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American efforts to raise China to great power status: 1942-1945 1971

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AMERICAN EFFORTS TO RAISE CHINA TO GREAT POWER STATUS: 1942-1945 by CHARLES EDWARD STEWART CURMI B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of History We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f HISTORY The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date November. 1971 ABSTRACT From the outset of i t s involvement i n the Second World War, the United States found i t s e l f p h y s i c a l l y i s o l a t e d from China. With the capture of Singapore by the Japanese and the subsequent down- f a l l of the Philippines, t h i s i s o l a t i o n increased and v i r t u a l l y cut China o f f from dir e c t material support. To counter t h i s impasse and maintain the Na t i o n a l i s t s i n the war against Japan, the U.S. resorted to diplomacy by sponsoring China as a founding member of the United Nations with a permanent seat on the Security Council. This move, though opportune under the circumstances then ex i s t i n g , f a i l e d to take in t o account the growing p o t e n t i a l of the Chinese Communists and negated the long-range value of r a i s i n g China to great power status. The object of t h i s study i s to examine the material and diplomatic help provided China from Pearl Harbour to the Yalta Conference and the motives which led American diplomacy to support the Nationalists to the exclusion of a l l other p o l i t i c a l factions within China during t h i s period. Chapter I traces the application of the Open Door Policy to China from the f i r s t notes of 1899, down to the Stimson Non-Recognition i i Doctrine of 1932. Some s t a t i s t i c s are also given of the scope of U.S. economic in t e r e s t i n China up to Pearl Harbour. Chapter II delves i n t o FDR's o v e r a l l attitude toward China, the material help provided her to 1942, the l o g i s t i c s involved i n i t s delivery, and the early American attempts to i d e n t i f y China with the three great powers. Chapter III follows American diplomatic moves to have China accepted by B r i t a i n and the U.S.S.R. int o the U.N. Organization during i t s formative years at the Moscow, Cairo, and Teheran Conferences and the gradual relegation of China to a sec- ondary r o l e i n the war i n the P a c i f i c . Chapter IV investigates the complexities of the S t i l w e l l Mission, some Chinese reactions to i t , the modest help provided China, and her r e l a t i v e neglect by the three great powers at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference. The Yalta concessions to foster the entry of the U.S.S.R. i n t o the war i n the P a c i f i c are also examined i n the context of a planned invasion of the Japanese mainland. Chapter V assesses the r e l a - t i v e value of four years of U.S. diplomacy toward China which concentrated on r a i s i n g the N a t i o n a l i s t s to great power status with a seat i n the U.N. Security Council whilst ignoring the growing pote n t i a l for power of the Chinese Communists. i i i Contents Introduction: 1 I: The Open Door as American Policy i n China: 3 1899-1932 II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and China: 1932-1942 27 III: China as a Great Power: Moscow, Cairo and Teheran 47 IV: Stilwell, The Chinese, Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta 65 V: Four Years of Diplomacy: An Assessment 92 Bibliography: 121 Appendi c i e s: 136 iv INTRODUCTION This study examines American diplomatic attempts to r a i s e China to the l e v e l of a great power from Pearl Harbour to the Yalta Conference. The study includes a survey of Sino-American re- l a t i o n s as exemplified by the Open Door Policy during the years 1899-1932, then concentrates on the following areas: The d i f - f i c u l t i e s involved i n providing China with material and advisory help throughout the war; the successful seating of the National- i s t s i n the U.N. Organization; some Chinese reactions to the mo- dest help received, and an assessment of the motives which l e d American diplomacy to r a i s e N a t i o n a l i s t China to great power sta- tus whilst ignoring the future p o t e n t i a l of the Chinese Communists i n t h e i r immediate and long-range plans for China. The bulk of the material used consists of o f f i c i a l American d i s - patches contained i n the State Department pu b l i c a t i o n : Foreign Relations of the United States. Diplomatic Papers, covering the years 1942-45. This material i s supplemented by selected memoirs of some of the i n d i v i d u a l s involved, general works by American and other scholars i n American diplomacy and a r t i c l e s and period- i c a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Sino-American r e l a t i o n s during t h i s period. An appendix reproducing the major documents referred to 2 throughout t h i s study i s added to the detailed bibliography. I THE OPEN DOOR AS AMERICAN POLICY IN CHINA: 1899-1932 More than a hundred years before the American Government showed an int e r e s t i n the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y of China, the myth of a fabulous China market had been firmly implanted i n the minds of many New England traders. Cook's t h i r d voyage, 1776-1780, with i t s tempting accounts of sea otter trade not only created the myth, but led to the i n i t i a l contacts between Americans and Chinese. During the l a t e 1780's and the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, these contacts centered on the i n d i v i d u a l forays of traders and whalers, yet o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the Orient was not en t i r e l y lacking. The Wilkes expedition of 1838-1842 int o the Southwest P a c i f i c and Perry's f o r c e f u l entry i n t o Japan i n 1853 followed by the Rodgers' survey of the North P a c i f i c i n 1853-1856, a l l provided needful data. Rodgers i n fact, intended tracing a commercial route from San Francisco to Shanghai but a lack of funds on h i s return from Japan put an end to h i s scheme. How- ever, h i s v i s i o n of Chinese goods being shipped across the P a c i f i c to the C a l i f o r n i a coast, then overland by r a i l to the A t l a n t i c and the markets of Europe, was to pe r s i s t well i n t o the second 4 h a l f of the nineteenth century. With the l i n k i n g of the Union and Central P a c i f i c r a i l r o a d s i n 1869, Rodgers' early v i s i o n was gradually transformed i n t o r e a l i t y . Yet, to the vast majority of Americans, China was des- tined to remain a rather nebulous e n t i t y . More "foreign" and more distant, China did not lend i t s e l f to that i n t e r e s t which Europe has continuously exerted on the American mind, both at the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l e v e l s of expression. The e a r l i e s t ethnic bonds ran eastward to B r i t a i n , and l a t e r , with the f i r s t im- migrant flood, spread to Ireland, to Germany, and i n time, to the whole of Europe. The Chinese labor that f i r s t entered the west coast i n 1848 was never able to achieve the degree of integration that most of i t s North European counterparts were to win for themselves even before the C i v i l War. I t was not u n t i l the end of the nineteenth century that Sino-American r e l a t i o n s were considered important enough to war- rant the e f f o r t of a major diplomatic move. The early t r e a t i e s of Wanghia i n 1844, T i e n t s i n i n 1858, and Washington i n 1868, had r e s t r i c t e d themselves to general questions of trade and con- sular services. By 1899 something more substantial was needed to cope with the spread of European i n t e r e s t s i n China, and the threat that these i n t e r e s t s might exclude America from a poten- t i a l l y large market for i t s manufactured goods, c u r t a i l the exis- t i n g minimal trade, and adversely a f f e c t i t s growing missionary 5 involvement i n that country. It should also be remembered that America was at the height of i t s j i n g o i s t adventure i n the Philippines, which some viewed as a possible stepping stone to China.* Others, such as Senator Beveridge of Indiana, Theodore Roosevelt, and h i s f r i e n d Henry Cabot Lodge, were influenced by Captain Mahan's l u c i d : The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. 1660-1783. and i t s plea for a two ocean navy to keep the sea lanes open to prospective colonies. These expansionists, and a f a i r l y wide segment of the American public whose taste for empire had not yet been soured by the tenacity of Emilio Aguinaldo, could hardly be expected to accept with benign detachment the vast c o l o n i a l expansion of B r i t a i n and Prance's "New Imperialism." 2 In the l a s t t h i r t y years of the nineteenth century, B r i t a i n i n e f f e c t , increased her empire by nearly f i v e m i l l i o n square miles, whilst France m u l t i p l i e d hers to over six m i l l i o n . When the scramble for A f r i c a ended i n 1898 and the European powers turned to China, the U.S. decided to protect what few int e r e s t s she had, or hoped to develop i n the Philippines and on the Asian mainland. The following year, a series of diplomatic notes were sent to the American diplomatic representatives i n Great B r i t a i n , Paris, B e r l i n , St. Petersburg, Rome, and Tokyo. Largely the work of A l f r e d Hippisley, a B r i t i s h Commissioner of Maritime Customs 6 i n China who influenced to some extent Hay's Far Eastern advisor William R o c k h i l l , the Open Door Notes of 1899-1900, set the stage for American p o l i c y i n China up to and beyond December 7, 1941. The f i r s t set of notes, those of September 6, 1899, were worded to convey the t r a d i t i o n a l abhorrence Americans held for spheres of influence, and suggested that a l l nations should enjoy equal access to the trade of China.^ As a free trade theory postdating Adam Smith by nearly one and a quarter centuries, i t could hardly claim the genesis of o r i g i n a l i t y . What was d i f - ferent, was America's attempt to influence a host of European countries i n t o cooperating with her to guarantee the i n t e g r i t y of a country outside her own continent. For a nation t r a d i - t i o n a l l y wary of foreign entanglements, here was as r a d i c a l a change i n foreign p o l i c y as any that had occurred since Washington's Farewell Address.^ With treaty r i g h t s i n China since 1844, American commercial i n t e r e s t s were rudely shaken on November 18, 1897 by the German seizure of the port of Kiaochou i n Shantung. Less than f i v e months l a t e r , Russia demanded the cession of Port Arthur at the t i p of the Kwantung Peninsula, along with the port of Talienwan and an extensive lease i n Southern Manchuria. This move created a c e r t a i n threat to American trade i n Manchuria and Northern China, areas which absorbed two-thirds of a l l American exports to China. In Chefoo, for example, one 7 o f t h e t r e a t y p o r t s now u n d e r German i n f l u e n c e , U . S . e x p o r t s o f c o t t o n , t e x t i l e s , and k e r o s e n e , i n c r e a s e d b y 2 0 0 - 4 0 0 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1894 and 1 8 9 7 . ^ Y e t , when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t a s l a t e a s 1 9 1 4 , A m e r i c a n e x p o r t s t o C h i n a w e r e l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l U . S . e x p o r t s , * * t h e s e i n c r e a s e s do n o t on t h e w h o l e amount t o a g r e a t d e a l o f t r a d e . When v i e w e d a g a i n s t a t o t a l U . S . o v e r - s e a s e x p a n s i o n o f 10 t o 12 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1 8 9 7 - 1 9 1 6 , 7 t h e o v e r a l l s i z e o f t h i s t r a d e was o f s u c h i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o - p o r t i o n s a s t o h a v e no p e r c e i v a b l e e f f e c t on t h e A m e r i c a n e c o n o m y . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e f a c t s and no i m m e d i a t e r i s e i n A m e r i c a n c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t i n C h i n a , t h e e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Open D o o r N o t e s p e r s i s t amongst s u c h w i d e l y r e a d c r i t i c s o f A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y a s W a l t e r L a F e b e r and W.A. W i l l i a m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a p p r o a c h i g n o r e s s u c h f a c t o r s a s d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s and an i n g r a i n e d s e n s e o f m i s s i o n w h i c h p e r m e a t e d U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h e New Y o r k T i m e s seems t o h a v e b e e n c l o s e r t o t h e r e a l i n t e n t o f t h e n o t e s when i t s t a t e d on F e b r u a r y 7 , 1 8 9 8 , t h a t t h e r e a l t h r e a t " i s n o t y e t i n o u r p r e s e n t t r a d e w i t h a l l C h i n e s e p o r t s , b u t t h e r i g h t t o a l l t h a t t r a d e w i t h i t s f u t u r e i n - c r e a s e . . . . " T h i s f e a r f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y t h a t i t m i g h t b e c u t o f f f r o m a p o t e n t i a l l y v a s t m a r k e t i n C h i n a b y t h e p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h a t c o u n t r y i n t o c l o s e d e c o n o m i c s p h e r e s o f 8 i n t e r e s t , h a d p r o b a b l y a f a r g r e a t e r e f f e c t i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e H i p p i s l e y - R o c k h i l l - H a y p o l i c y t h a n any i m m e d i a t e l o s s o f t r a d e , e v e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . Though s p e c u l a t i o n a s t o t h e i n t e n t o f t h e n o t e s p e r s i s t , what o f t h e i r w o r d i n g ? A s d o c u m e n t s t h a t g u i d e d A m e r i c a n r e - l a t i o n s w i t h C h i n a f o r o v e r f o r t y y e a r s , an a n a l y s i s o f b o t h t h e w o r d i n g a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n o t e s o f 1899 r e v e a l s an i d e n t i f i a b l e t r e n d . F i r s t , comes a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t a d m i t t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f B r i t i s h , G e r m a n , a n d R u s s i a n m i n i n g and r a i l r o a d i n t e r e s t s i n C h i n a . S e c o n d , a d e f i n i t i o n o f , and a p l e a f o r c o n - t i n u i n g t h e f r e e t r a d e o r " o p e n - d o o r " p o l i c y B r i t a i n h a d b e e n m a i n t a i n i n g i n s p i t e o f e x i s t i n g s p h e r e s b y E u r o p e a n p o w e r s " t o i n s u r e t o t h e commerce o f t h e w o r l d i n C h i n a e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t - ment w i t h i n s a i d ' s p h e r e s ' f o r commerce and n a v i g a t i o n . " T h i r d , a d i s a v o w a l o f s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t , f o r " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l i n no way commit i t s e l f t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f a n y power w i t h i n o r c o n t r o l o v e r any p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e E m p i r e , . . . " f o r t h i s c o u l d i m p e r i l e x i s t i n g A m e r i c a n t r e a t y r i g h t s . F o u r t h , a n o t h e r p l e a , t h i s t i m e more s p e c i f i c a l l y a i m e d a t p r e s e r v i n g i t s e x i s t i n g t r a d e , so t h a t A m e r i c a n s "may n o t b e p r e j u d i c e d t h r o u g h e x c l u s i v e t r e a t m e n t b y a n y o f t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r s w i t h i n t h e i r s o - c a l l e d s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t . " F i n a l l y , h a v i n g a g a i n r e s t a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a n o p e n m a r k e t f o r w o r l d c o m m e r c e , t h e n o t e s t u r n t o C h i n a a n d a d v o c a t e " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 9 r e f o r m s s o u r g e n t l y n e e d e d f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n - ment a n d m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f C h i n a i n w h i c h t h e w h o l e w e s t e r n w o r l d i s a l i k e c o n c e r n e d . " ^ T h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t , c o m i n g a f t e r t h e l o n g p r e a m b l e o v e r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f f o r e i g n t r a d e i n C h i n a , c o u l d e a s i l y b e c o n s t r u e d a s a mere s o p t o t h a t n a t i o n ' s i n t e r e s t s . I t was a l l o f t h a t , t h o u g h i t a l s o was a i m e d a t p a c i f y i n g t h e i d e a l i s m o f A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s i n C h i n a and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s a t home. T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e U . S . d e l u d e d no one a s t o t h e p r i m a r y i n t e n t o f t h e n o t e s , and t h o u g h Hay l o u d l y c l a i m e d s u c c e s s , " t h e r e p l i e s . . . w e r e c o u c h e d i n e v a s i v e and somewhat a m b i g u o u s t e r m s . " * - 0 On p u r e l y p r a g m a t i c g r o u n d s , none o f t h e E u r o p e a n p o w e r s w e r e e a g e r t o g u a r a n t e e t o t h e U . S . , o r t o t h e w h o l e w e s t e r n w o r l d , r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s t h e y , u n l i k e t h e U . S . , w e r e r e a d y t o p r o t e c t t h r o u g h f o r c e . T h e o n l y h o p e f u l a n s w e r was J a p a n ' s , w h i c h v i e w e d a n y p o l i c y w h i c h e v e n on t h e s u r f a c e r e - s t r i c t e d E u r o p e a n e x p a n s i o n i n C h i n a a s b e n e f i c i a l t o h e r own i n t e r e s t s i n t h a t c o u n t r y . I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o t e c t i n g e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e t r a d i n g r i g h t s , t h e M c K i n l e y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l s o h o p e d t h e v e r y w o r d i n g o f t h e n o t e s w o u l d a p p e a l t o t h e b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f A m e r i c a n i d e a l i s m ; t o t h a t s e l f - c o n c e i v e d d e s t i n y , a s o l d i n C h i n a a s t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e f f o r t s o f R i c c i , S c h a l l a n d V e r b i e s t . T h i s a t t i t u d e a s sumed t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h t h e a i d o f W e s t e r n 10 s c i e n c e c o u l d make an a p p r e c i a b l e i m p a c t on two t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . By c a t e r i n g t o t h i s i m p u l s e , M c K i n l e y was r a i s i n g t r a d e t o t h e l e v e l o f a m o r a l i s s u e , f o r " d e f e n s e m e r e l y o f . . . c o m m e r c i a l ' r i g h t s ' i n C h i n a h a d no s u c h a p p e a l a s t h e 'Open D o o r ' f o r a l l n a t i o n s . . . . " ^ U n l i k e t h e J e s u i t s S c h a l l and V e r b i e s t , who t h r o u g h a d e m - o n s t r a t e d s u p e r i o r i t y i n a s t r o l o g y managed t o r e a c h some o f t h e M a n d a r i n s , t h e A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t i n C h i n a was more f o r c e f u l l y a t t u n e d t o t h e e v a n g e l i c a l z e a l o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y P r o t e s t a n t i s m . F i r s t t o s e t t h e p a t t e r n was P e t e r P a r k e r a Y a l e m e d i c a l m i s s i o n a r y who l a n d e d i n C a n t o n i n J u n e , 1 8 3 4 , and i m - m e d i a t e l y d i r e c t e d h i s e f f o r t s t o w a r d h e l p i n g t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e . By 1 8 8 7 , s u c h p r o m i n e n t h u m a n i t a r i a n s a s J o h n M o t t , R o b e r t S p e a r , Sherwood E d d y and H e n r y L u c e S r . , h a d d e d i c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f C h i n a t h r o u g h t h e S t u d e n t V o l u n t e e r s f o r F o r - e i g n M i s s i o n s , a n d t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n B o a r d o f M i s s i o n s . L a t e r , t h e work i n i t i a t e d b y t h e s e men w o u l d b e c o n t i n u e d b y t h e Y a l e - i n - C h i n a p r o j e c t w h i c h r e a c h e d i t s a p o g e e u n d e r t h e g r e a t E d w a r d Hume, f o u n d e r o f t h e Y a l e m e d i c a l s c h o o l i n C h a n g s h a , H u n a n . T h e r e was t h e r e f o r e , more t h a n raw s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n a d i p - l o m a t i c move w h i c h s o u g h t t o p r o t e c t n o t o n l y i t s t r a d e r s , b u t a l s o men a s d i s i n t e r e s t e d a s t h e s e , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p a r t o f a n a t i o n w h i c h so f a r , s o u g h t no t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m a weak a n d d i v i d e d C h i n a . T h i s m i x t u r e o f s e c u l a r t h e o l o g y and 11 c o m m e r c i a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t was f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e w h o l e A m e r i c a n a p p r o a c h t o C h i n a , a n d p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e w e r e some e x c e p t i o n s h o w e v e r , s u c h a s t h e n a t i o n a l i s t e x p l o s i o n o f t h e B o x e r R e b e l l i o n , w h i c h p r o m p t e d t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e s e c o n d s e t o f n o t e s on J u l y 3, 1 9 0 0 . W i t h V i e n n a , B r u s s e l s , M a d r i d , t h e H a g u e , a n d L i s b o n a d d e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l l i s t , t h e n o t e s o p e n e d w i t h a w a r n i n g t h a t t h e U . S . w i l l h o l d t o " t h e u t t e r m o s t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y " any t r a n s g r e s - s i o n o f h e r e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s i n C h i n a . T h e n f o l l o w s a c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e u p r i s i n g a s " v i r t u a l a n a r c h y , " a n d a s t a t e - ment o f i n t e n t d e l i n e a t i n g what t h e U . S . i n t e n d s r e s c u i n g i n C h i n a : " A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s , m i s s i o n a r i e s , and o t h e r A m e r i c a n s , . . . [ ^ i nc lud ing ] a l l l e g i t i m a t e A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s . . . . " F i n a l l y , t h e n o t e s e n d w i t h an u n e q u i v o c a l p l e d g e t o " p r e s e r v e C h i n e s e t e r - r i t o r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y ^ 2 T h i s f i n a l s t a t e m e n t was t o b e r e p e a t e d w i t h m o n o t o n o u s r e g u l a r i t y a t e v e r y c r i s i s C h i n a f a c e d o v e r t h e n e x t f o r t y - o n e y e a r s . I t i s a t r i b u t e t o t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f m y t h s , t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e U . S . made no m a j o r a t t e m p t t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e w o r d s , y e t t h e i r v e r y e x i s - t e n c e s e r v e d t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e my th t h a t C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y was o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e t o A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I n November 1 9 0 0 , Hay u n d e r p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e War and Navy D e p a r t m e n t s , a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n n a v a l a n d t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s a t Samsah Bay i n F u k i e n p r o v i n c e . G r i s w o l d , c o m m e n t i n g on t h i s 12 a p p a r e n t l o s s o f i d e a l i s m , s t a t e s t h a t " t h e e r s t w h i l e c h a m p i o n o f C h i n e s e i n t e g r i t y , s t i l l o u t w a r d l y l o y a l t o t h e p o l i c y o f h i s n o t e s , h a d a c t u a l l y f o r s a k e n t h a t p o l i c y a n d t r i e d t o e n t e r t h e c o n c e s s i o n s - s c r a m b l e . 1 , 1 3 T h o u g h t h e n a v y p r e s s e d a g a i n i n 1901 and 1 9 0 2 , t h e U . S . , a l o n e o f t h e f o r e i g n p o w e r s i n C h i n a , r e f u s e d t o a c q u i r e any t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s . Y e t , s o p e r v a s i v e was t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f C h i n a , e v e n b e f o r e t h e B o x e r R e b e l l i o n , t h a t none o f t h e n o t e s s e n t i n 1900 w e r e a d d r e s s e d t o P e k i n g . T h e U . S . , i n f a c t , s o u g h t g u a r a n t e e s f o r i t s own a n d C h i n a ' s i n t e r - e s t s f r o m t h e v e r y p o w e r s t h a t w e r e v i o l a t i n g t h e l a t t e r * s s o v - e r e i g n t y . H e r e f i n a l l y , t h e Open D o o r N o t e s r e v e a l some o f t h e i r o r i g - i n a l i n t e n t : t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s a n d n a t i o n a l s i n C h i n a f r o m E u r o p e a n a n d J a p a n e s e p r e s s u r e s . T h i s i s n o t t o d e n y a s e n s e o f i d e a l i s m amongs t t h e p o l i c y p l a n n e r s o f 1 9 0 0 , b u t i t d o e s r e v e a l t h e a p p a l l i n g w e a k n e s s o f C h i n a , and h e r i n a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t h e r own i n t e r e s t s . T h e r h e t o r i c o f t h e n o t e s w h i c h showed an i n t e r e s t i n p r o - t e c t i n g C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y , h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e r u s h f o r C h i n e s e p l u n d e r and c o n c e s s i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e s u p - p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e b e l l i o n . N o r d i d i t p r e v e n t , a s M a r i l y n Y o u n g a d e q u a t e l y d o c u m e n t s , some A m e r i c a n s f r o m e x a c t i n g t h e i r own t o l l f o r t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e B o x e r s , an a t t i t u d e s h a r p l y i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , w h i c h saw t h e U . S . r e t u r n i n g t o C h i n a 13 the reparations the Imperial Government had been forced to pay 14 for the losses Americans had incurred during the f i g h t i n g . Over the next thirty-two years, American i n t e r e s t s on the Asian mainland would be repeatedly challenged, whilst China, saved from immediate p a r t i t i o n by the r i v a l r i e s of the concession powers, would f i n a l l y emerge a truncated nation, her t e r r i t o r i a l and administrative i n t e g r i t y a mere phrase i n an old diplomatic note, with Japan firmly holding the balance of power i n the Far East. The process was not long i n s t a r t i n g . As early as 1902, Russia was barring American trade i n Manchuria and consolidating i t s influence i n a part of China i t had preempted since the Boxer Rebellion. The following year, with U.S. consulates barred from the area, Hay summed up the impact of U.S. domestic p o l i t i c s on as independent a person as Theodore Roosevelt: "I take i t for granted," he t o l d T.R. on A p r i l 28, 1903, "that Russia knows as we do that we w i l l not f i g h t over Manchuria, for the simple reason that we cannot,... we could never get a treaty through the Senate the object of which was to check Russian aggression."*- The Russo-Japanese War and the subsequent negotiations at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, which ended the c o n f l i c t on September 5, 1905, revealed Japan as the strongest naval power i n the Far East, and i d e n t i f i e d her as the greatest single threat to the Open Door i n China. Though Roosevelt attempted to balance 14 R u s s i a n i m p e r i a l i s m w i t h J a p a n e s e p o w e r , C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y s u f f e r . I n May, 1 9 0 8 , t h e U . S . s i g n e d an a r b i t r a t i o n t r e a t y w i t h J a p a n , p r o m p t i n g t h e P e k i n g Chung Y i n q T u n g Pao t o w o n d e r "how t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d r a g e i f C h i n a a n d any o t h e r power a g r e e d t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f J a p a n ! " - ^ S i x m o n t h s l a t e r , J a p a n ' s p r e s e n c e i n M a n c h u r i a was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d t h r o u g h t h e R o o t - T a k a h i r a A g r e e m e n t , w h e r e t h e U . S . e x c h a n g e d t h e s t a t u s q u o i n A s i a f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s and t h e Open D o o r i n C h i n a . ^ 7 W i t h t h e e n d o f R o o s e v e l t ' s s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , J a p a n , w i t h t h e t a c i t a g r e e m e n t o f t h e U . S . and B r i t a i n , was s e c u r e l y e n s c o n c e d i n K o r e a , t h e Open D o o r was b e i n g g r a d u a l l y c l o s e d , a n d t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s h a d t a k e n p r e c e d e n c e o v e r C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y . By 1 9 0 9 , a n d t h e a d v e n t o f W i l l i a m H . T a f t t o t h e W h i t e H o u s e , i t was e v i d e n t t o b o t h t h e new p r e s i d e n t a n d s e c r e t a r y Knox , t h a t s o m e t h i n g new w o u l d h a v e t o b e a t t e m p t e d t o m a i n t a i n A m e r i c a ' s p r e s e n c e i n C h i n a . T h e T a f t - K n o x " D o l l a r - D i p l o m a c y " w h i c h f o l l o w e d , a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l i n t o a r e g i o n i n w h i c h i t was n o t i n t h e l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d . T a f t i n f a c t , went s o f a r a s t o p e r s o n a l l y t e l e g r a p h t h e r e g e n t o f C h i n a , P r i n c e C h u n , a s k i n g h i m t o a l l o w e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l i n t h e E u r o p e a n c o n t r o l l e d Hukuang r a i l w a y l o a n . T h e r e was a l s o an a t t e m p t t o i n v o l v e A m e r i c a n b a n k e r s i n r e f o r m i n g C h i n a ' s 15 c u r r e n c y . A g a i n , a s i n t h e Hukuang l o a n , t h e i n i t i a t i v e came f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , n o t A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l , w h i c h h a d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n i n v e s t i n g i n a v i r t u a l l y unknown e n t i t y w i t h no i m m e d i a t e g u a r a n t e e d r e t u r n . By 1 9 1 4 , A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t s i n C h i n a amounted t o o n l y $ 7 , 2 9 9 , 0 0 0 , y e t i n t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r y e a r s , t h e a v e r a g e " y e a r l y " A m e r i c a n i m p o r t and e x p o r t t r a d e w i t h J a p a n h a d e x c e e d e d t h a t w i t h C h i n a b y $ 7 8 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 1 8 T h e W i l s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e n d e d t h e T a f t - K n o x e x p e r i m e n t on M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 1 3 , b y w i t h d r a w i n g A m e r i c a n s u p p o r t f o r t h e Hukuang l o a n , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l o a n w e r e so u n f a v o u r a b l e t o C h i n a a s t o i m p i n g e on t h e l a t t e r ' s " a d m i n i s t r a - t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e . " Two month s l a t e r , t h e W i l s o n i a n i d e a l i s m was a g a i n e v i d e n t i n t h e a t t e m p t t o p l a c e a Y . M . C . A . o f f i c i a l , J o h n R. M o t t , a s U . S . A m b a s s a d o r t o C h i n a . I n J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 5 , J a p a n , u s i n g h e r w a r t i m e a l l i a n c e w i t h B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e a s a p r e t e x t , a t t e m p t e d t o s e c u r e S h a n t u n g f r o m Germany and i n c r e a s e h e r p r e s e n c e i n S o u t h e r n M a n c h u r i a . T h e " T w e n t y - O n e D e m a n d s , " w h i c h J a p a n p r e s e n t e d t o C h i n a , amoun ted t o a n u l t i m a t u m w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d t h e l a t t e r ' s v e r y e x i s t e n c e a s a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y . W i l s o n a f t e r some h e s i t a t i o n , o b j e c t e d i n p r i n c i p l e t o t h e d e m a n d s . H o w e v e r , B r y a n i n a n o t e t o t h e J a p a n e s e A m b a s s a d o r on M a r c h 1 3 , s t a t e d t h a t a s f a r a s S h a n t u n g , S o u t h M a n c h u r i a a n d E a s t e r n I n n e r M o n g o l i a w e r e c o n - c e r n e d , " t e r r i t o r i a l c o n t i g u i t y c r e a t e s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n 16 1 9 J a p a n a n d t h e s e d i s t r i c t s . " When C h i n a was f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o a c c e p t an a l t e r e d v e r s i o n o f t h e demands on May 7 , B r y a n w a r n e d J a p a n t h a t t h e U . S . r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e any a g r e e m e n t t h a t i m - p a i r e d t h e Open D o o r i n C h i n a . Two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e L a n s i n g - I s h i i A g r e e m e n t r e c o g n i z e d " t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l p r o p i n q u i t y c r e a t e s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e c o g n i z e s t h a t J a p a n h a s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n C h i n a , p a r t i c u - l a r l y i n t h e p a r t t o w h i c h h e r p o s s e s s i o n s a r e c o n t i g u o u s . " 2 0 A t t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s J a p a n was c o n f i r m e d i n h e r h o l d on S h a n t u n g , i n s p i t e o f W i l s o n ' s o b v i o u s d i s g u s t i n s a c r i f i c i n g C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y t o a p p e a s e J a p a n and m a i n t a i n t h e i d e a o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . Prom C h i n a , B i s h o p James W. B a s h f o r d and Samue l J . W o o d b r i d g e , a m i s s i o n a r y and one o f W i l s o n ' s r e l a t i v e s , r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a m o r a l i s s u e . W i l s o n a n s w e r e d t h a t b o t h F r a n c e and B r i t a i n " a b s o - l u t e l y b o u n d t h e m s e l v e s b y a t r e a t y t o J a p a n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e S h a n t u n g s e t t l e m e n t a s i t s t a n d s i n t h e t r e a t y w i t h G e r m a n y . " 2 ^ - W i l s o n a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t a U . S . r e f u s a l t o s i g n t h e t r e a t y w o u l d i n no way b e n e f i t C h i n a . By 1 9 2 1 , J a p a n c o n t r o l l e d t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f S a k h a l i n I s l a n d , S h a n t u n g , G e r m a n y ' s p r e w a r c o l o n i e s i n t h e P a c i f i c , and s i n c e t h e N o r t h S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n o f 1 9 1 8 , P o r t A r t h u r , D a i r e n , a n d t h e S o u t h M a n c h u r i a n R a i l w a y . T h a t same y e a r , t h e 17 W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e on d i s a r m a m e n t a t t e m p t e d t o r e s e t a s e m - b l a n c e o f a b a l a n c e o f power i n A s i a . The F i v e - P o w e r N a v a l T r e a t y w h i c h e m e r g e d , l i m i t e d t h e s i g n i n g c o u n t r i e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e U . S . , B r i t a i n a n d J a p a n ) t o a 5 - 5 - 3 r a t i o i n n a v a l c o n s t r u c - t i o n , and a F o u r - P o w e r T r e a t y b e t w e e n t h e U . S . , B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , a n d J a p a n , e l i m i n a t e d t h e A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e o f 1 9 0 2 , w h i c h some A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i a n s s u c h a s R . L . B u e l l , saw a s one o f t h e 22 m a i n c a u s e s o f J a p a n e s e e x p a n s i o n . T h i s was f o l l o w e d i n 1922 b y a N i n e - P o w e r T r e a t y i n w h i c h b o t h t h e U . S . a n d J a p a n a g r e e d t o r e s p e c t C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e g r i t y a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y . J a p a n a l s o g a v e u p t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l " G r o u p V " o f t h e T w e n t y - O n e Demands , a g r e e d t o a l l o w C h i n a t o r e i n s t a t e i t s e l f i n S h a n t u n g , and a t U . S . i n s i s - t e n c e , t e r m i n a t e d t h e L a n s i n g - I s h i i A g r e e m e n t . A t l i t t l e c o s t t o i t s e l f , t h e U . S . h a d a p p a r e n t l y k e p t t h e d o o r o p e n t o C h i n a , and on p a p e r , r e d u c e d t h e n a v a l a d v a n t a g e w h i c h J a p a n h a d e n j o y e d i n A s i a s i n c e 1902 t h r o u g h i t s n a v a l a l l i a n c e w i t h B r i t a i n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d b y n o t f o r t i f y i n g i t s i s l a n d p o s s e s s i o n s w e s t o f H a w a i i , and f o r m u l a t i n g no s t r a t e g i c p l a n t o s u p p o r t i t s p o l i c y i n A s i a and i n t h e P a c i f i c , t h e U . S . g r a n t e d J a p a n t h e p r i v a c y i t n e e d e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s e x p a n s i o n i n t h e P a c i f i c a n d u l t i m a t e l y i n C h i n a . A p a r t f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e S h a n t u n g q u e s t i o n , t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t a t u s q u o i n 18 C h i n a and weakened h e r a t t e m p t s a t u n i f i c a t i o n . Sun Y a t - s e n , f u l l y aware o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e t r e a t y c o n t i n u e d t o i m p o s e on t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e , a p p e a l e d t o S e c r e t a r y H u g h e s , b u t t h e l a t t e r d i d n o t e v e n b o t h e r t o o p e n S u n ' s l e t t e r . 2 3 i n an i n t e r v i e w i n t h e New Y o r k T i m e s o f J u l y 2 2 , 1 9 2 3 , Sun g a v e v e n t t o h i s f r u s t r a t i o n : "We h a v e l o s t h o p e o f h e l p f r o m A m e r i c a , E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , o r a n y o f t h e g r e a t P o w e r s . The o n l y c o u n t r y t h a t shows a n y s i g n o f h e l p i n g u s i n t h e s o u t h i s t h e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t o f R u s s i a . " 2 / * T h r e e y e a r s a f t e r S u n ' s d e a t h i n 1 9 2 5 , t h e U . S . r e c o g n i z e d C h i a n g K a i - s h e k ' s N a n k i n g G o v e r n m e n t and t h e p a r t i a l r e u n i f i - c a t i o n o f C h i n a t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s h a d managed t o a c h i e v e . On J u l y 2 8 , 1 9 2 8 , t h e U . S . r e l i n q u i s h e d i t s c o n t r o l o v e r C h i n a ' s t a r i f f s , t h e r e b y b e c o m i n g t h e f i r s t power t o g i v e u p p a r t o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s i t e n j o y e d a l o n g w i t h J a p a n and a h o s t o f E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s u n d e r t h e " U n e q u a l T r e a t i e s " s y s t e m o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h 25 c e n t u r y . D u r i n g t h e l a t e t w e n t i e s a n d t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s , t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m g r e w , made a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e t r e a t y p o w e r s i n e v i t a b l e . S p r e a d i n g n o r t h o f t h e G r e a t W a l l , t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , b y 1 9 3 1 , h a d e n c o m p a s s e d M a n c h u r i a , an a r e a a s s i g n e d t o J a p a n a s h e r own s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e . On S e p t e m b e r 1 8 , f o l l o w i n g a c o n v e n i e n t e x p l o s i o n on t h e S o u t h M a n c h u r i a n R a i l w a y , t h e J a p a n e s e Army o c - 19 c u p i e d Mukden and b e g a n t h e i n v a s i o n o f M a n c h u r i a . On M a r c h 1 o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e J a p a n e s e p u p p e t s t a t e o f Manchukuo was d e c l a r e d , and M a n c h u r i a o f f i c i a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d a s a C h i n e s e e n t i t y . W i t h t h e U . S . on t h e v e r g e o f t h e g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n , H e r b e r t H o o v e r r e f u s e d t o r e a c t t o J a p a n ' s b l a t a n t t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f C h i n a ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y , t h e N i n e - P o w e r T r e a t y , a n d t h e K e l l o g g - B r i a n d P a c t o u t l a w i n g w a r . I n f a c t , i t was o n l y a f t e r a h e a t e d a r g u m e n t w i t h S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S t i m s o n , t h a t H o o v e r was d i s s u a d e d f r o m p u b l i c l y a n n o u n c i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n o f n o t i m p o s i n g e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s on J a p a n . S t i m s o n h a d h o p e d t o u s e t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o v e r t h o s e s a n c t i o n s a s a means o f p r e s s u r i n g 26 J a p a n o u t o f M a n c h u r i a . Though t h e U . S . was n o t a member o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , S t i m s o n n e v e r t h e l e s s a t t e m p t e d t o g e t t h e L e a g u e t o t a k e some a c t i o n a g a i n s t J a p a n who a s a member was b o u n d b y i t s c o v e n a n t . On J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 3 2 , h o b b l e d b y H o o v e r ' s r e f u s a l t o h o n o u r t h e commi tment s o f t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y , S t i m s o n i n f o r m e d J a p a n a n d C h i n a t h a t t h e U . S . w o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e any t r e a t y o r a g r e e - ment w h i c h r a n c o u n t e r t o t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y , o r w h i c h was 27 a c h i e v e d b y means c o n t r a r y t o t h e K e l l o g g - B r i a n d P a c t . The S t i m s o n N o n - R e c o g n i t i o n D o c t r i n e w h i c h became an a p p e n d a g e t o t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y , h a d no v i s i b l e e f f e c t i n s t emming t h e J a p a n e s e c o n q u e s t o f M a n c h u r i a . N o r was t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s 20 more s u c c e s s f u l , f o r t h e J a p a n e s e i g n o r e d t h e t i m e l i m i t s t h e L e a g u e s e t f o r t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f h e r t r o o p s , and when condemned b y t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e L y t t o n C o m m i s s i o n , w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n M a r c h , 1 9 3 3 . I f a n y d o u b t s s t i l l l i n g e r e d b e f o r e t h e S t i m s o n D o c t r i n e t h a t A m e r i c a w o u l d s u p p o r t C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y w i t h a n y t h i n g more s o l i d t h a n w o r d s , t h e r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y few a f t e r J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 3 2 . F o r t h e n e x t s e v e n y e a r s , A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y w o u l d f o l l o w w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s t h e a m b i g u o u s p a t h o f d e n o u n c i n g t h e s p r e a d o f J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s m i n A s i a , w h i l s t a t t h e same 28 t i m e i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t i n g t h a t same i m p e r i a l i s m t h r o u g h t r a d e . NOTES 1 C h a r l e s D e n b y , t h e f o r m e r U . S . M i n i s t e r t o C h i n a saw t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s a s an " a l t e r n a t i v e " t o a c q u i r i n g t e r r i t o r y i n C h i n a . Q u o t e d i n R . H . H o f s t a d t e r , T h e P a r a n o i d S t y l e i n A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c s , a n d o t h e r E s s a y s (New Y o r k : K n o p f , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 6 7 - 6 8 . 2 H o f s t a d t e r s t a t e s t h a t " i t i s r e v e a l i n g t h a t t h e u n d e r d o g f o r c e s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y showed a c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r r e s p o n - s i v e n e s s t o t h e i d e a o f war w i t h S p a i n , t h a n t h e g r o u p s t h a t w e r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . " I b i d . , p . 1 8 5 . See a l s o i b i d . . p p . 1 6 9 - 8 2 . 3 F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x I. 4 W.A. W i l l i a m s g o e s so f a r a s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y " e x p r e s s e d t h e b a s i c s t r a t e g y a n d t a c t i c s o f A m e r i c a ' s s e c u l a r and i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . When c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i d e o l o g y o f an i n d u s t r i a l M a n i f e s t D e s t i n y , t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Open D o o r N o t e s became t h e h i s t o r y o f A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s f r o m 1900 t o 1 9 5 8 . " T h e T r a g e d y o f A m e r i c a n D i p l o m a c y ( C l e v e l a n d : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 3 9 - 4 0 . 5 T . V . M c C o r m i c k , C h i n a M a r k e t : A m e r i c a ' s Q u e s t f o r I n f o r m a l E m p i r e . 1 8 9 3 - 1 9 0 1 ( C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 9 1 . 6 F . Tannenbaum, The A m e r i c a n T r a d i t i o n i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y (Norman: t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O k l a h o m a P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 0 8 . 7 W i l l i a m s , p . 4 1 . W i l l i a m s m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e n o t o n l y " t h o u g h t " t h a t t h i s 10 p e r c e n t was e s s e n t i a l t o i t s r e c o v e r y b u t t h a t i t c o u l d " o n l y " b e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n . J . W . P r a t t s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s - t e d a s e a r l y a s 1897 " a w i d e s p r e a d b e l i e f t h a t C h i n a was t o p r o - v i d e an e x c e e d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t m a r k e t f o r t h e s u r p l u s p r o d u c t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " E x p a n s i o n i s t s o f 1 8 9 8 : T h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f H a w a i i and t h e S p a n i s h I s l a n d s ( B a l t i m o r e : T h e J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 2 6 1 , n . 