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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The listening eye 1972

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THE LISTENING EYE by VALERIE ANNE HENNELL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS; MASTER PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n the Department o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s ; as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1972 C o p y r i g h t s Cont'd. "Fake Up J e s u s " - C o p y r i g h t J a b u l a Music 1970 "On H e a r i n g of L o r i " - Copyright J a b u l a Music 1971 "The Muse" - Copyright J a b u l a Music 1971 Department of C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. March 22, 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pruposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o v i d e d that the f o l l o w i n g c o p y r i g h t s are se r v e d . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i s h i n g t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C o p y r i g h t s : Broadcast r i g h t s f o r the tape documentaries "The ^hale K i l l e r s " and "The Sunworshippers" are h e l d by C.B.C. Radio. Vorld e d u c a t i o n a l r i g h t s f o r the e d i t e d t r a n s c r i p t o f "The Whale K i l l e r s " as appears on PP. 2-13 are h e l d by Thomas Nelsons and Sons (Canada) L i m i t e d . A l l songs i n t h i s t h e s i s are r e g i s t e r e d w i t h BMI (Canada) L i m i t e d and are c o p y r i g h t e d through the L i b r a r y of Congress as f o l l o w s : "One Man S a l l y Ann" - Copyr i g h t J a b u l a Music 1972 "Look , Jhere Ve Are Now" - Copyright J a b u l a Music 1971 "My Lover I s . . . " - Co p y r i g h t J a b u l a Music 1971 "Highway to J u l y " - Copy r i g h t Jabula/Walgin Music 1972 "Horse and C a r r i a g e House" - Copyr i g h t J a b u l a Music 1972 "I Had An A r t i s t " - Copy r i g h t J a b u l a Music 1971 "Funny" - Copyright J a b u l a Music 1970 "Hey Dark B i r d " - Co p y r i g h t J a b u l a Music 1970 (Continued o v e r l e a f ) i i THE LISTENING EYE The dominant organ o f sensory and s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n pre-alnhabet s o c i e t i e s -was the e a r — " h e a r i n g was b e l i e v i n g . " The p h o n e t i c alphabet f o r c e d the magic world o f the ear to y i e l d to the n e u t r a l world o f the eye. Man was given an eye f o r an ear. M a r s h a l l McLuhan T h i s i s the s i g h t l e s s cinema. Here sound i s b o t h the medium and the message, the process and the product. Modem man i s p r i m a r i l y a v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d animal. His p e r c e p t i o n i s to a gr e a t extent governed by s i g h t — " s e e i n g i s b e l i e v i n g " — a n d he tends to t r a n s l a t e what he hears i n t o v i s u a l terms. But h e a r i n g i s i n i t s e l f a k i n d o f seeing: a w a t c h f u l ear becomes a l i s t e n i n g eye as sound y i e l d s a s s o c i a t i o n and words evoke images. Whales, on the o t h e r hand, p e r c e i v e the world i n a u d i t o r y terms. They t r a n s l a t e o b j e c t s i n t o sound by echo l o c a t i o n . The s i g h t l e s s cinema, then, might be c o n s i d e r e d the t h e a t r e of human echo l o c a t i o n — a documentation and e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e i n p u r e l y a u r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . T r o r d s — whether spoken, sung, o r r e a d from the p a g e — are the common denominator of man's a u r a l communication. i i i Alone, or combined with sound e f f e c t s or music, they are capable of evoking and communicating images which are h i g h l y v i s u a l . TCisenstein 1 s theory of f i l m i c montage a p p l i e s here as r e a d i l y as i t does to the cinema of s i g h t . T t i s the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f sounds, the c r e a t i n g of t e x t u r e w i t h i n the a c o u s t i c space, t h a t makes A + B equal more than the mere sum of the components. The documentaries and songs i n t h i s t h e s i s attempt to p o r t r a y fragments of l i f e a u r a l l y by combining words, sounds and music i n a way t h a t i s p a l a t a b l e to the l i s t e n i n g eye. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS DOCUMENTARIES: The Whale K i l l e r s Tape T l & T2 I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 1 T r a n s c r i p t (segments p u b l i s h e d i n Northern L i g h t s & F i r e f l i e s p. 2 - 13 The Sunworshippers Tape T3 I n t r o d u c t i o n p. Ik SONGS: One Man S a l l y Ann Tape Tk/1 L y r i c Sheet.. p. 16 Look Where We Are Now Tape Tk/2 L y r i c Sheet p. 17 My Lover I s . . . Tape T4/3 L y r i c Sheet p. 18 Highway to J u l y Tape Tk/h L y r i c Sheet p. 19 Horse and C a r r i a g e House Tape T4/5 L y r i c Sheet p. 20 T Had An A r t i s t Tape Tk/6 L y r i c Sheet p. 21 V Funny Tape T V 7 L y r i c Sheet • p. 22 On H e a r i n g of L o r i Tape Th/8 L y r i c Sheet p. 23 Hey Dark B i r d Tape Tk/9 L y r i c Sheet p. 2h Wake Up Jesus Tape Tk/10 L y r i c Sheet p. 25 Di s c Dl The Muse Tape Tk/11 L y r i c Sheet p. 26 v i ACKN 0 WLEDGEMENT I wish to thank B i l l T e r r y , Producer o f Public A f f a i r s , C.B.C. Radio, f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n and guidance i n the p r o d u c t i o n of "The "hale K i l l e r s " and "The Sun- worshippers" . A l l music i n t h i s t h e s i s except t h a t f o r "Highway to J u l y " was composed and sung by Ann M o r t i f e e . I am g r a t e f u l to Ann f o r b r i n g i n g both melody and performance to my l y r i c s . Music f o r "Highway to J u l y " was composed by Jim and Judy T ralchuk, and the song i s performed here by Judy and Nick Dowd. I wish to thank them and Davey F o s t e r f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n r e c o r d i n g t h i s song. My thanks to Robbie King f o r h i s s e n s i t i v e arrange- ment and piano accompaniment o f "Wake Up Jes u s " and to Howie V i c k e r s f o r h i s recorded perfornance o f t h i s song. 1 INTRODUCTION: THE WHALE KILLERS (Reference Tapes T l A. T2) "The Whale K i l l e r s " i s an hour l o n g