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Analysis of growth of Vancouver's central business district Jamieson, William Sinclair 1972

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CI  ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF VANCOUVER'S CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT by  WILLIAM SINCLAIR JAMIESON B.Comm. U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAT. FULFIJJyTENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  in  the F a c u l t y of  Commerce and B u s i n e s s  Administration  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COJJJMBIA August, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s an advanced  degree at  fulfilment  o f the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I further  in p a r t i a l  freely  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  available  for  r e f e r e n c e and  for extensive copying o f t h i s  for  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial  written  i s understood that copying or gain s h a l l  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  not  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The primary purpose of this thesis i s to examine development of Vancouver's Central Business D i s t r i c t to test the hypothesis  that  "growth takes the path of least resistance" within the c e n t r a l core of Vancouver.  Vancouver's c i t y centre i s considered quarters of the Lower Mainland Area.  F u l f i l l m e n t of this r o l e has  resulted i n the construction of twenty new six years.  to be the o f f i c e head-  o f f i c e buildings i n the past  This represents an increase of almost three m i l l i o n square  f e e t which i s 507. over the standing stock of 1965. had an opportunity  The  researcher  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n this very active r e a l estate market  and as a r e s u l t of such p a r t i c i p a t i o n formulated  the above growth  hypothesis.  This study b r i e f l y reviews e x i s t i n g theories of c i t y growth and follows with a h i s t o r y of growth i n Vancouver's c e n t r a l core. The  thesis then describes the mechanics and r e s u l t s of a land  use study of Vancouver's Central Area. The r e s u l t s of this  extensive  land use study are used to test the growth hypothesis mentioned i n the i n i t i a l chapter of this abstract.  This test shows that growth i n Vancouver does take the path of l e a s t resistance. This resistance to development may or intangible or a combination of both.  be tangible  Physical resistance a r i s e s  from current patterns of b u i l d i n g and/or land use —  i . e . the density  of the standing stock.  Given the same r e l a t i v e location and degree  of d e s i r a b i l i t y , vacant land w i l l be developed before underdeveloped land.  Thus i f there are well located vacant s i t e s within the core i t  i s easy to predict the d i r e c t i o n of growth.  For underdeveloped  areas  the study employs indices such as f l o o r space index, the value of b u i l d i n g per square foot of land area, and value of b u i l d i n g per square foot of b u i l d i n g area, to determine which s i t e s are the most underdeveloped and would o f f e r the l e a s t resistance i n terms of cost to assemble f o r redevelopment  purposes.  The study also reviews factors such as the pattern of land and b u i l d i n g ownership.  The study concludes that these are intangible  factors that can cause resistance to growth and must be considered when examining growth i n the C.B.D. The study proceeds a step further by using the " l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e " theory to i d e n t i f y areas of future growth.  The area which o f f e r s the  least resistance i s chosen and the economic model developed indicates that development on the s i t e would be p r o f i t a b l e , thus could be considered a l i k e l y area f o r future growth.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I II  Page  INTRODUCTION VANCOUVER URBAN LAND USE: THEORIES AND STUDIES  6 I. THEORIES OF URBAN LAND USE T r a d i t i o n a l Theories of Urban Land Use Contemporary Theories of Urban Land Use I I . LAND USE STUDIES:VANCOUVER  III  1  6  6 7 9  LAND USE & OWNERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS: CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT  12  I. HISTORY OF GROWTH IN VANCOUVER  12  II. LAND USE STUDY AND ANALYSIS Delimiting the Central Business District General Land Use Floor Space Index Assessed Land Values  12  I I I . STANDING STOCK  IV.  V.  15 18 19 22 27  Building Condition Assessed Value of Buildings Per Square Foot of Land Area  27  OWNERSHIP OF LAND & BUILDINGS  33  Building Ownership Land- Ownership  34 36  VACANT LAND  38  Amount of Vacant Land and I t s Location Ownership of Vacant Land Length of Vacancy  39 40 44  32  ii  CHAPTER  Page VII. LAND ASSEMBLY VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  IV  AREAS OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT I. SITE QUALIFICATIONS  V  45 50 53 53  I I . SITE SELECTION  54  FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BLOCK 62  57  I. POPULATION GROWTH H i s t o r i c Trends Population Projection  57 57 .58  I I . BRITISH COLUMBIA'S ECONOMIC BASE  59  I I I . OFFICE FUNCTIONS AND TRENDS  61  H i s t o r i c O f f i c e Space Supply Competitive Office Development Proposals Estimated Office Space Supply  1970-1980  66 71  76  IV. VANCOUVER CBD:OFFICE MARKET DEMAND ANALYSIS  79  Future Office Space Demand Type of Demand V. MARKET CONCLUSIONS  79 83 87  VI. PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT  89  S i t e Components  89  VII. PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS Retail Entertainment Hotel Office Structures  91 92 92 94 94  iii Page Parking 94 Development Model 95 Northwest Corner . 96 Southwest Corner 96 Stage I I I - Mid Blook Development 97 Development Cost Schedules 99 VIII. CONCLUSION  115  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  APPENDIX A - LAND USE STUDY  118  APPENDIX B - LOWER MAINLAND'S ECONOMY  164  iv LIST OF TABLES  TABLE  Page  I II  III IV  FLOOR SPACE INDEX  23  BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP D.L. 541  30  BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP D.L. 185  31  BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP D.L. 185  V VI  VII  and D.L. 541  35  VACANT LAND OWNERSHIP LAND ASSEMBLY  43  1949-1969  47  USE OF ASSEMBLED LAND 1949-1969  49  BLOCK 42 PACIFIC CENTRE REDEVELOPMENT  56  IX  REDEVELOPMENT AREA NO. 1  57  X  REDEVELOPMENT AREA NO. 2  58  CBD OFFICE SPACE 1950-1970  67  XII  VANCOUVER CBD : MAJOR OFFICE DEVELOPMENTS  70  XIII  VANCOUVER CBD : ESTIMATED OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY VANCOUVER CBD : OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY PER  77  CAPITA  .77  VIII  XI  XIV  XV XVI  VANCOUVER CBD : OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY TRENDS VANCOUVER CBD : OFFICE SPACE DEMAND ANALYSIS TO 1980  XVII XVIII  VANCOUVER CBD : POST WAR OFFICE SUPPLY TRENDS  XX  85 86  BLOCK, STREET AND BUILDING AREAS DISTRICT LOT BASIS  XIX  78  122  LAND AVAILABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT  124  VACANT LAND : LENGTH OF VACANCY  133  Table  fage XXI  XXII XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX .XXXI XXXII XXXIII XXXIV XXXV  VACANT BUILDING SPACE  135  LAND OWNERSHIP  137  LAND AREA : LENGTH OF OWNERSHIP  1  VACANT LAND : LENGTH OF OWNERSHIP  141  LOCATION AND SIZE OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL CENTRES  144  BUILDING USE CLASSIFICATION (1969)  151  BUILDING USE INVENTORY 1964 VERSUS 1969  159  OFFICE USE INVENTORY  160  RETAIL INVENTORY CBD STUDY AREA  161  TOTAL LABOUR FORCE  169  DOMESTIC EXPORTS BY LEADING PRODUCT  170  SERVICE EMPLOYMENT AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT  176  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE LOWER MAINLAND - BY INDUSTRY GROUP 1951-1981 LABOUR FORCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1951, 1961, 1966 AND 1975 FORECAST LABOUR FORCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  3  9  177 178  179  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE  I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX  Page  GROWTH OF VANCOUVER'S CBD  14  STUDY AREA  17  DENSITY RATIOS  21  ASSESSED LAND VALUE PER SQUARE FOOT OF LAND AREA  2  5  LAND USE AND DENSITY MAP  29  POTENTIAL AREA OF REDEVELOPMENT  55  OFFICE BUILDING DEVELOPMENT:PAST DECADE  69  OFFICE SPACE:SUPPLY AND DEMAND  84  SITE PLAN:PROPOSED REDEVELOPMENT  98  X  VACANCY RATE - OLD BUILDINGS  162  XI  VACANCY RATE - NEW BUILDINGS  163  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The  r a t e of growth of w o r l d  steadily  s i n c e 1650.  d a t a and  criteria  Doxiadas has  p o p u l a t i o n has been i n c r e a s i n g s t a t e d : "That on  the b a s i s of  the e a r t h ' s p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o of 407. urban  607. r u r a l w i l l e v e n t u a l l y change to a r a t i o of 95.77. urban and r u r a l . S u c h c i t y planners  general and  4.37.  s t a r t l i n g f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e the enormous task ahead f o r  and  private enterprise a l i k e i n developing  to accommodate the s o c i a l and  s u i t a b l e places  economic i n t e r a c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  this  population increase.  Many f e e l and  t h a t we  have reached  a crossroads  in city  i n the l a s t few y e a r s c o u n t e r f o r c e s have s p u r r e d new  c e n t r a l core.  I t i s generally f e l t  t h a t we  growth,  i n t e r e s t i n the  must m a i n t a i n and  revitalize  the c i t y c o r e i n t o a f u n c t i o n a l c e n t r e f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Homer Hoyt f e e l s found of  the economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n of r e b u i l d i n g downtown i s to be  i n the r e a l f u n c t i o n of  the c i t y c e n t r e . "The  the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a or of the r e g i o n . " Vancouver's c i t y c e n t r e s e r v e s  past years,  1966)  those of 1965  - 1971  office  headquarters  2  t h i s f u n c t i o n and  have p r o v i d e d  relative  a resurgence  of the  , \>oxiadas, "Between Dystopia.and U t o p i a " (London :Saber Three l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d a r T r i m t y C o l l e g e )  to CBD  Press  2 Co.)  A.M. Weimer and H. Hoyt, R e a l E s t a t e (New York: The Ronald P r e s s a paper e n t i t l e d Economic C l i m a t e f o r F u t u r e Urban Development p. 637.  2  i n Vancouver. Twenty new o f f i c e buildings have been completed or are nearing completion. I n i t i a l phases of Project 200 and P a c i f i c Centre are under construction or completed, and should breathe new l i f e the CBD.  into  Meanwhile, announcements concerning transportation systems  have focussed attention upon the CBD and some of the problems associated with this growth. The researcher has been a c t i v e l y involved i n Vancouver's r e a l estate market f o r f i v e years.  Two of these years were devoted s p e c i f i c a l l y  to o f f i c e space leasing and land assembly i n the Vancouver's CBD.  During  this period of time the researcher had a chance to observe and p a r t i c i p a t e i n some of the decision making i n the private sector leading to growth i n Vancouver's c e n t r a l core.  I t became r e a d i l y apparent that decisions  leading to development within the core were predicated upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of suitable s i t e s f o r development and the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed development upon these s i t e s . Because of the complex decisions required f o r these large developments i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h an a l l encompassing theory explaining and predicting growth within the core.  I t i s conceivable however that i f a theory of growth  were developed, part of the theory would be that "growth i n Vancouver's CBD takes the path of least resistance". theme of the paper;  This i s the basic underlying  the resistance factors are i d e n t i f i e d and examined  and then used to predict future growth areas i n the core. The study then goes a step further to a f e a s i b i l i t y analysis to determine i f a developer could f i n d economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n to develop the s i t e .  3  This resistance to development may be tangible or intangible or a combination of both. Physical resistance a r i s e s from current patterns of building and/or land use; stock.  i . e . the density of the standing  I t i s assumed that given the same r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n and  d e s i r a b i l i t y , vacant land w i l l be developed before underdeveloped land i s redeveloped. Thus i f there are well located vacant s i t e s within the core i t i s easy to predict the d i r e c t i o n of growth.  I t i s when vacant  s i t e s are a t a premium that the underdeveloped s i t e s are considered f o r redevelopment. Block 42, of P a c i f i c Centre i s an example of large scale redevelopment.  A redevelopment s i t u a t i o n i s much more d i f f i c u l t to  predict the d i r e c t i o n of growth because i t involves d i s p l a c i n g established land and building uses. This study uses indices such as a f l o o r space index, the value of b u i l d i n g per square foot of land area, and the value of b u i l d i n g per square foot of building area to determine which s i t e s are the most underdeveloped and hence o f f e r the l e a s t resistance i n terms of cost to assemble f o r redevelopment purposes  K.E. Boulding, Toward a General Theory of Growth, taken from "Population Theory and P r a c t i c e , " edited by J . J . Spengler and O.D. Duncan (Glencoe The Free Press, 1956) p. 120-121. These problems are: a) The a f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g s from growth i t s e l f In c i t i e s the e x i s t i n g s p a t i a l structure and b u i l d i n g investory are a constraining framework f o r a change. b) The nature of urban investment as r e f l e c t e d i n the lengthy physical l i f e inherent i n r e a l property; consequently by the change of physical plant i s slow and c o s t l y . c) Inadequate parking and poor c e n t r a l area t r a f f i c flow.  ^  _,^  en u m  b e r of landowners create  obstacles  to the assembly of land necessary f o r larger integrated developments.  4  The CBD  intangible resistance factors which i n h i b i t growth i n the  are the patterns of land and b u i l d i n g ownership. The current system  of ownership permits i n d i v i d u a l s to control land as small as 3,000 square f e e t i n area;  thus any  any one of which may one  large assembly could involve a number of owners,  not want to s e l l h i s property. This means that any  i n d i v i d u a l could be a stumbling block to an assembly f o r c i n g the  developer to go elsewhere.  The  study examines not only the ownership of  land but also ownership of buildings to determine the type of people investing i n the core and control.  the q u a l i t y of b u i l d i n g each type of owner  This information i s then applied to those s i t e s which have the  tangible factors i n d i c a t i n g redevelopment to determine i f the intangible factors can be overcome and an assembly c a r r i e d out. The second chapter reviews theories of land use and  evaluates  these theories to gain i n s i g h t into the nature of urban growth and draw any implications these theories may  have f o r the t h e s i s .  i n this chapter i s a review of past studies of Vancouver's  then  Included  CBD.  Chapter three touches b r i e f l y upon the mechanics of the land use study which provides this paper.  the basic s t a t i s t i c a l information f o r analysis i n  Tangible and intangible resistance factors are i d e n t i f i e d  and examined and a conclusion drawn regarding growth of the CBD. ownership and  The chapter continues  their implication on  by developing  the  indices describing  land use and compares them to indices for those s i t e s  within the core that have recently been developed. Using this comparison and other land use information development.  the study i d e n t i f i e s areas of p o t e n t i a l  5  The fourth chapter examines the p o t e n t i a l s i t e s and selects that s i t e which o f f e r s the l e a s t resistance to development f o r a feasibility  study.  The f i f t h chapter outlines a development concept f o r the chosen s i t e and then c a r r i e s out an economic f e a s i b i l i t y analysis f o r development of the s i t e .  The demand side of the market i s analyzed and  projected future demand i s compared  to projected supply to i d e n t i f y  growth opportunities. The chapter concludes by e s t a b l i s h i n g a model encompassing development costs financing and operating revenues and expenses to measure the p r o f i t a b i l i t y  of the development.  6  CHAPTER I I  VANCOUVER URBAN LAND USE : THEORIES AND STUDIES  I. THEORIES OF URBAN LAND USE The great d i v e r s i t y of North American c i t i e s makes i t d i f f i c u l t to set f o r t h general explanations  of land use patterns.  Most s h i f t s i n the patterns of land uses r e s u l t from the decisions of people e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s , businesses or i n s t i t u t i o n s . difficult and  It is  to anticipate what motivates decision makers a t any one time  they may react d i f f e r e n t l y from their counterparts  i n other  regions.  Nonetheless there are several broad theories of urban land use which do roughly describe c i t y growth structure i n a general sense.  Real property i s characterized by f i x i t y of l o c a t i o n , permanence of b u i l d i n g , investment, d u r a b i l i t y through time, and v a r i a b i l i t y of product and ownership.  Because of this heterogeneity,  and the existence  of a large and widely d i s t r i b u t e d body of buyers, and s e l l e r s , the r e a l estate market i s a r e l a t i v e l y imperfect one requiring a v a r i e t y of theories of urban land use.  T r a d i t i o n a l Theories  of Urban Land Use  This chapter reviews the more prominent theories of urban land use.  In the 1920's Burgess described  the arrangement of land uses and  7  the pattern of growth as forming general concentric c i r c l e s around the c i t y centre. Growth takes place by the simple expansion of these zones outward, each zone invading the adjacent outer zone.  Homer  Hoyt believes that this theory i s obsolete because the automobile makes possible the wide d i s p e r s a l of people over a metropolitan area."' Hoyt f e e l s that r e s i d e n t i a l growth within the c i t y shows s e c t o r a l v a r i a t i o n and tends to grow outward along d i s t i n c t r a d i i . ^  Harris and Ullman modified the sector theory and advanced the multiple nuclei concept.  They stressed the impact of transportation,  topography, and r e l a t i v e f a c t o r s , and f e l t that land uses e s p e c i a l l y businesses, tended to c l u s t e r i n n u c l e i throughout the c i t y .  Contemporary Theories of Urban Land Use R a t c l i f f modifies the t r a d i t i o n a l theories somewhat and f o r purposes of this paper provides a more functional approach i n describing urban land use structure.  According to R a t c l i f f : ^ " . . .  the l o c a t i o n a l  pattern of urban areas i s a r e f l e c t i o n of basic economic forces and that this arrangement of people, buildings, and a c t i v i t i e s i n urban concentrations a t strategic points on the web of transportation lines i s a part of the economic mechanism of society.  This hypothesis i s supported  by the observation that the primary factors i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and i n changing this pattern of urban areas are economic."  E.W. Burgess, The Growth of the City edited by R.E. Park, E.W. Burgess and R.D. McKenzie. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1925. A.M. Weimer and H. Hoyt., Real Estate, (New York: The Ronald Press Co. 1966) p.292. 6  ^R.A. R a t c l i f f . Urban Land Economics, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1949) p.368.  8  Each urban s i t e a t a p o i n t i n time i s f i x e d w i t h i n a s e t o f space r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e v e r y o t h e r  s i t e and i t s u s e . These space  r e l a t i o n s h i p s change o f c o u r s e w i t h changes i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. The  use which w i l l be the s u c c e s s f u l b i d d e r  f o r the s i t e w i l l be t h a t  which c a n take the g r e a t e s t economic advantage o f the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p of that s i t e has  to e v e r y o t h e r  the g r e a t e s t aggregate s a v i n g  site,  t h a t land use which c a n pay the h i g h e s t successful bidder.  Usually  t h a t i s , t h a t u s e which  i n convenience.  P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e makes i t s c h o i c e  the  based on the p r o f i t m o t i v e ;  r e n t to the l a n d l o r d becomes  the same type o f l a n d uses c a n pay the  same amount o f s i t e r e n t , so one f i n d s t h a t d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s uses e v o l v e .  According  to R a t c l i f f  there  i s a basic  o f land  l a n d use s t r u c t u r e  "composed o f s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s i n which a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d major u r b a n a c t i v i t i e s and  g  so on."  spatial  the  such as r e t a i l i n g m a n u f a c t u r i n g , r e c r e a t i o n ,  Ratcliff  i s not content to provide  u r b a n l a n d use so he p r o v i d e s  a theory  a static  theory o f  o f urban dynamics t h a t he  describes  9 as " t h e economics o f s u c c e s s i o n " . t h a t take p l a c e w i t h i n  B a s i c a l l y he p r o v i d e s  the c i t y when v a r i o u s  urban l a n d uses a r e f a c e d  w i t h f o r c e s c r e a t e d by changes i n the s p a t i a l where a new use o u t b i d s  existing structure.  o  structure.  the e x i s t i n g u s e . R a t c l i f f  f o r c e s a r e i n v o l v e d when s u c c e s s i o n  requires  f o r changes  I t i s a situation  believes  the same  the r e p l a c e m e n t o f an  The r a t i o n a l e f o r redevelopment depends on the  R. U. R a t c l i f f ,  9 R. U. R a t c l i f f , Book Co. 1961) p. 132.  o_. c i t . p. 368 Real Estate A n a l y s i s ,  (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l  9  i n d i v i d u a l owner's estimate  of the anticipated income from a new  structure, compared to the cost of that structure, the costs of removing or demolishing  the e x i s t i n g structure, and the income that would be l o s t  by removing or demolishing  the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e . ^  I I . LAND USE STUDIES : VANCOUVER Downtown Vancouver has been the subject of many studies and reports. They vary from a d e s c r i p t i o n of land uses i n the downtown area to studies of the s o c i o l o g i c a l problems associated with b l i g h t i n the CBD.  This section b r i e f l y describes some of these past studies. The C i t y Planning Department has published many reports pertaining  to Vancouver's CBD.  In 1955 i t published a twenty year development p l a n . ^  In this report the Department i d e n t i f i e s nine land use zones i n Downtown Vancouver and o f f e r s a general d e s c r i p t i o n of each land use zone supported by some empirical data. Land use data i n the study i s used as a basis for comparison with findings i n the present study to determine trends i n downtown land use.  In 1964 the C i t y Planning Department published two reports 12 dealing with the future use of Blocks 66 and 67.  The reports contain  very l i t t l e data but provide an e x c e l l e n t discussion of the functions of the CBD with s p e c i a l reference to locating the CBC Headquarters or a museum or sports coliseum on that s i t e . ^ I b i d . , p. 132 •^Technical Planning Board, Vancouver, B.C. A report prepared f o r C i t y Council e n t i t l e d Down town Vancouver 1955-1976. 12 The two reports are Redevelopment i n Downtown Vancouver Report No.5 July 1964: and K i t s i l a n o - CBD A B r i e f Prepared For the Vancouver C i t y Council Sept. 28, 1964.  10  In 1963 Larry Smith and Co. completed an economic analysis 13 of Vancouver's CBD. This study included a land use study as well as a b u i l d i n g space inventory.  Larry Smith has made projections of  the demand f o r downtown r e t a i l and o f f i c e space, and has studied some s p e c i a l areas within the CBD and their problems. Using hindsight i t i s easy to c r i t i c i z e the projections i n this report since they have f a l l e n well short of the mark.  Smith projected a supply of 6,870,000  square feet by 1971 and 7,290,000 square feet by 1976 and we have already surpassed the 1976 projection. more suburbanization  than has happened.  I t appears that he assumed The data i n Smith's study  w i l l be used as a s t a t i s t i c a l base from which a comparison can be made with information secured by this researcher,  to give a dynamic picture  of land use i n Downtown Vancouver. Hopefully trends of land use w i l l emerge from this comparison that can meaningfully  be applied to projection  of future requirements i n Vancouver. In December of 1968 the Planning Department published  the f i r s t  part of a three stage report i n which a framework f o r evaluation of c e r t a i n developments i s stated. issues and trends.  14  Part I deals with some of the e x i s t i n g  15 In these and other studies of the CBD, there i s  13 Larry Smith and Co., Central D i s t r i c t Redevelopment i n Downtown Vancouver, 1963. 14 The Vancouver Planning Department, Part I - Downtown Vancouver The Issues, December 1968. '""'Some other studies are: Restoration Report 1969, Vancouver C i t y Planning Dep't, Urban Renewal, Vancouver, B.C. August 1966, Vancouver C i t y Planning Dep't, Vancouver Downtown Parking 1962 by C i t y Engineering Dep't, Vancouver - The Downtown Business D i s t r i c t a preliminary report prepared for the Town Planning Commission by Holland, Bartholomew, and Associates February 1946.  a noticeable lack of data, hence only very general conclusions can be drawn concerning land use i n Downtown Vancouver.  Because there are few  secondary sources of land use information a v a i l a b l e the researcher had to carry out an extensive land use study.  12  CHAPTER I I I  LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS : CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT  I. HISTORY OF GROWTH IN VANCOUVER This chapter b r i e f l y reviews the h i s t o r y of growth of Vancouver's CBD. since i t s inception i n the late 1800's, to the present s i t u a t i o n which finds Vancouver i n a s i x year b u i l d i n g boom unprecedented i n the h i s t o r y of the c i t y .  Having established the background f o r the study,  the chapter turns to a comprehensive examination of land use and ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Vancouver's CBD.  Data that i s immediately  relevant to growth i s discussed i n this chapter. A d d i t i o n a l land use information as well as the mechanics and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study are found i n Appendix A. This section examines such pertinent data as f l o o r space indices, assessed land values, ownership of land and buildings, condition and value of the standing stock, ownership and amount of vacant land, and f i n a l l y land assembly a c t i v i t y i n the study area.  Metropolitan Vancouver, l i k e other North American communities has developed as a part of our s o c i a l and economic system.  Land  u t i l i z e d by s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t the requirements of this system.  As a r e s u l t , the  standing stock, that i s , the t o t a l inventory of buildings, i s under constant pressure to meet changing needs and conditions as required by the system. The r e l a t i v e i n f l e x i b i l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y of r e a l property  13  r e s u l t s i n problems to the owners, tenants, and c i t y planners a l i k e , as they attempt to adapt to the changing needs of the system. These constantly changing needs, coupled with physical and economic obsolescense of the standing stock, i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n changes i n u t i l i z a t i o n . This phenomenon i s r e a d i l y apparent i n Vancouver. The o r i g i n a l o f f i c e and r e t a i l centre was  established i n the  late 1890"s i n the area east of Cambie Street and north of Hastings Street referred to as Gastown (Figure 1).  Also i n 1900,  another  retail  centre had been established a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Georgia Street and G r a n v i l l e Street with the construction of the Hudson's Bay Co. department store. At the turn of the century, Woodward's Department Store was on the southwestern  built  periphery of the Gastown Centre, on the 100 Block  West Hastings Street. Specialty r e t a i l shops sprung up on Hastings Street catering to the pedestrian t r a f f i c generated by these two department stores. Gradually the r e t a i l centre moved westward from the Gastown area to Hastings Street between Woodwards and Eatons department stores. Vancouver as we know i t today consists of two r e t a i l centres;  one,  anchored by the Hudson's Bay Co. Department store a t G r a n v i l l e Street and Georgia Street with i t s axis along G r a n v i l l e Street from Smithe Street on the south and Hastings Street on the north. The other centre, i s the r e s u l t of the westward growth along Hastings Street from the Woodward's Department Store to Eatons.  Both centres were well established  before 1945 and u n t i l Block 52 of P a c i f i c Centre, there has been no s i g n i f i c a n t construction of r e t a i l space i n the  CBD.  v. —I  1  I  J ZD  •  QED Q0QL3K ti'ORSON  • • • • • O O C T J E  ]nDPQQci_iqn J^ljUUOLAJUL-i • • LZ3 EZK3 O • O  DDHflQDDDDfe OQGObOT QDBQD 01  Growth of Vancouver's CBD  -  •  LEGEND: Late 1800's and Early 1900's Early 1900"s - 1945 •Vst H.w, 1,1 - 1964 1964-1970  15  O f f i c e development also moved westward from the Gastown area along Hastings and Pender Street as f a r as Burrard Street.  By  1964,  just before the recent b u i l d i n g boom i n commercial o f f i c e space, the centre was  loeated on Hastings Street and Pender Street between  Burrard and Seymour Streets. Developments i n the past seven years, include the construction of approximately four m i l l i o n square f e e t of  16 o f f i c e space;  the increasing importance of the "Golden Triangle"  west of Burrard Street;  the completion of the construction of Phase I  of P a c i f i c Centre, the Royal Centre, and Project 200. are putting stresses on the established II.  LAND USE  STUDY AND  These developments  core.  ANALYSIS  Delimiting the Central Business D i s t r i c t Emphasis has been placed on gathering the lack of r e l i a b l e secondary information.  primary data because of  Some of the r e s u l t s of  the  study are presented i n this chapter, the remainder including sources of information, methods of data c o l l e c t i o n , l i m i t a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are outlined i n Appendix A.  Various theories have been  advanced as to the proper techniques to be applied i n determining the a c t u a l boundaries of the CBD.^  C r i t e r i a such as changes i n property  values, changes i n the i n t e n s i t y of land use, and changes i n the type  The "Golden Triangle" i s the name given to that area of land bounded by Georgia-Cardero-Hastings-Burrard Streets. •^For an i n t e r e s t i n g discussion see "Delimiting the CBD" written by Raymond E. Murphy and J . E. Vance, i n Readings In Urban Geography, Mayer and Kohn (the University of Chicago Press, 1959) pp. 418-446.  16  of land use, are often applied.  The geographic area (Figure I I ) of  the universe under study greatly a f f e c t s the quantitative d e s c r i p t i o n of land use patterns.  For example, vacant land s t a t i s t i c s would be  greatly affected i f the boundaries of the CBD moved close to the very core of Downtown Vancouver. As this i s not a study to be used f o r planning purposes, although most of the information contained  i n this  chapter would be useful f o r such purposes, the researcher has chosen those boundaries that appear on the following page.  The dotted  area 18  i s that area for which a complete set of data has been gathered; the slanted l i n e s outline the area i n which only s t a t i s t i c s on b u i l d i n g uses have been gathered.  The information obtained  from the area  within the slanted lines i s necessary to provide a meaningful comparison of a building use investory compiled by L. Smith and Co. i n 19 1964.  This i s the only s e t of s t a t i s t i c s pertaining to b u i l d i n g  use p r i o r to the building boom i n 1964.  18 For complete s e t of data gathered see Appendix A. 19 Larry Smith and Co. : A Report on The Economic Analysis of Downtown Vancouver; Prepared f o r Planning Dep't, C i t y of Vanco uver.  FIGURE I I .  STUDY AREA  18 20 General Land Use The study area encompasses a t o t a l of 266 acres of land dedicated to the following uses:  DISTRICT Lot 541 No. of Acres 21  Land  Developed  For  Land  Develop-  Vacant  ment  Land  STREETS AND LANES TOTAL  DISTRICT Lot 185 No. of Acres  TOTAL Acres  100  31  131  31  8  39  77  19  96  208 58 266 The s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of land dedicated to streets i s  i n d i c a t i v e of the need f o r transportation and a c c e s s a b i l i t y within the CBD.  T y p i c a l l y the CBD i s the centre or focus point of the t r a f f i c  system.  Without proper access to the CBD and m o b i l i t y within the CBD  i t could not be the centre of Approximately land".  