8 1 . 22 8 P. 6 , q u o t e d i n M c C o r m i c k , p . 91 ( I t a l i c s m i n e . ) R.W. Van A l s t y n e s e e s d o m e s t i c p r e s s u r e s a s h a v i n g f o r c e d t h e M c K i n l e y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o s u p p o r t i n g t h e Open D o o r . " T h e A m e r i c a n E m p i r e : I t s H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n a n d E v o l u t i o n , " H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n P a m p h l e t , N o . 43 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 6 . See a l s o M c C o r m i c k , p . 1 9 ; W i l l i a m s , p p . 3 7 - 3 9 . F o r a s o b e r a p p r a i s a l o f t h e l i m i - t a t i o n s o f e c o n o m i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f U . S . 1 9 t h c e n t u r y i m p e r i a l i s m , s e e H o f s t a d t e r , p . 1 8 3 . 9 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r : A u g u s t 1949 ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , I, 4 1 4 - 1 6 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x I. 10 F . R . D u l l e s , C h i n a a n d A m e r i c a : T h e s t o r y o f t h e i r r e - l a t i o n s s i n c e 1784 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 1 1 1 . O . E . C l u b b a d d s t h a t " t h e R u s s i a n r e p l y was d i s - t i n c t l y e q u i v o c a l . . . . " T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y C h i n a (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 2 8 . 11 L . J . H a l l e , A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y : T h e o r y a n d R e a l i t y ( L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 2 2 4 - 2 5 . 12 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r , I, 4 1 6 - 1 7 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x I I . 13 A .W. G r i s w o l d , T h e F a r E a s t e r n P o l i c y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 8 3 . One s h o u l d n o t l o s e s i g h t o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o U . S . i n v o l v e m e n t o v e r - s e a s f r o m s u c h i n f l u e n t i a l d o m e s t i c g r o u p s a s t h e A n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t L e a g u e , o r g a n i z e d i n 1898 w i t h s u c h n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s a s C a r l S c h u r z a n d D a v i d S t a r r J o r d a n a s v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s . 14 T h e R h e t o r i c o f E m p i r e : A m e r i c a n C h i n a P o l i c y 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 0 1 ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . Young s i n g l e s o u t t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e R e v e r e n d s W. Ament a n d E . G . T e w k s b u r y , t h e l a t t e r , a f t e r t h e s i e g e o f t h e l e g a t i o n s was l i f t e d " t o o k one o f P e k i n g ' s b e s t [ p a l a c e s } , an e s t a t e c o n s i s t i n g o f a b o u t f i f t y b u i l d i n g s , f u l l y f u r n i s h e d . A l t h o u g h t h e p a l a c e h a d b e e n l o o t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s , some $ 3 , 0 0 0 w o r t h o f s i l v e r was l e f t . . . . " I b i d . , p . 1 9 1 . See a l s o i b i d . , p p . 1 9 2 - 9 7 . O f t h e $333 m i l l i o n a w a r d e d t h e U . S . a s r e p a r a t i o n s , t h e l a t t e r o n l y c l a i m e d $25 m i l l i o n a n d i n 1907 r e t u r n e d t o C h i n a o v e r $10 m i l l i o n o f t h i s a m o u n t . T a n n e n b a u m , p . 1 0 1 . 15 Q u o t e d i n G r i s w o l d , p . 8 4 . See a l s o G . E . Mowry, T h e E r a o f T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t and t h e B i r t h o f Modern A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 8 3 . 23 16 Q u o t e d i n P . C . J e s s u p , E l i h u R o o t (New Y o r k : Dodd M e a d , 1938), I I , 43. 17 F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x I I I . G r i s w o l d s t a t e s t h a t " a t t h e v e r y moment i t was s i g n e d a C h i n e s e d i p l o m a t was on h i s way t o W a s h i n g t o n i n t h e f o r l o r n h o p e o f n e g o t i a t i n g a G e r m a n - C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n t r e a t y g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e - g r i t y o f C h i n a : T h e R o o t - T a k a h i r a A g r e e m e n t n i p p e d h i s p r o j e c t i n t h e b u d . " G r i s w o l d , p . 130. 18 G r i s w o l d , p . 174, n . 3, q u o t i n g F . V . F i e l d ( e d . ) , E c o n o m i c Handbook o f t h e P a c i f i c A r e a ( G a r d e n C i t y , N . Y . : D o u b l e d a y , 1934). 19 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 433. E . T . W i l l i a m s , t h e A m e r i c a n C h a r g e ' i n P e k i n g , went s o f a r a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t J a p a n e s e i m - m i g r a t i o n t o M a n c h u r i a m i g h t v e r y w e l l e a s e t h e t e n s e s i t u a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a o v e r J a p a n e s e l a n d o w n e r s h i p . L i , T i e n - y i , Woodrow W i l s o n ' s C h i n a P o l i c y (New Y o r k : U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s C i t y P r e s s , 1952), p . 113. A s t o W i l s o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e c r i s i s , L i s t a t e s t h a t " P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n , l i k e any A m e r i c a n P r e s i d e n t b e f o r e h i m , w o u l d n o t r e s o r t t o o t h e r t h a n ' p e a c e f u l m e a n s ' f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r i t y . " I b i d . . p . 129. 20 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 437. By some o b s c u r e l o g i c , t h e a g r e e m e n t g o e s on t o s t a t e t h a t t h e t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y o f C h i n a , n e v e r t h e l e s s , r e m a i n s u n i m p a i r e d . 21 W i l s o n t o W o o d b r i d g e , S e p t e m b e r 2, 1919, W i l s o n P a p e r s , q u o t e d i n P . A . V a r g , M i s s i o n a r i e s , C h i n e s e , a n d D i p l o m a t s : T h e A m e r i c a n P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n a r y Movement i n C h i n a . 1890-1952 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 145. See a l s o A . S . L i n k , Woodrow W i l s o n a n d t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a . 1910-1917 (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1954), p . 81; E . M c B u r n s , T h e A m e r i c a n I d e a o f M i s s i o n : C o n c e p t s o f n a t i o n a l p u r p o s e a n d d e s t i n y (New B r u n s w i c k : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p p . v i i , 262; S. F r e u d and W. B u l l i t t , Thomas Woodrow W i l s o n . A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1967), p . 268. 22 T h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1922), p p . 103-34. T h e 5-5-3 r a t i o r e p r e s e n t e d 500,000 t o n s e a c h f o r t h e U . S . a n d B r i t a i n , and 300,000 f o r J a p a n . On December 5, t h e C o n f e r e n c e a l l o w e d J a p a n t o r e t a i n t h e b a t t l e - s h i p s M u t s u a n d N a g a t o w h i c h p r o m p t e d B r i t a i n t o c o m p l e t e t h e " H o o d , " and t h e U . S . two b a t t l e s h i p s o f t h e "West V i r g i n i a " c l a s s , t h e r e b y n e g a t i n g t o a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e v e r y i d e a o f d i s - armament o r p a r i t y . 24 23 W i l l i a m s , p . 1 0 2 . 24 C l u b b , p . 1 2 1 . T h a t same y e a r , L e n i n s e n t M i k h a i l B o r o d i n who a r r i v e d i n C a n t o n i n O c t o b e r , o s t e n s i b l y a s a member o f t h e R o s t a News A g e n c y . F o r a v i e w o f U . S . a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e C h i n e s e R e p u b l i c b y 1 9 2 5 , s e e D. B o r g , A m e r i c a n P o l i c y a n d t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 8 (New Y o r k : O c t a g o n B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 ) . 25 F o r c e d on C h i n a t h r o u g h t h e 1842 T r e a t y o f N a n k i n g a f t e r t h e B r i t i s h Op ium War o f 1 8 3 9 - 4 2 . T h e s e t r e a t i e s i n c l u d e d e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s f o r f o r e i g n c o n c e s s i o n s , t h e s t a t i o n i n g o f f o r e i g n t r o o p s a n d p o l i c e t o p r o t e c t t h e m , t h e c o n t r o l o f f i v e t r e a t y p o r t s , t h e l o w e r i n g o f i m p o r t t a r i f f s , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a r i f f s , t h e "most f a v o r e d n a t i o n " c l a u s e , t h e b u i l d i n g o f C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h e s , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n t p o s t o f f i c e s a n d t e l e g r a p h a g e n c i e s , t h e a r b i t r a r y l e a s i n g o f C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y a n d t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t . I n 1 8 4 4 , t h e T r e a t y o f W a n g h i a g r a n t e d U . S . c i t i z e n s i n C h i n a e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t u s i n b o t h c i v i l a n d c r i m i n a l c a s e s . C l u b b , p p . 1 2 , 8 3 , 1 5 8 - 5 9 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x I V . 26 E . E . M o r i s o n , T u r m o i l a n d T r a d i t i o n : A S t u d y o f t h e L i f e and T i m e s o f H e n r y L . S t i m s o n ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 8 3 , n . 2 2 . See a l s o W.A . W i l l i a m s , T h e S h a p i n g o f A m e r i c a n D i p l o m a c y ; r e a d i n g s a n d d o c u m e n t s i n A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , 1 7 5 0 - 1 9 5 5 ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 6 9 0 - 7 0 6 . T h e K e l l o g g - B r i a n d P a c t o f A u g u s t 2 7 , 1 9 2 8 , t o w h i c h J a p a n was a s i g n a t o r y , h a d o u t l a w e d war a s a means o f s e t t l i n g i n t e r - n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . 27 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 4 4 6 - 4 7 . See a l s o S t i m s o n t o B o r a h , F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1 9 3 2 , i b i d . . 4 4 7 - 5 0 . 28 TABLE 1. — T o t a l U . S . t r a d e w i t h J a p a n & C h i n a , a l l c o m m o d i t i e s : 1 9 2 0 - 3 3 . U n i t : m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t h r o u g h o u t : JAPAN Y e a r E x p o r t % o f T . E . I m p o r t % o f T o t a l I m p o r t 1920 1924 1930 1933 377 252 164 143 4 . 6 5.5 4 . 3 8 . 6 415 340 279 128 7 . 9 9 .4 9.1 8 . 8 25 CHINA Y e a r E x p o r t % o f T . E , I m p o r t % o f T o t a l I m p o r t 1920 1924 1930 1933 145 109 89 63 1.8 2 .4 2 .3 3.8 193 118 101 43 3.7 3.3 3.3 3 .0 F . V . F i e l d ( e d . ) , E c o n o m i c Handbook o f t h e P a c i f i c A r e a ( G a r d e n C i t y . N . Y . : D o u b l e d a y . 1 9 3 4 ) . p p . 4 7 0 - 7 1 . TABLE 2 . — T o t a l J a p a n e s e t r a d e w i t h t h e U . S . , a l l c o m m o d i t i e s : 1 9 3 6 - 3 9 . U n i t : t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s : Y e a r G e n e r a l I m p o r t s G e n e r a l E x p o r t s 1936 1937 2 4 6 , 0 6 2 3 6 5 , 5 0 2 1 7 5 , 8 1 8 1 8 8 , 0 9 0 1938 2 6 0 , 6 6 7 1 2 3 , 8 3 6 U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n and D o m e s t i c Commerce, F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k : 1939 ( W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 2 6 8 . TABLE 3. — T o t a l J a p a n e s e t r a d e w i t h t h e U . S . , a l l c o m m o d i t i e s : 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 4 1 . U n i t : t h o u s a n d y e n t o 1 9 3 6 . m i l l i o n y e n 1 9 3 6 - 4 1 i n c : Y e a r I m p o r t E x p o r t E x c h a n g e R a t e 1920 8 7 3 , 1 8 2 5 6 5 , 0 1 7 100 y e n - 4 9 . 5 / 8 o f U . S . 1925 6 6 4 , 9 9 2 1 , 0 0 0 , 2 5 3 - 4 0 . 3 / 4 1930 4 4 2 , 8 8 2 5 0 6 , 2 2 0 - 4 9 . 3 6 7 1935 8 0 9 , 6 4 5 5 3 5 , 5 1 5 - 2 8 . 5 7 0 1940 1,241 569 - 2 3 . 4 3 7 1941 572 278 - 2 3 . 4 3 7 One H u n d r e d Y e a r s S t a t i s t i c s o f t h e J a p a n e s e Economy ( T o k y o : S t a t i s t i c s D e p a r t m e n t , Bank o f J a p a n , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 2 9 0 - 9 3 , 3 2 0 , q u o t e d b y C o n s u l a t e G e n e r a l o f J a p a n , V a n c o u v e r , F e b r u a r y 1. 1 9 7 1 . 26 TABLE 4 . — T o t a l J a p a n e s e i m p o r t s o f p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s f r o m t h e U . S . ( i n c . o i l s and f a t s ) : 1 9 2 5 - 3 9 . U n i t : m i l l i o n y e n t h r o u g h - o u t : Y e a r I m p o r t % o f T o t a l T r a d e 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 9 2 . 4 4 . 0 1 9 3 0 - 3 4 1 1 4 . 6 6 .8 1935 1 1 6 . 7 6.7 1937 2 9 7 . 8 7 . 9 1939 2 1 2 . 5 9 . 0 P . V . F i e l d , K . R . C . G r e e n e , J . D . P h i l l i p s ( e d s . ) , A n E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f t h e P a c i f i c A r e a (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t , IPR, 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 1 8 9 . II FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND CHINA: 1932-1942 The advent of the second Roosevelt to the presidency did not bring any immediate change to Sino-American r e l a t i o n s , yet any assessment of h i s reactions to events i n Asia from 1932 to 1942, must take i n t o consideration the e x i s t i n g domestic con- d i t i o n s i n America and h i s personal attitude toward China. For Roosevelt l i k e Wilson, by-passed the State Department and made h i s own foreign p o l i c y , a p o l i c y which at times appeared contra- dictory, yet r e f l e c t e d both of the aforementioned fa c t o r s . In 1932 he became the f i r s t Democratic candidate to repu- diate the League of Nations, but the following year he t r i e d to re- d i r e c t the London Economic Conference from "banker's issues ... to the r e a l i t i e s of the world economic dilemma,..." earning i n the process an accolade from John Maynard Keynes who headlined h i s a r t i c l e i n the Daily M a i l : "President Roosevelt i s Magnificently Right."*- He f u l l y supported Stimson's Non-Recognition Doctrine and to the objections of h i s closest advisers, Moley and Tugwell, explained that he "had the deepest sympathy with the Chinese. How could you expect me not to go along with Stimson on Japan?" 2 On December 6, 1934, he summed up h i s views on China: 28 " C h i n a h a s b e e n t h e M e c c a o f t h e p e o p l e whom I h a v e c a l l e d t h e •money c h a n g e r s i n t h e T e m p l e . ' T h e y a r e s t i l l i n a b s o l u t e c o n - t r o l . I t w i l l t a k e many y e a r s and p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l r e v o l u t i o n s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e m b e c a u s e t h e new C h i n a c a n n o t b e b u i l t u p i n a d a y . S o m e m o n t h s l a t e r h e p u b l i c l y s t a t e d a t t h e San D i e g o E x p o s i t i o n t h a t " ' d e s p i t e what h a p p e n s i n c o n t i n e n t s o v e r s e a s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a s h a l l and mus t r e m a i n , a s l o n g ago t h e F a t h e r o f o u r c o u n t r y p r a y e d t h a t i t m i g h t r e m a i n - u n e n t a n - g l e d a n d f r e e . " ' 4 T h i s a p p a r e n t r e v e r s a l f r o m an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t t o an i s o l a t i o n i s t s t a n d was r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e f i r s t N e u t r a l i t y A c t w h i c h R o o s e v e l t s i g n e d i n O c t o b e r 1 9 3 5 , g u a r a n t e e i n g t o t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e t h a t t h e U . S . w o u l d n o t i n t e r v e n e i n f o r e i g n w a r s ( t h e a c t was amended i n 1936 t o c o v e r t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War) . I t i s p o s s i b l e a s S c h l e s i n g e r s u g g e s t s , t h a t R o o s e v e l t b e - l i e v e d h e c o u l d i n f l u e n c e w o r l d a f f a i r s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s and s t e e r i t s members away f r o m w a r . ^ I t i s a l s o p o s - s i b l e t h a t s e e i n g t h e f u t i l i t y o f t h i s a p p r o a c h b y 1 9 3 5 , h e r e s o r t e d t o n e u t r a l i t y a s a means o f k e e p i n g t h e U . S . o u t o f a c o n f l i c t h e h a d come t o a c c e p t a s u n a v o i d a b l e . T h i s l o g i c a l p r e m i s e d o e s h a v e some v a l i d i t y a s f a r a s E u r o p e i s c o n c e r n e d , b u t when a p p l i e d t o C h i n a , a n a t i o n w i t h whom t h e U . S . s h a r e d a p o l i c y w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d A m e r i c a ' s i n t e r e s t i n C h i n a ' s " t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y , " i t r a i s e s more q u e s t i o n s t h a n i t a c t u - 29 a l l y a n s w e r s . I t d o e s n o t f o r e x a m p l e e x p l a i n t h e s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t a n g i b l e s w h i c h a f f e c t e d R o o s e v e l t ' s v i e w s on C h i n a . A s l a t e a s 1 9 6 9 , an e m i n e n t U . S . h i s t o r i a n s t i l l h a r p e d b a c k t o t h e s e i n t a n g i b l e s , r e c a l l i n g t h a t R o o s e v e l t ' s m o t h e r h a d s a i l e d f o r Hong Kong i n a s q u a r e - r i g g e r a t t h e age o f s e v e n . A l s o , t h a t FDR t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e h a d e n j o y e d t h e t a l e s o f t h e D e l a n o s and t h e C h i n a t r a d e and t h a t h i s u n c l e , T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t , h a d p r e s e n t e d h i m w i t h a c o p y o f M a h a n ' s I n f l u e n c e o f Sea P o w e r . . . on h i s f i f t e e n t h b i r t h d a y . ^ N o r d o e s i t e x p l a i n some o f t h e v i e w s h e s h a r e d w i t h a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , s u c h a s an h i s t o r i c s e n s e o f m i s s i o n , t h a t r e s i d u a l m i x t u r e o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y n a t i o n a l i s m , p r a g m a t i s m , and e v a n g e l i c a l p r o t e s t a n t i s m , s o t h o r o u g h l y e n u n c i a t e d b y J o s i a h S t r o n g . Though R o o s e v e l t a s a b o r n c o n s e r v a t i v e r e t a i n e d some o f t h e s e c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s , h e a l s o was t h e f i r s t p r e s i d e n t t o b r e a k d e c i s i v e l y w i t h t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n A m e r i c a n d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s . T o t h i s a b i l i t y t o e v o l v e , t o c o p e w i t h i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m s a s t h e y d e v e l o p e d , R o o s e v e l t a d d e d an i n g r a i n e d s e n s e o f j u s t i c e w h i c h t r a n s l a t e d i t s e l f i n t o a g r e a t d e a l o f s y m p a t h y f o r t h e u n d e r d o g . When a p p l i e d t o d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h C h i n a , t h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c " n o b l e s s e o b l i g e , " was f a c e d w i t h t h e n e a r i n s o l u b l e t a s k o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h e f r e e t r a d e r h e t o r i c o f t h e Open D o o r 30 P o l i c y , w h i c h p r e c l u d e d e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t C h i n a ' s m a i n a g g r e s s o r , J a p a n , w i t h t h e s i n c e r e i n t e n t o f h e l p i n g C h i n a and a l s o k e e p i n g A m e r i c a o u t o f f o r e i g n w a r s . T h i s w r i t e r t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t s t h e r e v i s i o n i s t t h e s i s s o w h o l e h e a r t e d l y e x p l o i t e d b y t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t s , t h a t R o o s e v e l t k n o w i n g l y p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e U . S . i n t o W o r l d War I I , f o r h i s r e a c t i o n s t o J a p a n e s e a g - g r e s s i o n i n C h i n a u p t o May, 1 9 4 1 , b e l i e any s u c h p e r n i c i o u s 7 a s s u m p t i o n s . I n A p r i l 1 9 3 4 , w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Amau D e c l a r a t i o n , t h e J a p a n e s e g r a n t e d t h e m s e l v e s a q u a s i - p r o t e c t o r a t e o v e r C h i n a a n d a s sumed t h e r o l e o f " g u a r d i a n o f p e a c e a n d o r d e r i n e a s t e r n A s i a . " 8 T h a t same m o n t h , t h e U . S . i n a n o t e t o J a p a n r e a s s e r t e d i t s t r e a t y r i g h t s i n C h i n a a n d on J u l y 7 , p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t J a p a n e s e c o m m e r c i a l m o n o p o l i e s i n M a n c h u r i a . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , C o r d e l l H u l l i s s u e d a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g C h i n e s e - J a p a n e s e " a c t i v i t i e s " i n N o r t h C h i n a , r e i t e r a t e d t h e t r u i s m s o f t h e Open D o o r , and summed u p b y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e U . S . " h a d a b i d i n g f a i t h i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l 9 p o l i c y . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , J a p a n n e e d n o t f e a r d i r e c t A m e r i c a n i n t e r v e n t i o n o r s a n c t i o n s on b e h a l f o f C h i n a o r t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y . I t was n o t u n t i l 1937 t h a t t h i s p o l i c y e v i n c e d a p e r - c e p t i b l e c h a n g e . F o l l o w i n g t h e p r e t e x t p r o v i d e d b y t h e M a r c o P o l o B r i d g e i n c i d e n t o n J u l y 7 , t h e J a p a n e s e l a u n c h e d t h e i r s e c o n d i n v a s i o n 31 o f C h i n a . H o p i n g t o e s c a p e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n s u r e , t h e y o m i t t e d t h e d i p l o m a t i c n i c e t i e s o f an o f f i c i a l d e c l a r a t i o n and t h e w a r r e m a i n e d an u n d e c l a r e d o n e . S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e H u l l r e s p o n d e d two weeks l a t e r w i t h a l e n g t h y s t a t e m e n t r e d e f i n i n g t h e p r i n c i - p l e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and o f t h e Open D o o r , a n d on A u g u s t 1 0 , i n f o r m a l l y o f f e r e d h i s c o u n t r y ' s s e r v i c e s a s m e d i a t o r i n t h e c o n f l i c t . T h e J a p a n e s e , w i t h t h e T r e a t y o f P o r t s m o u t h p r o b a b l y i n m i n d , r e j e c t e d t h e o f f e r . I t was n o t u n t i l O c t o b e r 5, t h a t R o o s e v e l t i n a s p e e c h i n C h i c a g o p u b l i c l y r e v e a l e d h i s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g w o r l d s i t u a t i o n : " I t seems t o b e u n f o r - t u n a t e l y t r u e , " h e s t a t e d " t h a t t h e e p i d e m i c o f w o r l d l a w l e s s n e s s i s s p r e a d i n g . When an e p i d e m i c o f p h y s i c a l d i s e a s e s t a r t s t o s p r e a d , t h e c o m m u n i t y a p p r o v e s a n d j o i n s i n q u a r a n t i n e o f t h e p a t i e n t s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a g a i n s t t h e s p r e a d o f t h e d i s e a s e . " * - 0 T h e i m p l i e d t h r e a t o f e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e b e e n l o s t on i n s u l a r J a p a n . T h e n e x t d a y h o w e v e r , a p r e s s r e - l e a s e f r o m t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t a n n u l l e d wha t l i t t l e b e l l i c o s i t y t h e s p e e c h c o n t a i n e d b y r e i t e r a t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f n o n i n t e r v e n - t i o n a s a g u i d e t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . T o r n b e t w e e n n e u - t r a l i t y and t h e u r g e t o i n t e r v e n e , R o o s e v e l t h a d e v i d e n t l y m i s - c a l c u l a t e d t h e mood o f t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c whose r e a c t i o n t o h i s " q u a r a n t i n e s p e e c h " was so b a d , " t h a t h e f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o i m m e d i a t e l y d i s a v o w t h e p l a i n m e a n i n g o f h i s own w o r d s . 32 E v e n d i r e c t a c t i o n a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l s f a i l e d t o move U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y o u t o f i t s n e u t r a l i t y . On December 1 2 , 1 9 3 7 , t h e J a p a n e s e A i r F o r c e s a n k t h e w e l l m a r k e d U . S . g u n b o a t P a n a y and t h r e e S t a n d a r d O i l t a n k e r s on t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Y a n g t z e . T h i s t i m e , p u b l i c r e a c t i o n f l a r e d u p t o s u c h a n e x t e n t , t h a t R o o s e v e l t p e r s o n a l l y w r o t e t h e memorandum t h a t was h a n d e d t o t h e J a p a n e s e A m b a s s a d o r . H o w e v e r , b e f o r e t h e m e s s a g e was r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o T o k y o , t h e J a p a n e s e F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r a p o l o g i z e d i n p e r s o n t o t h e U . S . A m b a s s a d o r t o T o k y o , and w i t h due c o m p e n - s a t i o n s p a i d , t h e i n c i d e n t d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e news . F u r t h e r i n c i d e n t s f o l l o w e d i n 1 9 3 8 , i n c l u d i n g r e s t r i c t i v e t r a d e m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l s and A m b a s s a d o r Grew c o m p l a i n e d i n a l e n g t h y n o t e t o t h e J a p a n e s e G o v e r n m e n t . The J a p a n e s e an swer a v o i d e d t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e s and Grew d i s p a t c h e d a s e c o n d n o t e on December 3 0 , t h i s t i m e t o t h e J a p a n e s e F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , c a s t i g a t i n g t h e t r a d e r e s t r i c t i o n s a s " u n j u s t " a n d " u n w a r r a n t e d " and s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c l a i m i n g any n e e d f o r a J a p a n e s e 12 "new o r d e r " i n A s i a . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e U . S . n o t i f i e d J a p a n t h a t a c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y i n e x i s t e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s s i n c e 1911 w o u l d b e c a n c e l l e d . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u c h a move a s e a r l y a s J u l y 2 6 , 1 9 3 9 , a d d e d some c r e d e n c e t o U . S . s u p p o r t o f C h i n a ' s t e r r i - t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y . On M a r c h 3 0 , 1 9 4 0 , t h e d i p l o m a t i c t empo was i n c r e a s e d when H u l l r e p u d i a t e d t h e J a p a n e s e p u p p e t G o v e r n m e n t i n 33 N a n k i n g . H u l l a l s o i n d i c a t e d h i s c o u n t r y ' s u n e q u i v o c a l i n t e n t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g t o r e c o g n i z e C h i a n g K a i - s h e k ' s N a t i o n a l i s t G o v e r n - ment a s t h e s o l e g o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a , a n d b y t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r , a t r a d e embargo on a v i a t i o n f u e l a n d s t r a t e g i c m e t a l s was i m p o s e d on J a p a n . On May 6 , 1 9 4 1 , i n a m a j o r s h i f t o f p o l i c y , R o o s e v e l t e x - t e n d e d t h e L e n d - L e a s e A c t t o C h i n a , p u b l i c l y d e c l a r i n g h e r d e f e n s e v i t a l t o t h a t o f t h e U . S . ; s c r a p i r o n a n d o i l n e v e r t h e - l e s s c o n t i n u e d t o e s c a p e t h e e m b a r g o e s . On J u l y 2 4 , t o r n b e t w e e n a s e n t i m e n t a l commitment t o C h i n a , t h e d o m e s t i c p r e s s u r e s o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r i e s (whose i s o l a t i o n i s m d i d n o t e x t e n d t o t r a d e ) , a n d a p e r s i s t e n t m a j o r i t y o f t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e who f a v o r e d n e u - t r a l i t y , R o o s e v e l t a t t e m p t e d t o j u s t i f y h i s p o l i c y a n d i n t h e p r o c e s s r e v e a l e d h i s own d i l e m m a : Now, i f we h a d c u t t h e o i l o f f , t h e y p r o b a b l y w o u l d h a v e gone down t o t h e D u t c h E a s t I n d i e s a y e a r a g o , and y o u w o u l d h a v e h a d w a r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was - y o u m i g h t c a l l - a m e t h o d i n l e t t i n g t h i s o i l go t o J a p a n , w i t h t h e h o p e - and i t h a s w o r k e d f o r two y e a r s - o f k e e p i n g war o u t o f t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c f o r o u r own g o o d , f o r t h e g o o d o f t h e d e f e n c e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e s e a s . * - 3 Two d a y s l a t e r ( J u l y 2 6 ) , a l l t r a d e w i t h J a p a n v i r t u a l l y e n d e d w i t h t h e f r e e z i n g o f t h e l a t t e r ' s a s s e t s i n t h e U . S . On November 2 6 , H u l l , i n an swer t o a J a p a n e s e p r o p o s a l t h a t v e r g e d o n t h e a r r o g a n t , made a l a s t a t t e m p t a t r e a c h i n g a modus v i v e n d i w i t h J a p a n . I n a document h a n d e d t o t h e J a p a n e s e A m b a s s a d o r , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e d e f i n e d a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s 34 t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d h a v e t o meet t o i m p r o v e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U . S . A s t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s e n t a i l e d t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f a l l J a p a n e s e p o l i c e a n d a rmed f o r c e s f r o m C h i n a a n d I n d o c h i n a and c o n t a i n e d no i m m e d i a t e p r o m i s e t o l i f t t h e arms and o i l e m b a r g o e s , 14 t h e o f f e r was r e j e c t e d . T h e J a p a n e s e r e a c t i o n t o t h i s l a t e s t v i o l a t i o n o f t h e f r e e t r a d e b a s i s o f t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y and A m e r i c a ' s s u p p o r t o f C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y , was i m m e d i a t e . On t h e v e r y d a y H u l l t r a n s m i t t e d h i s c o u n t r y ' s d o c u m e n t t o Nomura , a J a p a n e s e f l e e t s e t s a i l a t 1800 h o u r s f r o m H i t t o p a p u B a y ; on December 7 , i t s c a r r i e r s t u r n e d i n t o t h e w i n d and a t 7 : 5 5 A . M . , t h e f i r s t bomb f e l l on P e a r l H a r b o u r . W i t h t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e Open D o o r P o l i c y t h a t d e a l t w i t h f r e e t r a d e , l o s t what l i t t l e c r e d i b i l i t y t h e y h a d managed t o s a l v a g e s i n c e 1 9 3 7 . T h o u g h n e v e r i n t e n d e d a s a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t p o l i c y , e a c h s u c c e s - s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f R o o s e v e l t ' s t h i r d ) h o p e d i t s r h e t o r i c w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o a v o i d A m e r i c a n i n t e r - v e n t i o n on t h e A s i a n m a i n l a n d . When i n 1941 t h e U . S . u n e q u i v o - c a l l y s p o k e i n d e f e n s e o f C h i n a ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , i t was more i n r e s p o n s e t o J a p a n ' s t u r n a b o u t f r o m C h i n a t o t h e P a c i f i c , t h a n a s a d i r e c t r e a c t i o n t o J a p a n e s e a g g r e s s i o n i n C h i n a . T h i s r e d i r e c t i o n o f J a p a n e s e " C o - P r o s p e r i t y " e f f o r t s s o u t h - w a r d i n t o an a r e a o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e U . S . h a d b e e n o v e r t l y a p p a r e n t s i n c e 1 9 3 9 , when she o c c u p i e d t h e i s l a n d o f H a i n a n , 35 p l a c i n g h e r s e l f a s t r i d e t h e l i n e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o t h e P h i l i p p i n e s a n d t h e r u b b e r a n d t i n o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a . I n A p r i l 1 9 4 1 , J a p a n s i g n e d a n o n a g g r e s s i o n t r e a t y w i t h t h e U . S . S . R . , t h e r e b y a s s u r i n g h e r s e l f a t e m p o r a r y r e s p i t e o n h e r n o r t h e r n f l a n k . On J u l y 2 , t h e d r i v e s o u t h w a r d was f o r m a l l y e n d o r s e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e m i l i t a r y a n d n i n e t e e n d a y s l a t e r t h e p r o c e s s b e g a n w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f I n d o c h i n a . ^ on J u l y 2 6 , t h e t o t a l t r a d e embargo was i m p o s e d c u t t i n g o f f t h e l o w g r a d e o i l J a p a n h a d b e e n r e p r o c e s s i n g i n t o a u s a b l e a v i a t i o n f u e l . T o what e x t e n t t h i s l a t e s t s a n c t i o n ( i m p o s e d a f t e r t h e o c - c u p a t i o n o f s o u t h e r n I n d o c h i n a ) f o r c e d J a p a n t o s e e k an a l t e r n - a t i v e s o u r c e o f o i l , i s d e b a t a b l e . T h e f a c t r e m a i n s h o w e v e r , t h a t a f t e r J u l y 2 6 , t h e J a p a n e s e Navy w i t h a d a i l y c o n s u m p t i o n o f 1 2 , 0 0 0 t o n s , c o u l d h a v e r u n o u t o f o i l i n e i g h t e e n m o n t h s , t h e 16 army i n t w e l v e . T h e r e i s a l s o l i t t l e r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e U . S . i g n o r e d t h e s e f a c t s . N o r d i d t h e y f a i l t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s e c o n d a r y n a t u r e o f C h i n a i n A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y . Y e t , t o t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c , t h a t i n t e r e s t i n C h i n a , t h a t m y s t i q u e w h i c h t r a n s c e n d e d e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l b o u n d s p e r s i s t e d ; a s a n a s t u t e o b s e r v e r o f A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y n o t e d : O u r a n t i - E u r o p e a n i s o l a t i o n i s t s h a d b e e n (and t h o s e t h a t r e m a i n s t i l l a r e ) o u r mos t m i l i t a n t a d v o c a t e s o f i n t e r v e n - t i o n i n t h e F a r E a s t . I s o l a t i o n i s t s a r e ' A s i a n - f i r s t e r s * ; ' A s i a n - f i r s t e r s ' a r e a l m o s t b y d e f i n i t i o n , i s o l a t i o n i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o E u r o p e . P e r h a p s one c a n s a y t h a t t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n i s o l a t i o n i s t s r e g a r d n o t o n l y t h e W e s t e r n H e m i s - 36 p h e r e , b u t t h e F a r E a s t a s w e l l , a s o u r own p r e s e r v e . T h e i r h o p e f o r C h i n a h a s b e e n i t s A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n . 7 T h o u g h t h e r e was l i t t l e i s o l a t i o n i s m i n R o o s e v e l t , h e a l s o s h a r e d t h i s h o p e f o r C h i n a ' s p o l i t i c a l A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n i n t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e . U n l i k e t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s h i s v i s i o n was a t t u n e d t o a b r o a d e r w o r l d , a w o r l d i n w h i c h C h i n a i n s p i t e o f h i s s e n - t i m e n t s , was n o t c o n s i d e r e d o f i m m e d i a t e v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o h i s c o u n t r y . P e a r l H a r b o u r d i d n o t g r e a t l y a l t e r t h i s c o n v i c t i o n , a n d t h o u g h R o o s e v e l t m a t e r i a l l y h e l p e d C h i n a t h r o u g h o u t t h e war w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h i s commi tment s i n E u r o p e and i n t h e P a c i f i c , C h i n a ' s p r o b l e m s c o n t i n u e d t o b e o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o h i s i m m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e o f w i n n i n g t h e war i n b o t h o f t h e s e t h e a t e r s . The a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r , c o m b i n e d t o t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s i n v a s i o n o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , M a l a y a , a n d t h e D u t c h E a s t I n d i e s , c o n f i r m e d b e y o n d any r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t t h e d i r e c t i o n and s c o p e o f J a p a n ' s i m m e d i a t e and l o n g - r a n g e g o a l s . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n i t s h i s t o r y , t h e U . S . h a d b e e n t h r u s t i n t o one o f C h i n a ' s w a r s a s b o t h n a t i o n s f a c e d a common enemy. I n May o f t h a t y e a r , C h i n a h a d become e l i g i b l e f o r L e n d - L e a s e g o o d s . By December 7 , some o f t h e s e s u p p l i e s h a d a l r e a d y f o u n d t h e i r way t o C h i n a , w h i l s t o t h e r s , s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P a c i f i c i n s u c h o u t p o s t s a s Wake I s l a n d , w e r e d e s t r o y e d b e f o r e t h e i r s u r r e n d e r t o t h e 18 J a p a n e s e . 37 The d i f f i c u l t y o f s u p p l y i n g C h i n a w i t h arms b e f o r e P e a r l H a r b o u r was m a s s i v e l y c o m p l i c a t e d b y J a p a n ' s c o n t r o l o f C h i n a ' s m a j o r p o r t s . T h i s f a c t r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t G o v e r n m e n t t o t h e Burma R o a d ; a t o r t u o u s s u p p l y r o u t e made more t e n u o u s b y g r a f t , m i s m a n a g e m e n t , and t h e f r e q u e n t a t t a c k s o f t h e J a p a n e s e A i r F o r c e . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e remembered t h a t b y December 1 9 4 1 , t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s h a d b e e n p u s h e d n o r t h w a r d t o C h u n k i n g i n S z e c h u a n P r o v i n c e b y a J a p a n e s e Army t h a t h a d r a v a g e d l a r g e s e g - m e n t s o f C h i n a s i n c e 1 9 3 7 . The o u t s e t o f 1 9 4 2 , f o u n d t h e J a p a n e s e w i t h i n a h u n d r e d m i l e s o f S i n g a p o r e ; b y M a r c h , R a n g o o n , t h e l a s t p r a c t i c a b l e p o r t o f a c c e s s t o t h e Burma Road h a d b e e n c a p t u r e d , f o r c i n g a l l s u p - p l i e s t o C h i n a t o t h e a i r l i f t o v e r t h e "Hump. " T h i s i n v o l v e d f l y i n g a s h u t t l e s e r v i c e o f D . C . 3 ' s a t 1 7 , 0 0 0 f e e t o v e r t h e H i m a l a y a s f r o m As sam i n I n d i a t o Kunming i n Y u n n a n P r o v i n c e , C h i n a . The 500 m i l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r o u t e n e c e s s i t a t e d f l y i n g o v e r some o f t h e mos t r u g g e d t e r r a i n i n t h e w o r l d , t o w h i c h was a d d e d t h e i n c l e m e n c i e s o f t h e s e a s o n a l m o n s o o n , and a t t h e C h i n e s e 19 e n d , a t o t a l l a c k o f e v e n s u c h b a s i c l o g i s t i c s a s f u e l . The p r o b l e m o f d e l i v e r i n g what few s u p p l i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o C h i n a i n s p i t e o f h e r p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n was n e v e r r e a l l y s o l v e d a n d r e m a i n e d t o p l a g u e S i n o - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r . A s l a t e a s O c t o b e r 3 , 1 9 4 4 , S e c r e t a r y o f War S t i m s o n , c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e l o g i s t i c a l d r a i n t h e Hump a i r l i f t i m p o s e d on 38 O p e r a t i o n s i n E u r o p e : T o d a y we a r e h a m s t r u n g i n H o l l a n d a n d t h e mouth o f t h e S c h e l d t R i v e r f o r l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t p l a n e s n e c e s s a r y t o make new a i r - b o r n e f l i g h t s i n t h a t n e i g h b o r h o o d . T h e same l a c k i s c r i p p l i n g u s i n N o r t h e r n I t a l y . T h i s e f f o r t o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n s o f Burma b i d s f a i r t o c o s t u s a n e x t r a w i n t e r i n t h e m a i n t h e a t e r o f w a r . . . . 2 0 D i f f i c u l t o f a c c e s s b e f o r e A m e r i c a ' s e n t r y i n t o W o r l d War I I , C h i n a ' s i s o l a t i o n a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t l o s s o f S i n g a p o r e and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , was n e a r c o m p l e t e . T h e r e a l s o d e v e l o p e d a g r o w i n g r e l u c t a n c e f r o m B r i t a i n a n d l a t e r f r o m t h e U . S . S . R . t o a n y d i v e r s i o n o f L e n d - L e a s e g o o d s t o C h i n a . B r i t a i n i n f a c t , e v i n c e d f r o m t h e v e r y o u t s e t a m a r k e d a v e r s i o n t o m i l i t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e C h i n e s e a n d s e d u l o u s l y a v o i d e d a n y o p e r a t i o n s i n Burma t h a t m i g h t c a u s e t h e J a p a n e s e t o o v e r r e a c t t o w a r d I n d i a . F a c e d w i t h f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t h a v e d e t e r r e d a l e s s r e s o u r c e - f u l n a t i o n , t h e U . S . r e s o r t e d t o d i p l o m a t i c t o o l s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e N a t i o n a l i s t G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a . On J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 4 2 , t w e n t y - f i v e d a y s a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r , C h i n a was i n c l u d e d amongs t t h e f o u r g r e a t p o w e r s t o s i g n t h e f i r s t D e c l a r a t i o n b y U n i t e d N a t i o n s . T h i s g e s t u r e o f A l l i e d s o l i d a r i t y i n i t i a t e d a p o l i c y t h e U . S . was t o p u r s u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r : t o t r e a t C h i n a a s a g r e a t p o w e r . T h i s " G r a n d A l l i a n c e " a s C h u r c h i l l t e r m e d i t , c o m m i t t e d e a c h c o u n t r y ' s r e s o u r c e s t o t h e w a r a n d b o u n d e a c h f r o m s i g n i n g a s e p a r a t e p e a c e . 2 39 There was no apparent opposition at t h i s stage from either B r i t a i n or Soviet Russia to China's new status, a move they pro- bably viewed as l i t t l e more than a passing fantasy from an a l l y neither could afford to s l i g h t , given the r a t i o of forces i n the world. S t a l i n , already indebted to the U.S., had i n fact thanked Roosevelt a few weeks e a r l i e r for a b i l l i o n d o l l a r loan for the 22 purchase of Lend-Lease goods. Chur c h i l l ' s i n i t i a l acquiescence was not to l a s t however, and on h i s return from the Arcadia Conference early i n January, he voiced h i s doubts as to China's relevance to the war and the American assessment of her capabil- i t i e s : At Washington I had found the extraordinary significance of China i n American minds, even at the top, strangely out of proportion. I was conscious of a standard of values which accorded China almost an equal f i g h t i n g power with the B r i t i s h Empire, and rated the Chinese armies as a factor to be mentioned i n the same breath as the armies of Russia. I t o l d the President how I f e l t American opinion overestimated the contribution which China could make to the general war. He d i f f e r e d s t r o n g l y . 2 3 Churchill's pessimism, fostered by h i s country's long colon- i a l experience i n Asia, was heightened by the fear that China's new status would cause a reduction i n the flow of war materials to B r i t a i n . There was also Chiang Kai-shek's d i r e c t interference i n India's i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s during a short v i s i t to Calcutta on February 2 2 . In an address to the stated that after the war, B r i t a i n give them r e a l p o l i t i c a l power. Indian people, Chiang had " w i l l as speedily as possible The following month, 40 C h u r c h i l l ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o I m p e r i a l m a t t e r s was f u r t h e r a r o u s e d when l a r g e l y a t R o o s e v e l t ' s i n s i s t e n c e , t h e C r i p p s M i s s i o n t r i e d w i t h o u t s u c c e s s t o r e a c h a p o l i t i c a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i t h t h e A l l I n d i a C o n g r e s s . I n v i e w o f s u c h a t t i t u d e s , C h i n a ' s p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , and R u s s i a ' s v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g h e r n e u t r a l s t a t u s w i t h J a p a n , what d i d A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h o p e t o a c h i e v e b y i n c l u d i n g C h i n a amongs t t h e g r e a t p o w e r s ? C o r d e l l H u l l , t h e n S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , l i s t s two p r i m e o b j e c t i v e s : T h e f i r s t was t h e e f f e c t i v e j o i n t p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e w a r . T h e s e c o n d was t h e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d b u i l d i n g up o f C h i n a a s a m a j o r power e n t i t l e d t o e q u a l r a n k w i t h t h e t h r e e W e s t e r n A l l i e s , R u s s i a , B r i t a i n , a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , d u r i n g a n d a f t e r t h e w a r , b o t h f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a p o s t w a r o r g a n i - z a t i o n a n d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a b i l i t y and p r o s p e r i t y i n t h e O r i e n t . 