UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Political morality in the Mezzogiorno Hancey, James Orlo 1972

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P O L I T I C A L IN  T-H E  M O R A L I T Y  M E Z Z 0 G I OR  N 0  by JAMES ORLO HANCEY B.A. , Oregon S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , B.A. , Oregon S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ,  ( P o l i . S c . ) , 1970 (History), 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  . •  i n the Department of POLITICAL  SCIENCE  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g an a d v a n c e d the  d e g r e e at  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  thesis  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  I further for  this  this  written  it  freely  that permission  purposes  for  gain  of  Political  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  DateSeptember  18,  1972  Science Columbia  the  requirements  Columbia, reference  copying of  1 agree and this  shall  that  not  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  financial  for  for extensive  may be g r a n t e d It  British  available  permission.  Department  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The p o l i t i c s o f the Mezzogiorno r e p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n g i n the p o l i t i c s o f modernization. of  'backwardness'  point  E x i s t i n g as e s s e n t i a l l y an e n c l a v e  w i t h i n a western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  o f the Mezzogiorno c o n t i n u e to c a r r y out p o l i t i c a l  country, the people functions within a  network o f arrangements which a r e g e n e r a l l y viewed as ' a p o l i t i c a l ' i n n a t u r e by many o b s e r v e r s .  Edward B a n f i e l d ' s a s s e r t i o n  ( i n h i s book,  The M o r a l B a s i s o f a Backward S o c i e t y ) t h a t the s o c i e t y i s 'amoral f a m i l i s t ' i n n a t u r e i s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y , and an attempt i s made to f o r m u l a t e a 'moral code' o f the M e z z o g i o r n o , p o r t r a y i n g  political  m o r a l i t y as seen through t h e eyes o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h a t c u l t u r e . nature of t h i s  The  'moral code' i s based upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f ' s t a t e l e s s -  n e s s ' i n t h e M e z z o g i o r n o , and the outcome i s t h a t the t e n e t s o f t h e m o r a l code a r e d e b i l i t a t i n g t o change i n t h e sense o f moving toward a w e s t e r n d e m o c r a t i c form o f government.  The r u l e s o f p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y i n t h e  Mezzogiorno d i c t a t e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l view t h e government w i t h d i s t r u s t and attempt t o f e n d f o r h i m s e l f .  I n c o n t r a s t t o B a n f i e l d who c l a i m s  t h a t " p o l i t i c a l i n c a p a c i t y " i s due t o "amoral f a m i l i s m " , I argue t h a t i t i s due to the code o f p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y a t work i n t h e M e z z o g i o r n o .  Ill  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  I  II  III  Page  Introduction  Poverty  . .  ..  .  ..  ...  ..  ..  Patron-Client Relationships  IV  The Church  ..  V  The Family  ..  •VI  Conclusion  Bibliography  ..  • •  ..  • ..'  ..  ..  ..  1  20  45  71  88  109  ..  ..  . .'  . .  • •' 117  iv  AUTHOR'S NOTE  Being i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g L u i g i B a r z i n i ' s most r e c e n t book, From Caesar t o the M a f i a , a t the time o f t h i s w r i t i n g ,  I have  come a c r o s s the f o l l o w i n g passage i n which B a r z i n i e v a l u a t e s Mangione's study o f S i c i l y , i n which Mangione has made numerous s p e l l i n g i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e I t a l i a n language: one stumbles  mistakes  "One i s l e d t o s u s p e c t (when  on one m i s s p e l l e d word a f t e r another) t h a t f a c t s a r e t r e a t e d  as g l i b l y , . . . " .  I n my own s t u d y , c a r e has been taken t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e  same e r r o r i s not committed.  To t h o s e who have s t u d i e d o n l y the I t a l i a n  o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , however, i t w i l l appear t h a t t h e r e do e x i s t numerous e r r o r s i n the s p e l l i n g o f I t a l i a n words.  The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t  many o f t h e responses p r e s e n t e d here were o r i g i n i n a l l y r e c o r d e d i n the manner i n which they were g i v e n ; i . e . , i n d i a l e c t .  The d i a l e c t s o f the  South d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e h i g h I t a l i a n used i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , t o t h e p o i n t t h a t they a r e o f t e n i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o those who have n o t s t u d i e d a p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t o r l i v e d i n t h e r e g i o n i n which i t i s spoken.  The f o l l o w i n g assurance i s t h e r e f o r e o f f e r e d :  to be s p e l l i n g e r r o r s i n t h e I t a l i a n language  what may appear  a r e , i n f a c t , due t o  d i a l e c t a l responses which were r e c o r d e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l  form.  The duty o f t h e people i s t o tend t o t h e i r own The duty o f governments i s t o h e l p them do i t . T h i s i s the p a s t a o f p o l i t i c s .  affairs.  The i n s p i r e d l e a d e r , the t r u e p r i n c e , no m a t t e r how g r e a t , can o n l y be sauce upon the p a s t a .  From The D i s c o u r s e s o f I t a l o Bombolini  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION The a r e a o f concern i n t h i s t h e s i s i s the c o - c a l l e d towns" o f the South of I t a l y —  the Mezzogiorno,  "agro-  and the p e o p l e  who  c a r r y on t h e i r economic and s o c i a l l i v e s w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t of these agro-towns.  The  agro-towns are g e n e r a l l y s m a l l , but may  p o p u l a t i o n s o f tens o f thousands, c o n t a d i n i , who living  the b u l k o f which are peasant  reach farmers,  walk t o t h e i r s c a t t e r e d f i e l d s each day t o eke out a  from the h a r s h environment.  The  towns a r e l o c a t e d e i t h e r i n the  lower p l a i n s o r on h i l l t o p s , and r e p r e s e n t a n u c l e a t e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t tern.  These two b a s i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s most p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t  the  c o n d i t i o n s which p r e v a i l e d at the time o f o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t .  The  most dominant o f these two  town,  forms i s t h a t o f the compact h i l l t o p  perched h i g h , presumably f o r s e c u r i t y , as m a n i f e s t at E b o l i .  The  other,  l e s s p r e v a l e n t form i s t h a t o f a neat q u a d r i l a t e r a l arrangement s e t out i n the lower p l a i n s , and r e f l e c t s times o f r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y and economic expansion. t h e now  Examples o f t h i s l a t t e r type can be seen i n A l i f e ,  r u i n e d Paestum.  or  More important than the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t  p a t t e r n i t s e l f i s the f a c t t h a t t h e s e towns seem t o p r e v a i l i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form.  The h i l l t o p town r e t a i n s much o f i t s m e d i e v a l  flavor,  much t o the d e l i g h t o f the t o u r i s t s , although somewhat p e r p l e x i n g t o would-be m o d e r n i z e r s .  A v a r i e t y of other explanations e x i s t  n u c l e a t e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f the Mezzogiorno  —  f o r the  s c a r c i t y of drinking  water, p r e v a l e n c e o f m a l a r i a , i n s e c u r i t y , and l a n d t e n u r e c o n d i t i o n s  —  2  some combination  of which was  settlement p a t t e r n .  undoubtedly i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the  The p e r s i s t e n c e of the agro-town appears t o be  coupled w i t h an added phenomenon — an urban way  of l i f e .  Given  p r e v a i l s , most farmers marches t o and p e r one way  t h a t of a c u l t u r a l  do not  l i v e on the l a n d , and hence the  daily  , 1 trip. h a l f of the Mezzogiorno's 20 m i l l i o n  l e s s than 10,000 i n h a b i t a n t s .  people  The  hilltop  the peasant farmer i s f o r c e d to use  production.  The  The  o f a goat  irrigation  of the f i e l d s  cultivation,  on the s l o p e s .  inefficient  crops are mostly wheat grown i n the  agricultural  and  agro-towns o f the Mezzo-  F u r t h e r , because of the r e l a t i v e l y " s m a l l s i z e  supplemented by c o r n , beans, and p o t a t o e s ;  and  c o n n e c t i o n between  and B a r i on the one hand,  g i o r n o are g e n e r a l l y surrounded by poor s o i l s and  typical  live  L i f e w i t h i n the agro-towns i s , by  the l a r g e r c i t i e s of Palermo, Naples, the s m a l l e r towns on the o t h e r .  people  l i v i n g i n towns of  l a r g e , viewed as b e i n g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , w i t h l i t t l e  two  for  take as much as 3 o r 4 hours  these s m a l l e r agro-towns, w i t h 7 m i l l i o n  raising  preference  the n u c l e a t e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n which  from the f i e l d s which may  Approximately in  original  and  i s rare. under units of fields,  o l i v e s and v i n e s p l a n t e d  e n t e r p r i s e i s supplemented by  o r p i g (which most o f t e n shares  the f a m i l y ' s  the one  or  room house) f o r the f a m i l y ' s consumption d u r i n g the w i n t e r months.  In some of the h i g h e r r e g i o n s p a s t o r a l i s m i s the dominant form o f  See Anton B l o k , "South I t a l i a n Agro-Towns" f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i n Comparative S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y , V o l . 11, No. 1 ( A p r i l 1969); a l s o Donald P i t k i n ' s ' M e d i t e r r a n e a n Europe" i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 36, 1963. 1  3  a c t i v i t y , b u t t h i s e n t e r p r i s e , t o o , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n e f f i c i e n t units of production,  the herds b e i n g  uneconomically small.  The out-^  come o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e i s g e n e r a l l y the same no matter how t h e peasant t r i e s t o supplement h i s income and p r o d u c t i o n : chronic insolvency. early spring — Generally,  Food from the p r e v i o u s  months b e f o r e  t h e f a m i l y supply  insolvency  l a s t s u n t i l the  the new crop w i l l be ready t o h a r v e s t . o f meat has been exhausted i n t h e w i n t e r  months, and t h e f a m i l y c o n t i n u e s The  harvest  t o l i v e on p a s t a , beans, and peppers.  o f the f a m i l y means t h a t the head o f t h e f a m i l y must go t o  the l o c a l shopkeepers t o seek c r e d i t , t o the l a n d l o r d t o ask f o r some o f provisions  ( t o be p a i d back w i t h t h e new h a r v e s t ) , o r t o a wealthy i n -  d i v i d u a l o r a bank t o seek a l o a n .  A l l o f t h i s i s degrading t o t h e  i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y , f o r i t i s an o v e r t t h a t he i s i n c a p a b l e family.  admission on h i s p a r t  o f f u l f i l l i n g h i s r o l e as s o l e breadwinner f o r h i s  I n a s o c i e t y where the concept o f m a s c o l i n i t a i s h i g h l y  respected, The  the admission o f economic i n c a p a c i t y i s no mean t h i n g . agro-towns f u r t h e r e x h i b i t a c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n which i s ,  at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , d e b i l i t a t i n g t o e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d a t the e l i m i n a t i o n o f p o v e r t y through the p r o d u c t i o n The  o f standard  p r e - i n d u s t r i a l urbanism c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an ethos o f humanism —  goods and s e r v i c e s .  o f t h e agro-towns a r e  a synthesis  o f c l a s s i c a l and 2  medieval c u l t u r a l patterns  forged  during  the Renaissance.  Donald  P i t k i n i d e n t i f i e s t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y which  P i t k i n , op. c i t .  4  he  f i n d s p r e v a l e n t i n the agro-towns o f the Mezzogiorno.  These  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y which seem to m a n i f e s t  them-  s e l v e s i n the agro-towns o f the Mezzogiorno a r e : 1)  the c i t y i s a c e n t r e f o r p o l i t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , m i l i t a r y , and n o n - i n d u s t r i a l economic f u n c t i o n s ; 2) the c i t y i s s p a t i a l l y compact, w i t h the c e n t r a l p l a c e dominated by r e l i g i o u s o r governmental structures; 3) the r i c h l i v e i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y , w h i l e the poor l i v e on the p e r i p h e r y ; 4) a r i g i d c l a s s s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s w i t h l i t t l e chance | for mobility; 5) d a i l y l i f e i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f familism; 6) t h e r e e x i s t s no s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f product o r p r i c e ; 7) manual l a b o r i s d e p r e c i a t e d ; 8) r e c r u i t m e n t i s c a r r i e d on through k i n and p e r s o n a l ties; 9) decision-making i s p e r s o n a l i s t i c and power systems assume c l i e n t e l e form; ;  10)  the i n t e l l e c t u a l t e n e t of the " l i t e r a t i "  i s humanism.  F u l l y seven out of the above t e n (numbers 4 through 10) of  p r e - i n d u s t r i a l urbanism can be d i r e c t l y  characteristics  r e l a t e d t o the p o v e r t y of  the  Mezzogiorno, e i t h e r as c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o , m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f , o r products  of t h i s  The  poverty.  l a r g e r c i t i e s o f the a r e a such as N a p l e s ,  B a r i , Palermo, o r  C a t a n i a , are viewed as something d i s t a n t and o f t e n h o s t i l e to t h e peasant of  the s m a l l e r agro-town.  in  fact.  who  The  The p e r c e p t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y without  l a r g e r c i t i e s are o f t e n the home of the absentee l a n d l o r d  " m i l k s " the peasant i n the form o f r e n t s which remain s t a b l e —  worse, r i s e  basis  r e g a r d l e s s o f the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the  or  harvest.  I b i d . , p. 126-127. See a l s o Gideon Sjoberg's "The P r e i n d u s t r i a l C i t y " i n The American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . LX, No. 5, March 1955.  5  The l a r g e r c i t i e s are a l s o the s e a t s f o r much o f the  administrative  b u r e a u c r a c y w i t h which the peasant must contend, and t o which he most often loses.  Contact w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d has g e n e r a l l y meant t r o u b l e  to the peasano —  i n the form o f c o n s c r i p t i o n , t a x e s , r e n t s , and  ridicule  and d e r i s i o n at the hands o f I t a l i a n s from more " c i v i l i z e d " p l a c e s . t a s k o f contending w i t h " o u t s i d e " f o r c e s i s e x a c e r b a t e d i n t h a t peasant w i t h h i s p a r o c h i a l d i a l e c t  may  not f u l l y  at h i s expense.  Although the peasant o f  comprehend the language o f those from Naples  or Rome, he does understand one t h i n g — p e r s o n a l g a i n , which  the  i s o f t e n unable t o understand the  language o f those w i t h whom he most contend. the Mezzogiorno  The  intrallazza, intrigue for  those i n power, p a r t i c u l a r l y the government, e x e r c i s e  The p e r c e p t i o n i s t h a t the government has never g i v e n  the s o u t h e r n e r h i s " f a i r s h a r e " , and o p e r a t e s p r i n c i p a l l y h o l d e r and h i s f r i e n d s .  The a t t i t u d e toward  f o r the o f f i c e -  the government i s b e s t  summed up i n the e p i t h e t used f o r a l l types o f c a l a m i t i e s and misery governo  ladro  ( t h i e v i n g government) —  p a r t i c u l a r problem,  the i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t  l i k e most o t h e r s , was  brought about by  —  this  the  government. The peasant's view o f the government, however, i s not e n t i r e l y i n accordance w i t h the f a c t s .  C u r r e n t l y the problem o f r e g i o n a l  disparity  between N o r t h and South has assumed the p o s i t i o n o f top p r i o r i t y i n the government's economic p l a n s . giorno  The  f o u n d i n g o f the Cassa p e r i l  (Fund f o r the South) i n 1950  r e p r e s e n t s an attempt  Mezzo-  t o do more  than pay l i p s e r v i c e to the problem o f r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t y between North and South.  S i n c e the founding o f the Cassa i n 1950,  i t s budget  has  6  s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d i n an attempt  t o develop the n e c e s s a r y  f o r economic development and t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y .  infrastructures  In the f i r s t  twenty  y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , income p e r head i n the South r o s e from $320 t o $800 per y e a r , and the number o f people employed on the l a n d has been cut i n h a l f . may  D e s p i t e these sanguine  s t a t i s t i c s though, the  have good reason f o r h i s pessimism  southerner  and f a t a l i s m , f o r the p o s i t i o n  o f the s o u t h e r n e r w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s n o r t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t has not i n 4 creased,  and d e s p i t e over $12 b i l l i o n poured  i n t o the South by  Cassa, the t o t a l number o f j o b s i n the South has a c t u a l l y What economic r e l i e f has  come i s more p r o b a b l y due  decreased.  to the e m i g r a t i o n  o f some 5 m i l l i o n people from the South o v e r the l a s t  twenty y e a r s ,  thereby l e s s e n i n g the demand on the r e s o u r c e s o f the area."* peasant  the  To  the  o f the agro-town, a l l o f the e f f o r t s of the government, both  through the mean much.  Cassa and investment by s t a t e h o l d i n g companies do not G e n e r a l l y investment  i s d i r e c t e d toward  those areas which  he c o n s i d e r s h o s t i l e , such as N a p l e s , o r Palermo; and he seldom f e e l s e f f e c t s o f any b e n e f i t s o f these grand governmental  machinations.  the  He  f e e l s t h a t he has always been, and always w i l l be, cheated by those i n power.  For y e a r s he has  felt  the s t i n g of r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n by  comparing h i m s e l f w i t h h i s n o r t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t , and h i s n o r t h e r n  For example, d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f 1951-53 income p e r c a p i t a i n the North was 122% o f the n a t i o n a l average w h i l e i n the South the income per c a p i t a was o n l y 63% o f the n a t i o n a l average. The f i g u r e s f o r the p e r i o d o f 1967-69 were e s s e n t i a l l y the same, b e i n g 120.8% and 63% respectively. Thus the s o u t h e r n e r has been c o n t i n u a l l y l i v i n g w i t h approximately h a l f the l e v e l o f income t h a t h i s n o r t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t enjoys (Source: OECD economic survey o f I t a l y , 1971).  of  ^ See The Economist, Italy.  15-21  A p r i l 1972,  f o r a r e c e n t economic survey  7  counterpart  has been a l l too q u i c k  t o remind him o f h i s degraded s t a t u s .  U n t i l t h e peasant o f the Mezzogiorno f e e l s t h a t he i s g e t t i n g " h i s s h a r e " from the government, he w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o regard  t h e government  as i n e f f e c t i v e , i l l e g i t i m a t e , and as a t h i e f , o p e r a t i n g of others  fair  f o r the b e n e f i t  a t h i s expense.  It  i s t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t o e x p l o r e  t h e peasant view o f  p o l i t i c s and a u t h o r i t y f u r t h e r , a t t e m p t i n g some i n s i d e view o f t h e way i n the peasant o f the Mezzogiorno p e r c e i v e s represents  an attempt t o f o r m u l a t e a g e n e r a l  political  reality.  s e t o f r u l e s , o r a code  which can be used t o e x p l a i n h i s o r i e n t a t i o n toward p o l i t i c a l and  It  authority  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and f u r t h e r t o account f o r what Edward C. B a n f i e l d 6  c a l l s the " p o l i t i c a l  incapacity"  which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e agro-towns  throughout the Mezzogiorno. In p r e s e n t i n g  this "inside-view"  I will  c o n t r a s t my own i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n , o f t h e v a r i o u s phemonena w i t h t h a t p r e s e n t e d by B a n f i e l d . Further,  I w i l l show t h a t much o f t h e evidence g i v e n by B a n f i e l d i n  support o f h i s own h y p o t h e s i s can be seen as s u p p o r t i v e interpretation.  In accounting  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  of a contrasting  i n c a p a c i t y o f the v i l l a g e  of Montegrano which B a n f i e l d says appears t o be f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f the South, he g i v e s the i n a b i l i t y organizations  of a voluntary  o f t h e s o u t h e r n e r s t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n n a t u r e as one o f t h e primary  impediments.  ^ Edward C. B a n f i e l d , The M o r a l B a s i s o f a Backward S o c i e t y (New York: F r e e P r e s s , 1958), p. 32. Here B a n f i e l d r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e l y weak p o s i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , e r r a t i c v o t i n g b e h a v i o r , the i n e f f i c a c y of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , the absence o f any " p o l i t i c a l machines," and t h e weak and u n s t a b l e n a t u r e o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n .  8  For my  own  purposes, t h i s a s s e r t i o n appears t o be  u s e f u l , and  indeed t h e r e  l o g i c a l as w e l l  as  does e x i s t widespread agreement throughout  the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , t h a t the i n a b i l i t y t o cooperate i s o f prime importance i n the c u l t u r e of the Mezzogiorno.  Regarding Monte-  grano, B a n f i e l d s t a t e s t h a t the extreme p o v e r t y and backwardness t o "...be e x p l a i n e d  l a r g e l y (but not  v i l l a g e r s to act together transcending  the  e n t i r e l y ) by  the i n a b i l i t y of  B a n f i e l d goes on to s t a t e t h a t t h i s i n a b i l i t y to c o n c e r t family derives  which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by lowing the r u l e : nuclear  the  f o r t h e i r common good o r , i n d e e d , f o r any  immediate, m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t o f the n u c l e a r  beyond the n u c l e a r  are  family.  activity  from the ethos o f "amoral  a p o p u l a t i o n who  familism",  behave as i f they were  "Maximize the m a t e r i a l , s h o r t - r u n  end  advantage o f  f a m i l y ; assume t h a t a l l o t h e r s w i l l do l i k e w i s e . "  folthe  From t h i s  h y p o t h e s i s B a n f i e l d d e r i v e s a s e t o f " l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " by which one  can p r e d i c t the p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o r and  i n a s o c i e t y o f "amoral f a m i l i s t s " . derives p r i n c i p a l l y  from the two  The  a t t i t u d e s o f those  ethos o f "amoral  phenomena o f " p o v e r t y " and  living  familism" "class  8 antagonisms". it  c o n t a i n s no  The  ethos i s l a b e l l e d as "amoral" by B a n f i e l d i n t h a t  concept o f moral "goodness" o r "badness" t o those  out-  9 s i d e of the immediate n u c l e a r  - B a n f i e l d , op.  7  c i t . , pp.  family.  The  "amorality"  i s inculcated  9-10.  ^ I b i d . , p. 42. Here i t appears t h a t B a n f i e l d ' s a s s e r t i o n i s c y c l i c a l ; i . e . , p o v e r t y i s to be e x p l a i n e d l a r g e l y by the i n a b i l i t y of c o n c e r t act i v i t y beyond the n u c l e a r f a m i l y (pp. 9-10), the i n a b i l i t y of c o n c e r t a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y due to the ethos of "amoral f a m i l i s m " (p. 10), and "amoral f a m i l i s m " d e r i v e s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y from p o v e r t y (p. 42). I b i d . , p. 83. 9  9  i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l throughout the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s where one t h a t g r a t i f i c a t i o n and power, and abstract  deprivation  are u n r e l a t e d  p r i n c i p l e s are  t o any  depend upon the  c a p r i c e o f one  p r i n c i p l e s o f "good" or "bad".  i n t e r n a l i z e d as " c o n s c i e n c e " and  one  c a l c u l a t e a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n s o l e l y i n terms o f Contrary to B a n f i e l d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a b i l i t y to c o n c e r t a c t i v i t y beyond the w i l l attempt to show t h a t  explanation  who No  learns  of the i n -  this incapacity  i s due  to a world-view  Rather than  and  the  incongruous w i t h the v a l u e s demanded i n a western-style democracy. "moral code" o f the Mezzogiorno s h o u l d p o s i t v a l u e s and  norms incongruous w i t h the norms d e s i r e d  f o r the e f f i c i e n t  of a w e s t e r n - s t y l e democratic s t a t e i s not  surprising.  been i n e f f e c t i v e i n much o f t h i s a r e a , and  viewed as an " o u t s i d e r "  at b e s t .  I  characterizing  Southern I t a l i a n p e a s a n t r y as "amoral", I w i l l argue t h a t  the s t a t e has  to  advantage."^  s o c i e t y i s h i g h l y m o r a l i s t i c , a d h e r i n g to a moral code whose v a l u e s  the  has  l e v e l s of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y ,  moral code which B a n f i e l d f a i l s to n o t e . the  and  learns  Jane S c h n e i d e r a l l u d e s  are That  behavioral functioning  For  centuries  is  generally  t o the  develop-  ment of t h i s "moral code": In the absence o f the s t a t e , p a s t o r a l communities and a g r i c u l t u r a l communities i n t h e i r m i d s t , developed t h e i r own means o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l — the codes of honor and shame — which were adapted to the i n t e n s e c o n f l i c t t h a t e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s had c r e a t e d w i t h i n them and between t h e m . ^  1 0  I b i d . , p.  152  ^ Jane S c h n e i d e r , "Of V i g i l a n c e and V i r g i n s : Honor, Shame and Access to Resources i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n S o c i e t i e s " i n E t h n o l o g y , V o l . X : l , January 1971, p. 3.  10  The absence o f the s t a t e and the a t t e n d a n t governmental a p p a r a t u s , does not mean t h a t p o l i t i c a l given  society.  political  f u n c t i o n s a r e not c a r r i e d out w i t h i n  the  As S c h n e i d e r s t a t e s , a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f p e r f o r m i n g  f u n c t i o n s have developed.  While the i n s t i t u t i o n s and  arrangements which f u l f i l l  these various  f o r e i g n t o those o f us who  live  political  f u n c t i o n s may  personal be  i n a s o c i e t y where the p r e v a l e n c e o f the  s t a t e i s pronounced, we must be a b l e t o l o o k b e h i n d the facade o f seeming i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o see how f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r own  these r a t h e r " s t r a n g e " customs  environment.  g i o r n o has meant t h a t p o l i t i c a l  do, i n f a c t ,  The " s t a t e l e s s n e s s " o f the Mezzo-  f u n c t i o n s must be c a r r i e d out through  an a l t e r n a t i v e framework t o t h a t o f the l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d government, and the b a s i s o f t h i s  framework can, I b e l i e v e , be found i n the "moral  code" o f the Mezzogiorno. Further,  I b e l i e v e that i t i s inaccurate  t o p l a c e the l a b e l "  "amoral" on the f a m i l i s m t h a t B a n f i e l d found i n Montegrano i n t h a t t h e 12 nuclear  f a m i l y forms what B a i l y c a l l s  there e x i s t s a shared s e t o f v a l u e s ,  t h e "moral community"  wherein  o b l i g a t i o n s , and r u l e s o f conduct  which a r e observed not f o r the sake o f expediency, but r a t h e r t h e y - a r e seen as honorable and good, i n and o f themselves.  because  The  nuclear  f a m i l y i s the b a s i s and embodiment o f t h i s moral conduct, and i s viewed as a moral e n t i t y .  Because o f the r e s t o f the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f the  Mezzogiorno, an "amoral" a c t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e .  Most a c t i o n s a r e  F. G. B a i l e y , "The peasant View o f the Bad L i f e " i n "Peasants and Peasant S o c i e t i e s , e d i t e d by Teodor Shanin (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e sex: Penguin, 1971). 1  Z  11  judged by the e f f e c t t h a t they w i l l produce upon the moral community ( i n t h i s c a s e , the n u c l e a r f a m i l y ) and a r e t h e r e f o r e j u d g e d as "moral" o r "immoral", depending upon whether they enhance o r degrade t h e f a m i l y ' s p o s i t i o n ; but a c t i o n s can seldom be judged as "amoral" . 1  0  I d e a l l y the l i m i t s o f t h e moral community a r e s a i d t o extend t o the v i l l a g e l e v e l , w i t h the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e i n g made between p a e s a n i and f o r e s t i e r e .  " W i t h i n the moral community the peasant understands  the range o f p o s s i b l e a c t i o n ; w i t h i n l i m i t s , he knows what h i s opponent 13 w i l l do, because he and h i s opponent  share c e r t a i n b a s i c  valuesf..."  In p r a c t i c e , however, the l e v e l of the moral community most o f t e n extends o n l y as f a r as the f a m i l y , and a c t i o n s a r e judged as "moral" o r "immoral" as they a f f e c t the f a m i l y .  Speaking o f S i c i l i a n s o c i e t y B o i s s e v a i n s a y s :  The c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f S i c i l i a n s o c i e t y i s t h e nuclear family. The r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s which d e r i v e from membership i n i t p r o v i d e the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h h i s b a s i c moral code. I t i s t h i s "moral code" which I s h a l l attempt to f o r m u l a t e and  discuss.  T h i s "moral code" i s more than a mere s e t o f e x p e d i e n t r u l e s f o r s u r v i v a l i n the Mezzogiorno.  I t i s a s e t o f r u l e s geared t o the aim o f h o n o r i n g and  m a i n t a i n i n g the moral community o f t h e f a m i l y .  I n s o f a r as a c t i o n i s under-  taken i n accordance w i t h t h e s e r u l e s t o the end o f m a i n t a i n i n g the s a n c t i t y and i n t e g r i t y of t h e f a m i l y , the a c t i o n may  be s a i d t o be moral i n i n t e n t .  C e r t a i n l y a c t i o n i n accordance w i t h the f o l l o w i n g m o r a l code can be taken  I b i d . , p.  307.  ^ Jeremy Boissevain,;. "Patronage i n S i c i l y " i n Man, March 1966, p. 19.  V o l . 1:1,  12  w i t h o u t a view to m a i n t a i n i n g  the s a n c t i t y and  i n t e g r i t y of the f a m i l y  i n t h i s case the a c t i o n cannot be viewed as b e i n g nature.  —  s t r i c t l y moral i n  Knowledge o f the purpose t o which b e h a v i o r i s d i r e c t e d i s a  n e c e s s a r y component i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the m o r a l i t y o f t h a t b e h a v i o r . The  moral code f o r m u l a t e s a code o f conduct beyond t h a t o f mere expe-  diency,  i n t h a t b e h a v i o r i n accordance w i t h the moral code i s most  o f t e n undertaken w i t h the view o f enhancing what i s c u l t u r a l l y as a moral good, i . e . , the  family.  The  defined  f a i l u r e of many western o b s e r v e r s  to f u l l y comprehend the b e h a v i o r o f the p e a s a n t r y o f the Mezzogiorno i s , i n p a r t , due  to t h e i r f a i l u r e to r e c o g n i z e  which i s beyond the mundane c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the i n d i v i d u a l . i t y o f the  The  morality  of"the  o f what i t can p r o v i d e  g o a l , the i n n a t e  and  for  inherent  moral-  f a m i l y , i s what g i v e s b e h a v i o r i n accordance w i t h the code, a  "moral" q u a l i t y .  The  formulation  o f the i n h e r e n t m o r a l i t y o f the b e h a v i o r d i r e c t e d toward the end Implicit  the f a m i l y as a moral good  of the "moral code" i s a r e c o g n i t i o n  f a m i l y , and  t h e r e f o r e , the m o r a l i t y  of  o f enhancing t h a t moral community.  i n t h i s approach i s a r e j e c t i o n of B a n f i e l d ' s  argument:  Standards are o b l i g a t o r y when they are i n some way a s s o c i a t e d w i t h what i s s a c r e d . Because they are s a c r e d , t h e i r v i o l a t i o n i s f e l t as g u i l t . For most o f the p e o p l e of Montegrano, n o t h i n g i s s a c r e d . T h i s b e i n g so, they f e e l n e i t h e r o b l i g a t i o n nor guilt. 1 5  •° B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 135. Yet B a n f i e l d r e p o r t s t h a t i n TAT #4, the c h i l d does not a p p r e c i a t e the s a c r i f i c e s made by h i s f a m i l y , but then he grows up and "...becomes aware o f the e v i l he had done and wishes t o make amends...." (p. 176).  