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Myth in the work of Apollinaire Strange , Derek Ernest 1972

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MYTH IN THE WORK OF APOLLINAIRE  by DEREK ERNEST STRANGE B.A. University of Warwick, England,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL-FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of French  We accept this thesis as  conforming to  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September,  1972  the  In presenting t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  further  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  s h a l l make it  agree  in p a r t i a l  freely  available  for  reference  that permission for extensive copying of  of  this  representatives. thesis f o r  It  financial  this  thesis or  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  w r i t t e n permission.  Department  that  and study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by his  for  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Throughout the work of A p o l l i n a i r e are to be found references mythological figures  and incidents, drawn from many d i f f e r e n t areas of myth-  ology and legend, both ancient and more modern.  A p o l l i n a i r e had a taste for  somewhat bizarre and esoteric d e t a i l , such as these references. are c l e a r l y not interspersed  But they  throughout his writing i n a gratuitous  i t would seem that each one f i t s and c r e a t i o n .  manner:  into a larger plan of the poet's i n s p i r a t i o n  The aim of t h i s examination of myth i n the work of A p o l l i n a i r e  is to try to trace a l i n k between his i n t e r e s t and his own a r t i s t i c  expression.  i n , and references  There appears to be a synthesis  elements of t r a d i t i o n a l mythology and personal  expression, .which  both elements into a p e c u l i a r l y A p o l l i n a i r i a n form of myth.  freeing them from the immobility,of t r a d i t i o n .  myth becomes a constituent part of what he c a l l e d " 1 ' e s p r i t was a new, free form of s p i r i t u a l  to myths, of the two transforms  Personal  i n s p i r a t i o n draws upon mythology and, at the same time r e v i t a l i z e s themselves,  to  the myths  For A p o l l i n a i r e , nouveau", which  adventure.  After attempting to define the areas of mythology and legend from which A p o l l i n a i r e draws most often, we shall use these precisions  i n studying some  aspects of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poetic imagery, to see how he incarnates certain aspects of myth in his own way.  and animates  In t h i s i s to be found an important  aspect of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s renovation of myth,, in which myth merges with new, sur p r i s i n g images of the new kind of poetry that was being formed after Symbolists.  the  The solar myth, and other myths of f i r e , for example, are taken u  by A p o l l i n a i r e to the end of a personal  poetic expression.  S i m i l a r l y , water,  music or shadows are used to i l l u s t r a t e or dramatize A p o l l i n a i r e ' s individual  ii  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f myth.  F i n a l l y , as a k i n d o f c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e , we w i l l t u r n t o A p o l l i n a i r e ' s biography  i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e r o l e p l a y e d by mythology i n h i s  views and a t t i t u d e s towards h i s own  life  and  experiences.  In some poems, f o r  example, he l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the f i g u r e o r myth o f Orpheus or C h r i s t .  His own  l i f e , and  above a l l , h i s w r i t i n g , bears t h i s  imprint of  m y t h o l o g y , and, on the o t h e r hand, the myths t h a t he uses bear the i m p r i n t o f Apollinaire himself. a new of  From a r e c i p r o c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n such as t h i s comes  a t t i t u d e t o myth, which becomes p a r t o f the "new  also part  the vague legend o f A p o l l i n a i r e h i m s e l f . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s treatment  and  use o f myth thus a p p e a r s , i n the c o n t e x t o f  e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y p o e t r y , as an o v e r t u r e t o a new of  s p i r i t " , and  which were t o be e m b e l l i s h e d by the S u r r e a l i s t s .  example shows t h a t 20th c e n t u r y p o e t r y had s p i r i t and  p o e t i c vogue, the themes H i s p o e t i c and  mythological  not e n t i r e l y broken w i t h the former  t r a d i t i o n o f p o e t i c m y t h o l o g y , but had m e r e l y adapted i t t o  the s p i r i t o f i t s own  creation.  reflect  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I  Page  Introductory d e f i n i t i o n s of myth Chapter  1  II  Ancient myths and mythological characters Chapter  14  III  Myths of creative and destructive  fire  39  Chapter IV • Myths of death and rebirth in water, shadow, music and flowers  55  Chapter V Apollinaire:  personal  l i f e and myth  73  Chapter VI Conclusion:  towards a new myth  95  Bibliography  103  Appendix  110  1  INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS OF "MYTH"  A study of "myth" i n the work of any writer must necessarily from some general notions of what "myth" i s , and of i t s d i f f e r e n t parts.  start constituent  It is therefore necessary to attempt to define and c l a r i f y the terms  to be used, before embarking upon consideration of the work i t s e l f .  For  t h i s reason, we have chosen to d i s t i n g u i s h between f i v e words which would appear to r e l a t e to f i v e d i s t i n c t , yet sometimes overlapping aspects of "myth". These are:  "myth" i t s e l f , the word which w i l l  variety of facets to be discussed,  be used to encompass a l l the  but which has a significance peculiar to  i t s e l f only; legend, which must be considered separately as one p a r t i c u l a r aspect of what i s loosely c a l l e d "myth"; symbol, archetype, and image or metaphor of a l l s o r t s , which are seen as further abstract aspects of "myth", as well as the " p l a s t i c " manifestations, often expressed and i l l u s t r a t e d .  the material by which "myth" i s  A l l of these are to be found i n the work  of A p o l l i n a i r e , and they provide interesting landmarks in his work, and in the "myth" of his work, or his imagination. Some interesting d e f i n i t i o n s of the meaning of the words "myth" or "mythology" are to be found in the works the study of "myth".  of those who have specialized in  Professor C. Kerenyi collaborated with C . G . dung i n the  writing of Essays on a science of mythologyJ An attempt to e s t a b l i s h a "science of mythology" seems perhaps unnecessarily t e c h n i c a l , and r i s k s destroying the essential  beauty of mythological c r e a t i o n , though i t may shed an interesting  1 ight" on- the- psychological processes of such a- c r e a t i o n . purposes,  part of the d e f i n i t i o n of Kerenyi w i l l  However, for- o u r  serve as a good point of  2 departure: A p a r t i c u l a r kind of material determines the art of mythology, an immemorial and t r a d i t i o n a l body of material contained i n tales about gods and god-like beings, heroic battles and journeys to the Underworld - "mythologem" is the best Greek word for them tales already well known but not unamenable to further reshaping. Mythology is the movement of t h i s m a t e r i a l : i t is something s o l i d ? yet mobile, substantial yet not s t a t i c , capable of transformation. Kerenyi goes on to emphasize the creation of mythology as being an a r t : f a s t as the mythologems are in the form of sacred t r a d i t i o n s , they are in the nature of works of a r t " . principal  characteristics  "held still  In these words Kerenyi points out one of the  of the creation of myths, which is i t s sacred, or  r e l i g i o u s nature.  The myth is a pattern for human behaviour within a society  and c i v i l i s a t i o n .  The creator or the re-shaper of myths, the a r t i s t ,  takes  on something of t h i s r e l i g i o u s sanctity i n the very act of c r e a t i o n , or recreation.  The a r t i s t  i s then, a founder who draws strength from, and builds  upon the o r i g i n a l source of myth.  This i s one of the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of myth  as d i s t i n c t from legend, symbol, archetype, and so on. "It  is no groundless generalization to say that mythology t e l l s of the 4  o r i g i n s or at l e a s t of what o r i g i n a l l y was," his  .  writes Kerenyi l a t e r on, and  " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n " is supported by the theories of other myth-specialists.  One other such s p e c i a l i s t  of note is Mircea E l i a d e , who emphasizes the met-  aphysical importance of myth in w r i t i n g : Myth narrates a sacred h i s t o r y ; i t relates an event that took place in primordial time, the fabled time of the ^beginnings" The actors in myths are Supernatural Beings. Eliade goes on to give a point-by-point d e f i n i t i o n of myth which i t w i l l ~ be i n t e r e s t i n g to bear in mind when thinking of "myth" i n the writings of Apol 1 i na i r e : In general i t can-be said that myth, as experienced by archaic s o c i e t i e s , (1) constitutes the History of the acts of the Supernaturals; (2) that this History is considered to be  3  absolutely true . . . and sacred; (3) that myth i s always related to a " c r e a t i o n " , i t t e l l s how something came into existence, or how a pattern of behaviour, an i n s t i t u t i o n , a manner of working were established . . . ; (4) that by knowing the myth one knows the " o r i g i n " of things and hence can control and manipulate them g at w i l l . . . ; (5) that in one way or another one " l i v e s " the myth . . . In the l i f e and "mythology" of A p o l l i n a i r e we w i l l f i n d evidence of most of these aspects of the myth, as defined by E l i a d e , not least of which, i t s "sacred" aspect, with which A p o l l i n a i r e c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e s the poet, the a r t i s t ,  and himself.  For A p o l l i n a i r e , the a r t i s t ,  as creator, and  "founder" in contact with the " o r i g i n " , i s himself a d i v i n i t y : Avant t o u t , les a r t i s t e s sont des hommes qui veulent devenir inhumains. l i s cherchent peniblement les traces de 1'inhumanite, traces que I'on ne rencontre nulle part dans la nature. El les sont la^ve'rite et en dehors d ' e l l e s nous ne connaissons . - aucune re*al i t e .  -  What more c l e a r confession of a s p i r a t i o n to d i v i n i t y , and of b e l i e f i n the myth o f the a r t i s t ? It i s not contradictory to what has been said up to now, to say that myths are not necessarily about gods. religious.  They^are not necessarily sacred or  Indeed, the sort of myths to be found i n the work of A p o l l i n a i r e  are often of a secular type. :. They become divine p a r t i c u l a r l y when associated with the personal aspirations  of the poet towards the d i v i n i t y of a creator.  Poems such as "Le Larron" or "Les C o l l i n e s " w i l l in a l a t e r  be discussed  in this light  section.  When speaking of the "secular myth", however, we encroach already upon the t e r r i t o r y of legend, which i s the second thing that pure myth i s not. Myths, s p e c i f i c though they may be i n t h e i r depiction of character and s e t t i n g , are usually set in a timeless past.  Details of contemporary l i f e  may appear i n myth, but these are probably the complications of the influence of legend.  Myths are not f o l k t a l e s ,  whereas legends often are.  Philippe  4 Renaud, in his work on A p o l l i n a i r e , points out a further d i s t i n c t i o n between myth and legend: . . . l e mythe a pour protagonistes les dieux, la legende des mortels, qui sont bien souvent des heros dans I'acception antique du mot: des hommes cherchant „ £ t r e dieux, des fi demi-dieux de naissance. So the a r t i s t , as creator,  in identifying himself with the sacred and with  the " o r i g i n a l " i s not himself mythical, however c l o s e l y . h e aligns himself with the examplary characters  of myth.  He becomes rather, as he presents himself  in his l i f e or work, a case of legend.  That i s ,  a hazy aura of mystery, which w i l l give r i s e ' t o  he can create around himself legend.  Rimbaud's l i f e in  A f r i c a has something of the legendary about i t , being mysterious and r e l a t i v e l y undocumented.  Alfred J a r r y ,  in assuming the i d e n t i t y of his own Pere Ubu,  i n t e n t i o n a l l y became a l i v i n g legend, a c u r i o s i t y and a mystery.  Apollinaire  too, created an a i r of legend around some of the facts of his own l i f e , probably to.emphasize his taste for the b i z a r r e , which has i t s e l f  become  legendary. As these examples show, legend, as opposed to myth, relates to mortal men whose l i v e s offer material of interest to the imagination that w i l l elaborate them into legendary dimensions. personalities  The h i s t o r i c a l truth of events and  i s re-shaped into legend j u s t as the tales about gods were seen  to be for the formation of myth. Symbol, as we have s a i d , is one of the other constituents is one of the devices used to i l l u s t r a t e  the content of myth.  of myth.  It  In his book  on Myths in.French l i t e r a t u r e , Pierre Albouy c l a r i f i e s what he sees as the r o l e of symbol in the creation of myth: Aussi bien le symbole e s t - i l , plus que 1 ' a l l e g o r i e , proche du mythe . . . Le symbole, en supprimant la d i s t i n c t i o n entre 1'image et la notion, rend plus d i f f i c i l e et plus i n c e r t a i n le raisonnement qui permet de traduire la s i g n i f i c a t i o n de l'embl_me; II se r e v i l e  5 susceptible d*interpretations variees . . . C'est ce qu'est p l e i n ement l e mythe; 1'apologue, la parabole v i s e n t a l a i s s e r transpara f t r e un sens c l a i r ; l e mythe se veut d i f f i c i l e , e t , moins encore que l e symbole, se l a i s s e reduire a une e x p l i c a t i o n unique. The meaning of any symbols to be found i n the works of A p o l l i n a i r e w i l l , in accordance with the theory of Albouy, be seen to be open to numerous interpretations.  The symbol can serve a multiple function a l s o .  The  immediate poetic predecessors of A p o l l i n a i r e were, of course, the symbolists. A p o l l i n a i r e has often been said to show strong traces of t h e i r influence, p a r t i c u l a r l y in his e a r l i e r works.  Indeed, he wrote i n La Phalange nouvelle:  . . . Les symbolistes furent les premiers objets de nos enthousiasmes, et tous ceux q u i , depuis 1895, ont cree de la poesie doivent de l a reconnaissance aux martres aimes du symbolisme.  ,  Q  The symbol would appear to offer the poet, be he symbolist or A p o l l i n a i r e , an expression of the unknown by analogies  to the known, and a l s o , i n  Jung's words, "ignotum per i g n o t i u s " , the unknown through the even more unknown.  Symbolic experience appears to go beyond r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ,  comprehension of i t being attained by means of image, rather than by abstract concepts alone. Jung saw some overlap i n the roles and d e f i n i t i o n s of the symbol and the archetype - one of the psychological concepts with which he was parti c u l a r l y concerned.  Jung held that a l l human beings possess an inborn  tendency to form some general symbols which are manifested i n the mind through myths, dreams, fantasies and f o l k - t a l e s .  As evidence i n support of this theory,  Jung said that c e r t a i n general symbols such as "mother e a r t h " , "the sun", "the animus and the anima", e t c . , do recur frequently i n myths and dreams, i f by i n s t i n c t .  as  We are verging now on a d e f i n i t i o n of the archetype, which  can most simply be said to be a sort of " s t a t i c symbol". The " s t a t i c symbol", or the archetype, cannot be reshaped i t s e l f ,  as  ca.n,-thermyth5; the legend or aven: t h a l i t arary\ s y i n b o l : But a:n a^ch.2*yp.e;..i.s: -•  6 nevertheless  i n i t s e l f a kind of symbol.  In Renaud's book on A p o l l i n a i r e ,  we find Orpheus described as "archetype et patron des poetes qui veulent forcer les l i m i t e s de 1'humanite, decouvrir les mysteres et reveler un univers sacre . . . " ^ C l e a r l y Renaud wishes to emphasize the exemplary, patternl i k e aspect of the figure of Orpheus for A p o l l i n a i r e , t h i s being one of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the archetype.  However, the r o l e and function of  the archetype i s more complex than j u s t t h i s .  Without delving too far into  the t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of psychology, i t i s interesting to return to some of the ideas of Jung.  Jung sees the archetype as being an i n h e r i t e d pattern of  behaviour or scheme of functioning, which man expresses i n the form of archetypal Renaud.  images and forms - such as the image of Orpheus as described by  In an interview with another psychologist, Jung described arche-  types i n t h i s way:  •  They are Instinctual images that are not i n t e l l e c t u a l l y invented. They are always there and they produce c e r t a i n processes i n the unconscious that one could best compare with myths. That's the o r i g i n o f mythology. Mythology is a pronouncing of a series of images that formulate the l i f e of archetypes. So the statements of every r e l i g i o n , of many poets, e t c . , are -jp statements about the inner mythological process . . .  Myths and archetypes do have certain features in common, as Jung points out, and archetypes appear i n myths, as for example, does the "archetypal" figure of Orpheus.  But archetypes appear as involuntary manifestations  of unconscious  processes whose existence and meaning can only be guessed and interpreted, whereas myths deal with t r a d i t i o n a l , thus more intentional forms of c u l t u r a l history. Archetypal  behaviour by the archetypal figure i n an archetypal  situation  becomes an example within the context of myth, j u s t as Renaud points out that Orpheus i s ,  i n a sense, an example to the poet searching out a myster-  ious and sacred universe.  However, the archetype may be f i n a l l y only an image  7 that is held in the unconscious mind, to which some external mythical or l i v i n g , must correspond before the archetype w i l l a r t i s t i c or narrative device.  r e a l i t y , be i t function as an  A good example of a "matching up" or an  a p p l i c a t i o n of archetypes to the end of a r t i s t i c  analysis  i s to be found,  for example, i n Gaston Bachelard's book La Poetique de la reverie  , where  the writer adopts the Jungian d i s t i n c t i o n between the archetypes of "animus" and "anima" to use them in an evaluation of the mental state of poetic reverie that may precede poetic c r e a t i o n . The most commonly found of the components of myth in the work of A p o l l i n a i r e i s the image, or the metaphor.  Certain metaphors and groups of  metaphors recur frequently in his w r i t i n g , and they play an important part in the creation of an A p o l l i n a i r i a n mythology, as we shall hope to show. Charles Mauron, a prominent figure in the f i e l d of l i t e r a r y p s y c h o - c r i t i c i s m , has e n t i t l e d one of his c r i t i c a l works Des Metaphores obsedantes au mythe personnel.  Introduction a l a psychocritique."^ Although we w i l l  a psychocriticism of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s works in t h i s study, i t w i l l  not attempt s t i l l be  interesting to approach not only his personal myth, but also his whole use of myth from the point of view of the "metaphores obsedantes" that can be most e a s i l y discerned and interpreted. an analysis  "thematique".  Roland Barthes would doubtless  The theme, for Barthes,  call  such  i s not only seen as  part  of the realm of ideas and ideology, but is seen as an object or a being that demonstrates a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y or sensation that recurs repeatedly, expressing Mauron.  some sort of obsession  - which brings us back to the ideas of  A l c o o l s , for example, i s a subtle combination of external  and'sensations:  seemingly .  qualities  f i r e , water, s t a r s , i n e b r i a t i o n , flowers, and" so on, that  appear frequently, and-of ideas of a c u l t u r a l , s p i r i t u a l , r e l i g i o u s or mythological  kind.  The external  images and sensations are often used to  illustrate  8 or to embroider upon some mythological or ideological framework.  Thus,  when an image is noticeably recurrent i t may well be that the underlying ideology or obsession also recurs.  Images, as part of the l i t e r a r y fabric  of the w r i t i n g , can in t h i s way offer  indications of some possibly hidden  significance of the ideas or of the mind of the w r i t e r .  Baudelaire expressed  the same idea i n these words: La Nature est un temple ou de vivants p i l i e r s Laissent parfois s o r t i r de confuses paroles; L'homme y passe a travers des forests de symbol es Qui 1'observent avec des regards familiers Comme de longs exhos qui de l o i n se confondent Dans une t £ n e b r e u s e et profonde unite And i n his book on A p o l l i n a i r e , Renaud points to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a similar  "correspondance".  Les donnees fondamentales d ' A l c o o l s : mort, d i s p e r s i o n , regard, chant, remembrement, mythe orphique de la poesie ont des l i e n s necessaires avec des schemes dynamiques profonds . . . ; e l l e s en ont d.'autres, importants a u s s i , avec des formes de pensee heritees de l a poesie et de la mythologie. A p o l l i n a i r e uses a. theme at various l e v e l s of consciousness,  thus drawing  f u l l y upon the psychological depths of the i n s p i r a t i o n afforded by that theme. It is not amiss to speak of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery with such strong reference to i t s possible psychological sources.  The poet himself was  beginning to be aware of the importance of the mind's processes in poetic creation when he spoke of " 1 ' e s p r i t nouveau", and when he wrote " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , but his immediate successors, the S u r r e a l i s t poets based much of t h e i r work on an exploration of the mind's workings, of the imagination. says:  "L'etude du mythe est,  et de 1' imaginaire" . ^  en f a i t ,  A l s o , as Albouy  inseparable de c e l l e de 1 1 imagination  Baudelaire had c a l l e d the imagination " l a reine des f a c u l t e s " ,  and  had already pointed towards the importance of the imagination in an exploration of new and marvellous worlds of  experience:  C'est 1 1 imagination qui a enseigne a I'homme le sens moral de la couleur, du contour, du son et du parfum. El 1e a cree, au commencement du monde, l ' a n a l o g i e et la metaphore. El 1e decompose toute la c r e a t i o n , e t , avec les mateViaux amasses et disposes suivant des regies dont on ne peut trouver I ' o r i g i n e que dans l e plus profond de I'cime, e l l e cree un monde nouveau, e l l e produit la -,g sensation du neuf. L'imagination est la reine du v r a i , et l e possible est une des 2 n provinces du v r a i . E l l e est positivement apparentee avec l ' i n f i n i . In these words Baudelaire seems to foresee the interest would have in t h e "merveilleux" of the a r t i s t i c  that Apollinaire  imagination, of which he  speaks often i n his discourse on L ' E s p r i t Nouveau and i n his a r t i c l e s Peintres  on Les  Cubistes.  Later on the S u r r e a l i s t s too were interested "merveilleux" of the image and the imagination. II faut rendre grace aux decouvertes est sur l e point de reprendre ses  in the mystery and the Breton wrote:  de Freud  L 1 imagination  2  i  droits.  and again, on the subject of the "merveilleux": . . . l e merveilleux est toujours beau, n'importe quel merveilleux est beau, . i l n'y a meme que l e merveilleux qui s o i t beau. As we said e a r l i e r , myth has a c e r t a i n mystery-content, and a certain igious mysticism about i t .  2  2  rel-  The imagination that gives b i r t h to an image of  the sort implied by the words of Breton c e r t a i n l y draws on the "merveilleux" and explores i t .  In examining some of the images and patterns of images  5  in the writing of A p o l l i n a i r e , i t i s t h e i r content of "merveilleux" that may shed some l i g h t upon the mysteries of his myths, his legend, his symbolism and" his mind.  The strangeness of an image can point to* some myst'erfbus  depth of consciousness, or to some magic i n s p i r a t i o n that i s part of the myth of his a r t ,  or of his mythical thought.  10  So, the image provides some guide into the imagination of the poet, where the c r e a t i o n , and possibly also the s i g n i f i c a n c e , of myth, legend, symbol or archetype are to be encountered.  For t h i s reason, an examination  of the themes and images that are used to express the myth and i t s many contributory forms w i l l occupy a major part of this  study.  * * * * *  The intention of t h i s study of Myth i n the work of A p o l l i n a i r e  is,  therefore, to try to trace some l i n k between mythological references are formulated i n the poet's mind, and his own poetical c r e a t i o n . the synthesis of these two factors  will  as they  Out of  emerge some idea of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  ' l i t e r a r y myth', which is defined i n t h i s way by Albouy: Le mythe T i t t e Y a i r e est constitue par (le) re'cit, que l ' a u t e u r t r a i t e et modifie avec une grande l i b e r t e , et par les s i g n i f i c a t i o n s ' nouvelles qui y sont alors ajoutees. The synthesis  is that of the two basic ingredients of personal  23 inspir-  ation and c u l t u r a l , mythological heritage, which at the same time l i n k s and transforms  both elements.  Personal i n s p i r a t i o n draws upon myth and draws  closer to a mythical r e a l i t y in so doing, and myth i t s e l f  is l i b e r a t e d from  the immobility of history in becoming more personal and more a l i v e . case of A p o l l i n a i r e , myth can become part of the expression of  In the  "1'esprit  nouveau", for example. We w i l l  f i r s t l y try to d i s t i n g u i s h some of the areas of  classical  mythology and legend i n which A p o l l i n a i r e is most i n t e r e s t e d , and from which he draws most i n the mythological references  to be found i n his w r i t i n g .  Certain mythical characters would appear to be more s i g n i f i c a n t to him than  11  others, as we shall  see.  Secondly, we shall attempt an analysis  of some of the most important  aspects of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery i n the l i g h t of the discoveries made about his mythological preferences.  "Myths" of f i r e constitute a large part  of his imagery, and a certain l i n k with a mythological framework would seem to underlie them: Apollinaire.  the Sun and the solar myth, in p a r t i c u l a r ,  interest  S i m i l a r l y , underlying the images of water, shadow, flowers and  music, as they are used by A p o l l i n a i r e , would appear to be some reference  to  mythology, which make these images part of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own universe of "myth":  these images, as he uses them, echo and i l l u s t r a t e or animate certain  mythical  incidents.  .  