2 ^ T h e i m m e d i a t e g o a l o f k e e p i n g C h i n a i n t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n was o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e U . S . F o r t h e v e r y f a c t o f C h i n a ' s r e s i s t a n c e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y , t i e d down m a s s e s o f J a p a n e s e t r o o p s t o t h e A s i a n m a i n l a n d , t r o o p s t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e u s e d i n t h e P a c i f i c o r on t h e b o r d e r s o f I n d i a . T h e t h o u g h t t h e r e f o r e , t h a t C h i n a o u t o f mere e x h a u s t i o n m i g h t r e a c h a s e p a r a t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h J a p a n was n e v e r f a r f r o m R o o s e v e l t ' s m i n d . A s t o H u l l ' s s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e , i t became t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f a new C h i n a p o l i c y . By t r e a t i n g C h i n a a s a g r e a t p o w e r , U . S . d i p l o m a c y was f i l l i n g t h e v o i d l e f t b y t h e i m - p o s s i b l e s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g R o o s e v e l t w i t h t h e 41 e x c u s e h e n e e d e d t o b r i n g h e r i n t o h i s p r o p o s e d s y s t e m o f c o l - l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y . On May 2 9 , 1 9 4 2 , R o o s e v e l t b r o a c h e d t h e s u b j e c t o f an i n t e r - n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o M o l o t o v . T h i s c o m p r i s e d n o t o n l y a rms c o n t r o l b u t more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a s y s t e m t o p o l i c e t h e p o s t w a r w o r l d b y t h e f o u r g r e a t p o w e r s : t h e U . S . , U . S . S . R . , B r i t a i n a n d C h i n a . M o l o t o v a s s u r e d R o o s e v e l t t h a t S t a l i n f u l l y a g r e e d and t h a t t h e l a t t e r h a d s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h e 27 U . S . , a n d " p o s s i b l y C h i n a " a s t h e p o l i c i n g p o w e r s . F i v e m o n t h s l a t e r , C h u r c h i l l i n a m i n u t e t o E d e n c o m m e n t i n g on R o o s e v e l t ' s " F o u r Power P l a n " t o p o l i c e t h e w o r l d , d o u b t e d t h a t C h i n a c o u l d p e r f o r m i t s f u t u r e r o l e : "I c a n n o t r e g a r d t h e C h u n k i n g G o v e r n m e n t a s r e p r e s e n t i n g a g r e a t w o r l d P o w e r . C e r - t a i n l y t h e r e w o u l d b e a f a g g o t v o t e on t h e s i d e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n any a t t e m p t t o l i q u i d a t e t h e B r i t i s h o v e r s e a s E m p i r e . " 2 T h i s a s t u t e o b s e r v a t i o n f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e a f a c e t o f R o o s e v e l t ' s f e e l i n g s : t h a t i n h e r e n t n e e d t o " d o s o m e t h i n g f o r C h i n a , " i n s p i t e o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f w a r , g e o g r a p h y , and t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f C h i n e s e p o l i t i c s . T h o u g h R o o s e v e l t c o n s t a n t l y p r o d d e d C h u r c h i l l o n c o l o n i a l q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s I n d i a a n d Hong K o n g , t h e u s e A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h o p e d t o d raw f r o m t h a t " f a g g o t v o t e " was f a r b r o a d e r t h a n t h e mere e x t i n c t i o n o f an e m p i r e t h a t h a d l o n g p a s s e d i t s p e a k . A s t h e war p r o g r e s s e d , f a c t o r s w o u l d emerge t o c o n f i r m t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , y e t C h u r c h i l l n e v e r l o s t t h e 42 i m p r e s s i o n t h a t R o o s e v e l t f a v o r e d t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r C h i n a , t h i s a t t i t u d e s t r e n g t h e n e d C h u r c h i l l ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e A m e r i c a n a t t e m p t s t o s e a t C h i n a i n t h e f o r m i n g w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t y m i e d some o f R o o s e v e l t ' s p l a n s t o e a s e C h i n a ' s p l i g h t t h r o u g h d i r e c t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n . NOTES 1 Q u o t e d i n A . S . S c h l e s i n g e r J r . , "A s t h e w o r l d moved t o w a r d w a r , FDR w a t c h e d a n d w o r k e d f o r p e a c e . " New Y o r k T i m e s Book R e v i e w . J u l y 6, 1 9 6 9 , p . 2 . R. H o f s t a d t e r t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f FDR i n t h i s i n s t a n c e : " I t was h e J H o f s t a d t e r s t a t e s j , "who k i l l e d t h e L o n d o n E c o n o m i c C o n f e r e n c e i n 1933 w i t h a m e s s a g e m i n i m i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l m o n e t a r y a g r e e m e n t s a n d a f f i r m i n g t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o go i t s own w a y . " The A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n a n d t h e men who made i t (New Y o r k : K n o p f , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 3 3 9 . See a l s o W . E . L e u c h t e n b u r g , F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t a n d t h e New D e a l , 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 4 0 (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 1 9 9 , 2 0 0 - 0 5 . 2 H o f s t a d t e r , T h e A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n . . . . p . 3 3 9 , n . 1 4 . 3 R o o s e v e l t t o M o r g e n t h a u , J r . , q u o t e d i n E . B . N i x o n ( e d . ) , F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t a n d F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . M a r c h . 1 9 3 4 - A u g u s t , 1935 ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , I I , 3 0 6 . E a r l i e r i n t h i s memorandum, R o o s e v e l t h a d a d v i s e d M o r g e n t h a u t o " p l e a s e remember t h a t I h a v e a b a c k g r o u n d o f a l i t t l e o v e r a c e n t u r y i n C h i n e s e a f f a i r s , C h i n a i n t h e p a s t h u n d r e d y e a r s h a s n o t c h a n g e d v e r y much i f y o u t h i n k o f C h i n a a s an a g g r e g a t i o n o f f o u r h u n d r e d m i l l i o n p e o p l e . " I b i d . T h i s b a c k g r o u n d h o w e v e r , seems n o t t o h a v e made h i m aware o f some o f t h e s o c i a l a n d p o - l i t i c a l c h a n g e s t h e n t a k i n g p l a c e i n C h i n a . L e s s t h a n two m o n t h s e a r l i e r , some n i n e t y t h o u s a n d Commun i s t t r o o p s h a d b r o k e n o u t o f t h e K i a n g s i - F u k i e n a r e a t o b e g i n t h e e p i c o f t h e L o n g M a r c h and t h e u l t i m a t e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f Mao T s e - t u n g ' s h o l d on t h e s e c o n d mos t i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n i n C h i n a . 4 Q u o t e d i n M c B u r n s , p . 2 8 4 . 5 " B e g i n n i n g a t t h e s t a r t o f h i s t e r m ( t h e 2nd| , h e a d - d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o two p r o b l e m s : f i r s t , how t o s l o w down t h e w o r l d d r i f t t o war ? a n d , s e c o n d , i f t h e d r i f t seemed i r r e s i s t i b l e , how t o a v o i d A m e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t . " S c h l e s i n g e r , T i m e s Book R e v i e w , p . 2. 6 I b i d . 44 7 On May 6, 1 9 4 1 , R o o s e v e l t e x t e n d e d t h e L e n d - L e a s e A c t t o C h i n a , d e c l a r i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s t h a t h e r d e f e n s e was v i t a l t o t h a t o f t h e U . S . On J u l y 2 6 , 1 9 3 9 , t h e U . S . h a d n o t i f i e d J a p a n t h a t i t w o u l d e n d t h e C o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y i n e x i s t e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s s i n c e F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 1 1 . The f o l l o w i n g w o r k s r e p - r e s e n t some o f t h e more v i c i o u s a t t a c k s a g a i n s t R o o s e v e l t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . C h a r l e s A . B e a r d , t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e " A m e r i c a F i r s t " movement , d e s e r v e d l y h e a d s t h e l i s t : P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t and t h e C o m i n g o f t h e War . 1 9 4 1 : A s t u d y i n a p p e a r a n c e s a n d r e a l i t i e s (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) . G . K o l k o , The P o l - i t i c s o f W a r : The W o r l d and U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e i g n P o l i c y . 1 9 4 3 - 1945 (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 8 ) . C C . T a n s i l l , B a c k d o o r t o W a r : t h e R o o s e v e l t f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 4 1 ( C h i c a g o : H . R e g n e r y , 1 9 5 2 ) . Two o f t h e more b a l a n c e d c r i t i q u e s o f A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o w a r d J a p a n i n t h e few weeks b e f o r e P e a r l H a r b o u r a r e : H . F e i s , T h e Road t o P e a r l H a r b o r : t h e c o m i n g o f t h e war b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d J a p a n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , a n d G . K e n n a n , M e m o i r s : 1 9 2 5 - 1950 ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B rown , 1 9 6 7 ) . F o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a s s e s s - ment o f some more r e c e n t r e v i s i o n i s t s , s e e I. U n g e r , " T h e 'New L e f t ' a n d A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y : Some R e c e n t T r e n d s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " AHR ( J u l y , 1 9 6 7 ) , L X X I I , N o . 4 , 1 2 3 7 - 6 3 . 8 C l u b b , p . 1 7 5 ; C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 1 5 - 1 6 . 9 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 4 5 0 - 5 1 . 10 W i l l i a m s , T h e S h a p i n g . . . . p . 7 5 4 . 11 H a l l e , p . 2 4 5 . 12 C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I, 4 6 0 - 6 2 . 13 New Y o r k T i m e s . J u l y 2 5 , 1 9 4 1 , q u o t e d i n T . A . B i s s o n , A m e r i c a ' s F a r E a s t e r n P o l i c y (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 2 2 1 . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1 9 4 1 , p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s r o s e t o a l m o s t $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . , o r some 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l o f a l l c o m m o d i t i e s s h i p p e d t o J a p a n . D u l l e s , p p . 2 2 0 - 2 1 . 14 H u l l t o Nomura , U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , F o r e i g n R e - l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 4 1 . J a p a n ( W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 3 ) , I I , 7 6 9 . 15 The G r e a t e r E a s t A s i a C o - P r o s p e r i t y S p h e r e , o r J a p a n ' s "new o r d e r " f o r A s i a . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 0 , J a p a n o c c u p i e d t h e n o r - t h e r n p a r t o f F r e n c h I n d o c h i n a ; a n o m i n a l V i c h y r e g i m e was l e f t i n c o n t r o l o f t h e s o u t h . 45 16 R . J . C . Bu tow, T o j o and t h e c o m i n g o f t h e war ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 2 3 4 , 2 3 7 , 2 4 3 . 17 H a l l e , p . 2 5 9 . 18 L a u c h l a n C u r r i e t o a u t h o r , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , S . F . U . , F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 6 8 . C u r r i e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a s " s p e c i a l a d v o c a t e f o r C h i n a " u n d e r H a r r y H o p k i n s , h e h a d c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e P e a r l H a r b o u r , " o d d s and e n d s - h e r e and t h e r e , " f o r C h i n a . I b i d . A M a s t e r L e n d - L e a s e A g r e e m e n t w i t h C h i n a was n o t s i g n e d u n t i l J u n e 2, 1 9 4 2 . 19 An i d e a o f t h e t a s k p e r f o r m e d b y t h e I n d i a - C h i n a D i - v i s i o n o f t h e A i r T r a n s p o r t Command, i s e v i d e n t i n t h e f a c t t h a t b y J u n e , 1 9 4 5 , a t o t a l o f 3 3 , 9 3 8 A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f e r r y i n g s u p p l i e s t o C h i n a o v e r t h e H i m a l a y a s ( t h e Hump) . T h e s e p e r s o n n e l w e r e b a c k e d u p b y 4 7 , 0 0 9 c i v i l i a n s and 6 6 2 . 4 o p e r a t i o n a l a i r c r a f t ; d u r i n g O c t o b e r 1 9 4 4 , 3 5 , 1 3 1 t o n s w e r e s a f e l y f l o w n i n t o C h i n a . F . Romanus and R. S u n d e r l a n d , T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n W o r l d War I I . I l l : T i m e Runs o u t i n C . B . I . ( W a s h i n g t o n : D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e A r m y , U . S . G o v e r n - ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 8 ) , 5 3 8 , q u o t i n g H i s t o r y o f S e r v i c e s and S u p p l y i n I n d i a - B u r m a T h e a t e r . 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 . I I , 3 8 3 - 8 6 . 20 H . L . S t i m s o n and McG. Bundy , On A c t i v e S e r v i c e i n P e a c e and War (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 538 ( I t a l i c s m i n e . ) S t i m s o n ' s e m p h a s i s on E u r o p e a s t h e m a i n t h e a t e r o f war i s i n t e r - e s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m a man who a r d e n t l y s u p p o r t e d C h i n a f r o m t h e v e r y o u t s e t o f h o s t i l i t i e s . 21 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 4 2 . G e n e r a l . I ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 5 - 2 6 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x V . 22 S t a l i n t o FDR, November 4 , 1 9 4 1 . " Y o u r d e c i s i o n M r . P r e s i d e n t , t o g r a n t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n an i n t e r e s t - f r e e l o a n t o t h e v a l u e o f $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . . . i s a c c e p t e d b y t h e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t w i t h h e a r t f u l g r a t i t u d e . . . . " M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s o f t h e U . S . S . R . , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e U . S . S . R . a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U . S . A . and t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n D u r i n g t h e G r e a t P a t r i o t i c War o f 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 5 (Moscow: F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1 9 5 7 ) , I I , 1 5 . 23 W.S . C h u r c h i l l , T h e S e c o n d W o r l d War , I V : T h e H i n g e o f F a t e ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 5 0 ) , 1 3 3 . 24 Document s on A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ( B o s t o n : W o r l d P e a c e F o u n d a t i o n ) , IV , 2 1 9 . 46 25 The M e m o i r s o f C o r d e l l H u l l (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1948), I I , 1 5 8 3 . 26 See R . E . S h e r w o o d , R o o s e v e l t a n d H o p k i n s : A n I n t i m a t e H i s t o r y (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 7 4 0 ; H u l l , I I , 1 5 8 7 . 27 S h e r w o o d , p . 5 7 3 . 28 C h u r c h i l l , I V , 5 6 2 . I l l CHINA AS A GREAT POWER: MOSCOW, CAIRO AND TEHERAN In spite of Chu r c h i l l ' s reluctance, the State Department continued to foster China as an i n t e g r a l member of Roosevelt's Four Power Plan. This support was resented by Eden who expressed h i s doubts over China's future r o l e during a v i s i t to Washington early i n 1943. To Roosevelt he stated that he "did not much l i k e the idea of the Chinese running up and down the P a c i f i c " a f t e r the war.^ During t h i s same v i s i t , Sumner Wells outlined the proposed structure of the U.N.: a l l the United Nations should be members of one world-wide body which would recommend po l i c y , i n turn, t h i s body would be advised by geographically determined regional councils. The r e a l decisions however, "should be made by the United States, Great B r i t a i n , Russia and China, who would ... poli c e the world." 2 Eden however, s t i l l remained unconvinced as to the value of China's membership. At the Quebec Conference (August 19-24, 1943), C h u r c h i l l and Eden somewhat resigned to China's new r o l e , approved a draft of a four nation declaration binding the Big Four together during 48 a n d a f t e r t h e w a r . H u l l t o o k t h e o c c a s i o n t o i m p r e s s C h u r c h i l l w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g e t t i n g S o v i e t a c q u i e s c e n c e t o a p e a c e - k e e p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n b e f o r e t h e e n d o f h o s t i l i t i e s . By O c t o b e r , t h e U . S . , B r i t a i n and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n h a d a g r e e d t o a m e e t i n g o f f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s i n Moscow, and H u l l s e n t a c o p y o f t h e F o u r N a t i o n D e c l a r a t i o n t o M o l o t o v . B e f o r e H u l l ' s d e p a r t u r e , M o l o t o v i n f o r m e d t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t t h a t t h e U . S . S . R . c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e d e c l a r a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e document i n c l u d e d C h i n a , a c o u n t r y w i t h o u t any i n t e r e s t s i n E u r o p e . H u l l ' s comments on t h i s r e f u s a l a r e i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r t h e y s h e d a g o o d d e a l o f l i g h t o n t h e A m e r i c a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f C h i n a i n 1 9 4 3 : T h e P r e s i d e n t a n d I b e l i e v e d , on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t C h i n a h a d a r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n s u c h a d e c l a r a t i o n . . . . O f k e e n i n t e r e s t t o u s w e r e t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R u s s i a and C h i n a , who h a d t h e l o n g e s t common b o u n d a r y o f a n y two n a t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d . . . . I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t R u s s i a n c o o p e r a t i o n w o u l d b e o f g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e t o u s i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g and u n i f y i n g C h i n a a f t e r t h e w a r . R u s s i a w o u l d h a v e m o r a l i n - f l u e n c e o n t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e i r t y p e o f communism was n o t e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h e R u s s i a n s . 3 H u l l seems n o t t o h a v e b e e n aware o f t h e i n h e r e n t S o v i e t f e a r o f a u n i t e d C h i n a , i n s p i t e o f h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i r l o n g common b o r d e r . N o r d o e s h e seem t o h a v e a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d t h e r e a l i n t e n t o f S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n C h i n a , b o t h w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o C h u n k i n g a n d t h e C o m m u n i s t s . The Moscow C o n f e r e n c e b e g a n on O c t o b e r n i n e t e e n t h and two d a y s l a t e r t h e F o u r N a t i o n D e c l a r a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d . H u l l m e n - t i o n e d t o M o l o t o v t h a t C h i n a h a d b e e n s e n t a d r a f t and s t r o n g l y 49 a r g u e d f o r h e r r e t e n t i o n a s a s i g n a t o r y . On t h e t w e n t y - s i x t h , M o l o t o v a g r e e d t o C h i n a ' s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e d e c l a r a t i o n , b u t d o u b t e d t h a t h e r f o r m a l w r i t t e n a p p r o v a l c o u l d b e r e c e i v e d b e f o r e t h e e n d o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e . A t t h i s p o i n t , H u l l f e l t t h a t t h e S o v i e t s w e r e t r y i n g t o p o s t p o n e a n y a c t i o n t h a t w o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e m p u b l i c l y w i t h t h e C h i n e s e . On t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t h t h e a u t h o r - i z a t i o n f r o m C h u n k i n g a r r i v e d and t w o d a y s l a t e r t h e C h i n e s e A m b a s s a d o r s i g n e d t h e d e c l a r a t i o n a s one o f t h e f o u r g r e a t p o w e r s . H u l l sums u p i n r e t r o s p e c t what A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h a d j u s t a c h i e v e d : Now t h e r e was no l o n g e r a n y d o u b t t h a t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o k e e p t h e p e a c e , b y f o r c e i f n e c e s s a r y , w o u l d b e s e t u p a f t e r t h e w a r . . . . Had I n o t p e r s i s t e d i n t h e e f - f o r t t o g e t C h i n a i n a s one o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i g n a t o r i e s , h e r c l a i m t o p e r m a n e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n so s o l i d . ^ H u l l h a d i n e f f e c t g u a r a n t e e d a p e r m a n e n t s e a t t o a p o l i t i c a l r e g i m e b r o a d l y a c c e p t a b l e t o h i s g o v e r n m e n t and t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c . Now, w h a t e v e r t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f war o r d i p l o m a c y , t h e U . S . h a d a s s u r e d i t s e l f a m a j o r i t y i n t h e v i t a l c o u n c i l o f t h e new w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e U . S . h a d n e g a t e d ( f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g ) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a S o v i e t hegemony i n t h e F a r E a s t a f t e r t h e w a r . On S e p t e m b e r 21, C o n g r e s s e n d o r s e d A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e U . N . w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e C o n n a l l y - F u l l b r i g h t R e s o l u t i o n s w i t h o n l y t w e n t y - n i n e d i s s e n t i n g v o t e s . A p p r o v e d b y t h e S e n a t e 50 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s w e r e r a t i f i e d b y t h e S e n a t e on November 5, b y a m a j o r i t y o f e i g h t y - f i v e t o f i v e . W i t h a min imum o f h i n d r a n c e , R o o s e v e l t h a d q u i e t l y a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g a war what Woodrow W i l s o n h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e i n 1 9 1 8 . T h e s p e c t e r o f t h e d e a d P r e s i d e n t h a d no d o u b t p l a y e d i t s p a r t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p a s s a g e i n t h e S e n a t e o f an i d e a l h e h a d so t r a g i c a l l y f o u g h t f o r , t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r . ^ H a v i n g s u c c e e d e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g C h i n a w i t h t h e t h r e e g r e a t p o w e r s , A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y now f a c e d t h e p r o b l e m o f g e t t i n g B r i t a i n and t h e U . S . S . R . t o a c c e p t h e r on an e q u a l b a s i s . T o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , t h e U . S . w o u l d h a v e t o make C h i n a ' s new r o l e c r e d i b l e , b o t h t o h e r a l l i e s and t o C h i n a i t s e l f . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e (November 2 2 - 2 6 , 1 9 4 3 ) , R o o s e v e l t a t t e m p t e d t o i n v o l v e t h e A l l i e s i n m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s w i t h t h e C h i n e s e . A c t i n g on C h i a n g K a i - s h e k ' s p r o m p t i n g , t h e P r e s i d e n t s u g g e s t e d t h a t any new a c t i o n i n Burma b e p r e c e d e d b y t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e Andaman I s l a n d s i n t h e Bay o f B e n g a l . Code named BUCCANEER, t h i s a m p h i b i o u s l a n d i n g was o p p o s e d f r o m t h e v e r y o u t s e t b y t h e B r i t i s h . The l a t t e r , w o e f u l l y s h o r t o f l a n d i n g c r a f t a n d w i t h t h e M a l a y a c a m p a i g n f r e s h i n m i n d , r e s e n t e d any move t h a t m i g h t b o g them down i n t h e Burmese j u n g l e s . * * A t t h e November 23 m e e t i n g o f t h e j o i n t C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f , G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l f o r t h e U . S . , r e m i n d e d t h e B r i t i s h t h a t t h e C h i n e s e commitment i n Burma was c o n t i n g e n t on BUCCANEER. He 51 f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d t h a t a w i t h d r a w a l now w o u l d c a u s e C h i a n g a c e r t a i n l o s s o f f a c e . I n v i e w o f p a s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g C h i n e s e t r o o p s c o m m i t t e d t o any a c t i v e l a n d o p e r a t i o n s , t h i s s l i g h t s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d . C h u r c h i l l , e v e r on t h e a l e r t t o any w e a k e n i n g o f e f f o r t i n E u r o p e , s t r o n g l y a r g u e d a g a i n s t i t s n e c e s - s i t y , i n t h i s , h e was s u p p o r t e d b y h i s C h i e f - o f - S t a f f , G e n e r a l S i r A l a n B r o o k e . The G e n e r a l u n d e r l i n e d h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e C h i n e s e b y s t a t i n g t h a t C h i a n g ' s o f f i c e r s " u n d e r s t o o d n o t h i n g a b o u t s t r a t e g y a n d h i g h e r t a c t i c s , and w e r e q u i t e u n f i t t o d i s - c u s s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . " 7 S u c h s e n t i m e n t s t o w a r d t h e C h i n e s e f o u n d a r e a d y e a r w i t h C h u r c h i l l who h e a r t i l y r e s e n t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n R o o s e v e l t h a d g i v e n C h i a n g d u r i n g t h e C o n f e r e n c e : The t a l k s o f t h e B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n S t a f f s w e r e s a d l y d i s t r a c t e d b y t h e C h i n e s e s t o r y , w h i c h was l e n g t h y , c o m p l i - c a t e d , a n d m i n o r . . . . T h e P r e s i d e n t , who t o o k a n e x a g g e r a t e d v i e w o f t h e I n d i a n - C h i n e s e s p h e r e , was s o o n c l o s e t e d i n l o n g c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e G e n e r a l i s s i m o . . . . C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s o c c u p i e d f i r s t i n s t e a d o f l a s t p l a c e a t C a i r o . 8 C h u r c h i l l seems n o t t o h a v e c o m p r e h e n d e d t h a t R o o s e v e l t was a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s u a g e C h i a n g ' s f e e l i n g s o f n e g l e c t t h r o u g h p e r - s o n a l d i p l o m a c y . F o r p r e s t i g e , e v e n o f a s y m b o l i c k i n d , was a l l t h a t h e c o u l d o f f e r C h i n a a s t a n g i b l e p r o o f o f h e r new s t a t u s . T h e C h i n e s e , a c u t e l y s e n s i t i v e t o a n y i m p l i e d o r r e a l l o s s o f f a c e f r o m t h e e x - o c c u p i e r s o f Hong K o n g , c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e f a i l e d t o n o t i c e A l a n B r o o k e ' s a r r o g a n c e . S u c h a n a t t i t u d e f r o m a s u p - p o s e d a l l y whom t h e J a p a n e s e h a d f o r c e d i n 1940 t o t e m p o r a r i l y 52 c l o s e t h e Burma R o a d , was d o u b l y r e s e n t e d . I t a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n f i r m C h i a n g ' s d o u b t s a s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e G r a n d A l l i a n c e . R o o s e v e l t n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h M a r s h a l l t o p r e s s t h e A l l i e s f o r a more a c t i v e r o l e w i t h C h i n a i n t h e w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n . O f h i s s i n c e r i t y , H a r r y H o p k i n s s t a t e s t h a t a t t h i s t i m e R o o s e v e l t "went down t h e l i n e i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e v i e w o f C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . " 9 T h i s s u p p o r t e n t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n BUCCANEER, t h e e q u i p p i n g o f n i n e t y C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s , and t h e r e t u r n t o C h i n a a f t e r t h e war o f a l l h e r t e r r i t o r i e s l o s t t o J a p a n , i n c l u d i n g M a n c h u r i a , F o r m o s a , a n d t h e P e s c a d o r e s . I n t h e d e c l a r a t i o n i s s u e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , C h i n a ' s s t a t u s was f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d b y b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o a s one o f t h e " t h r e e g r e a t p o w e r s , " 1 * i n r e t u r n , C h i a n g h a d p r o m i s e d t o commit some o f h i s t r o o p s i n N o r t h Burma ( o p e r a t i o n ANAK IM) . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e , R o o s e v e l t a n d C h u r c h i l l met w i t h S t a l i n a t T e h e r a n f r o m November 2 7 , t o December 2. C h i n a , due t o t h e S o v i e t n o n a g g r e s s i o n t r e a t y w i t h J a p a n o f A p r i l 1 9 4 1 , was e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e m e e t i n g . I n an i n f o r m a l t a l k w i t h R o o s e v e l t on t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t h , S t a l i n " e x p r e s s e d a l o w o p i n i o n o f t h e f i g h t i n g q u a l i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e t r o o p s , . . . [ a d d i n g ] t h a t t h i s was t h e f a u l t o f t h e i r l e a d e r s . " 1 1 R o o s e v e l t , a v o i d i n g t h e i m p l i e d c r i t i c i s m o f C h i a n g , i n f o r m e d S t a l i n t h a t t h e U . S . was now s u p p l y i n g a n d t r a i n i n g t h i r t y C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s and p r o - 53 p o s e d t o s u p p l y a n d t r a i n t h i r t y a d d i t i o n a l o n e s . 1 2 T h e f o l - l o w i n g d a y , R o o s e v e l t u n v e i l e d h i s p l a n s f o r t h e p e a c e - k e e p i n g r o l e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s : F i r s t - a n A s s e m b l y composed o f a l l members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . . . . S e c o n d - an E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e w h i c h w o u l d c o n - s i s t o f t h e U . S . S . R . , t h e U . S . , t h e U . K . a n d C h i n a . . . . T h e t h i r d b o d y , . . . was what h e t e r m e d "The F o u r P o l i c e m e n ' - t h e U . S . S . R . , U . S . , U .K . and C h i n a . T h i s , a s i t s name i m p l i e d , w o u l d b e t h e e n f o r c i n g a g e n c y - w i t h power t o d e a l i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h any t h r e a t t o t h e p e a c e o r a n y s u d d e n e m e r g e n c y . 1 3 S t a l i n w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r t h e s m a l l n a t i o n s o f E u r o p e w o u l d n o t r e s e n t b e i n g s a f e g u a r d e d b y t h e F o u r P o l i c e m e n . He a l s o d o u b t e d t h a t C h i n a w o u l d b e i n a v e r y p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n a t t h e e n d o f t h e w a r . He t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h e i d e a o f c o m m i t t e e s , t h e E u r o p e a n one c o m p r i s i n g t h e U . S . , B r i t a i n , U . S . S . R . , and p o s - s i b l y a n o t h e r E u r o p e a n n a t i o n . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e F a r E a s t e r n C o m m i t t e e was n o t d i v u l g e d b y e i t h e r C h u r c h i l l o r H o p k i n s . R o o s e v e l t f o u n d t h i s r e g i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o o s i m i l a r t o C h u r c h i l l ' s i d e a o f c o m m i t t e e s f o r E u r o p e , t h e F a r E a s t a n d t h e A m e r i c a s . 1 4 S t a l i n t h e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e F o u r P o l i c e m e n i d e a " m i g h t r e q u i r e t h e s e n d i n g o f A m e r i c a n t r o o p s o v e r s e a s . " T o t h i s , R o o s e v e l t a n s w e r e d t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n commi tment w o u l d b e n a v a l and a i r f o r c e s , t h e " l a n d a r m i e s . . . w o u l d h a v e t o b e p r o v i d e d b y B r i t a i n a n d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . " S t a l i n t h e r e u p o n s u b - m i t t e d h i s i d e a o f s t r o n g p o i n t s b o t h i n a n d a r o u n d Germany a n d s p e c i f i c i s l a n d s a r o u n d J a p a n . He a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a n y 54 p e a c e - k e e p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d h a v e t h e power f o r " c o n t i n u e d m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n . . . " o f t h e s e s t r o n g p o i n t s . R o o s e v e l t a g r e e d , b u t s e n s i n g t h a t S t a l i n was i m p l y i n g t h a t C h i n a w o u l d n o t b e s t r o n g enough t o f u l f i l l t h e s e d u t i e s , h e t o l d t h e S o v i e t l e a d e r : He h a d i n s i s t e d on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f C h i n a i n t h e 4 Power D e c l a r a t i o n a t Moscow n o t b e c a u s e h e d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h e w e a k n e s s o f C h i n a a t p r e s e n t , b u t h e was t h i n k i n g f a r t h e r i n t o t h e f u t u r e a n d t h a t a f t e r a l l C h i n a was a n a t i o n o f 400 m i l l i o n p e o p l e , a n d i t was b e t t e r t o h a v e t h e m a s f r i e n d s r a t h e r t h a n a s a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e . 1 5 T h i s f r a n k a n d o p e n s t a t e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d much o f R o o s e v e l t ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h S t a l i n , i n whom h e d e v e l o p e d a c e r t a i n t r u s t . I t a l s o r e v e a l s R o o s e v e l t ' s i n a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e C h i n a ' s p o t e n t i a l a s a g r e a t power on any o t h e r l e v e l t h a n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c o n e . 1 * * A t t h e C o m b i n e d C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f m e e t i n g o f November 3 0 , A l a n B r o o k e , c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e c h r o n i c s c a r c i t y o f l a n d i n g c r a f t f o r t h e i n v a s i o n o f E u r o p e (OVERLORD), s t a t e d t h a t : He s t i l l t h o u g h t t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o u s e t h e l a n d i n g c r a f t a l l o c a t e d t o BUCCANEER f o r t h i s m a i n e f f o r t a g a i n s t t h e G e r m a n s . I n r e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n o f A d m i r a l L e a h y a s t o w h e t h e r t h e BUCCANEER l a n d i n g c r a f t w o u l d h e l p OVERLORD a t a l l . S i r A l a n B r o o k e r e p l i e d t h a t i t w o u l d , a s i t c o u l d b e u s e d b o t h i n t h e A e g e a n a n d a g a i n s t t h e S o u t h o f P r a n c e [ A N V I L ] . 1 7 T h e l a c k o f enough l a n d i n g c r a f t was t o p l a g u e t h e A l l i e s t h r o u g h - o u t t h e w a r . T h e B r i t i s h , w i t h C h u r c h i l l ' s h e l p , u s e d t h i s s h o r t a g e t o w e a r down R o o s e v e l t ' s i n s i s t e n c e on a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e C h i n e s e . T h e A m e r i c a n C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f h o w e v e r , h a d made 55 t h e i r p o s i t i o n q u i t e c l e a r a t C a i r o w h e r e M a r s h a l l h a d s t a t e d t h a t " t h e y h a d gone f a r t o meet t h e B r i t i s h C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f v i e w s b u t t h e p o s t p o n e m e n t o f BUCCANEER t h e y c o u l d n o t a c c e p t . " 1 8 B o t h M a r s h a l l a n d A d m i r a l K i n g m a i n t a i n e d t h i s p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e T e h e r a n C o n f e r e n c e . More c r u c i a l t o C h i n a ' s r e a l s t a t u s a s a g r e a t p o w e r , e s p e - c i a l l y i n t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d , w e r e t h e d e c i s i o n s made a t T e h e r a n a f f e c t i n g h e r t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y . R o o s e v e l t c o n s i d e r e d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c a s one o f t h e m a i n g o a l s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e . H o w e v e r , h e r n o n a g g r e s s i o n t r e a t y w i t h J a p a n h a d s u r v i v e d e v e n t h e G e r m a n - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e , a n d t h e U . S . S . R . w o u l d h a v e t o b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r f o r f e i t i n g t h e " s e c u r i t y " o f h e r e a s t e r n f r o n t i e r s , a n d s u c h h i s t o r i c t o p i c s a s R u s s i a ' s l a c k o f i c e - f r e e p o r t s w o u l d no d o u b t come u p f o r d i s - c u s s i o n . A t t h e l u n c h o f t h e " T h r e e O n l y , " on November 3 0 , S t a l i n r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f a w a r m - w a t e r p o r t . T o C h u r c h i l l ' s comment t h a t " R u s s i a h a d V l a d i v o s t o k , " S t a l i n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t was i c e b o u n d and t h a t t r a f f i c t o i t c o u l d b e c o n t r o l l e d f r o m t h e S t r a i t s o f T s u s h i m a . C h u r c h i l l a g r e e d w i t h t h i s l o g i c a n d s t a t e d t h a t h e " w i s h e d t o meet t h e R u s s i a n g r i e v a n c e b e c a u s e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e w o r l d mus t b e e n t r u s t e d t o s a t i s f i e d n a t i o n s , who w i s h e d n o t h i n g more f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h a n what t h e y h a d . " 1 9 R o o s e v e l t t h e n m e n t i o n e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e h e r e a t T e h e r a n 56 (and not as i s often assumed, at Y a l t a ) , that the Soviet Union might have access to the Port of Dairen i n Manchuria. S t a l i n immediately expressed the view that the Chinese would object, but Roosevelt reassured him by stating that the Chinese would agree were Dairen made a free port under in t e r n a t i o n a l guar- antee. Hopkins' biographer R.E. Sherwood, maintains that Roosevelt had discussed the question of Dairen with Chiang at C a i r o . 2 0 The Teheran Conference ended on December 2, and that same day C h u r c h i l l and Roosevelt flew back to Cairo. Roosevelt was now convinced that S t a l i n would agree to China's membership i n the Security Council of the U.N. The most important achievement however, was S t a l i n ' s u n s o l i c i t e d assurance that the U.S.S.R. would enter the war i n the P a c i f i c , upon Germany's defeat. x This promise had a profound impact on Roosevelt's attempts to involve the Chinese more a c t i v e l y i n the war against Japan. Freed from the future task of a major landing i n China, the U.S. could now concentrate her forces on winning the war i n the P a c i f i c and i n Europe. From t h i s point onwards, China and Southeast Asia would be increasingly relegated to the side l i n e s of the War i n the P a c i f i c . The f i r s t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was the cancellation of BUCCANEER. At the meeting of the Combined Chiefs on December 4 , the t h i r d day of the Second Cairo Conference, Roosevelt persisted 57 a g a i n s t i n c r e a s e d B r i t i s h p r e s s u r e t o p r o m o t e BUCCANEER. C h u r c h i l l i n t u r n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n b e c a r r i e d o u t a f t e r t h e m o n s o o n . A d m i r a l K i n g , s u p p o r t i n g R o o s e v e l t , r e p l i e d t h a t a d e f i n i t e commitment h a d b e e n made e a r l i e r t o C h i a n g and s h o u l d b e m a i n t a i n e d . A l a n B r o o k e c o u n t e r e d b y s t a t i n g t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o e m p l o y a l l t h e BUCCANEER r e s o u r c e s t o s t r e n g - t h e n t h e f o r c e s n e e d e d f o r t h e i n v a s i o n o f E u r o p e . T h e r e was s t i l l t h e q u e s t i o n o f C h i n a ' s i m m e d i a t e s u r v i v a l , a f a c t o r c l o s e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e o p e n i n g o f t h e Burma R o a d , l i n k i n g I n d i a t o W e s t e r n C h i n a . C h i a n g h a d i n s i s t e d a t t h e F i r s t C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e t h a t o p e r a t i o n s i n Burma t o f u r t h e r t h i s end were d e p e n d e n t on BUCCANEER. T h e s e i n c l u d e d an a i r b o r n e l a n d i n g i n Indaw, t h e c a p t u r e o f M y i t k y i n a b y t h e S t i l w e l l - t r a i n e d C h i n e s e t r o o p s , a n d t h e s e c u r i n g o f a b r i d g e h e a d o v e r t h e I r r i w a d y . G r o u p e d u n d e r t h e c o d e name TARZAN, t h e l a t t e r w e r e t i m e d t o c o i n - c i d e w i t h BUCCANEER f o r t h e u l t i m a t e a i m o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e t o n n a g e d e l i v e r e d t o C h i n a , t o n n a g e now r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e a i r l i f t o v e r t h e Hump. The B r i t i s h , who w o u l d b e p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d , a r g u e d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f TARZAN was n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d e n t o n BUCCANEER and o p p o s e d any d i v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a r c e l a n d i n g c r a f t f r o m E u r o p e . R o o s e v e l t f i n a l l y e n d e d t h e a r g u m e n t s b y s t a t i n g t h a t : "we h a d a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o do s o m e t h i n g f o r C h i n a and h e w o u l d n o t b e p r e p a r e d t o f o r e g o t h e a m p h i b i o u s o p e r a t i o n , e x c e p t f o r 58 some very great and r e a d i l y apparent reason." 2 2 The following day, Alan Brooke returned to the attack with the comment that the whole importance of BUCCANEER had been overemphasized. I f i t was not ca r r i e d out the Chinese might withdraw from TARZAN, but "reports suggested that t h e i r troops now i n action were not too promising." 2 3 With increased pressure to cancel BUCCANEER, Roosevelt, at Churchill's insistence, gave i n on the afternoon of December 5 . This decision rebuffed the f i r s t signs of Chinese i n i t i a t i v e and e f f e c t i v e l y delayed the reopening of the Burma Road. It also undermined S t i l w e l l ' s attempts at getting Chiang to take a more active role i n the war against Japan. With the exception of the Second Burma Campaign, Chinese troops did not f i g h t alongside A l l i e d forces u n t i l the very end of the war. Admiral King's biographer states that King knew "that the Chinese headed by Chiang Kai-shek, would f e e l that they had been sold out - which was the case - and consequently would not do anything to aid S t i l w e l l . " 2 4 On December 23, i n h i s answer to Roosevelt's wire advising him of the scrapping of BUCCANEER, Chiang's resentment was f u l l y evident: "the A l l i e d strategy of relegating the China War Theater to the background has given r i s e to serious misgivings on a l l sides. The success or f a i l u r e of the Burma Campaign i s a matter of l i f e and death for China." 2 5 Sherwood i n assessing the d i f f e r e n t factors which Roosevelt 59 h a d t o c o n s i d e r , s t a t e s t h a t " i t was u n d o u b t e d l y t h e s h i p p i n g p r o b l e m e m p h a s i z e d b y L e w i s D o u g l a s . . . who i n f l u e n c e d R o o s e v e l t ' s r e l u c t a n t d e c i s i o n t o a b a n d o n B U C C A N E E R . . . . F r o m a p u r e l y l o g i s t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , t h i s a r gument h a s a g o o d d e a l o f m e r i t , i t d o e s n o t h o w e v e r , e x p l a i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t B r i t i s h a c t i o n . W r i t i n g o n t h e s u b j e c t , t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n s o f t h e U . S . Army s t a t e : A s f a r a s t h e l a n d i n g c r a f t t h a t o n C h u r c h i l l ' s i n s i s t e n c e w e r e t a k e n f r o m SEAC [ S o u t h E a s t A s i a Command} t o r e i n f o r c e A N V I L , s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r t h e B r i t i s h C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f , s u p - p o r t e d b y t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , made t h e f i r s t o f s e v e r a l a t - t e m p t s t o h a v e ANV IL c a n c e l l e d f o r o p e r a t i o n s e l s e w h e r e i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . 2 7 T h e f a c t o r s w h i c h m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t a m a j o r A l l i e d i n t e r - v e n t i o n i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a i n 1 9 4 3 , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e C h i n e s e , w e r e t o o g r e a t f o r R o o s e v e l t t o r e s i s t . T h o u g h l a u d e d a s a g r e a t p o w e r , C h i n a a f t e r T e h e r a n , l o s t w h a t e v e r s t r a t e g i c p o t e n t i a l s h e m i g h t h a v e e n j o y e d a s a m a j o r f o o t h o l d f o r t h e f i n a l i n v a s i o n o f J a p a n . T h e S e c o n d C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e c o n f i r m e d what T e h e r a n h a d d e c i d e d : t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n w o u l d b e waged i n t h e P a c i f i c , n o t i n C h i n a , whose l i b e r a t i o n w o u l d d e p e n d l a r g e l y o n t h e S o v i e t e n t r y i n t o t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n a f t e r G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t . A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h a d s u c c e e d e d i n l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r i t s p o s t w a r p o l i c y i n t h e F a r E a s t . The Moscow " F o u r N a t i o n D e c l a r a t i o n " h a d a s s u r e d C h i n a a s o l i d c l a i m t o a s e a t on t h e 6 0 f u t u r e U . N . S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . T h e C a i r o D e c l a r a t i o n h a d r e i n - f o r c e d t h a t c l a i m b y i d e n t i f y i n g C h i n a w i t h two o f t h e f o u r g r e a t p o w e r s : t h e U . S . and B r i t a i n . F i n a l l y , a t T e h e r a n , S t a l i n h a d a s s u r e d t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f C h i n a upon G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t , and i n so d o i n g , r e i n f o r c e d t h e f u t u r e image o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s a s t h e s o l e l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a . E m i n e n t l y a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h t h e U . S . and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e s e p r a c t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e a l s o a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s . A n d t h o u g h C h i a n g was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y i n f o r m e d o f S t a l i n ' s p r o m i s e , 2 8 h e h a d some c o n c r e t e a s s u r a n c e s t h a t h i s g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d b e s e a t e d i n t h e p o s t w a r w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y , t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s o f m o l - l i f y i n g C h i n a w i t h g r e a t power s t a t u s a n d U . N . p r e s t i g e , f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e c h a n g e s t h e n t a k i n g p l a c e i n h e r s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l f a b r i c ; i t a l s o a s sumed t h a t C h i n e s e s e n s i t i v i t i e s c o u l d i n e f f e c t b e m o l l i f i e d . T h e C h i n e s e , w i t h o v e r a c e n t u r y o f f o r e i g n d e p r e d a t i o n s t o d r aw f r o m , w e r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s e n s i t i v e t o a n y f u t u r e l o s s o f f a c e . E s p e c i a l l y f r o m p o w e r s s u c h a s B r i t a i n a n d R u s s i a , who i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o f u r t h e r t h e i r own e c o n o m i c a n d t e r r i - t o r i a l i n t e r e s t s , h a d t a k e n f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f C h i n a ' s t e c h n o l o - g i c a l b a c k w a r d n e s s . T h e s p e c i f i c i s s u e o f n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n a c o u n t r y g i f t e d w i t h o v e r two t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , was o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o a l l C h i n e s e . Y e t , b y c a t e r i n g s o l e l y 61 t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y was i d e n t i f y i n g i t s e l f w i t h a p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n whose commitment t o s u c h an i n t a n g i b l e was s e r i o u s l y d o u b t e d b y t h e g r e a t e r m a s s e s w i t h i n C h i n a . What was b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d b y a l l f a c t i o n s h o w e v e r , was t h e m y o p i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y a s a n c i e n t a s t h e i r s c o u l d n o t p e r c e i v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e s and t h e r e a l i t i e s . NOTES 1 S h e r w o o d , p . 