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Income profiles and household composition : a study of two Indian reserves Thomas, Hervey Philip 1972

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INCOME PROFILES AND HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION: A STUDY OF TWO INDIAN RESERVES  by  HERVEY PHILIP THOMAS A. B. , Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 M.A., N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER  in  OF ARTS  t h e Department of  A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t  this thesis reguired  as conforming standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH November, 1972  COLUMBIA  to the  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Depa rtment The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  ^9  i ABSTRACT The  primary  relationship the  of  attention could  size, The  and  total  The  wage  controlled unskilled stated  the Bay  and  suggest  of  Reserve  The and  characterized  unearned.  other  In  of  profiles.  Data  extended  variables  family  the consanguineal  types of  which  was  social  household  different  are of  services,  of  two  i n order to  test  i n the study Each income  of s i x p o s s i b l e  t y p e s and  examined  with  Hypotheses  profiles  undertaken  Reserve.  one  kinship  between s t a b i l i t y  income  r e s e r v e s used  as b e i n g  with  households.  household  Columbia two  was  types  addition  were source  types of  reciprocity,  their  separately  Alert was  income:  kind  T e s t s c o n s i s t e d of p r o p o r t i o n comparisons  households  reserves.  different  examined.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  Skidegate  kinship,  and a s s o c i a t e d  w e l f a r e dependence.  the  in British  of  that i s ,  a s s o c i a t e s the n u c l e a r f a m i l y with  resources;  theory.  wages,  argument  different  between  —  the  relationship.  the  Analysis reserves  number  l a b o u r and/or  income w i t h  income —  income i s a l s o  labour;  which  of  relationship  the b a s i c  main  t h e s i s i s t o examine  income d i m e n s i o n s  kind  i s given to a  affect  skilled  and  types.  income  of t h i s  between h o u s e h o l d  amount,  household  objective  and  between  a s s o c i a t e d income for  each  of  the  Support was found f o r the p r e d i c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n high  income  totals  and extended f a m i l y households.  was some support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n that are  between  nuclear  There  families  high p e r - c a p i t a income f a m i l i e s , but no support f o r the  p r o p o s i t i o n that extended c a p i t a income households.  family  households  are  low  per-  While there were only a few cases  of consanguineal households there was strong support f o r the proposition income  that  dependent  such  households  households.  are  There  welfare or pension was  no  association  between income s e c t o r dominance and household type.  Because  the data a v a i l a b l e d i d not allow f o r an examination of s k i l l level  and  stability  o f income i t was not p o s s i b l e to do a  thorough examination of the argument and c e r t a i n  household<types.  for  income  dominance  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  vi  Chapter I.  Introduction A. Scope of the Study B. The Problem 1. The Foundations 2. Independent V a r i a b l e s 3. I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s a. Family L i f e C y c l e b. Migratory Labour C. The Data  1 1 4 4 10 22 22 27 54  II.  Methodology A. Conceptual Framework B. The Independent V a r i a b l e Income C. Income P r o f i l e s D. Other V a r i a b l e s E. Data Processing  38 38 UO 46 48 51  III.  Data P r e s e n t a t i o n A. T r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl S o c i e t y B. The Contemporary S i t u a t i o n C. T r a d i t i o n a l Haida S o c i e t y D. Contemporary Haida S o c i e t y  52 53 60 73 83  IV.  Summary A. T h e o r e t i c a l Framework B. F i n d i n g s C. F i n a l Comment  94 94 96 101  BIBLIOGRAPHY  102  APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE  105  LIST OF TABLES Page Chapter I I Table I.  Assignment of Income S e c t o r s  Questions  to UO  Chapter I I I Table I I .  Table I I I .  Table IV.  Table V.  Table VI.  Table VII.  Table VIII  Table IX.  Table X.  Demographic Profile of Households ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  61  Types of Households with Associated Frequencies and Percentages ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  63  Income Generating with Associated ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  61  Activities Frequencies  Mean P r o p o r t i o n of Household Income by Income S e c t o r and Household Type {Alert Bay Reserve)  66  Proportion of T o t a l Household Income by Household Type ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  68  P r o p o r t i o n of P e r - c a p i t a income by Household Type (Alert Bay Reserve)  69  P r o p o r t i o n of A d u l t P e r - c a p i t a Income by Household Type ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  69  Proportion of Adult Per-capita Income less Family Allowance Payments ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  70  Dominant Income Sector by Household Type ( A l e r t Bay Reserve)  71  Table XI.  Demographic Profile of Households (Skidegate Reserve)  84  Table X I I .  Types of Households with associated Frequencies and Percentages (Skidegate Reserve)  86  Income Generating with associated (Skidegate Reserve)  87  Table XIII.  Table XIV.  Table XV.  Table XVI,  Table XVII.  Table  XVIII.  Table IXX.  activities Frequencies  Mean p r o p o r t i o n of Household Income by Income Sector and Hpusehold Type (Skidegate Reserve)  88  Proportion of T o t a l Household Income by Household Type (Skidegate Reserve)  89  P r o p o r t i o n of P e r - c a p i t a income by Household Type (Skidegate Reserve)  90  P r o p o r t i o n of A d u l t P e r - c a p i t a Income by Household Type (Skidegate Reserve)  90  P r o p o r t i o n of A d u l t P e r - c a p i t a Income less Family Allowance Payments (Skidegate Reserve)  91  Dominant Income Sector by Household Type (Skidegate Reserve)  93  vi  ACKHOWLEDGEMEHT  I am i n d e b t e d encouraged thesis.  and  George  criticised  I am e s p e c i a l l y  allowing  me  d a t a on w h i c h his  to  to  interpretations M.  advisor,  who  i n s t r o n g doses t o produce  this  indebted  h i sprivate  the thesis  thoughtful  Michael  use  Gray,  to  who  particularly  was  a  Hawthorn  for  which form t h e  I am a l s o  o f some o f t h e d a t a . Ames  Harry  data f i l e s  i s based.  criticisms  thesis  grateful  for  with r e s p e c t t o t h e  I also  most c a r e f u l  wish  to  reader  thank  of this  thesis. At a l l s t a g e s i n t h e r e s e a r c h I number o f p e o p l e  at the University.  thank  Green  Virginia  wonderful  world  to  offer  criticisms.  in their  heavily  In particular  who s o p a t i e n t l y  o f the computer.  B a r n e s were u n t i r i n g  leaned  a  I wish t o  i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h e  Carole Parber  efforts  on  t o read  and  Heather  t h e t h e s i s and  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  A  •  The Scope The  process  populations and  o f the Study  isolate  adaptation Columbia under  of  of  defined  sociologists  facets  populations  of  one example  of  the  reserve  exist  process.  Indians  o f t h e many t y p e s  The  i n British  of adaptation  study.  modes  tendency t o s h i f t  of  economic  and  patterns c h a r a c t e r i s t i c taking  place  among  significance  significance  i s the fact  often  disrupt, cultural  Indians. Indian  of  populations  find  pre-contact  towards  contemporary  several  or lesser  the  society and  i s of  reasons.  Of  major  economic  degree),  C o l u m b i a and which  matrix  in  culture which  demands  the  were t r a d i t i o n a l  normative  i s  Indians  that contemporary  of B r i t i s h in  or  industrial  Columbia  r e l a t i o n s h i p s that  imbedded  life  urban,  for  The modern s o c i a l  including  traditional  social  (to a greater  g r o u p s on t h e c o a s t deeply  from  British  considerable  be  adaptation  f o r d e c a d e s and numerous s t u d i e s  particular  i s only  The  and  economic  h a s been a s u b j e c t f o r a n a l y s i s by  anthropologists  which  of  social  i n Indian may  still  of  these  present  day  t h e m s e l v e s may r e q u i r e a d j u s t m e n t s  t h e u s e o f e l e m e n t s from t h e o l d e r c u l t u r a l  forms  2  as It  well  as the forms adopted  i s also  new  possible  social  and  that  cultural  forms.  i s the impact  part  Indian  reserve  the  First,  study  i t  is  composition economic  is  and  The household  concerned  with  the Alert  Bay  require  factor  on t h e  wholly  that  may  be  (on  life  the  style  for  of  the data  the study  and  observed  second  feasibility  to  will  That then  i n the  objective  different use  which  the  response i t deals  to with  and  type) ,  (such a s t h e  nuclear  two  coastal  i s to s e t f o r t h this  Indian  theory  a  with  be  found  The  study  actual to  test  i s designed  i s , t h e r e has been no to  theory of  make a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n  organization.  o f u s i n g an and  to  are a  a p p r o p r i a t e measures c a n  a deductive analysis.  problems.  Skidegate.  to t e s t  of s o c i a l  possible  family)  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  a new  degree  types  then,  If  major  ( i n terms of s i z e  major o b j e c t i v e ,  study  two  specifically,  household  and  then  variation  the  More  extended  data.  A  with  income p r o f i l e s ,  the theory  test  society.  o f government p o l i c y , Branch),  concerned  associated  reserves.  study  A second  Affairs  circumstances.  the  field  may  of r e s e r v e Indian households  the household  family  newer W h i t e  Indians.  This  and  the  the s i t u a t i o n  very important of  from  offer  a  theory  attempt to  to as to  explain  data.  of  the  study  already existing  i s to explore body o f raw  s e t of hypotheses.  a body o f d a t a g a t h e r e d  That  data  is, is  f o r the t e s t i n g  the to i t of  3  one  s e t o f hypotheses  related  hypotheses.  important  If  the scope  for  the  of i n d i v i d u a l  the  to test  1954  acculturation pursued  of  several which  of  i n the o r i g i n a l  data i s  social  t o use s u c h  tremendously  hypotheses by  B.C.  study  o f u s i n g such  science data  then  increased. be  would be much more e x t e n s i v e .  directed  process  conceptually  studies could p o t e n t i a l l y  the present  study  though  doing  possible  studies i s  t o make a s t u d y  d a t a used  cost  i s indeed  example, d a t a from  combined The  i t  different  The f e a s i b i l i t y  i n terras o f  research.  For  to test  gathered  Hawthorn c o n c e r n i n g t h e Indians.  The  1  are of course  guestions i n the present study  was  questions  related  with a d i f f e r e n t  to  the  e m p h a s i s and  concern.  The two  remainder  areas.  First  framework  the  present  the for  Finally,  Hawthorn  this  is  suitable  composition. way  of  chapter  w i l l be c o n c e r n e d  development the  of  explanation  a  theoretical of  t h i s chapter considers i n  data  itself  with  household a  and i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y  general to the  study.  H.B. Hawthorn, C.S. Belshaw, and S.H. Jamieson, The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia^ A Study o f Contemporary S o c i a l Adjustment (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s and U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958). 1  B. 1.  The The  Problem Foundations  This  study i s concerned  composition  of  reserve  a  The  systematic  purpose  treatment  c o n d i t i o n s t o determine  household  the  o f two  possible  life are  influences  cycle  and  though  the  i s a response  of t h i s  of  which  section  is  to to  possible hypothesized  composition.  In  addition  intervening variables,  m i g r a t o r y l a b o u r , on  g e n e r a l a l l households the  structure  circumstances. conditions a base.  family  household  composition  certain  functions,  purposes  provision  the household  o f goods and An  minimally residence  consider unit.  individuals possible  can  In r e t u r n  others  consumes  f o r such  to  provide  relationship  between  members where t h e  alternative  among t h e  in  used  an  we  the  exchange tasks  the as will  consumption one  as for  services  and  or  more  that  makes  services.  The  t o c o n t r i b u t e income  involves  The  a  services  then,  i t are divided  be  on  optimum  mechanism  therefore  as  household,  sustain  will  such  shopping,  household  be e x p e c t e d  for  household  the  services necessary to sustain  and a  v a r y depending  i s an e f f i c i e n t  individual  housekeeping,  may  of comparison  f o r the n u c l e a r f a m i l y  First,  cooking,  perform  of organization  For the  individual.  it  to  explored. In  the  the d e g r e e  Indian households  economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . present  with  network  or  necessary  to  members.  a wage economy r e g u i r e s p r o c u r i n g  5  all  s u c h s e r v i c e s from c o m m e r c i a l s o u r c e s .  of o b t a i n i n g  a l l such s e r v i c e s  many i n d i v i d u a l s . present  day  estimated allowing it  a t $6,000 -  the $8,000  of this  cost  such  costs.  per  person  t o assume t h a t In comparison  of  occupational  addition  t h e commercial o p e r a t i o n  cash from  h i s customers,  f o r short  store  or other  large  monetary wage economy, and  guite be  provider  o f time.  f o r i n cash.  simply  household  composition.  higher In  centered  around  the  credit  payment i n  system  i s a small  salaries  providing  i n the resource  w h i c h may be i n c a s h considerations  a  may  and  A wife  play  goods  of a used  the s i t u a t i o n i s the service of  the  a significant  receives  be of a  part  the  may  income  b u t may a l s o be i n k i n d .  may a l s o  task  labour.  In the household  by s h a r i n g  Indians  The owner o r o p e r a t o r  here t h e person  material  and  is  a  Even  1  of  commercial establishment  different;  "paid"  involves  to ultimately receive  used  must be p a i d  periods  annually,  specialization  although  for  services i s  with t h e household  degree  the operator  that  most I n d i a n s c o u l d n o t  t h e commercial e n t e r p r i s e  of  is  s t y l e s o f B.C.  organization,  necessity  point  the reach f o r  of obtaining  f o r differences i n the l i f e  i s not unreasonable  afford  would be beyond  Illustrative  Americans  However t h e c o s t  Non-  role i n  companionship  a f f e c t i o n o f her husband.  A second regulating  function  sexual  performed  activity  by t h e h o u s e h o l d  and  the  i s that of  rearing of c h i l d r e n .  * Eric Wolf, Peasants , Foundations of Modern Anthropology S e r i e s (Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1966) 8 p. 13.  6  Generally those  sexual access i s r e s t r i c t e d  who  are  Additionally done  married  the l i m i t s  the household  limits  members, a t l e a s t  involve  For  most each  structure  providers  within  households  of  is may  true  on  used  extract  to  the  environment a  Historically  the extended  products  the  of  societies striking  began  neolithic to  examples  households  of  groups  coastal  examples  of  family  Ibid ., p.  61.  Are  constraints  system  as  In which  model. are  that  largely  and  were  originally is,  when  Particularly  extended China.  the  economies  is  environment.  that  the  among  gathering  well  exists.  horticulture.  1  most that  The  famiy Indian  important were  based  f o r the p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d . 2  Marshall D. Sahlins, Modern Anthropology Series P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1968), p. 2  family  households  Europe  persons  t h e t e c h n o l o g y which  include  traditional  o f h u n t i n g and  the extended  1  this  B.C.  as  revolution,  practice of  services  from  family  of  eligible  Adult  households  and  living  are  areas.  a  of  be  This function  have e c o n o m i c  possible compositions  to  of c u l t u r a l convention.  f o r o n l y an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e  dependent  expected  f o r the household i s t o  the l i m i t s  where t h i s  for  age.  member i n b o t h f u n c t i o n a l  fact  The  on  also  o f s e x and  efficient  households  allow  is  only  a c c e p t e d manner.  of the household.  i n terms  partners  actual  culturally  t h e number o f p e r s o n s who  a r e income e a r n e r s o r sexual  a  the care of c h i l d r e n  within  The  in  or approved  Tribesmen^ (Englewood 3.  Foundations of Cliffs, N.J.:  7  The and The  nuclear  gathering reasons  and  f a m i l y household societies  f o r the  gathering  fluctuating  as  It  dense p o p u l a t i o n .  Industrial  ture  of  where  than  many  which  production  i s beyond  Production nuclear  family  exists  as  for  hunter  i s the -  the  the  hunting  the  animals.  The  society,  industrial society.  There are in  nuclear  and  inclusion  and  a  not  support  u n i t s need more  labour  muster.  group  become  the  Further  form  skills  become  scale  to  supply. The  household dominant  situation  society -  for  o f a few  investment  of  this  gathering  others  of  to  two the  in also  where  exploitation  for  the  divorced.  viable  returns  and  a large,  evolved  d i f f e r e n c e i n the of  meagre  struc  family  unit  Hunting  a  Paradoxically  extreme v a r i a b i l i t y  gathering  a  most e f f i c i e n t  with  e  requires a capital  thus  individual  resources.  could  of a  have  exists  hunt  ability  when  hav  family could  family  providing  resource  the  hunting  guite d i s t i n c t .  s o c i e t y has  itself  among  in industrial society.  production  and  organization  the  the  even a l a r g e e x t e n d e d  ownership of  are  usually  environment.  common  w e l l as  coincidence  societies  is  the  of  a  effectively economies i s hunting  production  for  and the  1  c o n d i t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l  f a m i l y households being  the  s o c i e t y which  result  most e f f e c t i v e  form  William J . Goode, World R e v o l u t i o n i n F a m i l y P a t t e r n s (New Y o r k : The Macmillan Company, 1963) p. 169; E.K. Gough, "Changing K i n s h i p Usage i n t h e S e t t i n g o f P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c Change among t h e Nayar o f M a l a b a r , " J o u r n a l of t h e L q i a l A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 82 (1952), pp. 71-88. 1  8  of  household  organization.  The  nuclear  family  residence  u n i t i s composed of husband, wife, and c h i l d r e n of e i t h e r or both. (1)  Such  a  unit  is  most  k i n s h i p and access to income  provided  is  adequate  to  likely are  support  to  function  household  manner s u i t a b l e t o the c u l t u r a l norms of the stable (4)  enough  a  reasonable  society;  length  of  (3)  time;  and,  spatial  so that the house i s the u s u a l or customary p l a c e  sleeping  services.  and  as  the  consumption  of  other  nuclear  necessary  a g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n i t seems reasonable t o  expect t h a t i f a l l of these c o n d i t i i o n s the  income  members i n a  place of work and r e s i d e n c e are i n c l o s e enough  proximity for  over  (2)  divorced;  when  f a m i l y household  are  fufilled  then  i s the most e f f i c i e n t form of  o r g a n i z a t i o n to c a r r y out the f u n c t i o n s of the household described  above.  c o n d i t i o n s are not met be  modified  Conversely  if  one  or  then the household  more  composition  conditions  necessary  for  are  not  met  performance  of  b a s i c household  income i s u n s t a b l e f o r  Indians.  members  which  functions. of  a  the members  of  the  household  to  family If  the  composition i s allow  for  the  For example, i f  household  w i l l be added to provide s t a b i l i t y  in  constant.  nuclear  then the household  modified so as t o provide c o n d i t i o n s  members  the  are not always met f o r r e s e r v e  conditions  must  would then be  e g u i l i b r i u m as long as the c o n d i t i o n s remained  household  the  to take i n t o account the impinging c o n d i t i o n s .  The r e s u l t i n g composition of the household  The  of  as  then  new  to allow some of  regularly  provide  the  9  necessary be if  services.  i n the the  simply  For  the  new  form o f someone t o do new  an  member  the c o o k i n g  economy measure.  Conceptually  and  occurring  when t h e c o n d i t i o n s do  An  the c o n s a n g u i n e a l  f a m i l y household  generations  or  generation.  A consanguineal  persons  It  linked  is  two  by  proposed  one  of  prime  level.  increasing  a given income.  the f o r m a t i o n  permit  To  in  family  achieved  by  level  such  as  an  or  more  of  only  1  relationship  other  between  economic  at  or  factors  below  factors  the  may  extended  some  play  in a position of  of  stable where i t  action  stability family  an  of income, f o r  t h i n g as a p e r f e c t l y  the  that  composition  stability  be  of  t i e i n each  i s composed  independence  household) over  living  three  affinal  is  to the  as  o f a wage economy.  composition,  f a m i l y may and  an  treated  T h i s i s t r u e t o the e x t e n t  again  i s no  the  privacy  nuclear  the  determining  refer  However  with  be  family  not  economic f a c t o r s  family there  c h o o s e s more  household  i t could  are  household  in  Above t h i s  role  households.  that  or  washing  household  consanguinity.  importance.  o r more o f t h e  critical  of  the  extended  i s composed o f  generations  ties  e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s and are  the  f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i n the c o n t e x t  extended  b e n e f i t might  and  i s not a l r e a d y married,  household  nuclear  members t h e  (as  a  that could  be  household  with  Nancie Solien de Gonzalez, Black C a r i b Household S t r u c t u r e , Monograph Ho. 48 American Ethnological Society (Seattle: U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1969) , pp. 68 69, 85, 137; M a r v i n R o b e r t M u n s e l l , "Land and L a b o u r a t S a l t River: Household Organization in a Changing Economy" (unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1967) , p. 35. 