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Some grotesque patterns in the novels of Charles Dickens and in the British popular arts of the late… Kozakiewicz, Elizabeth Antonina 1972

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SOME GROTESQUE PATTERNS IN THE NOVELS OF CHARLES DICKENS AND IN THE BRITISH POPULAR ARTS OF THE LATE EIGHTEENTH AND THE NINETEENTH CENTURIES by ELIZABETH ANTONINA KOZAKIEWICZ^FAWF^r) B.A., University of Manitoba, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 In present ing th is thes is in par t i a l ] f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of th is t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permiss ion . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT Recognizing that the grotesque is a common characteristic of much popular art, and recognizing that grotesque images are integral to the sensual world of Dickens' novels, the thesis seeks to discover what grotesque images are shared by Dickens and contemporary popular artists , and whether similar meanings can be attributed to their use in the caricatures, the pantomime,- the gothic novels, and childrens' literature and in Dickens' f i c t i o n . The essence of grotesque art can best be understood from a survey.of historical grotesque images and the thesis traces these br i e f l y . The grotesque image usually involves the double face, two.or.three beings united within one formal structure. It may however be typified by i t s extreme ugliness, i t s deviance from aesthetic standards of beauty.. Or i t may exist as a mimic re-creation . of man in man-made terms, through costume or mask, or as a puppet, robot or d o l l . The grotesque humour i n the caricatures, the pantomime and the nursery rhymes, with i t s dispensing with boundaries between the animate and the inanimate and mimic re-creation of the world i n new forms, . implies a delight in the sensual qualities of the material world. In the gothic novels the grotesque images, particularly the complex of images revolving around prisons, are seen to function as physical mani-festations of the obsessive reasoning and fears that plague the char-acters. . The grotesques in the fairy tales are related essentially to the role of magic, supernatural power in these tales being wielded i i i i i e i t h e r through obje c t - t a l i s m a n s or by grotesque f i g u r e s . Dickens merges grotesques from a l l these sources i n t o one f i c -t i o n a l u n i v e r s e , and consequently any one grotesque i n Dickens' work may r e c a l l imagery from s e v e r a l of these a r t forms, as w e l l as'the t r a d i t i o n a l images. The t h e s i s does not attempt a comprehensive study of the gro-tesque i n Dickens' novels. I t examines only three n o v e l s , The Old  C u r i o s i t y Shop, Our Mutual F r i e n d , and The Mystery, of Edwin Drood, w i t h references to A Tale of Two C i t i e s and Hard Times, a n a l y z i n g the thematic p a t t e r n s that revolve, around the grotesques., In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop the grotesque h a l l u c i n a t i o n s of N e l l , her grandfather, and the n a r r a t o r are l i n k e d to t h e i r p a s s i v i t y , t h e i r f e a r of c o n f r o n t i n g or having to manipulate a n a t u r a l i s t i c r e a l i t y . . Quilp and the other n a t u r a l g r o t e s -ques are, on the other hand,.seen to resemble clowns^in t h e i r use of the grotesque image as a.source of comedy, and i n t h e i r s k i l l at using t h i s humour to c o n t r o l t h e i r environment. Our Mutual F r i e n d i s approached. from one viewpoint o n l y , though.it i s one considered v i t a l . t o the n i n e -teenth century B r i t i s h i m a g i n ation, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i t s grotesque imagery to c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . Through meshing picturesque f i g u r e s of innocence w i t h the v i c i o u s , ;the deformed and the decaying, Dickens e s t a b l i s h e s a v i s i o n of beauty growing out of the d e s t r u c t i o n of inno-cence and the i m a g i n a t i v e v i t a l i t y of anarchic grotesques. . In The  Mystery of Edwin Drood the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c a t h e d r a l c i t y gives m a t e r i a l shape to the type of obsessive t h i n k i n g that permeates The Old  C u r i o s i t y Shop, and concurrently f u n c t i o n s as a spell-bound environment for those who seek to deny their relationship with the brutal or ugly. As with the prisons of the gothic novels, this architecture breeds grotesque figures whom Dickens employs for a dual, purpose, to represent the hallucinations of his spiritually trapped characters., and as a natural a r t i s t i c counterpart to the cold r i g i d i t y of the cathedral. TABLE OF CONTENTS , Chapter Page I . • GROTESQUE IMAGES AND THE POPULAR ARTS . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n : H i s t o r y of Popular Grotesque Images . , 1 Grotesque Images i n the Popular A r t s of the Late Eighteenth and Nine- • teenth Centuries 20 I I ; THE BOURGEOIS AND THE CLOWN: The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop (with reference to A Tale of Two C i t i e s ) ' 77-I I I . THE MAIMED CHILD: Our Mutual F r i e n d 123 IV. THE SPELL-BOUND CITY: The Mystery of Edwin Drood 153 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . 192 BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Roman buffoon -. 8 2. Roman mimic fool . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Roman, wall caricature ; . . . ... 8 4. Gargoyle . 8 5. Mediaeval comic' devils .. . . . . . • 8 6. Mediaeval comic devils . 8 7. Mediaeval animal carving satirizing clergy 8 8. Mediaeval fools . . . . . • . . . ±2 9. • Pietr Brueghel, from 'The Seven Deadly Sins' . . . . . yi 10. Pietr Brueghel, from 'The Seven Deadly Sins' . . . . \2 11. Jacques Callot, etching of commedia figures . . . . . \2 12. Jacques Callot, etching of commedia figures 12 13. Jacques Callot, etching of commedia figure 12 14. Dance of Death, Hans Holbein . . . . . . . . . . 15 15. Dance of Death, Hans Holbein . . . . . . . . . . 15 16. Hierohomous Bosch,. 'The Temptation of St. Anthony' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 17. William Hogarth . . . . . . 22 18. William Hogarth 22 19. James Gillray 23 20. Thomas Rowlandson 23 21. James Gillray 23 v i v i i F i g u r e Page 22. John Henry F u s e l i . . . . . . 25 23. Thomas Rowlandson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 24. James G i l l r a y . . . . . . . 25 25. F r a n c i s c o Goya . . . . . . . 27 26. Isaac Cruikshank . . 27 27. George Woodward.and P . Roberts . . . . . . . . . 27 28. James G i l l r a y . 29 29. George Cruikshank . 29 30. George Cruikshank . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 31 . George Cruikshank . 29 32. George Cruikshank 32 33. R i c h a r d Newton 32 34. John T e n n i e l . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . 32 35. Pantomime p o s t e r of Joseph G r i m a l d i , 37 36. I l l u s t r a t i o n from Struwwelpeter 37 37. I l l u s t r a t i o n from Struwwelpeter 37 38. G i o v a n n i P i r a n e s i , ' C a r c e r i ' e t c h i n g 47 39. John T e n n i e l , i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r A l i c e ' s Adven-tures Through the Looking G l a s s . . ' 47 40. Kate Greenaway . . . . . . . 70 41 . B e a t r i x P o t t e r . . . . . . . . 70 42 . Ra lph C a l d e c o t t . 70 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express my deep appreciation to Dr. P a t r i c i a Meriyale for the time she spent i n reading e a r l i e r d r a f t s , f o r her many h e l p f u l c r i -t i cisms, her suggestions on source material that proved invaluable to the th e s i s , and for her ex-treme patience. I would l i k e to thank Dr. Michael Goldberg for h i s advice on the shaping of the the s i s . v i i i SOME GROTESQUE PATTERNS IN THE NOVELS OF CHARLES DICKENS AND IN THE BRITISH POPULAR ARTS OF THE LATE EIGHTEENTH AND THE NINETEENTH CENTURIES ix CHAPTER I GROTESQUE IMAGES AND THE POPULAR ARTS P a r t A : I n t r o d u c t i o n : H i s t o r y of P o p u l a r Grotesque Images The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to p l a c e the n o v e l s of C h a r l e s Dickens i n a t r a d i t i o n of grotesque popular a r t , and to compare the moral v a l u e s he i n v e s t s i n h i s grotesque images w i t h those borne by s i m i l a r images i n the popular a r t s of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the c a r i c a t u r e , the pantomime, the g o t h i c nove l s and the c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . I s o l a t i n g these grotesque images p r o -v i d e s us w i t h a t o o l f o r a new way of contempla t ing D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s . I t leads to an a n a l y s i s of the s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t purposes f o r which he employs the grotesque and of c e r t a i n thematic p a t t e r n s i n i t s use.•• Even when the popular a r t s of h i s day are not a c t u a l sources f o r D i c k e n s ' nove ls they grow out of the same c u l t u r a l m i l i e u and d i s -p l a y t h e r e f o r e many of the same preoccupat ions and images; and so I am i n t e r e s t e d i n these a r t forms themselves f o r a deeper r e v e l a t i o n of the contemporary i m a g i n a t i o n , even i n i n s t a n c e s where there i s at f i r s t no obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r grotesque imagery and tha t of D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s . L i k e w i s e c e r t a i n themes i n these a r t f o r m s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the f a i r y t a l e s , i n which the grotesque p l a y s an i n t e g r a l s u b s i d i a r y r o l e , are repeated i n D i c k e n s ' work and these w i l l be ana lyzed d e s p i t e the f a c t tha t they are not e x c l u s i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the gro tesque . 1 2 At this stage the thematic patterns to emerge in the evolution of the thesis can only sketchily be hinted at. The grotesques, i t w i l l be seen, often figure as collections of v i t a l , anarchic, semi-comic torturers, varying in appearance from clowns to gargoyles to demons to toys, who taunt the beautiful, the harmonious, the powerful and the rich through an ugly, destructiveymimicry of their appearance, or through serving as physical manifestations of the social conflicts and savagery with which the former deny their relationship. At other times the grotesques are the hallucinations springing from the minds of spir-itually imprisoned characters. These may be expressive either of thwarted, trapped passions, or may be the fearful response of characters dependent on a rig i d social structure with fixed moral values, when con-fronted by figures of moral ambivalence. These ugly tortuous visions are physical expressions both of the characters' own obsessive reasoning and of their extravagant fear of the power which other people and places wield over them through their physical image. The 'grotesque,' in. literary or a r t i s t i c terms, is the depic-tion of a certain sort of physical deformity, or distortion of actuality, a particular method of representing the sensuous world, which creates an emotional response that includes both fascination and repulsion or humour and fear. The grotesque is to be seen as a distortion of con-ventional relationships between things. It is a distortion of reality to point out a deeper reality, to reveal additional perceptions, show multiple layers of meaning. . See O.E.D. for definitions. See also Arthur Clayborough s The  Grotesque in English Literature for semantic development of the word. 3 Every a r t i s t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d , i s , by i t s v e r y u n i q u e -n e s s , d e v i a n t from a h y p o t h e t i c a l norm. The grotesque however i s not an e x c l u s i v e l y p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c d i s t o r t i o n . Dependent upon commonly r e c o g n i z e d norms of r e a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t l y e l a s t i c to encompass m o s t . i n -d i v i d u a l a r t i s t i c v i s i o n s , i t s own r e c o g n i z e d d e v i a t i o n s from these standards take on f a m i l i a r forms.- For t h i s reason the a r t i s t i c sources of D i c k e n ' s imagery and t h e . i n f l u e n c e s upon i t . become i m p o r t a n t . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p of any grotesque a r t to a common t r a d i t i o n , and D i c k e n s ' own r o l e as a popular a r t i s t , l e a d us i n t o the preoccupat ions of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h m i d d l e .class whose i m a g i n a t i v e l i f e found e x p r e s s i o n i n pantomime,,.melodrama, g o t h i c h o r r o r t a l e s , f a i r y s t o r i e s and s a t i r i c a l e t c h i n g s . I t w i l l . b e s e e n . t h a t the grotesque i s a s i g -n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of these ' l o w a r t s . ' In i t s contemporary usage the word ' g r o t e s q u e ' can be a p p l i e d to any a r t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s r e j e c t i o n . o f t h e ' n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n ' and the combining of heterogeneous forms. N a t u r a l p h y s i c a l wholes a r e . d i s -i n t e g r a t e d and the p a r t s f a n t a s t i c a l l y r e d i s t r i b u t e d to s u i t the t a s t e of the a r t i s t . 1 Because of g e n e r a l d i s a p p r o v a l of the s t y l e of Renaissance a r t to which the word was f i r s t a p p l i e d , the grotesque a c q u i r e d the p e j o r a t i v e cas t of 'an. o b j e c t i o n a b l e s t r a n g e n e s s , ' ' an a b s u r d i t y , ' or ' a d i s t o r t i o n of n a t u r e , ' a c o n n o t a t i o n . w h i c h i t has r e t a i n e d , though w i t h r e f e r e n c e to content r a t h e r than a r t i s t i c v a l u e . D u r i n g the Romantic p e r i o d when the, e x t r a o r d i n a r y and the f a n t a s t i c became g r e a t l y v a l u e d , the word 4 assumed c l o s e t i e s w i t h ' the g o t h i c ' and gained the nuance of f e a r f u l and t e r r i b l e . For a c r i t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of the emot iona l power of grotesque a r t we must t u r n to n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s . T h e i r ana lyses g i v e the grotesque a moral v a l u e . Once we-have e s t a b l i s h e d how, and from what sources^Dickens develops h i s gro tesques , we w i l l be ab le to see whether Dickens does a l s o . I t i s not as the c r e a t i n g , but as the see ing man, tha t we are here contemplat ing the master of the t r u e gro tesques . I t i s because the d r e a d f u l l n e s s of the u n i v e r s e around him weighs upon h i s h e a r t -tha t h i s work i s w i l d and t h e r e f o r e through the whole of i t we s h a l l f i n d the evidence of deep i n s i g h t i n t o n a t u r e . H i s beas ts and b i r d s , however monstrous , w i l l have profound r e l a t i o n s w i t h the t r u e . He may. be an i g n o r a n t man, and l i t t l e acquainted w i t h the laws of n a t u r e ; he i s c e r t a i n l y a busy man, and has not much time to watch n a t u r e ; but he never saw a serpent c ross h i s p a t h , nor a b i r d f l i t across the s k y , nor a l i z a r d bask upon a s t o n e , w i t h o u t l e a r n i n g so much of the s u b l i m i t y and i n n e r nature of each as w i l l not s u f f e r him h e n c e f o r t h to conce ive them c o l d l y . 2 (John Ruskin) —the grotesque, i s , i n almost a l l cases , composed of two e lements , one l u d i c r o u s , the o ther f e a r f u l ; t h a t , as one or the other of these elements p r e v a i l s the grotesque f a l l s i n t o two branches , s p o r t i v e gro tesque , and t e r r i b l e grotesque—there are h a r d l y any examples which do n o t . i n some degree combine both elements .3 . (John Ruskin) I t . a p p e a r s to us as a jumble and d i s t o r t i o n of o ther forms. I f t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s a b s o l u t e the ob jec t is- s i m p l y n u l l ; i t does not e x i s t a e s t h e t i c a l l y , except by v i r t u e of m a t e r i a l s . But i f the c o n f u s i o n i s not a b s o l u t e , and we have an i n k l i n g of the u n i t y and c h a r a c t e r i n the m i d s t of the strangeness of the f o r m , then we have the g r o t e s q u e . , I t i s the h a l f - f o r m e d , the p e r p l e x e d , .and the s u g g e s t i v e l y monstrous.4, (Santayana) In i s o l a t i n g the grotesque element i n a r t , one must r e c o g n i z e 5 i t s kinship to two other non-naturalistic representations of reality, caricature and the fantastic. : Both are capable of an independent exis-tence which is not grotesque. Caricature, derived from the Italian 'caricare'—to overcharge, is essentially a technique of p i c t o r i a l representation of character, dependent upon exaggeration of salient features or qualities. Producing expl i c i t l y humorous, often mocking, recognition of natural phenomena and behaviour, i t emphasizes rather than diminishes the rules by which the natural world works. The fan-tastic does exactly the opposite, reshaping external formal structures into new forms expressive of the artist's subjective or spiritual world. Fantastic art trafficks in monsters—satyrs, centaurs, ghosts, fairy tale figures; i t is a sensuous representation for the most deeply ex-perienced and least communicable of i t s creator's emotions. Yet both caricature and the fantastic are integral to grotesque creations, and, as Ruskin has said, the grotesque is endowed with the emotional values of both. The a f f i n i t y of the grotesque to the fantastic i s reflected in a quotation from William Axton's Circle of Stage Fire, a study.of Dickens' theatrical techniques $ and debt to the contemporary popular theatre: The most important t r a i t of grotesque style, perhaps, as that of. Dickens and of.the popular nineteenth century theatre, is i t s ten-, dency to estrange reality without dispensing with i t . The gro-tesque aims to subvert the familiar world.(as distinct from the fairy tale which creates i t s own special world) by means of sudden surprising transformations of i t s elements, so that the processes normally associated with the working of everyday l i f e are undone, , or the conventional relationships between things are dislocated.5 6 Grotesque art has a tradition much older and more characterized by constant recurring images and motifs than one would gather from the semantic history of the word 'grotesque.' Tracing the grotesque images histo r i c a l l y , we come to realize the extent to, which Dickens' work is within a tradition of grotesque popular art, and we are then equipped to recognize the variations on some of these traditional images that nineteenth-century artists devised — t h e recurring importance of the ''doll 1 or toy for instance. Thomas Wright's massive History of Caricature and the Grotesque published in 1865, is a useful starting point for researching a tradi-tion of recurring grotesque images and motifs found in Western European art. This book provides a compendium of the factual knowledge on the grotesque and caricature that was available to.the mid-Victorians. Three essential characteristics of grotesque art were displayed by the Egyptians in their tomb paintings, papyrus scrol l s , and statues. These are the caricature of people as animals whom they resemble, the depiction of animals carrying out human ac t i v i t i e s , and the face or mask deformed by a ludicrous expression such as the tongue hanging out. A l l three have significance for Dickens. The pharaoh's habit of main-taining court-dwarfs as entertainers was an actual rather than a r t i s t i c instance of fascination with the grotesque. Centuries later, court-dwarfs were closely associated with another grotesque tradition,, that of the court-fool. In himself however the dwarf is representative of the role of natural human deformity in the grotesque tradition. Greek drama introduced another common grotesque image, the 7 a c t u a l mask. Masks were f i r s t employed i n the t h e a t r i c a l t r i l o g i e s at the D i o n y s i a n f e s t i v a l s . As they were used i n t r a g e d i e s , comedies and s a t i r i c a l p l a y s , i t might be argued tha t the mask i s not g r o t e s q u e , but an image of any t h e a t r i c a l performance, and, i n d e e d , i n A T a l e of Two  C i t i e s Dickens uses the mask f o r h i s charac te rs w i t h o u t i n those i n -s tances c r e a t i n g a grotesque e f f e c t . The mask belongs to the rea lm of the grotesque i n the sense tha t there i s an i n c o n g r u i t y between i t and the person underneath ; i f the mask i n any way g i v e s a s e n s u a l i m p r e s s i o n of t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y i t then becomes the grotesque . I t h a s , f u r t h e r m o r e , the q u a l i t y of b e i n g a disembodied f a c e , and of be ing i n i t s e l f a mimic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of man, a spec ies of g r o t e s q u e r i e which i t shares w i t h the puppet , the r o b o t , and the d o l l . A t h e a t r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of n o n - l i t e r a r y mimic comedy was i n i t i a t e d by the Greeks and cont inued by the Romans. L i t t l e t e r r a c o t t a f i g u r e s and p a i n t i n g s on vases present grotesque c h a r a c t e r s that i t i s assumed come from the mimes, and tha t a n t i c i p a t e , two important grotesque r o l e s of l a t e r mimic t h e a t r e (see F i g u r e s 1 and 2). The sannio or b u f f o o n i s the antecedent of the modern c l o w n ; n o t i c e the mask. The mimic f o o l at t imes was r e c o g n i z e d by h i s shaven head, at other t imes by h i s peaked hat ( s i m i l a r to Punch) or h i s hunchback. From e a r l y Saxon times to the t h i r t e e n t h century the gargoyles found i n G o t h i c churches (see F i g u r e 4) were a p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n of the grotesque s p i r i t . They d e r i v e d t h e i r grotesque power from t h e i r u g l i n e s s , and from the s trange f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e i r d u a l n a t u r e , the man/beast image. 9 , The gargoyles are r i g h t l y viewed w i t h i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the subl ime r e l i g i o u s e d i f i c e s tha t house them. Yet the f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h an u g l y mocking face i s not bounded by a p a r t i c u l a r e r a . R u s k i n chooses the gargoyles as exemplary of grotesque a r t . Contemporary w i t h D i c k e n s , V i c t o r Hugo developed a whole n o v e l , The Hunchback of Notre  Dame, from the connec t ion between.a l i v i n g g a r g o y l e , Quasimodo, and h i s c a t h e d r a l home. In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop the image of the gargoyle i s omnipresent . A t the Feast of F o o l s tha t i n i t i a t e s Hugo's book the f o l l o w i n g event o c c u r s : each i n h i s t u r n goes and puts h i s head through a h o l e and makes faces at the o t h e r ; he t h a t makes the u g l i e s t face a c c o r d i n g to g e n e r a l a c c l a m a t i o n , i s chosen Pope.7 For Dickens Q u i l p i s a v e r i t a b l e g a r g o y l e : 'Am I n i c e to l o o k a t ? ' . . . he t r e a t e d her w i t h a s u c c e s s i o n of • such h o r r i b l e grimaces as none but h i m s e l f and nightmares had the power of assuming.8 Sometimes the grotesque nature of the gargoyle comes from b e i n g d isembodied , a face carved, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t o the end of a church pew. In t h i s case the power l i e s i n t h e . h a l l u c i n a t i o n of an inanimate s t r u c -t u r e w i t h a semi-human s p i r i t t rapped i n i t . I t w i l l become c l e a r that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of D i c k e n s ' c h a r a c t e r s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment i s one of h i s constant^ though o f t e n unspoken, preoccupat ions i n h i s use of the gro tesque , and t h a t , s e v e r a l t i m e s , f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons , he f a l l s back on the concept of the gargoyle to express i t . In the M i d d l e Ages the a r t of demonology p r o v i d e d a home f o r 10 the popular grotesque s p i r i t . The o l d Roman masks and the Teuton ic images of imps, g o b l i n s and t h e i r i l k were i n c o r p o r a t e d , i n the t y p i c a l grotesque m i n g l i n g of i n c o n g r u i t i e s , w i t h the C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n of the • d e v i l . T h i s d i a b l e r i e (F igures 5 and 6) i s found i n manuscr ipt i l l u m i n -a t i o n s , w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s , mystery p l a y s , and c a r v i n g s i n churches . I t employed the concept of beasts w i t h human q u a l i t i e s , and v i c e v e r s a , a l though the beasts are of the wondrous k i n d . . Wright says of t h e i r comic grotesqueness : I t must not be supposed i n s u b j e c t s l i k e t h e s e , the d r o l l e r y of the scene was a c c i d e n t a l ; but on the c o n t r a r y , the mediaeval a r t i s t s and popular w r i t e r s gave them t h i s c h a r a c t e r p u r p o s e l y . The demons and the e x e c u t i o n e r s — t h e l a t t e r of whom were c a l l e d i n L a t i n ' t o r t o r e s ' and i n popular Old E n g l i s h phraseology the ' t o r m e n t o u r s ' —were the comic c h a r a c t e r s of the t ime.9 I t - w i l l be seen tha t these comic t o r t u r e r s f i n d descendants i n n i n e t e e n t h -century a r t i n a c u r i o u s r e i n c a r n a t i o n — a s puppets and toys who come to l i f e and c a r r y on the demons' g l e e f u l , t a u n t i n g dancing g e s t u r e s , and an important use of t h i s i d e a of toys and d o l l s as a spec ies of grotesque demon i s i n f a c t i n Dickens h i m s e l f , i n what s h a l l be seen as one of the dominant grotesque threads i n h i s work. Two c y c l e s of grotesque popular a r t , the r e i g n of F o l l y and the Dance of Death , f l o u r i s h e d i n the e a r l y Renaissance . The p e c u l i a r g l o r i f i c a t i o n of F o l l y had two a s p e c t s — t h e cour t f o o l s and dwarfs , , -and the Feasts of F o o l s w i t h t h e i r mock popes and c a r d i n a l s . The two no doubt e n r i c h e d and i n f l u e n c e d each o t h e r , b u t , i n one case a s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l served as the constant p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of F o l l y , i n the o ther the whole community d u r i n g an annual p e r i o d of 11 l i c e n s e turned the s o c i a l order t o p s y - t u r v y and payed homage to the r i d i c u l o u s and the i r r e l i g i o u s . In each case however, reason and mora l v a l u e s were cas t a s i d e and laughed at w i t h i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The r o l e of the cour t f o o l and the i m a g i n a t i v e power of h i s image are too complex f o r us to more than g e n e r a l i z e on the nature of h i s power. Much of h i s e f f e c t comes from h i s a b n o r m a l i t y , h i s d i s t i n c t i o n from h i s f e l l o w s , h i s r e a l or assumed madness or i d i o c y , or h i s p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s . He has been seen as hav ing t i e s w i t h the s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m of a n c i e n t r i t u a l s who was the most expendable member of the community. I t has been suggested tha t he c o u l d ward o f f the ' e v i l eye ' from h i s a s s o c i a t e s s i n c e no more misery was l i k e l y to occur to such a subnormal specimen of humanity . H i s c r e a t i v i t y and ' i n n o c e n t ' t r u t h t e l l i n g are a l l i e d to the r e l i g i o u s ; ye t h i s v u l g a r i t y , h i s f o p p i s h costume ( F i g u r e 8), i t s an imal headdress and mockery _of the cowl show * him to be deeply rooted i n the s e n s u a l w o r l d . However t h i s i s merely a search f o r r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r a f i g u r e whose essence i s gro tesque , and t h e r e f o r e i r r a t i o n a l . H i s power, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s power i n our i m a g i n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n of the f o o l , i s p r i m a r i l y s e n s u a l . I t i s l i n k e d w i t h the d e f o r m i t y , assumed or o t h e r w i s e , of p o s s e s s i n g a man's body w i t h o u t h i s mind.. In h i s most e f f e c t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n , he has the a d d i t i o n a l a b n o r m a l i t y of be ing a dwar f . Wel ford i n The F o o l , h i s S o c i a l and L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y has Jung s a n a l y s i s of the t r i c k s t e r archetype i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n connec t ion w i t h t h i s grotesque image. The t r i c k s t e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e l i b e r a t e l y undermining human attempts at n o b i l i t y or g e n i u s ; he i s the b a c k w a r d s - p u l l i n g s i d e of the human p e r s o n a l i t y , the ' s h a d o w . ' 4 13 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the f o o l and the p a r a s i t i c a l b u f f o o n , who may perform the same j e s t s but i s not d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other men by de-f o r m i t y , mindlessness or even costume. Nonetheless he i s a v a r i a n t of the f o o l i n that " . . . h e earns h i s l i v i n g by an openly acknowledged, f a i l u r e to a t t a i n the normal s tandard of human d i g n i t y . " " ^ Dickens depends s t r o n g l y on the image of the f o o l and even more so on the f o o l ' s f u n c t i o n s . ' Q u i l p mocks everyone w i t h the g l e e f u l sadism encouraged i n cour t f o o l s whose r o l e was to i n s u l t t h e i r m a s t e r ' s g u e s t s . He adopts h i s s a t i r i c a l f u n c t i o n i n defense , because he i s a dwarf , and ye t he depends on the u g l i n e s s of h i s dwarf ism f o r h i s power. P e r s o n i f y i n g the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t of the deformed f o o l he i s as Dickens c a l l s him " the s m a l l l o r d of c rea t ion . "^ " ' " Jo i n B leak House i s a ' n a t u r a l f o o l , ' the s i m p l e t o n who, by the response he evokes i n the people he meets , serves as a . touchs tone f o r the behaviour of h i s s o c i e t y . T r a b b ' s boy i n Great E x p e c t a t i o n s i s a mimic f o o l . H i s t a u n -t i n g i m i t a t i o n of P i p ' the gentleman' i s l i n k e d w i t h D i c k e n s ' a n a l y s i s i n tha t n o v e l of the grotesque q u a l i t i e s of r o l e - p l a y i n g , e x e m p l i f i e d , i n M i s s Hayisham and Wemmick. Yet o c c a s i o n a l l y D i c k e n s ' a r t i s t r y i n s t i n c t i v e l y c r e a t e s com-p l e t e costumed f o o l s , t h e i r appearance and behaviour a l i c e n s e d v i s u a l parody of the dominant f i g u r e s i n t h e i r s o c i e t y , and u n l i k e the clowns or comic demons who e x i s t a l o n g s i d e them, s h a r i n g i n the same dreams and f a i l i n g s as the s o c i e t y they mock. The two c h a r a c t e r s who o b v i o u s l y p l a y t h i s r o l e and whose f u n c t i o n w i l l be b e t t e r v a l u e d l a t e r are Jenny Wren, i n Our Mutua l F r i e n d and Durdles i n The Mystery of Edwin Drood . 14 The Dance of Death was the name g i v e n e a r l y i n the f i f t e e n t h century to church d e c o r a t i o n s , woodcuts and verse t a l e s , v i g n e t t e s of everyday l i f e i n which the f i g u r e of Death , as a s k e l e t o n , c a r r i e d away the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r who was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c l a s s or o c c u p a t i o n . I f the use of the s k e l e t o n can be cons idered g r o -tesque r a t h e r than merely a l l e g o r i c a l or f a n t a s t i c , i t i s because o f , the i n c o n g r u i t y i m p l i e d i n the name and i n the d a n c i n g , mock-comic a t t i t u d e s of the s k e l e t o n , and i n the a t t r i b u t i o n of l i v i n g , human ges -tures and f a c i a l express ions to what i s n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n a n i m a t e . Hans H o l b e i n ' s woodcuts ( F i g u r e 14 and 15.) were among the best known s e r i e s of t h i s n a t u r e . Though the p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s sub jec t .was at i t s z e n i t h i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , a r t i s t s have c o n -t i n u e d to produce v a r i a t i o n s on the theme. Rowlandson used the same concept i n a s e r i e s of s o c i a l c a r i c a t u r e s produced i n the 1790 ' s , a few years b e f o r e Dickens was b o r n . The image of the .Dance of Death, r e i n f o r c e s the f a c t tha t ges ture and movement are i n t e g r a l l y t i e d to the grotesque, , something tha t w i l l become more obvious w i t h the commedia f i g u r e s . I t i s a l s o a p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f . t h a t f e a r of sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of f o r m , u n c o n t r o l -l a b l e by the v i c t i m , tha t i s the essence of much grotesque a r t : A l t h o u g h our image of grotesque a r t as i t has e x i s t e d s i n c e the Renaissance has been p a r t i a l l y shaped by the c r e a t i o n s of known i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s who probably aimed t h e i r work at an i n t e l l e c t u a l , a u d i e n c e , none-t h e l e s s the grotesque has remained a potent aspect of p o p u l a r a r t , i n c i r c u s e s , i n the t h e a t r e and i n p o s t - H o g a r t h i a n . c a r i c a t u r e . 16 The commedia d e l l ' a r t e i n i t s v a r i e d forms has been one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t frameworks f o r the grotesque i n the past f o u r c e n -t u r i e s . I t s grotesque s i d e e x i s t e d i n the masked c h a r a c t e r s , P a n t a l o n e , the duped o l d man, D o t t o r e , the pedant , and the comic s e r -vants or Z a n n i , . A r l e c c h i n o ( H a r l e q u i n ) , S c a p i n o , P e d r o l i n o , P u l c i n e l l a , and the many, many v a r i a n t s by name of these s tock t y p e s . The mask, as was p r e v i o u s l y s a i d , i s not i n i t s e l f gro tesque . However s e v e r a l f a c t o r s combine to make these c h a r a c t e r s s o . The i n t e r m i n g l i n g of masked and s t r a i g h t c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e s tha t a s s o c i a t i o n of the a c t u a l and the f a n t a s t i c which i s i n t e g r a l to grotesque a r t . Secondly the masked c h a r a c t e r s are d e f i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y by t h e i r p h y s i c a l presence , and tha t presence both i s and i s not of t h i s w o r l d . The masks of Pantalone and P u l c i n e l l a were c a r i c a t u r e s . A r l e c c h i n o was r e c o g n i z e d by a t i g h t - f i t t i n g s u i t embroidered w i t h c o l o u r e d p a t c h e s , a demon-l i k e b l a c k h a l f - m a s k and h i s s t i c k . The costumes,and ges tures of t h e . c h a r a c t e r s were h i g h l y s t y l i z e d . Contemporary p a i n t i n g s of Panta lone emphasize h i s f l u i d , d a n c e - l i k e movement. C a l l o t ' s drawings (see F i g u r e s 11 , 12 and 13) capture the grotesque e f f e c t of c a r i c a t u r e d mask and d a n c e - l i k e s t a n c e . Records remain of the c a r e f u l l y choreographed hand and head movements of A r l e c c h i n o . T h i s i m p r o v i s e d comedy tha t s t a r t e d i n n o r t h e r n I t a l y i n the m i d - s i x t e e n t h century was the dominant t h e a t r i c a l mode i n I t a l y and France f o r the f o l l o w i n g two hundred and f i f t y y e a r s , and i n f l u e n c e d , t h e a t r e i n most of Europe. I t was not grotesque i n form. The o r i g i n a l p l a y s were comedies of w i t and r i b a l d humour r e v o l v i n g around entangled l o v e a f f a i r s . Y e t , both i n i t s o r i g i n a l form and i n the e v o l u t i o n s i t underwent, i t was a source of . g r o t e s q u e r i e . 17 The comedies i n which they performed a l t e r e d w i t h the troupes that performed i n F r a n c e ; the r o l e s and appearance, p a r t i c u l a r l y of L ' A r l e q u i n and P i e r r o t , P e d r o l i n o ' s French descendent, .became more e t h e r e a l , more e x p r e s s i v e of the s p i r i t of Bohemia and the f a n t a s t i c . L a t e r , i n the H a r l e q u i n a d e , the E n g l i s h a d a p t a t i o n of the commedia to the B r i t i s h pantomime, the whole form of the p l a y s i n which these f i g u r e s took p a r t was gro tesque . For D i c k e n s ' work and t h i s t h e s i s , the r e l e v a n c e of the commedia and mimic t h e a t r e i n g e n e r a l l i e s i n two a s p e c t s , the importance of ges ture i n c r e a t i n g a grotesque e f f e c t and .the manner by which costume and mask become grotesque when they, a c t u a l l y become the man they a d o r n , when the c h a r a c t e r i n appearance i s a man-made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a man, m a n n e q u i n - l i k e , p u p p e t - l i k e , r o b o t - l i k e ( p r o v i d e d , . t o r e t u r n to A x t o n ' s quote , he i s o p e r a t i n g i n an e s s e n t i a l l y n a t u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e ; there i s no grotesque e f f e c t , f o r i n s t a n c e , , i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y scenes i n ..A Ta le of Two C i t i e s , where a l l the c h a r a c t e r s wear masks as i n a staged r i t u a l ) . T h i s use of costume i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n a c l o w n ' s grotesque e f f e c t , h i s mouth not a human mouth but a man-made exaggera t ion of a human mouth weeping or g r i n n i n g , h i s cheeks a man-made r e p r o d u c t i o n of r o s i n e s s . In P i c k w i c k Papers the comic use of e c c e n t r i c i t i e s of f a s h i o n , " . . . a green coat tha t had been a smart dress i n the day of 12 swallow t a i l s . . . a n o l d s t o c k , w i t h o u t v e s t i g e of s h i r t c o l l a r " becomes the grotesque as the c l o t h e s become uni forms that w h o l l y d e f i n e t h e i r owners. Thus W e l l e r says when newly o u t f i t t e d by P i c k w i c k 18 'I wonder whether I'm meant to be a footman, or a groom, or a game-keeper or a seedsman. I looks like a sort of compo.of everyone on'em.'13 and Snodgrass at the masquerade b a l l in blue satin trunks and white s i l k tights, is described as being dressed in the known costume of trouba-dours down through the ages, an early attempt at comic mime that fore-shadows the more grotesque role-playing of later novels when Wemmick who works as a clerk adopts the wooden-featured, post-office-mouthed mask he believes has the necessary decorum for his role, and Miss Havisham becomes indistinguishable from her rotted bride's dress. It is perhaps in Our Mutual Friend that we shall see in i t s most refined form the characters becoming man-made representations of man; Lady Tippins and Twemlow have no existence apart from their foppish clothes, and the drunks and corpses are merely rags in a state of organic decay, while numerous characters adopt the mock-human attributes of.dolls, or the man-made members of wooden legs. Reproductions of the work of three significant Renaissance artists are shown in Figures 11-13, 16, Hierpnomous Bosch [d. 1516], Pietr Brueghel [1516-1569] and Jacques Callot [1592-1664]. The work of a l l three has a recognizably grotesque power over us, although we cannot actually, account for i t . When we examine them carefully we can see how these individual artists have depended upon the grotesque forms common to the popular arts that have been discussed. Bosch's i l l u s t r a t i o n is a crowded, seething panorama which sus-pends reality while retaining an obviously strong fascination with the objects of the material world. It mixes Christian iconography, homely 19 d e t a i l s , the macabre and the amusing, yet u n l i k e s u r r e a l i s t a r t , i t never r e s o r t s to t o t a l r e j e c t i o n .of a n a t u r a l framework. The a i r of crowded c o n f u s i o n that grows from t h i s d i s p e r s i n g w i t h the boundar ies between realms of e x i s t e n c e , , i n a n i m a t e , human, a n i m a l , and s p i r i t u a l , a n t i c i p a t e s p r e c i s e l y the e f f e c t we g a i n from the s e t t i n g s and c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n s of D i c k e n s 1 l a t e r n o v e l s , such as the fog i n B leak House or the monstrous Smallweeds i n the same n o v e l . The s i n g l e f i g u r e s of Brueghel and C a l l o t d i s p l a y a s k i l l f u l melange of the image p a t t e r n s we have .seen as i n t e g r a l to grotesque a r t . Examining them c l o s e l y we r e a l i z e , t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h B r u e g h e l ' s c r e a t i o n s , we do not know whether we are conf ronted w i t h men, demons or a n i m a l s , so a d r o i t l y does t h e i r appearance suggest a l l t h r e e . And we see that they i n c o r p o r a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c misshapen masks and c o s -tumes a p p r o p r i a t e f o r j e s t e r s . C a l l o t ' s s u b j e c t s are a n a t u r a l source of the gro tesque , but h i s work i s more than good r e p o r t a g e . T h i s b r i e f p i c t o r i a l h i s t o r y has shown that a l l the e s s e n t i a l grotesque images, the i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of men and b e a s t s , the mask, the f o o l , n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y , the face d i s t o r t e d by u g l i n e s s or c a r i c a t u r e d as an animal or o b j e c t , , t h e ambivalent camaraderie w i t h d e v i l s , f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n popular a r t or a r t v a l u e d by the masses. T o -day s i m i l a r images are common i n the p o p u l a r a r t s of the comic s t r i p and s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . I t now becomes necessary to see how such images take t h e i r p l a c e H i s three s e r i e s of e t c h i n g s are of beggars ; commedia f i g u r e s , and g y p s i e s . 20 i n the popular a r t s of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , and i n the n o v e l s of C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , and to see what v a r i a t i o n s of them, d e v e l o p , and what mora l v a l u e i f any, i s a t t r i b u t e d to them. P a r t B : Grotesque Images i n the Popular A r t s of the L a t e E i g h t e e n t h and N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s Four areas of p o p u l a r a r t of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w i t h which Dickens has much i n common are the c a r i c a t u r e s , the pantomime, the g o t h i c n o v e l s and. the c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . They share w i t h Dickens s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s of grotesque imagery and s i m i l a r thematic preoccupat ions growing out of or expressed by t h i s , imagery. T h i s chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h each a r t form s e p a r a t e l y , though t h e i r approaches t o . g r o t e s q u e images are h o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i s t i n c t from each o t h e r , one theme o f t e n r e c u r r i n g i n s e v e r a l a r t i s t i c media . Thus the c a r i c a t u r e , the pantomime, and .the n u r s e r y rhymes w i l l be seen to share a common response to t h e i r s e n s u a l environment , and t h i s i s m a n i -f e s t e d i n t h e i r grotesque images. L i k e w i s e both the g o t h i c nove l s and the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y t a l e s express a f e a r of moral ambiva lence , and i n both t h i s f e a r ±sw . g i v e n p h y s i c a l - - shape ^through gro.tesque s u p e r -n a t u r a l b e i n g s . In the t r a d i t i o n a l images one of the r e c u r r e n t threads seemed to be the f u n c t i o n of grotesque f i g u r e s as semi-comic t o r t u r e r s ; t h i s was a r o l e performed.by the mimic f o o l s of the stage i n t h e i r exag-gerated i m i t a t i o n s ,• by the comic d e v i l s i n t h e i r open t o r t u r e , and by the t a u n t i n g f i g u r e of Death h i m s e l f i n the Dances of D e a t h . In the popular a r t s of D i c k e n s ' day , the images of the c a r i c a t u r e and the 21 pantomime clowns f u n c t i o n l a r g e l y i n t h i s r o l e . C a r i c a t u r e f l o u r i s h e d i n England from 1720, the s t a r t of H o g a r t h ' s p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d , u n t i l 1840. C a r i c a t u r e shops were se t u p , t h e i r windows s e r v i n g as m i n o r . a r t g a l l e r i e s . P r i n t e d engravings b e -came p o p u l a r d e c o r a t i o n s i n the homes of every c l a s s . In t h e i r melange of s o c i a l s a t i r e and f a n t a s y these g r a p h i c a r t s worked w i t h a concept i n t e g r a l to D i c k e n s ' f i c t i o n , tha t of the 'double f a c e , ' the u n i t i n g of at l e a s t two beings w i t h i n one f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s a core t e c h -nique of the gro tesque . The best work i n t h i s medium predated D i c k e n s , a l though George Cruikshank and T e n n i e l were s t i l l drawing when he was w r i t i n g . D i c k e n s ' l i t e r a r y techniques have more r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e a r l i e r g r a p h i c a r t i s t s than to the i l l u s t r a t o r s of h i s own,books, Cruikshank excepted . R e p r i n t s of some of t h i s ' l o w a r t ' have been i n c l u d e d , s i n c e i t i s f e l t tha t t h e i r , v a r i e d s t y l e s of drawing f i g u r e as almost s e l f - . e x p l a n a t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n s of how D i c k e n s ' a r t grew out of and r e f l e c t e d the popular t a s t e . As a t o o l i n approaching D i c k e n s ' a r t , .the pr imary use of the c a r i c a t u r e s , i s to r e v e a l the development of h i s grotesque techniques and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e , from those of p u r e l y comic a r t . Though not of pr imary importance to t h i s t h e s i s , s i n c e the concern i s w i t h images and themes r a t h e r than w i t h s t y l i s t i c s , they serve as an e n r i c h -i n g background to h i s grotesque a r t . Hogarth (F igures 17 and 18) saw h i s works as c h a r a c t e r sketches r a t h e r than c a r i c a t u r e s ; yet i n h i s own e n g r a v i n g . 'Characters and C a r i -c a t u r a s ' the d i f f e r e n c e he conceived between the two seems one of degree 24 r a t h e r than k i n d . H i s works are s a t i r i c a l but the s a t i r e grows out of the n a r r a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the p i e c e s . The f e a t u r e s of h i s s u b j e c t s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y deformed to. rank as c a r i c a t u r e . H i s p o r t r a i t s are not dominated by one p h y s i c a l . f e a t u r e nor are the f e a t u r e s f a n t a -s i z e d and made to resemble o b j e c t s o ther than what they a r e . One e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s seen i n G i n Lane ( F i g u r e 17) where the. wretched man (at the lower r i g h t - h a n d s i d e ) w i t h h i s s k e l e t o n v i s i b l e through h i s s k i n resembles Death, i n the Danse Macabre. Hogarth u s u a l l y chooses to c h a r a c t e r i z e people through the emotions r e f l e c t e d on t h e i r faces r a t h e r , t h a n through d i s t o r t i o n . o f t h e i r appearance. He remains what may be c a l l e d a comic n a t u r a l i s t , though h i s s t e r n m o r a l i t y may cause us to q u e s t i o n the, extent to which he i s comic . F i g u r e s 19. and 2 0 . a r e v a r i a t i o n s on the H o g a r t h i a n theme by James G i l l r a y and Thomas Rowlandson. Both show l e s s concern f o r t r u t h -f u l r e n d e r i n g of e x t e r n a l d e t a i l s . T h e i r l i n e s have a s k e t c h i n e s s or l o o s e n e s s , that i s not n e a r l y as s c a t h i n g as H o g a r t h ' s p r e c i s e d e p i c t i o n . Yet the f i g u r e of Death i s b u r i e d u n o b t r u s i v e l y i n the foreground of Rowlandson's p r i n t , one of a s e r i e s i n which he appears . C a r i c a t u r i s t s l i k e G i l l r a y and Rowlandson have absorbed two incongruous a r t i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s . See F i g u r e 22 ; F u s e l i ' s p a i n t i n g ex- . h i b i t s a romant ic e x p r e s s i o n i s m tha t i s a l s o found i n the l a t e r work of h i s Spanish contemporary, Goya, and i n h i s I t a l i a n p r e d e c e s s o r , P i r a n e s i . The l a t t e r (see F i g u r e 38) was bes t known f o r a s e r i e s of e t c h i n g s of n i g h t m a r i s h , p r i s o n - l i k e a r c h i t e c t u r e . We can see how these i n v o l v e a r e l i a n c e on the f a n t a s t i c . Major i l l u s t r a t o r s who succeeded Hogarth V5. 26 shared t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y the concept of e x p r e s s i n g s p i r -i t u a l s t a t e s through an exaggera t ion of p h y s i c a l fea tures , and through a s t y l e of ' p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y ' between t h e i r ; l a n d s c a p e s and t h e i r c h a r -a c t e r s : see the .animated 'bed of r o s e s ' i n F i g u r e 24. C o n c u r r e n t l y t h e i r comic sense forbade them to c o n s i d e r such romant ic a r t s e r i o u s l y , as can be seen i n F i g u r e 23 , Rowlandson's parody f o r s a t i r i c a l purposes of F u s e l i ' s p i c t u r e . When the p h y s i c a l d i s t o r t i o n and the f a n t a s t i c elements of such a r t are adopted, but the comic i n t e l l i g e n c e and care f o r d e t a i l s c o l o u r s the work , these c a r i c a t u r e s become b r i l l i a n t g r o -tesques , as i n F i g u r e s 21 and 24. F u s e l i ' s a n i m a t i o n of the nightmare i s reused i n Rowlandson's p r i n t , but i n the l a t t e r she bears much more, resemblance to a plough h o r s e . The monsters i n F i g u r e 21 are v e r y domes-t i c a t e d . Though there i s scarce p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e at work , we see these mental processes r e f l e c t e d i n the d i f f e r e n c e between Goya 's ' S a t u r n devour ing h i s c h i l d r e n ' ( F i g u r e 25) and Isaac C r u i k s h a n k ' s c a n n i b a l , Genera l Surovov. In the former the c a n n i b a l has o n l y the a b s t r a c t monstrous f e a t u r e s of a m y t h i c a l f i g u r e . In the l a t t e r the human f e a t u r e s , though exaggerated to i n d i c a t e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i -t i e s , are c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . . The human food does not s i m p l y d isappear i n t o a b l a c k c a v e r n ; i t i s impaled on a f o r k . D i c k e n s ' a r t seems to have, f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , drawing , on a t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y humour corresponding to the c o m i c . n a t u r a l i s m of Hogarth and on a macabre imagery common to the r o m a n t i c i s m of F u s e l i and Goya. F i g u r e s 27 and 28 are v a r i a n t s on the by now f a m i l i a r technique 28 of the mask or 'double f a c e ' , o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r . Depending upon whether one r e c e i v e s a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n of emot iona l i n c o n g r u i t y from t h e i r double i d e n t i t y , one may or may n o t . c o n s i d e r them grotesque . F i g u r e 26 i s a v e r i t a b l e g a r g o y l e . S e v e r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n s of the work of George Cruikshank (1792-1878) have been i n c l u d e d . Cruikshank was a b r i l l i a n t s o c i a l s a t i r i s t whose s e t t i n g s were a c l o s e v i s u a l c o u n t e r p a r t to those of D i c k e n s . As one c r i t i c commented: He c o u l d draw a landscape f i t f o r f a i r i e s to l i v e i n or one tha t seemed to p r e d i c t a murder , or one where an e v i l s p i r i t c o u l d f e e l at home. . . . He c o u l d , as Thackeray s a i d , at a p i n c h p r o v i d e a countenance f o r a gentleman out of any g i v e n o b j e c t . 