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UBC Theses and Dissertations

David Lindsay's A voyage to Arcturus ; allegorical dream fantasy as a literary mode Schofield, Jack 1972

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DAVID LINDSAY'S A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS ALLEGORICAL DREAM FANTASY AS A LITERARY MODE  by  JACK S CHOFIELD B.A., University  o f Birmingham,  1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19 72  tn p r e s e n t i n g an  advanced degree at  the L i b r a r y I  this thesis  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f  the U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r  the  requirements  Columbia, I agree r e f e r e n c e and  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  the Head o f my  by  his  of  t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not  written  representatives.  be g r a n t e d by  It i s understood that  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Columbia  that  study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  be allowed without  my  Abstract  David L i n d s a y ' s A Voyage to A r c t u r u s must be read as an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y f o r i t s m e r i t to be c o r r e c t l y d i s c e r n e d .  Lindsay's  central  themes are i n t r o d u c e d i n a study o f the man and h i s work. (Ch. 1 ) .  These  themes are found to be common i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , the phenomeno l o g i c a l background o f w h i c h i s e s t a b l i s h e d  (Ch. 2 ) .  A d i s t i n c t i o n can  then be drawn between f a n t a s y and romance,  so as to d e f i n e  dream f a n t a s y as a l i t e r a r y mode (Ch. 3 ) .  A f t e r the b i o g r a p h i c a l ,  t h e o r e t i c a l and l i t e r a r y backgrounds i n the f i r s t structure  o f A Voyage have been  allegorical  established  t h r e e c h a p t e r s , the second t h r e e c h a p t e r s e x p l i c a t e  of the book as an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y .  d i c h o t o m i e s w h i c h have been found i n L i n d s a y and v i s i o n a r y dreamer), f a n t a s y and romance, o f l i t e r a t u r e as  Finally,  the the  (between L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r  between the dream and the r e a l w o r l d ,  between  are found to be u n i f i e d by Norman N . H o l l a n d ' s  transformation.  theory  CONTENTS  Preface  Chapter 1.  David Lindsay:  Chapter 2.  Dream and A l l e g o r y : The P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l Background of a L i t e r a r y Mode  30  F a n t a s y and Romance: The L i t e r a r y Background of A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s  62  The Unholy War: Battle  97  Chapter 3.  Chapter 4.  Chapter 5 .  The Man and H i s Work  The S t r a i g h t Way: Progress  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s as  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s as 12 7  Chapter 6.  The Winding Way:  Chapter 7.  A l l e g o r i c a l Dream F a n t a s y : Style  Appendix  Bibliography  M a s k u l l ' s S p i r a l Inwards  160  The Problem o f 192  Preface  This thesis has,  i s a s t u d y of a book—A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s — w h i c h  u n t i l r e c e n t l y , been n e g l e c t e d , and w h i c h i s now, I would a r g u e ,  misread.  I t i s m i s r e a d m a i n l y because the genre t o w h i c h i t  a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y — h a s  n o t been p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d .  to e x p l i c a t e the book by s e t t i n g i t i n i t s  belongs— My aim i s  true context.  D a v i d L i n d s a y (1878-1945) i s a d i f f i c u l t man to a s s e s s , p a r t l y because he was  ' o u t of key w i t h h i s t i m e . '  1920, j u s t a f t e r World War  was the wrong y e a r to p u b l i s h A Voyage to A r c t u r u s .  Moral earnestness  of L i n d s a y ' s e s s e n t i a l l y V i c t o r i a n s o r t d i d not have the sympathy of the p u b l i c , and i t must n o t s u r p r i s e us t h a t the book f e l l from the p r e s s . '  'still-born  Had the book come out i n 1895, s h o r t l y a f t e r She and  i n the same y e a r as Wells's The Time M a c h i n e , MacDonald's L i l i t h and M o r r i s ' s The Wood Beyond the W o r l d , i t might have been r e c e i v e d more sympathetically.  But i n 1895, L i n d s a y was o n l y  I t s h o u l d have been easy to s e e , years b e h i n d the t i m e s . i t was a l s o 50 y e a r s  f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n paperback,  book's p e c u l i a r q u a l i t i e s  i n 1920, t h a t A Voyage was 25  I t would have been d i f f i c u l t  ahead of them.  came to e n j o y ' a v o g u e . '  to guess  that  N o n e t h e l e s s , when A Voyage was  23 y e a r s  a f t e r Lindsay's death,  it  T h i s vogue i s , however, l e s s a r e s u l t of the than i t s s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance t o t h e work  of enormously p o p u l a r w r i t e r s , ' c u l t ' f i g u r e s , and Herman Hesse.  seventeen.  l i k e J . R. R. T o l k i e n  vi  Contemporary r e a d i n g s of the book, i n one way or a n o t h e r , wrench A Voyage from i t s t r u e c o n t e x t , and m i s r e a d i t s g e n r e .  However, A Voyage  i s n e i t h e r s u i generis nor o u t l a n d i s h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c , but occupies  a  p r e c i s e l y d e f i n a b l e p l a c e i n the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l dream fantasy. work.  Seen thus i t i s a w e l l - d e s i g n e d , c o h e r e n t and a r t i c u l a t e  Though A Voyage i s n o t o b v i o u s l y a w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d book, and  o b v i o u s l y n o t a w e l l w r i t t e n one  in t h e a c c e p t e d l i t e r a r y sense ( n o r ,  f o r t h a t m a t t e r , a r e most G o t h i c N o v e l s ) , once i t s s t r u c t u r e and m o t i f s have been u n c o v e r e d , i t w i l l be found t h a t A Voyage has many a s p e c t s t h a t make i t worthy of s t u d y . I b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f account of L i n d s a y ' s l i f e and w o r k s , p a r t l y to d i s p e l the ' m y t h o l o g y ' w h i c h , i n t h e absense of f a c t s and w i t h m i s l e a d i n g h e l p , has grown up around L i n d s a y , and p a r t l y t o i n t r o d u c e some of h i s themes.  L i n d s a y ' s c e n t r a l theme i s the o p p o s i t i o n between t h e  r e a l and dream w o r l d s w h i c h , w h i l e i t i s the b a s i s of A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , i s more o b v i o u s l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n ' t h i s w o r l d l y ' n o v e l s such as The Haunted Woman and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , S p h i n x . ogical basis  I n Chapter Two I examine the phenomenol-  (phenomenology i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y of  d e l u s i o n ) of L i n d s a y ' s d u a l i s m s . I . e . ,  systematized  I show why the p s y c h i c f a c t s of  s l e e p and dreams l e a d to a dichotomous w o r l d - v i e w , a n d how a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y i s an a p p r o p r i a t e l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s v i e w . I n my t h i r d c h a p t e r I draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between f a n t a s y and romance so as  t o d e f i n e a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y p r e c i s e l y as a l i t e r a r y mode,  and t o s e t A Voyage i n i t s a p p r o p r i a t e l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t .  I show how  vii  L i n d s a y found h i s immediate i n s p i r a t i o n i n George MacDonald, N o v a l i s , and I c e l a n d i c  literature.  H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the b i o g r a p h i c a l , backgrounds,  I move i n Chapters  two dimensions  of the a l l e g o r y .  the t h e o r e t i c a l ,  and the  Four and F i v e to an e x a m i n a t i o n of First,  I e x p l i c a t e A Voyage as  literary the  an  a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e between powers of l i g h t and d a r k n e s s , m a t t e r and s p i r i t , r e a l i t y and dream, axis.)  Second,  and so o n .  (This can be thought o f as a v e r t i c a l  I e x p l i c a t e A Voyage as a l i n e a r , a l l e g o r i c a l  progress,  o r g a n i s e d around t h e m a t i c images which are e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s e c t i o n of the book (on e a r t h ) and r e c c u r r i n the t r i p a c r o s s  opening Tormance.  (The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . ) The f i r s t  f i v e c h a p t e r s take us p r o g r e s s i v e l y  closer  to the  text.  I n Chapter S i x I t r a c e the o u t l i n e of M a s k u l l ' s a c t u a l p r o g r e s s a c r o s s Tormance, w h i c h i s found to be a s p i r a l i n w a r d s ,  through the body o f  C r y s t a l m a n i n t o the i n n e r w o r l d of the s p i r i t , M u s p e l . In the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r  I t a c k l e the problem of s t y l e :  why  a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n g r i p p i n g the r e a d e r i n s p i t e of b e i n g a p p a r e n t l y this chapter,  the s p l i t i n L i n d s a y ( e x - L l o y d ' s  i n the Manichaean p h i l o s o p h y dream f a n t a s y i t s e l f  (between  badly w r i t t e n .  In  u n d e r w r i t e r and v i s i o n a r y ) ,  ( r e a l w o r l d and dream w o r l d ) , i n a l l e g o r i c a l cerebral allegory  and the message of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s light'),  succeed  and s u b c o n s c i o u s (the s e a r c h f o r  are found to be u n i f i e d i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l  H o l l a n d ' s view o f l i t e r a t u r e as  transformation.  fantasy)  'inner  terms by Norman N .  viii  A g r e a t many p e o p l e have h e l p e d w i t h t h i s t h e s i s , mention o n l y a few.  I t would n o t have been p o s s i b l e a t a l l w i t h o u t  the e x t e n s i v e s e r v i c e s of M r . N i c k Omelusik, Ms. Margaret  Friesen,  the  I thank them, and I thank my  I have been p r i v i l e g e d t o work c l o s e l y w i t h my t h e s i s  of P r o f e s s o r s I r a N a d e l , E l l i o t t B. Gose and P a t r i c i a M e r i v a l e .  As a c r i t i c and a man, E l l i o t t Gose has p r o f o u n d l y a t t i t u d e to l i t e r a t u r e indicate.  and  M r s . Susan W e l l s and M i s s Jeanne C u r r i e .  Lastly, committee  of A c q u i s i t i o n s ,  o f I n t e r - L i b r a r y L o a n , and t h e i r s t a f f s a t  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . typists,  though I can  i n f l u e n c e d my own  f a r more than my i n c i d e n t a l f o o t n o t e s to him  But my main debt i s to my s u p e r v i s o r , Pat M e r i v a l e , w i t h o u t  whose i n c i s i v e  (and w i t t y ' . ) comments and always generous c h i d i n g  t h e s i s w o u l d have been much e a s i e r to w r i t e , and a g r e a t d e a l  this  less  worth w h i l e .  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  Jack Schofield September, 1972  ix  A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E d i t i o n s  Used  Page r e f e r e n c e s to a l l of L i n d s a y ' s works and to the one book-length  c r i t i c a l study o f L i n d s a y are g i v e n i n the t e x t  the a p p r o p r i a t e a b b r e v i a t i o n ,  as  listed:  VA  :  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s (New Y o r k :  THW  :  The Haunted Woman (London:  Sph  :  Sphinx (London:  AMM  :  Adventures o f M o n s i e u r de M a i l l y M e l r o s e , 1926)  :  D e v i l ' s Tor (London:  L ~  :  ' L e t t e r s to E . H . V i s i a k , ' Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l No. 346-348 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 39-67.  TSG  :  The Strange Genius of D a v i d L i n d s a y by C o l i n W i l s o n , J . B. P i c k & E . H . V i s i a k (London: John B a k e r , 1 9 7 0 ) .  DT  r  Any q u o t a t i o n s from L i n d s a y ' s  Victor Gollancz,  John L o n g ,  1968)  (London:  Andrew  1932) Review,  'The V i o l e t A p p l e , '  w i s e s t a t e d , been taken from The Strange G e n i u s . are t h e r e f o r e  1968)  1923)  Putnam's,  u n p u b l i s h e d TSS  B a l l a n t i n e Books,  and ' S k e t c h Notes towards a New System of P h i l o s o p h y ' h a v e ,  Note:  after  t o t h a t book and n o t to the works  unless  Page r e f e r e n c e s  'Witch' othercited  themselves.  spaced e l l i p s e s are m i n e , unspaced e l l i p s e s are  the  authors'.  X  The d a y - s e l f i s p o l t r o o n o r h e r o : The n i g h t - s e l f i s p i c a r o , p i e r r o t . The d a y - s e l f can choose to t e l l l i e s . The n i g h t - s e l f speaks t r u t h , o r he d i e s . The v o i c e comes out o f an e m p t i n e s s . N i g h t - s e l f and d a y - s e l f f i n d h e r e no h a b i t a b l e p l a n e t . John W a i n , W i l d t r a c k  What i s d i v i n e i n man i s e l u s i v e and i m p a l p a b l e , and he i s e a s i l y tempted t o embody i t i n a c o l l e c t i v e form—a c h u r c h , a c o u n t r y , a s o c i a l system, a l e a d e r —so t h a t he may r e a l i s e i t w i t h l e s s e f f o r t and s e r v e i t w i t h more p r o f i t . Y e t . . . the attempt t o e x t e r n a l i s e the kingdom o f heaven i n a t e m p o r a l shape must end i n d i s a s t e r . I t cannot be c r e a t e d by c h a r t e r s or c o n s t i t u t i o n s , n o r e s t a b l i s h e d by arms. Those who s e t out f o r i t alone w i l l reach i t t o g e t h e r , and those who seek i t i n company w i l l p e r i s h by t h e m s e l v e s . Hugh K i n g s m i l l , The P o i s o n e d Crown  Chapter One: DAVID LINDSAY AND HIS WORKS1  For the p u b l i s h e r of D e v i l ' s T o r , D a v i d L i n d s a y p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f summary of h i s  life:  I was educated a t B l a c k h e a t h and i n S c o t l a n d . Up to the war I was i n b u s i n e s s i n the C i t y o f London. I was i n the Army f o r upwards of two y e a r s , b u t saw no f o r e i g n s e r v i c e . On d e m o b i l i s a t i o n I took up l i t e r a t u r e , h a v i n g many y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y determined t o do so sooner or l a t e r . A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s appeared i n 1920; The Haunted Woman i n 1922; Sphinx i n 1923; Adventures of M. de M a i l l y i n 1926. I was m a r r i e d i n 1916, and am a t p r e s e n t l i v i n g h a p p i l y w i t h my w i f e and two d a u g h t e r s , aged 12 and 9 . From 1919 t o 1928 we l i v e d i n C o r n w a l l ; then moved t o F e r r i n g i n Sussex. I have done the u s u a l amount of f o r e i g n t r a v e l l i n g , d i s l i k e s p o r t s , and take most of my p r e s e n t e x e r c i s e i n t r a m p i n g the South Downs. My o l d e r b r o t h e r , the l a t e ' A l e x a n d e r C r a w f o r d ' , a l s o wrote some n o v e l s (The A l i a s e t c . ) w h i c h by now are a l most f o r g o t t e n . I t r a c e my s t o c k to the main stem of the L i n d s a y s , whose h i s t o r y i s i n any book of Scottish families. I v a r , j a r l of the Norse U p l a n d e r s , i s s a i d t o have been the o r i g i n a l a n c e s t o r (TSG 6 ) . T h i s b a r e s t of r e c o r d s  suppresses the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t " i n the  he was a L l o y d ' s u n d e r w r i t e r f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , t h a t h i s army  City" service  was as a c l e r k i n t h e G r e n a d i e r s a n d , most n o t a b l y , t h a t he was b o r n on March 3, 1878 making him i n 1932 " r a t h e r o l d e r than i s p r o p e r " a young w r i t e r t o be (TSG 7 ) .  for  However, the bare r e c o r d d i s a b u s e s us  of any i d e a t h a t , . a s Loren E i s e l e y s t a t e s f l a t l y i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e B a l l a n t i n e e d i t i o n of A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , " D a v i d L i n d s a y d i e d young" (VA v i i ) , o r t h a t h i s m a s t e r p i e c e was the unpremeditated p o u r i n g of a f r u s t r a t e d  young man.  out-  2  L i n d s a y seems to have spent most of h i s e a r l y l i f e ' i n t r a i n i n g for a novelist'  a f t e r h i s grandmother p r e v e n t e d h i m from t a k i n g up the  s c h o l a r s h i p he had won t o u n i v e r s i t y .  He educated h i m s e l f by  reading  w i d e l y i n l i t e r a t u r e s a n d p h i l o s o p h y , l e a r n i n g German and r e a d i n g Schopenhauer  and N i e t z s c h e i n the o r i g i n a l , and r e c o r d i n g h i s  i n notebooks  f o r f u t u r e use.  comments  These comments he c a l l e d apercues  For the name and the concept L i n d s a y i s i n d e b t e d ,  (sic).  as f o r much e l s e ,  the g r e a t German p e s s i m i s t Arthur- Schopenhauer.  Lindsay describes  a p e r c u as a thought which " s p r i n g s from the a i r " 4  (TSG 1 3 ) , ——  to the  recalling  Schopenhauer's use of the word f o r "an immediate i n t u i t i o n , , a n d as 2 such the work of an i n s t a n t ,  an a p p e r c u ,  a f l a s h of i n s i g h t . "  A  s—  —  Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s based on a d e c a d e ' s a c c u m u l a t i o n of these i n sights . D u r i n g the w a r , L i n d s a y ,  then t h i r t y - e i g h t , m a r r i e d a g i r l  twenty a g a i n s t the wishes of b o t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  of  A f t e r the war he  d i d not r e t u r n t o L l o y d ' s , b u t went w i t h h i s w i f e to N o r t h C o r n w a l l , where he was to b e g i n h i s c a r e e r as a n o v e l i s t . records  I n h i s notebook he  that when one s t e p s out of the l a n d of dreams and l o n g i n g s , by r e a s o n of b e i n g s e i z e d by the i d e a of a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e p l a n f o r the f u t u r e , i t i s j u s t as i f o n e ' s l i f e had^got i n t o f o c u s ; the vague and b l u r r e d i s a l l changed i n t o the d e f i n e d and b e a u t i f u l (TSG 1 0 ) .  Of c o u r s e ,  from the c o n v e n t i o n a l p o i n t of v i e w , he had s t e p p e d from  w o r l d l y , m a t e r i a l i s t i c L l o y d ' s i n t o a dream w o r l d , i n l i v i n g u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y on a lump sum from h i s f i r m and a l e g a c y w h i c h he i n -  3  vested,  i n a l a r g e house w i t h s e r v a n t s and a c a r r i a g e .  sensible,  Had he been  however, he w o u l d n e v e r have w r i t t e n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s ,  and would now be Jacqueline s i x novels,  forgotten. and C o r n w a l l i n s p i r e d and encouraged L i n d s a y t o  t h r e e o f them minor m a s t e r p i e c e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  between A p r i l 1919 and J u l y 1924. b o r e h i m two d a u g h t e r s ,  wife  D i a n a and H e l e n , who were l a t e r nicknamed by  ' N i g h t ' and ' D a y '  a happy and p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d .  (TSG 9 7 - 9 8 ) .  like  I t was, f o r the L i n d s a y s ,  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s was completed i n  March 1920 and i m m e d i a t e l y accepted by Methuen, who i n s i s t e d , t h a t the book be reduced i n l e n g t h by some 15,000 words.  however,  The book  was p u b l i s h e d l a t e r i n 1920, but i t s o l d b a d l y and many c o p i e s remaindered.  genres,  A l s o d u r i n g t h i s time L i n d s a y ' s  E . H . V i s i a k , one b e i n g dark l i k e the mother and the o t h e r f a i r the f a t h e r ,  produce  were  By then L i n d s a y was w e l l . o n w i t h The Haunted Woman,  which he completed i n A p r i l 1921.  Methuen r e f u s e d i t a t f i r s t ,  i t was (as A Voyage to A r c t u r u s had p r e v i o u s l y been) a c c e p t e d  but for  s e r i a l i s a t i o n by The D a i l y News s u b j e c t t o a r e d u c t i o n o f 20,000 w o r d s . A g a i n , L i n d s a y cut them. the book i n February But  Methuen r e c o n s i d e r e d ,  and f i n a l l y  published  1922.  L i n d s a y was now ' a w r i t e r ' , w i t h a house t o keep up, a w i f e  and f a m i l y to s u p p o r t .  He was b e g i n n i n g to c o n c e r n h i m s e l f more w i t h  w r i t i n g what p u b l i s h e r s might a c c e p t and the p u b l i c might b u y . two commercial f a i l u r e s  After  a p u b l i s h e r f o r h i s n e x t book, Sphinx,, w r i t t e n  between August 1921 and March 1922, was h a r d t o f i n d .  L i n d s a y spent  4  two months r e v i s i n g the book and r e d u c i n g i t s  length, after  which  R o n a l d Massey, a : l i t e r a r y a g e n t , succeeded i n p l a c i n g i t , i n A p r i l 1923, w i t h John Long. Presumably s h a r i n g the s e n t i m e n t s  of L o r e J e n s o n ,  the  composer-  h e r o i n e of S p h i n x , Of c o u r s e i t ' s p o t - b o i l i n g ' . But i f I d o n ' t b o i l my p o t , a r e y o u g o i n g t o b o i l i t f o r me? I suppose y o u t h i n k i t ' s bad a r t t o have a p o t ! An a r t i s t ought to be above such t r i f l e s as food (Sph 7 2 ) , L i n d s a y s t r u g g l e d w i t h the i n t r a c t a b l e m a t e r i a l o f "The A n c i e n t Tragedy' w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w o r k i n g on a . c o m p l e t e l y u n v i s i o n a r y romance of one 3 musketeer,  A d v e n t u r e s of M o n s i e u r de M a i l l v .  T h i s i s unashamedly  a  p o t - b o i l e r , but a t l e a s t L i n d s a y seems to have found the w r i t i n g o f f a i r l y easy.  I t was completed between October 1922 and May 1923,  it  and  a c c e p t e d by the s e v e n t h p u b l i s h e r t o whom i t was s e n t , Andrew M e l r o s e , who brought i t out i n E n g l a n d i n 1926, and one y e a r l a t e r , f o r S a l e , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . t o J u l y 1924)  as A B l a d e  L i n d s a y had by then w r i t t e n  (February  and r e v i s e d 'The V i o l e t A p p l e , ' w h i c h was n o t t o f i n d a  p u b l i s h e r at a l l .  Thus ended a p e r i o d of enormous c r e a t i v i t y , w i t h a  remarkable l a c k o f s u c c e s s . . L i n d s a y might have been f o r g i v e n f o r g i v i n g in.  He d i d n o t .  H i s n e x t p u b l i c a t i o n , however, o f t h e ' m o n s t e r '  D e v i l ' s T o r , was t o be h i s  (L 59)  last.  In 1928 the L i n d s a y s moved from C o r n w a l l t o F e r r i n g , i n S u s s e x , where D a v i d r e w r o t e 'The A n c i e n t Tragedy' unsuccessfully,  as D e v i l ' s Tor and t r i e d ,  to w r i t e a n o t h e r e n t i t l e d ' W i t c h . '  who p u b l i s h e d D e v i l ' s Tor i n 1932,  Though P u t n a m ' s ,  seem to have made a r e a l e f f o r t t o 4 s e l l i t , and though the book r e c e i v e d some f a v o r a b l e r e v i e w s , sales  5  were poor enough t o d i s c o u r a g e anyone from r e p u b l i s h i n g A Voyage o r r i s k i n g another book by an e v i d e n t l y doomed w r i t e r . of t h i s was slow to dawn on a L i n d s a y s t i l l h i s dream.  The r e a l i z a t i o n  i n t e n s e l y committed t o  He wrote t o P u t n a m ' s : F o r my n e x t p l a n s , I can o n l y say t h a t I am at p r e s e n t b e g i n n i n g to see where they s h o u l d lie. Between the p h i l o s o p h i e s o f A r c t u r u s and D e v i l ' s Tor t h e r e seems t o be a chasm o f contradiction. As both books were s i n c e r e l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y w r i t t e n , and were l o n g matured, no doubt the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s more a p p a r e n t than r e a l ; and i t seems t o me t h a t a l a r g e r s y n t h e s i s can be f o u n d , t o i n c l u d e both philosophies. But i n t h a t c a s e , a new and h i g h e r t r u t h s h o u l d emerge; and t h i s i s what I am a f t e r (TSG 30) .  Though he worked on a new book, powerful,  creaking, beautiful, archaic,  (TSG 3 0 ) — u n t i l about 1939, pearance.  'Witch'.—Pick c a l l s i t a "strange, u n w o r l d l y , u n e a r t h l y book"  t h e p u b l i c was n e v e r b l e s s e d by i t s  ap-  T y p i c a l l y , though he had much e a r l i e r r e a l i s e d t h a t A r c t u r u s  "was w r i t t e n i n r a t h e r an u n p o p u l a r s t y l e "  (L 4 0 ) ,  i t was t h e p h i l o -  sophy w h i c h m o t i v a t e d h i m to w r i t e , i n s p i t e o f t h e s t y l e w h i c h p r e v e n t e d the books from s e l l i n g . We must remember t h a t L i n d s a y had s p e n t many o f the f i r s t  forty  y e a r s o f h i s l i f e dreaming of and p r e p a r i n g f o r the time when he w o u l d ' t a k e up l i t e r a t u r e ' .  He had f i n a l l y  done so l e s s because he thought  he c o u l d w r i t e — h e seems t o have attempted no c r e a t i v e work b e f o r e Arcturus—than t o communicate.  because he f e l t he had something t o s a y ,  had a v i s i o n  That v i s i o n was one w h i c h c o n t i n u a l l y opposed a s u b -  6  l i m e and i m p o r t a n t ' o t h e r ' w o r l d t o  the v u l g a r and t r i v i a l  w o r l d i n w h i c h he had been a b u s i n e s s s u c c e s s .  'real'  But the v i s i o n , em-  b o d i e d so f o r c e f u l l y i n t h e t o t a l l y unambiguous^ A r c t u r u s , had a p p a r e n t l y not been u n d e r s t o o d , and the commercial f a i l u r e of h i s n o v e l s must i n i t s e l f have been e x t r e m e l y After Arcturus, therefore,  discouraging.  i n o r d e r to communicate, i n o r d e r t o  make p a l a t a b l e h i s message, L i n d s a y began t o compromise, moving f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r , book by book, from h i s o r i g i n a l , i f u n r e p e a t a b l e , A f t e r A r c t u r u s human a c t i o n b e g i n s Cosmic D e s t i n y p l a y s a b i g g e r p a r t . emasculated  vision.  t o count f o r l e s s , w h i l e F a t e o r The heroes become g r a d u a l l y more  and l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t — o f t h e i r a u t h o r as w e l l as of t h e i r  s u r r o u n d i n g s — a n d the h e r o i n e s become f r i g i d l y wooden.  M a s k u l l had  fought h i s b l o o d y way a c r o s s Tormance t o d e f e a t i n t t h e arms of q u i v e r i n g mass o f p o w e r f u l f e m i n i n i t y t h a t was S u l l e n b o d e .  the  Judge and  I s b e l i n The Haunted Woman, however, f a t e h a v i n g thrown them t o g e t h e r , a r e b o t h d e f e a t e d by the t r i v i a l mechanics of a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n : though they are ' s o u l - m a t e s '  i n the s p i r i t w o r l d , i n ' r e a l ' l i f e she  i s a l r e a d y engaged t o someone e l s e .  F u r t h e r , i n s t e a d of a whole new  p l a n e t and enough s t r a n g e l i f e forms to s t o c k a u n i v e r s e , the dream w o r l d they can i n h a b i t i s l i m i t e d to a s m a l l s e c t i o n of g a r d e n ,  seen  from an enchanted t o w e r , and c r e a t e d n o t by the gods b u t by a man w i t h a k i n d of b a s s v i o l . it  T h i s garden they can i n h a b i t o n l y b r i e f l y b e f o r e  crumbles around them ([.'she h e r s e l f was no more than h i s dream!" [THW  167]).  I n S p h i n x , w h i c h , l i k e The Haunted Woman, n e v e r gets o f f  the  7  g r o u n d , the i n v e n t o r , N i c h o l a s , and the composer, L o r e , do n o t even r e c o g n i s e each o t h e r as s o u l mates on e a r t h ; they are o n l y u n i t e d , at the end o f the book, i n a dream a f t e r b o t h t h e i r d e a t h s . i n t h i s case, S t u r t  (but c f .  Edda), L o r e ' s f a t h e r ,  The dreamer  S u r t u r i n A Voyage and S u r t i n The E l d e r  i s n e i t h e r god n o r a n t i q u e phantom, and h i s  dream i s merely a way o f s e e i n g i n t o the h i g h e r w o r l d , n e i t h e r a p a r t nor a creator of i t . and S a l t f l e e t ,  I f the f a t e d c h a r a c t e r s  i n D e v i l ' s Tor, Ingrid  seem more i m p r e s s i v e , i t i s m a i n l y because they a r e ,  a f t e r a l l , mere p u p p e t s ,  e x i s t i n g o n l y t o be brought t o g e t h e r , no  m a t t e r what, by the m a c h i n a t i o n s o f an a l l - p o w e r f u l Cosmic D e s t i n y . The p o i n t i s not t h a t L i n d s a y ' s l a t e r works* are n e c e s s a r i l y i n f e r i o r as l i t e r a t u r e t o A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , but t h a t they are n a r r o w e r and o f a l e s s i m p r e s s i v e s c a l e as v i s i o n , and i t i s as  a  v i s i o n a r y , r a t h e r than as a w r i t e r , t h a t L i n d s a y i s i m p o r t a n t .  At  l e a s t 150 pages (pages 233-388, between the d i s c o v e r y of D r a p i e r ' s body and I n g r i d 1 s " d r e a m l i k e e n t r a n c e " )  c o u l d be e x c i s e d ,  if  replaced  by a c o n c i s e p l o t summary, from the stodgy i n t e r i o r of D e v i l ' s T o r . But a p a r t from the ' m o n s t e r ' , L i n d s a y ' s o t h e r p u b l i s h e d works have a charm of t h e i r own.  The Haunted Woman, L i n d s a y ' s second book,  has  been p r e f e r r e d t o A r c t u r u s by V i s i a k , and, l i k e the t h i r d n o v e l , S p h i n x , i t i s at l e a s t economically t o l d .  They are b o t h about dream w o r l d s ,  l i k e A Voyage, b u t i n these the dream i s a s m a l l b u t v i t a l p a r t of the ' r e a l ' world, i . e . i s t s as C. P . Snow.  the o r d i n a r y , everyday w o r l d p u r v e y e d by such n o v e l On the Snavian l e v e l  ( t o borrow a term from  8  Dr. M e r i v a l e ) i n The Haunted Woman and Sphinx we have the  suburban,  upper m i d d l e c l a s s E n g l i s h w o r l d of v i l l a s and c o u n t r y h o u s e s , wooded walks, parties,  people  ' a l i g h t i n g ' from t a x i - c a b s and t r a i n s .  This  w o r l d , h i s a s p i r i n g L l o y d ' s underwriter's world, Lindsay t r i e s  to i n -  fuse w i t h a sense of the h i g h e r r e a l i t y of an unseen cosmic w o r l d o f transcendent  importance.  In The Haunted Woman, the most i m p o r t a n t ' c h a r a c t e r ' C o u r t , a manor house w i t h a haunted upper s t o r y t o date from Saxon t i m e s ) .  Runhill  (improbably supposed  But t h i s i s n o t a ghost s t o r y ,  Tower i s n o t haunted b u t enchanted.  is  and U l f ' s  The s t a i r s l e a d i n g up t o i t can  o n l y be d i s c o v e r e d by the s p i r i t u a l l y s e n s i t i v e who, when t h e y c l i m b them, f i n d themselves t h e i r everyday s o c i a l ,  i n a new w o r l d , where t h e i r r e a l , r a t h e r than c h a r a c t e r comes t o the f o r e .  descending the s t a i r s t h e i n s i g h t i s l o s t , Isbel,  the t r a g i c h e r o i n e of the s t o r y ,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , on  and the e x p e r i e n c e  forgotten.  i s engaged t o M a r s h a l l , and the  p l o t t u r n s on h e r meeting w i t h the a g i n g w i d o w e r , Judge, i n U l f ' s Tower. There they are " e n a b l e d t e m p o r a r i l y t o drop the mask of c o n v e n t i o n " (THW 8 4 ) ,  to see each o t h e r as they r e a l l y a r e ,  and they f a l l i n l o v e ;  t h e i r s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e s are i n e s s e n t i a l harmony. a g a i n t o the everyday w o r l d ,  to t h e body s o c i a l ,  " s p i r i t u a l lesson"((THW 84) they have  But  descending  they f o r g e t  the  learned.  From the window o f one of the t o w e r ' s rooms, Judge and I s b e l out onto an a n c i e n t l a n d s c a p e , marks of " f i e l d s , hedgerows,  look  from w h i c h t h e f a m i l i a r , modern l a n d roads, lanes,  h o u s e s , had v a n i s h e d  9  entirely"  (THW 1 3 0 ) .  Saxon come t o l i f e "  A m o t i o n l e s s f i g u r e who " l o o k s l i k e an a n c i e n t (THW 131) s i t s w i t h " h i s back to the h o u s e " (THW  131) p l a y i n g what sounds l i k e " a bass v i o l "  (THW 1 2 7 ) :  almost fancy i t t o be the v o i c e of the l a n d s c a p e . beautiful, familiar,  and f u l l of queer s u r p r i s e s "  (THW 1 3 2 ) .  "Isbel could  I t was h a u n t i n g l y I s b e l , by now on  f i r s t - n a m e terms w i t h Judge i n the enchanted rooms,  asks,  " H e n r y , c a n ' t y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a l l t h i s has a meaning?  Don't you  see  But l e a v i n g  that i t ' s  c a r r y i n g us  h i g h e r and h i g h e r ? " (THW 1 3 8 ) .  the rooms she f o r g e t s the meaning, she r e t u r n s t o everyday r e a l i t y : " A r e we dreaming now, o r were we dreaming b e f o r e ? "  (THW 1 4 1 ) .  I s b e l i s thus t o r n between h e r s p i r i t u a l b e t r o t h e d , Judge, and h e r s o c i a l one, M a r s h a l l , between the a n t i q u e s p r i n g - t i m e w o r l d around the m u s i c i a n and the v u l g a r England o f the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , between the dream and the r e a l i t y . dream l a n d s c a p e ,  When she f i n a l l y gets i n t o the  and meets Judge t h e r e , t h e y r e c o g n i s e t h e i r j o i n t  d e s t i n y , b u t f o r h e r i t q u i c k l y gets d a r k e r and s t a r t s t o get m i s t y . W. H . Auden n o t e s i n The Enchafed F l o o d t h a t "The degree o f v i s i b i l i t y = the degree o f c o n s c i o u s knowledge. self-delusion."^  I.e.,  f o g and m i s t mean doubt and  F o r I s b e l , the v i s i o n b e g i n s  to  fade:  ' H e n r y , I ' m g o i n g ! ' she s a i d , q u i e t l y d e t a c h i n g h e r s e l f from h i s e m b r a c e . . . . 'Everything's f a l l i n g back....' His face f e l l i n alarm. ' W h a t ' s the m a t t e r ? What's happening to y o u ? . . . ' ' W e ' r e r e t u r n i n g t o the o l d s t a t e . The s u n ' s gone i n , and i t ' s growing m i s t y and c o l d . . . . Oh, c a n ' t y o u see i t ? ' 'No, I c a n ' t . T h e r e ' s no d i f f e r e n c e a t a l l — the day i s as g l o r i o u s as ever i t w a s . . . . Exert your w i l l . * . . . ' (THW 164).  10  I s b e l l o s e s h e r v i s i o n o f the enchanted dream w o r l d , and goes back to c a l l i n g Henry " M r . Judge" (THW 1 6 5 ) .  He goes to wake up the s l e e p i n g  m u s i c i a n , whose back was t u r n e d towards h e r , so t h a t she c o u l d n o t see h i s f a c e , b u t H e n r y , who was s t a n d i n g e r e c t and m o t i o n l e s s beyond, was l o o k i n g r i g h t i n t o i t , a n d , from h i s e x p r e s s i o n , i t was as though he were b e h o l d i n g some a p p a l l i n g v i s i o n ! (THW 1 6 7 ) . J u s t b e f o r e the b a l l o o n comes down i n G. K. C h e s t e r t o n ' s o p t i m i s t i c nightmare fantasy, extraordinary  The Man Who Was Thursday, G a b r i e l Syme c r i e s  "with  emphasis":  S h a l l I t e l l y o u the s e c r e t of the whole w o r l d ? I t i s t h a t we have o n l y known the back o f the w o r l d . We see e v e r y t h i n g from b e h i n d , and i t l o o k s b r u t a l . That i s n o t a t r e e but the back of a t r e e . That i s n o t a c l o u d , b u t the back of a c l o u d . Can y o u n o t see t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s s t o o p i n g and h i d i n g a f a c e ? I f we c o u l d o n l y get round i n f r o n t — ( 8 ) . When, i n L i n d s a y ' s p e s s i m i s t i c dream book, Henry does " g e t round i n f r o n t " he f i n d s t h a t t o be more b r u t a l and " a p p a l l i n g " than the f r o n t . What he sees must be the e q u i v a l e n t c o l the v u l g a r g r i n of C r y s t a l m a n , t h e mask o f d e a t h , f o r he s i n k s t o t h e ground, dead.  Isbel  faints.  M a r s h a l l comes a l o n g t o f i n d J u d g e ' s body, and the book ends w i t h the f a i n t promise of I s b e l and M a r s h a l l ' s re-engagementaarid,  presumably,  marriage. S p h i n x appeared i n 1923 i n John L o n g ' s s e r i e s of 'The L a t e s t L i b r a r y N o v e l s ' , among which were The M i s s i n g M i l l i o n by Edgar W a l l a c e , The Young P i t c h e r by Zane G r e y , and many now even more comp l e t e l y forgotten others.  The book opens w i t h the sedate a r r i v a l  11  of N i c h o l a s Cabot at N e w l e i g h S t a t i o n on h i s way t o Mereway.  Nicholas  has j u s t been r e s c u e d from b e i n g a l e d g e r c l e r k by an i n h e r i t a n c e o f ^55,000.  When asked why he d i d n o t choose " a more c o n g e n i a l  he c u r t l y r e p l i e s , (Sph 1 4 ) .  career"  " I wanted to r e t a i n any o r i g i n a l i t y I might p o s s e s s "  Now, f r e e to pursue h i s r e a l i n t e r e s t  i n chemistry,  Nicholas  i s p e r f e c t i n g a k i n d o f c h e m i c a l - c l o c k w o r k d e v i c e f o r r e c o r d i n g and p l a y i n g back dreams.  H o p e f u l l y t h e s e w i l l be deep dreams:  times have v i s i o n s , which are i d e n t i c a l " (Sph 3 3 ) .  !'we some-  They are  dreams we dream d u r i n g deep s l e e p and remember n o t h i n g of  "the  afterwards.  The l i g h t dreams of the f r i n g e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e a d i f f e r e n t altogether" of  (Sph 3 3 ) .  dreams" (Sph 3 2 ) ,  The S p h i n x , N i c h o l a s t e l l s u s , was " t h e goddess and ' S p h i n x ' i s the t i t l e n o t o n l y o f the whole  book but a l s o o f Lore J e n s o n ' s f i n e s t A youngish ex-ledger  p i e c e of m u s i c .  c l e r k w i t h £ 5 5 , 0 0 0 must,  v e r s a l l y acknowledged, be i n want of  a wife.  b e a u t i e s to choose f r o m , and the ' r e a l ' his relationships  thing  i t w i l l be u n i -  N i c h o l a s has a bevy of  or n o v e l i s t i c a c t i o n t u r n s on  w i t h S t u r t ' s t h r e e daughters—members o f the f a m i l y  w i t h which N i c h o l a s i s a p a y i n g guest—and two l a d i e s who l i v e n e a r b y , L o r e Jenson the composer i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter), and femme f a t a l e .  (who, we e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r ,  is  Sturt's  and M r s . C e l i a H a n t i s h , an a t t r a c t i v e widow  A t l e a s t , I t h i n k t h i s i s what S t u r t means when  he t e l l s N i c h o l a s , " I do not t h i n k i t i n the f a t a l c a t e g o r y " (Sph 6 7 ) . t a k i n g N i c h o l a s o f f i n t o the woods  js t o m a l i g n h e r t o p l a c e h e r  She makes a l l the r u n n i n g , even (Sph 1 2 0 ) .  Later,  ' I n the W i l d e r -  12  ness'  (Ch. XV) o f which C e l i a says " I keep i t f o r my men f r i e n d s .  Men always f e e l cramped i n a g a r d e n " (Sph  (Sph 2 1 7 ) ,  they become engaged  220). On the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , however, N i c h o l a s ' s  he n e v e r r e a l i s e s i t , i s Lore J e n s o n . manages to r e c o r d h i n t s a t t h i s .  t r u e s o u l mate,  The second dream w h i c h N i c h o l a s  L i k e the f i r s t  dream, he p l a y s  back i n E v e l y n ' s presence so t h a t we e x p e r i e n c e h i s h e r :(female) s e n s i b i l i t y .  though  it  (male) dream t h r o u g h  The N i c h o l a s o f the dream i s w a l k i n g through  a wood when he meets L o r e , " b u t not the Lore o f everyday  life.  This  L o r e , who g l i d e d towards h e r [ E v e l y n ] w i t h such a w f u l smoothness and r e g u l a r i t y , was n o t human.  She was a s p i r i t " " (Sph 159).  'Evelyn'  "was moved by such g r i e f and h o r r o r t h a t i t was as i f Lore were someone v e r y dear t o h e r . " late!  Lore c r i e s o u t ,  I t w i l l soon be too l a t e ! "  vanishes. dreams.  It's  an o r a c l e .  and the v i s i o n a b r u p t l y  A message, i f y o u l i k e "  it  L o r e i s " b e i n g moved u n -  (Sph 202) by some " t e r r i b l e unseen f o r c e "  [a] p o o l , which  But  t h a t N i c h o l a s shows h e r , E v e l y n f i n d s  " a g a i n i n t h a t wood" (Sph 2 0 1 ) .  willingly"  (Sph 160).  understand.  I n the t h i r d o f h i s dreams  wards  (Sph 1 5 9 ) ,  too  Nicholas realises this " i s n ' t a fantasy, l i k e ordinary  i s not a message he seems to  herself  "Do h e l p me b e f o r e i t ' s  (Sph 203)  was i n h e r d i r e c t p a t h " (Sph2202).  "to-  The agent  i s e v i d e n t l y M a u r i c e , N i c h o l a s ' s workman and E v e l y n ' s b e a u , who i s "leaning against a t r e e " :  "he was w e a r i n g h i s o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s ,  h i s f a c e was the f a c e o f a d e v i l "  (Sph 2 0 3 ) .  but  In the f i n a l s e c t i o n  of  13  t h i s c o n t i n u i n g d r e a m - s a g a — a f t e r N i c h o l a s and M r s . H a n t i s h have become e n g a g e d — ' E v e l y n ' wakes from a swoon aware t h a t " M a u r i c e had k i l l e d L o r e " (Sph  233):  I t t o o k shape i n h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s as an immense f a c t which f i l l e d the whole u n i v e r s e , and which w o u l d r e n d e r a l l j o y and i m o c e n c e i m p o s s i b l e t h e r e a f t e r , f o r everyone. By no p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d t h i n g s be the same i n t h e f u t u r e as t h e y had been i n the p a s t . The i d e a l w o r l d was ended, and r e a l i t y had b u r s t i n t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n (Sph 233). The dream i s p r o p h e t i c . case i s  Lore drowns h e r s e l f .  Maurice's  cigarette  found a t the scene o f the ' c r i m e ' and s u s p i c i o n f a l l s  on h i m .  In s p i t e of the dream, when q u e s t i o n e d N i c h o l a s does a l l he can t o a v o i d i n c r i m i n a t i n g M a u r i c e , to the p o i n t o f l y i n g t h i s leads to h i s separation  (Sph 2 6 6 ) ,  and  from M r s . H a n t i s h , who i s c o n v i n c e d o f  Maurice's g u i l t . Now E v e l y n t a k e s a hand. fatal)  She g i v e s N i c h o l a s an  overdose o f s l e e p i n g c r y s t a l s  the dream r e c o r d e r t o h e r f a t h e r ' s  (unfortunately  t o keep h i m q u i e t w h i l e she t a k e s  bedside.  c o v e r i n g from the e f f e c t s of the death  He, S t u r t , i s j u s t  of h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e  re-  daughter.  In h i s dream, E v e l y n f i n d s h e r s e l f l i s t e n i n g t o " g r a v e m u s i c " i n " t h e o t h e r w o r l d " (Sph 3 0 1 ) : i n t o i t s elements.  " s h e made no attempt t o a n a l y s e t h i s  life  She had no s t a n d a r d o f c o m p a r i s o n , f o r the common  l i f e had p a s s e d from h e r " (Sph 3 0 3 ) .  "Perhaps she had become  trans-  p o r t e d to a new p l a n e t which was s t i l l i n i t s p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The dusky, w i l d l y - b e a u t i f u l landscape  seemed the h a b i t a t of  spirits  14  and gods" (jSgh 304). the naked s a n d , "  She l o o k s down i n t o " a s m a l l , c i r c u l a r p o o l i n  "a natural w e l l "  (E>p_h 3 0 6 ) .  Under the w a t e r i s  r o c k y t u n n e l " a l o n g w h i c h " v e r y s m a l l " Lore i s (Sph  "a  " w a l k i n g and s t u m b l i n g "  307): She was midway through the t u n n e l , and seemed i n deep d i s t r e s s a t h e r i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d a passage o u t . . . . The g r e a t e s t a n g u i s h , however, appeared on h e r f e a t u r e s as o f t e n as she t u r n e d them upwards to the s k y , as seen through the w a t e r s u r face. The r e a l i s a t i o n o f the l i g h t , f r e s h , f r e e , b e a u t i f u l w o r l d , l y i n g i m m e d i a t e l y overhead, w h i c h she was unable t o r e a c h , seemed to be more than she c o u l d b e a r (Sph 3 0 7 - 0 8 ) .  This i s  the r e a l L o r e , but she cannot s p r i n g up through the s u r f a c e  of the p o o l because of h e r shadow-selves b e l o w . t u n n e l " (Sph 308) " f o r e s t avenue"  "Underneath the r o c k  i s a n o t h e r l e v e l o f r e a l i t y , where L o r e w a l k s  (Sph 308) o f N i c h o l a s ' s  dream.  Lore i s " a t h i r d L o r e , the shadow of a shadow" Lore i s the Lore o f  'real'  Below t h i s  the  shadow  (Sph 3 0 9 ) . - T h i s  third  l i f e , w a l k i n g by a r i v e r w i t h M a u r i c e  Ferreira. Each o f the Lores  is  w a l k i n g a l o n g h e r e n c l o s e d p a s s a g e , w h i c h was as a p r i s o n t o h e r , each v a i n l y s t r u g g l i n g towards the open w o r l d w h i c h n e v e r came, each d e s p a i r i n g and a g o n i s e d , but [none] a p p a r e n t l y aware o f the other's existence. . . . The r e a l Lore o f the t u n n e l w i s h e d to escape i n t o the f r e e w o r l d w h i c h she c o u l d see above h e r , whereas the shadow Lore o f the f o r e s t avenue l o n g e d o n l y to escape from h e r confinement. She was aware o f no o t h e r p l a c e . And t h a t , p e r h a p s , was what c o n s t i t u t e d h e r shadowhood (Sph 3 0 9 ) . A c t i o n on the t h r e e p l a n e s i s s i m u l t a n e o u s .  When the r e a l Lore d e c i d e s  15  t o " s t e p " through the s u r f a c e of t h e p o o l , i n t o t h e " f r e e , pure phere o f the open w o r l d "  (Sph 311),  atmos-  t h e shadow L o r e s drown t h e m s e l v e s :  " t h e i r l e a p s i n t o the w a t e r were n o t w i l l e d , but n e c e s s i t a t e d "  (Sph  312). Once f r e e of h e r body, once out o f n a t u r e , L o r e embraces h e r father.  Then she p o i n t s t o " A dark coast . . . , m i l e s d i s t a n t ,  the sea"  (Sph 313) where she must go, w i t h o u t h i m .  d e a r ! " she t e l l h i m .  across  " Y o u are n o t h e r e ,  " I am h e r e , because I am dead; but y o u are i n  y o u r body, dreaming e v e r y t h i n g . "  He w i l l f o l l o w when the time  comes.  She i s no l o n g e r t r a p p e d i n the p r i s o n o f the body; most i m p o r t a n t l y , she has l e a r n e d t h a t she was n o t r u n n i n g away from M a u r i c e , but wards something a l l t h e t t i m e " (Sph 3 1 3 ) . one horse and l e a d i n g a n o t h e r . land, air"  (Sph 3 1 5 ) .  Then N i c h o l a s a p p e a r s ,  Together they r i d e t o the  the b e a s t s q u i t t i n g " t h e rude s e a ,  distant  t o t a k e f l i g h t i n the upper  after  death.  In S p h i n x and The Haunted Woman the fundamental elements t h e i r moral s i g n i f i c a n c e ) Firstly,  w h i c h the ' r e a l ' shadow.  riding  Lore and N i c h o l a s have escaped from the sea o f m a t t e r  to be u n i t e d , a t l a s t ,  narily clear.  "to-  ( i f not  o f L i n d s a y ' s cosmology a r e made e x t r a o r d i -  the r e a l w o r l d i s t h e w o r l d o f the s p i r i t , of  ( s o - c a l l e d r e a l ) w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s i s but a  The r e a l w o r l d i s c o m p l e t e l y and i n e l u c t a b l y beyond:  beyond  our comprehension and beyond our i m a g i n a t i o n .  "That i s t o s a y ,  an  i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " w r i t e s L i n d s a y (TSG 4 2 ) .  However, though t h e r e  may be "an unbroken l i n e o f " shadow w o r l d s were our eyes a c u t e enough  16  t o see them (Sph 3 1 3 ) ,  t h e r e i s a w o r l d we know w h i c h , by  w i l l h e l p us to c o n c e i v e o f t h e i n c o n c e i v a b l e ; t h a t i s , the d r e a m - v i s i o n , which stands i n r e l a t i o n s w o r l d stands t o i t . levels:  analogy,  the w o r l d o f  t o our w o r l d as  the r e a l  Thus L i n d s a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y works on t h r e e  r e a l w o r l d , s p i r i t w o r l d of haunted rooms and dream g a r d e n s ,  everyday w o r l d ; r e a l w o r l d , s p i r i t w o r l d of deep dreams,  everyday  world:  i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , the w o r l d s of K r a g , N i g h t s p o r e and  Maskull  respectively.  A n o t h e r way of e x p r e s s i n g  the i n e x p r e s s i b l e — f o r w h i c h i t  t h e r e f o r e a s y m b o l — i s through m u s i c . microcosm o f the f e e l i n g s . i t i s n o t the f e e l i n g s  Lindsay w r i t e s , "Music i s  themselves"  (TSG 1 3 ) .  That i s ,  f o r L i n d s a y , "music i s the e x p e r i e n c e of a  w o r l d " (TSG 1 3 ) . w o r l d , as  a  I t e x p r e s s e s them a l l , y e t o n l y as A r t ; i t is  of t h e ' r e a l ' w o r l d , though i t s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o i t . literally,  is  In  free fact,  supernatural  M u s i c i n L i n d s a y ' s books i s a gateway to the h i g h e r  the p l a y i n g of the man i n the g a r d e n ,  or L o r e ' s  'Sphinx'.  L i n d s a y h i m s e l f l o v e d the music o f M o z a r t , Brahms, a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , Beethoven (TSG 2 3 ) .  It i n s p i r e d him.  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s b e g i n s  w i t h a copy o f the Temple Scene from The Magic F l u t e , w h i c h L i n d s a y g r e a t l y admired (TSG 1 3 ) , Robert B a r n e s ,  though he a l l o w s F a u l l t o v u l g a r i s e  a m u s i c i a n f r i e n d of L i n d s a y , t e l l s us  that  On r e a d i n g the c h a p t e r 'Wombflash F o r e s t ' I was always shaken w i t h deep e m o t i o n . He t o l d me t h a t he was i n s p i r e d t o so w r i t e t h a t c h a p t e r by t h e 5 t h Symphony ( B e e t h o v e n ) — e s p e c i a l l y t h e drumming passage l i n k i n g the s c h e r z o t o t h e f i n a l e (TSG 2 3 ) .  it.  17  In A Voyage to A r c t u r u s t h e r e i s a m u s i c i a n , E a r t h r i d , who p l a y s w i t h shapes as o r d i n a r y m u s i c i a n s  do w i t h n o t e s .  On h i s  instrument,  M a s k u l l a l m o s t manages t o c r e a t e M u s p e l . In h i s t h e o r y of M u s i c , L i n d s a y seems to f o l l o w quite closely.  In The World as W i l l and Idea Schopenhauer  neo-Platonic l i n e that art  r e a l i s e s that "the  o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of w i l l phenomenal w o r l d " : objectifies be "as  takes  " r e p e a t s or reproduces the e t e r n a l  grasped through pure c o n t e m p l a t i o n " ( T h i r d Book, s e c . Schopenhauer  Schopenhauer  (Platonic)  36).  Ideas  Of  course,  Ideas a r e the adequate  w h i l e music " i s e n t i r e l y independent  of  Therefore,  Schopenhauer  d e c i d e s , music must  d i r e c t an o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n and copy o f the whole w i l l as  constitutes  the  i . e . music i s independent o f the w o r l d w h i c h  the I d e a s .  world i t s e l f ,  the  the  n a y , even as the I d e a s , whose m u l t i p l i e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n  the w o r l d of i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s .  l i k e the o t h e r a r t s ,  M u s i c i s thus by no means  the copy o f the I d e a s , , b u t the Copy of the  itself,  whose o b j e c t i v i t y the Ideas a r e . "  i s that  music  Schopenhauer's  will  conclusion  does n o t t h e r e f o r e e x p r e s s t h i s o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r and d e f i n i t e j o y , t h i s or t h a t s o r r o w , o r p a i n , or h o r r o r , o r d e l i g h t , o r m e r r i m e n t , or peace of m i n d ; but j o y , s o r r o w , p a i n , h o r r o r , d e l i g h t , m e r r i m e n t , peace of mind themselves ( T h i r d Book, s e c . 5 2 ) . Lindsay's  v i e w , quoted i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h ^ , i s c l e a r l y a p a r a -  phrase of t h i s .  F o r b o t h of them, music " e x h i b i t s i t s e l f as the meta-  p h y s i c a l t o e v e r y t h i n g p h y s i c a l i n the w o r l d " ( T h i r d ^ B o o k , s e c . music i s i t s  52):  own w o r l d , and i t i s a h i g h e r w o r l d than the p h y s i c a l o r  phenomenal one.  18  T h i r d l y , Lindsay u t i l i s e s  the many o p p o s i t i o n s  which are common  t o w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , w h i c h i s " n o t o f one European c o u n t r y but o f  9 Europe"  as T. S. E l i o t says o f D a n t e ' s .  I n d e e d , Dante i s the f o u n t a i n -  head o f European a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and i t s g r e a t e s t p r a c t i tioner: He l i v e d i n an age i n which men s t i l l saw v i s i o n s . I t was a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t , the t r i c k o f which we have f o r g o t t e n , but as good as any o f our own. We have n o t h i n g b u t dreams, and we have f o r g o t t e n t h a t s e e i n g v i s i o n s — a p r a c t i c e now r e l e g a t e d to the a b e r r a n t and uneducated—was once a more s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t e r e s t i n g , and d i s c i p l i n e d k i n d o f dreaming. We take i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t our dreams s p r i n g from below: p o s s i b l y the q u a l i t y of our dreams s u f f e r s i n r c o n s e q u e n c e (10). 11 Dreams are v i s u a l phenomena: and s o ,  "Dante's i s a v i s u a l  i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , i s L i n d s a y ' s .  f a n t a s y ' y o u are what y o u s e e ' : meaning i s m o r a l .  the image i s  The e x p r e s s i o n  imagination"  In a l l e g o r i c a l  dream  the meaning and the  of t h e m o r a l p o s i t i v e v a l u e o f  good,  i n L i n d s a y as much as i n D a n t e , i s l i g h t , w h i c h has two n e g a t i o n s — dark and heavy.  