In the l a s t s e c t i o n , we shall deal more s p e c i f i c a l l y with the  possible  r o l e played by mythology i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own l i f e , and i n the formation of his personality.  Certain aspects of his personal  l i f e bear  interesting  s i m i l a r i t i e s to mythology, of which he was c e r t a i n l y aware, and which, as we shall show, he exploited in certain of his poems.  He relates himself to  C h r i s t or Orpheus, for example, or his unhappy l o v e - a f f a i r s the effects of the s i r e n s '  song.  are likened to  F i n a l l y , out of these references  to d i r e c t  personal association with some myths, arises the legend of A p o l l i n a i r e himself. As he portrays himself i n his writing, 1 he himself offers  at l e a s t one example  of a fusion of myth and l i v i n g r e a l i t y , which i n the t r a d i t i o n of myth, as we defined i t e a r l i e r in t h i s chapter, can offer an example to p o s t e r i t y , A p o l l i n a i r e did to his poetic successors.  as  12  NOTES All  page-references for poems and plays by A p o l l i n a i r e w i l l  be indicated in brackets  immediately following the quotation.  throughout  The page  number given is that of the "Pleiade" e d i t i o n of the Oeuvres poetiques of A p o l l i n a i r e , as l i s t e d in the Bibliography.  References  to writings by  A p o l l i n a i r e other than poetry or plays, such as his prose works or art c r i t i c i s m , are indicated by individual  footnotes.  * * * * *  1  Jung, C.G. and Kerenyi, C. Essays on a science of mythology. trans. R . F . C . H u l l . Bollingen Series 22. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.  2  ibid.  p. 2.  3  ibid.  p. 3.  4  ibid.  p. 7.  5  E l i a d e , M. Series 31.  6  ibid.  7  Apollinaire. Meditations esthetiques, p. 48. Paris: Ball and et Lecat, 1966.  Oeuvres completes.  Renaud, P. p. 73.  L'Age d'homme, 1969.  •8 9  Myth and r e a l i t y , trans. W.R. Trask. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.  World Perspective  pp. 18-19.  Lecture d ' A p o l l i n a i r e .  Lausanne:  Albouy, P. Mythes et mythologies dans la l i t t e r a t u r e Paris: C o l i n , 1969. p. 8.  francaise. ~  10  quoted by Renaud, Lecture, p. 75.  11  ibid.  12  Evans, R . I . Conversations with Carl Jung and reactions from Ernest Jones. Princeton: D. van Nostrand Company, 1964. p. 48.  p. 73.  13 13  Bachelard, G. La Poetique de la r e v e r i e . de France, 1960.  14  Mauron, C. Des Metaphores obsedantes au mythe personnel. a la psychocritique. P a r i s : C o r t i , 1963.  15  Baudelaire, C. "Correspondances". Freres, 1961. p. 13.  16  Renaud.  Lecture,  17  Albouy.  Mythes...  18  Baudelaire, C. "La Reine des f a c u l t e s " . Paris: Louis Conard, 1923. p. 272.  19  ibid.  p. 274.  20  ibid.  p. 275.  21  Breton, A. Manifestes du surrealisme. Gallimard, 1969. p. 19.  22 ~ i b i d . 23  Albouy.  Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s  Les Fleurs du Mai.  Introduction  Paris:  Gamier  pp. 21-22. p. 13.  p. 24, Mythes...  Paris:  p. 9.  Curiosites  Esthetiques.  C o l l e c t i o n "Idees".  Paris:  14  ANCIENT MYTHS AND MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS  References  to ancient myths and mythological characters in the work of  A p o l l i n a i r e are evidently drawn from a r i c h fund of erudite d e t a i l poet's mind.  He uses certain myths recurrently to i l l u s t r a t e  pet ideas, i n f a c t , to i l l u s t r a t e  parts of his own "myth".  in the  some of his  And he uses  c e r t a i n aspects of these myths often in a symbolic manner, in order to obtain a universal significance in the previous chapter,  for his p a r t i c u l a r example.  T h i s , as we saw  is one of the main reasons that many Greek or Roman  myths were created - i n order to serve as generally applicable examples. Before any attempt to define and examine the use of ancient myths by A p o l l i n a i r e can be made, we must f i r s t  d i s t i n g u i s h the main areas of myth-  ology and legend from which he draws.  In the play e n t i t l e d Couleur du Temps,  is to be found a long enumeration of d e i t i e s and myths from many areas of human h i s t o r y : . . . L e s dieux de Babylone et tous les dieux d'Assur Voici Melquarth le nautonier et le moloch L'affame' qui toujours nourrit son ventre ardent Baal au nom multiple adore sur les cStes Ce tdurbillonnement Belzebuth Dieu des mouches Et des champs de b a t a i l i e ecoutez ecoutez T a n i t vient en c r i a n t et L i l i t h se lamente Et sur un trone f a i t de flammes etagees D'anges epouvantes et de betes celestes T e r r i b l e et magnifique entourl d ' a i l e s d'or De cercles lumineux a la lueur mouvante Jehovah le jaloux dont le nom £ p o u v a n t e A r r i v e fulgurant i n f i n i adorable Voici des dieux toujours des dieux toujours des dieux Toujours les antiques dieux venus des pyramijdes Les sphinx les dieux d'Egypte aux tetes d'animaux Les nomes O s i r i s et les dieux de la Grece Les muses les t r o i s soeurs Hermes les Dioscures J u p i t e r Apollon tous les dieux de V i r g i l e Et la tragique croix d'ou le sang coule a f l o t s Par le front ecorche par les cinq plaies divines  15 Domine l e s o l e i l qui-1'adore en tremulant Voila" les manitous les dieux americains Les e s p r i t s de la neige et leurs mouches ganiques Le Teutat^s gaulois les walkyries nordiques Les temples indiens se sont aussi vides Tous les dieux assembles pleurent de v o i r les hommes y S'entretuer sous l e s o l e i l qui pleure a u s s i . (p. 949-950) The appearance of such a d i v e r s i t y of gods and mythological figures  is  perhaps  more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the poems of a Parnassian poet such as Leconte de L i s l e , for example.  In the works of A p o l l i n a i r e , the range is somewhat more  limited than t h i s long speech by Nyctor, the poet-hero of Couleur du Temps, would seem to imply.  But most, i f not a l l of the types of mythology commonly  used by A p o l l i n a i r e do appear here':  Greek myths, f i g u r i n g characters  such as  Orpheus, Icarus or Ixion; Roman myths, used more sparsely by A p o l l i n a i r e ; old German myths, used p r i n c i p a l l y in the two series of "Rhenanes" - one of Alcools and the other of Le Guetteur Melancolique; and what we w i l l Biblical  call  "myths", or legends, which play a c l e a r l y important part throughout  the poetry and prose works of A p o l l i n a i r e . of the women that fascinate and L i l i t h .  In a d d i t i o n , the figures of some  A p o l l i n a i r e appear here:  the Muses, the sphinx,  Ancient Anglo-Saxon legend appears on several  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse,  i n references  ary women who interests or three references  occasions in  to "Rosemonde", who is one of the legend-  the poet e s p e c i a l l y .  Nordic myth i s l i m i t e d to two  to the "mouches ganiques",  no part i n the index of mythological references  but otherwise seems to play of A p o l l i n a i r e .  Similarly,  Oriental mythology and legend play no apparent part i n his work.  In t h i s study of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use of mythological reference, and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e for his own writing (with which we w i l l deal mainly in l a t e r chapters)  the approach taken w i l l  fall  mid-way between that of Philippe  Renaud, author of Lecture d'Apollinaire^ and that of Scott Bates, author of  16  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e .  2  Renaud's discussion of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s work is  based l a r g e l y on the medieval and semi-biblical myths associated with the figure of M e r l i n , the "enchanteur".  The importance of these myths for the  structure of Renaud's study can be seen in chapter-headings,  such as  "Alcools,  ou M e r l i n " , "Ondes, ou Lancelot" (part of the Authurian legend) or " L ' e n s e r r ement de Guillaume", which ressembles the "enserrement" of M e r l i n , who also becomes L'enchanteur pourrissant.  Renaud uses these myths as the main  framework for his discussion of the work of A p o l l i n a i r e - he a l s o , of course, uses many other areas and types of mythology i n his excellent and detailed study. The book by Scott Bates on A p o l l i n a i r e takes a somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i n e of approach, in that i t does not use a mythological context as a point of departure for i t s a n a l y s i s , as does Renaud, but rather uses mythological detail as a point of reference i n i t s discussion of themes, sexual and otherwise. A combination of these two approaches, this chapter, presents clear advantages. mythological characters,  such as we shall attempt in  References to ancient myths and  such as are to be found i n the works of A p o l l i n a i r e ,  provide some i n d i c a t i o n of the interests  of the w r i t e r , and of the t r a i t s to  be found not only in his works, but a l s o , as we shall see l a t e r , personal  life.  i n his  What are the gods or demi-gods that appear most often i n his  w r i t i n g , and to what end are the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used by A p o l l i n a i r e ?  of these figures  What are the predominant features of the exploits of  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s legendary f i g u r e s ,  that appear to i n t e r e s t the poet most?  a poem e n t i t l e d "A Jean Cocteau", A p o l l i n a i r e says: Nous parlerons . . : . . . de tous les dieux nos sujets A nous r o i s de la poesie. (p. 834)  In  17 Just how important are these "sujets" for the main o u t l i n e s , as well as for the d e t a i l s ,  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s work?  It i s possible that they provide some  interesting landmarks i n the tracts of his poetry and i n the labyrinths of his unconscious mind.  Le B e s t i a i r e , the f i r s t published poetic work of A p o l l i n a i r e , i s subt i t l e d Cortege d'Orphee.  It seems therefore appropriate to turn f i r s t to the  figure of Orpheus, who i s ,  indeed, the central figure of this early work.  Orpheus, the mythical t a l e of his adventures, and the symbolical that he represents,  significance  provides a frequent source of material for A p o l l i n a i r e .  He is mentioned several  times by name i n the most famous c o l l e c t i o n of poems  by A p o l l i n a i r e , A l c o o l s , and the t a l e of his death, for example, undoubtedly forms the basis of the death of the poet Croniamantal i n Le Poete assassine, the prose work published i n 1916. In a dictionary of Greek mythology we read:  "Le mythe d'Orphee est  1'un des plus obscurs et les plus charges de symbolisme que connaisse l a mythologie h e l l e n i q u e " B e f o r e seeing what use A p o l l i n a i r e makes of the myth of Orpheus, i t i s useful  to r e c a l l some of the p r i n c i p a l events i n the  myth, and some of the mythical, symbolic meaning of Orpheus himself. Orpheus is the son of C a l l i o p e , one of the nine Muses.  He i s ,  first  and foremost, a singer, a musician and a poet, who plays his lute and " c i t h a r e " so b e a u t i f u l l y that he can overcome the enchantment of the Sirens' song, and can charm even the infernal gods of the Underworld into submission to his wishes.  He saved the mariners of the "Argonaut", i n search of the  Golden Fleece, from death-by-enchantment by the voices of the S i r e n s , and, in a more famous e x p l o i t of his l i f e , he descended into the Underworld i n search of his beloved Eurydice.  By reason of his being i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  18  constant,  he f a i l e d to return Eurydice to l i f e , and from that time to the  time of his death, he wandered the earth, inconsolable.  Orpheus met his  death at the hands of hordes of jealous Thracian women, who possibly  ressemble  the frenzied Tristouse B a l l e r i n e t t e of Le Poete assassine, who tore him into pieces.  His head is supposed to have continued to sing with unmatchable beauty,  long after  his death.  Certain aspects of this myth can be interpreted with i n t e r e s t i n g relevant to the work of A p o l l i n a i r e .  results  Paul D i e l , i n a study of symbolism i n  Greek mythology, writes the following of the myth of Orpheus:  "Toute son  h i s t o i r e l e montre hesitant entre le sublime et le pervers, entre Apollon et Dionysos.  Symbole de la splendeur de I ' a r t et de 1'inconstance de  1 ' a r t i s t e , Orphie. accompagne son chant a l a l y r e d ' A p o l l o n , et l a  puissance  de ses accords entraine apres l u i jusqu'aux arbres et aux rochers de T'Olympe; mais i l est aussi le charmeur de fauves,  1'enchanteur de la per-  v e r s f t e " . ^ A s i m i l a r dichotomy of the "sublime" and the "pervers",  the  A p o l l i n i a n and the Dionysian modes of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , can be traced far into A p o l l i n a i r e ' s w r i t i n g s , as we shall see.  Orpheus i s , above a l l , the arche-  typal f i g u r e of the poet, aspiring to l y r i c a l would also be an enchanter.  harmonies i n his work, and who  "Certes, tout a r t i s t e dote d'une v i s i o n  authentique depasse le niveau de 1'artiste-Centaure  et p a r t i c i p e , dans un  degre, plus ou moins accentue, a la nature d'Orphee", writes D i e l ^ , and he continues:  "Le chant d'Orphee et sa vie sont 1 ' i l l u s t r a t i o n du c o n f l i t  ess-  entiel qui ravage l a vie humaine, et q u i , manifestation evoluee de la discorde i n i t i a l e , se trouve figuree dans tous les mythes par l e combat entre le d i v i n et l e demoniaque".^ D i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , A p o l l i n a i r e uses most aspects of the myth of Orpheus at one time or another.  The notes to Le B e s t i a i r e provide the most  19 e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n of what A p o l l i n a i r e ' s conception of the character of Orpheus i s : " . . . Quand Orphee j o u a i t en chantant, memes venaient ecouter son cantique. sciences, tous les a r t s . Fond£ dans et predit chretiennement Vavenement  les animaux sauvages euxOrphee inventa toutes les l a magie, i l connut l ' a v e n i r du SAUVEUR" ' (p. 33)  The l i n k of Orpheus with C h r i s t i a n i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting and w i l l be discussed further on.  For the moment, the magical power noticed by A p o l l i n 7  a i r e i n Orpheus i s of note, s i n c e , as Renaud points out , the t r a d i t i o n of the Orphic myth upholds and affirms  the power of man over nature, a power  which derives from a knowledge of the secrets of the Gods, such as that gained by Orpheus during his descent'to the Underworld.  The poet, in  emulating this archetype of poets, Orpheus, thus holds some power of enchantment over his natural surroundings,  over  . . . cette troupe infecte Aux mi l i e pattes, aux cent yeux: Rotiferes, c i r o n s , insectes Et microbes plus merveilleux Que les sept merveilles du monde... ("Orphee", p. 15) Such powers of enchantment are i l l u s t r a t e d also by a poem such as "Vendemiaire", or by references to "I'amphion" such as i s to be found i n the f i f t h stanza of "Le Brasier"  (p. 108).  The main act of enchantment taken from the myth of  Orpheus by A p o l l i n a i r e , i s that i n which Orpheus overcame the charms of the Sirens with his singing.  This i s used i n two poems:  "Vendemiaire" of Alcools  and "Languissez languissez" of Poemes d i v e r s : II trompa les marins qu'aimaient ces oiseaux-la II ne tournera plus sur l'e'cueil de Scy'Ila Ou- chantaian-t les^trots"' vo-tx s_a!ves,ve# seretne^ 5 " (pp. 151 and 567) In A l c o o l s , Orpheus i s used both i n the "Poeme lu au mariage d'Andre Salmon", and^i.n,"Le, L a r r o n " ,  In the former .poem, the,,',me.ntrlon,..is:-Gif "le.  20 dernier regard d'Orphee" and of " l e regard d'Orphee mourant" (pp. 83-84). Neither mention would seem to have any special the fact  significance,  (other than  that both Salmon and A p o l l i n a i r e are poets, as is Orpheus), probably  due to the fact that the poem was only w r i t t e n , according to A p o l l i n a i r e , on a bus, on his way to Salmon's wedding! (p. 1054). greater i n t e r e s t ,  however, in that i t offers  "Le Larron" is of  a possible comparison of  Orpheus with C h r i s t , depending on the i d e n t i t y given to the "Larron" himself  by the reader: . . . Que n ' a v a i t - i l la voix et les jupes d'Orphee Et les femmes l a nuit feignant d ' e t r e des taures L'eussent aime comme on 1'aima puisqu'en effet II e t a i t p&le i l e'tait beau comme un r o i ladre Que n ' a v a i t - i l : l a voix et les jupes d'Orphee... (pp. 94-95) Before continuing a discussion of C h r i s t and Orpheus, i n parenthesis,  the death of Orpheus must be considered b r i e f l y .  Orpheus, the poet,  Croniamantial the. poet, dies at the hand of women. emotional and s p i r i t u a l death is suffered the various women that he loved.  as  S i m i l a r l y , a kind of  by A p o l l i n a i r e , poet, at the hand of  Poems such as "L'Emigrant de Landor Road"  or " T r i s t e s s e d'une e t o i l e " or "Les Colchiques" bear witness to this minor death caused by disappointed love: Et ma vie pour tes yeux lentement  s'empoisonne (p.  he writes i n "Les Colchiques".  60)  The death of Orpheus is succeeded also by  the dismemberment of the poet's body, s i m i l a r to that described in very personal terms in the poem "Cortege": Le cortege passait et j ' y cherchais mon corps Tous ceux qui survenaient et n'etaient pas moi-meme Amenaient un a un les morceaux de moi-meme (p. 75) And there are other d i r e c t analogies to be made between A p o l l i n a i r e himself  21  and Orpheus.  Both are of S l a v i c and Mediterranean o r i g i n , for example.  A p o l l i n a i r e , as Orpheus, seeks to conquer death by immortalizing whatever i s dead (his loves, his past l i f e , e t c . )  i n the song of his poetry.  Both,  as we have s a i d , waver between the poles of the "sublime" and "grotesque" of Hugo, the " i d e a l " and the "spleen" of Baudelaire.  These s i m i l a r i t i e s  fall  into the realm of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own "myth", rather than into the discussion of his use by d i r e c t reference of the myth of Orpheus, and hence w i l l  be  further examined l a t e r on. A final  aspect of interest  i n the figure of Orpheus is his l i n k with  Jesus C h r i s t , which A p o l l i n a i r e does not ignore.  As we have seen, he wrote  i n his notes to Le B e s t i a i r e : -  . . . i l (Orphee) connut 1'avenir et predit chretiennement 1'avenement du SAUVEUR. (p. 33)  S i m i l a r l y , one of the verses e n t i t l e d "Orphee" in Le B e s t i a i r e reads as  follows:  Que ton coeur s o i t 1'app^t et l e c i e l , l a p i s c i n e ! Car, pecheur, quel poisson d'eau douce ou bien marine E g a l e - t - i l , et par l a forme et l a saveur, Ce beau poisson d i v i n qu'est JESUS, M6n Sauveur? (p.  20)  The l i n k s between these two "sons of gods", of d i f f e r e n t (the Greek and the B i b l i c a l ) , are s t r i k i n g .  "mythologies"  Not only is Orpheus supposedly  a prophet of the Messiah, but he i s also supposed to have f o r e t o l d the existence of John the Baptist, descended to Hell after  another prophet of C h r i s t .  C h r i s t , as Orpheus,  his c r u c i f i x i o n , and rose again with the secret of  L i f e and Death, which the followers of both were eager to l e a r n .  Finally,  both Orpheus and C h r i s t embody d i f f e r e n t aspects of a sublime, aesthetic and moral i d e a l .  They both appear to provide some goat towards which the streak  of idealism that runs through A p o l l i n a i r e ' s writing seems to be d i r e c t e d . . . here again, we encroach already on the purely personal myth of A p o l l i n a i r e ,  22 however.  o The "legend" of C h r i s t , drawn from B i b l i c a l "mythology", is a more frequently used source of i n s p i r a t i o n or i l l u s t r a t i o n in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s prose and poetry a l i k e .  He maintains a certain respect for C h r i s t himself,  although often the C h r i s t i a n Church, notably that of Roman Catholicism, suffers under the sardonic pen of A p o l l i n a i r e : et Cie such as "Sacrilege" ness to t h i s skepticism.  some short s t o r i e s from L'Heresiargue  or "L'Heresiarque" or " I n f a i l l i b i l i t e " bear witLeaving aside for now the C h r i s t i a n Church, l e t us  concentrate on the tone of references  to C h r i s t himself, and on the aspects  of the C h r i s t i a n "myth" that seem to preoccupy A p o l l i n a i r e . Scott Bates sees in the figure of "Le Larron" a p o r t r a i t of C h r i s t , and he presents a convincing argument in favour of such an interpretation of the poem.  If the figure of the Thief is in fact a symbolical portrayal of C h r i s t ,  then t h i s poem provides an interesting reference to the b i r t h of C h r i s t , which i s strangely simiTar to the b i r t h of A p o l l i n a i r e : Ton pare fut un sphinx et ta mere une nuit (p. he writes.  91)  Part of the very nature of the Sphinx (and here too there is a  coincidence of Greek and B i b l i c a l mythological reference) dependance upon a r i d d l e .  The i d e n t i t y of God the Father, in the  is also nebulous and r i d d l e - l i k e ; and as we shall see  on, the i d e n t i t y of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own father to his  mysterious  The Sphinx is undone only after i t s r i d d l e has  been solved by Oedipus outside Thebes. Christian T r i n i t y ,  is i t s  is s t i l l  later  something of a r i d d l e  biographers.  Further references c o l l e c t i o n s of verse.  to Christ occur in poems of a l l A p o l l i n a i r e ' s major In Alcools alone, C h r i s t i s mentioned in "Zone"(p.  "La Chanson du Mal-Aime"(p. 46),  " P a l a i s " ( p . 61),  "Le Voyageur"(p.  78),  39),  23 "Le Larron"(p. 91), and " L ' E r m i t e " ( p . 100).  Oblique references  to C h r i s t  occur i n the notion "resurrection" i n "La Maison des Morts" (p. 66); i n a reference to the "Madonne" (and to the "Vierge") i n "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " ( p .  128);  in the poems written in La Sante prison(pp. 140-145); and f i n a l l y in "Vendemiaire" (p. 149) where mention is made of " l a c r o i x " , of " l e l y s " (the flower of Easter) and of the " t r i r e g n e " .  In the c o l l e c t i o n s of Calligrammes or II  y a a s i m i l a r , though s l i g h t l y lesser emphasis is placed on i n s p i r a t i o n derived from the figure of C h r i s t . ^ It i s interesting to note the mixture of respect and v e i l e d cynicism i n some of these references  to C h r i s t .  Some lines from "Zone" point up t h i s  d u a l i t y of tone w e l l : . . . Tandis q u ' e t e r n e l l e et adorable profondeur amethyste Tourne a jamais l a flamboyante g l o i r e du C h r i s t C'est l e beau lys que tous nous cultivons C ' e s t 1'a. torche aux cheveux roux que n ' e t e i n t pas l e vent C'est l e f i l s p&Te et vermeil de l a douloureuse mere C'est 1'arbre toujours touffu de toutes les prieYes C'est l a double potence de Thonneur et de I ' l t e r n i t e C ' e s t T ' e t o i l e £ six branches C'est Dieu qui meurt l e vendredi et ressuscite l e dimanche C'est l e C h r i s t qui monte au c i e l mieux que les aviateurs II detient l e record du monde pour la hauteur (p.  40)  In these l i n e s , the awe inspired by C h r i s t is b u i l t up to a crescendo  effect,  where C h r i s t i s a sublime f i g u r e , " C ' e s t D i e u . . . " , before being suddenly deflated by the semi-mockery of "holding the world-record for a l t i t u d e " , a perverse, physical d e t a i l .  S i m i l a r l y i n " L ' E r m i t e " , "Seigneur l e C h r i s t est  n u . . . As-tu sue du sang C h r i s t dans Gethsemani":  these words are  but the mockery returns i n the words: . . . Car j j a i trop espere en vain 1 1 hematidrose J''ecoutais a genoux toquer les battements Du coeur le sang r o u l a i t toujours en ses arteres Une goutte tomba Sueur Et sa couleur Lueur Le sang s i rouge et j ' a i r i des damnes  sincere  24  Puis enfin j ' a i compris que je saignais du nez A cause des parfums violents de mes fleurs (p.  101)  The contrast between the r e l i g i o u s fervour of the hermit praying to see C h r i s t sweat blood (1'hematidrose)  and the r i d i c u l e of his own bleeding nose  attains an extremely, yet subtly, i r o n i c a l " l a r r o n des f r u i t s " about C h r i s t :  tone.  To equate C h r i s t with a  i s surely also to display a c e r t a i n degree of skepticism  Bates goes as far as to say that:  '"The T h i e f  is the most  d i r e c t and v i o l e n t attack A p o l l i n a i r e ever made on C h r i s t and C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s Jewish patrimony; i t is a barbarous,  clanging-poem, f u l l  of dissonances and  ambiguities, e r o t i c puns, drunken verbalisms, and an extraordinary compendium of the pagan marvelous culled from his already considerable knowledge of ancient l o r e " .  Again i n the "Elegie du Voyageur a:ux pieds blesses" of I I y a,  C h r i s t i s seen as an e n t i r e l y human young/man, and i s addressed f a m i l i a r l y : Le gars!  6 1'homme aux pieds blesses!  Tu fouTes les-dieux sous tes  pas (p.  337)  But in the "Chant de 1'honneur" of Calligrammes, on the other hand: Le C h r i s t n'est done venu qu'en vain parmi les hommes (p. 305) And i n "La Chanson du Mal-Aime": Le grand Pan 1'amour Jesus-Christ Sont bien morts et les chats miaulent Dans la cour j e pleure a Paris • (p.  50)  This is the sense of loss and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t that leads to A p o l l i n a i r e ' s cynicism about C h r i s t and C h r i s t i a n i t y , which is the "pervers" side of his attitude to the New Testament "myth".  References to C h r i s t provide, in f a c t ,  another i n d i c a t i o n of the "sublime" and the "pervers" d u a l i t y in the work of A p o l l i n a i r e which w i l l  become even more apparent i n l a t e r  chapters.  25  Also in contrast to the references references and verse.  to C h r i s t himself are some important  to A n t i c h r i s t s , of whom there are many i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s prose Principal among these A n t i c h r i s t s are the figures  of Isaac  Laquedem, the wandering Jew of L'Heresiarque et C i e ; Simon Magus, from the short story of the same name in L'Heresiarque and mentioned also in "Zone", along with C h r i s t ; Merlin the Enchanter, who appears i n "Merlin et l a v i e i l l e femme" and also i n L'Enchanteur pourrissant; poem " L ' E r m i t e " .  It becomes clear that:  and f i n a l l y the hermit of the  " . . . A p o l l i n a i r e was acquainted with  the opinions of the Church Fathers and nineteenth-century anthropologists the A n t i c h r i s t ; i n a d d i t i o n , he knew medieval and sixteenth-century  about  author-  i t i e s on the s u b j e c t . . . " ^ -  In "Zone", for example, C h r i s t i s i n the company of several  antichrist  figures: . . . comme Jesus monte dans V a i r Les diables dans les abimes Invent la t i t e pour regarder l i s disent q u ' i l imite Simon Mage en Judee l i s c r i e n t q u ' i l s a i t voler qu'on 1'appelle voleur Les anges v o l t i g e n t autour du j o l i voltigeur Icare Enoch E l i e Apollonius de T h y a n e . . . (p. 40) The presence of a l l these a n t i c h r i s t s cannot f a i l sion of C h r i s t into Heaven after  to b e l i t t l e the holy ascen-  his c r u c i f i x i o n and r e s u r r e c t i o n .  Simon  Magus in p a r t i c u l a r , said to be the o r i g i n a t o r of Gnoticism, is a challenge to the sole d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t .  