cc>ijj_ierce  f o r a metropolitan area.  50% of the downtown land i s considered to be "developed  This includes a l l land used f o r purposes recognized as urban  i n character whether developed  to an open use such as parks and play  grounds or to a s i t e use such as r e s i d e n t i a l , i n d u s t r i a l or commercial. The improvements on the land do not necessarily have to represent highest and best use.  20 For a d d i t i o n a l , more s p e c i f i c land use inventory see Appendix A, Table XIX. The inventory was compiled by the researcher during the land use study. 21 The d i s t r i c t l o t i s apart of the legal d e s c r i p t i o n of property i n the CBD. The d i s t r i c t l o t i s comprised of several c i t y blocks which i n turn are comprised of l o t s owned by the public.The study area includes two d i s t r i c t l o t s . D i s t r i c t l o t 541 includes land east of Burrard and D.L.185 includes land west of Burrard S t r e e t .  19  Vacant land has played an important r o l e i n the growth of Vancouver's core and i s given s p e c i a l attention l a t e r i n the chapter. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to mention that although vacant land comprises only 147o of t o t a l land i n the study area, i t i s 327. of the land c l a s s i f i e d as "available f o r development" i n d i c a t i n g that there i s s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of land i n the study area that i s not yet developed and that i t could play an important r o l e i n thegrowth of Vancouver's CBD. One index used to measure the extent of development i n the CBD i s c a l l e d the f l o o r space index and i s examined below.  22 Floor Space Index The f l o o r space index i s calculated by d i v i d i n g t o t a l b u i l d i n g f l o o r area by the land area associated with the buildings, plus any vacant land within the geographical area under study. The index i s a tool used by c i t y planners to determine, compare, and thus c o n t r o l accommodation within a given area.  The index i s also a useful tool  for developers and investors because i t enables them to determine areas where the land i s used most i n t e n s i v e l y hence most valuable. I t a l s o 23 i d e n t i f i e s those areas which are r e l a t i v e l y underdeveloped. 22 See Table I f o r sources of information, r e s u l t s including a block by block c a l c u l a t i o n . 23 Underdeveloped areas f o r purposes of this study i s a s i t e that although improved with a physical structure does not represent the highest use.  20  There are only four blocks within the study area that have a f l o o r space index greater than 7.  (See Table I)  Three of these  blocks w i l l have this index because of projects under construction and soon to be completed.  Only the block containing Eaton's Depart-  ment Store, bounded by Hastings, Richards, Cordova and Seymour Streets, has had a building on i t f o r some time. The area bounded by Burrard, Hastings, Seymour and Pender Streets, which up to 1964  just before  the current building boom i n o f f i c e space was considered to be the ccnnmercial centre of the CBD has indices that vary from 2-5, much below the now  permitted Floor Area Ratio of 12 times s i t e coverage.  It is  also w e l l below the indices of those blocks which have projects under construction and coloured black on Figure I I I . there are areas i n the CBD  I t would appear that  that w i l l be much more i n t e n s i v e l y  developed  than those i n the established core. (Hastings, G r a n v i l l e , Pender/ G r a n v i l l e Area).  The area fronting on the west side of Burrard Street i s developing more i n t e n s i v e l y than the established core along Pender. Street and Hastings Street, between Seymour Street and Burrard Street. The most intensive development i s along the major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s of G r a n v i l l e , Burrard, Georgia and Hastings Streets. These developments appear to have formed a h a l f - c i r c l e around a r e l a t i v e l y underdeveloped area comprised  of s i x c i t y blocks bounded by Pender, G r a n v i l l e , Georgia  and Burrard Streets. This r e l a t i v e l y underdeveloped area would appear to be i n l i n e f o r redevelopment to provide c o n t i n u i t y f o r these high density f r i n g e areas.  MM • • • Bf\  .•QQBBQQ  [_3[  mil g DDQSQDIQQ' 1GI0I0D0B  IC  • • n q o o n n EZHZ3QD0E  COfc  ™  piacfiD  'DDBQDD0.J  HSaODBODDlf  ^•••rz)  \  ^DQQODDOr -•DOBflO  7f\ \ LEGEND Ratio:  o - 1.777771 1-2  2 - 3 3 - 4  4 - 5EZZ2Z2  5-6  FIGURE I I I .  DENSITY RATIOS  22  Assessed  Land Value Another useful index of development i s provided by  values of r e a l property.  Assessed  assessed  values are the l e g a l valuation of  r e a l property f o r purposes of taxation. They are used as indices to measure the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r locations within the CBD.  There are some reservations on behalf of urban land economists  for using this index to describe land use within the Central Business 24 District,  however assessed values are the only suitable data  source  on property values that cover a l l the areas i n the CBD and are f a i r l y consistent so they are used as a y a r d s t i c k . 25 Indices using assessed values are calculated i n two ways: (2) on a block by block basis to determine the r e l a t i v e value of the various c i t y blocks, and  (b) on a s t r e e t basis to determine the r e l a t i v e  value of the streets within  each c i t y block.  The r e s u l t s of the study i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I and Figure IV indicate that the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Georgia and G r a n v i l l e Streets has  the  highest assessed value per square f o o t of land area. Properties f r o n t i n g on Georgia Street west of Seymour Street as f a r as Bute Street have assessed values i n the two highest categories ranging from $31 - $51  per  square foot of land area. However, properties on Georgia Street only three blocks east of Georgia-Granville Street i n t e r s e c t i o n are only l/6th  24 Mayer and Kohn, Readings In Urban Geography, (The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959) pp.418-446. 25 For sources of information and more d e t a i l e d discussion and r e s u l t s see Appendix A.  23  TABLE I FLOOR SPACE INDEX  Block No.  District L o t No.  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  Land sq/ft  Building Area sq/ft  Floor Space Index  Assessed Land V a l u e per s q / f t  Assessed B u i l d i n g Value per s q / f t l a n d Area  34, 800 17 905 37, 850 96 554 61 920 53 300 54 720 62 400 117 292 60 060 61 920 66 990 49 920 74 270 62 060 61 800 109 200 109 560 106 701 108 680 109 200 103 ,200 109 680 118 ,300 135 ,000  149, 886 80, 699 154, 968 340, 636 299 750 382 300 314, 046 240 000 158, 582 247, 403 187, 836 380, 897 169 310 337, 352 122 959 122 338 319 663 361 775 207 796 321 133 265 891 171 475 48 450 232 958 226 444  4.3 4.3 14.1 3.5 4.8 7.7 5.7 3.8 1.4 4.1 3. 5.7 3.4 4.5 2.0 2.0 2.9 3.3 1.9 3.0 3.4 1.7 .8 2.0 1.7  $ 5.00 5.00 5.00 8.30 11.80 27.80 25.90 27.90 25.50 31.50 31.30 28.30 31.00 11.50 9.80 6.80 24.00 28.60 17.50 23.60 10.80 8.80 5.30 4.30 4.30  $ 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 17.00 54.00 65.00 134.00 27.10 121.00 43.00 127.00 51.00 25.00 13.00 8.00  118 ,000 124 ,600 118 ,300 119 ,100 120 ,000 114 ,000 120 ,000 130 ,000 130 ,000 118 ,500 120 ,000 120 ,000 121 ,000 119 ,800  198 ,663 300 532 300 ,168 670 ,301 497 316 155 ,210 809 ,500 205 ,260 51 ,493 873 ,743 100 ,000  1.7 2.4 2.5 5.6 4.1 1.4 6.3 1.6 .4 7.3 .8  24.00 27.00 11.00 64.00 26.00 10.00 113.00 57.00 4.00 176.00 12.00  388 ,163 627 ,653  3.2 5.2  26.40 26.50 37.40 40.90 12.70 8.50 7.20 4.80 4.00 30.00 29.00 33.00 36.00 10.50  45.00 43.00 12.00 50.00 10.00 14.00 5.00 34.00  60.00 65.00  24 TABLE I ( c o n t i n u e d ) Block No.  District L o t No.  Land sq/f t  Building Area sq/f t  Floor Space Index  Assessed Land V a l u e per s q / f t  55 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  120,000 129,000 120,000 123,000 116,280 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,960 126,210 114,500 117,000 117,000 82,515 115,450 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,000  81,600 55,438 3,900 51,113 89,743 6,000 223,910 218,371 121,785 107,767 21,609 83,000 285,510 434,307 4.605 173,497 136,486 41,854 162,817  .7 .5 .03 .4 7.7 .05 2. 1.9 1.0 9.0 .2 .7 2.4 5.2 .04 1.5 1.2 .4 1.4  $ 6.10 5.00 5.00 5.00 21.60 19.70 19,70 17.40 8.00 4.50 4.00 3.70 3.40 11.60 9.70 9.70 7.40 4.70 3.90  1 2 3 4 5 15 16 17 18 19  185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185  121,000 730,800 151,279 1128,722 152,990 448,615 134,937 201,733 77,154 80,000 162,695 80,747 189,918 618,669 174,240 233,180 246,808 221,801 82,661 48,599  6.4 7.50 3.2 1.5 1.0 .5 3.2 1.3 .9 .6  20.00 16.00 25.20 21.00 20.00 11.60 17.90 15.80 12.4  Source:  S t a t i s t i c s compiled by r e s e a r c h e r  Assessed B u i l d i n g Value per s q / f t Land Area $  3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 10.00 .30 11.00 19.00 10.00 42.00 1.00 2.00 13.00 9.00 10.00 10.00 8.00 3.00 5.00  150.00 90.00 40.00 3.00 14.00 22.00 31.00 12.00 5.00  DC J_|  L_J I  3C  I L_J  1DDBHODE3E  DOBOODOr •QHflfl OCT Aw C  DIP  ? 2 6 " $30 —  FIGURE I V . ASSESSED LAND VALUE  $31 - $41 —  SQUARE FOOT OF LAND  $42 and over g g B g B  SPACE  26  the a s s e s s e d v a l u e of the i n t e r s e c t i o n . either  G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , on b l o c k on  s i d e o f i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h G e o r g i a S t r e e t has a s s e s s e d  r a n g i n g from  $41 - $50 per square  f o o t o f land a r e a .  Assessed  values  values  on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t remain h i g h e r n o r t h o f i t s G e o r g i a S t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n than south o f the i n t e r s e c t i o n . t r a t i o n of o f f i c e  The  space n o r t h o f G e o r g i a S t r e e t .  i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f G r a n v i l l e and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t s ;  and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t s ; v a l u e s r a n g i n g from of  a secondary  Presumably t h i s i s due to the concen-  and B u r r a r d and G e o r g i a S t r e e t s , have a s s e s s e d  $31-$41 per square  f o o t o f l a n d a r e a and appear t o be  n a t u r e as f a r as a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e concerned.  P r o p e r t i e s on H a s t i n g s retain  Burrard  Street east of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n  t h e i r v a l u e much b e t t e r than  i n d i c a t i v e o f the importance  those on G e o r g i a S t r e e t .  This i s  o f the r e t a i l a r e a on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t between  G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t and Cambie S t r e e t . A s s e s s e d  v a l u e s o f the p r o p e r t i e s on  the n o r t h s i d e o f H a s t i n g s S t r e e t between G r a n v i l l e and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t a r e 257. to 507. h i g h e r than the p r o p e r t i e s on the south s i d e .  I t appears  t h a t the n o r t h s i d e o f H a s t i n g s S t r e e t i s f l o u r i s h i n g due t o the p e d e s t r i a n traffic  generated  by Eaton's  Department S t o r e .  I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t t h i s a r e a w i l l g r e a t l y when Eaton's Streets  r e l o c a t e s t o i t s new premises  suffer  a t the G e o r g i a - G r a n v i l l e  intersection.  The above a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s  t h a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i s the primary  n o r t h - s o u t h a x i s , and B u r r a r d S t r e e t i s o f secondary a s s e s s e d v a l u e s i s concerned.  importance  as f a r as  G e o r g i a S t r e e t i s the primary east-west  axis  27  and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t i s o f secondary  importance.  v a l u e west o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t a x i s than e a s t ; S t r e e t b e t t e r than south. new o f f i c e  Ill  This r e f l e c t s  Land r e t a i n s a h i g h e r and n o r t h o f G e o r g i a  the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s a r e a f o r  space.  STANDING  STOCK  The s t a t i s t i c s and t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d  i n this s e c t i o n provide a  q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t a n d i n g s t o c k w i t h i n the study a r e a to determine the study  the n a t u r e and ownership o f the b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n  area.  Building Condition T a b l e IV i n d i c a t e s  t h a t 167. o f the b u i l d i n g a r e a p r o v i d e d by  the s t a n d i n g s t o c k i s i n v e r y good c o n d i t i o n and p r o v i d e s a l l the a m e n i t i e s of modern o f f i c e in fair  space.  337° o f the b u i l d i n g a r e a i s i n good c o n d i t i o n , 397,  c o n d i t i o n , and 187. i n poor c o n d i t i o n .  B u i l d i n g s l i s t e d as v e r y good have j u s t r e c e n t l y been c o n s t r u c t e d and  p r o v i d e a l l the a m e n i t i e s o f new b u i l d i n g s . These a m e n i t i e s i n c l u d e  air  c o n d i t i o n i n g , f u l l e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e , and good l i g h t i n g . B u i l d i n g s  c l a s s e d as good, p r o v i d e a l l these a m e n i t i e s b u t have n o t been newly constructed.  They have p r o b a b l y been b u i l t i n the l a s t  ten years. B u i l d i n g s  c l a s s e d as f a i r a r e those 10-20 y e a r s o f age. Most o f the b u i l d i n g s have an a i r exchange system ( n o t a i r c o n d i t i o n e d ) and have r e a s o n a b l y good l i g h t i n g and e l e v a t o r s . The f a i r c a t e g o r y has the b r o a d e s t g u i d e l i n e s o f all,  hence w i l l  p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n the g r e a t e s t number o f b u i l d i n g s . T h i s  c a t e g o r y may range from  those b u i l d i n g s needing  those r e q u i r i n g more e x t e n s i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  o n l y a ' c o a t o f p a i n t ' to B u i l d i n g s c l a s s e d as poor  28  are  those b u i l d i n g s o f 30  Any  elevator  y e a r s o f age,  they do have i s v e r y  B u i l d i n g s earmarked as v e r y wear and  t e a r and  c o u l d be  the  Burrard  D.L. of  541  S t r e e t has  T a b l e s I I and  541.  considered  those which d e f i n i t e l y show s t r u c t u r a l  study a r e a  poor c o n d i t i o n . The largest proportion  to be  i n very  i s i n very  t h a t t h i s has  largest  reveals  that  proportion  a r e a between G r a n v i l l e  of b u i l d i n g s i n f a i r  I I I compares the b u i l d i n g c o n d i t i o n i n D.L.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 407. o f  the b e t t e r o f f i c e  and  to be manually c o n t r o l l e d .  l o c a t e d e a s t o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t have the  S t r e e t and  D.L.  has  the b u i l d i n g s i n the  very  and  have no a i r exchange system.  razed.  of b u i l d i n g space, i n poor and  condition.  slow and  poor are  A v i s u a l survey of those b l o c k s  and  the b u i l d i n g a r e a  i n D.L.  good c o n d i t i o n , w h i l e o n l y 87. of  185  the  is  space i n  good c o n d i t i o n . T h i s s u p p o r t s the o b s e r v a t i o n space i s i n the  185  t h a t most  study a r e a , west of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t  been the a r e a where most o f  the new  developments have  secured.  The space w i t h i n  above a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the huge i n v e n t o r y  the CBD  and  illustrates  of b u i l d i n g  the r e l a t i v e d u r a b i l i t y and  inflexi-  b i l i t y of r e a l e s t a t e .  Modern b u s i n e s s p r e f e r s p r e s t i g e o f f i c e  space;  the k i n d w h i c h cannot be  o f f e r e d by b u i l d i n g s i n f a i r  although  a t one  time most of  the u l t i m a t e dictate only  the b u i l d i n g s i n the c a t e g o r y  in office  space.  t h a t they supply  ( f a i r ) were  P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a relatively  inflexible  s a t i s f y changing needs by e x t e n s i v e  o l d e r b u i l d i n g s to s a t i s f y  condition,  r e s u l t s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new  b u i l d i n g s , and  buildings  type of s e r v i c e  renovations.  these q u a n t i t a t i v e and  considered  This  that  inability  can of  q u a l i t a t i v e demands vacancies  i n the  older  I  •  i C D LZZI rrrrt  QBQ  TjaaaiziDDa  latziaizisadn 3sar-.  D D D  n  Dill  •OQDDOOr  s.ios A n .  \ \  \ FIGURE Note- Tte above land use p o r t r a y s LEGEND g e n e r a / a r e a of land use.The areas — H i g h D e n s i t y Commercial 12 x t h a t / e m a i n u n c o l o u r e d a r e areas Medium D e n s i t y Commercial 5 x i n / i c h these uses o v e r l a p or where _ t a i l the/ce i s no predominate use. —Warehouse Formation —Public Residential R  e  g  3  L  q  TABLE II BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP DISTRICT LOT 541  Condition  Owner Resident Non  Very Good sq/ft 185,600 (49%)  Good sq f t  Fair sq/ft  1,348,000 (49%) 3,189,000  Poor sq/ft  Very Poor sq/ft  Total Owner sq/ft  1,114,000  90,000  6,126,600  15%  27%  383,000  2,401,000  1,988,000  312,000  4,300  5,088,300  425,000  11,000  300,000  191,000  130,000  1,057,000  17%  13%  Resident Trust  Federal Gov't  40%  1%  205,000  433,000  28%  57%  Gov't  810,000  Municipal  75%  Gov 1 1  TOTAL CONDITION  1,198,600 (9%)  42,400  40,000  6%  5%  61% 575,000  Provincial  29%  1,011,000  436,000 43% 4,000  240,000 21%  5,578,000 (42%) 6,153,000 (47%)  1,054,000  4%  1,863,400 (1.4%)264,300 (.2%)  Notes: (1) Description of building condition c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was described Source: Land use study compiled by researcher.  720,400  previously.  13,057,300  TABLE III BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP DISTRICT LOT 185 Condition  Very Good sq/ft  -733,922 (41%)  Owner  38%  Resident  830,000 (50%)  Non Resident  45%  Fair sq/ft  563,500 (32%) 334,000 (19%) 50%  23%  334,000 (20%) 463,000 (27%) 30%  31%  85,500 (13%) 571,000 (86%)  Trust  8%  Co Federal  38%  Poor sq/ft 106,000 (7%) (60%)  Very Poor sq/ft  28,500 (1%)  Total Owner sq/ft  1,765,922 (100%)  100%  55,000 (3%)  1,652,500 (100%)  ( 3%) 7,000 (1%)  663,500 (100%)  ( 4%) 21,000 (100%)  21,000 (100%)  Gov't  1%  Provincial  Municipal  124,000 ( 32%) 6%  Gov't  TOTAL CONDITION  218,000 (100%)  30,000 (24%)  188,000 ( 86%)  2%  10%  Gov't  Source:  Good sq/ft  125,000 (32%) 12%  84,000 (22%) 6%  1,896,992 (40%) 1,108,000 (24%)1,482,000 (32%)  49,000 (14%)  382,000 (100%)  (33%)  167,500 (2.5%)28,500 (.5%)  4,682,922  Compiled by researcher from s t a t i s t i c s gathered i n a f i e l d survey.  Co  32  buildings. in  The s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by the o l d e r b u i l d i n g  t h a t i t doesn't  r e p r e s e n t the h i g h e s t and b e s t use f o r the s i t e .  However, i t does p r o v i d e o f f i c e lower  r e n t s . Rather  space f o r those who o n l y c a n a f f o r d  than r e p l a c e t h i s b u i l d i n g w i t h a newer b u i l d i n g  a t t h i s l o c a t i o n a d e v e l o p e r w i l l chose a v a c a n t approximately cost less  i s obsolete  site  that provides  the same l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s . T h i s v a c a n t  than the s i t e w i t h  the b u i l d i n g ,  e x i s t i n g s t a n d i n g s t o c k does a f f e c t w i t h i n the CBD.  thus  site  will  the d u r a b i l i t y o f the  the d i r e c t i o n o f development  Most o f the new development has o c c u r r e d i n the a r e a  west o f B u r r a r d S t r e e t where, as w i l l be shown l a t e r , v a c a n t  l a n d and  l a r g e r l a n d h o l d i n g s has made assembly p o s s i b l e . F i g u r e s X and X I of Appendix A compare vacancy s t a t i s t i c s f o r the v a r i o u s types o f b u i l d i n g s . The b u i l d i n g s t h a t a r e unable have the h i g h e s t vacancy  Assessed  Value  to p r o v i d e a l l the a m e n i t i e s  rate.  o f B u i l d i n g P e r Square F o o t o f Land A r e a  A n o t h e r measure o f the q u a l i t y o f the s t a n d i n g s t o c k i s the a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f b u i l d i n g s per square i s c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g  f o o t of land area. This  index  the sum o f the a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f the improve-  ments by the l a n d a r e a o c c u p i e d by the b u i l d i n g . The v a l u e o f the b u i l d i n g i s spread over  the l a n d a r e a used by these improvements and  p r o v i d e s a measure o f the i n t e n s i t y o f l a n d use and i n d i c a t e s the q u a l i t y o f improvements. The r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n t a b u l a r form on T a b l e I .  Many o f the h i g h e s t i n d i c e s f a l l  i n the same  geographic  l o c a t i o n o f the CBD as the h i g h e r i n d i c e s o f l a n d v a l u e and l a n d u s e .  33  The  higher  i n d i c e s are  l o c a t e d between B u r r a r d  S t r e e t p a r t i c u l a r l y along Street.  of 2.5  Georgia Street, Burrard  However, there are  coincide; x  some a r e a s where the  the  land a r e a ,  q u a l i t y i s only  and  per  can  i t i s zoned f o r 12  by  the study a r e a  the v a l u e  can  square  f a r below t h a t o f  a high  l a n d use  potential  i n d i c a t i n g a good r e l a t i v e low  examining o t h e r  This i s the  i s further third  highest  l o c a t i o n i n the CBD  and  i n d i c a t i n g e i t h e r underdevelopment s i t e s i n t h i s manner the  t h a t o f f e r the  researcher  least resistance  to  growth.  OWNERSHIP OF The  property The  I t has  that assessed land value  i d e n t i f y redevelopment a r e a s  future  IV  the f a c t  By  index  times s i t e c o v e r a g e . T h i s would i n d i c a t e a need  of improvements i s v e r y  or poor q u a l i t y .  a use  index measuring the b u i l d i n g  the redevelopment which i s c u r r e n t l y under way.  substantiated  not  i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l areas f o r redevelop-  ment by comparing them to B l o c k 42.  in  The  square f o o t o f land a r e a ,  n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o p e r t i e s . One  for  i n d i c e s do  Hastings  average land assessment o f $37.40 per  i n the study a r e a .  $11  Georgia  S t r e e t and  f o r example, the c o n t r o v e r s i a l B l o c k 42 has  foot third highest  i.e.  S t r e e t and  LAND AND  paper has  BUILDINGS  stated  t h a t the  system of ownership and  the  owners themselves a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n of growth i n the  f i r s t p a r t of t h i s  s e c t i o n examines the c o n t r o l of b u i l d i n g s  compares types of owners w i t h  the s i z e and  the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . The the c o n t r o l o f l a n d i n the  and  c o n d i t i o n of b u i l d i n g s i n  second p a r t of  study a r e a and  CBD.  this  section  draws some g e n e r a l  studies  conclusions  34  concerning  land ownership and i t s a f f e c t on the growth i n the CBD.  Ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of vacant land are examined under a s p e c i a l section devoted to the study of vacant land.  Lack of previous ownership studies i n the CBD means i t i s impossible trends.  to find a base year from which one can determine ownership  This analysis gives a s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of ownership  characteristics. Building Ownership There are approximately 19,730,000 square feet of b u i l d i n g space within the boundaries of the study area.  Tables I I , III and IV  indicates that 407. of the t o t a l b u i l d i n g area i s c o n t r o l l e d by owners considered  as residents, 347. by non-residents,  97. by t r u s t companies  and 177. by the three l e v e l s of government. Owners classed as residents and non-residents  control the bulk  of the b u i l d i n g space i n residents c o n t r o l 187.-297. and non- residents control approximately 407. of the b u i l d i n g space. This indicates that non residents have been most active i n investing and developing  i n Vancouver CBD.  I f the study area i s broken  into D.L. 185 and D.L. 541 the non residents have been most active i n D.L.  185.  In the study area buildings classed as i n good condition,  i . e . buildings at l e a s t f i v e years o l d , the ownership r a t i o i s 507. resident and 307. non-resident.  This proportion changes when considering  very good space, i . e . space put on the market i n the l a s t f i v e years, so that 307. of the new space i s c o n t r o l l e d by residents and 447, by non-  TABLE IV BUILDING CONDITION VERSUS BUILDING OWNERSHIP TOTAL FOR: D.L. 185 & 541  Condition  Very Good sq/ft  Owner  919,522 (19%)  Resident  297.  Non  1,213,000 (10%)  Resident  39% 425,000 (25%)  Trust Co.  14%  Federal  226,000 (30%) 8%  Gov't  188,000 (15%)  Provincial  6%  Gov't  124,000 ( 9%)  Municipal  4%  TOTAL CONDITION  Source:  Good sq/ft  Fair sq/ft  1,911,500 (22%) 3,523,000 (40%) 28%  Poor sq/ft  1,420,000 (17%) 118,500 ( 2%) 70%  47%  2,451,000 (44%) 2,451,000 (40%) 39% 96,500 ( 5%) 1.5%  317,500 ( 6%) 15%  33%  10%  11%  42,400 ( 6%) 2%  6.5%  9% 935,000 (65%) 16%  40%  7,892,522 40% 6,720,800  2%  34%  44% 40,000 ( 6%) 16%  466,000 (39%)  1,720,500 9% 741,400 4% 1,229,000  6%  6%  324,000 (23%)  53,000 ( 3%) 3%  4%  3,095,522 (16%) 6,686,000 (33%) 7,635,000 (39%)  Total Own* sq/ft  4,300  198,000 (12%) 130,000 ( 8%)  871,000 (50%)  433,000 (58%)  575,000 (46%)  Very Poor sq/ft  2,030,900 ( 2%) 292,800 ( 2%)  1,436,000 7%  19,740,222  Compiled by writer from s t a t i s t i c s gathered i n f i e l d survey. Co  36  residents.  T h i s means t h a t the a c t i v i t y o f n o n - r e s i d e n t s has more  than doubled i n the p a s t f i v e  Absentee  years.  landowners c o n t r o l o n l y 157, o f the b u i l d i n g  space  c o n s i d e r e d i n poor c o n d i t i o n and 27, o f the t o t a l space i n v e r y poor condition.  L o c a l r e s i d e n t s on the o t h e r hand c o n t r o l 707=, o f the poor  space and 407, o f the v e r y poor space.  T r u s t companies  control  the  l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f b u i l d i n g space c l a s s i f i e d as v e r y poor space a p p r o x i m a t e l y 447, o f the v e r y poor space. Most o f the space by t r u s t companies of t h e i r  in  a d m i n i s t e r on b e h a l f  clients.  One had  i s i n t r u s t s t h a t the companies  controlled  can c o n c l u d e t h a t up to s i x y e a r s ago r e s i d e n t s o f Vancouver  the c a p i t a l and e x p e r t i s e  to i n v e s t i n b u i l d i n g  i n the CBD.  However,  the p a s t s i x y e a r s n o n - r e s i d e n t s have been i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e i n  downtown development.  T h i s i s h i g h l i g h t e d by  two major  developments  26 under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the CBD. magnitude  Both these p r o j e c t s a r e o f such  and c o m p l e x i t y t h a t they a r e o u t o f the range o f most  local  developers. Land  Ownership Lack o f base y e a r s t a t i s t i c s w i t h which one can s e t up a  suitable  time comparison o f p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s s t a t i s t i c s  trends i n ownership r e s u l t s i n a s t a t i c  to determine  d e s c r i p t i o n of land  T a b l e X X I I , Appendix A, d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the and the o w n e r - i n v e s t o r . W i t h i n the t o t a l study a r e a the  26 Centre.  The  two developments  referred  ownership.  owner-user  owner-user  to a r e P a c i f i c C e n t r e and R o y a l  37  c o n t r o l s 437, o f  the  land i n the study a r e a ,  c o n t r o l s 577, of  the  l a n d . The  between D.L. 557, o f  the  indicates  541  185.  In D.L. 185  541  the o w n e r - i n v e s t o r owns  he c o n t r o l s 707, o f  the  land.  t h a t the degree of i n v e s t o r ownership i n c r e a s e s boundary of  large proportion  Federal  D.L.  owner-investor  type of ownership v a r i e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y  l a n d w h i l e i n D.L.  from the e a s t e r n A  and  the  of  the  as one  moves  study a r e a to the w e s t e r n boundary.  the owner-user c o n t r o l l e d l a n d  P r o v i n c i a l and  T a b l e XXII  Municipal  Governments;  i s owned by  l a r g e department  stores,  some r e t a i l  s p e c i a l t y shops, warehouses and  Many of the  l a r g e f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h o f f i c e s on H a s t i n g s  own  t h e i r o f f i c e premises.  T r u s t Co.  and  moved or are S t r e e t and  Some of  D i s t r i c t Lot  185,  i n t e n s i t y of land use Investor's  the g r e a t e r and  type o f development. T h i s v a r i a n c e might w e l l be D.L.  185  and  the emphasis on  i n D.L.  541.  been e x p r o p r i a t e d  to assemble the i n v e s t o r s and  by  land, contained  9 owner-users.  increasing  investor  ownership.  to c a r r y on  extensive  Owner u s e r s are  development w i t h i n  t y p i c a l l y more r e l u c t a n t  t h e i r business.  Block  42,  the c i t y because the d e v e l o p e r was 18 The  this  i n ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to s e l l because i t means a d i s r u p t i o n o f which has  Burrard  office buildings, i s  f i n a n c i a l resources  the r e a s o n f o r the r e c e n t not  many new  Thus i t would appear t h a t w i t h  have the e x p e r t i s e  Royal  tenants.  which c o n t a i n s  largely investor oriented.  Street  the Bank of M o n t r e a l have  to move t h e i r r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s to  assume the r o l e of  buildings.  these i n s t i t u t i o n s such as  the R o y a l Bank of Canada, and planning  light industrial  the  unable  l a n d owners comprised of 9 ownerowner-users were r e l u c t a n t to  sell  38  and  d i s r u p t their business.  and  have l i t t l e  The i n v e s t o r s on the o t h e r  trouble i n r e l o c a t i n g their  control a greater  The  Residents c o n t r o l  proportion  467<>-507o  217,-287. o f the land a r e a . N o n - r e s i d e n t s  proportion  t h a t the n o n - r e s i d e n t s  the ownership c l a s s e s  c o n t r o l a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same  of land i n b o t h s e c t i o n s o f the study a r e a s . w h i l e non r e s i d e n t c o n t r o l  of b u i l d i n g area  than l a n d a r e a , i n d i c a t i n g  g e n e r a l l y d e v e l o p the land more i n t e n s i v e l y .  i m p l i c a t i o n o f the above f i n d i n g s i s t h a t  p a r t i c u l a r l y non-resident  investors,  i n v e s t o r s , have been a c t i v e i n development i n  Downtown Vancouver. Consequently any land owned by these people be  considered  by  owner-users.  V  VACANT LAND  developing  could  "more a v a i l a b l e " f o r development than the land c o n t r o l l e d  Vancouver's C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t has expanded by  sell  capital.  T a b l e X X I I , Appendix A, i n d i c a t e s t h a t of r e s i d e n t s and n o n - r e s i d e n t s  hand c o u l d  v a c a n t or underdeveloped a r e a s w i t h i n  l a t e r a l l y by expanding i t s b o u n d a r i e s outward.  vertically  the CBD and  I n b o t h cases v a c a n t  l a n d p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f c i t y  growth  because i t o f f e r s the c o u r s e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e i n terms o f l a n d assembly c o s t s and owners  In  involved.  t h i s chapter vacant land  i s examined on the b a s i s o f : 1)  amount o f v a c a n t land and i t s l o c a t i o n , 2) and  3)  ownership o f v a c a n t  l e n g t h o f vacancy to determine i t s a f f e c t on c i t y  land,  growth.  39  Amount o f Vacant Land and Most of within  the  Location  the v a c a n t land  study a r e a  intersection.  Its  i s l o c a t e d s o u t h e a s t of  I t s primary use  m o b i l e s . 407 of  i s to p r o v i d e  the v a c a n t l a n d  o  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 900,000 square  announced p l a n s (bounded by of  the  three  i s a d v a n t a g e o u s l y l o c a t e d and  square f e e t (one  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of an  Robson, Smithe, Hornby and  f o r 2,400 a u t o -  e a s t of  the  Burrard-  l e v e l s of government. T h e i r  The  P r o v i n c i a l Government  has  o f f i c e b u i l d i n g on i t s s i t e Howe S t r e e t s ) .  the magnitude t h a t they c o u l d w e l l be  Anyone who  parking  each p a r c e l i s a t l e a s t 120,000  c i t y block) i n size.  development i n the immediate  Burrard-Georgia  l o c a t e d south and  G e o r g i a i n t e r s e c t i o n i s owned by property  the  feet)  Both p r o j e c t s  are  the c a t a l y s t f o r f u r t h e r  areas.  w i s h e s to d e v e l o p a commercial b u i l d i n g n a t u r a l l y  looks f o r v a c a n t land  t h a t i s s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d , and  ( a t l e a s t 15,000 square f e e t ) . D i s c u s s i o n s  i s of s u i t a b l e s i z e  w i t h major d e v e l o p e r s  r e a l t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t development i n the study a r e a  and  i s most l i k e l y  to  happen west of Seymour S t r e e t . There i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 640,000 square f e e t of v a c a n t l a n d  t h a t c o u l d be  considered  a v a i l a b l e f o r development  because i t i s a s u i t a b l e s i z e , or because the n e i g h b o u r i n g are underdeveloped f o r t h e i r vacant land  to p r o v i d e  a site  216,215 square f e e t (34%)  l o c a t i o n and  Government. s e c t o r and  The  combined w i t h  the  s u i t a b l e f o r development. A p p r o x i m a t e l y  o f t h i s l a n d i s l o c a t e d i n D.L.  a r e a west of Seymour S t r e e t , and 131,200 square f e e t of  c o u l d be  properties  e a s t of B u r r a r d  Street.  