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David Lindsay's A voyage to Arcturus ; allegorical dream fantasy as a literary mode Schofield, Jack 1972

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DAVID LINDSAY'S A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS ALLEGORICAL DREAM FANTASY AS A LITERARY MODE by JACK S CHOFIELD B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19 72 tn presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A b s t r a c t David L i n d s a y ' s A Voyage to A r c t u r u s must be read as an a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy f o r i t s m e r i t to be c o r r e c t l y d i s c e r n e d . L i n d s a y ' s c e n t r a l themes are i n t r o d u c e d i n a study o f the man and h i s work. (Ch. 1 ) . These themes are found to be common i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , the phenomen-o l o g i c a l background o f which i s e s t a b l i s h e d (Ch. 2 ) . A d i s t i n c t i o n can then be drawn between fantasy and romance, so as to de f ine a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy as a l i t e r a r y mode (Ch. 3 ) . A f t e r the b i o g r a p h i c a l , t h e o r e t i c a l and l i t e r a r y backgrounds of A Voyage have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t three chapter s , the second three chapters e x p l i c a t e the s t r u c t u r e of the book as an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . F i n a l l y , the dichotomies which have been found i n L indsay (between L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r and v i s i o n a r y dreamer), between the dream and the r e a l w o r l d , between fantasy and romance, are found to be u n i f i e d by Norman N . H o l l a n d ' s theory of l i t e r a t u r e as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . CONTENTS Pre face Chapter 1. David L i n d s a y : The Man and H i s Work Chapter 2. Dream and A l l e g o r y : The Phenomenological Background of a L i t e r a r y Mode 30 Chapter 3. Fantasy and Romance: The L i t e r a r y Background of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s 62 Chapter 4. The Unholy War: A Voyage to A r c t u r u s as B a t t l e 97 Chapter 5 . The S t r a i g h t Way: A Voyage to A r c t u r u s as Progress 12 7 Chapter 6. The Winding Way: M a s k u l l ' s S p i r a l Inwards 160 Chapter 7. A l l e g o r i c a l Dream Fantasy : The Problem of S t y l e 192 Appendix B i b l i o g r a p h y Preface This t h e s i s i s a study of a book—A Voyage to A r c t u r u s — w h i c h has , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , been n e g l e c t e d , and which i s now, I would argue, misread . I t i s misread mainly because the genre to which i t be longs— a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy—has not been p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . My aim i s to e x p l i c a t e the book by s e t t i n g i t i n i t s t rue c o n t e x t . David L indsay (1878-1945) i s a d i f f i c u l t man to a s sess , p a r t l y because he was 'out of key w i t h h i s t i m e . ' 1920, j u s t a f t e r World War was the wrong year to p u b l i s h A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . M o r a l earnestness of L i n d s a y ' s e s s e n t i a l l y V i c t o r i a n s o r t d i d not have the sympathy of the p u b l i c , and i t must not s u r p r i s e us tha t the book f e l l ' s t i l l - b o r n from the p r e s s . ' Had the book come out i n 1895, s h o r t l y a f t e r She and i n the same year as Wells's The Time Machine, MacDonald's L i l i t h and M o r r i s ' s The Wood Beyond the W o r l d , i t might have been r e c e i v e d more s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y . But i n 1895, L indsay was only seventeen. I t should have been easy to see , i n 1920, t h a t A Voyage was 25 years behind the t imes . I t would have been d i f f i c u l t to guess that i t was a l s o 50 years ahead of them. Nonetheles s , when A Voyage was f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n paperback, 23 years a f t e r L i n d s a y ' s death , i t came to enjoy ' a vogue . ' This vogue i s , however, l e s s a r e s u l t of the book's p e c u l i a r q u a l i t i e s than i t s s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance to the work of enormously popular w r i t e r s , ' c u l t ' f i g u r e s , l i k e J . R. R. T o l k i e n and Herman Hesse. v i Contemporary readings of the book, i n one way or another , wrench A Voyage from i t s t rue c o n t e x t , and misread i t s genre. However, A Voyage i s n e i t h e r s u i gener i s nor o u t l a n d i s h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c , but occupies a p r e c i s e l y d e f i n a b l e p l ace i n the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f anta sy . Seen thus i t i s a w e l l - d e s i g n e d , coherent and a r t i c u l a t e work. Though A Voyage i s not o b v i o u s l y a w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d book, and o b v i o u s l y not a w e l l w r i t t e n one in the accepted l i t e r a r y sense (nor , f o r that mat ter , are most Goth ic N o v e l s ) , once i t s s t r u c t u r e and m o t i f s have been uncovered, i t w i l l be found t h a t A Voyage has many aspects that make i t worthy of s tudy . I b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f account of L i n d s a y ' s l i f e and works , p a r t l y to d i s p e l the 'mythology ' w h i c h , i n the absense of f a c t s and w i t h m i s -l e a d i n g h e l p , has grown up around L i n d s a y , and p a r t l y to i n t r o d u c e some of h i s themes. L i n d s a y ' s c e n t r a l theme i s the o p p o s i t i o n between the r e a l and dream wor ld s w h i c h , w h i l e i t i s the b a s i s of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , i s more o b v i o u s l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n ' t h i s w o r l d l y ' nove l s such as The Haunted  Woman and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Sphinx . In Chapter Two I examine the phenomenol-o g i c a l b a s i s (phenomenology i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l ph i lo sophy of sy s temat ized de lu s ion ) of L i n d s a y ' s dua l i sms . I . e . , I show why the p s y c h i c f a c t s of s leep and dreams l ead to a dichotomous w o r l d - v i e w , a n d how a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy i s an a p p r o p r i a t e l i t e r a r y expre s s ion of t h i s v i ew. In my t h i r d chapter I draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between fantasy and romance so as to de f ine a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy p r e c i s e l y as a l i t e r a r y mode, and to s e t A Voyage i n i t s appropr i a t e l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t . I show how v i i L indsay found h i s immediate i n s p i r a t i o n i n George MacDonald, N o v a l i s , and I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e . Having e s t a b l i s h e d the b i o g r a p h i c a l , the t h e o r e t i c a l , and the l i t e r a r y backgrounds, I move i n Chapters Four and F i v e to an examinat ion of the two dimensions of the a l l e g o r y . F i r s t , I e x p l i c a t e A Voyage as an a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e between powers of l i g h t and darkness , matter and s p i r i t , r e a l i t y and dream, and so on. (This can be thought o f as a v e r t i c a l a x i s . ) Second, I e x p l i c a t e A Voyage as a l i n e a r , a l l e g o r i c a l p rogre s s , organi sed around thematic images which are e s t a b l i s h e d i n the opening s e c t i o n of the book (on earth) and r e c c u r r i n the t r i p across Tormance. (The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . ) The f i r s t f i v e chapters take us p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l o s e r to the t e x t . In Chapter S i x I t r ace the o u t l i n e of M a s k u l l ' s a c t u a l progress across Tormance, which i s found to be a s p i r a l inwards , through the body o f Crysta lman i n t o the i n n e r w o r l d of the s p i r i t , Muspe l . In the c o n c l u d i n g chapter I t a c k l e the problem of s t y l e : why a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i n p a r t i c u l a r , succeed i n g r i p p i n g the reader i n s p i t e of b e i n g apparent ly badly w r i t t e n . In t h i s chap te r , the s p l i t i n L indsay ( e x - L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r and v i s i o n a r y ) , i n the Manichaean phi lo sophy ( r e a l w o r l d and dream w o r l d ) , i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy i t s e l f (between c e r e b r a l a l l e g o r y and subconscious fantasy) and the message of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s (the search f o r ' i n n e r l i g h t ' ) , are found to be u n i f i e d i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms by Norman N . H o l l a n d ' s view of l i t e r a t u r e as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . v i i i A great many people have he lped w i t h t h i s t h e s i s , though I can mention only a few. I t would not have been p o s s i b l e a t a l l w i t h o u t the e x t e n s i v e s e r v i c e s of Mr . N i c k Omelusik, of A c q u i s i t i o n s , and Ms. Margaret F r i e s e n , of I n t e r - L i b r a r y Loan, and t h e i r s t a f f s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . I thank them, and I thank my t y p i s t s , Mrs . Susan W e l l s and Miss Jeanne C u r r i e . L a s t l y , I have been p r i v i l e g e d to work c l o s e l y w i t h my t h e s i s committee of Pro fe s sor s I r a N a d e l , E l l i o t t B. Gose and P a t r i c i a M e r i v a l e . As a c r i t i c and a man, E l l i o t t Gose has pro foundly i n f l u e n c e d my own a t t i t u d e to l i t e r a t u r e f a r more than my i n c i d e n t a l footnotes to him i n d i c a t e . But my main debt i s to my s u p e r v i s o r , Pat M e r i v a l e , w i t h o u t whose i n c i s i v e (and w i t t y ' . ) comments and always generous c h i d i n g t h i s t h e s i s would have been much e a s i e r to w r i t e , and a great d e a l l e s s worth w h i l e . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Jack S c h o f i e l d September, 1972 i x A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E d i t i o n s Used Page re ferences to a l l of L i n d s a y ' s works and to the one book- leng th c r i t i c a l s tudy of L indsay are g iven i n the t e x t a f t e r the appropr i a t e a b b r e v i a t i o n , as l i s t e d : VA : A Voyage to A r c t u r u s (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1968) THW : The Haunted Woman (London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , 1968) Sph : Sphinx (London: John Long, 1923) AMM : Adventures of Monsieur de M a i l l y (London: Andrew M e l r o s e , 1926) DT r : D e v i l ' s Tor (London: Putnam's , 1932) L : ' L e t t e r s to E . H . V i s i a k , ' Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review, ~ No. 346-348 (1971), pp. 39-67. TSG : The Strange Genius of David Lindsay by C o l i n W i l s o n , J . B. P i c k & E . H. V i s i a k (London: John Baker , 1970). Any quota t ions from L i n d s a y ' s unpubl i shed TSS 'The V i o l e t A p p l e , ' ' W i t c h ' and ' Sketch Notes towards a New System of P h i l o s o p h y ' have , unless o t h e r -wi se s t a t e d , been taken from The Strange Genius . Page re ferences c i t e d are t h e r e f o r e to that book and not to the works themselves . Note : spaced e l l i p s e s are mine, unspaced e l l i p s e s are the a u t h o r s ' . X The d a y - s e l f i s p o l t r o o n or h e r o : The n i g h t - s e l f i s p i c a r o , p i e r r o t . The d a y - s e l f can choose to t e l l l i e s . The n i g h t - s e l f speaks t r u t h , or he d i e s . The v o i c e comes out of an emptiness . N i g h t - s e l f and d a y - s e l f f i n d here no h a b i t a b l e p l a n e t . John Wain, W i l d t r a c k What i s d i v i n e i n man i s e l u s i v e and i m p a l p a b l e , and he i s e a s i l y tempted to embody i t i n a c o l l e c t i v e form—a church , a c o u n t r y , a s o c i a l system, a l eader —so tha t he may r e a l i s e i t w i t h l e s s e f f o r t and serve i t w i t h more p r o f i t . Yet . . . the attempt to e x t e r n a l i s e the kingdom of heaven i n a temporal shape must end i n d i s a s t e r . I t cannot be c rea ted by char te r s or c o n s t i t u t i o n s , nor e s t a b l i s h e d by arms. Those who set out f o r i t alone w i l l reach i t t o g e t h e r , and those who seek i t i n company w i l l p e r i s h by themselves . Hugh K i n g s m i l l , The Poisoned Crown Chapter One: DAVID LINDSAY AND HIS WORKS1 For the p u b l i s h e r of D e v i l ' s Tor , David L indsay p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f summary of h i s l i f e : I was educated at B lackheath and i n S c o t l a n d . Up to the war I was i n bus ines s i n the C i t y o f London. I was i n the Army f o r upwards of two y e a r s , but saw no f o r e i g n s e r v i c e . On d e m o b i l i s a t i o n I took up l i t e r a t u r e , hav ing many years p r e v i o u s l y determined to do so sooner or l a t e r . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s ap-peared i n 1920; The Haunted Woman i n 1922; Sphinx i n 1923; Adventures of M. de M a i l l y i n 1926. I was marr i ed i n 1916, and am at present l i v i n g h a p p i l y w i t h my w i f e and two daughters , aged 12 and 9 . From 1919 to 1928 we l i v e d i n C o r n w a l l ; then moved to F e r r i n g i n Sussex. I have done the u sua l amount of f o r e i g n t r a v -e l l i n g , d i s l i k e s p o r t s , and take most of my present e x e r c i s e i n tramping the South Downs. My o l d e r b r o t h e r , the l a t e 'A lexander C r a w f o r d ' , a l so wrote some nove l s (The A l i a s e t c . ) which by now are a l -most f o r g o t t e n . I t r a c e my s tock to the main stem of the L i n d s a y s , whose h i s t o r y i s i n any book of S c o t t i s h f a m i l i e s . I v a r , j a r l of the Norse Uplanders , i s s a i d to have been the o r i g i n a l ances tor (TSG 6 ) . This bare s t of records suppresses the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t " i n the C i t y " he was a L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , t h a t h i s army s e r v i c e was as a c l e r k i n the Grenadiers and, most n o t a b l y , that he was born on March 3, 1878 making him i n 1932 " r a t h e r o l d e r than i s p r o p e r " f o r a young w r i t e r to be (TSG 7 ) . However, the bare r e c o r d disabuses us of any i d e a t h a t , . a s Loren E i s e l e y s t a te s f l a t l y i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the B a l l a n t i n e e d i t i o n of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , " D a v i d L indsay d ied young" (VA v i i ) , or that h i s masterpiece was the unpremeditated out -pour ing of a f r u s t r a t e d young man. 2 Lindsay seems to have spent most of h i s e a r l y l i f e ' i n t r a i n i n g f o r a n o v e l i s t ' a f t e r h i s grandmother prevented him from t a k i n g up the s c h o l a r s h i p he had won to u n i v e r s i t y . He educated h i m s e l f by read ing w i d e l y i n l i t e r a t u r e s a n d p h i l o s o p h y , l e a r n i n g German and r e a d i n g Schopenhauer and N i e t z s c h e i n the o r i g i n a l , and r e c o r d i n g h i s comments i n notebooks f o r fu ture use. These comments he c a l l e d apercues ( s i c ) . For the name and the concept Lindsay i s indeb ted , as f o r much e l s e , to the great German p e s s i m i s t Arthur- Schopenhauer. L indsay descr ibe s the apercu as a thought which " s p r i n g s from the a i r " (TSG 13) , r e c a l l i n g 4 —— Schopenhauer's use of the word f o r "an immediate i n t u i t i o n , , a n d as 2 such the work of an i n s t a n t , an appercu, a f l a s h of i n s i g h t . " A s — — Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s based on a decade's accumulat ion of these i n -s i g h t s . Dur ing the war, L i n d s a y , then t h i r t y - e i g h t , marr i ed a g i r l of twenty aga i n s t the wishes of both t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A f t e r the war he d i d not r e t u r n to L l o y d ' s , but went w i t h h i s w i f e to Nor th C o r n w a l l , where he was to b e g i n h i s career as a n o v e l i s t . In h i s notebook he records that when one steps out of the l a n d of dreams and l o n g i n g s , by reason of b e i n g s e i z e d by the i d e a of a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e p l a n f o r the f u t u r e , i t i s j u s t as i f one's l i f e had^got i n t o focus ; the vague and b l u r r e d i s a l l changed i n t o the d e f i n e d and b e a u t i f u l (TSG 10) . Of course , from the c o n v e n t i o n a l p o i n t of v i e w , he had stepped from w o r l d l y , m a t e r i a l i s t i c L l o y d ' s i n t o a dream w o r l d , i n l i v i n g un-r e a l i s t i c a l l y on a lump sum from h i s f i r m and a legacy which he i n -3 v e s t e d , i n a l a r g e house w i t h servants and a c a r r i a g e . Had he been s e n s i b l e , however, he would never have w r i t t e n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , and would now be f o r g o t t e n . J a c q u e l i n e and C o r n w a l l i n s p i r e d and encouraged Lindsay t o produce s i x n o v e l s , three of them minor masterpieces i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e genres , between A p r i l 1919 and J u l y 1924. A l s o d u r i n g t h i s t ime L i n d s a y ' s w i f e bore him two daughters , Diana and H e l e n , who were l a t e r nicknamed by E . H . V i s i a k , one be ing dark l i k e the mother and the o ther f a i r l i k e the f a t h e r , ' N i g h t ' and 'Day' (TSG 97-98) . I t was, f o r the L i n d s a y s , a happy and p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s was completed i n March 1920 and immediately accepted by Methuen, who i n s i s t e d , however, that the book be reduced i n l e n g t h by some 15,000 words. The book was p u b l i s h e d l a t e r i n 1920, but i t s o l d b a d l y and many copies were remaindered. By then Lindsay was w e l l . o n w i t h The Haunted Woman, which he completed i n A p r i l 1921. Methuen re fused i t at f i r s t , but i t was (as A Voyage to A r c t u r u s had p r e v i o u s l y been) accepted f o r s e r i a l i s a t i o n by The D a i l y News sub jec t to a r e d u c t i o n o f 20,000 words. A g a i n , L indsay cut them. Methuen r e c o n s i d e r e d , and f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d the book i n February 1922. But L indsay was now ' a w r i t e r ' , w i t h a house to keep up, a w i f e and f a m i l y to suppor t . He was b e g i n n i n g to concern h i m s e l f more w i t h w r i t i n g what p u b l i s h e r s might accept and the p u b l i c might buy . A f t e r two commercial f a i l u r e s a p u b l i s h e r f o r h i s next book, Sphinx,, w r i t t e n between August 1921 and March 1922, was hard to f i n d . L indsay spent 4 two months r e v i s i n g the book and reduc ing i t s l e n g t h , a f t e r which Ronald Massey, a : l i t e r a r y agent , succeeded i n p l a c i n g i t , i n A p r i l 1923, w i t h John Long. Presumably s h a r i n g the sentiments of Lore Jenson, the composer-h e r o i n e of Sphinx , Of course i t ' s p o t - b o i l i n g ' . But i f I don ' t b o i l my p o t , are you going to b o i l i t f o r me? I suppose you t h i n k i t ' s bad a r t to have a p o t ! An a r t i s t ought to be above such t r i f l e s as food (Sph 72) , L indsay s t r u g g l e d w i t h the i n t r a c t a b l e m a t e r i a l of "The A n c i e n t Tragedy' w h i l e s imul t aneous ly w o r k i n g on a . comple te ly u n v i s i o n a r y romance of one 3 musketeer, Adventures of Monsieur de M a i l l v . Thi s i s unashamedly a p o t - b o i l e r , but a t l e a s t L indsay seems to have found the w r i t i n g o f i t f a i r l y easy. I t was completed between October 1922 and May 1923, and accepted by the seventh p u b l i s h e r t o whom i t was s e n t , Andrew M e l r o s e , who brought i t out i n England i n 1926, and one year l a t e r , as A Blade f o r S a l e , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . L indsay had by then w r i t t e n (February t o J u l y 1924) and r e v i s e d 'The V i o l e t A p p l e , ' which was not to f i n d a p u b l i s h e r at a l l . Thus ended a p e r i o d of enormous c r e a t i v i t y , w i t h a remarkable l a c k of s u c c e s s . . L indsay might have been f o r g i v e n f o r g i v i n g i n . He d i d n o t . H i s next p u b l i c a t i o n , however, of the 'monster ' (L 59) D e v i l ' s T o r , was t o be h i s l a s t . In 1928 the Lindsays moved from C o r n w a l l to F e r r i n g , i n Sussex, where David rewrote 'The A n c i e n t Tragedy' as D e v i l ' s Tor and t r i e d , u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , to w r i t e another e n t i t l e d ' W i t c h . ' Though Putnam's , who p u b l i s h e d D e v i l ' s Tor i n 1932, seem to have made a r e a l e f f o r t t o 4 s e l l i t , and though the book r e c e i v e d some f a v o r a b l e rev iews , s a l e s 5 were poor enough to discourage anyone from r e p u b l i s h i n g A Voyage o r r i s k i n g another book by an e v i d e n t l y doomed w r i t e r . The r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s was slow to dawn on a L indsay s t i l l i n t e n s e l y committed to h i s dream. He wrote to Putnam's : For my next p l a n s , I can only say t h a t I am at present b e g i n n i n g to see where they shou ld l i e . Between the p h i l o s o p h i e s o f A r c t u r u s and D e v i l ' s Tor there seems to be a chasm of c o n t r a d i c t i o n . As both books were s i n c e r e l y and independent ly w r i t t e n , and were long matured, no doubt the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s more apparent than r e a l ; and i t seems to me that a l a r g e r s y n t h e s i s can be found, to i n c l u d e both p h i l o s o p h i e s . But i n tha t case, a new and h i g h e r t r u t h should emerge; and t h i s i s what I am a f t e r (TSG 30) . Though he worked on a new book, ' W i t c h ' . — P i c k c a l l s i t a " s t r a n g e , p o w e r f u l , c r e a k i n g , b e a u t i f u l , a r c h a i c , u n w o r l d l y , u n e a r t h l y book" (TSG 3 0 ) — u n t i l about 1939, the p u b l i c was never b l e s s e d by i t s ap-pearance. T y p i c a l l y , though he had much e a r l i e r r e a l i s e d t h a t A r c t u r u s "was w r i t t e n i n r a t h e r an unpopular s t y l e " (L 40) , i t was the p h i l o -sophy which mot iva ted h i m to w r i t e , i n s p i t e of the s t y l e which p r e -vented the books from s e l l i n g . We must remember tha t L indsay had spent many of the f i r s t f o r t y years o f h i s l i f e dreaming of and p r e p a r i n g f o r the time when he would ' t a k e up l i t e r a t u r e ' . He had f i n a l l y done so l e s s because he thought he c o u l d w r i t e — h e seems t o have attempted no c r e a t i v e work be fore A r c t u r u s — t h a n because he f e l t he had something to say , had a v i s i o n t o communicate. That v i s i o n was one which c o n t i n u a l l y opposed a sub-6 l ime and important ' o t h e r ' w o r l d to the v u l g a r and t r i v i a l ' r e a l ' w o r l d i n which he had been a bus ines s success . But the v i s i o n , em-bodied so f o r c e f u l l y i n the t o t a l l y unambiguous^ A r c t u r u s , had appar-e n t l y not been understood, and the commercial f a i l u r e of h i s nove l s must i n i t s e l f have been extremely d i s c o u r a g i n g . A f t e r A r c t u r u s , t h e r e f o r e , i n order to communicate, i n order to make p a l a t a b l e h i s message, L indsay began to compromise, moving f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r , book by book, from h i s o r i g i n a l , i f unrepea tab le , v i s i o n . A f t e r Arc turus human a c t i o n begins to count f o r l e s s , w h i l e Fate or Cosmic Des t iny p l ays a b i g g e r p a r t . The heroes become g r a d u a l l y more emasculated and l e s s independent—of t h e i r author as w e l l as of t h e i r surroundings—and the hero ines become f r i g i d l y wooden. M a s k u l l had fought h i s bloody way across Tormance to defeat i n t t h e arms of the q u i v e r i n g mass of power fu l f e m i n i n i t y t h a t was Su l lenbode . Judge and I s b e l i n The Haunted Woman, however, f a te h a v i n g thrown them t o g e t h e r , are both defeated by the t r i v i a l mechanics of a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n : though they are ' sou l -mate s ' i n the s p i r i t w o r l d , i n ' r e a l ' l i f e she i s a l r eady engaged to someone e l s e . F u r t h e r , i n s t e a d of a whole new p l a n e t and enough s trange l i f e forms to s tock a u n i v e r s e , the dream w o r l d they can i n h a b i t i s l i m i t e d to a s m a l l s e c t i o n of garden, seen from an enchanted tower , and c rea ted not by the gods but by a man w i t h a k i n d of bass v i o l . T h i s garden they can i n h a b i t only b r i e f l y be fore i t crumbles around them ([.'she h e r s e l f was no more than h i s dream!" [THW 167]). In Sphinx, w h i c h , l i k e The Haunted Woman, never gets o f f the 7 ground, the i n v e n t o r , N i c h o l a s , and the composer, L o r e , do not even recogni se each other as s o u l mates on e a r t h ; they are only u n i t e d , at the end of the book, i n a dream a f t e r both t h e i r deaths . The dreamer i n t h i s case , S t u r t (but c f . S u r t u r i n A Voyage and Sur t i n The E l d e r  Edda) , L o r e ' s f a t h e r , i s n e i t h e r god nor ant ique phantom, and h i s dream i s merely a way of s ee ing i n t o the h i g h e r w o r l d , n e i t h e r a p a r t nor a c r e a t o r o f i t . I f the f a t e d charac ter s i n D e v i l ' s T o r , I n g r i d and S a l t f l e e t , seem more i m p r e s s i v e , i t i s mainly because they a r e , a f t e r a l l , mere puppets , e x i s t i n g on ly to be brought t o g e t h e r , no matter what, by the machinat ions o f an a l l - p o w e r f u l Cosmic D e s t i n y . The p o i n t i s not that L i n d s a y ' s l a t e r works* are n e c e s s a r i l y i n -f e r i o r as l i t e r a t u r e to A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , but that they are narrower and of a l e s s impres s ive s c a l e as v i s i o n , and i t i s as a v i s i o n a r y , r a t h e r than as a w r i t e r , t h a t L indsay i s i m p o r t a n t . At l e a s t 150 pages (pages 233-388, between the d i s c o v e r y of D r a p i e r ' s body and I n g r i d 1 s " d r e a m l i k e entrance" ) c o u l d be e x c i s e d , i f r e p l a c e d by a conc i se p l o t summary, from the stodgy i n t e r i o r of D e v i l ' s T o r . But apart from the ' m o n s t e r ' , L i n d s a y ' s other p u b l i s h e d works have a charm of t h e i r own. The Haunted Woman, L i n d s a y ' s second book, has been p r e f e r r e d to A r c t u r u s by V i s i a k , and, l i k e the t h i r d n o v e l , Sphinx , i t i s at l e a s t economica l ly t o l d . They are both about dream w o r l d s , l i k e A Voyage, but i n these the dream i s a s m a l l but v i t a l p a r t of the ' r e a l ' w o r l d , i . e . the o r d i n a r y , everyday w o r l d purveyed by such n o v e l -i s t s as C. P . Snow. On the Snavian l e v e l ( to borrow a term from 8 Dr. M e r i v a l e ) i n The Haunted Woman and Sphinx we have the suburban, upper middle c l a s s E n g l i s h w o r l d of v i l l a s and country houses , wooded w a l k s , p a r t i e s , people ' a l i g h t i n g ' from t a x i - c a b s and t r a i n s . T h i s w o r l d , h i s a s p i r i n g L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r ' s w o r l d , L indsay t r i e s to i n -fuse w i t h a sense of the h i g h e r r e a l i t y of an unseen cosmic w o r l d of transcendent importance . In The Haunted Woman, the most important ' c h a r a c t e r ' i s R u n h i l l C o u r t , a manor house w i t h a haunted upper s t o r y ( improbably supposed to date from Saxon t i m e s ) . But t h i s i s not a ghost s t o r y , and U l f ' s Tower i s not haunted but enchanted. The s t a i r s l e a d i n g up to i t can only be d i s covered by the s p i r i t u a l l y s e n s i t i v e who, when they cl imb them, f i n d themselves i n a new w o r l d , where t h e i r r e a l , r a t h e r than t h e i r everyday s o c i a l , c h a r a c t e r comes to the f o r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , on descending the s t a i r s the i n s i g h t i s l o s t , and the exper ience f o r g o t t e n . I s b e l , the t r a g i c h e r o i n e of the s t o r y , i s engaged to M a r s h a l l , and the p l o t turns on her meeting w i t h the ag ing widower, Judge, i n U l f ' s Tower. There they are "enabled t e m p o r a r i l y to drop the mask of c o n v e n t i o n " (THW 84) , to see each other as they r e a l l y a r e , and they f a l l i n l o v e ; t h e i r s p i r i t u a l natures are i n e s s e n t i a l harmony. But descending again to the everyday w o r l d , to the body s o c i a l , they f o r g e t the " s p i r i t u a l lesson"((THW 84) they have l e a r n e d . From the window of one of the tower ' s rooms, Judge and I s b e l l ook out onto an anc ient landscape, from which the f a m i l i a r , modern l a n d -marks of " f i e l d s , hedgerows, roads , l a n e s , h o u s e s , had vanished 9 e n t i r e l y " (THW 130) . A mot ionles s f i g u r e who " l o o k s l i k e an a n c i e n t Saxon come to l i f e " (THW 131) s i t s w i t h " h i s back to the house" (THW 131) p l a y i n g what sounds l i k e "a bass v i o l " (THW 127) : " I s b e l c o u l d almost fancy i t to be the v o i c e of the landscape. I t was h a u n t i n g l y b e a u t i f u l , and f u l l of queer s u r p r i s e s " (THW 132) . I s b e l , by now on f a m i l i a r , f i r s t -name terms w i t h Judge i n the enchanted rooms, a sks , "Henry , c a n ' t you understand tha t a l l t h i s has a meaning? Don' t you see that i t ' s c a r r y i n g us h i g h e r and h i g h e r ? " (THW 138). But l e a v i n g the rooms she forget s the meaning, she re turns to everyday r e a l i t y : " A r e we dreaming now, or were we dreaming b e f o r e ? " (THW 141). I s b e l i s thus t o r n between her s p i r i t u a l b e t r o t h e d , Judge, and her s o c i a l one, M a r s h a l l , between the ant ique s p r i n g - t i m e w o r l d around the mus ic i an and the v u l g a r England of the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , between the dream and the r e a l i t y . When she f i n a l l y gets i n t o the dream landscape , and meets Judge t h e r e , they recogni se t h e i r j o i n t d e s t i n y , but f o r her i t q u i c k l y gets darker and s t a r t s to get m i s t y . W. H. Auden notes i n The Enchafed F lood that "The degree of v i s i b i l i t y = the degree of conscious knowledge. I . e . , fog and mis t mean doubt and s e l f - d e l u s i o n . " ^ For I s b e l , the v i s i o n begins to fade : 'Henry , I 'm g o i n g ! ' she s a i d , q u i e t l y detaching h e r s e l f from h i s e m b r a c e . . . . ' E v e r y t h i n g ' s f a l l i n g b a c k . . . . ' H i s face f e l l i n a l a rm. 'What 's the matter? What's happening to y o u ? . . . ' 'We're r e t u r n i n g to the o l d s t a t e . The sun's gone i n , and i t ' s growing mis ty and c o l d . . . . Oh, c a n ' t you see i t ? ' 'No, I c a n ' t . There ' s no d i f f e r e n c e at a l l — the day i s as g l o r i o u s as ever i t w a s . . . . Exer t your w i l l . * . . . ' (THW 164). 10 I s b e l lo ses her v i s i o n o f the enchanted dream w o r l d , and goes back to c a l l i n g Henry " M r . Judge" (THW 165) . He goes to wake up the s l e e p i n g m u s i c i a n , whose back was turned towards h e r , so tha t she c o u l d not see h i s f a c e , but Henry, who was s t a n d i n g e r e c t and mot ionles s beyond, was l o o k i n g r i g h t i n t o i t , and, from h i s e x p r e s s i o n , i t was as though he were b e h o l d i n g some a p p a l l i n g v i s i o n ! (THW 167). Jus t be fore the b a l l o o n comes down i n G. K. C h e s t e r t o n ' s o p t i m i s t i c nightmare f a n t a s y , The Man Who Was Thursday, G a b r i e l Syme c r i e s " w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y emphasis" : S h a l l I t e l l you the s ec re t of the whole world? I t i s that we have on ly known the back of the w o r l d . We see e v e r y t h i n g from b e h i n d , and i t looks b r u t a l . That i s not a t r ee but the back of a t r e e . That i s not a c l o u d , but the back of a c l o u d . Can you not see t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s s toop ing and h i d i n g a face? I f we c o u l d only get round i n f r o n t — ( 8 ) . When, i n L i n d s a y ' s p e s s i m i s t i c dream book, Henry does "get round i n f r o n t " he f i n d s tha t to be more b r u t a l and " a p p a l l i n g " than the f r o n t . What he sees must be the e q u i v a l e n t c o l the v u l g a r g r i n of Crys ta lman, the mask of death, f o r he s i n k s to the ground, dead. I s b e l f a i n t s . M a r s h a l l comes a long to f i n d Judge's body, and the book ends w i t h the f a i n t promise of I s b e l and M a r s h a l l ' s re-engagementaarid, presumably, marr iage . Sphinx appeared i n 1923 i n John Long's s e r i e s of 'The L a t e s t L i b r a r y N o v e l s ' , among which were The M i s s i n g M i l l i o n by Edgar W a l l a c e , The Young P i t c h e r by Zane Grey, and many now even more com-p l e t e l y f o r g o t t e n o t h e r s . The book opens w i t h the sedate a r r i v a l 11 of N i c h o l a s Cabot at Newleigh S t a t i o n on h i s way to Mereway. N i c h o l a s has j u s t been rescued from be ing a l edger c l e r k by an i n h e r i t a n c e o f ^ 5 5 , 0 0 0 . When asked why he d i d not choose " a more c o n g e n i a l c a r e e r " he c u r t l y r e p l i e s , " I wanted to r e t a i n any o r i g i n a l i t y I might possess " (Sph 14) . Now, f r ee to pursue h i s r e a l i n t e r e s t i n c h e m i s t r y , N i c h o l a s i s p e r f e c t i n g a k i n d o f chemica l -c lockwork device f o r r e c o r d i n g and p l a y i n g back dreams. H o p e f u l l y these w i l l be deep dreams: !'we some-times have v i s i o n s , which are i d e n t i c a l " (Sph 33) . They are " the dreams we dream d u r i n g deep s leep and remember n o t h i n g of a f t e r w a r d s . The l i g h t dreams of the f r i n g e of consciousness are a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g a l t o g e t h e r " (Sph 33) . The Sphinx , N i c h o l a s t e l l s us , was " the goddess of dreams" (Sph 32) , and ' S p h i n x ' i s the t i t l e not on ly o f the whole book but a l s o of Lore Jenson ' s f i n e s t p i ece of mus ic . A youngish ex- l edger c l e r k w i t h £ 5 5 , 0 0 0 must, i t w i l l be u n i -v e r s a l l y acknowledged, be i n want of a w i f e . N i c h o l a s has a bevy of beaut ie s to choose from, and the ' r e a l ' or n o v e l i s t i c a c t i o n turns on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h S t u r t ' s three daughters—members of the f a m i l y w i t h which N i c h o l a s i s a pay ing guest—and two l a d i e s who l i v e nearby , Lore Jenson the composer (who, we e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r , i s S t u r t ' s i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter ) , and M r s . C e l i a H a n t i s h , an a t t r a c t i v e widow and femme f a t a l e . At l e a s t , I t h i n k t h i s i s what S t u r t means when he t e l l s N i c h o l a s , " I do not t h i n k i t js to mal ign her to p l ace her i n the f a t a l ca tegory" (Sph 67 ) . She makes a l l the r u n n i n g , even t a k i n g N i c h o l a s o f f i n t o the woods (Sph 120) . L a t e r , ' I n the W i l d e r -12 n e s s ' (Ch. XV) of which C e l i a says " I keep i t f o r my men f r i e n d s . Men always f e e l cramped i n a garden" (Sph 217) , they become engaged (Sph 220) . On the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , however, N i c h o l a s ' s t rue s o u l mate, though he never r e a l i s e s i t , i s Lore Jenson. The second dream which N i c h o l a s manages to r e c o r d h i n t s a t t h i s . L i k e the f i r s t dream, he p l a y s i t back i n E v e l y n ' s presence so that we exper ience h i s (male) dream through her :(female) s e n s i b i l i t y . The N i c h o l a s of the dream i s w a l k i n g through a wood when he meets L o r e , "but not the Lore o f everyday l i f e . T h i s L o r e , who g l i d e d towards her [Evelyn] w i t h such awful smoothness and r e g u l a r i t y , was not human. She was a s p i r i t " " (Sph 159). ' E v e l y n ' "was moved by such g r i e f and h o r r o r that i t was as i f Lore were some-one very dear t o h e r . " Lore c r i e s out , "Do he lp me before i t ' s too l a t e ! I t w i l l soon be too l a t e ! " (Sph 159) , and the v i s i o n a b r u p t l y van i shes . N i c h o l a s r e a l i s e s t h i s " i s n ' t a f a n t a s y , l i k e o r d i n a r y dreams. I t ' s an o r a c l e . A message, i f you l i k e " (Sph 160). But i t i s not a message he seems to understand. In the t h i r d of h i s dreams t h a t N i c h o l a s shows h e r , Eve lyn f i n d s h e r s e l f " a g a i n i n t h a t wood" (Sph 201) . Lore i s " b e i n g moved un-w i l l i n g l y " (Sph 202) by some " t e r r i b l e unseen f o r c e " (Sph 203) " t o -wards [a] p o o l , which was i n her d i r e c t p a t h " (Sph2202). The agent i s e v i d e n t l y M a u r i c e , N i c h o l a s ' s workman and E v e l y n ' s beau, who i s " l e a n i n g aga ins t a t r e e " : "he was wear ing h i s o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s , but h i s face was the face of a d e v i l " (Sph 203) . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of 13 t h i s c o n t i n u i n g dream-saga—after N i c h o l a s and M r s . Hant i sh have become engaged—'Evelyn ' wakes from a swoon aware that "Maur ice had k i l l e d L o r e " (Sph 233) : I t took shape i n her consciousness as an immense f ac t which f i l l e d the whole u n i v e r s e , and which would render a l l j oy and imocence i m p o s s i b l e t h e r e a f t e r , f o r everyone. By no p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d th ings be the same i n the f u t u r e as they had been i n the pa s t . The i d e a l w o r l d was ended, and r e a l i t y had burs t i n to take possess ion (Sph 233) . The dream i s p r o p h e t i c . Lore drowns h e r s e l f . M a u r i c e ' s c i g a r e t t e case i s found a t the scene of the ' c r i m e ' and s u s p i c i o n f a l l s on h im. In s p i t e of the dream, when ques t ioned N i c h o l a s does a l l he can to a v o i d i n c r i m i n a t i n g M a u r i c e , to the p o i n t of l y i n g (Sph 266) , and t h i s leads t o h i s s epara t ion from M r s . H a n t i s h , who i s convinced of M a u r i c e ' s g u i l t . Now Eve lyn takes a hand. She g ives N i c h o l a s an ( u n f o r t u n a t e l y f a t a l ) overdose of s l e e p i n g c r y s t a l s to keep him q u i e t w h i l e she takes the dream recorder to her f a t h e r ' s b e d s i d e . He, S t u r t , i s j u s t r e -c o v e r i n g from the e f f e c t s of the death of h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter . In h i s dream, Eve lyn f i n d s h e r s e l f l i s t e n i n g to "grave mus ic " i n " the other w o r l d " (Sph 301): "she made no attempt to analyse t h i s l i f e i n t o i t s e lements . She had no s tandard of comparison, f o r the common l i f e had passed from h e r " (Sph 303) . "Perhaps she had become t r a n s -p o r t e d to a new p l a n e t which was s t i l l i n i t s p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The dusky, w i l d l y - b e a u t i f u l landscape seemed the h a b i t a t of s p i r i t s 14 and gods" (jSgh 304). She looks down i n t o "a s m a l l , c i r c u l a r p o o l i n the naked s a n d , " " a n a t u r a l w e l l " (E>p_h 306) . Under the water i s " a rocky t u n n e l " a long which " v e r y s m a l l " Lore i s " w a l k i n g and s t u m b l i n g " (Sph 307): She was midway through the t u n n e l , and seemed i n deep d i s t r e s s a t her i n a b i l i t y to f i n d a passage out . . . . The grea tes t angu i sh , however, appeared on her f ea tures as o f ten as she turned them up-wards to the sky , as seen through the water s u r -f ace . The r e a l i s a t i o n of the l i g h t , f r e s h , f r e e , b e a u t i f u l w o r l d , l y i n g immediately overhead, which she was unable to r each , seemed to be more than she c o u l d bear (Sph 307-08). T h i s i s the r e a l L o r e , but she cannot s p r i n g up through the sur face of the p o o l because of her shadow-selves be low. "Underneath the rock t u n n e l " (Sph 308) i s another l e v e l of r e a l i t y , where Lore walks the " f o r e s t avenue" (Sph 308) of N i c h o l a s ' s dream. Below t h i s shadow Lore i s " a t h i r d L o r e , the shadow of a shadow" (Sph 309).- Thi s t h i r d Lore i s the Lore of ' r e a l ' l i f e , w a l k i n g by a r i v e r w i t h Maur ice F e r r e i r a . Each of the Lores i s w a l k i n g a long her enc losed passage, which was as a p r i s o n to h e r , each v a i n l y s t r u g g l i n g towards the open w o r l d which never came, each d e s p a i r i n g and agonised , but [none] apparent ly aware of the o t h e r ' s e x i s t e n c e . . . . The r e a l Lore of the t u n n e l wished to escape i n t o the f r ee w o r l d which she c o u l d see above h e r , whereas the shadow Lore of the f o r e s t avenue longed only to escape from her confinement. She was aware of no o ther p l a c e . And t h a t , perhaps , was what c o n s t i t u t e d her shadowhood (Sph 309) . A c t i o n on the three planes i s s imul taneous . When the r e a l Lore decides 15 to " s t e p " through the sur face of the p o o l , i n t o the " f r e e , pure atmos-phere of the open w o r l d " (Sph 311), the shadow Lores drown themselves : " t h e i r leaps i n t o the water were not w i l l e d , but n e c e s s i t a t e d " (Sph 312). Once f ree of her body, once out o f n a t u r e , Lore embraces her f a t h e r . Then she p o i n t s to " A dark coast . . . , mi l e s d i s t a n t , across the sea" (Sph 313) where she must go, wi thout h im. "You are not h e r e , d e a r ! " she t e l l h i m . " I am h e r e , because I am dead; but you are i n your body, dreaming e v e r y t h i n g . " He w i l l f o l l o w when the time comes. She i s no longer t rapped i n the p r i s o n of the body; most i m p o r t a n t l y , she has l e a r n e d tha t she was not running away from M a u r i c e , but " t o -wards something a l l t h e t t i m e " (Sph 313). Then N i c h o l a s appears , r i d i n g one horse and l e a d i n g another . Together they r i d e t o the d i s t a n t l a n d , the beasts q u i t t i n g " the rude sea , to take f l i g h t i n the upper a i r " (Sph 315). Lore and N i c h o l a s have escaped from the sea o f matter to be u n i t e d , a t l a s t , a f t e r death. In Sphinx and The Haunted Woman the fundamental elements ( i f not t h e i r mora l s i g n i f i c a n c e ) o f L i n d s a y ' s cosmology are made e x t r a o r d i -n a r i l y c l e a r . F i r s t l y , the r e a l w o r l d i s the w o r l d of the s p i r i t , of which the ' r e a l ' ( s o - c a l l e d r e a l ) w o r l d of m a t e r i a l ob jec t s i s but a shadow. The r e a l w o r l d i s complete ly and i n e l u c t a b l y beyond: beyond our comprehension and beyond our i m a g i n a t i o n . "That i s t o say , an i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " w r i t e s L indsay (TSG 42) . However, though there may be "an unbroken l i n e o f " shadow wor ld s were our eyes acute enough 16 to see them (Sph 313) , there i s a w o r l d we know w h i c h , by ana logy , w i l l h e l p us to conceive of the i n c o n c e i v a b l e ; that i s , the w o r l d of the d r e a m - v i s i o n , which stands i n r e l a t i o n s to our w o r l d as the r e a l w o r l d stands to i t . Thus L indsay c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y works on three l e v e l s : r e a l w o r l d , s p i r i t w o r l d of haunted rooms and dream gardens, everyday w o r l d ; r e a l w o r l d , s p i r i t w o r l d of deep dreams, everyday w o r l d : i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , the wor lds of K r a g , N ight spore and M a s k u l l r e s p e c t i v e l y . Another way of expres s ing the i n e x p r e s s i b l e — f o r which i t i s t h e r e f o r e a symbol—is through music . L indsay w r i t e s , "Mus ic i s a microcosm of the f e e l i n g s . I t expresses them a l l , ye t only as A r t ; i t i s not the f e e l i n g s themselves" (TSG 13) . That i s , i t i s f r e e of the ' r e a l ' w o r l d , though i t stands i n r e l a t i o n to i t . In f a c t , l i t e r a l l y , f o r L i n d s a y , "music i s the exper ience of a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " (TSG 13) . Music i n L i n d s a y ' s books i s a gateway to the h i g h e r w o r l d , as the p l a y i n g of the man i n the garden, or L o r e ' s ' S p h i n x ' . L indsay h i m s e l f l oved the music of M o z a r t , Brahms, and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Beethoven (TSG 23) . I t i n s p i r e d h im. A Voyage to A r c t u r u s begins w i t h a copy of the Temple Scene from The Magic F l u t e , which Lindsay g r e a t l y admired (TSG 13 ) , though he a l l ows F a u l l to v u l g a r i s e i t . Robert Barnes , a mus ic i an f r i e n d of L i n d s a y , t e l l s us tha t On read ing the chapter 'Wombflash F o r e s t ' I was always shaken w i t h deep emotion. He t o l d me that he was i n s p i r e d to so w r i t e t h a t chapter by the 5 th Symphony (B e e t ho ven) —espec i a l ly the drumming passage l i n k i n g the scherzo to the f i n a l e (TSG 2 3 ) . 17 In A Voyage to A r c t u r u s there i s a m u s i c i a n , E a r t h r i d , who p lays w i t h shapes as o r d i n a r y music ians do w i t h n o t e s . On h i s i n s t r u m e n t , M a s k u l l almost manages to crea te Muspe l . In h i s theory of M u s i c , L indsay seems to f o l l o w Schopenhauer q u i t e c l o s e l y . In The World as W i l l and Idea Schopenhauer takes the n e o - P l a t o n i c l i n e that a r t " repeats or reproduces the e t e r n a l Ideas grasped through pure c o n t e m p l a t i o n " ( T h i r d Book, sec . 36) . Of course , Schopenhauer r e a l i s e s t h a t " the ( P l a t o n i c ) Ideas are the adequate o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of w i l l w h i l e music " i s e n t i r e l y independent of the phenomenal w o r l d " : i . e . music i s independent of the w o r l d which o b j e c t i f i e s the Ideas . T h e r e f o r e , Schopenhauer dec ides , music must be "as d i r e c t an o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n and copy of the whole w i l l as the w o r l d i t s e l f , nay , even as the Ideas , whose m u l t i p l i e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the w o r l d of i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s . Music i s thus by no means l i k e the o ther a r t s , the copy o f the I d e a s , , b u t the Copy of the w i l l i t s e l f , whose o b j e c t i v i t y the Ideas a r e . " Schopenhauer's c o n c l u s i o n i s that music does not t h e r e f o r e express t h i s or t h a t p a r t i c -u l a r and d e f i n i t e j o y , t h i s or that sorrow, or p a i n , or h o r r o r , or d e l i g h t , or merr iment , or peace of mind; but j o y , sorrow, p a i n , h o r r o r , d e l i g h t , merriment , peace of mind themselves ( T h i r d Book, sec . 52 ) . L i n d s a y ' s v i e w , quoted i n the preced ing paragraph^ , i s c l e a r l y a p a r a -phrase of t h i s . For both of them, music " e x h i b i t s i t s e l f as the meta-p h y s i c a l to e v e r y t h i n g p h y s i c a l i n the w o r l d " (Third^Book, s ec . 5 2 ) : music i s i t s own w o r l d , and i t i s a h i g h e r w o r l d than the p h y s i c a l o r phenomenal one. 18 T h i r d l y , L indsay u t i l i s e s the many o p p o s i t i o n s which are common to western c u l t u r e , which i s "not of one European country but of 9 Europe" as T. S. E l i o t says of D a n t e ' s . Indeed, Dante i s the f o u n t a i n -head o f European a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and i t s g rea te s t p r a c t i -t i o n e r : He l i v e d i n an age i n which men s t i l l saw v i s i o n s . I t was a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t , the t r i c k of which we have f o r g o t t e n , but as good as any o f our own. We have n o t h i n g but dreams, and we have f o r g o t t e n t h a t see ing v i s i o n s — a p r a c t i c e now r e l e g a t e d to the aberrant and uneducated—was once a more s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t e r e s t i n g , and d i s c i p l i n e d k i n d of dreaming. We take i t f o r granted tha t our dreams s p r i n g from below: p o s s i b l y the q u a l i t y of our dreams s u f f e r s inrconsequence (10) . 11 Dreams are v i s u a l phenomena: "Dante ' s i s a v i s u a l i m a g i n a t i o n " and so , i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , i s L i n d s a y ' s . In a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy ' y o u are what you s e e ' : the image i s the meaning and the meaning i s m o r a l . The expre s s ion of the moral p o s i t i v e v a l u e of good, i n L indsay as much as i n Dante, i s l i g h t , which has two negat ions— dark and heavy. As na r ra t o r -D ante c l i m b s , e v e r y t h i n g gets b r i g h t e r and he gets l i g h t e r , w h i l e the day darkens f o r I s b e l when she loses the v i s i o n , and the o l d e s t p a r t of R u n h i l l must be the h i g h e s t , though t h i s i s not a p h y s i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , Lore c l imbs out of the water i n t o a ' h i g h e r ' w o r l d i n both senses. Mountains and towers are z i g g u r a t s , ladders to heaven, There i s U l f ' s Tower and the observatory at S ta rknes s . Mountains are h i n t e d a t by such names as R u n h i l l , D e v i l ' s Tor , Tormance, A l p p a i n , a n d even K r a g . These o p p o s i t i o n s form pa t te rns 19 of imagery i n nove l s such as Sphinx and The Haunted Woman, but they are the very s t u f f of a l l e g o r i e s such as A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . L i n d s a y ' s acknowledged p iece of en ter ta inment , Adventures of  M. de M a i l l y , a minor c l a s s i c i n i t s genre, i s h i s on ly book which does not draw on the c e n t r a l , co smolog i ca l v i s i o n or the u n d e r l y i n g iconography o f European c u l t u r e . I t i s a d e t e c t i v e s t o r y - c u m - h i s t o r i c a l romance. In The Strange Genius o f David Lindsay W i l s o n leaves i t "out of account because i t i s w r i t t e n p u r e l y as en te r t a inment " (TSG 75) , w h i l e V i s i a k de scr ibe s i t as " a s u r p r i s i n g f r e a k , or s p o r t , a complete departure from L i n d s a y ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e i n " which "cannot be con-s i d e r e d i n the body o f [ h i s ] work" (TSG 135). In f a c t , i t can. Adventures of M. de M a i l l y begins q u i t e w e l l , at l e a s t four t imes . F i r s t the adventurer i s 'employed' to prevent the S i e u r de Jambac from b e i n g f o r c i b l y wed to a woman he does not—she b e i n g as o l d and ug ly as he—want to marry . M a i M y f a i l s , and a f t e r twenty- four pages the a c t i o n peters o u t . Then he i s h i r e d to b r i n g a younger man to the a l t a r w i t h a woman both younger and more a t t r a c t i v e than h i m s e l f . M a i l l y f a i l s again (though he makes some money by the way) and, a f t e r t h i r t y - t h r e e pages, the p l o t aga in r e turns to r e s t . H i s next a s s i g n -ment i n v o l v e s u n r a v e l l i n g the compl i ca t ions f o l l o w i n g upon a man marry ing the wrong h a l f of a p a i r of t w i n s . D i t t o a f t e r a . f u r t h e r s i x t y - t h r e e pages, d i t t o . The reader , of course , i s not tempted to compla in . He i s r ead ing a book o f ' adventure s ' ( o r i g i n a l l y , ' e n t e r p r i s e s ' ) , so t h e i r e p i s o d i c 20 nature does not bother h im, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the s t o r i e s are e x c i t i n g and w e l l t o l d . A c r i t i c obsessed w i t h ' o r g a n i c u n i t y ' would probably not have s t a r t e d the book i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The three p r o g r e s s i v e l y longer episodes l ead to the f o u r t h , which takes up the r e s t o f a l o n g i s h book (319 pages) . Al though i t i s an adventure which s u p p l i e s M a i l l y w i t h the promise of tha t ( f o r him) needless acces sory , a w i f e , i t i s not one d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h m a r r y i n g , but w i t h p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , b r i b e r y and a s s a s s i n a t i o n . M a i l l y i s summoned b e f o r e t k h e K M i n i s t e r of Secret S e r v i c e and M a r i n e , P o n t c h a r t r a i n , who t r i e s t o b l a c k m a i l h im i n t o k i l l i n g a Duke he charges w i t h p l o t t i n g aga ins t h i s , the M i n i s t e r ' s , l i f e . From t h i s p o i n t on the p l o t seems (and t h i s is the h i g h e s t accolade f o r a p o t -b o i l e r ) ' t o take on a l i f e o f i t s own, ' c o m p l i c a t i n g i t s e l f beyond b e l i e f u n t i l , as P i c k puts i t , " the reader i s e v e n t u a l l y l o s t i n the maze" (TSG 18) , though M a i l l y , of course , i s n o t . The p l o t develops from b l a c k m a i l (by P o n t c h a r t r a i n ) , through robbery (by Passy , who i s P o n t c h a r t r a i n ' s a s s i s t a n t ) and attempted a s s a s s i n a t i o n (by the Duke, he lped by Passy) to p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e (by Argenson, c h i e f of p o l i c e and P o n t c h a r t r a i n ' s r i v a l , who i s 'pr ime mover' i n e v e r y t h i n g ) , and f o r a l l of these M a i l l y i s to be the scapegoat. M a i l l y i s not to be used, even i n such a compl ica ted p l o t . He f o l l o w s the i n t r i c a t e 'Thread of D i v i n e L o g i c ' (the heading o f Chapter XIV) through a l l i t s c o m p l i c a t i o n s and, w i t h b r a v e r y , to f i n a l v i c t o r y . We may take an example of h i s r a t i o c i n a t i o n : 21 We s h a l l proceed w i t h the e n q u i r y . M d l l e Passy has not been e x p e l l e d , l e t us suppose, and I am i n her s o c i e t y . Then what i s to happen n e x t . Her husband i s u p s t a i r s , we assume. Thus he awaits my a r r i v a l be fore s t a r t i n g the wheels of h i s murder; and t h e r e f o r e he must know of my a r r i v a l . But he i s u p s t a i r s . Perhaps he works w i t h P o n t c h a r t r a i n i n the o ther house. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he w i l l be ab le to hear my e n -t r a n c e . From time to time he absents h i m s e l f from the M i n i s t e r , tha t he may l i s t e n over the s t a i r - r a i l . But the k i t c h e n - d o o r i s s h u t , we w i l l say , or there i s s i l e n c e between our v o i c e s ; and i f he creeps downsta irs to a s c e r t a i n more c l o s e l y , there i s the chance of d e t e c t i o n . Or i s i t has been arranged t h a t h i s w i f e s h a l l go up to i n f o r m h im, he may a t t h a t time be w i t h P o n t c h a r t r a i n , and she w i l l no t dare to l i n g e r , f o r f e a r I s h a l l eacape from the h o u s e . . . . T h e r e f o r e , a s i g n a l ! . . . And what k i n d o f s i g n a l ? S ince the house i s dark , a l i g h t ! A l i g h t e d cand le . And where must t h i s candle be s e t , i n order to be seen? He i s u p s t a i r s , she down; t h e r e f o r e i t must be somewhere i n the passage v i s i b l e from the s t a i r - h e a d . . . . Let us d i s -cover i f there i s an u n l i g h t e d candle t h e r e , ready to t r ansmi t such a s i g n a l " (AMM 161-62) . He does. There i s . The determined f o l l o w i n g through of ' the d i v i n e t h r e a d ' i s much l i k e the r a t i o c i n a t i o n o f , f o r example, Poe ' s d e t e c t i v e h e r o , Dup in . The d i f f e r e n c e i s that i n 'The P u r l o i n e d L e t t e r ' there i s an ' I ' to whom Dupin c a n ' t a l k , a Dr . Watson to h i s Holmes, whereas poor M a i l l y , the man o f a c t i o n i n Che darkened house, can only t a l k to h i m s e l f . Nonethe le s s , a f t e r three f a l s e s t a r t s , we can see that L indsay has d i s covered h i s t a l e n t f o r d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n , which makes M a i l l y not " a s u r p r i s i n g f r e a k " but the ' o t h e r f a c e , ' as i t were, of h i s t a l e n t f o r dream f a n t a s y , as Dupin i s of P o e ' s , Father Brown's of G. K. • 22 C h e s t e r t o n ' s , L o n n r o t ' s of B o r g e s ' . A l l e g o r y , l i k e d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l l y r a t i o c i n a t i v e . The main d i f f e r e n c e between them i s t h a t i n the d e t e c t i v e s t o r y we are g iven the stream of consciousness presumed i n s i d e the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s mind (or some o ther account of the substance of that stream), whereas i n the a l l e g o r y we are g iven the contents of the mind p r o j e c t e d f o r t h : the p e r c e i v e d w o r l d not o n l y corresponds t o , i t l i t e r a l l y i s the mental events of the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s mind. The reader becomes a k i n d of d e t e c t i v e , and the a l l e g o r i c a l w o r l d i s the o b j e c t of h i s r a t i o c i n a -t i o n s as he t r i e s to ' t r a n s l a t e ' the a l l e g o r y . But i n both cases the i n t e l l e c t of the reader i s engaged by the s u r f a c e : i n M a i l l y , by what must happen n e x t , l o g i c a l l y ; i n A r c t u r u s , by what must happen n e x t , e m o t i o n a l l y . In the d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n the r a t i o c i n a t i o n s are an end i n themselves , i n tha t they prov ide the i n t e r e s t of the s t o r y ; i n the a l l e g o r y I suspect tha t the r e a d e r ' s reason (to which most a l l e g o r i s t s are h o s t i l e ) i s engaged to keep i t busy , w h i l e the r e s t of the mind i s f reed to respond more or l e s s unconsc ious ly to the a r c h e t y p a l pa t te rns of the s t o r y . This may a l s o be the case w i t h the author when he i s composing an a l l e g o r y . Both The Haunted Woman, which Robert Nye i n a rev iew i n The  Scotsman c a l l e d " a metaphys ica l t h r i l l e r " (TSG 4 ) , and Sphinx cou ld have been w r i t t e n as d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s . Each of them has a c lo sed set of c h a r a c t e r s , the r i g h t k i n d of country house, and a dead body or two. The problem i s that d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s normal ly dea l w i t h the phenomenal 23 w o r l d . Any i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d q u i c k l y work out who k i l l e d N i c h o l a s , whether Lore committed s u i c i d e , or how Judge d i e d , but m e t a p h y s i c a l l y these are be s ide the p o i n t . L i n d s a y ' s charac te r s may d ie by appar-e n t l y n a t u r a l causes , such as apoplexy , but t h e i r deaths a r e , as we know, r e a l l y due to t h e i r contac t w i t h the r e a l w o r l d , which i s complete ly beyond the phenomenal w o r l d , and-.