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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Walton tradition in the nineteenth century Broomhall, Peter Hudson 1972

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THE WALTON;TRADITION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY by PETER HUDSON BROOMHALL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1972 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of t h i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes i s f o r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be al lowed without my writ ten permiss ion. Department of ENGLISH The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A b s t r a c t The co-purposes of t h i s t h e s i s are to demonstrate why angling l i t e r a t u r e q u a l i f i e s as a subject worthy of serious study, and to explore the nature of the t r a d i t i o n of a n g l i n g l i t e r a t u r e of the nineteenth century. Although the focus i s on nineteenth century works, many e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s have been discussed. Of the pre-1800 authors discussed, the most important i s Izaak Walton—The Father of Anglers. I t i s b e l i e v e d that the t h e s i s demonstrates that Walton g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d h i s f o l l o w e r s . To i d e n t i f y "The Walton T r a d i t i o n i n the Nineteenth Century," and to t r a c e Walton's impact on nineteenth century w r i t e r s on a n g l i n g , extensive reading was r e q u i r e d . Of 150-odd books on a n g l i n g examined, more than 100 belong to the nineteenth century. More than one-half of them have been l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . The t i t l e s were gleaned from an g l i n g w r i t e r s themselves, from those who wrote about an g l i n g w r i t e r s , and from b i b l i o g r a p h i e s on angling works. Scarce as i t i s , most of the important c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on the subject has a l s o been l i s t e d i n a b i b l i o g r a p h y . As the research progressed, i t became q u i c k l y apparent that a n g l i n g l i t e r a t u r e could be sub-divided i n t o , s e v e r a l broad c a t e g o r i e s . These d i v i s i o n s are r e f l e c t e d i n the chapter headings which f o l l o w . I t a l s o became apparent t h a t , at bottom, most of the major a u t h o r s — a n d many of the.minor w r i t e r s — c o n s c i o u s l y or 11 unconsciously shared remarkably s i m i l a r attitudes toward the pursuit of angling. It became evident, for example, that the writers view angling i t s e l f as both an art and a virtuous pastime; that they rate personal experience with, and commitment to, angling as being more important than o r i g i n a l i t y of expression about angling; that they concern themselves with both the facts and the philosophy of angling; that they believe the complete angler must be both active and contemplative; that they respect nature; and that they recognize how angling can help man to be re-created. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER II "The Ramhles" 23 CHAPTER III "The Handbooks" 43 CHAPTER IV "The Sketches and Songs" 69 CHAPTER V ' "The Principals" 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . 158 APPENDIX 1 169 APPENDIX 2 170 Introduction There are two primary reasons why serious studies of angling l i t e r a t u r e should never be undertaken by the e a s i l y discouraged. F i r s t l y , the subject's mass of material i s overwhelming."'" Secondly, c r i t i c a l material on the subject i s almost non-existent. Nevertheless the f i e l d should not be ignored. Nor should a l l angling l i t e r a t u r e be dismissed as a r t l e s s ; that would be as f o o l i s h as dismissing a l l novels simply because most of them are le s s than a r t f u l . The determined inves t i g a t o r w i l l gradually discover that there i s indeed merit i n h i s study, that there i s indeed much of value to be gleaned from angling works. This study focuses on s i x t y B r i t i s h angling books of the nineteenth century. In addition to giving a representative idea of the century's angling l i t e r a t u r e , these s i x t y works also demonstrate the very considerable impact of Izaak Walton's The Compleat Angler. Even i f some of the f o r t y writers ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y , more than h a l f of them are l i s t e d i n the Dictionary of National  Biography) are not d i r e c t l y indebted to Walton, they express ideas and emotions that were f i r s t , or best, a r t i c u l a t e d by gentle IzaaK. For t h i s reason alone, i t seemed appropriate to t i t l e t h i s study "The Walton T r a d i t i o n i n the Nineteenth Century." 2 The organization plan of this study i s s t r a i g h t -forward. The s i x t y works have been separated into four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s — " R a m b l e s , " "Handbooks," "Sketches and Songs," and " P r i n c i p a l s . " An explanation f o r including the various works under each p a r t i c u l a r heading occurs at the commencement of each chapter. The works of the f i r s t two chapters are examined chronologically. Because such an approach would have rendered the l a s t two chapters p a r t i c u l a r l y confusing, a modified chronological plan was followed i n those two chapters. The modifications are explained at the beginning of each of the two chapters. For any of the determined who might wish to pursue the topic further, several addenda to this study might prove h e l p f u l . In addition to the primary- and secondary-source alphabetical biblipgraphies are a chronological bibliography and two appendices. The chronological bibliography l i s t s works according to t h e i r f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n date. One of the appendices provides bi o g r a p h i c a l information; the other l i s t s the pseudonyms used by various of the writers discussed. To understand better the "Walton t r a d i t i o n " and the angling books of the nineteenth century, i t i s h e l p f u l to go back i n t o the h i s t o r y of English language sporting books. That h i s t o r y begins with Edward Duke of York's Master of Game (C. 1406), i t s e l f l a r g e l y a t r a n s l a t i o n of Count Gaston de Foix's L i v r e de  Chasse. The h i s t o r y of English language angling books begins with 3 the Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle, which survives i n two basic versions, each of which was apparently transcribed from a now-lost o r i g i n a l . The older version survives i n a si n g l e 3 manuscript copied i n about 1450, and the second was pri n t e d i n 1496 by Wynkyn de Word as a supplement to the second Book of St. Albans. Custom, not ce r t a i n t y , credits the Treatise to a 4 legendary nun, Dame Ju l i a n a Berners. Dame Julian a leaned heavily on the past. S t r u c t u r a l l y , her three-part Treatise echoes Mas t egf o i a Gamea4as ?, n i n d e e d, d i d The Compleat Angler). The prologue emphasizes the merits of angling; the i n s t r u c t i o n explains where, when, and how to f i s h , and the epilogue commends the book to the public and re-emphasizes the prologue. Dame Ju l i a n a also followed a Middle Ages' t r a d i t i o n that c a l l e d -for writings to have both moral and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Dame J u l i a n a i s the f i r s t to write on the v i r t u e s , pleasures, and ethic s of angling. Angling gives man "health of the s o u l , " which causes him to be both holy and " r i c h . . . i n goodness." Furthermore, angling not only led to a f u l l l i f e and merry s p i r i t s , but required no repentance afterwards. And, while f i s h i n g , the angler benefited from viewing the beauty and harmony of nature.^ As to e h t i c s , Dame J u l i a n a sa i d : anglers should only f i s h a poor man's private water with both h i s permission and his good w i l l ; anglers should not break a man's f i s h traps or hedges; anglers should shut gates behind them, anglers should not f i s h f o r material gain; and anglers should "conserve the f i s h i n the water." 7 4 The next important angling work i s the anonymous Arte of Angling, published i n 1577 and rediscovered i n London i n 1954 by Carl Otto von Kienbusch. With the rediscovery of the Arte came a r e v i v a l of the question of plagiarism which had also occucced i n the early attention given to Walton's Compleat Angler. Whether Walton can be condemned as a plagiary i s moot. I t must be remembered that i n those less sensitive times, borrowing and pir a t i n g were popular sports i n themselves, and that, at best, Walton was but a f a i n t shadow compared to e a r l i e r masters of p i l l a g e . What cannot be denied i s that he drew heavily from the Arte. As Arnold Gingrich says: This l i t t l e book, which has somehow escaped being recorded anywhere at a l l , i s i n general structure the exact prototype of the f i r s t edition of The Compleat Angler, being a series of episodes, i n dialogue form, with two characters, Piscator and Viator, and with the former undertaking the in s t r u c t i o n of the l a t t e r . After the f i r s t e d i t i o n , Walton changed his Viator to Venator and added a t h i r d character, Coridon. Cotton, on the other hand, when he wrote Part Two for the f i f t h edition of The Compleat Angler, stayed with the o r i g i n a l two characters of the f i r s t e d i t i o n , Piscator and Viator. Much has been made of the number ofsexactly p a r a l l e l passages between The Arte of Angling and The Compleat Angler, and i t would be f a i r to say that i t does, i n i t s general structure and outline, bear very nearly as much resemblance to the f i r s t edition of Walton's work as that simple l i t t l e f i r s t edition i t s e l f bears to the greatly expanded f i f t h e dition. [But the i r differences are even more t e l l i n g . ] The unknown author of The Arte i s crude and blunt where Walton i s subtle and s e n s i t i v e , and ... the e a r l i e r unknown's humor comes i n quick short j i b e s , whereas Walton's flows on as gently and continually as ... 'these s i l e n t s i l v e r streams which we now see glide so quietly by us.'8 5 Hard on the heels of The Arte was Leonard Mascall's Booke MSM§.h^g-lwithgawH6pke and Line'. .'• F i r s t published i n 1590, t h i s l i t t l e volume "was cribbed nearly bodily from J u l i a n a , but [Mascall] did, notably at that early date, add a section 9 on f i s h c u l t u r e . " The Secrets of Angling, by John Dennys, a t r u l y important work and the f i r s t s uccessful verse treatment on the subject of angling, appeared i n 1613. Dennys was c l e a r l y a talented angler, scholar, and poet. In an 1883 "Introduction" to Secrets, Thomas Westwood has t h i s to say: ... so replete i s i t , i n i t s higher moods, with subtlety of rhythm, sweetness of expression, and elevation of thought and f e e l i n g , that even from the angling point of view, we cannot but consider i t a notable piece of condescension, and marvel at the devotion of so much r e a l poetic genius to _arithemepsoahumble% With the exception of the Compleat Angler, no higher compliment than t h i s poem has been paid to the sport. Throughout Secrets, the influence of Dame Julian a Berners i s unmistakable. The d i d a c t i c element i n the Treatise becomes f u l l blown i n Denny's work, and thec'o'^purposes of p r a i s i n g the sport and i n s t r u c t i n g the angler are continued. The pattern i s established i n the opening stanza: Of Angling, and the Art thereof,I sing, What kinds of Tooles i t doth behoue to haue; And with what pleasing bayt a man may bring . The F i s h to b i t e within the watry waue. A worke of thankes to such as i n a thing Of harmlesse pleasure, haue regard to saue Their dearest soules from sinne; and may intend Of pretious time, some part thereone to spend. Dennys' respect f o r t r a d i t i o n was not so s l a v i s h that he merely presented a conventional landscape gleaned from l i t e r a r y sources. He had d i r e c t experience with nature, and h i s experience obviously 6 influenced h i s outlook. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Dennys shows that nature can be the c a t a l y s t that prods man to contemplate the beyond: I count i t better pleasure to behold The goodly compasse of.the l o f t i e Skye, And i n the midst thereof l i k e burning gold The flaming Chariot of the worlds great eye; The watry cloudes that i n the ayre vprold With sundry kindes of painted collours f l i e : And fayre Aurora l i f t i n g vp her head And blushing r i s e from old Titonus bed. The l o f t y woods the f o r r e s t s wide and long, Adornd with leaues and branches fresh and greene, In whose coole bow'rs the birds with chaunting song, Doe welcome with thin quire the Summers Queene, The meadowes f a i r e where Flora's g u i f t s among, Are intermixt the verdant grasse betweene, The s i l u e r skaled f i s h that s o f t l i e swimme, ^ Within the brookes and C r i s t a l l watry brimme. With Secrets, one can go on and on. Humble though his theme might be, Dennys' s i n c e r i t y and s k i l l t r u l y elevate h i s verse, i f not also the pastime, to a r t . From f i r s t to l a s t , Dennys i s calm, contemplative, and confident. We leave him as we found him: And now we are ariued at the l a s t , In wished harbour where we means to r e s t ; And make an end of t h i s our journey past; Here then i n quiet roade I thinke i t best We s t r i k e our s a i l e s and stedfast Anchor cast For now the Sunne low setteth i n the West, And yee Boat-Swaines, a merry C a r r o l l sing, To him that s a f e l y did vs h i t h e r bring.12 Gervase Markham did not leave Dennys as he found him; he converted Secrets to prose the year a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . Markham's version, e n t i t l e d The Pleasure of Princes, l i k e l y robbed Dennys of much pppularity. Following Mascall's example, Markham also expanded the text, but unlike Mascall, Markham did 7 not bother being o r i g i n a l i n what he added. He merely l i f t e d 13 the extra passages from Dame Juliana's T r e a t i s e . In 1651, two years before The Compleat Angler, a handbook by Thomas Barker was published. Barker's Delight, l i k e the Arte of 1577, i s la r g e l y important because of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Walton's work. Barker was Walton's guide on matters of cooking f i s h , and f l y - f i s h i n g and f l y - t y i n g . He was also the f i r s t to 14 mention f i s h i n g r e e l s , and to advise " f i s h i n g f i n e f o r t r o u t , " an idea l a t e r extended by Charles Cotton to f i s h i n g " f i n e and far out," and f o r which Cotton became famous. Although there are some who would downgrade angling, none can deny that The Compleat Angler i s the best-known sporting book of a l l time. By the end of 1935, i t had appeared i n 284 d i f f e r e n t editions i n English. Since then, i t has had two or three editions a n n u a l l y . ^ One of the e a r l y — a n d l a r g e l y c orrect—complaints about The Compleat Angler was that i t did not add anything p a r t i c u l a r l y new to the storehouse of te c h n i c a l information on the art of angling. But, i t i s u n l i k e l y fchat Walton's readership ever r e l i e d much upon h i s storehouse of information anyway. Walton i s valued, rather, because he i s an " i d y l l i s t , a moralist, an observer of nature and a master of a prose s t y l e which l i v e s because i t i s i n d i v i d u a l . " " ^ The charm of The Compleat Angler i s la r g e l y that behind the printed page stands Walton himself, "shrewd, and c r i t i c a l , but also tolerant and k i n d l y . " " ^ Though i t has been c a l l e d "one of the 18 most joyous pastorals ever composed i n any language," The  Compleat Angler c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s neither i t s day nor i t s author's 8 l i f e . Walton's England was wracked with c i v i l . w a r : brother fought brother; father fought son. And worse, th i s turmoil s p l i t h i s own church, which he loved. He ywas a r o y a l i s t to the core and his king was defeated i n b a t t l e , t r i e d and beheaded! Friends were dismissed from church and school. Beyond t h i s , there were personal tragedies. He was l e f t f atherless at two and a h a l f ; h i s f i r s t wife died following c h i l d b i r t h a f t e r four-teen years of marriage and of t h e i r s i x boys and one daughter, a l l died i n infancy or early childhood.1^ I t might w e l l be wondered why nothing "could destroy the s p i r i t of innocent mirth with which [Walton] continued to evoke the r u s t i c 20 pleasures and honest enjoyments of the angler's l i f e . . . . " Walton's mirth i s of a so f t smiling nature, and under-neath his surface humor there i s often a cldeceptively gentle yet important current of truth. In excusing himself from discussing the multitude of sub-species of f l y i n g i n s e c t s , Walton, speaking through P i s c a t o r , says to Venator that there are "too many eit h e r for me to name or f o r you.to remember; and t h e i r breeding i s so various and wonderful, that I might e a s i l y amaze myself, and 21 t i r e you i n a r e l a t i o n of them." In "moralizing h i s song," Walton deals with man i n r e l a t i o n to nature, to God, and to the gentle art i t s e l f . He sees a considerable concord between man, nature, and D i v i n i t y . The Divine Plan i s revealed through external nature. Walton emphasizes the point early i n his t r e a t i s e by having h i s hawker (fa l c o n e r ) , Auceps, heap praise on the nightingale: 9 j He that at midnight, when the very labourer sleeps securely, should hear, as I have very often, the clear a i r e , the short descants, the natu r a l r i s i n g and f a l l i n g , the doubling and redoubling of her voice, might w e l l be l i f t e d from earth, and say: "Lord what musick hast thou proS-vided f o r the saints i n heaven, when thou affordest bad men such musick on Earth!"22 That nature can teach man how to l i v e i s e x p l i c i t i n Piscator's "Song," stanza four of which reads: I care not, I to f i s h the seas, Fresh r i v e r s best my mind do please, Whose sweet calm courses I contemplate, And seek i n l i f e to imitate: In c i v i l bounds I f a i n would keep, And for my past offences weep.23 Here Walton's concept of theccontemplative man i s as clear as i s the stream he chooses to f i s h . The "sweet," "calm" waters are more pleasing because they are the touchstones to contemplation. The calm waters do not r e s i s t t h e i r "bounds." Walton's message i s that man, too, can learn to l i v e within natural l i m i t s . To overstep i s to "offend." The im p l i c a t i o n , expressed so aptly by eighteenth century w r i t e r s , i s that an offence against nature i s also an offence against God. As a n a t u r a l i s t , Walton recognized the hazards of overharvesting annatural resource, which he c a l l e d wasteful. He p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d offences such as the netting of undersized f i s h , and "above a l l , the taking Fish i n Spawning-time...." Both practices are equally repugnant to the e t h i c a l angler of the twentieth century. Yet some of the truths seen by Walton three hundred years ago are s t i l l not u n i v e r s a l l y understood by the angling f r a t e r n i t y . Many anglers of th i s century are s t i l l unaware that 10 25 large trout often take the hook "not from hunger but wantonness," and that autopsy suggests that anadromous species fast when on thexr upstream migration. Understandably, Walton was not r i g h t i n every p a r t i c u l a r . But, where he was wrong, his error often stemmed from his repeating e i t h e r popular a u t h o r i t i e s , or popular opinion. Hence, i n echoing 27 the "romantic" myth that the tench was the "Pysician of the Brook," Walton does not deserve severe censure. Nor should he be condemned for quoting an extant b e l i e f he credits to Drayton. According to t h i s myth, the salmon, when confronted by an almost insurmountable b a r r i e r , His t a i l takes i n hisnmouth, and bending l i k e a bow That's to f u l l compass drawn, a l o f t himself doth throw... The l a t t e r sentiment i s scarcely le s s v a l i d because of i t s erro r . Walton's primary purpose was to i l l u s t r a t e the compulsion that draws a salmon to i t s f i n a l river-bed r i t u a l , a force that i s as all-consuming as i s any human drive. The Compleat Angler, though primarily a dialogue pre-sentation i n prose, i s l i b e r a l l y interspersed with verse. Some has already been quoted. Much i s of high q u a l i t y . Some i s of uncertain authorship. Most i s acknowledged. Where Walton i s uncertain of the authorship, he may guess, which he does when quoting from Secrets. (He names Jo Davers as the poet.) Well-known men of l e t t e r s — s u c h as Wotton, Herbert, Donne, Christopher [Kit] Marlowe, and S i r Walter R a l e i g h s — a l s o appear i n The Compleat  Angler. The last-named p a i r of poets are credited with the 11 "Milkmaid's Song," and "The Milkmaid's Mother's Answer" re s p e c t i v e l y , poems that today are better-known as "The Passionate Shepherd to his Love," and "The Nymph's Reply." The Donne work, patterned af t e r the "songs" of Marlowe and Raleigh, i s poetic praise of the t r a n q u i l i t y of angling, and l i k e l y was written expressly for The Compleat Angler. The f i r s t stanza i s s u f f i c i e n t to i l l u s t r a t e the apt softness of Donne's verse: Come, l i v e with me, and be my love And we w i l l some new pleasures prove Of golden sands, and c r y s t a l brooks. With s i l k e n l i n e s and s i l v e r hooks^9 Some of the anonymous verses may have been vcomposed by Walton. T Like l y candidates are the songs sung by the happy company at the close of day three. Coridon's songs begins: Oh, the sweet contentment The countryman doth f i n d ! Heigh t r o l o l l i e l o l l i e loe, Heigh t r o l o l l i e lee, That quiet contemplation Possesseth a l l my mind: Then care away, And wend along with me. The promised r e j o i n e r , e n t i t l e d "The Angler's Song," i s the better-known and i s quoted i n l a t e r angling works (for example, i t appears, with some a l t e r a t i o n , i n R. Brooke's The Arte of Angling, published i n 1720). The f i r s t stanza follows: As inward love breeds outward t a l k , The hounds some p r a i s e , and some the halk: Some, better pleased with private sport, Use tennis, some a-i.mistress court: But these delights I neither wish, Nor envy, while I f r e e l y f i s h . 12 Neither the sentiment nor the mood need explanation. It i s worth noting, however, that the l a t t e r verse echoes Dame Juliana's argument i n which angling was placed on a higher l e v e l than e i t h e r of the c h i v a l r i c sports of hunting or hawking. In 16>76, when Walton was eighty-three years o l d , the f i f t h e d i t i o n of The Compleat Angler was published. This e d i t i o n was all-important because i t introduced Charles Cotton to the angling world. In h i s portion of the work, Cotton continues the dialogue method and conversational tone, though perhaps not so smoothly as had h i s mentor. In Part Two, Piscator becomes Piscator Junior, which change emphasizes the father-son r e l a t i o n s h i p that existed between Walton and Cotton. Cotton also echoes Walton's defence of the art of angling, and Walton's stated preference of the country over the c i t y . In "The Retirement," a poem dedicated to Walton, Cotton f i r s t turns h i s back on the c i t y , then sings the praise of country l i f e and s o l i t u d e . The f i r s t stanza sets-the tone: Farewell thou busie World, and may We never meet again: Here I can eat, and sleep, and prey, And do more good, i n one short day, Than he who h i s whole age out wears Upon the most conspicuous theatres, ^ Where nought but vanity and v i c e appears. Although Cotton i s more concerned with h i s reader's c r a f t than with h i s morals, and although he teachesmmore and preaches less than does Walton, he nevertheless does not believe that the t i t l e "angler" should be i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y bestowed. 13 He "that cannot k i l l a Trout of twenty inches long with two [strands of horse-hair l i n e ] , i n a r i v e r c l e a r of wood and weeds ... 33 deserves not the name of an Angler." Cotton does not completely ignore e t h i c s , however. Commenting on a small trout that has j u s t been caught, P i s c a t o r Junior says: "This i s a diminutive gentleman, e'en throw him i n again, and l e t him grow t i l l he be worthy of your anger.""^ Following Cotton, angling l i t e r a t u r e went into a one-hundred-fifty year slumber. A spark of the Walton t r a d i t i o n was kept a l i v e i n various handbooks and verse sketches of the eighteenth century, but i t was not u n t i l the nineteenth century r e v i v a l that the spark came to true l i f e . Even the best-read handbook of 35 the eighteenth century—Charles Bowlker's Art of Angling, 1758— only r a r e l y ventures into the contemplative mood or matter that Walton fathered. The best of the verse sketches are found i n Alexander Pope's Windsor Forest (1713), John Gay's Rural Sports (also 1713), and James Thomson's Spring (1746). Pope i s balanced and clever, but rather too vague and conventional to be repeated here. And since several l i n e s from Thomson's spring are quoted early i n the "Handbook" chapter there i s no need to quote a sample here. The following l i n e s (149-154) of Gay's Rural Sports suggest not only that Gay had a quick and di s c r i m i n a t i n g eye, but that he a c t u a l l y wrote from f i r s t - h a n d experience. The Angler-reader w i l l quickly c r e d i t the de s c r i p t i o n as a stand-out: Far up the stream the twisted h a i r he throws, Which down the murm'ring current gently flows; When i f or chance or hunger&s powerful sway Directs the roving trout t h i s f a t a l way, He greedily sucks i n the twining b a i t , And tugs and nibbles the f a l l a c i o u s meat.... 14 In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t he Wal ton t r a d i t i o n reawoke f rom i t s s l umber . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s e x p l o r e t h a t r e -awaken ing . Nor s h o u l d the reawaken ing be m i s u n d e r s t o o d . I t was not a r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s s t y l e o r s u b s t a n c e ; i t was a r e v i v a l o f h i s s p i r i t . I t was not sudden ; i t was g r a d u a l . And i t came a t a t ime when f i s h and o p p o r t u n i t i t e s f o r f i s h i n g were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y h a r d to come by . To de te rm ine more c l o s e l y what the Wa l ton t r a d i t i o n o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s , i t i s h e l p f u l t o know what i t i s n o t . I t - i s n n Q t , f o r examp le , a pu re p a s t o r a l f o rm. A l t h o u g h The Compleat  A n g l e r has i t s s c o u n t r y f o l k — a s do o t h e r a n g l i n g w o r k s — t h e p e o p l e o f the c o u n t r y a r e c l e a r l y o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . Nor does the t r a d i t i o n espouse t h e v i r t u e s of c o u n t r y l i f e . R a t h e r , i t p r a i s e s a . r u r a l p u r s u i t , a r e c r e a t i o n t h a t i s u n a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y , bu t wh i ch i s a v a i l a b l e to the c i t y man who v i s i t s t he c o u n t r y . And , what i s more, the t r a d i t i o n l a r g e l y f o c u s e s on how the c i t y gent leman can and does b e n e f i t f r om the p u r s u i t o f a n g l i n g . At i t s c e n t e r , the Wa l ton t r a d i t i o n i s a s t a tement of t he l o v e o f a n g l i n g . Wa l ton makes the p o i n t c l e a r l y i n h i s " E p i s t l e to the R e a d e r : " "...I w i s h t h e R e a d e r . . . t o t ake n o t i c e , t h a t i n w r i t i n g [The Compleat A n g l e r ] I have made m y s e l f a 3 6 r e c r e a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n . . . . " The l o v e o f a n g l i n g cannot be b o r r o w e d ; i t i s p e r s o n a l . And so i t i s t h a t t o be w i t h i n the Wa l ton t r a d i t i o n , an a n g l i n g book must e x p r e s s a d i r e c t andd deep commitment t o the a r t o f a n g l i n g . In a v e r y r e a l s e n s e , the 15 true Waltonian writes a confession of h i s l o v e — a s does Walton: "...yet the whole Discourse i s , or rather was, a picture of my own d i s p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n such days and times as I have l a i d 37 aside business, and gone a - f i s h i n g . . . . " Perhaps, as Walton and many of his followers suggest, the love of angling i s an i n h e r i t e d love. Perhaps, too, the Waltonian i n h e r i t s the desire—though not necessarily the s k i l l — t o share both his love f o r and his knowledge about angling. Certainly Walton's willingness to share i s overtly or covertly echoed i n angling books that follow The Compleat Angler. Walton, speaking through P i s c a t o r to Venator, says: "...I w i l l hidee nothing from you that I can remember, and can think may help you 38 forward towards a pe r f e c t i o n of th i s a r t . " (p. 180} ; In order to help others, i n order to j u s t i f y the giving of advice to others, the teacher must have c l o s e l y studied that which he attempts to impart. The how-to-do-it focus of many angling works stresses the desire to communicate information, but handbook authors f a i l to a t t a i n the Waltonian standard simply because they do not discuss the motives underlying the recreation. The true Waltonian author concerns himself with both the facts and the philosophy of f i s h i n g . He experiences, loves, and imitates nature; he views angling as an a r t , not just as a pastime; as a route to v i r t u e , not just as a route to i d l e pleasure; as a means of recreating the s e l f , not just asmeans of escaping urban s t r i f e . To be a Waltonian, then, i t i s necessary both to 16 act and to think. Walton's explanation of the two elements deserves quoting: And for that, I s h a l l t e l l you, that i n acient times a debate hath r i s e n , and i t remains yet unresolved, whether the happiness of man i n t h i s world doth consist more i n contemplation or action? Concerning which, some have endeavoured to maintain t h e i r opinion of the f i r s t ; by saying, that the nearer we mortals come to God by way of i m i t a t i o n , the more happy we are. And they say, that God enjoys himself only, by a contemplation of his own i n f i n i t e n e s s , e t e r n i t y , power, and goodness, and the l i k e . And upon t h i s ground, many c l o i s t e r a l men of great learning and devotion, prefer contemplation before action. And many of the fathers seem to approve t h i s opinion, as may appear i n t h e i r commentaries upon the words of our Saviour to Martha. And on the contrary, there want not men of equal authority and c r e d i t , that prefer action to be the more excellent; as namely, experiments i n physick, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of i t , both for the ease and prolongation of.man's l i f e ; by which each man i s enabled to act and do good to others, e i t h e r to serve h i s country, or do good to p a r t i c u l a r persons: and they say a l s o , that action i s d o c t r i n a l , and teaches both art and v i r t u e , and i s a maintainer of human society; and for these, and other l i k e reasons, to be preferred before contemplat ion. Concerning which two opinions I s h a l l forbear to add a t h i r d , by declaring my own; and rest myself contented i n t e l l i n g you, my very worthy f r i e n d , that both these meet together, and do most properly belong to the most honest, ingenuous, quiet, and harmless art of angling.™ Because most, i f not a l l , of the nineteenth century's angling books are i n some way indebted to Walton, i t follows that, i n varying degrees, they belong to the Walton t r a d i t i o n . Degree i s the c r i t i c a l word. For example, the works discussed i n the "Handbook" chapter often i l l u s t r a t e the personal experience and knowledge so much valued by Walton, but they seldom deal with the p h i l o s o p h i c a l matter that Walton valued even more. The f a i l u r e 17 to deal w i t h the philosophy of a n g l i n g l i m i t s the degree to which the handbook can be considered t r u e l y Waltonian. S i m i l a r l y , though the works discussed i n the "Rambles" chapter do deal w i t h the philosophy of a n g l i n g , they do so i n only a piecemeal f a s h i o n . For t h i s reason, and because they often i n c l u d e so much non-f i s h i n g matter, the "rambles" f a i l to make a r e c r e a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n — a n d hence cannot be considered i n the mainstream of the Walton t r a d i t i o n . Authors of the "sketches," "songs," or " p r i n c i p a l " works,oon the other hand, are f a r more s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e s e n t i n g the substance of a n g l i n g to the reader. They are c l e a r l y more a t t e n t i v e to both the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the angling a r t , and the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e c r e a t i o n i t s e l f . In a d d i t i o n to speaking from personal experience and focusing f i r m l y on f i s h i n g matters, these authors e x h i b i t an undeniably strong a f f e c t i o n f o r the gentle a r t . Both the prose and verse statements of a n g l i n g authors of the nineteenth century may o c c a s i o n a l l y s t r i k e the reader as l a c k i n g i n o r i g i n a l i t y . S i l v e r streams, p u r l i n g brooks, s p a r k l i n g water, c r y s t a l p o ols, mirrored s u r f a c e s , f r a g r a n t meadows, and twitches of the w r i s t abound. The explanation l i e s p a r t l y i n the f a c t that the a n g l e r - w r i t e r seems to have a remarkable respect f o r the t r a d i t i o n s of the a r t . There, i s , i t seems, a strong l i n k between the w r i t e r and what he views a permanent, or s t a b l e . (Even today, West Coast anglers r e f e r ^ t o f i s h as being s i l v e r - b r i g h t , or s i l v e r as a d o l l a r — l o n g a f t e r the s i l v e r 18 d o l l a r has been a l l but relegated to h i s t o r y . ) The angler-writer i s , perhaps, a verbal conservative. Certainly he i s a natural conservative. C e r t a i n l y , too, he i s against that which threatens h i s recreation. Perhaps he unconsciously uses the language of e a r l i e r writers i n an attempt to regain the long-since-spoiled Eden, or to express the universal and undying.attraction of a now-threatened recreation. Perhaps he f e e l s less need to be o r i g i n a l than he does to express the time-established joys and v i r t u e s of angling. Nor should the personal be confused with the o r i g i n a l . Walton was c e r t a i n l y personal enough, but he c l e a r l y found i t unnecessary to introduce newness for i t s own sake. Indeed, the Father of Angling respected a u t h o r i t i e s of the past almost as much as he respected the gentle art i t s e l f . It was not so much in his matter or i n h i s images that Walton was unique, but i n h i s gentle s p i r i t , i n h i s contemplative mood. In varying degrees, and often through the use of t r a d i t i o n a l images and metaphors, the writers of the songs, sketches, and p r i n c i p a l works f i n d t h e i r way into the mainstream of the Walton t r a d i t i o n . xii. The fact that many angling works of the nineteenth century are well worth studying i s evidence of the sureness with which the new Waltonian s p i r i t took hold. TheXlast-studied author of the nineteenth c e n t u r y — L o r d Grey of Fallodon—wrote nearly two and one-half centuries a f t e r Walton. To Grey, f l y - f i s h i n g was a most worthy recreation because the f l y - f i s h e r i s always seeing, doing, and learning something—certainly a Waltonian outlook. In Grey's view, too, the angler's pursuit "seems more 19 40 than imperfect man can deserve or comprehend," and the gentle art i s often "too subtle i n some of i t s forms to be analyzed, too 41 intimate to be explained" — b o t h of which sentiments are genuinely Waltonian. And, i n exactly the same way as Grey's respect for Walton hinges la r g e l y on Walton's s i m p l i c i t y and p u r i t y , so, too, the modern reader's respect for Grey stems from the same virtues.-?. Because the attempt, here, i s to i l l u s t r a t e both the awakening and Walton's impact on writers of angling works, the content, tone, and h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the angling works have been considered. And because the f l a v o r of the works i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the works themselves, o r i g i n a l sources are extensively quoted. Several i n t e r e s t i n g and obvious sub-themes remain undeveloped simply because i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to investigate them thoroughly. Nevertheless, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that several of the writers studied here became increasingly contemplative as they aged; that many were deeply indebted to t h e i r contemporaries, or to e a r l i e r authors of angling works, or both; that several coteries of angling writers developed; and that increased f i s h i n g pressure and other problems strongly influenced many authors. It should also be observed that whereas books of a handbook nature dominated the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, philosophic considerations became increasingly evident i n the second h a l f of the century. And, as the century aged, angling writers became more and more concerned with t h e i r environment, with f i s h culture, with natural science, and with codifying p r i n c i p l e s of an angling e t h i c . 20 Footnotes " S l c C l a n e ' s Standard Fish i n g Encyclopedia, ed. A.J. McClane (New York, 1965), p. 480. i John Dennis McDonald, The Origins of Angling (New York, 1963), p. 17. 3 Ibid., p. 27. 4McClane, p. 105. ^McDonald, p. 31. 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . , p. 18. Q Arnold Gingrich, The Well-Tempered Angler (New York, 1965), pp. 229-30. 9 Horace Hutchinson, ed. The Pleasure of Princes, by Gervase Markham, together with The Experienced Angler, by Colonel Robert Venables (London, 1927), p. v i . "*"^ John Dennys, The Secrets of Angling, rep. with introduction by Thomas Westwood (London, 1883), p. 12. n i b i d . , p. 32-33. ^ I b i d . , p. 61. 13 McDonald, p. 33. 14 John Waller H i l l s , A History o f - F l y Fishing f o r Trout (New York, 1921), p. 60. •^Gingrich, p. 222. 21 " ^ H i l l s , p. 61. "^ I b i d . , p. 63. 1 ft McClane, p. 973. 19 Eugene Burns, ed. The Compleat Angler, by Izaak Walton with a supplement by Charles Cotton, T r i c e n t e n n i a l E d i t i o n (Pennsylvania, 1953), p. 4. 20 McClane, p. 974. 21 Izaak Walton, The Compleat Angler, ed. Margaret B o t t r a l l (London, 1965), p. 85, hereafter Walton. 22 Walton, p. 16. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 78. 24 Ib i d . , p. 49. 25 lb i d . , p. 61. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 62 . 2 7 I b i d . , p. 149. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 115. 29 Ib i d . , p. 154. "^ I b i d . , p. 76. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 77. 32 Izaak Walton and Charles Cotton, The Compleat Angler, ed. John Hawkins (London, 1970), p. i i . 33 I b i d . , p. 32. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 42. 22 35 On page sixteen of A History of Fly Fishing for Trout (New York, 1921), John Waller Hills says that Bowlker's Art had "sixteen editions or more, a record surpassed [only by] the Treatise and The Compleat Angler." "^ Walton, p . 5 . "^ Ibid. , p. 6. 38Ibid., p. 180. 39 Ibid., p. 28. ^Sir Edward Grey (Lord Grey of Fallodon), Fly-Fishing (London, 1931), p. 133. Ibid. , p. 144. "The Rambles" The t i t l e of this chapter suggests the nature of the thirteen books to be discussed. The basic contention here i s that a l l thirteen are too narrowly focused^ too broadly focused, or too unfocused to earn p a r t i c u l a r credit as angling l i t e r a t u r e . Despite t h i s , i t would be misleading to suggest that none i s worth reading, that none contributes to an understanding of angling l i t e r a t u r e of the nineteenth century, or that none i l l u s t r a t e s a debt to the father of angling, Izaak Walton. A cursory examination i s enough to stiow that the authors value angling as an a r t , and that they accord the highest praise to the most a r t i s t i c form of a n g l i n g — f l y - f i s h i n g . Concern for truth, beauty, information, and observation are also quickly apparent. The writers seem as convinced, though not as convincing, as Walton, that angling i s virtuous, that country pursuits contribute to good health, and that periodic escape from the c i t y ' s turmoil r e v i t a l i z e s man. In varying degrees, the writers encourage t h e i r readers to consider the advantages of the simple l i f e , to share t h e i r knowledge and experience with others, and to see the virtue i n the peaceful or contemplative mood. Overtly or covertly, the authors teach that angling can instruct man to respect and respond to nature, and to appreciate the value Ss a 24 of hope. Of the ten writers considered here, seven published before the nineteenth century's midpoint. Two of the remaining three published i n the 1850's. For reasons which might l a t e r become obvious, four works by the remaining author are discussed; these works were published from 1892 to 1904. The e a r l i e s t work considered here, Thomas Williamson's The Complete Angler's Vade-Mecum. was published i n 1808. Although Williamson takes time to rate f l y - f i s h i n g as the acme of the a r t — " w i t h o u t doubt, the most cleanly, pleasing, most elegant, and most d i f f i c u l t part of the science!""'"—it i s h i s science as a float-fisherman that deserves s p e c i a l mention. In three paragraphs he explains the p r i n c i p l e s of f l o a t - f i s h i n g , and h i s explanation i s as v a l i d today as i t was one and one-half centuries ago. The reader who i s at a l l conscious of the accuracy of Williamson's observations, must also be more than casually impressed with the c l a r i t y ofiihis case: The p r i n c i p l e s on which every f l o a t should be made are, f i r s t , that i t should sustain the weight of the shot and b a i t ; second, that i t should pass e a s i l y under the water when a f i s h b i t e s ; t h i r d , that the part above water should not be top heavy. The absence of any one of these r e q u i s i t e s renders the f l o a t useless. For i f i t cannot sustain the appended weights, i t must sink, and cannot be a f l o a t ; i f i t does not y i e l d f r e e l y to the smallest e f f o r t of the f i s h to take the b a i t down, i t w i l l not only f a i l to in d i c a t e the time for s t r i k i n g , but i t w i l l so f a r oppose the f i s h as to cause alarm, and consequent disappointment. If your f l o a t does not stand erect, you never can judge ofathe depth of water, nor can you draw your l i n e t i g h t enough to be i n readiness to s t r i k e , at the moment when the f i s h may have taken the b a i t into h i s mouth.2 25 In addition to his rather disappointing diagrams (even for the period) of f i s h and tackle, and h i s information on tackle, f i s h i n g methods, and f i s h species, Williamson repeats several often-mentioned-but-inco^rect assumptions. One of the more popular myths he accepts i s that, preparatory to leaping over obstacles, salmon increase t h e i r jumping a b i l i t y by bending themselves i n t o a bow shape by clamping t h e i r t a i l s into t h e i r mouths, Williamson evidently believed that i n releasing t h e i r mouth-grips, the salmon sprang up l i k e suddenly-released springs. Richard Penn's Maxims and Hints for an Angler and Miseries of Fishing, a small two-part volume published i n 1833, deals with several of the more common truths about the angling a r t . The book's f i r s t portion—"Maxims and H i n t s " — l i s t s some common enough axioms, for example, axiom XIII: Remember that, i n whipping with the a r t i f i c i a l f l y , i t must have time, when you have drawn i t out of the water, to make the whole c i r c u i t , and to be at one time st r a i g h t behind you, before i t can be driven out st r a i g h t before you. If you give i t the forward impulse too soon,yyou w i l l hear a crack. Take t h i s as a hint that your f l y i s gone to grass. The second p o r t i o n — " M i s e r i e s of F i s h i n g " — l i s t s some common-enough mishaps: Leading a large f i s h down-stream and a r r i v i n g at a d i t c h , the width of which i s evident, although the depth of i t may be a.matter of some doubt. Having thus to decide very quickly whether you w i l l lose the f i s h and h a l f your tackle, or run the r i s k of going up to your neck i n mud. Perhaps both.4 Althoughcthe axioms are sound enough, and the mishaps true enough 26 to angling, and calthough the light-hearted tone i s unmistakeable, neither h a l f of the book i s l i k e l y t o ^ e l i c i t more than a rather t i r e d agreement from the reader. Thomas Medwin's^ two-volume The Angler in Wales f or Days  and Nights of Sportsmen, published i n 1834, i s l i k e l y to e l i c i t the same response as does Penn's Maxims. The Angler can be described as a loosely-connected rambling. It touches on a l l manner of non-angling t o p i c s — t r a v e l , l i t e r a t u r e , morality, encounters with pigs, b u l l s , and elephants—and the turns i n the unravelling of the book are as unpredictable as the r e s t i n g place of a f l y cast into a howling gale. Medwin touches on the philosophy of angling i n a rather i n c i d e n t a l fashion. Early i n the f i r s t volume, he .implies, rather than states, that country surroundings provide peace of mind and enrichment for the soul. On two of the few occasions where he seems to focus firmly on the f i s h i n g matters, he c a r e f u l l y points out that hope i s the angler's e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y , 7 8 and that f l y - f i s h i n g i s the most a r t i s t i c form of angling. Though not a r t i s t i c , Medwin's pot p o u r r i might w e l l i n t e r e s t the reader with c a t h o l i c tastes. On occasion, he i s almost humourous; more often, he Is serious, sentimental, or downright melancholy. Several prose and verse passages are gloomy gothic. In one anecdote, the mistress of a man con-v i c t e d of assault drowns in the very pool beside which her 9 lover was apprehended. The fact that a r i v e r was involved i n the t a l e l i k e l y was j u s t i f i c a t i o n enough for Medwin to r e t e l l the t a l e 27 i n a book that was presumably intended to deal w i t h angling s u b j e c t s . Long a f t e r the reader has been exposed to a host of d i g r e s s i o n s , Medwin says that he w i l l take atikint from Byron—and d i g r e s s . Even the most p a t i e n t reader i s apt to doubt that a reference to an a l l - t i m e great d i g r e s s i o n e x p e r t — F i e l d i n g , s a y — c o u l d , s a v e Medwin from a charge of a r t l e s s rambling. Thomas Boosey's P i s c a t o r i a l Reminiscences and Gleanings, f i r s t p u b lished i n 1835, contains a wide range of i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to f o l l o w i n g the q u i t e - u s u a l p r a c t i c e of quoting widely from other authors, Boosey a l s o i n c l u d e s an extensive annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y , or "Catalogue of Books" on a n g l i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The b i b l i o g r a p h y alone i s worth the-"-; a t t e n t i o n of the i n q u i r i n g reader. Among the d i s c o v e r i e s to be made there i s that Boosey was aware that the c r i s p l y - w r i t t e n Angler, a Poem i n Ten Cantos (claimed by T.P. Lathy, and dated 1819) i s a " r i f a c i m e n t o of The Anglers' Eight Dialogues i n Verse, without acknowledgment." P i s c a t o r i a l Gleanings i s obviously the work of a w r i t e r who:> i s h i g h l y experienced i n both the a r t of a n g l i n g and the l i t e r a t u r e of the a r t . S t r u c t u r a l l y , the work i s a c o l l e c t i o n of short items d e a l i n g w i t h f i s h and f i s h i n g . In a chapter e n t i t l e d "Anecdotes of Fishes and F i s h i n g , " Boosey quotes s e v e r a l passages that are as p e r t i n e n t or i n t e r e s t i n g today as they were n e a r l y one and one-half c e n t u r i e s ago. The warning to non-swimmers from the Supplement to Daniels R u r a l Sports i s m a t e r i a l l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t to the s i n k - p r o o f i n g techniques recommended today: 28 An accidental fall into water may be most dangerous to those ignorant of the art of swimming. By observing the directions given here, a person may save himself from drowning: if he falls into deep water, he will rise to the surface by floatage, and will continue there, if he does not elevate his hands; and the keeping them down is essential to his safety. If he moves his hands under the water, in any way he pleases, his head will rise so high as to allow him free liberty to breathe; and if in addition he moves his legs, exactly as in the action of walking up stairs, his shoulders will rise above the water, so that he may use less exertion with his hands, or apply them to other purposes.H By quoting a passage from the Magazine of Natural History (vol. VII, p. 43), Boosey seems to be encouraging his angler-readers to be open-minded about happenstances that might initially sound too far-fetched to be true, and to reflect on how truly phenomenal nature is: Ayyoung gentleman walking in Mr. Longster's garden, at Malton, on the banks of the Derwent, saw a fine pike suddenly dart out of the river, and seize a swallow that was gliding along the surface of the water. The sun might be so low as to place the bird's shadow in advance of the bird itself, and thus give the;>spike an advantage.