1  10  multiple study  income  will  although  not attempt  i t remains  For  the  assumptions dimension shift of  2.  a  critical  level  possibility.  a  testable  significant  composition,  by  This  and,  f o r B.C.  (2)  two  shift  one  in  i s sufficient  the  Indians  the normative  hypotheses  preferred  is  the  structures.  to  form  nuclear  1  Independent V a r i a b l e s first  resource  dimension control.  obtain.  that  t h e f a m i l y , he  and  an  thus social  d e f i n e d and  is of  extends  considered  cure)  effort  kind.  An  after  good  which  and  is  sacrifice by  virtue such  a c c e s s to or p a r t i c i p a t i o n  virtually  a1  sought  anything  i s a member o f a g r o u p ,  resources  et  be  or  groups i m p l i e s t h a t  controlled  examples i n c l u d e a f i s h i n g * Hawthorn 276-277.  requires  individual  i s allowed  that  classification groups  e c o n o m i c goods e i t h e r i n c a s h  C o n t r o l by  fact  will  A r e s o u r c e i s d e f i n e d t o be  (wages o r moose o r a r i t u a l  supply  resource  o f economy t h a t  good i s a c u l t u r a l l y  service  short  pp.  such  forming  (1)  composition  supported  economic  the  of  made:  household  which produces  or  a conceptual  purposes are  household  The is  to estimate  earning cycles.  of I n d i a n economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  the  family,  earners i n d i f f e r e n t  which to  any  boat, .,  by may  Indians  of as the  group.  The  be  controlled  by  activity,  and  and of  to  that  economic  a farm  in  in  a  store.  British  Columbia,  11  While  i t i s possible to conceive  group c o n t r o l l e d in  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  That  the  the  there  and  activity  see  household  the  service  activity the  to  and  the  residence likely  are  that the  such  proposition  as  to  cooperation  t a s k s i n terms of  spatial,  T h u s on  a t the feed  a ranch  same t i m e .  supply,  o r be  resource  both  the  two  blend  specialization  may  be  of  tasks  Some mend engaged i n  performed  of  work  Further  w i t h i n the  a farm.  1  As  in and  i t  is  residence  o f some m o d i f i c a t i o n a t peak p e r i o d s on  a l l  performed  sectors  together.  not  exploitation  maintenance t a s k s are  harvesting operations  a  of  the  formal  t h i s i s s t a t e d as f o l l o w s :  H-1  If  then  the  are  likely.  Where  household  likely  group i s c a p a b l e  Kinship c o n t r o l of a resource and c l o s e i n t e r l o c k i n g o f the exploitation of the r e s o u r c e are likely to mean kinship c o o p e r a t i o n i n the consumption of the resource which would i n c l u d e r e s i d e n c e i n the form of extended f a m i l y households. access  employment then  winter  tasks.  conjunction,  year,  cattle  is  which  more  dimensions.  same p h y s i c a l s p a c e and  close  i s no g r o u p  r e v e r s e case  p a r t i c i p a n t s herd  fences,  in  f o r which  i s , p a r t i c i p a n t s d i v i d e the  temporal, of  and  of resources  there  or  to a resource,  income, i s n o t are  two  f o r the  purposes of  controlled  alternatives,  by  each  the having  obtaining kin  group  different  M.F. N i m k o f f and B u s s e l l M i d d l e t o n , " T y p e s o f F a m i l y and Types of Economy," A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 66 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 215-225; W i l l i a m Watson, T r i b a l C o h e s i o n in a Honey Economy (Manchester: Manchester university Press, 1958), p. 193; W o l f , P e a s a n t s , pp. 65 - 66. 1  12  implications.  The  or t a l e n t s are  important  this  case  the  first  i s the case  where i n d i v i d u a l  factors in  providing  individual  does  not  k i n s h i p g r o u p t o o b t a i n employment, to  cooperate  skills large  with  such  as  them that of  corporations  productivity individual should  be  in  of  skills the  and  individual,  are  important  economy i s b a s e d on  form  not  1  on  the  his  required  Individual  efficiency  his lineage.  then  In  a r e i n demand  i s with  of s o c i a l  wage l a b o u r .  i s not  groups.  mechanic or l o g g e r  the  income. to r e l y  thus  residence  whose o n l y c o n c e r n  major  need  skills  nuclear  by or  Where family  o r g a n i z a t i o n , i f the  Stated  formally this  i s as  follows: H-2  If and  an  the  In a wage economy t h e r e l i a n c e of households on skilled labour l e a d s to the formation of n u c l e a r family households as the primary residence group. k i n s h i p g r o u p s do  individual  most and  means  that  employer  possesses  common  labour  welfare. there  to the  commitment  to  not  ways  no  marketable s k i l l s  labour,  i s limited  job.  to  o f o b t a i n i n g income a r e  Casual  employee, the  c o n t r o l access  and The  as  the  commitment on the  of h i s from  term the  employee  casual  resources,  labourer  own,  casual  implies,  p a r t of  has  a  the  brief  i s hired for  Goode, World R e v o l u t i o n , p. 169; Gough, "Changing Kinship Osage," p. 86; John H. Kunkel, "Values and B e h a v i o r i n E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p e m e n t , " E c o n o m i c Development and C u l t u r a l Change , 13 (1965) pp. 275-276; ~ L y n n RobbinsT "Economics, Household Composition, and F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e : The Blackfeet Case." American Ethnological Society. Proceedings of the 1968 Annual Spring Meeting (Seattle: U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1968), i n p a s s i n g . 1  13  short  p e r i o d s o f time  and u s u a l l y  pool  of  unskilled  hires  on a n i m m e d i a t e  to  casual  attract  or  persons  produces a s i t u a t i o n resulting and  extreme  no i n c o m e .  income  need  and  be  income  flows  such  Affairs  Branch,  labour. funds is  from  agencies  the i n d i v i d u a l  a  commercial  i n t h e same  factor  his position  unstable  differences  or  actual  patterns  favoring  by w e l f a r e Welfare  government.  has very  only  little  control  that  an  employer  over  not  tend  being to  women  jobs such  tend  become  on  any with  to  a  at  welfare  focus  low  in home  of  of  t o care f o r f o r the  a t a variety of  o r maid. of  has a  level  search  support  may be serai-employed  stable  that  at  i s reflected i n  absent  as t h a t o f domestic  the  The i n d i v i d u a l  skill  jobs  remain  for  of welfare  the aid o f h i s s k i l l s  coupled  and a l s o t o g u a l i f y  unskilled  with  needs  have t o o few  Hence c o n t i n u a n c e  commitment males  Women  The  with  between  f o r goods.  for the recipient.  The f a c t  possible  to  circumstance  a s t h e Band C o u n c i l , I n d i a n  sense  t h e agency,  value.  employment.  enough  The w e l f a r e g r a n t i n g a g e n c y d o e s n o t need  stable  manipulating  children.  This  On t h e c o n t r a r y , most w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s  must d e f e n d  children  large  alleviated  credit  f o r t o o many a p p l i c a n t s .  not  the  partially  or  the  t o p e r i o d s o f unemployment  and t h e p r o v i n c i a l  income.  individual  pool.  I n a wage economy  goods,  the  the  where income i s low and  payments i n c a s h ,  welfare  b a s i s a t wages j u s t  from  may  Because  l a b o u r i s l a r g e t h e employer  vulnerability  needs  Generally  f o r low pay.  such  Women  thus  families.  14  Combinations in  order  coping  o f women and t h e i r  the s i t u a t i o n .  H-3  few  d i s c u s s e d above, t h e p o s i t i o n  indeed.  and no a c c e s s  be  of  to  extended  which a r e a v a i l a b l e and  year  to year.  to  find  any s o r t  he  extended  Such a s i t u a t i o n o f employment  d i s t a n c e s from worker.  of  a  household  which a h o u s e h o l d  i s able  from  sources,  commercial the  necessary  very  precarious  from  For  is  f o r each  necessary  to  to  season  would mean t h a t i n o r d e r  the i n d i v i d u a l  would h a v e t o  h i s home r e s e r v e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s  That i s , f o r this are  chapter  component  of  purchase  goods  that i s , provide  any s o c i a l  from  the  economic  and  f o r members some  outside  the  nuclear  family  d e p e n d i n g on t h e s t a n d a r d  de G o n z a l e z , Black L a n d and L a b o u r , p. 49.  services  household  g r o u p t h e amount o f income  individual  significantly  season  because i t d e f i n e s t h e e x t e n t t o  functions  structure.  vary  widely  o f income i s a major  condition  1  is  with  d u r a t i o n , and t h e number o f j o b s  u n d e r S e c t i o n B,3,b o f t h i s  Size  may  of  three i s as f o l l o w s :  o f income e a r n e r s  resources  fluctuates  becomes a m i g r a n t  discussed  of  i s one way  Wages a r e low, p e r i o d s o f unemployment a r e f r e q u e n t  may  travel  Hypothesis  1  units  The c o n s a n g u i n e a l h o u s e h o l d i s a c o n s e g u e n c e o f no a c c e s s to kin controlled r e s o u r c e s and where t h e income e a r n e r s have no m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s and l e a v e the reserve i n search of c a s u a l employment.  skills  and  i n household  t o p o o l income and p r o v i d e s t a b i l i t y  with  as  children  that  household of living  C a r i b , pp. 139 - 140; M u n s e l l ,  15  that  i s culturally  conceptually organization willing food,  as  quality  extended  family  size  level  with  a  the r e s u l t i n g  of l i v i n g  necessary  from  which  such as  existence  may e l e c t  more  i n other  i n areas  be  of c l o t h i n g i f the  a separate  o r they  family residence  areas  to l i v e  stable  areas.  as  a  a s an  income  and  The l i m i t s  that  i s the  minimum  to sustain the i n d i v i d u a l .  the  standard  and h i g h  may be i n f e r r e d  H-4  in  and q u a l i t y  might  or  level  of  would be b a s e d .  of t h e s i t u a t i o n .  As  considered  A family  of living  general strength of the r e l a t i o n  nuclear other  housing,  subsistence  consumption  in  standard  household,  This i s the basis  for  of l i v i n g .  o f t h e income p l a c e s on i n d i v i d u a l s  of  The  a high  of  standards  c a n be  t r a d e - o f f between t h e f o r m o f h o u s e h o l d  e c o n o m i e s would p e r m i t family  higher  The p r o b l e m  and t h e s t a n d a r d  nuclear  the  a  to forego  resulting  expected.  levels  indirectly  The h y p o t h e s i s  between t h e d e s i r e of consumption  from  the  context  i s as f o l l o w s :  If the proportion o f low income families living as nuclear family households i s h i g h e r {when t h e t o t a l number of nuclear families on t h e r e s e r v e i s high) as compared with the proportion o f low income nuclear families on r e s e r v e s ( w i t h a low f r e g u e n c y of n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s ) , then the conclusion i s that there are strong, positive sanctions to living as a nuclear family household.  an a l t e r n a t i v e situation  of  solution  t o the problem o f  existence  e c o n o m i c m a r g i n a l i t y t h e use o f  inter-  16  household networks of r e c i p r o c i t y c o u l d be used.  As  income  for  the household decreases the more f r e q u e n t and p e r v a s i v e  the  amount  resources sitting)  of  sharing.  At  the  lowest  position  i n c l u d i n g cash, goods, and s e r v i c e s would be m o b i l i z e d .  (such as baby  Because cash i s a very  commodity  this  t h a t would  be excluded by v i r t u e of i t s i n c r e a s i n g  as  income  would  scarce  be the f i r s t c l a s s of exchanged  decreases.  As  the  relative  t o t a l number o f exchanges.. Stated  the  items  scarcity  position  household i n c r e a s e s due to a r i s e i n income  H-5  most  of  fewer  a  the  formally:  As income decreases the g r e a t e r the extent of i n t e r household borrowing networks. F u r t h e r , the lower the income the l e s s l i k e l y t h a t cash w i l l form part of the exchange system.  C o n c e p t u a l l y , the use of m u l t i p l e household networks i s a l e s s e f f i c i e n t means of meeting the demands than  extended f a m i l y households,  s t r i c t l y economic coordination  the  existence  i t i s less e f f i c i e n t i n a  sense because there  between  of  is a  less  complete  separate household r e s o u r c e s and  the demands f o r the two or more f a m i l i e s .  F o r example,  two  cooking s t o v e s f o r two s e p a r a t e n u c l e a r f a m i l y households i s clearly  less  shared by the  efficient  use  same  nuclear  two  of  resources families  than one stove living  as  one  extended f a m i l y household. In  e i t h e r case the p o o l i n g of incomes among  or w i t h i n one extended of  resources  to  household i s a more even  a l l members  concerned  in  households  distribution the  system.  17  Operationally form  will  will  be  the  h o u s e h o l d s which u s e t h e e x t e n d e d  have a h i g h e r higher  than  total  income and  family  per-capita  i f the households e x i s t e d  income  as separate  entities: H-6  The  High income totals are associated with the extended family form of household organization. I f t h e same h o u s e h o l d s were to e x i s t as separate entities then the per-capita income would be lower than i f they e x i s t e d as an e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . A combination o f lower total income and h i g h e r p e r - c a p i t a income are associated with nuclear f a m i l y households.*  lower  limits  of  income  t e r m s o f what f o r m s o f h o u s e h o l d That  i s , there  w h i c h no f a m i l y may s h i f t  be  concept family  of with  resident  lower l i m i t  placed  the  Below t h i s  1  point  members may a t  instance  is  family.  related  a stem f a m i l y  to provide  t h e p a r e n t s may e x e r t  provide to  i s a  the  nuclear  and  wife  pressure  on t h e  them w i t h a home and s e r v i c e s when  t o do s o f o r  of the child  Munsell,  least  kin until  can again  closely  form  B e c a u s e income a v a i l a b l e i n o l d age may  attenuated  able  beyond  the family  i n the households of other  problem  stem  possible.  t h e p a r e n t s o f e i t h e r o r b o t h husband  no l o n g e r  converse  This  are  o r minimum p o i n t  the non-productive  w i t h them.  severely  children are  organization  income p r o d u c e r s i n t h e f i r s t  enough i n c o m e .  be  a  can e x i s t .  such that  temporarily the  is  are also significant i n  rearing  Land and L a b o u r  themselves.  function  , p.  This  mentioned  58.  they  i s the  earlier  as  18  a function children twelve.  of need  the  family.  difference  i s  that a l l  c a r e f o r a number o f y e a r s , p r o b a b l y a t l e a s t  But a d u l t s  sufficient  The  may  not  need  such  care  because  r e s o u r c e s (such a s p e n s i o n s ) o r b e c a u s e  of  of early  death. The  third  dimension  o f income i s s t a b i l i t y .  of i n d i v i d u a l s  and  significantly,  particularly  the p a t t e r n  organization use  combine  are  too  may a d a p t  of  insurance  of  the  that  predictable  then  the  compensate  extended  mechanism. so  great to  households  family  Persons  or  form  for  this  household  or  nuclear  supplies  to  purchase  (for the  f o r a l l t h e members.  H-7  i f the  situation. acts  families  as  an may  always  short  that  among  be some income  run) t h e n e c e s s a r y  1  I f t h e income o f an i n d i v i d u a l is u n s t a b l e then the extended f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d would be t h e most e f f i c i e n t form o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i i o n and t h e r e f o r e i s the e x p e c t e d f o r m . I f t h e income i s s t a b l e then t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s t h e more efficient form and t h e r e f o r e t h e e x p e c t e d form o f h o u s e h o l d organization.  H a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h r e e major * Ibid Composition,"  If  members complement one a n o t h e r i n t e r m s o f  o f t h e income p r o d u c e r s t h e r e w i l l  available  vary  of household  income f l u c t u a t i o n s o r s i m p l y i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n all  may  over the course of a year.  o f f l u c t u a t i o n s i s not  fluctuations  The  consequently  The income  aspects of  ., p. 56; R o b b i n s , pp. 198-200.  income  "Economics,  there  Household  19  is  a final  income. first,  of  but few  Indian  that  t o be  money  Consumption  Cash  and  any  can  there  by  anyone and  are  need  any  who  For p e r s o n s maintain others  a  can  operating i n a high  unit.  their nature  A cash  economy in  or  are  i t  the  welfare. made  with  a t any  time,  only  at  the  important  s i n c e i t can  to supply. alleviate  It  t h e c a s h h o l d e r from  is  offers those  any  by  the  individual drawback, t h a t  be c o n v e r t e d  or  the  economy  the  within  the  cash  individual in  need,  specific  cash used  the p o s s e s s o r o f F o r an  be who  not  only  item  needed.  one  way  p e r - c a p i t a income under t h e p r e s s u r e cash,  and  i s a s t o r e of value to  For  cash  the  transportability,  used  i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n the  t o g i v e them  residence  i s one  in relation  has  and  cases but  rent,  limited  Honey  dictates.  n e e d , anyone w i t h c a s h someone  groups  individual  i s , purchases  demands, t h e demands on  limitless  i n a few  the  t h u s be  the c o s t .  cash  satisfy  to  products,  possesses  to  presented  o b t a i n most o f  pensions,  that  as  used  Indian  which  accrues  converted  be  be  or kind  as a medium o f e c o n o m i c e x c h a n g e has  obtain  availability  perhaps  any  of n o n - p e r i s h a b i l i t y ,  convertability. to  if  important  wages,  Cash  characteristics  can  should  of cash  i t i s i n c l u d e d more i n t h e  be  i s indirect,  money.  that  so f o r t h e m a j o r i t y .  productivity  of  place  form  households  i t may  expected  means t h a t  the  this  income i n t h i s form  not  form  i s presented,  s i n c e t h e r e a r e few  a warning  is  that  Logically  indeed yearly  dimension  nuclear  a means o f p a r t i a l l y  to from  family  isolating  o u t s i d e the n u c l e a r f a m i l y .  20  A kind consummed  economy means t h a t directly  consumption caught in  indicates  In  or that  economy b u t r a t h e r  economy.  that  determines  how t h e l a b o u r i s p a i d f o r . The g r e a t e r  the  t h e number o f p e o p l e needed t o  of products  unit  network.  Thus  extended  family  extended  parallel  structure  the  reflects  the s t r u c t u r e  i f  production  the  then the household  above  who o b t a i n  economy  theoretical  a  That i s , f o r a closed,  1  of  sector  household the  as a  production  i s based  s h o u l d a l s o be  on t h e  based  on  groups  or  family.  noted  individuals  and  there  are  probably  the primary p a r t the  completeness.  distinction  few  of t h e i r is  income  included  However t h e f o l l o w i n g  g e n e r a t e d by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y :  1  This  o f l a b o u r i s a determinant of the range  consumption  H-8  Salmon  economy t h e  As  is  f o r home  kind  produced.  kind  kind  economy i s more l i m i t e d .  the system.  As  the  is  o f a c a n n i n g company and p a i d f o r  of products the greater  division  a  of  itself  Salmon c a u g h t  i t i s not t h e product i t s e l f  general a kind  support  the  example  resource  s h a r e s i s an example o f a c a s h economy.  or kind  range  by t h e p r o d u c e r .  w h i l e i n t h e employ  wages  cash  i s an  a given  I f the e x p l o i t a t i o n of a resource is based on an e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s y s t e m and t h e products of the resource c o n s t i t u t e the primary p a r t of the income o f t h e p e r s o n s so involved then the extended family household is the expected form o f organization  Wolf, Peasants  , p.  66.  from for  hypothesis  21  for The  above  the household.  identification  of the v a r i o u s dimensions of  economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s p o s t u l a t e d economic  rationality  normative alter  s t r u c t u r e s such  the s i t u a t i o n .  rests  on  the  g e n e r a t e income household, Indians  i s  does  the  not  take  that  so  for  that  even  i s a very r e a l  are i n a position  households. economics networks  A  While t h i s the  can  first not  the l i m i t s  second  of  problem  certainly working  provide  an  r e s o u r c e s o v e r a l o n g time s p a n .  problem.  i s that  i n a cash small.  assumption  are  of sharing  i s a factor  in  also among  household  i s that  efficient  such a i d  distribution  of  P r o b a b l y most, i f n o t a l l ,  of  household  i t  many  are considered  reciprocity  a i d i s g i v e n on an emergency b a s i s .  depending  Since  a  w i t h c a s h and c a s h i s  such  economics  approach  among k i n a r e v e r y  n e c e s s a r y by I n d i a n s must be p u r c h a s e d  limited.  may  maintaining  many i f n o t t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t e m s t h a t  very  account  this  o f economic m a r g i n a l i t y  of r e c i p r o c i t y  a s c a r c e r e s o u r c e then  into  of  f o r many I n d i a n s t h e a b i l i t y t o  limited  on any b a s i s ,  assumption  a s g e n e r o s i t y among k i n which  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n  1  notion  economy t h e l i m i t s Since  and  on  may  As a major  operate  feature  differentially  on t h e r e s o u r c e s o r needs o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Hawthorn, e t a l ., I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , pp. 47, 219: M a r s h a l l " " D. Sahlins, "On the" Sociology of Primitive Exchange," i n The R e l e v a n c e o f M o d e l s f o r S o c i a l Anthropology , ed. By M. Banton. Monographs of the Association of Social Anthropologists, He. 1. (London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), pp. 39-126. 1  22  3.  Intervening Variables  A.  Family L i f e So  Cycle  f a r the p i c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p  circumstances  and  household  attention  on  the  households  respond  circumstances.  