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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An operational framework relating generic activity patterns in the residential open space environment… Heuer, Harry 1972

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cl AN OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK RELATING GENERIC ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE RESIDENTIAL OPEN SPACE ENVIRONMENT TO PHYSICAL DESIGN by HARRY HETJER D.A. ( E d i n . ) i I960 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Eead of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s or any of the contents f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 B.C. Canada June 9, 1972 ABSTRACT B e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h i s p r o v i d i n g meaningful i n f o r -mation w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between human a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l d e s i g n of the r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i -ronment. While the appeal among p r o f e s s i o n s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s f o r i t s i n p u t i n t o the d e s i g n process seems unanimous, the f a i l u r e t o p o o l , s i m p l i f y and c o n s t a n t l y update such data, continues i n i t "being a c c e s s i b l e t o , and usable by, only a s m a l l , e n l i g h t e n e d and p r i v i l e g e d m i n o r i t y . On the other hand, a l a r g e share of today's housing i n Canada i s produced by i n d i v i d u a l s and orga-n i z a t i o n s , many o f whom are g e n e r a l l y f a m i l i a r and con-cerned w i t h n e i t h e r human behavior nor b a s i c d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s . R e s u l t a n t p r o j e c t s i n v a r i a b l y b e t r a y an almost single-minded approach, t h a t of r e a l i z i n g a maxi-mum number of d w e l l i n g s at a minimum expenditure on a m e n i t i e s . This study attempts t o narrow the gap between the r e s e a r -cher and the p r a c t i t i o n e r . I t proposes a communicable, organized approach t o d e s i g n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g p h y s i c a l components i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment, as to t h e i r responsiveness t o g e n e r i c human a c t i v i t i e s . A Frame of Reference ( a c t i v i t i e s and components) i s deve-lop e d , which generates the context and the problem f o r i i i P a t t e r n s , which, i n t u r n , suggest s o l u t i o n s or p l a t f o r m s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . The p r i n c i p l e evolved, i s then a p p l i e d t o s i t e plans of t h r e e r e c e n t l y completed housing pro-j e c t s . V a r i a b l e s , i n t h i s model, i n c l u d e age of use r s and c l i m a t e of the l o c a t i o n . The b e n e f i t s of t h i s approach, i n c l u d e p r e v e n t i o n of the worst of open space p l a n n i n g , w h i l e encouraging good work t o proceed. Avenues f o r implementing such a process are b r i e f l y explored and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , by money-lending agencies, h e l d as f e a s i b l e . TABLE OP CONTENTS LIST OP TABLES page i v CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION The Problem O b j e c t i v e and Scope of Study Method O r g a n i z a t i o n of Study 1 9 14 18 CHAPTER I I : THE FRAMEWORK 21 PART ONE Frame of Reference V a r i a b l e s General P a t t e r n s S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s Summary PART TWO Example/Option I Example/Option I I Example/Option I I I 21 25 30 33 35 37 40 40 46 52 V CHAPTER I I I : APPLICATION OF FRAMEWORK page 61 Scheme I 63 Scheme I I 66 Scheme I I I 67 A p p r a i s a l 68 Summary 74 CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSIONS 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 REFERENCES 84 APPENDICES: A. Frame of Reference 88 Tables I - X I I I B. S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s 103 LIST OP TABLES Table I : Frame of Reference page 89 General I I : Frame of Reference 90 C h i l d r e n 1+2 years o l d i n summer I I I : Frame of Reference 91 C h i l d r e n 1+2 years o l d i n w i n t e r IV: Frame of Reference 92 C h i l d r e n 2-5 years o l d i n summer V: Frame of Reference 93 C h i l d r e n 2-5 years o l d i n w i n t e r VI: Frame of Reference 94 C h i l d r e n 5-12 years o l d i n summer V I I : Frame o f Reference 95 C h i l d r e n 5-12 years o l d i n w i n t e r V I I I : Frame of Reference 96 Teenagers i n summer IX: Frame of Reference 97 Teenagers i n w i n t e r X: Frame of Reference 98 A d u l t s i n summer X I : Frame of Reference 99 A d u l t s i n w i n t e r X I I : Frame of Reference 100 Handicapped i n summer X I I I : Frame of Reference 101 Handicapped i n w i n t e r XIV: M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s C l i m a t e , A c t i v i t i e s and Age Groups 48 v i i Table XV: M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s page 54-C l i m a t e , Components and Age Groups XVI: A p p r a i s a l 62 S t a t i s t i c s X V I I : A p p r a i s a l 69 U n i t o f A n a l y s i s : Components LIST OP FIGURES F i g u r e 1: I l l u s t r a t i o n / T h e Framework page 26 2: I l l u s t r a t i o n / F r a m e of Reference 28 3: I l l u s t r a t i o n / V a r i a b l e s 32 4: I l l u s t r a t i o n / G e n e r a l P a t t e r n s 34 5: I l l u s t r a t i o n / S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s 36 6: S i t e Plan/Scheme I 63 7: S i t e Plan/Scheme I I 65 8: S i t e Plan/Scheme I I I 68 9: S i t e P l a n / A l t e r n a t i v e Scheme I I 72 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author i s indebted t o P r o f e s s o r Jonas Lehrman f o r h i s advice and encouragement, t o P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman f o r h i s opportune c r i t i c i s m , and t o S i g r i d Heuer, f o r her i n t e r e s t , h e l p and p a t i e n c e . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Th i s study i s concerned w i t h people, components of the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment, and the a c t i -v i t i e s of people i n r e l a t i o n t o these components. A. The Problem "Environmental problems e x i s t when t h e r e i s a per c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e between the present l a y o u t of the environment and t h a t necessary t o meet people's needs or d e s i r e s , or when t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the present environment and one which w i l l respond t o the p o t e n t i a l b e havio-r a l needs of people." 1+ The importance of d e s i g n i n g environments t h a t are re s p o n s i v e t o human behav i o r has never been s t r e s s e d more than a t the present time. P a r t l y t h i s i s due t o new prob-lems posed by i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , but i n some measure i t probably a l s o a r i s e s from the c h a r a c t e r i -s t i c s of human communities t o show a r i s i n g l e v e l of ex-p e c t a t i o n of environmental s a t i s f a c t i o n , as s o c i e t y as + P o o t n o t e s f o l l o w end of chapter 2 a whole advances t e c h n i c a l l y . I n c o n t r a s t t o these ex-p e c t a t i o n s , s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s have shown ag a i n and a g a i n examples of the b u i l t environment appea-r i n g t o f r u s t r a t e r a t h e r than a s s i s t people's normal i n c l i n a t i o n s . Misuse of environmental space and f a c i -l i t i e s , v a n d alism and other s o c i a l phenomena are too o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d by d e s i g n e r s t o people's n a t u r a l con-t r a r i n e s s . Housing p r o j e c t s , such as P r u i t t - I g o e i n S t . L o u i s , c o n f i r m t h a t d e s i g n e r s have g e n e r a l l y been r e l u c t a n t t o concede t h a t the hunches on which t h e i r work was based, took inadequate account of the d e t a i l e d way i n which people a c t u a l l y behave and d e s i r e t o behave when c a r r y i n g out t h e i r o r d i n a r y d a i l y and s e a s o n a l a f f a i r s . T h is problem i s aggravated where the u s e r s are not known, and t h a t i f they were, i n f o r m i n g them about a l l p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n use-f u l and s i g n i f i c a n t enough, r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t gene-r a l l y out of s c a l e w i t h the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r most p r o j e c t s . T h e r e f o r e , i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, hunches and past experience are a l l t h a t d e s i g n e r s have t o go on, and even where they can a f f o r d t o keep themselves up t o date w i t h p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h i n the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s , the q u e s t i o n remains when and how to apply i t t o d e s i g n . 3 The S i t u a t i o n - P r a c t i c e I n February 1970, the Honourable Robert Andras, M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Housing i n Canada, d e c l a r e d t h a t 25200 m i l l i o n would be set a s i d e i n C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ' s 1970 c a p i t a l budget to fund i n n o -v a t i v e forms of low c o s t housing f o r f a m i l i e s and i n d i -v i d u a l s w i t h i n the low income s e c t o r of the p o p u l a t i o n . The aim was t o supply f a m i l i e s i n the 24,000 t o 256,000 per annum income group w i t h new housing, as r i s i n g b u i l d -i n g c o s t s had r e s t r i c t e d new homes a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s group, t o p u b l i c housing. The program was t o focus on housing needs w i t h i n major urban areas where c o n d i t i o n s of t i g h t housing and h i g h c o s t s were e x e r t i n g severe pressure on low income housing o p p o r t u n i t i e s ^ . When f i r s t announced, t h i s program was regarded as a b o l d i n i t i a t i v e t h a t promised the p o s s i b i l i t y of (a) s e e k ing out new d e s i g n approaches and techniques and t o f o s t e r more f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e s i n s t i m u l a t i n g housing produc-t i o n , and (b) d i r e c t i n g of p u b l i c funds t o the housing needs of low income people. Yfhile the program was u s e f u l i n promoting the employment of a number of cost r e d u c i n g f e a t u r e s , i t f e l l s h ort of producing genuine i n n o v a t i o n s 5 i n housing . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e , t h a t f a r too many of the 2200 m i l l i o n program p r o j e c t s t h a t claimed t o r e a c h t h e i r 4 income t a r g e t s , d i d so by t a k i n g advantage of w i n d f a l l s i t u a t i o n s (e.g. the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f r e e or below market v a l u e l a n d ) , and by r e d u c i n g s p a t i a l and environmental standards^. While an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the experiment has t o be an adequate o b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n process t o e s t a b l i s h the degree of user s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t has a l r e a d y been suggested t h a t b e h a v i o r a l i n p u t - a most.fundamental and f a r - r e a c h i n g determinant f o r i n n o v a t i v e d e s i g n -ranked very low on the l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s d u r i n g the de-7 s i g n stage of a l l but perhaps a few of the 85 p r o j e c t s . C r i t i c i s m of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o l u t i o n - , r a t h e r than the problem-oriented, approach t o d e s i g n , i s , of course, not d i r e c t e d s o l e l y at r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s c r e a t e d f o r low-income f a m i l i e s , but i s a p p l i c a b l e t o most housing, i n v a r y i n g degrees^. The S i t u a t i o n - Research At the moment no u s e f u l framework f o r the syn-t h e s i s of a l l the s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s t h a t d e a l w i t h (a) the i n t e r a c t i o n between man and h i s p h y s i c a l environment and (b) the i n t e r a c t i o n between man and man w i t h i n i t , r e a l l y e x i s t s . A number of attempts have been made, however, t o develop a devi c e which extends the u s e f u l n e s s of t r a d i t i o n a l d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s by i n c r e a -5 s i n g the de s i g n e r ' s understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s they d e f i n e . Notable among these p r i n c i p l e s are (1) the development and s e r i o u s implementation of the user r e -sponse concept, by the A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t , U n i -v e r s i t y of Edinburgh and (2) the development of " P a t t e r n s " and " P a t t e r n language" by C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander and h i s c o l l e a g u e s at the Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e i n B e r k e l y . User Response The A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t has e x i s t e d w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh s i n c e 1959, when i t was s t a r -t e d by P r o f e s s o r S i r Robert H. Matthew. I t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e , t o which i t has a t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The U n i t ' s p o l i c y has always been, t o r e l a t e i t s r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g a c t i v i -t i e s c l o s e l y t o p r a c t i c e , and i t has, t h e r e f o r e , over the y e a r s , developed a r i g o r o u s b u i l d i n g p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n . T h e i r main i n t e r e s t s , under housing, f a l l i n t o two p a r t s : (a) a concern w i t h user response and housing a p p r a i s a l and (b) the p r o d u c t i o n of housing. The U n i t was founded on the concept of user r e -sponse as an a i d to b e t t e r d e s i g n and i t s work has deve-6 q veloped s i n c e the f i r s t study 1 7 i n t o a deeper concern w i t h l a y o u t problems - the spaces around b u i l d i n g s - r a t h e r than w i t h the d e t a i l e d d e s i g n of d w e l l i n g s themselves. Q The Prestonpans study^ d e s c r i b e s the f o l l o w - u p between 1962 and 1965, by members of the A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t , on a p r o j e c t of 45 low c o s t , s i n g l e s t o r e y c o u r t -yard houses, which they designed i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e f o r the East L o t h i a n County C o u n c i l and which was b u i l t i n 1962. S i m i l a r past s t u d i e s by the U n i t have i n c l u d e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o aspects of t r a f f i c - s e p a r a t e d housing l a y o u t s 1 0 , housing f o r o l d p e o p l e 1 1 and h i g h - r i s e l i v i n g 1 2 . 13 A more rec e n t study, "Low-Rise High D e n s i t y Housing Study" , r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t stage of a development c y c l e of which the second stage i s i n p r o g r e s s . I t presents d e s i g n recommendations t o be t e s t e d d u r i n g the l a t e r stages of the p r o j e c t . The A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t works c l o s e l y w i t h Government agencies such as the S c o t t i s h S p e c i a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , which i s mainly concerned w i t h environmental upgrading of C o u n c i l housing b u i l t d u r i n g the immediate post-war p e r i o d . The S.S.H.A. r e l i e s h e a v i l y on feedback p r o v i d e d by r e s e a r c h . 7 P a t t e r n s and P a t t e r n Language " P a t t e r n s " and " P a t t e r n Language" are exten s i o n s of /'Design D i r e c t i v e s " 1 ^ and of ideas c o n t a i n e d i n an e a r -l i e r work, "Notes on the S y n t h e s i s of Form". C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have, s i n c e 1963, developed t h i s d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e at the Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , which was c r e a t e d f o r t h i s purpose. The p a t t e r n language i s composed of p h y s i c a l or s p a t i a l elements and of r u l e s f o r t h e i r combination i n t o p a t t e r n s , which, i n t u r n , generate p h y s i c a l elements or components. The p a t t e r n i s a p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d image, not a v e r b a l or q u a n t i t a t i v e performance standard and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s both v e r b a l and g r a p h i c i n d i c a t i o n s t o d e f i n e i t . I t always c o n t a i n s t h r e e de-s t i n c t i v e p a r t s , the f i r s t of which i s the context or " i f " statement t h a t d e f i n e s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n i n which the p a t t e r n a p p l i e s . Secondly, each c o n t a i n s the "then" statement which proposes a s o l u t i o n and, f i n a l l y , the problem statement t h a t g i v e s the background f o r the p a t t e r n and the s p e c i f i c d a t a , upon which i t i s based. The " i f " statement and the problem d i s c u s s i o n make the p a t t e r n open to c r i t i c i s m , m o d i f i c a t i o n and c o n t i n u a l reassessment. The importance of these three fundamental aspects of p a t t e r n s , which g i v e them a c e r t a i n f o r m a l 8 r i g o r , stands out s h a r p l y i n the experience which has been b u i l t up i n u s i n g them, as w e l l as i n the i n t e n s i v e t h e o r e t i c a l e f f o r t c a r r i e d out over the l a s t n i n e years 15 at the Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e . While p a t t e r n s are e x p l i c i t , r e l a t i v e l y easy t o use and t o f o r m u l a t e , g i v e n the necessary i n s i g h t and f e e l , p a t t e r n language or the r u l e s f o r combining p a t t e r n s , are l e s s so. One i s r e q u i r e d t o "take the r e l e v a n t p a t -t e r n s and grasp them as a whole s t r u c t u r e , as a grammar of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o be absorbed u n t i l i t i s second n a t u r e " 1 ^ . As an a i d i n h e l p i n g d e s i g n e r s a c q u i r e 17 an easy grasp, t h e r e f o r e , i t f a l l s s h o r t The Need I t may be summarized then, t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r , i n g e n e r a l , continues to c r e a t e housing p r o j e c t s f o r the needs of users as he sees them, w h i l e r e s e a r c h not o n l y accumulates more and more b e h a v i o r a l d a t a , but i s b e g i n -n i n g t o succeed i n c h a n n e l l i n g some of t h i s i n t o d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s . The t a s k remains, however, t o make these p r i n c i p l e s a v a i l a b l e t o , and usable not only by an e n l i g h -tened and p r i v i l e g e d m i n o r i t y , but a l s o by those r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r producing today's housing i n Canada. 