-^  In his own reflections about angling, Boosey points out both the virtue of the art's longevity—"fishing seems to have 13 preceded all other sports" —and the virtue of the quiet art itself. To make the latter point, Boosey quotes from several respected authorities. His quotation from Walton,Hike many truths, is not diminished by frequent repetition: No life, my honest scholar, no life so happy, so pleasant, as the life of a well governed angler,—there we sit in cowslips, hear the birds sing, and possess ourselves in as much quietness as these silver streams which we now see glide so quietly by us.14 29 In The Moor and the Loch, f i r s t published i n 1840, John Colquhoun agrees with Boosey and Walton that the angler's l i f e i s indeed a happy one, but Colquhoun's agreement i s based on a very d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l point of view. And, although i t would be wrongheaded to suggest that Colquhoun i s not a thinker, i t i s c e r t a i n l y evident that he i s not a quiet, contemplative thinker. His enthusiasm for angling more cl o s e l y resembles the muscular enthusiasm of writers l i k e Charles Kingsley and Christopher North (Professor Wilson). Colquhoun, who studied under Professor North, argues that the r e a l value i i i angling (and hunting) stems from i t s a b i l i t y to excite man, and that i t i s excitement that raises man from mundane thoughts and deeds. In Volume I of his two-volume work, Colquhoun takes issue with the "modern" poets because they had no {.enthusiasm fo r f i e l d sports or sportsmen: "Cowper hated both. The Lake poets, in s p i t e of t h e i r j u b i l a n t admiration of nature i n a l l i t s wilder freaks and aspects, simply ignored them.""'""' The volume focuses on hunting (seals, deer, upland b i r d s , and water-fowl), hawking, and poaching. Colquhoun even smuggles i n some anti-En g l i s h sentiments. He argues, for example, that the Scottish poacher—unlike the English p o a c h e r — i s not a "hardened, unscrupulous blackguard, who would shoot the game-keeper with 16 greater pleasure than he would a pheasant." Volume I I , an equally entertaining work, i s devoted to angling matters. Handbook information i s mixed with anecdote, f o l k - l o r e , and philosophy. Colquhoun accurately predicts that 30 unrestricted netting of salmon rivers will reduce sport and commercial catches,"*"7 and postulates that, "when even con-templative Walton had fairly landed a gorgeous fish...the triumph 18 of success swalowed up every other pleasure." Nevertheless, Colquhoun also admits that the philosophy or poetry of angling attracted many great minds, and that it is unthinkable that a true angler would not also be a lover of nature: if not, he loses half the pleasure of his art. In following the river's course, he must of necessity pass through the finest and most varied scenery; and that, too, at a time when beauty crowns the year. But, enchanting as are the woodlanilbanks of the quiet stream, there is to me a higher and yet more powerful charm in the solitary wildness or savage grandeur of the Highland loch. The very stillness of those bare hills and craggy summits, broken only by the rushing of some rapid burn that intersects them, has a tendency to elevate, while it calms the mind; and I envy not the man who could frequent such scenes and not feel them.19 Charles White's Sporting Scenes and Country Characters, though published in the same year as Moor and the Loch, shares little else with the latter work. With Medwin's Angler, it shares the distinction of saying relatively little about angling, but unlike Medwin, White does not use the scattergun approach; he assembles his fishing matter into one thirty-page section, and he splits his focus evenly between handbook information and praise of the art. True to the spirit of Walton, White concerns himself with both ethics and accuracy. Despite the fact that big catches were clearly praiseworthy in his day, White does recommend that the angler should exercize self-restraint, that he should take 31 only what "he deems sufficient for one day's diversion, reserving the stores of the stream for others as well as for himself, until 20 some future occasion." Some of White's errors are excusable on the grounds that time was necessary to uncover hidden truths, but he should never have credited Walton with advising fly-21 fishers to fish "fine and far off." Like so many other angler-authors, White praises both fly-fishing and Walton. His chapter on fishing begins with an elaborate praise for the Father of Angling: Honour to thy name, 0 Izaak Waltonl^ -* the pure in soul, the good in heart—the kind, the gentle, the patient—the ardent admirer of Nature, and all her handiworks—the devotee of the art—the great master, the generous preceptor of the gentle craft—the patriarch of the brotherhood of the angle!... So wert thou; not only the perfect master of the gentle craft, and the bearer of the meek and quiet spirit, but the leader of others who tread in the same delightful path! ^ White's elaborate, or even stilted, style might irk the . modern-day reader, but his passion for nature, and his respect for nature's impact on man are not likely to be soon outdated: [The angler's] mind harmonises with the scene around, in all its freshness and all its beauty,— from the golden-fringed clouds above, that have caught the first glances of the resplendent eye of morning, to the dew-drop gems below, that deck blade and branch, leaf and flower. Nor less with every object around; the wide-spread valley, with its ramparts of hills,—its greensand dewy meadows ... the songsters of the feathered race... the venerable village spire, that crowns the spot where "the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep,"—the ever tuneful rills, that dance merrily towards the placid bosom of the river, like a smiling child to the arms of its endearing and joyous mother 23 32 White concludes h i s chapter with a passage that blends statement, praise, and imagery: On the opposite bank i s a goodly array of willows and alders, bending, as i t were, over a mirror to admire t h e i r own drooping beauty. Behind the f l y - f i s h e r a l l i s cl e a r . He knows that the f i s h are feeding upon the insects which drop from the boughs. "Whisk" goes h i s l i n e . It i s for a moment suspended. Admirable a r t i s t ! How gr a c e f u l l y f a l l s the t a i l - f l y ! A r i s e at the f i r s t throw? He rushes with tremendous impetuosity to make h i s escape. The f i s h e r l e t s him go,—he tiio?ns him gently, another and another e f f o r t i s made to free himself from the hook.... . ^ Equally hyperbolic i s Henry Phillips' ?j's The True Enjoyment of Angling, a month-by-month f i s h i n g calendar published i n 1842. P h i l l i p s discusses only the months of March through September simply because the October-February period was not then considered part of the f i s h i n g season. An angling song, complete with musical score, i s provided for each of the seven f i s h i n g months. Kindly c r i f i c s might say that Phillips;!?s eulogy of A p r i l i s somewhat reminiscent of Chaucer. It i s at least true that P h i l l i p s ^ message i s hard to miss; he s p e l l s i t out f i r s t i n prose, then i n verse: I worship A p r i l ; i t i s the harbinger of a l l the joys we are so.constantly looking forward to: how proudly i s the brow of nature l i f t e d to receive i t s b r i d a l May! How g a i l y i s i t s head bedecked with every fragrant flower, that now buds f o r t h , and promises to bloom! I l i k e v a r i e t y , so give me A p r i l , and ever may we praise i t , as, with your attention, I w i l l now attempt. Sweet A p r i l , come, I love thy show'rs, Scented with early bloom and flow'rs, Alternate gloom, and sunshine b r i g h t , Morning of hope, and l i f e ' s d e l i g h t ; 33 Joyous we tread thy spangled lawn When A p r i l days begin to dawn, And.grateful o f t we praise that Pow'^^ Who gave the sunshine and the show'r. In the second and only other stanza of " A r i a , " P h i l l i p s touches on the joys of angling. He compares the country sport to the c i t y l i f e , andffinds the "c o u r t l y " world, or c i t y , to be " d u l l " and "toilsome" compared to the country. He also points out an appearance-reality tension, and says that nature cannot endure the falseness of "fashion." The idea i s fleshed out i n the stanza's closing couplet: We bask i n joys not framed by a r t , ^ Own but one monarch—that's the heart. P h i l l i p s i t a l i c i z e s "we" to draw attention to the angler's p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n . The angler's joy i s the joy that comes from recognizing untainted beauty; he r e j o i c e s i n that which i s , not i n that which i s merely represented to be. a t t r a c t i v e . P h i l l i p s idea seems to be that i t i s only the r e a l , the unvarnished truth, that should stimulate man, and that therefore can be of_ the heart. And, as P h i l l i p s suggests i n his f i r s t stanza, i t i s up to man to recognize that beauty exi s t s i n both sunshine and shower. Though h i s poetry does hot rank as high art, Phillipsfesconsiderable c r a f t i s quickly v i s i b l e i n h i s handling of metrics, rhyme scheme, and ideas. The philosophy of angling expressed i n The True Enjoyment i s a restatement of ideas that date back to Walton. P h i l l i p s acknowledges that "nothing can surpass [Walton's] beauty of 34 sentiment, his richness of ideas, or his simplicity, and perfection 27 of life...," and goes on to say that, although!" f ishing tackle and techniques may have advanced since Walton's time, man's "temper has not. Fortunately, however, there is hope in the genuine angler: the man who can enjoy our delightful recreation is heir to all those finer feelings [poetry, music, painting], of he is no Fisherman at heart....28 Paradoxically, some of the Phillips's ideas are simultaneously old and new. Though angling writers have long questioned the competitive nature of city life, it is only within. the last half century that Western man has truly begun to see that the work ethic might be blinding man to other delights. In his chapter on May, Phillips asks if he "can patiently view such artificial life [the ambition of the city-dweller], and 29 gaze as cooly on the real?" He then says that although industry employs and rewards people, there is a certain sham to the "heedles mazy round" because the participants of the mazy round are unconscious of what they are doing; they are merely "fancying" themselves to be happy.^  The reader who fancies that a book title identifies its contents can be as sadly misinformed as he who believes that hard work automatically leads to happiness. The Angling Friar  and the Fish Which he Took by Hook and by CrooK, a Comic Legend, by A. Novice, A.F. & F, and published in 1851, is neither comic, nor about angling. More accurately, it says precious little about angling, and it fails in its attempts to be humorous. Although it 35 is a verse work, it reminds of Medwin's Angler; it rambles through a variety of topics, none of which is particularly captivating. The reader is obliged to consider the trials and tribulationsnof a poor family, the life and times of friars in a monastery, and the joys and sorrows of a marriage party. The Teesdale Angler, by R. Lakeland, might tease an anxious angler, but like the Friar, promises more than it performs. In the main, Lakeland deals with fly-fishing and fly-tying, but little of his commentary is particularly noteworthy. His discussion of roe bait, however, does deserve mention. In complaining that toe is so effective that roe-users need not be skilful to be successful, Lakeland echoes many other anglersauthors. But Lakeland goes further; he suggests that because roe is so deadly, its use encourages poaching. And the case he made in 1858 has proven to be an altogether too-accurate prediction: In concluding this notice of Roe, I cannot refrain from expressing a hope that gentlemen willabstain from the use of it. By the purchase of Roe they hold out a premium to Salmon poachers who annually destroy immense numbers of spawning fish solely for the sake of Roe, the high price which it commands encourages them in their illegal pursuits.31 Although nearly half a century separates Lakeland from the four remaining works to be considered here—all by Augustus Grimble—the earlier writers' concerns are still present in Shooting and Salmon Fishing: Hints and Recollections, Salmon  Rivers of Scotland, Salmon Rivers of Ireland, and Salmon and  Trout Rivers of England and Wales, published in 1892, 1902, 1903, 36 and 1904 r e s p e c t i v e l y . (The l a s t two works were each published i n two volumes.) A l l are rather l i m i t e d , but each makes a con-t r i b u t i o n to the pool of angling l i t e r a t u r e . About one-third of Shooting and Salmon Fishing (chapter VI) i s devoted to the gentle art. In addition to debating angling e t h i c s , and pointing out wasteful practices (the g a f f i n g of salmon k e l t s ) , Grimble observes that rod-wearied f i s h might die even when released ungaffed to t h e i r native element. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s only i n recent years that s c i e n t i s t s have learned how the a n g l e r - f i s h b a t t l e creates t o x i c poisoning i n c e r t a i n game f i s h , and that toxic f a t a l i t i e s are far from uncommon. Although Grimble's philosophy of angling i s not e a s i l y determined, he obviously held l i t t l e respect for the "muffs" who took up salmon f i s h i n g merely because.the easily-managed Malloch 32 r e e l had been invented. Grimble's Salmon Rivers of Scotland i s best described as an angler's travelguide. Its main thrust i s to d e t a i l the best f i s h i n g r i v e r s , and the best times to f i s h them. Throughout the book, Grimble i s concerned about the decline and f a l l of salmon f i s h i n g i n Scotland, and the economics of both the sport and commercial f i s h e r i e s . The same basic format and concerns appear i n Salmon Rivers of Ireland, but t h i s two-volume work i s not e a s i l y put aside. In addition to the above-mentioned i n t e r e s t s , Salmon Rivers of Ireland focuses on p o l l u t i o n , overharvesting, and other matters that have only i n recent years become important to non-anglers. Because Grimble's writing is distressingly free of imagery, metaphor, or other artistic devices, the reader is happily surprised when he encounters a list of pools—or "casts," or "throws"—which immediately evokes imaginative responses: Fish Pass, The Colonel's Throw, Point of Mullins, The Ford, Tail of Island, Clarke's Cot, Moss Row, Branley's Hole, Captain's Rock, Grass Yard, Bank of Ireland, Mulligan's Hole, Garden Wall, Sod Ditch, Holly Bush, Kelly's Bank, Jack's Flat, Laputa, Cherry Mount, The Bridge at Ballyshannon.33 Although Grimble's style is reportorially stark, he can sometimes be very pleasing. And when both structure and sentiment of a sentence please the ear, he is doubly pleasing: Tooour mind there is no greater drawback to an angling trip than to feel one is bound to be at a certain pool at an uncomfortably early hour or lose his chance; in fact, one might just as' -well be going to business every morning and hurrying to catch the train. 34 Grimble's conjecture about the behaviour of different races of salmon is likely to please many readers. It might be that for many authors of angling books—Grimble and Walton included—conjecture often springs from an unconscious awareness that, like other creatures in nature, man lives and dies according to the same immutable laws. It is at least true that many modern-day fishery managers concern themselves about the sorts of issues Grimble supposed might be true: that a salmon's sense of smell, or a salmon's reluctance to rise to the fly might be genetically determined: 38 it has been continually noticed that prawns which have been cooked the day before being used often fail in the hands of the crack bait-fishers; while others coming behind them, though not so skilful, but using prawns boiled that morning, take fish after fish—a strong proof that the Galway fish, like their relations of the Shannon, have their senses of taste and smell more fully developed than the fish of the Scotch rivers, which are cajoled by prawns that have been bottled in glycerine for two or three years, and which as the cork is removed give off such an ancient and fish-like smell as to make the handling of them anything but a pleasure.35 Soon after the fish passes were made [Ireland's first ever fish passes were constructed on the Ballysadare River in 1840, and resulted in a sudden and remarkable-improvement in the river's catch record.] the angling became very good, and then by degrees the fish became indisposed to rise, though there were plenty of them. It is possible that this undesirable state of affairs may have been brought about by crossing the native fish with those of the Weser, in Germany.36 In Volume II of Salmon Rivers in Ireland—a continuation of Volume I—Grimble deplores the fact that "spurge-killed" fish are sold on the open market. Today, such acts would cause a public outcry simply because it is now generally known that the eating of poisoned fish can be a very risky business indeed. Grimble's concern suggests how angling authors' awarenesses often predate those of the general public by a considerable margin. Grimble's Salmon and Trout Rivers. of England and Wales is a companion to the volumes discussed above. The same general issues are raised; the same general observations are made. Canadian readers might be made slightly proud by Grimble's mention of a large salmon taken from Campbel River. According to the author, a Mr. William Tayleur caught eleven Wye River Salmon—from ten to twenty-eight pounds—during the first half of April, and that the 39 last-caught fish, a ten-pounder, was seen as "somewhat of a con-trast to one of 68 lbs. taken by him [Tayleur] on the 3rd September, 37 1899, from the Campbel River of British Columbia." On a less happy note, the same volume contains what today would be termed a damning indictment of man's greed and folly. And it once again illustrates that contemporary man's concern for his environment is at least a half-century late. That Grimble's concerns are clearly not new to angling authors of his period, or that angling authors have long been concerned about man's abuse of nature needs not proving to those familiar with the mainstream of the Izaak Walton tradition: In 1850™there were plenty of salmon and sea trout in the Twymyn; in 1860 there were none, for the stream ran from week-end to week-end the color of milk, while so virulent was the pollution that cattle and horses were poisoned to death by eating the herbage that had been covered by the lead water....^ 8 With regard to the pollution, the late Mr. Ffennell, the then Fishery Inspector, made the following very-much-to-the-point remarks: — Said he, "A miner will go any distance for the water required to work his machinery and clean his ore; no length of hill or moor will stop him if he can get the necessary fall, and if a land cut will not do he will ingeniously throw wooden aqueducts across the obstructive valleys; but ask the same men to allow the fish to live in the rivers below them, the poultry to pick up the sand without being killed, the cattle to drink the water or eat the herbage without fear of 'belan,' and you will find that the expense of digging a few catch pits and of clearing the refuse there by means of a ditch, or, may be, of a few fathoms of wooden open pipe, would absorb*; the whole profits of a mine which, like the Dylifa, employs three hundred ^ 9 hands and raises some two hundred tons of ore a month!" 40 Footnotes 1Thomas Williamson, The Complete Angler's Vade-Mecum (London, 1808), p. 273. 2 I b i d . , p. 14. 3 R i c h a r d Penn, Maxims and Hints f o r an Angler and M i s e r i e s  of F i s h i n g (London, 1833), pp. 7-8. 4 I b i d . , p. 27-28. ^Biographer of S h e l l y , and author of Conversations of Lord Byron. Thomas Medwin, The Angler i n Wales (London, 1834), I , 12. 7 I b i d . , 16. 8 I b i d . , 37. 9 I b i d . , 136. 1 0 I b i d . , 181. "''"'"Thomas Boosey, P i s c a t o r i a l Reminiscences and Gleanings (London, 1835), p. 27. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 89. 13, I b i d . , p. 18. l 4 I b i d . , pp. 19-20. 1^John Colquhoun, The Moor and the Loch, 5th ed. (London, 1880), I , 53. 1 6 I b i d . , 140. 1 7 I b i d . , I I , 275. 41 1 8 I b i d . , 239, 19 x I b i d . , 373. 20 Charles White, Sporting Scenes and Country Characters (London, 1840), p. 289. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 284. 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 273-74. 23 I b i d . , pp. 275-76. 2 4 I b i d . , pp. 278-79. 2 5 Henry P h i l l i p s , The True Enjoyment of Angling (London, 1843), pp. 30-31. 26 T... Ibxd. 27 lb i d . , p. 3. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 6. 29 Ib i d . , p. 42 . Ibxd. 3 1R. Lakeland, The Teesdale Angler (London, 1858), p. 71. 32 Augustus Grimble, Shooting and Salmon Fishing (London, 1892), p. 242. 33 August Grimble, Salmon Rivers of Ireland (London, 1903), I, 135. 34 J I b i d . , 2 1 . 3 5 I b i d . , 22-23. 3 6 I b i d . , 104. 42 Augustus Grimble, Salmon and Trout Rivers of England  and Wales, (London, 1904), I, 176. 38Ibid., 261. 39Ibid., 262-63. "The Handbooks" Although, there i s an admitted s i m i l a r i t y i n the content of the books of this and the preceding chapter, there i s also s u f f i c i e n t reason for separating the twenty-three works into two groups. As the chapter heading suggests, the ten books considered here c l e a r l y focus on the business o f t p r o v i d i n g useful information. There are few digressions into non-fishing matters, and there are few anecdotes that do not r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to f i s h i n g . I t remains, however, to explain why the works of Boosey and Grimble have been relegated to the previous chapter. There i s c e r t a i n l y no denying that both of them focus on f i s h i n g matters. Yet, when compared to works of t h i s chapter, i t i s equally clear that neither f u l f i l l s the r o l e of handbook wr i t e r . Boosey i s simply too encylopedic; h i s short-item approach gives h i s work a piecemeal q u a l i t y . Grimble i s the opposite; his desireeto impart h e l p f u l f i s h i n g hints i s submerged by discussions on s t a t i s t i c s and economics. An explanation as to why handbooks on angling merit serious study might also be timely. It would c e r t a i n l y be f o o l -hardy to suggest that the works of this chapter would excite the i n t e r e s t of academic c r i t i c s . Nevertheless, the works do i l l u s t r a t e both the impact of Izaak Walton and the long-standing 44 respect for the art of angling. To the angler-reader, at l e a s t , the handbook can provide both pleasure and enlightenment—virtues often claimed as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for reading works of the more recognized genres. In addition to having an avowed u t i l i t a r i a n purpose, handbook w r i t e r s , as a group, share a respect f o r e a r l i e r w r iters' ideas and a t t i t u d e s . (It might be noted that the works oft.th.is chapter, l i k e those of the preceding chapter, primarily belong to the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century.) It i s hoped that t h i s chapter w i l l show that handbook writers are concerned with much more than merely the p r o f i t motive of angling, or the p h y s i c a l pleasures that angling provides. The e a r l i e s t handbook considered here, T.F. Salter's The  Angler's Guide, i l l u s t r a t e s the point. The Angler's Guide can only be described as a very thorough text-book. The fact that i t s eighth p u b l i c a t i o n occurred within twenty years of the f i r s t p r i n t i n g — i n 1814—attests to i t s popularity. Much of the work's l i t e r a r y merit comes from the writers S a l t e r quotes. In., quoting from the f i r s t canto of Rural Sports, Salter says that "[John] Gay has given the Fisherman some wholesome advice... i n the following b e a u t i f u l lines....""'" S i m i l a r l y , when Salter acknowledges James Thomson, Moses Browne or Izaak Walton, he seems to do so more out of a desire to provide f i s h i n g information than out of a desire to provide reading pleasure. It i s probably safe to say that S a l t e r viewed facts as the foundation upon which the art of angling was constructed. C e r t a i n l y h i s motive i n wri t i n g i s clea r : 45 my pen has always been guided by a love of truth, and a sincere desire to improve an Art in which I so much d e l i g h t ; — a n d the p u b l i c a t i o n of i t proceeds wholly from a conviction that a p l a i n p r a c t i c a l ^ Guide to the Art of Angling was wanted.... It i s not s u r p r i s i n g that an author who respects both the art of angling and truth shouldaalso respect e t h i c s . And although Sa l t e r does not demean other forms of f i s h i n g , i t i s clear that he, l i k e so many other writers of angling, c r e d i t s f l y - f i s h i n g as the highest form of the gentle a r t . Even when giving i n s t r u c t i o n about l e s s e r forms of angling, Salter's philosophy i s ever-present: I have presumed to o f f e r my opinions and i n s t r u c t i o n s , as a guide to those who may be desirous of learning how to take Jack and Pike i n a f a i r , pleasing, and sportsman-like manner.... S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Salter not only believes that f l y - f i s h i n g i s the most praiseworthy method of taking f i s h , but that to f l y -f i s h as recommended by Walton's f r i e n d and d i s c i p l e Charles C o t t o n — f i s h f i n e and far o f f — i s " the "tie plus u l t r a of f l y -f i s h i n g . Like Salter's Guide, George Agar Hansard's Trout and  Salmon Fishing i n Wales, a handbook published i n 1834, includes a number of poetic asides, and i l l u s t r a t e s an obvious respect f o r the art of angling. As the t i t l e suggests, Hansard focuses on where to f i s h i n Wales, and how to catch the game f i s h of Wales—the salmon, trout, g r a y l i n g , and carp. Although Hansard acknowledges some of h i s sources, he does not acknowledge a l l . He does not say, for example, that Thomson penned the following d e s c r i p t i o n , or that the passage i s 4 6 taken from the poem Spring: — s h o u l d you lure From his dark haunt, beneath the tangled roots Of pendant trees, the monarch of the brook, Behooves you then to ply your f i n e s t a r t . Long time he following, cautious scans the f l y , And o f t attempts to seize i t , but as oft The dimpled water checks h i s jealous fear: At l a s t , while haply o'er the shaded sun Passes a cloud: he desperate takes the death With Sullen plunge; at once he darts along, Deep struck, and runs out a l l the lengthen'd l i n e , Then seeks the farthest ooze, the s h e l t e r i n g weed, The cavern'd bank, his old secure abode; And f l i e s a l o f t and flounces round the pool, Indignant of the g u i l e . With y i e l d i n g hand That f e e l s him s t i l l , yet to h i s furious course Gives way, you, now r e t i r i n g , following now, Across the stream, exhaust h i s i d l e rage; T i l l f l o a t i n g hard upon his breathless side, And to h i s fate abandoned, to the shore You g a i l y drag your un r e s i s t i n g p r i z e . ^ In addition to the handbook information and the poetic asides, Hansard discusses f i s h species, how spear-fishing i s conducted i n remote Canada, and Welsh idioms that might prove h e l p f u l to the t r a v e l l i n g angler. (His Welsh-English dictionary of common phrases teaches, for example, that a pysg or pysgod i s a f i s h . ) Despite possessing a wide-ranging i n t e r e s t , Hansard i s not i n a t t e n t i v e to d e t a i l . He provides a lengthy l i s t of in s e c t s , and discusses how to dress a r t i f i c i a l f l i e s which w i l l s u itably imitate the naturals. On several occasions, Hansard takes time to moralize. In a pssage describing the successful tempting of a "monarch of the brook," he anthropomorphizes to show how power corrupts. Doubtless many readers w i l l be happy to discover that the tyrant pays for his crime: 47 I have been often agreeably amused, s i t t i n g behind a bush that has hung over the water two yards or more, to observe the t r o u t s t a k i n g t h e i r rounds, and p a t r o l l i n g i n order, according to t h e i r q u a l i t y . Sometimes I have seen three or four p r i v a t e men coming up together under the shade; and p r e s e n t l y an o f f i c e r , or a man of q u a l i t y , of double s i z e , approaches from h i s country seat under a bank or great stone, and rushes among them, as f u r i o u s l y as I once saw a young j u s t i c e of the peace do upon three poor anglers. As I cannot approve of such proceedings, I have, w i t h some e x t r a o r d i n a r y p l e a s u r e , revenged the weaker upon the stronger, by dropping my b a i t h a l f a yard before him. With what an a i r of a u t h o r i t y have I seen the q u a l i f i e d — w h a t s h a l l I c a l l h i m?