, creative-destructive duality of Apoll inaire's images of fire. 54 NOTES 1 Renaud. Lecture, p. 484. 2 See Grimal. Dictionnaire de la mythologie. p. 397. 3 Davies, Margaret. Apollinaire. London and Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1964. p. 37. 4 Durry. Alcools, vol. III. p. 53. 5 Renaud. Lecture, p. 146. 6 Bachelard, Gaston. La Flamrne d'une Chandelle. Paris: P.U.F., 1964. 7 Bachelard, Gaston. La Psychanalyse du feu. Paris: Gallimard, 1949. 8 Bachelard. La Flamrne... p. 1. 9 Bachelard. La Psychanalyse... p. 19. 10 Bates. GuiTTaiime Apollinaire. p. 40. 11 In 1908, Apollinaire wrote: "Le ver Zamir qui sans outils pouvait bStir le temple de Jerusalem, quelle saisissante image du poete!" (see Pleiade notes, P- 1060). 12 Bachelard- La Psychanalyse... pp. 139-140. 13 Bates. Guillaume Apol1inaire. p. 107. 14 Durry. Alcools. vol. III. p. 34. 15 ibid. p. 33. These lines are dedicated to Marie Laurencin. 16 Davies. Apollinaire. p. 37. 55 MYTHS OF DEATH AND REBIRTH IN WATER, SHADOW, MUSIC AND FLOWERS Having considered certain 'myths of fire' in the preceding chapter we now turn to two natural elements which would seem to be direct "enemies", or opposites of fire: water and shadow. But, as we shall hope to show, in Apoll inaire's own myth, water and shadow are reconciled with fire in some ways, and can even be considered to be metamorphoses of it. In addition to these two new elements of water and shadow, we will discuss the importance of music as a common factor in both ancient and Apollinairian mythology, and of flowers, which play an important role in the metaphorical repertoire of Apollinaire, as it is used by him to animate and embroider the myths of his verse and of his imagination. Water, in the imagery of Apollinaire's verse, takes the physical form of rivers and of sea, or ocean. In a poenTsuch as 'La Maison des Morts' of Alcools, he evokes also the water of a lake. The two rivers that predominate in his poetry are, undoubtedly, the Seine and the Rhine, these being the two rivers beside which some of the important events of his personal life took place. His days spent in Nice as a boy, and also possibly his journeys across the English Channel in pursuit of Annie PIayden, helped to engrave the sea in his mind and in his poetic imagery, as an element of some importance. These two sorts of water, the river and the Ocean, or the lake, are clearly distinguished in his poetry, where each would seem to. take on an. entirely distinct 'tone', an entirely different set of connotations. The river, as being water that flows and passes by, takes on a certain symbolical 56 and morose significance associated with the passage of time. The ocean or the lake, on the other hand, are "still waters", and are sometimes associated with death by drowning, or with a process of purging and of purification, or other wise they are a balm and a solace to the tormented mind. In his study of L'Eau et les ReVes, Bachelard discusses the running and flowing of water, that will be seen to -be important in poems of Apollinaire such as 'Le Pont Mirabeau1 (p. 45), or 'Le Pont1 of II y a (p. 361), or 'Marie' (p. 81). Bachelard writes: ...1'eau est aussi un type de destin... 1'etre humain a le destin de 1'eau qui coule. L'eau est vraiment 1'element transitoire II rneurt a chaque minute, sans cesse quelque chose de sa substance s'ecroule. This is an echo of the central idea of Apollinaire's poem 'Le Pont Mirabeau', where water, Time and Love pass, as it were, hand in hand. They flow equally past the poet and under the bridge: L'amour s'en va comme cette eau courante '. L'amour s'en va Comme- la vie est lente Et comme 1'Esperance est violente Vienne la nuit sonne 1'heure Les jours s'en vont je demeure Passent les jours et passent les semaines Ni temps passe Ni les amours reviennent Sous le Pont Mirabeau coule la Seine Vienne la nuit sonne 1'heure Les jours s'en vont je demeure (p. 45) In the poem 'Marie', the flow of the river takes on another significance, associated now specifically with the pain of a broken heart, rather than with Love's or Time's passage (with a capital 'L' or 'T'). In 'Marie1: Le fleuve est pareil a ma peine II s'ecoule et netarit pas (p. 31) r 57 And in 'Le Pont', as in 'L'Emigrant de Landor Road' which we shall examine shortly, flowing water is associated directly with the ephemeral transitory nature of flowers, another great image in the melancholy side of Apollinaire's 'myth': Les jeunes filles qui passent sur le pont leger Portent dans leurs mains Le bouquet de demain Et leurs regards s'ecoulent Dans ce fleuve a tous etranger Qui vient de loin qui va si loin Et passe sous le pont leger de vos paroles (p. 361) However, it is not so much the flowing water of rivers that seems to be the most important kind of water in Apollinaire's own myth. As Philippe Renaud says in one of the discussions of the 'Colloque de Stave! of of 1968: ...on parle beaucoup^ du theme de 1'eau courante chez Apollinaire; 2 mais on ne s'est guere penche sur les eaux mortes, les bassins. and he continues: ...ces eaux mortes se retrouvent dans Vitam Impendere Amori. Je crois qu'on y rencontre tous les elements de ce que Bachelard ' appelle le complexe d'Ophelie. Bachelard's 'complexe d'Ophelie' is an association of the image of water, still and deep, with death. The two images of music (singing) and of flowers are also associated with the death by drowning of Ophelia. As Renaud suggests, the death of Ophelia is vaguely evoked in Vitam Impendere Amori in some verses of extreme lyrical beauty: Tu descendais dans 1'eau si claire Je me noyais dans ton regard Tu flottes sur I'onde nocturne (p. T6T7 . This water is still, and it is 'nocturne'. This is the water of the Ocean in which the foolish and disillusioned Icarus is to die,, though far less 58 graciously and lyrically, in the poem 'L'Ignorance1 of II y a : Un dieu choft dans la mer, un dieu nu les mains vides Au semblant des noyes il ira sur une -fie Pourrir face tournee vers le soleil splendide (p. 345) It is also the water into which the sun sets in its evening death, bringing i with it the night that will make the water truly 'nocturne1 and that will associate it with the 'ombres' and 'tenebres' which we have yet to discuss. It is the water of death and of the possible suicide by drowning of'L'Emigrant de Landor Road1. In L'Eau et les r£ves, Bachelard draws strongly this link of death with the image of still and deep water: L'eau est une invitation a mourir; elle est une invitation a une - mort specials qui nous permet de rejoindre un des refuges materiels * elementaires. . Eau siiencieuse, eau sombre, eau dormante, eau insondable, autant de 5 lecons materielles pour une meditation de la mort. L^eau, substance de vie, est aussi substance de mort pour la fi reverie ambivalente. With these notions in mind, let us look at some of the still waters of Apollinaire's imagery. These are the waters"'of the ocean or the lake; dark waters, bringing either death and sadness, or bringing solace and refuge, as Bachelard suggests. In 'La Maison des Morts', for example, the troupe of the dead row across a mysterious and dream-like lake in the poet's imaginative fantasies. This kind of water, according to the definitions of Bachelard, would symbolize the substance of death, a sleep from which the dreamer would not wish to awaken, which cradles and protects him. And in 'L'Emigrant de. Landor Road', a similar, half-expressed death-wish is linked with the image of water. . Nostalgia and melancholy pervade the evocation of the ocean over which the emigrant is about to depart, and upon which floats the tiny and frail wreath of flowers: 59 Les vents de 1'Ocean en soufflant leurs menaces Laissaient dans ses cheveux de longs baisers mouilles Des emigrants tendaient vers le port leurs mains lasses Et d'autres en pleurant s'e'taient agenouilles II regarda longtemps les rives qui moururent Seuls des bateaux d'enfant tremblaient a Vhorizon Un tout petit bouquet flottant a l'aventure Couvrit 1'Ocean d'une immense floraison, Gonfle-toi vers la nuit 0 Mer les yeux des squales Jusqu'a 1'aube ont guette de loin avidement Des cadavres de jours ronges par les etoiles Parmi le bruit des flots et les derniers serments (p. 106) From this complex of images emerges a general impression of death and sadness, which is attributable to the notions of departure and farewell, to the "baisers mouilles" (of the sea? or of the loved-ones?), to the "rives qui, moururent", and to the image of the tiny bouquet of flowers dropped into the ocean, at the mercy of the waves. The menacing tone of these lines is set by the "vents de 1'Ocean", and by the "squales" which covet the "cadavres des jours". Water here is thus both sad and beautiful, and it brings for the emigrant a menace as well as a promise of deathly forgetfulness, or of suicidal solace. In combining the two elements of "nuit" and "mer" in the last strophe of 'L'Emigrant', Apollinaire has fixed the tone of the end of his poem as being one of regret, perhaps of nostalgia. For, as Bachelard writes: 7 L'eau melee de nuit est un remords ancien qui ne veut pas dormir. In the sense that it is longed-for, and in that it brings with it a calm repose for the sadness of the poet, or the emigrant, the still, deep water of ocean or lake, and the death that it suggests, is also a water of purification, a purging water. It is the kind. of. water associated with. Chrtstia,n,. ba.p,ti.s,m -the water that washes away sin - in that it washes away grief and pain. It offers death, and also a kind of spiritual rebirth: out of the sea into which 60 it sets every evening will arise the new-born sun each dawn. Likewise, the foolishness of Icarus is purged in his watery death. Water may also offer a certain elevation or salvation in becoming alcohol and in fusing itself with the element of fire. Alcohol, as we saw previously, is the fusion, the marriage of two hostile and opposed elements, fire and water. A / 8 "Comment rever de plus grands geniteurs que 1'eau et le feu!" cries Bachelard. Water thus holds a multiple significance in the myth of Apollinaire. It flows, or it is still, it is a substance of either joy and solace, or of sorrow and death as for Icarus and the solar myth. It can be a purifying agent, as in the Christian myth, and an agent of harmony when metamorphosed into alcohol, which offers a renewed vigour and life, in that fire is reborn in the water itself. Out of the water of death, comes the water of alcohol, so important to the force and vitality of Apollinaire's personal, poetic myth. As we have already noted in passing, water is often associated by Apollinaire with shadow and with Might. Just as the poet can wish to drown or to be pur ified in water in order to refind a sublime state of calmness, so too he looks to shadow and darkness as a means of escape and sublimation. Shadow, as water, is one of the "enemies" of the ardour of flame - both suggest the death of fire, and thus the death of Life in general, since, as we have seen, Life is often associated with Fire. Water and shadow are linked for example in "Le Voyageur": Une nuit c'etait la mer Et les fleuves s'y repandaient (p. 78) Or in "Les Fiancailles", flowing water is a dark and shadowy 'marriage' of shadow and water: Et sombre sombre fleuve je me rappelle 61 Les ombres qui passaient n'etaient jamais jolies (p. 129) And in the poem "Simultaneites" of Calligrammes, we have the graphic importance of the colour of shadows in the water: 0 vaste mer aux mauves ombres (p. 285) In these fused or juxtaposed elements of Apollinaire's imagery is to be found evidence of what Bachelard has expressed in saying: ...comme 1'eau est la substance qui s'offre le mieux aux melanges, la nuit va penetrer les eaux, elle va ternir le lac dans ses ~ profondeurs, elle va imprlgner 1'etang. The shadows of water are clearly linked also with death. The poet, in his descent into the imagery of the shadowy night of water, follows in the steps of his mythological master, Orpheus, who descends to the Underworld in search of the lost purity of his love for Eurydice. Christ, too, for three days