-'therefore beyond i n v e s -12 t i g a t i o n . The almost random and apparent ly melodramatic death of N i c h o l a s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l from t h i s p o i n t of v i e w : h i s death was n e c e s s i t a t e d by the u n i t i n g o f h i s r e a l s e l f and L o r e ' s . E v e l y n ' s s l e e p i n g p o t i o n c o n v e n i e n t l y disposes of the b o d i l y envelope from which the r e a l s e l f must be l i b e r a t e d . L i k e the o ther books, M a i l l y f a i l e d to s e l l . I t i s ev ident that J a c q u e l i n e p e r c e i v e d , sooner than her husband, tha t there would never be any money i n h i s w r i t i n g , and she had them move to a s m a l l e r house i n F e r r i n g , Sussex. L a t e r , j u s t before World W a r - I I , aga ins t D a v i d ' s wishes she borrowed some money i n order to buy a guest house i n B r i g h t o n . Ins tead of young l a d i e s from the c o n t i n e n t , however, the war r e s u l t e d i n her house be ing a b i l l e t f o r a succes s ion of n a v a l o f f i c e r s . David saw the war i t s e l f — n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the Germans' p r e -occupat ion w i t h ideas of Northern supremacy to which he had g iven expre s s ion i n D e v i l ' s Tor—as b e i n g a d i s a s t e r from which Europe cou ld never r e c o v e r . He became more and more withdrawn and r e c l u s i v e . J . B. P i c k t e l l s us : 24 The f i r s t bomb that f e l l on B r i g h t o n d i d not explode , but i t f e l l on the L i n d s a y s ' house. David was i n the c o l d bath he took every morning. The r o o f of the bathroom c o l l a p s e d and a l though Lindsay was not p h y s i c a l l y h u r t , he never recovered from the shock. He be-came grey and s i l e n t and i n June 1945 d ied before he was seventy (TSG 32) . Dur ing h i s l i f e - t i m e Lindsay d i d r e c e i v e some support and recog-n i t i o n . There were l e t t e r s from people such as L . H . Myers , who apprec i a t ed A Voyage; there was encouragement from E. H . V i s i a k , who wrote a s h o r t c r i t i q u e of A Voyage f o r Notes and Queries (March 30, 1940), and from V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , whose f i r m r e i s s u e d A Voyage w i t h V i s i a k ' s note as fo reword . Th i s was i n keeping w i t h a w i s h Lindsay had expressed t w e n t y - f i v e years before i n a l e t t e r to V i s i a k : In the event of the book ' s ever going i n t o another e d i t i o n — w h i c h at the present i s extremely prob-l e m a t i c a l — I am going to ask you to be k i n d enough to f u r n i s h a foreword , knowing t h a t you w i l l no t re fuse t h i s f avour . E v i d e n t l y , i t r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n , and I am..aquainted w i t h no one so w e l l ab le to supply i t as y o u r s e l f (November 9 , 1921; L 43) . V i s i a k , as has a l ready been no ted , a c t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d The Haunted Woman, as L indsay r e a l i s e d . He wrote to V i s i a k on June 11 , 1936, about h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n , " I don ' t q u i t e connect [A Voyage] w i t h you . You know you have always r a t h e r concentra ted on the ' H . W . ' " (L 64) . L indsay seems to have become accustomed to the apparent o p a c i t y (one of B l a k e ' s names f o r Satan) of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s as rev iewer a f t e r rev iewer re fused to see i t as a n y t h i n g but "a r i o t of morbid f ancy" ( i n The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement; TSG 3) or "a grand p i e c e 25 o f w i l d i m a g i n i n g " ( J . B. P r i e s t l e y i n The Evening Standard; TSG 24) , but he craved unders tanding . W r i t i n g to V i s i a k on November 25, 1921, before h i s f i r s t n o v e l had q u i t e sunk i n t o apparent o b l i v i o n , he remarks, I t i s indeed g r a t i f y i n g to l e a r n that I have a s tudent of my 'Voyage '—I w o n ' t repeat your expres s ion and add 'an a d m i r e r ' , f o r I have s t r o n g doubts whether i t i s a book which anyone would admire w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y . P lease g ive the lady i n q u e s t i o n my k i n d regards , coupled w i t h the hope that she has succeeded—in p a r t , at a l l e v e n t s — i n e l u c i d a t i n g the mystery of the a l l e g o r y ! (L 45) . Nothing seems to have come of i t . A Voyage was not r e i s s u e d u n t i l 1946, a f t e r L i n d s a y ' s dea th . G o l l a n c z have s i n c e r e i s s u e d i t t w i c e , i n 1963 and i n 1968, as p a r t of t h e i r s e r i e s o f 'Rare Works o f Imaginat ive F i c t i o n , ' which i n c l u d e s The Haunted Woman (1968) as w e l l as works by M. P . S h i e l (The P u r p l e Cloud and The I s l e of L i e s ) and E. H. V i s i a k ' s Medusa. As T r i n c u l o remarks i n The Tempest, " M i s e r y aquaints a man w i t h strange b e d f e l l o w s . " Much more to the p o i n t has been C. S. L e w i s ' s great i n t e r e s t i n L i n d s a y , from whom he o b v i o u s l y l ea rned a great d e a l . Lewis had the r i g h t k i n d of i n t e r e s t i n a l l e g o r y and a profound r e l i g i o u s commit-ment, which made h im unusua l ly s e n s i t i v e to L i n d s a y ' s t r u e ( v i s i o n a r y ) 13 achievement. In an acute p i ece o f c r i t i c i s m i n Of Other Wor lds , Lewis pays h i s t r i b u t e to A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , b u t , i m i t a t i o n be ing the s i n c e r f i s t form of f l a t t e r y , as the o l d saw has i t , the t r i l o g y 14 begun by Out Of the S i l e n t P l a n e t i s a more f i t t i n g acco lade . 26 R. L . Green repeated many of C. S. L e w i s ' s p o i n t s (he r e f e r s us to L e w i s ' s essay) i n a chapter on 'Tormance and Malacandra ' i n h i s survey of s p a c e - f l i g h t i n f i c t i o n , Into Other Worlds . There were a r t i c l e s by J . B. P i c k i n Studies i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e (1964) and C o l i n W i l s o n i n h i s book of essays Eagle and Earwig (1966). However, i t was not u n t i l a f t e r A Voyage was p u b l i s h e d , a t C o l i n W i l s o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n , i n paperback i n America by B a l l a n t i n e Books i n 1968, that i t became at a l l widely known. Joanna Russ took a few pot- shots a t i t almost immediately i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n i n December 1969 (but see my r e b u t t a l i n the May 1972 i s s u e of t h a t j o u r n a l ) , a s s o c i a t i n g L indsay w i t h another set of " s t range b e d f e l l o w s " : Poe, van Vogt and Redd. At l e a s t Miss Russ d i d not muddle Lindsay i n w i t h some of the o ther w r i t e r s p u b l i s h e d i n B a l l a n t i n e ' s ' A d u l t Fantasy ' s e r i e s ; w h i l e one of them i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t (George MacDonald) , most of the r e s t are n o t . In p a r t i c u l a r we might mention J . R. R. T o l k i e n , whose p o p u l a r i t y has been the c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the' enormous i n c r e a s e of i n t e r e s t i n fantasy and hence i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . I r o n i c a l l y , T o l k i e n ' s b e s t -s e l l i n g t r i l o g y The Lord of the R i n g s , a m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c and p r o -f e s s e d l y n o n - a l l e g o r i c a l adventure s t o r y , i s i n .--many ways the a n t i t h -e s i s Of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . However tha t may be , the r e s u l t i n g "unexpected vogue" (TSG v i i ) L indsay enjoys i n America has encouraged John Baker to p u b l i s h a whole book about h i m , The Strange Genius o f  David L indsay by W i l s o n , P i c k and V i s i a k , and s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i s on the i n c r e a s e . Nonethe le s s , L i n d s a y ' s o r i g i n a l complaint about even 27 "some q u i t e t o l e r a n t and good-natured reviews i n the papers "—that "now, as ever , I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t they touch me or my work" (L 51)— stands to t h i s date , to the extent tha t no one has taken the t r o u b l e to put A Voyage i n t o i t s l i t e r a r y context ( i t i s not , of course , S u i g e n e r i s 1 ^ ) , o r take the a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y enough to uncover the book's p r e c i s e and b e a u t i f u l s t r u c t u r e . L indsay w r i t e s to V i s i a k : Many thanks f o r your sympathet ic remarks r e -gard ing my book. I must say t h i s , tha t yours i s the on ly c r i t i c i s m — p u b l i c or p r i v a t e — which so f a r has l i f t e d the l i d o f f my l i t t l e pot to see what i s i n s i d e , and f o r t h i s I am a p p r o p r i a t e l y g r a t e f u l . I am a f r a i d that nowadays people only read f o r the s t o r y , but perhaps a race of ' s u p e r - r e a d e r s ' w i l l l a t e on a r i s e who w i l l make i t t h e i r f i r s t concern to grasp what the author i s d r i v i n g at be fore d e c i d i n g whether or not he has been success-f u l (January 6, 1924; L 51) . Th i s we s h a l l proceed to do. 28 Footnotes t o Chapter One "Slost of the b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n . t h e chapter has been drawn from J . B. P i c k ' s 'A Sketch o f L i n d s a y ' s L i f e as Man and W r i t e r ' (TSG 3-32) . A r t h u r Schopenhauer, 'The World as W i l l and Idea ' i n Schopenhauer: Se lec t ions . , ed . Dewi t t H . P a r k e r (New Y o r k : Char les S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1956), p . 9 ( F i r s t Book, sec . 6 ) . Subsequent re ferences to The World  as W i l l and Idea are to t h i s s e l e c t i o n ; the book and s e c t i o n w i l l be c i t e d i n the t e x t . 3 L indsay w r i t e s to V i s i a k , a f t e r sending h im a copy, " I t i s most k i n d o f you to read 'De M a i l l y ' , but r e a l l y i t was merely in tended as a l i t t l e token of good w i l l , and at l e a s t you w i l l do me the favour not to comment on i t " (September 20, 1929; L 52-53) . 4 Not from J . B. P r i e s t l e y i n the Evening Standard o r H . E. Bates i n Everyman, but from Rebecca West i n . t h e D a i l y Te legraph , from Fausset i n the Manchester Guardian and from L. P . H a r t l e y i n the Weekend Review. " * "I t i s both h i s s t r e n g t h and h i s weakness tha t c e r t a i n of the ques t ions asked on Tormance, as w e l l as the responses to them, are l o c k e d i n that D e l p h i c ambiguity which torments our d a i l y l i v e s . " ' I n t r o d u c t i o n ' by Loren E i s e l e y (VA x ) . ^In D e v i l ' s Tor , L i n d s a y ' s l a s t p u b l i s h e d work, there i s a c h a r a c t e r c l e a r l y model led on Schopenhauer (DT 108) , who i s a good dea l more l i k e L indsay than i s the young a r t i s t P e t e r Copping. This c h a r a c t e r , Magnus Colborne , observes b i t t e r l y : There i s assumed to be an i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c tha t i n t e r e s t s i t s e l f i n cosmica l problems. I t seems, however, that i t has f a i l e d h i t h e r t o to hear of my books; at l e a s t , i t has not bought them. Under-s tand w e l l , I never was i n need e i t h e r of money from my w r i t i n g s or of l i t e r a r y g l o r y ; s t i l l , you may conceive the s m a l l i n c l i n a t i o n I f e l t to go on spending mysel f i n a vacuum (DT 115). 7 W. H. Auden, The Enchafed F l o o d , or The Romantic Iconography of the Sea (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 1967), p . 74. 29 g G. K. C h e s t e r t o n , The Man Who Was Thursday; A Nightmare (New Y o r k : Modern L i b r a r y , 1917), p . 257. 9 T. S. E l i o t , Dante (London: Faber and Faber , 1965), p . 11. 1 0 T . S. E l i o t , Dante, p . 15. 1 : L T . S. E l i o t , Dante, p . 15. 12 In f a c t , the techniques of d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n and dream a l l e g o r y , cous ins though they be , are a s t o n i s h i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to combine. Poe never t r i e d . G. K. Chester ton made a b r i l l i a n t attempt i n The Man Who  Was Thursday: A Nightmare, which C o l i n W i l s o n t h i n k s i s " the on ly s i m i l a r book" i n some respect s to A Voyage to A r c t u r u s (TSG 46; c f . TSG 36) , but Chester ton c o u l d only save h i s book from be ing complete ly broken-backed by making i t f a r c i c a l , thus n u l l i f y i n g the ' r e l i g i o u s ' power o f h i s metaphys i ca l argument. More r e c e n t l y Borges has , i f only i n very s h o r t works , s t r i v e n to u n i t e the two modes w i t h o u t admixing f a r c e , and h i s most s u c c e s s f u l f i c t i o n from t h i s p o i n t of v iew i s 'Death and the Compass.' 13 Thi s c o l l e c t i o n of essays was e d i t e d by W. Hooper and p u b l i s h e d posthumously by Geoffrey Bles i n 1966. 14 L i n d s a y ' s i n f l u e n c e on Lewis has been examined by P a t r i c i a Ann P i l l i n g i n her d i s s e r t a t i o n 'Form and Content i n S e l e c t e d Novels of C. S. L e w i s ' ( U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1971). I am g r a t e f u l to Miss P i l l i n g f o r sending me a copy of the appendix to her t h e s i s , ' D a v i d Lindsay and A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . ' 1 5 W i l s o n ' s c l a i m . ( T S G 36) . 30 Chapter Two: DREAM AND ALLEGORY: THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LITERARY MODE We have seen tha t i n h i s 'me taphys i ca l t h r i l l e r s , ' The Haunted  Woman and Sphinx , L indsay uses a fundamental o p p o s i t i o n between the dream w o r l d and the ' r e a l ' w o r l d , drawing on the t r a d i t i o n a l imagery which we have noted i n Dante. We s h a l l f i n d L indsay doing e x a c t l y the same t h i n g i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , though i t i s l e s s obvious because a l l e g o r i e s are not so d i s c u r s i v e as nove l s and because the ' r e a l ' w o r l d i s l e f t beh ind when the t r a v e l l e r s voyage to Tormance. T. S. E l i o t , commenting on the r e l a t i o n between the V i t a Nuova o f Dante and The Shepherd o f Hermas, remarks, " the s i m i l a r i t i e s might prove that a c e r t a i n h a b i t i n dream-imagery can p e r s i s t throughout many changes of c i v i l i s a t i o n . " " ' " Of course , c i v i l i s a t i o n s are t r a n s i -t o r y t h i n g s , whereas s leep and dreams are a fundamental f a c t o r i n the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e of man. As men must always have spent a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time on e a r t h s l e e p i n g , the d u a l i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n between the dream w o r l d and the waking r e a l i t y i s probably o l d e r than l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f . Dream l i t e r a t u r e n a t u r a l l y uses dream imagery, and t h i s g ives the t r a d i t i o n great c o n t i n u i t y even where d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e may not e x i s t . The E n g l i s h l i n e of dream works i n c l u d e s the s t o r y of Cynewulf , The Dream of the Rood, P e a r l , P i e r s  Plowman, The F a e r i e Queen, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , J u b i l a t e Agno, A l i c e i n Wonderland, Phantastes and Finnegans Wake, to name o n l y the 31 most obvious examples. But there are dreams and dreams. Macrobius (ca 400) and John of S a l i s b u r y (ca 1120-1180) d i s t i n g u i s h e s s e n t i a l l y f i v e k i n d s : 1. insomnium, nightmare o r t r o u b l e d dream; 2. v i s i u m , a p p a r i t i o n or h a l l u c i n a t i o n ; 3. somnium, o r d i n a r y o r enigmat ic dream; 4. oraculum, o r a c u l a r or p r o p h e t i c dream; 5 . v i s i o , p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n or v i s i o n a r y dream (2) . A l l f i v e k inds can, of course , be found i n the B i b l e , and i n many works of l i t e r a t u r e , but i t i s the f i f t h k i n d , the v i s i o , w i t h which we s h a l l be mainly concerned. Some dreams, i n J u n g i a n , Freudian o r any other psychology , are e v i d e n t l y more s i g n i f i c a n t than o t h e r s : the v i s i o i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t , be ing the expre s s ion of the ' i n n e r s e l f or of God. i I t would be d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w P l a t o ' s ' S o c r a t e s ' and ac t " i n 3 obedience to God's commands g iven i n o rac l e s and dreams" s i n c e , as Henry ' s f a t h e r says i n Henry o f Of terd i r igen , "dreams are f r o t h " : " t h e 4 times when Heavenly v i s i o n s were seen i n dreams have long passed b y . " Henry r e p l i e s tha t "every dream . . . makes an important r e n t i n the myster ious c u r t a i n which . . . h ides our inward natures from our v i e w . " Dreams " s h o u l d be regarded as Heavenly g i f t s , as f r i e n d l y gu ides , i n our pi lgrimmage to the h o l y , tomb." But Henry has h i m s e l f j u s t been " s lumber ing i n t o another w o r l d " 7 and i s i n no doubt as to the t r u t h of what he has seen. 'Dante ' h i m s e l f had been more s tubborn : he was so wayward i t d i d not h e l p , B e a t r i c e compla ins , To use v i s i o n s i n h i s dreams and c a l l h im back In o ther ways. They meant so l i t t l e to h i m . 32 He f e l l so f a r down tha t every means of Saving h im proved inadequate , o u t s i d e Of showing h im the people who are l o s t (8 ) . I r o n i c a l l y , the whole of The D i v i n e Comedy i s a dream v i s i o n , a v i s i o , the aim of which i s to g ive us what P l a t o c a l l s that " i n s p i r e d and t rue prophecy" which normal ly "we only achieve . . . when the power 9 of our understanding i s i n h i b i t e d i n s l e e p " : i . e . , when we dream. Schopenhauer s ays , Dante ' s greatness der ives from h i s posses s ion of the t r u t h of the dream, w h i l e o ther poets possess only the t r u t h of the r e a l w o r l d . He shows us e x t r a o r d i n a r y th ings e x a c t l y as we see those of our dreams, and they g ive us the same i l l u s i o n . One would suppose that he had dreamed each canto d u r i n g the n i g h t (10) . Many ( i f not most) dream w r i t e r s have been f o l l o w e r s of the g rea te s t of the Gnos t i c p h i l o s o p h e r - a r t i s t s , P l a t o . In the d u a l i s t i c P l a t o n i c cosmology—close ly f o l l o w e d by Dante, B l a k e , Schopenhauer and L indsay—the " s o u l i s a h e l p l e s s p r i s o n e r , chained hand and f o o t i n the body, compelled to view r e a l i t y not d i r e c t l y but on ly through i t s : , p r i s o n b a r s , " as we are t o l d i n the Phaedo. The aim of the s o u l i s , of course , to excape from the l i m i t a t i o n s of the body and 12 " t o go back to the s t a r s " — t o r e t u r n to the unchanging r e a l i t y , home. This means the death of the body. But the s o u l can make tem-porary escapes before t h i s f i n a l d i s s o l u t i o n f o r , i n Schopenhauer's words , "deep s leep i s , v i i i l e i t l a s t s , i n no way d i f f e r e n t from death , i n t o w h i c h , i n f a c t , i t o f t e n passes c o n t i n u o u s l y " (The World as W i l l and Idea , Four th Book, sec . 54) . Deep s l e e p , as we saw i n Sphinx , 33 prov ides the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the v i s i o n a r y dream. A t t e n t i o n has a l ready been p a i d to the d u a l i s t i c s e p a r a t i o n between the ' o t h e r ' s p i r i t u a l w o r l d and the ' r e a l ' w o r l d of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s . In many ( i f not most) dreams there i s a l s o a s t r o n g d u a l i t y : " a dream i s a h a l l u c i n a t e d behav ior episode . . . i n which the dreamer 13 i s u s u a l l y both a p a r t i c i p a n t and an o b s e r v e r . " On t h i s common ex-p e r i e n c e , a dichotomy between the s o u l , the ' I ' who observes , and the body, the ' I ' who a c t s , can be founded, as i t i s f o r example i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , where Night spore i s the dreaming ' I ' who observes and M a s k u l l the ' I ' who a c t s . I f , when dreaming we become two, we i d e n t i f y w i t h the d i s c o r p o r a t e observer r a t h e r than the b o d i l y a c t o r , then we a c h i e v e , i n e f f e c t , the sought -a f t e r escape from the body' s p r i s o n . But i t i s , as we say , ' o n l y a dream'. However, the d r e a m w o r l d i s , at l e a s t w h i l e we are i n i t , r e a l i t y i t s e l f : i . e r what we p e r c e i v e and t h e r e f o r e what e x i s t s . Sometimes we f i n d i t hard t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a dream and a memory of the phenomenal w o r l d : a l l our percept ions are mental event s . Thus there i s , perhaps , p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , room f o r the s p e c u l a t i o n s of a Chuang Chou: " I dreamt l a s t n i g h t t h a t I was a b u t t e r f l y and now I don ' t know whether I am a man who dreamt he was a b u t t e r f l y , o r perhaps 14 a b u t t e r f l y who now dreams tha t he i s a man." But i t i s not the p h i l o s o p h i c a l paradox, that i s i m p o r t a n t ; l i t i s the image. Dante has V i r g i l say, Do you not see that we are only worms Born to become a n g e l i c b u t t e r f l i e s ? (The D i v i n e Comedy, I I 11) . 34 The b u t t e r f l y i s a symbol o f the p o e t ' s escape: man i s a worm seventy inches long (hi s he igh t and h i s span i n y e a r s ) , born to metamorphose i n t o a b u t t e r f l y , and thus to enjoy the b r i l l i a n t , b e a u t i f u l f l i g h t which symbol izes a h i g h e r s t a t e of b e i n g . The f i r s t temptat ion i s to t r y to l i v e i n the dream w o r l d , or other mental r e a l i t y mainta ined e i t h e r by drugs or by d i s c i p l i n e and 15 f a s t i n g . The i d e a l i s r e p o r t e d to have been a t t a i n e d i n I n d i a by " the r e c l u s e " who c a r r i e d away by h i s m e d i t a t i o n s , g ives a m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e to the images of h i s dreams, i f he can only succeed i n s u s t a i n i n g them w i t h s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i t y . The dream then becomes l u c i d , d e l i b e r a t e , and c r e a t i v e . ( 1 6 ) . In l i t e r a t u r e t h i s i s the theme of H. P . L o v e c r a f t ' s The Dream-Quest  of Unknown Kadath , which i s about Randolf C a r t e r ' s a r t i s t i c a l l y con-t r o l l e d dream. C a r t e r i s "an o l d dreamer,"' '" 7 " a f r ee and potent master 18 19 among dreamers , " who has dreamed such a "marve l lous sunset c i t y " t h a t the gods themselves "have f o r g o t t e n the h i g h p laces of e a r t h , and 20 the mountains that knew t h e i r y o u t h " and have gone to l i v e i n i t . The"-idea of dream c r e a t i o n has been extended by Borges i n h i s s t o r y 'The C i r c u l a r R u i n s , ' where each dreamer i s a s u b - c r e a t o r and, s i m u l -21 t a n e o u s l y , " a » . p r o j e c t i o n o f another man's dreams." In another Borges s t o r y , ' E v e r y t h i n g and N o t h i n g , ' one Great Author t e l l s another : 22 " I dreamed the w o r l d the way you dreamed your work, my Shakespeare . " This idea of s u b c r e a t i o n a l s o u n d e r l i e s a l l dream worlds of the T o l k i e n type . 35 More to the p o i n t i n a study of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s (where, a f t e r a l l , c r e a t i o n and s u b c r e a t i o n are e v i l ) i s the i d e a that the 23 r e l a t i o n between the "two poles o f human e x i s t e n c e " i s a metaphor-i c a l one. I n i t i a l l y we must again be prepared to confuse the s l e e p i n g and waking w o r l d s , so that a t h i r d term may be i n t r o d u c e d . When Ouspensky a s s e r t s t h a t " another i l l u s i o n i s tha t we are awake. When we r e a l i s e that we are as leep we w i l l see tha t a l l h i s t o r y i s made by people who are a s l e e p , " or when Archbishop Law c la ims tha t " the g rea te s t P a r t of Mankind . . . may be s a i d to be a s l e e p ; and that p a r -t i c u l a r Way of L i f e which takes up Man's M i n d , Thoughts, and A c t i o n s 25 may very w e l l be c a l l e d h i s p a r t i c u l a r Dream," t h e i r purpose i s to t e l l us to 'wake up' to a h i g h e r t r u t h than t h i s w o r l d a f f o r d s . The analogy i s i d e n t i c a l i n opera t ion to the one P l a t o uses f o r the same purpose i n h i s parab le o f the cave i n The R e p u b l i c : as the r e a l w o r l d (the phenomenal wor ld) stands i n r e l a t i o n to the dream or shadow w o r l d , so the h i g h e r w o r l d of Forms stands i n r e l a t i o n to the phenomenal one. Of course , here the p o s i t i v e values of the dream are be ing den ied , but we have a l ready seen t h a t s i n c e we dream w h i l e a s leep (or 'dead ' t o the phenomenal wor ld) that need not be the case. And the s o u l which we have seen to be l i b e r a t e d i n the dream exper ience may ( e x i t s from one stage b e i n g merely entrances somewhere e l s e ) wake up i n what P l a t o 26 c a l l s the " t r u e and uns leep ing r e a l i t y , " Dante the " w o r l d w i t h o u t / Human beings t h a t l i e s beyond the sun" (The D i v i n e Comedy, I 26 ) , L i n d s a y , Muspe l : beyond the f a l s e w o r l d o f the senses i s a r e a l w o r l d of Ideas . 36 The analogy may be extended y e t f u r t h e r . "The s l e e p i n g and the 2 dead, how a l i k e they a r e " observes U t n a p i s h t i m i n The E p i c o f Gi lgamesh. I f s leep i s l i k e death , as Schopenhauer s a i d , death may a l s o be l i k e s l e e p : "We are such s t u f f / As dreams are made on , and our l i t t l e l i f e / 28 Is rounded w i t h a s l e e p . " M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , as i n the t i t l e o f C a l d e r o n ' p l a y , ' l i f e i s a dream' , dreamt by our s l e e p i n g e t e r n a l s e l v e s w h i l e we are awake i n r e a l i t y . When we d i e ( f i n a l l y go to s l eep) on e a r t h , a f t e r many n i g h t s and days, we w i l l wake up a f t e r one n i g h t i n e t e r n i t y . " I f death i s l i k e t h i s , t h e n , " says P l a t o ' s ' S o c r a t e s , ' " I c a l l i t g a i n ; because the whole of t ime , i f you look a t i t i n t h i s way, can be r e -29 garded as no more than one s i n g l e n i g h t . " . T h i s i s the s i t u a t i o n i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , butDante used the i d e a d i f f e r e n t l y . In The D i v i n e Comedy, the Dante who makes the journey exper iences s e v e r a l days and n i g h t s , w h i l e the Dante who i s , as we e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n , dreaming the v i s i o n , takes only one n i g h t , as i s ev ident when B e a t r i c e says B u t , s i n c e the time i n which you are as leep Is f l y i n g , l e t us end h e r e , l i k e a good T a i l o r who cuts the gown to vhat c l o t h he has ( I I I 32) . In A Voyage, the concept i s c o n c r e t e l y embodied i n Tormance's t w i n suns. M a s k u l l , the e n e r g e t i c p r o t a g o n i s t , i s awake f o r a number of the o r d i n a r y sun ' s ( B r a n c h s p e l l ' s ) days, b u t , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , as leep f o r a s i n g l e one o f A l p p a i n ' s n i g h t s . A l p p a i n i s the sun of e t e r n i t y . Soon a f t e r M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance he sees " the a f t e r g l o w of a gorgeous b l u e sunse t " (VA 66) , and from then on he i s a s leep to the r e a l w o r l d . He comes to r e a l i s e t h a t "we are each o f us l i v i n g i n a 37 f a l s e , p r i v a t e w o r l d o f our own, a w o r l d o f dreams and a p p e t i t e s and d i s t o r t e d p e r c e p t i o n s " (VA 166-67): that i s to say , i n a dream w o r l d . When the b l u e sun r i s e s a g a i n , n e c e s s a r i l y he d i e s . But L indsay has not g iven us a man who i s a t the same time both as leep and awake; he has embodied the ' s l e e p i n g p a r t n e r ' as N i g h t s p o r e . The d y i n g M a s k u l l asks "Where's N i g h t s p o r e ? " and i s t o l d , "You are N i g h t s p o r e . " M a s k u l l d i e s , goes to s l e e p ; Night spore i s b o r n , wakes up. Krag s ays , "The n i g h t i s r e a l l y past at l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . . The day i s h e r e " (VA 277) . The two main concepts r e s u l t i n g from the o p p o s i t i o n between dream and r e a l i t y c o e x i s t i n most n e o - P l a t o n i c ph i lo sophy from P l a t o to Schopenhauer and i n most dream l i t e r a t u r e from Dante t o L i n d s a y . T h i s i s perhaps most c l e a r l y seen i n The Haunted Woman. L i f e i s a dream, i . e . a f a l s e w o r l d , but i n dreaming we can , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , r e -new our contact w i t h the r e a l w o r l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we have drunk o f the r i v e r of mat te r , Le the , and we have f o r g o t t e n the e t e r n a l w o r l d which i s our ture home. "Your memory w i l l be your worst f r i e n d " (VA 43) Krag t e l l s M a s k u l l when they are about to leave f o r Tormance from the tower at S t a rknes s . "Do you understand i t , or have your f o r g o t t e n ? " (VA 278) Krag asks Night spore be fore he c l imbs the tower of Muspe l . Night spore has n o t been complete ly cor rupted by h i s imprisonment i n the body. Through dreaming he has (as h i s name h i n t s ) mainta ined some con-t a c t w i t h the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y beyond the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to The Dream Adventure , an anthology of dream, s t o r i e s , Roger C a i l l o i s c la ims tha t " the dream has been used only 38 r e c e n t l y i n the l i t e r a r y p r o c e s s , " a s k i n g , "Can i t s t i l l be a dream 30 i f one has been warned i n advance tha t i t i s one?" This i s an arguable p o i n t i n many ways. However, what C a l l o i s ' i s t r y i n g to get a t i s the i d e a tha t some modern authors have w r i t t e n dream nove l s t h a t are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , c r e a t i v e dreams i n which the d r e a m - r e a l i t y o p p o s i t i o n i s not o v e r t l y p r o c l a i m e d . We can see what he means i f we compare the dream novel s of K a f k a , which respond very w e l l , as H a l l 31 and L i n d have found, to standard p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l procedures such as content a n a l y s i s , w i t h the i n s i s t e n t r e p e t i t i o n s , "And I saw i n my d r e a m . . . , " of a Bunyan. However, the l i t e r a r y mode of a l l e g o r y , even when i t does not pre tend to be a dream, does have a number of t h i n g s i n common w i t h dreams themselves , as w e l l as the tendency to use the i d e a o f the dream m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . C e r t a i n l y , a l l e g o r i e s are much more l i k e dreams than are o r d i n a r y ' r e a l i s t i c ' n o v e l s . The p r e c i s e genre to which the important works we have mentioned, The D i v i n e Comedy, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , and 32 A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , be long i s a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . A l l e g o r -i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s and dreams share three s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : s e q u e n t i a l form w i t h manifes t and l a t e n t meaning ( a l l e g o r y ) w i t h i d e a t i o n through v i s u a l i s a t i o n (dream) and s e p a r a t i o n from the phenom-e n a l w o r l d ( fantasy or romance). As i s r e v e a l e d by such express ions as ' I must have been d r e a m i n g , ' the c e n t r a l f a c t about dreaming i s that i t reduces our contac t w i t h the phenomenal w o r l d : we ' l o s e touch ' w i t h r e a l i t y . Th i s reduced 39 contac t has i t s analogue i n romance and fantasy which are " l e s s com-33 m i t t e d to the immediate r e n d i t i o n of r e a l i t y than the n o v e l . " In a fantasy P e t e r S c h l e m i e l can s e l l h i s shadow to the d e v i l , who can r o l l i t up and put i t i n h i s pocket . Thi s freedom can be used e i t h e r 34 to escape from r e a l i t y , as i t i s i n ^ p o p u l a r romance or pornography, 35 or t o exp lore i n n e r p s y c h i c r e a l i t y : the t a n g i b l e shadow may be a symbol o f something i n t a n g i b l e (say, the s o u l ) . The a c t i o n i n fantasy always takes p lace i n a mental r a t h e r than a p h y s i c a l w o r l d , where apparent ly p h y s i c a l ob jec t s are a c t u a l l y mental r e a l i t i e s , which i s why they are no longer bound by the laws of the m a t e r i a l u n i v e r s e . The kingdom of God i s , as we know, w i t h i n us , which i s why He speaks t o us i n dreams. Most r e l i g i o n s r e c o g n i s e , a c c o r d i n g to Jung, " t h a t the v o i c e which speaks i n our dreams i s not our own but comes 36 from a source t ranscending us" — t h a t i s , i t acomes from the r e a l and ' o t h e r ' w o r l d beyond. The i n n e r w o r l d and the transcendent are i n f a c t i d e n t i c a l : the fantasy t ake s .u s i n t o the s p i r i t . Th i s i s the b a s i s of C. S. L e w i s ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s : The p h y s i c a l dangers, which are p l e n t i f u l , here count f o r n o t h i n g : i t i s we ourse lves and the author who walk through a w o r l d o f s p i r i t u a l dangers which makes them seem t r i v i a l . There i s no r e c i p e f o r w r i t i n g of t h i s k i n d . But par t o f the s e c r e t i s tha t the author ( l i k e Kafka) i s r e c o r d i n g a l i v e d d i a l e c t . His Tormance i s a r e g i o n of the s p i r i t . He i s the f i r s t w r i t e r to d i s c o v e r what ' o t h e r p l a n e t s ' are r e a l l y good f o r i n f i c t i o n . No merely p h y s i c a l s trangeness or merely s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e w i l l r e a l i s e tha t i d e a o f otherness which i s what we are always t r y i n g to grasp i n a s t o r y about voyaging through space: you must go i n t o another d imens ion. To conduct 40 p l a u s i b l e and moving ' o t h e r w o r l d s ' you must draw on the only r e a l ' o t h e r w o r l d ' we know, tha t of the s p i r i t (37) . I t i s obvious t h a t fantasy l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be p a r a b o l i c , a l l e g o r -i c a l or s y m b o l i c , as are at l e a s t the ' s p e c i a l ' dreams a l lowed f o r by dream psycholog ie s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y , the J u n g i a n ) . That i s , dream works , l i k e a c t u a l ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' dreams, must be i n t e r p r e t e d . They have both a manifest content—the a c t u a l events—and a l a t e n t content—what the 38 p a t t e r n of events s i g n i f i e s . In parables ( e . g . of the k i n d w r i t t e n by K a f k a ) , the a e s t h e t i c d i s t ance between the two contents enc iphered may be q u i t e l a r g e , so tha t the dream or dream work w i l l have a number of s i g n i f i c a n c e s or 'meanings ' . In n a i v e a l l e g o r y , where, f o r example, 39 C h r i s t i a n f a l l s i n t o a s lough and the s lough i s c a l l e d Despond, the l e v e l s are c l o s e together and the dream i s t ransparent r a t h e r than opaque. A g a i n , i t i s a d i f f e r e n c e of degree r a t h e r than of k i n d , . a n d most a c t u a l dream works are somewhere between pure fantasy and n a i v e a l l e g o r y , and t h e i r o p a c i t y c o n t i n u a l l y v a r i e s : i . e . , they are what we g e n e r a l l y c a l l ' s y m b o l i c ' . We have a l ready quoted T. S. E l i o t to the e f f e c t tha t "Dante ' s 40 i s a v i s u a l i m a g i n a t i o n . " References to Spenser ' s ' r i c h t a p e s t r y ' have a s i m i l a r impor t . In f a c t , ' v i s i o n ' i s not only s ee ing i n t o the transcendent w o r l d , i t i s s ee ing i t s e l f . A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s and dreams dea l i n concepts ( l a t e n t meaning), but one cannot v i s u a l i s e 41 a disembodied concept : .i,. the l a t e n t must be made m a n i f e s t , the ab-s t r a c t made concre te . A l l e g o r i s t s express themselves , f o r t h i s rea son , 41 i n p i c t u r e s . Dreams a l s o a r e — s i n c e when dreaming we have ' l o s t t o u c h ' w i t h r e a l i t y — m a i n l y i n p i c t u r e s , and t h i n k i n g i n p i c t u r e s represent s a p r i m i t i v e form of i d e a t i o n . U n c i v i l i s e d men and c h i l -dren a l s o tend to t h i n k i n p i c t u r e s , and f o r most s l eeper s dreaming 42 seems to i n v o l v e a r e g r e s s i o n to a more p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of thought . This r e g r e s s i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e can l ead the i n s e n s i t i v e c r i t i c to say tha t an author "does g ive that impres s ion of b e i n g much more than r i p e 43 f o r p sychoana lys i s which pervades much f a n t a s y " or even, though l e s s s n i d e l y , t h a t " a l l the great f a n t a s i e s , I suppose, have been w r i t t e n 44 by emot iona l ly c r i p p l e d men." However, the r e g r e s s i o n i s a v i t a l p a r t of the f a n t a s i s t ' s attempt to get beyond the l i m i t s of both language and everyday r e a l i t y i n order to exp lore the i n n e r r e a l i t y . I d e a t i o n through v i s u a l i s a t i o n leads i n dreams to condensat ion . Condensing two p r o v e r b s , we might c l a i m t h a t every p i c t u r e t e l l s a s t o r y worth a thousand words . In both dreams and f a n t a s i e s the v i s u a l -i z a t i o n i s s y m b o l i c ; i t a l l o w s an enormous amount of a c t u a l ex-per ienceoto be encapsula ted i n i conograph ic form. Where these r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n s are common to a c u l t u r e ( v i z . found i n the ' c o l l e c t i v e unconsc ious ' ) they are c a l l e d a rchetypes . I t i s the use of these 45 w h i c h , as Maud Bodkin must be c r e d i t e d w i t h showing, enable dream f a n t a s i e s such as The D i v i n e Comedy and The Rime of the A n c i e n t M a r i n e r , as w e l l as works b e l o n g i n g to l e s s e r l i t e r a r y genres such as the f a i r y t a l e and G o t h i c romance, to generate such emot ional power. Condensation i s a l s o at work i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s when 42 we f i n d the sudden displacement of symbol ic meaning from the l a n d -scape to the f i g u r e . A l l e g o r i c a l f a n t a s i e s and dreams both work through p i c t u r e s , not i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n . In a l l e g o r i e s there are no charac ter s i n the sense we use the word when t a l k i n g of p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l s , there are only embodied concepts . The a l l e g o r i s t i s most important device f o r making s i g n i f i c a n t h i s embodiments i s through t h i s d i sp lacement . As A . D. N u t t a l has ob-served , exampling us w i t h a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and a n a i v e w r i t e r , " w i t h Dante, as w i t h Bunyan, i t i s the landscape t h a t keeps the a l l e g o r y 46 v i g o r o u s . " Thi s i s the case i n a l l a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . A c c o r d i n g to Angus F l e t c h e r , who s l i p s i n an e x t r a name, " the heroes 4 i n Dante and Spenser and Bunyan seem to c rea te the worlds about them." Indeed they do. But i t i s from the displacement of s i g n i f i c a n c e from the landscape tha t the e m o t i o n a l , r a t h e r than the i n t e l l e c t u a l , s i g n i f -icance of the embodiment comes. This i s an extremely important p o i n t . Landscape i n a l l e g o r y i s , as we say , 'by the w a y , ' l o g i c a l l y , but i t i s one source o f a l l e g o r y ' s emot iona l power. L a s t l y , dreams and a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s have i n common s e q u e n t i a l form. Joanna Russ t a l k s of " the t r u d g i n g r e g u l a r i t y of the events i n A r c t u r u s " and says dream s t o r i e s "are e n t i r e l y e p i s o d i c , w i t h c o n s i s t e n t and apparent ly d e l i b e r a t e avoidance of emphasis, complex i ty 48 o r change" so that " the r e s u l t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s e r i e s of t a b l e a u s . " Such th ings may w i t h equa l j u s t i c e be s a i d of The D i v i n e Comedy or w i t h g rea te r j u s t i c e of The F a e r i e Queen. In f a c t , such remarks about 43 ' t a b l e a u s ' are the c l i c h e s of Spenser c r i t i c i s m , and a r i s e from the same p a t h e t i c i n a b i l i t y to take a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y . Of course , A Voyage to A r c t u r u s and The D i v i n e Comedy are both b e a u t i f u l l y con-s t r u c t e d books, but there are many f i n e dream works which are c l o s e r to ' p u r e ' f a n t a s y . In books which are not t i g h t l y organi sed around a p r e c i s e moral f o rmula , such as Amos T u t u o l a ' s The Palm-Wine D r i n k a r d or George MacDonald's Phantastes, the order o f the i n c i d e n t s may o f t en be s imply random. F l e t c h e r admit s , " t h e progress need not be p l a u s i b l e , 49 as long as the momentum of symbol ic i n v e n t i o n i s g r e a t . " Most c r i t i c s of A Voyage have p r a i s e d i t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i t s wea l th o f i n v e n t i o n , and t h i s may be why the economical o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e has so long r e -mained h i d d e n . When S i g n i f i c a n t I n c i d e n t s f o l l o w one another w i t h great r a p i d i t y , as they tend to i n dreams and dream a l l e g o r i e s , the reader i s u n l i k e l y to cons ider t h e i r order deeply . Be s ide s , even i n dream a l l e g o r i e s , there may not be any reason why one event should f o l l o w r a t h e r than precede another . Should C h r i s t i a n meet F a i t h f u l before H o p e f u l , or pass through V a n i t y F a i r b e f o r e , r a t h e r than a f t e r , the V a l l e y o f the Shadow of death? In a c t u a l dreams we accept the a s t o n i s h i n g w i t h equanimi ty , and quest ions that would be asked by the waking consciousness—-were i t on ly awake—are s imply not asked. However, here dream and a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy p a r t company. When we read a l i t e r a r y work (as opposed to a p i e c e o f enter ta inment ) of whatever genre, we should not put our reasons to s l e e p . Even though they both have s e q u e n t i a l form, and a l l 44 the o ther s i m i l a r i t i e s we have no ted , a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s are 51 des igned; they are works of a r t , and dreams are n o t . A l l e g o r i e s are two d i m e n s i o n a l , and the two s t r u c t u r a l forms which they take have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d as the b a t t l e and the progre s s . Of the form of the b a t t l e are The Holy War and The B a t t l e of the Books. Of the form of the progress are The P i l g r i m ' s Progress and G u l l i v e r 1 ' s T r a v e l s . Of course , a l l a l l e g o r i e s are to some extent b o t h , though a few ( e . g . the works of Bunyan and Swi f t c i t e d above) are almost w h o l l y one o r the o t h e r . In g e n e r a l , as C. S. Lewis argues , the form of the progress i s to be p r e f e r r e d : Seneca, w i t h h i s imagery of l i f e as a j o u r n e y , was nearer to the mark than P r u d e n t i u s ; f o r Seneca o u t l i n e d the theme of the P i l g r i m ' s  P r o g r e s s , and the P i l g r i m ' s Progress i s a b e t t e r book than the Holy War. I t i s not hard to see why t h i s should be so . The journey has i t s ups and downs, i t s p l ea san t r e s t i n g - p l a c e s enjoyed f o r a n i g h t and then abandoned, i t s unexpected meet ings , i t s^rumours of dangers ahead, and, above a l l , the sense of a g o a l , a t f i r s t f a r d i s t a n t and dimly heard o f , but growing nearer a t every t u r n of the road . Now t h i s represents f a r more t r u l y than any combat i n a champ c l o s the p e r e n n i a l s t rangeness , and the sensuous forward movement o f fche-inner l i f e . I t needs the long road and mountain prospects of the f a b l e to match the <x1T£ipov w i t h i n (52) . Even ' p u r e ' dream f a n t a s i e s l i k e A l i c e i n Wonderland and The Palm-Wine  D r i n k a r d have some k i n d of f i n a l g o a l , even i f i t i s only a way of ending the s t o r y . But i n a l l e g o r i e s which c a r r y a s p i r i t u a l message, there i s a c o n t i n u a l s t r i v i n g towards a f i n a l v i s i o n or v i s i o n a r y exper i ence , as C. S. Lewis has n o t e d . 45 The a l l e g o r y which i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a b a t t l e i s one organi sed around the c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l i n some form, whether the opposing camps be c a l l e d Heaven and H e l l or S u r t u r and Crystalman or whatever. So much i s easy. The a l l e g o r y which i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a progress i s one organi sed around a j o u r n e y . Such a l l e g o r i e s tend to have a f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e , made up o f two major elements (the progress proper and the f i n a l v i s i o n ) a a n d two minor elements which act as a frame (the t r a n s i t i o n from the phenomenal t o the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d and the promise of r e t u r n ) . We n o r m a l l y beg in i n the ' r e a l ' c o r everyday w o r l d : i n a dark wood i n The D i v i n e Comedy/, . i n Anodos 's room at home i n Phanta s te s , i n F a u l l ' s House i n A Voyage. The a l l e g o r i s t ' s f i r s t task i s to get us from there to the w o r l d of the s p i r i t . The t r a n s i -t i o n may be b a r e l y n o t i c e a b l e : N . K. Sandars, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, a c u t e l y observes tha t Gi lgamesh's second journey can be based on no h i s t o r i c a l event ; the topog-raphy i s o t h e r - w o r l d l y i n a manner which before i t was n o t . The planes of romantic and o f s p i r i t u a l adventure have coa le sced . Al though c l o t h e d i n the appearances of p r i m i t i v e geog-raphy i t i s a s p i r i t u a l landscape as much as Dante ' s Dark Wood, Mounta in , and P i t (53). The t r a n s i t i o n i n Phantastes i s b e a u t i f u l l y managed: Anodos 's bedroom m a g i c a l l y metamorphoses i n t o f a i r y l a n d : the carpet becomes a sward, 54 carved becomes r e a l i v y , the faucet over f lows and becomes a stream. Mr. Vane i n L i l i t h has i n h i s house an u p s t a i r s which i s unknown to h im, a g a r r e t w i t h "an uncanny look""'" ' which may be the immediate source o f U l f ' s Tower i n The Haunted Woman. In t h i s g a r r e t i s a m i r r o r 46 through w h i c h , r a t h e r i n the manner of A l i c e , Mr. Vane stumbles i n t o 5 6 another w o r l d , e v i d e n t l y on another p l ane t which occupies the same 57 space as the e a r t h . Lindsay and C. S. Lewis take us i n t o the s p i r i t w o r l d by hav ing t h e i r heroes l i t e r a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d to o ther p l a n e t s . Of t h i s C. S. Lewis says I am i n c l i n e d to t h i n k that f r a n k l y s u p e r n a t u r a l methods are b e s t . I took a hero once to Mars i n a space - sh ip , but when I knew b e t t e r I had angels convey h im to Venus (58) . Lewis has j u s t been complementing H. G. Wel l s on " h i s choice of a q u i t e 59 i m p o s s i b l e compos i t ion c a l l e d c a v o r i t e " to power h i s space-ship i n F i r s t Men i n the Moon: This i m p o s s i b i l i t y i s o f course a m e r i t , not a d e f e c t . A man of h i s i n g e n u i t y c o u l d e a s i l y have thought up something more p l a u s i b l e . But the more p l a u s i b l e , the worse . That would merely i n v i t e i n t e r e s t i n a c t u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e ac h i n g the moon, a m i n t e r e s t f o r e i g n to h i s s t o r y (60) . The t r a d i t i o n a l method of g e t t i n g i n t o the s p i r i t w o r l d , f a l l i n g as leep and h a v i n g one or more dreams as i n P i e r s Plowman and The P i l g r i m ' s  P r o g r e s s , seems to have gone out of f a s h i o n . The s p i r i t w o r l d i n modern fantasy tends to be not i n i n n e r but i n outer space, though the two may be, i n the end, the same. Once i n the s p i r i t w o r l d , the progress proper o f the a l l e g o r y takes p l a c e . Angus F l e t c h e r descr ibes t h i s by s a y i n g that "a system-a t i c a l l y compl ica ted charac te r w i l l generate a l a r g e number of o ther 61 p r o t a g o n i s t s who r e a c t a g a i n s t or w i t h h im i n a s y l l o g i s t i c manner" a l l e g o r i e s abandon mimesis , f o r the charac ter s do not have to " i n t e r a c t 47 p l a u s i b l y , or a c c o r d i n g to p r o b a b i l i t y , as long as they i n t e r a c t w i t h 62 a c e r t a i n l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . " Then, "by a n a l y z i n g the p r o j e c t i o n s , we determine what i s going on i n i t h e mind of the h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e 6 3 p r o j e c t o r . " U n l i k e charac te r s i n n o v e l s , charac te r s i n a l l e g o r i e s do not have i n t e r i o r w o r l d s . A n o v e l i s t may t e l l us tha t h i s hero i s unhappy and depressed, or ;(for example) g ive us samples o f h i s stream of consciousness so ordered that we i n f e r the f a c t . In a l l e g o r y , where mental processes are e x t e r i o r i s e d , the hero w i l l f a l l i n t o a Slough of Despond of some k i n d . Thus the p r o t a g o n i s t generates landscapes and charac te r s (though that word i s more a p p r o p r i a t e to the ' r e a l ' people of a nove l ) who are the t r a n s i t o r y embodiments of the problems he i s f a c i n g . Each problem faced and disposed of i s a s tep forward i n the progress of the a l l e g o r y . The progress of the a l l e g o r y c l e a r l y takes p l a c e on two l e v e l s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : on one l e v e l (manifest) we have the s t o r y of a t r a v e l l e r and h i s e p i s o d i c adventures , on another ( l a t e n t ) we have a m e t a p h y s i c a l s t o r y of the progress of the s o u l . Thus the a l l e g o r y " a s p i r e s to 64 enc ipher two contents i n one f o r m , " and i t has been much c r i t i c i s e d f o r t h i s , even by s o p h i s t i c a t e d a l l e g o r i s t s such as B lake and Poe. Both T o l k i e n and^C. S. Lewis repea ted ly a f f i r m t h a t t h e i r own f a n t a s i e s 65 are not a l l e g o r i c a l . Aware that a l l e g o r y i s frowned upon ( i f i t s t i l l i s ) i n ' t h e age of the n o v e l , ' both J . B. P i c k and C o l i n W i l s o n are eager to deny that L indsay i s an a l l e g o r i s t , even though i n A Voyage  to A r c t u r u s he o b v i o u s l y i s . W i l s o n says A Voyage i s " a s o r t of 48 P i l g r i m ' s Progre s s—except , I must emphasise, tha t i t i s not an a l -l e g o r y but a s t o r y w i t h deeper meanings" (TSG 49) . S a i d of A Voyage, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s means anyth ing even to W i l s o n . At any r a t e , i t does not hamper h i s c r i t i c i s m g r e a t l y , f o r he procedes to work through the progress sugges t ing (o f ten a c u t e l y ) p o s s i b l e a l l e g o r -i c a l meanings. P i c k , however, i s a much more determined a n t i - a l l e g o r i s t . P i c k chides "The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement r e v i e w e r " f o r l e a p i n g a t the most obvious w o r d — ' a l l e g o r y ' . L indsay was n o t an a l l e g o r i s t . In D e v i l ' s Tor one ,of h i s charac ter s says : ' A symbol i s a m y s t i c s i g n of the C r e a t o r . An a l l e g o r y i s a w a l l d e c o r a t i o n w i t h a l a b e l attached* 5 (TSG 5 ) . The c h a r a c t e r P i c k quotes i s the p a i n t e r P e t e r Copping. We have a l -ready seen t h a t L i n d s a y ' s views i n D e v i l ' s Tor (1932) were v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from those i n A Voyage (1920): L indsay h i m s e l f comments on the "chasm of c o n t r a d i c t i o n " (TSG 30) . We have a l ready noted that the c h a r a c t e r i n D e v i l ' s Tor most l i k e l y to be a mouthpiece f o r L indsay h i m s e l f i s not Copping but the ag ing w r i t e r of books on co smica l prob-66 lems, Magnus Colborne . A g a i n , Colborne "reminded one of Schopenhauer" (DT 108) . This a l l f i t s toge ther . Had P i c k read h i s Schopenhauer as w e l l as L indsay he would have found i n The World as W i l l and Idea a passage s t r o n g l y c r i t i c a l o f a l l e g o r y i n the p l a s t i c a r t s , which Schopenhauer i s aga i n s t f o r the same reason as Copping: the l a b e l on the s t a t u e , p a i n t i n g or w a l l d e c o r a t i o n which says , f o r example, ' F a i t h , ' takes us from the p e r c e p t i o n o f the concrete t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f t o a l i m i t i n g a b s t r a c t i o n . But Schopenhauer p o i n t s out t h a t the m a t e r i a l 49 of l i t e r a t u r e i s i n i t s e l f a b s t r a c t , concepts expressed i n words , and t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s case a l l e g o r y takes us from the a b s t r a c t _to the concrete ; - , when the word i s made f l e s h . T h e r e f o r e , says Schopenhauer, a l l e g o r y has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n t o poetry from that which i t has to p l a s t i c and p i c t o r i a l a r t ; and a l though i t i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n the l a t t e r , i t i s q u i t e admissable and very e f f e c t i v e i n the former ( F i r s t Book, sec . 50) (67) . Borges g ives us a concrete i l l u s t r a t i o n of Schopenhauer's p o i n t when he says B e a t r i c e i s not a s i g n o f . t h e word f a i t h ; she i s a s i g n o f a c t i v e v i r t u e and the s e c r e t i l l u m i n a t i o n tha t t h i s word i n d i c a t e s — a more p r e c i s e s i g n , a r i c h e r and happ ie r s i g n than the monosy l l ab le f a i t h (68) . Borges f u r t h e r p o i n t s out tha t a l l e g o r i s t s are P l a t o n i s t s f o r whom " i d e a s are r e a l i t i e s " whereas f o r A r i s t o t e l i a n s " they are g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s " from p a r t i c u l a r s * . - .^Novelists are A r i s t o t e l i a n n o m i n a l i s t s because they d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e a l l e g o r i s t s are P l a t o n i c 69 r e a l i s t s because they dea l w i t h Ideas . We have seen t h a t L indsay was, f o l l o w i n g Schopenhauer, a P l a t o n i s t who b e l i e v e d i n a r e a l w o r l d . No doubt he c o u l d have j u s t i f i e d h i s use of a l l e g o r y p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , had he f e l t the need to apo log i s e f o r i t . He d i d n o t . In the l e t t e r s t o V i s i a k he hopes t h a t h i s young student w i l l succeed " i n e l u c i d a t i n g the mystery of the a l l e g o r y " (L 45) and i s g r a t e f u l to V i s i a k f o r t a k i n g the a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y , even i f i t i s from a s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n (and there fore l i m i t e d ) p o i n t o f v iew. What P i c k and W i l s o n agree on i s that w h i l e Lindsay i s not an 50 a l l e g o r i s t , he i s a v i s i o n a r y and mys t i c l i k e "Boehme, Swedenborg and W i l l i a m B l a k e " (TSG 5 ) . ^ Lindsay i s a v i s i o n a r y , of course , when we reach the t h i r d stage o f the a l l e g o r y . Tak ing us from the phenomenal w o r l d to the s p i r i t w o r l d , and across the s p i r i t w o r l d i n the p rogre s s , i s the necessary p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f i n a l v i s i o n i t s e l f . Angus F l e t c h e r has n o t i c e d that "though a l l e g o r y may be in tended to r e v e a l , i t does so only a f t e r v e i l i n g a delayed message which i t would r a t h e r keep from any very ready or f a c i l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " ^ " ' " ' V e i l i n g ' i s an a p p r o p r i a t e metaphor h e r e , f o r the f i n a l aim of the a l l e g o r y i s to take us through the v e i l of Maya and g ive us a v i s i o n of the transcendent w o r l d . But i t must be worked f o r : The process of e x p l i c a t i o n , a gradua l u n f o l d i n g , i s s e q u e n t i a l i n form. There i s n o r m a l l y a g radua l increa se of comprehension, as the reader pursues the f a b l e , and yet most a l l e g o r i e s of major importance have u l t i m a t e l y very obscure images, and these are a source of t h e i r g rea t -ness . (72) . 