7 1 6 . 2 I b i d . . p . 7 1 7 . 3 H u l l , I I , 1 2 5 6 - 5 7 . 4 I b i d . , 1 3 0 7 . See a l s o F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 3 . C h i n a ( 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 8 2 6 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t , s e e A p p e n d i x V I . 5 I n p a r t , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s r e a d : " T h e U . S . a c t i n g t h r o u g h i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s , j o i n w i t h f r e e a n d s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h power t o p r e v e n t a g g r e s s i o n and t o p r e s e r v e t h e p e a c e o f t h e w o r l d . " H . B . W e s t e r f i e l d , F o r e i g n P o l i c y and P a r t y P o l i t i c s (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 5 8 . W e s t e r f i e l d p o i n t s o u t t h a t on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e U . N . , b o t h p a r t i e s h e l d s u r - p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r v i e w s , w i t h t h e R e p u b l i c a n s k e e n l y a w a r e o f a v o i d i n g t h e s t i g m a o f a new b e t r a y a l . I b i d . . p p . 1 6 5 - 6 7 . 6 I n May, b e f o r e t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , C h u r c h i l l n o t e d : "I d i s l i k e d t h e i d e a o f r e c o n q u e r i n g Burma b y an a d v a n c e a l o n g t h e m i s e r a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n A s s a m . I h a t e d J u n g l e s - w h i c h go t o t h e w i n n e r anyway - and t h o u g h t i n t e r m s o f a i r - p o w e r , s e a - p o w e r , a m p h i b i o u s o p e r a t i o n s , and k e y p o i n t s . " C h u r c h i l l , I V , 7 8 6 . 7 A . B r y a n t , The T u r n o f t h e T i d e : 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 3 ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 8 3 . 8 C h u r c h i l l , V : C l o s i n g t h e R i n g ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 3 2 8 . 9 S h e r w o o d , p . 7 7 4 . 10 The U . S . , B r i t a i n a n d C h i n a . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t o f t h e C a i r o D e c l a r a t i o n , s e e A p p e n d i x V I I . 11 S h e r w o o d , p . 7 7 7 . 12 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 4 3 , T h e C o n f e r e n c e s a t C a i r o and T e h e r a n ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 4 8 4 . 63 13 S h e r w o o d , p . 785 ( I t a l i c s m i n e . ) 14 I b i d . . p . 7 8 6 . C h u r c h i l l s t a t e s t h a t R o o s e v e l t m i s - q u o t e d h i m : "He d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e made i t c l e a r t h a t I a l s o c o n t e m p l a t e d a Supreme U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o u n c i l , o f w h i c h t h e t h r e e r e g i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s w o u l d b e c o m p o n e n t s . " C h u r c h i l l , V , 3 6 3 . 15 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 532y S h e r w o o d , p . 7 8 7 . T o M o u n t b a t t e n , s omet ime a f t e r O c t o b e r 2 8 , 1 9 4 3 , R o o s e v e l t s t a t e d : "I r e a l l y f e e l t h a t i t i s a t r i u m p h t o h a v e g o t t h e 425 m i l l i o n C h i n e s e i n on t h e A l l i e d s i d e . T h i s w i l l b e v e r y u s e f u l t w e n t y - f i v e o r f i f t y y e a r s h e n c e , e v e n t h o u g h C h i n a c a n - n o t c o n t r i b u t e much m i l i t a r y o r n a v a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e m o m e n t . " E . R o o s e v e l t , F . D . R . H i s P e r s o n a l L e t t e r s (New Y o r k : D u e l l S l o a n & P e a r c e , 1 9 4 7 ) , I I , 1 4 6 8 . 16 I n a c a b l e t o C h u r c h i l l i n 1 9 4 2 , R o o s e v e l t s t a t e d t h a t h e c o u l d " p e r s o n a l l y h a n d l e S t a l i n b e t t e r t h a n e i t h e r y o u r F o r e i g n O f f i c e o r my S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t . " C h u r c h i l l , I V , 2 0 1 . T h e p r e s u m p t i o n o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t , a d d r e s s e d t o t h e l e a d e r o f a n a - t i o n t h a t h a d h a d y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h R u s s i a , d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e U . S . was e v e n f o r m e d , c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e gone u n n o t i c e d b y a s e x p e r i e n c e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a s C h u r c h i l l . 17 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 5 6 1 - 6 2 . 18 I b i d . , p . 3 6 5 . 19 C h u r c h i l l , V , 3 8 3 . 20 " I t i s my u n d e r s t a n d i n g [ S h e r w o o d s t a t e s } t h a t R o o s e v e l t was n o t m e r e l y g u e s s i n g a b o u t t h i s - t h a t h e h a d , i n f a c t , d i s - c u s s e d t h i s v e r y p o i n t [ D a i r e n } w i t h C h i a n g K a i - s h e k i n C a i r o a f e w d a y s p r e v i o u s l y . " S h e r w o o d , p . 7 9 2 . No d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n was d i s c o v e r e d b y t h e w r i t e r . 21 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p p . 6 7 5 , 678? S h e r w o o d , p p . 7 7 9 , 8 0 0 . 22 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 6 8 0 . 2 3 I b i d . . p . 7 0 3 . On December 7 , M a r s h a l l s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e p o r t r e c e i v e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e b a d m o r a l e o f t h e C h i n e s e f o r c e s h a d , h e f e l t , b e e n g i v e n t o o much w e i g h t . I t was a r e p o r t f r o m one o f f i c e r o n l y , who was n o t i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t r o o p s . " I b i d . . p . 7 5 8 . F o r an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e f i g h t i n g a b i l i t i e s o f some C h i n e s e t r o o p s , s e e W . I . C o h e n , "Who f o u g h t t h e J a p a n e s e i n Hunan? Some V i e w s on C h i n a ' s War E f f o r t . " J A S , X X V I I , No . I (November 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 1 1 - 1 5 . 64 24 E . J . K i n g a n d W.M. W h i t e h a l l , F l e e t A d m i r a l K i n g (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1 9 5 2 ) , I I , 5 2 5 . 25 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 8 5 6 . 26 S h e r w o o d , p . 8 0 0 . 27 Romanus & S u n d e r l a n d , I I : S t i l w e l l ' s Command P r o b l e m s (1956) , 7 3 . 28 T o a comment b y C h u r c h i l l a t t h e S e c o n d C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t " h e was v e r y a n x i o u s l e s t t h e R u s s i a n p r o m i s e [ t o e n t e r t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c ] s h o u l d l e a k o u t . " R o o s e v e l t a g r e e d , a d d i n g " t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o t e l l t h e C h i n e s e . " F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 6 7 8 . I V S T I L W E L L , THE CH INESE , DUMBARTON OAKS AND Y A L T A A f t e r t h e S e c o n d C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e U . S . t o d i s g u i s e t h e s e c o n d a r y n a t u r e o f C h i n a ' s p a r t i n t h e o v e r a l l t a s k o f w i n n i n g t h e war i n E u r o p e a n d i n t h e P a c i f i c . A d m i r a l L e a h y , h i m s e l f no mean c r i t i c o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , s t a t e s t h a t " h a r d l y a week p a s s e d w i t h o u t someone f r o m o u r s h a b b i l y t r e a t e d a l l y , C h i n a , c o m i n g i n t o p l e a d f o r a s s i s t a n c e . " * - A n d S h e r w o o d , i n h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f C a i r o , m a i n - t a i n s t h a t i t was o n l y i n t h e l a s t s i x m o n t h s o f t h e war t h a t an o v e r l a n d s u p p l y r o u t e t o C h i n a was a c t u a l l y o p e r a t i v e , " b y t h e n Qie a d d s ] , i t was t o o l a t e t o m a t t e r m u c h . " 2 I t w o u l d b e p o i n t l e s s t o f a u l t A m e r i c a n p o l i c y t o w a r d C h i n a s o l e l y on t h e amount o f m a t e ' r i e l t h e l a t t e r r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e w a r , f o r t h e p r o b l e m s o f s u p p l y a n d demand i n t h e C h i n a t h e a t e r w e r e s t a g g e r i n g . T o t h e l o s s o f h e r p o r t s e a r l y i n 1 9 3 7 , was a d d e d t h e c a p t u r e o f Rangoon i n M a r c h 1 9 4 2 . T h e Burma R o a d , s o l e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h i s p o r t o f a c c e s s , now l o s t i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e a s a s u p p l y r o u t e t o C h i n a . T h i s l a s t b l o w c o m p l e t e d t h e i s o l a t i o n o f C h i n a and r e s t r i c t e d what l i t t l e t o n n a g e t h a t c o u l d 66 r e a c h h e r t o t h e l o g i s t i c s o f t h e Hump a i r l i f t . A s e c o n d o v e r - l a n d r o u t e t o r e p l a c e t h e Burma Road r e q u i r e d t h r e e y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e , and a s l a t e a s S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 5 , c a r r i e d l e s s t o n n a g e t h a n t h a t f e r r i e d o v e r t h e H u m p . 3 F r o m 1942 t o 1 9 4 5 , t h e U . S . was a l s o h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e a m p h i b i o u s war i n t h e P a c i f i c , t h e l a n d i n g i n N o r t h A f r i c a , t h e I t a l i a n C a m p a i g n , a n d on "D D a y , " t h e c r o s s - c h a n n e l i n v a s i o n o f E u r o p e . U n d e r t h e L e n d - L e a s e p r o g r a m m e , A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , was p r o v i d i n g weapons a n d m u n i t i o n s t o e v e r y n a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e w a r i n t h e P a c i f i c , i n E u r o p e , i n t h e F a r a n d N e a r E a s t , and a l s o t o t h e h u g e a r m i e s o f S o v i e t R u s s i a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was C h i n a , a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y o f some 400 m i l l i o n s o u l s t h a t h a d b e e n a t war w i t h J a p a n on h e r own s o i l f o r s i x c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s . I n s p i t e o f s u c h a t t r i t i o n s , C h i n a d i d n o t s i g n a s e p a r a t e p e a c e and r e m a i n e d on t h e s i d e o f t h e A l l i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r ; a n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t f o r a f o r - e i g n p o l i c y h o b b l e d b y t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e a l i t i e s . 4 P a r t o f t h e l o n g - t e r r a f a i l u r e o f U . S . p o l i c y t o w a r d C h i n a l a y n o t s o much i n t h e m o d e r a t e h e l p p r o v i d e d i t s a l l y , b u t r a t h e r t h e d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n wha t was p r o m i s e d and w h a t was a c - t u a l l y d e l i v e r e d . T h i s l a s t f a c t o r n e v e r c e a s e d t o i n f u r i a t e a p e o p l e endowed w i t h a l l o f t h e s u b t l e s h a d i n g s o f d i p l o m a t i c a d r o i t n e s s s i n c e b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f C h r i s t . C l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h i s c o n s t a n t s l i g h t , was t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f G e n e r a l J o s e p h W. 67 S t i l w e l l a s C h i e f - o f - S t a f f t o C h i a n g . Had m o s t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s a n d t h e i n h e r e n t c o r r u p - t i o n o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g b e e n l e s s p e r v a s i v e , S t i l w e l l m i g h t h a v e b e e n an i d e a l c h o i c e . T h e t r a g e d y o f " V i n e g a r J o e " was t h a t h e s i m p l y t o o k h i s a p p o i n t m e n t s e r i o u s l y , a n d a s an h o n e s t man a n d a n e x c e l l e n t s o l d i e r , a t t e m p t e d t o c a r r y o u t t a s k s b e y o n d h i s m e a n s . F r a n k t o t h e p o i n t o f c r u d i t y a n d p e r s o n a l l y i l l d i s p o s e d t o w a r d R o o s e v e l t a n d l a t e r C h i a n g , S t i l w e l l n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d t h e v e r y r e a s o n f o r h i s a p p o i n t m e n t . O b v i o u s l y i l l s u i t e d f o r t h e r o l e o f t e m p o r i z e r , h e was n e v e r t h e l e s s e x p e c t e d t o s u b s t i t u t e s e m a n t i c s f o r h a r d w a r e , s u b t l e p e r s u a s i o n f o r c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a n d a b o v e a l l , a h i g h d e g r e e o f m e d i e v a l t a c t i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h wha t was i n f a c t , an e a s t e r n p o t e n t a t e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e d e v e l o p e d e a r l y i n 1 9 4 2 , a s h a r p r i v a l r y b e t w e e n S t i l w e l l a n d G e n e r a l C l a i r C h e n n a u l t , a p e r s o n a l c o n f i - d a n t o f C h i a n g s i n c e t h e d a y s o f t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s , a n d t h e c o m - mander o f t h e C h i n a - b a s e d F o u r t e e n t h A i r f o r c e . T h e r i f t b e t w e e n t h e s e two men was d e e p e n e d b y C h e n n a u l t ' s p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g d i r e c t l y t o R o o s e v e l t , b y - p a s s i n g S t i l w e l l , h i s commander i n t h e f i e l d . R o o s e v e l t a d d e d f u e l t o t h e c o n f l i c t b y e n d o r s i n g C h e n n a u l t ' s e x a g g e r a t e d v a l u e o f a i r p o w e r i n C h i n a . 5 S t i l w e l l , t h e i n f a n t r y m a n , who o f f e r e d n o e a s y o r q u i c k s o l u t i o n s i n a n age when t h e a i r c r a f t was b e i n g u s e d a s t h e u l t i m a t e w e a p o n , s t o o d o u t a s an a n a c h r o n i s m ; a n a n a c h r o n i s m who n o t o n l y m a r c h e d w i t h 68 h i s men, b u t a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e f i g h t i n g p o t e n t i a l o f t h e C h i n e s e s o l d i e r . I n a n i n t e r v i e w s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o C h i a n g ' s s t a f f , H e n r y L . S t i m s o n n o t e d o f S t i l w e l l : He knows C h i n a t h o r o u g h l y and f o r more t h a n two y e a r s c a m - p a i g n e d w i t h t h e C h i n e s e a r m i e s a g a i n s t J a p a n i n 1 9 3 7 - 8 - 9 . I n h a l f an h o u r h e g a v e me a b e t t e r f i r s t - h a n d p i c t u r e o f t h e v a l o r o f t h e C h i n e s e a r m i e s t h a n I h a d e v e r r e c e i v e d b e f o r e . O f t h i s v a l o r h e h a d a v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n . 6 A s S e c r e t a r y o f War , S t i m s o n was o n e o f t h e few men who w i t h M a r s h a l l , s u p p o r t e d S t i l w e l l i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e C h i n e s e Army i n p r e f e r e n c e t o C h e n n a u l t ' s e m p h a s i s on a i r p o w e r . B o t h men a g r e e d w i t h S t i l w e l l ' s l o g i c t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t a i r - s t r i k e s f r o m C h i n a a g a i n s t J a p a n c o u l d n o t b e e f f e c t i v e u n l e s s t h e a i r b a s e s u s e d w e r e a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d f r o m J a p a n e s e g r o u n d a t t a c k . ^ V u l n e r a b l e t o t h e s p e c t a c u l a r c l a i m s o f C h e n n a u l t , R o o s e v e l t a t t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e o f May 1 9 4 3 , g r a n t e d h i m f i r s t p r i - o r i t y i n t h e a l l o t m e n t o f s u p p l i e s r e a c h i n g C h i n a o v e r t h e Hump. S t i l w e l l a t t e m p t e d t o s t a t e h i s c a s e , b u t a s h e n o t e d i n h i s d i a r y : " R o o s e v e l t w o u l d n ' t l e t me s p e a k my p i e c e . I i n t e r r u p t e d t w i c e , b u t C h u r c h i l l k e p t p u l l i n g away f r o m t h e s u b j e c t , and i t was i m p o s s i b l e . " 8 The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , S t i l w e l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n s w e r e v i n d i c a t e d when t h e J a p a n e s e o v e r r a n t h e f o r w a r d a i r f i e l d s o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h A i r f o r c e : " S e p t e m b e r 9 d i s a s t e r a p p r o a c h i n g K w e i l i n , n o t h i n g t o s t o p t h e J a p s - a b o u t 5 0 , 0 0 0 d e m o r a l i z e d C h i n e s e i n t h e a r e a 69 a g a i n s t n i n e J a p d i v i s i o n s . . . . S e p t e m b e r 1 4 , . . . d e m o l i t i o n on f i e l d s t o n i g h t . . . . " 9 On O c t o b e r 3, S t i m s o n summed u p t h e S t i l w e l l - C h e n n a u l t c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e l o s t a i r f i e l d s : "We h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o s a v e C h i n a f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e a t t a c k o w i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e t o s u p p o r t S t i l w e l l i n t r a i n i n g a d e q u a t e C h i n e s e g r o u n d f o r c e s t o p r o t e c t K u n m i n g . " * - 0 S t i l w e l l ' s r e s e n t m e n t a t what seemed t o h i m t h e b e t r a y a l o f t h e v e r y t a s k t h a t h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d h i m : t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e A r m y , i s f u l l y e v i d e n t i n h i s d i a r y . On t h e d a y f o l l o w i n g t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f BUCCANEER, h e met w i t h R o o s e v e l t : FDR: W e l l , J o e , what do y o u t h i n k o f t h e b a d news? JWS: I h a v e n ' t h e a r d y e t how b a d i t i s . . . . FDR: W e l l , now, w e ' v e b e e n f r i e n d s w i t h C h i n a f o r a g r e - e - e - a t many y e a r s . I a s c r i b e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h i s f e e l i n g t o t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s . Y o u know I h a v e a C h i n e s e h i s t o r y . My g r a n d f a t h e r went o u t t h e r e , . . . s t a y e d o u t t h e r e a l l t h r o u g h t h e C i v i l War , and made a m i l l i o n . . . . JWS: I t a k e i t t h a t i t i s o u r p o l i c y t o b u i l d C h i n a u p . FDR: Y e s . Y e s . B u i l d h e r u p . A f t e r t h i s war t h e r e w i l l b e a g r e a t n e e d o f o u r h e l p . T h e y w i l l want l o a n s . Madame C h i a n g and t h e G-mo w a n t e d t o g e t a l o a n o f a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s , b u t I t o l d them i t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o g e t C o n g r e s s t o a g r e e t o i t . . . . How l o n g do y o u t h i n k C h i a n g c a n l a s t ? JWS: T h e s i t u a t i o n i s s e r i o u s a n d a r e p e t i t i o n o f l a s t M a y ' s a t t a c k m i g h t o v e r t u r n h i m . FDR: W e l l , t h e n we s h o u l d l o o k f o r some o t h e r man o r g r o u p o f men, t o c a r r y o n . JWS: T h e y w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e l o o k i n g f o r u s . FDR: Y e s , t h e y w o u l d come t o u s . T h e y r e a l l y l i k e u s a n d j u s t b e t w e e n o u r s e l v e s , t h e y d o n ' t l i k e t h e B r i t i s h . Now, we h a v e n ' t t h e same a i m s a s t h e B r i t i s h o u t t h e r e . . . . W e l l now, t h e r e y o u a r e and r e m e m b e r , y o u ' r e my A m b a s s a d o r s J H A i HAJ HAJ Y e s , s i r , y o u ' r e my A m b a s s a d o r s . JWS: E n d o f C o n f e r e n c e . Draw y o u r own c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e v a l u e o f s u c h e v i d e n c e , t h o u g h d e b a t a b l e , c a n n o t b e 70 e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d , f o r S t i l w e l l ' s w h o l e p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s C h i n a was d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o R o o s e v e l t ' s mos t p e r v a s i v e c r i t i c s , 12 t h e R e p u b l i c a n s . What h e e v i d e n t l y f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e was t h a t u n d e r t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s c a v a l i e r manner l a y an a c u t e a w a r e n e s s o f A m e r i c a ' s l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o h e l p C h i n a ' s war e f f o r t . On O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1 9 4 4 , R o o s e v e l t u n d e r p r e s s u r e f r o m C h i a n g , r e c a l l e d S t i l w e l l . By t h e n , h e h a d p r o v i d e d t h e C h i n e s e w i t h t w e n t y t r a i n e d i n f a n t r y d i v i s i o n s , t h r e e o f w h i c h p r o v e d t o b e 13 o f e x c e p t i o n a l q u a l i t y . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e ( d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ) t h a t S t i l w e l l a t one t i m e c o n s i d e r e d a r m i n g t h e C o m m u n i s t s . S u c h a move , i n s p i t e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " U n i t e d F r o n t " i n p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e b e t w e e n t h e C o m m u n i s t s a n d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s s i n c e 1 9 3 7 , was p o l i t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e 14 t o C h i a n g . What i s more r e a d i l y e v i d e n t h o w e v e r , i s t h e b i t - t e r n e s s t h a t m a r k e d S t i l w e l l ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r . U n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e w i t h t h e l a t t e r * s p r i m a r y g o a l o f s e l f - s u r v i v a l , S t i l w e l l was n e v e r g r a n t e d t h e f r e e d o m h e n e e d e d t o c a r r y o u t h i s p l a n s t o r e o r g a n - i z e t h e b u l k o f t h e C h i n e s e a r m y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s t o h i s c r e d i t t h a t few o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s s o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s o f C h i n a ' s w e a k n e s s . 1 5 T h e C h i n e s e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e v i s i b l e n e g l e c t o f a w a r t i m e a l l y became a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f U . S . - C h i n e s e r e l a t i o n s . A s e a r l y a s A u g u s t 1 9 4 3 , C h i n a ' s F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , T . V . S o o n g , 71 v o i c e d h i s d o u b t s a s t o t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f C h i n a ' s new s t a t u s a s a g r e a t p o w e r : On many o c c a s i o n s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t h a s d e c l a r e d i t t o b e i t s p o l i c y t h a t f o u r amongs t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . . . s h a l l a l s o as sume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e war and f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e a c e . . . . On no m a j o r i s s u e , h o w e v e r , e i t h e r r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e war o r t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e p e a c e , h a s t h i s p r a c t i c e b e e n f o l l o w e d s o f a r . . . . W h i l e t h e a s sumed e x i s t e n c e o f t h e F o u r Power l e a d e r s h i p c o n t i n u e d t o b e e m p h a s i z e d b y A m e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s , no C h i n e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was i n v i t e d t o t h e C a s a b l a n c a o r W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e . . . . - ^ On t h e d a y f o l l o w i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t , t h e Q u e b e c C o n f e r e n c e t o o k p l a c e a n d C h i n a t h o u g h " k e p t i n f o r m e d , " was n o t s e a t e d a t t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s . T h a t same y e a r , t h e p h i l o s o p h e r L i n / Y u t a n g summed u p t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s a n d q u i t e p o s - s i b l y t h o s e o f o t h e r i n f o r m e d C h i n e s e a s w e l l : I n t h e war c o u n c i l s o f t o d a y , t h e r e i s a b l i n d s p o t , a n d t h a t s p o t i s A s i a . . . . Why u p t o now i s t h e r e no p l a n , a n d no w i s h f o r a p l a n , f o r C h i n a ' s p a r t n e r s h i p e v e n i n t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n ? T h e r e w i l l b e more p l a n e s s e n t t o C h i n a a s a g e s t u r e t o p a c i f y t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c , s o t h a t t h e p u b l i c w i l l b e l u l l e d i n t o s i l e n c e , b u t t h e b a s i c p o l i c y w i l l b e u n c h a n g e d . . . . P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a n n o u n c e s t h e i n t e n t i o n t o u s e C h i n a a s a b a s e t o i n v a d e J a p a n - t h e o n l y l o g i c a l b a s e , b u t b e t w e e n t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f i n t e n t i o n a n d a c t u a l p l a n n i n g , t h e r e w i l l b e a n o t h e r t i m e l a g o f y e a r s . 1 7 T h e l a c k o f d r i v e o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g i n f i g h t i n g t h e J a p a n e s e , and t h e emp loyment o f i t s b e s t d i v i s i o n s i n b l o c k a d i n g t h e C o m m u n i s t s i n t h e N o r t h W e s t , i s q u i t e n a t u r a l l y o m i t t e d h e r e . Y e t , i n s p i t e o f C h i a n g ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o u s e t h e m a t e ' r i e l p r o v i d e d h i m t o e n g a g e t h e J a p a n e s e , t h e d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n what was p r o m i s e d a n d what was a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d , was r e a l . A f i t t i n g 72 e x a m p l e o f t h i s n e g l e c t , was R o o s e v e l t ' s p l e d g e t o C h i a n g a t C a i r o , t o arm n i n e t y C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s . On December 1 0 , 1 9 4 3 , S t i l w e l l n o t e d t h e o f f e r i n h i s d i a r y d u r i n g a c o n f e r e n c e a t C a i r o t o d i s c u s s i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h r e e weeks l a t e r , M a r s h a l l was i n f o r m e d b y t h e O p e r a t i o n s D i v i - s i o n o f t h e War D e p a r t m e n t : " T h e commitment r e g a r d i n g t h e L e n d - L e a s e e q u i p p i n g o f C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s t h e P r e s i d e n t a c t u a l l y made a t SEXTANT [ C a i r o } i s n o t k n o w n . We a r e p r o c e e d i n g on t h e a s - s u m p t i o n t h e P r e s i d e n t made n o commi tment s on t h e t i m i n g o f t h e f l o w o f e q u i p m e n t . " 1 8 A t T e h e r a n , t o f u r t h e r c o n f u s e t h e i s s u e , R o o s e v e l t t o l d S t a l i n t h a t t h e U . S . w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y t r a i n a n d e q u i p s i x t y C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s . T h e m a t t e r was s h e l v e d u n t i l A u g u s t 1 1 , 1 9 4 5 , when i t r e a p p e a r e d i n a w i r e f r o m t h e A m b a s s a d o r t o C h i n a t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e B y r n e s . H u r l e y m e n t i o n e d t h a t C h i a n g h a d f r e q u e n t l y q u e r i e d h i m on " P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t ' s s t a t e m e n t a t C a i r o t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d e q u i p n i n e t y C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s . 1 , 1 9 A few weeks l a t e r , on S e p t e m b e r 3 , B y r n e s s e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g memorandum t o P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n : T . V . S oong i n q u i r e s w h e t h e r we a r e p r e p a r e d t o c o m p l e t e o u r commitment t o e q u i p 100 C h i n e s e d i v i s i o n s ? T h i s commi tment i s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n made t o C h i a n g b y P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a t C a i r o . T h e commi tment a p p a r e n t l y i s n o t i n w r i t i n g . M r . H o p k i n s a f f i r m s t h a t some s u c h commitment was made a t C a i r o when a c t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e t h e a t e r was a g r e e d u p o n . . . . So f a r a s I c a n a s c e r t a i n a b o u t 30 d i v i s i o n s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n 73 e q u i p p e d u n d e r o u r commitment t o C h i a n g . S oong s p e a k s o f 60 a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s t o b e e q u i p p e d . 2 0 F o u r d a y s l a t e r T ruman p e r s o n a l l y i n f o r m e d Soong t h a t a s e a r c h o f t h e r e c o r d s h a d f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e any e v i d e n c e o f R o o s e v e l t ' s p r o m i s e . ^ By t h e summer o f 1 9 4 4 , t h e C h i n e s e r e a c t i o n s t o a l o n g s u c - c e s s i o n o f u n f u l f i l l e d p r o m i s e s h a d g rown t o s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t R o o s e v e l t d i s p a t c h e d V i c e - P r e s i d e n t W a l l a c e t o C h u n k i n g . O s t e n s i b l y c h a r g e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f r e v i v i n g t h e d e f u n c t U n i t e d F r o n t , t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f a p p e a s i n g C h i a n g somewhat b a c k f i r e d when on J u n e 2 2 , C h i a n g i n f o r m e d W a l l a c e t h a t : T h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e h a d f o u g h t f o r s e v e n y e a r s u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f g r e a t h a r d s h i p , a n d t h a t t h e y h a d e x p e c t e d h e l p f r o m a b r o a d ; t h a t t h e y h a d e x p e c t e d an a l l - o u t Burma C a m p a i g n e a r l y t h i s y e a r and t h i s w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n b r i n g i n g r e l i e f t o t h e C h i n e s e A r m y . . . . T h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n d e s e r t e d . . . . He s a i d t h a t P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t h a d p r o m i s e d a n a l l - o u t c a m p a i g n i n Burma e a r l y i n 1944 b u t t h a t a t T e h e r a n P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t h a d r e v e r s e d h i s d e c i s i o n . . . . He . . . went b a c k a g a i n t o t h e C a i r o C o n - f e r e n c e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e Burma C a m p a i g n , s t a t i n g t h a t i f i t c o u l d h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t t h e e f f e c t o n m o r a l e i n C h i n a w o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y g r e a t . . . . 2 2 F a c e d w i t h s u c h a r e a c t i o n , t h e U . S . o n c e a g a i n t u r n e d t o d i p l o m a c y t o p l a c a t e C h i a n g , and m a i n t a i n h i s t r o o p s i n t h e i r n o m i n a l h o l d i n g r o l e a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e i n C h i n a . I n May, H u l l h a d a p p r o a c h e d b o t h t h e B r i t i s h and t h e R u s s i a n s t o a d m i t C h i n a t o t h e f i r s t U . N . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e t o b e h e l d a t D u m b a r t o n O a k s n e a r W a s h i n g t o n on A u g u s t 2 1 . G i v e n t h e S o v i e t n o n a g g r e s s i o n p a c t w i t h J a p a n , i t was a g r e e d t h a t s e p a r a t e c o n - 74 c u r r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s w o u l d b e h e l d t o a v o i d s e a t i n g t h e S o v i e t U n i o n w i t h C h i n a . On J u l y 2 4 , t h e C h i n e s e w e r e i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e a p p r a i s e d o f what was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g t h e S o v i e t p h a s e . T h i s i n f a c t d i d n o t o c c u r , and t h e C h i n e s e w e r e o n l y g i v e n a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e t a l k s . I t seems t h a t R o o s e v e l t h a d some r e s e r v a t i o n s a s t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f C h i n e s e s e c u r i t y , f o r h e h a d e a r l i e r i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e b e n o t i m m e d i a t e l y i n - f o r m e d o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e t a l k s , t h u s o b v i a t i n g t h e p o s - s i b i l i t y o f t h e m a t t e r " b e c o m i n g p u b l i c l y k n o w n . 1 , 2 3 On A u g u s t 2 1 , t h e S o v i e t p h a s e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e b e g a n , and t h o u g h a d e a d l o c k s o o n d e v e l o p e d o v e r v o t i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , none o c c u r r e d o v e r C h i n a ' s m e m b e r s h i p . T h a n k s l a r g e l y t o H u l l ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r i n Moscow, C h i n a ' s p e r m a n e n t s e a t d i d n o t h a v e t o b e r e n e g o t i a t e d . H u l l , i n f a c t g o e s so f a r a s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e f i r s t s e v e r a l d a y s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a v e r y l a r g e a r e a o f a g r e e m e n t on t h e b a s i c p r i n - c i p l e s i n v o l v e d . He a d d s t h a t a f t e r t h r e e w e e k s , " t h e B r i t i s h , R u s s i a n , a n d A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n s h a d a c h i e v e d a g r a t i f y i n g amount o f a g r e e m e n t - e n o u g h f o r t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o s e t t l e u p o n a p r o p o s e d f i n a l d r a f t o f p r o p o s a l s f o r a U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r . " ^ A t t h e e n d o f t h e S o v i e t p h a s e , t h e l a t t e r * s r e l u c t a n c e t o i d e n - t i f y i t s e l f w i t h C h i n a was s o l v e d b y i s s u i n g t h e f i n a l communique ' s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e f o u r c a p i t a l s o f t h e p o w e r s i n v o l v e d . 75 T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ( Sep tember 29) t h e C h i n e s e p h a s e b e g a n w i t h B r i t a i n a n d t h e U . S . s i t t i n g i n w i t h C h i n a . T h e C h i n e s e d i d n o t make a n y c h a n g e s t o wha t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n a c c e p t e d , a n d when t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o do s o t h e y w e r e p r o m p t l y r e m i n d e d o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p u b l i s h i n g t h e p r e s e n t t e x t w i t h o u t a l t e r a t i o n s , s i n c e a n y amendments w o u l d r e q u i r e r e f e r r a l t o t h e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t and t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e d e l a y . 2 5 On O c t o b e r 6 , t h e document was r e a d t o t h e C h i n e s e d e l e g a t i o n w h i c h a c c e p t e d i t , t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t r e t a i n i n g t h e r i g h t t o o f f e r amendments a t t h e f i r s t U . N . C o n f e r e n c e . On t h e n i n t h , when t h e p r o p o s a l s w e r e p u b l i s h e d , C h i n a ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l was c l e a r l y s t a t e d : " T h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f . . . r e p r e s e n t a - t i v e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m , . . . t h e [u . S . S . R . } , t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . . . . " 2 6 A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h a d a g a i n a c c o m p l i s h e d i t s i m m e d i a t e and a p p a r e n t l y i t s l o n g - r a n g e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r t h e F a r E a s t . C h i a n g h a d b e e n g i v e n t a n g i b l e e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o r e m a i n i n t h e w a r , a n d t h r o u g h C h i n a ' s s e a t on t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , t h e U . S . was a c q u i r i n g a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f i n f l u e n c e i n t h e p o s t w a r s t r u c t u r e o f A s i a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , some f a c t o r s m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e s e c o n d g o a l s u c h a s t h e s e c r e t a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d a t Y a l t a b e t w e e n t h e U . S . and t h e U . S . S . R . f o r t h e l a t - t e r ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c . L a t e i n 1 9 4 4 , t h e w a r i n E u r o p e h a d p r o g r e s s e d t o s u c h a n 76 e x t e n t t h a t G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t seemed p o s s i b l e w i t h i n a y e a r . On December 1 6 , h o w e v e r , t h e Germans n e a r l y p u s h e d t h e t r o o p s u n d e r E i s e n h o w e r bac lc t o t h e Meuse i n t h e d i s r u p t i v e B a t t l e o f t h e B u l g e . T h o u g h t h e Germans l a c k e d t h e l o g i s t i c s t o e x p l o i t t h e i r i n i t i a l s u c c e s s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o u l d s t i l l a t t h i s l a t e d a t e l a u n c h a m a j o r t h r u s t , d i s s i p a t e d t h e h o p e s t h e A l l i e s h a d p r e - v i o u s l y h e l d f o r a n e a r l y v i c t o r y . T h a t t h e A l l i e s g r o s s l y o v e r - r e a c t e d t o t h i s l a s t German e f f o r t i s c l e a r t o d a y . I n December 1944 h o w e v e r , an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w p r e v a i l e d , a v i e w s t i l l i n e v i d e n c e on t h e e v e o f Y a l t a , w h e r e t o q u o t e F . C . P o g u e : " M a r s h a l l and h i s a s s o c i a t e s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t R u s s i a n a i d was e s s e n t i a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l and s p e e d y c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e war i n E u r o p e . . . . " 2 7 I f d o u b t s e x i s t e d i n December 1944 o n t h e e x a c t d a t e o f G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t , f ew w o u l d h a z a r d a g u e s s a s t o when J a p a n w o u l d s u r r e n d e r . T h e J a p a n e s e w e r e d e f e n d i n g t h e o u t e r r i m o f i s l a n d s t h a t s c r e e n e d t h e i r h o m e l a n d w i t h a f e r o c i t y u n e q u a l l e d i n a n y o t h e r t h e a t e r o f w a r w i t h c a s u a l t i e s o n b o t h s i d e s c o r - r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h : I n t h i s l a s t s i x - m o n t h c a m p a i g n t o c l e a r t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , A m e r i c a n f o r c e s w e r e t o s u f f e r 6 0 , 0 0 0 c a s u a l t i e s w h i l e k i l - l i n g 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 J a p a n e s e . . . . Iwo J i m a . . . t h e M a r i n e C o r p s k i l l e d some 2 0 , 0 0 0 J a p a n e s e a t a c o s t o f n e a r l y 7 , 0 0 0 d e a d a n d some 2 0 , 0 0 0 w o u n d e d . . . . O k i n a w a . . . t h e J a p a n e s e f o r c e . . . l o s t more t h a n 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 d e a d . More t h a n 7 , 8 0 0 p l a n e s w e r e d e s t r o y e d . B u t U n i t e d S t a t e s Army and M a r i n e c a s u a l t i e s numbered some 3 9 , 0 0 0 , o f whom 7 , 3 0 0 . . . w e r e d e a d . N a v a l c a s u a l t i e s a f l o a t w e r e 1 0 , 0 0 0 w i t h 5 ,000 d e a d . J a p a n e s e 77 p l a n e s s a n k 36 s h i p s a n d damaged 368 o t h e r s . ° So t e n a c i o u s was t h e o v e r a l l J a p a n e s e d e f e n s e t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e v e n m o n t h s o f 1945 A m e r i c a n c a s u a l t i e s i n c r e a s e d f r o m an a v e r a g e o f 3 ,200 t o 1 2 , 7 5 0 p e r m o n t h . 2 9 On t h e b a s i s o f s u c h e v i d e n c e , t h e U . S . C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f p r e d i c t e d t h a t J a p a n c o u l d n o t b e d e f e a t e d b e f o r e December 1 9 4 6 . Bu t t h e c o n q u e s t o f t h e J a p a n e s e home i s l a n d s d i d n o t i n i t s e l f g u a r a n t e e t h e s u r - r e n d e r o f t h e h i g h l y i n d e p e n d e n t Rwantung Army i n M a n c h u r i a , o r t h e e q u a l l y l a r g e J a p a n e s e f o r c e s i n C h i n a and K o r e a . A n d e v e n w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e s e f o r c e s , t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f an i n - v a s i o n o f J a p a n v a r i e d f r o m h a l f a m i l l i o n t o one m i l l i o n A m e r i c a n c a s u a l t i e s . 3 0 I n s p i t e o f s u c h e s t i m a t e s , t h e U . S . A i r f o r c e b e l i e v e d t h a t i t c o u l d u n a i d e d , a c c o m p l i s h t h e d e f e a t o f J a p a n , a n d b y t h e e n d o f 1944 some e v i d e n c e d i d e x i s t t o s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w . Two e x - J a p a n e s e p i l o t s w r i t i n g a f t e r t h e w a r , s t a t e t h a t : By t h e c l o s e o f 1944 t h e A m e r i c a n s a c t u a l l y h a d c o m m i t t e d o n l y a m i n o r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r B -29 s t r e n g t h a g a i n s t J a p a n . . . . By t h e e n d o f J u l y [ 1 9 4 5 ] some n i n e t y c i t i e s h a d become l i t - e r a l a s h - c h o k e d f u n e r a l p y r e s . O n l y f o u r m a j o r c i t i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y , K y o t o , H i r o s h i m a , N a g a s a k i and S a p p o r o r e m a i n e d u n d a m a g e d , . . . t h e f i v e l a r g e s t c i t i e s [ T o k y o - Y o k o h a m a , O s a k a - K o b e , N a g o y a J . . . r e c e i v e d n e a r l y h a l f o f a l l bombs d r o p p e d b y t h e enemy T w e n t i e t h A i r F o r c e . So t h o r o u g h l y g u t t e d w e r e t h e m a j o r s e c t i o n s o f t h e s e c i t i e s , w i t h a c o m b i n e d t o t a l o f 1 0 3 . 2 2 s q u a r e m i l e s d e s t r o y e d , t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s e l i m i n a t e d them a s t a r g e t s . 3 1 H e r b e r t F e i s a d d s t h a t " o n e A m e r i c a n i n c e n d i a r y a i r r a i d on t h e T o k y o a r e a i n M a r c h £ 9 - 1 0 * ] 1945 d i d more damage a n d k i l l e d 78 a n d i n j u r e d more J a p a n e s e t h a n a t H i r o s h i m a ; " - 1 ^ s i x t e e n a n d a h a l f s q u a r e m i l e s o f T o k y o w e r e d e s t r o y e d , a n d t h e c a s u a l t i e s r a n g e d f r o m e i g h t y t o t h r e e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . 3 3 I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d h e r e t h a t a l l o f t h e s e r a i d s o c c u r r e d " a f t e r Y a l t a , " t h e i r p r e c i s e e f f e c t on J a p a n ' s w i l l t o r e s i s t c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a t t h a t c o n f e r e n c e . O f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o R o o s e v e l t , b o t h f r o m a p o l i t i c a l a n d a h u m a n i t a r i a n p o i n t o f v i e w , was t h e e s t i m a t e d c a s u a l t i e s an i n v a s i o n o f J a p a n w o u l d e n t a i l . T h e r e was o f c o u r s e S t a l i n ' s p r o m i s e t o e n t e r t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c u p o n G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t . By i n t e r v e n i n g i n C h i n a , M a n c h u r i a a n d K o r e a , t h e R u s s i a n s w o u l d p r e v e n t a mass o f J a p a n e s e t r o o p s f r o m r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r home i s l a n d s . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , R o o s e v e l t i n December 1 9 4 4 , i n q u i r e d f r o m h i s A m b a s s a d o r i n Moscow ( A v e r e l l H a r r i m a n ) , what c o m p e n s a t i o n s S t a l i n e x p e c t e d f o r s u c h a n i n t e r v e n t i o n . On t h e f o u r t e e n t h , H a r r i m a n h a d a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h S t a l i n a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y c a b l e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m e e t i n g t o t h e P r e s i d e n t : He [ S t a l i n ] went i n t o t h e n e x t r oom a n d b r o u g h t o u t a map . He s a i d t h a t t h e K u r i l e I s l a n d s and t h e l o w e r S a k h a l i n s h o u l d b e r e t u r n e d t o R u s s i a . . . . He d rew a l i n e a r o u n d t h e S o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e L i a o t u n g P e n i n s u l a i n c l u d i n g P o r t A r t h u r a n d D a i r e n s a y i n g t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s w i s h e d a g a i n t o l e a s e t h e s e p o r t s a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . I s a i d t h a t I r e c a l l e d t h a t y o u a n d h e h a d d i s c u s s e d t h i s q u e s t i o n a t T e h e r a n a n d t h a t , i f my memory i s c o r r e c t , y o u h a d i n f a c t i n i t i a t e d y o u r s e l f t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r R u s s i a t o h a v e a c c e s s t o a warm w a t e r p o r t i n t h e P a c i f i c . . . S t a l i n s a i d f u r t h e r t h a t h e w i s h e d t o l e a s e t h e C h i n e s e - E a s t e r n R a i l w a y . . . . He s a i d t h e 79 only consideration he had not mentioned at Teheran was the recognition of the status quo i n Outer Mongolia - the main- tenance of the Republic of Outer Mongolia as an independent i d e n t i t y . 