1 4 L i k e Dickens he breathed l i f e i n t o s u r r o u n d i n g s , and sometimes made the emotions of h i s people o n l y minor o f f s h o o t s of a b l a c k energy r a d i a t e d by the environment (see F i g u r e s 2 9 - 3 1 ) . For Dickens t o o , c h a r a c t e r s sometimes become j u s t a r e f l e c t i o n of the landscape : The c h i e f f e a t u r e s i n the s t i l l l i f e of the s t r e e t are green s h u t t e r s , l o d g i n g - b i l l s , brass d o o r - p l a t e s and b e l l - h a n d l e s : the p r i n c i p a l specimens of animated na ture the p o t - b o y , the m u f f i n y o u t h , and the baked-potato man.15 ( F i g u r e 32 has been i n c l u d e d to show the c o n t i n u i t y of the h i s t o r i c a l grotesque images; the comic d e v i l s of the m i d d l e ages have been degraded i n f u n c t i o n , but t h e i r appearance and d r o l l c h a r a c t e r have not a l t e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . ) The development of the grotesque i n the c a r i c a t u r e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the v i s u a l c r e a t i o n s i n D i c k e n s ' e a r l i e s t n o v e l , P i c k w i c k P a p e r s . 30 The comic appearance, as w i t h H o g a r t h , u s u a l l y grows from the f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n or e c c e n t r i c i t i e s of d r e s s , r a t h e r than from the grotesque techniques of the 'double f a c e ' or d i s t o r t i o n of f e a t u r e s : . A solemn s i l e n c e : M r . P i c k w i c k humorous, the o l d l a d y • s e r i o u s , the f a t gentleman c a p t i o u s , M r . M i l l e r t imorous .16 'You d o n ' t mean to s a y , M r . Tupman, tha t i t i s your i n t e n t i o n to put y o u r s e l f i n t o a green v e l v e t j a c k e t , w i t h a t w o - i n c h t a i l ? ' 'And i f any f u r t h e r ground of o b j e c t i o n be w a n t i n g , ' cont inued M r . P i c k w i c k , 'you are too f a t , s i r . - ' 1 7 Fantasy and p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i s m are common however i n the l i t t l e . t a l e s . The Madman b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f accompanied by demons and a ghos t : " l a r g e dusky forms w i t h s l y and j e e r i n g faces . . . tempting me to mad-18 n e s s . " G a b r i e l Grub has an encounter w i t h g o b l i n s and Tom Smart w i t h an o l d man who metamorphoses out of a c h a i r ; i n both cases the f a n t a s t i c seems to have a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n c l a r i f y i n g the c h a r a c t e r ' s s i t u a t i o n . The d i s t o r t i o n of p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n to r e v e a l mental s u f -f e r i n g i s employed: " such f i e r c e ravages on h i s face and f o r m , i n tha t one n i g h t , t h a t h i s companions i n m i s f o r t u n e shrunk a f f r i g h t e d from him 19 as he passed b y . " The gloomy, enc losed rooms and c e l l s i n which .the d r e a r i e s t of these t a l e s take p l a c e are r e f l e c t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s ' mental s t a t e . By the end of P i c k w i c k Papers Dickens i s a l r e a d y meshing t h i s p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of s u f f e r i n g w i t h a comic n a t u r a l i s t ' . s eye f o r the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s of o b j e c t s , and i n do ing so c r e a t i n g the grotesque: . h i s bones sharp and t h i n . God.he lp h i m ! the i r o n t e e t h of c o n f i n e -ment and p r i v a t i o n had been s l o w l y f i l i n g him down . . .20 31 t a l l , gaunt s t r a g g l i n g houses , w i t h t i m e - s t a i n e d f r o n t s and windows that seemed to have shared the . l o t of eyes i n m o r t a l s , and to have grown dim and sunken w i t h age.21 The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , or at l e a s t the years from 1720 to 1764 when Hogarth was a c t i v e , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n England by a l a r g e p r o s -perous ' m i d d l i n g ' c l a s s who were not i n f a c t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the. poorer or w e a l t h i e r by any v e r y r i g i d l y d e f i n e d b a r r i e r s . The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n c rea ted changes which produced a l a r g e , v e r y p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n working c l a s s and d i s t i n c t m i d d l e c l a s s , both v e r y aware of the d i s t i n c -t i o n s of g e n t i l i t y . . By m i d - n i n e t e e n t h century c a r i c a t u r e had d e t e r i o r -a t e d . C l a s s l i n e s between the g e n t i l i t y and the work ing c l a s s had c a l c i f i e d and the bonhomie of an e a r l i e r t i m e , as i n Newton's F i g u r e 3 3 , had d i s a p p e a r e d . I l l u s t r a t o r s expressed the anger and f e a r of the t imes i n woodcuts such as T e n n i e l ' s ( F i g u r e 3 4 ) , or r e s o r t e d to the g e n t l e -manly parodies tha t the e d i t o r s of the e a r l y i s s u e s of Punch s t a t e d i t was t h e i r aim to c r e a t e . Cruikshank r e j e c t e d s o c i a l comedy and i l l u s -t r a t e d f a i r y t a l e s . The s e n t i m e n t a l r e p l a c e d the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y j o i e - d e - v i v r e as a dominat ing v i s i o n of ' t h e g o o d . ' Dickens cont inued the comic grotesque t r a d i t i o n of a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r e r a , but he a l s o expressed p a r t of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i n s e n t i m e n t a l i n d u l g e n c e . In the c a r i c a t u r e s the technique of the double face i s of course used g e n e r a l l y f o r s a t i r i c a l purposes , but the extravagance of the imagery suggests l e s s p o l i t i c a l anger than a d e l i g h t i n humorously man-i p u l a t i n g p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Furthermore G i l l r a y ' s c r e a t i o n s are l e s s comic 'humours' than c h a r a c t e r s w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e n s u a l presence l i k e Punch and H a r l e q u i n . 33 Dickens shares w i t h the images of the c a r i c a t u r e a d e l i g h t i n u g l i n e s s , and i n v e s t m e n t ' o f energy and v i t a l i t y i n u g l y and deformed c r e a t i o n s , from the dancing of John B u l l and h i s f r i e n d s to the g r e e d i -ness of G i l l r a y ' s and Isaac C r u i k s h a n k ' s monsters , even when they are wasted c r e a t u r e s as . i n G i l l r a y ' s 'begone d u l l C a r e . ' T h i s i s t y p i c a l of grotesque a r t ; i t w i l l be seen l a t e r that a , c h a r a c t e r l i k e P i n o c c h i o , even when he i s the v i c t i m of the most unpleasant m u t i l a t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s a power over us because of those m u t i l a t i o n s that suggests he i s under -going them to taunt and f r i g h t e n u s . R i g i d l i c e n s i n g laws f o r ' l e g i t i m a t e ' t h e a t r e drama channeled the enter ta inment t a l e n t s of V i c t o r i a n p l a y w r i g h t s and a c t o r s i n t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f . t h e a t r i c a l ex t ravaganzas , b u r l e t t a s , melodramas, and p a n -tomimes. R i o t s at Drury Lane i n 1806 oyer seat p r i c e s i n the p i t l e d to a disenchantment w i t h the t h e a t r e among the upper c l a s s e s : the audiences were t h e r e f o r e p r i m a r i l y working c l a s s and lower m i d d l e c l a s s . Dickens was a s t u r d y supporter of the popular n o n - l i t e r a r y . aspects of the t h e a t r e ; not an unusual attachment when we r e f l e c t on the s i m i l a r -i t i e s between one of i t s branches , the pantomime, and the s t y l e of h i s own work. The pantomime, i s , of c o u r s e , l i n k e d to a major grotesque t r a d i -t i o n , the commedia , d e l l ' a r t e . In the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century John R i c h , the manager of Covent Gardens , .had-begun to-produce pantomimes, mixed media s p e c t a c l e s tha t i n -corpora ted a l o v e s t o r y or l e g e n d , d a n c i n g , e l a b o r a t e stage s c e n e r y , and a comic Har lequinade i n which B r i t i s h v e r s i o n s of the I t a l i a n masked 34 characters p a r t i c i p a t e d . R i c h i n i t i a t e d the t r a d i t i o n of a non-speaking Harl e q u i n , choreographing elaborate a c r o b a t i c s and gestures f o r him. His s t i c k became a magic bat w i t h which he could transform h i s surround-i n g s . In the form i n which the pantomime e x i s t e d i n the e a r l y 1800's, the 'commedia' f i g u r e s shared the stage w i t h a v a r i e d crew of t a l k i n g animals, nursery rhyme personages, f a i r y queens, policemen, demon k i n g s , and l a t e r a P r i n c i p a l Boy who was always played by a g i r l . . A f t e r the s t o r y had proceeded to a c e r t a i n p o i n t the F a i r y Queen enchanted these characters i n t o the members of the Harlequinade. U n t i l they were t r a n s -formed i n t o these "figures w i t h t h e i r s t y l i z e d costumes, the a c t o r s o f t e n were g i a n t papiermache heads. A In the e a r l y 1800'SJ w i t h the, performances of Joseph G r i m a l d i , a new c h a r a c t e r , the Clown ( P i e r r o t ) , gained prominence i n the Panto-mime. His graceless costume and s l a p s t i c k r e f l e c t e d the dominant tone of the performances,, which were incongruous, nonsense, i n defiance of a l l t h e a t r i c a l conventions i n c l u d i n g p l o t . The transformations of charac-t e r s i n t o H a rlequin f i g u r e s were accompanied by transformations of them i n t o o b j e c t s , and metamorphoses of the s e t t i n g s . The p r e v a i l i n g tone was a s o r t of comic sadism demonstrated i n a few s t a p l e j o k e s : a policeman elongated by a mangle i n t o a shapeless f i g u r e , the s w e l l i n white tr o u s e r s whose legs were dipped i n t o a mixture l a b e l l e d 'Raspberry jam,' the f o r e i g n gentleman whose coats were tor n from h i s back by r i v a l s t o u t s , the red-hot poker and the i n -e v i t a b l e buttered s l i d e a r t f u l l y prepared by Clown f o r the bene-f i t of the unwary pedestrian.22 Though Dickens cannot have seen t h i s a r t i s t at h i s peak, he e d i t e d G r i m a l d i ' s memoirs. 35 Extreme emot ional f l e x i b i l i t y would have been demanded of the audience : There i s the famous case of the Demon K i n g who, a f t e r c o n s i g n i n g the P r i n c i p a l G i r l to the dungeon,, d e s i s t e d from v i l l a i n y a w h i l e , and coming to the f o o t l i g h t s sang w i t h great, f e e l i n g and tenderness 'When the Angelus i s R i n g i n g . ' 2 3 an i n c i d e n t t h a t reminds, us of Wegg. ' d r o p p i n g i n t o p o e t r y , 1 . . . . and a pantomime i n which the F a i r y Queen made an entrance as a s t r a p p i n g Gordon H i g h l a n d e r : 2 4 The pantomime t i t l e s r e i n f o r c e the sense of a comic gro tesque : Rodolph the Wolf or Columbine Red R i d i n g Hood, H a r l e q u i n and F r i a r Bacon, H a r l e q u i n Bacchus, H a r l e q u i n and Poonoowingkeewonafl ibeedeedeef lobee-deebuskeebang, K i n g of the C a n n i b a l I s l a n d s . The most famous of a l l pantomimes was ' H a r l e q u i n and Mother Goose.or the Golden E g g , ' by Thomas D i b d i n , performed i n 1806. The p l o t of the ' s e r i o u s ' h a l f of the p l a y i s t y p i c a l romant ic comedy. To h e l p a v o i d a d i s a s t r o u s marr iage between the h e r o i n e and a r i c h s q u i r e , Mother Goose, r i d i n g on a gander, bewitches the c h a r a c t e r s i n t o the s tock f i g u r e s of the H a r l e q u i n a d e ; the hero and h e r o i n e i n t o H a r l e q u i n and Columbine, the f a t h e r i n t o P a n t a l o o n , the hated s u i t o r i n t o Clown. The ' c o m i c ' b u s i n e s s of the p l a y b e g i n s , an assortment of f a n c i f u l i n c i d e n t s and m a g i c a l t r i c k s , accompanied by M o r r i s Dancers and a mock opera by H a r l e q u i n and Clown. A t v a r i o u s t imes H a r l e q u i n turns i n t o a S t . G i l e s F r u i t . G i r l , Panta loon cuts a p i e and a l i v e duck f l i e s o u t , t a b l e s and c h a i r s ascend i n t o the a i r . The cot tage of a poor woodcutter appears ; H a r l e q u i n saves him from be ing a r r e s t e d f o r debt by t u r n i n g a wheel i n t o a wheel of f o r t u n e which pours out money. The scene 36 transforms itself at intervals into a pavilion by moonlight, a flower garden, a Golden Square, and St. Dunstan's church. The characters' possessions are conglomerations of several objects; the Clown drums on a large fishkettle with a ladle and a whisk. The incidents are fre-quently slapstick:. Harlequin enters, changes the letter-box into a lion's head. The clown advances, puts his hand in to get more letters, and is caught fast in the mouth of the lion. He endeavours to extricate himself and draws out,of the box a l i t t l e Postman who annoys the Clown with his bell. (extracted from the stage directions)25 The form of the pantomime was continually changing. In the 1840's and 1850's i t became both topical and faintly moral. In The  Birth of the Steam Engines or Harlequin Locomotive and Joe Miller and  his Men, produced in 1847, Watt was credited with inventing the.steam engine to gain his bride, the daughter of a blacksmith, and upon winning her became changed into Harlequin. In some stagings Clown carried ad-vertising signs for London merchants. The transformations essential to pantomime (Figure 35), describ-ing people as objects and animals or endowing them with dual personal-ities, are also Dickens' distinguishing technique of characterization.. Often his characters are tenuously identified with several other forms of being, as with the 'Smallwee'ds-,. or like Kr.ook, characterized by dual roles, one an objective existence in Victorian London, another as a personage from a fairy tale, nursery rhyme or carnival world. In Pickwick.Papers Dickens acknowledges his debt to the grotesque theatrical tradition: 3?. i t h r j l p i l a r lVutfomn*of J/.utuser/.v*.IJiimarxmm l v , l „ n p « th<- 11I.-I.IIV U....-;.l C .„ , -o i <;..r<l.-n. Settmaj ' » » u l . i. U o l w y R R U I - C which he a*U<-» up of • H W I ..f YejcrtuMn.. 1-Vurt * r . »n<l »hirl-. l « - c < » . n S .W . a r .1 Uim i J I ' A f . i i t t y -35-3fo <30 T'.:e door flew open, in ha ran, The great, long, red-kgg'd edaaor-iuu Oh I children, aee! the tailor'i come And caught out little Suckn-Tinmb. Saipt Snap! Snip! the tdafora go; And Conrad cries out — Oh! Oh! Oh! Snip! Snap! Snip! They go to fait, That both hia thumb* are off at laat Just look at him! There he atanda, Whit hia nasty hair and lianda. See! his nulla are never cut; Thev are «rrim'd aa black aa aoot: l\ A 38 He was dressed f o r the pantomime i n a l l the a b s u r d i t y of a c l o w n ' s costume. The s p e c t r a l f i g u r e s i n the Dance of D e a t h , the most f r i g h t f u l shapes tha t the a b l e s t p a i n t e r ever p o r t r a y e d on canvas never presented an appearance h a l f so g h a s t l y . H i s b l o a t e d body and shrunken l e g s — t h e i r d e f o r m i t y enhanced a h u n d r e d f o l d by the f a n t a s t i c ;dress—the g l a s s y eyes c o n t r a s t i n g f e a r f u l l y w i t h the t h i c k w h i t e p a i n t w i t h which the face was besmeared; the g r o t e s q u e l y ornamented head, t r e m b l i n g w i t h p a r a l y s i s , and the long s k i n n y hands , rubbed w i t h w h i t e c h a l k . 2 6 In t h i s case the man i s a c t u a l l y an a c t o r i n c l o w n ' s costume. In l a t e r nove l s he would d i s p l a y a l i k e appearance, but would probably be at the same time a butcher or o f f i c e c l e r k whose c l o t h e s l e n t themselves to the f a n t a s y of a h a r l e q u i n f i g u r e . T h i s image w i t h i t s c o n j u n c t i o n of c a r n i v a l costume and p h y s i c a l decay a n t i c i p a t e s i n f a c t one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t grotesque image p a t t e r n s i n D i c k e n s ' work. Deformed or d e c r e p i t c r e a t u r e s w i l l be seen to be the bearers of the humour and dancing ges tures of the n o v e l s , w h i l e c r i p p l e d or d e a t h - a s s o c i a t e d c h a r -a c t e r s g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n of be ing decked i n stage costumes; c o n t r a s t - , i n g l y . , g l i t t e r i n g , h a r l e q u i n or m a n n e q u i n - l i k e f i g u r e s are a source of p u t r i d i t y and r o t t i n g f l e s h , and the movements of d o l l s and c r i p p l e s are rendered i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . L i k e h i s c h a r a c t e r s a n d . l i k e the s e t t i n g s and stage props i n the pantomimes, D i c k e n s ' p h y s i c a l surroundings undergo metamorphoses; Dickens endows both the most concrete d e t a i l s and. the .most w h i m s i c a l imagin ings w i t h an equal r e a l i t y . Thus V h o l e s ' o f f i c e i n B leak House i s seen a s : Symond's I n n , Chancery Lane : a l i t t l e , p a l e , w a l l - e y e d , woebegone i n n l i k e a l a r g e d u s t b i n of two compartments and a s i f t e r . M r . V h o l e s ' o f f i c e , i n d i s p o s i t i o n r e t i r i n g and i n s i t u a t i o n r e t i r e d , 39 i s squeezed up i n a corner, and bl i n k s at a dead w a l l . ,. . there i s a loose outer surface of soot everywhere, and the d u l l cracked windows i n t h e i r heavy frames haye but one piece of character i n them, which i s a determination to be always d i r t y and always shut, unless coerced. This accounts for the phenomenon of the weaker of the two usually having a bundle of firewood stuck between i t s jaws i n hot weather.27 Axton i n C i r c l e of Stage F i r e , Dickens. T h e a t r i c a l V i s i o n has made a det a i l e d analysis of the verbal techniques underlying these grotesque transformations of se t t i n g s . AxtOn's book implies that the fi g u r e of the clown i s important on the stage and i n Pickwick Papers, but he does, not expand on the function o f . t h i s grotesque character to the extent that Dickens' complex use of the f i g u r e deserves. Andj i n r e j e c t i n g the thesis that the breaking down of formal structures, the dehumanizing of characters and the animation of objects represents a v i s i o n of an alienated world and displacement of power from people to objects, he i s f a i l i n g to account for the fac t that i n many of Dickens' works the people do abdicate t h e i r powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the object world or, on the other hand, make, the objects of t h e i r environment tools for t h e i r manipulation of others. Axton sees the theatre's grotesqueness and Dickens' re c r e a t i o n of i t as l i m i t e d to the incongruity of the transformations and the counterpointing of music, dialogue and extravagant tableaux that give an e f f e c t c a l l e d burlesquerie by Axton, and described by Dickens as r e -sembling the streaky layers i n a side of bacon. The pantomime techniques and images i n Dickens' works are seen mainly as convenient tools, f o r f i c - . t i o n a l l y staging the r e a l world as a 'pantomime i n mufti,' f o r renewing the audience's or reader's perceptions by deliberate t h e a t r i c a l i t y i n the form of humorous grotesque i n c o n g r u i t i e s . For Axton the transforma-tions h i g h l i g h t the moral value of the things transformed, but the f a c t of transformation i n i t s e l f seems to bear no meaning. 40 A number of c h a r a c t e r s who, f o r want of a b e t t e r t e r m , I s h a l l c a l l the c l o w n - f i g u r e s , and who i n c l u d e people l i k e Q u i l p , S w i v e l l e r , and Jenny Wren, seek to absorb- t h e i r whole environment i n s i d e themselves . Furthermore they are the i n i t i a t o r s of u n a n t i c i p a t e d and meaningless c o n f u s i o n , s i n c e they d e l i b e r a t e l y break down c o n s t r u c t e d or a b s t r a c t p a t t e r n s of . o r g a n i z a t i o n . In seeking to absorb t h e i r environment they are i n no way l i k e M r . P i c k w i c k i n h i s d e s i r e t o , s e e and exper ience the w o r l d . T h e i r p e r -c e p t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n i s h i g h l y s e n s u a l . I t i s bored by. a wisdom that approaches the w o r l d w i t h preconce ived c o n s t r u c t s ; the c l o w n ' s i n t e l l i -gence i s of the s o r t n u r t u r e d i n young W e l l e r by h i s f a t h e r : ' I know a young'un as h a s n ' t had a h a l f nor q u a r t e r your e d d i c a t i o n —as h a s n ' t s l e p t about the m a r k e t s , n o , nor s i x months—who'd h a ' scorned to be l e t i n , - i n such a v a y . ' 2 8 T h e i r approach i s repeated i n the imprisoned cobbler who t r e a t s the f o u r l egs of h i s t a b l e as a q u i t e adequate f o u r - p o s t e r b e d . H i s c r e a t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n of a d i s a s t r o u s environment , which , i s repeated i n Rigaud i n L i t t l e D o r r i t , i s a t r u l y c l o w n - l i k e f u n c t i o n . In D i c k S w i v e l l e r , even i n Q u i l p w i t h h i s h i d e o u s l y comic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , there i s l e s s r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r t h i s f a n c i f y i n g : I t was not p r e c i s e l y the k i n d of weather i n which people u s u a l l y take tea i n summer houses , f a r l e s s i n summer houses i n an advanced s t a t e of decay.29 The n a t u r a l clown i s the one who f i n d s l o g i c , even l o g i c a l f a n c i e s l i k e K i t ' s i m a g i n i n g of a f a i r y t a l e second w o r l d (see Chapter 41 I I ) , i n need of o v e r h a u l w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g any s o c i a l reason f o r h i s d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s or p e r s o n a l r e - c r e a t i o n . I t i s t h i s s p i r i t which p e r -meates the pantomime humour, and that of the t r a d i t i o n a l n u r s e r y rhymes, t h i s s p i r i t which can c o - e x i s t q u i t e h a p p i l y w i t h a s t a t e of t o t a l u n -c e r t a i n t y , which f i n d s d e s t r u c t i o n of l o g i c , r e d u c t i o n of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d s o l e l y to i t s s e n s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o l o u r s , t e x t u r e s , sounds, and the r e - c r e a t i o n of new forms as the o n l y bases f o r c r e a t i v e f r e e -dom, .even when the r e s u l t i s ' n o n s e n s e . 1 For the clown an ob jec t has no power o u t s i d e of i t s own unique nature and the a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tha t tha t a l l o w him to man-i p u l a t e i t . Yet at the same time the uniqueness of i t s na ture has an overwhelming power i n tha t i t i s the o n l y u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . So the c l o w n ' s g r e a t e s t d e l i g h t i s i n h i s mimetic powers, or i n the mimet ic powers themselves , s i n c e they r e i n f o r c e but e n r i c h h i s p e r c e p t i o n of uniqueness through the almost s p i r i t u a l exper ience of ' r e c o g n i t i o n . ' Look at F i g u r e 35, the pos ter of G r i m a l d i and h i s grotesque c r e a t i o n , the f r u i t and vege tab le man. For me, these f i g u r e s , are the a r c h e t y p a l grotesque images of the pantomime tha t Dickens absorbed i n t o h i s own work: the c l o w n , who i s grotesque i n h i m s e l f , and the grotesque c r e a t i o n , a product of the c l o w n ' s mind . In the former the c l o w n , a human man, has become h i s f a n a t a s t i c a l t h e a t r i c a l costume, h i s humanity has not been d i m i n i s h e d but h e J i a s become'transmuted i n t o a b i z a r r e s e n s u a l s p i r i t that resembles a man-made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a.man, a t o y , a c h i l d , a f a i r y , a shadow of man i n h i s many dream forms. In t h e . l a t t e r we have a t y p i c a l c r e a t i o n of the clown m e n t a l i t y , see ing no 42 need to accept inanimate f u n c t i o n s as be ing permanently d e f i n e d (Why can a t u r n i p not be a h e a d ? ) , ye t d e l i g h t i n g i n m i m i c r y . The works of F u s e l i , P i r a n e s i and Goya mentioned e a r l i e r b r i d g e the gap to another a r t form tha t was a f e r t i l e source of g r o -tesque images i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . T h i s i s the. g o t h i c n o v e l . The p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s genre was i n i t i a t e d by Horace W a l p o l e ' s C a s t l e of Otranto (1764). From 1770 to 1820 numerous nove l s and t a l e s of t h i s spec ies were p u b l i s h e d , and were d e -voured by the r e a d i n g p u b l i c . The m a j o r i t y are q u i t e unknown.today^ the most commonly heard of be ing Ann R a d c l i f f e ' s M y s t e r i e s of Udolpho (1794), Matthew L e w i s ' -The Monk (1795) , C h a r l e s M a t u r i n ' s Melmoth the Wanderer . (1820) j and Mary S h e l l e y ' s F r a n k e n s t e i n (1818). Yet i n themselves , i n the i n t e n s i t y and complex i ty of the emotions they d i s -s e c t , and f o r t h e i r obvious . e f f e c t on n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r t i s t s j both i n England and on the c o n t i n e n t , the g o t h i c nove l s deserve much due. . The u s u a l accoutrements of the p l o t s of the n o v e l s were a med-i a e v a l s e t t i n g , haunted c a s t l e s , monaster ies tha t doubled as p r i s o n s , s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s — p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v i l s — a n d ins t ruments of t o r t u r e . Yet more than i n p l o t t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o . e a c h other e x i s t s i n t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s ; the mental t o r t u r e of the o u t c a s t , the e f f e c t s of s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l imprisonment ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n a massive stone e d i f i c e w i t h tor tuous underground t u n n e l s ) , the power of d e p r i v a t i o n i n engendering f u r i o u s , u n c o n t r o l l a b l e pass ions (Franken-s t e i n ' s monster , Ambrosio i n The Monk, Moncada i n Melmoth) , a voluptuous, f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the s u f f e r i n g of the i n n o c e n t , an ambivalent b u t . 43 i n t r i g u e d a t t i t u d e towards the e x i s t e n c e of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , much p u z z l i n g over the nature of e v i l and pacts w i t h the d e v i l , and a conse-quent regard f o r the way i n which appearance r e f l e c t s moral c h a r a c t e r . Because most of these themes preoccupied, D i c k e n s , and because they are an obvious source of v i s u a l images that are grotesque' , they demand deeper e x a m i n a t i o n . O r i g i n a l g o t h i c a r t developed i n a c u l t u r e whose very s o c i a l order was seen as part , of a . r e l i g i o u s order and f o r which both the a n g e l i c and the . d i a b o l i c a c t u a l l y d i d e x i s t . The g o t h i c n o v e l i s t s cou ld make no such c l a i m , and they, f r e q u e n t l y f e l t ' c o m p e l l e d to d i s m i s s the v a l u e of t h e i r own c r e a t i o n s . I t f o l l o w s that the type of g r o -tesques produced by such works would be t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d from those of o r i g i n a l g o t h i c a r t . That which rendered the mediaeval d e v i l s grotesque was tha t which made them comic , tha t which made them abnormal r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s , , e n d o w e d , w i t h human f r a i l t y . In an e r a such as tha t i n which the g o t h i c nove l s were w r i t t e n j an era i n which, the e x i s t e n c e of demons i s q u e s t i o n e d , the i m a g i n a t i v e .leap to be made would be to. d e p i c t the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of t h e . d e v i l , not to accept h i s e x i s t e n c e as n a t u r a l and d e p i c t him and h i s minions as human. I t i s not the human o r , q u i x o t i c na ture of the r e l i g i o u s and the s u p e r n a t u r a l tha t w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d , but the inhuman, almost s u p e r n a t u r a l power and u n c o n t r o l -l a b i l i t y of human a c t i o n s and p a s s i o n s . Wi th M r s . R a d c l i f f e t h i s uneasiness w i t h respec t to the s u p e r -n a t u r a l takes the form of a c c o u n t i n g r a t i o n a l l y f o r a l l a p p a r e n t l y f a n -t a s t i c a l o c c u r r e n c e s . Thus at the end of The M y s t e r i e s of Udolpho the 44 music tha t haunts the chateau i s e x p l a i n e d as be ing t h a t of L a u r e n t i n i wandering i n the woods. The g h o s t l y f i g u r e i n the recess behind the b l a c k v e i l i s not a worm-eaten corpse but a wax r e p l i c a . Lewis does not have the same s c r u p l e s as M r s . R a d c l i f f e about i n t r o d u c i n g the f a n -t a s t i c ; the e x i s t e n c e of the demons i n The Monk r e i n f o r c i n g the psycho-l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n , and having s p i r i t u a l i f not r a t i o n a l r a i s o n d ' e t r e . However the i n t e n s e l y complex s e l f - a n a l y s e s tha t the c h a r a c t e r s sub jec t themselves to or are sub jec ted to by the n a r r a t o r i n both The Monk and Melmoth l e a d one to r e c o g n i z e tha t the s u p e r n a t u r a l presences , i n f a c t much of the m a t e r i a l environment , are p r i m a r i l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s . The most p o w e r f u l theme i n a l l the nove l s mentioned except Otranto i s imprisonment . In The M y s t e r i e s of Udolpho E m i l y i s i m p r i s -oned by a psychopath w i t h i n an a p p a r e n t l y haunted c a s t l e , and i n F r a n k e n s t e i n the m o n s t e r ' s s e n s i t i v e and s o c i a b l e s p i r i t i s imprisoned w i t h i n h i s t o t a l l y r e p u l s i v e body. The most r e c u r r e n t form of i m p r i s -onment i s i n a c l o i s t e r , as a n - u n w i l l i n g monk or nun-. Even i n . Otranto there are gl immerings of t h i s hideous punishment, and i n Melmoth and The Monk the concept ' takes over the n o v e l s . D e f i n i t e l y t h i s imprisonment stands to a l a r g e degree f o r the r o l e any r e p r e s s i v e s o c i a l environment or a u t h o r i t y i n f l i c t s on the f r e e and s e a r c h i n g human s p i r i t , and f o r the t o r t u o u s shapes t h e . pass ions assume when they are trapped i n t h i s f a s h i o n . The l e n g t h y man-ner i n " which' Moncada d e s c r i b e s h i s imprisonment^ f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t w i s t e d , i r r e l e v a n t and u n p r o g r e s s i v e 45 agonies tha t the mind i n f l i c t s on i t s e l f when i t . i s p e r m i t t e d no o u t l e t f o r i t s energy. The concept of imprisonment w i t h i n a c l o i s t e r i s a c u r i o u s one, because a d e s i r e to escape i m p l i e s a d e s i r e not to spend one ' s l i f e doing s e r v i c e f o r the u l t i m a t e good, the l o v e of God. T h i s r e j e c t i o n of what i s s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as good, a r e j e c t i o n which can a l s o i n -v o l v e b r e a k i n g vows, even i f they were vows imposed upon one as a c h i l d , breeds g u i l t and s e l f - h a t r e d , s i n c e the p r i s o n e r should i n f a c t honour the p r i s o n he i s i n . The c l o i s t e r - p r i s o n r e v e a l s i t s e l f as the p e r f e c t metaphor f o r d i c t a t o r i a l but a p p a r e n t l y benevolent a u t h o r i t y , whether i t be a r e p r e s s i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e or a r i g i d s u p e r - e g o . Out of t h i s theme of imprisonment grow s e v e r a l m o t i f s common to the g o t h i c n o v e l s . These i n c l u d e the p h y s i c a l appearance of the p r i s o n , the extreme and obsess ive way i n which the c a p t i v e s v iew t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h people both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the p r i s o n , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d e v i l - f i g u r e tha t o f f e r s r e l e a s e . In Opium and the Romantic Imagina t ion A l e t h e a Hayter examines the imagery of l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n the n i n e t e e n t h century by a r t i s t s who were known users of opium. One of, the r e c u r r i n g images she d i s -covers i s the 'sunken c i t y , ' a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c i t y whose b u i l d i n g s form an overpowering a r c h i t e c t u r a l v i s i o n , , q u i t e i s o l a t e d from the n a t u r a l w o r l d . Two a t t r i b u t e s of t h i s image have r e l e v a n c e f o r the g o t h i c n o v e l s . The f i r s t i s the i n c o n s t a n t a e s t h e t i c and moral na ture of the image. Sometimes i t i s a t h i n g of almost p e r f e c t b e a u t y , . a s i n .Kubla 46 Khan, c rea ted however from h a r d , - g l i t t e r i n g inhuman s u r f a c e s , i c e , j ewels and the l i k e . A t other t imes i t i s a subterranean p r i s o n c i t y , f u l l of d a r k , m a z e - l i k e passages , v a u l t s and l o c k e d d o o r s . A c c o r d i n g to Hayter the image seemed to assume d i f f e r e n t 'shapes a c c o r d i n g to the l e n g t h of t ime the a r t i s t had been u s i n g opium and the dependency which he had b u i l t up . As the a r t i s t ' s a d d i c t i o n d e v e l o p e d , what had been an e x q u i s i t e v i s i o n of beauty began to t r a n s f o r m i t s e l f and assume emot iona l overtones of o p p r e s s i v e n e s s . G r a d u a l l y i t s appearance too would change and i t would l o o k and f e e l l i k e both a m a t e r i a l and emo-t i o n a l p r i s o n . In terms of a r e l a t i o n s h i p to the m a t e r i a l w o r l d , t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of image i s not uncommon, and not r e s t r i c t e d to the i n -tense form i t takes under drug h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . Every attempt to c o n - , s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n p e r f e c t i o n i n the form of an e x t e r n a l environment or s t r u c t u r e can breed a f t e r a time f e e l i n g s of s t e r i l i t y and e n c l o s u r e . The second p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s that two of the a r t i s t s , C o l e r i d g e and De Quincey , themselves found a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r h a l l u c i n a -t i o n s i n P i r a n e s i ' s s e r i e s of d r a w i n g s , the ' C a r c e r i ' (1741, 1765). These . (see F i g u r e 38) are of g i g a n t i c stone e d i f i c e s w i t h t e r r i f y i n g i r o n ladders between s t o r i e s , enc losed passages and b a l c o n i e s , e x o t i c ins t ruments of t o r t u r e , and trapped, people wandering incommunicado. Now c o n s i d e r i n g tha t there i s no r e c o r d of the major g o t h i c n o v e l i s t s exper iment ing w i t h opium, the frequency w i t h which f i c t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s of P i r a n e s i - t y p e a r c h i t e c t u r e a p p e a r , i n these nove l s i s remarkable . The h a l l w a y s , s e c r e t rooms, l o c k e d towers and covered recesses of Udolpho were succeeded by the monast ic c e l l s , the madhouse and 48 I n q u i s i t i o n p r i s o n s of Melmoth, and by the underground s e p u l c h r e tha t j o i n s the convent of S t . C lare - and the monastery of S t . F r a n c i s i n The Monk, which houses a murder , a n . i n c e s t u o u s r a p e , and the appearance of a f a l l e n a n g e l . W i t h i n t h i s subterranean b u r y i n g ground i s the c a v e r -nous dungeon which can be entered o n l y through a fake s t a t u e c o n t a i n i n g a t rap d o o r , and i n which Agnes ' baby i s born and d i e s . The b i r t h and monstrous death of Agnes ' baby becomes t h e r e f o r e a p o w e r f u l grotesque image of these a b o r t i v e ges tures towards freedom, I t soon became a mass of p u t r i d i t y , to every eye was a loathsome and d i s g u s t i n g o b j e c t ; to every eye but a m o t h e r ' s . . . . Hour a f t e r hour have I passed upon my s o r r y couch, contempla t ing what had once been my c h i l d . I endeavoured to r e t r a c e i t s f e a t u r e s through the l i v i d c o r r u p t i o n w i t h which they were overspread.30 In o ther w o r d s , ' t h e scenes of p a s s i o n a t e a c t i v i t y almost always occur w i t h i n these enc losed spaces . Now whether these a c t i o n s and emot iona l tempests represent the unconscious or merely a c e r t a i n f r e e -dom f o r a c t i o n , i t I s obvious tha t i n the w o r l d of the g o t h i c n o v e l the o u t l e t s f o r such are stopped up and the p a s s i o n s , a r e f o r c e d to wander f e a r f u l l y a long d a r k , m a z e - l i k e tunne ls and passage-ways. In d a r k n e s s , i n t o t a l d a r k n e s s , and on my hands arid knees , f o r I cou ld no longer s t a n d , I f o l l o w e d h i m . . . . He growled a c u r s e , and I i n s t i n c t i v e l y quickened my movements, . . . My h a b i t was now i n rags from my s t r u g g l e s , my knees and hands s t r i p t of s k i n . I had r e c e i v e d s e v e r a l severe b r u i s e s on my head, from s t r i k i n g a g a i n s t the jagged and unhewn stones which formed the i r r e g u l a r s i d e s and r o o f of t h i s e t e r n a l passage.31 or at a l a t e r t i m e , I am c o n v i n c e d , t h a t , had the passage been as long and i n t r i c a t e as any tha t ever an a n t i q u a r i a n pursued to d i s c o v e r the tomb of 49 Cheops i n the P y r a m i d s , I would have rushed on i n b l i n d n e s s and d e s p e r a t i o n , t i l l famine or e x h a u s t i o n compelled me to pause.32 As e a r l y as Otranto t h i s r o l e of m a z e - l i k e passages was a n t i c i p a t e d i n M a t h i l d a ' s escape from the c a s t l e v i a the v a u l t s , and i n the connec t ing caves i n which she h i d e s o u t s i d e the c a s t l e . For Dickens a l s o imprisonment i s an important m o t i f , s t a r t i n g w i t h the p r i s o n e r s i n the l i t t l e t a l e s i n P i c k w i c k P a p e r s , i n M r . P i c k w i c k ' s imprisonment , i n M a n e t t e ' s be ing b u r i e d a l i v e , i n the c e n t r a l image of L i t t l e D o r r i t , and even i n the m a z e - l i k e f a s h i o n i n which the connect ions i n a n o v e l l i k e Bleak House are t i e d t o g e t h e r . Yet i t i s not u n t i l h i s v e r y l a s t novel , , The Mystery of Edwin Drood, that Dickens senses the power tha t can grow from d e v e l o p i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t i o n f o r the s t a t e of s p i r i t u a l imprisonment. ' That n o v e l , as w i l l be seen . i n Chapter I V , r e v o l v e s around a g o t h i c c a t h e d r a l and a s e r i e s of stony v a u l t s that serve as l i t e r a l and f a n c i f u l p r i s o n s f o r the c h a r a c t e r s . The c h a r a c t e r s ' behaviour i s determined f o r them by the hard e x t e r i o r s they b e a r , e i t h e r l i t e r a l l y l i k e Durdles w i t h h i s stone g r i t , or meta-p h o r i c a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to them by the n a r r a t o r . That a w a l l or a b u i l d i n g can be an apt metaphor f o r a t r a i n e d p a t t e r n o f - b e h a v i o u r i s r e v e a l e d i n f a n c i f u l form i n Our M u t u a l F r i e n d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Headstone 's m i n d : He c o u l d do mental a r i t h m e t i c m e c h a n i c a l l y , s i n g at s i g h t mechani -c a l l y , blow v a r i o u s wind ins t ruments m e c h a n i c a l l y . .. •". . From h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d u p , h i s mind had been a p l a c e of mechanica l stowage. The arrangement of h i s w h o l e s a l e warehouse, so tha t i t might be always r e a d y . t o meet the demands of r e t a i l d e a l e r s — h i s t o r y h e r e , geography t h e r e , astronomy to the r i g h t , p o l i t i c a l economy to the 50 l e f t — n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , f i g u r e s , m u s i c , the lower mathematics , and what h o t , a l l i n t h e i r s e v e r a l p l a c e s — t h i s care had imparted to h i s countenance a l o o k of c a r e ; . . . He a l -ways seemed to be uneasy l e s t a n y t h i n g should be m i s s i n g from h i s mental warehouse, and t a k i n g s tock to assure h i m s e l f . . . . Yet there was enough of what was a n i m a l , and of what was f i e r y , s t i l l v i s i b l e i n him . . .33 T h i s image, though not p a r t i c u l a r l y gro tesque , draws on the two a r t i s t i c sources common i n G i l l r a y ' s w o r k — i t employs the ' f a n t a s t i c ' concept of p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s s y m b o l i z i n g the workings of a m i n d , and i t uses the comic exaggera t ion of the c a r i c a t u r e tha t renders men and s t a t e s i n t o o b j e c t s . W i t h i n the trapped mental s t a t e s of the c h a r a c t e r s i n both the g o t h i c n o v e l s and i n D i c k e n s ' work , the c h a r a c t e r s v i s u a l i z e each other i n an extreme, o b s e s s i v e f a s h i o n , and there i s a v i o l e n t incons tancy about, t h e i r responses to each o t h e r . Thus F r a n k e n s t e i n ' s monster , t rapped w i t h i n h i s f l e s h y p r i s o n , e x c l a i m s : Was man, i n d e e d , at once so p o w e r f u l , so v i r t u o u s and m a g n i f i c e n t , ye t so v i c i o u s and base? He appeared at one time a mere s c i o n of the e v i l p r i n c i p l e , and at another as a l l tha t can be conceived of as noble and g o d l i k e . To be a great and v i r t u o u s man appeared the h i g h e s t honour tha t can b e f a l l a s e n s i t i v e b e i n g ; to be base and v i c i o u s , as many on r e c o r d have been, appeared the lowest degrada-t i o n , a c o n d i t i o n more abject : than that of the b l i n d mole or harm-l e s s worm.34 A mind s u b j e c t to such i d e a l i s m i s a p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m of grotesque h a l l u c i n a t i o n s as he t r i e s to ba lance i n h i s mind two such c o n t r a d i c -t o r y v i s i o n s , the grotesque be ing so c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the d o u b l e -face and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of form. C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h an extravagant image of o ther people goes the 51 g r a n t i n g to them of great powers over o n e s e l f because of t h e i r image.. Thus w h i l e M a t h i l d a f i r s t ho lds f o r Ambrosio the p o s i t i o n of a Madonna whose p o r t r a i t he w o r s h i p s , she soon assumes the f i g u r e of h a r l o t . But c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y w i t h M a t h i l d a ' s becoming a p r o s t i t u t e i n h i s eyes , he f i n d s h i m s e l f u n c o n t r o l l a b l y under the power of a f i g u r e of u t t e r innocence , A n t o n i a : . The monk r e t i r e d to h i s c e l l , w h i t h e r he was pursued by A n t o n i a ' s image . . . how enchant ing was the t i m i d innocence of her eyes ! and how d i f f e r e n t from the wanton e x p r e s s i o n , . t h e w i l d l u x u r i o u s f i r e , which s p a r k l e s i n M a t h i l d a ' s ! Oh! sweeter must one k i s s be , snatched from the rosy l i p s of the f i r s t , than a l l the f u l l and l u s t f u l favours bestowed so f r e e l y by the second.35 The power of her image which causes him to k i l l and rape her i s an almost h y p n o t i c power, though A n t o n i a has no c o n c e p t i o n t h a t she e x e r -c i s e s i t . Moncada a l s o a t t r i b u t e s an overwhelming mental power-over h i m s e l f to someone e l s e ' s image. There can be no r a t i o n a l reason f o r the mental agony he undergoes at the i d e a . o f s h a r i n g h i s escape w i t h a p a r r i c i d e , 'To h i m ! Oh, my God! what I f e l t when I s a i d t h i s to m y s e l f ! The c o n v i c t i o n t h r i l l e d on my soul,—-I am i n h i s power . ' 36 The f e a r r e v e a l s perhaps h i s dark a l t e r ego, h i s shadow p e r s o n a l i t y and the l a c k of c o n t r o l he f e e l s he e x e r c i s e s i n accompanying the b r u t a l c h a r a c t e r , and which the man p l a y s upon by sugges t ing t h e i r equal g u i l t as p a r r i c i d e s . The images that o f f e r r e l e a s e from the c o n s t r i c t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , the f r e e s p i r i t s o u t s i d e the p r i s o n s , u s u a l l y take the .shape of d e v i l 52 f i g u r e s , or e l s e of men who have s o l d t h e i r s o u l to the d e v i l , l i k e the Wandering Jew and Melmoth. The f i g u r e of L u c i f e r i n . T h e Monk has many a r t i s t i c a n c e s t o r s , i n the g a r g o y l e s , i n the Temptations of S t . Anthony, i n M i l t o n ' s S a t a n , but h i s grotesque power i s nonetheless from the common image of a man w i t h the a t t r i b u t e s of a b e a s t . The two s i d e s of the d e v i l i n The Monk g i v e p h y s i c a l form to the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d u a l i t y that harasses the c h a r a c t e r s . As Ambrosio becomes most preoccupied w i t h the s a c r i f i c i a l appearance of h i s image when h i s i n n e r s e l f i s deeply i n v o l v e d i n indulgence of the s e n s e s , so the d e v i l r e f l e c t s the two s i d e s of ' e v i l , ' almost i n n o c e n t l y e x q u i s i t e beauty i n the f a l l e n angel and a r e p u l s i v e p h y s i c a l u g l i n e s s i n L u c i f e r . But t h i s b e a u t y , though approaching p e r f e c t i o n of f o r m , i s c o l d , depends on inanimate t h i n g s l i k e j ewels and c o l o u r e d f i r e : I t was a youth scarce e i g h t e e n , the p e r f e c t i o n of whose form and face was u n r i v a l l e d . He was p e r f e c t l y naked: a b r i g h t s t a r s p a r k l e d upon h i s f o r e h e a d , two cr imson wings extended themselves from h i s s h o u l d e r s , and h i s s i l k e n l o c k s were confined,_by a band of many-c o l o u r e d f i r e s , which p l a y e d round h i s head, formed themselves i n t o a v a r i e t y of f i g u r e s , and shone w i t h a b r i l l i a n c e f a r surpass ing ' that of p r e c i o u s s t o n e s . C i r c l e t s of diamonds were fas tened round h i s arms and a n k l e s , and i n h i s r i g h t hand he bore a s i l v e r branch i m i t a t i n g m y r t l e . . . .37 On the o ther hand, the subl ime u g l i n e s s of L u c i f e r r e f l e c t s i n t e n s e animal p a s s i o n s : A swarthy darkness spread i t s e l f over h i s g i g a n t i c . form: h i s hands and f e e t were armed w i t h long t a l o n s . Fury, g l a r e d i n h i s eyes , which might have s t r u c k the b r a v e s t h e a r t w i t h t e r r o r . Over h i s huge shoulders waved two enormous sab le w i n g s : and h i s h a i r was s u p p l i e d by l i v i n g snakes , which twined. themselves round h i s brows w i t h f r i g h t f u l h i s s i n g s . 3 8 53 The B l e e d i n g Nun (The Monk) , though she i s sa id , to a c t u a l l y e x i s t , seems l i k e a p r o j e c t i o n of Agnes. The i d e a . o f Lorenzo g r a s p i n g her i n h i s arms as h i s blooming b r i d e , and d i s c o v e r i n g he i s h o l d i n g the corpse of a b l e e d i n g n u n , an almost p e r f e c t image of s t e r i l i t y , seems to suggest tha t a g e - o l d f e a r of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , of sure t h i n g s u n c o n t r o l l a b l y changing f o r m . A t the same time she cou ld represent one of the n e g a t i v e faces of L o r e n z o ' s anima archetype of which Agnes r e -presents a p o s i t i v e image. O r , s i n c e Agnes does become a n u n , and l i k e the s p e c t r e , breaks her vow of c h a s t i t y , she c o u l d be j u s t a mocking f i g u r e of f a t e mimick ing Agnes ' f u t u r e t r o u b l e s . L i k e the two s i d e s of L u c i f e r , .the c o l d l y inanimate and the r e -p u l s i v e l y b e s t i a l , . A g n e s ' stone p r i s o n b r i n g s i n t o be ing u g l y animal f i g u r e s w i t h grotesque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Her baby was mentioned as an e x p r e s s i o n of the deforming of her own l i f e f o r c e s . But the p r i s o n i t s e l f seems to taunt her w i t h the na ture of these f o r c e s i n the shape of r e p t i l e tormentors : I f e l t the b l o a t e d t o a d , hideous and pampered w i t h the poisonous vapours of the dungeon, dragging h i s loathsome l e n g t h a long my bosom. Sometimes the q u i c k c o l d l i z a r d roused me, l e a v i n g h i s s l i m y t r a c k upon m y . f a c e , and e n t a n g l i n g i t s e l f i n the t r e s s e s of my w i l d and matted h a i r . 3 9 T h i s un ion of c o l d , s tony or l i f e l e s s images w i t h r e p u l s i v e but p o w e r f u l b e s t i a l ones e x i s t s a l s o i n F r a n k e n s t e i n , where the monster w i t h h i s gross p h y s i c a l i t y e x i l e s h i m s e l f to the i c e and snow bound mountains and A r c t i c - r e g i o n s . T h i s j u x t a p o s i n g of such images i s very f requent i n D i c k e n s ' 54 n o v e l s . In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop, N e l l , who i s m o r b i d l y f a s c i n a t e d by o l d g r e y , churches , so much so tha t she becomes a cemetery c u s t o d i a n , f l e e s Q u i l p ' s u g l y a n i m a l i t y . In. Great E x p e c t a t i o n s , as numerous c r i t i c s have n o t e d , E s t e l l a , ' s t a r , ' and the d o g - l i k e c o n v i c t , Magwi tch , are j u x t a p o s e d , and M i s s Havisham's power comes from the m i n g l i n g of the c o l d p u r i t y of a b r i d e ' s costume w i t h her decayed f l e s h . In A T a l e  of Two C i t i e s , L u c y . s t a n d s i n the snow t e r r i f i e d by what are f o r her the b e s t i a l dances of the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . In Our M u t u a l F r i e n d D i c k e n s 1 most p o w e r f u l grotesque images are a c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g of ex -q u i s i t e o b j e c t s and.images from c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the b e s t i a l ; f o r c e s of the r i v e r p e o p l e . In The Mystery, of Edwin D r o o d , Dickens ana lyzes i n depth the f u n c t i o n of stony p r i s o n - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s and the f o r c e s they b r e e d . In Melmoth the Wanderer, two p o w e r f u l grotesques from Our M u t u a l  F r i e n d are a n t i c i p a t e d . Ih the l a t t e r , grotesque d e f o r m i t y ( i n t h i s case , a p a r t of the body having l i f e separate from the rest , of the body) i m p l i e s p a s s i o n ; B r a d l e y Headstone i s d e s c r i b e d seamed w i t h j e a l o u s y and anger , and t o r t u r i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the c o n -v i c t i o n t h a t he showed i t a l l and they e x u l t e d i n i t , he went by them i n the d a r k , l i k e a haggard head suspended i n the a i r : so com-p l e t e l y d i d the f o r c e of h i s e x p r e s s i o n c a n c e l h i s f i g u r e . 4 0 Moncada views the p a r r i c i d e who leads him through the underground v a u l t s i n a s i m i l a r manner: The l i g h t f e l l o n l y on h i s face and one hand, which he extended t o ^ wards me. The r e s t of h i s body, enveloped In d a r k n e s s , gave to t h i s bodyless and s p e c t r e head an e f f e c t t r u l y a p p a l l i n g . 