13  On  the c o n t r a r y ,  the  study i s c o n s i d e r e d duties,  and  f a m i l y , the most p r e v a l e n t sacred  and m o r a l , i n and  o b l i g a t i o n s connected w i t h the  phenomenon i n B a n f i e l d ' s  of i t s e l f .  The  f a m i l y a r e , by  rights,  f a r , the most  important elements of the moral code. The  "moral community" o f the Mezzogiorno, though, i s not  l i m i t e d to the  family.  community o f the God  and  f a m i l y , as, say,  i n the t r a d i t i o n of  can be  "moral community", and  godparenthood. part  of  are perhaps the o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s  a c c e p t e d i n t o the community of so many i n d i v i d u a l , o f t e n  antagonistic, family units. be  do at times become p a r t o f the moral  the s a i n t s ( a t l e a s t some of them) are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  each f a m i l y ' s who  Outsiders  strictly  considered  Indeed, the h e a v e n l y personages may  the most important adjunct and  to the community of the 'family.  The  f a v o r of God  far  the most h o n o r i f i c p o s i t i o n i n the community.  the  f a m i l y though, God  the s a i n t s would p l a c e one's f a m i l y i n what i s by  and  Through my  L i k e o t h e r members o f  the s a i n t s share i n the a f f i l i a t i o n  f a m i l y independent o f t h e i r "good works". moral community, and  often  as such, r e s p e c t  and  of  the  They are seen as p a r t o f esteem i s g i v e n  the  to them.  e x p o s i t i o n o f the "moral code" I hope to demonstrate  t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s generated by B a n f i e l d ' s study o f Montegrano i s i n c o r r e c t i n t h a t i t a t t r i b u t e s b e h a v i o r t o a mistaken s e t o f goals values.  Further,  I hope t o demonstrate t h a t the v a l u e s  and  articulated in  a moral code o f the Mezzogiorno are the most s a l i e n t phenomena g o v e r n i n g conduct w i t h i n t h a t p o l i t i c a l  culture.  My  own  formulation  o f a moral  code f o r the n a t i v e o f the Mezzogiorno i s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , i n c o m p l e t e ; but  I b e l i e v e t h a t i t goes f u r t h e r i n e x p l a i n i n g the c o n c e p t u a l  framework  14  w i t h which  t h e peasant o f the Mezzogiorno  him than does t h e B a n f i e l d h y p o t h e s i s .  views t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d  around  T h i s moral code I take t o be t h e  following:^ I.  The f a m i l y i s a m o r a l end, i n and o f i t s e l f . The f a m i l y g i v e s y o u a p l a c e o f honour i n a a h o s t i l e w o r l d ; honor your f a m i l y , and p r o t e c t i t s honor.  II.  Don't o v e r s t e p your p l a c e . There a r e those above y o u and below you. Don't i n t e r m e d d l e i n t o the a f f a i r s o f those who a r e o v e r y o u , don't c r i t i c i z e o t h e r s , and don't g o s s i p about o t h e r s .  III.  IV. In of  Make no enemies; one must have f r i e n d s i n t h e w o r l d t o whom he can t u r n . Commitments a l i e n a t e p e o p l e , do n o t commit y o u r s e l f needlessly. Return f a v o r s t o t h o s e who h e l p you. Honor God and t h e s a i n t s .  o r d e r t o understand t h i s "moral code", a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e v a l u e s which  i t r e p r e s e n t s and which c o l o u r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  g i v e n t o these r u l e s by t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Mezzogiorno,  i s crucial.  With-  out  t h e c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by v i e w i n g the moral code through  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n i t by t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Mezzogiorno,  the code  can o n l y r e p r e s e n t an u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e t o f r u l e s which a r e , a t t i m e s , d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e f a m i l y . One must understand t h e g o a l o f t h e ' w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e f a m i l y " as t h e  16 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t B a n f i e l d asked respondents t o g i v e t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f a "good" man o r woman. One t y p i c a l response ran as f o l l o w s : "A man o r woman i s good who demonstrates good w i l l and i s courteous toward o t h e r s , i s c h a r i t a b l e when someone asks f o r somet h i n g b u t , e s p e c i a l l y , minds h i s own b u s i n e s s and doesn't c r i t i c i z e anyone o r g o s s i p " ( B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 128).  15  people i n the Mezzogiorno view t h a t g o a l .  The  g o a l of m a i n t a i n i n g  enhancing the f a m i l y cannot be viewed as that;, same g o a l of western Europe and N o r t h America.  The  point  i s viewed i n much  i s t h a t "the w e l l - b e i n g  the f a m i l y " i s d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n the Mezzogiorno than i t Of key  and  i s elsewhere.  importance i n the c u l t u r e of the Mezzogiorno i s the seeking  p r e s t i g e and  respect.  bringing respect  and  The  b e s t way  t h a t one  of  after  can honor, one's f a m i l y i s by  p r e s t i g e to the f a m i l y i n the eyes of o t h e r s .  The  f l o w of p r e s t i g e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b i - d i r e c t i o n a l phenomenon; i . e . , p r e s t i g e a c c r u e s to the i n d i v i d u a l through h i s c o n n e c t i o n and  w i t h the  family,  p r e s t i g e a c c r u e s to the f a m i l y v i a the p o s i t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l  members of the f a m i l y i n the community. respect  are many, but  The  so, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y ,  r o u t e s ,to p r e s t i g e  and  are the p i t f a l l s along  these  routes. E q u a l l y important i s the f o r m u l a t i o n  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  "moral code" of the Mezzogiorno i s the world-view o f the man Mezzogiorno. by a war against and  H i s world i s a h o s t i l e one,  of each a g a i n s t  all.  each i n d i v i d u a l , who  provide  for himself  and  The  and  his l i f e  f o r c e s of n a t u r e and  the  i s characterized e v i l are p i t t e d  must attempt to make h i s way his family.  of  the  i n the w o r l d  Consequently, the man  of  the  Mezzogiorno i s shrewd, c a l c u l a t i n g h i s number of a l t e r n a t i v e s and attempting to hedge h i s b e t s a g a i n s t  the f u t u r e .  P o s s i b l y the b e s t  example  of t h i s i s the  tendency to p r e f e r a l a n d tenure system which s e p a r a t e s  one's f i e l d s .  A sudden h a i l s t o r m may  destroying man  who  a l l the c r o p s ,  and  s t r i k e one  yet l e a v e  the other  works f i e l d s i n d i f f e r e n t areas has  t h i s type of d i s a s t e r .  One  s i d e of the mountain, s i d e untouched.  "insured" himself  The  against  must keep a l l of the p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s  open,  16  and never n e e d l e s s l y  a l i e n a t e anyone ( m o r t a l  o r s a i n t ) who might some  day be i n a p o s i t i o n t o h e l p him i n h i s time o f need. f i l i a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y precarious will  Political af-  t o the i n d i v i d u a l , i n t h a t he  g e n e r a l l y a l i e n a t e a l l those who h o l d opposing o p i n i o n s .  interviewed  a teacher  Banfield  i n Montegrano who was a "member o f a l e a d i n g  family": I have always kept myself a l o o f from p u b l i c quest i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y p o l i t i c a l ones. I t h i n k t h a t a l l p a r t i e s a r e i d e n t i c a l and those who b e l o n g t o them -- whether Communist, C h r i s t i a n Democrat, o r o t h e r , — a r e men who seek t h e i r own w e l f a r e and well-being. And then t o o , i f you want t o b e l o n g t o one p a r t y , you a r e c e r t a i n t o be on the o u t s with the people o f the other p a r t y . ^ Besides being  a l i e n a t i v e , , a n d t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l t o the i n d i -  v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y , p o l i t i c a l  a f f i l i a t i o n i s viewed as i n e f f e c t i v e i n  p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y f u n c t i o n s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y , unl e s s i t i s c a r r i e d on w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l manners o f f r i e n d s h i p . I n t e r e s t groups a r e o f no v a l u e The  i n the peasant's s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l .  government i s l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n ' i t s  of a c t i o n , and t h e war o f every man a g a i n s t  l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d forms every man i s e f f e c t i v e l y  c a r r i e d on w i t h i n a " s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y " . Given the i n e f f i c a c y o f these "modern" p o l i t i c a l and  institutions  arrangements i n the Mezzogiorno, i t i s incumbent t o seek o u t those  methods o f p o l i t i c a l Mezzogiorno.  c o n t r o l which a r e , i n f a c t , e f f i c a c i o u s i n the  Not o n l y must one note those i n s t i t u t i o n s which c a r r y out  B a n f i e l d , op-r c i t . , p. 84.  17  e s s e n t i a l l y " p o l i t i c a l " f u n c t i o n s , but one must attempt  t o understand  the dynamics which i n f l u e n c e and d e f i n e the r o l e o f these arrangements i n a " s t a t e l e s s  institutional  society".  Given t h i s "moral code" and the two p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the h i g h p o s i t i o n o f p r e s t i g e , and the h o s t i l e w o r l d which the peasant f a c e s , the remainder thorough  o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be d i r e c t e d toward  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l  an attempt  a more  c u l t u r e o f the Mezzogiorno  t o see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s "moral code" and  dominant f e a t u r e s o f the p o l i t i c a l  environment.  in  the  This relationship  between a "moral code" and the v a l u e s which i t r e p r e s e n t s on the  one  hand, and the p o l i t i c a l  two-  way to  environment  on the o t h e r , I take to be a  mutually r e - i n f o r c i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p .  That t r a d i t i o n s  dysfunctional  the p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r a modern democratic  society  have p e r s i s t e d over so l o n g a span o f time would seem t o i n d i c a t e these t r a d i t i o n s do have a g r e a t d e a l o f v i a b i l i t y ment.  that  i n the c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n -  I t i s , I b e l i e v e , e x c e e d i n g l y presumptuous and e t h n o c e n t r i c to  d i s m i s s these t r a d i t i o n s as u s e l e s s or "amoral" and attempt c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n and  to p r e s c r i b e  participation.  F u r t h e r , i t i s m i s s i n g the p o i n t to d i s m i s s t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s p r e maturely.  One  cannot be content t o view these t r a d i t i o n s through h i s  eyes, but r a t h e r he must attempt who  t o view them through t h e eyes o f those  l i v e t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s , and see what f u n c t i o n s they f u l f i l l  the c o n t e x t o f t h a t environment. difficult  own  The  within  dynamics o f another c u l t u r e are  t o p e r c e i v e a t b e s t , but one cannot be content t o d i s m i s s them  due t o h i s own  lack of understanding.  T h i s i s the case w i t h much o f the  18  t r a d i t i o n i n the Mezzogiorno.  A c l o s e r l o o k i s needed  i n order to  see what f u n c t i o n s o r needs the c u r r e n t t r a d i t i o n s f u l f i l l  and  why  they p e r s i s t . The dominant upon the p o l i t i c a l  f e a t u r e s o f the c u l t u r a l environment x^hich impinge system I take t o be; 1) the p o v e r t y o f the a r e a , and  i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o an o u t l o o k on l i f e ; 3) the Church; and 4) the f a m i l y .  2) p a t r o n - c l i e n t  relationships;  These f o u r phenomena appear t o be o f  importance i n t h a t they do e x h i b i t a s p e c t s o f a moral code and the v a l u e s r e l a t e d to t h a t moral code; and they impinge upon the p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i n g t h a t moral code t o the p o l i t i c a l  system, as i t were.  system, Behavior  r e l a t e d t o t h e s e f o u r phenomena i n the Mezzogiorno i s l a r g e l y c o l o r e d by the  moral code of the Mezzogiorno, and when t h a t b e h a v i o r i s a d e q u a t e l y  r e l a t e d t o the moral code, a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f b o t h t h e g o a l s and acc e p t a b l e r u l e s o f conduct i n the p u r s u i t o f "the good" can be drawn. These f o u r phenomena a l s o impinge upon the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f the Mezzogiorno, i n t h a t b e h a v i o r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f o u r t o p i c s consists of e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s o f the s t a t e . is often p o l i t i c a l of  often  f u n c t i o n s which a r e de j u r e the  Because b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d t o the f o u r t o p i c s  i n n a t u r e , the moral code  the Mezzogiorno but not the l e g a l l y  (which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  constituted authority  system)  can be seen t o impinge upon the p o l i t i c s o f the Mezzogiorno. Sources f o r t h i s study are b o t h p r i m a r y and secondary i n n a t u r e . Data from the Almond and Verba f i v e - n a t i o n study w i l l be used where a p l plicable.  These d a t a were made a v a i l a b l e by the I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Con-  sortium f o r P o l i t i c a l  Research.  N e i t h e r the o r i g i n a l source o f the d a t a ,  19  nor the Consortium b e a r shy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r my a n a l y s i s o f t h a t data.  B a n f i e l d ' s study i s * I b e l i e v e , a p r o p e r s t a r t i n g p o i n t , i n  t h a t he p o i n t s t o t h e p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n t h a t a study of t h i s type s h o u l d take —  t h a t o f l o o k i n g at the c u l t u r e to account  "political  incapacity".  He has, however, f a i l e d  f o r what appears t o get deep enough  i n t o t h a t c u l t u r a l m i l i e u t h a t i s the Mezzogiorno t o see the v a l u e s and b e h a v i o r of the people through t h e i r own eyes. attempt  t h a t somewhat s c h i z o i d t a s k .  T h i s study  will  as  20  CHAPTER I I  Poverty  Those who must c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on s u r v i v a l u s u a l l y do n o t r e v o l t ; they a r e too hungry. J i C. Davles Yet w h i l e man does n o t l i v e by b r e a d a l o n e , w i t h o u t b r e a d he does n o t l i v e a t a l l . R. C. Cook  The Mezzogiorno i s poor.  I t has always been poor.  The f e r t i l e  s o i l s found i n t h e Po V a l l e y a r e m i s s i n g from the Mezzogiorno w i t h i t s . h i l l y and rocky t e r r a i n complemented by marsh l a n d s . n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s which a i d t r a n s p o r t  The Mezzogiorno l a c k s t h e  i n the N o r t h .  The Mezzogiorno  enjoys no e q u i v a l e n t o f the Po system w i t h i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , and c a n a l s dug i n the Po p l a i n t o extend the system. seem t o have been l i m i t e d t o the N o r t h . d i Como, V a l d'Aosta, and i n Umbria.  Important m i n e r a l s , t o o , I r o n o r e i s found around  Lago  The South, however, has been  l i m i t e d t o d e p o s i t s o f s u l p h u r , l e a d , and z i n c .  The N o r t h has enjoyed  the advantage o f i n e x p e n s i v e h y d r o e l e c t r i c power from A l p i n e streams, while rates f o r e l e c t r i c i t y  i n the South a r e much h i g h e r due t o t h e g r e a t  d i s t a n c e s o f t r a n s m i s s i o n , o r the l e s s e f f i c i e n t  use o f c o a l f o r genera-  t i n g the e l e c t r i c i t y . B e s i d e s t h e n a t u r a l p o v e r t y o f t h e Mezzogiorno, the a r e a was r e t a r d e d i n i t s economic  development  o f g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l expansion. t o o t h e r European markets f u r t h e r South.  by o t h e r f a c t o r s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s  The c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f N o r t h e r n c e n t e r s  gave them a d i s t i n c t advantage over p o i n t s  T h i s p r o x i m i t y t o t h e r e s t o f Europe a l s o undoubtedly  had i t s e f f e c t s upon these N o r t h e r n c e n t e r s which f e l t  the impact o f  21  i d e o l o g i c a l changes i n Europe.  The i d e a l o f p r o g r e s s was  through the g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the achievements  o f such c i t i e s  M i l a n , F l o r e n c e , and Genoa d u r i n g the Renaissance. o t h e r hand,was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a n d l o r d s who  instilled as V e n i c e ,  The South, on the  clung tenaciously to t h e i r  landed s t a t u s , c h a n n e l l i n g w e a l t h i n t o the conspicuous consumption p a l a t i a l v i l l a s , and l e a d i n g the l i f e o f the g r e a t s e i g n e u r s .  of  Further,  the r e l a t i v e absence o f r a i l w a y s a t , say, the time o f u n i f i c a t i o n  (1861)  was  The  an i n i t i a l  impediment t o economic development  South, w i t h 41% o f the l a n d a r e a , had, i n 1861, r a i l w a y and one  o f the r e g i o n .  o n l y "one  f i f t h as much  t h i r d as much roadway m i l e a g e p e r c a p i t a , and one  seventh  as much r a i l w a y and one t h i r d as much roadway m i l e a g e p e r square k i l o m e t e r of t e r r i t o r y as the r e s t o f the c o u n t r y . "  1  A l l o f the above disadvantages and r e l a t i v e disadvantages o f the South were undoubtedly s i g n i f i c a n t d u r i n g the e a r l y stages o f economic m o d e r n i z a t i o n , but even more important have been the m u l t i p l i e r and acc e l e r a t o r e f f e c t s g o v e r n i n g the l o c a t i o n o f a second f i r m o r i n d u s t r y . I n d u s t r i a l growth has tended t o s e t t l e i n those areas ( T u r i n , M i l a n , and Genoa) where t h e r e e x i s t o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y backward and forward goods and s e r v i c e s t o complement t h e i r own. o f t h i s p a t t e r n o f economic growth i s t h a t the Mezzogiorno  The  result  has been  left  i n p o v e r t y w h i l e the r e s t o f the country has moved i n t o an age o f  relative  prosperity.  two  Many o f the people o f the Mezzogiorno  l i v e i n one o r  Shepherd Clough, and C a r l o L i v i . "Economic Growth i n I t a l y : An A n a l y s i s o f Uneven Development o f N o r t h and South" i n The E x p e r i e n c e o f Economic Growth, e d i t e d by B a r r y E. Supple (New York: Random House, 1963), p. 357.  22  room h o v e l s which they share w i t h t h e i r a n i m a l s .  Nearly  a l l o f those  engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are unemployed f o r a great p a r t the time.  The  more i n d u s t r i o u s spend t h e i r time g a t h e r i n g  and  of  selling  3 c h a r c o a l , h e r b s , or s n a i l s . hoping to be p i c k e d  f o r work by one  h i s b a r n , or some o t h e r s e r v i c e run by  Most, however, w a i t around the  odd  job.  i s repairing  Many go t o the Camera d e l L a v o r o , a  the Communist P a r t y which i s o f t e n mistaken f o r the  ment employment o f f i c e , i n o r d e r  gangs, or o t h e r p a r t - t i m e The  of the l a n d l o r d s who  piazza,  t o seek a couple o f days work on the 4  l i v i n g conditions.  amounts of food, and  The  lack  generally unsatisfactory  p o v e r t y of the Mezzogiorno has been turned  p h i l o s o p h i c o u t l o o k which d e f i n e s  t h a t p o v e r t y and  I t i s the o u t l o o k o f l a m i s e r i a — a l i e n a t i o n , and  s o c i a l degradation.  pessimism, f a t a l i s m , d i s t r u s t , "The  material into a  gives i t s i g n i f i c a n c e . struggle,  p e a s a n t s ' economic p o v e r t y i s  translated into s o c i a l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , subordination, Given the emphasis p l a c e d  road  employment.  p o v e r t y o f the Mezzogiorno, however, i s more than the  of work, i n s u f f i c i e n t  govern-  upon p r e s t i g e and  respect  comtemptibility.  i n the c u l t u r e of  the  Mezzogiorno, the peasant of the Mezzogiorno s u f f e r s b o t h from h i s m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and  h i s s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n measured i n terms o f  relativity.  For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the housing s i t u a t i o n o f the Mezzogiorno, see Ann C o r n e l i s e n ' s T o r r e g r e c a (New York: D e l t a Books, 1969), Chapter V I ; a l s o C a r l o L e v i ' s C h r i s t Stopped at E b o l i , Chapter 13. 3 See D a n i l o D o l c i ' s To Feed the Hungry, t r a n s l a t e d by P. (London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1959).  D.  Cummins  4 The Camera d e l Lavoro has no a u t h o r i t y to hand out j o b s as but merely attempts to keep a l i s t i n g o f a v a i l a b l e v a c a n c i e s .  such,  Joseph L o p r e a t o , "How Would You L i k e t o be a Peasant?" i n Peasant S o c i e t y , e d i t e d by Jack M. P o t t e r , et a l . (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1967), p. 427. 5  23  B a n f i e l d notes t h i s s o c i a l element i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of l a m i s e r i a : " . . . l a m i s e r i a i s as much o r more the r e s u l t o f h u m i l i a t i o n as of hunger, f a t i g u e , and  anxiety."  There are many r o u t e s —  to p r e s t i g e and  most .of which are c l o s e d to the peasant.  labor —  p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l labor —  of the most p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n s . o f the most envied  respect The  i n the Mezzogiorno  a b i l i t y t o forego  a f f o r d s the i n d i v i d u a l one  Labor i s n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e d , ^  p o s i t i o n s i s t h a t of the n o n - l a b o r i n g  can l i v e on the r e n t s  from h i s l a n d s , and  indulge  and  landowner  The  landowner m a i n t a i n s h i s v i l l a g e  through ownership o f the l a n d and  a few  q u i t e so f o r t u n a t e , but  himself  t o be  considers  who  ties  are  i s considered  with  by  not others)  above the p e t t y problems i n v o l v e d i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e .  To the peasant, however, t h i s route and  o f h i s r e l a t i v e s who (and  one  i n conspicuous con-  sumption, e i t h e r i n the l o c a l town or i n the l a r g e r urban c e n t e r s t h e i r c u l t u r a l amenities.  manual  his family i s closed.  o f t e n not  h i s own  to p r e s t i g e and  respect  for  He must c o n t i n u e to work i n the d i r t  d i r t ) , and  B a n f i e l d , o p . , c i t . , p.  i s r e f e r r e d to by o t h e r s  as p e d i  himself (and  'ncritati  160.  "In the w o r l d o f l a m i s e r i a , p o s s e s s i o n i n i t s e l f i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t s i g n of d i s t i n c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f we keep i n mind t h a t the use o f w e a l t h , the i d e a of investment by the i n d i v i d u a l , i s l a r g e l y unknown i n s o u t h e r n I t a l y ; exemption from l a b o r then becomes the o n l y t r u e c r i t e r i o n of d i s tinction: he who i s at the loxrest l e v e l o f the economic and s o c i a l s c a l e has to work w i t h h i s hands; he who b e l o n g s t o the ' b e t t e r c l a s s e s ' g i v e s p r o o f o f i t by d i s d a i n i n g manual l a b o r " (F. G. Friedmann, "The World of La M i s e r i a " , i n P o t t e r , et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 329).  24  (muddy f e e t ) . The by  peasant i s o f t e n f o r c e d t o expose h i m s e l f  a l l o w i n g t h e women o f h i s f a m i l y t o work.  of h i s i n c a p a c i t y t o f i l l  further to disgrazia  B e s i d e s an o v e r t  the c u l t u r a l l y defined  admission  r o l e o f economic b r e a d -  winner, t h e man runs t h e r i s k o f exposing the women o f h i s f a m i l y t o sexual  temptations which may r u i n t h e f a m i l y ' s r e p u t a t i o n  t o come. may  To a v o i d  generations  these r i s k s o f d i s g r a z i a , t h e s m a l l landowner o r r e n t e r  h i r e b r a c c i a n t i (day l a b o r e r s ) t o work f o r him.  a l s o enhances one's p r e s t i g e , i n t h a t he can h i m s e l f n e c e s s a r y t o keep up h i s f i e l d s . cally  for  The h i r i n g o f o t h e r s escape t h e l a b o r  Most o f t e n , though, t h i s i s not economi-  f e a s i b l e , and t h e peasant i s f o r c e d t o work t h e l a n d h i m s e l f , and  forego  the h o n o r i f i c a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e i s u r e time i n t h e l o c a l  piazza. The and  respect  peasant o f the Mezzogiorno i s f u r t h e r b a r r e d due t o t h e s t a t u s  munity" o f I t a l y .  given  t o h i s p o s i t i o n by t h e l a r g e r "com-  N o r t h e r n I t a l i a n s have always c o n s i d e r e d  n e r s as slow, l a z y , and u n t r u s t w o r t h y . e r n e r w i t h contempt —  the l u x u r y  r e f e r r e d t o by  as t e r r o n i ( e a r t h - g r u b b e r s ) .  cement o f mass media, t h e Southerner —  t h e Souther-  They have always t r e a t e d t h e South-  and t h e Southerners a r e s t i l l  t h e i r Northern counterparts  become more a c u t e l y  from p r e s t i g e  particularly  aware o f h i s r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n .  With t h e advan-  t h e peasant — has He cannot a f f o r d  items a d v e r t i z e d on t e l e v i s i o n , o r automobiles d i s p l a y e d i n  f u l l - c o l o r ads i n h i s weekly magazines. these t h i n g s does n o t curb h i s a p p e t i t e . more a c u t e l y aware o f h i s h u m i l i a t i o n .  Yet his i n a b i l i t y to indulge i n Rather, he f e e l s more c h e a t e d , He cannot meet t h e s t a n d a r d s o f  25  the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , y e t he i s judged by them. out:'  And,  as B a n f i e l d p o i n t s  "By the standards o f the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , the peasant's work, f o o d ,  and c l o t h i n g a l l symbolize h i s d e g r a d a t i o n . "  8  Our own s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t over and above whatever o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s may e x i s t between South I t a l i a n peasants and many o t h e r peasants elsewhere, one i s of the utmost importance, and i t concerns the r a p i d economic development and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e c e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d by I t a l i a n s o c i e t y . The peasant's own share o f the new b e n e f i t s has lagged f a r b e h i n d the n a t i o n a l average, but j u s t the same he has been j e r k e d out o f h i s q u a s i - f e u d a l s t a t e o f a c q u i e s c e n c e . He now has a g r e a t e r awareness o f h i s h a r d s h i p and s u f f e r s from a deep sense o f r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n . (emphasis his) 9  The p o v e r t y o f the Mezzogiorno,  and i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l m a n i f e s t a -  t i o n i n the concept o f l a m i s e r i a , c o n t a i n a l a r g e element  of d i s t r u s t  —  both o f one's n e i g h b o r s o r f e l l o w townsmen ( p a e s a n i ) and o f o u t s i d e r s (forestieri).  I d e a l l y , the f o r c e s o f campanilismo  (parochialism) should  h o l d the p a e s a n i t o g e t h e r , g i v i n g grounds f o r mutual t r u s t . though,  t h i s i s not the case —  as M a r i a P r a t o found out when she bought  a d e f e c t i v e sewing machine from a paesano who d e f e c t w h i l e demonstrating the machine."^ to s u p e r s t i t i o n and myth.  In p r a c t i c e ,  c a r e f u l l y c o n c e a l e d the  Much o f t h i s d i s t r u s t i s due  There i s the s u p e r s t i t i o n t h a t the envy o f  n e i g h b o r s w i l l b r i n g the e v i l eye  (mal  'occhio) upon one.  One  must,  t h e r e f o r e , not be too conspicuous i n h i s good f o r t u n e , l e s t i t i n c i t e ^ the envy o f h i s n e i g h b o r s and b r i n g him t o m i s f o r t u n e . "^  B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. Lopeato, "How  The  affairs  65.  Would you L i k e to be a P e a s a n t ? " op. c i t . , p.  See B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p.  117.  See A.L. M a r a s p i n i The Study o f an I t a l i a n V i l l a g e Mouton and Co., 1969) Chapter IX.  (Paris:  436.  27  o f one's f a m i l y must be kept s e c r e t t o guard a g a i n s t t h i s p o t e n t i a l danger. Another reason  f o r d i s t r u s t o f one's f e l l o w man i s t h e h i g h  degree  of importance p l a c e d upon conformance w i t h approved s e x u a l norms by t h e female, and the myth o f the v i r i l e , h o t - b l o o d e d L a t i n male w i t h h i s sense of s u p e r m a s c u l i n i t y .  The accepted  b e l i e f i s t h a t , g i v e n a chance, t h e  male w i l l attempt t o seduce and conquer; w h i l e  the woman, g i v e n h e r f r a i l  c o n s t i t u t i o n , w i l l be overcome by p a s s i o n , and g i v e i n t o t h e amorous advances o f t h e male.  The a v o i d these e v i l s  (but more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e  shame which r e s u l t s i f t h e community f i n d s out about i t ) , t h e f a m i l y must guard i t s womenfolk a g a i n s t encounters w i t h males o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y . The women g e n e r a l l y go u n e s c o r t e d  o n l y t o Church —  at a l l other  times  t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h members o f t h e o p p o s i t e sex i s e s c o r t e d and c a r e f u l l y scrutinized.  Not o n l y f o r e s t i e r e males, b u t a l s o p a e s a n i males are n o t  to be t r u s t e d w i t h the women o f one's f a m i l y .  Women a r e p a r t o f t h e  f a m i l y ' s patrimony, and the weakest l i n k i n t h e c h a i n o f f a m i l y honor. Perhaps more important  i n t h e element o f d i s t r u s t , though, i s 12  what George M. F o s t e r c a l l s t h e "image o f t h e l i m i t e d good", resources  whereby  a r e seen t o e x i s t i n a f i n i t e q u a n t i t y w i t h no means d i r e c t l y  a v a i l a b l e t o t h e peasant t o i n c r e a s e the o v e r a l l t o t a l a v a i l a b l e . Resources, then, become t h e s t a k e s  i n a zero-sum "game" —  a "war o f each a g a i n s t a l l and d e v i l take t h e hindmost". to  o r more a p t l y , Whatever  accrues  one f a m i l y i n the way o f l a n d , w e a l t h , honor, s e c u r i t y , o r s t a t u s must  n e c e s s a r i l y be through t h e d e p r i v a t i o n o f o t h e r s .  S i n c e t h e t o t a l quan-  t i t y o f "goods" a v a i l a b l e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , one must do whatever  necessary  - - George M. F o s t e r , "Peasant S o c i e t y and t h e Image o f L i m i t e d Good." i n Peasant S o c i e t y , e d i t e d by P o t t e r , e t a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 300-324. 1  2  28  to  assure h i s family of a s u i t a b l e standard of l i v i n g ;  and the outcome  i s the preoccupazione t h a t B a n f i e l d found i n Montegrano: In the Montegrano mind, any advantage t h a t may be g i v e n t o another i s n e c e s s a r i l y at the d e p r i v a t i o n of one's own f a m i l y ....The w o r l d b e i n g what i t i s , a l l those who s t a n d o u t s i d e the s m a l l c i r c l e o f the f a m i l y are at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l c o m p e t i t o r s and t h e r e f o r e a l s o p o t e n t i a l enemies. The atmosphere o f a c u l t u r e w i t h the image of the l i m i t e d i s conducive t o a sense o f s t r u g g l e , d i s t r u s t , and an attempt upmanship".  at  good "one-  The i d e a becomes t h a t o f g e t t i n g ahead o f one's f e l l o w ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f p r e s t i g e and r e s p e c t . manship" can be won  i n two ways:  The game of "one-up-  e i t h e r by i n c r e a s i n g one's s u p p l y o f  the  "goods", o r by d e c r e a s i n g the s t o c k o f "goods" o f the o t h e r  the  moment o f v i c t o r y coming, say, when one s t r o l l s  w i t h the o t h e r ' s g i r l f r i e n d  on h i s arm.  man;  a c r o s s the p i a z z a  The i d e a l o f g e t t i n g ahead  of  one's f e l l o w i s not conducive t o c o o p e r a t i o n , but r a t h e r t o c o m p e t i t i o n . The people o f the Mezzogiorno are  wary o f one a n o t h e r :  Mezzogiorno advantage  p l a y t h i s "game" w i t h one another, and they  78% o f Almond and Verba's  respondents i n the  agreed t h a t " I f you don't watch y o u r s e l f , p e o p l e w i l l  o f you", w h i l e o n l y 13% d i s a g r e e d w i t h the statement.  a t t i t u d e extends t o a l l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y :  "The  landowner,  take This  the p o l i c e ,  the  t a x c o l l e c t o r and even the p r i e s t have come t o symbolize those  who  are  out t o m i l k the peasant.""^  speaks  of  Indeed, B a n f i e l d ' s r u l e number 13  t h i s very phenomenon:  1  3  B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , pp. 110-111.  ^ Leonard W. Moss and Stephen Cappannari. "Patterns of Kinship, Gomparaggio and Community i n a South I t a l i a n V i l l a g e " , i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . . 3 3 , January 1960, p. 25.  29  The amoral f a m i l i s t w i l l v a l u e g a i n s a c c r u i n g t o the community o n l y i n s o f a r as he and h i s are l i k e l y t o share them. In f a c t , he w i l l v o t e a g a i n s t measures which w i l l h e l p the community without h e l p i n g him because, even though h i s p o s i t i o n i s unchanged i n a b s o l u t e terms, he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f worse o f f i f h i s n e i g h b o r s ' p o s i t i o n changes f o r the b e t t e r . Thus i t may happen t h a t measures which are o f d e c i d e d g e n e r a l b e n e f i t w i l l provoke a p r o t e s t v o t e from those who f e e l t h a t they have ijgt shared i n them o r not s h a r e d i n them s u f f i c i e n t l y . The c u l t u r e o f the Mezzogiorno  c o n t a i n s , t h e r e f o r e , an element  what might be c a l l e d " a l i e n a t i v e f e l l o w " t o complement Almond and " a l i e n a t i v e s u b j e c t " , and " a l i e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t " elements."^ of a l i e n a t i v e f e l l o w may  be seen i n the d i s t r u s t  of  Verba's  The  element  of those o u t s i d e the  f a m i l y , and the emphasis upon keeping s e c r e t the a f f a i r s o f the f a m i l y . The l e s s o u t s i d e r s know o f the f a m i l y ' s a f f a i r s , the l e s s l i k e l y  that  they w i l l be a b l e t o use t h i s knowledge a g a i n s t them i n some manner.^  7  B a n f i e l d notes t h i s d i s t r u s t o f those o u t s i d e the f a m i l y i n Montegrano: As the Montegranesi see i t , f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s are not o n l y p o t e n t i a l l y c o s t l y but p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous as w e l l . No f a m i l y , they t h i n k , can s t a n d t o see another p r o s p e r w i t h o u t f e e l i n g envy and w i s h i n g the o t h e r harm. F r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s a r e , o f c o u r s e , p e c u l i a r l y l i a b l e to envy, b o t h because they know more about one's b u s i n e s s than do o t h e r s and because they f e e l themselves t o be more d i r e c t l y i n c o m p e t i t i o n . The d a t a from the Almond and Verba study seem t o b e a r out t h i s  B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p.  concept  98.  16 See G a b r i e l Almond and Sidney Verba's The C i v i c C u l t u r e (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1965), p. 38. See f o o t n o t e i n B a n f i e l d (op. c i t . ) on p. 120, where Dr. Gino teaches h i s sons t o keep the a f f a i r s of the f a m i l y s e c r e t . I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t 49% o f the people i n t e r v i e w e d by Almond and Verba i n the Mezzogiorno r e f u s e d t o t e l l the i n t e r v i e w e r how much t h e i r annual income was. 1  7  B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p.  115.  30  o f what I have c a l l e d " a l i e n a t i v e f e l l o w " . from the Mezzogiorno,  Out o f t h e 360 respondents  235 (65%) agreed w i t h the statement  "No one i s  going t o c a r e much about you," w h i l e o n l y 91 (25%) d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e statement.  The a l i e n a t i o n was even more profound when the q u e s t i o n was  asked whether p e o p l e were i n c l i n e d t o h e l p o t h e r s , o r merely In responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n 88% o f t h e respondents  felt  were more i n c l i n e d t o h e l p themselves, w h i l e o n l y 6% f e l t were i n c l i n e d t o h e l p o t h e r s .  themselves.  that people that  people  " I t a l i a n peasants... are s t r o n g l y  socialized  i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t i s s a f e r t o keep one's a f f a i r s and p o l i t i c a l  views  19 s t r i c t l y to oneself."  A g a i n , r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n "How many p e o p l e  would you a v o i d d i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c s w i t h ? " , 58% o f the Almond and Verba sample s t a t e d t h a t one c o u l d " t a l k t o no one", o r t h a t t h e r e a r e "many you can't t a l k t o . "  The g e n e r a l l e v e l o f d i s t r u s t  l i s e n ' s account o f l i f e obvious.  i n Torregreca:  Only a f o o l a c c e p t e d i t .  i s p o r t r a y e d i n Corne-  "Nothing was so s u s p i c i o u s as t h e  The s i m p l e s t e v e n t , t o be understood,  must be a n a l y z e d and r e c o n s t r u c t e d u n t i l i t was a lacework o f d e c e p t i o n 20 and  intrigue." There i s a S i c i l i a n p r o v e r b which s a y s :  —  literally;  t u t t a a s c i a r r a e pa c u t r a  "the whole s t r u g g l e i s f o r the b l a n k e t . "  The meaning i s  t h a t each man f i g h t s t o cover h i m s e l f w i t h t h e " b l a n k e t " which, by d e f i n i t i o n , i s an o b j e c t o f l i m i t e d s i z e .  I n o r d e r t o cover h i m s e l f he  LaPalombara, Joseph. "Italy: Fragmentation, I s o l a t i o n and A l i e n a t i o n " i n P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e and P o l i t i c a l Development, e d i t e d by Pye and S. Verba ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 290. C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , p. 206.  31  must attempt to take some of the b l a n k e t  away from o t h e r s .  Although  the proverb Is a n a t u r a l outgrowth o f a s o c i e t y where, say, c h i l d r e n s h a r e one  bed  some o f the b l a n k e t , blanket ever,  and must attempt t o keep warm by  the proverb may  i s not  completely  concerned w i t h  r a t h e r the m a t e r i a l o b j e c t and connected w i t h  seemingly o v e r l o o k s .  i n that  The  respect  but  that  are  concept o f the l i m i t e d good something that  Banfield's  Speaking of the p o s s e s s i v e  the peasants o f the Mezzogiorno, F r i e d m a m s t a t e s : t i t u d e cannot be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d  the  s t r u g g l e , how-  the m a t e r i a l o b j e c t p e r se,  a p p l i e s t o more than m a t e r i a l advantage — hypothesis  The  the honor, p r e s t i g e and  those m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s .  small  "stealing"  be s l i g h t l y m i s l e a d i n g  i s , again by d e f i n i t i o n , a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t .  four  a t t i t u d e of  "This possessive  at-  i n terms o f economic need  21 alone even i n the i m p o r t a n t , but t i o n with The  f i e l d of m a t e r i a l goods."  Possession  i t s importance seems to d e r i v e l a r g e l y  of wealth i s  from i t s connec-  ( e i t h e r as a means t o , o r as a s i g n o f ) power and  connection  between m a t e r i a l advantage and  c l e a r l y seen i n the c o n c e p t i o n members of the F. G.  f a m i l i a l honor i s m o s t l y  of the patrimony —  t h a t stake which a l l  f a m i l y share i n , and which i s passed on from Friedmann, "The  honor.  World of La M i s e r i a " op.  generation  c i t . , p.  327.  22 Calogero, a S i c i l i a n i n t e r v i e w e d by D a n i l o D o l c i , made the f o l lowing statement: " I f man has a good name, a good r e p u t a t i o n i n the c i r c l e s he moves i n , then t h e r e ' s a chance t h a t t h a t man w i l l not p e r i s h . A good r e p u t a t i o n b r i n g s t r u s t , power, money." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the c a u s a l c h a i n drawn by Calogero (a good r e p u t a t i o n b r i n g s money), i n t h a t i t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t a l l peasants see i t the o t h e r way around, i . e . , money b r i n g s a good r e p u t a t i o n , power, e t c . Calogero's statements can be found i n D o l c i ' s The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , t r a n s l a t e d by A n t o n i a Cowan (New York: Pantheon Books, 1968), p. 28.  32 to g e n e r a t i o n .  A t h r e a t t o t h e m a t e r i a l a s s e t s which comprise p a r t o f  the patrimony i s seen n o t so much as a mere economic t h r e a t , as much as a t h r e a t t o the honor o f the f a m i l y through j e o p a r d i z i n g i t s patrimony. Once the f a m i l y ceases t o be a v i a b l e economic and p o l i t i c a l u n i t , much of i t s patrimony i s d e s t r o y e d Schneider deals with  and the f a m i l y i s d i s h o n o r e d .  t h i s concept i n h e r e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e ,  Jane "Of V i g i l a n c e  and V i r g i n s " : M e d i t e r r a n e a n p e o p l e have q u a r r e l l e d over e n c r o a c h ments on b o u n d a r i e s ; u s u r p a t i o n o f water r i g h t s , abusive p a s t u r i n g , animal t h e f t , the d e s t r u c t i o n o f c r o p s , a d u l t e r y , and murder. They c o n s i d e r such v i o l a t i o n s as c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g group. Thus, honor can be thought o f as the i d e o l o g y o f a p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g group which s t r u g g l e s t o d e f i n e , e n l a r g e , and p r o t e c t i t s patrimony i n a c o m p e t i t i v e arena. S t a t u s , when viewed through t h e image o f the l i m i t e d good, y i e l d s the e x i s t i n g r i g i d h i e r a r c h y which forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l a m i s e r i a . I t i s beyond the scope o f t h i s paper t o say d e f i n i t i v e l y whether o r n o t the r i g i d h i e r a r c h y came about through viewing  s t a t u s through t h e image  o f t h e l i m i t e d good, b u t i t does appear t h a t the s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y exh i b i t s the same aspects  o f t h e image o f the l i m i t e d good t h a t do, s a y ,  land or wealth. While t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y , i t i s important t o r e a l i z e t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n o f one's p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e h i e r a r c h y i s not  s t r i c t l y connected w i t h  the r i c h .  s u b m i s s i v e n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e poor t o  Each p o s i t i o n o r f u n c t i o n i s regarded as having  the p r i o r i t y o f t h i n g s .  Status  value  within  i s not s o l e l y d e r i v a t i v e o f w e a l t h ,  Jane Schneider, "Of V i g i l a n c e and V i r g i n s : Honor, Shame and Access t o Resources i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n S o c i e t i e s " , i n ^ E t h n o l o g y , V o l . X : l , January 1971, p. 2.  33  although  I t may  be p a r t i a l l y based upon w e a l t h .  Ann  Cornelisen  describes  Luca M o n t e f a l c o n e as a "nomad d o c t o r famous a l l over I t a l y as the who  understands the South."  respected  a native of Torregreca,  and...envied by every man  outstanding powerful  As  "...He i s  f o r h i s wealth, h i s  c a r e e r as an e p i d e m i o l o g i s t , h i s b e a u t i f u l w i f e and  friends."  Chapman's study  r e v e a l e d t h a t "High s o c i a l s t a n d i n g or p r o p e r t y  i n Torregreca  i n l a n d , but  of M i l o c c a , a S i c i l i a n  i s dependent e i t h e r on  i t i s assured  man  his  village^  education  o n l y i n f a m i l i e s which possess  25 both."  Indeed, even B a n f i e l d notes the non-economic element of s t a t u s  and w e a l t h :  "Being  a landed p r o p r i e t o r i s more a m a t t e r of s o c i a l  than  26 of economic s t a t u s . "  One  of the most important  aspects  of the  rigid  h i e r a r c h y i s t h a t c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s are viewed as b e i n g o u t s i d e the of a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s grouping.  As Friedmann p o i n t s  realm  out:  The d e l i c a t e sense of the h i e r a r c h y o f t h i n g s , n a t u r a l and human, i s w e l l expressed i n the remark o f a l a n d l e s s peasant who, i n attempting to d e s c r i b e h i s d a i l y r o u t i n e had s t a r t e d by s a y i n g : 'We hoe the e a r t h ' — then had i n t e r r u p t e d h i m s e l f w i t h an apology t o me (the gentleman) — ' i f you w i l l f o r g i v e the e x p r e s s i o n , l i k e beasts.' Someone who wants to e x p l a i n a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n t o a v i s i t o r o f t e n s t a r t s by s a y i n g : 'I am o n l y a peasant' o r 'I am o n l y a c a r p e n t e r — but t h i s i s what I t h i n k about i t ' Given t h i s a t t i t u d e , the peasant r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s not h i s p r e r o g a t i v e  24 C o r n e l i s e n , op.  c i t . , p.  41.  25 C. G. Chapman, M i l o c c a A S i c i l i a n V i l l a g e 1970), p. 12. 26 27  B a n f i e l d , op. Friedmann, op.  c i t . , p. c i t . , p.  49. 326.  (London:  Schenkman,  34  to  govern,, and l i m i t s h i s community p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o v o t i n g and the op-  p o s i t i o n o f those i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups immediately above him which p e r c e i v e s as a t h r e a t to h i s c l a i m on the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . t i t u d e also manifested i t s e l f where 54% o f the respondents ment " P o l i t i c s  from the Mezzogiorno  This at-  f i v e n a t i o n study,  agreed w i t h the s t a t e -  i s too c o m p l i c a t e d t o understand", w h i l e o n l y 24%  agreed w i t h the statement. realm o f p o l i t i c s was to  i n Almond and Verba's  C l e a r l y h a l f o f the p e o p l e f e l t  beyond t h e i r comprehension.  t h a t the  t o change what they  c o n s i d e r e d t o be a h a r m f u l r e g u l a t i o n , 53% answered t h a t s u c c e s s The same q u e s t i o n was  r e g a r d i n g what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be h a r m f u l l e g i s l a t i o n — t i v e c a t e g o r i e s went up t o  I g n a z i o S i l o n e ' s Fontamara.  God  was  asked the r e s p e c -  68%.  The peasant's a t t i t u d e toward h i s s t a t i o n i n l i f e may  s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y as  dis-  When q u e s t i o n e d as  the l i k e l i n e s s o f t h e i r s u c c e s s i f they attempted  "somewhat u n l i k e l y " o r " i m p o s s i b l e " .  he  be seen i n  The peasant r e p l i e d t o a q u e s t i o n about  the  follows:  i s at the head o f e v e r y t h i n g , commanding the heaven  Everybody knows t h i s . Then comes P r i n c e T o r l o n i a , r u l e r of the e a r t h . Then comes the guard of the p r i n c e . Then comes the p r i n c e ' s guard's dogs. Then n o t h i n g . Then more n o t h i n g . Then s t i l l more nothings Then come the p e a s a n t s . One can say t h a t i s a l l . 28 Quoted i n N.S. Peabody, "Toward an Understanding o f Backwardness and Change: A C r i t i q u e o f the B a n f i e l d H y p o t h e s i s " , i n J o u r n a l o f the D e v e l o p i n g A r e a s , A p r i l 1970 ( h i s t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  35  One it  r e a l i z e s t h a t t h i s i s the way does not do t o "make waves".  t h i n g s are arranged i n the w o r l d , and The terms b r a c c i a r i t i , a r t i g i a n i , p r o -  p r i e t a r i , s i g n o r i , p r o f e s s o r e , and s t u d e n t i a l l connote r e l a t i v e of the  r e s p e c t and p r e s t i g e i n r e l a t i o n t o one another. p r e r o g a t i v e s o f one's s t r a t u m .  degrees  One must not o v e r s t e p  Indeed, respondents i n the Almond and  Verba  sample were asked t o choose a p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y they thought most admirable from a l i s t  of nine possible choices.  s e l f " and " r e s p e c t f u l —  The two  doesn't o v e r s t e p h i s p l a c e " were/rated* at; the. top by  18% and 14% o f the respondents r e s p e c t i v e l y . w e l l " was  c a t e g o r i e s "keeps t o him-  The t r a i t  "does h i s job  r a t e d as most admirable by 26% o f the respondents.  From t h e s e  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the most admirable t r a i t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw a compos i t e p i c t u r e of an i n d i v i d u a l who  "does h i s j o b w e l l , keeps to h i m s e l f and  doesn't o v e r s t e p h i s p l a c e " which would, presumably  be r a t e d as most 29  admirable by a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n . A s i d e from the f a c t t h a t the r i g i d i t y o f the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y i s c u l t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d i n terms o f the norm "don't o v e r s t e p your p l a c e o r i n t e r m e d d l e i n t o the a f f a i r s o f o t h e r s " , the r i g i d i t y ened by a sense o f f a t a l i s m which giorno.  i s furthered  runs through the c u l t u r e o f the Mezzo-  The sense o f f a t a l i s m i s t o be expected i n t h a t the l a c k o f  f a t a l i s m i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l one's environment tent.  strength-  t o a g r e a t ex-  The peasant has always been unable t o c o n t r o l those f a c t o r s  govern h i s environment  and l o t i n l i f e  —  the weather,  d i s e a s e , the government, and the landowners.  which  natural catastrophes,  F u r t h e r the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  As a p o i n t o f c o n t r a s t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the t r a i t " a c t i v e i n s o c i a l and p u b l i c l i f e " was deemed most admirable by o n l y 5% of the respondents. /  y  36  c o n t r o l of these f a c t o r s does not  exist —  "Peasants see  themselves 30  as s u b j e c t The  to the working o f h i s t o r y but fatalism ofvla miseria  through h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , " i n s u r a n c e " arrangement — separate p l o t s of land.  which o f t e n e x h i b i t the  i n any  the p r i e s t can be  shopkeeper can  of that  does not  go hungry w h i l e w a i t i n g  c r e d i t , or the  f o r the new  i n d i v i d u a l has kept h i s f r i e n d s h i p  the w o r l d o f l a m i s e r i a s u c c e s s , as w e l l  t h a t the  3  love  the  J U  the  applications  of the  and  form  individual  inumerable  ex-  family  a l l of t h i s  up.  do  to assure h i s  Success i s seen as the  in  own product  p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e i s deemed as I t a l i a n s from a l l areas  become a n a t i o n a l pastime.  c i t . , p.  f u r y of  t o i t t h a t one's  harvest —  also p o t e n t i a l l y harmful.  l o t t e r y , which has  Friedmann, op.  see  i n d i v i d u a l can  as t h a t o f h i s c h i l d r e n .  u s e l e s s , but  who  arrangement though, t h e r e i s l i t t l e  o f l u c k o r d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , ^ - and only  speed l o a n  grant c r e d i t and  landowner can  Beyond t h i s p a t r o n - c l i e n t  not  of overcoming the  i n f l u e n t i a l on b e h a l f  tensions  because the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  i s the most p r e v a l e n t  A p e r s o n a l f r i e n d i n the government can  number of ways, the  the i n d i v i d u a l  d e s i r e o f the peasant to work  on one's b e h a l f  of human i n i t i a t i v e taken toward the end  on t h e i r way,  by  c u l t i v a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p w i t h those  do have the power to i n t e r c e d e  Fates.  as makers of i t . "  can be p a r t i a l l y m i t i g a t e d  much l i k e the The  scarcely  In the Mezzogiorno  324.  31 I t must be noted t h a t even the concept of d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s not f r e e from the p a t r o n - c l i e n t syndrome. Indeed, d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s the i n t e r c e s s i o n o f a p a t r o n s a i n t , who i s the more p o w e r f u l f i g u r e i n a d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the s a i n t has been "earned" v i a h i s c o n t i n u e d p r o p i t i a t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l .  an  37  the l o t t e r y i s viewed as one  o f those  menal s t r o k e of l u c k which w i l l  avenues which o f f e r the pheno-  remove the peasant from h i s  B a n f i e l d found t h i s f a t a l i s m i n Montegrano:  fate.  "In the Montegrano view,  a c t i o n i s the r e s u l t more o f f o r c e s p l a y i n g upon the i n d i v i d u a l than o f 32 motivations provides  a r i s i n g w i t h i n him."'  The  f a t a l i s m o f l a _ m i s e r i a , then,  a f u r t h e r s a n c t i o n a g a i n s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government and com-  munity a f f a i r s . government and  Besides  b e i n g beyond the scope o f the o r d i n a r y peasant,  i t s improvement are more due  to l u c k and o t h e r  outside  forces. Moss and  Cappannari a l s o found the element o f f a t a l i s m as i t  r e l a t e s t o the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y i n t h e i r study  of Cortina d'Aglio  pseudonym f o r a M o l i s a n v i l l a g e meaning "the g a r l i c c u r t a i n " ) .  (a  They s t a t e :  Upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s p o s s i b l e but d i f f i c u l t . I f the son o f a peasant were to become a p h y s i c i a n ( u n l i k e l y but w i t h i n the realm o f p o s s i b i l i t y ) , he would not be admitted to membership i n the upper class. He s t i l l remains the son o f a c o n t a d i n o (peasant). While he i s c o n s i d e r e d as above h i s c l a s s o f o r i g i n , he i s not a member of the c l a s s to. which he aspires. A l l o f our informants shook t h e i r heads over t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l case and i n d i c a t e d t h a t he would be n e i t h e r one nor the o t h e r , and, furthermore, such a case of m o b i l i t y was termed u n l i k e l y . The  peasant, then, does not view h i s chances f o r improvement of h i s l o t  i n l i f e as b e i n g very g r e a t . has  always known, and  He  has  t h a t which was  r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f t o t h a t which he known to h i s f o r e f a t h e r s b e f o r e  him.  32 B a n f i e l d , op.  c i t . , p.  131.  33 Leonard W. Moss and Stephen Cappannari, " E s t a t e and C l a s s i n a South I t a l i a n H i l l V i l l a g e " i n American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 64, No. 2, A p r i l , . 1 9 6 2 , p. 293.  38  The  p o v e r t y o f the a r e a , and  i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o the  o u t l o o k of l a m i s e r i a , i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e r i v e d system of the Mezzogiorno.  Unlike  philosophic  from the l a n d  tenure  c e n t r a l I t a l y , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by a predominance o f the mezzadria  c o n t r a c t where the  landowner and  peasant share expenses and p r o d u c t e q u a l l y , the a g r i c u l t u r a l lands South are worked under a patchwork o f d i f f e r e n t arrangements. often a reluctance  The  r e n t s are not p r o p o r t i o n a t e  one  y e a r and  to the h a r v e s t ;  disadvantageous the n e x t . —  l a n d l o r d at a time, or he may laborer concurrently. among o f f s p r i n g has  The  be  they may  a peasant may  rent  and  a legal  from more than  traone  equally  r e s u l t e d i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r p l o t s w i t h concomiThe  peasant's r e l a t i o n s h i p to b o t h  o f l a n d r a t h e r than c a r e f o r them on.a  over time. learned  Lacking  any  the  long  to e x p l o i t h i s p l o t s  l o n g term b a s i s .  In the Mezzo-  t r a d i t i o n of the happy peasant c l o s e l y t i e d t o h i s  l a n d , working i t s s o i l w i t h a f f e c t i v e t i e s to " h i s  land".  c u l t i v a t o r o f the South i s n e c e s s a r i l y , more s e l f -  than h i s c o u n t e r p a r t  are  a r e n t e r , s h a r e c r o p p e r , owner, and wage-  term commitments o r l e a s e s , the peasant has  The  advantageous  Furthermore, because p l o t s  landowner are t y p i c a l l y u n s t a b l e  t h e r e i s no  be  type  peasants.  t r a d i t i o n o f d i v i d i n g i n h e r i t e d lands  tant i n c r e a s i n g l y small y i e l d s .  giorno,  the  There i s  on t h i s  t o the  a product o f b i l a t e r a l k i n s h i p p a t t e r n s  d i t i o n of p a r t i b l e i n h e r i t a n c e —  l a n d and  value placed  c o n s e q u e n t l y he most o f t e n r e n t s h i s lands  unintegrated  of  on the p a r t of the landowner to become i n v o l v e d i n the  a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e because of the n e g a t i v e o f work —  the  i n the N o r t h o r C e n t r a l I t a l y .  reliant  Under the terms of  tenancy, the c u l t i v a t o r must assume a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r success  or  39  f a i l u r e of the harvest.  He must take the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d e c i s i o n s  as w e l l as p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y manual l a b o r . make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g investment,  He must seek c r e d i t ,  and h i r e e x t r a l a b o r when n e c e s s a r y .  C o n t i n u a l l y l i v i n g on the b r i n k o f economic r u i n , and i n p e r e n n i a l need o f l o a n s , c r e d i t , and food s u p p l i e s t o t i d e the f a m i l y over u n t i l t h e next h a r v e s t , l e a v e s t h e peasant  i n c o n s t a n t need o f f r i e n d s who can  perform these f u n c t i o n s and p r o v i d e Mm  and h i s f a m i l y w i t h  sustenance.  He i s c o n t i n u a l l y a t l e a s t a p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t i n a p a t r o n - c l i e n t  rela-  t i o n s h i p , who i s g e n e r a l l y w i l l i n g t o g i v e h i s r e s p e c t and v o t e t o whomever w i l l p r o v i d e f o r h i s and h i s f a m i l y ' s needs and make s u r e t h a t they won't p e r i s h i n t r o u b l e d t i m e s . There i s one way out o f t h e p o v e r t y and l a m i s e r i a o f the Mezzog i o r n o which has been used q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n the p a s t twenty y e a r s emigration.  Over 5 m i l l i o n people —  mostly young men —  from the Mezzogiorno over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , mostly n o r t h e r n i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s o f M i l a n and T u r i n .  have  —  emigrated  t o America o r the  Some have gone t o Germany  and S w i t z e r l a n d t o work, r e t u r n i n g t o spend t h e i r two weeks h o l i d a y w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s l e f t behind.  E m i g r a t i o n i s viewed as a v i a b l e escape  from l a m i s e r i a o f p o v e r t y because i t i n v o l v e d u s u a l l y o c c u p a t i o n a l , as w e l l as l o c a t i o n a l change.  Given t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r an urban way o f  l i f e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most p r e i n d u s t r i a l towns, " c i v i l i z e d " becomes equated w i t h " u r b a n i z e d " .  The mere p r e v a l e n c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n the Mezzogiorno does not n e c e s s i t a t e a r u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n .  activity Lopreato  See S y d e l S i l v e r m a n ' s " A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and Values i n I t a l y : Amoral F a m i l i s m R e c o n s i d e r e d " i n American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 70, February 1968. J  40  sums up e m i g r a t i o n as  follows:  In h i s c a s e , t h i s b a s i c wish can o n l y mean a c e s s a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Emigration i s patently s u i t e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l ; b a r r i n g few exceptions i t i n v o l v e s a l s o o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y and s o c i a l betterment. In s h o r t , the worked on f o r seems t o be a esteem, t h e i r  peasants are l e a v i n g the l a n d they have many r e a s o n s , but foremost among them d e s i r e to regain, or to earn, t h e i r s e l f d i g n i t y , and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y .  The d i f f e r e n c e between r u r a l and urban c u l t u r e s i s profound i n the  eyes o f the p e o p l e o f the Mezzogiorno.  Giuseppe  Z., one o f D o l c i ' s  i n f o r m a n t s , speaks o f h i m s e l f and o t h e r p e a s a n t s : They're not q u i c k - w i t t e d l i k e c i t y f o l k s ; i f you're i n a c i t y you're more a l i v e , you l e a r n how t o use your head, but when you see n o t h i n g but mountains and sky day i n , day o u t , you're j u s t l i k e the sheep, and when t h e r e are wolves about.... ^ 3  E m i g r a t i o n i s not the s o l u t i o n t h a t i t seems though.  Almond and  Verba's  study showed t h a t 67% o f the p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d d e f i n i t e l y planned on s t a y i n g i n t h e i r town o f r e s i d e n c e , w h i l e o n l y 6% d e f i n i t e l y planned on moving from the town. in  Furthermore,  83% o f those i n t e r v i e w e d had  t h e i r towns o f r e s i d e n c e f o r "20 y e a r s o r more —  ' a l l my  Many o f the emigrants r e t u r n t o the South t o enjoy t h e i r w e a l t h , which seems t o l a s t a l i t t l e  lived  life'."  hard-earned  l o n g e r i n the Mezzogiorno.  Here  Quoted i n D a n i l o D o l c i ' s To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. 247. B a n f i e l d a l s o notes the same a t t i t u d e i n Montegrano: "Importance i s (emphasis h i s ) a t t a c h e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e between town and c o u n t r y manners. The c o u n t r y - d w e l l i n g peasant, a l t h o u g h he i s g e n e r a l l y much b e t t e r o f f than the town d w e l l i n g peasant, i s o f t e n regarded as a 'rube' ( c a f o n e ) . H i s speech, d r e s s , and country ways are r i d i c u l e d by those who themselves have no l a n d o r l i v e s t o c k and sometimes not even a mouthful o f b r e a d " ( B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 71).  41  they s e t examples w i t h t h e i r a c q u i r e d urban ways and s t y l e s , and i n f l a t e d s t o r i e s o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a w a i t i n g those who  tell  decide to  f o l l o w t h e i r example. B e s i d e s r e l i e v i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on the l a n d , (which i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t phenomenon i n the Mezzogiorno), to  the w e l f a r e of those who  emigration contributes  s t a y b e h i n d , i n the form of g i f t s and money  sent back to h e l p r e l a t i v e s .  The  c o n t i n u e d r e l i a n c e upon the good w i l l  and g i f t s sent from emigrants  though, condemns the p e a s a n t r y o f the  Mezzogiorno t o c o n t i n u a l l y l i v i n g i n r e l a t i v e , i f not a b s o l u t e , p o v e r t y . There a r e , however, o t h e r adverse e f f e c t s of e m i g r a t i o n which s e r v e to p e r p e t u a t e the p o v e r t y and l a m i s e r i a o f the r e g i o n . emigrants  A great bulk of  from the Mezzogiorno are the more ambitious young men  something b e t t e r than the l i f e o f t h e i r f a t h e r s .  The  cost of  who  seek  raising  these people f a l l s upon the Mezzogiorno, but the f r u i t s of t h e i r p r o 37 d u c t i v i t y a r e d r a i n e d o f f e i t h e r t o the government,  or to northern  i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s where they work, r e n t an apartment, buy and  raise their families.  development of the South,  their clothes,  E m i g r a t i o n can a l s o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the i n t h a t the v e r y i n d i v i d u a l s who  the more ambitious and m o b i l e , and  emigrate  t h e r e f o r e , p r o b a b l y the most  to  e f f e c t i n g change w i t h i n the r e g i o n .  is  enhanced by d r a i n i n g o f f these  The  capable  s t a b i l i t y of the s t a t u s  ' d i s s a t i s f i e d ' elements, who  f a t a l i s t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r chances f o r a b e t t e r l i f e  are  quo  are  i n the  One of the more p o p u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s f o r young male emigrants i s t h a t of the c a r a b i n i e r i o r p o l i c e , a p o s i t i o n which i s , f o r some reason ( p o s s i b l y the power i n v o l v e d ) v e r y p r e s t i g i o u s i n the eyes o f young men i n the South.  42  Mezzogiorno, of  y e t a r e a b l e t o muster enough i n i t i a t i v e to break many  t h e i r o l d t i e s t o the r e g i o n o f t h e i r b i r t h and move t o the  i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s i n the hope o f new  found w e a l t h and  larger  ease.  Chapman's study o f M i l o c c a , a l t h o u g h made f o r t y y e a r s ago, p l a y s e s s e n t i a l l y the same a t t i t u d e which p r e v a i l s today, except  disthat  the n o r t h e r n c i t i e s o f I t a l y have become more a t t r a c t i v e t o the wouldbe emigrant.  She  says:  L i f e and i t s i n t e r e s t s c e n t e r i n M i l o c c a , and i n those f a r away o u t p o s t s o f M i l o c c a i n P e n n s y l v a n i a and Alabama from which come l e t t e r s t e l l i n g o f the b i r t h o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n , the i l l n e s s of a b r o t h e r , or the marriage o f a nephew t o a f i n e g i r l , though a Turk (the term a p p l i e d to a l l n o n - C a t h o l i c s r e g a r d l e s s o f n a t i o n a l i t y o r c r e e d ) . The l u r e o f America i s s t r o n g , e s p e c i a l l y t o the younger peas a n t s who dream o f r i c h e s gained by l a b o r l i g h t e r than t h a t which they know, r i c h e s w i t h which they c o u l d r e t u r n , buy l a n d , and s e t t l e down as r e s p e c t e d p r o p r i e t o r s . . . . B u t , f a i l i n g America, they f e e l no urge t o go t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . . . . The u n f o r t u n a t e s , those who  do not emigrate, are condemned t o  l i v e the l i f e o f p o v e r t y and l a m i s e r i a .  