3 4 At the Malta Conference on February 2, 1945, Roosevelt with the aforementioned information i n hand t o l d C h u r c h i l l that the War i n Europe would end i n 1945, but that the struggle against Japan might continue u n t i l December 1946. 3 5 That same day at the meeting of the Combined Chiefs, C h u r c h i l l queried Roosevelt on the r e a l i t i e s of China. The President answered that "three generations of education and t r a i n i n g would be required before China could become a serious f a c t o r . " 3 6 On the eve of Ya l t a therefore, Roosevelt was f u l l y aware of the human cost an i n - vasion of Japan would incur; he knew the p r i c e the Soviet Union would exact for entering the war i n the P a c i f i c , and he had a l i m i t e d view of China's power p o t e n t i a l . In Europe, the Battle of the Bulge had also demonstrated the i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y of the Soviet armies, who under Zhukov, were l e s s than a hundred miles from B e r l i n when the conference began on February 4. 3 7 On the f i r s t day of the Ya l t a Conference Harriman reminded Roosevelt that S t a l i n would r a i s e the question of compensations for h i s entry i n t o the war i n the P a c i f i c . Roosevelt answered that he wanted to consult with Chiang over the status quo i n Mongolia, but was ready to go ahead on S t a l i n ' s other demands. On February 8, during the Roosevelt-Stalin meeting at L i v a d i a 80 P a l a c e , R o o s e v e l t i n a n s w e r t o S t a l i n ' s q u e r y s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e w o u l d b e no d i f f i c u l t y w h a t s o e v e r i n r e g a r d t o t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f S a k h a l i n and t h e K u r i l e I s l a n d s g o i n g t o R u s s i a a t t h e e n d o f t h e w a r . " 3 8 R o o s e v e l t t h e n r e m i n d e d S t a l i n t h a t h e (FDR) h a d m e n t i o n e d t h e p o r t o f D a i r e n i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s a t T e h e r a n b u t t h a t " he h a d n o t y e t h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h i s m a t t e r w i t h M a r s h a l C h i a n g K a i - s h e k , s o t h e r e f o r e h e c o u l d n o t s p e a k f o r t h e C h i n e s e . " 3 9 N e v e r t h e l e s s , R o o s e v e l t d i s c u s s e d t h e means b y w h i c h t h e U . S . S . R . c o u l d a c q u i r e t h e u s e o f t h e p o r t : o u t r i g h t l e a s i n g , o r i t s c o n v e r s i o n i n t o a f r e e p o r t c o n t r o l l e d b y some f o r m o f i n t e r - n a t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n . S t a l i n t h e n m e n t i o n e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p o s t w a r u s e o f t h e M a n c h u r i a n R a i l w a y s , b a s i n g t h i s i n t e r e s t on t h e r i g h t o f a c c e s s e n j o y e d b y t h e C z a r s . R o o s e v e l t a g a i n r e - p e a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e u s e o f D a i r e n , w i t h a c o m - m i s s i o n p o s s i b l y made up o f " o n e C h i n e s e and one R u s s i a n . " T o t h i s , S t a l i n e m p h a s i z e d t h a t i f h i s b a s i c demands w e r e n o t m e t , " i t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m and M o l o t o v t o e x p l a i n t o t h e S o v i e t p e o p l e why R u s s i a was e n t e r i n g t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n . . . . " Once a g a i n R o o s e v e l t a t t e m p t e d t o p l a c a t e S t a l i n w i t h t h e e x c u s e t h a t h e h a d n o t d i s c u s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n w i t h C h i a n g , e m - p h a s i z i n g t h a t " a n y t h i n g s a i d t o them was known t o t h e w h o l e w o r l d i n t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . " What f o l l o w e d , f o r m s t h e n u c l e u s o f much o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t s t i l l r a g e s o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f 81 Y a l t a : R o o s e v e l t ' s a c q u i e s c e n c e i n w r i t i n g , t o S t a l i n ' s d e m a n d s : M a r s h a l S t a l i n a g r e e d (poor C h i n e s e s e c u r i t y ] a n d s a i d h e d i d n o t t h i n k i t was n e c e s s a r y y e t t o s p e a k t o t h e C h i n e s e a n d t h a t h e c o u l d g u a r a n t e e t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e Supreme S o v i e t . He a d d e d t h a t i t w o u l d b e w e l l t o l e a v e h e r e w i t h t h e s e c o n - d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n w r i t i n g a g r e e d t o b y t h e t h r e e p o w e r s . T h e P r e s i d e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s c o u l d b e I I II II II • I | — — | • | || •• • — ^ ^ — | WI III | — — • iWJl || — I — . Ml — M i l . . .HIH, II -III I — d o n e . 4 0 Two d a y s l a t e r ( F e b r u a r y 1 0 ) , H a r r i m a n i n f o r m e d M o l o t o v o f t h r e e amendments R o o s e v e l t w a n t e d t o make t o S t a l i n ' s c o n d i t i o n s f o r e n t e r i n g t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c . F i r s t , P o r t A r t h u r and D a i r e n s h o u l d become f r e e p o r t s , s e c o n d , t h e M a n c h u r i a n R a i l w a y s w o u l d b e o p e r a t e d b y a j o i n t C h i n e s e - S o v i e t C o m m i s s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , H a r r i m a n a d d e d t h a t h e " f e l t s u r e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t w o u l d n o t w i s h t o d i s p o s e f i n a l l y o f t h e s e two m a t t e r s i n w h i c h C h i n a was i n t e r e s t e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f t h e G e n e r a l - i s s i m o . " 4 1 M o l o t o v h a d some d i f f i c u l t y i n c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h i s l a s t amendment , s o H a r r i m a n i m m e d i a t e l y c a l l e d on R o o s e v e l t who e n d o r s e d i t on t h e s p o t . T h a t same a f t e r n o o n a f t e r t h e f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e m e e t i n g , S t a l i n a p p r o a c h e d H a r r i m a n a n d s a i d t h a t " h e was e n t i r e l y w i l l i n g t o h a v e D a i r e n a f r e e p o r t u n d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , b u t t h a t P o r t A r t h u r was d i f f e r e n t , i t was t o b e a R u s s i a n n a v a l b a s e a n d t h e r e f o r e R u s s i a r e q u i r e d a l e a s e . " H a r r i m a n s u g g e s t e d h e i m - m e d i a t e l y s e e R o o s e v e l t , w h i c h h e d i d , a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t t h e r e - u p o n a g r e e d t h a t R u s s i a b e g r a n t e d a l e a s e t o P o r t A r t h u r . S t a l i n now a c c e p t e d a j o i n t C h i n e s e - S o v i e t c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e 82 M a n c h u r i a n R a i l r o a d s , a n d a g r e e d t h a t C h i a n g ' s c o n c u r r e n c e was n e e d e d . He e m p h a s i z e d h o w e v e r , t h a t " t h e G e n e r a l i s s i m o s h o u l d a l s o g i v e h i s c o n s e n t t o |"the3 s t a t u s q u o i n O u t e r M o n g o l i a . " 4 2 S t a l i n t h e n a s k e d R o o s e v e l t n o t t o i n f o r m t h e C h i n e s e o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n s u n t i l h e ( S t a l i n ) a d v i s e d t h e P r e s i d e n t t o do s o , t o w h i c h R o o s e v e l t a g r e e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 ) , R o o s e v e l t , C h u r c h i l l a n d S t a l i n s i g n e d t h e s e c r e t a g r e e m e n t b y w h i c h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n was t o e n t e r t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c , t w o t o t h r e e month s a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f G e r m a n y . O m i t t e d f r o m t h e p r o t o c o l o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t h i s document was p l a c e d i n R o o s e v e l t ' s p e r s o n a l s a f e a n d r e l e a s e d t o t h e p r e s s e x a c t l y one y e a r l a t e r . 4 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a g r e e m e n t and i t s s e c r e c y , i n a n a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y e n c o u r a g e d t o b e l i e v e i n o p e n d i p l o m a c y , g a v e c a u s e t o R o o s e v e l t ' s d e t r a c t o r s who a c c u s e d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f b e t r a y i n g C h i n a a t Y a l t a . 4 4 One n e e d h a r d l y d o u b t t h a t R o o s e v e l t a p p r o a c h e d t h e Y a l t a C o n f e r e n c e f u l l y c o n v i n c e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a S o v i e t i n t e r - v e n t i o n i n t h e F a r E a s t . N o r was h e u n d e r any i l l u s i o n s a s t o t h e h u g e r o l e t h e S o v i e t a r m i e s w e r e p l a y i n g i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e . W i t h t h e s e f a c t o r s i n m i n d , R o o s e v e l t a t Y a l t a , a b a n d o n e d s e g m e n t s o f C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y t o s a v e A m e r i c a n l i v e s , t o s h o r t e n t h e w a r , a n d g u a r a n t e e t h e u l t i m a t e l i b e r a t i o n o f C h i n a f r o m e i g h t y e a r s o f J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n . G i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t D a i r e n , P o r t A r t h u r , O u t e r M o n g o l i a and l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f 83 M a n c h u r i a h a d b e e n o u t o f C h i n e s e c o n t r o l , i n some i n s t a n c e s s i n c e 1 9 0 5 , i t c a n b e a r g u e d t h i s was n o t a s g r e a t an a f f r o n t t o C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y a s some o f R o o s e v e l t ' s c r i t i c s h a v e m a i n t a i n e d . T o t h e n a t i o n a f f e c t e d h o w e v e r , i t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e C a i r o D e c l a r a t i o n , and when r e v e a l e d i n 1946 f u r t h e r d i s c r e d i t e d t h e g r e a t power image A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y h a d c r e a t e d f o r C h i n a s i n c e J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 4 2 . I t a l s o r e d u c e d A m e r i c a n p r e s t i g e i n C h i n a amongs t a l l p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s and a d d e d a n o t h e r i t e m t o t h e l o n g l i s t o f g r i e v a n c e s t h e West h a d i n f l i c t e d on C h i n a s i n c e b e f o r e t h e Open D o o r N o t e s o f 1 8 9 9 . T h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e w a r , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e C h i n e s e G o v e r n m e n t I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , D o c t o r H .K . T o n g , was q u e r i e d on a n e d i t o r i a l comment i n t h e S h a n g h a i E v e n i n g P o s t and M e r c u r y . T h e e d i t o r i a l r e f e r r e d t o a s e r i a l i z e d p o r t i o n o f S h e r w o o d ' s R o o s e v e l t and H o p k i n s . . . . i n t h e A u g u s t 2 8 , 1 9 4 8 , e d i t i o n o f C o l l i e r s , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t R o o s e v e l t h a d d i s c u s s e d w i t h C h i a n g a t C a i r o t h e d i s p o s a l o f D a i r e n . D r . T o n g a n s w e r e d : A c c o r d i n g t o my r e c o l l e c t i o n P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t , . . . i n q u i r e d a b o u t p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n v e r s i o n o f D a i r e n i n t o f r e e p o r t a t e n d o f w a r . T h e r e p l y o f P r e s i d e n t C h i a n g was t h a t h e m i g h t g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o s u c h a p r o p o s a l when t i m e came, p r o - v i d e d t h e r e was no i n [ f r i n g e m e n t ? J o f t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f C h i n a . T h e n a t u r e o f t h e commitment l a t e r made b y P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a t Y a l t a d i f f e r e d f r o m what P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t h i m s e l f h a d s u g g e s t e d t o P r e s i d e n t C h i a n g a t C a i r o . T h e Y a l t a commitment was n o t known t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a a t t h e t i m e i t was m a d e . 4 5 T h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e document h a s n e v e r b e e n d e n i e d b y t h e 84 S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t a n d i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r a l o g i c a l c a s e c o u l d b e made f o r a c t i n g o t h e r w i s e , g i v e n t h e s t a t e o f C h i n e s e s e c u r i t y a t t h a t t i m e . Such c r i t i c s a s H e r b e r t F e i s , G . A . L e n s e n , and t h e p r e w a r U . S . A m b a s s a d o r t o J a p a n , J o s e p h C . Grew (amongst o t h e r s ) , 46 h a v e r o u n d l y condemned R o o s e v e l t ' s r o l e a t Y a l t a . What i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d i n t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s t h e f i n a l c l a u s e o f t h e a g r e e m e n t i n w h i c h R u s s i a p r o m i s e s t o s i g n a n o n a g g r e s s i o n p a c t w i t h C h i n a a n d a s s i s t i n h e r l i b e r a t i o n f r o m J a p a n . So c r u c i a l was t h i s p r o m i s e t o t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c ( e a r l y i n 1 9 4 5 ) , t h a t S e c r e t a r y o f War S t i m s o n was " w i l l i n g t o p o s t p o n e a l l t h e d i v e r - g e n t i s s u e s b e t w e e n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . " 47 t o a c h i e v e t h i s e n d . S e v e n t e e n d a y s a f t e r Y a l t a , e v e n G e n e r a l M a c A r t h u r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n v a s i o n o f J a p a n was c o n t i n g e n t on t h e J a p a n e s e b e i n g " h e a v i l y e n g a g e d b y t h e R u s s i a n s i n M a n c h u r i a . " 4 8 O f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e U . S . , t h e Y a l t a A g r e e m e n t was a l s o v i t a l t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , f o r i t p r o m i s e d t h e K u o m i n t a n g b y t r e a t y , S o v i e t a s s i s t a n c e i n i t s l i b e r a t i o n f r o m J a p a n . When t h e t r e a t y was r e l e a s e d one y e a r l a t e r , C h i a n g was a s s u r e d t h a t h e a n d no o t h e r C h i n e s e p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n w o u l d r e a p t h e c r e d i t f o r f r e e i n g C h i n a f r o m e i g h t y e a r s o f J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n . I t a l s o r e a s s u r e d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t h a t t h e U . S . S . R . w o u l d c o n t i n u e i t s p o l i c y o f r e l a t i v e n o n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n C h i n e s e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . T h i s p o l i c y , i n e f f e c t s i n c e a t l e a s t 1 9 3 7 , 85 was n e v e r f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d b y A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y . F o r o f a l l t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t e d U . S . C h i n e s e w a r t i m e r e l a t i o n s , none e q u a l l e d t h a t w h i c h a s sumed t h a t t h e a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s o v e r t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e power s t r u g g l e 49 f o r C h i n a was o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o S o v i e t F a r E a s t e r n p o l i c y . NOTES 1 F l e e t A d m i r a l W.D. L e a h y , I was t h e r e : The P e r s o n a l S t o r y o f t h e C h i e f - o f - S t a f f t o P r e s i d e n t s R o o s e v e l t a n d T r u m a n B a s e d on H i s N o t e s and D i a r i e s Made a t t h e T i m e (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 1 0 0 . 2 S h e r w o o d , p . 7 7 4 . 3 S t a r t e d i n 1 9 4 2 , t h e r o a d r a n f r o m L e d o i n A s s am p r o v i n c e I n d i a , i n t o N o r t h Burma a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o Kunming i n W e s t e r n C h i n a . T h i s l a t t e r c o n n e c t i o n was n o t s e c u r e d u n t i l J a n u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 4 5 ; C h i a n g t h e r e u p o n r e n a m e d t h e r o a d i n t r i b u t e t o S t i l w e l l . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 5 , t h e t o n n a g e d e l i v e r e d t o C h i n a t h r o u g h t h e S t i l w e l l Road w a s : 3 1 . 0 t h o u s a n d s h o r t t o n s , t h i s i n c l u d e d 1 2 . 4 t h o u s a n d s h o r t t o n s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e p i p e l i n e t h a t p a r a l l e l e d t h e r o a d . T h e Hump a i r l i f t d u r i n g t h i s same month f e r r i e d 4 9 . 2 t h o u s a n d s h o r t t o n s i n t o C h i n a . H e r b e r t F e i s , The C h i n a T a n g l e : T h e A m e r i c a n E f f o r t i n C h i n a f r o m P e a r l H a r b o r t o t h e M a r s h a l l M i s s i o n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 2 7 5 , n . 1 6 . 4 She rwood s t a t e s t h a t R o o s e v e l t b e l i e v e d t h a t " t h e r e was a l w a y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e K u o m i n t a n g m i g h t make a s e p a r a t e p e a c e . " S h e r w o o d , p . 7 4 0 . On November 2 9 , 1 9 4 3 , H u l l c a b l e d R o o s e v e l t a t C a i r o t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n Embas sy i n C h u n k i n g h a d i n - f o r m e d h i m " t h a t J a p a n was c o n t i n u i n g t o make p e a c e o f f e r s t o t h e C h i n e s e G o v e r n m e n t , b u t w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . " H u l l , I I , 1 5 8 4 . 5 I n O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 , C h e n n a u l t h a d c l a i m e d t h a t g i v e n 105 m o d e r n f i g h t e r s , 30 medium b o m b e r s and l a t e r o n , 12 h e a v y b o m b e r s , h e c o u l d " a c c o m p l i s h t h e d o w n f a l l o f J a p a n . " C L . C h e n n a u l t , Way o f a F i g h t e r : T h e M e m o i r s o f C l a i r L e e C h e n n a u l t (New Y o r k : P u t n a m ' s & S o n s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 2 1 4 . A t t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e o f May 1 9 4 3 , C h e n n a u l t h a d a l s o b o a s t e d t h a t w i t h 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o n s o f s u p p l i e s p e r m o n t h , h e w o u l d s i n k a n d s e v e r e l y damage "more t h a n a m i l l i o n t o n s o f s h i p p i n g . " I b i d . , p p . 2 2 5 - 2 6 . 6 S t i m s o n & B u n d y , p . 5 3 0 . 7 I b i d . , p . 5 3 8 . 87 8 T . H . W h i t e ( e d . ) . T h e S t i l w e l l P a p e r s (New Y o r k : D u e l l S l o a n & P e a r c e , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 2 0 5 . See a l s o R . N . C u r r e n t , S e c r e t a r y S t i m s o n : A S t u d y i n S t a t e c r a f t (New B r u n s w i c k : R u t g e r s U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 2 1 5 . T h e f o l l o w i n g m o n t h , R o o s e v e l t s t a t e d a t a m e e t i n g i n t h e W h i t e H o u s e " t h a t S t i l w e l l o b v i o u s l y h a t e d t h e C h i n e s e . . . . " On t h e e v i d e n c e o f S t i l w e l l ' s r e f e r e n c e t o C h i a n g i n h i s c a b l e s a s " P e a n u t , " R o o s e v e l t was d r a w i n g a r a t h e r b r o a d c o n c l u s i o n . S h e r w o o d , p . 7 3 9 . 9 W h i t e ( e d . ) , p p . 3 2 7 , 3 3 0 . 10 S t i m s o n & B u n d y , p . 5 3 8 . I n h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h S t i l w e l l b e f o r e t h e l a t t e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t t o C h i n a , S t i m s o n w a r n e d t h a t h i s e n e m i e s i n h i s new p o s i t i o n w o u l d b e f o u r k i n d s : " J a p a n e s e , C h i n e s e , B r i t i s h , and A m e r i c a n . " I b i d . . p . 5 3 2 . 11 W h i t e ( e d . ) , p p . 2 5 1 - 5 4 . 12 F o r i n s t a n c e , h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o arm t h e C h i n e s e Com- m u n i s t s a l o n g w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , a s u g g e s t i o n v e h e m e n t l y condemned i n t h e U . S . d u r i n g t h e M c C a r t h y e r a . See U . S . C o n - g r e s s , S e n a t e , C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t E m p l o y e e L o y a l t y I n v e s t i g a t i o n : R e p o r t . 8 1 s t C o n g . , 2 n d . S e s s . S e n a t e R e p o r t N o . 2108 ( W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 0 ) . R . Y . Koen q u o t e s one o f C h i a n g ' s s t r o n g e s t s u p - p o r t e r s i n t h e C h i n a L o b b y , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t " S t i l w e l l f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s a b e t t e d i t [ t h e s o - c a l l e d D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e p l o t t o s u b v e r t t h e c a u s e o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t o t h a t o f t h e C o m m u n i s t s ! t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t b y h i s a c t i o n s and c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t h i n g t o o p p o s e i t . " T h e C h i n a L o b b y i n A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c s (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 1 9 1 , q u o t i n g A . K o h l b e r g , " C h i n a V i a S t i l w e l l R o a d , " T h e C h i n a M o n t h l y ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 8 ) , IX , 2 8 3 - 8 7 . 13 T h e s e w e r e t h e t h r e e d i v i s i o n s t r a i n e d a t Ramgarh , I n d i a , w h i c h w i t h t w o a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s f o u g h t u n d e r S t i l w e l l i n t h e S e c o n d Burma C a m p a i g n . T h e r e m a i n i n g f i f t e e n w e r e t r a i n e d i n Y u n n a n P r o v i n c e C h i n a a n d f o u g h t i n t h e S a l w e e n C a m p a i g n . 14 See L . P . V a n S l y k e , E n e m i e s and F r i e n d s : T h e U n i t e d F r o n t i n C h i n e s e Commun i s t H i s t o r y ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 9 2 - 9 9 . 15 "I j u d g e K u o m i n t a n g a n d K u n g c h a n t a n g [ c o m m u n i s t P a r t y ] , b y wha t I saw: [ K . M . T . ] c o r r u p t i o n , n e g l e c t , c h a o s e c o n o m y , t a x e s , w o r d s a n d d e e d s . H o a r d i n g , b l a c k m a r k e t , t r a d i n g w i t h enemy. Commun i s t p r o g r a m . . . r e d u c e t a x e s , r e n t s , i n t e r e s t . R a i s e p r o d u c t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . P a r t i c i p a t e i n g o v e r n - 88 ment. Practice what they preach." Undated entry before h i s 1944 r e c a l l , quoted i n White (ed.), p. 316. 16 Soong to Stimson, Washington, August 18, 1943, Foreign Relations. 1943. China, p. 94. 17 Between Tears and Laughter (Toronto: Longmans Green, 1943), pp. 110-11. See also i b i d . . pp. 63, 173. 18 Romanus & Sunderland, I I , 64. 19 Foreign Relations. Cairo..., p. 889. 20 Ibid.. pp. 889-90. 21 Ibid., p. 890. 22 China White Paper. I I , 551-52. Hu l l states that the t r i p "was without b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . " H u l l , I I , 1585-86. 23 Foreign Relations, 1944. General. I (1966), 623, n. 19. See also H u l l , I I , 1650. 24 H u l l , I I , 1684. 25 U.S. Department of State, Postwar Foreign Po l i c y Prepa- r a t i o n (Washington: U.S. Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e , 1949), p. 332. 26 Foreign Relations. 1944. General. I, 893. For the f u l l text, see Appendix VIII. 27 Quoted i n J.N. Sn e l l (ed.). The Meaning of Y a l t a : Big Three Diplomacy and the New Balance of Power (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956), pp. 29-30. Captain B.H. L i d d e l l Hart, states that the German thrust of December 16, 1944, "gave the A l l i e s t h e i r biggest shock since 1942...." The German Generals Talk (New York: Berkley, 1958), p. 238. See also i b i d . . pp. 239-43? R.E. Merriam, The Battle of the Bulge (New York: Ballantine Books, 1947) ? General F., von Senger und E t t e r l i n g , Neither Fear Nor Hope (New York: Dutton, 1964), p. 324. As t o Roosevelt's knowledge of the effectiveness of the atomic bomb at Yalta, Pogue contends that the President, Marshall and Stimson were n o t i f i e d by the end of December 1944, that an atomic bomb "possessing enormous destructive power would be ready for use about the f i r s t of August, 1945...." Quoted i n Sn e l l (ed.), p. 199. 28 Pogue, quoted i n Snell (ed.), pp. 31-32. 89 29 Ibid.. p. 33. 30 The h a l f m i l l i o n casualty estimate i s Truman's. Memoirs of Harry S. Truman (New York: Doubleday, 1955), p. 315. The one m i l l i o n estimate i s Stimson's and e n t a i l s a t o t a l projection of a l l U.S. cas u a l t i e s . Peis, Japan Subdued: The Atomic Bomb and the End of the War i n the P a c i f i c (Princeton: Princeton Univer- s i t y Press, 1961), p. 12, quoting Stimson, "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb," Harper's Magazine (February, 1947). See also J.R. Dean, The Strange A l l i a n c e : The Story of American E f f o r t s at Wartime Cooperation with Russia (New York: Viking Press, 1947), p. 225? J . Heffernan, "The bombing of Hiroshima Truman's decision alone," Vancouver Sun (August 6, 1970), p. 7, and espe- c i a l l y Hans Bethe's l e t t e r t o the New York Times (February 28, 1971), p. 12, e n t i t l e d : "Yalta: Lack of Communication on Bomb," i n which he states that by February 1945 there existed a 90 per- cent p r o b a b i l i t y that the atomic bomb would i n fact explode. 31 O. Masatake, J . Horikoshi & M. Cadin, Zero: The Inside Story of Japan's A i r War i n the P a c i f i c (New York: Ballantine Books, 1956), pp. 276-78. Yet t h i s carnage was accomplished by v i r t u a l l y few r a i d s . General L.S. Kuter who represented Arnold at Y a l t a , states: "By March 9, 1945, only 22 small-scale B-29 st r i k e s had been flown against Japan from the Marianas.... It was s i x t y - f i v e days (after Y alta] before the f i r s t five-hundred- airplane s t r i k e could be delivered...." Airman at Ya l t a (New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1955), pp. 4, 9, quoted i n S n e l l (ed.), p. 201. The highly combustible construction of Japanese urban dwellings as witnessed by t h i s writer i n these c i t i e s i n 1951-54, was no doubt responsible f o r the ease with which they could be eliminated through r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t f i r e bombings. 32 Feis, Japan Subdued.... p. 180. 33 Masatake et a l . . pp. 276-77. 34 Foreign Relations. 1945. The Conferences at Malta and Yal t a (1955), pp. 378-79. 35 G.A. Lensen, quoted i n Sn e l l (ed.), p. 143. 36 Foreign Relations, Malta.... p. 544. 37 Pogue, quoted i n S n e l l (ed.), p. 31. 38 Foreign Relations. Malta.... p. 768. 90 39 I b i d . . p . 7 6 9 . D u r i n g t h i s same c o n v e r s a t i o n o f F e b r u a r y 8 , 1 9 4 5 , R o o s e v e l t i n f o r m e d S t a l i n on t h r e e d i s t i n c t o c c a s i o n s t h a t h e h a d n o t h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s w i t h C h i a n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f D a i r e n and t h e M a n c h u r i a n R a i l w a y s . I b i d . F o u r t e e n m o n t h s e a r l i e r h o w e v e r , R o o s e v e l t h a d a s s u r e d t h e S o v i e t l e a d e r t h a t t h e C h i n e s e w o u l d a g r e e t o S o v i e t a c c e s s t o D a i r e n w e r e i t made a f r e e p o r t u n d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l g u a r a n t e e . She rwood s t a t e s t h a t R o o s e v e l t h a d i n f a c t d i s c u s s e d t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f D a i r e n w i t h C h i a n g a t C a i r o a few d a y s b e f o r e T e h e r a n . S h e r w o o d , p . 7 9 2 . On J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 4 4 , d u r i n g a c o n v e r - s a t i o n w i t h V i c e - P r e s i d e n t W a l l a c e , C h i a n g s t a t e d t h a t " he h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e m a t t e r ( d i s p o s i t i o n o f D a i r e n } w i t h P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a t C a i r o and h a d i n d i c a t e d h i s a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d e d t h e U . S . S . R . c o o p e r a t e d w i t h C h i n a i n t h e F a r E a s t and p r o v i d e d t h e r e was no i m p a i r m e n t o f C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y . " C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I I , 5 5 8 . See a l s o t h e comments o f D r . H .K . T o n g o f A u g u s t 2 8 , 1 9 4 8 , t h i s p a p e r , p . 8 3 . 40 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . M a l t a . . . . p . 769 ( I t a l i c s m i n e . ) 41 I b i d . . p . 8 9 4 . 42 I b i d . , p . 895 ( I t a l i c s i n t e g r a l . ) 43 I b i d . . p . 9 8 4 . F o r t h e f u l l t e x t s e e A p p e n d i c i e s IX - X . 44 T h e C h u n k i n g f i n a n c e d " C h i n a L o b b y " a c t i v e l y f o s t e r e d t h i s myth t h r o u g h o u t t h e U . S . I n 1 9 4 9 , S e n a t o r A r t h u r V a n d e n b e r g , e c h o e d t h i s a t t i t u d e when h e s t a t e d o f A m e r i c a ' s C h i n a p o l i c y : " T h e ' c r i m e ' g o e s b a c k t o T e h e r a n a n d Y a l t a w h e r e FDR s o l d C h i a n g K a i - s h e k down t h e r i v e r i n o r d e r t o g e t J o e S t a l i n i n t o t h e J a p w a r . . . . " Q u o t e d i n K o e n , p . 1 1 1 . F o r a r e c e n t v i e w o f Y a l t a , s e e D .S . C l e m e n s , Y a l t a (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 2 1 6 - 2 5 , 2 4 4 - 5 5 . 45 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C a i r o . . . . p . 8 9 1 . 46 H . F e i s , C h u r c h i l l R o o s e v e l t S t a l i n : T h e War T h e y Waged and T h e P e a c e T h e y S o u g h t ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 5 1 3 - 1 5 ; L e n s e n s t a t e s t h a t " R o o s e v e l t and S t a l i n t o o k l e s s t h a n a q u a r t e r o f an h o u r t o c o n s i d e r R u s s i a n d e s i r e s i n t h e F a r E a s t . " Q u o t e d i n S n e l l ( e d . ) , p . 1 4 7 ; J . C . G r e w , T u r b u l e n t E r a : A D i p l o m a t i c R e c o r d o f F o r t y Y e a r s : 1 9 0 4 - 1945 ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 4 2 ) , I I , 1 4 4 4 . I t i s i n t e r - e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l f o u r month s " a f t e r Y a l t a " t h a t M a r q u i s K i d o i n a t e n t a t i v e d r a f t o f a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e 91 E m p e r o r , n o t e d : " T h e s t a t i s t i c s a p p e n d e d . . . r e v e a l t h a t a f t e r t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e y e a r we s h a l l c o m p l e t e l y l o s e o u r power i n e v e r y way f o r p r o s e c u t i n g w a r . " L . M o s l e y , H i r o h i t o : E m - p e r o r o f J a p a n (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 9 4 . 47 C u r r e n t , p . 2 2 6 . 48 W. M i l l i s ( e d . ) , T h e F o r r e s t a l D i a r i e s (New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 3 1 . A d m i r a l L e a h y s h a r e d an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k h o w e v e r : "I was o f t h e f i r m o p i n i o n t h a t o u r w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n h a d p r o g r e s s e d t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e h e r d e f e a t was o n l y a m a t t e r o f t i m e a n d a t t r i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e we d i d n o t n e e d S t a l i n ' s h e l p t o d e f e a t o u r enemy i n t h e P a c i f i c . T h e A rmy d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h m e . . . . " L e a h y , p . 2 9 3 . See a l s o i b i d . . p . 3 1 7 . 49 C l e m e n s s t a t e s t h a t S t a l i n r e m i n d e d R o o s e v e l t a t Y a l t a t h a t " h e [ S t a l i n ] c o n s i s t e n t l y b a c k e d a u n i t e d f r o n t p o l i c y , a n d (as f a r b a c k a s t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , i n f a c t ) h a d i n s i s t e d o n i t . He a s s u r e d R o o s e v e l t t h a t h e h a d n e v e r a g r e e d w i t h i t s d i s s o l u t i o n . " C l e m e n s , p . 2 5 1 . See a l s o V a n S l y k e , p p . 9 2 - 9 6 , 1 0 6 , 1 1 3 - 1 6 . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n v i e w o f S t a l i n ' s a b o v e a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e U n i t e d F r o n t d i d n o t e n t a i l any f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e s s i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e C h i n e s e Commun i s t P a r t y ( o r t h e K u o m i n t a n g ) t o e i t h e r f u n d a m e n t a l i d e o l o g y o r u l t i m a t e g o a l s . I b i d . . p . 1 2 1 . C h i a n g ' s i n s i s t e n c e on a S i n o - S o v i e t t r e a t y d u r i n g h i s c o n v e r - s a t i o n w i t h W a l l a c e on J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 4 4 , i s t r e a t e d i n C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r . I I , 5 5 8 . F o r some C h i n e s e a n d A m e r i c a n r e a c t i o n s t o t h e t r e a t y , s e e i b i d . , I, 1 2 0 - 2 3 . V POUR YEARS OF DIPLOMACY: AN ASSESSMENT In attempting to assess the motives which prompted American diplomacy to foster the image of China as a great power from January 1, 1942 to Yalta, one i s immediately faced with the lack of c r e d i b i l i t y such an e f f o r t was destined to evoke. I f , as t h i s writer maintains, China's new status amounted to nothing more tangible than convenient tokenism, why did the U.S. go to such lengths to create t h i s image during the war and attempt to insure i t s perpetuation i n t o the postwar era? Four p o s s i b i l i t i e s present themselves to t h i s w r i t e r : F i r s t , the obvious necessity of maintaining China i n the war against Japan to ensure her continued occupation by masses of Japanese troops that would otherwise be used against the U.S. and her a l l i e s i n the P a c i f i c . This factor increased i n relevance as the war approached the Japanese home islands, and America faced the prospect of a landing i n Japan and a mammoth b a t t l e for the Plain of Tokyo. The estimated casualties the U.S. would incur i n such an action were so high as to d i r e c t l y influence the concessions of Y a l t a . For not only was i t deemed v i t a l that 93 C h i n a m a i n t a i n t h e J a p a n e s e o c c u p i e d on t h e A s i a n m a i n l a n d , R u s s i a was a l s o c o u n t e d on t o e n g a g e t h e e q u a l l y l a r g e J a p a n e s e f o r c e s i n M a n c h u r i a and K o r e a a f t e r G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t . G i v e n t h e p r e s s u r e s o f s u p p l y and demand on a n a t i o n e n g a g e d i n a war on two c o n t i n e n t s , c o u p l e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n o f C h i n a , a l l t h e U . S . c o u l d o f f e r C h i n a a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r was t h e a p p e a r a n c e s o f a g r e a t p o w e r . E v i d e n c e h a s b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o u n d e r l i n e t h e f a c t t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e s e d r a w b a c k s , t h e U . S . , t h o u g h p r o m i s i n g more t h a n i t a c t u a l l y d e l i v e r e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r . T h e a i r l i f t o v e r t h e Hump, t h e S t i l w e l l m i s s i o n a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L e d o - S t i l w e l l r o a d a t t e s t t o t h i s c o n t i n u o u s a i d . E v e n t h e Y a l t a c o n c e s s i o n s c a n b e r a t i o n a l i z e d , b o t h f o r t h e i r c o n - t r i b u t i o n t o t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c , and t h e e x p l i c i t R u s s i a n commitment t o a s s i s t i n t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f C h i n a . R u s s i a i n e f f e c t , was b o u n d b y t h e Y a l t a A g r e e m e n t t o c o n c l u d e a p a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e r e b y a s s u r i n g t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n t h e U . S . h a d managed t o s e a t i n t h e U . N . S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . 1 T h i s f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e , e x e m p l i f i e s ; t h e t r a d i - t i o n a l c o n c e n s u s a p p r o a c h w h i c h s e e s R o o s e v e l t ' s d e c i s i o n s a n d U . S . p o l i c y t o w a r d C h i n a a s a s e r i e s o f p r a g m a t i c r e a c t i o n s t o i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m s , s e t a g a i n s t t h e o v e r r i d i n g p r i o r i t y o f A m e r i c a n s e c u r i t y a n d t h e w i n n i n g o f t h e w a r . Such i n v o l v e d 94 p a r t i c i p a n t s a s C o r d e l l H u l l , Dean A c h e s o n , a n d t o some e x t e n t E .R . S t e t t i n i u s , h a v e a d v o c a t e d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . 2 I n t h i s , t h e y h a v e b e e n s u p p o r t e d b y a number o f h i s t o r i a n s i n c l u d i n g A . M . S c h l e s i n g e r J r . , a n d G . S m i t h , amongs t o t h e r s . T h e s e c o n d p o s s i b i l i t y , a n d one e x p o u n d e d b y some o f t h e New L e f t R e v i s i o n i s t h i s t o r i a n s s u c h a s W . A . W i l l i a m s , G . K o l k o , and t h e s e m a n t i c i s t N. Chomsky , w o u l d b e t o a s c r i b e s o l e l y e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s t o t h e A m e r i c a n t r e a t m e n t o f C h i n a a s a g r e a t p o w e r . 3 T h e w h o l e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f s e a t i n g C h i n a i n t h e U . N . S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l i s t h e n s e e n a s a p r e m e d i t a t e d move t o c o n t r o l C h i n a i n t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d t o e n h a n c e A m e r i c a n e c o n o m i c i m p e r i a l i s m . C h u r c h i l l ' s r e f e r e n c e t o C h i n a ' s " f a g g o t v o t e " f o r U . S . p o l i c y i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , and R o o s e v e l t ' s t h i n l y v e i l e d a t t e m p t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e war t o e x c l u d e t h e o l d c o l o n i a l p o w e r s f r o m p o s t - war A s i a , a d d c r e d e n c e t o t h i s t h e s i s . One o f i t s mos t r e c e n t e x p o n e n t s g o e s so f a r a s t o s t a t e t h a t : R o o s e v e l t h o p e d t o e x p e l t h e ' i m p e r i a l i s t s ' - B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , a n d J a p a n - f r o m C h i n a and K o r e a , a n d p o s s i b l y f r o m I n d o c h i n a a n d Hong K o n g , a n d t o s u b s t i t u t e A m e r i c a n e c o n o m i c h e g e m o n y . . . . T o f i l l t h e g a p , h e s o u g h t t o p r o m o t e t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a s A m e r i c a ' s j u n i o r p a r t n e r i n A s i a . A f t e r t h e w a r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d c o n t r o l C h i n a and o c c u p y J a p a n . . . . 4 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s u c h an a p p r o a c h so e a s i l y a c c e p t e d t o d a y i n v i e w o f t h e g l o b a l s c o p e o f U . S . c a p i t a l i s m , f a i l s t o e x p l a i n why A m e r i c a n i n v e s t o r s f r o m 1899 t o 1945 showed a n e a r t o t a l l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n r i s k i n g t h e i r c a p i t a l i n C h i n a . N o r d o e s i t 95 s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i d e r s u c h c r u c i a l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s a s d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s , t h e C h i n a L o b b y , a n d i n C h i n a , t h e a b s e n c e o f e v e n a m i n i m a l i n d u s t r i a l b a s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t o s u p p l y a r e c i p r o c a l o r e x t r a c t i v e t r a d e . 5 A t h i r d a p p r o a c h i s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t R o o s e v e l t m i s r e a d t h e f u t u r e b a s i s o f power i n C h i n a , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y , s u p p o r t e d C h i a n g t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r f a c t i o n s ; t h e a s s u m p t i o n b e i n g t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s w o u l d b e s t r o n g enough ( w i t h some A m e r i c a n h e l p ) t o s h i f t t h e b a l a n c e o f power i n p o s t w a r A s i a . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s more d i f f i c u l t t o r e f u t e , f o r an a s s e s s m e n t o f R o o s e v e l t ' s e x c l u s i v e h e l p t o C h i a n g d u r i n g t h e w a r , t h e s o l i d f a c t o f C h i n a ' s s e a t i n t h e U . N . S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l a n d t h e h o p e t h a t R u s s i a m i g h t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a f o r e s a i d b a l a n c e , a l l a d d c r e d e n c e t o s u c h an h y p o t h e s i s . ^ By a c c e p t i n g t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y h o w e v e r , one mus t a l s o a c c e p t t h e r e a s o n i n g t h a t R o o s e v e l t was e i t h e r unaware o f , o r c h o s e t o i g n o r e an i m p r e s s i v e amount o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n t i n u e d c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s and t h e i r p r o b a b l e d e b a c l e i n t h e f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 7 One f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o a s c r i b e s u c h n a i v e t e ' t o o n e o f A m e r i c a ' s f o r e m o s t s t a t e s m e n , a man whose w h o l e p u b l i c l i f e e p i t o m i z e d t h e a r t o f t h e p o s s i b l e . ® A s e a r l y a s M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 4 1 , on h i s r e t u r n f r o m a s u r v e y o f C h i n a ' s war p o t e n t i a l , L a u c h l a n C u r r i e , one o f R o o s e v e l t ' s p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n t s , w a r n e d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l w e a k - 96 n e s s o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g : "My g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n [ h e s t a t e d } i s t h a t w h i l e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t w i l l b e h e l d t o min imum d u r i n g t h e w a r t h e r e i s a v e r y d u b i o u s p r o s p e c t o f m a i n t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l s t a - b i l i t y i n t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d . " 9 A t t h e S e c o n d C a i r o C o n f e r e n c e i n December 1 9 4 3 , S t i l w e l l ' s b i o g r a p h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t R o o s e v e l t s u g g e s t e d t h a t maybe a n a l t e r n a t i v e m i g h t h a v e t o b e f o u n d t o r e p l a c e C h i a n g . 1 0 T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , S t e t t i n i u s n o t e d t h a t a t a c a b i n e t m e e t i n g R o o s e v e l t h a d " s t a t e d t h a t h e was g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o u t l o o k r e l a t i v e t o C h i n a a n d t h a t h e was a p p r e h e n s i v e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a s t o C h i n a h o l d i n g t o g e t h e r f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e w a r . . . . " 1 1 I n J u l y 1 9 4 4 , H u l l i n a c o n v e r - s a t i o n w i t h B e a v e r b r o o k a d m i t t e d t h a t h e h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d " t h a t C h i n a h a s o n l y a f i f t y - f i f t y c h a n c e t o r e e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f a s a g r e a t p o w e r . . . . " 1 2 S t i m s o n , t h o u g h o b v i o u s l y b i a s e d , b e l i e v e d t h a t " t h e e n t i r e C h i n e s e war e s t a b l i s h m e n t was r i d d l e d w i t h g r a f t a n d p e r s o n a l power p o l i t i c s . . . . " 1 3 I n s p i t e o f R o o s e v e l t ' s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n f o r m u l a t i n g f o r e i g n p o l i c y i t w o u l d b e i n a c c u r a t e t o s u g g e s t t h a t s u c h o p i n i o n s w e r e unknown t o h i m , some o f w h i c h w e r e s h a r e d b y members o f h i s own c a b i n e t . 1 4 T h e r e was a l s o a c o n s t a n t f l o w o f r e p o r t s t o t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t f r o m i t s embas sy i n C h u n k i n g . H e a d e d b y C . E . G a u s s , a n d s t a f f e d b y s u c h e x p e r i e n c e d a n a l y s t s o f C h i n a a s J . S . S e r v i c e , J . P . D a v i e s , a n d O . E . C l u b b , t h e embas sy r e p e a t e d l y w a r n e d W a s h i n g t o n t h a t p o p u l a r s u p p o r t was p a s s i n g o u t o f t h e 97 h a n d s o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s and i n t o t h o s e o f t h e C o m m u n i s t s . E a r l y i n J a n u a r y 1 9 4 4 , t h e S e c o n d S e c r e t a r y o f Embas sy i n C h i n a , J . P . D a v i e s , s t a t e d i n a memorandum t h a t t h e C o m m u n i s t s i n Y e n a n w e r e " t h e mos t c o h e s i v e , d i s c i p l i n e d and a g g r e s s i v e l y a n t i - J a p a n e s e r e g i m e i n C h i n a , . . . t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c h a l l e n g e . . . t o 15 t h e C h i a n g K a i - s h e k g o v e r n m e n t . . . . " On F e b r u a r y 8 , A m b a s s a d o r G a u s s r e i n f o r c e d D a v i e s * memo when h e i n f o r m e d S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e H u l l t h a t a r e l i a b l e e y e w i t n e s s h a d i n f o r m e d h i m t h a t t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h a d a c h i e v e d b r o a d s u p p o r t f r o m a l l c l a s s e s 16 i n t h e a r e a s u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l . On t h e s i x t e e n t h , i n a n o t h e r m e s s a g e t o H u l l , G a u s s commented on a n i n t e r v i e w Madame Sun Y a t - s e n h a d a c c o r d e d J . S . S e r v i c e t o d i s c u s s t h e K u o m i n t a n g ' s r e f u s a l t o a l l o w h e r t o v i s i t t h e U . S . : Madame Sun a s c r i b e d t h e r e f u s a l t o t h e s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l o f h e r f a m i l y a n d h i g h K u o m i n t a n g o f f i c i a l s t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n R e y n o l d s W e e k l y . . . . o f a r e p o r t t h a t she h a d s e n t a m e s - s a g e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a p p e a l i n g f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b l o c k a d e a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may r e c e i v e m e d i c i n e a n d o t h e r s u p p l i e s and b e g i v e n an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o f i g h t J a p a n . . . . Madame S u n ' s p o s i t i o n i s now a s t r a i n e d a n d d i f f i c u l t o n e . 