73 A f t e r the "pas s ionate s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y " we move to the v i s i o n , and When an a l l e g o r y becomes p u r e l y v i s i o n a r y , when f o r example The P i l g r i m ' s Progress shows us the Heavenly C i t y , i t does so only a f t e r a s t r u g g l e to reach tha t g o a l . The stage p r i o r to f i n a l v i s i o n seems to b e . q u a l i t a t i v e l y u n l i k e that f i n a l v i s i o n ; the l a t t e r i s a moment of l i b e r a -t i o n . The former i s a sequence of d i f f i c u l t l a b o r s , o f ten t a k i n g the form of the h e r o ' s en-slavement to a f a t a l d e s t i n y . The psychomachia and the progress are n a r r a t i v e images of t h i s s t r u g g l e . They are b a t t l e s f o r , and journeys toward, the f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n of the hero (74) . The hero i s l i b e r a t e d by m y s t i c a l i n s i g h t , which i s why S t . Bernard r a t h e r than B e a t r i c e leads 'Dante ' to the f i n a l v i s i o n . The m y s t i c a l 51 i n s i g h t i s knowledge o f the w o r l d beyond the v e i l of Maya, i . e . g n o s i s . The ' f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n ' l e a d s , of course , to r e b i r t h , and most a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s a r e , on a l a rge s c a l e , examples of what Maud Bodkin d i s t i n g u i s h e s as the " R e b i r t h Arche type " or ( conf i rming our i n s i s t e n c e on the dream aspect of a l l e g o r i e s ) the " N i g h t J o u r n e y , " whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are s t r u g g l e , r e l a x a t i o n and then i l l u m i n a t i o n . Maud Bodkin w r i t e s tha t In i t s s i m p l e s t form t h i s i n t e r p l a y may be recogn ized as a rhythm c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a l l conscious and organ ic l i f e . In the more com-p l e x form t h a t generates the need f o r expres-t s i o n , there i s t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t . A sense o f p a i n and g u i l t a t tends p e r s i s t e n c e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r mode o f a d a p t a t i o n , or s e l f -a s s e r t i o n , whose abandonment i n the c o n d i t i o n of surrender and quiescence g ives o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the a r i s i n g impulse o f some new form of l i f e (75) . M a s k u l l ' s b loody t r i p across Tormance i s the s t r u g g l e , a t tended by " p a i n and g u i l t " . On the f l o a t i n g i s l a n d M a s k u l l reaches complete quiescence when he t e l l s Gangnet " I have l o s t my w i l l " (VA 275) . Soon a f t e r , he d i e s , and the " a r i s i n g impul se " of the 'new form of l i f e ' ( that i s , N ight spore ) takes over . In a l l e g o r i e s , the r e b i r t h i s g e n e r a l l y back i n t o the phenomenal w o r l d . Thus Dante i s reborn when he reawakes to w r i t e h i s dream v i s i o n as The D i v i n e Comedy, Bunyan t o w r i t e The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s . Anodos d ies and i s b u r i e d , 7 ^ but he must s i n k from t h i s " s t a t e o f i d e a l b l i s s i n t o the w o r l d o f shadows" 7 7 and f i n d h i m s e l f once more at 'home' on e a r t h . Night spore has t o face the most t e r r i b l e t h i n g o f a l l : r e b i r t h i n t o Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d (VA 279) . The r e b i r t h through reawakening or the promise of r e t u r n t o the phenom-52 e n a l wor ld—though a w o r l d changed by the dream e x p e r i e n c e — i s the second h a l f of the frame which surrounds the progress p roper , the l a s t of the a l l e g o r y ' s four s e c t i o n s and, g e n e r a l l y , the b r i e f e s t . A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s as a whole are a k i n d of dream ex-per ience f o r the reader . In the a p o l o g e t i c doggerel which prefaces The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , Bunyan asks " W o u l d s ' t thou be i n a Dream, and 78 y e t not s l e e p ? " Dream books , as has been e x p l a i n e d , are l i k e a c t u a l 79 dreams, but the reader cannot read f o r ever.- ' any more than the author can dream f o r e v e r : both must r e t u r n to the phenomenal w o r l d . But the dream i s on ly the manifes t content o f the dream book: the Latent con-t e n t i s l e f t f o r the reader to work o u t . Thus Bunyan c loses The P i l g r i m ' s Progress w i t h more doggere l : Now, Reader, I have t o l d my Dream to thee ; See i f thou c a n s ' t i n t e r p r e t i t to me, Or to t h y s e l f (80) . Anodos at the end of Phantastes r e turns "somewhat i n s t r u c t e d , I hoped, by the adventures t h a t had b e f a l l e n me i n F a i r y - l a n d . Could I t r a n s l a t e 81 the exper ience of my t r a v e l s ' there, i n t o common l i f e ? " Dante appeals t o us repea ted ly to work f o r the l a t e n t content : 0 you who have good i n t e l l e c t s , look c l o s e l y At the l e s s o n t h a t l i e s hidden beneath The v e i l of myster ious verses (I 9 ) . The mora l messages of d i f f e r e n t a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s w i l l , 82 of course , be d i f f e r e n t i n each a l l e g o r y . MacDonald's i n Phantastes i s , f o r example, the oppos i te o f L i n d s a y ' s i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s . However, we have seen the genre of a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy to be a 53 remarkably homogenous one, and the f a c t s of b e l i e f i n a transcendent w o r l d and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c embodiment of the ' r e b i r t h a r c h e t y p e ' l e a d tormost a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s (at l e a s t , I can t h i n k of no excep t ions ) h a v i n g a common message bes ides the s p e c i f i c mora l one. This message i s t h a t we are a l i e n s , but tha t we have, i n the r e a l w o r l d , a t rue home. Thus the p r o t a g o n i s t leaves h i s e a r t h l y home f o r a s p i r i t u a l one. C h r i s t i a n puts " h i s f i n g e r s i n h i s e a r s " so as not t o hear h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n c a l l i n g a f t e r h i m , and runs on " c r y i n g L i f e ! L i f e ' . E t e r n a l L i f e . ' " " E v e n t u a l l y he reaches h i s t rue home, which i s the C e l e s t i a l C i t y . In MacDonald's L i l i t h the raven l u r e s Mr. Vane from h i s e a r t h l y home, s a y i n g "Everybody who i s n o t . a t home, has to go home. You thought t h a t you were at home where I found y o u : 84 i f tha t had been your home you c o u l d not have l e f t i t . " ' Most c l e a r l y t h i s m o t i f i s expressed by N o v a l i s i n h i s romance Henry o f O f t e r d i i i g e n . Henry leaves h i s p a r e n t s , but f e e l s "as i f i n r e a l i t y he was j o u r n e y i n g 85 ^  homewards." " In 'The F u l f i l l m e n t ' when he asks " W i t h e r are we go ing? " 86 he i s t o l d , "Ever homewards." We found t h i s theme i n Sphinx, where 87 N i c h o l a s and Lore are f r e e d by death to r i d e t o t h e i r r e a l home, and we s h a l l f i n d i t aga in i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . 54 Footnotes to Chapter Two T. S. E l i o t , Dante (London: Faber and Faber , 1965), p . 56. This passage i s a l s o quoted by Maud Bodkin i n her p i o n e e r i n g study A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n Poet ry (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p . 177. Her comments on Dante are most i n s t r u c t i v e . 2 This t a b l e has been taken from Constance B. H l e a t t ' s The R e a l i s m  of Dream V i s i o n s : The P o e t i c E x p l o i t a t i o n of the Dream-Experience i n  Chaucer and h i s Contemporaries (The Hague: Mouton, 1967), p . 27. 3 P l a t o , ' A p o l o g y ' i n The Last Days of S o c r a t e s , t r a n s . Hugh Tredennick (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1954), p . 40. In 'Phaedo' i n t h i s volume, ' S o c r a t e s ' t e l l s us he has been composing poetry on ly " i n the attempt to d i s c o v e r the meaning o f c e r t a i n dreams" (p. 77) . 4 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n : A Romance (New Y o r k : H . H. Moore, 1853), p . 27. ^ N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 28. N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 29. ^ N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 23. g Dante, The D i v i n e Comedy, t r a n s , Lou i s B i a n c o l l i (New Y o r k : Washington Square P r e s s , 1968), p . 294. The q u o t a t i o n i s from Book I I , Canto.,,30. Subsequent re ferences to t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be to book and canto and i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t , v i z . ( I I 30) . P l a t o , Timaeus, t r a n s , H . D. P . Lee (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), p . 97. The passage cont inues a l i t t l e l a t e r : "and i t i s the f u n c t i o n of someone i n h i s r i g h t mind to consture what i s r e -membered . . . and to g ive a r a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r v i s i o n s . " "^Schopenhauer, Samtl iche Werke (Reclam, 1921), I V , p . 391. Quoted from Jean-Pau l Weber's The Psychology of A r t , t r a n s , J . A . E l i a s (New Y o r k : De lacor te P r e s s , 1969), p . ^4-, T l a t o , 'Phaedo' i n The Las t Days, p . 109. 55 12 "To go back to the s t a r s / A c c o r d i n g to the thought expressed by P l a t o , " says B e a t r i c e , much to Dante ' s s u r p r i s e . But she adds, "What Timaeus, who e v i d e n t l y spoke as / He f e l t , had to say about the human s o u l / Is not the same as what i s seen up h e r e " ( I I I 4 ) . 13 H a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e , and L i t e r a t u r e : A Study o f Franz  Kafka (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1970), p . 7. C f . "we go through the exper ience of becoming two every n i g h t i n our dreams" and " the s o u l or the double i s a t w i n " i n Geza Roheim's The  Gates of the Dream (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1952), p . 433. 14 Quoted from E r i c h Fromm, The Forgot ten Language (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t , 1951), p . 5 . Fromm n e i t h e r i d e n t i f i e s the poet nor c i t e s h i s source . "^Aldous H u x l e y , Heaven and H e l l (London: Chatto and Windus, 1956). See Appendix I I f o r d i e t a r y reasons why " i n the Western w o r l d v i s i o n a r i e s and mys t i c s are a good dea l l e s s common than they used to be" (p. 59) . X6 Roger C a i l l o i s , The Dream Adventure (New Y o r k : Or ion Books, 1963). 1 7 H . P . L o v e c r a f t , The Dream-Quest B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1970), p . 122... 1 8 H . P . L o v e c r a f t , The Dream-Quest 1 9 H . P . L o v e c r a f t , The Dream-Quest 2 ° H . P . L o v e c r a f t , The Dream-Quest 21 Jorge Lu i s Borges , F i c t i o n s , ed. Anthony K e r r i g a n (London: John C a l d e r , 1965), p . 57. 22 Jorge L u i s Borges , A P e r s o n a l Antho logy , ed. Anthony K e r r i g a n (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1967), p . 117. 23 E r i c h Fromm, The Forgot ten Language, p . 28. 56 24 P . D. Ouspensky, The Fourth Way (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1957), p . 29. 2 5 W i l l i a m Law, 'The S p i r i t o f P r a y e r , ' Works (1762), V I I 3. 26 P l a t o , Timaeus, p . 71. 27 The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, Ed . and t r a n s . N . K. Sandars (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971), p . 104. ^ ^ W i l l i a m Shakespeare, The Tempest ( I V . i . 1 5 6 - 5 8 ) . These l i n e s were f a v o r i t e s o f Jean P a u l R i c h t e r , as J . W. Smeed t e l l s us i n Jean  P a u l ' s 'Dreams' (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 9. 29 P l a t o , 'Apo logy ' i n The Last Days, p . 49. 30 Roger C a - l l o i s , The Dream Adventure , p . x x x i i . a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e , and L i t e r a t u r e : A Study of Franz 3 1 H Kafka . 32 An I t a l i a n v i s i o (C13th) , an E n g l i s h a l l e g o r y (C17th) , a German Romance (C18th) and a S c o t t i s h space fantasy (C20th) . 33 R i c h a r d Chase, The American Novel and I t s T r a d i t i o n (Garden C i t y : Doubleday, 1957), p . 13. Chase i s deve lop ing Hawthorne's o p p o s i t i o n between the n o v e l and the romance, which " w i l l veer toward m y t h i c , a l l e g o r i c a l , and s y m b o l i s t i c f o r m s . " For f u r t h e r development see E l l i o t t B. Gose J r , Imaginat ion Indulged : The I r r a t i o n a l i n the N i n e - teenth Century N o v e l (Montrea l and London: M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), pp. 15-28. 34 In her p i ece o f po lemic aga ins t dream w r i t e r s i n g e n e r a l and David L indsay i n p a r t i c u l a r , Joanna Russ c a l l s dream s t o r i e s " the pornography o f p o e t r y " ; E x t r a p o l a t i o n (Dec. 1969), p . 13. 35 See B. D. Lewin , Dreams and the Uses of Regress ion (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1958). 36 C. G. Jung, Psychology and R e l i g i o n (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938), p . 45. 57 37 C. S. L e w i s , Of Other Worlds (London: Geoffrey B l e s , 1966), pp. 11-12; 38 Running u p s t a i r s may, to take a Freudian example, s i g n i f y s exua l i n t e r c o u r s e , a ccord ing to the p a r t i t p l a y s i n the r e s t of the dream, but i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean or s i g n i f y t h a t . 39 s John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s Progress (London: J . M. Dent, 1927), Bunyan not only uses n a i v e a l l e g o r y , he g ives a running commentary (h i s waking consciousness i s r e c o u n t i n g the dream): "as the s i n n e r i s awakened about h i s l o s t c o n d i t i o n , there a r i s e t h i n h i s s o u l many fear s and doubts" which are e v i d e n t l y watery f o r they " s e t t l e i n t h i s p l a c e : And t h i s i s the reason of the badness of t h i s ground" (p. 18) . C f . the swamp M a s k u l l gets i n t o w i t h Sul lenbode (VA 254) . 40 T. S. E l i o t , Dante, p . 15 . 41 That i s , an Idea or Form. They can be seen, and t h i s i s the aim of P l a t o n i c and n e o - P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y , but they s t i l l cannot be v i s u a l i s e d , and t h e r e f o r e they cannot be d e s c r i b e d . Hence 'Dante ' i n an important s e c t i o n of The D i v i n e Comedy goes b l i n d ( I I I 25-26) . Lesser v i s i o n a r i e s l i k e M a s k u l l and Ransom ( i n Perelartdra) have s i m i l a r problems w i t h new c o l o u r s and s e n s a t i o n s . 42 See Sigmund Freud , A M e t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l Supplement to the Theory  of Dreams (1917 [1915]) , S. E . X I V , p . 222; I n t r o d u c t o r y Lectures on P s y c h o - A n a l y s i s : P a r t I I : Dreams (1916), S. E. XV, p . 171; The I n t e r - p r e t a t i o n of Dreams (1900-1901), S. E . V , p . 608. See a l s o B. D. Lewin , Dreams and the Uses of R e g re s s i on . ^ \ i n g s l e y Amis on H. P . L L o v e c r a f t i n New Maps o f H e l l (London: New E n g l i s h L i b r a r y , 1969), p . 36. 44 Damon K n i g h t , In Search of Wonder (Chicago: Advent , 1969), p . 38. 45 Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y : P s y c h o l o g i c a l S tudies  o f Imaginat ion (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963). 46 A. D. N u t t a l l , Two Concepts of A l l e g o r y (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1967), p . 31 . 58 47 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y : The Theory of a Symbolic Mode ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p . 35. 48 Joanna Russ, 'Dream L i t e r a t u r e and Science F i c t i o n ' i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (Dec. 1969), p. 9. 49 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 153. " ^ C . S. Lewis says L indsay " leads us up a s t a i r of u n p r e d i c t a b l e s . In each chapter we t h i n k we have found h i s f i n a l p o s i t i o n ; each t ime we are u t t e r l y mis taken . He b u i l d s whole wor lds of imagery and p a s s i o n , any one of which would have served another w r i t e r f o r a whole book, o n l y to p u l l each o f them to p ieces and pour scorn on i t " (Of Other  Wor lds , p . 11) . C o l i n W i l s o n says " L i n d s a y ' s c a p a c i t y f o r pure i n -v e n t i o n — c r e a t i n g a s t range landscape—must be unsurpassed i n s c i ence f i c t i o n ; here h i s genius i s so p l a i n that no one c o u l d deny i t " (TSG 50 ) . "'"'"See Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y , pp, 61-68, and C. B. H i e a t t , The R e a l i s m of Dream V i s i o n s , M a r j o r i e N . How's e a r l y s tudy of Dreams and Vi s ions i n E n g l i s h Poe t ry (London: U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s , 1916) ignores a c t u a l dream exper ience and i s t h e r e f o r e , from our p o i n t o f v i e w , u s e l e s s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , How does not seem to be aware t h a t her own pre- Jung ian a t t i t u d e to dreams—they a re w i s h -f u l f i l l m e n t i n a masturbatory way—colours her c r i t i c i s m : Chaucer wrote h i s House of Fame " t o 'work o f f f a n c i e s and i d e a s " and the Tennyson o f 'Day-Dream' had a "tendency to use t h i s form as a means of g e t t i n g r e l i e f " (p. 8 ) . 52 C. S. Lewi s , The A l l e g o r y of Love: A Study i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 69. 53 The E p i c of Gilgamesh, p . 35. 54 George MacDonald, Phantastes (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 19 70) , pp. 6-7. "^George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1969), pp. 6-7, 13-15. Between Phantastes and L i l i t h MacDonald got to know Lewis C a r r o l l , whose i n f l u e n c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n L i l i t h i n the w i t t y and p a r a d o x i c a l d ia logue between Mr . Vane and the raven . "^George MacDonald, L i l i t h , p . 8. 59 George MacDonald, L i l i t h , p . 49, p . 83 e t c . 5 8 C. S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , pp. 68-69. 59 C. S. L e w i s , Of Other Wor lds , p . 64. Lewis borrows W e l l s ' s s p h e r i c a l space- sh ip , but not i t s motive power, f o r Out of the S i l e n t  P l a n e t . Weston, however, the 'mad' s c i e n t i s t o f the book, seems to be a c r u e l parody of the Utopian W e l l s . 60 C. S. Lewi s , Of Other W o r l d s , , p . : 6 4 . A f o r e i g n e r who was i n -t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g to-."the moon, J u l e s Verne , shot h i s t r a v e l l e r s from a gun i n h i s r e a l i s t i c n o v e l i s t ' s way, and r i d i c u l e d W e l l s f o r h i s l a c k o f mimesis . 61 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 35. 62 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 182. 6 3 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 35. 64 Jorge L u i s Borges , 'From A l l e g o r i e s t o N o v e l s ' i n Other I n q u i s i -t i o n s ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , 1964), p . 155. T o l k i e n w i t h good reason , f o r The Lord of the Rings i s an adventure s t o r y too m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c f o r a l l e g o r y ; Lewis w i t h good reason i f he can j u s t i f y h i s t r i l o g y as mythopeia , though i t comes q u i t e c l o s e to a l l e g o r y i n the 'Garden o f Eden' s t o r y of .Voyage to Venus ( P e r e l a n d r a ) . 66 See Chapter One, note 6. 6 7 Thi s passage i s quoted from The World as W i l l and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t r a n s , E. F . J . Payne (Colorado: F a l c o n ' s Wing, 1958). Schopenhauer c la ims to know three a l l e g o r i e s , two of which (Don Quixote and G u l l i v e r ' s  T r a v e l s ) are " c o n c e a l e d . " The t h i r d i s presumably The D i v i n e Comedy, which i s not " c o n c e a l e d " because Dante many t imes i n v i t e s us to l i f t the v e i l of the a l l e g o r y . 68 Jorge L u i s Borges , Other I n q u i s i t i o n s , p . 155. C f . "Not Honesty i n the a b s t r a c t , but Honest i s my name: i n John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s  P r o g r e s s , p . 247. 60 69 Jorge Lu i s Borges , Other I n q u i s i t i o n s , pp . 156-57. ^ P i c k ' s words. Wi l son e n t i t l e s h i s essay i n TSG, 'L indsay as N o v e l i s t and M y s t i c ' ' L indsay a s ' A l l e g o r i s t ' would have been s i m p l e r and more to the p o i n t . In A Voyage, m y s t i c i s m , i n the f i g u r e s . o f Corpang and perhaps Panawe, i s found to be a f a l s e way (see below, Chapter 6) ^Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 330. 72 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 73. 7 3 C . S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , p . 19. 74 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 22 i . . 7~*Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y , p . 74. 76 George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p . 206. ^^George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p . 209. 78 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 7. 79 Unless he i s r ead ing tha t masterpiece of a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy Finnegans-Wake, and he i s the ' i d e a l reader w i t h the i d e a l i n s o m n i a . ' 80 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 162. 81 George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p. 210. 82 "What we c a l l e v i l i s the only and best shape, w h i c h , f o r the person and h i s c o n d i t i o n at the t i m e , c o u l d be assumed by the best good . " George MacDonald, Phantas te s , p . 212. This i s a view now out of f a s h i o n . 83 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 13 . 84 George MacDonald, L i l i t h , p . 46. 85 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 38. 61 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 203. 8 7 For some i n e x p l i c a b l e reason C o l i n W i l s o n misses t h i s p o i n t comple te ly . He s a y s , " I t i s cur ious t h a t L indsay a l lows N i c h o l a s to d ie at the end of the book, a l though f o r no very c l e a r reason. I would have been f a r more e f f e c t i v e to have h i m v a n i s h i n g , w i t h h i s dream machine, towards new hor i zons and p r o s p e c t s " (!) (TSG 44) . In f a c t the combinat ion of the N i c h o l a s - E v e l y n - M a u r i c e and N i c h o l a s - L o r e -Maurice p l o t s here i s probably the happies t n o v e l i s t i c t w i s t t h a t L indsay managed i n any of h i s books. Given the f a c t of the n e c e s s i t y f o r N i c h o l a s ' s d e a t h — i . e . h i s b i r t h i n t o the r e a l w o r l d — t h e n the un-important d i s p o s a l of the body i n the phenomenal w o r l d had b e t t e r be u n c o n v i n c i n g , or the reader w i l l t h i n k i t has s i g n i f i c a n c e . 62 Chapter Three: FANTASY AND ROMANCE: THE LITERARY BACKGROUND OF A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and tha t genre we have examined. I t i s a l so to some extent a romance, and an e a r l y work of s c i ence f i c t i o n . L indsay was i n f l u e n c e d by non-mimetic modes other than a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and these w i l l be examined i n t h i s chapter . In p a r t i c u l a r we s h a l l t r a c e the i n f l u e n c e of I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e , and o f German Romance w h i c h — i n f l u e n c i n g E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e through C a r l y l e and MacDonald—had a profound e f f e c t on L i n d s a y . One reason f o r t h i s e f f e c t may be t h a t romance of t h i s k i n d has the same i n t e r e s t s as a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy but i t i s w r i t t e n i n prose , whereas the ' g r e a t t r a d i t i o n ' o f f antasy we have been examining i s (except f o r Bunyan) i n v e r s e . Prose as a medium lends i t s e l f more r e a d i l y to mimetic ends than does v e r s e , and prose fantasy thus tends towards ' s u b c r e a t i o n ' , which i s the essence of romance. C. S. Lewis sees t h i s happening as e a r l y as the middle ages when "under the p r e t e x t of a l l e g o r y something e l s e has s l i p p e d i n " : " I mean the ' o t h e r w o r l d ' not of r e l i g i o n , but of i m a g i n a t i o n ; the l and of l o n g i n g , the E a r t h l y Paradise."" ' " To someone comfortably p laced i n the mainstream of l a t e V i c t o r i a n and modern f i c t i o n , fantasy and romance may seem only too s i m i l a r . From our p o i n t of v i e w , however, who have plunged i n t o t h i s t r i b u t a r y , they are oppos i te and opposing s i d e s of the s tream. Fantasy and romance 63 as we f i n d them i n dream w r i t e r s are fundamental ly d i f f e r e n t i n o r i g i n and i n t e n t i o n , as w i l l be demonstrated. The c e n t r a l s i m i l a r i t y between fantasy and romance i s that n e i t h e r operates i n , o r attempts to r e c r e a t e , the everyday, e x p e r i e n t i a l w o r l d we presume we share . Both a l l o w an escape from the known and thus the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r excitement and e x o t i c adventure . Both genres , t h e r e -f o r e , tend to u t i l i s e the quest , and the mythology of the quest , be-cause t h i s p rov ides the g rea te s t freedom f o r the p e r i p a t e t i c p r o t a g o n i s t , who may t r a v e l p l a u s i b l y from adventure to adventure . Because of t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n from the phenomenal w o r l d , and because of t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n a c t i o n r a t h e r than in-complex c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , both fantasy and romance tend to be m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c : good i s good because i t i s Good and f u r t h e r s the quest , e v i l i s E v i l and h i n d e r s i t . But f antasy and romance are set i n d i f f e r e n t k inds of non-phenomenal w o r l d . The romance p r o v i d e s an escape from t h i s w o r l d , and i t s s e t t i n g s are t h e r e f o r e nowhere, even i f supported by maps, geo-g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , accounts of the voyage t h i t h e r or whatever , as S w i f t ' s parody of these devices i n G u l l i v e r ' s Trave l s shou ld l e a d us to suspect . Whether the romance i s se t i n darkest A f r i c a , such as H . R i d e r H a r r a r d ' s She, or i n the pseudo-medieval p a s t , such as W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End, or nowhere i n p a r t i c u l a r , such as m i d d l e - e a r t h i n T o l k i e n ' s The Lord of the R i n g s , none o f these p laces can p o s s i b l y be v i s i t e d ; they are o u t o p i a s . But the w o r l d ' s c rea ted i n f a n t a s i e s are no-places i n a d i f f e r e n t sense: they are not 64 p laces which are no-where, they are o f ten not even p laces a t a l l . In f a c t , they are s t a t e s of mind. Thus t h e i r geography i s g e n e r a l l y sketchy i n the extreme. No one would want a map of the l and t r a v e l l e d 2 by C h r i s t i a n i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , or of the mountain c l imbed by 'Dante ' i n The D i v i n e Comedy. A diagram perhaps , but c e r t a i n l y not a map. And the only reasonable name f o r the more s u b s t a n t i a l fantasy wor lds c rea ted by George MacDonald i n Phantastes or H . P . L o v e c r a f t i n The Dream-Quest o f Unknown Kadath i s f a i r y l a n d . ' F a i r y - l a n d ' i s a term tha t covers a m u l t i t u d e of v i r t u e s , but C o l e r i d g e de f ined i t s u c c i n c t l y enough when he wrote of Spenser ' s The F a e r i e Queene that " i t i s t r u l y i n the l and of Faery , tha t i s , of 3 mental space. The poet has p l a c e d you i n a dream, a charmed s l e e p . " Fantasy i s dream l i t e r a t u r e and, l i k e dreams, as we have s e e n , i s se t i n "menta l s p a c e . " Romance i s dream l i t e r a t u r e i n another sense: i t 4 i s day-dream r a t h e r than n i g h t dream l i t e r a t u r e , which i s why we o f ten tend to a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h escapism. Where fantasy f rees the mind and takes us beyond the p h y s i c a l i n t o a s p i r i t u a l rea lm, romance f rees the body from the ennui of p h y s i c a l l i f e and t r a n s p o r t s us to what Lewis c a l l s " t h e l a n d of l o n g i n g , the E a r t h l y P a r a d i s e . " The main aim of romance i s the s u b c r e a t i o n of some k i n d of e a r t h l y parad i se w h i c h , as Lewis p o i n t e d out , i s not based on r e l i g i o n — o n the true and unchanging r e a l i t y of Heaven or of the w o r l d of Ideas—but which i s a s u b c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t : "not of r e l i g i o n , but of i m a g i n a t i o n . " Whi le we voyage to a fantasy w o r l d by dying or f a l l i n g as leep to t h i s w o r l d , we get to 65 a romance w o r l d which pretends to be on the same l e v e l of r e a l i t y as  we are (no matter how d i f f e r e n t ) e i t h e r by boat o r , i n modern t imes , space sh ip , or s imply by opening abbook and f i n d i n g ourse lves t h e r e . C. S. Lewis has s a i d , " I know the geography of Tormance b e t t e r than tha t of T e l l u s . " ^ To the extent tha t Tormance has a geography— and we may note t h a t i t has a great d e a l more of a geography than MacDonald's Phanta s te s , f o r example—then A Voyage i s a romance. A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s g e n e r a l l y have something l e s s s c i e n t i f i c , l e s s n o v e l i s t i c , than 'geography' and that i s l andscapes . These are what "keeps the a l l e g o r y v i g o u r o u s , " i n N u t t a l l ' s words . Landscape i s the ' o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e ' of c h a r a c t e r i n a l l e g o r y — t h e Ifdawn Marest i s the expre s s ion o f Oceaxe's ' w i l l t o power ' , f o r example— and i t seems ' r e a l ' enough when our a t t e n t i o n i s focussed on i t . When the p r o j e c t o r looks away, however, i t d i s appear s . Thi s i s not the case i n t rue romance, of which one can draw maps and f o r which one can g ive c a l e n d a r s . The m i d d l e - e a r t h of T o l k i e n i s not s o l i p s i s t i c : i n the w o r l d of the book i t r e a l l y e x i s t s , no matter who looks at i t , or even i f anyone i s n ' t l o o k i n g . The handsome and k n i g h t l y Ralph i s a c h a r a c t e r i n romance, and he i n h a b i t s the romance w o r l d which W i l l i a m M o r r i s subcrea ted . M a s k u l l i s an a l l e g o r i c a l p r o t a g o n i s t i n a f a n t a s y . I t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r M a s k u l l , i f he s u r v i v e d , to r e t r a c e h i s steps across Tormance, as Ralph r e t r a c e s h i s i n The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End, and f i n d the same f a i r damsels l i v i n g i n the same f a i r p l aces and a l l eager to ask how 66 he succeeded i n h i s ques t . For one t h i n g , the damsels were never r e a l l y t h e r e , as c h a r a c t e r s : they were the t r a n s i t o r y embodiments of temptat ions the p r o t a g o n i s t was f a c i n g , and there fore h i s p r o j e c t i o n s . For another , they cannot s t i l l be there because i n most cases the concept they repre sented , the i l l u s o r y i d e a they embodied, has been faced by the p r o t a g o n i s t , and the defeat of the i d e a has been conf irmed by the p h y s i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the i d e a ' s v e h i c l e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n the case o f Su l lenbode , who t e l l s M a s k u l l " I have no o ther l i f e but what you g ive me" and tha t " the term of your love i s the term of my l i f e . When you love me no l o n g e r , I must d i e " (VA 254) . E l l i o t t B. Gose w r i t e s a c u t e l y i n Imaginat ion Indulged that accord ing to the f i n d i n g s of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , f antasy and dream, romance and f a i r y t a l e g ive r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to otherwise hidden dynamics of mental l i f e . They express an i n n e r r e a l i t y tha t i s not s imply sub l imated , u n r e a l i s t i c escape. I n t e r i o r c o n f l i c t s and b a t t l e s are as r e a l and important as any i n the outer w o r l d (7 ) . But t h i s lumping together of genres we have been endeavoring to keep d i s t i n c t reminds us t h a t fantasy and romance a r e , i n our metaphor, only oppos i te s ide s of the same s tream. Few a c t u a l works are e i t h e r one o f the o t h e r , and most are a mix ture of fantasy and romance. That the l o n g , meandering, pseudo-medieval adventures of Ralph cont inue to h o l d the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n argues tha t The W e l l at the W o r l d ' s End, d i s t a n t from s p i r i t u a l and phenomenal r e a l i t i e s as i t must seem, i s g i v i n g form to some of the hidden forces of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l under-w o r l d . Conver se ly , i t must be admitted t h a t i n s p i t e of a l l e g o r y ' s 67 " l a c k of mimetic n a t u r a l n e s s " i t has been the f i e l d f u l l of f o l k and V a n i t y and i t s F a i r which have kept great dream a l l e g o r i e s l i k e P i e r s Plowman and The P i l g r i m ' s Progress a l i v e d u r i n g a p e r i o d when a l l e g o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y because of what C o l e r i d g e c a l l e d i t s 'mechanic ' (as opposed to ' o r g a n i c ' ) form, has not been taken s e r i o u s l y . In the end i t has been the s u b c r e a t i v e aspect of Tormance, the t e r r i f i c mountains of the Ifdawn Marest and the Blakean exuberance of the r i v e r of M a t t e r p l a y , tha t have kept A Voyage to A r c t u r u s more o r l e s s a l i v e f o r the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s . However, we h o l d to our d i s t i n c t i o n . The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End i s a romance. A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . Sheer l e n g t h here i s a c l u e . Subcrea t ing takes t i m e . Tormance i s impermanent compared to the w o r l d which M o r r i s s u p p l i e s Ralph f o r h i s four books of adventures . Were Tormance a subcreated w o r l d i n the romance sense i t would be good f o r at l e a s t a t r i l o g y of books , l i k e T o l k i e n ' s or P e a k e ' s , and p o s s i b l y , l i k e James Branch C a b e l l ' s Po ic tesme, f o r a good many more. Subcrea t ion has become, i n c i d e n t a l l y , one of the major genres o f contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , c e r t a i n l y i f measured by the number 9 of books w r i t t e n and s o l d . Many of these works are a l s o s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n . There have been long arguments i n s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n c i r c l e s about when the genre a c t u a l l y began. Those whose s t r e s s i s on s c i e n c e tend to choose the p u b l i c a t i o n of Ralph 124C41+ by Hugo Gernsback ( a f t e r whom Hugo awards are named) i n Modern E l e c t r i c s i n 1911 . "^ Those whose s t r e s s i s on f i c t i o n tend t o choose the p u b l i c a t i o n by H. G. Wel l s o f 68 The Time Machine i n 1895, a s t o r y which W e l l s had s t a r t e d as 'The Chron ic Argonauts ' as e a r l y as 1 8 8 8 . 1 1 The Time Machine was q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d by The I s l a n d of D r . Moreau (1896) and The War of the Worlds (1897). The V i c t o r i a n age,..had, probably because of i t s i n s i s t e n t r a t i o n a l i s m , produced a l o t of great f a n t a s t i c a l nonsense, though a l l too o f ten (as we too o f ten s t i l l do) the V i c t o r i a n s r e l e g a t e d i t to the n u r s e r y : Lewis C a r r o l l ' s A l i c e i n Wonderland and Through the Looking G l a s s , K i n g s l e y ' s The Water-Babies , L e a r ' s A Book of Nonsense and, r a t h e r l a t e r , Grahame's The Wind i n the W i l l o w s , Gernsback's i s a new k i n d of nonsense: he took ' I s n ' t s c i e n c e w o n d e r f u l ? ' s e r i o u s l y 12 and gave h i s R a l p h , "one of the g rea te s t l i v i n g s c i e n t i s t s , " l o t s of gadgets l i k e the Telephot (what we now c a l l a vidphone) to p l a y w i t h . What Wel l s d i d was take V i c t o r i a n s c i e n c e , which had e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e d o f f almost a l l the areas of the e a r t h where h e r o i c fantasy was s t i l l p o s s i b l e , and t u r n i t aga ins t i t s e l f . By us ing sc ience and pseudo-s c i e n c e , W e l l s was ab le to f i n d room (or time) to put the b i t e back i n t o romance. C r i t i c s de sc r ibed i t as " a morbid a b e r r a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c 13 c u r i o s i t y . " In The D a i l y News of January 21 , 1898, a r ev iewer says of The War of the Wor lds : There are episodes tha t are so b r u t a l , d e t a i l s so r e p u l s i v e , that they cause i n s u f f e r a b l e d i s t r e s s to the f e e l i n g s . The r e s t r a i n t of a r t i s m i s s i n g . We would en t rea t Mr . W e l l s to r e t u r n to h i s e a r l i e r methods—to the saner , serener beauty o f those f i r s t romances t h a t cas t t h e i r s p e l l upon our i m a g i n a t i o n , and appealed to our f i n e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s (14) . 69 The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds were not w r i t t e n f o r the l a t e - V i c t o r i a n n u r s e r y . In the same year that The Time Machine appeared, 1895, when Lindsay was seventeen, George MacDonald p u b l i s h e d L i l i t h and W i l l i a m M o r r i s The  Wood Beyond the W o r l d , h i s f i r s t f i c t i o n a l pseudo-medieval n a r r a t i v e , ^ which he f o l l o w e d w i t h The W e l l at the W o r l d ' s End (1896) . MacDonald's problem was that h i s i n t e n t was s e r i o u s , but h i s mode—fairy-tale f o r grown-ups—did not seem to be . I t was dream a l l e g o r y , and o b v i o u s l y was not d e a l i n g w i t h the m a t e r i a l i s t i c problems of the modern w o r l d . W i l l i a m M o r r i s c l e a r l y d i d t r y to dea l w i t h those problems, i n h i s l i f e and i n h i s Utopia News From Nowhere (1891), but h i s l a t e r works , daydream romances set i n subcreated w o r l d s , aga in must seem ' m e r e l y ' e s c a p i s t . The s o l u t i o n was, of course , to take both the dream fantasy and the romance and f o l l o w W e l l s , i n t o space. Thi s i s p r e c i s e l y what L indsay d i d . L indsay h i m s e l f was a c t u a l l y , i n 1920, a l a t e V i c t o r i a n w r i t e r , and d i d w e l l to t r y to h i d e h i s age. The b i g g e s t s i n g l e l i t e r a r y 16 i n f l u e n c e on him was George MacDonald, and we f i n d b i t s and p ieces of the l a t t e r popping up a l l over A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . The grea te s t i n f l u e n c e on both MacDonald and C a r l y l e , the o ther Scot whom L indsay 17 admired, were the German R o m a n t i c i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y N o v a l i s . L indsay may have d i s covered them e i t h e r through MacDonald, who took epigraphs from them for.some chapters i n Phantastes and was not a man to cover h i s t r a c k s , o r through C a r l y l e ' s essays and t r a n s l a t i o n s . At any r a t e , he 70 e v i d e n t l y thought h i g h l y of them. In a l e t t e r dated May 18, 1922, L indsay wrote to V i s i a k : Your l e c t u r e on T ieck would have i n t e r e s t e d me much, as I had a t one time—and s t i l l have—a queer, vague s o r t of a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s s t o r i e s , which perhaps resemble music more than l i t e r a t u r e and produce the same s o r t of unse i zab le e f f e c t on one as music (L 48) . L i t e r a t u r e , we remember, a s p i r e s to be l i k e music " t h e exper ience of a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " (TSG 13) . Great works are l i k e great symphonies; l e s s e r works have the same genius on a s m a l l e r s c a l e : In g e n e r a l , the works of the e a r l y German Romant i c i s t s are l i k e s p r i n g songs—how d i f f e r e n t from the p r o s a i c drawing-room s t u f f turned out by the thousand today! (L 48-49). Many of these s t o r i e s a r e , to borrow L i n d s a y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Sphinx , " a b l e n d of common and s u p e r n a t u r a l l i f e " (L 47) . We may take as an example—because i t i s i n i t s e l f a good s t o r y , because i t i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l i n i t s themes, and because i t became extremely w e l l known i n England i n a t r a n s l a t i o n by C a r l y l e — E . T. A . Hoffmann's s t o r y The  Golden P o t . One of Hoffmann's c e n t r a l themes, and a common one i n German 18 4 1 Romance, was the double or doppeltgariger as the term was co ined by Jean P a u l R i c h t e r . . The i d e a i t s e l f i s as o l d as Cas tor and P o l l u x , the heavenly t w i n s . Shakespeare used the idea i n Twel f th Night and (doubly) i n The Comedy of E r r o r s , which deals w i t h the s i m p l e s t form of double , i d e n t i c a l t w i n s . But. something more i n t e r e s t i n g l u r k s be-neath the s u r f a c e : "One of these men i s genius to the o t h e r ; / And 71 so of these . Which i s the n a t u r a l man, / And which the s p i r i t ? " (The  Comedy of E r r o r s , V . i . 3 3 1 - 3 3 ) . The idea stems from the common ex-per i ence of becoming two i n dreams, and the consequent f r e e i n g of the s o u l or " g e n i u s , " which i s w^y the m o t i f o f the double i s a common one i n dream l i t e r a t u r e . The p r i m i t i v e b e l i e f we f i n d embodied i n dream f a n t a s i e s , t h a t the s o u l may walk f o r t h i n dreams, threatens a r a t i o n a l i s t and e m p i r i c i s t l i k e Locke so much tha t he i s at great pains to t r y to dispose of i t , i n v o k i n g our o l d f r i e n d ' S o c r a t e s ' to t r y and r e f u t e the i d e a " t h a t Socrates as leep and Socrates awake i s not the same person ; but h i s s o u l , when he s l e e p s , and Socrates the man c o n s i s t i n g of body and s o u l , 19 when he i s waking , are two p e r s o n s . " Locke cannot e n t e r t a i n the i d e a because he i s complete ly h o s t i l e to the apparent ly i r r a t i o n a l na ture of dreams. He "wonder[s] that our dreams should be , f o r the most p a r t , 20 so f r i v o l o u s and i r r a t i o n a l , " f o r "where a l l i s but dream, reasoning 21 and arguments are of no use, t ruthan 'd iknowledgeanothing . " Locke wishes to speak " o f th ings as they r e a l l y are and not of dreams and , . „22 f a n c i e s . The s tudent Anselmus i n 'The Golden P o t ' i s t o r n between the two main a t t i t u d e s to dreams and dream w o r l d s . On the one hand there i s the common-sense r a t i o n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e expressed by Locke and by 23 Henry ' s f a t h e r i n N o v a l i s ' s romance, tha t "dreams are f r o t h , " and which i s h e l d i n 'The Golden P o t ' by Conrector Paulmann. He t e l l s Anselmus, 72 I have always taken you f o r a s o l i d young man: but to dream, to dream w i t h your eyes wide open, and t h e n , a l l a t once, to s t a r t up and t r y t o jump i n t o the water ! T h i s , begging your pardon, i s what only f o o l s or madmen would do (24) . On the o ther hand there i s t h e . m e o - P l a t o n i c idea of dreams as the gateway to a h i g h e r r e a l i t y than the common w o r l d , which we have e x p l i c a t e d i n our d i s c u s s i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and which i s h e l d i n 'The Golden P o t ' by A r c h i v a r i - u s L i n d h o r s t , by the n a r r a t o r , and e v e n t u a l l y by Anselmus h i m s e l f . When Anselmus i s 'awake' he l i v e s i n the w o r l d of the C o n r e c t o r , b lue-eyed V i r g i n i a and R e g i s t r a t o r Heerbrand, when he i s ' a s l e e p ' i n a dream-fantasy w o r l d of L i n d h o r s t the Salamander and h i s b lue-eyed snake-daughter S e r p e n t i n a . These two p a r a l l e l wor lds o v e r l a p , and Anselmus i s t o r n , f o r a t i m e , between them, c o n s t a n t l y waking up or 25 26 " r e t u r n i n g to h i m s e l f " "as from a deep dream." There i s a b a t t l e between the phenomenal w o r l d and " t h e faery r e g i o n of g l o r i o u s wonders" which i s i n the " r e g i o n which the s p i r i t l a y s open to us i n dreams," and which i s the " g l o r i o u s kingdom" which the n a r r a t o r i s " s t r i v i n g 27 to show [us] i n the s i n g u l a r s t o r y of the Student Anse lmus . " Thi s 2 g i s " another h i g h e r w o r l d " — i t turns out to be A t l a n t i s — a n d , as i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , we are c a l l e d to i t by p a i n (though i t i s " rapturous p a i n " ) : So, as was h i n t e d , the Student Anselmus, ever s i n c e that evening when he met w i t h A r c h i v a r i u s L i n d h o r s t , had been sunk i n a dreamy musing, which rendered him i n s e n s i b l e to every outward touch of common l i f e . He f e l t tha t an unknown Something 73 was awakening h i s inmost s o u l , and c a l l i n g f o r t h t h a t rapturous p a i n , which i s even the mood of l o n g i n g t h a t announces a l o f t i e r e x i s t e n c e to man(29). In >:The Golden P o t ' we f i n d the t r a d i t i o n a l imagery f o r the i m -prisonment o f the s o u l i n the body, of the s p i r i t i n the r i v e r of mat te r , but the most important image i s Hoffmann's own and, s i n c e i t may have suggested L i n d s a y ' s Crys ta lman, we must look at i t more c l o s e l y . The N i n t h V i g i l ends w i t h Anselmus, whose f a i t h has wavered, s t u c k i n s i d e 30 " a w e l l - c o r k e d c r y s t a l b o t t l e . " Of course , he compla ins . But h i s s i m i l a r l y b o t t l e d companions t e l l h im to shut up, f o r "we have never been b e t t e r o f f than at p r e s e n t . " They decide tha t " the s tudent i s mad; he f a n c i e s h i m s e l f to be s i t t i n g i n a g l a s s b o t t l e , and i s s t a n d i n g 31 on the E l b e Br idge and l o o k i n g r i g h t down i n t o the w a t e r . " They have f o r g o t t e n t h e i r immorta l p a r t s , and do not r e a l i s e tha t they are only r e f l e c t i o n s of the s p i r i t i n the r i v e r of mat te r : that by drowning themselves , as Lore does i n Sphinx , they might s e t themselves f r e e . They do not r e a l i s e they are impr i soned because the b o t t l e s ! are of c r y s t a l : i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s we are a l l b o t t l e d thus by Crys ta lman, whose rainbow of c r e a t i o n h ides the one t rue l i g h t . I f t h i s i n s i g h t has not been g iven us i n our "most v i v i d dreams," the n a r r a t o r asks our " f l y i n g i m a g i n a t i o n " — t h e s p i r i t u a l p a r t of us, f r e e from g r a v i t y — to be o b l i g i n g enought to enclose i t s e l f f o r a few moments i n the c r y s t a l . You are drowned i n d a z z l i n g sp lendour ; e v e r y t h i n g around you appears i l l u m i n a t e d and b e g i r t w i t h beaming rainbow hues : i n the sheen e v e r y t h i n g seems to q u i v e r and waver and c l a n g and drone. You are swimming,'jbut you are powerless and cannot move, as i f you were imbedded i n a f i r m l y 74 congealed e ther which squeezes you so t i g h t l y that i t i s i n v a i n tha t your s p i r i t commands your dead and s t i f f e n e d body. Heav ie r and h e a v i e r the mountainous burden l i e s on y o u ; more and more every b r e a t h exhausts the t i n y b i t of a i r t h a t s t i l l p l a y s up and down the t i g h t space around you ; your pul se throbs madly; and cut through w i t h h o r r i d a n g u i s h , , every nerve i s q u i v e r i n g and b l e e d i n g i n your dead agony (32) . Worst of a l l , Anselmus's reason has taken c o n t r o l : h a v i n g become a r a t i o n a l i s t , " i n s t e a d of the words which the s p i r i t used to speak 33 from w i t h i n him he now heard only the s t i f l e d din. 3.of madness." Anselmus's pu l se throbs madly (as though Krag i s b e a t i n g on h i s h e a r t ) and he i s ready to throw o f f the p r i s o n of the body and i t s d e a d w e i g h t . He s t i l l b e l i e v e s i n S e r p e n t i n a , i . e . s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y , and t h i s saves h i m : i t i s gnosis t h a t the serpent b r i n g s : f r u i t of the Tree of Knowledge. In the end he wins the golden pot and goes to l i v e w i t h Serpent ina i n A t l a n t i s : he "has ca s t away the burden of 34 everyday l i f e " and gone to l i v e i n the h i g h e r w o r l d of the s p i r i t . But he has l e f t behind a p a l t r y , everyday s e l f i n the person of Reg i s t r a tor—now Hofra th—Heerbrand , who marr ies V e r o n i c a , S e r p e n t i n a ' s counterpar t i n the phenomenal w o r l d . Thus the s p l i t t i n g of Anselmus leads to e v e n t u a l harmony i n 'The Golden P o t ' where the two embodied p a r t s of Anselmus are not i n c o n f l i c t . Of course , the c o n f l i c t i s p o t e n t i a l l y t h e r e , s i n c e Heerbrand f u l f i l l s Anselmus 's e a r t h l y g o a l s , becoming Hof ra th and marry ing V e r o n i c a , but i t i s not developed i n the s t o r y , where Heerbrand i s a minor charac te r and Anselmus has o ther 35 i n t e r e s t s . What we do have i s s imply the s p i r i t ' s s t r u g g l e to escape 75 i n t o the dream w o r l d and, u i l i k e the p u r e l y a l l e g o r i c a l A Voyage where the aim i s the same, the body does not have to be d isposed of to make t h i s p o s s i b l e . . In 'The Golden P o t , ' both Anselmus and Heerbrand e x i s t , i n the b e g i n n i n g , on the same l e v e l of f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y , but we have something more complex than the d o u b l e - b y - d u p l i c a t i o n of The  Comedy of E r r o r s : that i s , d o u b l e - b y - d i v i s i o n . Thi s a l lows f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of powerfu l p s y c h i c f o r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y those of the repressed unconscious , such as we f i n d i n the works of Hoffman's progeny, Stevenson, Poe and D o s t o e v s k i . In t a k i n g a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy i n t o prose and making i t more mimet ic , Hoffmann i n 'The Golden P o t ' used the psychomachia form: the s t r u g g l e f o r Anselmus 's s o u l . F r i e d r i c h von Hardenberg, g e n e r a l l y known by h i s pseudonym of N o v a l i s , d i d the same t h i n g but u s ing the progress form of a l l e g o r y . In f a c t , Henry of Of terd ingen i s n e i t h e r a coherent n a r r a t i v e , i n the n o v e l i s t i c sense, nor i s i t an a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy i n a s t r i c t sense: i t i s a s e r i e s of dreams and f ab le s which a r i s e out of Henry ' s p r o s a i c journey w i t h a group of merchants , though i t must be s t r e s s e d tha t the dreams and f ab le s of the h i g h e r w o r l d , and the events of the journey i n the phenomenal w o r l d are c a r e -f u l l y in terwoven . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n : A Romance, the anonymous t r a n s l a t o r says t h a t N o v a l i s "resembles among 37 l a t e w r i t e r s the subl ime Dante a l o n e . " N o v a l i s ' s B e a t r i c e was the young Sophie von Kuhn, who d i e d at the age of f i f t e e n , and h i s V i t a 76 Nuova the Hymnen an d i e Nacht . But h i s main work i s n o t , as Dante ' s c l e a r l y i s , a dream, though i t begins w i t h one. Henry dreams he i s 39 40 " i n einem dunkeln Walde a l l e i n , " Dante ' s "una s e l v a o b s c u r a . " He 41 c l imbs a mountain and sees "a mighty beam of l i g h t . " A l i t t l e l a t e r , he dreams he sees the e v e n t u a l goa l of h i s ques t : not the whi te rose but ' d i e b laue B lume . ' The b l u e f lower has a woman's f a ce . Then he wakes up. Where Dante ' s dream i s , as we have e x p l a i n e d , a v i s i o , where meaning i s found u l t i m a t e l y beyond n a t u r e , the dream N o v a l i s g ives to Henry i s an oraculum. S p e c i f i c a l l y , meaning i s to be found i n n a t u r e , and the face i n the f l ower p r e f i g u r e s the a c t u a l g i r l i n marriage to whom the quest (Henry of Ofterdir igen remaining u n f i n i s h e d when N o v a l i s died) shou ld end. In Henry of Ofterdir igen the aim of the quest . ' . i s , l i k e those of 'Dante ' and of M a s k u l l i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , l i k e t h a t of C h r i s t i a n i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , M r . Vane i n L i l i t h and Anodos i n Phanta s te s , to r e t u r n home. A f t e r h i s f i r s t dream, Henry leaves h i s home on a journey to Augsburg, but " h i s mother was w i t h h i m . The w o r l d he was 42 l e a v i n g d i d not y e t appear, e n t i r e l y l o s t . " And, s i n c e "he was r e -t u r n i n g to h i s f a t h e r l a n d " i t was "as i f i n r e a l i t y he was j o u r n e y i n g 43 homewards." The journey prov ides a r e a l i s t i c framework f o r a s e r i e s of dreams and adventures or marchen, which r e t e l l i n a f r a n k l y m y t h i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l form the p o i n t o f f e r e d more or l e s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n the whole s t o r y . But dream and r e a l i t y are in terwoven : "The dream i s 44 W o r l d . The w o r l d i s Dream." In the f i r s t p a r t of the book, The E x p e c t a t i o n , Henry completes h i s j o u r n e y , hav ing found M a t i l d a , whose 77 face i s that of the f l o w e r , and who i s h i s i n s p i r a t i o n or ' b r e a t h of l i f e ' . He says , "She w i l l d i s s o l v e me i n t o mus ic . She w i l l become 45 my inmost s o u l , the guardian s p i r i t of my ho ly f i r e . " He c a l l s to the s t a r s , " F o r M a t i l d a w i l l I l i v e " and " t h e morning of e t e r n a l day i s a l s o opening f o r me. The n i g h t i s p a s t . I k i n d l e myse l f to 46 the r i s i n g sun , f o r an i n e x t i n g u i s h a b l e o f f e r i n g . " In the second p a r t , The F u l f i l l m e n t , we f i n d " i n deep thought a p i l g r i m . . . w a l k i n g a long a narrow f o o t - p a t h which ran up a mountain s i d e . " ^ 7 Thi s i s the s p i r i t - H e n r y , now l i b e r a t e d . He meets the g i r l who i s h i s t rue l o v e , presumably s p i r i t - M a t i l d a , who t e l l s h im they are going 'Immer nach 48 Hause ' : " E v e r homewards." The r e s t i s p h i l o s o p h y . Of p a r t i c u l a r re levance to A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s the marchen t o l d by K l i n g s o h r (who i s model led on Goethe): i n Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , but s i n c e t h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same co smolog i ca l myth that i s sung by the S y b i l i n ' V o l u s p a , ' we may pass on to examine the i n f l u e n c e of I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e on W i l l i a m M o r r i s and David L i n d s a y . L indsay was, as he p o i n t e d out to Putnam's , o r i g i n a l l y descended from " I v a r , J a r l of the Norse Uplander s " (TSG 6 ) , and there are many s i m i l a r i t i e s between C e l t i c and Scandinavian mythology. L i n d s a y ' s kinsman, C a r l y l e , s ings a panegyr ic to the ISbrse gods i n h i s f i r s t l e c t u r e , 'The Hero as D i v i n i t y , ' i n On Heroes, Hero-W o r s h i p and the H e r o i c i n H i s t o r y : To me there i s i n the Norse System something very genuine, very great and m a n l i k e . A broad s i m p l i c i t y , r u s t i c i t y , so very d i f f e r e n t from the l i g h t grace-fu lness of the o l d Greek Paganism, d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s Scandinavian System. I t i s Thought; the genuine Thought of deep, rude , earnest minds, f a i r l y opened 78 to the th ings about them; a f a c e - t o - f a c e and h e a r t - t o - h e a r t i n s p e c t i o n of the t h i n g s , — t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l good Thought i n a l l t i m e s . . . . a c e r t a i n homely t r u t h f u l n e s s and r u s t i c s t r e n g t h , a great rude s i n c e r i t y , d i s -c loses i t s e l f here (49) . But w h i l e C a r l y l e was ' t h e V o i c e of Germany i n E n g l a n d , ' the v o i c e of I c e l a n d was W i l l i a m M o r r i s . C a r l y l e and L indsay were a t t r a c t e d to Norse myth by i t s w i l d and rugged d i r e c t n e s s , and t h i s was how C a r l y l e saw I c e l a n d : b u r s t - u p , the g e o l o g i s t s say , by f i r e from the bottom of the sea ; a w i l d l a n d of barrenness and l a v a ; swallowed many months of every year i n b l a c k tempests, ye t w i t h a w i l d gleaming beauty i n summer-time; towering up t h e r e , s t e r n and g r i m , i n the North Ocean; w i t h i t s snow j o k u l s , r o a r i n g geysers , s u l p h u r - p o o l s and; h o r r i d v o l c a n i c chasms, l i k e the waste c h a o t i c b a t t l e -f i e l d of F r o s t and F i r e (50) . I t was e l e m e n t a l ; j u s t the.place f o r the " Impersonat ion of the v i s i b l e workings of N a t u r e , " " ' 1 and f o r a l l e g o r y on a grand s c a l e . M o r r i s ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of I c e l a n d was more subdued. He found the h i l l s "mourn-f u l l y empty and b a r r e n " w i t h "grey c l o u d s , dragging over die h i l l t o p s or l y i n g i n the h o l l o w s " — y e t a l l these "had something, I d o n ' t know 52 what, of p o e t i c and a t t r a c t i v e about them" — I was most deeply impressed w i t h i t a l l , ye t can s c a r c e l y t e l l you why; i t was l i k e n o t h i n g I had ever seen, but s t r a n g e l y l i k e my o l d imag ina t ions of p laces f o r sea-wanderers to come to (53) . I t was not the v i v i d and c l e a r l y de f ined ruggedness of I c e l a n d that a t t r a c t e d M o r r i s , but an e l u s i v e sense of mystery , which i s why he made long rambl ing romances out of i t , i n s t e a d o f a l l e g o r i e s . 