They are the ones who  must  keep a close watch on t h e i r n e i g h b o r s , t r y t o f o r m u l a t e i n t r i c a t e  net-  works o f f r i e n d s h i p , and stand alone a g a i n s t the f o r c e s o f n a t u r e  and  evil;  as  and throughout  a l l t h i s , t r y to maintain t h e i r self-respect  w e l l as the r e s p e c t o f the community. for  Two  o f D o l c i ' s i n f o r m a n t s speak  these p e o p l e : They (the r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s ) i s s u e me an E.C.A. c a r d every month, and I draw 1,000 l i r e r e l i e f money, I want work — what do they t h i n k I can do w i t h the  Chapman, op. c i t . ,  pp.  19-20.  43  m i s e r a b l e l i t t l e b i t s they d o l e me out? I'm l o o k i n g f o r a j o b . Every time I take 50 l i r e from my son t o buy a c r u s t o f b r e a d w i t h , I f e e l s i c k w i t h shame. The moment he's gone I b e g i n t o b l u b b e r . . . . I can't b r i n g m y s e l f t o ask the p a s s e r s - b y f o r charity. I've been a worker a l l my l i f e , and I'm only f i f t y years o l d . I'm b e g i n n i n g t o go queer i n the head. I used t o t r y and p u z z l e out how I'd come to such a p a s s . But I've stopped t h i n k i n g — I can't t h i n k anymore. Work, work, work, — how can I f i n d work — that's a l l that's l e f t i n my mind.-* 9  ...my w i f e f e l l i l l , and had to go t o the h o s p i t a l . I c o u l d n ' t f i n d a j o b , and t h i n g s went from bad t o worse f o r me; o f t e n and o f t e n , I went hungry t o bed. But what I minded most was h a v i n g to go empty-handed t o the h o s p i t a l t o v i s i t my w i f e . I t made be b i t t e r l y ashamed o f m y s e l f — I f e l t I wasn't a r e a l man, a p r o p e r husband. What a r e d - l e t t e r day i t was f o r me when I was a b l e t o take her an orange. An orange — what's an orange, y o u ' l l say. To me i t was e v e r y t h i n g . The  component o f p o v e r t y and l a m i s e r i a f e l t most deeply by  peasant o f the Mezzogiorno  i s not the l a c k o f food o r c l o t h i n g —  the d i s g r a z i a which p o v e r t y so o f t e n b r i n g s i n i t s wake. t h i s , yet f a i l s  Banfield  t o take i t i n t o account i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f h i s  hypothesis. He (the peasant o f the Mezzogiorno) l i v e s i n a c u l t u r e i n which i t i s v e r y important t o be admired, and he sees t h a t by i t s standards he cannot be admired i n the l e a s t ; by these s t a n d a r d s he and e v e r y t h i n g about him are c o n t e m p t i b l e and r i d i c u l o u s . Knowing t h i s , he i s f i l l e d w i t h l o a t h i n g f o r h i s l o t and w i t h anger f o r the f a t e s which a s s i g n e d him t o i t . . . . La M i s e r i a , i t seems s a f e t o c o n c l u d e , a r i s e s as much  * D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. }  I b i d . , p.  37.  103.  the i t is notes  44 or more from s o c i a l as from b i o l o g i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n s . T h i s b e i n g the c a s e , t h e r e i s ho reason to expect that a moderate i n c r e a s e i n income would make the atmosphere of the v i l l a g e any l e s s heavy w i t h melancholy. ^ B a n f i e l d ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t the peasant a c t s as i f he were f o l l o w i n g the "Maximize the m a t e r i a l s h o r t - r u n  advantage of the n u c l e a r  family...",  r e s t s upon the assumption of i r r a t i o n a l i t y on the p a r t o f the i n t h a t the peasant i s p u r s u i n g m a t e r i a l advantage. noted b e h a v i o r a l  The  ascribed  argued  (and  then,  peasant,  secondary importance, i . e . ,  a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that B a n f i e l d  p a t t e r n s but  I f , as t h i s c h a p t e r has  something of o n l y  rule  has  i t to the wrong s e t of i n c e n t i v e s .  B a n f i e l d has  n o t e d ) , the d i s g r a z i a  r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n are among the most d e e p l y f e l t  and  components of l a  m i s e r i a , i t appears i n c o r r e c t to argue t h a t the peasant i s a c t i n g i n a manner s o l e l y to i n c r e a s e h i s s h o r t - r u n m a t e r i a l advantage.  I t would appear  more l o g i c a l to assume t h a t he pursues those " s o c i a l goods" upon which  he,  himself  a  places a high value.  h i g h v a l u e upon honor and m a t e r i a l advantage i f we 2) the r o u t e advantage". The  We  cannot argue t h a t the peasant p l a c e s  p r e s t i g e and  understand t h a t 1)  to "honor and  T h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l be peasant sees two  he  acts s o l e l y for  the peasant i s r a t i o n a l ;  f u r t h e r pursued  b a s i c ways out  "friend".  c i t . , pp.  64-65.  and  material  later.  of l a m i s e r i a , e i t h e r through  hand, or e m i g r a t i o n  these a l t e r n a t i v e s , the most expedient t h i n g to do  B a n f i e l d , op.  short-run  p r e s t i g e " i s d i f f e r e n t than " s h o r t - r u n  l u c k o r d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n on the one Barring  that  on the  other.  i s to f i n d  a  45  CHAPTER I I I  Patron-Client  Relationships  I t i s the n a t u r e o f men t o be as much bound by the b e n e f i t s t h a t they c o n f e r as by those they r e c e i v e . Machiavelli Patron-client itical  r e l a t i o n s h i p s form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the  c u l t u r e throughout I t a l y , but  our  i n which the concept o f p a t r o n - c l i e n t  i n t e r e s t here i s the manner  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the  of the moral code of the Mezzogiorno peasant, and patron-client The two  pol-  manifestation  the e f f e c t t h a t  these  r e l a t i o n s h i p s have upon the peasant's moral o u t l o o k .  patron-client  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p a r t i e s o f unequal s t a t u s , w e a l t h , and  i n f l u e n c e , who  bind  themselves  t o g e t h e r on the b a s i s o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n the exchange o f non-comparable goods and  s e r v i c e s , and  relationship usually —  affective ties.  rests heavily  t h a t member of dyad w i t h the  has,  by  d e f i n i t i o n , the g r e a t e r  on  greater  i n t h a t each member o f the o t h e r persons o u t s i d e contain not  the  dyad a c t s dyad, the  power.  generally  p a r t i e s may  feigned  The  be  patron  influence  H i s needs are critical.  the  While  s a i d t o be  r e l a t i o n s h i p must,  o r the  the  instrumental to  nevertheless,  If this affective tie is  relationship w i l l  —  generally  as a p o t e n t i a l c o n n e c t i n g l i n k  at l e a s t a minimal amount o f a f f e c t .  p r e s e n t , i t must be  contact.  s t a t u s , w e a l t h , and  bargaining  two  a number of r e a s o n s ,  face-to-face  m i n i m a l , w h i l e those of the c l i e n t are f r i e n d s h i p e x i s t i n g between the  For  cease.  notes t h a t , i n the Mezzogiorno, these p a t r o n r c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Powell tend  46  to be enduring over time; e x t e n s i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o the number and type of needs covered by the r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and i n t e n s i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e affective  f e e l i n g s i n v o l v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  P a t r o n - c l i e n t t i e s , u n l i k e those o f k i n s h i p t i e s , are n o t a s c r i b e d , but r a t h e r a c h i e v e d ; and one must "keep h i s f r i e n d s h i p s up", so t o speak. fillment In  The r e l a t i o n s h i p may be b r o k e n . i n the event o f n o n - f u l -  o f the i n f o r m a l , u n w r i t t e n , and o f t e n unspoken " c o n t r a c t " .  r e t u r n f o r the s e r v i c e s o f t h e p a t r o n —  as l e t t e r s  which may i n c l u d e such t h i n g s  o f recommendation f o r a j o b , e n t r a n c e t o s c h o o l , o r the  r e c e i v i n g o f government s e r v i c e s ; a l o a n i n the form o f cash o r food t o l a s t u n t i l the new h a r v e s t ; o u t r i g h t g i f t s o f money t o p r o v i d e f o r a needed dowry, s c h o o l i n g o r some o t h e r f i n a n c i a l i s i n c a p a b l e o f meeting; client  o u t l a y which t h e c l i e n t  o r any o t h e r s e r v i c e s he might  render —  the  g e n e r a l l y g i v e s esteem ( i n t h e form o f demonstrating t h a t esteem  before others); loyalty;  promises  f o r p o l i t i c a l support; small o f f e r i n g s  such as eggs, cheeses and o t h e r s m a l l g i f t s ; and i n f o r m a t i o n on the movements and a c t i v i t i e s  of others.  geous t o t h e c l i e n t ,  i n t h a t s i n c e v a r i o u s p a t r o n s a r e seen t o be  competing client  (This l a s t  i s also i n d i r e c t l y  advanta-  w i t h one another at every l e v e l , i t i s advantageous t o t h e  t o have a p o w e r f u l p a t r o n . ) Most p e o p l e i n a patronage system occupy p a t r o n and c l i e n t  simultaneously.  In t h i s  roles  sense, t h e p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t  See John D. Powell's"Peasant S o c i e t y and C l i e n t e l i s t P o l i t i c s " i n American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, V o l . LXIV (June 1970) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p .  47  s t r i c t l y d y a d i c , but r a t h e r g r e a t systems o f patronage a r e These patronage systems  formed.  are not s i m p l y patronage " c h a i n s " o r a s e r i e s  o f d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; r a t h e r , a more apt d e p i c t i o n would be t h a t o f a number o f p y r a m i d a l s t r u c t u r e s , not d i r e c t l y  related.  Occupation of  the p a t r o n r o l e i s p r e s t i g i o u s , i n t h a t s o c i a l p r e s t i g e i s o f t e n measured i n terms o f the r e s o u r c e s a p e r s o n can command t o p r o t e c t and the p o s i t i o n of h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . as "Don"  —  advance  The p a t r o n i s o f t e n addressed  a g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s s t a t u s and power.  In t h i s  sense the p a t r o n , and those connected w i t h him, enjoy the freedom anonymity  from  and the b e n e f i t s o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n p r o v i d i n g the  2 i n d i v i d u a l with a meaningful place i n s o c i e t y . The e f f i c a c y o f the p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s enhanced the i n e f f i c i e n c y and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c r a c y and c i v i l s e r v i c e .  by  bureau-  The government i s o f t e n viewed as the peasant's  worst enemy i n t h a t i t has, f o r c e n t u r i e s , l e g i t i m i z e d h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n . In the words o f the p o e t - p r i e s t Vincenzo P a d u l a , the peasant "has been educated t o c o n s i d e r the government as h i s worst enemy w h i l e e x p e c t i n g 3 t h a t i t do e v e r y t h i n g f o r him" i n d u s t r i a l i n nature.  The s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y tends t o be p r e -  "Each m i n i s t r y resembles a f e u d a l h i e r a r c h y ,  The v e r y concept o f freedom from anonymity and the enjoyment o f a sense o f s e l f - w o r t h as an i n d i v i d u a l may be one o f t h e prime f a c t o r s i n p e r p e t u a t i n g the patronage system. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s sense o f "community", see Sheldon Wolin's P o l i t i c s and V i s i o n , Chapter 10, where he i d e n t i f i e s the s e a r c h f o r a sense o f s e l f - w o r t h as an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the community as one o f the prime agents i n the development o f Fascism. Quoted  i n Friedmann,  op. c i t . , p.  330.  48  j e a l o u s of i t s own  prerogatives."  government and the c i v i l the  The g e n e r a l i l l e g i t i m a c y o f the  s e r v i c e i s f u r t h e r exacerbated i n t h a t , to  s o u t h e r n I t a l i a n , " j u s t i c e " and the " r u l e o f law" are o f t e n  d i f f e r e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n c e p t s .  two  The a n c i e n t laws handed down  through the g e n e r a t i o n s are o f t e n f a r removed from t h e l e g i s l a t i o n passed a t M o n t e c i t o r i o i n Rome.  Those who  ment on the b a s i s of a more autochthonous  f i g h t a g a i n s t the governsystem o f laws are o f t e n  c o n s i d e r e d h e r o e s , not o n l y by the poor o f the Mezzogiorno, but o f t e n by p e o p l e throughout I t a l y .  Witness the p o p u l a r i t y o f the  b a n d i t S a l v a t o r e G i u l i a n o , who  Sicilian  p l a y e d the r o l e o f a modern day  Hood, and c o n s i s t e n t l y out-maneuvered the c a r a b i n i e r i u n t i l  Robin  h i s death.  A Palermitan street-sweeper talked to Danilo D o l c i of G i u l i a n o : G i u l i a n o had the whole o f S i c i l y i n t i m a t e d . He (emphasis h i s ) c o u l d have put e v e r y t h i n g r i g h t . He s h o u l d have been k i n g o f S i c i l y and put e v e r y t h i n g i n o r d e r . But they k i l l e d him: h e r e anyone who wants t o do something f o r the poor i s killed. 5  In  a h o s t i l e w o r l d one needs f r i e n d s , and i t pays t o "keep the  fences o f f r i e n d s h i p " mended.  The g r a n t i n g of a f a v o r must be met  with  r e c i p r o c i t y i n o r d e r t h a t one's f r i e n d s h i p can be c a l l e d upon i n times of  adversity.  n e i g h b o r s , who  The peasant o f the Mezzogiorno  needs p r o t e c t i o n from h i s  are t r y i n g to outdo him i n one way  o r another; he needs  H.S. Kartadjoemena, "Economic Development i n Southern I t a l y : The Problems of P o l i c y and the Search f o r Instruments" i n Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l ; X I I : 2 , -Summer 1969. p. 292. D o l c i , The Man Who  P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . , p.  108.  49  p r o t e c t i o n from what i s o f t e n viewed as an a l i e n l e g a l system; and, i n some p a r t s o f the Mezzogiorno, he needs p r o t e c t i o n from the v i o l e n c e and e x p l o i t a t i o n by t h e v a r i o u s m a f i o s i , which i s p a r t o f t h e everyday There are n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s a l s o , which he must p r o t e c t h i m s e l f through t h e use o f f r i e n d s h i p —  a bad h a r v e s t ,  life.  against  drought, h a i l s t o r m s , and  rock s l i d e s which may suddenly c a r r y away h i s house o r f i e l d s .  Boissevain  sums up the problem and i t s r e s o l u t i o n as c a r r i e d out i n S i c i l y , a p a t t e r n which seems a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e r e s t o f the Mezzogiorno: Thus the b a s i c problem t h e S i c i l i a n f a c e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the w o r l d o f non-kin i s how t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f from h i s enemies, both known and unknown; and how t o i n f l u e n c e t h e remote, i m p e r s o n a l , i f n o t h o s t i l e , a u t h o r i t i e s who make t h e d e c i s i o n s which c o n t r o l h i s w e l l - b e i n g and t h a t o f h i s f a m i l y , w i t h whom h i s honor and s t a n d i n g i n t h e community i s so i n t i m a t e l y bound. Most r e s o l v e t h e s e problems by s e e k i n g out s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d p r o t e c t o r s and f r i e n d s , who t o g e t h e r w i t h Kinsmen, make up the p e r s o n a l network o f c o n t a c t s through whom the average S i c i l i a n a t tempts t o p r o t e c t and advance t h e f o r t u n e s o f h i s family. The w e l l - p l a c e d  patron  can be o f immeasurable b e n e f i t , p a r t i c u l a r -  l y i f he i s connected w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t government.  o f a l l s p o i l a g e systems — the  Southerners a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y t a k i n g over t h e r e i n s o f t h e  government b u r e a u c r a c y , and have used t h e i r new found r e s o u r c e s  t o pay  t h e i r debts o f f r i e n d s h i p through t h e rewarding o f j o b s , l i c e n s e s , cont r a c t s , and g r a n t s .  Boissevain,  7  The I t a l i a n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  system  being  op. c i t . , p. 21.  See D o l c i ' s The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . ; a l s o f f 8 and 9 ( t h i s chapter) l o c . c i t . 7  50  what i t i s , i t l e n d s i t s e l f patterns.  t o the implementation  of patron-client  B u r e a u c r a t i c red-tape a f f o r d s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o some e n t e r -  p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l t o speed up an a p p l i c a t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r the p r o p e r payment.  The semi-autonomous a g e n c i e s and o f f i c e s a r e l e f t  without  s u p e r v i s i o n , and a g a i n i n d i v i d u a l s use t h e i r r e s o u r c e s i n a p r o f i t a b l e game . The game i s Sottogoverno. I t basically consists o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f patronage on a v a s t s c a l e t o p r o v i d e money, j o b s and v o t e s f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t h e i r a l l i e s . P a r t i e s and p o l i t i c i a n s need m o n e y . . . . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , t o r e t a i n the a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e i r b e s t men, need access t o a 'Stanza b e i B o t t o n i , ' a room where you can push the r i g h t buttons...•The b e s t p l a y e r s are the C h r i s t i a n Democrats.... Things have not improved ment.  much w i t h r e g a r d t o the e f f i c i e n c y o f the govern-  F i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r The Economist  r e p o r t e d e s s e n t i a l l y the same  thing: A d m i n i s t r a t o r s o p e r a t e an o v e r c e n t r a l i z e d system which i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y i n touch w i t h l o c a l needs. The i n e f f i c i e n c y o f such a system, o p e r a t i n g i n i t s own l a b y r i n t h o f red-tape tends t o f a v o r t h e s t r o n g and a l i e n a t e the weak w i t h o u t imposing c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n on a f f a i r s . The r e s u l t i s t h e innumerable autonomous c e n t e r s o f power which l i v e t h e i r p a r t l y s e p a r a t e l i v e s , from governmental agencies t h a t have gone i n t o o r b i t , t o l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s , landowners, g u i l d s , p r o f e s s i o n s o r even, i n S i c i l y , the M a f i a . ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the p i c t u r e o f the bureaucracy  g  15-21  The Economist, A p r i l , 1972.  The Economist, March, 1967. 9  "Italy:  The incomplete m i r a c l e " ( V o l . 243:  "The Emerging S t a t e " ( V o l . 222:  6447), 18-21  6712),  51  p o r t r a y e d by The Economist  f i t s very nearly p e r f e c t l y w i t h the i d e a l  system o f patronage p o r t r a y e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r ; i . e . , a number o f p y r a m i d a l s t r u c t u r e s not d i r e c t l y connected.  The  public  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system, w i t h i t s semi-autonomous c e n t r e s of power l e a v e s the  o f f i c e h o l d e r f r e e t o use h i s o f f i c e as a p e r s o n a l s i n e c u r e , and t o  b u i l d h i s own p y r a m i d a l s t r u c t u r e from above.  He i s a b l e t o use the  funds at h i s d i s p o s a l , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , h i s i n f l u e n c e , i n t a k i n g c a r e o f t h o s e who the  have demonstrated t h e i r l o y a l t y i n an attempt t o g a i n  l o y a l t y o f o t h e r s f o r f u t u r e c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h those who  r e l i e v e him o f h i s o f f i c e . the  would  Moss and Cappannari note t h i s a t t i t u d e on  p a r t of o f f i c e h o l d e r s i n C o r t i n a d ' A g l i o where those who  held  l e g i t i m a t e power p o s i t i o n s r e t a i n f e u d a l a t t i t u d e s o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p r e r o g a t i v e s o f t h e i r o f f i c e .  The f e u d a l o u t l o o k o f  these o f f i c e h o l d e r s , they n o t e , i s supported by the r i g i d i t y o f the governmental b u r e a u c r a c y and i t s o r i e n t a t i o n toward maintenance status quo.^  o f the  The degree t o which p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e has come t o be viewed  as a p e r s o n a l s i n e c u r e f o r the improvement o f i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s i s s t a t e d f l a t l y by Kartadjoemena. system i n I t a l y , he s a y s :  Speaking o f the p u b l i c  administration  "More than an i n s t r u m e n t f o r governmental i n -  t e r v e n t i o n and a c t i o n , i t i s a system o f p a t r o n a g e . P o l i t i c a l  power  has come t o be used f o r the b u i l d i n g o f p e r s o n a l patronage systems, and  ^ See Moss and Cappannari, " E s t a t e and C l a s s i n a South H i l l V i l l a g e " op. c i t . , p. 299. ^  Kartadjoemena,  op. c i t . ,  p.  291.  Italian  52 i s most o f t e n used t o c o n t r o l funds  i n a manner b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e i n d i -  v i d u a l o f f i c e h o l d e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . The peasantry  e f f e c t s o f the i n e f f i c i e n t are manifest  informants:  government bureaucracy  i n t h e i r own words.  upon the  Peppino, one o f D o l c i ' s  " I t ' s t h e ones on top who h o l d t h e s t r i n g s ; you can't get  anywhere without  a friend at court.  the s a y i n g goes."  0 l ' a m i c i z i a o l a s o r u bedda, as  (You must e i t h e r have an i n f l u e n t i a l  friend or a  12 beautiful sister.)  Another i n f o r m a n t , Giuseppe Z., speaks o f t h e  politicians:  You ought t o see the Honorables who come here and t a l k t o us j u s t b e f o r e the e l e c t i o n s . 'Work on the S t a t e schemes w i l l b e g i n i n June, and y o u ' l l a l l get j o b s , ' they t e l l us. B e l i e v e me, i f God h i m s e l f came down from Heaven and s a i d the v e r y same t h i n g , we wouldn't b e l i e v e i t ! Maybe by t h e time I'm o l d , t h e r e w i l l be r e g u l a r j o b s f o r everybody, b u t i t ' l l be too l a t e , then — I shan't c a r e . . . . ^  It  i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e Mezzogiorno t h a t " c i v u o l e  raccomandazione p e r p o t e r v i v e r e " (one needs ' p u l l ' i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o l i v e ) , and t h e raccomandazione i s the o n l y way i n which t h e peasant  has o f g a i n i n g a p a r t o f the goods and s e r v i c e s o f t h e system  t h a t s h o u l d be h i s . bureaucracy,  F r i e n d s h i p can a l t e r the course o f an i m p a r t i a l  and does.  S i n c e t h e bureaucracy  operates  raccomandazione, t h e ' l i t t l e man' cannot expect  on t h e b a s i s o f  the e f f i c i e n t  flow o f  12 13  I b i d . , p. 248. T h i s g r i e v a n c e i s r e p o r t e d i n much o f the l i t e r a t u r e on the Mezzogiorno. The bags o f p a s t a and o t h e r food, and t h e f a l s e promises o f work seem t o be t h e most common e l e c t i o n e e r i n g gimmicks. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the food runs out q u i c k l y and the j o b s never m a t e r i a l i z e — but then i f t h i s d i d n n ' t happen, t h e r e would be no means o f campaigning at t h e next round o f e l e c t i o n s . The a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n Almond and Verba's study where 80% o f the sample s a i d " A l l c a n d i d a t e s sound good i n speeches, b u t . . . "  53  goods and  s e r v i c e s which would n o r m a l l y r e s u l t i n at l e a s t minimal  incremental  improvement of h i s l o t .  Since  the b u r e a u c r a c y o p e r a t e s  on the b a s i s o f raccomandazione, he must p l a y by and  seek out  the f a v o r of v a r i o u s w e l l - p l a c e d  the r u l e s o f t h a t game  individuals.  The  cycle,  then, i s s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g ; the peasant must p l a y the game of s o t t o governo, d e a l i n g i n raccomandazione i n o r d e r at l e a s t a p a r t o f i t ) ,  and because he  t o get h i s f a i r share  involves himself  i n this  elaborate  b a r t e r system, the p o s i t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s p a t r o n s are enhanced others  must p a r t i c i p a t e i n the same method o f o b t a i n i n g  There i s c r e a t e d ,  goods and  t h e r e f o r e , a v i c i o u s c i r c l e i n which the  forces others  receive anything  at the hands o f government  to  system  t h i s i s the  Although the m a f i a i s d i f f e r e n t from the government, i t i s not  altogether  s e p a r a t e from i t .  the v a c a n c i e s  As more and more s o u t h e r n e r s have moved i n  w i t h i n the s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y , the b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s  have gone t o those s o u t h e r n e r s w i t h the g r e a t e s t many o f these have been m a f i o s i . it  involved  officials.  of patronage i n the Mezzogiorno -r— p a r t i c u l a r l y i n S i c i l y ;  to f i l l  services.  to p l a y the same h u m i l i a t i n g game i f they are  B e s i d e s the government, t h e r e i s another i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  mafia.  and  continued  employment o f the patronage system enhances the p o s i t i o n o f those i n i t , and  (or  i n d e s c r i b i n g how  members o f the M a f i a  h i s job was are now  raccomandazione,  and  As a p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n P a r t i n i c o put much e a s i e r nowadays:  "The  strongest  i n Rome s e r v i n g the Government.""^  J e r r e Mangione, A P a s s i o n f o r S i c i l i a n s (New and Co., 1968), p. 268. See a l s o D o l c i ' s The Man Who c u s s i o n of m a f i o s i i n government.  The  York: Morrow Pays Alone f o r d i s -  54  statement i s not  s u r p r i s i n g o r shocking  i n any way;  i t is a bit  discomforting. The  patronage system of the m a f i a  the p e a s a n t r y ,  i s based upon a d u a l appeal  combining the f o r c e s o f " l o v e " and  p o r t r a y s an example of the e f f i c a c y of the m a f i a days":  "fear".^  5  Guercio  i n the "good o l d  Suppose a peasant i s the v i c t i m of a c a t t l e t h e f t .  I f he  to the p o l i c e to r e p o r t the t h e f t , s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t he has chance of r e g a i n i n g the t o t a l amount o f the t h e f t . chances of r e c o v e r y , complete.  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and  red-tape  A l s o t h e r e i s the danger of r e p r i s a l s  or h i s family.  On  Besides  a  his  low  from e i t h e r the  thief  capo-mafia, For  c o e r c i o n t h a t the capo-mafia must under-  take, he charges the v i c t i m about o n e - t h i r d o f the t o t a l l o s s .  10%  goes 10%  he i s almost c e r t a i n (95% chance) t o r e g a i n p a r t o f h i s p r o p e r t y .  f o r e a 95%  bad  take months t o  the o t h e r hand, i f he goes t o the l o c a l  the v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and  to  chance o f r e g a i n i n g 70%  of one's l o s s e s i s weighed a g a i n s t  chance of r e g a i n i n g the t o t a l l o s s ( w i t h the d e l a y s and  r e p r i s a l s thrown i n t o the b a r g a i n ) .  There-  16  The  prudent man  a  dangers o f  w i l l always opt  One cannot h e l p but be impressed w i t h the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between many of the b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m a f i a and the norms s e t out by M a c h i a v e l l i i n The P r i n c e . In c h a p t e r XVII, Machia v e l l i d i s c u s s e s the o p t i m a l b a l a n c e between r e s t i n g on l o v e and/or f e a r . " S t i l l a p r i n c e s h o u l d make h i m s e l f f e a r e d i n such a way t h a t i f he does not g a i n l o v e , he at any r a t e avoids h a t r e d ; f o r f e a r and the absence o f h a t r e d may w e l l go t o g e t h e r , and w i l l be always a t t a i n e d by one who abstains from i n t e r f e r r i n g w i t h the p r o p e r t y of h i s c i t i z e n s and subj e c t s o r w i t h t h e i r women."  pp.  F r a n c i s M. 73-74.  Guercio,  Sicily  (London:  Faber and  Faber L t d . , 1968),  55  f o r the p e r s o n a l p a t r o n p a t t e r n o f r e c o v e r y o f h i s l o s s e s .  One  expects  t h a t the n a t u r e o f "goods and s e r v i c e s " d i s t r i b u t e d by the m a f i a t o be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t as more and more m a f i o s i come i n t o the government, but one s u s p e c t s t h a t the p a t t e r n i s much the same. B e s i d e s the e f f i c i e n c y o f the m a f i a i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problems brought  t o v a r i o u s m a f i o s i by the " l i t t l e man",  t h e r e i s much i n an  " o p e r a t i o n a l code" o f the m a f i a which appeals t o the p e a s a n t r y . m a f i a , u n l i k e the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d many o f the peasants know i t .  l e g a l system,  The  recognizes j u s t i c e  Calogero V o l p e , a S i c i l i a n who  as  occupied  the p o s i t i o n o f U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e to the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h i n 1968,  an ex-Under-Secretary t o the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t , and  referred  to by the p r e s s as "Deputy f o r the R u r a l M a f i a " , has s t a t e d t h a t  "The  m a f i a , i n the sense o f development o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y , i s an p r e s s i o n o f the S i c i l i a n mentality.""''  7  The codes o f m o r a l i t y and honor  are a l s o v e r y much intermeshed w i t h those o f the l a r g e r peasant from which i t was  born. Qmerta was u  culture  the prime s o c i a l duty o f a m a f i u s u ,  but h i s p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s were governed  r i s p i e t t u , a k e e p i n g o f hands o f f I  one another's p r o p e r t y , f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , e t c . " e v i d e n t i n the m a f i a are not merely  ex-  Q The b e h a v i o r a l norms  f o r the purposes  o f expediency.  The  b e h a v i o r a l norms o f the m a f i a are much more than the b e h a v i o r a l norms e s t a b l i s h e d i n modern day m i l i t a r y machines f o r e f f i c i e n c y .  1  7  D o l c i , The Man  Who  P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . , p.  They  93.  18 G u e r c i o , op. c i t . , p. 70. See f f . 14, t o compare w i t h M a c h i a v e l l i ' e x h o r t a t i o n t o the P r i n c e t o f o l l o w e s s e n t i a l l y the same p a t t e r n o f rispiettu.  56  r e p r e s e n t a code o f e t h i c s , m o r a l s , and honor. position:  G u e r c i o sums up  this  "...the e t h i c s of omerta and r i s p i e t t u i s o r has been a  p r i m i t i v e , p e r v e r t e d c h i v a l r y , a t t a i n i n g i n many i n d i v i d u a l cases t o heroism. There i s another element i n the " a p p e a l " o f the m a f i a as a p a t r o n . M a f i o s i r e t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s l a r g e l y out o f f e a r on the p a r t o f the 20 common p e o p l e . his  The prudent man  f e a r s r e p r i s a l s a g a i n s t h i m s e l f and  f a m i l y , s h o u l d he d e c i d e t o s t a r t denouncing  An u n i d e n t i f i e d v o i c e i n D o l c i ' s meeting  various mafiosi p u b l i c l y .  o f January  lamare p o r t r a y e d the s i t u a t i o n g r a p h i c a l l y :  "The  16, 1966,  i n Castel-  question i s t h i s :  poor f o l k s are s l a v e s a l l over S i c i l y -- we're a s s e s , because we speak up.  And  s i n c e no one e l s e speaks  up, the mafioso  us  don't  i s cock o f  the  21 whole d u n g h i l l . " Of course the people don't r e a l l y r e s p e c t them, not a bit. T h e i r respect i s j u s t submission. They are stronger. The m a f i a was here b e f o r e the law. For them, i t ' s t h e i r own law t h a t c o u n t s . A r e a l mafioso never moves a l o n e . A r e a l m a f i a crime i s always d e c i d e d by a l l o f them: they meet, d i s c u s s , and decide.... And so? Best mind your own b u s i n e s s . 'The man who p l a y s alone never l o s e s . ' You must be on your b e s t behavior with other people: speak w e l l , speak c l e a n ; because as the s a y i n g goes, 'una p a r o l a mal d e t t a , ne v i e n e una v e n d e t t a ' — a c a r e l e s s word, and a v e n d e t t a w i l l f o l l o w . We have t o be on our guard a g a i n s t our tongues. F o r me, b l e s s e d i s the man who minds h i s own b u s i n e s s . The man who doesn't i s a s k i n g f o r t r o u b l e .  1 9  I b i d . , p.  70.  ^ See the p r o c e e d i n g o f the p u b l i c meetings h e l d by D o l c i on January 12, 13, 14, and 16, 1966, i n C a s t e l l a m a r e , i n The Man Who P l a y s Alone, op. c i t . (p. 250-295). 2  2  1  2  2  Ibid. I b i d . , p.  69.  57  Although t h e r e i s a d e n i a l o f " r e s p e c t " t o t h e m a f i a , is  t h a t the m a f i a operates  w i t h many o f t h e same b e h a v i o r a l  which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e Mezzogiorno. i n t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e Mezzogiorno. memories o f t h e T o r r e s ! a r e those c i v i l servants  i n the post o f f i c e .  