4 1 55 Venus' shop w i t h i t s a r t i c u l a t e d . s k e l e t o n s , b o t t l e d embryos and s m i l i n g s t u f f e d a l l i g a t o r i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n the o l d Jew's underground l a b o r a t o r y : around the room were p l a c e d . f o u r s k e l e t o n s , not i n cases but i n a k i n d of u p r i g h t c o f f i n , that gave t h e i r boriy emptiness a k i n d of g h a s t l y and i m p e r a t i v e prominence, as i f they were the r e a l and r i g h t f u l tenants of that s i n g u l a r apartment! I n t e r s p e r s e d between them were the s t u f f e d f i g u r e s of animals I knew not then the names o f , — a n a l l i g a t o r — s o m e g i g a n t i c bones, which I took f o r those of Sampson, . . . Then I saw f i g u r e s s m a l l e r , but not l e s s h o r r i b l e , —human and b r u t e a b o r t i o n s , i n a l l t h e i r s t a t e s of anomalous and deformed c o n s t r u c t i o n , not preserved i n s p i r i t s , but s t a n d i n g i n the g h a s t l y nakedness of t h e i r w h i t e d i m i n u t i v e bones , these I con-c e i v e d to be the at tendant imps of some i n f e r n a l ceremony, . . .42 These f i g u r e s and Venus ' a r t i c u l a t e d s k e l e t o n s f u n c t i o n w i t h a s i m i l a r purpose . They are mimic f o o l s of a p a r t i c u l a r l y gruesome n a t u r e . As the o l d Jew s a y s , These be the s k e l e t o n s of b o d i e s , but i n the deri thou has escaped from were the s k e l e t o n s of p e r i s h e d s o u l s . Here are r e l i c s of the wrecks or the c a p r i c e s of n a t u r e , but thou a r t come from where the . c r u e l t y of man . . . hath never f a i l e d to l eave the p r o o f s of i t s power i n a b o r t i v e i n t e l l e c t s , c r i p p l e d f rames , d i s t o r t e d c r e e d s , and o s s i f i e d h e a r t s . 4 3 In Our Mutua l F r i e n d the s k e l e t o n s serve as mimics o f . t h e c r i p -p l e d minds and h e a r t s of London s o c i e t y , but i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to see whether Dickens a p p l i e s a mora l v a l u e to the grotesque s k e l e t o n s themselves , the " s k e l e t o n s of b o d i e s , " and to the grotesque f i g u r e s who i n g e n e r a l p l a y the r o l e of m i m i c s . The popular a r t form tha t seems to have done even more than the g o t h i c n o v e l towards shaping Dickens, ' grotesque v i s i o n i s that of c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . The imagery ,o f s t o r i e s , rhymes and i l l u s t r a t i o n s 56 that Dickens r e - u s e d , e i t h e r unchanged or g r o t e s q u e l y t r a n s f o r m e d , suggest tha t he r e t a i n e d a c h i l d ' s v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d . Dickens i s quoted as s t a t i n g : I f we a l l knew our own minds ( i n a more en larged sense than the popular acceptance of that p h r a s e ) , I suspect we should f i n d our nurse r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the dark corners that we are f o r c e d to go back to a g a i n s t our w i l l s . 4 4 P r i o r to the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , The A r a b i a n N i g h t s and the t a l e s of C h a r l e s P e r r a u l t were the o n l y l i t e r a r y forms of the f a i r y t a l e found i n E n g l a n d . In 1823 Grimm's F a i r y Ta les appeared and i n 1846 Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen was t r a n s l a t e d . The a d u l t V i c t o r i a n was v e r y ambivalent about the v a l u e of the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y t a l e , f e a r i n g that they would prevent the c h i l d from d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y and r e s e n t i n g the f a c t tha t they d i d not teach a u s e f u l l e s s o n . i Dickens p u b l i c l y p r a i s e d the f o r e i g n f a i r y t a l e s f o r what he f e l t was t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r mora l v a l u e : I t would be hard to es t imate the amount of gent leness and mercy that has made i t s way among us through these s l i g h t c hanne l s . F o r -bearance , c o u r t e s y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the poor .and aged, k i n d t r e a t -ment of a n i m a l s , the l o v e of n a t u r e , abhorrence of tyranny and b r u t e f o r c e . 4 5 Yet t h i s statement ignores the n a t i v e v i o l e n c e and grimness of the t r a -d i t i o n a l f o l k t a l e s . Throughout the century there i s a d u a l compulsion to use and become i n v o l v e d w i t h the form of the f a i r y t a l e , and a t the same t i m e , , to f o r c e i t i n t o an e t h i c a l m o l d . T e n t a t i v e l y i t may be suggested tha t the a d u l t V i c t o r i a n found h i m s e l f p e c u l i a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to f a i r y t a l e 57 f a n t a s i e s . The use of magic to achieve one ' s ends r e v e a l s a d e s i r e f o r an e s s e n t i a l l y amoral e x i s t e n c e — a s i t u a t i o n where r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and g u i l t are n o n - e x i s t e n t , a s t a t e c l o s e to though not i d e n t i c a l w i t h the s t a t e of innocence , that presumably of the youngest r e a d e r s . The w r i t e r s bo th honoured and resented t h i s d e s i r a b l e innocence of c h i l d r e n , and sought to d e s t r o y i t w i t h a sense of m o r a l i t y . Connected w i t h the grotesque are the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s caused by s p e l l s i n the f a i r y t a l e s , and the m a g i c a l f i g u r e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r those s p e l l s . I t i s w i t h i n the framework of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as one aspect of the S e l f or p e r s o n a l i t y of the s p e l l - b o u n d v i c t i m s that the f a i r y t a l e s should be r e c o g n i z e d . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h i s i s e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d 46 i n the t a l e s , as i n Andersen ' s The Marsh K i n g ' s Daughter : some magic power had a t e r r i b l e h o l d over h e r . - In the day time she was as b e a u t i f u l as any f a i r y , but she had a bad wicked temper; at n i g h t o n . t h e o ther hand she became a hideous t o a d , q u i e t and p a t h e t i c w i t h s a d , mournful eyes . There were two natures i n h e r , bo th c o n -t i n u a l l y s h i f t i n g . The reason of i t was tha t t h e . l i t t l e g i r l by day had her mother ' s form and her f a t h e r ' s e v i l n a t u r e ; but at n i g h t her k i n s h i p w i t h him appeared i n her outward f o r m , and her mother ' s sweet nature and g e n t l e s p i r i t beamed out of the misshapen monster .47 In The Queen Bee the people turned to marble by s p e l l are those who have stone h e a r t s a l r e a d y , and have r e f u s e d p l e a s f o r h e l p from the a n i m a l s . L i k e the trapped s t a t e of some of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , the s p e l l - b o u n d s t a t e i s o f t e n a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of weakness, of the v i c t i m ' s be ing taken over and possessed by a p a s s i v i t y ,and i n e r t i a which has made them easy pawns of b l a c k f o r c e s of energy o u t s i d e 58 themselves . The w i z a r d s and ogres of the t a l e s are t h e r e f o r e energy f i g u r e s , and t h e i r pr imary f u n c t i o n i s to render t h e i r v i c t i m s immobi le , p a s s i v e , o b j e c t - l i k e . Thus when there i s no grotesque t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of appearance, there i s o f t e n a change i n t o a s t a t u e - l i k e f i g u r e , as w i t h S l e e p i n g Beauty and Snow W h i t e . Dickens w i l l be seen to use the concept of s p e l l s i n h i s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h y p n o t i c powers, and the frequency w i t h which h i s more p a s s i v e c h a r a c t e r s a t t r i b u t e such powers over them to o t h e r s . O c c a s i o n -a l l y t h i s unconscious choice to l e t o n e s e l f become s p e l l - b o u n d can i n v o l v e , as w i l l be seen i n The Mystery of Edwin Drood, the a d o p t i o n of a semi-grotesque s t a t u e - l i k e appearance. I f a person i s p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r -mations he undergoes, i t cou ld f o l l o w t h a t , as i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , he i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the image of the magic f i g u r e ( w i t c h , o g r e , godmother) tha t i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by the ambivalent moral c h a r a c t e r o f t e n possessed by such f i g u r e s , R u m p l e s t i l t s k i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , whose g r o t e s q u e l y i m p i s h appearance i s t r u l y an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s i n t a n g i b l e c h a r a c t e r . He does the p r i n c e s s a great f a v o u r , and q u i t e r i g h t l y demands payment. Any e v i l na ture a t t r i b u t e d to him grows out of the p r i n c e s s ' r e l u c t a n c e to pay her dties, and her own f e e l i n g tha t she i s be ing imposed upon. The p r i n c e s s ' response to him a n t i c i p a t e s N e l l ' s a t t r i b u t i o n of a n e g a t i v e mora l v a l u e to Q u i l p ' s u g l i n e s s and h i s power... The grotesque i n the f a i r y t a l e s i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i g u r e s of power, or i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the presence of power. For 59 i n s t a n c e , the w i t c h i n ' J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l ' i s d e s c r i b e d as " p a l e and meagre w i t h great s t a r i n g eyes and a nose and c h i n tha t almost 48 j o i n . " Her u g l i n e s s bears no a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to her t a l e n t f o r t u r n i n g maidens i n t o b i r d s ; i t i s m a i n l y an e x p r e s s i o n of her unham-pered power. When the grotesque appearance i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h e r o , i t i s a l s o a s i g n of power or o c c a s i o n a l l y of wisdom (Riquet w i t h the  T u f t ) . Thus i n The Queen Bee the c l e v e r , good b r o t h e r i s a dwarf., and i t i s h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h the animal w o r l d tha t breaks the marble s p e l l cas t on h i s b r o t h e r s . In Good S u l t a n the o l d dog e x t r i c a t e s h i m s e l f from an unmanageable s i t u a t i o n through the grotesque appearance of the t h r e e - l e g g e d c a t : every t ime she l i m p e d , they thought she was p i c k i n g up a stone to throw at them; so they s a i d they should not l i k e t h i s way of f i g h t -i n g , arid the boar l a y down behind a b u s h , and the w o l f jumped up i n t o a t r e e . 4 9 In The Golden Goose Dummling wins a p r i n c e s s f o r a w i f e because the comic grotesque appearance of the p r o c e s s i o n of people s t u c k . t o him i s the o n l y t h i n g tha t can make her l a u g h . The s p e l l - b r e a k e r s are a l s o energy f i g u r e s -but . t h e i r techniques f o r b r e a k i n g s p e l l s take s e v e r a l forms. The f i r s t i s tha t they them-s e l v e s enter i n t o an a l l i a n c e w i t h the grotesque or at l e a s t w i t h b e i n g s , d w a r f s , or b e a s t s , of ambivalent moral v a l u e . In n e a r l y every Grimm s t o r y the a c q u i r i n g of magic powers by the hero or h e r o i n e i s preceded by an a l l i a n c e of t h i s s o r t ; and i n many cases the p r e d e s t i n e d hero o r . h e r o i n e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from h i s l e s s e r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s by the f a c t tha t he agrees w i t h b l i n d f a i t h to f o l l o w the a d v i c e of the f a i r y 60 or theomorphic s p i r i t . These pacts should not be seen as e i t h e r escapism, innocence or n a i v e t e ; they are q u i t e o f t e n a r e c o g n i t i o n that under c e r t a i n b l o c k e d or i m p o s s i b l e c i rcumstances the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e i s the u n d e r t a k i n g of the unusual or a p p a r e n t l y l u d i c r o u s , the o p p o s i t e of what might be cons idered the normal s o l u t i o n . Thus i n The Frog B r i d e the youngest b r o t h e r i s o f f e r e d a s m a l l p i e c e of d i r t y l i n e n by a f r o g : the p r i n c e was t o l d to take i t away w i t h h i m . He had no great l i k i n g f o r such a d i r t y r a g : , but there was something i n the f r o g ' s speech tha t p leased him much, and he thought to h i m s e l f , ' I t can do no harm, i t i s b e t t e r than n o t h i n g . ' 5 0 Of course i t turns out to have m a g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s tha t t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o the most w o n d e r f u l l y f i n e c l o t h . In B e a r s k i n the s o l d i e r uses s i m i l a r reasoning and a w i l l i n g n e s s to r i s k h i s s o u l when he agrees to d i s g u i s e h i m s e l f i n the b e a r s k i n f o r seven y e a r s . I f the s p e l l - b o u n d c h a r a c t e r has h i m s e l f been rendered g r o t e s -que, then i t becomes a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the success of the hero or h e r o i n e to accept them i n t h a t s t a t e . For i n s t a n c e , i n both Beauty  and The Beast and B e a r s k i n the b r i d e s agree to marry the s u i t o r s w h i l e knowing them o n l y i n t h e i r an imal s t a t e . The grotesque as a source of power and a l l i a n c e s w i t h the g r o -tesque to g a i n power e x i s t i n more n a t u r a l i s t i c forms i n D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s . The grotesque appearance of the f i g u r e s w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n D i c k e n s ' nove l s i n the i n t e r i o r v i s i o n h e l d by h i s more p a s s i v e c h a r a c t e r s of people who h o l d power, o f t e n o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , over them, and whose moral v a l u e i s e i t h e r n e g a t i v e or 61 a m b i v a l e n t . Thus N e l l i s more preoccupied w i t h Q u i l p ' s deformed u g l i -ness than w i t h h i s e v i l , L u c i e sees the v i t a l i t y and moral ambivalence of the f u l l - b l o w n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s as p h y s i c a l l y u g l y , and Jasper i s p r e -occupied by what he sees as the g a r g o y l e - l i k e u g l i n e s s of the Opium Woman. L i k e w i s e the f a i r y t a l e pacts w i t h benevolent grotesques f i n d form i n D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s . In The. Old C u r i o s i t y Shop many c h a r a c t e r s are dependent f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l on t h e i r a l l i a n c e w i t h the grotesque i n the form of puppets and f r e a k s , and those such as N e l l who r e j e c t such an a l l i a n c e become ' l o s e r s . ' In A T a l e of Two C i t i e s the Manettes are comple te ly dependent on t h e i r grotesque s e r v a n t , M i s s P r o s s . . L i z z i e Hexam r e a l i z e s that, the source of her s t r e n g t h i s her a l l i a n c e w i t h Jenny Wren and the b e s t i a l . L i t t l e D o r r i t seems to f i n d s t r e n g t h i n her constant companionship w i t h the m o n g o l o i d , Maggie . N o n e t h e l e s s , i f the grotesques are one r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of power i n the f a i r y t a l e s , there i s a second such focus of power i n the t a l e s , and i t i s of a v e r y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . In many of the s t o r i e s , probably a m a j o r i t y , s p e l l s are broken and magic powers are invoked through the mediary of magic t a l i s m a n s — b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s from the m a t e r i a l w o r l d tha t possess s u p e r n a t u r a l powers. What they have i n common.are u s u a l l y , but d e f i n i t e l y not a l w a y s , t h e i r b e a u t y , t h e i r hardness , t h e i r r o u n d -n e s s , the a i r they possess of s e l f - c o n t a i n m e n t . Thus i n J o r i n d a and  J o r i n d e l J o r i n d e l can s tep w i t h i n the boundaries of the w i t c h ' s s p e l l -bound house, o n l y when he possesses a b e a u t i f u l p u r p l e f l o w e r w i t h a p e a r l at the c e n t r e . In The Enchanted Beasts the t a l i s m a n i s a round 62 w h i t e p e b b l e . In one t a l e i t i s a b l u e l i g h t , i n another a t i n d e r box , i n yet another a food g r i n d e r . Sometimes the hero i s not g i f t e d w i t h the ob jec t but has to g a i n p o s s e s s i o n of i t b e f o r e he can r e l e a s e the s p e l l - b o u n d from t h e i r s t a t e . The power possessed by such o b j e c t s i s made more comprehensible when we t h i n k of them a l l working e s s e n t i a l l y on the p r i n c i p l e of A l a d d i n ' s lamp—the smooth, hard e x t e r i o r o n l y a c o n t a i n e r f o r the energy s p i r i t conta ined w i t h i n . Thus there are the Genie of the R i n g i n the A l a d d i n s t o r y and the: b l a c k imp of the b l u e l i g h t i n another Grimm's t a l e . A v a r i a t i o n on the imagery i s seen i n Grimm's The White  Snake i n which a k i n g , renowned f o r h i s wisdom i s brought every evening a covered s i l v e r d i s h . I n s i d e i s a w h i t e snake which he e a t s ; t h i s act g i v e s him the power of communicating w i t h the animal w o r l d and i n t h i s way he has made h i s f o r t u n e . In c e r t a i n t a l e s , however, The Snow  Queen and D i c k e n s ' The Mystery of Edwin. D r o o d , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t w i l l be seen tha t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of m a g i c a l o b j e c t s to the f o r c e s conta ined w i t h i n can be more complex. A s i d e from t h a t , i t i s remarkable how o f t e n D i c k e n s ' b o u r g e o i s i e a l l y themselves w i t h o b j e c t s which they expect ,to serve them as t a l i s m a n s , and w h i c h , u n c a n n i l y o f t e n , bear s t r o n g p h y s i c a l resemblances to the f a i r y t a l e t a l i s m a n s . In o ther c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e of the t i m e , the technique a n d . obsess ions of many w r i t e r s i n d i c a t e a v e r y ambivalent a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d r e n — a n d hence towards the s t a t e of innocence—which Dickens seems to have s h a r e d . In the 1820's and 1830's B r i t i s h w r i t e r s s t a r t e d ,to * See b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r l i s t of n i n e t e e n t h century c h i l d r e n s books c o n s u l t e d . E a r l y e d i t i o n s of these books are found i n the M a r i o n Thompson C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . 63 c rea te ' f a i r y t a l e s w i t h a purpose ' of which i t has been s a i d : two of the most u n a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the n i n e t e e n t h century f a i r y t a l e s [were] the tendency to g l o a t over the p h y s i c a l l y g r o -tesque , and a determined i n s i s t e n c e on punishment.51 T h i s use of the grotesque as a t o o l of a u t h o r i t y f o r p u n i s h i n g m i s b e h a v i o u r . a g a i n s t the s o c i a l order i s seen i n Struwwelpeter (F igures 36 and 3 7 ) , p u b l i s h e d i n 1844, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h i n 1848. Other g l e e f u l verses t e l l of Sugary Tom, a. g l u t t o n who turned i n t o sugar and m e l t e d , and a n ightwander ing c h i l d who was transformed i n t o a b a t . In L i t t l e Red Shoes the s m a l l g i r l who disobeys her b l i n d g r a n d f a t h e r and spontaneously buys red shoes i n s t e a d of b l a c k i s f o r c e d to dance u n t i l her f e e t are cut o f f and r e p l a c e d by wooden ones. In P i n o c c h i o , w r i t t e n , i n I t a l i a n ten years a f t e r D i c k e n s ' death but v e r y much i n the t r a d i -t i o n , the m u t i l a t i o n s that occur to him f o r misbehaving are hav ing h i s f e e t burnt o f f , hav ing h i s nose grow long each time he t e l l s a l i e , be ing turned i n t o an ass f o r not going to s c h o o l , and b e i n g threatened w i t h be ing sk inned a l i v e . The i m p l i c a t i o n seems to be tha t the p h y s i -c a l l y m u t i l a t e d or g r o s s l y u g l y have disobeyed the r u l e s of s o c i e t y , and are a l s o mora l ly , d e f i c i e n t . However, c o n c u r r e n t l y , a f i g u r e l i k e P i n o c c h i o , a puppet who serves as a mimic f o o l , embodying i n h i s appearance the s p i r i t u a l a s s a u l t s and b a t t e r i n g s a human boy undergoes i n growing up and be ing scourged i n t o c o n f o r m i t y , t u r n s back on h i s oppressors and w i t h the p e r c e p t u a l power of a c h i l d turns the u g l i n e s s of h i s m u t i l a t i o n s i n t o a weapon. He seems to have d e l i b e r a t e l y under -gone the m u t i l a t i o n s i n order to t u r n h i m s e l f i n t o a grotesque t o r t u r e r 64 who i n h i s a n a r c h i c u g l i n e s s taunts the r i g i d i t y and f e a r s of h i s o p -p r e s s o r w i t h tha t same l a c k of respec t f o r the appearances and r u l e s of s o c i e t y which had caused the l a t t e r to i n f l i c t punishment i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Grotesque imagery, not however employed f o r moral purposes , was common i n the n u r s e r y rhymes. The comic songs , v e n d o r s ' c a l l s , and p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e s of the p r e v i o u s two c e n t u r i e s , as w e l l as many verses created by nurses to amuse c h i l d r e n , had by the e a r l y n ineteenth , century r e c e i v e d l i t e r a r y . f o r m . The e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d n u r s e r y rhymes were Tommy Thumb's P r e t t y Song.Book of 1744, Mother Goose 's M e l o d i e s of 1760 w i t h a p r e f a c e by G o l d s m i t h , and Gammer G u r t o n ' s G a r l a n d of 1784. By the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century most of the common rhymes had been pub-l i s h e d . These.rhymes embody p o w e r f u l a t t a c k s a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y , aes -t h e t i c i d e a l s , and the dominance of l o g i c . T h e i r b a s i c tone i s a humorous g e n i a l i t y . They may express s e l f - e v i d e n t p r o p o s i t i o n s , a mockery o f - h i g h - s o u n d i n g , m a n i p u l a t i v e uses of l o g i c : L i t t l e Jack J i n g l e He used to l i v e s i n g l e But when he got t i r e d of t h i s k i n d of l i f e ^ He l e f t o f f be ing s i n g l e , and l i v e d w i t h h i s w i f e . or f o l k wisdom: The n o r t h wind doth blow And we s h a l l have snow And what w i l l the r o b i n do then Poor t h i n g ? 5 3 65 Most o f t e n they are v i g n e t t e s , genre p i e c e s : Cheese and bread f o r gentlemen Hay and corn f o r horses A cup of a l e f o r good o l d wives And k i s s e s f o r young l a s s e s . 5 4 The dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the rhymes i s a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h rhythm and rhyme, ,and l o g i c a l meaning i s o f t e n subordina ted to t h e s e ; , thus the frequency of one or two nonsense l i n e s at the b e g i n n i n g or a nonsense r e f r a i n : Hey d i d d l e d i n k e t y , poppety p e t , ^ The merchants of London they wear s c a r l e t . D i d d l e , d i d d l e d u m p l i n g , my son John , . Went to bed w i t h h i s t r o u s e r s on.56 T h i s s e n s u a l d e l i g h t i s c a r r i e d over i n t o the v i s u a l images and other s e n s u a l p r o p e r t i e s of the o b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d . This, can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g o l d rhyme i n which the r e f r a i n r e v e a l s an equal p l e a s u r e i n the m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s of words and i n evoking the t a s t e or scent or t e x t u r e of the o b j e c t s they d e s c r i b e . Can you make me a cambrick s h i r t , P a r s l e y , sage, rosemary and thyme Without any seam or needle work? And you s h a l l be a t r u e l o v e r of mine . Can you reap i t w i t h a s i c k l e of l e a t h e r , P a r s l e y , sage, rosemary and thyme, And b i n d i t up i n a peacock ' s f ea ther? And you s h a l l be a t r u e l o v e r of mine.57 T h i s d e l i g h t . w i t h the m a t e r i a l w o r l d , w i t h comic p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s , 66 The man i n the w i l d e r n e s s asked me, How many s t r a w b e r r i e s grew i n the sea? I answered h i m , as I thought good, g As many as red h e r r i n g s grew i n the wood. develops i n t o d e v i s i n g comic i m p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s , v a r i a t i o n s on the u s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b j e c t s , There was an o l d woman who l i v e d i n a shoe ^ Who had so many c h i l d r e n she d i d n ' t know what to do I f a l l the w o r l d was a p p l e - p i e And a l l the sea was i n k And a l l the t r e e s were bread and cheese What cou ld we do f o r dr ink?60 Dickens seems to have absorbed t h e i r penchant f o r m i n g l i n g p e o p l e , a n i m a l s , and inanimate o b j e c t s w i t h i n one f a n t a s y environment : Hey d i d d l e d i d d l e . The cat and the f i d d l e The cow jumped over the moon The l i t t l e dog laughed. To see such s p o r t ^ And the d i s h ran away w i t h the spoon. or f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g the most f a n c i f u l w i t h the most mundane, The man i n the moon Came tumbl ing down And asked h i s way to Norwich He went by the south And burnt h i s mouth With supping hot pease p o r r i d g e . I f they sometimes t h r e a t e n f r i g h t e n i n g r e t r i b u t i o n . I t i s h a r d l y f o r the s i n s that the m o r a l i s t s w o r r i e d about , " i t would not be w o n d e r f u l to meet a Megalosaurus , f o r t y f e e t long or s o , waddl ing l i k e an e l e p h a n t i n e l i z a r d up Holborn H i l l . Smoke . . . w i t h f l a k e s of s o o t , i n i t as b i g as f u l l - g r o w n snowflakes—gone i n t o mourning, one might i m a g i n e , f o r the death of the s u n . " (Bleak  House, C h . I , p . 1) 67 T e l l Ta le S p i t Your tongue s h a l l be s l i t And a l l the Dogs , S h a l l have a B i t . Dickens was not the o n l y m i d - c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a n f a s c i n a t e d w i t h the n u r s e r y rhyme grotesque v i s i o n of the ob jec t w o r l d coming to l i f e . A l i c e i n Wonderland i n l a r g e p a r t r e v o l v e s around the a n t i c s of those haughty p l a y i n g c a r d s , The Queen of Hearts .She baked some t a r t s A l l on a summer's day The Knave of Hearts He s t o l e those t a r t s ^ And took them c l e a n away. Yet w h i l e , throughout most of the t a l e , C a r r o l l l e t s the Cards c a r r y out t h e i r f a n t a s t i c r i t u a l , l e t s them assume the shapes of c e r t a i n b l a c k f o r c e s i n h i s and A l i c e ' s minds , s t i l l , i n t h i s dream-world we never q u i t e l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t tha t the whole exper ience i s a mental game w i t h t e r r o r , . a n a e s t h e t i c c o u n t e r p a r t to the mathemat ica l p u z z l e s tha t d e l i g h t e d C a r r o l l , and tha t A l i c e w i l l not f i n a l l y become the m a s o c h i s t i c  v i c t i m of the h y p n o t i c f o r c e s she p r o j ec ts i n t o the w o r l d o u t s i d e h e r - s e l f . A t the c r u c i a l moment A l i c e i s thoroughly capable of s a y i n g " Y o u ' r e n o t h i n g but a pack of c a r d s , a n d ' t h e f a n t a s t i c game.is r e v e a l e d to have been n o t h i n g more than t h a t . L i k e A l i c e , the n u r s e r y rhymes have no t r o u b l e c o n f r o n t i n g death and v i o l e n c e . The almost r i t u a l death of Cock Robin i s c a r r i e d out. w i t h l o v i n g d i g n i t y , I t has been suggested tha t t h i s o l d rhyme was indeed o r i g i n a l l y l i n k e d to seasonal r i t e s c e l e b r a t i n g the d y i n g of the summer. 68 Who k i l l e d Cock Robin? ' I ' s a i d the sparrow, ' w i t h my l i t t l e bow and a r r o w , I k i l l e d Cock R o b i n . ' 'Who saw him d i e ? ' ' I ' s a i d the f l y , ' w i t h my l i t t l e eye , I saw him die .66 Yet two obvious a t t r i b u t e s of the rhymes tha t occupied D i c k e n s ' i m a g i n a t i o n a l s o are anthropomorphism and a n . o b s e s s i o n w i t h f o o d . The f o r m e r , i s not i d e n t i c a l w i t h employing an animal f a b l e to i l l u s t r a t e a m o r a l ; i t does not r e i n f o r c e the e s s e n t i a l an imal t r a i t s but r a t h e r , endows the c r e a t u r e s w i t h human p e r s o n a l i t i e s . O r i g i n a l l y t h i s may have been a f a n c i f u l technique f o r d o m e s t i c a t i n g the f i e r c e aspects of the animal w o r l d . Animals must be decked o u t , as i n A l i c e i n Wonderland (1865) w i t h top hats and pocket watches ( C a r r o l l i s a c t u a l l y not g u i l t y of the coyness that permeated l a t e r works such as the P e t e r R a b b i t t a l e s ; h i s a n i m a l s . a r e always a source of i n t e n s e p a s s i o n , and i n f a c t ; f a n t a s t i c dream c r e a t u r e s ) , or c o n v e r s e l y , as i n D i c k e n s , may e x i s t on ly i n the comic animal aspects of P e r k e r , Snubbin , Miss F l i t e , 67 M i s s P r o s s — " a n u n r u l y charger i n harness of s t r i n g . " In c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e t h i s form of the grotesque can be charming f a n t a s y . In an a d u l t . i t i s r e f l e c t i v e of a severe a l i e n a t i o n from the sources of an imal power that are p a r t of our n a t u r e . I t i s an a s e x u a l v i s i o n which seeks f o r enter ta inment i n the e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , i d i o s y n c r a s i e s and d e f o r m i t i e s of people who have a l s o had t h e i r b a s i c animal nature des t royed or t w i s t e d . Animals as t o y - f i g u r e s , c h i l d r e n as f e y , the moments of g r e a t e s t enjoyment i n v a r i a b l y f e a s t s (Herbert and ' H a n d e l ' s ' f e a s t i n Great 69 E x p e c t a t i o n s , B e l l a and J o h n ' s engagement—the 'Feas t of the Three H o b - , g o b l i n s ' — i n Our Mutua l F r i e n d ) , and a cas t of p r e t t i n e s s over a l l ; t h i s was a minor s t r a i n i n the n u r s e r y rhymes, ye t one tha t Dickens seems to have absorbed and made h i s own. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n B leak House and Great E x p e c t a t i o n s he draws upon images from the n u r s e r y rhymes and c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e f o r h i s i d y l l i c scenes . Dickens i n f a c t s h a r e s , or i n many cases , a n t i c i p a t e s , a g e n e r a l f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the qua in t i d y l l i c i s m tha t can. be read i n t o the rhymes—the whole e x q u i s i t e t r a d i -t i o n of l i t t l e mice and r a b b i t s dressed up i n aprons and s p e c t a c l e s tha t was i n d u l g e d i n by B e a t r i x P o t t e r ( F i g u r e 41) and many l a t e r w r i t e r s , and which l e d to the c r e a t i o n i n the 1890's o f . s u c h toy f i g u r e s as Teddy Bear , and to occurrences such as the premiere of James B a r r i e ' s Pe ter Pan (1904) when an a d u l t audience b u r s t out c l a p p i n g at P e t e r P a n ' s p l e a f o r f a i t h i n f a i r i e s . The rhymes that i l l u s t r a t e most c l e a r l y the s t r a i n I am t a l k i n g are ones l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : I saw a s h i p a - s a i l i n g A - s a i l i n g on the s e a , And oh i t was a l l l a d e n With p r e t t y t h i n g s f o r . t h e e . There were c o m f i t s i n the c a b i n And apples i n the h o l d The s a i l s were made of s i l k And the masts were a l l of g o l d The f o u r and twenty s a i l o r s That s tood between the decks Were f o u r and twenty w h i t e mice With chains about t h e i r n e c k s . QIIULM • VK * 0 ' O f J , «-i i-L.il u I I ( -—~T C 5? * : C"."-r0'. ^w-'O'. flitter, Where shall J wander t Up stairs, doivn stairs. And in my lady's chamber : There I met an old man. Who would not say his prayers; Take him by the left leg. Throw him down the stairs. 7ft 42. R a l p K CaUccot iT • r3 71 The c a p t a i n was a duck With a packet on h i s pack And when the s h i p began to move^g The c a p t a i n s a i d , Quack, Quack! T h i s rhyme reminds one of Wal ter C r a n e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n of the w h i t e mice l o a d i n g a n u t s h e l l w i t h almonds, and has a successor i n Wal ter de l a M a r e ' s Ships of Y u l e . But Dickens a n t i c i p a t e d both i n Our  Mutua l F r i e n d i n the scene where B e l l a , the Boofer L a d y , and her c l e r k -f a t h e r P a , a l i a s the Cherub, watch the boats on the Thames: Now, P a , i n the c h a r a c t e r of owner of a lumbering s q u a r e - s a i l e d c o l l i e r , was t a c k i n g away to N e w c a s t l e , to f e t c h b l a c k diamonds to make h i s f o r t u n e w i t h . . . tha t s h i p be ing towed out by a steam-tug? W e l l ! where d i d you suppose she was going to? She was going out among the c o r a l r e e f s and cocoanuts and tha t s o r t . o f t h i n g , and she was c h a r t e r e d to a f o r t u n a t e i n d i v i d u a l of the name of Pa . . . and she was g o i n g , f o r h i s s o l e p r o f i t and adventure , to f e t c h a cargo of s w e e t - s m e l l i n g woods, the most . b e a u t i f u l tha t ever were seen, . . . the l o v e l y woman who had purchased her and f i t t e d her e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s voyage, be ing m a r r i e d to an I n d i a n P r i n c e who was a Someth ing-or -Other , and who wore Cashmere shawls a l l over h i m s e l f , and diamonds and emeralds b l a z i n g i n h i s t u r b a n , and was b e a u t i f u l l y c o f f e e - c o l o u r e d and e x c e s s i v e l y devoted.69 The great exponents of t h i s g r o t e s q u e r i e of innocence ("the toys were ye t grouped as the c h i l d r e n had l e f t them . . . and i n t h e i r innocent grotesqueness and i n c o n g r u i t y , they might have stood f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s dreams"—Our Mutua l F r i e n d , B k . 2 , C h . 9 ) were the i l l u s t r a t o r s . Of these the three most famous.were Wal ter Crane (1846-1886), Ralph C a l d e c o t t (1845-1915), and Kate Greenaway (1846-1891). Compare t h e i r work to t h a t of T e n n i e l 1 s Jabberwock designed f o r A l i c e ' s Adventures  Through the Looking G l a s s (F igures 39 -42 ) , a t r u l y grotesque dream f i g u r e which succeeds i n c o n f r o n t i n g the fearsome and the i n t a n g i b l e by 7 2 g i v i n g i t v i s u a l form. The l a t e r i l l u s t r a t o r s a v o i d any such c o n f r o n -t a t i o n w i t h or even r e c o g n i t i o n of the dark f o r c e s . L i k e one face of D i c k e n s , they r e c r e a t e from the nursery ,rhymes and c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e a w o r l d of u n n a t u r a l innocence as t h e i r own p e r s o n a l image of goodness, even p e r f e c t i o n , such as we see i n Greenaway's drawing of the .g iant shoe that houses the Old Woman, C a l d e c o t t ' s animated d i s h and spoon, e l o p i n g t o g e t h e r , C r a n e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Don Quixote i n e x q u i s i t e v i o l e t s , b l u e s , and apple greens . Having set the stage f o r D i c k e n s ' works both i n terms of a t r a d i t i o n of r e c u r r i n g grotesque images i n western European popular a r t , and i n terms of grotesque images and techniques common to the c o n -temporary f o l k c u l t u r e , i t now becomes p o s s i b l e to use these images as t o o l s f o r a n a l y z i n g some o f , t h e n o v e l s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , The Old C u r i o s i t y  Shop, Our M u t u a l F r i e n d , and The Mystery of Edwin Drood, and f o r d e t e r -min ing what grotesque p a t t e r n s develop and what p a r t i c u l a r meaning Dickens seems to a t t r i b u t e to such p a t t e r n s . 73 FOOTNOTES "'"Arthur C layborough , The Grotesque i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (Ox-f o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1965) , p . 2 . 2 John R u s k i n , The Stones of V e n i c e , V o l . I l l (Boston and New Y o r k : C o l o n i a l Press C o . , n . d . ) , C h . 3 , p . 143. 3 R u s k i n , p . 126. 4 George Santayana, The Sense of Beauty , 1896, quoted i n C l a y -borough, p . 17. ^ W i l l i a m A x t o n , C i r c l e of F i r e ( L e x i n g t o n : U n i v e r s i t y of K e n -tucky P r e s s , 1966), p . 28. 6 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1-13 are r e p r i n t e d from Thomas W r i g h t , H i s t o r y  of C a r i c a t u r e and the Grotesque (New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar , r e p r i n t 1968). The o r i g i n a l . s o u r c e s of W r i g h t ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e : 1. engraved gem, reproduced from D i s s e r t a t i o de L a r v i s S c e n i c i s , -F i c o r o n i , 1754. F i c o r o n i ' s book i s source m a t e r i a l f o r both Wright and A l l a r d y c e N i c o l l . I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g storehouse of i n f o r m a t i o n on Roman masked f i g u r e s . There i s a copy i n the Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia . 2 . engraved onyx, same s o u r c e . 3 . w a l l p a i n t i n g , Temple of Venus, P o m p e i i . A common method of v i s u a l s a t i r e among the Romans, these dwarfs are r e a l l y midgets w i t h the heads of comparat ive g i a n t s on minute b o d i e s . Unless there are normal humans f o r comparison, the a r t i s t tends to make any d w a r f i s h humans m i d g e t - l i k e i f he i s seeking a g r o t e s -que e f f e c t . T h i s i s a technique in ,much l a t e r c a r i c a t u r e and one which Daumier, D i c k e n s ' contemporary ; r e l i e d on f r e q u e n t l y . . 4 . C a t h e d r a l of W e l l s . 5 . mural by W i l l i a m of Cologne , i n C a t h e d r a l of T r e v e s , f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 6. Queen M a r y ' s P s a l t e r , manuscr ipt i n B r i t i s h Museum. 7. from s t a l l i n Church of N a n t w i c h , C h e s h i r e . Reformat ion s a t i r -i s t s drew on a mediaeval t r a d i t i o n of an imal c a r v i n g s s a t i r i z i n g the c l e r g y (as i n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n ) i n d e s i g n i n g popular wood-cuts such as the Pope-ass and the M o n k - c a l f . 8. c a r v i n g s i n S t . L e v e n , C o r n w a l l , near L a n d ' s End. 9. engraved p l a t e by B r e u g h e l . 10. from s e r i e s of p r i n t s , on P r i d e , S l o t h , e t c . , by B r e u g h e l . 11 . Jacques C a l l o t . 12. Jacques C a l l o t . 13. Jacques C a l l o t . 74 ^ V i c t o r Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame (London: Dent and Sons, 1964) , C h . I V , p . 39. g C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop (London: Oxford U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1951, r p t . 1960), C h . I V , p . 36. 9 W r i g h t , p . 70. " ^ E n i d W e l f o r d , The F o o l , H i s S o c i a l and L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y ( G l o u c e s t e r , M a s s . : P e t e r S m i t h , 1966) . 1 : L The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop, C h . I V , p . 35 . 12 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , P i c k w i c k Papers (New Y o r k : Dodd, Mead and C o . , 1944), C h . I I , p . 9 . H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as P P . 1 3 P P , C h . X I I , p . 136. ' 14 p . 69, C o r n e l l s V e t h , Comic A r t i n England (London: G o l d s t o n , 1930), 1 5 P P _ , C h . X X X I I , p . 372. 1 6 P P , C h . V I , p.. 61 . 1 7 P P , Ch . X I I , p . 171. 1 8 P P , C h . X I , p . 122. 1 9 P P , C h . X X I , p . 246. 20 P P , Ch . X L I I , p . 508. 2 1 P P , C h . X L I X , p . 586. 22 A . E . W i l s o n , . C h r i s t m a s Pantomime (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1934), p . 30. 23 W i l s o n , p . 23. 2 4 W i l s o n , p . 23. 25 Thomas D i b d i n , H a r l e q u i n and Mother, Goose, r e p r i n t e d i n C. W. Beaumont's H i s t o r y of H a r l e q u i n (New Y o r k : Benjamin Blom, 1967) . 2 6 P P , C h . X X I I I , p . 321. 27 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , B leak House (London: M a c m i l l a n and C o . , 1963), C h . XXXIX, p . 415. 75 28 P P , C h . I I , p . 11. 29 The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop, C h . L I , p . 381. 30 Matthew L e w i s , The Monk (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , .1952), C h . X I , p . 393. 31 Robert M a t u r i n , Melmoth the Wanderer, V o l . 2 (London: R. B e n t l e y and Sons, 1892), Ch . 8 , p . 39. 3 2 M a t u r i n , V o l . 2 , C h . 13, p . 1 5 8 . ' 33 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , Our M u t u a l F r i e n d , Bk. 2 (New Y o r k : H e r i t a g e P r e s s , 1957) , C h . 1 , p . 209. Mary S h e l l e y , F r a n k e n s t e i n (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969) , p . 113. 3 5 L e w i s , C h . V I , p . 243. 3 6 M a t u r i n , V o l . 2 , C h . 8, p . 23. 37 L e w i s , Ch . V I I , p . 273. O Q L e w i s , C h . X I I , p . 412. 3 9 L e w i s , C h . X I , p . 395. 40 4 1 M , Our Mutual . F r i e n d , Bk. 3 , C h . 10, p . 521. a t u r i n , V o l . 2 , Ch . 8, p . 26. 4 2 M a t u r i n , V o l . 2 , C h . 1 3 , . p . 159. 4 3 M a t u r i n , V o l . 2 , C h . 13 , p . 165. 4 4 Q u o t e d i n Stone, "The Dark Corners of One's M i n d : D i c k e n s 1 C h i l d h o o d R e a d i n g , " The Horn Book, 1963. 4 "^Charles D i c k e n s , "Frauds on F a i r i e s , " Household Words (Oct.. 1 , 1 8 5 3 ) . 46 One c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y of the time, George MacDonald's The L o s t  P r i n c e s s (1875), comes v i v i d l y to mind as a l i n k between the s p e l l -caused t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the f a i r y t a l e s and the d u a l i t y of many g o t h i c n o v e l c h a r a c t e r s . 4 7 H a n s C h r i s t i a n Andersen, '"The Marsh K i n g ' s Daughter ," F a i r y T a l e s (New Y o r k : Grosse t and D u n l a p , 1945) , p . 154. 76 48 J . L . K . and W. K. Grimm, " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l , " German  P o p u l a r S t o r i e s (London: John Camden H a t t e n , 1868) , p . 52. 49 Grimm, " O l d S u l t a n , " p . 104. 5 0 G r i m m , "The Frog B r i d e , " p . 216. " ' " ' " G i l l i a n A v e r y , N i n e t e e n t h Century C h i l d r e n (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965) , p . 45. ^ A l l nursery, rhymes taken from The Annotated Mother Goose ( C l a r k s o n : N . P o t t e r I n c . , 1962) . ' 65 Lewis C a r r o l l , A l i c e i n Wonderland (Norwich: . F l e t c h e r and Sons L t d . , , 1 9 6 5 ) , Ch . 12 , p . 133. 66 Mother Goose. 67 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , . A Ta le of Two C i t i e s , Bk. 2 (London: Chapman and H a l l , n . d . ) , C h . V I , ' p . 112. 68 Mother Goose. 69 Our M u t u a l F r i e n d , Bk. 2 , C h . V I I I , p . 306. CHAPTER I I THE .BOURGEOIS AND THE CLOWN: The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop ( w i t h r e f e r e n c e s to A Ta le of Two C i t i e s ) In Chapter I a s i m i l a r i t y between The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop and V i c t o r Hugo's Notre Dame de P a r i s was suggested. In f a c t , Hugo has ana lyzed the na ture of the grotesque i n terms which seem p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s Dickens n o v e l e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to the i d e a tha t a deformed appearance i m p l i e s s p i r i t u a l d e f o r m i t y . For him g r o -tesques are c h a o t i c , demonic, a n a r c h i c images which are t h e . o p p o s i t e of the s u b l i m e , and a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r comprehending i t : . l e grotesque s o i t un temps d ' a r r e t , un terme de comparison, un p o i n t de depart d ' o u l ' o n s ' e l e v e v e r s l e beau. . . . Le salamandre f a i t r e s s o r t i r l ' o n d i n e ; l e gnome e m b e l l i t l e s y l p h e . 2 * For Hugo.the f o l k t a l e , 'Beauty and B e a s t , ' shows how the popular mind grasped t h i s c o n c e p t i o n i n a r c h e t y p a l terms. C r i t i c s have a l r e a d y mentioned t h a t t h i s t a l e seems a p p l i c a b l e to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Q u i l p and N e l l , and i t seems even more f i t t i n g f o r the s i t u a t i o n of Quasimodo and Esmeralda i n Notre Dame de P a r i s . In d e s c r i b i n g the p e r -c e p t i o n s and reasoning of h i s deformed a n t i - h e r o , Hugo p r o v i d e s a f i c -t i o n a l framework f o r the ideas he expressed i n the ' P r e f a c e . ' I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to d i s c o v e r whether Dickens a t t r i b u t e s the same c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s to the mind of h i s m o n s t e r - f i g u r e , Q u i l p , to see the extent * T h i s a n a l y s i s i s found i n the ' P r e f a c e to h i s drama Cromwel l . 77 78 to which the grotesque image h o l d s i d e n t i c a l meanings f o r d i v e r s e a r t i s t s . Hugo says of Quasimodo: were i t p o s s i b l e f o r us . . . to throw a l l at once a s t r o n g l i g h t upon the Psyche chained down i n that drear c a v e r n — d o u b t l e s s we should f i n d the poor c r e a t u r e i n some pos ture of d e c r e p i t u d e , s tunted and r i c k e t y , l i k e those p r i s o n e r s tha t used to grow o l d i n the low dungeons of V e n i c e , bent double i n a stone chest too low and too shor t f o r them H i s b r a i n was a p e c u l i a r medium; the ideas which passed through i t i s s u e d f o r t h comple te ly d i s t o r t e d . The r e f l e c t i o n which proceeded from tha t r e f r a c t i o n was n e c e s s a r i l y d i v e r g e n t and a s t r a y . The f i r s t e f f e c t of t h i s f a t a l o r g a n i s a t i o n was to d i s t u r b the l o o k which he cas t upon e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s . He r e c e i v e d from them s c a r c e l y any immediate p e r c e p t i o n . The e x t e r n a l w o r l d seemed to him much f a r t h e r o f f than i t does to u s . The second e f f e c t of h i s m i s f o r t u n e was to render him m i s c h i e v o u s . He was m i s c h i e v o u s , i n d e e d , because he was savage; and he was savage because he was ugly.-3 Notre Dame de P a r i s was w r i t t e n i n 1830, The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop i n 1840. The s p i r i t u a l predecessor f o r bo th n o v e l s seems to be Mary S h e l l e y ' s F r a n k e n s t e i n , 1816, i n which the deformed monstrous outcas t makes h i s statement of s e l f - p r i d e : ' t h e human senses are insurmountable b a r r i e r s to our u n i o n . Yet mine s h a l l not be the' submiss ion of a b j e c t s l a v e r y . I w i l l revenge my i n j u r i e s : i f I cannot i n s p i r e . l o v e , . I w i l l cause f e a r . '.4 In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop Dickens seems to. have sought to a t t r i -bute moral v a l u e s to L i t t l e N e l l ' s beauty a n d . t o the grotesque appear-ance of the o ther c h a r a c t e r s . Q u i l p i s the obvious example of the l a t t e r : ' I not a cho ice s p i r i t , ' c r i e d Q u i l p . ' D e v i l a b i t s i r , ' r e t u r n e d 79 D i c k . ' A man of your appearance c o u l d n ' t be . I f y o u ' r e any s p i r i t at a l l , y o u ' r e an e v i l s p i r i t . ' 5 The n a r r a t o r sees N e l l ' s beauty as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of an a n g e l i c nature and g i v e s a moral v a l u e to the grotesqueness of her a c q u a i n t a n c e s : ' . . . to imagine her. i n f u t u r e l i f e , h o l d i n g her s o l i t a r y way among a crowd of w i l d grotesque companions: the o n l y p u r e , . f r e s h , y o u t h -f u l ob jec t i n t h i s t h r o n g . ' 6 Y e t , a l t h o u g h she i s s a i d to e x i s t i n " a k i n d of a l l e g o r y " 7 i n which the carny f o l k , the g r o t e s q u e s , the waxworks are necessary to her ' p i l g r i m ' s p r o g r e s s , ' the d i f f e r e n c e between N e l l ' a n d the grotesques i s not that they t y p i f y a b s t r a c t i o n s l i k e goodness and e v i l . The d i s t i n c t i o n  seems r a t h e r to be one of .approach . t o . c o n t r o l l i n g or m a n i p u l a t i n g one ' s  u n i v e r s e . The i n d i v i d u a l grotesque c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l are a l l , l i k e N e l l and.her g r a n d f a t h e r , r o o t l e s s and w i t h o u t a d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l o r d e r . Y e t , f o r none except N e l l and her grandfa ther i s t h i s uprootedness a s i g n a l f o r them to throw themselves upon s o c i e t y and become beggars . They manage, u n l i k e the two c e n t r a l v i c t i m s , to s u r v i v e and. t h r i v e . These f i g u r e s tend e i t h e r , t o b e . ' n a t u r a l ' g r o t e s -ques who t u r n these unprepossess ing q u a l i t i e s to t h e i r advantage or n o r m a l - l o o k i n g c h a r a c t e r s l i k e D i c k S w i v e l l e r or Tom Scot t who adopt a gro tesque , c l o w n - l i k e behaviour to secure a p o s i t i o n f o r themselves , or c h a r a c t e r s who c o n s o l i d a t e a c e r t a i n amount of power by a t t a c h i n g to themselves grotesque r e p r o d u c t i o n s of humanity . Thus the grandfa ther was secure as long as he had the shop w i t h i t s c u r i o u s carved f i g u r e s , C o d l i n and Short have Punch, and M r s . J a r l e y has the waxworks. . 80 The b l a c k i m a g i n a t i o n that c l a i m s N e l l , the a d d i c t i o n to gamb-l i n g tha t possesses the g r a n d f a t h e r , grow o u t . o f the f a c t tha t they are e s s e n t i a l l y ' l o s e r s . ' They are t o t a l l y unmanipula t ive and they assume that what they want w i l l come to them e i t h e r as t h e i r r i g h t , or s i m p l y because they w i l l i t . N e l l s a y s , " ' w e ' l l t u r n our faces from g t h i s scene of sor row, and be as f r e e and.happy as the b i r d s ' " ; and the grandfa ther views the chance to become r i c h through gambling as h i s r i g h t , s i n c e he does i t o s t e n s i b l y f o r N e l l : ' I have f e l t tha t from the f i r s t , I have always known i t , I ' v e seen i t , I never f e l t i t h a l f so s t r o n g l y . a s I f e e l i t now. Q u i l p , I have dreamed, three n i g h t s , of w i n n i n g the same l a r g e sum, I never c o u l d dream tha t dream b e f o r e , though I have o f t e n t r i e d .'9 When they are no longer shored up by the bulwarks of a g e n t e e l p o s i t i o n , they can n e i t h e r v i s u a l i z e themselves as f i g h t i n g f o r a l i v i n g i n a London slum as does M r s . N u b b l e s , nor u s i n g shrewdness to w i n at c a r d s , as do the other gamblers . Consequently the v i c i o u s n e s s , or merely the  sense of c o m p e t i t i o n , which they should possess to manipula te t h e i r  environment , i s turned back w i t h i n themselves , i n t o morbid and s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . H a l l u c i n a t i o n i s used here to mean a com-prehens ive d i s t o r t i o n of a g e n e r a l l y accepted r e a l i t y , and the h a l l u -c i n a t i o n s of N e l l and her grandfa ther are worth examining at some l e n g t h . S t r u c t u r a l l y the n o v e l i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t i n c o r p o r a t e s N e l l ' s v i s i o n i n t o . t h e very framework of the f i c t i o n . The n a r r a t o r of the f i r s t few chapters r e v e a l s h i s own approach to N e l l . t o be tha t of a h a l l u c i n a t i o n , . a n d d e s c r i b e s the . type of i m a g i n a t i o n i t i n v o l v e s . A n d , i n the l a t e r scenes w i t h N e l l , Dickens seems to merge h i s p o i n t of v iew 81 w i t h h e r s . I t i s i n essence a n i g h t t i m e v i s i o n . The n a r r a t o r t e l l s us ' " s a v i n g i n the country I seldom go out u n t i l a f t e r d a r k . 