—extend h i s jaws, and take i n the d e l i c i o u s morsel, and then marching sl o w l y o f f i n quest of more, t i l l stopped by a smart stroke which I had given him; though there i s no occasion to do so i n t h i s way of f i s h i n g ; f o r the great ones always hook themselves.^ I t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r an angler-reader not to become q u i c k l y hooked on A l f r e d Ronalds' The F l y - F i s h e r ' s Entomology. With W.C. Stewart's The P r a c t i c a l Angler, i t shares the highest p o s s i b l e ranking f o r nineteenth century handbooks on a n g l i n g . And most of Ronalds' advice i s as v a l i d today as when i t was f i r s t p ublished i n 1836. Although the work contains considerable general i n f o r m a t i o n about f i s h and f i s h i n g , Ronalds' t i t l e suggests the focus. The f i r s t three chapters deal w i t h f l y - t y i n g , f e a t h e r - d y i n g , gut-s t a i n i n g , and how to f i s h f o r and play t r o u t and g r a y l i n g . Chapter IV, "An I l l u s t r a t e d L i s t of I n s e c t s , " i s f u l l y h a l f the book's le n g t h . I t i s a l s o c l e a r l y the work of a dedicated angler and entomologist, and the many p l a t e s of both the n a t u r a l i n s e c t s and t h e i r i m i t a t i o n s are t r u l y e y e - a r r e s t i n g . 48 The Fly-Fisher's Entomology ran through eleven editions in eighty-four years, and was s t i l l a standard work when republished under the editorship of H.T. Sheringham ( f i s h i n g editor of the Fiel d ) i n 1921. Like many others, Sheringham viewed Ronalds' work as one of the al l - t i m e great contributions to the pool of angling l i t e r a t u r e : although "concepts and interp r e t a t i o n s have alte r e d and are a l t e r i n g . . . the e s s e n t i a l value [of Ronalds' work] g i s u n l i k e l y to be bettered." It i s probably safe to say that much of Ronalds' v a l u e — a s indeed that of other angler-writers—stems from the fact that he paid close attention to the d e t a i l s of nature. He was not quick to accept the theories of "quacks and bunglers" who invented or espoused theories "to hide t h e i r want of s k i l l or spare i . • " 9 t h e i r pains.... Certainly Ronalds did not spare himself pains. For example, he b u i l t a fish-watching observatory i n order to gather the information he would otherwise only have been able to guess at. In addition to learning how very e a s i l y trout hold t h e i r positions i n r i v e r currents, he also learned that trout are very competitive i n t h e i r search for food. Like so many observations made by early angling authors (such as that above by Hansard), Ronalds' findings predate The T e r r i t o r i a l Imperative by a con-siderable margin: The stationary p o s i t i o n i n which the Trout i s enabled to maintain himself i n the most rapid stream, poised l i k e a hawk i n the a i r , was the f i r s t thing which'struck us, i n our observations. Even 49 the t a i l , which i s known to be the p r i n c i p a l organ of propulsion, could scarcely becobserved to move, and the f i n s , which are to balance him, seemed quite useless, excepting when he saw an ins e c t ; then he would dart with the greatest v e l o c i t y through the opposing current at h i s prey, and as quickly return. The st a t i o n which he occupies i n t h i s manner i s i n v a r i a b l y w e l l chosen. Should a f a v o r i t e haunt where food i s concentrated by the current be rather crowded by his fellows, he w i l l prefer contending with them f or a share of i t , to re s i d i n g long i n an unproductive l o c a l i t y . 1 0 Ronalds also considered matters r e l a t i n g to the f i s h ' s sense of hearing and smell with equal care. He quotes and agrees with S i r Humphrey Davy's "sound reasoning"''""'" that the p r i n c i p a l use of the n o s t r i l s i n f i s h e s . . . i s to a s s i s t i n the propulsion of water through the g i l l s for performing the o f f i c e of r e s p i r a t i o n ; but... there are some nerves i n these organs which give fishes a sense of the q u a l i t i e s of water, or of substances dissolved i n or diffused through i t , s i m i l a r to our sense of smell, or perhaps rather our sense of taste, for t h e i r can be'no doubt that fishes are attracted by scented worms which are sometimes used by anglers that employ ground b a i t s . . . . i t seems probable that as the q u a l i t y of water i s connected with t h e i r l i f e and health, they must be ex q u i s i t e l y sensible to changes i n water, and must have s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s to i t , to those which an animal with the most d e l i c a t e nasal organs has to the air.12 There can be l i t t l e doubt that had e a r l i e r s o c i e t i e s observed t h e i r environment with as much care and concern as did Ronalds, i t would be u n l i k e l y that the world's a i r , water, and s o i l would be as threatened as they are today. E c o l o g i c a l matters aside, what Ronalds observed as necessary f o r the complete angler applies equally w e l l to any who se r i o u s l y desire to be complete men: " i t requires ingenuity and perserverance, observation and 13 judgment, aye, t r a v e l too, and experience, to make an angler." 50 It would appear that John Younger was one such complete angler and man. Younger's small but charming handbook Oil River Angling for Salmon and Trout was first published in 1839. A eulogy from the Scotsman, quoted in the prefatory "Note to the Reader," says that Younger was "one of the most remarkable men of the south of Scotland; whether as a genial writer of prose or verse, or a man of high conversational powers, and clear common sense, the shoemaker of St. Boswells has few or no rivals in the south— in his death leaving behind him no enemies, and the memory of a guileless, unblameable, honest life." Younger's "clear common sense" is evident from first to last. He deplored long-winded treatises on angling, and, except for a few pardonable exceptions, he stuck to his last. His intention was to give only useful directions,divested of all the unnecessary discussions and superfluity of frivolous anecdote, which have hitherto tended ^ to swell the bulk of treatises on this subject. In one of his rare tangents, Younger takes to task the disclaimers of the angling art. He wonders whether they were not either overly sensitive or downright hypocritical: I believe, these sensitive gentlemen, the poets could all eat lamb, veal, and oysters,aas heartily as trouts can snap up lovely innocent flies, or gobble the small fry of their own species with all the mischievous appetite of a cannibal. And, alas! the sensibilities of genius give no sufficient guarantee for that consistency of character which would justify us in bestowing the designation of "a good man," on any human being.^  Younger's main concern is for the art of fly-fishing, and many of his basic theories—like that on choosing the correct salmon fly—are still very much in vogue: 51 What I advise relates more properly to the general combinations of the colours, shape and size of the fly, as suited to the state of the water, than to the particular materials ^ by which such a combination may be best effected. The experienced river angler also knows there is wisdom in Younger's recommendation that, when rivers are low and clear, the size of the fly should be reduced—if necessary, right down to trout-sized patterns.' Whether Younger is speaking of theoretically or practically, his style is always compact, crisp, and thorough: But I believe that in fishing, as in other things, example is more instructive than precept, and, there-fore, a beginner would do well to set himself to observe with attention an experienced fisher begin and go over a stream or cast: his easy position of body, method of casting, and manner of leading his line; and above all, should he hook a fish, the way he manages him, until he is laid "broad upon his breathless side" a rich and beauteous prize. For instance, he will not drag his fly across the stream, neither pull it against the current, which is a common error with beginners, and quite absurd. But in salmon fishing, he will, in throwing his line, direct it full out, to make the fly alight on the spot desired—not straight across the current, but slanting a little downwards, so that it may form as gentle a curve as possible; he will move it as slowly as the current will permit, over the spot where he expects the fish to be lying; he will make no perceptible motion to keep his fly on the surface, (except on a sluggish pool;) but let it sink a little, depending on feeling rather than on sight, and though apparently keeping no pull on his line, yet all the while able to detect the touch of a minnow.^  Although the sense of touch will always be important to the angler, it is most important to the wet-fly fisherman. In dry-fly fishing, the angler has an additional sense upon which to rely—sight. Younger wrote about wet-fly fishing. Basically, dry-fly fishing was to remain an almost unknown art;for many years to come. Almost, because G.P.R. Pulman, the first to write 52 of the new possibility, did so in his Vade-Mecum of Fly-Fishing for Trout, published in 1841, only one year after the publication of Younger's On River Angling. Although the Vade-Mecum enjoyed two later editions, it 18 seems to have been little read. The purpose, here, is not to explore Pulman's role in the development of dry-fly fishing, or to deplore the fact that Pulman had but slight impact on his angling contemporaries, but to illustrate that his work is a worthy—if little-read—contribution to the literature of angling. Certainly Pulman's value is not dependent on his being the first to write about dry-fly fishing. Even a cursory glance through the Vade-Mecum shows that its intention and execution clearly entitle it to a place among the worthy handbooks of the nineteenth century. What is more, it is also evident that Pulman recognized that he was not writing anything that resembled poetry. He also knew that in writing about fly-fishing, he was writing about the "most interesting and scientific branch of the [angling] art," and that his was a utilitarian purpose: Our aim and object is to produce a useful work—to furnish, not amusement but information; and this we shall endeavour to do in the best and clearest manner we are able.-*-9 Like Ronalds, Pulman bases his advice on personal experience or observation, and, like Ronalds, Pulman had a more than passing interest in entomological matters. In discussing caddis larvae, Pulman is simultaneously scientific and imagistic: 53 When seen at the bottomoof the water these cases [caddis cases] appear like short bits of stick, but they will be found, on examination, to be regularly and beautifully constructed of various materials—some of minute portions of the leaves and other parts of aquatic plants; others of pieces of reed, grass, and the like; and many of fine gravel, sand, and even little shell fish.20 No matter if he is giving hints on tackle, fishing methods, fishing seasons, fish behavior, or insects, Pulman's respect for the art of angling and for angling authorities is equally clear. (He frequently refers to, or draws from, Dame Juliana Berners, Izaak Walton, Sir Humphry Davy, Ronalds, Thomas Tod Stoddart, Professor Wilson, and Edward Fitzgibbon.) In his concluding praise of the angler and angling, Pulman says of anglers that they are "a more gifted and higher order of men than others....," and that he hopes his advice may help his pupil reader: May they afford thee profit—may they help to initiate thee, imperfect though they are, into the guileless mysteries of the "gentle craft"—to lead thee into the green fields, where, by the babbling brook, thou mightest commune with nature and thine own heart—where thou mightest forget for a while the cares and anxieties of life, and return again to thy daily duties, thy body strengthened, thyymind refreshed, thy thoughts elevated, thy desires purified, thy soul more keenly attuned to the wants and sympathies of thy?fellow men, and more impressed with the goodness and power of the Creator of all things.21 Like so many other handbooks on angling, Edward Chitty's The Illustrated Fly-Fisher's Text-Book, published in 1845, is more than merely a pleasant-to-read and moderately-thorough work. It is clear evidence that some of the nineteenth century's angling information and angling philosophy—with minor adjustments—is 54 admirably s u i t e d to the l a t e twentieth century. L i k e so many o t h e r s — i n c l u d i n g Walton and the famous f i s h - c o o k Thomas B a r k e r — C h i t t y a l s o respects f i s h as t a b l e -f a r e , and toward t h i s end, presents the reader with how-to-cook-i t advice. L i k e Boosey, C h i t t y was obviously w e l l versed i n a n g l i n g l i t e r a t u r e , and when he d i f f e r e d with o t h e r s , he d i d so i n a r e l a t i v e l y gentle and w i t t y f a s h i o n : I s h a l l now canvass some of the d o c t r i n e s of authors who have professed to teach "the young i d e a how to f i s h , " which I t h i n k q u e s t i o n a b l e , and which appear c a l c u l a t e d to m i s l e a d , i f they be not d e c i d e d l y e r r o n e o u s . . . " T h e beginner should commence l e a r n i n g to cast the f l y , having the wind on h i s b a c k . " T h i s , I must t e l l you depends on the force of the wind. I f i t be g r e a t , i t i s then easy enough to cast the f l y f o r w a r d , — b u t one i s never more l i k e l y to whip off f l i e s ; because i t s force prevents the l i n e becoming f u l l y extended b e h i n d ; nor w i l l i t a l i g h t s o f t l y , unless he c o n t r i v e to l e t i t blow f u l l out, and then, by lowering the p o i n t of the r o d , allow the f l y to f a l l of i t s own weight; which r e q u i r e s some experience. To a beginner my advice i s , to throw r a t h e r across the wind, than d i r e c t l y with i t , whereby he i s more l i k e l y to avoid both these m i s a d v e n t u r e s . . . And Mr. R o n a l d ' s , i n h i s F l y - F i s h e r ' s Entomology, i s only c o r r e c t i n recommending p r a c t i c e " a s h o r e , " when the object i s to achieve throwing among t r e e s , an a r t q u i t e d i s t i n c t from throwing on the w a t e r . . . . 2 2 C h i t t y ' s indebtedness to Walton i s evident i n both the form and content of The I l l u s t r a t e d F l y - F i s h e r . C h i t t y ' s f i r s t three chapters provide s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d advice on f i s h i n g and f i s h i n g e q u i p m e n t — l i n e s , r e e l s , r o d s , e t c . I r o n i c a l l y , the contemporary v a l i d i t y of C h i t t y ' s warnings about r e e l s emphasizes how l i t t l e r e e l manufacturers or anglers (or both) have learned i n one and one-quarter c e n t u r i e s : 55 Reels require very good and de l i c a t e workmanship, great strength, and l i t t l e weight of metal; a l l the parts should be clo s e l y f i t t e d to each other, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the inner revolving plate should be w e l l applied upon the ex t e r i o r f i x e d one. They should run f r e e l y , otherwise you cannot wind up s t e a d i l y ; and the la r g e r the diameter of the c i r c u l a r p l a t e s , and the narrower i n proportion the p i l l a r s or bars between them, the greater w i l l be the length of l i n e taken up at each turn of the handle.23 From chapter four onward, Chitty presents h i s material i n dialogue form. Though not so immediately engaging as Walton's dialogue, often enough i t i s metaphorically r i c h . In pointing out to his p u p i l , Herbert, the need f o r pr a c t i c e and industry, the teacher, Theophilus, says: P r a c t i c e , my worthy d i s c i p l e , p r a c t i c e , and you w i l l , i n proportion to your industry, sooner or l a t e r be able to answer "Anche i o son pescatore." Be not disheartened at the sight of the mountain i n your path. Ascend i t but half-way, and the prospect over what i s passed w i l l recompense a l l your former vexatious f a i l u r e s . Hope i s the angler's s t a f f : — w a l k hence with that, And manage i t against despairing thoughts.24 In keeping with the u t i l i t a r i a n purpose of handbooks, Chitty quotes a p r a c t i c a l reason for the angler "studying to be quiet." And, i n keeping with the handbook w r i t e r s ' respect for accuracy, Chitty bases h i s advice on an experiment he conducted. To determine how s e n s i t i v e f i s h are to the angler's presence, Chitty kicked "upon a soft clayey s o i l " while observing some re s t i n g salmon. He repeated h i s experiment several times, and because the f i s h "suddenly darted o f f " each time, he concluded that, even i f f i s h cannot hear, they can f e e l "every footstep which f a l l s near them," and that the angler i s therefore wise to ! 56 24 "glide along as quietly as possible...." On a more philosophic plane, Chitty urges the preservation of both spawning fish and fry, and says that the responsibility for preserving salmon rivers should rightly be borne by the entire community through which the river runs. Present day sociologists might see that Chitty is not altogether wrong in suggesting that by spending money to maintain angling (and, perhaps, other sports), man's disposition is improved, and his criminality is 25 reduced. To a significant degree, Chitty is still right when he suggests that anglers are "the only body of men" interested in protecting a river's upper reaches from the many deleterious 26 practices which plague them. The dangers, as today, were varied in 1845—greed, pollution, poaching being foremost: Then come the artifical injuries inanimate, such as mill races, heads, and leads, and eel baskets, in all of which the fry is destroyed by sackfuls on their journey to sea! and the foulness of water caused by manufactories, drives them from a river if it do^ fslc] not destroy them; their great human enemies are poachers, who make profit of the roe for bait....27 In addition to Chitty's being within bothtthe Walton and handbook traditions—if the two can indeed be separated— it remains to show how he also shares a common ground with the muscular writers—Colquhoun, Kingsley, and Wilson. Although Chitty is far less muscular, he does have a high regard for pure excitement. To Chitty, the tingle of triumph is a singularly significant sensation: Herb.—What a splendid fish! but how you tremble. Well done! Theoph.—Tremble!! Do you fight a salmon, even of this size, and you will find yourself 57 "another." Talk of excitement, catching a salmon i s the [acme] of i t ! ^ 8 The two Edward Fitzgibbon contributions considered h e r e — A Handbook of Angling and Book of the Salmon—were published three years apart, i n 1847 and 1850 respectively. In keeping with the handbook t r a d i t i o n , A Handbook deals with both p r a c t i c a l and philosophic matters. The f i s h i n g hints need not be enumerated. In terms of the Walton t r a d i t i o n , i t i s more i n s t r u c t i v e to pin-point sev.eraleof-rai Fitzgibbon's attitudes r e l a t i n g to the ethics and philosophy of angling. In b r i e f , Fitzgibbon views roe as a poaching b a i t , f l y -f i s h i n g as the highest form of the angling a r t , anglingaas a fa v o r i t e pastime of great people, and the triumph of art over brute force as being the true marvel of angling. Fitzgibbon was we l l aware that, though hard work i s required to become a Master a&gle^T^eJ.r... the master angler i s characterized by a deceiving 29 "ease, elegance, and e f f i c i e n c y . " Like Colquhoun, Fitzgibbon i s not shy about h i s personal prejudices. He returns Colquhoun's attack on English poachers with an attack on Scottish anglers, who he deemed very i n f e r i o r to t h e i r English cousins. But, f r i e n d l y Fitzgibbon kindly assures the Scottish that " i f they 30 follow [his] i n s t r u c t i o n s , they have nothing to fear . " Book of the Salmon, though important from the t r a d i t i o n a l viewpoint, i s also important for advancing the cause of modern f i s h culture. Whereas many e a r l i e r writers had touched on the subject of f i s h c u l t u r e — a s indeed had W a l t o n — i t remained for s p e c i a l i s t s to make the major breakthroughs. Compared to 58 Ronalds.1!, and Pulman's contributions to entomology, Fitzgibbon's contributions to biology seem rather pale. Nevertheless, it is true that his "Part the Second: The Natural History of Salmon" is significant. Unlike Ronalds and Pulman, Fitzgibbon did not speak from first-hand knowledge. He claimed only to be the writer, and credited Mr. Andrew Young of Invershin (manager of the Duke of Sutherland's northemsalmon rivers) as "the real 31 author—the communicator of the chief facts enumerated...." The modern reader might be surprised at some of the facts enumerated in Book of the Salmon. That salmon travel faster in warm water than they do in cold is now well accepted. 32 That Fitzgibbon reported that fact in 1850 is no less u surprising than his outlining what now are termed "spawning channels," and his warning that the first thing to be taken care of in this way of breeding salmon is that the spawning-beds which are to be artificially formed, be supplied if possible with the water from which the ova are taken. In making experiments on the growth of salmon-fry this precaution is more absolutely necessary than when one is breeding for the sole sake of stocking a river. IS all cases it will be advisable that the spawning and rearing-pohds be not fed with water of a temperature widely differing from that from which the spawn has been procured.^ 3 All is not sweetness and light, however. Among the errors Fitzgibbon makes are his claim that salmon fry and 34 parr are different species, and that it is "fresh water, no matter how pure its source [which renders] dark the bright, 35 silvery scales of fish fresh from the sea...." Readers who incline more toward ethics and philosophy than toward science might be surprised that the modern-day practice of intentionally foul-hooking fish is not so modern after 59 all. Fitzgibbon deplored it in 1850; he called it "stoke-36 hauling." Fitzgibbon also debunks—as "merely laughable"— the myth that salmon take their tails into their mouths pre-37 patatory to making ..high leaps. If Book of the Salmon needs any debunking, let it be on the grounds that among the authorities Fitzgibbon prefers to quote most frequently is the author of A Handbook of Angling. The Practical Angler _is already so thoroughly respected that a detailing of W.C. Stewart's role as handbook writer would be redundant. As with Book of the Salmon, it might be more timely to enquire into philosophic postulates of the work. Because The Practical Angler (first published in 1857) made its appearance only seven years after Book of the Salmon, it seems quite natural that'W.C. Stewart should make at least a passing contribution to the new science of fish-culture. And he did, by pointing out that waters can support only a certain weight of trout—either many and small, or few and large—that under natural conditions fish numbers are mainly dependent on spawning conditions, that drainage and flooding seriously injure both fish spawn and •fish food, and that pollution from "manufactories, bleachfields, etc. [which] send their dyes and other deleterious refuse straight 39 into the streams" causes serious havoc. It is unlikely that Stewart would be surprised to learn that much of what he pointed out has yet to be realized by the angling public. His awareness of the masses, hinted by his using a review of his own work that appeared in Blackwood's 60 Magazine, suggests as much: "That darkness rather than l i g h t i s the deliberate choice of the m i l l i o n . The best teaching i n the world i s thrown away upon s t u p i d i t y and s e l f -conceit, and that not only i n e t h i c s , but i n such p r a c t i c a l matters as a n g l i n g . " 4 U That Stewart suffered no serious i l l u s i o n s about his reading public i s further i l l u s t r a t e d by the care with which he made his prefatory remarks. Not only does he s p e l l out that he passes on only "tested" information, that he consulted both "the best professional anglers of the day" and many books on the subject, that the sole purpose of his work i s to convey information, but also that he has taken pains not to be misunderstood: "[I] have endeavored to make [the information] as d i s t i n c t as possible.... Despite a l l t h i s , many w i l l misunderstand Stewart. Some have already concluded that Stewart measured angling only i n pounds and ounces, and, by focusing on a few passages, i t i s easy to see how such a conclusion can be reached: We cannot see the j u s t i c e of an opinion that concludes the capture of a c e r t a i n number of trout sport, and of twice that number—taken by the same means—butchery. If the sport of angling l i e s i n the capture of f i s h , i t seems evident that the mo IE f i s h the better sport; and i t i s our in t e n t i o n to treat of the d i f f e r e n t branches of angling s o l e l y with the view of showing how the greatest weight of trout can be captured i n a given t i m e . ^ And, then again: "Our duty i s to point out how most t.rout, can be captured inra. ;giveri:ctimerC. .