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The effects of the revolution as shown in some of the works of naturalists of the NEP period Bobruk, Rita 1971

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THE EFFECTS OF THE REVOLUTION AS SHOWN IN SOME OF THE WORKS OF NATURALISTS OF THE NEP PERIOD *y RITA BOBRUK B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, 1 9 6 1 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Slavonic Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1 9 7 1  In  present i ng t h i s.~ t h e s i s.-- in p a r t i al  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  by h i s of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t  this  written  for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r  representatives. thesis  British  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for scholarly  f u l f i l m e n t - o f the-requirements for  for  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s paper i s to examine the r e s u l t s of the r e v o l u t i o n and i t s e f f e c t s on the Russian people.  Since  the government of the NEP period allowed r e l a t i v e freedom to' w r i t e r s , a t t e n t i o n i s focused  on t h i s time.  The w r i t e r s  Kozakov, Malashkin, Grabar', and N i k i f o r o v were chosen because t h e i r n a t u r a l i s t i c writings would give the most accurate p i c t u r e of the time.  While a l l four authors deal with  the i l l s of the system, t h e i r d i f f e r e n t methods of i n v e s t i gation give a greater scope to a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Each chapter of the paper presents the author, some s t y l i s t i c  the background of  elements, d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the  Soviet system and psychological e f f e c t s on the characters. The writers are dealt with i n the following  order:  CHAPTER I-Mikhail E. Kozakov "Meshchanin Adameyko" CHAPTER II-Sergey I. Malashkin "Luna s pravoy storony" CHAPTER I l l - L e o n i d Y. Grabar' "Lakhudrin pereulok" and "Na kirpichakh" CHAPTER IV-Georgiy K. N i k i f o r o v U fonarya and Ztienshcnina The  conclusion points out that the r e s u l t s of the r e -  v o l u t i o n were f a r from what was expected at i t s inception.  - i i Much, of the Communist i d e o l o g y worked a g a i n s t the i c a l make-up of the people failure  causing endless f r u s t r a t i o n s .  of the P a r t y to c o n s i d e r human c h a r a c t e r brought  u n d e s i r a b l e f a c t i o n s and elements i n the i t s own  psycholog-  destroyed  /  out  some of the most worthy  s o c i e t y ; thus, r e t a r d i n g the p r o g r e s s  goal.  The  towards  C O N T E N T S  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I  M i k h a i l E. Kozakov "Meshchanin Adameyko"  CHAPTER I I  Sergey I . M a l a s h k i n "Luna s pravoy s t o r o n y "  CHAPTER I I I  L e o n i d Y. Grabar' "Lakhudrin pereulok" "Na k i r p i c h a k h "  CHAPTER IV  G e o r g i y K. N i k i f o r o v TJ f o nary a Zh.enshcb.ina  CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish, t o express my s i n c e r e  appre-  c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r V a l e r i a n Revutsky f o r h i s l e a r n e d d i r e c t i o n and k i n d  con-  s i d e r a t i o n extended t o me d u r i n g my graduate this  s t u d i e s and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f  thesis.  INTRODUCTION The establishment of the New Economic P o l i c y hy the U.S.S.R. i n February, 1921, brought about a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the attitude of the Communist Party towards free and enterprise i n business and the a r t s .  thought  The r e l a x a t i o n of  rules i s evident i n a proclamation with regard to w r i t e r s that was issued during the Party Congress of 1925: ... Communist c r i t i c i s m should dispense with i t s tone of l i t e r a r y command ... While d i r e c t ing l i t e r a t u r e as a whole, the Party can give l i t t l e support to any one f a c t i o n of l i t e r a ture ... The Party should express i t s support of free competition of various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and trends w i t h i n a given sphere ...^ Although i t was s t i l l asserting Party c o n t r o l , the r e l a t i v e freedom provided hy t h i s proclamation enabled w r i t e r s to express some of t h e i r views on the r e v o l u t i o n and the l i f e i t had created i n Russia. During the nineteenth century, one of the e a r l i e s t proponents of a humanistic approach to l i f e was the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . Evidence of t h i s appears i n the works of many of the w r i t e r s of  the period i n c l u d i n g such major authors as Lev Tolstoy,  Turgenev and Dostoyevski.  I t was the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who  planted, among the peasants and labourers, the idea of some i  N. L. Brodskiy, et a l . , eds., Literaturnye manifesty (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo FecTeratsiya, 1 9 2 9 ) — h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N. L. B r o d s k i y — p p .  296-7.  - 2 form of human r i g h t s .  The lower classes, having known no-  thing but t h e i r d a i l y t o i l , had l i t t l e time to contemplate such notions of freedom. sia  Prom 1860, the time when the i n t e l l i g e n t -  achieved c l a s s status, i t had been alienated because of  the gap which existed between the i d e a l and the r e a l .  The  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a wanted "to make the 'cursed Russian r e a l i t y 2 conform to the u n i v e r s a l Ideas of Man and Reason." This  1  zeal and passion f o r a just society l e d to a tendency towards 3  d o c t r i n a i r i s m and extremism how  but to l i t t l e conception as to  t h e i r . i d e a l s would function i n actual p r a c t i c e .  To the  intelligentsia, ... education meant the development of t a l e n t , of ambition, of pride and imaginat i o n — i n a word, ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ' They had to free themselves and the whole populace of a State that "could accommodate only t e c h n i c a l competence and not 'individuality'."^  Thus, the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a supported the r e -  volutionary movement from i t s inception; i n f a c t , i t was the "zemstvo," a group of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a with p o l i t i c a l  ex-  5  perience who  "set the h a l l r o l l i n g . "  M. Malia, "What Is the I n t e l l i g e n t s i a , " The Russian I n t e l l i g e n t s i a , R. Pipes, ed. (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 b l ) , p. 12. ^B. E l k i n , "The Russian I n t e l l i g e n t s i a on the Eve of the Revolution," The Russian I n t e l l i g e n t s i a , p. 3 2 . ^Malia, l o c . c i t . 5  Elkin, l o c c i t .  Unfortunately, the r e v o l u t i o n d i d not resolve the conf l i c t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and society; and so the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a found themselves  t o t a l l y alienated  when the nineteenth century culture collapsed and the Bolsheviks took c o n t r o l .  The l i b e r a l i s m and humanitarianism which they  loved d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e .  Instead, a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n and  during the Bolsheviks' struggle to dominate the government, the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a again found a state that was u n w i l l i n g to accommodate ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y ' .  Accordingly, a muted h o s t i l i t y  developed between the regime and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  The  Party thought of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a as the bourgeois c l a s s and t h e i r every movement was suspect.  The government resented  t h e i r not being integrated into the system and having to pay them high s a l a r i e s f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s .  But as Lenin pointed  out, i n order to organize the State, they needed people with state and business experience that could only be found i n the old c l a s s .  I t was f o r t h i s reason that he s a i d r  We have to administer with the help of the people belonging to the c l a s s we have overthrown.6 The resentment of the Party was reciprocated by the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who hated them f o r not carrying out prerevolutionary i d e a l s .  They also objected to the curbing of  free expression and being foreed to conform to the Party l i n e or be persecuted. ^R. N. Carew Hunt, The Theory and P r a c t i c e of Gommunism (Hammondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964), p. 184.  What was happening bore no resemblance whatever to the magnificent prophecies of the symbolist seers or the mystical-minded r a d i c a l s , i t simply meant epidemics, s t a r v a t i o n , prison, e x i l e — p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l a n n i h i lation.' Indeed, many of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , i n c l u d i n g a number of w r i t e r s , became p o l i t i c a l e x i l e s when the Bolsheviks eame to power.  Once i n i t i a t e d , the hard Party l i n e gained such  mentum that even those i n charge had l i t t l e  mo-  c o n t r o l over i t s  d i r e c t i o n despite t h e i r evident d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the turn of  events.  he was  Nadzhda Mandelstam, i n speaking of Bukharin, when  at h i s peak of power i n the mid-twenties, said that he c l e a r l y saw that the new world he was so act i v e l y helping to b u i l d was h o r r i f y i n g l y unl i k e the o r i g i n a l concept. L i f e was deviating from the b l u e p r i n t s , hut the b l u e p r i n t s had been declared sacrosanct and i t was forbidden to compare them with what was a c t u a l l y coming into being. Determinist theory had n a t u r a l l y given b i r t h to unheard of p r a c t i t i o n e r s who boldly outlawed any study of r e a l l i f e : Why undermine the system and sow unnecessary doubt i f h i s t o r y was i n any ease speeding us to the appointed destination.8  The C i v i l War  that followed the r e v o l u t i o n (1918-1922)  and the F i r s t World War seemed superfluous.  caused such devastation that w r i t i n g  During t h i s period which i s often r e -  f e r r e d to as War Communism, the w r i t e r s , as did the r e s t of the country, concentrated on s u r v i v a l .  Due to n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  M. Slonim, Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press; 1964), P» 3. 8 N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope t r a n s l . by M. Hayward (lew York:- Atheneum, 1970), p. 114.  and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of both land and i n d u s t r i e s , production had f a l l e n o f f to a mere f r a c t i o n of i t s pre-revolutionary l e v e l with the manor p o r t i o n of i t going to support the Red q army. The rest was meted out to the general population with factory workers r e c e i v i n g more than c i v i l servants; and they, i n turn, were being given more than the former  privi-  10  leged c l a s s .  In t r u t h , there was  any of the populace.  very l i t t l e to be had by  "The horrors of everyday l i f e  t h e i r apogee i n the winters of  1919-20  and  reached  1920-21."  11  thing that could be pried loose, including books, was to  burned  survive the b i t t e r winter. Despite the dire l i v i n g conditions, a gradual  of  Every-  renewal  l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y based on the pre-revolutionary trends of  Symbolism, Imaginism and Psychological Realism began.  Com-  munist leaders from the old i n t e l l i g e n t s i a t r i e d to promote l i t e r a t u r e that expressed the idealogy of the r e v o l u t i o n ; members of pre-revolutionary groups t r i e d to reform them; young people with no l i t e r a r y experience f e l t compelled to write about t h e i r l i v e s i n those turbulent times; the symb o l i s t s proclaimed a messianistie role f o r Russia, declaring that the whole world would follow Moscow's lead i n b u i l d i n g G. Vernadsky, Russian Revolution Henry Holt & Company, pp. 87-8. 9  1 Q  I b i d . , p. 77.  1932),  1917-1931  (New  York:  11 G. Struve, Russian L i t e r a t u r e under Lenin and S t a l i n 19I7-I953. (Normanl Oklahoma U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), p. 34.  a new  society. Due  to the l a c k of p u b l i s h e r s , paper and  p o e t r y was  the f i r s t  i z e d by  by word-of-mouth than p r o s e .  cafe p e r i o d of Soviet l i t e r a t u r e ,  the U t o p i a n o u t l o o k o f young w r i t e r s and  overflowing  materials,  l i t e r a r y genre to develop s i n c e i t  more r e a d i l y t r a n s p o r t e d r e s u l t e d i n the  other  w i t h hopes f o r a d a z z l i n g f u t u r e .  a number o f l i t e r a r y groups had groups t h a t f u n c t i o n e d  a t t h i s time was  This  characterfilled  By  been o r g a n i z e d .  late 1 9 2 0 , One  1910.  e s s e n t i a l l y a r e v o l u t i o n a r y group which s t r e s s e d  of  other  trends  Symbolism, as w e l l .  the  It  was  innovations  whatever the c o s t , r e j e c t i n g a l l g r e a t masters of the the two  to  the F u t u r i s t s whose  b e g i n n i n g s S t r u v e t r a c e s back to as e a r l y as  and  was  i n Soviet l i t e r a t u r e , Realism  past and  They a l s o t r i e d to f r e e w r i t i n g from i t s 13  dependence on the meaning of words. was  new,  they c o n s i d e r e d  s o c i a l order  t h a t was  themselves spokesmen f o r the  developing  e x c l u s i v e p o s i t i o n i n a r t s and volutionary regime.  spirit  i n Russia  Since  socio-economic o r d e r , ^  l i t e r a r y t i e s w i t h the p a s t  M.  every c u l t u r e i s an  i n t h i s new  S l o n i m , op.  c i t . , p.  Struve,  c i t . , pp.  £p.  Slonim, op.  t h e r e was  5. 14-5.  c i t . , pp. 3 2 - 3 .  no  Soviet  an re-  Communist  They c a l l e d upon a l l w r i t e r s t o r e j e c t the p a s t  of a given  *l 4-  so demanded  i n r e t u r n f o r s e r v i c e to the  a r t forms.  M. 1 "5 G.  and  new  l e t t e r s as i n t e r p r e t e r s of  c r e a t e new  12  Because t h e i r approach  and  expression room f o r  system.  -  7  -  Another important group which had p r i o r to the  r e v o l u t i o n and  the P r o l e t c u l t . A.  The  i t s beginnings  then f l o u r i s h e d a f t e r w a r d s  b r a i n c h i l d of A.  A. M a l i n o v s k y ) , i t was  had  Bogdanov (pseudonym f o r  based on the  assumption t h a t  working c l a s s e s would advance towards S o c i a l i s m a l o n g p a r a l l e l roads:  political,  was  economic and  cultural.  the three  The  cul-  15 t u r a l a s p e c t would be A l t h o u g h not  ever c o u l d be the  l i t e r a t u r e of the p a s t ,  drawn from i t s h o u l d  t r u e l i t e r a t u r e of the  break w i t h the  p a s t had  i n d i v i d u a l character 1c tivization. laid by  political  control.  q u i t e as r a d i c a l as the F u t u r i s t s , the P r o l e t c u l t  a l s o r e j e c t e d the  forge  exempt from any  was  claiming  o n l y be used as a t o o l to  c o l l e c t i v e conscience.  to o c c u r because e v e r y t h i n g condemned.  4 i n the  of  A an  A l l truth lay i n e o l l e c -  What the P r o l e t c u l t b e l i e v e was  down as p o i n t  t h a t what-  l a t e r to  be  aforementioned r e s o l u t i o n i s s u e d  the C e n t r a l Committee of the Communist P a r t y i n 1925: In a c l a s s s o c i e t y , t h e r e i s n o t , nor ean t h e r e be, n e u t r a l a r t a l t h o u g h the c l a s s n a t u r e o f a r t g e n e r a l l y and l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i s e x p r e s s e d i n forms i n f i n i t e l y more v a r i e d than, f o r example, i n p o l i t i c s . 1 ?  In an attempt to r e a l i z e t h e i r dream of a c o l l e c t i v e t a r i a n and  peasant l i t e r a t u r e ,  prole-  the P r o l e t c u l t , between  and  1917  1920, e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s and s t u d i o s . In these s c h o o l s , i 15 G. S t r u v e , op. c i t . , pp. 27-8. (For r e s o l u t i o n s passed by the P r o l e t c u l t and essays on same, see L i t e r a t u r n y e manifesty» pp. 130-46.) N. 1 7  L. B r o d s k i y , op.  Ibid.,  p.  293.  c i t . , pp.  130-1.  - 8 "bourgeois s p e c i a l i s t s " were to teach the workers to write 18 poetry and prose. In 1920,  a p o r t i o n of the P r o l e t e u l t broke away to form  an independent  organization c a l l e d Kuznitsa or the Smithy.  Although t h i s group i s often considered t o t a l l y p r o l e t a r i a n , not a l l the members were of true p r o l e t a r i a n o r i g i n . mon  bond among them was  The com-  t h e i r "acceptance of Communist i d e o l 1Q  ogy that q u a l i f i e d one as a p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r . "  J  In spite  of t h e i r conformity to Party i d e a l s , Kuznitsa followed the lead of P r o l e t e u l t i n i n s i s t i n g on keeping t h e i r w r i t i n g free from government i n t e r f e r e n c e .  However, because of the themes  used by members of Kuznitsa, there was no c o n f l i c t with the Party.  The g l o r i f i c a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v i s m and factory labour  s a t i s f i e d Party demands, but the forms used to present them were romantic and the imagery, grandiloquent.  For t h i s reason,  they were c r i t i c i z e d by the younger p r o l e t a r i a n s f o r being ... romantic and abstract, withdrawn from the world of l i v i n g human beings and quite unconscious i n t h e i r poetry of the r e a l physiognomy of actual p r o l e t a r i a n s . 2 0  It was mainly t h i s group of younger w r i t e r s who, date, t r i e d to maintain o b j e c t i v i t y by placing  at a l a t e r themselves  d e l i b e r a t e l y i n opposition to the " p o l i t i c a l poster" i n literature.  For roughly a decade a f t e r t h i s , the Smithy  18 G. Struve, op. c i t . , pp. 27-8. Ibid. 20 E. J . Brown, Russian L i t e r a t u r e since the Revolution (New York: C o l l i e r Books, I9b3), p. HT1 1 9  - 9 maintained that l i t e r a t u r e must not he made a propaganda 21  wea-  pon f o r Party p o l i c y . With the establishment  i n 1921  of the New  Economic P o l i c y  founded by Lenin to o f f s e t the catastrophic decline i n indust r y and a g r i c u l t u r e and the r e s u l t i n g famine, epidemics and malnutrition, prosperity increased.  Small businesses sprang  up, production m u l t i p l i e d and much to the dismay of the prol e t a r i a t , the "meshchanin" or " P h i l i s t i n e " became a prominent force i n s o c i e t y .  Publishing houses, i n c l u d i n g a number of  p r i v a t e l y owned ones, were established and prose became the leading l i t e r a r y form.  Along with a r e l a x a t i o n of economic  r e s t r i c t i o n s , censorship was  also l e s s s t r i n g e n t .  In  1922,  a l i t e r a r y group c a l l e d the Serapion Brothers b o l d l y issued a manifesto demanding that "a work of a r t be o r i g i n a l and and l i v e i t s own  real  p a r t i c u l a r l i f e independent of i t s source of  22 material."  The most outspoken of any of the groups at t h i s  time, the Serapion Brothers tation for a l l writing.  proclaimed freedom from regimen-  They asserted that the p o l i t i c a l a f -  f i l i a t i o n s of the author were of no consequence when the  merit  of a piece of l i t e r a t u r e was being considered. 21 V. Z a v a l i s h i n , E a r l y Soviet Writers (New York: Fredrick A. Praeger, 1958), p. 158. (See LiTeraturnye manifesty, pp. 148-73 f o r a d d i t i o n a l material on the aims and i d e a l s of Kuznitsa. M. Zoshchenko, "Druzheskie parodiy," Literaturnye z a p i s k i , 22 No. 2 (June 23, 1922), pp. 8-9.  - 10 Naturally, such defiance did not go unchallenged hy Marxi s t c r i t i c s and i t gave r i s e to some stormy controversy.  The  Party i t s e l f , however, had not yet taken an o f f i c i a l stand against the Serapions.  