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A pilot course for teaching English as an additional language to older people Buzan, Jean Mary 1972

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A PILOT COURSE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE TO OLDER PEOPLE by JEAN MARY BUZAN Diploma, Adult Education, Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Adult Education Vie accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 1972 COLUMBIA In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adult Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This case history covers the progress of a pilot course for teaching English as an additional language to older people from the original concept to its evaluation and final acceptance for future implementation. A s.erious problem was observed to exist among the large number of older immigrants living in Canada who cannot speak or understand the English language. Many of these people had lived here for many years imprisoned .in a 'language ghetto1 which allowed them to communicate only with those of their own race. The difficulties experienced by these individuals, as well as the impoverishment of Canadian culture engendered by their inability to communicate, constituted sufficient reason to explore the feasibility of designing a course to offer English language training specifically for them. A thorough study of all the current English language training courses in Vancouver, British Columbia, revealed a gap in the services available for this particular population. A review of the literature regarding learning and the older person disclosed nothing which might suggest that such an undertaking might prove abortive. The geographical locations -of ethnic populations who might be expected to register in such a course were charted, and a suitable com-munity centre in which to hold the classes was selected. Promotional i i i i i material was prepared and disseminated through mass media and other suitable outlets. The class was successfully launched and throughout its course careful records were kept including attendance, characteristics of participants, and anecdotes reflecting the acceptance of the course by those attending. The project firmly established the need for such courses for this group, and found that the overall format of the program was satisfactory and feasible. Recommendations for future courses were outlined, and an expansion of the pilot course was subsequently effec-tively implemented in Vancouver. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING AND THE OLDER IMMIGRANT . . . 1 CURRENT ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING COURSES IN VANCOUVER 2 NEED FOR THE STUDY 6 PROCEDURE 8 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 LEARNING AND THE OLDER ADULT 9 Physiological Factors 9 Attitudes 10 Motivation 11 Intellectual Ability 12 TEACHING ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE . . . . 13 APPLICATION OF RESEARCH 17 III. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COURSE 19 PLANNING 19 Promotion 22 Response to Promotion 26 IMPLEMENTATION . . 28 The First Day 28 The Second Day 30 The First Seven Weeks 31 iv V Chapter Page The Second Session 31 ANALYSIS OF- REGISTRATIONS 32 Age : . . . 32 Language 33 Geographical Area 34 Length of Residence in Canada 35 IV. INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES AND CONTENT . . . . . . . 37 INSTRUCTION 37 Aural-Oral Method 38 Situational Teaching 39 Team Teaching System 40 Teaching Aids 42 CONTENT 43 Lesson Outline . 43 Course Outline 47 The Coffee Break 49 Community Centre Visits 50 V. EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT 52 ATTENDANCE 53 OPINIONS OF PARTICIPANTS 56 EVALUATION BY TEACHERS' AIDE 57 ANECDOTAL EVALUATION 59 Increased Confidence 60 Social Participation ,. 60 vi Chapter Page Comments of Relatives and Others 62 Evidence of Learned English 63 Other Anecdotes 64 ATTAINMENT OF GOALS 66 VI. SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENTS 68 SEMINAR FOR FUTURE TEACHERS - 6 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE COURSES 69 PLAN FOR FUTURE COURSES . 71 SUBSEQUENT COURSES 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 APPENDICES 79 I. COURSE MATERIAL 80 Pamphlet which was translated into eight languages 81 Press release which was accompanied by pamphlet 82 Registration form which was translated into eight languages ' 83 Press cuttings advertising the project in English language papers 84 Press cuttings advertising the'project in foreign language papers 86 C.B.C. national television news coverage given prior to course 88 Multi-lingual "Welcome" translations 89 vi i Appendices Page Press cuttings reporting on course in English language papers 90 Press cuttings reporting on course in foreign language papers 93 Photographs taken during course 95 II. GRAPHS OF REGISTRATION DATA 100 Analysis of registrants by age 101 Analysis of registrants by language groups "102 Analysis of registrants by length of residence in Canada 103 ACKNOWLEDGMENT To Professor Robert E. D. Cattley, whose able and dedicated assistance in teaching the pilot course, and patient help and encouragement throughout my studies, is gratefully acknowledged. v i i i A PILOT COURSE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE TO OLDER PEOPLE ix CHAPTER I ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING AND THE OLDER IMMIGRANT For the immigrant whose native language is not English the problems encountered in attempting to become a fully-integrated citizen of Canada must at times appear insurmountable. English language train-ing becomes a major goal i f he is to earn a living. One section of the immigrant population whose problems are different, though none-the-less diff icult , from those younger, consists of older people who can use only their native languages. Some of these have immigrated in recent years with their children while others came years ago but have had no opportunity or encouragement to learn the language of their adopted country; consequently, they are imprisoned in a 'language ghetto' which allows them to communicate only with their own families and friends. In Canada in 1966, the percentage of the total population over forty-five years of age was 25.4 per cent. In the adult population the proportion over twenty years of age was 57.8 per cent with those over forty coming close to half that figure.^ Many of these older citizens are foreign immigrants who have an inability to speak English as well as the trauma of separation from the culture into which they were born along with transplantation into a strange and unfamiliar one. The 1961 ^Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Vital Statistics, Catalogue No. 84-202, 1968, p. 43. 1 2 Census of Canada indicated that there were 74,155 people over forty years of age who spoke neither English nor French, with a further 764,652 who spoke French only--a total of 838,817 in this age group 2 alone who do not speak English. Of this latter figure, of course, many live in French Canada and French is their daily language. However, with the recent Federal Government requirements for bilingualism, and the frequency of job transfers from one part of the country to another, English is becoming more often a definite advantage. Thus far, there appears to have been no provision made specifi-cally to meet the special needs of this group of older non-English speaking immigrants. CURRENT ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING COURSES IN VANCOUVER The Department of Citizenship and Immigration is aware of the need for English language training classes, since i t is obviously desir-able to have the immigrant population learn English well enough to be employable. The Department provides a five months full-time English language training program for immigrants, who are paid a training allowance during this period which supports them during training. If the student is absent for no good reason he loses his training allowance, as an employee would lose his wages. These classes are conducted at the Special Programs Division of the Vancouver City College. The Department also locates a few courses in other centres, such as in the Y.M.C.A., 2 Census of Canada 1961, Bulletin 1.3-5, Population—Language by Age Group, pp. 95-102. 3 and in some private language schools. The Vancouver City College also conducts classes that were formerly known as "English for New Canadians" but are now designated "English Language Training Classes" in which the fees are paid by the student. For students who work during the day there are evening classes, most of which operate on a two or four-night-a-week basis for two hours a night, located at six Vancouver secondary schools. Students with more time available may enroll in day-time classes held at the Special Pro-grams Division five days a week, three hours a day, either morning or afternoon. There are also three-hour Saturday morning classes both at the Special Programs Division and the Vancouver Vocational Institute. In addition, the Special Programs Division provides testing facil it ies in order to place prospective students in the particular class best suited to their language ability. Many language levels are offered ranging from beginners with no knowledge of English at all to university entrance standard. A minimum of fifteen students is required for any one course. Apart from these regular classes, the City College is constantly developing special classes to meet particular needs. Recently, for example, three pilot courses were started: (1) an evening class for "English Through Typewriting" based on" a programmed course developed in 3 California; (2) an evening class specifically for French Canadians; and (3) a class specially designed to prepare nurses and pharmacists 3 C. W. Gay, R. B. Kaplan and R. D. Schoesler, Lea-mine English Through Typewriting (Washington, D . C : Washington Educational Research Associates, Inc., 1969). 4 for examinations in English. These are proving successful and meeting a need. The English Language Training Program of the Vancouver City College has been expanded recently by the addition of School Canadiana, a joint project of Inner City Services, the First United Church and the Y.W.C.A., which is under contract to the City College and acts as their agent. This program offers language classes in the ethnic community using bilingual teachers. This approach encourages immigrants to parti-cipate who might otherwise be reluctant to attend a class offered in a large centre involving people of other ethnic groups, as it enables them to go to a class in their own neighbourhood with people who speak the same language, which is a necessary f irst step for many. This project attracts many young mothers as i t also provides a baby-sitting service. School Canadiana has most of its classes in the Chinese community, with a few in the Japanese, Spanish and Italian communities. Although a nominal fee is charged they are available without cost i f there is a real inability to pay. Volunteers are used for the baby-sitting service but the teachers are paid although at a lower rate than those in the normal City College classes. Many of the graduates from this school continue to study by joining regular City College classes once they have gained sufficient confidence to go outside their own ethnic group. There are more than eighty English language classes offered by the Vancouver City College and these provide training to well over one 4 thousand adult immigrants in the City of Vancouver. 4 P. Wakefield, Chief Instructor of English Language Training Programs for the Vancouver City College, English. Lancraage Training Pro-gram, leaflet published by the City College and Night School Division of the Vancouver School Board, September 1970. 5 In addition to the Vancouver City College classes, there are three Schools of Languages including the Berlitz, the Conversa and the VJallen, as well as Huberman College which teaches language along with other academic subjects. In West Vancouver the West Vancouver Tutoring College has English as an additional language in its curriculum. The University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University conduct special classes for foreign students attending those universities who have not attained the prerequisite level of competency in English. A crucial factor in any English language training course is the teacher. The British Columbia Association of Teachers of English as an Additional Language (known as T.E.A.L.) is vitally concerned with stan-dards of instruction and gives its full support to University level teacher training courses in Teaching English as a Second Language. It "works closely with both the Federal Department of Immigration and Man-power and Vancouver City College. The Association is affiliated with the B.C. Teachers' Federation and holds regular meetings for its members, currently numbering nearly one hundred teachers. In order to become a member of T.E.A.L. a teacher must have had special training, recognized by the Association. In spite of the fairly broad program of English language train-ing available in Vancouver, the older immigrant group appears to have been neglected since only a comparatively small number of older people attended existing classes open to them. NEED FOR THE STUDY 6 In view of the evident gap in the English language training classes available in Vancouver, there appeared to be a need for a pro-gram to teach English to older residents of foreign origin. Apart from the difficulties which their inability to communicate must have caused them, the loss to Canada of the rich cultural heritage which immigrants could add to Canadian society suggests that special language classes for older adult immigrants are justified. It has been well established that ability to learn need be no 5 6 7 stumbling block to the older student, ' ' and that negative attitudes toward learning and the lack of motivation are the greater obstacles to overcome.^ >9>10 While accepting the ability of the older person to learn i f motivated, consideration must also be given to the special learning needs of older students as compared with younger ones. The 5 Edmund de S. Brunner et a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research (Chicago: Adult Education Association of U.S.A., 1959), Chapter 3. c J . McLeish, "Adult Learners: A Factual Survey," International Journal of Adult and Youth Education, vol. 14, No. 1 (1962), 44-51. ^Herbert Sorensen, "Adult Ages as a Factor in Learning," The Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 21 (1930), 451-9. Q H. McClusky and others, "Psychology of Adults," Review of Educational Research (June, 1960), pp. 249-54. q Berni.ce L. Meugarten and D. C. Garron, "Attitudes of Middle-Aged Persons Toward Growing Older," Geriatrics, vol. 14 (1959), 21-4. ""^ The Senate of Canada, Proceedings of the Special Committee of the Senate on Acina, vols. I and II (Submission by Roby Kidd) (Ottawa: Queen's Printer", 1963-4), 167. 7 p h y s i c a l environment and the i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques need to be modi- , f i e d to accommodate the va r ious p h y s i c a l and emotional needs o f o l d e r s tuden t s . Research has shown tha t any lower ing of performance by o l d e r adu l t s i s caused by a l ack of a t t e n t i o n to these f a c t o r s r a the r than by any bas i c l ack of a b i l i t y . To the normal i n f l u e n c e of age must be added the d i f f i c u l t i e s c rea ted by l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s . In view of these f ac to r s i t i s d e s i r a b l e tha t i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs be designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r o l d e r a d u l t immigrants ; t h e r e f o r e , i t was decided to develop an exper imenta l course to teach E n g l i s h to o l d e r immigrants who had.not at tended the many courses a l r eady a v a i l a b l e . I t was assumed tha t o l d e r immigrants do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x i s t i n g language courses f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons: 1. Most pa r t - t ime courses i n Vancouver are a t n i g h t and many o l d e r people d i s l i k e going out a f t e r da rk . 