before his rebirth and resurrection, descended into the shadow of Hell. These two fig ures, as we saw earlier, are both of considerable prominence in Apollinaire's mythological system of reference. It seems natural therefore that images of "ombre", "nuit" or "tenebres" should be quite common in Apollinaire's verse, and the moods of melancholy or repose or weird fantasy that are associated with such notions also. Shadow and darkness are either a kind of mental inferno to the poet, often verging on the fantastic, surrealistic world of dream as in "Onirocritique", for example, In this prose poem, the poet, as Orpheus or Dante, or Faust, exper iences the wild torments of an infernal dream-world. It is only after having traversed such a world that the haven of "Orkenise", a paradisical state of purity and knowledge, can be reached: Orkenise parut al'horizon Des vaisseaux d'or, sans matelots, passaient a 1'horizon. Des ombres gigantesques se profilaient sur 62 les voiles lointaines. Plusieurs siecles me separaient de ces ombres, Je me desesperai. Mais, j'avais la conscience des eternites differentes de I'homme et de la femme. (pp. 371-374) Ships on dream-like seas and gigantic shadows combine to make the poet despair and yet to reassure him of the ultimate benefits of undergoing such a purgatory. Shadow of this sort offers a descent to the Underworld, and a ressurrect.ion to the poet. Similar torments or uncertainties are experienced by the poet during the night-time of "Zone" or "Vendemiaire", from both of which he finally emerges into daylight, and the birth of a renewed life. The mental itinerary of the poet seems to pass through several stages of shadow and night, which it is interesting to trace as part of his personal myth. In the poem "Le Larron", we read of the "larron" himself, who is possibly also Christ and the poet: II entra dans la salle aux fresques qui figurent L'.inceste solaire et nocturne dans les nues Va-t'en va-t'en contre le feu 1'ombre prevaut L'ombre equivoque et tendre est le deuil de ta chair Et sombre elle est humaine... (pp. 92-94) In such an "ombre equivoque", the poet experiences the fantasies of "Zone", "Vendemiaire" or "Onirocritique", where death entails a certain salvation. Shadow becomes something of value to him; it becomes a part of his poetic mel ancholy and inspiration: Tenebreuse epouse que j'aime Tu es a moi en n'etant rien 0 mon ombre en deuil de moi-meme (p. 54) In "Cortege", the liaison between the poet and shadow becomes even closer and more mysterious: Et moi aussi de pres je suis sombre et terne Une brume qui vient d'obscurcir les lanternes - 63 Une main qui tout a coup se pose devant les yeux Une voute entre vous et toutes les lumieYes (p. 74) A poem such as "Le Voyageur" reflects the importance of the theme of shadow for Apollinaire's poetic inspiration. There are the "ombres" of the cypress-tree in "cette nuit au declin de 1'ete'", and there is "le bruit e'ternel d'un fleuve large et sombre". Later on in the poem he writes: Alors sans bruit sans qu'on put voir rien de vivant Contre le mont passeYent des ombres vivaces De profil ou soudain tournant leurs vagues faces Et tenant 1'ombre de leurs lances en avant Les ombres contre le mont perpendiculaire Grandissaient ou parfois s'abaissaient brusquement Et ces ombres barbues pleuraient humainement En glissant pas ci pas sur la montagne claire (p. 79) The word "ombre" itself, or words denoting a similar notion occur no less than eight times in the space of sixteen lines of this poem, being sometimes vaguely sexualized as is the shadow of the cypress-trees reaching toward the moon, or as the shadow that is the "tene'breuse epouse" of the Mal-Aime; or being merely significant of a lack of light and life - ,.^ans qu'on put voir rien de vivant", he writes. Madame Durry sees this recurrent image of shadow as vital to the entire structure of Alcools, which, indeed it is. She writes: Le motif de 1'ombre revient toujours Voila bien en quoi consiste 1'unite' interne d'Alcools, surtout si j'ajoute au motif de 1'ombre celui de la lumieYe et du feu qui ne fait qu'un avec lr, lui. IU. In shadow, then, as in water, Apollinaire sees an Orpheus-like or Christ like descent into Hell, which is the region of Lilith, from which the poet emerges like, the Sun at., sunrise:. ireapnMigo^a^ 64 The figure of Orpheus is to be recalled once more as we consider the importance of music in Apollinaire's use of 'myth'. In his book on Eros and Civilization, Herbert Marcuse succinctly summarizes the importance of music and song that is associated with the.myth of Orpheus: Orpheus is the archetype of the poet as 1iberator and creator: he establishes a higher order in the world - an order without repression. In his person, art, freedom, culture are eternally combined. He is the poet of redemption, the god who brings peace and salvation by pacifying man and nature, not through force but -J-J through song. The music of Orpheus is magical in its powers over other creatures, as is the music of the lyre of the Amphion, also evoked by Apollinaire, or the song of the Sirens, constantly used as a reference in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime", for example. Orpheus, as "the archetype of the poet", provides an ideal for the poet aspiring to enchant other men with the 'song' of his verse. The two elements of music and magic are, in this way, importantly related. The magical power of verse begins maybe, as Bachelard suggests, in the poetic reverie of v/ater: Le reverie commence parfois devant 1'eau limpide, tout entieYe ,„ en reflets immenses, bruissante d'une musique cristalline. Music is also associated with the fire of Life and of the Sun by Apollinaire himself, when he writes in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime": Juin ton soleil ardent lyre Brill e mes doigts endoloris Triste et me'lodieux del ire J'erre a" travers mon beau Paris Sans avoir le coeur d'y mourir (p. 59) From this verse alone it can be seen how Apollinaire identifies himself with the musician playing upon, co-ordinating the musical strings and tones of natural phenomena into an Orphic world of enchanting beauty: a "triste et melodieux d£lire". These words, as Renaud has said: ...(sont) la plus belle caracteVisation qui se puisse trouver non 65 seulement de "La Chanson" m61me, mais, peut-^tre, de 1'ensemble d'Al cools.... La danse et le chant jouent dans Al cools un r'cile primordial, danse et chant qui sont autant le fait du monde que ,v du poete lui-meme v But before considering the idea of the musical melody and the magic contained in it, let us look at the poem "Cors de.Chasse", where.the single musical note evokes a certain sadness and nostalgia, similar to the tone of the final lines of "L'Emigrant de Landor Road". This poem is a "fin d'amour" poem, commemorating Apollinaire's love affair with Marie Laurencin. The note of the hunting-horn, carried away on the wind, symbolizes the gradual fading of Apollinaire's hopes and his love: Notre histoire est noble et tragi que Comme le masque d'un tyran . Les souvenirs sont cors de chasse - Dont meurt le bruit parmi le vent (p. 148) Like the flow of water under the "Pont Mirabeau", Life and Love ebb away: Passons passons puisque tout passe Je me retournerai souvent (p. 148) This single musical note holds only a defiant hope and a dim magic, that is doomed to fade slowly away. The whole melody, however, contains a powerful magic. The poet's verses make him into L'Enchanteur, or, as with Croniamantal in Le Polte assassine, they can incur such frenzy in others that will lead to the martyrdom of the poet himself. Alternatively, the magical melody of the poet's creation is associated by Apollinaire with figures such as the Amphion or the "Musicien de St-Merry". In these two figures is to be seen the clearest reflection of the link between music- and7 magic that is' suggested in the myth of Orpheus. And the magical power of music, as seen by Apollinaire, can be sometimes destructive and sometimes creative, rather in the same way that water or shadow are 66 ambivalent in his range of imagery. The Amphion, for example, follows after Orpheus in being a creative, musical magician. The Amphion, in mythology, is said to have built the walls of Thebes by playing his lyre to make the stones move themselves into position. Or according to the reference to this myth in "Le Brasier": Partant a 1'amphion docile Tu subis tous les tons charmants Qui rendent les pierres agiles (p. 108) These'lines evoke the creative song of the poet's music, but;in most other cases in Apollinaire's mind and 'myth', music would appear to be linked with a destructive magic: Les demons du hasard selon : Le chant du firmament nous me"nent A sons perdus leurs violons Font danser notre race humaine Sur la descente a reculons (p. 58) The figure of the "Musicien de St. Merry" forms part of this line of magicians, who lead the way to destruction. And the poet clearly identifies himself with this mysterious "Musicien" of Calligrammes : Je chante toutes les possibility's de moi-meme hors de ce monde et des astres Je chante la joie d'errer et le plaisir d'en mourir (p. 188) cry both the poet and the musician-hero of the poem. The "Musicien de St-Merry", like the Pied-Piper of Hamlin, leads away his victims, enchanted by the sounds of his music, to their destruction and disappearance: Toi ma douleur et mon attente vaine J'entends mourir le son d'une fltite lointaine (p. 191) But as Philippe Renaud has said in a lecture given on the subject of "'Ondes', ou les metamorphoses de la musique", in speaking of this poem: 67 ...il me semble qu'on n'aura pas dit 1'essentiel si 1'on omet de remarquer que ce musicien (le Musicien de St-Merry) est une sorte d'Orphee retourne, d'Orphee inverse: qui ne suit pas Eurydice aux Enfers, ni ne tente de I'en ramener, mais 1'y conduit. Elsewhere, Apollinaire associates himself with another kind of music of destruction: namely, the song of the Sirens. He knows "des lais pour les reines", but also "des chansons pour les sirenes". The Sirens' song usually has connotations of personal disillusionment in love in Apollinaire's verse. The poet himself is most frequently the victim of the Sirens' magic. It is their music that enchants him, like the singing of the maiden of the Lorelei. We will return to this myth of the Sirens' music in the following chapter. One of the other legendary figures with whom music, in the form of dance, is associated, and who interests Apollinaire, is Salome. She beguiles Herod and causes the destruction of John the Baptist by the enchantment of her dancing: . Pour que sourie encore une fois Jean-Baptiste Sire je danserais mieux que les seraphins (p. 86) In the short-story entitled "La danseuse", nrentioned in an earlier chapter, Apollinaire again gives a specific emphasis to the dancing of Salome, which finally causes her own destruction. Possibly the most ominously destructive of the forms of music to be found in the imagery of Apollinaire, however, appears in some of the poems of war of Calligrammes. The lyrical aura which Apollinaire lends warfare is made more vividly horrific and yet more enchanting by meansof musical imagery. In "La Nuit d'avril 1915", for instance: La mitrailleuse joue un air a" triples-croches Coeur obus eclate tu sifflais ta romance • (p. 243) 68 Or in the poem "Du coton dans les oreilles", he writes: Ici la musique militaire joue Quelque chose Et chacun se souvient d'une joue Rose Parce que meme les airs entramants Ont quelque chose de dechirant quand on les entend a la guerre (p. 290) This kind of music is that of the destructive weaponry of modern warfare, which, as we saw in the case of the fire and flame of "obus", both fascinates and horrifies Apollinaire, as if it viere a spectacle. In "Du Coton dans les oreilles", in fact, the images of water and flowers are deformed by the tone of the war: "coquelicots" are seen as drops of blood, and there is the deformed image of flowing water in: Les projectiles d'artillerie qui glissent Comme un fleuve aerien (p. 291) The imagery associated with flowers to be found in Apollinaire's verse, though not associated directly with any classical, mythological references, forms an important and interesting part of the poet's own myth. It emphasizes his preoccupation with a life-death, creation-destruction, sublime-perverse dichotomy, such as we have attempted to trace in the imagery of fire, water, shadow and music, that we have so far considered. Although flower-imagery is only, in this sense, a metaphorical "reinforcement" of the poet's own myth, it merits at least a brief examination. Flowers, for Apollinaire, appear to be linked frequently with the passing of time, and with other destructive forces, such as death or even love. Their bright colour is deceptive in its beauty, in that it is ephemeral, and is doomed to fade. The perfume of the flower inevitably fades av/ay in time also. Flowers follow the same life-death cycle as the sun - in autumn they, too, die away, and in spring, they are reborn. 