t h i s v a c a n t l a n d i s owned by  541  the  However,  the P r o v i n c i a l  r e m a i n i n g 85,000 square f e e t i s owned by  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35,000 square f e e t has  in  the  private  been earmarked by  a  40  d e v e l o p e r f o r development. T h i s l e a v e s o n l y 50,000 square vacant  f e e t of  l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r development i n the study a r e a bounded by  Seymour and B u r r a r d  Streets.  Ownership of Vacant  Land  W i t h i n D.L.  185  there a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  381,185 square  feet  t h a t i s o f s u i t a b l e s i z e f o r development o r c o u l d be assembled  into  an a r e a to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t s i z e f o r development. o n e - t h i r d o f t h i s l a n d i s owned by d e v e l o p e r s who  Approximately  have a l r e a d y  announced p l a n s f o r development. T h i s l e a v e s o n l y 43,000 square of  vacant  land w i t h a c c e s s  to a major t r a f f i c a r t e r y ,  feet  i . e . Burrard,  G e o r g i a , H a s t i n g s and Pender S t r e e t s . The  remainder  i s d i s p e r s e d throughout  t h a t p e r m i t medium d e n s i t y  development. of  D.L.  185  None o f the v a c a n t  the n a t u r e found  i n areas  l a n d lends i t s e l f  of the v a c a n t l a n d  to a development  i n the B u r r a r d , Thurlow, Pender and G e o r g i a  area  ( B e n t a l l C e n t r e , R o y a l C e n t r e , and M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l B u i l d i n g ) .  Vacant of  land has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g  development i n the study a r e a . The  space  i n D.L.  185, was  the  direction  r e c e n t b u i l d i n g boom of  office  the r e s u l t o f l a r g e amounts of v a c a n t l a n d  b e i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r development. However, i n o t h e r p a r t s of the area, vacant the CBD.  land has had  The  a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on  the development of  i n a c t i v i t y on the v a c a n t c i t y b l o c k owned by  P r o v i n c i a l Government has d i s c o u r a g e d development of p r o p e r t i e s because of i n d e c i s i o n as go on the b l o c k . of  impeding  Owners of v a c a n t  study  the  neighbouring  to the type of development to l a n d have g e n e r a l l y been  development o f an a r e a f o r t h e i r own  accused  s p e c u l a t i v e purposes,  41  at  the expense o f o t h e r c i t i z e n s .  paper  to determine  the c o n t r o l o f such, has p l a y e d an  r o l e i n development and w a r r a n t s d i v e r s i t y o f ownership  interview  f u r t h e r study as  this merely  important  to i t s c o n t r o l  and  makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to p e r s o n a l l y  the owners to determine  vacant land.  of  i f these l a n d owners a r e "good c i t i z e n s " ,  t h a t v a c a n t l a n d and  use. The  I t i s not i n the scope  t h e i r g o a l s or reasons f o r h o l d i n g  However, c e r t a i n ownership  characteristics  that are  e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e a r e h i g h l i g h t e d below.  31.57» o f the v a c a n t l a n d i n the study a r e a i s c o n t r o l l e d  by  27 owner u s e r s .  These people  t y p i c a l l y h o l d vacant land a d j a c e n t to  t h e i r place of business f o r f u t u r e expansion,  putting  the l a n d to use  f o r p a r k i n g d u r i n g the i n t e r i m p e r i o d . T h i s i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n the study a r e a s o u t h and e a s t of the Georgia-Seymour S t r e e t  intersection  where w h o l e s a l i n g f i r m s , l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , an a u t o m o b i l e d e a l e r s h i p , and an automobile suggested CBD,  that this  y e t i t appears  r e n t a l f i r m a r e l o c a t e d . C i t y p l a n n e r s have  type of a c t i v i t y  t h a t most o f the businessmen have l o n g range  as they a r e p u t t i n g up new  l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s and  v a c a n t l a n d when i t comes on  over 75,000 square  plans,  buying  the market. In the p a s t ten y e a r s  and w h o l e s a l e u s e r s have purchased land  i s c o n t r a r y to the n a t u r e o f the  industrial  f e e t of vacant  t h a t has been a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s . They a r e u s i n g  the l a n d f o r e x p a n s i o n .  T h i s would seem c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l  phenomena e x p e r i e n c e d i n o t h e r major urban a r e a s where w h o l e s a l e r s  See T a b l e  V.  and  TABLE V VACANT LAND TYPE OF OWNER OWNER-TYPE  DISTRICT LOT 541 sq/ft  DISTRICT LOT 185 sq/ft  Resident  778,319  55%  123,121  34%  Non R e s i d e n t  206,883  14%  117,190  30%  76,014  6%  152,685  36%  M u n i c i p a l Gov't  122,366  8%  Provincial  131,225  8%  120,000  8%  T r u s t Co  Gov't  F e d e r a l Gov't  1,423,582  396,025  TYPE OF OWNER OWNER-TYPE  DISTRICT LOT 541  Owne r-1nve s t o r Owner User  DISTRICT LOT 185  288,062  68%  271,285  1,135,520  32%  124,740  1,423,582 s q / f t  396,025  31.! sq/ft  LENGTH OF OWNERSHIP No. o f Years  DISTRICT LOT 185  DISTRICT LOT 541  0 - 5  years  562,195  40%  109,789  36%  6-10  years  187,080  13%  126,720  17%  11 - 20 y e a r s  205,227  15%  53,546  14%  459,080  32%  105,929  33%  Over 20 y e a r s  1,423,582  sq/ft  396,025  sq/ft  LENGTH LAND IS VACANT No. o f Years 0 -  5 years  6-10  years  Over 10 y e a r s  249,320  18%  54,483  17%  103,120  7%  74,102  10%  1,071,141  75%  266,440  73%  1,423,582 Note: S t a t i s t i c s  DISTRICT LOT 185  DISTRICT LOT 541  sq/ft  Based on Data from F i e l d  396,025 Survey.  sq/ft  43  and  l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l i s t s are moving to the less congested suburbs  where land i s cheaper and they house their operations  i n a single  storey b u i l d i n g .  Most of the vacant land i s owned by investors presumably f o r purposes of speculation or development. Investors own 68.57. of the vacant land i n the study area, c o n s i s t i n g of 867. of the vacant land i n D.L. 185 and 687. of the land i n D.L. 541.  Table V indicates that the three l e v e l s of government c o n t r o l approximately 257. of vacant land i n the study area and have owned i t for a t l e a s t f i v e years. In the private sector, residents of Vancouver control 557. of the vacant land, non residents control 127. of the vacant land and t r u s t companies e i t h e r through d i r e c t ownership or administration of t r u s t s , e t c . control 87. of the vacant land. With this c o n t r o l by the various levels of government and by Vancouver residents i n a c t i o n on vacant land cannot be pinned on non-residents  of Vancouver. The o l d  charge of absentee ownership i n the private sector does not apply i n this case. Table V indicates that length of ownership of vacant land reaches two extremes. Approximately 367. of the t o t a l vacant land i n the study area i n the past f i v e years and 337. of the vacant land has been i n the hands of the same people f o r over 20 years. On one hand there i s a large turnover activity.  of vacant land i n d i c a t i n g speculative  However, there i s also a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of land that  has been under the same ownership f o r the past 20 years. This could be land owned by owner-users who have been a t that l o c a t i o n f o r this  44  p e r i o d of  time;  or i t c o u l d be  the  and  feel  t h a t the revenue they r e c e i v e from p a r k i n g  for  t h e i r cash investment, and more than o f f s e t s c a r r y i n g c o s t s taxes and  interest  invested only a small cash  having  acquired  as  land so l o n g ago,  t h a t owners of v a c a n t l a n d ,  outlay,  l o t s i s adequate such  cost.  Length o f Vacancy A n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t v a c a n t land i s a b l e is  the number of d e m o l i t i o n s  107. o f the v a c a n t l a n d was s t r u c t u r e s on  the s i t e ;  i n the CBD.  to 177..  Most of t h i s l a n d has  parking,  i n favour  of a s i t e use  demolished were v e r y single family  been put by  itself  I n the p e r i o d 1960-1964,  i n e f f e c t created  i n the p e r i o d  to c a r r y  by  the d e m o l i t i o n  1965-1969 t h i s f i g u r e to use  providing  a b u i l d i n g . Most of  o l d , frame rooming houses t h a t had  of increased  surface the  buildings  once been  dwellings.  I t can be  c o n c l u d e d t h a t v a c a n t l a n d has  played  an  important  r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i r e c t i o n of development i n the c i t y ' s  core.  W e l l l o c a t e d v a c a n t l a n d o f f e r s l e s s r e s i s t a n c e i n terms of c o s t speed of development compared  to underdeveloped l a n d . The  large  and quantity  of v a c a n t l a n d immediately west of B u r r a r d  S t r e e t has  been a c o n t r i b u t i n g  factor  so much so  that i t could  to e n c o u r a g i n g growth i n t h i s a r e a ,  argued t h a t the f i n a n c i a l c e n t r e Hastings, and  of Vancouver i s moving from  Pender, Seymour, G r a n v i l l e a r e a  Hastings area.  to the B u r r a r d ,  I t can a l s o be g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u d e d  number of w e l l l o c a t e d v a c a n t s i t e s a r e i n s h o r t supply d e v e l o p e r s are g o i n g to have to l o o k within  the  core.  the  Georgia,  that and  to r a z i n g underimproved  the that sites  be  45  VI  LAND ASSEMBLY Difficulty  i n land assembly due  l a n d owners i n the CBD affects  to the sheer number o f  produces r e s i s t a n c e  to growth and thus  the d i r e c t i o n o f development w i t h i n the  One  CBD.  s t u d y i n C h i c a g o found t h a t f o r a d e v e l o p e r to a c q u i r e 28  some 264  t w e n t y - f i v e f o o t l o t s he would have  The number o f l o t s per person averaged 1.7 studied. 1.4  to c o n t a c t 151  owners.  i n 4 of the 10 b l o c k s  I n the r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s the average f e l l  between 1.2  l o t s per owners. Twelve o f the owners h e l d 46 o f the 164  however the h o l d i n g s o f these twelve were s c a t t e r e d s i t e and among the 115 l o t s h e l d  singly  and  lots  throughout the  t h a t the commission c o n c l u d e d  t h a t assembly o f a group o f c o n t i g u o u s l o t s would be  impossible.  In Vancouver fragmented ownership on the downtown a r e a i s p o s s i b l e because o f the l e g a l system o f l a n d ownership. u n i t o f ownership commonly r e f e r r e d = 3000 square f e e t .  I n D.L.  185  to as " L o t " i n D.L.  the system was  changed  The  standard  541 i s 25' x  120'  so t h a t the  " l o t " s i z e i s 66' x 120' = 7920 square f e e t a l m o s t t h r e e times the a r e a o f D.L.  541.  D e v e l o p e r s w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n the f i e l d  of o f f i c e  building  development u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d a s i t e o f a t l e a s t 15,000 square f e e t to b u i l d a s t r u c t u r e assembly o f a s i t e  l a r g e enough to absorb the overhead. The  this size could w e l l involve negotations with  28 G.H. Beckman, D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and B l i g h t e d V a c a n t Land, Taken from "Readings I n Urban Geography" by Mayer and Kohn, pp. 505-601.  anywhere from 2-5  landowners, i n D.L.  landowners i n D.L.  185.  Experienced  541  and most l i k e l y  negotiators  feel  two  t h a t when  the number of land owners r i s e s above t h r e e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r a in  the  15,000 square f e e t range, chances of a s s e m b l i n g  the r i g h t p r i c e a r e  remote.  ( acific  associated with  Centre).  I t was  been h i g h l i g h t e d by  o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s b l o c k was  b l o c k because some o f  to  the owners r e f u s e d  VI i l l u s t r a t e s  sell.  time p e r i o d s ;  i s a ten-year  time p e r i o d  other  1965-1969. The  number of l a n d a s s e m b l i e s i n downtown Vancouver  from an average of 1.5  to 5 per y e a r i n the  over  from  1950-1959. The  increased  a r e f i v e year p e r i o d s  to  amalgamated  Land t r a n s a c t i o n s have been a n a l y z e d  the f i r s t two  land  A l a n d assembly i s c o n s i d e r e d  have taken p l a c e when c o n t i g u o u s p a r c e l s o f l a n d a r e  three  the  the changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a s s e m b l i e s i n the study a r e a .  42  ready f o r  u n a b l e to assemble  under common ownership.  the  the e x p r o p r i a t i o n of l a n d i n B l o c k  redevelopment y e t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e was  Table  land a t  29  T h i s problem of l a n d assembly has controversy  the  site  from 1960-1964 and has  per y e a r f o r the 1949-1959 p e r i o d ,  1960-1964 p e r i o d ,  to 6 per y e a r i n the  1965-1969  period.  Recent developments i n the CBD i n d i c a t e t h a t the t r e n d i s towards a s i t e much l a r g e r than 15,000 square f e e t . Three r e c e n t developments have a s i t e a r e a o f : a) Columbia C e n t r e , 150,000 square f e e t . , b) The B e n t a l l C e n t r e , 67,000 square f e e t , c ) P a c i f i c C e n t r e , Stage 1, 140,000 square f e e t .  TABLE VI LAND ASSEMBLY 1949 - 1969 No. of No. of Assemblies Owners  No. of Titles  No. of Lots  Square Feet  No. of Owners  No. of Lo ts  No. of Titles  No. of Square Feet  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  District Lot  541  185  541  185  541  185  541  185  541  541  185  541  185  541  185  541  1949 1959  8  7  36  22  46  22  82  24  237000 113004  4.5  2.7  10.2  3.4  5.8  3.1  17250 16143  1960 1964  18  6  58  19  83  19  108  19  409000 122508  3.2  3.2  6  3  4.6  3.2  23066 20416  1965 1969  15  14  46  39  63  43  73  53  240240  3.  2.8  4.8  3.8  4.2  3  16016 31600  Year  Source:  185  Assessment Roles i n Vancouver City H a l l f o r the Years 1959, 1964 and 1969  185  48  T a b l e VI for  i n d i c a t e s t h a t D.L.  land assembly.  area  I t has  185  a s s e m b l i e s i n D.L. success  i n the 541  has  number of a s s e m b l i e s has  l a s t f i v e year period, while  185  as compared  a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the e x t e n s i v e  sheer magnitude of  to the  assembled has  487, i s s t i l l  for in  to D.L.  o f the v a c a n t l a n d now  has  the  years,  still  the  assemblies.  the  i s vacant.  v a c a n t , o f which 177. has years,  l a s t f i v e years  and  land  land i s vacant.  total The  land  the  l a n d has  been assembled  b e i n g used f o r  parking  land  been v a c a n t f o r a t l e a s t 177. i n the  there have been 29  last five  19  years.  transactions involving  683,036 square f e e t of assembled  land a r e a .  has  been assembled by owners who  c o n t r o l l a n d immediately a d j a c e n t  the  l a n d . These owners accounted f o r 697. of  the  land area  i n v o l v e d i n these  assemblies.  The  the  other  area  There i s a t o t a l of 596,759 square f e e t of  567. v a c a n t between 5-10  In  185.  been developed and  purposes o f s p e c u l a t i o n or f o r l a t e r use w h i l e  assembled s t i l l  is certain./  by c l a s s i f y i n g what happens  v a c a n t . T h i s means t h a t 417, of the  the i n t e r i m .  541  been assembled. Twenty per c e n t of  assembled i n the study a r e a  than  the number of  landowners i n v o l v e d i n l a n d  b u i l d i n g s on i t , the o t h e r 807, of  F i f t y - t w o percent  more  development i n D.L.  the land assembly process  l a n d a f t e r i t has  a larger  the study a r e a means t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i l l e  to p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w a l l the Table VII q u a l i f i e s  area  decreased s l i g h t l y . T h i s r e l a t i v e ease or  o f land assembly i n D.L.  The  i s a more d e s i r a b l e  a s m a l l e r number of owners and  of land per assembly. The  doubled i n D.L.  185  b u l k of  the  land  t r a n s a c t i o n s and  involved to  457, o f  TABLE VII USE OF ASSEMBLED LAND BY DISTRICT LOTS 1949 - 1969  YEAR  *Source:  LAND ALREADY.' IMPROVED  VACANT LATER DEVELOPED  D i s t r i c t Lot 541 (sq.ft.)  D i s t r i c t Lot 185 (sq. f t . )  D i s t r i c t Lot 541 (sq. f t . )  Primary r e s e a r c h by the writer  LAND STILL VACANT  D i s t r i c t Lot D i s t r i c t Lot 185 (sq. f t . ) 541 (sq. f t).  D i s t r i c t Lot 185 (sq.f t . )  1949-1959  30,000  22,080  16,800  33,792  39,000  62,983  1960-1964  136,200  34,848  24,000  17,424  24,900  87,120  1965-1969  69,000  33,320  88,080  333,980  83,166  75,496  235,200  ° 90,248  280,080  385,196  151,160  225,599  TOTAL  USE OF ASSEMBLED LAND TOTAL STUDY AREA 1949-1969 YEAR  LAND ALREADY IMPROVED Square Foot  7. of Period Total  VACANT LAND - LATER DEVELOPED Square Foot  57. of Period Total  TOTAL  STILL VACANT Square Foot '% of Total Total  Square ]  1949 1959  52,080  147.  201,792  607.  101,983  267.  355,855  1960 1964  171,048  317.  41,424  77.  336,120  627.  548,592  1965 19  102,320  157.  422,060  617.  158,656  247.  683,046  325,448  207.  627,994  397.  596,759  417.  1,587,493  50  The  following specific  cases q u a l i f y the  development p r o c e s s f u r t h e r . A major p o r t i o n o f C e n t r e was  assembled i n the  b a l a n c e of  the  land was  t o t a l s i t e a r e a up  period  land assembly and  the  land f o r the  purchased i n the p e r i o d  to 67,000 square f e e t . The  1964-1969 b r i n g i n g  owners of  the  are developing i t .  The  s i t e f o r another l a r g e development, the M a c M i l l a n assembled i n the  i s 54,000 square f e e t and and  surface  The The  1964-1969. The  I t involved  a s s e m b l i n g the  R o y a l Centre  of B u r r a r d  f e e t of land area  Bloedel involved  the B a x t e r  150,000 square f e e t of s i t e  w i t h the remainder of  (now  S t r e e t , and  under c o n s t r u c t i o n )  on  and area.  improvements  the s i t e  being  SUMMARY AND An  the  north-west  G e o r g i a S t r e e t , comprises 105,000 square  owned by f o u r i n t e r e s t s . The  l a n d had  used f o r a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n , a body shop, c a r park and  and  their  parking.  The corner  to  i n t e r e s t s of 4 owners.  Columbia C e n t r e Development, comprised of  land, only a restaurant,  used f o r  VII  land a r e a  land assembly i n v o l v e d 6 owners. A g a i n there were few  the  the  p r e v i o u s l y been used f o r a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n  Board of Trade B u i l d i n g i n v o l v e s  This on  parking.  had  period  The  Bentall  and  B u i l d i n g , was  Bentall  1949-1959 f o r a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n .  Centre r e c e n t l y purchased 33,000 square f e e t o f l a n d a d j a c e n t property  land  a  p r e v i o u s l y been restaurant.  CONCLUSIONS  e x a m i n a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as b u i l d i n g c o n d i t i o n  f l o o r space index has  shown t h a t most new  development has  occured i n  51  D.L. 185. inventory  I t i n d i c a t e d that  the e x i s t i n g s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e and b u i l d i n g  i n D.L. 541 i s a c o n s t r a i n i n g framework f o r change and t h a t  even though the o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d f i n a n c i a l c o r e was i n D.L. 541 developers prefer  to d e v e l o p a r e a s i n D.L. 185. Developments i n D.L. 185  have d i s p l a c e d minor u s e s .  Most o f the land was p r e v i o u s l y used f o r  service  parking  s t a t i o n s or surface  and o f f e r e d  l e s s r e s i s t a n c e to  d e v e l o p e r s who have to assemble the l a n d .  The and  found  assemble  study has examined l a n d a s s e m b l i e s i n both d i s t r i c t  lots  t h a t more l a n d has been assembled and t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o land i n D i s t r i c t L o t 185. R e s u l t s  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the system  of ownership and ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n D i s t r i c t L o t 185 a r e such t h a t they o f f e r l e s s r e s i s t a n c e  In g e n e r a l  than those i n D i s t r i c t L o t 541.  t h i s study c o n c l u d e s t h a t development i n Downtown  Vancouver appears to be t a k i n g  the c o u r s e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e . Assuming  t h a t the l o c a t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the i n t e n d e d of  land  use then the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the ease o f assembly and the ease o f d i s p l a c i n g p r e s e n t  instrumental  uses a r e  f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f growth o f the c i t y . o  As  a c o r o l l a r y to the above c o n c l u s i o n  the f o l l o w i n g a r e trends  t h a t a r e a p p a r e n t as f a r as f u t u r e development i s c o n c e r n e d . The d e v e l o p ment has o c c u r r e d  in District  v a c a n t land i n the a r e a of  the study a r e a  L o t 185 because o f the l a r g e amount o f  and ease o f assembly o f t h i s  shows t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r well  l a n d . An e x a m i n a t i o n located sites f o r  l a r g e s c a l e development composed o f two o r more o f f i c e supply.  There a r e some s i t e s on G e o r g i a and B u r r a r d  towers a r e i n s h o r t  Streets  that  lend  52  themselves to s m a l l e r developments b u t none of them a r e l a r g e enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i t e s f o r super b l o c k developments such as the P a c i f i c Centre and R o y a l C e n t r e .  The r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which l a n d has  been  assembled f o r l a r g e developments i s a t h i n g o f the p a s t as d e v e l o p e r s w i l l be f o r c e d  to t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n towards the e s t a b l i s h e d c o r e and  i t s u n d e r d e v e l o p e d land and a l l the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h redevelopment.  Having drawn some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s as to the f a c t o r s affecting area  growth i n the CBD we  t u r n to a p p l y i n g  these f i n d i n g s  to the study  to i d e n t i f y a r e a s of p o t e n t i a l development and s e l e c t a s i t e where  development i s most l i k e l y carries  o u t an economic  to o c c u r . Once the s i t e i s s e l e c t e d  f e a s i b i l i t y analysis  to determine i f a development  c o u l d be done on the chosen s i t e . I n t h i s way we c o u r s e of CBD  development.  the study  can c h a r t the f u t u r e  53  CHAPTER IV  AREAS OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT  I  SITE QUALIFICATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r uses  the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r to  i d e n t i f y a r e a s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be developed or r e d e v e l o p e d i n the f u t u r e . By i d e n t i f y i n g  these a r e a s the study can then determine  d i r e c t i o n of growth i n the CBD. p o t e n t i a l redevelopment. the f o l l o w i n g  a)  FigureVI identifies  the  these a r e a s of  These s i t e s have been l i m i t e d  to those w i t h  qualifications.  a maximum p e r m i t t e d development d e n s i t y o f twelve  times  coverage b)  l a n d uses d e s i g n a t e d f o r the development a r e those which  a r e t y p i c a l f o r the downtown c o r e such as o f f i c e  space, r e t a i l  space,  h o t e l space and p a r k i n g c)  l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the CBD  uses:  t h a t i s those s i t e s which s u i t a b l y market the above u s e s .  The the a)  which are c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the above  f o l l o w i n g y a r d s t i c k s measure the development p o t e n t i a l o f  site: A s s e s s e d v a l u e o f improvement per square f o o t o f l a n d a r e a .  T h i s index i s used  to measure the i n t e n s i t y o f development as w e l l as  the q u a l i t y o f improvements. The measure of the q u a l i t y and  intensity  54  o f development i s r e l a t e d  to the index number f o r B l o c k 42.  a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f improvements per square is  $17  per square  f o o t of land a r e a i n B l o c k  42  foot.  b)  A s s e s s e d v a l u e o f l a n d . T h i s index i s used  relative  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s i t e  c)  S i z e and  d)  P r e s e n t uses  e)  A c t u a l i n t e n s i t y of l a n d use. T h i s index i s used  to measure  the  location.  c o n d i t i o n of the b u i l d i n g s on the  the i n t e n s i t y o f use of the s i t e f)  The  to f u l l y developed  site.  to compare  site.  Ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An a n a l y s i s of the number and  type o f owners to determine  the a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o s t of the l a n d to be  assembled.  The i.e.  assembly o f B l o c k 42 was  people who  selling  use  hampered because o f owner-users;  t h e i r p r o p e r t y f o r b u s i n e s s purposes  t h e i r p r o p e r t y meant n o t o n l y a r e a d j u s t m e n t  felt  of t h e i r  that investment  p o r t f o l i o , but a r e l o c a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s as w e l l . Thus the type o f must be i n c l u d e d i n the l a n d assembly  ownership  analysis.  r-  I I SITE SELECTION U s i n g these c r i t e r i a been i d e n t i f i e d and A r e a # 1 appears indices  two  illustrated  to be  on  g e n e r a l areas of redevelopment the map.  the b e s t p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t i n d i c a t e a low  land use  have  B l o c k 32 i n Redevelopment f o r redevelopment  with  s i t u a t i o n and a g r e a t e r number o f  owner i n v e s t o r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y an i n t e r v i e w w i t h most o f the owners involved  indicated  t h a t assembly would be d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e .  The  PJIDDDDD DDIODD LOT  "DlDDDGO  !  •  )  •  • •  • •  • •  •  •  •  •  ,  •  •  •  [  DnHMD'DDDLv OHtitiuD •DDBQDDl I DDBODDl • DO O i l DOT DOflflO  [ a A M c L A V  r.  o.  1  •  ^  !.  n  5  M K S O H  J  D LZIEX3 D • Q E~~J  • •••  • ••• Q K U O N Vn  v  • ••EDO  FIGURE V I ^ P o t e n t i a l Redeve^ent. reas — Recently Developed or Under Construction  "  A  Spot Development Areas  RE DEVE LOPMb  -  Source: Compiled by Researcher from f i e l d survey data  56  TABLE V I I I  BLOCK 42 - PACIFIC CENTRE REDEVELOPMENT  BLOCK NUMBER  42  A s s e s s e d Land v a l u e Sq. F t . Land A r e a  $37.4/sq. f t  A s s e s s e d V a l u e o f Improvements Per Sq. F t . Land A r e a  $17/sq.  Density Ratio  2.5  B u i l d i n g Area  181,168 s q . f t .  (sq. f t . )  Building Condition  ( s q . f t . ) Good Fair Poor  Vacant Space  Land Ownership  85,000 s q . f t . 96,168 s q . f t .  B u i l d i n g Area Vacancy Rate  B u i l d i n g Ownership  30,000 s q . f t . 15%  ( a r e a ) - Owner - U s e r - Owner - I n v e s t o r  ( a r e a ) - Owner User - Owner I n v e s t o r  Length o f Ownership  (sq. f t . ) - 0 - 5 6-10 11 - 20 20  f t . land area  108,200 s q . f t . 72,932 s q . f t . 54,000 s q . f t . 66,000 s q . f t .  years years years years  Number o f Land Owner  sq. sq. sq. sq.  ft. ft. ft. ft.  18  Land A r e a - Sq. F t .  120,000 s q . f t .  Land Area/Owner  Source: Compiled by r e s e a r c h e r from f i e l d  22,500 30,000 12,000 55,500  6,600 s q . f t .  survey.  57 TABLE IX REDEVELOPMENT AREA # 1 B l o c k Number  40  41  A s s e s s e d Land v a l u e Per Sq. F t . Land A r e a  26.4/sq.ft.  A s s e s s e d Value o f Improvements per Sq. F t . Land A r e a  24/sq.ft.  Density Ratio  2 - 3  Improvements B u i l d i n g Area  26.5/sq.ft.  27/sq.ft. 2 - 3  28.6/sq.ft.  27.5/sq.ft.  43/sq.ft.  12/sq.ft.  3-4  2 - 3  298,663  sq/ft  301,169 s q / f t 361,775 s q / f t  207,796 s q / f t  53,425 191,238 54,000  sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft  58,369 s q / f t 205,000 s q / f t 47,800 s q / f t  181,500 s q / f t 111,700 s q / f t 68,575 s q / f t  42,296 s q / f t 48,000 s q / f t 117,500 s q / f t  3,000 1%  sq/ft  1,200 s q / f t  36,000 s q / f t 10%  11,000 s q / f t 5%  75,951 s q / f t 221,920 s q / f t  73,252 s q / f t  4,352 s q / f t  Land Ownership-owner use Owner I n v e s t o r  40,000 s q / f t 80,000 s q / f t  50,000 s q / f t 70,000 s q / f t  15,840 s q / f t 93,720 s q / f t  23,500 85,700  sq/ft sq/ft  Length o f Ownership sq.ft. 0 - 5 years 6 - 10 y e a r s 11 - 20 y e a r s 7 - 20 y e a r s  28,440 17,280 21,000 51,380  51,000 s q / f t 30,000 s q / f t 39,000 s q / f t  42,600 14,040 10,800 43,120  24,000 6,000 9,000 69,480  sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft  8  18  Building Condition  Sq/ft  32  31  Good (sq.ft.)Fair Poor  Vacant-Building Area Space - Vacancy Rate Buildings Ownership-owner use B u i l d i n g Area - Owner I n v e s t o r  sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft  Number o f Land Owners  11  Land A r e a  - Sq. F t .  120,000 s q / f t 120,000 s q / f t  Land A r e a  - Owner  Source:  Compiled  10,900 s q / f t  15,000 s q / f t  by the r e s e a r c h e r from f i e l d  survey  sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft sq/ft  139,200 s q / f t 7,740 s q / f t  20 139,200  sq/ft  6,960 s q / f t  TABLE X REDEVELOPMENT AREA # 2 60  Block Number  61  Assessed Land Value Per Sq. F t . Land Area  $21.6/sq.ft.  Assessed Value of Improvements Sq. F t . Land Area  $10/sq., f t .  Density Ratio  0-1  Building Area (sq. f t . )  89,743 sq.ft.  6,000 sq. f t .  20,000 sq.ft. 69,760 sq.ft.  6,000 sq. f t .  Buildings Condition (sq.ft.) good fair poor very poor Vacant - Buildings Area Space - Vacancy Rate  $19.7/sq.ft.  -0-1  •  62  63  $19.7/sq.ft.  $17.4/sq.ft.  $10/sq. f t .  $19/sq. f t .  1-2  1-2  133,911 sq. f t . 218,371 sq. f t . 23,394 68,947 57,709 3,860  sq. sq. sq. sq.  79,500 sq. f t . ft. f t . 24,600 sq. f t . f t . 114,271 sq. f t . ft.  15,000 107.  10,500 57.  Building - Owner Use Area Ownership - Owner investor Area  4,960 sq.ft. 84,783 sq.ft.  Land - Owner-user land area Ownership - Owner investor area  22,000 sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t . 92,000 sq. f t .  34,000 sq. f t . 80,000 sq. f t .  Length of Ownership  48,000 30,000 6,000 30,000  30,000 6,000 6,000 72,000  0 - 5 6-10 11 - 20 20  years years years years  Number of Land Owners Land Area (sq. f t . ) Land Area (owner)  6,000 sq. f t .  sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t . sq. f t . sq. f t . sq. f t .  12  1  45,000 sq. f t . 5,500 sq. f t . 108,911 sq. f t . 202,871 sq. f t .  sq. sq. sq. sq.  30,000 sq. f t . 84,000 sq. f t .  ft. 3,000 sq. f t . ft. 9,000 sq-. f t . ft. f t . 102,000 sq. f t .  11  11  114,000 sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t . 8,750 sq. f t . 114,000 sq. f t .  Source: Compiled by researcher from f i e l d survey.  10,350 sq. f t .  10,350 sq. f t .  59  o t h e r b l o c k s w i t h i n Redevelopment A r e a # 1 appear to have  substantial  improvements, i . e . a h i g h index of " a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f improvements". All  the b l o c k s e x c e p t B l o c k 62,  i n Redevelopment A r e a # 3 can  be  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e d because of the d i f i c u l t i n assembly due ownership  problems. An  a willingness  to s e l l .  i n t e r v i e w w i t h the owners i n B l o c k 62  to  indicated  B l o c k 62 i s c o n t r o l l e d by 11 owners, 4 of which  a r e owner-users. T h i s low number o f owner-users i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s o f the l a n d assembly. The a s s e s s e d f i g u r e s a r e based  on o p i n i o n s formed i n 1969  s i g n i f i c a n c e of B l o c k 62's C e n t r e and  the new  strategic  and don't  land value  truly reflect  l o c a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to the  P r o v i n c i a l Government b u i l d i n g .  the  Pacific  60  CHAPTER V  FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT  OF BLOCK 62  Having e s t a b l i s h e d two areas f o r reasons  FOR  f o r p o t e n t i a l development, and  advanced i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n h a v i n g chosen a f u l l  b l o c k i n one o f these a r e a s ,  t h i s paper w i l l e v a l u a t e  i n v o l v e d i n the redevelopment of the chosen  the economics  site.  The p r o p e r t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s l e g a l l y d e s c r i b e d as 62, D i s t r i c t L o t 541, and i s bounded  city  by G r a n v i l l e , Robson,  Block  Howe and  Smithe S t r e e t s .  T h i s c h a p t e r commences w i t h a summary o f the economic  base  and p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o s p e c t s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a market o p p o r t u n i t y a n a l y s i s which i s compared  to a study o f the s u p p l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  including  present  and proposed developments. Once the market p o t e n t i a l f o r o f f i c e i n Vancouver's CBD for  i s identified  the paper then e s t a b l i s h e s a  the o v e r a l l development o f a b l o c k .  The c h a p t e r  space  concept  then c o n s t r u c t s  an economic model i n c l u d i n g development c o s t s , f i n a n c i n g , a n t i c i p a t i o n a n t i c i p a t e d revenue and expenses and a measurement o f i t s p r o f i t a b i l i t y .  I POPULATION GROWTH Historic  Trends According  Canada,  to p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s  p u b l i s h e d by  Statistics  the Vancouver census m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i n c r e a s e d by more than 607.  