2. Most courses i n Vancouver are he ld i n schools which the immi-grant conceives of as p laces f o r c h i l d r e n . 3. Most courses i n Vancouver have younger a d u l t s tudents and compe-t i t i o n w i th them i s f r i g h t e n i n g to an o l d e r person . 4. Many teachers are young, and i n some c u l t u r e s i t i s h u m i l i a t i n g f o r an o l d e r person to have to f ee l i n f e r i o r to a younger one. 5. I f no courses are w i t h i n easy r each , t r a v e l l i n g i s a d e t e r r e n t to the o l d e r person . 6. The content of r e g u l a r courses designed f o r younger s tudents i s not geared to the s p e c i a l needs of o l d e r s tuden t s . 8 The Vancouver City College Special Programs Division gave permission for a pilot course to be offered under its auspices. PROCEDURE The case study method was selected to report the experimental course in English Language Training for older adult immigrants. Good and Scates define a case study by noting that: The essential procedure of the case study method is to take account of all pertinent aspects of one thing or situation, employing as the unit for study an individual, an institution, a community or any group considered as a unit. The case consists of the data relating to some phase of the life history of the unit or relating to the entire l ife process, whether the unit is an individual, a family, a social group, an institution or a community. The complex situation and a combination of factors involved in the given behaviour are examined to determine the existing status and to identify the causal factors operating.H The case study reported describes the organization and management of an experimental course conducted in the Spring of 1971 to illustrate the problems encountered in attempting to provide instruction for older adult immigrants. C. V. Good and D. E. Scates, Methods of Research (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954), p. 726. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The design and conduct of an English Language Training program specifically for older adult immigrants must be based on accumulated knowledge about the older adult as a learner and about the teaching of English as an additional language. This chapter reviews the literature in both these areas that is particularly relevant to the experimental course. LEARNING AND THE OLDER ADULT Considerable research has been done with respect to the effects of the aging process on learning capability. This research indicates that the major factors to be considered in planning learning activities for older adults include physiological changes, attitudes, motivation, and intellectual ability. Physiological Factors The laws governing senescence have s t i l l to be completely dis-covered and understood."' The most obvious declines in the function of the human organism usually occur from the age of forty to forty-five onwards, particularly with respect to vision and hearing which are so ^J. E. Birren, "A Brief History of the Psychology of Aging," The Gsvontologisi, vol. 1 (1961), 69-77. 9 10 2 3 essential to adult learning. ' In addition, the skeletal structure degenerates, the voluntary muscles lose some of their power,^  the voice 5 6 changes, circulation becomes impaired, and adjustment to temperature changes is more d i f f i c u l t / Some of these changes, though not specifi-cally affecting learning ability per se, can and do affect the speed and faci l i ty of learning by the older adult. An adult educator who does not take into account these physical limitations may find that programs which are otherwise excellent, fai l miserably because of such factors as the classroom being too cold or the lighting inadequate. Atti tudes It could well be that the crystallization of attitudes, both of the older person towards himself and of others toward him, is one of the greatest barriers in continuing education. It is generally accepted 2 H. H. Emsley, Visual Optics (London: Hatton Press Ltd . , 1946), p. 267. 3 Edward Julius Stieglitz, Geriatric Medicine (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1949), pp. 301-2. ^D. H. Bromley, The Psychology of Human Ageing (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Inc., 1966), pp. 40-1. 5 E. D. Mysak and T. D. Hanley, "Aging Processes in Speech: Pitch and Duration Characteristics," Journal of Gerontoloay3 vol. 13 (1958), 309-13. ^Nathan W. Shock, Trends in Gerontology (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957), pp. 401-3. ''R. F. Hellon et a l . , "The Physiological Reactions of Men of Two Age Groups to a Hot Environment," Journal of Phvsioloau3 vol. 133 (1956), 118-31. 11 that the older person is more dogmatic and consistent in his attitudes Q than the younger, and these are less amenable to change. Verner states, "Attitudes . . . are, for the moment, imperfectly understood and inade-9 quately handled by adult educators." The often quoted adage that "you can't teach an old dog new tricks" frequently sums up an older person's attitude to himself, but there is general agreement that age per se is no barrier to learning. McClusky goes so far as to add that not only can the old dog learn new tricks, but that sometimes i t may be only an 'old dog' that can learn some of them.^ Motivation Studies of motivation have shown that a prerequisite condition is an alertness of certain centres of the brain, and that unless these neural centres are active, no amount of external stimulation will reach the cortex.^ Given the physical prerequisites, there are two other factors which will affect the motivation of the older person: one is a lack of awareness of the fact that an older adult is able to learn. The Edmund Brunner et a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research (Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959), p.' 19. 9 / Coolie Verner and Alan Booth, Adult Education (New York: The Center for Applied Research in Education Inc., 1964), p. 25. 1 0 H . McClusky and others, "Psychology of Adults," Review of Educational Research (June, I960), pp. 249-54. ^Robert M. Gagne, The Conditions of Learning (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965), pp. 209-10. 12 other is the lack of encouragement to attempt to learn received from 1 ? others. Intellectual Ability The results of most research into the question of intellectual capacity and age are optimistic. A study done forty years ago provided evidence that the apparent decrease in learning ability with age was probably due more to disuse than to any inherent lack of abil ity. There appeared to be no decline in learning ability up to age fifty at least, for those who continued to study, and the slight disability manifested by those who had returned to study after a long absence could be over-13 come by the resumption of study. Thorndike suggested that learning was the cure for an inability to learn, and his studies established that age. per se is a minor factor compared with interest, energy and time. Lorge indicated that some slowing down, rather than an actual loss of 14 mental acuity, was the main difference with age. Sward concluded that there is no inevitable impairment of the higher mental functions after sixty years of age. 12 Bernice L. Neugarten and D. C. Garron, "Attitudes of Middle-aged Persons Toward Growing Older," Geriatrics, 14 (1959), 21-4. 13 Herbert Sorensen, "Adult Ages as a Factor in Learning," The Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 21 (1930), 451-9. 14 Edmund Brunner et a l . , An Ojerview of Adult Education Research (Chicago: A.E.A. of U.S.A., 1959), Chapter 3. 15 J . McLeish, "Adult Learner: A Factual Survey," Inter-national Journal of Adult and Youth Education, vol. 14, No. 1 (1962), 44-51. 13 In 1953 a longitudinal study on the effects of a thirty-year increase in age on the mental functions of a group of people found sig-nificant increases in practical judgment, some verbal scores and information sub-tests, insignificant changes on some arithmetical aspects, and no significant decrease in score on any subject. A limited study carried out in 1962 on 457 students attending an undergraduate liberal arts course at New York University presented evidence that older people could succeed in college. It was stressed that no concessions were made to these students because of age, neither were the older students separated from the younger in class Research shows that the physical degeneration associated with age need not impair an individual's capacity to continue learning to the extent that so many people believe; and that the adverse social and psychological factors can be reduced or eliminated by the thoughtful planning of. learning act iv i t ies .^ TEACHING ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE The problems of teaching any language other than that native to the individual have been recognized as completely different from those facing the teacher of a native language. In acquiring an original language the individual has mastered the basic features of that language, ^Arthur M. Grossman and Alice Gustav, "Academic Success of Older People," Psv.choloay in the Schools, vol. I l l , No. 3 (July 1966), 256-8. ^W. G. Hallenbeck et a l . , Corznmity and Adult Education (Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962), pp. 1-17. 14 and has oral control over the sounds, rhythm and intonation of a variety of words and sentences. The teaching of an additional language is a much more difficult task in that the learner already has a vocab-ulary, language patterns and oral controls in a sometimes completely dissimilar form of speech. The difficulties associated with teaching foreign languages have been realized for many years by those experienced in the f ie ld, and considerable research has been devoted to the various problems involved. The teaching of English as an additional language can occur in many different situations, which can affect the learning in each case with the basic similarities being modified by the differences in backgrounds, needs and goals. For example, Harris identifies the following types of 1 g classes which need different approaches: a. Teaching English as part of citizenship training to foreign speaking immigrants to Canada who may be adults at all stages from illiteracy to literacy. b. Teaching English to non-English speaking children in English-speaking environments. c. Teaching English to educated non-English speaking adults wish-ing to attend an English-speaking university. Added to these situations is that which pertains to this experimental project: Teaching English to older immigrants who are s t i l l speaking their native language, even though living in Canada, and who may have been here-for some considerable time. 18' Chester Harris (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Educational Research (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1960), p." 478. 15 Over the years there have been different schools of thought as to the best practical ways of teaching languages. Benjamin Lee Whorf, an American linguist born in 1897, who died over twenty years ago, was a man far ahead of his time in this f ield, and i t was said of him that he "grasped the relationship between human language and human thinking, 19 how language indeed can shape our innermost thoughts." He coined the expression "linguistic relativity" to explain his thesis that similar environments or objects will not have the same meaning to people whose 20 linguistic backgrounds differ. In 1945, Fries insisted that the chief problem in learning a new language was the mastering of the sound system, and though agreeing that there must be sufficient vocabulary to operate the structures and represent the sound system in actual use, said that a person could be stated to have "learned" a language when he had, within a limited vocab-ulary, mastered the sound system and made the structural devices a 21 matter of automatic habit. Lado, who is said to be the f irst to in-corporate a modern theory of second language learning, presented a scientifically directed set of principles and techniques for the' 19 John B. Carroll (ed.), Language, Thought and Reality—Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1956), p. v. 20 David Abercrombie, "The Social Basis of Language," Teaching Enclish as a Second La:ncuace, ed. Harold B. Allen (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965), p. 23. 21 Charles C. Fries, Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Lanrruace (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1963) (copyright 1945)/pp. 3-6. 16 teaching of a modern language. He felt that the teaching of English as an additional language should not be unrelated to the field of language teaching per se. He identified the three main types of language teaching employed since the late 19th century as: I Grammar - Translation end of 19th century Grammar Recitation Dictionary Thumbing Memorized Rules Translations Not effective for learning to speak, understand, read or wri te II Direct Contact Methods . 20th century up to W.W.2 Association of words with meaning through demonstra-tion, dramatization, etc. I l l Linguistic Approach W.W.2 to present Pattern practice -aided by laboratory materials Effective mainly for reading knowledge Inadequate for speaking Produces far better language communica-tion He foresees future developments as embracing many areas including linguis-tics, psychology and other disciplines, studied on a scientific basis 22 and greatly aided by technological advances. Palmer concluded that the old methods of teaching language taught much about the theory, whereas the new methods teach more of the use of the language. His discussion on the rational orders of progression favoured today and those preferred by teachers of past generations could 23 be summarized as follows: 22 Robert Lado, Langv.age Teaching (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), passim. 23 Harold E. Palmer, The Principles of Langv.ace Siudu (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 203'. 17 Modern Pedagogy Teachers of the Past Spoken to written Written to spoken Early ear-training & articulation. . . . Later ear-training & articulation Intonation treated as fundamental.... Intonation left to final stage Sentence to word Word to sentence Early inclusion of irregularit ies . . . . Irregularities excluded t i l l later Rapid & fluent to slow utterance Slow utterance to rapid & fluent Anderson wrote about the education of new Canadians fifty years ago and she would appear to have been far ahead of her time. Throughout her book are references to what we now refer to as the direct method, or aural-oral teaching, and an insistence that bilingualism in the classroom 24 is not only unnecessary but detrimental. APPLICATION OF RESEARCH No adult educator can afford to ignore the lessons of research when designing courses for the older student. Awareness of the physio-logical factors affecting the adult learner, and modification of class-room facilities to meet their needs to the greatest extent possible, can l i terally decide the success or failure of a course. A sensitive attention to the attitudes of the older learner and a consequent attempt to motivate the student to want to learn will un-doubtedly reward both teacher and student. It must not be assumed, however, that awareness of and sensitivity to student needs are the only prerequisites of a good teacher. A thorough knowledge of the sub-ject to be taught is equally important. Without a good background in 24 J . T. M. Anderson, The Education of the Uew-Canddian (Toronto: J . M. Dent and Sons Ltd . , 1918), pp. 116-42." 