documentary which I prepared f o r broadcast on the C.R.C. N a t i o n a l Radio Network. The c h a l l e n g e of s u s t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t i n a s i n g l e s u b j e c t f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x t y minutes d i c t a t e s c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c c o n s i d - e r a t i o n s . A wide v a r i e t y of sources must be tapped i n order to provide s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l to f i l l an hour without "pad- d i n g " . The d i s c u s s i o n must be e d i t e d i n such a manner t h a t i t never l a g s or becomes o v e r l y complicated. There -rust be enough change and t e x t u r e w i t h i n the t o t a l framework of the program to keep the l i s t e n e r a l e r t and i n t e r e s t e d . I t i s t h i s l a s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n which provided the most o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r e a t i v e tape w r i t i n g . Texture can be achieved i n a number of ways. A simple q u e s t i o n i n t e r j e c t e d i n t o a monologue can d i v e r t what might e a s i l y become a tedious d i s s e r t a t i o n . o f t e n i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to ask a q u e s t i o n which the l i s t e n e r h i m s e l f might be p o s i n g . Keeping i n t e r v i e w s on a v e r y i n f o r m a l l e v e l can provide a l o t of scope i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The b r a i d i n g o f v a r i o u s v o i c e s and manners of speech can c r e a t e an a u r a l patchwork which keeps the ears from dozing. A p p r o p r i a t e music can change the pace or augment a d e s c r i p t i v e passage or p r o v i d e a t r a n s i t i o n between speakers. And l i v e sound can c r e a t e a sense of a c t u a l i t y , can move i n and around the a c o u s t i c space almost s u b l i m i n a l l y and s t i l l have a profound e f f e c t . "The Whale K i l l e r s " i s framed around the v a r i o u s and a t times c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints o f the people who have been i n c l o s e contact with k i l l e r whales. The program i s as much about them as i t i s about the whales, f o r i n the course of the hour t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e v e a l themselves i n a number of wavs. To me the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n was that the whale a l s o have h i s say-- t h a t he too be allowed to emerge as a p e r s o n a l i t y and not merely as an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c . 2. THE i-'HALE KILLERS an e d i t e d t r a n s c r i p t p u b l i s h e d by Thomas Nelsons & Sons (Canada) L i n i t e d i n the c h i l d r e n ' s textbook Northern L i g h t s & F i r e f l i e s 1971 3 THE WHALE KILLERS from a r a d i o documentary by V a l e r i e H e n n e l l VALERIE: In 1964, a whaling e x p e d i t i o n i n B.C. c o a s t a l waters harpooned what was to become the world's f i r s t c a p t i v e k i l l e r whale. Dr. Pat McGeer was a member of t h a t e x p e d i t i o n . DR. McGEER: We d i d n ' t i n t e n d to take a k i l l e r whale a l i v e — that came as an a c c i d e n t . The o r i g i n a l e x p e d i t i o n was f i n a n c e d by an a r t and c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y to make a st a t u e of a k i l l e r whale. When we f i r s t took that k i l l e r whale, we d i d n ' t know what to feed i t , we d i d n ' t know whether i t was going to l e a p out o f the water and a t t a c k us. And of course, whenever you do something new you can't p r e d i c t what the out- come w i l l be. U n f o r t u n a t e l y that whale d i e d . We took the b r a i n out to study i t . When we saw i t s f a n t a s t i c s i z e we thought t h i s s h o u l d be a s p e c i e s t h a t c o u l d do a g r e a t deal i n aquariums. There we could do a l o t of s c i e n t i f i c e x p l o r a t i o n of i t s behaviour. VALERIE: Since then, more than t h i r t y k i l l e r whales have been d i s p l a y e d i n oceanariums. I t was q u i c k l y d i s c o v e r e d that t h e i r k i l l e r nature does not extend to i n c l u d e man. I n 1970, a p s y c h o l o g i s t , Don White, l i v e d f o r e i g h t months on a houseboat at Redder Bay, Vancouver I s l a n d , o b s e r v i n g two k i l l e r whales co n f i n e d i n an ocean pen. DON W^ITE: K i l l e r whales are never f e r o c i o u s animals as f a r as man i s concerned. T h e i r tameness when I'm i n the pool w i t h them or f e e d i n g them i s n ' t brought about by man. They're always t h i s way. One of the animals, a f t e r she f i r s t came here, d i d n ' t eat f o r two and a h a l f months. When she began e a t i n g she wouldn't touch the h e r r i n g I put i n her mouth u n t i l I took ny hand out of the water. Now t h i s i s n ' t the s i g n o f a v i c i o u s animal. VALERIE: Through the c e n t u r i e s k i l l e r whales have pl a y e d an important r o l e i n the myths of many c u l t u r e s . The Ind i a n s o f the west coast of North America give them a h i g h p l a c e on t h e i r totem poles and some t r i b e s i n c l u d e them among t h e i r gods . PON WHITE: The Indians on the west co a s t have a legend o f how the k i l l e r whale was f i r s t c r e a t e d . The s t o r y r e v o l v e s around a man who was married and had two b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w . He wanted to get r i d o f them, so he went out to an i s l a n d and began to carve an animal that would come a l i v e when he put i t i n the water. He carved these animals out of s e v e r a l k i n d s o f wood but n o t h i n g happened u n t i l he carved them out of y e l l o w cedar. Then they came a l i v e . He sent the animals out i n t o the ocean. They waited u n t i l the b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w were f i s h i n g and then k i l l e d then. They r e t u r n e d to the man, who now f e l t s o r r y f o r what he had done. He s a i d to the animals, "Go back i n the ocean but never k i l l another human b e i n g . From now on you s h a l l be known as Whale K i l l e r s . " Over the c e n t u r i e s the name