I t s tolerance towards a l l non-conform-  i s t s i s evident throughout the NEP period. issued advising how  A proclamation was  to deal with them.  Regarding the a t t i t u d e towards "fellowt r a v e l l e r s ," i t i s necessary to keep t h i s i n mind: 1) t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; 2) the s i g n i f i c a n c e of many of them as q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s of l i t e r a r y techniques; 3) the presence of a v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e i n t h i s stratum of writers.23 This l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e with regard to w r i t e r s remained  apparent  into the f i r s t years of the Five Year Plan. I t was  the relaxed l i t e r a r y climate discussed above that  enabled writers to express t h e i r thoughts more f r e e l y than at any other time since the r e v o l u t i o n . c i t i n g trends i n Soviet l i t e r a t u r e .  This produced some exA form of w r i t i n g which  i s often c a l l e d n a t u r a l i s t i c became popular.  Some of the  authors whose works showed t h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c tendency were Mikhail Kozakov, Sergey Malashkin, Leonid Grahar' and Georgiy Nikiforov.  Although a l l these authors were i n some way  active  i n Communist organizations, t h e i r w r i t i n g s were not overshadowed hy this..  The r e l a t i v e freedom allowed them by the  government at t h i s time permitted them to show the r e a l i t i e s of the period of reconstruction.  This n a t u r a l i s t i c bent made  23 N. L. Brodskiy, op. c i t . , p.  295.  -  11 -  t h e i r writings f a r removed from the " p o l i t i c a l poster"  litera-  ture and showed d i s t i n c t beginnings of the true psychological novel. Their writings demonstrated that the new order a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n was not the panacea the country had expected.  The  Soviet system was found to have as many f a i l i n g s as the Tsari s t regime. for  the i l l s of each system, though d i f f e r e n t , were strangely  similar. for  The common man fared no better than previously,  Man's nature had not changed and he worked p r i m a r i l y  h i s own personal advancement and material gains with no  regard f o r the needs of the country as a whole.  Many oppor-  t u n i s t i c elements from the lower classes rose to governing l e v e l s and fleeced the common working man.  A r i s t o c r a c y had  been replaced hy bureaucracy but the r e s u l t s were s t i l l the same.  Although much e f f o r t was made to improve the l i v i n g  conditions of the ignorant and downtrodden, the task proved a d i f f i c u l t one. They themselves, i n f a c t , perpetuated t h e i r former kind of l i f e  through ingrained a t t i t u d e s and bigotry.  However l i t t l e use the p r o l e t a r i a t had f o r the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , they were forced into g i v i n g them responsible p o s i t i o n s i n the Party, f o r nowhere i n the working c l a s s were t h e i r s k i l l s able.  avail-  Thus, the 'has beens' were allowed to collaborate with  the new regime. On the whole, the r e s u l t s of the r e v o l u t i o n were d i s heartening.  I t had negated the previous  hut f a i l e d to provide anything  system and morality  i n i t s stead.  This created a  a great people.  d e a l o f t u r m o i l and chaos e s p e c i a l l y among young The f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s w i l l  examine a sampling o f  works w r i t t e n between 1925 and 1930 by some o f the " f e l l o w travellers" : "Meshchanin Adameyko" - M i k h a i l Kozakov "Luna s pravoy s t o r o n y "  - Sergey M a l a s h k i n  " L a k h u d r i n p e r e u l o k " and "Na k i r p i c h a k h " - L e o n i d Grabar' Zhenshcnina - G e o r g i y N i k i f o r o v i n order  t o p o i n t out what these w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r e d  comings o f the system d u r i n g short l i t e r a r y to e v a l u a t e  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d .  A  a n a l y s i s o f each a u t h o r ' s works and an attempt  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on the p o p u l a c e , as r e -  p r e s e n t e d by the c h a r a c t e r s made.  the s h o r t -  i n t h e i r s t o r i e s , w i l l a l s o be  CHAPTER I Kozakov was an active member of revolutionary groups from the beginning of the r e v o l u t i o n and, as mentioned i n the i n troduction, a prominent member of Communist committees u n t i l 24 his death.  However, he did not write i n the " p o l i t i c a l  poster" s t y l e — t h e s t y l e previously recommended f o r dedicated Soviet writers and then enforced  a f t e r the NEP period.  In the  t a l e "Meshchanin Adameyko," not only does Kozakov not portray the greatness of the working class or the peasant, but representatives of e i t h e r of these classes do not even enter i n t o the story.  His r e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g leads the compilers of  Russkiye sovetskiye p i s a t e l i p r o z a i k i to say: ... i n 1927—the t a l e Meshchanin Adameyko /was published/ r e f l e c t i n g the deformed Happenings of the NEP period.25 It seems that, according  to Soviet i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the un-  savoury happenings were due to the leniency of the NEP period and not at a l l a r e s u l t of the revolutionary  process.  As pointed out by V. Z a v a l i s h i n i n E a r l y Soviet Writers, 26 Kozakov "applied Dostoyevski s methods." 1  Zavalishin likens  24 Russkiye sovetskiye p i s a t e l i p r o z a i k i (Leningrad: Minist'erstvo kul'tury RSFSR, 1 9 b 4 ) , Tom I I , p. 4 6 8 . Ibid.. Z a v a l i s h i n , op. c i t . 25  Kozakov's t a l e "Meshchanin Adameyko"  27  to Dostoyevski s Crime 1  and Punishment, but i t seems to be patterned on a combination of  both Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov i n i t s  psychological themes.  As i n Crime and Punishment, i n which  Raskolnikov k i l l s the o l d money-lending harridan to r i d the world of an undesirable element, so Adameyko believes that 28  Varvara Semienovna i s what he c a l l s "wild f l e s h "  and her  hastened death would help eradicate a b l i g h t from t h i s earth. In  commenting on the story, Z a v a l i s h i n says: Adameyko plans to k i l l a r i c h woman i n order to help a poor family, but indueespn another man to commit the actual murder. y  This i s not so. nor  Adameyko neither a c t u a l l y plans to k i l l her  arranges f o r someone else to do the k i l l i n g .  They want  only to rob her. Don't forget ... H i t me f i r s t , — I w i l l f a l l i n a f a i n t , then you can turn to her, understand? ... So that she wouldn't be suspicious i n case of something ... i f someone i n t e r f e r e s ...50 "Meshchanin Adameyko" resembles Dostoyevski's The Brothers Karamazov i n that Adameyko, as Ivan does regarding h i s f a t h e r , 27  Z a v a l i s h i n t r a n s l a t e s "meshchanin" as " l i t t l e man," but Kozakov seems to imply the stronger t r a n s l a t i o n of the w o r d — that i s — " p e t t y bourgeois," " P h i l i s t i n e " and "narrow-minded and vulgar." 28  M. E. Kozakov, "Meshchanin Adameyko," T r i poyesti (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo p i s a t e l ' e y v Leningrade" 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 81 29  •50  Z a v a l i s h i n , op. c i t . Kozakov, op. c i t . , p. 140.  voices the opinion that Varvara should he k i l l e d . i s then taken out of h i s hands by f a t e .  The  matter  Adameyko and h i s ac-  complice, Sukhov, rob the o l d woman, hut n e i t h e r of them k i l l s her. , She dies of a heart attack during the confrontation with Sukhov. The l o g didn't have time to smash the p e t r i f i e d face covered with f i n e p e r s p i r a t i o n : Varvara Semienovna swayed gently and f e l l heavily backwards. On that very day, a f t e r an i n v i t a t i o n from the i n v e s t i g a t i n g body of the inquest, the doctor admitted s e c r e t l y that the widow Postrunkova died of a heart attack. Adameyko's i n a b i l i t y to l e t h i s part i n the crime remain h i d den again makes him s i m i l a r to Raskolnikov i n Crime and Punishment.  Because of h i s obsession f o r r i d d i n g the world  of parasites, he cannot r e f r a i n from subconsciously exposing h i s complicity.  He wants to conceal the crime but inadvertently  implicates himself hy g i v i n g one of Varvara's f r e s h t a r t s to a c h i l d i n the yard, then grabbing i t away h a l f eaten.  A strange  force seems to he d r i v i n g him because he also takes a number of these t a r t s to Sukhov's c h i l d r e n .  The argument which en-  sues between Sukhov and Adameyko i s l a t e r r e l a t e d to the i n v e s t i g a t o r by Sukhov's young daughter, Galochka, and r e s u l t s i n Adameyko's a r r e s t . The point of view i n the t a l e i s that of the omniscient author i n the person of the narrator who 5 1  I h i d . , p. 1 4 5 .  makes the story more  -  16  -  p l a u s i b l e "by keeping the reader constantly aware of h i s presence.  He maintains suspense by using a reverse method.  He  f i r s t reveals that Adameyko has been sentenced f o r a crime he didn't commit; then, through a s e r i e s of flashbacks, he slowly unfolds the actual sequence of events.  The  suspense  i s heightened because the author does not present the f l a s h backs i n chronological order, but i n a manner of an amateur raconteur who  r e l a t e s the incidents as he remembers them,  leaving the d e t a i l s to be explained at a future time. includes d e t a i l s calculated to mislead.  He also  When Adameyko picks  up Olga's handkerchief at varvara's while the p o l i c e are i n v e s t i g a t i n g the crime, the reader i s l e f t wondering what r o l e she played i n i t . A s k i l f u l use of foreshadowing  f u r t h e r enriches the story.  The reader i s already aware of the outcome, but Adameyko i s not when he says: 1 said t h i s to you, 'They w i l l slay people and t h i s i s a n e c e s s i t y . That i s so. You have taken these words to be a malicious joke. Perhaps i t i s a joke and a fantasy now, both f o r you and f o r me. Because they have not yet s l a i n e i t h e r me or you." "Save me, Lord, Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h ! ... To whom are we with you necessary? ..." shuddered the neighbour. "That's just i t , that we are t o t a l l y unnecessary ... — " Adameyko repeated 11  1  a f t e r her.32  Adameyko does not q u a l i f y h i s "they". I b i d . , p. 28.  As i t turns out, "they",  -  17  -  Adameyko and Sukhov, were responsible f o r p r e c i p i t a t i n g Varvara*s heart attack and her death while "they," the courts, brought about Adameyko's supposed untimely demise.  The e l i m i n -  ation of both these people gave credance to Adameyko's p e c u l i a r theory of j u s t i c e , that a l l unproductive elements of society should be destroyed by whatever means p o s s i b l e . Kozakov makes use of another l i t e r a r y device hy a r t f u l l y i n c l u d i n g i r o n i c elements i n h i s t a l e .  The reader can see the  irony when Varvara makes reference to her dog. A dog also understands i t s own business; i n i t s own way, i t acts with j u s t i c e ; and Adameyko r e p l i e s : Here i t i s , a dog's j u s t i c e : feed i t — bribe i t ! — i t w i l l s e l l i t s friendship with i t s master. There, where there i s t r e a c l e cake i n the hands—there j u s t i c e doesn't wear a peaked cap.53 This passage i s i r o n i c because both varvara and Adameyko were erroneous i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and consequently perished. Both dogs were exact r e f l e c t i o n s of t h e i r masters,  varvara  was a t r u s t i n g soul and she expected her dog to protect her. However, her dog was t r u s t i n g too, and so Adameyko was able to t r i c k i t into not creating a disturbance when Sukhov entered the apartment.  Had Adameyko been more i n t u i t i v e about the  d i r e c t t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p between dog and master, he wouldn't have f a i l e d to miss the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukhov*s dog b i t i n g him immediately a f t e r he had fed i t . 5 3  I b i d . , pp.  24-5.  I t was an obvious  forewarning  of the treatment he would l a t e r receive from  Sukhov. The author's use of the language further adds c r e d i b i l i t y to the n a r r a t i v e .  The speech of the narrator i s s t r a i g h t -  forward, almost j o u r n a l i s t i c i n s t y l e .  However,  colloquial-  34 isms such as " l e s r u b i t ' - pod nogi ne smotret'" and adding "-s" to various words such as "dozvol'te-s," "vami-s," and 35 "nikak-s"  are included i n the dialogue to give the characters  class colour.  Kozakov o c c a s i o n a l l y indulges i n a play on words,  such as the bandying about of the word "nuzhno" i n the example c i t e d i n #19  above.  The f i r s t time, i t takes on the meaning  of "Why would anyone want to do that to us?"; the second time, i t has i t s actual meaning of "necessary." In h i s use of patois, an obvious departure  from the  c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of pre-revolutionary l i t e r a t u r e , Kozakov was following the general example set by post-revolutionary writers.  Many of them were s t i l l i d e a l i s t i c enough to think  that the country was being turned over to the masses; therefore, t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e had to be i n the idiom of the s t r e e t . Throughout the story, Kozakov brings out shortcomings of the new Soviet system. l e g a l processes for  He f i r s t d i r e c t s c r i t i c i s m at the  by pointing out that Adameyko was  a crime he didn't  commit;  137.  3 4  I b i d . , p.  3 5  I b i d . , pp. 114-5.  convicted  and the court, convinced of h i s responsib i l i t y and maturity, brought i n i t s v e r d i c t completely i n accordance with the circumstances of the a f f a i r . But here one must point out that Ardal'on Adameyko did not k i l l , although the court did not admit the error, counting him a murderer. 36 Rather than concentrating on the evidence that applied to the case, the prosecutor questioned Adameyko so c l o s e l y about h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with both people and animals that one of the observers said that he was about to c a l l the white pommeranian to the witness stand.  As f u r t h e r evidence of questionable  courtroom procedure, Kozakov reveals that, while the doctor's secret report that varvara died of a heart attack was i b l e i n Sukhov's defence, Adameyko was  admiss-  s t i l l convicted of her  murder. Kozakov's censure of the courts i s not a novelty per se, for he patterns Adameyko's t r i a l a f t e r that of Ivan i n Dostoyevski's The Brothers Karamazov.  Kozakov also reaches  back into an e a r l i e r period of s o c i a l unrest, that of nineteenth century England. of  The humorous twists i n h i s outline  courtroom procedures can be found i n the s o c i a l s a t i r e s of  Charles Dickens. The methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n used by D i m i t r i y K i r i l l o v i c h Zhigadlo are f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y .  He based the arrest of  Adameyko and Sukhov on the confused s t o r i e s he extracted from Galochka when she and her brother had been brought to Zhigadlo' 3 6  I b i d . , p. 7.  -  20  -  home to play with h i s c h i l d r e n . The reader has also, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y noticed a gross error i n Galoehka's story. Adameyko*s conversation with both the Sukhovs that frightened her, which occurred during the f i r s t days of t h e i r acquaintance, she a t t r i b u t e d to a l a t e r time; yes, besides that, she interpreted, i n her own way, t h i s conversation which her c h i l d i s h imagination promoted more than a l i t t l e and blended i t immediately with her memories. D i m i t r i y K i r i l l o v i c h , of course, could not have known about t h i s mistake, but i t served as the best proof of h i s guesses i n regard to the true c u l p r i t i n the crime. Kozakov does not f a i l to point out that a secret p o l i c e  was  already i n operation at t h i s time and had Adameyko under surv e i l l a n c e , not because he had committed a crime, but because of h i s r a d i c a l opinions: Zhigadlo ... showed some haste i n h i s e f f o r t to reveal the crime: the data of routine secret service i n v e s t i g a t i o n , imparted to him somewhat l a t e r , would have served as the best proof f o r D i m i t r i y K i r i l l o v i c h s guess—and the g u i l t y one i n the murder would s t i l l not have avoided h i s f a t e . 1  g  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n which evidently had begun f o r no  apparent  reason with Adameyko's f i r s t v i s i t to Sukhov had uncovered number of unfavourable points about him. not an unusual procedure. ing  This evidently  39 make a case." Ibid  p.  38  Ibid  pp.  39  Mandelstam, op. c i t  was  Nadezhda Mandelstam quotes a say-  of the exterminating profession, "Give us a man  37  a  134. 122-3.  p. 14.  and w e ' l l  W i t h r e g a r d t o Adameyko, t h e s e c r e t p o l i c e found t h a t h i s constant preoccupation with e l i m i n a t i n g unproductive i n S o v i e t s o c i e t y was dangerous t o those i n power.  elements Since  V.I.P.'s l i k e D i m i t r i y K i r i l l o v i c h were n o t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the growth o f a peoples* n a t i o n but were u s i n g t h e i r to aggrandize  themselves,  they, a c c o r d i n g t o Adameyko's p l a n ,  were i n l i n e f o r l i q u i d a t i o n . was  n o t g u i l t y , h i s involvement  them w i t h a c o n v e n i e n t  T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h Adameyko i n V a r v a r a ' s death p r o v i d e d  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d i s p o s i n g o f him.  r a p i d s o l u t i o n o f t h e case would a l s o demonstrate efficiency.  positions  A  Zhigadlo's  The i r o n y behind Adameyko's c o n v i c t i o n l a y i n t h e  f a c t t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s o f those i n power were no more secure because o f i t .  They, i n t u r n , c o u l d be t r i e d and c o n v i c t e d  on s i m i l a r p r e t e x t s . Kozakov a l s o c r i t i c i z e s the newspaper f o r i t s b i a s e d style of reporting: ... we have s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t l i n e d t h e s i t u a t i o n s which must he e x p l a i n e d and perhaps, i n doing so, we have a l r e a d y e v i n c e d i n the r e a d e r an i l l - d i s p o s e d and h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e towards A r d a l ' o n P o r f i r i e v i c h whom we do n o t p i t y hut whom we cannot p i c t u r e as c o l d l y and as o n e - s i d e d l y as was done i n the newspaper account o f t h i s matter.4-0 The newspaper, i n an e f f o r t t o d i s c r e d i t Adameyko and f i n d f a v o u r w i t h those i n power, p u r p o s e l y s e l e c t e d  unfavourable  f a c e t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r and m a g n i f i e d them, c o m p l e t e l y 4 Q  Ibid.,  pp. 7-8.  - 22 omitting any f a c t s pertinent to the case.  By using t h i s method  of reporting that could he r e f e r r e d to as "poverkhnostny" or " s u p e r f i c i a l " , i t was able to convict Adameyko even before the case could be heard. The Communist r e v o l u t i o n was known as the great  leveller.  I t was supposed to have equalized l i v i n g standards and to have removed great d i s p a r i t i e s which had existed between the l i f e s t y l e s of the a r i s t o c r a t s and the working c l a s s . a t e l y , t h i s d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e e f f e c t i v e l y .  Unfortun-  Kozakov e f f e c -  t i v e l y contrasts the l i v i n g conditions of the Sukhov family and the Zhigadlos and to a l e s s e r extent those of Varvara Semienovna to reveal the d i s p a r i t y which a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d . The Sukhovs l i v e d i n cramped, sparsely furnished  quarters:  they had two small, dark rooms f o r four people and only two chairs so that when Adameyko v i s i t e d , Sukhov sat on a piece of l o g , Galoehka on a trunk.  