18 the content of the subject the teacher will give the student less than he expects, and a student's awareness of teacher inadequacy will result in a loss of interest. In the design of the pilot course the physiological and psycho-logical factors influencing older adults had to be borne in mind con-stantly, not only to attract students who had never participated in such a course before, but also to keep them interested after the init ial attraction. In addition, only teachers who were properly trained in teaching English as an additional language were considered. CHAPTER III PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COURSE After the official approval and sponsorship had been received from Vancouver City College only six weeks remained before the date set by the authorities for the start of the program. Sponsorship by the College did not include financial assistance so all of the work involved in planning and conducting the experiment had to be done through volun-teer labour. At the outset i t was necessary to make firm plans, prepare publicity to promote the course and arrange the details associated with beginning the course. These elements are reported in this chapter. PLANNING The aspects of existing courses which might deter the older student from participating were considered in arriving at the following administrative decisions: 1. The time of meeting was set from 9:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. This would allow time for the adults to return home for lunch as this might be important i f the individual were responsible for preparing lunch for her family. 2. The course would meet on two consecutive days in order that material taught on the f irst day would have more immediate rei nforcement. 19 20 3. The pilot course would run for seven weeks (fourteen sessions) and a further five weeks would be offered at the end of that time i f there was a demand. This would include twenty-four sessions which was felt to be sufficiently long for a reasonable evaluation to be made. 4. The course would be operated in a community centre which would have a connotation of pleasure and friendliness rather than of institution and authority. 5. Although there was no specific minimum age limit set, i t was made clear in the advertising that the course was for the more mature student. The advisability of this was confirmed by Donahue who noted that often the older person " . . . approaches a learning task with a considerable feeling of inferiority, especially i f he knows that his performance is to be compared with that of younger learners.""' 6. The teachers selected were all in the "mature" age group. 7. The content of the course was kept flexible since i t was not known in advance what the specific needs of the students would be as many would have lived in Canada for some years and would not need the same orientation to Canadian Society as would a young immigrant. The Board of Parks and Public Recreation permitted the use of the Kitsilano Community Centre. Community Centre premises are available for ^Wi1 ma Donahue, "Learning, Motivation, Education of the Aging," Fsveholodcal Asveats of Acine, ed. J . E. Anderson (Menasha, Wisconsin: G." Banta^Co., Inc., 1956) ,* p." 202. 21 c l a s se s ren t f ree so long as each s tudent pays the l o c a l Centre member-sh ip f ee . This fee v a r i e s but i s u s u a l l y $1 .00 or $2 .00 per yea r and f ree f o r those over s i x t y - f i v e . The Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e agreed to pay t h i s membership fee from the course fees paid by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Two l a rge rooms were made a v a i l a b l e a t the community c e n t r e . These were loca t ed on the main f l o o r oppos i t e one another and i n a separate w i n g . Washrooms were c o n v e n i e n t l y adjacent and such items as cha lkboa rds , c o a t - r a c k s , c o f f e e - u r n , c h a i r s and t ab le s were a l s o p ro-v i d e d . The on ly major drawback encountered was the l a c k of cupboard space which meant tha t s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s had to be c a r r i e d back and f o r t h each day. This proved to be a c o n s i d e r a b l e chore as equipment i n c l u d e d such th ings as books , refreshment r e q u i s i t e s , and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s . The goals f o r the course i n the order of importance were as f o l l o w s : 1. To g ive each p a r t i c i p a n t conf idence i n h i s a b i l i t y to l e a r n and the i n c e n t i v e to con t inue l e a r n i n g . 2. To help i n d i v i d u a l s develop s o c i a l s k i l l s so tha t they cou ld become more i n v o l v e d i n the l i f e of the community. 3. To teach the s tudent some E n g l i s h i n a s i t u a t i o n a l con tex t tha t would enable him to perform some a c t i o n ( e . g . , go shopping , get on a bus a lone) tha t he had p r e v i o u s l y been unable or a f r a i d to do due to h i s i n a b i l i t y to communicate. Al though the u l t i m a t e aim of fu ture c l a s s e s was to teach the 22 adults English, the experiment would be considered successful i f the f irst goal was attained. Apart from the foregoing goals there were some secondary ones: 1. To show the education authorities concerned that such different and innovative programs were worthy of their support. 2. To create job opportunities for older adult educators. Promotion The greatest problem that had to be faced was that of recruiting a sufficient number of adults to form at least one class with the minimum registration required by Vancouver City College. Normally this is f i f -teen students, although the College had stated that they might make an exception in this instance. The f irst step in recruitment was to try to determine the ethnic distribution in Kitsilano. This proved difficult as the latest Canadian Census figures were ten years out of date and the Department of Immigra-tion and Manpower had no figures for specific areas within the city. The Principal of Kitsilano Secondary School agreed to make a spot survey of foreign students in his school which provided a l i s t of sixty-four such students showing a preponderence of Germans (twenty-two) and Greeks (seventeen) with a scattering of Italian, Chinese, Polish,'Dutch, Danish, Hungarian and Punjabi. On receipt of this information, a leaflet was written entitled "Could This Be You?" and addressed to a prospective student. This Appendix I (p. 81). 23 pointed out the advantages of being able to speak the English language in Vancouver, outlined the particulars of the proposed course, and gave details about i t . In the leaflet the word "mature" was used to describe the people for whom the classes were intended. It was realized that this was a very North American adjective often employed because the youth cult in this society has denigrated the terms "older" or "aging," replacing them with such euphemisms as "senior citizen." Havighurst pointed out that many people try to keep young to avoid being classed 3 with the "elders." In many cultures, to be old is considered a posi-tive rather than a negative status symbol, therefore, when having the leaflet translated into different languages, the translators interpreted the word "mature" according to the mores of their society using the equivalent of "older" where i t would be a positive word. Some of the translators stated that a literal interpretation of the word "mature" might have deterred some prospective students because i t would have had the connotation to them of "wise" or "clever" and made them feel inferior. It was particularly important that the translations were worded in such a way that prospective students were made aware that the classes were specifically for the not-so-young and that there was no prerequisite of previous learning or academic abil ity. The leaflet was translated into German, Greek, Italian, Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish, Japanese and Russian. The reason for selecting these 3 Robert J . Havighurst, "Social and Psychological Needs of the Aging," Annals of the American. A.cademu of P o l i t i c a l ana Social Science, vol. 279 (1962) ,* cited in Kenneth W. Griswold "Counselling with Adult Students," Adult Leadership, vol. 20, No. 3 (September, 1971), 103. 24 particular languages was mainly expediency as i t was necessary to get the translations done in a very short time in order to have the leaf-lets printed and distributed with a minimum of delay. The f irst four languages were listed in the Kitsilano School survey. Although Punjabi was low on the survey l i s t , i t was known that there were a considerable number of East Indians living not too far from the area and immediate translation was available. Spanish was requested by a teacher who taught at a local convent school and had heard about the proposed course. She was working with Spaniards in the area and felt that there might be several interested in taking the course and offered to have the translation done. Japanese and Russian were also suggested by interested people in the community who volunteered to do the transla-tions and distribute the leaflets. It was not possible to obtain translations into Dutch, Danish, Hungarian or Polish in sufficient time for printing and distribution. 4 A press release was prepared which included a brief descrip-tion of the course, the philosophy behind i t , and details of the location, time and fee. This was not translated into the languages of the ethnic papers to whom it was submitted as they would do this themselves. The next problem was that of distribution. Many outlets were investigated including churches and ethnic newspapers which were con-tacted by using the yellow pages in the telephone directo'ry. Priests 4Appendix I (p. 82). 25 and editors were interviewed and in most cases they showed definite enthusiasm for the idea of the proposed course. No-one refused assis-tance in the distribution of the pamphlets and in many cases names of other useful contacts in the ethnic community were supplied which were added to the distribution l i s t . In addition to contacting leaders in the ethnic communities, the various local mass media were approached with a considerable success. Items appeared in several local newspapers and a news report 5 and an interview were shown on two local television stations. Local schools, both ethnic and Canadian, agreed to distribute pamphlets to their students and ethnic stores also co-operated. The Kitsilano Information Centre and some of the Neighbourhood Houses agreed to advertise the classes. Some doctors also took the leaflets for distribution to foreign-speaking patients. The local library placed leaflets on their information board, the Immigration Services Com-mittee had the details available in their office, and several ethnic societies and associations undertook to distribute copies. Three foreign radio stations (Italian, Greek and Indian) agreed to read the information in the press release, and the T.E.A.L. teachers, in the area were given copies to distribute to students in their classes who might have older relatives or friends who would be interested. A total of seventy-five outlets were used including twelve churches, nine newspapers, thirty ethnic stores, five schools and twenty 5Appendix I (pp. 84, 85, 88). 26 miscellaneous places and people. In the comparatively short time available to publicize the course a fairly comprehensive campaign was carried out. With the promotional campaign completed, all that remained was to await enquiries. These were directed either to the organizer of the course or to the Coordinator of English Language Training Courses at Vancouver City College through two telephone numbers included in the advertising. The Coordinator redirected all enquiries to the course organizer who ultimately received them a l l . Response to the Promotion The init ial response was better than anticipated and detailed records were kept of the callers (who were not always the prospective student), the source of their information, the native language of the prospective student, and any other relevant information obtainable over the telephone. When a prospective student called there was sometimes a language difficulty; however, many Europeans have French as an additional language and by using a l i t t l e French and German i t was usually possible to obtain at least a name and address. The transla-tions of the pamphlet were kept by the telephone and often proved useful in communicating with the caller. In most cases, a leaflet in the appropriate language was mailed to those making enquiries. Thirty-one enquiries were received and of these twenty-six, or 84 per cent, registered in the course. In addition, twenty-one people registered without having made a telephone enquiry beforehand. Two of 27 the forty-seven students withdrew when they were advised that their level of English was too high for the classes and both were directed to the regular Vancouver City College classes. The percentage response from the telephoned enquiries actually registering in the course was considerably higher than might have been anticipated on the basis of research that has been done in advertising. Studies made of direct mailing to individual potential customers show orders received as low as Z{ to 3 per cent.^ The five people who enquired but did not register telephoned again to explain why they would not be able to participate and gave the following reasons: - Husband was sick, she would come later (she did). - Husband and wife both sick--they would come later (they did not). - Acquired a day-time job and could not manage the time. - Had no transportation and could not manage to go on the bus alone. An analysis of the information outlets revealed that newspaper advertising was the most frequently reported source of information. Forty-five students mentioned fifty sources from which they learned of the course. Of these fifty outlets, 58 per cent were newspapers, divided between ethnic papers (30 per cent), the one local daily paper (22 per cent) and the small weekly local paper (6 per cent). The re-maining 42 per cent learned about the course from a variety of sources Irving Graham, Encyclopaedia of Advertising, 2nd edition (New York: Fairchild Publishing, Inc., 1969), p. 145. 28 including television, churches, T .E.A.L. teachers, friends, stores and foreign language radio programs. It is clear that any future advertis-ing campaign should include the large daily local paper where the advertisement was often seen by an English-speaking friend of the student who passed on the information. IMPLEMENTATION The First Day The morning of the second of March dawned most inauspiciously with a raging blizzard and over a foot of snow by 5:00 A.M. It seemed certain that nobody would arrive to register, particularly since the traffic was immobilized on many streets with even buses unable to move. The organizer and four volunteers who lived not too far from the community centre managed to reach there by 8:45 A.M. and rather despair-ingly prepared the room. At 9:00 A.M. one seventy-two year old Yugoslavian arrived on foot and by 10:00 A.M. an incredible eight students had arrived of whom four were men and four women. One had come from the North Shore some ten miles distant but there were none from the immediate area in which the centre is'located. The adults were welcomed and volunteers assisted them with registration. Along with the Vancouver City College registration form, the organizer had compiled a form to gather personal information which had been translated into the eight languages. .These were most helpful in making the student feel at ease and the information gained was later useful in this study/ The impression gained by the participants 7Appendix I (p. 83). 29 on the f irst day v/as of great importance. For many of them the mere act of presenting themselves at the community centre would involve great courage; therefore, i t was imperative to reinforce the motivation which brought them to register and everything possible was done to assure that they would be made to feel welcome and relaxed. The word "welcome" was translated into eight languages and written out phoneti-8 cally so that they could be greeted in their native tongue. 