Simon Magus is sometimes regarded as an  incarnation of some of God's power, and i s supposed to have performed m i r a c l e s , including that of l e v i t a t i o n . That other great A n t i c h r i s t of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s work, M e r l i n , i s the son of Satan, r i v a l of God the Father himself: Merlin guettait l a v i e et V e t e r n e l l e cause Qui f a i t mourir et puis renaftre 1'univers (p.  88)  26 M e r l i n , l i k e C h r i s t or Orpheus, has knowledge of the secret source of L i f e or Death too.  In this alone his d i v i n i t y challenges that of C h r i s t .  The idea of l e v i t a t i o n , c l o s e l y associated with the figure of Christ in "Zone", provides an interesting l i n k with another major mythological figure who features prominently i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s w r i t i n g :  Icarus.  C'est l e C h r i s t qui monte au c i e l mieux que les II deti.ent le record du monde pour la hauteur  In "Zone":  aviateurs  and l a t e r i n the poem: Icare Enoch E l i e Apollonius de Thyane F l o t t e n t autour du premier aeroplane (Christ) (p.  40)  In "Le Voyageur" a l s o , " i l s ' e n v o l a i t un C h r i s t " (p. 78)  ...  The most famous part of the myth of Icarus i s perhaps the story of his f l i g h t with Dedal us, his father, him.  and of his death after  his wings had f a i l e d  Icarus, symbolically, wishes to ascend to the Sun, which is the source  of a l l l i f e and knowledge.  He aspires to a state of C h r i s t - l i k e d i v i n i t y ,  and to a knowledge of the secrets of L i f e . of Icarus are well-known:  The actual  DedaTus, his father,  incidents of the myth  invented wings with which he  and Icarus could escape imprisonment by Minos i n the Labyrinth of Crete. The wings v/ere to be attached to the f l y e r ' s young and f u l l  of pride and ambition, did not heed his f a t h e r ' s  flew too near to the Sun. fell  shoulders with wax.  Icarus, warning and  The wax attachment of his wings melted, and Icarus  to his death i n the sea below. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this myth by Paul Di el merits some a t t e n t i o n , as  i t sheds i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on some of the references A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poems.  Diel writes:  "Le mythe exprime - on d i r a i t , l e plus  clairement possible - ces deux s i g n i f i c a t i o n s : et 1 ' i n s u f f i s a n c e  to Icarus found i n  des moyens employes.  l e desir exalte d'e'levation  . . . E n remplacant l e s o l e i l par son  27 sens symbolique, 1 ' e s p r i t , i l apparaft  que Dedale met son f i l s en garde contre  le danger auquel i l s'exposerait, s ' i l  n o u r r i s s a i t l e desir demesure de fui'r  les regions perverses  (Labyrinthe) dans 1'espoir vain de pouvoir atteindre  la region sublime par l e seul moyen trop insuffisant a i l e s de c i r e ) " . 1  de 1 ' i n t e l l e c t  (les  In the myth of Icarus a l s o , therefore, as i n the myth of  Orpheus, the two elements of the "sublime"aspirations  towards an ideal and  "pervers" r e a l i t y of man's l i m i t a t i o n s are counterpoised. wings symbolise not the sublime aspirations  Icarus'  artificial  of the creative imagination,  which true wings (those of angels, for example) would represent,  but they  symbolise rather the perverse imagination, blinded by i t s own v a n i t y , and blind also to the wise counsels of Dedal us, the true i n t e l l e c t u a l . Icare s'approche du s o l e i l , de la vie de 1 ' e s p r i t , plus ses a i l e s l e trahissent.  "Plus artificielles  C'est 1'esprit qui i n f l i g e l e chcitiment; c ' e s t l e s o l e i l qui  f a i t fondre les a i l e s a r t i f i c i e l l e s .  Icare s'abat et tombe dans l a mer'.'J^  The idea of f l i g h t , of l e v i t a t i o n occurs in various poems by A p o l l i n a i r e , and expresses a desire to r i s e above m a t e r i a l , t e r r e s t r i a l  existence, a  desire for sublimation that approaches a state of d i v i n i t y .  The f l i g h t of  Icarus i s s i m i l a r to that of a l l s p i r i t u a l ambition, in which 'pride precedes the f a l l . ' l fall  In A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use of the myth of Icarus,  the pattern of the  from the sublime heights of the mind to the perverse depths of carnal  desires is c l e a r l y expressed. "Zone", for example.  A s i m i l a r pattern provides the foundation of  The loves and idealized women of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own l i f e  were often the objects of this expression of alternating desires. writes:  In t h i s way A p o l l i n a i r e f i t s  sublime-perverse  exactly the description of D i e ! , who  " L ' a r t i s t e accompli est celui qui s a i t exprimer avec l a  mime  veracite,  avec la meme o b j e c t i v i t e , done sans e x a l t a t i o n , la chute et 1'elevation, '•13''' tourment et la j o i e . d e la v i e " .  le  28 In the c o l l e c t i o n of poems e n t i t l e d II y a, A p o l l i n a i r e dedicates an entire poem to the figure of Icarus, and to the significance of his symbolical  flight.  The poem is e n t i t l e d "L'Ignorance", which immediately i n d i c -  ates A p o l l i n a i r e ' s awareness of Icarus' fatal  fault.  The poem begins with  the words: S o l e i l , je suis jeune . . . (p.  344)  The youthful ambitions of Icarus to become divine echo exactly those of the Greek myth: . • S o l e i l , je viens caresser ta face splendide Et veux f i x e r ta flamme unique, aveuglement Icare etant celeste et plus d i v i n qu'Alcide Et son bdcher sera ton eblouissement (p. 344) As A p o l l i n a i r e notices,  i t is the "aveuglement",  the "ignorance" of Icarus  that cause his downfall: Mais, ton amour, s o l e i l , brule divinement Mon corps au'etre d i v i n voulut mon ignorance  (p.  345)  Elsewhere, A p o l l i n a i r e speaks of himself in d i r e c t association with Icarus, as for example in "Merveille de la Guerre" of Calligrammes: C'est moi qui commence cette chose des s i e c l e s a venir Ce sera plus long a r e a l i s e r que non la fable d'Icare v o l a n t . . . (p. 272) or i n "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " of A l c o o l s : Tous les mots que j ' a v a i s a dire se sont changes en e t o i l e s Un Icare tente de s'elever ^usqu'a chacun de mes yeux Et porteur de s o l e i l s je brule au centre de deux nebuleuses • (p. 130) These l a s t l i n e s go as far as to express a superiority over Icarus, a disdain for the ignorance and blindness of such ambition: A i l e s et tournoyants comme Icare l e faux Des aveugles gesticulant comme des fourmis (p. 309)  As Philippe Renaud has written: Apollinaire  "... 1'image d'Icare est tres frequente chez  Nul doute qu'avec Orphee et Merlin, Icare ne soit un des  patrons d'Apollinaire et I'une des grandes figures qui permettent de mieux comprendre la nature de son e f f o r t " R e n a u d ' s l i s t is not quite complete, since he leaves out the figure of Christ.  It is indeed remarkable that  these four major "mythical" figures are the only ones to whom entire poems are allotted, or to whom consistent reference is made by Apollinaire. Orpheus has a poem named after him - "Orphee" - in the Poetries retrouves (p. 683) as well as Le Bestiaire, of which four stanzas are entitled "Orphee"; Merlin is the hero of "Merlin et la V i e i l l e femme" in Alcools; Icarus i s the central figure of "L'Ignorance", as well as.being one of the major images of "Lul de Fal-tenin"; and Christ appears in the poems already mentioned, "Le Larron" and the "Elegie du voyageur aux pieds blesses", as well as in numerous other references.  Let us now turn our attention to some of the lesser deities who find a place in the store of myths used by Apollinaire.  Prominent amongst these  deities i s the Sun, Helios or Apollo, considered a divine ideal, and often endowed with symbolic significance by Apollinaire.  But the importance of  references to the Sun is not so much a mythical, as a metaphorical  one, and  so discussion of the role of the Sun in Apollinaire's writing will be deferred to a later chapter. Associated indirectly with the Sun, however, i s the Greek myth of Ixion. Ixion, a Thessalonian  king, murdered his father-in-law, but was absolved of  his guil't by Zeus, who took pity on him. Ixion showed' extreme ingratitude towards his divine benefactor, by trying to seduce the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus.  In error, he seduced a cloudy image of Hera, from which union were  30 born the Centaurs.  Zeus punished Ixion for his deceitfulness  by attaching  him to a flaming wheel and condemning him to turn e t e r n a l l y in space: Hence the association  with the Sun.  A p o l l i n a i r e makes s p e c i f i c  use of the  incidents of this.myth in two poems, "Vendemiaire" and "Un Fantdme des nuees" (pp. 193-196).  In "Vendemiaire", the reference to Ixion is e x p l i c i t :  is c a l l e d both "1'Ixion mecanique" (p. 150) and "Ixion l e createur (p. 151).  oblique"  Ixion i s the creator of the Centaurs, by his mysterious,  union with the "fantome des nuees", Hera.  he  "oblique"  In "Un Fantome des Nuees", i t  is  t h i s image of the elusive and i l l u s o r y Hera, the woman of cloud loved by Ixion, that i s used to provide an i n d i r e c t mythical point of reference the image of the young "Saltimbanque", mysterious  street-performers.  for  the child-wonder of the i t i n e r a n t and  This Ixionic type of creation has a symbolic  value for A p o l l i n a i r e , as an image of the creation of a r t .  "And for  this  f a l s e , y e t divine creation out of s e l f which gives b i r t h to a new r e a l i t y , A p o l l i n a i r e . finds a s t r i k i n g new c e l e s t i a l of King Ixion  t r i n i t y , another solar myth, that  The v i s i o n of the goddess i s in the creator  . . . She is  15 the breeder o f  art".  Before passing on to a discussion of legendary or mythical women, and t h e i r use or place in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s w r i t i n g , i t is appropriate  to mention  the presence of Eros and Anteros, the two gods concerned with Love. case of C h r i s t and the various A n t i c h r i s t s discussed e a r l i e r , brother-gods  As in the  these two  demonstrate a d i s t i n c t d u a l i t y in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mind and work.  They provide a further i l l u s t r a t i o n of a "sub!ime-pervers" these words from "La V i c t o i r e " show: Deux lampes brulent devant moi Comme deux femmes qui r i e n t Je courbe tristement la tete Devant l'ardente moquerie Ce r i r e se repand  dichotomy, as  31  Partout 0 paroles E l l e s s u i v e n t dans l a m y r t a i e L'Eros e t 1'AnteVos en l a r m e s . . . ( p . 311) Of l e g e n d a r y women i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s works t h e r e a r e many, i n c l u d i n g Roman, B i b l i c a l and German f o l k - h e r o i n e s . with p a r t i c u l a r i n s i s t e n c e :  A p o l l i n a i r e r e f e r s t o f o u r women  Rosamond, L i l i t h , Helen o f T r o y , and Salome;  and makes r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r s such as O p h e l i a i n t h e "Poeme l u . . . " the s i r e n s and S c y l l a Fiancailles"  Greek,  (p. 8 4 ) ,  i n "Vendemiaire" ( p . 1 5 1 ) ^ , t h e V i r g i n Mary i n "Les  ( p p . 128, 1 3 5 ) , A p h r o d i t e i n "Le L a r r o n "  ( p . 9 1 ) , Venus i n  " C ' e s t Lou qu'on l a nommait" ( p . 2 1 8 ) , B e r e n i c e i n " M e r v e i l l e de l a g u e r r e " ( p . 271) o r t h e i n f a n t a s o f S p a i n i n " T i e r c e rime..." and "Adieux" 332).  (pp. 331,  A l l t h e s e t o g e t h e r form a composite image o f h i s i d e a l woman, and h i s  i d e a l o f beauty: J e v o i s b i e n devant moi l a beaute 1  L a d o r a b l e beaute de mes reVes E l l e e s t p l u s b e l l e que dans l e s l i v r e s Toutes l e s imaginations Des poetes n ' a v a i e n t suppose E l l e e s t p l u s b e l l e que ne f u t Eve P l u s b e l l e que ne f u t E u r y d i c e P l u s b e l l e qu'Helene e t D a l i l a P l u s b e l l e que Didon c e t t e Reine E t que non Salome' l a danseuse Que ne f u t C l e o p t t r e e t ne f i i t Rosemonde au P a l a i s M e r v e i l l e u x . . . ( p . 956) These a r e t h e words spoken by N y c t o r , t h e poet o f C o u l e u r du Temps, when he finds  h i s i d e a l o f beauty and o f womanhood encased i n a b l o c k o f i c e i n t h e  Antarctic.  The i r o n y and r i d i c u l e o f t h e whole s e t t i n g o f t h i s speech seems  to i n d i c a t e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e does not b e l i e v e t h a t such a woman, t h a t such beauty t r u l y e x i s t s o r i s e v e r a t t a i n a b l e . In l e g e n d and i m a g i n a t i o n a t l e a s t , however, h i s i d e a l woman e x i s t s . From; Greek; legend: s p r i n g s the poem "Helena" of the Poetes D i v e r s ;  In t h i s  32 poem, A p o l l i n a i r e dwells on the magical beauty of Helen of Troy: Sur t o i Helene souvent mon reVe reva Tes beaux seins f l e c h i s s a i e n t quand Paris t'enleva Et savais-tu combien d'hommes avaient tes l i v r e s Baise depuis Thesee jusqu'au gardeur de chevres Tu e'tais b e l l e encor toujours tu l e seras Et les dieux et les r o i s pour t o i f i r e n t l a guerre Car ton corps etais nu et blanc comme ton pere Le cygne amoureux qui jamais ne chantera . . . et tu dois vivre encore En quelque bourg de Grece belle comme alors (p.  579).  The search for a feminine ideal continues with the figure of Rosamond, who appears in one of the "Orphee" stanzas of Le B e s t i a l r e "Palais"  (p. 15), i n  (p. 51), and "Rosemonde" (p. 107) from A l c o o l s , and i n "Je v i s un  s o i r l a zezayante" of Henry I I  (p. 327) from II y a.  Rosamond C l i f f o r d was a mistress  of .England, who supposedly l i v e d in a palace at Woodstock, and  was known as the "rose of the world" because of her remarkable beauty. i s a sort of "femme f a t a l e " , attainable.  She  mysteriously hidden i n her palace, and thus un-  Her palace becomes a symbol of the goal of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s vain search  for his i d e a l : Puis lentement je m'en a l l a i Pour queter la Rose du Monde (p. 107) Vers l e palais de Rosemonde au fond du Reve Mes reveuses pensees pieds nus vont en s o i r e e . . . (p. 61) The emphasis l a i d . o n the notion of his ideal being a "reve" occurs also notably i n the quoted passage from "Helene".  Both Rosemonde and Helene are  "femmes f a t a l e s " whose ruinous powers intrigue and yet are mistrusted by A p o l l i n a i r e , l i k e the powers of the s i r e n s ' such as Salome, are the cause of man's  song.  suffering.  These women, with others  33 One of the short stories of L'Heresiarque e n t i t l e d "La Danseuse" and an entire poem of Alcools are dedicated to "Salome". of the immortal "femme f a t a l e " or Oscar Wilde.  Salome was a symbol  to nineteenth-century poets such as Mallarme  Her beauty and her grace as a dancer beguiled Herod into  agreeing to the decapitation of John the Baptist: Salome, e n j o l i v e e , a t t i f e e , diapree, farde'e, dansa devant l e r o i et, excitant un vouloir doublement incestueux, dbtint l a tete du Saint refusee a sa mere. ("La Danseuse", L'Heresiarque et Cie) In the poem "Salome", the heroine celebrates  her success i n bringing about  the death of the prophet; and i n "La Danseuse" i t is her own legendary death that is described i n a l y r i c a l , yet gruesome manner: Soudain, l a glace se brisa sous e l l e qui s'enfonca dans l e Danube, - ma is de t e l l e facon que, l e corps extant baigne', la tete resta au-dessus des glaces rapprochees et ressoudees. Quelques c r i s t e r r i b l e s effrayerent de grands oiseaux au vol l o u r d , et, lorsque l a malheureuse se t u t j sa tete semblait tranche'e et posee sur un plat d'argent. ("La Danseuse", L'Heresiarque et Cie) L i l i t h is also one of the four mythical women most frequently mentioned by A p o l l i n a i r e .  She i s the f i r s t wife of Adam and l a t e r wife of Beelzebub;  she is the satyr of the 34th chapter of the Book of Isaiah:  " . . . and the  satyr shall cry to his f e l l o w ; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of r e s t " .  In Hebrew mythology she i s a demon who  howls i n the n i g h t , and i n " L ' E r m i t e " , A p o l l i n a i r e describes her as exactly this: Et j e marche j e fuis 6 nuit L i l i t h u l u l e Et clame vainement et je vois de.grands yeux S ' o u v r i r tragiquement 0 nuit j e vois tes cieux (p. 102) L i l i t h i s a creature of the shadows, which, as Madame Durry point's out in her study of A l c o o l s , is an important aspect of the imagery of this c o l l e c t i o n : 17 "Le motif de 1'ombre revient toujours", she writes.  For Scott Bates, on the  34 other hand, L i l i t h is "a widely feared incubus with (in A p o l l i n a i r e ) an attendant t r a i n of vices including menstruation, Lesbianism, and f l a g e l l a t i o n . ...a  symbol of frustrated motherhood and s t e r i l i t y i n The Putrescent Ench-  anter.  . . . an ingenious symbol of menstruation who had created the Red Sea  against the desires of men before turning to deceive Beelzebub with female l o v e r s " . ^ 8 In the Poemes a Lou L i l i t h indeed appears with Proserpine "aux enfers": Nous nous aimons sauvagement dans la nuit noire Victimes de I'ascese et produits du desespoir Chauves-souris qui ont leurs anglais comme les femmes and L i l i t h herself chants: J'ai  cree la mer Rouge contre le desir de I'homme (p.  446)  L i l i t h i s , then, a creature of Anteros tendencies, whereas Helen, Rosamond or Salome are rather on the side of the god Eros. The l a s t of the "femme f a t a l e " , enchantress figures i s taken from Rhenish f o l k l o r e and myth.  that we w i l l  discuss  This is the legend of the Loreley,  taken up by A p o l l i n a i r e in the poem "La Loreley" of the Rhenanes i n A l c o o l s . For t h i s poem, A p o l l i n a i r e was inspired by a novel by Brentano e n t i t l e d Godwi, written in the early 1800's.  The legend i t s e l f t e l l s of a maiden who  threw herself into the Rhine in despair over a f a i t h l e s s  l o v e r , and who r e t -  urned as a s i r e n - l i k e creature, "une sorciere blonde", to lure boatmen to t h e i r destruction on the " L o r e l e i f e l s e n " of the Rhine: 0 belle Loreley aux yeux plein de p i e r r e r i e s De quel magicien tiens-tu ta s o r c e l l e r i e (p. 115) In this poem, A p o l l i n a i r e voices his suffering after Annie Playden had deserted him: Mon amant est parti pour un pays l o i n t a i n  35 Faites-moi done mourir puisque j e n'aime r i e n (p.  115)  As we shall see l a t e r , A p o l l i n a i r e frequently makes use of a l l the myths we have examined to express a personal experience or sentiment i n j u s t this way. As a conclusion to this examination of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s references and mythological characters, a clear l i s t of such references  has been compiled  in order to give an enumerated i n d i c a t i o n of some of the patterns we have been trying to draw a t t e n t i o n . some references  to myths  From t h i s l i s t i t w i l l  to which  be obvious that  have so far been almost completely ignored, as for example  those to the Sirens or to the Sphinx.  These w i l l  be discussed  in the course  of the examination of some of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s recurrent images that i s to follow, and in an examination of some aspects of the poet's personal l i f e in a l a t e r section.  .  36 L i s t of mythological or legendary a l l u s i o n s to be found in Le B e s t i a i r e , A l c o o l s , Calligrammes and II y a.  GREEK Amphion: "Le B r a s i e r " . Aphrodite: "Le Larron". Attis: "Vent Nocturne". Centaures: "Le B r a s i e r " . Eros/Anteros: "La V i c t o i r e " . Eurydice: Le B e s t i a i r e V. Hebe: "1904": Icarus: "Zone", "Lul de F a l t e n i n " , "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " , "Merveille de l a . Guerre", "La V i c t o i r e " , "L Ignorance . Ixion: "Vendemiaire", "Un fant6me des nuees". Jason: Le B e s t i a i r e IV. Orpheus: "Po^me lu au m a r i a g e . . . " , "Le Larron", Le B e s t i a i r e I, XIII, XVIII, and XXIV., Pan: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "Chant de I'horizon en Champagne". Psylles: "Les C o l l i n e s " . Satyrss/faunes: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", " E l e g i e " . Scylla: "Vendemiaire". Sirens: "Chanson du Mal-Aime'", "Lul de F a l t e n i n " , " L ' E m i g r a n t . . . " , "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " , "Vendemiaire", "Bonjour mon f r e r e " , Le B e s t i a i r e XXIV and XXV. Sohinx: "Le L a r r o n " , "Le B r a s i e r " . Thule: "Sanglots". Tyndarides: "le Brasier". Ulysse: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "La riuit d ' a v r i l 1915". . ROMAN  .  .  .  .  Berenice: "Merveille de l a Guerre". Caesar: "C'est Lou qu'on la nommait". Mars: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Minerva: " T r i s t e s s e d'une e t o i l e " . Rome: "Rolandseck"(?) ( " . . . l e s sept montagnes..."). Thule: same as for Greek legend. Venus: "Chanson du Mal-Aime", "C'est Lou qu'on l a nommait". BIBLICAL Old Testament Balthazar: "Merveille de l a Guerre". Beelzebub: "Chanson du MaT-Ai'mev". Elijah: "Zone". Enoch: "Zone". • Eve: Le B e s t i a i r e V.  .  37  (Exodus from Egypt):  "Le Larron" ( " . . . c a i l l e s . . . m a n n e " ) , "Chanson du MalAime". Hebrews: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". L i l i t h : " L ' E r m i t e " , "L'Emigrant" ( " . . . L a femme du d i a b l e " ) . Lucifer: "Les C o l l i n e s . Ophir: "Sanglots". Pharoah: "Chanson du Mal-Aime". Red Sea: "Chanson..." New Testament Barrabas: " C h a n s o n . . . " John the Baptist: Le Bestiaire XVIII, "Salome". Christ: Le Bestiaire XVIII and XXVI (and Notes), "Zone", "Chanson " P a l a i s " , "Le Voyageur", "Le L a r r o n " ( ? ) , " L ' E r m i t e " , "Un S o i r " ( ? ) , "Chant de l'honneur", "Ele^gie du V o y a g e u r . . . " , "Rolandseck" ("Ton Corps s i n o b l e . . . " ) . Chrysostome (Christian h i s t o r y ) : "Tierce rime pour votre ame". The Cross: "Vendemiaire". Madonna/Virgin: "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " , "Lorsque vous p a r t i r e z " . Salome/Herod: "Salome". . •... Simon Magus (Christian h i s t o r y ) : "Zone". The T r i n i t y : "Vendemiaire". "ANGLO-SAXON" Merlin: "Merlin et la v i e i l l e femme". Rosamond: Le B e s t i a i r e XIII, " P a l a i s " , "Rosemonde", "Je vis un s o i r l a zezayante". (Shakespearean): "Poeme lu au m a n a g e . . . " (Hamlet, Ophelia). GERMAN Rhenish myth and legend of "Rhenanes" ("Nuit Rhenane", "La L o r e l e y " , "Schinderhannes"), and of "Dans l e Jardin d'Anna". MISCELLANEOUS Columbus: Don Juan:  " C h a n s o n . . . " ( " D e s i r a d e . . . " ) , "Le Brasier" ( " D e W a d e " ) , "Toujours". "Toujours" (cf. also pornographic work e n t i t l e d Les exploits d'un jeune Don Juan). Fairy Yra: "Le T r e s o r " . Orkenise(?): " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " . Roc, p i h i s , mythical b i r d s : "Zone". Spanish infantas: "Tierce r i m e . . . " , "Adieux".  38 NOTES  1  Renaud, P h i l i p p e . Lecture d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . Lausanne: Editions L'Age d'Homme, 1969.  2  Bates, Scott. Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . Publishers, 1967.  3  Grimal, P i e r r e . Dictionnaire de la mythologie grecque et romaine. Paris: P . U . F . , 1969. p. 332.  4  Di e l , Paul. Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque. 1966. p. 136.  5  ibid.  p.  140.  6  ibid.  p.  141.  7  Renaud.  8  See the b r i e f (and incomplete) of t h i s chapter.  9  Bates.  Lecture,  p.  Apollinaire.  Collection Lettera.  T.W.A.S.  New York:  Twayne  Paris:  Payot,  177. l i s t of mythological references at the end  p. 29.  10  ibid:,  p.  34.  11  Die!..  Symbol i s m e . . .  12  ibid.  p. 49.  13  ibid.  p.  14  Renaud.  15  Bates.  16  There are numerous other references to the s i r e n s , which w i l l l a t e r with reference to A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal love-affairs.  be discussed  17  Durry, Marie-Jeanne. Paris: SEDES, 1964.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e : p. 52.  III.  18  Bates.  p. 45.  pp. 47-48.  57. Lecture,  p.  Apollinaire.  Apol1inaire.  149. p. 80.  Alcools.  vol.  39  MYTHS OF CREATIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FIRE  We now come to the discussion of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal of "myth", that i s compounded of references meaning attached to such references  interpretations  to ancient mythology and the  by the poet, and of his own myth or  legend, seen mainly i n his choice of subject-matter  and in his imagery.  The  aim of the examination of some aspects of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery, that i s  to  follow, is to demonstrate c e r t a i n of his personal tendencies or interests seen through the images themselves and through recurrent themes.  as  Certain  images and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n acomplex network throughout A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poetry contribute greatly to the v i t a l i t y of myths which otherwise may well have remained: as erudite c u r i o s i t i e s ,  sprung from the poet's mind.  becomes necessary to attempt to show how some images,both.feed  It  and transform  the myths to which they are r e l a t e d , i n being based on the imagination and experience of A p o l l i n a i r e himself: • images can-become the animation and the incarnation of myth, giving i t a true poetic value, as we hope to show. may be that some of the t r a i t s seen i n his imagery are s i m i l a r t o , or d i r e c t l y to the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or mythical characters,  be added to this l i s t ,  relate  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s "favourite" gods  seen i n the preceding chapter.  such as C h r i s t , Orpheus, Icarus or Ixion.  It  These are  figures  The figure of Prometheus must now  since undoubtedly, as Renaud writes of A l c o o l s :  "La t r a d i t i o n mythique sur laquelle s'appuie Alcools est une t r a d i t i o n orphebprometheenne i n s i s t a n t sur les pouvoirs de 1'homme et f o r t compatible avec 1'idee de progres, y compris de progres technique".^ Prometheus i s the divine benefactor of humanity, who s t o l e f i r e from the Sun to give to mankind i n defiance of the order of Zeus.  In some myths Prometheus is even held  to have created man. Our discussion of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery and recurrent themes c l e a r l y cannot be exhaustive,  so we have taken as a primary guide-1ine for our  selection of images to be discussed writes:  some words of Margaret Davies, who  " A p o l l i n a i r e ' s favourite props for his poetic world may seem banal 3  enough:  the sun, l i g h t , shade, the sea,  'elements' we w i l l  birds".  In addition to these  discuss images of music and flowers, which seem to f a l l  into the pattern of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s myth.  Many of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c r i t i c s ins-  i s t on the importance of images of f i r e and flame, which w i l l of t h i s chapter.  be the object  Scott Bates devotes two chapters of his Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  to "The Death of the Sun", and to "The Phoenix" - a creature of f i r e and flame.  