1 7 I t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d h o w e v e r , t h a t Madame Sun h a d b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e C o m m u n i s t s s i n c e t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s and was t h e n (1944) a n d s t i l l i s , m o s t s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e m . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f D e m o c r a t i c P a r t i e s , a n i n c i p i e n t f o r m o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e K u o m i n t a n g , d i r e c t l y b l a m e d C h i a n g f o r C h i n a ' s 18 c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Some s u b s t a n c e was a d d e d t o t h i s c h a r g e b y 98 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e M a n s f i e l d when on h i s r e t u r n t o W a s h i n g t o n on J a n u a r y 3, 1 9 4 5 , f r o m a m i s s i o n t o C h i n a , h e r e p o r t e d t o R o o s e v e l t t h a t c o n s c r i p t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e army was t a n t a m o u n t t o a d e a t h s e n t e n c e . 1 9 On t h e s i x t e e n t h h e f o l l o w e d u p h i s r e p o r t w i t h a s p e e c h i n t h e H o u s e i n w h i c h h e r e f e r r e d t o t h e " d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s " w h i c h a c c r u e d f r o m u s i n g 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 N a t i o n a l i s t 20 t r o o p s t o b l o c k a d e t h e C o m m u n i s t s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t . W i t h t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f A m b a s s a d o r G a u s s a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t a p p o i n t m e n t o f G e n e r a l P . J . H u r l e y on November 3 0 , 1 9 4 4 , o f f i c i a l a t t e m p t s t o m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s and t h e C o m m u n i s t s w e r e i n i t i a t e d . T h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s h a d b e e n l a i d b y G a u s s who , w i t h R o o s e v e l t ' s d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e , h a d managed t o p l a c e a n A m e r i c a n o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n i n Y e n a n t o a s s e s s t h e m i l i t a r y p o t e n t i a l o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , H u r l e y , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y no d i p l o m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e , and c a t e g o r - i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o any c r i t i c i s m o f C h i a n g a n d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , n e g a t e d t h e f a i n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r a p p r o c h e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e t w o f a c t i o n s . H i s a t t i t u d e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o r e d u c e t h e i m p a c t o f t h e d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s f r o m h i s own embas sy s t a f f a n d t h o s e f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r s i n Y e n a n . T h i s p a r t i a l i t y was e v i d e n t i n a d i s - p a t c h t o H u l l on F e b r u a r y 1 7 , i n w h i c h H u r l e y q u e s t i o n e d t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f a r e p o r t a l l e g i n g c o l l u s i o n b e t w e e n t h e K u o m i n t a n g a n d t h e J a p a n e s e . T h e r e p o r t w r i t t e n b y a C a p t a i n 21 E v a n s , q u o t e d e x c e r p t s f r o m a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Chou E n - l a i . 99 T h a t same month t h e C h a r g e ' i n C h i n a ( A t c h e s o n ) , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f H u r l e y ' s v i s i t t o W a s h i n g t o n w i r e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . I n a l e n g t h y e x p o s e ' w r i t t e n w i t h t h e h e l p o f a l l o f t h e e m b a s s y ' s p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r s , A t c h e s o n recommended t h a t t h e U . S . p r o v i d e arms t o t h e C o m m u n i s t s . S u c h a p o l i c y , h e s t a t e d , w o u l d " s e c u r e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l o f C h i n a ' s f o r c e s i n t h e w a r , t o h o l d t h e C o m m u n i s t s t o o u r s i d e r a t h e r t h a n t h r o w t h e m i n t o t h e arms o f R u s s i a . . . . " 2 2 T h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f a s s i s t i n g t h e C o m m u n i s t s i n Y e n a n h a d b e e n i n i t i a t e d b y S t i l w e l l , a s u g g e s t i o n w h i c h p l a y e d a m a j o r 23 r o l e i n C h i a n g ' s i n s i s t e n c e on h i s r e c a l l . T h e i m p a c t o f s u c h a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a s l a t e a s 1 9 4 5 , s u p p o r t e d b y t h e p o l i t i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s on t h e s p o t , i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y o f t h e a b s e n t a m b a s s a d o r c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t H u l l ' s a t t e n t i o n . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h H u r l e y ' s p a r t i a l i t y f o r C h i a n g c o n s t r a i n e d t h e e m b a s s y s t a f f f r o m e x p r e s - s i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r e e l y t o W a s h i n g t o n . I n s p i t e o f s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e h o w e v e r , r e p o r t s on c o n d i t i o n s i n C h i n a c o n t i n u e d t o r e a c h t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t . On M a r c h 1, 1 9 4 5 , t h e A s s i s t a n t C h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f C h i n e s e A f f a i r s ( C h a s e ) , s u b m i t t e d a memorandum e m p h a s i z i n g t h e d e g r e e o f c o r - 24 r u p t i o n t h e n e v i d e n t i n t h e K u o m i n t a n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , U n d e r S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Grew i n f o r m e d R o o s e v e l t o f h i s c o n c e r n o v e r C h i a n g ' s " i n t r a n s i n g e n t a t t i t u d e " t o w a r d t h e 100 C o m m u n i s t s . Grew t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t A t c h e s o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f F e b r u a r y c o u l d v e r y w e l l b e d i s c u s s e d w i t h H u r l e y d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n W a s h i n g t o n . 2 5 On M a r c h 2 0 , J . S . S e r v i c e , on d u t y w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n i n Y e n a n , r e p o r t e d on an a l l e g e d i n s t a n c e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a l commanding t h e S e c o n d N a t i o n a l i s t War Zone and t h e J a p a n e s e . One week l a t e r C h a s e c r i t i c i z e d t h e A m e r i c a n p o l i c y o f a r m i n g o n l y t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , i n a memorandum h e s t a t e d t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y t h r e a t e n e d n o t o n l y t o a l i e n a t e t h e C o m m u n i s t s b u t a l l o t h e r i m p o r t a n t n o n - K u o m i n t a n g g r o u p s : I f o p p o s i t i o n t o C h i a n g c o n t i n u e s t o g row a t i t s p r e s e n t r a t e , s u c h a n a l i e n a t i o n w o u l d mean t h a t we w o u l d s o o n f i n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s C h i n e s e e m b i t t e r e d a g a i n s t u s f o r s u p p o r t i n g a m i n o r i t y r e g i m e w h i c h c o u l d n o t m a i n t a i n i t s e l f w i t h o u t o u r s u p p o r t . I t w o u l d a l s o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r a h e a d - o n c o l l i s i o n w i t h S o v i e t R u s s i a . 2 7 On May 2 8 , C h a s e ' s memorandum was g i v e n f u r t h e r e m p h a s i s b y a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t P a p e r c i r c u l a t e d t o t h e S e c r e t a r i e s o f S t a t e , War , and t h e N a v y , c o n c e r n i n g U . S . C h i n e s e p o s t w a r m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s . A f t e r c a s t i g a t i n g t h e K u o m i n t a n g , t h e N a t i o n a l i s t army a n d a i r f o r c e , i t r e f e r r e d t o t h e " w i d e s p r e a d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n " w i t h i n C h i n a t o t h e p r e s e n t n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . U n d e r p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e p a p e r d e f i n e d t h e g r o u p s w h i c h w e r e t h e n o p p o s e d t o t h e K u o m i n t a n g c o n t r o l l e d N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t : T h e C o m m u n i s t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s o f S h e n s i , S h a n s i , H o p e i , S h a n t u n g , A n h w e i , and K i a n g s u , i n a d d i t i o n t o a p o p u l a t i o n o f a b o u t 20 t o 101 50 m i l l i o n ; t h e D e m o c r a t i c L e a g u e , w h i c h i t d e f i n e d a s a l o o s e f e d e r a t i o n o f m i n o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ; t h e war l o r d s i n S z e c h u a n , Y u n n a n , K w a n g s i , a n d t h e s e m i - i n d e p e n d e n t m i l i t a r y r u l e r s o f T s i n g h a i , S i k a n g , and N i n g h s i a , whose a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e N a t i o n a l 28 G o v e r n m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y n o m i n a l . W i t h e v e n t h i s m i n i m a l e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , i t w o u l d b e c r e d u l o u s i n t h e e x t r e m e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t R o o s e v e l t f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e d e c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t h r o u g h o u t 29 C h i n a . N o r i s i t r e a l i s t i c t o m a i n t a i n t h a t h e l o n g r e m a i n e d b l i n d t o t h e p o p u l a r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e C o m m u n i s t s i n t h e r e g i o n s u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l . No t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e was u n c o v e r e d h o w e v e r , t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r c h a n g e i n p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s o r t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s was i n i t i a t e d b y R o o s e v e l t , o r c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t u p t o t h e t i m e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s d e a t h on A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 4 5 . T h e t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e , c a n b e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d : A l t h o u g h aware o f i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n C h i n a and t h e c o n t i n u e d w e a k n e s s o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s r e g i m e , R o o s e v e l t c h o s e t o i g n o r e s u c h e v i d e n c e a s i n d i c a t i v e o f C h i a n g ' s f u t u r e c o l l a p s e and t h e e n s u i n g f a i l u r e o f U . S . p o s t w a r p l a n s f o r A s i a . P r e c i s e l y why R o o s e v e l t a d h e r e d t o t h i s m y o p i c a p p r o a c h c a n o n l y b e c o n j e c t u r e d o n , y e t some e v i d e n c e d o e s e x i s t w h i c h t e n d s t o o u t l i n e some o f t h e b r o a d e r r e a s o n s why h e m i s j u d g e d t h e f u t u r e b a s i s o f power i n C h i n a . 102 T h i s e v i d e n c e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f o u r t h p o s s i b i l i t y a n d e n t a i l s R o o s e v e l t ' s f a i l u r e t o p e r c e i v e t h a t a l a r g e l y n o n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n c o u l d t h r o u g h i t s own e f f o r t s , a c h i e v e g e n u i n e g r e a t power 30 s t a t u s . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e m a r k e d r i g i d i t y s h a r e d b y e v e n t h o s e o b s e r v e r s mos t f a v o u r a b l y i m p r e s s e d b y t h e " p r o g r e s s i v e - n e s s " o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , i n p r e d i c t i n g what t h e i r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n w o u l d b e . T h e U . S . S . R . a s t h e f o u n t a i n h e a d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l Communism c o n t r o l l e d a m o n o l i t h i c a p p a r a t u s o f w h i c h i p s o f a c t o , t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s w e r e a r e c o g n i z e d a p p e n d a g e . 3 1 T h i s a t t i t u d e was a l s o s h a r e d b y some k e y p o l i c y m a k e r s , a n d l a t e r , some h i s t o r i a n s . E v e n S t i l w e l l b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e K u o m i n t a n g - C o m m u n i s t s p l i t was n o t h e a l e d b e f o r e t h e S o v i e t e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e war i n t h e P a c i f i c , " t h e R e d s , b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e s s i b l e , w i l l n a t u r a l l y g r a v i t a t e t o R u s s i a ' s i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l . . . . 1 , 3 2 W h e t h e r R o o s e v e l t f u l l y s h a r e d t h i s l i m i t e d v i e w i s d i f - f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n , y e t i t s w i d e a c c e p t a n c e i n G o v e r n m e n t c i r c l e s p r e c l u d e d t h a t h e l o n g r e m a i n u n a w a r e o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . H o w e v e r , n e i t h e r t h e P r e s i d e n t n o r H u l l h e s i t a t e d t o i n v o l v e t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i n t h e i r p o s t w a r p l a n s f o r A s i a , H u l l i n f a c t , saw S o v i e t a s s i s t a n c e a s a u n i f y i n g f a c t o r i n C h i n a . 3 3 R o o s e v e l t on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s s u a g e d what r e s e r v a t i o n s h e m i g h t h a v e h a d o v e r t h e Y a l t a A g r e e m e n t b y i n s i s t i n g i n t h i s same document t h a t t h e U . S . S . R . b i n d i t s e l f t o a s s i s t N a t i o n a l i s t C h i n a i n i t s l i b e r a t i o n 103 f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e . H a v i n g s a i d t h i s , one c a n n o t b u t a d v a n c e some c a u t i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h A m e r i c a n d i p - l o m a t i c t h i n k i n g on S i n o - S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s a f f e c t e d i t s w a r t i m e p o l i c y w i t h C h i n a . I n e s s e n c e , was t h e r e any b a s i s t o t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d r i g i d a s s e s s m e n t o f S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s i n C h i n a a n d t h e d e g r e e o f c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e U . S . S . R . a n d t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s ? E a r l y i n J u l y 1 9 4 4 , Mao T s e - t u n g i n f o r m e d M a u r i c e V o t a w , a n A m e r i c a n e m p l o y e e o f t h e C h i n e s e M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t t h e r e was no c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e S o v i e t Commun i s t P a r t y . 3 4 T h a t same y e a r , t h e S o v i e t A m b a s s a d o r t o C h u n k i n g a s s u r e d C h i a n g t h a t h i s c o u n t r y was no l o n g e r g i v i n g a i d t o C o m m u n i s t s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , a n d w o u l d n o t g i v e a i d t o t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . 3 5 I n J u n e , S t a l i n i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h H a r r i m a n , r e i t e r a t e d what h e h a d p r e v i o u s l y t o l d R o o s e v e l t , t h a t C h i a n g mus t b e s u p p o r t e d a s n o n e b e t t e r h a d a r i s e n t o r e p l a c e h i m . 3 6 I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 5 , J . P . D a v i e s , now S e c o n d S e c r e t a r y i n t h e Moscow Embas sy i n f o r m e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e o f a t a l k h e h a d h a d w i t h D r . C h e n H a n s e n g , a n o u t s t a n d i n g C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t h e B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n . D r . C h e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r o - S o v i e t f a c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e Commun i s t P a r t y h e a d e d b y Wang M i n g , a f o r m e r member o f t h e C o m i n t e r n , was now d e f u n c t . He a d d e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t l e a d e r s o f t h e Commun i s t P a r t y a n d e s p e - 104 c i a l l y Mao, "who h a s n e v e r b e e n o u t o f C h i n a , w e r e w i t h o u t s t r o n g R u s s i a n t i e s . " 3 " ' I n M a r c h , J . S . S e r v i c e i n a r e p o r t f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n i n Y e n a n , a d d e d c r e d e n c e t o D r . C h e n ' s s t a t e - m e n t s b y t o u c h i n g on some o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s o f t h e C h i n e s e Commun i s t P a r t y : T h e Commun i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n a s a n a t i o n a l war o f l i b e r a t i o n [wh ich} mus t a t t h e same t i m e , i n o r d e r f o r i t s s u c c e s s , b e an i m p o r t a n t a n d p r o g r e s s i v e s t a g e i n t h e C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n . . . . By an e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s l o g i c , t h e Commun i s t l e a d e r s f e e l t h a t t h e p e r m i t t i n g o f g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f e a s y s a l v a t i o n (as C h i a n g e x p e c t e d f r o m U . S . A . a n d RussiaJ t h r o u g h R u s s i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l b e a n i m p e d i - ment t o t h e war e f f o r t and t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f i t s u n d e r - l y i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y o b j e c t i v e s . 3 8 A s t o S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , S e r v i c e n o t e d i n h i s r e p o r t o f M a r c h 2 3 , t h a t t h e l a s t d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n Y e n a n a n d Moscow e n d e d a s e a r l y a s N o v e m b e r , 1 9 4 2 . On t h a t o c c a s i o n t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s s p e n t two d a y s a t L a n c h o w s e a r c h i n g t h e l a s t S o v i e t p l a n e t o l e a v e t h e i r a r e a . T h e r e w e r e a l s o a t t h e t i m e o f S e r v i c e ' s r e p o r t , o n l y t h r e e R u s s i a n s i n Y e n a n , a D r . O r l o f f and two T a s s men w i t h a o n e - w a y r a d i o . 3 9 T h i s l a c k o f s u p p o r t o f an i d e o l o g i c a l a l l y was a l s o e v i d e n t i n 1945 d u r i n g t h e S o v i e t r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o f M a n c h u r i a t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s . I n a n i n t e r v i e w a f t e r t h e war w i t h A n n a L o u i s e S t r o n g , L i n P i a o was a s k e d what h e l p t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s r e - c e i v e d f r o m t h e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t : "None [he a n s w e r e d ] . . . . No t r o o p s , no w e a p o n s , n o a d v i s o r s , n o t h i n g J . . . W h a t e v e r a rms o r w a r s u p p l i e s t h e y t o o k f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e t h e y t o o k i n t o R u s s i a 105 o r d e s t r o y e d on t h e s p o t . " 4 0 I n 1 9 4 8 , S t a l i n , i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h G e o r g i D i m i t r o v a n d E d v a r d K a r d e l j s t a t e d t h a t h e h a d t r i e d a f t e r t h e war t o d i s s u a d e t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s f r o m c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r a rmed o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e K u o m i n t a n g . S t a l i n went s o f a r a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e C o m m u n i s t s s e e k a modus v i v e n d i w i t h C h i a n g a n d j o i n h i s g o v e r n - m e n t . 4 1 E v e n w i t h o u t s u c h e v i d e n c e , S t a l i n ' s s h o d d y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e R e p u b l i c a n s d u r i n g t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War m i g h t h a v e s u g - g e s t e d t o t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t t h e p r o b a b l e c o u r s e o f S o v i e t 42 r e l a t i o n s t o w a r d t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s u c h s p e c i f i c h i n d s i g h t seems a l s o t o h a v e b e e n l a c k i n g o n t h e more g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f C h i n a ' s f u t u r e r o l e a s a g r e a t power i n A s i a . W r i t i n g i n P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , a n A m e r i c a n a n a l y s t s t a t e d e a r l y i n 1 9 4 5 , t h a t C h i n a ' s " p a s t a n d p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f s e c u r i t y - d e p e n d e n c y w i l l n o t b e m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d b y t h e w a r . F o r a t l e a s t a g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r t h e w a r , f o r p e r h a p s a s much a s f i f t y y e a r s . . . . C h i n a w i l l i n t h e m a i n b e a ' c o n s u m e r ' o f s e c u r i t y and n o t a ' d i s p e n s e r ' t h e r e o f . " 4 3 Two y e a r s l a t e r t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f C h i n a , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s showed l i t t l e d i g r e s s i o n f r o m t h i s s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s . T h e v i e w a s K e n n a n saw i t i n 1947 was t h a t " C h i n a was n o t a s t r o n g i n d u s t r i a l p o w e r . She showed no p r o m i s e o f b e c o m i n g one f o r a l o n g t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e . " 4 4 By 1 9 4 9 , some e v o l u t i o n h a d t a k e n p l a c e w i t h i n t h e S t a t e 106 D e p a r t m e n t a n d more e m p h a s i s was b e i n g l a i d on t h e p o t e n t i a l s t r e n g t h o f n a t i o n a l i s m a s a g auge o f g r e a t power s t a t u s . I n a c o n f e r e n c e e a r l y i n O c t o b e r a t t e n d e d b y s u c h w e l l known a n a l y s t s o f C h i n a a s F a i r b a n k , L a t t i m o r e , R e i s c h a u e r , R o s s i n g e r a n d V i n a c k e amongs t o t h e r s , one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ( G . E . T a y l o r ) s t a t e d : T h e m a j o r f o r c e i n A s i a t h a t c a n b e u s e d a g a i n s t Communism i s n a t i o n a l i s m . . . . I n C h i n a t h e C o m m u n i s t s a r e u s i n g C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m and r i d i n g i n f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s . . . . T h e y a r e f i g h t i n g u s on t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , m i l i t a r y l e v e l . We h a v e t o meet t h e m on a l l l e v - G X s•••• U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m was t h e u n i f y i n g c a t a l y s t w h i c h t h e C o m m u n i s t s h a d u s u r p e d f r o m t h e K u o m i n t a n g , came t o o l a t e t o a f f e c t A m e r i c a n p o l i c y t o w a r d C h i n a d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . By t h e e n d o f t h e w a r , t h e p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d i n h e r i t m a i n l a n d C h i n a f o u r y e a r s l a t e r h a d b e e n f u r t h e r e s t r a n g e d f r o m A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e . T h e C h i n e s e Commun i s t p o t e n t i a l t o u n i f y C h i n a a t a l l o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d l e v e l s h a d b e e n i g n o r e d , t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l g o a l s c o n f u s e d w i t h t h o s e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l Communism, a n d a mod i cum o f m a t e r i a l h e l p h a d b e e n d e n i e d i t i n i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e common enemy, J a p a n . I n e s s e n c e , A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r a l l i t s i n h e r e n t p r a g m a t i s m f a i l e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d f a c t t h a t C h i n a u n d e r Commun i s t c o n t r o l c o u l d become a g r e a t power w i t h o u t 107 A m e r i c a n h e l p , w i t h o u t a f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e a n d f o l l o w i n g a s u s t a i n e d c i v i l w a r . T h a t a d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i c a l f a c t i o n t h a n t h e K u o m i n t a n g was t o a c h i e v e t h e s e e n d s i s o n l y r e l e v a n t i n s o f a r a s U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y f a i l e d t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e i n d i g e n o u s n a t u r e o f C h i n e s e Communism a n d i t s w i d e - s p r e a d a p p e a l t o C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . H i s t o r i c a l l y u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t r e v o l u t i o n a s a means o f s o c i a l c h a n g e i n s p i t e o f i t s own o r i g i n s , t h e U . S . was a l s o h o b b l e d b y a t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r e e m i n e n c e w h i c h p e r m e a t e d a l l f a c e t s o f i t s n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s p r e e m i n e n c e t e n d e d t o s h i e l d i t s p o l i c y m a k e r s f r o m t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an a g r a r i a n mass d r i v e n b y n a t i o n a l i s m a n d a s e l f - h e l p e t h i c c o u l d a c h i e v e g r e a t power s t a t u s . 4 6 When one c o n s i d e r s t h e a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o f C h i n a ' s h i s t o r i c a l p a s t a s a g r e a t power i n t h e F a r E a s t , t h e A m e r i c a n e f f o r t d u r i n g W o r l d War I I t o p r o v i d e t h e C h i a n g K a i - s h e k G o v e r n m e n t w i t h a s i m i l a r s t a t u s , s u r e l y s t a n d s a s one o f t h e mos t e x p e d i e n t y e t s h o r t s i g h t e d moves i n t h e h i s t o r y o f U . S . d i p l o m a c y . I n an a n a l y s i s o f B o o r s t i n ' s s t u d y T h e A m e r i c a n s : T h e C o l o n i a l E x p e r i e n c e . J o h n H i gham i n a d v e r t e n t l y summed u p t h e d i l e m m a o f A m e r i c a n d i p l o m a c y and p o s s i b l y t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n U . S . r e l a t i o n s w i t h C h i n a d u r i n g W o r l d War I I : " T h e A m e r i c a n s [ h e s t a t e d 3 • • • g r o w s o u t o f an e m p i r i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , w h i c h r e j e c t s a l l i d e o l o g i e s i n t h e name o f l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i - 108 t u t i o n s . " 4 7 T h e N a t i o n a l i s t s b y 1942 w i t h s i x t e e n y e a r s o f power b e h i n d t h e m a n d f i v e y e a r s o f war w i t h J a p a n w e r e s u i t a b l y d e v o i d o f i d e o l o g y t o s u i t t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f A m e r i c a n c o n s e r v a t i s m , w h i l s t t h e C o m m u n i s t s a s t h e i d e o l o g i s t s p e r s e i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r t h e m i n d o f t h e C h i n e s e p e a s a n t , p r e s e n t e d t o o c o m p l e x an e n t i t y , an e n t i t y w h i c h r e f u s e d t o g u a r a n t e e a n y o f t h e i m m e d i a t e s o l u t i o n s s o u g h t b y a n e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h t o f o r e i g n p o l i c y . S u c c e s s f u l a s an i m m e d i a t e m e a s u r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n , t h e A m e r i c a n e f f o r t t o r a i s e C h i n a t o g r e a t power s t a t u s f a i l e d a s a l o n g - t e r m p o l i c y t o s t a b i l i z e t h e P a r E a s t . On t h e b a s i s o f e v e n t h e e v i d e n c e q u o t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d b y h i s own a n a l y s t s i n C h i n a , R o o s e v e l t w o u l d h a v e b e e n j u s t i f i e d i n p r o v i d i n g a m o d i - cum o f m a t e r i a l h e l p t o t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . Had s u c h a p o l i c y b e e n a d o p t e d a s S t i l w e l l , S e r v i c e , D a v i e s , C l u b b , A t c h e s o n and C h a s e r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t e d , a s y m p a t h e t i c b a s i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n l a i d f o r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s w i t h a p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y f a c t i o n w h i c h a n i n c r e a s i n g amount o f e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e d was d e s - t i n e d t o u n i t e C h i n a . 4 8 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p r e v a l e n t s u s p i c i o n i n g o v e r n m e n t q u a r t e r s o f S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s i n C h i n a m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t a n y s u p p o r t f o r t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . T h o u g h no s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e was u n c o v e r e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s s u - s p i c i o n u n d u l y a f f e c t e d t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s d e c i s i o n s on C h i n a , i t s e x i s t e n c e c a n n o t b e d e n i e d . 109 T h i s w r i t e r t h e r e f o r e a g r e e s w i t h t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h p o s s i b i l i t i e s s t a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r : R o o s e v e l t s u p p o r t e d a g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s d e a t h l o s t e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f C h i n a , t h e r e b y n e g a t i n g t h e v a l u e o f f o u r y e a r s o f d i p l o m a c y . T h a t c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s seem t o a d d c r e d e n c e t o t h i s o p i n i o n i s e v i d e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r o p o s e d v i s i t t o P e k i n g b y t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d t h e O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1971 e l e c t i o n o f M a i n l a n d C h i n a t o t h e s e a t made v a c a n t i n t h e U . N . O r g a n i z a t i o n b y t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t C h i n e s e . NOTES 1 For the f u l l text of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of August 14, 1945, see Appendix XI. 2 In h i s "Letter of Transmittal" prefacing the China White Paper, Acheson states: "The unfortunate but inescapable fact i s that the ominous r e s u l t of the C i v i l War i n China was beyond the control of the United States. Nothing t h i s country d i d or could have done within the reasonable l i m i t s of i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s could have changed that r e s u l t ; nothing that was l e f t undone by t h i s country has contributed to i t . I t was the product of i n t e r n a l Chinese forces, forces which t h i s country t r i e d to influence but could not." I b i d . . I, x v i . For an appraisal of American con- census h i s t o r i a n s , see J . Higham, "The Cult of the 'American Concensus,"* Commentary. XXVII, No. 2 (February, 1959), 93-100. A.M. Schlesinger J r . with h i s consistent defense of Roosevelt's domestic and foreign p o l i c i e s , epitomises t h i s school of thought. As recently as 1968, another exponent of t h i s approach commenting on wartime Sino-American r e l a t i o n s , stated that those involved i n i t s formulation "committed no heinous blunders. True, they might have acted otherwise and changed the outcome, but the odds are that the change would have been for the worse, not better." G. Smith, "Last view of the Chinese Scene," Times Book Review (February 25, 1968), p. 35. 3 Williams, The Tragedy...; Williams, The Shaping.... Kolko, The P o l i t i c s of War...; Kolko, The Roots of American For- eign Po l i c y : An Analysis of Power and Purpose (Boston: Beacon, 1969). N. Chomsky, American Power and the New Mandarins (Har- mondsworth: Pelican Books, 1969). One could also include W. LaFeber, who i n The New Empire.... applies the same narrow deter- minism to nineteenth century Sino-American r e l a t i o n s . For a com- prehensive view of the New L e f t , see Unger, AHR (July, 1967), LXXII, No. 4, 1237-63. Also C. Jencks, "Limits of the New L e f t , " New Republic (October 21, 1967), pp. 19-21. In two a r t i c l e s , Zbigniev Brzezinski attacks some of the fundamental concepts of the New L e f t : "The American T r a n s i t i o n , " i b i d . (December 23, 1967), pp. 18-21, and "Revolution and Counterrevolution," i b i d . (June 1, 1968), pp. 23-25. The following year, A.P. Mendel took Brzezinski to task i n "Robots and Rebels," i b i d . (January 11, 1969), pp. 16-19. See also M. Harrington's review of C. I l l L i c h t h e i m ' s , The O r i g i n s o f S o c i a l i s m , i b i d . ( F e b r u a r y 8 , 1 9 6 9 ) , p p . 3 0 - 3 2 , a n d t h e B r z e z i n s k i - M e n d e l l e t t e r s u n d e r " C o r r e s p o n - d e n c e , " i b i d . . p . 3 2 . M. Duberman a l s o s h e d s some l i g h t on t h e New L e f t i n h i s r e v i e w o f C . L a s c h ' s , T h e A g o n y o f t h e A m e r i c a n L e f t . T i m e s Book R e v i e w (March 2 9 , 1 9 6 9 ) , p p . 1, 3 4 - 3 5 . F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e on a s ympos ium a t P r i n c e t o n on A m e r i c a n f o r - e i g n p o l i c y w h i c h i n c l u d e d B r z e z i n s k i , S . H o f f m a n , a n d J . L i f t o n , s e e I. S h e n k e r , "6 E x p e r t s , i n t e r v i e w e d i n P r i n c e t o n , U r g e Com- p l e t e R e v i e w o f U . S . F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " New Y o r k T i m e s (December 8 , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 7 6 . On t h e same t o p i c , A . D . B a r n e t t e x p r e s s e s some v i e w s i n "New b a l a n c e o f power i n E a s t p r e d i c t e d b y s p e c i a l i s t on A s i a , " T o r o n t o G l o b e and M a i l ( A p r i l 1 6 , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5 7 . On t h e n e g l e c t o f d o m e s t i c f a c t o r s b y t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t s i n a s s e s s i n g U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n A s i a , M. P f e f f e r s t a t e s : "Do we r e a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t d o m e s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l a r e n o t f a c t o r s i n f l u - e n c i n g C h i n a ? And more t h a n t h a t , c a n we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e f a c - t o r s do n o t a f f e c t r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n C h i n a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i f o n l y t h r o u g h t h e i r i m p a c t on A m e r i c a ' s C h i n a p o l i c y ? S u c h a b e l i e f w o u l d b e p a t e n t l y a b s u r d . " Q u o t e d i n A . D . B a r n e t t & E . O . R e i s c h a u e r ( e d s . ) , The U n i t e d S t a t e s and C h i n a : T h e N e x t D e c a d e (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 2 2 . J . G a r r a t y s t a t e s t h a t t h e "New L e f t h i s t o r i a n s a r e u n a b a s h e d l y p r e s e n t - m i n d e d ; t h e i r a t t a c k on t h e c o n c e n s u s s c h o o l f o c u s e s on t h a t g r o u p ' s f a i l u r e t o h a v e p r o v i d e d them w i t h a ' u s a b l e p a s t , ' m e a n i n g a h i s t o r y o r i e n t e d a r o u n d q u e s t i o n s o f c u r r e n t c o n c e r n l i k e p o v e r t y , t h e N e g r o , a n d i m p e r i a l i s m . " "A T h e n F o r a Now, " T i m e s Book R e v i e w (May 1 2 , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e r e i s a g o o d d e a l o f v a l i d i t y t o s u c h a s t a t e m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y when v i e w e d a g a i n s t t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t e v i n c e d f o r s u c h e m b a r r a s i n g q u e s t i o n s a s t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . 4 C l e m e n s , p . 2 4 5 . E a r l y i n M a r c h 1 9 4 4 , i n a t a l k w i t h S t e t t i n i u s on t h e p o s t w a r s t a t u s o f I n d o c h i n a , R o o s e v e l t s t a t e d : " T h e c o u n t r y i s w o r s e o f f t h a n i t was a h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o . T h e w h i t e m a n ' s r u l e t h e r e [ F r a n c e ' s ] i s n o t h i n g t o b e p r o u d o f . . . . A t r u s t e e s h i p i s t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n . " S t e t t i n i u s , p . 2 1 1 . O m i t t e d f r o m t h e C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r when i t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 4 9 , and a g a i n i n i t s r e e d i t i o n i n 1 9 6 7 , was a p o r t i o n o f H . A . W a l l a c e ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h i a n g i n C h u n k i n g on J u n e 2 1 , 1 9 4 4 . T h e o m i s s i o n i n d i c a t e d b y e l l i p s e s a p p e a r s i n V o l . I I , a t t h e t o p o f p . 5 5 0 . I n F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V I , p u b - l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 7 , t h e e l l i p s e s a r e r e p l a c e d b y t h e t e x t w h i c h r e a d s i n p a r t : " M r . W a l l a c e t h e n q u o t e d t o P r e s i d e n t C h i a n g t h e f o l - l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t - made b y P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t : " ' C h u r c h i l l i s o l d . A new B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t w i l l g i v e Hongkong t o C h i n a a n d t h e n e x t d a y C h i n a w i l l make i t a f r e e p o r t . ' " I b i d . , p . 2 2 3 . 112 5 For China's i n d u s t r i a l basis i n March 1941, see Foreign Relations, 1941. The Far East. IV (1956), 18-95; for her economic s i t u a t i o n i n 1945, see China White Paper. I I , 127-30. 6 For the composition of the Security Council as of May 4, 1945, see Appendix XII. 7 H u l l states that "Chiang Kai-shek kept some of h i s best d i v i s i o n s near himself, t r a f f i c continued between the Chinese and Japanese Zones, and the Government seemed more interested i n the blockade against the Communists than against Japan." I b i d . , I I , 1587. The State Department estimated that i n January 1944, the troops blockading the Communists amounted to "possibly more than 400,000...." Foreign Relations. 1944. China. VI, 308. See also Representative [now Senator] M.J. Mansfield's report to Roosevelt on h i s return from China, January 3, 1945, i n which he r e f e r s to the N a t i o n a l i s t s o l d i e r as having "no food and l i t t l e equipment. They are starved and poorly equipped because of g r a f t up above. The commanders hang on to much of the s t u f f they receive and then flood the black markets and enrich themselves." Foreign Re- l a t i o n s . 1945. The Far East. China. VII (1969), 7. See also i b i d . , pp. 75-76, 177, 293-94, 304. 8 Yet Roosevelt was capable of some appalling oversimpli- f i c a t i o n s , such as h i s comment to S t a l i n at Yalta to the e f f e c t that "the Indochinese were people of small stature, l i k e the Javanese and Burmese, and were not warlike." Foreign Relations. Malta.... p. 770. The survivors of the defense of Dienbienphu might not e n t i r e l y agree with such an assessment of the Indo- Chinese. As to detailed information on the Far East and speci- f i c a l l y China, there was, apart from the State Department and i t s embassy i n Chunking, the I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c Relations with i t s 1,200 publications and the data i t had been accumulating since 1926 through contacts with eleven countries i n the general area of the P a c i f i c . 9 Foreign Relations. 1941. The Far East. IV, 82-86. 10 See t h i s paper p. 69. 11 Foreign Relations. 1944. China. VI, 230. 12 H u l l , I I , 1586. Beaverbrook answered that there was "a f e e l i n g i n B r i t a i n that the Government of Chiang Kai-shek was not a r e a l f i g h t i n g Government but was 'something plastered on top of China l i k e a button on a coat."" I b i d . 113 13 S t i m s o n & B u n d y , p . 5 3 3 . T h e w a r t i m e c o n s c r i p t i o n s y s - t e m o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g i s a f a i r e x a m p l e o f t h i s g r a f t a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s : " T h e c o n s c r i p t i o n o f f i c e r s made t h e i r money i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l s a n d t h r o u g h t h e i r p r e s s g a n g s . . . . The d e a l e r m i g h t g i v e $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 CN t o t h e man who s e l l s h i m s e l f , o r t o t h e f a m i l y o r t o t h e o f f i c i a l . He s e l l s t h e man f o r $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 CN t o t h e H s i e n c h a n g o r c o n s c r i p t i o n o f f i c i a l who j u s t l e f t o f f a p e a s a n t ' s s o n f o r $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 C N . . . . Many o f t h o s e who r u n away r u n o f f d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f ew d a y s . L a t e r t h e y a r e t o o weak t o r u n away . T h o s e who a r e c a u g h t a r e c r u e l l y b e a t e n . T h e y w i l l b e c a r r i e d a l o n g w i t h b r o k e n l i m b s a n d w i t h wounds i n ma imed f l e s h i n w h i c h i n f e c t i o n t u r n s q u i c k l y i n t o b l o o d p o i s o n i n g a n d b l o o d p o i s o n i n g i n t o d e a t h . " Romanus & S u n d e r l a n d , I I I , 3 6 9 - 7 0 . One m i g h t c o n t r a s t t h i s t r e a t m e n t w i t h t h a t a c c o r d e d t h e r e c r u i t s i n Y e n a n a s o b s e r v e d b y J . S . S e r v i c e , F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V I , 5 1 9 . See a l s o , J . M y r d a l , R e p o r t f r o m a C h i n e s e V i l l a g e ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n e B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 1 3 2 - 3 3 . 14 H . J . M o r g e n t h a u s t a t e s t h a t " t h e c o u r s e o f A m e r i c a n p o l - i c y t o w a r d Germany and J a p a n d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War was d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y b y P r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i o n I n 1 9 4 4 , 1 t r e a t y was c o n c l u d e d a s c o m p a r e d t o 74 e x e c u - t i v e a g r e e m e n t s , i n 1945 t h e f i g u r e s w e r e 6 - 5 4 . "Who Makes T h o s e C o m m i t m e n t s ? C o n g r e s s o r F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " New R e p u b l i c ( June 1 4 , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 1 8 . L e n s e n s t a t e s t h a t " t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t h a d no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who s a t w i t h t h e J o i n t C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f , and u n t i l l a t e 1944 i t d i d n o t e v e n h a v e a l i a i s o n o f f i c e r w i t h t h e W h i t e H o u s e . " Q u o t e d i n S n e l l ( e d . ) , p . 1 4 4 . 15 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V I , 3 0 7 . 16 I b i d . . p . 3 2 8 . 17 I b i d . , p . 3 4 1 . 1 8 I b i d . . p . 4 9 0 . See a l s o i b i d . . p p . 4 7 7 , 4 9 4 , 5 1 3 . 19 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s 1 9 4 5 . T h e F a r E a s t . C h i n a . V I I , 7 . 20 I b i d . , p . 1 7 7 . 21 I b i d . , p p . 2 2 0 - 2 3 . 22 I b i d . , p . 2 4 6 . H u r l e y ' s r e a c t i o n was t o s t i g m a t i z e t h e w i r e a s an a c t o f d i s l o y a l t y on t h e p a r t o f h i s s t a f f : " I t was o v e r t h a t same i s s u e (he added ] t h a t G e n e r a l S t i l w e l l h a d b e e n r e c a l l e d . " I b i d . , p . 2 6 1 . 114 23 On O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1 9 4 4 , a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e S t a n d i n g Com- m i t t e e o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g , C h i a n g i s a l l e g e d t o h a v e s a i d " t h a t S t i l w e l l h a d b o a s t e d t h a t i f h e went t o Y e n a n h e w o u l d b e a b l e t o g e t t h e Red Army t o c o o p e r a t e i m m e d i a t e l y . ' T h a t i s n o n s e n s e * s a i d C h i a n g . *I w i l l n e v e r p e r m i t S t i l w e l l t o go u n t i l t h e C o m m u n i s t s s u b m i t t o my o r d e r s ; t h e r e c a n b e no c o m p r o m i s e w i t h t h e C o m m u n i s t s ; i f we g i v e i n now we s h a l l h a v e t o s u r r e n d e r more l a t e r . ' " F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V I , 2 6 5 . 24 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s 1 9 4 5 . T h e F a r E a s t . C h i n a . V I I , 6 1 . I n p a r t t h e memo r e a d : " S u c h c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e c o n s c r i p t i o n a b u s e s , n e g l e c t o f t r a i n i n g a n d d i s c i p l i n e , i n c o m p e t e n t l e a d e r - s h i p , u n d e r p a y , s h o c k i n g u n d e r n o u r i s h m e n t and l a c k o f m e d i c a l c a r e , d e f e c t i v e and c o n f u s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , p e r s o n a l a l l e g i a n c e s , n e p o t i s m , g r a f t , s m u g g l i n g , o p p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , s i c k n e s s a n d l o w m o r a l e . " I b i d . 25 I b i d . , p . 2 5 4 . Grew s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y d i s c u s s " t h e E m b a s s y ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t we c o n s i d e r g i v i n g war s u p p l i e s t o t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s a s w e l l a s t o G e n e r a l i s s i m o C h i a n g . " I b i d . 26 I b i d . , p p . 