The Zhigadlo family, on the  other hand, had a spacious, l a v i s h l y furnished apartment with a s p e c i a l room f o r the c h i l d r e n and a study f o r Zhigadlo. Varvara too had more space f o r h e r s e l f than the Shukhovs had f o r the whole family. wife.  Sukhov was not employed, nor was h i s  In f a c t , money was so scarce i n the Sukhov household  that, i n s p i t e of the seriousness of the young son's i l l n e s s , they could not have c a l l e d the doctor had Adameyko not volunteered to pay. Kozakov does not make any d i r e c t statements about Zhigadlo's f i n a n c i a l status, but he makes i t evident that they never lacked resources,  varvara had f a r more money  - 23 than she could use and so was wife on a short term b a s i s .  lending i t out to Adameyko s 1  The  Sukhovs obtained money f o r  basic n e c e s s i t i e s from the f r u i t s of t h e i r children's begging i n front of the bakery.  When Adameyko brought them p a s t r i e s ,  they would voraciously devour them.  These f r u i t t a r t s were  s i m i l a r to the ones Varvara fed u n s t i n t i n g l y , not only to her dog, but also to the mice which inhabited her quarters. ^  The  4  Zhigadlos,  too, besides having plenty to eat, could always  a f f o r d to keep a large jar of sweets on hand. A f t e r the Communist government took c o n t r o l of a l l indust r y , many private enterprises were forced to c l o s e . why  both Sukhov and Adameyko were unemployed.  This i s  As Adameyko 42  phrases i t , he "did not f i n d himself i n the Soviet s e r v i c e . " Kozakov i n d i c a t e s that the system was instance; and i t was  somewhat at f a u l t i n t h i s  because of t h i s lack of constructive  ployment that Ardal'on Adameyko met  his  downfall.  In "Meshchanin Adameyko," a l l the characters by Kozakov were extremely negative  each g r e e d i l y grasping  This psychotic materialism  presented  and not at a l l l i k e a b l e .  A l l but Adameyko seemed to l i v e by the "every man philosophy,  em-  f o r himself"  f o r everything he could  i n the Russian people had  get.  already  ^When Varvara's husband was on h i s deathbed, he joki n g l y said that he was not leaving her but would come back a f t e r the funeral as a mouse. Since she had no way of t e l l i n g which mouse was her husband, when more than one appeared, she- fed them a l l and gave them the run of the house. ;  4 2  I b i d . , p. 21 .  - 24 been pointed out by Zoshchenko i n h i s works and i s f u r t h e r examined by Kozakov. and food,  Varvara Simienovna was  obsessed with money  she exhibited her greed by her d e c i s i o n to rent  one of her rooms despite the great sums of money she was ing.  hoard-  Zhigadlo had acquired a preponderance of household pos-  sessions as i f the weight of such goods would make h i s p o s i t i o n more secure and harder to  overturn.  With the Sukhovs, i t was  a more desperate kind of avar-  ice which arose p a r t l y from t h e i r struggle f o r s u r v i v a l and p a r t l y from innate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Their basic needs drove peodor Sukhov to attack a corn merchant i n a dark lane; the Sukhovs  1  and  pettiness of character perpetuated the hypocri-  t i c a l f r i e n d s h i p with Adameyko.  They found i t expedient to  be f r i e n d s as long as Adameyko was helping them f i n a n c i a l l y .  bringing them g i f t s  and  When i t became evident that Adameyko  would be of no f u r t h e r use to them, they both turned on Sukhov l a i d a l l the blame on Adameyko f o r leading him notwithstanding  him.  astray,  the f a c t that he had already been immersed i n  a l i f e of crime p r i o r to t h i s ; i . e . , f o r c i n g h i s c h i l d r e n to beg,  attacking the deaf-mute merchant i n the lane, e t c . This i s what i t i s , — y o u swine ... I t comes out l i k e t h i s , that you have driven me crazy ... You have dragged another man a f t e r you.43  Olga Samsonovna, Sukhov's wife, displayed a d e f i n i t e lack of 4 5  I b i d . , p.  168.  -  morals tod i n encouraging  25  -  Ardal'on to make advances without  having any i n t e n t i o n of returning h i s a f f e c t i o n ,  i t i s ironic  that Adameyko should have chosen such spineless undesirable types to t r y to help l i f t them from t h e i r abject poverty.  It  seems evident that the people that Adameyko chose as the e p i tome of the g l o r i o u s working c l a s s would have been even greater vultures than Varvara or D i m i t r i y K i r i l l o v i c h given the opportunity. In Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h Adameyko, Kozakov portrays v i v i d l y a schizophrenic p e r s o n a l i t y . negative and unpleasant f o r one aspect:  Our anti-hero was as  as the r e s t of the characters, save  h i s devout b e l i e f that the world should be  freed from a l l p a r a s i t e s , allowing each man to get h i s just desserts.  Slaughtering a l l these leeches, according to  Adameyko, would be the only way to assure a successful outcome to the r e v o l u t i o n .  The irony of t h i s b e l i e f comes from  the f a c t that Adameyko knew that he, himself, was one of these parasites.  This ambivalence was i t s e l f i n d i c a t i v e of s c h i z o -  phrenia. On the one hand, Adameyko considered himself a man of knowledge who could speak a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y and who had a mission in l i f e — t o posed of.  convince people that a l l the human chaff he d i s On the other, he knew that he was p a r a s i t i c and  subconsciously t r i e d to destroy himself. confused  His reasoning was  and l i k e a broken kaleidescope, i t constantly s h i f t e d ,  - 26 pausing i n b i z a r r e tangles rather than i n a pattern. Because the r e v o l u t i o n and events that followed e l i m i n ated h i s job, Adameyko had way.  to j u s t i f y h i s existence i n some  As a r e s u l t , he spent a l l h i s time t r y i n g to project an  aura of superior i n t e l l i g e n c e . Another man would derive pleasure by spending money on murder or a p r o s t i t u t e , but you—you spend money to show o f f your strangeness and intellect.4-4 Thus, Adameyko s f r i e n d s h i p with Peodor Sukhov and h i s gener1  o s i t y towards him r e s u l t e d , not from a l t r u i s t i c motives, hut from e g o t i s t i c a l desire to propound h i s revolutionary theories to a captive audience. Envy, who  He resembles Kavalerov, i n Alesha's  exhibited a s i m i l a r t r a i t .  Kavalerov spent a great  deal of time and energy t r y i n g to prove to the d i s i n t e r e s t e d audience how The  clever he  was.  Sukhovs were not the only people constantly  subjected  to Adameyko's oratory, f o r ... often i n the evenings he would go into the house manager's room and r e count at length, to those present, the diverse news items. They were p a r t i c u l a r l y and unusually i n t e r e s t i n g i n Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h s r e t e l l i n g . 4 5 1  He considered  himself extremely knowledgeable and took pride  i n deluding h i s l i s t e n e r s . ... from an observer's viewpoint, that Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h has a close 4 4  I b i d . , p.  17.  4 5  I b i d . , p.  23.  - 27 connection with those who a c t i v e l y d i rected the r e v o l u t i o n i n the land.4° In h i s maniacal idealism, Adameyko prescribed such r a d i c a l measures that h i s l i s t e n e r s considered him a n a r c h i s t i c .  He  thought that the government i n power was not doing enough f o r the people, but that eventually they would get around to doing more.  Although he was unaware of i t , h i s advocacy of  a purge of a l l p a r a s i t i c and undesirable characters from the society amounted to an outright d e c l a r a t i o n f o r the overthrow of the government.  The greed, corruption, bribery, nepotism,  and s u p e r f l u i t y among the government o f f i c i a l s equaled, i f not surpassed, that of the general p u b l i c .  Adameyko wanted to  leave only good people to develop the new  land; but there  could be no r e a l l y "good" people, f o r a l l those who  reached  positions of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were eventually corrupted by t h e i r power.  Therefore, he was i n r e a l i t y p r e s c r i b i n g anarchy.  When Kozakov opens h i s narrative and introduces h i s readers to Adameyko, he s t a t e s : The thing which most of a l l forced one to f e e l some s i n g u l a r i t y i n t h i s man was h i s age. And, indeed, Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h ' s years l e a s t of a l l could serve as an explanation of h i s emotional state and h i s convictions: at that time, when the name of Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h appeared i n the newspaper f o r the second and l a s t time, he was only twenty-nine years old.47 This information, i n i t s e l f , i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e except 4 6  I b i d . , p. 30.  4 7  I b i d . , p. 7.  - 28 that the reader gets a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t impression reading the story.  from  I f the author had not c l a r i f i e d i t at the  beginning, one would assume that Adameyko was at l e a s t f o r t y f i v e years o l d . and s p i r i t .  He, l i k e other characters, lacked  vitality  A l l the people, except those engaged i n some form  of p r o f i t e e r i n g , were prematurely aged and l e d a meaningless, undirected  existence.  The author subtly implies that they  were d i f f e r e n t p r i o r to the r e v o l u t i o n . movement, l i k e a vampire, craved  The revolutionary  fresh blood and made victims  of the Russian people, drawing t h e i r l i f e blood and leaving only hollow, human s h e l l s .  The stark r e a l i t y of l i f e i n the  Soviet Union was impossible  to t o l e r a t e so the people had to  create a fantasy i n order to survive emotionally  and mentally.  They l i v e d not f o r the present, but always a n t i c i p a t e d a b r i g h t e r and more promising future. fantaziy—sovetskaya  The saying " z i f bez  skazka" could be applied to the whole  period of the construction of Communism. A plodding unresponsiveness governed Adameyko a major part of the time. ing  His force of character appeared only dur-  h i s manic periods when he was unable to c o n t r o l h i s ac-  tions.  These s p e l l s of forced h y p e r - a c t i v i t y usually came  a f t e r lengthy periods of f a n t a s i z i n g .  As Adameyko says about  fantasies: ... "Are they f r i g h t e n i n g because they smack of r e a l i t y ? ! ... F a n t a s y — a f r i g h t ening matter." Ardal'on P o r f i r i e v i c h continued h i s thought. "And notice i n  - 29 what /aspect/ i s f r i g h t e n i n g . In that, everything you imagine i n your f a n t a s i e s — w i l l , without f a i l , occur i n l i f e ! ... /You can think any fantasy/. Only notice This, that i t w i l l , without f a i l , he poss i b l e and you w i l l , also without f a i l , want to touch i t l i k e an object ... I /am speaki n g / about that kind /of f antasy_/which can i n v i s i b l y be found" i n l i n e with l i f e , that's what ... I t s character, so to speak, and the character of l i f e and related!"48 Olga Samsonovna became one of Ardal'on's prime f a n t a s i e s . As i s t y p i c a l of a schizophrenic, he was both strongly a t tracted to and r e p e l l e d by her.  This obsession, which was  somehow l i n k e d with and symbolic of h i s revolutionary i d e a l s , had him so mesmerized that he was powerless against i t . Like a runaway horse, i t needed an external force to bring i t to a halt.  Adameyko was l e f t at peace only a f t e r Olga's near  f a t a l accident with the s t r e e t c a r . of h i s unnatural  This accident freed him  f a s c i n a t i o n f o r her and, through symbolic  transference, of h i s burning desire to f u l f i l l the purpose of the r e v o l u t i o n . Kozakov gives no evidence that Adameyko s mental i m b a l 1  ance was caused s o l e l y by the r e v o l u t i o n and the subsequent regime; but they thwarted h i s zealous desire to help a U t o p i a , and consequently brought h i s l a t e n t to the surface.  create  schizophrenia  The s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s gave him an object f o r  his  a c t i v i t i e s and the bureaucratic processes made whatever he  did  totally ineffectual. 4 8  I b i d . , pp. 27-8.  - 30 Adameyko's powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n a c u t e ; and truths.  were,  nevertheless,  i n h i s r a n t i n g s , he u t t e r e d a number of u n d e n i a b l e  He  saw  the n a t i o n as a f l o c k of v u l t u r e s p r e y i n g  on  each o t h e r .  He  p r e d i c t e d t h a t those i n power would c a r r y  out  mass s l a u g h t e r t o o , t h a t the  i n the name of the common good. s u i c i d e r a t e had  increased  He  noticed,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y among  the young people of c e r t a i n c l a s s e s . These a l l e g a t i o n s c o u l d h a r d l y have been i n harmony w i t h the image t h a t those w i t h p o l i t i c a l power wanted to p r o j e c t . Since  Adameyko was  aware t h a t those who  d i d not  deserve  i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s would take revenge on him,  his  t a r y d r i v e to a c t u a l i z e the r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l was to s u i c i d e .  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  throughout the to h i m s e l f ,  country.  like  involuntantamount  resembled many young people  They were, as i n S o c r a t e s '  the g a d f l y ; and  Powerless to a f f e c t the needed and  he  the  S t a t e was  changes t h a t the  like  system so  analogy the  horse.  drastically  t h a t they so a r d e n t l y d e s i r e d to b r i n g about,  young people were c o n s t a n t l y  f r u s t r a t e d and  t r o y e d hy t h a t which they d e s i r e d to change.  eventually  cussed, Sergey M a l a s h k i n , t r e a t s them i n g r e a t e r "Luna s pravoy  storony."  the  des-  A l t h o u g h Kozakov  o n l y h i n t s at these f r u s t r a t i o n s , the next a u t h o r to he  story  their  dis-  depth i n h i s  CHAPTER I I Sergey M a l a s h k i n ' s w r i t t e n works s h o u l d have been an exc e l l e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r the R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n . a poor peasant, he s t a r t e d working j o i n e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y group w i t h the g o v e r n i n g group Malashkin's p o l i t i c a l  The son o f  a t the age o f t w e l v e .  He  i n 1 9 0 6 and c o n t i n u e d working  a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n .  Surprisingly,  c a r e e r and w r i t i n g s t y l e bore no r e l a -  t i o n to each o t h e r . The l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y o f M a l a s h k i n i s a d e m o n s t r a t i v e example o f a g l a r i n g r i f t between the maintenance o f the c r e a t i v i t y o f the a r t i s t and h i s g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l position. The o b j e c t o f M a l a s h k i n ' s c r e a t i v i t y /v7as_/ the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y epoch; but t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was g i v e n from a pos i t i o n o f h e i g h t e n e d and o v e r - s e n s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the dark a s p e c t s and p e r v e r s i o n s o f domestic c o n d i t i o n s . In t h i s sense, h i s t a l e "The Moon from the R i g h t ,Q hand S i d e " i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d e m o n s t r a t i v e . The  s t o r y , which e l i c i t e d  t h i s sharp c r i t i c i s m ,  pravoy s t o r o n y " - "The Moon from the Right-hand w r i t t e n i n a s t y l e which bears l i t t l e poster" l i t e r a t u r e .  "Luna s  S i d e " was  s i m i l a r i t y to " p o l i t i c a l  Because o f h i s d e v i a t i o n from the p r e -  f e r r e d mode o f e x p r e s s i o n , the author b e g i n s w i t h an apology to  some of h i s r e a d e r s and a p l e a to them to examine the l a s t  c h a p t e r f o r the t r u e ending o f the s t o r y . t i o n and the f i n a l  c h a p t e r are s u f f i c i e n t l y  Both the i n t r o d u c d i v o r c e d from the  L i t e r a t u r n a y a e n t s i k l o p e d i a (Moscow: izdatel'stvo kommunisticheskoy akademii, 1 9 2 9 - 3 9 ) , Tom V I , p. 7 3 5 .  rest of the t a l e that they appear to have been added i n order to make the story more palatable to the government and thus, publishahle. Malashkin was a t y p i c a l example of a w r i t e r who wrote only from memory about what he had observed.  Although he  lacked great imagination, h i s perception was keen as was h i s i n s i g h t into the emotional machinations of the people about whom he wrote.  In the introduction, Malashkin states that an  author "should write only about what he sees with h i s own and f e e l s with h i s own heart."  eyes  The r e s u l t of t h i s credo i s a  candid t a l e which reveals much of the sordid l i f e a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , and the mental anguish t h i s way the young people.  Because he wrote accurately about  problems, Malashkin was youth.  of l i v i n g caused their  extremely popular with the Soviet  In 1927 writes Struve, "Luna s pravoy storony" was  one of the "sensational successes of the year and went through 50  several impressions."  The very t r a i t s which enhanced h i s  popularity with the youth brought him v i t r i o l i c  criticism  from the government. ... When he writes about the sexual dissoluteness of the heroine of the t a l e , the Komsomol member, Tanya, /The author r e f e r s to her as7 "the wife of Twenty-two husbands." Malashkin did not succeed i n presenting the question of the s o c i a l reasons f o r t h i s G. Struve, 25 Years of Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e — 1918-1943 (London: George Routledge & Sons Ltd., 1946), p. 100.  - 33 promiscuity. As a r e s u l t , he l e s s , unfounded a c c u s a t i o n o f c i p l i n e a g a i n s t the Communist s t o r y was s h a r p l y censured by critics.51 Malashkin's  r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i v e s of y o u t h  not an a c c u s a t i o n , n o r was ing  made a groundlack of d i s youth. The Communist was  i t g r o u n d l e s s and unfounded.  the t w e n t i e s , a group o f Komsomols i n S o c h i was  Dur-  shot f o r  52 debauchery.  M a l a s h k i n was  truthfully  reporting a  situation  which the government hoped to keep h i d d e n u n t i l i t c o u l d be stamped o u t . and,  I t was  f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t M a l a s h k i n ' s works  i n d e e d , M a l a s h k i n h i m s e l f d i s a p p e a r e d from the  literary  scene.  Of the t a l e s pravoy  Russian  he l e f t  b e h i n d , the most v i v i d i s "Luna s  s t o r o n y . " . M a l a s h k i n uses s e v e r a l methods i n h i s p r e -  s e n t a t i o n of the t a l e :  The h e r o i n e ' s b r o t h e r , K o l y a , a c t s as  n a r r a t o r to g i v e a h i s t o r i c a l background o f h i s s i s t e r Tanya, and  a r e a s o n f o r t e l l i n g the s t o r y .  the n a r r a t o r who, lines  M a l a s h k i n then becomes  u s i n g Tanya's l e t t e r s  to h e r b r o t h e r , o u t -  the events which o c c u r r e d i n h e r young l i f e .  from her d i a r i e s ,  he admits  By  quoting  the r e a d e r t o Tanya's stream  c o n s c i o u s n e s s and exposes him  t o the t u r m o i l i n h e r  soul.  Thus, M a l a s h k i n shows h i m s e l f to.be k e e n l y a t t u n e d to the c l i m a t e of the t i m e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of  psychological patterns. 51 ' L i t e r a t u r n a y a e n t s i k l o p e d i a , op. c i t . 52 Mandelstam, op. c i t . , p. 1 1 4 .  