Madame Durry speaks of the "motif . . . d e l a lumiere et du  and Renaud w r i t e s : et. flamrne ce q u ' i l  feu..."S  " . . . l e s deux premiers mots-cles d ' A l c o o l s sont automne  '-.'extraordinaire importance du feu dans ce l i v r e vient de e s t present a tous les niveaux, et symbolise aussi bien les  tructures de l a v i e que les plus  infras-  'nobles' a c t i v i t e s de I'homme, au premier  rang desquelles A p o l l i n a i r e place l a poesie, dont l e symbole est pour l u i  •5 le feu".  S t a r t i n g , then, with what would seem to be a major image of A p o l l -  i n a i r e ' s work, we w i l l  see l a t e r how other recurrent images f a l l  into place  around i t , giving some coherence to the personal myth of A p o l l i n a i r e . Gaston Bachelard has made interesting studies of f i r e and flame i n two of his works:  6 7 La Flamrne d'une chandelle and La Psychanalyse du feu. Some  of the ideas expressed in these works, on f i r e and the flame, are echoed i n a c e r t a i n way i n the writings of A p o l l i n a i r e , as we s h a l l see.  "La flamrne",  writes Bachelard, "parmi les objets du monde qui appellent l a r e v e r i e , un des plus grands operateurs  d'images:  est  La flamrne nous force a imaginer".  41  Elsewhere, Bachelard had w r i t t e n , i n a chapter devoted to "Le complexe de Promethee": coeur.  "Le feu est intime et i l est universe!.  II v i t dans l e c i e l .  s ' o f f r e comme un amour.  II v i t dans notre  II monte des profondeurs de la substance et  II redescend dans la matieYe et se cache,  contenu comme la haine et la vengeance.  latent,  Parmi tous les phenomenes, i l  est  vraiment l e seul qui puisse recevoir aussi nettement les deux v a l o r i s a t i o n s A  contraires:  l e bien et l e mal.  II b r i l l e au Paradis.  9  \  II brule a l ' E n f e r " .  This is the presence of f i r e "a tous les niveaux", of which Renaud writes. It w i l l  be seen how, i n the works of A p o l l i n a i r e , as i n the ideas of Bach-  e l a r d , there are two types of f i r e , and how many images of f i r e have a dual significance:  the "sublime" and the "pervers", the c r e a t i v e and the destruc-  t i v e , the good and the bad. Icarus, i n his ignorance, aspired to a state of solar d i v i n i t y . f l i g h t was up towards the Sun, source of L i f e .  His  The Sun for A p o l l i n a i r e ,  as  for Icarus, holds an apparently symbolic value, as being an i n s p i r a t i o n and an ideal of knowledge and d i v i n i t y to mortal man. l i g h t that gives b i r t h , that creates and recreates.  It i s the Sun's f i r e and The gods associated with  the Sun are A p o l l o , or Helios - these are the heroes of the solar myth.  And  A p o l l i n a i r e , by association of name at l e a s t , sees himself as a son of A p o l l o , a c h i l d of the Sun, and thus, a part of the solar myth: the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the poet himself with the Sun'is  In "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " clear:  Un Icare tente de s ' e l ever jusqu'a* chacun de mes yeux Et porteur de s o l e i l s je brule au centre de deux nebuleuses (p. 130) As Scott Bates writes:  " A p o l l i n a i r e l i k e Rimbaud was a ' f i l s du S o l e i l ' ,  a son of the S u n " . " ^ The Sun is at the head of a family of images of f i r e in his w r i t i n g , a family that includes flames, and precious stones.  stars, alcohol, e l e c t r i c i t y  42 This close i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the poet with the Sun, Apollo, has two major implications for his imagery:  as c h i l d of the Sun, A p o l l i n a i r e was  symbolically k i l l e d every night at sunset, and every autumn as the days grow shorter.  In "Zone", for example, there are the famous l i n e s on the sunset,  that create a d i r e c t analogy with death by decapitation: Adieu  Adieu  Soleil  cou coupe (p.  44)  And again, at the end of another poem of flames and ardent emotion, e n t i t l e d "Les Doukhobors", that appears in the Poemes Retrouves, the same image occurs: Les Doukhobors; le s o l e i l qui r a d i a i t Dut p a r a i t r e \ leurs yeux extasies Esperant des remous Oceaniques Des nations, 1^-bas, du c6te d'Occident ou d'Amerique Le cou tranche d'une tete immense, i n t e l l i g e n t e Dont l e bourreau n ' o s a i t montrer La face et les yeux larges p e t r i f i e s A l a foule ivre . Et quel' sang, et quel sang t'eclabousse, o monde Sous ce cou tranche! (p. 716) Or i n "Epithalme" of II y a, the poet's mind turns again  to:  . . . c e pays de feu. Ou T'on tranche l a tete au s o l e i l chaque jour Pour q u ' i l verse son sang en rayons sur la t e r r e . (p.  343)  The Sun's rays become streams of blood at sunset in "Merlin et la v i e i l l e femme" of A l c o o l s too: Le s o l e i l ce jour-lei s'e'talait comme un ventre Maternel qui saignait lentement sur l e c i e l La lumiere est ma mere 6 lumiere sanglante Les nuages coulaient comme un flux menstruel (p.  88)  For A p o l l i n a i r e the Sun is so often a " s o l e i l de c h a i r " (p. 88), as in these poems, and i t s rays are of l i f e - g i v i n g blood.  The e x t i n c t i o n of the f i r e of  43 the Sun at sunset is thus d i r e c t l y linked with the extinction of L i f e , of poetic i n s p i r a t i o n and of Love.  The sun sinking at sunset makes the same  journey as did Orpheus into the Underworld, or C h r i s t into Hell after crucifixion.  the  But, j u s t as C h r i s t rose again, or j u s t as Orpheus returned  from the Underworld with an enhanced knowledge of the meaning of L i f e , so the Sun r i s e s fresher and restrengthened in the morning.  For A p o l l i n a i r e , the  Sun i s l i k e the Phoenix who: . . . s 1 i l meurt un Soir Le matin v o i t sa renaissance , (p. Dawn thus holds a special  lyrical  46)  fascination for the poet, as the time of the  resurrection of the Sun, with whom A p o l l i n a i r e i d e n t i f i e s himself.  In the  "Aubade" section of "La Chanson du Mal-Aime"", for example, we read: Les poules dans l a cour caquetent L'aube au c i e l f a i t de roses pi i s L'amour chemine EI ta conquete La nature, est belle et touchante (p.  49)  At the end of two other major poems of A l c o o l s , "Zone" and "Vendemiaire", the dawn i s breaking, and bringing with i t a l i f t in tone, a certain and reassurance associated with everday  calmness  events:  Tu es seul l e matin va venir Les l a i t i e r s font t i n t e r leurs bidons dans les rues (p. 43) Et l a nuit de septembre s'achevait lentement Les feux rouges des ponts s'eteignaient dans l a Seine Les e t o i l e s mourraient l e jour n a i s s a i t £ peine (p.  154)  These dawns of Alcools are t r a g i c and ominous for the sad and weary wandererpoet;  but he cannot help but feel  urban sunrise, Pari s i ens.  for an instant the l y r i c a l  beauty of the  such as- that sketched already by Baudelaire i n his Tableaux  And the poem e n t i t l e d "Aurore d ' h i v e r " of the Poemes Retrouves  44 is another purely lyrical evocation of sunrise: L'Aurore adolescente Monte peu ^ peu Si doucement qu'on peut Voir grelottante Rosir 1'aurore penetree De la frafcheur de la dernieYe vepree. (p. 710) The cycle of Sun through the day from dawn to sunset follows an exactly similar pattern to the solar cycle of the year from springtime to winter. Apollinaire associates similar feelings with both solar cycles:  as the  season of the sun is in i t s decline during autumn, so, for Apollinaire, Life i t s e l f wanes and draws near to i t s wintry death. Underworld.  It descends into i t s own  And in Spring, Life reappears with the ascendancy of the Sun  to recommence i t s annual cycle: V o i d que vient I'ete la saison violente Et ma jeunesse est morte ainsi que le printemps . 0 Soleil c'est le temps de la Raison ardente (p. 314) For  this reason, Apollinaire's poems on autumn, his autumnal imagery, have  a certain relevance to the theme of the Sun's f i r e .  In the poem "Automne"  of Alcools, the Sun dies as autumn succeeds summer: Oh!  1'automne 1'automne a f a i t mourir I'ete (p.  104)  This autumn, this decline of the Sun, is close to the frame of mind and to the  emotions of Apollinaire, who writes in the poems "Signe" of Alcools,  or "L'Automne et T'echo" of the Poemes Divers: Je suis soumis au Chef du Signe de 1'Automne Partant j'aime les fruits je deteste les fleurs Je regrette chacun des baisers que je donne Tel un noyer gaule' dit au vent ses douleurs Mon Automne eternelle # ma saison mentale (p. 125 and p.-588)  45 F i n a l l y , i n "Automne malade", the autumn succumbs to winter: Automne malade et adore Tu mourras quand 1^ouragan soufflera dans les Quand i l aura neige Dans les vergers (p. 146)  roseraies  The s p i r i t u a l death and r e b i r t h of A p o l l i n a i r e , the son of A p o l l o , the poet-creator and the l o v e r , follows the death of the Sun i n autumn.  The  Sun is that source of L i f e , " 1 ' e t e r n e l l e cause/Qui f a i t mourir et puis renaftre l ' u n i v e r s " (p. 88), and is also the "ardente l y r e " (p. 59) of the i n s p i r a t i o n and creation of the orphic poet.  The Sun, as a source of destructive f i r e , also appears repeatedly in one of the most frequently used images of war in Calligrammes: the "obus".  the image of  A r t i l l e r y s h e l l s , c l e a r l y associated with death, become agents  of a p u r i f y i n g , purging kind of solar f i r e that fascinates the poet i n i t s ominous beauty.  It i s indeed remarkable to note that almost a l l of the  images of f i r e to be found i n Calligrammes are of a destructive kind of f i r e , whereas i n Alcools or II y a f i r e i s often an i n s p i r i n g , i d e a l , or recreative f o r c e ; i t i s an "ardente cendre", a "noble f e u " , the "feu de mes d e l i c e s " , or a "desirable f e u " . In a poem such as "Du Coton dans les O r e i l l e s " of Calligrammes, by comparison with the fire-imagery of other c o l l e c t i o n s of poems, f i r e and the Sun appear i n t h i s way: Et les t r a j e c t o i r e s cabrees Trabuchements de s o l e i l s - n a i n s Sur tant de chansons dechire'es (p.- 289). These " s o l e i l s - n a i n s " are the bursts of a r t i l l e r y s h e l l s ; they are the main theme of a poem such as "Fe^te":  46 Feu d 1 a r t i f i c e en a c i e r / Q u ' i l e s t charmant c e t e e l a i r a g e Artifice d'artificier (p.  238)  and t h e y a r e the " m i l i e s o l e i l s " o f " L a N u i t d ' a v r i l Images o f a r t i l l e r y f i r e ,  1915" ( p .  this terrible destructive f i r e ,  o u t Cal1igrammes under d i f f e r e n t f o r m s .  Two e n t i r e s e c t i o n s  a r e e n t i t l e d L u e u r s des T i r s and Obus C o u l e u r de L u n e .  243). recur through-  of the c o l l e c t i o n  Some l i n e s o f  de l a G u e r r e " summarize t h e d e s t r u c t i v e y e t f a s c i n a t i n g power o f t h i s of  "Merveille type  fire: C ' e s t un banquet que s ' o f f r e l a t e r r e E l l e a f a i m e t ouvre de longues bouches pehes La t e r r e a f a i m e t v o i c i son f e s t i n de B a l t h a s a r c a n n i b a l e Qui a u r a i t d i t q u ' o n peut e t r e k ce p o i n t anthropophage E t q u ' i l f a l l u t t a n t de f e u pour r 6 t i r l e c o r p s humain (p. 272)  L e a v i n g now t h e imagery a s s o c i a t e d  d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y w i t h the  S u n , l e t us t u r n t o the images o f the " b r a s i e r " and t h e " b u c h e r " which form t h e f a b r i c o f one o f t h e major poems o f A l c o o l s - t h e poem e n t i t l e d " L e Brasier".  T h i s k i n d o f f i r e i s t h a t which k i n d l e s t h e p o e t ' s i n s p i r a t i o n ,  i t i s t h e flame o f h i s e m o t i o n a l l i f e , time.  The e f f e c t  o f p u r i f i c a t i o n by t h i s f i r e i s a r e n e w a l , a r e b i r t h ;  i s the l i f e - s o u r c e of the Phoenix. ...  and i t i s a p u r g i n g power at. t h e same  And f o r t h e poet h i m s e l f i t  it  is:  ce bucher l e n i d de mon courage (p.  136)  B e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the m y t h i c a l  image o f the  Phoenix i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s w r i t i n g , i t i s useful  to dwell  c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r o g r e s s i o n o f " L e B r a s i e r " .  T h i s h e r m e t i c and  poem i s a p p a r e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s , and each theme f o r m i n g p a r t o f a p r o g r e s s i v e  f o r a moment on the difficult  each w i t h a s e p a r a t e theme,  cycle.  The c y c l e moves from  47  the theme of destruction, to that of renaissance, In the f i r s t  part of the poem, the poet throws his past, his painful  memories of l o v e - a f f a i r s , fulness  to that of reconstruction.  into " l e noble f e u " , which is a source of  forget-  and also an image of poetic i n s p i r a t i o n fed by the poet's past  experiences.  The poet prays for the r e b i r t h of the flames of Love i n his l i f e :  L'amour est devenu mauvais Qu'au brasier les flammes renaissent (p.  108)  The idea of r e b i r t h and reconstruction is thus sown i n the poem, i l l u s t r a t e d in addition by the image of the Amphion, who b u i l t the walls of Thebes by playing his l y r e to charm the stones into p o s i t i o n .  This is the magical power  of the singing of Orpheus, and the miraculous power of C h r i s t . In the second part, such magical r e b i r t h and power germinates  i n the poem,  and the f i r e of the "brasier" purges the poet: Je flambe dans l e brasier a" l ' a r d e u r adorable Et les mains des croyants m'y r e j e t t e n t . . . (p.  109)  These words seem to echo the idea of the descent of C h r i s t into H e l l , his  r e s u r r e c t i o n , or the descent of Orpheus to the Underworld.  before  The poet too,  in this section of "Le Brasier" experiences the f i r e of Purgatory, out of which martyrdom comes a s a l v a t i o n : Voici ma vie renouvelee... (p.  109)  Like the symbolic swan of Mallarme's poem "Le Vierge, l e Vivace et le Bel A u j o u r d ' h u i " , the poet of "Le Brasier" i s liberated into song from the frozen immobility of his past.  His renewed l i f e emerges as a blazing "bateau i v r e " ,  in which the poet w i l l journey "aux frontieYes/De I ' i l l i m i t e ' et de 1'avenir" (p. 314): • Voici l e paquebot et ma vie renouvelee Ses flammes sont immenses  48  II n'y a plus rien de commun entre moi  Et ceux qui craignent les  brulures.  (p. T h i s , then, is the  109)  f i r e associated with the danger and adventure of poetic  i n s p i r a t i o n and of poetic c r e a t i o n , such as i s seen in the  'reconstruction'  s e c t i o n , the l a s t section of the poem. In t h i s f i n a l art,  part of "Le B r a s i e r " ,  spelled out i n images of  flames:  L ' a v e n i r masque flambe en traversant Significantly,  there i s a kind of apocalypse of  les cieux  (p. 110) the f i r e and warmth of the Sun return to the poem:  Puis le s o l e i l r e v i n t e n s o l e i l l e r les places D'une v i l l e marine apparue contremont (p. A new  110)  poetic, cosmos is constructed by Solomon's "ver Zamir", yet another magical  c o n s t r u c t o r . ^ This new cosmos is the "Desirade" of A p o l l i n a i r e , which has issued out of the regenerative f i r e of "Le B r a s i e r " . The theme of destruction-renaissance-reconstruction  is the same as  that  we have seen in the solar myth, where the Sun followed a d a i l y and yearly l i f e death c y c l e .  It is also the same idea as that of the image of the Phoenix which  i s important for A p o l l i n a i r e ' s work. ical  The Phoenix i s , f o r A p o l l i n a i r e , a myth-  symbol of poetic and e r o t i c r e b i r t h .  of the purging f i r e of the  It i s the creature that r i s e s out  "Brasier":  Le phenix ce bOcher qui soi-me\rie s'engendre (p- 41) And in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" the Phoenix becomes the image of reborn passion: . . . mon amour a la semblance Du beau Phenix s ' i l meurt un s o i r Le matin v o i t sa renaissance (p. 46)  49 This is the Phoenix of " l e feu s e x u a l i s e " , of which Bachelard writes i n La psychanalyse du feu, the Phoenix of Love, both sentimental and e r o t i c .  The image of an ideal f i r e is present also in the " a l c o o l s " of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse.  A l c o h o l , for Bachelard, i s "I'eau qui flambe".  writes Bachelard, " c ' e s t T e a u de feu et du feu  E l l e est la communion de la vie  Seule de toutes les matieres du monde, l'eau-de-vie est \  According to this theory, the consumption of  is s i m i l a r to drinking i n the e l i x i r of L i f e i t s e l f .  f i r e offers  aussi -  12  p r £ s de la matiere du f e u " . alcohol  "L'eau-de-vie",  This  liquid  a form of d i v i n i t y to the consumer, and, l i k e Icarus, A p o l l i n a i r e  aspires to a state of d i v i n i t y , to acknowledge of the meaning of L i f e such as that gained by Orpheus in the Underworld, or such as that offered by C h r i s t and the C h r i s t i a n God.  A l c o h o l , being an "eau-de-vie",  and a l i q u i d f i r e  at  the same time, opens the p o s s i b i l i t y of sublimation and ascension to a higher, divine state of  consciousness.  A l c o h o l , f i r s t l y , p h y s i c a l l y ressembles a flame, in the imagination of Apollinaire: Mon verre est p l e i n d'un v i n trembleur comme une flamme (p. H I )  and, as we have seen i n "Le B r a s i e r " , flames are assimilated the poet.  A p o l l i n a i r e , drinking his wine, drinks also his  to the l i f e of life:  Et tu bois cet alcool brill ant comme ta vie Ta vie que tu bois comme une eau-de-vie (p.  44)  The f i r e of alcohol inspires an ardour of l i v i n g and a t h i r s t for knowledge in the poet.  This t h i r s t for the f i r e of L i f e i s the " s o i f t e r r i b l e " of  "Vendemiaire": L'univers tout entier concentre'dans ce vin Qui contient les mers les animaux les pi antes  50 Les c i t e s  les destins et les astres qui chantent  Le feu q u ' i l faut aimer comme on s'aime soi-meme Et tout ce que je ne sais pas dire Tout ce que je ne connaftrai jamais Tout cela tout cela change en ce vin pur Dont Paris avait s o i f Me fut alors presente Mais je connus des Tors quelle saveur a 1'univers Je suis i v r e d ' a v o i r bu tout 1'univers (pp. 153-154) At the end of "Vendemiaire", the poet, who also embodies the c i t y of P a r i s , seems to reach a state of omniscient d i v i n i t y : Parce que c ' e s t dans toi que Dieu peut devenir (p.  152)  The theme of "Vendemiaire", which is also the theme of Alcools according to Scott Bates, i s  "the poet's superhuman acceptance of and transcendancy over 13  everything i n the universe". 'human d i v i n i t y '  The ascension of the poet to this state of  is achieved through the i d e a l , sublimating f i r e of a l c o h o l ,  Apollinaire- has surpassed the f l i g h t of Icarus, which f a i l e d i n "L'Ignorance" of  II y a, and has risen to the generative force of L i f e , the Sun.  In so  doing, he has "as cended into Heaven", as the C h r i s t i a n catechism says of C h r i s t , and can say i n "La J o l i e  Rousse":  Me v o i c i devant t o u s . . . Connaissant la vie et de la mort ce qu'un vivant peut connaitre (p.  313)  This ascension to 'human d i v i n i t y ' , as we have c a l l e d i t , comes about through the element of f i r e in a l c o h o l .  A network of images spreads out from  t h i s a l c o h o l i c , i n e b r i a t i n g f i r e which inspires the poet. writes:  As Madame Durry  " . . . i l unit 1'amour et 1 ' i v r e s s e , l e . c i e T , les a s t r e s , la c l a r t e ,  la flamrne, 1'ombre rmtme",^ and she quotes these l i n e s of A p o l l i n a i r e , which will  conclude our consideration of the f i r e of a l c o h o l : Mon ALAMBIC vos yeux ce sont mes ALC00LS Et votre voix m'enivre ainsi qu'une eau-de-vie  51 Des c l a r t e s d'astres saouls aux monstrueux faux-cols Brulaient votre ESPRIT sur ma nuit inassouvie  -,r  In the preceding l i n e s the eyes of the loved-one are  'alcools',  fire-  water, but in a poem such as "La L o r e l e y " , her eyes are likened to two other fire-images  that are used by A p o l l i n a i r e :  the image of flames,  and that of  stars. Mes yeux ce sont des  flammes...  says the maiden of the Loreley, and her enchanted lover r e p l i e s : Je flambe dans ces flammes o belle Loreley (p.  115)  Later in the same poem, we read: -  La Loreley les implorait et ses yeux b r i l l a i e n t comme des astres (p.  These two images of flames and stars are both semi-creative, f i r e i s magical and enchanting, and semi-destructive,  116)  in that t h e i r  in that t h e i r enchant-  ment leads to ruin and to emotional shipwreck. Stars, in the repertoire of fire-images  used by A p o l l i n a i r e seem to have  a p e c u l i a r l y dual role which changes in emphasis according to the date of .the poem or the c o l l e c t i o n to which i t belongs.  In "La Chanson du Mal-Aime",  for example, there is the mysterious r e f r a i n of the "voie l a c t e e " , which has an equivocal tone, being both l y r i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and menacing, simultaneously: Voie lactee 8 soeur lumineuse Des blancs ruisseaux de Chanaan Et des corps blancs des amoureuses Nageurs morts suivrons-nous d'ahan Ton cours,1.ve,rs,.d,,a,u,tKes,..n^buleuses  (pp. 48, 53, 58)  Also in "La Chanson" there appear: Des astres des fleurs du matin  (p.  54)  52 In "Les F i a l l c a i l l e s " stars are neither a threatening nor a destructive element of the imagery, since the poet says: Je buvais a- pleins verres les  etoiles (p-  129)  It i s in the Calligrammes that the s t a r s , as did the Sun, become associated with the destruction wrought by the "obus". L ' a i r est p l e i n d'un t e r r i b l e alcool F i l t r e des e t o i l e s mi-closes Les obus carressent le mol Parfum nocturne. (p. 238)  In " F e t e " , for example:  And i n "Les Saisons", ...  des astres passaient que singaient les obus (p.  or i n "La Nuit d ' a v r i l Le c i e l  240)  1915":  est e t o i l ^ par les obus des Boches  Comme un astre eperdu qui cherche ses saisons Coeur obus eel ate' tu s i f f l a i s ta romance E t tes m i i l e s o l e i l s ont vide les caissons Que les dieux de mes yeux remplissent l e s i l e n c e .  (p.  243)  Stars have become a r t i l l e r y - s h e l l s , and are potential agents of death and d e s t r u c t i o n , yet despite t h i s , a certain fascination for them seems to l i n g e r in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mind. nor c h i l l i n g ,  The f i r e of the stars is apparently neither warming  neither "sublime" nor "pervers" for A p o l l i n a i r e , i t i s simply  the object of l y r i c a l , poetic f a s c i n a t i o n .  In opposition to the images of f i r e we have so far considered, there are numerous images of shadow and water i n the writing of A p o l l i n a i r e . of these are, tion of f i r e .  in a sense, the elemental enemies of f i r e .  Both  Both imply the extinc-  And i f A p o l l i n a i r e himself is sometimes a "porteur de s o l e i l s " ,  as i n "Les F i a n g a i l l e s "  (p. 130),  he also f a l l s  on occasions  into a sadly  53  sombre frame of mind, and writes: Dans ce grand vide de mon aime i l manque un s o l e i l i l manque ce qui e c l a i r e (p.  259)  Along with the images of music and flowers, we w i l l discuss these two images of shadow and water, and t h e i r significance for A p o l l i n a i r e ' s "myth" i n the f o i l owing chapter. To conclude the discussion of myths of creative and destructive f i r e ,  let  us return to some of the words of Margaret Davies, who summarizes A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use of fire-imagery i n this way: and flames,  i s always...  "The l i g h t i t s e l f ,  linked often with f i r e  the purifying but dangerous agent of the i d e a l . . .  the sun is a flaming brasier often associated with cruelty - i t s rays are 16  whiplashes, i t represents  a decapitated,  bleeding head".  These words seem  to point out well the sublime-perverse, creative-destructive d u a l i t y of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s images of f i r e .  54 NOTES  1  Renaud.  Lecture,  p. 484.  2  See Grimal.  3  Davies, Margaret. 1964. p. 37.  4  Durry.  5  Renaud.  6  Bachelard, Gaston.  La Flamrne d'une Chandelle.  7  Bachelard, Gaston.  La Psychanalyse du feu.  8  Bachelard.  La Flamrne...  9  Bachelard.  La Psychanalyse...  p. 19.  GuiTTaiime A p o l l i n a i r e .  p. 40.  Dictionnaire de la mythologie.  Alcools, Lecture,  Apollinaire. v o l . III.  p. 397.  London and Edinburgh:  Oliver and Boyd,  p. 53.  p. 146. Paris:  Paris:  P.U.F.,  1964.  Gallimard, 1949.  p. 1.  10  Bates.  11  In 1908, A p o l l i n a i r e wrote: "Le ver Zamir qui sans o u t i l s pouvait bStir le temple de Jerusalem, quelle saisissante image du poete!" (see Pleiade notes, P- 1060).  12  Bachelard-  13  Bates.  Guillaume Apol1inaire.  14  Durry.  Alcools.  15  ibid.  16  Davies.  La Psychanalyse...  p. 33.  v o l . III.  pp. 139-140. p. 107.  p. 34.  These l i n e s are dedicated to Marie Laurencin.  Apollinaire.  p. 37.  55  MYTHS OF DEATH AND REBIRTH IN WATER, SHADOW, MUSIC AND FLOWERS  Having now  considered c e r t a i n  t u r n t o two  n a t u r a l elements  opposites of f i r e : i n a i r e ' s own  'myths o f f i r e '  B u t , as we  elements  o f water and  s h a l l hope t o show, i n A p o l l -  shadow a r e r e c o n c i l e d w i t h f i r e  can even be c o n s i d e r e d to be metamorphoses o f i t . new  we  which would seem to be d i r e c t "enemies", or  water and shadow.  myth, water and  i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r  i n some ways, and  In a d d i t i o n t o these  shadow, we w i l l d i s c u s s the importance  two  o f music as  a common f a c t o r i n both a n c i e n t and A p o l l i n a i r i a n m y t h o l o g y , and o f f l o w e r s , which p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the m e t a p h o r i c a l r e p e r t o i r e o f A p o l l i n a i r e , as i t i s used by him t o animate and embroider the myths o f h i s v e r s e and his  of  imagination.  Water, i n the imagery o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s v e r s e , takes the p h y s i c a l form of  r i v e r s and o f s e a , o r o c e a n .  In a poenTsuch as  'La Maison des M o r t s ' o f  A l c o o l s , he evokes a l s o the water o f a l a k e .  The  in  the R h i n e , t h e s e being the  h i s p o e t r y a r e , u n d o u b t e d l y , the S e i n e and  rivers place.  two  r i v e r s t h a t predominate  b e s i d e which some o f the i m p o r t a n t events o f h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e  two  took  His days spent i n N i c e as a boy, and a l s o p o s s i b l y h i s j o u r n e y s a c r o s s  the E n g l i s h Channel i n p u r s u i t o f Annie P I a y d e n , helped to engrave the sea in  h i s mind and These two  i n h i s p o e t i c i m a g e r y , as an element o f some  importance.  s o r t s o f w a t e r , the r i v e r and the Ocean, o r the l a k e , a r e  c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n h i s p o e t r y , where each would seem to. take on an. entirely distinct  ' t o n e ' , an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c o n n o t a t i o n s .  r i v e r , as being water t h a t f l o w s and  passes  The  by, takes on a c e r t a i n s y m b o l i c a l  56 and morose significance associated with the passage of time.  The ocean or the  lake, on the other hand, are " s t i l l waters", and are sometimes associated with death by drowning, or with a process of purging and of p u r i f i c a t i o n , or otherwise they are a balm and a solace to the tormented mind. In his study of L'Eau et les ReVes, Bachelard discusses the running and flowing of water, that w i l l such as (p. 81).  