by t h e s t a t e , 1'omerta s e t i n .  the fact patterns  L'omerta and r i s p e t t o a r e u n i v e r s a l C o r n e l i s e n recounts  o f t h e time t h a t they  t h a t t h e fondest locked a l l of the  A f t e r a u t h o r i t y had been r e a s s e r t e d  I n f r o n t o f t h e p o l i c e , no one knew any-  thing.  The whole town s a t back t o enjoy  ficials  running  around, completely  t h e s p e c t a c l e o f the s t a t e o f -  f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r attempt t o e s t a -  23 blish "justice".  The m a f i a  appears, then,  t o share  the same s e t o f  c u l t u r a l norms and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e l a r g e r society.  They a r e , as i t were, a microcosm w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u  o f t h e Mezzogiorno, which can be seen as an e l i t e i n terms o f f u l f i l l ment o f many o f those b e h a v i o r a l norms.  The m a f i a  appears t o be the  example, p a r e x c e l l e n c e , o f b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s which c h a r a c t e r i z e most of southern  Italy.  The use of 'friendship'.nand  'raccomandazione a r e 1  the most e f f i c a c i o u s manner i n which t o i n f l u e n c e t h e impersonal.!working of a b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and t h i s procedure i s used throughout the Mezzogiorno,by b o t h i t h e m a f i a detrimentfof  and the common man, much t o the  t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the bureaucracy i t s e l f .  The m a f i a ,  i s much b e t t e r a t t h e procedure than i s the common man. mafia  i s the epitome o f the wider b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s  however,  I n c t h i s way, the  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the  Mezzogiorno. 23 C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , Chapter VI. See a l s o Friedmann, o p . c i t . , and E r i c J . Hobsbawm's P r i m i t i v e Rebels (Boston: N o r t o n , 1965), Chapters I aid I I .  58  Before l e a v i n g the t o p i c o f the mafia,as w e l l t o note  a p a t r o n , i t would be  the d i r e c t i o n which the m a f i a , w i t h i t s abundance o f power,  g e n e r a l l y takes w i t h r e g a r d to s i t u a t i o n s o f some p o l i t i c a l While the boundaries  import.  of the m a f i a , the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y ,  the C a t h o l i c Church are by no means co-terminus, r e g a r d to membership and  i d e o l o g y ; and  and  they do o v e r l a p w i t h  they form what one might  call  the " T r i u m v i r a t e of S t a g n a t i o n " , b e i n g the t h r e e major i n s t i t i o n a l i z e d impediments t o economic, and p o l i t i c a l growth. Guercio sums up the  Speaking  o f the  position:  The h i g h e r , more imponderable m a f i a had always been concerned w i t h the p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , . w i t h the b u t t r e s s i n g o f the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . I t had been i n s u l a r , c o n s e r v a t i v e , and a n t i r e v o l u t i o n a r y ; and the end o f F a s c i s t r u l e i n J u l y 1943 brought danger t o p r o p e r t y s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t s o f l a w l e s s n e s s , on the one hand, and o f communism on the o t h e r . Thus the r e v i v e d power o f the m a f i a f i t t e d admirably w i t h the p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s which the A l l i e d aut h o r i t i e s were bound to f i n d most c o n g e n i a l to t h e i r own d u t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . The m a f i u s u , of course p l a y e d t h e i r p a r t i n promoting o r impeding e l e c t o r a l campaigns, and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was f i r s t p r o - s e p a r a t i s t , then m o n a r c h i s t , and f i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n Democratic., They always opposed L e f t - w i n g p l a t f o r m s . Guercio's  mafia,  .  . '  d e s c r i p t i o n of the b i a s e s of the m a f i a would a l s o f i t the  c l e r g y o f the South and  the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y q u i t e a p t l y .  m a f i a can c o n t r o l q u i t e e x t e n s i v e numbers o f people  The  i n t h a t , w h i l e what  one might c a l l " a f f i l i a t e d members" o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n are a s m a l l m i n o r i t y , the number o f persons who  G u e r c i o , op.  c i t . , p.  85.  have o c c a s i o n a l r e c o u r s e to the  mafia  59  in Sicily  f o r some g r i e v a n c e , e t c . , may r e p r e s e n t as much as h a l f the 25  p o p u l a t i o n o f the i s l a n d .  These people  a r e , o f c o u r s e , expected t o  r e t u r n the f a v o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f p o l i t i c a l support mafia's  chosen c a n d i d a t e .  The m a f i a ,  f o r the  then,has c o n s i d e r a b l e weight* t o  i n f l u e n c e e l e c t o r a l outcomes toward i t s chosen c o n s e r v a t i v e p a t h . A t t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n i n the s t a t e bureaucracy o p p o r t u n i t y o f becoming a p a t r o n .  a f f o r d s one the  Even those who have no  land,and  manage by some means o r o t h e r t o g a i n a p o s i t i o n i n the c i v i l  service,  a t t a i n a " r e s o u r c e " o f goods and s e r v i c e s which may be put t o work i n a patron-client relationship. procedures  A c i v i l s e r v a n t can i n f l u e n c e b u r e a u c r a t i c  t o the b e n e f i t o f h i m s e l f and/or h i s f r i e n d s .  power, i n f l u e n c e , raccomandazione.  He i s a man w i t h  Given h i s p o s i t i o n , he i s e n t i t l e d t o  r e s p e c t and p r e s t i g e w i t h i n the community —  he i s a pezzo da n o v a n t a ,  capable o f p u l l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t r i n g s to manipulate government t o t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s f r i e n d s .  the a f f a i r s o f  In a c u l t u r e which p l a c e s so  much emphasis on p r e s t i g e and r e s p e c t , a p o s i t i o n i n t h e s t a t e b u r e a u c r a 26 cy i s h i g h l y sought  after.  The use o f p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e t o p r o v i d e f o r o n e s e l f and one's f r i e n d s i s n o t a t a l l incongruous P e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e seensas  w i t h the moral code o f the Mezzogiorno. more e f f i c a c i o u s t h a n t t h e  r u l e o f law, and the l e g a l - r a t i o n a l i s t  tradition.  impersonal  The d i s t r u s t p r e v a l e n t  — I b i d . , p. 72. 26 There a r e , o f c o u r s e , o t h e r reasons t o account f o r the h i g h degree o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r a j o b i n the s t a t e bureaucracy. In t h e South, t h e r e i s a conspicuous l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; a p o s i t i o n i n t h e s t a t e bureaucracy p r o v i d e s s e c u r i t y o f employment; and c i v i l s e r v i c e a f f o r d s one the o p p o r t u n i t y t o forego manual l a b o r .  60  in  the Mezzogiorno can be d i r e c t e d a t persons who occupy p o s i t i o n s o f  power, b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o d i r e c t t h a t d i s t r u s t , and d e c i s i v e l y p l a c e  i t when one i s f a c e d w i t h a maze o f b u r e a u c r a t i c The  procedures and r e d - t a p e .  d i s t r u s t i s perhaps g r e a t e r i n the l a t t e r case, b u t t h e p o i n t o f  fault i s often quite d i f f i c u l t  to f i n d .  in  t h i s preference  B a n f i e l d ' s study, discusses  Baron d i Longo,a l a n d e d p r o p r i e t o r f o r personal-type  role:  A monarchy i s t h e b e s t form o f government because t h e k i n g i s then the owner o f t h e c o u n t r y . L i k e the owner o f a house, when i±ie w i r i n g i s wrong, he f i x e s i t . He l o o k s a f t e r h i s people l i k e a f a t h e r ....In a r e p u b l i c , the country i s l i k e a house t h a t i s rented. I f the l i g h t s go o u t , w e l l , t h a t ' s a l l r i g h t . . . i t ' s n o t h i s house. I f the w a l l c h i p s , w e l l , i t ' s n o t h i s house. The r e n t e r does not f i x i t . So w i t h t h e men who govern a r e p u b l i c . They a r e n o t interested i n fixing things. I f something i s n o t q u i t e r i g h t and i f they a r e turned out f o r i t . w e l l , meanwhile they have f i l l e d t h e i r pocketbooks.  J  This preference  f o r p e r s o n a l i s t i c type r u l e g r e a t l y r e i n f o r c e s a p a t t e r n  of p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  While the men o f the r e p u b l i c a r e " f i l l i n g  t h e i r pocketbooks" b e h i n d the g r e a t m a c h i n a t i o n s o f the s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y , the peasant does w e l l t o f i n d a " f r i e n d " who w i l l s m a k e s u r e t h a t he and his  f a m i l y s u r v i v e and enjoy at l e a s t a modicum o f the b e n e f i t s t o be  derived  from t h e p a t r o n ' s p o s i t i o n .  the p r o v i n c e  Lorenzo G e r a c i , a t r a d e u n i o n i s t i n  o f Palermo who i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h CISNAL  (Confederazione  I t a l i a n a S i n d i c a t i N a z i o n a l e L i b e r i , an extreme r i g h t - w i n g ,  neo f a s c i s t  o r g a n i z a t i o n headed by t h e Movimento S o c i a l e I t a l i a n o , t h e n e o - f a s c i s t party)  27  states the r o l e o f personalism  B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 25  with regard  to h i s p o s i t i o n :  61  But p e o p l e who j o i n a a r e my p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s . They f o l l o w me because they t r u s t me. I f I go t o the d e v i l , t h e y ' l l come t o o ; i f I go w i t h t h e Communists, t h e y ' l l come w i t h t h e Communists; i f I go w i t h the C h r i s t i a n Democrats t h e y ' l l come w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n Democrats. When I got a hundred membership cards Commandante G u l l o wrote my p r a i s e s i n the newspaper. Whichever way I go, the p e o p l e f o l l o w me p e r s o n a l l y . Although one gets t h e d i s t i n c t  impression  that G e r a c i may be o v e r - s t a t i n g  h i s own p o s i t i o n , t h e passage does p o i n t t o the r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g of p e r s o n a l i s m  i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f the Mezzogiorno,and the  weak p o s i t i o n o f i d e o l o g y  and c l i e n t .  the problem from t h e o t h e r  concomitantly  i n a p a t r o n - c l i e n t system where b e n e f i t s ,  performance, and a l l e g i a n c e a r e t i e d up i n the f a c e - t o - f a c e between p a t r o n  element  29  contacts  Dr. G i n o , i n B a n f i e l d ' s s t u d y , s t a t e s  side:  There i s a l o t o f f a l s i t y i n p o l i t i c s . You must make more f r i e n d s than you want and you must a c t l i k e a f r i e n d t o many people you don't want t o be f r i e n d l y with. T h i s i s so because you must always be t h i n k i n g o f how t o b u i l d up the p a r t y and win friends f o r i t . 3  0  Gino's statement echoes p a r t o f t h e moral code s e t out a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s paper.  One must r e l y on h i s f r i e n d s , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y  t o m a i n t a i n those f r i e n d s h i p s as b e s t one can. The  e f f i c a c y o f the p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the peasant i s  enhanced by t h e h o s t i l e w o r l d which he f a c e s .  The peasant i s powerless  28 D o l c i , The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . , p. 44. 29 The concept o f " i d e o l o g i c a l e r o s i o n " i s d i s c u s s e d i n John D. P o w e l l ' s "Peasant S o c i e t i e s and C l i e n t e l i s t P o l i t i c s " i n American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, V o l . 64, June 1970, p. 424. 30 B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 25.  62  in  the f a c e o f many t h r e a t s , b o t h n a t u r a l ( d i s e a s e , death,  a c c i d e n t , e t c . ) , and human ( v i o l e n c e , i n j u s t i c e , and  drought,  exploitation).  The p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p a c t s as an a n x i e t y - r e d u c t i o n mechanism f o r the peasant. his  H i s w o r r i e s are m i t i g a t e d , i n t h a t , p r o v i d e d he has kept  ' f r i e n d s h i p ' , the p a t r o n w i l l see t o i t t h a t h i s f a m i l y does not  up  go  31 hungry o r unaided " l i m i t e d good" and it to,  i n t h e i r time o f need.  Given the view o f the  the view t h a t r e s u l t s are o b t a i n e d r a t h e r than  i s n a t u r a l t o seek out those i n f l u e n t i a l people who the p e z z i da novanta who  p u l l the r i g h t s t r i n g s .  a r e , o r have access One  maxim " c i v u o l e l a raccomandazione p e r p o t e r v i v e r e . "  achieved,  f o l l o w s the  The peasant  knows  what i t takes to g e t the d e s i r e d a c t i o n i n h i s community,and he has l e a r n e d to  l i v e with i t .  "costs" involved.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he i s o f t e n unable The  to p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y  f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n among a group o f workers  was  r e c o r d e d by Mangione: The o n l y time a worker has anything t o say around here i s at e l e c t i o n time,...But what happens? Some mafioso comes along w i t h a few l i r e and buys his vote. I t happens i n P a r t i n i c o every e l e c t i o n . . . . So what i s wrong w i t h t h a t ? There's n o t h i n g wrong w i t h that,...We who want t o get our j o b s back have our s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r t r y i n g t o get what we w a n t . ( e m p h a s i s mine) Senator M e s s e r i has h i s own t e c h n i q u e s . What i f he does have f r i e n d s who are w i l l i n g t o pay money f o r votes? I t c o s t s money t o get anything you want. T h i s s t r i k e would have ended long ago i f we had been a b l e to pour some money i n t o the r i g h t p o c k e t s . . . .  "The emergencies which o c c u r i n the l i f e o f t h e v i l l a g e r are n o r m a l l y o f such a n a t u r e as t o be remedied by the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n of immediate s u p e r i o r s , f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s . R a r e l y i s the i n t e r v e n t i o n of an o u t s i d e r i n d i s p e n s a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , the a t t i t u d e o f the o u t s i d e r i s r a r e l y as sympathetic as t h a t o f someone w i t h whom one has had l o n g and frequent c o n t a c t " ( M a r a s p i n i , op. c i t . , p. 130).  63  Everyone should^mind h i s own b u s i n e s s . (emphasis mine) Or, again i n Palermo: I f y o u have t o go t o t h e C o u n c i l f o r a n y t h i n g you want done, y o u won't g e t anywhere u n l e s s you grease e n d l e s s palms — y o u ' l l g e t b l o c k e d a l l the way u n l e s s you s h e l l o u t . 3 3  One  way o f g e t t i n g around t h i s constant  "friendship".  F r i e n d s h i p can o f t e n accomplish  p e n s i v e l y , than t h e "normal" procedure  " s h e l l i n g o u t " i s through more more, f a r l e s s ex-  of bribing state o f f i c i a l s .  While  i t may, i n d e e d , be t r u e t h a t every man has h i s p r i c e , i n t h e Mezzogiorno it One  i s n o t always n e c e s s a r y  t o have the cash e q u i v a l e n t o f t h i s  price.  o f the b e s t ways t o a t t a i n the ' f r i e n d s h i p ' needed i s through t h e  t r a d i t i o n o f comparaggio» o r godparenthood.  The c o n t r a c t thus  e s t a b l i s h e d between p a t r o n and c l i e n t i s f o r m a l i z e d i n p u b l i c and solemnized  b e f o r e God.  I t cannot be broken w i t h impunity.  Besides the  s e c u r i t y which t h i s s o r t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f e r s t o t h e c l i e n t , t h e r e i s another b e n e f i t — not  the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s made d i f f u s e and m u l t i p l e x ; i . e . ,  'role s p e c i f i c ' .  I t i s a method o f b r i n g i n g the p a t r o n i n t o t h e  'moral community' o f the f a m i l y . many f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  I n the c h o i c e o f a godparent t h e r e a r e I d e a l l y , the person  and honor to t h e f a m i l y , and t h e person  should b r i n g p r e s t i g e  s h o u l d be i n a f i n a n c i a l  position  to p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e g o d c h i l d f o r e d u c a t i o n o o r la dowry. The  element o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s never l o s t s i g h t o f i n t h e c h o i c e  Mangione, op. c i t . , p. 271. D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. 67.  64  o f a godparent, i n t h a t p a r e n t s a good s t a r t i n l i f e .  a r e anxious t o assure  The element o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t  i n a l a n d where d i r e p o v e r t y  i s so p r e v a l e n t .  their children of  appears o n l y n a t u r a l  Speaking o f t h i s element  o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n t h e comparaggio r e l a t i o n s h i p , M a r o a s p i n i  explains:  The marked element o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s due to the p r e v a i l i n g p o v e r t y , and i s merely an e x t e n s i o n of the o b l i g a t i o n kinsmen have t o one another. E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s an a c c i d e n t a l a c c r e t i o n , n o t a b a s i c element o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The b e n e f i t s o f t h e comparaggio r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e n o t a l l one-sided. By  a s k i n g one t o s t a n d as godparent a t the b a p t i s m o f the c h i l d  (an honor  o n l y very  r a r e l y r e f u s e d , i f e v e r ) , t h e s u p p l i c a n t i s making a p u b l i c  testimony  t o the patron's  s t a t u s , p r e s t i g e , and p o s i t i o n .  Accepting the  r o l e o f godparent can h a r d l y be s a i d t o f o l l o w t h e B a n f i e l d h y p o t h e s i s , but  then the same i s t r u e o f many b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e Mezzogiorno.  Indeed, t h e acceptance o f the r o l e o f godparent i s , most  probably,  d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e " s h o r t - r u n " m a t e r i a l advantage o f the n u c l e a r  family.  There a r e o t h e r b e n e f i t s , though,which account f o r t h e prominence o f this position: Hence, t o be a g o d f a t h e r i s an honor, and i t c o n f e r s p r e s t i g e . Honor, esteem, p r e s t i g e , s t a t u s , are s c a r c e l y m a t e r i a l q u a l i t i e s b u t t h e i r importance i n the s o c i e t y i s g r e a t ; t h e i r v a l u e i s h i g h . ^ 5  Given t h e p a t t e r n o f p e r s o n a l i s m  i n the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of  the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e Mezzogiorno p o r t r a y e d  thus f a r i n the c h a p t e r , i t  3A The I t a l i a n Godparenthood Complex" i n Southwestern J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . 13, 1957. 35 M a r a s p i n i , op. c i t . , p. 201.  65  w i l l be w e l l to attempt t o r e l a t e t h i s p r e f e r e n c e which d e r i v e s outciof the moral code o f the Mezzogiorno to the p o l i t i c s o f the a r e a .  Any  system o f patronage i s a system l i n k i n g the g o v e r n i n g t o the governed. I t can a p t l y be viewed as an a l t e r n a t i v e channel o f communication which needs is  are a r t i c u l a t e d and f u l f i l l e d .  'far flung'  through  Where an i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r  (as i n the I t a l i a n bureaucracy which i s , i t seems, at times  i m p o s s i b l e to escape) the r o l e o f the p a t r o n s h o u l d take on the p o s i t i o n o f a " c o n n e c t o r " o r ' b r o k e r " between the s t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l .  In t h i s  manner, l e g i t i m a c y s h o u l d a c c r u e to the s t a t e , and the p o s i t i o n o f the 36 p a t r o n cum b r o k e r s h o u l d be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y weakened. p a t t e r n o f patronage i n the Mezzogiorno.  T h i s i s not the  For one t h i n g , w h i l e the I t a l i a n  s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y i s " f a r f l u n g " , i t i s (and i s viewed as) g e n e r a l l y i n effective. takings.  S t a t e a g e n c i e s become bogged  down i n a m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r  under-  There i s l i t t l e p e n e t r a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e s t a t e bureaucracy i n the  Mezzogiorno.  Another reason t h a t the p a t r o n o f t h e Mezzogiorno does n o t  come t o be viewed as a b r o k e r i s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s the p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n o f governo l a d r o .  Whatever b e n e f i t s accrue t o the c l i e n t  o f , not from, the government.  The l e g i t i m a c y which would  come i n s p i t e a c c r u e to the  government i n a brokerage system accrues t o t h e p a t r o n h i m s e l f i n the form o f p r e s t i g e .  He has demonstrated h i s a b i l i t y t o get the r i g h t  p u l l e d to o b t a i n r e s u l t s .  strings  B o i s s e v a i n e v a l u a t e s the e f f e c t s o f p a t r o n a g e :  "...patronage weakens government.  I t l e a d s t o nepotism, c o r r u p t i o n , i n 37 f l u e n c e - p e d d l i n g , and above a l l i t weakens t h e r u l e o f law, but i t  See P o w e l l ' s "Peasant S o c i e t y and C l i e n t e l i s t P o l i t i c s " , op. c i t . B o i s s e v a i n , op. c i t . , p.  30.  66  appears t h a t he has n e g l e c t e d one o f the most important d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f a patronage system —  the f a c t that l e g i t i m a c y accrues to  the i n d i v i d u a l i n the form o f p r e s t i g e , at the expense o f the s t a t e . T h i s l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n c r e a t e s the v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f patronage whereby the patronage system becomes more and more e n t r e n c h e d , and i s viewed more and more as the most e f f i c a c i o u s manner i n p r o c e e d i n g to o b t a i n r e s u l t s . The  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p a t t e r n o f o b t a i n i n g r e s u l t s f o r the  p r o s p e c t of the f o r m a t i o n of i n t e r e s t groups i s not I n t e r e s t groups  are viewed  as i n e f f e c t i v e  encouraging.  ( f i f t y p e o p l e w i t h o u t money  can grease no more palms than one person a l v e r d e ) ; as w e l l as p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous,  i n t h a t they a l i e n a t e those who  the o u t l o o k o f those who  h o l d power.  l i v e and work i n the  Tarrow sums up  Mezzogiorno:  ...one reaches the apex o f a u t h o r i t y not by merging one's demands i n a h o r i z o n t a l membership group, b u t by l i n k i n g up t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l c h a i n o f p e r s o n a l acquaintance which may b e g i n i n the network o f n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s and reaches up to the s t a t e ^ g b u r e a u c r a c y w i t h l i t t l e adjustment i n s t r u c t u r e . The peasants o f t h e Mezzogiorno absence  that  the  o f an i n t e r e s t group o r i e n t a t i o n i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o i . t h e i r  own  interests  seem t o be aware o f the f a c t  (even s h o r t - r u n ! ) , y e t t h e r e i s s t i l l  a conspicuous l a c k o f  Tarrow, Sydney G. " P o l i t i c a l Dualism and I t a l i a n Communism" i n American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, V o l . LXI No. 1, March 1967, p. 44. For the f o r e i g n e r , newly a r r i v e d and w i t h o u t the e l a b o r a t e network o f k i n and f r i e n d s , the method o f d e a l i n g w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s v a r i e s from the normal p a t t e r n . Luca Montefalcone a d v i s e d C o r n e l i s e n on h e r a r r i v a l i n T o r r e g r e c a : " E v e r y t h i n g i s p r i v i l e g e and b l u f f h e r e . The more s u p e r c i l i o u s you a r e , the more important you must be. I t ' s the o n l y way t o d e a l w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s " ( C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , p. 103).  °7  such o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  D o l c i recounts one example o f t h i s i n the p r o v i n c e  o f Palermo, where the l o c a l m e z z a d r i  ( s h a r e c r o p p e r s ) were t r y i n g t o get  t h e i r l e g a l 60% o f the c r o p , b u t the landowners i n s i s t e d on t a k i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 50% d e s p i t e the new law.  One peasant  spoke to D o l c i i n h i s  attempts to get the o t h e r s to s t a n d up f o r t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s : t h a t t h e y ' r e unaware o f what's b e i n g done to h e l p them.  " I t isn't  I f you t a l k to 39  one o f them, h e ' l l s a y :  'The t r o u b l e i s t h e r e ' s no u n i t y . "  preference f o r p e r s o n a l i s t i c p o l i t i c s override  1  The  a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n s elements which  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f m a t e r i a l advantage.  i s s u r e l y t h a t i t i s the t r a d i t i o n a l way the; peasant  Part of t h i s  preference  has gone about s o l v i n g  h i s problems. The  r e l a t i v e absence o f i n t e r e s t groups i s n o t merely due to the  l a c k o f i n i t i a t i v e on the p a r t o f those who would l e a d such H i s t o r y has taught  the peasant  " s p e c i a l techniques".  Vincenzo  how t o p r o c e e d ,  groups.  and has g i v e n him h i s own  Tusa, an a r c h a e o l o g i s t d i s c u s s i n g the  h i s t o r y o f Palermo and S i c i l y : S i n c e t h e r e has n e v e r been a c e n t r a l power f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l , the i n d i v i d u a l — whether i n t e l l e c t u a l o r s t a r v i n g poor — has always had t o t r y and s o l v e h i s problems by d i r e c t r e c o u r s e t o those i n power: t h i s i s the o r i g i n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f t h e e x e r c i s e of power through p e r s o n a l relationships. F u r t h e r , those people  i n p o s i t i o n s o f power have h e l p e d to m a i n t a i n  them-  s e l v e s by d i s c o u r a g i n g g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s o f the  D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. 231. D o l c i , The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . , p. 103.  68  common man.  Dr. N e r i o f T o r r e g r e c a  told  Cornelisen:  As d o c t o r s we c o u l d do a l o t t o change t h e i r (the peasant's) f a i t h i n ' c u r s e s and s p i r i t s , b u t I wonder i f we w i l l . They're too convenient... they cover up a l l t h e t h i n g s we don't understand. I f your p a t i e n t b e l i e v e s i n the e v i l eye, y o u f e e l s a f e r . Maybe I don't make myself c l e a r . A l l o f us i n the South, not j u s t d o c t o r s , b u t a l l the educated c l a s s , have encouraged^Jgnorance i n the peasants f o r our own p r o t e c t i o n . The at  pattern of p e r s o n a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l  orientations i s also  responsible,  l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r the g r e a t e l e c t o r a l f l u c t u a t i o n s which a r e char-  acteristic cally  of Italian p o l i t i c s .  Political  a f f i l i a t i o n i s not i d e o l o g i -  based, but r a t h e r i s formed on the bases o f p e r s o n a l  and what one might c a l l a "mutual f r i e n d - m u t u a l  allegiance,  enemy" dichotomy.  Much  o f the a l l e g i a n c e t o the Communist P a r t y i s based on the concept o f the mutual enemy — giance  the s t a t u s quo s t a t e .  t o the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y i s based upon i t s s a n c t i o n by  the Church.  The i d e o l o g i e s o f each p a r t y a r e o n l y vaguely understood  by the s u p p o r t e r s to,  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , much o f t h e a l l e -  o f each.  They vote DC because the p r i e s t t e l l s them  o r they vote PCI because they know vaguely t h a t i t i s a g a i n s t the  state.  While t h e s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s do not apply u n i v e r s a l l y , i t i s  evident  t h a t i n many c a s e s , i n t h e N o r t h as w e l l as t h e South, p o l i t i c a l  a l l e g i a n c e t o one p a r t y o r another i s based upon no more than these 42 seemingly shallow  considerations.  LaPalombara e v a l u a t e s  electoral  f l u c t u a t i o n s as f o l l o w s : ^  C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , p. 251.  42 Seemingly t h e n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n i s g r e a t e r i n the South than i n - N o r t h . See D o l c i ' s The Man Who P l a y s Alone , op. c i t .  69  ...the v o t e r s were m o t i v a t e d by s t r i c t l y l o c a l and p e r s o n a l i s s u e s , . . . i d e o l o g y and n a t i o n a l i s s u e s p l a y e d l i t t l e p a r t i n determining t h e i r v o t i n g b e h a v i o r , and...many s h i f t s were simply the r e s u l t of c l i e n t e l i s m o , v o t e r s f o l l o w i n g a p e r s o n a l l e a d e r from one p a r t y t o a n o t h e r . ^ 3  G e n e r a l d i s t r u s t , an image of the " l i m i t e d good", t r a d i t i o n , i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of those i n power — o f the Mezzogiorno which tend  a l l are elements of the  to r e i n f o r c e and  o f the p a t r o n - c l i e n t type of a s s o c i a t i o n .  p e r p e t u a t e the  "  tion.  The  concept of " p a t r o n  go on s t r i k e to assure  "good l i f e "  to l e g i t i m i z e t h i s type o f  The  w i l l go  toward  to God  the i n d i v i d u a l i s seen to need the h e l p  together  concept i m p l i e s t h a t  i s beyond the reach o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  h e l p o f i n t e r m e d i a r i e s who  associa-  ( A f t e r a l l , p e o p l e don't band  salvation!)  than  There i s , a l s o much  s a i n t s " g i v e s an i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s  a p o l i t i c a l system o f patronage. and  fact  much more e f f i c i e n t  the l e g i t i m a t e channels of the s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y . w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f  culture  prevalence  Added to t h i s i s the  t h a t t h i s type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y  self-  He must seek  on h i s b e h a l f .  the the  Analogously,  of i n t e r m e d i a r i e s who  can go  to  Joseph LaPalombara. I n t e r e s t Groups i n I t a l i a n P o l i t i c s ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 65. I t must be n o t e d though, t h a t t h i s i s not taken too s e r i o u s l y at the l o c a l l e v e l , because the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s at the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l (the mayor and h i s g i u n t a ) are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r e x e r c i s e of power by t h e i r l i m i t e d funds. Most o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y i s appointed by the s t a t e , a n d i t i s the s e c r e t a r y of the town c o u n c i l , t o g e t h e r w i t h the P r e f e c t u r e o f f i c i a l s who make the more important d e c i s i o n s g o v e r n i n g the l o c a l commune. The mayor and g i u n t a , then are mere f i g u r e h e a d s to be blamed when t h i n g s are bad — which i s most o f t e n . The mayor and g i u n t a are g e n e r a l l y t u r n e d out i n the next e l e c t i o n — hence the g r e a t f l u c t u a t i o n s . See a l s o , C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , p. 23.  70  the men the  who  occupy those " s t a n z e d e i b o t t o n i " who,  right buttons.  The  r o l e of the p a t r o n ,  i n t u r n , can push  thereby, receives  constant  v a l i d a t i o n from the r e l i g i o u s b i a s e s o f the c u l t u r e . A concluding  paragraph from D o l c i ' s work i s apropos.  He  o f the m a f i a - c l i e n t s h i p form o f a s s o c i a t i o n , a c r o s s between the v i o l e n c e o f the m a f i a , and  democracy:  As l o n g as the normal form o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s the m a f i a - c l i e n t s h i p t y p e , and as long as p e o p l e l a c k any sound and p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r forms, i t i s q u i t e understandable t h a t the group s h o u l d g e n e r a l l y seem to them r i s k y and i m p o s s i b l e , and t h a t they s h o u l d keep r e p e a t i n g , 'The man who p l a y s alone never l o s e s .  Man  Who  secret  the system of c l i e n t s h i p which t r i e s to  g u i s e i t s e l f under the c l o a k of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  D o l c i , The  speaks  Plays  Alone,op. c i t . , p.  246.  