79 When, w i t h the he lp of Magnusson, M o r r i s t r a n s l a t e d the sagas— and t h i s i s t rue of the fo rna ldar sogur ( m y t h i c a l - h e r o i c sagas) as of the Germanic r iddara sogur ('Sagas of K n i g h t s ' or romances of c h i v a l r y ) — he seems to have been i n t e r e s t e d i n them because they represented "an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , removing him as f a r as p o s s i b l e from the (to him) d i s t a s t e f u l l i f e of contemporary E n g l a n d . " " ^ At any r a t e , M o r r i s ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s are f u l l of ' a n t i q u e ' l o c u t i o n s , such as ' s h o u l d chide him t h e r e f o r e , ' ' that b e f e l l n o t , ' ' l a y not q u i e t , ' and pseudo-medieval p e r i p h r a s t s : 'Then they t i l t e d over a wa in i n most seemly w i s e ' f o r "They put a canopy over a s p l e n d i d c a r r i a g e ' i n H r e i m s k r i n g l a . These usages c l u t t e r the d i r e c t in te rchanges , d i s t u r b the f low of the n a r r a t i v e 55 and sometimes even obscure the sense. I t i s c l e a r that when M o r r i s says "My work i s the embodiment of dreams""^ he i s t a l k i n g of day-dreams. He was a w r i t e r of dream-romance, sub c r e a t i n g worlds where dream and r e a l i t y merge i n t o an enchanted rea lm, m e l t i n g and langorous , of revery and t r a n c e . I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e p r o -v i d e d an i n s p i r a t i o n , a mythology, and a source of m a t e r i a l . The tone and s t y l e of the t r a n s l a t i o n s , though i n i m i c a l to the o r i g i n a l s , gave M o r r i s a modus operandi f o r h i s l a s t romances, such as The W e l l at the  W o r l d ' s End, where he has , i n a way t o t a l l y unsaga l i k e , "Made l i f e a wondrous dream / And death the murmur of a r e s t f u l s t r e a m . " " ' 7 But t h i s g e n e r a l i s e d and r o m a n t i c i s e d 'Nor thernness ' has pro foundly i n f l u e n c e d dream-romance r i g h t to the p re sent . Reading M o r r i s , and H. R i d e r Haggard's E r i c B r i g h t e y e s , moved E. R. Eddison to teach h i m s e l f Old Norse and go to I c e l a n d , a t r i p M o r r i s h i m s e l f had made t w i c e . C. S. Lewis was i n -80 f luenced by M o r r i s ' s S i g u r d the Volsung and Edd i son ' s The Worm Ouroboros. J . R. R. T o l k i e n , L e w i s ' s f r i e n d , and E m i l P e t a j a have cont inued the t r a d i t i o n to the p r e s e n t . But these are subcreators and romance w r i t e r s , and we have d i s t i n g u i s h e d romance from a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . However, i t i s p r e c i s e l y here t h a t , by c o n t r a s t , L i n d s a y ' s a c h i e v e -ment i n A Voyage becomes c l e a r . An important t r a n s l a t o r of The Saga  of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , G. A . H i g h t , n o t i c e s the same " n a t u r a l romance" of which M o r r i s made so much. But he draws our a t t e n t i o n to the l a c k of i t i n the sagas: In lands as teeming w i t h n a t u r a l romance as I c e l a n d and Norway, i t may seem s t range tha t so l i t t l e n o t i c e i s taken of the wonders of landscape and scenery . Here and there the s a g a - t e l l e r shows us what he c o u l d do i f he wi shed , as when t e l l i n g of G r e t t i r ' s r e t r e a t i n the g l a c i e r s of G e i t l a n d i n Chapter L X I , where w i t h a few magic touches he g ives an e n t r a n c i n g gl impse i n t o an e a r t h l y parad i se of happiness and r e s t . But he cares n o t h i n g f o r t h i s , and d r i l y cont inues tha t G r e t t i r found i t d u l l there and would not stay (58) . Hight cont inues h i s s l y l i t t l e j oke l a t e r , remarking that he has " o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n s u l t e d , i n cases of d i f f i c u l t y , the t r a n s l a t i o n of Mssr s . Magnusson and M o r r i s , and have borrowed a few nicknames t h e r e -59 f r o m . " H i g h t ' s own t r a n s l a t i o n i s b l u n t and to the p o i n t . He admits that " a reader who approaches the sagas f o r the f i r s t time i s apt to f e e l a l i t t l e b e w i l d e r e d . They seem crowded w i t h people w i t h uncouth names and r i d i c u l o u s nick-names , whose occupat ion i s mostly d i v i d e d 60 between murdering each other and r i d i n g to the T h i n g . " Had " t h e t h i n g " been Muspe l , t h i s might almost have been s a i d of A Voyage to 81 A r c t u r u s . Of a l l books , A Voyage i s most l i k e H i g h t ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of G r e t t i r i n terms of tone and s t y l e . Each i s b l u n t l y t o l d , w i t h a minimum of a u t h o r i a l comment. Each deals i n death and v i o l e n c e on a grand s c a l e . The charac ter s have uncouth names. I n Old Norse l i t e r a t u r e , " f a m i l y 61 names were n o n - e x i s t e n t , and each person had by r i g h t only one name." Thus, G r e t t i r has h i s one name, and a nick-name which descr ibes h im 62 as ' t h e s t r o n g . ' The " o d d l y Scandinav ian personae" i n A Voyage, be ing a l l e g o r i c a l ( M a s k u l l and Night spore c l e a r l y be long to a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d from Montague F a u l l ) , have only one name, but t h i s name i s a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n : Krag ' s name t e l l s us he i s rough and u n p o l i s h e d . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , though he a l s o resembles B l a k e ' s Los , Krag i n A Voyage has q u i t e c l e a r l y been model led on G r e t t i r h i m s e l f : Krag i s a thumb-n a i l ske tch of one whom H i g h t t e l l s us i s "one of the most complex 6 3 [ charac ter s ] ever c o n c e i v e d . " Both Krag and G r e t t i r are r e d - h a i r e d , s tocky and enormously s t r o n g ; both are rough mannered, seemingly quarrelsome, and care n o t h i n g f o r r the f i n e r p o i n t s of s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e ; 64 both are w e l l - p r a c t i c e d i n the a r t of i n f l i c t i n g p a i n . A . Margaret A r e n t says o f G r e t t i r ' s name that " e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , i t goes back to g r a n t j a n and to d e r i v a t i v e words meaning ' t o sneer , s n a r l , make a wry 65 f a c e ' " —and these a c t i o n s are as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Krag as of G r e t t i r . 66 F u r t h e r , Arent t e l l s us of an " a s s o c i a t i o n of the name w i t h the snake" and Krag ' s r o l e i n A Voyage i s t h a t of the wise s e r p e n t , b r i n g e r of i j . 6 7 knowledge or gnos i s . 82 But A Voyage to Arc turus and The Saga o f G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , though they have many s i m i l a r i t i e s , be long i n the end to d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y genres. When " i n a l l the c l a s s i c a l sagas, n o t h i n g i s con-doned or v i l i f i e d (except by i m p l i c a t i o n ) ; the author does not take 6 8 s ide s or m o r a l i s e " t h i s i s because " the i n t e r e s t of our saga i s 69 w h o l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l " : r e a l l y complex charac ter s can only be presented through a c t i o n : G r e t t i r i s too complex f o r reason to r a t i o n a l i s e . In A Voyage the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i s m i n i m a l : the p a u c i t y of a u t h o r i a l comment i s not good psychology , i t i s good a l l e g o r y : i f the image is_ the meaning i t w i l l r e q u i r e no a u t h o r i a l comment. G r e t t i r i s so organi sed that " the charac te r of the hero develops i t s e l f " " 7 ^ through a c t i o n . A Voyage i s organi sed so as to make a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t , andthe a c t u a l charac te r of M a s k u l l i s — p r o v i d e d that he i s o r d i n a r y enough for 1, us to i d e n t i f y w i t h h i m — more or l e s s i r r e l e v a n t . F i n a l l y , w h i l e A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f an ta sy , The Saga of G r e t t i r the Strong i s not i n any sense a dream book. Of course , " f rom i t s e a r l i e s t beginnings u n t i l the present day I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e has been remarkably r i c h i n symbol ic dreams and v i s i o n s . Georg ia Dunham K e l c h n e r has noted 530 dream references i n Old I c e l a n d i c prose and p o e t r y , and h e r survey i s f a r from e x h a u s t i v e . " P r o p h e t i c dreams, oraculum, are p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the sagas. The E l d e r Edda, the p o e t i c canon, i s a d i f f e r e n t mat ter : i t i s not p s y c h o l o g i c a l but m y t h i c a l . C a r l y l e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between myth and 83 a l l e g o r y as f o l l o w s : Pagan R e l i g i o n i s indeed an A l l e g o r y , a symbol of what men f e l t and knew about the U n i v e r s e . . . . But i t seems to me a r a d i c a l p e r v e r s i o n , and even i n v e r s i o n , of the b u s i n e s s , to put that forward as the o r i g i n and moving cause, when i t was r a t h e r the r e s u l t and t e r m i n a t i o n . To get b e a u t i f u l a l l e g o r i e s , a p e r f e c t p o e t i c symbol , was not the want of men; but to know what they were to b e l i e v e about t h i s U n i v e r s e , what course they were to s t e e r i n i t . . . . The P i l g r i m ' s Progress i s an A l l e g o r y , and a b e a u t i f u l , j u s t and s e r i o u s one: but cons ider whether Bunyan's A l l e g o r y c o u l d have preceded the F a i t h i t symbol i se s ! The F a i t h had to be a l ready there , s t and ing b e l i e v e d by everybody ;—of which the A l l e g o r y cou ld then bec-come a shadow (73) . Myth i s pr imary and a l l e g o r y i s secondary, but the two are c l o s e . In The E l d e r Edda, one of the mythic poems, ' V o l u s p a , or 'The Song of the S y b i l , ' i s a l s o a dream work, and the dream i s of category v , v i s i o , to whicfawehave a l ready as s igned The D i v i n e Comedy and o ther a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s . ' V o l u s p a ' i s a l a y i n The E l d e r Edda which conta ins the c o s m o l o g i c a l mythology of the o l d Norsemen, and i t s i n f l u e n c e on L i n d s a y ' s cosmology i n A Voyage i s r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e . The c e n t r a l ideas i n A Voyage are indeed g n o s t i c , P l a t o n i c and Schopenhauerian ( P l a t o b e i n g a g n o s t i c , Schopenhauer a n e o - P l a t o n i s t ) , but L indsay perhaps found these ideas most c o n c r e t e l y embodied i n 74 ' V o l u s p a . ' From t h i s , at any r a t e , he took h i s most important names: the S u r t u r of A r c t u r u s i s the Sur t of ' V o l u s p a ' (and of ' V a l f r u t h n i r ' and 'Loka senna ' ; he i s S u r t a r and S u r t r i n some i n f l e c t i o n a l cases , the 75 ' r ' b e i n g n o m i n a t i v a l ) . In the apocalypse f o r e t o l d i n ' V o l u s p a ' Sur t comes from the s o u t h , from Muspelheim ( L i n d s a y ' s Muspel) w i t h the s i n g e r -84 o f - t w i g s , which i s the f i r e tha t Promethean M a s k u l l must t r a v e l to Muspel to s t e a l i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . ' V o l u s p a ' i s unique i n The E l d e r Edda i n be ing a v i s i o and i n b e i n g c o s m o l o g i c a l , but i t has many analogues i n the mythologies of o ther r ace s . I f V e l i k o v s k y i s c o r r e c t i n Worlds i n C o l l i s i o n , these e n d - o f - t h e - w o r l d myths are a l l very s i m i l a r because they are based on events which happened i n the (by co smolog i ca l s tandards) recent p a s t : v i z . the capture of the comet Venus by the s o l a r system, and the c o l l i s i o n s of Mars (angry, red god o f war) and Venus (hew-born goddess of beauty , t r a i l i n g h e r b e a u t i f u l v e i l s ) w h i l e t h i s was t a k i n g p l a c e . 7 7 C u r i o u s l y enough, t h i s m y t h - c u m - s c i e n t i f i c f a c t i s a l s o , as was e a r l i e r remarked, the substance of K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e at the end o f N o v a l i s ' s romance, Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n . Not only i s ' V o l u s p a ' d i f f e r e n t :from the r e s t of The E l d e r Edda, but the saga we have d i s cus sed i n connect ion w i t h A Voyage, The Saga of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , i s d i f f e r e n t from the o ther sagas, and i n a comparable way. Not on ly i s , as was noted by H i g h t , na ture imagery r a r e l y used, but " l i g h t or rad iance symbolism [occurs] on ly i n f r e q u e n t l y 78 i n the Sagas." We f i n d i t i n G r e t t i r . When, f o r example, G r e t t i r meets Glam's ghos t , "The moon was s h i n i n g very b r i g h t l y o u t s i d e , w i t h l i g h t c louds pa s s ing over i t and h i d i n g i t now and a g a i n . A t the 79 moment Glam f e l l , the moon shone f o r t h . " L i g h t or rad iance symbolism i s c e n t r a l to A Voyage, where M a s k u l l f o l l o w s the muspel rad iance across Tormance, and i t i s c e n t r a l to ' V o l u s p a ' and to K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e , i n both of which the sun turns b l a c k . 85 By the time N o v a l i s wrote Henry of Of t e r d i n g e n , he had a f u l l y developed ' r a d i a n c e symbo l i sm, ' which, he had worked out i n Hymnen an d i e Nacht . The f i r s t hymn appears to be a c e l e b r a t i o n of l i g h t as 80 " K o n i g der i r d i s c h e n N a t u r " ( l o r d of e a r t h l y na ture ) which makes v i s i b l e the splendour of the w o r l d . But the w o r l d i s not s p l e n d i d , 81 and " t h e second hymn laments the i n t r u s i o n of d a y l i g h t " i n t o n i g h t ' s dominion^ which N o v a l i s descr ibes as t i m e l e s s and s p a c e l e s s . A s e r i e s of o p p o s i t i o n s are then e s t a b l i s h e d between day and n i g h t , the outer and i n n e r w o r l d s , sur face and depth, sense and Gemut: tha t i s , between the n ight-dream w o r l d and the common, everyday r e a l i t y . In:_the f i f t h hymn, N o v a l i s " i n t r o d u c e s ( fo r the f i r s t time) God's countenance as a 82 ' n o c t u r n a l s u n ' . " T h i s i s the e q u i v a l e n t of Dante ' s ' o t h e r ' sun and of L i n d s a y ' s A l p p a i n . In the apocalypse , the sun of thi s w o r l d w i l l be destroyed and tha t ' o t h e r ' , now ' n o c t u r n a l ' sun , w i l l sh ine f o r t h . I n both ' V o l u s p a ' and K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e , the sun of t h i s w o r l d i s des t royed . ' V o l u s p a ' descr ibes the co smolog i ca l upheaval q u i t e b r i e f l y : Sun turned from the s o u t h , S i s t e r of Moon, Her r i g h t arm r e s t e d on the r i m of Heaven; She had no i n k l i n g where h e r h a l l was, Nor Moon a n o t i o n of what might be had , The p l ane t s knew not where t h e i r p l ace s were (83) . Then, Sur t w i t h the bane-of-branches comes From the sou th , on h i s sword the sun of the Va lgods , Crags t o p p l e , the crone f a l l s headlong , Men t r e a d H e l ' s Road, the Heaven s s p l i t open (84) . 86 I t i s the end of the w o r l d : E a r t h s i n k s i n the sea , the sun turns b l a c k , Cast down from Heaven are the hot s t a r s , Fumes reek , i n t o flames b u r s t , The sky i t s e l f i s scorched w i t h f i r e (85) . In K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e i n Henry of Of terd ingen we have, as V e l i k o v s k y 86 might have argued, the same t?.? co smolog i ca l events d e s c r i b e d . The hero (Mars?) i s c a l l e d i n t o a house by F r e y a , " the b e a u t i f u l daughter of A r c t u r u s " ('.) who s i t s on " a throne a r t f u l l y f a sh ioned from a huge 87 p y r i t e - c r y s t a l " and streams w i t h l i g h t . She i s e v i d e n t l y the comet Venus. When the e a r t h passes through the comet's t a i l we are t o l d that 88 " S o p h i a ' s b lue v e i l . . . was waving over the e a r t h . " A c c o r d i n g to V e l i k o v s k y there must have been an exchange-6f p o t e n t i a l , i . e . a spark or e l e c t r i c a l d i s charge , between the two p l a n e t s . We f i n d t h i s i n N o v a l i s when, approaching F r e y a , the hero puts h i s sword handle aga ins t h i s ches t , p o i n t s the b lade of i t a t h e r , and "a b r i g h t spa rk " leaps 89 between them. We have seen t h i s i n ' V o l u s p a ' when Surt comes, "on h i s sword the sun of t h e V a l g o d s . " Dark S u r t u r has been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h b l a c k smoke, "out o f which f l a s h e d a tongue of f lame, l i k e a s h i n i n g 90 91 s w o r d , " B i g John Buscema's p i c t u r e o o f him as an enormous red monster seems more l i k e l y , i f we c o n s i d e r tha t Sur t must have been the p l a n e t Mars . Surt comes to destroy the e a r t h and the e a r t h ' s gods, whose t w i l i g h t t h i s i s . H i s coming i s de sc r ibed thus i n Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n : The sun s tood i n heaven, f i e r y - r e d w i t h rage . The p o w e r f u l flame imbibed i t s s t o l e n l i g h t ; 87 and the more f i e r c e l y the sun s t rove to preserve i t s e l f , ever more p a l e and spo t t ed i t became. The flame grew w h i t e r and more i n t e n s e , , as the sun faded.' I t a t t r a c t e d the l i g h t more and more s t r o n g l y ; the g l o r y around the s t a r of day was soon consumed, and i t s tood there a p a l e , g l immering d i s k , every new a g i t a t i o n of s p i t e and rage a i d i n g the escape of the f l y i n g l i g h t - w a v e s . F i n a l l y , nought of the sun remained but a b l a c k , exhausted dros s , which f e l l i n t o the sea . The splendour of the flame was beyond d e s c r i p t i o n . I t s l o w l y ascended, and borettowards the n o r t h (92) . 93 And the k i n g , A r c t u r u s , says-: " n i g h t i s p a s s e d . " Krag echoes t h i s : "The n i g h t i s r e a l l y pa s t a t l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . . The day i s h e r e " (VA 277). A t the end o f ' V o l u s p a , ' when the n i g h t has passed, the S y b i l s ays , I see E a r t h r i s i n g a second time Out of the foam, f a i r and green; Down from the f e l l s , f i s h to cap ture , Wings the eag le ; waters f low (94) . 95 Thus, "out of p a i n i s the new w o r l d b o r n . " I t i s the r e t u r n of the Golden Age: Boards s h a l l be found of a beauty to wonder a t , Boards of go ld i n the grass long a f t e r , The chess boards they owned i n the olden days (96) . 97 Henceforward, " a l l war i s conf ined to t h i s s l a b and to these f i g u r e s . " Around t h i s myth, the a l l e g o r y of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s b u i l t . Krag ' s name on E a r t h i s p a i n (VA 287) : he i s the b r i n g e r of gnosis and of the new w o r l d : he i s a l s o S u r t u r , whose Muspel f i r e i s to burn up the o l d w o r l d . But i n L i n d s a y ' s v e r s i o n of the myth, the apocalypse i s to be a long-drawn out a f f a i r , as Night spore d i s c o v e r s : Muspel was no a l l - p o w e r f u l U n i v e r s e , t o l e r a t i n g from pure i n d i f f e r e n c e the e x i s t e n c e s i d e by s i d e w i t h i t of another f a l s e w o r l d , which had no r i g h t 88 to be . Muspel was f i g h t i n g f o r i t s l i f e — a g a i n s t a l l t h a t i s most shameful and f r i g h t f u l — a g a i n s t s i n masquerading as e t e r n a l beauty, aga ins t baseness masquerading as Na ture , ag a in s t the D e v i l masquerading as God (VA 286). The o l d w o r l d and the new ( ' o t h e r ' ) w o r l d a l ready e x i s t s i d e by s i d e . The o l d w o r l d i s to be not so much des troyed as p a t i e n t l y uncrea ted , not because i t i s e v i l — t h o u g h i t i s e v i l — b u t because c r e a t i o n i s e v i l . C r e a t i o n i s the o r i g i n a l s i n . Therefore there can be no Golden Age to look forward to at the end of A Voyage. A l l c r e a t i o n i s , i n L i n d s a y ' s v iew, " r o t t e n w i t h i l l u s i o n " (TSG 42) , b u t , behind c r e a t i o n " l i e s the r e a l , tremendous and awful M u s p e l - w o r l d , which knows n e i t h e r W i l l , nor U n i t y , nor I n d i v i d u a l s ; that i s to say , an i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " (TSG 42) . ' V o l u s p a ' i s s imply the s t o r y of " t h e e t e r n a l war fare waged by the 98 kingdom of l i g h t aga i n s t the kingdom of d a r k n e s s . " K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e i s more c o m p l i c a t e d , f o r i n some p laces " l i g h t and shade seem [ . . . ] 99 to have changed t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e s , " and we must support the values of the seeming dark which i s the one t rue l i g h t . L indsay takes l i t e r a l l y and develops N o v a l i s ' s i d e a i n Hymnen an d i e Nacht of the ' n o c t u r n a l s u n , ' so tha t A Voyage to A r c t u r u s becomes not so much a b a t t l e between l i g h t and darkness (though i t i s t h i s a l s o ) , but between the l i g h t of the w o r l d and the l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d . To t h i s b a t t l e we must now t u r n . 89 Footnotes To Chapter Three C. S. L e w i s , The A l l e g o r y of Love : A Study i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 75. 2 Loui s MacNeice, i n V a r i e t i e s of Parab le (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), says t h a t "mapping P i l g r i m ' s Progress would be l i k e mapping the N i l e V a l l e y , only worse . A l l l o n g i t u d e and p r a c t i c a l l y no l a t i t u d e : that i s the t r o u b l e w i t h a s t r a i g h t and narrow path and i t i s on ly the ups and downs which keep i t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , the H i l l D i f f i c u l t y , the V a l l e y of H u m i l i a t i o n " (p. 43) . 3 Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s C r i t i c i s m , ed . T. M. Raysor (London: Constable & C o . , 1936), p . 36. 4 Joanna Russ i n 'Dream L i t e r a t u r e and Science F i c t i o n ' i n E x t r a p o l a - t i o n (Dec. 1969) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between day-dream and night-dream l i t e r a t u r e , and f i n d s the l a t t e r v a s t l y p r e f e r a b l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y she i n c o r r e c t l y c la s se s L indsay as a day-dream w r i t e r and a t t a c k s h im on t h i s ground, w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h a t A Voyage i s b u i l t around the same d i s t i n c t i o n . See my r e b u t t a l i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (May 1972). ^C . S. L e w i s , 0f_ Other W o r l d s , ed . W. Hooper (London: Geoffrey B l e s , 1966), p . 6. A . D. N u t t a l l , Two Concepts of A l l e g o r y (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1967), p . 31. ^ E l l i o t t B. Gose J r . , Imaginat ion Indu lged : The I r r a t i o n a l i n the  Nineteenth Century Nove l (Montrea l and London: M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p . 42. g Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y : . The Theory of a_ Symbolic Mode ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p . 107. 9 W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s output i s enormous, and i n c l u d e s The Water of  the Wondrous I s l e s and The Wood Beyond the W o r l d , as w e l l as The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End. E . R. Eddison wrote a t r i l o g y about Z imiamvia , The Worm Ouroboros, M i s t r e s s of M i s t r e s s e s and A F i s h Dinner i n Memison, w h i l e a f o u r t h book, The Mezent ian Gate, remains u n f i n i s h e d . C l a r k Ashton Smith and H. P . L o v e c r a f t have g iven us , at great l e n g t h , the mythologies of Zothique and C t h u l h u r e s p e c t i v e l y . James Churchward and John Norman have w r i t t e n at l e a s t h a l f - a - d o z e n books each about the subcreated wor lds of Mu and Gor r e s p e c t i v e l y . Recent 'Hugo' winners 90 i n the f i e l d i n c l u d e Frank H e r b e r t ' s Dune and U r s u l a K . LeGuinn ' s The L e f t Hand of Darkness . B e s t - s e l l e r i n the f i e l d i s s t i l l The L o r d of the Rings and i t s companion The Hobbit,-: 3 w h i l e the most long winded must be James Branch C a b e l l ' s i n t e r m i n a b l e s e r i e s The Biography  of Manuel . And these are on ly the obvious examples. "^Sam J . L u n d w a l l , Sc ience F i c t i o n : What i t ' s a l l about (New Y o r k : Ace Books, 19 71), pp . 17-19. 11 Sam J . L u n d w a l l , Sc ience F i c t i o n , pp . 36-37. 12 Quoted by L u n d w a l l from Ralph 124C41+ i n Sc ience F i c t i o n , p . 19. 13 Quoted by L u n d w a l l i n Sc ience F i c t i o n , p . 37. 14 Quoted by Lundwal l i n Sc ience F i c t i o n , p . 37. From L u n d w a l l ' s survey I take t h i s a t t i t u d e to be t y p i c a l . ^ M o r r i s ' s romances are the development of S i gurd the V o l s u n g , s e t i n the a n c i e n t R h i n e l a n d , . a n d The L i f e and Death of Jason, borrowed from Greek mythology. " ^ V i s i a k : "The author who had most i n f l u e n c e d h im, he t o l d me, was George MacDonald" (TSG 98 ) . " ^ V i s i a k : " H i s kinsman, Carlyle—whom he f a c i a l l y resembled, and admired—achieved the f a c u l t y of w r i t i n g as he spoke, and L indsay t r i e d e v e n t u a l l y to i m i t a t e h i s s t y l e " i n Witch (TSG 9 7 ) . 18 A thorough study o f the double i n German l i t e r a t u r e has been done by Ralph Tymms c a l l e d Doubles i n L i t e r a r y Psychology (Cambridge: Bowes and Bowes, 1949). More r e c e n t , more t e c h n i c a l , more comprehensive and r a t h e r poorer i s R. Rogers ' A P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Study of The Double i n L i t e r a t u r e ( D e t r o i t : ' Wayne S ta te U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970). Both Tymms and Rogers d e a l w i t h the double by d i v i s i o n and the double by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . N e i t h e r seems t o have thought of a t h i r d k i n d , the double by i m i t a t i o n , which u n d e r l i e s such d iver se works as P i e r s P low- man (the i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t ) and The R e a l L i f e of Sebas t ian Knight (where V becomes S e b a s t i a n ) . 19 John Locke , An Essay Concerning Human Unders tanding , ed . J . W. Y o l t o n (London: J . M. Dent, 1961), v o l . I , p . 82. H e r e a f t e r t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d as EHU. Locke a l s o asks us to "suppose the s o u l 91 of Cas tor separated dur ing h i s s leep from h i s body, to t h i n k a p a r t . L e t us suppose, too , tha t i t chooses f o r i t s scene of t h i n k i n g the body of another man, e . g . P o l l u x , who i s s l e e p i n g w i t h o u t a s o u l . . . " (EHTJ I , p . 83) . 20 John Locke , EHU I , p . 85, 21 John Locke , EHU I I , p . 144. 22 John Locke , EHU I I , p . 16 7. 23 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n : A Romance (New Y o r k : H . H . Moore, 1853), p . 27. 9 / E . T . A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden P o t ' i n The Best Ta le s of Hoffmann, ed. E . F . B l e i l e r (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967), p . 8. 'The Golden P o t ' i s r e p r i n t e d i n a c leaned up v e r s i o n (without " the S c o t t i s h -ness and e c c e n t r i c i t y " [p. x x x i i i ] ) of C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n . 25 E . T . A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 26 E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 27. E . T . A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 28. E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 29 E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 30 E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden. Pot 31 E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 32 E. T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 33. E . T . A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot 34 E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden Pot p . 55 . p . 48. p . 18. p . 19. p . 18. p . 56. p . 57. p . 56. p . 56. p . 69. 35 E . F. B l e i l e r notes i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to The Best Ta les of  Hoffmann t h a t " a c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Anselmus i s s imply a 92 p r o j e c t i o n of the R e g i s t r a t o r which disappears i n the w o r l d of f a n t a s y , w h i l e the R e g i s t r a t o r , g i v i n g up h i s dreams, marr ies V e r o n i c a . She, i n t u r n , recognizes t h a t she cannot possess the Anselmus complex but must be content w i t h the Conrec tor- turned-Gehe imrat " (p. x i x ) . 36 t Both Hoffmann and N o v a l i s used marchen, which N o v a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as be ing " l i k e a dream v i s i o n . . . beyond l o g i c . . . an assembly of wonder-f u l th ings and happenings" (quoted by B l e i l e r i n The Best T a l e s , p . xx) . These marchen, B l e i l e r t e l l s us , " o f t e n appeared as symbol ic k e r n e l s or germs w i t h i n the l a r g e r context of a s t o r y , o f f e r i n g i n f r a n k l y p o e t i c and m y t h i c a l form the p o i n t o f f e r e d more o r l e s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n the f u l l s t o r y " (p . x x ) . MacDonald used t h i s form f r e q u e n t l y , as f o r example i n the s t o r y of Cosmo i n Phanta s te s , but L i n d s a y , w r i t i n g some4-' t h i n g much more l i k e pure a l l e g o r y , much l e s s l i k e romance, used the form r a r e l y : Panawe's s t o r y and the s t o r y of Hator are b r i e f examples. A Voyage i s s e t thoroughly i n the s p i r i t or n ight-dream w o r l d , and t h e r e -fore i s at war w i t h the w o r l d of the body. 37 p . xvx . 38 This obvious comparison has a l s o been made by W. A . S trauss i n Descent and R e t u r n : The Orph ic Theme i n Modern L i t e r a t u r e (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p . 26. Our anonymous t r a n s l a t o r t e l l s us N o v a l i s was h a p p i l y "uncorrupted by precedent s " (p. x v i ) . 39 A l l c i t a t i o n s i n German are t o ' H e i n r i c h von O f t e r d i n g e n ' i n N o v a l i s Dichtungen (Hamburg':' Rowohlt , 1963). ^ I n f e r n o , 1, l i n e 2. of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 25 . of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 37. of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 37. of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 195. of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 132. o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 134. of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 193. iSIovalis, Henry 42 N o v a l i s , Henry 43 N o v a l i s , Henry 44 N o v a l i s , Henry 45 N o v a l i s , Henry ^ N o v a l i s , Henry 47 N o v a l i s , Henry 93 48 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 203. 49 Thomas C a r l y l e , On Heroes , Herd-Worship and the H e r o i c i n H i s t o r y , ed . C a r l Niemeyer ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1966), p . 19. "^Thomas C a r l y l e , On Heroes , p . 16. "'"'"Thomas C a r l y l e , On Heroes , p . 17. 52 W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by J . W. M a c k a i l i n The L i f e of W i l l i a m  M o r r i s (London: Longmans, 1901), I , p . 244. ^ ^ W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by M a c k a i l , L i f e , I , p . 247. " ^ E i n e r Haugen, 'On T r a n s l a t i n g from the S c a n d i n a v i a n ' i n Old  Norse L i t e r a t u r e and Mythology : A Symposium, ed. E . C. Polome ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1969), p . 13. "'"'See Dorothy M. Hoare , The Works of W i l l i a m M o r r i s and Yeats i n  R e l a t i o n to E a r l y Saga L i t e r a t u r e (1937; r p t . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 19 71) , pp. 50-55. 56 W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by M a c k a i l , L i f e , I , p . 107. 57 W i l l i a m M o r r i s , 'To The Muse of the N o r t h ' i n Poems by the Way & Love i s Enough (London: Longmans, Green, 1912), p . 32. 5 8 G. A . H ight i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to The Saga of G r e t t i r the  S trong (London: J . M. Dent , 1913), p . x i i . 59 G. A . H i g h t i n G r e t t i r , p . x i v . ^ G . A . H ight i n G r e t t i r , p . v i i . ^"4ciner Haugen i n Polome's Old Norse L i t e r a t u r e , p . 17. 62 Anonymous review of The Strange Genius i n The Times L i t e r a r y  Supplement (November 20, 19 70), p . 1346. 63 G. A . H ight i n G r e t t i r , pp. x - x i . 94 K r a g , however, does not seems to when, f o r example, he horse because he does not want i n f l i c t p a i n n e e d l e s s l y , as G r e t t i r s t r i p s the h i d e o f f h i s f a t h e r ' s l i v e to look a f t e r i t . A . Margaret A r e n t , 'The H e r o i c P a t t e r n : Old Germanic Helmets , Beowulf , and G r e t t i s s a g a ' i n Old NOfse L i t e r a t u r e and Mythology: A Symposium, ed . E . C. Polome^ ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1969), pp. 184-^85. A r e n t ' s s u b j e c t i s the s i m i l a r i t y of mot i f s i n Beowulf and G r e t t i r . She n o t i c e s tha t "one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements of the f a i r y tale ,- however, the f r e e i n g of a p r i n c e s s , enter s i n t o n e i t h e r " (p. 185). I t does, of course , e n t e r i n t o A Voyage to  A r c t u r u s , when M a s k u l l wakes Sul lenbode w i t h a k i s s . 66 / A . Margaret Arent i n Polome's Old Norse L i t e r a t u r e , p . 185. 6 7 J . B. P i c k assures me i n a p r i v a t e l e t t e r dated January 4, 1971, tha t G r e t t i r was a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on L i n d s a y . P i c k has accesss to L i n d s a y ' s notebooks, w h i c h , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have n o t . 6 8 J . W. Swanne l l , W i l l i a m M o r r i s and Old Norse L i t e r a t u r e (London: W i l l i a m M o r r i s S o c i e t y , 1961), p . 13. 69 G. A . H i g h t i n G r e t t i r , p . x . 70 G. A . H i g h t , G r e t t i r , p . x . P a u l S c h a c h , , ' S y m b o l i c Dreams of Future Renown i n Old I c e l a n d i c L i t e r a t u r e 1 i n Mosa i c , I V , 4 (Summer 1971), p . 51 . See a l s o E . 0 . G. T u r v i l l e - P e t r e . , 'Dreams i n I c e l a n d i c T r a d i t i o n ' i n F o l k l o r e , 69 (1958), pp. 93-111. 72 See P e t e r H a l l b e r g , 'Dreams and D e s t i n y ' i n The I c e l a n d i c Saga, t r a n s . P a u l Schach ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1962), pp. 81-96. 73 Thomas C a r l y l e , On Heroes , p . 6. 74 I n c i d e n t a l l y , i n one of the l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g par t s of ' V o l u s p a ' T o l k i e n found a l i s t of dwarves' names to borrow. 75 See the I c e l a n d i c t e x t e d i t e d by P. H . Salus and P. B. T a y l o r , Vo luspa : The Song of the S y b i l , t r a n s . P . B. T a y l o r and W. H. Auden (Iowa C i t y : Windhover P r e s s , 1968), s t . 41, 45. The t r a n s l a t i o n i n 95 t h i s e d i t i o n , r e p r i n t e d i n the same a u t h o r s ' The E l d e r Edda, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n tha t i t ' t r a n s l a t e s ' some of the ' a l l e g o r y ' "From the east through Venom V a l l e y runs / Over jagged rocks the R i v e r Gruesome" ( s t . 31). 76 See Lee M. H o l l a n d e r , The P o e t i c Edda (1928; r e v . e d . , A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1962), pp. 3, 45, 51 , 59, 99. Sur tur comes to burn up B r a n c h s p e l l . 7 7 Immanuel V e l i k o v s k y , Worlds i n C o l l i s i o n (New Y o r k : D e l l , 1967). 78 P a u l Schach i n ' Symbol ic Dreams, ' p . 71. 7 9 G r e t t i r , p . 98. 80 N o v a l i s , 'Hymnen an d i e Nacht ' i n N o v a l i s Dichtungen, p . 55. "^Hf. A . S t r a u s s , Descent and R e t u r n : The Orphic Theme i n Modern  L i t e r a t u r e (Cambridge, Mas s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p . 29. See Strauss f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the Hymn en. A l s o see Bruce Haywood, N o v a l i s : The V e i l of Imagery (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), pp. 52-77. 82 W. A . S t r a u s s , Descent and R e t u r n , p . 34. 83 The E l d e r Edda: A S e l e c t i o n , t r a n s . P . B. T a y l o r and W. H . Auden (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 19 70), p . 145. 8 4 T h e E l d e r Edda, p . 151. 85 The E l d e r Edda, p . 152. 86 He d o e s n ' t . I don ' t t h i n k he read N o v a l i s . 87 N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 156. 88 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 179. 89 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 186. 96 W. Wagner, Asgard and the Gods: The Tales and T r a d i t i o n s o f our  Nor thern A n c e s t o r s , adapted M. W. MacDowal l , ed . W. S. W. Anson (London: W. Swan Sonnenschein, 1884), pp. 56-57. 91 The Mighty Thor , M a r v e l Comics, 200 (June 1972), pp. 17-18. This s p e c i a l 200th i s s u e r e t e l l s the l a y of ' V o l u s p a . ' N o v a l i s , Henry ojf Of t e r d i n g e n , p . 177. ^ N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 179. 4 The E l d e r Edda, p . 152. " 'Nova l i s , Henry of Of t e r d i n g e n , p . 184. 6 The E l d e r Edda, p . 152. ^ N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 185. 8 i i W. Wagner, Asgard and the Gods, p . 55. N o v a l i s , Henry of Of terd i r igen , p . 169. In N o v a l i s , "each f i g u r e e x h i b i t e d a p e c u l i a r shade of b l a c k , and cas t beh ind a p a l e g l immer . " In L i n d s a y , " t h e shadows of the three men ca s t by A l p p a i n were not b l a c k , but were composed of w h i t e d a y l i g h t " (VA 275) . 9 7 Chapter Four : THE UNHOLY WAR: A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS AS BATTLE A l l e g o r i e s are of two k i n d s , b a t t l e and progre s s , the l a t t e r be ing b e t t e r s u i t e d to the e p i s o d i c n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the dream f anta sy . But a l l progresses are a l s o b a t t l e s , s i n c e they are organi sed around d ichotomies : God and d e v i l , C h r i s t and Satan, Good and E v i l , l i g h t and darkness , l i g h t n e s s and w e i g h t . B l a k e ' s proverb i s most apt i n t h i s c o n t e x t : "Without C o n t r a r i e s i s no progress ion."" ' " Were we to judge by the n e o - A r i s t o t a l i a n canons of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y a p p r o p r i a t e t o , say , some k i n d s of n o v e l , such d u a l i t i e s must seem to be on a p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of thought . Indeed they a r e . Dreams themselves are a p r i m i t i v e form of i d e a t i o n , and they are i n h e r e n t l y d u a l i s t i c . The schematic dua l i sm of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s s t r u c t u r e as an a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e , as i s the s i m i l a r l y s c h e m a t i c — i f not d i agrammat ic—struc ture of thought i n the works of o ther n e o - P l a t o n i s t s such as Spenser, M i l t o n , B l ake (who was, though, the f ac t i s r a r e l y mentioned, l i k e many of h i s f r i e n d s — F l a x m a n , F u s e l i , Cumberland—a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the 'Greek r e v i v a l ' ) , S h e l l e y and Y e a t s . This schematic dua l i sm i s appropr i a te i n another sense a l s o , i n t h a t i t belongs to the w o r l d of G e n e r a t i o n , as B lake c a l l s i t , which, most of us i n h a b i t , and which i n the f i n a l v i s i o n we and the genera t ing p r o t a g o n i s t : must progress beyond: the apparent l i m i t a t i o n of dua l i sm i s p a r t of i t s s t r e n g t h . 98 A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s organised around a number of d u a l i t i e s , some of which are u b i q u i t o u s i n European c u l t u r e , and some of which L indsay has developed. These d u a l i t i e s are l i g h t and darkness , l i g h t -ness and w e i g h t , B r a n c h s p e l l ' s l i g h t and A l p p a i n ' s l i g h t , h e i g h t and depth, M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , th_e r e a l w o r l d and the dream w o r l d , appearance and r e a l i t y , the rhythm of the w a l t z and the rhythm of the march, the male and the female , matter and s p i r i t , and, f i n a l l y , n o t h i n g and n o t h i n g . Probably the most i n n o v a t i v e of these i s the use, as proc la imed by the t i t l e , of the d i s t a n t s t a r , A r c t u r u s , which L indsay makes i n t o a double s t a r to s u i t h i s a l l e g o r i c a l purposes . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s a m i s l e a d i n g t i t l e f o r a book i n w h i c h ' there i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n space t r a v e l — M a s k u l l s leeps a l l the way there (VA 44 ) , and the space-ship i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y l u d i c r o u s — b u t L indsay wanted to s t r e s s h i s r e a l s t a r , not h i s subcreated p l a n e t . Our everyn ight exper ience of s t a r s i s of th ings pure and b e a u t i f u l , cons tant , c o l d ( e m o t i o n a l l y , not l i t e r a l l y ) , and i m p o s s i b l y d i s t a n t . S tar s are not g e n e r a l l y to be v i s i t e d i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , which take p l ace not i n p h y s i c a l b u t , i n C o l e r i d g e ' s phrase , i n "menta l s p a c e . " In e a r l i e r times an untouched corner of the e a r t h had s u f f i c e d . By the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , even voyages to the moon, popular s i n c e 2 astronomer K e p l e r ' s Somnium (1634), were b e i n g d i s c r e d i t e d by the i n c r e a s e i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, though W e l l s managed to se t a romance there (1901) by f i n d i n g l i f e underground, w h i l e Verne ' s t r a v e l l e r s (1865) gl impsed l i f e on the moon's h idden s i d e . Some w r i t e r s , such as George MacDonald (1858, 1895), used a d i f f e r e n t space f o r t h e i r mental 99 space w h i l e o t h e r s , such as W i l l i a m M o r r i s (1895) , took up sub-c r e a t i n g and made t h e i r own secondary w o r l d s . Most w r i t e r s s imply moved w i t h the expanding f r o n t i e r , f u r t h e r out i n t o space. A f t e r the obse rva t ion of channels or c a h a l i on Mars , " b e g i n n i n g i n the 1880's Mars becomes the f o c a l p o i n t of s p e c u l a t i o n u n t i l not on ly does i t commandthe popular press but a l s o , by World War I , becomes 3 the u sua l d e s t i n a t i o n of any i n t e r - p l a n e t a r y voyage . " Edgar Rice Burroughs c a l l e d i t Barsoom, C. S. Lewis Malacandra . But L indsay wanted not a wandering but a f i x e d s t a r f o r h i s t i t l e , and a new p lanet f o r h i s s p i r i t w o r l d , so he takes us across the galaxy to A r c t u r u s . L indsay presumably chose A r c t u r u s as h i s s t a r f o r the name's at tachments . A r c t u r u s i s a very b r i g h t s t a r ; hence i t was named a long time ago—the Bootes of Greek astronomy—and has accumulated a penumbra of e x t r a - a s t r o n o m i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Ca ther ine V a l e W h i t w e l l t e l l s her daughter : . " C a l l i s t h o , perhaps Nimrod, was s a i d to be the son ( s i c ) of that c o n s t e l l a t i o n , and a f t e r h i s decease h i s s o u l was thought to take i t s abode i n A r c t u r u s . iri.",Bootes, that i t might w i t h 4 u n i n t e r r u p t e d a t t e n t i o n perpetuate i t s o b s e r v a t i o n s . " Close observa-t i o n i s the keynote of the use of A r c t u r u s by Herman M e l v i l l e i n M a r d i : the s h i p the n a r r a t o r deserts i s c a l l e d the A r c t u r i o n , and l a t e r something i s s a i d " I n good t r u t h , and as i f an i m p a r t i a l i s t from A r c t u r u s spoke i t . " ~ * Gordon M i l l s has g los sed t h i s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n tha t i n 1840-42 the Duyckink b r o t h e r s , f r i e n d s of M e l v i l l e , p u b l i s h e d a magazine c a l l e d A r c t u r u s . In the ' P r o l o g u e ' to the f i r s t number, they say they do not 100 "vouch f o r the l i t e r a r y charac te r of the i n h a b i t a n t s of A r c t u r u s as patrons of the present u n d e r t a k i n g ; i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t A r c t u r u s i s a s t a r that shines h i g h and b r i g h t l y , and looks down w i t h a keen glance on the e r r o r s , f o l l i e s and m a l - p r a c t i c e s of men." That L indsay was i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g such ' a keen g l a n c e ' at f o o l i s h n e s s i n t h i s w o r l d i s e v i d e n t from the opening chapter of A Voyage, which concerns i t s e l f w i t h the suburban theosophy of Blackhouse the medium, who i s , as L indsay d r o l l y observes , " a f a s t - r i s i n g s t a r i n the p s y c h i c w o r l d " (VA 11) . I t i s much to the p o i n t t h a t many theosophi s t s (Edgar Cayce i s an example) have mainta ined the i d e a expressed by P l a t o and echoed by Dante t h a t the souls of the departed r e t u r n to the s t a r s . Those who d ie on e a r t h may be reborn on A r c t u r u s , o r one of i t s p l a n e t s . The i d e a i s used amusingly by H . G. W e l l s at the end of h i s s h o r t s t o r y ' A V i s i o n of Judgment, ' where God takes a l l the l i t t l e people from h i s coa t - s l eeves onto " the p lanet t h a t w h i r l e d about green S i r i u s f o r a s u n " 7 to s t a r t a l l over a g a i n . This i s , i n e f f e c t , what happens to M a s k u l l , as we s h a l l see. Our own s t a r , S o l , was u n a v a i l a b l e because L indsay needed a double s t a r f o r a l l e g o r i c a l reasons : doubles , d u a l i s m , dichotomies are fundamental to the nature of a l l e g o r y as both b a t t l e and dream. A r c t u r u s i s n o t , i n f a c t , a double s t a r ; but L indsay made i t one. One of W i l s o n ' s l e s s happy observa t ions i n The Strange Genius i s that " I t may have been unconscious symbolism that made L indsay choose the double s t a r , A r c t u r u s , as the scene o f h i s major n o v e l " (TSG 41 ) . The reasons , very d e l i b e r a t e l y worked through i n the a l l e g o r y , are 101 many and good. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , L indsay i s reworking the symbolism of l i g h t and darkness which i s c e n t r a l to Western c i v i l i s a t i o n : we t a l k of b e i n g ' i n the dark ' and, when ' e n l i g h t e n e d , ' of b e i n g able ' t o see i t a l l now. ' The sun appears to have been our f i r s t god, g and whole p h i l o s o p h i e s have been b u i l t around H i s l i g h t . In C h r i s t i a n i t y we f i n d the abso lute s e p a r a t i o n of l i g h t from heat (Heaven) and heat from l i g h t ( H e l l ) , most n o t a b l y used by Dante i n h i s great r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y . C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s i s the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of mountains , e s p e c i a l l y D a n t e ' s , which leads to Heaven. Mountains are c l o s e r to the l i g h t , b e i n g h i g h e r , and g i v e , l i t e r a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , a ' w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , ' a ' h i g h e r v i e w ' of t h i n g s . Most mythologies are concerned w i t h the e t e r n a l b a t t l e between l i g h t and darkness , between s p i r i t and m a t t e r : the s p i r i t i s l i g h t and l i g h t , matter i s dark and heavy. From t h i s c o n f l i c t , a ccord ing to G n o s t i c i s m , the un iver se was b o r n . The w o r l d we know i s on the i n t e r f a c e between the two E t e r n a l P r i n c i p l e s , and i s made up of a mix ture of l i g h t and darkness , s p i r i t and m a t t e r , good and e v i l . Because o f the mixed nature of the w o r l d , there must be some d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the view that God i s w h o l l y good, because of ( i n C. S. 9 L e w i s ' s t i t l e ) ' t h e problem of p a i n . ' Or e l s e ( s i n c e not to do good, i f one i s a b l e , i s e v i l ) i t cannot be mainta ined that God i s omni-p o t e n t . Those who have refused to cede an i n c h o f H i s goodness have e i t h e r invoked a d u a l i s t i c c r e a t i o n , such as the l i g h t - d a r k of G n o s t i c i s m , or the i n t r a c t a b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l at God's d i s p o s a l , 102 as does P l a t o i n the Timaeus, or argued t h a t the w o r l d was made by a l e s s e r God, Demiurge o r d e v i l , of which Prometheus i s a type . A l l these amount to much the same t h i n g : they e x p l a i n the ' f a l l i n g o f f between the Idea and the e x e c u t i o n , which i s to say , the o r i g i n a l s i n inherent i n c r e a t i o n . The phenomenal w o r l d we i n h a b i t , b e i n g on the i n t e r f a c e , must be conceived of as a b a t t l e f i e l d where, l i k e C h r i s t i a n , we need to g i r d our l o i n s and put our s p i r i t u a l armour on. E v e r y t h i n g has a d u a l n a t u r e : ploughshares may be turned i n t o swords, there i s no l i g h t 11 w i t h o u t shadow, no mercy w i t h o u t o p p r e s s i o n . As D i s c o r d asks i n Ca lderon ' s La E s t a t u a De Prometeo, "Do you not know that there i s no f i r e wi thout smoke?" Whether the c r e a t i o n , as Prometheus's g i f t of f i r e , i s seen as a Good E v i l or an E v i l Good seems main ly a mat ter of t a s t e . R e a l i s t s , who b e l i e v e i n the r e a l w o r l d , l i k e P l a t o , Schopenhauer, Jean P a u l and L i n d s a y , are p e s s i m i s t s and take the l a t t e r view ( E v i l Good), w h i l e A r i s t o t e l i a n n o m i n a l i s t s , who b e l i e v e i n the m a t e r i a l and phenomenal w o r l d , are o p t i m i s t s and take the former one. The forces of good, however, are the ' l i g h t ' elements of a i r and f i r e ( s p i r i t , ' b rea th of l i f e , ' pneuma, v i t a l spark , phos-phorous) and the forces of e v i l are the ' d a r k ' and heavy elements of 12 water and e a r t h . Man h i m s e l f has a dua l n a t u r e : the b r e a t h or s p i r i t has been impri soned i n the r i v e r of m a t t e r ; the d i v i n e spark of s t o l e n ( e . g . muspel-) f i r e has been trapped i n a crude compound o f the base elements water and e a r t h , or c o l d c l a y . " B r i e f l y , whatsoever h a t h a 103 body i s n o t h i n g but curd led smoke, wherein a p a r t i c u l a r p r e d e s t i n a t i o n l i e t h h i d . . . . Man i s a coagulated fume," i n the immorta l words of 13 P a r a c e l s u s . " H i s s o u l i s c o n s u b s t a n t i a l w i t h the d i v i n e L i g h t ; h i s 14 body, w i t h the e v i l d a r k n e s s . " Therefore "Man i s born to t r o u b l e i n the body" Smart observes , "as the sparks f l y upwards i n the s p i r i t . " " ' So long as a man has any regard f o r t h i s c o r p s e - l i k e b o d y , ' w r i t e s the Hindu monk Shankavacharya, 'he i s impure, and s u f f e r s from h i s enemies as w e l l as from b i r t h , d i sease and d e a t h . . . . Throw f a r away 16 t h i s l i m i t a t i o n of a body which, i s i n e r t and f i l t h y by n a t u r e . ' " Death i s one escape: as the t h i r t e e n t h century P e r s i a n m y s t i c A z i z N a s a f i s ays , On the death of any l i v i n g c rea ture the s p i r i t r e turns to the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , the body to the b o d i l y w o r l d . I n t h i s however only the bodies are s u b j e c t to change. The s p i r i t u a l w o r l d i s one s i n g l e s p i r i t who stands l i k e unto a l i g h t behind the b o d i l y w o r l d (17) . As we have a l ready p o i n t e d o u t , s l eep i s another . In A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , the d u a l i t y of man may be taken as the 18 foundat ion of e v e r y t h i n g . The embodied r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the e t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and the double sun i t s e l f , r e i n f o r c e t h i s dichotomy: M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , Crystalman and S u r t u r , Gangnet and K r a g , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n . The p r o t a g o n i s t o f A Voyage i s not the dreaming ' I ' who observes but M a s k u l l , who i s , as h i s name t e l l s us , mask and s k u l l : the r a t i o n a l everyday s e l f of each of us . P h y s i c a l l y he i s " a k i n d of g i a n t , but of broader and more robust physique than most g i a n t s . He wore a f u l l beard . H i s f ea tures were t h i c k and heavy, coa r se ly modeled" (VA 18) . H i s complementary double ( M a s k u l l and 104 Night spore are doubles by d i v i s i o n ) i s N i g h t s p o r e , who seems to be "consumed by an i n t e n s e s p i r i t u a l hunger" (VA 18) : he i s what remains of s p i r i t , the a sexua l spore of the n i g h t l i b e r a t e d i n dreams from the coarse m a t e r i a l i t y of the body. But here we have an i n v e r s i o n . M a s k u l l i s the d a y - s e l f , and t h e r e f o r e l i g h t i s h i s ; Night spore i s a c rea ture of darkness . L i g h t i s good, darkness i s e v i l . At the suprahuman l e v e l , the embodied god of l i g h t M a s k u l l seeks i s , i n the end, the b e a u t i f u l Gangnet, w h i l e N i g h t s p o r e ' s counterpar t i s the i n s o l e n t and r e p u l s i v e , apparent ly e v i l , Krag: " the author of e v i l and m i s e r y , " says J o i w i n d , "whom you c a l l D e v i l " (VA 56 ) . On the a s t r o n o m i c a l l e v e l , however, the a l l e g o r y i s made c l e a r . B r a n c h s p e l l — t h e y e l l o w , everday sun—is the sun which l i g h t s M a s k u l l ' s way across Tormance, w h i l e N ight spore i s i n darkness only because he i s a s leep dur ing A l p p a i n ' s n i g h t . Be ing as leep to the ' r e a l ' w o r l d enables Night spore to be awake to the r e a l , o ther w o r l d of the s p i r i t : M a s k u l l ' s l i g h t i s darkness , and h i s good e v i l ; N i g h t s p o r e ' s darkness i s l i g h t , and h i s e v i l good. The m o t i f of the double sun i s an uncommon one. L indsay may have had i t suggested to him by an as ide i n The D i v i n e Comedy, where Dante says Rome once had "two suns , which made people see one road and the / Other—the w o r l d ' s road and the road of God" ( I I 16) . The i d e a i s a l s o b r i e f l y mentioned by Jean P a u l i n the dream at the end of 19 F l e g e l j a h r e , where b i r t h i n t o the w o r l d i s p o r t r a y e d as death. In h i s many dream works Jean P a u l has the same message as L i n d s a y , " t h a t l i f e on e a r t h i n i t s e l f — r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t i n v o l v e s i n t e n s e 105 s u f f e r i n g — i s h o r r i b l e to the man of ' h i g h e r ' s e n s i b i l i t i e s . " Twin suns are a l so used at the end of W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson's o t h e r -wise almost complete ly mediocre fantasy The House on the Border land 21 (1908). But the most l i k e l y source of i n s p i r a t i o n would seem to be N o v a l i s ' s Hymnen an d i e Nacht , where, as has been mentioned, God appears as a n o c t u r n a l sun. L indsay uses h i s double suns as a c e n t r a l m o t i f from the b e g i n n i n g of h i s a l l e g o r y . In the second chap te r , M a s k u l l looks at A r c t u r u s through K r a g ' s l ens and sees tha t " the s t a r , which to the naked eye appeared :.as a s i n g l e y e l l o w p o i n t of l i g h t , now became c l e a r l y s p l i t i n t o two b r i g h t but minute suns , the l a r g e r of which was s t i l l y e l l o w , w h i l e i t s s m a l l e r companion was a b e a u t i f u l b l u e " (VA 27) . M a s k u l l sees A r c t u r u s aga in from S ta rknes s : "One of the suns shone w i t h a g l a r i n g w h i t e l i g h t ; the o ther was a w e i r d and awful b l u e . " "He had seen the s i g h t b e f o r e , through K r a g ' s g l a s s , but then the s c a l e had been s m a l l e r , the co lours of the twin suns had not appeared i n t h e i r naked r e a l i t y . . . . These co lours seemed to him most marvelous , as i f , i n see ing them through e a r t h eyes , he was not see ing them c o r r e c t l y " M a s k u l l s t a re s " the longest and the most e a r n e s t l y " (VA 37) at Tormance, which i s , as Krag e a r l i e r remarked, " the r e s i d e n t i a l suburb of A r c t u r u s " (VA 24) . I t r evo lves around the y e l l o w sun. The b l u e sun, t h e r e f o r e , cannot always be v i s i b l e from Tormance. E i t h e r the y e l l o w one must p e r i o d i c a l l y e c l i p s e i t , or e l s e i t can never be seen from the southern pa r t s of Tormance (see Appendix ) . When M a s k u l l does a r r i v e 106 on Tormance, the b lue sun , A l p p a i n , has j u s t set : "The sky immediate ly above the mountains was of a v i v i d , in tense b l u e . " I t i s " the a f t e r g l o w of a gorgeous b l u e sunset " (VA 66) . M a s k u l l f e e l s " tormented by tha t l i g h t " (VA 66) . "How can i t be o t h e r w i s e " asks Panawe, "when two suns, of d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s , are drawing you at the same t ime?" (VA 67) . And because there are two suns , there are two sets o f pr imary c o l o u r s . That i s , s i n c e b l u e i s common to both s e t s , M a s k u l l must l e a r n two new c o l o u r s : j a l e and u l f i r e . "He f e l t u l f i r e to be w i l d and p a i n f u l , and j a l e dream-l i k e , f e v e r i s h and voluptuous (VA 53) . The co lours have a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (VA 238) , and, s i n c e A l p p a i n i s N i g h t s p o r e ' s sun , these are N i g h t s p o r e ' s c o l o u r s . But w h i l e M a s k u l l i s f i g h t i n g h i s way across Tormance, N ight spore i s a s l e e p , a c t i v e e l sewhere . A f t e r M a s k u l l has woken up on Tormance, he sometimes wonders i f he i s not dreaming, but B r a n c h s p e l l ' s l i g h t d i s p e l s h i s doubts : " M a s k u l l would have f e l t i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e he was t r a v e l l i n g i n dreamland, but f o r the i n t e n s i t y of the l i g h t , which made e v e r y t h i n g v i v i d l y r e a l " (VA 52) . Indeed, he i s t r a v e l l i n g i n the dreamland of an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f an ta sy , but f o r him Tormance i s the ' r e a l ' or phenomenal w o r l d . However, as S l o f o r k t e l l s Panawe, " t h e r e ' s another wor ld—not Shaping ' s— and there a l l t h i s i s unknown, and another order of th ings r e i g n s . That would we c a l l Nothing—but i t i s not N o t h i n g , but Something" (VA 72) . The Nothing that i s Something i s n o t h i n g . L indsay has another name f o r t h i s key concept , taken from The E l d e r Edda, and tha t i s M u s p e l . In ' Ske tch Notes ' L indsay says , "Schopenhauer's ' N o t h i n g ' , which i s the l e a s t understood p a r t of h i s system, i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h my Muspe l ; t h a t 107 i s , the r e a l w o r l d " (TSG 9 ) . M a s k u l l ' s quest i s f o r the r e a l w o r l d . He t r i e s to e x p l a i n i t to P o l e c r a b i T h i s w o r l d of your—and perhaps of mine too , f o r tha t mat ter—doesn ' t g ive me the s l i g h t e s t impres s ion of a dream, or an i l l u s i o n , or anyth ing of that s o r t . I know i t ' s r e a l l y here at t h i s moment, and i t ' s e x a c t l y as we ' re see ing i t , you and I . Yet i t ' s f a l s e . I t ' s f a l s e i n t h i s sense, P o l e c r a b . S ide by s i d e w i t h i t another w o r l d e x i s t s , and that o ther w o r l d i s the true one, and t h i s one i s f a l s e and d e c e i t f u l to the very core . And so i t occurs to me t h a t r e a l i t y and f a l senes s are two words f o r the same t h i n g (VA 164-65). Polecrab i s a s imple f i sherman, and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n meta-p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , but he r e a l i z e s , . " I l i v e by k i l l i n g , and so does everybody. Th i s l i f e seems to me a l l wrong. So maybe l i f e of any k i n d i s wrong, and S u r t u r ' s w o r l d i s not l i f e at a l l , but something e l s e " (VA 165). " S t r i f e may be f o l l o w e d through the whole o f n a t u r e ; indeed nature e x i s t s on ly through i t " says Schopenhauer, " f o r each animal can on ly m a i n t a i n i t s e x i s t e n c e by the constant d e s t r u c t i o n o f some o t h e r . Thus the w i l l to l i v e everywhere preys upon i t s e l f , and i n d i f f e r e n t forms i s i t s own nour i shment" (The World as W i l l and Idea , Second Book, sec . 