69 Above all, flowers are associated with Love, and with the ephemerality of Love. "Les Colchiques" are beautiful and entrancing flowers, that bewitch the poet, as do his loved-one's eyes, but which are also poisonous and will kill in autumn-time as the life of the year draws to an end: Le pre est veneneux mais joli en automne Les vaches y paissant Lentement s1empoisonnent Le colchique couleur de eerne et de lilas v Y fleurit tes yeux sont comme cette fleur-la Violatres comme leur cerne et comme cet automne Et ma vie pour tes yeux lentement s'empoisonne (p. 60) And in "La Cueillette" of II y a, a similar, though more explicit image occurs: Nous vfnmes au jardin fleuri pour la cueillette. Belle, sais-tu combien de fleurs, de roses-the, Roses piles d1amour qui cour>onnant ta-tete, S'effeuillent chaque et£? Leurs tiges vont plier au grand vent qui s'^leve. Des petales de rose ont chu dans le chemin. 0 Belle, cue-ill e-les, puisque nos fleurs de reve Se faneront demain! Et les fleurs vont mourir dans la charfibre profane. Nos roses tour at tour effeuillent la douleur. Belle, sanglote un peu... Chaque fleur qui se fane, C'est un amour qui meurt! (p. 318) Similar to this Ronsardian image of "Cueillez des aujourd'huy les roses 15 / de la vie" are the images of the "marguerite exfoliee" of "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" (p. 54), the fragile bouquet of flowers in "L'Emigrant de Landor Road" (p. 106), the "petales tomb's des cerisiers de mai" of the poem "Mai" (p. 112), and the image of "...ma jeunesse abandonnee/Comme une guirlande faneV' of Vitam Impendere Amori (p. 162). In Apollinaire's verse, there are numer ous other such instances of flower-imagery being used to evoke a nostalgic mixture of Love, Youth and Life fading away and dying. 70 Flowers, as music, are used also in some of the warfare images of Cal1igrammes. In these cases, flowers become actively destructive, and carry with them not only a reminder of the approach of death, but also a pot ential killing power of their own. The bursts of shells are not only "suns", but they are seen as "flowers" by Apollinaire as in the "2e Canonnier Conducteur": La Victoire se tient apres nos jugulaires Ses fleurs sont nos obus aux gerbes merveiIleuses (p. 215) Or else they are directly linked with the spectacle of battle, as in "Fete": Les obus caressent le moi Parfum nocturne ou tu reposes Mortification des roses (p. 238) Or, as in "Chevaux de Frise", where Apollinaire writes: Pendant le: blanc et nocturne novembre Tandis que chantaient epouvantablement les obus Et que les fleurs mortes de la terre exhalaient Leurs mortelles odeurs... (p. 302) But in this last poem, "Chevaux de Frise", is to be seen the promise of a rebirth cf Life that is occasionally associated with flower-imagery by Apollinaire: Mon coeur renaissait comme un arbre au printemps Un arbre fruitier sur lequel s.'epanouissent Les fleurs de 1'amour (p. 302) In "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" also, we read: Dans les jardins et les vergers Les oiseuax chantent sur les branches Le printemps clair I'avril leger (p. 54) This is the springtime that is associated with budding flowers and reborn Life and Love. As he writes in his great poem-credo of Adventure, "La Jolie Rousse": Nous voulons vous donner de vastes et d'etranges domaines 71 Ou le mystere en fleurs s'offre a qui veut le cueillir (p. 313) Despite all the melancholy of his flower-imagery, a certain optimism and vigour remain associated with it in this way. In conclusion we can look back at these images of water, shadow, music and flowers, and see how each one is used by Apollinaire to illustrate certain aspects of the life-death, creation-destruction cycle of some of his favourite myths, of his own life, and of his love-affairs in particular. By contrast with the images of fire and flame, discussed earlier, which are usually images of Life and of inspiration, the images now under discussion are used, most frequently, to illustrate a darker, more melancholy meditation. Each holds the hope and faint promise of a rebirth in it, but each is predominantly a herald of death and decay for Apollinaire. 72 NOTES 1 Bachelard, Gaston. L'Eau et les reves. Paris: Corti, 1942. p. 8. 2 Renaud, Philippe. "Discussion" in Du monde europeen a l'univers des  mythes. Actes du collogue de Stavelot (1968). reunis par Michel Decaudin. Paris: Lettres Modernes, Minard, 1970. p. 46. 3 loc. cit. 4 Bachelard. L'Eau... p. 77. 5 ibid. p. 96. 6 ibid. p. 99. 7 ibid. p. 139. 8 ibid. p. 133. 9 ibid. p.. 137'. 10 Durry. ATcools. Vol. III. pp. 52-53. 11 Marcuse,. Herbert. Eros and Civilization. A Philosophical Inquiry into . Freud... Boston:: Beacon Press, 1966, pT 170. 12 Bachelard;. L'Eau... p. 66. 13 Renaud, Philippe. "'Ondes', ou les metamorphoses de la musique" in Apollinaire et la Musique. Actes du Collogue de Stavelot, aout 1965. reunis par M. De'caudin. Stavelot: Edition "Les Amis de Guillaume Apollinaire", 1967. p. 22. 14 ibid. p. 27. 15 Ronsard. Sonnets pour Hel^ne, no. 43. 73 APOLLINAIRE: PERSONAL LIFE AND MYTH The purpose of the present chapter is to attempt to see how Apollinaire's personal life may have heightened his interest in certain myths, and, 'vice versa1, to examine also how greatly myth may have determined certain aspects of the poet's life in as much as it is reflected in his writings. Certain events and factors in Apollinaire's life were seen by him in a distinctly 'mythological' manner: parallels were sometimes drawn metaphorically between his own situation and a mythical situation or figure. Clearly, however, it would be impossible to cover in detail all of Apollinaire's biography within the space of one chapter, and besides, to do so would only be to copy the excellent work of biographers such as Pierre-Marcel Adema, Georges Vergnes and others. It would also be too lengthy a task to deal with all the poems in which a direct personal reference is made by Apollinaire, since, as the poet himself said in a letter to Henri Martineau: Chacun de mes poemes est la commemoration d'un evenement de ma vie et le plus souvent il s'agit de tristesse, mais j'ai aussi -| des joies que je chante. In some poems Apollinaire does give some condensed and explicit biographical facts: poems such as "La Jolie Rousse", the poems "A la Sante", "Cortege", or "Merveille de la Guerre". In a poem such as "Le Larron", for example, are to be found mysterious allegorical-personal references, where the poet is fused with myth to a point where his own identity becomes vague. In some poems also, a certain detachment from the self appears, and an interest in the legend of GuiTTaume ApoTTihaire, as created by GullTaume" A'p'oTTThafre, seems" to become more objective:- there is an alternation between the first and second persons, the "je" and the "tu", as Apollinaire either steps back from or 74 identifies with himself. A poem such as "Zone" illustrates this alternation, or "Cortege" where the poet's identity is divided, and one half addresses the other. This last tendency, indicative of a possible schizophrenia in Apollinaire, results in a haziness of identity - an identity which the poet searches through out his life to define more clearly, to unify, and to create for himself. In this creation myth and mythological example undoubtedly play a part. In dealing with Apollinaire's personal life and myth, we shall firstly attempt to sketch some possible mythological influences by a chronological review of the poet's life, and lastly, we will try to formulate some general impressions of certain mythical and mythological traits in the personality of Apollinaire, using as a basis some of the opinions and reminiscences of his friends, above all. This final section will be concerned then, largely, with the myth' of Guillaume Apollinaire, the man and the poet. ApoTlinaire was born in Rome during August 1880. His mother was named Angelica Kostrowitsky, and was of Polish descent. The identity of his father has baffled Apollinaire's biographers, but it is speculated that his name was Francesco Flugi d'Aspermont. Later in his life Apollinaire liked to let it be known that his father was a Pope, since this must have appealed to his Jarry-esque sense of humour. The important aspect of Apollinaire's birth, though, is this mystery that shrouds the identity of his father. In the poem called "Le Larron", which Scott Bates sees as an allegory concerning the coming of Christ, a similarly mysterious birth is attributed to the "Larron": Maraudeur etranger malhabile et malade Ton pere fut un sphinx et ta meYe une nuit (P- 91) The analogy with Christ is interesting, and is certainly plausible in the 75 light of these two verses at least. And the possibility that Apollinaire identified himself with Christ in some ways, as discussed in an earlier chapter, would seem to add weight to the connection, suggested by these verses, between the poet's own birth and that of Christ, the "Larron". A further mythological association that surrounds Apollinaire's birth is contained within the two verses quoted from "le Larron" themselves: this is the mention made of "un sphinx". The Sphinx of Theban legend is a creature traditionally associated with enigma, with riddles. The identity of the poet's father remains enigmatic to his biographers at least, and may well have been something of a riddle to Apollinaire himself. Besides the specific circumstances of his birth, the general notion of Birth seems to have had certain connotations in Apollinaire's mind, of the sort that were mentioned in discussing one of the "myths" of fire - that of the Sun. The Sun, in being born each morning, regenerates Life. It is usually a creative, a re-creative and a divine force. It is associated in mythology with the name of Apollo. The poet cannot have failed to associate these connotations that he linked with Birth in general, with his own birth, part icularly in the light of the fact that his own name would appear to be a derivative of the name "Apollo". The psychological links are indeed complex, but it is reasonable to state, as does Scott Bates, that: "Apollinaire like 2 ' Rimbaud was a "fils du Soleil", a son of the Sun..." It is Bates too, who makes an interesting remark concerning Apollinaire's mother, Angelica. The mother of "Le Larron" is called "une nuit", which suggests a possible link with one of the goddesses of darkness, Lilith. Lilith is the demon-mother, and in mythology she is often associated with flagellation and other-vices. As Bates writes: His (Apollinaire's) mother, according to many reports, had the 76 nineteenth-century Polish aristocrat's freedom with the whip; her son's interest in the same can be traced through his poems ? and 1etters... In the light of such associations, a connection between Apollinaire's mother and the mythical "figure of Lilith may well have prompted such lines as those already quoted from "Le Larron". At the age of three years old, Apollinaire moved with his mother to Monaco. He was schooled by Jesuits in Monaco for several years, which must have inspired his awareness of Christian dogma and ritual, and must have fostered his childhood belief in these doctrines. The mysteries and awe of this child hood faith are recalled in some verses of "Zone": Tu es tres pieux et avec le plus ancien de tes camarades Rene Dalize Vous n'aimez rien tant que les pompes de 1'Eglise II est neuf heures le gaz est baisse tout bleu vous sortez du dortoir en cachette Vous priez. toute la nuit dans la chapelle du college Tandis ou'eternelle et adorable profondeur ame^thyste Tourne a jamais la flamboyante gToire du Christ (p. 40) In 1899, having left the school in Nice to which he was sent after leaving the Jesuit college of Monaco, Apollinaire moved with his mother and her lover to live in Belgium for several weeks. They lived in Stavelot, near Spa, and it is here that Apollinaire suffered his first unfulfilled love-affair with a local girl named Maria Dubois. It is she who is remembered in the poem entitled "Marie", where the memory of her fuses with the image of Marie Laurencin, the poet's later great love. During this stay at Stavelot, Apoll inaire took note of the local culture also, which he incorporated in short stories such as Que Vlo've? for example. Local legend, in the form of Que Vlo've? himself, and in the form of the elves and pixies who whisper to him as he dies, forms the attraction of this particular story, so well does Apollinaire capture the tone of the Ardennes. 