has been turned around, so we now c a l l them k i l l e r \rtiales. VALERIE: Mark Perry i s t r a i n i n g whales a t Sealand o f the P a c i f i c , an oceanarium i n V i c t o r i a , B.C. While he's at work you w i l l hear c o n v e r s a t i o n s l i k e t h i s . (Recorded " c o n v e r s a t i o n " between Mark P e r r y and l i a i d a , a k i l l e r whale) MA.RK PERRY: O.K. Haida, l e t ' s do i t a g a i n . Come on, Haida, say something. (Haida begins to vocalize..) MARK PERRY: That's good, Haida, r e a l l y good.... Running 5 out o f breath? Hey, you running out of breath? Come onj_ Haida... VALERIE: How do you b u i l d up t r u s t between y o u r s e l f and a whale? MARK PERRY: V e i l , i t takes a l i t t l e w h i l e . N a t u r a l l y i t begins w i t h food. The whale re c o g n i z e s you as the source o f i t s f o o d. Whales are v e r y much l i k e l a r g e p l a y f u l dogs a t times. I t helps to t a l k to them. When I'm doing whale shows I'm c o n t i n u a l l y t a l k i n g to the whales. I guess a l o t of people t h i n k I'm cr a z y , but i t r e a l l y does h e l p . I f the whales are t r e a t e d with r e s p e c t the job i s not dangerous. VALERIE: Sealand i s owned and operated by Bob Wright. HOB WRIGHT: Noxv there have been o c c a s i o n s where k i l l e r whales i n c a p t i v i t y have turned on t h e i r t r a i n e r s . T h i s has happened when they r i d e the whales. I've spoken to two t r a i n e r s where the k i l l e r whales have c l o s e d on t h e i r l e g s and then have stopped. They c o u l d have crushed them l i k e peanuts. Now I t h i n k the k i l l e r whale was i n t e l l i g e n t enough to l e t the t r a i n e r know— "Look, I don't l i k e t h i s : back o f f I " We don't r i d e k i l l e r whales i n our oceanarium because we f e e l the d i g n i t y o f the animal sh o i i l d be pre s e r v e d . VALERIE: What c o n d i t i o n s do you need to p r o v i d e f o r a c a p t i v e whale? BOB WRIGHT: F i r s t , we p r o v i d e f o r i t s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h — food, v i t a m i n s , v e t e r i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n , t e s t i n g and so on. Secondly, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and animal needs to be one of c l o s e a f f e c t i o n . T h i r d l y , the k i n d of encl o s u r e they are kept i n i s v e r y important. I n our pool we e n c l o s e them o n l y w i t h n e t s . Whales depend on h e a r i n g i n much the same way as man 6 depends on s i g h t . They get a l o t of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r environment by sending out streams of e c h o - l o c a t i n g p u l s e s which bounce back o f f o b j e c t s i n the water. I n a concrete p->ol these sonar-type p u l s e s j u s t bounce back o f f the w a l l s , but here t h e i r pulses can go through the n e t s . They f e e l l e s s c o n f i n e d . They can hear the n o i s e s i n the harbour where other f i s h are coming i n , and motorboats aro p a s s i n g . They don't f p ^ l as i f they're i n an i s o l a t i o n ward or something l i k e t h a t . VALERIE: Can man's companv be of any compensation to a whale that i s c o n f i n e d alone i n a pool? DON WHITE: I think man's company can be of l i t t l e compensation, but I want to s t r e s s the word " l i m i t e d " . I've been l i v i n g with these whales out i n Pedder Bav f o r s i x months now, and to be honest with you, they're not much company f o r me. I'd hate to assume that I was any k i n d o f company f o r them. There are two po o l s here and the whales can go i n e i t h e r . At the be g i n n i n g I began swimming with them, but I d e c i d e d that to give them some p r i v a c y I would on l y swim i n one p o o l . So I chose the pool that they spend the l e a s t t i n e i n , which as i t turns out i s the po o l which my houseboat i s t i e d next t o . At the beginning, the b u l l used to come over and jump i n the same p o o l . He was c u r i o u s . As I was swimming a l o n g a t the bottom of the p o o l , he'd come up and have a good look, then swim by and have another l o o k . O c c a s i o n a l l y I'd f o l l o w him around, which he d i d n ' t seem to mind. But t h i s has changed. Now i f I go i n swimming the whales never co-ne over. They l e a v e the po o l immediately and go i n t o the o t h e r one, and I t h i n k t h i s p o i n t s out the l i m i t e d i n t e r - a c t i o n which man and these animals can have. VALERIE: How do the whales get a l o n g v i t h each o t h e r i n c a p t i v i t y when they're p l a c e d i n a s i n g l e pool? DCB WRIGHT: The three we have here at Sealand remind me o f 7 three k i t t e n s . They're c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y i n g , c h a s i n g each other, r o l l i n g , jumping, t a l k i n g . One j u s t stood on i t s head with i t s t a i l out o f the water and the other one b u t t e d i t over. I t ' s u n b e l i e v a b l e . VALEPIE: What do you t h i n k would happen i f you l e t Haida go? BOB WRIGHT: Well I t h i n k with these two other whales i n h e r e — i f he c o u l d c l i m b — he would climb r i g h t back over the fence and come back i n . I t ' s strange to say t h i s but the k i l l e r whale i s a c t u a l l y a ham. Now j u s t about three days back we had a group of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n . There was no performance on, and our b u l l k i l l e r ivhale, Haida, p l a y e d with these c h i l d - r e n f o r three q u a r t e r s of an hour. The more they screamed and y e l l e d and clapped, the more response Haida gave to them. He would hide and come out l i k e a t h u n d e r b o l t , jump and s p l a s h them. They enjoyed i t , and I h o n e s t l y f e e l Haida enjoyed i t as much as the c h i l d r e n . DON WHITE: I t took two and a h a l f months f o r the whales a t Tedder Bay to b e g i n to eat. A couple o f days b e f o r e they began we i n j e c t e d them wi t h c o r t i s o n e and v i t a m i n B-12 to make them hungry. And a day l a t e r we got so le f r e s h salmon. I n the e a r l y evening I went out on the logs and took one o f the salmon and h e l d i