g e n e r a l approach  families  have  simplest  the younger  the  of  of  role  structures)  While  The  within  not  produce  within  strengths  and  life  life  mark  p r o c e s s can  which  cycle  comprise At  the r o l e s  its  of  beginning The  children  household are  be a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s  (with  family, w i d e l y from  supporting  born,  of a d u l t  of  status.  o f t h e many  t h a t o f income culture  The roles  producer.  to culture  significant  role  and do  income.  g a i n s the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s  t o t a k e a more a c t i v e and  the  normative  p o r t i o n s of a household's  grows o l d e r and  the and  the general pattern i s that c h i l d r e n  significant  or  become p r o d u c t i v e members  to the assumption  the  who  span.  the  The  have a l i f e  individuals.  eventually  varies  cultures  As t h e c h i l d  finite  for  economic individuals  family  r e s e a r c h i s w i t h o n l y one  the p i c t u r e  even  of  framework w i t h i n  leading  exist  that  death  relationships  concern i n t h i s which  and  process  socialized,  changing  -a  hence  to generate income.  g e n e r a t i o n takes over  Birth  the  the s o c i e t y .  of  as n o n - c l o s e d systems,  themselves  provides a primary reared,  dimensions  focused and  time although the i n d i v i d u a l s  generation. end  individuals  ability  here i s  Families, through  which  economic  has  h a s been made o f how  to t h e i r  used  composition  various  mention  extension  older  in  to  Ho  change i n r e l a t i o n  analysis.  way  between  and  i n the  23  family  production,  increased, children  the of  providing  are  from t h e a s s u m p t i o n  desired  form  B.C.  Indians  possible  problem  of s o c i a l i t  is  determine f o r a new  from  opportunities  for  the  skills.  Starting  separate a  there  t o use t h e i r  circumstances not  the comparative p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y i s  that  the n u c l e a r  organization  possible  to  f o r the households see  that  when i t i s p o s s i b l e  (usually  the family  young)  Economically  resources  i t is  to e s t a b l i s h a  years  i n d i v i d u a l a r e not those a t the beginning of  the  productive  family Or  to  or earning  until  such  to  household  are able  establish  their  peak  of  the  with  to accumulate own s e p a r a t e  t h e r a t e a t which f i s s i o n  While state  exactly  reference three  i t  been  the family  to the c u l t u r a l  main  explicitly are  has  stages  of  life  is  family  productive on  one  cycle  that of  life  in-laws  household.  The  providers  place.  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to any  group  system, i t i s p o s s i b l e  to the proportion  economically  can take  suggested  entire  the necessary  number o f p e r s o n s who a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e i n c o m e affects  earning  may be n e c e s s a r y .  t h e young c o u p l e may l i v e  time as they  resources  the  years the support  e s t a b l i s h a separate  a s a compromise,  that  to  Since  the  usual  family  new h o u s e h o l d . of  i ti s  economic  and when i t i s  nuclear  of o r i e n t a t i o n .  of f i n d i n g the necessary  family i s  cycle  o f persons i n a i t i s important  without  to indicate  which  relate  household  who  to note that the  focus  here  p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p within the  family  and n o t t o a l l o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c o - e x i s t a t  24  the  same t i m e .  The  stages are  as  follows:  (a)  Phase of E x p a n s i o n : L a s t s from t h e m a r r i a g e of a man and a woman t o the end o f the child bearing years. Income is initially the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the senior generation (especially the husband). (b) Phase o f D i s p e r s i o n S F i s s i o n : Lasts from the marriage of first child (usually the e l d e s t ) u n t i l the marriage of the l a s t c h i l d . I n t h i s phase the responsibility from providing income begins to shift to the younger generation. Also, depending on the length of the c h i l d b e a r i n g y e a r s , the mother may make contributions to the h o u s e h o l d income i n ways which have e i t h e r a cash or kind value. (c) Phase o f R e p l a c e m e n t : From the marriage of the l a s t c h i l d u n t i l the death of both parents. A t some p o i n t d u r i n g the phase b o t h p a r e n t s may no longer be economically productive and may depend on the support of their children.*  Given life  cycle  the  above c o n s i d e r a t i o n strongly  influenced  circumstances of  the  2  of  declines  the  family  lengthened, the  is  i t would seem t h a t  family  and  family.  As  the  i n d i v i d u a l s may  household  the  by  economic  the  economic  circumstances  length  of each s t a g e  change  the  t o accommodate t h e  family  may  composition  wishes of  be of  members.  * Meyer Fortes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The D e v e l o p m e n t a l C y c l e i n D o m e s t i c G r o u p s , ed. By Jack Goody, Cambridge Papers i n A n t h r o p o l o g y No. 1 (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958) . Robbins, "Economics, Household Composition," pp. 204-207. 2  25  This last with  possibility  their In  would be  p a r e n t s f o r some t i m e  terms of o t h e r  presented  in  important  the case  the  dimensions  first  i s control  after  part  of  this  o f r e s o u r c e s by  are k i n s h i p  chance  the n u c l e a r f a m i l y w i l l  reach  marriagable  activities there are can  that severe  be  owned  expansion  age  and  on  the  a  the  shift  f a m i l y household  married  and  family a  living  beyond  additional  be  persons.  nuclear  For  the  one  to continue  a  not  a  children  might  for three.  must p o s t p o n e  participation  reach an  become  the  i f the  there  is  support  resource  might  f a m i l y composed The  result  marriage  i n the r e s o u r c e ;  1  an  children  However even  extended  who  undergo  I t might  given  scale  persons  g i v e n r e s o u r c e c o u l d not  but  children  children  productive  f a m i l y household  example,  If less  small i n  o r more o f  parents.  income f o r an  sub-units  that remaining  wish  with  which  provide s u f f i c i e n t two  with  most  is  the  of  fts  family  the  the  t h e number  d o e s c h a n g e t o ah e x t e n d e d  limit  of  i n composition.  extended  circumstances  there  f a m i l i e s are  nuclear  married.  d i v i d e as  income.  live  k i n s h i p group.  then  most  by  l i m i t a t i o n s on  supported  marriageable  Since  are  chapter  the  controlled  age. are  they  of economic  the r e s o u r c e s that  where c h i l d r e n  i f  This  of  might they leads  to the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : H-9  1  220.  For kinship controlled r e s o u r c e s t h e l o w e r t h e income g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e s o u r c e the more l i k e l y t h a t the extended Hawthorn  et  a l -, I n d i a n s  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  , p.  26  f a m i l y household w i l l be form of household as c h i l d r e n become m a r r i e d . The s t a b i l i t y younger  members  of the who  from  point.  the  is  also  a  are a t the beginning  y e a r s and have n o t f o u n d example  income  a stable  North  A number o f men  may  band f i n d  wage employment  number o f h o u r s p e r y e a r and a h i g h h o u r l y  of  those  who  have o n l y  recently  members o f t h e g r o u p have no hourly  wage i s much l o w e r  s h o u l d have a f a t h e r position not o n l y  of  the  son  guarantee  of  hours  o f Group  A.*  in  to  of  o f income.  reside  with  the  income  This  lower  If a  The that  a  and the  family  Group  B  the  of the f a t h e r bat  also  position  member o f Group A, even t h o u g h he m i g h t be m a r r i e d .  separate  as  composed  and  h i s parents u n t i l  r e a c h e s Group A t h e n he would be f r e e  the  wage.  t h e dock f o r c e  s o n i s much l o w e r t h a n t h a t  i n terms of the s i z e  the  joined  than t h a t  Group A has  Group B i s  i n Group A and a s o n  terms o f t h e s t a b i l i t y force  two g r o u p s .  A i s by s e n i o r i t y .  An  illustrate  guaranteed  Group  for  earning  who  into  into  of t h e i r  stevedores,  Entrance  are divided  problem  s o u r c e o f employment.  V a n c o u v e r Band  in this  the the  to establish  in  might  he i s a Once he his  o«n  household.  discussion  the p r e f e r r e d  the nuclear  family.  above  i s postulated  form of household In other  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  organization  words, t h a t  the  i s that of  direction  of  Source f o r t h i s i s a l o n g time o b s e r v e r o f the I n d i a n populations in Vancouver A. D. Whitman, personal communication. 1  27  the  s o c i a l process i s known.  made  then  the  composition  predicted  I f t h i s assumption  direction  would be very d i f f i c u l t  of  can not be  the  t o make.  household  The  assumption  i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f i n d i n g s of the study by Hawthorn. B.  1  M i g r a t o r y Labour E a r l i e r i n S e c t i o n I i t was suggested  conditions  t h a t one  of  the  f o r the e x i s t e n c e of the nuclear f a m i l y was that  p l a c e of work and r e s i d e n c e be  close  enough  spatially  so  that the home i s the customary p l a c e f o r s l e e p i n g as w e l l as the  consumption  condition i s First,  the  of  other  relaxed  necessary  then  there  services.  are  two  If  this  possibilities.  worker  may  migrate alone, that i s without h i s  spouse or c h i l d r e n .  The  second  household life  w i l l move with the worker.  span  reserve  the r e s e r v e . place  that  the  In t h i s case, over the  T h i s problem i s  especially  important  Indians because of the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f The r e s e r v e a c t s i n the f i n a l  analysis  as  a  which has s p e c i a l types of r e s o u r c e s which may not be  a v a i l a b l e i n other p l a c e s . kinship through funds  support  in  Such  time  resources  Branch,  (which may be w e l f a r e or n o t ) .  person  on  and  income  the  reserve et  include  from  Band  G e n e r a l l y , both  kinds  ( k i n s h i p and welfare) demand the presence  Hawthorn, 276 - 277. 1  could  of need, welfare income provided  the Indian A f f a i r s  of income  pp.  is  o f the worker he w i l l have a number of d i f f e r e n t  p l a c e s of r e s i d e n c e . for  alternative  as  al.  a  resident  of the  for a significant  , Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia ,  28  p o r t i o n of the year.  Yet t h i s type of support may g i v e only  p a r t i a l support or support which i s inadequate In  a  wage  activity the  economy  employment  may  come  in  itself.  from c e n t e r s of  at v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s away from the r e s e r v e , that i s  person may p a r t i c i p a t e i n migratory l a b o u r . In  better  order to understand the problem of migratory two  p e r s p e c t i v e s are used.  First,  migratory labour  can be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of the l e n g t h o f time the  reserve  and  the  pattern  of  labour  away  such absences.  from  Second,  migratory labour may be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of the s t r u c t u r e of such a labour f o r c e and the s t r u c t u r e of the  demand  for  of migratory l a b o u r s t a t e s  that  such l a b o u r . A  minimum  definition  any time a person i s absent from h i s p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e f o r an  extended  period  of  time  f o r the purpose of o b t a i n i n g  employment he i s a migrant l a b o u r e r . The minimum time i s t o 1  be d e f i n e d e m p i r i c a l l y f o r each S i t u a t i o n , time i n c r e a s e s the more s i g n i f i c a n t w i l l results the  f o r household o r g a n i z a t i o n .  more p r e s s i n g  will  be  the  need  As the p e r i o d of be  the  potential  As the time  increases  to  obtain  services  u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d by the household from other sources such as commercial  establishments.  In the case o f cooking the time  i s very s h o r t , a t most probably not more than one day. other  sources  For  such as laundry s e r v i c e the time i s somewhat  Nancie S o l i e n , "Family O r g a n i z a t i o n i n F i v e Types of Migratory Wage Labour," American Anthro£olo<|ist, 63 (1961) , p. 1264 - 1280. 1  29  longer, perhaps A basic  up to one month.  typology  of  migratory  labour  i n c l u d e s the  following:* (a) Seasonal M i g r a t i o n : Once a year, u s u a l l y f o r the purpose of taking part in a g r i c u l t u r a l operations. Who migrates i n t h i s type depends on the job requirements i n terms of age, sex, and skill. Skill i s u s u a l l y a minor factor in agricultural harvesting. (b) Temporary £ B°£lL§easonal Migration: Usually single young adults. L a s t s from one t o ten y e a r s . Delays marriage age and may p l a c e a l a r g e r burden f o r home income p r o d u c t i o n on young and o l d men and all women. It does p r o v i d e a source of income which may be used f o r the establishment of new households. (c) Recurrent M i g r a t i o n : Migration occurs throughout the p r o d u c t i v e years. Depending on employment opportunities whole nuclear families may migrate. I f i t i s only the men then wives and c h i l d r e n may l i v e with i n laws or o t h e r s such as s i s t e r s or b r o t h e r s due t o the n e c e s s i t y f o r home production or the i n s t a b i l i t y of support by the migrant. The consanguineal household i s thought to occur in this context. (d) Continuous M i g r a t i o n : Occurs throughout the p r o d u c t i v e years and c o n t a c t s  4  i M i •» PP-  1264-1280.  30  with the home v i l l a g e a r e almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . Usually nuclear families predominate i n t h i s type. But elderly parents may join married c h i l d r e n and be active rearing the c h i l d r e n while the parents work. (e) Permanent Removal: Individuals or nuclear families leave the home village with the i n t e n t to remain away from the v i l l a g e . Since t h i s maintain year  research  i s concerned  with  Indians  who  r e s i d e n c e f o r a t l e a s t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the  on  the r e s e r v e  Continuous  Migration  and Permanent  Removal a r e i n c l u d e d f o r l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y only  and  will  be dropped from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A  second  way to c o n s i d e r migratory  of the s t r u c t u r e o f the market migratory unskilled first  labour i s c o n s i d e r e d or  semi-skilled.  Later  skilled  migratory  labour.  Usually  t o i n v o l v e persons c l a s s e d as This  using the a g r i c u l t u r a l h a r v e s t  case.  type w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d sector  as  a  typical  there w i l l be comments on the p o s i t i o n of t h e labourer.  At l e a s t u n t i l the recent grape  f o r such  labour i s i n terms  harvest  sector,  California  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  North America could be c l a s s i f i e d (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  strikes  i n the  labour market i n  i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:  No unions, Impersonal r e l a t i o n s between employer and employee, Labour f o r c e must be l a r g e l y unskilled, Payment on a piece r a t e b a s i s , Small capital investment i n  31  the For  employees  in  such  wages, no  job s e c u r i t y ,  term  employment  of  each c r o p .  crop.  California  such  f o r such  September  to  the  to  North  unskilled,  The offer  very  employment. jobs  70,000 the  same  variety  and  alternatives even l o w e r  for  as t h e  Further  the  is specific  on  the  that  part  there  of  total  250,000 men The  strong  in  above  agricultural is  for  f o r each  the  March.*  sector  evidence  prevails  for  other  2  above c e r t a i n l y alternative  the  does not as  a  seem  to  source  of  that  the  strong evidence  possibility  employment  cash  tremendous  of t r a v e l ,  conclusion must e i t h e r be  is  personal  work  out-of-  that  lacking,  other or  of  return.  In t e r m s o f * Lloyd California . p. 9.  the  dimensions  H. F i s h e r , The (Cambridge: Harvard  of  income  presented  in  Harvest Labour Market i n University Press, 1953),  Ibid .  H a r l a n d P a d f i e l d and and Machines . (Tuscon, P r e s s , 1965), i n p a s s i n g . 2  in  labourers offer  then  i s low  significantly  situation  situations.  to migratory  doors,  demand  California  there i s very  such  hours.  been e s t i m a t e d  attractive  satisfaction  result  employer  varies  economy but  the  Unless  open  1  of  p i c t u r e presented a  one  1  v a r i e s from a h i g h o f  a r e from  migratory  the  long  the  i t has  low  that  any  labour  American  believe  very  that  labour  a  characteristics of  and  T h i s means for  demand  a situation  with  employers For  harvesting operation.  W.E. M a r t i n , Farmers, Workers, Arizona: U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona  32  S e c t i o n I i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t u n s k i l l e d occurs  when  a  wage  economy dominates,  migratory l a b o u r  r e s o u r c e s are non-  k i n s h i p c o n t r o l l e d , and o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e l a c k i n g . a d d i t i o n sources of income such as welfare unreliable. women  may  be  In  low or  I f the. jobs i n migratory labour a r e not open t o  1  and c h i l d r e n then i t i s l i k e l y  that they would  remain  behind i n the home v i l l a g e thus forming f o r a t l e a s t p a r t of the year a consanguineal household.  I f the women as w e l l as  the men migrate but c h i l d r e n do not then the grandparents o r other r e l a t i v e s might care f o r the c h i l d r e n , again forming a consanguineal  household.  The s i t u a t i o n which occurs when a person does not special  skills  something  and  i s involved  open t o q u e s t i o n .  Certainly  the s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s f o r Indians. area  around  Montreal  in  have  migratory  have  labour i s  there a r e cases where  Mohawk Indians  from  the  long been employed i n the high  s t e e l c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s , with job l o c a t i o n s a l l over North America. pattern  There have been enough Mohawks that  they  can  p a t t e r n o f such a c t i v i t y . either  on  the r e s e r v e  months.  f o r such  in  Wives and c h i l d r e n remain  Indians  However the l e n g t h  i s usually  only  of  f o r a few  Thus i t would not be f e a s i b l e t o b r i n g the c h i l d r e n  school.  1  behind  or with other Mohawk f a m i l i e s i n a  with them because of the n e c e s s i t y t h a t the c h i l d r e n in  this  be s a i d to have developed a s t a b l e  p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of New York C i t y . employment  involved  The  women  remain  then remain behind t o care f o r the  Munsell, Land and Labour , p. 17.  33  children.  I t i s therefore  employment  at  likely  the c h i l d r e n w i l l  that  mother. at  Skilled  a large  one  are  construction  such  provided  labour  character.  B.C.  market,  would l e a d  H-10  This  then  time  with  a  dam homes  i t i s more and  trades  the  working  construction and  of  project  schools  by t h e  i n this  I n d i a n s do of  participate  which  i s  in  the  migratory  in  and manner o f t h e a l t e r a t i o n t h i s  i s n o t known.  to the f o l l o w i n g  However,  the  above  hypothesis:  I f wages a r e p r i m a r i l y d e r i v e d from s k i l l e d , m i g r a t o r y labour and such employment i s f o r extended periods o f time a t one location, then the expected form o f t h e household i s the nuclear family.  i s a modification  earlier  long  the  move w i t h t h e f a t h e r  as  some  But t h e e x t e n t  causes i n the household discussion  i s  i f  companies.  i s known t h a t  skilled  location  that  persons i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  project  freguently  It  any  suggested  o f the general  chapter.  principles  presented  34  C.  The Data The  raw  collected  and  University field  d a t a on which t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y arranged  of  British  work f o r a s t u d y  Citizenship (focusing)  and  by  Columbia  on t h e a d j u s t m e n t s  assumptions  1  i n order  assumption  that acculturation to  take  populations  The  as  well  located  over  reserves  selected  sample in  the  physical social  1  2  as  group wide  life,  with  make a  series  Of  of life  of  particular  of  past  and  the researchers  as a p r o c e s s  the p a r t i c u l a r  i s very  much  particular  Indian  experiences  of the  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  selected of  varied  i n the  twenty-three  the  reserves  p r o v i n c e o f B.C.  represented  an  attempt  populations of reserve  respect  to  over  variation,  pre-contact  the l a s t  and p r e s e n t  social  day  The to  Indians  one h u n d r e d  and  years,  patterns  life.  Hawthorn e t a1 ., I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h • > P- 1 2 .  I  Department  t o the Canadian  In a d d i t i o n  2  situation  area  experiences  environmental  the  has o p e r a t e d  for analysis  extremely  B.C., v a r i e d  cultural  of  a  the  by Hawthorn a s t h e  of the Indians  place.  during the process  Hawthorn  were  a s w e l l a s t h e p r e s e n t one was t h e  by t h e s t a r t i n g  populations  of  s u r v e y i n g "modern I n d i a n  were a l s o aware t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n influenced  by  group  to c a r r y out the study.  f o r that study  continuing  directed  The Hawthorn s t u d y  importance  is  research  commissioned  Immigration  economy and s o c i e t y . "  the  i s based  Columbia  , p. v.  35  The  actual  method  of study  with each r e s e r v e , but the teams  of  student  general  investigators  o b t a i n as much i n f o r m a t i o n collection  of  as  procedure to v i s i t  questionnaire  form  the  from  While the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f  areas  reserve  Indian  i n f o r m a t i o n on reading 10  out  of  47  life,  the  personnel  of  the  with  information  household.  