of  - 34 Malashkin uses d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n to depict v i v i d l y both character and s e t t i n g .  Psychological t r a i t s are also  revealed through h i s almost c a r i c a t u r e - l i k e p o r t r a y a l of the various p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  Evidence of t h i s i s found i n h i s des-  c r i p t i o n of Isayka Chuzhachek, a young Komsomol member. Isayka Chuzhachek was of short s t a ture; h i s face and body were puny; on h i s t h i n face, which resembled a s h u t t l e , he had only three d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features: a large red nose, wide yellow protruding teeth, and two beady eyes the colour of coffee grounds which, notwithstanding the unusual movement of Isayka Chuzhachek's whole body, were unmoving and seemed dead. Isayka Chuzhachek was dressed, not only w e l l , but i n a r e f i n e d manner: He had on a grey checked s u i t , a white s h i r t with blue s t r i p e s , the end of which was tucked into h i s trousers and t i e d around with a wide yellow leather b e l t . Beneath h i s sharp hooked chin was an extremely large bright blue necktie with a j u t t i n g knot and ends extending almost to Isayka Chuzhachek's feeble shoulders. His f o r e lock was not bad e i t h e r — i t was combed to the r i g h t i n such a strange way that one began to fear f o r Isayka Chuzhachek's head; any minute the forelock, by i t s own weight, would p u l l h i s head over and break the long t h i n straw-like neck. His footwear was uncommon—sharp-toed suede shoes and large checked grey socks. Looking at and studying Isayka Chuzhachek, i t was d i f f i c u l t to comprehend a l l the colours of h i s extraordinary f i g u r e , and so i t was also impossible to understand the l o g i c of h i s thought ... 53 i n t h i s outstanding example of s a t i r e on the Komsomol, Malashkin laughs sadly at misguided youth, i n f l a t e d with s e l f importance but d i r e c t i o n l e s s and caught i n a gyre.  Prom the  S. Malashkin, "Luna s pravoy storony" (Moscow: Gvardiya, 1926), pp. 34-5.  Moldaya  -  35 -  p r e c e d i n g p i c t u r e , the viewer p e r c e i v e s a v e r y confused and c o n f u s i n g young man.  Outwardly, I s a y k a i s s e l f - a s s u r e d , con-  c e i t e d , and somewhat f o p p i s h ; i n w a r d l y , h i s thoughts  are i n  i m h r o g l i o w h i l e h i s s o u l , which i s m i r r o r e d i n h i s eyes, i s dead. The  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f P e t e r , Tanya's o l d f r i e n d  from the  v i l l a g e , makes the l i v e s o f Isayka and h i s c o h o r t s appear even more f u t i l e  and l i c e n t i o u s . .  P e t e r i s p o r t r a y e d as a r a t h e r  s e l f - c o n f i d e n t hut compassionate young man: friends.  the a n t i t h e s i s  of  Tanya and h e r Moscovite  Tanya became a c u t e l y aware  of  the d i f f e r e n c e between them when she compared an i n n o c e n t  n i g h t spent i n a h a y s t a c k w i t h P e t e r and h e r promiscuous  life  among the Komsomol d e l i n q u e n t s . In  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f P e t e r and P e t e r ' s a b i l i t y  to r e t a i n  his  i n t e g r i t y , Malashkin  i s c a r e f u l to p o i n t out t h a t P e t e r  did  not have the same o b s t a c l e s t o overcome as d i d the o t h e r s .  S i n c e he was o f t r u e peasant was c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r . of  under the new regime  He was n o t burdened w i t h the stigma  a "meshchanin" background.  had not been uprooted  stock, l i f e  U n l i k e the c i t y Komsomol, he  from f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s , hut was  working on the l a n d w i t h the people he a l r e a d y knew.  H i s foun-  d a t i o n s had n o t been d e s t r o y e d so he s t i l l  from  had a base  which to b u i l d . Malashkin*s  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s e t t i n g are as c a r e f u l l y  s t r u c t e d and g r a p h i c as h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r .  In  con-  -  them, he  introduces  Tanya, when she l e f t and to  36  -  o l e f a c t o r y as w e l l as v i s u a l the v i l l a g e , was  stimuli.  i n tune w i t h  nature;  the s m e l l of s p r i n g i n the a i r s i g n i f i e d hope and  promise  her. ... Pour y e a r s ago, l i k e today, t h e r e was a l a r g e moon i n the sky and the s a c c h a r i n e s m e l l of n i g h t . Yes, t h a t ' s t r u e ; t h e r e was, at t h a t time, the sharp s m e l l of l a t e flowers. Even i n Moscow when, e a r l y i n the morning, I got o f f the t r a i n and went out of the K u r s k i s t a t i o n i n t o the square, t h e r e was t h i s s m e l l and I remember i t as i f i t were now; i t s c u r r e n t inundated me i n s p i t e of a dead, boney nag sprawled i n the square not f a r from the s t a t i o n . I passed by the horse c a l m l y and i n p a s s i n g , g l a n c e d i n t o i t s dark grey, p a r a l y s e d eyes which were r o l l e d out of o r b i t ; and i n them, as i n a m i r r o r , saw myself and s m i l e d to m y s e l f . Moscow, a t t h a t time, d e s p i t e i t s b e i n g l a t e summer w i t h c a r r i o n l y i n g everywhere, to me seemed to s m e l l of s p r i n g and snowdrops. 54  Since Tanya was she  smelled  was  symbolic  f i l l e d w i t h b e a u t i f u l dreams f o r the  o n l y the s p r i n g and not of much of the l i f e  the c i t y i s not an o r i g i n a l d e v i c e . theme was  the r o t t i n g f l e s h which  i n Moscow at t h a t  P i t t i n g the wholesome p a s t o r a l l i f e  future,  time.  a g a i n s t the decadence of The  " r e t u r n to  nature"  predominant throughout the whole Romantic p e r i o d  s t a r t i n g w i t h Rousseau through S t e n d a h l , Whitman, T o l s t o y , e t c .  F l a u b e r t , Wordsworth,  A whole s e r i e s of Gogol's s t o r i e s show  the adverse e f f e c t of the c i t y upon  him.  Under the S o v i e t system, "youth s p o i l e d by the c i t y " I b i d . , p.  22.  was  - 37 more than j u s t a l i t e r a r y theme, f o r i t had become a g r i m a c tuality. because  I t was  more pronounced  t h a n a t any p r e v i o u s time  the government took p r o m i s i n g young people from  homes i n the c o u n t r y and r e s e t t l e d  them i n the c i t y to work  and to go to s c h o o l i n the Rabochiy f a k u l ' t e t the  city especially,  their  o r Rabfak.  the speed w i t h which the changes  In  took  p l a c e d u r i n g the p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d f o r c e d a r a p i d i n t e l l e c t u a l growth upon them, l e a v i n g t h e i r lagging sadly.  Through  coerce the y o u t h i n t o fathers.  propaganda,  abandoning  social  development  the S t a t e attempted to  the morals o f t h e i r  fore-  A c c o r d i n g to Communist d o c t r i n e , f a m i l i a l v a l u e s  were u n t e n a b l e because  they were based on a f a l s e  so had to he r e p l a c e d by c o l l e c t i v e m o r a l s .  While  premise  "collective  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " , i n which they were w e l l i n d o c t r i n a t e d , effective  i n work s i t u a t i o n s ,  i z a t i o n of p r i v a t e l i v e s . r e t a r d e d s o c i a l development their  i t was  proved  not v i a b l e i n the organ-  I n an attempt to speed up and f i l l  their  the vacuum between i t and  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement,  the y o u t h ex-  perimented w i t h sex, drugs, and o t h e r types o f debauchery ing  to f i n d e m o t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t .  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r h a v i n g succumbed to a l l the ne-  f a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s o f the c i t y . official  hop-  T h e i r ignominy brought the  wrath of the P a r t y down upon them, a l t h o u g h the S t a t e largely  and  A l t h o u g h the Komsomol was  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Communist y o u t h , an antagonism  between i t and the P a r t y . exposed by M a l a s h k i n .  It i s this r i f t  the  arose  that i s courageously  - 38 Prom a l i t e r a r y standpoint, "Lima s pravoy storony" i s f u r t h e r enriched hy Malashkin's use of f i g u r a t i v e language and symbols, an example of which has been c i t e d above moon or "luna" i s the main symbol i n the story.  (#54).  The  When a f u l l  moon was shining from the right-hand side, i t was thought to be an i n d i c a t i o n of good luck, and Tanya r e f e r r e d to i t f r e quently.  Shortly a f t e r the Bolshevik takeover of her v i l l a g e ,  Tanya went out i n t o the garden, saw the moon from the r i g h t hand side and compared i t to an apple from the orchard which was then h e a v i l y laden with f r u i t . ... the days are golden; there are many, many apples i n the orchard, so many, i n f a c t , that i t ' s beyond one's imagination. What d e l i c i o u s Antonovka apples: c r i s p , j u i c y , and yellow! At night, there i s always a moon and always, just as you step outside, on the r i g h t . I t i s large and yellow, and mainly i t resembles a r i p e , j u i c y Antonovka, so that I f e e l l i k e greedily swallowing i t — g u l p , and i t ' s  a l l gone.55  The simile which Malashkin presents above i s a multiple image: the moon and apple, the moon and l i f e , and the apple and l i f e . The Antonovka, the best apple produced i n the Soviet Union, i s b e a u t i f u l i n colour, smell, and q u a l i t y .  I t i s symbolic of  f i f t e e n year o l d Tanya's l i f e i n the v i l l a g e where she was working with the peasants and t a s t i n g the f i r s t success.  f r u i t s of  She was eager and hungry f o r what l i f e had to o f f e r .  Just as she would have l i k e d to swallow up the a p p l e - l i k e moon 5 5  I b i d . , p. 18.  39  in  one  g u l p , so she wanted to encompass l i f e  bite.,,, .not To  j u s t to savour i t  give  villagers.  One  ing' t e r r i b l e  some of the  opening h i s shop as he  answered, f o r the  p r o p e r t y had The  his  morning and  always done, he  store.  The  so g r e a t  t h a t he  also assessed f o r a large  had  a stroke  structure  Instead  Domostroy custom was  The  as Tanya r u d e l y  of  long  confiscation  and  of  arrival.  fell  to  the  p r o p e r t y around and  he  was  ones above show t h a t , a l -  of government and  were p a t r i a r c h a l d e s p i t e  his  amount of money.  changed d r a s t i c a l l y , r u r a l l i f e was  by women.  eat  p r a y e r s a p p a r e n t l y were  shortly thereafter;  B e l i e f s i n omens such as the  The  appella-  prayed f o r a  p r o c l a m a t i o n about the  house were t a k e n from him  tion.  father,,  c o u l d not  a f r i g h t e n i n g dream.  seeing  of view-  Tanya's  A l l h i s l a n d h o l d i n g s except f o r t h a t  though the  that  been.posted on h i s shop b e f o r e h i s l a t e  shock was  ground.  had  had  time b e f o r e g o i n g to the not  Another was  a n y t h i n g o t h e r than t h i s  s l e p t u n u s u a l l y l a t e one had  the  mentioned, was  dreams as omens of a d i s a s t e r .  because he  characters,  s u p e r s t i t i o n s h e l d by  right-hand side.  i s never r e f e r r e d to by  breakfast  one  slowly.  of t h o s e , as p r e v i o u s l y  the moon from the  tion,  totally in  a more s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t r a y a l of h i s  Malashkin includes  who  -  the  of the  still  still  country  bound by  old  i n e f f e c t and  e q u a l i t y t h a t had  had tradi-  households  been a c h i e v e d  male heads of household r u l e d w i t h an i r o n hand discovered.  She  was  disowned by her  previously  -  40  -  d o t i n g f a t h e r and o r d e r e d f r o m t h e house when he t h a t she, the  a merchant's d a u g h t e r , was w o r k i n g i n l e a g u e w i t h  peasants. L i k e Kozakov, M a l a s h k i n a l s o c r i t i c i z e s  and  discovered  the f a l s e assumptions prevalent  period.  the i n j u s t i c e s  during the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  When t h e p e a s a n t s f i r s t s t a r t e d t a k i n g o v e r t h e  v i l l a g e s , t h e y had no mercy f o r t h e merchants who had been f l e e c i n g them o v e r t h e y e a r s .  When Tanya's f a t h e r r e f u s e d t o  pay h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e P a r t y , he was d e t a i n e d room f o r f o u r days and f e d s a l t h e r r i n g . when he c o n v i n c e d h i s c a p t o r s f r o n t f i g h t i n g t h e war. one  He was r e l e a s e d  only  t h a t h i s s o n K o l y a was a t t h e  When t h e r e was a " k u l a k " u p r i s i n g i n  o f t h e v i l l a g e s , t h e y s h o t s e v e r a l Communists and n i n e  Komsomol members. and  i n a dark  I n r e p r i s a l , eighty "kulaks,"  ten priests,  one l a n d o w n e r were e x e c u t e d by t h e Communists. That o p p o r t u n i s t i c e l e m e n t s were a l r e a d y  pear i s evident godfather.  s t a r t i n g t o ap-  f r o m t h e humourous a n e c d o t e r e l a t e d by Tanya's  A f t e r r e g a i n i n g h i s c o n f i s c a t e d goods f r o m an  u n s c r u p u l o u s o f f i c i a l , S t e p a n r e t a i n e d them t h r o u g h b r i b e r y . I n t h e s p r i n g , when t h e o f f i c i a l had d e r i v e d s u f f i c i e n t  per-  s o n a l b e n e f i t f r o m S t e p a n ' s " g i f t s , " he t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f what was l e f t o f t h e s e goods f o r t h e whole community.  Another  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Communist o f f i c i a l s were t a k i n g advantage o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a p p e a r s i n a scene t h a t Tanya w i t n e s s e d f r o m h e r window i n Moscow.  A t t h e t i m e when f a b r i c and c l o t h i n g  -  41  -  were scarce, the wife of a Communist i n the b u i l d i n g across the square spent about two hours t r y i n g on eleven d i f f e r e n t dresses. The use of anecdotes  such as the one related by Stepan  was fashionable i n l i t e r a t u r e at that time, p a r t i c u l a r l y among w r i t e r s of Malashkin's c o t e r i e . was part of an attempt  The employment of t h i s device  to bring l i t e r a t u r e c l o s e r to the work-  ing people by using t h e i r idiom.  Mayakovskiy made s i m i l a r use  of the plebian joke incorporating i t i n h i s poetry and t r y i n g to make i t s use acceptable i n l i t e r a t u r e . One of the worst i n j u s t i c e s perpetuated by the Soviet regime was that of attaching a stigma to c u l t u r a l background. In pre-Soviet times, prejudice due to occupation was widespread. tice.  Tanya's father was, himself, the v i c t i m of t h i s pracAs a young man, he was i n t e l l i g e n t and handsome.  How-  ever, because he came from a poor family and was a herdsman, the l o w l i e s t p o s i t i o n i n the v i l l a g e , he was the butt of many c r u e l jokes.  A f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , propaganda inverted the  s o c i a l pyramid.  I f a person's parentage was that of a poor  peasant or a factory worker, he was considered an exemplary person, no matter how undesirable he himself might be.  I f he  came from a family of what was previously considered higher s o c i a l standing or wealth, everything he did was questioned. To aggravate the s i t u a t i o n , those who were of "meshchanin" o r i g i n were not encouraged to integrate with the workers, but were i s o l a t e d i n groups and often o s t r a c i z e d .  - 42 Another e r r o r i n judgment made hy the Communist l e a d e r s was  t h a t of c o n s i d e r i n g Komsomol members as a d u l t s .  Although  they were h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o an e f f e c t i v e work f o r c e , were a c t u a l l y c h i l d r e n .  The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p l a c e d upon the  s h o u l d e r s of these young people  aged them more  Tanya l o o k e d e i g h t e e n when she was not y e t mature and evidenced  they  fifteen.  rapidly^—  T h e i r minds were  they sometimes behaved l i k e  children  as  i n the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t : You w e l l know t h a t they can't p r o v i d e c o t t o n f o r the v i l l a g e , and the men of our v i l l a g e d e c i d e d to o r g a n i z e t h e i r own t e x t i l e f a c t o r y , and d i d . They passed a r e s o l u t i o n which gave each woman and g i r l a s p e c i f i c a l l o t m e n t of f l a x t h a t had been taken from the landowners, C h i r a e v and P i s a r e v . The women spun t h i s f l a x a l l w i n t e r and f i n i s h e d o n l y a t the time of the g r e a t f a s t ; they washed i t and hung the s k e i n s i n the f r o s t . D u r i n g the n i g h t , the young people took these s k e i n s and ent a n g l e d the whole v i l l a g e to such an e x t e n t t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to pass through i t w i t h o u t becoming s n a r l e d i n t h r e a d . 5 7  The ity  Party again f a i l e d  the  immatur-  of the young people when i t sent them to s c h o o l i n the  city.  Hundreds of y o u n g s t e r s were p l u c k e d from t h e i r  environment and no  to take i n t o account  left  alone i n a s t r a n g e c i t y .  e x p e r i e n c e i n c o p i n g w i t h an urban way  They had  of l i f e  them, through l a c k of knowledge and guidance,  rural had  and many of  soon f e l l  prey  ^ The premature a g i n g of the p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y youth i s a l s o s t r e s s e d by Kozakov i n "Meshchanin Adameyko" as d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r .  57  S. M a l a s h k i n ,  op. c i t .  - 43 to e v i l i n f l u e n c e s . Tanya, although  -  This i s exactly what happened to Tanya. she was  only f i f t e e n when she l e f t  the  v i l l a g e , fared quite w e l l i n the c i t y u n t i l the Raykom transferred her to a new  position.  A high-ranking  official  decided to separate the c h i l d r e n of the petty bourgeois t h e i r parents. too, was  had from  Since Tanya came from a merchant family, she,  included i n the organizational c e l l a l l o t t e d to these  youngsters.  Tanya, along with many others, suffered consider-  able hardship because of the prejudices held against that 58  p a r t i c u l a r segment of the population.  The conversation  be-  tween the author and Tanya's brother shows how widespread and unjust t h i s prejudice was.  When Kolya made disparaging remarks  The segregation of the "meshchanin" youth eliminated any p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r ever becoming good Communist workers and made them the scapegoat of the rest of the populace. The psychological repercussions of such a d i v i s i o n has been f r e quently shown i n experiments. One such experiment was performed with a primary school c l a s s i n C a l i f o r n i a . The c h i l dren were divided into groups according to eye colour. One day, the brown-eyed c h i l d r e n were t o l d they were i n f e r i o r , the next day, the blue-eyed c h i l d r e n were t o l d they belonged to the i n f e r i o r category. On the day they believed themselves to be i n f e r i o r , the performance of the c h i l d r e n i n academic matters dropped sharply, while that of the superior group rose. During playtime, those who were purportedly i n f e r i o r stood on the s i d e l i n e s making l i t t l e or no attempt to j o i n i n the games. When a few did t r y to p a r t i c i p a t e , they were harshly rejected and sometimes p h y s i c a l l y abused. In general, t h e i r s o c i a l maturity was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced and they became e i t h e r withdrawn or b e l l i g e r e n t . When, on the following day, the alternate group was informed that i t was i n f e r i o r , there was a complete r e v e r s a l i n p o s i t i o n s . This experiment, though conducted long a f t e r the NEP period, shows that the Party, by i t s own actions, had created a problem that would grow i n magnitude u n t i l i t prompted such d r a s t i c actions as the shooting already c i t e d .  - 44  -  about the  "meshchanin" c l a s s blaming them f o r h i s  downfall,  the a u t h o r i n t e r j e c t e d  sister's  sharply:  But your s i s t e r i s not from a working f a m i l y ... t h a t d i d n ' t i n t e r f e r e , as you say, w i t h her steadfastness.59 Not  a new  occupation tion.  phenomenon, making a scapegoat of a p a r t i c u l a r  or c l a s s had  There had  been p r e v a l e n t l o n g b e f o r e  was  revolu-  merely been an i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l  J u s t as Tanya's f a t h e r had f o r being  the  been o s t r a c i z e d by  order.  the o t h e r  a herdsman, t h e r e f o r e o f the lowest  stratum,  villagers Tanya  d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by the peasant c l a s s f o r h a v i n g  from a merchant f a m i l y .  While Tanya's f a t h e r r e a c t e d to  p e r s e c u t i o n by becoming c r u e l and i n c r e a s e h i s own pressures  and  w e a l t h and  fell  t i o n a r y z e a l and  retaliative,  seeking  this  only  s t a t u s , Tanya succumbed to  i n t o moral d i s s i p a t i o n , l o s i n g her  come  to  outside revolu-  a l l faith in herself.  A f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , many of those who  had  been u n e a r t h e d  from the bottom of the s o c i a l heap compensated f o r t h e i r  pre-  v i o u s s u f f e r i n g through r u t h l e s s e x p l o i t a t i o n of o t h e r s .  In-  volvement w i t h one  to-  wards her  of these  people was  Tanya's f i r s t  step  degeneration. ... At t h i s time, many young men were c o u r t i n g and when I d i d n ' t r e c i p r o c a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , they s t a r t e d c a l l i n g me a p e t t y bourgeois p u b l i c l y . L a t e r , one v e r y prominent worker of the Komsomol a t t a c h e d h i m s e l f to m e — y o u mustn't t h i n k I l o v e d h i m — a n d I got t o g e t h e r w i t h him ... L a t e r , he dropped me and I p e a c e f u l l y l e f t him.°°  6 0  ^Malashkin,  op.  Ibid.,  49.  p.  c i t . , p.  21.  - 45 This was the f i r s t  of a s e r i e s of sexual l i a i s o n s between  Tanya and various Komsomol members.  As Tanya l a y on her bed  and watched a v o y e u r i s t i c p a i r across the square making love i n front of a m i r r o r — a scene which she c a l l e d a "pastoral of 61  the s o c i a l i s t i c era"  — s h e thought  of her own sex l i f e : the  twenty-two men to whom she had been mistress and the s i x men with whom she had had sexual intercourse i n one night. She 62 felt  that " l i f e had roared past her and disappeared."  had reached a manic-depressive balance.  During a withdrawal  She  syndrome of psychological imperiod such as the one mentioned  above, she did not have the strength to do anything but "wal63 low i n the f i l t h y mud."  In an instant, because she saw the  moon from the right-hand side, she flew into w i l d e l a t i o n and danced around her room, screaming  and laughing, begging  her  f r i e n d s to hurry and bring the "hashish," then f a l l i n g asleep on her hands and knees i n the middle of the room.  The con-  t r a s t between the spoiled Tanya and the exuberant g i r l who was  shouting with joy at the thought  acute that both images are i n f i n i t e l y Tanya's marriage  of going to Moscow i s so magnified.  to Peter s t a b i l i z e d her outward l i f e  hut sent her into a deep depression.  Although Peter was not  repulsed by her previous a c t i v i t i e s , which she had r e l a t e d i n 6 1  I h i d . , p. 23.  6 2  I b i d . , pp. 22-3.  6 5  I b i d . , p. 23.  - 46 d e t a i l s , Tanya f e l t she was  cheating him and t h e i r marriage  hy  being unable to respond to him sexually. ... I suffered because I loved him to d i s t r a c t i o n , because he also loved me deeply, and because, i n spite of our r e c i p r o c a l love, I didn't f e e l h i s caresses, h i s ardent i n s p i r i n g touch from which the body opens and f i l l s with l i f e , m i l l i o n s of l i v e s ... 64 The vacuum that existed i n Tanya's l i f e made her f e e l that she.had burnt h e r s e l f out.  This f e e l i n g coupled with her  love and high regard f o r Peter made her f e e l unworthy and l e d 65 to her ultimate s u i c i d e :  She gave Peter a l l she had to  g i v e — h e r l i f e — s o that he could be free to l i v e f u l l y with a more deserving person. The same f r u s t r a t i o n s that a f f l i c t e d Tanya also beset the other members of her group.  As has since been shown i n psycho-  l o g i c a l experiments (see footnote #58) of  when p a r t i c u l a r groups  people are the butt of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and j u s t i f i a b l y or  u n j u s t i f i a b l y made to f e e l i n f e r i o r , the rate of achievement drops and they l i v e up to the expectations others have of them.  Thus, these youngsters were unable to a t t a i n personal  s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and were constantly looking  f o r new  "kicks" mainly as a means of escape, but also with  Ibid., p. 65  50.  Although Malashkin says, i n the l a s t chapter, that Tanya did not commit suicide but went into the north to work, t h i s conclusion i s not convincing. I t appears that Malashkin a c t u a l l y intended the story to end with Tanya's death, but due to external pressures appended an a d d i t i o n a l weak conclusion i n order to appease the censors.  - 47 a f a i n t hope t h a t t h i s one was perhaps the r i g h t path t o the r e s t o r a t i o n of s e l f - e s t e e m .  Because the r e v o l u t i o n had negated  the moral v a l u e s of the o l d system w i t h o u t  providing  anything  new i n i t s s t e a d , they experimented w i t h a l c o h o l , drugs, sex, or whatever p e r v e r s i o n o r debauchery t h a t p r e s e n t e d  itself.  They c o u l d not m o r a l l y condone t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s but used their intellect i n Isayka's  to r a t i o n a l i z e  their actions.  speech j u s t i f y i n g f r e e l o v e and c r i t i c i z i n g the  c o n v e n t i o n a l maxim o f " l o v e u n t i l death." P e t e r ' s l o v e was s u f f i c i e n t  realistically,  I n Tanya's  t o draw h e r away from  t i o n s and l o o k a t h e r s e l f c l e a r l y .  become.  This i s evident  case,  rationaliza-  Once she had seen h e r s e l f  she knew she c o u l d not l i v e w i t h what she had  T h i s makes h e r s u i c i d e i n e v i t a b l e and f u r t h e r shows  the i m p l a u s i b i l i t y  o f the ending.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g , sex o r g i e s and  experimenting  the f u l f i l l m e n t  w i t h h a s h i s h d i d not p r o v i d e  they were s e e k i n g .  served to i n t e n s i f y  T h e i r mode of l i f e  only  t h e i r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t , u s e l e s s n e s s , and  d e s p a i r and o f t e n l e d them t o s u i c i d e . were not l i m i t e d  the y o u t h w i t h  These  frustrations  to j u s t one segment of the s o c i e t y .  As p r e -  v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , Kozakov p o i n t s out t h e i r presence i n people who were non-members of the Communist P a r t y ; M a l a s h k i n  deals  w i t h them i n r e g a r d t o the young Komsomol group; and Grahar', the next  author  t o be d i s c u s s e d , shows t h a t they a l s o a f f e c t e d  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d members of the Communist  Party.  CHAPTER III Grabar' i s the one  author of the four being  considered  on whom there i s no biographical material i n e i t h e r the Literaturnaya entsiklopedia or i n Russkiye sovetskiye prozaiki.  However, i t i s known that he was  Communist Party. s t r u c t i o n was  pisateli  a member of the  His concern with the d i r e c t i o n the recon-  taking i s evident i n an "author's d i g r e s s i o n "  from the novel S e l ' v i n i t y by Grabar'. The public has viewed my work as del i b e r a t e slander rather than an attempt at cleaning up; l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have accused me of depicting our society as a c o l l e c t i o n of l e f t - o v e r s and m i s f i t s . I protested a n g r i l y , astonished at people's lack of p e r s p i c a c i t y and i n s i s t e d on my r i g h t to sweep the d i r t out of the house. There was a time when people v a c i l l a t e d , took to drinking, erred, went astray, degenerated. I have known that time. 56  As an a r t i s t , Grabar' f a i l e d to achieve any great of l i t e r a r y s t y l e .  He was,  nevertheless,  heights  a keen observer of  the l i f e of h i s period and reported what he saw with p r e c i s i o n and accuracy. behaviour.  He understood people and the reasons f o r t h e i r  Also, he was  aware of the compromises they had  make i n order to survive against the external pressures  of the  Soviet system. In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of people, Grabar' presents rather than r e a l i s t i c personages.  "types"  An excellent example of  Leonid Grabar', S e l ' v i n i t y (Moscow and Leningrad: Gosizdat. Khudozhestvennoy L i t e r a t u r e , 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 36-7. -  48  -  to  - 49 t h i s i s Egorushka i n the t a l e "Na kirpichakh" who  i s the  epitome of the "young i d e a l i s t . "  A l l the people i n "Na  kirpichakh" are, i n f a c t , "type"  characters—"officials,"  "fence-sitters,"  and "workers."  Through t h i s l i t e r a r y device,  Grabar* e f f e c t i v e l y shows that h i s main theme, the c o n f l i c t between o f f i c i a l s and workers, was not confined to one plant but was prevalent wherever i n d u s t r i a l enterprises existed i n the Soviet Union.  This kind of expose roused the i r e of  those i n government and resulted i n Grabar's ultimate  dis-  appearance from the l i t e r a r y scene. The language i n Grabar's s t o r i e s i s f o r the most part colloquial.  Even i n h i s d e s c r i p t i v e passages, the narrator  uses such expressions as "svoy chelovek" and "samim-to" i n r e f e r r i n g to Arshok Semenov i n "Na kirpichakh" and diminutives the story.  countless  such as "chastenko" and "shchuplenkiy" throughout Kozakov and Malashkin both use the  vernacular  f o r the d i r e c t speech of the characters, but Grabar' includes i t i n the narrative as w e l l .  As previously stated, t h i s use  of c o l l o q u i a l language i n l i t e r a t u r e was i n keeping with the s t y l e of the times.  I t was an attempt to close the gap be-  tween l i t e r a r y language and common idiom, and thus bring l i t e r a t u r e c l o s e r to the people. Like Kozakov, Grabar' brings out the d i s p a r i t y conditions between o f f i c i a l s and workers. ^ L e o n i d Grabar', "Na kirpichakh," (Leningrad: Priboy, 1927), p. 147.  in living  In "Na kirpichakh,"  Lyudi-cheloveki  -  50  -  the workers a t the b r i c k y a r d l i v e d e i t h e r i n b a r r a c k s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t i n g o r i n s t u c c o h u t s , most o f which had no e l e c t r i c i t y at a l l .  The d i r e c t o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, was ex-  tremely w e l l s i t u a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y since h i s marriage. I t was p o s s i b l e t o t a l k w i t h "hims e l f " b e f o r e . He even v i s i t e d the b a r r a c k s often... Now, i t i s n ' t so. Now V a l e n t i n a Semenovna f o u l s t h i n g s up: t h e r e a r e r u g s ; she brought a piano i n ; t h e f u r n i t u r e i s gg as i t s h o u l d he; t h e bedroom i s o f redwood. I n " L a k h u d r i n p e r e u l o k , " Fedotov,  a self-styled  entrepreneur  b e i n g s t a t u s - c o n s c i o u s , bought a grand piano a l t h o u g h he c o u l d not p l a y .  On t h e o t h e r hand, Ivanov, an o f f i c e worker who  knew how t o p l a y t h e p i a n o , c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o buy Fedotov's o l d d i l a p i d a t e d one because i t would have r e q u i r e d a f u l l months' s a l a r y . the people  Again,  three  as i n K o z a k o v s "Meshchanin Adameyko," 1  seemed t o be u s i n g m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s t o c o n s o l i -  date t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and b u i l d a b a r r i c a d e a g a i n s t a p o s s i b l e l o s s of status. Grabar'  a l s o c r i t i c i z e s the " r e d t a p e " i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g  a n y t h i n g done.  When Egorushka wanted t o have s a f e t y measures  i n s t i t u t e d i n the b r i c k y a r d and a supply o f rubber b o o t s o r dered f o r the workers, he had t o submit s e c r e t a r y who i n t u r n passed  i t t o the accountant  d i r e c t o r would c o n s i d e r l o o k i n g a t i t . comment on i t i n " L a k h u d r i n  a p e t i t i o n to the  pereulok."  b e f o r e the  V o l o s o v made an apt  -  51  -  .... What a f o u l time t h i s i s — t h e y are a l l wrapped i n papers and walk on the e s t i m a t e as on the f l o o r . 6 9 The  government's s t r e s s on a good p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d f o r  f a c t o r i e s c r e a t e d a l o t of h a r d s h i p f o r the workers. b r i c k works, men rubber b o o t s .  At the  were s t a n d i n g knee-deep i n water w i t h o u t  Because of the wet working  conditions i n part  of the f a c t o r y and the e x c e s s i v e dust i n o t h e r p a r t s , many of the men  had  infected lungs.  When Egorushka  gave~them p e r -  m i t s to s t a y a t home, he l e a r n e d t h a t Semenov had g i v e n the following instructions. the worker, he was  R e g a r d l e s s of the s t a t e of h e a l t h of  o r d e r e d not to  g i v e / a w o r k e r / more than f o r t y - e i g h t hours o f f work", nor f r e e more than f i f t e e n workers i n one d a y . 7 0  A n y t h i n g beyond t h i s would l o o k bad on the p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d . Another t i n g men  p r a c t i c e of the Communist P a r t y was  t h a t of p u t -  i n h i g h government p o s i t i o n s because they were good  tradesmen or had  s e r v e d w e l l d u r i n g the war.  A desperate need  f o r l e a d e r s , as V o l o s o v s a i d i n " L a k h u d r i n p e r e u l o k , " prompted t h i s measure. "The whole of the p r o l e t a r i a t was i n the army," he s a i d , " i n the f r o n t p o s i t i o n s . Some were k i l l e d ; some became commissars. Where would you get q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a t t h i s time? . . . " 71  69 L e o n i d Grabar', "Lakhudrin p e r e u l o k , " Z h u r a v l i i_ k a r t e c h ' (Moscow: G o s i z d a t . , 1928), p. 154. 7 0  Ibid.,  p.  148.  7 1  Ibid.,  p.  171.  Most of these men were not suited f o r these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . When Ilyushin was unexpectedly made commissar of the people's 72  education, he f e l t l i k e a "perch i n a f r y i n g pan."  Dr. L.  73  Peter i n The Peter P r i n c i p l e ,  a contemporary  study dealing  with the psychology.of promotions, puts forward the theory that a man advances u n t i l he reaches h i s l e v e l of incompetence. The s i t u a t i o n i n post-revolutionary Russia seems to exemplify t h i s hypothesis.  Many of the o f f i c i a l s i n the Soviet  system  found themselves i n t h i s p o s i t i o n and thus, further complicated an already unwieldy bureaucracy. Grabar  1  points out that another p r i n c i p l e propounded by  the government, the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the p r o l e t a r i a t , was e r roneous.  The government was h y p o c r i t i c a l i n i t s proclamations  that a l l was being given to the p r o l e t a r i a t , f o r i n them l a y the t r u t h of the nation.  Conditions at the b r i c k works showed  exactly how much was being done f o r the workers and peasants and how much was being used to l i n e the o f f i c i a l s ' nests. Neither were the p r o l e t a r i a t untarnished p i l l a r s of p u r i t y that had sprung from the goodness of nature. Although there were many peasants of high character, Grabar' presents two prime examples of the lowest form of peasant i n "Lakhudrin pereulok."  These two men, drunk on  homemade l i q u o r , broke into the shed where school was taught 72 73  Grabar', "Lakhudrin pereulok," p. 148.  "Lawrence J . Peter and Raymond H u l l , The Peter P r i n c i p l e (New York: W. Morrow, 1969).  - 53 and  sexually assaulted  the young t e a c h e r  Marya. because  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Komsomol members who their liquor  she  were t r y i n g to  stop  operations.  In h i s denouncement of the premature aging p r e c i p i t a t e d by the To  Soviet  illustrate  system, Grabar' echoes Kozakov and t h i s , he  t e r t a i n i n g i n the t a t o r s was no  one  presents  i n p a r t i c u l a r , "And  i n the p i o n e e r  a scene of gypsy c h i l d r e n  square f o r p e n n i e s .  a young " p i o n e e r "  casual  about t e n y e a r s o l d .  why  He  en-  spec-  asked  s h o u l d n ' t they be e n l i s t e d serious-  l e f t w i t h the walk of a h u r r i e d ,  man. 74  o c c u p i•e dA  Because the  Soviet  system i n v e s t e d  i n d i v i d u a l s , t h i s allowed a great practices.  B r i b e r y governed the  A conversation this  Among the  movement?", shook h i s head "with the  ness of an a d u l t , " and  out  Malashkin.  between two  too much power i n  d e a l of scope f o r  a c t i o n s of many o f f i c i a l s .  doctors  i n "Na  kirpichakh"  evil. "... I pushed the envelope towards him, a l l the w h i l e t h i n k i n g , 'Can i t r e a l l y be t h a t we are a l l such i d i o t s ? W i l l someone not be found who w i l l make a r e p o r t to the p r o p e r p l a c e ? ' " "Well, what happened?  D i d he  take  it?" "He c e r t a i n l y d i d . 'Good,' he s a i d . ' I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t we w i l l d i r e c t you to the c e n t r a l h o s p i t a l as an i n t e r n . ' " "When was  corrupt  that?"  74  Grabar', " L a k h u d r i n p e r e u l o k , " pp.  225-6.  brings  - 54 "When? A month ago; about two days before he was arrested." "Well now that bazaar i s over. I t seems to be s i t t i n g securely."75 Although the doctor did not approve of bribery, he did not have the strength and courage to report the o f f i c i a l to the proper a u t h o r i t i e s , thereby submitting to the p r a c t i c e .  That  the c u l p r i t was arrested shortly afterwards was a c r e d i t to those workers who were t r u l y t r y i n g to create a better l i f e f o r the whole country.  The second doctor's remark about the  whole business seeming to be on a firm foundation was merely wishful thinking. Grabar'.gives many examples of o f f i c i a l s taking advantage of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s to amass small fortunes f o r themselves. Semenov i n "Na k i r p i c h a k h " expended a great deal of energy and a large proportion of the community's allotment to have electricity installed.  I r o n i c a l l y , the community except f o r  a few upper echelon employees and Semenov himself could not a f f o r d to pay f o r the hydro rates imposed by Semenov, and thereby derived no benefit from the i n s t a l l a t i o n .  In  "Lakhudrin pereulok," men l i k e Pedotov, Sanich, and Ambestor l i v e d i n luxury because they stole material from the government and sold i t p r i v a t e l y .  In addition, they were i n d i s c r i -  minate i n t h e i r choice of buyers.  By s e l l i n g the lead b u l l e t s  which they had purportedly bought f o r scrap to the counter7  ^Grabar',  "Na kirpichakh," p. 142.  - 55 r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , they were i n d i r e c t l y committing a g a i n s t the government.  Matveyev was  treason  p r o f i t i n g because h i s  f a c t o r y workers were exempt from the d r a f t ; they were ved i n the defence Grabar'  invol-  e f f o r t — m a k i n g gas-masks and gramophones.  