t over the water a t the s i d e of the p o o l . The b u l l , which had become f r i e n d l y i n that t i m e — I c o u l d pet h i m — came over to me. He took the salmon out o f my hand and gave i t to the cow i n the c e n t r e of the p o o l , who had no t r u s t f o r man. She took i t and she h e l d i t by the t a i l . She had i t hanging out o f the s i d e of her mouth, and she s t a r t e d swimming around the p o o l . And the b u l l cane up b e s i d e her and he got h o l d of the head of the sa l ; ion. the o t h e r end, and they made a c i r c u i t o f thp p o o l . Then they t i r e the salmon apart, and each ate h a l f . Then he came back and got another salmon. He took i t 8 bad" and gave i t to her. She took i t . Then he came back and got another salmon f o r h i m s e l f . I t h i n k t h i s shows a v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f s o c i a l i n t e r - a c t i o n amon^ k i l l e r whales. And i t made me r a t h e r ashamed, because I don't know whether a f t e r s t a r v i n g f o r a l o n g time I could give the f i r s t morsel of food I had to someone who was s t a r v i n g a l o n g xvith me. VALERTE: The whales make a v a r i e t y of n o i s e s . I s there any way of t e l l i n g what these sounds mean? Are they t r y i n g to communicate wi t h us? BOB WRIGHT: Well, r e a l l y I t h i n k they're communicating wi t h each other. They have c e r t a i n sounds that, I t h i n k , show t h e i r happiness, and c e r t a i n sounds that show t h e i r f r u s t r a - t i o n . Our whale Haida never omits! He's j u s t v o c a l i z i n g a l l the time: f r u s t r a t i o n , happiness, o c c a s i o n a l l y anger. We walk away from the pool and he gets upset w i t h us. He wants to p l a y some more, and he sure l e t s us know, v o c a l l y . VALERIE: Dr. Paul Spong i s an a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. L a s t summer he spent s e v e r a l months o b s e r v i n g a l a r g e pod of k i l l e r whales, not c a p t i v e , but i n the w i l d at the n o r t h e a s t e r n end of Vancouver I s l a n d . PAUL SP^NG: 'Jhales and d o l n h i n s emit two k i n d s o f sounds. The f i r s t i s the e c h o - l o c a t i n g sound, a s e r i e s o f sonar-type pulses which are beamed a t o b j e c t s i n the environment. T h i s seems to gi v e them three-dimensional knowledge of t h e i r e n v i r - onment . The second k i n d are communication sounds: w h i s t l e s , beers, buzzes. Whales exchange a wide v a r i e t y o f these v o c a l - i z a t i o n s under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. VALERTE: Do k i l l e r whales make the same sound i n c a p t i v i t y that they make i n the wild? 9 T'ATTT. S"ONG: You hear them make a l o t o f the same sounds i n c a p t i v i t y as you hear i n the w i l d . You hear a l o t i n the w i l d t hat they don't make i n c a p t i v i t y . An i s o l a t e d animal i s not going to make the same k i n d of communication sounds as an animal l i v i n g with other animals. And perhaps animals which cone f r o - d i f f e r e n t poptilations a ren't going to have e x a c t l y the same k i n d of language e i t h e r . VALERIE? How do whales care f o r t h e i r young? VAUL S 'ONG: We made some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s about c h i l d - c a r i n g behaviour t h i s summer. We were o b s e r v i n g a pod of about f i f t y whales, o f whom about t h i r t v were young whales. The care o f the i n f a n t s was a p p a r e n t l y organized on a communal b a s i s . We would see one a d u l t — the l a r g e s t n a l e - - swimming wi t h np to a dozen young whales (one-two-three years o l d ) , w i t h or without h i s mate. There d i d n ' t seem to be any p a r e n t - c h i l d k i n d of t h i n g happening. On one o c c a s i o n we saw two a d u l t whales swim by us and stop about a m i l e away f o r about f i f t e e n minutes. Then seven young whales came by and j o i n e d them and then they a l l swam o f f together. I t would seem that the a d u l t s were w a i t i n g f o r the young ones to come al o n g . iftien they're f e e d i n g , the a d u l t s w i l l a l l o w the young a c e r t a i n amount of freedom to go o f f and feed on t h e i r own. But i f you're l i s t e n i n g to them on a hydrophone, you can hear them c a l l i n g back and f o r t h , and the a d u l t s may go a mile or two miles away but t h e y s t i l l m a intain v o c a l c o n t a c t with the young. VALERIE: In your time as a whale t r a i n e r , Mark, have you seen evidence t h a t the whales are t e s t i n g you as you are t e s t i n g and working w i t h them? MARK TERRY: Oh yes, c o n t i n u a l l y . Every show i s k i n d of a t e s t i n g s e s s i o n f o r the t r a i n e r . They're always t r y i n g to see 10 how f a r they can push the t r a i n e r and j u s t what they can get away wi t h . Sometimes a whale w i l l perform b e t t e r f o r one t r a i n e r than i t w i l l f o r another. That i s to say they r e c o g - n i z e each d i f f e r e n t t r a i n e r and they have us down pat. They know how f a r we w i l l push them and what we w i l l and won't make them do. You have to e s t a b l i s h a set l i n e o f what you w i 1 1 accept, and i f the whale performs under that l i n e , you make him do the t r i c k a g a i n . Or r i g h t away he w i l l take advantage of i t and p r e t t y soon y o u ' l l have a v e r y sloppy whale. PATT, STONG: We were running some t e s t s on h e a r i n g with one of our whales. We presented a sound and i f the whale c o u l d hear i t he made a c e r t a i n sound i n r e p l y . I f he couldn't hear i t he d i d n ' t v o c a l i z e . And we were going up and do\m i n the frequency o f the sounds we produced. Well, one p a r t i c u l a r day I was l i s t e n i n g to the whale through earphones and watching him at the same time. I s t a r t e d up the s c a l e with my v o i c e , and he repeated each sound a f t e r me. But when I got to the h i g h e s t note I could make, he kept on going up the s c a l e , making sounds I c o u l d hear but couldn't i m i t a t e . Whales emit s i g n a l s up to arotind 100,000 c y c l e s per second. Humans