f o r the  into  condition),  guestions  deal  Consideration the  data  testing  to  many  some  with  of the  would  of  suggested i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h i s I t i s important  responses  the s p e c i f i c economic  Another 7  q u e s t i o n n a i r e form suggested t h a t adequate  f o r each  (for example, i t gathered  deal  p a t t e r n s o f t h e household.  a i d i n the  delved  p a t t e r n s and house  questions  to use  backbone of the present  analysis. of  To  guestionnaire*  I t i s the data  that  was  varies  each r e s e r v e and  possible.  data a s t a n d a r d i z e d  household was designed. the  used i n the survey  provide  the hypotheses  chapter.  to note t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the  survey  of households on the r e s e r v e t h e f i e l d  workers a l s o  detailed  of s o c i a l l i f e on the  information  reserve.  Such  observation  and  information  was  gathered  Indian Agency f i l e s .  then gathered  together  wide  of  range  on many aspects  Between  the  essays two  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the essays) i t was expected rounded  p i c t u r e o f Indian  economic l i f e  the b a s i c u n i t s c o u l d be obtained. * See Appendix A.  personal  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  i n t o one or more  topics.  from  compiled  covering sources that  a  a  (the well  using households as  36  Of  the  selected  twenty-three  for  the  reserves  present  at  studied  by  each.  The  The  Alert P.  Pineo  September o f  to  use  was  work  examination a l l of the  sufficient  and  the  by  the  was  of  carried  out  the a c t u a l f i e l d  h o u s e h o l d s on The  researchers  was  in fact  opportunistic  is  was  month  for five  weeks.  the  the  May  i s no  and  between  of  the  decided  f o r which  be  better  statistically  characterized fact  is  there  interviewed  i t is  actual population.  r e s e r v e then  way  i t was  a random sample  as  an  impossible  However when with  the  i t i s safe to suggest  that  sample a p p r o a c h e s a s t a t i s t i c a l that there  data  not  Because of t h i s  beyond  number on  differences  first one  households  t h e number o f h o u s e h o l d s i n t e r v i e w e d  the  reserve  between  each r e s e r v e  sample o f  i t would  sample.  generalize  total  The of  Pineo  were  Skidegate  Nimpkish  Agency.  P.  two  were  Ames f o r a p e r i o d  s t u d i e d by  data.  speaking,  These  Kwawkewlth M.  study  1954.  was  to  and  second  actual f i e l d  On  Bay,  the  study.  R e s e r v e , Queen C h a r l o t t e a g e n c y located  in  compared  universe.  knowing i f t h e r e households  The  were  problem  significant  interviewed  and  not  of  the  interviewed.  In the hypotheses the  form  final  a n a l y s i s i t was  were  not  questionnaire  t e s t a b l e with would s u g g e s t  information, i n actual fact data  which  found  there  the  that present  that there  some data. was  were s h o r t c o m i n g s  made a n a l y s i s i m p o s s i b l e .  Furthermore  While  adequate in  the  there  were  37  problems without  encountered i n the data t h a t could not be f o r e s e e n p r i o r examination  and hence p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c i n g the  t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  In p a r t i c u l a r i t was  that  the a n c e s t r a l p o p u l a t i o n s of the two  in  as  much  as  r e s e r v e s a r e reported composed  of  present day isolation  by  extended  family  communities from  the  a l l sources  households  are  impact  to  in  an  to  in  the  exclusively  and  because the  of  comparative  area  of urban c e n t r e s t h a t the pre-  present  day.  of  o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n s .  a  T h i s was not found  the case, as extended f a m i l y households 20%  hoped  be  c o n t a c t form of household o r g a n i z a t i o n would show persistence  be  compose  less  strong t o be than  T h i s f a c t made the a n a l y s i s  the sample an i m p o s s i b l e task because  cell  sizes  would  fairly  uniqu  become too s m a l l t o make a n a l y s i s reasonable. However  the  data  does  present  a  o p p o r t u n i t y to study s e v e r a l r e s e r v e s using a gathering time.  instrument  uniform  data  and one which was used a t one pont i n  38  CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY  A.  Conceptual Framework The  dependent  hypothesized  to  variable.  be  household  determined  type.  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  was  variables  which were t r e a t e d as independent: (a) D i f f e r e n t i a l c o n t r o l  of  access  to  resources, (b) S k i l l  l e v e l of household members,  (c) Dependence  on  unearned  or  social  s e r v i c e s income, and , (d) Dependence  on  kind  resource  production. The  following  v a r i a b l e s were regarded as i n t e r v e n i n g :  (a) F o r k i n s h i p  controlled  the r e l a t i o n s h i p and  between  r e s o u r c e task  Stage i n f a m i l y  resources, household  organization,  life  cycle,  (c) E f f e c t of migratory labour, and, (d) Employment Household between  type  household  households  which  stability.  r e f e r s t o the p a t t e r n members.  were  of  There concern  were  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s three  types  i n t h i s study:  of  nuclear  39  family  households,  consanguineal  extended  households.  family  information  used as  1  in  the  Hawthorn  survey  sub-units  The b a s i c provided  In p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s 1, 4, 5, 6,  gave b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n as to the household  the  i n the  to the composition o f a l l permanent members  of the households. 7  considered  framework as presented i n Chapter i .  questionnaire  and  While t h e r e are other household  types which were p o s s i b l e they were not theoretical  households,  within  a  household.  The  and  members f o r  Hawthorn survey  defined a "family" as: A u n i t which c o u l d have conceivably lived s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g to White n o t i o n s about the i d e a l separateness of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y . 2  This  means  that f o r any one household there was a response  sheet f o r one or more s u b - u n i t s . While i t might have proved f r u i t f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g  to  have conducted the a n a l y s i s u s i n g the s u b - u n i t s as the b a s i c units  f o r the a n a l y s i s t h i s was not f e a s i b l e .  The m a j o r i t y  of response sheets i n d i c a t e d a complete s h a r i n g of goods,  and  services  between  sub-units  household.  T h e r e f o r e t r a n s f e r s within  could  be  not  evaluated.  within  the  same  incoome, the  same  household  The s a f e r , though l e s s p r e c i s e ,  method of a n a l y s i s was t o aggregate the s u b - u n i t s w i t h i n the same household.  A l l questions c i t e d refer t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e reproduced i n Appendix A. Hawthorn, e t a l . , Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia , p. 233. 1  2  40  B  •  The independent Variablej^ Income The income p r o f i l e of each household was  to determine.  Because  of  the  presented i n Chapter I i t was of  income  in  one  theoretical  define  category  with  respect  to the v a r i o u s  The procedure used  was  to  were  a l l of the sources of income, then t o  whether  each  source  broad  was  wage,  and  to  kinship,  social  r e c i p r o c i t y of kind i n nature.  p l a n f o r a n a l y s i s was  25 through 33 as p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n income  considerations  what  s e r v i c e , unearned, The  difficult  necessary to p l a c e a l l s o u r c e s  degrees o f the income v a r i a b l e . determine  very  to c o n s i d e r Questions on  a l l sources  of  a l l o c a t e such income to only one of the s i x  s e c t o r s l i s t e d above.  I d e a l l y the assignment  would  follow  the format shown i n T a b l e i .  TABLE I ASSIGNMENT OF QUESTIONS TO INCOME SECTORS  Income s e c t o r  Question  Wages Social Services Unearned Reciprocity Kind * Adjusted to r e f l e c t  In the  p r a c t i c e i t was  responses  definitions  to  25, 26 28 29 30 31* 1  12 month t o t a l .  found that the i n f o r m a t i o n found i n  questions  did  not  always  match  the  o f such income as presented i n Chapter I .  That  41  is,  a  particular  appropriately  income  included  d e f i n e d i n Table i . listed  in  source  was  sometimes  another  sector  The most common example i n v o l v e d  by  a  relative  but  not  income  again  from  fishing  responses to Question 29. wage  indicated owned  income  or  Here kinship  income  income  a  relative.  The  that  under the  was  included  i f the i n f o r m a t i o n  whether or not i t was from employment  by  co-  A second problem  t h a t was l i s t e d the  on  a  boat  second major d e c i s i o n r u l e of  a l l o c a t i o n , then, was to a l l o c a t e than  income  necessarily  r e s i d e n t i n the respondents own household,  under  the ones  i n Question 25 and 26 which was obtained from f i s h i n g  on a boat owned  was  than  more  income  to  sector  other  l i s t e d i n Table I i f s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  data warranted i t . Wage income was presumed to be any earned employment or it  from  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l d i d not own the equipment  business h i m s e l f , owned  by  a  (such as a powersaw or a b o a t ) , nor was  relative  of  h i s , according  reckoning and so r e p o r t e d i n the example,  income  employment  by  a  information  non-Indian  presumed t o be wage employment.  It  to  h i s own  sheets.  For  l o g g i n g company  had  been  anticipated  t h a t k i n s h i p networks might provide access t o employment there  were  no  such  reported  Indians i n employment  positions  cases,  was  in  determining  represented  gross  whether or  net  The most a  difficult  particular  income  but  nor were there many  (such as foreman) where  was even a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y .  was  (after  this  problem  income taxes  figure and  42  deductions).  Gross  income was used where i n d i c a t e d and i f  t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r figure  i t was presumed to be gross income.  use gross r a t h e r than  income  The d e c i s i o n t o  net income i s based on the n o t i o n t h a t  income f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t a c t u a l net  income  reflects  not  income  only  potential,  this  concept  whereas but  also  d i f f e r e n t i a l demands on income, as i n the number of c h i l d r e n dependent on the income. K i n s h i p income was presumed to be any income source  for  by  a  relative.  If  there  i n d i c a t i o n such income was deemed to be simple income  accruing  from  welfare, r e l i e f , and pensions was  included  Question  under  an  Insurance  individual  (old age, company,  or  blind)  s e c t o r of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s income. Also included i n  Commission.  contributes  While  it  through is  with  the  true  to t h i s system during the  time he i s employed the b e n e f i t s which are p o s s i b l e are commensurate  no  wage income.,  was any i n f o r m a t i o n on income obtained  the Unemployment that  the  was  Family Allowance Payments,  2 8 provided a l l such i n f o r m a t i o n .  t h i s category  any  which the i n d i v i d u a l owned the c a p i t a l goods or  such goods were owned  Any  from  amounts p a i d .  not  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  t r u e f o r many Indians whose o n l y source of income i s f i s h i n g which  is  indicated  a  seasonal  an  income  activity. source  Occasionally  without  be  estimated  with  data  i n d i c a t i n g the amount  (for example. Family Allowance payments). the income could  the  Where the s i z e of  accuracy  from  other  43  sources  i t was  included.  1  R e c i p r o c i t y income was income  source  likely  to  p o t e n t i a l l y the  estimate  f o r two  most  reasons.  First,  it is  to be the most c a s u a l s o r t of income paid or r e c e i v e d  by a household. money  or  a  I t i s l i k e l y to  customary  be  sharing  in  small  considerable  f i g u r e i t was  a s i z e a b l e sum If  it  not  mentioned, then i t was  zero or i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  A  add  up  second  source  least  impolite  wealth and to  convey  goods and  skill  of  the  mention  trouble  i n f o r m a t i o n to other persons.  of  a  be  with  Indians  about which i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n there i s no recourse observational  to  presumed to  r e s p e c t to r e c i p r o c i t y income i s a common norm among of s h a r i n g  of  assumed t h a t i f i t d i d amount to  t h a t the respondents would at was  amounts  of equipment and s e r v i c e s .  While i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t such amounts could  it.  difficult  Against  except to r e l y on  the  i n t e r v i e w e r s to d i s c o v e r such  income. In a c t u a l f a c t the i n c i d e n c e income  was  very low.  of loans of money and  What was  of  reported  reciprocity  r e p o r t e d were a few  examples  reduced p r i c e s f o r r e n t i n g of  houses.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t most persons expected the loans to be r e p a i d though there was  no time s p e c i f i e d .  Huch of the i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from: Government of Canada, Canada Year Book: O f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c a l Annual of the Resources^ H i s t o r j f and I n s t i t u t i o n s and Social and Economic C o n d i t i o n s of Canada , Published by the M i n i s t e r of Industry Trade and Commerce, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1954). 1  x  44  Kind  income  was determined by i n f o r m a t i o n provided by  responses t o Question income  was  canned  31.  The most common example  salmon.  A  any  dollar  estimate  p r o d u c t i o n ; r a t h e r the u s u a l  physical  smoking  or  the  practice  value was  of such kind  to  report  the  to  translate  such  u n i t s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t o d o l l a r u n i t s commensurate  salmon  other  sources  (by f a r the most common cource  f i g u r e o f 180/ 1/2 l b .  pink  of  I t was thus necessary  with the d o l l a r u n i t s f o r  1  by  of cases of t i n s of salmon of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s put up  by the household.  used.  salmon  However the responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not  provide  number  kind  somewhat s m a l l e r number of  households r e p o r t e d p r e s e r v a t i o n of salting.  of  of  income.  of kind production) a  t i n and 360 1 l b .  t i n o f salmon was  These p r i c e s r e p r e s e n t the s e l l i n g p r i c e f o r salmon f o r the year  For  canned,  1954. While the a c t u a l s p e c i e s of  salmon t h a t was canned was not u s u a l l y  specified,  f o r the  purposes of a n a l y s i s the lower p r i c e of pink salmon was used for  two  reasons.  First,  represents  the  substitute  f o r any  such  a  figure  preference  price  does  which  of type not  the  lower p r i c e of pink salmon  the close  equivalent  of salmon.  Of course  take  into  economic the use of  consideration  the  i n d i v i d u a l s and households may have f o r a  p a r t i c u l a r types of salmon, but i t seems s a f e t o assume t h a t t h i s represents a reason  fairly  small  f o r using the lowest  t o the n u t r i t i o n a l value.  A  second  p r i c e f o r canned salmon r e f e r s  In these  Source: G. P e t t y , B.C. Packers, communication. 1  consideration.  terms  the  nutritional  Vancouver, B.C., p e r s o n a l  45  v a l u e of salmon does not vary a p p r e c i a b l y between s p e c i e s . The  second  type of kind production was deer meat.  t h i s case i t was assumed that an e q u i v a l e n t amount was  a  reasonable  lb.  was used f o r the computation  preserved by The  category  in  of  specific any  household  could cases.  the  & general p r i c e of 400/ of the value of deer  payment  affect It  particular incomes  a c t u a l l y very few i n number. involved  beef  meat  of unearned income was i n c l u d e d to cover  which  a s s o c i a t e d with number  In  households.  the contingency income  approximation.  of  1  of  the  was type  not of  total  household  expected household.  t o be The  placed i n t h i s category were The  most  out-standing  some $5,000.00 t o a  case  householder.  The  money was from the insurance on a wrecked f i s h i n g  It  was  boat.  i n c l u d e d under the category "unearned" i n so f a r as  the boat had been i n s u r e d only a few years and the d i d not e q u a l the value of the boat.  premiums  There were a few cases  of income f o r which t h e r e was no labour i n v o l v e d , no k i n s h i p associations,  e t c . , and f o r t h i s reason they were i n c l u d e d  i n t h i s category.  To a c e r t a i n extent the category was used  more as a r e s i d u a l category f o r income t h a t d i d not f i t i n t o any o f the other c a t e g o r i e s .  Source: K. Loose, Nutrition C o n s u l t a n t , Health and Welfare Canada, Medical S e r v i c e s Branch (Pacific Region), Vancouver, B.C., p e r s o n a l communication. 1  46  B.  income P r o f i l e s once a l l income sources were a l l o c a t e d to  six  sectors  obtained. income  the  sector  I f there was  source  but  totals a  one  one  of the  and household t o t a l s were  suggestion f o r which  that  there  was  i t was not p o s s i b l e t o  o b t a i n an e s t i m a t e of i t s s i z e then the household t o t a l not  an  computed and that s e c t o r was not used.  was  For example, i f  there was i n f o r m a t i o n on a wage income source but no f i g u r e s then no household t o t a l was c a l c u l a t e d other s e c t o r s such as k i n s h i p were  c a l c u l a t e d and used.  and  though the t o t a l s f o r  social  services  The t o t a l s so produced  income  were used  i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. The f i r s t  income f i g u r e that was c a l c u l a t e d was a r r i v e d  at by d i v i d i n g up the households i n t o two groups o f high and low with r e s p e c t t o each type reserve. groups  of  income  sector  f o r each  That i s , wage income was d i v i d e d i n t o high and low using  the  median  as  the d i v i d i n g p o i n t .  f i g u r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s e c t o r of income reserve.  This  method  permits  the  analysis  p a t t e r n s a c r o s s income types without regard to  Similar f o r each  of the  income primary  dependence of a household. However  the  hypothesis  t h a t each household dependent  on  one  income type was used  be type in  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I r e q u i r e  characterized of this  income.  as  being  primarily  The use of the modal  determination.  c o u l d have caused problems i f two incomes  While  this  were approximately  47  equal  in size  ( i . e . , same p r o p o r t i o n  was no case where t h i s was t r u e .  o f t o t a l income)  there  The second l a r g e s t  sector  of income was u s u a l l y a t l e a s t ten percentage p o i n t s  smaller  than the l a r g e s t s e c t o r . In  addition  income  sectors  constructed.  to  the  other  comparative s i z e s of incomes and  measures  Per-capita  of  income  ranking  were  income was c a l c u l a t e d i n a number  of ways: (a) T o t a l  household  income  permanent household  /  total  membership,  (b) T o t a l household income / t o t a l household (c) T o t a l  membership,  household  allowance household The  calculation  of  /  -  family  total  adult  membership. of household p e r - c a p i t a income on the  b a s i s of a d u l t membership g i v e s potential  1  income  payments  adult  a  measure  of  the  income  the household, d i s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of the  number of c h i l d r e n .  By c a l c u l a t i n g  without  family  regard  to  the  per-capita  income  allowance payments a t l e a s t one  major source o f c h i l d generated income i s removed.  1  Adult  was d e f i n e d  as being  15 years of age or more.  48  C.  Other V a r i a b l e s The  o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n Chapter  I was t o  c o n s i d e r a s e r i e s of other v a r i a b l e s t h a t were thought important The  i n the  variables  proposed their  determination  that  are  or  else  they  household  outlined  but the l i m i t a t i o n s o f  use  of  in  the  were  this  data  found  to be  composition. section  d i d not  were permit  t o have t o o s m a l l a  v a r i a t i o n to be used as v a r i a b l e s . S k i l l f o r use i n the a n a l y s i s of wage l a b o u r income was to be measured i n three ways: (a) Number  of  years  of  schooling  (Questons 1, 4, 6, and 7 ) , (b) V o c a t i o n a l  training  (Question 19),  and, (c) i n f o r m a l on the job t r a i n i n g . In p r a c t i c e the data obtained from the responses  to the  above g u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o l e v e l of education were so s m a l l that  i t i s extremely  variable.  Many  of  doubtful the  that  income  i t is a  earners  who  s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of wage income a l s o r e p o r t e d Grade 8  level  of  education.  For  c o n s i d e r l e v e l o f education important education would be i n s i g n i f i c a n t . very  few  cases  of  schools  conducted  one  reported less  wage  such a  Question  individuals  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , other than  those  relevant  low  than  jobs t h a t level  of  19 showed only a  who  had  received  or  two  week  by the major f i s h packers i n B.C.  any  fishing on the  49  job  t r a i n i n g c o u l d not be evaluated i n any  Job  descriptions  which  could  meaningful  way.  be used as an i n d i c a t i o n of  such t r a i n i n g at l e a s t i n terms of experience were i n no adequate  to c o n s t r u c t an index of job s k i l l and e x p e r i e n c e .  Migratory labour was to  Questions  25  expected to be shown by  and  40.  