shows t h a t t h e r e was  something  b a s i c a l l y wrong  w i t h the system because i t d e f e a t e d honest people w h i l e i t a l l o w e d the u n s c r u p u l o u s were thwarted  to  Men  like  Egorushka  i n t h e i r every move w h i l e o t h e r s l i k e Egorushka's  classmate B a k h r u s h i n , who treatment  ones t o f l o u r i s h .  of VD  and  s e t up a c l i n i c  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the  f o r abortions, prospered.  V o l o s o v went  j a i l w h i l e Pedotov, S a n i c h , and Ambestor c o n t i n u e d  profi-  teering. Grabar*  does not d e l v e deeply i n t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  e f f e c t s of c i r c u m s t a n c e s on the c h a r a c t e r s .  I n s t e a d , he  o u t l i n e s t h e i r a c t i o n s , l e a v i n g the r e a d e r t o i n f e r psychological state,  i n the two  " L a k h u d r i n p e r e u l o k , " Grabar'  s t o r i e s "Na k i r p i c h a k h " and  seems t o have a more p o s i t i v e  o u t l o o k than e i t h e r Kozakov or M a l a s h k i n . o n l y c h a r a c t e r w i t h any moral his  own  In Kozakov, the  f i b r e , Adameyko, p r e c i p i t a t e d  d e s t r u c t i o n ; i n M a l a s h k i n , Tanya's s o u l was  so she took h e r own  life,  their  i n Grabar',  destroyed  a l t h o u g h the n e g a t i v e  c h a r a c t e r s were r e v e a l e d , the a d v e r s i t i e s which b e s e t them r e s u l t e d i n moral growth f o r two Volosov.  of the c h a r a c t e r s , Anya and  The young d o c t o r Egorushka  bureaucracy  either.  was  not d e f e a t e d by  D e s p i t e h a v i n g s u f f e r e d severe  the  setbacks,  - 56  -  he would continue t r y i n g to r e a l i z e h i s i d e a l s . The street, Lakhudrin pereulok, was  repository f o r a  number of the negative elements e x i s t i n g i n Soviet society. The name of the street i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h i s , f o r "lakhudra" is  a c o l l o q u i a l i s m designating an unkempt or d i l a p i d a t e d  person.  Lakhudrin pereulok was  rather run-down and narrow,  terminating i n a cul-de-sac; and i t s residents, too, were shabby i n both person and s p i r i t :  people whose l i v e s could  be considered v i r t u a l l y a dead end.  A l l the residents on  Lakhudrin pereulok were s t i l l l i v i n g under the i l l u s i o n of a past status and a l l i t s g l o r i e s . and bigoted.  They were quite misinformed  An example of t h e i r way  of thinking i s shown i n  Madame ITarkisova's speech to Shura, who was p l a y i n g a f o x - t r o t on the piano. Ach, Shurochka, be more c a r e f u l with f o x - t r o t s . They are banned. You know one of my f r i e n d s i s s t i l l s i t t i n g /Th j a i l / for a f o x - t r o t i n B u t y r k i : They had gathered at some kind of meeting and had danced the f o x - t r o t and sung "God Save the King." The windows, as i n your house, were open.76 In  presenting the above i n c i d e n t , Grabar' reveals the  timely q u a l i t y of h i s observations.  The young people i n the  Soviet Union were fascinated with the f o x - t r o t and other western phenomena and wanted to incorporate them into t h e i r mode of  life. 7  This "tyaga," the great wish of Russian youth to  ^Grabar',  "Lakhudrin pereulok," p. 129.  adopt  a western  S o v i e t Union  is still  a problem  i n the  today.  d w e l l i n g on t h i s  f a m i l y , which was  t y p i c a l of the people  'winding' l a n e , were s t i l l  their old traditions.  by money.  -  style.of living,  The Khvostov  in  57  strongly  Most of t h e i r a c t i o n s were  T h e i r daughter Anya was  living  steeped governed  common law w i t h a  77 member o f the Communist P a r t y , a C h r i s t i a n Jew,  whom the  Khvostovs  When Ivanov  won  d e t e s t e d because  of h i s Jewish o r i g i n .  a l o t of money through gambling,  they q u i c k l y changed  their  a t t i t u d e towards him and o f f e r e d him t h e i r s o - c a l l e d " r e s p e c t and f r i e n d s h i p . " robbed  When he l o s t  the money and r a n away, they  t h e i r p e n n i l e s s young daughter  of h e r b e s t  furniture  on the p r e t e x t t h a t the government would take i t away t o h e l p repay Ivanov's  debt.  as i n f e r i o r because was  They a l s o r e g a r d e d the l a u n d r e s s Annusha of h e r l o w l y o c c u p a t i o n .  the o n l y p e r s o n who  showed t r u e moral  Anya's a s s i s t a n c e when h e l p was  needed.  f i b r e by coming to As w e l l as b e f r i e n d i n g  Anya and h e r c h i l d and a i d i n g h e r f i n a n c i a l l y , h e r laundry, customers  with her.  she even shared  Anya's f a m i l y was d i s g u s t e d  w i t h Anya f o r t a k i n g on such work because grading.  Annusha, however,  they f e l t  i t was  de-  To them, a p p l y i n g f o r s t a t e w e l f a r e would have been  preferable.  77 i v a n o v ' s f a t h e r , an opera s i n g e r of Jewish o r i g i n , had n o m i n a l l y embraced C h r i s t i a n i t y i n o r d e r to s i n g i n the I m p e r i a l T h e a t r e where t h i s was a c r i t e r i o n .  - 58 Anya was  one  of the c h a r a c t e r s who  experienced  r e g e n e r a t i o n through a k i n d of t r i a l hy f i r e . n i n g of the s t o r y , she was girl,  but  Even though she had  no  a f a i l u r e as a housekeeper and  Her  o n l y redeeming f a c t o r was  end  o f the s t o r y , because of the h a r d s h i p s  begin-  outside a mother.  t h a t she l o v e d Ivanov.  self-sufficient.  The  By  the  t h a t were t h r u s t  upon h e r a n d b e c a u s e of Annusha's h e l p , she had competent and  At the  shown as an educated, well-mannered  somewhat u s e l e s s .  employment, she was  moral  become q u i t e  reader i s l e f t with  the  f e e l i n g t h a t , u n l i k e the r e s t of h e r f a m i l y which was  governed  by f a l s e p r i o r i t i e s ,  the  she would grow t o be a c r e d i t to  society. Volosov was  another  symbol of the attainment  growth through overcoming t r i a l s q u a l i f i e d machinist  and  and m i s f o r t u n e s .  t i n s m i t h , Volosov  f a c t o r y to a v o i d b e i n g d r a f t e d .  He  be  c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o the army, he sent back to r e c u p e r a t e .  s k i l l e d tradesman who  was  extremely  j o i n e d the Matveyev  d i s c o v e r e d and  he  swallowed p o i s o n and had  In volosov,  snatched  An  appeared r a t h e r s p i n e l e s s ,  f o r when the c h i c a n e r y at the f a c t o r y was was  of moral  to  Grabar' d e p i c t s the  from h i s element and  placed  i n the unhappy p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y beyond h i s c a p a b i l i t y . He  d i d h i s b e s t , but h i s one  l e a d b u l l e t s to pay  t r a n s g r e s s i o n — s e l l i n g o f f some  f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of a b u i l d i n g to house  a c l u b f o r the v i l l a g e r s — w a s a step i n t o quagmire. not  He  stop h i m s e l f from f a l l i n g i n t o deeper d e g r a d a t i o n .  could Just  -  before h i s impending 78 year i n j a i l .  59  -  a r r e s t , he gave himself up and spent a  The man who  emerged from prison and went  hack to a tradesman's job i n a f a c t o r y , had inner s e c u r i t y . That he had found h i s p o s i t i o n i n l i f e was evident i n h i s conversation with San Sanich. "You, Sergey Avdiech, must c e r t a i n l y try to become a "zavkom" /Factory d i r e c t o r / , " Volosov grinned. "Somehow, i t doesn't appeal to me, San Sanich. I t ' s better f o r me t h i s way ..."79 While Volosov had learned to avoid those p i t f a l l s which had l e d him to h i s downfall, Ivanov had not.  Ivanov  prosti-  tuted himself when he accepted the piano from Pedotov. r e s u l t i n g l o s s of h i s own ways of regaining i t .  s e l f - r e s p e c t l e d him to t r y f o o l i s h  He began gambling and his-phenomenal  streak of luck tossed him into the lap of luxury. a t e l y , h i s luck was  The  short-lived.  Unfortun-  While t r y i n g to e x t r i c a t e  78  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that while i n p r i s o n , Volosov kept singing an old Russian song but with a l t e r e d l y r i c s . Volosov's version of the song i s Zhyla b y l a Racceya Velikaya gerzhava Vragi ee t e r z y a l i Naleve i napryave...  Once upon a time This great power, Russia Was preyed upon by her foes Prom the l e f t and the r i g h t .  The better known version of t h i s song as r e l a t e d by a former c i t i z e n of the Soviet Union i s Zhyla b y l a Rocciya Moguchaya derzhava Vragi ee b o y a l i s Byla i chest' i slava.. 79 Grabar',  Once upon a time This mighty power, Russia Was feared by her foes And enjoyed honour and g l o r y . .  "Lakhudrin pereulok," p.  266.  - 60 himself from a state of serious debt, he gambled away a large sum of money belonging  to the chemical  trust.  The gambling  disease had such a f i r m g r i p on him that before he was caught and imprisoned, he had squandered the money borrowed on h i s mother's typewriter, her only source of income.  Prison f a i l e d  to reform him, f o r a f t e r h i s release, he was again forced i n to the same conditions which had o r i g i n a l l y l e d to h i s downfall.  The despicable t h e f t which he committed aroused such a  f e e l i n g of self-contempt  w i t h i n him that he took h i s own l i f e .  Egorushka i n "Na kirpichakh" was an i d e a l i s t .  He was so  t o t a l l y dedicated to the medical profession that he was o b l i vious to a l l personal discomforts.  Egorushka was a Communist  i n the true sense of the word while the c a p i t a l i s t i c a l l y oriented administrators were only masquerading.  He refused to  give up h i s struggle to improve conditions f o r the workers, saying: ... we l i v e , tovarishch S i n i t s y n , i n a Soviet land. I t wouldn't hurt to think about the health of the worker.80 This attitude of Egor's caused a considerable amount of consternation among the administrators.  Despite t h e i r p e r s i s -  tence, t h e i r e f f o r t s to hasten Egorushka's voluntary resignat i o n were not s u c c e s s f u l .  The d i r e c t o r , determined to remove  the thorn i n h i s side, issued a memorandum a f t e r a l l other ploys had f a i l e d . 80  G r a b a r ' , "Na kirpichakh," p. 160.  - 61 Because of the c u r t a i l i n g of product i o n i n the h r i c k factory, the p o s i t i o n of junior doctor at "Kamenka" i s being abolished. 8 1  Egor, having at l e a s t implemented the changes he was seeking, l e f t the factory resigned, but not d i s i l l u s i o n e d .  There was  some hope suggested i n the c l o s i n g of the s t o r y — E g o r ' s mother would not get her f e l t boots that year.  Although Egorushka's  s p i r i t had not yet been crushed, i t appears that i t would be only a matter of time before he became as passive as the o l d doctor. Kozakov, Malashkin and Grabar' a l l focus the reader's attention on s i m i l a r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the system during the STEP period.  In a d d i t i o n to touching on some of these short-  comings, N i k i f o r o v , a contemporary of the aforementioned authors, investigates the e f f e c t s of these inadequacies on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people. I b i d . , p. 166. I t should be pointed out here that Z a v a l i s h i n has erred i n content. " F i n a l l y , Yegor has to leave the factory at h i s own wish, and with the Administration's consent." (op. c i t . , Z a v a l i s h i n , p. 323.) ~~ He i n t e r p r e t s Egor's conditions as being " d i s i l l u s i o n e d , penniless, and hopeless." Although penniless, Egor does not appear p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d and c e r t a i n l y f a r from hopeless.  CHAPTER IV N i k i f o r o v was  also involved i n the Communist Party from  an early age and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t s growth.  He  was  one of the founding members of the l i t e r a r y group of p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s c a l l e d "Kuznitsa," previously discussed i n the introduction.  At the time of t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , Nikiforov's  works were praised f o r t h e i r supposed p o r t r a y a l of the of the people with the undesirable  conflict  elements of the Communist 82  system such as bureaucracy and career-ism.  This i n t e r p r e -  t a t i o n saved Nikiforov's writings from the censorship he would o r d i n a r i l y have been  to which  subjected.  In the "vstuplenic" or the prologue of h i s novel U Nikiforov symbolically presents the whole theme of the Our l a n t e r n i s the only one on the whole s t r e e t . The street i s winding and long; sometimes i t seems endless ... It i s s t i l l autumn; the clouds become heavy and s e t t l e themselves on the ground. The l a n t e r n i s going b l i n d ; there i s no and then road nor you guess that on the s t r e e t , someone has lowered l u s t r e l e s s eyes. On the sides are unexpected hurdles, h o s t i l e jagged w a l l s . Somewhere i n the borderless steppe, a whistle has become l o s t . There is' such a thick void a l l around and suddenly the cry of the midnight cock. You r e j o i c e when you hear i t , — a n d you hear y o u r s e l f , then your own breathing, your own trembling and longing, and your own strength ... It i s very cold on the road, cold and dank; the dampness gnaws your j o i n t s . You want to enter the warmth. Anyone wants Literaturnaya entsiklopedia, Tom  fonarya novel.  VIII, op. c i t . , pp.  77-8  - 63  -  t h i s when t h e r e i s a s m a l l thought t h a t one need o n l y t u r n i n t o the f i r s t g a t e ; — behind the gate, t h e r e i s immediately a h o l i d a y of repose, a grand h o l i d a y o f repose ... Beyond the gate, j u s t a f t e r you step over the d o o r - s i l l , the ground i s strewn w i t h sand, " g l a d g o l d e n , " as i f gold-browhed by f i r e . In the sand i s the p e a c e f u l sun; the p e a c e f u l sun i s i n the sand ... No, i t i s s t i l l autumn; on the s i d e s are the unexpected h u r d l e s , the jagged h o s t i l e w a l l s ... No! ... 83 It can be  i s o b v i o u s t h a t a p o e t i c image such as the i n t e r p r e t e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways.  the  explanation  its  own  of the Communist P a r t y was  position.  A book r e v i e w e r  Workers' Newspaper) p r e s e n t s  one Of  course,  geared to enhance  i n Rabochaya Gazeta  a standard  above  S o v i e t view of  (The the  novel. ... i n the n o v e l TJ f o nary a, a whole g a l l e r y o f types of our epoch are gathered t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t the background o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and the works of a l a r g e p l a n t w i t h f o u r t h o u sand workers. The c e n t r a l theme of the n o v e l — t h e l a n t e r n — i s the P a r t y . The P a r t y i l l u m i n a t e s and d i r e c t s our whole l i f e i n a l l i t s manifestations. I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s , P a r t y members o r n o n - p a r t y members, onto whom the P a r t y d i r e c t s i t s l a n t e r n , immediately r e c e i v e a d i s t i n c t c l a s s physiognomy; e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s vague becomes c l a r i f i e d . Throughout the whole n o v e l , a s t r o n g f a i t h i n the P a r t y stands o u t — i n i t /The P a r t y / i s l a i d an i r o n - c l a d t r u t h which w i l l rielp i t to f u l f i l l i t s h i s t o r i c a l l y a s s i g n e d purpose ... 84 Georgiy 1929),  p.  N i k i f o r o v , TJ f o n a r y a  7  p.  299.  (Moscow:  Zemlya i f a b r i k a ,  - 64 N i k i f o r o v ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n can ogy  to l i f e  i n the U.S.S.R. d u r i n g  presents a picture quite postulated be  hy  the  Soviets.  A l t h o u g h i t i s the  the  considered  The  an  l a t e twenties.  d i f f e r e n t from the  i n t e r p r e t e d as the P a r t y  ism.  a l s o be  l a n t e r n can  one  It  normally  still,  o r even more b r o a d l y ,  s o l e hope of l i g h t  anal-  as  above,  as  on the  social-  twisting,  almost e n d l e s s road t h a t . l i e s ahead f o r the p e o p l e , i t does not  c a s t any  illusioned  and  eyes away from i t .  emptiness are represents  beams of l i g h t ;  a l l around.  man's p l e a s  man  Nothing but  The  obstacles  f o r help.  The  night  c r y of the m i d n i g h t cock  something f a m i l i a r from  through which the wanderer can  p e r s o n — a p e r s o n w i t h f l e s h and  dis-  and  disembodied c r y i n the  s i g n i f i e s something r e c o g n i z a b l e , past  might w e l l t u r n h i s  again f i n d himself  b l o o d , ' w i t h hopes and  as  the a  dreams,  a person with a s o u l . The  autumn which symbolizes the  r e b o r n a f t e r the  revolution, s t i l l  dankness permeates man hope t h a t the  first  peaceful.  p r e v a i l s . . The  t o h i s v e r y marrow; he  to  be  Man,  s e i z e s on  t h a t h i s escape i s hut  a dream; and  realistic  and  the  be  and  admit  f o r some time t o come, he  must c o n t i n u e to f a c e what i s around h i m — t h e "unexpected h u r d l e s , "  the l i f e —  a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e , but w i l l however, must be  be  spiritual  escape w i l l l e a d to a g l o r i o u s new  a l i f e which w i l l not warm and  f a i l u r e of l i f e  "autumn,"  " h o s t i l e jagged w a l l s . "  t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , N i k i f o r o v * s p r o l o g u e becomes an  the By  apt  using  - 65 summary of the conditions i n Soviet Russia as described hy the other authors dealt with i n t h i s t h e s i s . N i k i f o r o v employs a number of l i t e r a r y  devices i n the  presentation of h i s novels TJ fonarya and Zhenshchina.  He  observes the action through the eyes of several characters, uses flashbacks, l e t t e r s , and diaries—sometimes portraying only external actions; at other times, revealing emotions and thought processes.  In many instances, Nikiforov sets up a  q u a s i - s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s of c l a s s physiognomy, then adds the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to make a fully-rounded personage. v i v i f i e s these p o r t r a i t s by juxtaposing opposites: Chuvyakin;  He  Ramzaev/  payka/sonchik.  S t y l i s t i c a l l y , Nikiforov's language and almost l y r i c a l .  i s lucid,  colourful,  The poetic q u a l i t y of h i s w r i t i n g i s  apparent i n the prologue to TJ fonarya as well as throughout both the works.  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s prose i s shown i n  Sonchik's unusual suicide note, i n which death i s regarded as a fusion of man with nature. Perhaps, I w i l l l i e as a gigantic grey rock on the shore of the sea, open to the waves and the sun. Centuries w i l l pass: thousands, m i l l i o n s of centuries! How many people w i l l I see and h e a r — w i t h what love, what longing, what s u f f e r i n g ? ^ 8  As previously stated, while eliminating many undesirable elements i n Russian society, the Revolution of 1 9 1 7 and the 85  Georgiy N i k i f o r o v , Zhenshchina (Moscow: tovarishchestvo p i s a t e l ' e y , 1 9 2 9 ) , P- 246.  Moskovskoe  - 66 -  years that immediately followed also destroyed a l l the foundations from which the society derived i t s structure. having wiped the slate clean, i t f a i l e d  After  to provide a s a t i s -  factory substitute from which man could s t a r t reconstructing a new l i f e .  This l e f t the Russian people "borderless," or,  so to speak, " f r e e f l o a t i n g " — w i t h no morals to c l i n g to, no peaceful havens of escape, and s o l e l y responsible f o r t h e i r own destiny with no one to blame f o r errors or omissions. They were not strong enough to carry t h i s load.  