9 B. O b j e c t i v e and Scope The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s t o f o r m u l a t e a Framework t o f a c i l i t a t e the process of (1) i d e n t i f y i n g problems of c o n f l i c t and (2) d e s i g n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g p h y s i c a l components i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space e n v i -ronment, w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r esponsiveness t o g e n e r i c human a c t i v i t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1. The A c t i v i t y i n a Context, i n the Frame of Reference and i n the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , i s an observable and purposive a c t of a g e n e r a l or s p e c i f i c nature between people, people and p h y s i c a l elements, e.g. " T a l k i n g " and " S i t t i n g " . A c t i v i t i e s are g e n e r i c , and by d e f i n i t i o n , c a r r i e d on w i t h minor v a r i a t i o n s , i f any, by people of d i f f e r e n t socio-economic,, c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c backgrounds. 2. A Component i n a Context, i n the Frame of Refe-rence and i n the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , i s one of a number of p h y s i c a l elements, such as "Roads", "Carparks" and "Swings", but e x c l u d i n g b u i l -10 clings, the sum of which make up the open space system of a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . Components are g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r func t i o n a l , r a t h e r than t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l , charac-t e r i s t i c s . A c t i v i t y + Component 3. The Context i n the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , i n General and S p e c i - Context f i c P a t t e r n s , r e f e r s t o an a c t i v i t y s e t -t i n g , e.g. " S i t t i n g i n a Playground". 4. The Problem i n a P a t t e r n e x i s t s v/hen t h e r e i s a p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e between a p h y s i c a l Com-ponent i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space e n v i r o n -ment, and t h a t , necessary to accommodate user's t e n d e n c i e s . Tendencies, being concrete and ob-s e r v a b l e , are the o p e r a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t of needs or a s p i r a t i o n s . _ _ _ _ * SPECIFIC PATTERN 5. A S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n comprises a S p e c i f i c Context d e r i v e d from the Frame of Reference, S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n 11 a S p e c i f i c Problem and a S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n (see page 35). 6. A General P a t t e r n GENERAL PATTERN s y n t h e s i z e s the i n -f o r m a t i o n developed General General Context Problem i n the M a t r i x o f V a r i a b l e s , i n t o a General Problem and teaB5gg8.'i~^^ a General S o l u t i o n w i t h i n the General Context. I t serves a l s o t o d i r e c t the user of the Framework t o more de-t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n ( S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s ) f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on the General P a t t e r n (see page 33). 7. A M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s i s the means of a n a l y z i n g a General. Context, such as " P l a y i n g i n a Car- . park" or " S i t t i n g i n Community Open Space". V a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e age, c l i m a t e and A c t i v i t i e s or Components (see page 30). 8. The Frame of Reference, t a b l e s I - X I I I , i s a A c t i v i t y + Component c o l l e c t i o n of g e n e r i c human A c t i v i t i e s and Context 12 p h y s i c a l Components, s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the frequency of t h e i r r e c u r r i n g i n the open space environment of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . The user of the Framework s e l e c t s , from the Frame of Reference, the A c t i v i t y and the Com-ponent which he wishes t o examine and proceeds w i t h the Context obta i n e d , through e i t h e r a M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s or a S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n (see page 25). 9. The Framework i s the term a p p l i e d t o the p r i n -c i p l e evolved i n t h i s study. I t c o n s i s t s o f (1) the Frame of Reference, (2) M a t r i c e s o f V a r i a b l e s , (3) General P a t t e r n s and (4) Spe-c i f i c P a t t e r n s . 10. The R e s i d e n t i a l Environment i n c l u d e s l o w - r i s e medium d e n s i t y housing p r o j e c t s f o r low t o medium income f a m i l i e s , who own or r e n t accom-modation. Medium d e n s i t y ranges from 12 t o 20 u n i t s per a c r e . 11. User Need. S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the r e s i d e n t i a l environment are g e n e r a l l y conduc-ted t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t user groups w i t h 13 r e s p e c t t o age, income, l i f e s t y l e and needs. The outcome of such r e s e a r c h i s then s t a t e d i n terms of user needs or requirements, p r e f e r -a b l y i n the form of l i s t s of v a r i a b l e s . These can e a s i l y be q u a n t i f i e d and measured, t o a l l o w v e r i f i c a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c cases, so t h a t d e c i s i o n s are not l i k e l y t o be questioned a f t e r w a r d s because of conceptual vagueness or u n c e r t a i n t y about the a c t u a l q u a n t i t i e s p ro-v i d e d i n a g i v e n s o l u t i o n . The standards of performance are then s e t , a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , as v a l u e s or ranges of va l u e s f o r the v a r i a b l e s . While i t sounds i n e v i t a b l e t o base development of the b u i l t • environment upon these user needs, a number of d i s t u r b i n g p r o p e r t i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d , i n the process of more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g exami- < 18 • n a t i o n : (1) user needs change over time f o r f the same i n d i v i d u a l , so much so as not t o per-mit an une q u i v o c a l statement about t h e i r needs; (2) people w i t h i n the same user group are d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r needs, and these needs do change from one i d e n t i f i a b l e group t o another, some t r a n s i t i o n being automatic, such as ageing and others 14 random and v o l u n t a r y , s u b j e c t to f a s h i o n and t h e r e f o r e u n p r e d i c t a b l e ; (3) user needs are dependent on s o c i a l c o n t e x t , where a person may e x h i b i t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t needs i n one so-c i e t y as compared t o when he i s moved t o another; (4) the "ask the u s e r " approach be-comes suspect where the p r o s p e c t i v e user can-not develop a proper value p o s i t i o n and make ch o i c e s , being i n a v o i d remote from the ac-t u a l experiences of the impending consequences of a d e c i s i o n . The term "user n e e d s / a s p i r a t i o n s " , r a t h e r than "needs", i s t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y used throughout t h i s study, because i n c l u s i o n of " a s p i r a t i o n s " makes i t q u i t e evident t h a t they may be c o n f l i c t i n g , c o u n t e r a c t i n g or mutu-a l l y e x c l u s i v e . C. Method I n i t s attempt to r e l a t e human g e n e r i c a c t i v i t i e s t o p h y s i c a l components i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space e n v i -ronment , t h i s s tudy 1. develops i t s own conceptual Framework; 2. adapts emerging d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , n o t a b l y 15 those pioneered and developed by C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander, i n d e v e l o p i n g General and S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s w i t h i n the Framework; 3. draws on o b s e r v a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s from the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s f o r d a t a . The study i s l a r g e l y s t i m u l a t e d by C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander's e x t e n s i v e work on P a t t e r n s and P a t t e r n Lan-guage and the r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y at present of such d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s t o the l a r g e r segment of those respon-s i b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of today's housing. Chapter I I presents the concept f o r a Framework and the thr e e o p t i o n s of o p e r a t i n g i t . Step 1 i n the procedure, the Frame of Reference, f a c i l i t a t e s the combining o f human ge n e r i c A c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l Components i n the r e s i d e n -t i a l open space environment i n t o S p e c i f i c or General Con-t e x t s . Contexts, s p e c i f i c as t o age group, c l i m a t e , A c t i -v i t y and Component, are examined through the co r r e s p o n -d i n g S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n (Option I ) . General C o n t e x t s , on the other hand, i . e . the combination of a General Component w i t h a S p e c i f i c A c t i v i t y (Option I I I ) or a S p e c i f i c Com-ponent w i t h a General A c t i v i t y ( Option I I ) , are analyzed a g a i n s t the v a r i a b l e s of age, c l i m a t e , Components or A c t i v i t i e s i n the corresponding M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s (Step 2 ) . 16 General P a t t e r n s (Step 3) are then f o r m u l a t e d , by syn-t h e s i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n , obtained from Step 2, i n t o a General Problem and a General S o l u t i o n w i t h i n the General Context, o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d . The General P a t t e r n a l s o p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n t o a p p r o p r i a t e S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s (Step 4) f o r more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The Frame of Reference and the S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s are the e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of the Framework, p r o v i d i n g most of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o formulate the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s and General P a t t e r n s . Steps 2 and 3, however, are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the concept t o o f f e r more than one approach t o a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; t o f a c i l i t a t e the ex-p l o r i n g of a problem at a s p e c i f i c as w e l l as at a gene-r a l l e v e l and t o make b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e t o a wider spectrum of d e s i g n e r s . P a r t one of chapter I I d e s c r i b e s the concept and p a r t two i l l u s t r a t e s how i t operates. Chapter I I I presents t h r e e e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s c a t e r i n g t o two d i f f e r e n t income groups. The housing schemes are s u b j e c t e d t o s c r u t i n y through P a t t e r n s , developed i n t h i s study. The summarized f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s the d e s i g n and l o c a t i o n of b a s i c Components i n terms of i d e n t i f i a b l e P a t t e r n s . An a l t e r n a t i v e t o the second p r o -17 j e c t i s proposed, through the Framework, by i n c o r p o r a t i n g s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l P a t t e r n s . Chapter IV concludes the study, c o n f i r m i n g the ne-c e s s i t y f o r a p r i n c i p l e which b r i n g s b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h w i t h i n e a s i e r reach of a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s and s u g g e s t i n g how agencies, developers, and r e s i d e n t s , may b e n e f i t from u s i n g such a concept. 1 8 D. O r g a n i z a t i o n of Study-Chapter I Chapter I I Chapter I I I Chapter IY INTRODUCTION FRAMEWORK APPLICATION CONCLUSIONS OF FRAMEWORK Problem Context Need f o r B e h a v i o r a l Input i n t o P h y s i c a l Design l o w - r i s e Medium De n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Open Space Objec-t i v e Method For m u l a t i o n of Framework r e l a t i n g Human Generic A c t i v i t i e s t o P h y s i c a l Components Research and Design A n a l y s i s Conclu-s i o n s ice f Frame of ReferenV a r i a b l e s e n e r a l nd S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s Examples/ i O p t i o n I t l i p t i o n I I f b p t i o n I1 e s c r i p t i o n ^ and A p p r a i s a of S i t e P l a n 19 FOOTNOTES l a n g , J . , " A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r Human Behavior: The Nature of the Problem", A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r Human Behavior, c o l l e c t e d papers from a mi n i - c o n f e r e n c e , P h i l a d e l p h i a Chapter/the American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , P h i l a d e l -p h i a , 1971, p. 6. p M i c h e l s o n , W., "Most People don't want what A r c h i -t e c t s want", T r a n s a c t i o n , Volume 5, No. 8, July- A u g u s t , 1968, pp. 37-43. See a l s o Prawley, M., "Breakdown of a Theory", A r c h i t e c t u r e v e rsus Housing, Praeger, New York, 1971, pp. 81-97. ^ " S p e c i a l 55200 m i l l i o n Low-Cost Housing Program", I n t e r i m Report, C.M.H.C., Ottawa, 1971, p. 8. ^"Where the S3200 m i l l i o n went", a Commentary on the  1970 C.M.H.C. S200 m i l l i o n " I n n o v a t i o n s " Program by the Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development Housing Committee, Ottawa, 1971, pp. 9, 13. 6 I b i d . , p. 18 7 I b i d . , p. 18 See a p p r a i s a l of scheme I I I , chapter I I I . o "Courtyard Houses, Inchview, Prestonpans", Report  by the A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, 1966. "••^"Aspects of T r a f f i c Separated Housing Layouts", Stevenage Development C o r p o r a t i o n , Stevenage, 1970. i : L"Housing f o r Old People", J . and C. Byrom, R.I.B.A.  J o u r n a l , September 1969, pp. 371-8. 12 Byrom, Connie, "How High?", Town and Country P l a n -n i n g , September 1970, p. 387. 20 ^"low R i s e High D e n s i t y Housing Study", Report  by A r c h i t e c t u r e Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, 1970. 1 4 K r i e d b e r g , M.B., F i e l d , H.H., "Problems of P e d i a t r i c H o s p i t a l Design", F i n a l Report, Tufts-New England. M e d i c a l Center, Boston, Mass., 1965. ^Montgomery, R., " P a t t e r n language", A r c h i t e c -t u r a l Forum, Jan./Feb., 1970, p. 53. " " " ^ S i l v e r s t e i n , M., " P a t t e r n Language", Paper, A.I.A. Researchers Conference, Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1969, P» 7. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 8 1 ft Ferguson, R.S., "User-Need S t u d i e s t o improve B u i l d i n g Codes", Paper, Proceedings of the Edra 3/ar 8 Conference, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , M i t c h e l , W.J. ed., 1972, p. 9-4-1. CHAPTER I I THE FRAMEWORK The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present the main e f f o r t of t h i s study, the o p e r a t i o n a l Framework, t o r e l a t e human g e n e r i c a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment t o the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n of the components of t h a t space. P a r t one d e s c r i b e s the concept and p a r t two i l l u s t r a t e s , by examples, how the Framework may be put i n t o o p e r a t i o n . P a r t One R a t i o n a l e " I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted, t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e determinant of environmental amenity depends on open space and i t has a l s o been understood f o r some time t h a t open space by i t s e l f i s only a beginning - t h a t i t s d e s i g n and how i t i s de-t a i l e d , i s at l e a s t as important as the f a c t t h a t i t e x i s t s " . 1 H a l p r i n , 1. and A s s o c i a t e s , "New York, New York", C i t y of New York, 1968, p . l . See a l s o Chapin, F.S. J r . , "Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g " , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , Urbana, 1965, p.50. 