dis-  71  CHAPTER IV  The  Church A p r i e s t i n Torregreca: " T h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n f f l o u r i s h e d a thousand y e a r s b e f o r e C h r i s t , o u r S a v i o r . Our ways are r o o t e d i n the p a s t and y o u , who come froms-a new w o r l d , may f i n d some o f them strange. You cannot have known the g l o r i e s of the Kingdom o f the Two S i c i l i e s as we have. You cannot be expected to y e a r n f o r the r i c h e s and fame o f those c e n t u r i e s , but accept my. word.:-, f o r i t — t h i s i s a g l o r i o u s people engaged i n a death s t r u g g l e with the forces of e v i l . We s h a l l win, we s h a l l , I s a y ! We s h a l l .return t o the days o f s a n i t y , o r d e r and C h r i s t i a n i t y . We s h a l l I " 1  C h i l d r e n i n the Capo d i s t r i c t o f Palermo to p r i e s t s who came t o teach Catechism, but then l e f t because o f the d i r t and stench: "You g i v e us a p a i n i n the b a l l s , you s h i t s ! S t i n k e r s . You o n l y come here when t h e r e ' s an e l e c t i o n ! Bugger o f f ! " 2  I f t h e C a t h o l i c Church were a " u n i v e r s a l " ; t h a t i s , i f i t were anywhere and everywhere, the same i n o u t l o o k , i d e o l o g y , a n d t h e r e would be no need f o r t h i s c h a p t e r .  I t i s p r e c i s e l y because the  Church as an i n s t i t u t i o n , a n d the people who f i l l t i o n a l r o l e s are d i f f e r e n t  practice,  i t s various  organiza-  t h a t a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s impact on  the Mezzogiorno i s needed here.  A proper  frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s p r o v i d e d  by Robert R e d f i e l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the " g r e a t and l i t t l e  traditions."  3  Quoted i n C o r n e l i s e n , op. c i t . , p. 94. 2  Quoted i n D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. 94.  3 Robert R e d f i e l d . Peasant S o c i e t y and Peasant C u l t u r e U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1956). Chapter I I I .  (Chicago:  72  B a s i c a l l y s t a t e d , h i s conception "little  t r a d i t i o n " which i s p a r t o f t h e " g r e a t  the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . "great  i s t h a t the peasant s o c i e t y i s the  The " l i t t l e  t r a d i t i o n " i s n e v e r i d e n t i c a l w i t h the  t r a d i t i o n " o f the l a r g e r s o c i e t y —  of e d u c a t i o n a l  tradition" characterizing  opportunities,lower  seemingly due t o lower l e v e l s  l e v e l s o f access t o f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e ,  and  lower l e v e l s o f communication between.cthe s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y .  one  o f t e n gets t h e v e s t i g e s o f t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  "great  t r a d i t i o n " r e s t i n g uponJthe t r a d i t i o n a l ways and v a l u e s  "little  tradition".  culture.  viewed as a " l i t t l e  b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s h e l d by C a t h o l i c s i n the South  a curious mixture o f C a t h o l i  vary  R e l i g i o n i n the South i s  •mysticism, paganism and magic.  been h e l d o v e r from the a n c i e n t  habitants  t o , the  Catholicism.  q u i t e w i d e l y from the o f f i c i a l Church dogma.  Much  p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s o f e a r l i e r i n -  o f the Mezzogiorno,and has been d e l i c a t e l y b l e n d e d w i t h the  practices of Catholicism — Various  t r a d i t i o n " , o f an I t a l i a n  t r a d i t i o n " which i s p a r t o f , b u t n o t e q u i v a l e n t  t r a d i t i o n " o f Roman The  has  culture  A n a l o g o u s l y , t h e Church o f the Mezzogiorno can" b e s t be viewed  as a " l i t t l e "great  o f the  In the case o f the Mezzogiorno, the peasant  of the area can be p r o p e r l y  Hence  much l i k e the b l e n d i n g  s a i n t s are considered  d e s i r e d on t h e . p a r t celebrated.  dominant, a c c o r d i n g  o f f i n e wines. t o l o c a l e , the f u n c t i o n  o f the s u p p l i c a n t , o r the p a r t i c u l a r f e s t a b e i n g  B e s i d e s the r e l a t i v e importance o f a p l e t h o r a o f s a i n t s  (some o f which have n e v e r been c a n o n i z e d , and o t h e r s there i s a t e n a c i o u s  de-canonized),  c l i n g i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l magic i n t h e hope f o r  b e t t e r crops and h a r v e s t s .  To improve t h e o l i v e h a r v e s t  in Sicily,  73  v a r i o u s o b j e c t s are hung from the branches o f t r e e s t o d r i v e away evil spirits.  The  and hence, so do (passed on  " c u l t o f the o l i v e " v a r i e s from d i s t r i c t  the o b j e c t s hung from the t r e e s —  from g e n e r a t i o n  horseshoes, e t c . b e l i e f s behind  sacred  to  cords  to g e n e r a t i o n ) , dead snakes, animal h o r n s ,  C e r t a i n l y these p r a c t i c e s , and  the a t t i t u d e s and  them,are not p a r t of the dominant mainstream  of Catholicism.  The  mal'  district  occhio  traditions  d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , as w e l l as the  amulets a v a i l a b l e to ward o f f the " e v i l eye"  various  are a l s o not p a r t o f main-  stream C a t h o l i c i s m . The although sources  C a t h o l i c element of the r e l i g i o n o f the M e z z o g i o r n i  i s weak,  the i n f l u e n c e o f the Church o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g .  "Church  r e p o r t t h a t l e s s than 30 p e r cent o f the people a t t e n d  as o f t e n as twice  a month.  By  and  l a r g e , church-going  church  i s defined  as  4 woman's work." tively  What i s even more important,  though, than t h i s  rela-  low l e v e l of Church attendance i n a C a t h o l i c c o u n t r y , i s the  f a c t t h a t the Church i s viewed (with r e s p e c t to i t s c o n n e c t i o n r e l i g i o n ) much as an e x t e n s i o n o f the mysticism.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f magic  a t t i t u d e o f the peasant toward the r e l i g i o u s  appears much l i k e t h a t o f A g r i p p a  with and  aspect  i n h i s d e c i s i o n to b u i l d the Pantheon  i n Rome: The s u p e r n a t u r a l powers t h a t t h r e a t e n o r p r o t e c t are as e a r n e s t l y b e l i e v e d i n and p l a c a t e d o r supp l i c a t e d as i n the p a s t , but t h e i r names and t h e i r n a t u r e have been s u b t l y a l t e r e d so as to make them  Leonard W. Moss and W a l t e r Thompson, "The South I t a l i a n F a m i l y : L i t e r a t u r e and O b s e r v a t i o n " i n Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 18.1, 1959, p. 226.  74  f i t i n t o the p a t t e r n of C a t h o l i c C h r i s t i a n i t y . The s a i n t s have r e p l a c e d the f a m i l i a r demons and country s p i r i t s o f the p a s t ; the p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f magic has been r e p l a c e d by c a n d l e s , h o l y water, c r u c i f i x e s and medals; and as f a r as p o s s i b l e the age-old supers t i t i o n s have been g i v e n a veneer of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Luca Montefalcone o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f p e r s i s t e n c e o f a n c i e n t religious  traditions:  " i t ' s e a s i e r to b e l i e v e i n s p i r i t s h e r e ,  know, than i n anysother misery."^  p a r t o f the w o r l d .  Whatever the r e a s o n ,  We  need them t o share  the f a c t remains t h a t the  element of the Church i s shallow,and  our  religious  a n c i e n t b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e p e r s i s t .  Church dogma i s e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r e d o r circumvented t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t . C o r n e l i s e n at the bus  you  to a l l o w f o r t r a d i -  S i s t e r Clemente, the nun who  s t a t i o n w i t h her jeep  ( s t o l e n from the A l l i e d  d u r i n g World War  I I by some e n t e r p r i s i n g peasant and  y e a r s because he  c o n s i d e r e d i t " h o t " ) , i s perhaps the most b e a u t i f u l  ample of s e l f - i n t e r e s t w i n d i n g i t s way  then hidden  then h e r i n t r i g u e w i t h the  By the time I was c o u r t i n g age he'd (my f a t h e r ) decided. He s a i d the l a n d went to my b r o t h e r s and they'd have to take care o f Mamma. There was enough f o r two o f us t h r e e g i r l s to have dowries. In o t h e r words, someone had to go! The t h r e e o f us had to work out which would be a nun. Let's face i t — the o t h e r two were p r e t t y . I knew more about farming but t h a t d i d n ' t count.' W e l l , the Mother S u p e r i o r ' s p r e t t y peeved about the j e e p  M a r a s p i n i , op.  c i t . , p.  Quoted i n C o r n e l i s e n , op. C o r n e l i s e n , op.  c i t . , p.  226. c i t . , p. 49.  84.  forces  f o r 20  i n t o s e r v i c e to the Church.  e x p l a i n s h e r " c h o i c e " o f a v o c a t i o n , and  met  exShe jeep:  75  but I f i g u r e D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e brought i t , so we have to accept....She's a l r e a d y mad a t me. I failed my d r i v i n g t e s t l a s t week f o r the t h i r d time, and she says D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e or no D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e , God d i d n ' t mean me to d r i v e . He may n o t , b u t the highway p o l i c e do. We've made a d e a l . They t u r n around and p r e t e n d not t o see me and a l l I have to do i s s t a y i n second gear — dangerous t o d r i v e f a s t e r than t h a t anyway. I f I do, I wobble a l l o v e r the p l a c e . The h i l l s get up on t h e i r h i n d l e g s and walk r i g h t out o f my way. Now don't get s c a r e d . You don't have to hang on l i k e t h a t . All  o f the examples of s e l f - i n t e r e s t and t r a d i t i o n i n the realm o f  r e l i g i o n and the Church Clemente o f T o r r e g r e c c a . Christian  limited  In a c u l t u r e o f d i s t r u s t  i d e a l of l o v e f o r one's f e l l o w man  to i n s i s t that one a life  are by no means so humorous as t h a t o f  Sister  and c o m p e t i t i o n , the  i s an anomaly.  I t i s absurd  l o v e h i s n e i g h b o r when he sees h i m s e l f caught  and death s t r u g g l e w i t h t h a t very n e i g h b o r f o r a c l a i m on r e s o u r c e s which c o n s t i t u t e the good l i f e .  Friedmann sums i t up w e l l i n one l i n e :  t h a t i n these r e g i o n s the Church  the  Duty to f a m i l y comes  b e f o r e any n e b u l a r r u l e which goes a g a i n s t the s a n c t i t y of that family.  up i n  and  integrity  "The  fact i s  i s no more than a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e upon 9  an e s s e n t i a l l y  pagan  civilization."  Although the Church has l i t t l e  religious  o u t l o o k o f the people i n the Mezzogiorno,  e f f e c t upon the l i v e s  i t i s extremely p o w e r f u l i n  m o d i f y i n g t h e i r outlooksiand b e h a v i o r ^ i n the temporal realm. is  The  Church  important t o the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h r e g a r d to p e r f o r m i n g the n e c e s s a r y  I b i d . , p. 46-47. Friedmann,  op. c i t . , p.  332.  and  76  sacraments f o r s a l v a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y  at b i r t h , m a r r i a g e , and  and because o f the v a r i o u s n o n - r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f the  priest.  While the government can impose o n l y temporal s a n c t i o n s , the w i e l d s the weapon o f excommunication, i n a d d i t i o n to the s a n c t i o n s which o f t e n e q u a l those o f the government. may  i n c a r c e r a t e an i n d i v i d u a l ,  t h a t the  f a m i l y may  Church  temporal  The  government  the worst p a r t o f the sentence b e i n g  s t a r v e without  make p e o p l e s t a r v e i n o r d e r  death),  i t s breadwinner; but  to g a i n compliance a l s o —  seems t o p o i n t to the f a c t t h a t t h i s t a c t i c has,  the Church and  the  can  evidence  i n d e e d , been used.  Witness a shepherd's account: F a t h e r Giacomo i s r i c h and earns a l o t , because f o r s a y i n g a Mass he wants 700 l i r e , and then every month he gets h e l p from America — clothes, pasta, . f l o u r , t i n n e d m i l k , and he d i v i d e s i t among the poor. To us he g i v e s a k i l o : o f f l o u r and some m i l k — but to the Communists he g i v e s n o t h i n g because although t h e y ' r e r e a l l y poor he says they have another God! ^ 1  T h i s power of the Church i n ; t h e r e g i o n i s , i n p a r t , due of i n t e g r i t y  on the p a r t o f the Church h i e r a r c h y .  C a t h o l i c dogma and p r a c t i c e are t o l e r a t e d and because i t p l a c e s the l o c a l p r i e s t  The  to an  abrogation  d e v i a t i o n s from  encouraged by the h i e r a r c h y  i n a pre-eminent p o s i t i o n .  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , t h e p e r f o r m e r o f  He  i s the necessary  s a c r e d r i t e s , the s o l e d i s p e n s e r o f much o f the, p a r a p h e r n a l i a needed to  Quoted i n Gavin Maxwell's The Ten Pains o f Death (London: Longman's, 1959), p. 52. A g a i n , t h i s i s an o f t - r e p e a t e d complaint. Another witness: "The high-ups keep us l i k e t h i s — they l i k e the p l e a s u r e o f s e e i n g the people s u f f e r . Now t h e r e ' s going to be e l e c t i o n s — they'll open the work c e n t r e s and the p r i e s t s and b i g - s h o t s say t h e y ' l l g i v e us work and h e l p the poor — they g i v e us p a s t a , and want us to promise our v o t e s . That l a s t s two months and then i t ' s f i n i s h e d " (p. 58).  77  perform other sacred r i t e s (holy water, sacred candles, e t c . ) , and he i s the intercessor between the supplicant and the saints.^".  His  prestige i s enhanced by being so powerful i n h i s own domain (as performer and dispenser) , and by his connection with the greater pox^ers of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l hierarchy, the saints, and God himself. evaluates the positionfof  Maraspini  the p r i e s t :  What i s more, behind the power of the Church i s hidden the almighty hand of God, of whom the Church i s only the instrument. The i n d i v i d u a l peasant may or may not l i k e the p r i e s t s ; he may or may not respect the Church i t s e l f as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ; indeed, he may f e e l l i t t l e respect towards priests as individuals. But his b e l i e f i n God i s unshakeable, and he accepts absolutely the claim of the p r i e s t to be God's representative i n the v i l l a g e . Consequently, the priest's status i s extremely high, and i s correlated with the tremendous.power he i s believed to have as God's deputy.I 2  ...the prestige of the p r i e s t , and his generally recognized superior education, give great weight to his work. Consequently, to query the priest's statements, or to disobey h i s commands, i s f e l t to verge on sacrilege. For a l l these reasons, the priest i s d e f i n i t e l y the most powerful person i n the v i l l a g e . ^ 3  Although the p r i e s t occupies this position of pre-eminence i n the culture of the areaj many people have come to recognize the power that the p r i e s t wields, as well as the d i r e c t i o n i n which that power i s used, and strong sentiments of a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m e x i s t within the  See Maraspini, op. c i t . , p. 227. Maraspini, op. c i t . , p. 127 Ibid., p. 229.  78  Mezzogiorno.  L i k e the m a f i a , however, the Church has developed  that  M a c h i a v e l l i a n c a p a b i l i t y o f making i t s e l f f e a r e d , b u t n o t h a t e d . peasant  cannot a f f o r d t o h a t e e i t h e r p r i e s t s o r m a f i o s i , they a r e too  powerful. are  One cannot  a f f o r d t o a l i e n a t e those p e z z i da novanta who  capable o f manipulating e i t h e r t h e s t r i n g s o f l i f e  s a l v a t i o n and excommunication. w i t h impunity. to s u p e r s t i t i o n .  virility  P a r t o f the a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m o f t h e Mezzogiorno  M a s c u l i n i t y tends to be equated w i t h  and t h e p r i e s t has m u t a t i s mutandis d e n i e d  (The p r i e s t , f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , i s the o n l y n e u t e r  object i n Italian.)  S u p e r s t i t i o n s e x i s t t h a t d e f i n e the s e e i n g o f a  p r i e s t unexpectedly as an omen o f bad l u c k t o come,and t h a t are  g e n e r a l l y unlucky t o have The  though.  i s due  The p r i e s t o c c u p i e s an anomalous s e x u a l p o s i t i o n  i n t h e Mezzogiorno,  masculinity.  and d e a t h , o r  P r i e s t s can be f e a r e d , b u t n o t h a t e d ,  because o f h i s vows o f c e l i b a c y .  his  The  priests  around.  a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m o f the Mezzogiorno  i s not a l l s u p e r s t i t i o n ,  A g r e a t share o f a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m appears t o be r e a c t i o n t o  v a r i o u s a c t i o n s o f t h e p r i e s t s , and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y when t h e a c t i o n s o f the p a r t y go a g a i n s t the i n t e r e s t s of  the people of the Mezzogiorno.  viewed  The C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y i s  as b e i n g synonymous w i t h the ' p a r t y o f the p r i e s t s ' .  Through  t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p a r t y , the p r i e s t s are o f t e n , v i e w e d as merely b e i n g another " b i g - s h o t " r e p r e s e n t i n g another p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . p r i e s t s are a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l  The  agents f o r the DC, and a r e a b l e to use t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e and p o s i t i o n v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y .  They a r e a b l e to combine the  "powerc;of the p u l p i t " w i t h t h e " s a n c t i t y o f the b a l l o t box" to t h e  79  b e n e f i t of t h e i r p a r t y . politics  The  has been accomplished  curious i n t e r m i n g l i n g of r e l i g i o n i n a most e f f i c i e n t  and  manner.  V i r t u a l l y o n l y one p a r t y has been i n power i n I t a l y s i n c e the war; The C h r i s t i a n Democrats. T h i s p a r t y , w h o l l y l i n k e d to the V a t i c a n , adopted the c r o s s as i t s p a r t y s i g n , and t h e r e are many western S i c i l i a n peasants who w i l l c r o s s themselves when they see i t ; at e l e c t i o n time, they w i l l autom a t i c a l l y vote f o r i t b o t h because i t i s v a r i o u s l y known as the P a r t y of God, the P a r t y o f the Madonna, and the P a r t y of the C r o s s , and because the p r i e s t s are, by i n s t r u c t i o n and c o n v i c t i o n , a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l agents. The two c r o s s e s o f C h r i s t and Government are by now i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed. A peasant who does not belong to t h i s p a r t y i s t r e a t e d as a moral l e p e r by a l l i n a u t h o r i t y . A s l o g a n t h a t I have seen c a r r i e d at e l e c t i o n time 'Vote C h r i s t i a n Democrat o r s t a r v e ' seemed not so much a prophecy as a t h r e a t a l l too o f t e n put i n t o action.I 5  The p i c t u r e p o r t r a y e d t o the peasant i n f o r m a n t s ; "Most people v o t e C D . ,  i s summed up by one o f D o l c i ' s because i f they vote C D .  they're  v o t i n g f o r Our L o r d . . . . " ^ A f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y , i n and o f i t self,  i s not enough to account  giorno —  f o r the a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m o f the Mezzo-  o t h e r l i n k s are needed.  known to be  The  C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y i s  the p a r t y of the government.  Given the g e n e r a l  macy o f the government p o r t r a y e d by the concept t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount o f " g u i l t  illegiti-  o f governo l a d r o ,  by a s s o c i a t i o n " which accrues  to  A common anecdote i n I t a l y concerns the r e p l y givenbby the p r i e s t s to those who come to ask a d v i c e concerning the q u e s t i o n o f who to v o t e f o r . The r e p l y g i v e n by the p r i e s t i s " I can't t e l l you who t o v o t e f o r ; a l l I can do i s a d v i s e you to vote f o r someone who i s a C h r i s t i a n and a democrat." Maxwell, op. c i t . , p. 5. B a n f i e l d a l s o notes the c o n n e c t i o n o f the " p a r t y o f the p r i e s t s " i n h i s study o f Montegrano (p. 26).  DC and 1  6  D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op.  c i t . , p.  143.  the  80 the p r i e s t s through the p a r t y .  Also, particularly i n S i c i l y ,  the DC i s  known to be supported by the m a f i o s i , and here too a c e r t a i n amount o f " g u i l t by a s s o c i a t i o n " rubs o f f onto the  cloth.  There a r e y e t more t a n g i b l e f a c t o r s to i n d i c t the c l e r g y as p a r t o f a v a s t patronage  system which i s i n v o l v e d i n s t e a l i n g from the peasant h i s  i n t e g r i t y arid l e g a l r i g h t s , and denying him the o p p o r t u n i t y to j o i n i n a s s o c i a t i o n s o f common i n t e r e s t .  The peasant's  experience with  interest  groups i s l i m i t e d to those groups s a n c t i o n e d by the Church, m a i n l y C h r i s t i a n Democratic  P a r t y and C a t h o l i c A c t i o n .  I g n a z i o P.,  the  a junk d e a l e r  whose f a m i l y had been i n the junk b u s i n e s s f o r 110 y e a r s i n the p o o r e s t s e c t i o n o f Palermo: R e l i g i o n ? t h e r e i s no such t h i n g here. I put m y s e l f down as a C h r i s t i a n Democrat, not because I wanted to v o t e D.C., but so as I'd be allowed t o c a r r y on my t r a d e . At e l e c t i o n t i m e s , a few p r i e s t s and some l a d i e s and some gents come a l o n g . and hand us packets o f p a s t a to make us v o t e f o r them...Most people v o t e as t h e y ' r e t o l d to v o t e ; t h e y ' r e s c a r e d b l u e a t the thought o f what would happen to them i f i t came out t h a t they'd voted a g a i n s t the party."17 /  Or, a g a i n , a nun a t a convent which o p e r a t e d an orphanage: We take i n orphans a t the c o n v e n t — t h e r e ' s f o r t y of them w i t h us and they come from a l l s o r t s o f towns. We adopt them a f t e r making the n e c e s s a r y e n q u i r i e s , because we never take i n c h i l d r e n o f Communists, f o r example, as t h e y ' r e , excommunicated.18 The C a t h o l i c Church,  then, a i d e d by h i g h l e v e l s of i l l i t e r a c y ,  17 I b i d . , p.  93.  18 Maxwell, op. c i t . , p.  176.  poverty  81  and  a t t i t u d e s o f f a t a l i s m , has  served  forms o f a s s o c i a t i o n which do not Church.  Not  o n l y i s the  to c l o s e o f f any  s t r i c t l y serve  alternative  the i n t e r e s t o f  the  f a m i l y u n i t viewed as a h i g h l y moral type o f  a s s o c i a t i o n , but most forms o f e x t r a - f a m i l i a l a s s o c i a t i o n are viewed as h i g h l y immoral —  sanctions  reaching  as h i g h  as s t a r v a t i o n and  ex-  communication. The aided  Church, l i k e the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y ,  in  i s further  i t s : attempt to d i s c o u r a g e p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n o u t s i d e  t h e i r own  c o n f i n e s , by  s i d e of the w r i t t e n  the c a r a b i n i e r i o r p o l i c e .  r u l e s concerning  Although i t i s o u t -  the d u t i e s o f the  c a r a b i n i e r i they  o f t e n , at l e a s t i n the South, f u n c t i o n as p o l i t i c a l s p i e s . meticulously  are made by o r d i n a r y flippant  Ledgers  kept i n which the names o f those men^.x^hose i d e a s  C h r i s t i a n Democrat are r e c o r d e d .  These e v a l u a t i o n s  c a r a b i n i e r i who  of  as to DC  serve  not  o r non-DC  are, i n f a c t , lay spies.  remark made over c o f f e e at the l o c a l b a r may  are  are  A  to brand  19 one  for l i f e .  fairs  The  to h i m s e l f ,  prudent man  must keep h i s p o l i t i c a l views and  l e s t he u n w i t t i n g l y  c l o s e o f f some o f h i s o p t i o n s  a l i e n a t i n g the p o w e r f u l o f the community. a l l too t r u e ; "Fascism i s f i n i s h e d , but has  The words o f one  One  See  the  fascism.  testimony o f c a r a b i n i e r e i n Maxwell, op.  Quoted i n Maxwell, op.  whoever  i t s up to  might expand the statement g i v e n by  to i n c l u d e more than the "wisdom" of  c i t . , p.  176.  by  priest ring  i t s wisdom remains —  D e m o c h r i s t i a n paper works, and whoever h a s n ' t . . . w e l l 20  o r h e ' l l be poor!"  af-  c i t . , p.  226.  him,  priest  82  The  Church views i t s e l f  as b e s i e g e d by h e r e s y .  viewed as l y i n g i n a s t a t e o f damnation,owing  Society i s  to the d e n i a l o f C h r i s t .  L i b e r a l i s m , S o c i a l i s m , and Communism a r e d i r e c t emanations greatest of a l l heresies — P r o t e s t a n t i s m . attempted t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f  from t h e  The Church h a s , t h e r e f o r e ,  from the e n c r o a c h i n g e v i l s o f human n a t u r e .  The Church opposed t h e c r e a t i o n o f the u n i f i e d I t a l y , and promulgated the  famous Non E x p e d i t when temporal power was taken away from the  Vatican.  The Non E x p e d i t proved d y s f u n c t i o n a l to the i n t e r e s t s o f the  Church, and the Church has found i t more expedient t o pursue i t s t r a d i 21 tion-bound p o l i c i e s through t h e system.  LaPalombara  g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g  example o f one way i n which the Church has used i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e government t o f o s t e r the v a l u e s which i t deems most worthy.  Italy's  s c h o o l system i s h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d under the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and n22 "serves to i n s t i l l values c l o s e l y attuned to conservative The  f o l l o w i n g passages a r e from textbooks o f f i c i a l l y  throughout  Catholicism.  chosen f o r use  Italy: The f o u r t h commandment — honor thy f a t h e r and mother — o r d e r s us t o r e s p e c t and l o v e our p a r e n t s and a l l who have a u t h o r i t y over us, t h a t i s , o u r superiors: t h e Pope, the b i s h o p s , the p r i e s t s , the c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s , and our t e a c h e r s . . . . There i s much s o c i a l change because p a r e n t s o f t e n f a l l prey t o s t u p i d ambitions f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The shoemaker wants h i s son t o become an a c c o u n t a n t ; the sausage vendor wants h i s son t o become a p h y s i cian. J u s t imagine such f o o l i s h n e s s . 2  -*- See LaPalombara, t i o n " op. cit... 2  "Italy:  F r a g m e n t a t i o n , I s o l a t i o n and A l i e n a -  ;  2  2  I b i d . , p. 320.  2  3  D o l c i , The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . , p. 248.  83  At minimum,this s o r t o f t r a i n i n g encourages one's chances f o r self-improvement In  a sort of fatalism regarding  g i v e n h i s f a m i l y background.  i t s crusade a g a i n s t t h e h e r e t i c a l e v i l s o f the modern w o r l d ,  the Church has a l l i e d i t s e l f w i t h o t h e r f o r c e s o f c o n s e r v a t i s m . sums up h i s f i n d i n g  r e g a r d i n g the Church  Dolci  and i t s o r i e n t a t i o n :  R e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e r e , a p a r t from some r a r e e x c e p t i o n s tend towards c l o s e d n e s s and c o n s e r v a t i s m r a t h e r than openess and i n n o v a t i o n : i n many cases m a f i o s i arid p o l i t i c i a n s a r e regarded by 'men o f r e l i g i o n ' simply as open-minded c r u s a d e r s e f f e c t i v e l y opposing change. LaPalombara found t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n o f the c l e r g y w i t h r e s p e c t t o politics  and p o l i t i c a l  institutions.  The c l e r g y , he s a y s , s e r v e s 25  "primarily  to i n t e n s i f y i s o l a t i v e , n e g a t i v e , and a l i e n a t i v e  views.  B e s i d e s the " i s o l a t i v e , n e g a t i v e , and a l i e n a t i v e views", however, t h e r e is  another a s p e c t o f C a t h o l i c i s m which tends t o f o s t e r c o n s e r v a t i s m  and s t a g n a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e improvement o f the m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s of  life.  The " o t h e r - w o r d l y " o r i e n t a t i o n o f the Church  and their Roman  C a t h o l i c m e n t a l i t y tends t o m i t i g a t e the emphasis p l a c e d on improvement of  t h e temporal sphere o f l i f e ,  and, hence, g i v e s s t r o n g s u p p o r t t o the  maintenance o f the s t a t u s quo. Many o f the a t t r i b u t e s o f the Church be viewed  d i s c u s s e d above which can  as impediments t o change and s u p p o r t f o r the s t a t u s quo, a r e  a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Church  i n other parts of I t a l y .  The d i f f e r -  ence, I b e l i e v e , i s due to t h e p e c u l i a r way i n which a l l o f t h i s i s 24  D o l c i , The Man Who P l a y s A l o n e , op. c i t . ,  p. 248.  25 LaPalombara, " I t a l y : op. c i t . , p. 322.  Fragmentation,  I s o l a t i o n and A l i e n a t i o n "  84  r e c e i v e d i n the South by the n a t i v e of the a r e a ( p a r t i a l l y  from h i s  moral code), and the p o v e r t y o f the r e g i o n which c l o s e s o f f many o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s which would o t h e r w i s e be open t o the i n d i v i d u a l . A carabiniere  states:  Where I come from i n the n o r t h the p r i e s t s a r e n ' t a l l t h a t i m p o r t a n t ; t h e y ' r e i n command at the moment even over t h e r e , but they haven't a f r a c t i o n o f the power they show here i n S i c i l y . In a S i c i l i a n town the p r i e s t s are e v e r y t h i n g . . . . I t ' s them, t o o , t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l the misery down h e r e . A f t e r a l l these c e n t u r i e s they haven't known how t o d i r e c t the S i c i l i a n people i n t o a new, f u l l e r , more modern l i f e f o r the common good. But people keep a b l i n d v e n e r a t i o n f o r the c l e r i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , even w h i l e r e a l i s i n g t h a t they s u f f e r from them c o n s t a n t outrage and b e t r a y a l in every f i e l d . But t h a t ' s the ^ S i c i l i a n way — t o h a t e and to l o v e at the same time. Whatever the r e a s o n s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the Church  and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  i n the South are riot the same as the Church  and c l e r g y i n the N o r t h .  P r i e s t s are more p o w e r f u l i n the Mezzogiorno  f o r a number o f reasons  the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f importance  g i v e n t o s t a t u s and  i n t h a t c u l t u r e ; h i s a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l what may amounts o f funds and f o o d , but which may t i o n and sustenance  prestige  be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l  be the margin between s t a r v a -  f o r many f a m i l i e s ; and the g e n e r a l l a c k o f  n a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s open to the i n d i v i d u a l .  alter-  In the words o f one  "...what a w o n d e r f u l s a t i s f a c t i o n L i t i s when one i s a p r i e s t — i s no l o n g e r a man spected—and  priest: one  l i k e a l l o t h e r s , one has become an a u t h o r i t y , r e -  •'27 feared.  —  The o t h e r s i d e of the c o i n , though  Quoted i n Maxwell,  op. c i t . , p.  228.  Quoted i n Maxwell,  op. c i t . , p.  183.  not  85  n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y , i s p o r t r a y e d by a fisherman from mare, who  d i s c u s s e d the statement  mare had committed a murder:  "One  t h a t one man  Castella-  i n three i n C a s t e l l a -  i n three....Perhaps  i t i s true.  If  i t i s then i t i s s t i l l  the work o f the Church, because  the  is  b e h i n d a l l the u n j u s t laws t h a t govern us and d r i v e us t o  Church  28 desperation." Given the p o r t r a i t o f the Church p o r t r a y e d thus f a r , i t may  be  h e l p f u l to go back and review the manner i n which i t r e l a t e s to the moral  code o f the Mezzogiorno  paper. of  F i r s t of a l l ,  the f a m i l y u n i t .  s e t f o r t h i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n  the Church enhances the m o r a l i t y and The  totthis sanctity  t r a d i t i o n of a t i g h t n u c l e a r f a m i l y ,  seemingly  born out o f the e x i g e n c i e s o f e a r l i e r p a s t o r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l comm u n i t i e s w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t o f c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , i s enhanced w i t h a moral q u a l i t y d e r i v i n g of  from r e l i g i o n .  The  t r a d i t i o n o f the pre-eminence  the f a m i l i a l type of a s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o m a i n t a i n e d through s a n c t i o n s  i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t o t h e r types o f a s s o c i a t i o n which are n o t w i t h the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l The Church —  connected  realm.  t r a d i t i o n o f a r i g i d h i e r a r c h y i s a l s o e x a c e r b a t e d by  the  w i t n e s s the q u o t a t i o n s from s c h o o l textbooks c i t e d on page 82.  The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y has seemingly become a p a t t e r n which i s t r a n s f e r r e d to a l l o f s o c i e t y .  The p r i e s t , because o f h i s p o s i t i o n i n  I b i d . , p. 16. Buonaventura's statement i s q u a l i f i e d l a t e r i n the book, though he does not decrease the amount o f "blame" l a i d on the Church: "There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between murder and k i l l i n g , Gavin. Most men t h a t are k i l l e d h e r e . — not a l l , but most — are k i l l e d because they deserve to d i e . Men k i l l here when i t i s ' j u s t f t p do s o " (p. 6 7 ) .  