2 9 3 - 9 4 . S e r v i c e h a d b e e n i n Y e n a n w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n s i n c e t h e Summer o f 1 9 4 4 . H i s r e p o r t o f M a r c h 20 ( h i s 2 0 t h ) , s t a t e d i n p a r t , t h a t t h e g e n e r a l ' s " p o s i t i o n i s s o o b v i o u s t h a t e v e n t h e mos t c h a r i t a b l e m i n d e d c a n n o t a s sume t h a t C h u n k i n g d o e s n o t know t h e s i t u a t i o n . " I b i d . , p . 2 9 4 . 27 I b i d . . p . 3 0 4 . T h i s memo r e f e r r e d t o a r e p o r t t o H u r l e y b y a p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r i n C h i n a (R .M. S e r v i c e ) , i n f o r m i n g H u r l e y o f C h i a n g ' s l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l t r o o p s i n S e r v i c e ' i m m e d i a t e a r e a . 28 I b i d . . p p . 7 4 - 7 8 . O r i g i n a l l y d a t e d A p r i l 3, 1 9 4 5 , t h e p a p e r was t r a n s m i t t e d o n May 28 w i t h a c o v e r i n g memo f r o m t h e S t a t e - W a r - N a v y C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e . I n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a n s - m i s s i o n o f May 2 8 , w e r e q u o t a t i o n s f r o m a p r e v i o u s memo b y t h e C h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f C h i n e s e A f f a i r s o f t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ( V i n c e n t ) , t o t h e A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , d a t e d J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1 9 4 5 , i n a n s w e r t o a q u e r y on U . S . C h i n a p o l i c y b y t h e S e c r e t a r i e o f War and N a v y . I n p a r t , t h i s memo r e a d : " I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t m e a s u r e s u n d e r t a k e n a t t h i s t i m e t o r e a r m C h i n a i n o r d e r t h a t i t m i g h t become a s t r o n g A s i a t i c power w o u l d b e i m p r a c t i c a b l e . . . . I t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t C h i n a s h o u l d b e u n i f i e d u n d e r C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . H o w e v e r , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s h o r t - t e r m o b j e c - t i v e , C h i a n g a p p e a r s t o b e t h e o n l y l e a d e r who now o f f e r s a h o p e f o r u n i f i c a t i o n . T h e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e s u p p o r t o f C h i a n g f o r 115 t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f o u r i m m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e m i g h t b e c h a o s . " I b i d . . p . 7 8 . See a l s o memo b y t h e S e c o n d S e c r e t a r y i n C h u n k i n g ( R . P . L u d d e n ) , a s s e s s i n g t h e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t e n j o y e d b y t h e Com- m u n i s t s i n N o r t h C h i n a . I b i d . . p p . 2 0 0 - 0 4 . L u d d e n ' s a s s e r t i o n s a r e e n d o r s e d b y E . F . D u m r i g h t . I b i d . . p . 2 0 4 , n . 6 6 . 29 T h i s e v i d e n c e , c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d f r o m M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 4 1 , t o A p r i l 3, 1 9 4 5 , c o n s i s t s o f q u o t a t i o n s f r o m two d i r e c t r e p o r t s t o R o o s e v e l t , one a d d r e s s i n t h e H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t P o l i c y P a p e r , two o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s , a n d t w e l v e r e p o r t s and memorandums r a n g i n g f r o m t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t o t h e p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r s on d u t y w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n i n Y e n a n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was g l e a n e d f r o m t h e d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s o f t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 30 One means " r e l a t i v e " g r e a t power s t a t u s h e r e , f o r p r i o r t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , C h i n a h a d i n f a c t b e e n a g r e a t power i n t h e F a r E a s t . 31 I n a memo d a t e d M a r c h 1, 1 9 4 5 , t h e A s s i s t a n t C h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f C h i n e s e A f f a i r s o f t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ( C h a s e ) , s t a t e d t h a t " w h i l e R u s s i a l e n d s no d i r e c t m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t t o t h e C o m m u n i s t s , t h e l a t t e r u n q u e s t i o n a b l y d e r i v e i n d i r e c t m o r a l s u p - p o r t f r o m M o s c o w . " F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s 1 9 4 5 . The F a r E a s t . C h i n a . V I I , 5 9 . On M a r c h 2, a n o t h e r memo f r o m t h e D i v i s i o n o f F a r E a s t e r n A f f a i r s (Dumr i gh t ) e c h o e d t h e f e a r s o f many S t a t e D e p a r t - ment p e r s o n n e l : " I n t h e e v e n t t h a t R u s s i a e n t e r s t h e F a r E a s t e r n c o n f l i c t a n d c o m m i t s S o v i e t t r o o p s t o b a t t l e , i t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e y w i l l l i n k u p w i t h C h i n e s e Commun i s t t r o o p s w h i c h a r e now s t r o n g l y e n t r e n c h e d i n N o r t h C h i n a . " I b i d . , p . 2 5 3 . I n h i s r e p o r t o f M a r c h 2 3 , f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r s e c t i o n i n Y e n a n , S e r v i c e s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was some c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e C h i n e s e Commun i s t P a r t y a n d t h a t o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n : "What c o n t a c t d o e s e x i s t i s b e t w e e n t h e two P a r t i e s , n o t G o v e r n m e n t s . I t h i n k i t l i k e l y t h a t s u c h c o n t a c t e x i s t s . " I b i d . . p . 3 0 4 . On A p r i l 3, a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t P a p e r s t a t e d i n p a r t : " I t i s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t S o v i e t R u s s i a i s e v e n more u n l i k e l y t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o a K u o m i n t a n g c o n t r o l l e d N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t ; i t i s much more p r o - b a b l e t h a t S o v i e t R u s s i a w i l l a s s i s t t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . I b i d . . p . 7 7 . On A p r i l 2 3 , i n a w i r e t o S t e t t i n i u s f r o m Moscow, G . F . K e n n a n , c o m m e n t i n g on H u r l e y ' s r e c e n t i n t e r v i e w w i t h S t a l i n , r e i n f o r c e d t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ' s s u s p i c i o n s on S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s i n C h i n a : " R u s s i a [he s t a t e d ] i s e n t i r e l y r e a d y t o s u p p o r t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a ' u n i t e d ' C h i n a , k n o w i n g t h a t t h i s c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d i n r e a l i t y o n l y i f t h e demands o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , w h i c h w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y amount t o d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , c o u l d b e 116 r e a l i z e d . . . . " I b i d . . p p . 3 4 2 - 4 4 . F o u r d a y s l a t e r , Kennan a g a i n w i r e d S t e t t i n i u s , i n p a r t h e s t a t e d : " I t w o u l d n o t b e o u t o f a c c o r d w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d R u s s i a n m e t h o d s t o h o l d o p e n a n d e x p l o i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h C h i a n g a s a means o f i m - p r e s s i n g Y e n a n w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h e w i n g c l o s e l y t o t h e l i n e o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h R u s s i a . " I b i d . 32 W h i t e ( e d . ) , p . 3 2 2 . H a r r i m a n went s o f a r a s t o s t a t e a t a m e e t i n g w i t h F o r r e s t a l a n d K i n g on May 1 1 , 1 9 4 5 , t h a t " o n c e t h e R u s s i a n s g e t i n ( t o C h i n a } , t h a t t h e two o r t h r e e h u n d r e d m i l l i o n s i n t h a t c o u n t r y w o u l d m a r c h when t h e K r e m l i n o r d e r e d . " M i l l i s ( e d . ) , p . 5 5 . F e i s , w r i t i n g i n The C h i n a T a n g l e . . . . s t a t e s t h a t " e v e r y l i n e a b o u t S o v i e t s t r a t e g y mus t h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o what t h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d b e i f C h i n a was s t i l l m i s e r a b l y d i v i d e d when t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p movement b e g a n , a n d i f a r e b e l l i o u s Communi s t a rmy was r o a m i n g o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s o f C h i n a w h i c h t h e S o v i e t f o r c e s m i g h t r e a c h . " I b i d . . p . 2 2 7 . L e n s e n s e e s e v e n R o o s e v e l t a s s h a r i n g t h i s l i m i t e d v i e w o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s : " R o o s e v e l t knew, o f c o u r s e , t h a t what S t a l i n r e a l l y w a n t e d [at Y a l t a } , was t h e e n t r a n c e o f C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a t C h u n k i n g . . . . " Q u o t e d i n S n e l l ( e d . ) , p . 1 4 6 . T h e e p i t o m y o f t h i s a t t i t u d e s u r f a c e d some f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e w a r , when on F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 5 0 , S e n a t o r J . R . M c C a r t h y i n h i s d e n u n c i a t o r y a d d r e s s i n W h e e l i n g , Wes t V i r g i n i a , s t a t e d i n p a r t : " F o r y e a r s , t h e R u s s i a n C o m m u n i s t s h a d p l a i n l y s t a t e d t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n was t h e i r a i m . A n i n t e r - n a t i o n a l c o n s p i r a t o r i a l a p p a r a t u s was u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l a n d i n t h i s a p p a r a t u s t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h a d i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s . T h e i r h o p e o f c a p t u r i n g t h e w h o l e o f C h i n a was f r e e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d , t h e i r u m b i l i c a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Moscow w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . " Q u o t e d i n K o e n , p . 1 2 0 . 33 W r i t i n g on t h e e v e o f t h e Moscow D e c l a r a t i o n o f O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 , H u l l s t a t e s : "I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t R u s s i a n c o o p e r a t i o n w o u l d b e o f g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e t o u s i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g a n d u n i f y i n g C h i n a a f t e r t h e w a r . R u s s i a w o u l d h a v e m o r a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e i r t y p e o f Communism was n o t e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h e R u s s i a n s . " H u l l , I I , 1 2 5 7 . 34 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V I , 5 3 8 . 35 I b i d . . p . 7 9 3 . 36 I b i d . 37 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s 1 9 4 5 , T h e F a r E a s t . C h i n a . V I I , 2 4 6 - 4 7 . See a l s o i b i d . . 2 4 7 , n . 1 8 . 117 38 I b i d . . p . 2 8 0 . 39 I b i d . . p . 3 0 2 . 40 Q u o t e d b y Nym W a l e s , " A n n a L o u i s e S t r o n g , The C l a s s i c F e l l o w - T r a v e l l e r , " New R e p u b l i c ( A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1 9 . S t r o n g a l s o q u o t e d t h e r e m a r k s o f a S o v i e t m a j o r on t h e C h i n e s e Com- m u n i s t r e a c t i o n t o t h i s a t t i t u d e : " T h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s w e r e v e r y a n n o y e d . . . when we t h r e w t h e m o u t o f Mukden a n d p u t C h i a n g ' s men i n . C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h a d b e e n t h e r e f i r s t . Bu t what c o u l d we d o ? We h a d o u r t r e a t y w i t h C h i a n g . " I b i d . 41 N.R. C a r v e r , Moscow a n d C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 2 2 2 . See a l s o C B . M c L a n e , S o v i e t P o l i c y and t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s . 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 4 6 (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 6 1 , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Rogov a r t i c l e , o f A u g u s t 1, 1943 i n V o i n a i r a b o c h i i K l a s s . M c L a n e , p p . 1 6 7 - 7 0 . A l s o V . A v a r i n ' s a r t i c l e o f December 1, 1 9 4 4 . I b i d . . p p . 1 7 0 - 7 1 . McLane c o n c l u d e s t h a t S o v i e t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e K u o m i n t a n g was much l e s s s e v e r e t h a n t h a t i n U . S . a n d E n g l i s h l i b e r a l p e r i o d i c a l s . He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t " u n t i l t h e R u s s i a n s c o u l d o b s e r v e t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s a t c l o s e h a n d , t h e y a p p e a r n o t t o h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e s e r e p o r t s (com- m u n i s t s t r e n g t h i n C h i n a ] a s r e l i a b l e i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n t h e m e a n - t i m e d i r e c t m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C o m m u n i s t s , i n o r d e r t o a l t e r t h e b a l a n c e o f power i n C h i n a i n f a v o r o f Y e n a n , was o f c o u r s e o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n so l o n g a s t h e war w i t h J a p a n c o n - t i n u e d and so l o n g a s Moscow w i s h e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e w a r t i m e a l - l i a n c e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " I b i d . . p . 1 8 1 . See a l s o h i s summary o f t h e S o v i e t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s a t t h e e n d o f t h e w a r . I b i d . , p . 1 9 5 . 42 W r i t i n g i n T h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 6 1 ) , Hugh Thomas s t a t e s t h a t a s o f S e p t e m b e r 2 8 , 1 9 3 6 , t h e German C h a r g e ' i n Moscow, T i p p e l s p i r c h , h a d n o t b e e n a b l e t o p r o v i d e B e r l i n w i t h a n y v i o l a t i o n o f t h e arms embargo b y S o v i e t R u s s i a w i t h r e g a r d t o S p a i n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n h a d e m b i t t e r e d L a r g o C a b a l l e r o t o w a r d t h e S o v i e t s a n d l e d J e s u s H e r n a n d e z t o c o m p l a i n t o t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a t t a c h e ' " t h a t t h e f a i l u r e o f R u s s i a t o s e n d arms was m a k i n g t h i n g s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e S p a n i s h Com- m u n i s t s . " I b i d . , p . 2 9 4 . Thomas sums u p S o v i e t a i d t o t h e R e - p u b l i c b y s t a t i n g t h a t " S t a l i n , e n t e r i n g u p o n t h e w h o l e p r o j e c t w i t h m i s g i v i n g s , t o o k no r i s k s i n S p a i n . B e f o r e S o v i e t weapons w e r e a c t u a l l y u s e d on S p a n i s h s o i l , t h e e n t i r e r e m a i n i n g S p a n i s h g o l d r e s e r v e h a d b e e n d i s p a t c h e d t o R u s s i a a s s e c u r i t y f o r p a y - m e n t . T o t h e few R u s s i a n t e c h n i c i a n s and m i l i t a r y e x p e r t s whom h e s e n t t o S p a i n S t a l i n g a v e t h e o r d e r ' s t a y o u t o f t h e r a n g e o f 118 a r t i l l e r y f i r e . " * I b i d . . p . 2 9 8 , q u o t i n g K r i v i t s k y , p . 1 2 6 . I l y a E h r e n b u r g w r i t i n g some y e a r s a f t e r S t a l i n ' s d e a t h s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e t h i r t i e s h e saw what f a s c i s m w a s : " T h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e S p a n i s h p e o p l e was b r o k e n ? t h e f a s c i s t d i c t a t o r s h e l p e d F r a n c o , t h e W e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s h y p o c r i t i c a l l y d e c l a r e d t h e p r i n - c i p l e o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n , a n d o n l y a h a n d f u l o f S o v i e t army men f o u g h t o n t h e R e p u b l i c a n s i d e . " P o s t - W a r Y e a r s : 1 9 4 5 - 5 4 ( C l e v e l a n d : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 3 0 4 . 43 D .N . Rowe, " C o l l e c t i v e S e c u r i t y i n t h e P a c i f i c : A n A m e r i c a n V i e w , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . X V I I I , N o . 1 ( M a r c h , 1 9 4 5 ) , 1 3 . 44 M e m o i r s : 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 5 0 ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 3 7 3 - 7 4 . A s t o K e n n a n ' s m i s j u d g e m e n t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , h e s t a t e s t h a t h e " d o u b t e d a t t h a t t i m e £ 1 9 4 7 ) , a n d v e r y w r o n g l y s o , t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e Commu- n i s t s t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n t h e i r r u l e f o r l o n g o v e r a l l o f C h i n a . . . . I n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s u c c e e d . . . i t was u n - l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d t h e m s e l v e s r e m a i n f o r l o n g u n d e r R u s s i a n c o n t r o l . " I b i d . , p . 374 ( I t a l i c s i n t e g r a l . ) 45 U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . C o n f e r e n c e on P r o b l e m s o f U n i t e d S t a t e s P o l i c y i n C h i n a ( W a s h i n g t o n : D i v i s i o n o f C e n t r a l S e r v i c e s , O c t o b e r 6 - 8 , 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . B 2 4 - 2 5 . 46 On t h e A m e r i c a n o b s e s s i o n w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e , Owen L a t t i m o r e s p e a k i n g a t t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t C o n f e r e n c e o f O c t o b e r 6 - 8 , 1 9 4 9 , s t a t e d t h a t "we c a n n o t r e l y s i m p l y o n j o i n t a c t i o n b e t w e e n A m e r i c a n money a n d A m e r i c a n know-how. Know-how e x i s t s on s e v e r a l l e v e l s a n d i t i s n ' t a n A m e r i c a n m o n o p o l y . T h e r e may b e l e v e l s o f know-how w h i c h a r e r a t h e r l o w a s c o m p a r e d w i t h A m e r i c a n l e v e l s b u t a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o d e f e a t A m e r i c a n p u r - p o s e s . " I b i d . , p . B 2 1 . 47 C o m m e n t a r y . X X V I I , N o . 2 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 5 9 ) , 9 9 . S t a n l e y H o f f m a n p o s i t s t h e i d e a t h a t " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s n o t a n i d e o - l o g i c a l n a t i o n , a n d i t s p o l i c i e s a r e n o t i d e o l o g i c a l o n e s , i f b y i d e o l o g y one means a b o d y o f i d e a s , e m o t i o n s a n d s y m b o l s t h a t a i m a t p r e s e n t i n g a s y s t e m a t i c and g l o b a l v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d a n d i t s h i s t o r y . . . . " " T h e A m e r i c a n S t y l e : O u r P a s t And O u r P r i n c i p l e s , " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . 4 6 , N o . 2 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , 3 6 7 . J . K . F a i r b a n k a l s o s h e d s some l i g h t on t h e A m e r i c a n d i l e m m a w i t h C h i n a : " I n t h e n a t u r e o f o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h i n a [ h e s t a t e s ] , c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i n e v i t a b l y a r o s e e v e r y t i m e A m e r i c a n s a n d C h i n e s e w e r e i n c o n t a c t b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e o p e r a t i n g on d i f f e r e n t b a s e s . T h e e s s e n c e o f t h e w h o l e i n t e r a c t i o n was t h a t when t h e c u l t u r a l c o n - f l i c t became i n s o l u b l e , t h e Wes t r e s o r t e d t o f o r c e . . . . " Q u o t e d 119 i n R.M. Pfe f f e r (ed.), No More Vietnams: The War and the future of American Foreign Policy (New York: Harper & Bros., 1968), p. 19. Speaking at the f i r s t national convocation on "The United States and China: The Next Decade," held i n New York C i t y on March 20-21, 1969, Pf e f f e r added some candor to American analy- sies of China. In part he stated: "If we do not succeed i n understanding ourselves, can we understand China - a country con- cerning which our c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l biases, compounded by our anxieties and ignorance, have produced stupid p o l i c y and, too frequently, poor journalism and mediocre scholarship?" Quoted i n Barnett & Reischauer (eds.), p. 24. I t f e l l t o H.S. Commager to introduce a touch of i n t e l l e c t u a l humility to h i s country's r e l a t i o n s with the world's most populous nation. Writing i n the Times Magazine of March 12, 1967, he stated that "we [the U.sTJ do not, however, have the material, i n t e l l e c t u a l or moral re- sources to be at once an American power, a European power and an Asian power." "How not to be a World Power," i b i d . , p. 28. 48 In a recent e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d "Well, w e l l , look who's here," The Nation attempted to vindicate the p o l i c i e s advocated some 26 years ago by Service, Davies and Clubb: "There they were, t h e i r photographs on the front page of The New York Times. John Stewart Service and John Paton Davies, distinguished former foreign service o f f i c e r s of the state department, who had con- cluded t h e i r testimony before a closed session of the Senate f o r - eign r e l a t i o n s committee. One Newspaper had s u b t i t l e d the photo- graphs 'The Resurrection.' I t must have seemed l i k e a resur- recti o n to these men who had been hounded out of the service i n the 1950s and have since l i v e d i n obscurity. Service as a l i b r a r y o f f i c i a l at the University of C a l i f o r n i a , i n the Centre for Chinese Studies, and Davies as a furniture maker i n L a t i n America. 'If the present approach to Mao and Chou had taken place 25 years ago,' Davies i s quoted as saying, 'we might have been spared two wars.' And so we might. Then one finds a f u l l page i n Newsweek devoted to O.E. Clubb, a colleague of Service and Davies, with the caption 'A Diplomat Vindicated.' The story does not mention that Clubb's troubles began when the l a t e Whittaker Chambers ma- l i c i o u s l y related a meaningless incident about him. He was, of course, vindicated even then, i n 1952, but resigned from the ser- v i c e b i t t e r l y contending that h i s career had been irreparably damaged. 'We've had 20 years of erro r , ' he i n s i s t s , and who can doubt that statement? Then from Time one learns that 'few West- erners are as f a m i l i a r with China and i t s leaders' as Edgar Snow. Can anyone doubt i t ? But what happened to Snow af t e r The Saturday Evening Post l e t him leave for lack of assignments? I f he i s an outstanding authority now, and he i s , why wasn't any greater use made of h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c s k i l l and special knowledge 120 d u r i n g a l l t h o s e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s when h e l i v e d more o r l e s s a s a r e p o r t e r - i n - e x i l e ? R e a d i n g t h e s e s t o r i e s a b o u t t h e ' r e s u r - r e c t i o n ' a n d ' v i n d i c a t i o n ' o f t h e s e men s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e E s t a - b l i s h m e n t a n d t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r e s s w e r e i n e f f e c t s a y i n g ' s o r r y a b o u t t h a t . ' Bu t c a n 15 o r 20 y e a r s c a r v e d o u t o f t h e c a r e e r s o f s u c h men b e r e p l a c e d w i t h a p h r a s e o r a p h o t o g r a p h ? A l l f o u r men h a v e b e e n magnan imous a b o u t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , one h a v i n g s a i d ' o h , w e l l , i t was an age o f s t u p i d i t i e s . ' Bu t was i t o n l y s t u p i d i t y t h a t d r o v e S e r v i c e , D a v i e s a n d C l u b b f r o m t h e s e r v i c e t o w h i c h t h e y h a d d e v o t e d so many y e a r s ? S t u p i d i t y , y e s , b u t c o w a r d i c e a s w e l l — t h e f a i l u r e o f t h o s e who knew t h e r e a l f a c t s t o come t o t h e i r d e f e n c e — a n d t h e c r a s s s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f p o l i t i c i a n s e a g e r t o e x p l o i t t h e theme ' t h e D e m o c r a t s h a v e g i v e n C h i n a t o t h e C o m m u n i s t s . ' T h e r e i s no p o i n t i n nam ing t h e s e p o l i t i c i a n s — and t h e l i s t w o u l d b e t o o l o n g — b u t t h e b e s t known o f them h a s a n n o u n c e d h e w o u l d s o o n b e f l y i n g t o P e k i n g . " Q u o t e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun ( A u g u s t 24, 1971), p . 5. P r e s i d e n t N i x o n a n n o u n c e d h i s i n t e n t i o n o f v i s i t i n g P e k i n g on t e l e v i s i o n on t h e n i g h t o f T h u r s d a y J u l y 15, 1971. BIBLIOGRAPHY DOCUMENTS C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . A l l we a r e a n d a l l v e h a v e t s p e e c h e s and m e s - s a g e s s i n c e P e a r l H a r b o u r . New Y o r k : J o h n D a y , n . d . . B e f o r e f i n a l v i c t o r y : s p e e c h e s b y G e n e r a l i s s i m o C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . New Y o r k : C h i n e s e News S e r v i c e , 1 9 4 4 . . T h e C o l l e c t e d W a r t i m e M e s s a g e s o f G e n e r a l i s s i m o C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . New Y o r k : J o h n D a y , 1 9 4 6 . Document s on A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . V o l s . I - I I I . B o s t o n : W o r l d P e a c e F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 5 . I k e , N. ( ed . ) J a p a n ' s D e c i s i o n F o r W a r : R e c o r d s o f t h e 1941 P o l i c y C o n f e r e n c e s . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s o f t h e U . S . S . R . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e - t w e e n t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e U . S . S . R . a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U . S . A . a n d t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h e G r e a t P a t r i o t i c War o f 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 5 . V o l s . I - I I . Moscow: F o r e i g n L a n - g u a g e s P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1 9 5 7 . Romanus , C F . & S u n d e r l a n d , R. T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army i n W o r l d War I I : C h i n a - B u r m a - I n d i a T h e a t e r . V o l . I I : S t i l w e l l ' s Command P r o b l e m s . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 6 . . The U n i t e d S t a t e s Army i n W o r l d War I I : C h i n a - B u r m a - I n d i a T h e a t e r . V o l . I l l : T i m e Runs o u t i n C . B . I . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 8 . T h e C h i n a W h i t e P a p e r : A u g u s t 1 9 4 9 . V o l s . I - I I . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 1 . T h e F a r E a s t . V o l . I V . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 6 . 122 F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s , 1 9 4 2 . G e n e r a l . V o l . I. W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 3 . C h i n a . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n - t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 3 . The C o n f e r e n c e s a t C a i r o a n d T e h e r a n . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 1 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 4 , G e n e r a l . V o l . I. W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 6 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 4 . C h i n a . V o l . V I . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n - ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 7 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 5 . The C o n f e r e n c e s a t M a l t a a n d Y a l t a . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 5 . F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : D i p l o m a t i c P a p e r s . 1 9 4 5 . The F a r E a s t : C h i n a . V o l . V I I . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 9 . P o s t w a r F o r e i g n P o l i c y P r e p a r a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n : U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 9 . MEMOIRS B l u m , J . M . F rom t h e M o r g e n t h a u D i a r i e s - Y e a r s o f W a r , 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 5 . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 7 . B r y a n t , S i r A . T h e T u r n o f t h e T i d e . L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 5 7 . B y r n e s , J . F . S p e a k i n g F r a n k l y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 4 7 . C h e n n a u l t , C L . Way o f a F i g h t e r : T h e M e m o i r s o f C l a i r L e e C h e n n a u l t . New Y o r k : P u t n a m ' s & S o n s , 1 9 4 9 . C h i a n g K a i - s h e k . S o v i e t R u s s i a i n C h i n a : A Summing Up a t S e v e n t y b y C h i a n g C h u n g - c h e n g . New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s & G i r o u x , 1 9 6 5 . C h u r c h i l l , S i r W .S . T h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . V o l . I V : T h e H i n g e o f F a t e . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 5 0 . D e a n , G e n e r a l J . R . T h e S t r a n g e A l l i a n c e : T h e S t o r y o f A m e r i c a n E f f o r t s a t W a r t i m e C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h R u s s i a . New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 . E h r e n b u r g , I. P o s t - W a r Y e a r s : 1 9 4 5 - 5 4 . C l e v e l a n d : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 6 7 . G r e w , J . C T u r b u l e n t E r a : A D i p l o m a t i c R e c o r d o f F o r t y Y e a r s : 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 4 5 . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 4 2 . H u l l , C . T h e M e m o i r s o f C o r d e l l H u l l . V o l s . I - I I . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 4 8 . K e n n a n , G . F . M e m o i r s : 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 5 0 . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1 9 6 7 . K i n g , E . J . , & W h i t e h a l l , W.M. F l e e t A d m i r a l K i n g . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1 9 5 2 . L e a h y , F l e e t A d m i r a l W.D. I Was T h e r e : T h e P e r s o n a l S t o r y o f t h e C h i e f - o f - S t a f f t o P r e s i d e n t s R o o s e v e l t a n d Truman B a s e d on H i s N o t e s and D i a r i e s Made a t t h e T i m e . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 5 0 . 124 L o h b e c k , D. P a t r i c k J . H u r l e y . C h i c a g o : H . R e g n e r y , 1 9 5 6 . M a l r a u x , A . A n t i m e m o i r e s . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 6 7 . Mao T s e - t u n g . S e l e c t e d M i l i t a r y W r i t i n g s . P e k i n g : F o r e i g n L a n - g u a g e s P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 . M i l l i s , W. ( ed . ) T h e F o r r e s t a l D i a r i e s . New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 . M o r i s o n , E . E . T u r m o i l a n d T r a d i t i o n : A S t u d y o f t h e L i f e a n d T i m e s o f H e n r y L . S t i m s o n . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 0 . N i c o l s o n , H . ( e d . N . N i c o l s o n ) D i a r i e s a n d L e t t e r s : 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 9 . V o l s . I - I I . L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 6 7 . P e r k i n s , F . T h e R o o s e v e l t I knew. New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 4 6 . R o o s e v e l t , E . A s He Saw I t . New Y o r k : D u e l l S l o a n & P e a r c e , 1 9 4 7 . . F . D . R . H i s P e r s o n a l L e t t e r s . V o l s . I - I I . New Y o r k : D u e l l S l o a n & P e a r c e , 1 9 4 7 . Rosenman, S . J . W o r k i n g w i t h R o o s e v e l t . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 5 2 . S h e r w o o d , R . E . R o o s e v e l t arid H o p k i n s : A n I n t i m a t e H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 4 8 . S t e t t i n i u s , E . R . J r . R o o s e v e l t a n d t h e R u s s i a n s : T h e Y a l t a C o n f e r e n c e . L o n d o n : J o n a t h a n C a p e , 1 9 5 0 . S t i m s o n , H . L . & M c G e o r g e B u n d y . An A c t i v e S e r v i c e i n P e a c e a n d W a r . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 4 8 . T r u m a n , H . S . M e m o i r s o f H a r r y S. T r u m a n . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 5 5 . W h i t e , T . H . ( ed . ) T h e S t i l w e l l P a p e r s . New Y o r k : D u e l l S l o a n & P e a r c e , 1 9 4 8 . SECONDARY SOURCES B a r i t z , L . C i t y on a H i l l ; A H i s t o r y o f I d e a s and M y t h s i n A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 6 4 . B a r n e t t , A . D . & R e i s c h a u e r , E . O . ( e d s . ) T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C h i n a : T h e N e x t D e c a d e . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 0 . B e a r d , C A . T h e d e v i l t h e o r y o f w a r ; an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f h i s t o r y a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f k e e p i n g o u t o f w a r . New Y o r k : V a n g u a r d P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 . . A F o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : K n o p f , 1 9 4 0 . . A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y i n t h e m a k i n g , 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 4 0 ; A s t u d y i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 , c l 9 4 6 . . P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t and t h e Coming o f t h e War . 1 9 4 1 : A s t u d y i n a p p e a r a n c e s a n d r e a l i t i e s . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 , c l 9 4 8 . . T h e i d e a o f a n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t : a n a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y i n A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 . B e r n s t e i n , B . J . ( ed . ) T o w a r d a New P a s t . D i s s e n t i n g E s s a y s i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 . B i s s o n , T . A . A m e r i c a ' s F a r E a s t e r n P o l i c y . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 4 5 . B o o r s t i n , D. T h e A m e r i c a n s : T h e C o l o n i a l E x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 5 8 . B o r g , D. A m e r i c a n P o l i c y a n d t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k : O c t a g o n B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 . B u e l l , R . L . T h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e . 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"The Origins of the Cold War i n China," P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . XLI, No. 1 (Spring, 1968), 19-33. . "The Cold War - Second Phase: China," International Journal, XXXIII, No. 3 (Summer, 1968), 421-34. Middleton, D. "Middle East: The Big Powers Try Where the U.N. F a i l e d . " New York Times (January 26, 1969), p. E3. Morgenthau, H.J. "The Roots of America's China P o l i c y , " The China Quarterly. No. 10 (April-June, 1962), 45-50. "Who Makes Those Commitments? Congress and Foreign Po l i c y , " New Republic (June 14, 1969), pp. 16-18. 134 Naggle, B. "The Twenties: A New Historiographical Frontier," Journal of Asian History. L I U , No. 2 (September, 1966), 299-314. "New balance of power i n East predicted by s p e c i a l i s t on A s i a , " Globe & Mail ( A p r i l 16, 1970), p. 57. Parsons, E.B. "Roosevelt's Containment of the Russo-Japanese War," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review. XXXVIII, No. 1 (February, 1969), 21-43. Pfatt, W. "The Mote i n the Eye," New Republic (February 1, 1969), pp. 36, 38, 40. Pugach, N. "Making the Open Door Work: Paul S. Reinsch i n China, 1913-1919," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review. XXXVIII, No. 2 (May, 1969), 157-75. Rolfe, J . "Diplomatic channel key fa c t o r : Interest grows i n more trade with China," Globe & Mail (April 21, 1970), p. B l . Schlesinger, A.M. J r . "Vietnam and the End of the Age of Super- powers, " Harper's Magazine (March, 1969), pp. 41-49. Shannon, D. "Japan launches drive for return of Kurile i s l a n d s , " Vancouver Sun (November 12, 1970), p. 16. Shenker, I. "6 Experts Interviewed i n Princeton, Urge Complete Review of U.S. Foreign P o l i c y , " New York Times (December 8, 1968), p. 76. Smith, G. "Last View of the Chinese Scene," Times Book Review (February 25, 1968), pp. 3, 35. . "What America did besides f i g h t i n World War II - a bold r e v i s i o n , " Times Book Review (April 13, 1969), p. 6. Smith, T. "Nixon b i d to improve China r e l a t i o n s f a i l s , " Globe & Mail (November 19, 1970), p. 5. Snow, E. "Mao and the New Mandate," New Republic (May 10, 1969), pp. 17-21. Solecki, J . J . & Wilbur, CM. "Blucher's 'Grand Plan' of 1926," China Quarterly (July-September, 1968), pp. 18-39. 135 Soward, P.H. "American Foreign P o l i c y : Research, Reflection, and Recrimination," International Journal, XIII, No, 3 (Summer, 1958), 213-22. Taylor, C. "China's Foreign P o l i c y , " International Journal. XXI, No. 3 (Summer, 1966), 312-22. Unger, J . "The 'New L e f t ' and American History: Some Recent Trends i n United States Historiography," American H i s t o r - i c a l Review. LXXII, No. 4 (July, 1967), 1237-63. Van Alstyne, R.W. "The American Empire: I t s H i s t o r i c a l Pattern and Evolution," H i s t o r i c a l Association Pamphlet. No. 43 (1960). Wales, N. "Anna Louise Strong: The C l a s s i c Fellow T r a v e l l e r , " New Republic (April 25, 1970), pp. 17-19. Wu, Tien-wei. "Chiang Kai-shek's March Twentieth Coup d'Etat of 1926," Journal of Asian Studies. XXVII, No. 3 (May, 1968), 585-602. 136 APPENDIX I SECRETARY HAY TO THE AMBASSADOR IN GREAT BR ITA IN WASHINGTON, SEPTEMBER 6 , 1899 S IR : T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f H e r B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y h a s d e c l a r e d t h a t i t s p o l i c y and i t s v e r y t r a d i t i o n s p r e c l u d e d i t f r o m u s i n g any p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h m i g h t b e g r a n t e d i t i n C h i n a a s a weapon f o r e x c l u d i n g c o m m e r c i a l r i v a l s , and t h a t f r e e d o m o f t r a d e f o r G r e a t B r i t a i n i n t h a t E m p i r e meant f r e e d o m o f t r a d e f o r a l l t h e w o r l d a l i k e . W h i l e c o n c e d i n g b y f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s , f i r s t w i t h Germany and t h e n w i t h R u s s i a , t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f " s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e o r i n t e r e s t " i n C h i n a i n w h i c h t h e y a r e t o e n j o y s p e c i a l r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s , more e s p e c i a l l y i n r e s p e c t o f r a i l r o a d s a n d m i n i n g e n t e r p r i s e s . H e r B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t h a s t h e r e f o r e s o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n a t t h e same t i m e what i s c a l l e d t h e " o p e n - d o o r " p o l i c y , t o i n s u r e t o t h e commerce o f t h e w o r l d i n C h i n a e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t w i t h i n s a i d " s p h e r e s " f o r commerce a n d n a v i g a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r p o l i c y i s a l i k e u r g e n t l y demanded b y t h e B r i t i s h m e r c a n t i l e c o m m u n i t i e s and b y t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a s i t i s j u s t l y h e l d b y them t o b e t h e o n l y one w h i c h w i l l i m p r o v e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , e n a b l e t h e m t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e m a r k e t s o f C h i n a , a n d e x t e n d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e . W h i l e t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l i n no way commit i t s e l f t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f a n y power w i t h i n o r c o n t r o l o v e r a n y p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e E m p i r e u n d e r s u c h a g r e e m e n t s a s h a v e w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r b e e n made , i t c a n n o t c o n c e a l i t s a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , e v e n a p r o b a b i l i t y , o f c o m p l i - c a t i o n s a r i s i n g b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t y p o w e r s w h i c h may i m p e r i l t h e r i g h t s i n s u r e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n d e r o u r t r e a t i e s w i t h C h i n a . T h i s G o v e r n m e n t i s a n i m a t e d b y a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t h a t t h e i n t e r - e s t s o f o u r c i t i z e n s may n o t b e p r e j u d i c e d t h r o u g h e x c l u s i v e t r e a t m e n t b y any o f t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r s w i t h i n t h e i r s o - c a l l e d " s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t " i n C h i n a , a n d h o p e s a l s o t o r e t a i n t h e r e a n o p e n m a r k e t f o r t h e commerce o f t h e w o r l d , r e m o v e d a n g e r o u s s o u r c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i r r i t a t i o n , a n d h a s t e n t h e r e b y u n i t e d o r c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n o f t h e p o w e r s a t P e k i n i n f a v o r o f t h e a d m i n - i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m s so u r g e n t l y n e e d e d f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t a n d m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f C h i n a i n 137 w h i c h t h e w h o l e w e s t e r n w o r l d i s a l i k e c o n c e r n e d . I t b e l i e v e s t h a t s u c h a r e s u l t may b e g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d b y a d e c l a r a t i o n b y t h e v a r i o u s p o w e r s c l a i m i n g " s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t " i n C h i n a o f t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s a s r e g a r d s t r e a t m e n t o f f o r e i g n t r a d e t h e r e i n . T h e p r e s e n t moment seems a p a r t i c u l a r l y o p p o r t u n e one f o r i n - f o r m i n g H e r B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e d e s i r e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o s e e i t make a f o r m a l d e c l a r a t i o n a n d t o l e n d i t s s u p p o r t i n o b t a i n i n g s i m i l a r d e c l a r a t i o n s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s p o w e r s c l a i m i n g " s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e " i n C h i n a , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t e a c h i n i t s r e s p e c t i v e s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t o r i n f l u e n c e . F i r s t . W i l l i n no w i s e i n t e r f e r e w i t h a n y t r e a t y p o r t o r any v e s t e d i n t e r e s t w i t h i n a n y s o - c a l l e d " s p h e r e o f i n t e r e s t " o r l e a s e d t e r r i t o r y i t may h a v e i n C h i n a . S e c o n d . T h a t t h e C h i n e s e t r e a t y t a r i f f o f t h e t i m e b e i n g s h a l l a p p l y t o a l l m e r c h a n d i s e l a n d e d o r s h i p p e d t o a l l s u c h p o r t s a s a r e w i t h i n s a i d " s p h e r e o f i n t e r e s t " ( u n l e s s t h e y b e " f r e e p o r t s " ) , n o m a t t e r t o what n a t i o n a l i t y i t may b e l o n g , a n d t h a t d u t i e s s o l e v i a b l e s h a l l b e c o l l e c t e d b y t h e C h i n e s e G o v e r n m e n t . T h i r d . T h a t i t w i l l l e v y no h i g h e r h a r b o r d u t i e s on v e s s e l s o f a n o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t y f r e q u e n t i n g any p o r t i n s u c h " s p h e r e " t h a n s h a l l b e l e v i e d o n v e s s e l s o f i t s own n a t i o n a l i t y , and no h i g h e r r a i l r o a d c h a r g e s o v e r l i n e s b u i l t , c o n t r o l l e d , o r o p e r a t e d w i t h i n i t s " s p h e r e " on m e r c h a n d i s e b e l o n g i n g t o c i t i z e n s o r s u b j e c t s o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s t r a n s p o r t e d t h r o u g h s u c h " s p h e r e " t h a n s h a l l b e l e v i e d on s i m i l a r m e r c h a n d i s e b e l o n g i n g t o i t s own n a t i o n a l s t r a n s p o r t e d o v e r e q u a l d i s t a n c e s . T h e r e c e n t u k a s e o f H i s M a j e s t y t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a , d e - c l a r i n g t h e p o r t o f T a - l i e n - w a n o p e n t o t h e m e r c h a n t s h i p s o f a l l n a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e w h o l e o f t h e l e a s e u n d e r w h i c h i t i s t o b e h e l d b y R u s s i a , r e m o v i n g a s i t d o e s a l l u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e l i b e r a l a n d c o n c i l i a t o r y p o l i c y o f t h a t p o w e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a s s u r a n c e s g i v e n t h i s G o v e r n m e n t b y R u s s i a , j u s t i f i e s t h e e x p e c - t a t i o n t h a t H i s M a j e s t y w i l l c o o p e r a t e i n s u c h a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s i s h e r e p r o p o s e d , and o u r a m b a s s a d o r a t t h e c o u r t o f S t . P e t e r s b u r g h a s b e e n i n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y t o s u b m i t t h e p r o - p o s i t i o n s a b o v e d e t a i l e d t o H i s I m p e r i a l M a j e s t y , a n d a s k t h e i r e a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C o p y o f my i n s t r u c t i o n t o M r . Tower i s h e r e w i t h i n c l o s e d f o r y o u r c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e a c t i o n o f Germany i n d e c l a r i n g t h e p o r t o f K i a o c h a o a " f r e e p o r t , " a n d t h e a i d t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s g i v e n C h i n a i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h e r e o f a C h i n e s e c u s t o m - h o u s e , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e o r a l a s s u r a n c e c o n v e y e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b y Germany t h a t o u r i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n i t s " s p h e r e " w o u l d i n no w i s e b e a f f e c t e d b y i t s o c c u p a t i o n o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f S h a n g - t u n g , t e n d t o show t h a t l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n may b e a n t i c i p a t e d f r o m t h a t power t o t h e d e s i r e d d e c l a r a t i o n . T h e i n t e r e s t s o f J a p a n , t h e n e x t mos t i n t e r e s t e d power i n t h e 138 t r a d e o f C h i n a , w i l l b e s o c l e a r l y s e r v e d b y t h e p r o p o s e d a r - r a n g e m e n t , a n d t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f i t s s t a t e s m e n w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r a r e so e n t i r e l y i n l i n e w i t h t h e v i e w s h e r e e x p r e s s e d , t h a t i t s h e a r t y c o o p e r a t i o n i s c o n f i d e n t l y c o u n t e d o n . Y o u w i l l , a t a s e a r l y d a t e a s p r a c t i c a b l e , s u b m i t t h e c o n s i d e r - a t i o n s t o H e r B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y ' s p r i n c i p a l s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e f o r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s and r e q u e s t t h e i r i m m e d i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I i n c l o s e h e r e w i t h a c o p y o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s e n t t o o u r am- b a s s a d o r a t B e r l i n b e a r i n g on t h e a b o v e s u b j e c t . I h a v e t h e h o n o r t o b e [ e t c . ] JOHN H A Y . 