can o n l y hear sounds Lip to 18,000 c y c l e s , and our speech u s u a l l v i n v o l v e s much lower f r e q u e n c i e s than t h a t . I continued to make thp h i g h e s t sound I*m capable o f making, and whale kept going higher, u n t i l f i n a l l y I couldn't hear him, although I knew he was s t i l l v o c a l i z i n g because h i s blowhole was q u i v e r i n g . A f t e r a while he came back down i n t o f r e q u e n c i e s which I co u l d hear and then the sound would d i s a p p e a r upwards a g a i n . T h i s "experiment" went on f o r about f o u r hours, and i t seemed to me that the whale was t e s t i n g my h e a r i n g system i n the same way I was t r y i n g to t e s t him. VALERTE: Or. Spong, i t ' s thought that i n c a p t i v i t v whales s u f f e r from a l a c k of sound s t i m u l a t i o n . I understand you d i d 11 some experiments at the Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium i n which you pla y e d music to the whales. PAUL SPONG: On the f i r s t o c c a s i o n we played a Beethoven v i o l i n c o n c e r t o — a s c r a t c h y o l d r e c o r d i n g through a v e r y crude speaker which was made from a o n e - g a l l o n p a i n t can w i t h an e i g h t d o l l a r speaker mounted i n the bottom of i t underwater. About twentv seconds a f t e r we began p l a y i n g the r e c o r d , the whale kind of s l i d back out of i t s corner, arched i t s body so i t s head was out of the water, and i t went down and i t s t a i l cane out of the water at the other end. Then i t proceeds to s q u i r t water i n and out of i t s mouth, c l o s e l y i n t i n e to the music. I t was s l a p p i n g i t s p e c t o r a l f i n s on the water or q u i v e r i n g them i n the a i r i n time to the music. I t s d o r s a l f i n was k i n d of shaking, and i t s f l u k e s were waving backwards and forwards v e r y g r a c e f u l l y i n the a i r . I t was the most s p e c t a c u l a r performance of a l l . The whole body was moving r h y t h m i c a l l y . I t seemed to be an e x q u i s i t e k i n d of dance. VALERTE: Some of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n s t o r i e s and legends about whales i s now b e i n g supported by s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n » DON WHITE: There's a s t o r y that comes to us from the Eskimos, who b e l i e v e d that i f a man shoots t r y i n g to k i l l a k i l l e r whale, not only w i l l the whale remember him and h i s boat, but he w i l l d e s t r o y him at a l a t e r p o i n t i n time, and a l s o anyone e l s e who was with him... p o i n t i n g out t h a t whales have w e l l - developed eyesi g h t and remarkable memory. A few months ago I completed a study which measured how w e l l k i l l e r whales can see. I found that they can see under- water s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than a cat can see on l a n d . T h i s i n f o r - mation was a l r e a d y contained i n the Eskimo legend. PAPL SpONG: One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s I've heard 12 r e l a t e s to the q u e s t i o n o f whales s t r a n d i n g themselves. I t was t o l d to me by C h i e f Jimmy Sewid i n A l e r t Bay, B r i t i s h Columbia. ilhen he was a boy, about f i f t y years ago, he l i v e d on V i l l a g e I s l a n d , and there was a beach nearby. One day there was a b i g commotion on the beach. He went down and a l l the people of the v i l l a g e were s t a n d i n g there. I n f r o n t o f them about f i f t y k i l l e r whales were i n the process o f s t r a n d i n g themselves i n the shallow water. No one q u i t e knew what to do about t h i s . So somebody went up and got h o l d o f the o l d e s t man i n the v i l l a g e . He was an o l d , o l d man, over a hundred years o l d , and a great f r i e n d o f the k i l l e r whales. TTe came down to the beach and stood i n f r o n t of them, l i f t i n g h i s hands i n the a i r , and s a y i n g : "My f r i e n d s , yon are making a great mistake. I f you s t a y here, the t i d e w i l l go out and you w i l l dry up and d i e . Please, b e f o r e i t ' s too l a t e , go back out to sea!" 1 Jhereupon a l l the whales backed out i n t o the water and went o f f . The Tndians use s t o r i e s of t h i s k i n d to support t h e i r c l a i m that when they speak k i l l e r whales are ab l e to under- stand what they say. VALERIE: R e c e n t l y there has been concern about the p o s s i b l e e x t i n c t i o n of whales. In September, 1970, the Canadian Department of F i s h e r i e s passed laws under which k i l l e r whales i n Canadian waters may no lon g e r be k i l l e d , captured, o r otherwise molested. An aquarium w i s h i n g to capture one must apply f o r a permit and keep to a s t r i c t s et of standards en- s u r i n g the s a f e t y and w e l l - b e i n g of the animal. DON M-TITE: No one asks why we cat c h animals i n the f i r s t p l a c e . I thi n k i t i s important f o r us to ask why are we doing t h i s to our animals? VAI ERIE: Do you o b j e c t to whales b e i n g h e l d i n c a p t i v i t y ? 13 DON WITTTE: Yes, I do. I n the time that I've spent here a t Redder Bay I've become v e r y aware that "animal" does not mean "sub-human". And from that p o i n t o f view i t becomes c r i m i n a l to deny k i l l e r whales r i g h t s which we o u r s e l v e s demand. I t becomes c r i m i n a l to put them i n any s i t u a t i o n not o f t h e i r own c h o i c e . VAT,ERIE: Do you think i t ' s p o s s i b l e to have whales i n c a u t i - v i t y — f o r men to watch and study them— by t h e i r own choice? DON WHITE: Of course I t h i n k i t ' s p o s s i b l e . A l l you have to do i s begin spending time d i s c o v e r i n g what you can o f f e r the animals, i n s t e a d of t r y i n g to c o n t r o l them. Can you imagine what would happen to aquariums and oceanariums i f a man decided that he was going to b u i l d one down on the sea and i n s t e a d of t r y i n g to h o l d whales there with net or concrete he would a t t r a c t them and keep t h e i r i n t e r e s t with t h i n g s they enjoy, so they'd want to stay t h e r e i I t h i n k that u n t i l man i s w i l l