-"£3 how mosi -r • -he cap*'"-"! 'fl a ?lven time... - ' • 61 To judge Stewart s t r i c t l y on these quotations i s p e r i l o u s . For example, the l a t t e r quotation i s the conclusion to a com-parison of the merits of upstream and downstream f l y - f i s h i n g — n o t a blanket recommendation for k i l l i n g c r e e l f u l s of trout. It i s important to remember that Stewart's comments are re l a t e d to f l y - f i s h i n g . Had he been s o l e l y concerned with b i g catches, he would never even have discussed f l y - f i s h i n g . A f t e r a l l , he was f u l l y aware that b a i t f i s h i n g was far more e f f e c t i v e . To best understand Stewart's p o s i t i o n , other statements must be considered. For example, " i t i s unsportsman-like i n the 44 highest degree to k i l l f i s h that are of no use," and "Fish or no f i s h , whenever opportunity o f f e r s , the angler may be found 45 atcthe water-side." In the following passage, Stewart not only opposes both the use of the most e f f e c t i v e of a l l b a i t s and the k i l l i n g of r i p e f i s h , but demonstrates a breadth of p h i l o s o p h i c a l out-look that b e l i e s the big-catch suggestion: We have treated at considerable length of the four p r i n c i p a l methods usually employed for capturing trout. The reader may perhaps be disappointed that salmon-roe f i s h i n g has not been added as a f i f t h ; but our reason for keeping i t out i s , that we do not consider i t a j u s t i f i a b l e method of angling, the high p r i c e the roe brings a f f o r d i n g great, indeed the p r i n c i p a l , encouragement to the whole-sale destruction of breeding salmon which goes on i n Tweed and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s during close time. We think that i n the f i r s t Act introduced upon the subject of the salmon-fisheries, there should be a clause i inserted rendering i t i l l e g a l f o r any one to f i s h with salmon-roe, or to be found with i t i n h i s possession. Doing away with t h i s t r a f f i c would do more to protect the Tweed than a l l the w a t e r - b a i l i f f s between Tweedsmuir 6 2 and Berwick. There are c e r t a i n l y a few salmon taken shortly beforetthe f i s h i n g close, with roe s u f f i c i e n t l y matured for curing; but the roe, l e g a l l y obtained i n t h i s way, i s not a hundredth part of that taken i l l e g a l l y during the close time. Moreover, the fact of salmon being caught i n this state i n the open season proves that the r i v e r s are open too long, and that the law should be a l t e r e d i n t h i s respect also.^6 The a l e r t reader w i l l have seen that the parenthetical aside in Stewart's comment on sport and butchery—"taken by the same means"—and the " i f " are p a r t i c u l a r l y important. If the a l e r t reader i s also an experienced angler, he w i l l know why Stewart would rate f l y - f i s h i n g over b a i t - f i s h i n g ( b a i t -f i s h i n g i s the e a s i e r , and "there i s more merit...in e x c e l l i n g 47 i n what i s d i f f i c u l t . . . " )', and why Stewart would avoid deciding the gradation of.merit for the various f i s h i n g techniques (for one thing, a technique which proves d i f f i c u l t one day might well prove easy the next). It i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Stewart would avoid becoming embroiled in such tedious matters. For the same reason, he would avoid t r y i n g to specify the number of f i s h which separated the catch of sport from the catch of butchery. Fleshed out, h i s case would stand thusly: if the sport i n angling rests only on the catching of f i s h , then the more f i s h caught, the better i s the sport; ±f_ the sport i n angling rests p a r t l y i n the catching of f i s h i i i g and p a r t l y i n the method used to catch them, then only by comparing cratches taken by i d e n t i c a l methods can the sport be measured; if...where...; if...when...; if...weather...; i f , 63 the sport in angling rests only in the not catching of fish, then the fewer fish caught, the better is the sport; but jtf the sport in angling does not rest on the number of fish caught, all talk of numbers in meaningless. Stewart left his reader to decide how to fish and how many fish to take; his intentions seem to have been merely to teach the most efficient ways to capture trout, and the need to be chary of definitions. Charles Henry Cook's The Book of the Ail-Round Angler made its first appearance in 1888, nearly a quarter century after The Practical Angler. It is important for the traditional reasons, and because it advanced the cause of the ecologically-interested. Once again, it should be unnecessary to dwell on the practical matters dealt with, or on Cook's basic motives. The "Publisher's Note to the Fifth Edition" hints at the thoroughness of the work—in thirty-four years, it "enjoyed the remarkable circulation of over 150,000 copies..., and [was undoubtedly one of] the most widely read work[s] on angling in 48 the world", and Cook's prefatory, statement of purpose fits squarely into the handbook tradition: My ideal text-book on angling...is a work which omits no necessary information, contains no technical terms without an explanation of them, and enables a person who is entirely ignorant of the subject to understand it....™ That Cook recommends grayling fishing largely because it stretches out the fly-fishing season,is additional evidence of his high regard for the joys of the angling art's highest form: 64 Fly-fishing is deservedly popular, and the reasons are.mot far to seek. This branch of our sport affords us active exercise amidst the most beautiful scenery our islands can boast—sometimes pastoral and peaceful, at others wild and majestic. Theffish caught are the most game and sportive of any found in the United Kingdom, and their capture often involves much skill, combined with a knowledge of insect life and natural history. No noisome baits or ground baits are required, and the fish, when cooked, provide us with agreeable food.51 That Cook discusses matters relating to fish-culture and pollution indicates a growing—or at least continued—interest in both those subjects. His rather unique belief.that the 52 "cunning of fish" was increasing,rapidly, is not unworthy of consideration. Cook's angling companion William Senior (Red Spinner), himself a highly respected authority on fish and fishing, says this on the subject: You will sometimes meet men who laugh to scorn the notion that fish are becoming educated. Education may not, perhaps, be precisely the word to use in such a case, but we are bound to face the fact that every year fish not only seem to be,;;but really are, harder to catch. Whether fishing makes fish more wary is still much debated. So is the question of whether adult salmon feed in fresh water. Cook's statements regarding the salmon-feeding question are as sounds as ever—though it is ntw suspected that a chemical change in the pituitary gland is a signal causative factor behind the change from the salt- to the fresh-water behavior: It is rare to find food in salmon caught either in fresh or salt water, and a long and careful scientific examination of the fish led to the conclusion that salmon while in fresh water suffered from an atrophy of the digestive organs which rendered them incapable of assimilating food. It was afterwards found, however, 65 that c e r t a i n post-mortem changes had misled the • observers, who had not examined f i s h s u f f i c i e n t l y , f r e s h l y caught for t h e i r purpose. In view of the facts;.that salmon i n spring often prefer a gudgeon to a gaudy f l y , take l i k e - b a i t i n such r i v e r s as the Hampshire Avon, swallow hugh lumps of worms i n flo o d time, and even;rise l i k e trout to March browns and may be caught on the dry f l y , i t i s hardly arguable that they do not feed i n r i v e r s . That they feed but l i t t l e seems f a i r l y certain.54 Because man values f i s h , and because f i s h stocks were de c l i n i n g , i t i s natural that means of a s s i s t i n g nature would be sought. The previously-mentioned spawning channel i s one such means. To c l a r i f y his spawning-channel theories, Cook employed diagrams—including a cross-section. And to ind i c a t e how serious were some of the p r i n c i p a l reasons for the decline i n f i s h stocks, he charged the government with "criminal neglect" for not dealing " d r a s t i c a l l y with p o l l u t i o n s , and stupid „55 over-netting. 66 Footnotes ''"Thomas Frederick S a l t e r , The Angler's Guide, 8th ed. (London, 1833), p. 339. 2 Ibid. , p. u i . 3 Ibid., p. v (my i t a l i c s ) . 4 I b i d . , p. 271. ^George Agar Hansard, Trout and Salmon Fishing i n Wales (London, 1834), pp. 17-18. 6 I b i d . , p. 227. 7 I b i d . , pp. 78-79. H.T. Sheringham, ed. The Fly-Fisher's Entomology, by A l f r e d Ronads (London, 1921), p. x i i i . 9 Ronads, Entomology, p. 17. 1 0 I b i d . , pp. 8-9. "'""'"Which appears on pages 28 and 184 of the 5th ed. of Salmonia, discussed below. 12 Ronalds, Entomology, pp.18-19. 13 Ib i d . , p. 65. 14 John Younger, River Angling for Salmon and Trout (Edinburgh, 1864), p. 10. "'""'ibid., p. 75 (Younger's i t a l i c s ) . " ^Ibid. , p. 25. ^ 7 I b i d . , pp. 56-57 (Younger's i t a l i c s ) . 18 See Seringham's "Introduction" to Ronalds' Entomology, p. x i v . 19 George P h i l i p Rigney Pulman, Vade-Mecum of F l y - F i s h i n g  f o r Trout, 2nd ed. (London, 1846), p. 19 (Pulman's i t a l i c s ) . 20 Ibid., p. 25. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 103-104. 22 Edward Chitty, The I l l u s t r a t e d Fly-Fisher's Text Book (London, 1845), pp. 110-111. 23 J I b i d . , p. 15. 0 / I b i d . , p. 151 (Chitty's i t a l i c s ) . 2 5 I b i d . , p. 208. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 206. 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 202-203. 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 166-167. 29 Edward Fitzgibbon, A Handbook of Angling, 3rd ed., cor. and improved (London, 1853), p. 12. 30 Ibid., p. 135. 31 Edward Fitzgibbon, The Book of the Salmon (London, 1850), p. 157. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 218. 3 3 I b i d . , pp. 230-231. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 162-163. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 201. 68 3 6 I b i d . , p. 144. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 210. 38W.C. Stewart, The P r a c t i c a l Angler, 8th ed. (Edinburgh, 1883), pp. 18-19. 3 9 I b i d . , p. 25. Ib i d . , p. x. 41 Ibid.", p. v i i i . 4 2 I b i d . , p. 11. 4 3 I b i d . , p. 74. 4 4 I b i d . , p. 23. 4"^Ibid. , p. 3. 4 ^ I b i d . , pp. 214-15. 4 7 I b i d . , p. 4. A O Charles Henry Cook, The Book of the All-Round Angler, 5th ed. rev., (London, 1922), p. v i i . 49 Ibid., p. v i . 5 0 I b i d . , p. 50. "^ I b i d . , p. 3. 52,,., I b i d . , p. v i . "The Sketches and Songs" It i s f r e e l y admitted that this i s an inadequate chapter. To deal with the nineteenth century's angling sketches and angling songs i n one chapter i s to deal inadequately with both. Both deserve det a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , but detailed investigations into either area are simply beyond the scope of t h i s study. What has been attempted here i s r e l a t i v e l y straightforward. "Sketches" has been used to define non-book-length., forays into the subject of angling. None of the three sketch writers considered here was deeply involved i n w r i t i n g about angling, though two of them were c l e a r l y serious w r i t e r s . Those two— John Wilson (Christopher North) and Charles Kingsley—have con-t r i b u t e d sketches which have earned the respect of serious authors of angling works. The t h i r d sketch-writer—Edward B a r n a r d — f a i l e d i n an attempt to publish h i s 1833 manuscript, "Angling Memories and Maxims." The work, published three-quarters of a century l a t e r i n the Chronicles of the Houghton Fishing Club, i s l i k e l y representative of a great many sketches which, though never published would shed l i g h t on the century's attitudes toward the gentle a r t . The work of Wilson and Kingsley i s l i k e l y representative of many a r t i c l e s or essays which, though published i n p e r i o d i c a l s or as 70 chapters i n book-length works, would require considerable research to uncover. The "songs," or verses, considered here, come from the pens of writers who were e i t h e r not d i r e c t l y i n the mainstream of angling l i t e r a t u r e , or whose verse works are best considered separately from t h e i r prose contributions. Once again, no attempt has been made to uncover poems published separately, or i n p e r i o d i c a l s . John Wilson's angling sketches appear i n two basic forms: dialogue conversation and essay commentary. His con-v e r s a t i o n a l passages, contained i n contributions to Blackwood's  Magazine between 1822 and 1835, are of l i t t l e merit simply because they are an inconsistent body of material. More than f i f t y percent of the seventy "Noctes" published by the magazine— and which were l a t e r gathered together and published i n Noctes  Ambrosianae—rhave been d i r e c t l y credited to Wilson,"^ but within that mass of material, Wilson only deals with angling matters on a few occasions. The conversational sketches of the Noctes are more d i v e r t i n g than they are i n s t r u c t i o n a l . Much of the Noctes' reading pleasure comes from a combination of easy-flowing conversation and dry wit. The point can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n a passage i n which discussion of a medal for Tweed-caught salmon sparks an e n t e r t a i n i n g l y imaginative, and obviously embellished, explanation of a v i c t o r y over a monarch of the r i v e r : North. By the by, James [James Hogg], who won the salmon medal this season on the Tweed? Shepherd [Hogg]. Wha, think ye, could i t be, you coof, but masel!? I beat them a' by twa stane 71 wecht. Oh, Mr. North, but i t wou'd hae done your heart gude to hae daunder'd alang the banks wi' me on the 25th, and seen the slauchter. At. the t h i r d thraw the snoot o' a famous f i s h sookit i n ma f l e e — a n d for some seconds keepit steadfast i n a sort o' eddy that gaed s u l l e n l y s w i r l i n ' at the t a i l o' yon p o o l — I needna name't—for the r i v e r had r i s e n just to the proper p i n t , and was black as ink, accept when noo and then the sun struggled out frae atween the clud-chinks, and then the water was purple as heather-moss, i n the season o' b l a e b e r r i e s . But that verra instant the f l e e begun to b i t him on the tongue, for by a jerk o' the wrist I had s t r i c t l y gi'en him the b u t t — a n d sunbeam never swifter shot frae heaven, than shot that saumon-beam doon i n t i l and oot o' the pool below, and alang the sauch shallows or you come to Juniper Bank. C l a p — c l a p — c l a p — a t the same instant played a couple o' cushats frae an aik aboon my head, at the purr o' the p i r n , that l e t oot, i n a twinklin' a hunner yards o' Mr. Phin's best, S t r a n g aneuch to haud a b i l l or a rhinoceros. North. Incomparable tackle! Shepherd. Far, f a r awa' doon the f l o o d , see t i l l him, s i r — s e e t i l l him l o u p — l o u p — loupin' i n t i l the a i r , d e s c r i b i n ' i n the spray the r i n n i n ' rainbows! Scarcely cou'd I b e l i e v e , at s i c a distance, that he was the same f i s h . . . . But we were linked thegither, s i r , but the inveesible gut o' d e s t i n y — a n d I chasteesed him i n h i s pastime wi 1 the rod o' a f f l i c a t i o n . . . . Snuvin up the stream he goes, hi t h e r and t h i t h e r , but s t i l l keepin' weel i n the middle—and noo strecht and steddy as a bridegroom r i d i n ' to the k i r k . ^ North. An o r i g i n a l image. For the Noctes as for the Recreations of Christopher North,.Wilson adopted the psuedonym Christopher North. The Recreations, f i r s t published i n 1842, contains h i s clearest statements about angling. From the opening part of "Fytte F i r s t , " under the chapter heading "Christopher i n his Sporting Jacket," Wilson's admiration for angling i s c r y s t a l c l e a r : 72 There is a fine and beautiful alliance between all pastimes pursued on flood, field, and fell. The principles in human nature on which they depend, are all the same [but] angling seems the earliest of them all in the order of nature.3 Wilson goes on to describe the angler's child-to-adult development in terms faintly reminiscent of Wordsworth's "Intimations of Immortality." With bent pin, worm, yarn-thread line, and willow wand, the "new-breeched urchin" catches his first prize, "a fish a quarter of an ounce in weight, and, 4 at the very least, two inches long!" Fr om that moment, the urchin has become transformed to a child: Angling is no more a mere delightful daydream, haunted by the dim hopes of imaginary minnows, but a reality—an art—a science—of which the flaxen-headed schoolboy feels himself to be master—a mystery in which he has been initiated; and off he goes now all alone, in the power of successful passion to the distant brook....5 From his experiences in the "huge forest of six acres," the child gains new insights and sensibilities to nature. He now has a two-piece, "half-crown" rod and a twisted-hair line— "plaited by his own soon-instructed little fingers." Soon he is fly-fishing,.and soon, too, the yellow trout forsakes his fastness beneath the bog-wood, and with a lazy wallop, and then a sudden plunge, and then a race like lightning, changes at once the child into the boy, and shoots through his thrilling and aching heart the ecstasy of a new life expanding in that glorious pastime, even as a rainbow on a sudden brightens up the sky.6 Experience and time—"springs, summers, autumns, winters— each within itself longer, by many times longer than the whole year of adult life," imperceptibly but inevitably change the boy 73 into a youth. Adulthood comes with the landing of a salmon, a fish "fat, fair, and forty:" "She is a salmon, therefore to be woo'd— shells a salmon, therefore to be won"—but shy, timid, capricious, headstrong, now wrathful and now full of fear, like any other female whom the cruel artist has hooked by lip or heart, and, in spite of all her struggling, will bring to the gasp at last; and then whith calm eyes behold her lying in the shade dead or worse than dead, fast-fading, and to be re-illumined no more the lustre of her beauty, insensible to sun or shower, even the most perishable of all perishable things in a world of perishing!7 Elsewhere in Recreations Wilson makes passing comments about angling, but none is as complete as the essay commentary cited above. In his chapter entitled "Our Parish," Wilson includes a brief sketch which clearly illustrates his muscular writing style. It has, if it needs another virtue, captured a moment of truth that must surely be experienced by any serious angler: Better far from sunrise to sunset never to move a fin, than ohli'me miserable! to hook, a huge hero with shoulders like a hog—play him till he comes floating side up close to the shore, and then to feel the feckless fly leave his lip and begin gamboling in the air, while he wallops away back into his native element, and sinks utterly and for evermore into the dark profound. Life loses attsuch a moment all that makes life desirable—yet strange! the wretch lives on—and has not the heart to drown himself, as he wrings his hands and curses his lot and the day he was born.^  Equally muscular is "Chalk Stream Studies," Charles Kingsley's single but important contribution to the pool of angling literature. By the time "Chalk Stream Studies" was first published—in 1858—delicacy was already a guiding principle of 74 the art of angling. Kingsley might have handled h i s trout with delicacy, but he was d e l i c a t e i n no other way. He even took time to spoof sentimentalism: Beloved a l d e r - f l y ! would that I could give thee a s o u l . . . f o r a l l the pleasant days thou hast bestowed oh me. Bah! I am becoming p o e t i c a l . 9 Throughout "Chalk Stream Studies" Kingsley used a modified monologue presentation to enable him to report an imaginary companion's thoughts and actions. The companion, of course, i s the reader. The method proved p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable i n painting comic episodes: There,—you are through; and the Keeper s h a l l hand you your rod. You have torn your trousers, and got a couple of thorns i n your shins. The one can be mended, the other p u l l e d out. Now, jump the feeder. There i s no run to i t , so,—you have jumped i n . Never mind; but keep the point of your rod up. You are at l e a s t saved the l i n g e r i n g torture of getting wet inch by inch....10 It would seem that Kingsley's r e a l worth i s not found so much i n what he said , but i n how he sa i d i t . He could have s a i d , for example, that chub were poor table f i s h . But not Kingsley; that would have been too l a c k - l u s t r e . Instead, he says that i t i s possible to make a most accurate imita t i o n of him by taking one of the Palmer's patent candles, wick and a l l , s t u f f i n g i t with needles and s p l i t b r i s t l e s , and then stewing the same i n ditch-water.H But muscular though h i s s t y l e may be, and overtly humorous though he c l e a r l y i s , Charles Kingsley's d e s c r i p t i v e power, o p t i m i s t i c mood, general good nature, and genuine love f o r the gentle art c l e a r l y e n t i t l e him to a place among the nineteenth 75 century writers of angling l i t e r a t u r e . The less-muscular t r e a t i s e by Edward Barnard, "Angling Memories and Angling Songs," appears to have been rejected by a publisher.on the grounds that i t was too i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n character, that i t s accidents and jokes were "too much...of a 12 c o t e r i e . " Those might be underlying reasons why the t r e a t i s e was published posthumously i n the Chronicles of the Houghton Fishing  Club, a h i s t o r y and diary-type record of the club i n which Barnard was for years an active member. Despite the fact that the would-be publisher's c r i t i c i s m appears v a l i d , and despite the fact that much of Barnard's humor i s too forced, the modern angler-reader can l e g i t i m a t e l y be pleased that Barnard's l i t t l e work was published i n the Chronicles. One can learn, for example, that Barnard, who penned his t r e a t i s e i n 1833, made entomological observations that were c l e a r l y of the kind—though not degree—observable i n the l a t e r -written works of Pulman and Ronalds. It i s also worth observing that Barnard's c r i t i c i s m of a poem he quotes (from an 1833 e d i t i o n of Penny Magazine) centers on a very minute error . Barnard moves d i r e c t l y from correctingtthe f a u l t to passing on the con-clusions he drew from personally observing what today i s c a l l e d "the fisherman's curse." Anglers know only too w e l l that Barnard's statements are accurate: The error, I conceive, has arisen from not remarking the difference between the f l y i n i t s most perfect state, a f t e r i t has s h i f t e d the skin in which i t quits the water, and before that change has 76 t aken p l a c e . In the l a s t s t a g e i t r e t u r n s to t h e w a t e r t o d e p o s i t t he egg , and d i e s e x h a u s t e d by the o p e r a t i o n ; i n the f i r s t s t a g e i t remains a c e r t a i n t i m e , v a r y i n g p r o b a b l y w i t h d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s b e f o r e i t r e t u r n s to the w a t e r . T h e r e i s i n t h i s c o u n t r y a m inu te t r a n s p a r e n t s p e c i e s , bu t l i t t l e b i g g e r than a s m a l l g n a t , wh i ch r e t u r n s t o t he w a t e r f r e q u e n t l y i n m y r i a d s a t s u n s e t and i s known by the name o f " t h e f i s h e r m a n ' s b a n e " — f o r though i t i s so m i n u t e , y e t , when the f l y i s t o be h a d , the f i s h n e g l e c t the l a r g e r and a p p a r e n t l y more t e m p t i n g m o r s e l . - ^ A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r t h e poe t n o r t he t i t l e i s i d e n t i f i e d , the a n g l e r - r e a d e r w i l l q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e why B a r n a r d deemed f i t t o quote the n i n e - s t a n z a work. Anyone who has ever'; o b s e r v e d an a q u a t i c i n s e c t emerge f rom b o t h t h e w a t e r and i t s a q u a t i c ca se w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t , f o l l o w i n g i t s s t r u g g l e t o b r e a k f r e e f rom i t s i m p r i s o n i n g - a n d - n o - l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y s h e l l , t he n e w l y - f r e e and a i r b o r n e i n s e c t s h o u l d r e j o i c e . The o p e n i n g s t a n z a p i c t u r e s j u s t such a f e e l i n g : The sun o f the eve was warm and b r i g h t , When the M a y - f l y b u r s t h i s s h e l l ; And he w a n t o n ' d a w h i l e i n t h a t f a i r l i g h t O ' e r the r i v e r ' s g e n t l e s w e l l ; And the deepen ing t i n t s of t he c r imson sky ^ S t i l l g l e a m ' d on the w ing o f the g l a d M a y - f l y . S i m i l a r l y , anyone who has e v e r c o n s i d e r e d h i s own t ime and p l a c e i n t he scheme o f t h i n g s , and who has c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the l i f e span o f d i f f e r e n t c r e a t u r e s i n n a t u r e i s s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r modes o f f u l f i l l m e n t , i s l i k e l y t o g ra sp the p o e t ' s e x h o r t a t i o n i n the f i n a l s t a n z a . Man s h o u l d t ake a l e s s o n f r o m t h e M a y - f l y , and app roach d e a t h w i t h d i g n i t y and peace o f m i n d : 77 The years and the minutes are as one; The f l y drops i n h i s t w i l i g h t m i r t h , And Man, when h i s X l o n g day's work i s done Crawls to the self-same e a r t h . Great Father of each! may our m o r t a l day Be the prelude to an endless May.1^ Barnard's attempts at humor need not be repeated h e r e . What i s more to the p o i n t i s that h i s general good n a t u r e , and love of both a n g l i n g and e x t e r n a l nature i n a l l t h e i r minutae, are evident from f i r s t to l a s t . His j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a n g l i n g as a praiseworthy pastime hinges p a r t l y on those l o v e s , and p a r t l y on the gentle c r a f t ' s a b i l i t y to s t i r i n t e r e s t and hope. In B a r n a r d ' s view, the d i f f i c u l t i e s of angl ing are a c a t a l y s t . Even the s k i l l e d angler who has experienced a poor catch has reason to r e j o i c e i n h i s a r t : If only moderate success f o l l o w s , i t i s an admirable moral lesson to r e f l e c t upon and be content w i t h what we have caught; and, i f the worst b e f a l l s us, and no s i n g l e f i s h rewards the patience and the t o i l , s u r e l y the e x e r c i s e , the h e a l t h , the opportunity f o r studying n a t u r e , ought to s a t i s f y the mind of a reasonable man that h i s time i s not m i s -spent nor h i s labour wasted.16 The fact that nineteenth century a n g l i n g sketches and a n g l i n g songs are here discussed i n one chapter echoes the apparent b e l i e f of the e d i t o r s of the C h r o n i c l e s and Songs of the Edinburgh A n g l i n g Club thattiunity of subject m a t t e r — t h e a n g l i n g l i t e r a t u r e genre—was s u f f i c i e n t reason to i n c l u d e the two techniques i n a s i n g l e b i n d i n g . Both works are here used f o r two a d d i t i o n a l purposes: to i n d i c a t e the a n g l i n g a u t h o r s ' s i m i l a r i t y of thought and f e e l i n g , and to serve as a t r a n s i t i o n from the prose to verse treatments. 