27 ) . L i v i n g i s w i l l i n g ; w i l l i n g i s k i l l i n g . A l l l i v i n g th ings are l i k e the " f a n t a s t i c l i t t l e c r e a t u r e " w i t h three l e g s , which M a s k u l l sees when w i t h J o i w i n d : " I t ' s always w a l t z i n g , and always i n a h u r r y , but i t never seem to get anywhere" (VA 5 8 ) . I t w a l t z e s to Shap ing ' s , to Crys ta lman ' s tune. I t does not march forward to S u r t u r ' s drumtaps, towards the sublime Muspel r a d i a n c e . The r e a l w o r l d of S u r t u r "has no connect ion w i t h r e a l i t y " (VA 165). I t s Muspel rad iance causes M a s k u l l to "tumble over i n a f a i n t that resemble[s] death" (VA 154) : "He 108 could not g ive [the l i g h t ] a c o l o r , or a name" (VA 185) ; " i t cast no shadows" (VA 221) . I t i s the l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d . The Muspel w o r l d i s beyond M a s k u l l ' s apprehension—and ours t o o , except imaginat ive ly-—but the Muspel f i r e may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h (though i t i s not the same as) one of the c o l o u r s of A l p p a i n . ' A l p p a i n ' i s a l p , a mountain and a h i g h e r p o i n t of v i e w , and p a i n , K r a g ' s name on e a r t h . B r a n c h s p e l l i s connected w i t h c r e a t i o n by ' b r a n c h ' , s i n c e i n the Norse mythology the f i r s t men were made from t r e e s , and the w o r l d i t s e l f i s the W o r l d - A s h , Y g g d r a s i l . In the apocalypse which Sur t b r i n g s , c r e a t i o n w i l l be burnt up by the "bane-o f - b r a n c h e s , " f i r e . F u r t h e r , B r a n s p e l l i s the sun which ( ' s p e l l ' ) has us i n t h r a l l : p r i s o n e r s i n the w o r l d . I t i s the o r d i n a r y sun which makes t h i s w o r l d seem r e a l , as we have seen; i t s b l u e " i s e x i s t e n c e . " "As regards the A l p p a i n c o l o r s , b l u e stands i n the middle and i s t h e r e f o r e not e x i s t e n c e , but r e l a t i o n . U l f i r e i s e x i s t e n c e ; so i t must be a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of e x i s t e n c e , " Corpang argues (VA 238) . When M a s k u l l f i n a l l y reaches Barey he sees p l a n t s a s l eep : Krag t e l l s h i m , " B r a n c h s p e l l i s a second n i g h t to them. T h e i r day i s A l p p a i n " (VA 263) . So i s N i g h t s p o r e ' s . " D a y l i g h t i s n i g h t to t h i s o ther d a y l i g h t " (VA 274) , and when A l p p a i n r i s e s the shadows i t cast "were not b l a c k , but were composed . wh.:.t«-.: of w h i t e d a y l i g h t " (VA 275) . When A l p p a i n r i s e s , M a s k u l l d ies and Night spore wakes up to be t o l d " the n i g h t i s r e a l l y past at l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . . The day i s h e r e " ( e l l i p s i s L i n d s a y ' s ; VA 277) . The Corpus Hermeticum advises us to " t u r n ye away from the dark l i g h t " ( I , 28 ) . The b r i g h t l i g h t , the l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d , f i n a l l y l i b e r a t e s the s p i r i t from the 109 p r i s o n of the body. Thus we have a double p r o t a g o n i s t , M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , and a double s t a r , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n , by which L indsay compl icates the more u sua l o p p o s i t i o n of day and n i g h t , l i g h t and dark , i n t o day and more-than-day. S i m i l a r c o m p l i c a t i o n s are found i n the o p p o s i t i o n s between God and D e v i l , C h r i s t and Satan. The God of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s the c r e a t o r of the w o r l d i n a l l i t s beauty , and he i s Shaping ( i n German the c r e a t i o n i s d ie Schopfung). L i k e the god of E a r t h , however, he takes many forms and has many names, such as Crystalman and Faceny. Sometimes he i s confused (by J o i w i n d , f o r example) w i t h S u r t u r . One of the r e a d e r ' s problems i n A Voyage, and one of M a s k u l l ' s problems, i s i d e n t i f y i n g the god of the r e a l w o r l d b e i n g sought , and that i s S u r t u r . S u r t u r i s the God of Muspe l , which i s " the p r i m e v a l w o r l d of f i r e ; e x i s t i n g before heaven and e a r t h , and 22 which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y destroy them." S u r t u r i s drawn from the Sur t of The E l d e r Edda who i n ' V o l u s p a ' " w i t h the bane-of-branches comes / 23 From the s o u t h " to burn up the w o r l d , and to destroy Frey and a l l the gods of t h i s w o r l d . S u r t , The Swart , i s r u l e r over Muspelheim, the 24 home of Muspe l ; i n A r c t u r u s , over n o t h i n g . Shaping o r Crystalman i s the god of t h i s w o r l d ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , Tormance) which i s de s t ined to be destroyed or uncrea ted . S u r t u r ' s embodied form i s Krag and, s i n c e he i s the enemy of the w o r l d where p lea sure i s ' w o r s h i p p e d , ' he i s the d e v i l . H i s resemblance to G r e t t i r the S t rong , an outlaw who had every hand aga ins t h i m , has a l ready been remarked. G r e t t i r makes a bad impres s ion on us b y , f o r 110 example, w r i n g i n g the necks of the geese he i s se t to look a f t e r , 25 and o ther b o y i s h excesses . Krag in t roduces h i m s e l f by dash ing , u n i n v i t e d , i n t o F a u l l ' s house and " w i t h h i s h a i r y hands" w r i n g i n g the neck of the m a t e r i a l i s e d shape, the "specimen g o b l i n " from Tormance (VA 22-23) . When M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance, a f t e r be ing deserted ( l i t e r a l l y , too) by h i s t r a v e l l i n g companions, he i s t o l d by the b e a u t i f u l J o i w i n d tha t "we must f i g h t K r a g , " " K r a g — the author of e v i l and misery—whom you c a l l D e v i l " (VA 56) . Krag reappears at odd moments to w r i n g M a s k u l l ' s neck as the s p i r i t and to stab him i n the back i n a v i s i o n , be fore c o l l e c t i n g M a s k u l l a f t e r he has " r u n through the gamut" (VA 262) . From then on , Krag gets more and more r e p u l s i v e and i l l - m a n n e r e d u n t i l M a s k u l l , f a l l i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of the b e a u t i f u l Gangnet, f i n a l l y r e j e c t s h i m . Krag i s i n s o l e n t , breaks M a s k u l l ' s eggs (VA 270) , crushes Gangnet's hat (VA 272) and i s g e n e r a l l y as d i s agreeab le as p o s s i b l e . He has a " y e l l o w , r e p u l s i v e f a c e " (VA 2 73) and " d i s c o l o r e d t e e t h " (VA 269) ; when he s leeps he i s "an u g l y , w r i n k l e d m o n s t r o s i t y " (VA 275) . Krag says , "as long as p lea sure i s worshiped [ s i c ] , Krag w i l l always be the d e v i l " b u t , from h i s p o i n t of v i e w , as embodied r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e a l w o r l d , " the r e a l d e v i l i s Crys ta lman" (VA 264) . Krag i s , i t must be admi t ted , " the author of e v i l and m i s e r y " (VA 56) . Gagnet i s , f i t must be admi t t ed , the author of the w o r l d , which i s b e a u t i f u l and dedica ted to p l e a s u r e . But the r e a l nature of l i f e i s w i l l i n g and there fore k i l l i n g : Gangnet's w o r l d i s an e v i l good. And Krag does not i n f l i c t p a i n f o r i t s own sake, but to wake us I l l up to the r e a l w o r l d : K r a g ' s p a i n i s a good e v i l . N i e t z s c h e says i n The J o y f u l Wisdom, " I doubt whether such p a i n ' improves ' u s , but 26 I know tha t i t deepens u s . " Thus C a t i c e sends M a s k u l l down " t o 27 Wombflash, where [he] w i l l meet the deepest minds" (VA 148) . C a t i c e i s the f i r s t person to mention Muspel to M a s k u l l , and he does so i n connect ion w i t h two key concepts , the o p p o s i t i o n between p lea sure and p a i n , and home. M a s k u l l a sks , "Why does p lea sure appear so shameful to us?" "Because i n f e e l i n g p l e a s u r e , we forge t our home." "And t h a t i s - - " " M u s p e l " (VA 148) . We are at home i n the r e a l w o r l d . In the phenomenal w o r l d we are 2 8 " s t r anger s i n a s trange l a n d . " Man i s , as N o v a l i s t e l l s us i n h i s d r e a m - v i s i o n , Hymnen an d ie Nacht , "der h e r r l i c h e F r e m d l i n g , " the 29 noble s t r a n g e r . The way of s a l v a t i o n i s g n o s i s , knowledge. The G n o s t i c V a l e n t i n u s expresses i t b e a u t i f u l l y : the knowledge of who we were , what we became; where we were , where into we have been thrown; whereto we speed, wherefrom we are redeemed; what b i r t h i s , and what r e b i r t h (30) . We are a l l , l i k e M a s k u l l on Tormance, a l i e n s , wandering through an unknown w o r l d . Our duty i s _to know, and by knowing to f ree the e t e r n a l l i g h t impri soned i n our m o r t a l bodies from the g r i p of the c r e a t o r (Crys ta lman, the d e v i l ) . 31 G n o s t i c i s m i s a " d u a l i s t i c t ranscendent r e l i g i o n o f s a l v a t i o n " which t e l l s us of "a drama of pre-cosmic persons i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d , of which the drama of man i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d i s bu t a d i s t a n t 32 e c h o . " Gn o s t i c i sm i s thus very c lo se to a l l e g o r y , which i s a drama of the s p i r i t i n the dream w o r l d , which i s a shadow of the cosmic drama 112 i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d . I n G n o s t i c i s m , the c r e a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of the capture of some of the D i v i n e L i g h t by Darkness . A g a i n , so i t i s w i t h a l l e g o r y , where "dark and cloudy words . . . do but h o l d / The 33 t r u t h , as Cabinets i n c l o s e the G o l d . " In G n o s t i c i s m , God's na ture i s there fore " a l i e n to that of the u n i v e r s e , which i t n e i t h e r created 34 nor governs and to which i t i s the complete a n t i t h e s i s . " Man i s the c r e a t i o n of the d e v i l , who crea ted man i n god's image because t h a t r e -ceptac le was f i t t e s t f o r i m p r i s o n i n g as much as p o s s i b l e o f the s t o l e n 35 l i g h t . Woman was c r e a t e d , as Mani t e l l s us , " i n order to seduce Adam" and by b reed ing d i sper se the fragments of l i g h t , making them harder to r e c o v e r : " the main weapon of the w o r l d i n i t s great s educ t ion i s ' l o v e . ' " We have a l ready d i scovered two of the three main tenets of G n o s t i c i s m i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , t h a t c r e a t i o n i s e v i l and that man i s an a l i e n , and we do not have to look very f a r to f i n d the t h i r d , the common b e l i e f that women are the c h i e f ins truments of the d e v i l . Gangnet, the embodied Crys ta lman , i s h i m s e l f remarkably f emin ine . " H i s v o i c e " i s " s t r a n g e l y womanish i n i t s modulat ion and v a r i e t y of tone" (VA 266) . Krag c a l l s Gangnet a "man-woman" (VA 266) , and snatches o f f h i s h a t , a sk ing h i m , "Why do you d i s g u i s e y o u r s e l f l i k e a woman?" (VA 272) . A l l the women M a s k u l l has met on h i s t r a v e l s have been, to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r e x t e n t , agents o f Crys ta lman, temptresses . Oceaxe l e d M a s k u l l to h i s f i r s t murder; Tydomin almost took over h i s body; Sul lenbode succeeds i n d i s t r a c t i n g him from h i s quest f o r Muspe l . Only J o i w i n d , of the women i n the book, does not d i e , and does not wear, t h e r e f o r e , Crys ta lman ' s death mask. She had her husband i d e n t i f y S u r t u r 113 w i t h Crys ta lman, but they p r a c t i c e a k i n d of non-attachment to Na ture , l i v i n g only on water w h i c h , accord ing to the ' N e p t u n i s t ' theory of the un iver se p o p u l a r i z e d i n Germany by N o v a l i s ' s teacher of m i n e r o l -ogy, Abraham Got t lob Werner, was the p r i m a l substance from which a l l the others were d e r i v e d . In Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , N o v a l i s c a l l s water " the whi te b l o o d of the m o t h e r . " J o i w i n d h e r s e l f has w h i t e b l o o d , a t r a n s f u s i o n of which she g ives M a s k u l l . Panawe and J o i w i n d have no c h i l d r e n , and they l i v e i n A r c a d i a n innocence . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e that they are damned. Indeed, J o i w i n d c la ims that "what you and I are now doing i n s i m p l i c i t y , wi se men w i l l do h e r e a f t e r i n f u l l knowledge" (VA 56) . However, i n G n o s t i c i s m , knowledge i s s a l v a t i o n , and we have gone too f a r to t r y and recapture our l o s t innocence , even were innocence not a l i m i t e d s t a t e of b e i n g . The s o c i e t y which i s recommended as the be s t p o s s i b l e one f o r the o r g a n i s a t i o n of human l i f e i s the country of Sant ( H e a l t h ) . Of course , 37 i t i s " a s o c i e t y of s i n g l e men." The s o c i e t y was founded by Hator (Hater w i t h a h i n t of mounta in) , " the famous f r o s t man" who cou ld " w i t h s t a n d the b r e a t h , s m i l e s , and perfume of a g i r l , " who has trapped and i s t r y i n g to seduce h i m , u n t i l she drops dead (VA 136). In Sant they have so lved the problem of women by never l e t t i n g them i n . The f o l l o w e r s of Hator r e j e c t women "inasmuch as a woman has i d e a l l o v e , and cannot l i v e f o r h e r s e l f . Love f o r another i s p leasure f o r the loved one, 38 and t h e r e f o r e i n j u r i o u s to h i m " (VA 138) . Examining t h i s k i n d of p o s i t i o n , Maud Bodkin quotes from " a m e d i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t " who, t a k i n g a M i l t o n i c l i n e , 114 has suggested t h a t the r e l a t i o n between man and woman, as determined by r a c i a l h i s t o r y , might be diagrammati-c a l l y rendered by two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , man h a v i n g h i s p l ace on the o u t e r , woman on the i n n e r c i r c l e . 'When man looks outward he sees the w o r l d , when he looks i n -ward he sees the woman and her c h i l d . H i s escape from h e r i s i n t o the w o r l d . The woman, however, l o o k i n g out -ward sees the man, through whom only she touches the outer w o r l d of r e a l i t y and whose favor she must seek to ga in h e r w i s h e s ' " (39 ) . Women l i v e v i c a r i o u s l y through men, and w i t h t h e i r " s o f t love and l o y a l t y " they 'drag down t h e i r i d e a s ' (VA 148) . More than t h i s , "women are s n a r e s " ^ who d i s t r a c t men from f o l l o w i n g t h e i r t rue course towards Muspe l . They entrap i n w o r l d l y homes men who should be seeking t h e i r t rue home. In t h i s , t h e i r c h i e f weapon i s ' l o v e . ' More than t h i s , women are sub c r e a t o r s : they bear c h i l d r e n . C r e a t i o n i s wrong; l i f e i t s e l f i s wrong; and y e t women b r i n g new l i f e i n t o b e i n g , p r e v e n t i n g the r e - c o l l e c t i o n of the s c a t t e r e d d i v i n e sparks . I t i s a h o r r i b l e moment f o r Night spore when, at the end, he sees " s u b d i v i d e d sparks of l i v i n g f i e r y s p i r i t " b e i n g " i m p r i s o n e d " and thereby "e f feminated and c o r r u p t e d " i n envelopes of mushy p lea sure (my i t a l i c s ; VA 283) . I t must be w i t h something l i k e h o r r o r that we now t u r n to the s t o r y of Prometheus, the demiurge who d e l i b e r a t e l y s t o l e some of the f i r e of the A l l f a t h e r to animate h i s w o r l d of c o l d c l a y . Thus the flawed nature of the phenomenal w o r l d , and, i n the myth, thus the b i n d i n g of Prometheus ( s y m b o l i c a l l y , to h i s c r e a t i o n ) : " C r e a t i o n i s 41 per se a s i n . I t i s the S i n of S i n s . I t i s O r i g i n a l S i n . " The 115 b i n d i n g of Prometheus presents a problem to which there are three p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . As Aeschylus probably showed, a f t e r due repent-ence on the p a r t of Prometheus there i s due mercy from Zeus; the god-head i s made whole (the b i n d i n g of Prometheus b e i n g a l s o ' t h e f a l l of Zeus ' ) and—as at the end of ' V o l u s p a ' and Henry of Of terd ingen—the Golden Age r e s t o r e d . As i n S h e l l e y ' s Prometheus Unbound, the r e b e l Prometheus overthrows the t y r a n t Zeus (becoming h i m s e l f another Zeus 42 i n the p roce s s , c f . B l a k e ' s O r c - U r i z e n c y c l e ) , and r e s t o r e s the Golden Age. As i n L i n d s a y , the A l l f a t h e r i s (at l e a s t m o r a l l y ) v i c -t o r i o u s , and a c t u a l l y v i c t o r i o u s i n s o f a r as he can a n n i h i l a t e Prometheus by u n c r e a t i n g the w o r l d . That i s , as i n the G n o s t i c M a n i ' s d o c t r i n e a t t acked by S t . August ine i n De Natur 'a-Boni , by r e c l a i m i n g the s c a t t e r e d sparks of pneuma. In f a c t , both the l a s t two s o l u t i o n s are Manichaean i n t h e i r i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s e p a r a t i o n of Good and E v i l , Darkness and L i g h t , but what they lo se i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y they can make up i n meta-p h y s i c a l paradox and dramatic power. M a s k u l l , though unknowingly at f i r s t , i s a type of Prometheus. Panawe says M a s k u l l ' s name "must have a meaning , " but a l l he can t h i n k of i s " a man i n . y o u r w o r l d who s t o l e something from the maker of the 43 univer se i n order to ennoble h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s " (VA 61) . By the end of h i s t h i r d day on Tormance, M a s k u l l has l ea rned the name of M u s p e l , and begun to see h i s journey as a quest . The v i s i o n a r y Dreamsinter (h i s name vouches f o r h i s i n s i g h t ) i s able to make the i d e n t i t y e x p l i c i t : "You came to s t e a l M u s p e l - f i r e , to g ive a deeper l i f e to man" (VA 152) . M a s k u l l ' s Prometheanism, i t i s important to emphasize, connects him 116 w i t h Crystalman who—as i s r evea led i n the f i n a l v i s i o n — i s p e r p e t u a l l y s t e a l i n g the f i r e o f Muspe l : The Muspel-s tream was Crys ta lman ' s food . The stream from the o ther s i d e . . . i n a double c o n d i t i o n . P a r t of i t reappeared i n t r i n s i c a l l y u n a l t e r e d , but s h i v e r e d i n t o a m i l l i o n f r a g m e n t s . . . . The other p a r t of the stream had not escaped. I t s f i r e had been a b s t r a c t e d , i t s cement was wi thdrawn, and, a f t e r b e i n g f o u l e d and sof tened by the h o r r i b l e sweetness of the h o s t , i t broke i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s , which were the w h i r l s of l i v i n g w i l l (VA 285) . M a s k u l l i s h i m s e l f such a w i l l . He i s mask and s k u l l : the awful Crystalman g r i n which prov ides the Q.E .D. f o r a l l the s y l l o g i s m s of the a l l e g o r i c a l progress i s , i t seems reasonable to suppose, the g r i n n i n g mask of the s k u l l . "Not one now to mock your own g r i n n i n g — q u i t e c h a p - f a l l ' n ? Now get you to my l a d y ' s chamber, and t e l l h e r , l e t h e r p a i n t an i n c h t h i c k , to t h i s favour she must come; make h e r laugh at t h a t , " says Hamlet. M a s k u l l , s t i l l a l i v e , does, i n f a c t , a l ready possess one of the fragments o f the D i v i n e L i g h t t h a t has passed through Crys ta lman ' s body: tha t i s , h i s o ther p a r t , the dormant N i g h t s p o r e . Krag b a t t l e s Gangnet over M a s k u l l on ly f o r N i g h t s p o r e , who i s M a s k u l l ' s e s s e n t i a l s e l f . M a s k u l l t e l l s Dreamsinter that S u r t u r "brought me here from E a r t h . " Dreamsinter peers i n t o h i s face and says , "Not you , but N i g h t s p o r e " 44 (VA 152) , and g ives him a b i t t e r f r u i t to chew, which W i l s o n suggests i s se l f -knowledge (TSG 5 5 ) . M a s k u l l then has a v i s i o n i n which he sees h i m s e l f , Krag and Nightspore w a l k i n g through the f o r e s t . Krag r a i s e s " a l o n g , murderous- looking k n i f e " and stabs " the phantom M a s k u l l " who f a l l s dead: "Night spore marched on a l o n e , s t e r n and unmoved" w h i l e 117 " M a s k u l l f e l t h i s s o u l l o o s e n i n g from i t s b o d i l y e n v e l o p e . " Muspel rad iance begins to g l o w : "Night spore moved s t r a i g h t towards i t " and " a l l of a sudden [Maskul l ] tumbled over i n a f a i n t that resembled death" (VA 153-4) . "What d i d Dreamsinter mean by h i s 'Not y o u , bu t N i g h t s p o r e ' ? Am I a secondary c h a r a c t e r ? " M a s k u l l asks h i m s e l f . L indsay i s n o t h i n g i f not c l e a r and unambiguous. The " b o d i l y enve lope" i s d i s p e n s i b l e : the e s s e n t i a l s e l f marches a long w i t h o u t i t . The body b e l o n g s , i n f a c t , to Crys ta lman, to whom Krag re s igns i t : "As long as I have the substance , you may have the shadow" (VA 266) . "One may s t e a l — a n d not even know one i s s t e a l i n g . One may take the purse and leave the money" (VA 273) . F i n a l l y , " M a s k u l l was h i s , but Night spore i s mine" (VA 277) . There i s a paradox at the hear t of M a s k u l l ' s damnation, which i s a good e v i l . A l p p a i n , which we have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N i g h t s p o r e , i s a c t u a l l y , as Krag s ays , " C r y s t a l m a n ' s trump c a r d " (VA 269) . As the Archons , powers of Darkness , i m i t a t e d God when making man, so C r y s t a l -man has i m i t a t e d the sun of the h i g h e r w o r l d i n making A l p p a i n . The wise f i sherman, who l i v e s by k i l l i n g , P o l e c r a b , passes on to M a s k u l l some of B r o o d v i o l ' s wisdom: S u r t u r ' s w o r l d does not l i e on t h i s s i d e of the one, which was the b e g i n n i n g of l i f e , but on the o ther s i d e ; and to get to i t we must repass through the one. But t h i s can on ly be by renouncing our s e l f - l i f e , and r e u n i t i n g ourse lves to the whole of Crys ta lman' s w o r l d . And when t h i s has been done, i t i s on ly the f i r s t stage of the j o u r n e y ; though many good men imagine i t to be the whole journey (VA 166). The rainbow of c r e a t i o n obscures the one true l i g h t . But i t i s no use 118 running away from Crys ta lman: that only takes you f u r t h e r from M u s p e l . The sparks t r y to r e t u r n to Muspe l , bu t the w i l l s "never saw beyond the Shadow, they thought that they were t r a v e l l i n g toward i t " (VA 284) . L indsay w r i t e s of the w i l l i n ' Ske tch N o t e s , ' To understand the t rue nature of the w o r l d , i t i s necessary to r e a l i s e that i t i s a d i r e c t c r e a t i o n of the W i l l , and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n i t ( i n c l u d i n g l o v e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e e t c . ) i s e i t h e r the a s s e r t i o n or the d e n i a l of the W i l l (Schopenhauer); but that the Muspel-World does not possess t h i s i n n e r core of W i l l , but something e l s e , of which the W i l l i s a corrupted v e r s i o n (TSG 9 ) . We have noted that M a s k u l l i s a modern Prometheus. Lou i s Awad draws our a t t e n t i o n to " the profound i r o n y " of the Promethean problem: That Prometheus was the i n c a r n a t i o n of W i l l was a l ready d i scovered i n the n i n e t e e n t h century by the German t r a n s -c e n d e n t a l i s t s and was g iven ample treatment i n the works of Schopenhauer and N i e t z s c h e . The i r o n y c o n s i s t s i n the f ac t t h a t W i l l , u s u a l l y equated w i t h f ree v o l i t i o n and opposed to N e c e s s i t y , i s n o t h i n g but N e c e s s i t y grown out of p r o p o r t i o n and l a y i n g c l a i m to autonomy. W i l l i s the d r i v i n g fo rce behind a l l a c t i v i t y and there fore behind a l l c r e a t i o n (45) . M a s k u l l f a i l s as Prometheus when, under the i n f l u e n c e of A l p p a i n ' s l i g h t , he says " I have l o s t my w i l l ; I f e e l as i f some f o u l tumor had been scraped away, l e a v i n g me c lean and f r e e " (VA 275) . W i l l i s e v i l , of course ; but the absence of W i l l — t h e w i l l to r e t u r n to our Muspel home—is abso lute de fea t . M a s k u l l has been t o t a l l y absorbed i n t o Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d : he has become one w i t h i t as Po lecrab s a i d B r o o d v i o l recommended. But Night spore has not l o s t the something e l s e which com-p e l l s h im toward Muspe l , and M a s k u l l ' s defeat p a r a d o x i c a l l y enables Night spore to succeed i n p e n e t r a t i n g through the shadow, the v e i l of 119 Crysta lman which obscures the r e a l w o r l d . What Night spore a c t u a l l y sees i n the real w o r l d i s : n o t h i n g . Panawe, t r a v e r s i n g a p r e c a r i o u s p a t h , as he t e l l s M a s k u l l , met S l o f o r k the s o r c e r e r . They sa t down to decide which of them would walk over the o ther (VA 72) . "What i s g rea te r than P l e a s u r e ? " S l o f o r k asked suddenly (VA 73) : ' P a i n , ' I r e p l i e d , ' f o r p a i n d r i v e s out p l e a s u r e . ' 'What i s g rea te r than P a i n ? ' I r e f l e c t e d . 'Love . Because we w i l l accept our loved one ' s share of p a i n . ' 'But what i s g rea te r than Love? ' he p e r s i s t e d . ' N o t h i n g , S l o f o r k . ' 'And what i s N o t h i n g ? ' 'That you must t e l l me. ' ' T e l l you I w i l l . Th i s i s Shaping ' s w o r l d . He that i s a good c h i l d h e r e , knows p l e a s u r e , p a i n , and l o v e , and gets h i s rewards. But t h e r e ' s another wor ld—not Shaping 's—and there a l l t h i s i s unknown, and another order of th ings r e i g n s . That w o r l d we c a l l N o t h i n g — but i t i s not N o t h i n g , but Something (VA 72). L indsay wrote that "Schopenhauer's ' N o t h i n g ' . . . i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h my Muspe l ; that i s , the r e a l w o r l d " (TSG 9 ) . In Schopenhauer we f i n d a p a r a d o x i c a l o p p o s i t i o n between two k inds of n o t h i n g , and t h i s d u a l i t y i s an important m o t i f i n A Voyage. Schopenhauer says that the surrender of w i l l , " the d e n i a l and surrender of a l l v o l i t i o n , and thus d e l i v e r a n c e from a wor ld whose whole e x i s t e n c e we have found to be s u f f e r i n g . . . appears to us as a pas s ing away i n t o empty no th ingnes s " (The World as W i l l and Idea , Four th Book, sec . 71) . L a t e r , Schopenhauer c o n t i n u e s : we must ban i sh the dark impres s ion of t h a t nothingness which we d i s c e r n behind a l l v i r t u e and h o l i n e s s as t h e i r f i n a l g o a l , and which we fear as c h i l d r e n f ea r the dark ; we must not even evade i t l i k e the I n d i a n s , through myths and meaningless words , such as r e a b s o r b t i o n i n Brahma o r the N i r v a n a o f the B u d d h i s t s . Rather do we f r e e l y acknow-ledge tha t what remains a f t e r the e n t i r e a b o l i t i o n of w i l l 120 i s f o r a l l those who are s t i l l f u l l of w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g ; b u t , c o n v e r s e l y , to those i n whom the w i l l has turned and has denied i t s e l f , t h i s our w o r l d , which i s so r e a l , w i t h a l l i t s suns and m i l k y ways—is n o t h i n g . Whichever s ide of the v e i l of Maya you are on , the o ther s ide i s n o t h i n g . L indsay makes t h i s concept a l i t t l e e a s i e r to grasp by typograph-i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g h i s n o t h i n g s . The crux comes when M a s k u l l has been cleansed of h i s w i l l by A l p p a i n , and says "Why, Gangnet—I am n o t h i n g ! " Gangnet q u i e t l y c o r r e c t s h i m : "No, you are n o t h i n g " (VA 2 75) . On the phenomenal s i d e of the v e i l , the shadow of Crys ta lman, l i f e i s n o t h i n g . M a s k u l l sees t h i s when he i s i n M a t t e r p l a y , where ' l i f e d e l i g h t s i n l i f e . ' A monster M a s k u l l i s l o o k i n g at suddenly d i sappear s : Where the crustacean had s t o o d , there was n o t h i n g . Yet through t h i s ' n o t h i n g ' he could not see the landscape . Something was s t and ing there that i n t e r c e p t e d the l i g h t , though i t possessed n e i t h e r shape, c o l o r , nor substance. And now the o b j e c t , which could no longer be p e r c e i v e d by v i s i o n , began to be f e l t by emotion. A d e l i g h t f u l , s p r i n g -l i k e sense of r i s i n g sap, of qu i cken ing p u l s e s — o f l o v e , adventure , mystery , beauty , f e m i n i n i t y — t o o k pos ses s ion of h i s b e i n g . . . . I t was as i f f l e s h , bones, and b lood had been d i s c a r d e d , and he were face to face w i t h naked L i f e i t s e l f (VA 191). Thi s i s the n o t h i n g of Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d , b e a u t i f u l and feminine and m y s t e r i o u s : i t i s "naked L i f e i t s e l f . " But there i s another w o r l d which "we c a l l N o t h i n g " but which i s "Something" , and that i s the r e a l w o r l d , beyond the phenomenal w o r l d and d i sconnected from i t . Th i s i s the w o r l d of which M a s k u l l can never be an i n h a b i t a n t , but i t i s what Night spore f inds-when he c l imbs onto the roof of the tower and " i s l o o k -i n g round f o r h i s f i r s t gl impse of Muspe l . There was n o t h i n g " (VA 286) . Noth ing i s the w o r l d of the body and of phenomena: i t i s the w o r l d of 121 man. There fore , as S p a d e v i l s ays , "he that i s not more than a man i s n o t h i n g " (VA 135). The more-than-man i n M a s k u l l i s N i g h t s p o r e , a l l e g o r i c a l embodiment of the d i v i n e spark , and he can penetrate through to what i s , from our human p o i n t of v i e w , n o t h i n g . L i n d s a y ' s problem i s t h a t he i s a t tempt ing the i m p o s s i b l e . He i s t r y i n g to g ive us an exper ience of "an i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " (TSG 46 42) of n o t h i n g , the m y s t i c a l subl ime of the uncreated w o r l d . To t h i s end are the dichotomies arranged: M a s k u l l takes us to the l i m i t of human e x p e r i e n c e , and Nightspore takes us beyond i t . A l p p a i n i s not Muspe l , but Muspel i s beyond comprehension. However, as A l p p a i n i s to B r a n c h s p e l l , so Muspel i s to A l p p a i n . S i m i l a r l y , as the dream w o r l d i s to the r e a l w o r l d , so the Muspel w o r l d i s to the dream w o r l d ; as Night spore i s to M a s k u l l , so Krag i s to N i g h t s p o r e . I t i s P l a t o ' s analogy of the cave r e t o l d on a l a r g e s c a l e . The dichotomies of the a l l e g o r y as b a t t l e form themselves i n t o a n a l o g i c a l t r i n i t a r i a n arrange-ments which p a r a l l e l the s t r u c t u r e of the a l l e g o r y as progress—we move from the r e a l to the dream w o r l d , from the dream w o r l d to the r e a l world—and t h i s we s h a l l d i scuss i n the next chapter . 122 Footnotes to Chapter Four William B l a k e , 'The Marr iage of Heaven and H e l l ' i n The Complete  W r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m B l a k e , ed . Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 149. 2 K e p l e r was an astronomer at Tycho Brahe ' s observatory at Hven, c a l l e d Uran iborg ( ' the c a s t l e of the h e a v e n s ' ) . Somnium has not been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , but the p l o t i s summarised by P a t r i c k Moore i n Science and F i c t i o n (London: George C. Harrap , 1957). The m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r was the s c i e n t i f i c c o n f i r m a t i o n by G a l i l e o of mountains , v a l l e y s , and ' seas ' on the moon. Other moon-voyages have been l i s t e d by M a r j o r i e N i c o l s o n i n Voyages to the Moon (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1948). 3 Johnson and C l a r e s o n , 'The I n t e r p l a y of Sc ience and F i c t i o n : The Canals of M a r s ' i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (May 1964), p . 37. 4 Cather ine Vale W h i t w e l l , An A s t r o n o m i c a l Catechism: o r , Dialogues  between a Mother and her Daughter (London: P r i n t e d f o r the A u t h o r , 1818), p . 2 72. 5 The Works of Herman M e l v i l l e (London: Cons tab le , 1922), I I , p . 175. ^Quoted by Gordon M i l l s i n 'The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f ' A r c t u r u s ' i n M a r d i ' i n American L i t e r a t u r e , XIV (1942) , p . 160. 7 H . G. W e l l s , The Works of H. G. W e l l s , A t l a n t i c E d i t i o n (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1925), X , p . 552. g For example, F . I . L o r b e a r ' s Ph i lo sophy of L i g h t (Los Ange le s : W e t z e l , 19 32) . 9 A c c o r d i n g to L i n d s a y , p a i n i s not a problem, i t i s the s o l u t i o n . ^ P l a t o , Timaeus, t r a n s . H . D. P . Lee (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965): "God t h e r e f o r e , w i s h i n g tha t a l l th ings should be good, and so f a r as p o s s i b l e n o t h i n g be i m p e r f e c t " (p . 42) i m i t a t e d a p e r f e c t and e t e r n a l Form "as f a r as was p o s s i b l e " (p. 5 0 ) . 11 " P i t y would be no more / I f we d i d not make somebody P o o r , " B lake a s t u t e l y observes . The Complete W r i t i n g s , p . 217. 123 12 This may be s p e c i f i c a l l y Western. In I n d i a , by c o n t r a s t , where the sun i s too h o t , what i s sought i s the re l ea se of l i f e - g i v i n g w a t e r s , as when Indra uses a thunderbo l t to s t r i k e down V i t r a , the serpent who has swallowed those wate r s . In Myths and Symbols i n I n d i a n A r t and  C i v i l i s a t i o n (New Y o r k : Pantheon Books, 1946), H e i n r i c h Zimmer says " the monster had a p p r o p r i a t e d the common b e n e f i t , massing h i s a m b i t i o u s , s e l f i s h h u l k between heaven and e a r t h " (p. 3 ) , r a t h e r i n the manner of Crys ta lman. However, not a c t u a l l y i n the manner of Crys ta lman. Dorothy Norman, i n The Hero : Myth/Image/Symbo1 (New Y o r k : World P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1969), p o i n t s out t h a t "Due . . . to V i t r a ' s hav ing e x i s t e d be fore what was cons idered to be the i m p e r f e c t i o n of c r e a t i o n , and h a v i n g attempted o r i g i n a l l y to prevent i t , there were a l so those who viewed the serpent i n . . . even f avorab le f a s h i o n " (p. 27) . Ophi t i sm i s G n o s t i c . 13 P a r a c e l s u s , M y s t e r i e s of C r e a t i o n (Works, 1616) I I I , 3-4, p . 58. " ^ A . A . Moon i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to The 'De Natura B o n i ' of Sa in t  August ine (Washington: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America P r e s s , 1955), p . 16. George MacDonald i n Phantastes (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 19 70) w r i t e s , " T r u l y , man i s but a pa s s ing f lame, moving u n q u i e t l y amid the sur rounding nes t of n i g h t , w i t h o u t which he y e t could not be , arid whereof he i s i n p a r t compounded" (p . 61) . " '"^Christopher Smart, J u b i l a t e Agno, ed . W. H . Bond (London: Rupert H a r t - D a v i e s , 1954) , verse 238. See a l s o , more i m p o r t a n t l y , Job V . 7 . "^Joseph Campbel l , The Hero w i t h a. Thousand Faces (New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n Books, 1956), p . 123. "^Quoted by Erwin Schrodinger i n Mind and M a t t e r (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958). 18 A . A . Moon: " the heroes of l i g h t look and s u f f e r l i k e human b e i n g s , de sp i te the h y l i c o r i g i n of the l a t t e r " (p. 18) . 19 Jean P a u l F r i e d r i c h R i c h t e r , ' F l e g e l j a h r ' i n Jean P a u l : Werke, 6 v o l s . (Munich: C a r l Hanser , 1959), I I , see pp. 1061-65. 20 J . W. Smeed of A l b a n o ' s Dream i n Jean P a u l ' s 'Dreams' (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 33. Smeed says " there i s v i r t u a l l y no l i n k w i t h the h e l l of the medieva l i m a g i n a t i o n and i t s b o d i l y torments . Jean P a u l ' s h e l l i s born o f r e v u l s i o n aga ins t e a r t h l y l i f e " (p. 32) . A l s o see Smeed's Appendix I I on F l e g e l j a h r e t r a u m . 124 21 Green suns are r a r e , W i l l i a m Hope ModgSon i n The House on the  Border l and (London: Holden and Hardingham, 1908) may have taken h i s cue from an as ide of MacDonald's i n Phanta s te s : "No s h i n i n g b e l t or gleaming moon, no red and green g l o r y i n a s e l f - e n c i r c l i n g t w i n - s t a r , but has a r e l a t i o n w i t h the hidden th ings o f a man's s o u l , and, i t may b e , w i t h the s ec re t h i s t o r y of the body as w e l l " (p. 89) . 22 L i n d s a y ' s ' Sketch Notes ' quoted from J . B. P i c k ' s 'The Work of David L i n d s a y ' i n S tudies i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e ( Jan. 1964), p . 175. 23 The E l d e r Edda, t r a n s . Auden and T a y l o r (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 19 70) , p . 151. 24 The E l d e r Edda: ' L o k i ' s F l y t i n g 1 (p. 139) , 'The Lay of V a f t h r u d n i r ' (p. 77) , "The Lady of G r i m n i r ' (p. 66 ) , e t c . 25 The Saga of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , t r a n s . G. A . Hight (London: J . M. Dent, 1911) , pp. 27-28. 26 Quoted by C o l i n W i l s o n i n Eagle and Earwig (London: John Baker , 1966) , p . 27 In Wombflash M a s k u l l eats a b i t t e r f r u i t , sees h i m s e l f s tabbed, endures t e r r i b l e shocks and f a l l s i n a f a i n t resembl ing death. 2 8 George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1969): " I would not leave the house, and a l ready I was a s t r anger i n the s t range l a n d ! " (p. 19) . Robert H e i n l e i n , a s c i ence f i c t i o n w r i t e r of middle-brow s e n s i b i l i t y and t a b l o i d s t y l e , has made the phrase famous w i t h h i s long and b o r i n g n o v e l , S t ranger i n a Strange Land (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y P u b l i s h -i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1968). 29 See Bruce Haywood, N o v a l i s : The V e i l of Imagery (Cambridge, Mas s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p . 54. 30 Quoted by Hans Jonas i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i on : The Message of the A l i e n God and the Beginnings of C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2nd ed. (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1963), p . 45. 31 Hans Jonas , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 32. 32 Hans Jonas , The Gnos t i c R e l i g i o n , p . x i i i . 125 33 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s Progress (London: J . M. Dent, 1927) , p . 4. Cf . B l a k e ' s c r y s t a l cab inet and Hoffmann's c r y s t a l j a r s . And L i n d s a y ' s Crystalman? 34 Hans Jonas , The Gnos t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 42. 35 Quoted by Jonas i n The Gnos t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 228. 36 Hans Jonas , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 72. 37 " I t i s of i n t e r e s t that K a f k a ' s concept ion of U t o p i a was a s o c i e t y of s i n g l e men, from which marr i ed men and a l l women were e x c l u d e d . " H a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e , and L i t e r a t u r e : A Study of Franz Kafka (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nor th C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1970), p . 51 . 38 Thi s i s a c t u a l l y a h i g h view of women, e s p e c i a l l y compared to Schopenhauer's ( accord ing to whom they are e s s e n t i a l l y c h i l d i s h ) . The hero ines are the most important charac ter s i n L i n d s a y ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l t h r i l l e r s , and though there are only f i v e female embodiments i n A Voyage, aga ins t three times as many male , the women dominate the book. J o i w i n d , Oceaxe, Tydomin, G l e a m e i l and Sul lenbode are a l l complex and powerfu l f i g u r e s . They a l l know e x a c t l y what they want, and a c t i v e l y and indepen-d e n t l y s e t about the bus iness of g e t t i n g i t . 39 Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n Poet ry (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p . 306. Bodkin i s quot ing from B e a t r i c e M. H i n k l e ' s The R e c r e a t i n g of the I n d i v i d u a l ( A l l e n and Unwin, 1923), p . 306. 40 "Women are snare s , which l i e i n w a i t f o r men on a l l s ide s i n order to drag them i n t o the merely f i n i t e . " Quoted from G. Janouch, Conversa- t i o n s w i t h K a f k a , t r a n s . G. Rees (London: V e r s c h o y l e , 1953), p . 101. In ' K a f k a ' s Modern Mythology ' i n the B u l l e t i n of the John Rylands  L i b r a r y (Autumn 19 70) , I d r i s P a r r y asks , "How i s man r e l a t e d to the gods? The w r i t e r ' s search f o r form i s the p u r s u i t o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ; Kafka has no d i f f i c u l t y at a l l i n see ing h i m s e l f as a Modern Prometheus" (p. 210). Prometheus was tempted w i t h a woman of c l a y . "The great d i s t r a c t i o n i s , of course , marr i age ; and here Kafka a n t i c i p a t e s h i s own l a t e r r e l u c t a n c e when he i s crushed between h i s n a t u r a l d e s i r e f o r marr iage and the fear that marriage w i l l rob him of h i s s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n , the source of v i s i o n " (p. 217) . The Prometheus who accepts Pandora i s not Prometheus, but h i s b r o t h e r - d o u b l e Epimetheus. M a s k u l l has Su l lenbode . The L indsay who w r i t e s A Voyage i s m a r r i e d . 41 Loui s Awad, The Theme of Prometheus i n E n g l i s h and French L i t e r a t u r e ( C a i r o : M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e , 1963), p . 13. 126 42 Prometheus has robbed Zeus of h i s c r e a t i v e a t t r i b u t e s and l e f t him what he always wanted to be , a p e r f e c t but u n c r e a t i v e mind. 43 Panawe, remember, l i k e h i s w i f e J o i w i n d , l i v e s i n a s t a t e o f innocence and c a n ' t t e l l Sur tur from Shaping. 44 In G n o s t i c a l l e g o r y , which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y turns th ings upside down, Prometheus may be supported aga ins t Zeus—as the Romantics supported h im. Then Prometheus becomes " the type of the ' s p i r i t u a l ' man whose l o y a l t y i s not to the God of t h i s w o r l d but to the t r a n s -cendent one b e y o n d , " as Jonas says i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 9 7. I t i s t h i s k i n d of Prometheus t h a t we f i n d , i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , not i n M a s k u l l but i n K r a g . 45 Loui s Awad, The Theme of Prometheus, pp. 20-21. 46 The aim of A Voyage i s not s u b c r e a t i o n , which i s why Lindsay i s w r i t i n g a l l e g o r y not romance of the M o r r i s to T o l k i e n type . Tormance i s , i f s l i g h t l y s o l i p s i s t i c a l l y , sub-crea ted , i n c i d e n t a l l y , but to the extent t h a t i t i s subcrea ted , L indsay i s damned by h i s own metaphys ic . A r t i s t - P l a t o had a s i m i l a r problem when he was excluded from the R e p u b l i c by P h i l o s o p h e r - P l a t o . 12 7 Chapter F i v e : THE STRAIGHT WAY: A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS AS PROGRESS A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s too r i c h to be mistaken f o r ' n a i v e ' a l l e g o r y , too meaningful to be taken as pure f a n t a s y , and the w o r l d i t subcreates i s too t r a n s i t o r y f o r i t to be regarded as a romance. Though i t takes us i n t o space, i t i s too u n s c i e n t i f i c to be s c i ence f i c t i o n . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy—a genre which has c l o s e t i e s w i t h the aforementioned, as d i scussed i n the second and t h i r d chapters of t h i s t h e s i s . But because the a l l e g o r y i s ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d , ' that i s no reason f o r denying that i t i s an a l l e g o r y at a l l , as we have seen prev ious c r i t i c s of L indsay do. J . B. P i c k , f o r example, i n s p i t e o f hav ing access to L i n d s a y ' s ' Ske tch Notes ' and o ther unpubl i shed papers , s t a te s f l a t l y tha t "L indsay was not an a l l e g o r i s t " (TSG 5 ) , which e x p l a i n s h i s d e c i s i o n : i f one t r i e s to v iew A Voyage as a f i e l d f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s , as a p u z z l e r e q u i r i n g a b s t r a c t c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i t appears tha t the l e v e l s on which any e x p l a n a t i o n must be made are h o p e l e s s l y mixed, so that the i n c i d e n t s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a necessary and coherent order (TSG 4 ) . Of course , n o t h i n g could be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . W i l s o n i s a b s o l u t e l y c o r r e c t when he says " A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s cons t ruc ted l i k e a s e r i e s of Chinese boxes , one i n s i d e the o t h e r " (TSG 46) , and that " i t s s t r e n g t h , and gen ius , l i e s i n the almost mathematica l p r e c i s i o n of i t s d e s i g n " (TSG 45) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y these are merely o b s e r v a t i o n s , and W i l s o n does n o t h i n g to demonstrate the v a l i d i t y of h i s i n s i g h t s . We s h a l l have to do i t f o r h im. S ince A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s almost The World as W i l l and Idea 128 d i s s o l v e d and r e c r y s t a l l i s e d as f i c t i o n , i t should not s u r p r i s e us that Schopenhauer has something i n t e r e s t i n g to say about de s ign : Few w r i t e i n the way i n which an a r c h i t e c t b u i l d s ; who, before he sets to work, sketches out h i s p l a n , and t h i n k s i t over down to i t s s m a l l e s t d e t a i l s . Nay, most people w r i t e on ly as though they were p l a y i n g dominoes; and as i n t h i s game the p ieces are arranged h a l f by de s i gn , h a l f by chance, so i t i s w i t h the sequence and connect ion of t h e i r sentences . They on ly j u s t have an i d e a of what the genera l shape of t h e i r work w i l l be , and of the aim they set before themselves . Many are i g n o r a n t even of t h i s , and w r i t e as the c o r a l - i n s e c t s b u i l d ; p e r i o d j o i n s to p e r i o d , and Lord knows what the author means ( 2 ) . I t i s the whole that i s impor tan t , and the whole i s the Idea : the form i m i t a t e s the Form. Few genres a l l o w as much d i r e c t i o n l e s s n e s s as f an ta sy , though i n some cases t h i s can be turned to good account , as i t i s by MacDonald when h i s hero i s c a l l e d Anodos or ' p a t h l e s s ' . On the o ther hand, few genres have as much form, as r i g i d d i r e c t i o n , as a l l e g o r i e s : the s t r a i g h t and.narrow pa th of C h r i s t i a n , the s t r a i g h t and w i n d i n g one 3 4 of Dante. In a l l e g o r i e s , the thought tends to be p o s i t i v e l y diagrammatic . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s bo th an a l l e g o r y and a f a n t a s y . I t i s as apparent ly a imless as Phantastes and The Palm-Wine D r i n k a r d , f o l l o w i n g the contours of a powerful p s y c h i c underwor ld . I t i s a r i g i d l y s y l l o g i s t i c and c e r e b r a l as The P i l g r i m ' s Progress and The D i v i n e Comedy as i t e s t a b l i s h e s i t s d u a l i s t i c metaphys ic . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r y which ends w i t h a v i s i o n ; these are two of i t s p a r t s . I t b e g i n s , however, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n of four chapters ,"* dur ing which a l l the necessary m o t i f s f o r the under-s t and ing o f the a l l e g o r y are e s t a b l i s h e d , and the v u l g a r ' r e a l ' w o r l d i s s a t i r i z e d to make the n e c e s s i t y f o r the a l l e g o r i c a l escape c l e a r . The 129 f i f t h chapter completes the i n t r o d u c t i o n and he lps to form a frame f o r the fantasy i n be ing a p r e c o g n i t i o n of the f i n a l v i s i o n : here M a s k u l l f a i l s to c l imb a tower, w h i l e i n the f i n a l chapter Night spore succeeds i n c l i m b i n g one. By a neat i n v o l u t i o n which i m p l i e s the un-r e a l i t y of t ime , the opening o f the book i s hooked to the middle when M a s k u l l submits to Tydomin (Chapter xo) a n d wakes up on the couch i n the seance room to be s t r a n g l e d by K r a g . Thi s m o t i f reappears j u s t before the f i n a l v i s i o n when, on a r a f t - i s l a n d on S u r t u r ' s Ocean, Krag a c t u a l l y does s t r a n g l e M a s k u l l (Chapter 20) to f r ee N i g h t s p o r e . M a s k u l l ' s f a i l u r e to c l imb the tower f o l l o w s , the f i r s t s t r a n g l i n g ; N i g h t s p o r e ' s success i n c l i m b i n g the tower f o l l o w s the second. The i n t r o d u c t i o n and the promise of r e b i r t h on e a r t h f o r Night spore form the o ther two pa r t s of the a l l e g o r y , the frame. In many a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , the dreamer reawakes to the phenomenal w o r l d a f t e r a c h i e v i n g the f i n a l v i s i o n , b u t , M a s k u l l b e i n g dead, Night spore has no body to reawake i n . However, r e b i r t h i n t o the w o r l d comes to e x a c t l y the same t h i n g . Thus A Voyage has the f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h , as we saw i n Chapter Two above, i s s tandard i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . The main p a r t of the book begins when Krag and Night spore d i sappear , and M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance, and i t ends when Krag and Nightspore reappear and M a s k u l l d ies (goes to s leep) on Tormance. The journey of M a s k u l l across Tormance i s l i t e r a l l y the progress of the a l l e g o r y , and t h i s has a t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e of i t s own. Jean P a u l b e l i e v e d t h a t " w h i l e on e a r t h , on ly our dreams can g ive us i n t i m a t i o n s of the h i g h e r r e a l i t y " ^ and he wrote a number o f a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s . In one of them, 130 'Der Tod i n der l e t z e n zwieten W e l t , ' he expresses " the i d e a of a s e r i e s of ' d e a t h s ' " as " a g radua l approach to a p e r f e c t s t a t e of b e i n g . " 7 This i s e x a c t l y the progress of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , where each of the three s e c t i o n s begins w i t h images o f the b i r t h of M a s k u l l , and ends w i t h images of h i s death. In the l a s t s e c t i o n , of course , M a s k u l l l i t e r a l l y d i e s . Each of these three s e c t i o n s has a c l imax i n which d e f i n i t i v e a l l e g o r i c a l statements are made. Each s e c t i o n i s on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , and the process i s r a t h e r l i k e W i l s o n ' s Chinese boxes , or Peer Gynt p e e l i n g h i s o n i o n , except tha t there i s something i n the m i d d l e : the v i t a l spark . Nature here i s not w i t t y , but t r a g i c . T h i s s p i r a l progress inwards w i l l be examined i n the next, chapter . M a s k u l l ' s journey i s , as i s common i n dream f a n t a s i e s , a quest to d i s c o v e r ( i n t h i s case, uncover) h i s t rue i d e n t i t y i to f i n d h i s r e a l nature (at p r e s e n t , masked) and h i s t rue name. "Who i n the w o r l d am I ? " A l i c e asks h e r s e l f . " A h , t h a t ' s the great p u z z l e . " I t i s n ' t . The great p u z z l e i s , who she i s Out of the w o r l d . In a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , the embodiments' names and natures are one: the honest man i n The P i l g r i m ' s Progress i s c a l l e d Honest . P r o t a g o n i s t s , however, tend to be double , or of a dua l n a t u r e . Even A l i c e i s "ve ry fond of p re tend-9 i n g to be two p e o p l e . " M a s k u l l i s two people i n t h a t he i s a l s o N i g h t s p o r e : he i s both n o t h i n g and n o t h i n g . L i k e Thingumbob i n The Hunt ing of the 10 Snark—who "came as a b a k e r " but who w i l l n o t , l i k e the o t h e r s , accept h i s t rade as h i s name—Maskull meets a d r e a d f u l Boojum of Nothingness , Crys ta lman, and d i s cover s tha t he i s , i n the w o r l d , n o t h i n g . But j u s t be fore h i s dea th , M a s k u l l i s t o l d by K r a g , "you are N i g h t s p o r e " (VA 277) : 131 he does, a f t e r a l l , have an i d e n t i t y out of the w o r l d , and that i s , n o t h i n g . Mr . Vane i n L i l i t h f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r quest : " I became at once aware that I could g ive [Mr. Raven] no n o t i o n of who I was. . . . Then I understood that I d i d not know myse l f . . . . As f o r the name I went by i n my own w o r l d , I had f o r g o t t e n i t , and d i d not care to r e c a l l i t , f o r i t meant n o t h i n g . " 1 ' ' " When M a s k u l l , a f t e r .the mask has been s t r i p p e d o f f i n the p rogre s s , does get to know h i m s e l f , he d i s cover s tha t he i s r e a l l y N i g h t s p o r e , as , i n the same way, a f t e r h i s much s h o r t e r but more concentrated progress up the tower, Night spore d i scover s tha t he i s r e a l l y M u s p e l , and t h e r e f o r e , r e a l l y Krag a l s o . The g n o s t i c Irenaeus t e l l s us that knowledge i s s a l v a t i o n of the i n n e r man; and i t i s not c o r p o r e a l , f o r the body i s c o r r u p t i b l e ; nor i s i t p s y c h i c a l , f o r even the s o u l i s a product of the defect and i s as a l o d g i n g to the s p i r i t : s p i r i t u a l t h e r e f o r e must a l s o be s a l v a t i o n (12) . M a s k u l l and Night spore are day- and n i g h t - s e l f o p p o s i t e s ; Krag and Gangnet form a corresponding d u a l i t y . But i n the a l l e g o r y as progress we have a t r i n i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e corresponding to the t h r e e f o l d nature of the human b e i n g . Man i s made up of body and s o u l , and "enc lo sed i n the s o u l i s the s p i r i t , or 'pneuma' ( c a l l e d a l s o the ' s p a r k ' ) , a p o r t i o n of the 13 d i v i n e substance from beyond which has f a l l e n i n t o the w o r l d . " That i s , a fragment of n o t h i n g . As Night spore i s the e s s e n t i a l s e l f of M a s k u l l , as leep w i t h i n h i m , so Krag i s the spark submerged w i t h i n N i g h t -spore . In i t s unredeemed s t a t e the pneuma thus immersed i n s o u l and f l e s h i s unconscious of i t s e l f , benumbed, a s l e e p , or i n t o x i c a t e d by the po i son of the w o r l d : i n b r i e f , i t i s ' i g n o r a n t . ' I t s awakening and l i b e r a t i o n i s e f f e c t e d through 'knowledge' (14) . 