1 T h e n he says tha t he depends on t h i s darkness because i t l eaves him f r e e r to mold what he sees through h i s encompassing i m a g i n a t i o n , r a t h e r than to come to g r i p s w i t h i t on i t s own terms: 'day which too o f t e n d e s t r o y s an a i r - b u i l t c a s t l e at the moment of i t s c o m p l e t i o n , w i t h o u t the l e a s t ceremony or - r e m o r s e . ' H ' the theme was c a r r y i n g me a long w i t h i t at a great pace,, and a l -ready I saw be fore me a r e g i o n on which I was l i t t l e d i sposed to e n t e r . ' 1 2 N e l l ' s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s a t t r i b u t e an enormous power to p e r s o n a l i t y , whereby the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two people i s a h y p n o t i c one, w i t h one person p l a y i n g the r o l e of master , the other tha t of s l a v e . Her. g r a n d -f a t h e r i n h i s s e n i l i t y a l s o tends to respond to r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s way. N e l l ' s f l i g h t from Q u i l p i s her escape from a r e l a t i o n s h i p which she can o n l y v i s u a l i z e i n h y p n o t i c terms. Yet her r e l a t i o n s h i p to her grandfa ther i s s i m i l a r . A f t e r the g r a n d f a t h e r ' s i l l n e s s , N e l l p l a y s the a d u l t r o l e as he l apses i n t o second c h i l d h o o d : ' I can do n o t h i n g f o r m y s e l f , my d a r l i n g , ' . . . ' I d o n ' t know how-i t i s I c o u l d once, but the t i m e ' s gone. D o n ' t l e a v e me, N e l l . ' 1 3 She supports them by t a k i n g care of the money, by b e g g i n g , by w o r k i n g at the waxworks. Yet when the grandfa ther meets the gamblers at the i n n , a complete s w i t c h of r o l e s o c c u r s : 82 'What money have we, N e l l ? Come! I saw you w i t h money y e s t e r d a y . What money have we? . Give i t to me . . . ' 'Do not take i t ' s a i d the c h i l d . ' P r a y do not take i t d e a r . For both' our sakes l e t me keep i t or l e t me throw i t away . . ..' She took from her pocket a l i t t l e p u r s e . He s e i z e d i t w i t h the same r a p i d impat ience which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s speech, and h a s t i l y made h i s way to the o ther s i d e of the screen.14 The change i n the g r a n d f a t h e r i s not so i n t e r e s t i n g as that i n N e l l . Under the i n f l u e n c e of h i s o l d a d d i c t i o n he r e g a i n s some v i g o u r . Yet there seems no reason why N e l l ' s p r o t e s t should be conducted w i t h such a d e f e a t i s t a i r . S ince she has p r e v i o u s l y made a l l the d e c i s i o n s , why does she say 'Do not take i t ' i n s t e a d of ' I w o n ' t g i v e i t to y o u ? ' T o t a l l y aware of the consequences; why does she remove her purse almost as i f he compels her to do so? I t can o n l y be t h a t she c o n s i d e r s h e r -s e l f unworthy to c o n t r o l her w o r l d , or does not w i s h to succeed i n doing s o . Orice the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e ac t has been per formed j the grandfa ther recaptured by the g a m b l i n g - s p e l l , she i s capable of w i t h h o l d i n g the r e s t of the money from h i m . C u r i o u s l y , when i t i s M r s . J a r l e y ' s s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s at s t a k e , : N e l l recovers her ascendancy over her g r a n d f a t h e r . She does so n o t : through p e r s u a s i o n or r e a s o n i n g , but through an almost s u p e r n a t u r a l power of p e r s o n a l i t y . She. f o r c e s him to f l e e the men who want him to rob M r s . J a r l e y : Whi le h e , subdued and abashed, seemed to crouch b e f o r e h e r , and to s h r i n k and cower down, as i f i n the presence of some s u p e r i o r c r e a -t u r e , the c h i l d h e r s e l f was s e n s i b l e of a.new f e e l i n g w i t h i n , h e r , which e l e v a t e d her n a t u r e , and i n s p i r e d her w i t h an energy and a conf idence she had never known.15 83 The nature of t h i s power of hers o v e r , t h e grandfa ther i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the words she uses to ' w i l l ' him to l e a v e . ' I have had a d r e a d f u l dream . . . I t i s a dream of g r e y - h a i r e d men l i k e y o u , i n darkened rooms by n i g h t , robb ing the s l e e p e r s of t h e i r g o l d . Up, u p ! ' 1 6 The s t o r y i s f a c t , but ga ins power by be ing transposed i n t o the rea lm of .dreams and second s i g h t . When they a r r i v e i n the m i d l a n d s , t h e . g r a n d f a t h e r r e f e r s back to t h i s scene: "'We came from a q u i e t p a r t . Why d i d you f o r c e me to leave? ' " " ^ [ i t a l i c s m i n e ] . Though the ;only f o r c e used was. f o r c e of w i l l or p e r s o n a l i t y , he assumes tha t he had no power to r e s i s t h e r . L i k e w i s e N e l l had assumed she had no power to r e -s i s t her g r a n d f a t h e r when she r e l i n q u i s h e d her purse to h i m . M r s . H i n i w i n a b d i c a t e s her w i l l to Q u i l p i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n : " i t [ s t i c k i n g out h i s tongue] made him appear such a l i t t l e f i e n d , and w i t h a l such a keen and knowing one, t h a t the o l d woman f e l t too much a f r a i d of him 18 to u t t e r a s i n g l e w o r d . " So does D i c k S w i v e l l e r : ' I f you had seen him d r i n k and smoke, as I d i d , you c o u l d n ' t have kept a n y t h i n g from h i m . He ' s a Salamander -. . . ' 1 9 T h i s response to a h y p n o t i c power tha t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f o n l y on o c c a -s i o n leads the c h a r a c t e r s to a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h . ' i m a g e , ' w i t h v i s u a l appearance as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of mora l c h a r a c t e r . For N e l l , her g r a n d -f a t h e r when he becomes a t h i e f assumes a grotesque f o r m , p r o j e c t s a t o t a l l y new ' i m a g e . ' For her the i d e a of the double or 'shadow' p e r -s o n a l i t y takes on a . m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e : . 84 the man she had seen tha t n i g h t , . . . l u r k i n g i n .her room, and count ing the money by the g l immering l i g h t , seemed a monstrous d i s - t o r t i o n of h i s image, a something to r e c o i l f r o m , and be the more a f r a i d o f , because i t bore a l i k e n e s s to h i m , . . .20 [ i t a l i c s mine] N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s change i r i the grandfa ther i s as much i n N e l l ' s response , R u s k i n ' s ' s e e i n g m a n , ' as i n h i s own appearance: the phantom i n her mind so i n c r e a s e d i n gloom and t e r r o r , t h a t she f e l t i t would be a r e l i e f . . . even to see him and b a n i s h some of the f e a r s that c l u s t e r e d round h i s image.21 [ i t a l i c s mine] T h i s f e a r of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of mora l v a l u e so s t r o n g i t c rea tes a h a l l u c i n a t i o n of grotesque t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of appearance i s a s i g n of the p a s s i v i t y that makes her comple te ly dependent on others f o r the q u a l i t y of her environment . ' I n t e r e s t i n g l y the p a s s i v i t y or i n e r t i a tha t c o n t r o l s her v i s i o n causes her to v iew people i n the same ext ravagant , i d e a l i z e d manner tha t was seen i n F r a n k e n s t e i n ' s monster , whose c a p a c i t y f o r a c t u a l , communication was t o t a l l y sea led o f f . T h i s concern w i t h v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y i s not r e s t r i c t e d to N e l l . The grandfa ther a s k s : "'Whose image s a n c t i f i e s t h e . 22 game?'" and the s i n g l e gentleman responds to h i s v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n of N e l l , " ' t r a c e the same sweet g i r l through a long l i n e of p o r t r a i t s — 23 never growing o l d or changing—the Good A n g e l of the r a c e . ' " The i n c r e d i b l e power- that Q u i l p ' s u g l i n e s s h o l d s f o r N e l l , the u g l y second shape that she sees i n her grandfa ther are v e r y much i i i the t r a d i t i o n of imagery a t t r i b u t e d to the f i g u r e s of ogre and w i t c h i n the f a i r y t a l e s or to the s u p e r n a t u r a l f i g u r e s , of the g o t h i c n o v e l s . No s p e l l s e x i s t i n t h e i r a r s e n a l , ye t N e l l chooses to behave as i f they 85 do, and allows herself to become spell-bound. From another point of view her recognition of people as images —her dream in which Quilp, M r s . J a rley, the waxworks and the b a r r e l -organ, are indistinguishable—renders them statue-like or robot-like, in fact dehumanizes them and pushes them back into the scenery. Yet for Nell the natural world exists primarily as a vision giving physical form to the black forces that control her mind, like the pictures in the factory f i r e of the madman who tends i t : 'You d o n ' t know how many s t range faces and d i f f e r e n t scenes. I t r a c e i n the red hot c o a l s . I t ' s my memory, that,, f i r e , and shows me a l l my l i f e . ' 2 4 * I t i s f o r t h i s reason that she l a y s such s t r e s s on sunshine and greenery , and p r o f e s s e s such h a t r e d of the c i t y and the f a c t o r y . t o w n . In the l a t t e r she sees the a c t u a l t a l i s m a n s or charms which se t i n v i -b r a t i o n the corresponding f o r c e s i n her m i n d : there was a crooked s t a c k of chimneys on one of the r o o f s i n w h i c h , by. o f t e n l o o k i n g at them, she had f a n c i e d u g l y faces t h a t were f rowning over at h e r . 2 5 Thus N e l l ' s consc ious mental calm i s s h a t t e r e d by the l e a s t c o n f u s i o n i n . t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . Wi th the n o i s y but harmless bargemen: * T h i s image a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s L o u i s a G r a d g r i n d , L i z z i e Hexam and M r . . G r e w g i o u s f o r whom the f i r e i s a s i g n of t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s and. a l s o a t r u t h t e l l e r tha t h e l p s them see t h i n g s c l e a r l y . For L o u i s a and Grewgious, t rapped w i t h i n a s t o n i e r w o r l d , the f i r e , the source of energy and p a s s i o n that they cannot s h a r e , b e n e f i c e n t l y throws up i m -ages tha t serve them as s u b s t i t u t e s — l i k e Jenny Wren's b i r d s and f l o w e r s . 86 l i s t e n i n g to t h e i r b o i s t e r o u s h o s t s w i t h a p a l p i t a t i n g h e a r t and almost w i s h i n g h e r s e l f sa fe on shore a g a i n , though she should have to walk a l l n i g h t . 2 6 and i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t s o r t of crowdedness, she r e a c t s s i m i l a r l y : ' i f we get c l e a r of these d r e a d f u l p l a c e s , though i t i s o n l y to l i e d o w n , a n d . d i e , w i t h what a g r a t e f u l hear t s h a l l I thank God f o r such mercy. '^7 . ' The grandfa ther i n h i s s e n i l i t y shares her responses . As they leave London he i s "murmuring tha t r u i n and s e l f - m u r d e r , were c r o u c h i n g i n . 28 every s t r e e t , " and when t h e y . r e a c h the i n d u s t r i a l midlands a f t e r f l e e i n g M r s . J a r l e y ' s , he says " I cannot bear these c l o s e e t e r n a l 29 s t r e e t s j " an obvious echo of the f e e l i n g of c l a u s t r o p h o b i a expressed i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s . To say these t h i n g s about N e l l i s to present her as a f r i g h t e n e d c r e a t u r e w i t h l i t t l e c a p a c i t y f o r comprehending r e a l i t y , whereas she i s a f t e r a l l a c h i l d overtaxed by r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and scenes of r e a l s u f f e r -i n g . Yet inasmuch as she i s not a c h i l d , but a rosy budding young, woman and K i t ' s " M i s s N e l l , " . p r e d e c e s s o r of a l i n e of h e l p l e s s , m i d d l e -c l a s s h e r o i n e s , her response to any s i t u a t i o n i s to a v o i d c o n f l i c t . Her pr imary ges ture i s f l i g h t . In the v e r y r e a l i n f e r n o of the f a c t o r y town and the wasteland, around i t , her r e a c t i o n i s t o t a l l y b o u r g e o i s . Though her mind i s s t i r r e d to h o r r o r , , i t i s because i t i s an u g l y and confused nightmare tha t she must undergo. She i n no way i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the s u f f e r i n g people she sees . She r e c e i v e s no s t r e n g t h from f e e l i n g tha t her p o s i t i o n i s l e s s p i t i a b l e than t h e i r , or even one w i t h t h e i r s : 87 'Why had they ever come to t h i s n o i s y town, when there were peace-f u l country p l a c e s i n w h i c h , a t l e a s t , they might have, hungered a n d . t h i r s t e d w i t h l e s s s u f f e r i n g than i n t h i s s q u a l i d s t r i f e ! They were but an atom, h e r e , i n a mountain heap of m i s e r y , the v e r y s i g h t of which i n c r e a s e d t h e i r hopelessness and s u f f e r i n g • ' 3 0 She r e t a i n s a m i d d l e - c l a s s detachment. The whole waste land scene passes l i k e a t e r r i f y i n g m i r age . T h i s i n t e n s e r e a c t i o n to p l a c e i s c a r r i e d to an extreme when the m a t e r i a l w o r l d and her unconscious become f u s e d . P a r t l y t h i s ex -h i b i t s i t s e l f i n her v i v i d , d r e a m - l i f e : Q u i l p who throughout her uneasy dreams was somehow connected w i t h waxwork, or was waxwork h i m s e l f , or was M r s . J a r i e y and waxwork t o o , or was h i m s e l f , M r s . J a r i e y , waxwork and a b a r r e l - o r g a n a l l i n one, and y e t not e x a c t l y any of them e i t h e r . 3 1 T h i s s u r r e a l i s t i c r e - c r e a t i o n of her w o r l d i s a source of h o r r o r f o r N e l l . But the breakdown of f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s i s not r e a l l y tha t d i f -f e r e n t from the i m a g i n a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of o b j e c t s i n the p a n t o -mime and c a r i c a t u r e , where the emphasis i s on and the d e l i g h t i s i n the new grotesque c r e a t i o n . A t o ther t imes the w o r l d of f a c t so c l o s e l y assumes the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a dream tha t N e l l ' s sense of rootedness i s q u i t e l o s t : t a l l chimneys crowding on each other and p r e s e n t i n g t h a t , e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n of the same d u l l , u g l y f o r m , which i s the h o r r o r of o p p r e s s i v e dreams, poured o u t , t h e i r plague of smoke, obscured the l i g h t , . a n d made f o u l the melancholy a i r . 3 2 T h i s r e c a l l s P i r a n e s i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e , the r e p e t i t i o n of w a l l s and t u n -n e l s , a s tony maze w i t h o u t any apparent escape. Both are p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of an obsess ive s t a t e of t h i n k i n g tha t becomes t e r r i f i e d 88 by i t s own t o r t u o u s n e s s . The n a r r a t o r ' s e a r l y h a l l u c i n a t i o n s about N e l l ' s f a t e are r e -p l a c e d i n the p l o t by her own h a l l u c i n a t i o n s of f u t u r e t r o u b l e . When she i s work ing f o r the waxworks and t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s seem o v e r ; "Now she c o u l d not h e l p c o n s i d e r i n g what would become of them i f he f e l l 33 s i c k , or her. own s t r e n g t h were to f a i l h e r . " When she sees the church gatehouse where they are to l i v e w i t h the schoo lmas ter , she s a y s , " ' A 3 A q u i e t happy p l a c e — a p l a c e to l i v e and l e a r n to d i e . ' " The r o l e of churches i n the n o v e l i s complex. In t h e i r b e a u t y , t h e i r aura of o r d e r , they are l i k e t h e . f a i r y t a l i s m a n s , the ob jec ts , o u t s i d e h e r s e l f i n which N e l l has to p l a c e her t r u s t . Yet they bear resemblances to the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the g o t h i c n o v e l s . The w o r l d of change e x i s t s o u t -s i d e them, as h e r ' c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the o ld . woman at the grave shows, and N e l l f e a r s change, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Yet another s i d e of her does not want to d i e , but f e e l s powerless to r e s i s t a h y p n o t i c q u a l i t y she a t t r i b u t e s to the churches . She . b e l i e v e s , i n her. p a r a n o i d w i l l e s s way, tha t the w o r l d of o b j e c t s which chose to taunt her i n the midlands has now orda ined her own d e a t h , and she must l e a r n to accept i t : Upon these tenements the a t t e n t i o n of the c h i l d became e x c l u s i v e l y r i v e t e d . She knew not why . . . from the moment when her eyes f i r s t r e s t e d on these two d w e l l i n g s she cou ld t u r n to n o t h i n g e l se .35 N e l l has one very obvious s p i r i t u a l descendant . T h i s i s Stephen B l a c k p o o l i n Hard Times; L i k e N e l l he i s c l e a r l y a ' l o s e r . ' He clings d e s p e r a t e l y to the Tightness of a u t h o r i t y a t the same time tha t subserv ience to i t i s d e s t r o y i n g h i m . In o ther d e s t r u c t i v e l y 89 d i v i d e d c h a r a c t e r s l i k e Headstone, J a s p e r , to an extent P i p , the v a l u e s of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y are e x p l i c i t l y s a i d to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r d u a l i t y , which i s l i n k e d to. t h e i r d e s i r e s f o r s o c i a l advancement or esteem. T h i s i s not the case w i t h Stephen. He s u f f e r s from g r o -tesque h a l l u c i n a t i o n s l i k e those that torment N e l l : , . F i l l e d w i t h these thoughts—-so f i l l e d tha t he had an unwholesome sense of growing l a r g e r , of be ing p l a c e d i n some new and d i s e a s e d r e l a t i o n towards the o b j e c t s among which he passed.36 he was the sub jec t of a nameless , h o r r i b l e d r e a d , a m o r t a l f e a r of one p a r t i c u l a r shape which e v e r y t h i n g took.37 [ i t a l i c s mine] L i k e N e l l and l i k e the c h a r a c t e r s of the g o t h i c n o v e l s , the torment that goes on i n h i s mind causes him to v iew other people i n extreme and extravagant ways. H i s drunken w i f e and h i s g e n t l e g i r l f r i e n d are p i c t u r e d i n images tha t make of one h i s good angel and of the o ther h i s b a d , i n what Jung would s u r e l y speak of as the two extremes of h i s anima a r c h e t y p e . S ince both counse l obedience to the s o c i a l o r d e r , though one does so out of t a u n t i n g sadism, the other out of r e s i g n e d r a t i o n -a l i t y , they c o u l d i n e f f e c t be p r o j e c t i o n s of Stephen's own response to a u t h o r i t y , c o n t r a d i c t o r y e x p r e s s i o n s of how he f e e l s about h i s s e l f i n f l i c t e d s u b s e r v i e n c e . Fur thermore , t r u e to the r e a c t i o n s of the trapped v i c t i m s i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , and to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between N e l l and her g r a n d f a t h e r , and to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggested f o r human behaviour i n the f a i r y t a l e s , B l a c k p o o l views h i s power f o r a c t i o n i n terms of f o r c e s w h o l l y o u t s i d e h i m s e l f , i n terms of magic and ' p o s -s e s s i o n . ' Thus as h i s drunken w i f e reaches to swal low the p o i s o n : " A l l 90 t h i s t i m e , as i f a s p e l l were on h i m , he was m o t i o n l e s s and p o w e r l e s s , 38 except to watch h e r . " N e l l ' s f e a r s of a c h a o t i c environment and her o b s e s s i v e s e l f -d e s t r u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g are common to a group of c h a r a c t e r s i n a much l a t e r n o v e l , . A T a l e of Two C i t i e s . These c h a r a c t e r s however have evo lved techniques f o r coping w i t h t h e i r f e a r s , and Dickens f o r some reason has p r o v i d e d them w i t h an environment i n which t h i s i s p o s s i b l e . The s t o r y of. the Manettes i s a f a i r y t a l e , an e x t e r n a l r e n d e r i n g of i n n e r s t a t e s of mind . The p h y s i c i a n and h i s daughter have no human r e a l i t y . T h e i r a c t i o n s never have mixed motives nor any apparent q u a l i t y of c h o i c e to them. T h e i r i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s are r e j e c t e d or suppressed , and t h e r e f o r e take on an e x t e r n a l ' b e i n g , ' becoming o b j e c t s or a c t i o n s . i n the w o r l d o u t s i d e , themselves , over, which they have no c o n t r o l . For i n s t a n c e , M a n e t t e ' s d i v i d e d a t t i t u d e to h i s s o n - i n - l a w i s never e x p r e s s e d , e i t h e r by the d o c t o r ;or the s t o r y t e l l e r , a n d . h i s revenge i s c a r r i e d out through h i s l e t t e r of a c c u s a t i o n w r i t t e n arid h idden years b e f o r e meeting Darnay. L i k e w i s e h i s d i v i d e d l o y a l t i e s are g i v e n an e x t e r n a l presence through h i s t r i p l e r o l e s , a l l t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k t a l e ones , the f a t h e r , the p h y s i c i a n , the shoemaker,, each of which m a i n t a i n s a separate e x i s t e n c e i n h i s l i f e . When, there i s no e x t e r n a l weapon to ac t f o r h i m , and.obvious c o n f l i c t f o r c e s , i t s e f f i n t o h i s c o n -s c i o u s n e s s , as at the time of the wedding , the doc tor opts f o r madness, or l a c k of ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s , ' . r a t h e r than i m p e r f e c t i o n , and r e v e r t s to h i s t ask of shoemaker, h i s unspoken e x p r e s s i o n of h i s community w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . 91 L u c i e , Manette and Darnay a r e . p r o v i d e d w i t h a ' g o l d e n w o r l d ' s e t t i n g i n which no t e n s i o n e x i s t s between t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and t h e i r , e n v i r o n m e n t : A q u a i n t e r corner than the corner where the Doctor l i v e d , was not to be found i n London. . . . I t was a c o o l s p o t , s t a i d but c h e e r -f u l , , a w o n d e r f u l p l a c e f o r echoes, and a v e r y harbour .from the r a g i n g s t r e e t s . . . . In a b u i l d i n g at the back a t t a i n a b l e by a c o u r t y a r d where a p l a n e - t r e e r u s t l e d i t s l e a v e s , church-organs c la imed to be made, and s i l v e r to be chased, and l i k e w i s e g o l d beaten by some myster ious g i a n t who had a golden arm s t a r t i n g out of the w a l l of the f r o n t h a l l .39 When Darnay l a t e r enters p r i s o n , h i s f e l l o w s i n . c r i m e are not a v u l g a r Old B a i l e y crowd, but a r i s t o c r a t i c g h o s t s : So s t r a n g e l y c louded were these re f inements by t h e p r i s o n manners and gloom, so s p e c t r a l d i d they become i n the i n a p p r o p r i a t e squa lor and misery through which they were seen tha t C h a r l e s ^ n Darnay seemed to s tand i n the company of the dead. Ghosts a l l ! D i c k e n s ' bourgeois f a i r y t a l e people i n t h i s n o v e l c r e a t e a t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d micro-community w i t h i t s own o r d e r l i n e s s and s t a n -dards o f . a r t i s t i c charm as i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e . Yet D i c k e n s ' a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y causes h i m , at l e a s t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , to r e c o g n i z e tha t o thers must assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and dangers tha t the Manette c i r c l e a b d i c a t e s . That Darnay, f o r i n s t a n c e , , should escape h i s t h i r d t r i a l i s f i t t i n g f o r a h e r o , but he does not deserve h i s t h i r d escape , be ing h e i r to and t h e r e f o r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g u i l t of the Evremondes. Consequently the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s of s o c i e t y , d e s p i t e be ing p r o v i d e d w i t h a scapegoat i n C a r t o n , . a r e .not appeased. S i m i l a r l y , , to safeguard L u c i e and Darnay, Manette must s i n k i n t o madness. G r a t u i t o u s l y M i s s P r o s s ' h e a r i n g i s s a c r i f i c e d . And i n s t i n c t i v e l y , though he shows no consc ious awareness of i t i n the n o v e l , Dickens r e a l i z e s how, to p r o t e c t L u c i e ' s innocence and w e l l - b e i n g , someone e l s e must d i e , must pay her dues t o . t h e r e v o l u t i o n ; so the l i t t l e seamstress serves as scapegoat . However, w i t h i n the f a i r y t a l e framework that Dickens has e s t a b l i s h e d .for them, the c h a r a c t e r s set up t h e i r own p r o t e c t i o n s v e r y l i k e those tha t Dickens employs. A p t l y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s l i t t l e com-m u n i t y ' s v i s i o n of the w o r l d w i t h i t s p a s s i o n a t e emot ions , premoni t ions of c o n f l i c t and danger are a l l t h i n g s or o b j e c t s . As Dickens says of the house, i t i s pregnant w i t h echoes , and t h e i r w o r l d i s touched o n l y w i t h a r t i f a c t s of r e a l l i f e : but t h e s e are never i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o themselves i n the form of a c a p a c i t y to accept e v i l . These a r t i f a c t s come to o p e r a t e . a s a r t i s t i c symbols , t a l i s m a n s t e l l i n g of the c h a r a c -t e r s ' f a i r y t a l e e x i s t e n c e i n r e l a t i o n to what e x i s t s o u t s i d e Soho. That i s , enraged crowds are not seen as people l i k e themselves w i t h human d e s i r e s , but only, as f o o t s t e p s . The D o c t o r ' s years of h o r r o r have been concentra ted and transmuted "into h i s t o o l s and c r a f t as shoe-maker: " i n a c o r n e r , s tood the d i s u s e d shoemaker's bench and t r a y of 41* t o o l s " which he i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y unable to d e s t r o y . The few v i s i t o r s to Soho are o b j e c t i f i e d i n t o 'hundreds of p e o p l e . ' The c u r -t a i n s , " l o n g and w h i t e , and some of the thundergusts which w h i r l e d them i n t o the corner (and) caught them up to the c e i l i n g and waved them l i k e Thus the d e s t r u c t i o n of the t o p i s i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the murder of an o l d f r i e n d , w i t h o u t the l i n k between the t o o l s and the r e v o l u t i o n ever b e i n g e x p l i c i t l y expressed . 93 42 s p e c t r a l wings" could represent a death aura that the characters i n -t u i t i v e l y r e a l i z e hangs over t h e i r scene. The dream world they e x i s t i n i s r e i n f o r c e d by the author: "Mysterious backs and ends of houses peeped at them as•they t a l k e d , 43 and the plane-tree whispered to them i n i t s own way." Strange accous-t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the place cause echoes from f o o t s t e p s f a r away of which L u c i e says: " I have sometimes sat here of an evening l i s t e n i n g , u n t i l I have made the-echoes out to be the echoes of a l l the f o o t s t e p s 44 that are coming by-and-by i n t o our l i v e s . The e f f e c t on Manette o f Lucie's innocent marriage to an Evremonde i s seen by L o r r y i n fantasy terms: Mr. L o r r y had observed a great change to have.come over the Doctor; as i f the golden,arm u p l i f t e d there had s t r u c k him a poisoned blow.^ 5 [ i t a l i c s mine] The tendency of these.gentle people i s t h e r e f o r e to d i s p l a c e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , or the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , onto s u b s t i t u t e o b j e c t s and thus d i m i n i s h t h e i r power;,we see t h i s f u n c t i o n i n process when Darnay,. whom Manette has refused to recognize as.Evremonde, narr a t e s an i n c i d e n t about an executed p r i s o n e r i n the Tower burying a message beneath h i s c e l l f l o o r . The o l d doctor dismisses h i s open a g i t a t i o n by s a y i n g , "No, my dear, not i l l . There are l a r g e drops of r a i n f a l l i n g , and they 46 made me s t a r t . " We see i n the Manettes how the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y t a l e i n v e s t -ment of so much power i n o b j e c t s , magic tal i s m a n s , must have f i r s t come i n t o being. 94 These b u r i e d f e e l i n g s make t h e i r v i r t u e s u s e l e s s and p a r a s i t i c a l because they cannot express c o n t r a r y emotions such as rage or revenge, emotions that would a l l o w them to give- t h e i r . v i r t u e s p o s i t i v e f o r c e . The o n l y way they can preserve t h e i r p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s and gent leness i s w i t h i n a cocoon of o r d e r . To m a i n t a i n t h i s i t i s necessary f o r them to deny any l i n k w i t h the o u t s i d e community: ' A l l s o r t s of people who are not i n the l e a s t degree worthy of the pet are always t u r n i n g u p , ' s a i d M i s s P r o s s . 'When you began i t . . . . ' . ' I began i t , M i s s P r o s s ? ' ' D i d n ' t you? Who brought her f a t h e r to l i f e ? ' ' O h . I f that was b e g i n n i n g i t — : - ' s a i d M r . L o r r y . ' I t w a s n ' t ending i t , I suppose? I s a y , when you began i t , i t was hard enough; not tha t I have any f a u l t to f i n d w i t h D r . Manet te , e x c e p t t h a t he i s not worthy of such a d a u g h t e r . ' 4 7 As a c o r r e l a t i v e to t h i s , they have e s t a b l i s h e d f a l s e causes f o r g r i e f and p i t y which d i v e r t t h e i r energy from the channels of r e a l f e e l i n g , both to l e s s e n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r be ing h u r t , and to ac t as , magic charms that ward o f f chances of r e a l sorrow o c c u r r i n g f o r them. Thus L u c i e f a n t a s i z e s : Among the echoes, t h e n , there would a r i s e the sound of f o o t s t e p s . at her own e a r l y g r a v e ; and thoughts of the husband who would mourn f o r her so much s w e l l e d to her eyes , and broke l i k e waves.48 T h i s indulgence i n the p r e t t i n e s s . o f d y i n g and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s a c o n -s t a n t attachment to t h e i r l i f e . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , there i s no r e a l and l e g i t i m a t e sorrowing f o r the l i t t l e boy who d i e s ; h i s d y i n g i s made to seem much more b e a u t i f u l and n a t u r a l than h i s l i f e : he s a i d , w i t h a r a d i a n t s m i l e , 'Dear papa and mama, I am v e r y s o r r y to l eave you b o t h , and to l eave my p r e t t y s i s t e r ; but I am c a l l e d , 95 and I must go!' Those were not tears a l l of agony that wetted his young mother's cheek as the spirit departed from her embrace that had been entrusted to i t . ^ 9 However, though such objects and projections can serve as con-venient touchstones for absorbing their ambivalent feelings, they are, unlike the elaborate social institutions of the cathedral in The  Mystery of Edwin Drood, unable actually to provide active protection for the characters. For this, following the pattern of the traditional fairy tales, they are dependent oh the care and wiliness of grotesque servants, figures like Miss Pross and Cruncher. Miss Pross plays a multi-sided role in the.fairy tale. She is, to begin with, a grotesque when none of the others are—in appearance a cross between a British grenadier and a.Stilton cheese. " She also seems to be the commedia dell'arte character La Ruffiania, the ugly bad tempered, faithful servingwoman dressed in red. Miss Pross is apparently a link between two worlds. If a gro-tesque can be explained as a person who exhibits his very natural human tensions on the surface in his appearance and idiosyncrasies of speech, then that is exactly the role Miss Pross performs for the persons around her, who bury and deny half of their personality. Because they are handsome, gentle-tempered, and.financially in-dependent, and she is none of these things, she has a freedom, which they have not, to express feelings that they have chosen to ignore or k i l l . Her appearance is honest about her true nature as an unfulfilled woman. Sometimes described in terms of animals, her animal nature, like 96 that of a l l the Manette c i r c l e , has been p e r v e r t e d , and the d e s c r i p -t i o n s are a c a r t o o n i s t ' s p i c t u r e of the animal w o r l d : L o , Miss P r o s s , i n harness of s t r i n g , awakening the echoes, as an u n r u l y c h a r g e r , w h i p - c o r r e c t e d , s n o r t i n g and pawing the e a r t h under the plane t r e e i n the garden.50 As guardian of the scene,, she feeds them a l l ; but h e r . c o o k i n g i s d e s -c r i b e d i n terms of enchantment r a t h e r than h e a l t h y , g l u t t o n o u s e a t i n g . Miss P r o s s ' f r i e n d s h i p be ing of the thoroughly p r a c t i c a l k i n d , she had ravaged Soho and the adjacent p r o v i n c e s , i n search of impover-i s h e d F r e n c h , who, tempted by s h i l l i n g s and h a l f - c r o w n s would , impart c u l i n a r y m y s t e r i e s to h e r . From these decayed sons and daughters of Gaul she had a c q u i r e d such w o n d e r f u l a r t s , tha t the woman and g i r l who formed the s t a f f of domestics regarded her as q u i t e a S o r c e r e s s , or C i n d e r e l l a ' s Godmother: who would send; out f o r a f o w l ; a r a b b i t , a vege tab le or two from the garden , and change them i n t o a n y t h i n g she p l e a s e d . 5 1 The language i n t h i s paragraph r e v e a l s the p e r v e r s i o n (though Dickens would not c a l l i t tha t ) of the scene. Food n o r m a l l y comes from the c o u n t r y s i d e ; the ' p r o v i n c e s ' where Pross gleans her d i s h e s are London boroughs around Soho. C o o k i n g , the most l e g i t i m a t e and p o p u l a r of a l l c r e a t i v e a r t s i s r e f e r r e d to as ' m y s t e r i e s . ' Her r e c i p e s come not from s a t i s f i e d mothers and wives but 'decayed sons and d a u g h t e r s . ' Nor i s i t s u f f i c i e n t tha t a f o w l , r a b b i t or v e g e t a b l e remain a f o w l , r a b b i t or v e g e t a b l e , but they must be enchanted i n t o something e l s e . The language employs the same-whimsical t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i d e n t i t y that was seen i n the anthropomorphism of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t e r s . However M i s s Pross a l s o understands and i n t e r p r e t s the v u l n e r -a b i l i t y .of the scene. She makes L o r r y r e a l i z e the depth of M a n e t t e ' s 9 7 hurt. When Darnay comes to v i s i t and i s greeted kindly by Manette, Miss Pross, who shares the doctor's i n s t i n c t s about the man, expresses them for him: Miss Pross suddenly became a f f l i c t e d with a twitching i n the head and body; and returned into the house. She was not infrequently the v i c t i m of t h i s disorder, and she c a l l e d i t , i n f a m i l i a r conver-sation, a ' f i t of the jerks.'52 In t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n of fe e l i n g s onto the object world around them, and i n t h e i r dependence on the powers and servitude.of others to maintain t h e i r pleasant i s o l a t i o n , Lucie and her group serve as a l i n k between the characters of the a c t u a l . f a i r y tales with t h e i r dwarfs and magic talismans, and the characters of a more r e a l i s t i c novel l i k e The  Mystery of Edwin Drood i n which there i s a superstructure of inanimate objects, genteel possessions, and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the Cathedral, which carry out'the characters' s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s . In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop Dickens does not provide N e l l with the protection granted the Manettes. He l e t s N e l l ' s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , and those of the narrator, work out to th e i r i n e v i t a b l e conclusion. This conclusion, however, depends on the roles of the 'natural' gro-tesques. In the confrontation between the forces of innocence repre-sented by N e l l and a se r i e s of grotesque torturers represented by Quilp, the carvings and the carny f o l k ' s properties, Dickens reveals his own ambivalent a t t i t u d e ..towards the state of innocence. This ambi-, valence was e a r l i e r noted as common i n nineteenth-century children's 98 l i t e r a t u r e . Though these grotesques are a n t i - N e l l , they are not neces -s a r i l y i n h e r e n t l y e v i l . P a r t l y t h i s i s demonstrated by a l l o w i n g s e v e r a l m o r a l l y n e u t r a l charac te rs to par take i n the g r o t e s q u e r i e — D i c k S w i v e l l e r , Tom S c o t t , the M a r c h i o n e s s . In the i n t e r a c t i o n s of these ' n a t u r a l ' grotesques w i t h each o t h e r , w i t h t h e i r environment , and w i t h N e l l , can D e t r a c e d two or three p a t t e r n s of imagery that bo th p l a c e Dickens i n the grotesque popular t r a d i t i o n and make a m o r a l judgement on the type of i m a g i n a t i o n possessed by N e l l and her descendants . Except i n N e l l ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , the c o n f l i c t i s not between N e l l and her g r a n d f a t h e r and the gro tesques . Rather both groups seem the t a r g e t s of some malevolent s o c i a l d e i t y whom the grotesques are capable of h a n d l i n g . N e l l and h e r . g r a n d f a t h e r , who are s o c i e t y ' s v i c t i m s , p a r t i a l l y b r i n g on t h e i r own d o w n f a l l by r e f u s i n g to a l l y w i t h the g r o -tesques , or to l e a r n from them. For example, when they l o s e t h e i r money, N e l l s a y s , " ' L e t us 53 wander b a r e f o o t through the w o r l d . " 1 and then becomes t e r r i f i e d .by what a b a r e f o o t wanderer encounters . S w i v e l l e r , when he f i n d s h i m s e l f p e n n i l e s s s a y s : 'No money, no c r e d i t , no. support from F r e d , who seems to t u r n steady a l l at once; n o t i c e to q u i t the o l d l o d g i n g s — s t a g g e r e r s t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e and s i x ! Under an accumulat ion of s taggerers no man can be cons idered a f r e e agent . No man knocks h i m s e l f down; i f h i s d e s t i n y knocks him down, h i s d e s t i n y must p i c k him up again.'54 and then proceeds to b e h a v e . l i k e a v e r y f r e e agent : he commanded [a beer-boy] to set down h i s t r a y and ..to serve him w i t h a p i n t of m i l d p o r t e r , .which he drank upon the spot and 99 promptly p a i d f o r , w i t h the v iew of b r e a k i n g ground f o r a system of f u t u r e c r e d i t and opening a correspondence tending t h e r e t o . 5 5 These c h a r a c t e r s , though they d i f f e r from each other i n v a l u e s , become a c o l l e c t i o n of clowns i n tha t they a l l employ the power of the grotesque image as a source of comedy and fur thermore r e a l i z e tha t t h i s i s t h e i r o n l y t o o l f o r s u r v i v a l , whether they g a i n w o r l d l y power by f a s c i n a t i n g o thers or merely amuse themselves . The clown may o f t e n be c r u e l and c rude , but a l s o , as long as he i s g a i l y costumed and as long as he i s a l s o s l i g h t l y shabby, or awkward or p i t i f u l , and f u n n y , then h i s c r u e l t y i s f o r the most p a r t o v e r l o o k e d . Their , a l l i a n c e w i t h clowns i s seen i n the s l a p s t i c k manner i n which they r e l a t e to each o t h e r : between t h i s boy [Tom Scot t ] and the dwarf there, e x i s t e d a s t range k i n d , o f mutual l i k i n g . How.born or b r e d , or how n o u r i s h e d upon blows and t h r e a t s on one s i d e and r e t o r t s on the o t h e r , i s not to the purpose . Q u i l p would c e r t a i n l y s u f f e r nobody to c o n t r a d i c t him but the b o y , and the boy would a s s u r e d l y not have submit ted to be so knocked by anybody but Q u i l p , when he had the power to run away any time he chose.56 Q u i l p encounters S w i v e l l e r i n s l a p s t i c k s t y l e , no sooner i n the arms of the : i n d i v i d u a l whom he had taken f o r h i s w i f e , than he found h i m s e l f complimented w i t h . t w o . s t a g g e r i n g blows on t h e . h e a d , and two more, of the same q u a l i t y , i n the chest .. . . he c l u n g t i g h t t o . h i s opponent , .and b i t and hammered away w i t h such g o o d w i l l and h e a r t i n e s s , that i t was at l e a s t a couple of minutes be fore he was dis lodged.57 and a t t a c k s K i t s i m i l a r l y v i a the f i g u r e h e a d , . " a i m i n g a shower of blows 58 at the i n s e n s i b l e countenance and c o v e r i n g i t w i t h deep d i m p l e s . " 100 T h e i r behaviour when they are a lone i s o f t e n a mimick ing of c l o w n ' s g e s t u r e s : the ,boy revenged h i m s e l f by dancing on h i s head at i n t e r v a l s on the extreme edge of the wharf d u r i n g the whole t ime they crossed the r i v e r . 5 9 Q u i l p , a f t e r t r i c k i n g D i c k , withdrew i n t o a d i s m a n t l e d s k i t t l e ground behind the p u b l i c house , and throwing h i m s e l f upon the ground, a c t u a l l y screamed and r o l l e d about i n u n c o n t r o l l a b l e d e l i g h t , 6 0 and when D i c k i s conf ronted by M i s s B r a s s ' brown h e a d - d r e s s : From rubbing h i s nose w i t h the r u l e r , to p o i s i n g i t i n h i s hand and g i v i n g i t an o c c a s i o n a l f l o u r i s h a f t e r the tomahawk manner, the t r a n s i t i o n was easy and n a t u r a l . In some of these f l o u r i s h e s i t went c l o s e to Miss S a l l y ' s head; . . . advance i t . but an i n c h , and tha t great brown knot was on the ground . . .61 O c c a s i o n a l l y d i r e c t p a r a l l e l s are drawn: three or f o u r l i t t l e boys dropped i n on l e g a l errands . . . whom M r . S w i v e l l e r r e c e i v e d and d i s m i s s e d w i t h about as p r o f e s s i o n a l a manner, and as c o r r e c t and comprehensive an unders tanding of t h e i r bus iness as would have been shown by a clown i n a pantomime under s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These t h i n g s done and over he got upon h i s s t o o l aga in and t r i e d h i s hand at drawing c a r i c a t u r e s of M i s s Brass .62 D i c k S w i v e l l e r has an i m a g i n a t i o n which spontaneously c reates v i s u a l gro tesques . H i s mind,, l i k e that of D i c k e n s , the c l o w n - n a r r a t o r , r e p l a c e s i n c i d e n t s w i t h grotesque images, which serve him i n v a l u a b l y : She dragons [ S a l l y Brass] i n the b u s i n e s s , conduct ing themselves l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l gentlemen; p l a i n cooks o f . t h r e e f e e t h i g h appear-i n g m y s t e r i o u s l y from underground .63 101 He makes h i s own p e c u l i a r use of the technique of the double f a c e : There i s no doubt t h a t , by d a y , M r . S w i v e l l e r f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h i s s e c r e t convenience to be a bookcase and n o t h i n g more; tha t he c l o s e d h i s eyes to the b e d , r e s o l u t e l y denied .the e x i s t e n c e of the b l a n k e t s , and spurned the b o l s t e r from h i s thoughts .64 O c c a s i o n a l l y he r e s o r t s to nonsense grotesques of the k i n d d i s c o v e r e d i n the n u r s e r y rhymes: he had observed a p i g w i t h a s traw i n h i s mouth i s s u i n g out of the tobacco shop, from which appearance he augured tha t another f i n e week f o r the ducks was .approaching .65 T h i s i s : in . c o n t r a s t .to i; K i t ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l f a i r y t a l e f a n t a s i e s tha t u n d e r l i n e s t h e i r d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s . D i c k ' s supreme grotesque c r e a t i o n i s , of c o u r s e , the Marchioness and her s c u l l e r y - p a l a c e . He turns an a l r e a d y grotesque f i g u r e , i n t o a . t r i p l e - f a c e d . g r o t e s q u e , a l i t t l e g i r l , a p l a i n - c o o k , and a marchioness . The reason he g i v e s f o r 66 h i s grotesque fancy i s "To make i t seem more r e a l and p l e a s a n t . " A t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y master ,of the gro tesque , F e d e r i c o F e l l i n i , has attempted to account f o r the v i t a l i t y and f u n c t i o n of the c l o w n -f i g u r e : He i s a c a r i c a t u r e of man i n h i s aspects of an imal and c h i l d , mocker and mocked. The clown i s a m i r r o r i n which man i s r e v e a l e d as a gro tesque , deformed, comic image. He i s indeed a shadow. He w i l l always b e . . . . T o make a shadow d i e you have to have a p e r p e n d i c -u l a r sun above your head. B e h o l d : complete ly i l l u m i n a t e d man has made h i s l u d i c r o u s b u f f o o n i s h , deformed aspects d i s a p p e a r . Faced K i t f i n d i n g h i s employer ' s home d e s e r t e d , f a n t a s i z e s on what might have happened i n . t e r m s of ogres and p r i n c e s s e s be ing t i e d up by t h e i r h a i r . 102 w i t h such a h i g h l y r e a l i z e d c r e a t u r e , the clown would no longer have a reason f o r b e i n g . But on the other hand he would not a c t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r , he would o n l y b e . a s s i m i l a t e d . Thus, i n other words , the i r r a t i o n a l , the i n f a n t i l e , the i n s t i n c t i v e would no longer be seen w i t h a deformed eye—the t h i n g tha t renders them deformed.67 Speaking from a c u l t u r e i n which clowns are p o s s i b l y more h i g h l y developed and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , F e l l i n i recognizes two c l o w n - f i g u r e s , P i e r r o t , the w h i t e c l o w n , and Auguste . These terms can o n l y be a p p l i e d awkwardly to Anglo-Saxon c lowns , H a r l e q u i n b e i n g a w h i t e c l o w n , Punch and J o e y , the pantomime Clown, be ing Augustes . Nonetheless i t i s a u s e -f u l d i s t i n c t i o n to be aware of: . the former i s e legance , g r a c e , harmony, i n t e l l i g e n c e , l u c i d i t y — which are presented m o r a l i s t i c a l l y as i n d i s p u t a b l e gods. Hence the n e g a t i v e aspect of the system: f o r the w h i t e c l o w n , i n t h i s way-becomes Mother , F a t h e r , Teacher , A r t i s t , L o v e r : i n s h o r t , that which ought to be . So Auguste , who would exper ience the f a s c i n a -t i o n of these p e r f e c t i o n s i f they were not d i s p l a y e d w i t h so much s e v e r i t y i s r e v o l t e d . He sees tha t the spangles are s h i n i n g b r i g h t l y , but the arrogance w i t h which they are o f f e r e d , makes them u n a t t a i n a b l e . Auguste is the child who shits on himself, rebels against perfec-tion, gets drunk and ro l l s on the ground; and his s p i r i t , for this reason, is a perpetual challenge.* In short, the white clown is a bourgeois, and.that is why he tends to appear dressed in a style calculated to amaze.68 Quilp's response to.Nell's idealism, Swiveller's treatment of Sally Brass' assumed powerj even the grandfather's resumption of his gambling, his re-adopting of his shadow personality are a l l Auguste-clown, B o r i s K a r l o f f who performed as F r a n k e n s t e i n ' s monster has s t a t e d tha t l e t t e r s concerning the performance tha t came from c h i l d r e n always sympathized w i t h the monster . 103 f u n c t i o n s . , F e l l i n i ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of an a l l i a n c e between the d r i v e f o r p e r f e c t i o n and the bourgeois p e r s o n a l i t y r e i n f o r c e s the remarks made e a r l i e r about N e l l ' s behaviour i n the m i d l a n d s . Dickens d e s c r i b e s the p r o v i n c i a l town i n which the waxworks 69 se ts up as " v e r y c l e a n , v e r y sunny, very empty.and v e r y d u l l , " and another way of v i e w i n g the grotesques i s i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s s t e r i l i t y . Q u i l p , tha t great b a n i s h e r of d u l l n e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , represents the d i r t of the c i t y and has d e f i n i t e l i n k s w i t h garbage. H i s c o u n t i n g house , a " d i r t y l i t t l e b o x , " 7 ^ c o n t a i n s an a n c i e n t almanac, an i n k -s tand w i t h no i n k , and an e i g h t - d a y c l o c k tha t had not gone f o r e ighteen y e a r s ; . h e eats shrimps and a l s o t h e i r heads , eggs and even t h e i r s h e l l s ; he s c r a t c h e s w i t h a r u s t y n a i l . In other words he f i n d s a use f o r g a r -bage and r e j e c t e d t h i n g s . He even i n c o r p o r a t e s garbage i n t o h i s body, becomes a s torehouse f o r garbage. Yet t h i s i s r i g h t l y seen as h i s n a t u r a l g r e e d i n e s s : chewed tobacco and w a t e r - c r e s s e s at the same time and w i t h e x t r a -o r d i n a r y g r e e d i n e s s , drank b o i l i n g tea w i t h o u t w i n k i n g , b i t h i s f o r k and spoon t i l l they bent a g a i n ! 7 1 ; He i s l i k e a porous substance t h a t . w i l l absorb a n y t h i n g i n t o h i s body. He seems to r e j e c t n o t h i n g of the w o r l d as p a r t of h i m s e l f . T h i s i n -c ludes even N e l l : ' A h ! ' s a i d the dwar f , smacking h i s l i p s , 'what a n i c e k i s s tha t w a s — j u s t upon the rosy p a r t ! '72 [ i t a l i c s mine]. 104 H i s i n c r e d i b l e c o n t o r t i o n s and grimaces and the m u l t i t u d i n o u s images Dickens uses to d e s c r i b e them are h i s way of r e f l e c t i n g how much tha t he has absorbed i n t o h i s f l e s h and h i s b r a i n f i n d s e x t e r n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s grotesque appearance. H i s grotesqueness i s the c r e a t i v i t y of an a r t i s t , mimick ing h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , or r e c r e a t i n g them i n new shapes: rubbing h i s hands so hard tha t he seemed to be engaged i n manufac- . t u r i n g , of the d i r t w i t h which they were e n c r u s t e d , l i t t l e charges f o r popguns.73 w i t h a g r i n on h i s f e a t u r e s a l t o g e t h e r i n d e s c r i b a b l e which seemed to be compounded of every monstrous grimace of which men or monkeys are capable.74 s t a r i n g i n w i t h h i s great goggle^eyes , which seemed i n hers the more h o r r i b l e from h i s face be ing ups ide down . . . she was q u i t e unable to r e s i s t the b e l i e f t h a t M r . Q u i l p d i d i n h i s own person represent and embody that E v i l Power.75 embracing the c a s e - b o t t l e w i t h shrugged up shoulders and f o l d e d arms, s tood l o o k i n g to h i s i n s e n s i b l e w i f e l i k e a dismounted nightmare.76 s w o l l e n w i t h suppressed l a u g h t e r , he looked p u f f e d and b l o a t e d i n t o twice h i s u s u a l breadtb.77 l o o k i n g l i k e the e v i l genius of the c e l l a r s come from underground upon some work of mischief78 s e a t e d , l i k e an A f r i c a n c h i e f , on one of these p i e c e s of m a t t i n g , the dwarf was r e g a l i n g h i m s e l f i n the p a r l o u r , w i t h bread and cheese and beer.79 a c h a i r , i n t o which he sk ipped w i t h uncommon a g i l i t y . . . one l e g cocked c a r e l e s s l y over the o t h e r , h i s . c h i n r e s t i n g on the palm of h i s hand, h i s head turned a l i t t l e on one s i d e , and h i s u g l y f e a t u r e s t w i s t e d i n t o a complacent grimace . . . . both she and the o l d man, . . . h a l f doubt ing i t s r e a l i t y , looked s h r i n k i n g l y a t i t . 