As n a r r a t o r - D a n t e  c l i m b s , e v e r y t h i n g gets b r i g h t e r  and he gets l i g h t e r , w h i l e the day darkens  f o r I s b e l when she  loses  the v i s i o n , and the o l d e s t p a r t o f R u n h i l l must be the h i g h e s t , t h i s i s not a p h y s i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y .  S i m i l a r l y , Lore c l i m b s out o f  water i n t o a ' h i g h e r ' world i n both senses. ziggurats,  l a d d e r s t o heaven,  at S t a r k n e s s .  Mountains and towers  There i s U l f ' s Tower and t h e  These o p p o s i t i o n s  the are  observatory  Mountains are h i n t e d a t by such names as R u n h i l l ,  T o r , Tormance, A l p p a i n , a n d even K r a g .  though  Devil's  form p a t t e r n s  19  o f imagery i n n o v e l s such as Sphinx and The Haunted Woman, but they are the v e r y s t u f f  of a l l e g o r i e s  such as A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s .  L i n d s a y ' s acknowledged p i e c e of e n t e r t a i n m e n t , Adventures o f M. de M a i l l y ,  a minor c l a s s i c  i n i t s genre,  i s h i s o n l y book which  does not draw on the c e n t r a l , c o s m o l o g i c a l v i s i o n o r the u n d e r l y i n g i c o n o g r a p h y o f European c u l t u r e . romance.  It is a detective story-cum-historical  I n The Strange Genius o f D a v i d L i n d s a y W i l s o n l e a v e s i t  of account because i t i s w r i t t e n p u r e l y as e n t e r t a i n m e n t " w h i l e V i s i a k d e s c r i b e s i t as " a s u r p r i s i n g f r e a k ,  "out  (TSG 7 5 ) ,  or s p o r t ,  a complete  d e p a r t u r e from L i n d s a y ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e i n " which " c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n the body o f  [ h i s ] work" (TSG 1 3 5 ) .  In f a c t ,  i t can.  Adventures o f M. de M a i l l y b e g i n s q u i t e w e l l , a t l e a s t f o u r F i r s t the a d v e n t u r e r i s  times.  ' e m p l o y e d ' t o p r e v e n t the S i e u r de Jambac from  b e i n g f o r c i b l y wed to a woman he does n o t — s h e b e i n g as o l d and u g l y as he—want t o m a r r y . action peters out.  MaiMy f a i l s ,  and a f t e r  t w e n t y - f o u r pages the  Then he i s h i r e d to b r i n g a younger man t o t h e  a l t a r w i t h a woman b o t h younger and more a t t r a c t i v e than h i m s e l f . Mailly fails  again  (though he makes some money by the way) and,  t h i r t y - t h r e e pages, the p l o t a g a i n r e t u r n s t o r e s t .  after  His next assign-  ment i n v o l v e s u n r a v e l l i n g the c o m p l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g upon a man m a r r y i n g the wrong h a l f of a p a i r o f t w i n s .  Ditto after  a.further  s i x t y - t h r e e pages, d i t t o . The r e a d e r ,  of c o u r s e ,  a book o f ' a d v e n t u r e s '  i s n o t tempted t o c o m p l a i n .  (originally, 'enterprises'),  He i s  reading  so t h e i r e p i s o d i c  20  n a t u r e does n o t b o t h e r h i m , e s p e c i a l l y and w e l l t o l d .  s i n c e the s t o r i e s are  exciting  A c r i t i c obsessed w i t h ' o r g a n i c u n i t y ' would p r o b a b l y  n o t have s t a r t e d the book i n the f i r s t The t h r e e p r o g r e s s i v e l y  place.  l o n g e r e p i s o d e s l e a d to the f o u r t h , which  t a k e s up the r e s t o f a l o n g i s h book (319 p a g e s ) . adventure which s u p p l i e s  Mailly with  Although i t i s  the promise o f t h a t  an  ( f o r him)  n e e d l e s s a c c e s s o r y , a w i f e , i t i s n o t one d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h m a r r y i n g , but w i t h p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , b r i b e r y and a s s a s s i n a t i o n . M a i l l y i s summoned b e f o r e t k h e K M i n i s t e r o f S e c r e t S e r v i c e and M a r i n e , P o n t c h a r t r a i n , who t r i e s t o b l a c k m a i l h i m i n t o k i l l i n g a Duke he charges w i t h p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t h i s , p o i n t on the p l o t seems (and t h i s boiler)  is  the highest  From t h i s  accolade for a pot-  ' t o t a k e on a l i f e o f i t s o w n , ' c o m p l i c a t i n g i t s e l f  belief until, maze"  the M i n i s t e r ' s , l i f e .  beyond  as P i c k p u t s i t , " t h e r e a d e r i s e v e n t u a l l y l o s t  (TSG 1 8 ) ,  though M a i l l y , of c o u r s e ,  is not.  from b l a c k m a i l (by P o n t c h a r t r a i n ) , through robbery  The p l o t  i n the  develops  (by P a s s y , who i s  P o n t c h a r t r a i n ' s a s s i s t a n t ) and attempted a s s a s s i n a t i o n (by the Duke, h e l p e d by Passy) t o p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e (by A r g e n s o n , c h i e f of and P o n t c h a r t r a i n ' s  r i v a l , who i s  police  ' p r i m e mover' i n e v e r y t h i n g ) ,  and  f o r a l l o f t h e s e M a i l l y i s to be the s c a p e g o a t . M a i l l y i s n o t to be u s e d , even i n such a c o m p l i c a t e d p l o t . f o l l o w s the i n t r i c a t e  'Thread of D i v i n e L o g i c '  (the h e a d i n g o f  XIV) through a l l i t s c o m p l i c a t i o n s and, w i t h b r a v e r y , We may take an example of h i s  ratiocination:  He Chapter  to f i n a l v i c t o r y .  21  We s h a l l proceed w i t h t h e e n q u i r y . M d l l e Passy has n o t been e x p e l l e d , l e t us suppose, and I am i n her s o c i e t y . Then what i s t o happen n e x t . Her husband i s u p s t a i r s , we assume. Thus he a w a i t s my a r r i v a l b e f o r e s t a r t i n g the wheels of h i s murder; and t h e r e f o r e he must know of my arrival. But he i s u p s t a i r s . Perhaps he works w i t h P o n t c h a r t r a i n i n the o t h e r house. It is u n l i k e l y t h a t he w i l l be a b l e t o h e a r my e n trance. From time t o time he a b s e n t s h i m s e l f from the M i n i s t e r , t h a t he may l i s t e n over the stair-rail. But t h e k i t c h e n - d o o r i s s h u t , we w i l l s a y , o r t h e r e i s s i l e n c e between our v o i c e s ; and i f he creeps d o w n s t a i r s t o a s c e r t a i n more c l o s e l y , t h e r e i s the chance of d e t e c t i o n . Or i s i t has been a r r a n g e d t h a t h i s w i f e s h a l l go up t o i n f o r m h i m , he may a t t h a t time be w i t h P o n t c h a r t r a i n , and she w i l l n o t dare t o l i n g e r , f o r f e a r I s h a l l eacape from t h e h o u s e . . . . Therefore, a s i g n a l ! . . . And what k i n d o f s i g n a l ? S i n c e the house i s d a r k , a l i g h t ! A lighted c a n d l e . And where must t h i s c a n d l e be s e t , i n o r d e r to be seen? He i s u p s t a i r s , she down; t h e r e f o r e i t must be somewhere i n the passage v i s i b l e from the s t a i r - h e a d . . . . L e t us d i s cover i f t h e r e i s an u n l i g h t e d c a n d l e t h e r e , ready t o t r a n s m i t such a s i g n a l " (AMM 1 6 1 - 6 2 ) . He does. The  There i s . d e t e r m i n e d f o l l o w i n g through o f ' t h e d i v i n e t h r e a d ' i s much  l i k e the r a t i o c i n a t i o n o f , The  f o r example, P o e ' s d e t e c t i v e h e r o , D u p i n .  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i n 'The P u r l o i n e d L e t t e r ' t h e r e i s an ' I '  to  whom Dupin c a n ' t a l k , a D r . Watson to h i s Holmes, whereas poor M a i l l y , the man o f a c t i o n i n Che darkened h o u s e , can o n l y t a l k to h i m s e l f . Nonetheless, after  t h r e e f a l s e s t a r t s , we can see t h a t L i n d s a y has  d i s c o v e r e d h i s t a l e n t f o r d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n , w h i c h makes M a i l l y n o t " a s u r p r i s i n g f r e a k " but the ' o t h e r f a c e , ' for  dream f a n t a s y ,  as Dupin i s  of P o e ' s ,  as i t w e r e , o f h i s  talent  F a t h e r Brown's o f G. K. •  22  C h e s t e r t o n ' s , L o n n r o t ' s of Allegory,  Borges'.  l i k e detective f i c t i o n ,  is essentially ratiocinative.  The main d i f f e r e n c e between them i s t h a t i n the d e t e c t i v e s t o r y we are given the stream of consciousness  presumed i n s i d e the  protagonist's  mind (or some o t h e r account of the s u b s t a n c e of t h a t s t r e a m ) , whereas i n t h e a l l e g o r y we are g i v e n the c o n t e n t s of t h e mind p r o j e c t e d the p e r c e i v e d w o r l d n o t o n l y corresponds m e n t a l events of the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  mind.  to, i t l i t e r a l l y is  forth:  the  The r e a d e r becomes a k i n d o f  d e t e c t i v e , and the a l l e g o r i c a l w o r l d i s the o b j e c t o f h i s r a t i o c i n a t i o n s as he t r i e s to ' t r a n s l a t e '  the a l l e g o r y .  But i n b o t h cases the  i n t e l l e c t o f the r e a d e r i s engaged by the s u r f a c e :  i n M a i l l y , by what  must happen n e x t , l o g i c a l l y ; i n A r c t u r u s , by what must happen n e x t , emotionally. i n themselves,  I n the d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n the r a t i o c i n a t i o n s a r e an end i n t h a t they p r o v i d e the i n t e r e s t o f the s t o r y ; i n t h e  a l l e g o r y I s u s p e c t t h a t the r e a d e r ' s reason  (to w h i c h most  allegorists  a r e h o s t i l e ) i s engaged t o keep i t b u s y , w h i l e the r e s t o f the mind i s f r e e d to respond more o r l e s s u n c o n s c i o u s l y t o t h e a r c h e t y p a l patterns  of the s t o r y .  T h i s may a l s o be t h e case w i t h the a u t h o r when  he i s composing an a l l e g o r y . Both The Haunted Woman, w h i c h Robert Nye i n a r e v i e w i n The Scotsman c a l l e d " a m e t a p h y s i c a l t h r i l l e r " have been w r i t t e n as d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s . of c h a r a c t e r s ,  (TSG 4 ) , and S p h i n x c o u l d Each o f them has a c l o s e d  set  the r i g h t k i n d of c o u n t r y house, and a dead body or two.  The problem i s t h a t d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s n o r m a l l y d e a l w i t h the phenomenal  23  world.  Any i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d q u i c k l y work out who k i l l e d N i c h o l a s ,  whether Lore committed s u i c i d e , o r how Judge d i e d , b u t m e t a p h y s i c a l l y t h e s e a r e b e s i d e the p o i n t .  Lindsay's characters  may d i e by a p p a r -  e n t l y n a t u r a l c a u s e s , such as a p o p l e x y , b u t t h e i r deaths a r e ,  as we  know, r e a l l y due t o t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a l w o r l d , w h i c h i s c o m p l e t e l y beyond the phenomenal w o r l d , and-.-'therefore beyond i n v e s 12 tigation.  The almost random and a p p a r e n t l y m e l o d r a m a t i c death of  Nicholas i s p a r t i c u l a r l y successful death was n e c e s s i t a t e d  from t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w :  his  by the u n i t i n g o f h i s r e a l s e l f and L o r e ' s .  E v e l y n ' s s l e e p i n g p o t i o n c o n v e n i e n t l y d i s p o s e s of the b o d i l y envelope from w h i c h t h e r e a l s e l f must be l i b e r a t e d . L i k e the o t h e r b o o k s , M a i l l y f a i l e d t o s e l l .  I t i s evident  that  J a c q u e l i n e p e r c e i v e d , sooner than h e r husband, t h a t t h e r e would n e v e r be any money i n h i s w r i t i n g , and she had them move t o a s m a l l e r house i n F e r r i n g , Sussex.  L a t e r , j u s t b e f o r e World W a r - I I , a g a i n s t D a v i d ' s  wishes she borrowed some money i n o r d e r to buy a guest house i n Brighton.  I n s t e a d of young l a d i e s  from the c o n t i n e n t , however,  war r e s u l t e d i n h e r house b e i n g a b i l l e t f o r a s u c c e s s i o n officers.  the  of n a v a l  D a v i d saw the war i t s e l f — n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the Germans'  pre-  o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i d e a s o f N o r t h e r n supremacy t o which he had g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n D e v i l ' s Tor—as b e i n g a d i s a s t e r could never recover. J.  B. P i c k t e l l s  us:  from w h i c h Europe  He became more and more w i t h d r a w n and r e c l u s i v e .  24  The f i r s t bomb t h a t f e l l on B r i g h t o n d i d n o t e x p l o d e , b u t i t f e l l on the L i n d s a y s ' h o u s e . D a v i d was i n the c o l d b a t h he took every morning. The r o o f of the bathroom c o l l a p s e d and a l t h o u g h L i n d s a y was n o t p h y s i c a l l y h u r t , he n e v e r r e c o v e r e d from the s h o c k . He b e came grey and s i l e n t and i n June 1945 d i e d b e f o r e he was seventy (TSG 3 2 ) . D u r i n g h i s l i f e - t i m e L i n d s a y d i d r e c e i v e some s u p p o r t and r e c o g nition.  There were l e t t e r s  from p e o p l e such as L . H . M y e r s , who  a p p r e c i a t e d A Voyage; t h e r e was encouragement from E . H . V i s i a k , who wrote a s h o r t c r i t i q u e o f A Voyage f o r Notes and Queries 1940),  (March 30,  and from V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , whose f i r m r e i s s u e d A Voyage w i t h  V i s i a k ' s n o t e as f o r e w o r d .  T h i s was i n k e e p i n g w i t h a w i s h L i n d s a y  had e x p r e s s e d t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e i n a l e t t e r t o V i s i a k : In the event of the b o o k ' s ever g o i n g i n t o a n o t h e r e d i t i o n — w h i c h at the present i s extremely probl e m a t i c a l — I am g o i n g t o ask y o u t o be k i n d enough t o f u r n i s h a f o r e w o r d , knowing t h a t y o u w i l l n o t refuse t h i s favour. E v i d e n t l y , i t r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n , and I am..aquainted w i t h no one so w e l l a b l e to s u p p l y i t as y o u r s e l f (November 9 , 1921; L 4 3 ) . V i s i a k , as has a l r e a d y been n o t e d , a c t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d T h e Haunted Woman, as L i n d s a y r e a l i s e d .  He w r o t e t o V i s i a k on June 1 1 ,  about h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n , " I d o n ' t q u i t e connect  1936,  [A Voyage] w i t h y o u .  You know y o u have always r a t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on the ' H . W . ' " (L 6 4 ) . L i n d s a y seems to  have become accustomed t o the apparent  opacity  (one o f B l a k e ' s names f o r Satan) o f A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s as r e v i e w e r a f t e r r e v i e w e r r e f u s e d to see i t as a n y t h i n g but " a r i o t o f m o r b i d f a n c y " ( i n The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement; TSG 3) o r " a grand p i e c e  25  of w i l d imagining" (J.  B. P r i e s t l e y i n The E v e n i n g S t a n d a r d ;  b u t he c r a v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  TSG 24) ,  W r i t i n g t o V i s i a k on November 2 5 ,  b e f o r e h i s f i r s t n o v e l had q u i t e sunk i n t o apparent  oblivion,  1921,  he  remarks, I t i s i n d e e d g r a t i f y i n g t o l e a r n t h a t I have a s t u d e n t o f my ' V o y a g e ' — I w o n ' t r e p e a t y o u r e x p r e s s i o n and add 'an a d m i r e r ' , f o r I have s t r o n g doubts whether i t i s a book w h i c h anyone would admire w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y . P l e a s e g i v e the l a d y i n q u e s t i o n my k i n d r e g a r d s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e hope t h a t she has s u c c e e d e d — i n p a r t , at a l l e v e n t s — i n e l u c i d a t i n g the mystery of the a l l e g o r y ! (L 4 5 ) . N o t h i n g seems t o have come of i t . 1946, a f t e r  Lindsay's death.  A Voyage was n o t r e i s s u e d  until  G o l l a n c z have s i n c e r e i s s u e d i t t w i c e ,  i n 1963 and i n 1968, as p a r t of t h e i r s e r i e s o f ' R a r e Works o f I m a g i n a t i v e F i c t i o n , ' which i n c l u d e s The Haunted Woman (1968) as as works by M. P . S h i e l (The P u r p l e Cloud and The I s l e of L i e s ) E. H . V i s i a k ' s Medusa. aquaints  As T r i n c u l o remarks i n The Tempest,  well and  "Misery  a man w i t h s t r a n g e b e d f e l l o w s . "  Much more t o t h e p o i n t has been C. S. L e w i s ' s g r e a t i n t e r e s t L i n d s a y , from whom he o b v i o u s l y l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l .  in  Lewis had t h e  r i g h t k i n d o f i n t e r e s t i n a l l e g o r y and a p r o f o u n d r e l i g i o u s commitment, which made h i m u n u s u a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o L i n d s a y ' s t r u e  (visionary) 13  achievement. Lewis pays h i s  I n an a c u t e p i e c e o f c r i t i c i s m i n Of Other W o r l d s , t r i b u t e t o A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , b u t , i m i t a t i o n b e i n g  the s i n c e r f i s t form o f f l a t t e r y , as the o l d saw has i t , t h e t r i l o g y 14 begun by Out Of t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t i s a more f i t t i n g a c c o l a d e .  26  R. L . Green r e p e a t e d many of C. S. L e w i s ' s p o i n t s  (he r e f e r s  us  t o L e w i s ' s e s s a y ) i n a c h a p t e r on 'Tormance and M a l a c a n d r a ' i n h i s s u r v e y of s p a c e - f l i g h t a r t i c l e s by J .  in fiction,  B. P i c k i n S t u d i e s  I n t o Other W o r l d s .  There were  i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e (1964) and  C o l i n W i l s o n i n h i s book o f essays E a g l e and E a r w i g (1966).  However,  i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r A Voyage was p u b l i s h e d , a t C o l i n W i l s o n ' s suggestion,  i n paperback i n America by B a l l a n t i n e Books i n 1968,  i t became a t a l l widely known.  that  Joanna Russ took a few p o t - s h o t s  at  i t almost i m m e d i a t e l y i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n i n December 1969 (but see my r e b u t t a l i n the May 1972 i s s u e o f t h a t j o u r n a l ) , a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h another set  of " s t r a n g e b e d f e l l o w s " :  Lindsay  P o e , van Vogt and Redd.  A t l e a s t M i s s Russ d i d not muddle L i n d s a y i n w i t h some o f the o t h e r w r i t e r s published i n B a l l a n t i n e ' s 'Adult Fantasy' s e r i e s ;  w h i l e one  of them i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t (George M a c D o n a l d ) , most o f t h e r e s t not.  are  I n p a r t i c u l a r we might mention J . R. R. T o l k i e n , whose p o p u l a r i t y  has been the c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the' enormous i n c r e a s e of i n t e r e s t i n f a n t a s y and hence i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s .  Ironically, Tolkien's best-  s e l l i n g t r i l o g y The L o r d of the R i n g s , a m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c and p r o f e s s e d l y n o n - a l l e g o r i c a l a d v e n t u r e s t o r y , i s i n .--many ways t h e a n t i t h e s i s Of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s .  However t h a t may b e , t h e r e s u l t i n g  " u n e x p e c t e d vogue" (TSG v i i ) L i n d s a y e n j o y s i n America has  encouraged  John Baker t o p u b l i s h a whole book about h i m , The Strange Genius o f D a v i d L i n d s a y by W i l s o n , P i c k and V i s i a k , and s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t on the i n c r e a s e .  is  N o n e t h e l e s s , L i n d s a y ' s o r i g i n a l c o m p l a i n t about even  27  "some q u i t e t o l e r a n t and good-natured r e v i e w s i n the "now,  as e v e r ,  papers"—that  I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t they touch me o r my w o r k " (L 51)—  stands to t h i s d a t e , t o the e x t e n t t h a t no one has t a k e n t h e t r o u b l e t o p u t A Voyage i n t o i t s l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t ( i t i s generis1^),  not, of course,  Sui  o r take t h e a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y enough to uncover t h e b o o k ' s  p r e c i s e and b e a u t i f u l s t r u c t u r e .  L i n d s a y w r i t e s to V i s i a k :  Many thanks f o r your s y m p a t h e t i c remarks r e g a r d i n g my book. I must say t h i s , t h a t y o u r s i s the only c r i t i c i s m — p u b l i c or p r i v a t e — w h i c h so f a r has l i f t e d the l i d o f f my l i t t l e pot t o see what i s i n s i d e , and f o r t h i s I am appropriately grateful. I am a f r a i d t h a t nowadays p e o p l e o n l y r e a d f o r the s t o r y , b u t perhaps a r a c e of ' s u p e r - r e a d e r s ' w i l l l a t e on a r i s e who w i l l make i t t h e i r f i r s t c o n c e r n t o grasp what the a u t h o r i s d r i v i n g a t b e f o r e d e c i d i n g whether o r n o t he has been s u c c e s s f u l (January 6, 1924; L 5 1 ) . T h i s we s h a l l p r o c e e d t o do.  28  Footnotes  t o Chapter One  "Slost of the b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n . t h e c h a p t e r has been drawn from J . B . P i c k ' s ' A Sketch o f L i n d s a y ' s L i f e as Man and W r i t e r ' (TSG 3 - 3 2 ) . A r t h u r Schopenhauer, 'The World as W i l l and I d e a ' i n Schopenhauer: S e l e c t i o n s . , e d . D e w i t t H . P a r k e r (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1956), p . 9 ( F i r s t Book, s e c . 6 ) . Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o The World as W i l l and Idea are t o t h i s s e l e c t i o n ; t h e book and s e c t i o n w i l l be c i t e d i n the text. 3  L i n d s a y w r i t e s t o V i s i a k , a f t e r s e n d i n g h i m a copy, " I t i s most k i n d o f y o u t o r e a d 'De M a i l l y ' , b u t r e a l l y i t was m e r e l y i n t e n d e d as a l i t t l e token o f good w i l l , and at l e a s t y o u w i l l do me the f a v o u r n o t to comment on i t " (September 20, 1929; L 5 2 - 5 3 ) . 4  Not from J . B. P r i e s t l e y i n the E v e n i n g Standard o r H . E . Bates i n Everyman, b u t from Rebecca West i n . t h e D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , from F a u s s e t i n the Manchester G u a r d i a n and from L . P . H a r t l e y i n t h e Weekend Review. " * " I t i s b o t h h i s s t r e n g t h and h i s weakness t h a t c e r t a i n o f the q u e s t i o n s asked on Tormance, as w e l l as the responses t o them, are l o c k e d i n t h a t D e l p h i c a m b i g u i t y w h i c h torments our d a i l y l i v e s . " ' I n t r o d u c t i o n ' by Loren E i s e l e y (VA x ) . ^In D e v i l ' s T o r , L i n d s a y ' s l a s t p u b l i s h e d w o r k , t h e r e i s a c h a r a c t e r c l e a r l y m o d e l l e d on Schopenhauer (DT 1 0 8 ) , who i s a good d e a l more l i k e L i n d s a y than i s t h e young a r t i s t P e t e r C o p p i n g . T h i s c h a r a c t e r , Magnus C o l b o r n e , observes b i t t e r l y : There i s assumed t o be an i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c t h a t i n t e r e s t s i t s e l f i n cosmical problems. I t seems, however, t h a t i t has f a i l e d h i t h e r t o t o hear o f my b o o k s ; at l e a s t , i t has n o t bought them. Unders t a n d w e l l , I n e v e r was i n need e i t h e r o f money from my w r i t i n g s or of l i t e r a r y g l o r y ; s t i l l , y o u may c o n c e i v e the s m a l l i n c l i n a t i o n I f e l t t o go on spending m y s e l f i n a vacuum (DT 115). W. H . Auden, The Enchafed F l o o d , o r The Romantic Iconography the Sea (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 74. 7  of  29  g G. K. C h e s t e r t o n , The Man Who Was Thursday; Modern L i b r a r y , 1917), p . 257.  York:  A Nightmare (New  9 T. S. E l i o t , Dante (London: T.  1 0  1 : L  S. E l i o t , Dante, p .  15.  T . S. E l i o t , Dante, p .  15.  Faber and F a b e r ,  1965), p.  11.  12 In f a c t , the t e c h n i q u e s o f d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n and dream a l l e g o r y , c o u s i n s though they b e , are a s t o n i s h i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o combine. Poe n e v e r t r i e d . G. K. C h e s t e r t o n made a b r i l l i a n t attempt i n The Man Who Was T h u r s d a y : A N i g h t m a r e , which C o l i n W i l s o n t h i n k s i s " t h e o n l y s i m i l a r book" i n some r e s p e c t s t o A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s (TSG 46; c f . TSG 3 6 ) , b u t C h e s t e r t o n c o u l d o n l y save h i s book from b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y b r o k e n - b a c k e d by making i t f a r c i c a l , thus n u l l i f y i n g the ' r e l i g i o u s ' power o f h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l argument. More r e c e n t l y Borges h a s , i f o n l y i n v e r y s h o r t w o r k s , s t r i v e n t o u n i t e the two modes w i t h o u t a d m i x i n g f a r c e , and h i s most s u c c e s s f u l f i c t i o n from t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i s 'Death and t h e Compass.' 13  T h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f essays was e d i t e d by W. Hooper and p u b l i s h e d posthumously by G e o f f r e y B l e s i n 1966. 14  L i n d s a y ' s i n f l u e n c e on Lewis has been examined by P a t r i c i a Ann P i l l i n g i n h e r d i s s e r t a t i o n 'Form and Content i n S e l e c t e d N o v e l s o f C. S. L e w i s ' ( U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1 9 7 1 ) . I am g r a t e f u l t o M i s s P i l l i n g f o r s e n d i n g me a copy of the appendix t o h e r t h e s i s , ' D a v i d L i n d s a y and A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . ' 1 5  W i l s o n ' s claim.(TSG 36).  30  Chapter Two: DREAM AND ALLEGORY: THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LITERARY MODE  We have seen t h a t i n h i s  ' m e t a p h y s i c a l t h r i l l e r s , ' The Haunted  Woman and S p h i n x , L i n d s a y uses a fundamental o p p o s i t i o n between  the  dream w o r l d and the ' r e a l ' w o r l d , d r a w i n g on the t r a d i t i o n a l imagery w h i c h we have n o t e d i n Dante.  We s h a l l f i n d L i n d s a y d o i n g e x a c t l y  the same t h i n g i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , though i t i s l e s s because a l l e g o r i e s  are n o t so d i s c u r s i v e as n o v e l s and because the  ' r e a l ' w o r l d i s l e f t b e h i n d when the T. S. E l i o t ,  obvious  t r a v e l l e r s voyage t o Tormance.  commenting on t h e r e l a t i o n between the V i t a Nuova  o f Dante and The Shepherd o f Hermas, remarks,  " t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s might  prove t h a t a c e r t a i n h a b i t i n dream-imagery  can p e r s i s t  many changes o f c i v i l i s a t i o n . " " ' " Of c o u r s e ,  c i v i l i s a t i o n s are  t o r y t h i n g s , whereas  throughout  s l e e p and dreams are a fundamental f a c t o r i n the  p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e  o f man.  As men must always  spent a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time on e a r t h s l e e p i n g ,  the  o p p o s i t i o n between t h e dream w o r l d and the w a k i n g r e a l i t y i s o l d e r than l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f . imagery,  transi-  have  dualistic probably  Dream l i t e r a t u r e n a t u r a l l y uses dream  and t h i s g i v e s the t r a d i t i o n g r e a t c o n t i n u i t y even where  d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e may n o t e x i s t .  The E n g l i s h l i n e o f dream works  i n c l u d e s the s t o r y o f C y n e w u l f , T h e Dream o f the Rood, P e a r l , P i e r s Plowman, The F a e r i e Queen, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s ,  J u b i l a t e Agno,  A l i c e i n Wonderland, P h a n t a s t e s and Finnegans Wake, t o name o n l y t h e  31  most obvious  examples.  But t h e r e are dreams and dreams. of S a l i s b u r y  Macrobius (ca 400) and John  (ca 1120-1180) d i s t i n g u i s h e s s e n t i a l l y  five kinds:  1. 2. 3. 4.  insomnium, n i g h t m a r e o r t r o u b l e d dream; v i s i u m , a p p a r i t i o n or h a l l u c i n a t i o n ; somnium, o r d i n a r y o r e n i g m a t i c dream; o r a c u l u m , o r a c u l a r or p r o p h e t i c dream;  5.  v i s i o , p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n o r v i s i o n a r y dream  (2).  A l l f i v e k i n d s c a n , of c o u r s e , be found i n the B i b l e , and i n many works of l i t e r a t u r e , but i t i s the f i f t h k i n d , be m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d .  Some dreams,  the v i s i o , w i t h w h i c h we s h a l l  i n J u n g i a n , F r e u d i a n o r any o t h e r  p s y c h o l o g y , are e v i d e n t l y more s i g n i f i c a n t than o t h e r s :  the v i s i o  the most s i g n i f i c a n t , b e i n g the e x p r e s s i o n o f the ' i n n e r s e l f God.  is  or of  i  I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  to f o l l o w P l a t o ' s  obedience t o God's commands g i v e n i n o r a c l e s  ' S o c r a t e s ' and a c t " i n and dreams"  3  since,  as  H e n r y ' s f a t h e r says i n Henry o f O f t e r d i r i g e n , "dreams a r e f r o t h " :  "the 4  times when Heavenly v i s i o n s were seen i n dreams have l o n g p a s s e d b y . " Henry r e p l i e s t h a t " e v e r y dream . . . makes an i m p o r t a n t r e n t i n t h e m y s t e r i o u s c u r t a i n which . . . h i d e s our i n w a r d n a t u r e s Dreams " s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as Heavenly g i f t s , our p i l g r i m m a g e to the h o l y , t o m b . "  from our v i e w . "  as f r i e n d l y g u i d e s ,  in  But Henry has h i m s e l f j u s t been  " s l u m b e r i n g i n t o a n o t h e r w o r l d " 7 and i s i n no doubt as t o t h e t r u t h o f what he has s e e n .  ' D a n t e ' h i m s e l f had been more s t u b b o r n :  wayward i t d i d n o t h e l p , B e a t r i c e c o m p l a i n s , To use v i s i o n s i n h i s dreams and c a l l h i m back I n o t h e r ways. They meant so l i t t l e t o h i m .  he was  so  32  He f e l l so f a r down t h a t every means of S a v i n g h i m proved i n a d e q u a t e , o u t s i d e Of showing h i m the people who are l o s t ( 8 ) . Ironically,  the whole of The D i v i n e Comedy i s a dream v i s i o n , a v i s i o ,  the aim of w h i c h i s to g i v e us what P l a t o c a l l s  t h a t " i n s p i r e d and  t r u e p r o p h e c y " which n o r m a l l y "we o n l y a c h i e v e  . . . when the power  9  o f our u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i n h i b i t e d i n s l e e p " : Schopenhauer  i . e . , when we dream.  says,  D a n t e ' s g r e a t n e s s d e r i v e s from h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f the t r u t h of the dream, w h i l e o t h e r poets possess o n l y the t r u t h of the r e a l w o r l d . He shows us e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h i n g s e x a c t l y as we see those of our dreams, and they g i v e us t h e same i l l u s i o n . One would suppose t h a t he had dreamed each canto d u r i n g the n i g h t ( 1 0 ) . Many ( i f n o t most) dream w r i t e r s have been f o l l o w e r s of g r e a t e s t o f the G n o s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r - a r t i s t s , P l a t o n i c cosmology—closely  Plato.  In the d u a l i s t i c  f o l l o w e d by D a n t e , B l a k e ,  and L i n d s a y — t h e " s o u l i s a h e l p l e s s  the  Schopenhauer  p r i s o n e r , c h a i n e d hand and f o o t  i n the b o d y , c o m p e l l e d to view r e a l i t y n o t d i r e c t l y b u t o n l y through its:, prison bars," soul i s ,  of c o u r s e ,  as we a r e t o l d i n the Phaedo.  The aim o f t h e  to excape from the l i m i t a t i o n s of the body and 12  " t o go back to the s t a r s " home.  — t o r e t u r n to the unchanging r e a l i t y ,  T h i s means the death of the body.  p o r a r y escapes b e f o r e  this f i n a l dissolution for, i n  w o r d s , "deep s l e e p i s , into which, i n fact, and I d e a ,  But the s o u l can make tem-  viiile i t l a s t s ,  Schopenhauer's  i n no way d i f f e r e n t from d e a t h ,  i t o f t e n passes c o n t i n u o u s l y " (The World as  F o u r t h Book, s e c .  54).  Will  Deep s l e e p , as we saw i n S p h i n x ,  33  p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e v i s i o n a r y dream. A t t e n t i o n has a l r e a d y been p a i d t o the d u a l i s t i c  separation  between the ' o t h e r ' s p i r i t u a l w o r l d and the ' r e a l ' w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l objects.  I n many ( i f not most) dreams t h e r e i s a l s o a s t r o n g d u a l i t y :  " a dream i s a h a l l u c i n a t e d b e h a v i o r e p i s o d e . . .  i n w h i c h the  dreamer  13 i s u s u a l l y b o t h a p a r t i c i p a n t and an o b s e r v e r . " perience,  On t h i s common ex-  a dichotomy between the s o u l , the ' I ' who o b s e r v e s , and the  body, the ' I ' who a c t s , can be founded, as Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , where N i g h t s p o r e i s  i t i s f o r example i n A  the dreaming ' I ' who observes  and M a s k u l l the ' I ' who a c t s . I f , when dreaming we become t w o , we i d e n t i f y w i t h the observer  r a t h e r than the b o d i l y a c t o r ,  sought-after  then we a c h i e v e ,  escape from the b o d y ' s p r i s o n .  ' o n l y a dream'.  However, the d r e a m w o r l d i s ,  in i t , reality itself:  discorporate  in effect,  the  But i t i s , as we s a y , at l e a s t w h i l e we are  i . e r what we p e r c e i v e and t h e r e f o r e what e x i s t s .  Sometimes we f i n d i t h a r d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a dream and a memory of the phenomenal w o r l d : there i s , perhaps, Chuang Chou:  a l l our p e r c e p t i o n s  are m e n t a l e v e n t s .  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , room f o r the s p e c u l a t i o n s  Thus  of a  " I dreamt l a s t n i g h t t h a t I was a b u t t e r f l y and now I  d o n ' t know whether I am a man who dreamt he was a b u t t e r f l y , o r perhaps 14 a b u t t e r f l y who now dreams t h a t he i s a m a n . " p h i l o s o p h i c a l paradox, Virgil  But i t i s n o t  t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t ; l i t i s t h e image.  say, Do y o u n o t see t h a t we are o n l y worms Born t o become a n g e l i c b u t t e r f l i e s ? (The D i v i n e Comedy, I I 1 1 ) .  the  Dante has  34  The b u t t e r f l y i s a symbol o f t h e p o e t ' s e s c a p e :  man i s a worm s e v e n t y  i n c h e s l o n g ( h i s h e i g h t and h i s span i n y e a r s ) , b o r n t o metamorphose i n t o a b u t t e r f l y , and thus to enjoy the b r i l l i a n t , b e a u t i f u l  flight  which symbolizes a higher s t a t e of b e i n g . The f i r s t t e m p t a t i o n i s t o t r y t o l i v e i n the dream w o r l d ,  or  o t h e r m e n t a l r e a l i t y m a i n t a i n e d e i t h e r by drugs o r by d i s c i p l i n e and 15 fasting.  The i d e a l i s r e p o r t e d t o have been a t t a i n e d i n I n d i a by  " t h e r e c l u s e " who c a r r i e d away by h i s m e d i t a t i o n s , g i v e s a m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e t o t h e images of h i s dreams, i f he can o n l y succeed i n s u s t a i n i n g them w i t h s u f f i c i e n t intensity. The dream then becomes l u c i d , d e l i b e r a t e , and c r e a t i v e . ( 1 6 ) . I n l i t e r a t u r e t h i s i s the theme o f H . P . L o v e c r a f t ' s The Dream-Quest of Unknown K a d a t h , w h i c h i s about R a n d o l f C a r t e r ' s a r t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d dream. among d r e a m e r s , "  C a r t e r i s " a n o l d dreamer,"''" 7 " a f r e e and p o t e n t 18  who has dreamed such a " m a r v e l l o u s s u n s e t  t h a t the gods themselves "have f o r g o t t e n the h i g h p l a c e s  master  city"  19  o f e a r t h , and  20 the mountains t h a t knew t h e i r y o u t h "  and have gone t o l i v e i n i t .  The"-idea o f dream c r e a t i o n has been extended by Borges i n h i s  story  'The C i r c u l a r R u i n s , ' where each dreamer i s a s u b - c r e a t o r and, s i m u l 21 t a n e o u s l y , " a » . p r o j e c t i o n o f a n o t h e r man's d r e a m s . " In another Borges s t o r y , ' E v e r y t h i n g and N o t h i n g , ' one Great A u t h o r t e l l s a n o t h e r : 22 " I dreamed the w o r l d the way y o u dreamed your w o r k , my  Shakespeare."  T h i s i d e a o f s u b c r e a t i o n a l s o u n d e r l i e s a l l dream w o r l d s o f t h e T o l k i e n type.  35  More t o t h e p o i n t i n a s t u d y o f A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s (where, a f t e r a l l , c r e a t i o n and s u b c r e a t i o n are e v i l ) i s the i d e a t h a t  the  23 r e l a t i o n between t h e "two p o l e s o f human e x i s t e n c e " i c a l one.  i s a metaphor-  I n i t i a l l y we must a g a i n be p r e p a r e d to confuse t h e s l e e p i n g  and w a k i n g w o r l d s , so t h a t a t h i r d term may be i n t r o d u c e d .  When  Ouspensky a s s e r t s t h a t " a n o t h e r i l l u s i o n i s t h a t we are awake. we r e a l i s e  When  t h a t we are a s l e e p we w i l l see t h a t a l l h i s t o r y i s made by  p e o p l e who are a s l e e p , "  o r when A r c h b i s h o p Law c l a i m s t h a t  "the  g r e a t e s t P a r t o f Mankind . . . may be s a i d t o be a s l e e p ; and t h a t  par-  t i c u l a r Way o f L i f e which takes up Man's M i n d , Thoughts, and A c t i o n s 25 may v e r y w e l l be c a l l e d h i s p a r t i c u l a r Dream,"  t h e i r purpose i s  t e l l us to 'wake up' t o a h i g h e r t r u t h than t h i s w o r l d a f f o r d s .  to The  analogy i s i d e n t i c a l i n o p e r a t i o n to the one P l a t o uses f o r the same purpose i n h i s p a r a b l e o f t h e cave i n The R e p u b l i c :  as the r e a l w o r l d  (the phenomenal w o r l d ) s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o the dream o r shadow w o r l d , so t h e h i g h e r w o r l d of Forms s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o the phenomenal one. Of c o u r s e , h e r e the p o s i t i v e v a l u e s o f t h e dream a r e b e i n g d e n i e d , but we have a l r e a d y seen t h a t s i n c e we dream w h i l e a s l e e p (or ' d e a d ' t h e phenomenal w o r l d ) t h a t need n o t be the c a s e .  to  And the s o u l w h i c h  we have seen to be l i b e r a t e d i n the dream e x p e r i e n c e may ( e x i t s  from  one s t a g e b e i n g merely e n t r a n c e s somewhere e l s e ) wake up i n what P l a t o 26 c a l l s the " t r u e and u n s l e e p i n g r e a l i t y , "  Dante the " w o r l d w i t h o u t /  Human b e i n g s t h a t l i e s beyond the s u n " (The D i v i n e Comedy, I Lindsay, Muspel: w o r l d of I d e a s .  26),  beyond t h e f a l s e w o r l d o f the senses i s a r e a l  36  The analogy may be extended y e t f u r t h e r .  "The s l e e p i n g and the  dead, how a l i k e they a r e " observes U t n a p i s h t i m i n The E p i c o f G i l g a m e s h . I f s l e e p i s l i k e d e a t h , as Schopenhauer s a i d , death may a l s o be sleep:  "We are such s t u f f  2  like  / As dreams are made o n , and our l i t t l e l i f e  /  28 Is rounded w i t h a s l e e p . " play,  M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , as i n the t i t l e o f C a l d e r o n '  ' l i f e i s a d r e a m ' , dreamt by our s l e e p i n g e t e r n a l s e l v e s w h i l e  we a r e awake i n r e a l i t y .  When we d i e ( f i n a l l y go t o s l e e p ) on e a r t h ,  a f t e r many n i g h t s and d a y s , we w i l l wake up a f t e r one n i g h t i n e t e r n i t y . " I f death i s l i k e t h i s , t h e n , " says P l a t o ' s  'Socrates,' "I c a l l i t gain;  because the whole o f t i m e , i f y o u l o o k a t i t i n t h i s way, can be r e 29 garded as no more than one s i n g l e n i g h t . "  . T h i s i s the s i t u a t i o n i n  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , butDante used t h e i d e a d i f f e r e n t l y .  I n The  D i v i n e Comedy, the Dante who makes t h e j o u r n e y e x p e r i e n c e s s e v e r a l days and n i g h t s , w h i l e t h e Dante who i s , as we e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n , dreaming the v i s i o n , takes o n l y one n i g h t , as i s e v i d e n t when B e a t r i c e says B u t , s i n c e the time i n which y o u are a s l e e p I s f l y i n g , l e t us end h e r e , l i k e a good T a i l o r who c u t s t h e gown t o vhat c l o t h he has (III  32).  In A Voyage, the concept i s c o n c r e t e l y embodied i n Tormance's suns.  Maskull,  the e n e r g e t i c p r o t a g o n i s t ,  the o r d i n a r y s u n ' s  (Branchspell's)  twin  i s awake f o r a number o f  days, b u t , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a s l e e p  f o r a s i n g l e one o f A l p p a i n ' s n i g h t s .  A l p p a i n i s the sun o f e t e r n i t y .  Soon a f t e r M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance he sees " t h e a f t e r g l o w o f a gorgeous b l u e s u n s e t " (VA 6 6 ) , and from then on he i s a s l e e p t o the real world.  He comes to r e a l i s e t h a t "we are each o f us l i v i n g i n a  37  f a l s e , p r i v a t e w o r l d o f our own, a w o r l d o f dreams and a p p e t i t e s and distorted perceptions"  (VA 1 6 6 - 6 7 ) :  t h a t i s to s a y ,  When t h e b l u e sun r i s e s a g a i n , n e c e s s a r i l y  he d i e s .  i n a dream w o r l d . But L i n d s a y has  n o t g i v e n us a man who i s a t t h e same time b o t h a s l e e p and awake; has embodied the ' s l e e p i n g p a r t n e r '  as N i g h t s p o r e .  he  The d y i n g M a s k u l l  asks "Where's N i g h t s p o r e ? " and i s t o l d , " Y o u are N i g h t s p o r e . "  Maskull  dies,  "The  goes t o s l e e p ; N i g h t s p o r e i s b o r n , wakes up.  n i g h t i s r e a l l y p a s t at l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . . The two main concepts dream and r e a l i t y c o e x i s t  Krag says,  The day i s h e r e "  (VA 2 7 7 ) .  r e s u l t i n g from t h e o p p o s i t i o n between i n most n e o - P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y from P l a t o  t o Schopenhauer and i n most dream l i t e r a t u r e from Dante t o L i n d s a y . T h i s i s perhaps most c l e a r l y seen i n The Haunted Woman. dream, i . e .  Life is  a f a l s e w o r l d , b u t i n dreaming we c a n , p a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  new our c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a l w o r l d . the r i v e r of m a t t e r ,  a re-  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we have drunk o f  L e t h e , and we have f o r g o t t e n the e t e r n a l w o r l d  which i s our t u r e home.  " Y o u r memory w i l l be y o u r worst f r i e n d " (VA 43)  K r a g t e l l s M a s k u l l when they are about t o l e a v e f o r Tormance from the tower a t S t a r k n e s s .  "Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d i t , o r have y o u r  forgotten?"  (VA 278) K r a g asks N i g h t s p o r e b e f o r e he c l i m b s t h e tower o f M u s p e l . N i g h t s p o r e has n o t been c o m p l e t e l y c o r r u p t e d by h i s imprisonment i n the body.  Through dreaming he has  (as h i s name h i n t s ) m a i n t a i n e d some c o n -  t a c t w i t h the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y beyond t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to The Dream A d v e n t u r e , an a n t h o l o g y of stories,  Roger C a i l l o i s c l a i m s t h a t " t h e dream has been used o n l y  dream,  38  r e c e n t l y i n the l i t e r a r y p r o c e s s , "  a s k i n g , "Can i t s t i l l be a dream 30  if  one has been warned i n advance t h a t i t i s one?"  a r g u a b l e p o i n t i n many ways.  T h i s i s an  However, what C a l l o i s ' i s t r y i n g t o  get a t i s t h e i d e a t h a t some modern a u t h o r s have w r i t t e n dream n o v e l s t h a t a r e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , c r e a t i v e dreams i n w h i c h t h e d r e a m - r e a l i t y o p p o s i t i o n i s not o v e r t l y proclaimed.  We can see what he means i f we  compare the dream n o v e l s o f K a f k a , which respond v e r y w e l l , as  Hall  31 and L i n d  have f o u n d , t o  standard p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l procedures  such  as c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , w i t h the i n s i s t e n t r e p e t i t i o n s , "And I saw i n my d r e a m . . . , " o f a Bunyan.  However, the l i t e r a r y mode o f a l l e g o r y ,  even when i t does n o t p r e t e n d t o be a dream, does have a number o f t h i n g s i n common w i t h dreams t h e m s e l v e s ,  as w e l l as t h e tendency t o  use the i d e a o f the dream m e t a p h o r i c a l l y .  Certainly, allegories  are  much more l i k e dreams t h a n are o r d i n a r y ' r e a l i s t i c ' n o v e l s . The p r e c i s e genre t o w h i c h t h e i m p o r t a n t works we have m e n t i o n e d , The D i v i n e Comedy, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , 32 A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s ,  Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , and  b e l o n g i s a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y .  i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s and dreams s h a r e t h r e e s a l i e n t  Allegor-  characteristics:  s e q u e n t i a l form w i t h m a n i f e s t and l a t e n t meaning ( a l l e g o r y )  with  i d e a t i o n through v i s u a l i s a t i o n (dream) and s e p a r a t i o n from the phenomenal world (fantasy  o r romance).  As i s r e v e a l e d by such e x p r e s s i o n s  as  ' I must have been d r e a m i n g , '  the c e n t r a l f a c t about dreaming i s t h a t i t reduces the phenomenal w o r l d :  our c o n t a c t w i t h  we ' l o s e t o u c h ' w i t h r e a l i t y .  T h i s reduced  39  c o n t a c t has i t s analogue i n romance and f a n t a s y w h i c h a r e " l e s s com33 m i t t e d to t h e immediate r e n d i t i o n o f r e a l i t y than t h e n o v e l . "  In  a f a n t a s y P e t e r S c h l e m i e l can s e l l h i s shadow t o t h e d e v i l , who can r o l l i t up and put i t i n h i s p o c k e t .  T h i s freedom can be used e i t h e r 34 t o escape from r e a l i t y , as i t i s i n ^ p o p u l a r romance or pornography, 35 or t o explore i n n e r p s y c h i c r e a l i t y :  symbol o f something i n t a n g i b l e always  (say,  t h e t a n g i b l e shadow may be a the s o u l ) .  The a c t i o n i n f a n t a s y  takes p l a c e i n a m e n t a l r a t h e r than a p h y s i c a l w o r l d , where  a p p a r e n t l y p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s are a c t u a l l y m e n t a l r e a l i t i e s , which why they are no l o n g e r bound by the laws of the m a t e r i a l The kingdom o f God i s , speaks t o us i n dreams. "that  universe.  as we know, w i t h i n u s , which i s why He  Most r e l i g i o n s r e c o g n i s e ,  according to Jung,  the v o i c e w h i c h speaks i n our dreams i s n o t our own but comes 36  from a s o u r c e t r a n s c e n d i n g u s " ' o t h e r ' w o r l d beyond. fact  is  identical:  —that i s ,  i t acomes from the r e a l and  The i n n e r w o r l d and the t r a n s c e n d e n t  the f a n t a s y t a k e s . u s i n t o the s p i r i t .  are i n  This i s  b a s i s o f C. S. L e w i s ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s : The p h y s i c a l dangers, w h i c h are p l e n t i f u l , here count f o r n o t h i n g : i t i s we o u r s e l v e s and the a u t h o r who w a l k t h r o u g h a w o r l d o f s p i r i t u a l dangers which makes them seem t r i v i a l . There i s no r e c i p e f o r w r i t i n g o f t h i s k i n d . But p a r t o f the s e c r e t i s t h a t the a u t h o r ( l i k e Kafka) i s recording a l i v e d d i a l e c t . H i s Tormance i s a r e g i o n o f t h e s p i r i t . He i s t h e f i r s t w r i t e r t o d i s c o v e r what ' o t h e r p l a n e t s ' are r e a l l y good f o r in fiction. No merely p h y s i c a l s t r a n g e n e s s o r merely s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e w i l l r e a l i s e t h a t i d e a o f o t h e r n e s s which i s what we are always t r y i n g t o grasp i n a s t o r y about v o y a g i n g through s p a c e : you must go i n t o a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n . To conduct  the  40  p l a u s i b l e and moving ' o t h e r w o r l d s ' y o u must draw on the o n l y r e a l ' o t h e r w o r l d ' we know, t h a t o f the s p i r i t ( 3 7 ) . I t i s obvious t h a t f a n t a s y  l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be p a r a b o l i c ,  i c a l o r s y m b o l i c , as are at l e a s t the ' s p e c i a l ' dream p s y c h o l o g i e s  allegor-  dreams a l l o w e d f o r by  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y , the J u n g i a n ) .  That i s ,  l i k e a c t u a l ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' dreams, must be i n t e r p r e t e d .  dream w o r k s ,  They have b o t h  a m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t — t h e a c t u a l events—and a l a t e n t content—what the 38 p a t t e r n of events  signifies.  by K a f k a ) , t h e a e s t h e t i c may be q u i t e l a r g e , of  significances  Christian falls  In parables  (e.g.  of the k i n d w r i t t e n  d i s t a n c e between t h e two c o n t e n t s  so t h a t t h e dream o r dream work w i l l have a number  or ' m e a n i n g s ' .  I n n a i v e a l l e g o r y , where, f o r  example, 39  i n t o a s l o u g h and t h e s l o u g h i s c a l l e d Despond,  l e v e l s a r e c l o s e t o g e t h e r and the dream i s t r a n s p a r e n t opaque.  enciphered  the  r a t h e r than  A g a i n , i t i s a d i f f e r e n c e of degree r a t h e r than of k i n d , . a n d  most a c t u a l dream works are somewhere between pure f a n t a s y a l l e g o r y , and t h e i r o p a c i t y c o n t i n u a l l y v a r i e s : we g e n e r a l l y c a l l  i.e.,  and n a i v e  they are what  'symbolic'.  We have a l r e a d y quoted T. S. E l i o t to the e f f e c t 40 is a visual imagination." have a s i m i l a r i m p o r t .  References  In f a c t ,  and dreams d e a l i n concepts 41  to S p e n s e r ' s ' r i c h  'vision'  transcendent w o r l d , i t i s seeing i t s e l f .  that  "Dante's tapestry'  i s n o t o n l y s e e i n g i n t o the A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s  ( l a t e n t meaning), b u t one cannot  a disembodied c o n c e p t :  .i,. t h e l a t e n t must be made m a n i f e s t ,  s t r a c t made c o n c r e t e .  A l l e g o r i s t s express themselves,  visualise the ab-  for this  reason,  41  in pictures.  Dreams a l s o a r e — s i n c e when dreaming we have  touch' with r e a l i t y — m a i n l y i n p i c t u r e s , r e p r e s e n t s a p r i m i t i v e form of i d e a t i o n . dren a l s o t e n d t o t h i n k i n p i c t u r e s ,  'lost  and t h i n k i n g i n p i c t u r e s U n c i v i l i s e d men and c h i l -  and f o r most s l e e p e r s  dreaming 42  seems to i n v o l v e a r e g r e s s i o n This regression  to a more p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of  thought.  i n l i t e r a t u r e can l e a d the i n s e n s i t i v e c r i t i c to  say  t h a t an a u t h o r "does g i v e t h a t i m p r e s s i o n of b e i n g much more than r i p e 43 f o r p s y c h o a n a l y s i s w h i c h pervades much f a n t a s y " o r e v e n , though l e s s s n i d e l y , t h a t " a l l t h e g r e a t f a n t a s i e s , I suppose, have been w r i t t e n 44 by e m o t i o n a l l y c r i p p l e d m e n . " p a r t o f the f a n t a s i s t ' s attempt  However, the r e g r e s s i o n  is a v i t a l  t o get beyond the l i m i t s o f b o t h  language and everyday r e a l i t y i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the i n n e r r e a l i t y . I d e a t i o n through v i s u a l i s a t i o n l e a d s i n dreams t o  condensation.  Condensing two p r o v e r b s , we might c l a i m t h a t every p i c t u r e t e l l s s t o r y w o r t h a thousand w o r d s . i z a t i o n i s symbolic;  resentations unconscious')  In b o t h dreams and f a n t a s i e s the v i s u a l -  i t a l l o w s an enormous amount of a c t u a l  p e r i e n c e o t o be e n c a p s u l a t e d  a  i n iconographic form.  Where these r e p -  are common t o a c u l t u r e ( v i z . found i n the they are c a l l e d a r c h e t y p e s .  ex-  'collective  I t i s t h e use o f these 45  w h i c h , as Maud B o d k i n must be c r e d i t e d w i t h showing,  enable  dream  f a n t a s i e s such as The D i v i n e Comedy and The Rime of the A n c i e n t M a r i n e r , as w e l l as works b e l o n g i n g to l e s s e r l i t e r a r y genres such as the f a i r y t a l e and G o t h i c romance, to generate such e m o t i o n a l power. Condensation i s a l s o at work i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s when  42  we f i n d the sudden d i s p l a c e m e n t o f s y m b o l i c meaning from the l a n d scape t o the f i g u r e .  A l l e g o r i c a l f a n t a s i e s and dreams b o t h work  through p i c t u r e s , n o t i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n . allegories  t h e r e are no c h a r a c t e r s  In  i n the sense we use the word when  t a l k i n g of p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l s , t h e r e a r e o n l y embodied c o n c e p t s . The a l l e g o r i s t i s most i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e f o r making s i g n i f i c a n t h i s embodiments i s through t h i s d i s p l a c e m e n t .  