However  there  i n f o r m a t i o n i n Question 40 and which persons had visited was  i n which communities  it  was  responses was  little  worked  indication actively  u s u a l l y not s p e c i f i e d .  Nor  With r e s p e c t to Question 25  that  many  of  the  worked a t the present  the home r e s e r v e .  A few  members time  in  of  there the  was  few  communities  other  persons i n each community d i d  days at a time - u s u a l l y r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r  each weekend. Chapter  I  no  households  f i n d employment o u t s i d e the r e s e r v e but they were gone a  or  p o s s i b l e to determine any time p a t t e r n where p l a c e s  were s p e c i f i e d .  than  way  only  families  According to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s presented  this  did  in  not c o n s t i t u t e a p a t t e r n of migratory  labour. Family variable.  Life The  Cycle best  was  not  feasible  to be of p a r t i c u l a r use i n the a n a l y s i s of but  there  use  as  a  estimate that could be found f o r t h i s  v a r i a b l e was the age of the household head.  households  to  was  I t was extended  expected family  found t o be no a s s o c i a t i o n with  household type nor with the income p a t t e r n s . S t a b i l i t y of household income was another v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d to be p o t e n t i a l l y important.  However i t  that was  50  found  to  be  i m p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r from the data how much o f  the time during the year an i n d i v i d u a l was employed.  I t was  only i n t h e case of s o c i a l s e r v i c e income that the d u r a t i o n of  the  flow  of  income  could  be  estimated.  A further  c o m p l i c a t i o n was the i n a b i l i t y of the data t o show what the  p o t e n t i a l earning time f o r a p a r t i c u l a r wage employment  or a p a r t i c u l a r c a p i t a l good such as a f i s h i n g f i s h i n g boats for  actual  used  boat.,  Some  ( u s u a l l y s m a l l e r and l e s s c o s t l y ) a r e s u i t a b l e use  only  during  the g e n e r a l l y calmer  summer months, o t h e r s ( u s u a l l y l a r g e r and more be  was  the  year around  weather  costly)  can  f o r a v a r i e t y of types of f i s h i n g  i n s t e a d of the summer salmon season.  51  E.  Data P r o c e s s i n g When the data had been c o l l e c t e d and  processed program. the  through  the  use  was  it  that  was  used  throughout  SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l  Sciences.) l a t e r the a n a l y s i s was c r o s s checked through use  of an independent program  routinesassociated  was  of a computer software package  The p a r t i c u l a r program  analysis  arranged  u t i l i z i n g the S c i e n t i f i c  with the PL/1  programming  language.  the Sub-  52  CHAPTER I I I DATA PRESENTATION  A.  T r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl S o c i e t y A l e r t Bay i s l o c a t e d i n the h e a r t l a n d o f  province  of  the  Northwest  Coast  extends south from the Northern Haida, and  the  Wakashan  culture area.  The area  province  of  1  the  and Tsimsham of the same c u l t u r e area.  Tlingit,  The K w a k i u t l  the Nootka together with the B e l l a Coola a r e the primary  l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l groups o f the area. The  Wakashan p r o v i n c e extends  specifically  from  Cape  Mudge and Bute I n l e t to the North as f a r as Douglas Channel. Alert  Bay  itself  is  a  modern  day  community  p r i m a r i l y o f descendents of the Nimpkish speaking i n h a b i t e d the area i n p r e - c o n t a c t ancestors  shared  the  general  times. pattern  As of  composed groups who  such,  their  t r a d i t i o n s and  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the Northwest Coast c u l t u r e area as w e l l those  traits  restricted  to  the  more  limited  as  Wakashan  province.  Philip Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast, American Huseum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Handbook No. 10(New York: McGraw H i l l Company, Inc., 1955, Reprinted by N a t u r a l History Press, 1963), p. 15; A.L. Kroeber, Cultural and N a t u r a l Areas of Native North America , (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1936), pp. 28 31. 1  53  L i k e the Haida, t h e Kwakiutl were endowed with a v a r i e d and  rich  environment.*  Fishing  was  economy, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis addition  there  were  salmon  fishing.  In which  added g r e a t l y t o the t o t a l r e s o u r c e s o f the K w a k i u t l .  These  contemporary one  of  fish  other  mainstay of the  s p e c i e s of f i s h  i n c l u d e d t h e Olechan  several  on  the  as  well  as  2  the primary f o c i f o r the community economy, much o f  Gilford  Island  community  Rhoner found  patterns.  3  age  In terms of language only 25% of of  21  and  61  Kwakwala and  an  additional  that  (located near A l e r t Bay but  more i s o l a t e d ) r e t a i n e d only fragmentary knowledge  the  In t h e  world of the Kwakiutl, while f i s h i n g remains as  the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e has disappeared. the  herring.  years  those  of  past  between  o f age spoke predominately  42*  spoke  both  English  and  Kwakwala.  In c o n t r a s t , a f u l l o n e - t h i r d spoke predominately  English.  While  reserve  community  comparable Bay.  the  figures  figures  than  j u s t quoted r e f e r t o another  the  one  under  consideration  c o u l d undoubtedly be produced f o r A l e r t  In f a c t there i s good  reason  to  suspect  that  the  The area surrounding the t r a d i t i o n a l homeland o f the Kwakiutl i s part of the COast Forest B i o t i c Area: Ian McTaggart Cowan and C h a r l e s J . Guiguet, The Mammals o f British Columbia , British Columbia Provincial Museum, Handbook Ho. 11, ( V i c t o r i a : Queens P r i n t e r i n P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964) , pp. 27 - 28. Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast , pp. 35 42; P h i l i p Drucker and Robert F. Heizer, To Bake Mj[ Name Good: A Reexamination o f the Southern Kwakiutl P o t l a t c h , (Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1967), i n passing. Ronald P. Rhoner, The People of G i l f o r d : A Contemporary Kwakiutl V i l l a g e , N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, Bulletin No. 225, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s , No. 83 (Ottawa: The Queens P r i n t e r , 1967), pp. 9 - 10. 1  2  3  54  figures the  f o r alert  traditional  administrative  Bay would r e v e a l even l e s s r e t e n t i o n of  language. centre  alert  Bay  has  been  f o r t h e Indian a f f a i r s Department of  the F e d e r a l Government f o r many years as  well  as  l o c u s of i n t e n s e i n t e r a c t i o n of Whites and I n d i a n s . a d d i t i o n a l evidence  being  community informants (lineage). profound  of the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l  of  structure.  Gilford,  were  Rhoner  unable  T h i s by i t s e l f disruption  consequent accepts  social  to  again found  tell  him  of  the  numiot  rights  most  their  culture  the  to the of  own  evidence  Indians.  his  numiot f o r the and t h e  Whether  one  were r a n k - s t r a t i f i e d or  was the most important  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y speaking. person's  that  traditional  the notion t h a t the Kwakiutl the  referring  i s convincing  of  acculturation  class-stratified  a  1  c u l t u r e can be seen i n the l a c k of knowledge concerning traditional  an  It  social  determined  the  and p r e r o g a t i v e s i n the p o t l a t c h which was  the most important  s o c i a l ceremonial  f o r the K w a k i u t l .  While much has been made of the tremendous abundance o f food resources notion  f o r a l l o f the Northwest Coast  i s not without  Piddockea  present  c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence.  c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence  the  converse  Suttles  2  and  and l o g i c f o r the  Drucker and H e i z e r , To Make My. Name Good , pp. 22, and 30. Wayne S u t t l e s , " A f f i n a l T i e s , Subsistence, and P r e s t i g e among the Coast S a l i s h , " american anthropologist, 62, pp* 296 - 305. S t u a r t Piddocke, "The P o t l a t c h System of the Southern Kwakiutl: a New P e r s p e c t i v e , " Southwestern J o u r n a l of Mthro£ologjr , 21, pp. 244 - 264." 1  26,  2  3  55  hypothesis Straight  that was  the  entire  subject  to  region  surrounding  fluctuations  coupled with an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of species  of f l o r a and fauna., The  only i n c e r t a i n streams, point i s extremely do  important.  by season the  mainstay  seasons,  and  The  more  depending  This  complete  independence.  would  be  village.  picking  located The  cost  last  v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of salmon  locations  in  Moreover  these  to f o u r year Thus a group  1  would need to c o n t r o l a vast a r r a y of f i s h i n g berry  year  important  years.  on the p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s .  probably  and  item, salmon, ran  not spawn every year but r a t h e r o n l y i n two  cycles  Georgia  stations  order  to  maintain  fishing  stations  at c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from  the  of  degree  obtaining  such  a  and  high  winter of  s t a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s would l i k e l y have been more than most tribes that  were ever capable of paying i n terms of the manpower it  would  locations. r e c o r d the  It  have is  common  taken little  to  garrison  wonder  recurrence  of  the  that Boas conflict  2  different and  over  Curtis  3  fishing  s t a t i o n s , b e r r y patches, e t c . The f a i l u r e of r e s o u r c e s i s not an uncommon o c c u r r e n c e . Boas,  Piddocke,  and Hawthorn a l l mention famine as a common  Drucker and H e i z e r , To Make My Name Good , p. 137. The g e n e r i c name f o r the salmon i s Oncorhjnchus . There are in a d d i t i o n a number of s u b - s p e c i e s , f o r a complete l i s t of the sub-species see: C i c e l y Lyons, Salmon; Our Heritage , (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1969), pp. 22. Franz Boas, Ethnology of the Kwakiutl, based on Data Collected bv George Hunt , annual Report, No. 35 (Washington: Bureau of American Ethnography, 1921) , pp. 1345 - 1348. E.S. C u r t i s , The Kwakiutl , v o l X of The North American I n d i a n , ( S e a t t l e : Norwood, 1915), p. 22. 1  2  3  56  theme i n the myths and While  Drucker  and Heizer*  as a major v a r i a b l e Potlatch unproven.  the  t a l e s of a l l of the  in  The  significance  seems  testing of  of  famine  Only  productivity  when  the  the  function  the  hypothesis  of  aboriginal  ( i . e . , before the advent  the  ecology  pattern  of  subsisting  s i m i l a r foods which must have r e g u i r e d considerable  amounts  of  the  resource  any  hard  While  there  other f i s h  components i n the d i e t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine household  of  of commercial f i s h i n g )  e x i s t e d a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s to salmon and  family  the  i n determining s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  f a s t c o n c l u s i o n s concerning t h i s g u e s t i o n .  extended  the  regarding  has been d e s c r i b e d w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e to come to and  of  to be more l i k e l y but remains  awaits a more complete examination region.  groups.  d i s c o u n t famine and i t s t h r e a t  determining  reverse  coastal  on the  an  as  entire  sea-gulls  and  expenditure  of  labour per u n i t of energy d e r i v e d  and which, i n any event, d i d not occur i n numbers comparable to  salmon.  to  r e l y on a g e n e r a l l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y then i t would  a  modest  seagulls!  I f the a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n had  famine  indeed  as Piddocke  which  developed  so as be  c o u l d be r e l i e v e d by a few  says:  The evidence can only l e a d , I t h i n k , to the c o n c l u s i o n that the abundance of the r e s o u r c e s of the Kwakiutl has been somewhat over e s t i m a t e d . 2  The c o n c l u s i o n reached that the P o t l a t c h was  by both S u t t l e s and Piddocke  suggests  a mechanism of major s i g n i f i c a n c e  * Drucker and H e i z e r , To Hake fly Name Good , p. 2 Piddocke, "The P o t l a t c h System," p. 247.  for 149.  57  the  redistribution  imbalance  of  to  be  resources  environmental  r e g i o n , season, and The  of  entire  overide  productivity  the n a t u r a l  with  respect  to  species.  system  of  Capt. Vancouver among the Hootka.) From that time u n t i l  1849  Kwakiutl  (i.e.  from  of p r o d u c t i o n of the Kwakiutl began arrival  the  changed  to  had  , White)  Company  1792  (the  a l i m i t e d and i n d i r e c t a c c e s s to Western  trade  founded  about  a  goods.  In  1849  the  Hudsons  Bay  t r a d i n g f a c t o r y i n the t e r r i t o r y of the  Kwakiutl a t F o r t Hupert  and thus provided "... a d i r e c t  t r a d i t i o n a l source of wealth..."' Concurrent  with,  fact  was a dramatic  produced  by,  the c o n t a c t with Whites,  d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n f o r the K w a k i u t l . period showed a marked change. the  attempts  by persons who  suddenly  inherited  The  positions.  validate  themselves  The r e s u l t of these  an " i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of s t a t u s r i v a l r y  increase  the  frequency  were  i n p r e - c o n t a c t times would have  processes was in  in  p o t l a t c h i n the  P a r t i c u l a r l y important  held no or minor p o t l a t c h p o s i t i o n s to in  2  and  non-  and  two an  and volume of p o t l a t c h i n g . . . "  3  What had i n p r e - c o n t a c t or t r a d i t i o n a l times been  a  visible  (at l e a s t  ceremonial  to agents)  now  become a h i g h l y i n v i s i b l e  highly  ceremonial.*  -» P245. Helen Codere, Fighting with Property , American E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , Monograph Ho. 18 ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1950), pp. 41 - 61; Drucker and H e i z e r , To Make My Same Good , pp. 23 - 26. Piddocke, "The P o t l a t c h System," p. 245. * Drucker and H e i z e r , To Make Mv Name Good , p. 48. 4 2  3  IMS  58  As Codere p o i n t s out, s i n c e  the  1830*s  the  Kwakiutl  have with v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t i e s , been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the cash  economy  (or  wage  p e r v a s i v e White s o c i e t y .  economy) 1  sector.  the  l a r g e r and more  However such p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  been uniform a c r o s s the board industrial  of  with  Judging  respect  from  the  to  skill  summary  presented by Codere, the p r i n c i p a l income earning  of  logging,  tendencies i n  this  economy  is  lineage  controlled  population of  the  in  fishing, pattern  of  band  affiliation  of  decreasing  One  of the  acculturation  reliance  resources.  The  on  British  significant to  the  data  a  wage  traditional  decimation  of  the  c o n j u n c t i o n with the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s  the Canadian Government  basis  etc.  and  activities  have been concentrated i n the primary i n d u s t r i e s of Columbia,  not  to  (residential)  allocate  resources  on  the  membership r a t h e r than l i n e a g e  probably a c c e l e r a t e d or at  least  mirrored  the  process of i n c r e a s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y household The  as the primary r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n . above  summary  while mentioning  o n l y a few of the  d e t a i l s of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the Kwakiutl to  make  two  basic  points.  First,  has  the  attempted  e n t i r e range of  t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and groups i n Kwakiutl  society  have been s u b j e c t i n the l a s t century  to  pressures.  Second,  life  and  a  half  that a g r e a t d e a l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  already been accomplished traditional  and  and  has a f f e c t e d  major  areas  c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g language and  * Codere, F i g h t i n g with Property , pp.  31 -  33.  new has of such  59  b a s i c s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s as the the  Potlatch.  resource production  units  and  60  B.  The Contemporary  Situation  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l devote i t s e l f t o a c l o s e of  the  contemporary  economic  examination  a c t i v i t i e s and the household  composition o f the r e s i d e n t s of the A l e r t Bay R e s e r v e . sample i n c l u d e d  18 households f o r which there was  data to be usable i n the t o t a l a n a l y s i s . a  grand  total  of  households sampled  38 there  households was  a  1  The  sufficient  There were however  on the r e s e r v e . considerable  Of the  demographic  v a r i e t y as evidenced by the range i n Table I I .  Royal Commission on Indian a f f a i r s , Report of the Royal Commission^ Indian a f f a i r s , V o l I I , ( V i c t o r i a : acme Press, L i m i t e d , 1916), pp. 385 - 386. 1  61  TABLE I I DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF HOUSEHOLDS (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Range Number of R e s i d e n t s / Household  1-16  Age of Household Head  Mean  persons  7.2 persons 43.8  23 - 73 years  Number o f C h i l d r e n L i v i n g a t Home Less than 15 Years of Age  0-12  Number o f C h i l d r e n Less than 15 Years of Age  Child.  3.7 C h i l d .  0 - 12  Number o f C h i l d r e n L i v i n g a t Home 15 o r More Years of Age Number o f C h i l d r e n 15 or More Years of Age  years  3.9  0-4  .7  0-9  1.9 (N = 21)  The  f i g u r e s i n t h e t a b l e would suggest t h a t there i s a  c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e of the f a m i l i e s i n  Alert  Bay  fewer  and  that  there  i s a marked p a t t e r n of r a i s i n g  c h i l d r e n than was customary i n p r e - c o n t a c t children  are raised  whenever p o s s i b l e . adopting difference  children of  times  and  that  i n the homes o f t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s  There i s l i t t l e into  proportion  evidence  the households. of  .2  between  to  show  There  of  is a  the number o f  62  children  less  than  15 years of age l i v i n g a t home and the  t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n l e s s than 15 years difference  may  be a t t r i b u t e d  of  age.  This  to c h i l d r e n who are away from  the r e s e r v e f o r purposes o f a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l or f o r h o s p i t a l treatment. A l e r t Bay r e v e a l e d f i v e types of households III).  Perhaps  distribution  the  and  a  most  interesting  measure  of  the  (see  aspect  degree  Table  of  to  the which  a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s an accomplished f a c t i s the high percentage of  nuclear  family  households. household  In  only  pre-contact  r e l a t i v e to extended times  the  extended  was the u s u a l form of o r g a n i z a t i o n  the v i l l a g e ) . for  households  By 1954 extended  about  28%  of  has  f a m i l y households  accounted  a l l households and n u c l e a r f a m i l y In a d d i t i o n  should be noted t h a t while the extended f a m i l y  household  not disappeared as a form of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i t has  changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . in  family  ( i . e . , 100% of  households accounted f o r 39% of a l l households. it  family  an  extended  The average number of persons  family  household i n p r e - c o n t a c t times was  reported t o be upwards of 30 persons. family members.  household  found  living  in  1954  The l a r g e s t  contained  18  extended permanent  63  TABLE I I I TYPES OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ASSOCIATED FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household Type  Frequency  Nuclear Family Single Person Extended Family F a m i l i e s with non-kin b o a r d e r s Undefinable 1  1  1  Total  Percentage  7 2 5  38.9 % 11. 1 27.8  2 2  11.1 11.1  18  100.0  %  For the purposes of a n a l y s i s these c a t e g o r i e s are c o l l a p s e d i n t o one category ("other"). 1  A l e r t Bay Reserve shows p a r t i c i p a t i o n by households a  wide  variety  of income g e n e r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  (see Table  IV).  E i g h t households r e p o r t e d income from f i s h i n g ,  kind  production,  r e p o r t income from income  and  f a m i l y allowances.  logging,  and  seven  from i n t e r - h o u s e h o l d r e c i p r o c i t y .  by themselves would  suggest a  significant  the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of economic conclusion will  be  would shown  be later  light  this  report  The f i g u r e s taken continuation  activity.  section,  direct  households  households  in  However t h i s  i n c o r r e c t f o r two reasons. in  in  while  First,  as  there  is  c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s that have analogues to p r e - c o n t a c t economic  p u r s u i t s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms  of c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the t o t a l household income i s very minor. However  such a c t i v i t i e s may  have tremendous symbolic v a l u e .  A second c a u t i o n t o be kept i n figures  is  that  mind  when  considering  the  the q u e s t i o n of c o n t r o l of a c c e s s to such  r e s o u r c e a c t i v i t i e s has  not been c o n s i d e r e d .  TABLE IV INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES WITH ASSOCIATED FREQUENCIES (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Activity  Frequency  Fishing Family Allowance Payments D i r e c t Resource Production Logging Exchange between Households R e l i e f (welfare) Pension ( i n c l u d i n g b l i n d pension) Unearned Income F i s h i n g Boat Cook Plumber's and Mechanic's Helper Carpenter Domestic Church Sexton Truck D r i v e r T r a p l i n e Operator Workmen's Compensation  Reported*  12 12 12 8 7 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1  * A source i s r e p o r t e d only once f o r a given At l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e of the degree to which Alert  Bay  Indians  in  have been a c c u l t u r a t e d to the p r e v a i l i n g economic  system are the seven persons specilities  household.  