be seen to -be important in poems of A p o l l i n a i r e  'Le Pont Mirabeau 1 (p. 45), or 'Le Pont 1 of II y a (p. 361), or 'Marie' Bachelard writes:  . . . 1 ' e a u est aussi un type de d e s t i n . . . 1'etre humain a l e destin de 1'eau qui coule. L'eau est vraiment 1'element t r a n s i t o i r e II rneurt a chaque minute, sans cesse quelque chose de sa substance s'ecroule. This i s an echo of the central idea of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poem 'Le Pont Mirabeau', where water, Time and Love pass, as i t were, hand in hand.  They flow equally  past the poet and under the bridge: L'amour s'en va comme cette eau courante '. L'amour s'en va Comme- l a vie est lente Et comme 1'Esperance est violente Vienne l a nuit sonne 1'heure Les jours s'en vont je demeure Passent les jours et passent les semaines Ni temps passe Ni les amours reviennent Sous l e Pont Mirabeau coule la Seine Vienne la nuit sonne 1'heure Les jours s'en vont je demeure (p.  45)  In the poem ' M a r i e ' , the flow of the r i v e r takes on another  significance,  associated now s p e c i f i c a l l y with the pain of a broken heart, rather than with Love's or Time's passage (with a capital Le fleuve est pareil a ma peine II s'ecoule et n e t a r i t pas  ' L ' or ' T ' ) .  (p. 31)  In ' M a r i e 1 :  r  57 And i n 'Le P o n t ' , as i n 'L'Emigrant de Landor Road' which we shall examine s h o r t l y , flowing water i s associated d i r e c t l y with the ephemeral transitory nature of flowers, another great image in the melancholy side of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s 'myth': Les jeunes f i l l e s qui passent sur l e pont leger Portent dans leurs mains Le bouquet de demain Et leurs regards s'ecoulent Dans ce fleuve a tous etranger Qui vient de l o i n qui va s i l o i n Et passe sous l e pont leger de vos paroles (p. 361) However, i t i s not so much the flowing water of r i v e r s that seems to be the most important kind of water i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own myth.  As Philippe  Renaud says i n one of the discussions of the 'Colloque de Stave! o f  of 1968:  . . . o n parle beaucoup^ du theme de 1'eau courante chez A p o l l i n a i r e ; mais on ne s ' e s t guere penche sur les eaux mortes, les bassins.  2  and he continues: . . . c e s eaux mortes se retrouvent dans Vitam Impendere Amori. Je c r o i s qu'on y rencontre tous les elements de ce que Bachelard appelle l e complexe d'Ophelie. Bachelard's still  '  'complexe d'Ophelie' i s an association of the image of water,  and deep, with death.  The two images of music (singing) and of flowers  are also associated with the death by drowning of Ophelia.  As Renaud  suggests, the death of Ophelia i s vaguely evoked in Vitam Impendere Amori i n some verses of extreme l y r i c a l  beauty:  Tu descendais dans 1'eau s i c l a i r e Je me noyais dans ton regard Tu f l o t t e s  sur I'onde nocturne (p. T6T7  This water i s s t i l l , and i t is  'nocturne'.  .  This is the water of the Ocean  in which the f o o l i s h and d i s i l l u s i o n e d Icarus is to die,, though far less  58 graciously and l y r i c a l l y , i n the poem 'L'Ignorance 1 o f II y a : Un dieu choft dans l a mer, un dieu nu les mains vides Au semblant des noyes i l i r a sur une -fie Pourrir face tournee vers l e s o l e i l splendide (p.  345)  It i s also the water into which the sun sets i n i t s evening death, bringing i  with i t the night that w i l l make the water t r u l y  'nocturne 1 and that w i l l  associate i t with the 'ombres' and 'tenebres' which we have yet to  discuss.  It is the water of death and of the possible suicide by drowning of'L'Emigrant de Landor Road 1 . In L'Eau et les r £ v e s , the image o f s t i l l  Bachelard draws strongly this l i n k of death with  and deep water:  L'eau est une i n v i t a t i o n a mourir; e l l e est une i n v i t a t i o n a une - mort s p e c i a l s qui nous permet de rejoindre un des refuges materiels elementaires. . Eau s i i e n c i e u s e , eau sombre, eau dormante, eau insondable, autant de lecons materielles pour une m e d i t a t i o n de la mort. L^eau, substance de v i e , est aussi substance de mort pour l a reverie ambivalente. With these notions in mind, l e t us look at some of the s t i l l A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery.  * 5  fi  waters of  These are the waters"'of the ocean or the lake; dark  waters, bringing either death and sadness, or bringing solace and refuge,  as  Bachelard suggests. In  'La Maison des M o r t s ' , for example, the troupe of the dead row across  a mysterious and dream-like lake i n the poet's imaginative f a n t a s i e s .  This  kind of water, according to the d e f i n i t i o n s of Bachelard, would symbolize the substance of death, a sleep from which the dreamer would not wish to awaken, which cradles and protects him.  And i n 'L'Emigrant de. Landor Road', a s i m i l a r ,  half-expressed death-wish is linked with the image of water. . Nostalgia and melancholy pervade the evocation of the ocean over which the emigrant i s about to depart, and upon which floats  the t i n y and f r a i l  wreath of flowers:  59 Les vents de 1'Ocean en soufflant leurs menaces Laissaient dans ses cheveux de longs baisers mouilles Des emigrants tendaient vers l e port leurs mains lasses Et d'autres en pleurant s'e'taient agenouilles II regarda longtemps les rives qui moururent Seuls des bateaux d'enfant tremblaient a V h o r i z o n Un tout p e t i t bouquet f l o t t a n t a l'aventure Couvrit 1'Ocean d'une immense f l o r a i s o n , Gonfle-toi vers l a nuit 0 Mer les yeux des squales Jusqu'a 1'aube ont guette de l o i n avidement Des cadavres de jours ronges par les e t o i l e s Parmi l e b r u i t des f l o t s et les derniers serments (p.  106)  From this complex of images emerges a general impression of death and sadness, which is a t t r i b u t a b l e to the notions of departure and f a r e w e l l , to the "baisers mouilles" (of the sea? or of the loved-ones?),  to the " r i v e s q u i ,  moururent", and to the image of the t i n y bouquet of flowers dropped into the ocean, at the mercy of the waves.  The menacing tone of these l i n e s is set by  the "vents de 1'Ocean", and by the "squales" which covet the "cadavres des  jours".  Water here i s thus both sad and b e a u t i f u l , and i t brings for the emigrant a menace as well as a promise of deathly forgetfulness,  or of s u i c i d a l  solace.  In combining the two elements of " n u i t " and "mer" in the l a s t strophe of ' L ' E m i g r a n t ' , A p o l l i n a i r e has fixed the tone of the end of his poem as being one of regret, perhaps of nostalgia.  For, as Bachelard writes: 7  L'eau melee de nuit est un remords ancien qui ne veut pas dormir. In the sense that i t i s longed-for, and i n that i t brings with i t a calm repose for the sadness of the poet, or the emigrant, the s t i l l , deep water of ocean or lake, and the death that i t suggests, i s also a water of p u r i f i c a t i o n , a purging water.  It is the kind. of. water associated with. Chrtstia,n,. ba.p,ti.s,m -  the water that washes away s i n - i n that i t washes away g r i e f and pain. offers  death, and also a kind of s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h :  It  out of the sea into which  60  i t sets every evening w i l l  a r i s e the new-born sun each dawn.  Likewise, the  foolishness of Icarus is purged i n his watery death. Water may also offer a certain elevation or salvation in becoming alcohol and i n fusing i t s e l f with the element of f i r e .  A l c o h o l , as we saw previously,  is the fusion, the marriage of two h o s t i l e and opposed elements, f i r e and water. A  8  /  "Comment rever de plus grands geniteurs que 1'eau et l e f e u ! "  c r i e s Bachelard.  Water thus holds a multiple significance i n the myth of A p o l l i n a i r e . It flows, or i t is s t i l l ,  i t is a substance of either joy and solace, or of  sorrow and death as for Icarus and the solar myth.  It can be a purifying  agent,  as i n the Christian myth, and an agent of harmony when metamorphosed into a l c o h o l , which offers the water i t s e l f .  a renewed vigour and l i f e ,  in that f i r e is reborn i n  Out of the water of death, comes the water of a l c o h o l , so  important to the force and v i t a l i t y of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal, poetic myth.  As we have already noted in passing, water i s often associated with shadow and with Might. ified  by A p o l l i n a i r e  Just as the poet can wish to drown or to be pur-  i n water in order to refind a sublime state of calmness, so too he looks  to shadow and darkness as a means of escape and sublimation.  Shadow, as  water, is one of the "enemies" of the ardour of flame - both suggest the death of f i r e , and thus the death of L i f e in general, since, as we have seen, i s often associated with F i r e .  Life  Water and shadow are linked for example i n  "Le Voyageur": Une nuit c ' e t a i t l a mer Et les fleuves s'y repandaient (p. 78) Or i n "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " , flowing water is a dark and shadowy 'marriage' of shadow and water: Et sombre sombre fleuve je me rappelle  61 Les ombres qui passaient n'etaient jamais  jolies (p.  129)  And i n the poem "Simultaneites" of Calligrammes, we have the graphic importance of the colour of shadows in the water: 0 vaste mer aux mauves ombres (p.  285)  In these fused or juxtaposed elements of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s imagery i s to be found evidence of what Bachelard has expressed i n saying: ...comme 1'eau est l a substance qui s ' o f f r e l e mieux aux melanges, l a nuit va penetrer les eaux, e l l e va t e r n i r l e lac dans ses  ~  profondeurs, e l l e va imprlgner 1'etang. The shadows of water are c l e a r l y linked also with death.  The poet, i n his  descent into the imagery of the shadowy night of water, follows i n the steps of his mythological master, Orpheus, who descends to the Underworld i n search of the l o s t p u r i t y of his love for Eurydice.  C h r i s t , too, for three days  his r e b i r t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n , descended into the shadow of H e l l .  before  These two f i g -  ures, as we saw e a r l i e r , are both of considerable prominence i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mythological system of reference. It seems natural therefore that images of "ombre", " n u i t " or "tenebres" should be quite common i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse, and the moods of melancholy or repose or weird fantasy that are associated  with such notions a l s o .  Shadow  and darkness are e i t h e r a kind of mental inferno to the poet, often verging on the f a n t a s t i c , example,  s u r r e a l i s t i c world of dream as in " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , for  In t h i s prose poem, the poet, as Orpheus or Dante, or Faust,  iences the wild torments of an infernal  dream-world.  exper-  It i s only after having  traversed such a world that the haven of "Orkenise", a paradisical state of purity and knowledge, can be reached: Orkenise parut a l ' h o r i z o n Des vaisseaux d ' o r , sans matelots, passaient a 1'horizon. Des ombres gigantesques se p r o f i l a i e n t sur  62 les v o i l e s l o i n t a i n e s . Plusieurs s i e c l e s me separaient de ces ombres, Je me desesperai. Mais, j ' a v a i s l a conscience des eternites differentes de I'homme et de la femme. (pp. 371-374) Ships on dream-like seas and gigantic shadows combine to make the poet despair and yet to reassure him of the ultimate benefits of undergoing such a purgatory.  Shadow of this sort offers  a descent to the Underworld, and a  ressurrect.ion to the poet. Similar torments or uncertainties are experienced by the poet during the night-time of "Zone" or "Vendemiaire", from both of which he f i n a l l y emerges into d a y l i g h t , and the b i r t h of a renewed l i f e . The mental i t i n e r a r y of the poet seems to pass through several  stages of  shadow and n i g h t , which i t is interesting to trace as part of his personal myth.  In the poem "Le Larron", we read of the " l a r r o n " himself, who is  possibly  also C h r i s t and the poet: II entra dans l a s a l l e aux fresques qui figurent L'.inceste s o l a i r e et nocturne dans les nues Va-t'en v a - t ' e n contre l e feu 1'ombre prevaut L'ombre equivoque et tendre est l e deuil de ta chair Et sombre e l l e est humaine... (pp. 92-94) In such an "ombre equivoque", the poet experiences the fantasies of "Zone", "Vendemiaire" or " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , where death e n t a i l s a c e r t a i n s a l v a t i o n . Shadow becomes something of value to him; i t becomes a part of his poetic melancholy and i n s p i r a t i o n : Tenebreuse epouse que j'aime Tu es a moi en n'etant rien 0 mon ombre en deuil de moi-meme (p. 54) In "Cortege", the l i a i s o n between the poet and shadow becomes even closer and more mysterious: Et moi aussi de pres je suis sombre et terne Une brume qui vient d'obscurcir les lanternes  -  63  Une main qui tout a coup se pose devant les yeux Une voute entre vous et toutes les lumieYes (p. 74) A poem such as "Le Voyageur" r e f l e c t s  the importance of the theme of  shadow for A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poetic i n s p i r a t i o n . cypress-tree  There are the "ombres" of the  in "cette nuit au d e c l i n de 1'ete'", and there is " l e bruit  e'ternel d'un fleuve large et sombre".  Later on in the poem he writes:  Alors sans bruit sans qu'on put v o i r r i e n de vivant Contre l e mont passeYent des ombres vivaces De p r o f i l ou soudain tournant leurs vagues faces Et tenant 1'ombre de leurs lances en avant Les ombres contre l e mont perpendiculaire Grandissaient ou parfois s'abaissaient brusquement Et ces ombres barbues pleuraient humainement En g l i s s a n t pas ci pas sur la montagne c l a i r e (p. 79) The word "ombre" i t s e l f ,  or words denoting a s i m i l a r notion occur no less than  eight times i n the space of sixteen l i n e s of t h i s poem, being sometimes vaguely sexualized as is the shadow of the cypress-trees  reaching toward the moon, or  as the shadow that is the "tene'breuse epouse" of the Mal-Aime; or being merely s i g n i f i c a n t of a lack of l i g h t and l i f e - ,.^ans qu'on put v o i r r i e n de v i v a n t " , he writes. Madame Durry sees this recurrent image of shadow as v i t a l structure of A l c o o l s , which, indeed i t i s .  to the entire  She writes:  Le motif de 1'ombre revient toujours Voila bien en quoi consiste 1'unite' interne d ' A l c o o l s , surtout s i j ' a j o u t e au motif de 1'ombre c e l u i de la lumieYe et du feu qui ne f a i t qu'un avec lui.  l r  ,  I U  .  In shadow, then, as in water, A p o l l i n a i r e sees an Orpheus-like or C h r i s t l i k e descent into H e l l , which is the region of L i l i t h , from which the poet emerges like, the Sun at., sunrise:.  ireapnMigo^a^  64  The figure of Orpheus is to be r e c a l l e d once more as we consider the importance of music in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use of 'myth'.  In his book on Eros and  C i v i l i z a t i o n , Herbert Marcuse s u c c i n c t l y summarizes the importance of music and song that is associated with the.myth of Orpheus: Orpheus is the archetype of the poet as 1iberator and creator: he establishes a higher order in the world - an order without repression. In his person, a r t , freedom, culture are e t e r n a l l y combined. He is the poet of redemption, the god who brings peace and salvation by pacifying man and nature, not through force but -J-J through song. The music of Orpheus i s magical  i n i t s powers over other creatures, as is the  music of the l y r e of the Amphion, also evoked by A p o l l i n a i r e , or the song of the Sirens, example.  constantly used as a reference  in "La Chanson du Mal-Aime", for  Orpheus, as "the archetype of the poet", provides an ideal for the  poet aspiring to enchant other men with the 'song' of his verse. elements of music and magic are,  The two  i n this way, importantly r e l a t e d .  The magical power of verse begins maybe, as Bachelard suggests, i n the poetic r e v e r i e of v/ater: Le reverie commence parfois devant 1'eau limpide, tout entieYe en r e f l e t s immenses, bruissante d'une musique c r i s t a l l i n e .  ,„  Music is also associated with the f i r e of L i f e and of the Sun by A p o l l i n a i r e himself, when he writes i n "La Chanson du Mal-Aime": Juin ton s o l e i l ardent lyre Brill e mes doigts endoloris T r i s t e et me'lodieux del i r e J ' e r r e a" travers mon beau Paris Sans avoir l e coeur d'y mourir  (p.  59)  From t h i s verse alone i t can be seen how A p o l l i n a i r e i d e n t i f i e s  himself with  the musician playing upon, co-ordinating the musical strings and tones of natural phenomena into an Orphic world of enchanting beauty: d£lire".  These words, as Renaud has  a " t r i s t e et melodieux  said:  . . . ( s o n t ) l a plus belle caracteVisation qui se puisse trouver non  65  1  seulement de "La Chanson" m6 me, m a i s , p e u t - ^ t r e , de 1'ensemble d'Al c o o l s . . . . La danse e t l e chant j o u e n t dans Al c o o l s un r'cile p r i m o r d i a l , danse e t chant qui s o n t a u t a n t l e f a i t du monde que du poete lui-meme v  ,v  But b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g the i d e a o f the m u s i c a l melody and the magic c o n t a i n e d i n i t , l e t us l o o k a t the poem "Cors de.Chasse", where.the s i n g l e m u s i c a l note evokes a c e r t a i n sadness and n o s t a l g i a , s i m i l a r t o the tone o f t h e final  l i n e s o f "L'Emigrant de Landor Road".  commemorating A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  T h i s poem i s a " f i n d'amour" poem,  l o v e a f f a i r w i t h Marie L a u r e n c i n .  The note o f the  h u n t i n g - h o r n , c a r r i e d away on the w i n d , s y m b o l i z e s the g r a d u a l f a d i n g o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s hopes and h i s l o v e : Notre h i s t o i r e e s t noble e t t r a g i que Comme l e masque d'un t y r a n . Les s o u v e n i r s sont c o r s de c h a s s e - Dont meurt l e b r u i t parmi l e v e n t (p.  148)  L i k e the f l o w o f water under the "Pont M i r a b e a u " , L i f e and Love ebb away: Passons passons p u i s q u e t o u t passe J e me r e t o u r n e r a i souvent (p.  148)  T h i s s i n g l e m u s i c a l note h o l d s o n l y a d e f i a n t hope and a dim m a g i c , t h a t i s doomed t o f a d e s l o w l y away. The whole melody, however, c o n t a i n s a powerful m a g i c .  The p o e t ' s v e r s e s  make him i n t o L ' E n c h a n t e u r , o r , as w i t h Croniamantal i n Le P o l t e  assassine,  they can i n c u r such f r e n z y i n o t h e r s t h a t w i l l l e a d t o the martyrdom o f the poet himself.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the magical melody o f the p o e t ' s c r e a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d  by A p o l l i n a i r e w i t h f i g u r e s such as the Amphion or the " M u s i c i e n de S t - M e r r y " . In these two f i g u r e s i s t o be seen the c l e a r e s t r e f l e c t i o n o f the l i n k -  7  between music and magic t h a t i s ' suggested i n the myth o f Orpheus.  And  the  magical power o f m u s i c , as seen by A p o l l i n a i r e , can be sometimes d e s t r u c t i v e and sometimes c r e a t i v e , r a t h e r i n the same way  t h a t water o r shadow a r e  66  a m b i v a l e n t i n h i s range o f imagery.  The Amphion, f o r example, f o l l o w s  Orpheus i n b e i n g a c r e a t i v e , musical m a g i c i a n .  after  The Amphion, i n mythology,  i s s a i d t o have b u i l t the w a l l s o f Thebes by p l a y i n g h i s l y r e t o make the s t o n e s move themselves i n t o p o s i t i o n . "Le  Or a c c o r d i n g t o the r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s myth i n  Brasier": P a r t a n t a 1'amphion d o c i l e Tu s u b i s tous l e s tons charmants Qui r e n d e n t l e s p i e r r e s a g i l e s (p.  108)  T h e s e ' l i n e s evoke the c r e a t i v e song o f the poet's m u s i c , b u t ; i n most o t h e r c a s e s i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mind and  'myth', music would appear t o be l i n k e d w i t h a  d e s t r u c t i v e magic: Les demons du hasard s e l o n : Le chant du firmament nous me"nent A sons perdus l e u r s v i o l o n s Font danser n o t r e r a c e humaine Sur l a d e s c e n t e a r e c u l o n s (p.  58)  The f i g u r e o f the " M u s i c i e n de S t . Merry" forms p a r t o f t h i s l i n e o f m a g i c i a n s , who  l e a d the way  to d e s t r u c t i o n .  And  the poet c l e a r l y  h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s m y s t e r i o u s " M u s i c i e n " o f Calligrammes  identifies  :  Je chante t o u t e s l e s p o s s i b i l i t y ' s de moi-meme hors de ce monde e t des a s t r e s J e chante l a j o i e d ' e r r e r e t l e p l a i s i r d'en m o u r i r ( p . 188) c r y both the poet and the m u s i c i a n - h e r o o f the poem.  The  " M u s i c i e n de S t - M e r r y " ,  l i k e the P i e d - P i p e r o f H a m l i n , l e a d s away h i s v i c t i m s , enchanted  by the sounds  o f h i s m u s i c , t o t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n and d i s a p p e a r a n c e : T o i ma d o u l e u r e t mon a t t e n t e v a i n e J'entends m o u r i r l e son d'une f l t i t e l o i n t a i n e (p.  191)  But as P h i l i p p e Renaud has s a i d i n a l e c t u r e g i v e n on t h e s u b j e c t o f "'Ondes', ou l e s metamorphoses de l a musique", i n s p e a k i n g o f t h i s poem:  67 . . . i l me semble qu'on n'aura pas d i t 1'essentiel s i 1'on omet de remarquer que ce musicien (le Musicien de St-Merry) est une sorte d'Orphee retourne, d'Orphee inverse: qui ne s u i t pas Eurydice aux Enfers, ni ne tente de I'en ramener, mais 1'y conduit. Elsewhere, A p o l l i n a i r e associates himself with another kind of music of destruction:  namely, the song of the Sirens.  He knows "des l a i s pour les  r e i n e s " , but also "des chansons pour les sirenes".  The Sirens'  song usually  has connotations of personal disillusionment i n love i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse. The poet himself i s most frequently the victim of the Sirens' magic.  It  is  t h e i r music that enchants him, l i k e the singing of the maiden of the L o r e l e i . We w i l l return to t h i s myth of the Sirens' music i n the following chapter. One of the other legendary figures with whom music, i n the form of dance, i s associated, and who interests A p o l l i n a i r e , is Salome.  She beguiles  Herod and causes the destruction of John the Baptist by the enchantment of her dancing: . Pour que sourie encore une f o i s Jean-Baptiste S i r e je danserais mieux que les seraphins (p. 86) In the short-story e n t i t l e d "La danseuse", nrentioned i n an e a r l i e r chapter, A p o l l i n a i r e again gives a s p e c i f i c emphasis to the dancing of Salome, which f i n a l l y causes her own destruction. Possibly the most ominously destructive of the forms of music to be found i n the imagery of A p o l l i n a i r e , however, appears in some of the poems of war of Calligrammes.  The l y r i c a l  aura which A p o l l i n a i r e lends warfare  is made more v i v i d l y h o r r i f i c and yet more enchanting by meansof musical imagery.  In "La Nuit d ' a v r i l 1915", for  instance:  La m i t r a i l l e u s e joue un a i r a" triples-croches Coeur obus eclate tu s i f f l a i s •  ta romance (p.  243)  68 Or i n the poem "Du coton dans les o r e i l l e s " ,  he writes:  Ici la musique m i l i t a i r e joue Quelque chose Et chacun se souvient d'une joue Rose Parce que meme les a i r s entramants Ont quelque chose de dechirant quand on les entend a la (p. 290)  guerre  This kind of music is that of the destructive weaponry of modern warfare, which, as we saw in the case of the f i r e and flame of "obus", and h o r r i f i e s A p o l l i n a i r e , as i f i t viere a spectacle. oreilles",  both fascinates  In "Du Coton dans les  in f a c t , the images of water and flowers are deformed by the tone  of the war:  "coquelicots" are seen as drops of blood, and there i s the deformed  image of flowing water i n : Les p r o j e c t i l e s  d ' a r t i l l e r i e qui g l i s s e n t Comme un fleuve aerien (p.  291)  The imagery associated with flowers to be found in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse, though not associated d i r e c t l y with any c l a s s i c a l ,  mythological  forms an important and interesting part of the poet's own myth. his preoccupation with a l i f e - d e a t h , creation-destruction,  references, It  emphasizes  sublime-perverse  dichotomy, such as we have attempted to trace in the imagery of f i r e , shadow and music, that we have so far considered.  water,  Although flower-imagery  is  only, in t h i s sense, a metaphorical "reinforcement" of the poet's own myth, i t merits at l e a s t a b r i e f examination. Flowers, for A p o l l i n a i r e , appear to be linked frequently with the passing of time, and with other destructive forces,  such as death or even love.  Their  bright colour is deceptive in i t s beauty, in that i t i s ephemeral, and i s doomed to fade.  The perfume of the flower i n e v i t a b l y fades av/ay in time a l s o .  Flowers  follow the same l i f e - d e a t h cycle as the sun - in autumn they, too, die away, and in s p r i n g , they are reborn.  69 Above a l l , flowers are associated with Love, and with the ephemerality of Love.  "Les Colchiques" are beautiful  and entrancing flowers,  that bewitch  the poet, as do his loved-one's eyes, but which are also poisonous and w i l l kill  in autumn-time as the l i f e of the year draws to an end: Le pre est veneneux mais j o l i en automne Les vaches y paissant Lentement s 1 empoisonnent Le colchique couleur de eerne et de l i l a s v Y f l e u r i t tes yeux sont comme cette f l e u r - l a Violatres comme leur cerne et comme cet automne Et ma vie pour tes yeux lentement s'empoisonne  (p.  60)  And in "La C u e i l l e t t e " of II y a, a s i m i l a r , though more e x p l i c i t image occurs: Nous vfnmes au j a r d i n f l e u r i pour l a c u e i l l e t t e . B e l l e , sais-tu combien de f l e u r s , de roses-the, Roses p i l e s d1amour qui cour>onnant t a - t e t e , S ' e f f e u i l l e n t chaque e t £ ? Leurs t i g e s vont p l i e r au grand vent qui s ' ^ l e v e . Des petales de rose ont chu dans le chemin. 0 B e l l e , cue-ill e - l e s , puisque nos fleurs de reve Se faneront demain!  Et les fleurs vont mourir dans l a charfibre profane. Nos roses tour at tour e f f e u i l l e n t l a douleur. B e l l e , sanglote un p e u . . . Chaque f l e u r qui se fane, C'est un amour qui meurt! (p.  318)  Similar to this Ronsardian image of " C u e i l l e z des aujourd'huy les de la v i e "  15  / are the images of the "marguerite exfoliee"  Mal-Aime" (p. 54), Road" (p. 106),  the f r a g i l e  roses  of "La Chanson du  bouquet of flowers i n "L'Emigrant de Landor  the "petales tomb's des c e r i s i e r s  de mai" of the poem "Mai"  (p. 112), and the image of " . . . m a jeunesse abandonnee/Comme une guirlande faneV' of Vitam Impendere Amori (p. 162).  In A p o l l i n a i r e ' s verse, there are numer-  ous other such instances of flower-imagery being used to evoke a mixture of Love, Youth and L i f e fading away and dying.  nostalgic  70 Flowers, as music, are used also in some of the warfare images of Cal1igrammes.  In these cases, flowers become a c t i v e l y d e s t r u c t i v e , and  carry with them not only a reminder of the approach of death, but also a potential  k i l l i n g power of t h e i r own.  