77 After his return to Paris, following the Stavelot interlude, Apollinaire had another unreciprocated love-affair with Linda, who is celebrated as "la zezayante" in several poems. In the collection entitled II y a are to be found a series of "Diets d'amour a Linda", where Apollinaire praises his loved-one, and uses legendary reference to describe her: Ainsi bayerent par le monde Viviane aupre"s de I'immonde Et dans son palais Rosemonde Qui fut moins belle que Linda. (p. 327) The image of Linda in these poems reflects also some of Apollinaire's Roman Catholic background, since she is likened to the madonna: Si vous n'etes pas lei, zezayante, 6 Madone, J'irai gemir a votre porte comme un chien. Madone au Nonchaloir, lorsque vous partirez Tout pari era de vous, meme la feuille morte (p. 329) The anxiety of the poet in these verses becomes a desperate disappointment when Linda does not respond to Apollinaire's love. Like Ixion, he loves only a vaporous ideal, and he writes: J'adore de Linda ce specieux reflet (p. 323) It was in 1901 that Apollinaire embarked upon the first period of his life, and of his writing in particular, to be deeply and notably steeped in myth and legend. After the disillusionment of his 'affair' with Linda, Apollinaire went to Germany, to the Rhineland, as a tutor to a young German girl. He went to a place known as Ney-Gluck, which, as Georges Vergnes points out, ironically means "Nouveau Bonheur".^ 'Ironically' because it was here that Apollinaire had.yet'another unhappy and unreciprocated love-affair, this time with Annie Playden, who was later to be transposed into the "Emigrant de Landor Road", and into some important background and personal aspects of 78 mythical references made in "La Chanson .du Mal-Aime". Apollinaire, as Victor Hugo and GeVard de Nerval before him, was fascinated by the wealth of folk-lore and legend offered by the Rhineland, and by Germany as a whole. The area was one of a mysterious mythical enchantment, called by Orecchioni in writing on the theme of the Rhine in Apollinaire's inspiration, the "Dionysos Rhenan". In writing of Rhenish wine, Orecchioni says: s s 5 Le vin est la cie d'un monde fantastique, de legende et de magie. Le theme du vin du Rhin fournit a Apollinaire une sorte d'explicat ion, de justification mythique de 1'inspiration poetique, ou 1'on fi retrouve les elements du mythe antique de Dionysos. ' The role played by wine in Apollinaire's appreciation of Rhenish legend is of particular relevance since it was probably in bars and drinking-halls that he gathered much of his information and local colour. The Rhineland furnished him with material for his poem "Schinderhannes", which deals with a popular Rhineland hero and bandit - a Hernani-figure. It offered also the myth of the maiden of the Lorelei, discussed in an earlier chapter, which became particularly meaningful to Apollinaire during his painful affair with Annie. Annie P'layden is associated with the maiden of the poem entitled "La Loreley", which was inspired by an earlier poem by the poet Brentano. Apoll inaire adapts the famous legend of the Lorelei to suit the theme of the ruinous danger of love, which reflects his own sentimental life at this period. Annie - the Lorelei maiden - is seen as a kind of siren who magically lures the poet-mariner to his destruction on the Lorelei Rock of Love. Annie refused to respond to the ardent demands made of her by Apollinaire, and he turns to Rhenish myth in this poem to express his own melancholy and heartbreak. Mythology is said too to have played a part in the affair with Annie itself: it is said that his proposal of marriage to Annie was 'staged' dramatically in a place where Rhenish legend was used by Apollinaire to terrify Annie into agreeing 79 to marry him: For this (the proposal of marriage) Apollinaire chose the most romantic spot in the Seven Mountains, the top of the Drachenfels, where Siegfried, the hero of the Niebelungen, is reputed to have slain the dragon. There he offered her his title of nobility 7 and his huge fortune. The young miss from Clapham declined. Such a proposal and 'staging' by Apollinaire certainly indicates a romantic and sinister awareness of Rhenish legend, which played a part in Apollinaire's life at this time. During the period of his stay in Germany, Apollinaire also had the chance to travel in Central Europe. He became a kind of wanderer. The presence of gypsies and wanderers of a more legendary or mythical sort is notable in his writings of this time: . Sur le chemin du bord du fleuve lentement Un ours un singe un chien menls par des tziganes Suivaient une roulotte trainee par un cine (p. 112) The poem "La Tzigane" is another poem of the Rhineland period, written in 1902, which also gives some confidence on Apollinaire's affair with Annie.in the words: L'amour lourd comme un ours prive Dansa debout quand nous voultimes Et 1'oiseau bleu perdit ses plumes Et les mendiants leurs 'Ave'. (p. 99) And the famous short-story entitled "Le Passant de Prague", which describes an encounter with the legendary Wandering Jew, is also inspired from this period of Apollinaire's travels in Central Europe. The tone of sympathy used in this story to describe the Jew seems to imply a warmth on the part of Apollinaire towards such a wanderer, and towards the legend of a man who,, like himself, belongs to no one country, and searches endlessly for a resting-place. 80 Apollinaire left Germany in 1902 and returned to Paris, where he became involved in the publication of a small literary journal known as Le Festin  d'Esope. This journal ran to the ninth issue. Its name alone indicates an interest in and an awareness of mythology - the title refers to the myth of the two feasts, both exactly similar, prepared by Aesope for his master, Xantus. At the same time, Apollinaire began to attend the 'soirees de la Plume', held in the "caveau maudit" of. the Cafe du Depart, referred to in the "Poeme lu au mariage d'Andre Salmon". In this poem, Apollinaire mocks the seriousness with which he and his young friends of the "soirees" treated poetry at this time. A similar seriousness and sadness to that of the "Poeme lu...", that are of great lyrical beauty reflecting a profound emotional distress, pervade his great poem which was written during these same years celebrating his Tove for Annie Playden, "La Chanson du Mal-Aime". The poem is full of mythological and legendary references as we saw in the earlier discussion and enumeration of mythological references to be found in Apollinaire's poetry. In "La Chanson the Sirens of Greek mythology are mentioned frequently, as well as Pan, the satyres, and Ulysses. Mars and Venus, from Roman myth, are mentioned also; and Old Testament Biblical mythology holds a prominent position in references to the Hebrews, to the Exodus from Egypt, and to the Red Sea in the first verses of the poem. References to Christ and to Barrabas bring in the element of New Testament Biblical mythology also, though in a more minor way. Out of this complex and mixture of mythological references, which may be best traced in our list, that concludes the second chapter of this study,arises the great legend of Apollinaire himself, as the figure of the "Mal-Aime". Adema, Apollinaire's biographer, has dedicated an entire study to this legend of Guillaume Apoll-/ 8 inaire, Le Mal-Aime, which was to grow in the poet's love-life from this 81 time onwards, and which was to influence profoundly the poet's own person ality and outlook on life, as we shall see. From about 1907 to 1911 Apollinaire had what has been called his "great est" love-affair, which was to produce poems of such sad beauty as "Le Pont Mirabeau". His loved-one was called Marie Laurencin. A painting by the painter Henri Rousseau, le Douanier, depicts "Le Poete et sa muse", and is supposed to portray Apollinaire with his muse, Marie. It is of Marie Laurencin, rather than of Maria Dubois, that he writes in the final, melancholy lines of the elegy to "Marie", although as we have said, the images of the two women, are fused. Apollinaire's affair with Marie Laurencin, according to the evidence of his poetry at least, seems to have been one of anxiety: and suffering for him. In "Marie" we.have an example of flowing water being associated with passing love and with sadness, that is related to his affair with Marie Laurencin: Le fleuva- est pareil „ ma peine II s'ecouie et ne tarit pas (p. 81) In causing Apollinaire pain and anxiety, Marie is depicted as another siren-figure who has lured the mariner-lover to his destruction: some of the lines of "Vendemiaire", written in 1909 or 1910, would seem to have a personal meaning in this sense: Mais ou est le regard lumineux des sirenes II trompa les marins qu'aimaient ces oiseaux-la" II ne tournera plus sur I'e'cueil de Scylla Oil chantaient les trois voix suaves et sereines (p. 151) Apollinaire clearly sees himself as one of the "marins" of the myth. Only Orpheus, the archetype of the poet, with his enchanting singing and poetry, was capable of saving the"mariners of""'the Argonaut from destruction at the hand of the Sirens as we saw in an earlier discussion of the myth of Orpheus. But Orpheus himself, as we have seen, was later to perish at the hands of other 82 women, and Apollinaire recalls this incident in another poem in Le Guetteur Melancolique, entitled "Marie". Car Orphee amoureux fut tue par les femmes Et je sais que souvent la nature entend mieuxA Les sanglots de la lyre et les pleurs de nos ames Que les belles 6 toi vers qui vont nos grands yeux (p. 514) Apollinaire associates himself with Orpheus twice in these references, and refers indirectly also to the women who would have destroyed (the Sirens), or who did destroy (the Thracian women), his master Orpheus. Apollinaire, as Orpheus, can sometimes stave off the potential destruction of love and can protect himself by means of his own poetry, which is a solace to him. Finally, however, he falls at the hand of women such as Marie Laurencin, who emotionally "destroy" him. But, in myth, Orpheus' head continued to sing even after his destruction by women. And so does Apollinaire's, in the sense that some of his greatest poems were produced in the wake of unhappy love-affairs: "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" and "Le Pont Mirabeau" to name but two. "Le Pont Mirabeau", written during the time when Marie Laurencin was leaving him, echoes the anxieties of the lines already quoted from the earlier poem, "Marie": L'amour s'en va comme cette eau courante L'amour s'en va Comme la vie est lente... (p. 45) Andre Rouveyre, Apollinaire's friend, writing of "Le Pont Mirabeau", makes these comments about it: Tout ce qu'il peut pour ranimer la presence aupres de lui de sa q maftresse perdue, il le tente dans son po£me. Mais