i n g to t h i n k more about the happiness o f animals, and l e s s about how to make money from thom we w i l l never have an honest r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t H other s p e c i e s . Ik INTRO DUCTTON: THE SUNWORSITCPPERS "The Sunworshippers" i s a t a p e s t r y . I t i s the most experimental documentary I have attempted to date. A theme as a b s t r a c t as t h i s allows f o r innumerable p o s s i b i l i t i e s of approach. I chose to use r a p i d a u r a l montage as the b a s i c v e h i c l e of the program. I t r e q u i r e d an e n t i r e summer to c o l l e c t enough v o i c e s to o r c h e s t r a t e "The Sum^orshippers". To weave the v i s u a l p a t t e r n T was s t r i v i n g f o r I needed a l a r g e spectrum of sound. The t e x t u r e of the show hinges on the v a r i e t y of tones and c o l o u r i n g s I was able to compile. But f o r one major exception, the content of the program i s e n t i r e l y thematic and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d e a s i l y be manipulated to achieve maximum a u r a l mood without s a c r i f i c i n g l o g i c or coherence. For the most p a r t I t r i e d to use music f o r pace and mood r a t h e r than f o r i t s l y r i c a l content, although o b v i o u s l y the most a p p r o p r i a t e music had l y r i c s r e l a t i n g to sunshine. But i n the case of the background music f o r the two poems I used, I was more concerned with c r e a t i n g an a c o u s t i c snace a p p r o p r i a t e to the f e e l i n g of the p o e t i c image than i n attempting to f o r c e the music to add a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t . The q u e s t i o n a r o s e — " j u s t how much quick b l i t z bombard- ment can an audience take b e f o r e the technique becomes pre- d i c t a b l e and tiresome?" The o n l y other experimental document- ary I had attemnted i n t h i s v e i n had f a l l e n s h o r t of i t s aim because of an o v e r l o a d of technique. The l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n seemed to be to give over a p o r t i o n of the program to more co n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e . T h i s i s the major e x c e p t i o n mentioned a b o v e — an e i g h t minute d i s c u s s i o n with a d e r m a t o l o g i s t on the e f f e c t sun has on s k i n . I t i s sheer good f o r t u n e t h a t the d o c t o r has a p e r s o n a l i t y which f i t s i n so w e l l w i t h the general tone of the program. Fragments of h i s i n t e r v i e w i n t e r s n e r s e d anions other v o i c e s i n the thematic c o l l a g e s go completely u n n o t i c e d . Thus he i s the f o r c e which combines the two ex- tremely d i f f e r e n t techniques used i n "The Sunworshippers". 15 LYRICS Eleven Songs ( r e f e r e n c e Tape T4) 16 One Man S a l l y Ann She walks i n t o yoxir l i f e and your eyes are f u l l o f n o t h i n g but her eyes are f u l l of l i v i n g so you l e t her take your hand. And 3'ou say you only f o l l o w as you've nowhere e l s e to go and you c a l l h e r an o a s i s i n a dark and barren l a n d . And you've heard her name spoken by other men and wondered whv she's drawn to those so broken they can h a r d l y stand... V e i l she's the l o c a l l o s t and found she's got more s t r a y dogs than the pound she i s a one man S a l l y Ann. She takes your ragged dreams and she sends then to the laundry she mends the jagged seams she sews new buttons on. And though she may look l e a n s t i l l s h e ' l l see you don't go hungry s h e ' l l see you on your f e e t and then s h e ' l l s m i l e and move a l o n g . And you l o v e her f o r your l i f e , and you t h i n k of her a t n i g h t though you know she's somewhere wi t h another man... cause she's the l o c a l l o s t and found she's got more s t r a y dogs than the pound she i s a one nan S a l l y Ann. And somewhere i n your basement she unearths an a n c i e n t s h r i n e i t o nly needs a l i t t l e d u s t i n g , you only need a l i t t l e time and she feeds you l o v e and v i t a m i n s and sacramental wine to t o a s t your r i s i n g s i g n - she always f i n d s the time... she i s a one man S a l l y Ann. They t a l k about her l o v e r s and there's some who shake t h e i r f i n g e r s a t the ever l a r g e r numbers of men she's taken i n . And there's so me who c a l l her e v i l while they l o c i : t h e i r doors to s t r a n g e r s and suspect t h e i r next door neighbours or t r y i n g to break i n . . . But you l o v e her f o r your l i f e and you t h i n k of her a t n i g h t though you know she's somewhere with another man... catise she's the l o c a l l o s t and found she's got more s t r a y dogs than the p Mind she i s a one man S a l l y Ann. 17 Look '/here v e Are Now Mien yon came with the r a i n and the le a v e s a l l f a l l i n g down around your shoes- I was j u s t p a s s i n g through seems so were you look where we are now and a l l the towns that passed us by while we h i d beneath the t r e e s and waited f o r the s t r e e t s to dry- they are behind us now and t h i s one l i t t l e room i s much c l o s e r to heaven than the c a s t l e s we had b u i l t i n our minds- so l e t ' s s t ay here t i l l the day we're on the road- on the road a g a i n . T rhen you came with the n i g h t and the r i g h t k i n d o f f e e l i n g f o r a woman who's been too l o n g alone- I had some l o v i n g to do seems so d i d you look where we are now and a l l the times we turned our heads to other l o v e r s ' l a u g h t e r as they went towards t h e i r beds- they are behind us now and th-'s one gentle n i g h t makes the ones that stumble coming j u s t t h at much e a s i e r to bear- so l e t ' s s t a y here t i l l the day we're on the road- on the road a g a i n . And no don't make those promises you know y o u ' l l never keep- I'm a rambler too. No need to say f o r e v e r when you know there's s t i l l a thousand m i l e s of walking i n your shoes... •/hen you go with the moon and your knapsack a l l packed up and s i t t i n g on your s h o u l d e r - t h a t '11 be another day u n t i l t h a t day look where we are now i n t h i s one l i t t l e room that's the end o f a journey t h a t we both know has only begun- so l e t ' s s t a y here t i l l the day we're on the road- on the road a g a i n - again on the road- again. 