8 0 105 Food p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n Q u i l p ' s s e l f - c r e a t i o n , as many of these q u o t a t i o n s r e v e a l . He i s c o n s t a n t l y d e s c r i b e d as d r i n k i n g b o i l -i n g l i q u o r or smoking f u r i o u s l y , and s n e e r i n g at Brass f o r b e i n g unable to i m i t a t e h i m . A l t h o u g h he may not a c t u a l l y be devour ing humans, the s p i r i t and r e l i s h i s one ,of c a n n i b a l i s m ; "'0 you n i c e c r e a t u r e ! ' were the w o r d s . w i t h which he broke s i l e n c e ; smacking h i s l i p s as i f t h i s 81 were no f i g u r e of speech, and she were a c t u a l l y a sweetmeat." A n d , j u s t as the sacred v a l u e i n v e s t e d i n c a n n i b a l i s m by t r i b a l s o c i e t i e s was t h a t , i n devour ing someone e l s e , one gained h i s dominant q u a l i t i e s , so Q u i l p becomes tha t which he d e v o u r s , both p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . In t h i s may be r e c o g n i z e d a v e r y c l o s e t i e to the images of c a r i c a t u r e . Isaac C r u i k s h a n k ' s c a n n i b a l (see Chapter I) i s a m i d g e t , Q u i l p - l i k e grotesque who w i t h h i s enormous head, m i n i a t u r e body, and, , f l e s h y face c o u l d not have f a i l e d to have i n s p i r e d Dickens i f he had seen i t . G i l l r a y ' s monsters , o f t e n shown i n the pos ture of d e v o u r i n g , have t h e i r very i d e n t i t y matched up w i t h what they eat—-Jean Frog and John B u l l — a n d t h i s can i n t u r n determine t h e i r appearance—rJean F r o g ' s f r o g - l i k e webbed f e e t . P a r a d o x i c a l as i t may seem, Q u i l p ' s d e f o r m i t y i s not an e x p r e s - . s i o n of i n c o m p l e t e n e s s , of a l i m i t e d human s p i r i t , but of e x t r a o r d i n a r y r i c h n e s s , of b e i n g n o t . o n l y h i m s e l f but a l s o shrimps w i t h heads and dogs ' s m i l e s and b o i l i n g grog and c h a i r s and towers and the c a r r i a g e window he a t taches h i m s e l f t o , by i m p l i c a t i o n , the whole urban s p r a w l i t s e l f . A grotesque f i g u r e , when c o n t r a s t e d to an i d e a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r , 106 may i n d e e d , as M i s s Pross showed., be the one who d i s p l a y s h i s v e r y n a t u r a l human c o n t r a d i c t i o n s on the s u r f a c e i n h i s appearance. In Q u i l p ' s case t h i s i s extended to show the v e r y s t u f f of which he i s made. T h i s perhaps o v e r s t a t e s the s i t u a t i o n ; Q u i l p i s of course l i m -i t e d i n tha t he has n o t h i n g of the ' ca lm and c l a s s i c a l ' tha t M r s . J a r l e y a t t r i b u t e s to her waxwork, n o t h i n g of the p u r i t y and innocence tha t e x e m p l i f y N e l l . However we are not presented w i t h a s i m p l e d u a l i t y , N e l l good, Q u i l p e v i l . I t i s r a t h e r t h a t N e l l ' s d r i v e f o r p e r f e c t i o n , f o r o r d e r l i n e s s , i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h Q u i l p ' s s e n s u a l g r e e d i n e s s ; the success of one i m p l i e s the d e s t r u c t i o n o f . t h e o t h e r . Dickens uses the grotesque image as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l a t t e r , and i s h i m s e l f ambivalent as to which he i s most a t t a c h e d . In unders tanding Q u i l p ' s a b s o r p t i o n and r e - c r e a t i o n of London w i t h i n h i m s e l f , Hugo's Notre Dame de P a r i s i s a g a i n e n l i g h t e n i n g . Notre Dame has two i n h a b i t a n t s , Quasimodo, and the archdeacon, Claude F r o l l o . Both l e t t h e i r l i f e be shaped by the c a t h e d r a l . F r o l l o i s a s c h o l a r , i n v o l v e d i n . t h e e s o t e r i c knowledge of alchemy. From a concep-t u a l i z e d s t r u c t u r i n g of how the w o r l d should b e , he approaches and s t u d i e s the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c a t h e d r a l . Quasimodo's exper ience of the c a t h e d r a l i s s o l e l y through h i s senses and p e r c e p t i o n s , l i m i t e d b u t , perhaps f o r t h a t r e a s o n , more i n t e n s e . He absorbs the rough grimness of the a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t o h i m s e l f , and f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h the b e l l s . So thoroughly does he come to comprehend the b u i l d i n g tha t a l l i t s q u a l i -t i e s are absorbed i n t o h i m s e l f , and he becomes a gargoyle who c o n t a i n s 107 Notre Dame's essence w i t h i n h i m s e l f and h i s appearance, r e c e i v i n g every hour i t s mys ter ious i m p r e s s , he at l e n g t h came to resemble i t , to be f a s h i o n e d to i t . . . . Between the o l d church and h i m s e l f there was an i n s t i n c t i v e sympathy so profound—so many a f f i n i t i e s , magnetic as w e l l as m a t e r i a l — t h a t he i n some s o r t a d -hered to i t , l i k e the t o r t o i s e to i t s s h e l l . . . . Not o n l y d i d h i s body seem to have fash ioned i t s e l f a c c o r d i n g to the c a t h e d r a l but h i s mind a l s o . 8 2 In l i k e manner does Q u i l p assume the shape and form of t h e ob jec t w o r l d around h i m . When Quasimodo r i n g s the b e l l s , the c a t h e d r a l molds i t s e l f to h i m : There seemed to escape from him—so at l e a s t s a i d the exaggera t ing s u p e r s t i t i o n s of the m u l t i t u d e — a myster ious emanation, which, a n i -mated a l l the stones of Notre Dame, and heaved the deep bosom of the a n c i e n t c h u r c h . To know tha t he was there was enough to make you t h i n k tha t you saw l i f e and mot ion i n the thousand s t a t u e s of the g a l l e r i e s and doorways. The o l d c a t h e d r a l d i d indeed seem a c r e a t u r e d o c i l e , and obedient to h i s hand. She w a i t e d h i s w i l l to l i f t up her l o u d v o i c e ; she was f i l l e d and possessed w i t h Quasimodo as w i t h a f a m i l i a r s p i r i t . . . . Egypt would have taken him f o r the god of t h i s temple—the M i d d l e Ages b e l i e v e d him to be i t s demon— he was i n f a c t i t s s o u l . 8 3 And so here too i s , t h e concept of a l i v i n g g a r g o y l e - l i k e , grotesque e x -p r e s s i n g the s p i r i t of a . p l a c e , the f u n c t i o n tha t i t i s suggested Q u i l p performs f o r the urban c o n f u s i o n of, London. As the s p i r i t of the f i l t h y , v i t a l c i t y , he i s accompanied by l e s s e r , g a r g o y l e s , or l e s s complex s p i r i t s of p l a c e . The g r a n d f a t h e r among h i s o l d c u r i o s i t i e s f o r i n s t a n c e , seems l i k e the gnome of h i s shop: The haggard aspect, of the l i t t l e o l d man was w o n d e r f u l l y s u i t e d t o the p l a c e ; he might have ,groped among o l d churches and tombs; and deser ted houses and gathered a l l the s p o i l s w i t h h i s own hands.84 108 The Marchioness w i t h her s tunted appearance i s i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d , to her underground s c u l l e r y : the s m a l l servant always remained somewhere i n the bowels of the e a r t h under B e v i s M a r k s , and never came to the s u r f a c e u n l e s s the s i n g l e gentleman rang h i s b e l l , when she would answer i t and immed-i a t e l y d isappear aga in .85 A t the c o n c l u s i o n of the s t o r y , the B r a s s e s , h a v i n g r e t a i n e d t h e i r de -formed c h a r a c t e r and manners, but l o s t t h e i r l e g a l powerj remain as s p i r i t s of the garbage-and-re fuse undercurrent of the c i t y : two wretched people were more than once observed to c r a w l a t dusk from the inmost recesses of S t . G i l e s ' , and to take t h e i r way a long the s t r e e t s , w i t h s h u f f l i n g s teps and cowering forms , l o o k i n g i n t o r o a d s i d e kennels as they went i n search of r e f u s e food or d i s r e -garded o f f a l . . These forms were never beheld but i n those n i g h t s of c o l d and. gloom, when the t e r r i b l e s p e c t r e s , -who l i e at a l l o ther t imes i n the obscene h i d i n g p l a c e s of London, i n archways, dark v a u l t s and c e l l a r s , v e n t u r e to creep i n t o the s t r e e t ; , the embodied s p i r i t s of D i s e a s e , and V i c e , and Famine.86 There are i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop a c o l l e c t i o n of grotesques that f i t under the g e n e r a l category of puppet or r o b o t . T h e s e . a r e , . f o r the most p a r t , inanimate o b j e c t s , i m i t a t i o n s of human forms tha t may or may not be ab le to mimic human m o t i o n s , but become more than s t a t u e s i n tha t they f u n c t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the f i c t i o n . Even M r s . J a r l e y ' s . waxworks which c l a i m to present l i v i n g l i k e n e s s e s can change c h a r a c t e r . w i t h great ease : a l t e r i n g the face and costume of M r . G r i m a l d i as clown to represent M r . L i n d l e y Murray as he appeared when engaged i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of h i s E n g l i s h Grammar.$7 109 Moreover i t i s t h e i r . c a r i c a t u r e d r e n d e r i n g of the human physiognomy that g i v e s them t h e i r power. These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e the c a r v i n g s i n the c u r i o s i t y shop, the Punch puppets , the waxworks, and the g i a n t wooden f i g u r e h e a d t h a t Q u i l p a t t a c k s . They may be extended to i n c l u d e G e r r y ' s dancing dogs , V u f f i n ' s g i a n t and armless and l e g l e s s woman, and the s t i l t s o f . . ' G r i n d e r ' s l o t ' which are a v a r i a t i o n on wooden l e g s that g i v e t h e i r owners a m a r i o n e t t e - l i k e appearance. These puppet / robot f i g u r e s have two f u n c t i o n s i n the n o v e l . The p r o p r i e t o r s of the o d d i t i e s g a i n a c e r t a i n . s o c i a l p r e s t i g e from owning them; and i n themse lves . they are c h a r a c t e r s , mimic f o o l s and voodoo f i g u r e s . These c r e a t i o n s become more or l e s s inanimate ex tens ions of the owners, and the l a t t e r share i n the power which such g r o t e s q u e r i e c l a i m s : " ' I f there were o n l y one wooden l e g , what a p r o p e r t y h e ' d b e . ' " ' Inasmuch as the owners are. r o o t l e s s people w i t h o u t landed p r o p e r t y of any k i n d , or w i t h o u t f a m i l i e s to s u s t a i n , them, they a r e , w i t h i n the context of the s t o r y , t o . b e admired f o r f e n d i n g f o r themselves by t r a f -f i c k i n g i n the gro tesque . M r s . J a r i e y r a i s e s the i s s u e w i t h N e l l of beggary versus the l i f e of the carny f o l k : 'You amaze me more and m o r e , ' s a i d M r s . J a r i e y , a f t e r remain ing f o r some time as mute as one of her own f i g u r e s . 'Why, what do you c a l l y o u r s e l v e s ? Not beggars? ' ' Indeed ma'am, I d o n ' t know what e l s e we a r e , ' r e t u r n e d the c h i l d . ' L o r d b l e s s m e , ' s a i d the l a d y of the c a r a v a n . ' I never heard of such a t h i n g . Who'd.have thought i t ! ' . . . . And ye t you can read and w r i t e , t o o , I s h o u l d n ' t wonder? ' ' Y e s , ma 'am, ' s a i d the c h i l d , f e a r f u l of g i v i n g new o f f e n s e by the 110 c o n f e s s i o n . ^ ' W e l l , and what a t h i n g t h a t i s ' r e t u r n e d M r s . J a r l e y . ' I c a n ' t . ' As c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , the puppet f i g u r e s f u n c t i o n m a i n l y as mocking mimics of the mechanica l q u a l i t i e s of the humans i n the s t o r y . They a l s o p r o v i d e a r e v e r s e movement to N e l l ' s unconscious t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f . p e o p l e i n t o o b j e c t s and ' i m a g e s . ' W h i l e they are a l l i e d to the clowns through t h e i r spangled costumes and t h e i r recog- . n i t i o n of humour and exaggera t ion as a f o r c e f o r s u r v i v a l , t h e i r wooden and waxen arid m a c h i n e - l i k e a s p e c t s , the extent to which they resemble ghosts and c o r p s e s , are a c r i t i c i s m of such q u a l i t i e s i n the f l e s h - a n d -b l o o d c h a r a c t e r s . Hence M r s . J a r l e y says of the waxworks, 'I w o n ' t go so f a r as to s a y , t h a t , as i t . i s , I ' v e seen waxwork q u i t e l i k e l i f e , but I ' v e c e r t a i n l y seen some l i f e tha t was e x a c t l y l i k e w a x - w o r k . ' 9 0 and N e l l sees them as both l i v i n g and dead, , " ' s o l i k e l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , and ye t so u n l i k e i n t h e i r gr im s t i l l n e s s and s i l e n c e , ' " " ' t h e i r d e a t h -91 l i k e f a c e s . ' " A l l " l o o k i n g i n t e n s e l y nowhere and s t a r i n g w i t h e x t r a -92 ordinary , earnestness at n o t h i n g , " t h e i r detachment i s h a r d l y d i f f e r e n t from the .crowds i n the f a c t o r y t o w n ; . N e l l and her grandfa ther f i n d no more humane.response from the crowds, than from the waxworks: " they watched the faces of those who p assed , to f i n d i n one among them a ray 93 of encouragement or h o p e . " The earnest s t a r i n g i s not more b l i n d than tha t of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the f a c t o r y town. As one woman c r i e s of her c r i m i n a l s o n , ' "He, was d e a f , dumb, and b l i n d t o . a l l tha t was good and r i g h t from h i s c r a d l e . . . who was there, to teach him 94 b e t t e r ? I l l The o l d c u r i o s i t i e s i n the shop " w i t h t h e i r g r i n n i n g faces a l l a w r y , " 9 " ' " d i s t o r t e d f i g u r e s i n c h i n a , and wood, and i r o n and i v o r y , a r e . n o . l e s s human than the f a l s e g r i n s of Sampson B r a s s , " h i s b l a n d e s t s m i l e s were so extremely f o r b i d d i n g t h a t . . . one would have wished 97 him to be out of temper that he might o n l y s c o w l , " and Q u i l p o f t e n r e f e r s to h i s monkey-face , a brass monkey w i t h a f a l s e s m i l e . .Punch's 98 99 " u s u a l equable s m i l e " counters Q u i l p ' s " g h a s t l y s m i l e " which "added,most to h i s grotesque e x p r e s s i o n . . . appear ing to be the mere r e s u l t of h a b i t and to have no connec t ion w i t h any m i r t h f u l or com-p l a c e n t f e e l i n g . P u n c h ' s e x p r e s s i o n i n i t s i m m o b i l i t y h a r d l y d i f f e r s from tha t of C o d l i n , h i s master : [ C o d l i n ] breathed a hornpipe tune i n t o . . . a mouth-organ, w i t h o u t at a l l changing the mournfu l e x p r e s s i o n of the upper p a r t of h i s f a c e , though h i s mouth and c h i n were , of n e c e s s i t y i n l i v e l y spasms.101 The huge f i g u r e h e a d t h a t Q u i l p uses as a voodoo image f o r K i t , d i f f e r s from the o t h e r , r o b o t f i g u r e s , " t h r u s t i n g i t s e l f forward w i t h tha t e x c e s s i v e l y wide-awake, a s p e c t , and a i r ' o f somewhat o b t r u s i v e 102 p o l i t e n e s s , by which f igureheads are. u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d . " T h i s f i g u r e i s p e c u l i a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s g e n t i l i t y and i m p a s s i v e n e s s ; i t shares some q u a l i t i e s w i t h the waxworks, supposed to be "ca lm and c l a s s i c a l , " " ' " ^ 3 d e s c r i b e d as " g r e a t g l a s s y - e y e d f i g u r e s , " " ^ 4 who a l s o pay homage to s o c i e t y ' s heroes by a t tempt ing to i m i t a t e them. (How-ever the waxworks d e s t r o y much of t h e i r own presumption by i m i t a t i n g m a i n l y a n t i - h e r o e s , murderers , and c l o w n s ) . In t h e i r a r r o g a n t , . i m m o -b i l e , l i f e l e s s a s p e c t s , the f i g u r e h e a d and the waxworks c o u l d be 112 representations of what F e l l i n i described as 'white clowns'; more speci-f i c a l l y they are minions of the established social mores. The removal of human power from the people presupposes that i t w i l l be invested in the enyironment ,• and we see in the industrial scenes, where the machinery is envisioned as semi-human; robot-like, that strange engines spun and writhed like tortured creatures;,clanking their iron chains, shrieking in their rapid whirl from time to time as though in torment unendurable.105 Yet i t i s not so much a total shift of power as a vision, essentially Nell's, that energy is transferable from one form of being to another: then came more of the wrathful monsters, .whose like they almost seemed to be in their wildness and their untamed a i r ; screeching and turning round and round. ,106 And much of Nell's fear seems to be a fear of this energy that i s re-vealed or -released in the process of grotesque distortion. That the grotesque is v i t a l l y tied to gesture was suggested in. Chapter I,in connection with the commedia. In The Old.Curiosity Shop Quilp's involved contortions are essential to his visual power: Mr. Quilp planted his two hands on his knees, and straddling his legs out very wide.apart, stooped slowly down, and down, and down, u n t i l , by screwing his head very much on one side, he came up be-tween his wife's eyes and.the floor. . . . 'Am I nice to look at?' . . . 'Yes, Quilp!'107 A gesture that recurs in several of Dickens' novels is that of the dance. In The Old Curiosity Shop a series of dance gestures or 113 dance-like movements thread their'way through the action. They are. nearly always associated with the-grotesques. Quilp, for instance, despite his ugliness, is a master of a g i l i t y , even grace. And many times his sudden entrances have the quality of choreographed movements, particularly as, even i f he is perfectly s t i l l , his limbs adopt carefully stylized postures (see earlier quotation concerning Quilp on the chair). Several direct ref-erences are made to the dancelike character of his movements: he rose, and,with his arms a-kimbo, achieved a kind of demon-dance round the kennel, just without the limits of the chair, driving the dog quite, wild. 108 ' I ' l l [Quilp] be a Will o' the Wisp, now here, now there, dancing about you, always starting up when you least expect me, and keeping you in a constant state.of restlessness and irritation.'109 Tom Scott,.the tumbling boy, turns his acrobatics into a dance: the boy revenged himself by dancing on his head at intervals, on the,extreme edge of the wharf, during the whole time they crossed the river.HO And the imaginativeness of Dick Swiveller's fancy is accompanied, on occasion, by gymnastic grace: Mr. Richard Swiveller performing a kind of dance round him and re-quiring to know 'whether he wanted more?.'HI Certain of the grotesques exist because they are dancers. There are the dancing dogs in their spangled coats, and the waxwork representa-tion of the old lady "who died of dancing at a hundred and thirty-two." 114 These dancing f i g u r e s cou ld be extended to i n c l u d e the Punch puppets because the movements of a puppet u s u a l l y resemble c a r i c a t u r e s of a dance. In f a c t , The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop may be v i s u a l i z e d as a v a r i a - . t i o n on the f a n t a s y . o f the c h i l d wandering i n t o the toyshop or n u r s e r y , and the t o y s , or puppets , .coming a l i v e and b e g i n n i n g to dance around 113 h e r . This .was a common n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f a n t a s y . I t i s the theme f o r i n s t a n c e , of T c h a i k o v s k y ' s N u t c r a c k e r B a l l e t (1892) , which was i n t u r n based on E . T. A . Hoffmann's The N u t c r a c k e r and the K i n g of the  M i c e , p u b l i s h e d i n 1813. In t h i s the c h i l d encounters n o t , o n l y l i v e toys but a l s o a large-mouthed n u t c r a c k e r and a seven-headed mouse k i n g . In another H o f f m a n n . t a l e , The Sandman, a mechanica l danc ing d o l l l i t e r -a l l y h y p n o t i z e s the h e r o , though i t i s never c l e a r i f her power i s a f igment of h i s own i m a g i n a t i o n . Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen a l s o wrote t a l e s i n which the toys became animated; The S t e a d f a s t T i n S o l d i e r , f o r i n s t a n c e has as a grotesque hero a one- legged t i n s o l d i e r , as h e r o i n e a b e a u t i f u l paper b a l l e r i n a , as v i l l a i n an imp. In none of these sources i s the grotesqueness of the hero a s i g n of h i s p e r s o n a l e v i l or s p i r i t u a l d e f o r m i t y . I t i s e i t h e r a r e s u l t of a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n caused by an e v i l s p e l l , or w i t h A n d e r s e n , a potent way of p e r s o n i f y i n g p a i n . L i k e Quasimodo, and Esmeralda , l i k e Q u i l p and N e l l (though Q u i l p i s more,imp than deformed h e r o ) , the t i n s o l d i e r and h i s b a l l e r i n a p e r i s h at the end of the s t o r y . In the death of the hero and h e r o i n e , • and i n t h e i r unconsummated r e l a t i o n s h i p , these three s t o r i e s d i f f e r from the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k t a l e s l i k e Beauty and the B e a s t , B e a r s k i n , 115 and The Frog P r i n c e , where the h e r o i n e ' s l o v e has the power of e n a c t i n g a change i n the h e r o ' s grotesqueness . The demand on the h e r o i n e and on the c h i l d i s that she not be r e p u l s e d by the grotesque appearance. The c h i l d ' s response i n Tchaikovsky and Hoffmann i s d i s b e l i e f , wonder, and e v e n t u a l p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the w o r l d of t h e . t o y s . The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s tha t the r i g h t response to her s i t u a t i o n i s to make f r i e n d s w i t h the monsters , whether they are f igments of her own i m a g i n a t i o n or energy f o r c e s o u t s i d e h e r s e l f . The l i v e toys seem i n f a c t to be the n i n e t e e n t h century descen-dants of the comic demons o r ' t o r t o r e s ' of the demonology, the p a r t i c u l a r shape tha t a c e r t a i n form of grotesque tortur ,e assumed i n the i m a g i n a -t i o n of many n i n e t e e n t h century a r t i s t s ; as f o r i n s t a n c e i n the gr im humour of some' of T e n n i e l ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the A l i c e books , the f a s -c i n a t i o n w i t h the s a d i s t i c behaviour of the Punch and Judy shows, i n which the puppets can be cons idered p a r t i c u l a r l y u g l y toys and ;Wegg i n Our M u t u a l F r i e n d seen as a German wooden toy and at the same time as the e v i l genius of the house of B o f f i n . Even i n P i n o c c h i o much of t h e . f a s c i n a t i o n a r i s e s from the. grotesque t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of appearance that P i n o c c h i o , the p u p p e t - t o y , undergoes , an u g l y power tha t causes us to f o r g e t P i n o c c h i o i s a c t u a l l y the v i c t i m of and not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . the m u t i l a t i o n s . In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop N e l l cont inues to be r e p e l l e d by the grotesqueness , the dance becomes macabre, the toys or puppets , who are most of the grotesque f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l , are m a l i c i o u s , e i t h e r i n 116 motive or i n N e l l ' s eyes . The outcome of t h e i r w e i r d , u n w o r l d l y dance around N e l l i s her d e a t h . The c e r t a i n t y that t h i s i s i n no way a c o n t r i v e d comparison grows out of an i n s t i n c t i v e unders tanding of the t i e i n the s t o r y b e -tween the animate and the i n a n i m a t e , t h e puppet and the p u p p e t - l i k e man, the waxwork f i g u r e s tha t resemble men.and the men of f l e s h tha t resemble o b j e c t s , and the way i n which a l l these f i g u r e s are p a r t of and, at the same t i m e , the s p i r i t of t h e i r environment ; and t h a t , i n her i n t e n s e p a s s i v i t y , , N e l l r e c o g n i z e s them—the waxworks no l e s s than Q u i l p , Brass no l e s s than Punch—as be ing a l i v e and g e s t u r i n g around her i n t h r e a t e n i n g d a n c e - l i k e movements, and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as b e i n g no, more than wooden o b j e c t s . The i n s t i n c t i v e f e e l i n g t h a t . t h i s i s the i n t e r i o r v i s i o n Dickens had of the f i r s t p a r t of the n o v e l , . w i t h L i t t l e N e l l danced ' a t ' and around by a s e r i e s of c o l o u r f u l toys or p u p p e t s , comes too from the c a r e f u l l y choreographed s p a t i a l sense of the work. N e l l ' s ' p i l g r i m a g e ' or l i n e a r movement through the n o v e l i s d o t t e d by l i t t l e c i r c u l a r movements around her of the puppet / toy f i g u r e s . " They appear once, never to be seen aga i n ( l i k e G r i n d e r ' s l o t ) , m a k i n g . i t seem as i f they come a l i v e i n on ly one s e t t i n g , or reappear i n her l i f e , as Q u i l p does , from nowhere, w i t h no apparent c o n t i n u i t y of e x i s t e n c e b e -tween h i s v i s i t s . Dickens has r e i n f o r c e d , the s trangeness of h i s v i s i o n by the b r i l l i a n t a l l i a n c e s he has e s t a b l i s h e d between the grotesques and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g s . In the manner i n which N e l l f i n d s h e r -s e l f hounded from place , to p l a c e by. the presence of these animated 1 1 7 figures, that recurring grotesque image, the dance of death, i s one reflection of the structure of the story. 118 FOOTNOTES A . E . Dyson 's a r t i c l e "The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop: Innocence and the Grotesque" (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) does not mention N e l l ' s i m a g i n a t i o n as be ing i n any way i n v o l v e d w i t h the gro tesque , nor does he comment on the l i n k s between a l l the ' n a t u r a l ' grotesque and c l o w n - f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l . 2 V i c t o r Hugo, P r e f a c e to " C r o m w e l l , " Theatre ( P a r i s : Hachette et c i e , 1884) , p . 21. 3 V i c t o r Hugo, Notre Dame de P a r i s (London: Dent and Sons, 1954) , Ch . 3, p . 142. 4 Mary S h e l l e y , F r a n k e n s t e i n (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p . 162. ^Char les D i c k e n s , The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop (London: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951), Ch . X X I I I , p . 173. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as PCS. 6 o c s , Ch. I , p . 13. 7 OCS, Ch. I , p . 13. 8 o c s , Ch. X I I , p . 94. 9 o c s , C h . I X , p . 75. 1 0 o c s , C h . I , p . 1. 1 : L o c s , Ch . I , p . 1. 12 OCS , Ch . I , p . 13. 1 3 o c s , Ch . XV, p . 117. . 1 4 o c s , C h . XXIX, p . 221. 1 5 o c s , C h . X X X X I I I , p . 320 1 6 o c s , Ch . X X X X I I , p . 318. 1 7 o c s , Ch . XXXIV, p . 327. 1 8 o c s , C h . V , p . 40. 19 ocs , C h . X X I I , p . 173. 119 2 0 o c s , Ch. X X X I , p . 230. 21 o c s , Ch. X X X I , p . 231.- . 22 OCS, Ch . X X X I , p . 233. 23 OCS, Ch . L X I X , p . 524. 2 4 o c s , Ch. XL I V , p . 331. 2 5 o c s , C h . I X , p . 69. 2 6 o c s , Ch. X L I I I , p . 323. 2 7 o c s , Ch. XLV, p i . 335. 2 8 o c s , C h . XV, p . 115. 29 OCS, Ch . X L I V , p . 327. . 3 0 o c s , C h . X L I V , p . 327. 3 1 o c s , Ch. XV, p . 335. 32 o c s , Ch. XXIX, p . 21,7. 33 OCS, Ch . X X V I I , p . 208. 3 4 o c s , C h . X L V I , p . 348. 3 5 o c s , Ch. I I I , p . 386. 3 ^ C h a r l e s '. Dickens , Hard T: 1854), Ch . X I I , p . 96. 3 7 H a r d Times, C h . X I I I , p . 101. 38 Hard Times, Ch . X I I I , p . 102. 39 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , A Ta le of Two C i t i e s (London: Chapman and H a l l , [ n . d . ] ) , Bk. 2 , . C h . X I X , p . 230. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as TTC. 40 TTC, Bk. 3 , Ch . I I , p . 287. 4 1 T T C , Bk. 2 , Ch . V I , p . 112. 42 . TTC, Bk. 2 , C h . VI,- p . 114. 4 3 T T C , Bk. 2 , Ch . V I , p . 112. 44 TTC, Bk-.. 2 , Ch . V I , p . 115. 45 TTC, Bk. 2 , Ch . X V I I I , p.. 219. 4 6 T T C , Bk. 2 , C h . V I , p . 114. 47 'TTC, Bk. 2 , Ch . V I •, p . 107. 48 TTC, Bk. 2 , Ch . X X I , p . 238. 49 TTC, Bk. 2 , Ch . X X I , p . 239. 5 0 T T C , Bk. 2 , Ch . X X I , p . 241. 5 1 T T C , Bk. 2 , Ch . V I , p . 111. 5 2 T T C , Bk. 2 , Ch . V I , p . 118. 53 OCS, C h . X I I , p, . 94. 5 4 O C S , Ch. XXXIV, p . 254. 5 5 O C S , Ch. XXXIV, p.. 254. 5 6 o c s , Ch. v, p . 42. 57 - OCS, Ch . X I I I , p . 99. 5 8 o c s , C h . L X I I , p . 461. 5 9 o c s , Ch. V I > P- 47. 60 OCS, C h . X X I , p . 164. 6 1 o c s , Ch. X X X I I I , p . 252. 6 2 o c s „ C h . XXXITI , p . 255. 6 3 o c s , Ch. X X X I I I , p . 258. 64 OCS, C h . v i i , p . 51 . 6 5 o c s , Ch. I I > P- 17. 6 6ocs„. C h . . L V I I , p . 427. F e d e r i c o F e l l i n i , "My C l o w n s , ' 68_ . . . . F e l l i n i . 121 6 9PCS, Ch. X X V I I I , p.. 211, 70OCS, Ch. V , p. 43. 7 1PCS, Ch. V , p. 40. 72OCS, Ch. I X , p. 72. 73OCS_, Ch. V , p. 34. 74OCS, Ch. X L V I I I , p. 358. 75OCS, Ch. X L V I I I , p. 361. 76OCS, Ch. X L I X , p. 369. 77OCS_, Ch. X L , p. 447. 78 PCS,- Ch. X L V I I I , p. 356. 79 PCS, Ch. X I I I , p. 104. . 80 ~ PCS, Ch. I X , p. 72. 81 CCS, Ch. I V , p. 35.-82 Notre Dame de Paris, Ch. 3, p. 141. 83 Notre Dame de Paris, Ch. 3, p. 146. 8 4CCS, Ch. I , p. 5. Q r PCS, Ch. XXXV, p. 271. 86 PCS, Ch. L X X I I I , p. 549. 87 -CCS, Ch. XXIX, p. 216. 88 PCS,,Ch..XIX, p. 143. 89 CCS., Ch. X X V I I , p.. 204. 9°PCS, Ch. X X V I I , p. 203. 91OCS, Ch. XXIX, p. 217. 92 PCS; Ch. X X V I I I , p. 214. 3PCS, Ch. X L I V , p. 326. 122 94 * 4 O C S , Ch. -XLV, p. 338. 95 " o c s , C h . I , p. 14. 9 6 o c s , Ch. I , p. 5 . 97 OCS, C h . X I , p. 84. 9 8 o c s , C h . X V I , p. 122. 99 OCS, C h . I l l , p. 22. 1 0 0 o c s , C h . I l l , p. 22. 1 0 1 o c s , C h . X X X V I I , p. 277. 1 0 2 o c s , C h . X L I I , p. 461. 1 0 3 o c s , C h . X X V I I , p. 203. 1 0 4 o c s , . C h . X X I X , p. 217. , 1 0 5 o c s , C h . X L V , , p. 335. 1 0 6 o c s , C h . XLV, p. 335. 1 0 7 o c s , Ch. V , . p. 36. 1 0 8 o c s , C h . X X I , p. 165. 1 0 9 o c s , C h . L , p. 377. 1 1 0 o c s , ch. V I , p. 47. 1 1. 1ocs, Ch. X I I I , p. 99. 1 1 2 o c s , • C h . X X V I I I , p. 214. 113 Angus W i l s o n ' s The World Sacher and Warburg, 1 9 7 0 ) , . w h i c h was not c o n s u l t e d u n t i l a f t e r comple-t i o n of the t h e s i s , proposes tha t toys p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e i n D i c k e n s ' a r t i s t i c development, and d e s c r i b e s c e r t a i n toys which had a t e r r i f y i n g h o l d over young D i c k e n s . He a l s o s t r e s s e s the importance of the n u r -sery t a l e s Dickens encountered, i n c l u d i n g one mentioned by Stone (see Chapter I ) , ' C a p t a i n M u r d e r e r , ' i n which a man baked and ate h i s wives i n p i e s h e l l s they had made themselves . He quotes Dickens as s a y i n g , " ' L i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood was my f i r s t l o v e . ' " CHAPTER I I I THE MAIMED CHILD: Our Mutua l F r i e n d In Our Mutua l F r i e n d Dickens c rea tes many of h i s grotesque  images by meshing deformed or b e s t i a l c h a r a c t e r s w i t h c o l o u r s , forms  or f o l k t a l e personages tha t have connota t ions of beauty or a e s t h e t i c  a p p e a l . . S ince he e x p l i c i t l y , even i n d u l g e n t l y , d e s c r i b e s t h e i r c h a o t i c , savage or decaying appearance, there i s i n t h i s c o u p l i n g the s u g g e s t i o n of e v i l as a source of beauty ; C o n c u r r e n t l y he a t t a c k s and p a r o d i e s most of the scenes o f . i n n o c e n c e tha t he e s t a b l i s h e s . T h i s i s o n l y one of s e v e r a l dominat ing preoccupat ions i n the n o v e l , but i t . i s one which has been g e n e r a l l y d i s r e g a r d e d i n analyses of the b i r d s of p r e y , the r i v e r and dustheaps , and the c i t y as w a s t e -l a n d . I w i s h to p o i n t out the recurrences of the imagery, r a t h e r than to draw them i n t o any f o r c e d , . i m p o s e d p a t t e r n , s i n c e I am not sure any such p a t t e r n e x i s t s i n t h e . n o v e l . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n of innocence and c r e a t i o n of a new v i s i o n of beauty i s important to men-t i o n , as i t i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of the grotesque tha t are at work i n D i c k e n s ' o ther n o v e l s . In The Mystery of Edwin Drood i t w i l l be seen tha t the t e c h -niques of s o c i a l c o n t r o l p r a c t i s e d by the b o u r g e o i s i e are so s t r o n g l y i n ascendency tha t even the a n a r c h i c c h a r a c t e r s who s p r i n g i n t o e x i s -tence as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the s o c i a l order are decorated w i t h b o u r -geois p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; i n Our M u t u a l F r i e n d , on the other 123 124 h a n d , . t h e f o r c e s of grotesque anarchy have permeated the whole s o c i e t y , and, i n s t e a d of s p e c i f i e d c l o w n - f i g u r e s such as e x i s t e d i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop, here everyone, at one t ime or another , p l a y s the c lown, or mimic f o o l of someone e l s e . One .charac ter may c o n s c i o u s l y mimic or i m i t a t e another , or a h i g h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c p h y s i c a l t r a i t or behaviour may be repeated i n two or three o therwise unconnected c h a r a c t e r s . There are of course the obvious i n s t a n c e s of the d o l l s and s k e l e t o n s as mimic f o o l s , of Headstone and h i s Shadow p e r s o n a l i t y , R i d e r h o o d , and of doubles such as Fledgeby and R i a h . A whole c o l l e c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of i d e n t i t y r e v o l v e around ' r a g s ' ; M r . D o l l s dead as a "bundle of t o r n r a g s H e a d s t o n e r e g a i n i n g h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y by f i s h i n g up h i s rags from the c a n a l , the rags of the a l c o h o l i c s be ing compared t o . t h e v e g e t a b l e r e f u s e of Covent Garden, the l a t t e r becoming a g i a n t wardrobe , Jenny sewing rags i n t o f a s h i o n a b l e d o l l s ' d r e s s e s , Lady T i p p i n s as n o t h i n g more than the c l o t h e s she wears , and the g r o -tesque r e l a t i o n s h i p , v i a the image of the s k e l e t o n r a t t l i n g i n her c l o t h e s , between the g l i t t e r i n g society-women and the ragged corpses of the r i v e r . There are however l e s s obvious mergings of i d e n t i t y or appear-ance. As the l i g h t f l i c k e r s on them, Venus' s k e l e t o n s seem to move i n a p a r a l y t i c manner; M r . D o l l s i s c a l l e d a p a r a l y t i c scarecrow. These clumsy grotesque movements are j o i n e d by those of the wooden l e g s , G r u f f and Glum, Wegg, and Jenny whose c r u t c h s t i c k i s a spec ies of wooden l e g . The V e n e e r i n g s ' baby and B e l l a ' s baby are rendered i d e n t i -c a l l y p u p p e t - l i k e , each hav ing her mother ' s thoughts and speeches 125 imposed on h e r . M r s . Podsnap d e s t r o y i n g her d a u g h t e r ' s c h i l d h o o d r e -sembles a m a j e s t i c r o c k i n g h o r s e ; the toy that e n t i c e s l i t t l e orphan Johnny to the bourgeois w o r l d i s . a h o r s e . There are three l i t t l e seamstresses , each i n her impotence adopt ing her needle as a d e f e n s i v e weapon. B e l l a becomes a seamstress o n l y a f t e r s o c i e t y has rendered her d o l l - l i k e , " l i k e a s o r t of dimpled 2 charming D r e s d e n - c h i n a c l o c k by the v e r y best maker" ; M r s . John Rokesmith sat . . . b e s i d e a basket of. neat l i t t l e a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g , which presented so much of the appearance of be ing i n the d o l l s ' dressmaker ' s way of b u s i n e s s , that one might have supposed she was goirig to se t up i n o p p o s i t i o n to M i s s Wren.3 She cont inues .the d o l l - m a k i n g i n her .own baby. Jenny makes a c t u a l d o l l s , and f i g u r a t i v e l y uses her needle to a t t a c k her enemies. M i s s Peecher has t r a i n e d h e r s e l f to be adept at s o c i a l l y v a l u e d f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t h a v i n g a n y . a u t h o r i t y over what those f u n c t i o n s , a r e ; s o c i e t y has rewarded her by g i v i n g her the a t t r i b u t e s of o b j e c t s v a l u e d by the s o c i e t y : a l i t t l e p i n c u s h i o n , a l i t t l e h o u s e w i f e , a l i t t l e book, a l i t t l e workbox, a l i t t l e se t of t a b l e s and weights and measures, and a l i t t l e woman a l l i n one .^ She has no d o l l s ; i n s t e a d she sews c l o t h e s f o r h e r s e l f , turns h e r s e l f i n t o a mannequin, .and turns her n e e d l e ' s v i c i o u s n e s s i n w a r d : s t i t c h e d at the neat l i t t l e body she was making up by brown paper pattern, , f o r her own w e a r i n g . 5 126 [she] t r a n s f i x e d that p a r t of her dress where her h e a r t would have been i f she had had the dress o n , w i t h a s h a r p , sharp needle .6 Jenhy'.s v i s i o n i s of f l o w e r s and b i r d s : ' I s m e l l roses t i l l I t h i n k I see the r o s e - l e a v e s l y i n g i n heaps, b u s h e l s , on the f l o o r . . . . And the b i r d s I h e a r ! O h ! ' c r i e d the l i t t l e c r e a t u r e , h o l d i n g out her hand, and l o o k i n g upward, 'how they s i n g ! ' 7 Yet B e l l a , d e s i r e s and r e c e i v e s a d o m e s t i c a t e d , A r a b i a n N i g h t s v e r s i o n of the same dream: they came to a charming a v i a r y , i n which a number of t r o p i c a l b i r d s , more gorgeous i n colours , than the f l o w e r s , were f l y i n g about ; and among those b i r d s were g o l d and s i l v e r f i s h , and mosses, and w a t e r - l i l i e s , and a f o u n t a i n , and a l l manner of wonders .^ In t h i s s h a r i n g and mimick ing of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y such h i g h l y v i s u a l ones, can be seen a development of the power of gargoyles l i k e Q u i l p and Quasimodo to absorb and reproduce i n t h e i r appearance t h e i r environment . For D i c k e n s ' c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l seem u n c o n s c i o u s l y to be c a r r y i n g out a s e n s u a l a b s o r p t i o n of each o t h e r . P a t t e r n s do however e x i s t w i t h i n t h i s w e l t e r of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n s . A c e n t r a l image of Our M u t u a l F r i e n d i s tha t of a maimed c h i l d . The dominant . p e r s o n a l i t y , s p i r i t or animus of the n o v e l i s Jenny Wren. The i m a g i n a t i v e r e n d e r i n g of the s o c i a l order tha t the s t o r y presents i s o f t e n that of the w o r l d seen through the i m a g i n a t i o n of a deformed c h i l d , e s s e n t i a l l y c r u e l and b l a c k , but t h i s c r u e l t y and b lackness g i v e n v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n through the medium of images from c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . 127 They were i n a neighbourhood which looked l i k e a toy neighbourhood taken i n b l o c k s out of a box by a c h i l d of p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o h e r e n t mind and se t up anyhow; . . . here another u n f i n i s h e d s t r e e t a l -ready i n r u i n s ; t h e r e , a c h u r c h ; here an immense new warehouse; there . . . , rank f i e l d , r i c h l y c u l t i v a t e d k i t c h e n - g a r d e n , b r i c k v i a d u c t , arch-spanned c a n a l , and d i s o r d e r of drowsiness and f o g . As i f the c h i l d had g i v e n the t a b l e a k i c k and gone to s l e e p . 9 The grotesque image of t h e maimed c h i l d does not m y s t e r i o u s l y s p r i n g to e x i s t e n c e i n Our Mutua l F r i e n d . I t has been a thread t h r o u g h -out Dickens ' n o v e l s , and i n f a c t i n h i s e x p r e s s i o n of h i s u l t i m a t e a t t a c k on the assumed innocence of h i s middle -aged g e n t i l i t y such as the T a l e of Two C i t i e s c h a r a c t e r s . The maimed c h i l d bears an a f f i n i t y to the imagery found i n the. Smallweeds, D i c k e n s ' p i c t u r e of m u t i l a t e d f a n c y , . . o f f a n t a s i e s from c h i l d r e n ' s a r t rendered grotesque by a l l i a n c e w i t h a b r u t a l , u g l y scene. In N i c h o l a s N i c k l e b y maimed c h i l d r e n made t h e i r appearance en masse at Dotheboys H a l l . U s u a l l y however h i s maimed or t w i s t e d c h i l d r e n are potent c r e a t i v e f o r c e s , q u i t e i n c o n -t r a s t to the p a s s i v i t y of N e l l . There i s the M a r c h i o n e s s , p a r t c h i l d , p a r t shrew, p a r t dwarf , p a r t s e x u a l o b j e c t ; there are the l i t t l e o l d c h i l d r e n of B leak House: Such a t i n y o l d - f a c e d m i t e , w i t h a countenance tha t seemed to be s c a r c e l y a n y t h i n g but cap-border , , and a l i t t l e l e a n , l o n g - f i n g e r e d hand, always c lenched under i t s c h i n . 1 0 there i s Bartholomew.Smallweed, and f i n a l l y there i s Jenny Wren, " a c h i l d — a d w a r f — a g i r l — a s o m e t h i n g — s i t t i n g on a . l i t t l e o l d - f a s h i o n e d arm-chair . " " ' "^ These c h a r a c t e r s bear a t i e to the a c r o b a t i c c h i l d r e n of the s lums , to Tom Scot t i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop and Deputy i n The  Mystery of Edwin Drood. 128 In endowing these c h i l d r e n w i t h u g l y or a n t i c q u a l i t i e s Dickens i s d e s t r o y i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r innocence . In the debate men-t i o n e d e a r l i e r ( see Chapter I) on the proper l i t e r a t u r e f o r c h i l d r e n , on whether they should be handed c o l d , hard f a c t s , or s t o r i e s of f a n -t a s y , Dickens s i d e d w i t h those who advocated f a n t a s y , and h i s own a r t depends much on such f a n t a s y s o u r c e s . Yet the q u a l i t i e s which he a t t r i b u t e d to c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t of r e a d i n g f a i r y t a l e s , mercy, gen-t l e n e s s , f o r e b e a r a n c e , c o u r t e s y , are q u a l i t i e s q u i t e denied c h i l d r e n l i k e Marchioness and Jenny and Tom and Deputy. Furthermore h i s own images borrowed from c h i l d r e n ' s a r t are o f t e n used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h n e g a t i v e or v i c i o u s imagery . Dickens thus r e v e a l s tha t he shares w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t e r s of the century t h e i r ambivalence both towards the innocence and towards the a n a r c h i c s p o n t a n e i t y of c h i l d r e n . In Hard Times Dickens conceived of fancy as a maimed r o b b e r : He went to work i n t h i s p r e p a r a t o r y l e s s o n , not u n l i k e Morgiana i n the F o r t y T h i e v e s : l o o k i n g i n t o a l l the v e s s e l s ranged b e f o r e h i m , one a f t e r a n o t h e r , to see what they c o n t a i n e d . Say good M'Choakum-c h i l d . When from thy b o i l i n g s t o r e thou s h a l t f i l l each j a r b r i m f u l l b y - a n d - b y , dost thou t h i n k that thou w i l t always k i l l o u t r i g h t the robber Fancy l u r k i n g w i t h i n or sometimes o n l y maim and d i s t o r t h i m ! 1 2 A c o r r e l a t i v e to t h i s metaphor would be tha t h i s f a n c i f u l people are g r o t e s q u e l y c r i p p l e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t . S l e a r y , the c i r c u s l e a d e r , the c h i e f e x p r e s s i o n i n tha t n o v e l of the v a l u e of f a n t a s y f o r i t s own 13 sake , i s indeed seen as maimed, " w i t h one f i x e d eye , one l o o s e e y e . " S l e a r y ' s eye means other t h i n g s as w e l l however. The p e r s o n a l freedom tha t S i s s y never r e a l l y e x p r e s s e s , though L o u i s a q u i t e deeply 129 m a n i f e s t s i t s consc ious l o s s , f i n d s v i s u a l form i n S l e a r y ' s wandering e y e ; So c l e a r l y does he not f e e l h i m s e l f f e t t e r e d by preconce ived c o n -cepts of b e h a v i o u r , of how the w o r l d should work, tha t h i s v e r y eye does not f e e l bound to f o l l o w the normal d i c t a t e s of p h y s i o l o g y . The robber mentioned above, though he i s an A r a b i a n N i g h t s r o b b e r , nonetheless l i n k s the i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h the c r i m i n a l or a n t i -bourgeois e lements . ' He thus shares w i t h The Marchioness and Jenny.Wren the l i n k w i t h c h i l d h o o d , w i t h the c r i m i n a l or v i c i o u s (The Marchioness  has l i n k s w i t h Q u i l p and - S a l l y ) , w i t h the s tunted or t w i s t e d , and w i t h  the i m a g i n a t r y e . And as w i t h S l e a r y ' s wandering e y e , the maiming, the s t u n t e d n e s s , the t w i s t i n g m a n i f e s t s i n one sense the attempts of the m a t e r i a l i s t i c , p o s s e s s i o n - p r o u d , people i n power to d e s t r o y the s p i r i t of a n a r c h i c freedom; but more s t r o n g l y , the v e r y t w i s t s and d e f o r m i t i e s are the e x p r e s s i o n of freedom and r e b e l l i o n , the r e j e c t i o n of the s o c i a l l y - a p p r o v e d p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g , and norms of appearance r u l e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y . In Our M u t u a l F r i e n d Dickens e x p l i c i t l y endows some of h i s c h a r a c t e r s w i t h a c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d to move i n , as the chapter headings themselves show: 'The Golden Dustman F a l l s i n t o Bad Company,' 'The Feast of the Three H o b g o b l i n s . ' In the Pa and B e l l a , ' C h e r u b and Lovely . Lady,' scenes , the c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e themselves w i t h a c o n s c i o u s l y c h i l d l i k e r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e i r environment . .- They v i s u a l i z e t h e i r w o r l d i n terms t y p i c a l of the w h i m s i c a l bourgeois c h i l d r e n ' s a r t that was popular l a t e i n the c e n t u r y . They p r a c t i s e t h e i r own form of u n -n a t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , q u i t e s i m i l a r to the anthropomorphism. B e l l a ' s 130 f a t h e r becomes a Cherub, and her 'bad b o y ' ; B e l l a becomes her P a ' s cour ted L o v e l y L a d y ; the s h i p s of the Thames become f o r t u n e s h i p s out of A r a b i a n N i g h t s and a meal of bread and m i l k i n a C i t y o f f i c e becomes a g o b l i n ' s f e a s t . B e l l a r e f e r s to her v e r y ungreedy, unknavish f a t h e r as L i t t l e J a c k . H o r n e r and the Knave of W i l f e r s . B e l l a vents her deepest anger through a t o t a l l y impotent , coy e p i t h e t : " I f any t r u e f r i e n d , and w e l l - w i s h e r c o u l d make.you a b a n k r u p t , you would be a Duck; but as a 14 man of p r o p e r t y you are a Demon." She even i d y l l i c i z e s the s t o r y of the Three B e a r s : " I t was . . . w i t h o u t t h e i r thunderous low growl ings of the a l a r m i n g d i s c o v e r y , 'Somebody's been d r i n k i n g my m i l k ! ' " " ^ " ' Y e t ; though Dickens i n t h i s n o v e l b u i l d s whole r o l e s out of t h i s c h i l d r e n ' s imagery, , i n s t e a d . o f making the o c c a s i o n a l image r e f e r -ence, .he seems to r e a l i z e tha t the c h a r a c t e r s he i s d e a l i n g w i t h are not c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y book c h a r a c t e r s , that i f they themselves assume such r o l e s i t i s a p e r v e r s i o n of t h e i r humanity , and tha t a grotesque e f f e c t occurs from the meshing of a t o y l i k e presence w i t h the b l a c k n e s s of contemporary London. And so he c o u n t e r p o i n t s t h e i r scene w i t h tha t of Jenny Wren. The d y i n g Johnny dreams of the toys over h i s bed i n the h o s p i - . t a l : the toys were ye t grouped as - the c h i l d r e n had l e f t them, when they l a s t l a i d themselves down,, and i n , t h e i r innocent grotesqueness and i n c o n g r u i t y , they might have stood f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s dreams.16 One.of these, a doll-figure, could represent a.future self: 131 the o f f i c e r . i n the Guards doing duty over the w h o l e , q u i t e as much to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of h i s country as i f he had been upon Parade.17 Yet the d o l l ' s dressmaker who costumes d o l l s and sends them out i n t o s o c i e t y has a v e r y d i f f e r e n t dream. She hates c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g h e r -18 s e l f , " ' D o n ' t t a l k to me of c h i l d r e n . I c a n ' t bear c h i l d r e n . ' " ; she 19 d o e s n ' t p l a y , " ' I never p l a y ! I c a n ' t p l a y ! . 1 " She a s s o c i a t e s p l a y w i t h the h o r r i b l e , b e s t i a l f o r c e s , " c i rcumstances over which no c o n t r o l , " of her drunken f a t h e r which are i n f a c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her crooked back and deformed l e g s . She says of h i m , " ' I had n o t h i n g to do but work , and so I worked. I c o u l d n ' t p l a y . But my poor u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d 21 c o u l d p l a y , and i t turned out the worse f o r h i m . ' " • And so J e n n y ' s 22 dream i s "'Come up and be dead, Come up and be d e a d . ' " J e n n y ' s d o l l s are i n f a c t voodoo f i g u r e s , and hideous though the i m p l i c a t i o n i s , i t i s almost as i f the toys and d o l l s i n Johnny 's dreams are d i r e c t l y l i n k e d w i t h the d o l l ' s dressmaker ' s c h a n t , "'Come up and be dead, Come up and be d e a d . ' " That Jenny a s s o c i a t e s h e r s e l f w i t h the powers of voodoo and that she uses her d o l l s as p r o j e c t i o n s of her power we see s e v e r a l t i m e s . When Headstone p r o t e s t s the innocence of h i s motives towards L i z z i e , Jenny says of a d o l l : . ' T h i s i s M r s . T r u t h . The Honourable F u l l - d r e s s e d . . . I s tand the Honourable M r s . T. on my bench i n t h i s corner a g a i n s t the w a l l , where her b l u e eyes can sh ine upon y o u . ' pursued M i s s Wren, doing s o , and making two l i t t l e dabs at him i n the a i r w i t h her, n e e d l e , as i f she p r i c k e d him w i t h i t i n h i s own eyes.23 Through the medium o f . h e r clergyman d o l l she hopes to f i n d a husband. 132 The clergyman d o l l succeeds a p p a r e n t l y , because she i s sent S l o p p y ; i t i s a r t i s t i c a l l y r i g h t - t h a t Sloppy\s reason f o r meeting her i s to p i c k up a d o l l . T h i s maimed c h i l d has myster ious voodoo powers apar t from her d o l l s . She threa tens her f a t h e r tha t i f he does not behave he deserves to be b o t t l e d : ' A muddl ing and a swipey o l d c h i l d , . . . f i t f o r n o t h i n g but to be preserved i n the l i q u o r tha t d e s t r o y s h i m , and put i n a great g l a s s b o t t l e as a s i g h t f o r other swipey c h i l d r e n of h i s own p a t t e r n , . . . 1 2 4 A n d , s i n c e he cont inues t o misbehave, that i s h i s e v e n t u a l f a t e : the window becoming from w i t h i n , a w a l l of f a c e s j deformed i n t o a l l k i n d of shapes through the agency of g l o b u l a r red b o t t l e s , green b o t t l e s , b l u e b o t t l e s , and other c o l o u r e d b o t t l e s . . . w i t h a s t range myster ious w r i t i n g on h i s face r e f l e c t e d from one of the great b o t t l e s , as i f Death had marked h i m : ' M i n e . ' 2 5 J e n n y ' s power i s a form of e v i l , d e s p i t e the t rueness of her a f f e c t i o n f o r L i z z i e and R i a h , and d e s p i t e the almost r e l i g i o u s beauty of her dreams: the c h i l d r e n tha t I used to see e a r l y i n the morning were v e r y d i f -f e r e n t from any others tha t I ever saw. They were not l i k e me: they were not c h i l l e d , a n x i o u s , ragged, or bea ten ; they were never i n p a i n . . .. . A l l i n w h i t e d r e s s e s , and w i t h something s h i n i n g on the b o r d e r s , and on t h e i r heads., tha t I have never been ab le to i m i t a t e w i t h my work though I know i t so w e l l . They used to come down i n l o n g , b r i g h t s l a n t i n g rows, and say a l l t o g e t h e r , 'Who i s t h i s i n p a i n ! Who i s t h i s i n p a i n ! . . . they swept about me and took me u p , and made me l i g h t . Then i t was a l l d e l i c i o u s ease and r e s t . . . 2 6 Her dreams a r e , a f t e r a l l , of the beauty of e a r t h l y d e a t h . And even to 133 L i z z i e who has l i n k e d h e r s e l f i n s e p a r a b l y w i t h her f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n and the r i v e r , and d e r i v e s her s t r e n g t h from them, Jenny can be v e r y u g l y : The person of the house was the person of a house f u l l of s o r d i d shames and c a r e s , w i t h an upper room i n which that abased f i g u r e was i n f e c t i n g even innocent s l eep w i t h s e n s u a l b r u t a l i t y and d e g r a -d a t i o n . Of course to the servants of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y she can be n o t h i n g e l s e . 28 C h a r l i e Hexam c a l l s her " p e r t crooked l i t t l e c h i t , " "a l i t t l e crooked 29 a n t i c of a c h i l d , or o l d p e r s o n , or whatever i t i s . " Yet i t i s her deformed person tha t Dickens endows w i t h the most p o w e r f u l images of s e n s u a l beauty i n the s t o r y , i n a q u i x o t i c parody of B e l l a , the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s Boofer L a d y . B e l l a f o r i n s t a n c e p r i z e s her h a i r , but a l l we are t o l d of her l o v e l i n e s s i s that Her p r e t t y h a i r was hanging a l l about h e r , and she. had t r i p p e d down s o f t l y , b r u s h i n hand, and b a r e f o o t , to say goodnight to h i m . 