bref, ou se termine "Le Pont Mirabeau", il n'y a plus d'amants, plus d'amour. Seuls survivent la construction de pierres^et -.Q de fer, sourde et lourde, et le fleuve qui continue de s'ecouler. This too, reminds one of the figure of Orpheus, trying to revive his beloved Eurydice from the Underworld, singing to appease the tormenting demons in Hell, 83 but failing to succeed. Only the head of Orpheus remains to sing, just as only the voice of Apollinaire's love and sadness remain after his broken affair with Marie Laurencin: Passons passons puisque tout passe Je me retournerai souvent Les souvenirs sont cors de chasse Dont meurt le bruit parmi le vent (p. 148) he wrote in "Cors de Chasse", another poem of this 'fin d'amour' period. At about the time of the end of his affair with Marie occurred another event that had a considerable effect on Apollinaire. This was the "affaire des statuettes", and the accusations levelled against him concerning the theft of the Joconde, for which he was imprisonned in La Sante prison in 1911. The six poems in Alcools entitled "A la Sante" have an intensely per sonal tone, and witness a strange return to the poet's childhood Christian faith during this time of distress. Apollinaire uses Biblical mythology in the imagery of these poems with no such tone of cynicism as is associated with it in a poem such as "Zone", for example. .,,1 he se verses written in "La Sante'" seem to be a cry from the heart, a close personal link with God and Christ ianity: Que deviendrai-je 6 Dieu qui connais ma douleur Toi qui me l'as donnee Prends en piti£ mes yeux sans larmes ma paleur Le bruit de ma chaise enchafn^e Prends en pitie surtout ma debile raison Et ce de'sespoir qui la gagne (p. 143) Apollinaire, during his imprisonment, seems to see himself as an innocent victim, as a martyr in the style of Christ himself. In some unpublished verses of this time, he wrote: Je viens de recevoir des lettres Vous- ne m'abandonnez done pas 84 Jesus que Von emprisonna Et que les douze abandonnerent Je viens de retrouver la foi Comme aux beaux jours de mon enfance Seigneur agreez mes hommages 11 Je crois en vous je crois je crois And one of his biographers writes: ...someone who met him at this time wrote that he was "depressed, considered himself deserted by all, irretrievably ruined; he had been much affected by his incarceration in the Sante^ and the unconcealed pleasure that certain malicious fellow-writers had ^ taken in his plight". Christ too, had been betrayed by one of his friends, and his closest friend, Peter, had refused to recognize him, just as Picasso is said to have refused to recognize Apollinaire. Christ, in his sadness and need, turned his pleas to God just as Apollinaire did in La Sante. Of the period following his release from La Sante" prison, up to the out break of the First. World War, Apollinaire's friend Andre^ Billy has written: Cette. periode d'avant la guerre vit 1'apogee de son influence II eta it le prince de 1'esprit moderne, le chef d'orchestre des idees. nouvelles, I'ame de la grande revolution par laquelle £taient de|a\ sapees, deja d^truites, les vieilles conventions de la vieille i3 poesie discursive et de la peinture figurative. It is during these years from 1911 to 1914 that Apollinaire published Le Bestiaire, that he became the editor of Les Soirees de Paris, that he publish-ec* Al cools, and his Meditations esthetiques on Les Peintres Cubistes, as well as a manifesto entitled L'Antitradition Futuriste. It is perhaps to this period of his life that some of the most succinctly autobiographical verses of his work could best apply; verses in which he speaks of his own poetical 'doctrines' and their effect. In "La Jolie Rousse", which was probably written at a later date, but which is nevertheless most aptly applicable to this period of his career, he writes: Je juge cette Tongue querelle de la tradition et de 1'invention 85 De I'Ordre et de 1'Aventure ... / Nous voulons vous donner de vastes et d'etranges domaines Ou le mystere en fleurs s'offre a" qui veut le cueillir II y a let des feux nouveaux des couleurs jamais vues Mille phantasmes imponderables Auxquels il faut donner de la realite y ^ Nous voulons explorer la bonte contree enorme ou tout se tait II y a aussi le temps qu'on peut chasser ou faire revenir Pi tie* pour nous qui combattons toujours aux frontieYes De 1'illimite et de l'avenir Pi tie pour nos erreurs pi tie pour nos peches (pp. 313-314) Just prior to the outbreak of war in particular, Apollinaire saw himself as an adventurer, a pioneer, and as a kind of prophet in the style of "Les Mages" of Victor Hugo and in the style of Orpheus or John the Baptist or even Christ. He wrote in "Les Collines": - Sache que je parle aujourd'hui Pour annoncer au monde entier Qu'enfin est ne- I'art de predire Certains hommes sont des collines Qui s'el event entre les hommes Et voit au loin tout 1'avenir Mieux que s'il etait le present^ Plus net que s'il etait le passe Je me suis enfin detache De toutes choses nature!les Et ce qu'on n'a jamais_touche Je 1'ai touche je I'ai palpe (pp. 171-173) We will discuss these prophetic ideas further in connection with the theory of '!'esprit nouveau'. At the outbreak of war in 1914, Apollinaire became a kind of poet-warrior figure, finding in the danger and death of warfare a source of marvel and inspiration that was to his taste. The, poems of the "Case d'Armons", "Lueurs des Tirs" and "Obus couleur de lune" sections of Cal1igrammes, bear witness 86 to this new thrill of experience in the life of Apollinaire. His poems are generally concerned more with real, every-day war experiences and sights at this time, than with mythological reference or lyricism. However, it was during his period as a soldier that Apollinaire met Louise de Coligny, celebrated in the Poemes a^ Lou, and that he enjoyed his extremely carnal relationship with her. Rouveyre writes of this affair: Ses lettres et ses poesies a "Lou" montrent Apollinaire dans son recours permanent, spontane £ la nature feminine qu'il avait connue cette fois-ci enfin £ outrance; dans son identification avec la matiere physique, terrestre, animale, concrete... jusqu'au ,« cours de ses plus sauvages crises d'erotisme imaginatif... In contrast to the physical, sexual nature of this affair with Lou, there was Apollinaire's affair with Madeleine Pages, which took place at almost exactly the same time. He met her for three or four hours only, whilst on a train, but continued to develop his love for her by letters, and finally - -proposed marriage to her in the same way. Madeleine is, in this sense, a kind of sublime,, ideal figure with whom Apollinaire had only a minimal physical contact. Lou was the 'touchable', the Dionysian, the perverse, and Madeleine the 'untouchable', the Apollonian, the sublime, it would seem: an interesting division of tastes and tendencies in Apollinaire's personality. Apollinaire finally tired of Madeleine, however, and broke with her, in the same way that Annie Playden had drifted away from him years before. As Steegmuller points out: Like Annie Playden, she had been an episode in his life; Annie had left him, now he left Madeleine. Both affairs were the occasion of some of his best writing, and certainly both women were for him',,, muses rather than real persons. Through all these love-affairs runs a thread attached to the myth of Orpheus which it is of interest to note at this point. Ovid writes in the tenth Metamorphosis: Orpheus had shunned all love of womankind, whether because of his 87 ill-success in love, or whether he had given his troth once for all. Still, many women felt a passion for the bard; many grieved -jg for their love repulsed. The similarity between Orpheus' actions in myth, and Apollinaire's in-reality gives rise to the speculation that Apollinaire's rejection of Madeleine may have been motivated by similarly misogynic feelings as those attributed to Orpheus by Ovid. Apollinaire's change of attitude towards Madeleine, however, came at the time of his head-wound and convalescence from this wound, which may well account for his change to a certain degree at least. His wound makes of him again a kind of martyr-figure, undergoing the tribulations of Life in order to emerge from them as a 'fuller' human being with an expanded knowledge of Life. In "La Jolie Rousse", he writes in a tone of sobriety and assurance that constrasts greatly with the exuberance of his earlier war-poems: Me voici devant tous un homme plein de sens Connaissant Ta vie et de la.mort ce qu'un vivarit peut connaftre Ayant eprouve les douleurs et les joies de I'amour Ayant su quelquefois imposer ses ide'es Connaissant plusieurs Tangages Ayant pas mal voyage^ Ayant vu la guerre dans/l'Artillerie et l'Infanterie Blesse k la tete trepane sous le chloroforme Ayant perdu ses meilleurs amis dans l'effroyable lutte Je sais d'ancien et de nouveau autant qu'un homme seul pourrait des deux savoir (P. 313); These lines no longer speak of the "Merveille de la Guerre", but rather of the "effroyable lutte". It would seem as if Apollinaire had reached the sombreness of "L'Age de raison". According to his friends he had changed considerably at this time, after his recovery from his head-wound. Andre Billy writes: Ses amis virent alors reparaftre un Apollinaire grave, irascible, chez qui la barbiche et la t£te bandee sous le bonnet de police accusaient une alteration morale assez pr^ofonde.^ J'ai frequente quotidiennement 1'Apollinaire de cette periode-la. Elle istait -jy lj9j-.n-,*.T.a- chdcrmmte f-sntarlsie. d-'ava-n.fe,.«la.-.gtKirre-;-'.--88 In 1918, Apollinaire married Jaqpueline Kolb, whose beauty is commemorated in "La Jolie Rousse": Voici que.vient I'ete la saison violente Et ma jeunesse est morte ainsi que le printemps Elle a 1'aspect charmant D'ime adorable rousse Ses cheveux sont d'or on dirait Un bel eclair qui durerait (p. 314) It v/as at this time, above all, that Apollinaire was concerned with "1'esprit nouveau"* In November of 1917 he had lectured on "L'esprit nouveau et les poetes", and in this lecture he expresses the same weariness with the past and adventurous thrill of the future as he .had expressed in ''Zone" in 1913: A la fin tu es las de ce monde ancien ^ ^g) The "new spirit" of which Apollinaire was an advocate in 1917 and 1918, is an attempt to create a new art, based on a new attitude towards the modern world.: Apollinaire interested himself in modern phenomena such as the aeroplane, the cinema and the phonograph. He saw himself as a new kind of soldier-poet, one crusading for new ideas and new forms in poetry. In "La Victoire" he writes: 0 bouches 1'homme est a la recherche d'un nouveau langage Auquel le grammairien d'aucune langue n'aura rien a dire Et ces vieilles langues sont tenement pres de mourir Que c'est vraiment par habitude et manque d'audace Qu'on les fait encore servir a la poesie (p. 310) He sees himself again as one of the adventurers and prophets of poetic thought: Nous qui quetons partout I'aventure ...nous qui combattons toujours aux frontieres De 1'illimite et de 1'avenir (p. 313-314) 89 And "I'esprit nouveau" offers him wonderful revelations, to be shared with humanity: Et je pele pour mes amis L'orange dont la saveur est Un merveilleux feux d'artifice (p. 176) It is above all in images such as this last one that the form of "I'esprit nouveau" takes shape. It depends for its beauty upon surprisingly contrasted elements of imagery, which form a new world of sensations and imagination. Pierre Reverdy has formulated the best known expression of this idea, taken up later by Surrealist writers such as Andre' Breton: L'image est une creation pure de I'esprit. Elle ne peut nartre d'une comparaison mais du rapprochement de deux realites plus ou moins/e1oigne'es. Plus les rapports de deux r^alit^s rapproche.es seront lointains et justes, plus l'image sera forte - ->g plus elle aura de puissance emotive et de realite poetique... Apollinaire had become one of the first to use and propagate such new poetic ideas and forms, and, after his sudden death in November 1918, the trail he had opened was to be followed by writers of the Surrealist movement, who were to expand further Apollinaire's interest and researching in the domain of dream and the imagination, the "reine des facultes" as Baudelaire had called it. As Apollinaire himself had so truly written in "Cortege": Et je m'eloignerai m'illuminant au milieu d'ombres Et d'alignements d'yeux des astres Men-aim^s (P- 74) * * * * * Turning no.w, briefly, to the personality of Apollinaire, let us consider some of the most prominent features that have arisen out of a study of the man and his writing, as regards his own myth or legend. A great diversity of his interests and characteristics makes it impossible to reach any hard and fast conclusions about his own myth, but certain aspects of an Apollinairian myth:can,:be at, least ,-tentatively outlined. CIau4e,Tour-aa.dr.e-i.