What N i k i f o r o v  says i n Zhenshchina about women could well be applied to the country as a whole. Our women ^ave/ l i k e young grass. . I t has just come out of the ground into the sunshine and s t i l l doesn't know whether i t /The sun/ w i l l be compassionate towards i t or whetEer i t w i l l burn i t to the roots. It doesn't know what kind of winds w i l l tear i t from the ground, what kind of tempests w i l l wash i t , or what kind of dews w i l l drench i t . Woman makes thousands of mistakes because, as yet, there has been no school f o r her, one that would have evaluated woman as a person; and she has not a c t u a l l y c r i e d out about h e r s e l f . " 8  The newly l i b e r a t e d Russian would make many mistakes before he found a path f o r himself. P h y s i c a l l y , very l i t t l e had changed f o r the common people a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n .  In Zhenshchina, Praskovya Ulyanova was  s t i l l working as a domestic and s t i l l sighing over God's denying her a husband although t h i s was her dearest wish. I b i d . , p. 73.  Communism  -  67  -  had not even entered her sphere of thinking. Semenovna's l o t improved.  Nor had Matronya  She had had great hopes f o r per-  sonal freedom a f t e r the revolution; but she was s t i l l  cooking,  cleaning, looking a f t e r young c h i l d r e n , and b a t t l i n g with a drunken husband. ing  In TJ fonarya, Babka Stepaneda, too, was l i v -  the same kind of l i f e  she had always l i v e d .  Although  Golandin talked about Communism f r e e i n g women from the k i t chen, that i s exactly where h i s s i s t e r Katerina was. The ordinary workers had ceased to expect improvement. ... they had become accustomed to seeing everything i n i t s old place. And when we talked about b u i l d i n g stone houses and convenient quarters and so f o r t h , they smiled good-naturedly and winked cunningly at each other, shaking t h e i r heads.°Y They l i v e d i n hovels which, according to Bryakin, should have been doused with kerosene  and burned.  The men s t i l l beat the women.  Squalor s t i l l  existed.  Instead of bringing equality to  the women, the r e v o l u t i o n had just brought them a d d i t i o n a l work. Besides doing the housework and caring f o r the c h i l d r e n , they were now working for  i n f a c t o r i e s also.  A l l that the women longed  was r e s t , decent c l o t h i n g , s u f f i c i e n t  sustenance.  ... There i s no horror about past events and no pleasure from the present state. There i s a wish to l i v e comfortably, dress w e l l , and have a good sleep at the proper time. 8 8  th  Ibid., p. 238. Ibid., p 239. 5  -  The  68 -  d e s c r i p t i o n o f P o k r o v s k i y ' s r e s i d e n c e , i n complete  t r a s t t o the workers' in l i v i n g conditions.  r a b b i t warrens,  con-  emphasizes the d i s p a r i t y  P o k r o v s k i y a l s o had a c h a u f f e u r e d l i m o u -  s i n e a t h i s d i s p o s a l as d i d p amaev w h i l e the workers d i d n o t u  r e c e i v e even the bare  necessities.  N i k i f o r o v r e i t e r a t e s the b e l i e f t h a t t o o much s t r e s s was p l a c e d on the g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . of  The l a b e l l i n g  people as i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , p r o l e t a r i a t , P a r t y member o r non-  member r a t h e r than j u d g i n g each on h i s m e r i t , produced s i t u a t i o n through which the c o u n t r y l o s t extremely capable p e o p l e ,  the s e r v i c e s o f many  payka, because she was from an  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a background, almost to  a  dropped  from e x h a u s t i o n due  e x c e s s i v e h a r d work i n o r d e r t o surpass the o t h e r workers  and prove h e r s e l f worthy.  T h i s exhaustion coupled with  dis-  i l l u s i o n w i t h h e r i d o l s r e s u l t e d i n such a s t a t e o f mental turmoil that In  she made an a b o r t i v e attempt  on h e r own l i f e .  U f o n a r y a , Ramzaev, who was doing s a t i s f a c t o r y work  for  the P a r t y , developed  severe g u i l t  due  to the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e towards t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a o r i g i n , he f e l t  f e e l i n g s about h i s p a s t  p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  s i n s committed by anyone f o r m e r l y o f t h i s c l a s s . inadequate  He a l s o  f o r n o t b e i n g a b l e t o prevent the unsavoury  ments among the g o v e r n i n g p r o l e t a r i a t . o t h e r hand, merely  Of  Chuvyakin,  felt  develop-  on the  r e s t e d on h i s l a u r e l s and h e l d an important  p o s i t i o n due to P a r t y membership r a t h e r than a b i l i t y .  He was  -  69  -  extremely smug and s e l f - s a t i s f i e d . "I know what I know," h i s eyes seemed to say. "and the rest of you can go to h e l l . "  fip y  Nikiforov uses an analogy to draw attention to Chuvyakin's greed.  In speaking of h i s eyes, Nikiforov says they were the eyes of a man who, having just consumed the f i r s t tasty dish, hangs h i s f i s t impatiently on the table waiting f o r the n e x t . 9 °  Bryakin (Zhenshchina) was a true p r o l e t a r i a n and had been working f o r reconstruction volution.  since the beginning of the r e -  Although he was a member of a p r o f e s s i o n a l union,  he was asked to leave a meeting because he d i d not hold a "Party t i c k e t . "  This was due to animosity between p r o f e s s i o n a l  unions and the Party.  P r i o r to the r e v o l u t i o n , union member-  ship had been the ultimate  i n achievement, f o r the unions were  the most powerful force i n industry; but a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , the Party dominated.  The unions, made up of s k i l l e d  labourers  who considered t h e i r trade an a r t , were interested i n the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l . i n d i v i d u a l and placed  Conversely, the Party disregarded the  a l l emphasis on what was good f o r the  State. According to N i k i f o r o v , one of the most g l a r i n g errors made by the Party was to demand that t o t a l e f f o r t be directed towards the reconstruction 8  of a strong Communist State.  % i k i f o r o v , JJ fonarya, p. 48.  9 0  Ibid.  As  - 70 Fayka s a i d i n Zhenshchina when t r y i n g to i n t e r p r e t the works of K a r l Marx, That means t h a t i n o r d e r t o have i n d u s t r y f l o u r i s h i n our r e p u b l i c , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o smother the s p i r i t o f the masses and t u r n men i n t o appendages of machines.91 Fayka s father rejected t h i s explanation 1  the a t t i t u d e h e l d by the S t a t e . a progressive  but i t seemed t o be  I n t h e i r eagerness t o b u i l d  economy, the P a r t y l e a d e r s f a i l e d  needs into- account.  Few people were able t o d e r i v e  s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r work w i t h o u t d e v o t i n g to t h e i r p e r s o n a l  t o take human  lives.  complete  some a t t e n t i o n  Because human emotions and the  s a t i s f y i n g o f the need f o r l o v e and a f f e c t i o n were  contrary  t o , o r a t l e a s t n o t i n c l u d e d i n , P a r t y aims, those who were t r u l y working f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the n a t i o n were b u r dened w i t h g u i l t and,  feelings.  They c o u l d not r e p r e s s  by g i v i n g i n t o them, f e l t  t h e i r needs  d i s l o y a l to the P a r t y .  It i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f N i k i f o r o v t h a t he does n o t condemn P a r t y aims but merely p o i n t s out the f l a w s i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  implementation.  H i s main c o n c e r n was f o r man's i n d i v i -  d u a l i t y which was b e i n g  i n u n d a t e d by machines and the masses.  H i s c h a r a c t e r s who achieve  some measure o f success do so  because o f t h e i r h u m a n i s t i c q u a l i t i e s r a t h e r than t h e i r cation to Party Character  dedi-  line. a n a l y s i s i n N i k i f o r o v * s w r i t i n g s h i n g e s on the  91 N i k i f o r o v , Zhenshchina, p. 9.  - 71 premise t h a t every man has a b a s i c need f o r c l o s e human contact.  Sima's mother (Zhenshchina),  Matronya Semenovna, a  v e r y simple woman, r e c o g n i z e d t h i s and d e s p i t e Sima's u r g i n g , r e f u s e d t o l e a v e h e r b e s o t t e d husband.  Although  her r e l a -  t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r husband c o n s i s t e d o f c o n s t a n t b i c k e r i n g , she had become accustomed t o i t ; and she f e l t than no involvement establishment  at a l l .  i t was b e t t e r  F o r the Communist P a r t y , t h e  o f i n d u s t r y was o f prime importance;  c e r n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s was secondary.  T h i s credo  and con-  destroyed  the n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman. F o r most o f the c h a r a c t e r s , N i k i f o r o v develops psychology,  y e t s t i l l maintains  t a t i v e o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ,  individuality.  a class  A represen-  the group which was r e q u i r e d  to p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e f o r the r e b u i l d i n g o f the n a t i o n , i s Andrey P o k r o v s k i y ,  a q u a l i f i e d engineer.  He was working  f o r the P a r t y b u t p u r e l y f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n . I t seems t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f the o n l y person on e a r t h and thought s o l e l y about what he c o u l d g e t out o f life.92 A man w i t h a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e towards h i s work was I n y a k i n (Zhenshchina).  Not o n l y was he a p o l i t i c a l , he was a l s o some-  what amoral. 9 2  Ibid.,  p. 16.  He thought only of one t h i n g : how he, N i k o l a i Inyakin, without r i s k and as cunningly as possible could e s t a b l i s h himself i n l i f e ... inyakin wanted to be promoted, to get ahead; and i t was immaterial whom he served.93 In h i s p r i v a t e l i f e , Pokrovskiy i s the one exception i n both the s t o r i e s who operates contrary to N i k i f o r o v ' s premise.  An  emotional attachment was not necessary f o r him because he fed on s e l f - l o v e .  His p o s i t i o n as project engineer gave him ample  opportunity to wield h i s authority over female technicians to  s a t i s f y a l l h i s sexual and e g o - i n f l a t i n g needs. Sonchik was also a member of the former "upper c l a s s . "  She and Elena, her counterpart i n U fonarya played games with men f o r whatever material b e n e f i t s they could reap. Obviously, l i f e f o r her i s l i k e a b u f f e t : she picks out what she l i k e s . 9 4 Nikiforov does not condemn Sonchik, f o r she was true to her character and f u l f i l l e d her role i n society: t i v e and made people happy. no longer adequate.  She was decora-  Under Communism, such a r o l e was  The f e e l i n g of uselessness made her  reach out f o r true love; but because she had merely used men rather than loved them, love was not to be found.  Sensing  t o t a l r e j e c t i o n , she f e l l into a decline which eventually resulted i n her s u i c i d e . Elena, on the other hand, was the cause of Chuvyakin's Q3  94  Nikiforov, U fonarya, p. 234. , N i k i f o r o v , Zhenshchina, p. 46.  - 73 downfall.  Chuvyakin  epitome o f p o s h l o s t ' . him in  i s the symbol o f b u r e a u c r a c y  As i n the Garden o f Eden, E l e n a l e d  to taste the forbidden f r u i t , turn, l e d to h i s d e s t r u c t i o n ,  u s e f u l purpose,  and the  a l a v i s h way o f l i f e  which,  i n a sense, E l e n a served a  f o r she was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g about  the d o w n f a l l o f those u n f i t t o govern. The  s k i l l e d c r a f t s m a n i n Zhenshchina  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by  B r y a k i n , w h i l e the woman i n a s i m i l a r r o l e i s Solomina. A l though B r y a k i n d i d n o t h o l d a " P a r t y t i c k e t , " b o t h were good Communists and took p r i d e i n doing t h e i r work w e l l . wardly,  n e i t h e r o f them showed any emotion.  Out-  Admitting  such  a f l a w would have been c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the image e s t a b l i s h e d for  Communists.  tion, f e l l  However, they t o o had a y e a r n i n g f o r a f f e c -  i n l o v e w i t h each o t h e r , and s e c r e t l y s e t up t h e i r  family l i f e .  Serdobova, a Communist o f f i c i a l  also f e l t  that  she c o u l d n o t l e t p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s i n t e r f e r e w i t h h e r work for  the P a r t y .  was  satisfied  husband l i v e d twice a week. man  who drove  Her need f o r a m u t u a l l y - f o n d through  a part-time marriage:  She and h e r  s e p a r a t e l y but met by p r i o r arrangement once o r I n TJ f o n a r y a , K o t e l ' n i k o v i s the devoted  he found  that dedication  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l l i f e  compatible.  crafts-  the workers but a l s o worked a l o n g w i t h them.  L i k e the c h a r a c t e r s i n Zhenshchina, to  relationship  were n o t  The woman he l o v e d l e f t him because o f h i s con-  s t a n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h work.  - 74 Sima, a representative of the new  breed of Communist  youth, f e l t that she had found the correct path i n l i f e rejected love completely.  and  It was not u n t i l she developed  strong attachment f o r Pokrovskiy, who  a  was merely using her,  that she became aware of her urgent need f o r tenderness. This r e a l i z a t i o n disrupted her l i f e completely directionless.  and l e f t  The man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  her  developed  between the protagonists i n U fonarya and Zhenshchina, Ramzaev and Anna and Payka and Shavronov r e s p e c t i v e l y , were s i m i l a r to the awkward a s s o c i a t i o n between Tsepilov and h i s wife i n U fonarya. Ramzaev, a former member of the gentry who  was  living  under a disguise, had been working w e l l f o r the Party f o r quite some time, not because he was t r i n e , but because he was met  dedicated to Party doc-  a humanist.  I t was not u n t i l he  Anna, the daughter of an ardent Communist, and h e r s e l f a  member of the Party, that he began to have g u i l t about h i s past. quired a new  Party membership and Communist i d e a l s ac-  importance f o r him as a r e s u l t of Anna's high  regard f o r them.  He f e l t that i f he were discovered, he would  loose her admiration. without  feelings  critically  Anna, h e r s e l f , had accepted these tenets  questioning them.  Only when she was  asked  to t e s t i f y against Ramzaev i n court did she r e a l i z e the r i g i d i t y of the doctrine; and she refused to incriminate him. L u c k i l y , the judge, a woman, also believed i n a humanistic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Party r u l e s .  Thus, thanks to the court case,  -  75 -  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Anna and Ramzaev, which up t o t h i s time had c o n s i s t e d of lame c o n v e r s a t i o n s about M a r x i s t i d e a l s , reached a happy r e s o l u t i o n . Payka and Shavronov found themselves dicament.  i n a similar pre-  Shavronov, one o f the most prominent  the work group, had devoted h i s whole l i f e ism.  people i n  to building  social-  However, h i s new-found l o v e f o r Payka t h r e a t e n e d h i s  once-unshakable  b e l i e f t h a t a l l h i s e n e r g i e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d  towards r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  As B r y a k i n phrased i t . :  Here l i v e s a man who can a c t u a l l y v a u l t over mountains. He has jumped over both l a r g e and s m a l l ones w i t h o u t c a t c h i n g his feet. Suddenly, i n one moment, seemi n g l y both bad and good, he t r i p s over a rut and s t o p s . 95 When payka s t a r t e d t o work f o r the P a r t y , she too r e j e c t e d love; therefore,  she e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t mental  of  h e r a t t r a c t i o n t o Shavronov.  of  their passion.  Indeed,  anguish  because  they were both  "Are you a f r a i d , N i k i t a , o f my  afraid  joy?"  "Yes, I am. There i s a g r e a t t r u t h here. I f your j o y c a p t u r e s me, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r us t o stop i n a cove and b u i l d our own l i f e . Don't you t h i n k so, pausta? The r e s t ^ o f the w o r l d / would c o n t i n u e t o f l p w by, and we would s i t i n the cove ... °° As a r e s u l t , they behaved i r r a t i o n a l l y : I b i d . , p.  153-  I b i d . , p.  211.  payka found p r e t e x t s  -76  -  to see Shavronov; he begged h e r t o s t a y away from him, then went t o h e r home and p l e a d e d to be a l l o w e d i n . suicide l e t t e r that f i n a l l y  I t was Sonchik's  c o n v i n c e d payka t h a t the o n l y  t h i n g t h a t made l i f e worth l i v i n g was a m e a n i n g f u l l o v e between man and woman.  With t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , Fayka t u r n e d down  the a l t e r n a t i v e o f the morphine f o r the r e u n i o n w i t h Shavronov through which they would both be f u l f i l l e d .  CONCLUSION Communist d o c t r i n e and  the emotional  needs of the human  psyche c o n s t a n t l y v i e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r and who  wanted to r e b u i l d .  destructive  tore apart  those  L a r i s a R e i s n e r a p t l y d e s c r i b e s the  process.  The r e v o l u t i o n squanders i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l workers wantonly. I t i s an i n e x o r a b l e master w i t h whom t h e r e i s no use d i s c u s s i n g a s i x - h o u r day, m a t e r n i t y b e n e f i t s or h i g h e r pay. It appropriates everything—men's b r a i n s , w i l l s , nerves, and l i v e s — a n d , h a v i n g sucked them dry, maimed and exhausted them, d i s c a r d s them on the n e a r e s t scrap heap and r e c r u i t s g l o r i o u s new s o l d i e r s from the v a s t r e s e r v e s o f the m a s s e s . 9 7 It i s precisely  such a r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l t h a t was  by the a u t h o r s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d : Grabar', and N i k i f o r o v .  That  Kozakov,  depicted  Malashkin,  these a u t h o r s p r e s e n t e d  c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n i s apparent  from the s i m i l a r i t y of  c r i t i q u e s of the s o c i a l o r d e r .  an  ac-  their  T h e i r main a t t i t u d e s d i d not  d i f f e r g r e a t l y ; they merely v a r i e d i n t h e i r degree of p e s simism. was  In Kozakov's "Meshchanin Adameyko," the  completely  Malashkin's  gloomy and t h e r e were no redeeming f e a t u r e s .  scene was  o n l y a shade b r i g h t e r .  P e t e r as an exemplary c h a r a c t e r and a few good p e a s a n t s . than the o t h e r two. 97 17  p.  situation  Grabar' was Although  L a r i s a Reisner, Front  presented  a l s o i n t i m a t e d t h e r e were  somewhat more o p t i m i s t i c  a number of h i s c h a r a c t e r s  (Moscow:  5. -  He  77  -  Krasnaya nov',  1 9 2 4 ) ,  - 78 were d e s t r o y e d ,  one  survived  moral r e g e n e r a t i o n .  and  N i k i f o r o v had  o f the group, f o r i n h i s n o v e l s , perished. learned  The  stronger  The  only  A sudden c o n v e r s i o n  burdened by  The  some r e s o l v e d  system and  bourgeois,  become produc-  were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h stress placed  to a t o t a l l y new  on the i n d i v i d u a l .  philosophy  of l i f e  U t o p i a n s t a t e as o u t l i n e d i n Marxism  Many from the  the  characters  society.  the tremendous p s y c h o l o g i c a l  unattainable.  the weakest  ones, both p r o l e t a r i a t and  authors discussed  impossible.  a c t u a l l y experienced a  the most p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k  to adapt themselves to the  t i v e members of  tally  two  was was  former upper c l a s s e s were a l s o  a d d i t i o n a l pressure  of c l a s s g u i l t .  