As A . D. N u t t a l has ob-  s e r v e d , exampling us w i t h a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and a n a i v e w r i t e r ,  "with  D a n t e , as w i t h Bunyan, i t i s the l a n d s c a p e t h a t keeps the a l l e g o r y 46 vigorous."  This i s  the case i n a l l a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y .  A c c o r d i n g t o Angus F l e t c h e r , who s l i p s i n an e x t r a name, " t h e heroes 4  i n Dante and Spenser and Bunyan seem t o c r e a t e the w o r l d s about t h e m . " Indeed they do. the l a n d s c a p e  But i t i s from the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e from  t h a t the e m o t i o n a l , r a t h e r than the i n t e l l e c t u a l , s i g n i f -  i c a n c e of the embodiment comes.  T h i s i s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t .  Landscape i n a l l e g o r y i s , as we s a y ,  'by the w a y , ' l o g i c a l l y , but i t  i s one source o f a l l e g o r y ' s e m o t i o n a l power. L a s t l y , dreams and a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s have i n common s e q u e n t i a l form.  Joanna Russ t a l k s of " t h e t r u d g i n g r e g u l a r i t y of  events i n A r c t u r u s " and says dream s t o r i e s  "are e n t i r e l y e p i s o d i c ,  the with  c o n s i s t e n t and a p p a r e n t l y d e l i b e r a t e a v o i d a n c e of emphasis, c o m p l e x i t y 48 o r change" so t h a t " t h e r e s u l t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s e r i e s of  tableaus."  Such t h i n g s may w i t h e q u a l j u s t i c e be s a i d of The D i v i n e Comedy o r w i t h g r e a t e r j u s t i c e o f The F a e r i e Queen.  In f a c t ,  such remarks  about  43  'tableaus'  a r e t h e c l i c h e s o f Spenser c r i t i c i s m , and a r i s e  same p a t h e t i c i n a b i l i t y t o take a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y .  from the  Of c o u r s e , A  Voyage to A r c t u r u s and The D i v i n e Comedy a r e b o t h b e a u t i f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d b o o k s , b u t t h e r e a r e many f i n e dream works w h i c h a r e to ' p u r e ' fantasy.  closer  I n books which are n o t t i g h t l y o r g a n i s e d around  a p r e c i s e m o r a l f o r m u l a , such as Amos T u t u o l a ' s The Palm-Wine D r i n k a r d o r George MacDonald's Phantastes, be s i m p l y random.  the o r d e r o f the i n c i d e n t s may o f t e n  F l e t c h e r a d m i t s , " t h e p r o g r e s s need n o t be p l a u s i b l e , 49  as l o n g as  the momentum o f s y m b o l i c i n v e n t i o n i s g r e a t . "  of A Voyage have p r a i s e d i t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i t s w e a l t h o f  Most c r i t i c s invention,  and t h i s may be why t h e e c o n o m i c a l o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e has so l o n g r e mained h i d d e n .  When S i g n i f i c a n t I n c i d e n t s f o l l o w one a n o t h e r w i t h  g r e a t r a p i d i t y , as they tend to i n dreams and dream a l l e g o r i e s , reader i s u n l i k e l y to consider t h e i r order deeply. dream a l l e g o r i e s ,  even i n  t h e r e may not be any reason why one event s h o u l d  f o l l o w r a t h e r than precede a n o t h e r . before Hopeful,  Besides,  the  Should C h r i s t i a n meet  or pass through V a n i t y F a i r b e f o r e ,  the V a l l e y o f the Shadow o f  Faithful  r a t h e r than  after,  death?  I n a c t u a l dreams we a c c e p t the a s t o n i s h i n g w i t h e q u a n i m i t y , and questions  t h a t would be asked by t h e w a k i n g consciousness—-were  o n l y awake—are s i m p l y not a s k e d . dream f a n t a s y p a r t company.  it  However, here dream and a l l e g o r i c a l  When we r e a d a l i t e r a r y work (as  opposed  t o a p i e c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t ) o f whatever g e n r e , we s h o u l d n o t p u t our reasons to s l e e p .  Even though they b o t h have s e q u e n t i a l f o r m , and a l l  44  t h e o t h e r s i m i l a r i t i e s we have n o t e d , a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s  are  51 designed;  they are works of a r t , and dreams are n o t .  A l l e g o r i e s are two d i m e n s i o n a l , and t h e two s t r u c t u r a l forms w h i c h they take have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d as the b a t t l e and the p r o g r e s s . Of the form of t h e b a t t l e are The Holy War and The B a t t l e o f the Books. Of the form of the p r o g r e s s a r e The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s  and G u l l i v e r 1 ' s  Travels.  Of c o u r s e ,  few ( e . g .  the works o f Bunyan and S w i f t c i t e d above) are almost w h o l l y  one o r the o t h e r .  a l l a l l e g o r i e s are t o some e x t e n t b o t h , though a  I n g e n e r a l , as C. S. Lewis a r g u e s , t h e form o f  the  p r o g r e s s i s t o be p r e f e r r e d : Seneca, w i t h h i s imagery of l i f e as a j o u r n e y , was n e a r e r t o the mark than P r u d e n t i u s ; f o r Seneca o u t l i n e d the theme o f the P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , and the P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s i s a b e t t e r book than the Holy War. I t i s n o t h a r d t o see why t h i s s h o u l d be s o . The j o u r n e y has i t s ups and downs, i t s p l e a s a n t r e s t i n g - p l a c e s e n j o y e d f o r a n i g h t and then abandoned, i t s unexpected m e e t i n g s , i t s ^ r u m o u r s o f dangers ahead, and, above a l l , t h e sense o f a g o a l , a t f i r s t f a r d i s t a n t and d i m l y h e a r d o f , b u t growing n e a r e r a t e v e r y t u r n of t h e r o a d . Now t h i s r e p r e s e n t s f a r more t r u l y than any combat i n a champ c l o s the p e r e n n i a l s t r a n g e n e s s , and the sensuous f o r w a r d movement o f fche-inner l i f e . I t needs the l o n g r o a d and mountain p r o s p e c t s of the f a b l e t o match the <x1T£ipov w i t h i n ( 5 2 ) . Even ' p u r e ' dream f a n t a s i e s l i k e A l i c e i n Wonderland and The Palm-Wine D r i n k a r d have some k i n d of f i n a l g o a l , even i f i t i s o n l y a way o f e n d i n g the s t o r y .  But i n a l l e g o r i e s which c a r r y a s p i r i t u a l message,  i s a c o n t i n u a l s t r i v i n g towards a f i n a l v i s i o n o r v i s i o n a r y as C. S. Lewis has n o t e d .  there  experience,  45  The a l l e g o r y w h i c h i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a b a t t l e  i s one  organised  around the c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l i n some f o r m , whether  the  o p p o s i n g camps be c a l l e d Heaven and H e l l o r S u r t u r and C r y s t a l m a n o r whatever.  So much i s e a s y .  p r o g r e s s i s one o r g a n i s e d have a f o u r - p a r t  The a l l e g o r y w h i c h i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a  around a j o u r n e y .  structure,  Such a l l e g o r i e s  made up o f two major elements  t e n d to  (the p r o g r e s s  p r o p e r and the f i n a l v i s i o n ) a a n d two minor elements which a c t as  a  frame (the t r a n s i t i o n from the phenomenal t o the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d and the promise of r e t u r n ) . world:  We n o r m a l l y b e g i n i n the ' r e a l ' c o r  everyday  i n a dark wood i n The D i v i n e Comedy/, . i n A n o d o s ' s room at home  i n P h a n t a s t e s , i n F a u l l ' s House i n A Voyage.  The a l l e g o r i s t ' s  t a s k i s to get us from t h e r e to the w o r l d o f the s p i r i t . t i o n may be b a r e l y n o t i c e a b l e :  first  The t r a n s i -  N . K. S a n d a r s , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  The E p i c of G i l g a m e s h , a c u t e l y observes t h a t G i l g a m e s h ' s  second  journey  can be based on no h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t ; the t o p o g raphy i s o t h e r - w o r l d l y i n a manner w h i c h b e f o r e i t was n o t . The p l a n e s o f r o m a n t i c and o f s p i r i t u a l adventure have c o a l e s c e d . A l t h o u g h c l o t h e d i n the appearances o f p r i m i t i v e geography i t i s a s p i r i t u a l l a n d s c a p e as much as D a n t e ' s Dark Wood, M o u n t a i n , and P i t (53). The t r a n s i t i o n i n P h a n t a s t e s i s b e a u t i f u l l y managed: m a g i c a l l y metamorphoses i n t o f a i r y l a n d :  Anodos's  bedroom  the c a r p e t becomes a s w a r d , 54  c a r v e d becomes r e a l i v y , the f a u c e t o v e r f l o w s and becomes a  stream.  Mr. Vane i n L i l i t h has i n h i s house an u p s t a i r s which i s unknown to h i m , a g a r r e t w i t h "an uncanny look""'"' which may be the source o f U l f ' s Tower i n The Haunted Woman.  immediate  In t h i s g a r r e t i s a m i r r o r  46  through w h i c h , r a t h e r i n the manner o f A l i c e , M r . Vane stumbles  into  56 another w o r l d ,  e v i d e n t l y on a n o t h e r p l a n e t w h i c h o c c u p i e s 57  space as t h e e a r t h .  L i n d s a y and C. S.  the same  Lewis take us i n t o the  w o r l d by h a v i n g t h e i r heroes l i t e r a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d  to other  spirit  planets.  Of t h i s C. S. Lewis says I am i n c l i n e d to t h i n k t h a t f r a n k l y s u p e r n a t u r a l methods are b e s t . I took a h e r o once t o Mars i n a s p a c e - s h i p , b u t when I knew b e t t e r I had a n g e l s convey h i m to Venus ( 5 8 ) . Lewis has j u s t been complementing H . G. W e l l s on " h i s c h o i c e o f a q u i t e 59 impossible composition c a l l e d c a v o r i t e "  t o power h i s s p a c e - s h i p i n  F i r s t Men i n the Moon: This i m p o s s i b i l i t y i s of course a m e r i t , not a defect. A man o f h i s i n g e n u i t y c o u l d e a s i l y have thought up something more p l a u s i b l e . But t h e more p l a u s i b l e , the w o r s e . That would merely i n v i t e i n t e r e s t i n a c t u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e a c h i n g the moon, a m i n t e r e s t f o r e i g n t o h i s s t o r y (60). The t r a d i t i o n a l method o f g e t t i n g i n t o the s p i r i t w o r l d , f a l l i n g a s l e e p and h a v i n g one o r more dreams as i n P i e r s Plowman and The P i l g r i m ' s Progress,  seems t o have gone out o f f a s h i o n .  modern f a n t a s y tends t o two may b e ,  The s p i r i t w o r l d i n  be n o t i n i n n e r b u t i n o u t e r s p a c e , though the  i n the end, the same.  Once i n t h e s p i r i t w o r l d , the p r o g r e s s p r o p e r o f the a l l e g o r y takes p l a c e .  Angus F l e t c h e r d e s c r i b e s t h i s by s a y i n g t h a t " a  system-  a t i c a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r w i l l generate a l a r g e number o f o t h e r 61 protagonists allegories  who r e a c t a g a i n s t or w i t h h i m i n a s y l l o g i s t i c manner"  abandon m i m e s i s ,  f o r the c h a r a c t e r s  do n o t have t o  "interact  47  p l a u s i b l y , o r a c c o r d i n g t o p r o b a b i l i t y , as l o n g as  they i n t e r a c t w i t h  62 a certain logical necessity."  Then, "by a n a l y z i n g the p r o j e c t i o n s ,  we determine what i s g o i n g on i n i t h e mind of the h i g h l y  imaginative  63 projector."  Unlike characters  do n o t have i n t e r i o r w o r l d s .  i n novels, characters  m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s are e x t e r i o r i s e d ,  and c h a r a c t e r s  g i v e us samples o f h i s  so o r d e r e d t h a t we i n f e r the f a c t .  o f Despond o f some k i n d .  allegories  A n o v e l i s t may t e l l us t h a t h i s hero  unhappy and d e p r e s s e d , o r ;(for example) of c o n s c i o u s n e s s  in  is  stream  I n a l l e g o r y , where  the h e r o w i l l f a l l i n t o a Slough  Thus the p r o t a g o n i s t  generates l a n d s c a p e s  (though t h a t word i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the  'real'  p e o p l e o f a n o v e l ) who are the t r a n s i t o r y embodiments of the problems he i s f a c i n g .  Each p r o b l e m f a c e d and d i s p o s e d o f i s a s t e p f o r w a r d  i n the p r o g r e s s of the a l l e g o r y . The p r o g r e s s o f t h e a l l e g o r y c l e a r l y takes p l a c e on two l e v e l s simultaneously:  on one l e v e l ( m a n i f e s t )  and h i s e p i s o d i c a d v e n t u r e s ,  we have the s t o r y o f a t r a v e l l e r  on a n o t h e r ( l a t e n t ) we have  a metaphysical  s t o r y of t h e p r o g r e s s o f the s o u l .  Thus the a l l e g o r y " a s p i r e s t o 64 e n c i p h e r two c o n t e n t s i n one f o r m , " and i t has been much c r i t i c i s e d f o r t h i s , even by s o p h i s t i c a t e d a l l e g o r i s t s such as B l a k e and Poe. Both T o l k i e n and^C. S. Lewis r e p e a t e d l y a f f i r m t h a t t h e i r own f a n t a s i e s 65 are n o t a l l e g o r i c a l . is)  Aware t h a t a l l e g o r y i s frowned upon ( i f i t  i n ' t h e age o f the n o v e l , ' b o t h J .  B. P i c k and C o l i n W i l s o n  eager t o deny t h a t L i n d s a y i s an a l l e g o r i s t , t o A r c t u r u s he o b v i o u s l y i s .  still  are  even though i n A Voyage  W i l s o n says A Voyage i s " a s o r t  of  48  P i l g r i m ' s Progress—except,  I must emphasise,  l e g o r y b u t a s t o r y w i t h deeper meanings" it  t h a t i t i s n o t an a l -  (TSG 4 9 ) .  S a i d o f A Voyage,  i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s means a n y t h i n g even t o W i l s o n .  rate,  A t any  i t does n o t hamper h i s c r i t i c i s m g r e a t l y , f o r he procedes  work through the p r o g r e s s s u g g e s t i n g i c a l meanings.  (often acutely) possible  to  allegor-  P i c k , however, i s a much more d e t e r m i n e d a n t i - a l l e g o r i s t .  P i c k c h i d e s "The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement r e v i e w e r " f o r l e a p i n g a t the most obvious w o r d — ' a l l e g o r y ' . L i n d s a y was n o t an a l l e g o r i s t . I n D e v i l ' s T o r one ,of h i s characters says: ' A symbol i s a m y s t i c s i g n o f the C r e a t o r . An a l l e g o r y i s a w a l l d e c o r a t i o n w i t h a l a b e l attached* 5 (TSG 5 ) . The c h a r a c t e r P i c k quotes  i s the p a i n t e r P e t e r C o p p i n g .  We have a l -  ready seen t h a t L i n d s a y ' s views i n D e v i l ' s Tor (1932) were v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from those i n A Voyage ( 1 9 2 0 ) : on the "chasm o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n " (TSG 3 0 ) .  L i n d s a y h i m s e l f comments We have a l r e a d y n o t e d t h a t  the c h a r a c t e r i n D e v i l ' s Tor most l i k e l y t o be a mouthpiece f o r L i n d s a y h i m s e l f i s n o t Copping b u t the a g i n g w r i t e r of books on c o s m i c a l p r o b 66 lems, Magnus C o l b o r n e . (DT 1 0 8 ) .  A g a i n , C o l b o r n e " r e m i n d e d one o f  This a l l f i t s  together.  Schopenhauer"  Had P i c k r e a d h i s Schopenhauer  as  w e l l as L i n d s a y he would have found i n The World as W i l l and Idea a passage s t r o n g l y c r i t i c a l o f a l l e g o r y i n the p l a s t i c a r t s , Schopenhauer i s a g a i n s t f o r t h e same reason as C o p p i n g :  which  the l a b e l on  the s t a t u e , p a i n t i n g o r w a l l d e c o r a t i o n w h i c h s a y s , f o r example,  'Faith,'  t a k e s us from t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the c o n c r e t e t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f t o a limiting abstraction.  But Schopenhauer p o i n t s out t h a t the m a t e r i a l  49  of l i t e r a t u r e i s therefore  i n i t s e l f a b s t r a c t , concepts  e x p r e s s e d i n w o r d s , and  i n t h i s case a l l e g o r y t a k e s us from the a b s t r a c t _to the  c o n c r e t e ; - , when the word i s made f l e s h .  Therefore,  says  Schopenhauer,  a l l e g o r y has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n t o p o e t r y from t h a t which i t has t o p l a s t i c and p i c t o r i a l a r t ; and a l t h o u g h i t i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n t h e l a t t e r , i t i s q u i t e a d m i s s a b l e and v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n the former ( F i r s t Book, s e c . 50) ( 6 7 ) . Borges g i v e s us a c o n c r e t e i l l u s t r a t i o n of Schopenhauer's  p o i n t when  he says B e a t r i c e i s n o t a s i g n o f . t h e word f a i t h ; she i s a s i g n o f a c t i v e v i r t u e and the s e c r e t i l l u m i n a t i o n t h a t t h i s word i n d i c a t e s — a more p r e c i s e s i g n , a r i c h e r and h a p p i e r s i g n than the m o n o s y l l a b l e f a i t h (68). Borges f u r t h e r p o i n t s out t h a t a l l e g o r i s t s " i d e a s are r e a l i t i e s " whereas  are P l a t o n i s t s f o r whom  f o r A r i s t o t e l i a n s " t h e y are  generali-  z a t i o n s " from p a r t i c u l a r s * . - .^Novelists a r e A r i s t o t e l i a n n o m i n a l i s t s because they d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e a l l e g o r i s t s  are P l a t o n i c  69 realists was,  because they d e a l w i t h I d e a s .  f o l l o w i n g Schopenhauer,  We have seen t h a t L i n d s a y  a P l a t o n i s t who b e l i e v e d i n a r e a l w o r l d .  No doubt he c o u l d have j u s t i f i e d h i s use of a l l e g o r y p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , had he f e l t the need t o a p o l o g i s e f o r i t .  He d i d n o t .  I n the  letters  t o V i s i a k he hopes t h a t h i s young s t u d e n t w i l l s u c c e e d " i n e l u c i d a t i n g the mystery of the a l l e g o r y " t a k i n g the a l l e g o r y s e r i o u s l y , C h r i s t i a n (and t h e r e f o r e  (L 45) and i s g r a t e f u l t o V i s i a k f o r even i f i t i s from a s p e c i f i c a l l y  l i m i t e d ) point of view.  What P i c k and W i l s o n agree on i s  that w h i l e L i n d s a y i s not an  50  a l l e g o r i s t , he i s a v i s i o n a r y and m y s t i c l i k e "Boehme, Swedenborg and W i l l i a m B l a k e " (TSG 5 ) . ^  L i n d s a y i s a v i s i o n a r y , of c o u r s e , when we  reach the t h i r d s t a g e o f the a l l e g o r y .  T a k i n g us from the phenomenal  w o r l d t o the s p i r i t w o r l d , and a c r o s s the s p i r i t w o r l d i n t h e p r o g r e s s , i s the n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f i n a l v i s i o n i t s e l f .  Angus F l e t c h e r  has n o t i c e d t h a t "though a l l e g o r y may be i n t e n d e d to r e v e a l , i t does so o n l y a f t e r v e i l i n g a d e l a y e d message w h i c h i t would r a t h e r keep from any v e r y ready o r f a c i l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " ^ " ' "  ' V e i l i n g ' i s an  appropriate  metaphor h e r e , f o r the f i n a l aim o f the a l l e g o r y i s t o t a k e us through the v e i l of Maya and g i v e us a v i s i o n of the t r a n s c e n d e n t w o r l d .  But  i t must be worked f o r : The p r o c e s s o f e x p l i c a t i o n , a g r a d u a l u n f o l d i n g , i s s e q u e n t i a l i n form. There i s n o r m a l l y a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e of comprehension, as t h e r e a d e r pursues the f a b l e , and y e t most a l l e g o r i e s o f major importance have u l t i m a t e l y v e r y obscure images, and t h e s e are a source o f t h e i r g r e a t ness. (72). 73 A f t e r the " p a s s i o n a t e s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y "  we move t o the v i s i o n ,  and  When an a l l e g o r y becomes p u r e l y v i s i o n a r y , when f o r example The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s shows us the Heavenly C i t y , i t does so o n l y a f t e r a s t r u g g l e to r e a c h t h a t g o a l . The s t a g e p r i o r t o f i n a l v i s i o n seems t o b e . q u a l i t a t i v e l y u n l i k e t h a t f i n a l v i s i o n ; the l a t t e r i s a moment o f l i b e r a tion. The former i s a sequence o f d i f f i c u l t l a b o r s , o f t e n t a k i n g the form of the h e r o ' s e n slavement t o a f a t a l d e s t i n y . The psychomachia and the p r o g r e s s are n a r r a t i v e images o f t h i s struggle. They a r e b a t t l e s f o r , and j o u r n e y s t o w a r d , t h e f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n o f the h e r o ( 7 4 ) . The hero i s l i b e r a t e d by m y s t i c a l i n s i g h t , which i s why S t . r a t h e r than B e a t r i c e l e a d s ' D a n t e ' t o the f i n a l v i s i o n .  Bernard  The m y s t i c a l  51  i n s i g h t i s knowledge o f the w o r l d beyond the v e i l o f Maya, i . e . The ' f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n ' l e a d s , a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s a r e ,  of course,  gnosis.  t o r e b i r t h , and most  on a l a r g e s c a l e ,  examples o f what  Maud Bodkin d i s t i n g u i s h e s as t h e " R e b i r t h A r c h e t y p e " o r ( c o n f i r m i n g our i n s i s t e n c e on the dream a s p e c t o f a l l e g o r i e s ) whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e s t r u g g l e , Maud Bodkin w r i t e s  the " N i g h t J o u r n e y , "  r e l a x a t i o n and then i l l u m i n a t i o n .  that  I n i t s s i m p l e s t form t h i s i n t e r p l a y may be r e c o g n i z e d as a rhythm c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a l l c o n s c i o u s and o r g a n i c l i f e . I n the more comp l e x form t h a t g e n e r a t e s the need f o r expres-t s i o n , t h e r e i s t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t . A sense o f p a i n and g u i l t a t t e n d s p e r s i s t e n c e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r mode o f a d a p t a t i o n , o r s e l f a s s e r t i o n , whose abandonment i n the c o n d i t i o n o f s u r r e n d e r and q u i e s c e n c e g i v e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the a r i s i n g i m p u l s e o f some new form o f l i f e (75). M a s k u l l ' s b l o o d y t r i p a c r o s s Tormance i s the s t r u g g l e , " p a i n and g u i l t " .  On the f l o a t i n g i s l a n d M a s k u l l reaches  q u i e s c e n c e when he t e l l s Gangnet " I have l o s t my w i l l " Soon a f t e r , life'  complete  (VA 2 7 5 ) .  he d i e s , and the " a r i s i n g i m p u l s e " o f the 'new form of  ( t h a t i s , N i g h t s p o r e ) takes o v e r .  In a l l e g o r i e s ,  i s g e n e r a l l y back i n t o the phenomenal w o r l d . he reawakes  a t t e n d e d by  the r e b i r t h  Thus Dante i s r e b o r n when  to w r i t e h i s dream v i s i o n as The D i v i n e Comedy, Bunyan t o  w r i t e The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s .  Anodos d i e s and i s b u r i e d , 7 ^ but he must  s i n k from t h i s " s t a t e o f i d e a l b l i s s i n t o the w o r l d o f s h a d o w s " 7 7 f i n d h i m s e l f once more a t 'home' on e a r t h . most t e r r i b l e t h i n g o f a l l :  and  N i g h t s p o r e has t o f a c e the  r e b i r t h i n t o C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d (VA 2 7 9 ) .  The r e b i r t h through reawakening o r the promise o f r e t u r n t o the phenom-  52  e n a l w o r l d — t h o u g h a w o r l d changed by the dream e x p e r i e n c e — i s  the  second h a l f o f the frame which surrounds the p r o g r e s s p r o p e r , the of the a l l e g o r y ' s  four sections  and, g e n e r a l l y , the  last  briefest.  A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s as a whole are a k i n d o f dream exp e r i e n c e f o r the r e a d e r .  I n the a p o l o g e t i c d o g g e r e l w h i c h p r e f a c e s  The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s ,  Bunyan asks " W o u l d s ' t t h o u be i n a Dream, and  78 yet not sleep?"  Dream b o o k s , as has been e x p l a i n e d , a r e l i k e 79  actual  dreams, but the r e a d e r cannot r e a d f o r ever.-' any more than the a u t h o r can dream f o r e v e r :  b o t h must r e t u r n to t h e phenomenal w o r l d .  dream i s o n l y the m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t o f t h e dream b o o k : t e n t i s l e f t f o r the r e a d e r t o work o u t .  But the  the L a t e n t c o n -  Thus Bunyan c l o s e s The  P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s w i t h more d o g g e r e l : Now, Reader, I have t o l d my Dream t o t h e e ; See i f t h o u c a n s ' t i n t e r p r e t i t t o me, Or to t h y s e l f ( 8 0 ) . Anodos a t t h e end of P h a n t a s t e s  r e t u r n s "somewhat i n s t r u c t e d , I hoped,  by t h e adventures t h a t had b e f a l l e n me i n F a i r y - l a n d .  Could I  translate  81 t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f my t r a v e l s ' t h e r e , i n t o common l i f e ? " t o us r e p e a t e d l y t o work f o r the l a t e n t  Dante appeals  content:  0 y o u who have good i n t e l l e c t s , l o o k c l o s e l y At the l e s s o n t h a t l i e s h i d d e n beneath The v e i l o f m y s t e r i o u s v e r s e s ( I 9 ) . The m o r a l messages o f d i f f e r e n t a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s  will, 82  of c o u r s e , be d i f f e r e n t i n each a l l e g o r y . is,  MacDonald's i n  Phantastes  f o r example, t h e o p p o s i t e o f L i n d s a y ' s i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s .  However, we have seen the genre of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y  t o be a  53  remarkably homogenous one, and the f a c t s o f b e l i e f i n a t r a n s c e n d e n t w o r l d and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c embodiment o f the ' r e b i r t h l e a d tormost a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s  archetype'  (at l e a s t , I can t h i n k o f no  e x c e p t i o n s ) h a v i n g a common message b e s i d e s t h e s p e c i f i c m o r a l one. T h i s message i s t h a t we are a l i e n s , but t h a t we h a v e , i n the r e a l w o r l d , a t r u e home. a s p i r i t u a l one.  Thus the p r o t a g o n i s t  l e a v e s h i s e a r t h l y home f o r  C h r i s t i a n p u t s " h i s f i n g e r s i n h i s e a r s " so as n o t  t o h e a r h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n c a l l i n g a f t e r h i m , and runs on " c r y i n g Life!  Life'. Eternal Life.'" "  which i s  the C e l e s t i a l C i t y .  E v e n t u a l l y he reaches h i s t r u e home, I n MacDonald's L i l i t h the raven l u r e s  Mr. Vane from h i s e a r t h l y home, s a y i n g "Everybody who i s n o t . a t home, has to go home. if  You thought t h a t y o u were a t home where I found y o u :  84 t h a t had been y o u r home you c o u l d not have l e f t i t . " '  Most c l e a r l y  t h i s m o t i f i s e x p r e s s e d by N o v a l i s i n h i s romance Henry o f O f t e r d i i i g e n . Henry l e a v e s h i s p a r e n t s , b u t f e e l s "as  i f i n r e a l i t y he was j o u r n e y i n g  85 ^ " I n 'The F u l f i l l m e n t ' when he asks " W i t h e r are we g o i n g ? " 86 he i s t o l d , " E v e r homewards." We found t h i s theme i n S p h i n x , where 87 homewards."  N i c h o l a s and Lore are f r e e d by death t o r i d e t o t h e i r r e a l home, we s h a l l f i n d i t a g a i n i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s .  and  54  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter Two  T. S. E l i o t , Dante (London: Faber and F a b e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 5 6 . T h i s passage i s a l s o quoted by Maud B o d k i n i n h e r p i o n e e r i n g s t u d y A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 177. Her comments on Dante a r e most i n s t r u c t i v e . 2  This t a b l e has been t a k e n f r o m Constance B . H l e a t t ' s The R e a l i s m o f Dream V i s i o n s : The P o e t i c E x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e Dream-Experience i n Chaucer and h i s Contemporaries (The Hague: Mouton, 1967), p . 2 7 . 3  P l a t o , ' A p o l o g y ' i n The L a s t Days o f S o c r a t e s , t r a n s . Hugh T r e d e n n i c k (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1954), p . 40. I n 'Phaedo' i n t h i s volume, ' S o c r a t e s ' t e l l s us he has been composing p o e t r y o n l y " i n the attempt t o d i s c o v e r t h e meaning o f c e r t a i n dreams" (p. 7 7 ) . 4 N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n : 1 8 5 3 ) , p . 27.  A Romance (New Y o r k :  H . H . Moore,  ^ N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 2 8 . N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 29. ^ N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 2 3 . g Dante, The D i v i n e Comedy, t r a n s , L o u i s B i a n c o l l i (New Y o r k : Washington Square P r e s s , 1968), p . 294. The q u o t a t i o n i s from Book I I , Canto.,,30. Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be t o book and c a n t o and i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t , v i z . ( I I 3 0 ) . P l a t o , Timaeus, t r a n s , H . D. P . Lee (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1965), p . 97. The passage c o n t i n u e s a l i t t l e l a t e r : "and i t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f someone i n h i s r i g h t mind t o c o n s t u r e what i s r e membered . . . and t o g i v e a r a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r v i s i o n s . " "^Schopenhauer, S a m t l i c h e Werke (Reclam, 1 9 2 1 ) , I V , p . 391. Quoted from J e a n - P a u l Weber's T h e P s y c h o l o g y of A r t , t r a n s , J . A . E l i a s (New Y o r k : D e l a c o r t e P r e s s , 1969), p . ^4-, Tlato,  'Phaedo' i n The L a s t Days, p . 109.  55  12  "To go back t o the s t a r s / A c c o r d i n g to the thought e x p r e s s e d by P l a t o , " says B e a t r i c e , much t o D a n t e ' s s u r p r i s e . But she a d d s , "What Timaeus, who e v i d e n t l y spoke as / He f e l t , had to say about the human s o u l / I s n o t the same as what i s seen up h e r e " ( I I I 4 ) . 13  H a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e , and L i t e r a t u r e : A Study o f F r a n z K a f k a (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 7. C f . "we go through the e x p e r i e n c e of becoming two every n i g h t i n our dreams" and " t h e s o u l o r the double i s a t w i n " i n Geza Roheim's The Gates o f the Dream (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1952), p . 433. 14  Quoted from E r i c h Fromm, The F o r g o t t e n Language (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t , 1951), p. 5. Fromm n e i t h e r i d e n t i f i e s the poet n o r c i t e s h i s source. " ^ A l d o u s H u x l e y , Heaven and H e l l (London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1956). See A p p e n d i x I I f o r d i e t a r y reasons why " i n the Western w o r l d v i s i o n a r i e s and m y s t i c s are a good d e a l l e s s common than they used to b e " (p. 5 9 ) . X6 Roger C a i l l o i s , The Dream Adventure (New Y o r k :  1963).  O r i o n Books,  H . P . L o v e c r a f t , The Dream-Quest B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 122... 1 7  1 8  H.  P. Lovecraft,  The  Dream-Quest  1 9  H.  P.  Lovecraft,  The  Dream-Quest  P. L o v e c r a f t ,  The  Dream-Quest  2  °H.  21 J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , F i c t i o n s , e d . Anthony K e r r i g a n (London: C a l d e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 57.  John  22 J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , A P e r s o n a l A n t h o l o g y , e d . Anthony K e r r i g a n (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 117. 23  E r i c h Fromm, The F o r g o t t e n Language, p .  28.  56  24  P . D. Ouspensky, The F o u r t h Way (London: P a u l , 1957), p . 29. 2 5  W i l l i a m Law, 'The S p i r i t o f  Routledge and Kegan  P r a y e r , ' Works ( 1 7 6 2 ) , V I I 3.  26 P l a t o , Timaeus, p .  71.  27 The E p i c of G i l g a m e s h , E d . and t r a n s . N . K. Sandars (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971), p . 104. ^ ^ W i l l i a m Shakespeare, The Tempest ( I V . i . 1 5 6 - 5 8 ) . These l i n e s were f a v o r i t e s o f Jean P a u l R i c h t e r , as J . W. Smeed t e l l s us i n Jean P a u l ' s 'Dreams' (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 9. 29 Plato, 30  3 1  Kafka.  ' A p o l o g y ' i n The L a s t Days, p .  Roger C a - l l o i s , The Dream A d v e n t u r e , p .  H a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e ,  49. xxxii.  and L i t e r a t u r e :  A Study o f Franz  32  An I t a l i a n v i s i o ( C 1 3 t h ) , an E n g l i s h a l l e g o r y Romance (C18th) and a S c o t t i s h space f a n t a s y ( C 2 0 t h ) .  ( C 1 7 t h ) , a German  33  R i c h a r d Chase, The American N o v e l and I t s T r a d i t i o n (Garden C i t y : Doubleday, 1957), p . 13. Chase i s d e v e l o p i n g Hawthorne's o p p o s i t i o n between t h e n o v e l and t h e romance, w h i c h " w i l l v e e r toward m y t h i c , a l l e g o r i c a l , and s y m b o l i s t i c f o r m s . " F o r f u r t h e r development see E l l i o t t B. Gose J r , I m a g i n a t i o n I n d u l g e d : The I r r a t i o n a l i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century N o v e l ( M o n t r e a l and London: M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 15-28. 34  I n h e r p i e c e o f p o l e m i c a g a i n s t dream w r i t e r s i n g e n e r a l and D a v i d L i n d s a y i n p a r t i c u l a r , Joanna Russ c a l l s dream s t o r i e s " t h e pornography o f p o e t r y " ; E x t r a p o l a t i o n (Dec. 1969), p . 13. 35  See B. D. L e w i n , Dreams and the Uses o f R e g r e s s i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1958). 36 Press,  C. G. J u n g , P s y c h o l o g y and R e l i g i o n (New Haven: 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 45.  (New Y o r k :  Yale University  57  37  pp.  C. S. L e w i s , Of Other Worlds (London: 11-12;  Geoffrey B l e s ,  1966),  38  Running u p s t a i r s may, t o t a k e a F r e u d i a n example, s i g n i f y s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e , a c c o r d i n g t o the p a r t i t p l a y s i n the r e s t o f the dream, but i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean o r s i g n i f y t h a t . 39  s  John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s (London: J . M. Dent, 1927), Bunyan not o n l y uses n a i v e a l l e g o r y , he g i v e s a r u n n i n g commentary ( h i s w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s r e c o u n t i n g the dream): "as the s i n n e r i s awakened about h i s l o s t c o n d i t i o n , t h e r e a r i s e t h i n h i s s o u l many f e a r s and d o u b t s " w h i c h are e v i d e n t l y w a t e r y f o r they " s e t t l e i n t h i s p l a c e : And t h i s i s the reason o f t h e badness o f t h i s g r o u n d " (p. 1 8 ) . Cf. the swamp M a s k u l l gets i n t o w i t h S u l l e n b o d e (VA 2 5 4 ) . 40 T. S. E l i o t ,  Dante, p .  15.  41  That i s , an I d e a o r Form. They can be s e e n , and t h i s i s the aim o f P l a t o n i c and n e o - P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y , b u t t h e y s t i l l cannot be v i s u a l i s e d , and t h e r e f o r e they cannot be d e s c r i b e d . Hence ' D a n t e ' i n an i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n o f The D i v i n e Comedy goes b l i n d ( I I I 2 5 - 2 6 ) . L e s s e r v i s i o n a r i e s l i k e M a s k u l l and Ransom ( i n P e r e l a r t d r a ) have s i m i l a r problems w i t h new c o l o u r s and s e n s a t i o n s . 42  See Sigmund F r e u d , A M e t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l Supplement t o the Theory of Dreams (1917 [ 1 9 1 5 ] ) , S. E . X I V , p . 222; I n t r o d u c t o r y L e c t u r e s on Psycho-Analysis: Part I I : Dreams (1916), S. E. X V , p . 171; The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Dreams (1900-1901), S. E . V , p . 608. See a l s o B. D. L e w i n , Dreams and the Uses o f R e g r e s s i o n . ^ \ i n g s l e y Amis on H. P . L L o v e c r a f t i n New Maps o f H e l l New E n g l i s h L i b r a r y , 1969), p . 36.  (London:  44 Damon K n i g h t , In Search of Wonder ( C h i c a g o : p.  A d v e n t , 1969),  38. 45  Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y : P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s o f I m a g i n a t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) . 46  A. D. N u t t a l l , Two Concepts of A l l e g o r y (London: Kegan P a u l , 1967), p . 3 1 .  R o u t l e d g e and  58  47  Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y : The Theory o f a S y m b o l i c Mode ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 35. 48  Joanna R u s s , 'Dream L i t e r a t u r e and S c i e n c e F i c t i o n ' E x t r a p o l a t i o n (Dec. 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 9.  in  49 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p .  153.  " ^ C . S. Lewis says L i n d s a y " l e a d s us up a s t a i r o f u n p r e d i c t a b l e s . I n each c h a p t e r we t h i n k we have found h i s f i n a l p o s i t i o n ; each time we are u t t e r l y m i s t a k e n . He b u i l d s whole w o r l d s of imagery and p a s s i o n , any one o f w h i c h w o u l d have s e r v e d another w r i t e r f o r a whole book, o n l y t o p u l l each o f them t o p i e c e s and pour s c o r n on i t " (Of Other Worlds, p. 11). C o l i n W i l s o n says " L i n d s a y ' s c a p a c i t y f o r pure i n v e n t i o n — c r e a t i n g a s t r a n g e landscape—must be unsurpassed i n s c i e n c e f i c t i o n ; here h i s genius i s so p l a i n t h a t no one c o u l d deny i t " (TSG 50). "'"'"See Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y , pp, 61-68, and C. B. H i e a t t , The R e a l i s m o f Dream V i s i o n s , M a r j o r i e N . How's e a r l y s t u d y o f Dreams and V i s i o n s i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y (London: U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1916) i g n o r e s a c t u a l dream e x p e r i e n c e and i s t h e r e f o r e , from our p o i n t o f v i e w , u s e l e s s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , How does n o t seem t o be aware t h a t h e r own p r e - J u n g i a n a t t i t u d e to dreams—they a r e w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t i n a masturbatory way—colours her c r i t i c i s m : Chaucer w r o t e h i s House of Fame " t o 'work o f f f a n c i e s and i d e a s " and the Tennyson o f 'Day-Dream' had a "tendency t o use t h i s form as a means of g e t t i n g r e l i e f " (p. 8 ) . 52 C. S. L e w i s , The A l l e g o r y of Love: A Study i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 69. 53 The E p i c o f G i l g a m e s h , p .  35.  54  pp.  George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s (New Y o r k : 6-7.  B a l l a n t i n e Books, 19 7 0 ) ,  "^George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1969), pp. 6-7, 13-15. Between P h a n t a s t e s and L i l i t h MacDonald got to know Lewis C a r r o l l , whose i n f l u e n c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n L i l i t h i n the w i t t y and p a r a d o x i c a l d i a l o g u e between M r . Vane and the r a v e n . "^George MacDonald, L i l i t h ,  p.  8.  59  George MacDonald, L i l i t h , p . 49, p . 83 e t c . 58 C. S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , p p .  68-69.  59  C. S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , p . 64. Lewis borrows W e l l s ' s s p h e r i c a l s p a c e - s h i p , but n o t i t s motive power, f o r Out o f the S i l e n t Planet. Weston, however, the 'mad' s c i e n t i s t o f the book, seems to be a c r u e l parody o f the Utopian W e l l s . 60  C. S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , , p . : 6 4 . A f o r e i g n e r who was i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g to-."the moon, J u l e s V e r n e , shot h i s t r a v e l l e r s from a gun i n h i s r e a l i s t i c n o v e l i s t ' s way, and r i d i c u l e d W e l l s f o r h i s l a c k o f mimesis. 61 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p .  35.  Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p .  182.  62  63 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 35. 64 J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , 'From A l l e g o r i e s t o N o v e l s ' i n Other I n q u i s i t i o n s ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 155. T o l k i e n w i t h good r e a s o n , f o r The L o r d o f the R i n g s i s an adventure s t o r y t o o m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c f o r a l l e g o r y ; Lewis w i t h good reason i f he can j u s t i f y h i s t r i l o g y as m y t h o p e i a , though i t comes q u i t e c l o s e to a l l e g o r y i n the 'Garden o f Eden' s t o r y o f . V o y a g e to Venus (Perelandra). 66 See Chapter One, note  6.  67 T h i s passage i s quoted from The World as W i l l and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t r a n s , E . F . J . Payne ( C o l o r a d o : F a l c o n ' s Wing, 1958). Schopenhauer c l a i m s t o know t h r e e a l l e g o r i e s , two of which (Don Quixote and G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s ) are " c o n c e a l e d . " The t h i r d i s presumably The D i v i n e Comedy, which i s n o t " c o n c e a l e d " because Dante many t i m e s i n v i t e s us t o l i f t the v e i l o f the a l l e g o r y . 68 J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , Other I n q u i s i t i o n s , p . 155. C f . "Not Honesty i n the a b s t r a c t , but Honest i s my name: i n John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 247.  60  69  J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , Other I n q u i s i t i o n s ,  pp.  156-57.  ^ P i c k ' s words. W i l s o n e n t i t l e s h i s essay i n TSG, ' L i n d s a y as N o v e l i s t and M y s t i c ' ' L i n d s a y a s ' A l l e g o r i s t ' would have been s i m p l e r and more to the p o i n t . In A Voyage, m y s t i c i s m , i n the f i g u r e s . o f Corpang and perhaps Panawe, i s found t o be a f a l s e way (see b e l o w , Chapter 6) ^Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p.  330.  72 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 7 3  C.  73.  S. L e w i s , Of Other W o r l d s , p .  19.  74 Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y , p . 7  22i..  ~*Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s  i n Poetry, p.  74.  76 George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s , p .  206.  ^^George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s , p .  209.  78 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p .  7.  79 Unless he i s r e a d i n g t h a t m a s t e r p i e c e o f a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y Finnegans-Wake, and he i s the ' i d e a l r e a d e r w i t h the i d e a l i n s o m n i a . ' 80 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 162. 81 George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s , p.  210.  82  "What we c a l l e v i l i s t h e o n l y and b e s t shape, w h i c h , f o r the person and h i s c o n d i t i o n a t the t i m e , c o u l d be assumed by the b e s t g o o d . " George MacDonald, P h a n t a s t e s , p . 212. T h i s i s a v i e w now out o f f a s h i o n . 83 John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , p . 84 George MacDonald, L i l i t h , 85  p.  46.  N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  38.  13.  61  N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  203.  87 F o r some i n e x p l i c a b l e r e a s o n C o l i n W i l s o n misses t h i s p o i n t completely. He s a y s , " I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t L i n d s a y a l l o w s N i c h o l a s t o d i e at the end o f the book, a l t h o u g h f o r no v e r y c l e a r r e a s o n . I would have been f a r more e f f e c t i v e t o have h i m v a n i s h i n g , w i t h h i s dream machine, towards new h o r i z o n s and p r o s p e c t s " (!) (TSG 4 4 ) . In f a c t the c o m b i n a t i o n of the N i c h o l a s - E v e l y n - M a u r i c e and N i c h o l a s - L o r e M a u r i c e p l o t s h e r e i s p r o b a b l y the h a p p i e s t n o v e l i s t i c t w i s t t h a t L i n d s a y managed i n any of h i s b o o k s . Given the f a c t o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r N i c h o l a s ' s d e a t h — i . e . h i s b i r t h i n t o the r e a l w o r l d — t h e n t h e u n i m p o r t a n t d i s p o s a l o f t h e body i n t h e phenomenal w o r l d had b e t t e r be u n c o n v i n c i n g , o r the r e a d e r w i l l t h i n k i t has s i g n i f i c a n c e .  62  Chapter T h r e e : FANTASY AND ROMANCE: THE LITERARY BACKGROUND OF A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and genre we have examined.  I t i s a l s o t o some e x t e n t a romance, and an  e a r l y work of s c i e n c e f i c t i o n .  L i n d s a y was i n f l u e n c e d by non-mimetic  modes o t h e r than a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and these w i l l be i n t h i s chapter. literature,  that  examined  I n p a r t i c u l a r we s h a l l t r a c e the i n f l u e n c e o f  and o f German Romance w h i c h — i n f l u e n c i n g E n g l i s h  through C a r l y l e and MacDonald—had a profound e f f e c t  Icelandic  literature  on L i n d s a y .  One  reason f o r t h i s e f f e c t may be t h a t romance o f t h i s k i n d has the same i n t e r e s t s as a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y but i t i s w r i t t e n i n p r o s e , whereas the ' g r e a t t r a d i t i o n ' o f f a n t a s y we have been examining ( e x c e p t f o r Bunyan) i n v e r s e .  Prose as a medium l e n d s i t s e l f  is  more  r e a d i l y to m i m e t i c ends than does v e r s e , and p r o s e f a n t a s y thus tends towards  'subcreation',  which i s the essence o f romance.  C. S.  sees t h i s happening as e a r l y as the m i d d l e ages when "under the o f a l l e g o r y something e l s e has  slipped i n " :  Lewis pretext  " I mean the ' o t h e r w o r l d '  n o t of r e l i g i o n , b u t of i m a g i n a t i o n ; the l a n d o f l o n g i n g , the E a r t h l y Paradise.""'" To someone c o m f o r t a b l y p l a c e d i n the mainstream o f l a t e V i c t o r i a n and modern f i c t i o n ,  f a n t a s y and romance may seem o n l y too s i m i l a r .  From our p o i n t o f v i e w , however, who have plunged i n t o t h i s they are o p p o s i t e and o p p o s i n g s i d e s o f the s t r e a m .  tributary,  F a n t a s y and romance  63  as we f i n d them i n dream w r i t e r s are f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n o r i g i n and i n t e n t i o n , as w i l l be  demonstrated.  The c e n t r a l s i m i l a r i t y between f a n t a s y and romance i s t h a t n e i t h e r operates i n , or attempts to r e c r e a t e , we presume we s h a r e .  the e v e r y d a y ,  B o t h a l l o w an escape from the known and thus  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x c i t e m e n t and e x o t i c a d v e n t u r e . fore,  experiential world  Both g e n r e s ,  there-  tend t o u t i l i s e the q u e s t , and the mythology of the q u e s t ,  cause t h i s p r o v i d e s t h e g r e a t e s t freedom f o r t h e p e r i p a t e t i c who may t r a v e l p l a u s i b l y from adventure separation  to adventure.  t e n d t o be m o r a l l y s i m p l i s t i c :  But  be-  protagonist,  Because o f t h e i r  from t h e phenomenal w o r l d , and because of t h e i r i n t e r e s t  a c t i o n r a t h e r than in-complex c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n ,  furthers  the  b o t h f a n t a s y and romance  good i s good because i t i s Good and  the q u e s t , e v i l i s E v i l and h i n d e r s f a n t a s y and romance are set  phenomenal w o r l d .  in  it.  i n d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of n o n -  The romance p r o v i d e s an escape from t h i s w o r l d ,  and  i t s s e t t i n g s are t h e r e f o r e nowhere, even i f s u p p o r t e d by maps, geographical descriptions,  accounts  o f t h e voyage t h i t h e r o r w h a t e v e r ,  as S w i f t ' s parody of these d e v i c e s us t o s u s p e c t .  i n G u l l i v e r ' s Travels should lead  Whether t h e romance i s s e t i n d a r k e s t  as H . R i d e r H a r r a r d ' s She, o r i n the pseudo-medieval  Africa,  such  p a s t , such  as  W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s E n d , o r nowhere i n p a r t i c u l a r , such as m i d d l e - e a r t h i n T o l k i e n ' s The L o r d o f t h e R i n g s , none o f these p l a c e s can p o s s i b l y be v i s i t e d ; t h e y are o u t o p i a s . c r e a t e d i n f a n t a s i e s are n o - p l a c e s  But the w o r l d ' s  i n a d i f f e r e n t sense:  they are n o t  64  p l a c e s w h i c h are no-where, they are o f t e n n o t even p l a c e s a t a l l . fact,  they are s t a t e s of m i n d .  s k e t c h y i n the extreme.  Thus t h e i r geography i s  In  generally  No one w o u l d want a map of the l a n d  travelled  2 by C h r i s t i a n i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , by ' D a n t e ' n o t a map.  i n The D i v i n e Comedy.  o r o f the mountain c l i m b e d  A diagram p e r h a p s , b u t  And the o n l y r e a s o n a b l e name f o r the more  certainly  substantial  f a n t a s y w o r l d s c r e a t e d by George MacDonald i n P h a n t a s t e s or H . P . Lovecraft  i n The Dream-Quest  o f Unknown Kadath i s  fairyland.  ' F a i r y - l a n d ' i s a term t h a t c o v e r s a m u l t i t u d e of v i r t u e s ,  but  C o l e r i d g e d e f i n e d i t s u c c i n c t l y enough when he w r o t e o f S p e n s e r ' s The F a e r i e Queene  t h a t " i t i s t r u l y i n the l a n d of F a e r y ,  that i s ,  of 3  mental space. Fantasy i s  The poet has p l a c e d you i n a dream, a charmed s l e e p . "  dream l i t e r a t u r e and, l i k e dreams, as we have s e e n , i s  i n "mental space." is  set  Romance i s dream l i t e r a t u r e i n a n o t h e r s e n s e : 4  day-dream r a t h e r than n i g h t dream l i t e r a t u r e ,  tend t o a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h e s c a p i s m .  it  w h i c h i s why we o f t e n  Where f a n t a s y f r e e s the mind and  takes us beyond the p h y s i c a l i n t o a s p i r i t u a l r e a l m , romance f r e e s  the  body from the e n n u i o f p h y s i c a l l i f e and t r a n s p o r t s us to what Lewis calls  " t h e l a n d o f l o n g i n g , the E a r t h l y P a r a d i s e . "  romance i s  The main aim o f  the s u b c r e a t i o n o f some k i n d of e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e w h i c h ,  Lewis p o i n t e d o u t ,  is  not based on r e l i g i o n — o n the t r u e and unchanging  r e a l i t y o f Heaven o r of the w o r l d o f I d e a s — b u t which i s a o f the a r t i s t :  as  " n o t of r e l i g i o n , but of i m a g i n a t i o n . "  subcreation  W h i l e we voyage  to a f a n t a s y w o r l d by d y i n g o r f a l l i n g a s l e e p to t h i s w o r l d , we get  to  65  a romance w o r l d w h i c h p r e t e n d s  to be on the same l e v e l of r e a l i t y as  we a r e (no m a t t e r how d i f f e r e n t ) spaceship,  e i t h e r by boat o r , i n modern t i m e s ,  o r s i m p l y by opening abbook and f i n d i n g o u r s e l v e s  there.  C. S. Lewis has s a i d , " I know the geography o f Tormance b e t t e r than t h a t of T e l l u s . " ^  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t Tormance has a  geography—  and we may n o t e t h a t i t has a g r e a t d e a l more of a geography t h a n MacDonald's P h a n t a s t e s ,  f o r example—then A Voyage i s a romance.  A l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s g e n e r a l l y have something l e s s s c i e n t i f i c , l e s s n o v e l i s t i c , than 'geography'  and t h a t i s l a n d s c a p e s .  what "keeps the a l l e g o r y v i g o u r o u s , "  i n N u t t a l l ' s words.  These  are  Landscape  i s the ' o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e ' o f c h a r a c t e r i n a l l e g o r y — t h e Ifdawn Marest i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f Oceaxe's  ' w i l l t o p o w e r ' , f o r example—  and i t seems ' r e a l ' enough when our a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on i t . the p r o j e c t o r l o o k s away, however, i t d i s a p p e a r s .  When  T h i s i s n o t the case  i n t r u e romance, o f w h i c h one can draw maps and f o r which one can g i v e calendars.  The m i d d l e - e a r t h o f T o l k i e n i s n o t s o l i p s i s t i c :  w o r l d o f the book i t r e a l l y e x i s t s , i f anyone i s n ' t  i n the  no m a t t e r who l o o k s at i t , o r even  looking.  The handsome and k n i g h t l y R a l p h i s a c h a r a c t e r i n romance, and he i n h a b i t s the romance w o r l d w h i c h W i l l i a m M o r r i s s u b c r e a t e d . i s an a l l e g o r i c a l p r o t a g o n i s t i n a f a n t a s y .  Maskull  I t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e  f o r M a s k u l l , i f he s u r v i v e d , to r e t r a c e h i s s t e p s a c r o s s Tormance, Ralph r e t r a c e s  as  h i s i n The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s E n d , and f i n d t h e same  f a i r damsels l i v i n g i n the same f a i r p l a c e s  and a l l eager to ask how  66  he succeeded i n h i s q u e s t .  