61  during  the  l a s t decade and  one-half  1956-1971.  average a n n u a l growth of 27,000 people per year  This represents over the p a s t  an  fifteen  30 years. Migration years  B.C.  has  had  i s the key one  f a c t o r i n B.C.  p o p u l a t i o n growth. F o r  of the h i g h e s t growth r a t e s but  the  lowest  20  birth  . 31 rate.  Population Projection The Regional area  p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n by  D i s t r i c t have proven c o n s e r v a t i v e . The  p o p u l a t i o n i s 1,070,000 the e s t i m a t e d  c o r r e c t i o n has f o r years  been i n s e r t e d i n the  was  the G r e a t e r  1971  Vancouver  a c t u a l "metro"  1,026,000 p e o p l e .  This  t a b l e page, however, the p r o j e c t i o n s  f o l l o w i n g have been r e t a i n e d .  Long term f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o s p e c t s  are e x c e l l e n t . The  a n n u a l r a t e o f i n c r e a s e s h o u l d approach 40,000 persons by  1986  r e s p o n s e to a c o n t i n u a l l y expanding economic base. Of c o u r s e , term Vancouver w i l l d o u b t l e s s master the d i f f i c u l t i e s geography, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h  regards  in i n the  imposed by  long-  local  to the i n t e r n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  system.  30 Lower "Metro" a r e a p o p u l a t i o n  1 9 5 6 — — 6 6 5 , 1 1 0 - 1971  1,070,000  31 Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board; P o p u l a t i o n Trends i n the M a i n l a n d 1921 - 1986: Summary Report A p r i l 1968.  62  I I BRITISH COLUMBIA'S ECONOMIC BASE B r i t i s h Columbia's economy l i k e Canada's i s based on e x t r a c t i o n , processing  and  the  export of n a t u r a l resource products. A  rich  r e s o u r c e base c o u p l e d w i t h heavy c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n i t s development has  k e p t B.C.'s s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g ahead of  B r i t i s h Columbia economy i s s u s c e p t i b l e demand i s h i g h and  troughing  to f l u c t u a t i o n s , peaking when  t h a t B.C's  economy cannot be  conceived  t o t a l l y i n terms o f r e s o u r c e p r o d u c t s however f o r a l a r g e  increasing proportion  The  of  economy of  the n a t i o n o r p r o v i n c e .  the  labour  specialized  Growth of  services.  the Lower M a i n l a n d i s markedly d i f f e r e n t from The  Lower M a i n l a n d i s h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d  f o r c e and  and  B.C.'s f a b r i c a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s  i n G r e a t e r Vancouver because o f  labour  and  f o r c e i s engaged i n p r o v i d i n g  comprises 547. o f B.C.'s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , are c l u s t e r e d  The  when f o r e i g n demand l a g s .  T a b l e XXXIV i n d i c a t e s of  the n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e .  transportation  the c o n c e n t r a t e d markets,  network.  the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s s e r v i c e s e c t o r f a r s u r p a s s e s  33 the  p r o v i n c i a l rate  under the e x t r a  impetus o f a c o n c e n t r a t e d  growing r e g i o n a l markets. Growth o f primary i n d u s t r i e s i n the i n t e r i o r also stimulates  e x p a n s i o n of  t e c h n i c a l , management  For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s See  T a b l e s XXXIV and  XXXV  by:  see Appendix B  B.C.  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v i c e s - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . The M a i n l a n d employment s t r u c t i v e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d  and  Luwer  63  - relatively  low  employment i n primary i n d u s t r y even i n  those  34 extractive  i n d u s t r i e s i n w h i c h B.C.  - a high B.C.  and  i s strong.  l e v e l of s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y employment r e l a t i v e  to both  Canada. T h i s means t h a t the Lower M a i n l a n d and Vancouver i n p a r t i c u l a r  is  the p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r e  f o r the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . Those which  p r o v i d i n g the b u l k of new for office  are  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s hence g e n e r a t i n g  demand  space.  The  f u t u r e of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s v e r y  economic c l i m a t e i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by  promising.  Its  the demand f o r the p r o v i n c e s  raw  m a t e r i a l s or s e m i - f i n i s h e d goods by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s demand i s s u b j e c t to s h o r t run dampening p e r i o d s , such as experienced,  i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t such demand w i l l  l o n g run p e r i o d . of t h i s r e s o u r c e all  r i c h p r o v i n c e . The  f o r e s t r y and  f o r the P r o v i n c e ' s  the  t o u r i s t centre w i l l  centre  two most i m p o r t a n t  providing primary  mining.  the P a c i f i c Rim  significantly. Finally  continues  i n c r e a s e over  area f u l f i l l s a s e r v i c e r o l e  I t s importance as a p o r t , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h Robert's Bank and  now  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s the major b u s i n e s s  the s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y  industries;  the one  the a r e a ' s  i n c r e a s e as  the development of  T r a d i n g C o u n t r i e s , has  increased  r o l e as a shopping, c u l t u r a l  the p o p u l a t i o n and  income of  and  the  area  to expand.  Changes i n the economic s t r u c t u r e cannot be gauged s o l e l y by employment s h i f t s because of v a r y i n g degrees of a u t o m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s . Thus p r o d u c t i v i t y of an i n d u s t r y may be i n c r e a s i n g d e s p i t e s t a b l e or d e c l i n i n g employment. The e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r y s t i l l p l a y a v e r y important r o l e i n our economy.  64 III  OFFICE FUNCTIONS AND TRENDS A p p r o x i m a t e l y 857o o f t o t a l o f f i c e  Metropolitan area i s concentrated w i t h i n Vancouver has n o t e x p e r i e n c e d  space w i t h i n  the Vancouver  the downtown p e n i n s u l a .  the same degree o f o f f i c e  function  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n as has been the case i n o t h e r major Canadian metrop o l i t a n a r e a s because o f the absence o f a p e r i m e t e r suburban expressway system.  Moreover,  the s h o r e l i n e geography which a f f e c t s downtown  Vancouver and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s l e a d i n g  to i t , a r e thought  to have c o n s i d e r a b l y augmented the c o n t i n u e d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s .  A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f Vancouver's CBD o f f i c e space i s o c c u p i e d by n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r y c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e s o f t e n i n s i n g l e purpose s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s has g i v e n rise  to growing v i g o r o u s f i n a n c i a l ,  l e g a l , and r e l a t e d b u s i n e s s  f u n c t i o n s . The f i n a n c i a l community i s anchored by the c h a r t e r e d and c e r t a i n  service banks  t r u s t companies which o p e r a t e r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r o f f i c e s  i n Vancouver.  Both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government a g e n c i e s have  tended to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the open market d u r i n g the p a s t decade. A l t h o u g h b o t h l e v e l s o f government have r e p e a t e d l y proposed the development o f new s i n g l e purpose p u b l i c s e c t o r o f f i c e  space o n l y the p r o v i n c i a l  has taken s e r i o u s s t e p s i n commissioning a r c h i t e c t s Current f i s c a l  government  to d e s i g n a b u i l d i n g .  problems a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l would appear to p r e c l u d e  65  this possibility probability  i n the near term f u t u r e . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g  t h a t s i n g l e purpose government o f f i c e  be c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the next generally  space w i l l  doubtless  t e n y e a r s a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the  less competitive o f f i c e  to be absorbed  the  space i n downtown Vancouver w i l l  by government a g e n c i e s .  continue  T h i s i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r  government space i l l u s t r a t e s Vancouver's importance as r e g i o n a l c e n t r e and  i n e f f e c t Vancouver i s e x p o r t i n g government s e r v i c e s .  The of  representation of personal s e r v i c e o f f i c e  the m e d i c a l / d e n t a l  be expected  type o c c u p y i n g  tenants  downtown Vancouver o f f i c e  to respond  i n c r e a s i n g a t t r a c t i v e suburban l o c a t i o n s i n the f a c e o f r i s i n g  The  space may  to d e c l i n e c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g the next decade. These  p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s w i l l be the f i r s t  office  particularly  to downtown  l o c a t i o n c o s t s and i n c r e a s i n g f r c t i o n i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  expanding m e d i c a l - d e n t a l f a c i l i t i e s on Broadway i n the a r e a o f the  Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l bears of suburban o f f i c e  t h i s o u t , as w e l l as the p o p u l a r i t y  locations f o r medical-dental o f f i c e buildings.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s r e a c h i n g a l e v e l o f p o p u l a t i o n and  d i v e r s i t y which b r i n g s a marked i n c r e a s e i n g e n e r a l  In Vancouver's c a s e , most o f t h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  self-sufficiency.  i s related  to a h i g h  p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e r e s u l t i n g from r a p i d m i g r a t i o n to the area.The downtown c o r e seems to generate and  internal services.  i t s own growth o u t o f r i s i n g  I t w i l l nevertheless continue  population  to be b a s i c a l l y  dependent on commercial and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the a r e a and i n many cases  remote from the a r e a .  66  Mass production (secondary  industry) of consumer durable  goods i n Vancouver i s not l i k e l y to become competitive with the vast production and marketing systems of the world, where the large markets e x i s t . Downtown Vancouver nevertheless has  the power to become a  very important and a t t r a c t i v e concentration of service functsion ( t e r t i a r y industry) f o r the P a c i f i c Northwest and the community of P a c i f i c  Rim  nations. H i s t o r i c O f f i c e Space Supply Since World War  I I almost 5 m i l l i o n square f e e t of space has 35  been constructed i n the Vancouver CBD.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that two  years, 1958 and 1969 account f o r more than 507. of the space. Two  styles of o f f i c e space supply have occurred i n Vancouver during the  past 15 years. The most recent surge of b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y since  1966  followed 5 years of r e l a t i v e l y inconsequential construction, at which time only 440,000 square f e e t of o f f i c e space entered the market. The c y c l i c a l nature of new  o f f i c e supply trends i n Vancouver i s t y p i c a l  of most North American business centres. Recognizing  the r e l a t i v e l y stable  economic conditions which have prevailed during the past 15 years, three factors are thought to be p r i m a r i l y responsible f o r such c y c l i c a l development a c t i o n .  The term " c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y " has been a p p l i e d to the c o n d i t i o n i n t y p i c a l o f f i c e usage w h e r e i n , under c o n d i t i o n s of b u s i n e s s growth w i t h o u t a v a i l a b i l i t y a l t e r n a t i v e s , expanding o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s can f r e q u e n t l y be performed i n 707. o r l e s s of the space r e q u i r e d f o r optimum e f f i c i e n c y o f o p e r a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t " c o m p r e s s i o n " a p p a r e n t l y developed i n the o l d G r a n v i l l e , H a s t i n g s f i n a n c i a l a r e a of downtown Vancouver d u r i n g 1960's.  TABLE X I EXHIBIT 22  CBD OFFICE SPACE 1950-1970  Map Code Number  1950 - 1954 Harris Building National Trust Mercantile Building Canada Permanent Rayonier I m p e r i a l Bank B u i l d i n g  Square F e e t 20,000 44,220 38,670 32,909 152,000 62,380 350,179  1955 - 1959 Hydro Bank o f Nova S c o t i a B.C. C h a r i t i e s IPEC Cominco B.C. Telephone Pender and M a i n Burrard Shell O i l Building Esso B u i l d i n g Wawanesa  289,000 28,773 48,750 72,000 75,000 160,000 43,000 200,000 108,350 83,000 11,000 1,118,873  1960 - 1964 1 2 3 4 5  6 7  8 9 10  Fidelity Life U n i t e d Kingdom 1190 M e l v i l l e MARC B u i l d i n g I.B.M. B u i l d i n g Canada T r u s t Canadian Indemnity East A s i a t i c N e s b i t t Thomson Bank o f Canada B u i l d i n g  79,000 115,000 46,700 24,000 40,500 43,500 20,624 60,900 65,500 150,000 245,724  1965 - 1970 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  1200 West Pender Philips Building Prescott Building Melville B e n t a l l Centre # 1 Baxter B u i l d i n g Royal Gen'l Insurance Montreal Trust B e n t a l l Centre # 2 Mac B i o  88,734 67,000 50,700 69,500 285,800 112,500 97,000 83,400 180,380 375,000  TABLE XI (continued Map Code Number 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28  Square Feet Avord Building I.M.P.C. Board of Trade Guinness Tower 887 Dunsmuir Westcoast Moore Building 1200 W Pender  Source: F i e l d Survey  150,000 36,201 286,000 260,000 60,000 170,000 60,000 85,739 2,517,954  FIGURE V I I  OFFICE BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IN THE PAST DECADE  70  TABLE XII VANCOUVER CBD MAJOR OFFICE DEVELOPMENTS MID-1969 TO MID-1989 Map Key , ,\ (red)  „ , „ Development Name  Possible _ - ^. Completion  Approximate \ , Rentable Area r i  n  1  _  Estimated u u• •Probability n  1.  P a c i f i c Centre B l . 52  1971- 1972  470,000  1007.  2.  P a c i f i c Centre B l . 42 I  3.  Royal Centre  1974- 1975 1975- 1976 1972- 1973  600,000 600,000 460,000  907. 907. 1007.  4.  Project 200-Canada Square  1972- 1973  350,000  957.  5.  B r i t i s h Columbia Government Block 61 1974- 1976  750,000  (3)  957. 257.  6.  Federal Government  1974- 1976  400,000  (4)  7.  Project 200 Various Proposed O f f i c e Buildings  1976- 1985  1,600,000  (5)  8.  Masonic B u i l d i n g  1972- •1973  140,000  107.  9.  B e n t a l l Centre I I I  1972- •1973  500,000  1007.  10.  G r a n v i l l e - Pender  1972- 1973  150,000  757.  11.  Burrard-Georgia  1975- 1976  225,000  507.  12.  Birks Building  1979  600,000  257.  1.  Estimated completion/occupancy i n the industry.  2.  Estimates done by researcher concerning probable v a l i d i t y of announced schedules.  3.  Block 61 project estimated a t 1 m i l l i o n sq. f t . GLA but o f f i c e capacity unknown, so the researcher has assumed 750,000 s q / f t f o r o f f i c e space.  4.  Size of Federal Government project i n d e f i n i t e , current status: postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  5.  Project 200 status and schedule -.onsidered very i n d e f i n i t e .  107.  based on talking with people  Source: compiled by researcher.  71  1. and  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l o c a t i o n s f o r p r e s t i g e o f f i c e  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e b l o c k s o f p r e s t i g e o f f i c e  and e x i s t i n g  space i n  new  buildings.  2. The wherein  buildings  success of i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g  l a r g e b l o c k s o f space a r e a v a i l a b l e  dependent upon proper promotion and  developments  to the g e n e r a l market, i s  t i m i n g than upon as w e l l as  o f f i c e demand i n a g i v e n market. E f f e c t i v e promotion d u r i n g a  apparent  period  of i n c r e a s i n g market s u p p l y can f r e q u e n t l y r e l e a s e l a t e n t demand f o r e x p a n s i o n which can be obscured by e s p e c i a l l y f o r large o f f i c e  the f a c t o r o f  "compressibility"  space u s e r s .  3. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e a l e s t a t e development t h a t t h e r e be l o n g l e a d  times between i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the i d e a and  actual  m a r k e t i n g of the space. However, even b e f o r e a d e v e l o p e r comits h i s time and money he needs some i n d i c a t i o n o f market demand w h i c h u s u a l l y o n l y comes a f t e r  there i s a shortage of  space.  C o m p e t i t i v e O f f i c e Development P r o p o s a l s T a b l e X I I summarizes the a v a i l a b l e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g developments i n the Vancouver CBD. number on the map  facing  t h a t page i l l u s t r a t e s  The  red  location  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  these p r o j e c t s . A v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the development s t a t u s o f each i s summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g 1. P a c i f i c office as  paragraphs.  Centre - T o r o n t o Dominion Bank B u i l d i n g  tower completed  The  30-storey  on the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f B l o c k 52,  i s known  the T o r o n t o Dominion Bank B u i l d i n g , and c o n t a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  470,000  square f e e t o f g r o s s l e a s a b l e a r e a (GLA).  from r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s t h a t o f f i c e  I t i s understood  space i n the T o r o n t o Dominion Bank  72  b u i l d i n g i s over 807. committed a t t h i s  2. P a c i f i c C e n t r e , B l o c k 42 development i s planned  time.  The n o r t h e r l y b l o c k o f the P a c i f i c  to i n c l u d e  two o f f i c e  Centre  towers w i t h a t o t a l g r o s s  l e a s a b l e a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.2 m i l l i o n square f e e t . A major h o t e l i s a l s o contemplated  on the m i d d l e p o r t i o n o f B l o c k 42. The f i r s t  tower on B l o c k 42 i s c a l l e d  the I.B.M. tower and i s e s t i m a t e d to be  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17 s t o r e y s c o n t a i n i n g 450,000 square f e e t . w i l l occupy a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 square f e e t . is  the B.C. Telephone  I.B.M.  The second o f f i c e  tower  b u i l d i n g and w i l l c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 750,000  square f e e t . B.C.Telephone Co. L t d w i l l  occupy  507. o f t h i s  tower. The  h o t e l i s c o n t a i n s 400 rooms and i s o p e r a t e d by Four Seasons H o t e l s L t d .  3. R o y a l C e n t r e the o f f i c e northwest The  The R o y a l Bank o f Canada w i l l be the major tenant  b u i l d i n g i n the R o y a l C e n t r e development, l o c a t e d i n the q u a d r a n t o f the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G e o r g i a and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s .  35-storey o f f i c e  tower component o f the development, which w i l l  i n c l u d e a major h o t e l ,  i s expected  f e e t GLA i n s i z e . C o m p l e t i o n  4. Canada Square for  of  also  to be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 460,000 square  i s s c h e d u l e d f o r l a t e 1972.  The f i r s t major o f f i c e  s t r u c t u r e o f many  proposed  development i n the l a r g e P r o j e c t 200 complex i s a 2 8 - s t o r e y 350,000  square f o o t GLA b u i l d i n g b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d on an e l e v a t e d deck above CPR t r a c k a g e a t the n o t h e r n  end o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , a d j a c e n t to the  Burrard I n l e t waterfront. A s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of this o f f i c e w i l l be o c c u p i e d by i t s major d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r e s t s (B.C.) L i m i t e d , The Canadian P a c i f i c  - Grosvenor  Railway and CP A i r .  space  Laing  73  5.  B r i t i s h Columbia Government - Block 61  Development plans f o r the  B r i t i s h Columbia government-owned, Block 61, located immediately  south-  west of P a c i f i c Centre's Block 52, are not yet f i n a l i z e d . I t i s generally understood  that up to 1,000,000 square feet gross b u i l d i n g area may  be  developed on Block 61. A sum of $25 m i l l i o n has been set aside by the B r i t i s h Columbia Government f o r this project, but recognizing the t o t a l c a p i t a l expenditure necessary, together with other p r o v i n c i a l expenditure p r i o r i t i e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y that construction w i l l commence before early 1973.  6. Federal Government  The Federal Department of Public Works  announced plans on August 22, 1967 government complex  for a large three-stage f e d e r a l  on government land adjacent to the Hastings/Granville  Street i n t e r s e c t i o n . These buildings were to have been integrated into P r o j e c t 200's planned Canada Square. 9  In the past two years these plans have been shelved and plans are now underway for a 1.5 m i l l i o n square foot development on the two c i t y blocks west bounded by Georgia, Beatty, Robson and  Hamilton  Streets. A recent conversation with a representative of the Federal Department of Public Works indicates that these plans are conceptual plans only and that i t w i l l be some time before this space comes on the market. For purposes of this analysis, i t i s assumed that approximately 400,000 square feet of new government o f f i c e space w i l l enter the Vancouver CBD o f f i c e market some time during the period 1974  through  1976.  74  7.  P r o j e c t 200  include space by  as much as ;985.  to date and CBD  The  b a l a n c e of  1.6  In my  the  proposed P r o j e c t 200  m i l l i o n square f e e t GLA opinion,  i t s peripheral  recognizing  1975.  8.  Masonic B u i l d i n g  has  been proposed f o r development on  A small  Seymour S t r e e t .  that  of  this  s i g n i f i c a n t commercial  140,000 square f o o t GLA  project  office  the p r o j e c t  office  building  the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r of G e o r g i a  I f i t proceeds a c c o r d i n g  s c h e d u l e , t h i s b u i l d i n g would e n t e r understood  status  office  to Canada Square i t s e l f w i l l e n t e r the market p r i o r  to  S t r e e t and  of commercial  could  l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the emerging Vancouver  c o r e a r e a , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any  space i n a d d i t i o n  the  complex  to the  announced  1973.  It is  the market d u r i n g  i s c u r r e n t l y postponed due  to  undisclosed  difficulties.  9.  B e n t a l l Centre I I I  I and  I I which are  a r e a and  The  e x c e l l e n t market a c c e p t a n c e of B e n t a l l C e n t r e  Burrard Street oriented  instrumental  has  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a new  created  interest i n this  f i n a n c i a l centre.  Bentall  Centre I I I a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500,000 square f e e t i s c u r r e n t l y under and  c o m p l e t i o n i s expected i n e a r l y  1973.  lawyer w i l l occupy a p p r o x i m a t e l y 207. o f  10.  Related Considerations  space a v a i l a b l e i n i t s new 61 by  The the  Bank of M o n t r e a l and  e x i s t i n g B.C.  as  its  space.  B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro has b u i l d i n g i n B l o c k 70.  Any  outgrown  the  development of  the B r i t i s h Columbia Government i s expected to i n c l u d e  Hydro B u i l d i n g  construction  a new  i t s major component. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e  Block B.C.  that  Hydro B u i l d i n g which i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300,000 square f e e t  the  75  GLA  i n s i z e could be offered f o r sale. Recognizing i t s southern  peripheral l o c a t i o n and government oriented i n t e r n a l space design, however, this b u i l d i n g could not be very competitive o f f i c e market.  on the commercial  The most l i k e l y buyer would be the Federal government.  11. Burrard-Georgia ( C h r i s t Church Cathedral)  This b u i l d i n g which  w i l l occupy a prime s i t e i n Downtown Vancouver i s currently the centre of controversy.  I t w i l l be approximately 225,000 square f e e t  and although plans f o r the b u i l d i n g are i n advanced stages i t i s not l i k e l y to come on the market u n t i l 1975 or 1976.  12. Birks Building Redevelopment.  Announcements pertaining to this  development indicate that i t w i l l be a 35 storey b u i l d i n g on the corner of Georgia and G r a n v i l l e Streets. For purposes of this analysis i t i s assumed that this p r o b a b i l i t y of i t coming on the market before 1980 i s less than 507..  I t i s quite probable that a d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e development proposals not y e t announced a t the time of this w r i t i n g , w i l l be f o r t h coming. Furthermore, the estimated completion date for announced as w e l l as unannounced developments w i l l most l i k e l y continue to be affected by such considerations as negotiations with possible major tenants, senior financing conditions and further s t r i k e s a f f e c t i n g the construction  industry.  76  E s t i m a t e d O f f i c e Space Supply Having accumulated  1970-1980  a l l p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on proposed  o f f i c e development p r o j e c t s the d e v e l o p e r must then a s s i g n a p r o b a b i l i t y f i g u r e on the p r o j e c t b e i n g completed. based  on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t u i t i o n h a v i n g t a l k e d  i n d u s t r y , as w e l l as b e i n g f u l l y In  The p r o b a b i l i t y c a n o n l y be to people i n the  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the development p r o c e s s .  o t h e r words the r e s e a r c h e r has to d e v e l o p a f e e l f o r the v a r i o u s  p r o j e c t s and base h i s e s t i m a t e s on h i s i n t u i t i o n .  In  t h i s case a l l the^ p r o j e c t s w i t h an e s t i m a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f  507. o r b e t t e r w i l l be assumed t o c o n s t i t u t e s u p p l y i n the next decade. The  o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s the B.C. p r o v i n c i a l government - B l o c k 61 w h i c h  has been a s s e s s e d a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 337.. a p p r o x i m a t e l y 337. o f t h i s o f f i c e on stream d u r i n g t h i s  The r e s e a r c h e r has assumed  that  space o f 330,000 square f e e t w i l l  come  decade.  As w e l l a s e s t i m a t i n g the g r o s s amount o f o f f i c e  space  on the market i n the n e x t decade i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t i o n o f the t i m i n g o f when t h i s space w i l l Any is  d e v e l o p e r w i l l want h i s b u i l d i n g  come on t o the market.  those p r o j e c t s most  t o come on stream and the t i m i n g o f such p r o j e c t s . I t appears  t h a t t o date t h e r e i s 3,185,000 square to come on stream i n the next of  t o have an  t o come on the market when t h e r e  some s l a c k i n the s u p p l y . T a b l e X I I I i n d i c a t e s  likely  coming  f e e t of o f f i c e  space  t e n y e a r s . I t a l s o appears  these p r o j e c t s a r e s c h e d u l e d  slated  t h a t the b u l k  to come on stream on the next s i x y e a r s .  77  TABLE XIII VANCOUVER C.B.D. ESTIMATED OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY 1969 - 1980 Map Key (Red)  Development Name  Possible Completion  Area  (sq/ft)  1.  P a c i f i c Centre -Block 52  1971-1972  470,000  2.  P a c i f i c Centre -Block 42 I II  1974-1975 1975-1976  600,000 600,000  3.  Royal Centre  1972-1973  460,000  4.  Project 200-Canada Square  1972-1973  350,000  5.  B r i t i s h Columbia Government Block 61  1974-1976  750,000  9.  Bentall Centre I I I  1972-1973  500,000  10.  Pender/Howe/and/or G r a n v i l l e  1972-1973  150,000  11.  Burrard/Georgia  1975-1976  225,000  TABLE XIV VANCOUVER C.B.D. OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY PER CAPITA 1969 - 1980 Space per Capita 8.9  Year 1970  Population 1,024,200  O f f i c e Space 9,120,000  1971  1,070,000  9,950,000  9.0  1972  1,098,000  10,315,000  9.4  1973  1,126,000  10,775,000  9.5  1974  1,154,000  10,775,000  9.3  1975  1,182,000  11,805,000  10.2  1976  1,209,000  12,950,000  10.7  1980  1,346,000  12,253,000  9.4  Source:  Compiled by researcher through f i e l d survey  78  TABLE XV VANCOUVER CBD OFFICE SUPPLY TRENDS  POST WAR  Time Period  T o t a l CBD O f f i c e Space sq/ft  PERIOD  New O f f i c e Space sq/ft  Cumulative New Space sq/ft  Percent Vacant  1951 - 1952  4,579,118  216,220  216,220  1953 - 1954  4,795,338  288,958  505,179  1955 - 1956  5,084,297  400,130  905,309  1957 - 1958  5,484,427  968,877  1,874,182  5.1%  1959 - 1960  6,453,300  200,000  2,074,182  2.47.  1961 - 1962  6,653,300  46,700  2,120,882  7.87.  1963 - 1964  6,700,000  405,024  2,525,906  0.27.  1965 - 1966  6,972,934  272,934  2,798,840  0.27.  1967 - 1968  7,551,634  578,700  3,377,540  0.57.  1969  9,125,124  1,573,580  4,951,120  2.07. 1.0%  Source: Compiled by Researcher  IV  VANCOUVER CBD OFFICE MARKET DEMAND ANALYSIS This section analyzes both the quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e  aspects of o f f i c e space demand.  I n i t i a l l y the chapter compares past  o f f i c e space supply and population growth and uses this information to e s t a b l i s h trends of future o f f i c e space demand.  Once the o v e r a l l  demand picture has been established the remainder of the chapter w i l l q u a l i f y the demand i n order to determine  future o f f i c e space users.  Future O f f i c e Space Demand Growth i n market demand f o r new o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s i n downtown Vancouver w i l l occur primarily as a function of expanding business community a c t i v i t i e s .  The health of the downtown business  community i s , of course, d i r e c t l y related to the size and rate of growth of the o v e r a l l metropolitan area.  Downtown o f f i c e  u t i l i z a t i o n may be expressed as the r a t i o of o f f i c e space  space (square  foot GLA) per capita.  At the present time, the Vancouver CBD contains 9 square f e e t of o f f i c e space per capita i n the Vancouver CMA.  The corres-  ponding s t a t i s t i c for metropolitan Toronto i s 12.1 square feet of o f f i c e space per c a p i t a , 777. of which i s downtown space.  Metropolitan Montreal  has 12.5 square feet of o f f i c e space per c a p i t a , 847. of which i s concentrated i n the downtown area. The analysis of Vancouver's CBD supply and demand trends during the period to 1980 i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure VII.  Statistics  corresponding to the graph information are given on Tables XV, XVI  and XVII.  The following paragraphs present a point-by-point  discussion of the a n a l y s i s .  1.  In the absence of adverse e x t e r n a l i t i e s , demand  eventually approximates supply i n the long run but i n the short term there are often wide descrepancies between demand and supply i n the o f f i c e market.  The accompanying  tables and graphs imply that  Vancouver i s no exception to the r u l e .  In the period 1956 - 1957  over 1 m i l l i o n square f e e t of space was placed on the market while a t the same time the vacancy rate of e x i s t i n g buildings increased from 0.657. to 2.67. i n 1957 and 5.17. i n 1958.  2.  Vacancy rates are good indicators of market conditions.  Table 2 indicates that the vacancy rates have varied s u b s t a n t i a l l y over the l a s t 16 years.  Higher vacancy rates i n 1961 and  1962  r e s u l t from new o f f i c e space on the market and the time period required to absorb this a d d i t i o n a l space.  The vacancy rate has  only r i s e n above the acceptable rate i n 1960 - 1961.36  3.  Demand cannot t r u l y manifest i t s e l f or be accurately  measured unless there i s o f f i c e space on the market.  The s o l i d  l i n e on the graph i s considered to be an estimate of market demand. The coordinates or shape and location of this demand curve have been established i n the following manner:  (a)  By taking the time periods  i n which there has been new o f f i c e space on the market, and where the vacancy rates are below or a t the accepted minimum l e v e l previously discussed.  A vacancy rate of 37. - 57. i s considered acceptable or normal f o r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g ivestments - i . e . most developer's or investors assume a vacancy rate of 37. - 57. i n their analysis of properties.  81 The both  two time p e r i o d s a r e 1951 - 1952 and 1969 - 1970. D u r i n g  these time p e r i o d s new o f f i c e  vacancy  r a t e i s below 1%.  space has been i n t r o d u c e d w h i l e the  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the market has m a n i f e s t e d  i t s e l f when s u p p l y has been a v a i l a b l e i n these two p e r i o d s . A l i n e has been drawn through  these two p o i n t s and extended  straight  to show demand  in  the n e x t decade. Demand i n c r e a s e s from 7.8 square  f e e t per c a p i t a  in  1951 - 1952 t o 8.9 square f e e t per c a p i t a i n 1969 - 1970;  to a 9.6  37 square f e e t p e r c a p i t a i n 1980. as the minimum c u r v e because r a t e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17..  