78 Whereas Chronicles i s prose-centered, Songs i s verse centered. The prose asides of Songs, l i k e the p o e t i c asides of prose works, r e f l e c t the s p i r i t of the Walton t r a d i t i o n . Sometimes the prose passages e x h i b i t notable a n g l i n g sentiments. In a passage e x p l a i n i n g why a l l manner of g e n t l e m e n — w r i t e r s , lawyers, a r t i s t s , men of l e t t e r s and s c i e n c e — v i s i t the "Robin's Nest" ( (headquarters of the Edinburgh Angling C l u b ) , Walton's i d e a that f i s h i n g re-creates the man comes q u i c k l y to mind. At the Robin's Nest, anglers " l e t t h e i r poor b r a i n s l i e f a l l o w f o r a w h i l e , " and, up to t h e i r middle i n the Tweed, l e t the f r e s h a i r blow new* l i f e i n t o them."''7 S i m i l a r l y , a d e s c r i p t i o n of an angler's b a t t l e w i t h a fresh-run salmon i s worthy of the a t t e n t i o n s of any reader not yet jaded by the concrete jungles of the Twentieth Century: A sudden snatch sends a t h r i l l of a n g e l i c joy up the l i n e , cbwn the rod, and i n t o the fisherman's heart of h e a r t s . " I have him!" Then comes the tug of war! Up the stream, down the stream, rushes the b i g f i s h ! The r e e l creaks, the l i n e spins out. Fast and f u r i o u s i s the s t r u g g l e ; but,ssometimes g i v i n g , sometimes t a k i n g , always s t e a d i l y keeping him on, the angler begins at l a s t to wind him i n . A s i l v e r s t r e a k i i s seen through the rushing stream, and, w i t h a w i l d dash f o r freedom, the Salmon springs i n t o the a i r , and f a l l s back i n t o the r i v e r w i t h a s p l a s h . A l l i n v a i n ! and i n f i v e minutes more the s h i n i n g creature i s drawn gently to the bank, where Robert [Edinburgh Angling Club g i l l i e ] i s w a i t i n g f o r him w i t h the landing net. Inhhalf a minute twenty poands weight of f i s h i s gasping on the sward, and the angler knows one of those moments of supreme joy which are too seldom experienced by f r a i l m o r t a l i t y I t i s worth n o t i n g , i n passing, that the above prose passag are focused more on i l l u s t r a t i n g the f e e l i n g s that a n g l i n g can s t i m u l a t e than on demonstrating the knowledge that helps make an 79 angler proficient. Although much of angling's prose literature is of a utilitarian bent, it is by no means true that sentiments like the above are found only in the verse expressions of the angling art. Similarly, angling poetry often includes much technical and informative data. The above-quoted verse on the May-fly is a case in point. So, too, is a ten-stanza verse written in 1840 that also appeared in tha'Chronicles. Stanzas one and five give evidence that even among those who fished the river Test, dry-fly fishing was not practiced till after 1840':; Oh I love to stray by the purling brook On a dark and windy day, With my rod and my line and a well-stored book, In the genial month of May. I steal to his haunt, and I take my stand, My fly on the stream falls light; The dash! the plunge! one twitch o' the hand And the straining line is tight.x9 Bright, sunshiny weather was as much an anathema to the old-school wet-fly fisher as allight breeze was his ally. So, too, the "book" is a receptacle for wet flies as the "box" is for dry flies. And, finally, one of the truly remarkable phenomena of trout fly-fishing is the fact that whereas trout frequently take a wet-fly rather hurriedly, they are more inclined to gently breathe in the dry-fly. The prose-diary Chronicles, published in 1908, spans a period of 86 years. Songs of the Edinburgh Angling Club, first published in 1858, represents an eleven-year record, the club being formed in 1847. The latter volume is clearly devoted to praising angling and its related activities through verse and 80 song. It is impossible to epitomize neatly the flavor of the collection, but a few sample stanzas can illustrate the breadth of sentiment and techniques used by the usually-anonymous versifiers. In "Dum Capimus Capimur," an obvious comparison is made between life and a stream. Life, or the individual man, is transitory; the stream, or nature, is eternal. Life, like the stream, has many moods. The sentiment suggested, apparently, is tha-man can learn to participate passively, can learn to accept that there is harmony in the contrary of opposites: Life is like a running stream, Heigh ho! Dark'ning now, and now a gleam, On its banks we sit and dream, Heigh ho! Still the stream is running on Heigh ho! Soft o'er moss, now rough o'er stone, Mirthful now, and now a moan, Heigh ho! Anglers all, we're fishing there Heigh ho! Catching trifles light as air, Till death takes us unaware, Heigh ho! Kenmure Maitland's "Ye Lament of Ye Fraser," one of the few writer-identified works and one of the volume's longer selections, maintains a mock-heroic tone and metrical pattern throughout, makes a few barbed comments that emphasize what the angling ethic should be, and alludes to two well-known anglers of the day—Professor North and W.C. Stewart, "author of 'The 21 Art of Angling' [sic]...." The incident described evidently occurred: 81 But at the Boat-pool something rare occurred, Which, with the serious, mingled the absurd. The man who fishes salmon with a Bob [dropper f l y ] , True anglers look on rather as a snob. Well! not to put on i t a point too f i n e , Henderson t h i s day had one on his l i n e ; And i n the Boat-pool as h i s f i s h he played, And Stewart keenly rushes to his a i d , The bob-hook caught the l a t t e r by the nose, (Feeling now he knows a f i s h ' s woes) Which gave our author, as that f i s h was dangling, P r a c t i c a l new hi n t s i n the art of angling! Then, by the margin of that Pool, I ween, Were three well-hooked proboscis to be s e e n — Yes! Stewart's with the Salmon's, on the cast, And the P r o f e s s o r ' s — n o t the least though l a s t ! Did not that beak foreshadow long ago, By hook and crook that he'd defeat each foe? Stewart, poor soul! had nothing of h i s own, ^ A f i s h hooked him, but he, alas! hooked none. "The Old Nest and the New" might w e l l be dismissed as t r i t e sentimentality. Nevertheless, i t exhibits a strong f e e l i n g of honest human emotion. Slaves to Wall-Street t i c k e r tape could never understand the f e e l i n g , the gentleness with which an angler could write about h i s f a v o r i t e r i v e r : Of a l l the bends on s i l v e r Tweed Where i s there one so f a i r , As that i n front of Fernielee, The famed Boat-pool of Yair? The f r i n g i n g trees droop tenderly From banks of sward a l l green, And i n the waters, passing by, Their mirror'd grace i s seen; And when the summer zephyrs blow, And swing the branches hanging low, Soft kisses pass between.23 Yet another c o l l e c t i o n of angling songs that originated with the members of an angling club i s the Newcastle Fishers'  Garland, a short t i t l e f o r A C o l l e c t i o n of Right Merrie Garlands for North Country Anglers, which includes the sixteen poems 82 published i n 1852 by Thomas Doubleday under the t i t l e "The Coquetdale Fishing Songs, now f i r s t c o l l e c t e d and edited by a North Country 24 :' Angler." Written over a period of nearly one-half century, the poems of the Garland were c o l l e c t e d and edited by Joseph Crawhall i n 1864. Appropriately enough, his e d i t i o n was dedicated to the members of the Coquet-Dale Angling Club, with an earnest hope that the l i n e s herein cast may perchance r i s e some stray Roxby [Robert Boxby] or Doubleday of that honourable body, and induce an attempt to resume and continue the Newcastle Fishers' Garlands, so charmingly ^ set f o r t h by the s p i r i t s of a former generation. The thoroughness with which Crawhall c a r r i e d out h i s e d i t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s suggests the seriousness of h i s f e e l i n g s . Not only was he able to include the names of most of the con-t r i b u t i n g poets, but also the number of separate copies which were published p r i o r to the Garland. His explanatory note to "The Auld Fisher's Fareweel to Coquet" indicates how c a r e f u l l y he performed h i s task: Two hundred and ninety copies were printed fo r Emerson Charnley, March 26, 1825, and "one hundred copies presented to the author," (Robert Roxby), though the Garland i s the j o i n t pro-? duction of Roxby and Doubleday. Woodcut on t i t l e — l andscape with angler plugged i n — b y Isaac Nicholson. Published i n "Coquetdale Fishing Songs," 1852. 2 6 An epitomizing of the Garland, l i k e . t h e Songs, i s c l e a r l y beyond the scope of t h i s study. Nevertheless, passages from "The Auld Fisher's Farweel" and two other poems ( a l l three were selected at random from the c o l l e c t i o n ) do point up why angling i s 83 c a l l e d the gentle art. Stanzas f i v e and s i x of the six-stanza "Farweel" capture the tension between knowledge of the future and knowledge of the past, between a longing for a return to youth and acceptance of coming death. The address to the loved stream echoes what anglers often seem to accept v i r t u a l l y as f a c t : that the various aspects of external nature have a rather l i f e - l i k e and personal i n t e g r i t y : Ance mair I ' l l touch we' gleesome foot Thy waters clear and cold, Ance mair I ' l l cheat the gleg-e'ed trout, An' wile him frae his hold; Ance mair, at Weldon's f r i e n ' l y door, I ' l l wind my tackle up, An' drink "Success to Coquet-side," Though a tear f a ' i n the cup. An' then fareweel, dear Coquet-side! Aye g a i l y may thou r i n , An' lead thy waters sparkling on, An' dash frae l i n n to l i n n ; B l i t h e be the music o' thy streams An' banks through after-days An' b l i t h e be every" Fisher's heart S h a l l ever tread thy? Braes!^7 William Andrew Chatto's four-stanza verse, "The Fisher's C a l l , " was written i n 1842, seventeen years a f t e r the "Farweel." The poem's images, sentiment, and rhythm might today be c l a s s i f i e d as t r i t e , but there i s a rather captivating and appealing r u r a l innocence that, in addition to the d i r e c t mention of the mild-maid, f a i n t l y reminds of Walton. Dawn, the day i n ife;;innocence, i s presented as being worthy of worship l a r g e l y because a l l elements then blend harmoniously together. The flower seems to o f f e r i t s dew to a t h i r s t y sun. The f i r s t two stanzas follow: 84 The moor-cock is crowing o'er mountain and fell, And the sun drinks the dew from the blue heather-bell; Her song of the morning the lark sings on high, And hark, 'tis the milk-maid a-carolling by. Then up, fishers, up! to the waters away! Where the bright trout is leaping in search of his prey Oh, what can the joys of the angler excel, As he follows the stream in its course through the dell! Where every wild flower is blooming in pride, And the blackbird sings sweet, with his mate by his side. Then up, fishers, up! to the waters away! Where the bright trout is leaping in search of his prey "The Morning Airly," written by Thomas Doubleday in 1852, again stresses that the angler, like nature, should be up and active in the early morning. The first and last stanzas of the six-stanza poem are sufficient to illustrate that Doubleday has been well-schooled in the Walton tradition. The "far aff an' fine," of the refrain is an unmistakeable reference to a principal piece of fishing advice handed on by Walton's first disciple, Charles Cotton. The direct attack on roe-users is a negative way of pointing up fishing ethics, and the observation that May floods flush salmon fry to the sea is a statement of scientific accuracy: It's late, my Lad, to tak' the Gad; All nature's now in motion; The flood o' May hae swept away The Sawmon's fry to Ocean; In Dewshill, lang, the Throstle's sang He's been rehearsin' cheerly; Our only line's "far aff an' fine," And tak' the mornin' airly! When floods come down, a callant loon May catch them [trout] wi' a tether, And sawmon roe, be a' "the go" For gowks in rainy weather, But gi'e to me the light midge flee, When streams are rinnin' clearly, And a&cast o' line "far aff an' fine," All in the mornin' airly!29 85 Understandably, the poems of the Chronicles, Songs, and Newcastle Garland are simply too short to provide much i n the l i n e of useful information about f i s h i n g . But not a l l nine-teenth century poetry of angling i s short, and some of the longer works are c l e a r l y intended to be read as handbooks. One such i s T.W. Charleton's The Art of Fishing; A Poem, published i n 1819. Much of the advice i s sound enough, but i t i s the undertone of concern for. nature that deserves most praise. Charleton's powers of observation might seem obvious to the more sophisticated angler of the twentieth century, but the truth to h i s warning (based on personal observation of f i s h behavior) i s nonetheless worth quoting: Or up the stream, or down, or cross, The angler may his branling toss, Though up we mostly throw; Because i f streams are now so cle a r , That you must to the f i s h appear, If you should toss below.30 Charleton's mentionuof branling (a type of worm) neither proves nor disproves that he was for or against a l l b a i t f i s h i n g . But, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that immediately following a passa'ge in which he explains how to use roe b a i t , he discusses poaching: Ripe salmon raw the trout w i l l l u r e , Which with a l i t t l e s a l t you cure, But be i t gently dried: From the f u l l salmon take your spawn, This cross the stream l i k e minnow's drawn, Or l i k e the branling t r i e d . More schemes are by ignoble men Much us'd, beneath the poet's pen, F i t for the poaching t r i b e ; But rather cease to flow, my muse, Than stoop such abject themes to chuse, Or such mean arts describe.31 86 Although Carleton's verse might never win high praise as poetry, it is certain that a considerable degree of skill was necessary to weave his message into what must be called a remarkably smooth-flowing verse pattern. His pronoun references sometimes cause temporary confusion, but the reader who knows the habits of the salmonids also knows that Charleton's observations are basically sound: For should not trouts their embryo hide, In the deep grav'lly bed's inside, The streams would wash't away: And should they haunt the sluggish wave, The other tribes would never save Their spawn, to trouts a prey. Salmon and trout alike conceal Their helpless spawn, lest it should feel Th' effects of hunger keen; For both respectively will prey, On their own spawn if wash'd away, And if by either seen.32 Charleton's precise observation is illustrated in his careful choice of "sluggish wave," which correctly specifies the place of salmon and trout spawning as being in the quieter, more sheltered waters of a river or stream. G.P.R. Pulman's ability to make accurate observations has already been illustrated in the chapter dealing with angling handbooks of the nineteenth century. It was observed, there, that in writing his Vade-Mecum, Pulman was aware that he was not writing anything that resembled poetry. It was also observed that his Vade-Mecum was probably little read. Pulman's-Rustic  Sketches, published in 1842 (one year after the Vade-Mecum) shares one distinction with the earlier work: it was likely read by few 87 people. In h i s b r i e f "Preface," Pulman acknowledges that Sketches was la r g e l y made possible by the patronage of sub-33 s c r i b e r s . This does not suggest, however, that'his verses were read by few. On the contrary, since "a considerable number" 34 of them had appeared e a r l i e r i n the Sherborne Journal, i t i s l i k e l y that Pulman's poetry was at least moderately w e l l known. Whereas the avowed purpose of the Vade-Mecum was to pass on p r a c t i c a l advice on how to f i s h , Sketches i s c l e a r l y intended to entertain, not teach, the reader. Pulman includes some prose passages—Sfrom Walton, S i r Humphry Davy, Thomas Stoddart, and h i s own Vade-Mecum-—and one moderately long poem. The prose passages l a r g e l y serve to shed l i g h t on the verses, or to state the circumstances which gave r i s e to the poems. The lengthy poem pokes fun at a posturing Cockney fop and h i s i n a b i l i t y to f i s h . It i s the shorter poems which w i l l be considered here. But f i r s t , Pulman's warnings about h i s use of d i a l e c t should be mentioned. Pulman believed that the d i a l e c t — o f East Devon— would, from i t s homely and f a m i l i a r character, tend to procure the attention necessary to produce the end desired. Great pains have been taken to follow as cl o s e l y as possible the vulgar idiom of [the] d i s t r i c t , i n order to preserve some of [the] p e c u l i a r features which "the schoolmaster" i s so rapidly and e f f e c t u a l l y changing.35 In one of his shorter poems, "Pleasures of Angling," Pulman's indebtedness to Walton i s not only obvious but acknowledged. A prefatory prose passage from the Compleat Angler precedes the poem, and prose praise of Walton follows i t : "Who has not read, 88 with profit and delight, the exquisite work from which our 36 motto to this song is taken?" The poem is short enough to be reproduced in its entirety: A happy life es passed by we Who in th' fiel's da like ta be, An' by th' stream ta stalk about Wi' rod an' line, aketchin' trout. We don't want carpet-rooms, ner halls, Ner music-consarts, dancing balls, Ner nit no coaches, painted fine, Wi' liv'ry sarvants up behine. While we can treyde th' grass, an' vish, An' hev' th' luck ta ketch a dish, An' hear th' birds ta zing away, An' zee th' gurt fat bullicks play (Then think what famious beef they'd make An' how we'd eyte a gurdl'd steak), In eyv'nin' zit our furns among, An' tull our tale, an' zing our zong, An' blow a cloud, an' drink a pot— We invy no man what'e've got.3' "Pleasures" is in no particular need of explanation. "Catching a Salmon with Trout Tackle," a poem inspired by a passage in Sir Humphry Davy's Salmonia, is another matter. A first reading might cause confusion if it is not understood that Pulman is imitating the dialogue technique used by Davy. As he plays his fish, the angler-persona describes his actions. A row of asterisks signals a time lapse between the second and third stanzas. Throwing stones to ;r;move big fish (stanza two) is still much practiced. The girth measurement (stanza five) signals the fact that according to Pulman's sense of esthetics—like those of modern-day anglers—fat fish are more desirable than lean fish. Somehow the "hul-lup! hurn! hum! I've hook'd a vish" of Pulman's opening line seems far more salutatory than the 89 brief "fish on" shouted by modern-day steelheaders. Hul-lup! hum! hum! I've hook'd a vish; Lor'! Lor'! how ee da pool; My rod da beynd, an' reyl da whizz, As thoff I'd hook'd a bool. Peck in a stwone behind theck weed. Wull sed! Now hum below; Work eh wull, an' he'll be mine In 'bout a nour or zo. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I'll try ta tow en, if I can, 'Pon theck there zandy beych, He's jist done up—another flounce Ell drow en in thy reych. Hooraw! hooraw! hip, hip, hooraw! By gar th' job es done; Es landed saff—let's lug en off An' hev zum jolly fun. A darn gurt whackin' salmon 'tis— Da waigh most twenty poun'! He's zix-an'-thirty inches long, An' nigh 'pon twenty roun'I^ o Preceding "An Autumn Flood," a poem too long to be reproduced here, Pulman quotes a fewllines from James Thomson's The Seasons, and then pleads with anglers to release ripe fish: The angler should never neglect to return to the water such fish whose appearance indicates their approach to the period of fulfilling the divine command. In the two stanzas quoted below, Pulman tells of the salmon's overpowering spawning drive and subsequent and slower return to the sea, and complains of the poaching of both the downstream adult fish (kelts) and the ocean-bound salmon fry: 90 An' now's th' time th' salmon up to v l y , Dru theck an' theene the'r ripen'd spawn ta l i e ; Ta reych th' h i g h i s t paart they onward tares, A-jumpin' auver steep an' voamin' weirs. By i n s t i n c t guided, zoon the'r work they doos, An' then once moore slow back to sey they goos. But l o r ? ! n i t one in f i f t y g i t s there s a f f — Th! cussid poachers be too sharp by h a l f ; An! when, i n spring, th' g r a v ' l i n ' small be hatch'd, In trammels f i n e dree paarts o'm 's alwiz catch'd. A thousan' p i t t i e s but s i t c h things was stapp'd, An' they that doos 'em i n t a j a i l was clapp'd! A^ It i s probably true that by using d i a l e c t Pulman'ihas made his work less popular, i f not less a r t i s t i c . It i s even possible that a charge l e v e l l e d against the Newcastle Fishers' Garland might apply equally w e l l to Rustic Sketches. That c r i t i c i s m praised many of the Garland verses f o r reaching high l e v e l s , but went on to say that others suffered from being presented i n d i a l e c t , which " i s good only when you cannot imagine [them] having 41 been written i n another medium." That d i a l e c t can cause more trouble than i t might be worth must have been recognized by Thomas Tod Stoddart. Stoddart, a Scot, seldom wrote his angling songs i n d i a l e c t . Onaone of the few occasions i n which he used d i a l e c t , h i s poem, "My Fisher Lad," was more personal and less angling-centered than usual. That Stoddart was an outstanding angling author i s d i f f i c u l t to deny. Andrew Lang sa i d i t was f a i r to consider Stoddart i n the same breath with Izaak Walton, and Christopher North rated some of Stoddart's verse compositions 42 among the best ever written. Although prose passages by Stoddart have deservedly been quoted by other authors of angling works, his verses have won even more attention. And, because 91 "information, ideas, and methods soon become merged in the common pool of knowledge, while songs are personal and may be perennial," it is more than likely that Stoddart will be 43 best remembered for his poetry. The best-yet collection of Stoddart's poetry appears in An Angler's Rambles and Angling Songs, first published in 1866. Ironically, perhaps, Rambles is basically a prose work, a prose diary of.Stoddart's fishing experiences. (Some of the "sketches" had previously been published "in the pages of 44 a weekly sporting paper published in London." ) Despite the fact that the bulk of Rambles is in prose, as indeed is the bulk of Stoddart's contribution to angling literature, only his verse—and very little of that—can be considered here. A single stanza from "The Taking of a Salmon" is enough to illustrate the aptness of the high praise that has been shower on Stoddart: A birr! a whirr! a salmon's on, A goodly fish! a thumper! Bring up, bring up the ready gaff, And if we land him we shall quaff Another glorious bumper! Hark! 