F o r one t h i n g , the damsels were n e v e r  r e a l l y t h e r e , as c h a r a c t e r s :  they were the t r a n s i t o r y embodiments of  t e m p t a t i o n s the p r o t a g o n i s t was f a c i n g , and  therefore his p r o j e c t i o n s .  F o r a n o t h e r , they cannot s t i l l be t h e r e because i n most cases the concept they r e p r e s e n t e d ,  the i l l u s o r y i d e a they embodied, has been  f a c e d by the p r o t a g o n i s t ,  and t h e d e f e a t of t h e i d e a has been c o n f i r m e d  by the p h y s i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the i d e a ' s v e h i c l e .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  c l e a r i n the case o f S u l l e n b o d e , who t e l l s M a s k u l l " I have no o t h e r l i f e b u t what y o u g i v e me" and t h a t " t h e term o f y o u r l o v e i s the term of my l i f e .  When y o u l o v e me no l o n g e r , I must d i e " (VA 2 5 4 ) .  E l l i o t t B. Gose w r i t e s a c u t e l y i n I m a g i n a t i o n I n d u l g e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the f i n d i n g s of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , f a n t a s y and dream, romance and f a i r y t a l e g i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to o t h e r w i s e h i d d e n dynamics of m e n t a l l i f e . They e x p r e s s an i n n e r r e a l i t y t h a t i s n o t s i m p l y s u b l i m a t e d , u n r e a l i s t i c e s c a p e . I n t e r i o r c o n f l i c t s and b a t t l e s are as r e a l and i m p o r t a n t as any i n the outer world (7). But  t h i s lumping t o g e t h e r o f genres we have been e n d e a v o r i n g t o keep  d i s t i n c t reminds us t h a t f a n t a s y and romance a r e , o n l y o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f the same s t r e a m .  i n our metaphor,  Few a c t u a l works are e i t h e r  one o f the o t h e r , and most are a m i x t u r e of f a n t a s y and romance. the l o n g , meandering, p s e u d o - m e d i e v a l adventures  That  of R a l p h c o n t i n u e  to h o l d the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n argues t h a t The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s E n d , d i s t a n t from s p i r i t u a l and  phenomenal r e a l i t i e s as i t must seem,  g i v i n g form t o some o f t h e h i d d e n f o r c e s world.  is  of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l under-  C o n v e r s e l y , i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t i n s p i t e of  allegory's  67  " l a c k of m i m e t i c n a t u r a l n e s s "  i t has been the f i e l d f u l l  of  folk  and V a n i t y and i t s F a i r w h i c h have k e p t g r e a t dream a l l e g o r i e s  like  P i e r s Plowman and The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s a l i v e d u r i n g a p e r i o d when allegory, (as  p a r t i c u l a r l y because of what C o l e r i d g e c a l l e d i t s  opposed t o ' o r g a n i c ' )  f o r m , has n o t been taken s e r i o u s l y .  end i t has been the s u b c r e a t i v e mountains  'mechanic'  a s p e c t of Tormance,  I n the  the t e r r i f i c  of t h e Ifdawn Marest and the B l a k e a n exuberance of the r i v e r  of M a t t e r p l a y , t h a t have k e p t A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s more o r l e s s for  the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s . However, we h o l d to our d i s t i n c t i o n .  is  alive  a romance.  here i s a c l u e .  The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End  A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y . Subcreating  takes time.  Tormance i s  compared t o the w o r l d which M o r r i s s u p p l i e s of a d v e n t u r e s .  impermanent  R a l p h f o r h i s f o u r books  Were Tormance a s u b c r e a t e d w o r l d i n the romance sense  i t w o u l d be good f o r at l e a s t a t r i l o g y o f b o o k s , P e a k e ' s , and p o s s i b l y , good many more.  Sheer l e n g t h  l i k e Tolkien's  l i k e James Branch C a b e l l ' s P o i c t e s m e ,  S u b c r e a t i o n has become,  genres o f contemporary l i t e r a t u r e ,  or  for a  i n c i d e n t a l l y , one o f the major  c e r t a i n l y i f measured by the number  9 of books w r i t t e n and s o l d .  Many o f these works are a l s o  science-fiction.  There have been l o n g arguments i n s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n c i r c l e s when the genre a c t u a l l y began.  about  Those whose s t r e s s i s on s c i e n c e tend to  choose the p u b l i c a t i o n of R a l p h 124C41+ by Hugo Gernsback Hugo awards are named) i n Modern E l e c t r i c s i n 1 9 1 1 . " ^  ( a f t e r whom  Those whose  s t r e s s i s on f i c t i o n tend t o choose t h e p u b l i c a t i o n by H . G. W e l l s o f  68  The Time Machine i n 1895, a s t o r y which W e l l s had s t a r t e d as C h r o n i c A r g o n a u t s ' as e a r l y as 1 8 8 8 . 1 1  'The  The Time Machine was q u i c k l y  f o l l o w e d by The I s l a n d of D r . Moreau (1896) and The War o f the Worlds (1897).  The V i c t o r i a n age,..had, p r o b a b l y because o f i t s  insistent  r a t i o n a l i s m , produced a l o t o f g r e a t f a n t a s t i c a l nonsense, too o f t e n  though a l l  (as we t o o o f t e n s t i l l do) the V i c t o r i a n s r e l e g a t e d i t  the n u r s e r y :  to  Lewis C a r r o l l ' s A l i c e i n Wonderland and Through t h e  L o o k i n g G l a s s , K i n g s l e y ' s The W a t e r - B a b i e s , L e a r ' s A Book of and, r a t h e r l a t e r ,  Grahame's The Wind i n the W i l l o w s ,  i s a new k i n d o f nonsense:  Nonsense  Gernsback's  he took ' I s n ' t s c i e n c e w o n d e r f u l ? '  seriously  12 and gave h i s R a l p h , "one o f the g r e a t e s t l i v i n g s c i e n t i s t s , "  lots  of  gadgets l i k e the T e l e p h o t (what we now c a l l a vidphone) t o p l a y w i t h . What W e l l s d i d was t a k e V i c t o r i a n s c i e n c e , w h i c h had e f f e c t i v e l y o f f almost a l l the areas o f the e a r t h where h e r o i c f a n t a s y was possible,  and t u r n i t a g a i n s t i t s e l f .  still  By u s i n g s c i e n c e and pseudo-  s c i e n c e , W e l l s was a b l e t o f i n d room (or time) t o put the i n t o romance.  closed  b i t e back  C r i t i c s d e s c r i b e d i t as " a m o r b i d a b e r r a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c  13 curiosity." I n The D a i l y News of January 2 1 , 1898, a r e v i e w e r says of The War of the W o r l d s : There are e p i s o d e s t h a t are so b r u t a l , d e t a i l s so r e p u l s i v e , t h a t they cause i n s u f f e r a b l e d i s t r e s s t o the f e e l i n g s . The r e s t r a i n t of a r t i s m i s s i n g . We w o u l d e n t r e a t M r . W e l l s t o r e t u r n t o h i s e a r l i e r methods—to the s a n e r , s e r e n e r beauty o f those f i r s t romances t h a t c a s t t h e i r s p e l l upon our i m a g i n a t i o n , and a p p e a l e d t o our f i n e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s ( 1 4 ) .  69  The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds were n o t w r i t t e n f o r late-Victorian  the  nursery.  I n the same y e a r t h a t The Time Machine appeared, 1895, when L i n d s a y was seventeen, George MacDonald p u b l i s h e d L i l i t h and W i l l i a m M o r r i s The Wood Beyond the W o r l d , h i s f i r s t  f i c t i o n a l pseudo-medieval  narrative,^  w h i c h he f o l l o w e d w i t h The W e l l at the W o r l d ' s End ( 1 8 9 6 ) .  MacDonald's  p r o b l e m was t h a t h i s i n t e n t was s e r i o u s , but h i s mode—fairy-tale g r o w n - u p s — d i d n o t seem to b e .  I t was dream a l l e g o r y ,  for  and o b v i o u s l y  was n o t d e a l i n g w i t h the m a t e r i a l i s t i c problems of the modern w o r l d . W i l l i a m M o r r i s c l e a r l y d i d t r y t o d e a l w i t h those p r o b l e m s ,  i n his  l i f e and i n h i s Utopia News From Nowhere ( 1 8 9 1 ) , b u t h i s l a t e r w o r k s , daydream romances s e t escapist.  i n s u b c r e a t e d w o r l d s , a g a i n must seem ' m e r e l y '  The s o l u t i o n was,  of c o u r s e ,  t o t a k e b o t h the dream f a n t a s y  and the romance and f o l l o w W e l l s , i n t o s p a c e .  T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what  Lindsay d i d . L i n d s a y h i m s e l f was a c t u a l l y ,  i n 1920,  and d i d w e l l to t r y t o h i d e h i s age.  a late Victorian writer,  The b i g g e s t s i n g l e  literary  16 i n f l u e n c e on him was George MacDonald,  and we f i n d b i t s  o f the l a t t e r popping up a l l over A Voyage to A r c t u r u s .  and p i e c e s The g r e a t e s t  i n f l u e n c e on b o t h MacDonald and C a r l y l e , the o t h e r Scot whom L i n d s a y 17 admired,  were the German R o m a n t i c i s t s ,  particularly Novalis.  Lindsay  may have d i s c o v e r e d them e i t h e r through MacDonald, who took e p i g r a p h s from them f o r . s o m e c h a p t e r s i n P h a n t a s t e s and was n o t a man to cover h i s tracks,  o r through C a r l y l e ' s e s s a y s and t r a n s l a t i o n s .  A t any r a t e ,  he  70  e v i d e n t l y thought h i g h l y o f them.  I n a l e t t e r dated May 18,  1922,  Lindsay wrote to V i s i a k : Your l e c t u r e on T i e c k would have i n t e r e s t e d me much, as I had a t one time—and s t i l l have—a queer, vague s o r t of a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s s t o r i e s , which perhaps resemble music more than l i t e r a t u r e and produce the same s o r t of u n s e i z a b l e e f f e c t on one as music (L 4 8 ) . L i t e r a t u r e , we remember, a s p i r e s t o be l i k e music " t h e e x p e r i e n c e a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " (TSG 1 3 ) .  of  G r e a t works are l i k e g r e a t symphonies;  l e s s e r works have the same genius on a s m a l l e r  scale:  I n g e n e r a l , the works of t h e e a r l y German R o m a n t i c i s t s a r e l i k e s p r i n g songs—how d i f f e r e n t from the p r o s a i c drawing-room s t u f f t u r n e d out by the thousand t o d a y ! (L 48-49). Many of these s t o r i e s  are,  t o borrow L i n d s a y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of S p h i n x ,  " a b l e n d o f common and s u p e r n a t u r a l l i f e "  (L 4 7 ) .  We may t a k e as an  example—because i t i s i n i t s e l f a good s t o r y , because i t i s typical in its  fairly  themes, and because i t became e x t r e m e l y w e l l known i n  England i n a t r a n s l a t i o n by C a r l y l e — E . T. A . Hoffmann's s t o r y The Golden P o t . One of Hoffmann's c e n t r a l themes, and a common one i n German 18 Romance,  41  was the double o r doppeltgariger as  the term was c o i n e d by  Jean P a u l R i c h t e r . . The i d e a i t s e l f i s as o l d as C a s t o r and P o l l u x , the h e a v e n l y t w i n s .  Shakespeare used the i d e a i n T w e l f t h N i g h t and  (doubly) i n T h e Comedy of E r r o r s , which d e a l s w i t h the s i m p l e s t  form  of d o u b l e , i d e n t i c a l t w i n s .  But. something more i n t e r e s t i n g l u r k s b e -  n e a t h the s u r f a c e :  these men i s genius t o the o t h e r ; / And  "One of  71  so of t h e s e .  Which i s the n a t u r a l man, / And w h i c h the s p i r i t ? "  Comedy of E r r o r s , V . i . 3 3 1 - 3 3 ) .  (The  The i d e a stems from the common ex-  p e r i e n c e of becoming two i n dreams, and the consequent f r e e i n g o f the s o u l or " g e n i u s , "  which i s  w^y the m o t i f o f the double i s  a  common one i n dream l i t e r a t u r e . The p r i m i t i v e b e l i e f we f i n d embodied i n dream f a n t a s i e s , the s o u l may w a l k f o r t h i n dreams, t h r e a t e n s a r a t i o n a l i s t l i k e Locke so much t h a t he i s  that  and e m p i r i c i s t  at g r e a t p a i n s to t r y to d i s p o s e o f i t ,  i n v o k i n g our o l d f r i e n d ' S o c r a t e s ' t o t r y and r e f u t e  the i d e a  "that  S o c r a t e s a s l e e p and S o c r a t e s awake i s n o t the same p e r s o n ; b u t h i s s o u l , when he s l e e p s , and S o c r a t e s the man c o n s i s t i n g o f body and s o u l , 19 when he i s w a k i n g , are two p e r s o n s . " because he i s  Locke cannot e n t e r t a i n the  c o m p l e t e l y h o s t i l e t o the a p p a r e n t l y  idea  i r r a t i o n a l nature  of dreams.  He " w o n d e r [ s ] t h a t our dreams s h o u l d b e , f o r the most p a r t , 20 so f r i v o l o u s and i r r a t i o n a l , " f o r "where a l l i s but dream, r e a s o n i n g 21 and arguments are of no use, t r u t h a n ' d i k n o w l e d g e a n o t h i n g . " Locke wishes to speak " o f t h i n g s as they r e a l l y a r e and n o t o f dreams and , . „22 fancies. The s t u d e n t Anselmus i n 'The Golden P o t ' i s t o r n between the two main a t t i t u d e s to dreams and dream w o r l d s .  On the one hand t h e r e  is  the common-sense r a t i o n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d by Locke and by 23 Henry's father i n N o v a l i s ' s  romance,  t h a t "dreams are f r o t h , "  w h i c h i s h e l d i n 'The Golden P o t ' by C o n r e c t o r Paulmann. Anselmus,  and  He t e l l s  72  I have always taken y o u f o r a s o l i d young man: b u t to dream, t o dream w i t h y o u r eyes w i d e open, and t h e n , a l l a t once, to s t a r t up and t r y t o jump i n t o the w a t e r ! T h i s , begging your pardon, i s what o n l y f o o l s o r madmen w o u l d do ( 2 4 ) . On the o t h e r hand t h e r e i s t h e . m e o - P l a t o n i c i d e a o f dreams as  the  gateway to a h i g h e r r e a l i t y than t h e common w o r l d , w h i c h we have e x p l i c a t e d i n our d i s c u s s i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , and w h i c h i s h e l d i n 'The Golden P o t ' by A r c h i v a r i - u s L i n d h o r s t , by the n a r r a t o r , and e v e n t u a l l y by Anselmus h i m s e l f . When Anselmus i s  'awake' he l i v e s i n the w o r l d o f the C o n r e c t o r ,  b l u e - e y e d V i r g i n i a and R e g i s t r a t o r H e e r b r a n d , when he i s a dream-fantasy snake-daughter Anselmus i s  w o r l d o f L i n d h o r s t the Salamander Serpentina.  and h i s  25  blue-eyed  These two p a r a l l e l w o r l d s o v e r l a p , and  t o r n , f o r a t i m e , between them, c o n s t a n t l y  " r e t u r n i n g to h i m s e l f "  'asleep' i n  "as  from a deep d r e a m . "  26  w a k i n g up or  There i s a b a t t l e  between the phenomenal w o r l d and " t h e f a e r y r e g i o n of g l o r i o u s wonders" which i s i n the " r e g i o n w h i c h t h e s p i r i t l a y s open t o us i n d r e a m s , " and w h i c h i s  the " g l o r i o u s kingdom" w h i c h the n a r r a t o r i s " s t r i v i n g 27  t o show [us] i n the  s i n g u l a r s t o r y of the Student A n s e l m u s . " 2g  i s "another higher world"  — i t t u r n s out t o be A t l a n t i s — a n d , as i n  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , we are c a l l e d t o i t by p a i n (though i t "rapturous  This  pain"): So, as was h i n t e d , the Student Anselmus, ever s i n c e t h a t e v e n i n g when he met w i t h A r c h i v a r i u s L i n d h o r s t , had been sunk i n a dreamy m u s i n g , which r e n d e r e d h i m i n s e n s i b l e t o e v e r y outward touch of common l i f e . He f e l t t h a t an unknown Something  is  73  was awakening h i s inmost s o u l , and c a l l i n g f o r t h t h a t r a p t u r o u s p a i n , w h i c h i s even the mood of l o n g i n g t h a t announces a l o f t i e r e x i s t e n c e t o man(29). I n >:The Golden P o t ' we f i n d the t r a d i t i o n a l imagery f o r the i m prisonment o f the s o u l i n t h e body, o f t h e s p i r i t i n t h e r i v e r o f  matter,  but t h e most i m p o r t a n t image i s Hoffmann's own and, s i n c e i t may have suggested L i n d s a y ' s  C r y s t a l m a n , we must l o o k a t i t more c l o s e l y .  N i n t h V i g i l ends w i t h Anselmus, whose f a i t h has w a v e r e d , s t u c k  The  inside  30 "a well-corked c r y s t a l b o t t l e . " s i m i l a r l y b o t t l e d companions  Of c o u r s e , he c o m p l a i n s .  But h i s  t e l l h i m to shut up, f o r "we have n e v e r  been b e t t e r o f f than a t p r e s e n t . "  They d e c i d e t h a t " t h e s t u d e n t  mad; he f a n c i e s h i m s e l f t o be s i t t i n g i n a g l a s s b o t t l e , and i s 31 on the E l b e B r i d g e and l o o k i n g r i g h t down i n t o the w a t e r . " forgotten  t h e i r i m m o r t a l p a r t s , and do n o t r e a l i s e  is standing  They have  t h a t they are o n l y  reflections  of the s p i r i t i n the r i v e r of m a t t e r :  t h a t by drowning  themselves,  as L o r e does i n S p h i n x , they might s e t  themselves  They do n o t r e a l i s e crystal:  free.  they a r e i m p r i s o n e d because t h e b o t t l e s ! a r e  of  i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s we are a l l b o t t l e d thus by C r y s t a l m a n ,  whose rainbow o f c r e a t i o n h i d e s t h e one t r u e l i g h t .  If this  insight  has n o t been g i v e n us i n our "most v i v i d d r e a m s , " the n a r r a t o r asks our " f l y i n g i m a g i n a t i o n " — t h e s p i r i t u a l p a r t of us, f r e e from g r a v i t y — t o be o b l i g i n g enought to e n c l o s e i t s e l f f o r a few moments i n t h e c r y s t a l . You a r e drowned i n d a z z l i n g s p l e n d o u r ; e v e r y t h i n g around y o u appears i l l u m i n a t e d and b e g i r t w i t h beaming rainbow h u e s : i n the sheen e v e r y t h i n g seems t o q u i v e r and waver and c l a n g and d r o n e . You are swimming,'jbut y o u a r e powerless and cannot move, as i f y o u were imbedded i n a f i r m l y  74  congealed e t h e r w h i c h squeezes y o u so t i g h t l y t h a t i t i s i n v a i n t h a t y o u r s p i r i t commands y o u r dead and s t i f f e n e d b o d y . H e a v i e r and h e a v i e r the mountainous burden l i e s on y o u ; more and more every b r e a t h exhausts t h e t i n y b i t o f a i r t h a t s t i l l p l a y s up and down the t i g h t space around y o u ; y o u r p u l s e throbs madly; and c u t t h r o u g h w i t h h o r r i d a n g u i s h , , e v e r y n e r v e i s q u i v e r i n g and b l e e d i n g i n y o u r dead agony ( 3 2 ) . Worst of a l l , A n s e l m u s ' s reason has t a k e n c o n t r o l : r a t i o n a l i s t , " i n s t e a d of  h a v i n g become a  the words w h i c h t h e s p i r i t used to speak 33  from w i t h i n h i m he now h e a r d o n l y t h e s t i f l e d din. 3 .of madness." A n s e l m u s ' s p u l s e t h r o b s madly (as heart)  though K r a g i s b e a t i n g on h i s  and he i s ready t o throw o f f the p r i s o n o f the body and i t s  deadweight.  He s t i l l b e l i e v e s  and t h i s saves h i m :  i n Serpentina,  i.e. spiritual reality,  i t i s g n o s i s t h a t the s e r p e n t b r i n g s :  the Tree of Knowledge.  f r u i t of  I n the end he wins t h e golden pot and goes to  l i v e with Serpentina i n A t l a n t i s :  he "has  c a s t away the burden o f  34 everyday l i f e "  and gone to l i v e i n the h i g h e r w o r l d of the s p i r i t .  But he has l e f t b e h i n d a p a l t r y , everyday s e l f  i n the person o f  R e g i s t r a t o r — n o w H o f r a t h — H e e r b r a n d , who m a r r i e s V e r o n i c a , c o u n t e r p a r t i n the phenomenal w o r l d .  Serpentina's  Thus the s p l i t t i n g o f Anselmus  l e a d s t o e v e n t u a l harmony i n 'The Golden P o t ' where the two embodied p a r t s o f Anselmus are n o t i n c o n f l i c t .  Of c o u r s e ,  p o t e n t i a l l y t h e r e , s i n c e Heerbrand f u l f i l l s  the c o n f l i c t i s  Anselmus's e a r t h l y g o a l s ,  becoming H o f r a t h and m a r r y i n g V e r o n i c a , b u t i t i s n o t developed i n t h e s t o r y , where Heerbrand  i s a minor c h a r a c t e r and Anselmus has  other  35 interests.  What we do have i s s i m p l y t h e s p i r i t ' s s t r u g g l e  t o escape  75  i n t o the dream w o r l d and, where the aim i s  the same, the body does n o t have to be d i s p o s e d of  to make t h i s p o s s i b l e . . exist,  u i l i k e t h e p u r e l y a l l e g o r i c a l A Voyage  I n 'The Golden P o t , ' b o t h Anselmus and Heerbrand  i n the b e g i n n i n g , on the same l e v e l of f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y ,  but  we have something more complex than the d o u b l e - b y - d u p l i c a t i o n of The Comedy of E r r o r s : expression  that i s ,  double-by-division.  of powerful psychic f o r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y  unconscious,  This allows f o r  the  those of the r e p r e s s e d  such as we f i n d i n the works of Hoffman's progeny,  Stevenson,  Poe and D o s t o e v s k i . I n t a k i n g a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y i n t o p r o s e and making i t more m i m e t i c , Hoffmann i n 'The Golden P o t ' used the psychomachia f o r m : s t r u g g l e for Anselmus's s o u l .  F r i e d r i c h von H a r d e n b e r g ,  generally  known by h i s pseudonym of N o v a l i s , d i d the same t h i n g but u s i n g p r o g r e s s form of a l l e g o r y . a coherent n a r r a t i v e ,  I n f a c t , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n i s  i n the n o v e l i s t i c s e n s e , n o r i s  dream f a n t a s y i n a s t r i c t s e n s e :  the  the  neither  i t an a l l e g o r i c a l  i t i s a s e r i e s of dreams and f a b l e s  which a r i s e out of H e n r y ' s p r o s a i c j o u r n e y w i t h a group of  merchants,  though i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t the dreams and f a b l e s o f the h i g h e r w o r l d , and the events of the j o u r n e y i n the phenomenal w o r l d a r e fully  care-  interwoven. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of Henry of  A Romance,  the anonymous  translator  says  Ofterdingen:  t h a t N o v a l i s "resembles among  37 l a t e w r i t e r s the s u b l i m e Dante a l o n e . "  Novalis's  B e a t r i c e was  young Sophie von Kuhn, who d i e d at the age of f i f t e e n ,  and h i s  the  Vita  76  Nuova the Hymnen an d i e N a c h t . c l e a r l y i s , a dream,  B u t h i s main work i s n o t , as D a n t e ' s  though i t b e g i n s w i t h one.  " i n einem dunkeln Walde a l l e i n , "  39  Henry dreams he i s  D a n t e ' s "una s e l v a o b s c u r a . "  40  He  41 c l i m b s a mountain and sees " a mighty beam of l i g h t . " he dreams he sees the e v e n t u a l g o a l of h i s q u e s t : but  ' d i e blaue Blume.'  wakes u p .  A little  n o t the w h i t e r o s e  The b l u e f l o w e r has a woman's f a c e .  Where D a n t e ' s dream i s , as we have e x p l a i n e d ,  meaning i s found u l t i m a t e l y beyond n a t u r e , Henry i s an oraculum.  Specifically,  later,  Then he  a visio,  where  t h e dream N o v a l i s g i v e s t o  meaning i s t o be found i n n a t u r e ,  and the f a c e i n the f l o w e r p r e f i g u r e s the a c t u a l g i r l i n m a r r i a g e t o whom the q u e s t (Henry o f O f t e r d i r i g e n r e m a i n i n g u n f i n i s h e d when N o v a l i s died) should end. I n Henry o f O f t e r d i r i g e n the a i m o f the q u e s t . ' . i s , l i k e those o f 'Dante'  and o f M a s k u l l i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , l i k e t h a t o f C h r i s t i a n  i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , M r . Vane i n L i l i t h and Anodos i n P h a n t a s t e s , t o r e t u r n home. A f t e r h i s f i r s t dream, Henry l e a v e s h i s home on a j o u r n e y t o Augsburg, b u t " h i s mother was w i t h h i m . 42 l e a v i n g d i d not y e t appear, e n t i r e l y l o s t . " turning to h i s fatherland"  The w o r l d he was  A n d , s i n c e "he was r e -  i t was "as i f i n r e a l i t y he was j o u r n e y i n g  43 homewards."  The j o u r n e y p r o v i d e s  a realistic  framework f o r a s e r i e s  of dreams and adventures o r marchen, w h i c h r e t e l l i n a f r a n k l y m y t h i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l the whole s t o r y . World.  form the p o i n t o f f e r e d more o r l e s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n B u t dream and r e a l i t y a r e i n t e r w o v e n : 44  The w o r l d i s Dream."  I n the f i r s t  "The dream i s  p a r t o f t h e book, The  E x p e c t a t i o n , Henry completes h i s j o u r n e y , h a v i n g found M a t i l d a , whose  77  face i s  t h a t of the f l o w e r , and who i s h i s i n s p i r a t i o n o r ' b r e a t h o f  life'.  He s a y s , "She w i l l  d i s s o l v e me i n t o m u s i c .  She w i l l become 45  my inmost s o u l , the  g u a r d i a n s p i r i t of my h o l y f i r e . "  t o the s t a r s , " F o r M a t i l d a w i l l day i s a l s o opening f o r me.  He c a l l s  I l i v e " and " t h e morning of  The n i g h t i s p a s t .  eternal  I k i n d l e myself 46  the r i s i n g s u n , f o r an i n e x t i n g u i s h a b l e o f f e r i n g . "  In the  to  second  p a r t , The F u l f i l l m e n t , we f i n d " i n deep thought a p i l g r i m . . . w a l k i n g a l o n g a narrow f o o t - p a t h w h i c h r a n up a mountain s i d e . " ^ 7 T h i s i s the s p i r i t - H e n r y , now l i b e r a t e d . He meets t h e g i r l who i s h i s t r u e l o v e , presumably s p i r i t - M a t i l d a , who t e l l s h i m they are g o i n g 'Immer nach 48 Hause':  "Ever  homewards."  Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e  The r e s t i s  philosophy.  to A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s t h e marchen  t o l d by K l i n g s o h r (who i s m o d e l l e d on Goethe): i n Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , but s i n c e t h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y  the same c o s m o l o g i c a l myth t h a t  is  sung by the S y b i l i n ' V o l u s p a , ' we may pass on to examine the i n f l u e n c e of  I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e on W i l l i a m M o r r i s and D a v i d L i n d s a y .  was,  as he p o i n t e d out t o P u t n a m ' s ,  J a r l of the Norse U p l a n d e r s "  o r i g i n a l l y descended from " I v a r ,  (TSG 6 ) ,  and t h e r e a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s  between C e l t i c and S c a n d i n a v i a n m y t h o l o g y . sings a panegyric to  Lindsay  L i n d s a y ' s kinsman, C a r l y l e ,  the ISbrse gods i n h i s f i r s t l e c t u r e ,  'The Hero  as D i v i n i t y , ' i n On H e r o e s , Hero-W o r s h i p and t h e H e r o i c i n H i s t o r y : To me t h e r e i s i n the Norse System something v e r y g e n u i n e , v e r y g r e a t and m a n l i k e . A b r o a d s i m p l i c i t y , r u s t i c i t y , so v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the l i g h t g r a c e f u l n e s s of the o l d Greek Paganism, d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s S c a n d i n a v i a n System. I t i s Thought; the genuine Thought o f deep, r u d e , e a r n e s t m i n d s , f a i r l y opened  78  to the t h i n g s about them; a f a c e - t o - f a c e and h e a r t - t o - h e a r t i n s p e c t i o n of the t h i n g s , — t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l good Thought i n a l l t i m e s . . . . a c e r t a i n homely t r u t h f u l n e s s and r u s t i c s t r e n g t h , a g r e a t rude s i n c e r i t y , d i s c l o s e s i t s e l f here ( 4 9 ) . But w h i l e C a r l y l e was ' t h e V o i c e of Germany i n E n g l a n d , ' t h e v o i c e of I c e l a n d was W i l l i a m M o r r i s .  C a r l y l e and L i n d s a y were  to Norse myth by i t s w i l d and rugged d i r e c t n e s s ,  attracted  and t h i s was how  C a r l y l e saw I c e l a n d : b u r s t - u p , the g e o l o g i s t s s a y , by f i r e from the bottom of the s e a ; a w i l d l a n d o f b a r r e n n e s s and l a v a ; s w a l l o w e d many months o f every y e a r i n b l a c k t e m p e s t s , y e t w i t h a w i l d gleaming beauty i n summer-time; t o w e r i n g up t h e r e , s t e r n and g r i m , i n the N o r t h Ocean; w i t h i t s snow j o k u l s , r o a r i n g g e y s e r s , s u l p h u r - p o o l s and; h o r r i d v o l c a n i c chasms, l i k e the waste c h a o t i c b a t t l e f i e l d o f F r o s t and F i r e ( 5 0 ) . I t was e l e m e n t a l ; j u s t the.place f o r the " I m p e r s o n a t i o n of t h e v i s i b l e w o r k i n g s o f N a t u r e , " " ' 1 and f o r a l l e g o r y on a grand s c a l e .  Morris's  a p p r e c i a t i o n of I c e l a n d was more subdued.  He found the h i l l s "mourn-  f u l l y empty and b a r r e n " w i t h " g r e y c l o u d s ,  d r a g g i n g over  die h i l l t o p s  o r l y i n g i n the h o l l o w s " — y e t a l l these " h a d s o m e t h i n g , I d o n ' t know 52 what, o f p o e t i c and a t t r a c t i v e about them"  —  I was most deeply i m p r e s s e d w i t h i t a l l , y e t can s c a r c e l y t e l l y o u why; i t was l i k e n o t h i n g I had e v e r s e e n , b u t s t r a n g e l y l i k e my o l d i m a g i n a t i o n s o f p l a c e s f o r sea-wanderers to come t o ( 5 3 ) . I t was not the v i v i d and c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ruggedness o f I c e l a n d  that  a t t r a c t e d M o r r i s , b u t an e l u s i v e sense of m y s t e r y , w h i c h i s why he made l o n g r a m b l i n g romances  out o f i t , i n s t e a d o f  allegories.  79  When, w i t h the h e l p of Magnusson, M o r r i s t r a n s l a t e d the sagas— and t h i s i s  t r u e o f the f o r n a l d a r s o g u r  the Germanic r i d d a r a s o g u r  ( m y t h i c a l - h e r o i c sagas) as  ('Sagas of K n i g h t s ' or romances of  of  chivalry)—  he seems t o have been i n t e r e s t e d i n them because they r e p r e s e n t e d earthly paradise, distasteful  removing h i m as f a r as p o s s i b l e from t h e ( t o him)  l i f e o f contemporary E n g l a n d . " " ^  t r a n s l a t i o n s are f u l l of  A t any r a t e , M o r r i s ' s  ' a n t i q u e ' l o c u t i o n s , such as  him t h e r e f o r e , ' 'that b e f e l l n o t , ' periphrasts:  "an  'should chide  ' l a y n o t q u i e t , ' and pseudo-medieval  'Then they t i l t e d over a w a i n i n most seemly w i s e '  "They put a canopy over a s p l e n d i d c a r r i a g e ' usages c l u t t e r the d i r e c t i n t e r c h a n g e s ,  in Hreimskringla.  for These  d i s t u r b the f l o w of the n a r r a t i v e  55 and sometimes even obscure the s e n s e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t when M o r r i s says "My work i s the embodiment of dreams""^ he i s  t a l k i n g o f day-dreams.  He was a w r i t e r of  dream-romance,  sub c r e a t i n g w o r l d s where dream and r e a l i t y merge i n t o an enchanted r e a l m , m e l t i n g and l a n g o r o u s ,  of r e v e r y and t r a n c e .  Icelandic l i t e r a t u r e pro-  v i d e d an i n s p i r a t i o n , a m y t h o l o g y , and a s o u r c e of m a t e r i a l . and s t y l e of the t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  The tone  though i n i m i c a l to the o r i g i n a l s , gave  M o r r i s a modus o p e r a n d i f o r h i s l a s t romances, such as The W e l l a t W o r l d ' s E n d , where he h a s ,  i n a way t o t a l l y unsaga l i k e ,  wondrous dream / And death the murmur of a r e s t f u l  "Made l i f e  stream.""'7  the a  But t h i s  g e n e r a l i s e d and r o m a n t i c i s e d ' N o r t h e r n n e s s ' has p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d dream-romance r i g h t to the p r e s e n t .  Reading M o r r i s , and H . R i d e r Haggard's  E r i c B r i g h t e y e s , moved E . R. E d d i s o n to teach h i m s e l f O l d Norse and go to I c e l a n d , a t r i p M o r r i s h i m s e l f had made t w i c e .  C. S. Lewis was i n -  80  f l u e n c e d by M o r r i s ' s S i g u r d the V o l s u n g and E d d i s o n ' s The Worm Ouroboros. J.  R. R. T o l k i e n , L e w i s ' s f r i e n d , and E m i l P e t a j a have c o n t i n u e d the  t r a d i t i o n t o the p r e s e n t .  B u t these are s u b c r e a t o r s  and romance w r i t e r s ,  and we have d i s t i n g u i s h e d romance from a l l e g o r i c a l dream However, i t i s p r e c i s e l y h e r e t h a t , by c o n t r a s t , ment i n A Voyage becomes c l e a r .  Lindsay's  achieve-  An i m p o r t a n t t r a n s l a t o r of The Saga  of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , G. A . H i g h t , n o t i c e s o f w h i c h M o r r i s made so much.  fantasy.  the same " n a t u r a l romance"  But he draws our a t t e n t i o n t o the l a c k  of i t i n the s a g a s : I n lands as teeming w i t h n a t u r a l romance as I c e l a n d and Norway, i t may seem s t r a n g e t h a t so l i t t l e n o t i c e i s taken o f the wonders of landscape and s c e n e r y . Here and t h e r e the s a g a - t e l l e r shows us what he c o u l d do i f he w i s h e d , as when t e l l i n g of G r e t t i r ' s r e t r e a t i n the g l a c i e r s of G e i t l a n d i n Chapter L X I , where w i t h a few magic touches he g i v e s an e n t r a n c i n g g l i m p s e i n t o an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e of h a p p i n e s s and r e s t . But he cares n o t h i n g f o r t h i s , and d r i l y c o n t i n u e s t h a t G r e t t i r found i t d u l l t h e r e and would n o t s t a y ( 5 8 ) . Hight continues h i s s l y l i t t l e joke l a t e r ,  r e m a r k i n g t h a t he has  " o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n s u l t e d , i n cases of d i f f i c u l t y ,  the t r a n s l a t i o n o f  M s s r s . Magnusson and M o r r i s , and have borrowed a few nicknames  there-  59 from."  H i g h t ' s own t r a n s l a t i o n i s b l u n t and t o the p o i n t .  He admits  t h a t " a r e a d e r who approaches the sagas f o r the f i r s t time i s apt f e e l a l i t t l e bewildered.  to  They seem crowded w i t h p e o p l e w i t h uncouth  names and r i d i c u l o u s n i c k - n a m e s , whose o c c u p a t i o n i s m o s t l y d i v i d e d 60 between m u r d e r i n g each o t h e r and r i d i n g t o the T h i n g . " t h i n g " been M u s p e l , t h i s might  Had " t h e  almost have been s a i d of A Voyage t o  81  Arcturus. Of a l l b o o k s , A Voyage i s most l i k e H i g h t ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f G r e t t i r i n terms o f tone and s t y l e . a u t h o r i a l comment. The c h a r a c t e r s  Each i s b l u n t l y t o l d , w i t h a minimum o f  Each d e a l s i n death and v i o l e n c e on a grand s c a l e .  have uncouth names.  I n O l d Norse l i t e r a t u r e ,  "family  61 names were n o n - e x i s t e n t ,  and each person had by r i g h t o n l y one name."  Thus, G r e t t i r has h i s one name, and a nick-name which d e s c r i b e s h i m  62 as  'the s t r o n g . '  The " o d d l y S c a n d i n a v i a n p e r s o n a e "  i n A Voyage,  b e i n g a l l e g o r i c a l ( M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e c l e a r l y b e l o n g to a  different  w o r l d from Montague F a u l l ) , have o n l y one name, but t h i s name i s a description: importantly,  K r a g ' s name t e l l s us he i s rough and u n p o l i s h e d .  though he a l s o  resembles B l a k e ' s  Most  L o s , K r a g i n A Voyage  has q u i t e c l e a r l y been m o d e l l e d on G r e t t i r h i m s e l f : n a i l s k e t c h o f one whom H i g h t t e l l s  also  K r a g i s a thumb-  us i s "one o f the most complex  63 [characters] ever c o n c e i v e d . "  Both K r a g and G r e t t i r a r e  s t o c k y and enormously s t r o n g ; both a r e rough mannered, quarrelsome,  red-haired,  seemingly  and c a r e n o t h i n g f o r r t h e f i n e r p o i n t s of s o c i a l  etiquette;  64 b o t h are w e l l - p r a c t i c e d i n the a r t of i n f l i c t i n g p a i n . A. Margaret A r e n t says o f G r e t t i r ' s name t h a t " e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , i t goes back to g r a n t j a n and t o d e r i v a t i v e words meaning ' t o s n e e r , s n a r l , make a wry  65 face'"  —and these a c t i o n s  are as  characteristic  o f K r a g as  of G r e t t i r .  F u r t h e r , A r e n t t e l l s us of an " a s s o c i a t i o n o f the name w i t h the snake" and K r a g ' s r o l e i n A Voyage i s t h a t o f the w i s e s e r p e n t , b r i n g e r of i j .67 knowledge o r g n o s i s .  66  82  But A Voyage to A r c t u r u s and The Saga o f G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , though they have many s i m i l a r i t i e s , b e l o n g i n the end to  different  l i t e r a r y genres.  When " i n a l l t h e c l a s s i c a l s a g a s , n o t h i n g i s  con-  doned or v i l i f i e d  ( e x c e p t by i m p l i c a t i o n ) ; the a u t h o r does n o t t a k e 68  s i d e s or m o r a l i s e "  t h i s i s because " t h e i n t e r e s t 69  wholly psychological" presented  :  r e a l l y complex c h a r a c t e r s  through a c t i o n :  rationalise.  of our saga i s  Grettir is  can o n l y be  too complex f o r reason  I n A Voyage the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t  is  the p a u c i t y of a u t h o r i a l comment i s n o t good p s y c h o l o g y , allegory:  to  minimal: i t is  good  i f t h e image is_ the meaning i t w i l l r e q u i r e no a u t h o r i a l  comment.  G r e t t i r i s so o r g a n i s e d  develops  i t s e l f " " 7 ^ through a c t i o n .  that "the character A Voyage i s  of the hero  o r g a n i s e d so as  make a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t , andthe a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r  of M a s k u l l  to is—  p r o v i d e d t h a t he i s o r d i n a r y enough for 1 , us to i d e n t i f y w i t h h i m — more o r l e s s i r r e l e v a n t .  F i n a l l y , w h i l e A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s  an  a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , The Saga o f G r e t t i r the S t r o n g i s n o t i n any sense a dream book. Of c o u r s e ,  "from i t s  earliest  beginnings  u n t i l the p r e s e n t day  I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e has been remarkably r i c h i n s y m b o l i c dreams and visions.  G e o r g i a Dunham K e l c h n e r has n o t e d 530 dream r e f e r e n c e s i n  O l d I c e l a n d i c p r o s e and p o e t r y , and h e r s u r v e y i s f a r from  exhaustive."  P r o p h e t i c dreams, o r a c u l u m , are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n the s a g a s . The E l d e r Edda, the p o e t i c canon, i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r : p s y c h o l o g i c a l but m y t h i c a l .  Carlyle distinguishes  i t is  not  between myth and  83  a l l e g o r y as  follows:  Pagan R e l i g i o n i s i n d e e d an A l l e g o r y , a symbol o f what men f e l t and knew about the U n i v e r s e . . . . But i t seems t o me a r a d i c a l p e r v e r s i o n , and even i n v e r s i o n , of the b u s i n e s s , to put t h a t f o r w a r d as the o r i g i n and moving c a u s e , when i t was r a t h e r the r e s u l t and t e r m i n a t i o n . To get b e a u t i f u l a l l e g o r i e s , a perfect p o e t i c symbol, was n o t the want of men; but t o know what they were t o b e l i e v e about t h i s U n i v e r s e , what course they were to s t e e r i n i t . . . . The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s i s an A l l e g o r y , and a b e a u t i f u l , j u s t and s e r i o u s one: b u t c o n s i d e r whether Bunyan's A l l e g o r y c o u l d have preceded the F a i t h i t s y m b o l i s e s ! The F a i t h had t o be a l r e a d y t h e r e , s t a n d i n g b e l i e v e d by e v e r y b o d y ; — o f w h i c h the A l l e g o r y c o u l d then b e c come a shadow (73) . Myth i s p r i m a r y and a l l e g o r y i s s e c o n d a r y ,  b u t the two a r e  close.  I n The E l d e r Edda, one o f the m y t h i c poems, ' V o l u s p a , o r 'The Song of the S y b i l , ' visio,  i s a l s o a dream w o r k , and the dream i s of c a t e g o r y  v,  t o whicfawehave a l r e a d y a s s i g n e d The D i v i n e Comedy and o t h e r  a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s . which c o n t a i n s  ' V o l u s p a ' i s a l a y i n The E l d e r Edda  the c o s m o l o g i c a l mythology o f the o l d Norsemen, and i t s  i n f l u e n c e on L i n d s a y ' s cosmology i n A Voyage i s r e a d i l y  discernible.  The c e n t r a l i d e a s i n A Voyage are i n d e e d g n o s t i c , P l a t o n i c and Schopenhauerian  (Plato being a gnostic,  Schopenhauer a n e o - P l a t o n i s t ) ,  b u t L i n d s a y perhaps found these i d e a s most c o n c r e t e l y embodied i n 74 'Voluspa.'  From t h i s , a t any r a t e , he took h i s most i m p o r t a n t names:  the S u r t u r o f A r c t u r u s i s the S u r t of ' V o l u s p a ' (and o f  'Valfruthnir'  and ' L o k a s e n n a ' ; he i s S u r t a r and S u r t r i n some i n f l e c t i o n a l c a s e s , 75 'r'  being nominatival  ).  I n the a p o c a l y p s e f o r e t o l d i n ' V o l u s p a '  comes from the s o u t h , from Muspelheim ( L i n d s a y ' s Muspel) w i t h the  the Surt singer-  84  of-twigs,  which i s  the f i r e t h a t Promethean M a s k u l l must t r a v e l t o  Muspel t o s t e a l i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s . ' V o l u s p a ' i s unique i n The E l d e r Edda i n b e i n g a v i s i o and i n b e i n g c o s m o l o g i c a l , b u t i t has many analogues i n the m y t h o l o g i e s other races.  I f V e l i k o v s k y i s c o r r e c t i n Worlds i n C o l l i s i o n ,  of  these  e n d - o f - t h e - w o r l d myths a r e a l l v e r y s i m i l a r because they a r e based on e v e n t s w h i c h happened i n the (by c o s m o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s ) r e c e n t viz.  the c a p t u r e o f the comet Venus by t h e s o l a r s y s t e m ,  c o l l i s i o n s o f Mars ( a n g r y , of beauty,  past:  and the  r e d god o f war) and Venus (hew-born goddess  t r a i l i n g h e r b e a u t i f u l v e i l s ) w h i l e t h i s was t a k i n g  C u r i o u s l y enough, t h i s m y t h - c u m - s c i e n t i f i c f a c t i s a l s o , remarked, the s u b s t a n c e of K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e a t the end o f  place.77  as was  earlier  Novalis's  romance, Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n . Not o n l y i s  ' V o l u s p a ' d i f f e r e n t :from the r e s t o f The E l d e r Edda,  but the saga we have d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A Voyage, The Saga of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , i s d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s a g a s , and i n a comparable way.  Not o n l y i s ,  as was n o t e d by H i g h t , n a t u r e  imagery  r a r e l y used, b u t " l i g h t o r r a d i a n c e symbolism [ o c c u r s ] o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y 78 i n the S a g a s . "  We f i n d i t i n G r e t t i r .  When, f o r example,  Grettir  meets Glam's g h o s t , "The moon was s h i n i n g v e r y b r i g h t l y o u t s i d e , l i g h t c l o u d s p a s s i n g over i t and h i d i n g i t now and a g a i n . 79 moment Glam f e l l ,  the moon shone f o r t h . "  A t the  L i g h t or radiance  i s c e n t r a l t o A Voyage, where M a s k u l l f o l l o w s the muspel  with  symbolism  radiance  a c r o s s Tormance, and i t i s c e n t r a l t o ' V o l u s p a ' and to K l i n g s o h r ' s i n b o t h o f w h i c h t h e sun t u r n s b l a c k .  tale,  85  By the time N o v a l i s w r o t e Henry o f developed die Nacht.  Of t e r d i n g e n , he had a  fully  ' r a d i a n c e s y m b o l i s m , ' which, he had worked out i n Hymnen an The f i r s t hymn appears t o be a c e l e b r a t i o n o f l i g h t  as  80 " K o n i g der i r d i s c h e n N a t u r "  ( l o r d o f e a r t h l y n a t u r e ) w h i c h makes  v i s i b l e the s p l e n d o u r of the w o r l d .  But the w o r l d i s n o t s p l e n d i d , 81  and " t h e second hymn laments  the i n t r u s i o n of d a y l i g h t "  into  dominion^ which N o v a l i s d e s c r i b e s as t i m e l e s s and s p a c e l e s s . of  oppositions  are then e s t a b l i s h e d  A series  between day and n i g h t , the  and i n n e r w o r l d s , s u r f a c e and d e p t h , sense and Gemut:  ( f o r the f i r s t  outer  that i s ,  the n i g h t - d r e a m w o r l d and the common, everyday r e a l i t y . hymn, N o v a l i s " i n t r o d u c e s  night's  between  In:_the  fifth  time) God's countenance as  a  82 'nocturnal s u n ' . "  T h i s i s the e q u i v a l e n t of D a n t e ' s ' o t h e r '  sun and  of L i n d s a y ' s A l p p a i n . In that  the a p o c a l y p s e , the sun o f  t h i s w o r l d w i l l be d e s t r o y e d  ' o t h e r ' , now ' n o c t u r n a l ' s u n , w i l l s h i n e f o r t h .  and K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e ,  the sun o f t h i s w o r l d i s  I n both  destroyed.  Then,  t u r n e d from the s o u t h , S i s t e r of Moon, r i g h t arm r e s t e d on t h e r i m of Heaven; had no i n k l i n g where h e r h a l l was, Moon a n o t i o n o f what might be h a d , p l a n e t s knew not where t h e i r p l a c e s were  'Voluspa'  'Voluspa'  d e s c r i b e s the c o s m o l o g i c a l upheaval q u i t e b r i e f l y : Sun Her She Nor The  and  (83).  Surt with the b a n e - o f - b r a n c h e s comes From the s o u t h , on h i s sword the sun o f the V a l g o d s , Crags t o p p l e , the crone f a l l s h e a d l o n g , Men t r e a d H e l ' s Road, the Heaven s s p l i t open ( 8 4 ) .  86  I t i s the end o f t h e w o r l d : E a r t h s i n k s i n the s e a , the sun t u r n s b l a c k , C a s t down from Heaven a r e the h o t s t a r s , Fumes r e e k , i n t o flames b u r s t , The sky i t s e l f i s s c o r c h e d w i t h f i r e ( 8 5 ) . I n K l i n g s o h r ' s t a l e i n Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n we h a v e , as  Velikovsky  86 might have a r g u e d , h e r o (Mars?)  the same t?.? c o s m o l o g i c a l events d e s c r i b e d .  The  i s c a l l e d i n t o a house by F r e y a , " t h e b e a u t i f u l daughter  of A r c t u r u s " ('.)  who s i t s on " a t h r o n e a r t f u l l y f a s h i o n e d from a huge 87 p y r i t e - c r y s t a l " and streams w i t h l i g h t . She i s e v i d e n t l y the comet Venus. When the e a r t h passes through the comet's t a i l we are t o l d t h a t 88 "Sophia's blue v e i l  . . . was w a v i n g over the e a r t h . "  According to  V e l i k o v s k y t h e r e must have been an exchange-6f p o t e n t i a l , i . e . a s p a r k o r e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e , between the two p l a n e t s .  We f i n d t h i s i n  N o v a l i s when, a p p r o a c h i n g F r e y a , t h e hero p u t s h i s sword h a n d l e a g a i n s t his chest,  p o i n t s the b l a d e o f i t a t h e r , and " a b r i g h t s p a r k "  leaps  89 between them.  We have seen t h i s i n ' V o l u s p a ' when S u r t comes, " o n  h i s sword the sun o f t h e V a l g o d s . "  Dark S u r t u r has been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  b l a c k smoke, " o u t o f w h i c h f l a s h e d a tongue of f l a m e , l i k e a s h i n i n g 90 91 sword," B i g John Buscema's p i c t u r e o o f him as an enormous r e d monster seems more l i k e l y ,  i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t S u r t must have been the p l a n e t  Mars. S u r t comes to d e s t r o y the e a r t h and the e a r t h ' s this i s .  gods, whose  H i s coming i s d e s c r i b e d thus i n Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n : The sun s t o o d i n heaven, f i e r y - r e d w i t h r a g e . The p o w e r f u l flame i m b i b e d i t s s t o l e n l i g h t ;  twilight  87  and the more f i e r c e l y the sun s t r o v e t o p r e s e r v e i t s e l f , ever more p a l e and s p o t t e d i t became. The flame grew w h i t e r and more i n t e n s e , , as the sun faded.' I t a t t r a c t e d the l i g h t more and more s t r o n g l y ; the g l o r y around the s t a r of day was soon consumed, and i t s t o o d t h e r e a p a l e , g l i m m e r i n g d i s k , every new a g i t a t i o n o f s p i t e and rage a i d i n g the escape of the f l y i n g l i g h t - w a v e s . F i n a l l y , nought o f the sun remained but a b l a c k , e x h a u s t e d d r o s s , w h i c h f e l l i n t o the s e a . The s p l e n d o u r of t h e flame was beyond description. I t s l o w l y ascended, and b o r e t t o w a r d s the n o r t h ( 9 2 ) .  93 And the k i n g , A r c t u r u s , says-:  "night is passed."  "The n i g h t i s r e a l l y p a s t a t l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . .  K r a g echoes The day i s  this:  here"  (VA 277). A t the end o f ' V o l u s p a , ' when the n i g h t has p a s s e d , the S y b i l s a y s , I see E a r t h r i s i n g a second time Out o f the foam, f a i r and g r e e n ; Down from the f e l l s , f i s h to c a p t u r e , Wings the e a g l e ; waters f l o w ( 9 4 ) . 95 Thus, " o u t o f p a i n i s the new w o r l d b o r n . "  It is  the r e t u r n of  the  Golden Age: Boards s h a l l be found of a b e a u t y t o wonder a t , Boards o f g o l d i n the g r a s s l o n g a f t e r , The chess boards they owned i n the o l d e n days ( 9 6 ) . Henceforward,  " a l l war i s  c o n f i n e d to t h i s s l a b and to these  Around t h i s myth, the a l l e g o r y K r a g ' s name on E a r t h i s and o f the new w o r l d : up the o l d w o r l d . is  of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s  p a i n (VA 2 8 7 ) : he i s  he i s  figures." built.  the b r i n g e r of g n o s i s  a l s o S u r t u r , whose Muspel f i r e i s  But i n L i n d s a y ' s  97  to burn  v e r s i o n o f the myth, the a p o c a l y p s e  to be a long-drawn out a f f a i r , as N i g h t s p o r e d i s c o v e r s : Muspel was no a l l - p o w e r f u l U n i v e r s e , t o l e r a t i n g from pure i n d i f f e r e n c e the e x i s t e n c e s i d e by s i d e w i t h i t o f another f a l s e w o r l d , w h i c h had no r i g h t  88  t o b e . Muspel was f i g h t i n g f o r i t s l i f e — a g a i n s t a l l t h a t i s most shameful and f r i g h t f u l — a g a i n s t s i n masquerading as e t e r n a l b e a u t y , a g a i n s t baseness masquerading as N a t u r e , a g a i n s t the D e v i l masquerading as God (VA 2 8 6 ) . The o l d w o r l d and the new ( ' o t h e r ' ) The o l d w o r l d i s  w o r l d a l r e a d y e x i s t s i d e by s i d e .  to be n o t so much d e s t r o y e d as p a t i e n t l y u n c r e a t e d ,  not because i t i s e v i l — t h o u g h i t i s e v i l — b u t because c r e a t i o n i s C r e a t i o n i s the o r i g i n a l s i n .  Therefore  t h e r e can be no Golden Age  to l o o k f o r w a r d t o at the end of A Voyage. view, " r o t t e n w i t h i l l u s i o n " real,  evil.  A l l creation i s , i n Lindsay's  (TSG 4 2 ) , b u t , b e h i n d c r e a t i o n " l i e s  the  tremendous and a w f u l M u s p e l - w o r l d , w h i c h knows n e i t h e r W i l l , n o r  U n i t y , nor I n d i v i d u a l s ; that i s to say, ' V o l u s p a ' i s s i m p l y the  an i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " (TSG 4 2 ) .  s t o r y o f " t h e e t e r n a l w a r f a r e waged by the 98  kingdom of l i g h t a g a i n s t t h e kingdom o f d a r k n e s s . " i s more c o m p l i c a t e d , f o r i n some p l a c e s  Klingsohr's tale  " l i g h t and shade seem [ . . . ] 99  t o have changed t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e s , " v a l u e s of the seeming dark w h i c h i s  and we must s u p p o r t  the one t r u e l i g h t .  the  L i n d s a y takes  l i t e r a l l y and develops N o v a l i s ' s i d e a i n Hymnen an d i e Nacht o f the ' n o c t u r n a l s u n , ' so t h a t A Voyage to A r c t u r u s becomes n o t so much a b a t t l e between l i g h t and darkness  (though i t i s t h i s a l s o ) ,  the l i g h t of the w o r l d and the l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d . b a t t l e we must now t u r n .  b u t between To t h i s  89  Footnotes  To Chapter Three  C. S. L e w i s , The A l l e g o r y of L o v e : A Study i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 75. 2  L o u i s M a c N e i c e , i n V a r i e t i e s of P a r a b l e (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), says t h a t "mapping P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s w o u l d be l i k e mapping the N i l e V a l l e y , o n l y w o r s e . A l l l o n g i t u d e and p r a c t i c a l l y no l a t i t u d e : t h a t i s the t r o u b l e w i t h a s t r a i g h t and narrow path and i t i s o n l y the ups and downs which keep i t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , the H i l l D i f f i c u l t y , t h e V a l l e y of H u m i l i a t i o n " (p. 4 3 ) . 3  Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s C r i t i c i s m , Raysor (London: C o n s t a b l e & C o . , 1936), p . 36.  e d . T. M.  4 Joanna Russ i n 'Dream L i t e r a t u r e and S c i e n c e F i c t i o n ' i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (Dec. 1969) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between day-dream and n i g h t - d r e a m l i t e r a t u r e , and f i n d s the l a t t e r v a s t l y p r e f e r a b l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y she i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s e s L i n d s a y as a day-dream w r i t e r and a t t a c k s h i m on t h i s g r o u n d , w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h a t A Voyage i s b u i l t around t h e same d i s t i n c t i o n . See my r e b u t t a l i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (May 1 9 7 2 ) . Bles,  ^ C . S. L e w i s , 0f_ Other W o r l d s , e d . W. Hooper (London: 1966), p . 