as  shown  in  who  r e p o r t e d income from  Table IV.  New  trade  work s p e c i a l i t i e s  such as plumber's or mechanic's h e l p e r , truck d r i v e r , sexton, e t c . are c e r t a i n l y  not  tasks  which  have  church a  long  t r a d i t i o n r e a c h i n g back p r i o r to the time of c o n t a c t . When  income  is  placed  i n a category  c o n t r o l of access to r e s o u r c e s and income  are  considered  then  a  the very  with r e s p e c t t o  actnal  amounts  of  different picture i s  65  obtained.  Table  households from  V shows t h a t on t h e a v e r a g e  o b t a i n almost  wages, b u t  this  extended  family  one-half  of t h e i r  actually  suggest  the  hypothesis  extended  not  households total  of t h e i r  family  household  income  significantly  different  which o b t a i n s l i g h t l y  income  from  wages.  that there i s counter  that nuclear f a m i l i e s  are  households  the  data  in  q u e s t i o n and  make t h i s c o n c l u s i o n t o o  factual  wage d e p e n d e n t  suggest  i t s plausability.  t o do  The  from than  figures  evidence  the i n a d e q u a c i e s risky  more  The  f a m i l i e s a r e k i n s h i p income d e p e n d e n t .  of  than  is  one-half  nuclear  for and  numbers  o f some o f  anything  more  1  There was a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m i n t h e income r e p o r t s f o r f i s h e r m e n i n t h a t t h e r e was some g u e s t i o n a s t o whether the f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d were g r o s s o r n e t i n c o m e . 1  66  TABLE V MEAN PROPORTION OF HODSEHOLD INCOME BY INCOME SECTOR AND HOUSEHOLD TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Income S e c t o r * 2 3 4 5  Household Type Nuclear Family Households  Total  (N)  2  47  37  12  0  .02  .02  1.00  Extended Family .53 Households  ,26  .14  0  .07  .07  1.00  (5)  1.00  (6)  Consanguineal Households  (not present)  Other Households .31 1  36  ,01  .23  .07  .01  Income S e c t o r s a r e : 1 = Hages 2 = Kinship 3 = Social Services  2  (6)  4 = Unearned 5 = Reciprocity 6 = Kind  T o t a l s have been rounded t o 1.00.  The numbers  category of  households  of  single with  "other  person  foster  category  includes  households,  nuclear  (but non-related)  households with u n d e f i n a b l e this  households"  structures.  the almost t o t a l absence  children,  The  and  pattern f o r  of  kinship  Most i n t e r e s t i n g i s income,  importance of wage income and the consequent services  family  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r two  d i s c u s s e d i n the preceeding paragraphs.  social  equal  income.  the  reduced  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Persons i n t h i s r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y  67  showed some unique sources of income such as B l i n d  Pension,  o l d age pensions, e t c . * Table VI shows t h a t both n u c l e a r f a m i l y households extended  family  households  are i n the high income b r a c k e t  with r e s p e c t to a l l households residual  category  ("other  on  the  household  reserve,  with  the  types") showing  only  o n e - t h i r d the p r o p o r t i o n of households i n bracket. virtually  the  high  income  T h i s i s probably due to the pensions which make up the  entire  households l i s t e d that  and  extended  household  i n the c a t e g o r y .  income It  for  had  some  been  of the  predicted  f a m i l y households would show g r e a t e r amounts  of t o t a l income than n u c l e a r f a m i l y households but  this  not shown to be the case.  However with r e s p e c t to low  incomes  households  extended  family  show  p r o p o r t i o n than do n u c l e a r f a m i l y households  a  is  total  much s m a l l e r (a  difference  of p r o p o r t i o n of .125).  The mean p r o p o r t i o n of .23 f o r unearned income i s s p u r i o u s i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as i t i s due entirely to the presence of $5,000.00 paid to one person from an i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y f o r a wrecked s h i p . 1  68  TABLE VI PROPORTION OF TOTAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD ^TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household  Types  Low Income  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Other households  .375 ( 3 )  High Income  1  1  .429 (3)  2  .250 (2) .375 (3)  .429 (3) . 143 (1)  The d i v i s i o n between high and low income was the ($2923.00 per y e a r ) . F i g u r e s i n parentheses f o r a l l t a b l e s r e f e r to frequencies. 1  median 2  As  predicted  c a p i t a income association family  by  the h y p o t h e s i s a l l measures of p e r -  (Tables VII, V I I I , AND IX ) show a very s t r o n g between  high  per-capita  income  and  nuclear  households, and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n  between  low  households.  per-capita It  might  income be  and  extended  argued t h a t the extended together  adult  However i f the t o t a l income  for  the  household  i s divided  r e s i d e n t and over f i f t e e n associating  adults  by  be apparent.  the e f f e c t  adults income.  computing  of  of  However the t r e n d  shown i n Table VII i s not a l t e r e d i n T a b l e V I I I . b a s i c p i c t u r e a l t e r e d by  number  the number of persons  years o f age then  should  a  family  household r e p r e s e n t s the coming (income earning) persons.  of  family  per-capita  Nor i s the income f o r  but not i n c l u d i n g Family Allowance payments i n t o t a l  69  TABLE VII PROPORTION OF PER-CAPITA INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household types  Low Income*  High Income *  .286 (2)  .500 (4)  .571 (4) .143 (1)  .125 (1) .375 (3)  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Other households  * The d i v i s i o n between high median ($559.00 per y e a r ) .  and  low  income  was the  TABLE V I I I PROPORTION OF ADULT PER-CAPITA INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household Types  Low Income*  High Income *  .125 (1)  .714 (5)  .625 (5) .250 (2)  0 (0) .286 (2)  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Other households * The d i v i s i o n between median ($1047.00 per y e a r ) -  high  and low income was t h e  70  TABLE IX PROPORTION OP ADULT PER-CAPITA INCOME LESS FAMILY ALLOWANCE PAYMENTS BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household Types  Low  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Other households  Income*  High Income*  . 125  (1)  .724  (5)  .625 .250  (5) (2)  0 .286  (0) (2)  * The d i v i s i o n between high median ($1001.00 per y e a r ) .  and  low  income  was  the  The f i n a l and perhaps most important t e s t of the theory presented  in  Chapter  nuclear f a m i l y extended  I  households  concerns and  the a s s o c i a t i o n between  wage  labour,  and  f a m i l y households and k i n s h i p income.  presented i n Table X. complete  data  Each household f o r  available  was  rated  The data i s  which  with  I f the hypothesis was  it  that  be  expected  association  between  households,  and  kinship  wage  a  strong  controlled  household.  The  a c t u a l l y the case.  labour  would and  are  and  the  extended  then strong family  family  i n T a b l e X shows that the r e v e r s e i s  That i s , k i n s h i p dominant  more  a  nuclear  more commonly n u c l e a r f a m i l y households, and households  t o the  true  be  was  a s s o c i a t i o n between income from  resources  data  there  there  respect  l a r g e s t s e c t o r of income. would  between  commonly  However there were no households  households are wage  dominant  extended f a m i l y households. of  these  two  which showed a r e l i a n c e on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s income.  categories Reliance  71  on  social  services  income  was  confined  to the r e s i d u a l  category.  TABLE X DOMINANT INCOME SECTOR BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (ALERT BAY RESERVE)  Household  Wages  Nuclear Fam. Extended  .75  (5)  0 (0)  0 (0)  .50  .25  (D  0 (0)  0 (0)  .13  0 (0)  (D  1.0  1.00  1.00  (1)  hypotheses  may  1.0  1.00  (1)  1.00  The reason f o r the l a c k o f a s s o c i a t i o n the  Unearned  .38 (3)  Fam.  Other  Dominant s e c t o r Kinship Social services  as suggested  by  be due to the i n a b i l i t y of the data t o  provide c l u e s to two other v a r i a b l e s which were hypothesised to be s i g n i f i c a n t , namely s k i l l earner and  level  and the p r o x i m i t y of the place  of  the  controlled  these i n t e r v e n i n g association.  resources.  It  personnel  was hoped that  v a r i a b l e s there would be a t l e a s t  However  the  strength  income  of work and r e s i d e n c e  i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of household and task  kinship  wage  for  without a  weak  of the a s s o c i a t i o n as  e m p i r i c a l l y determined does not bode w e l l f o r the theory. One o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c s generated by the a n a l y s i s i s the number of income sources which an i n d i v i d u a l  72  household per  i s l i k e l y to have.  household  sources 5.0.  ranged  The range  from  one  of  (one case  income  sources  only) to nine  (two cases) of income with a mean, median, Consideration  of  expected most households  the  data  mode  of  showed that as would be  r e p o r t e d Family allowance payments,  but what was more i n t e r e s t i n g i s the combination of income i n c o n j u n c t i o n with wage income.  kinship  T h i r t y - f i v e percent  of a l l households r e p o r t e d income from both wage and k i n s h i p sources,  and  another  t h i r t y - f i v e percent r e p o r t e d k i n s h i p  income with zero wage income. the  lack  of  ability  k i n s h i p sources alone. common and/or to  form net.  the  file  of  to  These f i g u r e s  generate  owned  the  most  resource i s a f i s h i n g  boat  From c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f i e l d  boat  a l e r t Bay.  Bay  notes  attached  the impression i s gained that the l a r g e o u t l a y  of c a p i t a l r e g u i r e d to purchase and maintain fishing  suggest  s u f f i c i e n t income from  In the case of A l e r t  kinship  would  a  competitive  i s beyond the r e s o u r c e s of many fishermen i n  73  c  »  T r a d i t o n a l Haida S o c i e t y The term Haida has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y  aboriginal the  inhabitants  of  to  the  the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and  southern end of the P r i n c e of  aboriginal  applied  Sales  Archipelago.  The  p o p u l a t i o n s of t h i s area spoke the same language  and shared both m a t e r i a l believed  and to  social be  culture.  related  is  linguistic  stock and has two major s u b - d i v i s i o n s , Masset major  Haida i n the post c o n t a c t p e r i o d . The the  Queen  the  Haida  language  Skidegate, named f o r two of the  to  The  Athabasca  communities  of  and the  1  C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s are a major land mass o f f  west c o a s t of B r i t i s h Columbia 130° and  134°  West  between 52° and 5UQ  latitude  and  reserve  t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the a n a l y s i s i s  Skidegate Reserve l o c a t e d on  the  longitude.  southern  The  North  end  specific  of  Graham  Island.2 The diversity  traditional  Haida  has  considerable  i n topography as w e l l as w e l l as f l o r a and fauna.  It i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t Island that b i o l o g i s t s Although  territory  the  islands  from the mainland and  Vancouver  a s s i g n i t t o a separate b i o t i c a r e a . range  in altitude  3  from sea l e v e l to  Drucker, I n d i a n s of the Northwest Coast , p. 12. The Alaska Haida are b e l i e v e d to have spoken the Basset dialect (Drucker, I b i d ). However s i n c e t h i s a n a l y s i s i s concerned only with the B.C. Haida, the A l a s k a Haida are not c o n s i d e r e d here u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y noted. 2 Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s , V o l I I I , pp. 729 - 730. Cowan and Guiguet, Mammals of B r i t i s h Columbia , pp. 27 - 28. 1  3  74  over 2,500 f e e t the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of the land i s of  a temporate  that  c l i m a t e owing to the strong i n f l u e n c e of the  Japanese c u r r e n t . The weather p a t t e r n of the i s l a n d s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d moderation  due  to  the  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  current.  by The  temperatures  range from a mean monthly low of 35° i n January  to  August.  57°  in  temperatures  do  periods  time.  of  b r i n g a generous inches  per  Islands.  not  Even  during  remain  below  The  year  in  from  the  winter  freezing  months the  for  extended  ever present Japanese c u r r e n t does  supply of r a i n , some  The environment  different detailed  1  of  averaging  parts the  of  the  islands  well  over  100  Queen C h a r l o t t e is  sufficiently  that of the Kwakiutl area t o warrant a more  d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on the  description  presented i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . The Haida, l i k e the Kwakiutl, were f i r s t and foremost a people  of  the  and v a r i e d .  The  Islands  supplied  salmon,  halibut  sea and the r e s o u r c e s of the area were r i c h waters  numerous  pallasii).  types  (Hippoglossus  (Anoplopoma f i m b r i a ) , cod (Cludea  surrounding  2  Hew  2  fish  Charlotte  including  stenolepis),  food  sources  However  George Peter Murdock, Our York: The Macmillan Company, A l l of the taxonomy f o r taken from the f o l l o w i n g source: 565, 575, 590. 1  of  Queen  (Gadus macrocephalus),  These  p o r t i o n of the Haida d i e t .  the  the  sablefish and  formed salmon  the  herring  the major runs  were  P r i m i t i v e Contemporaries , 1934V, P221. v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of f i s h are Lyons, Salmon , pp. 22,  75  more r e s t r i c t e d  than  main  runs  Graham I s l a n d  the  southern  on  those o f the K w a k i u t l .  island  ...."  increased catch  significance  the  salmon  preserved  in  (0. k e t a )  fishing and  Halibut was  of  the  that  i t i s not e x p r e s s e d  p a r t of the season halibut  was  perhaps  from  coast  o f Graham I s l a n d .  been  particularly  as  or  resource  the  d u r a t i o n and was  was  carried  true  was  were  for  the  location  In on  that  Bay  taken Bay. the early the  the e a s t  would  aboriginal  not  salmon  on o n l y i n t h e  the i n s h o r e f i s h e r y  This fishing  important  salmon  of  i t appears  March t o May.  (May  drying f o r  i n the area of M c l n t y r e  explicitly  fishing  area  even  salmon.  fish  t h e immature h a l i b u t  t h e a r e a n o r t h e a s t o f Masset  halibut  of  o f t h e chum  overlapped  longer  Hewes s t a t e s  primary  than  was  total  t o t h e summer months  fishing  fishing.  immature  i n the  season.  t o t h e same l o c a l i t i e s  Although  i s the  i t e m t h e main  restricted  in  situation  preserving gualities  is restricted  but  has short  i t i s p r e s e r v e d by s m o k i n g a n d / o r  season,  on  small,  sablefish  take  three  Hewes  1  that halibut  total  made t h i s  winter consumption. fishing  the  f o r the winter  to October)  and  are  major r u n s  runs as " r e l a t i v e l y  of halibut  excellent  Salmon  Island.)  Hewes s u g g e s t s  significance  However  five  A major c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s  of the Haida.  larger  dog  2  perhaps  (Moresby  c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e salmon streams  and  There  have  villages  Gordon Hinant Hewes, "Aboriginal Use of Fishery Resources i n N o r t h w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a " ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1947), p. 148 and map i n A p p e n d i x . 1  2  Ibid .  76  located  in  Skidegate.  and  around  the  Front November to March  fishing  season)  Entrance  and Hecate S t r a i t .  Although technology  present  the  halibut  day  community  of  (the beginning of the  could  be  fished  in  new  Dixon  1  many f i s h resources e x p l o i t e d with a p r i m i t i v e  can be c o n s i d e r e d a t e r r i t o r i a l r e s o u r c e , t h i s i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the P a c i f i c salmon which i s most e a s i l y caught from land s t a t i o n s . its  While the salmon spends much  mature l i f e i n the open sea  by the l i m i t e d return  technology  obtained  of the a b o r i g i n a l Haida)  it  must  to freshwater r i v e r s and streams which flow i n t o  P a c i f i c i n order to spawn. that  (too f a r out to be  in  pre-contact  times  This b i o l o g i c a l necessity control  of  the  of  rich  the  meant salmon  resource c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by c o n t r o l l i n g r i v e r s and  river  banks where salmon spawn., E l a b o r a t e systems of t r a p s , weirs and  nets were used by the Haida  f o r such f i s h i n g .  2  among the  Haida the r i g h t s to p o s i t i o n s on salmon spawning r i v e r s were the  property  of the i n d i v i d u a l l i n e a g e s and  were among the  most valued posessions of the group. In c o n t r a s t to salmon f i s h i n g entirely different activity. fresh  water  use of hooks.  The  the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y i s an h a l i b u t does not spawn  and must be caught i n the open sea through However h a l i b u t f i s h i n g by v i r t u e of the  in the size  I b i d ., p. 148. Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast , pp. 35 37. The Haida are thought to have acquired the use of nets f o r f i s h i n g from the mainland Niska i n p r e c o n t a c t or very e a r l y h i s t o r i c times (Drucker, I b i d .) 1  2  77  to which the s p e c i e s commonly grows (200 females) was sometimes Even i n  not a simple o p e r a t i o n .  several the  reguired  on a l i n e ,  case  the  of  the  were the common d e v i c e s  of  for  Large bent wood hooks,  halibut  cooperation  pounds or more  fishery  several  the  used.  activity  individuals.  It i s  perhaps not i n s i g n i f i c a n t that because of the o v e r l a p p i n g seasons f o r both major types of f i s h i n g  (salmon and  and  the n e c e s s i t y f o r a high degree of  task  of  labour  organize  necessary i n both the  increasingly individual nuclear  force  and  to  own  Haida more  it  is  belonged.  The  young  reared  i n the household of  Haida  were  children i n  the  children.  goods  social  units  smallest  unit  to was  h i s wife  which  the  that of  the  (or wives)  and  E l d e r male c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y their  maternal  uncles  as  the  a strongly m a t r i l i n e a l society.  The  r e a r i n g of  an  to  have  avunculocal  u n i v e r s a l among the large  Haida.  extended  pattern  seems  been  1  family  household  consisting  of  children  was  the most important  task  m a t r i l i n e a l l y r e l a t e d males, wives and the next l a r g e s t s o c i a l u n i t and for  capital  p o s s i b l e to d e f i n e a s e r i e s of  inclusive  their  unit  specialization  cases.  f a m i l y c o n s i s t i n g of a man,  The  halibut)  that the l i n e a g e made an e f f i c i e n t s o c i a l u n i t to  the labour  For  of  was  young  the purposes of most resource  u n i t c o n s i s t e d of perhaps ten  or  * David F. a b e r l e , p e r s o n a l  twelve  activities. nuclear  communication.  Such a families  78  with 50  a  total  p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g from  a low 30 t o a h i g h o f  individuals. The  of  extended  individuals  children from  family  other.  However,  matrilineal  societies,  inheritance  through t h e  vested  the  in  restrictions economic sister's  males  female  son r e l a t i o n s h i p  development  has  caused  kin  determined  partly  of  moiety,  the  Haida,  line,  family  The women and the  husbands  like  so  to  unit  entity.  with  many  authority  In the l i g h t  The  functioned  mother's  of these  this  factor  This  lineage  in  unit  a  Membership  i s  o f d e s c e n t and p a r t l y  The  an  situation  social  (the avuncuclan).  as  brother -  as a strong  relations.  designate  on t h e b a s i s  residence.  but  household f u n c t i o n e d  of interpersonal  Burdock  compromise  one  o f t h e group.  political  the  moieties.  composed  were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f  t h e extended  and  was, t h e r e f o r e ,  f r o m two d i f f e r e n t  o f t h e women came f r o m  the  basis  household  overlapped  on t h e in  i t s  membership w i t h t h e a v u n c u c l a n a b o u t o n e - h a l f .  The  lineage i t s e l f ,  consisting basic all  usually  comprising  o f one o r more e x t e n d e d  p r o p e r t y owning g r o u p .  1  berry  I t controlled  had i t s h e r e d i t a r y  and  was t h e  access r i g h t s t o  including  p a t c h e s , and h u n t i n g g r o u n d s .  house i n t h e v i l l a g e  village  family households  o f the important resource l o c a t i o n s ,  stations,  a  chief  fishing  While the  every  highest  Over and a b o v e t h e l i n e a g e s e x i s t e d t h e m o i e t y s y s t e m which d i v i d e d t h e t r i b e i n t o two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s and s e r v e d to r e g u l a t e marriage f o r a l l o f the Haida groups. 1  79  ranking  c h i e f was a l s o the c h i e f of the v i l l a g e .  summary i s based on Drucker, Burdock,  The above  Spencer and Swanton.  In an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n o f the chapter i t was that  the  1  suggested  Kwakiutl d i d not i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y have c o n s t a n t  r e s o u r c e p r o d u c t i o n with r e s p e c t to seasonal as w e l l as year to year p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s . his  ecological  Northwest suggests  studies  coast that  culture the  more  S u t t l e s has attempted to  include  area.  extend  the f u l l scope of the  His overall  northerly  to  tribes  comparison  ( i n c l u d i n g the  Haida): Rely on fewer p l a c e s and f o r s h o r t e r times d u r i n g the year, but i n g r e a t e r concentration, and with conseguent g r e a t e r chance of f a i l u r e . 