The bursts of s h e l l s are not only  "suns",  but they are seen as "flowers" by A p o l l i n a i r e as i n the " 2 e Canonnier Conducteur": La V i c t o i r e se t i e n t apres nos jugulaires Ses f l e u r s  sont nos obus aux gerbes  merveiIleuses (p.  215)  Or else they are d i r e c t l y linked with the spectacle of b a t t l e , as in "Fete": Les obus caressent l e moi Parfum nocturne ou tu reposes M o r t i f i c a t i o n des roses (p.  238)  Or, as i n "Chevaux de F r i s e " , where A p o l l i n a i r e writes: Pendant le: Tandis que Et que les Leurs  blanc et nocturne novembre chantaient epouvantablement les obus fleurs mortes de la terre exhalaient mortelles odeurs... (p. 302)  But i n t h i s l a s t poem, "Chevaux de F r i s e " , is to be seen the promise of a r e b i r t h c f L i f e that is occasionally associated with flower-imagery by Apollinaire: Mon coeur r e n a i s s a i t comme un arbre au printemps Un arbre f r u i t i e r sur lequel s.'epanouissent Les fleurs de 1'amour (p. 302) In "La Chanson du Mal-Aime" a l s o , we read: Dans les jardins et les vergers Les oiseuax chantent sur les branches Le printemps c l a i r I ' a v r i l leger (p.  54)  This is the springtime that is associated with budding flowers and reborn L i f e and Love.  As he writes in his great poem-credo of Adventure, "La J o l i e  Rousse": Nous voulons vous donner de vastes et d'etranges domaines  71 Ou l e mystere en fleurs s ' o f f r e a qui veut le c u e i l l i r (p.  313)  Despite a l l the melancholy of his flower-imagery, a certain optimism and vigour remain associated with i t i n t h i s way. In conclusion we can look back at these images of water, shadow, music and flowers, and see how each one is used by A p o l l i n a i r e to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n aspects of the l i f e - d e a t h , creation-destruction cycle of some of his favourite myths, of his own l i f e , and of his l o v e - a f f a i r s  in particular.  By contrast  with the images of f i r e and flame, discussed e a r l i e r , which are usually images of L i f e and of i n s p i r a t i o n , the images now under discussion are used, most frequently, to i l l u s t r a t e a darker, more melancholy meditation.  Each holds  the hope and f a i n t promise of a r e b i r t h i n i t , but each i s predominantly a herald of death and decay for A p o l l i n a i r e .  72  NOTES  1  Bachelard, Gaston.  2  Renaud, P h i l i p p e . "Discussion" in Du monde europeen a l ' u n i v e r s des mythes. Actes du collogue de Stavelot (1968). reunis par Michel Decaudin. P a r i s : Lettres Modernes, Minard, 1970. p. 46.  3  loc.  4  Bachelard.  5  ibid.  p.  6  ibid.  p. 99.  7  ibid.  p.  139.  8  ibid.  p.  133.  9  ibid.  p.. 137'.  10 11  L'Eau et les reves.  Paris:  C o r t i , 1942.  p. 8.  cit.  Durry.  L'Eau...  p. 77.  96.  ATcools.  V o l . III.  pp. 52-53.  Marcuse,. Herbert. Eros and C i v i l i z a t i o n . A Philosophical Inquiry into . Freud... Boston:: Beacon Press, 1966, pT 170.  12  Bachelard;.  L'Eau...  p. 66.  13  Renaud, P h i l i p p e . " ' O n d e s ' , ou les metamorphoses de l a musique" in A p o l l i n a i r e et la Musique. Actes du Collogue de S t a v e l o t , aout 1965. reunis par M. De'caudin. Stavelot: Edition "Les Amis de Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e " , 1967. p. 22.  14  ibid.  15  Ronsard.  p. 27. Sonnets pour Hel^ne, no. 43.  73  APOLLINAIRE:  PERSONAL LIFE AND MYTH  The purpose of the present chapter is to attempt to see how A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal l i f e may have heightened his i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n myths, and, 'vice versa1,  to examine also how greatly myth may have determined c e r t a i n  aspects of the poet's l i f e i n as much as i t is reflected i n his w r i t i n g s . Certain events and factors distinctly  in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s l i f e were seen by him i n a  'mythological' manner:  p a r a l l e l s were sometimes drawn metaphorically  between his own s i t u a t i o n and a mythical s i t u a t i o n or f i g u r e .  Clearly,  however, i t would be impossible to cover in d e t a i l a l l of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s biography within the space of one chapter, and besides,  to do so would only  be to copy the excellent work of biographers such as Pierre-Marcel Adema, Georges Vergnes and others.  It would also be too lengthy a task to deal with a l l the  poems i n which a d i r e c t personal reference i s made by A p o l l i n a i r e , since, as the poet himself said i n a l e t t e r to Henri Martineau: Chacun de mes poemes est l a commemoration d'un evenement de ma vie et l e plus souvent i l s ' a g i t de t r i s t e s s e , mais j ' a i aussi des j o i e s que je chante.  -|  In some poems A p o l l i n a i r e does give some condensed and e x p l i c i t biographical facts:  poems such as "La J o l i e Rousse", the poems "A l a Sante",  or "Merveille de l a Guerre".  "Cortege",  In a poem such as "Le L a r r o n " , for example, are  to be found mysterious allegorical-personal references, where the poet i s fused with myth to a point where his own i d e n t i t y becomes vague.  In some  poems a l s o , a c e r t a i n detachment from the s e l f appears, and an i n t e r e s t i n the legend of GuiTTaume ApoTTihaire, as created by GullTaume" A'p'oTTThafre, seems" to become more objective:-  there is an a l t e r n a t i o n between the f i r s t and second  persons, the "je" and the " t u " , as A p o l l i n a i r e e i t h e r steps back from or  74 i d e n t i f i e s with himself.  A poem such as "Zone" i l l u s t r a t e s  this a l t e r n a t i o n ,  or "Cortege" where the poet's i d e n t i t y is d i v i d e d , and one half addresses the other. This l a s t tendency, i n d i c a t i v e of a possible schizophrenia in A p o l l i n a i r e , r e s u l t s in a haziness of i d e n t i t y - an i d e n t i t y which the poet searches throughout his l i f e to define more c l e a r l y , to unify, and to create for himself.  In  this creation myth and mythological example undoubtedly play a part. In dealing with A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal  l i f e and myth, we shall  firstly  attempt to sketch some possible mythological influences by a chronological review of the poet's l i f e , and l a s t l y , we w i l l  try to formulate some general  impressions of certain mythical and mythological t r a i t s in the personality o f A p o l l i n a i r e , using as a basis some of the opinions and reminiscences of his f r i e n d s , above a l l .  This f i n a l  section w i l l  be concerned then, l a r g e l y ,  with the myth' of Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , the man and the poet.  ApoTlinaire was born in Rome during August 1880. Angelica Kostrowitsky, and was of Polish descent. has baffled A p o l l i n a i r e ' s biographers, Francesco Flugi d'Aspermont.  His mother was named  The i d e n t i t y of his  but i t i s speculated that his name was  Later in his l i f e A p o l l i n a i r e l i k e d to l e t i t be  known that his father was a Pope, since this must have appealed to his esque sense of humour.  father  Jarry-  The important aspect of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b i r t h , though,  is t h i s mystery that shrouds the i d e n t i t y of his father.  In the poem c a l l e d  "Le L a r r o n " , which Scott Bates sees as an allegory concerning the coming of C h r i s t , a s i m i l a r l y mysterious birth i s attributed to the " L a r r o n " : Maraudeur etranger malhabile et malade Ton pere fut un sphinx et ta meYe une nuit (P-  91)  The analogy with C h r i s t is i n t e r e s t i n g , and is c e r t a i n l y plausible in the  75  l i g h t of these two verses at l e a s t .  And the p o s s i b i l i t y that A p o l l i n a i r e  i d e n t i f i e d himself with C h r i s t in some ways, as discussed  in an e a r l i e r  chapter, would seem to add weight to the connection, suggested by these verses, between the poet's own b i r t h and that of C h r i s t , the " L a r r o n " . A further mythological association  that surrounds A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b i r t h  is contained within the two verses quoted from " l e Larron" themselves: t h i s is the mention made of "un sphinx".  The Sphinx of Theban legend i s a  creature t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with enigma, with r i d d l e s .  The i d e n t i t y  of the poet's father remains enigmatic to his biographers at l e a s t , and may well have been something of a r i d d l e to A p o l l i n a i r e himself. Besides the s p e c i f i c circumstances of his b i r t h , the general  notion of  Birth seems to have had certain connotations in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mind, of the sort that were mentioned in discussing one of the "myths" of f i r e - that of the Sun.  The Sun, in being born each morning, regenerates L i f e .  c r e a t i v e , a re-creative and a divine force. with the name of A p o l l o .  It i s usually a  It is associated in mythology  The poet cannot have f a i l e d to associate these  connotations that he linked with B i r t h in general, with his own b i r t h ,  part-  i c u l a r l y in the l i g h t of the fact that his own name would appear to be a derivative of the name " A p o l l o " .  The psychological l i n k s are indeed complex,  but i t is reasonable to s t a t e , as does Scott Bates, that: 2  "Apollinaire like '  Rimbaud was a " f i l s du S o l e i l " , a son of the S u n . . . " It is Bates too, who makes an i n t e r e s t i n g remark concerning A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mother, Angelica.  The mother of "Le Larron" is c a l l e d "une n u i t " , which  suggests a possible l i n k with one of the goddesses of darkness,  Lilith.  L i l i t h is the demon-mother, and in mythology she is often associated with f l a g e l l a t i o n and other-vices.  As Bates writes:  His ( A p o l l i n a i r e ' s ) mother, according to many reports,  had the  76 nineteenth-century Polish a r i s t o c r a t ' s freedom with the whip; her son's i n t e r e s t i n the same can be traced through his poems  ?  and 1 e t t e r s . . . In the l i g h t of such associations,  a connection between A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mother  and the mythical "figure of L i l i t h may well have prompted such lines as  those  already quoted from "Le Larron". At the age of three years o l d , A p o l l i n a i r e moved with his mother to Monaco.  He was schooled by Jesuits i n Monaco for several years, which must  have i n s p i r e d his awareness of C h r i s t i a n dogma and r i t u a l , and must have fostered his childhood b e l i e f i n these doctrines.  The mysteries and awe of this c h i l d -  hood f a i t h are r e c a l l e d in some verses of "Zone": Tu es tres pieux et avec l e plus ancien de tes camarades Rene Dalize Vous n'aimez rien tant que les pompes de 1 ' E g l i s e II est neuf heures l e gaz est baisse tout bleu vous sortez du d o r t o i r en cachette Vous priez. toute la nuit dans la chapelle du college Tandis o u ' e t e r n e l l e et adorable profondeur ame^thyste Tourne a jamais la flamboyante gToire du C h r i s t (p.  40)  In 1899, having l e f t the school in Nice to which he was sent after  leaving  the J e s u i t college of Monaco, A p o l l i n a i r e moved with his mother and her lover to l i v e i n Belgium for several weeks. i t i s here that A p o l l i n a i r e suffered a local g i r l  named Maria Dubois.  They l i v e d i n Stavelot, his f i r s t u n f u l f i l l e d  near Spa, and  l o v e - a f f a i r with  It is she who is remembered i n the poem  e n t i t l e d " M a r i e " , where the memory of her fuses with the image of Marie Laurencin, the poet's l a t e r great love.  During this stay at Stavelot,  Apoll-  i n a i r e took note of the local culture a l s o , which he incorporated i n short s t o r i e s such as Que Vlo've? for example.  Local legend, i n the form of Que Vlo've?  himself, and i n the form of the elves and pixies who whisper to him as he d i e s , forms the a t t r a c t i o n of this p a r t i c u l a r story, so well does A p o l l i n a i r e capture the tone of the Ardennes.  77 After his return to P a r i s , following the Stavelot i n t e r l u d e , A p o l l i n a i r e had another unreciprocated l o v e - a f f a i r with Linda, who is celebrated " l a zezayante" in several  poems.  as  In the c o l l e c t i o n e n t i t l e d II y a are to be  found a series of "Diets d'amour a L i n d a " , where A p o l l i n a i r e praises his lovedone, and uses legendary reference to describe her: A i n s i bayerent par l e monde Viviane aupre"s de I'immonde Et dans son palais Rosemonde Qui fut moins b e l l e que Linda.  (p.  327)  The image of Linda i n these poems r e f l e c t s  also some of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s Roman  Catholic background, since she i s likened to the madonna: Si vous n'etes pas lei, zezayante, 6 Madone, J ' i r a i gemir a votre porte comme un chien. Madone au Nonchaloir, lorsque vous p a r t i r e z Tout pari era de vous, meme l a f e u i l l e morte  (p.  329)  The anxiety of the poet i n these verses becomes a desperate disappointment when Linda does not respond to A p o l l i n a i r e ' s love.  Like Ixion, he loves  only a vaporous i d e a l , and he w r i t e s : J'adore de Linda ce specieux  reflet (p.  323)  It was in 1901 that A p o l l i n a i r e embarked upon the f i r s t period of his life,  and of his writing i n p a r t i c u l a r , to be deeply and notably steeped i n  myth and legend.  After the disillusionment of his ' a f f a i r '  with Linda,  A p o l l i n a i r e went to Germany, to the Rhineland, as a tutor to a young German girl.  He went to a place known as Ney-Gluck, which, as Georges Vergnes points  out, i r o n i c a l l y means "Nouveau Bonheur".^ ' I r o n i c a l l y ' because i t was here that A p o l l i n a i r e had.yet'another unhappy and unreciprocated l o v e - a f f a i r , time with Annie Playden, who was l a t e r to be transposed  this  into the "Emigrant de  Landor Road", and into some important background and personal aspects of  78  mythical references  made in "La Chanson .du Mal-Aime".  A p o l l i n a i r e , as Victor Hugo and GeVard de Nerval before him, was by the wealth of f o l k - l o r e and legend offered as a whole.  fascinated  by the Rhineland, and by Germany  The area was one of a mysterious mythical enchantment, c a l l e d by  Orecchioni i n writing on the theme of the Rhine i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n s p i r a t i o n , the "Dionysos Rhenan".  In writing of Rhenish wine, Orecchioni says:  s  5  s  Le vin est l a c i e d'un monde fantastique, de legende et de magie. Le theme du vin du Rhin fournit a A p o l l i n a i r e une sorte d ' e x p l i c a t i o n , de j u s t i f i c a t i o n mythique de 1 ' i n s p i r a t i o n poetique, ou 1'on fi retrouve les elements du mythe antique de Dionysos. The r o l e played by wine in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s appreciation of Rhenish legend  '  is  of p a r t i c u l a r relevance since i t was probably i n bars and d r i n k i n g - h a l l s that he gathered much of his information and local colour.  The Rhineland furnished  him with material for his poem "Schinderhannes", which deals with a popular Rhineland hero and bandit - a Hernani-figure. maiden of the L o r e l e i , discussed meaningful  It offered also the myth of the  i n an e a r l i e r chapter, which became p a r t i c u l a r l y  to A p o l l i n a i r e during his painful a f f a i r  with Annie.  Annie P'layden i s associated with the maiden of the poem e n t i t l e d "La L o r e l e y " , which was inspired by an e a r l i e r poem by the poet Brentano.  Apoll-  i n a i r e adapts the famous legend of the L o r e l e i to s u i t the theme of the ruinous danger of love, which r e f l e c t s  his own sentimental  l i f e at this period.  Annie - the Lorelei maiden - is seen as a kind of siren who magically lures poet-mariner to his destruction on the L o r e l e i Rock of Love.  the  Annie refused  to respond to the ardent demands made of her by A p o l l i n a i r e , and he turns to Rhenish myth in this poem to express his own melancholy and heartbreak. Mythology is said too to have played a part in the a f f a i r i t i s said that his proposal  with Annie i t s e l f :  of marriage to Annie was 'staged' dramatically i n  a place where Rhenish legend was used by A p o l l i n a i r e to t e r r i f y Annie into agreeing  79 to marry him: For t h i s (the proposal of marriage) A p o l l i n a i r e chose the most romantic spot in the Seven Mountains, the top of the Drachenfels, where S i e g f r i e d , the hero of the Niebelungen, i s reputed to have s l a i n the dragon. There he offered her his t i t l e of n o b i l i t y and his huge fortune. The young miss from Clapham declined.  7  Such a proposal and 'staging' by A p o l l i n a i r e c e r t a i n l y indicates a romantic and s i n i s t e r awareness of Rhenish legend, which played a part in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s l i f e at this time. During the period of his stay i n Germany, A p o l l i n a i r e also had the chance to travel in Central Europe.  He became a kind of wanderer.  The  presence of gypsies and wanderers of a more legendary or mythical sort is notable in his writings of this time: .  Sur le chemin du bord du fleuve lentement Un ours un singe un chien menls par des tziganes Suivaient une roulotte trainee par un cine (p.  112)  The poem "La Tzigane" i s another poem of the Rhineland period, written in 1902, which also gives some confidence on A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a f f a i r  with Annie.in  the words: L'amour lourd comme un ours prive Dansa debout quand nous voultimes Et 1'oiseau bleu perdit ses plumes Et les mendiants leurs ' A v e ' . (p.  99)  And the famous short-story e n t i t l e d "Le Passant de Prague", which  describes  an encounter with the legendary Wandering Jew, is also inspired from this period of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s travels  in Central Europe.  The tone of sympathy used  in this story to describe the Jew seems to imply a warmth on the part of A p o l l i n a i r e towards such a wanderer, and towards the legend of a man who,, l i k e himself, belongs to no one country, and searches endlessly for a  resting-place.  80 A p o l l i n a i r e l e f t Germany in 1902 and returned to P a r i s , where he became involved i n the publication of a small l i t e r a r y journal known as Le Festin d'Esope. interest  This journal ran to the ninth issue.  Its  name alone indicates an  in and an awareness of mythology - the t i t l e refers  two f e a s t s ,  to the myth of the  both exactly s i m i l a r , prepared by Aesope for his master,  Xantus.  At the same time, A p o l l i n a i r e began to attend the 'soirees de la Plume', held i n the "caveau maudit" of. the Cafe du Depart, referred to in the "Poeme lu au mariage d'Andre Salmon".  In t h i s poem, A p o l l i n a i r e mocks the seriousness  with which he and his young friends of the "soirees" treated poetry at t h i s time. A s i m i l a r seriousness and sadness to that of the "Poeme l u . . . " ,  that are  of great l y r i c a l beauty r e f l e c t i n g a profound emotional d i s t r e s s , pervade his great poem which was written during these same years celebrating his Tove for Annie Playden, "La Chanson du Mal-Aime". and legendary references  The poem is f u l l  of mythological  as we saw i n the e a r l i e r discussion and enumeration  of mythological references  to be found in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poetry.  In "La Chanson  the Sirens of Greek mythology are mentioned frequently, as well as Pan, the s a t y r e s , and Ulysses.  Mars and Venus, from Roman myth, are mentioned a l s o ;  and Old Testament B i b l i c a l mythology holds a prominent p o s i t i o n in references to the Hebrews, to the Exodus from Egypt, and to the Red Sea i n the f i r s t of the poem.  References to C h r i s t and to Barrabas bring i n the element of  New Testament B i b l i c a l mythology a l s o , though in a more minor way. complex and mixture of mythological references, our l i s t ,  verses  Out of this  which may be best traced in  that concludes the second chapter of this study,arises  of A p o l l i n a i r e himself, as the figure of the "Mal-Aime".  the great legend  Adema, A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  biographer, has dedicated an entire study to this legend of Guillaume A p o l l -  /8 i n a i r e , Le Mal-Aime,  which was to grow in the poet's l o v e - l i f e from this  81 time onwards, and which was to influence profoundly the poet's own persona l i t y and outlook on l i f e , as we shall  see.  From about 1907 to 1911 A p o l l i n a i r e had what has been c a l l e d his "greatest"  love-affair,  Mirabeau".  which was to produce poems of such sad beauty as "Le Pont  His loved-one was c a l l e d Marie Laurencin.  A painting by the painter  Henri Rousseau, l e Douanier, depicts "Le Poete et sa muse", and i s to portray A p o l l i n a i r e with his muse, Marie.  supposed  It is of Marie Laurencin, rather  than of Maria Dubois, that he writes in the f i n a l , melancholy l i n e s of the elegy to "Marie", although as we have s a i d , the images of the two women, are Apollinaire's affair  fused.  with Marie Laurencin, according to the evidence of his poetry  at l e a s t , seems to have been one of anxiety: and suffering for him.  In "Marie"  we.have an example of flowing water being associated with passing love and with sadness, that is related to his a f f a i r  with Marie Laurencin:  Le fleuva- est pareil „ ma peine II s'ecouie et ne t a r i t pas (p. 81) In causing A p o l l i n a i r e pain and anxiety, Marie i s depicted as another s i r e n figure who has lured the mariner-lover to his destruction:  some of the l i n e s  of "Vendemiaire", written in 1909 or 1910, would seem to have a personal meaning in this sense: Mais ou est l e regard lumineux des sirenes II trompa les marins qu'aimaient ces oiseaux-la" II ne tournera plus sur I'e'cueil de S c y l l a Oil chantaient les t r o i s voix suaves et sereines (p.  151)  A p o l l i n a i r e c l e a r l y sees himself as one of the "marins" of the myth.  Only  Orpheus, the archetype of the poet, with his enchanting singing and poetry, was capable of saving the"mariners of""'the Argonaut from destruction at the hand of the Sirens as we saw in an e a r l i e r discussion of the myth of Orpheus. But Orpheus himself, as we have seen, was l a t e r to perish at the hands of other  82  women, and A p o l l i n a i r e r e c a l l s t h i s incident in another poem in Le Guetteur Melancolique, e n t i t l e d "Marie". Car Orphee amoureux fut tue par les femmes Et je sais que souvent la nature entend mieuxA Les sanglots de la l y r e et les pleurs de nos ames Que les belles 6 toi vers qui vont nos grands yeux (p.  514)  A p o l l i n a i r e associates himself with Orpheus twice in these references, refers i n d i r e c t l y also to the women who would have destroyed who did destroy  (the Thracian women), his master Orpheus.  and  (the S i r e n s ) , or  Apollinaire,  as  Orpheus, can sometimes stave off the potential destruction of love and can protect himself by means of his own poetry, which is a solace to him. he f a l l s him.  at the hand of women such as Marie Laurencin, who emotionally "destroy"  But, in myth, Orpheus' head continued to sing even after  by women.  F i n a l l y , however,  his destruction  And so does A p o l l i n a i r e ' s , in the sense that some of his greatest  poems were produced in the wake of unhappy l o v e - a f f a i r s : Aime" and "Le Pont Mirabeau" to name but two.  "La Chanson du Mal-  "Le Pont Mirabeau", written  during the time when Marie Laurencin was leaving him, echoes the anxieties  of  the l i n e s already quoted from the e a r l i e r poem, "Marie": L'amour s'en va comme cette eau courante L'amour s'en va Comme la vie est l e n t e . . . (p. 45) Andre Rouveyre, A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f r i e n d , writing of "Le Pont Mirabeau", makes these comments about  it:  Tout ce q u ' i l peut pour ranimer la presence aupres de l u i de sa q maftresse perdue, i l le tente dans son po£me. Mais bref, ou se termine "Le Pont Mirabeau", i l n'y a plus d'amants, plus d'amour. Seuls survivent l a construction de pierres^et -.Q de f e r , sourde et lourde, et l e fleuve qui continue de s ' e c o u l e r . This too, reminds one of the figure of Orpheus, trying to revive his beloved Eurydice from the Underworld, singing to appease the tormenting demons in H e l l ,  83  but f a i l i n g to succeed.  Only the head of Orpheus remains to s i n g , j u s t as  only the voice of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s love and sadness remain after his broken a f f a i r with Marie Laurencin: Passons passons puisque tout passe Je me retournerai souvent Les souvenirs sont cors de chasse Dont meurt l e b r u i t parmi l e vent (p.  148)  he wrote i n "Cors de Chasse", another poem of this At about the time of the end of his a f f a i r  ' f i n d'amour' period.  with Marie occurred another  event that had a considerable effect  on A p o l l i n a i r e .  This was the  "affaire  des s t a t u e t t e s " , and the accusations  l e v e l l e d against him concerning the  theft of the Joconde, for which he was imprisonned i n La Sante prison i n 1911.  The six poems i n Alcools e n t i t l e d "A l a Sante" have an intensely per-  sonal tone, and witness a strange return to the poet's childhood C h r i s t i a n f a i t h during t h i s time of d i s t r e s s .  A p o l l i n a i r e uses B i b l i c a l mythology i n  the imagery of these poems with no such tone of cynicism as i s associated with i t in a poem such as "Zone", for example. .,,1 he se verses written i n "La Sante'" seem to be a cry from the heart, a close personal  l i n k with God and C h r i s t -  ianity: Que deviendrai-je 6 Dieu qui connais ma douleur Toi qui me l ' a s donnee Prends en p i t i £ mes yeux sans larmes ma paleur Le b r u i t de ma chaise enchafn^e Prends en p i t i e surtout ma debile raison Et ce de'sespoir qui l a gagne (p. 143) A p o l l i n a i r e , during his imprisonment, seems to see himself as an innocent v i c t i m , as a martyr i n the s t y l e of C h r i s t himself. of this time, he wrote: Je viens de recevoir des l e t t r e s Vous- ne m'abandonnez done pas  In some unpublished verses  84 Jesus que V o n emprisonna Et que les douze abandonnerent Je viens de retrouver la f o i Comme aux beaux jours de mon enfance Seigneur agreez mes hommages Je c r o i s en vous je c r o i s je c r o i s And one of his biographers  11  writes:  ...someone who met him at t h i s time wrote that he was "depressed, considered himself deserted by a l l , i r r e t r i e v a b l y ruined; he had been much affected by his incarceration in the Sante^ and the unconcealed pleasure that certain malicious fellow-writers had taken in his p l i g h t " .  ^  C h r i s t too, had been betrayed by one of his f r i e n d s , and his c l o s e s t f r i e n d , Peter,  had refused to recognize him, just as Picasso is said to have refused  to recognize A p o l l i n a i r e .  C h r i s t , in his sadness and need, turned his pleas  to God j u s t as A p o l l i n a i r e did in La Sante. Of the period following his release from La Sante" p r i s o n , up to the outbreak of the F i r s t . World War, A p o l l i n a i r e ' s friend Andre^ B i l l y has w r i t t e n : Cette. periode d'avant la guerre v i t 1'apogee de son influence II eta i t l e prince de 1 ' e s p r i t moderne, le chef d'orchestre des idees. nouvelles, I'ame de la grande revolution par laquelle £ t a i e n t de|a\ sapees, deja d^truites, les v i e i l l e s conventions de l a v i e i l l e poesie discursive et de la peinture f i g u r a t i v e .  