9 Two illustrated English language textbooks were made available so that the registrants might have something interesting to look at while waiting for classes to begin. As the adults completed regis-tration, they were taken into another room and offered refreshments. Name tags were made for each and they were introduced to other students. When the formalities were completed, there was about an hour left so each teacher and volunteer took one or two students and talked with them on an individual basis. Although this was not a structured lesson, two things were achieved: f i rs t , the "interviewer" was able to make some sort of assessment as to an individual's linguistic abil i ty, and second, having decided the approximate level of the student, a start was made to teach some English with the use of visual aids. Both teachers and volunteers were aware that this f irst ex-posure to the class would be tremendously important in retaining the interest, or even the subsequent attendance, of the adults and an effort 8Appendix I (p. 89). 9 I. A. Richards and Christine Gibson, English Through Pictures, Book I (New York: Washington Square Press, 1945). and A First Workbook of English (Mew York: Washington Square Press, 1960). These were sold at $1.00 for the pair. 30 was made to insure that the adult would go home feeling that i f he con-tinued to come to the classes he would be able to learn. Each teacher and volunteer, therefore, attempted to teach the students a word or pattern unfamiliar to him, but one which he might reasonably be expected to master in the time available. The elderly Yugoslavian was drilled the f irst day on "Yes, i t is" "No, it isn't." The latter caused him great difficulty, repeatedly coming out as "No, i t is is." As he left he turned and said "No, i t is is — I say--tomorrow, I know." And "tomorrow"--he knew, and proudly repeated for all to hear. This was the kind of positive response which the teachers had sought. The Second Day The weather was s t i l l bad and not many new registrants were expected. The organizer, one teacher and one volunteer arrived at the centre at 8:30 A.M. It was anticipated that the two classes would be organized and teaching would begin by 9:30 A.M. Before nine o'clock more new students began coming in and by 9:30 A.M. i t was all that the two teachers and one volunteer helper-could do to handle the inter-viewing and registration. Had. i t not been for the blizzard the previous day, registration would have taken place the f irst day with ten helpers, but as i t was there was a great deal of goodwill and friendliness. Students were again given refreshments, and name-tags, and introduced to one another. The name-tags included the native language so that they could identify their compatriots. Those with more English helped 31 those with a l i t t l e . The final count on the second day was a total of thirty-three participants. The registrants were divided into two classes and taken into separate rooms and each group was given an introductory lesson and told that the next class would be on the following Tuesday. When Vancouver City College was advised of the number of participants registered i t agreed to hire an additional teacher which was a definite concession as under existing regulations there should have been forty-five to justify this number of teachers. The First Seven Weeks During the f irst seven weeks, seven more students registered making a total of forty. An oral testing procedure based on the expertise of the teachers was used to grade the level of ability in oral English. On this basis the participants were divided into three groups: two of beginners with twelve in each and one intermediate group with sixteen students. These classes continued for seven weeks and were offered again for a further five weeks at the request of a majority of the participants. The Second Session Vancouver City College agreed to offer a second course immed-iately following the f irs t , to run for five weeks for a fee of $5.00. Of the forty adults registered in the f irst course, twenty-six regis-tered for the extension. Of the fourteen who did not continue, five 32 were returning to their own countries, three were visiting their own countries for the summer, three were moving out of town, two were i l l and had already missed a number of lessons, two had acquired day-time work, and one elderly lady found the three-bus journey too diff icult . It seemed that no one who was able to come failed to re-register. In addition five adults joined the new course, making a total of thirty-one for the second session. As before, these were divided into two groups, one beginners with thirteen and one intermediate with eighteen. Two of the newcomers were brought by other students, two were sent by a T.E.A.L. teacher, and one had telephoned for the original course but had been unable to come because of her husband's illness. The total number of individual registrants for the twelve weeks was forty-five consisting of thirty-six women and nine men including four married couples. ANALYSIS OF REGISTRATIONS The information collected from the participants at the time of registration provides a description of the population. Age Although the promotional material had been carefully worded to set no chronological age limit and yet to suggest that the classes were for "older" people, many people expressed doubts that any very old people would be attracted to the course. They felt that "older foreigners would have no desire to learn English, being quite content to speak only their own language within their ethnic groups"; that "the children of the 33 older immigrant were against their parents learning English and would discourage them"; or that "they would be too old to be able to start learning a language anyway." These statements reflected the widely held misconceptions which might account for the fact that classes of this type had not been tried before. They also pointed up the need for the adult educator to strive continually to abolish these inhibiting illusions regarding the adult learner, and to create a new public image of the older student. Among the forty-five participants the age range was from thirty years of age to eighty--a span of half a century--with the average age just over fifty-eight years. Eight were under fifty years of age. Of the thirty-seven over f i f ty , twenty-seven were between the ages of fifty-four and sixty-four with the remaining ten over sixty-four years of age.^ The fact that 22 per cent were over sixty-four years of age and in view of the hazardous weather conditions with which they had to contend as well as the distances some travelled, the belief that some older people are motivated to learn was confirmed. Language Ten languages were represented in the group including German (twenty-two), Chinese (seven), Greek and Hungarian (three each), Yugo-slavian and Polish (two each), one each speaking Ukranian, Italian and Spanish, and three representing three Indian dialects—Punjabi, Hindi ADpendix II (p. 101). 34 and Gujerati.^ Although there were ten different languages represented, nearly half of the adults were German speaking. On the surface, the predominance of Germans might seem to agree with the results of the school survey noted earlier. On further investigation, even the apparent agreement of the German figures was only coincidental as the school survey was representative only of children living in the Kitsilano area, whereas the German students registered in the courses came from all over the city of Vancouver. Geographical Area The geographical distribution of the participants was unexpected. The assumption that older people might have been deterred by the d i f f i -culties of travelling i f there were ho courses within easy reach of the'ir homes was not substantiated. This supposition probably stems from contemporary North American standards where a car is judged a necessity for travelling any distance and had discounted the less demand-ing standards of some of the citizens of older countries. Whatever the reasons, lengthy and sometimes inconvenient travel did not seem to deter those who wanted to come. The areas from which the students came were widely separated and ranged as far as fifteen miles from the Centre. Very few indeed were within what might be termed reasonable walking distance. Many had to travel for periods longer than the length of the two-hour lesson and Appendix II (p. 102). 35 were involved in as many as three changes of buses. Travelling was made even more difficult by the snow but in spite of these adverse con-ditions attendance was high. Length of Residence in Canada The English Language Training Program was previously known as English for New Canadians. The name was altered when i t was recognized that the t it le was not only inaccurate but also often upsetting to immigrants who considered themselves to be established Canadians even though unable to speak English fluently. Registration data showed that eight students (18 per cent) had been resident in Canada less than a year but five of these were only visiting. The longest period of residence in Canada was sixty-two years by a woman who was actually a Canadian-born Chinese but knew virtually no English. Most of the participants (33.3 per cent) were resident in Canada within the one to five-year range and the average length of residence 12 was eleven years. An interesting incidental piece of information was that there were no adults listed as resident in Canada in the categories forty-one to sixty years or twenty-six to thirty years. These two categories represent immigration during the years 1911 to 1930 (which included World War I) and 1941 to 1946 (World War II). Although there would Appendix II (p. 103). 36 have been no immigrants during the f irst World War, there were a large number in the 1920's, so the lack of any figure during this period was apparently merely fortuitous. Further research should be done to determine whether there was any correlation between length of stay and ability to speak English and whether certain language groups persisted more than others in con-tinuing to use only their native tongue. CHAPTER IV INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES AND CONTENT It was necessary to modify some of the instructional procedures used in regular English language training classes where the major goal is that of achieving a practical ability to communicate in English as quickly as possible. In such classes, most of the students are younger and are, therefore, not averse to a certain amount of pressure. The three instructors of this pilot course for older immigrants had no previous experience with older adults but each had preconceived ideas about the expectations of the participants. INSTRUCTION % The aural-oral method as used in the regular English language training classes was the main basis of instruction with some adherence to the older cognitive code-learning theory. The combination of the two approaches was considered to be more effective for learning both understanding and speakingJ The main approach was the use of a situational context with a wide variety of audio-visual aids. As Hall pointed out, i t is not possible to learn in a void uncorrelated to other aspects of culture; i t is necessary to know what sort of situations are the ones in which ^John B. Carroll , "The Contribution of Psychological Theory and Educational Research to the Teaching of Foreign Languages," Trends in La.ncnj.aae Teaahina, ed. Albert Valdman (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1966)," pp. 93-106. 37 38 2 certain phrases are used, and how they show ways of living and thinking. Fries put i t succinctly when he said "linguistic meaning without social -3 cultural meaning constitutes . . . 'mere verbalism.1" Within this structure basic speech patterns and phrases were taught. In addition, the students were encouraged to socialize more outside the classroom and outside their own ethnic communities. Aural-Oral Method The aural-oral method (also known as the audio-lingual method) stresses a listening-speaking sequence in the learning of a foreign language. Adherents of the method emphasize the physiological and psycho-logical advantages of being trained to listen to sounds before attempting to reproduce them. Training the listening 'facilities improves the accuracy with which sounds are heard and enables the student to repro-duce these with greater ease thus avoiding the frustration which inability to articulate a certain sound produces in the student. Successful achievement in this increases motivation. Newmark and Diller noted that when students are required to speak without f irst listening, the likelihood of errors is increased and the consequent apprehension engendered in the student inhibits learning as Robert A. Hall, J r . , New Ways to Leavn a Foreicrn Langv.age (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1966), p. 109. 3 Charles C. Fries, "Meaning and Linguistic Analysis," Language, XXX (Jan. Mar. 1954), 57-68, reprinted in Readings in Applied English Linguistics, ed. Harold B. Allen (1958), pp. 101-13. 39 4 well as creating a lack of confidence which may be permanent. Palmer notes that the art of using the spoken every-day form of any given language is one which is possessed by every human being who is not congenitally deaf or dumb and that this does not depend on intelligence, courses of study, deliberate effort, concentration, nor reasoning powers. The actual oral learning of a language has nothing whatever to do with reading, writing, alphabets, spelling, literary com-position or any of the higher forms of language. Palmer insists that there is a universal spontaneous capacity for using spoken language in the mother tongue without any awareness whatever of the grammar or structure or rules of that language. Palmer compares two ways of learn-ing an additional language; f irs t , in the same way in which we learn our first--by listening and then imitating; second, by what was the more usual method of using the eyes and studying rules, but often lacking opportunity to listen to the language. He concludes that the former method is always more successful and utilizes the same spontaneous 5 capacity used when f irst learning to speak. Situational Teaching The modification of the aural-oral method by the cognitive code-learning theory was achieved by the stress on situational teaching. This ^Gerald Newmark and Edward Dil ler, "Emphasizing the Audio in the Audio-Lingual Approach," Teachina Enalish as a Second Langv.age, ed. Harold B. Allen (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1965), p. 353. ^Harold E. Palmer, The Principles of Language-Study (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 201-5. 