'My d e a r , you most u n q u e s t i o n a b l y are a l o v e l y woman,' s a i d the cherub.30. whereas Jenny i s s e v e r a l t imes drawn i n the most r a d i a n t images: she [ L i z z i e ] unfastened a r i b b o n that kept i t back w h i l e the l i t t l e c r e a t u r e was at her work, and i t f e l l i n a b e a u t i f u l shower over the poor shoulders tha t were much i n need of such adorning r a i n . . . . Jenny so managed a mere touch or two of her nimble hands, as that she h e r s e l f , l a y i n g a cheek on one of the d a r k . f o l d s , seemed b l i n d e d by her own c l u s t e r i n g c u r l s to a l l but the f i r e , ' . - . . . Something s p a r k l e d down among the f a i r h a i r r e s t i n g on the dark h a i r ; and i f i t were not a s t a r — w h i c h i t c o u l d n ' t b e — i t was an eye;, and i f i t were an e y e , i t was Jenny Wren's eye , b r i g h t and w a t c h f u l as the b i r d ' s whose name she had taken .31 . The s e n s u a l power does not l i e w i t h the innocence of Johnny 's Boofer 134 Lady or P a ' s L o v e l y L a d y , but w i t h a maimed chi ld-woman, granddaughter of the t e r r i b l e o l d drowned man i n a n i g h t c a p and s l i p p e r s . Jenny has a double i n M r . Venus, f o r whereas he c o n s t r u c t s human r e p l i c a s from t h e i r s k e l e t o n s , Jenny does so from t h e i r c l o t h e s . Both are descendants of K r o o k , tha t spec ies of mimic f o o l i n Bleak House w i t h h i s rag-and-bone shop. Once ag a in an image of innocence , of the d o l l s , i s l i n k e d w i t h an image of u g l i n e s s and f r i g h t , the s k e l e t o n . M r s . T r u t h oversees the c o n v e r s a t i o n of Jenny and Headstone i n the same way i n which the 'F rench gentleman' oversees those of M r . Venus and h i s , v i s i t o r s . Venus always speaks of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s s k e l e t o n s as ' a r t i c u l a t i o n ' ; ye t i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h a t was a l s o the term used f o r making a d o l l , J enny ' s t h r e a t to b o t t l e her f a t h e r i s matched by Venus ' "Hindoo baby i n a b o t t l e , curved up w i t h 32 h i s b i g head tucked under h i m . " Jenny i s o n l y one of the v i s i o n s i n the book i n which images of innocence are bestowed on f a c t s of u g l i n e s s and s o r d i d n e s s ( i t should not be f o r g o t t e n tha t the d o l l s r e t a i n q u a l i t i e s from t h e i r w h i m s i c a l o r i g i n i n a c h i l d r e n ' s d r e a m w o r l d — " s i n g i n g a mournfu l l i t t l e 33 song which might have been the song of the d o l l she was d r e s s i n g " ) , and i n which s e n s u a l beauty i s i n v e s t e d i n u g l y , even e v i l , c r e a t i o n s . M r . D o l l s , J e n n y ' s f a t h e r , i s c h r i s t e n e d such by Eugene, but t h e r e a f t e r i n the s t o r y he r e t a i n s the nickname. Yet here the name does not s i g n i f y any u n s p e c u l a t i v e p a i n t e d p i e c e of wood, as i t does when r e f e r r i n g to the s t a r i n g d o l l barmaids i n the J o l l y - F e l l o w s h i p -P o r t e r s , or e v e n . t o him h i m s e l f when he i s dead, " t h e r e , i n the mids t 135 of the dolls with no speculation in their eyes, lay Mr. Dolls with no 34 speculation in his. For Mr. Dolls is a v i t a l , though decaying, speci-men of humanity, and un t i l the end when he becomes a bundle of rags he is characterized by his movements,.shuffling, f l a i l i n g : The shaking figure, unnerved and disjointed from head to foot, put . out i t s two hands a l i t t l e way, as making overtures of peace and reconciliation. 35 The very breathing of the figure was contemptible, as i t laboured and rattled in that operation.36 Through his a l l i e s in poverty and drink, the Covent Garden habitues,, he is connected with organic matter, i t may be the companionship of the trodden vegetable refuse which is so like their own dress that perhaps they take the Market for a great wardrobe; . . . Such stale vapid rejected .cabbage-leaf and cabbage-stalk dress, such damaged orange countenance, such squashed pulp of humanity, are.open to the day nowhere else.37 This is a very different use of the doll-image from the cold innocence of the Dresden china dolls in The Mystery of Edwin Drood,.or Jenny's b r i l l i a n t court dolls. Not only is Mr. Dolls a most unlikely, figure for a nursery toy, 38 but his presence as a "bad boy" undermines the quaintness of Bella's references to her.father as a mildly errant child. Thus in Jenny's presence: Abject tears stood in i t s eyes, and stained the blotched red of i t s cheeks. The swollen lead-coloured underlip trembled with a shameful whine. The whole indecorous threadbare ruin, from the broken shoes to the prematurely grey scanty hair, grovelled. 136 Not w i t h any sense worthy to be c a l l e d a sense , of t h i s d i r e r e v e r - s a l of the p l a c e s of parent and c h i l d , but i n a p i t i f u l e x p o s t u l a -t i o n to be M e t o f f from a s c o l d i n g . 3 9 [ i t a l i c s mine] But B e l l a a l s o r e v e r s e s r o l e s w i t h her f a t h e r , and Pa i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by h i s i n a b i l i t y to dress h i m s e l f w e l l : 'And what do you do w i t h y o u r s e l f when you have got your l e a r n i n g , by h e a r t , you s i l l y child,? ' ' 'Why then I suppose I d i e . ' 'You are a bad boy . . . .. Now you are something l i k e a g e n t e e l boy! Put your j a c k e t o n , and come have your s u p p e r . ' 4 0 Yet even M r . D o l l s , m i n d l e s s and s m e l l i n g though he i s , .has h i s c l a i m s to a w o r l d of beauty . J u s t as h i s behaviour mocks the innocence of d o l l s , so the connec t ion w i t h d o l l s r o m a n t i c i z e s h i s d e c r e p i t n e s s , renders i t p i c t u r e s q u e . In the passage above he i s g i v e n f u r t h e r p i c t u r e s q u e overtones by the i m p l i c a t i o n tha t he i s a c l o w n . H i s s h a b b i n e s s , h i s comic exag-g e r a t i o n of the ges tures of f e a r and s e r v i l i t y l a c k d i g n i t y , are a ' s h a d o w ' ' o f humanity, i n the way that F e l l i n i a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the clown (see Chapter I I ) : " a most d i s g r a c e f u l shadow of a man, shaking from 41 head to f o o t , . a n d c l o t h e d i n shabby grease and smear . " Yet the c o l o u r f u l , t h e a t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the clown a l s o e x i s t s i n the d e s -c r i p t i o n by v i r t u e of one p h r a s e , ' s t a i n e d the b l o t c h e d red of i t s c h e e k s ' ; w i t h a w r i t e r as deeply i n f l u e n c e d by the images of the popu-l a r t h e a t r e as D i c k e n s , t h i s cannot have f a i l e d to have represented i n h i s i n t e r n a l v i s i o n a c l o w n ' s makeup. Tears do not n o r m a l l y s t a i n See 'The Pantomime of L i f e , ' Sketches by Boz i n which Dickens . f o r c e s the reader to. guess whether the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s he g i v e s are those of a c t u a l people or of pantomime c lowns . 137 f l e s h ; they do however s t a i n makeup. T h i s passage i s a mature d e v e l o p -ment of the d y i n g pantomime clown seen i n P i c k w i c k P a p e r s . In that passage Dickens conjured up a l l the spangles and p a i n t r e q u i r e d to dress the t r a d i t i o n a l grotesque image, and then v i s u a l i z e d the gay f i g u r e w i t h a p a r a d o x i c a l v e r s i o n of h i s a c r o b a t i c movements, the t rembl ings and r a t t l i n g s of d e a t h . Here the d e l i r i u m tremens of a bedraggled a l c o h o l i c have i n t h e i r appearance the b a r e s t sugges t ion of a clown f i g u r e , a t h e a t r i c a l c a r n i v a l beauty i n human decay. When he d i e s , though he d i s t i n c t l y r e t a i n s connect ions w i t h the b e s t i a l , " l a i d about him h o a r s e l y , f i e r c e l y , s t a r i n g l y , c o n v u l s i v e l y , 42 f o a m i n g l y , " h i s death i s staged i n an awesome, even b e a u t i f u l scene, surrounded by c o l o u r e d b o t t l e s : the window becoming from w i t h i n , a w a l l of f a c e s , deformed i n t o a l l k i n d s of shapes through the agency of g l o b u l a r red b o t t l e s , green b o t t l e s , b l u e b o t t l e s , and other co loured b o t t l e s . A g h a s t l y l i g h t s h i n i n g upon him tha t he d i d n ' t need, the beast so f u r i o u s but a few minutes gone, was q u i e t enough now, w i t h a s t range m y s t e r -ious w r i t i n g on h i s f a c e , r e f l e c t e d from one of the great b o t t l e s , as i f Death had marked h i m : 'Mine. '43 H i s f u n e r a l cont inues t h i s u n l i k e l y connec t ion w i t h beauty and e l e g a n c e , f o r the t o r n bundle of rags r e c e i v e s a d i g n i f i e d b u r i a l through the s a l e of f a s h i o n a b l e d o l l s . A t h i s f u n e r a l " h a l f a dozen b lossom-faced men, . . . s h u f f l e d w i t h him to the c h u r c h y a r d , and . . . were preceded by another b lossom-faced man, a f f e c t i n g a s t a t e l y s t a l k , as i f he were 44 a Pol iceman of the D(eath) D i v i s i o n . " There i s s a t i r e i n the d i g n i t y of M r . D o l l ' s f u n e r a l c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the cabbage-s ta lk dress and dam-aged orange countenance of h i s Covent Market doubles w i t h whom he had 138 been the evening b e f o r e . Yet the e f f e c t i s not p r i m a r i l y s a t i r i c a l , but r a t h e r a n o t h e r , perhaps unconscious i n s t a n c e of p o t e n t i a l beauty growing out of the most b a t t e r e d f l e s h . M r . Wegg i s the f i n a l charac ter who i n h i s appearance a t t a c k s the w o r l d of a c h i l d ' s dream. L i k e Wemmick and Gregious he i s wooden: i t was an e a s t e r l y c o r n e r — t h e s t a l l , the s t o c k , and the keeper were a l l as dry as the D e s e r t . Wegg was a k n o t t y man, and a c l o s e - g r a i n e d , w i t h a face carved out of very hard m a t e r i a l . . . . Sooth to s a y , he was so wooden a man that he seemed to have taken h i s wooden l e g n a t u r a l l y . 4 5 Yet Wegg i s the o n l y one of the three compared to a toy f i g u r e , "he 46 looked l i k e a German wooden t o y . " Nonetheless i n h i s cho ice of an enemy, B o f f i n the Golden Dustman, who i n h a b i t s a w o r l d of f a i r y t a l e for tunes and who makes p o s s i b l e n u r s e r i e s f u r n i s h e d i n a rainbow of c o l o u r s , and i n the unsta ted commentary he serves on G r u f f and G r i m , the wooden-legged w i t n e s s at B e l l a ' s wedding, the 'German wooden t o y ' seems to be enragedly a t t a c k i n g any apparent innocence of a toy w o r l d . When B o f f i n f i r s t h i r e s Wegg as h i s r e a d e r , he views the wooden l e g as an e c c e n t r i c d e c o r a t i o n tha t he has acqui red t o o : "'A l i t e r a r y man—with a wooden l e g 1 he bestowed an admir ing l o o k upon that d e c o r a -47 t i o n , as i f i t g r e a t l y enhanced the r e l i s h of M r . Wegg's a t t a i n m e n t s . " This i s h a r d l y d i f f e r e n t from the harmless t o y - l i k e r o l e tha t B e l l a ' s consciousness f o i s t s on the wooden-legged p e n s i o n e r : He was a s low s a i l o r on a wind of h a p p i n e s s , but he took a c r o s s -cut f o r the rendezvous , and pegged away as i f he were s c o r i n g f u r i o u s l y at c r ibbage . . . but f o r the two wooden legs on which G r u f f and Glum was r e a s s u r i n g l y mounted, h i s [ W i l f e r ' s ] consc ience 139 might have i n t r o d u c e d , i n the person of tha t p e n s i o n e r , h i s own s t a t e l y lady d i s g u i s e d . 4 8 sc rambl ing up on h i s two wooden legs to s a l u t e , hat i n hand, s h i p -shape, w i t h the g a l l a n t r y of a man-of-wars-man and a h e a r t of oak.49 Even w i t h o u t Wegg to p o i n t t h i s out by s e r v i n g as h i s d o u b l e , there i s something c o y l y perverse i n the o l d c r i p p l e f o r g e t t i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g merely upon s i g h t of the Boofer L a d y : " l o n g on the b r i g h t s teps s tood G r u f f and Glum, l o o k i n g a f t e r the p r e t t y b r i d e , w i t h a n a r c o t i c con-sc iousness of having dreamed a dream. """^ Both Wegg and M r . D o l l s f u n c t i o n i n the same way as the g r o t e s -quely punished c h a r a c t e r s of the c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e , f i g u r e s such as Struwwelpeter and P i n o c c h i o . That the nature of t h e i r s o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Wegg's wooden l e g and M r . D o l l ' s a l c o h o l i s m i s i m p l i e d , and yet the u g l i n e s s of t h e i r d e f o r m i t i e s i s a d e f i n i t e taunt a g a i n s t t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s , whose g e n t e e l attempts to c o n s t r u c t an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g environment deny such crudeness . I n t e r e s t i n g l y Wegg r e c o g n i z e s that h i s wooden l e g i s incompat-i b l e w i t h g e n t i l i t y , r e c l a i m i n g h i s n a t u r a l l e g from Venus when he b e -comes a ' l i t e r a r y man. ' Y e t , f o r D i c k e n s , the source of Wegg's p a s s i o n l i e s i n h i s wooden l e g : So gaunt and haggard had he grown at l a s t , that h i s wooden l e g showed d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e and presented a t h r i v i n g appearance i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the r e s t of h i s plagued body.51 Podsnap's f a v o u r i t e e x p r e s s i o n on any sub jec t to be d i s c u s s e d i s : "would i t b r i n g a b l u s h i n t o the cheek of the young person?" (Bk. 1 , Ch. X I , p . 129) . 140 Dickens does not i n d i c a t e that any l e s s e r emot ional v a l u e i s i n v e s t e d i n t h i s grotesque appendage than i n the g a r g o y l e - l i k e s e p a r a t i o n of the enraged Headstone 's face from h i s body (see Chapter I , p . 54). In the g o t h i c novels the c o l d , inanimate appearance of the a r c h i t e c t u r e , the c o l d , g l i t t e r i n g beauty of a f a l l e n a n g e l , brought i n t o e x i s t e n c e , deformed, p a s s i o n a t e , an imal f i g u r e s , r e p t i l e s , p u t r i d c o r p s e s , the b e s t i a l L u c i f e r . In Our M u t u a l F r i e n d the decaying o r g a n i c matter found i n the r i v e r scenes "where the accumulated scum of humanity seemed to be washed from h i g h e r grounds , l i k e so much moral 52 sewage," and the animal powers of the r i v e r p e o p l e , "He was a hook-nosed man, and w i t h tha t and h i s b r i g h t eyes and h i s 53 r u f f l e d head, bore a c e r t a i n l i k e n e s s to a b i r d of p r e y , " are c o u n t e r -p o i n t e d by many e x q u i s i t e g l i t t e r i n g ob jec t s w i t h which the other c h a r -a c t e r s choose to a s s o c i a t e themselves . I t i s important tha t these g l i t t e r i n g o b j e c t s are by no means r e s t r i c t e d to be ing the possess ions of the s a t i r i z e d s o c i a l c l i m b e r s l i k e the V e n e e r i n g s . For i n s t a n c e , when B e l l a leaves the B o f f i n s her moral v a l u e i s d e f i n e d by her f a t h e r i n terms of the o b j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r : I admire t h i s mercenary young person d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to m y s e l f , more i n t h i s dress than i f she had come to me i n China s i l k s , Cashmere shawls , and Golconda d i a m o n d s . 5 ^ Yet i n f a c t these are e x a c t l y the o b j e c t s B e l l a d e s i r e s to be surrounded b y . When she and her f a t h e r daydreamed over the s h i p s at Greenwich, i t was e x a c t l y t h i s type of A r a b i a n N i g h t s t r e a s u r e t h a t they imagined f o r her (see Chapter I , p . 7 1 ) . And a f t e r her supposed r e f o r m , when Harmon 141 pushes her to express what she would l i k e most i n the w o r l d , what she wants and r e c e i v e s are t r e a s u r e s of j u s t t h i s n a t u r e : "an i v o r y c a s k e t , and i n the casket were j ewels the l i k e of which she had never dreamed o f . " " ^ L i k e w i s e the caged and c o l o u r f u l b i r d s that B e l l a r e c e i v e s bear a r e l a t i o n s h i p to Jenny 's s w e e t - s i n g i n g dream b i r d s that reminds one of the r e l a t i o n s h i p that the a r t i f i c i a l n i g h t e n g a l e i n the f a i r y t a l e bore to the s w e e t - s i n g i n g l i t t l e grey r e a l b i r d : "a charming a v i a r y , i n which a number of t r o p i c a l b i r d s , more gorgeous i n c o l o u r s than the f l o w e r s , were f l y i n g a b o u t . " " ^ B e l l a ' s d e s i r e f o r such p o s s e s s i o n s , which have no power i n themselves , suggests that she wishes to a s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f w i t h r e f l e c -t i o n s of power, w i t h o u t wanting to get caught up i n the b r u t a l i t y i n -v o l v e d i n w i e l d i n g power. She endows these g l i t t e r i n g j ewels and other r i c h e s w i t h a c e r t a i n m a g i c a l potency ( r e c a l l i n g the f a i r y t a l e t a l i s -mans) through which she can order her u n i v e r s e . The attachment to o b j e c t s r e f l e c t i n g w e a l t h , to r e f l e c t i o n s of power, i s emphasized i n the comparison of M r s . Veneer ing w i t h her " f l a s h e s of many-coloured l i g h t n i n g from diamonds, emeralds and r u b i e s ' ' " ' 7 to a pawnshop window, and i n the B o f f i n s ' most f requent a c t i v i t y a f t e r they r e c e i v e t h e i r f o r t u n e , t h e i r window-shopping. In her own l o v e f o r such g l i t t e r , Jenny Wren shows h e r s e l f to be a genuine f o o l f i g u r e . U n l i k e Q u i l p her c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n i s captured by these baubles of bourgeois c u l t u r e , the fancy d r e s s e s , the d o l l s , and not j u s t mockingly i n a maimed c h i l d ' s r e p r o d u c t i o n of a t o y - w o r l d : 142 Jenny t w i s t e d her venerable f r i e n d a s i d e to a b r i l l i a n t l y - l i g h t e d toy-shop window, and s a i d : 'Now l o o k at 'em. A l l my w o r k . ' T h i s r e f e r r e d to a d a z z l i n g s e m i - c i r c l e of d o l l s i n a l l the c o l o u r s of the ra inbow. . . . ' P r e t t y , p r e t t y , p r e t t y . ' s a i d the o l d man . . . 'Most e legant t a s t e . ' 5 8 So w h i l e she i s l i k e a clown i n m a n i p u l a t i n g and c r e a t i v e l y reassembl ing her environment on the b a s i s of i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , she b e -comes a f o o l i n her determined a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o b j e c t s of beauty , her h a i r , her d o l l s , her dreams. Her f requent use of n u r s e r y rhymes s t r e s s e s these d u a l r o l e s . On the one hand they are a mocking mimicry of the people she encounters : 'Who comes here? A g r e n a d i e r . What does he want? A pot of b e e r . '59 she says s a t i r i c a l l y of Eugene's assumed innocence . " ' B e e , Baa b l a c k s h e e p ' " ^ i s her rhyme f o r M r . D o l l s , c o u n t e r i n g h i s i n f a n t i l e s n i v e l -l i n g w i t h tha t v e r s e ' s p h i l o s o p h y f o r an a u t o c r a t i c u p b r i n g i n g : "And 61 none f o r the l i t t l e boy who c r i e s down the l a n e . " To Fledgeby she 62 says " L i t t l e E yes , L i t t l e E y e s , " the rhythm of which r e c a l l s the rhyme ' P u s s y c a t , P u s s y c a t " whose l a s t l i n e goes "And f r i g h t e n e d a l i t t l e 63 mouse under a c h a i r . " T h i s of course p r e c i s e l y sums up F l e d g e b y ' s a c t i o n s towards Twemlow. On the o ther hand the rhymes t i e her to the w o r l d of everyday c h i l d h o o d tha t she can never s h a r e ; and the nursery rhyme punishments she concocts f o r F l e d g e b y , the pepper i n the v inegar -and-brown-paper p o u l t i c e , and her remark tha t she wished she had g i v e n him "Cayenne 143 64 pepper and chopped p i c k l e d C a p s i c u m , " show her e s s e n t i a l impotence i n the face of h i s a c t u a l c r i m e s . L i k e w i s e i f the attachment to the e x q u i s i t e o b j e c t s mentioned e a r l i e r can be seen as a movement away from the b e s t i a l u g l i n e s s of the r i v e r scene, J e n n y ' s b o t t l i n g ' of the damaged orange countenance and squashed pulp humanity of M r . D o l l s , and Venus ' b o t t l i n g of a b o r -t i o n s are grotesque mocking parodies of the same p r o c e s s . In Chapter I I I quoted F r e d e r i c o F e l l i n i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t i t u d e of the Auguste clowns to the ' w h i t e ' c lowns , the clowns whose major f u n c t i o n i s to e x h i b i t the resplendency of t h e i r costumes. The only r o l e of the w h i t e clowns i s to parade, d i s p l a y i n g the spangles and f a b r i c s of t h e i r e l a b o r a t e d r e s s . The scene at the Podsnaps where S o c i e t y dances i s r e m i n i s c e n t of a parade of w h i t e c l o w n s , even though D i c k e n s ' s a t i r i c a l r e n d e r i n g does not emphasize the e x h i b i t i o n of c o n -spicuous w e a l t h : the d i s c r e e t automaton . . . p l a y e d a b lossomless t u n e l e s s ' s e t , ' and s i x t e e n d i s c i p l e s of Podsnappery went through the f i g u r e s o f — 1 , G e t t i n g up at e i g h t and shaving c l o s e at a q u a r t e r - p a s t — 2 , B r e a k f a s t i n g at n i n e — 3 , Going to the C i t y at t e n — 4 , Coming home at h a l f - p a s t f i v e — 5 , D i n i n g at seven , and the grand c h a i n . 6 5 However the reader has e a r l y been made aware of the g l i t t e r , the r i c h f a b r i c s , the gems that deck these s o c i e t y p e o p l e : " M r s . Veneer ing . . . gorgeous i n raiment and j e w e l s ; . . . M r s . Podsnap . . . m a j e s t i c head-6 6 dress i n which Podsnap has hung golden o f f e r i n g s . " •k The l i n k between j ewels and j e w e l boxes and the c o l o u r e d b o t t l e s that t rap M r . D o l l s may seem obscure un less one a s s o c i a t e s both w i t h the form of the ta l i smans i n the f a i r y t a l e s and w i t h the r o l e of jam j a r s i n the l a t e r Mystery of Edwin Drood. 144 a f t e r h e r , appears A l f r e d . . . to make a pasty s o r t of g l i t t e r , as i f he were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r c a n d l e l i g h t o n l y , and had been l e t out i n t o d a y l i g h t by some grand mis take . . .67 In the Podsnap dance scene the c h a r a c t e r s ' d e s i r e to amaze through t h e i r appearance and i t s r e f l e c t i o n s of w e a l t h i s d i s p l a y e d i n d i r e c t l y through the comparison of the guests to the Podsnap p l a t e : 'but I am so many ounces of p r e c i o u s meta l worth so much an ounce; — w o u l d n ' t you l i k e to mel t me down?' . . . Four s i l v e r w i n e - c o o l e r s , each f u r n i s h e d w i t h four s t a r i n g heads , each head o b t r u s i v e l y c a r -r y i n g a b i g s i l v e r r i n g i n each of i t s e a r s , conveyed the sentiment up and down the t a b l e , and handed i t on to the p o t - b e l l i e d s i l v e r s a l t - c e l l a r s . 6 8 The m a j o r i t y of the guests were l i k e the p l a t e , and i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l heavy a r t i c l e s weighing ever so much.69 The Auguste c l o w n s ' response to such an e x h i b i t i o n would be a c a r i c a t u r e of i t s s t i l t e d n e s s , w h i l e costumed i n t h e i r mocking v e r s i o n of the r i c h f a s h i o n s , r a g s . And throughout the n o v e l we see e x a c t l y t h i s i n D i c k e n s ' s t r e s s on the movements of h i s a n a r c h i c c lowns . Jenny d i s p l a y s her walk to S l o p p y , " ' T h i s i s the way. H o p p e t t y , K i c k e t t y , Peg-peg-peg. Not p r e t t y ; i s i t ? ' " 7 ^ G r u f f and Glum i s d e s -c r i b e d as pegging away as i f he were s c o r i n g a t c r i b b a g e . Wegg, h u n t -i n g the dustmounds, " h i n t s a t an i n h e r e n t tendency i n tha t t imber f i c t i o n , when c a l l e d i n t o a c t i o n f o r a promenade on an ashy s l o p e , to s t i c k i t -s e l f i n t o the y i e l d i n g f o o t h o l d , and peg i t s owner to one spot."' '" '" And though M r . D o l l s i s indeed p a r t i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the cont inuous movements, s h u f f l i n g , g e s t u r i n g , tha t c o n t r a d i c t h i s name, on o c c a s i o n these movements are endowed w i t h the m e c h a n i c a l , s t i l t e d q u a l i t y of an 145 animated d o l l ; "The shaking f i g u r e , unnerved and d i s j o i n t e d from head 72 to f o o t . " / Z The movement of the grotesque i n The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop crea ted a p a t t e r n which cou ld be seen as a dance of the t o y s . In t h i s n o v e l there are many grotesques who resemble , or r a t h e r are a parody o f , toy f i g u r e s . But the t a u n t i n g g a i e t y , even g r a c e , of the dance has been l o s t , and the dance of the toys has been gruesomely transformed i n t o the h o b b l i n g g a i t of c r i p p l e s and wooden l e g s . The outcome of the dance i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop was i m p l i e d to be e v i l , caus ing the death of L i t t l e N e l l , but the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t l a y as much i n her response as i n the a n a r c h i c v i t a l i t y of the gro tesques . In Our Mutua l F r i e n d , w h i l e the movements of the a n a r c h i c g r o -tesques are p a r t i a l l y a s a t i r e on the s t i l t e d n e s s and u g l y r i g i d i t y of the e s t a b l i s h e d powers, there i s no q u e s t i o n tha t they are a l s o a d e l -i b e r a t e a t t a c k on the innocence which toys represent f o r B e l l a and Pa and the B o f f i n s . One f i n a l p a t t e r n of w h i m s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i d e n t i t i e s employs images from c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . The s t o r y of L i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood and the Wolf winds i t s way through the n o v e l , and the face that l i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood conf ronts assumes more than the two shapes of grandmother and w o l f ; f o r the wol f v a r i o u s l y becomes the f i l t h y waters of the d o c k s i d e , Lammle, R i a h , and F ledgeby . L i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood dea ls l a r g e l y w i t h c a n n i b a l i s m , but the images of the f o l k t a l e , the l i t t l e g i r l ' s red c loak and b a s k e t , the p i c t u r e of the wol f d i s g u i s e d i n the grandmother 's n i g h t c l o t h e s , the 146 p o e t i c appeal of the d i a l o g u e between the l i t t l e g i r l and the w o l f are e x q u i s i t e l y p i c t u r e s q u e : " 'What b i g eyes you have , grandmamma! The b e t t e r to see you w i t h , my d e a r . ' " In adapt ing them to the v a r i e t i e s of e v i l he i s d e a l i n g w i t h , Dickens s t rengthens the v i s i o n he has a l -ready c r e a t e d , of e v i l g l immering through and assuming the contours of an i m a g i n a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d h o o d . For Eugene and M o r t i m e r , s e a r c h i n g f o r the corpse of Hexam, h i m s e l f a f i n d e r of c o r p s e s , the f i l t h y London w a t e r s i d e and docks assume the r o l e of the c a n n i b a l w o l f : a l l the o b j e c t s among which they c rept were so huge i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e i r wretched boat as to t h r e a t e n to c rush i t . Not a s h i p ' s h u l l , w i t h i t s r u s t y i r o n l i n k s of cab le run out of hawse-holes long d i s -c o l o u r e d w i t h the i r o n ' s r u s t y t e a r s , but seemed to be there w i t h a f e l l i n t e n t i o n . . . . Not a s l u i c e g a t e , or a p a i n t e d s c a l e upon a post or w a l l , showing the depth of w a t e r , but seemed to h i n t , l i k e the d r e a d f u l l y f a c e t i o u s Wolf i n bed i n Grandmamma's c o t t a g e , ' T h a t ' s to drown you i n , my d e a r s ! ' 7 3 Yet i f the p i c t u r e s q u e wol f at one moment d w e l l s i n the dregs of the Thames, at another time he g l i t t e r s at a S o c i e t y b r e a k f a s t t a b l e i n the form of Lammle, who was p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as s p a r k l i n g l i k e H a r l e q u i n : p e r v a d i n g l y too much nose of a coarse wrong shape, and h i s nose i n h i s mind and manners; too much s m i l e to be r e a l , too much frown to be f a l s e ; too many t e e t h to be v i s i b l e at once w i t h o u t sugges t ing a b i t e . 7 4 At another t ime he v a c i l l a t e s between F ledgeby , the moneylender, and R i a h , h i s m a s o c h i s t i c f r o n t : 147 'godmother, [says Jenny to Riah] i t s t r i k e s me you have come back . I am not q u i t e s u r e , because the w o l f and you change forms . I want to ask you a q u e s t i o n or two, to f i n d out whether you are r e a l l y godmother or r e a l l y w o l f . ' 7 5 As f o r the innocent and k i n d - h e a r t e d Red R i d i n g Hood i n t h i s p e c u l i a r and a p p a r e n t l y meaningless d i s t o r t i o n of the t a l e , she i s g r o t e s q u e l y transformed i n t o Rogue R i d e r h o o d : l i t t l e Rogue Riderhood—I am tempted i n t o paraphrase by remembering the charming w o l f who would have rendered s o c i e t y a great s e r v i c e i f he had devoured M r . R i d e r h o o d ' s f a t h e r and mother i n t h e i r i n -fancy . The grandmother/wolf s w i t c h i n t h i s t a l e i s not t r u l y a f a i r y t a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The t a l e i s r a t h e r a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y , much l i k e 'The Emperor 's New C l o t h e s , ' the ques t ions and answers b e i n g Red R i d i n g Hood's slow r e a l i z a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t between what she wants to b e l i e v e and what her eyes t e l l her i s t h e r e . Nor i s the t r a n s -format ion that Dickens i s concerned w i t h that of the grandmother i n t o w o l f , except i n the case of R i a h , i n which R i a h ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Fledgeby i s indeed one of be ing s p e l l - b o u n d . In one sense the c a n n i -b a l i s m of the wol f i s an apt metaphor f o r the s o c i a l r o l e s of the r i v e r and of money s p e c u l a t o r s l i k e Lammle and F ledgeby . But the grotesque t r a n s f o r m a t i o n that D i c k e n s ' p e r s o n a l i m a g i n a t i o n p r o j e c t s i s of v i c i o u s r e a l men, money l e n d e r s , merchants , who i n h a b i t a gr im concrete and smog- infes ted c i t y , " A grey dusty w i t h e r e d evening i n London c i t y has not a h o p e f u l a s p e c t . The c l o s e d warehouses and o f f i c e s have an a i r of death about them, and the n a t i o n a l dread of c o l o u r has an a i r of m o u r n i n g , " 7 7 and who at the same time wear the o u t l i n e s of a wol f 148 from a p i c t u r e book. I t i s of a f i l t h y , b a r g e - r i d d e n , steamboat and i n d u s t r y - d o m i n a t e d r i v e r which c o n c u r r e n t l y has correspondences w i t h a fantasy w o l f i n a l a c e n i g h t c a p , and of a d i r t y , v i o l e n t t h i e f and waterman, dressed i n "an o l d sodden f u r cap , formless and mangey, tha t looked l i k e a f u r r y a n i m a l , dog or c a t , puppy or k i t t e n , drowned and 78 d e c a y i n g , " who shares h i s name w i t h a l i t t l e g i r l i n a r e d c l o a k . The nature of the e v i l d e s c r i b e d l i e s i n the grotesque i m a g i n -a t i o n and, more i m p o r t a n t , c o n s i d e r i n g D i c k e n s ' r o l e as a p o p u l a r w r i t e r , i n the s o c i e t y that can yank together such d i s p a r a t e ob jec t s w i t h i n one image. These images are the c u l m i n a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n of D i c k e n s ' a n t i - b o u r g e o i s i m a g i n a t i o n . Inasmuch as we are deeply touched by the f a n t a s y p i c t u r e s embedded i n f i l t h and v i c e , we are w i t n e s s i n g D i c k e n s ' acceptance of h i s own attachment to the d e s t r u c t i v e , the a n a r c h i c , the v i o l e n t , the d i r t y , o r , i n other words , h i s acceptance of the f a c t that f o r him a f i g u r e l i k e Jenny Wren i n order to remain p o t e n t l y b e a u t i f u l must remain deformed. 149 FOOTNOTES ''"Charles D i c k e n s , Our Mutua l F r i e n d (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952), Bk. 4 , C h . 8, p . 730. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as OMF. 2 0 M F , Bk. 4 , C h . X I , p . 743. 3 OMF, Bk. 4 , C h . X I , p . 743. 4 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I , p . 219. 5 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I , p . 232. 6 OMF, Bk. 2 , Ch . I , p . 232. 7 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I I , p . 239. 8 OMF, Bk. 4 , C h . X I I , p . 767. 9 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I , p . 218. " ^ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , B leak House (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Com-pany, 1956) , Ch. L , p . 515. X1OMF, Bk. 2 , Ch . I , p . 222. 12 Char les D i c k e n s , Hard Times (London: Bradbury and Evans , 1854) , Bk. 1 , Ch . I I , p . 11 . 1 3 H a r d Times, Bk. 1 , Ch . V I , p . 43. 1 4 0 M F , Bk. 3 , C h . XV, p . 597. 1 5 O M F , Bk. 3 , C h . X V I , p . 609. 16 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I X , p . 330. 1 7 0 M F , Bk. 2 , C h . I X , p . 329. 1 8 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I , p . 224. 19 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I I , p . 239. 20 OMF, Bk. 2 , Ch . I I , p . 241. 2 1 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . I X , p . 732. 22 OMF, Bk. 23 24 OMF, Bk. OMF, Bk. 25 OMF, Bk. 26 OMF, Bk. 27 OMF, Bk. 28 OMF, Bk. 29 OMF, Bk. 30 OMF, Bk. 31 OMF, Bk. 32 OMF, Bk. 33 OMF, Bk. 34 OMF, Bk. 35 OMF, Bk, 36 OMF, Bk. 37 OMF, Bk, 38 OMF, Bk, 39 40 OMF, Bk. OMF, Bk. 41 OMF, Bk. 42 OMF, Bk. 43 OMF, Bk. 44 45 OMF, Bk. OMF, Bk 46 OMF, Bk 2 , C h . 2 , C h . 3 , C h . 4 , C h . 2 , C h . 2, Ch . 2 , C h . 2 , Ch . 3 , Ch . 2 , C h . 1 , C h . 4 , C h . 4 , C h . 2 , C h . 2 , C h . 4 , C h . 3 , C h . 2 , C h . 4 , C h . 3 , C h . 4 , C h . 4 , Ch . 4 , C h . I , Ch . 3 , Ch . V I , p . 282. X I , p . 342. X , p . 533. I X , p . 731. I I , p . 239. I I , p . 243. XV, p . 392. I , p . 228. X V I I , p . 616 X I , p . 347. V I I , p . 79. V I I I , p . 714 I X , p . 731. I I , p . 241. I I , p . 241. I X , p . 729. X , p . 533. I I , p . 241. V , p . 685. X , p . 537. I X , p . 730. I X , p . 731. I X , p . 733. V , p . 45 . V I I , p . 491 4 7 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . V , p . 53 . 4 8 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . I V , p . 665. 49 OMF, Bk. 4 , C h . I V , p . 667. 5 0 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . I V , p . 666. 5 1 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . X I V , p . 780. 52 OMF, Bk. 1 , C h . I I I , p . 21 . 53 OMF, Bk. 1, C h . I , p . 3 . 54 OMF, Bk. 3 , C h . X V I , p . 608. 5 5 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . X I I I , p . 778 5 6 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . X I I , p . 767. 5 7 O M F , Bk. 1 . C h . X , p . 120. 5 8 O M F , Bk. 3 , C h . I I , p . 435. 59 OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . I I , p . 234. 6 0 O M F , Bk. 3 , C h . X , p . 532. ^^Mother Goose. 6 2 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . V I I I , p . 717 63 Mother Goose. 6 4 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . I X , p . 727 . 6 5 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . X I , p . 137. 6 6 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . I I , p . 10. 6 7 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . X , p . 117. 6 8 O M F , Bk. 1 , C h . X I , p . 131. 6 9 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . X I , p . 131. 7°OMF, Bk. 4 , C h . X V I , p i . 810. 7 """OMF, Bk. 2 , C h . V I , p . 303. 152 7 2 O M F , Bk. 2 , C h . I I , p . 241. 7 3 O M F , Bk. 1, C h . X I V , p . 171. 7 4 O M F , Bk. 2 , C h . X V I , p . 415. 7 5 O M F , Bk. 4 , C h . I X , p . 725. 7 6 O M F , Bk. 2 , C h . X V I , p . 413. 7 7 O M F , Bk. 2 , C h . XV, p . 393. 7 8 OMF, Bk. 1, C h . X I I , p . 148. CHAPTER IV THE SPELL-BOUND CITY: The Mystery of Edwin Drood Moving from Our Mutual Friend to The Mystery of Edwin Drood i s moving into a much sparer world. To say that i n the l a s t novel Dickens has f i n a l l y recognized a personal d u a l i t y and s o c i a l schizophrenia i s to state a truism. Nonetheless i t i s important, and even more important i s the fact that, by a c t u a l l y recognizing and accepting t h i s duality, he has made a paradoxical but nonetheless complementary move towards sim-p l i f i c a t i o n of and unity i n h i s imagery. At one point i n the novel Grewgious characterizes a person i n love "as leading both a doubled and a h a l f life""''; by l o g i c a l extension those not i n love, not i n a s i t u a -t i o n of such human correspondence, or not capable of such a state, would display a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and self-contained image. Images of this type are common i n this novel, very common i n f a c t , but they are used not to portray the loveless but the established powers of C l o i s t e r -ham society, including i t s dominating phy s i c a l structures. And t h e i r awesome self-containment seems to imply that they are not i n a state of sympathetic correspondence with themselves and with a l l the forces of t h e i r being. The grotesques i n the e a r l i e r novels were, at t h e i r most power-f u l , changeable, spontaneous, a constant dream-like s h i f t i n g of forms from one d i s t o r t i o n to another. Of these images Quilp and the Smallweeds 153 154 stand out, the one as an a c t i v e f o r c e , the other as a revealed energy p a t t e r n , l i k e a kaleidoscope, or an image on an o s c i l l o s c o p e , as s i m u l -taneously expressive of richness and of p o t e n t i a l f o r change. Grotesque images occur i n The Mystery of Edwin Drood that are common i n the e a r l i e r novels. Yet, whereas, i n the e a r l i e r works, they may have recurred s e v e r a l times w i t h i n a s t o r y , each use having an inde-pendent suggestive meaning, i n Edwin Drood the image i s f i r m l y t i e d to one p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n , and i f they are repeated, i t i s w i t h an i d e n t i c a l meaning. The d o l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a popular grotesque image f o r Dickens i n Our Mutual F r i e n d , but there i t i s used to c h a r a c t e r i z e people as u n a l i k e as Mr. D o l l s , the o l d drunk, and B e l l a , the i d e a l w i f e , and s i t u a t i o n s as di v e r s e as l i t t l e Johnny's dreams and Jenny's s a t i r i c a l mimicry of the society-women. In The Mystery of Edwin Drood, i t i s only Mrs. C r i s p a r k l e , the canon's mother, and her mirror-image twin s i s t e r who bear the image of a d o l l ; i n t h e i r case i t i s one made of Dresden china. The Mystery of Edwin Drood seems to be a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the preoccupations that oppressed Dickens i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop. To a la r g e extent i n Our Mutual F r i e n d , Dickens sought i n contemporary p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r the sources of s o c i a l malaise and techniques of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n he had observed. Here however he r e -v e r t s to h i s concern f o r that i n t e r i o r l i f e that molded N e l l ' s v i s i o n of the n a t u r a l world. The world of Cloisterham i s 'given' as an o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n which f o r m a l l y works i t s e l f out. Yet though Dickens acts as impersonal 155 narrator, there is the closest of bonds between the world he draws and the world as it appears to Jasper. Jasper seems to be reacting to the world that Dickens provides, but he is, also, the creator of that world. So, when the narrator speaks of "the oppressive respectability of Cloisterham,which speeds vagabonds and beggars instinctively on their 2 way," there is more than a touch of warm love for the security of such a world, and that love is Jasper's as much as Dickens'. It is 'oppres-sive' in Jasper's image of the environment as much as in any actual role or function of oppressiveness. And Jasper's idea of i t as oppres-sive, like the well-worn nervous path of an obsession, which can see a situation in only one light, accounts partially, as we shall see,for the unchangeability of its grotesque imagery. Jasper's mind shares with Nell's an obsessiveness and a morbid-ity, "'A man leading a monotonous l i f e , ' Jasper proceeds, 'dwells upon an idea until i t loses its proportions. That was my case with the idea 3 in question.'" However their interior lives would not generally have been in sympathy. Nell would have found in the architecture and society of Cloisterham just the haven of carefully structured calm that her dis-tracted mind needed. The structure of The Old Curiosity Shop was characterized by the linear character of Nell's flight and the dance of the grotesques. In The Mystery of Edwin Drood the spatial sense is also most important. It is dominated by the presence and rigidity of the cathedral, and Jasper's forced entrapment within its confines. (I am choosing to ignore any proposed conclusions for the novel, and am working only with 156 the imagery of the f ragment . ) Is Jasper trapped by h i s own mental i n -e r t i a , or by the mental w o r l d of an opium t r a n c e , or by some s o r t of s o c i a l pressure that he reveres? Whatever the r e a s o n , Jasper does not have the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of f l i g h t presented to N e l l , and the imagery of the n o v e l i s a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s r e a c t i o n to t h i s s p a t i a l e n c l o s u r e . The w o r l d of C l o i s t e r h a m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s t o n i n e s s and r i g i d i t y of the c a t h e d r a l . The c a t h e d r a l i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by i t s "mass ive , g r a y , square t o w e r " 4 and i t s square , e n c l o s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s c a r r i e d through i n t o the c i t y , which i t dominates : Fragments of o l d w a l l , s a i n t ' s c h a p e l , chapter -house , convent and monastery have got i n c o n g r u o u s l y or o b s t r u c t i v e l y b u i l t i n t o many of i t s houses and gardens .5 The s t r e e t s are d e s c r i b e d as stony e n c l o s u r e s , " b e i n g most ly d i s a p p o i n t -i n g yards w i t h pumps i n them and no t h o r o u g h f a r e — e x c e p t i o n made of the C a t h e d r a l - c l o s e and a paved Quaker s e t t l e m e n t . " ^ Much of the a c t i o n takes p lace i n the sec luded nooks of the P r e c i n c t s of the c a t h e d r a l . Other scenes take p l a c e i n the c r y p t and i n the tower i t s e l f , and the presence of l o c k e d gates and underground tunnels i s overpowering when Durdles and Jasper take t h e i r n i g h t t o u r . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the enc losed v a u l t s of the tombstones completes the p i c t u r e . N o t i c e that the charac te rs of the n o v e l are not connected to the c a t h e d r a l o n l y by v o c a t i o n or r e l i g i o n . They a l l l i v e i n ex tens ions of i t , l i t t l e c e l l s tha t i t h a s , as i t were , propagated. And the w a l l s of t h e i r d w e l l i n g s assume e x c e s s i v e importance . I t i s t o l d of the C r i s p a r k l e r e s i d e n c e : 157 Red b r i c k w a l l s . . . l a t t i c e d windows, p a n e l l e d rooms, b i g oaken beams i n l i t t l e p l a c e s , and s t o n e - w a l l e d gardens where annual f r u i t yet r ipened on monkish t r e e s , were the p r i n c i p a l surroundings of p r e t t y o l d M r s . C r i s p a r k l e and the Reverend Sept imus.7 The Topes' ' c a t h e d r a l l y ' l o d g i n g s are d e s c r i b e d as hav ing the " c h a r a c -t e r of a c o o l dungeon. I t s a n c i e n t w a l l s were massive and i t s rooms r a t h e r seemed to have been dug out of them, than to have been designed g beforehand w i t h any r e f e r e n c e to them." The e n c l o s i n g r o l e of the massive c a t h e d r a l f i n d s p a r a l l e l s , i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n two other l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n s of the same s i t u a t i o n . In the g o t h i c nove l s the immovable power of a massive c o n t a i n i n g e d i f i c e and i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l i n the monks and nuns c l o s e d w i t h i n a monastery i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e i r d e s i r e s seem to be r e c u r r e n t m o t i f s . Melmoth the Wanderer analyzes i n d e t a i l the p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes Moncada undergoes , f i r s t by hav ing h i s freedom of cho ice removed by be ing made a monk, and secondly having h i s communication w i t h o thers stopped by be ing p l a c e d i n a dungeon. In a sense what i s be ing set up i s the d u a l i t y between a r i g i d e x t e r i o r w o r l d as i t may e x i s t i n any s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n and the v a r i e t i e s of p a s s i o n of the s p i r i t that d w e l l w i t h i n i t . That Dickens i m p l i e s correspondences between h i s c h a r a c t e r s and the i n c a r c e r a t e d f i g u r e s of the g o t h i c novels i s r e v e a l e d i n s e v e r a l s ta tements . Of the nun ' s house, now M i s s T w i n k l e t o n ' s Academy, he s a y s , Whether the nuns of yore . . . were ever w a l l e d up a l i v e i n odd angles and j u t t i n g gables of the b u i l d i n g f o r hav ing some i n e r a d i -cab le leaven of busy mother Nature i n them which has kept the f e r -menting w o r l d a l i v e ever s i n c e .9 158 and Jasper compares h i s own p o s i t i o n to that of the monks: "No wretched monk who droned h i s l i f e away i n that gloomy p l a c e , b e f o r e me, can have been more t i r e d than I a m . " ^ T h i s image of the 'sunken c i t y , ' at f i r s t b e a u t i f u l , g r a d u a l l y becoming u g l y , propagat ing i t s tunnels and dungeons i n a way tha t turned the c i t y i n t o a p r i s o n , was found l i k e w i s e i n the work of Romantic w r i t e r s who were known opium u s e r s . The c a t h e d r a l i s present i n J a s p e r ' s opium v i s i o n s , though i t does not dominate them. Yet f o r h i m , the c a t h e d r a l i n h i s waking or consc ious l i f e f u n c t i o n s i n e x a c t l y t h i s r o l e . In the g o t h i c nove ls the c h a r a c t e r s who o f f e r e d r e l e a s e from the p r i s o n s o f t e n possessed s u p e r n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s ; i n t h i s n o v e l the c h a r -a c t e r most u n w i l l i n g l y bound by the stony c i t y a t t r i b u t e s such q u a l i t i e s , we s h a l l see , to the Opium Woman who o f f e r s him a temporary r e l e a s e , and to Deputy, who seems u n a f f e c t e d by the c i t y ' s powers. Now these remarks may seem s c a t t e r e d and h a r d l y c o n c l u s i v e , but the u n i t y of the imagery throughout the n o v e l w i l l s l o w l y grow apparent . The s p a t i a l framework of the n o v e l i s s t a t i c and e v e r y t h i n g i n the s t o r y , both the ob jec t w o r l d and a c e r t a i n group of people tha t Jasper must c o n f r o n t , repeat i n t h e i r appearances t h i s r i g i d i t y of the c a t h e d r a l . The imagery used to d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r s suggests that many of them have a h a r d , unchangeable s h e l l . M r s . C r i s p a r k l e i s a Dresden c h i n a d o l l , and her s i s t e r completes a matching p a i r : What i s p r e t t i e r than an o l d l a d y — e x c e p t a young lady—when her eyes are b r i g h t , when her f i g u r e i s t r i m and compact, when her face 159 i s c h e e r f u l and c a l m , when her dress i s as the dress of a c h i n a shepherdess : so d a i n t y i n i t s c o l o u r s , so i n d i v i d u a l l y a s s o r t e d to h e r s e l f , so n e a t l y moulded on h e r ? H In t h i s case the d o l l image i s an ornament of a g e n t e e l s i t t i n g - r o o m , d e c o r a t i v e , e s s e n t i a l l y u s e l e s s but t r e a t e d w i t h an unnecessary d e l i c a c y . Her e x c e s s i v e l y h e a l t h y , e x c e s s i v e l y b o y i s h , e x c e s s i v e l y happy s o n , who proceeds to d e s t r o y N e v i l l e ' s c a p a c i t y f o r spontaneous p a s s i o n , and who t h i n k s i t of importance that he c o r r e c t the grammar Tope uses to speak to the Dean, r e c e i v e s a f a i r l y complex t rea tment : ' N e v i l l e , ' h i n t e d the Minor Canon, w i t h a steady countenance, 'you have repeated that former a c t i o n of your hands, which I so much d i s l i k e . ' ' I am s o r r y f o r i t , s i r , but i t was i n v o l u n t a r y . I confessed tha t I was s t i l l as a n g r y . ' 'And I c o n f e s s , ' s a i d M r . C r i s p a r k l e , ' t h a t I hoped f o r b e t t e r t h i n g s . ' 1 2 Nonetheless one image i n the same v e i n as the ones we have been n o t i c i n g i s employed i n connec t ion w i t h h i m . H i s name b r i n g s to mind the word ' c r y s t a l , ' though i t a l s o has a r e l a t i o n s h i p to ' C h r i s t m a s ' and ' s p a r k l e . ' The word seems s t r a n g e l y d e l i c a t e and c o l d to apply to a man seen, f e i n t i n g and dodging w i t h the utmost a r t f u l n e s s , and h i t t i n g out from the shoulder w i t h the utmost s t r a i g h t n e s s , w h i l e h i s r a d i a n t f e a t u r e s teemed w i t h innocence , and s o f t - h e a r t e d benevolence beamed from h i s b o x i n g g l o v e s . 1 3 Yet i t i s not an imagined comparison, because i n f a c t , Jasper says to C r i s p a r k l e , " ' Y o u are always t r a i n i n g y o u r s e l f to b e , mind and body, as 14 c l e a r as c r y s t a l , . . . whereas I am a muddy, s o l i t a r y , moping w e e d . ' " 160 C r y s t a l however i s t reasured u s u a l l y not on ly f o r i t s c l e a r n e s s , but f o r the p e r f e c t i o n of i t s shape and f o r i t s h a r d n e s s . One c r i t i c * has suggested that C r i s p a r k l e i s an example i n the n o v e l of the p e r f e c t or completed man i n whom the c a p a c i t y f o r sympathy w i t h the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and the demands of the i n n e r s e l f are kept i n harmony; but both i n the t ransparency of c r y s t a l and i n the b o y i s h behaviour of C r i s p a r k l e , " t a k i n g a t r o t at h i s f a v o u r i t e fragment of r u i n , " ' ' " " ' these lower depths seem n o n - e x i s t e n t . The c l o s e s t s u g g e s t i o n that there i s another f a c e t to h i s p e r -s o n a l i t y i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Dean and C r i s p a r k l e as two rooks i n c o n v e r s a t i o n : " d i v e r s venerab le persons of r o o k - l i k e aspect d i s p e r s i n g , two of these l a t t e r r e t r a c e t h e i r s t e p s , and walk together i n the echo-i n g C l o s e . " " ^ The rooks are however l e s s a comment on h i s whole p e r s o n -a l i t y than on the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l e f f e c t of h i s c r y s t a l - l i k e s i d e whose hardness i s shared by the Dean. The r o o k s , b l a c k animal powers , are brought i n t o e x i s t e n c e by the c o l d , inanimate s t r u c t u r e s of the c a t h e d -r a l , much i n the way N e l l ' s grotesque h a l l u c i n a t i o n s were brought i n t o be ing by her overpowering d r i v e f o r p e r f e c t i o n , and much i n the way that i t w i l l be seen that the c i t y of C l o i s t e r h a m b r i n g s i n t o be ing anarch ic grotesque f i g u r e s l i k e Deputy. The odd c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the image of C r i s p a r k l e ' s rosy h e a l t h and that of c r y s t a l i s r e i n f o r c e d by h i s s e t t i n g h i m s e l f i n o p -p o s i t i o n to c r y s t a l - l i k e subs tances , " h a v i n g broken the t h i n morning •k C h a r l e s M i t c h e l l , see b i b l i o g r a p h y . 