i  3  It i s during these years from 1911 to 1914 that A p o l l i n a i r e published Le Bestiaire, ec  that he became the editor of Les Soirees de P a r i s , that he publish-  * Al c o o l s , and his M e d i t a t i o n s esthetiques on Les Peintres Cubistes, as well  as a manifesto e n t i t l e d L ' A n t i t r a d i t i o n Futuriste.  It is perhaps to this  period of his l i f e that some of the most succinctly autobiographical of  verses  his work could best apply; verses in which he speaks of his own poetical  'doctrines'  and t h e i r  effect.  In "La J o l i e Rousse", which was probably written at a l a t e r date, but which i s nevertheless most aptly applicable to this period of his career, he writes: Je juge cette Tongue querelle de la t r a d i t i o n et de 1'invention  85 De I'Ordre et de 1'Aventure ... / Nous voulons vous donner de vastes et d'etranges domaines Ou le mystere en fleurs s ' o f f r e a" qui veut l e c u e i l l i r II y a let des feux nouveaux des couleurs jamais vues M i l l e phantasmes imponderables Auxquels i l faut donner de l a r e a l i t e y ^ Nous voulons explorer l a bonte contree enorme ou tout se t a i t II y a aussi l e temps qu'on peut chasser ou f a i r e revenir Pi tie* pour nous qui combattons toujours aux frontieYes De 1 ' i l l i m i t e et de l ' a v e n i r Pi t i e pour nos erreurs pi t i e pour nos peches (pp. 313-314) Just p r i o r to the outbreak of war in p a r t i c u l a r , A p o l l i n a i r e saw himself as an adventurer, a pioneer, and as a kind of prophet i n the s t y l e of "Les Mages" of Victor Hugo and in the s t y l e of Orpheus or John the Baptist or even C h r i s t . He wrote i n "Les C o l l i n e s " : - Sache que je parle aujourd'hui Pour annoncer au monde entier Qu'enfin e s t ne- I ' a r t de predire Certains hommes sont des c o l l i n e s Qui s ' e l event entre les hommes Et v o i t au l o i n tout 1'avenir Mieux que s ' i l e t a i t l e present^ Plus net que s ' i l e t a i t le passe Je me suis enfin detache De toutes choses nature!les Et ce qu'on n'a jamais_touche Je 1'ai touche je I ' a i palpe (pp. 171-173) We w i l l of  discuss these prophetic ideas further i n connection with the theory  '!'esprit  nouveau'.  At the outbreak of war i n 1914, A p o l l i n a i r e became a kind of poet-warrior f i g u r e , finding i n the danger and death of warfare a source of marvel and i n s p i r a t i o n that was to his t a s t e .  The, poems of the "Case d'Armons", "Lueurs  des T i r s " and "Obus couleur de lune" sections of Cal1igrammes, bear witness  86  to this new t h r i l l  of experience in the l i f e of A p o l l i n a i r e .  His poems are  generally concerned more with r e a l , every-day war experiences and sights at this time, than with mythological reference or l y r i c i s m . However, i t was during his period as a s o l d i e r that A p o l l i n a i r e met Louise de Coligny, celebrated in the Poemes a^ Lou, and that he enjoyed his extremely carnal r e l a t i o n s h i p with her.  Rouveyre writes of this  affair:  Ses l e t t r e s et ses poesies a "Lou" montrent A p o l l i n a i r e dans son recours permanent, spontane £ l a nature feminine q u ' i l avait connue cette f o i s - c i enfin £ outrance; dans son i d e n t i f i c a t i o n avec la matiere physique, t e r r e s t r e , animale, c o n c r e t e . . . jusqu'au cours de ses plus sauvages c r i s e s d'erotisme In contrast to the p h y s i c a l , sexual  ,«  imaginatif...  nature of this a f f a i r with Lou, there  was A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a f f a i r with Madeleine Pages, which took place at almost exactly the same time.  He met her for three or four hours only, whilst on a  t r a i n , but continued to develop his love for her by l e t t e r s , proposed marriage to her in the same way.  Madeleine i s ,  and f i n a l l y  - -  in this sense, a kind  of sublime,, ideal figure with whom A p o l l i n a i r e had only a minimal physical contact.  Lou was the 'touchable', the Dionysian, the perverse, and Madeleine  the 'untouchable', the Apollonian, the sublime, i t would seem:  an interesting  d i v i s i o n of tastes and tendencies in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personality. A p o l l i n a i r e f i n a l l y t i r e d of Madeleine, however, and broke with her, in the same way that Annie Playden had d r i f t e d away from him years before.  As  Steegmuller points out: Like Annie Playden, she had been an episode in his l i f e ; Annie had l e f t him, now he l e f t Madeleine. Both a f f a i r s were the occasion of some of his best w r i t i n g , and c e r t a i n l y both women were for him',,, muses rather than real persons. Through a l l these love-affairs  runs a thread attached to the myth of Orpheus  which i t is of interest to note at this point.  Ovid writes in the tenth  Metamorphosis: Orpheus had shunned a l l love of womankind, whether because of his  87 i l l - s u c c e s s in love, or whether he had given his troth once for all. S t i l l , many women f e l t a passion for the bard; many grieved for The  -jg  t h e i r love repulsed.  s i m i l a r i t y between Orpheus' actions in myth, and A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n - r e a l i t y  gives r i s e to the speculation that A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e j e c t i o n of Madeleine may have been motivated by s i m i l a r l y misogynic feelings as those attributed to Orpheus by Ovid. A p o l l i n a i r e ' s change of attitude towards Madeleine, however, came at the time of his head-wound and convalescence from t h i s wound, which may well account for his change to a certain degree at l e a s t .  His wound makes of him  again a kind of martyr-figure, undergoing the t r i b u l a t i o n s of L i f e in order to emerge from them as a ' f u l l e r ' human being with an expanded knowledge of Life.  In "La J o l i e Rousse",  he writes in a tone of sobriety and assurance that  constrasts greatly with the exuberance of his e a r l i e r war-poems: Me v o i c i devant tous un homme p l e i n de sens Connaissant Ta vie et de la.mort ce qu'un vivarit peut connaftre Ayant eprouve les douleurs et les j o i e s de I'amour Ayant su quelquefois imposer ses ide'es Connaissant plusieurs Tangages Ayant pas mal voyage^ Ayant vu l a guerre d a n s / l ' A r t i l l e r i e et l ' I n f a n t e r i e Blesse k la tete trepane sous le chloroforme Ayant perdu ses meilleurs amis dans l ' e f f r o y a b l e l u t t e Je sais d'ancien et de nouveau autant qu'un homme seul pourrait des deux savoir (P.  313);  These l i n e s no longer speak of the "Merveille de l a Guerre", but rather of the "effroyable  lutte".  It would seem as i f A p o l l i n a i r e had reached the  sombreness of "L'Age de r a i s o n " .  According to his friends he had changed  considerably at t h i s time, after his recovery from his head-wound.  Andre  B i l l y writes: Ses amis v i r e n t alors reparaftre un A p o l l i n a i r e grave, i r a s c i b l e , chez qui l a barbiche et l a t £ t e bandee sous l e bonnet de police accusaient une a l t e r a t i o n morale assez pr^ofonde.^ J ' a i frequente quotidiennement 1 ' A p o l l i n a i r e de cette p e r i o d e - l a . E l l e istait -jy , lj9j-.n-,*.T.a- chdcrmmte f-sntarlsie. d-'ava-n.fe.«la.-.gtKirre-;-'.--  88 In 1918, A p o l l i n a i r e married Jaqpueline Kolb, whose beauty i s commemorated in "La J o l i e  Rousse":  Voici que.vient I'ete la saison violente Et ma jeunesse est morte ainsi que l e printemps E l l e a 1'aspect charmant D'ime adorable rousse Ses cheveux sont d'or on d i r a i t Un bel e c l a i r qui durerait (p. 314) It v/as at t h i s time, above a l l , that A p o l l i n a i r e was concerned with nouveau"*  "1'esprit  In November of 1917 he had lectured on " L ' e s p r i t nouveau et  les  poetes", and i n t h i s lecture he expresses the same weariness with the past and adventurous t h r i l l  of the future as he .had expressed i n ''Zone" i n 1913:  A l a f i n tu es las de ce monde ancien ^  ^g)  The "new s p i r i t " of which A p o l l i n a i r e was an advocate i n 1917 and 1918,  is  an attempt to create a new a r t , based on a new attitude towards the modern world.:  A p o l l i n a i r e interested himself i n modern phenomena such as the  aeroplane, the cinema and the phonograph.  He saw himself as a new kind of  s o l d i e r - p o e t , one crusading for new ideas and new forms i n poetry.  In "La  V i c t o i r e " he w r i t e s : 0 bouches 1'homme est a l a recherche d'un nouveau langage Auquel l e grammairien d'aucune langue n'aura rien a d i r e Et ces v i e i l l e s langues sont tenement pres de mourir Que c ' e s t vraiment par habitude et manque d'audace Qu'on les f a i t encore s e r v i r a la poesie (p. 310) He sees himself again as one of the adventurers and prophets of poetic thought: Nous qui quetons partout  I'aventure  ...nous qui combattons toujours aux frontieres De 1 ' i l l i m i t e et de 1'avenir (p. 313-314)  89  And " I ' e s p r i t  nouveau" offers  him wonderful  r e v e l a t i o n s , to be shared with  humanity: Et je pele pour mes amis L'orange dont l a saveur est Un merveilleux feux d ' a r t i f i c e It i s above a l l  (p.  176)  in images such as t h i s l a s t one that the form of  nouveau" takes shape.  It depends for i t s  "I'esprit  beauty upon s u r p r i s i n g l y contrasted  elements of imagery, which form a new world of sensations  and imagination.  Pierre Reverdy has formulated the best known expression of this idea, taken up l a t e r by S u r r e a l i s t writers such as Andre' Breton: L'image est une creation pure de I ' e s p r i t . E l l e ne peut nartre d'une comparaison mais du rapprochement de deux r e a l i t e s plus ou moins / e1oigne'es. Plus les rapports de deux r ^ a l i t ^ s rapproche.es seront l o i n t a i n s et j u s t e s , plus l'image sera forte plus e l l e aura de puissance emotive et de r e a l i t e p o e t i q u e . . .  ->g  A p o l l i n a i r e had become one of the f i r s t to use and propagate such new poetic ideas and forms, and, after  his sudden death i n November 1918, the t r a i l  he had  opened was to be followed by writers of the S u r r e a l i s t movement, who were to expand further A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n t e r e s t and researching i n the domain of dream and the imagination, the "reine des f a c u l t e s "  as Baudelaire had c a l l e d i t .  As A p o l l i n a i r e himself had so t r u l y written i n "Cortege": Et je m'eloignerai m'illuminant au milieu d'ombres Et d'alignements d'yeux des astres Men-aim^s (P-  74)  * * * * * Turning no.w, b r i e f l y ,  to the personality of A p o l l i n a i r e , l e t us consider  some of the most prominent features  that have arisen out of a study of the  man and his w r i t i n g , as regards his own myth or legend. his  interests  A great d i v e r s i t y of  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s makes i t impossible to reach any hard and  fast conclusions about his own myth, but c e r t a i n aspects of an A p o l l i n a i r i a n  myth:can, be :  at, l e a s t,-tentatively o u t l i n e d .  CIau4e,Tour-aa.dr.e-i.-wtfcin.gv-o£*-  90  " A p o l l i n a i r e et l a c r i t i q u e " , says t h i s : L'homme, i l faut l e reconnaftre, est particulierement encombrant. II, a donne' naissance ^ des mythes divers dont on ne s ' e s t pas encore debarrasse\ . . . De ces mythes A p o l l i n a i r e lui-meme est en partie responsable. Ses nombreux amis a u s s i . l i s ont pieusement s e r v i ^ sa mssmoire, mais n'ont pu se departir du culte de l a personnalite. Perhaps one of the most s a l i e n t features of the personality-myth of A p o l l i n a i r e i s his stature as a poet.  Even Andre Breton, who is often harsh  in his judgements on A p o l l i n a i r e , wrote of him: C ' ^ t a i t un tres grand personnage, en tout cas comme j e n'en ai pas vu^depuis. Assez hagard, i l est v r a i L e lyrisme en personne.2 Q II t r a m a i t sur ses pas le cortege d'Orphee. And Andre B i l l y , another close acquaintance,  writes:  II se considerait comme appartenant k la race invulnerable des devins et des enchanteurs. II croyait k sa propre le'gende. En toute bonne f o i et avec une b e l l e ingenuite de poete-enfant, i l la vivait.  ? 1  We have already seen evidence of this b e l i e f in himself as a prophet i n the doctrines of " T ' e s p r i t nouveau" and i n a poem such as "Les C o l l i n e s " . His r o l e as a poet-prophet, similar to Croniamantal or L'Enchanteur, aligns him yet again with the myth of Orpheus, who, i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own words, " . . .connut 1'avenir et predit chre'tiennement Vave'nement du SAUVEUR" (p.  33).  Another important facet of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s personal myth i s i t s d u a l i t y , or what we c a l l e d e a r l i e r i n this chapter a "detachment from the s e l f " , a "possible schizophrenia".  A p o l l i n a i r e can be both "obscene et tendre" as an  22 a r t i c l e by Jean-Bertrand Barrere about him suggests r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Lou and Madeleine i n d i c a t e .  , and as his simultaneous  He w i l l  enjoy now the pleasures  of his body and the world, and now the pleasures of his mind and imagination: Je t'adore o ma deesse exquise nreme si tu n'es que dans mon imagination . -  The d i v i s i o n is s i m i l a r to that of Baudelaire's that of Hugo's "sublime" and "grotesque".  (  p  _  2  "spleen" and " i d e a l " , or to  A p o l l i n a i r e can be a l t e r n a t e l y  6  0  )  91 Apollonian and Dionysian in his tendencies, as indeed Orpheus was said to have been a l s o : Toute son h i s t o i r e ( c e l l e d'Orphee) l e montre hesitant entre l e sublime et l e pervers, entre Apollon et Dionysos. Symbole de la splendeur de 1 ' a r t . . . Orphee accompagne son chant a" la lyre d ' A p o l l o n . . . mais i l est aussi l e charmeur des fauves, . 1'enchanteur de l a perversite. . . . L a vigueur imaginative au l i e u de soutenir 1'aspiration cre^atrice se perd alors dans les seductions multiples de la r e a l i t e .  23  This s p l i t , or d u a l i t y , as we suggested e a r l i e r , i s i l l u s t r a t e d not only in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s subject-matter,  and tone of w r i t i n g , but also i n his way of  looking at and speaking of his own i d e n t i t y .  In "Zone", f o r example, he con-  verses with his ' a l t e r ego1 and watches as i t f l i t s across Europe, as he had done i n his childhood and i n 1901 and 1902: Te. v o i c i a M a r s e i l l e au milieu des pasteques Te v o i c i a Coblence a I'ho'tel du Geant Te v o i c i a Rome. Tu. as f a i t de douloureux et de joyeux voyages Avant de t'apercevoir du mensonge et de 1'age Tu as souffert de 1'amour a" vingt et £ trente ans J ' a i vecu comme un fou et j ' a i perdu mon temDS  (p. 42)  This l a s t l i n e i n the f i r s t person i s , as i t were, a comment by himself on a l l his  own former a c t s , divorced from his persent i d e n t i t y by Time. In "Cortege" too, appears a well-known passage, where A p o l l i n a i r e seems  to be stepping back from himself and commentating his own legend: Un jour Un jour j e m'attendais moi-meme Je me.disais Guillaume i l est temps que tu viennes Pour que je sache enfin c e l u i - l E i que je suis Moi qui connais les autres (p. 74) A p o l l i n a i r e , divided from himself, searches for the unity of his own i d e n t i t y , which, as he says l a t e r in this same poem, appears to be made up of numerous fragments  - the fragments  of his own experience and knowledge of L i f e :  92  Le cortege passait et j ' y cherchais mon corps Tous ceux qui survenaient et n'etaient pas moi-meme Amenaient un a un les morceaux de moi-m£me On me b a t i t peu a" peu comme on £ l e v e un tour Les peuples s'entassaient et je parus moi-meme Qu'ont forme tous les corps et les choses humaines (pp. 75-76) This man of P o l i s h descent,  born i n I t a l y without knowing his father, moved  at an early age from his country of b i r t h to France, schooled in French, and so on, was concerned with finding his own i d e n t i t y , with building himself and his  legend "comme on eleve un tour".  And so he can l i s t e n f i n a l l y to the  footsteps of his own myth i n the passage of future Time: Et j'entends revenir mes pas Le long des sentiers que personne N'a parcourus j'entends mes pas A toute heure i l s passent ! § - b a s Lents ou presses i l s vont ou viennent  (p.  175)  - the tnyth of A p o l l i n a i r e himself, so variegated as to be impossible to grasp c l e a r l y , as to be a t r u l y personal myth.  93  NOTES  1  quoted by P.M. Adema. 1968. p. 347.  2  S.  3  ibid.  4  Vergnes, Georges. La vie passionnee de Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . Paris: Seghers, 1958. p. 70.  5  Orecchioni, P i e r r e . Le theme du Rhin dans 1 ' i n s p i r a t i o n Apol1inaire. (Collection "Thames et Mythes" 3). Paris: 1956. p. .100.  6  ibid.  Bates.  Apol1inaire.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . . P a r i s :  La Table Ronde,  p. 40.  p. 46.  p.  de Guillaume Lettres Modernes,  103.  7 -Steegmuller, Francis. Apollinaire. Farrar, Straus•& C o . , 1963. p. 71.  Poet among the Painters.  8  Adema,P.M.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e le mal-aime.  Paris:  9  Rouveyre, Andre. Amour et poesie d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . S e u i l , 1955. p. 86.  New York:  Plon,  Paris:  1952.  Editions du  10  ibid.  D . 90.  11  quoted by M. Decaudin. p. 214.  12  Steegmuller.  13  B i l l y , Andre. Introduction to Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e : choix de poemes. (Collection "Poetes d'Aujourd'huT 1 "] P a r i s : Seghers, 1967. pp. 28-29.  14  Rouveyre.  15  Steegmuller.  16  quoted from Ovid, Metamorphosis X, 79-85, by Ivan L i n f o r t h . The Arts of Orpheus. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1941. p. 57.  17  Billy.  18  Reverdy, P i e r r e .  Le Dossier d ' A l c o o l s . —  Apollinaire...  Amour et p o e s i e . . . Apollinaire...  p.  Minard,  1960.  222.  p. p.  Paris:  244. 309.  Introduction to Seghers e d i t i o n , Le Gant de C r i n .  Paris:  p. 33. Plon, 1926.  p.  32.  94 19  Tournadre, Claude. " A p o l l i n a i r e et la c r i t i q u e " in Les c r i t i q u e s de notre temps et A p o l l i n a i r e , ed. C. Tournadre. Paris: Gamier f r e r e s , 1971 pp. 8-9.  20  Breton, Andre,  21  B i l l y , Andre,  22  Barrere, J-B. " A p o l l i n a i r e obscene et tendre". Oct. - Dec. 1956. pp. 373-390.  23  D i e ! , Paul.  quoted in i b i d . quoted in i b i d .  p. 18. pp. 19-20. Revue des sciences  Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque.  pp. 136-137.  humaines,  95  CONCLUSION:  TOWARDS A NEW MYTH  Having examined some aspects of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s writings in the l i g h t of c l a s s i c a l , mythological references, a more coherent picture of the nature of the influence of myth on his work begins to appear.  In discussing some, of the  s p e c i f i c references made by A p o l l i n a i r e to mythological incidents and charact e r s , i t became c l e a r that the myths used most often by him were those of : Orpheus, C h r i s t and Icarus. In the myth of.Orpheus i t appeared to be Orpheus's power of magical enchantment that fascinated A p o l l i n a i r e most of a l l :  he referred to Orpheus's  encounter with the. Sirens in which the magic of the young poet's song v/as stronger than that o f the destructive Sirens.  Orpheus, being a poet as well  as a musician, thus provided a kind of mythical, poetic ideal for A p o l l i n a i r e , himself an a s p i r i n g poet.  Orpheus's journey to the Underworld fascinated A p o l l -  i n a i r e a l s o , representing a symbolic death and r e b i r t h , s i m i l a r to that of C h r i s t or the Sun.  And f i n a l l y , the death of Orpheus interested A p o l l i n a i r e i n that  i t struck a personal note i n mythical- terms:  Orpheus was k i l l e d and dismembered  by Thracian women, j u s t as A p o l l i n a i r e , the "maUaime", saw himself to have been k i l l e d and-dismembered emotionally in the deceptions of his own l o v e - a f f a i r s  with  Maria Dubois, with Linda, Annie, Marie or Lou. The numerous references to the "myth" of Christ display even greater range of i n t e r e s t for A p o l l i n a i r e than that of Orpheus, as can be seen from the  i number of poems i n which Christ i s mentioned.  It would seem to be C h r i s t ' s  semi-divine' and"mysterious b i r t h , s i m i l a r to hfs own b i r t h , that interested A p o l l i n a i r e , as well as C h r i s t ' s martyrdom, death and r e s u r r e c t i o n , which again follows a s i m i l a r pattern to death and r e b i r t h 1 « the solar myth and the Orphic  96 myth.  The awe inspired in A p o l l i n a i r e by C h r i s t , which he never r e a l l y  l o s t despite some mocking references  such as that in "Le L a r r o n " , undoubtedly  remained from his childhood C h r i s t i a n beliefs described in "Zone".  and p r a c t i c e , as they are  C h r i s t ' s magical and divine powers interest  in p a r t i c u l a r the miracle of the ascension physical terms a s p i r i t u a l  Apollinaire,  into heaven which suggests'in  transcendance and s u p e r i o r i t y .  Apollinaire,  as  a poet, aspired to a similar,.though purely p o e t i c , s u p e r i o r i t y and d i v i n i t y . Thus C h r i s t , as Orpheus, offers the poet, or the r e l i g i o u s  an i d e a l , as well as a target for A p o l l i n a i r e  skeptic.  The myth of Icarus held an interest for A p o l l i n a i r e s i m i l a r to that offered by the myths of Christ or Orpheus.  Both these two l a t t e r heroes were  divine or semi-divine, which endowed them with super-human powers. however, was a purely human character, of A p o l l i n a i r e : himself.  Icarus,  and as such was closer to the i d e n t i t y  Icarus, as A p o l l i n a i r e , had aspirations  to r i s e above  and to escape the labyrinthine obscurity of a limited human mind and perception. Icarus, as A p o l l i n a i r e , aimed himself towards the ideal of an a q u i s i t i o n of a knowledge of the source of L i f e i t s e l f symbolised by the Sun.  - t h i s , in the myth of Icarus, being  And Icarus, in being human, was doomed to f a i l , and the  wings of his arrogant imagination would drop o f f him, leaving him to plunge to a dark death in the sea.  The poem e n t i t l e d "L'Ignorance" (p. 344)  studies  the myth of Icarus in these same symbolic terms, and gives an insight into A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u t i l i t y of exaggerated human aspirations. The myth of Icarus also introduces two of the most important of the elements of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poetic imagery, f i r e  (the Sun) and water (the  Sea),  and i t sets them in a mythological framework s i m i l a r to that in which A p o l l i n a i r e himself appeared to see them.  In discussing the "myth of f i r e " i t became  obvious that one of the most important fire-myths for A p o l l i n a i r e was that of  97  the Sun.  The Sun, a l i f e - g i v i n g heavenly  f o r c e , presents a concrete image  of another kind of ideal for the aims of the poet-creator,  following in the  t r a d i t i o n of Orpheus, whose l y r e v/as transformed into a c e l e s t i a l after his death.  constellation  Like Icarus, A p o l l i n a i r e aspires to a s o l a r , c e l e s t i a l  Orphic d i v i n i t y , but l i k e Icarus, he too discovers  that he has  and his human l i m i t a t i o n s bind him to his human c o n d i t i o n .  and  'feet of c l a y ' ,  One aspect of t h i s  human condition of which A p o l l i n a i r e was acutely aware, and which he expresses through his treatment of the solar myth, was his slavery to Time and Death. The solar cycle of each day, from b i r t h at sunrise to death at sunset, reminded A p o l l i n a i r e of the cycle of his own l i f e .  And the annual solar c y c l e , that  of the four seasons, from b i r t h i n .spring to death in winter, again suggested the mortality of man.  But one of the divine attributes of the Sun, as of  C h r i s t , that was c l e a r l y admired by A p o l l i n a i r e was i t s d a i l y r e s u r r e c t i o n , which renewed his own poetic and emotional hope and i n s p i r a t i o n .  Thus sun-  r i s e or spring i s associated with renewed and invigorated Love or poetic c r e a t i o n , whereas sunset or winter suggests an emotional and a r t i s t i c sterility.  death and  This cycle of the fire-myths was also i l l u s t r a t e d by A p o l l i n a i r e  with his own, now well-known image of "Le B r a s i e r " .  And another of the images,  of f i r e , which i s important to Calligrammes in p a r t i c u l a r ,  i s that of the  which are often referred to as suns, but in t h i s sense they are furnace-like suns.  "obus",  destructive,  They have, as we have seen, a peculiar purging power and  beauty in A p o l l i n a i r e ' s eyes. The second of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s major images that is introduced by.the myth of Icarus, is that of water.  If the Sun, for Icarus and for A p o l l i n a i r e , rep-  resents an ideal o f L i f e and knowledge, the waters of the Sea into which Icarus fell  represent,  for A p o l l i n a i r e a l s o , an element of death and darkness.  Icarus, A p o l l i n a i r e w i l l  sink into the gloom and despondancy of water,  Like as,  98  w i t h Orpheus o r C h r i s t , he s i n k s i n t o the darkness o f t h e U n d e r w o r l d .  But  water and shadow a l s o have one o f t h e p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e U n d e r w o r l d , and t h a t i s t h e power o f p u r i f i c a t i o n .  Water i s a s o u r c e o f c l e a n s i n g  f u l n e s s i n t h e p o e t i c world o f an e m o t i o n a l l y d e c e i v e d A p o l l i n a i r e :  forget-  l i k e the  r i s e n C h r i s t , A p o l l i n a i r e emerges from the d a r k e r s i d e o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t e r , as w e l l as shadow, f u l f i l l e d the  and r e g e n e r a t e d , j u s t as  r e b o r n Sun r i s e s out o f the waters o f the sea each m o r n i n g . Other images, such as those o f shadow and m u s i c , a r e a l s o used by A p o l l -  i n a i r e t o embroider h i s view o f h i s " f a v o u r i t e " myths.  Shadow i s c l e a r l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h death and w i t h sadness i n h i s m i n d , and i n t h i s way  i t falls  i n t o a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to t h a t o f the myth o f C h r i s t ' s d e s c e n t i n t o  Hell,  b e f o r e the r e s u r r e c t i o n , o r Orpheus's d e s c e n t t o the Underworld i n s e a r c h o f a l o s t and i d e a l p u r i t y , which i s h i s l o v e f o r E u r y d i c e .  M u s i c , as w e l l as  shadow, has c e r t a i n O r p h i c o v e r t o n e s i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use o f m u s i c a l imagery: j u s t as shadow r e f l e c t s s i m i l a r c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r A p o l l i n a i r e as a r e t o be seen i n Orpheus's j o u r n e y t o t h e Underworld, so music too assumes c e r t a i n of  t h e O r p h i c myth.  aspects  M u s i c , as i t i s o f t e n used i n A p o l l i n a i r i a n i m a g e r y , has  a magical power o f enchantment.  