22 The Framework which f o l l o w s , . seeks to guide the d e s i g n e r i n t o r e c o g n i z i n g some of the consequences which l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of r e s i d e n t i a l open space components may have on the g e n e r i c a c t i v i t i e s of people. I t i s d i -r e c t e d at everyone concerned w i t h c r e a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l environments and i n p a r t i c u l a r at those i n the housing i n d u s t r y , whose primary g o a l i t i s , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t of l a n d use c o n t r o l s , t o achieve maximum d e n s i t i e s at the expense of inadequate and o f t e n a r b i t r a r y open space p l a n n i n g ; inadequate i n the sense t h a t b a s i c movement and storage of v e h i c l e s and movement of people are u s u a l l y provided f o r , w h i l e the c o n s i d e r a b l e number of s p e c i f i c , r e q u i r e d and d i s c r e t i o n a r y , a c t i v i t i e s , which people en-gage i n d a i l y and s e a s o n a l l y , are not. Whereas i n i s o l a t e d cases, progress i s being made to develop r e s i d e n t i a l environments, s p e c i f i c a l l y s u i t e d t o the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n t s through t h e i r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , and i n f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t r o l o f , the d e s i g n process, the m a j o r i t y of r e n t a l p r o j e c t s and condominiums i n t h i s country continue to r e f l e c t the p r i o r i t i e s and v a l u e s as seen by the developer. The Frame work, t h e r e f o r e , f a l l s between these two extremes and i t seeks, q u i t e simply, t o i n f l u e n c e these t r a d i t i o n a l and u s u a l l y b i a s e d p r i o r i t i e s and v a l u e s . I t i s n e i t h e r a 23 d e v i c e w i t h which t o determine a t o t a l s i t e p l a n s y s t e -m a t i c a l l y , nor a means through which t o desig n the e n v i -ronment t o s u i t a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c or s o c i o -economic s e c t o r of the p o p u l a t i o n . The Framework i s a c h e c k l i s t o f , and a source of r e f e r e n c e f o r , b a s i c human a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p h y s i c a l components of the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment. I t seeks t o draw a t t e n t i o n , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , t o the m u l t i p l i c i t y of uses t o which r e s i d e n t s put, and a s p i r e t o put, the components o f the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment, and secondly suggests avenues f o r d e s i g n i n g and l o c a t i n g these so t h a t they p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g f o r the d i v e r s i t y of b a s i c human a c t i v i t i e s . To achieve these g o a l s , the Framework has t o s a t i s f y a number of c r i t e r i a . I t must be simple t o operate r a t h e r than complex; i n f o r m a t i v e r a t h e r than p r e s c r i p t i v e ; a l l o w the user t o take s h o r t c u t s i n a r r i v i n g at i n f o r m a t i o n he seeks, r a t h e r than f o r c i n g him t o f o l l o w a l e n g t h y process each time. The P r i n c i p l e The Framework i s i n two p a r t s . The f i r s t i t e m i z e s b a s i c human A c t i v i t i e s , e.g. " S i t t i n g " , and Components, e.g. 24 "Playground", the combination of which p r o v i d e s the Context e.g. " S i t t i n g i n a Playground". The second p a r t , having decided on the context which i s t o be examined, i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the Problems which are known t o a r i s e when people r e l a t e , or attempt t o r e l a t e , t o one another and t o components o f the r e s i d e n t i a l open space e n v i -ronment. F i n a l l y , a S o l u t i o n i s proposed f o r the problem. A c t i v i t y + Component Context + Problem S o l u t i o n P a r t one of the Framework i s r e f e r r e d t o as the Frame of  Reference, w h i l e the context and the problem combine t o generate a P a t t e r n w i t h a s o l u t i o n i n p a r t two• To p r o v i d e the user of the Framework w i t h a c h o i c e of approa-ches i n i d e n t i f y i n g and examining a problem, two f u r t h e r op-25 t i o n s (see page 2 7 ) , i n a d d i t i o n t o the one d e s c r i b e d above, have been i n c o r p o r a t e d . Each of these l a t t e r examinations are f o l l o w e d through f o u r s t e p s : (1) the  Frame of Reference, (2) the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , (3) General and (4) S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s . However, i n Options I I and I I I the examination can be termina t e d at whatever p o i n t the user f e e l s he has reached the i n f o r m a t i o n he seeks. F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the Framework i n i t s e n t i -r e t y , w h i l e f i g u r e s 2, 3, 4, and 5 rep r e s e n t the break-down i n t o the f o u r s t e p s , t o be d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l i n t h i s chapter. A. Step 1 Frame of Reference The Frame of Reference i s a c o l l e c t i o n of human g e n e r i c a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l components i n the r e s i -d e n t i a l open space environment, which were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r frequency of occurance. The Frame of Reference i s not n e c e s s a r i l y complete - but open-ended. Towards a c h i e v i n g one of the aims of t h i s Frame-work - t o prompt the des i g n e r i n t o an awareness of the great d i v e r s i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l components - the Frame of Reference (see 26 THE OPTION I to examine a s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t y r e l a t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c component OPTION I I to examine a s p e c i f i c  component as to v a r i o u s  a c t i v i t i e s i t f a c i l i t a t e s OPTION I I I t o examine a s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t y as i t r e l a t e s t o d i f f e r e n t  components Step 1 PRAMS OP REFERENCE Tables I - X I I I i n c l u s i v e Step 2 VARIABLES Step 3 GENERAL PATTERN Step 4 SPECIFIC PATTERN S p e c i f i c i i c t i v i t fby B p e c i f i [A.ge Gro i n Summer i n t e r + p p e c i f i c j omponer j; I p e c i f i q ont ext r S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n [General 1 l A c t i v i t y l I + f I'Specif icp |Componen|; [General £ 1C ont ext | I i 8 f General | Component t + I [ S p e c i f i c ] A c t i v i t y ! i = i General | ^Context 4 6 :*i A c t i v i t i e s tAge^j&roup (Climate | Components .Age* Group Cl i m a t e 1 ^General «« ^ C o n t e x t / \ + X General fpfWlenff ^ Generax «^.-> \Context / \ + General ^ fefotJlerl General | S o l u t i o n g e n e r a l f S o l u t i o n if ^ S p e c i f i c - - ^ % Contexty^ X + / Spe.ci€'ic Pro Diem S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n «?-fSpecif i c ^ r VC ont ext& \ > S p e c i f i c Problem S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n . + means "combine" - means "suggests" 27 Appendix 'A' t a b l e s I - X I I I ) , i s designed to f a c i l i t a t e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s or c o n t e x t s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . Although each f o r a d i f f e r e n t age group, summer or w i n t e r , a l l t a b l e s c o n t a i n the same a c t i v i t i e s and components f o r ease of r e l a t i n g one t o the ne x t . C r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g a c t i v i t i e s and components, spaces are l e f t blank where a r e l a t i o n s h i p may occur, and bl a c k e d out where t h i s i s u n l i k e l y . The user of the Framework i s o f f e r e d t h r e e courses of a c t i o n , dependent on whether h i s . i n t e r e s t l i e s i n a d e t a i l e d aspect of the open space environment or whether he seeks t o know the wider r a m i f i c a t i o n s of h i s concept. The t h r e e l i n e s of approach are b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : Option I : To enable the de s i g n e r t o examine the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y by a member of a s p e c i f i c age group, i n w i n t e r or i n summer, and a s p e c i f i c component i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment -the Frame of Reference p r o v i d e s the S p e c i f i c  Context, v i z . the combination of a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y w i t h a s p e c i f i c component. Option I I : To enable the d e s i g n e r to examine a s p e c i f i c 28 FRAME OF REFERENCE OPTION I to examine a s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t y r e l a t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c  component, i d e n t i f y from Tables I I - X I I I OPTION I I to examine a s p e c i f i c  component as to v a r i o u s  a c t i v i t i e s i t f a c i l i t a t e s , i d e n t i f y from Table I OPTION I I I to examine a s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t y as i t r e l a t e s to d i f f e r e n t  components, i d e n t i f y from Table I jjSpeci f i c f U c t i v i t y f far I ;;Specificf Uge G-rou!p j i n | : Summer or W i n t e r | u + 1 ('Specific; J^-C proponent* jGeneral I ^ A c t i v i t y ! f + I j S p e c i f i c f iComponent S p e c i f i c — Context-General Context General -Context-29 component, as t o the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i t may or does f a c i l i t a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t age groups, i n w i n t e r or i n summer - the Frame of Reference p r o v i d e s the General Context, v i z . the combination of a g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y w i t h a s p e c i f i c component. Option I I I : To enable the de s i g n e r t o examine a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y as i t i s c a r r i e d out by v a r i o u s age groups, i n w i n t e r or i n summer, i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t components - the Frame of R e f e -rence p r o v i d e s the General Context, v i z . the combination of a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y w i t h a g e n e r a l component. S p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s (from t a b l e s I I - X I I I i n c l u s i v e ) and g e n e r a l c o n t e x t s (from t a b l e I ) are f i x e d by c r o s s -r e f e r e n c i n g the a c t i v i t y a g a i n s t the component, and the number of the t a b l e from whence the context came, completes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which i s Table Number repeated throughout the process, Step 1 t o Com-po-A c t i -v i t y Step 4. Thus, from t a b l e I I , 1+2 year o l d c h i l d - I I r e n s i t t i n g i n playground i n summer i s r e f e r r e d f 20 t o as 30 I d 15-w h i l e a g e n e r a l context from t a b l e I , b i k i n g  i n community open space, i s i d e n t i f i e d as B. Step 2 M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s Designers tend t o t h i n k i n terms of g e n e r a l i t i e s when confronted w i t h the q u e s t i o n of human a c t i v i t i e s i n the open space environment, i . e . p l a y i n g i n a playground r a t h e r than jumping, c l i m b i n g , s l i d i n g , p u d d l i n g , d i g g i n g , e t c . . Each of these s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s have obvious, and sometimes not so obvious, i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n and l o c a t i o n of components. R a r e l y are v a r i o u s age groups considered which use a playground a c t i v e l y or pas-s i v e l y i n summer and a s p i r e t o use i t i n w i n t e r . I n e q u a l l y broad terms, d e s i g n e r s o f t e n r e g a r d p h y s i c a l components and t h i n k i n terms of people s i t t i n g  i n p u b l i c open space, unaware, q u i t e o f t e n , t h a t few w i l l i n f a c t p a t r o n i z e a bench by a walkway, but t h a t young and o l d w i l l g r a v i t a t e and s i t i n p l a c e s where th e r e i s a c t i o n i n which to p a r t i c i p a t e or which t o observe, and t h a t teenagers w i l l s i t i n secluded p l a c e s , e t c . . Both are examples of g e n e r a l c o n t e x t s ; the f i r s t 31 b e i n g a combination of a g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y w i t h a s p e c i f i c component, and the second a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y w i t h a gene-r a l component. The M a t r i c e s of V a r i a b l e s present t h i s l e v e l of t h i n k i n g and permit the a n a l y s i s and break-down of gene-r a l c o n t e x t s i n t o s p e c i f i c ones (see F i g u r e 3 ) . The user of the Framework, having d e c i d e d t o exa-mine e i t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a s p e c i f i c component t o v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s ( O p t i o n I I ) , or a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t components ( O p t i o n I I I ) , s e l e c t s the g e n e r a l context from the Frame of Reference ( t a b l e I ) and s u b j e c t s i t t o s c r u t i n y i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g M a t r i x o f V a r i a b l e s . Two examples were developed i n chapter I I , p a r t two of t h i s study t o i l l u s t r a t e the Framework, which w i l l be complete, however, only when a l l M a t r i c e s of V a r i a b l e s and General P a t t e r n s have been developed. T h i s , i n t u r n , can occur o n l y when S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s become more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . C l i m a t e T h i s v a r i a b l e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o no p a r t i c u l a r geo-g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n i n Canada but does o b v i o u s l y not apply F i g u r e VARIABLES OPTION I I to examine a s p e c i f i c  component as to v a r i o u s  a c t i v i t i e s i t f a c i l i t a t e s , a nalyze General  Context i n re s p e c t of OPTION I I I / t ; t o examine ! a s p e c i f i c ; a c t i v i t y as j i t r e l a t e s •; to d i f f e r e n t  components,; analyze j General j Context i n ) re s p e c t of j S p e c i f i c Problems S p e c i f i c Contexts 'Component ''Age Grou ^ ' C l i m a t e ' S p e c i f i c Problems S p e c i f i c C ont.ext .s... t o areas when they are su b j e c t e d to temperatures below the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e comfort l e v e l of 20° F f o r a d u l t s and 10° F f o r c h i l d r e n , i n the sun and p r o t e c t e d from wind. 33 Age Groups Re s i d e n t s are d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r reasons of keeping the Framework manageable. The l a s t group, "Handicapped", i n c l u d e s persons l e s s than one year o l d , those too o l d or otherwise handicapped t o move about f r e e l y by themselves or i n an unimpeded manner. C. Step 3 General P a t t e r n Whereas the M a t r i c e s of GENERAL PATTERN V a r i a b l e s (see pages 48 and 54) are designed t o analyze a gene-r a l c o n t e x t , the General P a t t e r n i s a means of (a) s y n t h e s i z i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a g e n e r a l problem and a g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n w i t h i n the g e n e r a l context d e r i v e d from the Frame of Ref e -rence ( t a b l e I ) ; (b) summarizing the s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s f o r each age group examined; and (c) d i r e c t i n g the user t o the a p p r o p r i a t e S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on the General P a t t e r n . The p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 1 and 4, w h i l e Options I I and I I I d e s c r i b e the procedure, through F i g u r e GENERAL PATTERN OPTION I I to examine a s p e c i f i c  component as to v a r i o u s  a c t i v i t i e s i t f a c i l i t a t e s , a n a l y z e General  Context i n res.pect_jof V a r i a b l e s  and synthe-s i z e S p e c i f i c i n t o General OPTION I I I j t o examine \ a s p e c i f i c J a c t i v i t y as i t r e l a t e s ! to d i f f e r e n t  components,; analyze ( General \ Context i n | .r.e.sp.e.c_t.„o.fv V a r i a b l e s and synthe-) s i z e S p e c i f i c i n t o General -Problems .-Problems— [General § Context ( 5 + I General ^ Problem ;|General ^Context | 'General x. Problem General S o l u t i o n N . / General \ S o l u t i o n ) examples, i n part two of chapter I I . L i k e M a t r i c e s of V a r i a b l e s , General P a t t e r n s are dependent on, and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o , S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s . While two examples have been developed i n chapter I I , p a r t two of t h i s t h e s i s , t o i l l u s t r a t e the concept, the Framework i s not complete u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s 35 are a v a i l a b l e from which t o for m u l a t e General P a t t e r n s . D. Step 4 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s A S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n i s a h y p o t h e s i s which s t a t e s a s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n among p a r t s of the environment. Each p a t t e r n i s based on a human problem which occurs when p a r t s of the environment are SPECIPIC PATTERN S p e c i f i c S p e c i f i c Context i Problem S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n b eing shaped and l o c a t e d . Each p a t t e r n suggests a c o n t e x t which d e s c r i b e s the range of c o n d i t i o n s under which the p a t t e r n i s a p p l i c a b l e . A l s o , each p a t t e r n i s s t a t e d i n a format t h a t a l l o w s i t t o be understood by everyone, i n v i -t i n g c r i t i c i s m and refinement from those whom the environ-ment i s meant t o serve. The format, used i n t h i s study, o r i g i n a t e s from, but i s not i d e n t i c a l t o , the concept pioneered by C. Alexander and developed by the Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y (see chapter I ) . S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s , the f i n a l element of the Frame-work developed i n t h i s study (see F i g u r e s 1 and 5 ) , com-p r i s e the s p e c i f i c context ( d e r i v e d from the Frame of 36 F i g u r e SPECIFIC PATTERN OPTION I _ t o examine^ a ' s p e c i f i~c — a c t i v i t y — ' r e l a t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c  component, formulate S p e c i f i c  Context from Tables .