40 provided a safeguard against the possibility of exclusive adherence to the former tending to lessen meaningfulness and understanding. While agreeing that in order to produce specific sounds, i t is necessary f irst to hear them clearly, i t is also necessary that the student be able to reproduce the sound and to use i t in a situational context. With this in view, the content was planned to include as many simulated situations as were compatible with good linguistic training. Of course, some basic dril l ing and repetition, outside of any situational context, was unavoidable; but review and reinforcement of already drilled patterns could usually be woven into situational lessons. Typical of some of the simulated situations used were such activities as going to the post office to obtain and f i l l in various forms, going shopping in various stores, laying a table, or visiting the doctor. In every case relevant objects such as government forms, store goods or cutlery were used. Each student in turn performed whatever action was necessary while at the same time speaking whatever phrases the teacher was dri l l ing. This type of lesson was enjoyed by the partici-pants and resulted in good retention of the units taught. Team Teaching System Although the participants were on different levels in terms of ability to speak English, i t was decided not to segregate them into completely separate groups. Instead, a team-teaching approach was adopted which was not normally used in the regular English language training classes at Vancouver City College. Although a teacher was 41 responsible for the main course outline of one of the groups, none taught one class exclusively. The f irst hour of instruction was spent with one group and in the second hour each teacher spent one half-hour with the other two classes. Thus, the teachers rotated through the three classes at every two-hour session. This procedure exposed the participants to three different voices and personalities and reduced the boredom that might result from the necessary repetition of lessons. It also provided a very natural break in the continuity and obviated the necessity of creating art i f ic ial breaks periodically. The teachers worked together closely to insure continuity and reinforcement in the material covered each day. An illustration of this team approach is as follows: the f irst teacher covered the formulation of questions with the use of words such as "who," "where," "when." This is a fairly routine lesson with d r i l l -ing in the use of the word and an explanation of the types of answers suited to each. The second teacher role-plays real l i fe use of the words such as going shopping. The students act as customers and learn two useful phrases--"I want a " and "How much is it?" Having completed their shopping the teacher then asks such questions as "Who bought a box of matches?" "Where did she buy it?" This gives the learner a feeling of achievement and helps to reinforce the original material learned. After this exercise, the third teacher brings into the class a picture of a family at play and describes the various situations de-picted. The class repeats this as a group and individually. ("The boy 42 is throwing the ball." "The girl is on the swing.") The teacher then asks: "Who is throwing the ball?" "Where is the girl?" to which the learner responds so that the original learning is again reinforced but in a different situation in order to facilitate transfer. This team approach enables the material to be covered thoroughly during one two-hour session, while avoiding the monotony of constant repetition by one teacher. Although i t created more work for the in-structors, there was no doubt that this procedure was more effective in this particular situation but i t should be noted that i t requires a really cohesive team with a great deal of cooperation and mutual under-standing to create an effective learning situation. Teaching Aids The instructional devices used to enhance the learning were many and varied. The sole traditional aid available in the community centre was a chalkboard so that instructors had to provide their own audio-visual aids. Tape recorders were used to provide an opportunity for individuals to hear themselves, which added interest to the lessons. In order to make the learning situation as realistic as possible, instructors brought a great variety of objects such as foods (packaged and natural), clothing, model telephones, pictures, playing cards, cutlery, and government forms with which they demonstrated the use of language in many different ways. CONTENT 43 The course content was not outlined in advance because i t was not known what the adults would need to learn. - Many of them would have been exposed to the English language for some time and might have acquired some understanding or even ability to read but with very l i t t l e ability to speak. In any case, their needs would not be. comparable with those of a recently arrived immigrant. Lesson Outline Although not following the Martin book as closely as is usual in the regular classes, most of the lesson material was derived from i t . The Richards and Gibson book^ which the students purchased, also covered much of the same material and was sometimes used in class. The two beginners' classes started with the very basic phrases of introduction (My name is I come from ) followed by the simple phrases "This is a " "That's a and "Is this a ?" and "Is that a ?" introducing simple objects. The more sophisticated group did much the same at a faster rate with longer phrases. All the teachers made a practice of writing some simple phrases on the blackboard each morning. These usually included the date and the day and perhaps a remark about the weather, some current event, or a thought for the day. The students looked forward to reading these ^Carson W. Martin, An Introduction to Canadian English, Teachers' Handbook 1 (Ontario: Department of the Provincial Secretary and Citizen-ship, 1963). ^1. A. Richards and Christine Gibson, English Through Pictures, Book I (New York: Washington Square Press, 1945). 44 and were very proud when they could. The lesson would start with a brief reference to this, after which each student brought a question to ask of another student, so that each both asked and answered a question. Corrections were made immediately by another student where possible rather than by the instructor. This too was popular with the students. Even the beginners managed with great pride to ask "How are you?" or "What colour is your dress?" A sample of a typical day's lesson in both levels of class follows: 'Teacher 1' is used to denote the main teacher who plans the lesson for the class and takes i t for the f irst hour. Teachers 2 and 3 take the class for the two subsequent half-hours. Beginners' Class Teacher 1 - Greeting. Repetition of date and phrase on board: "It's a nice sunny day to-day." - Question and answer r o l l - c a l l . - Review of "Yes, i t is" and "No, i t isn't" taught in previous lesson. - Conversation: Hallo. How are you getting on? I'm fine thanks. What are you doing now? I'm learning English in a class. That's good—I'm very glad. This is repeated by the whole class, then by the class divided into two, then by individual pairs. A tape recorder may be used effectively here. 45 - New lesson on pronunciations of "s" ending--[s], [z] and [ iz] . The teacher has a dozen different pairs of fruits and vegetables and three trays label-led with these three sounds. She divides the class into two teams who have to place objects in the correct tray--e.g., bananas in [z] tray, carrots in [s] tray and cabbages in [iz] tray. - Song--"This land is my land, This land is your land." Teacher 2 - Colour chart--teaching different colours. Questions--"Is this blue?" "Yes, i t is." "Is i t green?" "No,' i t isn't." "Is my dress red?" etc. Teacher 3 - Laying a table. Brings cutlery, plates, etc. Drills "s" endings by means of phrases such as "Put the forks ([s]) here, the knives ([z]) here and the glasses ([iz]) here." It can be seen from the foregoing how the main teacher of the be-ginners' class has planned an hour's lesson which is reinforced in part by both the secondary teachers who, at the same time, also teach something new. It can also be seen that the repetition by three teachers is not obvious to the students, but does give them a good chance to achieve by answering questions successfully. Intermediate Class Teacher 1 - Greeting and explanation of phrase "liquid sunshine" on board. 46 - Questions and answer r o l l - c a l l . - Review of future tense ("going to" and "will") taught at length in previous lesson. - Lesson on words associated with clothing (various items on hand). "Putting on," "taking off," "wearing," etc. Demonstrations by teacher and pupils with use of statement and question forms — "What is she wearing?" "She is wearing " - Conversation: What are you going to wear tonight? I think I ' l l wear my blue dress (suit). Will you put on a hat? No, I don't think so. Will you? This is repeated in the same way as described in the Beginners' class. - Practice of to-day's clothing lesson with the use of "Old Maid" playing cards which have pairs of pictures of people of certain types (e.g., singer, motorist, nurse, etc.). Teacher retains one set and gives each student one card of other set; she then holds up one card and asks "Who has the nurse?" When the student has replied, the teacher asks such questions as "What is she wearing?" "What is she doing?" "Is she wearing a blue dress?" This not only ties in with the lesson on clothing, but also reviews other pat-terns and a previous lesson on colours. 47 Teacher 2 - Shows a picture of a department store where a lady and her daughter are selecting a skirt. Asks questions to e l ic i t "putting on" and "wearing." Teaches "to try on." Explains about price tags, bringing specimens to hand round. Uses tape measure and explains about Canadian sizing methods. Teacher 3 - Shows students an airmail letter and teaches conversation: I've had a letter. Who is i t from? It's from my sister. She sent some photos. May we see them please? Conversation is practiced in usual manner and then the teacher shows the class coloured photographs- of her family and asks the students to describe what they are wearing. Again i t will be noted that, while teaching new items, those taught by the main teacher in the f irst hour are reinforced. Course Out!ine A general outline of the situations established for the lessons is shown below. These include situations developed by all three teachers which they usually managed to adapt for both levels of class. 48 S i tuat ion Materials Used General form f i l l i n g out Registrat ion forms for classes Spec i f i c form f i l l i n g out Model Post Of f ice wicket and se lec -t ion of government forms Telephoning for information (e.g., t ransportat ion, l i b ra ry ) Two p l a s t i c telephones and telephone d i rectory Sending mail Model Post Of f ice wicket and se lec-t ion of parcels , l e t t e r s and stamps Setting a table Cut lery, crockery, mats, g lasses ' Going to the bank Cheques, deposit s l i p s , bank book Going to the doctor L i s t of questions asked by nurse Going shopping: Drug store ) Grocery ) Kitchen utens i l s ) Clothing ) Bakery ) Produce ) 0 Various items for purchase which could be found in the special stores or departments mentioned I t was not always possible to use a s i tuat iona l context, but various v isual aids often added to the in teres t in such cases. These are l i s t e d with the main lesson taught, but in each case secondary items of learning were introduced or reinforced during the lesson. 49 Material Lesson Clock Telling the time Colour chart Learning colours Bottles of 1iquid Concept of f u l l , empty, etc. Playing cards (various) No specific lesson but often used for dril l ing patterns Calendars and date cards Days, months, years, seasons Photographs No specific lesson but use-ful for emphasizing various learning materials Clothing Used in several lessons--'what kind o f 'what made o f 'try on' 'too large' etc. Newspaper photographs and headlines Topical discussions—e.g., Royal vis i t (relationships-parents, husband, wife, etc.) Pens, pencils, bags, boxes and miscellaneous items Comparisons, plurals, sizes, shapes, etc. The Coffee Break The mid-morning coffee break took place immediately following the first hour. It constituted an important part of the learning situa-tion, although no formal teaching took place. All three classes came together and proudly practised their new found skills with other stu-dents from different classes and of different language groups. The teachers mingled with the students and saw them comparing notes, prac-tising questions and answers, and even gathered around a tape-recorder purchased by one rather deaf eighty-year old lady who recorded each 50 lesson to play over at home using an ear-plug. Students contributed twenty-five cents a session towards the purchase of coffee and often brought home-baked ethnic delicacies to share with those from other countries. This period served as a natural break between the f irst change of instructors so that there was not a harsh transition from one to another. It is of interest to note here that the individual instructors rotated, not the classes. Because the three rooms varied greatly in comfort and location, the teachers decided that the classes would rotate daily so that each class enjoyed the comfort of the lounge with its easy chairs and the discomfort of the small, cramped basement room, in turn. This was explained to the class as a democratic principle and appeared to impress them strongly. Community Centre Visits Visits with other groups meeting in the community centre were included as part of the learning experience. The instructors made good use of these visits to reinforce already learned words and phrases and to teach new "doing" and "object" vocabulary. This proved to be a suc-cessful part of the program. Participants were taken to watch the arts and crafts classes and were most interested to learn that by virtue of their community centre memberships they were eligible to join such classes themselves. One of the most popular visits was to the nursery school. The old people thoroughly enjoyed seeing the children at work 51 o and play and talked a lot about i t in class afterward. There was a senior citizens' group meeting in the centre and one day they were having a pot-luck luncheon half-an-hour after the classes finished. They invited the students to participate and the majority of them, on learning what "pot-luck" meant, accepted the invitation and offered to contribute. On the day of the event the senior citizens' group was absolutely overwhelmed by the wealth of tasty foreign dishes which appeared and both the hosts and visitors enjoyed an interesting meal. Pressey stressed the value of this type of approach when he said that "much more attention should be given than is usual to the 'extra-curricular' in adult education, especially for older people. Even more than with young people, social rather than educational advantages may g really be most appealing and indeed most important." See photographs Appendix I (p. 98). 9 Sidney L. Pressey, "Major Problems—and the Major Problem-Motivation, Learning and Education in the Later Years," Psychological Aspects of Aging (Menasha: George Banta Co. Inc., 1956), p. 198. CHAPTER V EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT There are certain problems in attempting to make an objective evaluation of this pilot course. It was not possible to undertake a quantitative analysis of progress due both to the comparatively short time-period covered and to the large number of variables involved. The differences in ethnic background, age, general educational standard, intelligence, native language and knowledge of English of the student population precluded any possibility of conducting viable tests of any sort for the purpose of judging, for example, improvement in speaking or understanding English. Notwithstanding this difficulty, there were several ways in which a reasonable evaluation could be made. Attendance figures were significant particularly in view of the inclement weather conditions coupled with the age of the participants and the distances travelled. A short questionnaire was administered at the end of the f irst session with some very positive responses received. An evaluation made by a T.E.A.L.