I t i s through p o e t r y and music t h a t  Orpheus  b e g u i l e d t h e gods o f the Underworld, and A p o l l i n a i r e sees t h e music o f h i s own p o e t r y as having the same p o t e n t i a l power. of  I t i s a s o l a c e t o the d i s t r e s s e d  the p o e t , j u s t as we have seen water o r shadow t o be.  soul  Music does have, on  o c c a s i o n s , a note o f t h r e a t i n i t , as i n some o f the war-poems o f C a l l i g r a m m e s , where the machine-guns  p l a y a t u n e , o r where the s h e l l - f i r e  whistles.  Thus t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n , i n t e r e s t i n g d u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e d e t a i l s o f each of  the major myths t h a t i n t e r e s t A p o l l i n a i r e - as i n t h e C h r i s t and  Antichrist  d i c h o t o m y , f o r example - and i n the c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t he a t t a c h e s t o some o f the  images t h a t he uses most f r e q u e n t l y t o r e i n f o r c e and i l l u s t r a t e  these m y t h s ,  99  but  there i s also  f i r e can  be  a d u a l i t y of poetic  either creative  of a r t i l l e r y , of warfare. whole o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s o p p o s i t e s can significance a l c o h o l , an as and an  be  the  poetic- w o r l d .  r e c o n c i l e d , and  in Apollinaire's  two  we  saw  F i r e and  magic and  h a l v e s o f the the  case of a l c o h o l ,  entire  image such  " l e i t m o t i v s " , and i n s p i r a t i o n t o the  offers a peculiar  image o f  poet o f the  Mew  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most famous and  significantly entitled Alcools.  image o f  magic - an  Spirit.  u n i f i e d and  I t i s the metamorphosis o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  imagery as  have s a i d , i s one  i n h i s view o f c e r t a i n  I t becomes c l e a r e r myths which he individual  way,  Death.  Apollinaire's  i n e b r i a t i o n of  t h i s to say  o f the  poetic  u s i n g the  reason so  collection:  metamorphose  ?  p e r s o n a l world i n t o p o e t r y , and  his  o f a g r e a t d u a l i t y , d i s p l a y e d as much i n  myths.  through a l l t h i s t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e a s s i m i l a t e d  used i n h i s own  In  nouveau".  most e n c h a n t i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f poems i s Renaud has  complex  L i f e i s joined  T h i s i s a t l e a s t p a r t o f the  Chacun des poemes e s t un a l c o o l , c ' e s t - k - d i r e une du monde en c h a n t .  p e r s o n a l w o r l d , as we  into  'alcohol'  "1'esprit  o f the most i m p o r t a n t o f  poetic  sublime  reconciled  e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s i n one  p o i n t o f a t l e a s t two  of  for A p o l l i n a i r e , since i t offers  image o f a l c o h o l r e p r e s e n t s a t y p i c a l  focal  however,  unity  poet's i n s p i r a t i o n - the  ' i d e a l ' - seem t o be  the  magical  I t i s o n l y i n an  The  fire  ' g r o t e s q u e ' a s p e c t to  p e r s p e c t i v e o f f i r e , l i g h t , a s c e n s i o n , v i g o u r and  the  I t i s the  his  i n the  image o f a l c o h o l , w i t h t h a t o f w a t e r , d a r k n e s s , sadness and  t h i s way  why  a  i n the  vigour.  seems i n t h i s sense to be a C u b i s t c r e a t i o n  i n the  saw,  or d e s t r u c t i v e  water f u s e i n t o the  e x p r e s s i o n o f a profound i m a g i n a t i v e u n i t y .  image... The  as we  this r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s of special  ' s p l e e n ' and  a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f two  Sun  'sublime' and As  eyes.  e l i x i r o f L i f e and  g r o t e s q u e , the  s p i r i t u a l outlook:  when embodied i n the There i s a  t h a t o f a l c o h o l t h a t the  and  c r e a t i o n , and  perspectives of  also  h i s own  t h a t he  saw  certain  t h e s e myths i n  imagery, t a s t e s ,  and  an  100 characteristics.  In so doing, the myths he used were adapted or transformed  to f i t into the framework of his poetic i n s p i r a t i o n .  This synthesis of  personal i n s p i r a t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l myth is constantly v a r i a b l e , one or the other element taking on a greater importance.  A d i s t i n c t tension between the  two e x i s t s , giving a v i t a l i t y and novelty of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s use of myth. for him, appears to be regenerated as is L i f e i t s e l f , morning.  by the Sun, A p o l l o , each  It appears to be charged by A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own adventurous personality,  by his cosmopolitanism, his t r a v e l s , all  Myth,  by his vocation as a poet.  the l a s t chapter.  his loves and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s , and above  These we have attempted to trace b r i e f l y in  As Andre Breton has hinted^, A p o l l i n a i r e followed c l o s e l y  in the t r a d i t i o n of the myth of Orpheus, the archetype of the poet.  As a kind  of modern Orpheus, A p o l l i n a i r e sings of the modern world that surrounds him and enchants him.  His song is that of the new mythology, which he himself  had l a b e l l e d " I ' e s p r i t nouveau", i n which ancient myth i s used, but is  trans-  formed, and joined, to a modern myth.  In "Zone", Christ is seen as an a v i a t o r ,  f l y i n g as an aeroplane, for example.  Here again, as in the fusion of oppos-  i t e elements seen in the image of a l c o h o l , two different perspectives are  ^.  reconciled into the a r t i s t i c unity of a single c r e a t i o n . The image of the New S p i r i t r e l i e s in this way on ah element of  surprise  or u n l i k e l i n e s s , which A p o l l i n a i r e himself had i n s i s t e d upon i n his lecture on " L ' E s p r i t Nouveau et les poetes", given i n 1917.de deux r e a l i t e s  It i s the "rapprochement  plus ou moins eloignees" of which Reverdy writes i n Le Gant  de C r i n , and which was to be developed by some of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s successors, such as Paul Eluard, who would take for granted a c e r t a i n f a m i l i a r i t y of the reader with some of the poetic surprise-techniques of imagery already prepared by A p o l l i n a i r e or by Cendrars.  101  A c c o r d i n g to the n a t u r e o f t h i s New imagery i s v i t a l i z e d  S p i r i t , the w o r l d o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  by i n s p i r a t i o n from p a s t myths - the s o l a r myth, or t h a t  of I c a r u s , o f C h r i s t , o f Orpheus - and by an i n f u s i o n o f t h e " m e r v e i l l e u x " , of s u r p r i s e c o n t r a s t s and a l l i a n c e s .  Mythical expression f i n d s  of the t r a d i t i o n s o f "ce monde a n c i e n " and moves i n t o a new,  itself  free  unexplored  world  of images, t h a t o f " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , o f the s u b c o n s c i o u s m i n d , l a t e r t o be r e s e a r c h e d more d e e p l y by the S u r r e a l i s t w r i t e r s , such as B r e t o n or S o u p a u l t , f o r example. II y a l £ des feux:nouveaux des c o u l e u r s j a m a i s . v u e s M i l l e phantasmes imponderables Auxquels i l f a u t donner de l a r e ' a l i t e ' ( p . 313) A p o l l i n a i r e had w r i t t e n i n "La J o l i e Rousse". taken t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f s t r a d d l i n g the gap  And  i t was  between the o l d and  o l o g i e s , between the S y m b o l i s t or P a r n a s s i a n mythology and mythology to come. i n a new  way:  he h i m s e l f who the new  myth-  the S u r r e a l i s t  He reaches towards the i d e a l s o f f e r e d by a n c i e n t myths  he uses t r a d i t i o n a l m y t h i c a l example, l e g e n d a r y a d v e n t u r e , and  s y m b o l i c d i v e r s i t y , such as we d e f i n e d a t the o u t s e t , i n an i n t r i c a t e e r y and  had  s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f the o l d and the new.  T h i s i s what e n t i t l e s  say w i t h such c o n f i d e n c e i n the same poem, "La J o l i e  embroidhim t o  Rousse":  Je j u g e c e t t e longue q u e r e l l e de l a t r a d i t i o n e t de I ' i n v e n t i o n De l'Ordre e t de 1'Aventure ( p . 313) •  •  102  NOTES  1  Please see the l i s t of references on page 37.  2  Renaud.  3  See note 20 of preceding chapter.  Lecture,  p. 140.  103  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l l t i t l e s mentioned in the text are l i s t e d . used.  The e d i t i o n given is the one  A Bibliography of the author Apollinaire.  —-  —  Oeuvres poetiques. Preface by Andre B i l l y . "Bibliotheque de l a P l e i a d e " . Paris: Gallimard, 1965.  .  L'Enchanteur pourrissant, in Oeuvres completes de Gui11 aume Apo11i nai r e , v o l . I. Directed by Michel Decaudin, v o l s . I-IV. Paris: Balland & Lecat, 1966.  .  L'Here'siargue et C i e , i n Oeuvres v o l . I. Paris: Balland .& Lecat, 1966.  1  ,  Les Peintres c u b i s t e s , i n Oeuvres v o l . IV. Paris: Ball and & Lecat, 1966.  completes...,  completes...,  •  Le Poete assassine. Paris: Gallimard, 1947.  .  La Femme a s s i s e . Paris: Gallimard, 1948.  .  Les Exploits d'un jeune Don Juan. " L ' O r du Temps". Paris: Regine Deforges, 1970.  .  Al cools: choix de poemes. Introduction and notes by Roger Lefevre. "Nouveaux classiques Larousse". Paris: Larousse, 1965.  104  General works consulted Albouy, Pierre.  Mythes et mythologies dans l a franchise. . Paris: C o l i n , 1969.  Bachelard, Gaston.  La psychanalyse du feu. Paris: Gallimard, 1949.  litterature  La poetique de la r e v e r i e . "Bib!iothe"que de . philosophie contemporaine1 Paris: Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1960. La flamrne d'une chandelle. Paris: Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1964. Barthes, Roland. Baudelaire, Charles,  Mythologies. Paris: Editions du S e u i l ,  1957.  Curiosites esthetiques: "La reine des f a c u l t e V ' , "Le gouvernement de 1 'imagination 1 etc. • *' "• Paris: Louis Conard, 1923. . Les Fleurs du Mai. Paris: Gamier Freres,  1961.  Breton, Andre.  Manifestes du Surrealisme. C o l l e c t i o n "Idees". Paris: Gallimard, 1969.  Cendrars,  Choix de poemes, with study by Louis Parrot. "Pontes d'aujourd'hui" 11. P a r i s : Seghers, 1953.  Blaise.  D i e l , Paul.  Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque. Paris: Payot, 1966.  E l i a d e , Mircea.  Myths, dreams and mysteries. The encounter between contemporary f a i t h s and archaic realities.,. trans. P. Mai r e t . New York: Harper & Row, 1960.  105  Eliade,  Mircea.  Myth and r e a l i t y , t r a n s . W.R. Trask. World P e r s p e c t i v e s S e r i e s 31. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.  Evans, R i c h a r d .  C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h C a r l Jung and from E r n e s t J o n e s . Princeton: D. van N o s t r a n d Co.,  Fordham, M i c h a e l ,  ed.  reactions 1964.  C o n t a c t w i t h J u n g . E s s a y s on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s work and p e r s o n a l i t y . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963.  Genette, Gerard.  "Langage p o e t i q u e , p o e t i q u e du langage" i n F i g u r e s 11. Paris: E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1969.  Grimal, Pierre.  D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a m y t h o l o g i e grecque e t romaine.. 4 t h . e d i t i o n . Paris: Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1969.  Hamilton, E d i t h .  Mythology. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co.,  J u n g , C.G.  Kirk,  & Kerenyi,  G.S.  Linforth,  C.  1940.  Essays on a s c i e n c e o f m y t h o l o g y . t r a n s . R.F.C. H u l l . B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s , 22. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. Myth. I t s meaning and ^ - - f u n c t i o n s i n ancient and o t h e r c u l t u r e s . Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  Ivan.  The A r t s o f Orpheus . Berkeley: University of California 1941.  Marcuse, H e r b e r t .  Marks, E l a i n e ,  ed.  Mauron, C h a r l e s .  Eros and c i v i l i z a t i o n . i n q u i r y into Freud. Boston: Beacon P r e s s ,  Press,  A philosophical 1966.  French p o e t r y from B a u d e l a i r e to the p r e s e n t . "The L a u r e l Language L i h r a r v " . '. " New York: D e l l , 1962. Des metaphores obsedantes au mythe p e r s o n n e l . . I n t r o d u c t i o n a* 1 a psychocrit.ique., ~ Paris: C o r t i , 1963.  106 Rank, Otto.  The myth of the b i r t h of the hero and other writings ed. P h i l i p Freund. New York: Alfred Knopf, Vintage Books, 1959.  Raymond, Marcel.  De Baudelaire au surrealisme. P a r i s : C o r t i , 1966.  Reverdy,  Le Gant de c r i n . Paris: Plon, 1926.  Pierre.  107  Books and a r t i c l e s on A p o l l i n a i r e  Adema, P i e r r e - M a r c e l .  G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e l e mal-aime. Paris: P l o n , 1952. Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . Paris: La T a b l e Ronde, 1968.  Adema, P.M. & D e c a u d i n , M. e d .  Album A p o l l i n a i r e . "Bibliothlque Pleiade". ^~ Paris: G a l l i m a r d , 1971.  Bates, Scott.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . Twayne World Authors S e r i e s 14. New York: Twayne, 1967.  Billy,  Introduction to Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . "Poetes d ' A u j o u r d ' h u i " 8 . Paris: S e g h e r s , 1967.  Andr£.  Bonfantini,  M. e d .  B r e u n i g , L e r o y C.  de l a  Apol1inaire. Torino: Giappichelli; Paris: N i z e t , 1970. "Le Roman du Mal-Aime'" i n La T a b l e S e p t . 1952, p p . 117-123.  Ronde,  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . "Columbia essays on modern w r i t e r s " . New York & London: Columbia University P r e s s , 1969. C h e v a l i e r , Jean-Claude.  "Alcools" d'Apollinaire: e s s a i d ' a n a l y s e des formes p o e t i q u e s . " B i b l iothe'que des L e t t r e s Modernes" 17. Paris: L e t t r e s Modernes, 1970.  Couffignal,  L ' i n s p i r a t i o n b i b l i q u e dans 1'oeuvre de Gui11aume A p o l 1 i nai r e . "Bibliothe'que des L e t t r e s Modernes" 8. Paris: L e t t r e s Modernes, 1966.  Robert.  Davies, Margaret.  Apollinaire, London & Edinburgh:  O l i v e r S Boyd, 1964.  108  Decaudin, M i c h e l .  Le D o s s i e r d " ' A l c o o l s " . Paris: M i n a r d ; Geneva:  Droz, 1 9 6 0 .  Decaudin, M i c h e l , ed.  A p o l l i n a i r e e t l a musique. A c t e s du c o l l o g u e de S t a v e l o t , 1 9 6 5 . Stavelot: E d i t i o n "Les amis de G u i l l a u m e Apollinaire", 1 9 6 7 .  Decaudin, M i c h e l , ed.  Du monde europ^en £t l ' u n i v e r s des mythes. A c t e s du c o l l o g u e de S t a v e l o t , 1 9 6 8 . Paris: L e t t r e s Modernes, 1 9 7 0 .  Decaudin, M i c h e l , ed.  Revue des s c i e n c e s humaines, 8 4 . O c t . - Dec. 1 9 5 6 . S p e c i a l i s s u e devoted to A p o l l i n a i r e .  Durry, Marie-Jeanne.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . " A l c o o l s " . 3 v o l s . 1 Paris: S o c i e t y d E d i t i o n d'Enseignement Superieur,  1956-1964.  Fonteyne, Andre.  A p o l l i n a i r e prosateur: Cie. Paris: Nizet, 1 9 6 4 .  Orecchioni,  Le Theme du Rhin dans 1 ' i n s p i r a t i o n de  Pierre.  L'Here's i argue e t  Gui11aume A P O I 1 i n a i r e .  P a r i s: Pia,  Pascal.  L e t t r e s Modernes, 1 9 5 6 .  A p o l l i n a i r e par T u i - m £ m e . "Ecrivains de t o u j o u r s " . Paris: E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , s . d .  Poupon, Marc.  A p o l l i n a i r e e t C e n d r a r s . " A r c h i v e s des l e t t r e s modernes" 1 0 3 . Paris: L e t t r e s Modernes, 1 9 6 9 .  Renaud, P h i l i p p e .  Lecture d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . Lausanne: L*Age d'Homme, 1 9 6 9 .  Rouveyre, A n d r e .  Amour e t poe'sie d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . Paris: E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1 9 5 5 .  S h a t t u c k , Roger.  Selected w r i t i n g s o f Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , with c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: James L a u g h ! i n , 1 9 4 8 . The Banquet Y e a r s . New. York:.. H a r c o u r t & B r a c e , 1 9 5 5 .  Steegmuller, Francis.  Apollinaire. Poet among t h e p a i n t e r s . New York: F a r r a r , Straus & Co., 1 9 6 3 .  109 Tournadre, Claude.  Les critiques de notre temps et Apollinaire. Paris: Gamier Freres, 1971.  Vergnes, Georges.  La vie passionnee de Guillaume Apollinaire. Paris: Seghers, 1958.  110  APPENDIX  The following i s an attempt to demonstrate i n schematic form certain p a r a l l e l s between the major areas of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mythological interests and some of the images that he uses to i l l u s t r a t e these i n A l c o o l s , Calligrammes and II y a.  In the left-hand column w i l l  be found some of the  major aspects or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of myths of greatest i n t e r e s t to A p o l l i n a i r e , and i n the right-hand column w i l l  be found a s e l e c t i v e l i s t of the correspon-  ding images that i l l u s t r a t e o r r e f l e c t s i m i l a r interests to the myths commonly used. MYTHS Sun,  IMAGES  s o l a r myth as cycle of sunrise  to sunset, spring to winter, s i m i l a r to L i f e - c y c l e . Flame, as l i f e - g i v i n g , inspiring force:  creative,  the Phoenix.  Icarus's a s p i r a t i o n to Sun-like omniscience and d i v i n i t y .  Icarus's  f l i g h t up towards ideal of L i f e i n Sun.  Sun here symbol of divine  knowledge.  Icarus i n e b r i a t e d ,  f l i g h t with wax wings. Alcohol, flame.  the l i q u i d and magical  Alcools. "Zone": phenix - "bucher qui soi-rrreme s'engendre... son ardente cendre" (recreative f i r e ) , " l e feu de 1'Enfer" (destructive), "flammes ferventes" ( r e l i g i o u s ardour), "alcool brQlant comme ta v i e . v . " ( a l c o h o l ) , " s o l e i l cou coupe'" (de'capitation). "Chanson du Mal-AimS": "Aubade", "ton s o l e i l ardente lyre/BrQle mes d o i g t s . . . " "Crepuscule": " c i e l sans t e i n t e " . "Merlin et l a v i e i l l e femme": " s o l e i l s a i g n a n t . . . Lumiere est ma mere 6* lumieYe sanglante", s o l e i l de c h a i r , s o l e i l dansant. "Lul de F a l t e n i n " : "Je flambe atrocement" e t c . (destructive). 11 L 'Ermite": " f l a g e l l e z les nuees du coucher (du s o l e i l ) " (perverse). "Le B r a s i e r " : "noble feu flamrne... e t o i l e s . . . b r a s i e r . . . s o l e i l . . . astres saignants". "Je flambe... b r a s i e r . . . ardeur a d o r a b l e . . . feu de mes del i c e s . . . paquebot de ma v i e , flammes immenses...". "avenir masque flambe... t h e a t r e bati avec l e feu s o l i d e . . . flammes comme des feuilles".  Ill  MYTHS ( s o l a r myth, f l a m e , Icarus, alcohol).  IMAGES Phoenix,  " N u i t Rhenane": v i n . . . Comme une flamrne. "La L o r e ! e y " : yeux Hammes, flammes, s o r c e l l e r i e (magic). "Rhenane d'Automne": ' L ' a i r tremble des flammes... c i m e t i e Y e p l e i n de flammes". "Un S o i r " : feux p & l e s , feux de g a z . "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " : I c a r e . . . "porteur de s o l e i l s j e b r t f l e " . . . "sa t e t e e s t l e s o l e i l / E t l a l u n e son cou tranche'", " t e m p i i e r s flamboyants j e b r O l e parmi v o u s . . . d e s i r a b l e f e u . . . l i b r e flamrne. ce bucher n i d de mon c o u r a g e " . "Vendemiaire": brQlant s o l e i l (destructive), vin qui contient. flammes' (alcohol):/ Calligrammes. "Les C o l l i n e s " : a v i o n du s o l e i l . n u i t e t j o u r , " t o u t n ' e s t qu'une flamrne r a p i d e " . "Coeur, Couronne e t M i r o i r " .coeur ressemble a" une flamrne r e n v e r s e e " , "Fumees": " . . . t u f a s c i n e s l e s f 1 ammes", "Servant de Dakar": obus " e c l a t e n t dans II le c i e ! splendide". "Fete": f e u d ' a r t i f i c e en a c i e r ( o b u s ) , " 1 ' a i r e s t p l e i n d'un t e r r i b l e a l c o o l / F i l t r e ' des e t o i l e s (obus) " N u i t d ' a v r i l 1915' "Coeur obus.../ E t t e s mi l i e s o l e i l s " . "Le P a l a i s du T o n n e r r e " : "feu semblable a Tame". ~ "Dans 1 ' a b r i - c a v e r n e " : f e u s o l i d e , manque de s o l e i l . manque d'e'clairage. "Fusee": obus. "Dgsir": obus. "Chant de 1 ' h o r i z o n . . . " : . obus m i a u l a n t , "1'ardeur de l a b a t a i l T e . " M e r v e i l l e de l a G u e r r e " : (obus) f u s e e s . m i l l i o n s de f u s s e s , " i l f a l l u t t a n t de f e u pour r o t i r l e c o r p s humain", I c a r e1 v o l a n t , ( a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p a s s a g e ) . "A 1 I t a l i e " : " F a i s o n s l a g u e r r e e? coups de fouet/Faits...avec l e s . rayons, du s o l e i l " (perverse). "Aussi b i e n que l e s c i g a l e s " : LA JOIE ADORABLE DE LA PAIX SOLAIRE. "SimulI taneite^s": a t r o c e s l u e u r s des tirs (destructive).  112 IMAGES  MYTHS (solar myth, flame, Phoenix, Icarus, a l c o h o l ) .  "Du coton dans les o r e i l l e s " : (obus =) s o l e i l s nains. "La V i c t o i r e " : Icare le f a u x . . . "La J o l i e Rousse": flammes.  Water into which Icarus plunges.  Alcools.  Water of approaching Death and Time  "Pont Mirabeau": Seine, "amour... comme cette eau c o u r a n t e " . . . temps passe t r e p a s s l , Amour - Seine. "Chanson du Mai-Aim^": "onde mauvaise a b o i r e " , "1'eau d'argent". "Mai son des Morts": promenade en bateau sur un l a c . . . "Clotilde": "date's des eaux v i v e s " . "Cortege"": mer, c l a r t e s , profondeurs. "Le Voyageur": " f l e u r s surmarines", n u i t . . . m e r . . . f l e u v e s . . . , " b r u i t eternel d'un fleuve large et sombre". "Marie": "fleuve pareil-a" ma p e i n e . . . " "La Porte": eau t r i s t e . "Le Vent nocturne": f l e u v e . . . (Rhine). "Lul de F a l t e n i n " : s i r i n e s . . . g r o t t e s . . . m e r . . . " f l e u r de I'onde". "L'Emigrant de Landor Road": "petit bouquet f l o t t a n t a* 1'aventure,,, couvre V O c e a n . . . " , Nuit - mer. "Nuit Rh6nane": l e R h i n . . . n u i t . . . "Mai": l e Rhin. "Rhehane d'Automne": l e Rhin. "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " : "sombre sombre fleuve" "Vendemiaire": jeune nageur... noyes... onde nouvelle (death - r e b i r t h ) .  passing, as opposed to warmth and . L i f e offered by the Sun. Shadows of water, suggest also shadows of Orphic Underworld, or Hell  into which C h r i s t descended  between c r u c i f i x i o n and resurrection Water as melancholy element of alcohol.  Calligrammes. "Simultaneltes" "mer aux mauves ombres' "Du c o t o n . . . " : p r o j e c t i l e s "comme un fleuve ae>ien". "La V i c t o i r e " : "mes grands c r i s comme des dieux noyeV' (Icarus ambitions), le langage de l a mer II y a. "L'Ignorance": l a mer (Icarus's death), "Rolandseck": l e Rhin. "Le Pont": f l e u v e , 1 ' e a u . . . "et leurs regards s'e'coulent/Dans ce f l e u v e " .  113  MYTHS  IMAGES  Death o f C h r i s t and d e s c e n t t o  Alcools.  shadows o f H e l l .  "Chanson du Mal-Aime'": "ten^breuse epouse... mon ombre en d e u i l " . "Palais": ombre... c i e l presque n o c t urne. "Cr^puscule": ombres de l a m o r t . "Maison des Morts": ombre - l u m i e r e v "Cortege": sombre, t e r n e , brume o b s c u r c i t - s o l e i l , f e u , unique l u m i e Y e . "Le Voyageur": ombres v i v a c e s . . . ombres barbues. "Le, L a r r o n " : " c o n t r e l e f e u 1 Sombre p r e v a u t " , "ombre Equivoque e t t e n d r e , , , sombre e l l e e s t humaine". "L'Emigrant de L . R.": "cadavres des j o u r s ronges p a r l e s e ' t o i l e s " . "Rhenane d'Automne": c i e l sans s o l e i l . . . cimetieYe. "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " : "ombres q u i . . . n ' e t a i t jamais j o l i e s " , " l e s cadavres de mes j o u r s . . . " ( c f . " L ' E m i g r a n t " ) , "1'ombre e n f i n s o l i d e " , " J ' a i t o u t donnl" au s o l e i l / T o u t s a u f mon ombre".  Journey o f  Orpheus, as renewal and p u r i f i c a t i o n i n shadow, as s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n to a r t i s t - p a r t o f i t i n e r a r y o f p o e t , as o f Sun i n s o l a r myth: d e c a p i t a t e d Sun b r i n g s d a r k n e s s .  Calligrammes. "Ombre": S o u v e n i r s d e v i e n n e n t des ombres (dead f r i e n d s ) . "Photographie": "1'ombre/Du s o l e i l " (negative impression). "Dans 1 ' a b r i - c a v e r n e " : "manque de s o l e i l dans mon Sme, manque d ' e e l a i r a g e " . II y a . "Sanglots": "malades maudits de ceux qui f u i e n t l e u r ombre". "Onirocritique": apocalyptic salvation glimpsed i n dream-world and d a r k n e s s .  A s c e n s i o n o f C h r i s t t o Heaven - a f l i g h t o f s y m b o l i c v a l u e i n eyes o f  Alcools,  "Zone": "sie^cle change en o i s e a u monte 1, dans 1 ' a i r " , "Te j'oT'i v o l t i g e u r ' (Christ), p o e t . Transcendance and s u p e r i o r i t y , 1 ' a v i o n , h i r o n d e l l e s , f a u c o n s , h i b o u x , i b i s , e t c . . . " l a colombe e s p r i t immacule'". as I c a r u s ' s a m b i t i o n . D i v i n e Marseille » Coblence - Rome - Amsterdam Leyde - Gouda - P a r i s , e t c . u b i q u i t y and o m n i s c i e n c e .  114  MYTHS (ascension of C h r i s t ,  IMAGES transcendance,  Icarus 1 s ambition).  "Le Voyageur": " i l s ' e n v o l a i t un C h r i s t " . "Vendemiaire": ubiquity and omniscience, "mondes/... j e vous a i bu..." Calligrammes. "Les C o l l i n e s " : Homme "qui vole plus haut que les a i g l e s " , " j ' a i plans' s i haut.. "Arbre": Leipzig - Rouen - Finlande e t c . "Le Musicien de Saint-Merry": "Je chante toutes les p o s s i b i l i t e s de moimeme" .  "Merveille de1 l a Guerre": "Je suis part o u t . . . " , " I h i s t o i r e de Guillaume Apollinaire/Qui... s u t I t r e p a r t o u t . . . " "La J o l i e Rousse": "Me v o i c i . . . e t c . " (autobiographical passage). II  y a .  "Per t e praesentit aruspex": "ma creature e t ma d i v i n i t y " . '. "L'Ignorance": aspirations o f mortal to d i v i n i t y .  Death and dismemberment of Orpheus at hands of Thracian women.  destruction at hands of any woman. song, a lure to shipwreck  mariners. Lorelei song, a lure to destroy Rhenish boatmen. Salome, musical beguilement of Herod, and r e s u l t i n g decapitation of John the Baptist. Music of Orpheus, the poet's defence.  music and magic of Orpheus,  Suggests A l c o o l s .  potential danger of emotional  Sirens'  Le B e s t i a i r e :  Magical power used against  "Chanson du Mai-Aim^": " l a i s pour les r e i n e s . . . chansons pour les sire^nes", "violons/font danser notre race humaine... l e chant du firmament". "Cortege": " l y r i q u e p a s " . . . "morceaux de moi-meme". "Salome": d a n s e . . . je danserais mieux que les s e r a p h i n s . . . (enchantment). "Le B r a s i e r " : "tons charmants... pierres a g i l e s " (enchantment). "Les Sapins": "beaux m u s i c i e n s . . . graves magiciens" (enchantment). "Vendemiaire": voix chantante... chanson de P a r i s . . . t r o i s voix suaves. Calligrammes. "Le Musicien de Saint-Merry": and magic.  Music  115  MYTHS  IMAGES  S i r e n s d u r i n g j o u r n e y t o Underworld  to charm .infernal gods.  O r p h i c and p o e t i c  'music' i s e t e r n a l  - Orpheus's head c o n t i n u e d t o s i n g long a f t e r h i s dismemberment.  "Un Fantfime des nuees": music o f acrobat's a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , c a l l e d a "fantome" ( I x i o n and H e r a ) . "Visees": Harpe "aux cordes d " a r g e n t " . " N u i t d ' a y r i l 1915": "mitrailleuse j o u e un a i r " , o r g u e s , chanson de 1'avenir. "Du c o t o n . . . " : musique m i l i t a i r e .  

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