t h i s dilemma, those who  c o u l d not  Although  became men-  imbalanced. The  r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d be  equated to e l e c t r i c  shock t r e a t -  ments.  Through i t s t r a u m a t i c  d e s t r u c t i o n of normal l i f e  cesses,  many l a t e n t q u a l i t i e s , which o t h e r w i s e would p r o b a b l y  have l a i n dormant f o r e v e r , were brought to the some, t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a v i g o r o u s State;  i n others,  as opportunism and  surface.  d r i v e to r e c o n s t r u c t  i t brought out more u n d e s i r a b l e avarice.  annihilated. v o l u t i o n had  changes b e f o r e  a chaotic  i t acquired  the  T r a g i c a l l y , the v e r y people  Thus, i n s t e a d of a new created  In  traits  wanted to a c t u a l i z e the r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l were the s o c i a l order,  pro-  such who  ones  the  re-  s t a t e which would undergo many  a degree of  acceptibility.  - 79 Kozakov, M a l a s h k i n , G r a b a r , 1  and N i k i f o r o v were g r a p h i c  i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s turmoil.  Because they were c o u r -  ageous enough t o r e v e a l the d e f i c i e n c i e s , a l l f o u r w r i t e r s were extremely p o p u l a r w i t h the p u b l i c  e s p e c i a l l y among the  youth d u r i n g the NEP p e r i o d and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r .  Works by  Grabar' and M a l a s h k i n were even recommended by the P r o f e s s i o n a l Union.  However, t h e i r r e a l i s t i c  p o r t r a y a l of the s o c i a l  mate aroused u n f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n among Communist and put the a u t h o r s ' c a r e e r s and l i v e s i n jeopardy. works were l a b e l l e d T r o t s k y i s t ; kept from the p e o p l e .  cli-  critics Their  t h e r e f o r e , they had to be  The b a s i c h u m a n i s t i c approach they  p l o y e d u p h e l d the p s y c h o l o g y of the i n d i v i d u a l .  em-  T h i s came  i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the p s y c h o l o g y of the masses as propagated by the P a r t y .  Consequently,  absolutely forgotten u n t i l  a l l these a u t h o r s were banned and  q u i t e r e c e n t l y when s m a l l p a r t s o f  t h e i r works s t a r t e d t o reappear.  -  80  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Grabar', Leonid Y. "Lakhudrin pereulok," Zhuravli i kartech'. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o , 1328, pp. 115-271. .  "Na kirpichakh," Lyudi-cheloveki. Priboy, 1927, pp.  Leningrad:  135-167.  Kozakov, Mikhail E. "Meshchanin Adameyko," T r i p o v e s t i . Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo p i s a t e l ' e y v Lenmgrade, 1954, pp. 7-177. Malashkin,  Sergey I. "Luna s pravoy storony," Molodaya gvardiya. (Moscow), No. 9, 1926, pp. 5-54.  Nikiforov, Georgiy K. 1929. .  TJ fonarya.  Zhenshchina. Moscow: p i s a t e l ' e y , 1929.  Moscow:  Zemlya i f a b r i k a ,  Moskovskoe tovarishchestvo  - 81 B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l , Biographical and General References Balukhatiy, S. Teoriya l i t e r a t u r y . Annotirovannaya b i b l i o g r a f i y a . I . Qbshchie voprosy. Leningrad, 1 9 2 9 . Bol'shaya sovetskaya entsiklopedia. Moscow, 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 5 8 . ~~  5 1 vols and index.  B i o - b i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i y slovar* russkikh p i s a t e l ' e y XX veka. Moskva, 1 9 2 8 . ~ Efremin,  A. "Georgiy N i k i f o r o v , " C h i t a t e l ' i p i s a t e l ' . Moskva, 1928.  No. 40.  F l o r i n s k i y , M. T., ed. McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Russia and the Soviet Union. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1961. Fomin, A. G. P u t e v o d i t e l ' po b i b l i o g r a f i i , b i o - b i b l i o g r a f i i , i s t o r i o g r a f i i , khronologii i e n t s i k l o p e d i i l i t e r a t u r y . Leningrad, 1 9 3 4 . Grierson, P. Books on Soviet Russia; 1917-1942; A Biblio• graphy and A Guide to Reading. London, Metheun, T  T  O  Groznova, N. A. Sovetskiy roman, ego t e o r i y a i i s t o r i y a ; b i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i y ukazatel' 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 b 4 . Leningrad,  w :  Gul'binskiy, I. V. L i t e r a t u r a velikogo d e s y a t i l e t i y a 1927)• V o l . I. Moscow-Leningrad, 1 9 2 8 .  (1917-  1  Harkins, W. E. Dictionary of Russian L i t e r a t u r e . Littlefield, 1959.  New York,  Horecky, P. L. Basic Russian Publication's; An Annotated Bibliography on Russia and the Soviet Union. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1962. .  Russia and the Soviet Union; A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Guide to Western-Language P u b l i c a t i o n s . Chicago and London, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1 9 6 5 .  I s t o r i y a russkoy sovetskoy l i t e r a t u r y . j^29. 1  9  1  V o l . I. Moskva,  7  Kaufman, I. M. Russkie b i o g r a f i c h e s k i e i b i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i e slovarn Moscow, 1 9 5 5 .  - 82 Kerner, R. J . S l a v i c Europe: A Selected Bibliography i n the Western European Languages. Comprising History, Languages and L i t e r a t u r e . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press; London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1 9 1 8 . Kolarz, ¥., ed. Books on Communism: A Bibliography. New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964.  2d ed.  Kozmin, B., ed. P i s a t e l i sovremennoy epokhi. B i o - b i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i y s l o v a r russkikh p i s a t e l e y XX veka. Vol. I. Moscow, 1928. 1  K r a s i l ' n i k o v , v . "Georgiy N i k i f o r o v , " Rabochaya gazeta. No. 1 3 . Moscow, 1 9 3 0 . Kratkaya l i t e r a t u r n a y a entsiklopediya.  Moscow, 1 9 6 2 .  "Letopis' sovetskoy l i t e r a t u r y 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 3 2 , " Literaturny k r i t i k . Nos. 7-12 ( 1 9 3 7 ) ,  L i d i n , V l . , ed.  No. 1 (1938).  Literaturnaya Rossiya.  Moscow, 1 9 2 4 .  , ed. P i s a t e l i . Avtobiografiy i p o r t r e t y. 2 d ed., enl. and rev. Moscow, 1928. Literaturnaya entsiklopedia. Moscow, 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 9 . Literaturno-khudozhestvennye al'manakhi gody. Moscow, I960.  i sborniki 1918-1927  Maichel, K. Guide to Russian Reference Books. 2 v o l s . Ed. by J . S. G. Simmons. Stanford, Hoover I n s t i t u t i o n , 1962,  1964.  Malevsky-Malevitch, P. Russia - U.S.S.R. A Complete Handbook. New York, Wm. Farquhar Payson, 1 9 3 3 . Matsuev, N. I. Sovetskaya khudozhestvennaya l i t e r a t u r a i kritikaT 4 v o l s . Moscow, 1926-1940. Mohrenschildt, JJ. S. von. "Books i n E n g l i s h on Russian L i t e r a t u r e , 1917-42," Russian Review, v o l . I I , No. 1 (Autumn, 1942). Muratova, K. D., ed. I s t o r i y a russkoy l i t e r a t u r y kontsa XIX — n a c h a l a XX veka; b i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i y ukazatel'. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963. ' Periodika po l i t e r a t u r e i iskusstvu za gody r e v o l y u t s i i : 1 9 1 7 -1932. Ed. by S. D. Balukhatiy. Leningrad, 1 9 3 3 .  - 83 -  N i k i t i n a , E . Russkaya l i t e r a t u r a ot simvolizma do n a s h i k h dney. L i t e r a t u r n o - s o t s i o l o g i c h e s k i y s e m i n a r i y . Moscow, 1 9 2 6 . : , and S. V. Shuvalov.  Belletristy  sovremenniki.  Moscow, 1931. P o l y a n s k i y , V. I . "0 N i k i f o r o v e , K r i t i k o b i o g r a f i c h e s k i y ocherk," S o b r a n i e s o c h i n e n i y . V o l . I . MoscowIeningrad"J 1928. IT. P. L i t e r a t u r n o - k h u d o z h e s t v e n n y e almanakhi sborniki. 1 9 1 8 - 1 9 2 7 gody! Moscow, I 9 6 0 .  Rogozhin,  Rozanov, I . N. P u t e v o d i t e l ' po sovremennoy r u s s :k o y Mo s c ow,  1929.  i  literature.  Ruggles,  M., and V. Mostecky. R u s s i a n and E a s t - E u r o p e a n Publ i c a t i o n s i n the L i b r a r i e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 .  Russkiye  sovetskiye p i s a t e l i p r o z a i k i .  Leningrad, 1964.  Sovetskoe  literaturovedenie i k r i t i k a ; ukazatel . Moscow, 1 9 6 6 .  bibliograficheskiy  1  T a r s i s , V.  Sovremennye r u s s k i e p i s a t e l i . L e n i n g r a d , 1930.  E d . by I . Oksenov.  T h o r l b y , A., ed. The Penguin Companion o f L i t e r a t u r e . European" B a l t i m o r e , Penguin Books, 1959.  2:  V i c t o r o f - T o p o r o f f , V. R o s s i c a e t S o v i e t i c a : Bibliographie des ouvrages parus en f r a n c a i s de 1917 a 1950 i n c l u s r e l a t i f s a l a R u s s i e e t a l'URSS. S a i n t - C l o u d , E d i t i o n s documentaires e t b i b l i o g r a p h i q u e s , 1930. Vitman, A. M., N. D. Pokrovskaya, and M. E . E t t i n g e r . Vosem* let r u s s k o y khudozhestvennoy l i t e r a t u r y B i b l i o g r a f i c h e s k i y s p r a v o c h n i k . Moscow, 1926.  (1917-1925).  V l a d i s l a v l e v , I. L i t e r a t u r a velikogo d e s y a t i l e t i y a , 19171927. V o l . I . Moscow-Leningrad, 1928.  - 84 Other  References  Alexandrova, V. A History of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e . Trans, hy M. Ginsburg. Garden C i t y , Doubleday, 1963. Auerbach, L. Kulturnaya r e v o l y u t s i y a i voprosy sovremennoy literatury. Moscow, 1928. Balashova, T. Sovetskaya l i t e r a t u r a za rubezhom 1917-60. Moscow, "I9b2. Baring, M.  Landmarks i n Russian L i t e r a t u r e .  ;  -  1gTC  .  The Russian People.  Beredayev, N.  Dusha R o s s i i .  London, Metheun,  London, Metheun, 1911. Moscow, 1 9 1 5 .  Bogdanov, A. "0 khudozhestvennom nasledstve," Iskustvo i rabochiy k l a s s . Moscow, 1 9 1 8 . Bonnard, A. Vers un Humanisme nouyeau; Reflexions sur l a l i t t e r a t u r e sovietique ( 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 4 7 ) . Lausanne, Association Suisse-URSS, 1 9 4 8 . Borland, H. Soviet L i t e r a r y Theory and P r a c t i c e During the P i r s t Pive-Year Plan; 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 2 3 " New York, King'sCrown Press, 1 9 5 0 . Brodskiy, N. L., V. Lvov-Rogachevskiy, and N. P. Sidorov, eds. Literaturnye manifesty. Moscow, 1 9 2 9 . Brown, E. J . The P r o l e t a r i a n Episode i n Russian L i t e r a t u r e : 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 3 2 . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, .  Russian L i t e r a t u r e Since the Revolution. C o l l i e r Books, I 9 b 3 ; 2 d ed., I 9 b 8 .  Carmichael, J . A C u l t u r a l History of Russia. Weidenfell and Nicolson, 1 9 b 8 .  New York,  London,  Carr, E. H. The October Revolution; Before and A f t e r . York, Knopf, 1 9 b 9 ; London, Macmillan, 1 9 ^ 9 . Chamberlin, W. H. 1935.  Russia's Iron Age.  London;  New  Duckworth,  - 85 D a l l i n , D. J . The New Soviet Empire. s i t y Press, 1 9 5 1 .  New Haven, Yale Univer-  Deutscher, i . The Unfinished Revolution. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 7 .  London-New York,  Drachkovitch, M. M.' F i f t y Years of Communism i n Russia. U n i v e r s i t y Park and London, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968. , Duhovskoy, V.  0 proletarskoy l i t e r a t u r e .  Moscow, 1924.  Eastman, M. A r t i s t s i n Uniform; A Study of L i t e r a t u r e and Bureaucratism^ London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1 9 3 4 ; New York, Knopf, 1 9 3 4 . Edgerton, W. "The Serapion Brothers; An E a r l y Soviet Controversy," American S l a v i c and East Europea Review. Vol. VIII. No. 1 . February, 1 9 4 9 . E g o l i n , A. M. The I d e o l o g i c a l Content of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e . Trans" by M. K r i g e r . Washington, D.C, Public A f f a i r s Press, 1948. Eng-Liedmeier, A. Soviet L i t e r a r y Characters; an I n v e s t i g a t i o n into the P o r t r a y a l of Soviet Men i n Russian Prose, 1917-195T. The Hague, Mouton, 1 9 5 9 . " Ermolaev, H. Soviet L i t e r a r y Theories, 1917-1934: The Genesis of S o c i a l i s t Realism^ Berkeley and Los Angeles, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1963. Fadeyev, A.' L i t e r a t u r a i zhizn'. .  Moscow, 1 9 3 9 .  Stolbovaya doroga proletarskoy l i t e r a t u r y .  Leningrad,  1^2U_ Fedin, K.  Gorky sredi nas. Chast' I. Dvadtsatye goay, | 9 4 3 . Chast' I I . Kartiny l i t e r a t u r n o y z h i z n i , 1921-192"8~T" Moscow, 1 9 4 4 .  Fischer, L. Machines and Men i n Russia". New York, Harrison Smith, 1 9 3 2 ; London, Cape, 1 9 3 2 . F l o r e s , A., ed. L i t e r a t u r e and Marxism; A Controversy by Soviet C r i t i c s . - New York, C r i t i c s Group, 1 9 3 8 . F l o r i n s k y , M. T. Russia; A History and an I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2 v o l s . New York, Macmillan, 1 9 5 3 .  -  86  -  Forgues, P. "Ecrivains sovietiques d'aujourd'hui," Les l e t t r e s nouvelles, No. 25. P a r i s , J u i l l a r d , 1962. Preeman, J . , J . Kunitz, and L. Lozowick. Voices of October; Art and L i t e r a t u r e i n Soviet Russia. New York, Vanguard Press, 1 9 3 0 . Fulop-Muller, R. , and J . G-regor. Mind and pace of Bolshevism: An Examination of C u l t u r a l L i f e i n Soviet Russia. Trans, by s . F l i n t and D. P. T a i t . London, Putnam, 1927. Gasiorowska, X. Women i n Soviet F i c t i o n , 1917-1964. U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1968. Gayev, A.  Madison,  Tsenzura sovetskoy pechati. Munich, I n s t i t u t e f o r the Study of the U.S.S.R., 1 9 5 5 .  G i f f o r d , H. The Novel i n Russia; From Pushkin to Pasternak. London, Hutchinson, 1964. Glinka, G.  Na Perevale. 195T:  New York, Chekhov P u b l i s h i n g House,  Gorbachov, G. Ocherki sovremennoy russkoy l i t e r a t u r y . enl. ed. Leningrad, 1925. .  Sovremennaya russkaya l i t e r a t u r a . enl~. Leningrad, 1929.  Goriely, B. Science des l e t t r e s sovietiques. des portes de Prance, 1 9 4 7 .  2d  2d ed., rev. and Paris, Editions  Gorky, M.  L i t e r a t u r e and L i f e ; A S e l e c t i o n from the Writings of Maxim Gorki" Trans, by E d i t h Bone. London and New York, Hutchinson International Authors, 1946.  Hare, R.  Russian L i t e r a t u r e from Pushkin to the Present London, Metheun, 1 9 4 7 .  Day.,  Hayward, M., and L. Labedz, eds. L i t e r a t u r e and Revolution i n Soviet Russia, 1917-1962; A Symposium. New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963• Hutton, J . B. The Great I l l u s i o n . Watson, 1970. Kruchenykh, A.  London, David, Bruce  Novoe v pisatel'skoy tekhnike.  and  Moscow, 1927.  - 87 Lavrin, J . An Introduction to the Russian Novel. Metheun, 1942..  London,  L e l e v i c h , G. Tvorcheskie p u t i proletarskoy Leningrad, 1 9 2 b .  literatury.  Lezhnev, A.  Moscow-Leningrad,  Voprosy l i t e r a t u r y i k r i t i k i .  1924-^b?.  ^  , and D. Gorbov. L i t e r a t u r a revolyutsionnogo l e t i y a . Kharkov, 1 9 2 9 . Maguire, R. A.  desyati-  Red V i r g i n S o i l : Soviet L i t e r a t u r e i n the Princeton, Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1920 sT 1  1968.  Mandelstam, N. Hope Against Hope: A Memoir. Intro, hy C. Brown. New York, Athenaeum Publishers, 1 9 7 0 . Mar,  I.  "Zhenshchina G. N i k i f o r o v a , " Krasnaya Nov'. April, 1930.  Moscow,  Marcuse, H. A. Soviet Marxism; A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 7 .  New  Masaryk, T. G. The S p i r i t of Russia. 2 v o l s . Trans, by E. and C. Paul. London, A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 1 9 ; New York, Macmillan, 1919. Maynard, S i r J . Russia i n Flux Before October. Gollancz, 1 9 4 1 .  London,  Mehnert, K. Soviet Man and His World. Trans, by Maurice Rosenbaum. New York, Praeger, 1962. Meyendorff, Baron A. The Background of the Russian Revolution. New York, Henry Holt, 1 9 2 9 . Mihajlov, M. New  Russian Themes. Trans, by Marija Mihajlov. York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.  Miliukov, P. N. Outlines of Russian Culture. 3 v o l s . Trans, by V. Ughet and E. Davis, ed. by M. Karpovich. P h i l a d e l p h i a , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, •1943.  Ocherk i s t o r i i russkoy sovetskoy l i t e r a t u r y .  T9T5":  Vol. I I .  Moscow,  - 88 Oulanoff, H. The Serapion Brothers; The Hague, Mouton, 1956. Pankratova,  A. M., ed.  1946-48.  Theory and P r a c t i c e .  i s t o r i y a SSSR.  Pares, S i r B. A History of Russia. 1946; London, Gape, 1 9 4 6 .  3 vols.  Moscow,  4 t h ed. New York, Knopf,  Perus, J . Introduction a l a l i t t e r a t u r e sovietique. Edition Sociales, 1 9 4 9 . Peter, L. J . , and R. H u l l . ¥. Morrow, 1 9 6 9 . Polonskiy, V. P.  The Peter P r i n c i p l e .  Paris,  New York,  Ocherki sovremennoy l i t e r a t u r e .  Moscow,  1930.  Pozner, V. Panorama de l a l i t t e r a t u r e russe contemporaine. P a r i s , Kra, 1 9 2 9 . Proletariat i literatura.  Shornik statey.  Leningrad, 1 9 2 5 .  Raeff, M. , ed. Russian I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y . Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966. Reavey, G.  Soviet L i t e r a t u r e Today.  New York,  London, Lindsay Drum-  mond, 1 9 4 6 ; New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 4 7 . Reisner, L.  Front.  Moscow, 1 9 2 4 .  Ruhle, J . L i t e r a t u r e and Revolution; A C r i t i c a l Study of the Writer and Communism i n the Twentieth Century. Trans, and ed. hy J . Steinberg. New York, Praeger, 1969.  Russkiy L i t e r a t u r n y Arkhiv. Ed. by D. Cizevsky and M. Karpovich. New York, published under the auspices of the Department of Slavic Languages and L i t e r a t u r e s of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and the Harvard College L i b r a r y , 1956.  Sakulin, P. N. Iz i s t o r i i russkogo Mo s c ow, 1 9 1 3 . .  idealizma.  V o l . I.  Russkaya l i t e r a t u r a . S o t s i o l o g o - s i n t e t i c h e s k i y obzor l i t e r a t u r n y k h s t i l e y . Moscow, 1929.  Schlesinger, R.  S p i r i t of Post-War Russia; Soviet Ideology, New York, Universal D i s t r i b u t o r s , 1 9 4 7 .  1917-194FT  - 89 Selivanovskiy, A. P. Serge, V.  V l i t e r a t u r n y k h boyakh.  Moscow, 1 9 5 9 .  Prom Lenin to S t a l i n . Trans, by R. Manbeim. York, Pioneer Publications,. 1 9 3 7 .  New  Scott, H. G., ed. Problems of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e ; Reports and Speeches at the F i r s t Writers' Congress. London, Lawrence, 1955. Simmons, E. J . Introduction to Russian Realsim; Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Sholokhov. Bloomington, Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. , ed. Through the Glass of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e . York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953. S i n i a v s k i i , A. D. For Freedom of Imagination. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 7 1 . Slonim, M.  New  New  York,  Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e ; Writers and Problems. New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964; new ed., 1967.  Struve, G.  Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e .  London, Routledge,  1955: .  25 Years of Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e . Routledge, 1944.  Tarasenkov,  A.  1949.  Idei i obrazy sovetskoy l i t e r a t u r y .  London, Moscow,  Tolstoy, A. N. Chetvert' veka sovetskoy l i t e r a t u r y . Loklad na yubileynoy s e s s i i Akademii Nauk SSSR 18 noyabrya 1942 goda! Moscow, 1943. Tompkins, S. R. The Russian I n t e l l i g e n t s i a . s i t y of Oklahoma Press, 1957.  Norman,•Univer-  Trotsky, L. L i t e r a t u r e and Revolution. Trans, by R. Strunsky. New York, International Publishers, 1925; London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1925; new ed., Ann Arbor, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1960. Vernadsky, G. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1931. Holt, 1932. Voronsky, A.  Literaturnye portrety.  2 vols.  New  York,  Moscow, 1928-29.  - 90 Walpole, H., ed. Tendencies of the Modern Soviet Novel. London, A l l e n & Tjnwin, 1934. Yakubovskiy, G.  P i s a t e l i Kuznitsy.  Z a v a l i s h i n , V. E a r l y Soviet Writers. 1958.  Moscow, 1929. New York, Praeger,  Information about a l l books published i n the Soviet Union may be obtained from the monthly Knizhnaya Letopis, issued by the State Publishing House, Moscow.  

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