'tis the music of the reel, The strong, the quick, the steady; The line darts from the active wheel, Hatre all things right and ready.^ 5 To any angler who has -'. ever battled a big fish in strong,.'water, that stanza speaks with uncanny accuracy. The sound unmistakably suits the sense. It would be difficult to miss the rhythm of a fishing reel being roughly used by a salmon. Doubtless Stoddart' lines remind many an angler of similar experiences, and in the reminding, rekindle pleasure. The once-traditional toasting of 92 a v i c t o r y over a salmon might now be passe, but the excitement of such f i s h encounters w i l l l a s t t i l l salmon are a thing of the past. Throughout his verses, Stoddart demonstrates both.his own contemplative nature and a genuine, deep-rooted love f o r the gentle a r t . In the f i n a l stanza of "The Gentle C r a f t , " the : "meditative a r t " i s shown to be reason enough for man's existence: We love the angler's quiet l o t , His meditative a r t ; The fancies i n h i s hour of thought That blossoms from h i s heart. A l l other things w e ' l l cast behind, Let busy t o i l alone, And f l i n g i n g care unto the wind, We'll angle, angle on.46 In "The V i n d i c a t i o n , " Stoddart suggests that the c r i t i c s of angling are far more i n c l i n e d toward cruelty than are anglers. Anglers are presented as being w i l l i n g captives of nature. They do not seek the warrior's fam§; nor do they have the merchant's or bureaucrat's g u i l e ; they simply share i n the f r e e l y - o f f e r e d and quiet delights of a quiet pastime. The poem:. Say not our hands are c r u e l , What deeds provoke the blame? Content our golden jewel, No blemish on our name; Creation's l o r d s , We need no swords To win a withering fame. Say not in gore and g u i l e We waste the l i v e - l o n g day; Let those alone r e v i l e Who f e e l our subtle sway, When fancy-led The sward .-we leread, And while the morn away. 93 Oh! not i n camp or court Our best delights we f i n d , But i n some loved resort With water, wood, and wind: Where nature works, And beauty lurks In a l l her c r a f t enshrined. There captive to her w i l l , Yet, 'mid our f e t t e r s free, We seek by singing r i l l The green and shady tree, And chant our lay To flower and fay, Or l i s t the l i n n e t ' s glee. Thus glides the golden hour U n t i l the chimes to t o i l R e c a l l from brook and bower; Then, laden with our s p o i l , With beating heart We kindly part, ^ And leave the haunted s o i l . Though far less haunting than the poetry of Stoddart, the four-canto long Lay of the Last Angler by Robert L i d d e l l i s nonetheless a considerable piece of craftsmanship. F i r s t published i n 1867, the Lay i s b a s i c a l l y a d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i v e firmly based on the poet's f i s h i n g experiences. The reader i s led from f i s h caught to f i s h l o s t , over rocks and through streams, and somehow, through i t a l l , ; L i d d e l l manages to keep h i s reader on h i s l i n e . Even the digressions—sometimes inv o l v i n g mythological figures, sometimes concerning a philosophic p o i n t — f a i l to break the s p e l l . Although L i d d e l l takes a f a r more muscular pose than do most authors of angling works (his verse i s not unworthy of comparison with the prose of Colquhoun, Wilson, or Kingsley), he i s c l e a r l y a devotee of the gentle a r t . L i d d e l l may rush a f t e r h i s salmon—indeed what salmon fisherman has n o t — 94 but his rushing seems to be in harmony with the river fishing he describes, and evidence of his open response to untamed nature.. Liddell uses two evenly-metred rhyme schemes. In Cantos I and III, he writes in couplets. Here he is at his best. In Cantos II and IV, he writes in quatrains having an abab rhyme pattern. The Lay does not conceal deeply hidden truth, and except for a few passages which might require explanation from an experienced angler, it can be read at the literal level. He starts inauspiciously but appropriately enough by invoking the muse: Come, quill of swan, or goose or hen, Or anything that makes a pen; Come, ink and blotting-book and paper, With sealing-wax and vesta taper, And envelope of usual size To hide my thoughts from curious eyes; Lend me your aid, for want of better, To write a sort of comic letter....48 Overlooking- Liddell's use of.dialect when reporting his gillie's utterancesh it is worth pausing on a passage which illustrates sound advice. The hazardous "tailing" technique Liddell describes cannot be performed any more safely than he reports. His quarry is a rod-wearied salmon: His tail affords a fatal grasp, Quite easy for the hand to clasp— I don't attempt to lift him yet, For fish are slippery when they're wet; But from the water turn his snout, And as he lies, just tail him out! Sliding him cannily up the shingle, ^ While temples throb, and fingers tingle. In Canto II, Liddell takes time out to comment on drainage problems and pollution, and to make the observation that sea-95 lice on a salmon are a test of its being fresh-run from the sea. His claim "And as it can't survive above a week / Out 51 of the reach of salt or tidal water..." is still accepted as the maximum fresh-water survival span for the salt-water parasite. Liddell's blend of fact, wit, and philosophy can be seen in one of the more typical fish-pursuit passages, here much abbreviated. A promising stretch of fishing water has just been described: 'Twas such a cast I laid my fly on, When, with a rush like savage lion, A lordly salmon seized the hook, And found himself for once "mistook"... Soon as I felt my hold secure, he Lashed himself into downright fury; Ran out—as hard as he could go, Straight as an arrow from a bow— Some sixty yards of line or more, Until he neared the farther shore... "Hullo!" says Science, "that's bucolic, A missile's line is parabolic; Your simile's inclined to be More what we call hyperbole— That is, iri'Mat you here relate You're tempted to exaggerate." Oh, bosh! your strictures are too fine, They don't apply to reel and line— My words are never meant to be Discussed by dry philosophy. Don't pester me with hydrostatics, Or lines and curves of mathematics! I write for brothers of the angle, Who with my phrases will not wrangle... But to my tale: when he leapt out, ^ And showed his form, so hugh and stout.... After several more pages, the reader—by this time sympathetic with the cause—reads the sad conclusion: The rod had lost its graceful bend, And pointed sky-ward with its end! In short, the enemy had retreated, Leaving us utterly defeated!^ 3 96 The kindly critic will see some of Stoddart and some of Liddell in Richard Glover's An Angler's Strange Experiences, first published in 1883. What Glover has from either of his predecessors in print, he has in smaller measure. His wit is not so sustained as is Liddell's; nor is his quiet mood so penetrating as is Stoddart's. Glover calls his humorous verses "staves," and his serious verses "interludes." He numbers both. In the first half of the book, Glover is mostly humorous, and staves outnumber interludes. In the second half of the book, he is more serious, and the reverse is true. His mood is reflected in his verse form, the couplet being a constant of the staves. Though Glover's poetry is unlikely to appeal to the fastidious critic, both his intent and his obvious scholarhship deserve mention. His medley of verses, like Sir Humphry Davy's Salmonia, was written during a period of illness, and was clearly intended to provide more than mere amusement: The lyrics interspersed will, he hopes gratify the taste of the most refined, and subserve a far higher purpose than the mere amusement of an idle hour. Long before the days of good old Izaak, even the poets of antiquity have discerned not only a poetical, but even an ethical element in the angler's art.54 Glover's comic material—including his poking fun of that supposed critic of angling, Dr. Johnson, and including his knowledgeable and witty footnote commentaries—would disproportionately swell this study were they included., Let it suffice, iihere, to reproduce Interlude I, "The Angler and the 97 Brook." Apart from a few words and phrases, there i s l i t t l e that w i l l confuse even the non-angler. To the non-angler, however, i t may help to know that the "duns and browns" of the f i r s t stanza r e f e r to in s e c t s , that the "wand" of the second stanza refers to a f i s h i n g rod, and that the "many a gold and c o r a l gem" of the t h i r d stanza refers to trout. Without more ado, here i s the e n t i r e poem: The west wind wafts the scent of May Adown the verdant v a l l e y s ; The f r i e n d l y sun with temper'd ray Peers f o r t h from cloudy a l l e y s , And, i n hisggleams, the duns and browns In joy of l i f e are winging, While I, afar from noisy towns, Go fo r t h to angle singing. Anon the music of the brook Sounds near i n happy chorus; Her beaming face with laughing look Sings, 0 the joy beforeuus! I greet her with a look as b r i g h t , ;Ai±<f '.;Andewaye%mydwaHdJrabove ,-her; She glances coy, pretending f r i g h t , Yet knows me for her lover. Through cowslip meadows, side by side, We wander, fondly c l i n g i n g Each unto each, l i k e groom and bride, No turns estrangement bringing; And many a gold and c o r a l gem She takes from out her bosom, And, proud, at eve she gives me them, Beneath the hawthorn's blossom. I stoop and k i s s herppure, sweet l i p s , And mine she s o f t l y presses, Then turns aside, and shyly dips Beneath her drooping tresses; Then babbling on i n laughing glee, Assumed to hide her sorrow, She pauses 'neath a willow-tree, And sings, Return to-morrow! 98 Footnotes ''"John Wilson (Christopher North), Noctes Ambrosianae, ed. R. Shelton Mackensie, rev. ed. (New York, 1866), I, i v - v . 2 I b i d . , IV, 436-37. 3 John Wilson (Christopher North), Recreations of Christopher  North (New York, 1860), p. 5. 4 Ibid. , p. 6 . 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . , p. 165. 9 Charles Kingsley, "Chalk Stream Studies," i n New  Miscellanies (Boston, 1860), p. 51. "^Ibid. , p. 36. ''""''Ibid. , p. 66. 12 Houghton Fishing Club, Chronicles, ed. S i r Herbert Maxwell (London, 1908), p. 174. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 226. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 225. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 226. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 184. 99 1 7Edinburgh Angling Club, Songs, new ed. (Edinburgh, 1879), p. 143. 1 8 I b i d . , pp. 144-45. 19 Houghton, pp. 58-59. 20 Edinburgh, p. 63. 21 Ibid., p. 114. 22 Ibid. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 152. Joseph Crawhall, ed. A C o l l e c t i o n of Right Merrie  Garlands for North Country Anglers (Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1864), p. v i i . 25 lb i d . , p. v. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 45. 27 Ibid., pp. 46-47. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 121. 29 Ibid., pp. 179-80. T.W. Charleton, The Art of Fishing. A Poem (North Shields, 1819), p. 30. 31 Ibid. , p. 33. 32 I b i d . , p. 34. 33 George P h i l i p Rigney Pulman, Rustic Sketches (London, 1853), p. v i . Ibid., p. i n . 35 T,. , .... Ibid., pp. m - i v . 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 23. 100 Ibid. 38Ibid., p. 28. 39 Ibid., p. 53. 40Ibid., p. 55. 41John Waller Hills, A History of Fly Fishing for Trout (New York, 1921), p. 210. James Robb, Notable Angling Literature (London, 1950), p. 43 Ibid., p. 23. 44 Thomas Tod Stoddart, An Angler's Rambles and Angling  Songs (Edinburgh, 1866), p. xii. 4 I^bid., p. 72. 46Ibid., p. 46. 47Ibid., pp. 107-108.-p. 5. 48 Robert Liddell, The Lay of the Last Angler (Kelso, 1884), 49Ibid., pp. 36-37. 50Ibid., p. 60. •^'"Ibid. , p. 62 . 52Ibid., pp. 93-95. 53Ibid., p. 97. Richard glover, An Angler's Strange Experiences (London, 1883), p. xi. 55Ibid., pp. 8-9. The Principals Anyone who has waded beyond his knees into the river of nineteenth century angling literature will recognize that the casts made in ifchis chapter are neither fine nor far-reaching. They tease, as it were, the shallows of the river. But this is a Sunday fishing excursion only; it is not an attempt to depopulate the river of all its treasures. The basic problem, of course, is that the river is simply too overwhelming. In order to say that the entire river has been sampled, some attractive reaches must be bypassed. Although most of the authors considered here have deservedly earned their considerable reputations, it would be inaccurate to suggest that they are the only worthwhile angling authors of the nineteenth century, or that they are the undisputed leaders. Much depends on interpretation and personal values. Some readers might dismiss Edward Marston as a mere rambler; others might charge thatV'William Senior uses a great many words to say very little, or that F.M. Halford is simply too much the elitist to qualify as an important voice of the century's angling fraternity. Understandably, there would be many who would claim that Ronalds and Stewart simply cannot be considered anything but principal writers of nineteenth century angling literature. 1 0 2 Having considered these and other protests, it was decided that handbook writers did not qualify as "principal writers" simply because their works did not contain the breadth and quality required to make them of lasting interest. Facts have a habit of becoming generally known, or outdated. In either event, fact-centered works have little likelihood of being considered artistic. Similarly, those writers who made only incidental forays into the area of angling literature—either in prose or verse—were seriously handicapped since volume of output was held to be of some account. The matter of volume should not be misinterpreted. Three of the nine authors considered in this chapter—Sir Humphry Davy, William Scrope, and Andrew Lang—contributed only one volume apiece. But each of those three volumesiis outstanding. Nor should it be thought that every work by every writer is evaluated. That would make impossible that which is already probably too prodigious. What is undertaken here, is the discussion—however briefly—of some thirty titles. In an attempt to minimize the confusion arising out of such a study, the century has been divided into early, middle, and later periods. A certain arbitrari-ness was necessary since many of the works are collections of articles which first appeared—over varying periods of time— in periodicals of the day, and since several authors' contributions spanned a wide range in years, or even overlapped into the twentieth century. Accordingly, each author's first publishing date— 103 including the date for collected articles—was used as the determining factor. Arbitrary though it is, three authors can be grouped into each of the divisions. The early writers are Davy, Stoddart, and Scrope. The middle-period writers are Francis Francis, Senior, and Marston. In the late period are Halford, Lang, and Lord Grey. Although nine of the thirty titles were published after the turn of the century, they were deemed valid inclusions simply because they came from the pens of authors already firmly established during the nineteenth century. The first-published of the early writers was Sir Humphry Davy, member of the Royal Society, chemist, and natural philosopher. His Salmonia, or Days of Fly-Fishing, first published in 1828, is a book-length acknowledgement of Izaak Walton. That Davy was deeply influenced by The Compleat Angler is illustrated by his attempt to revive Walton's style. Davy imitated Walton because the "conversational manner and discursive style best suited [his poor] state of health."^  Even Davy's stated purpose—to entertain those persons who derive pleasure from the simplest and most attainable kind of rural sports, and who practice the art, or patronize theoobjects of contemplation, of the Philosophical Angler—2 recalls The Compleat Angler. There can be little doubt that Salmonia is damaged by the use of dialogue, a form which probably met its master only in Walton. Despite this shortcoming, however, Davy's influence on 104 later writers—and non-writers—is incalcuable. Many writers of angling works refer to, or directly quote from Salmonia, and they obviously regard Davy's opinions on practical and philosophical matters well worthy of attention. Ronalds is a case in point, and Francis even wondered if Davy was not the catylist for a series of experiments regarding the artificial rearing of 3 salmon in Britain. In matters of natural science, Davy is occasionally ultra-modern. On salmon and sea trout behaviour, he anticipates a theory that has only come to full flower since 1950: I have sometimes thought that the rising of salmon and sea trout at these bright flies, as soon as .they come from the sea into rivers, might depend upon a sort of imperfect memory of their early food and habits; for flies form a great part of the food of the salmon fry....^  Salmonia is ripe with philosophical material. Some of the more notable sentiments and observations: "...confidence in success is a great means of ensuring it";~* "...when the water is low and clear in this river, the Galway fishermen resort to the practice of fishing with a naked hook, endeavouring to entangle it in the bodies of the fish;—a most unartistlike practice"; "courage is the result of strong passions or strong motives; and in man it usually results from the love of glory or the fear of shame...";7 "the most important principle, perhaps,iin life is to have a pursuit—a useful one if possible, and at all events an II 8 innocent one . Davy is no different from so many other authors of angling works in that he, too, felt it necessary to justify the pastime. 105 To the question, "Why fish?" Davy has his accomplished fly-fisher, Halieus, reply: "The search after food is an instinct belonging to our nature...." Halieus goes on to say that, although the overt object is the same as in the crude hunting down of fish, the highest form of fishing is also an art. And, importantly, it supplies pleasure while being a moral discipline. Angling, Halieus says, "requires patience, forhearance, and command of temper. As connected with natural science, it [demands] knowledge" 9 of a high order. No matter what attractions Salmonia might hold for future readers, the popularity it once enjoyed cannot be erased. It once attracted the attention of both Walter Scott, who reviewed it, and the world, which read it."^ From the outset of his review— in The Quarterly Review, Vol. XXXVIII, 1828—Scott's admiration for Salmonia—and for Davy—is unreserved: When great men condescend to trifle, they desire that those who witness their frolics should have some kindred sympathy with the subject which these regard... In taking up this elegant little volume, for which we are indebted to the most illustrious and successful investigator of inductive philosophy which this age has produced, we are led to expect to discover the sage even in his lightest amusements. We are informed, in the preface, that many months of severe and dangerous illness have been partially occupied and amused by the present treatise, when the author was incapable of attending to more useful studies or more serious pursuits. While we regret that the current of scientific investigation, which has led to such brilliant results, should be, for a moment, interrupted, we have here an example, and a pleasing one, that the lightest pursuits of such a man as our angler—nay, the productions of those languid hours, in which lassitude succeeds to pain, are more interesting and instructive that the 106 exertion of the talents of others whose mind and body are i n the f u l l e s t v i g o u r , — i l l u s t r a t i n g the s c r i p t u r a l expression, that the gleanings of the grapes of Ephraim are better than the vintage of Abiezer.l-'-Scott, himself a p r a c t i t i o n e r of the gentle a r t , gives the "palm of o r i g i n a l i t y , and of an exquisite s i m p l i c i t y which 12 cannot, perhaps, be imitated with e n t i r e success" to Walton, but credits Davy with a greater "range of experience of every 13 kind...." In h i s own defense of angling, Scott points out that a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s of blood sports are " i n a state of 14 nature". He goes ontto question both the understanding and the motives of the c r i t i c s of angling. Inf.their arguments, he says, "whether used i n j e s t or earnest, there i s always something of cant' Scott ends h i s lengthy attack on those who f a i l to recognize t h e i r complicity intthe k i l l i n g of l i v i n g things by asking a c e n t r a l question: Of the hundreds who condemn the cruelty of f i e l d sports, how many would r e l i s h being wholly deprived, i n t h e i r own s e n s i t i v e persons, of animal food? S i g n i f i c a n t l y , were Scott's comments pared to the bone, they would l i k e l y emerge as echoes of two of Davy's cen t r a l statements: that f i e l d sports a r i s e from natural instincts,"'" 7 and that, were the c r i t i c s of angling to pursue t h e i r topic. to the l o g i c a l extension, they would have to " c i t e almost a l l the 18 objects of pursuit of r a t i o n a l beings.... That Scott frequently disgresses from the path of pure review to t r a v e l the routes of h i s own thinking suggests the i n s p i r a t i o n a l power of Salmonia. The nature of h i s asides i s 107 even more telling. Perhaps the main cause for the scarcity of salmon, Scott says, is the hard-to-remedy moral turpitude of man, for while erroneous practices may be corrected when the cure is to be applied to passive nature, it is almost impossible to remedy those evils which spring from the clashing interests, passions, and prejudices of mankind.±9 When in his review mood, Scott often relies more on quoting than he does on commentary, a practice that can be adopted here in relation to a passage that Scott rates as "highly philosophical." Scott's brief commentary is here followed by Davy's passage: The following passage, which concludes a train of remarks upon the superstitious belief in omens, coming, as it does, from the author of Salmonia, ought to impose a check on that vulgar incredulity which is disposed to disbelieve all which it cannot understand.20 In my opinion, profound minds are the most likely to think lightly of the resources of human reason; and it is the pert, superficial thinker who is generally strongest in every kind of unbelief. The deep philosopher sees chains of causes and effects so wonderfully and strangely linked together, that he is usually the last person to decide upon the impossibility of any two series of events being independent of each other; and, in science, so many natural miracles, as it were, have been brought to light,f—such as the fall of stones from meteors in the atmosphere, the disarming a thunder cloud by a metallic point, the production of fire from ice by a metal white as silver, and referring certain laws of motion of the sea to the moon,—that the physical inquirer is seldom disposed to assert, confidently, on any abstruse subjects belonging to the order of natural things, and still less so on those relating to the more mysterious relations ofmoral events and intellectual natures.21 The second angling writer of the early period—rThomas Tod Stoddart—goes one better (or worse) than Davy.. In his attempt to revive Walton's conversational style, Stoddart also adds large 108 doses of dialect, but neither technique survives his first-published work, the Angling Reminiscences of the Rivers and  Lochs of Scotland, printed in 1837. In the "Preface" to Angling  Reminiscences, Stoddart explains his use of dialogue and dialect. His explanation smacks somewhat of an attempt to capture the language of the common man. "These sketches," he says, are endued by the author with a colloquial form and texture, chiefly because he is of the opinion that, so habited, they accord better with the spirit of the subject to which they refer. Had it been otherwise, he should not have obtruded upon a mode of composition already preoccupied by the patriarch Walton, Sir Humphry Davy-,, and others. The dialect-dialogue combination reaches a highvpoint in an encounter between the gentlemen (the contemplative anglers) and the ruffians (the poachers). The ruffians are soundly thrashed, and, of course, there is moral justification for it all. The "ugly customers" have only served to create misery and oppression, and withal to encourage the increase of crime. [They are], in fact, ... a set of worthless miscreants, and reduced dehauchees—men, of course, who have few pretentions to principle, and fewer still to those golden charities of the heart, those tendrils of our natural philanthropy, which have adorned the virtous in all ages. What such creatures effect in the way of contaminating an unguarded pedple is almost incredible.22 The several-pages-long passage comes to an end with a well-reported and not completely humourless fist-fight: 2nd Poacher. Faith, Jock, its kittlish wark gettin' a grip o' him... Deil tak him! if the varmint hasna driven twa o' my foreteeth doon my thrapple. It's waesome to part wi' sic auld freends.... 109 4th Poacher. It's time for us to be aff, callants! I'm a' a, clod o' sairs. They're no canny customers thae gentry.