86  t h i s h i e r a r c h y , i s the c o n t r o l l e r o r "gatekeeper" o f many f u n c t i o n s which a r e viewed as n e c e s s a r y  to the i n d i v i d u a l .  He i s t h e n e c e s s a r y  i n t e r m e d i a r y between t h e peasant and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , both s a i n t s and m o r t a l s .  Indeed, even when the s u p p l i c a n t goes around the  p r i e s t , C a t h o l i c dogma d i c t a t e s t h a t he again l i n k up to an h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement o f a u t h o r i t y through t h e realm o f v a r i o u s s a i n t s .  The  h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement, n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h a t the peasant t i e h i m s e l f , at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , t o the p r i e s t i s a l s o c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o the temporal realm, where the Church, through i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the C h r i s t i a n Democratic P a r t y  (and hence the Government), i s a b l e t o c o n t r o l  patronage on a v a s t s c a l e , d e a l i n g i n j o b s , c o n t r a c t s , and food s u p p l i e s . By p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e v a s t patronage system o f the government b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e Church has r e i n f o r c e d the e f f i c a c y o f t h e patronage system.  Because a p e r s o n a l i s t i c t i e t o t h e p e z z i da n o v a n t a i s rewarded,  the p a t t e r n i s i n c r e a s e d as o t h e r s  come t o view t h i s as t h e most  c i o u s way o f p r o v i d i n g themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i t h of the "good l i f e " .  share  Thus, the Church has r e i n f o r c e d t h e p a t t e r n s o f  p e r s o n a l i s t i c power p o l i t i c s one  their  effica-  and t h e n o t i o n t h a t " f r i e n d s h i p " i s the  fence which stands between t h e peasant and h i s a n n i h i l a t i o n by t h e  f o r c e s o f e v i l and n a t u r e . The  Church h a s , t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , n u r t u r e d  d i s t r u s t and s e c r e t i v e n e s s i n the Mezzogiorno. inveighed  the element o f  Because o f the s a n c t i o n s  a g a i n s t c e r t a i n a c t i o n s , t h e Church has f o s t e r e d the element  of "closedness".  One does not openly  p r o c l a i m agreement w i t h , s a y , the  87  Communist P a r t y u n l e s s one i s w i l l i n g as be excommunicated  t o have h i s f a m i l y s t a r v e , a s w e l l  i n t o the b a r g a i n .  The Church a l s o has a i d e d the maintenance o f a p r e s t i g e system based on the v a l u e s o f conspicuous l e i s u r e and the d e n i g r a t i o n o f manual labor —  this  f o r two r e a s o n s .  F i r s t , because o f i t s c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e  v a s t patronage system c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a r e a , the Church can be i d e n t i f i e d as " c o - c o n s p i r a t o r " ( a p o p u l a r term t h e s e days) i n m a i n t a i n i n g the view t h a t p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e and i n d u s t r y a r e n o t rewarding. t r u e i n the Mezzogiorno — from h i s p o w e r f u l f r i e n d s .  It is  one does n o t " a c h i e v e " , r a t h e r one " o b t a i n s " S e c o n d l y , because o f t h e honor and p r e s t i g e  g i v e n t o t h e p r i e s t h o o d , a c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d more h o n o r i f i c than^a t e c h n i c a l  career.  F i n a l l y , through i t s " o t h e r - w o r d l y " o r i e n t a t i o n , a n d the d e n i g r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l achievement, t h e Church has h e l p e d t o m a i n t a i n the 'att i t u d e s o f f a t a l i s m and s e l f - r e s i g n a t i o n . A l l o f t h i s i s n o t t o i d e n t i f y t h e Church as the c h i e f  culprit  of the Mezzogiorno w i t h i t s t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d ways which r e s u l t i n p o v e r t y and l a m i s e r i a .  Many elements have combined  t o form t h e c u l t u r e o f the  Mezzogiorno, and i t would be r e d u c t i o n i s t i c t o c r e d i t too much o f t h a t c u l t u r e to any s i n g l e i n s t i t u t i o n o r s e t o f f a c t o r s .  I t i s obvious,  though,that much o f the moral code o f the Mezzogiorno i s i n f l u e n c e d by the Church and i t s p r a c t i c e s —  b o t h r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r .  88  CHAPTER V  The  Family The c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f S i c i l i a n s o c i e t y i s the n u c l e a r f a m i l y . The r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s which d e r i v e from membership i n i t p r o v i d e the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h h i s ' b a s i c moral code. J.  Perhaps no described, nuclear  o t h e r phenomenon i n I t a l i a n c u l t u r e i s as w i d e l y n o t e d ,  i n t e r p r e t e d as the n o t i o n  of " f a m i l y " —  from the  f a m i l y through the c o h s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y , even to the  conception of the  and  Boissevain  of the " f a m i l i e s " o f the m a f i a .  small  notorious  Much o f the  discussion  concept o f f a m i l y i s e i t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l , o r w i l d  conjecture  w r i t t e n w i t h the p r o p e r dose of s e n s a t i o n a l i s m  to i n s u r e a w r i t e r ' s  success and  success o f The  large royalties.  (a good book but  Given the recent  a poor movie), the  theme of the m a f i a has  Godfather  become popu-  l a r i z e d , thereby adding to the amount of l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y l i t e r a t u r e on  the s u b j e c t o f the m a f i a and  t i e s which h o l d the " o r g a n i z a t i o n " a c l o s e r l o o k at the and  f u r t h e r explore  the p e r s o n a l i s t i c , f a m i l y - l i k e  together.  This chapter w i l l  f a m i l i s m o f the Mezzogiorno, i n s e e k i n g the moral code s e t out  to  at the b e g i n n i n g of  attempt explain this  paper. There a r e , i n the Mezzogiorno, two held simultaneously c e p t i o n i s one the n u c l e a r  c o n c e p t i o n s o f f a m i l y which  w i t h o u t the p e r c e p t i o n  of c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  The  of a continuum o f a l l e g i a n c e b e g i n n i n g at the l e v e l  family,and  s t r e t c h i n g out  to i n c l u d e the  consanguineal  are  conof  89  family.  As  r e l a t i o n s become more d i s t a n t , the r i g h t s and  connected w i t h these r e l a t i o n s become l e s s pronounced.  E v i d e n c e does  e x i s t which would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the t i e to the f a m i l y has nuclear  s t e a d i l y decreased o v e r the y e a r s ,  and  consanguineal  a l l e g i a n c e to  f a m i l y more o f t e n supersedes the i n t e r e s t s of the  f a m i l y than was  evident  i n the past.''"  Corporate k i n s h i p  tend to o c c u r where groups have a patrimony to defend. l e s s important as l a n d and l a n d and subject  labor enter  consanguineal organizations  They become  the market economy.  As l a n d and  l a b o r become  to a market economy, the i n d i v i d u a l i s f r e e d to fend  the Mezzogiorno, due  the  l a b o r become " f r e e commodities", i . e . , as  by s e l l i n g h i s l a b o r o r b u y i n g l a n d .  ject  obligations  To  to o v e r p o p u l a t i o n .  for himself  an extent  t h i s i s the case i n  Labor has  r e c e n t l y become sub-  to the market economy as young p e o p l e seek a l t e r n a t i v e employment.  Many e n t e r  the market system as l a b o r e r s because they want a l i f e  than t h a t which they have known; many o t h e r s f o r c e because the i s not  f a m i l y lands w i l l not  e n t e r the f l o a t i n g  labor  support a l l o f the sons.  Land  a " f r e e commodity"; there i s a s c a r c i t y o f good a g r i c u l t u r a l lands  in  the Mezzogiorno, and  in  the hope o f g i v i n g them a good s t a r t i n l i f e .  the norm i s t o pass these l a n d s  i n t o the market economy has o f the  better  tended to m i t i g a t e  c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y , but  The  on  to o f f s p r i n g  entrance of  labor  the economic importance  the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y o f l a n d has  tended  ^ See Samuel H u n t i n g t o n , P o l i t i c a l Order i n Changing S o c i e t i e s (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 37. See a l s o Donald P i t k i n ' s "Land Tenure and Family O r g a n i z a t i o n i n an I t a l i a n V i l l a g e " i n Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 18.4, 1959-60, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the d e c l i n e of the extended f a m i l y system i n the Mezzogiorno.  90  to enhance that importance.  Economically,  i s o f m a r g i n a l importance, but which can be As creased,  the c o n s a n g u i n e a l  does p r o v i d e  c a l l e d upon a t h a r v e s t  a valuable  time, and  family  supply  aid i n troubled  of  labor  times.  the economic importance of the c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y has the r e l a t i v e importance o f the n u c l e a r  and p o l i t i c a l u n i t has  increased.  The  nuclear  de-  f a m i l y as an economic f a m i l y becomes a m u l t i -  purpose o r g a n i z a t i o n which can u n i t e a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s  to meet  f a m i l i a l demands.  small-  s c a l e , and  The  demands o f the f a m i l y are v a r i e d and  tend to come i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n .  z a t i o n i s "maximally a d a p t i v e " ; to meet these v a r i e d demands.  The  f a m i l y as an  i t can s h i f t " p r o d u c t i o n "  organi-  or "output"  Given the p r e v a l e n c e o f d i s t r u s t i n l a  2 m i s e r i a o f the Mezzogiorno,  the importance o f the n u c l e a r  enhanced s i n c e i t r e p r e s e n t s  a s o c i a l u n i t which can be  economic and  political  association.  "Deeply rooted  p a t t e r n of economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y h e l p 3 s t r u c t u r e o f the anxiety-reduction The  family."  The  nuclear  mechanism p r o v i d i n g  family i s  t r u s t e d as  an  t r a d i t i o n s plus  s u s t a i n the  a  monolithic  f a m i l y thus o p e r a t e s as  an  s e c u r i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l .  economic a s p e c t s of f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , though, appear to  be  overshadowed by l e s s t a n g i b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f honor and s t a t u s . 2 Almond and Verba asked the people of the Mezzogiorno "Can most people be t r u s t e d ? Responses were as f o l l o w s : "Most people can be t r u s t e d " 4% " I t depends" 7% "You can't be too c a r e f u l " 86% 3 Moss and C a p p a n a r i , " P a t t e r n s of K i n s h i p , Comparaggio and Community i n a South I t a l i a n V i l l a g e " , op. c i t .  91  Schneider p o i n t s out t h a t "Mediterranean s o c i e t i e s a r e i d e o l o g i c a l about  the family."  4  Seemingly,  ' t h i s " i d e o l o g i c a l " o r i e n t a t i o n to the  f a m i l y i s d e r i v a t i v e from many s o u r c e s — e c o n o m i c  considerations, the  concepts o f power, honour, and p r e s t i g e , and f i n a l l y manpower c o n s i d e r a tions.  I shall first  e x p l o r e t h i s " i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n " as i t  r e l a t e s t o the n u c l e a r f a m i l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y and l a t t e r l y the n u c l e a r f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t i n the Mezzogiorno  which d i f f e r s from'the n u c l e a r f a m i l y o f much o f t h e modern  world i n terms o f v a l u e s , o r i e n t a t i o n , and o u t l o o k . The i n d i v i d u a l of t h e Mezzogiorno f a m i l y and a c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y .  i s a member o f both a n u c l e a r  The c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y s e r v e s as  a u n i t of o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , but h i s primary f o c u s i s h i s own n u c l e a r f a m i l y .  The i n t e r e s t s of one group  those o f the o t h e r .  As members o f the c o n s a n g u i n e a l group  o f the patrimony,  seldom  conflict  with  share much  t h e r e i s a common i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g and  enhancing  t h a t patrimony.  patrimony  i s the honour o f the f a m i l y (onore d i f a m i g l i a ) which each  member must h e l p t o p r o t e c t .  One of the most prominent  elements  The p r o t e c t i o n o f the patrimony  of that  then,  i s o f mutual i n t e r e s t t o a l l members o f the c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y . and Thompson note the r e l e v a n c e o f honour and i t s importance: .  4 S c h n e i d e r , op. c i t . , p. 10.  Moss  92  I f t h e r e can be s a i d t o be a b a s i c v a l u e which u n d e r l i e s the southern f a m i l y , i t i s p r o b a b l y t h e v a l u e o f onore d i f a m i g l i a . Shame r e f l e c t e d on the f a m i l y exposes every member t o r i d i c u l e . 5  V i o l a t i o n s t o the honour o f the f a m i l y can come i n many  forms—illegi-  timacy, a d u l t e r y , murder o f a f a m i l y member, s t e r i l i t y ,  impotence, t h e f t ,  or e x p l o i t a t i o n .  O f t e n such v i o l a t i o n s t o t h e honour o f the f a m i l y  n e c e s s i t a t e concerted  a c t i o n on the p a r t o f members o f the a f f r o n t e d  f a m i l y t o revenge t h a t v i o l a t i o n . r e t a l i a t i o n , and so on u n t i l  The r e p r i s a l o f t e n provokes another  the v e n d e t t a i s a m i n i a t u r e  outcomes j u s t a s . d e a d l y as t h e f u l l - s c a l e m o d e l .  war w i t h  7  5 Moss and Thompson, bp. c i t . , p. 39. 6 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l l o f these v i o l a t i o n s t o the honour o f a f a m i l y seemingly have t h e i r r o o t s i n a c t i o n s o r c o n d i t i o n s which m i t i g a t e the economic and p o l i t i c a l v i a b i l i t y of the family i n a s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y . I n a s o c i e t y where sons a r e important as b o t h producers (economic) and p r o t e c t o r s or s o l d i e r s ( p o l i t i c a l ) , those c o n d i t i o n s which i m p a i r p r o c r e a t i o n ( s t e r i l i t y and impotence) a r e noted as v i o l a t i o n s o f honour.; S i m i l a r l y d e v i a n t s e x u a l behaviour on the p a r t o f the women c a s t doubt on t h e m a s c u l i n i t y o f the male, i n t h a t he cannot p r o p e r l y r u n h i s f a m i l y . Murder takes away u s u a l l y a son, thereby i m p a i r i n g the p o l i t i c a l v i a b i l i t y o f the group; and t h e f t removes some o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the group. 7  I f one views breaches o f . f a m i l i a l honour i n terms o f t h r e a t s t o the economic and p o l i t i c a l v i a b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y (and t h e r e f o r e t h r e a t s t o t h e p a t r i m o n y ) , and i f one views these a f f r o n t s through the image o f the l i m i t e d good, the v e n d e t t a can be seen as the maintenance o f an energy budget. For.;example, i f two f a m i l i e s l i v e i n an a r e a and view r e s o u r c e s as t h e s t a k e s i n a "zero-sum game", the e l i m i n a t i o n (through murder) o f one o f t h e members o f one f a m i l y , w i l l g i v e the second f a m i l y a d e c i d e d advantage. The maintenance o f e q u i l i b r i u m i n a c c e s s t o Contd...  93  The  concept of honour as i t r e l a t e s to the c o n s a n g u i n e a l  family  i s a means whereby the i n d i v i d u a l i s o f f e r e d a p l a c e i n a h o s t i l e w o r l d , and  o f f e r s a s e t of k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s from which he can draw a i d .  F u r t h e r , the concept of onore ,di f a m i g l i a makes the f a m i l y i n t o more than the sum  of i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s .  set of s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s .  an o u t l o o k on l i f e ,  I t p l a c e s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the  h i e r a r c h y o f the Mezzogiorno and i t be  I t provides  of h i g h p o s i t i o n or low.  g i v e s him Schneider  and  a  social  a sense o f p o s i t i o n , whether sums up the  concept:  Honor as i d e o l o g y h e l p s shore up the i d e n t i t y of a group (a f a m i l y or l i n e a g e ) and commit to i t the l o y a l t i e s of o t h e r w i s e d o u b t f u l members. Honor d e f i n e s the s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s , c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t s defense a g a i n s t the c l a i m s of e q u i v a l e n t competing groups.8 Because the f a m i l y (both n u c l e a r and a moral good and  c o n s a n g u i n e a l ) i s viewed  honourable e n t i t y , a premium i s placed, on  f a m i l i e s — a g a i n p o s s i b l y d e r i v a t i v e of m a i n t a i n i n g v i a b l e economic and  p o l i t i c a l unit.  The  preference  large  the f a m i l y as a for large families  p l a c e s a g r e a t d e a l of focus on the women of the f a m i l y .  Although  the  f a m i l y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n n a t u r e — f o l l o w i n g a somewhat"  r e s o u r c e s can o n l y be maintained i f one of the members of the other family i s eliminated. The v e n d e t t a , then, becomes a means of m a i n t a i n i n g e q u i l i b r i u m of a c c e s s to a l i m i t e d amount o f "goods". Schneider,  op.  c i t . , p.  17.  as  modified  v e r s i o n of the o l d pater  s a i d t o be mother c e n t r e d .  family  The mother sees t o i t t h a t the household  operates on a budget, b l e s s e s and  f a m i l i a s o f Roman t i m e s — t h e  t h e e f f o r t s attd u n d e r t a k i n g s o f h e r sons  i n s t r u c t s h e r daughters i n t h e e v i l s o f which she must beware.  a t t e n t i o n given  Th  t o women, however, i s n o t l i m i t e d s o l e l y t o t h e mother  Women, whatever t h e i r r o l e , a r e c o n s i d e r e d  p a r t o f the patrimony, and  hence a f o c a l p o i n t o f common i n t e r e s t among a l l memb e r s o f the f a m i l y The  family reputation  i s t i e d t o i t s p o t e n t i a l l y weakest l i n k , t h e  sexual b e h a v i o r o f i t s women. The r e p o s i t o r y o f f a m i l y and l i n e a g e honour, t h e focus o f common i n t e r e s t among men o f t h e f a m i l y or l i n e a g e i s i t s women. A woman's s t a t u s d e f i n e s the s t a t u s o f a l l the men who a r e r e l a t e d t o h e r i n d e t e r m i n a t e ways. These men share the consequences of what happens t o h e r , and share t h e r e f o r e t h e commitment t o p r o t e c t h e r v i r t u e . She i s p a r t o f t h e i r patrimony. 9  Concern w i t h v i r g i n i t y and t h e f i d e l i t y o f females i s supreme. While t h i s j o i n t concern o f the f a t h e r s and sons, i n t h e b e a r i n g  of the  daughters may tend t o reduce c o n f l i c t which might o t h e r w i s e a r i s e over a n t i c i p a t o r y i n h e r i t a n c e , i t appears t o be d e t r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l development o f the female. males o u t s i d e  the family leads  to a healthy  The d i s t r u s t o f  t o an u n h e a l t h y s e p a r a t i o n  o f t h e sexes  G i r l s a r e kept a t home where they can be c l o s e l y watched, and go out o n l y under e s c o r t .  Even c h u r c h - g o i n g , which i s d e f i n e d  9 S c h n e i d e r , op. c i t . , p. 18.  as "women's  95  work", i s o f t e n e s c o r t e d l e s t t h e g i r l meet some male a t Church o r a l o n g the way, and become i n v o l v e d i n an amorous a f f a i r . then, a r e prevented  The g i r l s ,  from l e a d i n g an a c t i v e community s o c i a l l i f e ,  to the a n x i e t y surrounding, h e r p o t e n t i a l s e x u a l behaviour.  due  The concern  w i t h v i r g i n i t y i s a l s o d e t r i m e n t a l t o the p a r e n t s , i n t h a t i t i s a source o f c o n s t a n t a n x i e t y .  The f a m i l y ' s honour may be c o m p l e t e l y  lost  f o r g e n e r a t i o n s t o come i f they a r e n o t v i g i l a n t .  ,  1  The r e s u l t i s t h a t a g i r l i s l i a b l e to be c o n s i d e r e d a problem by h e r f a m i l y t o a f a r g r e a t e r e x t e n t than her b r o t h e r : u n l e s s she i s a paragon, as soon as she reaches t h e age o f twelve o r t h i r t e e n , she becomes a source o f worry and a n x i e t y t o h e r p a r e n t s . I f she i s p l a i n or f r i g i d , they a r e anxious over her p r o b a b l e f a i l u r e to f i n d a husband; on t h e c o n t r a r y , should she be a t t r a c t i v e o r f l i r t a t i o u s , the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t she w i l l be seduced becomes a t e r r i f y i n g n i g h t mare. .. Indeed so s t r i c t i s t h i s moral code t h a t . t h e appearance o f f a u l t i s as bad as the f a u l t i t s e l f . . .  The concern w i t h honour l i n k e d t o female  sexual behaviour i s  not l i m i t e d t o the v i r g i n i t y o f daughters, but a l s o i n c l u d e s the f i d e l i t y o f the w i f e .  The w i f e g e n e r a l l y goes nowhere u n e s c o r t e d ,  except p o s s i b l y to Church.  At o t h e r times she j o i n s w i t h  or f r i e n d s t o do h e r shopping,  ?  l a u n d r y , o r o t h e r household  which n e c e s s i t a t e h e r v e n t u r i n g i n t o s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . avoiding unescorted  neighbours errands  The p r a c t i c e o f  f o r a y s i n t o s o c i e t y i s not so much to m a i n t a i n  10 M a r a s p i n i , op. c i t . , p. 179-80.  96  f a m i l i a l f i d e l i t y as i t i s to a v o i d the appearence of i n f i d e l i t y .  In  a s o c i e t y where g o s s i p i s "the o n l y show i n town", i t i s more important to  a v o i d the appearance  of e v i l than e v i l i t s e l f .  The l o s s o f  honour  comes about when a t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f mores o r values^") i s made p u b l i c — not  through commission  o f the a c t i t s e l f .  Contact between the sexes  o u t s i d e the f a m i l y i s , t h e r e f o r e , l i m i t e d , and community must conform t o the s e x u a l mores s e t out i n the c u l t u r e . the  p r e o c c u p a z i o n e w i t h o t h e r than m a t e r i a l advantage:  participation B a n f i e l d notes " A s i d e from the  need to p r o t e c t h i s f a m i l y from envy and from c l a i m s on i t s r e s o u r c e s , the  Montegranese  has a s t r o n g reason to a v o i d c l o s e attachments.  i s a f r a i d t h a t h i s women may.be s e d u c e d . " ^ an element  of c r u c i a l i n t e r e s t  a l l o w f o r t h i s element  He  A g a i n , B a n f i e l d has noted  to the M o n t e g r a n e s i , but has f a i l e d  to  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s h y p o t h e s i s .  Honour, l i k e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s which go i n t o making the f a m i l y a v i a b l e economic  and p o l i t i c a l u n i t , i s viewed through the.image  of  12 the  l i m i t e d good.  and groups—much l i k e  One  g a i n s honour  i n r e l a t i o n to other i n d i v i d u a l s  the game o f "one-upmanship".  The c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  11 B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p.  117.  12 That t h i s i s so, tends to r e i n f o r c e my s u s p i c i o n t h a t the r i g i d s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y has come about through v i e w i n g s t a t u s , p r e s t i g e , and power through the image of the l i m i t e d good.  97  i n the seeking  of honour i s noted by E r i c Wolf: The concept of honor, i n i t s h o r i z o n t a l aspect i m p l i e s a f i x e d amount of r e p u t a t i o n f o r each c o n t e s t a n t i n the game o f honor, an amount which can be l e s s e n e d or i n c r e a s e d i n c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r action with others. Such i n t e r a c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s one's s o c i a l c r e d i t r a t i n g . . . M o r e o v e r ; past f a m i l i a l b e h a v i o r has important b e a r i n g on p r e s e n t and f u t u r e evaluation.13  Thus f a r d i s c u s s i o n has and  the n u c l e a r  appropriate,  been d i r e c t e d at both the  f a m i l y i n the M e z z o r g i o r n o .  i n t h a t the n u c l e a r  consanguineal  This i s , I believe,  f a m i l y d e r i v e s much of i t s importance  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e through i t s c o n n e c t i o n  of the c o n s a n g u i n e a l  and  i t appears t h a t much of the emphasis upon the n u c l e a r  family;  family  come about through the i n a b i l i t y of the r e g i o n to s u s t a i n the t i o n a l consanguineal t i e s .  generations s i n e qua  non  as l a n d has  of i n h e r i t a n c e .  as l a b o u r  become d i v i d e d and The  has  subdivided  through many  c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y i s no  Indeed, the c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y i s now  to t h i s o p e r a t i o n .  There simply  i s not  enough l a n d l e f t  patrimony to support the c o n s a n g u i n e a l u n i t .  The  the  become a " f r e e  f o r the f a m i l y to operate as a v i a b l e economic  p o l i t i c a l unit.  tradi-  Much of the t r a d i t i o n a l importance o f  c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y has been m i t i g a t e d commodity", and  has  longer  a  and  an  impediment  in  the  consanguineal  family,  13 Wolf, E r i c . " K i n s h i p , F r i e n d s h i p , and P a t r o n - C l i e n t R e l a t i o n s i n Complex S o c i e t i e s " i n The S o c i a l Anthropology of Complex S o c i e t i e s , e d i t e d by M i c h a e l Banton (London: T a v i s t o c k , 1966), p. 8-9.  98  of n e c e s s i t y has tended to break up as o f f s p r i n g a r e f o r c e d to seek 14 t h e i r l i v i n g elsewhere.  I t may be expedient to pursue the concept  of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y o f the Mezzogiorno to see i n what manner world.  further at this point,  though,  i t i s unique as a f a m i l y p a t t e r n i n the western  The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n cannot be e n t i r e l y f r e e from c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n o f the c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y though,  i n t h a t c o n n e c t i o n i s one o f  the elements which g i v e the n u c l e a r f a m i l y of the Mezzogiorno i t s uniqueness. The n u c l e a r f a m i l y i n the Mezzogiorno,  s t r i c t l y speaking, i s  composed o f the same r o l e s o r members as the n u c l e a r f a m i l y i n o t h e r areas o f the w o r l d , i . e . , man, w i f e , and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . d i f f e r e n t , and t h e r e f o r e s a l i e n t i s i t s primacy  i n the n u c l e a r f a m i l y of Mezzogiorno  i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t a t i o n .  most important group  What i s  I t i s by f a r the  t o which an i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g s , and t h e r e f o r e  commends h i s c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n to a s s u r e i t s c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e and enhancement.  The o v e r - r i d i n g concern f o r the w e l f a r e and enhancement  o f t h i s group  ( i n terms o f the p r e v a l e n t s o c i a l v a l u e s ) demands t h a t  involvement and a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e o f the n u c l e a r f a m i l y be s e v e r e l y restricted.  The n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s not viewed  i n contemporary  western  14 See Donald E i t k i n ' s study, "Land Tenure and F a m i l y O r g a n i z a t i o n i n an I t a l i a n V i l l a g e " , op. c i t . , where he d i s c u s s e s the r e i n s t i t u t i o n o f the extended f a m i l y i n those a r e a s a f f e c t e d by the 1932 l a n d reforms. In those a r e a s where enough l a n d was gained to support the extended f a m i l y , the f a m i l y has, .in f a c t , tended t o extend i t s e l f .  99  terms o f a mere "home-base" so to.speak, from which the o f f s p r i n g get t h e i r s t a r t on t h e i r way i n t o the w o r l d . the  Mezzogiorno i s viewed as an end i n i t s e l f ,  m a i n t a i n e d , r e v e r e n c e d , and honoured. or  Rather t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y i n a moral good t o be  I t can be viewed as a " p r o d u c t "  "end", r a t h e r than a " t o o l " or "means" as i n much o f the western  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d world.  I t i s moral i n and o f i t s e l f  (as w e l l as  through i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y ) , and t h i s not merely because i t may be a b l e t o p r o v i d e o f f s p r i n g w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s t o make t h e i r way i n t o the w o r l d and g a i n independence.  I f the n u c l e a r f a m i l y o f the Mezzogiorno i s a b l e t o  p r o v i d e these l a t t e r f u n c t i o n s , i t i s indeed c o n s i d e r e d f o r t u n a t e ;  but  more important i s the f a c t t h a t the .importance o f the n u c l e a r f a m i l y t o the  i n d i v i d u a l i s paramount whether  p r o v i d e them. the  o r not the f a m i l y i s a b l e t o  F a m i l y t i e s remain paramount throughout the l i f e o f  i n d i v i d u a l — a phenomenon absent i n more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  societies  where f a m i l i a l a l l e g i a n c e must compete w i t h a l l e g i a n c e t o o t h e r groups, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The n u c l e a r f a m i l y i n the Mezzogiorno,  t h e n , r e f e r s t o more than the mere conjugal--unit of man, w i f e , and t h e i r children.  Accompanying  t h i s group i s a s e t o f a t t i t u d e s about them-  s e l v e s which makes the "sum" more than the mere t o t a l of the p a r t s . The n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sense o f i n t e r n a l c o h e s i o n c l o s e l y t i e d t o a sense o f honour, r e v e r e n c e , and m o r a l i t y .  Maraspini  sums up t h i s f e e l i n g f o r the f a m i l y as a " u n i t e d whole" which i s more  100  than the sum  of i t s p a r t s : • The u n i n h i b i t e d embraces and k i s s e s on the r a i l w a y p l a t f o r m s and at bus stops are not j u s t i n s t a n c e s o f L a t i n exuberance, but e x p r e s s i o n s of .deep and genuine emotional involvement, which merely express i n an obvious p h y s i c a l g e s t u r e the s t r o n g attachment which l i n k s i n a u n i t e whole the v a r i o u s members o f a family. 1 5  B a n f i e l d m a i n t a i n s t h a t the i n t e r e s s e of the n u c l e a r s h o r t - r u n m a t e r i a l advantage."*"^  family i s i t ' s  This i s , I b e l i e v e , s u p e r f i c i a l .  We  have a l r e a d y noted the element of a n x i e t y w i t h s e x u a l honour i n the preoccupazione o f the peasant o f the Mezzogiorno.  There i s yet  element of the p r e o c c u p a z i o n e which i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y m a t e r i a l . is  the a n x i e t y over the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the f a m i l y w i l l  w e a l t h and  honour.  to g i v e them both the m a t e r i a l a s s e t s p o s s i b l y more important, the r i g h t  are s o u r c e s of a n x i e t y .  s p i r i t u a l and  The  young women must be  Sons must be brought up  w i l l run her household p r o p e r l y .  16  op.  c i t . , p.  196.  B a n f i e l d , op.  c i t . , p.  110.  desire and, to  Girls, especially, taught the to her  proper  f a m i l y and  to d e s i r e the type o f g i r l  Since honour and  15  There i s a  with  s o c i a l upbringing  norms t h a t she w i l l not b r i n g d i s g r a c e  Marspini,  i n status,  to a s s u r e them a good l i f e  a l l o w them t o c a r r y t h e i r heads h i g h i n s o c i e t y .  f u t u r e husband.  This  There i s , i n the Mezzogiorno, a p r e o c c u p a t i o n  s e t t i n g one's c h i l d r e n on the " r i g h t r o a d " i n l i f e .  behavioural  fall  another  prestige  are  her who  101  parceled and  out on t h e b a s i s o f many t h i n g s o t h e r  given  the r e l a t i v e  than m a t e r i a l  importance o f p r e s t i g e and honour;  wealth;  i t i s only  n a t u r a l t h a t much o f the preoccupazione and i n t e r e s s e o f the n u c l e a r . f a m i l y i s concerned w i t h q u a l i t i e s o t h e r another o f D o l c i ' s i n f o r m a n t s , he was i l l e g i t i m a t e evaluates  Gino 0.,  was denied by h i s own s i s t e r because  ( s t r a n g e l y enough by h e r own two p a r e n t s ) .  the s i t u a t i o n :  ances, t o be thought  He  "...people a r e so anxious t o keep up appear-  'respectable'  that t h e y ' l l hide  feelings,  deny t h e i r own f l e s h and b l o o d ,  difficult  f o r any g i v e n  generations,  than m a t e r i a l w e a l t h .  