-I-I-rXIII .... S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n Reference, t a b l e s I I - X I I I ) ; a s p e c i f i c problem and s o l u t i o n , both of which o r i g i n a t e from r e s e a r c h and/or o b s e r v a t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n u s u a l l y f o l l o w s each p a t t e r n . While the Frame of Reference f a c i l i t a t e s the per-mutation of a l a r g e number of c o n t e x t s , p a t t e r n s were de-veloped, s u f f i c i e n t i n number t o i l l u s t r a t e the o p e r a t i o n o f the Framework (see examples, p a r t two, chapter I I and Appendix B) - the emphasis i n t h i s t h e s i s being on p r e -37 p a r i n g a Framework i n t o which to plug such d e s i g n i n f o r m a -p t i o n as i t becomes a v a i l a b l e . Summary The preceding Framework was developed t o attempt to b r i n g i n t o focus some of the more, s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between man and h i s p h y s i c a l environment, and t o enable p r o f e s s i o n a l s and l a y d e s i g n e r s a l i k e t o approach r e c u r r i n g problems i n a manner t h a t w i l l l e a d to s o l u t i o n s or p l a t f o r m s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . The emphasis, t h e r e f o r e , r a -t h e r than s o l u t i o n - o r i e n t e d , i s on f i n d i n g a p r i n c i p l e through which t o begin t o ask more r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s ; r e l e v a n t t o human needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . The Frame of Reference, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s f u n c -t i o n w i t h i n the Framework, o f f e r s an overview of the de-gree to which a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out and components are used by v a r i o u s age groups. I t suggests, f o r example, t h a t a c t i v i t i e s most popular i n r e l a t i o n t o the m a j o r i t y of components i n c l u d e w a l k i n g , s i t t i n g , t a l k i n g , l i s t e -n i n g , watching and e a t i n g . C h i l d r e n , ages 1-12 years o l d , 2 F o l l o w i n g t e n years of work, s e v e r a l hundred P a t t e r n s are being compiled p r e s e n t l y by the Center f o r E n v i r o n -mental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , t o be p u b l i s h e d end of 1972 by Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 38 are found t o be most a c t i v e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment year round; u t i l i z i n g a l l components, whether designed t o accommodate the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y or not. Among the components, c a r p a r k s , which form a focus or community open space, are s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y s e t t i n g s i n terms of use. A l a r g e number of year-round a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e t h e r e by a l l age groups, except the h a n d i -capped, suggesting t h a t g r e a t e r e f f o r t s are r e q u i r e d not t o remove cars from d w e l l i n g s but t o e x p l o i t the obvious a t t r a c t i o n of people t o t h i s type of open space. M a t r i c e s of V a r i a b l e s and General P a t t e r n s were designed t o provide an overview f o r u s e r s of the Frame-work who are i n t e r e s t e d i n the wider r a m i f i c a t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s and components i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t age groups. A v i t a l p a r t of the process and p r o v i d i n g most of the back-up i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Steps 2 and 3, S p e c i f i c P a t -t e r n s were f i n a l l y developed i n s u f f i c i e n t number o n l y , t o i l l u s t r a t e the Framework and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . They r e p r e s e n t , t h e r e f o r e , a modest c r o s s - s e c t i o n of those r e q u i r e d f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g of a r e s i d e n t i a l p r o-j e c t . I n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the development of P a t -t e r n s , n o t a b l y at the Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , 39 B e r k e l y , w i l l make i t f e a s i b l e and d e s i r e a b l e t o adapt and i n c o r p o r a t e these i n t o a Framework such as t h i s , as they become a v a i l a b l e . P a r t Two F o l l o w i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Framework i n p a r t one of t h i s chapter, t h i s s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s how i t may-be used. For t h i s purpose the f o l l o w i n g Frame of Reference t a b l e s , M a t r i c e s of V a r i a b l e s , General and S p e c i f i c P a t -t e r n s 4 were f o r m u l a t e d . A complete Framework i n c l u d e s a M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s and a General P a t t e r n f o r each General Context, i d e n t i f i e d i n t a b l e I , and i s p o s s i b l e only as more S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s become a v a i l a b l e . The user of the Framework decides upon the a c t i v i t y and the component he wishes t o i n v e s t i g a t e "and examines the context through Steps 2 t o 4 (see chapter I I , p a r t one) A. Example/Option I To examine a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , by a s p e c i f i c age group, r e l a t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c component of the open space environment - the user i d e n t i f i e s the s p e c i f i c context ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y and s p e c i f i c component, by a s p e c i f i c •5 See a l s o Appendix 'A' f o r a more comprehensive s e l e c t i o n . A See a l s o Appendix 'B' f o r a more comprehensive s e l e c t i o n . 41 age group, w i n t e r or summer). He then proceeds to the S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n . The f o l l o w i n g example examines the s p e c i f i c con-t e x t of 1 t o 5 year o l d s " P u d d l i n g i n a Playground", which i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the Frame of Reference, t a b l e s I I and IV, and d i s c u s s e d i n the corresponding S p e c i f i c I I and IV f 8 -42 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 1+2  y e a r s o l d i n summer General' A c t i v i t i e s playing o p e c i x x c .vj.^o A c t i v i t i e s -hockey - b a l l riumpjng s w i n g i n g climbing. s l i d i n g p u d d l i n g >> o •H & s c a o O fX o o en i o +> o > rH •H ,Q JO lo o +3 > •H 1^ moving d i g g i n g c r a w l i n g walking .jogging r u n n i n g resting b i k i n g  d r i v i n g lying s l e e p i n g s i t t i n g t a l k i n g w a t ching working eat ing__ r e a d i n g . S t o r i n g -l i s t e n i n g c l e a n i n g -repairing-g a r d e n i n g -c o n s t r u c t i n g - _ c a r r y i n g -_ 2 9 1 31 i 22. Community ]pace P r i v a t e -P u b l i c O.S. Driveway ^ ro ro Co -o, ro ro o> Ul -f- v>i ro no 00-^3 ro o <o CD ON VJ1 ro Frontyarcf Backyard" PrivateUTS. 44 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n I I and IV f 8 S p e c i f i c C h i l d r e n 1-5 years o l d P u d d l i n g i n Playgrounds, Context: S p e c i f i c Lack of m a t e r i a l s i n playgrounds i n c r e a s e wear Problem: and t e a r on P u b l i c and Community Open Space. S p e c i f i c PROVIDE Y/ATER AND SAND IN PLAYGROUNDS. S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : C h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y between the ages of two and f i v e , are f a s c i n a t e d by water, mud and sand. They become p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e , f o l -l o w i n g thaw or a r a i n s t o r m , amusing them-s e l v e s i n puddles, i n depressed, undrained landscaped areas and near clogged c a t c h b a -s i n s ( 5 ; . Any puddles i n a r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i -ronment should be designed ones and p r e f e r -a b l y i n playgrounds. R i c h a r d D a t t n e r , a r c h i -t e c t , f o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Estee and Joseph Lander playground i n New York's C e n t r a l Park i n 1967, observed t h a t f o r these younger c h i l d r e n the most i n t e r e s -t i n g f e a t u r e seemed to be a water channel. "Here they run, s p l a s h , s a i l s t i c k s and boats, and f e t c h water t o mix w i t h the sand. The i n f a n t s j u s t s i t i n the sand and d i g , a p p a r e n t l y unconcerned by the maelstrom o f x a c t i v i t y around them." (6) Another example, i l l u s t r a t i n g the importance of minute p a r t s of the m a n i p u l a t i v e e n v i r o n -ment f o r i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y , i s recorded by R.C. Moore ( 7 ) , f o l l o w i n g h i s study of Lerxnox-(5) Observations - Student F a m i l y Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C., Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. (6) Hurtwood, Lady A l l e n of, " P l a n n i n g f o r P l a y " , Thames and Hudson, London, 1968, pp. 77, 102. (7) i b i d . , p. 77. 45 Camden Playground, Massachusetts, 1966. "A group of f i v e - y e a r - o l d s spent a good hour making 'mud p i e s ' the sand to make them w i t h , was brought i n a paper bag from the s a n d - p i t , the water from the f o u n t a i n , the ' f r u i t ' (sawdust) from the area where sawing had been done, the ' f r o s t i n g ' was shaken from an o l d can of c l e a n i n g powder." 46 B. Example/Option I I To examine a s p e c i f i c component as to the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i t f a c i l i t a t e s , by d i f f e r e n t age groups, the user i d e n t i f i e s the g e n e r a l context ( s p e c i f i c component and g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y ) i n the Frame of Reference. He then proceeds to the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , the General P a t t e r n and, f i n a l l y , to the S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s . The f o l l o w i n g example, "Moving along Walkways", g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y and s p e c i f i c component, i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t a b l e I and analyzed i n the corresponding M a t r i x of , the data o r i g i n a t i n g from S p e c i -f i c P a t t e r n s and o b s e r v a t i o n . The user i s then d i r e c t e d t o the appro-p r i a t e General P a t t e r n b e a r i n g the same i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and which s y n t h e s i z e s the f i n d i n g s from Step 2. The General P a t t e r n a l s o d i r e c t s the user to S p e c i f i c P a t -t e r n s f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on the General P a t t e r n . V a r i a b l e s 47 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE General G e n e r a l b p e c i i x c A c t i v i t i e s A c t ! v i t i e s paying. -no.CKey - b a l l swinging. climbing. s l i d i n g pudd": i n g d i g g i n g moving c r a w l i n g w a l k i n g .•logging r u n n i n g  b i k i n g d r i v i n g r e s t i n g s l e e p i n g s i t t i n g  t a l k i n g . l i s t e n i n g  w atching e a t i n g r e a o i n g working c l e a n i n g -r e p a i r m g -;araemr.g-c oris t rue ting-_ s t o r i n g j -c a r r y m g -blc (elf' g ( h ( i \ jlk 4 8 General Context: M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s I c 10 Moving along Walkways Age Group General Observations C h i l d r e n 2-5 years o l d C h i l d r e n 5-12 years o l d Handicapped w a l k i n g b i k i n g as above as above w a l k i n g j o g g i n g b i k i n g w a l k i n g Go to General P a t t e r n I c 10 as above and g e n e r a l p l a y as above tendency to s h o r t c u t perambulators problems i n o r i e n t a t i n g , and i n nego-t i a t i n g changes of l e v e l s and other i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s , due to b l i n d n e s s , i n f i r m i t y and confinement to wh e e l c h a i r s 49 General P a t t e r n I c 10 General Context: General Problem: General S o l u t i o n : Moving along Walkways. Walkways are o b s o l e t e the day they are con-s t r u c t e d , u n l e s s they accommodate most of the tendencies and a c t i v i t i e s of v a r i o u s u s e r s . PUBLIC WALKWAYS, NOT LESS THAN 6 FEET WIDE, SHOULD FOLLOW THE SHORTEST AND LEAST OBSTRUC-TED ROUTE BETWEEN GENERATORS. D i s c u s s i o n : The human organism seeks to conserve energy by m i n i m i z i n g r e q u i r e d motion. Secondary t o t h i s need are the a s p i r a t i o n s ; o p p o r t u n i t i e s to f u l f i l the s o c i a l , sensory, k i n e s t h i c and p e r c e p t u a l requirements. While one type of path i s a s s o c i a t e d more w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of d i r e c t communication and another w i t h l e i s u r e l y meandering, both f a c i l i t a t e c e r -t a i n common a c t i v i t i e s . C h i l d r e n use a l l walkways f o r a c t i v i t i e s other than to go from p o i n t A to p o i n t B. E l d e r l y u t i l i z e an e n t i r e path system t o e x c e r c i s e and t o so-c i a l i z e . For e l a b o r a t i o n see S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n . X XI t o I I c 12 6 50 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n X t o X I I I c 12 6 S p e c i f i c A d u l t s and Handicapped Walking and C l i m b i n g Context: on walkways S p e c i f i c R e s t r i c t i o n of p e d e s t r i a n movement t h a t Problem: t o t a l or p a r t i a l b l i n d n e s s and o l d age may impose. S p e c i f i c WALKWAYS SHOULD 3E ILLUMINATED AT NIGHT AND S o l u t i o n : NOT LESS THAN 6 FEET WIDE TO ALLOW PEDEST-RIANS, CYCLISTS, PERAL3ULAT0RS AND WHEEL-CHAIRS TO PASS ONE ANOTHER. SURFACING ilATE-RIALS SHOULD GENERALLY BE RESILIENT AND CONSOLIDATED EXCEPT IN ILIPORTANT CIRCULATION NODES SUCH AS STAIRCASES. THESE SHOULD AL-• WAYS BE COUPLED WITH RAMPS AND FINISHED WITH RESONANT SURFACES, HANDRAILS ON BOTH SIDES AND FREE OF PROJECTIONS WHERE THEY CAN NOT BE DETECTED BY A CANE. D i s c u s s i o n : The s t i l l w i d e l y h e l d view, t h a t the b l i n d and the p a r t i a l l y b l i n d , have b e t t e r oppor-t u n i t i e s i f they are segregated i n t o s p e c i a l environments, does not appear t o be shared by many of those thus a f f l i c t e d . (8) D e s i g -ners u s u a l l y i g n o r e the o f t e n modest r e q u i r e -ments of m i n o r i t y groups, even though they are b e n e f i c i a l t o user s at l a r g e . O c c a s i o n l y , i n g e n i o u s systems of c l u e s are p r o v i d e d , which form only a s m a l l p a r t of the t o t a l commu-n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n . Research i n t o the methods, by which the b l i n d use l o c a t i o n and d i r e c -t i o n c l u e s , has shown, t h a t a wide v a r i e t y of a u r a l , t a c t i l e and k i n e s t h i c senses are (8) Observations - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia l a t i o n areas, Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. c i r c u -1972. 51 used when moving about. S u f f i c i e n t hardness of s u r f a c e s i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i n impor-t a n t c i r c u l a t i o n areas to promote echoes. Change of f l o o r f i n i s h e s approximately 3 f e e t from head and f o o t of s t a i r s and ramps, i s another d e s i r e a b l e f e a t u r e . (9) I l l u m i n a t i n g walkways at n i g h t should be mandatory, s i n c e i t has the p o t e n t i a l t o s o l v e a number of problems as w e l l as enhan-c i n g the open space environment. I t can 1. i n c r e a s e s a f e t y from i n j u r y and crime; 2. a t t r a c t people t o key a r e a s ; 3. i d e n t i f y a r e a s ; and 4. emphasize p o s i t i v e and de-emphasize n e g a t i v e aspects of the environment. (10) (9) Adams, G.R., "Designing f o r the Handicapped: E l i n d and P a r t i a l l y S i g h t e d " , O f f i c i a l A r c h i t e c t u r and  P l a n n i n g , Sept. 1969, p. 1077. (10) McGowan, T.K., " I n the Proper L i g h t " , A.I.A. J o u r n a l , December 1970, p. 46. 52 C. Example/Option I I I To examine a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y as c a r r i e d out by d i f f e r e n t age groups i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s components -the user i d e n t i f i e s the g e n e r a l context ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y and g e n e r a l component) i n the Frame of Reference. He then proceeds t o the M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s , the General P a t t e r n and, f i n a l l y , the S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s . The f o l l o w i n g example, " S i t t i n g i n P u b l i c and Community Open Space", s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y and g e n e r a l com-ponent, i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t a b l e I and analyzed i n the c o r -responding M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s the data o r i g i n a t i n g from Spe-c i f i c P a t t e r n s and o b s e r v a t i o n . I a 20 d The u s e r i s then d i r e c t e d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e General P a t -t e r n b e a r i n g the same i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and which s y n t h e s i z e s the f i n d i n g s from Step 2. The General P a t t e r n a l s o d i r e c t s the user t o S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on the General P a t t e r n . 