T h i s c o u l d p r o b a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d  b o t h dates r e p r e s e n t v e r y low vacancy Thus as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  l a t e n t demand t h a t has n o t e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f because Also  t h e r e may be  there i s no s u p p l y .  the h i g h demand c u r v e r a t i o r e f l e c t s what some c a l l the  "accordian e f f e c t . "  T h i s u s u a l l y e v o l v e s over l o n g p e r i o d s o f time  and r e s u l t s from the e x p a n s i o n o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a f i x e d s u p p l y o f o f f i c e accommodation. The " a c c o r d i a n c e a f f e c t " i s e x t r e m e l y difficult  t o measure o r p r e d i c t , however i t has m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n  38 Vancouver CBD.  37 A d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the L e a s i n g R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f P a c i f i c C e n t r e c o n f i r m s t h a t the market a b s o r p t i o n r a t e i n the CBD i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 450,000 square f e e t per y e a r which i n d i c a t e s a per c a p i t a demand o f a t l e a s t 10 square f e e t / c a p i t a .  38  W. J. Rooeny; " E f f e c t o f the Proposed Redevelopment o f B l o c k 42 and 52 Upon the Vancouver C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t " . U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y (Vancouver 1969) p. 39.  82  4. The high range "demand r a t i o " curve shown on the graph as a broken l i n e r i s e s a t an increasing rate during the period to 1976. This r i s i n g projected demand trend i s a function of changing employment requirements i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y "white c o l l a r " society. Greater s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n o f f i c e oriented service functions w i l l mean expanding business communities i n major metropolitan centres. Thus, the Vancouver CBD business community i s expected to grow a t a f a s t e r rate than the metropolitan base.  Demand f o r new o f f i c e space w i l l  accordingly, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the red demand r a t i o  _ncrease  curve.  5. By 1976, due to r i s i n g o f f i c e costs r e l a t e d to the i n t e n s i t y of space u t i l i z a t i o n i n the Vancouver CBD, c e r t a i n o f f i c e functions w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y favour suburban locations. Downtown o f f i c e buildings w i l l be populated  by tenants who require and can a f f o r d the cost of  d i r e c t exposure to the downtown business community. The long-term trend toward p a r t i a l suburbanization  i s r e f l e c t e d on the graph by the  d e c l i n i n g rate of demand curve increase a f t e r 1976. 6.  Due to the i n f l u x of more than 600,000 square f e e t of new  o f f i c e space during 1959, the Vancouver CBD o f f i c e market was s l i g h t l y oversupplied during 1960 and 1961.  Thus, the black supply r a t i o l i n e  exceeds the red demand r a t i o l i n e on the graph during this period.  7. The subsequent period 1962 through 1966 saw very  little  o f f i c e construction and steady population growth, the r e s u l t being the wide d i s p a r i t y between demand and supply shown on the graph by 1966.  83  8.  The c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n of o f f i c e market s u p p l y r e f e r r e d  p r e v i o u s l y i n the study, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1966 i n the s u p p l y r a t i o  to 1969.  l i n e shown on  the r e s u r g e n c e  The  the graph  to  of c o n s t r u c t i o n  pronounced upward t r e n d i s r e f l e c t e d i n the r e c e n t  c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y summarized p r e v i o u s l y .  9.  During  the p e r i o d 1969  t r e n d i s p a r a l l e l , but has t r e n d as shown on  through mid  1971,  the s u p p l y  ratio  not approached, the r i s i n g demand r a t i o  the graph.  The  s u p p l y t r e n d d u r i n g the y e a r 1970  p r i n c i p a l component r e f l e c t e d and  1971  i s , of c o u r s e ,  the  i n this Toronto  Dominion Bank B u i l d i n g i n P a c i f i c C e n t r e which i s a l r e a d y a f f e c t i n g l e a s i n g market i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of i t s 1972  - 1973  the  market e n t r y .  Type o f Demand Having  determined  general indices, t h i s new in  office  the o v e r a l l demand f o r o f f i c e  space. T a b l e XXVI compares the b u i l d i n g use and  and  9537.  1969,  In those y e a r s  i n terms o f o f f i c e space  the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , U t i l i t i e s  These s e r v i c e p r o d u c i n g It 507.  w i t h a view to i l l u s t r a t i n g  w h i l e T a b l e XXXII i n d i c a t e s  B r i t i s h Columbia. by  i s estimated  while  investories  trends i n o f f i c e  grown  occupied,  297.,  the F i n a n c e I n d u s t r y by  and Communication I n d u s t r i e s by  1965-1969  127..  t h e i r growth r a t e . employment i n c r e a s e d by  r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y , 377.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and u t i l i t y  grow by 407.,  of  the B u s i n e s s S e r v i c e i n d u s t r y has  t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d  i t i s expected  of  t r e n d s i n the l a b o u r f o r c e i n  i n d u s t r i e s w i l l continue  i n the i n s u r a n c e f i n a n c e , and  1966-1975  the use  the n e x t s t e p i s to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l u s e r s  the y e a r s 1964  space u s e ;  space by  i n d u s t r y . During  i n the the p e r i o d  t h a t the " s e r v i c e p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s " w i l l  the "goods p r o d u c i n g  i n d u s t r i e s : w i l l grow by  267.  84  1 1 . 0  11.5 . ^ ^ i l -  Maximum Demand Curve.... Minimum Demand Curve . Supply Curve  2  li.l  Legend:  .  11.0 . 10.9 . 10.8 10.7  7.4J 195I552 53 54555*657 585*960 616*2 6364 65666V ^86'9707f 72" 7"3 *7475767'7 78 79 '80  TABLE XVI VANCOUVER C.B.D. OFFICE SPACE DEMAND ANALYSIS TO 1980  1961  1966  1969  1974  1976  790,259  892,384  991,400  1,070,000  1,145,000  1,209,000  8.2  7.8  8.9  9.0  9.1  6,653,300 sq/ft  6,972,934 sq/ft  9,125,124 sq/ft  9,590,000 sq/ft  10,550,000 sq/ft  12,950,000 sq/ft  8.0  8.0  8.9  9.2  9.3  9.5  6,320,000 sq/ft  7,138,400 sq/ft  9,125,124 sq/ft  9,844,000 sq/ft  10,232,200 sq/ft  11,485,500 sq/ft  Vancouver, C.M.A. Population  Office Space per Capita Supply Ratio  Office Space Supply  1971  10.7  1981 1,346,000  9.6  12,950,000 sq/ft  O f f i c e Space per C a p i t a l Demand Ratio  10  Otrice Space Demand 13,460,000 sq/ft  Notes: (1) The Office space per capita demand r a t i o i s based upon the maximum demand curve r a t i o which has an upward slope to r e f l e c t the changing nature of Vancouver and the f a c t that the c i t y i s becoming regional centre. Comparing o f f i c e space supply and o f f i c e space demand estimates and there i s a short f a l l i n o f f i c e space supply of 1,545,000 by 1981. (This does not include the development proposed i n this paper)  TABLE XVII VANCOUVER CBD POST WAR - OFFICE SUPPLY TRENDS  Time Period  1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963  -  Total Office Space*  Total Per Population Capita  New Office Space*  Increase of Population  Per Capita  Cumulative New Space*  Cumulative Per Population Capita  1952  4,579,118  582,648  7.8  216,220  41,200  5.3  216,220  412,000  5.3  1954  4,795,338  623,848  7.7  288,954  41,200  7.0  505,129  82,400  6.1  1956  5,084,247  665,048  7.6  400,130  41,200  9.8  905,309  123,600  7.3  1958  5,484,427  715,048  7.7  968,873  50,000  19.4  1,874,182  173,600  10.8  1960  6,453,300  675,048  8.4  200,000  50,000  4.0  2,074,182  223,600  9.3  1962  6,653,300  810,000  8.2  46,700  45,000  1.0  2,120,882  168,600  7.9  6,700,000  850,000  7.9  405,024  40,000  10.1  2,525,906  308,600  8.2  - 1964  1965  -  1966  6,972,934  890,000  7.8  272,934  64,000  4.3  2,798,840  7.5  1967  -  372,600  1968  7,551,634  960,000  7.9  578,700  64,000  9.0  3,377,540  436,600  2.7  9,125,124  1,030,000  8.9  1,573,550  64,000  24.6  4,951,120  500,600  9.9  1969  1960 - 1970  Population Increase 255,000 Space/capital 12.4 square foot Space Increase 3,156,300 square feet  1951 - 1959  Population Increase 198,600 Space Increase 1,389,709 Space/capital 7 square feet  Source:  F i e l d Survey by Researcher  oo  87 The r a t i o of employment i n the "service producing i n d u s t r i e s " to the "goods producing i n d u s t r i e s " has increase from 1.24 i n 1951 to 1.70 and 1.75 i n 1961 and 1966 respectively. to 1.95 i n 1975.  I t i s projected to increase  For purposes of this analysis i t means that the  "service producing i n d u s t r i e s " w i l l require more o f f i c e space than the 40 Goods producing i n the next decade. A study of tenancy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nine new o f f i c e buildings indicate that the construction  of deluxe o f f i c e space within  the core  41 area has a " c i t y b u i l d i n g " e f f e c t .  I t was found that 507. of the  sample tenants had no previous Vancouver address. V MARKET CONCLUSIONS Assuming that the minimum demand curve i s used as a basis f o r determining future demand, i . e . the s t r a i g h t l i n e extended from the 1951 per capita figure to the 1969 per capita f i g u r e , demand i n 1980 w i l l be 9.6 square f e e t of o f f i c e space per capita. Applying t h i s demand figure to population estimates gives a projected demand figure of 13,500,000 square f e e t of o f f i c e space, approximately 600,000 square f e e t more than the estimated supply of 12,900,000 square f e e t of o f f i c e space.  Note f o r breakdown of forecasts of employment i n s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s . See Tables XXXVIII, and XLI 40 W. J . Rooney, " E f f e c t of the Proposed Redevelopment of Blocks 42 and 52 upon Vancouver's Central Business D i s t r i c t ; " (unpublished Graduating Essay, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 1969), p. 39.  88  Table XVII compares the supply of o f f i c e space over the l a s t two decades 1950-1959 and increase 12.5  1960-1969.  i n o f f i c e supply amounted to 7.4  In the f i r s t decade the square feet per capita  and  square feet per capita i n the 1960-1969 period. Applying the  square feet per capita figure to population  increases  1970-1980 the a d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e space required  i n the  12.5  period  i s 4,100,000 square  f e e t . This i s approximately 900,000 square feet more than the supply. Both methods of projecting demand indicate that the supply of o f f i c e space i n the next ten years w i l l f a l l short of projected demand by a t l e a s t 600,000 square feet of o f f i c e space. Figure VII  indicates  that the proper timing f o r o f f i c e space would be i n the l a t t e r part of the decade, as up to 1978  supply w i l l meet the demand. Demand i s expected  to come primarily from "service producing i n d u s t r i e s " such as  finance,  insurance and r e a l estate, transportation and public u t i l i t i e s .  The  "goods producing i n d u s t r i e s " such as logging and construction w i l l continue to grow and require o f f i c e space. However, projections c a l l f o r employment 'of two  people i n the "service producing i n d u s t r i e s " f o r every one  i n the  "goods producing" i n d u s t r i e s . Thus the service producing industries w i l l be experiencing  the highest rate of growth hence generating the  greatest  demand.  The remainder of the chapter describes envisaged for the s i t e and outlines the  costs.  the type of development  89  VI  PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT  Site  Components The s i t e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  bounded  i s the e n t i r e c i t y  block  by Robson-Granville-Smithe-Howe S t r e e t s . There a r e a t t h i s  time s e v e r a l v e r y  l a r g e development p r o j e c t s e i t h e r proposed o r i n  the e a r l y s t a g e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . Two o f the l a r g e s t o f these a r e l o c a t e d on whole c i t y b l o c k s  d i r e c t l y adjacent  t o B l o c k 62. These two,  the P a c i f i c C e n t r e and the P r o v i n c i a l Government s i t e s have  been  described  o f the  i n previous  s e c t i o n s o f t h i s study. The immediacy  development p o t e n t i a l o f B l o c k 62 a r i s e s l a r g e l y because o f these two major developments which have e s t i m a t e d o f $100,000,000. of  I t i s generally recognized  t h i s n a t u r e w i l l complement each o t h e r  to c o s t w e l l i n excess that large  providing  developments  the economy i s  healthy.  H i s t o r i c a l l y most o f the b u s i n e s s community f u n c t i o n s have concentrated  i n the v i c i n i t y o f the G r a n v i l l e / H a s t i n g s  However, d u r i n g  been  Street intersection.  the n e x t 3-5 y e a r s i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n  o f G e o r g i a S t r e e t and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t w i l l become much more the f o c a l p o i n t a l o n g w i t h the B u r r a r d  S t r e e t and G e o r g i a S t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n .  The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c a u s i n g  t h i s s h i f t w i l l be the P a c i f i c  p r o j e c t and the Royal C e n t r e . The former i s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t the s u b j e c t  site.  Centre  to B l o c k 62  90 S i t e Access.  The Vancouver CBD i s l o c a t e d on a p e n i n s u l a a r e a .  T h i s f a c t o f geography t o g e t h e r w i t h a l m o s t vehicular  t o t a l r e l i a n c e on p r i v a t e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r d a i l y commuting purposes  i s reflected i n  the i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n probelms on the f i v e  routes  l e a d i n g i n t o downtown Vancouver.  C o n s i d e r a b l e study has been g i v e n to  v a r i o u s means o f improving  to the CBD.  access  The a n t i c i p a t e d major  s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e s the u p d a t i n g o f the G e o r g i a V i a d u c t Route which i s expected  t o connect  f u r t h e r e a s t w i t h the 401 Trans-Canada Highway t o  the F r a s e r V a l l e y and o t h e r p o i n t s e a s t . proposed  More s i g n i f i c a n t i s the  new f i r s t narrows c r o s s i n g and the proposed  rapid transportation  scheme.  F o r purposes say  o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o  t h a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t a major 2-way road s i t u a t e d on the e a s t e r n  boundary o f the s i t e  t o g e t h e r w i t h Howe S t r e e t s i t u a t e d on the w e s t e r n  boundary o f the s i t e f u n c t i o n as the major n o r t h - s o u t h a r t e r i e s f o r the CBD.  The s u b j e c t s i t e has 475' f r o n t a g e on these  With r e s p e c t to e a s t - w e s t  two major  streets.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ^ the s i t e has 260' f r o n t a g e on  Robson S t r e e t , (one way west) w i t h a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n f o r Cambie S t r e e t b r i d g e and easy a c c e s s from G e o r g i a S t r e e t .  The s o u t h e r n boundary o f  the s i t e has 260' f r o n t a g e on Smithe S t r e e t (one way e a s t ) w i t h good a c c e s s from B u r r a r d S t r e e t .  S i t e Dimensions. The s i t e i s r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape and has the f o l l o w i n g dimensions  (including land):  (a)  North Boundary - a l o n g Robson S t r e e t - 260 f e e t .  (b)  E a s t Boundary - a l o n g G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t - 475 f e e t .  The  (c)  South Boundary  (d)  West Boundary  - a l o n g Smithe S t r e e t - 260 - a l o n g Howe S t r e e t - 475  t o t a l s i t e area, i n c l u d i n g  Summary: development beacuse connecting  feet.  lane i s 123,500 square f e e t .  S i t e Components.  The s i t e  (a) i t i s l o c a t e d on major  the CBD w i t h  feet.  lends i t s e l f traffic  to  arteries  the lower m a i n l a n d .  (b) the s i t e  located adjacent  and the proposed P r o v i n c i a l Government s i t e ,  to P a c i f i c  i s an a r e a o f  Centre  new  development. ( c ) the s i t e has the advantage o f p l a t t a g e i n t h a t it  VII  offers a particularly  l a r g e a r e a f o r development.  PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS The development c o n c e p t  f o r B l o c k 62 r e q u i r e s the d e m o l i t i o n  o f the e x i s t i n g s t a n d i n g s t o c k on the s i t e .  Usages e n v i s a g e d  f o r the  s i t e a r e d i c t a t e d by the market and a l s o by the c u r r e n t owner's w i s h e s . As i n most c a s e s owners' wishes a r e m a n i f e s t assembly agreement, and  i n the terms o f the l a n d  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i s no e x c e p t i o n .  type o f ownership i n v o l v e d would most l i k e l y be some type o f ownership o r s y n d i c a t i o n , o f the major l a n d h o l d e r s . owners i n v o l v e d a r e owner u s e r s ,  joint  Most o f the Major  they a r e ; Bank o f Commerce, the  Grosvenor H o t e l , and Odeon T h e a t r e ' s want t h e i r p r e s e n t b u s i n e s s e s  The  (B.C.) L t d .  These owner's w i l l  to be accommodated i n the new  development.  92  C i t y Zoning are f l e x i b l e . envelope. for  r e g u l a t i o n s as they would a p p l y  There i s no h e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n and no r e q u i r e d b u i l d i n g  Parking i s not r e q u i r e d although  truck services are required.  neighbouring  P a c i f i c Centre  basement s p a c e ) .  off-street  loading areas  Maximum development p e r m i t t e d on the  s i t e i s 12 x p r o p e r t y a r e a ( e x c l u d i n g  B l o c k 62 measures 260' x 475 = 123,500 square  ( i n c l u d i n g s e r v i c e l a n d ) and 12 x = 1,482,000 square area.  to the p r o p e r t i e s  Development p r o p o s a l s w i l l  f e e t of b u i l d i n g  be s u b j e c t to C i v i c d i s c r e t i o n a r y -'  a p p r o v a l which i n e f f e c t means a demand f o r h i g h s t a n d a r d s i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and openess a t and above ground  The  feet  o v e r a l l development i s sketched  of arch-  level.  on F i g u r e V I I I and  d e s c r i b e d below.  Retail generate  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new department s t o r e w i l l  s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c  G r a n v i l l e and G r a n v i l l e / R o b s o n environment. fully square  developed  P a c i f i c C e n tre the r e t a i l  The P a c i f i c C e n t r e when  on i t s 2 - b l o c k 6 a c r e s i t e w i l l  f e e t of a n c i l l a r y small r e t a i l  shops.  p r o v i d e some 200,000  The l e a s i n g manager f o r  r e p o r t s t h a t demand i s r u n n i n g v e r y h i g h and t h a t a l l  space has been committed.  B l o c k 62 c u r r e n t l y c o n t a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y of  retail  indicate The  space.  53,000 square  feet  None o f the ground f l o o r space i s v a c a n t which would  there i s a strong r e t a i l  demand a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  completed scheme would c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y  retail  i n Georgia/  space ( i n c l u d i n g  t h e a t r e s ) on two l e v e l s .  location.  130,000 square  feet of  This represents a net  93  i n c r e a s e o f 80,000 square  feet.  On the b a s i s o f the a c c e p t a n c e  i n P a c i f i c C e n t r e t h e r e should be no problem 80,000 square f e e t o f r e t a i l  i n l e a s i n g an a d d i t i o n a l  space, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s an i n t e g r a l  p a r t o f development c o n t a i n i n g a major h o t e l and o f f i c e  Entertainment  o f space  space.  B e f o r e the " T h e a t r e Row" experiment  was s t a r t e d  a l m o s t a l l o f the 7 t h e a t r e s i n the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t a r e a had been r e n o v a t e d and r e d e c o r a t e d .  T h i s was i n f a c t one r e a s o n behind the  s e l e c t i o n o f the a r e a f o r the improvement program. Theatres  I n B l o c k 62 Odeon  (B.C.) L t d . o p e r a t e s two t h e a t r e s o c c u p y i n g 6000 square f e e t o f  s i t e a r e a each and each s e a t i n g 725 p e o p l e .  F u r t h e r r e n o v a t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the e x i s t i n g  facilities  a r e n o t economic and they a r e f a c e d w i t h the need f o r p l a n s f o r e x p a n s i o n and improvement. common lobby f a c i l i t i e s to  Complexes o f 3 or perhaps  a r e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e a t r e s do n o t need  occupy f r o n t a g e on prime r e t a i l  F o r purposes  4 theatres sharing  streets.  o f t h i s study i t i s f e l t  s h a r i n g one common lobby i s s u i t a b l e .  t h a t three t h e a t r e s  The a r e a r e q u i r e d would be  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30,000 square f e e t and the complex would be l o c a t e d on the second  l e v e l o f the development.  Hotel  The h o t e l Grosvenor  was b u i l t  i n 1913.  r e n o v a t i o n and r e d e c o r a t i o n has k e p t the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t the o l d b u i l d i n g s h e l l w i l l popular t o u r i s t h o t e l s .  Constant  i n the b e s t c o n d i t i o n  p e r m i t and i t remains  one of Vancouver's  There a r e 140 rooms and l i m i t e d c o n v e n t i o n and  94 banquet the  space.  The owners o f the H o t e l Grosvenor a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a l a r g e f i r s t c l a s s h o t e l on p a r t o f B l o c k 62.  do n o t however wish to c a r r y o u t the f u l l development  program  They  that i s  warranted.  The owners s u g g e s t a s i z e o f 600 h o t e l rooms, a n e t i n c r e a s e of  460 rooms and c o n v e n t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  room s e a t i n g 450  f o r 1,000  P r e s e n t l y t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000  square f e e t o f o f f i c e space i n B l o c k 62.  The market  in  t h i s paper i n d i c a t e s t h a t over the next decade  in  o f f i c e space o f a t l e a s t 600,000 square  The c o n c e p t c a l l s f o r two o f f i c e ensure m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f space.  office  beverage  people.  Office Structures  to  p e o p l e , and a  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600,000 square  t h e r e w i l l be a s h o r t a g e  feet.  towers  The f i r s t  s t r u c t u r e above the two r e t a i l  a n a l y s i s done e a r l i e r  to be b u i l t i n s t a g e s  phase would be a 40  l e v e l s , and i t would  storey  contain  feet.  The second phase w i l l be a s m a l l e r tower, 28 s t o r i e s h i g h , c o m p r i s i n g 384,000 square f e e t . after  the f i r s t  This  tower would  come on the market  phase and o n l y when demand f o r the space i s e v i d e n t .  Parking  A t p r e s e n t t h i s p a r t o f Downtown i s b e t t e r s e r v e d  w i t h p a r k i n g spaces than any o t h e r p a r t . surface w i l l disappear.  However much o f the e x i s t i n g  95  The  p a r k i n g demand g e n e r a t e d  ment s t o r e o f P a c i f i c created.  i n the o f f i c e s ,  shops, and d e p a r t -  Centre i s w e l l i n excess o f the 1700 spaces  to be  Development o f B l o c k 62 w i l l add f u r t h e r demand as w i l l the  P r o v i n c i a l Government p r o p o s a l s f o r B l o c k 61.  The essential.  p r o v i s i o n f o r a s u b t a n t i a l parking f a c i l i t y  i n B l o c k 62 i s  The h o t e l and t h e a t r e f u n c t i o n s w i l l tend to b a l a n c e  the 24  hour use p a t t e r n . . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t the development w i l l r e q u i r e a t l e a s t 2,000 p a r k i n g spaces.  Development Model of  two h i g h r i s e o f f i c e  The proposed  plan envisages  towers and one h i g h r i s e h o t e l s t r u c t u r e above  a two l e v e l shopping m a l l and e n t e r t a i n m e n t complex. this analysis  the development  the l a r g e r h i g h r i s e o f f i c e  F o r purposes o f  tower i s l o c a t e d on the Northwest  c o r n e r o f B l o c k 62, the h i g h r i s e h o t e l i s l o c a t e d on the Southwest c o r n e r of B l o c k 62, the shopping m a l l and e n t e r t a i n m e n t complex a r e to be developed  concurrently.  high r i s e o f f i c e  P r o v i s i o n has been made to d e v e l o p  the t h i r d  tower i n the c e n t r e o f the b l o c k and f r o n t i n g on Howe  S t r e e t when the market p e r m i t s .  A l l c o s t s , r e n t a l s and expenses a r e based P r o f e s s i o n a l f e e s a r e based  on p r e s e n t day f i g u r e s .  on 67. o f the t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t .  I t has  been assumed t h a t the d e v e l o p e r w i l l handle h i s own l e a s i n g program and t h a t 507. o f the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s w i l l be l e a s e d by the d e v e l o p e r w i t h the remainder  b e i n g l e a s e d through r e a l e s t a t e agents  usual r e a l estate  tariffs.  and s u b j e c t to the  96  For purposes of this analysis i t i s assumed that the h o t e l w i l l be owner operated; however the developer could w e l l lease the structure to a national or i n t e r n a t i o n a l h o t e l chain.  Rentals received usually take  the form of a guaranteed annual r e n t a l on a per room basis plus a percentage of the gross income above a predetermined l e v e l , as w e l l as a percentage of the gross income from food and beverage sales. (a)  Northwest Corner Development - The s i t e has a frontage of 260'  along Robson Street and 208' along Howe Street and G r a n v i l l e Street giving an area of 54,080 square f e e t .  The development consists of a  two storey mall and r e t a i l l e v e l of 108,160 square f e e t and a 40 storey o f f i c e b u i l d i n g containing 540,000 square f e e t of gross leaseable area. I t i s assumed that 857. of the r e t a i l area i s rentable with the other 157. dedicated  to c i r c u l a t i o n areas.  The o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i s assumed to  be 917. e f f i c i e n t , i . e . the f u l l f l o o r rentable areas as defined b y BOMA i s 917. x 540,000 = 491,400 square f e e t .  The extent of under-  ground parking i s based pro rata on the land area associated with  this  phase of the development to the o v e r a l l land areas of the block. (b)  Southwest Corner - The s i t e has a frontage of 260' along Smithe  Street and 113' along Howe Street and G r a n v i l l e Street giving an area of 29,830 square f e e t . and convention  The development consists of a two storey r e t a i l mall,  l e v e l of 58,760 square f e e t and a 30 storey 600 room h o t e l  and banquet space, beverage room, dining room of 40,000 square f e e t . I t i s assumed that 857. of the r e t a i l area i s rentable, the remaining 157, i s dedicated  to c i r c u l a t i o n .  Underground parking i s based pro rata  on the land area associated with this pahse of the development to the o v e r a l l land area of the block.  I t i s anticipated that this phase of  development w i l l take 18 months to complete and that construction w i l l  97 commence 6 months a f t e r (c)  the Northwest Corner (Phase I ) .  Stage I I I , M i d - B l o c k Development  on Howe S t r e e t and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . of  - The s i t e has a f r o n t a g e o f 154' The n o r t h and s o u t h b o u n d a r i e s  the s i t e a r e Stage I and Stage I I r e s p e c t i v e l y .  40,040 square f e e t .  The development  The s i t e a r e a i s  c o n s i s t s o f a two s t o r e y m a l l  and r e t a i l b u i l d i n g over which i s b u i l t a 29 s t o r e y 400,000 square f e e t office building. is net  I t i s assumed t h a t  857o o f the m a l l and r e t a i l l e v e l  r e n t a b l e and the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i s 917. e f f i c i e n t .  The f u l l  floor  r e n t a b l e a r e a a s d e i n e d by BOMA. i s 917, x 400,000 square f e e t -  364,000 square f e e t .  The pro r a t a apportionment f o r p a r k i n g i s  640  stalls.  For the of the at the  purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s s t a g e o f  development w i l l commence 12 months a f t e r the s t a r t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n the f i r s t market this  phase and w i l l  take 21 months to complete.  situation foroffice  space does n o t w a r r a n t a n o t h e r b u i l d i n g  time c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the o f f i c e  market  situation  Naturally i f  tower w i l l be postponed  until  improves.  The remainder o f the chaper c o n t a i n s development and revenue and expense  cost,  profitability  s c h e d u l e s f o r the v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f development.  98  PACIFIC CENTRE Stage I  Robson  Street  260' Phase I S i t e A r e a - 260* x 208' = 54,080 s q / f t  Howe S tree t 208' Provinc  Gross B u i l d i n g A r e a - 12 x S i t e over 12 x 54,080 = 648,960 square f e e t Office  Granville  Building  cial  40 s t o r e y s - 540,000 square  Government  Retail & Mall  Site  2 levels  - 108,60 square  feet  feet  P a r k i n g - 850 c a r s Phase I I S i t e A r e a - 113' x 260' = 29,380 s q / f t  113'  Gross B u i l d i n g A r e a - 12 x 29,380 = 352,560 square f e e t P a r k i n g - 560 s t a l l s H o t e l - 600 rooms R e t a i l and M a l l - 58,760 square f e e t Phase I I I S i t e A r e a - 154' x 260' = 40,040  154'  Gross B u i l d i n g A r e a - 12 x 40,040 = 480,480 square f e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g A r e a - 400,000 s q / f t R e t a i l and M a l l - 80,080 square f e e t P a r k i n g - 640  stalls  Smithe W  Street  FIGURE IX S i t e P l a n : Proposed  Development  Street  STAGE I WO  LEVEL RETAIL-MALL  DEVELOPMENT COST SCHEDULE  Land - 208  1  x 260' - 54,080 sq. f t .  $ 3,785,600  Construction Costs ,_ (a) Parking - 850 s t a l l s @ $4,500/stall $3,825,000 (b) R e t a i l & Mall - 108,160 s q / f t @ $20  $2,163,200  (c) O f f i c e Building - 540,000 s q / f t @ $24  12,960,000  Professional Fees - 6% of $18.95 m i l l i o n  $18,948,200 $ 1,020,000  Interim Financing Land - 3,785,000 x 24 mo. x 12% = 757,120 12 mo. Bldg - 18,948,200 x 24.mo. x 127. - 2,273,784 2 12 mo.  $ 3,030,904  43 Land Tax 9 Over 2 years)  100,000  44 Building Tax (over 2 years)  520,000  Mortgage Placement Fee - 17. of mortgage  255,000  Legal & Promotion - 17. of construction  190,000  45 Leasing Fees -  275,000  Tenant's Allowances - $1.50/sq. f t . net r e n t a b l e ^ Developers Overhead & P r o f i t - 107. T o t a l Development Cost Mortgage Equity  6  737,100 2,883,180 $31,714,984 25,500,000 $ 6,214,984  41  100 STAGE I  Notes: 41.  Land f o r P a c i f i c Center Stage II has been assembled a t $70/sq„ f t .  42.  Construction Costs - these costs are those of the Toronto Dominion Tower  43.  Land Tax - comparable properties pay taxes equal to $1.20/sq„ft. land area/annum.  44.  Estimated operating taxes at 80' s q / f t net rentable Building taxes during construction have been calculated as follows 648,160 sq. f t . net rentable x 804/sq f t x % x 2 yrs - $520,000.  45.  Leasing Fees - the usual r e a l estate t a r i f f i s 57. of 1st year r e n t a l and 27. f o r every year thereafter. For purposes of this analysis i t i s assumed that 507. of the o f f i c e tower w i l l be leased by r e a l estate agents. The average lease term i s 5 years therefore the leasing fees w i l l be 137. of that part of the tower rented.  46.  Developers i n today's market have been giving tenants an allowance for p a r t i c i p a t i o n s up to $1.50/sq. f t . of rentable area. P a c i f i c Center allows $1.50 s q / f t . f o r tenant's allowances.  101  STAGE I REVENUE AND EXPENSE PRO FORMA  Gross Revenue 47 R e t a i l - 86,500 sq. f t . @ $12/sq. f t .  $1,038,000  48 O f f i c e 491,400 sq. f t . @ $7.50/sq. f t .  3,685,550  Parking - 850 s t a l l s @ $35/month  357,000  2  P r o j e c t e d Gross Income  $5,080,550  49 Vacancy @ 57.  254,000  E f f e c t i v e Gross Income  $4,826,550  Expenses P r o p e r t y Taxes - 85.6c/sq. f t . ^ rentable -  494,682  O p e r a t i n g C o s t - $1.64/sq. f t . rentable -  947,756  5  Net Income B e f o r e Debt S e r v i c e Debt S e r v i c e - $25,500,000  52  1  $1,442,438 $3,384,112  - 10%7. -  35 y e a r a m o r t i z a t i o n  $2,639,250  Net Spendable Income  $  Return on E q u i t y - $  744,862 - 127.  $6,214,984  744,862  102 STAGE I EXPENSE SCHEDULE  Cost Per Sq.Ft. Net R e n t a b l e A r e a 577,900 s q / f t  P r o p e r t y Taxes  85.6c  Office  55.0c  315,845  E l e c t r i c a l - Non R e c o v e r a b l e  12.0c  69,348  H e a t i n g and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g  25.0c  143,475  Plumbing  1.2c  6,935  E l e v a t o r $250/month x 9 e l e v a t o r s  4.6c  27,000  15.0c  85,685  25.0c 1.0c  143,800 5,520  5.0c  31,390  5.0c 3.0C  31,390 17,337  4.9c  28,422  1.0c 2.0c 2.2c 2.0c 249,5c  5,779 11,558 12,714 11,558 $1,442,438  Cleaning  $  494,682  G e n e r a l Expenses Superintendent, Porters Washroom S u p p l i e s , M i s c . Administrative  Expenses  Management @ 37. A u d i t and L e g a l R e p a i r s and Maintenance Tenant A r e a s Non R e n t a b l e i n c l u d i n g l i g h t maintenance Equipment Insurance - 15c/$100 P a r k i n g and S t o r a g e A r e a s Cleaning Electricity Salary Maintenance  Note: E l e c t r i c i t y and l i g h t f i x t u r e s maintenance a r e r e c o v e r a b l e items hence, a r e n o t i n c l u d e d above. They c o s t 30c/sq. f t . ) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  15c/sq. f t . )  103 STAGE I REVENUE AND EXPENSE PRO FORMA  Notes: 47.  