18 My Lover I s . . . My l o v e r i s a rambler he doesn't need bed and board he l i v e s on the seventh s t o r e y o f the aurora b o r e a l i s i n an ebony palace w i t h i c e on the f l o o r . My l o v e r i s a seeker a maker of rhymes an a c r e o f r i d d l e s a f i d d l e r o f songs th a t h e l p pass the time. He walks alone but he walks my way from time to time with h i s abalone s m i l e and h i s mind a m i l l i o n m i l e s behind the sky. He never s t a y s too l o n g though you know sometimes I t h i n k he longs to s t a y . I t ' s g e t t i n g l a t e , he says and v a n i s h e s again- good- bye. My l o v e r i s a d r i f t e r on a s h i p made of c l a y he should have been a shepherd or a s u l t a n born i n a country warm and golden but he's c o l d and he's a f r a i d . My l o v e r i s a l o n e r he won't take my bed and board f o r he l i v e s on the seventh s t o r e y o f the aurora b o r e a l i s a l l alone i n an ebony p a l a c e with i c e on the f l o o r but I t r y to keep him warm I do my b e s t to keep him warm. 19 Highway to J u l y I'm pa c k i n g up my summer s u i t and I'm heading f o r the sun I'm k i s s i n g a l l my f r i e n d s good-bye wit h thanks to every one won't you put something f a m i l i a r on the s t e r e - e r e - o one more l i s t e n to today then I guess I'd b e t t e r go but my f r i e n d s I w i l l see you a g a i n and I ' l l s i n g you on the highway to J u l y and next time I ' l l do b e t t e r a t l e a s t you know I ' l l t r y and I ' l l s i n g you on the highway to J u l y . I'm p u t t i n g down my schedules and p i c k i n g up my keys now t h e r e ' l l o n l y be t h a t southbound wind to keep me company I ' l l have the n o r t h s t a r f o r a compass and sweet moonlight f o r a bed oh but don't go l o o k i n g sad now o r I might s t a y here i n s t e a d but my f r i e n d s I w i l l see you a g a i n and I'11 s i n g you on the highway to J u l y and next time I ' l l s t a y l o n g e r a t l e a s t you know I ' l l t r y and I ' l l s i n g you on the highway to J u l y . I f you should chance to see me on the highway to L.A. and you're heading n o r t h a l o n g the road t h a t wanders back t h i s way won't you stop around and see the f o l k s I had to leave behind j u s t t e l l them I am do i n g w e l l and k e e p i n g them i n mind oh my f r i e n d s I w i l l see you a g a i n (repeat 1st chorus) 20 Horse and C a r r i a g e House Late a t the Horse and C a r r i a g e House beneath the broken s k y l i n e we drank hot rum and c i d e r served on c u r t s i e s from a f r a u l e i n . The candle on our t a b l e l e n t a shadow to your f a c e a l r e a d y tan from C a l i f o r n i a you s a i d - i t ' s a f i n e p l a c e . So you're home again, my wayward f r i e n d , and d i d you f i n d the peace of mind you have been chasing? How i s the wife and f a m i l y - I guess i t ' s them you're home to see- and d i d you f i n a l l y agree on s e p a r a t i o n ? no no no... We s a t up on the balcony beneath the cedar beams the f o l k s below were d r i n k i n g beer and p l o t t i n g rowdy schemes. From time to time you found my hand and s m i l e d that s e c r e t s m i l e and l a t e r on I took you home and l o v e d you f o r a w h i l e . So you're home again, my wayward f r i e n d , t a l k i n g o f mistakes you would be mending. And you curse your e a r l y vows as much as c o u r t e s y allows but i t i s j u s t the here and now you are d e f e n d i n g l no no no... T found a matchbook from the Horse and C a r r i a g e House today i t was r i p p e d - i t was empty but I kept i t anyway. Oh I know i t ' s s e n t i m e n t a l s a v i n g faded souveniers but somehow i t makes me f e e l l i k e some smal l p a r t o f you's s t i l l here. Now you're gone again, my wayward f r i e n d , l e a v i n g a l l your promises unspoken. And y o u ' l l send your warm regards on p r e t t y p i c t u r e p o s t e r cards you're s a y i n g l i f e i s not so hard i f you are openI but are you open? no no no... 21 I Had An A r t i s t I had an a r t i s t he p a i n t e d a world avocado and wine, I c r o s s e d h i s canvas now the p i c t u r e s he p a i n t s are no l o n g e r mine. F i n d me the a r t i s t who can p a i n t me an evertime o f ambergris- he knows the c o l o u r o f the j o y l i g h t and dayshine they were a l l mine i n t h a t oncetime. F i n d me the a r t i s t who sketches down echo l i n e s o f sound out o f the grey. He caught the eagle f l i g h t o f y e s t e r n i g h t and s e t tomorrow down i n an eiderdown of a f t e r d a y * He took h i s t e x t u r e s from the sun- he gave me one- oh touch the p e t a l s of h i s f a c e : two c h i l d r e n c h r i s t e n e d i n the blossoms of a mountain and a man and woman r i s i n g through the rhythm o f t h a t p l a c e . Where i s the a r t i s t who b r a i d s a l l of the c o l o u r s o f sunset with c o l o u r s c o l o u r s o f the r a i n ? Where i s the a r t i s t who took my l i f e from c h a r c o a l and turned to water c o l o u r l a u g h t e r out o f pain? Where i s p e r s p e c t i v e ? a t a l l man growing s m a l l e r moving back from a p i c t u r e i wonder i f i ever ran my f i n g e r s through t h a t d i s t a n t w a t e r f a l l . . I had an a r t i s t where i s the a r t i s t ? t e l l him I'm watching f o r h i s etchings i n the matching i n the mating o f the e a r t h with the wind. T e l l him I see h i s hands i n the s w e l l i n g of the ocean i n the blooming of the o r c h a r d say that my sometimes s t i l l c a r r y i n a n u t s h e l l a v e r y l i f e - s i z e d p o r t r a i t of him. Funny Funny how you sometimes get to f e e l i n g lonesome- now and then funny how you sometimes get to needing someone to h e l p you smile a g a i n Funny how the fun gets l e f t behind sometimes funny how the emptiness s l i p s i n and funny how a man you thought you'd shut out o f your mind creeps i n - every now and