53 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE General moving r e s t i n g working storir.g;-c a r r y m g 54 M a t r i x of V a r i a b l e s I a 20 d General S i t t i n g i n P u b l i c and Community Open Space Context Age Group j Win- I t e r Sum-mer Components | I General | Observations C h i l d r e n 1+2 years o l d - ® @ ® Playground Carpark Front and Eackyard C h i l d r e n 2-5 years o l d ® @ ® © Playground Carpark Road at or near a c t i v i t i e s C h i l d r e n 5-12 years I o l d ® as above as above Teenagers [ - © i n s e c l u s i o n and at n e i g h -borhood nodes A d u l t s Playground Carpark Front and Backyard near c h i l d r e n and i n s e c l u s i o n Handicapped © Playground Carpark Road Fr o n t y a r d at or near a c t i v i t i e s Go to General P a t t e r n a d 20 55 General P a t t e r n I a 20 —'an General Context: General Problem: General S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : S i t t i n g i n P u b l i c and Community Open Space. People w i l l not g e n e r a l l y p a t r o n i z e designed f a c i l i t i e s f o r s i t t i n g , u n l e s s they s a t i s f y f u r t h e r needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . LOCATE SEATING IN OPEN SPACES NOT EXCEEDING 70 FEET IN DIAMETER AT OR NEAR ACTIVITIES OR ATTRACTIONS IN WHICH TO PARTICIPATE OR WHICH TO OBSERVE. PROVIDE SOME DEGREE OP PROTECTION PROM THE ELEMENTS. Observations, which have been made f o r some time, are beginning to be confirmed by so-c i a l s c i e n t i s t s such as Sommer and de Jong, as to where, i n the open space environment, people f e e l most comfortable. People, i n open spaces, g r a v i t a t e t o border or w a l l l o c a t i o n s f o r p r i v a c y and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r v i s u a l contact w i t h the beyond, i n p r e -ference to exposure i n c e n t r a l areas, u n l e s s t h e r e i s a s t r o n g c e n t r a l f o c u s . Scale and p r o p o r t i o n being r e l a t i v e , Alexander and Lynch suggest, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t open spa-ces should g e n e r a l l y not exceed 70 to 80 f e e t i n diameter and be s c a l e d down a c c o r -d i n g to the a c t i v i t i e s they provide the s e t t i n g f o r . A h i e r a r c h y of open space must surround a b u i l d i n g w i t h s m a l l , i n t i m a t e areas immediately a d j a c e n t , l e a d i n g i n t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r ones beyond. People, the e l d e r l y and the young i n p a r t i c u -l a r , are not g e n e r a l l y content t o s i t i n p l a -ces which do not o f f e r the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e p h y s i c a l l y or v i s u a l l y i n some f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y . P r o t e c t i o n from sun and wind i s a p r e - r e q u i -s i t e f o r outdoor comfort and should be o f f e r e d as a matter of c h o i c e . For e l a b o r a t i o n see S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s I I to VII i n c l J X t o X I I I i n c l 57 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : I I to VII i n c l . f 14 2J 23! 2i C h i l d r e n 2-12 years o l d S i t t i n g , L i s t e -n i n g , Watching, Run n i n g , C l i m b i n g and Cr a w l i n g i n P l a y -grounds. T r a d i t i o n a l p l a y -grounds f a i l t o pro v i d e the s c a l e and d i v e r s i t y i n which c h i l d r e n are com-f o r t a b l e and m o t i -v a t e d . PLAYGROUNDS SHOULD BE UNDULATING IN TOPO-GRAPHY. V a r i e d topography p r o v i d e s s a f e t y . P l a t a s -p h a l t s u r f a c e s , common i n playgrounds, do not curb random movement. A c c i d e n t s are caused, t h e r e f o r e , by two c h i l d r e n r u n n i n g at f u l l speed a c r o s s a f l a t a rea and c o l l i -d i n g . Through s t u d i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n , the areas can be broken down i n t o many s e c t o r s , r e d u c i n g the amount of u n c o n t r o l l e d movement w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s e r i e s of i n t i m a t e spaces i n which c h i l d r e n gather c o m f o r t a b l y . Topo-g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n p r o v i d e s vantage p o i n t s where c h i l d r e n can group and engage i n pas-s i v e p l a y , and watch other c h i l d r e n , to l e a r n from. T h e i r o v e r l o o k a l l o w s them to gather f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and, i m p o r t a n t l y , t o r e s t w h i l e s t i l l i n v o l v e d i n the t o t a l e n v i -ronment. (11) (11) P r i e d b e r g , M.P., "Playgrounds f o r C h i l d r e n " , B u l l e t i n  27-A, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Childhood E d u c a t i o n I n t e r -n a t i o n a l , '.Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 44. 58 The topographic anatomy i s the" f o u n d a t i o n f o r c o m plexity and v a r i e t y i n such a c r e a -t i o n as a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , t h a t lends i t s e l f t o a d d i t i o n and i n c l u s i o n of s l i d e s , t u n n e l s and swings - n a t u r a l l y . Complexity a l l o w s f o r continued i n t e r e s t , d i s c o v e r y , c h o i c e , and year-round use r a t h e r than seasonal o n l y , because the a d d i t i o n a l dimension of snow, f o r example, extends, r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p l a y . The young c h i l d ' s environment should p r o v i d e a slow t r a n s i t i o n from the womb t o the hard a d u l t w o r l d . (12) (12) Bayes, K. and F r a n c k l i n , S., "Designing f o r the Handicapped", George Godwin L t d . , London, 1971, p. 24. 59 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n t o X I I I i n c l . _b_'..c_ 2 0 i 2' 23; 2: S p e c i f i c A d u l t s and Handicapped S i t t i n g , T a l k i n g , Context: Watching and Reading i n Playgrounds, near Roads and Walkways. S p e c i f i c Designed s e a t i n g , u n l e s s l o c a t e d at or near Problem: an a t t r a c t i o n and u n l e s s s h e l t e r e d from, as w e l l as exposed t o , wind and sun, does not answer the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of u s e r s . S p e c i f i c ONE OUT 0? EVERY THREE BENCHES, PLACED IN S o l u t i o n : THE RESIDENTIAL OPEN SPACE ENVIRONMENT, SHOULD BE PROTECTED PROLi WIND AND SUN AND ALL SHOULD BE LOCATED IN PLAYGROUNDS, AT POINTS WHERE PEOPLE AND VEHICLES MEET AND IN SELECTED PLACES WHICH OPPER EXPERIENCES UNIQUE TO THE AREA (VIEW, TRANQUILITY, ETC.). D i s c u s s i o n : S h e l t e r from wind and o r i e n t a t i o n towards the sun are c o n s i d e r e d two of the most important c o n d i t i o n s f o r comfort o u t - o f - d o o r s . While i t may seem c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o advocate s h e l t e r from sun i n areas g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s i t u -ated where they are s u b j e c t t o l o n g w i n t e r s and r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t summers, i t i s never-t h e l e s s important to p r o v i d e some p r o t e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the young and the e l d e r l y . C h i l d r e n a r e , of course, e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to s t r o n g s u n l i g h t . P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n o f t e n d i s a g r e e on the m e r i t s of the sun i n s o -f a r t h a t the former tend to want suntanned c h i l d r e n , but c h i l d r e n may p r e f e r to spend a summer day i n the shade. (13) Deciduous t r e e s cut o f f the sun i n summer, w h i l e a l l o w i n g i t t o p e n e t r a t e i n w i n t e r . The are, t h e r e f o r e , (13) Bengtsson, A., "Environmental P l a n n i n g f o r C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y " , Crosby Lockwood and Sons L t d . , London 1970, p. 9. 60 an i d e a l form of p r o t e c t i o n . A d u l t s , e l d e r l y i n p a r t i c u l a r , are drawn t o p l a c e s i n which t o p l a y t h e i r games and where t o watch o t h e r s ; t o be t o g e t h e r knowing t h a t t h i s i s where t h e i r a c t i o n i s . (14) A l t e r n a t i v e l y , p l a c e s , which o f f e r an exep-t i o n a l view or unique experience, warrant placement of s e a t i n g . Park benches, u n l e s s l i n k e d w i t h other f a c i l i t i e s , are g e n e r a l l y unoccupied. (15) T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s aggra-vated by the tendency of d e s i g n e r s t o p l a c e s e a t s i n rows r a t h e r than i n c l u s t e r s . (16) Recent s t u d i e s of s i t t i n g h a b i t s at bus s t o p s , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t l o n g benches tend t o be under-used. People g r a v i t a t e t o both ends, " f i l l i n g " the bench t o the extent of e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s who w i l l stand or s i t on a nearby w a l l , r a t h e r than occupy a c e n t e r p o s i t i o n . The f e a s i b i l i t y of benches, l o n g e r than 4-6 f e e t , must t h e r e -f o r e be questioned. (14) P r i e d b e r g , M.P. w i t h B e r k e l y , E.P., "Play and I n t e r -p l a y " , The M a c m i l l a n Company, New York, 1970, p. 142. (15) i b i d . , p. 136. (16) Gehl, J . , i n "A S o c i a l Dimension of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , Proceedings of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology Confe-rence at the K i n g s t o n P o l y t e c h n i c , 1970, r e p o r t e d on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d out i n T i v o l i i n Denmark. C h a i r s , he noted, i n s i d e w a l k c a f e s , were r e - o r i e n -t e d by u s e r s to face p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f -f i c . Deasy, CM., i n "People-Watching w i t h a Purpose", A.I.A. J o u r n a l , December 1970, d e s c r i b e s , t h a t d u r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d i n g up t o the d e s i g n of the L i n c o l n Savings Bank P l a z a , he found t h a t ben-ches, f o r m a l l y l i n e d up along walkways, v i s i b l y l i -mited c o n v e r s a t i o n groups to two or t h r e e people. I n the one i n s t a n c e , where benches were movable, they were not l i n e d up. " L i k e c h i l d r e n ' s j a c k s t r a w s , they were abandoned i n the haphazard p a t t e r n s t h a t r e f l e c t the way people n o r m a l l y p o s i t i o n themselves when c o n v e r s i n g . " > CHAPTER I I I APPLICATION OP FRAMEWORK Whereas the l a s t chapter gave a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Framework w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s of how i t operates, t h i s p a r t demonstrates how the concept may be a p p l i e d t o e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s , t o a s c e r t a i n the degree t o which open space f a c i l i t a t e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human g e n e r i c a c t i v i t i e s and the p h y s i c a l environment. T h i s e x c e r c i s e , which i s o u t s i d e the main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study, can, at b e s t , be d e s c r i b e d as i n t u i t i v e and s p e c u l a t i v e , s i n c e the p a t t e r n s developed, are hypo-t h e s e s , based on o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The p r o j e c t s , t e s t e d , were chosen a r b i t r a r i l y . Scheme I and I I were c o n s t r u c t e d under the 1970 C.M.H.C. 25200 m i l l i o n " i n n o v a t i v e " housing program, and Scheme I I I i s a p r i v a t e l y developed housing p r o j e c t , aimed a t h i g h e r income groups. F a c t o r s , common t o a l l t h r e e , are t h a t they are suburban, medium d e n s i t y , l o w - r i s e developments c a t e -r i n g predominantly t o f a m i l i e s w i t h 2, 3 and 4 dependents. A l l are condominiums, designed by a r c h i t e c t s . F u r t h e r s t a -t i s t i c s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t a b l e XVI. S t a t i s t i c s Tabl W/7 APPRAISAL 62 T o t a l number of U n i t s Sale P r i c e per U n i t Down Payment 11,725 t o 13,475 674 to 856 12,531 t o 12,700 626 to 635 Monthly Payment (PIT) 116 to 134 124 to 126 1. 2, 3, and 4 Scheme I I I 18,000 t o 23,000 800 t o 1 ,200 185 to 235 A. Scheme I T h i s p r o j e c t f e a t u r e s f o u r p l e x e s , f o u r d w e l l i n g s t o each b u i l d i n g . A l l are s i m i l a r i n f l o o r p l a n and form, and s i t e d , not u n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and e q u i d i s t a n t from the curb, along p u b l i c r e s i d e n t i a l roads. D w e l l i n g s , i n each f o u r p l e x , are back to back as w e l l as s i d e by s i d e , l i m i t i n g open space, i n e f f e c t , t o f r o n t y a r d and one s i d e y a r d per u n i t . 64 Cars are parked i n driveways, next to entrances. Residents r e l y on neighborhood a m e n i t i e s , s i n c e t h e r e are no community f a c i l i t i e s i n the p r o j e c t . The p r o j e c t i s marked by i t s h i g h d e n s i t y and low complement of l a n d s c a p i n g (see F i g u r e 6 ) . Ground coverage i s i n the order of b u i l d i n g s - 40?°, a s p h a l t paving - J>y/o and landscaped areas - 277°. The l a t t e r , which i n c l u d e s fenced p a t i o s , are u t i l i z e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the u s u a l 65 e r a O F i g u r e 7 Scheme I I • O h D w e l l i n g P r i v a t e Open Space Community Open Space 66 a c t i v i t i e s , f o r d r y i n g c l o t h e s as most f a m i l i e s do not own washing and d r y i n g machines. Fr o n t s of d w e l l i n g s f a c e p r e -dominantly east or west. B. Scheme I I This p r o j e c t c o n s i s t s of rowhouses, t e n of which form an open-ended c l u s t e r , p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s i n g community open space at the r e a r of u n i t s . \ 67 Of compar a t i v e l y low d e n s i t y and f e a t u r i n g l a r g e areas of l a n d s c a p i n g , each c l u s t e r i s separated from the next by a road (see F i g u r e 7 ) . U n i t s i n Scheme I I have s o l d somewhat slower than i n Scheme I , p a r t i a l l y due t o d i f f e r e n t market c o n d i t i o n s at the time each p r o j e c t was completed, and p a r t i a l l y due t o the c o n t r o v e r s i a l appearance of d w e l l i n g s i n Scheme I I . Front and back of a l l d w e l l i n g s are o r i e n t e d east-west. C. Scheme I I I Two s t o r e y maisonettes are stacked v e r t i c a l l y and abut each other, i n f o u r rows, at r i g h t a n g l e s , t o form a l a r g e square (see F i g u r e 8 ) . Rears of u n i t s f a c e the i n t e r i o r of t h i s square, a landscaped area, which f e a -t u r e s p r i v a t e p a t i o s , community lawns, walkways, p l a y -ground and other f a c i l i t i e s . V e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c and par-k i n g i s c o n f i n e d t o the perimeter of the s i t e , f a c i n g the entrances of d w e l l i n g s . Less than h a l f of a l l u n i t s are o r i e n t e d east-west. D. A p p r a i s a l The b a s i s or u n i t s of a n a l y s i s , used to a p p r a i s e the t h r e e schemes, are the components i d e n t i f i e d and the corresponding S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s evolved d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. Each p a t t e r n d i s c u s s e d , t h e r e f o r e , i s e l a -69 APPRAISAL Un i t of A n a l y s i s : P u b l i c Open Space Walkway Community Open Space Carpark Playground Components Scheme I P r i v a t e -P u b l i c O.S. P r i v a t e O.S. Backyard Scheme I I I 70 borated upon i n Appendix 'B'. Table XVII i n d i c a t e s , at a g l a n c e , t h a t Scheme I b e s i d e s i t s h i g h d e n s i t y , l a c k s t h r e e most important com-ponents, two s p e c i f i c and one g e n e r a l . A p r o j e c t without community open space, playground or carpark, o f f e r s no c h o i c e of a c t i v i t y s e t t i n g s , but f o r c e s c h i l d r e n onto side w a l k s and roads; teenagers, a d u l t s and handicapped o u t s i d e t h e i r community f o r t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n . Driveways, because they are p a i r e d , w i l l encourage s o c i a l i n t e r a c -t i o n between neighbors who are compatible, as w i l l the p r o x i m i t y of r e s i d e n t s t o each other g e n e r a l l y . But the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t e n s i o n and s t r e s s i n a community, so d e p r i v e d of a m e n i t i e s and p r i v a c y , are j u s t as l i k e l y . P r i v a t e p a t i o s are exposed t o n o i s e , s t r e e t - d u s t and view, and o f f e r l i t t l e compensation, w h i l e f r o n t y a r d s are mono-p o l i z e d by housewives d r y i n g t h e i r l a u n d r y . T h i s p r o j e c t p r o v i d e s s h e l t e r o n l y . A few p a t t e r n s were i d e n t i f i e d i n Scheme I I , which f e a t u r e s a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of p u b l i c open space, dominated, however, by the c a r . Through roads w i l l cause c o n f l i c t between v e h i c l e s , p e d e s t r i a n s and c y c l i s t s . Playgrounds and communal carparks are components not p r o v i d e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t , both of which have been e s t a b l i s h e d as primary 71 a t t r a c t o r s of people. Community open space i s l o c a t e d at the r e a r of 60$ of a l l u n i t s and has s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n s a t i s f y i n g many a s p i r a t i o n s / n e e d s of r e s i d e n t s . C h i l d -r e n p r e f e r f r o n t of d w e l l i n g s t o the r e a r , and hard s u r -f a c e s t o g r a s s . Housewives may be t o r n between watching t h e i r o f f s p r i n g at the f r o n t and s o c i a l i z i n g a t the r e a r o f t h e i r homes, s i n c e o r i e n t a t i o n , p r i v a c y , and the h i e r a r c h y of open spaces, at the cen t e r of c l u s t e r s , i s conducive not only t o n e i g h b o r i n g but a l s o t o a d u l t s r e -l a x i n g . Small p r i v a t e p a t i o s l e a d i n t o the l a r g e r commu-n i t y area and from t h e r e i n t o p u b l i c open space. The ne-cess a r y t r a n s i t i o n between the i n t i m a c y of the home and the o u t s i d e has been p r o v i d e d , although u n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y at the r e a r . F i g u r e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s an a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o Scheme I I , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the same number of d w e l l i n g s and f u r t h e r p a t t e r n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n e l i m i n a t e s roads and thereby c o n f l i c t ; i t c l u s t e r s d w e l l i n g s around v e h i c u l a r access and p a r k i n g . Community open space becomes an exten -s i o n of t h i s n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y s e t t i n g , where c h i l d r e n p l a y and r e s i d e n t s i n t e r a c t . Small p r i v a t e open spaces separate the d w e l l i n g from c a r s and community open space, which i s enjoyed now by 80$ i n s t e a d o f , f o r m e r l y , 60$ of the commu-73 n i t y . P r i v a t e p a t i o s are r e t a i n e d at r e a r s of homes, some of which now face n o r t h - s o u t h . P u b l i c open space i s a r t i c u -l a t e d i n t o s m a l l e r areas by the c e n t r a l walkway, which i n c r e a s e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s i d e n t s t o walk, c y c l e and pl a y w i t h i n t h e i r b l o c k and communicate w i t h those a d j o i -n i n g . Scheme I I I , p r e d i c t a b l y , has more components than e i t h e r of the other two. The p r o j e c t , e s s e n t i a l l y inward l o o k i n g , f a c e s problems s i m i l a r t o those of Scheme I I . . Lack of s e n s i t i v e h a n d l i n g of open spaces, i s one of the major c r i t i c i s m s . R e s i d e n t s a r e , v i s u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y , immediately upon the extremely l a r g e community open space at the r e a r of t h e i r d w e l l i n g s , and onto carparks and a continuous s e r v i c e road when p a s s i n g through t h e i r f r o n t doors. C h i l d r e n are as l i k e l y t o take t o the hard s u r f a -ces " o u t s i d e " the p r o j e c t as they are t o p l a y i n g i n the playground, " i n s i d e " . Mothers w i l l experience problems keeping t r a c k of the young, aggrevated by the f a c t t h a t h a l f of a l l d w e l l i n g s s t a r t two f l o o r s above ground l e v e l . A d u l t s and handicapped w i l l tend t o a v o i d the c e n t r a l a rea because they are v i s u a l l y exposed both i n the commu-n i t y open space as w e l l as i n t h e i r p a t i o s at ground l e v e l . 