6.  A. D. N u t t a l l , Two Concepts o f A l l e g o r y (London: Kegan P a u l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 31.  Geoffrey  Routledge and  ^ E l l i o t t B. Gose J r . , I m a g i n a t i o n I n d u l g e d : The I r r a t i o n a l i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century N o v e l ( M o n t r e a l and London: M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p . 42. g  Angus F l e t c h e r , A l l e g o r y : . The Theory of a_ Symbolic Mode New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 107. 9  (Ithaca,  W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s o u t p u t i s enormous, and i n c l u d e s The Water o f the Wondrous I s l e s and The Wood Beyond the W o r l d , as w e l l as The W e l l a t the W o r l d ' s End. E . R. E d d i s o n wrote a t r i l o g y about Z i m i a m v i a , The Worm Ouroboros, M i s t r e s s of M i s t r e s s e s and A F i s h D i n n e r i n Memison, w h i l e a f o u r t h book, The M e z e n t i a n G a t e , remains u n f i n i s h e d . C l a r k Ashton Smith and H. P . L o v e c r a f t have g i v e n u s , at g r e a t l e n g t h , the m y t h o l o g i e s o f Z o t h i q u e and C t h u l h u r e s p e c t i v e l y . James Churchward and John Norman have w r i t t e n a t l e a s t h a l f - a - d o z e n books each about t h e s u b c r e a t e d w o r l d s of Mu and Gor r e s p e c t i v e l y . Recent 'Hugo' w i n n e r s  90  i n the f i e l d i n c l u d e Frank H e r b e r t ' s Dune and U r s u l a K . L e G u i n n ' s The L e f t Hand of D a r k n e s s . B e s t - s e l l e r i n the f i e l d i s s t i l l The L o r d o f the Rings and i t s companion The Hobbit,-: 3 w h i l e the most l o n g winded must be James Branch C a b e l l ' s i n t e r m i n a b l e s e r i e s The B i o g r a p h y of M a n u e l . And these a r e o n l y the o b v i o u s examples.  York:  "^Sam J . L u n d w a l l , S c i e n c e F i c t i o n : Ace Books, 19 71), p p . 17-19.  What i t ' s  a l l about (New  11 Sam J .  Lundwall, Science F i c t i o n , pp.  36-37.  12 Quoted by L u n d w a l l from Ralph 124C41+ i n S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , p .  19.  13 Quoted by L u n d w a l l i n S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , p . 14  37.  Quoted by L u n d w a l l i n S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , p . 37. survey I take t h i s a t t i t u d e to be t y p i c a l .  From L u n d w a l l ' s  ^ M o r r i s ' s romances a r e the development o f S i g u r d the V o l s u n g , s e t i n the a n c i e n t R h i n e l a n d , . a n d The L i f e and Death of J a s o n , borrowed from Greek m y t h o l o g y . "^Visiak: "The a u t h o r who had most i n f l u e n c e d h i m , he t o l d me, was George MacDonald" (TSG 9 8 ) . "^Visiak: " H i s k i n s m a n , C a r l y l e — w h o m he f a c i a l l y resembled, and a d m i r e d — a c h i e v e d the f a c u l t y of w r i t i n g as he s p o k e , and L i n d s a y t r i e d e v e n t u a l l y t o i m i t a t e h i s s t y l e " i n W i t c h (TSG 9 7 ) . 18  A thorough study o f the double i n German l i t e r a t u r e has been done by R a l p h Tymms c a l l e d Doubles i n L i t e r a r y P s y c h o l o g y (Cambridge: Bowes and Bowes, 1 9 4 9 ) . More r e c e n t , more t e c h n i c a l , more comprehensive and r a t h e r p o o r e r i s R. R o g e r s ' A P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Study o f The Double i n L i t e r a t u r e ( D e t r o i t : ' Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) . Both Tymms and Rogers d e a l w i t h the double by d i v i s i o n and the double by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . N e i t h e r seems t o have thought of a t h i r d k i n d , the double by i m i t a t i o n , w h i c h u n d e r l i e s such d i v e r s e works as P i e r s P l o w man (the i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t ) and The R e a l L i f e o f S e b a s t i a n K n i g h t (where V becomes S e b a s t i a n ) . 19  John L o c k e , An Essay Concerning Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g , e d . J . W. Y o l t o n (London: J . M. Dent, 1961), v o l . I , p . 82. H e r e a f t e r t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d as EHU. Locke a l s o asks us t o "suppose the s o u l  91  o f C a s t o r s e p a r a t e d d u r i n g h i s s l e e p from h i s body, to t h i n k a p a r t . L e t us suppose, t o o , t h a t i t chooses f o r i t s scene of t h i n k i n g the body of a n o t h e r man, e . g . P o l l u x , who i s sleeping without a s o u l . . . " (EHTJ I , p . 83) . 20 21  John L o c k e , EHU I , p . John L o c k e , EHU I I ,  85,  p.  144.  22 John L o c k e , EHU I I , p .  16 7.  23 N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n : Moore, 1853), p . 27. 9  A Romance (New Y o r k :  H. H.  /  E . T . A . Hoffmann, 'The Golden P o t ' i n The B e s t T a l e s of Hoffmann, e d . E . F. B l e i l e r (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967), p . 8. 'The Golden P o t ' i s r e p r i n t e d i n a c l e a n e d up v e r s i o n ( w i t h o u t " t h e S c o t t i s h ness and e c c e n t r i c i t y " [p. x x x i i i ] ) o f C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n . 25 E . T . A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden P o t  p.  55.  E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden Pot  p.  48.  27.E . T . A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden Pot  p.  18.  28.E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden Pot  p.  19.  E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden P o t  p.  18.  30 E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden. Pot  p.  56.  31 E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden P o t  p.  57.  32 E. T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden Pot  p.  56.  33.E . T . A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden P o t  p.  56.  34 E . T. A . Hoffmann,  'The Golden Pot  p.  69.  26  29  35  E . F. B l e i l e r n o t e s i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The B e s t T a l e s o f Hoffmann t h a t " a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Anselmus i s s i m p l y a  92  p r o j e c t i o n o f the R e g i s t r a t o r which d i s a p p e a r s i n t h e w o r l d o f f a n t a s y , w h i l e the R e g i s t r a t o r , g i v i n g up h i s dreams, m a r r i e s V e r o n i c a . She, i n t u r n , r e c o g n i z e s t h a t she cannot possess the Anselmus complex b u t must be c o n t e n t w i t h the C o n r e c t o r - t u r n e d - G e h e i m r a t " (p. x i x ) . 36  t  Both Hoffmann and N o v a l i s used marchen, w h i c h N o v a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g " l i k e a dream v i s i o n . . . beyond l o g i c . . . an assembly o f wonderf u l t h i n g s and h a p p e n i n g s " (quoted by B l e i l e r i n The Best T a l e s , p . xx) . These marchen, B l e i l e r t e l l s u s , " o f t e n appeared as s y m b o l i c k e r n e l s o r germs w i t h i n the l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f a s t o r y , o f f e r i n g i n f r a n k l y p o e t i c and m y t h i c a l form the p o i n t o f f e r e d more o r l e s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n the f u l l s t o r y " ( p . x x ) . MacDonald used t h i s form f r e q u e n t l y , as f o r example i n the s t o r y o f Cosmo i n P h a n t a s t e s , b u t L i n d s a y , w r i t i n g some4-' t h i n g much more l i k e pure a l l e g o r y , much l e s s l i k e romance, used the form rarely: Panawe's s t o r y and the s t o r y o f H a t o r are b r i e f examples. A Voyage i s s e t t h o r o u g h l y i n the s p i r i t o r n i g h t - d r e a m w o r l d , and t h e r e f o r e i s at war w i t h the w o r l d of the body. 37 p.  xvx.  38  T h i s obvious comparison has a l s o been made by W. A . S t r a u s s i n Descent and R e t u r n : The O r p h i c Theme i n Modern L i t e r a t u r e (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 26. Our anonymous t r a n s l a t o r t e l l s us N o v a l i s was h a p p i l y " u n c o r r u p t e d by p r e c e d e n t s " (p. x v i ) . 39 A l l c i t a t i o n s i n German are t o ' H e i n r i c h von O f t e r d i n g e n ' N o v a l i s D i c h t u n g e n (Hamburg':' R o w o h l t , 1 9 6 3 ) . ^Inferno,  1, l i n e 2.  iSIovalis, Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  25.  of Ofterdingen, p.  37.  of Ofterdingen, p.  37.  42 N o v a l i s , Henry 43 44  N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p . N o v a l i s , Henry  195.  of O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  132.  N o v a l i s , Henry ^ N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  134.  45  47  N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  193.  in  93  48  Novalis,  Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n ,  p.  203.  49 ed.  Thomas C a r l y l e , On H e r o e s , Herd-Worship and the H e r o i c i n H i s t o r y , C a r l Niemeyer ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 19. "^Thomas C a r l y l e , O n H e r o e s , p .  16.  "'"'"Thomas C a r l y l e ,  17.  On H e r o e s , p .  52 Morris  W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by J . W. M a c k a i l i n The L i f e of (London: Longmans, 1901), I , p . 244.  ^ ^ W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by M a c k a i l , L i f e ,  I,  p.  William  247.  " ^ E i n e r Haugen, 'On T r a n s l a t i n g from the S c a n d i n a v i a n ' i n O l d Norse L i t e r a t u r e and M y t h o l o g y : A Symposium, e d . E . C. Polome ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 13. "'"'See Dorothy M. H o a r e , The Works of W i l l i a m M o r r i s and Y e a t s i n R e l a t i o n to E a r l y Saga L i t e r a t u r e (1937; r p t . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 19 7 1 ) , pp. 5 0 - 5 5 . 56 W i l l i a m M o r r i s quoted by M a c k a i l , L i f e ,  I,  p.  107.  57  W i l l i a m M o r r i s , 'To The Muse of the N o r t h ' i n Poems by the Way & Love i s Enough (London: Longmans, G r e e n , 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 32. 58 G. A . H i g h t i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to The Saga o f G r e t t i r S t r o n g (London: J . M. D e n t , 1 9 1 3 ) , p . x i i .  the  59 G. A . H i g h t i n G r e t t i r , ^G.  A. Hight i n G r e t t i r ,  p.  xiv.  p. v i i .  ^"4ciner Haugen i n Polome's O l d Norse L i t e r a t u r e ,  p.  17.  62 Anonymous r e v i e w of The S t r a n g e Genius i n The Times 63 Supplement (November 20, 19 70), p . 1346. G. A . H i g h t i n G r e t t i r , pp. x - x i .  Literary  94  K r a g , however, does n o t i n f l i c t p a i n n e e d l e s s l y , as G r e t t i r seems to when, f o r example, he s t r i p s the h i d e o f f h i s f a t h e r ' s l i v e h o r s e because he does n o t want to l o o k a f t e r i t . A . M a r g a r e t A r e n t , 'The H e r o i c P a t t e r n : O l d Germanic H e l m e t s , B e o w u l f , and G r e t t i s s a g a ' i n O l d NOfse L i t e r a t u r e and M y t h o l o g y : A Symposium, e d . E . C. Polome^ ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1969), p p . 184-^85. A r e n t ' s s u b j e c t i s the s i m i l a r i t y of m o t i f s i n Beowulf and G r e t t i r . She n o t i c e s t h a t "one o f the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements of the f a i r y t a l e , - however, the f r e e i n g o f a p r i n c e s s , e n t e r s i n t o n e i t h e r " ( p . 185). I t does, of c o u r s e , e n t e r i n t o A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , when M a s k u l l wakes S u l l e n b o d e w i t h a k i s s . 66  / A . M a r g a r e t A r e n t i n Polome's O l d Norse L i t e r a t u r e , p .  185.  67 J . B. P i c k a s s u r e s me i n a p r i v a t e l e t t e r dated January 4, t h a t G r e t t i r was a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on L i n d s a y . P i c k has a c c e s s s L i n d s a y ' s n o t e b o o k s , w h i c h , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have n o t .  1971, to  68 J . W. S w a n n e l l , W i l l i a m M o r r i s and O l d Norse L i t e r a t u r e (London: W i l l i a m M o r r i s S o c i e t y , 1961), p . 13. 69 G. A . H i g h t i n G r e t t i r , p .  x.  70 G. A . H i g h t , G r e t t i r , p . x . P a u l S c h a c h , , ' S y m b o l i c Dreams of F u t u r e Renown i n O l d I c e l a n d i c L i t e r a t u r e 1 i n M o s a i c , I V , 4 (Summer 1971), p . 5 1 . See a l s o E . 0 . G. T u r v i l l e - P e t r e . , 'Dreams i n I c e l a n d i c T r a d i t i o n ' i n F o l k l o r e , 69 (1958), pp. 93-111. 72  See P e t e r H a l l b e r g , 'Dreams and D e s t i n y ' i n The I c e l a n d i c Saga, t r a n s . P a u l Schach ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1962), p p . 81-96. 73 Thomas C a r l y l e , On H e r o e s , p . 74  6.  I n c i d e n t a l l y , i n one of the l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s T o l k i e n found a l i s t of dwarves' names to b o r r o w . 75  of ' V o l u s p a '  See the I c e l a n d i c t e x t e d i t e d by P . H . S a l u s and P . B . T a y l o r , V o l u s p a : The Song of the S y b i l , t r a n s . P . B. T a y l o r and W. H . Auden (Iowa C i t y : Windhover P r e s s , 1968), s t . 4 1 , 45. The t r a n s l a t i o n i n  95  t h i s e d i t i o n , r e p r i n t e d i n t h e same a u t h o r s ' The E l d e r Edda, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t i t ' t r a n s l a t e s ' some of the ' a l l e g o r y ' "From the e a s t through Venom V a l l e y runs / Over j a g g e d rocks the R i v e r Gruesome" ( s t . 31). 76  See Lee M. H o l l a n d e r , The P o e t i c Edda (1928; r e v . e d . , A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 3, 4 5 , 5 1 , 59, 99. S u r t u r comes to burn up B r a n c h s p e l l . 77  I m m a n u e l V e l i k o v s k y , Worlds i n C o l l i s i o n (New Y o r k :  Dell,  1967). 78 P a u l Schach i n ' S y m b o l i c Dreams, 7 9  G r e t t i r , p.  ' p.  71.  98.  80 Novalis,  'Hymnen an d i e N a c h t '  i n Novalis Dichtungen, p.  55.  ^"Hf. A . S t r a u s s , Descent and R e t u r n : The O r p h i c Theme i n Modern L i t e r a t u r e (Cambridge, M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 29. See S t r a u s s f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the Hymn e n . A l s o see Bruce Haywood, N o v a l i s : The V e i l o f Imagery (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p p . 5 2 - 7 7 . 82 W. A . S t r a u s s , Descent and R e t u r n , p .  34.  83 The E l d e r Edda: A Selection, (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 19 70), p . 84  T h e E l d e r Edda, p .  t r a n s . P . B. T a y l o r and W. H . Auden 145.  151.  85 The E l d e r Edda, p .  152.  86 He d o e s n ' t .  I don't  t h i n k he r e a d N o v a l i s .  87 N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n ,  p.  156.  N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n ,  p.  179.  N o v a l i s , Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n ,  p.  186.  88 89  96  W. Wagner, A s g a r d and the Gods: The T a l e s and T r a d i t i o n s o f our N o r t h e r n A n c e s t o r s , adapted M. W. M a c D o w a l l , e d . W. S. W. Anson (London: W. Swan Sonnenschein, 1884), p p . 56-57. 91  The M i g h t y T h o r , M a r v e l Comics, 200 (June 1972), p p . T h i s s p e c i a l 200th i s s u e r e t e l l s the l a y o f ' V o l u s p a . ' N o v a l i s , Henry ojf Of t e r d i n g e n , p .  177.  ^ N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p .  179.  4  T h e E l d e r Edda, p .  152.  " ' N o v a l i s , Henry o f Of t e r d i n g e n , p . 6  T h e E l d e r Edda, p .  17-18.  184.  152.  ^ N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , p . 8 W. Wagner, A s g a r d and the Gods, p .  185.  i i  55.  N o v a l i s , Henry of O f t e r d i r i g e n , p . 169. I n N o v a l i s , "each f i g u r e e x h i b i t e d a p e c u l i a r shade of b l a c k , and c a s t b e h i n d a p a l e g l i m m e r . " I n L i n d s a y , " t h e shadows of the t h r e e men c a s t by A l p p a i n were n o t b l a c k , b u t were composed of w h i t e d a y l i g h t " (VA 2 7 5 ) .  97  Chapter F o u r : THE UNHOLY WAR:  A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS AS BATTLE  A l l e g o r i e s are of two k i n d s , b a t t l e  and p r o g r e s s , the  latter  b e i n g b e t t e r s u i t e d to the e p i s o d i c n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f  the  dream f a n t a s y .  they  are o r g a n i s e d Good and E v i l ,  But a l l p r o g r e s s e s are a l s o b a t t l e s , around d i c h o t o m i e s : l i g h t and d a r k n e s s ,  God and d e v i l , lightness  proverb i s most apt i n t h i s c o n t e x t : progression.""'"  since  C h r i s t and S a t a n ,  and w e i g h t .  " W i t h o u t C o n t r a r i e s i s no  Were we to judge by the n e o - A r i s t o t a l i a n  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y a p p r o p r i a t e  to, say,  Dreams themselves  canons  some k i n d s o f n o v e l ,  such d u a l i t i e s must seem to be on a p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of Indeed they a r e .  Blake's  thought.  are a p r i m i t i v e form of  ideation,  and they are i n h e r e n t l y d u a l i s t i c .  The s c h e m a t i c  to A r c t u r u s i s e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e  to i t s s t r u c t u r e as an a l l e g o r i c a l  battle,  as i s the s i m i l a r l y s c h e m a t i c — i f n o t  o f thought i n the works o f o t h e r n e o - P l a t o n i s t s M i l t o n , B l a k e (who was,  though, the f a c t  d u a l i s m o f A Voyage  diagrammatic—structure such as  Spenser,  i s r a r e l y mentioned,  like  many of h i s f r i e n d s — F l a x m a n , F u s e l i , Cumberland—a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e 'Greek r e v i v a l ' ) , S h e l l e y and Y e a t s . appropriate  i n another sense a l s o ,  This schematic dualism i s  i n that i t belongs  to the w o r l d  of G e n e r a t i o n , as B l a k e c a l l s i t , which, most of us i n h a b i t , and w h i c h i n the f i n a l v i s i o n we and t h e g e n e r a t i n g p r o t a g o n i s t : must p r o g r e s s beyond: strength.  the apparent l i m i t a t i o n of d u a l i s m i s p a r t o f  its  98  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s o r g a n i s e d  around a number o f  dualities,  some of w h i c h are u b i q u i t o u s i n European c u l t u r e , and some of w h i c h L i n d s a y has d e v e l o p e d .  These d u a l i t i e s  are l i g h t and d a r k n e s s ,  light-  ness and w e i g h t , B r a n c h s p e l l ' s  l i g h t and A l p p a i n ' s l i g h t , h e i g h t and  d e p t h , M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e ,  th_e r e a l w o r l d and t h e dream w o r l d ,  appearance and r e a l i t y , the rhythm of the w a l t z and the rhythm o f the march, the male and the f e m a l e , m a t t e r and s p i r i t , a n d , n o t h i n g and n o t h i n g .  finally,  P r o b a b l y the most i n n o v a t i v e of t h e s e i s  as p r o c l a i m e d by t h e t i t l e ,  the  use,  of the d i s t a n t s t a r , A r c t u r u s , w h i c h L i n d s a y  makes i n t o a double s t a r t o s u i t h i s a l l e g o r i c a l p u r p o s e s . A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s a m i s l e a d i n g t i t l e f o r a book i n w h i c h ' there i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t  i n space t r a v e l — M a s k u l l s l e e p s a l l the way  t h e r e (VA 4 4 ) , and the s p a c e - s h i p i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y l u d i c r o u s — b u t L i n d s a y wanted to s t r e s s h i s r e a l s t a r , n o t h i s s u b c r e a t e d  planet.  e v e r y n i g h t e x p e r i e n c e of s t a r s i s o f t h i n g s pure and b e a u t i f u l , c o l d ( e m o t i o n a l l y , not l i t e r a l l y ) , and i m p o s s i b l y d i s t a n t .  Our  constant,  Stars  are  n o t g e n e r a l l y t o be v i s i t e d i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s , w h i c h t a k e place not i n p h y s i c a l b u t , i n Coleridge's phrase,  i n "mental space."  I n e a r l i e r times an untouched c o r n e r of the e a r t h had s u f f i c e d . l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , even voyages to the moon, p o p u l a r  By the  since  2 astronomer K e p l e r ' s Somnium ( 1 6 3 4 ) , increase there  were b e i n g d i s c r e d i t e d by the  i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, though W e l l s managed t o s e t  (1901) by f i n d i n g l i f e underground, w h i l e V e r n e ' s  (1865) g l i m p s e d l i f e on the moon's h i d d e n s i d e .  a romance  travellers  Some w r i t e r s , s u c h as  George MacDonald (1858, 1 8 9 5 ) , used a d i f f e r e n t space f o r t h e i r m e n t a l  99  space w h i l e o t h e r s ,  such as W i l l i a m M o r r i s ( 1 8 9 5 ) , took up sub-  c r e a t i n g and made t h e i r own secondary w o r l d s .  Most w r i t e r s  moved w i t h the expanding f r o n t i e r , f u r t h e r out i n t o s p a c e .  simply After  the o b s e r v a t i o n o f channels o r c a h a l i on M a r s , " b e g i n n i n g i n the 1880's Mars becomes the f o c a l p o i n t of s p e c u l a t i o n u n t i l n o t o n l y does i t commandthe p o p u l a r p r e s s b u t a l s o , by World War I , becomes 3 the u s u a l d e s t i n a t i o n o f any i n t e r - p l a n e t a r y v o y a g e . " Burroughs  c a l l e d i t Barsoom,  C. S. Lewis M a l a c a n d r a .  wanted n o t a w a n d e r i n g b u t a f i x e d s t a r f o r h i s t i t l e , planet  Edgar R i c e But L i n d s a y and a new  f o r h i s s p i r i t w o r l d , so he takes us a c r o s s the g a l a x y  to  Arcturus. L i n d s a y presumably attachments.  chose A r c t u r u s as h i s s t a r f o r the name's  A r c t u r u s i s a v e r y b r i g h t s t a r ; hence i t was named a  l o n g time ago—the Bootes o f Greek astronomy—and has accumulated penumbra of e x t r a - a s t r o n o m i c a l t e l l s her daughter: son ( s i c )  significance.  Catherine Vale Whitwell  . " C a l l i s t h o , perhaps N i m r o d , was s a i d to be the  of t h a t c o n s t e l l a t i o n ,  thought t o t a k e i t s  a  and a f t e r h i s decease h i s s o u l was  abode i n A r c t u r u s . iri.",Bootes, t h a t i t might w i t h 4  uninterrupted a t t e n t i o n perpetuate i t s observations."  Close  observa-  t i o n i s the keynote of the use o f A r c t u r u s by Herman M e l v i l l e i n M a r d i : the s h i p the n a r r a t o r d e s e r t s i s  c a l l e d the A r c t u r i o n , and l a t e r  something  i s s a i d " I n good t r u t h , and as i f an i m p a r t i a l i s t from A r c t u r u s spoke it."~*  Gordon M i l l s has g l o s s e d t h i s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i n 1840-42  the Duyckink b r o t h e r s , Arcturus.  f r i e n d s o f M e l v i l l e , p u b l i s h e d a magazine c a l l e d  I n the ' P r o l o g u e '  to the f i r s t number, they say they do n o t  100  "vouch f o r the l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r o f the i n h a b i t a n t s o f A r c t u r u s as p a t r o n s of the p r e s e n t u n d e r t a k i n g ; i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t A r c t u r u s i s a s t a r t h a t s h i n e s h i g h and b r i g h t l y , and l o o k s down w i t h a keen g l a n c e on the e r r o r s , f o l l i e s and m a l - p r a c t i c e s o f m e n . " That L i n d s a y was i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g such ' a keen g l a n c e ' foolishness  at  i n t h i s w o r l d i s e v i d e n t from the opening c h a p t e r o f A  Voyage, w h i c h concerns i t s e l f w i t h the suburban theosophy of B l a c k h o u s e the medium, who i s ,  as L i n d s a y d r o l l y o b s e r v e s ,  i n the p s y c h i c w o r l d " (VA 1 1 ) . theosophists  "a f a s t - r i s i n g  star  I t i s much to the p o i n t t h a t many  (Edgar Cayce i s an example) have m a i n t a i n e d the i d e a  expressed by P l a t o and echoed by Dante t h a t the s o u l s r e t u r n to the s t a r s .  of the  departed  Those who d i e on e a r t h may be r e b o r n on A r c t u r u s ,  o r one of i t s p l a n e t s .  The i d e a i s used a m u s i n g l y by H . G. W e l l s  t h e end o f h i s s h o r t s t o r y  ' A V i s i o n o f Judgment,'  at  where God t a k e s a l l  the l i t t l e p e o p l e from h i s c o a t - s l e e v e s onto " t h e p l a n e t t h a t w h i r l e d about green S i r i u s f o r a s u n " 7 t o s t a r t effect,  what happens  a l l over again.  t o M a s k u l l , as we s h a l l  This i s , i n  see.  Our own s t a r , S o l , was u n a v a i l a b l e because L i n d s a y needed a double s t a r  for a l l e g o r i c a l reasons:  doubles,  dualism, dichotomies  are fundamental to the n a t u r e o f a l l e g o r y as b o t h b a t t l e and dream. Arcturus i s not, i n fact,  a double s t a r ; b u t L i n d s a y made i t one.  One of W i l s o n ' s l e s s happy o b s e r v a t i o n s  i n T h e Strange Genius i s  " I t may have been u n c o n s c i o u s symbolism t h a t made L i n d s a y choose  that the  double s t a r , A r c t u r u s , as the scene o f h i s major n o v e l " (TSG 4 1 ) . The r e a s o n s , v e r y d e l i b e r a t e l y worked t h r o u g h i n t h e a l l e g o r y ,  are  101  many and good.  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , L i n d s a y i s r e w o r k i n g the symbolism  o f l i g h t and darkness w h i c h i s  c e n t r a l t o Western c i v i l i s a t i o n :  we  t a l k o f b e i n g ' i n the d a r k ' a n d , when ' e n l i g h t e n e d , ' of b e i n g a b l e ' t o see  i t a l l now.'  The sun appears to have been our f i r s t g  and whole p h i l o s o p h i e s have been b u i l t around H i s l i g h t . C h r i s t i a n i t y we f i n d t h e a b s o l u t e s e p a r a t i o n (Heaven)  god,  In  of l i g h t from h e a t  and h e a t from l i g h t ( H e l l ) , most n o t a b l y used by Dante i n  h i s great r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y .  C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s i s  the  r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of m o u n t a i n s , e s p e c i a l l y D a n t e ' s , w h i c h l e a d s to Heaven.  Mountains are c l o s e r to the l i g h t , b e i n g h i g h e r , and g i v e ,  l i t e r a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , a ' w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , ' of  a 'higher view'  things. Most m y t h o l o g i e s are concerned w i t h the e t e r n a l b a t t l e  l i g h t and d a r k n e s s , and l i g h t , m a t t e r  between s p i r i t and m a t t e r : i s d a r k and h e a v y .  the s p i r i t i s  From t h i s c o n f l i c t ,  to G n o s t i c i s m , the u n i v e r s e was b o r n .  between light  according  The w o r l d we know i s on the  i n t e r f a c e between the two E t e r n a l P r i n c i p l e s , and i s made up of a m i x t u r e of l i g h t and d a r k n e s s ,  s p i r i t and m a t t e r ,  good and e v i l .  Because o f the mixed n a t u r e of t h e w o r l d , t h e r e must be some d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the v i e w t h a t God i s w h o l l y good, because of ( i n C. S.  9 Lewis's t i t l e ) if  one i s a b l e ,  potent.  ' t h e problem of p a i n . '  Or e l s e ( s i n c e n o t t o do good,  i s e v i l ) i t cannot be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t God i s o m n i -  Those who have r e f u s e d  to cede an i n c h o f H i s goodness have  e i t h e r i n v o k e d a d u a l i s t i c c r e a t i o n , s u c h as the l i g h t - d a r k o f G n o s t i c i s m , o r the i n t r a c t a b i l i t y of t h e m a t e r i a l at God's  disposal,  102  as does P l a t o i n the Timaeus, a l e s s e r God, Demiurge o r d e v i l ,  o r argued t h a t the w o r l d was made by o f which Prometheus i s a t y p e .  these amount to much the same t h i n g :  All  they e x p l a i n the ' f a l l i n g  between the I d e a and the e x e c u t i o n , w h i c h i s  to s a y ,  off  the o r i g i n a l s i n  inherent i n creation. The phenomenal w o r l d we i n h a b i t , b e i n g on the i n t e r f a c e ,  must be  c o n c e i v e d o f as a b a t t l e f i e l d w h e r e , l i k e C h r i s t i a n , we need to g i r d our  l o i n s and put our s p i r i t u a l armour o n .  nature:  ploughshares  E v e r y t h i n g has a d u a l  may be t u r n e d i n t o swords,  t h e r e i s no l i g h t  11 w i t h o u t shadow, no mercy w i t h o u t o p p r e s s i o n .  As D i s c o r d asks i n  C a l d e r o n ' s La E s t a t u a De Prometeo, "Do y o u n o t know t h a t t h e r e i s no f i r e w i t h o u t smoke?" fire, of  Whether the c r e a t i o n , as Prometheus's  gift  of  i s seen as a Good E v i l o r an E v i l Good seems m a i n l y a m a t t e r  taste.  Realists,  Schopenhauer,  who b e l i e v e i n the r e a l w o r l d , l i k e P l a t o ,  Jean P a u l and L i n d s a y , are p e s s i m i s t s and take the  l a t t e r view ( E v i l Good), w h i l e A r i s t o t e l i a n n o m i n a l i s t s , who b e l i e v e i n the m a t e r i a l and phenomenal w o r l d , are o p t i m i s t s and take the former one.  The f o r c e s of good, however, are the ' l i g h t ' elements  air  (spirit,  and f i r e  phorous)  ' b r e a t h of l i f e , '  pneuma, v i t a l s p a r k ,  and the f o r c e s o f e v i l are the ' d a r k '  of  phos-  and heavy elements  of  12 w a t e r and e a r t h . Man h i m s e l f has a d u a l n a t u r e : i m p r i s o n e d i n the r i v e r o f m a t t e r ; muspel-)  the b r e a t h o r s p i r i t has the d i v i n e s p a r k of s t o l e n  been (e.g.  f i r e has been trapped i n a crude compound o f the base  elements w a t e r and e a r t h , o r c o l d c l a y .  " B r i e f l y , whatsoever h a t h a  103  body i s n o t h i n g b u t c u r d l e d smoke, w h e r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r p r e d e s t i n a t i o n l i e t h h i d . . . . Man i s a c o a g u l a t e d f u m e , " i n the i m m o r t a l words of 13 Paracelsus.  "His soul is  c o n s u b s t a n t i a l w i t h the d i v i n e L i g h t ; 14  b o d y , w i t h the e v i l d a r k n e s s . "  T h e r e f o r e "Man i s b o r n t o t r o u b l e  i n the b o d y " Smart o b s e r v e s , "as "'So  his  the s p a r k s f l y upwards i n the s p i r i t . "  l o n g as a man has any r e g a r d f o r t h i s c o r p s e - l i k e b o d y , ' w r i t e s  t h e H i n d u monk Shankavacharya,  'he i s i m p u r e , and s u f f e r s from h i s  enemies as w e l l as from b i r t h ,  d i s e a s e and d e a t h . . . . Throw f a r away 16  t h i s l i m i t a t i o n of a body which, i s i n e r t and f i l t h y by n a t u r e . ' " Death i s one e s c a p e :  as the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y P e r s i a n m y s t i c A z i z  Nasafi  says, On the death o f any l i v i n g c r e a t u r e the s p i r i t r e t u r n s t o the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , the body to the b o d i l y w o r l d . I n t h i s however o n l y the b o d i e s are s u b j e c t t o change. The s p i r i t u a l w o r l d i s one s i n g l e s p i r i t who s t a n d s l i k e unto a l i g h t b e h i n d the b o d i l y w o r l d ( 1 7 ) . As we have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , s l e e p i s a n o t h e r . I n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , the d u a l i t y o f man may be taken as the 18 foundation of e v e r y t h i n g . eternal representatives, dichotomy:  The embodied r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and the double sun i t s e l f ,  of  the  reinforce this  M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , C r y s t a l m a n and S u r t u r , Gangnet and  K r a g , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n .  The p r o t a g o n i s t o f A Voyage i s not the  dreaming ' I ' who observes but M a s k u l l , who i s , mask and s k u l l :  as h i s name t e l l s  t h e r a t i o n a l everyday s e l f of each o f u s .  us,  Physically  he i s " a k i n d of g i a n t , but of b r o a d e r and more r o b u s t p h y s i q u e than most g i a n t s .  He wore a f u l l b e a r d .  c o a r s e l y modeled" (VA 1 8 ) .  H i s f e a t u r e s were t h i c k and h e a v y ,  H i s complementary double ( M a s k u l l and  104  N i g h t s p o r e are doubles by d i v i s i o n ) i s N i g h t s p o r e , who seems to be "consumed by an i n t e n s e s p i r i t u a l h u n g e r " (VA 1 8 ) :  he i s what  remains of s p i r i t , the a s e x u a l s p o r e of the n i g h t l i b e r a t e d i n dreams from the coarse m a t e r i a l i t y of the body. an i n v e r s i o n .  M a s k u l l i s the d a y - s e l f ,  N i g h t s p o r e i s a c r e a t u r e of d a r k n e s s . evil.  A t t h e suprahuman l e v e l ,  seeks i s ,  But h e r e we have  and t h e r e f o r e l i g h t i s  his;  L i g h t i s good, darkness  is  the embodied god o f l i g h t M a s k u l l  i n the e n d , the b e a u t i f u l Gangnet, w h i l e  Nightspore's  c o u n t e r p a r t i s the i n s o l e n t and r e p u l s i v e , a p p a r e n t l y e v i l , K r a g : " t h e a u t h o r of e v i l and m i s e r y , " says J o i w i n d , "whom you c a l l (VA 5 6 ) . clear.  Devil"  On t h e a s t r o n o m i c a l l e v e l , however, the a l l e g o r y i s made B r a n c h s p e l l — t h e y e l l o w , everday s u n — i s  the sun w h i c h l i g h t s  M a s k u l l ' s way a c r o s s Tormance, w h i l e N i g h t s p o r e i s i n darkness because he i s a s l e e p d u r i n g A l p p a i n ' s n i g h t .  only  B e i n g a s l e e p t o the  ' r e a l ' w o r l d e n a b l e s N i g h t s p o r e t o be awake to the r e a l , o t h e r w o r l d o f the s p i r i t : Nightspore's  M a s k u l l ' s l i g h t i s darkness,  darkness  i s l i g h t , and h i s e v i l  and h i s good  evil;  good.  The m o t i f of the double sun i s an uncommon one.  L i n d s a y may  have had i t suggested t o him by an a s i d e i n The D i v i n e Comedy, where Dante says Rome once had "two s u n s , w h i c h made p e o p l e see one road and the / O t h e r — t h e w o r l d ' s road and the road of God" ( I I 1 6 ) .  The i d e a  i s a l s o b r i e f l y mentioned by Jean P a u l i n the dream a t the end of 19 F l e g e l j a h r e , where b i r t h i n t o the w o r l d i s p o r t r a y e d as d e a t h . h i s many dream works Jean P a u l has the same message as L i n d s a y , l i f e on e a r t h i n i t s e l f — r e g a r d l e s s  o f whether i t i n v o l v e s  In "that  intense  105  suffering—is  h o r r i b l e to the man of  'higher'  sensibilities."  Twin suns are a l s o used a t the end o f W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson's  other-  w i s e almost c o m p l e t e l y mediocre f a n t a s y The House on the B o r d e r l a n d 21 (1908).  But the most l i k e l y s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n would seem t o  be N o v a l i s ' s Hymnen an d i e N a c h t , where, as has been m e n t i o n e d , God appears as a n o c t u r n a l s u n . L i n d s a y uses h i s double suns as a c e n t r a l m o t i f from the b e g i n n i n g of h i s a l l e g o r y . through K r a g ' s  I n the second c h a p t e r , M a s k u l l l o o k s a t A r c t u r u s  l e n s and sees t h a t " t h e s t a r , w h i c h t o the naked eye  appeared :.as a s i n g l e y e l l o w p o i n t of l i g h t , now became c l e a r l y  split  i n t o two b r i g h t b u t minute s u n s , the l a r g e r o f w h i c h was s t i l l y e l l o w , w h i l e i t s s m a l l e r companion was a b e a u t i f u l b l u e " (VA 2 7 ) . sees A r c t u r u s a g a i n from S t a r k n e s s :  "One of the suns shone w i t h a  g l a r i n g w h i t e l i g h t ; the o t h e r was a w e i r d and a w f u l b l u e . " seen the s i g h t b e f o r e , been s m a l l e r ,  through K r a g ' s  g l a s s , b u t then the s c a l e had  These c o l o u r s seemed t o h i m most m a r v e l o u s ,  as  if,  them t h r o u g h e a r t h e y e s , he was n o t s e e i n g them c o r r e c t l y "  Maskull stares "the longest Tormance, w h i c h i s ,  and the most e a r n e s t l y "  (VA 37)  as K r a g e a r l i e r remarked, " t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  of A r c t u r u s " (VA 2 4 ) . therefore,  "He had  the c o l o u r s of the t w i n suns had n o t appeared i n t h e i r  naked r e a l i t y . . . . i n seeing  Maskull  I t r e v o l v e s around the y e l l o w s u n .  cannot always be v i s i b l e from Tormance.  one must p e r i o d i c a l l y e c l i p s e  at  suburb  The b l u e s u n ,  E i t h e r the y e l l o w  i t , o r e l s e i t can n e v e r be seen from  the s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f Tormance (see  Appendix).  When M a s k u l l does a r r i v e  106  on Tormance, the b l u e s u n , A l p p a i n , has j u s t s e t : above the mountains was of a v i v i d , o f a gorgeous b l u e s u n s e t " (VA 6 6 ) . light"  (VA 6 6 ) .  intense b l u e . "  "The sky i m m e d i a t e l y I t i s "the  afterglow  M a s k u l l f e e l s " t o r m e n t e d by t h a t  "How can i t be o t h e r w i s e " asks Panawe, "when two s u n s ,  of d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s ,  are drawing you at the same t i m e ? " (VA 6 7 ) .  And  because t h e r e are two s u n s , t h e r e are two s e t s o f p r i m a r y c o l o u r s . is,  That  s i n c e b l u e i s common to b o t h s e t s , M a s k u l l must l e a r n two new c o l o u r s :  j a l e and u l f i r e . like,  "He f e l t u l f i r e t o be w i l d and p a i n f u l , and j a l e dream-  f e v e r i s h and v o l u p t u o u s (VA 5 3 ) .  The c o l o u r s have a l l e g o r i c a l  significance  (VA 2 3 8 ) ,  and, s i n c e A l p p a i n i s N i g h t s p o r e ' s  Nightspore's  colours.  But w h i l e M a s k u l l i s f i g h t i n g h i s way a c r o s s  Tormance, N i g h t s p o r e i s a s l e e p , a c t i v e  s u n , t h e s e are  elsewhere.  A f t e r M a s k u l l has woken up on Tormance, he sometimes wonders i f he i s n o t dreaming, b u t B r a n c h s p e l l ' s l i g h t d i s p e l s h i s d o u b t s :  "Maskull  would have f e l t i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e he was t r a v e l l i n g i n dreamland, but f o r the i n t e n s i t y of the l i g h t , w h i c h made e v e r y t h i n g v i v i d l y (VA 5 2 ) .  I n d e e d , he i s  dream f a n t a s y ,  real"  t r a v e l l i n g i n the dreamland o f an a l l e g o r i c a l  b u t f o r h i m Tormance i s  the ' r e a l ' o r phenomenal w o r l d .  However, as S l o f o r k t e l l s Panawe, " t h e r e ' s  another world—not  Shaping's—  and t h e r e a l l t h i s i s unknown, and a n o t h e r o r d e r of t h i n g s r e i g n s .  That  would we c a l l N o t h i n g — b u t i t i s n o t N o t h i n g , b u t Something" (VA 7 2 ) . The N o t h i n g t h a t i s Something i s n o t h i n g . t h i s key c o n c e p t ,  L i n d s a y has a n o t h e r name f o r  taken from The E l d e r Edda, and t h a t i s M u s p e l .  ' S k e t c h N o t e s ' L i n d s a y s a y s , "Schopenhauer's l e a s t understood p a r t o f h i s s y s t e m ,  ' N o t h i n g ' , which i s  In the  i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h my M u s p e l ; t h a t  107  is,  the r e a l w o r l d " (TSG 9 ) .  He t r i e s  M a s k u l l ' s quest i s  f o r the r e a l w o r l d .  to e x p l a i n i t t o P o l e c r a b i T h i s w o r l d o f y o u r — a n d perhaps of mine t o o , f o r t h a t m a t t e r — d o e s n ' t g i v e me the s l i g h t e s t i m p r e s s i o n o f a dream, o r an i l l u s i o n , o r a n y t h i n g o f t h a t s o r t . I know i t ' s r e a l l y h e r e at t h i s moment, and i t ' s e x a c t l y as w e ' r e s e e i n g i t , you and I . Yet i t ' s f a l s e . It's false i n t h i s s e n s e , P o l e c r a b . S i d e by s i d e w i t h i t a n o t h e r w o r l d e x i s t s , and t h a t o t h e r w o r l d i s the t r u e one, and t h i s one i s f a l s e and d e c e i t f u l t o the v e r y c o r e . And so i t o c c u r s to me t h a t r e a l i t y and f a l s e n e s s are two words f o r the same t h i n g (VA 164-65).  P o l e c r a b i s a s i m p l e f i s h e r m a n , and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n metap h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , b u t he r e a l i z e s , . " I everybody.  l i v e by k i l l i n g ,  T h i s l i f e seems to me a l l wrong.  and so does  So maybe l i f e o f any  k i n d i s w r o n g , and S u r t u r ' s w o r l d i s n o t l i f e a t a l l , b u t something else"  (VA 1 6 5 ) .  " S t r i f e may be f o l l o w e d through the whole o f n a t u r e ;  indeed n a t u r e e x i s t s  o n l y through i t " says Schopenhauer, " f o r each  a n i m a l can o n l y m a i n t a i n i t s e x i s t e n c e by the c o n s t a n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f some o t h e r .  Thus the w i l l  to l i v e everywhere p r e y s upon i t s e l f ,  and  i n d i f f e r e n t forms i s i t s own n o u r i s h m e n t " (The W o r l d as W i l l and I d e a , Second Book, s e c .  27).  Living is willing; willing is k i l l i n g .  l i v i n g t h i n g s are l i k e the " f a n t a s t i c which M a s k u l l sees when w i t h J o i w i n d :  l i t t l e c r e a t u r e " w i t h three "It's  drumtaps,  to C r y s t a l m a n ' s t u n e .  I t waltzes  I t does not march f o r w a r d to  towards the s u b l i m e Muspel r a d i a n c e .  "has no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y " (VA 1 6 5 ) .  legs,  always w a l t z i n g , and always  i n a h u r r y , b u t i t never seem to get anywhere" (VA 5 8 ) . Shaping's,  All  to  Surtur's  The r e a l w o r l d of S u r t u r  I t s Muspel r a d i a n c e causes  M a s k u l l to "tumble over i n a f a i n t t h a t r e s e m b l e [ s ] d e a t h " (VA 1 5 4 ) :  "He  108  c o u l d n o t g i v e [the l i g h t ] a c o l o r , o r a name" (VA 1 8 5 ) ; no shadows" (VA 2 2 1 ) .  It i s  "it  cast  the l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d .  The Muspel w o r l d i s beyond M a s k u l l ' s apprehension—and t o o , except i m a g i n a t i v e l y - — b u t  ours  the Muspel f i r e may be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h (though i t i s not the same as)  one o f the c o l o u r s o f A l p p a i n .  ' A l p p a i n ' i s a l p , a mountain and a h i g h e r p o i n t o f v i e w , and p a i n , K r a g ' s name on e a r t h .  Branchspell is  connected w i t h c r e a t i o n by  ' b r a n c h ' , s i n c e i n the Norse mythology the f i r s t men were made from t r e e s , and the w o r l d i t s e l f  is  apocalypse which Surt b r i n g s , of-branches,"  fire.  has us i n t h r a l l :  the W o r l d - A s h , Y g g d r a s i l .  c r e a t i o n w i l l be b u r n t up by the "bane-  Further, Branspell is prisoners  and i s  the sun w h i c h ( ' s p e l l ' )  i n the w o r l d .  which makes t h i s w o r l d seem r e a l , existence."  In the  It is  the o r d i n a r y  as we have s e e n ; i t s b l u e  not e x i s t e n c e , but r e l a t i o n .  so i t must be a d i f f e r e n t  Ulfire is  existence;  s o r t o f e x i s t e n c e , " Corpang argues (VA 2 3 8 ) .  When M a s k u l l f i n a l l y reaches Barey he sees p l a n t s a s l e e p : h i m , " B r a n c h s p e l l i s a second n i g h t t o them.  daylight"  "is  "As r e g a r d s the A l p p a i n c o l o r s , b l u e stands i n the m i d d l e  therefore  (VA 2 6 3 ) .  sun  So i s N i g h t s p o r e ' s . (VA 2 7 4 ) ,  Krag  T h e i r day i s A l p p a i n "  " D a y l i g h t i s n i g h t to t h i s  other  and when A l p p a i n r i s e s the shadows i t c a s t  not b l a c k , b u t were composed .  tells  "were  wh.:.t«-.: o f w h i t e d a y l i g h t " (VA 2 7 5 ) .  When A l p p a i n r i s e s , M a s k u l l d i e s and N i g h t s p o r e wakes up to be t o l d " t h e n i g h t i s r e a l l y p a s t at l a s t , N i g h t s p o r e . . . . (ellipsis  Lindsay's;  VA 2 7 7 ) .  The day i s  here"  The Corpus Hermeticum a d v i s e s us  " t u r n ye away from the dark l i g h t " ( I ,  28).  The b r i g h t l i g h t ,  to the  l i g h t from beyond the w o r l d , f i n a l l y l i b e r a t e s the s p i r i t from the  109  p r i s o n of the body. Thus we have a double p r o t a g o n i s t ,  M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e ,  a double s t a r , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n , by w h i c h L i n d s a y  and  complicates  the more u s u a l o p p o s i t i o n o f day and n i g h t , l i g h t and d a r k , i n t o day and more-than-day.  S i m i l a r c o m p l i c a t i o n s are found i n the  between God and D e v i l , C h r i s t and S a t a n . Arcturus i s  The God o f A Voyage to  the c r e a t o r of the w o r l d i n a l l i t s b e a u t y ,  Shaping ( i n German the c r e a t i o n i s  oppositions  d i e Schopfung).  and he  L i k e the god o f  E a r t h , however, he t a k e s many forms and has many names, such C r y s t a l m a n and Faceny. example)  with Surtur.  Sometimes he i s  as  (by J o i w i n d , f o r  One of the r e a d e r ' s problems  one of M a s k u l l ' s p r o b l e m s , being sought,  confused  is  i n A Voyage, and  i s i d e n t i f y i n g the god o f t h e r e a l w o r l d  and t h a t i s S u r t u r .  S u r t u r i s the God of M u s p e l , w h i c h  i s " t h e p r i m e v a l w o r l d o f f i r e ; e x i s t i n g b e f o r e heaven and e a r t h ,  and  22 which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y destroy  them."  S u r t u r i s drawn from the  o f The E l d e r Edda who i n ' V o l u s p a ' " w i t h the b a n e - o f - b r a n c h e s  Surt  comes /  23 From the s o u t h "  to b u r n up the w o r l d , and to d e s t r o y Frey and a l l t h e  gods of t h i s w o r l d .  S u r t , The S w a r t , i s r u l e r o v e r Muspelheim, the  24 home of M u s p e l ;  i n A r c t u r u s , over n o t h i n g .  the god o f t h i s w o r l d ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , destroyed or Surtur's  Shaping o r C r y s t a l m a n  is  Tormance) which i s d e s t i n e d to be  uncreated. embodied form i s K r a g and, s i n c e he i s  w o r l d where p l e a s u r e i s  the enemy of  ' w o r s h i p p e d , ' he i s the d e v i l .  His  the  resemblance  to G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , an o u t l a w who had every hand a g a i n s t h i m , has a l r e a d y been remarked.  G r e t t i r makes a bad i m p r e s s i o n o n us b y ,  for  110  example,  w r i n g i n g the necks of the geese he i s s e t  to l o o k  after,  25 and o t h e r b o y i s h e x c e s s e s .  Krag i n t r o d u c e s  h i m s e l f by  dashing,  u n i n v i t e d , i n t o F a u l l ' s house and " w i t h h i s h a i r y h a n d s " w r i n g i n g the neck o f the m a t e r i a l i s e d Tormance  (VA 2 2 - 2 3 ) .  shape, the "specimen  g o b l i n " from  When M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance,  after  b e i n g d e s e r t e d ( l i t e r a l l y , too) by h i s t r a v e l l i n g companions, is  he  t o l d by the b e a u t i f u l J o i w i n d t h a t "we must f i g h t K r a g , " " K r a g —  the a u t h o r of e v i l and misery—whom y o u c a l l D e v i l "  (VA 5 6 ) .  Krag  reappears at odd moments to w r i n g M a s k u l l ' s neck as  the s p i r i t  and  to s t a b him i n the back i n a v i s i o n , b e f o r e c o l l e c t i n g M a s k u l l a f t e r he has  " r u n through the gamut" (VA 2 6 2 ) .  more and more r e p u l s i v e  and  From then o n , K r a g gets  ill-mannered u n t i l Maskull, f a l l i n g  under the i n f l u e n c e of the b e a u t i f u l Gangnet,  f i n a l l y rejects him.  K r a g i s i n s o l e n t , b r e a k s M a s k u l l ' s eggs (VA 2 7 0 ) , hat  (VA 272)  and i s g e n e r a l l y  "yellow, repulsive  s a y s , "as  as d i s a g r e e a b l e as p o s s i b l e .  f a c e " (VA 2 73) and " d i s c o l o r e d  when he s l e e p s he i s  (VA 5 6 ) .  i t must be a d m i t t e d ,  a  (VA 2 6 9 ) ;  (VA 2 7 5 ) .  K r a g w i l l always  Krag be  C r y s t a l m a n " (VA 2 6 4 ) . " t h e a u t h o r of e v i l and m i s e r y "  Gagnet i s , f i t must be a d m i t t e d ,  which i s b e a u t i f u l and d e d i c a t e d l i f e i s w i l l i n g and t h e r e f o r e good.  [sic],  He has  from h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , as embodied r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the r e a l w o r l d , " t h e r e a l d e v i l i s Krag i s ,  teeth"  "an u g l y , w r i n k l e d m o n s t r o s i t y "  l o n g as p l e a s u r e i s w o r s h i p e d  the d e v i l " b u t ,  crushes Gangnet's  the a u t h o r of the w o r l d ,  to p l e a s u r e .  killing:  But the r e a l n a t u r e of  Gangnet's w o r l d i s an e v i l  And K r a g does n o t i n f l i c t p a i n f o r i t s own s a k e , b u t to wake us  Ill  up to the r e a l w o r l d :  K r a g ' s p a i n i s a good e v i l .  N i e t z s c h e says  i n The J o y f u l Wisdom, " I doubt whether such p a i n ' i m p r o v e s ' u s ,  but  26 I know t h a t i t deepens u s . "  Thus C a t i c e sends M a s k u l l down " t o 27  Wombflash, where [he] w i l l meet the deepest m i n d s " (VA 1 4 8 ) .  Catice  i s the f i r s t p e r s o n to mention M u s p e l to M a s k u l l , and he does so i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h two key c o n c e p t s ,  the o p p o s i t i o n between p l e a s u r e and  p a i n , and home. M a s k u l l a s k s , "Why does p l e a s u r e appear so shameful t o u s ? " "Because i n f e e l i n g p l e a s u r e , we f o r g e t our home." "And t h a t i s - - " " M u s p e l " (VA 148). We are at home i n t h e r e a l w o r l d . I n the phenomenal w o r l d we are 28 "strangers i n a strange l a n d . "  Man i s ,  as N o v a l i s t e l l s us i n h i s  d r e a m - v i s i o n , Hymnen an d i e N a c h t , " d e r h e r r l i c h e F r e m d l i n g , " the 29 noble stranger.  The way o f s a l v a t i o n i s g n o s i s , knowledge.  The  Gnostic Valentinus expresses i t b e a u t i f u l l y : the knowledge of who we w e r e , what we became; where we w e r e , w h e r e i n t o we have been thrown; whereto we s p e e d , wherefrom we are redeemed; what b i r t h i s , and what r e b i r t h (30). We are a l l , l i k e M a s k u l l on Tormance, a l i e n s , w a n d e r i n g through an unknown w o r l d .  Our duty i s _to know, and by knowing t o f r e e the  l i g h t i m p r i s o n e d i n our m o r t a l b o d i e s  from the g r i p o f the  eternal  creator  ( C r y s t a l m a n , the d e v i l ) . 31 Gnosticism i s a " d u a l i s t i c transcendent  r e l i g i o n of  which t e l l s us of " a drama of p r e - c o s m i c persons i n the  salvation" supernatural  w o r l d , o f w h i c h the drama o f man i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d i s b u t a  distant  32 echo."  G n o s t i c i s m i s thus v e r y c l o s e t o a l l e g o r y ,  w h i c h i s a drama  of the s p i r i t i n the dream w o r l d , w h i c h i s a shadow o f the cosmic drama  112  i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d .  I n G n o s t i c i s m , the c r e a t i o n i s the  o f the c a p t u r e o f some of the D i v i n e L i g h t by D a r k n e s s . i s w i t h a l l e g o r y , where " d a r k and c l o u d y words . . .  result  A g a i n , so  it  do b u t h o l d / The  33 t r u t h , as C a b i n e t s i n c l o s e the G o l d . " is  I n G n o s t i c i s m , God's  t h e r e f o r e " a l i e n t o t h a t o f the u n i v e r s e , which i t n e i t h e r  nature created  34 n o r governs and to which i t i s  Man i s  the  c r e a t i o n o f the d e v i l , who c r e a t e d man i n g o d ' s image because t h a t  re-  c e p t a c l e was f i t t e s t  the complete a n t i t h e s i s . "  f o r i m p r i s o n i n g as much as p o s s i b l e o f the s t o l e n 35  light.  Woman was c r e a t e d ,  as Mani t e l l s u s ,  and by b r e e d i n g d i s p e r s e the fragments recover:  " i n o r d e r t o seduce Adam"  of l i g h t , making them h a r d e r to  " t h e main weapon o f the w o r l d i n i t s g r e a t s e d u c t i o n i s  'love.'"  We have a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d two of t h e t h r e e main t e n e t s of G n o s t i c i s m i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , t h a t c r e a t i o n i s e v i l and t h a t man i s an a l i e n , and we do n o t have t o l o o k v e r y f a r to f i n d the t h i r d , t h a t women are the c h i e f i n s t r u m e n t s of the  the common b e l i e f  devil.  Gangnet, the embodied C r y s t a l m a n , i s h i m s e l f remarkably f e m i n i n e . " H i s v o i c e " i s " s t r a n g e l y womanish i n i t s m o d u l a t i o n and v a r i e t y of t o n e " (VA 2 6 6 ) .  K r a g c a l l s Gangnet a "man-woman" (VA 2 6 6 ) ,  and s n a t c h e s  o f f h i s h a t , a s k i n g h i m , "Why do y o u d i s g u i s e y o u r s e l f l i k e a woman?" (VA 2 7 2 ) . a greater  A l l the women M a s k u l l has met on h i s t r a v e l s have b e e n , or l e s s e r e x t e n t ,  agents o f C r y s t a l m a n , t e m p t r e s s e s .  to  Oceaxe  l e d M a s k u l l to h i s f i r s t murder; Tydomin almost took over h i s b o d y ; S u l l e n b o d e succeeds i n d i s t r a c t i n g h i m from h i s quest f o r M u s p e l .  