132 M a s k u l l t e l l s N i g h t s p o r e , " I ' m b e g i n n i n g to regard you as a second K r a g " (VA 34) . By c l i m b i n g the tower, Night spore i s l i b e r a t e d by the knowledge of the r e a l s t a t e of the w o r l d . Ju s t as M a s k u l l became N i g h t s p o r e , now Night spore has become K r a g : the Krag w i t h i n him has , l i t e r { 3 . a l l y > s u r f a c e d . I t has o f t en been n o t i c e d that the P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h e r m y t h o l -ogises w h i l e the P l a t o n i c poet p h i l o s o p h i s e s . B l a k e , S h e l l e y and Yeats are examples of the l a t t e r ; L indsay h i m s e l f wrote ' Ske tch Notes Towards a New System of P h i l o s o p h y . ' For the P l a t o n i c poe t , a g a i n , ph i lo sophy means, by and l a r g e , metaphys ics : that i s , as the recent outgrowth o f ' l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s ' has not t i r e d of r e i t e r a t i n g , the w o r l d o f 15 which we can know n o t h i n g . The poets would i t a l i c i s e t h i s d i f f e r e n t l y : through l i t e r a t u r e , they would argue, we can know n o t h i n g . L indsay pays V i s i a k the very h i g h e s t of compliments when he says of the l a t t e r ' s Medusa t h a t i t " t ranscends poetry and seems to enter the realm of metaphys ics , as a l l su rpa s s ing poetry does" (L 53) . Thi s k i n d of j u d g -ment i s the b a s i s o f L i n d s a y ' s defense of D e v i l ' s T o r : There are two orders of i m a g i n a t i v e w r i t e r s — t h o s e who descr ibe the w o r l d and those who e x p l a i n i t . The f i r s t — by f a r the l a r g e r c l a s s — a r e the poets or poe t i c -minded , even though t h e i r merchandise be c y n i c i s m or s o r d i d n e s s : they aim only at s e t t i n g f a m i l i a r th ings i n new and s t r i k i n g l i g h t s . But the second have the m u s i c a l temper —between metaphysics and music i s t h i s i n e x p l i c a b l e l i n k of c o n s a n g u i n i t y . T h e i r aim i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of p a s s i o n , emotion, and the e lementa l forces g e n e r a l l y . They w i s h to get down to the roots of the w o r l d (TSG 27) • In K e a t s ' s phrase , poetry " i s not so f i n e a t h i n g as p h i l o s o p h y . " But music i s . 133 The mus ic i an can "awaken tha t i n e x p r e s s i b l e f e e l i n g , a k i n to n o t h i n g e l s e on ea r th—the sense of a d i s t a n t s p i r i t w o r l d , and of 16 our own h i g h e r l i f e i n i t , " a ccord ing to Hoffmann. "Mus ic i s the exper ience of a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " (TSG 13) , a c c o r d i n g to L i n d s a y . Much l a t e r , L indsay wrote that D e v i l ' s Tor was conceived i n a s p i r i t of mus ic . A prev ious book of mine, A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , was s i m i l a r l y generated ; and the g rea te s t compliment i t ever r e c e i v e d was from the mouth o f an a r t i s t and m u s i c i a n , who found i t s whole c o n s t r u c t i o n and compo-s i t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y ' m u s i c a l ' (TSG 28) . The o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s t h r e e f o l d : I n t r o d u c t i o n to the c e n t r a l themes ( E a r t h ) , e x p o s i t i o n and development (Tormance), c o n c l u s i o n (the tower ) . The c e n t r a l s e c t i o n i s of the 'theme and v a r i a t i o n s ' k i n d : each embodiment M a s k u l l meets i s an ins t rument of C r y s t a l m a n ' s . The name of the technique, , the l e i t m o t i f , i s a l s o borrowed from mus ic . The thought of A Voyage i s expressed through r e c u r r i n g images. For example, Krag r e f e r s to the "specimen g o b l i n " (VA 23) m a t e r i a l i s e d 17 by Backhouse as a f r u i t of Tormance. One of the f i r s t t h i n g s M a s k u l l p i c k s up on Tormance i s a "hard f r u i t . . . . of the s i z e of a l a r g e a p p l e , and shaped l i k e an egg" (VA 53) . J o i w i n d w i l l not a l l o w him to eat i t - -"We don ' t eat l i v i n g t h i n g s . The thought i s h o r r i b l e to u s " (VA 53)— and he throws i t away. Panawe produces out o f h i m s e l f " a d e l i c a t e l y b e a u t i f u l egg-shaped c r y s t a l of p a l e green" (VA 6 3 ) , w h i c h he throws away, s a y i n g " n o t h i n g comes from i t but v a n i t y " (VA 63) . Panawe and J o i w i n d c u l t i v a t e non-attachment to the w o r l d . Oceaxe, by c o n t r a s t , t r i e s to dominate the w o r l d by sheer w i l l - t o - p o w e r . She uses " a l i g h t - e m i t t i n g s tone" (VA 82) , "a pebble the s i z e of a hen ' s egg" (VA 83) , to convert 134 M a s k u l l to h e r way of s e e i n g . Dreamsinter g ives M a s k u l l a b i t t e r f r u i t to e a t , " a hard round n u t , of the s i z e o f a f i s t " (VA 152) , and t h i s induces a new k i n d of v i s i o n , of Muspel r a d i a n c e . In M a t t e r p l a y M a s k u l l f i n d s a f r u i t . . . l y i n g on the ground, of the s i z e and shape of a lemon, but w i t h a tougher s k i n . He p i c k e d i t up, i n t e n d i n g to eat the conta ined p u l p ; but i n s i d e , i t was a f u l l y formed young t r e e , j u s t on the p o i n t of b u r s t i n g i t s s h e l l (VA 192) . M a s k u l l f i n d s Sul lenbode "under a huge t r e e " which bears " a m u l t i t u d e of red f r u i t " : " h e r forearms were l i g h t l y f o l d e d , and i n one hand she h e l d a h a l f - e a t e n f r u i t " (VA 242) . L a s t l y , Gangnet takes "two or three ob jec t s that resembled eggs" from " t h e foot of one of the t r e e s " i n Barey (VA 269) . M a s k u l l eats two be fore Krag snatches " t h e remaining egg out of h i s hand and f l u n g i t aga ins t a t r e e t r u n k , where i t broke and s t u c k , a s p l a s h of s l i m e " (VA 270) . " I s there a s i g h t f i l t h i e r than a smashed p l e a s u r e ? " asks Krag (VA 270) . The image of the egg- s i zed f r u i t recurs through A Voyage to A r c t u r u s as a m o t i f . Of course , there i s no one meaning common to each occurrence : the meaning of the f r u i t depends on who uses i t and why. J o i w i n d and Panawe have not been e x p e l l e d from Eden: they throw t h e i r f r u i t away, whereas Sul lenbode i s a temptress , l i k e Eve , who has eaten the f r u i t and w i l l now seduce M a s k u l l i n t o c a r n a l i t y . Dreamsinter g ives M a s k u l l a hard nut w i t h an " i n t e n s e l y d i s a g r e e a b l e " (VA 152) p u l p ; Gangnet g ives him a f r a g i l e egg w i t h a s l i m y i n t e r i o r . Each f r u i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the g i v e r . The t h i n g that i s common to these l a s t two examples i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n s i d e and the o u t s i d e : Gangnet's f r u i t i s an 135 e v i l good and Dreams inter ' s a good e v i l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of M a s k u l l and Nightspore i s a l s o one o f ou t s ide to i n s i d e : M a s k u l l i s the s h e l l , N ight spore the k e r n e l . In mus ic , a l e i t m o t i f i s a theme a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a person or a thought which recurs when the person appears on the stage or the thought becomes prominent i n the a c t i o n of the drama to which the music i s an accompaniment. In A Voyage, the drum taps of S o r g i e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S u r t u r , are l i t e r a l l y a l e i t m o t i f , but there are s e v e r a l o ther themes e s t a b l i s h e d i n the opening s e c t i o n which i n l i t e r a t u r e we may t h i n k of as b e i n g l e i t m o t i f s a l s o . For example, the images of b i r t h and death tha t we have a l ready mentioned, the problem of weight and the c l i m b i n g of the tower , the Crystalman g r i n , and the phenomenon of b a c k - r a y s . We must n o t , as prev ious c r i t i c s have done, e i t h e r pretend t h a t A Voyage begins on Tormance (Joanna Rus s ) , or w i s h tha t i t d i d ( W i l s o n ) . A Voyage  to A r c t u r u s does b e g i n i n the suburban res idence (people always ' r e s i d e ' i n suburbs) of Montague F a u l l , and not w i t h v i s i o n but w i t h theosophy and s p i r i t u a l i s m . In t h i s opening s e c t i o n , however, the main m o t i f s e s s e n t i a l f o r the unders tanding of the a l l e g o r y are i n t r o d u c e d , and we must examine i t i n some d e t a i l . In her po lemic i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n , Joanna Russ complains, tha t A Voyage  to A r c t u r u s conta ins too l i t t l e s p e c i f i c i t y , or p a r t i c u l a r i t y , or con-creteness ( three terms wi th , bu t a s i n g l e thought) . In the opening chapter , however, there i s enough concreteness to s i n k almost any n o v e l . In the very f i r s t sentence we are g iven the month and the time of day, the name of a house and i t s s i t u a t i o n , the names of two charac ter s and the p r o f e s s i o n 136 of one of them. So i t goes on . The scene i s very thoroughly s e t . 18 We are i n a room decked out f o r a p s y c h i c event : Backhouse i s to ' m a t e r i a l i s e ' a s p i r i t . Yeats would have been f a s c i n a t e d . The s e t t i n g i s " a r e p l i c a , or n e a r l y so , of the Drury Lane p r e s e n t a t i o n of the temple scene from The Magic F l u t e " (VA 16) , and a "h idden o r c h e s t r a " 19 p lays " the b e a u t i f u l and solemn s t r a i n s of M o z a r t ' s ' t emple ' m u s i c . " The s p e c t a t o r s — t h e people L indsay hates most, who c a r r y over t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s m i n t o the s p i r i t w o r l d — i n c l u d e " P r i o r , the prosperous C i t y coffee i m p o r t e r , and Lang, the s t o c k j o b b e r , w e l l known i n h i s own c i r c l e as an amateur p r e s t a d i g i t a t o r " (VA 14) , and F a u l l , the South American Merchant h i m s e l f . A Voyage to Arc turus b e g i n s , i n f a c t , as good dream a l l e g o r i e s i n prose tend to do (MacDonald's Phantastes and L i l i t h , L e w i s ' s That Hideous S t r e n g t h ) , l i k e a very bad n o v e l . Into t h i s w o r l d , though c l e a r l y from another k i n d of w o r l d , e n t e r M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e . N a t u r a l l y , i n t r o d u c t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t : "One r e j o i c e s i n the name of M a s k u l l " says M r s . Trent (VA 15) , who has i n v i t e d them. She cannot t e l l the assembled company what these two do ' i n the C i t y ' : tha t i s n ' t where t h e y ' r e from. And t h e i r names are not ' n e u t r a l ' : t h e i r names are what they e s s e n t i a l l y a r e . When M a s k u l l and Nightspore e n t e r the room, there i s " a loud and t e r r i b l e crash o f f a l l e n masonry" which causes " the assembled p a r t y to s t a r t up from t h e i r c h a i r s i n con-s t e r n a t i o n . I t sounded as i f the e n t i r e upper p a r t of the b u i l d i n g had c o l l a p s e d " (VA 18) . But no one o u t s i d e the room has heard a n y t h i n g , and 20 n o t h i n g i s amiss . Night spore says—and these are h i s f i r s t w o r d s — " i t was s u p e r n a t u r a l " i n o r i g i n (VA 18) . This i s evidence t h a t "we are 137 surrounded by a t e r r i b l y queer unseen u n i v e r s e " (1, 43) , which i s the r e a l w o r l d . Of the ' temple scene ' L indsay says , "what words are to M u s i c , i n d i v i d u a l s are to the Subl ime" (TSG 13) . What music g ives us i s a sense of the sub l ime : the subl ime i s " the shadow of the beauty of another w o r l d " (DT 6 8 ) . L indsay w r i t e s , "Long s i n c e ( f o r my own use) I have p o s t u l a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a ' s u b l i m e ' w o r l d , the word b e i n g employed f o r want of a b e t t e r . But t h i s ' s u b l i m e ' i s not i d e n t i c a l 21 w i t h the ' s u b l i m e ' i n common u s e . " And l a t e r , "Schopenhauer, f o r example, opposes the subl ime to the b e a u t i f u l . I should w i s h to oppose i t to the v u l g a r " (L 50 ) . L indsay here t r i v i a l i s e s Schopenhauer, who a c t u a l l y says i n The World as W i l l and Idea that " the proper oppos i te of the sublime i s something which would not at f i r s t glance be recog-22 n i s e d as such : the charming or a t t r a c t i v e ( T h i r d Book, sec . 40) . T h i s i s a c t u a l l y q u i t e c l o s e to what L indsay means by the v u l g a r : something which e x c i t e s the w i l l , something which o f f e r s immediate (o f ten t r i v i a l ) s a t i s f a c t i o n . M o z a r t ' s temple music i s sub l ime , but i n the context i t i s b e i n g put to v u l g a r use. F a u l l ' s i n t e r e s t i n s p i r i t u a l i s m i s v u l g a r , and Backhouse sees " the concealed b a r b a r i a n i n the complacent gleam of h i s eye" (VA 15) . Backhouse i s enormously g i f t e d — " I dream w i t h open e y e s , " he s ays , "and others see my dreams" (VA 13)—but , i n s p i t e of h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s , he i s p r o s t i t u t i n g h i s t a l e n t : he too i s 23 v u l g a r . When J o i w i n d asks M a s k u l l why he l e f t e a r t h , he i s ab le to say , " I was t i r e d of v u l g a r i t y " (VA 62) . The opening chapter prov ides the v u l g a r i t y which makes the escape to Tormance neces sary , and aga ins t 138 which the s u b l i m i t y of the v i s i o n i n the l a s t chapter w i l l c o n t r a s t . Into t h i s v u l g a r Hampstead w o r l d , then , b u r s t s the f i e r y K r a g , a s t r anger and i n t r u d e r . He guffaws, thumps F a u l l on the back , and s t r a n g l e s " w i t h h i s h a i r y hands" the b e a u t i f u l s p i r i t tha t the medium has m a t e r i a l i s e d . One might have s a i d Krag came i n ' l i k e a b rea th of f r e s h a i r ' were i t not f o r the r e s u l t : the body f e l l i n a heap to the f l o o r . I t s face was uppermost. The guests were u n u t t e r a b l y shocked to observe that i t s expre s s ion had changed from the myster ious but f a s c i n a t i n g smi le to a v u l g a r , s o r d i d , b a s t i a l g r i n , which cast a c o l d shadow of moral n a s t i -ness i n t o every h e a r t . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was accompanied by a s i c k e n i n g s tench of the graveyard (VA 22) . Thus i s a c e n t r a l m o t i f i n t r o d u c e d . N i g h t s p o r e , who through dreaming has mainta ined some contact w i t h the r e a l w o r l d , r e a l i s e s that t h a t i s " C r y s t a l m a n ' s e x p r e s s i o n on i t s f a c e " (VA 2 3 ) . The u l t i m a t e mockery of the body and the phenomenal w o r l d i t i n h a b i t s i s the g r i n of the s k u l l . There i s the s m e l l of the graveyard , and we may r e c a l l the s m e l l of the graveyard i n which Hamlet p h i l o s o p h i z e s over the s k u l l of the former j e s t e r , "Not one now to mock your own g r i n n i n g " (Hamlet, V . i . 1 8 7 ) . The g r i n o f the s k u l l , the face of Crys ta lman, i s worn i n death by a l l of H i s c h i l d r e n on Tormance: Crimtyphon, Tydomin, G l e a m e i l , L e e h a l l f a e , and Su l lenbode . I t i s the s i g n o f damnation. I t i s " the t r u e l i k e n e s s of Shap ing" : " I t i s Shaping s t r i p p e d of i l l u s i o n " (VA 147). M a s k u l l h i m s e l f i s one of Crys ta lman ' s c h i l d r e n , and, h i s name assures u s , he too must wear i t i n death , when the mask of i l l u s i o n , i s s t r i p p e d o f f , and the g r i n n i n g s k u l l r e v e a l e d . The Night spore l i b e r a t e d by M a s k u l l ' s death f i n d s the g r i n to be the whole nature of the shadow, the darkness that i s 139 Crysta lman: " the darkness around h i m , on a l l four s i d e s , was g r i n n i n g " (VA 286) . In the words of the S y b i l , "Nowhere was there ea r th nor 24 heaven above, / But a g r i n n i n g gap . " At the end of the f i r s t and at the b e g i n n i n g of the second chapter , K r a g ' s rough humour cont ra s t s b e a u t i f u l l y w i t h the s t i l t e d n a r r a t i o n ("The guests were u n u t t e r a b l y shocked to observe . . .") appropr i a t e to the w o r l d of v u l g a r s u b u r b a n - v i l l a theosophy of the opening . Krag s ays , " T r y and s i m p l i f y your i d e a s , my f r i e n d . The a f f a i r i s p l a i n and s e r i o u s " (VA 25 ) . I t sounds i n c r e d i b l e . M a s k u l l i s asked i f he would " l i k e to see the l and where t h i s s o r t of f r u i t Ithe "specimen g o b l i n " ] grows w i l d " (VA 2 2 ) ; that i s , Tormance, which i s " the r e s i d e n t i a l suburb of A r c t u r u s " (VA 24 ) . Much as through a " P e r s p e c t i v e G l a s s " C h r i s t i a n i s shown " the 25 Gates of the C e l e s t i a l C i t y " by the Shepherds, M a s k u l l i s shown, through a l e n s , a c lose-up view of the double s t a r and i t s p l a n e t , as a s i g n . A few days l a t e r , M a s k u l l and Night spore t r a v e l northwards to the b l e a k observatory of Starkness ( s t re s sed as a spondee) , i n S c o t l a n d . Th i s i s the f i r s t stage of a l o n g j o u r n e y , taken c o n s i s t e n t l y northwards . The l i g h t of. A l p p a i n can sometimes be seen i n the Nor thern sky (VA 112) ; B r a n c h s p e l l , l i k e our own sun, se t s i n the west (VA 142). On e a r t h , the n o r t h i s ' t h e l and of the midnight s u n ' , and A l p p a i n i s , as we have seen, a k i n d of ' n o c t u r n a l s u n ' , l i g h t i n g God's road r a t h e r than the w o r l d ' s . A g a i n , on e a r t h the n o r t h has been the home of the Norsemen, whom Lindsay admired and claimed as h i s a n c e s t o r s , and the country of the Norsemen has a w i l d and subl ime grandeur (as noted by C a r l y l e and M o r r i s ) unknown i n e f f e t e southern c l i m e s . L a s t l y , a l though Surt 'comes 140 from the south at the end of the w o r l d , i n I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e " the n o r t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the l and of death and the l a n d of man's 26 27 enemies . " " H e l i s a l s o somewhat to the n o r t h as w e l l as downward." In the apoca lypse , accord ing to the 'Song of the S y b i l , ' "Men t r e a d 2 8 H e l ' s Road . " M a s k u l l f o l l o w s a s t r a i g h t and narrow path to H e l l accord ing to "an i n f a l l i b l e r u l e , " he t e l l s Corpang: " I always go due n o r t h " (VA 224) . Thi s must lead him to h i s death i n the hands of h i s enemy, Crys ta lman. M a s k u l l ' s death i s a l s o the end of the w o r l d , s i n c e the w o r l d (any w o r l d , Schopenhauer would argue) i s on ly h i s i d e a : Tormance i s the p r o j e c t i o n of M a s k u l l ' s mind. When M a s k u l l d i e s , i t d i s s o l v e s , and Night spore f i n d s h i m s e l f c l i m b i n g a tower which must be the same as the tower of S t a rknes s , from which the voyage began. The observatory at Starkness i s " a square tower of g r a n i t e masonry, 29 seventy fee t i n he ight " . (VA 29) w i t h s i x windows a l l f a c i n g east ( sunr i s e ) and l o o k i n g over the sea . In l i t e r a t u r e the tower i s a t r a d -i t i o n a l i c o n , l i t e r a l l y p r o v i d i n g and f i g u r a t i v e l y s y m b o l i s i n g an i n c r e a s e i n v i s i o n . None may ascend, Bacon p o i n t e d o u t , except by the wind ing s t a i r . Many poets have used t h i s i c o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y M i l t o n , R i l k e and Y e a t s , but s t a n d i n g behind the whole p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , most i m p o r t a n t l y , i s Dante. Gilgamesh r e a l i s e s that " o n l y the gods l i v e f o r ever w i t h g l o r i o u s Shamash, but as f o r us men, our days are numbered, our occupa-t i o n s are a b r e a t h of w i n d " and he asks, . "Where i s the man who can clamber 30 to heaven?" In The D i v i n e Comedy, t h i s i s what 'Dante ' does, hut i t i s on ly a v i s i o n , and h i s poem but a b r e a t h of w i n d . The s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n w r i t e r , A r t h u r C. C l a r k e , w r i t e s , 141 Of a l l the n a t u r a l f o r c e s , g r a v i t y i s the most myster-ious and the most i m p l a c a b l e . I t c o n t r o l s our l i v e s from b i r t h to death, k i l l i n g or maiming us i f we make the s l i g h t e s t s l i p . No wonder t h a t , conscious of t h e i r earth-bound s l a v e r y , men have always looked w i s t f u l l y at b i r d s and c l o u d s , and have p i c t u r e d the sky as the abode o f the gods. The very e x p r e s s i o n 'heavenly b e i n g ' i m p l i e s a freedom from g r a v i t y w h i c h , u n t i l the p r e s e n t , we have known only i n our dreams (31) . 'Dante ' has the extreme good for tune to grow l i g h t e r as he c l i m b s . V i r g i l t e l l s h i m , "Such i s t h i s mountain , / That i t i s always arduous s t a r t i n g up, / But the f u r t h e r up one goes, the l e s s i t h u r t s " ( I I 4 ) . Jus t the reverse i s the case f o r M a s k u l l when he t r i e s to cl imb the z i g g u r a t or pathway to heaven t h a t i s the tower a t S t a rknes s : Hard ly had he mounted h a l f a dozen s t e p s , however, be fore he was compelled to pause, to ga in b r e a t h . He seemed to be c a r r y i n g u p s t a i r s not one M a s k u l l , but t h r e e . As he proceeded, the s e n s a t i o n of c rush ing w e i g h t , so f a r from d i m i n i s h i n g , grew worse and worse . I t was n e a r l y p h y s i c -a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to go on ; h i s lungs could not take i n enough ©xygen, w h i l e h i s h e a r t thumped l i k e a s h i p ' s engine (VA 36) . Even at the end of A Voyage, when Nightspore has been f reed of the burden of the f l e s h which i s M a s k u l l , N ight spore exper iences a great dea l of d i f f i c u l t y i n c l i m b i n g the tower , the " l a d d e r to heaven" (VA 281) : A f t e r he had mounted a dozen steps o r so , he paused to take b r e a t h . Each s tep was i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to ascend; he f e l t as though he were c a r r y i n g a heavy man on h i s s h o u l d e r s . I t s t r u c k a f a m i l i a r chord i n h i s mind (VA 281) . The ascent grew more and more e x h a u s t i n g , so much so tha t he had f r e q u e n t l y to s i t down, u t t e r l y crushed by h i s own deadweight. S t i l l , he got to the t h i r d window (yA 282) . 142 Nightspore had a foreknowledge tha t the s i x t h window would prove to be the l a s t . Noth ing would have kept him from ascending to i t , f o r he guessed that the nature of Crystalman h i m s e l f would there become m a n i f e s t . Every s tep upward was l i k e a b l o o d y - l i f e - a n d - d e a t h s t r u g g l e . The s t a i r s n a i l e d him to the ground; the a i r pres sure caused b l o o d to gush from h i s nose and e a r s ; h i s head clanged l i k e an i r o n b e l l (VA 284-^85) . Night spore exper iences such d i f f i c u l t y because he i s pa s s ing through the opaque body of Crys ta lman; he i s , l i t e r a l l y , c l i m b i n g out of c r e a t i o n , out of the r i v e r of m a t t e r : "As soon as h i s head was above the t r a p , b r e a t h i n g the f ree a i r , he had the same p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n 32 as a man s tepp ing out of w a t e r " (VA 286) . M a s k u l l ' s r i g i d l y northward t r i p across Tormance has some ups and downs to keep i t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . These are not towers , but more n a t u r a l z i g g u r a t s : mountains , l i k e D a n t e ' s . "We have made the mountain-top a symbol f o r a c o n d i t i o n of mind open to every i n f l u e n c e of the sky and dominating the vas t landscape of e a r t h " w r i t e s Maud 33 B o d k i n , when d i s c u s s i n g Dante. J . A . MacCul loch has found tha t there 34 i s . . . evidence of mountain worship among I the a n c i e n t c e l t s ] . " We have a l ready p o i n t e d out that some of L i n d s a y ' s names c o n t a i n suggest ions of mountains : Tormance, A l p p a i n , K r a g . C o l i n W i l s o n has suggested that o ther names i n A Voyage "seem to be d e r i v e d from S c o t t i s h names. One has only to l ook at the names of peaks v i s i b l e from Ben Nevis to see the resemblance: Corpach, G u l v a i n , Ben S g r i o l , Ladhar B h e i n n , w h i l e Loch Hourn immediately b r i n g s D i s c o u r n [ s i c ] to mind" (TSG 48) . There are three important mountain areas on Tormance: the Ifdawn Mare s t , Sant , and L i c h s t o r m . 143 M a s k u l l f l i e s on a shrowk, a monster r e m i n i s c e n t of Dante ' s Geryon (I 17 ) , w i t h Oceaxe, to the mountains of the Ifdawn Mares t . Th i s i s , as the name suggests , a l and where almost anyth ing i s pos-s i b l e . The "mountains have most e x t r a o r d i n a r y shapes. A l l the l i n e s are s t r a i g h t and perpend icu l a r—no s lopes or curves " (VA 89) . Oceaxe says " t h a t ' s t y p i c a l of I fdawn. Nature i s a l l hammer blows w i t h us . Nothing s o f t and g r a d u a l . " I t i s " a p l ace of qu ick d e c i s i o n s " (VA 89) . I t i s the w o r l d as w i l l . Everyone ac t s from naked w i l l to power. M a s k u l l has j u s t l e f t Panawe and J o i w i n d , who have renounced w i l l a l -t o g e t h e r , who l i v e on w a t e r , and i n innocence . W i t h Oceaxe, M a s k u l l has t r a v e l l e d to a w o r l d of e x p e r i e n c e , where the view i s that "animals were made to be ea ten , and s imple natures were made to be absorbed" (VA 88) . There has been some i n c r e a s e i n consciousness ( there are mounta ins ) , but i t i s p r e c a r i o u s : mountains and v a l l e y s appear and disappear e r r a t i c a l l y . M a s k u l l sees a l a r g e t r a c t o f f o r e s t not f a r ahead, b e a r i n g many t ree s and r o c k s , suddenly subs ided w i t h an awful r o a r and crashed down i n t o an i n v i s i b l e g u l f . What was s o l i d l and one minute became a c l e a n - c u t chasm the next (VA 99) . I t i s a w o r l d of k i l l and be k i l l e d ; l i f e on a k n i f e edge. Sant i s much more s o l i d and r e l i a b l e than Ifdawn. I t i s not mountainous at a l l , but a very h i g h p l a t e a u . M a s k u l l i s now t r a v e l l i n g w i t h Tydomin and S p a d e v i l , whose law i s duty (VA 133). S h o r t l y be fore sunset they a r r i v e d at the e x t r e m i t y of the upland p l a i n , above which towered the b l a c k c l i f f s of the Sant L e v e l s . A d i z z y , a r t i f i c i a l l y cons t ruc ted s t a i r c a s e , of more than a thousand steps of v a r y i n g depth , t w i s t i n g and f o r k i n g i n order to conform to the angles of the p r e c i p i c e s , l e d to the w o r l d overhead (VA 140) . 144 From here " the huge pyramid" of D i s s c o u r n , h i g h e s t peak of I fdawn, " l o o k e d n o t h i n g more than a s l i g h t s w e l l i n g on the face of the e a r t h " (VA 140)• But the law of duty the t r a v e l l e r s b r i n g i s r e j e c t e d by C a t i c e on b e h a l f of the men of Sant. T h e i r s o c i e t y i s not p e r f e c t , but i t i s the bes t t h a t can be managed. For one t h i n g , i t i s an a l l -male s o c i e t y , and C a t i c e i s not about to a l l o w any women i n t o i t . For another , duty i s "but a c l o a k under which we share the p lea sure of o ther peop le " (VA 145). M a s k u l l dec ides , Henceforward, as l ong as I l i v e , I s h a l l f i g h t w i t h my n a t u r e , and refuse to f e e l p l e a s u r e , f o r the w o r l d w i t h i t s sweetness seems to me a s o r t of c h a r n e l house. I f e e l a l o a t h i n g f o r e v e r y t h i n g i n i t , i n c l u d i n g mysel f (VA 145) . The land of Sant may be f l a t and u n e x c i t i n g (Wayne Booth says "Even 35 the most e l e v a t e d p l a t e a u i s l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than a mounta in" ) but i t i s secure and r e l i a b l e and the bes t tha t can be got . To hate p lea sure and avo id women i s the bes t way to avo id Crys ta lman ' s t r a p s . M a s k u l l does n o t , o f course , remember what he has l ea rned i n Sant when pur su ing other i n t e r e s t s i n o ther l andscapes , o therwise he would not f a l l f o r Su l l enbode , who l i v e s on the mountain c a l l e d S a r c l a s h i n the l and of L i c h s t o r m . This l and i s a l i t t l e l i k e Ifdawn, but w i t h o u t I fdawn's mercenary v u l g a r i t y . The Mornstab Pas s , seen by the l i g h t of Tormance's moon, T e a r g e l d , has a " w i l d , n o b l e , l o n e l y beauty" (VA 248) " S a r c l a s h was a mighty mountain mass i n the shape of a horseshoe. I t s two ends p o i n t e d wes t , and were separated from each o ther by a m i l e or more of empty space. The n o r t h e r n end became the r i d g e on w h i c h they 145 s tood" (VA 249) . I t i s a long t h i s r i d g e , which corresponds to the kn i fe -edge p r e c i p i c e j o i n i n g Panawe's homeland to the Ifdawn Marest (VA 70-71), that M a s k u l l , Sul lenbode and Corpang t r a v e l . A long the r i d g e , " the road descended by an easy g r a d i e n t , and was f o r a l o n g d i s t ance comparat ive ly smooth" (VA 251) . The going i s e a s y — d o w n h i l l . V i r g i l t e l l s the c l i m b i n g Dante to r i s e up, and master your exhaus t ion With the s p i r i t , which wins every b a t t l e , Prov ided the body does not drag i t down ( I 2 4 ) . We have seen bo th M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , i n c l i m b i n g the tower to heaven, f i g h t i n g w i t h the weight of c r e a t i o n . A l s o , l i g h t has an oppos i te i n dark as w e l l as i n heavy. Dante i s c l i m b i n g towards the l i g h t , and even he "cannot t r a v e l up by n i g h t " : You c o u l d not even Pass beyond t h i s l i n e , once the sun had gone. Not that anyth ing but the dark of n i g h t Could h i n d e r you from making the a scent . That dark a lone makes the w i l l powerless ( I I 7 ) . In h i s f i r s t attempt to c l imb the tower, M a s k u l l attempts to l i g h t h i s own way w i t h a few h a s t i l y s t r u c k matches (VA 36-37) : they are a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r Muspel f i r e . Krag i s the bearer of the l i g h t , though on e a r t h i t i s on ly a " f e e b l y g l immering l a n t e r n " (VA 39) . The three men cl imb the tower together a f t e r M a s k u l l and Night spore have had t h e i r arms s l a s h e d : they are now dead to E a r t h and the tower i s not a z i g g u r a t but a l aunch ing p l a t f o r m . Krag goes f i r s t w i t h the l a n t e r n : " the others hastened a f t e r h i m , to take advantage of the l i g h t " (VA 40) . M a s k u l l stops to look out of a window. "Krag and Night spore meanwhile had gone on ahead w i t h the l i g h t , so that he had to complete the ascent i n darkness" (VA 41) . 146 On Tormance, important s y m b o l i c a l va lue i s a t tached to the l i g h t of the twin suns , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n , as M a s k u l l t r a v e l s from B r a n c h s p e l l ' s day to A l p p a i n ' s , from the south to the n o r t h . These suns we d i scussed i n Chapters Three and Four . Tormance i s a l s o l i t by a t h i r d heavenly body, the moon Tearge ld . This p l ays only a s m a l l p a r t i n the a l l e g o r y , and i t s genera l s i g n i f i c a n c e seems to be roughly tha t of our own moon. F i r s t l y i t makes landscapes myster ious and b e a u t i f u l , and i s t h e r e f o r e an agent of Crys ta lman, who l i k e s the myster ious and b e a u t i f u l . H i s w o r l d i s r e a l l y , of course , a " c h a r n e l house" (VA 145) of w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g . I t i s Tearge ld t h a t g ives L i c h s t o r m i t s " w i l d , n o b l e , l o n e l y beauty" (VA 248) . Secondly the moon, s i n c e i t waxes and wanes p e r i o d i c a l l y , s i n c e i t i s i n c o n s t a n t , and s i n c e i t shines by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t , i s a s soc i a t ed w i t h woman, whom the Archons designed to keep man bound to the w o r l d . Teargeld l i g h t s the journey of M a s k u l l and Su l lenbode , and t h a t o f M a s k u l l and G l e a m e i l —her name suggests a fragment of moonl ight—on Swaylone's I s l a n d . T h i r d l y , as the female muse, the moon l i g h t s the w o r l d o f poet s . Keats i s an e a r t h l y example, E a r t h r i d a Tormantic one. When M a s k u l l and G l e a m e i l go to see E a r t h r i d p l a y h i s l a k e - l i k e ins trument I r o n t i c k , he must w a i t f o r the moon to r i s e be fore s t a r t i n g . He creates a w o r l d of shapes which i s a d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y from the r e a l i t y of the w o r l d (he i s e a r t h - r i d ) , but i t i s not the t rue r e a l i t y of Muspe l . H i s music comes from the subconscious (the l a k e ) , not from the w o r l d beyond. I t i s l i t not by the n o c t u r n a l sun , but by the o r d i n a r y moon. Accord ing to E a r t h r i d , there are two k inds of mus ic : tha t based on 147 p lea sure and that based on p a i n . He t e l l s M a s k u l l , "my music i s founded on p a i n f u l tones ; and thus i t s symmetry i s w i l d , and d i f f i c u l t to d i s c o v e r ; i t s emotion i s b i t t e r and t e r r i b l e " (VA 181) . The m a t e r i a l a t the Demiurge's d i s p o s a l proved i n t r a c t a b l e , bu t I f Shaping ' s p lans had gone s t r a i g h t , l i f e would have been l i k e t h a t o ther s o r t of mus ic . He who seeks can f i n d t r ace s of that i n t e n t i o n i n the w o r l d of n a t u r e . But as i t has turned o u t , r e a l l i f e resembles my music and mine i s the t rue music (VA 181). E a r t h r i d i s not p l a y i n g Crys ta lman ' s tune , even i f he i s not p l a y i n g S u r t u r ' s : though E a r t h r i d i s k i l l e d , we are not t o l d t h a t i n death he wears the Crystalman g r i n (VA 187) . In f a c t , u s i n g E a r t h r i d ' s i n s t r u m e n t , M a s k u l l i s ab le to conjure up the Muspel r a d i a n c e , a longs ide which "Tear-ge ld looked f a i n t and p a l e " (VA 185) , and " f i n a l l y disappeared e n t i r e l y . " " M a s k u l l p layed h e r o i c a l l y on" (VA 185): The rad iance grew t e r r i b l e . I t was everywhere, but M a s k u l l f a n c i e d that i t was f a r b r i g h t e r i n one p a r t -i c u l a r q u a r t e r . He thought t h a t i t was becoming l o c a l i z e d , prepara tory to c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o a s o l i d f o r m . . . . Immediately a f terward the bottom of the l ake subs ided . I t s waters f e l l through, and h i s ins trument was b roken . The M u s p e l - l i g h t v a n i s h e d . The moon shone out a g a i n , but M a s k u l l cou ld not see i t . A f t e r that u n e a r t h l y s h i n i n g , he seemed to h i m s e l f to be i n t o t a l b lackness (VA 185-86). A r t of the r i g h t k i n d ( p a i n f u l and d i f f i c u l t ) may be u s e f u l i n g i v i n g us an i d e a of the w o r l d of Muspe l , but i t cannot b r i n g the w o r l d i n t o b e i n g . I t s ins t ruments cannot cope w i t h the s t r a i n . As was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter Four , Crys ta lman ' s tune i s a w a l t z , w h i l e S u r t u r ' s i s a march rhythm on a drum. We have to go on a l i t t l e e x c u r s i o n from Starkness f o r t h i s m o t i f to be i n t r o d u c e d , though i t i s 148 i m p l i c i t i n M a s k u l l ' s exper ience c l i m b i n g the tower f o r the f i r s t t i m e , on h i s r e t u r n from the e x c u r s i o n ( "h i s hear t thumped l i k e a s h i p ' s eng ine " [VA 36] ) . Night spore takes M a s k u l l to " a showplace" (VA 34) , the gap of Sorg ie (from the German sorge , c a r e ) . To get there they have to t r a v e r s e a narrow ledge , w i n d i n g a long the face of the p r e c i p i c e a few yards beneath where they were s t a n d i n g . I t averaged from f i f t e e n to t h i r t y inches i n w i d t h . . . . The s h e l f d i d not extend f o r above a quar te r of a m i l e , but i t s passage was somewhat u n n e r v i n g ; there was a sheer drop to the sea four hundred feet below (VA 34-35) . At the end of t h i s ledge i s a " f a i r - s i z e d p l a t f o r m of r o c k " o v e r l o o k i n g " a narrow i n l e t of the s e a . " Thi s i s the Gap of S o r g i e . M a s k u l l f o l l o w s N i g h t s p o r e ' s example i n " l y i n g at f u l l l e n g t h , face downward" and s t a r i n g " s t r a i g h t down at the w a t e r . " " W h i l e he was i n e f f e c t u a l l y g a z i n g , he heard what sounded l i k e the b e a t i n g of a drum. . . . I t was very f a i n t , but q u i t e d i s t i n c t . " "The beats were i n no way drowned by the f a r l ouder sound of the s u r f , but seemed to be long to a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d " (VA 35) . Night spore prophes ies that M a s k u l l w i l l hear the sound again and says , "Only t r y always to hear i t more and more d i s t i n c t l y " (VA 36) . M a s k u l l does hear the sound a g a i n . In f a c t , he f o l l o w s i t a l l the way across Tormance, and the d i s c o v e r y o f i t s o r i g i n w i l l c o n s t i t u t e h i s own f i n a l v i s i o n . Soon a f t e r a r r i v i n g on Tormance, when w i t h Panawe and J o i w i n d , M a s k u l l repeats the exper ience he has had w i t h N i g h t s p o r e . He walks out onto a l a k e , " l a y down at f u l l l e n g t h , and peered i n t o the depths. I t was w e i r d l y c l e a r : he cou ld see down f o r an i n d e f i n i t e d i s t a n c e , w i t h o u t a r r i v i n g a t any bottom" (VA 6 5 ) . H i s t r i p to Tormance has brought M a s k u l l 149 much c l o s e r to the s u r f a c e , v i z . of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d (which seems r e a l but i s dreamlike) and to p e n e t r a t i n g through to the r e a l i t y . He hears " the rhythm of a drum" (VA 66) : The sound appeared to him to belong to a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d from that i n which he was t r a v e l i n g . The l a t t e r was m y s t i c a l , d r e a m l i k e , and u n b e l i e v a b l e — t h e drumming was l i k e a very dim undertone of r e a l i t y (VA 66) . In t h i s case—though no l o g i c a l connect ion i s i m p l i e d — t h e exper ience of the drumming i s f o l l o w e d by M a s k u l l ' s b e i n g " tormented" (VA 66) by the b lue l i g h t of A l p p a i n , which has j u s t s e t . I f the drum-taps are " l i k e a very dim undertone of r e a l i t y " (VA 66 ) , then t h i s w o r l d must be f a l s e . T h i s i s the c o n c l u s i o n M a s k u l l reaches when he has " f l u n g h i m s e l f at f u l l l e n g t h on h i s ches t , to see what c o u l d be seen of the l a k e of f i r e " (VA 127) i n which Tydomin i s b u r y i n g Crimtyphon: A f a i n t sound of drumming came up. He l i s t e n e d i n t e n t l y , and as he d i d so h i s hear t quickened and the b l a c k cares r o l l e d away from h i s s o u l . A l l the w o r l d and i t s a c c i d -ents seemed at that moment f a l s e , and w i t h o u t meaning (VA 127). I f the drumming reminds us we are a l i e n s i n a f a l s e w o r l d , then i t must a l s o remind us of our t rue home: The drum beats had t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y — t h o u g h odd and m y s t i c a l , there was n o t h i n g a w e - i n s p i r i n g i n them, but on the cont ra ry they reminded [Maskul l ] of some p lace and some l i f e w i t h which he was p e r f e c t l y f a m i l i a r (VA 151). Our t rue home i s the w o r l d of Muspe l . But that i s , as we have seen, the w o r l d which N i g h t s p o r e , not M a s k u l l , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y reach . F u r t h e r , M a s k u l l must d ie to make t h i s p o s s i b l e . This i s s i g n i f i e d by the v i s i o n M a s k u l l sees when he has eaten the f r u i t g iven to him by Dreamsinter . 150 "The now f a m i l i a r drum rhythm was h e a r d — t h i s t ime accompanied by the tramp of marching f e e t " (VA 153). M a s k u l l sees phantom M a s k u l l , Krag and Nightspore marching past him to " the pu l se of the drum" (VA 153). Phantom Krag stabs phantom M a s k u l l i n the back w h i l e phantom "Nightspore marched on a l o n e , s t e r n and unmoved" (VA 154) towards the Muspel l i g h t which i s now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the drumming. " M a s k u l l f e l t h i s s o u l l o o s e n i n g from i t s b o d i l y e n v e l o p e . " " H i s body was incapable of endur ing such shocks , and a l l of a sudden he tumbled over i n a f a i n t tha t resembled death" (VA 154). The r e a l Night spore i s , of course , i n s i d e M a s k u l l , who must d ie f o r h i s complementary double to be r e l e a s e d . When t h i s happens, we d i s c o v e r the source of the drumming. In the re ferences to the drumming, L indsay has repea ted ly mentioned the b e a t i n g of M a s k u l l ' s h e a r t . On the steps of the tower, " h i s hear t thumped l i k e a s h i p ' s engine" (VA 36) ; above the l ake of f i r e " h i s hear t qu ickened" (VA 12 7 ) . Hear ing the drumming w i t h Corpang, " M a s k u l l ' s h e a r t beat q u i c k l y " (VA 221) ; h e a r i n g i t w i t h Sul lenbode M a s k u l l ' s hear t beat w i l d l y . H i s body was l i k e a p r i s o n . He longed to throw i t o f f , to s p r i n g up and become i n c o r -porated w i t h the subl ime un iver se which was b e g i n n i n g to u n v e i l i t s e l f (VA 259) . When M a s k u l l f i n a l l y d ies on S u r t u r ' s Ocean, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t l y made: H i s h e a r t was thumping h e a v i l y and q u e e r l y ; i t s b e a t i n g reminded him of the drum taps . He gazed l a n g u i d l y at the r i p p l i n g w a t e r , and i t seemed to him as i f he cou ld see r i g h t through i t . . . away, away down . . . to a s trange f i r e . . . . 151 The water d i sappeared . The two suns were e x t i n g u i s h e d . The i s l a n d was transformed i n t o a c l o u d , and M a s k u l l — a l o n e on i t—was f l o a t i n g through the a t m o s p h e r e . . . . Down be low, i t was a l l f i r e — t h e f i r e of Muspe l . The l i g h t mounted h i g h e r and h i g h e r , u n t i l i t f i l l e d the whole w o r l d . . . . He f l o a t e d toward an immense p e r p e n d i c u l a r c l i f f of b l a c k r o c k , wi thout top or bottom. Halfway up i t K r a g , suspended i n m i d a i r , was d e a l i n g t e r r i f i c blows at a b l o o d -red spot w i t h a huge hammer: The r h y t h m i c a l c l a n g i n g sounds were h i d e o u s . P r e s e n t l y M a s k u l l made out that these sounds were the f a m i l i a r drum bea t s . "What are you d o i n g , Krag? " he asked. Krag suspended h i s work, and turned around. " B e a t i n g on your h e a r t , M a s k u l l , " was h i s g r i n n i n g r e -sponse (VA 276-77) . "You know only the sparks of the s p i r i t : but you do not see the a n v i l 36 which the s p i r i t i s , nor the f e r o c i t y of i t s hammer!" says Z a r a t h u s t r a . D i s c o v e r i n g the f e r o c i t y of that hammer costs M a s k u l l h i s l i f e . " A f r i g h t f u l pang passed through M a s k u l l ' s h e a r t , and he d ied immedia te ly " (VA 277) . Before d y i n g , M a s k u l l asks K r a g , "Who are you?" (VA 277) , but he gets 37 no r e p l y . Krag i s S u r t u r . L i k e B l a k e ' s Los (who i n Blake i s i d e n t i c a l 38 w i t h C h r i s t ) , Krag comes to f ree man from the p r i s o n of the body, to 39 break the f e t t e r s of t ime , and r e s t o r e us to e t e r n i t y . Thus, M a s k u l l ' s death i s a l s o N i g h t s p o r e ' s b i r t h : Night spore reawakes to c l imb the tower which M a s k u l l f a i l e d to c l imb at the b e g i n n i n g of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . In c l i m b i n g the tower , Night spore leaves the f a l s e day-dream w o r l d of c r e a t i o n b e h i n d , and re turns to h i s t rue home. This use of the i c o n of the tower i s t r a d i t i o n a l , but L indsay has another symbol f o r the d e s i r e of the s p i r i t to r e t u r n home, and that i s the back rays which power the space-s h i p . Again the i d e a of back r a y s , as w i t h so much e l s e i n A Voyage to  A r c t u r u s , may have been suggested by George MacDonald. In L i l i t h , Mr . 152 Vane sees l i g h t d i sappear ing i n t o a m i r r o r , and not be ing r e f l e c t e d out a g a i n . "Where are the sunrays gone?" he asks . " ' T h a t I cannot t e l l , ' r e turned Mr. Raven; " ' — b a c k , perhaps , to where they came from f i r s t " ' (40 ) . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s not on ly a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , i t i s a l s o space f an ta sy . The voyage to Tormance i s to be made from the top of the tower at Starkness i n what i s , f o r 1920, r a t h e r an o l d - f a s h i o n e d 41 space- sh ip : i t i s a " torpedo of c r y s t a l " (VA 43) " f o r t y f ee t l o n g , e i g h t w i d e , and e i g h t h i g h " (VA 44) . The main d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and, f o r example, Hugh M a c C o l l ' s ' S h o o t i n g S t a r ' (1899) i s t h a t L i n d s a y , l o g i c a l l y , puts the f u e l tank at the f r o n t . Very e a r l y s p a c e - f l i g h t s t o r i e s tended to use f a n t a s t i c — o f t e n lud icrous—ways of g e t t i n g to our s a t e l l i t e : Bishop Godwin's a s t ronaut was towed by a team of w i l d geese (1638), K e p l e r ' s by demons (1634)—a method r e ^ s u r r e c t e d r e c e n t l y by the a n t i - s c i e n t i f i c C. S. L e w i s . In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Joseph A . H e r l e y s t a r t e d something of a new t rend i n h i s A Voyage to the Moon (1827) by u s ing a newly ' d i s c o v e r e d ' substance a t t r a c t e d to the moon 42 and c a l l e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, l u n a r i u m . Mark Wicks i n To Mars v i a the Moon (1911) found ' m a r t i a l u m ' to have s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s . Such devices are convenient and p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c : they do not mean a n y t h i n g . L i n d s a y ' s space- sh ip , however, w h i l e i t i s powered by a s i m i l a r d e v i c e , does have meaning, and so do the A r c t u r a n back rays which power i t . L i n d s a y ' s space-ship i s a womb. Damon K n i g h t , i n a c o l l e c t i o n of reviews of s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n , says , " I t h i n k i t i s safe to p o s t u l a t e that 'an a l i e n lands i n a space - sh ip ' i s dream-talk f o r ' a baby i s b o r n , ' and 153 that the passengers of such sh ips are bound to be f o e t a l . " For t h i s reason , perhaps , the three t r a v e l l e r s s t r i p naked before embarking. When M a s k u l l wakes up, a l o n e , on Tormance, he i s new-born: h i s 'mother ' i s J o i w i n d . To be reborn one must d i e . M a s k u l l has been s y m b o l i c a l l y 44 murdered by K r a g , who has s l a shed h i s arm (VA 40) i n order to enable him to cl imb the tower to the s p a c e - s h i p , and thus to be t r a n s p o r t e d by the back-rays an enormous d i s t a n c e homewards. When w a i t i n g w i t h Nightspore i n the tower at S t a rknes s , M a s k u l l a c c i d e n t a l l y knocks over a b o t t l e l a b e l e d ' S o l a r Back Rays ' (VA 31) . The b o t t l e d i sappears . N ight spore e x p l a i n s : The v a l v e became unfas tened. The contents have escaped through the open window, toward the sun , c a r r y i n g the b o t t l e w i t h them. But the b o t t l e w i l l be burned up by the e a r t h ' s atmosphere, and the contents w i l l d i s s i p a t e , and w i l l not reach the sun (VA 32) . S o l a r Back Rays r e t u r n to the sun , i f they can; A r c t u r i a n Back Rays r e t u r n to A r c t u r u s , t a k i n g a long w i t h them the s p a c e - s h i p . Back rays c o n s i s t of " L i g h t that goes back to i t s source " (VA 32) . Th i s i s , of course , the whole theme of the book. I t encapsu la te s , i n m i n i a t u r e , the d e s i r e of the fragments of Muspel f i r e to r e t u r n to t h e i r source , and of the d i s s i p a t e d fragments o f D i v i n e L i g h t , i n the Gnos t i c myth-o l o g y , to be r e s t o r e d to the Godhead. L i k e S h e l l e y ' s A l a s t o r l o o k i n g a t the swan, l i k e MacDonald's Anodos l o o k i n g f o r h i s mother, l i k e Henry i n N o v a l i s ' s Kunstmarchen, the l i g h t journeys homewards. But w h i l e the s p i r i t i s w i l l i n g , as the proverb puts i t , the f l e s h i s weak. I f the b o t t l e i s burned up i n the atmosphere, the back rays w i l l never reach 154 the sun. M a s k u l l i s a l so a v e s s e l : h i s f u n c t i o n — i t i s almost a sacred f u n c t i o n — i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s to ca r ry the fragment of l i g h t he conta ins ( impri sons) to the l i m i t of Crys t a lman ' s w o r l d , where i t can f i n a l l y escape to Muspe l . M a s k u l l i s defeated , bu t h i s defeat i s no empty one. H i s bloody journey across Tormance makes v i c t o r y p o s s i b l e . 155 Footnotes to Chapter F i v e In Eagle and Earwig (London: John Baker , 1966), C o l i n W i l s o n says "a ca rp ing c r i t i c might f i n d A Voyage to A r c t u r u s no more than an attempt to w r i t e The World as W i l l and Idea as a n o v e l " (p . 150). 2 A r t h u r Schopenhauer, The E s s e n t i a l Schopenhauer (London: Unwin Books, 1962), pp. 49-50. 3 For Dante, as f o r the wool -carder s o f H e r a c l e i t u s ' fragment, " the s t r a i g h t way and the wind ing way are one and the same." 4 The p o i n t i s made at l e n g t h by Kath leen Raine i n her s t u d i e s of Dante, M i l t o n , B lake and Yeats i n Defending A n c i e n t Spr ings (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967). Raine mentions A Voyage i n a chrono-l o g i c a l l i s t of great f a n t a s y , p l a c i n g i t between She and P e t e r Pan (p. 125). ^This i s a longer i n t r o d u c t i o n than i s common. C. S. Lewis s u b t i t l e s That Hideous S t rength (London: The Bodley Head, 1969), the t h i r d book i n h i s t r i l o g y , " a modern f a i r y t a l e f o r grown-ups" " i n the hope that no one who d i s l i k e s fantasy may be m i s l e d by the f i r s t two chapters i n t o read ing f u r t h e r , and then complain of h i s d i sappointment . I f you ask w h y — i n t e n d -i n g to w r i t e about mag ic i ans , d e v i l s , pantomine a n i m a l s , and p l a n e t a r y ange l s—I n e v e r t h e l e s s beg in w i t h such humdrum scenes and persons , I r e p l y that I am f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y - t a l e " (p . 7 ) . C u r i o u s l y enough, t i t l e and epigraph are from the o ther David L i n d s a y . J . W. Smeed, Jean P a u l ' s 'Dreams' (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p . 9 . 7 J . W. Smeed, Jean P a u l ' s 'Dreams' , p . 27. Lewis C a r r o l l ^ The Adventures of A l i c e i n Wonderland and Through  the Looking Glass (London: The He i r loom L i b r a r y , 1954), p . 24. 9 Lewis C a r r o l l , A l i c e i n Wonderland, p . 19. Lewis C a r r o l l , The Hunt ing of the Snark: An Agony i n E igh t F i t s (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1913), p . 8. 156 George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1969), p . 11. Read i n the l i g h t of A r c t u r u s , every phrase of t h i s q u o t a t i o n has two meanings. 12 Hans Jonas , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n : The Message of the A l i e n God  and the Beginnings of C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2nd ed . (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1963) , p . 176. 13 Jonas c o n t i n u e s , "and the Archons created man f o r the express purpose of keeping i t t h e r e " (The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 44) . Crystalman i s an Archon . "*"^Hans Jonas , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 44. "'""'The most famous statement i s W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s "Whereof one cannot speak, thereo f one must remain s i l e n t . " 1 6 E. T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Automata' i n The Best Tales of Hoffmann, ed . E . F . B l e i l e r (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967), p . 95. 1 7 M a n as f r u i t may sound s t r a n g e , but i t i s n ' t . On a f a r c i c a l l e v e l , f o r example, i n The Man Who Was Thursday (New Y o r k : Modern L i b r a r y , 1917), D r . B u l l i s t o l d , " I dare say i t ' s the s o r t of face t h a t grows on one . . . i n f a c t , i t grows on you ; and who am I to quarrel". , w i t h the w i l d f r u i t s upon the t ree of l i f e " (p. 132) . More s e r i o u s l y , i n The  G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , Hans Jonas says " the V a l e n t i n i a n s . . . drew an a l l e g o r -i c a l p a r a l l e l between [Jesus] and the f r u i t from the t r e e : by b e i n g a f f i x e d to a 'wood , ' he 'became a F r u i t o f the Knowledge of the F a t h e r , which d i d n o t , however, b r i n g p e r d i t i o n upon those who ate i t ' " (p. 9 4 ) . 18 'Backhouse' would not seem to be a re ference to ' t h e room out the b a c k , ' i . e . the l a v a t o r y . R. M. Rennick s u p p l i e s the i n f o r m a t i o n that "Backhouse was the 14th Century E n g l i s h bakehouse and was g iven as a name to a person who worked i n or f o r a bakery" i n 'Obscene Names and Naming i n F o l k T r a d i t i o n , ' Names, 16 (1968) , p . 214. 19 L indsay p a r t i c u l a r l y admired t h i s scene. He w r i t e s , What words are to M u s i c , i n d i v i d u a l s are to the Subl ime. This i s e x c e l l e n t l y shown i n the Temple scene of the Magic F l u t e . The massive gloom of the i n t e r i o r , the g i g a n t i c s t a tue s i l h o u e t t e d aga ins t the gleaming s k y , M o z a r t ' s hymn; cont ra s ted w i t h the declamat ion of the High P r i e s t , and the double row of whi te - robed p r i e s t s who a s s i s t h i m . Both words and men.appear a b s o l u t e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t and meaning-l e s s be s ide the music and the solemn grandeur of the Temple (TSG 13) . 15 7 20 Thi s a l s o can be t raced to an i n c i d e n t i n L i n d s a y ' s own l i f e . In a l e t t e r dated 9 t h September 1921, he w r i t e s to V i s i a k : A few weeks be fore the death of my only b r o t h e r , some years back , I was awakened i n the middle of the n i g h t by a tremendous c r a s h , as though a chimney s t a c k had crashed through the roof overhead. That i t was not i m a g i n a t i o n i n any case i s proved by the f ac t tha t my aunt , who s l e p t i n the room above, came f l y i n g down-s t a i r s f o r he lp—she a l s o had heard the n o i s e , and was f r i g h t e n e d n e a r l y out of h e r senses . The o ther two inmates of the house heard n o t h i n g , and i n the morning no damage could be detected e i t h e r to our house or to any other i n the road (L 43 ) . Thi s crash appears twice i n A Voyage: when M a s k u l l and Night spore enter F a u l l ' s house (VA 18) and when, r e - e n a c t i n g the scene on Tormance, M a s k u l l and Tydomin enter a cave (VA 121). 21 In a l e t t e r dated November 25, 1921, quoted by W i l s o n (TSG 46) . 22 In a l e t t e r dated May 12, 1923. Schopenhauer does indeed oppose or c o n t r a s t the subl ime and the b e a u t i f u l , but not i n the way L indsay i m p l i e s . Schopenhauer f i n d s both the subl ime and the b e a u t i f u l to be produced by pure contemplat ion ( i . e . of Ideas or Forms): where t h a t which r a i s e s us to contemplat ion i s sub jec t to the w i l l , we are f i l l e d w i t h a sense of beauty , but where they have " a h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n to the human w i l l i n g e n e r a l " ( to the b o d y ) , then we are f i l l e d w i t h a sense of the sub l ime . See The World as W i l l and Idea ( T h i r d Book, s ec . 39) . Muspel i s , of course , complete ly h o s t i l e to the human w i l l and t h e r e f o r e , accord ing to Schopenhauer's system as w e l l as L i n d s a y ' s , i s sub l ime . 23 See VA 12-13 f o r Backhouse's complaints about the s e t t i n g : " the f r i v o l o u s a e s t h e t i c i s m of o t h e r s " i s "obnoxious to h i s g r i m , b u r s t i n g h e a r t ; but he was o b l i g e d to l i v e , and, to pay h i s way, must put up w i t h these i m p e r t i n e n c e s " (VA 19) . Krag c a l l s him "my l i t t l e mercenary f r i e n d " (VA 22) . The problem of paying one's way soon became an acute one f o r L i n d s a y , who shows more sympathy f o r i t i n h i s t h i r d book, Sphinx . 