161 i c e near C l o i s t e r h a m w i t h h i s amiable head,"" '" 7 or " b o x i n g at a l o o k i n g 18 g l a s s w i t h great s c i e n c e and p r o w e s s , " which causes h i s mother to 19 warn that he w i l l ' " B r e a k the p i e r - g l a s s or b u r s t a b l o o d - v e s s e l . ' " N o n e t h e l e s s , i n t a k i n g C r i s p a r k l e i n t o account , i t i s necessary to r e -member t h i s connect ion w i t h c r y s t a l , a c o l d hard substance l i k e the massive w a l l s of the c a t h e d r a l , or l i k e the Dresden c h i n a image that c o n t a i n s h i s mother. I t seems as i f C r i s p a r k l e , l i k e Agnes i n the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y 20 The Lost P r i n c e s s , has two s i d e s . Agnes ' w o r m - l i k e i n n e r s e l f , l i k e C r i s p a r k l e ' s b o y i s h n e s s , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y her n a t u r a l s e l f . I t i s molded i n t o i t s u g l y form by the e x t e r i o r s e l f she i s t r a i n e d to p r e s e n t . L i k e w i s e w i t h C r i s p a r k l e , the e x t e r i o r c r y s t a l forms he i s a l l i e d w i t h has deformed h i s n a t u r a l p a s s i o n a t e manhood i n t o a b o i s t e r o u s b o y i s h n e s s . These two are not the on ly c h a r a c t e r s w i t h r i g i d , inanimate s u r f a c e s . J a s p e r ' s name i s that of a s t o n e , though the image r e c e i v e s no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . However j a s p e r i s a stone which f i g u r e s o f t e n i n the e x o t i c r i c h e s of Ta les of the A r a b i a n N i g h t s , and J a s p e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n i s s p e l l - b o u n d by a v i s i o n of c o l d , c l e a r beauty tha t he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the O r i e n t , "Ten thousand s c i m i t a r s f l a s h i n the s u n -21 l i g h t . " The c o l d l o v e l i n e s s of the gem i s m i r r o r e d i n the c o l d , t e c h n i c a l l y p e r f e c t beauty of J a s p e r ' s s i n g i n g . Durdles seems to have adopted a stony c o v e r i n g from the tomb-stones he works w i t h , " D u r d l e s i s a stonemason; c h i e f l y i n the g r a v e -s t o n e , tomb, and monument way and w h o l l y of t h e i r c o l o u r from head to 22 f o o t . " He i s known to the u r c h i n s as Stony D u r d l e s , and spends h i s 162 waking hours i n the c r y p t of the c a t h e d r a l . He l i v e s i n " a l i t t l e 23 a n t i q u a t e d h o l e of a h o u s e , " supposed to be b u i l t , so f a r , of stones s t o l e n from the c i t y w a l l . To t h i s abode there i s an approach, ankle-deep i n stone c h i p s , r e -sembling a p e t r i f i e d grove of tombstones, u r n s , d r a p e r i e s , and broken columns, i n a l l s tages of s c u l p t u r e . 2 4 And when he i s seen out a f t e r ten he has arranged tha t an u r c h i n throw stones at him u n t i l he goes home. The f i n a l charac ter endowed w i t h a hard e x t e r i o r i s M r . Grew-g i o u s , who, bes ides r e f e r r i n g to h i m s e l f as "a p a r t i c u l a r l y Angular 25 man," s a y s , " I seem to have come i n t o e x i s t e n c e a c h i p . I was a 2 6 ch ip—and a very d r y one—when I f i r s t became aware of m y s e l f . " He i s p i c t u r e d as chopping h i s words out of h i m s e l f as i f they were wood. There i s an incompleteness about h i s e x t e r i o r w h i c h , though s a i d to mean that Nature d i d not bother to endow h i s appearance w i t h s e n s i b i l -i t y , i m p l i e s i n s t e a d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h i s c h a r a c t e r ; "she [Nature] has i m p a t i e n t l y thrown away the c h i s e l and s a i d , ' I r e a l l y cannot be 27 w o r r i e d to f i n i s h o f f t h i s man; l e t him go as he i s . ' " I t i s almost as i f , of the f i v e , Grewgious ' s u r f a c e i s the o n l y one tha t has a break i n i t s gr im t e x t u r e . These inanimate s u r f a c e s are i n f a c t a f i n a l v a r i a t i o n on the uses of costume tha t have f a s c i n a t e d Dickens f o r y e a r s . I n t h i s n o v e l the costumes have not j u s t become the man, trapped the man i n t o a s o c i a l r o l e , they have turned i n t o a l i t e r a l stony p r i s o n w i t h i n which the man s h r i v e l s and d i e s . And the emphasis i s on the man, r a t h e r 163 than on the c l o t h e s . I t i s not a s a t i r e on masks i n t e r a c t i n g , as were the passages on the Merdles i n L i t t l e D o r r i t or on the Veneerings i n Our Mutua l F r i e n d . In the l a t t e r , even when Lady T i p p i n s has turned i n t o a spec ies of death mask, the f l u t t e r of her f a n r e m i n i s c e n t of a s k e l e t o n r a t t l e , she s t i l l r e t a i n s t i e s w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l c a r i c a t u r e f i g u r e of the l a d y of f a s h i o n . In The Mystery of Edwin D r o o d , the person seems g i v e n no choice about h i s costume, and cannot r i d h i m s e l f of i t . T h i s i s seen i n Grewgious, who r e c o g n i z e s tha t h i s wooden appearance denies him the r i g h t to any f a n c i e s of the h e a r t : Dimly c a t c h i n g s i g h t of h i s face i n the m i s t y l o o k i n g - g l a s s , he h e l d h i s candle to i t f o r a moment, 'A l i k e l y someone, y o u , to come i n t o anybody's thoughts i n such an a s p e c t ! ' he e x c l a i m e d . 'There , t h e r e ! Get to b e d , poor man, and cease to j a b b e r ! ' 2 8 In comic form i t i s seen i n D u r d l e s who i s always wandering o f f to ' c l e a n u p , ' but i s unable to do s o : T h i s going home to c l e a n h i m s e l f i s one of the man's incomprehen-s i b l e compromises w i t h i n e x o r a b l e f a c t s ; h e , and h i s h a t , and h i s b o o t s , and h i s c l o t h e s , never showing any t r a c e of c l e a n i n g , but be ing u n i f o r m l y i n one c o n d i t i o n of dust and g r i t . 2 9 These are of course o n l y f i v e out of the many c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l , but that f i v e major personages should be a l l i e d w i t h such r i g i d , unchanging, inanimate o b j e c t s i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s e l f . So a l s o i s the l a r g e r o l e assumed i n the s t o r y by such o b j e c t s themselves . In a d d i t i o n to the tombstones which are D u r d l e s ' p r i d e , (of those poor who have none he s a y s , " ' A l l sa fe and sound h e r e , s i r , and a l l D u r d l e s ' work! Of those common f o l k that i s merely bundled up i n 164 30 t u r f and brambles , the l e s s s a i d the b e t t e r . " ' ) [ i t a l i c s m i n e ] , there are the r e g u l a r r a i n s of stones w i t h which Deputy p e l t s D u r d l e s . The whole ob jec t i n the l i f e of the u r c h i n i s to throw s t o n e s , and when he has no a v a i l a b l e l i v i n g t a r g e t , he i s seen s t o n i n g the dead. The Sapsea monument, w i t h poor M r s . Sapsea i n s i d e , i s another ob jec t of the k i n d we have been n o t i c i n g . I t i s sugges t ive tha t Edwin r e c e i v e s no r e a l p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n ; i f i t were to have been r e v e a l e d that Jasper b u r i e d him i n the Sapsea Monument, that would have become h i s p h y s i c a l appearance. Resent ing the f a c t that Edwin was i n no way t i e d to C l o i s t e r h a m and was j o u r n e y i n g to the E a s t , Jasper might have seen p o e t i c j u s t i c e i n p r e v e n t i n g t h i s by t r a p p i n g him as deeply as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the stony c o n f i n e s of C l o i s t e r h a m . The most e c s t a t i c v i s i o n of s e n s u a l i t y i n t h i s p e c u l i a r s o c i e t y i s reserved f o r o b j e c t s , M r s . C r i s p a r k l e ' s jams and s p i c e s ; once aga in the image i s of c o n t a i n e r s w i t h the essence or s p i r i t preserved w i t h i n . That the joys of l i v i n g reach t h e i r h e i g h t i n the s torage space of an o l d l a d y ' s d i n i n g room i s a due r e f l e c t i o n on the w o r l d Jasper and Dickens have created and are r e a c t i n g t o : I t was a most w o n d e r f u l c l o s e t , worthy of C l o i s t e r h a m and of Minor Canon C o r n e r . . . . The upper s l i d e , on be ing p u l l e d down, r e v e a l e d deep she lves of p i c k l e - j a r s , j a m - p o t s , t i n - c a n i s t e r s , s p i c e - b o x e s , and agreeably o u t l a n d i s h v e s s e l s of b l u e and w h i t e the l u s c i o u s l o d g i n g s of preserved tamarinds and g i n g e r . . . . The p i c k l e s , i n a u n i f o r m of r i c h brown d o u b l e - b r e a s t e d buttoned c o a t , and y e l l o w and sombre drab c o m b i n a t i o n s , announced t h e i r p o r t l y forms , i n p r i n t e d c a p i t a l s , as Walnut , G h e r k i n , O n i o n , Cabbage, C a u l i f l o w e r , M i x e d , and other members of tha t noble f a m i l y . The jams, as be ing of a l e s s mascul ine temperament, and as wear ing c u r l p a p e r s , announced themselves i n feminine c a l i g r a p h y l i k e a s o f t w h i s p e r , to be Rasp-b e r r y , Gooseberry , A p r i c o t , P lum, Damson, A p p l e , and Peach. . . . 165 Lowest of a l l , a compact leaden v a u l t enshr ined the sweet wine and a s tock of c o r d i a l s : whence i s s u e d whispers of S e v i l l e Orange, Lemon, Almond, and Caraway-Seed.31 T h i s Thanksg iv ing f o r the abundance of the f r u i t s of the e a r t h i s f o r them i n t h e i r most ' c i v i l i z e d ' f o r m , sugared and j e l l i e d and preserved i n jam j a r s . L a t e r i n the n o v e l that benevolent m a g i c a l f i g u r e , T a r t a r , who leads Rosa to a ' Jack and the B e a n s t a l k ' w o r l d i s a l s o c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h jam j a r s and drawers . At the same time the s p i c e s and e x o t i c f r u i t s remind one of the s h i p l o a d s of r i c h e s that are u s u a l l y brought home by Sinbad i n the A r a b i a n N i g h t s , a n d the hardness , the b e a u t y , the c o n t a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r of the j a r s i s r e m i n i s -cent of the magic t a l i s m a n s . The presence of the Old 'Uns i n the w a l l s of the c a t h e d r a l , which i s by f a r the most obvious image of the k i n d that have been examined, i s not t h e r e f o r e merely a grotesque indulgence on D i c k e n s ' p a r t . T h e i r exact r o l e i s r e l a t e d to D u r d l e s ' c h a r a c t e r , but they d e r i v e meaning from the l e s s o b v i o u s l y grotesque p a r a l l e l s among the l i v i n g i n h a b i t a n t s of C l o i s t e r h a m and t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s . In The Mystery of Edwin Drood Dickens once more c rea tes a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of those p o w e r f u l b o u r g e o i s , middle c l a s s , or g e n t e e l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s that were so present i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop and i n A Ta le of Two C i t i e s . Here however they themselves have hardened i n t o forms w h i c h , w h i l e s e r v i n g as p r o t e c t i o n s a g a i n s t the v u l g a r , c a r r i o n - s c e n t e d l i k e s of the u r c h i n Deputy, a l s o t rap the e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t of the p l a c e and of the i n h a b i t a n t s i n s i d e permanent p r i s o n s . And j u s t as the jams and p i c k l e s have been s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d by be ing 166 p r e s e r v e d , so the s p i r i t s of a s o c i e t y w i t h i n such b a r r i e r s have been i m p e r c e p t i b l y a l t e r e d . That C l o i s t e r h a m i s a w o r l d c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d e x t e r i o r s i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d by the form g i v e n to the f o r c e s conta ined by them. As Jasper and Durdles walk through the c a t h e d r a l at n i g h t Jasper l i g h t s a match, "by drawing from the c o l d hard w a l l a spark of tha t myster ious 32 f i r e which l u r k s i n e v e r y t h i n g . " Here one i s reminded of the genie of the lamp, the energy f i g u r e that r e s i d e s m y s t e r i o u s l y i n the magic c o n t a i n e r , and of the madman's f i r e i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop. In The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop the madman who was born and had grown o l d i n the f a c t o r y , saw i n the f a c t o r y f i r e h i s memory and h i s i m a g i n a -t i o n — p l a c e s and scenes that he would never see i n f a c t , and h o r r o r s that were most bearab le transmuted i n t o the images of a dream. L o u i s a Gradgr ind and L i z z i e Hexam both read s t o r i e s i n the f l a m e s . M r . Grew-gious i s the l a s t i n the l i n e of D i c k e n s ' c h a r a c t e r s who can connect w i t h the sources of p a s s i o n i n the f l a m e s : there was something dreamy ( f o r so l i t e r a l a man) i n the way i n which he now shook h i s r i g h t f o r e f i n g e r at the l i v e c o a l s i n the g r a t e , and aga in f e l l s i l e n t .33 More o f t e n , however, t h i s f i r e i s transmuted i n t o a r e f l e c t e d form, f o r i n s t a n c e i n t o the c o l o u r s of j ewels and gems: gloomy shadows began to deepen i n c o r n e r s ; . . . and j e w e l s cas t upon the pavement of the nave from s t a i n e d g l a s s by the d e c l i n i n g s u n , began to perish.34 See how b r i g h t these stones sh ine [the diamond and ruby r i n g of Rosa ' s mother] . . . I f I had any i m a g i n a t i o n I might imagine that the l a s t i n g beauty of these stones was almost cruel.,35 167 or i n t o the r i c h l i q u o r that expresses so much of the p o t e n t i a l p a s -s ions of M r . Grewgious that h i s wooden e x t e r i o r has d e s t r o y e d : [Grewgious] had brought up b o t t l e s of r u b y , s t r a w - c o l o u r e d , and golden d r i n k s , which had r i p e n e d long ago i n lands where no fogs a r e , and had s i n c e l a i n s lumber ing i n the shade.36 Even f o r Rosa tha t 'mys ter ious f i r e ' has been changed i n t o a g e n t l e form: The atmosphere of p i t y surrounding the l i t t l e orphan g i r l . . . had always adorned her w i t h some s o f t l i g h t of i t s own; . . . now i t had been g o l d e n , now r o s e a t e , and now azure .37 L o b l e y , T a r t a r ' s man, who rows them up the r i v e r one enchanted a f t e r n o o n , resembles not the sun i t s e l f , but an a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the sun: He was a b i g , j o l l y favoured man, w i t h tawny h a i r and w h i s k e r s , and a b i g red f a c e . He was the dead image of the sun i n the o l d wooden c u t s , h i s h a i r and whiskers answering f o r rays a l l round him.38 F i n a l l y D u r d l e s , who, i s of a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t order of humanity from the other C l o i s t e r h a m i n h a b i t a n t s , has at one p o i n t bestowed upon him a j e w e l - l i k e mask: Here , the moonl ight i s so very b r i g h t aga in that the c o l o u r s of the nearest s t a i n e d g l a s s window are thrown upon t h e i r f a c e s . The appearance of the unconscious D u r d l e s , h o l d i n g the door open f o r h i s companion to f o l l o w , as i f from the g r a v e , i s g h a s t l y enough, w i t h a p u r p l e band across h i s f a c e , and a y e l l o w s p l a s h upon h i s brow.39 D i c k e n s ' use of j ewels to i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n s p i r i t u a l s t a t e 168 f i n d s a p a r a l l e l i n two s t o r i e s of Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen . In The Snow Queen the boy w i t h the hear t of i c e at f i r s t says of the snow-f l a k e s : 'Do you see how c l e a r l y they are made. ' . . . Much more i n t e r e s t i n g than l o o k i n g at r e a l f l o w e r s , and there i s not a s i n g l e f l a w i n them. They are p e r f e c t . I f o n l y they would not m e l t ! ' 4 0 but the snowflakes are l a t e r shown to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : they took the most c u r i o u s shapes. Some looked l i k e b i g h o r r i d p o r c u p i n e s ; some l i k e bundles of k n o t t e d snakes w i t h t h e i r heads s t i c k i n g o u t . Others aga i n were l i k e f a t l i t t l e bears w i t h b r i s t -l i n g h a i r , but a l l were d a z z l i n g w h i t e and l i v i n g s n o w f l a k e s . 4 1 In another t a l e , The T r a v e l l i n g Companion, the o g r e ' s cave i s f i l l e d w i t h the most g l o r i o u s gems, i n s i d e which are seen r e p u l s i v e monsters . O b v i o u s l y the grotesque i s more c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the monsters and knot ted snakes than to the gems and s n o w f l a k e s . However there seems i n Andersen ' s mind a l i n k between the two, whereby the most p e r f e c t , i n t r i c a t e , ye t c o l d , inanimate e x t e r i o r c a l l s i n t o be ing i t s o p p o s i t e , u g l y , b r u t i s h f o r c e s . The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t here i s , however, the s i m i l a r i t y of the imagery to that of The Mystery of Edwin Drood, to that f o r i n s t a n c e of J a s p e r ' s remark to C r i s p a r k l e tha t the l a t t e r i s l i k e c r y s t a l whereas he i s an u g l y moping weed. Yet t h i s i s o n l y J a s p e r ' s h idden n a t u r e ; h i s e x t e r i o r i s handsome, hard l i k e h i s name, and h i s a r t i s of great s t y l i s t i c beauty . In these cases the grotesque A v a r i a t i o n of t h i s a l l i a n c e was of course seen i n the r e l a -t i o n s h i p of j ewels and f a b r i c to r o t t i n g o r g a n i c matter i n Our Mutua l F r i e n d . 169 i s not the o p p o s i t e of the s u b l i m e , as was p o s i t e d by Hugo; i t i s a necessary complement of i t , as he suggested, but i t i s brought i n t o be ing by the very attempt to achieve an outward p e r f e c t i o n of f o r m . Thus Jasper r e j e c t s any a l l i a n c e w i t h impoverished humanity : 'What v i s i o n s can she have? ' . . . ' V i s i o n s of many b u t c h e r s ' shops, and t h i s h o r r i b l e bedstead set u p r i g h t . Of an i n c r e a s e of hideous customers , and t h i s h o r r i b l e ^ b e d s t e a d set u p r i g h t a g a i n , and t h i s h o r r i b l e cour t swept c l e a n ? ' Yet h i s best v i s i o n s depend on and need the o l d woman w i t h her f i l t h y c o u r t y a r d , j u s t as the grac iousness of C l o i s t e r h a m b r i n g s i n t o e x i s t e n c e the i l l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of Durdles and Deputy to complete i t s a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . Nonetheless t h e i r behaviour i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s o c i a l order of C l o i s t e r h a m , and u s i n g i t s i d i o m , stones and tombstones—as the monsters remain ' w h i t e and d a z z l i n g snow-f l a k e s . ' The appearance of the Snow Queen i n f a c t r e f l e c t s a nature q u i t e s i m i l a r to J a s p e r ' s ; "She was made complete ly of i c e . . . . Her 43 eyes were g l i t t e r i n g s t a r s , but there was no r e s t or peace i n them." In terms of outward behaviour t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of f i r e i n t o j ewels f i n d s a p a r a l l e l i n J a s p e r ' s s i n g i n g . The opium woman t e l l s 44 him '"What a sweet s i n g e r you was when you f i r s t c o m e . ' " Perhaps at that p o i n t the opium c o u l d d i s s o l v e h i s s t a t u e - l i k e e x t e r i o r w o r l d and l e t the song i s s u e o u t . Yet the Jasper who s i n g s before the murder of Edwin i s s t i l l a s k i l l e d s i n g e r . C r i s p a r k l e s a y s , " ' n o t h i n g uns teady , n o t h i n g f o r c e d , n o t h i n g a v o i d e d ; a l l thoroughly done i n a m a s t e r l y 45 manner w i t h p e r f e c t s e l f - c o m m a n d . ' " The emphasis has s h i f t e d from 170 the emot ional content of h i s v o i c e to the t e c h n i c a l powers. T h i s i s backed up by the n a r r a t o r ' s remark on J a s p e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y : [performing] an A r t . . . which cou ld not have been pursued unless he and they had been i n the n i c e s t mechanical r e l a t i o n s and u n i s o n , i t i s c u r i o u s to c o n s i d e r that the s p i r i t of the man was i n mora l accordance or in terchange w i t h n o t h i n g around him.46 Jasper i s s t i l l t a k i n g opium. I t seems however as i f i t s powers have s h i f t e d . The opium has i n f a c t taken over or possessed Jasper i n a s p e l l ; whereas at f i r s t i t may have o f f e r e d a r e l e a s e from the e q u a l l y potent s p e l l of C l o i s t e r h a m i n t o something approaching a whole or completed man, i t h a s , w i t h t i m e , set up i t s own s p e l l , i t s own u n r e a l i t y . What the new r e a l i t y of the opium i s can never be e x a c t l y known. Nonethe-l e s s tha t i t s s p e l l would correspond to the s t o n e d - i n s p e l l which C l o i s t e r h a m has thrown up around i t s i n h a b i t a n t s seems l i k e l y , that i t would perhaps be represented by the c o l d r e f l e c t e d beauty of the s t o n e s , the c o l d , r i t u a l i s t i c beauty of J a s p e r ' s s i n g i n g . C o n t i n u i n g w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n that the opium e s t a b l i s h e s i t s own r e a l i t y f o r J a s p e r , a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d r e p r e s s i v e s o c i e t y , as C l o i s t e r h a m o b v i o u s l y i s , w i t h i t s g e n t i l i t y , i t s d a i l y c a t h e d r a l s e r v i c e s , i t s ' A l t e r n a t e M u s i c a l Wednesdays, ' can do something other than cause i t s i n h a b i t a n t s to run amuck o c c a s i o n a l l y , g i v i n g f u l l vent to t h e i r unconscious d e s i r e s . I t can t r a i n them to do what the s u f f e r -i n g poor or m i s t r e a t e d i n D i c k e n s ' other novels d i d , to c rea te an imag-i n a t i v e r e n d e r i n g of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , i n the t r a d i t i o n of Wemmick and Jenny Wren. This happens i n Miss T w i n k l e t o n ' s two s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e , 171 ' " F o o l i s h M r . P o r t e r s ' . . . [who] r e v e a l e d a homage of the h e a r t ' " 4 7 one season at Tunbridge W e l l s , assumes the p r o p o r t i o n s of an e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l c a r e e r , whereas her globes s t r i v e to make her and her f r i e n d s b e l i e v e i n her p a s s i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . The Reverend C r i s p a r k l e turns h i s n a t u r a l v i g o u r and p a s s i o n i n t o a b o y ' s v e r s i o n of them, b o x i n g w i t h h i m s e l f i n the m i r r o r and w i t h h i s mother ' s h a t , and p r i d i n g h i m s e l f on h i s a t h l e t i c h a b i t s , manly f e l l o w ! . . . there was no more s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i n the Minor Canon than i n the schoolboy who had stood i n the breezy f i e l d s keeping a w i c k e t . 4 8 49 "He knew every h o l e and corner of a l l the depths" of C l o i s t e r h a m W e i r , and s u b s t i t u t e s such p h y s i c a l v e n t u r i n g f o r any p o s s i b l e ques t ings of the i m a g i n a t i o n or s p i r i t . J a s p e r ' s i m a g i n a t i v e r e n d e r i n g of C l o i s t e r h a m , however, i s to t u r n i t i n t o a r i t u a l , sacred to h i m s e l f i f not to any p a r t i c u l a r d e i t y . F o r , though h i s s p i r i t i s i n moral accord w i t h no other b e i n g , i t i s very much i n accord w i t h the mechanica l beauty of the m u s i c . And he turns a l l the conformism of h i s surroundings i n t o t o o l s f o r a sacred r i t u a l tha t he must undergo i n order to complete h i m s e l f . We see something of t h i s i n h i s second v i s i t to the opium den. Here he enacts the same r i t u a l each t i m e . I f the v i s i o n of murdering Edwin i s par t of that opium r i t u a l , then the a c t u a l murder of Edwin i s merely g i v i n g m a t e r i a l form to the a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r i t u a l tha t L i t e r a r y s l e u t h s who have proposed t h a t the murder was to be p a r t of the Thug r i t u a l , a s e r v i c e to the goddess K a l i , may or may not have been f a c t u a l l y c o r r e c t , but they r i g h t l y assess h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . 172 he undergoes i n daydreams and i n opium t r a n c e s . As t h e drugged c o n v e r -s a t i o n w i t h the opium woman r e v e a l s , ' I ' l l w a r r a n t you made t h e j o u r n e y i n many ways, when you made i t so o f t e n ? ' 'Yes! I always made th e j o u r n e y f i r s t , b e f o r e t h e changes of c o l o r s and t h e g r e a t l a n d s c a p e s and g l i t t e r i n g p r o c e s s i o n s began. They c o u l d n ' t b e g i n t i l l i t was o f f my mind. I had no room f o r a n y t h i n g e l s e t i l l then.'50 The i m p l i c a t i o n seems to be t h a t the j o u r n e y i s made, as a p r o -p i t i a t o r y r i t u a l , i n o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e g r e a t l a n d s c a p e s and g l i t t e r i n g p r o c e s s i o n s . Y e t a g r e a t d e l i g h t i s t a k e n i n t h e j o u r n e y (or murder) i t s e l f , w h i c h p r o b a b l y means a d e l i g h t i n i t s v e r y r i g i d r i t u a l i s t i c q u a l i t y , "'Time and p l a c e a r e a t hand.'""'"'" The murder of Edwin i s no w e l l i n g up o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e b l a c k or b r u t a l f o r c e s , such as would be i m p l i e d by J a s p e r ' s c a l l i n g h i m s e l f a moping weed o r r e f e r r i n g t o h i s unmanageable humours; i t i s a d e l i g h t i n t u r n i n g what a r e f o r J a s p e r t h e weapons an e n c l o s i n g s o c i e t y w i e l d s a g a i n s t him i n t o t h e t o o l s of a d i f f i c u l t s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y . ( C e r e -mony i s a way of r e i n f o r c i n g one's f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i e t y as much as a way o f e x p r e s s i n g i t . I t makes th e p o s i t i o n r e a l as much as i t c e l e -b r a t e s i t s r e a l i t y . ) N o t i c e t h a t n o t o n l y the t i m e , but t h e p l a c e must be as t h e r i t u a l demands. O n l y C l o i s t e r h a m C a t h e d r a l c o u l d f u n c -t i o n i n J a s p e r ' s h a z a r d o u s ceremony. The symbols o f w a l l s , b a r r i e r s , p r e c i o u s gems t h a t were p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r become t h e r e f o r e symbols b o t h of t h e b o u r g e o i s u r g e f o r s o c i a l g r a c e s and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and N o t i c e how he t r a n s f o r m s Sapsea i n t o something r i d i c u l o u s by a p p e a r i n g t o agree w i t h him. 173 f o r the r i t u a l s of a much more demanding nature tha t Jasper i n c l i n e s towards . T h i s suggests tha t Jasper i s not merely s c h i z o p h r e n i cj one face a r e s p e c t a b l e c h o i r - m a s t e r who loves h i s nephew, the o ther f u l l of p a s s i o n a t e j e a l o u s h a t r e d : i t i s tha t both these s i d e s e x i s t , but are j o i n e d by a t h i r d , a psychopath who performs h i s a c t i o n s a m o r a l l y , f o r the sake of the r i t u a l . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that a r e s t r i c t i v e , i n t h i s case , b o u r g e o i s , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s a n a t u r a l breeding-ground f o r a psychopath who c a n - a b s t r a c t the dominant q u a l i t i e s and v i c e s of tha t s o c i e t y and t u r n them i n t o what becomes f o r him a b e a u t i f u l r i t u a l . I t i s however necessary to remember t that J a s p e r ' s emotions a r e , at the same t i m e , i n v o l v e d i r i the murder. In r e a l l i f e he has always p l a y e d the a d o r i n g , , p a s s i v e r o l e to h i s nephew, w a i t i n g f o r h i s v i s i t s , w o r r y i n g about h i s h e a l t h . The murder i s t h e r e f o r e a l s o a m a t e r i a l i z e d daydream which a s s e r t s the power that Jasper f e e l s he a b d i c a t e s i n h i s a c t u a l .dealings w i t h Edwin . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r J a s p e r , the v i c t i m does not reac t i n the d e s i r e d way, " ' N o s t r u g g l e , no consciousness of p e r i l , 52 no e n t r e a t y . ' " A s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the imagery of the grotesque c h a r a c t e r s , accompanies the g e n e r a l s i m p l i f y i n g of the imagery, the one- to-one c o r -respondences between people and o b j e c t s and between the c a t h e d r a l and a s p e c i f i c s p i r i t u a l s t a t e . There i s none of that spontaneous form changing tha t was seen i n c h a r a c t e r s l i k e Smallweed or i n s e t t i n g s l i k e the fog i n Bleak House or V h o l e s ' o f f i c e . Except f o r M r . Grewgious , 174 53* who looks as i f "he cou ld be ground i n t o h i g h - d r i e d s n u f f , " there are o n l y three grotesque humans i n the s t o r y , D u r d l e s , Deputy and the Opium Woman. In an odd s i m i l a r i t y to the r i g i d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of mediaeval t i m e s , which channeled i t s a m b i v a l e n t , i r r a t i o n a l imagin ings i n t o s e t , accepted grotesque forms such as the c o u r t . f o o l , the annual f e s t i v a l of f o l l y , the g a r g o y l e s , and the d e v i l - f i g u r e s , i n t h i s w o r l d of entrenched, c a l c i f i e d s o c i a l mores, the grotesques are endowed, both by the c h a r a c t e r s and the n a r r a t o r , w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l images. Thus Deputy i s s p e c i f i c a l l y des ignated as an imp and a demon ( Q u i l p of course was c a l l e d s i m i l a r names, but o n l y as two of the many q u a l i t i e s a s c r i b e d to h i m ) : the enchanted hour when. M r . Durdles may be stoned home, hav ing s t r u c k ; he had some e x p e c t a t i o n of see ing the Imp. who i s appointed to the m i s s i o n of s t o n i n g h i m . In e f f e c t tha t Power of E v i l i s abroad. Having n o t h i n g l i v i n g t o stone at the moment, he i s d i s -covered by M r . Datchery i n the unholy o f f i c e of s t o n i n g the dead, through the r a i l i n g s of the churchyard.54 'What! Is that b a b y - d e v i l on the watch t h e r e ! 1 c r i e s Jasper . . . so v i o l e n t tha t he seems l i k e an o l d e r d e v i l h i m s e l f . 5 5 The term demon, or even Imp, however convenient, i t may be i n C l o i s t e r h a m s o c i e t y f o r summing up and d i s m i s s i n g the a n t i c s of one s m a l l u r c h i n (see i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Chapter I ) , encompasses a much more complex range of f e e l i n g s . I t stands i n f a c t f o r a l l the emotions and Grewgious i s i n the Dickens/Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen t r a d i t i o n of Wemmick and M i s s P r o s s , whose u n g a i n l y o b j e c t - l i k e appearance v i s -u a l l y expresses t h e i r human weaknesses at the same time tha t i t engages our sympathy by i m p l y i n g that such weaknesses are out of t h e i r c o n t r o l or are c rea ted by s o c i e t y . ' 175 p a s s i o n s , and v i c e s , and i m a g i n a t i o n tha t such a s o c i e t y denies the ex -i s t e n c e o f : 'No wretched monk who droned h i s l i f e away i n t h a t gloomy p l a c e , b e f o r e me, can have been more t i r e d than I am. He c o u l d take f o r r e l i e f (and d i d . t a k e ) to c a r v i n g demons out of the s t a l l s and seats and d e s k s . What s h a l l I do? Must I take to c a r v i n g them out of my h e a r t ? ' 5 6 says J a s p e r . In h i s i n t e n s e h a t r e d f o r Deputy, " ' I s h a l l shed the .blood of tha t i m p i s h w r e t c h ! I know I s h a l l do i t ! ' " " ' 7 we f e e l t h a t he r e c o g -n i z e s Deputy as a l i v i n g grotesque m a n i f e s t a t i o n , of tha t p a r t of .h i s hear t he has had to carve o u t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Jasper to Deputy r a i s e s the problem f o r Jasper of the ex tent to which Jasper has p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over Deputy ' s power. I f Deputy i s a r e a l demon, a r e a l source of e v i l and magic powers, and has chosen Jasper as h i s . v i c t i m , , then Jasper i s h e l p l e s s , even i f the l i m i t of the e v i l to which he i s d r i v e n i s " t o ' s h e d the b lood of tha t i m p i s h w r e t c h . " ' I f D e p u t y ' s power i s a c r e a t i o n of J a s p e r ' s imag-i n a t i o n , then at l e a s t Jasper i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . In The Sandman, E . T. A . Hoffmann t a c k l e s an i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , but v e r b a l i z e s the problem more o p e n l y . H i s hero attempts to ana lyze the romant ic i m a g i n a t i o n and a c c o u n t . f o r the r e a l i t y of the s p e c t r e s that haunt h i m : 'everyone who i m a g i n e d . h i m s e l f f r e e was r e a l l y the p l a y t h i n g of dark and c r u e l powers; i t was u s e l e s s . to r e b e l , we a l l had to bow humbly to our d e s t i n y . C o p p e l i u s was an e v i l s p i r i t , as he had r e a l i z e d when he eaves-dropped upon him from behind the c u r t a i n , and tha t t h i s abominable demon would wreak havoc w i t h t h e i r happiness . . ' 58 176 To t h i s h i s f i a n c e e r e p l i e s : 'once we have surrendered o u r s e l v e s to the dark p h y s i c a l power, i t f r e q u e n t l y draws i n s i d e us e x t e r n a l f i g u r e s thrown i n our path by the w o r l d ; then i t i s we o u r s e l v e s who endow these f i g u r e s w i t h the l i f e w i t h w h i c h , i n w i l d d e l u s i o n , we c r e d i t them. '59 ' C o p p e l i u s i s an e v i l , mal ignant s p i r i t ; he can e x e r c i s e the t e r - , r i b l e powers of a demon i n c a r n a t e ; but o n l y i f you do not b a n i s h him from your m i n d . ' 6 0 N e l l ' s i m a g i n a t i v e response to Q u i l p and the gambling g r a n d -f a t h e r and to the power of the church r u i n s was an e a r l i e r m a n i f e s t a -t i o n of the same p r e o c c u p a t i o n . The opium woman's r o l e i s o b v i o u s l y complex. She says of h e r -s e l f " ' W e l l , t h e r e ' s l and customers and t h e r e ' s water customers . I 'm a mother to b o t h . D i f f e r e n t to Jack Chinaman t ' o t h e r s i d e the c o u r t . 61 He a i n ' t a f a t h e r to n e i t h e r . I t a i n ' t i n h i m . ' " and the n a r r a t o r l i k e n s her to a cat watching a h a l f - s l a i n mouse. N o n e t h e l e s s , when she enters the c o n f i n e s of C l o i s t e r h a m , the form she i s r e c o g n i z e d as possess ing i s tha t of the m a t e r i a l of which the c i t y i s b u i l t . She i s looked upon as a g a r g o y l e . As u g l y and w i t h e r e d as one of the f a n t a s t i c c a r v i n g s on the under b r a c k e t s of the s t a l l s e a t s , as mal ignant as the E v i l O n e , . a s hard as the b i g brass eagle h o l d i n g the sacred books upon h i s w i n g s , she hugs h e r s e l f i n her l e a n arms, and then shakes both f i s t s at the l e a d e r of the C h o i r . 6 2 Two processes are at work here. Material and hence constricting forms of names are given to complicated spiritual forces, as.Jasper does with reference to the demons in his heart. This in one way signifies 177 the r e a l i t y of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , the . fact t h a t , though these f i e r c e pass ions o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n h i m s e l f , the obsess ion w i t h them possesses h i s mind as i f they are i n f l i c t e d on him from o u t s i d e . The v e r y f a c t of ' n a m i n g , ' of g i v i n g a s i m p l e image to a compl ica ted f e e l i n g , g i v e s him a degree of power or c o n t r o l over , them. W i t h i n the t o t a l s t r u c -t u r e of C l o i s t e r h a m the names g i v e n , those of carved demons , . imply the a c t u a l impotence of J a s p e r ' s emot iona l r e b e l l i o n , i t s almost d e c o r a t i v e r o l e w i t h i n the stony framework. A t the same time there i s an attempt to c o n t a i n the i r r a t i o n a l energy of c e r t a i n r i c h , compl ica ted human beings who act out a l l t h e : powers denied the people of C l o i s t e r h a m , by d e s c r i b i n g ' them . in t r a d i -t i o n a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l or l i t e r a r y images, as i s done by c a l l i n g the opium woman a gargoyle and Deputy .an Imp. The obvious connec t ion of these images w i t h the imagery of the C a t h e d r a l i s a technique f o r p r e -tending tha t these u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c h a r a c t e r s have been absorbed i n t o the .general s tony p r i s o n . The v e r y i n s t i n c t to d e s c r i b e people i n terms of such imagery r e v e a l s e x a c t l y how w e l l t h e . i m a g i n a t i o n s of the i n h a b i t a n t s have.been molded. * T h i s power of ;naming i s v e r y c l o s e l y t i e d to the whole p r o -cess of c r e a t i n g grotesque i m a g e r y . . As Santayana s a i d , the new grotes -que c r e a t i o n must h i n t at some f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . The grotesque i s i n t e g r a l l y t i e d to the f a c t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , , t o : t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e and a p p a r e n t l y m o t i v e l e s s change from one form to a n o t h e r . By g i v i n g a v i s u a l a r t i s t i c shape to t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as d o , s a y , Bosch and B r u e g h e l , where i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to t e l l i f the c r e a t i o n s are a n i m a l , human or o b j e c t , or as do the clowns and n u r s e r y rhymes w i t h t h e i r emphasis on the comic nonsense of such t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , the a r t i s t i s i n f a c t c o n t r o l l i n g h i s own f e a r of such change; a f e a t tha t N e l l i s unable to d o , r e s u l t i n g f o r her i n v i s i o n s of s u r r e a l i s t i c chaos. 178 In The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop i t was suggested tha t the c l o w n -f i g u r e s were a n t i - b o u r g e o i s i n t h e i r g l e e f u l taunts a g a i n s t g e n t e e l v a l u e s and manners. In The Mystery of Edwin Drood the p o t e n t i a l c l o w n s , . the grotesque f i g u r e s , D u r d l e s , Deputy, and the opium woman, though working c l a s s or s u b - p r o l e t a r i a n , e s t a b l i s h a l l i a n c e s w i t h the g e n t e e l w o r l d , or u n w i t t i n g l y mimic i t s b e h a v i o u r . A t the same time they do mock i t s . p o l i t e n e s s and p r e t e n s i o n s to v i r t u e . T h e i r r o l e i s f u r t h e r rendered ambivalent by the s t o l i d face of t h e i r s o c i e t y , w h i c h , i n i t s v e r y i m p a s s i v e n e s s , causes them to d i r e c t much of t h e i r , spontaneous humour and f a n c i f u l n e s s towards the dead. Deputy shows a t r u e commercial sense i n s t o n i n g away c o m p e t i -t i o n . Durdles has on ly g r u f f words f o r the poor f o l k b u r i e d i n grass and brambles , and i n b u i l d i n g tombs f o r the newly dead he seems to c o n -t i n u e the w a l l - b u i l d i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s of the c u l t u r e . He p r i d e s h i m s e l f on f i n d i n g h i s p i t c h when s e a r c h i n g the w a l l s , as Jasper f i n d s h i s -p i t c h i n the s i n g i n g . Sometimes however the mimicry i m p l i e s a m a l i c i o u s minor w o r l d openly a c t i n g out the compl ica ted motives of the dominant s o c i e t y . For i n s t a n c e , a f t e r a r r i v i n g at C l o i s t e r h a m , N e v i l l e r e v e a l s h i s hard b o y -hood and impetuous temper to C r i s p a r k l e , . g i v i n g as reason f o r h i s c o n -f e s s i o n , " ' e v e r y t h i n g around us be ing so o l d and grave and b e a u t i f u l , ; w i t h the moon s h i n i n g on i t - - t h e s e t h i n g s i n c l i n e d me to open my. 63 h e a r t . " ' Yet the opium woman, i n v i c i o u s l y m a n i p u l a t i n g the drugged Jasper i n t o t a l k i n g , knowingly uses a s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e , "She seems to 64 know what the i n f l u e n c e of her p e r f e c t quie tude would b e . " Jasper 179 i n the opium den l i s t e n s to the rambl ings of the opium woman, the . Chinaman and the L a s c a r and, i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r i d e , murmurs, ' " U n i n t e l l i g i b l e . " ' ^ " * Moments l a t e r the w o r l d of these three reaches out and captures him through, i n v o l u n t a r y m i m i c r y : He n o t i c e s tha t the woman has. opium-smoked h e r s e l f i n t o a s t range l i k e n e s s of the Chinaman. H i s form of cheek, eye , and temple , and h i s c o l o u r are repeated i n her As he watches the spasmodic shoots and s t a r t s tha t break out of her face and l i m b s , l i k e f i t f u l l i g h t e n i n g out of a s k y , some contag ion i n them s e i z e s upon h i m : insomuch. that he has to withdraw t o a l e a n a r m - c h a i r . . ' . a n d to s i t i n i t , h o l d i n g t i g h t . , u n t i l he has got the b e t t e r of t h i s u n -c l e a n s p i r i t of i m i t a t i o n .66 I t has a l r e a d y been n o t i c e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to J a s p e r ' s behaviour tha t The. Mystery of Edwin Drood i s to a l a r g e ex tent a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l power of s p e l l s , a s t a t e of be ing that f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n the l i t e r a r y f a s c i n a t i o n s of the m i d - V i c t o r i a n . b o u r g e o i s i e . In Grimm's F a i r y Ta les and Ta les of .the A r a b i a n N i g h t s , c a s t i n g a s p e l l i s the most f requent means of g a i n i n g power. I t i s not f a r f e t c h e d to suppose tha t the i d e a of s p e l l s , would be absorbed, t r a n s f o r m e d , i n t o the work of an author who was so i n f l u e n c e d by the images of the popu-l a r c u l t u r e . The hypnotism tha t Jasper, almost d e f i n i t e l y p r a c t i s e s , and tha t was a fad i n D i c k e n s ' day, i s o n l y a s c i e n t i f i c term f o r an a g e - o l d t r a d i t i o n of one person e x e r t i n g an u n n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e over another , -or f o r a person behaving i n an obsess ive f a s h i o n that seems to o r i g i n a t e o u t s i d e h i m s e l f . D i c k e n s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h i s s t a t e of be ing began much e a r l i e r ; i n The Old C u r i o s i t y Shop,the grandfa ther a n d . N e l l , .both e s s e n t i a l l y u n m a n i p u l a t i v e , when they were desperate to o b t a i n t h e i r own way would each employ a form of h y p n o t i c power or 180 s p i r i t u a l energy over the o t h e r . In t h i s n o v e l the power that the a n c i e n t c i t y of C l o i s t e r h a m possesses over the i n h a b i t a n t s i s another k i n d o f . s p e l l . In f a c t i t f o l l o w s i n the t r a d i t i o n of c o u n t l e s s t a l e s i n which s p e l l s render t h e i r v i c t i m s immobi le , or t u r n them into, s t o n e s , or inanimate o b j e c t s . Hypnotism i n order to work r e q u i r e s a sympathy of m i n d s . No one can be h y p n o t i z e d a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l , or h y p n o t i z e d to do t h i n g s tha t c o n t r a d i c t t h e i r mora l v a l u e s . But under hypnotism one may do many t h i n g s that he would not n o r m a l l y ,do because of i n h i b i t i o n s or f e a r s . In o ther words , by a l l o w i n g onesel f , to be h y p n o t i z e d or brought under a s p e l l , one may do what one wishes to do w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such a c t i o n s . In s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t words , by l e t -t i n g o n e s e l f be absorbed by the p e r s o n a l i t y of a n o t h e r , one can remain w i l l - l e s s , c h i l d l i k e , but s t i l l o b t a i n one 's d e s i r e s . In A T a l e of Two C i t i e s i t c o u l d be seen how Lucy and Manet te , h a t i n g c o n f l i c t or c o n f r o n t a t i o n , t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s and b e -h a v i o u r to the o b j e c t s around them,. and because Dickens h i m s e l f d i d honour to these c h a r a c t e r s he a l l o w e d the o b j e c t s to c a r r y out f o r them t h e i r d e s i r e d a c t i o n s and vengeance. In The Mystery of Edwin  Drood,we are shown a v e r y o l d s o c i e t y , b u i l t up from genera t ions of people l i k e the Manet tes ; and these people too have t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l f e e l i n g s , t h e i r v i c i o u s n e s s , to the ob jec t w o r l d . So s u c -c e s s f u l have they been that the o b j e c t s around them, and the b u r e a u -c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the c h u r c h , which are as much o u t s i d e them-s e l v e s as the rocks of the c a t h e d r a l , have i n f a c t become the most 181 p o w e r f u l f o r c e s i n the community. They make the d e c i s i o n s of the people f o r them.. T h i s can be seen when the Dean t e l l s C r i s p a r k l e not to h a r b o u r . N e v i l l e s i n c e he may be a p o s s i b l e . c r i m i n a l ; he turns i t ' i n t o a demand of the church and at the same time makes i t the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y of the c h u r c h : 'The days of t a k i n g sanctuary are p a s t . T h i s man must not take sanctuary w i t h u s . ' 'You mean that he must l e a v e my house, s i r ? ' ' M r . C r i s p a r k l e , ' r e t u r n e d the prudent Dean, ' I c l a i m no a u t h o r i t y i n your house . I merely confer w i t h y o u , on the p a i n f u l n e c e s s i t y you f i n d y o u r s e l f under , of d e p r i v i n g t h i s young man of the great advantages of y o u r , c o u n s e l and i n s t r u c t i o n . ' . . . I t does not b e -come u s , p e r h a p s , ' pursued the Dean, ' t o be p a r t i s a n s . Not p a r t i -sans . We c l e r g y keep our h e a r t s warm and our heads c o o l , and we h o l d a j u d i c i o u s m i d d l e c o u r s e . . . . I n p o i n t of f a c t , , keeping our h e a r t s warm and our heads c o o l , we c l e r g y need do n o t h i n g e m p h a t i c a l l y . ' 6 7 S i m i l a r l y M r s . C r i s p a r k l e as hostess has the nature of her h o s p i t a l i t y , determined f o r her. by the d i n i n g room and the t a b l e : 'Would e i g h t a t a f r i e n d l y d i n n e r at a l l put you o u t , Ma? ' ' N i n e w o u l d , S e p t , ' r e t u r n e d the o l d l a d y , v i s i b l y nervous . . 'My dear Ma, I p a r t i c u l a r i z e e i g h t . ' ^g 'The exact s i z e of the t a b l e and room, my d e a r . ' O c c a s i o n a l l y i n the f a i r y t a l e s i t . i s the v e r y innocent who are trapped, by the o g r e ' s and w i t c h ' s s p e l l s . A l t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y t h e i r rescuers are of as innocent a temperament as the s p e l l - b o u n d a r e , they r e c o g n i z e that i n order to succeed they must a l l y themselves w i t h magic forces , tha t are not innocent though they are b e n e v o l e n t . Thus there would be one other i n s t a n c e i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d i n which a person would be s u s c e p t i b l e to a s p e l l , and t h a t would be i f the person were 182 w i l l - l e s s , unaware of h i s own r i g h t s to a s s e r t h i s d e s i r e s . Rosa i s i n . t h i s p o s i t i o n . Wi th her the s p e l l of C l o i s t e r h a m has taken the form of a l l o w i n g her image of ' s e l f to be founded on the image o thers have of h e r . She sees h e r s e l f w i t h her schoolmates ' eyes , on the arm of a s a i l o r , out w i t h Edwin i n h i s u n f a s h i o n a b l e b o o t s . Her i n s t i n c t s have not been warped, as she shows when she ends her engagement to Edwin. Y e t , her unsureness i n the power of her o w n . s e l f to make d e c i -s i o n s and f u n c t i o n independent ly renders her q u i c k l y s u s c e p t i b l e to what she can o n l y r e c o g n i z e as another magic s p e l l : never a f te rwards q u i t e knowing how she ascended to h i s [ T a r t a r ' s ] garden i n the a i r , and seemed to get i n t o m a r v e l l o u s country tha t came i n t o sudden bloom l i k e the country on the summit of the magic b e a n s t a l k . 6 9 A major f u n c t i o n of the grotesque f i g u r e s i n . t h i s n o v e l i s as s p e l l - b r e a k e r s . The opium-woman i n f a c t serves as a type of r e a l i t y -p r i n c i p l e between two s p e l l - b o u n d w o r l d s . A l t h o u g h i n terms of the p l o t , she i s a w i t c h - f i g u r e who induces the opium s p e l l i n J a s p e r , " 'nobody but me . . . has the t r u e s e c r e t of m i x i n g i t ' " 7 ' " ' and, the s p e c i a l knowledge she c l a i m s was i l l e g a l l y gained from him under such a s p e l l , s t i l l she i s not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r J a s p e r ' s t a k i n g opium, and her w i t c h l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s an ' image ' imposed on her by Jasper and Dickens o b s e r v i n g from the ' r e s p e c t a b l e ' w o r l d much as C h a r l e y Hexam imposed a w i t c h ' s image on Jenny Wren. Furthermore her own. exper ience w i t h opium does not f i g u r e i n the s t o r y , s i n c e we never c o n f r o n t her i n a t ranced s t a t e . The opium woman i n her h o v e l i s not v i s u a l l y grotesque i n the 183 double or t r i p l e - f a c e d manner tha t c h a r a c t e r i z e d D i c k e n s ' e a r l i e r g r o -tesques . She i s merely l e a n , haggard and w i t h e r e d . Yet she has a grotesque power., and i t i s d e r i v e d from her u g l i n e s s i n c o n t r a s t to the d i g n i t y of the c a t h e d r a l and the e x o t i c l o v e l i n e s s of the E a s t e r n p r o c e s s i o n s . In J a s p e r ' s v i s i o n as he leaves the opium s p e l l , her w o r l d i s the r u s t y s p i k e of the bedstead s u r r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n t r u d i n g between these two. And the comic or l u d i c r o u s aspect of her grotesque power comes from something as m i s e r a b l y r e a l as her r u i n e d h e a l t h and her i l l i t e r a t e speech: she f i n d s the c a n d l e , and l i g h t s i t b e f o r e the cough comes o n . I t s e i z e s her i n the moment of s u c c e s s , and she s i t s down r o c k i n g h e r -s e l f to and f r o , and gasping at intervals: '0 my lungs i s a w f u l bad! my lungs i s wore away to cabbage-nets!' Until the f i t i s o v e r . Jasper wants no p a r t of a n a t u r a l i s t i c r e a l i t y and he d i s m i s s e s her w o r l d e a s i l y ; " ' u n i n t e l l i g i b l e ' i s a g a i n the comment of the watcher , . . 