-wtfcin.gv-o£*-90 "Apollinaire et la critique", says this: L'homme, il faut le reconnaftre, est particulierement encombrant. II, a donne' naissance ^ des mythes divers dont on ne s'est pas encore debarrasse\ ... De ces mythes Apollinaire lui-meme est en partie responsable. Ses nombreux amis aussi. lis ont pieusement servi^ sa mssmoire, mais n'ont pu se departir du culte de la personnalite. Perhaps one of the most salient features of the personality-myth of Apollinaire is his stature as a poet. Even Andre Breton, who is often harsh in his judgements on Apollinaire, wrote of him: C'^tait un tres grand personnage, en tout cas comme je n'en ai pas vu^depuis. Assez hagard, il est vraiLe lyrisme en personne. 2Q II tramait sur ses pas le cortege d'Orphee. And Andre Billy, another close acquaintance, writes: II se considerait comme appartenant k la race invulnerable des devins et des enchanteurs. II croyait k sa propre le'gende. En toute bonne foi et avec une belle ingenuite de poete-enfant, ?1 il la vivait. We have already seen evidence of this belief in himself as a prophet in the doctrines of "T'esprit nouveau" and in a poem such as "Les Collines". His role as a poet-prophet, similar to Croniamantal or L'Enchanteur, aligns him yet again with the myth of Orpheus, who, in Apollinaire's own words, ".. .connut 1'avenir et predit chre'tiennement Vave'nement du SAUVEUR" (p. 33). Another important facet of Apollinaire's personal myth is its duality, or what we called earlier in this chapter a "detachment from the self", a "possible schizophrenia". Apollinaire can be both "obscene et tendre" as an 22 article by Jean-Bertrand Barrere about him suggests , and as his simultaneous relationships with Lou and Madeleine indicate. He will enjoy now the pleasures of his body and the world, and now the pleasures of his mind and imagination: Je t'adore o ma deesse exquise nreme si tu n'es que dans mon imagination . - (p_ 260) The division is similar to that of Baudelaire's "spleen" and "ideal", or to that of Hugo's "sublime" and "grotesque". Apollinaire can be alternately 91 Apollonian and Dionysian in his tendencies, as indeed Orpheus was said to have been also: Toute son histoire (celle d'Orphee) le montre hesitant entre le sublime et le pervers, entre Apollon et Dionysos. Symbole de la splendeur de 1'art... Orphee accompagne son chant a" la lyre d'Apollon... mais il est aussi le charmeur des fauves, . 1'enchanteur de la perversite. ...La vigueur imaginative au lieu de soutenir 1'aspiration cre^atrice se perd alors dans les 23 seductions multiples de la realite. This split, or duality, as we suggested earlier, is illustrated not only in Apollinaire's subject-matter, and tone of writing, but also in his way of looking at and speaking of his own identity. In "Zone", for example, he con verses with his 'alter ego1 and watches as it flits across Europe, as he had done in his childhood and in 1901 and 1902: Te. voici a Marseille au milieu des pasteques Te voici a Coblence a I'ho'tel du Geant Te voici a Rome. Tu. as fait de douloureux et de joyeux voyages Avant de t'apercevoir du mensonge et de 1'age Tu as souffert de 1'amour a" vingt et £ trente ans J'ai vecu comme un fou et j'ai perdu mon temDS (p. 42) This last line in the first person is, as it were, a comment by himself on all his own former acts, divorced from his persent identity by Time. In "Cortege" too, appears a well-known passage, where Apollinaire seems to be stepping back from himself and commentating his own legend: Un jour Un jour je m'attendais moi-meme Je me.disais Guillaume il est temps que tu viennes Pour que je sache enfin celui-lEi que je suis Moi qui connais les autres (p. 74) Apollinaire, divided from himself, searches for the unity of his own identity, which, as he says later in this same poem, appears to be made up of numerous fragments - the fragments of his own experience and knowledge of Life: 92 Le cortege passait et j'y cherchais mon corps Tous ceux qui survenaient et n'etaient pas moi-meme Amenaient un a un les morceaux de moi-m£me On me batit peu a" peu comme on £leve un tour Les peuples s'entassaient et je parus moi-meme Qu'ont forme tous les corps et les choses humaines (pp. 75-76) This man of Polish descent, born in Italy without knowing his father, moved at an early age from his country of birth to France, schooled in French, and so on, was concerned with finding his own identity, with building himself and his legend "comme on eleve un tour". And so he can listen finally to the footsteps of his own myth in the passage of future Time: Et j'entends revenir mes pas Le long des sentiers que personne N'a parcourus j'entends mes pas A toute heure ils passent !§-bas Lents ou presses ils vont ou viennent (p. 175) - the tnyth of Apollinaire himself, so variegated as to be impossible to grasp clearly, as to be a truly personal myth. 93 NOTES 1 quoted by P.M. Adema. Guillaume Apollinaire.. Paris: La Table Ronde, 1968. p. 347. 2 S. Bates. Apol1inaire. p. 40. 3 ibid. p. 46. 4 Vergnes, Georges. La vie passionnee de Guillaume Apollinaire. Paris: Seghers, 1958. p. 70. 5 Orecchioni, Pierre. Le theme du Rhin dans 1'inspiration de Guillaume Apol1inaire. (Collection "Thames et Mythes" 3). Paris: Lettres Modernes, 1956. p. .100. 6 ibid. p. 103. 7 -Steegmuller, Francis. Apollinaire. Poet among the Painters. New York: Farrar, Straus•& Co., 1963. p. 71. 8 Adema,P.M. Guillaume Apollinaire le mal-aime. Paris: Plon, 1952. 9 Rouveyre, Andre. Amour et poesie d'Apollinaire. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1955. p. 86. 10 ibid. D. 90. 11 quoted by M. Decaudin. Le Dossier d'Alcools. Paris: Minard, 1960. p. 214. — 12 Steegmuller. Apollinaire... p. 222. 13 Billy, Andre. Introduction to Guillaume Apollinaire: choix de poemes. (Collection "Poetes d'Aujourd'huT1"] Paris: Seghers, 1967. pp. 28-29. 14 Rouveyre. Amour et poesie... p. 244. 15 Steegmuller. Apollinaire... p. 309. 16 quoted from Ovid, Metamorphosis X, 79-85, by Ivan Linforth. The Arts of  Orpheus. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941. p. 57. 17 Billy. Introduction to Seghers edition, p. 33. 18 Reverdy, Pierre. Le Gant de Crin. Paris: Plon, 1926. p. 32. 94 19 Tournadre, Claude. "Apollinaire et la critique" in Les critiques de notre temps et Apollinaire, ed. C. Tournadre. Paris: Gamier freres, 1971 pp. 8-9. 20 Breton, Andre, quoted in ibid. p. 18. 21 Billy, Andre, quoted in ibid. pp. 19-20. 22 Barrere, J-B. "Apollinaire obscene et tendre". Revue des sciences humaines, Oct. - Dec. 1956. pp. 373-390. 23 Die!, Paul. Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque. pp. 136-137. 95 CONCLUSION: TOWARDS A NEW MYTH Having examined some aspects of Apollinaire's writings in the light of classical, mythological references, a more coherent picture of the nature of the influence of myth on his work begins to appear. In discussing some, of the specific references made by Apollinaire to mythological incidents and charac ters, it became clear that the myths used most often by him were those of : Orpheus, Christ and Icarus. In the myth of.Orpheus it appeared to be Orpheus's power of magical enchantment that fascinated Apollinaire most of all: he referred to Orpheus's encounter with the. Sirens in which the magic of the young poet's song v/as stronger than that of the destructive Sirens. Orpheus, being a poet as well as a musician, thus provided a kind of mythical, poetic ideal for Apollinaire, himself an aspiring poet. Orpheus's journey to the Underworld fascinated Apoll inaire also, representing a symbolic death and rebirth, similar to that of Christ or the Sun. And finally, the death of Orpheus interested Apollinaire in that it struck a personal note in mythical- terms: Orpheus was killed and dismembered by Thracian women, just as Apollinaire, the "maUaime", saw himself to have been killed and-dismembered emotionally in the deceptions of his own love-affairs with Maria Dubois, with Linda, Annie, Marie or Lou. The numerous references to the "myth" of Christ display even greater range of interest for Apollinaire than that of Orpheus, as can be seen from the i number of poems in which Christ is mentioned. It would seem to be Christ's semi-divine' and"mysterious birth, similar to hfs own birth, that interested Apollinaire, as well as Christ's martyrdom, death and resurrection, which again follows a similar pattern to death and rebirth 1« the solar myth and the Orphic 96 myth. The awe inspired in Apollinaire by Christ, which he never really lost despite some mocking references such as that in "Le Larron", undoubtedly remained from his childhood Christian beliefs and practice, as they are described in "Zone". Christ's magical and divine powers interest Apollinaire, in particular the miracle of the ascension into heaven which suggests'in physical terms a spiritual transcendance and superiority. Apollinaire, as a poet, aspired to a similar,.though purely poetic, superiority and divinity. Thus Christ, as Orpheus, offers an ideal, as well as a target for Apollinaire the poet, or the religious skeptic. The myth of Icarus held an interest for Apollinaire similar to that offered by the myths of Christ or Orpheus. Both these two latter heroes were divine or semi-divine, which endowed them with super-human powers. Icarus, however, was a purely human character, and as such was closer to the identity of Apollinaire: himself. Icarus, as Apollinaire, had aspirations to rise above and to escape the labyrinthine obscurity of a limited human mind and perception. Icarus, as Apollinaire, aimed himself towards the ideal of an aquisition of a knowledge of the source of Life itself - this, in the myth of Icarus, being symbolised by the Sun. And Icarus, in being human, was doomed to fail, and the wings of his arrogant imagination would drop off him, leaving him to plunge to a dark death in the sea. The poem entitled "L'Ignorance" (p. 344) studies the myth of Icarus in these same symbolic terms, and gives an insight into Apollinaire's realization of the futility of exaggerated human aspirations. The myth of Icarus also introduces two of the most important of the elements of Apollinaire's poetic imagery, fire (the Sun) and water (the Sea), and it sets them in a mythological framework similar to that in which Apollinaire himself appeared to see them. In discussing the "myth of fire" it became obvious that one of the most important fire-myths for Apollinaire was that of 97 the Sun. The Sun, a life-giving heavenly force, presents a concrete image of another kind of ideal for the aims of the poet-creator, following in the tradition of Orpheus, whose lyre v/as transformed into a celestial constellation after his death. Like Icarus, Apollinaire aspires to a solar, celestial and Orphic divinity, but like Icarus, he too discovers that he has 'feet of clay', and his human limitations bind him to his human condition. One aspect of this human condition of which Apollinaire was acutely aware, and which he expresses through his treatment of the solar myth, was his slavery to Time and Death. The solar cycle of each day, from birth at sunrise to death at sunset, reminded Apollinaire of the cycle of his own life. And the annual solar cycle, that of the four seasons, from birth in .spring to death in winter, again suggested the mortality of man. But