24 'Song of the S y b i l ' i n The E l d e r Edda: A S e l e c t i o n , t r a n s . P a u l B. T a y l o r and W. H . Auden (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 1970), p. 145. We have a l ready d i scussed the d u a l i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n of n o t h i n g (Crys ta lman ' s wor ld) and n o t h i n g (Muspel ) : " I n the moment of death" the face lo se s a l l i t s " p e r s o n a l charac te r . . . g i v i n g p l ace to a v u l g a r , g r i n n i n g mask which expressed n o t h i n g " (VA 103) . 158 ^ J o h n Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s Progress (London: J . M. Dent, 1927) , p . 123. 2 6 Quoted from the I n t r o d u c t i o n by P e t e r H . Salus and P a u l B. T a y l o r to The E l d e r Edda, p . 31. 27 I n t r o d u c t i o n to The E l d e r Edda, p . 31. 2 8 'Song o f the S y b i l ' i r i The E l d e r Edda, p . 151. 29 Man i s a worm 70 inches long—seventy years and 5 ' 10"—seven decades or ' age s ' . The tower has s i x windows, and Night spore has s i x i n t e r i m v i s i o n s c l i m b i n g i t (VA 281-86) . Because the f i n a l v i s i o n may not be through a window of g lass or c r y s t a l , at the end, Night spore cl imbs out i n t o r e a l i t y . 30 The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, t r a n s . N . K. Sandars (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964), p . 69. 31 A " x t h u r C. C l a r k e , P r o f i l e s of the Future (New Y o r k : Bantam Books, 1964), p . 46. 32 Cf . S t e i n i n Lord J im by Joseph Conrad (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t , 1957): "A man that i s born f a l l s i n t o a dream l i k e a man who f a l l s i n t o the sea " (p . 184) . S t e i n sends J im to l i v e i n h i s dream w o r l d : "Had S t e i n arranged to send him i n t o a s t a r . . . the change could not have been g r e a t e r . He l e f t h i s e a r t h l y f a i l i n g s beh ind him and . . . there was a t o t a l l y new se t o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r h i s i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y to work upon" (pp. 188-89). For a thorough a n a l y s i s of the dream/rea l w o r l d o p p o s i t i o n o f Patna and Patusan see E l l i o t t B. Gose J r , Imag ina t ion  Indulged (London and M o n t r e a l : McGi l l—Queen ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972). ^^Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n Poet ry (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p . 146. C f . " L i f e wants to r a i s e i t s e l f on h i g h w i t h p i l l a r s and s t e p s ; i t wants to gaze i n t o the f a r d i s t ance and out upon j o y f u l sp lendour—that i s why i t needs h e i g h t " says Z a r a t h u s t r a i n F r e i d r i c h N i e t z s c h e ' s Thus Spoke Z a r a t h u s t r a , t r a n s . R. J . H o l l i n g d a l e (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961), p . 125. 34 J . A . M a c C u l l o c h , The R e l i g i o n o f the A n c i e n t C e l t s (Edinburgh: C l a r k , 1911), p . 39. 35 Wayne Booth , The R h e t o r i c of F i c t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1961), p . 60. 159 36 F r e i d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , Thus Spoke Z a r a t h u s t r a , p . 125. 37 Los i s the E t e r n a l B l a c k s m i t h who f rees us from the Promethean Cycle (Orc-Ur izen) i n Jerusa lem. "The blow of h i s Hammer i s J u s t i c e , the swing of h i s Hammer Mercy, / The force of L o s ' s Hammer i s e t e r n a l f o r g i v e n e s s " ( P l a t e 88) ; see The Complete W r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m B l a k e , ed . Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 734. 38 "Then Jesus appeared . . . And the D i v i n e Appearance was the l i k e n e s s & s i m i l i t u d e of Los " ( P l a t e 9 6 ) ; W i l l i a m B l a k e , ' J e ru sa l em' i n The Complete W r i t i n g s , p . 743. 39 In N o v a l i s ' s Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , one of the t h i n g s A r c t u r u s symbol izes seems to be Time. 40 George MacDonald, L i l i t h , p . 42. 41 As every schoolboy knows, r e a l space-ships are not shaped l i k e torpedoes , s i n c e there i s no wind r e s i s t a n c e i n deep space. The shape i s reserved f o r g r o s s l y underpowered and extremely s h o r t range rocket s b u i l t on underdeveloped p lane t s such as S o l Three. 42 A substance working by r e p u l s i o n from e a r t h i s more d i f f i c u l t to h a n d l e — e s p e c i a l l y on the r e t u r n journey—but Percy Greg uses ' apergy ' thus i n Across the Zodiac (1880), and Hugh M a c C o l l uses an unnamed v a r i a n t i n M r . S t r a n g e r ' s Sealed Packet (1899). See Roger L . Green's I n t o Other Wor ld s : S p a c e - F l i g h t i n F i c t i o n , from Lucan to Lewis (London and New Y o r k : Abelard-Schuman, 1957), f o r i n f o r m a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of these and o ther forms of motive power. 43 Damon K n i g h t , In Search of Wonder ( rev . e d . , Chicago: Advent , 1967) , p . 278. 44 This i s a h a b i t w i t h K r a g : he k n i f e s M a s k u l l twice (VA 40, 154) and twice wrings h i s neck (VA 123, 277) . 160 Chapter S i x : THE WINDING WAY: MASKULL'S SPIRAL INWARDS A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s a schematic book. We have d i scussed i t as a b a t t l e between two opposing camps, and as a p rogre s s . However, A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s not s imply an a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e i n the way t h a t Bunyan's The Holy War i s , nor i s i t s imply a progress as i s The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s . M a s k u l l , l i k e Dante, f o l l o w s not a s t r a i g h t and narrow path but a s t r a i g h t and w i n d i n g one: a s p i r a l . The theme of the progress i s the d e s i r e to r e t u r n home, which we have seen to be common i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s . The i d e a i s e x p l i c i t i n that Night spore repeats M a s k u l l ' s c l i m b i n g of the tower, and i t i s i m p l i c i t i n the i d e a of c l i m b i n g a tower i t s e l f : " the i n d i v i d u a l , changed and e n r i c h e d by h i s exper ience as he f o l l o w s t h i s [ s p i r a l ] p a t h , must r e t u r n to the p o i n t of o r i g i n at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . " ' ' ' For t h i s reason , 2 Nabokov c a l l s the s p i r a l "a s p i r i t u a l i z e d c i r c l e . " Dante i s s p i r i t -u a l i z e d by c l i m b i n g a w i n d i n g s t a i r i n The D i v i n e Comedy. However, M a s k u l l ' s i s not a s p i r a l l i k e D a n t e ' s , which takes us upwards, i t i s a s p i r a l which takes us inwards . I t i s a s p i r a l which takes us r i g h t i n t o the centre of Crys ta lman, who i s "a g i g a n t i c , s e l f - l u m i n o u s sphere" (VA 282) , and beyond, i n t o the i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d of Muspe l . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the progress begins w i t h M a s k u l l ' s ' b i r t h , ' when he wakes up to the w o r l d of Tormance, and h i s surrogate mother, J o i w i n d (Chapter 6 ) . Thi s c y c l e i s completed at the end of the t h i r d day, a f t e r the problems of man i n s o c i e t y have been t r e a t e d , when a 161 "deep and heavy unconsciousness" s e i z e s M a s k u l l (VA 149) . The second s e c t i o n begins w i t h the r e b i r t h of the Wombflash f o r e s t and the v i s i o n induced by Dreamsinter (Chapter 13) . Thi s second c y c l e deals w i t h the problem of how l i f e can be l i v e d out of s o c i e t y , on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l . I t ends w i t h M a s k u l l ' s re-emergence from Corpang's underground c o u n t r y , which i s the t h i r d r e b i r t h f o r M a s k u l l . The t h i r d s e c t i o n , b e g i n n i n g w i t h Chapter 18, cont inues the process of s t r i p p i n g down the l a y e r s of e a r t h l i n e s s to ' p u r e , unaccommodated man' and woman, the main charac ter s i n t h i s s e c t i o n b e i n g Haunte and Sul lenbode . Each o f the prev ious s e c t i o n s has ended w i t h an appearance of the Muspel rad iance and M a s k u l l ' s r e b i r t h . In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , under the l i g h t of A l p p a i n , M a s k u l l d ies and the progress ends (Chapter 20 ) , l e a v i n g Nightspore to achieve the f i n a l v i s i o n of n o t h i n g and to be promised r e b i r t h . Such i s the "a lmost mathematical p r e c i s i o n " of the d e s i g n , and one wonders why i t has not been n o t i c e d b e f o r e . The three c y c l e s i n M a s k u l l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of the nature of Crysta lman and h i s w o r l d should be thought of as l y i n g i n s i d e one another . C r y s t a l -man's w o r l d c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y of three ' sphere s ' of a c t i v i t y : how man r e l a t e s to the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and to s o c i e t y , how man r e l a t e s to h i m s e l f , and how man r e l a t e s to God. Of course , none of these l e v e l s can be separated a b s o l u t e l y , and L indsay does not t r y to do so . However, each l e v e l has i t s c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t s , to which the i n t e r e s t s of o ther l e v e l s , b e i n g cont iguous , are impor tant . But s i n c e the movement of the book i s i n c r e a s i n g l y inwards , the outer l e v e l s are l e s s important to the i n n e r than v i c e v e r s a . The process i s , as has a l ready been remarked, 162 r a t h e r l i k e p e e l i n g an o n i o n , and t h i s a l s o i s an image r e l e v a n t to g n o s t i c i s m . For example, A r n o b i u s , Serv ius and Macrobius a l l g ive accounts of the descent of the s o u l through the spheres , by which i t i s c o r r u p t e d . Hermes Tr i smeg i s tus i n Poimandres, and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , Dante i n The D i v i n e Comedy, g ive p a r a l l e l accounts of the reverse journey through the spheres by which the s o u l i s f r e e d . The s o u l c l e a r l y i s of God ( L i g h t ) and belongs w i t h God. However, there has been a ' f a l l ' (from God on high) and a c r e a t i o n , these two t h i n g s , as i n the myth of Prometheus, b e i n g i d e n t i c a l . P l o t i n u s and Blake t e l l us that the immortals f e l l i n love w i t h t h e i r images i n the r i v e r of mat te r , d ied to e t e r n i t y and were born on e a r t h , f e l l as leep to e t e r n i t y and woke up on e a r t h hav ing f o r g o t t e n t h e i r t rue home. M a c r o b i u s ' s account i s b a s i c a l l y the same, but compl ica ted by the a c c r e t i o n s of the f a l l through the spheres : Looking down from the h i g h e s t summit and p e r p e t u a l l i g h t , and hav ing w i t h s ec re t d e s i r e contemplated the appetence of the body and i t s " l i f e , " so c a l l e d on e a r t h , the s o u l by the very weight of t h i s i t s e a r t h l y thought g r a d u a l l y s i n k s down i n t o the ne ther w o r l d . . . . In each sphere [which i t passes] i t i s c l o t h e d w i t h an e t h e r i a l e n v e l -opment, so that by these i t i s i n stages r e c o n c i l e d to the company of t h i s ear then garment. And thus i t comes through as many deaths as i t passes spheres to what here on e a r t h i s c a l l e d " l i f e " ( 3 ) . Thus there i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r a s e r i e s of "so c a l l e d 'dea ths ' "—as i n Jean P a u l ' s dream—through which the s o u l can be reborn again to the w o r l d of e t e r n i t y . Hans Jonas w r i t e s t h a t , a ccord ing to t h i s v i e w , the r e s u l t a n t t e r r e s t i a l " s o u l " i s comparable to an onion w i t h so many l a y e r s , on the model of the cosmos i t s e l f , on ly i n i n v e r s e o r d e r : what i s outermost there i s i n n e r -most h e r e , and a f t e r the process i s completed w i t h i n c a r n a -t i o n , what i s innermost i n the s p h e r i c a l scheme of the cosmos, the e a r t h , i s as body the outer garment of man ( 4 ) . 163 From the sphere of the e a r t h , ' u p ' i s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s outwards , 'down' i n a l l cases inwards . The normal method of g n o s t i c a l l e g o r y i n v o l v e d the r e v e r s a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l va lues embodied i n extant myths and a l l e g o r i e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e c u r i o u s l y appropr i a t e t h a t L indsay should reverse the va lue system of the s p h e r i c a l cosmos. In A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , the w o r l d of Muspel i s somewhere through and beyond (wherever t h a t i s ) the centre of the sphere , inwards , w h i l e outwards ( 'up ' ) i s Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d . The f a l l i s outwards, from the centre to the c i r cumference . L indsay i s a p e s s i m i s t : the cosmos i s not L i g h t w i t h a few spots of Darkness ; the L i g h t i s surrounded by the Darkness : N ight spore reaches n o t h i n g to f i n d "darkness was a l l around h i m " and "he understood that he was w h o l l y surrounded by Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d " : The t r u t h forced i t s e l f on him i n a l l i t s c o l d , b r u t a l r e a l i t y . Muspel was no a l l - p o w e r f u l U n i v e r s e , t o l e r a t i n g from pure i n d i f f e r e n c e the e x i s t e n c e s i d e by s i d e w i t h i t of another f a l s e w o r l d , which had no r i g h t to be . Muspel was f i g h t i n g f o r i t s l i f e (VA 286) . M a s k u l l i s the body of e a r t h , the outermost sphere , and h i s t r i p across Tormance i n v o l v e s the s t r i p p i n g away of e a r t h l y a c c r e t i o n s u n t i l n o t h i n g i s l e f t . W. H . Auden begins h i s s tudy of ' t h e romantic iconography of the s ea ' i n The Enchafed F lood w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s of " the double-natured h e r o " who i s h a l f " the dedicated man, the Kn ight of F a i t h who would r e s t o r e the Age of G o l d " (Maskull" ' ) and h a l f e x i l e ( N i g h t s p o r e ) , and of the p a i r e d symbols , the desert and the sea .^ M a s k u l l i s born on Tormance i n the desert and, d ies (Nightspore i s born) on the sea ; tha t i s , M a s k u l l ' s voyage i s from 164 the desert to the sea . Auden notes tha t the w i t h d r a w a l to the desert may be " a f i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f the wicked c i t y of t h i s w o r l d , a dy ing to the l i f e of the f l e s h and an assumption of a l i f e devoted w h o l l y t o " 7 the l i f e of the s p i r i t , as i t i s i n the case of M a s k u l l , w h i l e g the sea i s " the p l ace of p u r g a t o r i a l s u f f e r i n g . " But there may be water i n the desert as there may be l and i n the sea . M a s k u l l ends h i s journey on a l i t t l e f l o a t i n g i s l a n d , which l i k e the oas i s i n the 9 desert may be " the image of the happy P r e l a p s a r i a n P l a c e . " I t i s to such a p l ace tha t mother- Jo iwind takes b a b y - M a s k u l l at the b e g i n n i n g of the j o u r n e y . M a s k u l l has d ied to e a r t h , to " the wicked c i t y of t h i s w o r l d , " and he i s reborn on Tormance. M a s k u l l begins to see the desert of s c a r l e t sand (VA 44-45) only g r a d u a l l y . He c r i e s out "a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s " (VA 45) . When h i s 'mother ' J o i w i n d a r r i v e s he i s " s i t t i n g at her f e e t , naked and h e l p l e s s " (VA 47) . She dresses h i m , g ives him a " m i l k y " (VA 49) f l u i d , and takes him to " the cup-shaped mounta in" (VA 52) which i s home. P o o l i n g d r e d i s , however, the home from which we a l l b e g i n : i t i s not the home toward which we a l l must s t r i v e . In t h i s , L indsay d i f f e r s most markedly from h i s most important p r e c u r s e r and f o l l o w e r , MacDonald and Lewis r e s p e c t i v e l y . Anodos i n Phantastes t e l l s us "my mother d ied when I was a b a b y , " ^ and h i s pa th le s s wander-11 ings are i n search of h i s mother or a m o t h e r - s u b s t i t u t e . The quest of Ransom i n Out o f the S i l e n t P l a n e t ends at Oyarsa , which i s a combin-a t i o n of g a r d e n - i s l a n d , mount of Venus and "cup-shaped mountain" or b r e a s t : 165 r i g h t below him l a y an almost c i r c u l a r l a k e — a sapphire twelve m i l e s i n diameter se t i n a border of purp le f o r e s t . Amidst the l ake there rose l i k e a low and g e n t l y s l o p i n g pyramid , or a woman's b r e a s t , an i s l a n d of pa le r e d , smooth to the summit (12) . Both MacDonald and Lewis are concerned w i t h the recovery of l o s t i n -nocence, which f o r MacDonald i s a r e t u r n to babyhood, and f o r Lewis i n v o l v e s a re-enactment of the f a l l i n which man (or r a t h e r , woman) doesn ' t f a l l . M a s k u l l begins h i s quest by f i n d i n g that " P r e l a p s a r i a n P l a c e " of A r c a d i a n innocence w i t h Panawe and J o i w i n d , but h i s quest i s f o r the o u t o p i a of the uncreated w o r l d . Panawe and J o i w i n d l i v e i n harmony w i t h Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d , but c u l t i v a t e a k i n d of 'non-attachment ' to i t . They take as l i t t l e p a r t as p o s s i b l e i n the w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g : they k i l l n o t h i n g , and l i v e 13 only on w a t e r , N o v a l i s and Werner ' s " the whi te b l o o d of the m o t h e r . " N e i t h e r do they i m p r i s o n L i g h t i n the Darkness o f the body by p r o -c r e a t i o n : there i s "no t the l e a s t t r ace of sex" (VA 54) i n J o i w i n d ' s ca re s s , and she has no c h i l d r e n or o ther " s e l f i s h po s se s s ions " (VA 5 7 ) . When b o r n , Panawe was " w i t h o u t sex" (VA 6 9 ) , and hav ing become male , s t e r n l y r e j e c t s the female recept ivenes s which on e a r t h would have made him an a r t i s t , poet or m u s i c i a n (VA 6 3 ) . J o i w i n d says , "What you and I are now doing i n s i m p l i c i t y , wi se men w i l l do h e r e a f t e r i n f u l l knowledge" (VA 56 ) . That i s , the innocence of Panawe and J o i w i n d i s r e a l l y i g n o r -ance: they do not posses the s a v i n g knowledge or gnosis which was the g i f t of the wise se rpent . This l i m i t a t i o n i s brought out by Panawe's complete i n a b i l i t y to understand h i s encounter w i t h S l o f o r k . S l o f o r k t e l l s Panawe, remember, of the o ther w o r l d which "we c a l l Nothing—but 166 i t i s not N o t h i n g , but Something" (VA 74) . He then demonstrates h i s own complete non-attachment to the w o r l d by jumping " t r a n q u i l l y from the p a t h , down i n t o the empty v o i d " (VA 74) . S l o f o r k ' s judgment of Panawe i s "You w i l l never r i s e above m y s t i c i s m . . . . But be happy i n your own way" (VA 74) . Panawe and J o i w i n d l i v e i n harmony w i t h the w o r l d , i n innocence , by not s t r i v i n g and not e x e r t i n g t h e i r w i l l s . M a s k u l l d i s cover s tha t the newfound Innocence they have g iven him can be r a p i d l y undermined by Exper i ence . H i s next mentor i s Oceaxe, who i s possessed by a Nie tz schean ' w i l l to power ' . She says b l u n t l y that "You may be as moral as you l i k e , M a s k u l l , but the f a c t remains , animals were made to be ea ten , and s imple natures were made to be absorbed" (VA 88) . K i l l or be k i l l e d ; on ly the f i t t e s t w i l l s u r v i v e . And the landscape she i n h a b i t s , the Ifdawn M a r e s t , i s " h i g h , w i l d , b e a u t i f u l , and dangerous" (VA 80) : "Nature i s a l l hammer blows w i t h us . Noth ing s o f t and g r a d u a l " (VA 89) , says Oceaxe. On Tormance i t i s as i f each of one's d e s i r e s were to cost one the o b l i g a t i o n thenceforward to n o u r i s h and support an a d d i t i o n a l member. An i n f e r n a l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of one's substance , occas ioned by the s l i g h t e s t thought ! Each dream of f l i g h t adds another l i n k to my heavy c h a i n ! (14) . Having f lown to the dream-world of Tormance, M a s k u l l f i n d s h i m s e l f w i t h three new organs , the magn and poigns (names probably d e r i v e d from magn-a n i m i t y and poignance) which b r i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y the a b i l i t y to love and the a b i l i t y to understand and sympathize w i t h th ings , and the b r e v e . These organs are a p p r o p r i a t e to the A r c a d i a n s o c i e t y which M a s k u l l i n h a b i t s 167 w i t h Panawe. and J o i w i n d . Oceaxe, however, c a l l s these "women's organs" (VA 82) , and advises M a s k u l l that he i s going to " a man's c o u n t r y " where they w i l l be u s e l e s s . M a s k u l l uses a drude to convert h i s organs , and the breve i n h i s forehead becomes a t h i r d eye , a s o r b , through which "he saw n o t h i n g as s e l f - e x i s t e n t — e v e r y t h i n g appeared as an ob jec t of importance or non-importance to h i s own needs" (VA 83) . Such an organ i s a p p r o p r i a t e to l i f e on the h i g h peaks of the Ifdawn M a r e s t . Once he has moved from Innocence to E x p e r i e n c e , from non-attachment, to s e l f - i n t e r e s t , from not w i l l i n g to w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g , then M a s k u l l has a c h o i c e : he can e i t h e r be a murderer or a v i c t i m . As soon as he a r r i v e s i n Ifdawn he k i l l s .Cr imtyphon , Oceaxe's l o v e r , but he i s so r e v o l t e d by t h i s t h a t he f a l l s i n t o the c l u t c h e s of Cr imtyphon's o ther w i f e , Tydomin, who preaches to M a s k u l l the v i r t u e s of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e : r e n u n c i a t i o n of the w i l l t o power and there fore of the w i l l to l i v e . Tydomin doesn ' t a c t u a l l y want M a s k u l l ' s l i f e , only h i s body. She wants to take i t over , l i t e r a l l y : " I w i s h to s t a r t a new e x i s t e n c e i n your body. I w i s h t o be a male . I see i t i s n ' t worth w h i l e b e i n g a woman" (VA 115). M a s k u l l ' s s p i r i t w i l l , i n t u r n , become (disembodied) a ghost . M a s k u l l and Tydomin enter a cave. " A t t h a t very moment" they hear "a s i c k e n i n g c r a s h , l i k e heavy thunder j u s t over t h e i r heads" (VA 121) . M a s k u l l l i e s down on " a stone s l a b , or couch" and the chamber begins " t o grow l i g h t " (VA 122) . He f anc ie s he hears mus ic , and "someone scream f a i n t l y " (VA 122) . Then he f i n d s h i m s e l f back i n F a u l l ' s house, only as the phantom on the carved couch. He sees h i m s e l f , and N i g h t s p o r e . Then Krag rushes i n to s t r a n g l e h i m : 168 he grasped h i s neck w i t h a p a i r of h a i r y hands. M a s k u l l f e l t h i s bones bending and b r e a k i n g , e x c r u c i a t i n g pains passed through a l l the nerves of h i s body, and he exper-ienced a sense of impending death . He c r i e d o u t , and sank h e l p l e s s l y on the f l o o r , i n a heap (VA 123) . He f i n d s h i m s e l f back on Tormance, and t e l l s Tydomin " I ' v e seen K r a g . I 'm awake" (VA 124) . Thus M a s k u l l r e j e c t s the temptat ion of s e l f -s a c r i f i c e on Tormance, but i t i s , of course , a s a c r i f i c e he has a l ready made on e a r t h , i n order to get to Tormance i n the f i r s t p l a c e . We can t h i n k of the tower as b e i n g a p h a l l u s , the space-ship not a womb but a sperm. M a s k u l l r e l i v e s h i s e a r t h l y l i f e (as a c h i l d w i t h J o i w i n d , as an adolescent w i t h Oceaxe) on Tormance, u n t i l on Tormance he reaches the p o i n t he has p r e v i o u s l y reached on e a r t h . From now on , he w i l l be l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than r e l i v i n g t h i n g s . M a s k u l l has passed through Innocence and Exper ience to a l i e n a t i o n . Oceaxe asked, " I s n ' t the whole w o r l d the handiwork of innumerable p a i r s of l o v e r s ? And ye t you t h i n k y o u r s e l f above a l l t h a t . You may t r y to f l y away from n a t u r e , but where w i l l you f i n d a h o l e to h i d e y o u r s e l f i n ? " (VA 86) . As V i s i a k has observed, " L i n d s a y v i r t u a l l y equates Crystalman w i t h N a t u r e " (TSG 110) , and that i s indeed from whom M a s k u l l t h i n k s he i s f l e e i n g . F u r t h e r , M a s k u l l i s now "above a l l t h a t , " and he i s l o o k i n g (on the s o c i a l l e v e l ) not f o r a ' f e m i n i n e ' " h o l e to h i d e . . . i n " but the ' m a s c u l i n e ' mountain-top of D i s s c o u r n , ^ ^ on which l i v e the people of Sant . T h i s s o c i e t y i s h e a l t h y , main ly because women are not a l lowed i n i t . The people of Sant are f o l l o w e r s of the prophet H a t o r , who knew t h a t " a l l the w o r l d was a snare , a l imed t w i g " : 169 Knowing t h a t p lea sure was everywhere, a f i e r c e , mocking enemy, crouching and w a i t i n g a t every corner of the road of l i f e , i n order to k i l l w i t h i t s sweet s t i n g the naked grandeur of the s o u l , he s h i e l d e d h i m s e l f behind p a i n (VA 135). M a s k u l l s ays , "Henceforward, as long as I l i v e , I s h a l l f i g h t w i t h my n a t u r e , and refuse to f e e l p l e a s u r e " (VA 145) . He asks C a t i c e , r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e o f Sant , 'Why does p lea sure appear so shameful to us? ' 'Because i n f e e l i n g p l e a s u r e , we forge t our home.' 'And tha t i s — ' ' M u s p e l ' (VA 148) . A l l t h i s i s i n harmony w i t h the f i n a l v i s i o n achieved by N i g h t s p o r e . I t i s , i n f a c t , a f i n a l v i s i o n i t s e l f , i n that i t represents the c u l m i n -a t i o n of M a s k u l l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of the w o r l d of Generat ion (as Blake c a l l s i t ) , which i s " the handiwork of innumerable p a i r s of l o v e r s " (VA 86) . Only i n a s o c i e t y w i t h o u t l o v e r s — w i t h o u t women—are the e v i l nature of P l ea sure and the nature of Nature known, are S u r t u r and Shaping d i s t i n g -u i s h e d , and i s the name of Muspel remembered. M a s k u l l ' s d i s covery of t h i s t h e r e f o r e completes the f i r s t c y c l e of the s p i r a l of the a l l e g o r y : L indsay has completed h i s study of the problems of man i n s o c i e t y . Now M a s k u l l must descend to the next sphere : he must d ie to s o c i e t y and then be reborn i n t o the next stage of the s t r u g g l e . This i s what happens i n the Wombflash F o r e s t , which i s both " l i k e some g i g a n t i c , s u p e r n a t u r a l h a l l i n a l i f e a f t e r dea th" (VA 149) and, as the name t e l l s us , the s t a r t of a new l i f e f o r the d i v i n e spark of the s p i r i t . From Sant , M a s k u l l descends—'down' here i s towards the c e n t r e , and there fore has the va lues we more n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e w i t h 'up'—down an enormous s t a i r c a s e , l o w e r i n g h i m s e l f " f rom step to step d u r i n g what seemed 170 an i n t e r m i n a b l e t i m e " (VA 149). On reach ing the bottom, "deep and heavy unconsciousness s e i z e d him almost immedia te ly" (VA 149). This i s a dea th- s l eep , dur ing which M a s k u l l has a dream v i s i o n which con-16 f i rms i n him h i s ques t : he meets Dreamsinter , who confirms Panawe's suggest ions tha t M a s k u l l i s a Prometheus f i g u r e : "You came to s t e a l M u s p e l - f i r e , to g ive a deeper l i f e to men" (VA 152) . M a s k u l l a l s o sees h i m s e l f stabbed by K r a g , w h i l e Night spore marches on towards Muspel (VA 153-54) , and he begins to r e a l i s e that he i s "a secondary c h a r a c t e r " (VA 155). M a s k u l l i s the body, the o u t s i d e ; Night spore i s the e s s e n t i a l s e l f . M a s k u l l cont inues h i s j o u r n e y , t a k i n g " the d o w n h i l l d i r e c t i o n " (VA 155) u n t i l he comes to the S i n k i n g Sea (VA 158) where he meets a f i sherman (who seems to be s imply a f i sherman: h i s name t e l l s us of no o ther s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . Polecrab i s the ' o r d i n a r y man' a t h i s s i m p l e s t and b e s t . He corresponds on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l to Panawe and J o i w i n d on the s o c i a l l e v e l , but h i s innocence i s more c l e a r l y i gnorance . This " u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d b e i n g " (VA 161) says g r u f f l y , " I ' m a f i sherman. I know n o t h i n g about wisdom" (VA 160) . M a s k u l l t r i e s to e x p l a i n to h i s t h a t t h i s w o r l d i s f a l s e and " t h a t r e a l i t y and fa l seness are two words f o r the same t h i n g " (VA 165) . Po lecrab i s q u i c k to see the i m p l i c a t i o n s of what M a s k u l l t e l l s him and admits that I l i v e by k i l l i n g , and so does everybody. Thi s l i f e seems to me a l l wrong. So maybe l i f e of any k i n d i s wrong, and S u r t u r ' s w o r l d i s not l i f e at a l l , but something e l s e (VA 165) . Hi s a d v i c e , however, i s to "ask the dead . . . and not a l i v i n g man" (VA 165) . He i s not going to j o i n M a s k u l l i n h i s ques t . H i s w i f e , 171 G l e a m e i l , however, does. G l e a m e i l , l i k e C h r i s t i a n i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , i s prepared to deser t h e r f a m i l y (she has three sons) to accompany M a s k u l l . She says , " t h e r e i s another w o r l d f o r me, as there i s f o r you , M a s k u l l , and i t makes my r e a l w o r l d appear a l l f a l s e and v u l g a r " (VA 175) . Through G l e a m e i l , L indsay b r i n g s i n t o sharp focus the problem of f o l l o w -i n g one's p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y r a t h e r than f u l f i l l i n g one ' s s o c i a l o b l i g a -t i o n s . "But can i t be r i g h t " , asks M a s k u l l , " t o f o l l o w our s e l f - n a t u r e at the expense of o ther people? " "No i t ' s not r i g h t , " G l e a m e i l r e p l i e s , " i t i s wrong, and base . But i n tha t o ther w o r l d these words have no meaning" (VA 175) . One of the most obvious ways of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t (and the way, i n ' r e a l ' l i f e , L indsay a c t u a l l y chose) i s the way o f the a r t i s t . M a s k u l l and G l e a m e i l t r a v e l to Swaylone's I s l a n d , where they v i s i t the a r t i s t E a r t h r i d . E a r t h r i d i s ' r i d o f the e a r t h ' or s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y : he l i v e s alone on an i s l a n d , swayed on ly by h i s own i n t e r e s t s : he f o l l o w s h i s own s e l f - h o o d . In order to p l a y h i s in s t rument , E a r t h r i d sa t down by the s i d e of the l a k e , and, l e a n i n g on h i s s i d e , p l aced h i s r i g h t hand, open palm downward, on the ground, at the same time s t r e t c h i n g out h i s r i g h t l e g , so tha t the foot was i n contact w i t h the water (VA 182). I t i s , taken l i t e r a l l y r a t h e r than a l l e g o r i c a l l y , a cur ious s t ance , but we can f i n d something s i m i l a r i n C e l t i c mythology. J . A . MacCul loch says tha t " m y t h i c a l personages or d i v i n i t i e s are s a i d i n the I r i s h t ex t s to have stood on one l e g , w i t h one arm extended, and one eye c l o s e d , when u t t e r i n g prophesies."" '" ' ' Accord ing to t h i s , E a r t h r i d must be b r i d g i n g 172 two w o r l d s , one foot b e i n g i n the e a r t h l y realm and the o t h e r . i n the s p i r i t u a l , to which the water (matter) w i l l g ive shape. E a r t h r i d i s the a r t i s t as sub c r e a t o r . As a r e s u l t of E a r t h r i d ' s p l a y i n g , G l e a m e i l d i e s . M a s k u l l decides to p l a y , and w i l l s to create the shape of S u r t u r . H i s e f f o r t s surround him w i t h Muspel rad iance w h i c h , l i k e the s p i r i t form at the seance, s t a r t s "becoming l o c a l i z e d , p repara tory to c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o a s o l i d form" (VA 186) . But the i n s t r u m e n t , the medium, i s not s t rong enough to s u r v i v e the onset of r e a l i t y : the h i l l s break apart and the l ake d i sappears . In the end, the a r t i s t cannot b r i n g i n t o the w o r l d the Form from beyond the w o r l d . At midnight M a s k u l l swims out to a pa s s ing t ree and guides i t to the n o r t h e r n shore , M a t t e r p l a y . This i s the ' r i v e r of l i f e ' i t s e l f : one of Crys ta lman ' s t o y s , by which he i m i t a t e s the f l o w i n g from S u r t u r of the stream of Muspe l , and the imprisonment of energy i n mat ter . Animals and p l a n t s seem to appear out of nowhere: "Nature was p r e c i p -i t a t i n g i t s shapes i n t o the w o r l d , w i t h o u t making use o f the medium of parentage" (VA 194) . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the charac te r M a s k u l l meets i n M a t t e r p l a y i s " n e i t h e r man nor woman, nor a n y t h i n g between the two, but was unmistakably of a t h i r d p o s i t i v e sex" (VA 197) . L e e h a l l f a e i s beyond the w o r l d of G e n e r a t i o n , i n a s o r t of B e u l a h , where "ae" i s both man and woman, and, s i n c e "aer l o v e r was no o ther than Shaping h i m s e l f " , " the e t e r n a l c h i l d " (VA 197) . T h i s , as the Gnos t ic s would immediate ly have r e c o g n i s e d , so lve s the problem of s i n f u l p r o c r e a t i o n ( there i s none) , d i s t r a c t i o n from the love of god, and the d u a l i t y of sex. However, 173 the god i s s t i l l the wrong god, Shaping or Crystalman (or Faceny, as L e e h a l l f a e has i t ) , not S u r t u r . Sex i s commonly h e l d to be a con-sequence of the f a l l (and v i c e v e r s a ) : "The record of h i s t o r y i s the sum t o t a l of man's e f f o r t s to r e t u r n to the s t a t e o f oneness. We are malad jus ted p r o t o z o a . . . . Lovemaking i s the l a s t search f o r the 18 other h a l f of one's s e l f . " L e e h a l l f a e says c o r r e c t l y t h a t "a man's body conta ins only the h a l f of l i f e — t h e o ther h a l f i s i n woman", whereas "a phaen's body conta ins the whole of l i f e " (VA 201) . But l i f e i s wrong. Were we not ma lad ju s ted , were we not a l i e n s , we might be 19 s a t i s f i e d w i t h seek ing the God o f t h i s w o r l d , and fo rge t the w o r l d beyond: L e e h a l l f a e has never even heard of Muspe l . L e e h a l l f a e hopes to use M a s k u l l ' s " l u c k " to f i n d the god of the w o r l d he i n h a b i t s , and so accompanies M a s k u l l on h i s journey i n t o a r eg ion i n which " a l l l i f e had ceased" (VA 201) , s i n c e the sparks near t h e i r source are too s t r o n g to be conta ined by the clouds of m a t t e r . They come to "a p e r p e n d i c u l a r c l i f f about three hundred feet i n h e i g h t " from whence the r i v e r of l i f e f lows (VA 205) . A f t e r a few hours s l e e p , M a s k u l l w r y l y remarks that " h e i g h t s o f ten b r i n g me i n s p i r a t i o n " (VA 206) and begins to cl imb the c l i f f . H i s l u c k c o n t i n u e s . He d i s cover s an entrance i n t o T h r e a l l , f o r which L e e h a l l f a e has searched f o r numberless y e a r s . S ince " a l l l i f e has ceased" we must expect the underground country of T h r e a l l to be t o m b - l i k e , and indeed i t i s . In " the bowels of the h i l l " (VA 207) e v e r y t h i n g i s " c o l d , c l e a r and r e f i n e d , and somehow suggested austere and tombl ike thought s " (VA 208) . L e e h a l l f a e says , " I s h a l l d i e . But i t ' s i m m a t e r i a l . Tomorrow both of us w i l l be dead" 174 (VA 208) . He does d i e , almost immedia te ly , and h i s body evaporates . H i s p l ace i s taken by a w a l k i n g corpse , Corpang, whose country t h i s i s . M a s k u l l s ays , " I f e e l as i f I were" dead, and w a l k i n g i n another w o r l d " (VA 217) . Thi s i s M a s k u l l ' s second symbol ic death on Tormance. He has d i e d to the w o r l d i n which he t r i e d to f i n d p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . F u l f i l t-ment can o n l y be found beyond the tomb, but Corpang does not r e a l i s e t h i s . Corpang has found the ' h o l e to h i d e h i m s e l f i n ' t h a t Oceaxe suggested M a s k u l l look f o r i n h i s f l i g h t from Genera t ion . I t i s a " m y s t i c landscape" i n which " e v e r y t h i n g was b l a c k and w h i t e " (VA 209) , "solemn and r e l i g i o u s " (VA 210) . I t i s a p lace i n which wisdom i s found, as i t i s i n Henry o f Of terd ingen and Hoffmann's s t o r y 'The Mines of F a l u n . ' In The E l d e r Edda, A l v i s , the A l l - w i s e , l i v e s underground: " A l l - W i s e I am c a l l e d : under the ground / I d w e l l i n the dark among 20 s t o n e s . " Corpang i s w i s e : he e x p l a i n s at great l e n g t h the three wor lds of e x i s t e n c e , l ove and f e e l i n g , and t h e i r gods, Faceny, Amfuse and T h i r e . He takes M a s k u l l to " the Three F i g u r e s , which were carved , and erec ted by an e a r l i e r race of men" (VA 216) which represent these gods. Corpang knee l s be fore the s t a t u e s , and M a s k u l l f o l l o w s s u i t . " I t grew darker and d a r k e r , u n t i l a l l was l i k e the b l a c k e s t n i g h t . . . . He was a lone w i t h h i s s p i r i t " (VA 218) . The " t h r e e C o l o s s i " come to l i f e i n t u r n . The glow of the f i r s t i n s p i r e s M a s k u l l ' s " p o e t i c s e n s i -b i l i t y " w i t h a beauty only d e s c r i b a b l e i n terms of nature a t i t s most d e l i c a t e : " the g leaming, dark , d e l i c a t e co lour s o f the h a l f - d a w n " 175 (VA 219) . The second s ta tue glows and M a s k u l l f e e l s " h i s hear t m e l t i n g to womanish s o f t n e s s . H i s male arrogance and egot i sm faded impercept-i b l y away; h i s p e r s o n a l i t y seemed to d i sappear " and "he f e l t a torment ing d e s i r e to s e r v e " (VA 219) . M a s k u l l does not a c t u a l l y see the t h i r d s t a tue glow (though he sees i t fade a f t e r w a r d s ) , but he hears a v o i c e t e l l him "You are to d i e . " "You have despised l i f e , " i t goes on. "Do you r e a l l y imagine t h a t t h i s mighty w o r l d has no meaning, and that l i f e i s a j o k e ? " (VA 221) . The f i r s t s t a tue represents Faceny, who was worshipped by L e e h a l l f a e and, i f we i n f e r c o r r e c t l y , as Crystalman or Shaping by Panawe and J o i w i n d . The second was Amfuse, who was worshipped by Tydomin and S p a d e v i l . The t h i r d was T h i r e , the unseen god of the unseen w o r l d , who n e v e r t h e l e s s expresses h i s meaning i n t h i s w o r l d . M a s k u l l has j u s t had a m y s t i c a l exper ience which i s s t r o n g l y remin-i s c e n t of the b e g i n n i n g of N e r v a l ' s A u r e l i a : La reve e s t une seconde v i e . . . . ou l e m o i , sous une autre forme, cont inue l ' o e u v r e de I ' e x i s t e n c e . C ' e s t un s o u t e r r a i n vague q u i s e c l a i r e peu a geu, et ou se de-gagent de 1'ombre e t de l a n u i t l e s pa le s f i g u r e s gravement immobiles q u i h a b i t e n t l e s e j o u r des l i m b e s . Pu i s l e t a b l e a u se forme, une c l a r t e " n o u v e l l e i l l u m i n e e t f a i t j ouer ces a p p a r i t i o n s b i z a r r e s : l e monde des E s p r i t s s ' ouvre pour nous (21) . "The dream i s a second l i f e " i n which " the w o r l d of the s p i r i t opens i t s e l f f o r u s . " But l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d i s a second dream i n which the w o r l d of the s p i r i t i s c l o s e d to us . Even the apparent ly genuine m y s t i c a l exper ience i s d i s c r e d i t e d by r e a l i t y , as represented by the drum taps of S u r t u r . Both M a s k u l l and Corpang, a f t e r the s ta tues have faded, hear " the sound of drumming" and the cavern f i l l s w i t h Muspel l i g h t (VA 221) . As a r e s u l t , " the face of each f i g u r e [ i s ] c l o t h e d i n the s o r d i d and 176 h o r r i b l e Crystalman mask" (VA 221) . A l l Corpang's e r u d i t e t a l k of three gods and three wor lds has been "mere nomenclature" (VA 212) : they are a l l Crys ta lman. " I t must mean," says M a s k u l l , " t h a t l i f e i s wrong, and the c r e a t o r of l i f e t o o , whether he i s one person or t h r e e " (VA 221) . Corpang agrees : " L i f e i s c l e a r l y f a l s e " (VA 222) . T h i s i s , of course , the c o n c l u s i o n towards which M a s k u l l has been work ing a l l a l o n g . He has found t h a t f u l f i l l m e n t on a s o c i a l l e v e l i s i m p o s s i b l e , and i t i s now confirmed that even p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i n t h i s w o r l d cannot be a t t a i n e d . M a s k u l l must now be reborn i n t o the t h i r d c y c l e of the s p i r a l we are t r a c i n g which i s—though i t must be doomed to f a i l u r e — t h e quest i n t h i s w o r l d f o r the Muspel which belongs to the r e a l w o r l d . M a s k u l l ' s t h i r d b i r t h unmistakably echoes the r e b i r t h of Anodos i n Phantas te s . Anodos has been t r a v e l l i n g through "an underground c o u n t r y , i n which the sky was o f r o c k , and, i n s t e a d of t ree s and f l o w e r s , there 22 were only f a n t a s t i c rocks and s t o n e s " : At l e n g t h the country of rock began to c l o s e again around me, g r a d u a l l y and s l o w l y n a r r o w i n g , t i l l I found myse l f w a l k i n g i n a g a l l e r y of rock once more, both s ides of which I could touch w i t h my o u t s t r e t c h e d hands. I t narrowed y e t , u n t i l I was fo rced to move c a r e f u l l y , i n order to avoid s t r i k i n g aga ins t the p r o j e c t i n g p ieces of r o c k . The r o o f sank lower and l o w e r , u n t i l I was compel led , f i r s t to s toop , and then to creep on my hands and knees . I t r e c a l l e d t e r r i b l e dreams of c h i l d h o o d (23) . M a s k u l l and Corpang " f o l l o w e d the drumming" which l ead them i n t o " the mouth of a l a r g e cavern" (VA 223) : The path narrowed and became a steep a scent . Then the angle became one of f o r t y - f i v e degrees, and they had to c l i m b . The t u n n e l grew so conf ined t h a t M a s k u l l was r e -minded of the e v i l dreams of h i s ch i ldhood (VA 224) . o 177 Anodos emerges i n t o a " w i n t r y s u n , " and takes " a l i t t l e boa t " to h i s death. By c o n t r a s t , Corpang and M a s k u l l emerge i n t o " B r a n c h s p e l l ' s b l i n d i n g r a y s " (VA 224) , where they w a i t f o r a ferryman to a r r i v e w i t h h i s boa t , to take them towards r e a l l i f e . When Gilgamesh i s on 'The search f o r E v e r l a s t i n g L i f e ' (Chapter 2 6 4 ) , he passes through " twe lve leagues of darkness" to the ocean over which Urshanabi w i l l f e r r y h i m . L i k e Haunte ' s boa t , U r s h a n a b i ' s i s kept safe by " h o l y t h i n g s , the th ings of s tone " and h i s boat has a " se rpent 2 7 28 p r o w . " Gilgamesh " s h a t t e r [ s ] the stones i n h i s a n g e r , " and Urshanabi says to h i m : "Gi lgamesh, your own hands have prevented you from c r o s s -i n g the Ocean; when you destroyed the th ings of s tone , you destroyed the 29 s a f e t y of the b o a t . " I t i s not e x p l a i n e d how the stones work. Haunte ' s stones are "male s t o n e s " : " they are showering out male sparks a l l the t ime . These sparks devour a l l the female p a r t i c l e s r i s i n g from the e a r t h . No female p a r t i c l e s are l e f t over to a t t r a c t the male par t s of the b o a t " (VA 230-31) . The boat s a i l s through the a i r , over the a r i d ' s e a ' of L i c h s t o r m , on a cushion of male sparks . In the prow i s a s t a f f — the p h a l l i c e q u i v a l e n t of Ur shanab i ' s " s e r p e n t " , i n t o w h i c h , as i n the B i b l e , i t may indeed metamorphose—which supports an "upper male s tone " (VA 231) , by which Haunte s t e e r s . He takes M a s k u l l and Corpang across L i c h s t o r m to " a dark s l i t i n the r o c k " which i s " the mouth of h i s cave" (VA 233) . I t i s on ly a f t e r the journey t h a t " the s a f e t y of the b o a t " i s des t royed : M a s k u l l h u r l s Haunte 's male stones from the mouth of the cave, thus emascula t ing h i m . L e e h a l l f a e perhaps represented the attempt to combine w i t h arid 178 subsume the feminine element i n c r e a t i o n , and Corpang, by a s c e t i s m , to avo id i t a l t o g e t h e r . Haunte has the more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of complete h o s t i l i t y : " the t e s t i s , do you hate and fear women?" (VA 229) . In L i c h s t o r m , "men are c a l l e d to women by p a i n , and not p l e a s u r e " (VA 229) . A c c o r d i n g to Haunte, maleness " i s a l l that p r e -vents the w o r l d from b e i n g a pure female w o r l d , " i n which case " i t would be one b i g mass of heavy sweetness, w i t h o u t i n d i v i d u a l shapes" (VA 237) . The body, b e i n g mat te r , i s , i n the l a r g e r scheme of t h i n g s , f e m i n i n e , but the spark of l i f e i s m a s c u l i n e : hence, "an excess of l i f e i s dangerous to the body" (VA 237) . M a s k u l l cont inues northwards w i t h Haunte and Corpang to the home of Su l lenbode . " I n L i c h s t o r m the sexes are p u r e , " Haunte t o l d M a s k u l l . "There are men t h e r e , and there are women t h e r e , but there are no men-women, as w i t h y o u " (VA 229) . As Haunte i s pure male , so Sul lenbode i s pure female. A p p r o p r i a t e l y she i s "one b i g mass of heavy sweetness" : h e r fea tures are most ly "undeveloped" and "her f l e s h was almost m e l t i n g i n i t s s o f t n e s s " (VA 242) , as though she were made of s o f t c l a y . I t was, a g a i n , w i t h a woman,made of c l a y , Pandora, that Zeus tempted Prometheus, of whom M a s k u l l i s a type . But S u l l e n b o d e ' s s e t t i n g leads us to a s s o c i a t e h e r r a t h e r w i t h Eve than w i t h Pandora. As such she 30 represents the u l t i m a t e t empta t ion , t rue l o v e . The r e a l t e s t of man on ea r th comes when he must choose between t rue love of woman and t rue love of god. In the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , these may be shown to l ead to the same t h i n g , as Dante ' s love f o r B e a t r i c e leads him to god. Before the f a l l , they must be i d e n t i c a l , as C. S. Lewis shows i n h i s n a i v e and 179 n o b l y o p t i m i s t i c Voyage to Venus, i n which the temptat ion of ' E v e ' i s r e s taged , on ly t h i s time she does not f a l l . In A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , however, love of woman and love of god are only i n complete harmony i f the god we recogni se i s Crys ta lman. Woman i s , a f t e r a l l , h i s c r e a t i o n : she i s what he designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to t i e us to the w o r l d of w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g . But f o r S u r t u r ' s sake she must be r e j e c t e d comple te ly . Su l l enbode ' s s e t t i n g i s c l e a r l y E d e n i c , but s y m b o l i c a l l y , not i n the p i c ture sque sense: A huge t r e e , w i t h g lowing branches , came i n t o s i g h t . I t bore a m u l t i t u d e of red f r u i t , l i k e hanging l a n t e r n s v(14)^ but no l e a v e s . Underneath t h i s t ree Sul lenbode was s i t t i n g . . . . She was c l o t h e d i n a s i n g u l a r s k i n garment. . . . Her forearms were l i g h t l y f o l d e d , and i n one hand she h e l d a h a l f - e a t e n f r u i t (VA 242) . In the Gnos t i c v i e w , woman, symbol o f matter and p r o c r e a t i o n , c r e a t i o n of the Archons , i s damned, was created f a l l e n . Su l l enbode , even i n her semi-plasmic s t a t e , has a l ready covered her nakedness, and she eats of the f a t a l f r u i t - , under whose t r ee she permanently s i t s . Her f u n c t i o n i s to tempt Adam-Maskull from the road to Muspe l , which she, as Eve-Su l lenbode , can do w i t h a more tempting f r u i t : her " f u l l , p o u t i n g and e x p r e s s i v e " l i p s which are her only f u l l y developed f a c i a l f e a t u r e , " a s p l a s h of v i v i d w i l l " on her undef ined face (VA 242) . Her mouth i s " l i k e a gash of f i r e " (VA 245) : an e a r t h l y f i r e to tempt M a s k u l l from h i s quest f o r the Muspel f i r e from beyond the w o r l d . Haunte k i s s e s Sul lenbode and h e r " f ea ture s emerged from t h e i r i n -d i s t i n c t n e s s and became human, and almost p o w e r f u l " (VA 243) . But Haunte i s not h e r p rey : " the smi le faded, a scowl took i t s p l a c e . She t h r u s t Haunte away." When Haunte k i s s e s her " the second t ime , he f e l l backward 180 w i t h a s t a r t l e d c r y , as though he had come i n contact w i t h an e l e c t r i c w i r e . " When M a s k u l l l o o k s , " the man was dead. . . . [Hi s ] head had been s p l i t from the top downward i n t o two h a l v e s , s t reaming w i t h s t r ange-c o l o r e d b l o o d , as though i t had r e c e i v e d a t e r r i b l e blow from an ax" (VA 243) . Meanwhile , Sul lenbode has re turned to her p l a smic s t a t e . Before k i s s i n g Sul lenbode h i m s e l f , M a s k u l l takes a cur ious p r e -c a u t i o n , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of which escapes me. Perhaps M a s k u l l has read Phanta s te s , f o r the i n c i d e n t seems to have an analogue t h e r e , when the k n i g h t i s d e a l i n g w i t h s t i ck-men who beat up a l i t t l e g i r l w h i l e she i s c o l l e c t i n g b u t t e r f l y wings . The k n i g h t s ays , But suddenly the r i g h t p l a n occurred to me. I t r i p p e d one of them up, and, t a k i n g him by the l e g s , se t him up on h i s head, w i t h h i s hee l s aga ins t a t r e e . I was de-l i g h t e d to f i n d he could not move (31) . At l e a s t M a s k u l l keeps Sul lenbode the r i g h t way up, but h i s i n t e n t i o n i s the oppos i te of the k n i g h t ' s : He p lucked n e r v o u s l y at h i s b e a r d , and s t a r e d at S u l l e n -bode. Hi s l i p s kept t w i t c h i n g . A f t e r t h i s had gone on f o r a few minutes , he stepped forward , bent over the woman, and l i f t e d her b o d i l y i n h i s arms. S e t t i n g h e r u p r i g h t aga ins t the rugged t ree t r u n k , he k i s s e d h e r . A c o l d , k n i f e l i k e shock passed down h i s frame. He thought that i t was death , and l o s t consciousness (VA 244) . When he recovers he f i n d s "Su l lenbode was transformed i n t o a l i v i n g s o u l " (VA 244) . She t e l l s h i m , L i s t e n , M a s k u l l . Man a f t e r man has drawn me i n t o the w o r l d , but they cou ld not keep me t h e r e , f o r I d i d not w i s h i t . But now you have drawn me i n t o i t f o r a l l t ime , f o r good or e v i l (VA 245) . In f a c t , she has drawn her l i f e from h i m : she says l a t e r , " I have no o ther l i f e but what you g ive me" (VA 254) and " the term of your love i s 181 the term of my l i f e . When you love me no l o n g e r , I must d i e " (VA 254) . In a more l i t e r a l sense than i s common even i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , Sul lenbode i s M a s k u l l ' s p r o j e c t i o n . For t h i s reason , o f course , she i s the i d e a l temptress : she must be e x a c t l y what M a s k u l l t h i n k s he wants . M a s k u l l and Corpang cont inue t h e i r j o u r n e y , accompanied by Su l lenbode . Corpang says women can see Muspel l i g h t "on one c o n d i t i o n " : "They must forget t h e i r sex. Womanhood and love be long to l i f e , w h i l e Muspel i s above l i f e " (VA 246) . Corpang o f f e r s more b i t t e r counse l " t o remind [Maskul l ] of the e x i s t e n c e of n o b l e r t h i n g s " (VA 246) , but he only succeeds i n d r i v i n g him i n t o Su l l enbode ' s arms (or c l u t c h e s ) . M a s k u l l s ea l s h i s f a te w i t h a second k i s s : "an expre s s ion of joyousness over-spread her f ace , i n s p i t e of h e r e f f o r t s to conceal i t " (VA 253) : M a s k u l l , w i t h o u t a word, bent over and k i s s e d her l i p s . Then he r e l i n q u i s h e d her body, and turned around to Corpang. 'How do y o u , i n your great wisdom, i n t e r p r e t tha t k i s s ? ' ' I t r e q u i r e s no great wisdom to i n t e r p r e t k i s s e s , M a s k u l l . ' ' H e r e a f t e r , never dare to come between us . Sul lenbode belongs to me' (VA 253) . And he belongs to Crys ta lman. Corpang speaks not another word , but the three t r a v e l l e r s now have t h e i r work cut out to make any progress at a l l . A f t e r the second k i s s , i n keep ing w i t h the mode o f a l l e g o r y , almost immediately the going begins to a l t e r f o r the worse . The t h i n snow di sappeared , and gave way to m o i s t , boggy ground. I t was a l l l i t t l e grassy h i l l o c k s and marshes. They began to s l i p about and become draggled w i t h mud. Conver sa t ion ceased; Sul lenbode l e d the way, and the men f o l l o w e d i n h e r t r a c k s . The southern h a l f of the landscape grew grander (VA 254). 182 The image i s the meaning: f o l l o w i n g i n the foot s teps of Su l lenbode , the men are on very swampy ground indeed . A man cannot f o l l o w a master and a m i s t r e s s . But Sul lenbode i s a c t u a l l y as much a v i c t i m as M a s k u l l . She says , "Tonight i s l i k e l i f e " (VA 256) : "So l o v e l y above and around us , so f o u l under foo t " (VA 257) . Without s a y i n g a n y t h i n g , Corpang goes on ahead, a l o n e . M a s k u l l has been tempted, and has f a l l e n . But the l i f e he has g iven to Su l lenbode , he can take away. The two l o v e r s cont inue together u n t i l suddenly M a s k u l l hears again " the drum taps . They came from behind the h i l l , and were l o u d , sharp , almost e x p l o s i v e . He glanced at S u l l e n -bode, but she appeared to hear n o t h i n g " (VA 259) . Then " the c r e s t of the h i l l began to be i l l u m i n a t e d by a s trange r a d i a n c e . . . . I t was the l i g h t of M u s p e l . " Sul lenbode appears to see n o t h i n g . " M a s k u l l ' s s p i r i t s w e l l e d " and h i s hear t beat w i l d l y . H i s body was l i k e a p r i s o n . He longed to throw i t o f f , to s p r i n g up and become i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the sublime un iver se which was b e g i n n i n g to u n v e i l i t s e l f (VA 259) . He has , i f on ly t e m p o r a r i l y , f o r g o t t e n Su l lenbode , and her k i s s e s can no longer tempt him from the ' o t h e r ' w o r l d : Sul lenbode suddenly enfo lded him i n her arms, and k i s s e d him p a s s i o n a t e l y , aga in and a g a i n . He made no response. He was unaware of what she was do ing . She unclasped him and, w i t h bent head and s treaming eyes , went n o i s e l e s s l y away (VA 160) . Sul lenbode loses the b a t t l e , but wins the war . M a s k u l l has been, l i k e 32 Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , "dreaming, or s lumbering i n t o another w o r l d , " and when the l i g h t vanishes and " the moonl ight r e a p p e a r [ s ] " he " s t a r e [ s ] 183 around him l i k e a suddenly awakened s l e e p e r " (VA 260) . M a s k u l l runs a f t e r Su l l enbode , but she i s dead before he reaches h e r : Beneath i t s c o a t i n g of mud, her face bore the v u l g a r , g h a s t l y Crysta lman g r i n , but M a s k u l l saw n o t h i n g of i t . She had never appeared so b e a u t i f u l to him as a t tha t moment (VA 260) (33) . And, we are t o l d , "he cared no more f o r Muspe l " (VA 260) . On the morning of h i s f i f t h and l a s t day on Tormance, M a s k u l l "gazed at e v e r y t h i n g i n weary apathy, l i k e a l o s t s o u l " — w h i c h , i n d e e d , he i s . " A l l h i s de s i re s were gone f o r e v e r ; he wi shed to go nowhere, and to do n o t h i n g " (VA 262) . M a s k u l l , on h i s own, would progress no f a r t h e r . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e f o r e , Krag reappears to d r i v e him f i n a l l y i n t o Crys ta lman ' s c l u t c h e s . Krag t e l l s h i m , "You w i l l d i e t h i s morning" (VA 262) , and when M a s k u l l asks "Who and what i s S u r t u r ? " he i s t o l d , " D o n ' t d i s t u r b y o u r s e l f about t h a t . You w i l l never know" (VA 263) . Krag d r i v e s M a s k u l l forward w i t h "no . . . s topping—even f o r the sake of t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t " (VA 264) , u n t i l they reach Barey , where they meet w i t h the embodied Crystalman h i m s e l f , Gangnet. They are now f a r enough n o r t h tha t they can expect the r i s i n g of A l p p a i n . "And t h a t , " says K r a g , " i s Crys ta lman ' s trump c a r d " : " Y o u ' l l renounce the w o r l d so eager ly tha t y o u ' l l want to s tay i n the w o r l d merely to enjoy your s e n s a t i o n s " (VA 269) . The three t r a v e l l e r s f i n a l l y emerge from the "accursed f o r e s t " (VA 271) and set s a i l on a f l o a t i n g i s l a n d "on the bosom o f " (VA 272) the ocean. "The name of [ t h i s ] Ocean" " i s t o l d on ly to those who d ie bes ide i t " (VA 226) . I t i s , as Krag t e l l s the dying M a s k u l l , " S u r t u r ' s Ocean" 34 (VA 2 77) . On t h i s ocean, under the i n f l u e n c e o f the b e a u t i f u l and p o e t i c 184 "man-woman" (VA 266) Gangnet, M a s k u l l f i n a l l y r e j e c t s that " u g l y , w r i n k l e d m o n s t r o s i t y " (VA 275) K r a g , w i t h h i s " y e l l o w , r e p u l s i v e f ace " (VA 273) . Then A l p p a i n r i s e s , and M a s k u l l says " I have l o s t my w i l l ; I f e e l as i f some f o u l tumor had been scraped away, l e a v i n g me c lean and f r e e " (VA 275) . He i s " n o t h i n g " (VA 275) and says " I understand n o t h i n g , except that I have no s e l f any more. But t h i s is_ l i f e " (VA 276) . M a s k u l l has become one w i t h Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e n , Krag must s tep i n to snatch n o t h i n g , M a s k u l l ' s e s s e n t i a l s e l f , N i g h t s p o r e , out of the hands of the god of c r e a t i o n . M a s k u l l d ies arid Nightspore i s b o r n . "Night spore gazed long and e a r n e s t l y a t M a s k u l l ' s body. 