R e n t a l r a t e s a r e comparable to P a c i f i c C e n t r e . Rates on r e t a i l space may n o t be e x p r e s s e d as the f l a t r a t e o f $12/sq. f t . r a t h e r they c o u l d have a lower base r a t e and a p e r c e n t a g e c l a u s e i n which a d d i t i o n a l r e n t a l would be a percentage o f g r o s s s a l e s over and above a s e t s a l e s f i g u r e s . Q u i t e o f t e n i n l a r g e r e t a i l complexes the tenants form a tenant a s s o c i a t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e up to 15c/sq. f t . towards it. Leases f o r b o t h r e t a i l and o f f i c e w i l l c o n t a i n maintenance e s c a l a t o r c l a u s e s .  tax and  48.  P a r k i n g r a t e s comparable to M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l B e n t a l l Centre.  49.  Vacancy r a t e o f 57. i s c o n s e r v a t i v e . A survey o f b u i l d i n g s completed on the l a s t f o u r y e a r s i n d i c a t e s a 17. vacancy r a t e .  50.  See expense s c h e d u l e next page.  51.  Expenses do n o t i n c l u d e t e n a n t s namely:  52.  B u i l d i n g and  items t h a t a r e r e c o v e r a b l e  from  (a)  E l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e s @ 30c/sq. f t . r e n t a b l e  area  (b)  Bulb replacement and maintenance a t 15c/sq. f t . r e n t a b l e area.  C a l c u l a t i o n o f mortgage amount - c a p i t a l i z e n e t income a t 107. g i v e s a v a l u e o f $33,841,112 Mortgage v a l u e i s 757. o f the economic v a l u e o f the p r o j e c t i n t e r e s t r a t e and a m o r t i z a t i o n a r e based upon t a l k i n g t o d e v e l o p e r s , c u r r e n t market s i t u a t i o n , and type and l o c a t i o n o f development.  104  STAGE I I HOTEL - 600 ROOMS RETAIL - 49,000 Sq. F t . PARKING - 560 ROOMS  Land - 113* x 260' - 29,330 s q . f t . @ $70/sq. f t .  $ 2,053,100  Buildings Rooms - 600 rooms @ 450 s q . f t . g r o s s @ $21 Banquet, Beverage Room, C o c k t a i l , C o n v e n t i o n Lounge, R e s t a u r a n t , D i n i n g Room - 40,000 s q . @ $20  $ 5,670,000  ft. $  800,000  M a l l and R e t a i l - 58,640 s q . f t . x 80% @ $ 2 0 / s q . f t .  $  940,000  Parking  $ 2,240,000  - 560 s t a l l s (? $4,000  T o t a l Construction Cost  $ 9,650,000  P r o f e s s i o n a l Fees - 6% x $9,650,000  $  F u r n i s h i n g - Rooms Interim  59  - $2,000/room  579,000  $ 1,200,000  Finance  Land - $2,053,100 x 24 mo. x 12% = $492,720 12 mo. BldgsLeasing  $9,650,000 x 18 mo. x 12% = $868,500 2 12 mo.  Fees - $ l / s q . f t .  Tenants A l l o w a n c e - $ l / s q . f t .  $ 1,361,220 $  50,000  $  50,000  $14,943,320 D e v e l o p e r ' s Overhead - 10%  $ 1,493,332  T o t a l Development C o s t  $16,436,652  Financing (a) 1 s t mortgage on b l d g - $12,000,000 (b) f u r n i s h i n g s - $ 900,000  $12.900,000 $ 3,536,652  R e t u r n on E q u i t y -  59  578,090 = 16.3% 2,536,652  F u r n i s h i n g c o s t s - t h i s f i g u r e has been s u p p l i e d by E a t o n ' s C o n t r a c t Division  Sales  105  STAGE I I RETAIL - MALL LEVEL PROJECTED INCOME  P r o j e c t e d Gross Income R e t a i l - 49,000 s q . f t . @ $12 P a r k i n g - no revenue as i t i s f o r h o t e l guests  $  588,000  T o t a l Gross  $  588,000  Vacancy 57.  $  29,400  E f f e c t i v e Gross Income  $  588,600  Expenses - 327.  $  178,752  Net Income B e f o r e Debt S e r v i c e  $  379,848  Stage I I - T o t a l Net Income B e f o r e Debt S e r v i c e  $ 2,049,950  (a) 1 s t Mortgage - 12,000,000 @ 10 3/47. 30 y r . $1,318,800 (b) f u r n i s h i n g s - 757. x 1,200,000 @ 127. - 10 y r . 153,060 Cash Flow  $ 1,471,860 $  578,090  106 HOTEL PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT S a l e s and Income Room Revenue Beverage Room Bar S a l e s Food S a l e s Telephone and Other Income T o t a l S a l e s and Income  $ 3,385,000 $ 303,000 $ 767,200 $ 1,126,500 $ 120,000 $ 5,701,700  Cost of Sales Beverage Room Bar Food Telephone and Other Income  $ $ $ $  150,000 230,160 416,805 20,000  40% 30% 37% 14.3%  T o t a l Cost o f Sales  $  786,965  Gross O p e r a t i n g Income  $ 4,914,735 86%,  Payroll Rooms Beverage Room Bar S a l e s Food S a l e s Telephone and Other Income T o t a l Wages Direct  $ $ $ $ S  591,300 53,025 92,064 337,950 80,000  18% 17.5% 12% 30%  $ 1,154,339 20.2%  Costs  Rooms Beverage Rooms Bar S a l e s Food S a l e s Telephone and Other Income T o t a l D i r e c t Costs Undistributed  $ $ $ $ $  361,350 39,075 92,064 416,805 20,000  11% 12.5% 12% 37% 14.3%  $  929,294 16.3%  $ $ $ $  370,500 142,500 142,500 199,500  $  855,000 15.0%  Expenses  G e n e r a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A d v e r t i s i n g and Promotion Utilities R e p a i r s and Maintenance T o t a l U n d i s t r i b u t e d Expenses  6.5% 2.57. 2.5% 3.5%  107  HOTEL PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT PAGE  Gross O p e r a t i n g  Profit  (Before  TWO  Taxes)  I n s u r a n c e , I n t e r e s t and D e p r e c i a t i o n  $1,976,102  Taxes and Insurance R e a l E s t a t e Taxes F i r e Insurance P r o f i t B e f o r e I n t e r e s t , D e p r e c i a t i o n and Taxes on Income  $  250,000 56,000  $1,670,102  Note: 54.  These expenses r a t i o s have been suggested by H a r r i s K e r r and Forster, h o t e l planning consultants.  4.2% 1.0%  108 HOTEL PROJECTED DEPARTMENTAL INCOME ROOMS Revenue  600 rooms x 757. occupancy x 365 days @ $20/day 55  56  $ 3,285,000  C o s t o f Sales'*^ P a y r o l l - 187. o f g r o s s revenue  591,300  D i r e c t C o s t - 117. o f g r o s s income  361,350  Gross O p e r a t i n g P r o f i t  $  952,650  $ 2,332,350  - 717.  Notes: 55.  E s t i m a t e d occupancy r a t e s a r e : January February March April May June July August September October November December  557> 607. 607, 657.  807. 907. 1007. 1007. 907. 857. 607. 557.  9007. - Average 757. B.C. H o t e l s A s s o c i a t i o n a d v i s e s t h a t occupancy r a t e s i n Vancouver have average 857. - 877. f o r the p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s . The above occupancy f i g u r e of 757. i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e . 56. Room R e n t a l Rates - Based on comparative  Hotels  H o t e l Vancouver - s i n g l e room double room  $21 $27  Georgia Hotel  $18 - $25 $22 - $27  - s i n g l e room double room  57. C o s t o f S a l e s - Expenses based on "Trends i n H o t e l - M o t e l B u s i n e s s 1968" which covers U.S.A. h o t e l s on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . The above e s t i m a t e s a r e 3^7. above U.S.A. e x p e r i e n c e f o r s i m i l a r h o t e l s .  109  HOTEL PROJECTED DEPARTMENTAL INCOME FOOD SALES  _ . 58, 59, 60 Gross S a l e s ' ' (a) D i n i n g Room (b) C o f f e e Shop (c) Banquet and C o n v e n t i o n  Cost of Sales  474,500 360,000 292,000  $1,126,500  61  Food - 377o o f Gross S a l e s  P a y r o l l - 307. o f Gross S a l e s D i r e c t C o s t - 147. o f Gross S a l e s  Gross O p e r a t i n g  416,805  227,950 157,710  Profit  $  912,465  $  214,035  Notes: 58.  D i n i n g room - 200 s e a t s @ $6.50/day x 365 days  $474,500  59.  C o f f e e Shop - 200 s e a t s @ $8.00/day x 300 days  360,000  60.  Banquet and C o n v e n t i o n - 1,000 s e a t s @ $.80/day x 365 days  292,000  61.  C o s t o f S a l e s F i g u r e s - r u l e s o f thumb r a t i o i s s u e d by H a r r i s , K e r r , F o r s t e r and Company, h o t e l planning consultants.  110  HOTEL PROJECTED DEPARTMENTAL INCOME BEVERAGE ROOM  Gross  cS a l i es  6  2  »  6  3  - 400 s e a t s 2,400 b a r r e l s / y e a r @ $100 18,000 c a s e s / y e a r @ $3.50 T o t a l Gross S a l e s  $  240,000 63,000  $  303,000  $  212,100  $  90,900  Cost of Sales Beaverages - 407. P a y r o l l - 17.57. o f g r o s s s a l e s D i r e c t C o s t - 12.57. o f g r o s s s a l e s Gross Operating  120,000 53,025 39,075  P r o f i t - 307.  Notes: 62.  Based on a 400 s e a t  beverage room  63.  The above c a l c u l a t i o n a r e based on f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by the Managers o f the D e v o n s h i r e H o t e l and the Royal Towers H o t e l .  Ill  PROPOSED HOTEL PROJECTED DEPARTMENTAL INCOME BAR SALES  Sales 64 (a) C o c k t a i l Lounge (b) D i n i n g L o u n g e ( c ) Banquet and C o n v e n t i o n  Rooms  409,500 240,900 116,800  Beverages - 307, o f g r o s s s a l e s P a y r o l l - 127. o f g r o s s s a l e s D i r e c t C o s t - 127. o f g r o s s s a l e s  230,160 92,064 92,064  6 5  6  &  $  767,200  $  414,288  $  352,912  Cost o f Sales  Gross O p e r a t i n g  Profit  Notes:64.  C o c k t a i l Lounge - revenue e s t i m a t e d based on 300 o p e r a t i n g days, 150 s e a t s a v e r a g i n g $9.50 per s e a t per day.  65.  D i n i n g Lounge - s a l e s based on a 365 o p e r a t i n g days, 200 s e a t s , average $3.30/day.  66.  Banquet,and Convention Room - s a l e s based on 365 days o p e r a t i n g , 1,000 s e a t c a p a c i t y @ $.33/seat/day  112  HOTEL PROJECTED DEPARTMENTAL INCOME TELEPHONE AND OTHER INCOME  Gross Income  67, 68  Cost of Sales Net Loss  Notes: 67.  Other Income - e s t i m a t e s $200/room x 600 rooms - $120,000  68.  The telephone o p e r a t i o n always r e f l e c t s a l o s s as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s e r v i c e t o the g u e s t s . Other income i s from l a u n d r y , v e n d i n g machines, e t c . ,  $  120,000 140,000 20,000  113  DEVELOPMENT COST SCHEDULE STAGE I I I Land  $ 2,802,800  Construction  Costs  (a) P a r k i n g - 640 s t a l l s @ $4,000 (b) R e t a i l 6c M a l l - 80,080 s q / f t @ $20 (c) O f f i c e Bldge - 400,000 s q / f t @ $24  $2,560,000 $1,601,600 $9,600,000  $13,761,600  P r o f e s s i o n a l Fees - 6% on $13.76 M i l l i o n Interim  800,566  Financing  Land - 2,802,800 x 33 mo. x 127. = 924,924 10 mo. B l d g s 13,761,600 x 21 mo. x 12% = 1,444,900 2 12 mo. Mortgage  $ 2,369,824  Placement Fee  - 1% Land Tax  $  182,000  $  132,000  B u i l d i n g Tax 75.5c x 428,000 x 21 mo. 2 lT^o".  <. $  O Q 2  _ 8  2  7  '  / 7  4  7 7  L e g a l 6c Promotion - 1% o f c o n s t r u c t i o n Leasing  $  137,616  $  177,450  $  642,500  Fees  - 13% on 50% o f O f f i c e Tower Te nan t's A1lowance s - $1.50/sq. f t . r e n t a b l e D e v e l o p e r ' s Overhead 6c P r o f i t - 10%  $ 2,130,910 $23,440,013  114  REVENUE AND EXPENSE SCHEDULE STAGE I I I  Gross Revenue R e t a i l - 64,000 sq. f t . @ $12.00 O f f i c e - 364,000 sq. f t . @ $7.50 Parking - 640 s t a l l s @ $35/month  $ 768,000 $ 2,730,000 $ 268,800  P r o j e c t e d Gross Income  $ 3,766,800  Vacancy - 5%  $  E f f e c t i v e G r o s s Income  $ 3,578,470  188,330  Expenses P r o p e r t y Taxes - 85.6c/sq. f t . r e n t a b l e $366,368 O p e r a t i n g C o s t s - $1.64/sq. f t . r e n t a b l e 701,920 Net Income Before  Debt S e r v i c e  $ 1,068,288 $ 2,510,182  Debt S e r v i c e - 18,825,000 - 10%% - 35 y r . amortization  $ 1,947,653  Net Spendable Income (Cash Flow)  $  R e t u r n on E q u i t y -  562,529 - 12.2% 4,615,013  562,529  115  VIII  CONCLUSION Having determined a development c o n c e p t f o r the s i t e  i n e a r l i e r chapters,  chosen  t h i s c h a p t e r had conducted a f e a s i b i l i t y  a n a l y s i s f o r the proposed development.  Development o f the h o t e l and t h e a t r e on  p o r t i o n s would be based  owner's wishes and i t i s assumed t h a t demand e x i s t s f o r such  f a c i l i t i e s . Development and m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f the r e t a i l p o r t i o n i s based on the assumption t h a t demand i s s t r o n g because o f ( a ) a c c e p t a n c e o f r e t a i l space i n the P a c i f i c of  the p r e s e n t  retail facilities  Market o p p o r t u n i t i e s analyzed  and i d e n t i f i e d .  a shortage of o f f i c e  C e n t r e and (b) a c c e p t a n c e  i n B l o c k 62.  for office  space i n B l o c k 62 have been  The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t there w i l l be  space d u r i n g  the l a t e r p a r t o f t h i s  decade  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 750,000 square f e e t .  Based on c u r r e n t day c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and o p e r a t i n g and  expenses the development o f the e n t i r e c i t y b l o c k  feasible.  revenues  i s economically  Such a development y i e l d s a 107. d e v e l o p e r s overhead and i  p r o f i t f i g u r e as w e l l as a 127. r e t u r n on e q u i t y on the r e t a i l and o f f i c e p o r t i o n o f the development and a 167. r e t u r n on the h o t e l development.  116  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS  Beckman, G.H., Decentralization and Blighted Vacant Land, Cambridge: Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1955. Blumerfeld, Hans, The Modern Metropolis, Cambridge: Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1967. Boulding, K.E., Toward a General Theory of Growth, Glencoe: The Free Press, 1954. Burgess, E.W., The Growth of the C i t y , Chicago: Press, 1925.  University of  Doxiadas "Between Dystopia and Utopia" (London: Saber Press, 1966) Three Lectures delivered a t T r i n i t y College. Mayer, KohnC.E., Readings i n Urban Geography, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1959. R a t c l i f f , R.U., Urban Land Economies, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949. ., Real Estate Analysis, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961. Weimer, A.M., Hoyt, H., Real Estate, New York: The Ronald Press Co. 1966.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETY AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. Population Trends i n the Lower Mainland, 1921-1986. Summary Report, Vancouver: Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, A p r i l , 1968. Technical Planning Board, Downtown Vancouver 1955-1976. A report prepared f o r Vancouver C i t y Council, Vancouver: Planning Department, 1955.  117  Vancouver Planning Department. Redevelopment i n Downtown Vancouver. Report No. 5. Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, J u l y , 1964. Vancouver Planning Department. K i t s i l a n o - CBD. A b r i e f report prepared f o r Vancouver C i t y Council, Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, September, 1964.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Rooney, W.J., " E f f e c t of the Proposed Redevelopment of Blocks < '. and 52 Upon Vancouver's Central Business D i s t r i c t " . Unpublished Graduating Essay, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1969. Smith, Larry, and Company. "The Economic Analysis of Downtown Vancouver". A report prepared f o r The Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Vancouver, 1965. Smith, Larry and Company. "Central D i s t r i c t Redevelopment i n Downtown Vancouver". A report prepared f o r The Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Vancouver, 1963.  APPENDIX "A"  118  LAND USE STUDY  INTRODUCTION A d e v e l o p e r who i s committing  m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s  major development w i t h i n the CBD must be a b l e to a s s e s s in  land u s e , w i t h i n the a r e a . There i s v e r y  little  to a trends  systematic  o r o r g a n i z e d data d e s c r i b i n g the l a n d use o r development o f t h i s a r e a so n a t u r a l l y a l a n d use study  i s necessary  to provide  certain  b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n f o r development d e c i s i o n s .  T h i s study d e s c r i b e s n o t o n l y the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t a n d i n g s t o c k b u t a l s o ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the CBD w i t h a view to g i v i n g an a l l encompassing p i c t u r e o f the CBD. T h i s s e c t i o n o f the paper o u t l i n e s the l a n d use study,  the s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , the r e s u l t s a t t a i n e d and any  limitations.  Study A r e a outlines  - the a r e a under study comprises  the study  73 c i t y b l o c k s . F i g u r e I I  area.  Data C o l l e c t e d - L a c k o f o r g a n i z e d d a t a sources n e c e s s i t a t e d a f i e l d survey  to a c q u i r e much o f the d a t a . The Vancouver C i t y H a l l was the  o t h e r prime source o f d a t a .  Data a t the C i t y H a l l was a v a i l a b l e on  an i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y b a s i s . As there a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  2,500  p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d e d i n the study a r e a amalgamation of the d a t a  into  a form s u i t a b l e f o r a l a n d use d e s c r i p t i o n o f the CBD has been a l o n g and  t e d i o u s t a s k . The f o l l o w i n g exppendix o u t l i n e s the type o f d a t a  collected,  the s o u r c e s and l i m i t a t i o n s .  119 Each p r o p e r t y has been d e s c r i b e d c o n s i d e r i n g the f o l l o w i n g characteristics:  Land  (a) A s s e s s e d  value  (b) S i z e - e x p r e s s e d ( c ) Land  i n square  feet  use  (d) P a r k i n g - on  site  - on  street  (e) S i z e of s t r e e t s and  lanes  Buildings (a) A s s e s s e d (b) S i t e  value  coverage  (c) Condition  - v e r y good - good -  fair  - poor - v e r y poor Building  Use  (a) Type o f use  - i d e n t i f i e d by  two use  codes  (1) a 4 - d i g i t use code o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e (2) the 3 - d i g i t Standard C l a s s i f i c a t i o n code (b) S i z e o f tenant's  premises  ( c ) Type o f t e n t a n t -  local  - national -  branch  - head  Industrial  (d) Number of employees  0 -  5  6-10 11 -  50  51 - 100 101 - 200 201 - 500 501 (e) Years a t this location  0 -  5 years  6 -  10 years  over 10 years Land Ownership (a) Owner's name and address (b) Type of owner - owner user - owner investor (c) Type of owner - resident - non resident - trust co. (includes trusts) - C i t y of Vancouver - Province of B.C. - Gov't of Canada (d) Length of ownership  0 - 5  years  6-10  years  1 1 - 2 0 years over 20 years  121  Data Sources and  Land  1.  Limitations  Assessment  - A s s e s s e d v a l u e s of l a n d have been o b t a i n e d  from the assessment  r o l l s o f the C i t y of Vancouver.  l i m i t a t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s :  The  (A) P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s  dictate  t h a t the t o t a l assessment r o l l s of the C i t y can o n l y by 107o  major  increase  per annum. C o n s e q u e n t l y p r o p e r t i e s i n a r e a s o f r a p i d l y  i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e may  n o t be a s s e s s e d a t t h e i r proper (B) T i m i n g i s a n o t h e r  Assessments which was  used have been taken from the 1969  level.  limitation.  assessment  based on a s s e s s o r ' s i n s p e c t i o n s done i n l a t e  Thus, when comparing  the assessment o f one  roll 1968.  property to that of  a n o t h e r to determine i t s r e l a t i v e v a l u e i n the o v e r a l l scheme o f t h i n g s the v a l u e s used a r e based on 1968 2.  S i z e o f l a n d - Dimensions  o f the s i t e s have been taken from  l e g a l s u b d i v i s i o n s maps. The a r e a e x p r e s s e d i n square  opinions.  o f the s i t e s has been  feet.  3. Use o f The Land - A c t u a l use of the l a n d , i . e . whether i t i s v a c a n t , used f o r p a r k i n g , o r used f o r b u i l d i n g s has been determined by f i e l d 4. P a r k i n g - The and  inspection.  type o f p a r k i n g whether o f f s i t e o r on  site,  the number o f p a r k i n g s t a l l s has been determined by a c t u a l  inspection. 5. S i z e of S t r e e t s and Lanes - Dimensions have been a t t a i n e d the l e g a l s u b d i v i s i o n map.  from  The a c t u a l a r e a o f s t r e e t s and l a n e s  has been e x p r e s s e d i n square  feet.  TABLE X V I I I BLOCK, STREET AND BUILDING AREA : DISTRICT LOT BASES ^ *• square Block No. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  District Lot 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  •  T o t a l Block Area*  Street  34,800 17,905 37,850 96,554 61,920 53,300 54,720 62,400 117,292 60,060 61,920 66,990 49,920 74,270 62,400 62,400 109,200 109,200 109,200 109,200 109,200 109,200 109,680 118,300 135,000 120,000 120,000 118,320 119,100 120,000 114,000 126,000 130,000 130,000 118,500 120,000 120,000 121,000 120,000 120,000 120,000  12,880 6,204 37,322 42,520 35,000 34,300 34,300 34,000 44,800 47,428 45,428 47,428 45,428 45,428 45,428 45,428 72,400 63,906 67,160 67,160 63,906 63,900 63,900 52,546 61,443 69,940 60,000 65,380 65,380 60,000 60,000 59,000 59,000 62,360 69,940 60,000 65,300 65,380 60,000 60,000 60,000  Area Vacant  Land  0 0 0 6,000  24,000 3,120  18,720 6,240  18,000 15,000 3,000 18,000 36,240 42,000 81,000 12,960 24,000 12,000 12,000 33,000  39,840 51,960  *  Total Bui Area * 149,886 80,699 154,968 340,636 299,750 382,300 314,046 240,000 158,582 247,403 187,836 380,887 169,310 337,352 122,959 122,338 319,663 361,775 207,796 321,133 265,891 171,475 84,450 232,958 226,444 298,663 300,532 301,168 670,301 497,316 155,210 809,500 205,260 51,493 873,743 100,000 388,163 627,655 81,600 55,438  feet  123 TABLE XVIII (continued)  Block No.  District Lot  Total Block Area*  Street Area*  57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 71 72 73 74 75  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  120,000 123,000 116,280 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,900 126,210 114,500 117,000 117,000 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,000 114,000  60,000 60,000 65,000 53,860 65,000 65,000 62,807 62,800 62,800 62,800 76,000 65,000 62,800 62,800 62,800 62,800 62,800  1 2 3 4 15 16 17 18 19  185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185  121,450 151,279 152,990 134,937 162,695  112,450 88,933 99,477 153,733 137,830 86,163 101,640 160,050 43,398  Source:  174,240 246,808 82,661  Vacant Land* 99,750 78,000 46,080 114,000 30,000 615,601 27,000 53,000 57,000 57,600 120,000 15,000 13,000 18,000  120,532 7,920 .34,971 26,070 72,218 60,984 56,528  Total Builc ing Area* 3,900 51,113 89,743 6,000 223,910 218,371 121,785 107,767 21,609 83,000 285,510 434,307 4,605 173,493 136,486 41,854 162,817 730,800 1,128,712 488,615 461,234 80,747 233,180 201,733 221,801 48,000  Compiled by researcher from l e g a l maps, s i t e inspections and business licenses.  124 TABLE XIX LAND AVAILABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT  Block No  Developed sq/ft  Vacant sq/ft  Total sq/ft  S t r e e t s & Lanes sq/ft  Total sq/ft  DISTRICT LOT 541  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55  34, 800 17 ,905 37 ,850 90 ,554 61 ,920 53 ,300 54 720 62 400 93, 292 56 940 61,,920 66 990 31 200 68 030 62, 060 61 ,800 109 ,200 106 ,560 91 ,701 105 ,680 191,,200 66, 960 67,,680 118 ,300 54 000 105, 160 100 620 106, 320 119, 100 108, 000 81 000 99,,000 130 ,000 130 ,000 118, 500 120 000 :  99 ,000 119 ,880 80,,280  0 0 0 6,000 0 0 0 0 24,000 3,120 0 0 18,720 6,240 0 0 0 13,000 15,000 3,000 18,000 36,240 42,000 0 81,000 12,960 24,000 12,000 0 12,000 33,000 0 0 0 0 0 120,000 21,000 0 39,840  34 800 17 908 37 850 96 554 61 920 53 300 54, 720 62 400 117, 292 60 060 61 920 66 990 49 920 74 270 62 060 61 800 109 ,200 109, 560 106, 701 108 680 109, 200 103, 200 109 680 118, 300 135, 000 118, 120 124 620 118, 320 119, 100 120 000 114 000 99, 000 130 000 130 000 118 500 120, 000 120 000 120 000 119, 880 120, 120  12,880 6,204 37,323 42,520 43,876 38,016 4,676 62,400 44,804 47,428 45,428 47,628 45,428 56,639 45,428 45,428 72,406 63,906 67 ,161 67,161 63,906 63,906 63,906 63,906 61,443 69,940 60,080 65,380 65,380 60,080 60,080 59,080 59,080 62,360 76,440 59,080 74,140 74,140 69,080 69,080  47 680 24 ,109 75, 173 139 ,074 105 976 91 ,316 59 ,396 124 600 162 096 107, 488 107 348 114 618 95, 348 130,,909 107 488 107, 228 181, 606 173, 466 173, 862 175, 840 173, 106 167, 106 173, 586 182, 206 196, 443 188, 060 188, 700 183, 700 184, 480 lau, 080 174, 080 158 080 189 000 192, 360 194, 940 179 080 194,,142 194, 140 188 960 189 200  125 TABLE XIX ( c o n t i n u e d  Block No  Developed sq/ft  Vacant sq/ft  Total sq/ft  S t r e e t s & Lanes sq/ft  Total sq/ft  DISTRICT LOT 541 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75 Total  73,520 20,250 45,000 70,200 0 97,440 114,000 50,960 99,210 57,500 60,000 82,515 57,750 18,000 95,640 114,000 101,000 96,000 4,389,887  118,520 120,000 123,000 116,280 114,000 115,440 114,000 114,960 126,210 114,500 117,000 82 ,515 57,600 114,000 114,640 114,000 114,000 114,000  69,080 69,080 69,080 66,594 53,866 66,594 66,594 62,807 62,807 62,807 62,807 76,263 65,638 53,866 64,978 64,978 53,866 53,866  1,339,550 5,729,437  3,342,834  45,000 99,750 78,000 46,080 114,000 18,000 0 64,000 27,000 57,000 57,000 0 57,600 96,000 19,000 0 13,000 18,000  187,600 189,080 192,080 182,874 167,866 182,004 180,554 177,767 189,017 177,307 179,807 158,778 123,238 167,866 179,618 178,978 167,866 167,866  DISTRICT LOT 185 1 2 3 4 5 15 16 17 18 19 Total  121,000 151,279 145,070 199,960 77,154 136,625 115,700 113,256 190,180 82,661 1,332,885  0 0 7,920 34,977 80,000 26,070 74,218 60,984 56,628 0  121,000 151,279 152,990 234,937 157,154 162,695 189,918 174,240 246,808 82,661  0 112,450 88,933 153,733 46,754 13,783 86,163 101,640 160,050 43,498  3,407,977 1,673,682  807,004  0 263,729 241,923 388,670 203,908 176,478 276,081 175,880 406,858 126,159  126  Buildings 1. A s s e s s e d  V a l u e - The  Vancouver has as w e l l as  assessed  assessment r o l l of values  the C i t y  f o r improvements on  the l a n d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u b j e c t  of  the l a n \ to tb2  l i m i t a t i o n s as d i s c u s s e d under l a n d assessment. There other and  l i m i t a t i o n when a p p l y i n g a s s e s s e d  i t can r e a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d  value  to  as an e x t e n s i o n  same •_• one  builcmes; of  i.ime  the  l i m i t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d under l a n d assessment. T h i s a p p l i e s newly c o n s t r u c t e d b u i l d i n g s i . e . b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d t h i s assessment r o l e  (1969) has  been  to  a f :,.-r  prepared.  2. S i t e Coverage by B u i l d i n g s - the s i t e  size i s easily  determined from the l e g a l s u b d i v i s i o n map  of  the C i t y  of  Vancouver. Once, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has  been determined  a c t u a l s i t e coverage can be e s t i m a t e d  w i t h i n a 107. e r r o r by  actual site  i n s p e c t i o n . Two  other  namely Vancouver C i t y H a l l and for  the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s :  sources  of  the  this informati  the owner have been r u l e d ou  (a) the owners, i n most cases  ar  n o t aware o f the e x t e r i o r d i m e n s i o n of the b u i l d i n g s and  ha  no r e c o r d o f i t , (b) C i t y H a l l has i n f o r m a t i o n but i t i s r e c o r d e d  1,  records  of  i n such a way  this  type  e  of  t h a t time r e q u i r e d  to r e t r i e v e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f a r outweighs the b e n e f i t s of such i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was would s a t i s f y of e s t i m a t e d  felt  the r e q u i r e m e n t s .  t h a t an e s t i m a t e On  of s i t e  the average the  from a c t u a l i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  57.  coverage  variance  either  way.  127  3. C o n d i t i o n  o f the B u i l d i n g - T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  g a t h e r e d from a f i e l d and  has been  survey premised on the e x t e r n a l appearance  s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n and i n c l u d e s a l l b u i l d i n g s  regardless  of u s e . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s simple i n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s are d e f i n e d e i t h e r v e r y Buildings  good, good, f a i r ,  l i s t e d as v e r y  constructed  and p r o v i d e  poor, or v e r y  poor.  good have j u s t r e c e n t l y been a l l the a m e n i t i e s o f new b u i l d i n g s .  B u i l d i n g s c l a s s e d as good a l s o p r o v i d e  these a m e n i t i e s  (good  e l e v a t o r s , a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g , good l i g h t i n g ) and a l t h o u g h are n o t newly c o n s t r u c t e d l a s t ten years.  they have p r o b a b l y been b u i l t  they i n the  B u i l d i n g s c l a s s i f i e d as f a i r a r e those 10 - 30  y e a r s o f age. Most o f the b u i l d i n g s have an a i r exchange system (not a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g )  and have r e a s o n a b l y good l i g h t i n g and  e l e v a t o r s . The f a i r c a t e g o r y has the b r o a d e s t guide l i n e s o f all  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s hence w i l l  probably include  the g r e a t e s t  number o f b u i l d i n g s . T h i s c a t e g o r y may range from those b u i l d i n g s needing only a coat  o f p a i n t t o those r e q u i r i n g  extensive  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . B u i l d i n g s c l a s s i f i e d as poor a r e ^nost  likely  to be those b u i l d i n g s o f 30 y e a r s o f age, have no a i r exchange or a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g systems and a r e i n d i r e need o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r complete r a z i n g . They may have an e l e v a t o r b u t i t w i l l be m a n u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and the s e r v i c e v e r y marked as v e r y  poor. B u i l d i n g s  poor a r e those which d e f i n i t e l y  wear and t e a r and should  be t o r n down.  ear-  show s t r u c t u r a l  128  Two  things should  system: (1) o t h e r  be noted w i t h r e g a r d  to t h i s  classification  than the above mentioned t h e r e i s no  r e f e r e n c e or check l i s t a g a i n s t which the b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may  be compared. I t i s d i f f i c u l t and  and  properly u t i l i z e  of  t h i s study  time consuming to s e t up  a f u l l y o b j e c t i v e check l i s t .  i t a "windshield  out.  the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  n o t i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f the economic l i f e  and  of  lighting,  q u a l i t y o f e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to of the b u i l d i n g . T h i s i s m e r e l y a c u r s o r y  o f the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t a n d i n g an attempt to c l a s s i f y economic l a n d use  examination  s t o c k and  the s t r u c t u r e o f the b u i l d i n g on  the  not  an  basis.  Use  1. Type o f Use  - (a) 4 d i g i t use  code - O r i g i n a t e d by  and  Co.  Its  components a r e o u t l i n e d on E x h i b i t  L t d f o r t h e i r b u i l d i n g use  i n v e n t o r y done i n  (b) 3 d i g i t Standard I n d u s t r i a l  i s not used i n t h i s study  f u t u r e s t u d i e s . T h i s use  Department.  1964.  although  the uses have been coded f o r  code has  been taken from  l i c e n s e s i n Vancouver C i t y H a l l . The the P l a n n i n g  L.Smith  Classification  code. T h i s i s a more common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, and it  does  the b u i l d i n g ,  i n c l u d i n g such t h i n g s as a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ,  economic l i f e  Building  Appraisers  inspection".  (2) the d i s c u s s i o n of  although  purposes  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on a q u i c k i n s p e c t i o n  o f the b u i l d i n g - were p o s s i b l e i n s i d e and call  For  c o d i n g has  business  been done by  129  2. Size of Tenant's Premises - The size of the premises i s recorded on business licenses and kept on f i l e at C i t y H a l l . This source cannot be r e l i e d upon f o r 1007. accuracy as the records are not updated f o r a t least three months a f t e r a business has moved or expanded i t s premises. However, this information has been v e r i f i e d either by f i e l d inspection or by information attained from the tenant himself, or the b u i l d i n g owner. 3. Length of Time at that Location - this type of information has been attained by comparing the businesses and their l o c a t i o n as l i s t e d i n the Henderson Directory f o r the years 1969,  1964  and 1959. I f the tenant was l i s t e d at h i s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n i n 1969 and 1964 but not i n 1959 this means he has been at that l o c a t i o n f o r 6-10 years.  Ownership: Land and Buildings 1. Owner's Name and Address - this main source of this information has been the assessment r o l l s f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. The main l i m i t a t i o n r e s u l t s from a time problem i n that the assessment r o l l used i s f o r the year 1969 yet i t may not show current ownership status. 2. Type of Owner - (a) Owner-user or owner-investor. Determined from the information given on the assessment r o l l .  I f the  owner i s located a t the property address and occupies the major portion of the b u i l d i n g then he i s considered to be an  130  owner-user o t h e r w i s e he i s an  owner-investor.  (b) R e s i d e n t ,  non-resident,trust co,,  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l governments - Determined from i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n on the assessment  roll.  3. Length o f Ownership - There a r e f o u r l e n g t h o f ownership c a t e g o r i e s : 0-5 y e a r s , 6-10 y e a r s , 11-20 y e a r s , g r e a t e r  than  20 y e a r s . P r o p e r t i e s and owners have been compared on the assessment r o l l s f o r the y e a r s if  1969, 1964, 1959, and 1949. Thus  i n comparing one p r o p e r t y and i t s owner on the assessment  r o l l s f o r the y e a r s mentioned and one f i n d s p r o p e r t y has the same owner f o r the y e a r s b u t n o t f o r 1949 then one c a n c o n c l u d e  t h a t the one  1969, 1964, and 1959  t h a t the p r o p e r t y has  been owned by one owner f o r between 11 and 20 y e a r s .  