Only  J o i w i n d , o f the women i n the book, does n o t d i e , and does n o t w e a r , therefore,  C r y s t a l m a n ' s death mask.  She had h e r husband i d e n t i f y S u r t u r  113  w i t h C r y s t a l m a n , b u t they p r a c t i c e a k i n d o f non-attachment  to N a t u r e ,  l i v i n g o n l y on w a t e r w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to the ' N e p t u n i s t '  theory of  the u n i v e r s e p o p u l a r i z e d i n Germany by N o v a l i s ' s  of m i n e r o l -  teacher  ogy, Abraham G o t t l o b Werner, was the p r i m a l substance from w h i c h a l l the o t h e r s were d e r i v e d .  I n Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n , N o v a l i s c a l l s  " t h e w h i t e b l o o d of the m o t h e r . " transfusion  J o i w i n d h e r s e l f has w h i t e b l o o d ,  o f w h i c h she g i v e s M a s k u l l .  t h a t they are damned.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to  Indeed, J o i w i n d c l a i m s  t h a t "what you  and I are now d o i n g i n s i m p l i c i t y , w i s e men w i l l do h e r e a f t e r knowledge" (VA 5 6 ) .  However, i n G n o s t i c i s m , knowledge i s  and we have gone too f a r  a  Panawe and J o i w i n d have no  c h i l d r e n , and they l i v e i n A r c a d i a n i n n o c e n c e . believe  water  to t r y and r e c a p t u r e  in  full  salvation,  our l o s t i n n o c e n c e ,  even  were innocence n o t a l i m i t e d s t a t e of b e i n g . The s o c i e t y w h i c h i s recommended as organisation  of human l i f e i s  the b e s t p o s s i b l e one f o r  the c o u n t r y o f Sant ( H e a l t h ) .  Of  the  course,  37 i t i s " a s o c i e t y of s i n g l e m e n . "  The s o c i e t y was founded by H a t o r  (Hater w i t h a h i n t o f m o u n t a i n ) , " t h e famous f r o s t man" who c o u l d " w i t h s t a n d the b r e a t h ,  smiles,  and perfume  of a g i r l , " who has  and i s t r y i n g to seduce h i m , u n t i l she drops dead (VA 136).  trapped  I n Sant  they have s o l v e d the problem o f women by never l e t t i n g them i n .  The  f o l l o w e r s of H a t o r r e j e c t women "inasmuch as a woman has i d e a l l o v e , cannot l i v e f o r h e r s e l f . and t h e r e f o r e  and  Love f o r another i s p l e a s u r e f o r the l o v e d one, 38  i n j u r i o u s to h i m " (VA 1 3 8 ) .  Examining t h i s k i n d of p o s i t i o n , Maud B o d k i n quotes from " a m e d i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t " who, t a k i n g a M i l t o n i c  line,  114  has suggested t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n between man and woman, as determined by r a c i a l h i s t o r y , might be d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y rendered by two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , man h a v i n g h i s p l a c e on the o u t e r , woman on the i n n e r c i r c l e . 'When man l o o k s outward he sees the w o r l d , when he l o o k s i n ward he sees the woman and h e r c h i l d . H i s escape from h e r i s i n t o the w o r l d . The woman, however, l o o k i n g o u t ward sees the man, through whom o n l y she touches the o u t e r w o r l d of r e a l i t y and whose f a v o r she must seek t o gain her wishes'" (39). Women l i v e v i c a r i o u s l y through men, and w i t h t h e i r " s o f t l o v e and l o y a l t y " they  ' d r a g down t h e i r i d e a s '  "women are s n a r e s " ^ who d i s t r a c t course towards M u s p e l . be s e e k i n g  (VA 1 4 8 ) .  this,  men from f o l l o w i n g t h e i r  true  They e n t r a p i n w o r l d l y homes men who s h o u l d  t h e i r t r u e home.  In t h i s ,  t h e i r c h i e f weapon i s  More than t h i s , women are sub c r e a t o r s : i s wrong; l i f e i t s e l f  More than  'love.'  they b e a r c h i l d r e n .  i s w r o n g ; and y e t women b r i n g new l i f e  Creation into  b e i n g , p r e v e n t i n g the r e - c o l l e c t i o n o f the s c a t t e r e d d i v i n e s p a r k s . I t i s a h o r r i b l e moment f o r N i g h t s p o r e when, a t t h e e n d , he sees " s u b d i v i d e d s p a r k s o f l i v i n g f i e r y s p i r i t " b e i n g " i m p r i s o n e d " and thereby " e f f e m i n a t e d (my i t a l i c s ;  and c o r r u p t e d " i n envelopes o f mushy p l e a s u r e  VA 2 8 3 ) .  I t must be w i t h something l i k e h o r r o r t h a t we now t u r n t o the s t o r y o f Prometheus,  the demiurge who d e l i b e r a t e l y  s t o l e some o f the  f i r e o f the A l l f a t h e r t o animate h i s w o r l d o f c o l d c l a y .  Thus the  flawed n a t u r e o f the phenomenal w o r l d , a n d , i n the m y t h , thus the b i n d i n g of Prometheus p e r se a s i n .  (symbolically,  I t i s the S i n o f S i n s .  to h i s c r e a t i o n ) :  "Creation i s  41 It is Original S i n . "  The  115  b i n d i n g of Prometheus p r e s e n t s a problem to which t h e r e are possible  solutions.  As A e s c h y l u s p r o b a b l y showed, a f t e r  three  due r e p e n t -  ence on the p a r t o f Prometheus t h e r e i s due mercy from Zeus; the godhead i s made whole (the b i n d i n g of Prometheus b e i n g a l s o ' t h e f a l l Zeus')  of  and—as at the end of ' V o l u s p a ' and Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n — t h e  Golden Age r e s t o r e d .  As i n S h e l l e y ' s Prometheus Unbound, the r e b e l  Prometheus overthrows the t y r a n t Zeus (becoming h i m s e l f a n o t h e r Zeus 42 i n the p r o c e s s , c f . Golden Age.  Blake's Orc-Urizen cycle  As i n L i n d s a y , the A l l f a t h e r i s  ), (at  and r e s t o r e s least morally)  the vic-  t o r i o u s , and a c t u a l l y v i c t o r i o u s i n s o f a r as he can a n n i h i l a t e Prometheus by u n c r e a t i n g the w o r l d . a t t a c k e d by S t .  That i s ,  as i n the G n o s t i c M a n i ' s d o c t r i n e  A u g u s t i n e i n De N a t u r ' a - B o n i , by r e c l a i m i n g the  s p a r k s of pneuma.  scattered  I n f a c t , b o t h the l a s t two s o l u t i o n s are Manichaean  i n t h e i r i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s e p a r a t i o n o f Good and E v i l , Darkness and L i g h t , b u t what they l o s e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y they can make up i n metap h y s i c a l paradox and d r a m a t i c power. M a s k u l l , though unknowingly at f i r s t , i s a type of Prometheus. Panawe says M a s k u l l ' s name "must have a m e a n i n g , " b u t a l l he can t h i n k of i s " a man i n . y o u r w o r l d who s t o l e something from the maker of the 43 u n i v e r s e i n o r d e r t o ennoble h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s "  (VA 6 1 ) .  By the  end of h i s t h i r d day on Tormance, M a s k u l l has l e a r n e d the name of M u s p e l , and begun t o see h i s j o u r n e y as a q u e s t . name vouches  The v i s i o n a r y D r e a m s i n t e r  (his  f o r h i s i n s i g h t ) i s a b l e to make the i d e n t i t y e x p l i c i t :  "You came to s t e a l M u s p e l - f i r e , to g i v e a deeper l i f e t o man" (VA 1 5 2 ) . M a s k u l l ' s Prometheanism, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o emphasize,  connects h i m  116  w i t h C r y s t a l m a n who—as i s r e v e a l e d i n the f i n a l v i s i o n — i s p e r p e t u a l l y s t e a l i n g the f i r e o f M u s p e l : The M u s p e l - s t r e a m was C r y s t a l m a n ' s f o o d . The stream from the o t h e r s i d e . . . i n a double c o n d i t i o n . P a r t of i t reappeared i n t r i n s i c a l l y u n a l t e r e d , b u t s h i v e r e d into a m i l l i o n fragments.... The o t h e r p a r t of the stream had n o t e s c a p e d . I t s f i r e had been a b s t r a c t e d , i t s cement was w i t h d r a w n , a n d , a f t e r b e i n g f o u l e d and s o f t e n e d by the h o r r i b l e sweetness o f the h o s t , i t b r o k e i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i c h were the w h i r l s o f l i v i n g w i l l (VA 2 8 5 ) . M a s k u l l i s h i m s e l f such a w i l l .  He i s mask and s k u l l :  C r y s t a l m a n g r i n w h i c h p r o v i d e s the Q . E . D .  the a w f u l  f o r a l l the s y l l o g i s m s  of  the a l l e g o r i c a l p r o g r e s s i s ,  i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to suppose,  g r i n n i n g mask o f the s k u l l .  "Not one now to mock y o u r own g r i n n i n g —  quite chap-fall'n? let  Now get y o u to my l a d y ' s  h e r p a i n t an i n c h t h i c k ,  laugh at t h a t , " says Hamlet.  M a s k u l l , s t i l l a l i v e , does, i n  passed through C r y s t a l m a n ' s body: Krag b a t t l e s  chamber, and t e l l h e r ,  to t h i s f a v o u r she must come; make h e r  a l r e a d y possess one of the fragments  Nightspore.  the  fact,  o f the D i v i n e L i g h t t h a t  that i s , h i s other p a r t ,  has  the dormant  Gangnet o v e r M a s k u l l o n l y f o r N i g h t s p o r e ,  who i s M a s k u l l ' s e s s e n t i a l  self.  M a s k u l l t e l l s D r e a m s i n t e r t h a t S u r t u r " b r o u g h t me h e r e from E a r t h . " D r e a m s i n t e r peers i n t o h i s f a c e and s a y s , "Not y o u , but N i g h t s p o r e " 44 (VA 1 5 2 ) ,  and g i v e s h i m a b i t t e r f r u i t  i s self-knowledge  (TSG 5 5 ) .  to chew, w h i c h W i l s o n s u g g e s t s  M a s k u l l t h e n has a v i s i o n i n w h i c h he sees  h i m s e l f , K r a g and N i g h t s p o r e w a l k i n g through the f o r e s t .  Krag r a i s e s  " a l o n g , m u r d e r o u s - l o o k i n g k n i f e " and s t a b s " t h e phantom M a s k u l l " who falls  dead:  " N i g h t s p o r e marched on a l o n e , s t e r n and unmoved"  while  117  " M a s k u l l f e l t h i s s o u l l o o s e n i n g from i t s b o d i l y e n v e l o p e . " radiance begins  to g l o w :  " a l l of a sudden  "What d i d D r e a m s i n t e r mean by h i s  Am I a secondary  character?"  body b e l o n g s ,  resembled  'Not y o u , b u t  M a s k u l l asks h i m s e l f .  L i n d s a y i s n o t h i n g i f n o t c l e a r and unambiguous. is dispensible:  towards i t " and  [ M a s k u l l ] tumbled o v e r i n a f a i n t t h a t  d e a t h " (VA 1 5 3 - 4 ) . Nightspore'?  " N i g h t s p o r e moved s t r a i g h t  Muspel  The " b o d i l y e n v e l o p e "  the e s s e n t i a l s e l f marches a l o n g w i t h o u t i t .  i n fact,  to C r y s t a l m a n , to whom K r a g r e s i g n s  The  it:  "As  l o n g as I have the s u b s t a n c e , you may have the shadow" (VA 2 6 6 ) . may s t e a l — a n d n o t even know one i s s t e a l i n g . and l e a v e the money" (VA 2 7 3 ) .  Finally,  "One  One may take the p u r s e  " M a s k u l l was h i s , b u t N i g h t s p o r e  i s m i n e " (VA 2 7 7 ) . There i s a paradox at the h e a r t of M a s k u l l ' s damnation, which a good e v i l .  A l p p a i n , w h i c h we have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N i g h t s p o r e ,  a c t u a l l y , as K r a g s a y s , " C r y s t a l m a n ' s trump c a r d " (VA 2 6 9 ) .  is  is  As the  A r c h o n s , powers o f D a r k n e s s , i m i t a t e d God when making man, so C r y s t a l man has i m i t a t e d the sun of the h i g h e r w o r l d i n making A l p p a i n .  The  w i s e f i s h e r m a n , who l i v e s by k i l l i n g , P o l e c r a b , passes on t o M a s k u l l some of B r o o d v i o l ' s wisdom: S u r t u r ' s w o r l d does n o t l i e on t h i s s i d e o f the one, w h i c h was the b e g i n n i n g o f l i f e , b u t on the o t h e r s i d e ; and t o get t o i t we must r e p a s s through the one. But t h i s can o n l y be by r e n o u n c i n g our s e l f - l i f e , and r e u n i t i n g o u r s e l v e s to the whole of C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d . And when t h i s has been done, i t i s o n l y the f i r s t s t a g e o f the j o u r n e y ; though many good men imagine i t t o be the whole j o u r n e y (VA 1 6 6 ) . The rainbow of c r e a t i o n obscures the one t r u e l i g h t .  But i t i s no use  118  r u n n i n g away from C r y s t a l m a n : Muspel.  t h a t o n l y takes you f u r t h e r from  The s p a r k s t r y to r e t u r n t o M u s p e l , b u t the w i l l s  "never  saw beyond t h e Shadow, they thought t h a t they were t r a v e l l i n g toward it"  (VA 284) . L i n d s a y w r i t e s of the w i l l  i n 'Sketch Notes,'  To understand the t r u e n a t u r e o f the w o r l d , i t i s necessary to r e a l i s e that i t i s a d i r e c t c r e a t i o n of the W i l l , and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n i t ( i n c l u d i n g l o v e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e e t c . ) i s e i t h e r the a s s e r t i o n or t h e d e n i a l o f the W i l l (Schopenhauer); b u t t h a t the M u s p e l - W o r l d does not p o s s e s s t h i s i n n e r core of W i l l , b u t something e l s e , o f which the W i l l i s a c o r r u p t e d v e r s i o n (TSG 9 ) . We have n o t e d t h a t M a s k u l l i s a modern Prometheus. our  L o u i s Awad draws  a t t e n t i o n to " t h e p r o f o u n d i r o n y " of the Promethean p r o b l e m : That Prometheus was the i n c a r n a t i o n of W i l l was a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by the German t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s and was g i v e n ample t r e a t m e n t i n the works of Schopenhauer and N i e t z s c h e . The i r o n y c o n s i s t s i n t h e f a c t t h a t W i l l , u s u a l l y equated w i t h f r e e v o l i t i o n and opposed t o N e c e s s i t y , i s n o t h i n g b u t N e c e s s i t y grown out o f p r o p o r t i o n and l a y i n g c l a i m to autonomy. Will i s the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d a l l a c t i v i t y and t h e r e f o r e behind a l l c r e a t i o n (45).  M a s k u l l f a i l s as Prometheus when, under the i n f l u e n c e o f A l p p a i n ' s l i g h t , he says " I have l o s t my w i l l ;  I f e e l as i f some f o u l tumor had  been s c r a p e d away, l e a v i n g me c l e a n and f r e e " of  c o u r s e ; b u t the absence o f W i l l — t h e w i l l  home—is a b s o l u t e d e f e a t . Crystalman's w o r l d : recommended.  (VA 2 7 5 ) .  Will is  evil,  t o r e t u r n t o our M u s p e l  M a s k u l l has been t o t a l l y absorbed i n t o  he has become one w i t h i t as P o l e c r a b s a i d B r o o d v i o l  But N i g h t s p o r e has n o t l o s t the something e l s e which com-  p e l l s h i m toward M u s p e l , and M a s k u l l ' s d e f e a t p a r a d o x i c a l l y e n a b l e s N i g h t s p o r e t o succeed i n p e n e t r a t i n g through the shadow, the v e i l of  119  C r y s t a l m a n w h i c h obscures the r e a l w o r l d . sees i n the  real w o r l d i s :  What N i g h t s p o r e a c t u a l l y  nothing.  Panawe, t r a v e r s i n g a p r e c a r i o u s p a t h , as he t e l l s M a s k u l l , met S l o f o r k the s o r c e r e r .  They s a t  w a l k o v e r the o t h e r (VA 7 2 ) .  down to d e c i d e w h i c h o f them would  "What i s g r e a t e r  than P l e a s u r e ? "  Slofork  asked suddenly (VA 7 3 ) : ' P a i n , ' I r e p l i e d , ' f o r p a i n d r i v e s out p l e a s u r e . ' 'What i s g r e a t e r than P a i n ? ' I reflected. ' L o v e . Because we w i l l a c c e p t our l o v e d o n e ' s share o f p a i n . ' 'But what i s g r e a t e r than L o v e ? ' he p e r s i s t e d . 'Nothing, S l o f o r k . ' 'And what i s N o t h i n g ? ' ' T h a t y o u must t e l l m e . ' ' T e l l you I w i l l . T h i s i s S h a p i n g ' s w o r l d . He t h a t i s a good c h i l d h e r e , knows p l e a s u r e , p a i n , and l o v e , and gets h i s rewards. B u t t h e r e ' s another w o r l d — n o t S h a p i n g ' s — a n d t h e r e a l l t h i s i s unknown, and another o r d e r of t h i n g s r e i g n s . That w o r l d we c a l l N o t h i n g — but i t i s n o t N o t h i n g , b u t Something (VA 72). L i n d s a y wrote t h a t "Schopenhauer's my M u s p e l ; t h a t i s ,  'Nothing' . . .  the r e a l w o r l d " (TSG 9 ) .  is identical with  I n Schopenhauer we f i n d  a p a r a d o x i c a l o p p o s i t i o n between two k i n d s o f n o t h i n g , and t h i s d u a l i t y i s an i m p o r t a n t m o t i f i n A Voyage. of w i l l ,  Schopenhauer says t h a t the s u r r e n d e r  " t h e d e n i a l and s u r r e n d e r o f a l l v o l i t i o n ,  and thus  deliverance  from a w o r l d whose whole e x i s t e n c e we have found to be s u f f e r i n g appears t o us as a p a s s i n g  away i n t o empty n o t h i n g n e s s "  W i l l and I d e a , F o u r t h Book, s e c .  71).  . . .  (The World as  L a t e r , Schopenhauer  continues:  we must b a n i s h the dark i m p r e s s i o n o f t h a t n o t h i n g n e s s w h i c h we d i s c e r n b e h i n d a l l v i r t u e and h o l i n e s s as t h e i r f i n a l g o a l , and which we f e a r as c h i l d r e n f e a r the d a r k ; we must n o t even evade i t l i k e the I n d i a n s , through myths and meaningless w o r d s , such as r e a b s o r b t i o n i n Brahma o r the N i r v a n a o f the B u d d h i s t s . R a t h e r do we f r e e l y acknowledge t h a t what remains a f t e r the e n t i r e a b o l i t i o n o f w i l l  120  i s f o r a l l those who are s t i l l f u l l o f w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g ; b u t , c o n v e r s e l y , t o those i n whom the w i l l has t u r n e d and has d e n i e d i t s e l f , t h i s our w o r l d , which i s so r e a l , w i t h a l l i t s suns and m i l k y w a y s — i s n o t h i n g . Whichever s i d e of the v e i l of Maya you are o n , the o t h e r s i d e  is  nothing. L i n d s a y makes t h i s concept a l i t t l e e a s i e r to grasp by t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y distinguishing his nothings.  The c r u x comes when M a s k u l l has  been c l e a n s e d o f h i s w i l l by A l p p a i n , and says "Why, Gangnet—I am nothing!"  Gangnet q u i e t l y c o r r e c t s h i m :  On the phenomenal s i d e of t h e v e i l , nothing.  " N o , you are n o t h i n g " (VA 2 7 5 ) .  the shadow of C r y s t a l m a n , l i f e  M a s k u l l sees t h i s when he i s i n M a t t e r p l a y , where  delights i n l i f e . '  is  'life  A monster M a s k u l l i s l o o k i n g a t suddenly d i s a p p e a r s :  Where the c r u s t a c e a n had s t o o d , t h e r e was n o t h i n g . Y e t through t h i s ' n o t h i n g ' he c o u l d n o t see the l a n d s c a p e . Something was s t a n d i n g t h e r e t h a t i n t e r c e p t e d the l i g h t , though i t p o s s e s s e d n e i t h e r shape, c o l o r , n o r s u b s t a n c e . And now the o b j e c t , which c o u l d no l o n g e r be p e r c e i v e d by v i s i o n , began t o be f e l t by e m o t i o n . A d e l i g h t f u l , s p r i n g l i k e sense of r i s i n g s a p , o f q u i c k e n i n g p u l s e s — o f l o v e , adventure, mystery, beauty, f e m i n i n i t y — t o o k possession of h i s b e i n g . . . . I t was as i f f l e s h , bones, and b l o o d had been d i s c a r d e d , and he were f a c e t o f a c e w i t h naked L i f e i t s e l f (VA 1 9 1 ) . This i s  the n o t h i n g of C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d , b e a u t i f u l and f e m i n i n e and  mysterious:  i t is  "naked L i f e i t s e l f . "  w h i c h "we c a l l N o t h i n g " b u t w h i c h i s  But t h e r e i s a n o t h e r w o r l d  " S o m e t h i n g " , and t h a t i s the r e a l  w o r l d , beyond the phenomenal w o r l d and d i s c o n n e c t e d from i t .  This i s  t h e w o r l d of w h i c h M a s k u l l can n e v e r be an i n h a b i t a n t , b u t i t i s what N i g h t s p o r e f i n d s - w h e n he c l i m b s onto the r o o f o f the tower and " i s ing  round f o r h i s f i r s t glimpse of M u s p e l .  look-  There was n o t h i n g " (VA 2 8 6 ) .  N o t h i n g i s the w o r l d of the body and o f phenomena:  i t i s the w o r l d o f  121  man.  T h e r e f o r e , as S p a d e v i l s a y s , "he t h a t i s n o t more than a man  i s n o t h i n g " (VA 1 3 5 ) .  The more-than-man i n M a s k u l l i s N i g h t s p o r e ,  a l l e g o r i c a l embodiment o f the d i v i n e s p a r k , through t o what i s ,  and he can  penetrate  from our human p o i n t o f v i e w , n o t h i n g .  L i n d s a y ' s problem i s t h a t he i s a t t e m p t i n g the i m p o s s i b l e .  He  i s t r y i n g t o g i v e us an e x p e r i e n c e of " a n i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d " (TSG 46 42) of n o t h i n g , the m y s t i c a l s u b l i m e o f the u n c r e a t e d w o r l d . t h i s end are the d i c h o t o m i e s a r r a n g e d : o f human e x p e r i e n c e ,  M a s k u l l takes us t o the l i m i t  and N i g h t s p o r e takes us beyond i t .  n o t M u s p e l , b u t Muspel i s beyond comprehension. i s to B r a n c h s p e l l , so M u s p e l i s to A l p p a i n . world is  To  Alppain  However, as  S i m i l a r l y , as  is  Alppain  the dream  to the r e a l w o r l d , so the M u s p e l w o r l d i s t o the dream w o r l d ;  as N i g h t s p o r e i s to M a s k u l l , so K r a g i s  to N i g h t s p o r e .  analogy of the cave r e t o l d on a l a r g e s c a l e . a l l e g o r y as b a t t l e form themselves  It is  Plato's  The d i c h o t o m i e s o f  the  i n t o a n a l o g i c a l t r i n i t a r i a n arrange-  ments w h i c h p a r a l l e l the s t r u c t u r e of the a l l e g o r y as progress—we from the r e a l t o the dream w o r l d , from the dream w o r l d to the r e a l w o r l d — a n d t h i s we s h a l l d i s c u s s i n the n e x t  chapter.  move  122  F o o t n o t e s to Chapter Four  William B l a k e , 'The M a r r i a g e of Heaven and H e l l ' i n The Complete W r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m B l a k e , e d . G e o f f r e y Keynes (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 149. 2  K e p l e r was an astronomer at Tycho B r a h e ' s o b s e r v a t o r y a t Hven, c a l l e d U r a n i b o r g ( ' t h e c a s t l e of the h e a v e n s ' ) . Somnium has n o t been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , b u t the p l o t i s summarised by P a t r i c k Moore i n S c i e n c e and F i c t i o n (London: George C. H a r r a p , 1957). The m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r was the s c i e n t i f i c c o n f i r m a t i o n by G a l i l e o of m o u n t a i n s , v a l l e y s , and ' s e a s ' on the moon. Other moon-voyages have been l i s t e d by M a r j o r i e N i c o l s o n i n Voyages to the Moon (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 4 8 ) . 3  Johnson and C l a r e s o n , 'The I n t e r p l a y of S c i e n c e and F i c t i o n : Canals o f M a r s ' i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n (May 1964), p . 37.  The  4  C a t h e r i n e V a l e W h i t w e l l , An A s t r o n o m i c a l C a t e c h i s m : o r , Dialogues between a Mother and h e r Daughter (London: P r i n t e d f o r the A u t h o r , 1 8 1 8 ) , p . 2 72. 5  T h e Works o f Herman M e l v i l l e (London:  Constable,  ^Quoted by Gordon M i l l s i n 'The S i g n i f i c a n c e i n American L i t e r a t u r e , XIV ( 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 160.  of  1922), I I , p.  175.  'Arcturus' i n Mardi'  H . G. W e l l s , The Works of H . G. W e l l s , A t l a n t i c E d i t i o n (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1 9 2 5 ) , X , p . 552. 7  g  For example, W e t z e l , 19 32).  F. I .  L o r b e a r ' s P h i l o s o p h y o f L i g h t (Los  Angeles:  9 A c c o r d i n g to L i n d s a y , p a i n i s n o t a p r o b l e m , i t i s  the  solution.  ^ P l a t o , Timaeus, t r a n s . H . D. P . Lee (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965): "God t h e r e f o r e , w i s h i n g t h a t a l l t h i n g s s h o u l d be good, and so f a r as p o s s i b l e n o t h i n g be i m p e r f e c t " ( p . 42) i m i t a t e d a p e r f e c t and e t e r n a l Form "as f a r as was p o s s i b l e " (p. 5 0 ) . 11  " P i t y would be no more / I f we d i d n o t make somebody P o o r , " a s t u t e l y observes. The Complete W r i t i n g s , p . 217.  Blake  123  12  T h i s may be s p e c i f i c a l l y W e s t e r n . I n I n d i a , by c o n t r a s t , where the sun i s too h o t , what i s sought i s the r e l e a s e o f l i f e - g i v i n g w a t e r s , as when I n d r a uses a t h u n d e r b o l t to s t r i k e down V i t r a , the s e r p e n t who has swallowed those w a t e r s . I n Myths and Symbols i n I n d i a n A r t and C i v i l i s a t i o n (New Y o r k : Pantheon Books, 1 9 4 6 ) , H e i n r i c h Zimmer says " t h e monster had a p p r o p r i a t e d the common b e n e f i t , massing h i s a m b i t i o u s , s e l f i s h h u l k between heaven and e a r t h " (p. 3 ) , r a t h e r i n the manner o f C r y s t a l m a n . However, n o t a c t u a l l y i n the manner o f C r y s t a l m a n . Dorothy Norman, i n The H e r o : Myth/Image/Symbo1 (New Y o r k : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p o i n t s out t h a t "Due . . . to V i t r a ' s h a v i n g e x i s t e d b e f o r e what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the i m p e r f e c t i o n of c r e a t i o n , and h a v i n g attempted o r i g i n a l l y t o p r e v e n t i t , t h e r e were a l s o those who viewed the s e r p e n t i n . . . even f a v o r a b l e f a s h i o n " (p. 2 7 ) . Ophitism i s Gnostic. 13 P a r a c e l s u s , M y s t e r i e s of C r e a t i o n (Works, 1616)  III,  3-4,  " ^ A . A . Moon i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to The 'De N a t u r a B o n i ' A u g u s t i n e (Washington: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America P r e s s , George MacDonald i n P h a n t a s t e s (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e B o o k s , " T r u l y , man i s b u t a p a s s i n g f l a m e , moving u n q u i e t l y amid the n e s t of n i g h t , w i t h o u t which he y e t c o u l d not b e , arid whereof p a r t compounded" ( p . 6 1 ) .  p.  58.  of S a i n t 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 16. 19 70) w r i t e s , surrounding he i s i n  "'"^Christopher Smart, J u b i l a t e Agno, e d . W. H . Bond (London: Rupert H a r t - D a v i e s , 1 9 5 4 ) , v e r s e 238. See a l s o , more i m p o r t a n t l y , Job V . 7 . "^Joseph C a m p b e l l , The Hero w i t h a. Thousand Faces (New Y o r k : B o o k s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 123. "^Quoted by E r w i n S c h r o d i n g e r i n Mind and M a t t e r (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958). 18  A . A . Moon: " t h e h e r o e s of l i g h t l o o k and s u f f e r d e s p i t e the h y l i c o r i g i n o f the l a t t e r " (p. 1 8 ) .  Meridian  Cambridge  l i k e human b e i n g s ,  19 Jean P a u l F r i e d r i c h R i c h t e r , ' F l e g e l j a h r ' i n Jean P a u l : 6 v o l s . (Munich: C a r l H a n s e r , 1 9 5 9 ) , I I , see pp. 1061-65. 20  Werke,  J . W. Smeed o f A l b a n o ' s Dream i n Jean P a u l ' s 'Dreams' (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 33. Smeed says " t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no l i n k w i t h the h e l l o f the m e d i e v a l i m a g i n a t i o n and i t s b o d i l y t o r m e n t s . Jean P a u l ' s h e l l i s b o r n o f r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t e a r t h l y l i f e " (p. 32). Also see Smeed's Appendix I I on F l e g e l j a h r e t r a u m .  124  21  Green suns are r a r e , W i l l i a m Hope ModgSon i n The House on the B o r d e r l a n d (London: Holden and Hardingham, 1908) may have taken h i s cue from an a s i d e of MacDonald's i n P h a n t a s t e s : "No s h i n i n g b e l t o r gleaming moon, no red and green g l o r y i n a s e l f - e n c i r c l i n g t w i n - s t a r , b u t has a r e l a t i o n w i t h the h i d d e n t h i n g s o f a man's s o u l , and, i t may b e , w i t h the s e c r e t h i s t o r y of the body as w e l l " (p. 89). 22  L i n d s a y ' s ' S k e t c h N o t e s ' quoted from J . B. P i c k ' s 'The Work o f David L i n d s a y ' i n S t u d i e s i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e ( J a n . 1964), p . 175. 23  The E l d e r Edda, t r a n s . Auden and T a y l o r (New Y o r k : 19 70) , p . 151. 24  (p.  The E l d e r Edda: ' L o k i ' s F l y t i n g 1 (p. 1 3 9 ) , 7 7 ) , "The Lady of G r i m n i r ' (p. 6 6 ) , e t c . 25  The Saga of G r e t t i r the S t r o n g , Dent, 1911) , pp. 27-28. 26 1966) ,  Vintage  Books,  'The Lay of V a f t h r u d n i r '  t r a n s . G. A . H i g h t (London:  Quoted by C o l i n W i l s o n i n E a g l e and E a r w i g (London:  John  J . M.  Baker,  p .  27  I n Wombflash M a s k u l l e a t s a b i t t e r f r u i t , sees h i m s e l f s t a b b e d , endures t e r r i b l e shocks and f a l l s i n a f a i n t r e s e m b l i n g d e a t h . 28 George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1 9 6 9 ) : "I would n o t l e a v e the h o u s e , and a l r e a d y I was a s t r a n g e r i n the s t r a n g e l a n d ! " (p. 1 9 ) . Robert H e i n l e i n , a s c i e n c e f i c t i o n w r i t e r of m i d d l e - b r o w s e n s i b i l i t y and t a b l o i d s t y l e , has made the phrase famous w i t h h i s l o n g and b o r i n g n o v e l , S t r a n g e r i n a Strange Land (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1968). 29  See Bruce Haywood, N o v a l i s : The V e i l o f Imagery (Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p . 54. 30  Mass.:  Quoted by Hans Jonas i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n : The Message o f the A l i e n God and the B e g i n n i n g s of C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2nd e d . ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 45. 31 32  Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  32.  Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  xiii.  125  33  John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s (London: J . M. Dent, 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 4. C f . B l a k e ' s c r y s t a l c a b i n e t and Hoffmann's c r y s t a l j a r s . And L i n d s a y ' s Crystalman? 34 Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  42.  35 Quoted by Jonas i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  228.  36 Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  72.  37  " I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t h a t K a f k a ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f U t o p i a was a s o c i e t y of s i n g l e men, from w h i c h m a r r i e d men and a l l women were e x c l u d e d . " H a l l and L i n d , Dreams, L i f e , and L i t e r a t u r e : A Study o f F r a n z K a f k a (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1970), p. 51. 38  T h i s i s a c t u a l l y a h i g h v i e w of women, e s p e c i a l l y compared t o Schopenhauer's ( a c c o r d i n g to whom they are e s s e n t i a l l y c h i l d i s h ) . The h e r o i n e s are the most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n L i n d s a y ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l t h r i l l e r s , and though t h e r e are o n l y f i v e female embodiments i n A Voyage, a g a i n s t t h r e e times as many m a l e , the women dominate the book. Joiwind, Oceaxe, Tydomin, G l e a m e i l and S u l l e n b o d e are a l l complex and p o w e r f u l figures. They a l l know e x a c t l y what they w a n t , and a c t i v e l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y s e t about the b u s i n e s s of g e t t i n g i t . 39  Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 306. B o d k i n i s q u o t i n g from B e a t r i c e M. H i n k l e ' s The R e c r e a t i n g o f the I n d i v i d u a l ( A l l e n and Unwin, 1923), p . 306. 40  "Women are s n a r e s , w h i c h l i e i n w a i t f o r men on a l l s i d e s i n o r d e r to drag them i n t o the merely f i n i t e . " Quoted from G. Janouch, Conversat i o n s w i t h K a f k a , t r a n s . G. Rees (London: V e r s c h o y l e , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 101. I n ' K a f k a ' s Modern M y t h o l o g y ' i n the B u l l e t i n of the John R y l a n d s L i b r a r y (Autumn 19 7 0 ) , I d r i s P a r r y a s k s , "How i s man r e l a t e d t o the gods? The w r i t e r ' s s e a r c h f o r form i s the p u r s u i t o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ; K a f k a has no d i f f i c u l t y at a l l i n s e e i n g h i m s e l f as a Modern Prometheus" (p. 210). Prometheus was tempted w i t h a woman of c l a y . "The g r e a t d i s t r a c t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , m a r r i a g e ; and here K a f k a a n t i c i p a t e s h i s own l a t e r r e l u c t a n c e when he i s c r u s h e d between h i s n a t u r a l d e s i r e f o r m a r r i a g e and the f e a r t h a t m a r r i a g e w i l l rob him of h i s s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n , the s o u r c e of v i s i o n " (p. 2 1 7 ) . The Prometheus who a c c e p t s Pandora i s n o t Prometheus, b u t h i s b r o t h e r - d o u b l e Epimetheus. M a s k u l l has S u l l e n b o d e . The L i n d s a y who w r i t e s A Voyage i s m a r r i e d . 41 (Cairo:  L o u i s Awad, The Theme o f Prometheus i n E n g l i s h and French L i t e r a t u r e M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 13.  126  42  Prometheus has robbed Zeus o f h i s c r e a t i v e a t t r i b u t e s and him what he always wanted to b e , a p e r f e c t b u t u n c r e a t i v e mind.  left  43  Panawe, remember, l i k e h i s w i f e J o i w i n d , l i v e s i n a s t a t e o f innocence and c a n ' t t e l l S u r t u r from S h a p i n g . 44  In Gnostic a l l e g o r y , which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y turns things u p s i d e down, Prometheus may be s u p p o r t e d a g a i n s t Zeus—as the Romantics s u p p o r t e d h i m . Then Prometheus becomes " t h e type o f the ' s p i r i t u a l ' man whose l o y a l t y i s not to the God of t h i s w o r l d b u t to the t r a n s cendent one b e y o n d , " as Jonas says i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 9 7. I t i s t h i s k i n d o f Prometheus t h a t we f i n d , i n A Voyage to A r c t u r u s , not i n M a s k u l l but i n K r a g . 45 L o u i s Awad, The Theme of Prometheus, pp. 46  20-21.  The aim of A Voyage i s not s u b c r e a t i o n , w h i c h i s why L i n d s a y i s w r i t i n g a l l e g o r y n o t romance of the M o r r i s t o T o l k i e n t y p e . Tormance i s , i f s l i g h t l y s o l i p s i s t i c a l l y , s u b - c r e a t e d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , b u t to the e x t e n t t h a t i t i s s u b c r e a t e d , L i n d s a y i s damned by h i s own m e t a p h y s i c . A r t i s t - P l a t o had a s i m i l a r problem when he was e x c l u d e d from t h e R e p u b l i c by P h i l o s o p h e r - P l a t o .  12 7  Chapter F i v e : THE STRAIGHT WAY:  A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS AS PROGRESS  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s too r i c h to be m i s t a k e n f o r ' n a i v e ' too m e a n i n g f u l to be taken as pure f a n t a s y ,  and the w o r l d i t s u b c r e a t e s  i s too t r a n s i t o r y f o r i t to be regarded as a romance.  Though i t takes us  i n t o s p a c e , i t i s too u n s c i e n t i f i c to be s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y — a w i t h the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d , as d i s c u s s e d this thesis.  allegory,  A Voyage to  genre w h i c h has c l o s e  ties  i n the second and t h i r d c h a p t e r s  But because the a l l e g o r y i s  'sophisticated,'  of  t h a t i s no  reason f o r denying t h a t i t i s an a l l e g o r y a t a l l , as we have seen p r e v i o u s c r i t i c s of L i n d s a y do. to L i n d s a y ' s  J . B . P i c k , f o r example, i n s p i t e o f h a v i n g access  ' S k e t c h N o t e s ' and o t h e r u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s , s t a t e s  flatly  t h a t " L i n d s a y was n o t an a l l e g o r i s t " (TSG 5 ) , w h i c h e x p l a i n s h i s d e c i s i o n : i f one t r i e s to v i e w A Voyage as a f i e l d f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s , as a p u z z l e r e q u i r i n g a b s t r a c t c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i t appears t h a t the l e v e l s on which any e x p l a n a t i o n must be made are h o p e l e s s l y m i x e d , so t h a t the i n c i d e n t s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a n e c e s s a r y and coherent o r d e r (TSG 4 ) . Of c o u r s e , n o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . c o r r e c t when he says " A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s of Chinese b o x e s ,  Wilson i s  constructed l i k e a series  one i n s i d e the o t h e r " (TSG 4 6 ) , and t h a t " i t s  and g e n i u s , l i e s i n the almost m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n of i t s (TSG 4 5 ) .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e are m e r e l y o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  n o t h i n g to demonstrate t h e v a l i d i t y of h i s i n s i g h t s . it  absolutely  strength,  design"  and W i l s o n does  We s h a l l have to do  for him. S i n c e A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s almost The World as W i l l and Idea  128  d i s s o l v e d and r e c r y s t a l l i s e d as f i c t i o n ,  i t should not surprise  t h a t Schopenhauer has something i n t e r e s t i n g to say about  us  design:  Few w r i t e i n the way i n w h i c h an a r c h i t e c t b u i l d s ; who, b e f o r e he s e t s t o w o r k , sketches out h i s p l a n , and t h i n k s i t over down to i t s s m a l l e s t d e t a i l s . Nay, most p e o p l e w r i t e o n l y as though they were p l a y i n g dominoes; and as i n t h i s game the p i e c e s are a r r a n g e d h a l f by d e s i g n , h a l f by chance, so i t i s w i t h the sequence and c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e i r sentences. They o n l y j u s t have an i d e a of what the g e n e r a l shape o f t h e i r work w i l l b e , and of the aim they s e t b e f o r e t h e m s e l v e s . Many are i g n o r a n t even o f t h i s , and w r i t e as the c o r a l - i n s e c t s b u i l d ; p e r i o d j o i n s to p e r i o d , and L o r d knows what the a u t h o r means ( 2 ) . I t i s the whole t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t , and the whole i s i m i t a t e s the Form.  the I d e a :  Few genres a l l o w as much d i r e c t i o n l e s s n e s s  the form as  fantasy,  though i n some cases t h i s can be t u r n e d to good a c c o u n t , as i t i s by MacDonald when h i s hero i s c a l l e d Anodos o r ' p a t h l e s s ' .  On the o t h e r  h a n d , few genres have as much f o r m , as r i g i d d i r e c t i o n , as  allegories:  the s t r a i g h t and.narrow p a t h o f C h r i s t i a n , the s t r a i g h t and w i n d i n g one of Dante.  3  In a l l e g o r i e s ,  t h e thought tends to be p o s i t i v e l y d i a g r a m m a t i c .  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s b o t h an a l l e g o r y and a f a n t a s y . a i m l e s s as P h a n t a s t e s  I t i s as  apparently  and The Palm-Wine D r i n k a r d , f o l l o w i n g the c o n t o u r s  of a p o w e r f u l p s y c h i c u n d e r w o r l d . as The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s  I t i s a r i g i d l y s y l l o g i s t i c and c e r e b r a l  and The D i v i n e Comedy as i t e s t a b l i s h e s  its  d u a l i s t i c metaphysic. A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s an a l l e g o r y w h i c h ends w i t h a v i s i o n ; are two of i t s p a r t s . o f f o u r chapters,"*  these  I t b e g i n s , however, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n  d u r i n g w h i c h a l l the n e c e s s a r y m o t i f s f o r the u n d e r -  s t a n d i n g o f the a l l e g o r y are e s t a b l i s h e d , s a t i r i z e d to make the n e c e s s i t y  and the v u l g a r ' r e a l ' w o r l d  f o r the a l l e g o r i c a l escape c l e a r .  4  The  is  129  fifth  c h a p t e r completes the i n t r o d u c t i o n and h e l p s to form a  f o r the f a n t a s y Maskull f a i l s  frame  i n b e i n g a p r e c o g n i t i o n of the f i n a l v i s i o n :  here  to c l i m b a t o w e r , w h i l e i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r N i g h t s p o r e  succeeds i n c l i m b i n g one.  By a neat i n v o l u t i o n w h i c h i m p l i e s the u n -  r e a l i t y o f t i m e , the opening o f the book i s hooked to the m i d d l e when M a s k u l l submits t o Tydomin (Chapter xo) the seance room to be s t r a n g l e d by K r a g .  a n  d wakes up on the couch i n T h i s m o t i f reappears j u s t  b e f o r e the f i n a l v i s i o n when, on a r a f t - i s l a n d on S u r t u r ' s Ocean, K r a g a c t u a l l y does s t r a n g l e M a s k u l l (Chapter 20)  to free N i g h t s p o r e .  f a i l u r e t o c l i m b the tower f o l l o w s , the f i r s t s t r a n g l i n g ; s u c c e s s i n c l i m b i n g the tower f o l l o w s t h e s e c o n d .  Maskull's  Nightspore's  The i n t r o d u c t i o n and  the promise of r e b i r t h on e a r t h f o r N i g h t s p o r e form the o t h e r two p a r t s of the a l l e g o r y ,  the frame.  I n many a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s ,  dreamer reawakes  to the phenomenal w o r l d a f t e r a c h i e v i n g the  the  final  v i s i o n , b u t , M a s k u l l b e i n g dead, N i g h t s p o r e has no body to reawake i n . However, r e b i r t h i n t o the w o r l d comes t o e x a c t l y the same t h i n g . A Voyage has the f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h , as we above,  i s s t a n d a r d i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream  Thus  saw i n Chapter Two  fantasy.  The main p a r t of the book b e g i n s when K r a g and N i g h t s p o r e  disappear,  and M a s k u l l wakes up on Tormance, and i t ends when K r a g and N i g h t s p o r e reappear  and M a s k u l l d i e s  (goes t o s l e e p ) on Tormance.  The j o u r n e y o f  M a s k u l l a c r o s s Tormance i s l i t e r a l l y the p r o g r e s s of the a l l e g o r y , t h i s has a t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e o f i t s own.  and  Jean P a u l b e l i e v e d t h a t  "while  on e a r t h , o n l y our dreams can g i v e us i n t i m a t i o n s of the h i g h e r r e a l i t y " ^ and he wrote a number o f a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s .  I n one o f them,  130  'Der  Tod i n der l e t z e n z w i e t e n W e l t , ' he e x p r e s s e s " t h e i d e a o f a  s e r i e s of ' d e a t h s ' " being."7  as " a g r a d u a l approach to a p e r f e c t s t a t e o f  T h i s i s e x a c t l y the p r o g r e s s o f A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , where  each of the t h r e e s e c t i o n s b e g i n s w i t h images o f the b i r t h of M a s k u l l , and  ends w i t h images of h i s d e a t h .  Maskull l i t e r a l l y  dies.  I n the l a s t  s e c t i o n , of  Each of t h e s e t h r e e s e c t i o n s has a c l i m a x  i n w h i c h d e f i n i t i v e a l l e g o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t s are made. on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , boxes,  and the p r o c e s s i s  Each s e c t i o n  the v i t a l s p a r k .  is  r a t h e r l i k e W i l s o n ' s Chinese  o r P e e r Gynt p e e l i n g h i s o n i o n , e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e i s  i n the m i d d l e :  course,  something  N a t u r e h e r e i s not w i t t y , b u t t r a g i c .  T h i s s p i r a l p r o g r e s s inwards w i l l be examined i n the n e x t , c h a p t e r . M a s k u l l ' s journey i s ,  as i s  common i n dream f a n t a s i e s ,  to d i s c o v e r ( i n t h i s c a s e , uncover) h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y i r e a l n a t u r e (at p r e s e n t ,  masked)  am I ? " A l i c e asks h e r s e l f . The  and h i s t r u e name.  "Ah, that's  fantasies,  the embodiments' names and n a t u r e s  i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s  is  c a l l e d Honest.  to be d o u b l e , o r of a d u a l n a t u r e .  to f i n d h i s  "Who i n the w o r l d  the g r e a t p u z z l e . "  g r e a t p u z z l e i s , who she i s Out of the w o r l d .  a quest  It  isn't.  I n a l l e g o r i c a l dream  are one:  the honest man  P r o t a g o n i s t s , however, tend  Even A l i c e i s " v e r y fond of p r e t e n d -  9 ing  t o be two p e o p l e . "  Maskull is  he i s b o t h n o t h i n g and n o t h i n g .  two p e o p l e i n t h a t he i s a l s o N i g h t s p o r e :  L i k e Thingumbob i n The H u n t i n g of  the  10 Snark—who "came as a b a k e r " his  b u t who w i l l n o t , l i k e t h e o t h e r s ,  accept  t r a d e as h i s n a m e — M a s k u l l meets a d r e a d f u l Boojum o f N o t h i n g n e s s ,  C r y s t a l m a n , and d i s c o v e r s  t h a t he i s , i n the w o r l d , n o t h i n g .  before h i s death, Maskull i s  But j u s t  t o l d by K r a g , " y o u are N i g h t s p o r e " (VA 2 7 7 ) :  131  he does, a f t e r a l l , have an i d e n t i t y out of the w o r l d , and t h a t nothing.  M r . Vane i n L i l i t h f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r q u e s t :  once aware t h a t I c o u l d g i v e  is,  " I became a t  [Mr. Raven] no n o t i o n o f who I was.  Then I understood t h a t I d i d n o t know m y s e l f .  . . .  . . .  As f o r the name  I went by i n my own w o r l d , I had f o r g o t t e n i t , and d i d not care to r e c a l l i t , f o r i t meant n o t h i n g . " 1 ' ' "  When M a s k u l l , a f t e r  .the  mask has been s t r i p p e d o f f i n the p r o g r e s s , does get t o know h i m s e l f , he d i s c o v e r s  t h a t he i s r e a l l y N i g h t s p o r e , a s ,  i n the same way,  after  h i s much s h o r t e r b u t more c o n c e n t r a t e d p r o g r e s s up the tower, N i g h t s p o r e discovers  t h a t he i s r e a l l y M u s p e l , and t h e r e f o r e ,  The g n o s t i c Irenaeus t e l l s us  r e a l l y Krag  also.  that  knowledge i s s a l v a t i o n o f the i n n e r man; and i t i s n o t c o r p o r e a l , f o r the body i s c o r r u p t i b l e ; n o r i s i t p s y c h i c a l , f o r even t h e s o u l i s a p r o d u c t of the d e f e c t and i s as a l o d g i n g to the s p i r i t : s p i r i t u a l t h e r e f o r e must a l s o be s a l v a t i o n ( 1 2 ) . M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e are day- and n i g h t - s e l f o p p o s i t e s ; form a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d u a l i t y .  K r a g and Gangnet  But i n the a l l e g o r y as p r o g r e s s we have a  t r i n i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the t h r e e f o l d n a t u r e of the human being.  Man i s made up of body and s o u l , and " e n c l o s e d i n the s o u l  the s p i r i t , or 'pneuma'  ( c a l l e d a l s o the ' s p a r k ' ) ,  a p o r t i o n of  is  the  13 d i v i n e s u b s t a n c e from beyond w h i c h has f a l l e n i n t o the w o r l d . " is,  a fragment of n o t h i n g .  As N i g h t s p o r e i s the e s s e n t i a l  M a s k u l l , a s l e e p w i t h i n h i m , so K r a g i s  self  That of  the s p a r k submerged w i t h i n N i g h t -  spore. I n i t s unredeemed s t a t e the pneuma thus immersed i n s o u l and f l e s h i s unconscious of i t s e l f , benumbed, a s l e e p , o r i n t o x i c a t e d by the p o i s o n of the w o r l d : in brief, i t is 'ignorant.' I t s awakening and l i b e r a t i o n i s e f f e c t e d through ' k n o w l e d g e ' ( 1 4 ) .  132  M a s k u l l t e l l s N i g h t s p o r e , " I ' m b e g i n n i n g to r e g a r d you as a second K r a g " (VA 3 4 ) .  By c l i m b i n g the t o w e r , N i g h t s p o r e i s l i b e r a t e d by  the knowledge of the r e a l s t a t e o f the w o r l d . N i g h t s p o r e , now N i g h t s p o r e has become K r a g : liter{3.ally>  J u s t as M a s k u l l became the K r a g w i t h i n h i m h a s ,  surfaced.  I t has o f t e n been n o t i c e d t h a t the P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h e r m y t h o l o g i s e s w h i l e the P l a t o n i c poet p h i l o s o p h i s e s . are examples  B l a k e , S h e l l e y and Y e a t s  o f the l a t t e r ; L i n d s a y h i m s e l f w r o t e ' S k e t c h Notes Towards  a New System of P h i l o s o p h y . '  F o r the P l a t o n i c p o e t ,  means, by and l a r g e , m e t a p h y s i c s :  again, philosophy  t h a t i s , as the r e c e n t outgrowth o f  ' l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s ' has not t i r e d o f r e i t e r a t i n g , the w o r l d o f 15 w h i c h we can know n o t h i n g .  The poets would i t a l i c i s e t h i s d i f f e r e n t l y :  through l i t e r a t u r e , they would a r g u e , we can know n o t h i n g .  Lindsay  pays V i s i a k the v e r y h i g h e s t o f compliments when he says of the Medusa t h a t i t " t r a n s c e n d s metaphysics,  latter's  p o e t r y and seems to e n t e r the r e a l m of  as a l l s u r p a s s i n g p o e t r y does" (L 5 3 ) .  T h i s k i n d of j u d g -  ment i s the b a s i s o f L i n d s a y ' s defense of D e v i l ' s T o r : There are two o r d e r s of i m a g i n a t i v e w r i t e r s — t h o s e who d e s c r i b e the w o r l d and those who e x p l a i n i t . The f i r s t — by f a r the l a r g e r c l a s s — a r e the poets o r p o e t i c - m i n d e d , even though t h e i r merchandise be c y n i c i s m o r s o r d i d n e s s : they aim o n l y at s e t t i n g f a m i l i a r t h i n g s i n new and s t r i k i n g l i g h t s . But the second have the m u s i c a l temper —between metaphysics and music i s t h i s i n e x p l i c a b l e l i n k o f c o n s a n g u i n i t y . T h e i r aim i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of p a s s i o n , e m o t i o n , and the e l e m e n t a l f o r c e s g e n e r a l l y . They w i s h to get down to the r o o t s of the w o r l d (TSG 2 7 ) • In Keats's phrase, music  is.  p o e t r y " i s not so f i n e a t h i n g as p h i l o s o p h y . " But  133  The m u s i c i a n can "awaken t h a t i n e x p r e s s i b l e f e e l i n g , a k i n to n o t h i n g e l s e on e a r t h — t h e sense o f a d i s t a n t s p i r i t w o r l d , and o f 16 our own h i g h e r l i f e i n i t , "  a c c o r d i n g to Hoffmann.  "Music i s  the  e x p e r i e n c e of a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d " (TSG 1 3 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n d s a y . Much l a t e r , L i n d s a y w r o t e t h a t D e v i l ' s Tor was c o n c e i v e d i n a s p i r i t o f m u s i c . A p r e v i o u s book of m i n e , A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , was s i m i l a r l y g e n e r a t e d ; and the g r e a t e s t compliment i t e v e r r e c e i v e d was from the mouth o f an a r t i s t and m u s i c i a n , who found i t s whole c o n s t r u c t i o n and compos i t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y ' m u s i c a l ' (TSG 2 8 ) . The o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s t h r e e f o l d : t o the c e n t r a l themes ( E a r t h ) , e x p o s i t i o n and development c o n c l u s i o n (the t o w e r ) . variations' kind: Crystalman's. from m u s i c .  Introduction  (Tormance),  The c e n t r a l s e c t i o n i s o f the 'theme and  each embodiment M a s k u l l meets i s an i n s t r u m e n t o f  The name o f the t e c h n i q u e , , the l e i t m o t i f , i s a l s o borrowed The thought o f A Voyage i s e x p r e s s e d through r e c u r r i n g images.  For example, K r a g r e f e r s  to the "specimen g o b l i n " (VA 23) m a t e r i a l i s e d 17  by Backhouse as a f r u i t of Tormance.  One of the f i r s t t h i n g s M a s k u l l  p i c k s up on Tormance i s a " h a r d f r u i t . . . . and shaped l i k e an egg"  (VA 5 3 ) .  "We d o n ' t e a t l i v i n g t h i n g s . and he throws i t away.  o f the s i z e of a l a r g e  apple,  J o i w i n d w i l l n o t a l l o w h i m to eat i t - -  The thought i s h o r r i b l e to u s " (VA 53)—  Panawe produces out o f h i m s e l f " a d e l i c a t e l y  b e a u t i f u l egg-shaped c r y s t a l o f p a l e g r e e n " (VA 6 3 ) , w h i c h he throws away, s a y i n g " n o t h i n g comes from i t b u t v a n i t y " (VA 6 3 ) . J o i w i n d c u l t i v a t e non-attachment to t h e w o r l d . t o dominate t h e w o r l d by sheer w i l l - t o - p o w e r . stone"  (VA 8 2 ) ,  Panawe and  Oceaxe, by c o n t r a s t ,  tries  She uses " a l i g h t - e m i t t i n g  " a pebble the s i z e of a h e n ' s egg"  (VA 8 3 ) ,  to c o n v e r t  134  M a s k u l l to h e r way of s e e i n g . to e a t ,  Dreamsinter gives M a s k u l l a b i t t e r  " a h a r d round n u t , o f t h e s i z e o f a f i s t "  i n d u c e s a new k i n d o f v i s i o n , of Muspel r a d i a n c e .  (VA 1 5 2 ) ,  fruit  and t h i s  In Matterplay Maskull  finds a f r u i t . . . l y i n g on the g r o u n d , of the s i z e and shape of a lemon, b u t w i t h a tougher s k i n . He p i c k e d i t u p , i n t e n d i n g to eat the c o n t a i n e d p u l p ; b u t i n s i d e , i t was a f u l l y formed young t r e e , j u s t on the p o i n t o f b u r s t i n g i t s s h e l l (VA 1 9 2 ) . M a s k u l l f i n d s S u l l e n b o d e "under a huge t r e e " w h i c h b e a r s " a m u l t i t u d e of red f r u i t " :  " h e r forearms were l i g h t l y f o l d e d , and i n one hand she  held a half-eaten  f r u i t " (VA 2 4 2 ) .  