74 E. Summary The Framework, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Frame of Reference and the p a t t e r n s , were found t o be of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n a s s e s s i n g the problems of the th r e e schemes. Given thorough f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h the p r o j e c t s , the i n v e s t i -g a t i o n can and should be c a r r i e d out i n g r e a t e r d e a t a i l . The Playground i n Scheme I I I , f o r example, was c r i t i z i s e d only w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s l o c a t i o n and d i s t a n c e from d w e l l i n g s and not, as s e v e r a l S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s i n Appendix 'B' imply, i n d e t a i l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l a n d s c a -p i n g had not been f i n a l i z e d when the p r o j e c t was i n s p e c -t e d . The problem of s t o r i n g b i c y c l e s , perambulators and w h e e l c h a i r s , was one which was found t o be present i n a l l schemes, but no p a t t e r n was evolved i n t h i s study, because of l a c k of a v a i l a b l e d a t a . On the other hand, components, s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms of meeting user n e e d s / a s p i r a t i o n s , e. g. p h y s i c a l and v i -s u a l p r o x i m i t y of parked c a r s t o d w e l l i n g s , were not ack-nowledged i n t h i s a p p r a i s a l and perhaps should be. 75 P e r f e c t i n g the method of a p p l y i n g the Framework, t o t e s t e x i s t i n g as w e l l as proposed p r o j e c t s t h o r o u g h l y , w i l l grow out of f u r t h e r development of the concept. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS The need f o r a th e o r y , i n v o l v i n g the s y n t h e s i s of a l l the s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s t h a t d e a l w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n between man and h i s environment, has been expressed f o r some time. The importance of making b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and emerging d e s i g n p r i n -c i p l e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g such data, o p e r a t i o n a l i n the i n t e r i m , l e d t o t h i s study. The Framework which was evolved t o r e l a t e g e n e r i c human a c t i v i t i e s t o p h y s i c a l open space components, d e a l s w i t h p a r t of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment, one, which i n p r a c t i c e , i s f r e q u e n t l y overlooked and l e f t t o chance. Housing serves as an extended f u n c t i o n i n most people's l i v e s and not, as a c o n s i d e r a b l e s e c t i o n of i n d u s t r y and the p r o f e s s i o n s would have i t , s o l e l y as s h e l t e r . The frequent inadequacy of open space p l a n n i n g i n r e s i -d e n t i a l areas, i n terms of maximizing or f a c i l i t a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b a s i c human a c t i v i t i e s t o occur, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the a p p r a i s a l of t h r e e housing p r o j e c t s i n chapter I I I of t h i s study. 77 The Framework, chapter I I and Appendices 'A* and 'B*, r e q u i r e s r e f i n i n g , s i m p l i f y i n g and constant updating t o a t t r a c t the wide spectrum of those i n v o l v e d w i t h housing, t o use the concept v o l u n t a r i l y and w i t h some enthusiasm. To l e g i s l a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the d e s i g n and e x e c u t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s be based on d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , i s , of course, premature at t h i s p o i n t i n time. F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l agencies, however, engaged i n sponsoring the c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing, c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y operate such a Framework, w i t h i n t h e i r own departments and i n l i a i s o n w i t h those, i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g under t h e i r programs. A developer might, w i t h i n reason, be g i v e n freedom t o c a r r y out open space development, w h i l e p a t t e r n s would form p a r t of h i s i n i t i a l d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s . He would have the o p t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t , use, change or ignore these at h i s d i s c r e t i o n . The agency, however, would r e t a i n s u f f i c i e n t funds t o be used, i f necessary, f o r environmental upgrading, say 2 years a f t e r completion of a p r o j e c t . Under these circumstances, the rewards of u s i n g the pat -t e r n s at the outset of a p r o j e c t , would i n c l u d e the l i k e -l i h o o d 1. of c r e a t i n g a r e s p o n s i v e environment which a t t r a c t s more r e s p o n s i b l e and l e s s t r a n s i e n t r e s i d e n t s ; and 78 2. t h a t the developer, "by not having t o r e t u r n t o upgrade the s i t e , saves time and money. Design p r o f e s s i o n s , themselves, c o u l d do more i n f u r t h e r i n g a concept such as t h i s , by g i v i n g press no-t i c e s and d e s i g n p r i z e s t o o u t s t a n d i n g p r o j e c t s a f t e r they have been used, on the b a s i s of how w e l l they work, r a t h e r than on a e s t h e t i c a l l y s t r i k i n g appearances and s e l e c t e d photographic evidence. R e q u i s i t e , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t o the success of a Framework such as t h i s i s , f i r s t , t h a t a c t i v i t i e s , components and p a t t e r n s are g e n e r i c and not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u l t u r a l and socio-economic f a c t o r s . People, r e g a r d -l e s s of t h e i r background and s o c i a l s t a t u s , r e q u i r e s h e l -t e r from c o l d and exposure t o the sun; they w i l l g r a v i -t a t e t o hard s u r f a c e s to r i d e b i c y c l e s and p l a y c e r t a i n games; they a p p r e c i a t e and use safe and v e r s a t i l e p l a y equipment. People, too, have s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s i n v a r y i n g degrees: they l i t t e r the environment and they a l l w i l l take s h o r t c u t s , i f p o s s i b l e , t o communicate between p o i n t A and p o i n t B. Secondly, the Framework must be simple and e x p l i c i t to enable people to r e l a t e to and use i t ; the developer and d e s i g n e r , the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the r e s i d e n t and the i n t e r e s -79 t e d o u t s i d e r . T h i r d l y , the p a t t e r n s must not be regarded as a b s o l u t e statements, but perhaps as openers f o r d i s c u s s i o n , de-bate and new i d e a s . They may be r e v i s e d , r e j e c t e d or adopted. Though t h e i r s o l u t i o n may not be a c c e p t a b l e , they w i l l u s u a l l y r e v e a l problems. Given proper f a m i -l i a r i z a t i o n and guidance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e , r e s i d e n t s c o u l d develop t h e i r own p a t t e r n s . I n the meantime, however, p r o v i s i o n must be made by i n d u s t r y f o r those n e e d s / a s p i r a t i o n s not common t o a l l r e s i d e n t s . The degree of p r i v a c y , d e s i r e d at the r e a r of a home, or the urge t o change or somehow a f f e c t the p r i v a t e - p u b l i c open space o u t s i d e one's t h r e s h o l d , can be f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of f l e x i b l e s c r e e n i n g systems and removable p a v i o r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s would g i v e r e s i d e n t s a chance t o shape t h e i r immediate open space environment and add d i v e r s i t y t o the appearance of g e n e r a l l y monotonous developments. Given the present g e n e r a l s t a t e of open space p l a n n i n g and urban d e s i g n , an o p e r a t i o n a l Framework, f a r from p r o v i d i n g a l l the s o l u t i o n s , would enable the de-s i g n e r t o begin to i d e n t i f y the problems and ask the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . R e s p o n s i b l e or poor work co u l d be more e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d , and endorsed or discouraged the concept stage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, G.R., "Designing f o r the Handicapped: B l i n d and P a r t i a l l y S i g h t e d " , O f f i c i a l A r c h i t e c t u r e and  P l a n n i n g , September 1969• Alexander, C , "Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s " , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1969. 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K r i e d b e r g , M.B., F i e l d , H.H., "Problems of P e d i a t r i c Hos-p i t a l Design", F i n a l Report, T u f t s - New England M e d i c a l Center, Boston, Mass., 1965. Lang, J . , " A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r Human Behavior: The Nature of the Problem", A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r Human Behavior, C o l l e c t e d Papers from a Mini-Conference, P h i l a -d e l p h i a Chapter/The American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i -t e c t s , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1971. "Low R i s e High D e n s i t y Housing Study", Report by A r c h i - t e c t u r e Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, Lynch, K., " S i t e P l a n n i n g " , M.I.T. P r e s s , 1962. McGowan, T.K., "In the Proper L i g h t " , A.I.A. J o u r n a l , December 1970. Mi c h e l s o n , 7/., "Most People don't want what A r c h i t e c t s want", T r a n s a c t i o n , Volume 5, No. 8, July-August 1968. Montgomery, R., " P a t t e r n Language", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, Jan./Feb., 1970. Prawley, M., "Breakdown of a Theory", A r c h i t e c t u r e v e rsus Housing, Praeger, New York, 1971. S i l v e r s t e i n , M., " P a t t e r n language", Paper, A.I.A. Resear- chers Conference, Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1969. " S p e c i a l 55200 m i l l i o n Low-Cost Housing Program", I n t e r i m  Report, C.M.H.C., Ottawa, 1971. 83 "Where the 35200 m i l l i o n went", A Commentary on the 1970 C.M.H.C. 55200 m i l l i o n " I n n o v a t i o n s " Program by the Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development Housing Committee, Ottawa, 1971. i REFERENCES Alexander, C , "Notes on the S y n t h e s i s of Form", Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1964. Alexander, C. and Chermayeff, S., "Community and P r i v a c y " , Doubleday, New York, 1963. Alexander, C , "The C i t y i s not a Tree", A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Forum, A p r i l and May 1965. Alexander, C , Ishikawa, S. and S i l v e r s t e i n , M., "A P a t -t e r n Language which Generates M u l t i - S e r v i c e Cen-t e r s " , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1968. Archea, J . and Eastman, C. ( e d s . ) , "EDRA I I " , Proceedings of the Second Annual Environmental Design Research A s s o c i a t i o n Conference, 1 P i t t s b u r g h , 1970. Chapin, F.S. and Hightower, H.C., "Human A c t i v i t y Systems: A P i l o t I n v e s t i g a t i o n " , Center f o r Urban and Re g i o -n a l S t u d i e s (U.N.C., Chapel H i l l , N.C.), 1966. Chein, I . , "The Environment as a Determinant of Behavior", The J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, Y o l . 38, 1954. Dobriner, W.M. ( e d . ) , "The Suburban Community", G.P. P u t -man's Sons, New York, 1958. "Family Houses at West Ham", M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government, H.M.S.O., London, 1969. "F a l s e Creek P r o p o s a l s : Report No'. 3", F a l s e Creek Study Group, Yancouver, B.C., 1971. Gans, H.J., "The Urban V i l l a g e r s " , The Free P r e s s , New York, 1967. Gans, H.J., "Suburbs and P l a n n e r s " , Landscape, V o l . X I , No. 1, 1961. Gutman, R., " S i t e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Behaviour", J o u r n a l  of S o c i a l I s s u e s , October 1966. H a l l , E.T., "The Hidden Dimension", Garden C i t y , N.Y., Doubleday, 1966. 85 H a l l , E.T., "The S i l e n t Language", Greenwich, Conn., Pawcett, 1961. H a l p r i n , L. and A s s o c i a t e s , "New, York, New York", prepared f o r C i t y of New York, 1968. Jacobs, J . , "The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s " , Random House, New York, 1961. K e l l e r , S., "The Urban Neighborhood: A S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r -s p e c t i v e " , Random House, New York, 1968. Lynch, K., "The Image of the C i t y " , M.I.T. Press and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., I960. Lynch, K., " S i t e P l a n n i n g " , M.I.T. P r e s s , Mass., 1962. Maki, P., " C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander", Japan A r c h i t e c t , V o l . 45 No. 7-165, J u l y 1970, pp. 31-54. Mi c h e l s o n , W., "Man and H i s Urban Environment: A S o c i o -l o g i c a l Approach", Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Comp., Reading, Mass., 1970. M i c h e l s o n , W., "Value O r i e n t a t i o n s and Urban. Form", PH.D. Thesis by W.M. M i c h e l s o n , Dept. of S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Cambridge, Mass., A p r i l 1965. M i t c h e l l , W.J. ( e d . ) , "EDRA I I I " , Proceedings of the T h i r d Annual Environmental Design Research A s s o c i a t i o n Conference, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1972. P a r r , A.E., "Environmental Design and Psychology", Landscape, V o l . 14, 1964-65. Sanoff, H. and Conn, 'S. (eds.),"EDRA I " j Proceedings of the F i r s t Annual Environmental Design Research Asso-c i a t i o n Conference, Chapel H i l l , 1969. Simonds, J.O., "Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e " , McGraw-Hill Book Company I n c . , New York, 1961. " S o c i a l Space: No. 7, Human F a c t o r s i n Urban Planning"", O f f i c i a l A r c h i t e c t u r e , Dec. 1970. APPENDICES APPENDIX A FRAME OF REFERENCE 88 APPENDIX A FRAME OF REFERENCE The f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the Framework, of the Frame of Reference, t a b l e s I - X I I I , i s d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d i n chapter I I of t h i s study and r e f e r r e d t o a g a i n i n Appen-d i x «B f. A l l t a b l e s except I , although each f o r a d i f f e -r e n t age group, summer or w i n t e r , are i d e n t i c a l as t o the a c t i v i t i e s and components, which they c o n t a i n . C r o s s - r e f e -r e n c i n g a c t i v i t i e s and components, spaces are l e f t b l a n x j l j where a r e l a t i o n s h i p may occur, and bla c k e d out _|§|_ where t h i s i s u n l i k e l y . S u f f i c i e n t o n l y , t o i l l u s t r a t e the con-cept, p a t t e r n s , developed i n t h i s study and presented i n Appendix 'B', are i d e n t i f i e d i n the Frame of Reference thus' 89 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE General -3^  3 s 4 J 7 8 9 • • 1 0 11 1 2 1 ? r 1 4 i ~ 1 5 | 1 6 I 1 7 m 1 8 11 2 0 . 2 1  2 2 2 3 2 4 " 2 5 " 31 2 7 2 ? 2 9 2J-3 2 9 0 Table m FRAME O F REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 1-1-2  years o l d i n summer B -p C CO a u d B OJ o 0J G T n e r a T ™ A c t i v i t i e s o I CO +» o c TH OJ f H C o o OJ e P i O CO O P b p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s oj o oj PV o CO H S3 a OJ *3 P4 * O m o v i n g resting working © •H P . 03 OJ P4 o T3 q o u a3 P ^ > CO I o -P o 03 *H t> rH •H ,Q •H q CO T3 aJ -p 0 o fH M 03 >4 o a H^ " 1 2 3 4 5 6 m. 7 8 9 1 0 i 1 1 1 2 13 1 4 1 5 t - < 1 6 1 7 \ 1 8 i 19 1 2 0 2 1 j 2 2 i 2 3 2 4 2 5 26 2 7 28 : .. i 2 9 i 91 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 1+2 5 % i 7 > 8 9 10 11 12 • I 1? 