1 139 APPENDIX I I SECRETARY HAY TO AMERICAN DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES AT BERL IN , PAR IS , LONDON, ROME, S T . PETERSBURG, V IENNA, BRUSSELS , MADRID, TOKYO, THE HAGUE, AND L I S B O N . WASHINGTON, J U L Y 3 , 1900 I n t h i s c r i t i c a l p o s t u r e o f a f f a i r s i n C h i n a i t i s deemed a p - p r o p r i a t e t o d e f i n e t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s f a r a s p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t t h i s t o b e d o n e . We a d h e r e t o t h e p o l i c y i n i t i a t e d b y u s i n 1857 o f p e a c e w i t h t h e C h i n e s e n a t i o n , o f f u r t h e r a n c e o f l a w f u l c o m m e r c e , a n d o f p r o t e c t i o n o f l i v e s and p r o p e r t y o f o u r c i t i z e n s b y a l l means g u a r a n t e e d u n d e r e x t r a t e r - r i t o r i a l t r e a t y r i g h t s and b y t h e l a w o f n a t i o n s . I f w r o n g b e done t o o u r c i t i z e n s we p r o p o s e t o h o l d t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r s t o t h e u t t e r m o s t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . We r e g a r d t h e c o n d i t i o n a t P e k i n a s one o f v i r t u a l a n a r c h y , w h e r e b y power a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e p r a c t i c a l l y d e v o l v e d upon t h e l o c a l p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . So l o n g a s t h e y a r e n o t i n o v e r t c o l l u s i o n w i t h r e b e l l i o n a n d u s e t h e i r power t o p r o t e c t f o r e i g n l i f e a n d p r o p e r t y , we r e g a r d them a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e , w i t h whom we s e e k t o r e m a i n i n p e a c e and f r i e n d s h i p . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i s , a s i t h a s b e e n h e r e t o f o r e , t o a c t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e o t h e r p o w e r s ? f i r s t , i n o p e n i n g u p c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h P e k i n a n d r e s c u i n g t h e A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s , m i s s i o n a r i e s , a n d o t h e r A m e r i c a n s who a r e i n d a n g e r ? s e c o n d l y , i n a f f o r d i n g a l l p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i o n e v e r y w h e r e i n C h i n a t o A m e r i c a n l i f e a n d p r o p e r t y ? t h i r d l y , i n g u a r d i n g and p r o t e c t i n g a l l l e g i t i m a t e A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s ? and f o u r t h l y , i n a i d i n g t o p r e v e n t a s p r e a d o f t h e d i s o r d e r s t o t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f t h e E m p i r e and a r e c u r r e n c e o f s u c h d i s a s t e r s . I t i s o f c o u r s e t o o e a r l y t o f o r e c a s t t h e means o f a t t a i n i n g t h i s l a s t r e - s u l t ? b u t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t o s e e k a s o l u t i o n w h i c h may b r i n g a b o u t p e r m a n e n t s a f e t y and p e a c e t o C h i n a , p r e s e r v e C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y , p r o t e c t a l l r i g h t s g u a r a n t e e d t o f r i e n d l y p o w e r s b y t r e a t y a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , and s a f e g u a r d f o r t h e w o r l d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l a n d i m p a r t i a l t r a d e w i t h a l l p a r t s o f t h e C h i n e s e E m p i r e . You w i l l c o m m u n i c a t e t h e p u r p o r t o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e m i n i s t e r f o r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . JOHN H A Y . 2 140 APPENDIX I I I THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR (TAKAHIRA) TO SECRETARY ROOT WASHINGTON, NOVEMBER 3 0 , 1908 S IR : T h e e x c h a n g e o f v i e w s b e t w e e n u s , w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e a t t h e s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h I h a v e r e c e n t l y h a d t h e h o n o r o f h o l d i n g w i t h y o u , h a s shown t h a t J a p a n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h o l d i n g i m p o r t a n t o u t l y i n g i n s u l a r p o s s e s s i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n , t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s a r e a n i - m a t e d b y a common a i m , p o l i c y , a n d i n t e n t i o n i n t h a t r e g i o n . B e l i e v i n g t h a t a f r a n k a v o w a l o f t h a t a i m , p o l i c y * a n d i n t e n t i o n w o u l d n o t o n l y t e n d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d g o o d n e i g h b o r h o o d , w h i c h h a v e i m m e m o r i a l l y e x i s t e d b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t w o u l d m a t e r i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p e a c e , t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t h a v e a u t h o r i z e d me t o p r e s e n t t o y o u a n o u t l i n e o f t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h a t common a i m , p o l i c y , a n d i n t e n t i o n : 1. I t i s t h e w i s h o f t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e f r e e a n d p e a c e f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r commerce on t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n . 2 . T h e p o l i c y o f b o t h G o v e r n m e n t s , u n i n f l u e n c e d b y a n y a g g r e s - s i v e t e n d e n c i e s , i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t u s q u o i n t h e r e g i o n a b o v e m e n t i o n e d a n d t o t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r commerce and i n d u s t r y i n C h i n a . 3 . T h e y a r e a c c o r d i n g l y f i r m l y r e s o l v e d r e c i p r o c a l l y t o r e - s p e c t t h e t e r r i t o r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o e a c h o t h e r i n s a i d r e g i o n . 4 . T h e y a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e common i n t e r e s t o f a l l p o w e r s i n C h i n a b y s u p p o r t i n g b y a l l p a c i f i c means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f C h i n a a n d t h e p r i n - c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r commerce a n d i n d u s t r y o f a l l n a - t i o n s i n t h a t E m p i r e . 5 . S h o u l d a n y e v e n t o c c u r t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s t a t u s q u o a s a b o v e d e s c r i b e d o r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y a s a b o v e d e f i n e d , i t r e m a i n s f o r t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s t o what m e a s u r e s t h e y may c o n s i d e r i t u s e f u l t o t a k e . I f t h e f o r e g o i n g o u t l i n e a c c o r d s w i t h t h e v i e w o f t h e G o v e r n - ment o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I s h a l l b e g r a t i f i e d t o r e c e i v e y o u r c o n f i r m a t i o n . I t a k e [ e t c . ] K. TAKAHIRA 141 SECRETARY ROOT TO THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR (TAKAHIRA) WASHINGTON, NOVEMBER 3 0 , 1908 E X C E L L E N C Y : I h a v e t h e h o n o r t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e r e c e i p t o f y o u r n o t e o f t o d a y s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e r e s u l t o f t h e e x c h a n g e o f v i e w s b e t w e e n u s i n o u r r e c e n t i n t e r v i e w s d e f i n i n g t h e u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r p o l i c y i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n . I t i s a p l e a s u r e t o i n f o r m y o u t h a t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s we l come t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e h a p p y r e l a t i o n s o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s a n d a s t h e o c c a s i o n f o r a c o n c i s e m u t u a l a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h a t a c c o r - d a n t p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g t h e F a r E a s t w h i c h t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e so f r e q u e n t l y d e c l a r e d i n t h e p a s t . I am h a p p y t o b e a b l e t o c o n f i r m t o y o u r e x c e l l e n c y , on b e h a l f o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s e m b o d i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : 1. I t i s t h e w i s h o f t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e f r e e and p e a c e f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r commerce on t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n . 2 . T h e p o l i c y o f b o t h G o v e r n m e n t s , u n i n f l u e n c e d b y a n y a g g r e s - s i v e t e n d e n c i e s , i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t u s q u o i n t h e r e g i o n a b o v e m e n t i o n e d , and t o t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r commerce a n d i n d u s t r y i n C h i n a . 3 . T h e y a r e a c c o r d i n g l y f i r m l y r e s o l v e d r e c i p r o c a l l y t o r e - s p e c t t h e t e r r i t o r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o e a c h o t h e r i n s a i d r e g i o n . 4 . T h e y a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e common i n t e r e s t s o f a l l p o w e r s i n C h i n a b y s u p p o r t i n g b y a l l p a c i f i c means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e and i n t e g r i t y o f C h i n a and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r commerce a n d i n d u s t r y o f a l l n a t i o n s i n t h a t E m p i r e . 5. S h o u l d any e v e n t o c c u r t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s t a t u s q u o a s a b o v e d e s c r i b e d o r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y a s a b o v e d e f i n e d , i t r e m a i n s f o r t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s t o what m e a s u r e s t h e y may c o n s i d e r i t u s e f u l t o t a k e . A c c e p t [e tc " ] E L I H U R O O T . 3 142 APPENDIX IV TREATY OF WANGHIA (CUSHING TREATY), JULY 3. 1844 [EXTRACT] ARTICLE I I Citizen s of the United States resorting to China for the pur- poses of commerce w i l l pay the duties of import and export pre- scribed i n the T a r i f f , which i s fixed by and made a part of t h i s Treaty. They s h a l l , i n no case, be subject to other or higher duties than are or s h a l l be required of the people of any other nation whatever. Fees and charges of every sort are wholly abolished, and o f f i c e r s of the revenue, who may be g u i l t y of exaction, s h a l l be punished according to the laws of China. I f the Chinese Government desire to modify, i n any respect, the said t a r i f f , such modifications s h a l l be made only i n consultation with Consuls or other functionaries thereto duly authorized i n behalf of the United States, and with consent thereof. And i f additional advantages or p r i v i l e g e s , of whatever description be conceded hereafter by China to any other nation, the United States, and the c i t i z e n s thereof, s h a l l be e n t i t l e d thereupon, to a complete, equal, and impartial p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the same.4 143 APPENDIX V JO INT DECLARATION BY UNITED NATIONS, JANUARY 1, 1 9 4 2 . A JO INT DECLARATION BY THE UNITED STATES OP AMERICA, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BR ITA IN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOC IAL I ST REPUBL ICS , CHINA, AUSTRAL IA , BELGIUM, CANADA, COSTA R ICA, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, DOMINICAN R E P U B L I C , E L SALVADOR, G R E E C E , GUATEMALA, H A I T I , HONDURAS, IND IA, LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, POLAND, SOUTH A F R I C A , YUGOSLAVIA The G o v e r n m e n t s s i g n a t o r y h e r e t o . H a v i n g s u b s c r i b e d t o a common p r o g r a m o f p u r p o s e s a n d p r i n - c i p l e s e m b o d i e d i n t h e J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a a n d t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f t h e U n i t e d K ingdom o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d d a t e d A u g u s t 1 4 , 1 9 4 1 , known a s t h e A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r . B e i n g c o n v i n c e d t h a t c o m p l e t e v i c t o r y o v e r t h e i r e n e m i e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e f e n d l i f e , l i b e r t y , i n d e p e n d e n c e and r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m , a n d t o p r e s e r v e human r i g h t s a n d j u s t i c e i n t h e i r own l a n d s a s w e l l a s i n o t h e r l a n d s , a n d t h a t t h e y a r e now e n g a g e d i n a common s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t s a v a g e a n d b r u t a l f o r c e s s e e k i n g t o s u b j u g a t e t h e w o r l d , DECLARE : (1) E a c h G o v e r n m e n t p l e d g e s i t s e l f t o e m p l o y i t s f u l l r e - s o u r c e s , m i l i t a r y o r e c o n o m i c , a g a i n s t t h o s e members o f t h e T r i - p a r t i t e P a c t a n d i t s a d h e r e n t s w i t h w h i c h s u c h g o v e r n m e n t i s a t w a r . (2) E a c h G o v e r n m e n t p l e d g e s i t s e l f t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t s s i g n a t o r y h e r e t o a n d n o t t o make a s e p a r a t e a r m i s t i c e o r p e a c e w i t h t h e e n e m i e s . T h e f o r e g o i n g d e c l a r a t i o n may b e a d h e r e d t o b y o t h e r n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e , o r w h i c h may b e , r e n d e r i n g m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e and c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r v i c t o r y o v e r H i t l e r i s m . Done a t WASHINGTON J a n u a r y F i r s t , 1 9 4 2 . 144 T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a b y FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT T h e U n i t e d K ingdom o f G r e a t B r i t a i n & N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d b y WINSTON CHURCHILL On b e h a l f o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i o n o f S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c s MAXIM L I T V I N O F F A m b a s s a d o r N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a TSE -VUNG SOONG M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s 145 APPENDIX V I DECLARATION OP FOUR NATIONS ON GENERAL SECUR ITY MOSCOW, OCTOBER 3 0 , 1943 T h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d C h i n a ; u n i t e d i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e D e c l a r - a t i o n b y t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s o f J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 4 2 , a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e c l a r a t i o n s , t o c o n t i n u e h o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s t t h o s e A x i s p o w e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e y r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e a t war u n t i l s u c h p o w e r s h a v e l a i d down t h e i r arms on t h e b a s i s o f u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r ; c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s e c u r e t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e p e o p l e s a l l i e d w i t h t h e m f r o m t h e menace o f a g g r e s s i o n ; r e c o g n i z i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e n s u r i n g a r a p i d and o r d e r l y t r a n s i t i o n f r o m war t o p e a c e a n d o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e and s e c u r i t y w i t h t h e l e a s t d i v e r s i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s human a n d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s f o r a r m a m e n t s ; j o i n t l y d e c l a r e : 1. T h a t t h e i r u n i t e d a c t i o n , p l e d g e d f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e war a g a i n s t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e n e m i e s , w i l l b e c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e a c e and s e c u r i t y . 2 . T h a t t h o s e o f t h e m a t war w i t h a common enemy w i l l a c t t o g e t h e r i n a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s u r r e n d e r and d i s a r m a m e n t o f t h a t enemy. 3 . T h a t t h e y w i l l t a k e a l l m e a s u r e s deemed b y t h e m t o b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a g a i n s t a n y v i o l a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s i m p o s e d u p o n t h e enemy. 4 . T h a t t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a t t h e e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c a b l e d a t e a g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f a l l p e a c e - l o v i n g s t a t e s , a n d open t o m e m b e r s h i p b y a l l s u c h s t a t e s , l a r g e a n d s m a l l , f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e a n d s e c u r i t y . 5. T h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e and s e c u r i t y p e n d i n g t h e r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a w a n d o r d e r a n d t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a s y s t e m o f g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y , t h e y w i l l c o n s u l t w i t h o n e a n o t h e r a n d a s o c c a s i o n r e q u i r e s w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s w i t h a v i e w t o j o i n t a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e c o m m u n i t y o f n a t i o n s . 146 6. That a f t e r the termination of h o s t i l i t i e s they w i l l not employ t h e i r m i l i t a r y forces within the t e r r i t o r i e s of other states except for the purposes envisaged i n t h i s declaration and afte r j o i n t consultation. 7. That they w i l l confer and cooperate with one another and with other members of the United Nations to bring about a prac- t i c a b l e general agreement with respect to the regulation of arm- aments i n the postwar p e r i o d . 6 147 APPENDIX V I I COMMUNIQUE OP THE F IRST CAIRO CONFERENCE P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t , G e n e r a l i s s i m o C h i a n g K a i - s h e k a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r C h u r c h i l l , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m i l i t a r y a n d d i p l o m a t i c a d v i s e r s , h a v e c o m p l e t e d a c o n f e r e n c e i n N o r t h A f r i c a . T h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t was i s s u e d : " T h e s e v e r a l m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n s h a v e a g r e e d u p o n f u t u r e m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t J a p a n . The t h r e e g r e a t A l l i e s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r r e s o l v e t o b r i n g u n r e l e n t i n g p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t t h e i r b r u t a l e n e m i e s b y s e a , l a n d a n d a i r . T h i s p r e s s u r e i s a l r e a d y r i s i n g . " T h e t h r e e g r e a t A l l i e s a r e f i g h t i n g t h i s war t o r e s t r a i n and p u n i s h t h e a g g r e s s i o n o f J a p a n . T h e y c o v e t no g a i n f o r t h e m - s e l v e s a n d h a v e no t h o u g h t o f t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n . I t i s t h e i r p u r p o s e t h a t J a p a n s h a l l b e s t r i p p e d o f a l l t h e i s l a n d s i n t h e P a c i f i c w h i c h she h a s s e i z e d o r o c c u p i e d s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t W o r l d War i n 1 9 1 4 , a n d t h a t a l l t h e t e r r i t o r i e s J a p a n h a s s t o l e n f r o m t h e C h i n e s e s u c h a s M a n c h u r i a , F o r m o s a , a n d t h e P e s c a d o r e s , s h a l l b e r e s t o r e d t o t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . J a p a n w i l l a l s o b e e x p e l l e d f r o m a l l o t h e r t e r r i t o r i e s w h i c h s h e h a s t a k e n b y v i o l e n c e and g r e e d . The a f o r e s a i d t h r e e g r e a t p o w e r s , m i n d f u l o f t h e e n s l a v e m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e o f K o r e a , a r e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i n due c o u r s e K o r e a s h a l l become f r e e and i n d e p e n d e n t . " W i t h t h e s e o b j e c t s i n v i e w t h e t h r e e A l l i e s , i n h a r m o n y w i t h t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a t w a r w i t h J a p a n , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p e r s e v e r e i n t h e s e r i o u s a n d p r o l o n g e d o p e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o c u r e t h e u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r o f J a p a n . " 7 148 APPENDIX VIII EXTRACT PROM THE DUMBARTON OAKS AGREED PROPOSALS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GENERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION CHAPTER VI. THE SECURITY COUNCIL Section A. Composition The Security Council should consist of one representative of each of eleven members of the Organization. Representatives of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet S o c i a l i s t Republics, the Republic of China, and, i n due course, France, should have permanent seats. The General Assembly should e l e c t s i x states to f i l l the non-permanent seats. These six states should be elected for a term of two years, three r e t i r i n g each year. They should not be immediately e l i g i b l e for r e e l e c t i o n . In the f i r s t e l e c t i o n of the non-permanent members three should be chosen by the General Assembly for one-year terms and three for two-year terms. Section B. P r i n c i p a l Functions and Powers 1. In order to ensure prompt and e f f e c t i v e action by the Organization, members of the Organization should by the Charter confer on the Security Council primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the maintenance of in t e r n a t i o n a l peace and security and should agree that i n carrying out these duties under t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t should act on t h e i r behalf. 2. In discharging these duties the Security Council should set i n accordance with the purposes and p r i n c i p l e s of the Organ- i z a t i o n . 3. The s p e c i f i c powers conferred on the Security Council i n order to carry out those duties are l a i d down i n Chapter VIII. 4. A l l members of the Organization should obligate themselves to accept the decisions of the Security Council and to carry them out i n accordance with the provisions of the Charter. 149 5. In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of inte r n a t i o n a l peace and security with the least diversion of the world's human and economic resources for armaments, the Security Council, with the assistance of the M i l i t a r y S t a f f Committee referred to i n Chapter VIII, Section B, paragraph 9, should have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for formulating plans for the establishment of a system of regulation of armaments for submission to the members of the Organization. Section C. Voting (Note.— The question of voting procedure i n the Security Council i s s t i l l under discussion.) Section D. Procedure 1. The Security Council should be so organized as to be able to function continuously and each state member of the Security Council should be permanently represented at the headquarters of the Organization. It may hold meetings at such other places as i n i t s judgment may best f a c i l i t a t e i t s work. There should be periodic meetings at which each state member of the Security Council could i f i t so desired be represented by a member of the government or some other special representative. 2. The Security Council should be empowered to set up such bodies or agencies as i t may deem necessary for the performance of i t s functions including regional subcommittees of the M i l i t a r y S t a f f Committee. 3. The Security Council should adopt i t s own rules of proce- dure, including the method of selecting i t s President. 4. Any member of the Organization should p a r t i c i p a t e i n the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the Security Council considers that the i n t e r e s t s of that member of the Organization are s p e c i a l l y affected. 5. Any member of the Organization not having a seat on the Security Council and any state not a member of the Organization, i f i t i s a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, should be i n v i t e d to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the discussion re- l a t i n g to the dispu t e . 8 150 APPENDIX IX A t t a c h m e n t 1 - T r a n s l a t i o n DRAFT OF MARSHAL S T A L I N ' S P O L I T I C A L CONDITIONS FOR R U S S I A ' S ENTRY IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN T h e l e a d e r s o f t h e t h r e e G r e a t Power s - t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n h a v e a g r e e d t h a t i n two o r t h r e e m o n t h s a f t e r Germany h a s s u r r e n d e r e d a n d t h e war i n E u r o p e h a s e n d e d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n s h a l l e n t e r i n t o t h e war a g a i n s t J a p a n on t h e s i d e o f t h e A l l i e s on c o n d i t i o n t h a t : 1. S t a t u s q u o i n t h e O u t e r M o n g o l i a ( t h e M o n g o l i a n P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c ) s h o u l d b e p r e s e r v e d ; 2 . T h e f o r m e r r i g h t s o f R u s s i a v i o l a t e d b y t h e t r e a c h e r o u s a t t a c k o f J a p a n i n 1904 s h o u l d b e r e s t o r e d v i z : a) t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f S a k h a l i n a s w e l l a s t h e i s l a n d s a d - j a c e n t t o t h i s p a r t o f S a k h a l i n s h o u l d b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . b) p o s s e s s i o n o f P o r t A r t h u r a n d D a i r e n on l e a s e s h o u l d b e r e s t o r e d , c ) t h e r i g h t s p o s s e s s e d b y R u s s i a b e f o r e t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e war t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e - E a s t e r n R a i l r o a d a n d t h e S o u t h - M a n c h u r i a n R a i l r o a d p r o v i d i n g an o u t l e t t o D a i r e n s h o u l d b e r e s t o r e d on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t C h i n a s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p o s s e s s f u l l s o v e r e i g n t y i n M a n c h u r i a ; 3 . T h e K u r i l e i s l a n d s s h o u l d b e han.ded o v e r t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . H e a d s o f t h e t h r e e G r e a t Power s h a v e a g r e e d t h a t t h e s e c l a i m s o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n s h o u l d b e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y s a t i s f i e d a f t e r J a p a n h a s b e e n d e f e a t e d . F o r i t s p a r t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n e x p r e s s e s i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n - c l u d e w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a a p a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e USSR a n d C h i n a i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r a s - s i s t a n c e t o C h i n a w i t h i t s a rmed f o r c e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l i b e r - a t i n g C h i n a f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e y o k e . 151 Attachment 2 MR. HARRIMAN'S SUGGESTED CHANGES IN MARSHAL STALIN'S DRAFT OF RUSSIA'S POLITICAL CONDITIONS FOR RUSSIA'S ENTRY IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN Item 2. b ) : possession lease of the port areas of Port Arthur and Dairen en lease should be restored, or these areas should become free ports under int e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . Item 2. c ) : Add the following a f t e r the word "Manchuria," at the end of the paragraph "or these r a i l r o a d s should be placed under the opera- t i o n a l control of a Chinese-Soviet Commission." Item 3.: Add f i n a l paragraph: "It i s understood that the agreement concerning the ports and railways referred to above requires the concurrence of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek." 9 152 APPENDIX X AGREEMENT REGARDING ENTRY OF THE SOVIET UNION INTO THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN TOP SECRET AGREEMENT The leaders of the three Great Powers - the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Great B r i t a i n - have agreed that i n two or three months af t e r Germany has surrendered and the war i n Europe has terminated the Soviet Union s h a l l enter i n t o the war against Japan on the side of the A l l i e s on condition that: 1. The status quo i n Outer-Mongolia (The Mongolian People's Republic) s h a l l be preserved; 2. The former r i g h t s of Russia v i o l a t e d by the treacherous attack of Japan i n 1904 s h a l l be restored, v i z : a) the southern part of Sakhalin as well as a l l the islands adjacent to i t s h a l l be returned to the Soviet Union, b) the commercial port of Dairen s h a l l be i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d , the preeminent i n t e r e s t s of the Soviet Union i n t h i s port being safeguarded and the lease of Port Arthur as a naval base of the USSR restored. c) the Chinese-Eastern Railroad and the South-Manchurian Railroad which provides an outlet to Dairen s h a l l be j o i n t l y operated by the establishment of a j o i n t Soviet-Chinese Company i t being understood that the preeminent i n t e r e s t s of the Soviet Union s h a l l be safeguarded and that China s h a l l r e t a i n f u l l sovereignty i n Manchuria; 3. The K u r i l islands s h a l l be handed over to the Soviet Union. It i s understood, that the agreement concerning Outer-Mongolia and the ports and r a i l r o a d s referred to above w i l l require con- currence of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. The President w i l l take measures i n order to obtain t h i s concurrence on advice from Marshal S t a l i n . The Heads of the three Great Powers have agreed that these claims of the Soviet Union s h a l l be unquestionably f u l f i l l e d a f t e r Japan has been defeated. 153 For i t s part the Soviet Union expresses readiness to conclude with the National Government of China a pact of friendship and a l l i a n c e between the USSR and China i n order to render a s s i s - tance to China with armed forces for the purpose of l i b e r a t i n g China from the Japanese yoke. K.CTAJtHH FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT WINSTON S. CHURCHILL10 FEBRUARY 11, 1945. 154 APPENDIX X I TREATY OP FRIENDSHIP AND A L L I A N C E BETWEEN THE REPUBL IC OF CHINA AND THE U . S . S . R . , AUGUST 1 4 , 1945 T h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t ' o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , and t h e P r e s i d i u m o f t h e Supreme S o v i e t o f t h e U . S . S . R . , D e s i r o u s o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s t h a t h a v e a l w a y s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n C h i n a a n d t h e U . S . S . R . , t h r o u g h a n a l - l i a n c e a n d g o o d n e i g h b o r l y p o s t w a r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . D e t e r m i n e d t o a s s i s t e a c h o t h e r i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a g - g r e s s i o n on t h e p a r t o f e n e m i e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n t h i s w o r l d w a r , a n d t o c o l l a b o r a t e i n t h e common war a g a i n s t J a p a n u n t i l h e r u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r . E x p r e s s i n g t h e i r u n s w e r v i n g a s p i r a t i o n t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h e c a u s e o f m a i n t a i n i n g p e a c e and s e c u r i t y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s a n d o f a l l t h e p e a c e - l o v i n g n a t i o n s . A c t i n g u p o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e j o i n t d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s o f J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 4 2 , i n t h e f o u r power D e c - l a r a t i o n s i g n e d i n Moscow on O c t o b e r 3 0 , 1 9 4 3 , and i n t h e C h a r t e r o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . Have d e c i d e d t o c o n c l u d e t h e p r e s e n t T r e a t y t o t h i s e f f e c t a n d a p p o i n t e d a s t h e i r p l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s : T h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a ; H i s E x c e l l e n c y D r . Wang S h i h - c h i e h , M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , T h e P r e s i d i u m o f t h e Supreme S o v i e t o f t h e U . S . S . R . ; H i s E x c e l l e n c y M r . V . M. M o l o t o v , t h e P e o p l e ' s C o m m i s s a r o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s o f t h e U . S . S . R . , Who, a f t e r e x c h a n g i n g t h e i r F u l l P o w e r s , f o u n d i n g o o d a n d due f o r m , h a v e a g r e e d a s f o l l o w s : A R T I C L E I T h e H i g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s u n d e r t a k e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o wage war a g a i n s t J a p a n u n t i l f i n a l v i c - t o r y i s w o n . T h e H i g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s u n d e r t a k e m u t u a l l y t o r e n d e r t o one a n o t h e r a l l n e c e s s a r y m i l i t a r y a n d o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e a n d s u p p o r t i n t h i s w a r . 155 ARTICLE II The High Contracting Parties undertake not to enter i n t o se- parate negotiations with Japan and not to conclude, without mutual consent, any armistice or peace treaty either with the present Japanese Government or with any other government or au- t h o r i t y set up i n Japan which do not renounce a l l aggressive intentions. ARTICLE III The High Contracting Parties undertake a f t e r the termination of the war against Japan to take j o i n t l y a l l measures i n t h e i r power to render impossible a r e p e t i t i o n of aggression and v i o - l a t i o n of the peace by Japan. In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties becoming involved i n h o s t i l i t i e s with Japan i n consequence of an attack by the l a t t e r against the said Contracting Party, the other High Contracting Party s h a l l at once give to the Contracting Party so involved i n h o s t i l i t i e s a l l the m i l i t a r y and other support and assistance with the means i n i t s power. This a r t i c l e s h a l l remain i n force u n t i l such time as the organization "The United Nations" may on request of the two High Contracting Parties be charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for pre- venting further aggression by Japan. ARTICLE IV Each High Contracting Party undertakes not to conclude any a l - liance and not to take any part i n any c o a l i t i o n directed against the other High Contracting Party. ARTICLE V The High Contracting Parties, having regard to the i n t e r e s t s of the security and economic development of each of them, agree to work together i n close and f r i e n d l y collaboration a f t e r the coming of peace and to act according to the p r i n c i p l e s of mutual respect for t h e i r sovereignty and t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y and of non-interference i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the other contracting party. ARTICLE VI The High Contracting Parties agree to render each other every possible economic assistance i n the post-war period with a view to f a c i l i t a t i n g and accelerating reconstruction i n both countries and to contributing to the cause of world prosperity. 156 ARTICLE VII Nothing i n t h i s treaty s h a l l be so construed as may a f f e c t the r i g h t s or obligations of the High Contracting Parties as members of the organization "The United Nations". ARTICLE VIII The present Treaty s h a l l be r a t i f i e d i n the shortest possible time. The exchange of the instruments of r a t i f i c a t i o n s h a l l take place as soon as possible i n Chungking. The Treaty comes int o force immediately upon i t s r a t i f i c a t i o n and s h a l l remain i n force for a term of t h i r t y years. I f neither of the High Contracting Parties has given notice, a year before the expiration of the term, of i t s desire to t e r - minate the Treaty, i t s h a l l remain v a l i d for an unlimited time, each of the High Contracting Parties being able to terminate i t s operation by giving notice to that e f f e c t one year i n advance. In f a i t h whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and a f f i x e d t h e i r seals to i t . Done i n Moscow, the Fourteenth August, 1945, corresponding to the Fourteenth day of the Eighth month of the Thirty-fourth year of the Chinese Republic, i n two copies, each one i n the Russian and Chinese languages, both texts being equally a u t h o r i t a t i v e . THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE PRESI- THE SUPREME SOVIET DENT OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE U.S.S.R. OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA. 157 THE PEOPLED COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS (MOLOTOV) TO THE CHINESE MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS (WANG) AUGUST 14, 1945 YOUR EXCELLENCY, With reference to the Treaty of Friendship and A l l i a n c e signed today between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R., I have the honor to put on record the understanding between the High Contracting Parties as follows: 1. In accordance with the s p i r i t of the aforementioned Treaty, and i n order to put i n t o e f f e c t i t s aims and purposes, the Government of the U.S.S.R. agrees to render to China moral support and a i d i n m i l i t a r y supplies and other material r e - sources, such support and aid to be e n t i r e l y given to the Na- t i o n a l Government as the central government of China. 2. In the course of conversations regarding Dairen and Port Arthur and regarding the j o i n t operation of the Chinese Changchun Railway, the Government of the U.S.S.R. regarded the Three Eas- tern Provinces as part of China and reaffirmed i t s respect for China 1s f u l l sovereignty over the Three Eastern Provinces and recognize t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l and administrative i n t e g r i t y . 3. As for the recent developments i n Sinkiang the Soviet Government confirms that, as stated i n A r t i c l e V of the Treaty of Friendship and A l l i a n c e , i t has no intention of i n t e r f e r i n g i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of China. I f Your Excellency w i l l be so good as to confirm that the understanding i s correct as set forth i n the preceding para- graphs, the present note and Your Excellency's reply thereto w i l l constitute a part of the aforementioned Treaty of Friendship and A l l i a n c e . I take (etc3 V. M. MOLOTOV 158 THE CHINESE MINISTER FOR FOREIGN A F F A I R S (WANG) TO THE P E O P L E ' S COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN A F F A I R S (MOLOTOV) AUGUST 1 4 , 1945 YOUR E X C E L L E N C Y : I h a v e t h e h o n o u r t o a c k n o w l e d g e r e c e i p t o f Y o u r E x c e l l e n c y ' s N o t e o f t o d a y * s d a t e r e a d i n g a s f o l l o w s : " W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e T r e a t y o f F r i e n d s h i p a n d A l l i a n c e s i g n e d t o d a y b e t w e e n t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a n d t h e U . S . S . R . , I h a v e t h e h o n o u r t o p u t o n r e c o r d t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n t h e H i g h C o n - t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s a s f o l l o w s : " 1 . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d T r e a t y , and i n o r d e r t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t i t s a i m s a n d p u r p o s e s , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U . S . S . R . , a g r e e s t o r e n d e r t o C h i n a m o r a l s u p p o r t a n d a i d i n m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l r e - s o u r c e s , s u c h s u p p o r t a n d a i d t o b e e n t i r e l y g i v e n t o t h e N a t i o n - a l G o v e r n m e n t a s t h e c e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a . " 2 . I n t h e c o u r s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g D a i r e n and P o r t A r t h u r and r e g a r d i n g t h e j o i n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e C h a n g c h u n R a i l w a y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U . S . S . R . r e g a r d e d t h e T h r e e E a s - t e r n P r o v i n c e s a s p a r t o f C h i n a and r e a f f i r m e d i t s r e s p e c t f o r C h i n a ' s f u l l s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e T h r e e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s a n d r e c o g n i z e t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e g r i t y . " 3 . A s f o r t h e r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n S i n k i a n g t h e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t c o n f i r m s t h a t , a s s t a t e d i n A r t i c l e V o f t h e T r e a t y o f F r i e n d s h i p a n d A l l i a n c e , i t h a s no i n t e n t i o n o f i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f C h i n a . " I f Y o u r E x c e l l e n c y w i l l b e s o g o o d a s t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c o r r e c t a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a - g r a p h s , t h e p r e s e n t n o t e a n d Y o u r E x c e l l e n c y ' s r e p l y t h e r e t o w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d T r e a t y o f F r i e n d s h i p and A l l i a n c e . " I h a v e t h e h o n o u r t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c o r r e c t a s s e t f o r t h a b o v e . I a v a i l [ e t c j j WANG S H I H - C H I E H 1 1 159 APPENDIX XII AMENDMENTS TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL PROPOSED BY THE U.S. [AMENDMENTS INDICATED IN ITALICS] CHAPTER VI. THE SECURITY COUNCIL Section A. Composition The Security Council should consist of one representative of each of eleven members of the Organization. Representatives of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet S o c i a l i s t Republics, the Republic of China, and, i n due course, France, should have permanent seats. The General Assembly should e l e c t s i x states to f i l l the non-permanent seats, due regard being s p e c i a l l y paid i n the f i r s t instance to the contribution of members of the Organi- zation towards the maintenance of in t e r n a t i o n a l peace and secur- i t y and towards the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . These s i x states should be elected for a term of two years, three r e t i r i n g each year. They should not be immediately e l i g i b l e for r e e l e c t i o n . In the f i r s t e l e c t i o n of the non-permanent members three should be chosen by the General Assembly for one-year terms and three for two-year terms. Section D. Procedure 2. The Security Council should be empowered to set up such bodies or agencies as i t may deem necessary for the performance of i t s function, irnelHdii^-»egi©nai-9HbeeHBRitfeees-of-'fehe-Milita»y Sfeaff-GeiHmitfeee. 3. Any member of the Organization not having a seat on the Security Council and any state not a member of the Organization, i f i t i s party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, should be i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the discussion r e- l a t i n g to the dispute. In the case of a non-member, the Security Council should lay down such conditions as i t may deem just for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of such a non-member.12 160 NOTES 1 China White Paper. I, 414-16, quoting Foreign Relations. 1899. p. 131. 2 China White Paper. I, 416-17, quoting Foreign Relations. 1900. p. 299. 3 China White Paper. I, 427-28, quoting Foreign Relations. 1908. pp. 510-11. 4 China White Paper. I, 413, quoting Hunter M i l l e r (ed.), Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America. IV, 559-60. 5 Foreign Relations. 1942. General. I, 25-26. 6 Foreign Relations, 1943. I, 755-56. 7 Foreign Relations. Cairo.... pp. 448-49 ( I t a l i c s mine.) 8 October 9, 1945, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, p. 614. 9 Foreign Relations. Malta.... pp. 896-97. Attachment 1, i s a copy of the o r i g i n a l draft as given to Harriman by Molotov, February 10, 1945, 2:00 p.m. at Yusupov Palace, Y a l t a . Attach- ment 2, the amendments made to the aforementioned draft by Harriman i n Molotov's presence and submitted to Roosevelt, who approved them the same day at 4:30 p.m. for resubmittal to Molotov. Note: Portions crossed out are deletions and portions underlined are additions to o r i g i n a l document. 1 0 I b i d . . p. 984. This i s the f i n a l draft containing the Harriman amendments of February 10, 1945. 11 China White Paper. I I , 585-88, quoting Department of State B u l l e t i n (February 10, 1946), pp. 201-04. 12 Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, pp. 682-83. Sub- mitted to the San Francisco Conference, May 4, 1945. (Crossed out sections are deletions.)

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