'Why was a l l t h i s nece s sa ry? ' he asks (VA 277) . He i s soon to f i n d o u t , by c l i m b i n g the tower which leads to M u s p e l , which i s " a l adder to heaven" (VA 281) . We must t h i n k of the separate spheres of Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d , which surrounds Muspe l , as b e i n g l i k e the separate co lour s of a ra inbow. In f a c t , c r e a t i o n is_ a ra inbow, and i t i s a l s o a v e i l . On the e a r t h l y s i d e of the v e i l we are a s l e e p : we have drunk o f Le the , the r i v e r both o f matter and f o r g e t f u l n e s s : i n b e i n g submerged i n m a t t e r , the s p i r i t f o rge t s the r e a l w o r l d beyond the v e i l or what Jean P a u l c a l l s " the gleaming Rainbow of C r e a t i o n " ( C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n ) . I t i s i n t h i s image that a l l the m o t i f s of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s come toge ther . M a s k u l l was of day, as leep to the r e a l w o r l d , bound to c r e a t i o n , unable to see beyond Crys ta lman . Night spore i s of n i g h t , as leep to t h i s but awake to the r e a l w o r l d , f ree o f c r e a t i o n , and able to see what P l a t o c a l l s the 35 " t r u e and uns leep ing r e a l i t y " beyond the v e i l of Maya, rainbow of C r e a t i o n or shadow of Crys ta lman. L i n d s a y ' s r e l a t i v e , C a r l y l e , expresses 185 these ideas c o n c i s e l y i n S a r t o r R e s a r t u s : We s i t as i n a boundless Phantasmagoria and Dream-grotto ; . . . sounds and many-coloured v i s i o n s f l i t round our sense; but Him, the Unslumbering, whose work both Dream and Dreamer a r e , we see n o t ; except i n r a r e h a l f - w a k i n g moments, suspect n o t . C r e a t i o n , says one, l i e s be fore us , l i k e a g l o r i o u s Rainbow, but the Sun t h a t made i t l i e s behind us , h idden from us . Then, i n t h a t s t range Dream, how we c l u t c h at shadows as i f they were substances ; and s leep deepest w h i l e f a n c y i n g our se lve s most awake! . . . T h i s Dreaming, t h i s Somnambulism i s what we on E a r t h c a l l L i f e (36) . L indsay would have two qu ibb le s w i t h t h i s : f i r s t l y , c r e a t i o n i s not the work of " H i m , the Uns lumber ing" S u r t u r , but of Crys ta lman; and secondly , " the Sun" l i e s not behind us but on the o ther s i d e of the rainbow. This leads to the u l t i m a t e paradox of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , which i s t h a t the way to Muspel l i e s through Crys ta lman, not away from h i m . I t i s on ly when M a s k u l l i s u n i t e d w i t h Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d that Night spore can get f ree of i t . The Muspel l i g h t streams from Muspel and through " the sphere" of Crys ta lman, by which i t i s " s p l i t , as by a p r i s m , i n t o the two forms of l i f e " (VA 284) : sparks of s p i r i t and " w h i r l s " of l i v i n g w i l l : What had been f i e r y s p i r i t but a moment ago was now a d i s g u s t i n g mass of c r a w l i n g , w r i g g l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , each w h i r l of p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g w i l l h a v i n g , as n u c l e u s , a fragment of l i v i n g green f i r e . N ight spore r e c o l l e c t e d the back rays of S t a rknes s , and i t f l a s h e d across him w i t h the c e r t a i n t y of t r u t h that the green sparks were the back r a y s , and the w h i r l s the forward rays of Muspe l . The former were t r y i n g despera te ly to r e t u r n to t h e i r p lace o f o r i g i n , but were overpowered by the brute force of the l a t t e r , which wished only to remain where they were. The i n d i v i d u a l w h i r l s were j o s t l i n g and f i g h t i n g w i t h , and even devour ing , each o t h e r . Th i s created p a i n , b u t , whatever p a i n they f e l t , i t was always p leasure tha t they sought. Sometimes the green sparks were s t rong enough f o r a moment to move a l i t t l e way i n the d i r e c t i o n 186 of Muspe l ; the w h i r l s would then accept the movement, not only w i t h o u t demur, but w i t h p r i d e and p l e a s u r e , as i f i t were t h e i r own handiwork—but they never saw beyond the Shadow, they thought that they were t r a v e l i n g toward i t . The i n s t i n c t the d i r e c t movement wear ied them, as contrary to t h e i r w h i r l i n g n a t u r e , they f e l l again to k i l l i n g , danc ing , and l o v i n g (VA 284) . The w i l l s w h i r l to Crys ta lman ' s w a l t z ; the sparks march to S u r t u r ' s drum taps : but the sparks are " h o p e l e s s l y i m p r i s o n e d " , " e f feminated and c o r -rupted—that i s to say , absorbed i n the f o u l , s i c k l y enve lop ing forms" (VA 283) . The w i l l s are the body, the sparks the s o u l . " W i l l i n g and 37 waking are one and the same t h i n g . " W i l l i n g i s " k i l l i n g , dancing and l o v i n g " : "That i s what i t i s to be awake. . . . I t i s to b a t t l e . I t i s to w i l l . As f o r the dream, . . . i t i s the s t a t e i n t o which you n a t u r a l l y f a l l when you have l e t y o u r s e l f go, . . . when you have ceased 38 to w i l l . " M a s k u l l , under A l p p a i n , has f a l l e n as leep to the w o r l d where he has been "murdering and lovemaking" (VA 264) , " k i l l i n g and f o n d l i n g " (VA 265) , and t h i s s leep (death) has enabled Night spore ( M a s k u l l ' s dream-s p i r i t s e l f ) to awake to the r e a l w o r l d . When Nightspore c l imbs the tower and passes through Crys ta lman ' s body, he f i n d s , beyond the rainbow or shadow, n o t h i n g . There i s no god. In J e a n - P a u l ' s dream-vi s ion 'Rede des t o t e n C h r i s t u s ' , t r a n s l a t e d by C a r l y l e , C h r i s t addressed the dead who have assembled from t h e i r graves : I went through the Wor lds , I mounted i n t o the Suns, and f lew w i t h the Ga lax ie s through the wastes of Heaven; but there i s no God! I descended as f a r as Be ing casts i t s shadow, and looked down i n t o the Abyss and c r i e d , F a t h e r , Where a r t thou? But I heard on ly the e v e r l a s t i n g storm which no one gu ides , and the gleaming Rainbow of C r e a t i o n hung w i t h o u t a Sun that made i t , over the Abyss , and t r i c k l e d down (39) . 187 Muspel i s not " a Sun" , i t i s n o t h i n g ; S u r t u r i s not a God, he i s n o t h i n g . M a s k u l l found h i m s e l f , as N i g h t s p o r e ; Nightspore f i n d s h i m s e l f as a second 40 K r a g , as Muspel i t s e l f : he s tood e x p e c t a n t l y on the s t o n e - f l o o r e d r o o f , l o o k i n g around f o r h i s f i r s t gl impse of Muspel . There was n o t h i n g . He was s t and ing on top of a tower, measuring not above f i f t e e n fee t each way. Darkness was a l l around h i m . He sat down on the stone parapet , w i t h a s i n k i n g h e a r t ; a heavy foreboding possessed h i m . Suddenly, w i t h o u t s ee ing or h e a r i n g a n y t h i n g , he had the d i s t i n c t impres s ion that the darkness around h i m , on a l l four s i d e s , was g r i n n i n g . . . . As soon as that happened, he understood that he was w h o l l y surrounded by Crys ta lman ' s w o r l d , and tha t Muspel c o n s i s t e d of h i m s e l f and the stone tower on which he was s i t t i n g . . . . F i r e f l a s h e d i n h i s h e a r t . . . . M i l l i o n s upon m i l l i o n s of grotesque , v u l g a r , r i d i c u l o u s , sweetened i n d i v i d u a l s — once S p i r i t — w e r e c a l l i n g out from t h e i r degradat ion and agony f o r s a l v a t i o n from M u s p e l . . . . To answer that c ry there was only h i m s e l f . . . and Krag w a i t i n g below . . . and Sur tur—But where was Sur tur? (VA 286) . Krag i s S u r t u r , j u s t as Night spore i s S u r t u r . H i s name on e a r t h i s p a i n . 188 Footnotes to Chapter S i x Bruce Haywood f i n d s the image of the s p i r a l path to be " the b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l image o f " Henry of Of terd ingen i n h i s N o v a l i s : The V e i l of  Imagery (Cambridge, Mas s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p . 96. 2 V l a d i m i r Nabokov, Speak, Memory (New Y o r k : Pyramid Books, 1968), p . 203. 3 Quoted by Hans Jonas i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n ( rev . e d . , Bos ton : Beacon P r e s s , 1963), p . 158. 4 Hans Jonas , The Gnos t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 158. ^ M a s k u l l says he has "a moral a im" and Oceaxe asks , "Are you p r o -pos ing to s e t the w o r l d r i g h t ? " (VA 9 0 ) . 6 x W. H . Auden, The Enchafed F lood (New Y o r k : V intage Books, 1967), 7W. H. Auden, The Enchafed F l o o d , pp. 13-14. 8 W. H . Auden, The Enchafed F l o o d , p . 11. 9 W . H. Auden, The Enchafed F l o o d , p . 22. "^George MacDonald, Phantastes (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1970), p . 5 . In h i s book about MacDonald, The Golden Key (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), R. L . W o l f f t e l l s us MacDonald kept i n a s e c r e t ne s t of drawers a l e t t e r from h i s mother to h i s grandmother s a y i n g she d i d not want to wean h i m , and comments that " h i s mother ' s death dea l t him a wound that never h e a l e d " (p. 13) . W o l f f a l so says that the f i r s t d r a f t of L i l i t h began " ' M y mother I had no memory o f ' " (p. 330). 1 1 I n Phantastes the beech-tree-woman says "Why, you b a b y ! " and c a l l s him "my c h i l d " (p. 31) , the woman i n the cottage on the i s l a n d says "poor c h i l d ! poor c h i l d ! " and spoon-feeds him " l i k e a baby" (p. 146) , and so on. The women are g e n e r a l l y l a b e l l e d 'Touch N o t ' . 12 C. S. L e w i s , Out of the S i l e n t P l a n e t (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1968), 112, 189 13 In George MacDonald's L i l i t h , The L i t t l e Ones do not grow because a l l the water has been gathered up by the f a l s e mother, L i l i t h . ^^Franc i s Ponge, 'Fauna and F l o r a ' , t r a n s . R i c h a r d W i l b u r i n T r a n s i t i o n 50 ( P a r i s , 1950), p . 84. "'""'On the next l e v e l of the s p i r a l , he w i l l f i n d a h o l e to h i d e i n : w i t h Corpang i n a s e p u l c h r a l underground country . 16 In the ' n o v e l i s t i c ' a c t i o n , M a s k u l l i s awake—but Dreamsinter appears between two per iods of heavy unconsciousness , and knows th ings that on ly M a s k u l l ' s unconscious mind could know: he speaks w i t h what Schopenhauer c a l l s " the t r u t h of the dream". H i s name vouches f o r h i s dream ( i . e . r e a l ) e x i s t e n c e , and perhaps ' - i n t e r ' i s a fragment of ' i n t e r n a l ' , or h i n t s at b u r i a l and l i f e beyond death. 1 7 J . A . M a c C u l l o c h , The R e l i g i o n of the A n c i e n t C e l t s (Edinburgh: C l a r k , 1911), p . 251. 18 J u l e s F e i f f e r , h a r r y , the r a t w i t h women (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1963), p . 151. Cf A r i s t o p h a n e s ' speech i n P l a t o ' s Symposium. 19 This i s K r a g ' s f u n c t i o n : "he dogs Shaping ' s foo t s teps everywhere, and whatever the l a t t e r does, he undoes. To love he j o i n s death; to sex , shame; to i n t e l l e c t , madness; to v i r t u e , c r u e l t y ; and to f a i r e x t e r i o r s , b loody e n t r a i l s " (VA 177). 20 'The Words of the A l l - w i s e ' i n The E l d e r Edda, t r a n s . Auden and T a y l o r (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 1970), p . 79. Nerva l , Oeuvres, ed . L e m a i t r e , I , p . 753. 22 George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s , p . 134. L i n d s a y ' s country has r e a l t r e e s , w i t h t h e i r roo t s i n the c e i l i n g . In t h i s they are l i k e Corpang, who b e l i e v e s that h i s own ' r o o t s ' are i n heaven, though he i s mi s t aken . Man as an i n v e r t e d t ree i s an o l d image, bu t a p r e t t y one. 23 George MacDonald, Phantas te s , p . 140. 24 George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p . 141. 25 George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p . 142. In t h i s , Anodos i s l i k e S h e l l e y ' s A l a s t o r . The epigraph to Chapter I of Phantastes i s from Ala s t o r . 190 26 The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, t r a n s . N . K. Sandars (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971), p . 95 . 2 7 T h e E p i c of Gi lgamesh, p . 100. 2 8 The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, p . 100. 29 The E p i c of Gi lgamesh, p . 101. 30 M a s k u l l s ays , "My body seems f u l l of r o c k s , a l l g r i n d i n g aga in s t one another" (VA 244) . One wonders i f L indsay knew tha t the F i n n i s h f o r love i s r a k a s t a a . In E m i l P e t a j a ' s s c i e n c e - f a n t a s y reworking of the K a l e v a l a , one charac te r s ays , of r a k a s t a a , " F i n n i s h ' l o v e ' sounds l i k e c r u s h i n g r o c k s " ; Saga of Los t Ear ths (New Y o r k : Ace Books, 1966), p . 73. 31 George MacDonald, Phanta s te s , p . 19 8. 32 N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n : A Romance (New Y o r k : H . H . Moore, 1853) , p . 23. 33 For some i n e x p l i c a b l e reason, C o l i n W i l s o n says " L i n d s a y ' s purpose seems to have wavered f o r a moment; but perhaps t h i s i s in tended i r o n -i c a l l y " (TSG 6 0 ) . Noth ing of the s o r t . Gangnet-Crysta lman's main p o i n t l a t e r i s , " i f - S u l l e n b o d e can e x i s t . . . the w o r l d cannot be a bad p l a c e " (VA 268) . 3 A Krag says , "Gangnet i s the k i n g of p o e t s " . And M a s k u l l observes , c o r r e c t l y , " i f Gangnet i s a poe t , y o u ' r e a bu f foon" (VA 273) . 35 P l a t o , Timaeus, t r a n s . H . D. P . Lee (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), p . 71. 36 Thomas C a r l y l e , S a r t o r Resartus (Edinburgh: The New U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y , n . d . ) , pp. 50-51. 37 H e n r i Bergson, Dreams, t r a n s . E . E . S los son (New Y o r k : Huebsch, 1914), p . 49. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the B a l l a n t i n e e d i t i o n of A Voyage, Loren E i s e l e y t a l k s of the "Bergsonian gl impse o f l i f e as some k i n d of i n e f f a b l e s t reaming r a d i a n c e , an e l an v i t a l " (VA i x ) . I have ignored Bergson (except h e r e , where he c o n v e n i e n t l y paraphrases Schopenhauer) because he i s to Schopenhauer as B o c c h e r i n i was to Haydn. F u r t h e r , L indsay i s always ment ioning Schopenhauer but he never , to my knowledge, mentions Bergson. 191 H e n r i Bergson, Dreams, p . 49. Jacob Boehme e x p l a i n s the reasons f o r the w h i r l i n g and w i l l i n g w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c l a r i t y i n Chapter I I sec . 13 o f S i g n a t u r a Rerum ( t r a n s . B a x ) : Thus the compunction w i l l e t h upwards, and w h i r l s c r o s s -ways, and yet cannot e f f e c t i t , f o r the hardness , v i z . the d e s i r e s tays and deta ins i t , and there fore i t stands l i k e a t r i a n g l e , and t r a n s v e r t e d o r b , which ( see ing i t cannot remove from the p lace ) becomes w h e e l i n g , whence a r i s e s the mix ture i n the d e s i r e ; f o r the t u r n i n g makes a c o n t i n u a l confus ion and c o n t r i t i o n , whence the angu i sh , v i z . the p a i n , the t h i r d form or s t i n g of sense) a r i s e s . 39 Jean P a u l F r i e d r i c h R i c h t e r quoted from the t r a n s l a t i o n by C a r l y l e i n The Works of Thomas C a r l y l e , ed . H . D. T r a i l l , 'Centenary E d i t i o n ' (30 v o l s . ; London: Chapman and H a l l , 1896-1899), X X V I I , p . 157. ^ ^ I n 'The Enigma of Edward F i t z g e r a l d ' Borges t e l l s us of "a t r a n s -l a t i o n of Mant iq a l - T a y r , that m y s t i c a l e p i c about the b i r d s who search f o r t h e i r k i n g , S imurg, and f i n a l l y a r r i v e at h i s p a l a c e , which i s across the seven seas , to d i s c o v e r tha t they are Simurg and t h a t Simurg i s each and everyone of them"; Jorge L u i s Borges , A P e r s o n a l A n t h o l o g y , ed . Anthony K e r r i g a n (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1967), p . 95. 192 Chapter Seven: ALLEGORICAL DREAM FANTASY: THE PROBLEM OF STYLE A Voyage to A r c t u r u s has a number of q u a l i t i e s , as we have seen: i t i s s y m b o l i c a l l y i n v e n t i v e , p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , a p o w e r f u l , v i s u a l fantasy and a coherent , h i g h l y - o r g a n i s e d a l l e g o r y . However, i t has g e n e r a l l y been cons idered , by i t s few c r i t i c s , to be a not very w e l l w r i t t e n n o v e l , which i s l e s s s u r p r i s i n g when we remember that i t i s not a n o v e l at a l l . The s t y l i s t i c c r i t e r i a which l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s apply to nove l s may not be a p p l i c a b l e to a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s and works be long ing to other non-mimetic genres : we have a l ready seen that the same c r i t e r i a do not apply w i t h regard to p l o t and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , and i t should not s u r p r i s e us i f t h i s i s t rue of s t y l e a l s o . A l i t e r a r y c r i t i c who examines works of dream l i t e r a t u r e a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a of the ' r e a l i s t i c ' s o c i a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l as a c u t e l y as Joanna Russ does w i l l f i n d the s t y l e of dream books to have the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : R e p e t i t i o n . No v o i c e or forced v o i c e . Simple f i g u r e s of speech. Evenness of p a c i n g . Th in c h a r a c t e r s . F l a t sentences , l i t t l e v a r i e t y o r use of syntax . No p l a y i n g w i t h sound, or mechanica l sound (1 ) . This c o r r e c t l y descr ibes the s t y l e of A Voyage. But from t h i s p o i n t o f v iew, almost a l l dream works i n prose have these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and 2 there fore they must a l l be bad ly w r i t t e n . When She was p u b l i s h e d , The P a l l M a l l Budget deplored the ' ba thos ' and ' f r e q u e n t t o r p o r s ' but p r a i s e d the 'energy and i n t e n s i t y of imag-i n a t i o n . ' ' I t i s as though a sub jec t roughed out by 193 M i c h a e l Angelo had been executed w i t h an eye to New Bond S t r e e t p o p u l a r i t y by Gustave D o r e . ' The rev iewer l i k e n s Haggard's concept ion to D a n t e ' s , h i s w r i t i n g to that of the D a i l y Telegraph ( 3 ) . She was, of course , such an enormous popular success that Haggard made a w o r l d t o u r , and a mountain and a r i v e r were named a f t e r him i n Canada. C l e a r l y , to borrow Dr . Johnson's phrase , the book must have had some spec ies of m e r i t . In h i s c r i t i c a l b iography of Haggard, Cohen t e s t i f i e s that the s t o r y . . . has a b e w i l d e r i n g power, the s o r t one i s accustomed to meet only i n s u p e r i o r works of a r t such as ' C h r i s t a b e l ' and some of Poe ' s mas terp ieces , a power that g r i p s the reader so f i e r c e l y that he brushes a s ide Haggard's e r r o r s i n t a s t e , h i s o c c a s i o n a l grammatical l a p s e s , h i s imperfect charac te r p o r t r a y a l and l a c k of emot iona l u n i t y . The power of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n i s f a r s t ronger than the obs t ac l e s h i s w r i t i n g puts i n our way ( 4 ) . ' C h r i s t a b e l ' has the " b e w i l d e r i n g power , " but i t i s not prose . Poe, however, could h a r d l y be recommended as a model f o r any a s p i r i n g prose s t y l i s t , and h i s w r i t i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y t a s t e l e s s even i n h i s mas terp ieces . Nonetheles s , Cohen's testament must be accepted. She " g r i p s the reader so f i e r c e l y " that he put a great dea l of t ime and e f f o r t i n t o w r i t i n g a book about Haggard, as I have been s i m i l a r l y gr ipped by L indsay and moved to w r i t e a t h e s i s about h im. Both She and A Voyage show ' the power of i m a g i n a t i o n ' which—whatever i t means—is what fantasy i s a l l about. S t y l e i s found, i n the exper ience of r e a d i n g , to be of l e s s e r i m -por tance . Th i s i s as t rue f o r German w r i t e r s as f o r E n g l i s h ones, of o l d f a n t a s i e s l i k e Bunyan's as of more modern ones. Thomas C a r l y l e w r i t e s of h i s h e r o : To readers who b e l i e v e that i n t r i n s i c i s i n s e p a r a b l e from s u p e r f i c i a l e x c e l l e n c e , and tha t n o t h i n g can be good or 194 b e a u t i f u l which i s not to be seen through i n a moment, R i c h t e r can occas ion l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . They admit him to be a man of va s t n a t u r a l endowments, but he i s u t t e r l y u n c u l t i v a t e d , and w i t h o u t command of them; f u l l of monstrous a f f e c t a t i o n , the very h i g h - p r i e s t of bad t a s t e : he knows not the a r t of w r i t i n g , s c a r c e l y that there i s such an a r t ; an insane v i s i o n a r y f l o a t i n g f o r e v e r among base le s s dreams, which h i d e the f i r m ear th from h i s v i ew. . . . In t h i s way the matter i s ad ju s t ed ; b r i e f l y , comfortably and wrong (5 ) . For those who penetra te beneath the apparent ly c h a o t i c sur face of the s t y l e , however, h i s Imaginat ion opens f o r us the Land of Dreams; we s a i l w i t h him through the boundless abyss , and the s e c r e t s of Space, and Time, and L i f e , and A n n i h i l a t i o n hover round us i n dim cloudy forms, and darkness and immensity and dread encompass and overshadow us (6 ) . Bunyan i s never obscure , nor so f a r - f e t c h e d i n h i s "Dark C l o u d s , " 7 but g "he seems to w r i t e w e l l i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and by happy a c c i d e n t . " So does M. P . S h i e l i n The P u r p l e C l o u d . So does L indsay i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . We f i n d the a t t i t u d e Cohen takes towards Haggard, C a r l y l e towards R i c h t e r , and, f o r t h a t m a t t e r , MacNeice and Auden towards MacDonald, taken by P i c k and W i l s o n towards L i n d s a y . J . B. P i c k w r i t e s that A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s a v i v i d account of [ L i n d s a y ' s ] v i s i o n . We r e q u i r e from a wi tnes s not a d i s p l a y of educated s e n s i b i l i t y but an account of what happened, and t h i s i s what [he] g ives us . The l i t e r a t i have o f t en proved to p r e f e r a d i s p l a y of educated s e n s i b i l i t y . I f n o t h i n g important has happened, to d i s p l a y educated sens-i b i l i t y i s the on ly p o s s i b l e reason f o r o n l y g i v i n g an account a t a l l ( 9 ) . More rea sonab ly , W i l s o n "notes the awkward s t y l e of the n o v e l s " (TSG 42) , and quotes a passage from D e v i l ' s Tor which i s clumsy. I t conta ins phrases that no competent w r i t e r would l e t pa s t : ' h e r s e c r e t h e a r t was f u l l of awful w h i s p e r s ' ; i t goes on a l i t t l e too l o n g : 'From him she could endure i t , f o r i t was h i s r i g h t and n a t u r e ' , e t c . But w i t h a l l i t s c lums ines s , i t ends by g a i n i n g a c e r t a i n momentum, and making one forge t i t s f a u l t s (TSG 41) . 195 A f t e r one leaves the ' n o v e l i s t i c ' w o r l d of F a u l l (comparable to the w o r l d of D e v i l ' s Tor) and M a s k u l l "awakens on Tormance," says W i l s o n , " t h e r e a l a c t i o n of [A Voyage] b e g i n s , and moves forward at a pace t h a t makes t h i s the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y fea t of i m a g i n a t i o n i n E n g l i s h f i c t i o n " (TSG 49 ) . Even C. S. Lewis takes t h i s l i n e . D e s c r i b i n g " t h a t s h a t t e r i n g , i n t o l e r a b l e and i r r e s i s t a b l e work . . . A Voyage to Arcturus"" 1 "^ he says L indsay i s "unaided by any s p e c i a l s k i l l or even any sound t a s t e i n language""'" 1 " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i t ' s nonsense, the s t y l e i s a p p a l l i n g , 12 and yet t h i s g h a s t l y v i s i o n comes t h r o u g h . " I t i s " the most remarkable , • _ „13 achievement. C l e a r l y , something i s happening i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , and something p o w e r f u l . But i t i s n o t , e v i d e n t l y , to be i s o l a t e d i n the words on the page, i n q u i t e the way that a New C r i t i c might w i s h . The only reasonable deduct ion to make i s tha t the words on the page are not the whole s t o r y , so to speak. Thi s deduct ion has been made by Norman N . H o l l a n d , who argues i n The Dynamics of L i t e r a r y Response tha t i t i s as i f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have been l o o k i n g at a group o f c h i l d r e n on one h a l f o f a somewhat myster ious see-saw, the other h a l f b e i n g screened by a w a l l . They have been t r y i n g to e x p l a i n why t h i s board should r i s e or f a l l or stand out h o r i z o n t a l l y from the w a l l by examining only the weights and p o s i t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n on the end they can see (14) . A c c o r d i n g to H o l l a n d , form and meaning i n a work are e q u i v a l e n t to defense s t r a t e g i e s i n the mind , and permit the expre s s ion of ( i n the w o r k ) , and a l low the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of ( i n the mind) , c e n t r a l ' c o r e ' f a n t a s i e s which l i e ' b e h i n d ' the t e x t and which a r e , i n the unconscious minds o f author and reader , what corresponds to the o ther h a l f of the see-saw. L i t e r a t u r e 196 i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : through a t e x t , unconscious f a n t a s i e s are transformed i n t o meaning. In H o l l a n d ' s m o d e l , t h e jagged l i n e represents the t e x t or the words on the page: R E A D E R L - L £ C T I K J T R O ftEAOEfc S E C T / The model descr ibes the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . When we a c t u a l l y become engaged i n a l i t e r a r y response, when we are " w i t h i t , " the a c t u a l i t y i s the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n which each of the l e v e l s ( f a n t a s y , form, meaning) o f f e r s p lea sure i n i t s e l f and m o d i f i e s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of p lea sure from o ther l e v e l s . We take i n the fantasy which i s an " h a l l u c i n a t o r y g r a t i f i c a t i o n . " In l i t e r a t u r e as i n l i f e , such a fantasy w i l l t y p i c a l l y both g ive p lea sure and provoke a n x i e t y . To the extent i t g ives p l e a s u r e , we s imply get p leasure from i t . To the extent i t provokes a n x i e t y , i t must be m o d i f i e d to reduce the a n x i e t y . Form and meaning are the two agents that c o n t r o l and manage the f a n t a s y , and they i n t u r n may be sources of p l ea sure i n themselves . For H o l l a n d , i n e f f e c t , the l i t e r a r y work dreams a dream f o r us . I t embodies and evokes i n us a c e n t r a l f an ta sy , then i t manages and c o n t r o l s that fantasy by devices t h a t , were they i n a mind , we would c a l l defences , b u t , b e i n g on a page, we c a l l " f o r m . " And the h a v i n g of the fantasy and f e e l i n g i t managed g ive us p lea sure (16) . 19 7 Even s o - c a l l e d ' r e a l i s t i c ' nove l s separate us from the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and i n h i b i t motor a c t i v i t y , as does dreaming, and prov ide fantasy g r a t -i f i c a t i o n , as do dreams. But f i r s t l y , they manage the fantasy p a r t l y by p r o v i d i n g us w i t h a w o r l d i n which we can w i l l i n g l y suspend d i s b e l i e f ( i . e . , what seems to be a ' r e a l ' w o r l d , what i s not o b v i o u s l y a fantasy w o r l d ) , thus a l l a y i n g a n x i e t y . And second ly , they prov ide a great dea l of defense aga ins t anx ie ty through a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on form, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the s imple l e v e l of form as language. H o l l a n d c a l l s t h i s " the d i s -placement to l anguage , " and p o i n t s out that prose tends to t rans form fantasy toward meaning; poetry does that but a l s o d i s p l a c e s ca thex i s to the v e r b a l l e v e l . I n e v i t a b l y , then , a n a r r a t i v e i n prose w i l l make a s t r o n g e r , more d i r e c t appeal as fantasy than the same s t o r y i n verse (17) . The c o n c l u s i o n H o l l a n d draws from h i s comparison of prose and poetry i s a p p l i c a b l e to our comparison between the n o v e l and the a l l e g o r i c a l dream f an ta sy : A t t e n t i o n , concern , i f you w i l l , p s y c h i c energy, are taken away from substance and g iven to language. In terms of our model , such a displacement weakens our involvement w i t h the deeper, fantasy l e v e l s , f raught w i t h f ea r and d e s i r e ; i n s t e a d , we concentrate our involvement on the v e r b a l l e v e l (17) . That i s , words-concern weakens fantasy concern . New C r i t i c i s m began w i t h , and i s mainly a p p l i c a b l e t o , the study of p o e t r y . The l i t e r a r y progeny of New C r i t i c i s m , the modern n o v e l , has a words-concern which a s p i r e s to the l e v e l of p o e t r y . Thi s k i n d o f words-concern prov ides massive defences aga ins t a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g f a n t a s i e s , which i s why words-concern i s not g e n e r a l l y to be found i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s and some romances ( e . g . the G o t h i c N o v e l ) , where core f a n t a s i e s are r e l a t i v e l y undefended. 198 A l l l i t e r a t u r e i s , i n a sense, a dream exper ience f o r the reader . But a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s are much more l i k e a c t u a l dreams than are modern n o v e l s . Fanta s ie s do not put us i n a seeming r e a l i t y , w i t h w h i c h , by analogy w i t h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , we should f e e l ab le to cope, but i n a dream w o r l d where almost anyth ing can happen, and i n which we are there fore r e l a t i v e l y i n s e c u r e . They o f t en do not seem to have w e l l developed formal s t r u c t u r i n g i n the more t r a d i t i o n a l sense, b e i n g (Phantas tes , f o r example) apparent ly a imless s e r i e s of i n c i d e n t s . A t the l e v e l of language, they have almost no words-concern at a l l . Thus they do not manage the powerfu l f a n t a s i e s they d e l i b e r a t e l y set out to arouse i n any r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e way, and must be expected to produce h o s t i l i t y and rage when a n x i e t i e s are aroused and not managed i n t o g r a t i f y i n g form. 19 This i s apparent i n Joanna Euss ' s c r i t i q u e of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , i n 20 W o l f f ' s judgement of L i l i t h , and i n A m i s ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t H . P . Lovecra f t "does g ive tha t impres s ion of be ing much more than r i p e f o r 21 p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . " On the o ther hand, when the fantasy i s managed s t r o n g l y enough f o r a c r i t i c , he tends to respond w i t h f o r c e f u l s ta tements , correspond-i n g to the rage of d e t r a c t i n g c r i t i c s . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s manages i t s core fantasy adequately f o r C. S. Lewis and R. L . Green: Lewis c a l l s i t 22 a " s h a t t e r i n g , i n t o l e r a b l e and i r r e s i s t a b l e w o r k , " and Green a " s t range 23 and t e r r i f y i n g romance," an " a s t o n i s h i n g b o o k . " E v i d e n t l y , when the fantasy i s not a t h r e a t , i t s power may be acknowledged; i n d e e d , must be 2 p r o c l a i m e d . "Fanta s ie s are what makes us grab somebody by the l a p e l s , " as H o l l a n d says : they provoke extremes of c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n . I t may w e l l be that the c e n t r a l fantasy i n a dream fantasy or romance 199 i s undefended i n what we have c a l l e d ' n o v e l i s t i c ' ways (words-concern and o ther formal elements a p p r o p r i a t e to the consciousness of the i n t e l l e c t i n g reader) because i t was undefended by the author i n the ac t of w r i t i n g . Cohen says "Haggard wrote She d u r i n g February and March 1886, i n a l i t t l e over s i x weeks. I t v i r t u a l l y f lowed from h i s 25 pen of i t s own a c c o r d . " Thus, " h a v i n g w r i t t e n i t as q u i c k l y as he 2 6 d i d , Haggard was w r i t i n g ' d e e p , ' as though h y p n o t i s e d . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the s t a t e of hypnosis i s a metaphor f o r the act o f read ing which H o l l a n d f i n d s more accurate than the metaphor of the dream. W r i t i n g q u i c k l y , Haggard presumably f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the promptings of h i s unconscious mind, and h i s conscious mind was not a l lowed to manage the fantasy i n t o formal or i n t e l l e c t u a l meaning. Cohen takes Haggard's " l a t e r comments" 2 7 on She to be " a l l unsucce s s fu l attempts to comprehend h i s own w o r k . " Prose f a n t a s i e s and romances are almost always w r i t t e n very q u i c k l y , and there fore ' d e e p . ' A famous example i s M. G. L e w i s ' s enormous G o t h i c N o v e l , The Monk. MacDonald wrote Phantastes i n two months, and " i n 1890, he w r o t e , almost w i t h o u t s t o p p i n g , the f i r s t d r a f t of L i l i t h , " though t h i s was " o n l y about one t h i r d the l e n g t h of the v e r s i o n that was f i n a l l y 2 8 p u b l i s h e d i n 1895 . " David L indsay seems to have spent about t h i r t e e n months on A Voyage to A r c t u r u s (and i t was " l o n g matured") which seems, i n comparison, to be a very long t ime . A Voyage has , however, as we have seen, at l e a s t f o r a f an ta sy , an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y compl i ca ted , c a r e f u l l y worked out schema, though words-concern i n A Voyage remains low compared to most n o v e l s . A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s are l i k e dreams i n t h e i r freedom from the 200 phenomenal w o r l d , t h e i r s e q u e n t i a l form and t h e i r i d e a t i o n through v i s u a l i s a t i o n , as we e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter Two. Reading an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , t h e n , even more than read ing (say) a modern n o v e l , i s a k i n d of dream exper ience f o r the reader , a s , to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i t must have been f o r the author when w r i t i n g i t . L i k e an a c t u a l dream, the dream fantasy i s generated by the subconscious mind w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e from the conscious i n t e l l e c t of the w r i t e r , and i t commun-i c a t e s i t s fantasy to the subconscious mind of the r eader , i f the conscious mind (which would ob jec t to the s t y l e ) can be 'put to s l e e p ' or d i s t r a c t e d by the a l l e g o r y . The idea of subconscious c r e a t i o n , which may be symbol-i s e d as the ' i n n e r l i g h t ' ( e . g . of M u s p e l , or the f i r e which Ayesha guards i n She) , i s the guarantee of the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the core fantasy or 29 v i s i o n . MacDonald, who has been c r e d i t e d w i t h ' i n v e n t i n g ' the genre, b u i l d s h i s a e s t h e t i c theory around t h i s f a c t . C. N . Manlove has summarized MacDonald's p o s i t i o n thus : 1. Nature i s God's book, cons t ruc ted on p r i n c i p l e s which are beyond the reach of s c i e n c e and the human under-s t a n d i n g , but are immediately apprehended by the sympathet ic c h i l d - l i k e i m a g i n a t i o n . 2 . The c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , which e x i s t s i n h i s subconsc ious , i s man's h i g h e s t mental f a c u l t y : not on ly because i n g i v i n g form to thought i t i m i t a t e s the c r e a t i v e work o f God, but because i t is_ God, who i n h a b i t s t h i s area of the human mind and i s the author of i t s work ings . 3. For t h i s reason the human a r t i s t has no f i n a l c o n t r o l over the products of t h i s i m a g i n a t i o n however he may t r y to order and f i x i t s promptings . 4. The works of the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , cons idered both as the products of d i v i n e a f f l a t u s and as. i m i t a t i o n s of the nature descr ibed above, w i l l appear c o n n e c t i o n l e s s , dream-l i k e and c h a o t i c . Such works are known as f a i r y - t a l e s , and, so conce ived , the f a i r y - t a l e i s the h i g h e s t c o n d i t i o n of l i f e and a r t (30) . 201 "Nature i s God's book" and i t i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y : God dreams the w o r l d , and the landscape expresses the meaning (The Romantic b a s i s of t h i s i s e v i d e n t . ) - The images are the meaning, which i s why the c h i l d l i k e i m a g i n a t i o n understands them: c h i l d r e n tend to t h i n k i n p i c t u r e s , as does the more p r i m i t i v e p a r t of the mind, the subconsc ious . The "human a r t i s t " or conscious mind must not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the dream f o r , though i t appears c h a o t i c , i t i s n o t : i t i s u n i f i e d by the core f an ta sy , which i s s u b r a t i o n a l . I f t h i s i s the case (and i n t h i s one genre, I am a r g u i n g , i t i s ) , then 'bad w r i t i n g ' may not have a nega t ive f u n c t i o n . We have found, i n l o o k i n g a t the r e a c t i o n s of c r i t i c s to fantasy and romance, t h a t the s t y l e annoys the i n t e l l e c t i n g reader only u n t i l the core fantasy g r i p s the i n t r o j e c t i n g reader , a f t e r which the book ' s 'power of i m a g i n a t i o n ' i s acknowledged and the s t y l e seems to become t r a n s p a r e n t . Th i s i s what happens to the Student Anselmus when t r a n s c r i b i n g manuscr ipts i n Hoffmann's s t o r y , and to Anodos when he reads, the s t o r y o f Cosmo i n Phantas te s : In the f a i r y book, e v e r y t h i n g was j u s t as i t should be , though whether i n words o r something e l s e , I cannot t e l l . I t glowed and f l a s h e d the thoughts upon the s o u l , w i t h such a power that the medium disappeared from the cons-c iousnes s , and i t was occupied on ly w i t h the th ings them-s e l v e s . My r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t must resemble a t r a n s l a t i o n from a r i c h and powerfu l language, capable of embodying the thoughts o f a s p l e n d i d l y developed peop le , i n t o the meager and h a l f - a r t i c u l a t e speech of a savage t r i b e . Of course , w h i l e I read i t , I was Cosmo, and h i s h i s t o r y was mine. Yet a l l the time I seemed to have a k i n d of double con-sc iousnes s , and the s t o r y a double meaning (31) . The "double consc iousness " i s the s p l i t between the i n t e l l e c t i n g and i n t r o -j e c t i n g par t s of the mind : the f a i r y book speaks (not i n words but i n "something e l s e " : p i c t u r e s ) d i r e c t l y and p o w e r f u l l y to the s o u l , or 202 i n t r o j e c t i n g subconscious on one l e v e l , and i n "meager and h a l f - a r t i c u l a t e speech" to the i n t e l l e c t i n g conscious mind. The medium i s j u s t t h a t : a medium, not a message. The medium's on ly f u n c t i o n i s t!o enable us—and t h i s i s the aim of A Voyage and o ther n e o - P l a t o n i c dream f a n t a s i e s — t o break through to " the th ings themselves" : the r e a l w o r l d (Muspel ) . The bes t s t y l e f o r an a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy might seem to be a t ransparent s t y l e : no words-concern at a l l . Thi s i s what C o l i n W i l s o n seems to ask f o r when he complains o f L i n d s a y , "Why the h e l l c a n ' t people w r i t e as they t a l k ? No one has to w r i t e as s t i f f l y and awkwardly as t h i s " (TSG 35) . In f a c t , the answer to both of W i l s o n ' s p o i n t s i s that L indsay d i d . Th i s Edwardian L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r w i t h a S c o t t i s h C a l v i n i s t back-ground would no doubt have seemed s t i f f and awkward to C o l i n W i l s o n . And E. H . V i s i a k does say that " there was a remarkable correspondance between L i n d s a y ' s speech and deportment and h i s l i t e r a r y s t y l e " (TSG 97 ) . What i s t ransparent to one person w i l l not be t ransparent to another . Perhaps the most one could ask f o r would be a c e r t a i n p l a i n n e s s . T h i s i s something Loui s MacNeice c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of fantasy w r i t e r s , V a r i e t i e s of P a r a b l e : I t i s n o t i c e a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , that most o f my p l a y -w r i g h t s and n o v e l i s t s . . . go i n f o r a p l a i n s t y l e . . . . The p l a i n n e s s i s l i k e a t r u t h d r u g o r , p u t t i n g i t d i f f e r e n t -l y , the k n i f e that almost k i l l e d the w r i t e r w i l l cut the reader to the bone (32) . And Frank Kermode observes , Words, thoughts , pa t terns of word and thought , are enemies of t r u t h , i f you i d e n t i f y that w i t h what may be had by phenomenological r educ t ions (33) . But i n that case there i s no p o i n t i n w r i t i n g books at a l l . Indeed, w r i t e r s 203 of a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy are o f t en excused from b e i n g w r i t e r s . MacNeice says of George MacDonald tha t h i s " w r i t i n g s are not to every-34 one's t a s t e . . . p a r t l y because he i s not e s s e n t i a l l y a w r i t e r . 1 P i c k a p p l i e s to L indsay the phrase L indsay a p p l i e d to N i e t z s c h e : he 35 was "by nature a m u s i c i a n " (TSG 8 ) . W i l s o n says L indsay "undoubtedly misunderstood h i s t a l e n t s when he decided to become a n o v e l i s t " (TSG 90) and that " i t i s worth n o t i n g that L indsay was a m u s i c i a n — l i k e Hoffman ( s i c ) " (TSG 47), (though W i l s o n g ives no i n d i c a t i o n that L indsay ever wrote any m u s i c ) . S i n c e , as we have seen, "music i s the exper ience of a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " ( i n L i n d s a y ' s phrase ; TSG 13) , t h i s i s a t r i b u t e to the i m a g i n a t i v e power of the fantasy work ing on the subconsc ious , but i t says n o t h i n g about s t y l e . In f a c t , f a n t a s i e s are not w r i t t e n i n a ' p l a i n ' s t y l e at a l l , though p l a i n w r i t i n g may be one element i n a mixture of p l a i n and ornamental (?) s t y l e s (as i n M. P . S h i e l , f o r example) . Fantas ie s are more g e n e r a l l y w r i t t e n i n very exaggerated s t y l e s , o f t en w i t h overpowering s t r i d e n c y and the repeated use of overemphatic words. An obvious example i s Poe ' s ' n i c k l e - p l a t e d s t y l e . ' Even wi thout the b l e s s i n g o f academia, a fantasy can s u r v i v e an enormous amount of r e a l l y bad w r i t i n g , i f the fantasy i t embodies i s powerfu l enough. Thus, accord ing to Damon K n i g h t , " T h e B l i n d Spot , by A u s t i n H a l l and Homer Eon F l i n t , i s an acknowledged c l a s s i c of f an ta sy , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1921; much p r a i s e d s i n c e then , s e v e r a l times 36 r e p r i n t e d , venerated by c o n o i s s e u r s . " K n i g h t p o i n t s out tha t H a l l was " s t y l e d e a f , " and quotes to i l l u s t r a t e : For years he had been b a t t e r i n g down the skepticism tha t had bulwarked i t s e l f i n the m a t e r i a l . 204 She i s f i r e and f l e s h and c a r n a l — . . . a t whose fee t f o o l s and wise men would s l a v i s h l y f r o l i c and f o l l y . I t was a s tagger f o r both young men. She [a dog named queen] caught him by the t r o u s e r - l e g and drew him back. She crowded us away from the c u r t a i n s . I t was almost magnet ic . Kn ight says " ' m a g n e t i c ' — l i k e . . . ' i n t r i n s i c , ' incandescense ' ( s i c ) and ' i r i d e s c e n s e ' ( s i c ) — i s a word H a l l kept t o s s i n g i n a t random, hoping 37 to h i t something w i t h i t e v e n t u a l l y . " To be p r e c i s e , the words are thrown i n not because they mean anyth ing to the i n t e l l e c t i n g mind, but (they are long and important and impres s ive sounding words) because they aim at producing a vague but exaggerated emotion i n the subconsc ious . The same i n t e n t i o n l i e s beh ind the a l l i t e r a t i o n of the second example quoted above: f i r e , f l e s h ; f e e t , f o o l s ; f r o l i c , f o l l y . T h i s must have some e f f e c t , even i f i t doesn ' t mean a n y t h i n g . Most fantasy w r i t e r s are n o t h i n g l i k e so bad as H a l l , but they employ the same techn iques . M. P. S h i e l i n The P u r p l e Cloud sometimes massacres sense w i t h vowels the way H a l l d i d w i t h consonants : "The s h i p had been 38 s t r i k e n i n t o s t i l l n e s s i n the t h i c k of a b r i s k n e s s of a c t i v i t y . " But g e n e r a l l y he c a n ' t keep i t up f o r l o n g . W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson w r i t e s more s i m p l y , but f i n d s the n i c k l e - p l a t e d word ( r e i t e r a t e , i n t h i s case) i r r e s i s t a b l e : " F o r some l i t t l e t i m e , I s tood t h e r e , l o s t i n p e r p l e x i n g thought. 'What does i t a l l mean?' was the cry t h a t had begun to r e i t e r a t e 39 through my b r a i n . " George MacDonald and David L indsay are r e l a t i v e l y good w r i t e r s , and t h e i r exaggerat ions are more s u b t l e . In L i l i t h , Mr . Vane says "A f r i g h t f u l roar made my hear t rebound aga ins t the w a l l s o f i t s cage. The a l a b a s t e r trembled as i f i t would shake i n t o s h i v e r s . The 205 p r i n c e s s shuddered v i s i b l y . " This i s as good as a n y t h i n g i n Poe. In L indsay as i n B l a k e , the t e r r i f i c par t s are t e r r i f i c and the p r o s a i c pa r t s are p r o s a i c . But the ' h e i g h t e n e d ' q u a l i t y of the t e r r i f i c par t s i n Lindsay—and here he d i f f e r s from S h i e l , MacDonald and Hodgson— comes l e s s from the exaggerated use of language than from the sheer s c a l e of the images. The k n i g h t i n Phantastes n o t i c e s that n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the beauty of t h i s country of F a e r i e , i n which we a r e , there i s much that i s wrong i n i t . I f there are great s p l e n d o r s , there are corresponding h o r r o r s ; h e i g h t s and depths ; b e a u t i f u l women and awful f i e n d s ; nob le men and weakl ings (41) . Because of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l depth and p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexi ty o f L i n d s a y ' s thought , there are no cardboard dragons and s imply b e a u t i f u l hero ines on Tormance, and i t i s too tough a w o r l d f o r e i t h e r noble men or w e a k l i n g s . Nonethe les s , A Voyage i s , i n a s i m i l a r way, dichotomous, and there are p l e n t y of huge mountains and abysmal p r e c i p i c e s to generate emot iona l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r displacement to the embodiments to 'keep the a l l e g o r y v i g o r o u s . ' Panawe, f o r example, descr ibes f o r us Shaping 's Causeway. I t i s so c a l l e d e i t h e r because Shaping once crossed i t , or because o f i t s stupendous c h a r a c t e r . I t i s a n a t u r a l embankment, twenty m i l e s l o n g , which l i n k s the mountains b o r d e r i n g my homeland w i t h the Ifdawn Mares t . The v a l l e y l i e s below at a depth v a r y i n g from e i g h t to ten thousand f ee t—a t e r r i b l e p r e c i p i c e on e i t h e r s i d e . The k n i f e edge of the r i d g e i s g e n e r a l l y not much over a foot w i d e . The causeway goes due n o r t h and s o u t h . The v a l l e y on my r i g h t hand was plunged i n shadow—that on my l e f t was s p a r k l i n g w i t h s u n l i g h t and dew. I walked f e a r f u l l y a long t h i s p r e c a r i o u s path f o r some m i l e s (VA 71) . L indsay does not have Panawe t r y to r ec rea te f o r us , i n words, the e x p e r i e n c e , but he g ives us enough concrete d e t a i l s fo r us to imagine ourse lves i n the s i t u a t i o n , surrounded by " the th ings themse lve s . " In t h i s passage there are 206 o n l y two words tha t are not s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n : ' s tupendous ' and ' t e r r i b l e . ' They de sc r ibe not the l a n d -scape, l i t e r a l l y , but the exaggerated emotion i t produces . The d e s c r i p t i o n i t s e l f i s evenly paced, s t r u c t u r a l l y r e p e t i t i v e , has on ly one metaphor ("the k n i f e edge" ) , and only once p l ays w i t h sound ( " s p a r k l i n g w i t h s u n l i g h t " a l l i t e r a t e s ) : these are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Joanna Russ i s o l a t e d . But the passage does achieve i t s ends—the r e a l i s a t i o n of the t e r r i b l e na ture o f the journey across the stupendous causeway—by p i c t o r i a l means: each sentence g ives us a p r e c i s e p h y s i c a l d e t a i l to v i s u a l i s e . In f a c t , impress iveness of the landscape i s r e i n f o r c e d by the unimpress ive (matter 42 of f a c t ) use of language. Thi s i s complete ly appropr i a t e w r i t i n g i n an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , where the image i s the meaning: i t i s , i n f a c t , good w r i t i n g . L i n d s a y ' s s t y l e i s , of a l l the V i c t o r i a n fantasy w r i t e r s we have d i s -cussed, the p l a i n n e s t and f l a t t e s t . Though sentences of more than f i f t e e n or twenty words sometimes seem to f a l l apart i n L i n d s a y ' s hands, f o r t u n -a t e l y they are r a r e . The average s y n t a c t i c a l l y complete u n i t i n L indsay i s very s h o r t , and tha t u n i t i s g e n e r a l l y a s imple s u b j e c t - v e r b - o b j e c t s t r u c t u r e , even i f i t i s n ' t a sentence by i t s e l f . Another t y p i c a l paragraph i s : He l a y there w a i t i n g i n the darkness , i gnorant of what was going to happen. He f e l t her hand c l a s p i n g h i s . Without p e r c e i v i n g any g r a d a t i o n , he l o s t a l l consc ious-ness of h i s body; he was no longer able to f e e l h i s l imbs or i n t e r n a l organs. Hi s mind remained a c t i v e and a l e r t . Noth ing p a r t i c u l a r appeared to be t a k i n g p l a c e . Then the chamber began to grow l i g h t , l i k e very e a r l y morning . He cou ld see n o t h i n g , but the r e t i n a of h i s eyes was a f f e c t e d . He f a n c i e d that he heard mus ic , but w h i l e he was l i s t e n i n g f o r i t , i t s topped. The l i g h t grew s t r o n g e r , the a i r grew warmer; he heard the confused sound of d i s t a n t v o i c e s (VA 122). 207 The syntax could h a r d l y be s i m p l e r . The only n i c k l e - p l a t e d phrase i n the two paragraphs , " w i t h o u t p e r c e i v i n g any g r a d a t i o n , " means e x a c t l y what i t says . Words-concern, f o r the reader , could h a r d l y be s m a l l e r : the r eader ' s a t t e n t i o n may be u n d i s t r a c t e d l y focussed on the p i c t u r e Lindsay i s d e s c r i b i n g . We have heard MacNeice on the v i r t u e of p l a i n s t y l e . But i n f a c t , even an awkwardness of s t y l e may, by the same t o k e n , be turned to good account , as i t i s by W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson i n The House on the Boder l and , which pretends to be a ' f o u n d ' manuscr ip t . By t h i s very popular defens ive device—as used by Haggard, Poe and hundreds of o ther s—the author pretends to be only the e d i t o r , and t h e r e f o r e not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the n e c e s s a r i l y awkward and exaggerated t e l l i n g . Thus Hodgson: Amid s t i f f , abrupt sentences I wandered; and, p r e s e n t l y , 1 had no f a u l t to charge aga ins t t h e i r abrupt t e l l i n g s ; f o r , b e t t e r f a r than my own ambit ious p h r a s i n g , i s t h i s m u t i l a t e d s t o r y capable of b r i n g i n g home . . . (43) . The manuscript i t s e l f , which f o l l o w s , i s r e p o r t e d l y d i scovered among the rubb le of a d e r e l i c t house. I f we remember t h a t ( i n Poe, o f t e n ; i n The Haunted Woman, perhaps) the house may be a symbol of the b r a i n or the head, then Hodgson i s g i v i n g us a c lue to the r e a l source of the manuscr ip t : i . e . , h i s subconscious mind. In a r e a l sense, then , h e , W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson as centre of consc iousness , is_ on ly the e d i t o r o f something that i n f a c t comes from apparent ly (now) d e r e l i c t depths beneath. The author s p l i t s h i m s e l f i n t o that f a m i l i a r double , the ' I ' who acts out the fantasy or dream, and the ' I ' - e d i t o r who observes , c o r r e c t s , comments and e d i t s . Th i s c o r r e l a t e s w i t h our d i v i s i o n between fantasy and romance. Almost a l l fantasy i s w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t per son , whereas almost a l l romance i s 208 w r i t t e n i n the t h i r d per son . In romance, the ' I ' who observes and e d i t s i s i n c o n t r o l as s u b c r e a t o r , w h i l e subconscious f a n t a s i e s are s u b l i m i n a l l y acted out . The words-concern of a M o r r i s , w i t h h i s mediaeva l i sms , or o f a T o l k i e n , i n E n g l i s h and e l v i s h , p rov ide such massive defenses that g e n e r a l l y the w r i t e r and o f t en the reader are unaware that f a n t a s i e s are be ing acted out . T o l k i e n ' s i n s i s t e n t l y repeated d e n i a l s tha t h i s work i s a l l e g o r i c a l a r e , i n e f f e c t , d e n i a l s tha t there i s anyth ing happening beneath the sur face i n The Lord of the R ings . In Tree and L e a f , T o l k i e n s t r i d e n t l y complains about the " e r r o r or m a l i c e " of people who " s t u p i d l y and even m a l i c i o u s l y confound Fantasy w i t h Dreaming, i n which there i s no A r t ; and w i t h mental d i s o r d e r s , i n which there i s not even c o n t r o l : w i t h d e l u s i o n and h a l l u c i n a t i o n " : "Fantasy i s a r a t i o n a l not an i r r a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . ' . ' 4 4 MacDonald, b e i n g a fantasy as opposed to a romance w r i t e r , took, of course , e x a c t l y the oppos i te v iew. No one read ing Phantastes or L i l i t h ( e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the advent o f Freudian r e d u c t i o n i s m , which was abandoned by Freudians f i f t y years ago, but which i s s t i l l p r a c t i s e d a t the lower l e v e l s to which i t t r i c k l e d down) cou ld miss the almost naked fantasy embodied t h e r e i n : the need f o r o r a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y a t the mother ' s b r e a s t . In works o f f a n t a s y , then , core f a n t a s i e s are acted o u t : the ' I ' who acts i s i n c o n t r o l , w h i l e the ' I ' who observes and e d i t s i s reduced to doing j u s t t h a t . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an unusual book i n t h i s r e s p e c t , b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a f an ta sy , r a t h e r than a romance, but t o l d i n the t h i r d person. Both the ' I ' who acts (Maskul l ) and the ' I ' who observes (Nightspore) are embodied as charac ter s i n the book, though on Tormance they do n o t , of 209 course , h o l d the stage toge ther . The f i r s t - p e r s o n p o i n t of v i e w , however, had Lindsay used i t , would have g iven him one o f two problems: e i t h e r the book would have ended w i t h M a s k u l l ' s death , and the e f f e c t might have been l u d i c r o u s , as at the end of The House on the B o r d e r l a n d : There are steps on the s t a i r s . . . . Jesus , be m e r c i f u l to me, an o l d man. There i s something fumbling at the door-handle . 0 God, h e l p me now! Jesus— The door i s opening— s l o w l y . Somethi— (45)'; or the book would have ended, as both MacDonald's f a n t a s i e s end, w i t h the r e t u r n to the r e a l w o r l d , which undercuts the power of the f a n t a s y : 'Oh, i t was on ly a dream. ' A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s not presented as a dream, but as an account of t e r r i b l y r e a l events i n a t e r r i b l y r e a l , i f not a r e a l , w o r l d : the s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n r e a l i s m (as we noted i n Chapter Three) g ives b i t e to the f an ta sy . On the o ther hand, abandoning the f i r s t - p e r s o n p o i n t of view i n i t s e l f d i s t ances the f a n t a s y , so that we are able both to i d e n t i f y w i t h