14 15 c a r r y i n p ; -17 18 19 2Q 21 j 22 [ 23 1 24 25 27 29 2JL 32 92 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 2-5  years o l d i n summer 93 FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 2-5  years o l d i n w i n t e r 94 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 5-12  years o l d i n summer &"eh"eraT A c t i v i t i e o H '•H •H O <D ft :0 -P c c o PJ e of o piaymg_ moving. >> o •P 03 •H ft a a c a o O ft o o O ft > a H AH I o -P O > rH •H & CO -P a) > >5 H d -P o M a} >: O a) pq - r . o c i c e y - b a l l . l u m p i n g s w i n g i n g c l i m b i n g . s l i d i n g  p u d d l i n g d i g g i n g c r a w l i n g w a l k i n g j o g g i n g running b i k i n g d r i v i n g f T P s t. i n xr ,— 1 l y i n g s l e e p i n g s i t t i n g t a l k i n g I l i s t e n i n g watching e a t i n g r e a d i n g 1 wn-rVinr 1 c l e a n i n g -r e r a i r m g -e a r d e n i n g -c o n s t r u c t i r , ; -s t o r i n g - _ J c a r r y i n g -95 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE C h i l d r e n 5 9 6 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE Teenagers i n summer H U D d CO +> C OJ c o PI s o CO +> OJ j •H O O P B <D e 1 CO o i General A c t i v i t i e s b p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s a . r H C t Q OJ P i - M O --p al P< C3 S a Q O O J o "3 d o tad ft t> to I o O J 4-> O 03 -H > rH •H ,P o3 3 > •H S3 -p c: o u ^ H f H oj O o3 " 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 • 1 5 .1 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 19 2 0 2 1 2 2 i ! 2 3 j 2 4 '"•MP o?-97 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE Teenagers i n w i n t e r c •H O O P 0) £ ft o -.0 o General A c t i v i t i e s b p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s CD -P g © >J O +» 03 ft fl 00 3 a a a © o ftt o o ft > to I d as TH > rH •H ^ >s ai > •H n CO aS +» o 1^ T 3 aS o aj — r 2 3 4 § 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 i 13 14 15 ilT 17 i 18 19 20. 21 22 ) i 23 24 "25 26 I 27 I 28" 29 f 31. 32 9 8 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE A d u l t s i n summer o'eneraT A c t l y i t i e s p l a y i n g 03 •P O S3 H Qi *H S3 H O O P <u g P< o • - / T O o p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s MR- :J~«m H eg © >> o +» eg p. CO i S o o £3 © O -r.ockey - b a l l jumping s w i n g i n g c l i m b i n g s l i d i n g p u d d l i n g d i g g i n g moving cr a w l i n g ^ w a l k i n g • l o g g i n g r u n n i n g b i k i n g r e s t i n g l y i n g s l e e p i n g s i t t i n g t a l k i n g l i s t e n i n g watching e a t i n g reaamg_ working c l e a n i n g -r e p a i r i n g -T 3 S3 3 O U eg p^ > CO I c -p o cd t> rH •H ,Q CO O CD -P eg >J fH -P S3 o f H fa f H 03 o 03 5 7 L 8 1 j 9 1 0 11 12 1 TL TT T"6~ 1 7 1 8 19 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 99 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE A d u l t s i n w i n t e r ??eneraT" A c t i v i t i e s CO +> a © c o ft? E c •J} o o H H o ft :0 CO + > i © c o e o . o playing b p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s 1 s g M O CO H H c La O 3 ft) =H o lUk. 9 > » O +> a3 •H O S w a c a o o o o to to • • o 1 o CD © •P O aS - H as > H > •H , 0 •H u S 5J t ) ? U o as aS *H U >» aS cS w +» >5 ft > > h ai • H o O aS U aj a ft" « -nockey - b a l l jumping swinging cli m b i n g . s l i d i n g p u d d l i n g d i g g i n g m o v i n g . c r a w l i n g w a l k i n g logging r u n n i n g b i k i n g d r i v i n g r e s t i n g l y i n j s l e e p i n g s i t t i n g t a l k i n g l i s t e n i n g w a t c r . m g e a t i n g r e a a m g working c l e a n i n g -r e p a i r i n g -gar aening-constructlngj-s t o r i n g -carrying-20 " J \ 21 -4 1 22 —1 ' 23 24 I - Q Q 27 28 29 I 31 100 Table FRAME OF REFERENCE Handicapped i n summer 1 &Tnera1™ A c t i v i t i e s * | OJ -P !' J ° a 1 * —t OJ . 1 p -J) C i l o CO ft o H 09 & |H C fl E 1a QJ OJ O ' I B ft CiJ o a* o 1 o H '•H H O CD PH 72 o p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s CO 1am OJ C o P i e o o CD > > O + > O j • H P § 0 - 3 a c a © O P . o o T3 P o P<|> c d H CO I o OJ -P o o j • > rH iH , 0 CO S 3 •P P O fn *( h3 fn o3 >i o a - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 ' " 1 12 13 14 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 19 i 2 0 i 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 4 j 2 5 I 2 6 " 2 7 f " 2 8 j 2 9 30 3 1 . Ik i n c l u d e s the o l d 101 FRAME OF REFERENCE Handicapped i n w i n t e r 1 o H P< o 7 3 O General A c t i v i t i e s c p e c m c A c t i v i t i e s m : -P C QJ O " ;; J © >» O -P al 03 © o fH c d -a Si o fH w to I o © -P o aj < > H •H ^ A S CO >s fn a) N -p C o fH 2H fH aj >4 o oj F5 _2 4 I 1 1_6 17 Ta 1 20 1 21 1 22 i 23 24 25 26" 27 28" i n c l u d e s the o l d APPENDIX B SPECIFIC PATTERNS 103 APPENDIX B SPECIFIC PATTERNS A number of S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n s , e x p l a i n e d more f u l l y i n chapter I I , have been developed from o b s e r v a t i o n s and e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s d u r i n g the course of t h i s study, p r i -m a r i l y t o i l l u s t r a t e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the Framework. These were s e l e c t e d randomly and focus on one s p e c i f i c problem, although one p a t t e r n f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e s t o seve-r a l age groups. The m a j o r i t y o f those presented here d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n the r e s i d e n t i a l open space environment, w h i l e a few apply t o teenagers. T h i s r e f l e c t s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data f o r one group and the l a c k of knowledge of another. I t a l s o supports the n o t i o n t h a t teenagers r e p r e s e n t the l e a s t p r i v i l e d g e d group i n terms of having components designed t o meet t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s / needs. Each S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n , i d e n t i f i e d i n the Frame of Reference by t a b l e and a c t i v i t y numbers and the component l e t t e r , i s i n f o u r p a r t s . 1. The Context i s d e r i v e d from the Frame of Refe-rence, t a b l e s I I - X I I I i n c l u s i v e (Appendix ' A 1 ) . 104 2. The Problem, s t a t e d b r i e f l y , i s based on obser-v a t i o n and documented evidence. 3. The S o l u t i o n t o the problem and w i t h i n the context i s based on o b s e r v a t i o n and r e s e a r c h . 4. The D i s c u s s i o n , e l a b o r a t i n g on the c o n t e x t , the problem and the s o l u t i o n , completes the p a t t e r n . 105 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n I I t o X I I I i n c l b c 24 f S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : A l l Age Groups E a t i n g i n Playgrounds on and near Roads and Walkways. L i t t e r i n the open space environment encou-rages more s e r i o u s types of p o l l u t i o n . PROVIDE A GARBAGE RECEPTACLE AT DESIGNED ACTIVITY AND REST AREAS. For reasons of maintenance problems or over-s i g h t , i t i s common t o f i n d planned r e s i d e n -t i a l p r o j e c t s completely devoid of p u b l i c garbage r e c e p t a c l e s . A l l age groups, espe-c i a l l y c h i l d r e n , w i l l eat and d r i n k o u t s i d e the immediate v i c i n i t y of the home, and wrappings, d i s p o s a b l e b o t t l e s and cans are not always c a r r i e d home. (1) Communities are f r e q u e n t l y s t i g m a t i z e d by the amount of garbage, which l i t t e r s the ground. Besides the obvious b e n e f i t s t o be gained from p r o v i d i n g d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , parents would be encouraged t o acquaint t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h the p r a c t i c e s of main-t a i n i n g a c l e a n environment. (1) Observations - Student Family Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C. Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. - Low Income Housing, Bowness, C a l g a r y , Sept. 1969 - Sept. 1970. 106 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : IV to V I I i n c l . e 213 151 C h i l d r e n 2-12 years o l d B i k i n g , P l a y i n g Hockey and B a l l Games i n Carparks. C o n f l i c t of a c t i -v i t i e s . PROVIDE EXTENSIONS TO CARPARKS, FREE OF VEHICLES, FOR PURPOSES OF FACI-LITATING PLAY. D i s c u s s i o n : Observations (2) i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n l a p l a y wherever they happen to be at a g i v e n moment, u n a f f e c t e d by the purpose f o r which the space i s d e s i g n a t e d ; 2. i n e v i t a b l y g r a v i t a t e t o hard s u r f a c e areas t o r i d e b i c y c l e s and p l a y games; 3. choose as the f o c a l p o i n t of t h e i r out-door a c t i v i t i e s , i n t h e i r e a r l i e r y e a r s , the v i c i n i t y of the f r o n t entrance t o t h e i r homes; and 4. i f t h e i r house face s a carpark, w i l l t h e r e -f o r e p l a y on i t . While the r e l a t i v e l y harmless h a b i t of s m a l l e r c h i l d r e n b i k i n g among s t a t i o n a r y cars would p e r s i s t , a v e h i c l e - f r e e e x t e n s i o n t o a carpark would enable o l d e r c h i l d r e n and, indeed, a d u l t s to pursue more a g g r e s s i v e games w i t h l e s s danger to cars and to themselves. (2) Observations - Student Family Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C., Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. - Low Income Housing, Bowness, C a l g a r y , Sept. 1969 - Sept. 1970. 107 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: IV to IX i n c l . f 7 C h i l d r e n 2-12 years o l d and Teenagers S l i d i n g i n a P l a y -ground. T r a d i t i o n a l s l i d e s are dangerous and r e s t r i c t i v e . S p e c i f i c A SLIDE SHOULD BE S o l u t i o n : PART OP A MULTI-ACTIVITY FACILITY. D i s c u s s i o n : The t r a d i t i o n a l s l i d e a l l o w s one approach t o the summit -the climb up the set of s t a i r s . The e x p e r i -ence i s the s l i d e down. No matter how many times the c h i l d does t h i s , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o g a i n more than t h i s s i n g l e a c t i v i t y . The s l i d e i s out of context there f o r e ; i t stands apart from other o b j e c t s or a c t i v i t i e s and a c h i l d must conform to the preconceived i d e a of i t s use. At the r i s k of d i s o b e y i n g the s t a n d a r d i z e d s a f e t y r u l e s of the playground, he may e l a b o r a t e by c l i m b i ng up the wrong way or s h i n n y i n g up the s u p p o r t i n g l e g s . The steps are standard f o r a l l s l i d e s , a l l o w i n g a s m a l l c h i l d t o use any s l i d e and p o s s i b l y overextend h i m s e l f . The s l i d e i s awkward - s h i n s may be cracked on the s t e e l steps or at the top; balance i s threatened i n changing from s t a n d i n g t o s i t t i n g . An a l t e r n a t i v e approach, and the one advo-cated here, i s to d e s i g n the s l i d e i n such a way t h a t many t h i n g s can happen as an an-c i l l a r y t o the a c t i v i t y of s l i d i n g . A h i l l , f o r example, t h a t has the same e l e v a t i o n as a s l i d e but can be approached from 360 de-grees, by a v a r i e t y of means, can have a 108 s l i d e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o one s i d e . A maze of tun n e l s through the h i l l t o a c e n t r a l core open t o the sky w i t h a l a d d e r to the top, could g i v e access to the top. The s l i d e , i t s e l f , should then be wide enough t o a l l o w two or t h r e e c h i l d r e n to descend at the same time. (3) Playgrounds should not be c l o s e d down d u r i n g w i n t e r months, except f o r reasons of s a f e t y . C h i l d r e n need f a c i l i t i e s at t h i s time more than they do i n summer because of the g e n e r a l c o n s t r a i n t s of the season. P l a y equipment should be designed to extend a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the a d d i t i o n of i c e and snow. The use of "warm" m a t e r i a l s such as wood, r a t h e r than metal, i s an important d e t a i l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n areas s u b j e c t e d to very c o l d temperatures. P r i e d b e r g , M.P., "Playgrounds f o r C h i l d r e n " , B u l l e t i n  27-A, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Childhood Education I n t e r -n a t i o n a l , Y/ashington, D.C., 1969. 109 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n X t o X I I I i n c l < i 29 S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: A d u l t s and H a n d i -capped Gardening i n F r o n t y a r d s . l a c k of o p p o r t u -n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i -d u a l e x p r e s s i o n o u t s i d e the home i s c o n d u c i v e t o g e n e r a l monotony of, and p e r s o n a l i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the open space environment• S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : SURFACE THE GROUND, IMMEDIATELY OUTSIDE FRONT OF DWELLINGS, WITH REMOVABLE RATHER THAN INSITU FINISHES. (4) R e s i d e n t s of a r e n t a l or condominium scheme sho u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r immediate o u t s i d e environment i f they so d e s i r e . P e r s o n a l l a n d s c a p i n g , f o r example, h e l p s to d i s t i n g u i s h one d w e l l i n g from t h e next, a l l o w s r e s i d e n t s t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i -pate i n the development and upkeep o f t h e i r p r i v a t e - p u b l i c open space and i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r home r a t h e r than w i t h the p r o j e c t . R e s i d e n t s w i l l m a i n t a i n " t h e i r " p l a n t s w h i l e they are i n c l i n e d t o n e g l e c t those p r o v i d e d f o r them ( 1 7 ) . However, onl y some people enjoy g a r d e n i n g i n any g i v e n community. Ra-(4) T h i s p a t t e r n has been m o d i f i e d from t h a t p r e s e n t e d by Alexander, C , "Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s " , C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i -f o r n i a , 1969, p. 112. (17) O b s e r v a t i o n s - Student F a m i l y Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C. Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. 110 t h e r than p r o v i d e a l l houses w i t h p l a n t i n g areas, many of which would he unkept, l o o s e l y paving these i n s t e a d , would induce only those who w i s h t o grow t h i n g s , t o remove the p a v i o r s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g main-tenance-free p r i v a t e - p u b l i c open space f o r o t h e r s . I l l S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: C h i l d r e n 1-5 years o l d P u d d l i n g i n Playgrounds, S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : Lack of m a t e r i a l s i n playgrounds i n c r e a s e wear and t e a r on P u b l i c and Community Open Space. PROVIDE V/ATER AND SAND IN PLAYGROUNDS. C h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y between the ages of two and f i v e , are f a s c i n a t e d by water, mud and sand. They become p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e , f o l -l o w i n g thaw or a r a i n s t o r m , amusing them-s e l v e s i n puddles, i n depressed, undrained landscaped areas and near clogged catchba-s i n s ( 5 ) . Any puddles i n a r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i -ronment should be designed ones and p r e f e r -a b l y i n playgrounds. R i c h a r d D a t t n e r , a r c h i -t e c t , f o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Estee and Joseph Lander playground i n New York's C e n t r a l Park i n 1967, observed t h a t f o r these younger c h i l d r e n the most i n t e r e s -t i n g f e a t u r e seemed to be a water channel. "Here they run, s p l a s h , s a i l s t i c k s and boats, and f e t c h water t o mix w i t h the sand. The i n f a n t s j u s t s i t i n the sand and d i g , a p p a r e n t l y unconcerned by the maelstrom of a c t i v i t y around them." (6) Another example, i l l u s t r a t i n g the importance of minute p a r t s of the m a n i p u l a t i v e e n v i r o n -ment f o r i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y , i s recorded by R.C. Moore ( 7 ) , f o l l o w i n g h i s study of Lennox-(5) Observations - Student Family Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C., Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. (6) Hurtwood, Lady A l l e n of, " P l a n n i n g f o r P l a y " , Thames and Hudson, London, 1968, pp. 77, 102. (7) i b i d . , p. 77. 112 Camden Playground, Massachusetts, 1966. "A group of f i v e - y e a r - o l d s spent a good hour making 'mud p i e s ' the sand to make them w i t h , was brought i n a paper bag from the s a n d - p i t , the water from the f o u n t a i n , the ' f r u i t ' (sawdust) from the area where sawing had been done, the ' f r o s t i n g * was shaken from an o l d can of c l e a n i n g powder." 113 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n X t o X I I I c J 2 6 S p e c i f i c A d u l t s and Handicapped Walking and C l i m b i n g Context: on Walkways S p e c i f i c R e s t r i c t i o n of p e d e s t r i a n movement t h a t Problem: t o t a l or p a r t i a l b l i n d n e s s and o l d age may impose. S p e c i f i c WALKWAYS SHOULD BE ILLUMINATED AT NIGHT AND S o l u t i o n : NOT LESS THAN 6 PEET WIDE TO ALLOW PEDEST-RIANS, CYCLISTS, PERAMBULATORS AND WHEEL-CHAIRS TO PASS ONE ANOTHER. SURFACING MATE-RIALS SHOULD GENERALLY BE RESILIENT AND CONSOLIDATED EXCEPT IN IMPORTANT CIRCULATION NODES SUCH AS STAIRCASES. THESE SHOULD AL-WAYS BE COUPLED WITH RAMPS AND FINISHED WITH RESONANT SURFACES, HANDRAILS ON BOTH SIDES AND FREE OF PROJECTIONS WHERE THEY CAN NOT BE DETECTED BY A CANE. D i s c u s s i o n : The s t i l l w i d e l y h e l d view, t h a t the b l i n d and the p a r t i a l l y b l i n d , have b e t t e r oppor-t u n i t i e s i f they are segregated i n t o s p e c i a l environments, does not appear t o be shared by many of those thus a f f l i c t e d . (8) D e s i g -ners u s u a l l y ignore the o f t e n modest r e q u i r e -ments of m i n o r i t y groups, even though they are b e n e f i c i a l t o users at l a r g e . O c c a s i o n l y , ingenious systems of c l u e s are pr o v i d e d , which form only a s m a l l p a r t of the t o t a l commu-n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n . Research i n t o the methods, by which the b l i n d use l o c a t i o n and d i r e c -t i o n c l u e s , has shown, th a t a wide v a r i e t y of a u r a l , t a c t i l e and k i n e s t h i c senses are (8) Observations - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia c i r c u -l a t i o n areas, Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972. 