their  as w e l l I know."'''  7  f a m i l y t o m a i n t a i n i t s s t a t u s over  and t h e f a i l i n g  natural It i s  several  o f the f a m i l y i s a cause o f c o n s t a n t  anxiety. The  anxiety  over the p o s s i b l e l o s s of f a m i l y s t a t u s i n the f u t u r e  also manifests i t s e l f  i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e  accorded t o male c h i l d r e n over female c h i l d r e n . viewed as a d e f i c i t of h e r p r e c a r i o u s and  she r e p r e s e n t s  other  A female c h i l d i s o f t e n  i n t h a t she n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s t a n t  sexual p o s i t i o n ;  generally  v i g i l a n c e because  she must be p r o v i d e d  a l o s s o f the f a m i l y name.  w i t h a dowry;  Male c h i l d r e n , on the  hand, a s s u r e c o n t i n u a n c e of t h e f a m i l y name, and p r o v i d e manpower  17  . . D o l c i , To Feed the Hungry, op. c i t . , p. 110. While i t may be a s s e r t e d t h a t t h i s i n s t a n c e r e f l e c t s a r e l a t i v e l y weak k i n s h i p bond, t h i s does not appear t o be the case. Whereas the g i r l s p a r e n t s were m a r r i e d t o other p a r t n e r s a t the time of t h e boys b i r t h , the boy c o u l d not be p r o p e r l y c a l l e d "family". What i s important i s t h a t t h e g i r l would admit to one one t h a t the boy was i n f a c t , h e r b r o t h e r . His i l l e g i t i m a c y would have r e f l e c t e d shame onto h e r and h e r f u t u r e husband.  102  f o r both economic and one  p o l i t i c a l purposes.  Without  cannot r e t a l i a t e f o r v i o l a t i o n s to p r o p e r t y  and  male-^children, person i n order  to  18 m a i n t a i n f a m i l y honour. s i s t e r s ' honour.  The  of course, mitigated a valuable sons.  resource  Further,  sons a c t as g u a r d i a n s to  d i f f e r e n t i a l value placed a t the time of m a r r i a g e .  i n her  As a mother she  on male and  their  female i s ,  The woman then becomes  c a p a c i t y t o bear c h i l d r e n — a g a i n ,  shares an almost e t h e r a l c o n n e c t i o n  preferably with  the  V i r g i n Mary. B e s i d e s the i n h e r e n t m o r a l i t y of the n u c l e a r other  f a m i l y , there  elements i n the c u l t u r e which enhance i t s importance as a  institution.  Other forms of a s s o c i a t i o n are o f t e n d e n i e d to  peasant of the M e z z o r g i o r n o . o r are seen as u s e l e s s by him, t h a t he n e i t h e r j o i n s nor i n s t a n c e would be  s u p p o r t s them.  t h a t of i n t e r e s t groups.  viewed as c o r r u p t and of raccomandazione and  An  social  the  to the  example of t h i s  are  extent  latter  Because the government i s  o f t e n a l i e n , the peasant i s aware of the sees t h i s as the most e f f e c t i v e way  importance  t o pursue  18 G e n e r a l l y the s o l e male of a f a m i l y w i l l not become i n v o l v e d i n a v e n d e t t a , i n t h a t should he be', k i l l e d , h i s f a m i l y would be l e f t without a breadwinner. S i m i l a r l y , the l a s t male son i s o f t e n r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n to marry u n t i l a l l of h i s s i s t e r s have been m a r r i e d . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n the event of some v i o l a t i o n i s done to the g i r l ' s honour, he must be f r e e from o b l i g a t i o n s to a w i f e and c h i l d r e n , so t h a t he can r e t a l i a t e f o r that v i o l a t i o n . For example, i f a l l sons were m a r r i e d , the honour o f an unmarried s i s t e r were v i o l a t e d , and one o f the b r o t h e r s r e t a l i a t e d f o r the d i s h o n o u r ; the chances are t h a t h i s n u c l e a r f a m i l y would, i n the end, be w i t h o u t a man to p r o v i d e f o r them.  103  his  interests.  I n t e r e s t groups are seen as u s e l e s s ,  since  government o p e r a t e s on the basis- of ra'ccbmandaziohe.  the  Indeed, i n t e r e s t  group a s s o c i a t i o n i s o f t e n viewed as p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l i n - t h a t i t i s sure to a l i e n a t e some power h o l d e r s . a s s o c i a t i o n to push f o r l a r g e r . s h a r e s may  a l i e n a t e the  may  be  forced  l a n d l o r d of one  o f f the  those who  "above the crowd".  of the.crop or guaranteed  or another of the p e a s a n t s , and  a s s o c i a t i o n s are o f t e n denied to  hierarchy  The  C a t h o l i c Church  implanted through the I t a l i a n student i s not  educational  system, and  the  system, tend to re-^inforce  s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n the integrated  teacher.  family.  The  i n t o an academic system to the An  u n b r i d g e a b l e gap  t h i s new  extent  i s o f t e n maintained  D u r i n g the most f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of  student i s c o n s t a n t l y  c l a i m t o entrance w i t h i n  the  the element of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m which i s  t h a t p r e v a i l s i n North America.  z a t i o n , the  the  w i s h to remain  of s o c i e t y and  between student and  he  h o l d a p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n and  through i t s i n f l u e n c e on the e d u c a t i o n a l rigid  leases,  land.  Other o r i e n t a t i o n s and peasant by  J o i n i n g a peasant farmers'  reminded t h a t he has  no  sociali-  legitimate  i n s t i t u t i o n a l community.  Rather, 19  e f f e c t i v e t i e s are s t i l l The  l i m i t e d to h i s f a m i l y and  a u t h o r i t a r i t a r i a n , and  o f the c l a s s r o o m widens at the  a few  friends..  e s s e n t i a l l y u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l , dimension  secondary and  university levels.  Class  19 See LaPalombara's " I t a l y " Fragmentation, I s o l a t i o n and A l i e n a t i o n " , o p . • c i t . , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n i n m a i n t a i n i n g the " c l o s e d " a s p e c t o f s o c i e t y in Italy.  of  104  d i s c u s s i o n and  contact  between s t u d e n t s and  non-existent.  Assignments, and  s e c r e t a r i e s or a s s i s t a n t s . legitimate place  g i v e s him  respect  The  student, being  by  d e n i e d an a c t i v e  i s f o r c e d to r e l y upon the  family represents  and  family  the o n l y s o c i a l u n i t which  as an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h a t u n i t .  sense of s e c u r i t y and The  The  are m i n i m a l or  often l e c t u r e s , are d e l i v e r e d  i n this hierarchy,  as a b a s i s of f o c u s .  teachers  I t o f f e r s him  a  self-worth.  a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Mezzogiorno a l s o a c t s as  e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e which s e r v e s o f the n u c l e a r  to enhance the importance and  f a m i l y i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t a t i o n .  f a c t that labour  centrality  Given  connected w i t h the l a n d i s n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e d ,  a r e l a t i v e absence of the m e z z a d r i a c o n t r a c t .  Also, t h e r e  an  the  there i s  i s no  tradition  of n o b l e s s e o b l i g e on the p a r t of the landowner toward " h i s p e a s a n t s " . These f a c t o r s a l l combine to produce a c o n s p i c i o u s on  the p a r t of the landowner i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e .  nuclear it  l a c k of involvement The  f a m i l y , t h e r e f o r e , must o p e r a t e as a v i a b l e economic u n i t i f  i s to s u r v i v e w i t h d i g n i t y .  The  f a m i l y g e n e r a l l y must make a l l  d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e as w e l l as the manual l a b o u r . operation  and  I t must be  self-sufficient.  The  provider  l a c k of  co-  involvement on the p a r t of the landowner r e i n f o r c e s  need f o r l a r g e f a m i l i e s and be used i n time of need.  t i e s o f k i n s h i p and-.friendship  The  the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e ;  peasant i s l e f t and  to fend  which  for himself  i n a h o s t i l e world he n a t u r a l l y  enough t u r n s to h i s f a m i l y f o r support.  I t i s the one  form of  the can in  105  a s s o c i a t i o n which can be t r u s t e d . F u r t h e r , the s m a l l u n i n t e g r a t e d p l o t s of l a n d which have r e s u l t e d from d i v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l lands among o f f s p r i n g f o r g e n e r a t i o n s , make the n u c l e a r f a m i l y the most e f f i c i e n t u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n .  The  most o f t e n too s m a l l to support.any form of extended f a m i l y or farming.  lands  are  co-operative  (Besides the s m a l l s i z e of a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t s , the whole i d e a  of " c o - o p e r a t i v e farming" would be an anomaly w i t h i n the Mezzogiorno. I f one's neighbour i s t r y i n g t o beat.one i n the r a c e f o r a l i m i t e d o f r e s o u r c e s , i t i s to one's disadvantage any way.)  to h e l p the neighbour i n  The n u c l e a r f a m i l y a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n which  can accommodate the h i g h degree.of property. these  supply  The  c i r c u l a t i o n of ownership of  real  t r a d i t i o n a l n e o - l o c a l r u l e of r e s i d e n c e accommodates .  s h i f t s because the: change i n r e s i d e n c e g e n e r a l l y comes a t . t h e same  time as the change i n p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p — a r e s u l t o f a l e g a l of p a r t i b l e i n h e r i t a n c e . There i s another  tradition  20 element i n the c u l t u r e of the Mezzogiorno which  20 For a d i s c u s s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s to f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n , see S y d e l Silverman's " A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and V a l u e s i n Italy: Amoral F a m i l i s m R e c o n s i d e r e d " , op. c i t . , and Donald P i t k i n ' s "Land Tenure and F a m i l y O r g a n i z a t i o n i n an I t a l i a n V i l l a g e " , op. c i t .  106  s e r v e s t o enhance the ''family" as a s o c i a l u n i t a t the expense o f o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l u n i t a t the expense o f o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l and human interaction.  I t ^ i s n o t e n t i r e l y an e x t e r n a l element  to the f a m i l y a s ,  say, the e d u c a t i o n a l system o r the l a n d tenure system; i t an i n h e r e n t element element  o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f " f a m i l y " .  but n e i t h e r i s This i s the  o f f i c t i v e k i n s h i p t i e s , i n t h i s case the t r a d i t i o n o f godparent-  hood (comparaggio).  The t r a d i t i o n stems from t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  p r a c t i c e whereby the godparent  undertakes t o guarantee  proper r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s .  the w e l f a r e and  i n the event o f t h e death o f  The t r a d i t i o n o f comparaggio i n the Mezzogiorno  has been e n l a r g e d somewhat t o c o v e r f u n c t i o n s o t h e r than those i n C a t h o l i c dogma. child—one  The godparent  i s expected t o be a " f r i e n d " t o the  t o whom the c h i l d can always  o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n times o f need. between the godparent c l o s e l y resemble  specified  t u r n f o r a " f r i e n d l y e a r " and  The bonds o f f r i e n d s h i p  established  and c h i l d a r e more than mere f r i e n d s h i p , and more  fillial  bonds.  Because the honour o f each p a r t y i s  connected w i t h t h a t o f the o t h e r , each i s c o n s t a n t l y concerned w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g the honour o f the o t h e r .  The godparent,  t h e r e f o r e , can be  expected t o l i s t e n t o the problems o f the g o d c h i l d and p r o v i d e whatever a s s i s t a n c e p o s s i b l e without s p r e a d i n g the u n f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s throughout  the community, and t h e r e b y c a u s i n g a l o s s o f honour and  prestige.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s much l i k e a f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and  one can be c o n f i d e n t o f the d i s c r e t i o n e x e r c i s e d by the godparent.  107  In such a s o c i a l s e t t i n g t h e r e i s no need f o r such community s e r v i c e s as " c o u n s e l i n g experiencing  c e n t r e s " or "youth c e n t r e s " to which young p e o p l e  f a m i l y problems may-go.  godparent, and Besides  The  f u n c t i o n i s handled by  the t r o u b l e s are l e s s l i k e l y to be known to the p u b l i c . the " f r i e n d l y e a r " f u n c t i o n , the godparent i s a l s o expected  to c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r e d u c a t i o n , a purposes—either  dowry, o r  i n the form of l o a n s or an o u t r i g h t g i f t .  i s no need f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to transcend  the  godparent i s f i n a n c i a l l y a b l e to p r o v i d e p o s i t i o n of the p r o s p e c t i v e  other Again,  " f a m i l y " and  o f the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s of banks, e t c . — p r o v i d e d  choosing  the  avail  of course t h a t  the a s s i s t a n c e .  The  there himself  the financial  godparent i s an -important c r i t e r i o n i n  a godparent, and most o f t e n someone i s chosen who  can  provide  the n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as w e l l as a proper moral example f o r the  youngster. Many of the needs of the  going beyond the n u c l e a r godparent.  i n d i v i d u a l which would n e c e s s i t a t e  f a m i l y , then, are f i l l e d by  Those needs to go beyond the n u c l e a r  the r o l e of  family carry with  a p o t e n t i a l f o r wider p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community, but i s t r u n c a t e d when the i n d i v i d u a l goes to the godparent. o f comparaggio, then, s e t s l i m i t a t i o n s . t o s o c i a l and c i p a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . young people to band t o g e t h e r  the them  this potential The  tradition  community  parti-  There i s no need f o r groups of i n d i v i d u a l on the b a s i s o f a shared problem.  goes to h i s i n d i v i d u a l godparent who  normally  Each  does a l l w i t h i n h i s power  108  to a l l e v i a t e the problem w i t h o u t e x p o s i n g the problem to t h e community through g o s s i p . In c o n c l u s i o n , i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y understand the moral code o f the Mezzogiorno and i n t e r p r e t much o f the b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d t o t h a t m o r a l code, t h e f a m i l y must be viewed a s . i t  i s viewed i n t h e eye o f  the people o f the Mezzogiorno, i . e . , as a moral good i n and o f i t s e l f , as an "end" r a t h e r than a "means", and as an honourable  institution.  The importance o f the b e a r i n g o f the f a m i l y i n the community as i t r e l a t e s t o honour must be u n d e r s t o o d , and l a s t l y , the importance o f the f a m i l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l must be understood. B e s i d e s t h e i n h e r e n t m o r a l and honourable q u a l i t i e s connected w i t h t h e f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t , the importance o f t h e f a m i l y i s enhanced by e x t e r n a l e l e m e n t s — s o m e of which d e r i v e from the peasants p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s e x t e r n a l worldiCand. ;some o f which d e r i v e from a t t i t u d e s and s t r u c t u r e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and customs beyond  his control.  Given the w o r l d o f l a m i s e r i a w i t h i t s d i s t r u s t , c o m p e t i t i o n and s t r u g g l e , the f a m i l y i s an a r k o f s e c u r i t y t o weather  t h e storm o f s o c i a l  a c t i o n which i s o f t e n p e r c e i v e d o f v e r y much l i k e t h e f u r y o f the Harpies.  The peasant sees much o f the s o c i e t y drawn up i n b a t t l e  a g a i n s t him and h i s f a m i l y . p r o t e c t , as w e l l as h i s a l l i e s  The f a m i l y r e p r e s e n t s t h a t which one must i n that b a t t l e .  These a r e t h e p e o p l e  whom he does n o t have to i n t r i g u e a g a i n s t and who can always be counted on f o r support as the b a t t l e b e g i n s .  109  CHAPTER VI  Conclusions  I t i s o f paramount importance i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e o f the Mezzogiorno, to attempt t o overcome one's own view o f the "way  t h i n g s should be" and the concomitant c o l o u r i n g t h a t these  p r e c o n c e i v e d a t t i t u d e s w i l l - n e c e s s a r i l y impart to one's  observations  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s o f the p e o p l e o f that c u l t u r e .  L i k e any r e s e a r c h done from a f a r and by those o f a  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , t h i s one undoubtedly f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f the i d e a l mark i n overcoming e t h n o c e n t r i s m and e f f e c t i n g . a transition.  cross-cultural  • I t does, however, p r o v i d e a,meaningful background,  which the b e h a v i o u r o f the people can be seen.to be n o t o n l y  against  logical,  but a l s o b o t h r a t i o n a l and m o r a l , g i v e n >the c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t i n the Mezzogiorno and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n to those c o n d i t i o n s by the people who  l i v e there.  T h i s i s , I b e l i e v e , a s i g n t h a t one has at  l e a s t made a b e g i n n i n g i n overcoming the e t h n o c e n t r i s m which tends to "sneak up" on one and c a t c h him unaware. B a n f i e l d ' s h y p o t h e s i s o f "amoral f a m i l i s m " i s , I b e l i e v e , i n adequate b o t h i n terms o f e x p l a i n i n g o r i n t e r p r e t i n g b e h a v i o u r , and i n terms o f p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r . p a r t i c u l a r l y inaccurate.  F u r t h e r the l a b e l "amoral" i s  The l a b e l "amoral" d e r i v e s from B a n f i e l d ' s  a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no sense o f moral "goodness" or "badness" which  110  r e l a t e s to those o u t s i d e  the f a m i l y .  Standards,.he m a i n t a i n s r e l a t e  to those w i t h i n the f a m i l y u n i t , and those which a f f e c t the f a m i l y u n i t . Given the concept o f the " l i m i t e d good" which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the peasant c u l t u r e of the Mezzogiorno,  i t is difficult  to c o n c e i v e of but a  few  a c t i o n s which c o u l d be c l a s s e d as "amoral" by these i n d i v i d u a l s .  Given  the i n t e n s e  sees  s t r u g g l e , c o m p e t i t i o n , and d i s t r u s t which the peasant  h i s world made up o f , most a c t i o n s a r e ' d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d . t o the b e a r i n g o f the f a m i l y , and t h e r e f o r e w i l l be c l a s s e d as good or bad, moral immoral,  as they a f f e c t the f a m i l y .  The peasant cannot be viewed  or as  "amoral" w i t h r e g a r d to the community, because whatever time, e f f o r t  and  e n e r g i e s he devotes, to the community he views as coming through the d e p r i v a t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y — a most moral and honourable I t i s not t h a t he i s "amoral" w i t h r e s p e c t  to the community t h a t  does not p a r t i c i p a t e a t the community l e v e l ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the community l e v e l because viewed  social unit. he  r a t h e r he o f t e n a v o i d s t h a t a c t i o n would be  as immoral s i n c e i t " t a k e s away" from h i s f a m i l y .  The concept of  the l i m i t e d good, which B a n f i e l d n o t e s , i s an important v a r i a b l e , many of the important i n d i c a t i o n s o f which he seems t o have o v e r l o o k e d . Behaviour i n the Mezzogiorno,  I b e l i e v e , can be b e t t e r  stood i n terms o f a moral code which attempts  1 B a n f i e l d , op. c i t . . , p.  83.  under-  t o note the v a l u e s o f  Ill  the people i n t h e Mezzogiorno,  t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f those v a l u e s ,  and p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f the world-view of  o f those p e s a n t s .  The b e h a v i o u r  the south I t a l i a n peasant appears b o t h moral and r a t i o n a l g i v e n t h i s  code, and h i s view o f t h e world around him.  To m a i n t a i n t o the c o n t r a r y  i s t o c l a s s b e h a v i o u r as " i r r a t i o n a l " without l o o k i n g a t t h e g o a l s m o t i v a t i n g t h a t b e h a v i o u r , and as "immoral"  without l o o k i n g a t the  standards o f m o r a l i t y which guide t h a t b e h a v i o u r .  A proper u n d e r s t a n -  d i n g and e x p l a n a t i o n of behaviour cannot be made without a t l e a s t an i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s moral code.  L i k e w i s e , the p r e d i c t i o n o f  b e h a v i o u r cannot be made without a view t o the morals and v a l u e s which w i l l motivate t h i s behaviour. Mezzogiorno  The f o l l o w i n g moral code o f the  i s , I b e l i e v e , more a c c u r a t e i n terms of b o t h e x p l a i n i n g and  p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r than i s the B a n f i e l d h y p o t h e s i s : I.  The f a m i l y i s a moral end, i n and o f i t s e l f .  The  f a m i l y g i v e s you a p l a c e of honour i n a h o s t i l e w o r l d ; honour your family,, and p r o t e c t i t s honour. II.  III.  IV.  Don't o v e r s t e p your p l a c e . There a r e those above you and below you. Don't i n t e r m e d d l e i n t o t h e a f f a i r s o f those over you, don't c r i t i c i z e o t h e r s , and don't g o s s i p about o t h e r s . Make no enemies; one must have f r i e n d s i n the w o r l d to whom he can t u r n . Commitments a l i e n a t e p e o p l e ; do n o t commit y o u r s e l f n e e d l e s s l y . Return f a v o u r s to those who h e l p you. Honour God and t h e s a i n t s .  B a n f i e l d ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the South I t a l i a n peasant w i l l  a c t as  i f he were f o l l o w i n g the r u l e "Maximize t h e m a t e r i a l , s h o r t - r u n advantage  o f the n u c l e a r f a m i l y ;  assume t h a t o t h e r s w i l l  do l i k e w i s e "  112  i s inadequate i n e x p l a i n i n g much o f the b e h a v i o u r o f the p e a s a n t r y . L i k e w i s e , i t i s inadequate i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r , and l e a d s those who would modify the b e h a v i o u r o f the peasant o f the Mezzogiorno t o p o s i t g o a l s and i n c e n t i v e s which do n o t , i n f a c t , a p p e a l to the peasant to the e x t e n t expected.  The moral code o f the Mezzogiorno i s , I b e l i e v e , more  a c c u r a t e on b o t h c o u n t s . The d e r i v a t i o n o f the  moral code can b e s t be seen i n terms of a  counter h y p o t h e s i s to B a n f i e l d .  My h y p o t h e s i s would be t h a t the peasant w i l l  a c t as i f he were f o l l o w i n g t h e r u l e ; "Maximize f a m i l y as an economic  and p o l i t i c a l u n i t " .  the v i a b i l i t y o f the  The implementation o f t h i s  r u l e , i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the Mezzogiorno has y i e l d e d the moral code. economic  The r u l e o f maximizing t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y as an  and p o l i t i c a l u n i t  "stateless society".  i s , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , the outcome o f a  The s t a t e has never p e n e t r a t e d the Mezzogiorno  e f f e c t i v e l y , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e F a s c i s t e r a .  The s t a t e  has b e e n , i n e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g law and o r d e r , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , justice.  To be s u r e , t h e r e a r e e v i d e n c e s o f the s t a t e i n the agro-towns  o f t h e Mezzogiorno, i n the form o f e n d l e s s b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s and red-tape.  There a r e c a r a b i n i e r i who a r e , by law, from a d i f f e r n t  of the country.  The presence o f the s t a t e , though s e r v e s t o e x a c e r b a t e  the c o n c e p t i o n o f a " s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y " . i n e f f e c t i v e , a l i e n , and e x p l o i t i v e . security.  region  The s t a t e i s viewed as c o r r u p t ,  I t provides n e i t h e r " j u s t i c e " nor  In such a s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y , , the a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o make the  113  family  into a viable p o l i t i c a l  unit.  The  f a m i l y must be  f o r wrongs done to i t by and  economic and  c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g . r e t r i b u t i o n others.  social  and  justice  In a s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y honour, p r e s t i g e ,  most of a l l , power, are e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s which a c t  as d e t e r r e n t s  t o encroachment upon one's patrimony, as w e l l as weapons  to be used i n the p r e s t i g e , and  event that encroachment does o c c u r .  power one  can  i s an example of t h i s use functions. own  u n i t as w e l l as an  of the  family  In the absence of the  political  political  gain a l l i e s  s e r v i c e s , and  resources.  The  to o b t a i n  With honour,  "justice".  The  vendetta  to p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l  state the.family  honour, p r e s t i g e , and  must p r o v i d e i t s  power are  importance of these p o l i t i c a l  important  attributes  remains h i g h i n the v a l u e system o f the Mezzogiorno because of the of e f f e c t i v e , j u s t , and The  e f f i c i e n t penetration  of the  state bureaucracy.  c o n c e p t i o n o f the realm of " p u b l i c " as opposed to " p r i v a t e " i s non-  e x i s t e n t p r e c i s e l y because t h e r e i s no organ of the viewed as such.  The  conception i s that  p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t which i s used by a few of t h e i r f r i e n d s . ment h e l d by  the  is a "stateless The and  lack  the  The  the  to f i l l  t h e i r pockets and  those  t h i s view of govern-  For a l l e f f e c t i v e purposes, the  Mezzogiorno  society".  moral code, which has  e v o l v e d out  concomitant attempt to t r a n s f o r m the  economic and  government i s an organ of  term governo l a d r o p o r t r a y s  peasant.  " p u b l i c " which i s  p o l i t i c a l u n i t , has  of t h i s " s t a t e l e s s  society"  family into a v i a b l e  many i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r the p o l i t i c s  in  114  the Mezzogiorno.  Many p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d on through  kin-  s h i p u n i t s , and through p a t r o n - c l i e n t t i e s which can be seen as an attempt  t o e n l a r g e the moral community o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  There i s then,  a c o n t i n u e d usage o f those methods, a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s which a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an e a r l i e r s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y . of  The g e n e r a l i n e f f i c a c y  the s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y has tended t o enhance and m a i n t a i n these  e s s e n t i a l l y p r e - s t a t e b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s and a t t i t u d e s . and g r a f t which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c i v i l p o s i t i o n o f the c i v i l p a t r i a r c h a l element  The nepotism  s e r v i c e tend t o enhance the  s e r v a n t who endulges i n such p r a c t i c e s .  o f the c i v i l  The  s e r v i c e i s enhanced by 1) a g e n e r a l  view o f i l l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e government system as a whole;  and 2) t h e  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e government b u r e a u c r a c y i n t o f u l f i l l i n g l o c a l needs.  The g r a t i t u d e and l e g i t i m a c y  which would n o r m a l l y a c c r u e t o the government p u b l i c  administration  system then accrues to t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e h o l d e r who i s viewed as h a v i n g h e l p e d the peasant of,  the government.  viewed  i n s p i t e o f , r a t h e r than as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  I n the Mezzogiorno,  the p a t r o n does n o t come t o be  as a " b r o k e r " but r a t h e r r e t a i n s h i s p o s i t i o n as a p a t r o n ;  the p a t r i a r c h a l p a t t e r n s o f p r a e t o r i a n p o l i t i c s  persist.  and  2  2 H u n t i n g t o n , op. c i t . , develops the term i n c o n t r a s t t o what he c a l l s " c i v i c " patterns of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . See Chapter I f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n t r a s t s between the two i d e a l - t y p e s .  115  The moral code o f the Mezzogiorno can most e f f e c t i v e l y r e l a t e to p o l i t i c s  be seen to  through i t s e f f e c t on the a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and  b e h a v i o u r o f the people r e l a t e d t o the elements of 1) p o v e r t y and i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o an o u t l o o k o f la_ m i s e r i a ; 3) the Church; and 4) the f a m i l y . i n the p o l i t i c a l  2) p a t r o n - c l i e n t  These f o u r phenomena a r e c r u c i a l  points  c u l t u r e of the Mezzogiorno, i n t h a t they a r e c u l t u r a l  elements which a r e i n some way  r e l a t e d t o a moral code o f the Mezzogiorno,  and r e l a t e t h a t moral code to the view g i v e n to p o l i t i c s culture.  relations;  within  that  The p o v e r t y of the r e g i o n has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p h i l o s o -  p h i c o u t l o o k o f c o m p e t i t i o n , s t r u g g l e , f a t a l i s m and d e s p a i r .  The peasant  sees the w o r l d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h him, and seeks to "outdo" o t h e r s s i n c e i t i s seen as the o n l y way  to keep a l i v e .  The peasants s t r u g g l e  i s g r e a t l y m i t i g a t e d i f he can a l l y h i m s e l f w i t h a s t r o n g p a t r o n . p a t r o n can p r o v i d e economic as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l be seen as a t t e m p t i n g to maximize economic  the v i a b i l i t y  A  a i d — t h e peasant can of the f a m i l y as an  and p o l i t i c a l u n i t through the r e c r u i t m e n t of p o w e r f u l a l l i e s .  The Church, through v a r i o u s means, has enhanced p o l i t i c a l patterns of o r i e n t a t i o n .  the p r e - p r a e t o r i a n  C h r i s t i a n Democrats,  through the  s a n c t i o n o f the Church, have managed to r e t a i n power s i n c e the d e p a r t u r e of Umberto from Ciampino A i r p o r t , and have c r e a t e d one o f the g r a n d e s t patronage systems o f the 20th c e n t u r y .  The Church has m a i n t a i n e d an  o v e r l a p p i n g system o f patronage, p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r o n g i n the Messogiorno.  F u r t h e r , the Church has tended to m a i n t a i n the importance o f the  116  h u m a n i s t i c v a l u e s of p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s to the d e t r i m e n t o f v a l u e s more a t t u n e d to the f u n c t i o n i n g o f a western*democracy, the p a t h by  (some would m a i n t a i n " f o r " ) I t a l y . a f t e r the Second World  Throughout  a l l o f t h i s , the f a m i l y remains  o n l y because  chosen  War.  of supreme-importance; not  o f the i n h e r e n t m o r a l i t y t h a t the f a m i l y i s v i e w e d to  r e p r e s e n t , but a l s o b e c a u s e . i t i s o f t e n the most e f f i c i e n t  economic and  3 p o l i t i c a l unit.  I t p r o v i d e s an a r k o f s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t the d u a l f o r c e s  of n a t u r e and c o m p e t i t o r s , which a r e p i t t e d a g a i n s t , i t i n a death struggle for existence. The moral code t h a t I have p o s i t e d f o r the Mezzogiorno, b e l i e v e , both more u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and b e h a v i o u r , and, a l l o w s f o r a more j u s t e v a l u a t i o n of the b e h a v i o u r o f the peasant o f the Mezzogiorno, hypothesis.  I t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt  predicting  political  than does the B a n f i e l d  t o get behind the c u r t a i n o f  c e n t r i s m which o f t e n c l o u d s a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study i n p o l i t i c a l I t i s an attempt  is, I  ethno-  behaviour.  to l o o k a t the concept o f p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y through  the eyes o f those who  l i v e that; m o r a l i t y .  The l a c k o f d e l i n e a t i o n between " p u b l i c " and " p r i v a t e " , the l a c k of a v i a b l e c o n c e p t i o n o f government and s t a t e i s demonstrated by.the responses to an Almond and Verba q u e s t i o n which asked the respondent to s t a t e the most important problem f a c i n g the people o f the c o u n t r y . They were then asked to r a t e the second most important problem. Of the respondents, 69% ranked "Improving c o n d i t i o n s f o r your f a m i l y " among.the two most important problems f a c i n g the people of I t a l y . The r e s u l t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of I t a l o B a m b o l i n i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s c i t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s paper.  117  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Almond, G a b r i e l and Verba, Sidney. The C i v i c C u l t u r e . L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1965. A l v a r o , Corrado.  Un.Treno N e l Sud. M i l a n o : Bompiani,  Anderson, G a l l a t i n .  B a i l e y , F. G.  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