one of the divine attributes of the Sun, as of Christ, that was clearly admired by Apollinaire was its daily resurrection, which renewed his own poetic and emotional hope and inspiration. Thus sun rise or spring is associated with renewed and invigorated Love or poetic creation, whereas sunset or winter suggests an emotional and artistic death and sterility. This cycle of the fire-myths was also illustrated by Apollinaire with his own, now well-known image of "Le Brasier". And another of the images, of fire, which is important to Calligrammes in particular, is that of the "obus", which are often referred to as suns, but in this sense they are destructive, furnace-like suns. They have, as we have seen, a peculiar purging power and beauty in Apollinaire's eyes. The second of Apollinaire's major images that is introduced by.the myth of Icarus, is that of water. If the Sun, for Icarus and for Apollinaire, rep resents an ideal of Life and knowledge, the waters of the Sea into which Icarus fell represent, for Apollinaire also, an element of death and darkness. Like Icarus, Apollinaire will sink into the gloom and despondancy of water, as, 98 with Orpheus or Christ, he sinks into the darkness of the Underworld. But water and shadow also have one of the positive qualities of the Underworld, and that is the power of purification. Water is a source of cleansing forget-fulness in the poetic world of an emotionally deceived Apollinaire: like the risen Christ, Apollinaire emerges from the darker side of his experience, associated with water, as well as shadow, fulfilled and regenerated, just as the reborn Sun rises out of the waters of the sea each morning. Other images, such as those of shadow and music, are also used by Apoll inaire to embroider his view of his "favourite" myths. Shadow is clearly associated with death and with sadness in his mind, and in this way it falls into a similar pattern to that of the myth of Christ's descent into Hell, before the resurrection, or Orpheus's descent to the Underworld in search of a lost and ideal purity, which is his love for Eurydice. Music, as well as shadow, has certain Orphic overtones in Apollinaire's use of musical imagery: just as shadow reflects similar connotations for Apollinaire as are to be seen in Orpheus's journey to the Underworld, so music too assumes certain aspects of the Orphic myth. Music, as it is often used in Apollinairian imagery, has a magical power of enchantment. It is through poetry and music that Orpheus beguiled the gods of the Underworld, and Apollinaire sees the music of his own poetry as having the same potential power. It is a solace to the distressed soul of the poet, just as we have seen water or shadow to be. Music does have, on occasions, a note of threat in it, as in some of the war-poems of Calligrammes, where the machine-guns play a tune, or where the shell-fire whistles. Thus there is a certain, interesting duality within the details of each of the major myths that interest Apollinaire - as in the Christ and Antichrist dichotomy, for example - and in the connotations that he attaches to some of the images that he uses most frequently to reinforce and illustrate these myths, 99 but there is also a duality of poetic and spiritual outlook: as we saw, fire can be either creative when embodied in the Sun or destructive in the fire of artillery, of warfare. There is a 'sublime' and a 'grotesque' aspect to the whole of Apollinaire's poetic- world. As we saw in the case of alcohol, however, opposites can be reconciled, and this reconciliation is of special magical significance in Apollinaire's eyes. Fire and water fuse into the unity of alcohol, an elixir of Life and magic and vigour. It is only in an image such as that of alcohol that the two halves of the poet's inspiration - the sublime and the grotesque, the 'spleen' and the 'ideal' - seem to be reconciled into an expression of a profound imaginative unity. The entire image of 'alcohol' seems in this sense to be a Cubist creation for Apollinaire, since it offers a reconciliation of two entirely different perspectives in one unified and complex image... The perspective of fire, light, ascension, vigour and Life is joined in the image of alcohol, with that of water, darkness, sadness and Death. In this way the image of alcohol represents a typical image of "1'esprit nouveau". It is the focal point of at least two of the most important of Apollinaire's "leitmotivs", and offers a peculiar poetic magic - an inebriation of poetic inspiration to the poet of the Mew Spirit. This is at least part of the reason why Apollinaire's most famous and most enchanting collection of poems is so significantly entitled Alcools. Renaud has this to say of the collection: Chacun des poemes est un alcool, c'est-k-dire une metamorphose ? du monde en chant. It is the metamorphosis of Apollinaire's personal world into poetry, and his personal world, as we have said, is one of a great duality, displayed as much in his imagery as in his view of certain myths. It becomes clearer through all this that Apollinaire assimilated certain myths which he used in his own creation, and also that he saw these myths in an individual way, using the perspectives of his own imagery, tastes, and 100 characteristics. In so doing, the myths he used were adapted or transformed to fit into the framework of his poetic inspiration. This synthesis of personal inspiration and traditional myth is constantly variable, one or the other element taking on a greater importance. A distinct tension between the two exists, giving a vitality and novelty of Apollinaire's use of myth. Myth, for him, appears to be regenerated as is Life itself, by the Sun, Apollo, each morning. It appears to be charged by Apollinaire's own adventurous personality, by his cosmopolitanism, his travels, his loves and disillusionments, and above all by his vocation as a poet. These we have attempted to trace briefly in the last chapter. As Andre Breton has hinted^, Apollinaire followed closely in the tradition of the myth of Orpheus, the archetype of the poet. As a kind of modern Orpheus, Apollinaire sings of the modern world that surrounds him and enchants him. His song is that of the new mythology, which he himself had labelled "I'esprit nouveau", in which ancient myth is used, but is trans formed, and joined, to a modern myth. In "Zone", Christ is seen as an aviator, flying as an aeroplane, for example. Here again, as in the fusion of oppos ite elements seen in the image of alcohol, two different perspectives are ^. reconciled into the artistic unity of a single creation. The image of the New Spirit relies in this way on ah element of surprise or unlikeliness, which Apollinaire himself had insisted upon in his lecture on "L'Esprit Nouveau et les poetes", given in 1917.- It is the "rapprochement de deux realites plus ou moins eloignees" of which Reverdy writes in Le Gant  de Crin, and which was to be developed by some of Apollinaire's successors, such as Paul Eluard, who would take for granted a certain familiarity of the reader with some of the poetic surprise-techniques of imagery already prepared by Apollinaire or by Cendrars. 101 According to the nature of this New Spirit, the world of Apollinaire's imagery is vitalized by inspiration from past myths - the solar myth, or that of Icarus, of Christ, of Orpheus - and by an infusion of the "merveilleux", of surprise contrasts and alliances. Mythical expression finds itself free of the traditions of "ce monde ancien" and moves into a new, unexplored world of images, that of "Onirocritique", of the subconscious mind, later to be researched more deeply by the Surrealist writers, such as Breton or Soupault, for example. II y a l£ des feux:nouveaux des couleurs jamais.vues Mille phantasmes imponderables Auxquels il faut donner de la re'alite' (p. 313) Apollinaire had written in "La Jolie Rousse". And it was he himself who had taken the initiative of straddling the gap between the old and the new myth ologies, between the Symbolist or Parnassian mythology and the Surrealist mythology to come. He reaches towards the ideals offered by ancient myths in a new way: he uses traditional mythical example, legendary adventure, and symbolic diversity, such as we defined at the outset, in an intricate embroid ery and superimposition of the old and the new. This is what entitles him to say with such confidence in the same poem, "La Jolie Rousse": Je juge cette longue querelle de la tradition et de I'invention De l'Ordre et de 1'Aventure (p. 313) • • 102 NOTES 1 Please see the list of references on page 37. 2 Renaud. Lecture, p. 140. 3 See note 20 of preceding chapter. 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY All titles mentioned in the text are listed. The edition given is the one used. A Bibliography of the author Apollinaire. Oeuvres poetiques. Preface by Andre Billy. "Bibliotheque de la Pleiade". Paris: Gallimard, 1965. . L'Enchanteur pourrissant, in Oeuvres completes de Gui11 aume Apo11i nai re, vol. I. Directed by Michel Decaudin, vols. I-IV. Paris: Balland & Lecat, 1966. . L'Here'siargue et Cie, in Oeuvres completes..., vol. I. Paris: Balland .& Lecat, 1966. —- 1 Les Peintres cubistes, in Oeuvres completes..., , vol. IV. Paris: Ball and & Lecat, 1966. • Le Poete assassine. Paris: Gallimard, 1947. . La Femme assise. Paris: Gallimard, 1948. — . Les Exploits d'un jeune Don Juan. "L'Or du Temps". -Paris: Regine Deforges, 1970. . Al cools: choix de poemes. Introduction and notes by Roger Lefevre. "Nouveaux classiques Larousse". Paris: Larousse, 1965. 104 General works consulted Albouy, Pierre. Bachelard, Gaston. Mythes et mythologies dans la litterature franchise. . Paris: Colin, 1969. La psychanalyse du feu. Paris: Gallimard, 1949. La poetique de la reverie. "Bib!iothe"que de . philosophie contemporaine1 Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960. Barthes, Roland. Baudelaire, Charles, Breton, Andre. Cendrars, Blaise. Diel, Paul. Eliade, Mircea. La flamrne d'une chandelle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964. Mythologies. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1957. Curiosites esthetiques: "La reine des faculteV', "Le gouvernement de 1 'imagination1 etc. • *' "• Paris: Louis Conard, 1923. . Les Fleurs du Mai. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1961. Manifestes du Surrealisme. Collection "Idees". Paris: Gallimard, 1969. Choix de poemes, with study by Louis Parrot. "Pontes d'aujourd'hui" 11. Paris: Seghers, 1953. Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque. Paris: Payot, 1966. Myths, dreams and mysteries. The encounter between contemporary faiths and archaic realities.,. trans. P. Mai ret. New York: Harper & Row, 1960. 105 Eliade, Mircea. Evans, Richard. Fordham, Michael, ed. Genette, Gerard. Grimal, Pierre. Hamilton, Edith. Jung, C.G. & Kerenyi, C. Kirk, G.S. Linforth, Ivan. Marcuse, Herbert. Marks, Elaine, ed. Mauron, Charles. Myth and reality, trans. W.R. Trask. World Perspectives Series 31. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. Conversations with Carl Jung and reactions  from Ernest Jones. Princeton: D. van Nostrand Co., 1964. Contact with Jung. Essays on the influence of his work and personality. London: Tavistock Publications, 1963. "Langage poetique, poetique du langage" in Figures 11. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1969. Dictionnaire de la mythologie grecque et romaine.. 4th. edition. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969. Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1940. Essays on a science of mythology. trans. R.F.C. Hull. Bollingen Series, 22. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. Myth. Its meaning and ^--functions in ancient and other cultures. Cambridge: University Press, 1970. The Arts of Orpheus. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941. Eros and civilization. A philosophical inquiry into Freud. Boston: Beacon Press, 1966. French poetry from Baudelaire to the present. "The Laurel Language Lihrarv". '. " New York: Dell, 1962. Des metaphores obsedantes au mythe personnel. . Introduction a* 1 a psychocrit.ique., ~ Paris: Corti, 1963. 