114 used when moving about. S u f f i c i e n t hardness of s u r f a c e s i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i n impor-t a n t c i r c u l a t i o n areas to promote echoes. Change of f l o o r f i n i s h e s approximately 3 f e e t from head and f o o t of s t a i r s and ramps, i s another d e s i r e a b l e f e a t u r e . (9) I l l u m i n a t i n g walkways at n i g h t should be mandatory, s i n c e i t has the p o t e n t i a l t o sol v e a number of problems as w e l l as enhan-c i n g the open space environment. I t can 1. i n c r e a s e s a f e t y from i n j u r y and crime; 2. a t t r a c t people t o key areas; 3. i d e n t i f y a r eas; and 4. emphasize p o s i t i v e and de-emphasize n e g a t i v e aspects of the environment. (10) (9) Adams, G.R., "Designing f o r the Handicapped: B l i n d and P a r t i a l l y S i g h t e d " , O f f i c i a l A r c h i t e c t u r and  P l a n n i n g , Sept. 1969, p. 1077. (10) McGowan, T.K., "In the Proper L i g h t " , A.I.A. J o u r n a l , December 1970, p. 46. 115 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : II to VII : m c l . f H 20 23 2,! C h i l d r e n 2-12 years o l d S i t t i n g , L i s t n i n g , Watching, Run n i n g , C l i m b i n g and Cra w l i n g i n P l a y -grounds. T r a d i t i o n a l p l a y -grounds f a i l t o pro-v i d e the s c a l e and d i v e r s i t y i n which c h i l d r e n are com-f o r t a b l e and m o t i -v a t e d . PLAYGROUNDS SHOULD BE UNDULATING IN TOPO-GRAPHY. V a r i e d topography p r o v i d e s s a f e t y . P l a t a s -p h a l t s u r f a c e s , common i n playgrounds, do not curb random movement. A c c i d e n t s are caused, t h e r e f o r e , by two c h i l d r e n r u n n i n g at f u l l speed acr o s s a f l a t area and c o l l i -d i n g . Through s t u d i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n , the areas can be broken down i n t o many s e c t o r s , r e d u c i n g the amount of u n c o n t r o l l e d movement w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s e r i e s of i n t i m a t e spaces i n which c h i l d r e n gather comfo r t a b l y . Topo-gra p h i c v a r i a t i o n p r o v i d e s vantage p o i n t s where c h i l d r e n can group and engage i n pas-s i v e p l a y , and watch other c h i l d r e n , to l e a r n from. T h e i r overlook a l l o w s them to gather f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and, i m p o r t a n t l y , t o r e s t w h i l e s t i l l i n v o l v e d i n the t o t a l e n v i -ronment. (11) (11) P r i e d b e r g , M.P., "Playgrounds f o r C h i l d r e n " , B u l l e t i n  27-A, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Childhood E d u c a t i o n I n t e r -n a t i o n a l , Washington, D.C. 1969» p. 44. 116 The topographic anatomy i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r complexity and v a r i e t y i n such a c r e a -t i o n as a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , t h a t lends i t s e l f t o a d d i t i o n and i n c l u s i o n of s l i d e s , t u n n e l s and swings - n a t u r a l l y . Complexity a l l o w s f o r continued i n t e r e s t , d i s c o v e r y , c h o i c e , and year-round use r a t h e r than seasonal o n l y , because the a d d i t i o n a l dimension of snow, f o r example, extends, r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p l a y . The young c h i l d ' s environment should p r o v i d e a slow t r a n s i t i o n from the womb t o the hard a d u l t world. (12) (12) Bayes, K. and F r a n c k l i n , S., "Designing f o r the Handicapped", George Godwin L t d . , London, 1971, p. 24. 117 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n X t o X I I I i n c l . JbJ_c U 20 2' 23 2[ S p e c i f i c A d u l t s and Handicapped S i t t i n g , T a l k i n g , Context: Watching and Reading i n Playgrounds, near Roads and 'Walkways. S p e c i f i c Designed s e a t i n g , u n l e s s l o c a t e d at or near Problem: an a t t r a c t i o n and u n l e s s s h e l t e r e d from, as • w e l l as exposed t o , wind and sun, does not answer the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of u s e r s . S p e c i f i c ONE OUT OF EVERY THREE BENCHES, PLACED IN S o l u t i o n : THE RESIDENTIAL OPEN SPACE ENVIRONMENT, SHOULD BE PROTECTED FROM WIND AND SUN AND ALL SHOULD BE LOCATED IN PLAYGROUNDS, AT POINTS WHERE PEOPLE AND VEHICLES MEET AND IN SELECTED PLACES WHICH OFFER EXPERIENCES UNIQUE TO THE AREA (VIEW, TRANQUILITY, ETC.). D i s c u s s i o n : S h e l t e r from wind and o r i e n t a t i o n towards the sun are considered two of the most important c o n d i t i o n s f o r comfort o u t - o f - d o o r s . Y/hile i t may seem c o n t r a d i c t o r y to advocate s h e l t e r from sun i n areas g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s i t u -ated where they are s u b j e c t t o l o n g w i n t e r s and r e l a t i v e l y s hort summers, i t i s never-t h e l e s s important to p r o v i d e some p r o t e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the young and the e l d e r l y . C h i l d r e n a r e , of course, e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to s t r o n g s u n l i g h t . Parents and c h i l d r e n o f t e n d i s a g r e e on the m e r i t s of the sun i n s o -f a r t h a t the former tend to want suntanned c h i l d r e n , but c h i l d r e n may p r e f e r t o spend a summer day i n the shade. (13) Deciduous t r e e s cut o f f the sun i n summer, w h i l e a l l o w i n g i t to penetrate i n winter.They are, t h e r e f o r e , (13) Bengtsson, A., "Environmental P l a n n i n g f o r C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y " , Crosby Lockwood and Sons L t d . , London 1970, p. 9. 118 an i d e a l form of p r o t e c t i o n . A d u l t s , e l d e r l y i n p a r t i c u l a r , are drawn t o p l a c e s i n which to p l a y t h e i r - games and where to watch o t h e r s ; to be t o g e t h e r knowing t h a t t h i s i s where t h e i r a c t i o n i s . (14) A l t e r n a t i v e l y , p l a c e s , which o f f e r an'exep-t i o n a l view or unique experience, v/arrant placement of s e a t i n g . Park benches, u n l e s s l i n k e d w i t h other f a c i l i t i e s , are g e n e r a l l y unoccupied. (15) T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s aggra-vated by the tendency of d e s i g n e r s t o p l a c e s e a t s i n rows r a t h e r than i n c l u s t e r s . (16) Recent s t u d i e s of s i t t i n g h a b i t s at bus s t o p s , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t l o n g benches tend t o be under-used. People g r a v i t a t e t o both ends, " f i l l i n g " the bench to the extent of e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s who w i l l stand or s i t on a nearby w a l l , r a t h e r than occupy a center p o s i t i o n . The f e a s i b i l i t y of benches, l o n g e r than 4-6 f e e t , must t h e r e -f o r e be q u e s t i o n e d . (14) P r i e d b e r g , M.P. w i t h B e r k e l y , E.P., " P l a y and I n t e r -p l a y " , The Macmillan Company, New York, 1970, p. 142. (15) i b i d . , p. 136. (16) Gehl, J . , i n "A S o c i a l Dimension of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , Proceedings of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology Confe-rence at the K i n g s t o n P o l y t e c h n i c , 1970, r e p o r t e d on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d out i n T i v o l i i n Denmark. C h a i r s , he noted, i n sidewalk c a f e s , were r e - o r i e n -t e d by users t o face p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f -f i c . Deasy, CM., i n "People-Watching w i t h a Purpose", A. I .A. J o u r n a l , December 1970, d e s c r i b e s , t h a t d u r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d i n g up to the d e s i g n of the L i n -c o l n Savings Bank P l a z a , he found t h a t benches, f o r m a l l y l i n e d up along walkways, v i s i b l y l i m i t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n groups t o two or t h r e e people. In the one i n s t a n c e , where benches were movable, they were not l i n e d up. " L i k e c h i l d r e n ' s j a c k s t r a w s , they were abandoned i n the haphazard p a t t e r n s t h a t r e -f l e c t the way people n o r m a l l y p o s i t i o n themselves when c o n v e r s i n g . " 119 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n V I I I to X I I I i n c l b 16 S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : A d u l t s and Teen-agers D r i v i n g Cars or Motor-c y c l e s on r e s i -d e n t i a l Roads. Unless r e g u l a t e d , v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c i s f r e q u e n t l y f a s t , n o i s y and dangerous. RESIDENTIAL ROADS SHOULD BE LOOPS OR CUL-DE-SACS, RATHER THAN THOROUGHFARES; SERVE NO MORE THAN 50 CARS; AND NARROW AT PEDES-TRIAN CROSSINGS. (18) Y/inding roads, i n loops r a t h e r than thorough-f a r e s , discourage h i g h volumes of t r a f f i c and are a d e t e r r e n t to h i g h speed. (19) T h i s , of course, depends on the t o t a l number of houses served by the road. Alexander's i n f o r m a l ob-s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e , t h a t a road i s and f e e l s safe so lon g as i t serves l e s s than 50 c a r s , where, d u r i n g rush hour, t h e r e may be one car every two minutes and f a r fewer d u r i n g the r e s t of the day and n i g h t ( 2 0 ) . (18) See a l s o S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n (19) (20) I I to X I I I i n c l , b 12 15 Appendix 'B1 Observation - Row Housing, Kanata, O n t a r i o , 1967. Thi s p a t t e r n has been m o d i f i e d from those presented by Alexander, C , "Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s " , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i -f o r n i a , 1969, PP. 64, 79, 82 and 84. 120 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n ; I I t o X I I I i n c l b 12 15 A l l Age Groups Walking and B i -k i n g across Roads. Unless r e g u l a t e d , v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c monopolizes p o i n t s where cars and people meet. ROADS ACROSS WALK-WAYS SHOULD BE ONE TO TWO LANES NAR-ROWER THAN ELSEWHERE AND CHANGE IN SURFACE MATERIAL TO RESEMBLE THAT OF THE WALKWAY. WALKWAYS SHOULD BE PARALLEL, OR AT RIGHT ANGLES, TO ROADS AND WIDEN WHERE BOTH MEET. (21) D i s c u s s i o n : Buchanan has shown t h a t the average w a i t i n g time and the percentage of p e d e s t r i a n s who are f o r c e d t o wait f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s of t r a f f i c . f l o w , i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the widt h of roadways. (22) Roads should t h e r e -f o r e be narrowed and walkways widened where they meet. The p e d e s t r i a n i s g i v e n equal s t a t u s w i t h the m o t o r i s t . While t h i s g o a l would be f u r t h e r enhanced, p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , by making the road s u r f a c e f l u s h w i t h that of the walkway, two major problems remain: (1) B i c y c l i s t s would be (21) This p a t t e r n has been mo d i f i e d from those presented by Alexander, C , "Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s " , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , B e r k e l y , C a l i -f o r n i a , 1969, pp. 64, 79, 82 and 84. (22) Buchanan, C. et a l , " T r a f f i c i n Towns", H.M.S.O., London, 1963, pp. 202-213. 121 discouraged from dismounting before c r o s s i n g roads, and (2) roads v/ould have no d e l i n e -a t i o n d u r i n g s n o w f a l l s t o guide m o t o r i s t s and snow-clearing equipment. I n c r e a s i n g the walkway w i d t h , at the p o i n t where the two c i r c u l a t i o n systems meet, has the added advantage of p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i -t i e s where to gather, s i t , t a l k and watch. 122 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : IV t o IX i n c l . / / \ / > / C h i l d r e n 2-12 years o l d and Teenagers Swinging i n a Playground. T r a d i t i o n a l swings are dangerous and r e s t r i c t i v e . THE SEAT OP A SWING SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED TO RESEMBLE AN AUTO-MOBILE TIRE. The t r a d i t i o n a l swing, a timber or s t e e l s l a b hung onto the end of two chains, pro-v i d e s one-dimensional a c t i v i t y and has, jud g i n g from the number of i t s v i c t i m s , proven to be the most dangerous o b j e c t i n the playground. C h i l d r e n have been ob-served to c l i n g , i n twos and t h r e e s , t o one swing, where t h e r e in a d e s i r e t o share the f a c i l i t y or where a l l swings are occupied. A simple, o l d , d i s c a r d e d automobile t i r e , t i e d to the branch of a t r e e , has lo n g pro-v i d e d a most enjoyable and safe a c t i v i t y f o r c h i l d r e n . The f a c t that two or th r e e c h i l d r e n can experience the same a c t i v i t y at one time broadens i t s use and pr o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s are expanded; he f l i e s , f l o a t s and rocks i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . (23) (23) P r i e d b e r g , M.P. w i t h B e r k e l e y , E.P., "Play and I n t e r -p l a y " , The M a c M i l l a n Company, New York, 1970, p. 59, 123 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c C o ntext: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : I I and I I I f 1 12 C h i l d r e n 2 y e a r s o l d Walking t o Pl a y g r o u n d s . P l a y a r e a s , t oo f a r removed from d w e l l i n g s , a re l e f t unused by younger c h i l d r e n . TOTLOTS SHOULD EE ACCESSIBLE TO CHILDREN AND VISI-BLE PROM HOLE. D i s c u s s i o n : People's r a d i u s o f a c t i o n depends on t h e i r age. C h i l d r e n ' s r a d i u s of a.ction b e i n g s h o r t the playground must be near t h e i r homes. V/hereas o l d e r c h i l d r e n do not mind t o walk 300 t o 400 y a r d s , younger c h i l d r e n a r e r e -s t r i c t e d g e n e r a l l y t o a r a d i u s o f 130 y a r d s ( 2 4 ) . S u p e r v i s i o n , v i s u a l and p h y s i c a l , from houses a l s o i s a l i m i t a t i o n on d i s t a n c e . (24) Bengtsson, A., "En v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g f o r C h i l d r e n ' P l a y " , Crosby lock<vood and Son L t d . , London, 1970, p. 97. 124 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n S p e c i f i c C o ntext: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : X to XIII i n c l 1 e 12 A d u l t s and E l d e r l y Walking t o and from C a r p a r k s . Cars parked too f a r from d w e l l i n g s cause unnecessary h a r d s h i p . THE DISTANCE BET-WEEN A PARKED CAR AND THE CORRESPON-DING DWELLING SHOULD NOT EXCEED 150 FEET AND BE PREFERABLY VISUALLY UNOBSTRUC-TED. D i s c u s s i o n : To most people l i v i n g i n m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , the c a r i s a p r i z e d p o s s e s s i o n . O f t e n i t may be the most v a l u a b l e t h i n g i t s owner has. C a r p a r k s , u n l e s s c o m p l e t e l y e n c l o s e d , removed from the house and h i d -den from view, are t h e r e f o r e not d e s i r e -a b l e . An owner wants to be a b l e to watch h i s c a r , t h a t no one s t e a l s or tampers w i t h i t and o f t e n he wants i t t o be a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h h i s house because he i s proud of i t . People c a r r y heavy p a r c e l s , and 150'-0" i s a w i d e l y a c c e p t e d upper l i m i t f o r t h i s d i s -t ance ( 2 5 ) . (25) Lynch, K., " S i t e P l a n n i n g " , M.I.T. P r e s s , 1962, p. 181. 125 S p e c i f i c P a t t e r n and X I I e 21 S p e c i f i c Context: S p e c i f i c Problem: S p e c i f i c S o l u t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n : A d u l t s and E l d e r l y T a l k i n g i n Carparks. People are not motivated t o communicate w i t h one another u n l e s s they are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o pursue, d i s p l a y and express s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and needs, r e s p e c t i v e l y . RESIDENTIAL CARPARKS, UNLESS UNDER COVER, SHOULD BE DESIGNED AS COMMUNITY POCAL POINTS, Por a e s t h e t i c reasons p r i m a r i l y , d e s i g n e r s tend t o d i s p e r s e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r p a r k i n g whenever e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , although i t has been shown t h a t a great d e a l of every-day s o c i a l l i f e happens where cars and p e d e s t r i a n s meet. I n many low income areas, the c a r i s used as an e x t e n s i o n of the home. Men o f t e n s i t i n parked c a r s , d r i n k i n g beer and t a l k i n g . (26) Observations i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n grow n a t u r a l l y too out of carparks i n h i g h e r income p r o j e c t s , where men and women meet w h i l e t a k i n g care of t h e i r c h i l d r e n or cars and, indeed, d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g semi-annual carpark c l e a n -ups. (27) (26) Cooper, C , "Some S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of House and S i t e P l a n Design at E a s t e r H i l l V i l l a g e : A Case Study", I n s t i t u t e of Urban and R e g i o n a l Develop-ment, Center f o r P l a n n i n g and Development Research, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l y , 1966, p. 36. (27) Observations - Student Family Housing, A c a d i a Park, U.B.C., Vancouver, Sept. 1970 - Feb. 1972; - M u l t i p l e R e n t a l Housing P r o j e c t , Park-wood H i l l s , Ottawa, June 1965 - May 1967. 

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