72 made w i t h some reassured nodding of the h e a d . " I t i s o n l y f i t t i n g tha t these grotesque powers should pursue him.and exact revenge , as i t seems l i k e l y the opium woman i s about to do . How do these f i g u r e s break s p e l l s ? I t i s not through the imag-i n a t i v e f a n c y , f o r Grewgious , Rosa and. Jasper are a l l possessed of t h a t , a n d i n many cases i t merely r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Rather i t i s through the power of r e j e c t i n g l o g i c , and i n a more i n t e n s e f o r m , through i l l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n . I f t h i s i n c l u d e s e s t a b l i s h i n g a new f a n c i f u l c r e a t i o n , i t i s always an outrageous or i l l o g i c a l one. Thus Deputy g i v e s a f a n c i f u l , s t o r y - b o o k name to the opium woman, but u n l i k e Rosa ' s and D i c k e n s ' ' Jack and the B e a n s t a l k ' w o r l d , i t i s i n no way an 184 e x t e n s i o n of her p o s i t i o n or c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t ; he c a l l s her ' Er R o y a l Highness the P r i n c e s s P u f f e r . L i k e w i s e , Durdles c a l l s D e p u t y ' s a t t a c k s on him a n a t i o n a l scheme of e d u c a t i o n , obvious s a t i r e on m i d - c e n t u r y p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n endeavours , but at the same time a t o t a l l y r i d i c u l o u s comparison, and he h i m s e l f r e a l i z e s i t : ' I d o n ' t know what you may p r e c i s e l y , c a l l . i t . ' I t a i n ' t a s o r t of a—scheme of a — N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n ? ' ' I should say n o t , ' r e p l i e s J a s p e r . ' I should say n o t , ' assents D u r d l e s ; ' t h e n we w o n ' t t r y to g i v e i t a_ name.'73 [ i t a l i c s mine] Deputy i s supreme i n t h i s a s s a u l t on r e a s o n . H i s chant i s as i l l o g i c a l and as catchy as any n u r s e r y rhyme. And at f i r s t i t seems even more n o n s e n s i c a l than i t i s : Widdy widdy wen! I - ket - ches - Im - out - ar - t e r — ten Widdy widdy wy! Then - E - go - then - I - s h y ^ Widdy Widdy Wake-cock w a r n i n g ! S i m i l a r l y he always speaks of the C a t h e d r a l , that o l d stony s p e l l -b i n d e r as the KIN-FREE-DRAL, a p e r f e c t phrase f o r b r e a k i n g a s p e l l of a u t h o r i t y . H i s s t o n i n g , except f o r h i s r i t u a l bombardment of D u r d l e s , i s o b j e c t l e s s . H i s d a n c i n g , which makes him a d i r e c t descendent of a c r o b a t i c Tom Scott, i n The Old C u r i o s i t y . Shop, i s e i t h e r done wi thout , m o t i v e , " then c h a n t s , l i k e a l i t t l e savage, h a l f s tumbl ing and h a l f dancing among the rags and l a c e s of h i s d i l a p i d a t e d b o o t s , " 7 - or i n o p -p o s i t i o n to any h i n t of s o l e m n i t y , "on the happy chance of h i s [Datchery] be ing uneasy i n h i s mind about i t , to goad him w i t h a demon dance 185 76 e x p r e s s i v e of i t s i r r e v o c a b i l i t y . " or to express h i s i n t e n s e g lee at a t o t a l l y i l l o g i c a l o c c u r r e n c e , such as the opium woman's v i s i t to the c a t h e d r a l , "not f i n d i n g h i s sense of the l u d i c r o u s s u f f i c i e n t l y r e - , l i e v e d by stamping about on the pavement [he] breaks i n t o a s low and s t a t e l y d a n c e . " 7 7 Of course the movements of the dances se t up t h e i r own s p a t i a l m o t i f w i t h i n the. n o v e l i n c o n t r a s t to the i m m o b i l i t y of the c a t h e d r a l . One more p a r a l l e l between the behaviour of the ' r e s p e c t a b l e ' c i t i z e n s and those cons idered vagabonds can be. n o t i c e d h e r e , f o r D e p u t y ' s dance i s not u n l i k e C r i s p a r k l e ' s b o x i n g w i t h the m i r r o r or d i v i n g through the i c e . Hover ing around the a c t i v i t i e s of the whole s t o r y i s the f i g u r e of D u r d l e s . Of the grotesque c h a r a c t e r s he i s the most o b v i o u s l y e n -dowed w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C l o i s t e r h a m s o c i e t y , "covered from 7 8 head, to f o o t w i t h o l d m o r t a r , l i m e and stone g r i t . " He t h i n k s of h i m s e l f as a w i s e man: ' " D u r d l e s comes by h i s knowledge through. grubbing deep f o r i t , and hav ing i t up by the r o o t s when i t d o n ' t want ...79 to .come. Inasmuch as D u r d l e s ' appearance i s an a c t u a l f a c t i n the s t o r y , whereas the inanimate appearances of the o thers are i m a g i n a t i v e co mpar i -sons made by the n a r r a t o r , Durdles i s se t apar t from h i s community by costume as a type of mimic f o o l . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d by the 80 community i n the l i c e n s e granted him as the " c h a r t e r e d l i b e r t i n e " of C l o i s t e r h a m , h i s drunken, p e c u l i a r i t i e s acceptab le to s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r - , more i n " g i v i n g h i m s e l f up to Deputy to be stoned he serves as a ' s a c r i -f i c i a l v i c t i m . ' H i s mimic a c t i v i t i e s are c o n f i n e d to h i s tombstone 186 b u i l d i n g , a f o o l ' s p a r a l l e l of the a c t i v i t i e s of the powers of C l o i s -terham s i n c e the people he b u r i e s are dead. L i k e mediaeval f o o l s w i t h t h e i r c o w l s , h i s costume i s an e x t r a -vagant r e n d e r i n g of the appearance, of the e s t a b l i s h e d powers of h i s s o c i e t y . The f o o l n o r m a l l y operates w i t h i n the r u l e s of s o c i e t y . In r h i s smashing of. the c a t h e d r a l w a l l s to r e v e a l o l d corpses Durdles a l l i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the a n t i - s o c i a l s p e l l , b r e a k e r s . ' However, i n tha t the people he r e l e a s e s are a l r e a d y c o r p s e s , he shows h i m s e l f both i m -potent and a f o o l . Durdles i s not one of D i c k e n s ' more b r i l l i a n t c r e a t i o n s , and i n h i s l a c k of v e r b a l wi t ; of the type found i n f o o l s l i k e Q u i l p and Sk impole , .he i n d i c a t e s how much h i s s o c i e t y has c a l c i -f i e d , f o s s i l i z e d i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . , smothering i m a g i n a t i o n even i n i t s f o o l s . Yet c o n c u r r e n t l y Durdles i s a source of wisdom. For the corpses t h a t . h e d i s c o v e r s d i s i n t e g r a t e on contac t w i t h a i r j ' D u r d l e s come upon the o l d c h a p , ' i n r e f e r e n c e to a b u r i e d magnate of a n c i e n t t ime and h i g h degree , 'by s t r i k i n g r i g h t i n t o the c o f f i n w i t h h i s . p i c k . The o l d chap gave Durdles a l o o k w i t h h i s open eyes , as much as to say ' I s your name Durdles? . Why, my man, I ' v e been w a i t i n g f o r you a d e v i l of a t i m e ! ' And then he turned to powder . ' 81 He has demonstrated to the w o r l d t h a t , a f t e r a l l the work of b r e a k i n g down the w a l l s , w h a t i s i n s i d e cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t them. The f i n a l i r o n y of what he d i s c o v e r s i s , to paraphrase Durdles h i m s e l f , ' I n s i d e s o l i d , h o l l o w . . ' The h a r l e q u i n - l i k e mask c rea ted by .the j e w e l l e d bands of l i g h t 187 on h i s stony countenance (see page 53) i s a death mask, and when he mentions h i s ' tombat i sm' Dickens shows that he r e c o g n i z e s h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h d e a t h . I t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of M r . D o l l s ' death mask i n Our M u t u a l  F r i e n d , h i s d i s t o r t e d face viewed through the c o l o u r e d g l a s s b o t t l e s . Yet the d i f f e r e n c e between these two d e s c r i p t i o n s u n d e r l i n e s the b a s i c change i n D i c k e n s ' approach to the grotesque i n h i s l a s t n o v e l . For the grotesque h a s , s i n c e e a r l i e s t E g y p t i a n a r t , a l l i e d i t -s e l f w i t h the b e s t i a l , the a n i m a l ; , t h e power of M r . D o l l s comes from the merging of dead f l e s h w i t h the myster ious beauty of inanimate forms . In Q u i l p one was never a l lowed to f o r g e t h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h the f l e s h , h i s movements, h i s e a t i n g . I n the g r a p h i c s of Brueghel and C a l l o t (see i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Chapter I ) even when they, depended on t h e a t r i c a l c o s -tuming and p o p u l a r imagery of imps and demons, the a n i m a l - l i k e , even s e x u a l , i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i g u r e s were always d o m i n a n t , , i n t h e i r r e -semblances to i n s e c t s and r e p t i l e s and i n . t h e i r s i n u o u s , s n a k e - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s . But i h - t h e image of Durdles any t r a c e of the f l e s h has been b u i l t o v e r , o b l i t e r a t e d , and Dickens presents a man made of stone dust w i t h a .mask of j e w e l l e d l i g h t . The grotesque i n t h i s n o v e l i s not the c r e a t i v e u g l i n e s s of u n i t i n g a man i n one image w i t h the forms of o ther animals and. the s t r u c t u r e s of h i s own man-made c u l t u r e , h i s homes, h i s machines , h i s costumesi The man and, the animal have been transformed t o t a l l y i n t o stone g r i t ; the mask of l i g h t decorates not a man but a s t a t u e . 188 FOOTNOTES ^ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , The Mystery of Edwin Drood (New Y o r k : Thomas C r o w e l l , [ n . d . ] ) , Ch . X I , p . 118. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as ED. 2 E D , C h . I l l , p . 17. 3 E D , C h . X I V , p . 161. 4 ED, C h . I , p . 1. 5 E D , Ch . I l l , p . 18. 6 E D , C h . I l l , p . 18. 7 E D , C h . V I , p . 49. 8 E D , C h . X V I I I , p . 204. 9 E D , C h . I l l , p . 18. 1 0 E D , C h . I I , p . 14. Ch . V I , p . 48. 1 2 E D , C h . X , p . 101. 1 3 E D , Ch. V I , p . 48. 1 4 E D , Ch. X I V , p . 162. ' 1 5 E D , C h . I X , p . 99. 1 6 E D , C h . . 1 , p . 5 . . 1 7 E D , C h . V I , p . 47. 1 8 E D , . C h . V I , p . 47. 1 9 E D , Ch. V I , p . 47. 2 0 S e e Chapter I , f o o t n o t e some s m i l e s are l i k e , the r u d d i n e s s of c e r t a i n apples which are owing to a c e n t i p e d e , or o ther c r e e p i n g t h i n g , c o i l e d up at the hear t of them. Only her worm had a face the v e r y image of her 189 own, which looked so s imper ing and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and s i l l y . . . i f she were not made humble her growing would be to a mass of d i s -t o r t e d shapes a l l huddled t o g e t h e r , so t h a t , a l though the body she now showed might grow up s t r a i g h t and w e l l - s h a p e d and comely to b e h o l d , the new body tha t was growing i n s i d e of i t . . . would .be u g l y and crooked. . 2 1 E D , Ch. I , P-. 1. 2 2 E D , Ch. I V , p . 36. 2 3 E D , C h . I V , p . 37. • 2 4 ED> Ch. I V , p . 37. 2 5 E D _ , C h . I X , p . 85 . 2 6 E D , C h . I X , p . 87. 2 7 _ED, C h . I X , p . 82. 2 8 E D , C h . X I , p . 123. 2 9 E D , C h . X I I , p . 128. 3V C h . V , p . 41.-3 1 E D , C h . I X , p . 97. 32 -ED, C h . X I I , p . 134. - E D , C h . X I , p . 120. 3 4 E D , Ch. X I I , p . 133. 3 5 E D , C h . X I , p . 121. 3 6 E D , C h . X I , p . 116. . Ch'. I X , p . 78. 3 8 ^ ED, C h . X X I I , p . 248. 3 9 ^ ED, C h . X I I , p . 133. Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen , "The Snow Queen," F a i r y Ta les (New Y o r k : Grosset and D u n l a p , 1945), p . 114. 41 Andersen , p . 141. 42 ED_, Ch . I , p . 3 . 4 3 A n d e r s e n , p . 112. 4 4 E D , C h . X X I I I , p . 258. 4 5 E D , Ch . X I V , p . 162.. ' 4 6 E D , C h . X X I I I , p . 254. 4 7 E D , C h . I l l , p . 19. 48 ED, C h . X V I I , p . 189. 49 ED, C h . X V I , p . 180. 5 0 E D - , C h . X X I I I , p . 260. 5 1 E D , Ch . X X I I I , p . 261. 5 2 E D , C h . X X I I I , p . 261. , 5 3 E D , C h . I X , .p. 84. 5 4 ED_, . C h . X X I I I , p . 267. 5 5 E D , C h . X I I , p . 137. 5 6 E D , C h . I I , p . 14. 5 7 ED, C h . X I I , p . 137. 5 8 E . T. A . Hoffmann, The - Sandman (New Y o r k : Ungar, 1963) , 59 Hoffmann, p . 11 . ^ H o f f m a n n , p . 15. 6 1 E D , C h . X X I I I , p . 256. 6 2 E D , C h . X X I I I , p.. 270. 6 3 E D , C h . V I I , p . 60. 6 4 E D , Ch . X X I I I , p . 269, 6 5 E D , C h , I , p . 3 . 6 6 E D , C h . I , p . 3 . 6 7 E D , Ch. X V I , p. 1 8 3 . 6V Ch. V I , p. 5 2 . 6 9 E D , Ch. X X I , p. 2 3 4 . 7 ° E D , Ch. I , p. 2 . 7 1 E D , Ch. X X I I I , p. 2 5 7 7 2 E D _ , Ch. I , p. 4 . 7 3 E D , Ch. V , p. 4 2 . 7 4 E D , Ch. V , p. 4 0 . 7 5 E D _ , Ch. V , p. 4 0 . 7 6 E D , Ch. X V I I I , p. 2 0 4 7 7 E D _ , Ch. X X I I I , p. 2 6 9 7 8 E D , Ch. V I I , p. 1 3 8 . 7 9 E D _ , Ch. V , p. 4 3 . 8 0 E D , Ch. I V , p. 3 6 . 8 1 E D 5 ; Ch. I V , p. 3 6 . CONCLUSION The s t a t e d purpose of the t h e s i s was to p l a c e the n o v e l s of Dickens i n a t r a d i t i o n of grotesque popular a r t , and to compare the grotesque images he uses w i t h those of the popular a r t s of t h e . l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . These images and image p a t t e r n s were seen as t o o l s f o r a new approach to a n a l y z i n g some of D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s . The s i g n i f i c a n t technique u n d e r l y i n g most grotesque images i s the double or t r i p l e f a c e , two or more beings u n i t e d w i t h i n one f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . The h i s t o r i c a l images tha t were of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the popular a r t s were the man/beast , the mask, the f i g u r e of the f o o l , the comic b u f f o o n , the face d i s t o r t e d through u g l i n e s s , or c a r i c a t u r e d as an animal or o b j e c t , the g a r g o y l e s , the d e v i l as a spec ies of comic t o r t u r e r , the Dance of D e a t h , and the masked f i g u r e s of the commedia d e l l ' a r t e . Wi th a knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o t e s q u e s , i t became p o s -s i b l e to assess the nature of the grotesque as i t e x i s t e d i n the c a r i -c a t u r e , the pantomime, . the g o t h i c n o v e l s , and c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . The humour of the c a r i c a t u r e s , l i k e that of D i c k e n s , was seen to grow from a d e l i g h t i n u g l i n e s s and a use of the deformed and u g l y as a source of energy and power.. L i k e Dickens the l a t e r c a r i c a t u r i s t s seemed l e s s concerned w i t h comedy of humours or types than w i t h the comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of m a n i p u l a t i n g the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d i n t o new forms . 192 193 T h i s l a t t e r t r a i t was shared by the pantomime, i n the cont inuous t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of form and i d e n t i t y tha t occurred to the c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t i n g s . Dickens absorbed these t r a i t s , and came to depend v e r y s t r o n g l y on the grotesque f i g u r e of the Clown, .who i n the pantomime symbol ized t h i s a n a r c h i c humour. The n u r s e r y rhymes, w i t h t h e i r humor-ous , p e r c e p t u a l response to the m a t e r i a l w o r l d , m a n i p u l a t i n g i t s p h y s i -c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o comic grotesque images or nonsense, are c l e a r l y s p i r i t u a l l y r e l a t e d to the pantomime.. The g o t h i c nove l s e x h i b i t grotesques of a very d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y . The dominant theme i n these novels i s imprisonment , p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r i s -onment w i t h i n a c l o i s t e r , and the e f f e c t on the i m a g i n a t i o n and behaviour of the c h a r a c t e r s so i m p r i s o n e d , These p r i s o n s c o u l d be seen as a p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a c a r e f u l l y , c o n s t r u c t e d , o p p r e s s i v e e n v i r o n -ment, or r i g i d way of t h i n k i n g . W i t h i n these p r i s o n s the c h a r a c t e r s saw themselves t o r t u r e d by . deformed, r e p t i l e - l i k e c r e a t u r e s , or surrounded by c o r p s e s . T h e i r response to other people was e x t r a v a g a n t , i d e a l i z e d ; they became p r e -occupied w i t h the ' image ' of other p e o p l e , to which they o f t e n g r a n t e d , almost h y p n o t i c powers. O c c a s i o n a l l y they were v i s i t e d by d e v i l s , g r o -tesque s u p e r n a t u r a l be ings who o f f e r e d freedom. The d u a l images of the d e v i l i n The Monk, one c o l d , and e x q u i s i t e l y b e a u t i f u l , the other p a s s i o n a t e and b e s t i a l , and the presence of the r e p t i l e tormentors i n the dungeons, suggest that grotesque f i g u r e s , whether they are images of f e a r , or whether they represent thwarted p a s s i o n s , breed n a t u r a l l y i n a c o l d , r i g i d environment i 194 In the f a i r y t a l e s grotesque u g l i n e s s i s used as an image of moral ambivalence and power, and i s a t t r i b u t e d to the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , whether they f u n c t i o n as s p e l l - c a s t e r s ( h y p n o t i z e r s ) or s p e l l -b r e a k e r s . An e q u a l l y potent source of power i n the f a i r y t a l e s are however o b j e c t s , magic t a l i s m a n s by which the owners can o r d e r ' t h e i r u n i v e r s e . . As i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , c o l d , stony o b j e c t s are thus j u x t a -posed w i t h the b e s t i a l g r o t e s q u e s , and t h i s i s a p a t t e r n of imagery that occurs i n a l l of t h e D i c k e n s . n o v e l s that are examined. In The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop D i c k e n s ' a r t i s t i c i m a g i n a t i o n merges grotesque images from a l l these v e r y d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . i n t o one moral u n i v e r s e . The i m a g i n a t i o n that possessed the c h a r a c t e r s i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , t h e i r obsess ive r e a s o n i n g , t h e i r b e l i e f that they are be ing t o r -mented by deformed, b e s t i a l c r e a t u r e s , i s shared by N e l l and by Dickens h i m s e l f i n the persona .o f the n a r r a t o r . Her f e a r s , u n l i k e t h e i r s , grow not from be ing i m p r i s o n e d , but from her t o t a l p a s s i v i t y and l a c k of m a n i p u l a t i v e n e s s . She sees c h a r a c t e r s o ther than h e r s e l f as p o s s e s s i n g a t e r r i f y i n g energy, and consequent ly grants them a h y p n o t i c , almost s p e l l - b i n d i n g power over h e r . Her t o t a l dependency causes her to v i s u a l i z e other people i n extreme or i d e a l i z e d f a s h i o n a n d to see t h e i r human v i c i o u s n e s s or even mora l ambivalence as b e i n g monstrous d e f o r m i t i e s tha t mani fes t themselves, i n h a l l u c i n a t i o n s of a grotesque appearance, such as the g r a n d f a t h e r ' s shadow p e r s o n a l i t y or Q u i l p ' s • d e v i l - l i k e presence . C o n c u r r e n t l y she sees the n a t u r a l w o r l d as a p h y s i c a l r e f l e c t i o n of the obsess ive f e a r s and b l a c k f o r c e s tha t c o n t r o l her m i n d , and i s t e r r i f i e d by any chaos or u g l i n e s s i n her e x t e r n a l 195 environment , which assumes a s u r r e a l i s t i c a l l y grotesque form. I t was i m p l i e d , but hot s t r e s s e d , t h a t N e l l ' s f e a r s and her a l i e n a t i o n from her surroundings are b o u r g e o i s , t h a t t h e y , a r e the s o r t of i m a g i n a t i o n expected i n one v e r y dependent on the r u l e s of a u t h o r i t y and on inanimate ex tens ions i n the form of p r o p e r t y or servants to p r o t e c t her from hav ing to become i n v o l v e d i n any s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s or m a n i p u l a t i v e n e s s . In f a c t N e l l does have descendants i n the g e n t e e l Manette c i r c l e of A T a l e of Two C i t i e s , who r e a c t to t h e i r environment i n a s i m i l a r manner , .but who t r a n s f e r t h e i r f e a r s onto ob j ec t s ' around them, much l i k e the f a i r y - t a l e investment of power : i n magic t a l i s m a n s . As i n the a l l i a n c e s w i t h benevolent grotesques i n the t r a d i t i o n a l t a l e s , the .Manettes are dependent on the m a n i p u l a t i v e n e s s of a grotesque servant who expresses i n her p h y s i c a l l y c a r i c a t u r e d appearance the weaknesses and u g l i n e s s w i t h which the Manettes deny, any c o n n e c t i o n . On the other hand the f i g u r e s whom N e l l views as t e r r i f y i n g tormentors , the ' n a t u r a l ' grotesques, , Q u i l p , the waxworks, the f r e a k s , the carny f o l k , are not n e c e s s a r i l y e v i l . . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e from her l i e s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g . t h e i r envi ronment . through t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h and awareness of i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These charac te rs are dependent f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l on the comic power of the grotesque image, whether they u s e , t h i s to awe o thers or to amuse them-s e l v e s . They may, l i k e Q u i l p , use t h e i r deformed appearance f o r t h i s purpose , o r , l i k e S w i v e l l e r , employ comic v e r b a l f a n t a s i e s . In f a c t t h e i r humour r e v e a l s them to be i n the t r a d i t i o n of the pantomime c l o w n s , and t h e i r s l a p s t i c k b e h a v i o u r . t o each" other r e i n f o r c e s i t . T h e i r 196 g l e e f u l . u g l i n e s s , v i c i o u s n e s s , and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are seen to be a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n to what they, v iew as the bourgeois arrogance of the i d e a l i z e d v i r t u e s honoured by N e l l . The t r a d i t i o n a l image of .the gargoyle e x i s t s i n the s t o r y , r e i n c a r n a t e d i n Q u i l p ' s d e f o r m i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s e n v i r o n -ment. H i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h garbage, h i s i m p l i e d c a n n i b a l i s m , the images of. o b j e c t s and animals that Dickens uses to d e s c r i b e h i m , s u g -gest that h i s d e f o r m i t y i s not a s i g n of d e p r i v a t i o n as much as a symbol of h i s s e n s u a l g r e e d i n e s s , of h i s absorb ing the s e n s u a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the v i t a l , . u g l y c i t y of London, and r e f l e c t i n g them i n h i s deformed appearance. He becomes a g a r g o y l e , embodying the s p i r i t of the c i t y . T h i s r o l e of the grotesque image i s r e i n f o r c e d by a contem-porary of D i c k e n s , Hugo, i n Notre Dame de P a r i s , where Quasimodo, p e r -forms a s i m i l a r r o l e f o r the c a t h e d r a l . N e l l ' s tendency to dehumanize p e o p l e , .to see them a s p a r t of the environment , i s i r o n i c a l l y countered by a c o l l e c t i o n of puppet or robot f i g u r e s , who f u n c t i o n as mimic f o o l s parodying the inhuman, or mechanica l q u a l i t i e s of the people around them. Out of t h i s t i e i n the n o v e l , between people who resemble t h e i r environment and an environment which assumes human powers (as i n N e l l ' s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s ) , grows a p a t t e r n of grotesque imagery tha t has l i n k s w i t h s e v e r a l t r a d i t i o n a l images, a dance of the t o y s , i n which a l l the grotesques and those who a l l y w i t h them resemble toys come to l i f e and dancing around N e l l . In s p i r i t they are l i k e the mediaeva l comic d e v i l s . T h i s dance of the toys i s a f a i r l y common n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y 197 image, but N e l l , u n l i k e the c h i l d or h e r o i n e i n other r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of i t , r e f u s e s to make f r i e n d s w i t h the monsters , and sees them as t o r -t u r i n g her to i n s a n i t y . Her- death hence seems a d i r e c t outcome of the dance; thus the image of the Dance of Death becomes' one v i s i o n of the n o v e l . In Our M u t u a l F r i e n d the a n a r c h i c , comic grotesque . t o r t u r e r s have moved i n t o ascendency. Ins tead of s p e c i a l l y des ignated c l o w n -f i g u r e s or mimic f o o l s , as i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l , i n the u n i v e r s e that Dickens has c r e a t e d here most of the c h a r a c t e r s p l a y at some p o i n t ,the mimic f o o l of someone e l s e , parodying or adopt ing t h e i r costumesj gestures or s o c i a l r o l e s . W i t h i n the w e l t e r of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r , one d i s t i n c t image stands o u t , that of the maimed c h i l d . The w o r l d of Our M u t u a l F r i e n d seems to be tha t of a w o r l d seen through the eyes of a c r i p p l e d c h i l d , c r u e l and u g l y , but t h i s c r u e l t y envisoned i n images from c h i l d -r e n ' s a r t . There i s i n t h i s the sugges t ion of beauty growing out of e v i l and u g l y c r e a t i o n s . The s p i r i t of the n o v e l i s maimed Jenny Wren, the d o l l ' s dressmaker. L i k e Marchioness and the Smallweeds,. she u n i t e s w i t h i n one image t h e . c h i l d , the a n t i - b o u r g e o i s or c r i m i n a l , the maimed, and the i m a g i n a t i v e , and her d e f o r m i t y , i t s twis tedness and deviance from u s u a l appearances, f u n c t i o n s , a s a s i g n of her i m a g i n a t i v e f reedom' as much as a symbol of her. v i c t i m i z e d s o c i a l r o l e . Yet at the same time the. n o v e l c o n t a i n s a group of c h a r a c t e r s , the B o f f i n - B e l l a - P a c i r c l e , w h o , . l i k e the e a r l i e r M a n e t t e s , choose to r e t a i n t h e i r innocence by r e j e c t i n g any a l l i a n c e w i t h the r e a l v i c i o u s n e s s 198 of t h e i r environment . They do so by v i s u a l i z i n g themselves and t h e i r l i f e i n images r e m i n i s c e n t of :the w h i m s i c a l c h i l d r e n ' s a r t of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e i r w o r l d i s p a r o d i e d by Jenny. There are i m p l i c a t i o n s tha t the d o l l s she makes are voodoo f i g u r e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the death of the one r e a l c h i l d i n t h e , s t o r y , L i t t l e Johnny. But though she i s the symbol of a n t i - i n n o c e n c e , i t i s she whom Dickens i n v e s t s w i t h the n o v e l s t r o n g e s t images of s e n s u a l b e a u t y , i n her h a i r , her dreams, and her cour t d o l l s . (Yet i n her own attachment to such beauty she becomes a costumed f o o l - f i g u r e , an i m i t a t i o n of the innocence she a t t a c k s . ) M r . . D o l l s , her drunken f a t h e r , and Wegg, the v i c i o u s wooden-legged 'German wooden t o y , ' c a r r y ori J e n n y ' s mockery of c h i l d h o o d i n n o -cence and.her. p a r o d y . o f those g e n t e e l a d u l t s who seek to a s s o c i a t e them s e l v e s w i t h i t . The s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l i m i t a t e s the g r o t e s q u e . s t r u c t u r e of . these c h a r a c t e r s , c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g the b e s t i a l i t y of the r i v e r scenes w i t h e x h i b i t i o n s of g l i t t e r i n g c a r n i v a l - l i k e o b j e c t s ; d o l l s , j e w e l s , r i c h f a b r i c s . . The two are meshed i n the p o w e r f u l mask image of M r . • D o l l s ' dead f l e s h seen through the b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r e d b o t t l e s . . The dance of the toys i n t h i s n o v e l i s t ransformed i n t o the movements of c r i p p l e s and wooden l e g s , a parody of animated toys tha t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t t a c k s both innocence and the s t i l t e d dance movements of the weal thy s o c i e t y - c i r c l e . The t o y s / c r i p p l e s i n t h i s n o v e l are d i r e c t descendants of the m u t i l a t e d c h i l d r e n and puppets i n the c h i l -d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e , whose u g l i n e s s • t u r n e d back on t h e i r oppressors and 199 taunted them w i t h i t s v i t a l i t y . The f i n a l image p a t t e r n w i t h i n t h i s grotesque thread i s the use of the c h i l d r e n ' s t a l e of Red R i d i n g Hood as an a p p a r e n t l y i l l o g i -c a l c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s of the t h i e v e s , money l e n d e r s , and corpses who dominate the n o v e l . . Both i n the beauty of t h i s image p a t t e r n and i n the beauty of Jenny Wren h e r s e l f , Dickens seems to be making a s t r o n g a s s e r t i o n of h i s attachment to and b e l i e f i n the beauty of a n a r c h i c , b e s t i a l f o r c e s . In The Mystery of Edwin Drood Dickens withdraws power from the s p i r i t s of anarchy , and r e i n v e s t s i t i n a c o l l e c t i o n of g e n t e e l f i g u r e s r e m i n i s c e n t of the Manet tes . However s i n c e these, c h a r a c t e r s are i n c o n t r o l . o f t h e i r s o c i e t y , o b j e c t s l i k e those onto which the Manettes. p r o j e c t e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s have become much more p o w e r f u l , have i n f a c t taken over and dominated t h e i r community, and become the s o c i a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s by which the members of the community d e f i n e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . The dominant ob jec t to p l a y t h i s r o l e i s the c a t h e d r a l , but i t s square , stony, c h a r a c t e r has extended to the whole c i t y ; a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s l i v e i n s t o n y , c e l l - l i k e ex tens ions o f . i t . ' L i k e w i s e i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are repeated i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n t h e i r c o l d , hard e x t e r i o r s . Thus M r s . C r i s p a r k l e i s l i k e n e d to a Dresden c h i n a d o l l , her son i s compared to c r y s t a l , M r . Grewgious i s s a i d . t o be.made of wood, Jasper i s g i v e n the name and q u a l i t i e s of a c o l d b e a u t i f u l gem, and Durdles the tombstone maker i s covered w i t h stony g r i t . The c i t y seems s p e l l - b o u n d and made s t a t u e - l i k e by the c a t h e d r a l . 200 T h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , the Old 'Uns b u r i e d i n the w a l l s , and t h e i r most t r e a s u r e d o b j e c t s , the jam j a r s and s p i c e boxes , repeat t h i s p a t t e r n . The a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c i t y reminds one of the p r i s o n a r c h i -t e c t u r e of P i r a n e s i and the g o t h i c n o v e l i s t s . As i n the g o t h i c n o v e l s , the r i g i d i t y of the c i t y breeds a n a r c h i c , grotesque c h a r a c t e r s , Deputy, the Opium Woman, D u r d l e s , who s p r i n g i n t o be ing as a d i r e c t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t i t s co ldness and g r a c i o u s n e s s . Yet i n D e p u t y ' s d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s , the Opium Woman's n a t u r a l i s t i c u g l y r e a l i t y , and D u r d l e s ' f r e e i n g of the c o r p s e s , . t h e y f u n c t i o n as s p e l l ^ b r e a k e r s . However the images used to d e s c r i b e Deputy and the Opium Woman, u n l i k e the r i c h , . d i v e r s e imagery used to c h a r a c t e r i z e e a r l i e r a n a r c h i c . , f i g u r e s ( Q u i l p , f o r i n s t a n c e , who c o u l d be seen as absorb ing much of h i s environment i n t o h i s appearance)., p l a c e them i n a l l i a n c e w i t h the . g e n t i l i t y ; when they are w i t h i n the bounds of C l o i s t e r h a m , t h e i r e n v i r o n -ment draws them i n t o the g e n e r a l s tony s p e l l , c a l l s the Opium Woman a church g a r g o y l e , and Deputy tha t t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i a e v a l , f i g u r e of Demon.or Imp. U n l i k e the other c h a r a c t e r s who choose t o be h y p n o t i z e d by the s p e l l , . J a s p e r ' s response to h i s surroundings i s l i k e tha t of the u n w i l -l i n g l y c l o i s t e r e d . . L i k e them h i s trapped s t a t e seems p a r t i a l l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l one, a r e s u l t of i n e r t i a or a d i v i d e d mind . The h e a l t h y pass ions and dreams tha t are denied him p a r t l y t a k e shape o u t s i d e h i m -s e l f i n the form of compl ica ted i r r a t i o n a l humans l i k e Deputy. He speaks of c u t t i n g demons out of .h i s hear t and sees i n Deputy a l i v i n g 201 m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e s e . However, f o r the most p a r t , the powers of the c a t h e d r a l are so s t r o n g tha t the c h a r a c t e r s i n s t e a d sub l imate t h e i r d e s i r e s i n t o an i m a g i n a t i v e r e n d e r i n g of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . C r i s p a r k l e t ransforms h i s p a s s i o n a t e manhood i n t o an adventurous b o y ' s b o i s t e r o u s n e s s . Jasper a b s t r a c t s the r i g i d monotonous q u a l i t i e s of h i s environment and renders them i n t o a b e a u t i f u l , r i t u a l i n which h i s . s i n g i n g , , h i s opium v i s i o n s and the murder of Edwin f i g u r e . The murder becomes, a psycho-p a t h ' s r i t u a l murder, a necessary p r e l i m i n a r y so tha t Jasper may enjoy h i s opium v i s i o n s of an A r a b i a n . N i g h t s u n i v e r s e . As does Jenny i n Our M u t u a l F r i e n d , Durdles i n t h i s n o v e l p l a y s the r o l e of l i c e n s e d , costumed f o o l . He i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the e s t a b -l i s h e d powers through h i s appearance and h i s t o m b s t o n e - b u i l d i n g , and a l l i e d w i t h the clowns or a n a r c h i s t s i n h i s b r e a k i n g down of the c a t h e d r a l w a l l s to r e l e a s e . t h e Old ' U n s , .and i n h i s a c t u a l r a t h e r than m e t a p h o r i c a l stone costume, which, becomes a mimicry of the e s t a b l i s h e d , powers. He p r o v i d e s the f o o l ' s w i s e comment on h i s s o c i e t y , s i n c e he proves tha t the people he r e l e a s e s from the w a l l s cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t them. I t may seem that , i n the course of the t h e s i s , the emphasis changed from an a n a l y s i s of s imple grotesque images and image p a t t e r n s e x p e r -ienced i n . t h e popular a r t s to an a n a l y s i s i n which the grotesque was r e l e v a n t o n l y inasmuch as i t served the theme of the n o v e l s . Yet no change of i n t e n t i o n was i n v o l v e d . The a n a l y s i s of h i s t o r i c a l images, and of image p a t t e r n s used i n the contemporary f o l k c u l t u r e , was a 202 necessary b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s of The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop, Our  Mutua l F r i e n d , and The Mystery of Edwin Drood, s i n c e the f i r s t . t e c h n i c a l step i n approaching a l l of these novels was a search f o r f a m i l i a r images and p a t t e r n s . As can be seen , each n o v e l has a v e r y i n d i v i d u a l framework w i t h i n which these grotesques f u n c t i o n . In The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop i t i s the c o n t r a s t between N e l l ' s and Q u i l p ' s i m a g i n a t i o n s , i n Our M u t u a l  F r i e n d , the a t t a c k s of the a n a r c h i s t s on the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i n n o -cence. In Edwin Drood these innocents rega in .ascendency by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own s p e l l - b o u n d c i t y . Y e t i n a l l these n o v e l s the grotesque images seem to mean e s s e n t i a l l y the same t h i n g s , to ac t as r e v e l a t i o n s or v i s u a l i z a t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s to t h e i r environment and to t h e i r o w n . c a p a c i t y f o r a c c e p t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g i t . A s i d e however from t h i s e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of the grotesque i n D i c k e n s ' n o v e l s , two grotesque image p a t t e r n s s tand o u t , bo th i n D i c k e n s ' nove l s and i n the contemporary f o l k a r t s . The c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e used the grotesque as a weapon of punishment, but the g r o t e s q u e l y maimed o r . c r u d e f i g u r e s remained to taunt the c o n f o r m i t y of t h e i r oppressors w i t h the u g l i n e s s of t h e i r punishment. L i k e w i s e , i n each of the Dickens nove ls , the p a r t i c u l a r shape which the grotesque t o r t u r e r s assume i s a d i s t o r t i o n of the m a t e r i a l images that represent the most v a l u e d b e l i e f s espoused by Dickens and h i s non-grotesque c h a r a c t e r s i n that n o v e l . Thus i n The  Old C u r i o s i t y Shop, both the n a r r a t o r and many of the c h a r a c t e r s , N e l l . , the s i n g l e gent leman, the v i l l a g e p e o p l e , the g r a n d f a t h e r , show an 203 u n n a t u r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h image, w i t h p h y s i c a l appearance as e x p r e s -s i v e of m o r a l c h a r a c t e r . Consequently one of the most r e c u r r e n t forms of grotesque t o r t u r e i n the n o v e l i s the f a c e , the o b j e c t most r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r one ' s image. Thus N e l l imagines faces mocking her from the chimneys, Q u i l p c o n t i n u a l l y uses, . h i s e s s e n t i a l l y undeformed face as an ins t rument of grotesque t o r t u r e , and much i s made of the g h a s t l y s m i l e s , g r i n s , . o r c o r p s e - l i k e s t a r e s of the robot f i g u r e s . In Our M u t u a l F r i e n d the u l t i m a t e good tha t B e l l a , P a , t h e , B o f f i n s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y Jenny, can e n v i s i o n i s the w o r l d r e c r e a t e d i n images from c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . In that n o v e l , toys and images from "such a r t become the grotesque i n s t r u -ments of t o r t u r e . In The Mystery, of Edwin,Drood, f o r most of the c h a r a c -t e r s , beauty and goodness, l i e i n the c a t h e d r a l and i n r e c r e a t i n g them-s e l v e s i n i t s image. And so the grotesque t o r t u r e r s take the form of the t r a d i t i o n a l accoutrements of a g o t h i c c a t h e d r a l , the gargoyles and the demons t carved i n pews. However because Dickens i n . t h i s n o v e l r e c o g -n i z e s h i s own p e r s o n a l d u a l i t y and h i s own ambivalence to the way of l i f e of the C l o i s t e r h a m g e n t i l i t y , the grotesque t o r t u r e r s are a s c r i b e d w i t h t h e i r s tony c h a r a c t e r by the people i n power. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s seems to d i m i n i s h the g r o t e s q u e s ' a r t i s t i c potency , and i t i s the semi-grotesque c h a r a c t e r of the cancerous c a t h e d r a l s t r u c t u r e s themselves which are the r e a l ins t ruments of t o r t u r e i n the n o v e l . In r e c o g n i z i n g the tendency f o r the grotesques to take a p h y s i -c a l shape t h a t . i s a n . i r o n i c d i s t o r t i o n of the images most v a l u e d by t h e i r s o c i e t y , i t should be remembered tha t the grotesque was seen as a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t p e r f e c t i o n , or as growing out of an attempt 204 to achieve p e r f e c t i o n of f o r m . T h i s was obvious i n The Mystery of  Edwin Drood", i n which i t s grotesque images are a response to the g r a -c i o u s co ldness of the c a t h e d r a l and to J a s p e r ' s attempts to f a s h i o n h i s l i f e i n t o a b e a u t i f u l r i t u a l . The a s s o c i a t i o n of b e s t i a l grotesque images, w i t h j e w e l s and j e w e l - l i k e o b j e c t s i s a p a t t e r n of imagery tha t g i v e s p h y s i c a l f o r m . t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s m o t i f was seen i n Hans C h r i s t i a n A n d e r s e n ' s "Snow Queen" and "The T r a v e l l i n g Companion," i n L e w i s ' The Monk w i t h the e x q u i s i t e b e j e w e l l e d f a l l e n angel and the s n a k e - h a i r e d L u c i f e r , and i n F e l l i n i ' s remarks on the response of the Auguste clowns to the spangles of the ' w h i t e ' c lowns . In Our M u t u a l  F r i e n d and, of c o u r s e , i n The Mystery of Edwin Drood Dickens employed a s i m i l a r j u x t a p o s i n g of j e w e l - l i k e images and savage, flesh—bound gro tesques . BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 206 BIBLIOGRAPHY A . THE POPULAR ARTS A n t a l , F r e d e r i c k . F u s e l i S t u d i e s . London: Routledge and P a u l , . 1956. A r a b i a n N i g h t s . C o l l e c t e d and e d i t e d by Andrew Lang . London and New Y o r k : Longmans' , Green and C o . , 1951. A v e r y , G i l l i a n . N i n e t e e n t h Century C h i l d r e n . 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Three C e n t u r i e s of C h i l d r e n s ' Books i n Europe , t r a n s l a t e d by B r i a n A l d e r s o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. H u x l e y , A l d o u s . P r i s o n s : w i t h ' the 1.Car e'er i 1 ' e t c h i n g s by G. B . P i r a n e s i . London: T r i a n o n P r e s s , 1949. J e r r o l d , Douglas . " B l a c k E y ' d Susan" i n N i n e t e e n t h Century P l a y s . World S e r i e s . " London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953 ( f i r s t performed 1 8 2 9 ) . . Jung , C a r l G. The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e U n c o n s c i o u s . Volume I of the C o l l e c t e d Works. B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s X . P r i n c e t o n : . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. K a y s e r , Wolfgang. The Grotesque i n A r t and L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s l a t e d from German, by U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n . New York and T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1966. K l i n g e n d e r , F r a n c i s D o n a l d . Hogarth and E n g l i s h C a r i c a t u r e . Repro-duced from A . I . A . e x h i b i t i o n , 1944. London and New Y o r k : T r a n s -a t l a n t i c A r t s L t d . , 1944. L a r k i n , O l i v e r W. Daumier, Man of h i s Time. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1966. 208 L e a , K a t h l e e n . I t a l i a n P o p u l a r Comedy: a.: s tudy i n . the commedia d e l l ' a r t e 1560-1620, w i t h s p e c i a l " r e f e r e n c e to t h e ^ E n g l i s h Stage . O x f o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1934" " L e a r , Edward. Edward L e a r ' s Nonsense Omnibus. London and New Y o r k : ' F r e d e r i c k Warne and C o . , 1943. L e w i s , Matthew Gregory . The Monk. New Y o r k , London: Grove P r e s s , I n c . , 1952. _ McLean, R u a r i . C r u i k s h a n k , H i s L i f e and Times as a Book I l l u s t r a t o r . London: A r t . a n d T e c h n i c s , 1948. M a t u r i n , C h a r l e s R o b e r t . Melmoth the Wanderer. 3 v o l s . London: R. B e n t l e y and Sons, 1892—new e d i t i o n from o r i g i n a l t e x t . . Mayer , D a v i d . H a r l e q u i n i n H i s Element. Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. N i c o l l , A l l a r d y c e . The World of H a r l e q u i n ; A C r i t i c a l Study of the  Commedia d e l l ' a r t e . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. . Masks , Mimes and M i r a c l e s . New Y o r k : Cooper Square Pub-l i s h e r s , . I n c . , 1963 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1931). N i k l a u s , Thelma. H a r l e q u i n P h o e n i x . London: John L a n e , The Bodley H e a d , " I n c . , 1956. P i r a n e s i , G i o v a n n i . B a t t i s t a . P i r a n e s i , e x h i b i t i o n . Northampton, M a s s . : Smith C o l l e g e , Museum of A r t , 1961. P r a z , M a r i o . The Hero i n E c l i p s e , t r a n s l a t e d by Angus D a v i d s o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. R a d c l i f f e , Ann . The M y s t e r i e s of Udolpho. London and T o r o n t o : J . M . Dent and Sons; New Y o r k : E . P . D a l t o n , 1931. R o w e l l , George. The V i c t o r i a n T h e a t r e . London and New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956.. S h e l l e y , Mary Godwin. F r a n k e n s t e i n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. S h i k e s , R a l p h . The Indignant E y e : The A r t i s t as S o c i a l C r i t i c i n P r i n t s and Drawings from the F i f t e e n t h Century to P i c a s s o . B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1969. Spie lmann, M . H . The H i s t o r y of ' P u n c h . ' New Y o r k : Greenwood P r e s s , 1969. 209 Summers, Montague. The Gothic Quest. New York: Russell, 1964 ( f i r s t published in 1938). Varma, Devendra P. The Gothic Flame: being a history of the Gothic  novel in England: , i t s origins;" efflorescense, disintegration and  residuary influences. London:. Barker, .1957. Veth, Cornells. Comic Art•in. England. London: Goldston, 1930.-Walpole, Horace. The; Castle of Otranto... New York: Stokes, [n.d. ] . Welsfofd, -Enid. The Fool, His Social and. Literary History. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith,,1966 ( f i r s t published by Faber and Faber, Ltd., 1935). Wilson, A. E. Christmas Pantomime.: London: George Allen and Unwin, 1934. Wright,.Thomas. History of Caricature and the Grotesque. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1968 (reprint of 1865 publica-tion) . 1. Children's Literature Andersen, Hans Christian. Fairy Tales. Illustrated by Arthur Szyk. New York: Grosset and Dunlap,;1945. The Annotated Mother Goose, edited by Wm. and Cecil Baring-Gould. Illustrated by Caldecott, Crane, Greenaway, Rackham, Parrish, and historical woodcuts. New York: Clarkspn, N. Potter Inc.,.1962. Caldecott, Ralph. Picture. Books.. "London: Warne, [n.d.]. Carroll, Lewis. The Annotated Alice. Illustrated by John Tenniel. Introduction and Notes by Martin Gardner. Norwich: Penguin Books, Fletcher and Son,,Ltd.., 1965. Cervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote, retold by Judge Parry. Illustrations by Walter Crane. Altrincham: John Sherrat and Son, [n.d.].* Charlesworth, Maris Louisa. Ministering Children, a tale. New York: Robert Carter and Brothers (American edition of English book, 1854-1862.* Nineteenth century editions of .these books are found in the Marion Thompson collection, Vancouver Public Library. 210 C o l l o d i , C a r l o . P i n o c c h i o . . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , . 1963. Day, Thomas. The H i s t o r y of Sandford and M e r t o n , mora l and i n s t r u c t i v e enter ta inment f o r young p e o p l e . London: Ward, L o c k , and C o . , 1 7 8 3 / Grahame, Kenneth . Wind i n the W i l l o w s . I l l u s t r a t e d by E . H . Shepherd. London: Methuen, 1931 ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d 1908). Greenaway, K a t e . Under the window. P i c t u r e s and Rhymes f o r C h i l d r e n . London and New Y o r k : George Routledge and sons., 1878.* Grimm, Jakob Ludwig K a r l and Wi lhe lm K a r l Grimm. German.Popular S t o r i e s , t r a n s l a t e d from. K i n d e r Und Haus ••Marchen.I 2 " v o l s . I l l u s t r a t i o n s by C r u i k s h a n k . . London: J . R o b i n s , B r i d e C o u r t , 1834 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1823) . * H a r r i s ' s Cabinet 1-4: i n c l u d i n g the B u t t e r f l y ' s B a l l by W i l l i a m Roscoe, r e p r i n t e d from e d i t i o n of 1807-1808. London: G r i f f i t h and F a r r a n , 1883.* Hoffmann, H e i n r i c h . S t ruwwelpeter . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l L t d . , [ n . d . ] . MacDonald, George. The L o s t P r i n c e s s . London: . Dent and Sons, 1965. O p i e , A m e l i a . Ta les of the Pembefton family . : , f o r the use of c h i l d r e n . Second e d i t i o n . London: Harvey and D a r t o n , 1826.* P o t t e r , ' B e a t r i x . T a l e of P e t e r R a b b i t . London: Warne, [ n . d . ] . , . T a l e of Benjamin Bunny. London: Warne, 1904. Sherwood, Mary M a r t h a . The F a i r c h i l d Family , , or the c h i l d ' s manual . . Being a c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s c a l c u l a t e d to show the importance and e f f e c t s of a r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n . London: J . Hatchard and Son, 1818-1842.* 7* N i n e t e e n t h century e d i t i o n s of these books are found i n the M a r i o n Thompson c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . 211 B . DICKENS 1. Pr imary Sources D i c k e n s , C h a r l e s . Sketches by Boz . The New Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d D i c k e n s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. . P i c k w i c k P a p e r s . Great I l l u s t r a t e d C l a s s i c s . New Y o r k : Dodd, Mead and .Co . , . ' 1944 . . N i c h o l a s N i c k l e b y . The New Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d Dickens, . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950. . The O l d C u r i o s i t y Shop. The New Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d D i c k e n s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. . B leak House.. The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f -l i n Company, 1956. . Hard Times. London: Bradbury and Evans , 1854-. "Frauds on F a i r i e s , " Household Words (Oct . 1 , 1853) . . L i t t l e D o r r i t . The New Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d D i c k e n s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. . A Ta le of Two C i t i e s . The Oxford I n d i a Paper D i c k e n s . C o p y r i g h t E d i t i o n , V o l ; I . London: Chapman and H a l l , [ n . d . ] - . . Great E x p e c t a t i o n s . The New Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d D i c k e n s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. . Our M u t u a l F r i e n d . The Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d D i c k e n s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. . The Mystery of Edwin Drood. New Y o r k : Thomas Y . C r o w e l l Company, [n.d.-] . 2 . S e l e c t e d C r i t i c a l and B i o g r a p h i c a l Works, and P e r i o d i c a l C r i t i c i s m A y l m e r , F e l i x . The Drood Case. New Y o r k : Barnes and N o b l e , 1965. Cockshut , A . 0 . J . The Imaginat ion of C h a r l e s D i c k e n s . New Y o r k : New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. 212 Cohen, Jane R. " D i c k e n s ' A r t i s t s a n d " A r t i s t r y i n - T h e Mystery of Edwin  D r o o d , " D i c k e n s S t u d i e s , I I I (1967) , 126-145 . Cox, A r t h u r J . " ' I f I h i d e my w a t c h — , ' " Dickens S t u d i e s , I I I ( 1967) , 22 -37 . The Dickens C r i t i c s , e d i t e d by George H . Ford and L a u r i a t L a n e , J r . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. 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' "The Method of A Ta le of Two C i t i e s , " D i c k e n s i a n , L V I I (1961) , 183-189'. 213 Miller, J. H i l l i s . Charles Dickens.: The World of His Novels. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965. Mitchell, Charles. "The Mystery of Edwin Drood, The Exterior and In-terior of the Self," English Literary History, XXXIII, 228-246. Muir, Kenneth. "Image and Structure in Our Mutual Friend," Essays and  Studies by Members of the English Association, XIX (1966), 92-105. Pearson, Gabriel. "The Old Curiosity Shop" Dickens and the Twentieth  Century, edited by John Gross and Gabriel Pearson. . Toronto: Uni-versity of Toronto Press, 1962. Smith, Sheila M. "Anti-Mechanism and the Comic in the Writings of Charles Dickens," Renaissance.and Modern Studies, III (1959), 133-144. Spilka, Mark. Dickens and Kafka. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Pren-tice-Hall, 1963. Steig, Michael. "The Central Action of Old Curiosity Shop, or L i t t l e Nell Revisited Again," Literature and Psychology, XV (1965), 163-170. . "The Grotesque and the Aesthetic Response in Shakespeare, Dickens and Gunter Grass,".Comparative Literature Studies (June 1969) . " Stoehr, Taylor. Dickens, The. Dreamers' Stance. Ithaca: Cornell Uni-versity Press,- 1965. Stone, H. "Dark Corners of the Mind: Dickens' Childhood Reading," Horn Book Magazine, XXXIX (1963), 306-321. . "Fire, Hand and Gate: Dickens' Great Expectations," Kenyon Review, XXIV (1962), 662-691. . "The Novel as Fairy Tale: Dickens' Dombey and Son," English Studies, XLVII (1966), 1-27. Thompson, Leslie. "The Masks of Pride in Our Mutual Friend," Dicken- sian, LX (1964), 124-128. Van Ghent, Dorothy. The English Novel.: Form and Function. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston,,1953. Wilson, Angus. "Dickens on Children and Childhood," Dickens 1970: centenary essays, edited by Michael Slater. New York: Stein and Day, 1970. 214 Wilson, Angus. 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