Land Use I n v e n t o r y  - The C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s  District  i s t h e s o c i a l hub  of the c i t y w i t h b u s i n e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , commercial and c u l t u r a l development p r e d o m i n a t i n g . l a n d uses a n c i l l a r y  The a r e a a l s o c o n t a i n s a number o f o t h e r  to the main u s e s ,  o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t which through transformed  forming a r e s i d u e o f the  a process  o f e v o l u t i o n has been  from a s e l f c o n t a i n e d community to the c e n t r a l a r e a o f a  large metropolitan area.  There a r e s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t areas o f l a n d use i n the C.B.D. (a) R e t a i l S e c t i o n . (1) G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t A x i s - L o c a t e d and N e l s o n  between H a s t i n g s  S t r e e t s . The a x i s expands to i n c l u d e Howe and Seymour  S t r e e t s between G e o r g i a and H a s t i n g s . The Hudson's Bay S t o r e  located  131  on  the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f G e o r g i a and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s the  main s t a y o f the a r e a .  The a r e a w i l l become the p r i m a r y  retail  a r e a i n the CBD when Eaton's Department S t o r e moves i n t o i t s new s t o r e a c r o s s from the Bay. (2) H a s t i n g s  S t r e e t A x i s - l o c a t e d between G r a n v i l l e and  Cambie S t r e e t s . The a r e a c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f s p e c i a l t y shops r e l y i n g on p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c  generated  retail  by E a t o n s and Woodward's  Department S t o r e s . (3) Robson S t r a u s s e - l o c a t e d on Robson S t r e e t between and  Bute. The a r e a c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f s m a l l r e t a i l  Burrard  specialty  shops w i t h a European f l a v o u r . (b) High D e n s i t y O f f i c e . and  (1) E s t a b l i s h e d Core - L o c a t e d on H a s t i n g s  Pender S t r e e t s between B u r r a r d and Seymour. (2) Newer High D e n s i t y B u i l d i n g s - (a) One  a r e a l o c a t e d west o f B u r r a r d w i t h b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g on B u r r a r d , H a s t i n g s and G e o r g i a S t r e e t s as f a r west as Bute S t r e e t .  Note: See Land Use Map i n the back o f the f o l d e r .  The  o t h e r a r e a c o n s i s t s o f B l o c k s 42 - 52 and i s bounded by  Howe, Robson, G r a n v i l l e and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s . ( c ) Medium D e n s i t y  O f f i c e . L o c a t e d west o f Thurlow S t r e e t i n an  a r e a bounded by G e o r g i a ,  Cardero,  H a s t i n g s and Thurlow. Medium  d e n s i t y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s up t o 10 y e a r s o l d w i t h a s i t e of  coverage  f i v e , from on H a s t i n g s , G e o r g i a and Pender S t r e e t s . Most o f the  new b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e l o c a t e d on secondary such as Bute S t r e e t and M e l v i l l e S t r e e t .  streets  132  (d) L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l and W h o l e s a l i n g . and  (1) A r e a bounded by Cordova  Cambie S t r e e t s and the w a t e r f r o n t , c o n s i s t i n g o f pre-1900 m u l t i  stor^ buildings s t i l l  s t r u c t u r a l l y sound. (2) A r e a bounded by  Seymour, Robson, Homer and N e l s o n  S t r e e t s c o n s i s t i n g o f two s t o r e y  modern type warehouses w i t h a d j a c e n t v a c a n t and  expansion  purposes.  and  Smithe S t r e e t s , a d j a c e n t  l a n d spaces  (3) A r e a bounded by H a m i l t o n ,  f o r parking Robson, B e a t t y ,  to the above warehouse a r e a , and  c o n s i s t i n g of m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s o f the n a t u r e  found  i n the w a t e r -  front area. (e) P u b l i c A r e a s .  T h i s i s a f i v e b l o c k a r e a bounded by Homer, Robson  Cambie, G e o r g i a , B e a t t y , Pender, H a m i l t o n A r e a c o n t a i n s the p o s t o f f i c e , tional Institute,  and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s . The  the Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e ,  the Bus Depot, a C a t h o l i c Church, and the f u t u r e  s i t e f o r C.B.C. T e l e v i s i o n , and a b l o c k o f v a c a n t by  the V o c a -  land being  assembled  the C i t y o f Vancouver.  ( f ) H o t e l . An a r e a f r o n t i n g on G e o r g i a , between Howe and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s . I n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s major c o n s t r u c t i o n has been o u t south on Howe and west on Robson. R e c e n t l y announced plans c a l l  f o r develop-  ment o f h o t e l s on B u r r a r d S t r e e t w i t h i n the c o r e o f the c i t y .  133 TABLE XX VACANT LAND - LENGTH OF VACANCY square Block N  o  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  District L o f c  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  „ 0-5  c  . years*  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,000 3,000 0 0 18,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,000  c m . 6 - 1 0 years*  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  feet  ^ , . Over 10 y e a r s *  0 0 0 6,000 0 0 0 0 24,000 3,120 0 0 18,720 0 0 0 0 3,000 12,000 3,000 18,000 36,240 12,000 0 81,000 0 12,960 21,000 9,000 0 12,000 15,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39,840 39,960  TABLE XX Block No.  (continued District Lot  years*  6-10  years*  Over 1  53,190  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  46,560 0 17,760 0 0 0 18,000 0 9,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,000 0  0 6,000 0 0 6,000 0 16,560 6,000 13,560 9,000 0 39,000 0 12,000 0 0 0  28,320 114,000 24,000 0 27,000 21,000 28,440 48,000 0 18,600 120,000 3,000 0 6,000 15,000  185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185  0 28,413 0 0 21,714 0 0 4,356 0  0 31,136 3,564 0 0 8,910 0 30,492 0  0 75,825 4,356 43,500 4,356 56,398 65,340 17,424 0  57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75  541 541  1 2 3 4 15 16 17 18 19  Source:  0-5  Primary  Research Compiled by W r i t e r  135  TABLE XXI VACANT BUILDING  Block No.  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 62  District Lot  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  SPACE  Vacant Space(sq/ft)  7. o f Vacancy Total  Vacancy  3,314 27,000 7,000 18,000  .37. 2.77, .77. 1.87»  2.07. 31.07. 4.07. 5.07.  19,000 4,000 4,300 3,144 18,138 1,375 2,000 20,060 2,050 9,500 22,000 36,175 10,756 11,425 22,825 10,800 1,704  1.97. .47. .47. .37. 1.87. .17. .27. 1.97. .27. 1.07. 2.27. 3.67. 1.07. 1.17. 2.37. 1.07. .27.  6.07. 1.07. 1.87. 1.57. 8.77. .57. 1.07. 6.07. 1.67. 7.57. 6.87. 10.07. 5.17. 3.57. 8.17. 6.07. 2.07.  11,000 2,954 1,056 27,424  1.17. .37. .17. 2.57.  5.07. 1.07. .37. 9.07.  .77.  1.07.  1.37. .47. .27. .67. .47. .67. .17. 1.47.  3.57. .57. 2.07. 11.07. 100.07. 12.07. 1.07. 6.57.  0  0  7,204 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  13,175 3,700 1,900 6,000 3,900 6,429 1,000 14,330  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  136 TABLE XXI ( c o n t i n u e d ) Block No.  District Lot  Vacant Space ( s q / f t )  7. o f Vacancy Total  Vacancy  63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  7,000 0 8,844 6,000 0 78,600 2,000 4,000 6,200 4,000 2,500 7,500  .77. 0 .87. .67o 0 7.37c .27, .4% .67o .47, .27o .77o  3.57. 0 8.07. 2.87. 0 36.07. .57. 100.07. 3.57. 3.07. 6.07. 4.57.  1 2 3 4 15 16 17 18 19  185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185  4,378 4,800 20,525 21,635 22,937 14,610 24,726 2,712  .47o .47. 2.07. 2.17. 2.27. 1.47. 2.37. .37.  .67. .47. 4.57. 5.07. 28.47. 6.07. 8.07. 1.07.  Source:  Primary  r e s e a r c h by w r i t e r  TABLE XXII LAND OWNERSHIP  ^ square  Block No  Owner* user (1)  Owner* inves tor (2)  Resident* (1)  Non * Resident (2)  Trust* Co (3)  Municipal* (4)  feet  Prov-* Fed-* incial eral (6) (5)  DISTRICT' LOT 541 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54  12,000 22,800 13,880 4,025 3,000 34,850 6,000 90,554 46,560 15,840 0 65,000 0 62,400 6,140 0 45,600 71,693 6, 000 54,060 19,200 43,200 9,900 52,500 0 62,400 0 62,400 0 62,400 12,480 49,320 54,200 55,000 15,840 93,720 23,500 85,700 21,000 88,200 39,000 70,200 69,000 40,200 41,400 67,800 118,300 0 93,000 42,000 40,000 80,000 50,000 70,000 52,200 66,120 110,100 9,000 88,500 31,500 30,000 90,000 130,000 0 130,000 0 130,000 0 23,000 95,500 0 130000 0 130,000 15,000 105,000 88,500 21,500  34,800 13,625 37,850 75,554 9,240 0 15,600 0 102,692 42,060 31,680 9 ,360 0 12,480 36,060 33,460 71,580 80,760 62,500 69,200 76,200 57,600 97,200 118,300 66,000 96,000 99,000 78,000 42,000 31,500 54,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 54,000 74,500  0 4,280 0 15,000 55,800 65,000 33,120 0 14,600 18,000 18,720 29,040 62,400 20,000 20,600 28,390 16,640 12,000 31,695 40,000 6,000 12,480 12,000 0 12,000 0 4,560 4,560 77,100 88,500 66,000 0 0 0 95,500 0 0 45,000 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 14,000 0 0 0 12,000 24,000 0 28,920 3,800 0 0 16,800 15,000 0 9,000 3,120 0 0 0 15,000 13,440 19,560 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21,000 24,000  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,500 0 21,000 0 0 0 18,000 24,000 0 0 56,000 0 0 16,200 0 0 0 0 130,000 130,000 23,000 0 0 0 27,000  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,000 0 0 0 9,000 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 130,000 130,000 0 61,500  0 0 0 6,000 0 0 0 64,400 0 0 0 0 0 3,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 130,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  138  TABLE XXII Block No  (continued)  Owner* user (1)  Owner* inves tor (2)  79,560 40,440 70,000 50,000 120,000 0 50,000 70,000 22,000 92,000 114,000 0 57,000 57,000 36,000 78,000 8,000 106,000 75,000 39,000 39,600 74,400 95,000 19,000 53,390 29,125 114,000 0 0 114,000 30,000 84,000 66,000 48,000 76,500 37,500  Resident* (1)  Non* Resident (2)  Municipal* (4)  Prov* incial (5)  Fed-* eral (6)  5,280 0 0 9,000 10,400 0 12,000 14,000 12,000 0 0 6,000 0 0 0 39,000 6,000 0  15,000 39,000 0 20,000 0 0 0 0 16,000 0 26,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 120,000 0 0 0 0 114,000 0 0 0 0 7,200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 118,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,649,6503,073,342 2,871,011 1,203,580 333,320  136,700  210,000 734,000  55 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75  90,720 9,000 60,560 22,560 0 0 80,000 12,000 81,400 21,600 0 0 90,000 12,000 60,000 4,000 66,000 18,000 114,000 0 77,500 10,000 98,000 9,000 53,390 29,125 0 0 3,000 111,000 38,640 36,360 108,000 0 0 114,000  Trust* Co (3)  DISTRICT LOT 185 1 2 3  59,063 70,928 100,718  127,389 199,068 52,272  52,734 123,800 131,210  104,639 464,000 17,424  0 77,360 4,356  15 16 17 18 19  28,936 47,916 81,372 8,515  160,982 126,324 165,436 74,146  66,254 52,272 158,830 69,642  85,200 56,628 47,916 4,323  38,464 43,560 10, 362 8,646  3,047,0983,978,9593,525,753 1,566,110  216,068  0 15,246 0  13,833 7,265 0  0 21,780 0 0  0 0 11,200 0  0 0 29,700 0  158,482  47,446  124,198  0 0 0  A  Source:  Compiled  by  Researcher  139 TABLE X X I I I LAND AREA : LENGTH OF OWNERSHIP square Block No  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58  District Lot  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 • 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  0-5 years Land A r e a *  4,025 0 8,000 3,120 0 6,240 0 22,692 6,000 3,120 18,120 32,800 11,000 0 11,620 29,520 42,600 55,695 24,000 24,360 37,480 34,920 0 45,000 28,440 51,000 44,760 3,000 31,500 84,000 0 0 0 24,000 0 0 54,000 0 27,000 24,000 69,000 3,000  6 - 10 y e a r s Land A r e a *  0 5,500 26,450 6,120 0 0 0 24,000 35,800 3,120 12,120 0 9,000 2,340 0 3,000 14,040 6,000 6,000 19,260 42,240 18,240 0 12,000 17,280 0 18,000 12,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,000 0 0 21,960 4,440 18,000  11 - 20 y e a r s Land A r e a *  15,600 0 0 6,000 0 0 20,000 0 0 6,000 18,720 13,890 0 15,000 0 3,900 28,740 10,800 24,006 9,000 0 12,480 3,000 0 6,000 21,000 30,000 12,000 6,000 0 6,000 130,000 0 0 0 0 0 9,000 0 17,280 12,000 46,560 24,000  feet Over 20 Years* Land A r e a  19,200 13,880 32,350 52,105 52,680 64,400 36,000 64,400 70,600 12,200 36,960 30,390 31,200 29,000 61,660 46,280 49,560 43,120 21,000 69,680 65,580 18,000 53,520 118,300 72,000 51,400 39,000 43,560 99,000 88,500 30,000 130,000 130,000 94,500 130,000 130,000 51,000 120,000 15,840 62,040 0 51,000  140 TABLEXIII (continued) Block No.  District Lot  0 - 5 years Land Area  6 - 1 0 years Land Area  11 - 20 years Land Area  Over 20 Years Land Area  60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74  541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541 541  48,240 120,000 31,000 3,000 11,960 45,000 39,000 39,000 22,000 0 0 30,000 9,000 36,000  33,120 0 6,000 0 0 15,000 6,000 21,000 6,750 0 0 0 27,000 42,000  7,320 0 6,600 9,000 22,000 3,000 19,000 0 16,100 0 0 6,000 0 0  31,320 0 76,200 108,000 86,000 57,000 50,000 54,000 37,665 114,000 114,000 78,000 78,000 21,000  1 2 3 16 17 18 19  185 185 185 185 185 185 185  12,705 137,116 92,798 63,624 39,204 75,702 30,130  11,220 42,675 0 75,974 26,136 95,832 0  37,785 41,688 0 0 43,560 30,092 14,410  135,960 47,811 60,192 50,320 65,340 45,182 38,121  Source: F i e l d Survey - See Land Use Study Appendix A  TABLE XXIV VACANT LAND - LENGTH OF OWNERSHIP Block No.  0-5 years sq/ft  DISTRICT LOT  15 16 20 23 24 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 40 41 42 44 45 46 53 55 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 65 66 70 71 72 74 75  541 0 0 0 0 0 3,000 15,000 3,000 0 3,000 30,000 9,000 0 15,000 0 12,000 33,000 21,000 6,000 12,000 50,000 21,000 21,360 114,000 6,000 4,500 0  18,000 0 0 6,000 12,000 6,000  6-10 years sq/ft  0 0 0 0 6,240 0 0 0 0 27,000 3,000 9,000 0 0 3,000 0 0  10 - 20 y e a r s sq/ft  Over 20 ; sq/ft  6,000 12,000 3,120 6,000 0 0 0 0 0 6,240 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 12,000 0 12,720 0 0 0 0 18,000 0 9,000 63,000 12,960 9,000 9,000 0 0  0 0 6,000  0 14,280 21,000 46,560 0 9,600 0 0 15,000 0 9,000 57,600 0 0 0 6,000  0 19,560 0 0 21,000 12,000 0 12,000 42,000 27,000 23,000 0 96,000 12,000 0 0  0 41,712 0 0 40,000  0 23,253 0 0 0  Under  construction  0 0 12,000 4,440 36,000 4,560 0 0 0 0 6,000 0 0  TOTAL DISTRICT LOT 541 399,920 DISTRICT LOT  1 2 3 4 5  185  0 51,081 4,356 34,977 20,000  11,834 7,556, 3,564 0 20,000  142 TABLE XXIV (continued) Block No.  0 - 5 years sq/ft  6 - 1 0 years sq/ft  10 - 20 years sq/ft  Over 20 years sq/ft  DISTRICT LOT 185 15 16 17 18  17,424 151,148 16,000 13,068  0 32,736 26,100 34,848  Source: F i e l d Research by Writer  8,646 0 17,400 4,356  0 17,424 0 0  143  Use  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Systems  P l a n n e r s and Urban Land Economists  have d i s c u s s e d the pros and  alike  cons o f l a n d use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems  69 for years.  I t i s n o t w i t h i n the scope of t h i s paper  or e l a b o r a t e on  the v a r i o u s systems,  r a t h e r to employ one  to c r i t i c i z e that w i l l  p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d to d e s c r i b e Downtown Vancouver. r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t l a n d use can be c l a s s i f i e d under a s p e c t s o r dimensions. Each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l y i e l d q u a n t i t a t i v e and  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  employed i n t h i s paper c o n s i s t e n c y and has Land Use of  different  different  The  the b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t  the f l e x i b i l i t y  Inventory ^ 7  fulfills  The  Classification of  internal  to expand to i n c l u d e new  phenomen.  The C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t i s the s o c i a l  the c i t y w i t h b u s i n e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , commercial  and  hub  cultural  development p r e d o m i n a t i n g . The a r e a a l s o houses a number o f o t h e r l a n d uses a n c i l l a r y  to the predominant u s e s , f o r m i n g a r e s i d u e o f the  s e t t l e m e n t which through a p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n has been  original  transformed  from a s e l f c o n t a i n e d community to the c e n t r a l c o r e o f a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . G e n e r a l a r e a s o f l a n d use a r e shown on  the map  page 51 w h i l e  the  l a s t e x h i b i t i n d i c a t e s more s p e c i f i c a r e a s of l a n d u s e . (2) R e t a i l  Centres  7 1  There a r e 3,229,050 square  a r e a d e d i c a t e d to r e t a i l u s e s . T h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  f e e t of b u i l d i n g  14,57. o f the  b u i l d i n g a r e a w i t h i n the study b o u n d a r i e s . S i n c e 1964  t h e r e has  total been  69 Institute 7  square  Hans B l u m e n f e l d . The Modern M e t r o p o l i s (Cambridge of Technology, 1967 ) pp. 292-300 ^ F i g u r e X i l l u s t r a t e s l a n d use a r e a s  T a b l e XXXV Appendix A o u t l i n e s f o o t a g e o c c u p i e d by each.  Massachusetts  the types o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y  and  144  TABLE XXV LOCATION AND SIZE OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL CENTRES - METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER  LOCATION Vancouver  COMMERCIAL FLOOR SPACE sq. f t .  West End  294,681  P o i n t Grey  211,992  Dunbar  340,359  Kitsilano Kerrisdale Cambie  1,453,040 422,805 1,576,713  Oakridge  576,061  Marpole  435,064  Mt. P l e a s a n t  1,897,770  Sunset  770,531  Grandview  574,755  Hastings  531,889  Renfrew  311,321  Kingsway  515,429  Fraserview  437,489  BURNABY  1,951,859  NEW WESTMINSTER  2,105,671  COQUITLAM  333,535  PORT COQUITLAM  307,777  PORT MOODY  86,087  WEST VANCOUVER  915,343  NORTH VANCOUVER CITY  989,000  NORTH VANCOUVER DISTRICT  626,303  RICHMOND DELTA  1,136,721 470,259  SURREY  wha H e y  716,340  Guildford  508,639  Newton  199,848  TABLE XXV ( c o n t i n u e d  Cloverdale  158,190  Sunnyside  120,406  WHITE ROCK  268,600  Total  ( e x c l u d i n g Downtown Vancouver)  Source:  Greater  21,245,377  Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g  COMMERCIAL FLOOR SPACE, F e b r u a r y 1970  Department  146 an increase of 17,000 squate f e e t i n r e t a i l space. This i s an increase of only .67. as compared to a 297. increase i n t o t a l b u i l d i n g area i n the study area. There are three r e t a i l sub centres i n the study area:  (1) G r a n v i l l e  Street Axis - located between Hastings Street and Nelson Street and expanding to include Howe and Seymour Streets between Georgia and Hastings Streets. The Hudson's Bay Co. Department Store provides the mainstay of the area. This area w i l l become the primary r e t a i l area when Eaton's moves to i t s new  store i n Block 52.  (2) a s t i n g s Street Axis - located between G r a n v i l l e and Cambie Streets. H  The area consists of a series of s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l shops depending upon pedestrian t r a f f i c generated by Eaton's and Woodward's Department Stores. (3) Robson Strausse - located on Robson Street between Burrard  Street.  The area consists of a series of small r e t a i l s p e c i a l t y shops with a European flavour. (b) O f f i c e Centres  O f f i c e space i s comprised of general  office,  government o f f i c e , finance, transportation, u t i l i t i e s , communication, business services, and manufacturer's agents, as l i s t e d i n E x h i b i t and accounts f o r 11,061,996 square f e e t of b u i l d i n g space. Building space has increased by 2,376,599 square f e e t approximately 277. over the figure.  1964  By eliminating increases associated with vacant space and  parking structures then approximately two-thirds of the new has been o f f i c e space.  Exhibit  space since  indicates that some types of  o f f i c e space have increased a t a f a s t e r rate than others. There are d i s t i n c t o f f i c e sub-centres within the study area. (1) Established core - located on Hastings Street and Pender Streets between Burrard and Seymour Streets.  1964  three  147  (2) Newer h i g h d e n s i t y b u i l d i n g s - l o c a t e d west o f B u r r a r d w i t h the b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g on G e o r g i a , H a s t i n g s , and  Street  and B u r r a r d  e x t e n d i n g as f a r west as Bute S t r e e t . A n o t h e r a r e a  of high  Streets density  o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s i s s p r i n g i n g up i n the a r e a bounded by Robson, G r a n v i l l e Dunsmuir and Howe S t r e e t s . (3) Medium d e n s i t y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s - l o c a t e d west o f Thurlow S t r e e t i n an a r e a bounded by G e o r g i a , C a r d e r o , H a s t i n g s and Thurlow S t r e e t s . Medium d e n s i t y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s up to 10 y e a r s o f age w i t h a s i t e of f i v e  t i m e s , f r o n t on H a s t i n g s ,  coverage  G e o r g i a and Pender S t r e e t s . Most o f  the new b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e l o c a t e d on secondary s t r e e t s such as Bute and M e l v i l l e S t r e e t s . (c) I n d u s t r i a l , Wholesale and Warehouse C e n t r e s a c c o u n t f o r 8.47. o f b u i l d i n g space i n the study a r e a . uses a c c o u n t e d f o r 9.57. o f the b u i l d i n g a r e a . 1969  These uses  I n 1964  these  I n the f i v e y e a r s from  1964-  there has been an i n c r e a s e o f 232,948 square f e e t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 147.  o v e r the 1964 f i g u r e , w e l l below the average growth o f 297. f o r the t o t a l study a r e a . indicated  In 1954 a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by the C i t y P l a n n i n g  Department  t h a t the g r e a t e s t amount o f space i n downtown Vancouver was  72 devoted to warehousing. has  The 1969 f i g u r e s show t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n  changed d r a s t i c a l l y . The C i t y P l a n n i n g  trends measured over the p a s t  Department now r e p o r t s  ten or f i f t e e n years,  indicate that industry w i l l diminish  that  and now a c c e l e r a t i n g ,  i n the Downtown p e n i n s u l a  and the nature  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department: "Downtown Vancouver 1955-1972, 20 Year Development P l a n . " U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , 1955.  148  of the i n d u s t r y w i l l be  s e r v i c e ( t e r t i a r y ) r a t h e r than  productive  73 manufacturing.  These uses are l o c a t e d i n t h r e e a r e a s  the study a r e a .  throughout  (1) the a r e a bounded by Cordova, Cambie and  the  w a t e r f r o n t , c o n s i s t i n g of pre-1900 m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s most o f which are s t i l l  structurally  (2) The  a r e a bounded by Seymour, Robson, Homer and  S t r e e t s comprised adjacent vacant (3) The  sound.  of two  s t o r e y modern type warehouse b u i l d i n g s w i t h  land f o r p a r k i n g and  purposes.  Robson, B e a t t y and  to the above warehouse a r e a , and  s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s of the n a t u r e (d) Hotel-Mo t e l  found  Smithe  c o n s i s t i n g of m u l t i -  i n the w a t e r f r o n t  T h i s type of use a c c o u n t s  t o t a l b u i l d i n g area, a decrease 1964  expansion  a r e a bounded by H a m i l t o n ,  Streets adjacent  Nelson  area.  f o r 11.67. o f  from the 14.67. f i g u r e i n 1964.  the next  1,000,000 square  two y e a r s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  terms o f b u i l d i n g  feet within  a 407. i n c r e a s e i n  area.  I n the l a s t s i x y e a r s , major c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o t e l s has o u t o f the c o r e ;  west on Robson S t r e e t , G e o r g i a  s o u t h on Howe S t r e e t . There has  conversions  to a use c a l l e d  (e) P u b l i c A r e a Robson, Cambie, G e o r g i a ,  S t r e e t and  been  Davie S t r e e t  a l s o been a number of apartment  the apartment h o t e l . Most o f these  a l o n g Robson S t r e e t o u t of the study  The  Since  there has been no i n c r e a s e i n h o t e l space i n the study a r e a , however,  three major developments w i l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y  and  the  are  area.  T h i s i s a f i v e b l o c k a r e a bounded by Homer, B e a t t y , Pender, H a m i l t o n  a r e a c o n t a i n s the p o s t o f f i c e ,  and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s .  the Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e ,  the  73 C i t y P l a n n i n g Department: "Downtown Vancouver, Development Concepts", pp.  5-6.  149  Vocational Institute,  the Bus Depot, a C a t h o l i c Church, and the f u t u r e  s i t e f o r CBC t e l e v i s i o n , and a b l o c k o f v a c a n t l a n d b e i n g assembled by the C i t y o f Vancouver. ( f ) E d u c a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s  Most o f the s t r u c t u r e s  h o u s i n g these uses a r e l o c a t e d i n o r near the p u b l i c a r e a s mentioned above. These uses have d e c r e a s e d from 4.97. o f the t o t a l a r e a i n 1964 to 4.27. i n 1969. (g) Automobile S a l e s and S e r v i c e  These uses a r e s c a t t e r e d  throughout the study a r e a and a c c o u n t f o r 1.87. o f the t o t a l a r e a as compared  building  to 2.17. i n 1964.  (h) P a r k i n g S t r u c t u r e s  P a r k i n g s t r u c t u r e s a c c o u n t f o r 127.  of the t o t a l b u i l d i n g a r e a as compared to 10.47. i n 1964. S i n c e 1964 there has been a n i n c r e a s e o f 872,165 square f e e t which i s 487. above the 1964 f i g u r e . ( i ) V a c a n t Space  V a c a n t space has a l m o s t doubled s i n c e 1964.  The vacancy r a t e f o r the t o t a l s t u d y a r e a i s 57.. r a t e was 3.77..  I n 1964 the vacancy  T a b l e XXI shows a b l o c k by b l o c k breakdown o f vacancy  74 s t a t i s t i c s . A r e c e n t survey  o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s on the market  l a s t f i v e y e a r s r e v e a l s a v e r y low v a c a n c y r a t e o f 17. i n d i c a t i n g most o f the v a c a n t space i s l o c a t e d i n o l d e r  i n the that  buildings.  Some g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n b u i l d i n g use a r e e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e from the above d i s c u s s i o n . There has been 17,000 square f e e t o f r e t a i l  74 B u i l d i n g Owners and Managers A s s o c i a t i o n - Vancouver done and p u b l i s h e d i n 1970.  . Study  150  space  c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n the study a r e a s i n c e 1964.  2,000,000 square  f e e t of r e t a i l  suburban shopping i n c r e a s e i s due  space has been developed  primarily  due  This  7  to l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the  P l a n n i n g Department e s t i m a t e s by 1985  i n regional  c e n t r e s i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . ^  and heavy t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n i n the study a r e a .  triple  However over  that r e t a i l  suburbs,  In s p i t e of t h i s  spending  i n the CBD  the  will  nearly  to i n c r e a s i n g downtown p o p u l a t i o n .  Commercial o f f i c e space has been by f a r the most e x t e n s i v e type of development i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . There i s a t r e n d toward l o c a t i o n of head or branch p u b l i c and  o f f i c e s of l a r g e c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s (both  p r i v a t e ) by which major s e c t i o n s of the economic system o u t s i d e  the a r e a a r e c o n t r o l l e d . V a n c o u v e r on  the  i s r a p i d l y becoming an e x e c u t i v e  the P a c i f i c r i m . O f f i c e b u i l d i n g  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the next  city  t r e n d s and uses a r e d i s c u s s e d more  s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Vancouver Development  F o r a d e t a i l e d breakdown o f r e t a i l see T a b l e XXXV.  space i n the study  Trends."  area  76 These shopping c e n t r e s a r e : P a r k R o y a l , West Vancouver; Capilano M a l l , N o r t h Vancouver; Lougheed M a l l , Burnaby; G u i l d f o r d Town C e n t r e , Surrey; W a h l l e y Town C e n t r e (K M a r t ) S u r r e y ; Richmond Town C e n t r e , Richmond; Oakridge C e n t r e , South Vancouver; Simpson's Sear, Burnaby. These shopping c e n t r e s o f f e r a t l e a s t one major department s t o r e as w e l l as a f u l l complement o f s p e c i a l t y shops. F o r a d e t a i l e d breakdown see T a b l e XXV.  151 TABLE XXVI BUILDING USE CLASSIFICATION Breakdown of A r e a Square F e e t ? ? D.L. 541  D.L. 185  O.G.T.  A. COMPARISON SHOPPING STORES G e n e r a l Merchandise S t o r e s Department S t o r e s G e n e r a l Dry Goods V a r i e t y Stores Apparel Stores L a d i e s and/or C h i l d r e n s Wear Men's Wear G e n e r a l Shoe S t o r e s L a d i e s o r C h i l d r e n s Shoes Men's Shoes F a b r i c Shops and M i l i n a r y Houses Miscellaneous R e t a i l Outlets ( f u r r i e r s etc) F u r n i t u r e and A p p l i a n c e S t o r e s F u r n i t u r e S t o r e s and A p p l i a n c e O u t l e t s Music S t o r e s M i s c e l l a n e o u s (home f u r n i s h i n g s , antiques, i n t e r i o r decorations e t c ) Other Comparison S t o r e s Jewellery Stores Camera and A r t S t o r e s (hobby) S p o r t i n g Goods S t o r e s B i c y c l e S t o r e s and S p e c i a l t y Auto S a l e s Luggage and L e a t h e r Goods S t o r e s O p t i c a l Goods S t o r e s Watch and J e w e l l e r y R e p a i r s Other  1,032,176 3,415 0  0 1,874 0  738,590 11,760 0  157,227 75,606 36,541 40,573 2,420 15,761  8,804 1,340 294 1,468 0 1,204  79,471 17,618 43,000 69,160 830 0  13,188  2,160  0  113,213 38,941  3,450 0  1,850 0  43,831  0  100,561  60,832 13,811 25,724 1,200 8,187 24,120 6,540 7,029  2,362 3,544 1,933 0 0 780 0 192  5,447 4,818 13,196 2,879 0 3,500 0 722  74,608 213,459 12,970 5,100 0  15,337 86,603 0 3,546 0  12,783 .61,544 3,952 0 0  91,772 14,909 0  6,284 0 0  14,015 244 0  ERVICE RETAIL Personal Services B a r b e r , Beauty Shop, Reducing S a l o n s Cafe Photographic Studios Shoe R e p a i r , Shoe-Shine Shops Key Making, L o c k s m i t s h C l e a n i n g , P r e s s i n g , D r y i n g , Garment Repair, T a i l o r Costume and Dresswear R e n t a l Other  152 TABLE XXVI  (continued) i.L. 541  Repair Services (excluding auto) S p e c i a l t y Repair Stores Watch and J e w e l l e r y R e p a i r s E l e c t r i c Repairs M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e p a i r Shops Transportation Services T r a v e l Agencies T i c k e t O f f i c e s ( r a i l , a i r and sea) Taxi Services Transit Authority Car R e n t a l s  1,684 1,795 0 0  D.L. 185  0 210 950 0  O.G.T.  12,70( 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  21,963 14,417 0 44,782 1,300  2,487 17,488 500 13,062 8,563  Food S t o r e s Food S t o r e s Candy S t o r e s Bakeries  36,559 1,760 8,513  51,450 0 10,800  20,525 1,050  Hardware S t o r e s Hardware Lumber and B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s S t o r e s Plumbing E l e c t r i c a l Sales (not appliances) M i s c e l l a n e o u s Machinery & A p p l i a n c e s  0 0 0 10,036 0  1,699 7,609 8,000 0 0  1,750 1,500 3,800 6,080 10,466  Drug S t o r e s  27,226  2,988  9,225  Other Convenience S t o r e s Stationery Stores Book S t o r e s Florists News D e a l e r s , Newsstands & T o b a c c o n i s t s G i f t , N o v e l t y and S o u v e n i r s P e t Shops, H a t c h e r i e s Other  4,290 29,699 6,295 15,053 51,653 2,916 858  0 3,218 828 7,132 18,598 486 0  0 2,050 0 175 550 0 0  9,000 7,936 6,417 71,973 34,700 183,989  0 1,475  0 13,951 9,225 0 59,000 0  Co CONVENIENCE SHOPPING STORES  D. OTHER CONSUMER GOODS STORES l i q u o r Stores Second Hand S t o r e s Pawn Shops O f f i c e Machine and Equipment S t o r e s Auto S e r v i c e s and G a s o l i n e Auto S a l e s  0 0 8,520 107,810  [J  TABLE XXVI  (continued) D.L. 541  D.L. 185  O.G.T.  E. OFFICE SPACE Professional Services 241,430 Legal - Private Medical P r a c t i o n e r s or C l i n i c s 62,225 47,776 D e n t i s t s and Labs E n g i n e e r i n g O f f i c e s and Labs 92,800 78,600 Accounting Services A r c h i t e c t u r e Firms 35,873 26,900 Other Lab A n a l y s i s Economics, M a r k e t i n g C o n s u l t a n t s 12,669 19,400 Optometrists Business Services 8,700 G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g S e r v i c e s , Bookeeping Data P r o c e s s i n g 58,277 A d v e r t i s i n g and P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s 76,160 P r i v a t e Employment A g e n c i e s 12,233 D u p l i c a t i o n , B l u e p r i n t i n g and A d d r e s s i n g Services 66,697 Stenographic Services 14,923 6,700 Telephone Answering S e r v i c e Other B u s i n e s s S e r v i c e s 52,653 I n d u s t r i a l Development O f f i c e s Professional Services Commercial C o l l e g e s Dancing S c h o o l s Other S c h o o l s - P r i v a t e Language S c h o o l s T e c h n i c a l Schools  5,966 13,164 20,150 5,390 24,100  Public Services 10,050 I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s and T o u r i s t Bureaus 1,000 M u n i c i p a l H a l l s and O f f i c e s Provincial Offices 143,220 Federal Offices 1,172,880 24,280 Other P u b l i c O f f i c e s (Commissions e t c ) Churches and Church H a l l s o r O r g a n i 155,660 zations 27,330 Embassies, Trade Commissions R e a l E s t a t e , F i n a n c e and I n s u r a n c e Real Estate O f f i c e s Land Development O f f i c e s Insurance O f f i c e s Mortgage O f f i c e s T r u s t and Loan O f f i c e s Investment, Bond and S t o c k h o l d e r s Banks Construction Offices Other  64,643 27,836 227,486 27,943 196,000 213,396 355,453 10,360 37,280  105,300 1,800 4,941 86,561 81,970 23,100 958 30,970 0  3,200 0 1,300 51,000 6,945 5,460 250 7,600 0  0 60,951 40,175 0  12,200 38,213 8,350 0  8,968 920 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  6,200 0 0 13,100  0 0 1,900 0 0  0 0 15,200 412,750 0  0 0 9,500 0 0  16,000 10,000  1,400 500  92,100 12,000 175,000 7,900 23,100 50,089 50,500 12,479 53,800  700 0 59,500 500 2,877 18,347 16,870 5,563 4,057  154  TABLE XXVI ( c o n t i n u e d ) O.G.I  D.L. 541  D.L. 185  10,488 27,735 2,416 20,559  2,733 4,654 0 38,889  3,345 5,978 2,476 8,330  286,420 15,112 28,712 414,649 118,412 32,850 2,545 3,610 56,550  3,605 74,469 0 0 136,200 351,890 107,856 14,686 193,900  50,000 11,500 0 0 9,950 47,170 48,265 0 2,574  26,871 339,542 7,951 13,230 0  39,366 50,000 1,442 61,000 25,000  0 0 19,664 0 0  151,267 7,000 38,000 23,850 146,800 106,477 30 ,139 169,580 17,905  22,214 0 0 0 6,000 0 0 0 20,955  16,000 0 0 2,60( 0 0 0 0 2,300  86,000 15,500 12,300  17,800 0 0  E. OFFICE SPACE Service Organizations, Professional S o c i e t i e s , Unions, e t c . Labour Unions Professional Societies Trade S o c i e t i e s Other s o c i e t i e s O f f i c e O f f i c e Types M a n u f a c t u r e r s Agents  (No S t o c k on Premises)  Firm Representatives Industrial Location Services B.C. Hydro Mining Lumber - Log Brokerage O i l Companies Chemicals Import - E x p o r t B r o k e r s Communication and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Telecommunications Telephone Broadcasting Railway Air F.  