then. Funny how you sometimes get to f e e l i n g wasted- f o r a time funny how you sometimes get to t h i n k i n g t h a t maybe a l l , a l l the good days have d i e d Funny how i t i s n ' t q u i t e so funny anymore funny how i t h u r t s to l i v e t h i s way funny how the ramblin' l i f e don't leave you s a t i s f i e d i t would be n i c e to s t a y - every now and then. Funny how you sometimes get to l i v i n g f u r t h e r from your f a c e and funny how you have to keep a-movin', movin 1 i n t o some wider space Funny when you get there how i t s t i l l seems s m a l l funny how i t j u s t don't f e e l l i k e home funny how you f i n d you j u s t keep t r a v e l l i n g a f t e r a l l alone- every now and then. 23 On Hearing of L o r i ^ e n L o r i l i v e d with the woods i n her eyes i n a hut by the edge of the sea- she was an eagle- how she could f l y ! When L o r i spun the sun on her loom i n a forest room- L o r i was peaceful under the sky But L o r i died walking c i t y streets while the sky looked the other way. And the needle stare of a face worn bare i s a woman without a name... I think of c l i f f s on a mossy day- bodies In the sun. Her clean strong hands tending wilderlands. Whiskey cut with a mountain stream- she was toasting the open sky- that's where L o r i chose to f l y but not to die... And L o r i was a lady when the mountains could be seen. But the c i t y , i t closed a l l around her with i t s blankets of s i n . And I heard they tore her body down to b u i l d t h e i r thoroughfare. And when a woman f e l l i n her private h e l l there was no one there to care... Well- take your morgue to the ocean shore and open up the gate! Let a body scarred with disregard be buried i n state! For they've raped her of her ocean and bartered f o r i t s s a l t . They drained the sunshine from her face u n t i l her eyes grew dark... Walk me down by the r a i l r o a d tracks i f you can spare the time. I want to look the harlots i n the eye and t e l l them- L o r i . . . . was a frie n d of mine. 2k Hey Dark B i r d Hey dark b i r d , where are you f l y i n g ? eagle o f n i g h t , where do you go? i n a dark house a young g i r l i s c r y i n g - what does she know? a g a i n s t a mountain the darkness i s broken i n a dark house th e r e ' s l i t t l e to say l i t t l e i s l e f t once t h i s n i g h t has spoken- send us the day! Hey dark b i r d , I see you f a l l i n g l o s t to the e a r t h , l o s t to the sky eagle of n i g h t , i t ' s God who i s c a l l i n g - so you must d i e . i n t o the r a i n your f e a t h e r s are s c a t t e r e d i n a dark house your f e a t h e r s remain to a young g i r l i t ' s memories that matter- r e p e a t i n g your name: Fa t h e r , f a t h e r , am I forsaken? are your wings broken, am T alone? be t h i s a dream? i f so l e t me waken to f i n d you a t home. Fa t h e r , f a t h e r , where are you f l y i n g ? eagle o f n i g h t , where d i d you go? i n a dark house your daughter i s c r y i n g - she misses you so. 25 Wake Up Jesus Something's b r i n g i n g me c l o s e r back to Jesus and h i s k i n d sometimes I'm a l o n g l o n g time away Seems to be some s u l l e n spaces i n t h i s l i f e o f mine I f i n d myself j u s t s l e e p i n g , s l e e p i n g most o f the day Spent some time j u s t s i t t i n g i n a house where I have grown I can't q u i t e remember how the s t o r i e s go Seems t h i s w i n t e r ' s meant to be a time f o r b e i n g alone No matter how I t r y I j u s t can't, I j u s t can't seem to grow Won't you wake up, wake up, Jesus I've been s l e e p i n g i n your hands and i t seems l i k e I'm s l i p p i n g away... When I stop to l i s t e n I can hear myself enquire most times I j u s t put a r e c o r d on I know th a t i f I l e a v e i t l a t e enough the q u e s t i o n s w i l l get t i r e d and most times by tomorrow, by tomorrow they are gone But the days get weary when you never are q u i t e warm and i t ' s c o l d e r than I t h i n k i t ' s ever been Hey Jesus, I used to keep you i n a c o r n e r o f my mind but now I only open the door to l e t the r a i n i n Won't you wake up, wake up, Jesus You've been s l e e p i n g i n my mind and i t f e e l s l i k e you're s l i p p i n g away don't s l i p away now 26 The Muse There's a l i t t l e man who l i v e s r i g h t down, r i g h t down i n s i d e my g u i t a r - and every time I'm f e e l i n g b l u e he pops h i s head r i g h t up on through, and says- he g i r l , l e t ' s p l a y ! and he g i v e s me a tune and I l e a r n to p l a y i t soon and he g i v e s me a song and I l e a r n to s i n g a l o n g and we s i n g and we p l a y t i l l the end o f the day but never t h i n k i t ' s me because you see i t c ouldn't ever be without t h a t l i t t l e man and me. There's a l i t t l e man who l i v e s r i g h t down, r i g h t down i n s i d e my g u i t a r - and when my h e a r t i s weakening he does some chin-ups on the s t r i n g s , and says- hey g i r l , l e t ' s p l a y ! and i f I break a s t r i n g , w e l l i t ' s no b i g t h i n g 'cause i f I don't do w e l l , w e l l h e ' l l never t e l l 'cause t h a t l i t t l e guy's insane and he w i l l always take the blame so never t h i n k i t ' s me e v e n t u a l l y I'm sure t h a t you w i l l see i t ' s o n l y the l i t t l e man and me. He has a l i t t l e k e t t l e and he brews h i s cup o f t e a and when my v o i c e i s weary, w e l l he shares h i s t e a with me. He has a l i t t l e s o f a , he has a l i t t l e bed and he has a l i t t l e map o f the i n s i d e o f my head... There's a l i t t l e man who l i v e s r i g h t down, r i g h t down i n s i d e my g u i t a r - and every time I want to c r y he has h i s cue sheet s t a n d i n g by he snaps h i s f i n g e r s , counts the time and s t a r t s me on the opening l i n e , and says- hev g i r l , l e t ' s p l a y ! and I don't know what I'd do i f that l i t t l e guy got blue and I don't know where I'd be i f he wasn't here with me but he l o v e s h i s l i t t l e home I guess I ' l l never be alone i t ' l l always be that l i t t l e man and me.

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