2  Further Drucker suggests t h a t inclement weather was severe  constraint  Vancouver  f o r the  Nootka  on  the  a  more  west c o a s t o f  I s l a n d than f o r many of the Kwakiutl l i v i n g on the  e a s t e r n s i d e of the i s l a n d  with i t s more s h e l t e r e d  location.  S u t t l e s f u r t h e r argues t h a t weather and i t s v a r i a b i l i t y  was  a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t to the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the Queen C h a r l o t t e groups  as w e l l .  The Haida u n i l i n e a l system o f descent with  * Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast , Chapter xxf Murdock, Our P r i m i t i v e Contemporaries. Chapter X I ; Robert F. Spencer, "The Northwest Coast," Chapter V, i n Robert F. Spencer, Jesse D. Jennings, e t a l . The Native Americans^ P r e h i s t o r y and Ethnology o f the North American Indians , (New York: Harper ~6 Row, ~1965),~pp.~ 168 - 212; John R. Swanton, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e Ethnology of the Haida. Memoir 8, (New York: American Museum of H i s t o r y , 1909), i n passing. Wayne S u t t l e s , " V a r i a t i o n i n Habitat and C u l t u r e i n the Northwest Coast," Akten des 34 Internatignalen Amerikanestinkongresses (Wien: Verlag Ferdinand Berger, 1962), p. 533. 2  80  its  strong p r e f e r e n c e f o r avuriculocal r e s i d e n c e  cousin  marriage  their  cross-  tended to make r e s i d e n t i a l groups r i g i d i n  composition  population  and  and,  into  a  further,  large  to  unite  the  redistribution  entire  system  (the  Potlatch).  U n l i k e the Kwakiutl who allowed some measure  individual  choice  with r e g a r d t o r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , the  Haida allowed f o r almost no v a r i a t i o n The  system  network  i n residence  rules.  of c r o s s - c o u s i n marriage assured that a k i n s h i p  was  geographically  dispersed  over  the  entire  resource a r e a .  While S u t t l e s * s p e c u l a t i o n s must remain  that  present  f o r the  time  they  suggest that the common b e l i e f production at  f o r the Northwest  best and perhaps q u i t e  of  Indians  of  the  sustained  and  abundant  c o a s t c u l t u r e area i s dubious  false.  Northwest  coast  the and  fortunes of  the men of New  England are c l o s e l y connected i n the period from about to  mid-nineteenth c e n t u r y . * However the h i s t o r y  with  White  comparison with  traders  differed  with that o f the  Whites  markedly  Kwaliutl.  the  of c o n t a c t  f o r the The  1780  first  Haida i n contact  was probably the v i s i t o f the Spanish e x p l o r e r s  Perez and Bodega i n 1774 and 1775. years  just  can a t l e a s t be used t o  As has been noted by s e v e r a l w r i t e r s the  of  northwest  However,  within  a  few  c o a s t became an important l i n k i n the  Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast , p. 30; Wilson Duff, The Impact of the White Man , V o l I of The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia . In Anthropology i n British Columbia Memoir No. 5, (Victoria: Provincial Museum, 1964); Murdocfc, Our P r i m i t i v e contemporaries , p. 261. 1  81  f a r east t r a d e . important  By  centres  with "Boston Men."  1793  the Queen  for  the  Islands  were  l u c r a t i v e sea o t t e r p e l t  trade  Joseph Ingraham, f o r  two  hundred p e l t s during one  few  years the demand f o r sea o t t e r  the c a p a c i t y of the animals to  find  The  products  Charlotte  summer  example,  (1791  [?]).*  pelts  soon  to reproduce and  a l t e r n a t i v e products  to s e l l  obtained  In the  outstripped  the Haida began  to the White t r a d e r s .  which were o f f e r e d were of two  different  types.  F i r s t , the Haida undertook the c u l t i v a t i o n of garden especially  potatoes,  to s e l l to t r a d e r s .  remarkablable  as the Haida had  pre-contact  period.  This in i t s e l f i s  the  Haida  t a l e n t s f o r a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n to s u b s t a n t i a l excelled carving was  particularly and  silver  in  the  working.  2  not an a b o r i g i n a l c r a f t and  the Russians In  in  their  profit.  They  Interestingly, silver was  apparently  the  turned  areas of a r g i l e i t e and  wood  working  learned  from  i n Alaska.  association  with  White  c o n t a c t came a d e c l i n e i n  p o p u l a t i o n , a u b i q u i t o u s aspect of c o n t a c t . including  crops,  not been c u l t i v a t o r s  Secondly,  next  venereal  disease,  T.B.,  and  d r a s t i c t o l l of l i f e among the Haida i n  White small  British  diseases pox  took a  Columbia.  3  Samuel E l i o t Morison, The Maritime H i s t o r y of Massachusetts: 1783-1860, (Boston: H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n Company, 1921, r e p r i n t e d ~ 9 6 1 , Sentry e d i t i o n s ) , pp. 49, 57. The large collections found in the Essex (Massachusetts) County Museum and the Peabody Museum of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y as w e l l as numerous other museums a t t e s t to t h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y . I t i s perhaps worth noting t h a t at least for the early s h i p s of the Boston men a l c o h o l was not p a r t of the cargo manifest. (Morison, Maritime H i s t o r y , p. 57.) 1  2  3  82  The  aboriginal  population  of  the Haida i n the p r e c o n t a c t  p e r i o d as determi  by Mooney and c o r r e c t e d by Kroeber i s s e t  at  people.*  about  9,800  By  1841 the p o p u l a t i o n was i n a  s t a t e of d e c l i n e .  Murdock s e t s the  about 8,000 people  i n 1841.  careful  consideration  Company suggests drastic 1835.  with  a  total  above  s o c i e t y as presented led  to  the  two  of  persons.  First  have been subjected  time  contact.  The  until  more  1915 with  Haida c u l t u r e and  works o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t the Haida  has  ( l i k e the  to severe pressures s i n c e  pre-contact  a  3  traditional  i n the standard  conclusions.  even  o f only 6,000 people i n  the d e c l i n e continued  Kwakiutl) of  r e c o r d s of the Hudson's Bay  population  summary  at  However D u f f ' s f i g u r e s based on  2  p o o u l a t i o n of only 588  The  figures  t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e was  In any event  recorded  of  population  the  s i t u a t i o n presented a  p i c t u r e of l a r g e , a v u n c u l o c a l extended f a m i l y households the  only  form  producing main  of  social  unit  the bulk o f production f o r home consumption.  The  activities  fisheries.  residence  concentrated  and  on  also  the  the  salmon  Second, the i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f c o n t a c t  and h a l i b u t introduced  new and very d i f f e r e n t economic a c t i v i t i e s among the Fur  trapping  and  craft  work  importance h i t h e r t o unheard o f . drastic  change  took  on  Haida.  new dimensions of  F i n a l l y the  Haida  made  1  3  a  i n so f a r as they undertook the c u l t i v a t i o n  of f o o d s t u f f s f o r s a l e t o White t r a d e r s .  2  as  Kroeber, C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l Areas , p. 135. Murdock, Our P r i m i t i v e Contemporaries , p. 261. Duff, Impact o f " t h e White Man 7 PP- 38 - 46.  83  D.  Contemporary Haida S o c i e t y T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l devote i t s e l f t o a c l o s e  of  the  contemporary economic a c t i v i t i e s and the a s s o c i a t e d  household types found sample  examination  included  on the Skidegate  forty  households  Reserve.  although  f o r the a n a l y s i s  there  data  households.  There were i n 1954 46 households on the r e s e r v e  households  included  in  the  273  only  were  sufficient  with a t o t a l r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of  of  The present  persons.  i n Table XI.  in  that  would  suggest  The  the p a t t e r n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r to note t h a t  little  (see T a b l e  evidence  of  a v u n c u l o c a l r e s i d e n c e as difference suggest children are  at  However  families  at  are c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than those a t A l e r t Bay  i n both range and s i z e very  figures  there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e of the f a m i l i e s o f Skidegate.  Skidegate  Of t h e  sample there was c o n s i d e r a b l e  demographic v a r i e t y as evidenced the t a b l e s  thirty-five  of  the a b o r i g i n a l  reported  proportion  I I ) . Further  of  .2  in  the  i s not  even the remnants of the p a t t e r n less an  than  Indian  is  p a t t e r n of male literature.  A  l a r g e enough t o  as  some  of t h e  15 years of age and not l i v i n g a t home residential  considerable  distance  some evidence  to suggest  from  school  located  the r e s e r v e .  at  a  There i s however  t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , those 15  years of age or more) continue p e r i o d of time.  there  to  live  at  home  f o r some  84  TABLE XI DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF HODSEHOLDS (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Range Number o f R e s i d e n t s / Household  Mean  5.7 persons  1 - 10  Age of Household Head  21 - 90 years  Number o f C h i l d r e n L i v i n g a t Home Less than 15 Years of Age  0-7  Number o f C h i l d r e n Less than 15 Years of Age  51.0 years  Child.  2.3 C h i l d .  0-8  Number of C h i l d r e n L i v i n g a t Home 15 or More Years of Age Number of C h i l d r e n 15 or More Years of Age  2.4  0-5  »  1.2  0-14  "  2.7  "  "  (N = 40)  Skidegate table XII). distribution  r e v e a l e d seven c a t e g o r i e s of households (see  Perhaps the most and  a  interesting  the  household. family  rise  i n significance  of  family  the ethnographic  this  as  household  the n u c l e a r  There are more than f o u r times as  households  of  s t r o n g measure o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s the  d e c l i n e i n t h e importance o f t h e extended and  aspect  family  many  nuclear  extended f a m i l y households.  Further  evidence  suggests  that  such  households  85  would  have  contained a t l e a s t 30 persons while the maximum  f o r the present extended  f a m i l y households  was t e n .  TABLE XII TYPES OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ASSOCIATED FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household  Type  Frequency  Percentage  Nuclear Family Extended Family Consanguineal Stem Family* S i n g l e Person* F a m i l i e s with non-kin boarders* Undefinable*  19 4 3 1 4  47.5 10.0 7.5 2.5 10.0  1 8  2.5 20.0  Total  40  100.0%  * For the purposes of a n a l y s i s these c a t e g o r i e s are c o l l a p s e d i n t o one c a t e g o r y ("other").  Table XIII suggests the degree  to which the Haida  become a c c u l t u r a t e d .  While 34 households  of  an  kind  production  almost  fact  the  impact  of  176  income category.  (30) r e p o r t e d  income  source.  In  o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s income among the Haida  has been very s i g n i f i c a n t total  r e p o r t e d some type  equal number  f a m i l y allowance income, a very recent  have  income  indeed.  sources  are  Seventy-one  out  i n the s o c i a l  of  a  services  86  TABLE XIII INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITES WITH FREQUENCIES REPORTED (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Frequency  Activity Kind p r o d u c t i o n Family allowance Fishing Logging Relief Pensions Unemployment Insurance Reciprocity Borders (non-kin) Carpenter Unearned Boat c h a r t e r Cannery work Carver of totem p o l e s Barber F r u i t growing Janitor Nurse/Post m i s t r e s s Radio repairman R e n t a l of a power saw Tax expert T.B. Allowance Trapping Laundry/housekeeping Unspecified 1  Reported  1  34 30 28 21 19 12 9 8 3 3 3 2 2 2  A source i s r e p o r t e d only once f o r a g i v e n household.  An examination o f the c o n t r o l of makes  the p i c t u r e somewhat c l e a r e r ,  access  income.  resources  on the average n u c l e a r  f a m i l i e s o b t a i n 4195 of t h e i r income from XIV).  to  wages  (see Table  That i s , wage income i s i n f a c t the l a r g e s t s e c t o r o f However,  i t i s also  true  households are wage income dependent  that extended  and i n f a c t the average  f o r extended f a m i l y households i s measurably nuclear f a m i l i e s  (51%).  family  l a r g e r that f o r  Again c o u n t e r - f a c t u a l evidence  has  87  been  found  that  nuclear  dependent f a m i l i e s . presented  in  families  As i s t r u e  are not p r i m a r i l y wage  f o r a l l of  the  figures  t h i s s e c t i o n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , by f o r c e of the  s c a n t i n e s s of the data, remain only suggestive of t r e n d s . Evidence households  to support the hypothesis  are  not  primarily  found.  On the average  8%  t h e i r income from  of  the  absence  Skidegate. keeping The  of  two l a r g e s t  single  dependent on wage income i s  wage employment.  person  obtain  only  This confirms a t  consanguineal  households  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n can be e x p l a i n e d by  migratory labour as a source of income f o r  The category "Other" shows  with  consanguineal  consanguineal households  l e a s t p a r t of the hypothesis t h a t are not wage dependent.  that  what  would be expected  sub-groups households  comprising  a  pattern  more i n  f o r nuclear f a m i l i e s . this  category  are  and undefinable households.  The  data d i d not r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n which  could  used  households  to d e s c r i b e t h i s category.  remain something of a mystery.  Therefore these  be  88  TABLE XIV MEAN PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY INCOME SECTOR AND HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household Type  Income S e c t o r 2 3 4  1  Total  1  5  6  (N)  2  Nuclear Family .41 Households  .32  .22  0  .03  .03  1.00  (16)  Extended Family .51 Households  .18  .24  .04  .01  .03  1.00  (4)  .47  .43  0  0  .03  1.00  (2)  .24  .33  .00  .01  .03  1.00  (13)  Consanguineal Households .08 Other Households .40 1  2  Income S e c t o r s a r e : 1 = Wages 2 = Kinship 3 = Social Services T o t a l s have been rounded  4 = 5 = 6 = to  Unearned Reciprocity Kind 1.00.  Table XV examines the a s s o c i a t i o n between s i z e of household income and relationship  did  household obtain.  type. One-half  Here of  the all  total  predicted low  income  households are nuclear f a m i l i e s ; while a p r o p o r t i o n of of  all  high  income  households are extended f a m i l i e s .  c o n t r a s t there are no extended f a m i l i e s i n categories  and  a  proportion  households are n u c l e a r .  .235  of  .412  the  low  In  income  of a l l high income  While the p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  not as c l e a r as could be d e s i r e d the evidence  seems  strong  89  enough  to  confirm  the  hypothesis.  c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between nuclear family  Of  interest  the category  i s the  " o t h e r " and  households.  TABLE XV PROPORTION OF TOTAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household  Low  Types  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Consanguineal Household Other households median  families  between extended were  not  nuclear  High  Income  .235 (4)  0 (0) .500 (9)  .118 (2) .235 (4)  high  expected,  1  .412 (7)  (0)  0  Contrary t o what was nuclear  1  .500 (9)  The d i v i s i o n between ($2595.00 per y e a r ) .  1  Income  and low income was the  relationships  between  and high p e r - c a p i t a income and c o n v e r s e l y f a m i l y households and low p e r - c a p i t a income  found  families  to  be  with  clearly extended  demonstrated. families  Comparing  with r e s p e c t t o  s t r a i g h t p e r - c a p i t a income evidence was found to demonstrate the o p p o s i t e c o n c l u s i o n One-half h a l f of  (see T a b l e s XVI, XVII,  AND  XVIII).  o f a l l low income f a m i l i e s were n u c l e a r while onea l l high  households.  By  income  families  were  extended  family  both c a l c u l a t i o n s of p e r - c a p i t a income the  p i c t u r e i s not changed.  90  TABLE XVI PROPORTION OF PER-CAPITA INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household Types  Low  Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Consanguineal Household Other households 1  median  Income  1  High Income  .500 (9)  .412 (7)  .111 (2)  .500 (2)  .056 (1) .333 (6)  .059 (1) .412 (7)  The d i v i s i o n between high ($541.00 per y e a r ) .  and  low  income  1  was the  TABLE XVII PROPORTION OF ADULT PER-CAPITA INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household Types Nuclear Family Household Extended Family Household Consanguineal Household Other households 1  median  Low  Income  .294 (5)  1  High Income .611 (1.1)  x.118 (2)  .111 (2)  .059 (1) .529 (9)  .056 (1) .222 (4)  The d i v i s i o n between ($898.00 per y e a r ) .  high  1  and low income was t h e  91  TABLE X V I I I PROPORTION OF ADULT PER-CAPITA INCOME LESS FAMILY ALLOWANCE BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household  Types  Low I n c o m e  Nuclear Family Household Extended F a m i l y Household Consanguineal Household Other households median  Consanguineal evenly Other  split  households  Income  (6)  .556 (10)  .118  (2)  .111 (2)  .359 .471  (1) (8)  .056 (1) .278 (5)  and  low  income  income  d i d show an a s s o c i a t i o n  with  1  was  showed no a s s o c i a t i o n  with r e g a r d t o p e r - c a p i t a  households  High  1  .353  The d i v i s i o n between h i g h ($846.00 p e r y e a r ) .  1  PAYMENTS  the  and were  measurements. low p e r - c a p i t a  income by a l l m e a s u r e s . The  final  hypothesis  and  most  was r a t e d  income.  If that  the  with respect hypothesis  association  hypothesis half  of  t h e r e would be a  between income f r o m extended  family  largest  true  strong  then  sector  Each of  i t would be  association  between  h o u s e h o l d s , and a l s o  a strong  kinship controlled  household  form.  was n o t c o n f i r m e d by t h e d a t a .  of both  the  between n u c l e a r f a m i l y  to the  were  wage l a b o u r and n u c l e a r f a m i l y  the  test  and wage l a b o u r i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IXX.  household  and  important  concerning the association  households  expected  perhaps  wage d o m i n a n t and k i n s h i p  resources  However  the  A p p r o x i m a t e l y one  dominant  households  92  was  nuclear.  households controlled. the  were  Only  about  ones  9%  of  where  a l l kinship  resources  dominant  were  kinship  The s u g g e s t i o n i s , then, that wages account f o r  overwhelming  amount of income f o r a l l households.  The  summary f i e l d notes suggest p o s s i b l e c l u e s t o the reason f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s . notes  is  that  First,  the suggestions i n  the f i s h i n g boats i n Skidegate  type o f k i n s h i p c o n t r o l l e d resource) r e g i u i r e crew  members than can be s u p p l i e d from  pool.  Second, the f i s h i n g  In  file  (the l a r g e s t more  skilled  the a v a i l a b l e labour  i n d u s t r y i n Skidegate was i n 1954  i n somewhat of a d e p r e s s i o n i n encompassed by the second  the  comparison  with  the  world war and f o r some time  years after.  a d d i t i o n the war y e a r s presented a tremendous demand f o r  labour on v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s i n the area of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . men  away  from  the  drawn  the  economy  of  Skidegate  many The is  by the presence of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of people  on the r e s e r v e who are least  have  f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y never t o r e t u r n .  presence o f a d e p r e s s i o n i n evidenced  T h i s may  dependent  12.5% of a l l households  on  welfare  are so dependent.  income.  At  93  TABLE IXX PROPORTION OF DOMINANT INCOME SECTORS BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE (SKIDEGATE RESERVE)  Household Type  Wages  Dominant Sector Kinship Social Services  Nuclear Family .50 (8) Extended Family .12 (2) Consanguineal Other .38 (6) 1.00  The  .54 .09 .09 .27  (6) (1) (1) (3)  1.00  data d i d not allow f o r a c l o s e comparison  l e v e l and household  composition.  \  .25 .12 .12 .50  (2) (1) (1) (4)  1.00  between  skill  94  CHAPTER IV SUMMARY  This  chapter  recapitulates  some  of  the  general  t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s which have guided t h i s r e s e a r c h and summarizes the f i n d i n g s .  S e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s not examined are  d i s c u s s e d and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e research are made. A.  T h e o r e t i c a l Framework This  study  takes as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t the assumption  t h a t economic c o n s t r a i n t s are the household  composition  primary  determinants  i n order to most e f f i c i e n t l y  i n d i v i d u a l s with the goods and s e r v i c e s that to  sustain their daily l i v e s .  The  are  of  provide  necessary  theory h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t  there are at l e a s t four aspects or types of c o n s t r a i n t s : (a) (b) (c) (d)  Access to r e s o u r c e s , S i z e of income, S t a b i l i t y of income over time, and, I n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of resource and personnel.  Other s t u d i e s on r e s e r v e Indians suggest which  are  households.  thought  to  influence  labour.  composition  society,  and  the impact  labour i n  by  the  reserve  a  of u n s k i l l e d  A more g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n c o n s i d e r s  adjustments  some v a r i a b l e s of  They i n c l u d e the c o n t r o l of access to r e s o u r c e s  by k i n s h i p groups, the need f o r s k i l l e d industrial  the  household  community  the to  modern  migratory  history  of  the demands of  95  Western c u l t u r e  as  very  important.  The  composition  of  households,  thus, would seem t o i n v o l v e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a  number  alternatives  of  through  time  v a r i a b l e s may i n t e r v e n e , o f t e n with an  in  which  numerous  interlocking  effect  on each o t h e r . The  main  focus of t h i s present study has been on some  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l aggregated attempted  to  form  to c o n s i d e r  household the  incomes  incomes.  