-trained third-year education student at the University of British Columbia who acted as a volunteer teachers 1 aide during the first session, provided some valuable insights into the overall picture of the project. Finally, and perhaps in some ways most significantly, an anecdotal record based on subjective observations of the instructors, 52 53 volunteer and others, revealed interesting and meaningful information which was considered to be of prime importance in the evaluation of the course and in the recommendations for the future. ATTENDANCE In order to analyze attendance data, the number of absences was estimated by subtracting the number of actual attendances from the number of possible attendances. This was necessary because merely to take the total number of registrants multiplied by the total number of sessions would have given an entirely unrealistic figure since some par-ticipants registered after several classes had already taken place, some had to terminate before the end of the sessions (because they left Vancouver) and some, due to work shifts, were only able to attend on alternate days. In all such cases they were therefore counted as "possible attendances" on the days they were actually able to attend, and not included as absences on the other days. The fact that there were students only able to attend a limited number of the classes was regarded as a very positive factor in eval-uating the program. Such participants realized that they would not receive the'total number of lessons covered by the fee but they were s t i l l willing to pay the total fee for the reduced number of lessons they were able to attend. Three of the participants were only visiting Canada on vacation and had to leave before the end of the course, but s t i l l felt that their attendance was worthwhile. The majority of absences were caused by sickness due to a severe 54 influenza epidemic in March and Apri l . A lesser number were because of shift-changes at work or unavoidable family matters such as a sick child. Attendance in the f irst seven week session was as follows: Total number of students registered . . . . 40 Possible attendance . . . . . 544 Actual attendance . . . . 449 Absences . . . . 95 Percentage attendance . . . . 82.5% During the f irst five weeks (ten lessons) in March, a total of twenty participants, or 50 per cent of the registrants maintained 100 per cent attendance. For the entire seven-week period eleven people had perfect attendance. The increase in absences coincided with the peak of the influenza epidemic. In addition to the eleven with perfect attendance, eight missed only one lesson and five missed only two. In the second session of five weeks the.attendance was as follows: Total number of students registered . . . . 31_ Possible attendance . . . . 284 Actual attendance . . . . 274 Absences . . . . 10 Percentage attendance . . . . 97.8% During this period twenty-seven registrants maintained 100 per cent attendance with the absences of the other four being due to sickness 55 and family matters. The abatement of the influenza epidemic was clearly reflected in the attendance figures during the second session. The second session was not advertised extensively since i t was run primarily at the request of the original participants and was not considered to be a long enough period to make i t desirable to attract new students. The thirty-one registrants in this session included twenty-six from the previous session plus five new participants who were brought by former students. The foregoing figures give a positive indication of the need for the course and the satisfaction of the participants with i t , for the following reasons: 1. The fact that so many people registered in spite of the extreme climactic conditions and the difficulty in travelling to the centre. 2. The fact that attendance percentages were so high under the above conditions. Even averaging the two sessions and thus including the influenza epidemic, the percentage of attendance was 90 per cent. 3. The fact that the absences were always for unavoidable reasons, the students usually being very concerned when having to stay away. OPINIONS OF PARTICIPANTS 56 Prior to the end of the f irst session the organizer sought more definite evidence of student opinion about the course than that deduced from subjective observation. A short questionnaire was distributed to twenty-four individuals who were present and they were encouraged to take the forms home in order that they might get help in understanding and answering them. This would also give them time to consider their replies and not be influenced by instructors or fellow-participants as might occur had they been completed in the centre. The questionnaire contained very simple questions requiring mostly yes/no answers while at the same time obtaining the maximum amount of information and keeping the questions as unbiased as possible. The seven questions with the totals of replies made were as follows: 1. Do you think these classes should be continued? YES-24 NO-0 2. Did you feel you learned something in the f irst YES-24 NO-0 seven weeks? 3. Do you think the time of the day is good? YES-24 NO-0 4. If "No" to No. 3, what time would be better a .m. for you. p.m. 5. Do you feel i t is worthwhile travelling a long YES-21 N0-3 way to come to class? 6. Do you prefer older teachers like those you YES-17 NO-0 DON'T MIND-7 had? 57 7. Please write in your own words any suggestions or comments you would like to make: The majority of people did not f i l l out this question, but those that did covered the following points: - three people felt the course was excellent just the way i t was. - two people made positive comments about the question and answer period at the beginning of each lesson. - two people wanted more written on the blackboard. - two people urged that the courses be continued. - one person liked having mimeographed examples of lessons given out. - one person wanted more "demonstration" lessons. - one person requested that the same teachers remain. It was evident from this limited questionnaire that there was a positive reaction to the course as a whole from the majority of partici-pants and that the general format was acceptable. EVALUATION BY TEACHERS' AIDE During the f irst session the teachers had the services of a young volunteer. Apart from the practical help given by this young woman, her reasons for offering her time were specific and fortuitously provided the organizer with a further source of evaluation. She was a third-year education student at the University of British Columbia taking 58 the T.E.A.L. course and her observation of and subsequent term paper on this pilot project for teaching English to older immigrants constituted her project for that course. The Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board subsequently printed the paper for distribution to interested personsJ This student was able to visit al l three classes thereby gaining an overall view of the program denied to the teachers themselves. She mixed freely with the participants during the coffee-break and was able to engage them in unstructured conversation. It was felt , therefore, that her personal evaluation of the project was quite valuable and some of her comments on various aspects of the course are indicated below. She noted that "The rotating of teachers, while . . . difficult (for) the teachers, is extremely beneficial to the student," because i t made the concentration period for the students shorter and created a natural relaxing break at change-over time; i t also exposed the partici-pant to more varieties of speech. (Another unexpected effect, noted by the organizer, was the fact that a student felt free to move "down" to the "lower" class without losing face, knowing that she would face only a change of pace, not of teachers.) The volunteer had expected that the older people might show great lack of confidence, however, she found that after init ial hesi-tancy most of them were able to relax within a very short period of time and suggested that this might be due to lack of competition from younger students. "'Donna van Norman, Teaching English to Older People (Vancouver: Vancouver School Board, April 9, 1971). 59 She had anticipated that the participants might show a lack of perseverance, but noted that "this did not appear to be the case at a l l , as the students are very determined to correct mistakes and "attend regularly." This suggested high motivation and she thought the reasons for this were a combination of "their own inner needs . . . and outer stimulation such as the encouragement given by their teachers." The value of the social experience gained by the participants particularly impressed this observer. She remarked on the enthusiasm engendered by the visits to other programs in the community centre and on the socializing at the coffee break. She felt that one of the very important results of the program was that "none of the students are quite as lonely as they may have been before the program." The oppor-tunities they were given to meet new friends and the knowledge "that somebody cares about them" were both cited as positive factors from the point of view of the participants. The writer ended her report with the words: "Perhaps most important, for Canadians as a whole, there is the enrichment that comes when people from other countries gain the means . . . of contributing to our culture." ANECDOTAL EVALUATION Although a quantitative analysis of the progress of the partici-pants was not possible, observation revealed a qualitative improvement illustrated by the anecdotal record which the instructors and organizer were careful to keep without the participants being aware that this was being done. A representative selection of these anecdotes has been made 60 Increased Confidence There was no doubt in the minds of the instructors that many of the participants ini t ia l ly approached the class with great fear and trepidation and that i t had often taken a lot of courage to make the f irst step. The many expressions of increasing confidence made through-out the course were typified by the following: - "Coming to these classes, and find we could s t i l l learn, and know what you done (this to the organizer who became a student again at age f i f ty) , give us courage to go back to university." (Two well-educated Chinese ladies, aged fifty and fifty-one. These ladies subsequently brought several new students to follow-ing sessions.) - "I tried evening class--went too fast--I could not questions ask. Now here I learn better." (German lady aged sixty.) - "Before I no speak people--now I speak--very happy." (Greek lady aged sixty-one.) Social Participation It was very evident to the instructors that one of the most positive outcomes of the course for the registrants was the. increased social competence acquired. The following anecdotes are among the many which illustrated this: - A group of students, after a few lessons, arranged to meet every week-day night in one another's homes to practise conversing in 61 English. They included one fifty-eight-year-old recently widowed German lady whose husband had died just three months after they arrived in Canada, and who had been completely without friends. (She has continued to attend both these and evening classes during the year since the pilot course started.) - A fifty-five-year-old Chinese lady who heard that a sixty-year-old Hungarian lady was unable to attend class because of inability to pay, offered to pay her fee anonymously and this was arranged. - An eighty-year-old near-sighted German lady purchased a tape re-corder and taped lessons which she not only took home to learn from, but shared with her classmates during coffee breaks and after class. - A sixty-year-old German man who had been in Canada less than two years had already returned to Germany twice because he was unhappy here and did not make friends. His daughter and wife persuaded him against his will to join the class. He and his wife were the only two students with perfect attendance from the very f irst day and he became quite sociable. (Both are s t i l l attending classes a year later.) - A forty-eight-year-old Indian lady told the teachers that she had come to class to help get over her grief at the death of her daughter four years previously. She wanted them to know how much she had been helped by meeting other students of different nation-al i ti es. - A sixty-nine-year-old Chinese lady and a sixty-four-year-old 62 Spanish lady, both of whom spoke hardly any English, took great delight in greeting each other every day with the recently learned "How are you?"--"I'm fine, thank you." accompanied by much bowing and handshaking. Comments of Relatives and Others It was not uncommon for relatives of the people in the classes to speak with the instructors after class, or even take the trouble to telephone them specially to report on the student's progress. Partici-pants themselves would also relay remarks made to them by their rela-tives. A sample of such comments is given below: - "My grandchildren say I much better speak now." (Sixty-three-year-old German lady.) - "Thank you so much for your lessons. My mother loves them--I think i t is wonderful." (Son, member of U.B.C. Faculty, of sixty-four-year-old Spanish lady with very l i t t l e English, who subsequently got herself accepted by the five-month Manpower daily program!) - "I can tell that the teachers teach from the heart. My mother is so happy--it is the f irst time she has made friends since she came here over two years ago." (Daughter of fifty-eight-year-old German lady.) - "My brother say he glad I come--I learn good." (Sixty-one-year-old Greek lady with l i t t l e English--one who had obviously been living in a 'language ghetto' since coming to Canada two years previously.) 63 - "I can hardly believe she is the same woman I knew in India. She was so shy and submissive and almost colourless and now she radiates confidence and character." (Remark made by a visiting Professor of Education who recognized a forty-seven-year-old Indian lady she had met during an educational tour.) - "What motivation! I have seldom seen such motivated students." (Comment by a visiting Professor of Adult Education who spent an hour talking with the participants at their end-of-term party.) Evidence of Learned English It was not anticipated that great progress in learning English would be made in twelve weeks. However, the following anecdotes show that the learners had acquired some English especially in the situa-tional lessons: - A sixty-four-year-old Spanish lady with very l i t t l e previous English ability, who had been in Canada for a year, got on a bus and went home by herself after the first lesson. This was the f irst time she had ever done this and she refused the offer of a ride home to do so. Her son reported that she was so excited and full of confidence after the lesson that she wanted to under-take this new venture. - A sixty-three-year-old German lady at the pot-luck luncheon noticed that the crockery was of assorted colours. She had just had a lesson on "the same as" and "different from" and proudly 64 demonstrated her newly acquired phrases by stating, "This cup is different colour from saucer--same colour as plate." - A fifty-year-old Polish lady informed her daughter-in-law that the classes were very "democratic" because they "took turns" to use the best classroom. Both these concepts had been taught in her class. - A sixty-seven-year-old German man had joined the class only to accompany his new and much younger wife who spoke very l i t t l e English. He himself spoke seven languages including English. After a few lessons he admitted to the instructor that "I thought I knew it a l l , but I am learning much and know now I have much to improve myself too." - After a lesson shopping, which included how to return an article for refund or exchange (not a practice is most other countries), a thirty-five-year-old Chinese lady reported that she had taken back an unsatisfactory item of clothing and received her money back. Other Anecdotes The foregoing anecdotes were roughly classifiable under the four categories given. There are some, however, which, while nonethe-less significant as positive indications of the value of the course, defy specific categorization. These are therefore included in the following miscellany: - A forty-eight-year-old Italian lady told the instructors, "You good teachers--you put i t in my head good." - A fifty-one-year-old Chinese lady who had been a missionary for many years took the organizer's hands in hers and said, "The Lord gave me special opportunity when He guided me to you--He will bless wonderful work." - Some students came as much as an hour early to be able to come at a l l , as rides with working relatives were available. They spent the. time studying and putting out chairs, tables and chalkboards and generally being helpful. - A German couple came in for just one hour when they had a mid-morning appointment, rather than miss the class altogether. - A sixty-four-year-old Spanish woman who had to miss a class to help with a friend's emergency, sent a note apologizing and asking the teachers to let her have a resume of what she had missed. - A sixty-year-old Austrian lady who had to leave before term-end to return to Austria, wrote, "I thank you for all the English lessons. . . . I am sorry that I can't continue. . . . When I am coming back from Austria I see you again." - A fifty-year-old Chinese woman begged the organizer to run classes every day "so we learn more." - A speech made by the multi-lingual German man on behalf of the class at the term-end party, when presenting a beautiful candle to the organizer, included the words: "We give you this candle as a symbol of the light you have brought into our lives." 