CULTURAL AND ENTERTAINMENT  FACILITIES  Public N i g h t C l u b s and C a b a r e t s Gymnasia Bowling A l l e y s B i l l i a r d Parlours Motion P i c t u r e Theatres L e g i t i m a t e Stage T h e a t r e s C o n c e r t H a l l s and A u d i t o r i a Libraries A r t G a l l e r i e s and o t h e r Private P r i v a t e Clubs S e r v i c e Clubs Fraternal Organizations  0 0 0  155 TABLE XXVI  (continued)  D.L. 541  D.L. 185  O.G.T.  H. POLICE, FIRE AND OTHER SPECIAL PUBLIC SERVICES Police Stations Fire Stations Law C o u r t s o r M a g i s t r a t e s C o u r t s D e t e n t i o n Homes M i l i t a r y Establishments  0 25,000 35,000 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  I . TOURIST AND VISITOR SERVICES Hotels Motels YMCA YWCA T o u r i s t Apartments  2,554,000 0 0 0  0 12,000 0 70,000  0 0 0 0  1,500 39,000  0 9,430  0 0  76,400 47,800 113,400 50,400  47,300 0 0 0  J . RESIDENTIAL Single Family R e s i d e n t i a l Rooming House Converted S i n g l e F a m i l y Combination Apartment H o t e l Rooming House Apartment Rooms - above r e t a i l Hostel  27,500 3,600 6,500 0  K. INDUSTRIAL Wholesale Warehouse S t o r a g e Warehouse Light Industrial Building  40,837 151,900 525,366  0 8,600 2,000  166,573 302,216 62,800  L. PARKING FACILITIES Public F a c i l i t i e s Private F a c i l i t i e s  77,400 1,593,800  0 614,466  0 416,000  Source: Primary r e s e a r c h by w r i t e r Note 77.  O.G.T. i s the o l d G r a n v i l l e Townsite  as o u t l i n e d i n r e d on F i g u r e I I  156  Land Use of  Inventory  The  C e n t r a l Business  District  i s the s o c i a l  the c i t y w i t h b u s i n e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , commercial and  development p r e d o m i n a t i n g . l a n d uses a n c i l l a r y  cultural  The a r e a a l s o c o n t a i n s a number o f o t h e r  to the main u s e s , f o r m i n g a r e s i d u e of the  s e t t l e m e n t which through  hub  a p r o c e s s of e v o l u t i o n has been  original  transformed  from a s e l f c o n t a i n e d community to the c e n t r a l a r e a o f a l a r g e metropolitan  area.  There a r e s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t a r e a s of l a n d use Section  (1) G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t A x i s - L o c a t e d between H a s t i n g s  S t r e e t s . The Georgia  i n the C.B.D. (a) R e t a i l  a x i s expands to i n c l u d e Howe and  and H a s t i n g s .  The  Hudson's Bay  and  Nelson  Seymour S t r e e t s between  S t o r e , l o c a t e d on the  northeast  c o r n e r o f G e o r g i a and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s i s the m a i n s t a y o f the a r e a . a r e a w i l l become the p r i m a r y  r e t a i l a r e a i n the C.B.D. when E a t o n ' s  Department S t o r e moves i n t o i t s new  (2) H a s t i n g s S t r e e t s . The  The  s t o r e a c r o s s from the  Bay.  S t r e e t A x i s - L o c a t e d between G r a n v i l l e and  area c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l  on p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d  Cambie  shops r e l y i n g  by Eatons and Woodward's Department  Stores.  (3) Robson S t r a u s s e - l o c a t e d on Robson S t r e e t between B u r r a r d Bute. The  a r e a c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s o f small r e t a i l  specialty  shops w i t h  a European f l a v o u r . (b) High D e n s i t y O f f i c e . and  (1) E s t a b l i s h e d Core - l o c a t e d on  Pender S t r e e t s between B u r r a r d and  and  Hastings  Seymour S t r e e t s .  (2) Newer High D e n s i t y B u i l d i n g s - (a)  One  157  area  l o c a t e d west o f B u r r a r d w i t h b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g on B u r r a r d ,  H a s t i n g s and G e o r g i a  S t r e e t s as f a r west as Bute.  (b) The o t h e r a r e a c o n s i s t s o f B l o c k s 42 - 52 and i s bounded by Howe, Robson, G r a n v i l l e and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s . ( c ) Medium D e n s i t y O f f i c e .  L o c a t e d west o f Thurlow S t r e e t i n an a r e a  bounded by G e o r g i a , C a r d e r o ,  H a s t i n g s and Thurlow.  Medium d e n s i t y o f f i c e  b u i l d i n g s up to 10 y e a r s o l d w i t h a s i t e coverage o f f i v e , f r o n t on Hastings  S t r e e t , Georgia  S t r e e t and Pender S t r e e t .  b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e l o c a t e d on secondary  Most o f the new s t r e e t s such as Bute  S t r e e t and M e l v i l l e S t r e e t . (d) L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l and W h o l e s a l i n g . and  (1) A r e a bounded by Cordova  Cambie S t r e e t s and the w a t e r f r o n t , c o n s i s t i n g o f pre-1900 m u l t i  storey buildings s t i l l  structurally  sound. (2) A r e a bounded by Seymour,  Robson, Homer, and N e l s o n S t r e e t s c o n s i s t i n g type warehouses w i t h a d j a c e n t v a c a n t purposes. adjacent  o f two s t o r e y modern  l a n d spaces  (3) A r e a bounded by H a m i l t o n ,  f o r p a r k i n g and e x p a n s i o n  Robson, B e a t t y and Smithe S t r e e t s  to the above warehouse a r e a , and c o n s i s t i n g o f m u l t i - s t o r e y  b u i l d i n g s o f the nature found (e) P u b l i c A r e a s Cambie, G e o r g i a  T h i s i s a f i v e b l o c k "area bounded by Homer, Robson, and B e a t t y , Pender, Hamilton  a r e a c o n t a i n s the p o s t o f f i c e , Institute,  i n the w a t e r f r o n t a r e a .  and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s . The  the Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e ,  the V o c a t i o n a l  the Bus Depot, a C a t h o l i c Church, and the f u t u r e s i t e f o r CBC  t e l e v i s i o n , and a b l o c k o f v a c a n t  l a n d b e i n g assembled by the C i t y o f  Vancouver. (f) Hotel  An area f r o n t i n g on G e o r g i a , between Howe and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s .  In the l a s t f i v e y e a r s major c o n s t r u c t i o n has been o u t south on Howe  158  and west on Robson.  R e c e n t l y announced p l a n s c a l l f o r development o f  h o t e l s on B u r r a r d S t r e e t w i t h i n the c o r e o f the c i t y .  TABLE XXVII BUILDING USE INVENTORY 1964 (L. Smith & Co. ) Versus  Use  1969 * D.L. 541  1969 * D.L.185  1969  Vf  Remainder  1969 1969 % of T o t a l Increase Total * 1969 1969 Area Study Area Over 1964  % Inc:  O f f i c e Space- R e t a i l 1,436,148 G o v t ' t Space 1,368,719 Total Office 579,480 F i n a n c e (Bank e t c ) Transportation, U t i l i t i e s & communication 863,824 Business Service 321,156 Personal & S o c i a l Services 221,327 Entertainment, E a t i n g & 701,552 Drinking 2,559,000 Hotel - Motel Educational, Cultural I n s t i t i o n a l 6c P u b l i c 862,149 Automobile S a l e s and Service 218,689 W h o l e s a l i n g & Warehousing 845,309 525,366 Manufacturing Residential 1,621,687 Parking 674,823 Vacant Space  1,540,913 306,847  334,391 10,847  3 400,456 1,585,603  15.3 7.5  330,456 951,603  10, 150,  84,173  21,694  705,347  3.1  160,000  29  215,145 159,014  35,468 78,299  1,179,437 568,469  5.3 2.5  126,437 514,469  12 953  30,000  93,256  312,577  1.4  132,000  25  167,000  12,590  781,142 2,559,000  .4 11.6  187,112  31  80,498  33,493  940,740  4.2  114,740  13  116,330  59,029  394,048  1.8  51,048  7  89,605 2,004  776,820 64,878  614,466 180,758  416,012 352,451  1,716,634 588,248 217,000 2,662,165 1,208,032  2.6 1 12 5  338,634 315,248 75,000 872,165 589,542  12,813,729  3,586,753  2,288,418  18,818,898  115 43 100  4,434,825  vO  160  TABLE XXVIII  *  OFFICE USE INVENTORY  * D.L. 541  square :feet  * D.L. 185  O.G.T.  Total  7. of 'Total  1,070  22,852  6.07.  Shipping Agents  11,952  9,830  Legal - Private  241,430  127,305  368,735  9.27.  Medical  62,225  1,800  64,000  1.67.  Dentists & Lab  47,776  4,941  52,717  1.37.  Engineering Offices & Lab  92,804  86,561  113,300  292,665  7.37.  Accounting Services  78,617  81,971  6,945  167,533  4.27.  A r c h i t e c t u r a l Firms  25,373  33,566  5,460  64,399  1.67.  Other Labs  27,676  958  246  28,880  .77.  Economics Marketing  12,669  30,970  7,620  51,259  1.37.  Optometrists  19,401  401  19,801  .57.  Real Estate  64,643  32,095  680  97,418  2.47.  Land Development Co  47,836  12,000  12,000  71,836  1.87.  Insurance Offices  227,486  175,016  59,481  461,983  11.67.  Finance  589,480  94,173  21,694  705,347  17.67.  213,396  50,089  18,437  281,922  7.07.  15,361  17,479  5,563  38,403  1.07.  Mining  118,412  136,350  9,825  264,587  6.67.  Lumber  32,848  361,897  47,170  441,815  11.07.  Oil  12,545  137,856  48,265  198,666  5.07.  3,610  14,680  18,290  .57.  Import-Export  56,548  164,258  2,574  223,380  55.57.  Other  37,280  20,916  4,057  62,253  1.77.  364,758 3,998,837  100.07.  Investment,  Brokerage  Construction Offices  Chemical  Total  2,039,368 1,594,711  161  TABLE XXIX RETAIL INVENTORY CBD STUDY AREA (Square GENERAL MERCHANDISE 1,050,000 Department Stores General Dry Goods Variety Stores APPAREL STORES 301,316 Ladies Wear Children's Wear General Shoe Stores Ladies & Children "hoes Men's Shoes Fabric Shops-Millinery Miscellaneous FURNITURE 6c APPLIANCE OUTLETS150,000 Furniture Stores 6c Appliance Miscellaneous (home furnishings antiques, i n t e r i o r decor) OTHER COMPARISON STORES 127,443 Jewllery Stores Music Stores Camera and A r t Stores Sporting Goods B i c y c l e Stores Luggage & Leather Goods O p t i c a l Goods CONVENIENCE GOODS 10,000 Good Stores Hardware Lumber 6c Bldg Supplies Hardware Plumbing E l e c t r i c a l Sales DRUG STORES 27,226 OTHER CONVENIENCE STORES 80,728 Stationery Book Stores Florists News Dealers G i f t s , Novelty Pet Shops Other OTHER CONSUMER GOODS 40,726 Liquor Second Hand Pawn Shops A g r i c u l t u r a l Supply Other TOTAL RETAIL  Feet)  0  28,000  0  8,811  1,025,000  2,075,000  132,467  461,783  95,000  145,000  30,841  167,095  51,450  20,521  71,971  2,988 30,212  9,200 713  39,414 111,653  1,475  25,000  67,200  Source: Primary research b  y  t  h  e  W  r  i  t  e  r  VACANCY RATE - VANCOUVER  f  %C Vacant:  Source: BOMA - Vancouver FIGURE X to  VACANCY RATE - VANCOUVER  24  • A i r Conditioned Average Number of Buildings Reporting (7)  A \ \  23 22 21  •Won A i r Conditioned Average Number of Buildings Reporting (18)  20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1  J  |  •  •  '  I  I  I  '  .  '  »  ource: B.O.M.A. - Vancouver  !  '  «  >  *  t  •  I  I  1  I  I  ,  FIGURE XI  .  APPENDIX B  164 THE  INTRODUCTION  LOWER MAINLAND - BRITISH COLUMBIA ECONOMY  Development o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g the n e x t decade w i l l  e v o l v e as a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y and r e l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth a s p e c t s . T h e r e f o r e f o r purposes  o f the f o l l o w i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o f  downtown Vancouver o f f i c e market p o t e n t i a l i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to renew c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the economic  A thorough  base.  study o f the economic base o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  A r e a would be v e r y time consuming and c o m p l i c a t e d .  The Lower M a i n l a n d  economy i s v e r y complex and r e l a t e d w i t h the remainder economy, the Canadian  o f the B.C.  economy and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i s n o t a n economic base study p r o p e r , a r e v i e w o f the major economic components t o determine d i r e c t i o n o f the economy. distinguishes and  tertiary  rather  the n a t u r e and  The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  t h r e e economic s e c t o r s :  p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y , secondary  industry  industry.  PRIMARY INDUSTRY  The primary i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e ,  f i s h i n g and m i n i n g and a r e i n v o l v e d  forestry,  i n the e x t r a c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f  a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and raw m a t e r i a l s .  A g r i c u l t u r e - A g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t i n B r i t i s h Columbia 667. s i n c e 1949, l a r g e l y r e f l e c t i n g expanding markets. a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y 47. o f Canada's o u t p u t .  has i n c r e a s e  T h i s o u t p u t however  165  A g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d 157. o f a l l j o b s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d due  to a r a p i d l y expanding  however the number of jobs  employment i n the Lower M a i n l a n d w i l l  of the t o t a l l a b o u r  While  may  to b e t t e r f a r m i n g methods.  The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t e s t i m a t e s manufacturing  indirectly  that a g r i c u l t u r a l output w i l l increase  l o c a l market;  not i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y due  s u p p o r t s d i r e c t l y or  that t o t a l  s t a b i l i z e near  207.  force.  g a i n s i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e engaged i n goods  p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s a r e n o t i n p r o s p e c t , i n c r e a s e d employment i n the t e r t i a r y or s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y i s expected Lower M a i n l a n d hasmoved i n t o  throughout  the economy. The  the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l phase o f economic  and  s o c i a l development.  I n t h i s phase the s e r v i c e s e c t o r i s the dominant employer. T a b l e XXXII shows the i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of employment i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r .  Forestry  The  f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s have always been the backbone o f  Columbia's economy and  today  they employ over 117. o f the P r o v i n c e ' s  British labour  f o r c e . B r i t i s h Columbia produces 707. o f Canada's lumber, 827.-of i t s plywood, 257. o f i t s pulp and  147. of i t s paper and  paper board,  m o s t of which i s e x p o r t e d .  Three q u a r t e r s o f the P r o v i n c e s lumber, o n e - q u a r t e r  o f i t s plywood, over  o n e - h a l f o f i t s p u l p and n e a r l y 807. of i t s p u l p and  paper board  i s sold i n  o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . The major markets a r e the U n i t e d S t a t e s , U n i t e d Kingdom, Japan and  the European Common Market i n t h a t o r d e r .  166  The people  l o g g i n g and f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y employs a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,500  i n the Lower M a i n l a n d .  I t i s expected  t h a t the work f o r c e  to l o g areas i n the Lower M a i n l a n d w i l l d e c l i n e over  Mining  The  B r i t i s h Columbia  r a p i d growth. S i n c e 1960  mining  Kingdom and  the n e x t t e n y e a r s .  i n d u s t r y has e x p e r i e n c e d r e c e n t  the a n n u a l v a l u e o f m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n has  t r e b l e d r e a c h i n g an e s t i m a t e d $460,000,000 i n 1969. a major market f o r B.C.  necessary  minerals along with  almost  Japan c o n t i n u e s to be  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the U n i t e d  the Common Market.  In the Lower M a i n l a n d , m i n i n g accounts f o r o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f B.C.'s p r o d u c t i o n w i t h o n l y two o p e r a t i n g mines. However, the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i s important t o the Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a because o f the i n d u s t r i e s such as the s e r v i c i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and  ancillary  i m p o r t i n g o f m i n i n g equipment and  the  p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l f o r which Vancouver has  become the c e n t r e . Vancouver o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s house many o f the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e s f o r the m i n i n g b e n e f i t s from  Fishing  i s a l s o a m i n i n g market and  port  the shipment o f m i n e r a l s .  O n e - t h i r d o f Canadian  the remainder The  i n d u s t r y . There  i s exported mainly  Lower M a i n l a n d  fishing  f i s h p r o d u c t i o n i s consumed d o m e s t i c a l l y , to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t  Britain.  i n d u s t r y employs 2,000 people on a s e a s o n a l  b a s i s and r e q u i r e s t h a t f i s h e r m e n f i n d a l t e r n a t e o f f - s e a s o n employment. The number o f f i s h e r m e n i n the Lower M a i n l a n d w i l l d e c r e a s e w i t h more e f f i c i e n t h a r v e s t i n g method.  l i k e l y c o n t i n u e to  167  SECONDARY INDUSTRY  The secondary sector includes processing, f a b r i c a t i n g  and construction industries which involve the manufacture of raw materials into semi-finished or f i n i s h e d products.  Processing Industries  These industries manufacture simple products from  raw materials and include the following; A) A g r i c u l t u r a l products processing, includes slaughtering and packing plants, poultry processors, milk product processing, pasteurizing plants f i s h products industry, f r u i t and vegetables, feed manufacturers mill.  and f l o u r  Most of the products are consumed by the Lower Mainland and  few  are exported to other markets.  B) Forestry products processing includes shingle m i l l s and pulp and paper m i l l s . Three out of Canada's four top exports are f o r e s t products;  with  the B r i t i s h Columbia producing 717. of the lumber, 817. of the plywood, 237. of the pulp and 157. of the paper output.  In t o t a l 377. of a l l  Canadian f o r e s t product exports o r i g i n a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia where the industry depends heavily upon export markets f o r continued growth.  The Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t has published an " I n d u s t r i a l 78 Location Quotients"  study which i s a measure of the major industries  i n Metropolitan Vancouver. These industries l i s t e d by r e l a t i v e  importance  yg  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : The Lower Mainland Economy: Trends and Prospects: Appendix 3 : 3  168  are:  veneers  (plywood),  p r o c e s s i n g , petroleum p u b l i s h i n g . The readily  s a w m i l l i n g , paper p r o d u c t s , s h i p b u i l d i n g ,  products,  sash and door  s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n d u s t r i e s based  and  on f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s i s  apparent.^  S a w m i l l i n g i s l o c a t e d throughout  B.C.  w i t h major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t  P r i n c e George, s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d and Lower M a i n l a n d  i s the Lower M a i n l a n d .  i n d u s t r y i s p r e d i c a t e d on a v a i l a b l e  advantages and market  No  (planing) p r i n t i n g  fish  labour f o r c e , t r a n s p o r t  advantages.  p u l p m i l l s a r e l o c a t e d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d  i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h u r b a n development, c o n s e q u e n t l y p u l p and  The  due  to  their  o n l y 57. of B.C.'s  paper employees r e s i d e i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. C u r r e n t l y one-  h a l f o f the p u l p produced  i n B.C.  i s exported,  f o r l o c a l manufacture of paper and n e w s p r i n t ,  the remainder  757. o f w h i c h i s  being  used  subsequently  exported.  The Community Economic Base Sudy w r i t t e n by C. T i e b o u t , d i s c u s s e s s e v e r a l methods o f measuring the Economic base o f a community. The i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t i s one of the i n d i r e c t measures o f an economic base. I f a g i v e n community i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d r e l a t i v e to the n a t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r commodity then i t i s p r e s i g n e d an e x p o r t . The l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t i s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a ; "x" i s the unknown. x T o t a l l o c a l employment  _  n a t i o n a l employment i n i n d u s t r y T o t a l n a t i o n a l employment  T h i s method i s based on t h r e e assumptions - u n i f o r m demand - p r o d u c t i v i t y uniform - u n i f o r m p r o d u c t mix  TABLE XXX TOTAL LABOUR FORCE  TOTAL GOODS PRODUCING INDUSTRIES Y^R  No. of persons  TOTAL SERVICE PRODUCING INDUSTRIES  % of T o t a l % Increase labour f o r c e  No. o f persons  % of T o t a l labour force  .  % Increase  TOTAL LABOUR FORCE  No. o f persons  % increase  ^  1951  198,000 44.6%  1961  212,500 36.87.  1966  1975  245,900  55.4%  7%  365,100  63.2%  48%  577,600  30%  1.70  258,000 36.3%  24%  452,000  63.6%  23%  710,000  23%  1.75  325,000 33.9%  26%  635,000  66.1%  407.  960,000  34%  1.95  Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau o f Economics  and S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a ,  443,900  Ratio of Service to Goods  1.24  B.C.  ON VO  170  TABLE XXXI DOMESTIC EXPORTS BY LEADING PRODUCT - 1966  PRODUCT  7. o f T o t a l E x p o r t s Wheat  10.5  Newsprint  9.6  Wood P u l p  5.2  Lumber  4.7  Automobiles  4.3  I r o n Ore  3.7  Aluminum  2.7  Petroleum  3.2  Copper  2.6  Motor V e h i c l e p a r t s  2.5  Nickel  2.1  N i c k e l Ore  1.8  Asbestos  1.6  A g r i c u l t u r a l Machinery  1.6  Fertilizer  1.4  Whiskey  1.3  N a t u r a l Gas  1.1  60.9  Source: D.B.S. Canada Year Book (Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969)  171  Mineral Processing the market i n raw  Most of B r i t i s h Columbia's M i n e r a l s e n t e r o f s e m i - f i n i s h e d s t a t e . In terms of v a l u e of  production metal r e f i n i n g the b u l k coming from  i s B.C.'s t h i r d  largest industry with  the l e a d - z i n c s m e l t e r p l a n t a t T r a i l and  the  aluminum r e d u c t i o n p l a n t a t K i t i m a t .  Petro chemicals w i t h over here;  p l a n t s have l o c a t e d w i t h i n the Lower  t w o - t h i r d s o f B.C.'s p e t r o c h e m i c a l workers b e i n g  the main advantage b e i n g the market and  Fabricating Industries  activity  These i n d u s t r i e s manufacture  i n B.C.  accounts  m a n u f a c t u r e " i n Canada's p r o c e s s i n g and  employed  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network.  m a t e r i a l s " i n t o h i g h v a l u e p r o d u c t s o r p a r t s and Manufacturing  Mainland  "processed  assemble them.  f o r 8.17. of " v a l u e added fabricating industries  p o t e n t i a l f o r f a b r i c a t i o n depends on enlargement o f b o t h  by  the  domestic  and e x p o r t markets. S i n c e the b u l k of B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n , i n d u s t r i e s , and  s e r v i c e s a r e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d  o f f a b r i c a t o r s w i l l be a t t r a c t e d  i t is likely  t h a t the m a j o r i t y  to the Lower M a i n l a n d . A t  present  the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a b r i c a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s of the Lower M a i n l a n d based  on abundant f o r e s t m a t e r i a l s and on s e r v i c i n g w e s t e r n  domestic  markets.  are  Canadian  172  Construction prevailing  Activity  b u s i n e s s and  i n d u s t r y . The  strongly r e f l e c t s  investment c l i m a t e . C o n s t r u c t i o n  doubled between 1961  i n B.C.  o f the  i n this industry  and  1967,  growing f a s t e r  t o t a l f o r c e i n 1961.  The  than any  other 6.87.  g r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  f o r c e i n the range o f 6.57.  t o t a l labour  TERTIARY SECTOR o f our  employment  Lower Mainland's c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r c e amounted to  e s t i m a t e s t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n employment w i l l grow to the  the  Growth i n t h i s s e c t o r o f  proportionately  to 7.17o.  the economy i s the  i n c r e a s i n g m a t e r i a l a f f l u e n c e . Changes i n the economic  result structure  a r e shown on T a b l e XXXII.  S e r v i c e s e c t o r encompasses the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, and  personal  trade, f i n a n c e ,  s e r v i c e , and  Transportation,  insurance,  r e a l e s t a t e , community b u s i n e s s  p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  Communications and  Utilities  The  defence.  Lower M a i n l a n d i s  a f o c a l p o i n t of B r i t i s h Columbia's t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and primary d i s t r i b u t i o n  c e n t r e . Growing markets on  p o i n t to an i n c r e a s e  i n trade  The increased it 117=  is  the P a c i f i c Rim  the countries  through the p o r t o f Vancouver.  Communications i n d u s t r y i s e x p e c t e d to grow i n response  b u s i n e s s and  personal  use  and  technical innovations.  In  to  total  i s e x p e c t e d t h a t employment i n t h i s group w i l l remain i n the range o f -  127.  of  the r e g i o n a l l a b o u r  force.  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Lower M a i n l a n d Economy: Trends and  Board. A r e p o r t e n t i t l e d  Prospects,"  Vancouver, 1969,  p.  "The 31  173  Trade  R e t a i l and w h o l e s a l e  trade e x i s t s  to meet demand f o r consumer  goods M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver f u n c t i o n s as a d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r the r e g i o n and much o f B.C. T h i s can be expected and  purchasing  Finance on  to grow as p o p u l a t i o n  power i n c r e a s e s .  Insurance  and R e a l E s t a t e  Employment i n these s e r v i c e s depends  the s i z e o f the p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d . A t p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  57. o f the  81 l a b o u r f o r c e i s i n t h i s group.  Community,  Business  and P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s  a range o f a c t i v i t i e s  including;  s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n and b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and m a r k e t i n g  T h i s s e c t o r accounts  T h i s c a t e g o r y embraces  e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , s e r v i c e s such as a c c o u n t i n g ,  Ibid.,  p. 32  I b i d . , pp. 33-34  legal  service.  f o r the h i g h e s t and most s t e a d i l y  82 p r o p o r t i o n o f s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y employment.  8 1  personal  expanding  174  THE  FUTURE ECONOMIC ROLE OF THE  LOWER MAINLAND  Having g e n e r a l l y examined the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s section shifts  B r i t i s h Columbia's  Lower M a i n l a n d now  houses over h a l f o f  p o p u l a t i o n and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 607. o f i t s l a b o u r f o r c e .  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s P l a n n i n g Department e x p e c t s  t h a t i t s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t h i s p o s i t i o n and  the n e x t 20 y e a r s w i l l  see a 70% i n c r e a s e i n the r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n and  in  this  to c o n s i d e r the economic r o l e s which t h i s r e g i o n w i l l  p l a y i n f u t u r e y e a r s . The  The  economy  the l a b o u r f o r c e .  perhaps  likely  a 90% i n c r e a s e  83  Employment i n the P r i m a r y S e c t o r w i l l c o n t i n u e to d e c l i n e a p r o p o r t i o n of the Lower Mainland's e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s w i l l drop by 1981  l a b o u r f o r c e . Employment i n the  to o n e - t h i r d o f the p r e s e n t p r o p o r t i o n  r e f l e c t i n g b o t h automation  and d e p l e t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . However,  i n c r e a s e i n m i n i n g a c t i v i t y elsewhere of  i n B.C.  w i l l be a major g e n e r a t o r  employment i n the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s m a n u f a c t u r i n g and  industries  service  to s e r v e as a major s u p p l y and management c e n t r e .  A c t i v i t y o f the Lower Mainland's  processing industries  i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e i n the f u t u r e employment and to d e c r e a s e due of  i s expected  to r i s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . I t i s e x p e c t e d  e x t r a c t i v e and  processing industries w i l l  that  Ibid.,  expansion  stimulate fabricating  i n d u s t r i e s i n the r e g i o n . Thus the f u t u r e o f the secondary  8 3  as  industries  is  tied  to the o v e r a l l economy, the s t r e n g t h of w h i c h depends upon  f o r e i g n demand. The p r o s p e c t s  for fabricating  industries  producing  consumer goods f o r use i n B.C. a r e dependent upon i n c r e a s e s i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n and a f f l u e n c e .  176  TABLE XXXII SERVICE EMPLOYMENT AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT  1961 MORE URBAN  INDUSTRY  Transportation Trade Finance Services  CANADA  LOWER MAINLAND  METRO VANCOUVER  VANCOUVER CITY  9.3  10.9  11.4  11.8  12.5  15.3  17.2  19.5  20.4  20.3  3.5  2.9  5.1  5.4  6.0  19.5  21.4  23.3  23.8  26.7  9.9  9.1  9.0  8.7  57.5  62.5  Public Adminis t r a t i o n  TOTAL  TERTIARY  Source: DBS Census of Canada,  69  9. 3  68.6  70.4  ( C a t s . 94-518, 519: 14-521) (Ottawa : Queen's P r i n t e r 1961)  74.2  177  TABLE XXXIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE LOWER MAINLAND - BY INDUSTRY GROUP 1951 -1981  EMPLOYMENT AS 7. of TOTAL ACTUAL* ECONOMIC ACTIVITY  1951  1961  FORECAST ESTIMATES 1971  1981  2000  range Agriculture  4.4  2.9  1.6  1.0  Extracture  4.3  2.8  1.4  0.8  TOTAL PRIMARY  8.7  5.7  3.0  1.8 1 - 2  Manufacturing  24.0  18.9  19.0  19.0  Cons true tion  7.1  6.8  6.8  6.8  TOTAL SECONDARY  31.1  25.7  25.8  25.8 22-26  Transportation group  11.4  11.4  11.6  11.6  Trade  19.2  19.5  19.5  19.5  4.2  5.1  5.5  5.5  24.0*  23.3  24.9  25.9  1.4*  9.3  9.7  9.9  68.6  71.2  Finance Service *** Public Administration TOTAL TERTIARY  60.2  Source: Lower Mainland's Economy, Trends and Prospects:  72.4 72-77 p. 52.  * Public Administration employment grouped with "Service u n t i l 1961 **  ***  1951 and 1961 Census not s t r i c t l y comparable due to SIC r e v i s i o n s and introduction of the "New Establishment Concept" Community, business and personal service i n d u s t r i e s  mean  1.5  24  74.:  TABLE XXXIV LABOUR FORCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1951, 1961 Actual, 1966 Estimated and 1975 Forecast TRANSPORTATION. COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES No. of Persons  7. of Total Labour Force  74,300  16.87.  337.  102,200  17.77.  377.  11.37.  217.  125,000  17.67.  237.  11.57.  377.  180,000  18.77.  237.  7. of Total Labour Force  YEAR  No. of Persons  1951  48,500  10.97.  1961  64,700  11.27.  1966  80,000  1975  110,000  7. Increase  7. Increase  FINANCE SERVICE  INSURANCE AND REAL ESTATE 108,300  24.47.  577.  174,900  30.37.  617.  4.27.  297.  217,000  30.67,  247.  4.77.  507.  300,000  31.27.  287.  1951  14,800  3.37.  1961  23,300  4.07.  1966  30,000  1975  45,000  TOTAL SERVICE PRODUCING INDUSTRIES  Source: Lower Mainland Trends and Prospects  1951  245,900  55.47.  1961  365,100  63.27.  487.  1966  542,000  63.67.  237.  1975  635,000  66.17.  407,  oo  TABLE XXXV IABOUR FORCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1951, 1961 Actual, 1966 Estimated and 1975 Forecast GOODS PRODUCING INDUSTRIES YEAR  AGRICULTURE No. of Persons  % of Total Labor force  1951  28,100  6.3  1961  24,000  4.2  1966  25,000  1975  28,000  YEAR  FORESTRY (LOGGING) . Increase  % of Total 'io Increase Labour force  25,300  5.7  14%  21,700  3.7  3.5  5%  25,000  2.9  11%  30,000  AGRICULTURE  1951  11,600  2.6  1961  8,400  1.5  1966  13,000  1975  17,000  No. of Persons  1.1  7%  4,600  0.8  7%  3.5  20%  5,000  0.7  107.  3.1  20%  5,000  0.5  07.  99.700  22.5  29%  116,400  20.1  1.8  50%  135,000  1.8  30%  175,000  INDUSTRIES  1951  198,000  44.6%  1961  212,500  36.8%  7%  1966  258,000  36.3%  24%  1975  325,000  33.97.  26%  % of Total •% Inc: Labour force  4,900  FORESTRY (LOGGING)  TOTAL GOODS PRODUCING YEAR  No. of Persons  FTSHTNG AND TRAPPTNG  CONSTRUCTION 28,400  6.4  167.  37,400  6.5  24%  19.0  16%  55,000  7.7  47%-  18.2  30%  70,000  7.3  28%  

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