L a s t l y , Gangnet t a k e s "two o r  three  o b j e c t s t h a t resembled eggs" from " t h e f o o t o f one o f the t r e e s " i n Barey (VA 2 6 9 ) .  M a s k u l l e a t s two b e f o r e K r a g s n a t c h e s " t h e r e m a i n i n g  egg out o f h i s hand and f l u n g i t a g a i n s t a t r e e t r u n k , where i t b r o k e and s t u c k ,  a s p l a s h o f s l i m e " (VA 2 7 0 ) .  "Is  there a s i g h t  filthier  t h a n a smashed p l e a s u r e ? " asks K r a g (VA 2 7 0 ) . The image o f the e g g - s i z e d f r u i t r e c u r s through A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s as a m o t i f .  Of c o u r s e ,  t h e r e i s no one meaning common t o each  the meaning of t h e f r u i t depends on who uses i t and why. Panawe have not been e x p e l l e d from Eden: whereas  occurrence:  J o i w i n d and  they throw t h e i r f r u i t away,  S u l l e n b o d e i s a t e m p t r e s s , l i k e E v e , who has eaten the f r u i t  and w i l l now seduce M a s k u l l i n t o c a r n a l i t y .  Dreamsinter gives M a s k u l l  a h a r d n u t w i t h an " i n t e n s e l y d i s a g r e e a b l e " (VA 152) p u l p ; Gangnet him a f r a g i l e egg w i t h a s l i m y i n t e r i o r . the g i v e r .  The t h i n g t h a t i s  gives  Each f r u i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e  common t o these l a s t two examples i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n s i d e and t h e o u t s i d e :  Gangnet's  to the  fruit is  an  135  e v i l good and D r e a m s i n t e r ' s a good e v i l .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f M a s k u l l  and N i g h t s p o r e i s a l s o one o f o u t s i d e to i n s i d e :  Maskull is  the s h e l l ,  N i g h t s p o r e the k e r n e l . I n m u s i c , a l e i t m o t i f i s a theme a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a person o r a thought which r e c u r s when the p e r s o n appears on the s t a g e o r the thought becomes prominent i n the a c t i o n of the drama t o w h i c h the music i s an accompaniment.  I n A Voyage, the drum taps o f S o r g i e , a s s o c i a t e d  S u r t u r , are l i t e r a l l y a l e i t m o t i f , b u t t h e r e are s e v e r a l o t h e r  with themes  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the opening s e c t i o n w h i c h i n l i t e r a t u r e we may t h i n k o f as b e i n g l e i t m o t i f s a l s o .  F o r example, the images o f b i r t h and death  t h a t we have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , the problem of w e i g h t and the c l i m b i n g of the t o w e r , the C r y s t a l m a n g r i n , and the phenomenon o f b a c k - r a y s .  We  must n o t , as p r e v i o u s c r i t i c s have done, e i t h e r p r e t e n d t h a t A Voyage b e g i n s on Tormance (Joanna R u s s ) , o r w i s h t h a t i t d i d ( W i l s o n ) .  A Voyage  t o A r c t u r u s does b e g i n i n the suburban r e s i d e n c e  'reside'  i n suburbs)  (people always  of Montague F a u l l , and not w i t h v i s i o n b u t w i t h theosophy and  spiritualism.  I n t h i s opening s e c t i o n , however, the main m o t i f s  essential  f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a l l e g o r y are i n t r o d u c e d , and we must examine i t i n some d e t a i l . I n h e r p o l e m i c i n E x t r a p o l a t i o n , Joanna Russ complains, t h a t A Voyage to A r c t u r u s c o n t a i n s too l i t t l e s p e c i f i c i t y , o r p a r t i c u l a r i t y , o r c o n c r e t e n e s s ( t h r e e terms w i t h , b u t a s i n g l e thought) . however, t h e r e i s enough c o n c r e t e n e s s  I n the  opening c h a p t e r ,  to s i n k almost any n o v e l .  I n the  v e r y f i r s t sentence we are g i v e n the month and the time o f day, the name of a house and i t s s i t u a t i o n , the names of two c h a r a c t e r s  and the p r o f e s s i o n  136  o f one of them.  So i t goes o n .  The scene i s v e r y t h o r o u g h l y  set.  18 We are i n a room decked out f o r a p s y c h i c e v e n t : 'materialise'  a spirit.  Backhouse  Yeats w o u l d have been f a s c i n a t e d .  i s " a r e p l i c a , or n e a r l y so,  is  The s e t t i n g  of the Drury Lane p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  temple scene from The Magic F l u t e " (VA 1 6 ) ,  to  the  and a " h i d d e n o r c h e s t r a " 19  p l a y s " t h e b e a u t i f u l and solemn s t r a i n s The s p e c t a t o r s — t h e  of Mozart's 'temple'  p e o p l e L i n d s a y h a t e s most, who c a r r y o v e r t h e i r  m a t e r i a l i s m i n t o the s p i r i t w o r l d — i n c l u d e " P r i o r , coffee  music."  the prosperous  i m p o r t e r , and L a n g , the s t o c k j o b b e r , w e l l known i n h i s own c i r c l e  as an amateur p r e s t a d i g i t a t o r " Merchant h i m s e l f . allegories  (VA 1 4 ) ,  and F a u l l ,  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s b e g i n s ,  the South American  i n fact,  i n p r o s e tend t o do (MacDonald's P h a n t a s t e s  L e w i s ' s That Hideous S t r e n g t h ) ,  as good dream  and L i l i t h ,  l i k e a v e r y bad n o v e l .  I n t o t h i s w o r l d , though c l e a r l y from a n o t h e r k i n d o f w o r l d , M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e . rejoices them. City':  City  N a t u r a l l y , i n t r o d u c t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t :  i n the name o f M a s k u l l " says M r s . T r e n t (VA 1 5 ) , who has  She cannot t e l l the assembled  enter "One invited  company what these two do ' i n the  t h a t i s n ' t where t h e y ' r e from.  And t h e i r names are not ' n e u t r a l ' :  t h e i r names are what they e s s e n t i a l l y a r e .  When M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e  e n t e r the room, t h e r e i s " a l o u d and t e r r i b l e c r a s h o f f a l l e n masonry" w h i c h causes " t h e assembled p a r t y t o s t a r t up from t h e i r c h a i r s i n c o n sternation. collapsed"  I t sounded as i f the e n t i r e upper p a r t o f the b u i l d i n g had (VA 1 8 ) .  But no one o u t s i d e the room has h e a r d a n y t h i n g , and  20 nothing i s amiss.  N i g h t s p o r e says—and t h e s e are h i s f i r s t w o r d s — " i t  was s u p e r n a t u r a l " i n o r i g i n (VA 1 8 ) .  T h i s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t "we are  137  surrounded by a t e r r i b l y queer unseen u n i v e r s e " (1, 43) , w h i c h i s  the  real world. Of the ' t e m p l e s c e n e ' L i n d s a y s a y s , "what words are t o M u s i c , i n d i v i d u a l s are t o the S u b l i m e " (TSG 1 3 ) . sense of the s u b l i m e :  the s u b l i m e i s  another w o r l d " (DT 6 8 ) .  What m u s i c g i v e s us i s  a  " t h e shadow of the beauty of  L i n d s a y w r i t e s , "Long s i n c e  ( f o r my own use)  I have p o s t u l a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e  of a ' s u b l i m e ' w o r l d , the word b e i n g  employed f o r want of a b e t t e r .  But t h i s  'sublime' i s not i d e n t i c a l  21 w i t h the ' s u b l i m e ' i n common u s e . "  And l a t e r , "Schopenhauer,  example, opposes the s u b l i m e t o the b e a u t i f u l . it  to the v u l g a r " (L 5 0 ) .  I s h o u l d w i s h to oppose  L i n d s a y h e r e t r i v i a l i s e s Schopenhauer, who  a c t u a l l y says i n The World as W i l l and I d e a t h a t " t h e p r o p e r of  for  opposite  the s u b l i m e i s something w h i c h would n o t at f i r s t g l a n c e be r e c o g 22  n i s e d as s u c h :  the charming o r a t t r a c t i v e  ( T h i r d Book, s e c .  40).  T h i s i s a c t u a l l y q u i t e c l o s e t o what L i n d s a y means by the v u l g a r : something w h i c h e x c i t e s  the w i l l ,  trivial)  M o z a r t ' s temple music i s s u b l i m e , b u t i n the  satisfaction.  something w h i c h o f f e r s  c o n t e x t i t i s b e i n g p u t to v u l g a r u s e .  immediate  (often  Faull's interest i n spiritualism  i s v u l g a r , and Backhouse sees " t h e c o n c e a l e d b a r b a r i a n i n the complacent gleam of h i s e y e " (VA 1 5 ) .  Backhouse i s enormously g i f t e d — " I  w i t h open e y e s , " he s a y s , "and o t h e r s see my dreams" s p i t e of h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s ,  dream  (VA 1 3 ) — b u t ,  he i s p r o s t i t u t i n g h i s t a l e n t :  in  he too  is  When J o i w i n d asks M a s k u l l why he l e f t e a r t h , he i s a b l e  to  23 vulgar. say,  " I was t i r e d of v u l g a r i t y " (VA 6 2 ) .  The opening c h a p t e r  provides  the v u l g a r i t y w h i c h makes the escape to Tormance n e c e s s a r y , and a g a i n s t  138  w h i c h the s u b l i m i t y o f the v i s i o n i n the l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l I n t o t h i s v u l g a r Hampstead w o r l d , a stranger  and i n t r u d e r .  He guffaws,  then, bursts  contrast.  the f i e r y K r a g ,  thumps F a u l l on the b a c k ,  and  s t r a n g l e s " w i t h h i s h a i r y h a n d s " the b e a u t i f u l s p i r i t t h a t the medium has m a t e r i a l i s e d .  One might have s a i d K r a g came i n ' l i k e a b r e a t h of  f r e s h a i r ' were i t n o t f o r the  result:  the body f e l l i n a heap to the f l o o r . I t s f a c e was uppermost. The guests were u n u t t e r a b l y shocked t o observe t h a t i t s e x p r e s s i o n had changed from the mysterious but f a s c i n a t i n g smile to a v u l g a r , s o r d i d , b a s t i a l g r i n , w h i c h c a s t a c o l d shadow o f m o r a l n a s t i ness i n t o every h e a r t . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was accompanied by a s i c k e n i n g s t e n c h o f the g r a v e y a r d (VA 2 2 ) . Thus i s a c e n t r a l m o t i f i n t r o d u c e d .  N i g h t s p o r e , who t h r o u g h dreaming  has m a i n t a i n e d some c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a l w o r l d , r e a l i s e s t h a t t h a t " C r y s t a l m a n ' s e x p r e s s i o n on i t s  face"  (VA 2 3 ) .  The u l t i m a t e mockery  o f the body and the phenomenal w o r l d i t i n h a b i t s i s skull.  is  the g r i n o f  the  There i s t h e s m e l l o f the g r a v e y a r d , and we may r e c a l l t h e s m e l l  of the g r a v e y a r d i n w h i c h Hamlet p h i l o s o p h i z e s over the s k u l l of  the  former j e s t e r , "Not one now t o mock y o u r own g r i n n i n g " (Hamlet, V . i . 1 8 7 ) . The g r i n o f t h e s k u l l ,  the f a c e o f C r y s t a l m a n , i s worn i n death by a l l  of H i s c h i l d r e n on Tormance: and S u l l e n b o d e . of S h a p i n g " :  It is  C r i m t y p h o n , Tydomin, G l e a m e i l , L e e h a l l f a e ,  the s i g n o f damnation.  I t i s "the true  " I t i s Shaping s t r i p p e d o f i l l u s i o n "  (VA 1 4 7 ) .  likeness Maskull  h i m s e l f i s one o f C r y s t a l m a n ' s c h i l d r e n , and, h i s name a s s u r e s u s , he too must wear i t i n d e a t h , when the mask of i l l u s i o n , i s s t r i p p e d o f f , the g r i n n i n g s k u l l r e v e a l e d .  and  The N i g h t s p o r e l i b e r a t e d by M a s k u l l ' s death  f i n d s the g r i n t o be t h e whole n a t u r e o f the shadow, the darkness  that  is  139  Crystalman: (VA 2 8 6 ) .  " t h e darkness around h i m , on a l l f o u r s i d e s , was g r i n n i n g " I n the words of the S y b i l ,  "Nowhere was t h e r e e a r t h n o r  24 heaven above,  / But a g r i n n i n g  gap."  At the end o f the f i r s t and at the b e g i n n i n g o f the second Krag's  chapter,  rough humour c o n t r a s t s b e a u t i f u l l y w i t h the s t i l t e d n a r r a t i o n  ("The guests were u n u t t e r a b l y shocked t o observe . . .")  appropriate  the w o r l d of v u l g a r s u b u r b a n - v i l l a theosophy o f the o p e n i n g . " T r y and s i m p l i f y y o u r i d e a s , my f r i e n d . (VA 2 5 ) .  I t sounds i n c r e d i b l e .  The a f f a i r  to  Krag says,  i s p l a i n and  serious"  M a s k u l l i s asked i f he would " l i k e  to  see t h e l a n d where t h i s s o r t o f f r u i t Ithe "specimen g o b l i n " ] grows w i l d " (VA 2 2 ) ; (VA 2 4 ) .  t h a t i s , Tormance, w h i c h i s " t h e r e s i d e n t i a l suburb o f A r c t u r u s " Much as  through a " P e r s p e c t i v e  G l a s s " C h r i s t i a n i s shown " t h e 25  Gates of the C e l e s t i a l C i t y " by the Shepherds,  M a s k u l l i s shown, through  a l e n s , a c l o s e - u p v i e w of the double s t a r and i t s p l a n e t ,  as a s i g n .  A  few days l a t e r , M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e t r a v e l northwards to the b l e a k observatory  o f S t a r k n e s s ( s t r e s s e d as a s p o n d e e ) , i n S c o t l a n d .  the f i r s t s t a g e of a l o n g j o u r n e y ,  taken c o n s i s t e n t l y  This  is  northwards.  The l i g h t of. A l p p a i n can sometimes be seen i n the N o r t h e r n sky (VA 1 1 2 ) ; B r a n c h s p e l l , l i k e our own s u n , s e t s i n the west e a r t h , the n o r t h i s  (VA 142).  ' t h e l a n d o f t h e m i d n i g h t s u n ' , and A l p p a i n i s ,  On as  we have s e e n , a k i n d o f ' n o c t u r n a l s u n ' , l i g h t i n g God's road r a t h e r than the w o r l d ' s .  A g a i n , on e a r t h t h e n o r t h has been the home of the Norsemen,  whom L i n d s a y admired and c l a i m e d as h i s a n c e s t o r s , and the c o u n t r y of the Norsemen has a w i l d and s u b l i m e grandeur M o r r i s ) unknown i n e f f e t e s o u t h e r n c l i m e s .  (as noted by C a r l y l e and L a s t l y , although  Surt'comes  140  from the s o u t h at the end o f the w o r l d , i n I c e l a n d i c l i t e r a t u r e  "the  n o r t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the l a n d of death and the l a n d o f man's enemies."  26  " H e l i s a l s o somewhat t o the n o r t h as w e l l as downward."  I n the a p o c a l y p s e ,  a c c o r d i n g to the 'Song o f the S y b i l , '  27  "Men t r e a d  28 H e l ' s Road."  Maskull follows a straight  a c c o r d i n g to "an i n f a l l i b l e r u l e , " he t e l l s due n o r t h " (VA 2 2 4 ) .  and narrow p a t h t o H e l l Corpang:  " I always  go  T h i s must l e a d h i m t o h i s death i n the hands  h i s enemy, C r y s t a l m a n .  of  M a s k u l l ' s death i s a l s o the end o f the w o r l d ,  s i n c e the w o r l d (any w o r l d , Schopenhauer would argue) i s o n l y h i s  idea:  Tormance i s  it  dissolves,  the p r o j e c t i o n o f M a s k u l l ' s m i n d .  When M a s k u l l d i e s ,  and N i g h t s p o r e f i n d s h i m s e l f c l i m b i n g a tower w h i c h must be  the same as the tower of S t a r k n e s s , from w h i c h the voyage began. The o b s e r v a t o r y  a t S t a r k n e s s i s " a square tower o f g r a n i t e 29  s e v e n t y f e e t i n h e i g h t " . (VA 29)  masonry,  w i t h s i x windows a l l f a c i n g e a s t  ( s u n r i s e ) and l o o k i n g o v e r the s e a .  I n l i t e r a t u r e the tower i s a t r a d -  i t i o n a l i c o n , l i t e r a l l y p r o v i d i n g and f i g u r a t i v e l y s y m b o l i s i n g an in vision. stair.  None may a s c e n d ,  increase  Bacon p o i n t e d o u t , except by the w i n d i n g  Many poets have used t h i s i c o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y M i l t o n , R i l k e and  Y e a t s , b u t s t a n d i n g b e h i n d the whole p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , most i m p o r t a n t l y , i s Dante.  Gilgamesh r e a l i s e s t h a t " o n l y the gods l i v e f o r e v e r w i t h  g l o r i o u s Shamash, b u t as f o r us men, our days are numbered, our occupat i o n s are a b r e a t h of w i n d " and he asks,. "Where i s  the man who can clamber  30 to heaven?"  I n The D i v i n e Comedy, t h i s i s what ' D a n t e ' does, h u t i t  i s o n l y a v i s i o n , and h i s poem b u t a b r e a t h of w i n d . w r i t e r , A r t h u r C. C l a r k e , w r i t e s ,  The s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n  141  Of a l l the n a t u r a l f o r c e s , g r a v i t y i s the most m y s t e r i o u s and the most i m p l a c a b l e . I t c o n t r o l s our l i v e s from b i r t h t o d e a t h , k i l l i n g o r maiming us i f we make the s l i g h t e s t s l i p . No wonder t h a t , c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r e a r t h - b o u n d s l a v e r y , men have always l o o k e d w i s t f u l l y at b i r d s and c l o u d s , and have p i c t u r e d the sky as the abode o f the gods. The v e r y e x p r e s s i o n ' h e a v e n l y b e i n g ' i m p l i e s a freedom from g r a v i t y w h i c h , u n t i l the p r e s e n t , we have known o n l y i n our dreams ( 3 1 ) . ' D a n t e ' has  the extreme good f o r t u n e to grow l i g h t e r as he c l i m b s .  V i r g i l t e l l s h i m , "Such i s t h i s m o u n t a i n , / That i t i s always s t a r t i n g up, / But the f u r t h e r up one goes, the l e s s i t h u r t s " J u s t the r e v e r s e i s ziggurat  the case f o r M a s k u l l when he t r i e s  or pathway t o heaven t h a t i s  the tower a t  arduous (II  4).  t o climb the  Starkness:  H a r d l y had he mounted h a l f a dozen s t e p s , however, b e f o r e he was compelled to p a u s e , to g a i n b r e a t h . He seemed t o be c a r r y i n g u p s t a i r s n o t one M a s k u l l , b u t t h r e e . As he p r o c e e d e d , the s e n s a t i o n o f c r u s h i n g w e i g h t , so f a r from d i m i n i s h i n g , grew worse and w o r s e . I t was n e a r l y p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o go o n ; h i s lungs c o u l d n o t take i n enough ©xygen, w h i l e h i s h e a r t thumped l i k e a s h i p ' s engine (VA 3 6 ) . Even at the end o f A Voyage, when N i g h t s p o r e has been f r e e d of the burden of the f l e s h w h i c h i s M a s k u l l , N i g h t s p o r e e x p e r i e n c e s  a g r e a t d e a l of  d i f f i c u l t y i n c l i m b i n g the t o w e r , t h e " l a d d e r to h e a v e n " (VA 2 8 1 ) : A f t e r he had mounted a dozen s t e p s o r s o , he paused to take b r e a t h . Each s t e p was i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e n d ; he f e l t as though he were c a r r y i n g a heavy man on h i s s h o u l d e r s . I t s t r u c k a f a m i l i a r chord i n h i s mind (VA 2 8 1 ) . The a s c e n t grew more and more e x h a u s t i n g , so much so t h a t he had f r e q u e n t l y to s i t down, u t t e r l y crushed by h i s own deadweight. S t i l l , he got t o the t h i r d window (yA 2 8 2 ) .  142  N i g h t s p o r e had a foreknowledge t h a t the s i x t h window would prove to be the l a s t . N o t h i n g w o u l d have k e p t him from a s c e n d i n g to i t , f o r he guessed t h a t the n a t u r e o f C r y s t a l m a n h i m s e l f would t h e r e become m a n i f e s t . Every s t e p upward was l i k e a b l o o d y - l i f e - a n d - d e a t h s t r u g g l e . The s t a i r s n a i l e d him to the ground; the a i r p r e s s u r e caused b l o o d t o gush from h i s nose and e a r s ; h i s head clanged l i k e an i r o n b e l l (VA 284-^85) . Nightspore experiences  such d i f f i c u l t y because he i s p a s s i n g through  the opaque body o f C r y s t a l m a n ; he i s ,  literally,  c r e a t i o n , out of the r i v e r of m a t t e r :  c l i m b i n g out o f  "As soon as h i s head was above  t h e t r a p , b r e a t h i n g the f r e e a i r , he had the same p h y s i c a l  sensation  32 as a man s t e p p i n g out o f w a t e r " (VA 2 8 6 ) . M a s k u l l ' s r i g i d l y n o r t h w a r d t r i p a c r o s s Tormance has some ups and downs t o keep i t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . more n a t u r a l z i g g u r a t s :  mountains,  These are n o t t o w e r s ,  l i k e Dante's.  but  "We have made the  m o u n t a i n - t o p a symbol f o r a c o n d i t i o n of mind open to e v e r y  influence  of t h e sky and d o m i n a t i n g the v a s t l a n d s c a p e o f e a r t h " w r i t e s Maud 33 B o d k i n , when d i s c u s s i n g Dante. J . A . M a c C u l l o c h has found t h a t t h e r e 34 is  . . . e v i d e n c e of mountain w o r s h i p among I the a n c i e n t c e l t s ] . "  We  have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out t h a t some o f L i n d s a y ' s names c o n t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s of m o u n t a i n s :  Tormance, A l p p a i n , K r a g .  C o l i n W i l s o n has suggested t h a t  o t h e r names i n A Voyage "seem t o be d e r i v e d from S c o t t i s h names.  One  has o n l y to l o o k a t the names of peaks v i s i b l e from Ben N e v i s t o see resemblance:  C o r p a c h , G u l v a i n , Ben S g r i o l , Ladhar B h e i n n , w h i l e Loch  Hourn i m m e d i a t e l y b r i n g s D i s c o u r n [ s i c ]  t o m i n d " (TSG 4 8 ) .  t h r e e i m p o r t a n t mountain areas on Tormance: and L i c h s t o r m .  There  the Ifdawn M a r e s t ,  are  Sant,  the  143  Maskull f l i e s  on a shrowk, a monster r e m i n i s c e n t of  Dante's  Geryon ( I 1 7 ) , w i t h Oceaxe, to the mountains o f the Ifdawn M a r e s t . T h i s i s , as the name s u g g e s t s , a l a n d where almost a n y t h i n g i s sible.  The "mountains have most e x t r a o r d i n a r y shapes.  A l l the l i n e s  are s t r a i g h t  and p e r p e n d i c u l a r — n o s l o p e s o r c u r v e s " (VA 8 9 ) .  says " t h a t ' s  t y p i c a l of I f d a w n .  N o t h i n g s o f t and g r a d u a l . " I t i s the w o r l d as w i l l .  pos-  Oceaxe  N a t u r e i s a l l hammer blows w i t h  I t i s " a p l a c e of q u i c k d e c i s i o n s " Everyone a c t s from naked w i l l  us.  (VA 8 9 ) .  t o power.  M a s k u l l has j u s t l e f t Panawe and J o i w i n d , who have renounced w i l l t o g e t h e r , who l i v e on w a t e r , and i n i n n o c e n c e .  W i t h Oceaxe,  al-  Maskull  has t r a v e l l e d t o a w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e , where t h e v i e w i s  that  were made to be e a t e n ,  absorbed"  (VA 8 8 ) .  and s i m p l e n a t u r e s were made t o be  There has been some i n c r e a s e i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s  mountains), but i t i s p r e c a r i o u s : disappear  erratically.  (there  "animals  are  mountains and v a l l e y s appear and  M a s k u l l sees  a l a r g e t r a c t o f f o r e s t n o t f a r ahead, b e a r i n g many t r e e s and r o c k s , suddenly s u b s i d e d w i t h an a w f u l r o a r and crashed down i n t o an i n v i s i b l e g u l f . What was s o l i d l a n d one minute became a c l e a n - c u t chasm the n e x t (VA 9 9 ) . I t i s a w o r l d of k i l l and be k i l l e d ;  l i f e on a k n i f e edge.  Sant i s much more s o l i d and r e l i a b l e than I f d a w n . mountainous at a l l , b u t a v e r y h i g h p l a t e a u .  I t i s not  M a s k u l l i s now t r a v e l l i n g  w i t h Tydomin and S p a d e v i l , whose law i s duty (VA 1 3 3 ) . S h o r t l y b e f o r e sunset they a r r i v e d a t the e x t r e m i t y of the upland p l a i n , above w h i c h towered the b l a c k c l i f f s of the Sant L e v e l s . A dizzy, a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s t a i r c a s e , o f more than a thousand s t e p s of v a r y i n g d e p t h , t w i s t i n g and f o r k i n g i n o r d e r t o conform to the a n g l e s o f the p r e c i p i c e s , l e d t o the w o r l d overhead (VA 140) .  144  From here " t h e huge p y r a m i d " of D i s s c o u r n , h i g h e s t peak of  Ifdawn,  " l o o k e d n o t h i n g more than a s l i g h t s w e l l i n g on the f a c e o f the (VA 140)•  earth"  But the law o f duty the t r a v e l l e r s b r i n g i s r e j e c t e d  C a t i c e on b e h a l f of the men o f S a n t .  T h e i r s o c i e t y i s not  b u t i t i s the b e s t t h a t can be managed. male s o c i e t y , For a n o t h e r ,  by  perfect,  F o r one t h i n g , i t i s an a l l -  and C a t i c e i s n o t about to a l l o w any women i n t o i t . duty i s  of o t h e r p e o p l e "  " b u t a c l o a k under w h i c h we s h a r e the p l e a s u r e  (VA 145).  Maskull decides,  H e n c e f o r w a r d , as l o n g as I l i v e , I s h a l l f i g h t w i t h my n a t u r e , and r e f u s e t o f e e l p l e a s u r e , for the w o r l d w i t h i t s sweetness seems to me a s o r t of charnel house. I f e e l a loathing for everything i n i t , i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f (VA 1 4 5 ) . The l a n d of Sant may be f l a t and u n e x c i t i n g (Wayne Booth says "Even 35 the most e l e v a t e d p l a t e a u i s l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than a m o u n t a i n " i t i s s e c u r e and r e l i a b l e and the b e s t t h a t can be g o t .  To h a t e  p l e a s u r e and a v o i d women i s the b e s t way to a v o i d C r y s t a l m a n ' s M a s k u l l does n o t , o f c o u r s e ,  remember what he has  ) but  traps.  l e a r n e d i n Sant  when p u r s u i n g o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n o t h e r l a n d s c a p e s , o t h e r w i s e he would n o t f a l l f o r S u l l e n b o d e , who l i v e s on the mountain c a l l e d S a r c l a s h the l a n d of L i c h s t o r m . Ifdawn's  This land i s a l i t t l e l i k e Ifdawn, but w i t h o u t  mercenary v u l g a r i t y .  Tormance's  in  The Mornstab P a s s , seen by the l i g h t o f  moon, T e a r g e l d , has a " w i l d , n o b l e , l o n e l y b e a u t y "  (VA 248)  " S a r c l a s h was a mighty mountain mass i n the shape of a h o r s e s h o e .  Its  two ends p o i n t e d w e s t , and were s e p a r a t e d from e a c h o t h e r by a m i l e o r more of empty s p a c e .  The n o r t h e r n end became the r i d g e on w h i c h they  145  stood"  (VA 2 4 9 ) .  knife-edge  I t i s a l o n g t h i s r i d g e , which corresponds  " t h e road descended by an easy g r a d i e n t ,  distance  the  p r e c i p i c e j o i n i n g Panawe's homeland t o the Ifdawn Marest  (VA 7 0 - 7 1 ) , t h a t M a s k u l l , S u l l e n b o d e and Corpang t r a v e l . ridge,  to  c o m p a r a t i v e l y smooth" (VA 2 5 1 ) .  Virgil  tells  A l o n g the  and was f o r a l o n g  The g o i n g i s e a s y — d o w n h i l l .  the c l i m b i n g Dante t o  r i s e u p , and master y o u r e x h a u s t i o n W i t h the s p i r i t , w h i c h w i n s every b a t t l e , P r o v i d e d the body does n o t drag i t down ( I  24).  We have seen b o t h M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e , i n c l i m b i n g the tower to h e a v e n , f i g h t i n g w i t h the w e i g h t of c r e a t i o n . opposite  i n dark as w e l l as i n heavy.  A l s o , l i g h t has an  Dante i s c l i m b i n g towards  the  l i g h t , and even he "cannot t r a v e l up by n i g h t " : You c o u l d n o t even Pass beyond t h i s l i n e , once the sun had gone. Not t h a t a n y t h i n g b u t the dark of n i g h t Could h i n d e r y o u from making the a s c e n t . That dark a l o n e makes the w i l l powerless ( I I 7 ) . In h i s f i r s t attempt  to c l i m b the t o w e r , M a s k u l l attempts to l i g h t h i s  own way w i t h a few h a s t i l y s t r u c k matches (VA 3 6 - 3 7 ) : substitute  f o r Muspel f i r e .  Krag i s  they are a poor  the b e a r e r o f the l i g h t , though on  e a r t h i t i s o n l y a " f e e b l y g l i m m e r i n g l a n t e r n " (VA 3 9 ) .  The t h r e e men  c l i m b the tower t o g e t h e r a f t e r M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e have had t h e i r arms slashed:  they are now dead to E a r t h and the tower i s not a z i g g u r a t  a launching platform. hastened  K r a g goes f i r s t w i t h the l a n t e r n :  "the  a f t e r h i m , to t a k e advantage o f the l i g h t " (VA 4 0 ) .  s t o p s t o l o o k out of a window.  others Maskull  " K r a g and N i g h t s p o r e meanwhile had gone  on ahead w i t h the l i g h t , so t h a t he had to complete the a s c e n t i n darkness"  (VA 4 1 ) .  but  146  On Tormance,  i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l i c a l v a l u e i s a t t a c h e d to the  light  o f the t w i n s u n s , B r a n c h s p e l l and A l p p a i n , as M a s k u l l t r a v e l s  from  Branchspell's  These  day to A l p p a i n ' s , from the south t o the n o r t h .  suns we d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters by a t h i r d h e a v e n l y body, p a r t i n the a l l e g o r y , t h a t of our own moon.  the moon T e a r g e l d .  This plays only a s m a l l seems to be  F i r s t l y i t makes l a n d s c a p e s m y s t e r i o u s  and i s t h e r e f o r e  mysterious  and b e a u t i f u l .  Lichstorm i t s  Tormance i s a l s o l i t  and i t s g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  beautiful,  h o u s e " (VA 145)  Three and F o u r .  o f w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g .  " w i l d , noble,  and  an agent of C r y s t a l m a n , who l i k e s H i s w o r l d i s r e a l l y , of c o u r s e , a I t i s Teargeld  l o n e l y b e a u t y " (VA 2 4 8 ) .  that  and s i n c e i t s h i n e s by r e f l e c t e d  l i g h t , is  "charnel gives the  inconstant,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h woman, whom  the Archons d e s i g n e d to keep man bound to the w o r l d . the j o u r n e y of M a s k u l l and S u l l e n b o d e ,  the  Secondly  moon, s i n c e i t waxes and wanes p e r i o d i c a l l y , s i n c e i t i s  roughly  Teargeld  lights  and t h a t o f M a s k u l l and G l e a m e i l  — h e r name s u g g e s t s a fragment of m o o n l i g h t — o n Swaylone's  Island.  T h i r d l y , as the female muse, the moon l i g h t s the w o r l d o f p o e t s . i s an e a r t h l y example,  E a r t h r i d a Tormantic one.  Keats  When M a s k u l l and  G l e a m e i l go to see E a r t h r i d p l a y h i s l a k e - l i k e i n s t r u m e n t I r o n t i c k , he must w a i t f o r the moon to r i s e b e f o r e s t a r t i n g . shapes w h i c h i s a d i f f e r e n t  He c r e a t e s a w o r l d of  r e a l i t y from the r e a l i t y o f the w o r l d  i s e a r t h - r i d ) , b u t i t i s n o t the t r u e r e a l i t y of M u s p e l . comes from the s u b c o n s c i o u s (the l a k e ) ,  (he  H i s music  n o t from the w o r l d beyond.  It  i s l i t n o t by the n o c t u r n a l s u n , but by the o r d i n a r y moon. A c c o r d i n g to E a r t h r i d , t h e r e are two k i n d s o f m u s i c :  t h a t based on  147  p l e a s u r e and t h a t based on p a i n . founded on p a i n f u l t o n e s ; to discover;  He t e l l s M a s k u l l , "my music  and thus i t s symmetry i s w i l d , and d i f f i c u l t  i t s emotion i s b i t t e r and t e r r i b l e " (VA 1 8 1 ) .  a t the Demiurge's  is  d i s p o s a l proved i n t r a c t a b l e ,  The m a t e r i a l  but  I f S h a p i n g ' s p l a n s had gone s t r a i g h t , l i f e would have been l i k e t h a t o t h e r s o r t of m u s i c . He who seeks can f i n d t r a c e s o f t h a t i n t e n t i o n i n the w o r l d of n a t u r e . But as i t has t u r n e d o u t , r e a l l i f e resembles my music and mine i s the t r u e music (VA 181). E a r t h r i d i s not p l a y i n g Crystalman's Surtur's:  t u n e , even i f he i s n o t p l a y i n g  though E a r t h r i d i s k i l l e d , we are n o t t o l d t h a t i n death he  wears the C r y s t a l m a n g r i n (VA 1 8 7 ) .  In f a c t ,  using E a r t h r i d ' s  instrument,  M a s k u l l i s a b l e to c o n j u r e up the M u s p e l r a d i a n c e ,  alongside which  g e l d looked f a i n t and p a l e "  disappeared e n t i r e l y . "  (VA 1 8 5 ) ,  and " f i n a l l y  "Tear-  " M a s k u l l p l a y e d h e r o i c a l l y o n " (VA 185): The r a d i a n c e grew t e r r i b l e . I t was everywhere, b u t M a s k u l l f a n c i e d t h a t i t was f a r b r i g h t e r i n one p a r t i c u l a r quarter. He thought t h a t i t was becoming l o c a l i z e d , preparatory to c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o a s o l i d form.... Immediately a f t e r w a r d t h e bottom o f the l a k e subsided. I t s waters f e l l t h r o u g h , and h i s i n s t r u m e n t was b r o k e n . The M u s p e l - l i g h t v a n i s h e d . The moon shone out a g a i n , b u t M a s k u l l c o u l d n o t see i t . A f t e r t h a t u n e a r t h l y s h i n i n g , he seemed t o h i m s e l f to be i n t o t a l b l a c k n e s s (VA 1 8 5 - 8 6 ) . A r t of the r i g h t k i n d ( p a i n f u l and d i f f i c u l t ) may be u s e f u l i n g i v i n g us an i d e a o f the w o r l d o f M u s p e l , b u t i t cannot b r i n g the w o r l d i n t o b e i n g . Its  i n s t r u m e n t s cannot cope w i t h the s t r a i n . As was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter F o u r , C r y s t a l m a n ' s  while Surtur's  i s a march rhythm on a drum.  tune i s a w a l t z ,  We have t o go on a  e x c u r s i o n from S t a r k n e s s f o r t h i s m o t i f t o be i n t r o d u c e d ,  little  though i t  is  148  i m p l i c i t i n M a s k u l l ' s experience  c l i m b i n g the tower f o r the f i r s t  on h i s r e t u r n from the e x c u r s i o n ( " h i s h e a r t thumped l i k e a engine"  [VA 3 6 ] ) .  the gap of S o r g i e have t o  time,  ship's  N i g h t s p o r e takes M a s k u l l to " a showplace" (VA 3 4 ) , (from the German s o r g e , c a r e ) .  To get t h e r e they  traverse a narrow l e d g e , w i n d i n g a l o n g the f a c e of the p r e c i p i c e a few y a r d s beneath where they were s t a n d i n g . I t averaged from f i f t e e n to t h i r t y i n c h e s i n w i d t h . . . . The s h e l f d i d not extend f o r above a q u a r t e r of a m i l e , b u t i t s passage was somewhat u n n e r v i n g ; t h e r e was a sheer drop t o the sea f o u r hundred f e e t below (VA 3 4 - 3 5 ) .  A t the end of t h i s ledge i s a " f a i r - s i z e d p l a t f o r m o f r o c k " o v e r l o o k i n g " a narrow i n l e t of the s e a . "  T h i s i s the Gap of S o r g i e .  N i g h t s p o r e ' s example i n " l y i n g at f u l l "straight  down a t the w a t e r . "  l e n g t h , f a c e downward" and s t a r i n g  " W h i l e he was i n e f f e c t u a l l y g a z i n g , he  h e a r d what sounded l i k e the b e a t i n g of a drum. . . . but quite d i s t i n c t . "  Maskull follows  I t was v e r y f a i n t ,  "The b e a t s were i n no way drowned by the f a r l o u d e r  sound of the s u r f , b u t seemed to b e l o n g to a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d " (VA 3 5 ) . Nightspore prophesies  t h a t M a s k u l l w i l l h e a r the sound a g a i n and s a y s ,  " O n l y t r y always to h e a r i t more and more d i s t i n c t l y " (VA 3 6 ) . does h e a r the sound a g a i n .  In f a c t ,  Maskull  he f o l l o w s i t a l l the way a c r o s s  Tormance, and the d i s c o v e r y o f i t s o r i g i n w i l l  c o n s t i t u t e h i s own f i n a l  vision. Soon a f t e r a r r i v i n g on Tormance, when w i t h Panawe and J o i w i n d , M a s k u l l r e p e a t s the e x p e r i e n c e he has had w i t h N i g h t s p o r e . onto a l a k e , " l a y down a t f u l l was w e i r d l y c l e a r :  He w a l k s out  l e n g t h , and peered i n t o the d e p t h s .  It  he c o u l d see down f o r an i n d e f i n i t e d i s t a n c e , w i t h o u t  a r r i v i n g a t any b o t t o m " (VA 6 5 ) .  H i s t r i p t o Tormance has b r o u g h t M a s k u l l  149  much c l o s e r  to the s u r f a c e , v i z . of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d (which seems  r e a l but i s  dreamlike)  and to p e n e t r a t i n g  through to the  reality.  He h e a r s " t h e rhythm of a drum" (VA 6 6 ) : The sound appeared to h i m to b e l o n g to a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d from t h a t i n w h i c h he was t r a v e l i n g . The l a t t e r was m y s t i c a l , d r e a m l i k e , and u n b e l i e v a b l e — t h e drumming was l i k e a v e r y dim undertone of r e a l i t y (VA 6 6 ) . I n t h i s case—though no l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n i s i m p l i e d — t h e  experience  o f the drumming i s  (VA 66) by  f o l l o w e d by M a s k u l l ' s b e i n g " t o r m e n t e d "  the b l u e l i g h t of A l p p a i n , w h i c h has j u s t I f the drum-taps  are " l i k e a v e r y dim undertone o f r e a l i t y " (VA 6 6 ) ,  then t h i s w o r l d must be f a l s e . when he has  set.  This i s  the c o n c l u s i o n M a s k u l l reaches  " f l u n g h i m s e l f at f u l l l e n g t h on h i s c h e s t , to see what  c o u l d be seen of the l a k e o f f i r e " (VA 127)  i n w h i c h Tydomin i s b u r y i n g  Crimtyphon: A f a i n t sound o f drumming came up. He l i s t e n e d i n t e n t l y , and as he d i d so h i s h e a r t quickened and the b l a c k c a r e s r o l l e d away from h i s s o u l . A l l the w o r l d and i t s a c c i d e n t s seemed at t h a t moment f a l s e , and w i t h o u t meaning (VA 127). I f the drumming reminds us we are a l i e n s  i n a false world,  then i t must  a l s o remind us o f our t r u e home: The drum b e a t s had t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y — t h o u g h odd and m y s t i c a l , t h e r e was n o t h i n g a w e - i n s p i r i n g i n them, b u t on the c o n t r a r y they reminded [ M a s k u l l ] o f some p l a c e and some l i f e w i t h w h i c h he was p e r f e c t l y f a m i l i a r (VA 151). Our t r u e home i s  the w o r l d o f M u s p e l .  But t h a t i s ,  as we have s e e n ,  w o r l d which N i g h t s p o r e , not M a s k u l l , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h . M a s k u l l must d i e to make t h i s p o s s i b l e .  the  Further,  T h i s i s s i g n i f i e d by the v i s i o n  M a s k u l l sees when he has e a t e n the f r u i t g i v e n to h i m by  Dreamsinter.  150  "The now f a m i l i a r drum rhythm was h e a r d — t h i s the tramp o f marching f e e t " (VA 153).  time accompanied by  M a s k u l l sees phantom M a s k u l l ,  K r a g and N i g h t s p o r e marching p a s t h i m to " t h e p u l s e o f the drum" (VA 153).  Phantom K r a g s t a b s phantom M a s k u l l i n the back w h i l e phantom  " N i g h t s p o r e marched on a l o n e ,  s t e r n and unmoved" (VA 154)  Muspel l i g h t w h i c h i s now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the drumming. h i s s o u l l o o s e n i n g from i t s b o d i l y e n v e l o p e . " of e n d u r i n g such s h o c k s ,  towards  the  "Maskull  " H i s body was  felt  incapable  and a l l of a sudden he tumbled o v e r i n a f a i n t  t h a t resembled d e a t h " (VA 154).  The r e a l N i g h t s p o r e i s ,  of  course,  i n s i d e M a s k u l l , who must d i e f o r h i s complementary double t o be  released.  When t h i s happens, we d i s c o v e r the s o u r c e of the drumming. I n the r e f e r e n c e s to the drumming, L i n d s a y has r e p e a t e d l y the b e a t i n g of M a s k u l l ' s h e a r t .  mentioned  On the s t e p s of the t o w e r , " h i s  heart  thumped l i k e a s h i p ' s  e n g i n e " (VA 3 6 ) ;  above the l a k e o f f i r e " h i s  q u i c k e n e d " (VA 12 7 ) .  H e a r i n g the drumming w i t h Corpang, " M a s k u l l ' s  h e a r t b e a t q u i c k l y " (VA 2 2 1 ) ; h e a r i n g i t w i t h  Sullenbode  M a s k u l l ' s heart beat w i l d l y . H i s body was l i k e a p r i s o n . He longed t o throw i t o f f , to s p r i n g up and become i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the s u b l i m e u n i v e r s e which was b e g i n n i n g t o u n v e i l i t s e l f (VA 2 5 9 ) . When M a s k u l l f i n a l l y d i e s on S u r t u r ' s explicitly  Ocean, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s  made: H i s h e a r t was thumping h e a v i l y and q u e e r l y ; i t s b e a t i n g reminded h i m of the drum t a p s . He gazed l a n g u i d l y at the r i p p l i n g w a t e r , and i t seemed to him as i f he c o u l d see r i g h t through i t . . . away, away down . . . to a s t r a n g e fire....  heart  151  The w a t e r d i s a p p e a r e d . The two suns were e x t i n g u i s h e d . The i s l a n d was transformed i n t o a c l o u d , and M a s k u l l — a l o n e on i t — w a s f l o a t i n g through the a t m o s p h e r e . . . . Down b e l o w , i t was a l l f i r e — t h e f i r e of M u s p e l . The l i g h t mounted h i g h e r and h i g h e r , u n t i l i t f i l l e d the whole w o r l d . . . . He f l o a t e d toward an immense p e r p e n d i c u l a r c l i f f o f b l a c k r o c k , w i t h o u t top o r b o t t o m . Halfway up i t K r a g , suspended i n m i d a i r , was d e a l i n g t e r r i f i c blows at a b l o o d r e d s p o t w i t h a huge hammer: The r h y t h m i c a l c l a n g i n g sounds were h i d e o u s . P r e s e n t l y M a s k u l l made out t h a t these sounds were the f a m i l i a r drum b e a t s . "What are you d o i n g , K r a g ? " he a s k e d . K r a g suspended h i s w o r k , and t u r n e d a r o u n d . " B e a t i n g on your h e a r t , M a s k u l l , " was h i s g r i n n i n g r e sponse (VA 2 7 6 - 7 7 ) . "You know o n l y the s p a r k s o f the s p i r i t :  but you do n o t see  the a n v i l 36  w h i c h the s p i r i t i s , n o r the f e r o c i t y of i t s hammer!" says  Zarathustra.  D i s c o v e r i n g the f e r o c i t y of t h a t hammer c o s t s M a s k u l l h i s l i f e . f r i g h t f u l pang passed through M a s k u l l ' s h e a r t ,  and he d i e d  "A  immediately"  (VA 2 7 7 ) . B e f o r e d y i n g , M a s k u l l asks K r a g , "Who are y o u ? " 37 no r e p l y .  Krag i s S u r t u r .  Like Blake's  Los  (VA 2 7 7 ) , b u t he gets  (who i n B l a k e i s  identical  38 with Christ  ) , K r a g comes to f r e e man from the p r i s o n of the body, 39  break the f e t t e r s of t i m e , death i s a l s o N i g h t s p o r e ' s  and r e s t o r e us to e t e r n i t y . birth:  Nightspore  Thus,  to  Maskull's  reawakes t o c l i m b the  tower  which M a s k u l l f a i l e d to c l i m b at the b e g i n n i n g of A Voyage to A r c t u r u s . I n c l i m b i n g the t o w e r , N i g h t s p o r e c r e a t i o n b e h i n d , and r e t u r n s the tower i s  l e a v e s the f a l s e day-dream w o r l d o f  to h i s t r u e home.  t r a d i t i o n a l , b u t L i n d s a y has  the s p i r i t t o r e t u r n home, and t h a t i s ship.  T h i s use of the i c o n o f  another symbol f o r the d e s i r e of  the back rays w h i c h power the s p a c e -  A g a i n the i d e a o f back r a y s , as w i t h so much e l s e i n A Voyage  A r c t u r u s , may have been suggested by George MacDonald.  to  In L i l i t h , M r .  152  Vane sees l i g h t d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o a m i r r o r , and n o t b e i n g r e f l e c t e d out a g a i n . tell,' first"'  "Where are the sunrays gone?" he a s k s .  r e t u r n e d M r . Raven; " ' — b a c k ,  perhaps,  " ' T h a t I cannot  to where they came from  (40).  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s n o t o n l y a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s y , a l s o space f a n t a s y .  it  is  The voyage to Tormance i s t o be made from the top  of the tower at S t a r k n e s s i n what i s ,  f o r 1920, r a t h e r an o l d - f a s h i o n e d 41  space-ship:  i t i s a " t o r p e d o o f c r y s t a l " (VA 43)  e i g h t w i d e , and e i g h t h i g h " (VA 4 4 ) .  The main d i f f e r e n c e between  and, f o r example, Hugh M a c C o l l ' s ' S h o o t i n g S t a r ' l o g i c a l l y , puts the f u e l tank a t the f r o n t . stories  tended to use f a n t a s t i c — o f t e n  satellite:  " f o r t y feet long, this  (1899) i s t h a t L i n d s a y ,  Very e a r l y  space-flight  l u d i c r o u s — w a y s o f g e t t i n g to our  B i s h o p Godwin's a s t r o n a u t was towed by a team o f w i l d geese  ( 1 6 3 8 ) , K e p l e r ' s by demons (1634)—a method r e ^ s u r r e c t e d r e c e n t l y by the a n t i - s c i e n t i f i c C. S. L e w i s . Herley started  I n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Joseph A .  something o f a new t r e n d i n h i s A Voyage to the Moon  (1827) by u s i n g a newly ' d i s c o v e r e d ' s u b s t a n c e a t t r a c t e d 42 and c a l l e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, l u n a r i u m .  to the moon  Mark Wicks i n To Mars v i a  the Moon (1911) found ' m a r t i a l u m ' t o have s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s . d e v i c e s are c o n v e n i e n t and p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c : Lindsay's space-ship,  Such  they do n o t mean a n y t h i n g .  however, w h i l e i t i s powered by a s i m i l a r d e v i c e ,  does have meaning, and so do the A r c t u r a n back r a y s which power i t . L i n d s a y ' s s p a c e - s h i p i s a womb.  Damon K n i g h t , i n a c o l l e c t i o n of  reviews o f s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n , s a y s , " I t h i n k i t i s s a f e t o p o s t u l a t e 'an a l i e n l a n d s i n a s p a c e - s h i p '  is  that  d r e a m - t a l k f o r ' a baby i s b o r n , ' and  153  t h a t the passengers o f such s h i p s are bound to be f o e t a l . " reason, perhaps,  For t h i s  the t h r e e t r a v e l l e r s s t r i p naked b e f o r e embarking.  When M a s k u l l wakes up, a l o n e , on Tormance, he i s n e w - b o r n : is Joiwind.  To be r e b o r n one must d i e .  his  'mother'  M a s k u l l has been s y m b o l i c a l l y  44  murdered by K r a g ,  who has s l a s h e d h i s arm (VA 40) i n o r d e r t o enable  him t o c l i m b the tower to the s p a c e - s h i p ,  and thus to be t r a n s p o r t e d by  the b a c k - r a y s an enormous d i s t a n c e homewards. When w a i t i n g w i t h N i g h t s p o r e i n the tower at S t a r k n e s s , a c c i d e n t a l l y knocks over a b o t t l e l a b e l e d ' S o l a r Back R a y s '  Maskull (VA 3 1 ) .  The b o t t l e d i s a p p e a r s . Nightspore e x p l a i n s : The v a l v e became u n f a s t e n e d . The c o n t e n t s have escaped through the open window, toward the s u n , c a r r y i n g the b o t t l e w i t h them. But the b o t t l e w i l l be burned up by the e a r t h ' s atmosphere, and the c o n t e n t s w i l l d i s s i p a t e , and w i l l n o t r e a c h the sun (VA 3 2 ) . S o l a r Back Rays r e t u r n to the s u n , i f they c a n ; A r c t u r i a n Back Rays r e t u r n to A r c t u r u s , t a k i n g a l o n g w i t h them the s p a c e - s h i p . c o n s i s t o f " L i g h t t h a t goes back to i t s s o u r c e " course,  the whole theme of the book.  the d e s i r e o f the fragments and  of the d i s s i p a t e d  (VA 3 2 ) .  It encapsulates,  Back r a y s This i s ,  i n miniature,  o f Muspel f i r e t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r  fragments  of  source,  o f D i v i n e L i g h t , i n the G n o s t i c myth-  o l o g y , to be r e s t o r e d to the Godhead.  Like Shelley's Alastor looking  a t the swan, l i k e MacDonald's Anodos l o o k i n g f o r h i s m o t h e r , l i k e Henry i n N o v a l i s ' s Kunstmarchen, the l i g h t j o u r n e y s homewards. s p i r i t is willing,  But w h i l e the  as the proverb puts i t , the f l e s h i s weak.  b o t t l e i s burned up i n the atmosphere,  If  the  the back r a y s w i l l n e v e r r e a c h  154  the s u n .  Maskull i s also a vessel:  h i s f u n c t i o n — i t i s almost a  s a c r e d f u n c t i o n — i n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s t o c a r r y the fragment o f l i g h t he c o n t a i n s  (imprisons)  to the l i m i t o f C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d ,  where i t can f i n a l l y escape to M u s p e l . d e f e a t i s no empty one. victory  possible.  Maskull i s defeated,  but h i s  H i s b l o o d y j o u r n e y a c r o s s Tormance makes  155  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter  Five  I n E a g l e and E a r w i g (London: John B a k e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , C o l i n W i l s o n says " a c a r p i n g c r i t i c might f i n d A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s no more than an attempt to w r i t e The World as W i l l and Idea as a n o v e l " ( p . 150). 2 Books,  A r t h u r Schopenhauer, The E s s e n t i a l 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 49-50.  Schopenhauer  3  (London:  F o r Dante, as f o r the w o o l - c a r d e r s o f H e r a c l e i t u s ' s t r a i g h t way and the w i n d i n g way a r e one and the s a m e . "  Unwin  fragment,  "the  4  The p o i n t i s made at l e n g t h by K a t h l e e n Raine i n h e r s t u d i e s of Dante, M i l t o n , B l a k e and Y e a t s i n Defending A n c i e n t S p r i n g s (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967). Raine mentions A Voyage i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i s t of g r e a t f a n t a s y , p l a c i n g i t between She and P e t e r Pan (p. 125). ^ T h i s i s a l o n g e r i n t r o d u c t i o n than i s common. C. S. Lewis s u b t i t l e s That Hideous S t r e n g t h (London: The B o d l e y Head, 1969), the t h i r d book i n h i s t r i l o g y , " a modern f a i r y t a l e f o r grown-ups" " i n the hope t h a t no one who d i s l i k e s f a n t a s y may be m i s l e d by the f i r s t two c h a p t e r s i n t o r e a d i n g f u r t h e r , and then complain of h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . I f you ask w h y — i n t e n d i n g to w r i t e about m a g i c i a n s , d e v i l s , pantomine a n i m a l s , and p l a n e t a r y a n g e l s — I n e v e r t h e l e s s b e g i n w i t h such humdrum scenes and p e r s o n s , I r e p l y t h a t I am f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y - t a l e " ( p . 7 ) . C u r i o u s l y enough, t i t l e and e p i g r a p h are from the o t h e r D a v i d L i n d s a y . J . W. Smeed, Jean P a u l ' s 1969), p. 9. 7  J.  W. Smeed, Jean P a u l ' s  'Dreams'  'Dreams',  (London:  p.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  27.  Lewis C a r r o l l ^ The Adventures o f A l i c e i n Wonderland and Through the L o o k i n g G l a s s (London: The H e i r l o o m L i b r a r y , 1954), p . 24. 9 Lewis C a r r o l l , A l i c e i n Wonderland, p .  19.  Lewis C a r r o l l , The H u n t i n g of the Snark: (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 8.  An Agony i n E i g h t  Fits  156  George MacDonald, L i l i t h (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 11. Read i n the l i g h t of A r c t u r u s , every p h r a s e of t h i s q u o t a t i o n has two meanings. 12  Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n : The Message o f the A l i e n God and the B e g i n n i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2nd e d . ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1963) , p . 176. 13  Jonas c o n t i n u e s , "and the Archons c r e a t e d man f o r the e x p r e s s purpose of k e e p i n g i t t h e r e " (The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p . 4 4 ) . Crystalman i s an A r c h o n . "*"^Hans J o n a s , The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , p .  44.  "'""'The most famous statement i s W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s speak, t h e r e o f one must remain s i l e n t . "  "Whereof one  cannot  16  E . T. A . Hoffmann, 'The Automata' i n The B e s t T a l e s o f Hoffmann, e d . E . F . B l e i l e r (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967), p . 95. 17 M a n as f r u i t may sound s t r a n g e , b u t i t i s n ' t . On a f a r c i c a l l e v e l , f o r example, i n The Man Who Was Thursday (New Y o r k : Modern L i b r a r y , 1 9 1 7 ) , D r . B u l l i s t o l d , " I dare say i t ' s the s o r t o f f a c e t h a t grows on one . . . i n f a c t , i t grows on y o u ; and who am I to quarrel"., w i t h the w i l d f r u i t s upon the t r e e of l i f e " (p. 1 3 2 ) . More s e r i o u s l y , i n The G n o s t i c R e l i g i o n , Hans Jonas says " t h e V a l e n t i n i a n s . . . drew an a l l e g o r i c a l p a r a l l e l between [ J e s u s ] and the f r u i t from the t r e e : by b e i n g a f f i x e d to a ' w o o d , ' he 'became a F r u i t o f the Knowledge of the F a t h e r , w h i c h d i d n o t , however, b r i n g p e r d i t i o n upon those who ate i t ' " (p. 9 4 ) .  18  'Backhouse' would n o t seem to be a r e f e r e n c e to ' t h e room out the b a c k , ' i . e . the l a v a t o r y . R. M. Rennick s u p p l i e s the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t "Backhouse was the 14th Century E n g l i s h bakehouse and was g i v e n as a name to a person who worked i n or f o r a b a k e r y " i n 'Obscene Names and Naming i n F o l k T r a d i t i o n , ' Names, 16 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 214. 19 L i n d s a y p a r t i c u l a r l y admired t h i s s c e n e .  He w r i t e s ,  What words are t o M u s i c , i n d i v i d u a l s are t o the S u b l i m e . T h i s i s e x c e l l e n t l y shown i n the Temple scene o f the M a g i c Flute. The massive gloom of the i n t e r i o r , the g i g a n t i c s t a t u e s i l h o u e t t e d a g a i n s t the gleaming s k y , M o z a r t ' s hymn; c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the d e c l a m a t i o n of the High P r i e s t , and the double row o f w h i t e - r o b e d p r i e s t s who a s s i s t h i m . B o t h words and men.appear a b s o l u t e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t and meaningl e s s b e s i d e the music and the solemn grandeur of the Temple (TSG 13) .  