66 - One of the instructors, a retired university professor, stated that in all his thirty years of teaching he had never had more responsive pupils nor gained such satisfaction from the teaching. ATTAINMENT OF GOALS Despite the obvious difficulties of evaluating the course, the organizer, instructors and Vancouver City College officials all felt satisfied that the goals were achieved and the course was successful: 1. The success of the goal of giving participants confidence in their ability to learn and the incentive to continue learning was amply illustrated, the re-registration figures alone being sufficient validation. 2. Though perhaps more difficult to corroborate, the attainment of the goal of bringing about a social change in the l i fe of the adult so that he would become more involved in the l ife of the community was amply supported by the anecdotal record. 3. The goal of teaching the learners some English which they could use in a situational context was also well demonstrated as achieved to the satisfaction of the instructors both in class-room performance and by outside actions as reported in the anecdotal record. The success of the two secondary goals was also ratified: 1. The Vancouver City College was sufficiently impressed by the pilot project to agree to the request for an extension of the 67 course and to plan for expansion of the course as a part of the regular adult education program in the coming winter semester. 2. The proposed expansion will create new part-time job opportun-ities for older adult educators. To sum up, there appeared to have been l i t t l e doubt as to the correctness of the assumption of the need for such courses. It would also be equitable to state that the outcome ful f i l led , and in some ways exceeded, expectations. Perhaps the only unanswered question was that voiced by many of the participants, especially those with many years residence in Canada --"Why not before?" CHAPTER VI SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENTS Having positively evaluated the course and obtained permission from the authorities to expand i t , plans for future courses were devel-oped and implemented. SEMINAR FOR FUTURE TEACHERS Because of the success of this course, i t was decided to create a pool of older teachers with some orientation to the different approaches and techniques found effective during the pilot course. Those selected were trained teachers, but they were chosen for special qualities it was felt that they had which were required by these special classes. The main points stressed were those which were in some cases peculiar to these special classes for older adults rather than to regular English language training classes. The points covered included: 1. The need for a friendly, relaxed atmosphere was stressed, as typified by the community centre location rather than a school. It was pointed out that this did not mean that the teachers themselves could relax as a great deal of individual attention must be given to these students before they feel at ease. 2. As many of these students would have made a great effort to come the f irst time, they would probably be very scared at f irst; therefore i t was necessary to be very warm and welcoming to each 68 69 new student on his f irst day. Registration for regular classes is much more routine and students do not often need as much added encouragement and attention as would older students. 3. The team teaching concept was described to the teachers on the basis of the experience in the new class. It was stressed that this required more preparation for the teachers and needed a close working relationship among members of the team. 4. The need for situational teaching of a type useful to the students was stressed. The teachers were told that they should make themselves acquainted with facil it ies in the community which might be useful to their students. 5. The use of many and varied visual aids as a complement to the situational teaching was advocated. 6. The importance of immediate success in learning needs to be borne in mind by instructors. Reinforcement by achievement is an important facet with these students who are somewhat fearful of what was for most of them a very new venture. Teachers were urged to keep in mind each student's potential level of achieve-ment, and try to e l ic i t replies only when confident of the student's ability to achieve success with a minimum of help. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE COURSES Based on the experience gained in the pilot project, plans were made for the expansion of such courses in Vancouver in the near future. First , the prior assumptions for the non-participation of the older 70 immigrant in the regular Vancouver City College classes available (see p. 7), were checked: 1. It was established that the morning time was overwhelmingly preferred by the older student. 2. It appeared that the informality of the community centre setting was enjoyed by the participants, some of whom attested to having been intimidated earlier when attempting to register in night school programs. 3. Many of the students voiced their appreciation of the fact that they were not in competition with younger students. 4. The majority of the participants preferred having older instruc-tors, several implementing this viewpoint verbally with remarks to the effect that younger teachers were less patient and did not understand them so well. While this may not, in fact, always be true, the fact that i t appears so to the learner is the important one to be considered. 5. Although courses closer to home would obviously have been easier for the participants, the hypothesis that neighbourhood location was a probable prerequisite was proved completely wrong in this instance, distance proving no deterrent to the majority. This unexpected fact was afterwards thought to be due, perhaps in part, to having incorrectly based the assumption on a North American and youth-oriented cultural background. It would probably be true that the average Canadian, or even non-Canadian younger person, would not be willing to travel long and 71 complicated journeys to attend a class. However, many of those raised in European and Eastern countries, especially the older people, have never known the convenience of travel by car, and would think nothing of having to undergo inconvenience to attain a desired end. 6. Those who had attempted the regular courses of the Vancouver City College were unanimous in agreeing that the content was not geared to their needs. Based on these findings, a plan for future courses was formulated. Although this plan was specifically for use by the Vancouver City College, i t was broad enough in concept to serve as a model for other areas wish-ing to initiate this type of program. So far as could be determined, there have been no such special courses undertaken in other parts of Canada or overseas. The other coun-tries mainly engaged in teaching English as an additional language are Great Britain, the U.S.A. and Australia. PLAN FOR FUTURE COURSES In planning for similar courses in the future, several factors should be kept in mind: 1. First determine the already existing programs in the area and plan to f i l l the gap in these. 2. Ascertain the geographical location of the population for whom the course is being planned and choose a centre as close as possible. 72 3. Allow several months before the planned opening date in which to produce and disseminate promotional mater ia l . This work needs intensive research of the needs and resources, large time allowances must be made for delays due to absences of key people, waiting periods for time s lots on TV and radio programs, and s im i la r setbacks. 4. V i s i t the centres selected for locat ion of the classes and make sure that a l l amenities are ava i lab le and su i tab le for older people--e.g., nearby t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , good l i g h t i n g , adequate comfortable seating, chalkboards and so on. 5. Carefu l ly plan the techniques and course content to meet the ant ic ipated need. Bennett noted that "Time is at the heart of the problems language teaching has to face. . . . The teacher and course designer must use a l l the motivation and relevance possible and must ensure that the teaching material contains no superfluous l i n g u i s t i c items. . . . The danger in language teaching has always been to regard a t ime- l imited course as in some way complete . . . with a concern rather for the number of . . . items than for a high prof ic iency with a ca re fu l l y se lected, integrated number of i t e m s . A n y program planner would do well to take th i s advice ser ious ly to heart. 6. Carefu l ly se lect a nucleus of teachers and arrange an or ientat ion seminar for them well in advance of the opening date to give "'w. A. Bennett, Aspects of Language and Langv.age Teaching (Cam-bridge: Cambridge Univers i ty Press, 1969), pp. 69-70. 73 them time to find and produce their visual aids. Points to con-sider in selection are, not necessarily in order of importance: a) Training and competence in teaching English as an additional language to adults. b) A warm, outgoing and patient-with-people personality. c) An innovative teacher, not hide-bound by conventional ap-proach or methods. SUBSEQUENT COURSES After the success of the pilot course, which ended in May 1971, i t was agreed to expand the course into other areas of Vancouver in the following September. Classes were offered in six community centres, including the original one, in an effort to make them available through-out the City of Vancouver. Two teachers were placed in each centre in order to be able to separate the absolute beginners from those with some knowledge of English, and to continue the team-teaching method. Extensive advertising was done including a much wider range of ethnic papers, a number of appearances on TV and radio stations, and a greater dissemination of leaflets by the twelve instructors in the areas surrounding their community centres. The response was excellent with a total of 124 registrants. Nineteen of these were from the pilot course. The overall attendance figures for these six centres for the f irst seven-week course showed an average of 89 per cent. A second seven-week course was offered immediately following the f irs t . 74 Although a large number of participants expressed a desire for this continuance, a good many of the housewives felt that they would be unable to attend because of the approach to the Christmas season when they would be involved in household duties. The final registration figure was 102 including sixty-eight who had been registered previously and thirty-four new ones. BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abercrombie, David. "The Social Basis of Language." Teaching English as a Second Language, ed. Harold B. Allen. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. Anderson, J . T. M. The Education of the New-Canadian. Toronto: J . M. Dent and Sons Ltd. , 1918. Bennett, W. A. Aspects of Language and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Birren, J . E. "A Brief History of the Psychology of Aging." The Ger-ontologist. Vol. 1, 1961, 69-77. Bromley, D. H. The Psychology of Human Ageing. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Inc., 1966. Brunner, E.. de S. et al . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association of U.S.A., 1959. Carroll, John B. "The Contribution of Psychological Theory and Educa-tional Research to the Teaching of Foreign Languages." Trends in Lanauaae Teachina, ed. Albert Valdman. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1966. (ed.). Language, Thought and Reality—Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1956. Census of Canada 1961, Bulletin 1.3-5. Population—Language by Age Group. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Vital Statistics, Catalogue No. 84-202.1968. Donahue, Wilma. "Learning, Motivation, Education of the Aging." Psychological Aspects of Aging, ed. J . E. Anderson. Menasha: G. Banta Co. Inc., 1956. Emsley, H. H. Visual Optics. London: Hatton Press Ltd . , 1946. Fries, Charles C. "Meaning and Linguistic Analysis." Language, XXX. Jan. Mar. 1954, reprinted in Readings in Applied Enclish L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. Harold B. Allen, 1958. . Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, (copyright 1945), 1963. 77 Gagne, Robert M. The Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965. Gay, C. W., R. B. Kaplan, and R. D. Schoesler. Learning English Through Typewriting. Washington, D . C : Washington Educational Research Associates, Inc., 1969. Good, C. V. and D. E. Scates. Methods of Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954. Graham, Irving. Encyclopaedia of Advertising. 2nd ed. New York: Fairchild Publishing, Inc., 1969. Grossman, Arthur M. and Alice Gustav. "Academic Success of Older People." Psycholocy in the Schools. Vol. I l l , No. 3, July 1966, 256-8. Hall, Robert A . , Jr . New Ways of Learning a Foreign Language. New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1966. Hallenbeck, W. G. et a l . Community and Adult Education. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. Harris, Chester (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Educational Research. New York: The MacMillan Co., 1960. Havighurst, Robert J . "Social and Psychological Needs of the Aging." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 279, 1962, cited in Kenneth W. Griswold, "Counselling with Adult Students," Adult Leadership, vol. 20, No. 3, September, 1971, 103. Hellon, R. F. et a l . "The Physiological Reactions of Men of Two Age Groups to a Hot Environment." Journal of Physiology. Vol. 133, 1956, 118-31. Lado, Robert. Lancuaae Teaching. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1964. Martin, Carson W. An Introduction to Canadian English. Teachers' Handbook 1. Ontario: Department of the Provincial Secretary and Citizenship, 1963. McClusky, H. and others. "Psychology of Adults." Review of Educational Research. June 1960, 249-54. McLeish, J . "Adult Learner: A Factual Survey." International Journal of Adult and Youth Education. Vol. 14, No. 1, 1962, 44-51. 78 Mysak, E. D. and T. D. Hanley. "Aging Processes in Speech: Pitch and Duration Characteristics." Journal of Gerontolocy. Vol. 13, 1958, 309-13. Neugarten, B. and D. C. Garron. "Attitudes of Middle-Aged Persons To-ward Growing Older." Geriatrics. 14: 1959, 21-4. Newmark, Gerald and Edward Dil ler. "Emphasizing the Audio in the Audio-Li naual Approach." Teachina English as a Second Lcrncv.ace, ed. Harold B. Allen. New York:~McGraw-Hi11 , Inc., 1965." Palmer, Harold E. The Principles of Language-Study. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Pressey, Sidney L. "Major Problems—and the Major Problem—Motivation, Learning and Education in the Later Years." Psychological Aspects of Aging. Menasha: George Banta Co. Inc., 1956. Richards, I. A. and Christine Gibson. English Through Pictures. New York: Washington Square Press, 1945. . A F i r s t Workbook of English. New York: Washington Square Press, 1960. The Senate of Canada. Proceedings of the Special Committee of the Senate on Aging. Vols. I and II. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963-4. Shock, Nathan W. Trends in Gerontology. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957. Sorensen, H. "Adult Ages as a Factor in Learning." The Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 21, 1930, 451-9. Stieglitz, Edward Julius. Geriatric Medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1949. Van Norman, Donna. Teaching English to Older People. Vancouver: Vancouver School Board, April 9, 1971. Verner, Coolie and Alan Booth. Adult Education. New York: The Center for Applied Research in Education Inc., 1964. Wakefield, P. English Langv.age Training Program. Leaflet published by the City College and Night School Division of the Vancouver School Board, September 1970. J APPENDICES 79 APPENDIX I COURSE MATERIAL Pamphlet which was translated into eight languages. Press release which was accompanied by pamphlet. Registration form which was translated into eight 1anguages. Press cuttings advertising the project in English language papers. Press cuttings advertising the project in foreign language papers. C.B.C. national television news coverage given prior to course. Multi-lingual "Welcome" translations. Press cuttings reporting on course in English language papers. Press cuttings reporting on course in foreign language papers. Photographs taken during course. APPENDIX I. Registration Form which was translated into eight languages (MR) (MRS) MY NAME IS (MISS) MY ADDRESS IS MY PHONE NUMBER IS I WAS BORN IN MY NATIVE LANGUAGE IS I HAVE BEEN IN CANADA FOR I HAVE (HAVE NOT) TAKEN ENGLISH FOR NEW CANADIANS BEFORE MY JOB IN CANADA IS MY JOB IN MY COUNTRY WAS *I CAN READ ENGLISH *I CAN WRITE ENGLISH *a l i t t l e , quite well, very well 87 APPENDIX I. Press cuttings advertising the project in Foreign language papers. Corsi speciali d' i n «r 1 e s e gran per 1 n i m VANCOUVER -VisonomoU ti immigrati anziani in Cana-da. Essi viyono spesso con i giovani membri dello loro fa. • miglie: questo fa sf che, a volte, dopo diversi anni. essl noo parlano e non capiscono l'tnglese.,,.. il che slgnifica • che p#si sono esclusl da una • parte del ninndo che li cir-conda; e la loro vita quoti-diana ha delle linutazioni, qui in Canada. Purtroppo, solo alcune per-sone anziane frequentano le classi seralid'lnglese. istitui-te dall'Ispettorato della Scuo-la. Le ragioni di questo pos-sono esseiv: I'inconvenientP di andare fuori dj sera; il no>' sentirsl a proprio agio nell'-scuole e nelle aule; il sentii -si in disagio studiando con studenti giovani. E' stato cosf deciso di pro-vare a fare un corso che cer-chi di risolvere queste diffi. 11 a ii z i a n i |l f i~M. « *J ~ -t.v_~ - Cio r\. colta. Si tratta si un corso sperinientale, e si spera di adoperarlo come base per al'. tri corsi futuri. L'esperienza acquisita da questo corso.gui-da, servirJ a suggerire mi-glioramenti nei corsi futuri. Si accetteranno consigli e sug-gerinienti da parte di tutti gli studenti. II corso ? aperto solo a person? anziane. Qui sotto vi sono i dettagli del corso: - Locality Kitsilano Com. munity Centre, 2405 W. 12th; - Giorni: Martedf e Mer. coledt; - Durata: dal 2 Marzo al 14 Aprile; • - Costo: S7.00 (14 lezioni); . Orario: dalle 9:30a.m. al. le 11:30a.m. -Per ulteriori infonnazioni, telefonare alia Signora BUZAN" 228-9127 (al mattino) o alia Sig.ra WAKEFIELD 324.".393. L'Eco D1 Italia—No. 9. 16th Year. Italian newspaper—29 February, 1971. A . B 6 - n # ft at i m f ^ A f t > *ii U tr° $; i% A f@ •f T > • n tt r 1 % Ah t j m The Chinese Voice. No. 38. Vol. 18. Chinese newspaper--!7 February, 1971. 88 APPENDIX I. C.B.C. national television news show coverage given prior to course. "Welcome" in eight languages Greek Church Secretary German newspaper Editor Organizer and Instructor Chinese hotel owner 89 APPENDIX I. Multi-lingual "Welcome" with phonetic sound for greeting of registrants by instructors and written form which was put on blackboard in registration room. W E L C O M E NVENIDA(s) S^AH.SH 5 i e n t > e n i d c ("o'^ncl {or mBScul \ n<a\ BENVENLJTl - ™ u ^ WILLKOMMEN O E*MAN 10 £ PO i r o w v K'AAQ£Op|£AT< a a -t CHINESE. J t a ycin u PUNJAfel . . . . . . . r - v . . . ' -T';^P*» 111 f 11 J E A N BUZAN HOLDS UP a card reading Welcome in eight languages w h e n > P ™ 0 V r a P ^ wfth someo, her class of older "New" Canadians learning English at the K.ts.lano Com-Willi sonic u (Photo hy Cordon Sattawa Vnr.cou.vor Province) munity Centre. -A d r e a m c o m e t r u e Jean Buzan cherished a dream. She is a 54-year old graduate student in Adult Education at UBC. She works part-time as a teacher of English as an additional language for the Vancouver School Board, and part-time as a recreation leader with elder citizens for the Van-couver Parks Board. Through her School Board work she became aware that comparatively few older people attended the English Language Training classes. Through her Parks Board interest she came to realize the loneliness of many of our elder citizens. From these two facts she deduced that older people who could not even communicate in English had two strikes against them and must often be extremely cut off from everyday life in Canada. APPENDIX I. Press cutti papers. Th page story ngs reporting on course--English language e Western News—local weekly paper—front Vol. 1. No. 13. 15 Apri l , 1971. So the dream was born — a class especially to teach English to such people. "Special" in the sense that they had to be different from the usual night school classes. At least, Mrs. Buzan felt that they should be different — for both cultural and practical reasons. The Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board gave her per-mission to try a pilot course at Kitsilano Community Centre. She advertised it as widely as she could (including a write-up in this newspaper), and then sat back and waited to see what response there would be on the first day — March 2nd. That day was the day of our great blizzard and at 5 a.m. there was over a foot of snow on the ground and traffic stalled all over. It seemed like a death-blow to the project. However, the most amazing thing happened. Out of the blizzard eight people arrived to learn English! Two were over 70, one had come from North Van-couver ! The next day there were 33 (some of whom are shown in this picture). And finally there wei•« forty, and two more teachers were hired. The class is going won-derfully and many of the students have signed up for an additional five weeks. There are ten nationalities represented and they come from all over — Burnaby, Richmond, New Westminster, North Vancouver and all parts of Vancouver. So the dream came true -and it is hoped that the success of this pilot project may lead to further classes being offered by the School Board in various areas when the 1971-72 classes begin in September. IO — O APPENDIX I. Press cuttings reporting on course--English language papers. A G E D 40 TO 75 By MARIAN BRUCE Jean Buzan figures she's teaching the most eager group of students in the Vancouver school system. When t h e r e's a recess break, half the class is likely - to spend the free time re-_ viewing the previous day's '•• lesson on tape. Five nights a week, about • six of the students get togeth-er to work on self-imposed homework assignments. And hardly anybody in this English class for older immi-grants wants the 12-week course to end next Wednes-day. ''I've never seen such en-thusiasm," says Mrs. Buzan, a University of B.C. graduate student who developed the program for a master's thesis on adult education. "What we've achieved In this class is a little learning and a great deal of enthusi-asm to go on learning." Mrs. -Buzan's 32 students, who meet two mornings • a week at the Kitsilano commu-nity centre, range in age from about 40 to 75. Some, she says, have been in Canada 30 to 40 years but have never learned to speak English. "They've been in a sort of language ghetto, "she says. The Kitsilano class — which attracted students as far away as Burnaby and Rich-mond — is a pilot project sponsored by the Vancouver school board. It's the first special class for older immigrants, who are usually reluctant to attend r e g u l a r English-language classes with younger adults, Mrs. Buzan says. "Some of them seemed to feel they were stupid at first, but when they saw that lots of other people from other coun-tries were in the same posi-tion, they r e a l i z e d they weren't stupid at all. "Now that they've gained seme confidence, the y'r e eager to go on. Some have said they would like to come every day." The experimental course was originally scheduled to run for seven weeks, but was extended to 12 weeks at the request of students. Most of the charter members — divid-ed into three groups for in-struction by Mrs. Buzan and assistants Dr. Robert Cattley and Mrs. May Kingsley — stayed on. Patricia W a k e f i e 1 d. co-ordinator of English-language training in the school board's adult education division, says the program will likely be ex-tended to other areas of the city next fall. The school will be working with community agencies dur-ing the summer to determine where the classes are most needed. The Vancouver Sun--daily paper--19 May, 1971. JEAN B U Z A N'S PILOT project proved so popular it has spread around the city. Starting Sept. 13, Mrs. Hu-nan's English class for older Immigrants will be held in six different community centres — a testimony to the effec-tiveness of the first class held in the spring. "We had 10 different lan-guage groups among the 45 who attended that first course and they were so enthusiastic they used to practice together at night in their own homes," said Mrs. Buzan, a University of B.C. graduate student who developed the program for a master's thesis on adult edu-cation. Her eager students ranged in age from 40 to 75. Some had been in Canada more than 30 years and had never been able to speak English. The second course will be held two mornings a week from 9:30 to 11:30 a.m. It will start at Hastings and Jewish Community Centres on Sept. 13; at Kitsilano and Killarney on Sept. 14; at Mount Pleas-ant on Sept. 15 and at Grand-view on Sept. 16. Registration will take place at the centres on the starting dates shown. Further infor-mation may be obtained from Mrs. Buzan at 228-9127, or Mrs. P. Wakefield, 731-4614, Local 26. The course is sponsored by community education service of Vancouver City College. ANGLAIS, INGLESE, ENGLISCH JEAN BUZAN teaching language students how to shop in a drugstore APPENDIX I. Press cuttings reporting on course--English language papers. The Vancouver Sun, daily paper, 3 Sept., 1971. APPENDIX I. Press cuttings reporting on course—Foreign language papers. ng .5scEifcurs-Erfol rs gen V A N C O U V E R — , : Der Er -folg des Englischkursus £iir altere Einwanderer iibertraf selbst meine kiihnsten Erwar-Umgen", erzahlte uns Mrs . Jean Buzan dieser Tage. ,,Den starksten Antei l bilden zwei-fellos die Deutschcanadier. Und die meisten kamen auf-grund der Ankiindigung im 'Courier-Nordwesten'." Dabei stand der Anfang des Wagnisses nicht gerade unter •dem gilnstigsten Stern. M r s . Buzan hatte durch ihre Tatig-kcit als Englisch-Sprachlehre- j r in Itir den Vancouver School Board und als Gestalterin fur Freizeitprogramme fur den Vancouver Parks Board er-kannt, dass die alteren E i n -wanderer, die der englischen Sprache nicht machtig sind, sehr wcnig Chancen haben, sich in diesem Lande richtig einzuleben. Die allgemeinen Engiisciikurse liegen ineisl am Abend zu einer fiir altere Leute ungiinstigen Tageszeit. ganz abgesehen davon, class die alteren Einwanderer Hem-mungen haben, mit den jiinge-ren in Sprachkursen in Kon-kun-enz zu treten. Mrs . Buzan machte dem I School Eoard so den Vor-schlag, es doch einmal gerade fiir cliese Gnippe mit Erig-lischkursen am Vormittag zu versuchen. Der School Board gab die Genehmigung. Mrs . Buzan lief herum, um die Wer-bet rommel fiir das Projekt zu riihren. Es wmde in den Ta-geszeitungen und am CBC-Fernsehen — dort allerdings zu einer gerade fiir altere Leute wiederum sehr ungunsti-ge;i spaten Stunde — und in anderen Publikationen er-wahnt. Als dann der grosse Tag, der 2. Marz , herangekommen war, rechnete sie da mit, dass sie allein im Kitsi lano Com-munity Centre sitzen bleiben wtirde. Vancouvers diesmal ungewohnlicher Winter hat-te gerade noch zu einem letz-ten Schlag ausgeholt. Der Ver-kehr war allgemein" im star-ken Schneefall — am Morgen lag iiber ein Fuss v Schnee — steckengeblieben. Wer sollte nun erwarten, dass altere Leule in diesem Wetter zum Englischkursus kommen wiirden? ,,Aber das Unerwartete ge-schah", sagt Mrs . Buzan lieu- j te. ,.Trotz des Blizzards ka-1 men acht Leute, um Englisch j zu lernen. Zwei waren iiber J 70 Jahre alt, einer kam gar j von North Vancouver. A m J nachsten Tag waren es schon , 33. Und bald waren es vierzig. und zwei weitere Lehrkrafte wurden angestellt. Der Unter-richt geht einfach wunderbar vonstatten, und viele Teilneh-mer haben sich bereits fiir weitere fiinf Woe hen einge-tragen. Die Klassen vereini-gen Teilnehmer aus zehn Na-tionalitaten, 18 davon sind deutscher Herkunft. Sie kom-men von uberall her — aus Vancouver, Burnaby, Rich-mond, New Westminster, North Vancouver." Abscliliessend meinte Mrs . Buzan (Tel. 228-9127): ,,Der Traum ist wahr geworden. Und ich hoffe nur, dass dieser er-folgreiche Start den School Board dazu anregen wird, weitere Klassen in verschiede-nen Gegenden einzurichteii, wenn das Erwachsenenpro-gramm fiir 1971-72 im Septem-ber beginnt." W. Junker Der Nordwestern—German newspaper—22 A p r i l , 1971. 94 APPENDIX I. Press cuttings reporting on course—Foreign language papers. ^bschlussfeier im Kitsilano Community Center beim Englisch-Kursus von Mrs'. BUZ AN,an dem in ubenviegendem Misse deutsche Einwan-derer teilnahmen. Die Kurse waren so erfolgrelch/Jass sle lm Herbst #eltergefuhrt werden. Pazifische Rundschau—German newspaper—10 June, 1971. APPENDIX I. Photographs taken during course. First morning--an immobilized vehicle Last morning--the class and instructors Photograph Courtesy Gordon Sattaway Vancouver Province APPENDIX I. Photographs taken during course—class group during first week. 10 98 APPENDIX I. Photographs taken during course Students visiting kindergarten and craft class in community centre 99 APPENDIX I. Photographs taken during course Term-end party—German couple with perfect attendance receiving prizes, Students (Greek, Indian, Spanish), spontaneously singing ethnic songs. APPENDIX II GRAPHS OF REGISTRATION DATA Figure 1. Analysis of Registrants by Age. Figure 2. Analysis of Registrants by Language Groups. Figure 3. Analysis of Registrants by Length of Residence in Canada. APPENDIX I I. Graphs of reg i s t ra t i on data 101 FIGURE I 37AGED 50 AND OVER I 27 AGED 50-64 I0 0VER64 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50*54 55-5 9 60-64 65-6 9 70-74 80-84 AGE GROUPS Analysis of registrants by age 102 APPENDIX II. Graphs of registration data F I G U R E 2 GER. C H I . G R E . * I N D . H U N G . YUGO. P O L . U K R . I T A L . S P A N . 3 01 F FE R E N T I N D I A N D I A L E C T S — P U N J A B l , H I N D I , G U J E R AT I . L A N G U A G E G R O U P S Analysis of registrants by language groups 103 APPENDIX II. Graphs of reg i s t ra t i on data F I G U R E 3 -I 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-60 61-65 N U M B E R O F Y E A R S I N C A N A D A Analysis of reg istrants by length of residence in Canada 

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