106 Rank, Otto. Raymond, Marcel. Reverdy, Pierre. The myth of the birth of the hero and other writings ed. Philip Freund. New York: Alfred Knopf, Vintage Books, 1959. De Baudelaire au surrealisme. Paris: Corti, 1966. Le Gant de crin. Paris: Plon, 1926. 107 Books and articles on Apollinaire Adema, Pierre-Marcel. Adema, P.M. & Decaudin, M. ed. Bates, Scott. Billy, Andr£. Bonfantini, M. ed. Breunig, Leroy C. Chevalier, Jean-Claude. Couffignal, Robert. Davies, Margaret. Guillaume Apollinaire le mal-aime. Paris: Plon, 1952. Guillaume Apollinaire. Paris: La Table Ronde, 1968. Album Apollinaire. "Bibliothlque de la Pleiade". ^~ Paris: Gallimard, 1971. Guillaume Apollinaire. Twayne World Authors Series 14. New York: Twayne, 1967. Introduction to Guillaume Apollinaire. "Poetes d'Aujourd'hui" 8. Paris: Seghers, 1967. Apol1inaire. Torino: Giappichelli; Paris: Nizet, 1970. "Le Roman du Mal-Aime'" in La Table Ronde, Sept. 1952, pp. 117-123. Guillaume Apollinaire. "Columbia essays on modern writers". New York & London: Columbia University Press, 1969. "Alcools" d'Apollinaire: essai d'analyse des  formes poetiques. "Bibl iothe'que des Lettres Modernes" 17. Paris: Lettres Modernes, 1970. L'inspiration biblique dans 1'oeuvre de  Gui11aume Apol1i nai re. "Bibliothe'que des Lettres Modernes" 8. Paris: Lettres Modernes, 1966. Apollinaire, London & Edinburgh: Oliver S Boyd, 1964. 108 Decaudin, Michel. Decaudin, Michel, ed. Decaudin, Michel, ed. Decaudin, Michel, ed. Durry, Marie-Jeanne. Fonteyne, Andre. Orecchioni, Pierre. Pia, Pascal. Poupon, Marc. Renaud, Philippe. Rouveyre, Andre. Shattuck, Roger. Steegmuller, Francis. Le Dossier d"'Alcools". Paris: Minard; Geneva: Droz, 1960. Apollinaire et la musique. Actes du collogue  de Stavelot, 1965. Stavelot: Edition "Les amis de Guillaume Apollinaire", 1967. Du monde europ^en £t l'univers des mythes. Actes du collogue de Stavelot, 1968. Paris: Lettres Modernes, 1970. Revue des sciences humaines, 84. Oct. - Dec. 1956. Special issue devoted to Apollinaire. Guillaume Apollinaire. "Alcools". 3 vols. Paris: Society d1Edition d'Enseignement Superieur, 1956-1964. Apollinaire prosateur: L'Here's i argue et Cie. Paris: Nizet, 1964. Le Theme du Rhin dans 1'inspiration de Gui11aume APOI 1inaire. Pari s: Lettres Modernes, 1956. Apollinaire par Tui-m£me. "Ecrivains de toujours". Paris: Editions du Seuil, s.d. Apollinaire et Cendrars. "Archives des lettres modernes" 103. Paris: Lettres Modernes, 1969. Lecture d'Apollinaire. Lausanne: L*Age d'Homme, 1969. Amour et poe'sie d'Apollinaire. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1955. Selected writings of Guillaume Apollinaire, with critical introduction. New York: James Laugh!in, 1948. The Banquet Years. New. York:.. Harcourt & Brace, 1955. Apollinaire. Poet among the painters. New York: Farrar, Straus & Co., 1963. 109 Tournadre, Claude. Vergnes, Georges. Les critiques de notre temps et Apollinaire. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1971. La vie passionnee de Guillaume Apollinaire. Paris: Seghers, 1958. 110 APPENDIX The following is an attempt to demonstrate in schematic form certain parallels between the major areas of Apollinaire's mythological interests and some of the images that he uses to illustrate these in Alcools, Calligrammes and II y a. In the left-hand column will be found some of the major aspects or characteristics of myths of greatest interest to Apollinaire, and in the right-hand column will be found a selective list of the correspon ding images that illustrate or reflect similar interests to the myths commonly used. MYTHS Sun, solar myth as cycle of sunrise to sunset, spring to winter, similar to Life-cycle. Flame, as life-giving, creative, inspiring force: the Phoenix. Icarus's aspiration to Sun-like omniscience and divinity. Icarus's  flight up towards ideal of Life in Sun. Sun here symbol of divine knowledge. Icarus inebriated, flight with wax wings. Alcohol, the liquid and magical flame. IMAGES Alcools. "Zone": phenix - "bucher qui soi-rrreme s'engendre... son ardente cendre" (recreative fire), "le feu de 1'Enfer" (destructive), "flammes ferventes" (religious ardour), "alcool brQlant comme ta vie.v." (alcohol), "soleil cou coupe'" (de'capitation). "Chanson du Mal-AimS": "Aubade", "ton soleil ardente lyre/BrQle mes doigts..." "Crepuscule": "ciel sans teinte". "Merlin et la vieille femme": "soleil saignant... Lumiere est ma mere 6* lumieYe sanglante", soleil de chair, soleil dansant. "Lul de Faltenin": "Je flambe atrocement" etc. (destructive). 11L 'Ermite": "flagellez les nuees du coucher (du soleil)" (perverse). "Le Brasier": "noble feu flamrne... etoiles... brasier... soleil... astres saignants". "Je flambe... brasier... ardeur adorable... feu de mes del ices... paquebot de ma vie, flammes immenses...". "avenir masque flambe... theatre bati avec le feu solide... flammes comme des feuilles". Ill MYTHS IMAGES (solar myth, flame, Phoenix, Icarus, alcohol). "Nuit Rhenane": vin... Comme une flamrne. "La Lore!ey": yeux sorcellerie (magic). "Rhenane d'Automne": Hammes, flammes, 'L'air tremble des flammes... cimetieYe plein de flammes". "Un Soir": feux p&les, feux de gaz. "Les Fiancailles": Icare... "porteur de soleils je brtfle"... "sa tete est le soleil/Et la lune son cou tranche'", "tempiiers flamboyants je brOle parmi vous... desirable feu... libre flamrne. ce bucher nid de mon courage". "Vendemiaire": brQlant soleil ructive), (alcohol):/ vin qui contient. (dest-flammes' Calligrammes. "Les Collines": avion du soleil. nuit et jour, "tout n'est qu'une flamrne rapide". "Coeur, Couronne et Miroir" ressemble a" une flamrne "Fumees": "... tu fascines obus renversee", .coeur les "Servant de Dakar": II "eclatent f 1 ammes", dans splendide". feu d'artifice en acier (obus), le cie! "Fete": "1'air est plein d'un terrible alcool/ Filtre' des etoiles "Nuit d'avril 1915' (obus) "Coeur obus.../ "feu semblable Et tes mi lie soleils". "Le Palais du Tonnerre": a Tame". ~ "Dans 1'abri-caverne": feu solide, d'e'clairage. manque obus miaulant, fusees. manque de soleil. "Fusee": obus. "Dgsir": obus. "Chant de 1 'horizon...": . "1'ardeur de la batailTe. "Merveille de la Guerre": (obus) millions de fusses, "il fallut tant de feu pour rotir le corps humain", Icare volant, (autobiographical passage). "A 11 Italie": "Faisons la guerre e? coups de fouet/Faits...avec les. rayons, du soleil" (perverse). "Aussi bien que les cigales": LA JOIE ADORABLE DE LA PAIX SOLAIRE. "SimulI taneite^s": atroces lueurs des tirs (destructive). 112 MYTHS IMAGES (solar myth, flame, Phoenix, Icarus, alcohol). "Du coton dans les oreilles": (obus =) soleils nains. "La Victoire": Icare le faux... "La Jolie Rousse": flammes. Water into which Icarus plunges. Water of approaching Death and Time passing, as opposed to warmth and . Life offered by the Sun. Shadows of water, suggest also shadows of Orphic Underworld, or Hell into which Christ descended between crucifixion and resurrection Water as melancholy element of alcohol. Alcools. "Pont Mirabeau": Seine, "amour... comme cette eau courante"... temps passe trepassl, Amour - Seine. "Chanson du Mai-Aim^": "onde mauvaise a boire", "1'eau d'argent". "Mai son des Morts": promenade en bateau sur un lac... "Clotilde": "date's des eaux vives". "Cortege"": mer, clartes, profondeurs. "Le Voyageur": "fleurs surmarines", nuit... mer... fleuves..., "bruit eternel d'un fleuve large et sombre". "Marie": "fleuve pareil-a" ma peine..." "La Porte": eau triste. "Le Vent nocturne": fleuve... (Rhine). "Lul de Faltenin": sirines... grottes... mer... "fleur de I'onde". "L'Emigrant de Landor Road": "petit bouquet flottant a* 1'aventure,,, couvre V Ocean...", Nuit - mer. "Nuit Rh6nane": leRhin... nuit... "Mai": le Rhin. "Rhehane d'Automne": le Rhin. "Les Fiancailles": "sombre sombre fleuve" "Vendemiaire": jeune nageur... noyes... onde nouvelle (death - rebirth). Calligrammes. "Simultaneltes" "Du coton...": fleuve ae>ien". "La Victoire": des dieux noyeV' (Icarus le langage de la mer II y a. "mer aux mauves ombres' projectiles "comme un "mes grands cris comme ambitions), "L'Ignorance": la mer (Icarus's death), "Rolandseck": le Rhin. "Le Pont": fleuve, 1'eau... "et leurs regards s'e'coulent/Dans ce fleuve". 113 MYTHS IMAGES Death of Christ and descent to shadows of Hell. Journey of Orpheus, as renewal and purification in shadow, as source of inspiration to artist - part of itinerary of poet, as of Sun in solar myth: decapitated Sun brings darkness. Alcools. "Chanson du Mal-Aime'": "ten^breuse epouse... mon ombre en deuil". "Palais": ombre... ciel presque noct urne. "Cr^puscule": ombres de la mort. "Maison des Morts": ombre - lumierev "Cortege": sombre, terne, brume obscurcit - soleil, feu, unique lumieYe. "Le Voyageur": ombres vivaces... ombres barbues. "Le, Larron": "contre le feu 1 Sombre prevaut", "ombre Equivoque et tendre,,, sombre elle est humaine". "L'Emigrant de L. R.": "cadavres des jours ronges par les e'toiles". "Rhenane d'Automne": ciel sans soleil... cimetieYe. "Les Fiancailles": "ombres qui... n'etait jamais jolies", "les cadavres de mes jours..." (cf."L'Emigrant"), "1'ombre enfin solide", "J'ai tout donnl" au soleil/ Tout sauf mon ombre". Calligrammes. "Ombre": Souvenirs deviennent des ombres (dead friends). "Photographie": "1'ombre/Du soleil" (negative impression). "Dans 1'abri-caverne": "manque de soleil dans mon Sme, manque d'eelairage". II y a. "Sanglots": "malades maudits de ceux qui fuient leur ombre". "Onirocritique": apocalyptic salvation glimpsed in dream-world and darkness. Ascension of Christ to Heaven - a flight of symbolic value in eyes of poet. Transcendance and superiority, as Icarus's ambition. Divine ubiquity and omniscience. Alcools, "Zone": "sie^cle change en oiseau monte dans 1 'air", "Te j'oT'i voltigeur'1, (Christ), 1'avion, hirondelles, faucons, hiboux, ibis, etc... "la colombe esprit immacule'". Marseille » Coblence - Rome - Amsterdam -Leyde - Gouda - Paris, etc. 114 MYTHS IMAGES (ascension of Christ, transcendance, Icarus1s ambition). "Le Voyageur": "il s'envolait un Christ". "Vendemiaire": ubiquity and omniscience, "mondes/... je vous ai bu..." Calligrammes. "Les Collines": Homme "qui vole plus haut que les aigles", "j'ai plans' si haut.. "Arbre": Leipzig - Rouen - Finlande etc. "Le Musicien de Saint-Merry": "Je chante toutes les possibilites de moi-meme" . "Merveille de la Guerre": "Je suis par-tout...", "I1histoire de Guillaume Apollinaire/Qui... sut Itre partout..." "La Jolie Rousse": "Me voici... etc." (autobiographical passage). II ya. "Per te praesentit aruspex": "ma creature et ma divinity". '. "L'Ignorance": aspirations of mortal to divinity. Death and dismemberment of Orpheus at hands of Thracian women. Suggests potential danger of emotional destruction at hands of any woman. Sirens' song, a lure to shipwreck mariners. Lorelei song, a lure to destroy Rhenish boatmen. Salome, musical beguilement of Herod, and resulting decapitation of John the Baptist. Music of Orpheus, the poet's defence. Magical power used against Le Bestiaire: music and magic of Orpheus, Alcools. "Chanson du Mai-Aim^": "lais pour les reines... chansons pour les sire^nes", "violons/font danser notre race humaine... le chant du firmament". "Cortege": "lyrique pas"... "morceaux de moi-meme". "Salome": danse... je danserais mieux que les seraphins... (enchantment). "Le Brasier": "tons charmants... pierres agiles" (enchantment). "Les Sapins": "beaux musiciens... graves magiciens" (enchantment). "Vendemiaire": voix chantante... chanson de Paris... trois voix suaves. Calligrammes. "Le Musicien de Saint-Merry": and magic. Music 115 MYTHS Sirens during journey to Under  world to charm .infernal gods. Orphic and poetic 'music' is eternal - Orpheus's head continued to sing long after his dismemberment. IMAGES "Un Fantfime des nuees": music of acrobat's artistic creation, called a "fantome" (Ixion and Hera). "Visees": Harpe "aux cordes d"argent". "Nuit d'ayril 1915": "mitrailleuse joue un air", orgues, chanson de 1'avenir. "Du coton...": musique militaire. 


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