15 7  20  T h i s a l s o can be t r a c e d to an i n c i d e n t i n L i n d s a y ' s own l i f e . In a l e t t e r dated 9 t h September 1921, he w r i t e s t o V i s i a k : A few weeks b e f o r e the death o f my o n l y b r o t h e r , some y e a r s b a c k , I was awakened i n the m i d d l e o f the n i g h t by a tremendous c r a s h , as though a chimney s t a c k had c r a s h e d through the r o o f o v e r h e a d . That i t was n o t i m a g i n a t i o n i n any case i s proved by the f a c t t h a t my a u n t , who s l e p t i n the room above, came f l y i n g downs t a i r s f o r h e l p — s h e a l s o had h e a r d the n o i s e , and was f r i g h t e n e d n e a r l y out o f h e r s e n s e s . The o t h e r two inmates o f the house h e a r d n o t h i n g , and i n the morning no damage c o u l d be d e t e c t e d e i t h e r t o o u r house o r to any o t h e r i n the road (L 4 3 ) . T h i s c r a s h appears t w i c e i n A Voyage: when M a s k u l l and N i g h t s p o r e e n t e r F a u l l ' s house (VA 18) and when, r e - e n a c t i n g the scene on Tormance, M a s k u l l and Tydomin e n t e r a cave (VA 1 2 1 ) . 21 In a l e t t e r dated November 25, 1921, quoted by W i l s o n (TSG 4 6 ) . 22  In a l e t t e r dated May 12, 1923. Schopenhauer does i n d e e d oppose or c o n t r a s t the s u b l i m e and the b e a u t i f u l , b u t not i n the way L i n d s a y implies. Schopenhauer f i n d s b o t h the s u b l i m e and the b e a u t i f u l t o be produced by pure c o n t e m p l a t i o n ( i . e . o f Ideas o r F o r m s ) : where t h a t which r a i s e s us t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s s u b j e c t to t h e w i l l , we a r e f i l l e d w i t h a sense of b e a u t y , b u t where they have " a h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n to the human w i l l i n g e n e r a l " ( t o the b o d y ) , then we are f i l l e d w i t h a sense of the s u b l i m e . See The World as W i l l and Idea ( T h i r d Book, s e c . 3 9 ) . Muspel i s , of c o u r s e , c o m p l e t e l y h o s t i l e to the human w i l l and t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to Schopenhauer's system as w e l l as L i n d s a y ' s , i s s u b l i m e . 23  See VA 12-13 f o r Backhouse's c o m p l a i n t s about the s e t t i n g : "the f r i v o l o u s a e s t h e t i c i s m of o t h e r s " i s "obnoxious t o h i s g r i m , b u r s t i n g h e a r t ; b u t he was o b l i g e d t o l i v e , a n d , t o pay h i s way, must put up w i t h t h e s e i m p e r t i n e n c e s " (VA 1 9 ) . K r a g c a l l s him "my l i t t l e mercenary f r i e n d " (VA 2 2 ) . The p r o b l e m o f p a y i n g o n e ' s way soon became an acute one f o r L i n d s a y , who shows more sympathy f o r i t i n h i s t h i r d book, S p h i n x . 24  'Song of the S y b i l ' i n The E l d e r Edda: A S e l e c t i o n , t r a n s . P a u l B. T a y l o r and W. H . Auden (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 145. We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the d u a l i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n o f n o t h i n g ( C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d ) and n o t h i n g ( M u s p e l ) : " I n the moment of d e a t h " the face l o s e s a l l i t s " p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r . . . g i v i n g p l a c e t o a v u l g a r , g r i n n i n g mask w h i c h e x p r e s s e d n o t h i n g " (VA 1 0 3 ) .  158  ^ J o h n Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s (London: 1927) , p . 123.  J . M. Dent,  26 Quoted from the I n t r o d u c t i o n by P e t e r H . S a l u s and P a u l B. T a y l o r to The E l d e r Edda, p . 31. 27 I n t r o d u c t i o n to The E l d e r Edda, p .  31.  28 'Song o f the S y b i l ' i r i The E l d e r Edda, p .  151.  29  Man i s a worm 70 i n c h e s l o n g — s e v e n t y y e a r s and 5 ' 10"—seven decades o r ' a g e s ' . The tower has s i x windows, and N i g h t s p o r e has s i x i n t e r i m v i s i o n s c l i m b i n g i t (VA 2 8 1 - 8 6 ) . Because the f i n a l v i s i o n may not be through a window of g l a s s o r c r y s t a l , at the e n d , N i g h t s p o r e c l i m b s out i n t o r e a l i t y . 30  The E p i c of G i l g a m e s h , Penguin Books, 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 69.  trans.  N . K. Sandars (Harmondsworth:  31  A " x t h u r C. C l a r k e , P r o f i l e s o f the F u t u r e (New Y o r k : B o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 46.  Bantam  32  C f . S t e i n i n L o r d J i m by Joseph Conrad (New Y o r k : Rinehart, 1957): " A man t h a t i s b o r n f a l l s i n t o a dream l i k e a man who f a l l s i n t o the s e a " ( p . 1 8 4 ) . S t e i n sends J i m to l i v e i n h i s dream w o r l d : "Had S t e i n arranged t o send h i m i n t o a s t a r . . . the change c o u l d n o t have been g r e a t e r . He l e f t h i s e a r t h l y f a i l i n g s b e h i n d h i m and . . . t h e r e was a t o t a l l y new s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r h i s i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y to work upon" (pp. 1 8 8 - 8 9 ) . F o r a thorough a n a l y s i s o f the d r e a m / r e a l w o r l d o p p o s i t i o n o f P a t n a and P a t u s a n see E l l i o t t B. Gose J r , I m a g i n a t i o n I n d u l g e d (London and M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l — Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972). ^^Maud B o d k i n , A r c h e t y p a l P a t t e r n s i n P o e t r y (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 146. Cf. " L i f e wants to r a i s e i t s e l f on h i g h w i t h p i l l a r s and s t e p s ; i t wants to gaze i n t o the f a r d i s t a n c e and out upon j o y f u l s p l e n d o u r — t h a t i s why i t needs h e i g h t " says Z a r a t h u s t r a i n F r e i d r i c h N i e t z s c h e ' s Thus Spoke Z a r a t h u s t r a , t r a n s . R. J . H o l l i n g d a l e (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 125. 34  J . A . M a c C u l l o c h , The R e l i g i o n o f the A n c i e n t C e l t s C l a r k , 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 39. 35  Wayne B o o t h , The R h e t o r i c of F i c t i o n ( C h i c a g o : Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 60.  (Edinburgh:  U n i v e r s i t y of  159  36  F r e i d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , Thus Spoke Z a r a t h u s t r a , p .  125.  37  Los i s the E t e r n a l B l a c k s m i t h who f r e e s us from the Promethean Cycle (Orc-Urizen) i n Jerusalem. "The blow o f h i s Hammer i s J u s t i c e , t h e swing of h i s Hammer M e r c y , / The f o r c e of L o s ' s Hammer i s e t e r n a l f o r g i v e n e s s " ( P l a t e 8 8 ) ; see The Complete W r i t i n g s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e , e d . G e o f f r e y Keynes (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 734. 38  "Then Jesus appeared . . . And the D i v i n e Appearance was the l i k e n e s s & s i m i l i t u d e of Los" ( P l a t e 96); W i l l i a m B l a k e , 'Jerusalem' i n The Complete W r i t i n g s , p . 743. 39 I n N o v a l i s ' s Henry of O f t e r d i n g e n , one of the t h i n g s A r c t u r u s s y m b o l i z e s seems t o be Time. 40 George MacDonald, L i l i t h ,  p.  42.  41  As every s c h o o l b o y knows, r e a l s p a c e - s h i p s are n o t shaped l i k e t o r p e d o e s , s i n c e t h e r e i s no wind r e s i s t a n c e i n deep s p a c e . The shape i s r e s e r v e d f o r g r o s s l y underpowered and e x t r e m e l y s h o r t range r o c k e t s b u i l t on underdeveloped p l a n e t s such as S o l T h r e e . 42  A s u b s t a n c e w o r k i n g by r e p u l s i o n from e a r t h i s more d i f f i c u l t to h a n d l e — e s p e c i a l l y on the r e t u r n j o u r n e y — b u t P e r c y Greg uses ' a p e r g y ' thus i n A c r o s s the Z o d i a c ( 1 8 8 0 ) , and Hugh M a c C o l l uses an unnamed v a r i a n t i n M r . S t r a n g e r ' s S e a l e d Packet ( 1 8 9 9 ) . See Roger L . G r e e n ' s I n t o Other W o r l d s : S p a c e - F l i g h t i n F i c t i o n , from Lucan to Lewis (London and New Y o r k : Abelard-Schuman, 1957), f o r i n f o r m a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f these and o t h e r forms of m o t i v e power. 43 Damon K n i g h t , I n Search o f Wonder ( r e v . e d . , 1967) , p . 278. 44  Chicago:  Advent,  T h i s i s a h a b i t w i t h K r a g : he k n i f e s M a s k u l l t w i c e (VA 40, and t w i c e w r i n g s h i s neck (VA 123, 2 7 7 ) .  154)  160  Chapter S i x : THE WINDING WAY:  MASKULL'S SPIRAL INWARDS  A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s i s a s c h e m a t i c book.  We have d i s c u s s e d  as a b a t t l e between two o p p o s i n g camps, and as a p r o g r e s s .  it  However,  A Voyage to A r c t u r u s i s not s i m p l y an a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e i n the way t h a t Bunyan's The H o l y War i s , n o r i s i t s i m p l y a p r o g r e s s as i s The P i l g r i m ' s Progress.  M a s k u l l , l i k e Dante, f o l l o w s n o t a s t r a i g h t  narrow p a t h b u t a s t r a i g h t and w i n d i n g one:  a spiral.  and  The theme  of t h e p r o g r e s s i s the d e s i r e t o r e t u r n home, w h i c h we have seen to be common i n a l l e g o r i c a l dream f a n t a s i e s .  The i d e a i s e x p l i c i t i n t h a t  N i g h t s p o r e r e p e a t s M a s k u l l ' s c l i m b i n g o f the t o w e r , and i t i s i n the i d e a of c l i m b i n g a tower i t s e l f :  "the i n d i v i d u a l ,  e n r i c h e d by h i s e x p e r i e n c e as he f o l l o w s t h i s  implicit  changed and  [ s p i r a l ] p a t h , must  r e t u r n to the p o i n t of o r i g i n a t a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . " ' ' '  For t h i s  reason,  2 Nabokov c a l l s the s p i r a l " a s p i r i t u a l i z e d c i r c l e . "  Dante i s  u a l i z e d by c l i m b i n g a w i n d i n g s t a i r i n The D i v i n e Comedy.  spirit-  However,  M a s k u l l ' s i s n o t a s p i r a l l i k e D a n t e ' s , w h i c h takes us upwards, i t a s p i r a l w h i c h takes us i n w a r d s .  is  I t i s a s p i r a l which takes us r i g h t  i n t o the c e n t r e o f C r y s t a l m a n , who i s " a g i g a n t i c , s e l f - l u m i n o u s  sphere"  (VA 2 8 2 ) , and b e y o n d , i n t o the i n c o n c e i v a b l e w o r l d of M u s p e l . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the p r o g r e s s b e g i n s w i t h M a s k u l l ' s  'birth,'  when he wakes up t o the w o r l d of Tormance, and h i s s u r r o g a t e m o t h e r , J o i w i n d (Chapter 6 ) .  T h i s c y c l e i s completed a t the end o f the t h i r d  day, a f t e r t h e problems of man i n s o c i e t y have been t r e a t e d , when a  161  "deep and heavy u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s "  s e i z e s M a s k u l l (VA 1 4 9 ) .  s e c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h the r e b i r t h o f the Wombflash f o r e s t i n d u c e d by D r e a m s i n t e r (Chapter 1 3 ) .  which i s  and the v i s i o n  T h i s second c y c l e d e a l s w i t h  problem of how l i f e can be l i v e d out of s o c i e t y , I t ends w i t h M a s k u l l ' s re-emergence  The second  on a p e r s o n a l  The t h i r d s e c t i o n , b e g i n n i n g  w i t h Chapter 18, c o n t i n u e s the p r o c e s s o f s t r i p p i n g down the  characters  level.  from Corpang's underground c o u n t r y ,  the t h i r d r e b i r t h f o r M a s k u l l .  of e a r t h l i n e s s  the  layers  to ' p u r e , unaccommodated man' and woman, the main  i n t h i s s e c t i o n b e i n g Haunte and S u l l e n b o d e .  Each o f the  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s has ended w i t h an appearance o f the M u s p e l r a d i a n c e and M a s k u l l ' s r e b i r t h .  I n the t h i r d s e c t i o n , under the l i g h t of  A l p p a i n , M a s k u l l d i e s and the p r o g r e s s ends (Chapter 2 0 ) ,  leaving  N i g h t s p o r e t o a c h i e v e the f i n a l v i s i o n o f n o t h i n g and t o be promised rebirth.  Such i s  the " a l m o s t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n " of the  design,  and one wonders why i t has not been n o t i c e d b e f o r e . The t h r e e c y c l e s i n M a s k u l l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of the n a t u r e o f C r y s t a l m a n and h i s w o r l d s h o u l d be thought of as l y i n g i n s i d e one a n o t h e r .  Crystal-  man's w o r l d c o n s i s t s  how  b a s i c a l l y of three 'sphere s'  of a c t i v i t y :  man r e l a t e s to the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and to s o c i e t y , how man r e l a t e s h i m s e l f , and how man r e l a t e s t o God. can be s e p a r a t e d a b s o l u t e l y , each l e v e l has i t s  and L i n d s a y does n o t t r y t o do s o .  central interests,  l e v e l s , being contiguous,  Of c o u r s e , none of these  t o w h i c h the i n t e r e s t s  are i m p o r t a n t .  to  levels However,  of o t h e r  But s i n c e t h e movement of  the  book i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n w a r d s , the o u t e r l e v e l s are l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o the i n n e r t h a n v i c e v e r s a .  The p r o c e s s i s ,  as has a l r e a d y been remarked,  162  r a t h e r l i k e p e e l i n g an o n i o n , and t h i s a l s o i s an image r e l e v a n t gnosticism. accounts  to  F o r example, A r n o b i u s , S e r v i u s and Macrobius a l l g i v e  of the descent of the s o u l through the s p h e r e s , by w h i c h i t  i s corrupted.  Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s  i n Poimandres,  Dante i n The D i v i n e Comedy, g i v e p a r a l l e l accounts j o u r n e y through the spheres by w h i c h the s o u l i s  and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , o f the r e v e r s e freed.  The s o u l c l e a r l y i s o f God ( L i g h t ) and b e l o n g s w i t h God. t h e r e has been a ' f a l l '  However,  (from God on h i g h ) and a c r e a t i o n , these two  t h i n g s , as i n the myth of Prometheus, b e i n g i d e n t i c a l .  P l o t i n u s and  B l a k e t e l l us t h a t the immortals f e l l i n l o v e w i t h t h e i r images i n t h e r i v e r of matter,  d i e d t o e t e r n i t y and were b o r n on e a r t h , f e l l  asleep  t o e t e r n i t y and woke up on e a r t h h a v i n g f o r g o t t e n t h e i r t r u e home. M a c r o b i u s ' s account i s b a s i c a l l y t h e same, b u t c o m p l i c a t e d by the accretions  of the f a l l  through the s p h e r e s :  L o o k i n g down from the h i g h e s t summit and p e r p e t u a l l i g h t , and h a v i n g w i t h s e c r e t d e s i r e contemplated the appetence o f the body and i t s " l i f e , " so c a l l e d on e a r t h , the s o u l by the v e r y w e i g h t of t h i s i t s e a r t h l y thought g r a d u a l l y s i n k s down i n t o t h e n e t h e r w o r l d . . . . In each sphere [which i t p a s s e s ] i t i s c l o t h e d w i t h an e t h e r i a l e n v e l opment, so t h a t by t h e s e i t i s i n s t a g e s r e c o n c i l e d to the company of t h i s e a r t h e n garment. And thus i t comes through as many deaths as i t passes spheres to what here on e a r t h i s c a l l e d " l i f e " ( 3 ) . Thus t h e r e i s Jean P a u l ' s of e t e r n i t y .  the n e c e s s i t y  f o r a s e r i e s of "so c a l l e d ' d e a t h s ' " — a s i n  dream—through w h i c h the s o u l can be r e b o r n a g a i n to the w o r l d Hans Jonas w r i t e s t h a t ,  a c c o r d i n g to t h i s v i e w ,  the r e s u l t a n t t e r r e s t i a l " s o u l " i s comparable t o an o n i o n w i t h so many l a y e r s , on the model of the cosmos i t s e l f , o n l y i n i n v e r s e o r d e r : what i s outermost t h e r e i s i n n e r most h e r e , and a f t e r the p r o c e s s i s completed w i t h i n c a r n a t i o n , what i s innermost i n the s p h e r i c a l scheme o f t h e cosmos, the e a r t h , i s as body the o u t e r garment o f man ( 4 ) .  163  From the sphere of the e a r t h ,  'up' i s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s outwards,  'down' i n a l l cases i n w a r d s . The n o r m a l method o f g n o s t i c a l l e g o r y i n v o l v e d t h e r e v e r s a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s embodied i n e x t a n t myths and a l l e g o r i e s . i s therefore c u r i o u s l y appropriate that Lindsay should reverse v a l u e system of the s p h e r i c a l cosmos.  It the  I n A Voyage t o A r c t u r u s , the  w o r l d of M u s p e l i s somewhere t h r o u g h and beyond (wherever t h a t i s ) c e n t r e o f the s p h e r e , world.  i n w a r d s , w h i l e outwards ( ' u p ' ) i s  the  Crystalman's  The f a l l i s o u t w a r d s , from the c e n t r e t o the c i r c u m f e r e n c e .  Lindsay i s a pessimist:  t h e cosmos i s n o t L i g h t w i t h a few s p o t s o f  D a r k n e s s ; the L i g h t i s surrounded by the D a r k n e s s :  Nightspore  reaches  n o t h i n g t o f i n d " d a r k n e s s was a l l around h i m " and "he u n d e r s t o o d  that  he was w h o l l y surrounded by C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d " : The t r u t h f o r c e d i t s e l f on h i m i n a l l i t s c o l d , b r u t a l reality. Muspel was no a l l - p o w e r f u l U n i v e r s e , t o l e r a t i n g from pure i n d i f f e r e n c e the e x i s t e n c e s i d e by s i d e w i t h i t o f a n o t h e r f a l s e w o r l d , w h i c h had no r i g h t t o b e . M u s p e l was f i g h t i n g f o r i t s l i f e (VA 2 8 6 ) . Maskull is  the body o f e a r t h , the outermost s p h e r e ,  and h i s t r i p  across  Tormance i n v o l v e s the s t r i p p i n g away of e a r t h l y a c c r e t i o n s u n t i l n o t h i n g is  left. W. H . Auden b e g i n s h i s s t u d y of ' t h e r o m a n t i c i c o n o g r a p h y of t h e  i n The Enchafed F l o o d w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s  sea'  of " t h e d o u b l e - n a t u r e d h e r o " who  i s h a l f " t h e d e d i c a t e d man, the K n i g h t o f F a i t h who would r e s t o r e  the Age  o f G o l d " ( M a s k u l l " ' ) and h a l f e x i l e ( N i g h t s p o r e ) , and o f the p a i r e d s y m b o l s , the d e s e r t dies  and the s e a . ^  M a s k u l l i s b o r n on Tormance i n the d e s e r t and,  ( N i g h t s p o r e i s born) on t h e s e a ;  t h a t i s , M a s k u l l ' s voyage i s from  164  the d e s e r t t o the s e a .  Auden n o t e s t h a t the w i t h d r a w a l t o the d e s e r t  may be " a f i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f the w i c k e d c i t y o f t h i s w o r l d , a d y i n g to the l i f e of the f l e s h and an assumption of a l i f e devoted w h o l l y t o " 7 the l i f e of the s p i r i t , as i t i s i n the case of M a s k u l l , w h i l e g the sea i s  " t h e p l a c e of p u r g a t o r i a l s u f f e r i n g . "  But t h e r e may be  w a t e r i n the d e s e r t as t h e r e may be l a n d i n the s e a .  M a s k u l l ends  h i s j o u r n e y on a l i t t l e f l o a t i n g i s l a n d , w h i c h l i k e the o a s i s i n the  9 d e s e r t may be " t h e image of the happy P r e l a p s a r i a n P l a c e . "  It is  to  such a p l a c e t h a t m o t h e r - J o i w i n d takes b a b y - M a s k u l l at the b e g i n n i n g o f the j o u r n e y . M a s k u l l has d i e d t o e a r t h , and he i s r e b o r n on Tormance. scarlet  to " t h e w i c k e d c i t y o f t h i s w o r l d , " M a s k u l l b e g i n s t o see  sand (VA 44-45) o n l y g r a d u a l l y .  i n t e r v a l s " (VA 4 5 ) .  When h i s  fluid,  (VA 52) w h i c h i s home. we a l l b e g i n :  He c r i e s out " a t  irregular  ' m o t h e r ' J o i w i n d a r r i v e s he i s  a t h e r f e e t , naked and h e l p l e s s " a " m i l k y " (VA 49)  the d e s e r t of  (VA 4 7 ) .  "sitting  She dresses h i m , g i v e s h i m  and takes h i m to " t h e cup-shaped m o u n t a i n " P o o l i n g d r e d i s , however, the home from w h i c h  i t i s n o t t h e home toward w h i c h we a l l must s t r i v e .  t h i s , Lindsay d i f f e r s  most markedly from h i s most i m p o r t a n t  In  precurser  and f o l l o w e r , MacDonald and Lewis r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Anodos i n P h a n t a s t e s  t e l l s us "my mother d i e d when I was a b a b y , " ^  and h i s p a t h l e s s wander11  i n g s are i n s e a r c h of h i s mother o r a m o t h e r - s u b s t i t u t e .  The quest  of Ransom i n Out o f the S i l e n t P l a n e t ends at O y a r s a , which i s a combina t i o n of g a r d e n - i s l a n d , breast:  mount of Venus and "cup-shaped  m o u n t a i n " or  165  r i g h t below h i m l a y an almost c i r c u l a r l a k e — a s a p p h i r e twelve m i l e s i n diameter set i n a border of purple f o r e s t . Amidst the l a k e t h e r e r o s e l i k e a low and g e n t l y s l o p i n g p y r a m i d , o r a woman's b r e a s t , an i s l a n d of p a l e r e d , smooth to the summit ( 1 2 ) . Both MacDonald and Lewis are concerned w i t h the r e c o v e r y o f l o s t i n n o c e n c e , w h i c h f o r MacDonald i s a r e t u r n to babyhood, and f o r Lewis i n v o l v e s a re-enactment doesn't  fall.  o f the f a l l i n w h i c h man (or r a t h e r , woman)  M a s k u l l b e g i n s h i s quest by f i n d i n g t h a t  "Prelapsarian  P l a c e " of A r c a d i a n innocence w i t h Panawe and J o i w i n d , b u t h i s quest i s f o r the o u t o p i a of the u n c r e a t e d w o r l d . Panawe and J o i w i n d l i v e i n harmony w i t h C r y s t a l m a n ' s w o r l d , c u l t i v a t e a k i n d of ' n o n - a t t a c h m e n t ' as p o s s i b l e  to i t .  i n the w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g :  They take as  little  but part  they k i l l n o t h i n g , and l i v e 13  o n l y on w a t e r , N o v a l i s and W e r n e r ' s " t h e w h i t e b l o o d o f the m o t h e r . " N e i t h e r do they i m p r i s o n L i g h t i n the Darkness o f the body by p r o creation:  t h e r e i s " n o t the l e a s t t r a c e o f s e x "  (VA 54) i n J o i w i n d ' s  c a r e s s , and she has no c h i l d r e n or o t h e r " s e l f i s h p o s s e s s i o n s " (VA 5 7 ) . When b o r n , Panawe was " w i t h o u t s e x "  (VA 6 9 ) ,  s t e r n l y r e j e c t s the female r e c e p t i v e n e s s him an a r t i s t ,  poet o r m u s i c i a n (VA 6 3 ) .  w h i c h on e a r t h would have made J o i w i n d s a y s , "What you and  I are now d o i n g i n s i m p l i c i t y , w i s e men w i l l (VA 5 6 ) . ance:  That i s ,  and h a v i n g become m a l e ,  do h e r e a f t e r  the innocence o f Panawe and J o i w i n d i s  i n f u l l knowledge" really ignor-  they do n o t posses the s a v i n g knowledge or g n o s i s which was  g i f t of the w i s e s e r p e n t .  the  T h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s b r o u g h t out by Panawe's  complete i n a b i l i t y to understand h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h S l o f o r k .  Slofork  t e l l s Panawe, remember, o f the o t h e r w o r l d w h i c h "we c a l l N o t h i n g — b u t  166  it  i s n o t N o t h i n g , but Something" (VA 7 4 ) .  He then demonstrates  his  own complete non-attachment to the w o r l d by jumping " t r a n q u i l l y from the p a t h , down i n t o the empty v o i d " (VA 7 4 ) .  S l o f o r k ' s judgment o f  Panawe i s " Y o u w i l l n e v e r r i s e above m y s t i c i s m . . . .  But be happy i n  y o u r own way" (VA 7 4 ) . Panawe and J o i w i n d l i v e i n harmony w i t h the w o r l d , i n i n n o c e n c e , by n o t s t r i v i n g and not e x e r t i n g t h e i r w i l l s .  Maskull discovers  that  the newfound Innocence they have g i v e n h i m can be r a p i d l y undermined by E x p e r i e n c e .  H i s n e x t mentor i s Oceaxe, who i s p o s s e s s e d by a  Nietzschean ' w i l l to power'.  She says b l u n t l y t h a t " Y o u may be  as  m o r a l as y o u l i k e , M a s k u l l , b u t the f a c t r e m a i n s , animals were made t o be e a t e n , and s i m p l e n a t u r e s were made t o be a b s o r b e d " or be k i l l e d ;  o n l y the f i t t e s t w i l l s u r v i v e .  (VA 8 8 ) .  And the landscape  Kill she  i n h a b i t s , the Ifdawn M a r e s t , i s " h i g h , w i l d , b e a u t i f u l , and  dangerous"  (VA 8 0 ) :  and g r a d u a l "  " N a t u r e i s a l l hammer blows w i t h u s .  Nothing soft  (VA 8 9 ) , says Oceaxe. On Tormance i t  is  as i f each of o n e ' s d e s i r e s were t o c o s t one the o b l i g a t i o n t h e n c e f o r w a r d t o n o u r i s h and support an a d d i t i o n a l member. An i n f e r n a l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of o n e ' s s u b s t a n c e , o c c a s i o n e d by the s l i g h t e s t t h o u g h t ! Each dream of f l i g h t adds a n o t h e r l i n k t o my heavy c h a i n ! ( 1 4 ) . Having f l o w n t o the dream-world of Tormance, M a s k u l l f i n d s h i m s e l f w i t h t h r e e new o r g a n s ,  the magn and p o i g n s  (names p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from magn-  a n i m i t y and poignance) w h i c h b r i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y the a b i l i t y  to l o v e and  the a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d and sympathize w i t h t h i n g s , and the b r e v e . organs  are a p p r o p r i a t e to the A r c a d i a n s o c i e t y w h i c h M a s k u l l i n h a b i t s  These  167  w i t h Panawe. and J o i w i n d .  Oceaxe, however, c a l l s  these "women's  organs"  (VA 8 2 ) , and a d v i s e s M a s k u l l t h a t he i s g o i n g to " a man's c o u n t r y " where they w i l l be u s e l e s s .  M a s k u l l uses a drude t o c o n v e r t h i s o r g a n s ,  the b r e v e i n h i s forehead becomes a t h i r d e y e , a s o r b , "he saw n o t h i n g as s e l f - e x i s t e n t — e v e r y t h i n g appeared  through which as an o b j e c t  importance o r n o n - i m p o r t a n c e t o h i s own n e e d s " (VA 8 3 ) . i s appropriate  and  of  Such an organ  t o l i f e on the h i g h peaks o f the Ifdawn M a r e s t .  Once he has moved from Innocence t o E x p e r i e n c e , from n o n - a t t a c h m e n t , to s e l f - i n t e r e s t , has a c h o i c e :  from n o t w i l l i n g to w i l l i n g and k i l l i n g ,  he can e i t h e r be a murderer o r a v i c t i m .  a r r i v e s i n Ifdawn he k i l l s  . C r i m t y p h o n , Oceaxe's  r e v o l t e d by t h i s t h a t he f a l l s  then M a s k u l l  As soon as he  l o v e r , b u t he i s  i n t o the c l u t c h e s of C r i m t y p h o n ' s o t h e r  w i f e , Tydomin, who preaches to M a s k u l l the v i r t u e s o f  self-sacrifice:  r e n u n c i a t i o n of the w i l l t o power and t h e r e f o r e o f the w i l l Tydomin d o e s n ' t  so  a c t u a l l y want M a s k u l l ' s l i f e ,  to  o n l y h i s body.  live. She wants  to take i t o v e r , l i t e r a l l y :  " I w i s h t o s t a r t a new e x i s t e n c e  body.  I see i t i s n ' t w o r t h w h i l e b e i n g a woman"  I w i s h t o be a m a l e .  (VA 115).  Maskull's s p i r i t w i l l ,  i n your  i n t u r n , become (disembodied)  M a s k u l l and Tydomin e n t e r a c a v e .  a  ghost.  " A t t h a t v e r y moment" they h e a r  " a s i c k e n i n g c r a s h , l i k e heavy thunder j u s t over t h e i r h e a d s " (VA 1 2 1 ) . M a s k u l l l i e s down on " a stone s l a b , " t o grow l i g h t " (VA 1 2 2 ) . faintly"  (VA 1 2 2 ) .  or c o u c h " and the chamber b e g i n s  He f a n c i e s he h e a r s m u s i c , and "someone scream  Then he f i n d s h i m s e l f back i n F a u l l ' s h o u s e ,  the phantom on the carved c o u c h . K r a g rushes i n t o s t r a n g l e h i m :  only  He sees h i m s e l f , and N i g h t s p o r e .  as  Then  168  he grasped h i s neck w i t h a p a i r o f h a i r y hands. Maskull f e l t h i s bones b e n d i n g and b r e a k i n g , e x c r u c i a t i n g p a i n s passed through a l l the nerves o f h i s b o d y , and he e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f impending d e a t h . He c r i e d o u t , and sank h e l p l e s s l y on t h e f l o o r , i n a heap (VA 1 2 3 ) . He f i n d s h i m s e l f back on Tormance, and t e l l s Tydomin " I ' v e seen K r a g . I ' m awake" (VA 1 2 4 ) . sacrifice  Thus M a s k u l l r e j e c t s the t e m p t a t i o n o f  on Tormance, b u t i t i s ,  of course,  self-  a s a c r i f i c e he has  made on e a r t h , i n o r d e r to get t o Tormance i n the f i r s t p l a c e . can t h i n k o f the tower as b e i n g a p h a l l u s , b u t a sperm.  We  the s p a c e - s h i p n o t a womb  M a s k u l l r e l i v e s h i s e a r t h l y l i f e (as  as an a d o l e s c e n t  already  a child with Joiwind,  w i t h Oceaxe) on Tormance, u n t i l on Tormance he reaches  the p o i n t he has p r e v i o u s l y reached on e a r t h . l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than r e l i v i n g  From now o n , he w i l l  be  things.  M a s k u l l has passed t h r o u g h Innocence and E x p e r i e n c e t o a l i e n a t i o n . Oceaxe a s k e d , of fly in?"  lovers?  "Isn't  the whole w o r l d the handiwork o f innumerable  And y e t you t h i n k y o u r s e l f above a l l t h a t .  pairs  You may t r y to  away from n a t u r e , b u t where w i l l y o u f i n d a h o l e t o h i d e y o u r s e l f (VA 8 6 ) .  As V i s i a k has o b s e r v e d ,  C r y s t a l m a n w i t h N a t u r e " (TSG 1 1 0 ) , t h i n k s he i s  fleeing.  " L i n d s a y v i r t u a l l y equates  and t h a t i s i n d e e d from whom M a s k u l l  F u r t h e r , M a s k u l l i s now "above a l l t h a t , "  and  he i s l o o k i n g (on the s o c i a l l e v e l ) n o t f o r a ' f e m i n i n e ' " h o l e t o h i d e ...  i n " b u t the ' m a s c u l i n e ' m o u n t a i n - t o p o f D i s s c o u r n , ^ ^ on w h i c h l i v e  the people of S a n t . not allowed i n i t .  T h i s s o c i e t y i s h e a l t h y , m a i n l y because women are The p e o p l e of Sant are f o l l o w e r s of the prophet  H a t o r , who knew t h a t " a l l t h e w o r l d was a s n a r e , a l i m e d t w i g " :  169  Knowing t h a t p l e a s u r e was everywhere, a f i e r c e , mocking enemy, c r o u c h i n g and w a i t i n g a t e v e r y c o r n e r of the road o f l i f e , i n o r d e r t o k i l l w i t h i t s sweet s t i n g the naked grandeur of the s o u l , he s h i e l d e d h i m s e l f b e h i n d p a i n (VA 1 3 5 ) . M a s k u l l s a y s , " H e n c e f o r w a r d , as l o n g as I l i v e ,  I s h a l l f i g h t w i t h my  n a t u r e , and r e f u s e t o f e e l p l e a s u r e "  He asks C a t i c e ,  entative of  (VA 1 4 5 ) .  repres-  Sant,  'Why does p l e a s u r e appear so shameful to u s ? ' 'Because i n f e e l i n g p l e a s u r e , we f o r g e t our home.' 'And t h a t i s — ' ' M u s p e l ' (VA 148) . All It i s ,  t h i s i s i n harmony w i t h the f i n a l v i s i o n a c h i e v e d by N i g h t s p o r e .  i n fact,  a final vision itself,  i n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s the c u l m i n -  a t i o n of M a s k u l l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of the w o r l d o f G e n e r a t i o n (as  Blake  calls  i t ) , w h i c h i s " t h e handiwork of innumerable p a i r s o f l o v e r s " (VA 8 6 ) . Only i n a s o c i e t y w i t h o u t l o v e r s — w i t h o u t women—are the e v i l n a t u r e of P l e a s u r e and the n a t u r e o f N a t u r e known, are S u r t u r and Shaping d i s t i n g u i s h e d , and i s the name o f Muspel remembered. this therefore L i n d s a y has  completes  the f i r s t  M a s k u l l ' s discovery of  c y c l e of the s p i r a l o f the a l l e g o r y :  completed h i s study of the problems of man i n s o c i e t y .  M a s k u l l must descend to the n e x t s p h e r e :  he must d i e t o s o c i e t y and  then be r e b o r n i n t o the n e x t s t a g e of t h e s t r u g g l e .  T h i s i s what happens  i n t h e Wombflash F o r e s t , w h i c h i s b o t h " l i k e some g i g a n t i c , h a l l i n a l i f e after  d e a t h " (VA 149)  Now  supernatural  a n d , as the name t e l l s u s ,  the s t a r t  of a new l i f e f o r the d i v i n e spark of the s p i r i t . From S a n t , M a s k u l l descends—'down'  here i s towards the c e n t r e ,  and  t h e r e f o r e has the v a l u e s we more n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e w i t h ' u p ' — d o w n an enormous s t a i r c a s e , l o w e r i n g h i m s e l f " f r o m s t e p to s t e p d u r i n g what seemed  170  an i n t e r m i n a b l e t i m e " (VA 149). heavy unconsciousness  On r e a c h i n g the b o t t o m , "deep and  s e i z e d h i m almost  i m m e d i a t e l y " (VA 149).  This  i s a d e a t h - s l e e p , d u r i n g which M a s k u l l has a dream v i s i o n w h i c h c o n 16 f i r m s i n him h i s q u e s t :  he meets D r e a m s i n t e r ,  who c o n f i r m s  s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t M a s k u l l i s a Prometheus f i g u r e : Muspel-fire,  " Y o u came t o  t o g i v e a deeper l i f e t o men" (VA 1 5 2 ) .  h i m s e l f stabbed by K r a g , w h i l e N i g h t s p o r e marches (VA 1 5 3 - 5 4 ) , and he b e g i n s t o r e a l i s e (VA 155).  t h a t he i s  M a s k u l l i s the body, the o u t s i d e ;  Panawe's steal  M a s k u l l a l s o sees  on towards Muspel " a secondary  character"  N i g h t s p o r e i s the  essential  self. Maskull continues h i s journey, (VA 155)  taking "the downhill d i r e c t i o n "  u n t i l he comes to the S i n k i n g Sea  (VA 158) where he meets a  f i s h e r m a n (who seems to be s i m p l y a f i s h e r m a n : other s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . and b e s t .  h i s name t e l l s us of no  P o l e c r a b i s the ' o r d i n a r y man' a t h i s  He corresponds  simplest  on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l to Panawe and J o i w i n d on  the s o c i a l l e v e l , but h i s innocence i s more c l e a r l y i g n o r a n c e . " u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d b e i n g " (VA 161)  says g r u f f l y ,  know n o t h i n g about wisdom" (VA 1 6 0 ) .  "I'm a fisherman.  Maskull tries  This I  to e x p l a i n to h i s  t h a t t h i s w o r l d i s f a l s e and " t h a t r e a l i t y and f a l s e n e s s are two words f o r the same t h i n g " (VA 1 6 5 ) .  P o l e c r a b i s q u i c k t o see  the i m p l i c a t i o n s  o f what M a s k u l l t e l l s him and admits t h a t I l i v e by k i l l i n g , and so does everybody. T h i s l i f e seems t o me a l l wrong. So maybe l i f e o f any k i n d i s w r o n g , and S u r t u r ' s w o r l d i s n o t l i f e at a l l , b u t something e l s e (VA 1 6 5 ) . H i s a d v i c e , however, i s to "ask t h e dead . . . and n o t a l i v i n g man" (VA 1 6 5 ) .  He i s not g o i n g t o j o i n M a s k u l l i n h i s q u e s t .  His w i f e ,  171  G l e a m e i l , however,  does.  G l e a m e i l , l i k e C h r i s t i a n i n The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s ,  is  prepared  to d e s e r t h e r f a m i l y (she has t h r e e sons) to accompany M a s k u l l .  She  s a y s , " t h e r e i s another w o r l d f o r me, as t h e r e i s f o r y o u , M a s k u l l , and i t makes my r e a l w o r l d appear a l l f a l s e and v u l g a r "  (VA 175) .  Through G l e a m e i l , L i n d s a y b r i n g s i n t o sharp focus  the problem of f o l l o w -  i n g o n e ' s p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y r a t h e r than f u l f i l l i n g  one's s o c i a l  tions.  " B u t can i t be r i g h t " , asks M a s k u l l , " t o f o l l o w our  at the expense o f o t h e r p e o p l e ? " "it  i s wrong, and b a s e .  obliga-  self-nature  "No i t ' s n o t r i g h t , " G l e a m e i l r e p l i e s ,  But i n t h a t o t h e r w o r l d these words have no  meaning" (VA 1 7 5 ) . One o f the most obvious ways o f s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t (and the way, i n 'real'  life,  L i n d s a y a c t u a l l y chose) i s  and G l e a m e i l t r a v e l to Swaylone's Earthrid.  Earthrid is  the way o f the a r t i s t .  I s l a n d , where they v i s i t the  ' r i d o f the e a r t h ' o r s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y :  a l o n e on an i s l a n d , swayed o n l y by h i s own i n t e r e s t s : own s e l f - h o o d .  Maskull artist he l i v e s  he f o l l o w s h i s  In o r d e r t o p l a y h i s i n s t r u m e n t , E a r t h r i d  s a t down by the s i d e o f the l a k e , a n d , l e a n i n g on h i s s i d e , p l a c e d h i s r i g h t h a n d , open palm downward, on the g r o u n d , a t the same time s t r e t c h i n g out h i s r i g h t l e g , so t h a t the f o o t was i n c o n t a c t w i t h the w a t e r (VA 182). It i s ,  taken l i t e r a l l y r a t h e r than a l l e g o r i c a l l y , a c u r i o u s s t a n c e , b u t we  can f i n d something s i m i l a r i n C e l t i c m y t h o l o g y .  J . A . M a c C u l l o c h says  t h a t " m y t h i c a l personages o r d i v i n i t i e s are s a i d i n the I r i s h t e x t s have s t o o d on one l e g , w i t h one arm e x t e n d e d , u t t e r i n g prophesies.""'"''  to  and one eye c l o s e d , when  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , E a r t h r i d must be b r i d g i n g  172  two w o r l d s , one f o o t b e i n g i n the e a r t h l y r e a l m and the o t h e r . i n the spiritual,  to w h i c h the w a t e r ( m a t t e r ) w i l l g i v e shape.  the a r t i s t  as sub c r e a t o r .  As a r e s u l t o f E a r t h r i d ' s p l a y i n g , G l e a m e i l d i e s . t o p l a y , and w i l l s t o c r e a t e the shape of S u r t u r .  Earthrid is  M a s k u l l decides  His efforts  surround  h i m w i t h Muspel r a d i a n c e w h i c h , l i k e the s p i r i t form at the s e a n c e , s t a r t s "becoming l o c a l i z e d , p r e p a r a t o r y f o r m " (VA 1 8 6 ) .  But the i n s t r u m e n t ,  to s u r v i v e the o n s e t o f r e a l i t y : disappears.  to c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o a s o l i d  the medium, i s not s t r o n g  enough  the h i l l s break a p a r t and the  I n the e n d , the a r t i s t  lake  cannot b r i n g i n t o the w o r l d the  Form from beyond the w o r l d . At m i d n i g h t M a s k u l l swims out to a p a s s i n g t r e e and guides i t the n o r t h e r n s h o r e , M a t t e r p l a y . one o f C r y s t a l m a n ' s  T h i s i s the ' r i v e r o f l i f e '  t o y s , by w h i c h he i m i t a t e s  to  itself:  the f l o w i n g from S u r t u r  of the s t r e a m of M u s p e l , and the imprisonment o f energy i n m a t t e r . Animals and p l a n t s itating its  seem to appear out o f nowhere:  " N a t u r e was  precip-  shapes i n t o the w o r l d , w i t h o u t making use o f the medium o f  p a r e n t a g e " (VA 1 9 4 ) . Matterplay i s  A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the c h a r a c t e r M a s k u l l meets i n  " n e i t h e r man n o r woman, n o r a n y t h i n g between the two, b u t  was u n m i s t a k a b l y of a t h i r d p o s i t i v e s e x "  (VA 1 9 7 ) .  Leehallfae  is  beyond the w o r l d of G e n e r a t i o n , i n a s o r t of B e u l a h , where " a e "  i s both  man and woman, and, s i n c e " a e r  l o v e r was no o t h e r than Shaping  " t h e e t e r n a l c h i l d " (VA 1 9 7 ) .  T h i s , as the G n o s t i c s would i m m e d i a t e l y  have r e c o g n i s e d , none),  s o l v e s the problem o f s i n f u l p r o c r e a t i o n  himself",  (there  d i s t r a c t i o n from the l o v e o f god, and the d u a l i t y of s e x .  is However,  173  the god i s s t i l l  the wrong god, Shaping o r C r y s t a l m a n ( o r Faceny,  L e e h a l l f a e has i t ) , not S u r t u r . sequence of the f a l l  maladjusted protozoa.  Sex i s commonly h e l d to be a c o n -  (and v i c e v e r s a ) :  sum t o t a l of man's e f f o r t s  "The r e c o r d of h i s t o r y i s  to r e t u r n to the s t a t e o f oneness.  . . .  as  the  We are  Lovemaking i s the l a s t s e a r c h f o r the  18 o t h e r h a l f of o n e ' s s e l f . "  L e e h a l l f a e says c o r r e c t l y t h a t " a man's  body c o n t a i n s o n l y the h a l f of l i f e — t h e o t h e r h a l f i s i n woman", whereas  " a phaen's body c o n t a i n s the whole of l i f e "  i s wrong.  But  life  Were we n o t m a l a d j u s t e d , were we not a l i e n s , we might be 19  s a t i s f i e d w i t h s e e k i n g the God o f t h i s w o r l d , beyond:  (VA 2 0 1 ) .  and f o r g e t  the w o r l d  L e e h a l l f a e has n e v e r even heard o f M u s p e l .  L e e h a l l f a e hopes to use M a s k u l l ' s " l u c k " to f i n d the god o f the w o r l d he i n h a b i t s , and so accompanies M a s k u l l on h i s j o u r n e y i n t o a r e g i o n i n w h i c h " a l l l i f e had c e a s e d " (VA 2 0 1 ) , s i n c e the s p a r k s  near  t h e i r s o u r c e are too s t r o n g to be c o n t a i n e d by the c l o u d s of m a t t e r . They come to " a p e r p e n d i c u l a r c l i f f  about t h r e e hundred f e e t i n h e i g h t "  from whence the r i v e r o f l i f e f l o w s (VA 2 0 5 ) .  A f t e r a few hours  sleep,  M a s k u l l w r y l y remarks t h a t " h e i g h t s o f t e n b r i n g me i n s p i r a t i o n " (VA 206) and b e g i n s t o c l i m b the c l i f f .  His luck continues.  He d i s c o v e r s  an  e n t r a n c e i n t o T h r e a l l , f o r w h i c h L e e h a l l f a e has searched f o r numberless years.  S i n c e " a l l l i f e has c e a s e d " we must e x p e c t t h e underground  c o u n t r y o f T h r e a l l t o be t o m b - l i k e , and i n d e e d i t i s . of  the h i l l "  (VA 207) e v e r y t h i n g i s " c o l d , c l e a r and r e f i n e d , and somehow  suggested a u s t e r e and t o m b l i k e t h o u g h t s " (VA 2 0 8 ) . "I shall die.  I n " t h e bowels  But i t ' s  immaterial.  Leehallfae  says,  Tomorrow b o t h o f us w i l l be dead"  174  (VA 2 0 8 ) .  He does d i e , almost i m m e d i a t e l y , and h i s body e v a p o r a t e s .  H i s p l a c e i s taken by a w a l k i n g c o r p s e , is.  Corpang, whose c o u n t r y t h i s  M a s k u l l s a y s , " I f e e l as i f I were" dead, and w a l k i n g i n a n o t h e r  w o r l d " (VA 2 1 7 ) . T h i s i s M a s k u l l ' s second s y m b o l i c death on Tormance.  He has  died  to the w o r l d i n w h i c h he t r i e d to f i n d p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t .  Fulfil  t-ment can o n l y be found beyond the tomb, b u t Corpang does n o t  realise  this.  Corpang has found the ' h o l e t o h i d e h i m s e l f i n ' t h a t  suggested M a s k u l l l o o k f o r i n h i s f l i g h t from G e n e r a t i o n . "mystic landscape"  Oceaxe It is  i n w h i c h " e v e r y t h i n g was b l a c k and w h i t e " (VA 2 0 9 ) ,  "solemn and r e l i g i o u s " (VA 2 1 0 ) .  I t i s a p l a c e i n which wisdom i s  f o u n d , as i t i s i n Henry o f O f t e r d i n g e n and Hoffmann's s t o r y of F a l u n . '  a  I n The E l d e r Edda, A l v i s ,  " A l l - W i s e I am c a l l e d :  the A l l - w i s e ,  'The Mines  l i v e s underground:  under the ground / I d w e l l i n the dark among  20 stones."  Corpang i s w i s e :  worlds of e x i s t e n c e , and T h i r e .  he e x p l a i n s at g r e a t l e n g t h the t h r e e  l o v e and f e e l i n g , and t h e i r gods, Faceny, Amfuse  He t a k e s M a s k u l l to " t h e Three F i g u r e s , which were carved  , and e r e c t e d by an e a r l i e r r a c e of men" (VA 216) w h i c h r e p r e s e n t  these  gods. Corpang k n e e l s b e f o r e the s t a t u e s , and M a s k u l l f o l l o w s s u i t . grew d a r k e r and d a r k e r , u n t i l a l l was l i k e the b l a c k e s t n i g h t . He was a l o n e w i t h h i s s p i r i t " (VA 2 1 8 ) . l i f e in turn.  . . .  The " t h r e e C o l o s s i " come to  The glow o f the f i r s t i n s p i r e s M a s k u l l ' s " p o e t i c  b i l i t y " w i t h a beauty o n l y d e s c r i b a b l e i n terms of n a t u r e a t i t s delicate:  "It  sensimost  " t h e g l e a m i n g , d a r k , d e l i c a t e c o l o u r s o f the h a l f - d a w n "  175  (VA 2 1 9 ) .  The second s t a t u e glows and M a s k u l l f e e l s  t o womanish s o f t n e s s .  "his heart melting  H i s male arrogance and e g o t i s m faded i m p e r c e p t -  i b l y away; h i s p e r s o n a l i t y seemed t o d i s a p p e a r " d e s i r e to s e r v e " (VA 2 1 9 ) .  and "he f e l t a t o r m e n t i n g  M a s k u l l does n o t a c t u a l l y see the t h i r d  s t a t u e glow (though he sees i t fade a f t e r w a r d s ) , t e l l h i m " Y o u are t o d i e . "  " Y o u have d e s p i s e d  b u t he h e a r s a v o i c e  life,"  i t goes o n .  "Do  you r e a l l y imagine t h a t t h i s mighty w o r l d has no meaning, and t h a t is a joke?"  (VA 2 2 1 ) .  The f i r s t s t a t u e r e p r e s e n t s  life  Faceny, who was  worshipped by L e e h a l l f a e and, i f we i n f e r c o r r e c t l y , as C r y s t a l m a n o r Shaping by Panawe and J o i w i n d . by Tydomin and S p a d e v i l .  The second was Amfuse, who was w o r s h i p p e d  The t h i r d was T h i r e ,  unseen w o r l d , who n e v e r t h e l e s s  the unseen god of the  e x p r e s s e s h i s meaning i n t h i s w o r l d .  M a s k u l l has j u s t had a m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f the b e g i n n i n g of N e r v a l ' s A u r e l i a : La reve e s t une seconde v i e . . . . ou l e m o i , sous une a u t r e forme, c o n t i n u e l ' o e u v r e de I ' e x i s t e n c e . C ' e s t un s o u t e r r a i n vague q u i s e c l a i r e peu a geu, e t ou se degagent de 1'ombre e t de l a n u i t l e s p a l e s f i g u r e s gravement immobiles q u i h a b i t e n t l e s e j o u r des l i m b e s . P u i s l e t a b l e a u se forme, une c l a r t e " n o u v e l l e i l l u m i n e e t f a i t j o u e r ces apparitions bizarres: l e monde des E s p r i t s s ' o u v r e pour nous (21) . "The dream i s a second l i f e " i n w h i c h " t h e w o r l d of t h e s p i r i t itself  for us."  But l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d i s a second dream i n w h i c h the  w o r l d o f the s p i r i t i s c l o s e d to u s . experience i s Surtur.  opens  Even the a p p a r e n t l y genuine m y s t i c a l  d i s c r e d i t e d by r e a l i t y , as r e p r e s e n t e d by the drum taps of  Both M a s k u l l and Corpang, a f t e r  the s t a t u e s have f a d e d ,  " t h e sound o f drumming" and t h e c a v e r n f i l l s w i t h M u s p e l l i g h t As a r e s u l t , " t h e f a c e o f each f i g u r e  [is]  hear  (VA 2 2 1 ) .  c l o t h e d i n the s o r d i d and  176  h o r r i b l e C r y s t a l m a n mask" (VA 2 2 1 ) .  A l l Corpang's  e r u d i t e t a l k of  t h r e e gods and t h r e e w o r l d s has been "mere n o m e n c l a t u r e " they are a l l C r y s t a l m a n .  (VA 2 1 2 ) :  " I t must mean," says M a s k u l l , " t h a t  life  i s wrong, and the c r e a t o r o f l i f e t o o , whether he i s one person three"  (VA 2 2 1 ) .  This i s ,  Corpang a g r e e s :  of c o u r s e ,  working a l l along. is impossible,  "Life is  c l e a r l y f a l s e " (VA 2 2 2 ) .  the c o n c l u s i o n towards which M a s k u l l has He has  been  found t h a t f u l f i l l m e n t on a s o c i a l  and i t i s now c o n f i r m e d t h a t even p e r s o n a l  i n t h i s w o r l d cannot be  or  level  fulfillment  attained.  M a s k u l l must now be r e b o r n i n t o the t h i r d c y c l e o f the we are t r a c i n g which i s — t h o u g h i t must be doomed to  spiral  failure—the  quest i n t h i s w o r l d f o r the M u s p e l w h i c h b e l o n g s to the r e a l w o r l d . M a s k u l l ' s t h i r d b i r t h u n m i s t a k a b l y echoes the r e b i r t h o f Anodos i n Phantastes.  Anodos has been t r a v e l l i n g through "an underground  i n w h i c h the sky was o f r o c k , and, i n s t e a d o f t r e e s and f l o w e r s ,  country, there  22 were o n l y f a n t a s t i c  r o c k s and s t o n e s " :  A t l e n g t h the c o u n t r y o f rock began to c l o s e a g a i n around me, g r a d u a l l y and s l o w l y n a r r o w i n g , t i l l I found m y s e l f w a l k i n g i n a g a l l e r y o f rock once more, b o t h s i d e s o f w h i c h I c o u l d touch w i t h my o u t s t r e t c h e d hands. I t narrowed y e t , u n t i l I was f o r c e d to move c a r e f u l l y , i n o r d e r to a v o i d s t r i k i n g a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t i n g p i e c e s of r o c k . The r o o f sank lower and l o w e r , u n t i l I was c o m p e l l e d , f i r s t to s t o o p , and then to creep on my hands and k n e e s . It recalled t e r r i b l e dreams of c h i l d h o o d ( 2 3 ) . M a s k u l l and Corpang " f o l l o w e d the drumming" which l e a d them i n t o  "the  mouth o f a l a r g e c a v e r n " (VA 2 2 3 ) : The path narrowed and became a steep a s c e n t . Then the a n g l e became one o f f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e s , and they had to climb. The t u n n e l grew so c o n f i n e d t h a t M a s k u l l was r e minded o f the e v i l dreams o f h i s c h i l d h o o d (VA 2 2 4 ) .  o  177  Anodos emerges i n t o a " w i n t r y s u n , " h i s death.  By c o n t r a s t ,  blinding rays" h i s boat,  and takes " a l i t t l e b o a t "  to  Corpang and M a s k u l l emerge i n t o " B r a n c h s p e l l ' s  (VA 2 2 4 ) , where they w a i t f o r a ferryman t o a r r i v e w i t h  t o t a k e them towards r e a l  life.  When Gilgamesh i s on 'The s e a r c h f o r E v e r l a s t i n g L i f e '  (Chapter  26 4 ) , he passes through " t w e l v e leagues of d a r k n e s s "  to the ocean o v e r  which Urshanabi w i l l f e r r y h i m .  Urshanabi's i s kept  L i k e Haunte's boat,  s a f e by " h o l y t h i n g s , the t h i n g s o f s t o n e " and h i s b o a t has a " s e r p e n t 27 28 prow." Gilgamesh " s h a t t e r [ s ] the s t o n e s i n h i s a n g e r , " and U r s h a n a b i says t o h i m :  " G i l g a m e s h , y o u r own hands have p r e v e n t e d you from c r o s s -  i n g the Ocean; when you d e s t r o y e d the t h i n g s o f s t o n e , 29 s a f e t y of t h e b o a t . "  I t i s n o t e x p l a i n e d how the s t o n e s w o r k .  s t o n e s are "male s t o n e s " : time. earth.  No female p a r t i c l e s are l e f t over t o a t t r a c t  'sea'  (VA 2 3 0 - 3 1 ) .  of L i c h s t o r m , on a c u s h i o n o f male s p a r k s .  i t may i n d e e d metamorphose—which s u p p o r t s  (VA 2 3 1 ) , by w h i c h Haunte s t e e r s .  r i s i n g from the the male p a r t s o f  I n the prow i s a  I t i s only a f t e r  i s destroyed: cave,  staff—  i n t o w h i c h , as i n the an "upper male  stone"  He t a k e s M a s k u l l and Corpang a c r o s s  L i c h s t o r m t o " a dark s l i t i n the r o c k " w h i c h i s " t h e mouth o f h i s (VA 2 3 3 ) .  Haunte's  The boat s a i l s through the a i r , o v e r the a r i d  the p h a l l i c e q u i v a l e n t o f U r s h a n a b i ' s " s e r p e n t " , Bible,  the  " t h e y a r e showering out male s p a r k s a l l t h e  These s p a r k s devour a l l the female p a r t i c l e s  the b o a t "  you d e s t r o y e d  cave"  t h e j o u r n e y t h a t " t h e s a f e t y of the b o a t "  M a s k u l l h u r l s H a u n t e ' s male s t o n e s from the mouth of the  thus e m a s c u l a t i n g h i m . L e e h a l l f a e perhaps  represented  the attempt t o combine w i t h arid  178  subsume the f e m i n i n e element i n c r e a t i o n , and Corpang, by to avoid i t a l t o g e t h e r . complete h o s t i l i t y : (VA 2 2 9 ) . pleasure" vents  ascetism,  Haunte has the more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  "the test i s ,  of  do y o u h a t e and f e a r women?"  I n L i c h s t o r m , "men are c a l l e d to women by p a i n , and n o t (VA 229) .  A c c o r d i n g to Haunte, maleness " i s a l l t h a t  pre-  the w o r l d from b e i n g a pure female w o r l d , " i n which case " i t  would be one b i g mass o f heavy s w e e t n e s s , w i t h o u t i n d i v i d u a l s h a p e s " (VA 2 3 7 ) .  The b o d y , b e i n g m a t t e r ,  is,  i n the l a r g e r scheme o f  f e m i n i n e , b u t the s p a r k of l i f e i s m a s c u l i n e :  things,  h e n c e , " a n excess of  l i f e i s dangerous to the b o d y " (VA 2 3 7 ) . M a s k u l l c o n t i n u e s northwards w i t h Haunte and Corpang to the home of Sullenbode.  " I n L i c h s t o r m the sexes are p u r e , " Haunte t o l d M a s k u l l .  "There are men t h e r e , and t h e r e are women t h e r e , b u t t h e r e are no menwomen, as w i t h y o u " (VA 2 2 9 ) . i s pure f e m a l e .  As Haunte i s pure m a l e , so  Sullenbode  A p p r o p r i a t e l y she i s "one b i g mass of heavy s w e e t n e s s " :  h e r f e a t u r e s are m o s t l y " u n d e v e l o p e d " and " h e r f l e s h was almost m e l t i n g i n i t s s o f t n e s s " (VA 2 4 2 ) ,  as though she were made of s o f t c l a y .  was, a g a i n , w i t h a woman,made of c l a y , P a n d o r a , t h a t Zeus Prometheus, o f whom M a s k u l l i s a t y p e .  But S u l l e n b o d e ' s  us to a s s o c i a t e h e r r a t h e r w i t h Eve than w i t h P a n d o r a .  It  tempted setting  leads  As such she  30 r e p r e s e n t s the u l t i m a t e t e m p t a t i o n , t r u e l o v e .  The r e a l t e s t of man  on e a r t h comes when he must choose between t r u e l o v e of woman and t r u e l o v e o f god.  I n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , these may be shown t o l e a d  to the same t h i n g , as D a n t e ' s the f a l l ,  l o v e f o r B e a t r i c e l e a d s h i m to god.  Before  they must be i d e n t i c a l , as C. S. Lewis shows i n h i s n a i v e and