as The  characteristics  of  they  are  study  has  any  income  source under one of s i x p o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s : (a) <b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  K i n s h i p income, Wage income, S o c i a l s e r v i c e income, Unearned income, R e c i p r o c i t y income, Kind income.  The theory chapter has t r i e d t o c o n s i d e r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  each  income  supply the needs cooking,  source and  cleaning,  and  wants  how of  shopping,  i t could best be used t o individuals  sexual  in  access,  terms and  of  child  rearing. Throughout the study income  generated  i t has  been  such  Of  course  this  i s not p l a u s i b l e f o r c h i l d r e n and some a d u l t s but  income  could,  conceivably,  be used f o r a v a r i e t y of  personal as w e l l as extra-household purposes. surplus  that a l l  by i n d i v i d u a l s can be e q u a l l y consumed i n  the s h o r t run by members of the household. assumption  assumed  income could be used  of a household  member.  For  example,  to f u r t h e r the p o l i t i c a l  Kinship obligations i n  the  goals  context  96  of  t r a d i t i o n a l norms of Indian s o c i e t y have been c o n s i d e r e d  only i n so f a r as they are income  derived  from  reflected  other  c o n s a n g u i n i t y or a f f i n i t y . procedure kinship  households On  the  category  of  r e l a t e d by t i e s of  i n s p e c t i o n of the  data  this  seems j u s t i f i e d , i n so f a r as the s i g n i f i c a n c e of income  accounts  household income f o r any B.  in  for  a  very  small  portion  of  household.  Findings Evidence  was  found  on  both  r e s e r v e s to support  p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t extended f a m i l y households have high incomes.  However,  on  the  alert  Bay  family  only  small  a  households, positive  total  while Skidegate  association  total  Reserve there was  s m a l l negative a s s o c i a t i o n between high nuclear  the  incomes  a  and  Reserve showed  between  the  same  variables. C o n s i d e r i n g a l l measures of p e r - c a p i t a income a l e r t Reserve  showed  stong  nuclear f a m i l i e s With  respect  are  to  support high  Skidegate  for  the  per-capita Reserve  proposition income  there  income.  association  or  But no  there  was  difference  either between  a  that  households.  was  a s s o c i a t i o n between nuclear f a m i l y households and capita  Bay  a  strong  high  per-  small  negative  extended  family  households and p e r - c a p i t a income. There r e f e r e n c e to there  were  were the  a number of hypotheses which made s p e c i f i c consanguineal  household.  Unfortunately  no such households on the a l e r t Bay Reserve  and  97  only three on the Skidegate 7.5%  Reserve  (accounting  of the p o p u l a t i o n of the reserve.)  for  While t8e data are  inadequate to allow f o r more than s p e c u l a t i o n , none hypotheses  concerning  validated.  T h i s may  governmental that  policy  as  due  in  which may  consanguineal  destitute  consanguineal  be  been  of  households  to  the  was  impact  are  not  of  predicted.  necessarily The  absence  s i g n i f i c a n t number of consanguineal households may due  the  provide s u f f i c i e n t income so  households  had  part  only  as of  also  a be  to the impact of governmental p o l i c y which promotes the  growth o f n u c l e a r f a m i l y households. The second major approach to the a n a l y s i s of economics  was  income t y p e s . the  in  household  terms of primacy o f one of the s i x major  Perhaps one of the most expected  results  study i s the s m a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e c i p r o c i t y and  income i n the t o t a l budget of any of the households two  reserves.  No  nuclear  family  household  f a m i l y household on  either  reserve  portion  total  household  of  its  r e c i p r o c i t y or kind account  for  household. suggests  the  sources. second  the  degree  r e s e r v e Indians have  of  undergone  sector  than  social  it  any and  in  the  did  other  the  primary  from  of  kind  or extended the  income  Further,  largest  T h i s perhaps more  received  on  of  either  not  even  income f o r a measurement  c u l t u r a l change that last  one  hundred  years. The theory t h a t was that  there  proposed i n Chapter I had suggested  would be 1n a s s o c i a t i o n between extended  family  98  households and kinsh9p income dominance and between family Bay  households  Reserve  there  propositions. association primacy. the  was  On  the  between  negative Skidegate  one  type  support Reserve  of  On the A l e r t for  there  household  .both  was  and  no  income  In the case of the few consanguineal households on  Skidegate  social  and wage income dominance.  nuclear  Reserve  service  pensions  income  were i n c l u d e d  and f u r t h e r because comparison  to  there was a s l i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n with dominance.  Since  a l l forms  within the category " s o c i a l  such  pensions  are  usually  of  service" large  in  other sources of income on the r e s e r v e there  i s some e x p l a n a t i o n as t o why consanguineal  households  are  not low income households. C.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h i s study was l i m i t e d i n i t s e x p l o r a t i o n s of household  economics  by  the  inability  t o measure d i f f e r e n t i a l income  earning p o t e n t i a l with r e s p e c t to s t a b i l i t y  of  the  That i s , i t was  individual  and  f o r the  i m p o s s i b l e to determine realizing  an  whether or  attempting  an  individual  was  to  measure  stability  of  While i t i s reasonable to assume that employment i n  office  is a  full  time job ( i . e . , twelve months of the  year) the same assumption many  not  the t o t a l p o t e n t i a l from a given resource or j o b .  T h i s i s c r u c i a l when income.  household.  income f o r  jobs  commercial regulation  in  cannot be  made  with  primary resource e x p l o i t a t i o n .  fishing  is  limited  not  only  by  respect  to  For example, governmental  but by the s i z e and type of gear t h a t i s c a r r i e d  99  on board. summer  Some f i s h i n g  salmon  season  boats  are  while  others  winter h e r r i n g f i s h i n g as w e l l . are  related  to  the  suitable are  Because  capital  costs  only  f o r the  s u i t a b l e f o r the such  and  limitations  to the p o t e n t i a l  r e t u r n s on c a p i t a l that can be d e r i v e d from a boat cannot  be  Similarly,  determined  without  knowing  these  factors.  logging o p e r a t i o n s a r e not year round o p e r a t i o n s  and at t h i s d i s t a n c e i n time i t i s i m p o s s i b l e what  stability  proportion  of  the  year  a  person  to  determine  could  have been  employed. & second l i m i t a t i o n of the work  technique  that  was  The r e s e a r c h design r e l i e d for  each  household.  study  elicit  The  on the s i n g l e  The  single  information  the  problem of " s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l " The  data  sheets  "depth"  interview  past  limitations  in  this  technique  when  used t o  carries  with  i t the  on the p a r t of the i n f o r m a n t s .  used i n the present study f r e q u e n t l y gave  only rough approximations  of  sometimes  i t was d i f f i c u l t  gross  net  or  field  experience gained i n t h i s study  interview  about  the  used to gather t h e data i n 1954.  would i n d i c a t e that there are s e r i o u s approach.  concerns  income.  the  different  incomes,  and  to judge whether such income was  Further  research  might  a c c u r a t e and f r u i t f u l i f the " p a n e l " technigue  were  be  more used.  1  This would involve setting up a s e r i e s o f representative informants who would be interviewed periodically f o r an extended p e r i o d o f time (perhaps one year) . Each time they were i n t e r v i e w e d i n f o r m a t i o n on sources of income would be obtained so that a t o t a l p i c t u r e through time could be o b t a i n e d . 1  100  This  should  particular because in  eliminate  i t might  of  A third  might  and On  from  diverse  reciprocity  to  was  the  of  social  U3%;  failure  to  service  w e l f a r e , and  sources  tremendously breakdown  are  of  for  the A l e r t  income  p a t t e r n s o f income and A fourth large  of  was  the f a i l u r e  households  on  on  Bay  showed  that  households  patterns analysis.  and  payments,  blind  While of  A close types  A  of  vary finer  more r e v e a l i n g  to  account  each  reserve.  of  households  and  proportion on  for  a The  35% o f a l l h o u s e h o l d s  these  primarily  a l l  them  of  dependent  wage l a b o u r .  such  Skidegate reserves r e s p e c t i v e l y .  sizeable  i t was  are  and  a  of  type.  " o t h e r " a c c o u n t e d f o r 33% and  examination  Reserve  stability.  prove  category Alert  the  households  figure  many  and  might  household  limitation  proportion  similar  to s i z e  predict  a l l  Bay  Included i n t h i s  somewhat  such  received  income f o r a l l  retirement penisons.  with r e s p e c t  which  t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n  income  on  12 t o 36%.  be  In  forgotten.  the S k i d e g a t e Reserve  22  income  i t would  t y p e s o f income a s F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e  pensions, these  be e a s i l y  income t o t o t a l  somewhat l e s s ,  of s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l .  manner i n which  variety  service  ranges  up some  limitation  households. social  pick  the c a s u a l  a household  magnitude  the problem  their were  A  closer  income s o u r c e s single  p e n s i o n s and  semi-skilled  examination of  the  of  not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s  households  data  person  might  show  101  D.  Final In  Comment  view o f  the  inability  to  this  cannot  study  groups  of  small  be  generalized  reserve Indian  power  in  composition for  the  sample  chapter, why  and  beyond  households.  these  Within  framework s u g g e s t e d  analysing  different  a l s o to suggest  appropriate the  data  model might be  other  reserve  understanding specific  the  reserve  d e v e l o p m e n t , no  limits,  seemed t o  p a t t e r n s of  have  household  explanations  Indians  in  groups  In p a r t i c u l a r of  respond  of t h e i r  will own  a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t are  individual  his  household.  and  understanding existing  of  r e s o u r c e s then  more c o m p a t i b l e  well  be  the  a  with  new  peoples  of  themselves.  and  policies  these  more e f f i c i e n t  a greater acceptance  Indian  positive  If  negative might be  aspects.  utilization  The  evaluated and  by in  given  was  some  aspects  of  designed  which  result  could  of development  governmental  a  economic  open t o a  there  in  on  experience  other  and  useful  for be  this  how  policy  policy  what i t s m e r i t s ,  in  different  i t might be  Every  light  to  governmental  situation.  the  earlier  u s e f u l i n understanding  impact  matter  suggested  t e r m s of a l l t h e  and  the  particular  these  some p l a u s i b l e  as  Indian  economic c o n s t r a i n t s .  are  and  them. With  the  of  judge i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , the f i n d i n g s of  however, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l some  size  programs  by  funds the  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Boas,  Franz. Ethnology of the Kwakiutl, b a s e d on d a t a c o l l e c t e d by G e o r g e Hunt. Annual Report, No. 35. W a s h i n g t o n : B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o g r a p h y , 1921.  Codere,  Helen. Fighting with Property. Ethnological Society, Monograph 18. U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1950.  Cowan,  Ian McTaggart, and Guiget, Charles. Mammals o f British Columbia. Provincial Museum Handbook, No. 11. Victoria: Queens Printer i n Province of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964.  Curtis,  E. S. The K w a k i u t l . V o l . X: The JLQ<Li§£* S e a t t l e : Norward, 1915.  Drucker,  Philip. I n d i a n s of the Northwest C o a s t . American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Handbook, No. 10. New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Company, I n c . , 1955. R e p r i n t e d by N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , 1963.  North  American Seattle:  American  D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , and H e i z e r , R o b e r t F.. To Hake Hy Name Good: A Reexamination of the Southern Kwakiutl Potlatch. Berkely: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1967. Duff,  Wilson. The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia. V o l . I : t h e Impact o f t h e White Man. Anthropology ifi British Columbia, Memoir No. 5. Victoria: B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964.  Fisher,  L l o y d H. The H a r v e s t L a b o u r M a r k e t Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  in California. 1953.  Fortes,  Meyer. "introduction.«' The D e v e l o p m e n t a l C y c l e i n Domestic Groups. E d i t e d by J a c k Goody. Cambridge Papers in Anthropology, No. 1. Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  Gonzalez, Nancie S o l i e n . Black C a r i b Household Structures. American Ethnological Society P u b l i c a t i o n No. 48. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1969. Goode, W i l l i a m J . World R e v o l u t i o n i n F a m i l y P a t t e r n s . Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1963.  New  Gough, E. K. "changing Kinship Usage in the Setting of Political and Economic Change among t h e Nayar o f Malibar." Journal of the Royal Anthropological I n s t i t u t e , 82, ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 71 - 88.  103  Government o f Canada. The Canada Yearbook 1 9 5 4 . O f f i c i a l Statistical Annual o f the Resources^ History Institutions and S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s of Canada. P u b l i s h e d by A u t h o r i t y of t h e M i n i s t e r of Industry, Trade and Commerce. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 5 4 . x  Hawthorn, H. B.; Belshaw, C. S.; and Jamieson, S. M. The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia.; A Study o f Contemporary Social Adjustment. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s and U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 8 . Hewes, Gordon Winant. " A b o r i g i n a l Use of F i s h e r y Resources in Northwestern North America." Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 7 . Kroeber, A. L. C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l Areas o f N a t i v e North America. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1936.  Kunkel,  John H. "Values and Behavior Development." Economic Development Change, 1 3 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , " p p . 275 -~276.  Lyons, C i c e l y , Salmon.: Our Press, 1 9 6 9 7 " Morison,  Heritage.  in and  Vancouver:  Economic Cultural Mitchell  Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts.: 1 7 8 3 J 8 6 0 . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1 9 2 1 . Reprinted Senry E d i t i o n s , 1961.  Munsell, Marvin Robert. Land and Labour at Salt River: Household Organization i n a Changing Economy. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1 9 6 7 . Murdock,  George P e t e r . Our P r i m i t i v e Contemporaries. York: The Macmillan Company, 1 9 3 4 .  New  Nimkoff, M. F. and Middleton, U s s e l l . "Types o f Family and Types of Economy." American J o u r n a l of Sociology, 66  (1960),  pp.  215  ~  225.  Padfield, Harland, and M a r t i n , W. E. Farmers Workers^ and Machines. Tucson, A r i z o n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f Arizona x  Press,™965.  Piddocke, Stuart. "The P o t l a t c h System of the Southern K w a k i u t l : A New P e r s p e c t i v e . " Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 2 1 8 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 2 4 4 - 2 6 4 . Rhoner,  Ronald P. The People o f G i l f o r d : A Contemporary Kwakiutl V i l l a g e . National Museum of Canada Bulletin, No. 2 2 5 , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s , No. 8 3 .  104  Ottawa: The Queens P r i n t e r , 1967. Robbins,  Royal  Lynn. "Economics, Household Composition and Family Life Cycle: The Blackfoot Case." American Ethnological Society. Proceedings of t h e J968 Annual Sjjring Meeting. Seattle: University of Washington P r e s s , 1968.  Commission on Indian A f f a i r s . Report of the Roy.al Commissioni Indian A f f a i r s . vol II and I I I . V o c t o r i a : Acme Press, L t d . , 1916.  Sahlins,  M a r s h a l l D. "On the S o c i o l o g y o f P r i m i t i v e Exchange." The Relevance of Models f o r S o c i a l Anthropology. E d i t e d by M. Banton. Monographs of the A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s No. 1. London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965, pp. 39 - 126.  Sahlins,  M a r s h a l l D. Tribesmen. Foundations of Modern Anthropology S e r i e s . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1968.  Solien,  Nancie. Migratory (1961), pp.  "Family Organization i n Five Types of Labour." American Anthropologist, 63 1264 - 1280. ~  Spencer,  Robert F. "The Northwest Coast." Chapter V. The N a t i v e Americans: P r e h i s t o r y and Ethnology, of the North American Indians. Edited by Robert F. Spencer, J e s s e D. Jennings, e t a l . . New York: Harper and Row, 1965, pp. 168 - 212.  Suttles,  Wayne. "Affinal T i e s , S u b s i s t e n c e , and P r e s t i g e Among the Coast S a l i s h . " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 62,  Suttles,  ( 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 296 - 305.  Wayne. "Variation i n H a b i t a t and C u l t u r e i n the Northwest Coast." Acten des 34. Internationales Amerikanestinkongresses. Wien: V e r l a g Ferdinand Berger, 1962.  Swanton, John R. C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e Haida. Memoir 8. New York: H i s t o r y , 1909. Watson, Wolf,  William. Manchester:  Ethnology of the American Museum of  Tribal Cohesion i n a Money Economy.. Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , ~ 1 9 5 8 .  Eric. Peasants. Foundations o f Modern Anthropology PrenticeSeries. Englewood Cliffs, New J e r s e y : H a l l , Inc., 1966.  105  APPENDIX A  QUESTIONS;. 1.  Name  of  leaving  household  or  family  head  Age  School  grade  2.  Whose house i s he/she l i v i n g i n ?  3.  R e l a t i o n s h i p to house owner  (and to household head, i f  different) 4.  Name of wife  Age  School l e a v i n g  grade  Date  of  marriage or c o - r e s i d e n c e 5.  Residence o f wife (Note:  Wife  i s here  the woman r e c o g n i z e d by man as  such) 6.  Names Age  of  a l l  Residence  living  School l e a v i n g  children.  grade  (Include c h i l d r e n o f 4, who a r e not c h i l d r e n o f 1) 7.  Names  of  leaving 8.  Name  of  of  Residence 10.  Age  School  grade  Residence name  a l l present adopted c h i l d r e n  wife  where  legally  different  from  4.  Date o f marriage 4»s husband where l e g a l l y d i f f e r e n t from 1. Date o f marriage  Names of separated wives of 1.  Resddence  Dates  of  marriage or s e t t i n g up c o - r e s i d e n c e 119  names  o f separated husbands of 4.  Residence  rdates  of marriage o r s e t t i n g up c o - r e s i d e n c e 12.  Names o f deceased  wives o f 1.  Dates o f marriage  13.  Names o f deceased husbands o f 4.  Dates o f marriage.  106  Name o f deceased  c h i l d r e n of 1.  Name of deceased  c h i l d r e n of 4.  List  f a t h e r s of 6 and 15.  List  mothers o f 6 and 14.  What s c h o o l s d i d a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n Did  any  receive  other  attend?  education?  (university  e x t e n s i o n , army s p e c i a l i s t , f i r s t - a i d , etc.) What s i z e i s the house are they  (cu.ft.)?  How many rooms?  How  used  Has i t running water?  Electricity?  What kind of s a n i t a t i o n ? What  a r e main  articles  Beds and bedding?  and c o n d i t i o n of f u r n i t u r e ?  Cupboards?  What c h i l d r e n ' s t o y s are there - types, use, expense. What a r e occupations o f f a m i l y members?  ( i . e . Those  r e s i d e n t i n household) What  i s their  individual  wage income?  Weekly, and  over past year? Does the f a m i l y operate  a  business?  Describe,  and  estimate net income. What  cash  allowances,  income  income  contract,  possible.  from  social  services,  pensions?  What i s t h e i r rent,  accrues  from  timber  other  royalties,  sources,  fishing,  f o r past year i f  D i s t i n g u i s h sources.  What income i n cash or kind i s known t o have come from k i n s h i p sources months?  recently  -  say past  s i z or  nine  107  31.  What  food  was  produced  or  gathered?  Fish,  game,  fruit, etc. 32.  What  kinship  disbursements  have  been  made,  over  s i m i l a r period? 33.  What  capital  does the f a m i l y own?  e.g. T r a n s p o r t ,  farm b u i l d i n g s , t o o l s , shot guns, cameras, sewing 34  how  machines, is  food  washing  machine.  stored  -  open  shelves,  fish  nets,  cupboards,  refrigerator? 35.  What animals does the f a m i l y own?  36.  What I n d i a n s e.g.  37.  What  made  artifacts  Baskets, f i s h i n g  does  the  gear, canoes,  family  own?  dance-costumes.  Church, i f any, were f a m i l y members b a p t i z e d i n ?  Do they attend and how r e g u l a r l y ? 38.  What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do they give t o the Church and i t s organizations?  39.  What  organizations,  including  Legion, P.T.A., s p o r t s . etc.,  Brotherhoods,  Trade  Canadian Unions,  do people belong t o , and what c o n t r i b u t i o n s are  reguired? 40.  youth c l u b s ,  What o f f i c e s have been held?  What other l o c a l i t i e s have f a m i l y members  visited  or  worked i n ? 41.  What languages can they speak or hear?  41.  What languages can they speak or hear?  42.  What books do they own?  ( l i s t any s i g n i f i c a n t  and c l a s s i f y remainder by s u b j e c t ) 43.  What magazines  are evident?  44.  I s there a l i b r a r y membership?  titles,  108  ( i f rapport i s suitable)  what sums are i n investments,  bank and savings accounts, e t c . ? What money i s owed t o the f a m i l y and by whom? Are  there  do they  any accounts with s t o r e s or f i r m s , and how  stand?  109  

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