^ 3 Despite the strains created by the dialogue and dialect— which peak when various species of fish are given speaking parts— Angling Reminiscences is basically a pleasant enough book. And, except for fairly extensive treatment of fishing locations, the handbook information is relatively unobtrusive. In the main, the work is a collection of incidents that presumably involved Stoddart and several of his angling companions. An abbreviation of one such incident is enough to suggest Stoddart's story-telling ability, witty style, and general good humor. The hero, Tom Otter, has just hooked a Tweed salmon. The salmon, calmly as you please, has turned like a philosopher, and leisurely walked up the stream, as if meditating upon the three Fates. Suddenly, however it coursed in a new direction..., lashing with its tail at the line, and plunging about with considerable violence.... Otter had to use his legs to some purpose, in order to save his line, which birred off the reel like a string of lightning [till], as it happened, he was confronted by a brother angler, engaged like himself with a fast salmon. A collision was evident, more especially as the...other angler seemed determined to keep his ground, and preserve the full altitude of his rod, although Otter's run of line was considerably the longer.... Although requested by Otter to alter his position and lower his rod, both of which he might have done without the slightest risk of losing the fish, he not-withstanding thought proper to remain obstinately immoveable...[whereupon Otter tripped the villain] in such a manner that he popped directly into the river, and commenced floundering for his life in the midst of the rapid current. There arose a sort of dilemma to our friend, who was forthwith called upon to hesitate betwixt the poacher and the salmon; and really, thought he, if to save the one I must relinquish the other, it is not gain to me. Accordingly, he 110 continued at his fish, notwithstanding the imprecations of the drowning man. These, however, were becoming every moment less vehement.24 Otter was a man of many qualities. Being a good fisherman, he quickly landed and dispatched his salmon (a thirty-pounder). Being a good swimmer, he then quickly landed the exhausted sufferer. And, being good humored, he politely bowed in acknowledgment of the mortified angler'sggood wishes, and [offered] him the fins of his huge salmon as a recompense for all loss and damage sustained [the villain's grilse was gone, and his tackle much injured] in his perilous voyage down the Tweed. He then shouldered his fish, and trudged off to another ^ pool, with a snatchvpf an old ballad in his mouth. Compared to Reminiscences, Stoddart's Rambles—discussed in the previous chapter—and The Angler's Companion to the Rivers and Lochs of Scotland—first published in 1847—are less humorous but more philosophical. Not the least of their value stems from Sgoddart's recording of historically-significant concerns such as the introduction of roe bait to the waters of 26 27 the Leigh, birth of the Professor Fly, fear that the Scottish rivers might too soon be as damaged by pollution as were the 28 English rivers, and a statistical analysis of the economic importance of salmon fisheries—which clearly anticipated 29 Grimble's detailed study of one-half century later. That the later St'oddart is more pensive than the earlier Stoddart can be illustrated by citing two passages from Rambles. Though they occur pages apart, the second passage is clearly an expansion—or description—of the philosophic posture adopted in the first: Ill I may here remark that all sights and sounds in which water acts a leading part, exercise a special influence, quite distinct from what they maintain over the generality of view-hunters, on the mind of the angler....30 Provided he is also an angler, the second passage's richness of imagery and sensation will doubtless compel the reader to feel the "magic" as surely as does the author: At this juncture, and just as I was on the point of. sketching my soaked and exhausted limbs on the heather, a break in the cloud overhead betokened the bursting forth of the afternoon's sun. A glow of light suddenly pervaded the atmosphere. There was a commotion all round me. The hills became dismantled, as if by magic. From the face of that on which I stood floated in rapid succession masses of vapour. Onwards they swept, surging up from the hollows on every side. I had only to turn and watch their retreat towards the far heights, and again to direct my eyes downwards, to be made fully aware of the change which had taken place. It was like dreamland's self. I stood gazing, all at once, from a heath-clad eminence, up a green sun-lit valley, adown which, in full flood, coursed one of Tay's fairest tributaries. Bosky braes, knolls crested with tall firs, and hung with hazels, birches, and alderwood; ferns, rocks, and pastoral slopes—everything, in fact, which helps in a Highland landscape to enchant the eye,slay before me. The change, I need not say, acted like a spell.31 The Angler's Companion, first published in 1847, typifies many of the better books ori angling in that it smoothly weaves together matters of both a practical and philosophic nature. Matters relating to fish culture raise a special problem. It is clear that during the nineteenth century, interest in fish culture (and related fields such as entomology and ecology) was growing. For all the fact that fish culture is a science, it also has affected anglers' reactions to their gentle craft. For one 112 thing, it has enabled angler to base their ethics on foundations of fact. Hence Stoddart's concern for how fish are caught is not completely separable from his awareness that fish are not an inexhaustible resource. Similarly, too, Stoddart's ethics partly hinge on his belief that certain fishing techniques can be called unsporting simply because they too easily render the fish victim to his own nature. 32 Stoddart condemns the "wholesale use" of roe bait because it appears to make fish an altogether too easy prey to the angler. Whether it is because fish respond to the smell or taste of the roe Stoddart is not certain, but he is certain that the bait has an overpowering attraction for fish: it was evident to me^Both from their scarcity at the commencement [of his day's fishing], and the gradual increase of the trout in number as I continued to fish on, that they approached the bait, as it were by 3^ a trail, from various quarters further down.... It is clear that in Stoddart's view, the angler is largely identifiable from the fish butcher by the method of angling employed. Stoddart's distaste for the wilfully ignorant or lazy angler fits him directly into the mainstream of the Walton tradition. To Stoddart, the genuine angler is not made out of think and manifold, but out of few and scattered resources. The science of his art" is acquired in a rigid and exacting school. He has to reconcile himself to dis-appointments, to practise self-denial, to encounter hardships. He requires to study devotedly, perseveringly; to neglect or omit nothing.3^  But all this does not go unrewarded. The diligent shall inherit the delight. And the manner invwhich Stoddart 113 makes his point is almost as delightful, almost as sweetly-flowing, as Walton himself: Angler! that all day long hast wandered by sunny streams, and hearttand hand, plied the meditative art, who hast filled thy pannier brimful of star-sided trout, and with aching arms, and weary back, and faint wavering step, crossed the threshold of some cottage inn. . . . -1 The reputation of the third writer of the early period-William Scrope—rests entirely on his single work, the Days and  Nights of Salmon Fishing in the River Tweed, first published in 1843. That it is a most remarkable work is undeniable. But precisely what makes it so is less certain. There is no escaping Scrope's respect for both the writings and sentiments of previous authors, or his love of fishing, respect for nature, and curiosity about natural sciences. However, he also goes directly against certain established traditions, and, in some cases, seems unaware of the angler's ethic which deplores the mere hunting down of fish. Perhaps it is safest to say that, in Scrope, there is a fascinating mixture of science and sentiment, vigour and gentleness. Scrope's style'might be a natural outgrowth of his reaction to fishing itself, which he considered to be a blend 36 of excitement and tranquility. His regard for the excitement of the sport recalls Colquhoun, Kingsley, and North, and certain of Scrope's passages seem indelibly marked by the Kingsleyian touch. Like Kingsley, Scrope draws his reader into quiet moods only to shatter the stillness: 114 ...let me wander beside the banks of the tranquil streams of the warm South, 'in yellow meads of asphodel,' when the young spring comes forth, and all nature is glad; or if a wilder mood comes over me, let me clamber among the steeps of the North, beneath the shaggy mountains, where the river comes raging and j foaming everlastingly, wedging its way through the secret glen, whilst the eagle, but dimly seen, cleaves the winds and the clouds, and the dun deer gaze from the mosses above. There, amongst gigantic rocks, and the din of mountain torrents, let me do battle with the lusty salmon, till I drag him into day, rejoicing in his bulk, voluminous and vast. But, alas! we run riot. ' Scrope's disagreements with the conventions of the angling art are sometimes extremely overt, as when he describes 38 the intricacies of spearing and snagging salmon, methods Scrope clearly did not scruple against: All this to the Southern ear sounds like poaching of the most flagitious description; but a salmon is a fish of passage, and if you do not get him today he will be gone tomorrow.39 Sometimes, as when he contradicts the dictum that it is best to fish fine and far off—"remember, it is not good to have a very 40 long line when a short one will answer your purpose" —Scrope is merely speaking from the advantaged position of an angler whose tackle permitted him to cast easily to distances that, in Cotton's day, would have been deemed "far off." No matter what his subject matter, however, Scrope can be relied upon to present his-rmaterials in refreshing lights. He is typical in arguing the merits of angling, and in justifying one of the inevitable conclusions of the man-fish encounter. But the case Scrope develops is unique in the extreme. He even convinces the reader that the angler is a Red Cross Knight: 115 Let us see how the case stands. I take a little wool and feather, and, tying it in a particular manner upon a hook, make an imitation of a fly; then I throw it across the river, and let it sweep round the stream with a lively motion. This I have an un-doubted right to do, for the river belongs to me or my friend; but mark what follows. Up starts a monster fish with his murderous jaws, and makes a dash at my little Andromeda. Thus he is the aggressor, not I; his intention is evidently to commit murder.^ x In a later passage in which Scrope approaches the topic from an altogether quieter and more philosophic stance, his indebtedness to both Sir Humphry Davy and Sir Walter Scott is unmistakeable: For myself, far from being surprised that distinguished men have delighted in fishing, I only wonder that any man can be illustrious who does not practise either angling or field sports of some sort or another. They all demand skill and enterprise, if you ask me to reconcile angling to reason, you may possibly distress me. It is an instinct, a passion, and a powerful one, originally given to man forrthe preservation of his existence.42 Although man may have an instinct for fishing, he is not born with thenatural ability to fish well. Scrope alerts his reader to that piece of information in the opening of his first chapter. And, as is so often the case with Scrope, his method is as important as his matter: Salmon fishers do not fall from the clouds all perfection at once, but generally acquire some skill in river angling for trout, and such like ^ pigmies, before they aspire to the nobler spoil.... Some folk aspire to the nobler spoil in ways that do not quite fit within the law. Others who know it remain silent— for a number of reasons. Scrope sketches one such circumstance, and his sketch can hardly fail to amuse his reader: 116 There is a man now, I believe, living at Selkirk, who in times of yore used certain little freedoms with the Tweed Act, which did not become the virtue of his office. As a water bailiff he was sworn to tell of all he saw; and indeed, as he said, it could not be expected that.he should tell of what he did not see. When his dinner was served up during close time, his wife usually brought to the table in the first place a platter of potatoes and a napkin; she then bound the latter over his eyes that nothing might offend his sight. This being done, the illegal salmon was brought in smoking-%pt, and he fell to, blindfolded as he was, like a conscientious water bailiff,—if you know what that is; nor was the napkin taken from his eyes till the fins and bones were removed from the room, and every visible evidence of a salmon having been there had completely vanished: thus he saw no illegal act committed, and went to give in his annual report at Cornhill with his idea of a clear conscience.44 There are worse ways to say farewell to Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing than to quote Scrope's own farewell to the reader, a passage which leaves the reader with the sharp reminder that Scrope knew what it meant to take time to stand and stare: Farewell, then, dear brothers of the angle; and when you go forth to take your, pleasure, either in the mountain stream that struggles and roars through the narrow pass, or in the majestic salmon river that sweeps in lucid mazes through the vale, may your sport be ample, and your hearts light! But should the fish prove more sagacious than yourselves—a circumstance, excuse me, that is by no means impossible; should they, alas—but fate will avert it—reject your hooked gifts, the course of the river will always lead you to pleasant places. In these we leave you to the quiet enjoyment of the glorious works of the Creation, whether it may be your pleasure to go forth when the spring sheds its flowery fragrance, or in the more advanced season, when the sere leaf is shed incessantly and wafted on the surface of the swollen river.^ Whereas it is difficult to rate one of the early-period writers as being distinctly superior to the other two, no such problem exists when the three writers of the middle period are 117 considered. A comparative evaluation of Davy, Stoddart, and Scrope is made difficult by their being so totally different. Davy is a careful and serious philosopher; Stoddart is a descriptive and knowledgeable generalist; Scrope is a humorous and devoted specialist. But of the three middle-period authors—Francis, Senior,^ and Marston—the palm must be given to Francis. It is true that Senior and Marston have their writing virtues, but they are pikers (no pun intended) when their angling skill and angling knowledge are pitted aginst Francis. Although all three were prolific writers, and although Marston wrote the greatest number of works, Francis' volume was greater than those of either Marston or Senior. Of the five Francis books considered here, the first-published was Fish Culture. When Fish Culture became available in 1863, the subject matter on which it focused was already o.fineorfsidefabletinterest to the public. Francis knew that he was not the first to write onthe subject, but he clearly felt that more could and should be said: ...I am induced to put forth this little treatise, not because no works on the subject have been published before, but because there are many points which are extremely interesting in the science, and which, in all probability, will become the most popular part of it, which have been hitherto almost overlooked.^  Because the book is, as Francis suggests, highly scientific, much of its subject matter does not qualify for discussion here. What could and should be explored are several of the underlying philosophic tenets. And, interestingly enough, one of Francis' prime motives for promoting fish culture is that man can profit 118 from such a venture. Had Francis lived in the late twentieth century, he likely would have pointed out that salmon would be worth saving simply as agents for cropping an otherwise almost uncroppable harvest of small sea creatures. As it was, Francis saw that man should first protect, or restore, 47 streams "to their natural state", and then improve them. He bases.his argument on.the great strides made in agriculture: Is water-culture so difficult a study, so recondite in its secrets, so partial and uncertain in its results, that it should not vie, by the means of study and experiment, with agriculture? Surely the results already obtained do not tell us so; much rather do they encourage us to pursue our inquiries, that we may win from Nature her secrets and profit thereby.A8 And just because Francis focused his attentions on the watery world of game fishes, it should not becconcluded that his was a narrow self-interest. He urged a very detailed 49 study—even "chemical and microscopic analysis" —as preparatory to appreciating how dangerous and "wicked" it is to disarrange the works of creation. In Francis' view, anglers, or any others who respected the intricacies of nature, were to be the teachers of "a grand scheme of a new science... in which the food of man is the dependent consideration.""^  Even now, as the lesson is just beginning to be learned, the angler and the naturalist are still the leaders. The modern reader might be excused if he finds it incredible that the problems of a century ago have yet to be resolved. As Francis identified them, the two basic problems underlying the decline in salmon populations were overharvesting 119 and pollution."^  To emphasize the degree of the decline, he reminds his readers that the once-prolific salmon runs were also once a strange source of vexation to the lower classes: ...we hear of its"being a common practice of apprentices to have it entered in their indentures, in many places, that they were not to eat salmon more than a certain number of times per week; and it is in the memory of many that servants have rebelled against being fed to a great extent upon salmon.52 In A Book on Angling, published in 1867, Francis adopts the appropriately pragmatic pose of the handbook writer. Like Stewart, his handbook purpose is to teach efficiency so that the angler "will lose no time in his fishing, and will be 53 enabled...to fish over a good deal of the ground advantageously." Although A Book on Angling is clearly a handbook, and a very thorough one at that, there are elements within the work that can justifiably be discussed as being both a part of and apart from the how-to-do-it focus. In continuing the debate that raged between the northern and southern anglers, Francis sides with the southerner largely because the southerner is more apt to be a closer observer of nature.- Fish Culture demonstrates Francis' respect for observing the intricacies of nature; A Book on Angling merely illustrates the interest in a very practical mode. The northerner's argument, in capsule, is that the fly-fisher need not bother trying to imitate the natural insects. Francis' rebuttal, in capsule, is that to determine arbitrarily that only a few trout patterns are necessary is downright lazy and highly unconvincing. Francis points out that it is only because the angler's combination of fur 120 and feather somehow resembles what fish see on the water that fish will take them at all. This must be conceded; if it be not, why does the fly-fisher adhere to the form, colour, and size of those flies at all? Why have they wings and legs and bodies like flies? Why are they of the same size?54 Francis abhors the northerner's easy-way-out manner of fishing because it contradicts the idea that "if a thing be worth doing at all it is worth doing well"."'"' To fish well, the angler must observe nature. And, because angling is an art of deception no matter what style is employed, the angler "should 56 attend to and imitate nature as closely as possible." Like so many other angling authors, Francis rates fishing according to the challenges it poses for the angler. Thus, he rates trout fishing as superior to salmon fishing. There is far greater skill, caution, patience, and cunning required to delude [a trout] than is thought of in the landing of the noblest twenty pound salmon that ever sailed up Tweed or Tay.57 But the excitement of salmon fishing is a different matter. Francis would likely agree with Colquhoun that landing a salmon would—for the moment—swalow up any other pleasure that Walton ever derived. The power of the excitement Francis feels is also reminiscent of Wilson and Kingsley: But the bold rise and the first wild rush of a twenty pound salmon thrills through the frame as nothing else in the natureooft. the sport does; and I have never'known a man who has in him the true essence of a sportsman, and who has for the first time felt and seen the play of a fresh run salmon in his native river, who has not been a salmon-fisher for ever.^ 8 ,121 There is, throughout A Book on Angling, a steady stream of topics with which the reader of angling books soon enough becomes familiar. Fly-fishing is rated the most ethical form of angling; roe is decried; poaching and pollution are denounced. What is less common is for an angling author to write a page-long curse that suits the immoral angler who takes a ripe or spawned-out fish: ...listen to my solemn anathema, and let it lie heavy on thy soul. May your.rod top smash at the ferrule, and the brazing stick in tight at the commencement of your 'crack-day-of-the-season,' and may you be unable to beg, borrow, or steal another rod within twenty miles. May you travel hundreds of miles into a strange country, find the river in splendid ply, and then discover that you have left your reel at home....By Jove! I could almost as soon kick an unoffending ^ street-walker, or a lying-in woman, as kill kelts. Francis' wit and story-telling ability find more fertile ground in By Lake and River, a volume that is sometimes instructive, sometimes anecdotal, sometimes digressive, but always entertaining. That the book, first published in 1874, is the work of a highly-informed man is evident on every page. And as Francis comments 60 on fish anatomy (operculums, fin-ray counts, vertebrae), parasites, et al, he seasons it all with references to the classics, history, or poetry. In his "Preface," Francis says that his intention is to tell "what fishing is like," and to tell it "as pleasantly as possible." As has been illustrated above, Francis did not find the lazy or the unreasoned to be pleasant. Thus, his reason for rebuking many writers of the time is not altogether surprising: 122 "they trust too much to imagination and too little to nature."^ "*" That Francis heeds external nature needs no further proof. It is more instructive, here, to show that he was also a keen observer of human nature. And he seems to have based his conclusions at least partly on an understanding of himself. In explaining the joy he experienced as a result of out-foxing a trout he was told he would never out-fox, Francis observes that it is a part of human nature, particularly sportsman-human nature, that love of wiping a friend's eye. I admired that fish twicer,: as much as either of the others [which he had caught earlier], and thought with what exceeding charity I would write to my friend and tell him that I had done it, and how he would recollect that I had said I would do it. Curious beings are sportsmen, particularly fishermen.62 Similarly, in commenting on the all-too-frequent habit of attending popular holiday resorts, Francis warns not to be "humbugged by conventionality into the belief that you have enjoyed yourself when you know you have been miserable 63 and devoured of ennui...." His alternative suggestion echoes the often-repeated idea that angling is both a recreation and a re-creation. The angler is advised to seek a quiet retreat where he can fortify himself "against the shocks of business and the 64 agonies of Mrs. Grundy in the future." OrjT an angler's holiday, anything can happen, and often does. One of Francis' more amusing tales concerns the adventures of a fishing companion, a Mr. Thompson by name, who having lost his three casts to snags in the river, decided to swim for them. Mr. Thompson was one of the hardier breed who skoffed at rain and 123 cold wind--and cooler river. Clad only in his skin, he made his swims, and, to shorten his return trip, walked boldlyraout to a field peopled with contented cows. He began to cross the field to the utter amazement and horror of the cows.... They had never seen such a thing before. What was this pale ghost that came skimming along the riverside over the greensward towards them. Nearer came the spectre, and near yet! they cannot stand it—a mighty terror seizes them..., and every cow turns tail....65 As with Scrope, it is notso much the matter, but the method that delights the reader. Francis even has a Scrope fish, though Francis' specimen is paintly less villainously: See how quietly the old gentleman comes up, sucking down an unlucky caterpillar or blundering beetle that has lost his foothold on the twig above. How like an usurer in his den the old scoundrel waits and watches his victims as they drop into the down stream of discount, until, hopeless and helpless, they descend into that Avernus, that limbo of a maw of his.66 Francis' ability to delight the reader likely stemmed, in large measure, from his delight in living. The role that angling played cannot be downplayed. In Hot Pot, a collection of angling reminiscences published in 1880, Francis recalls a favorite retreat saying-, It is nearly forty years since I fishediit, and yetoonly last week I fished it over again in my dreams, and every stone and hole and favorite bend was as patent and clear before ^ me as it was the first day I wandered on its banks. That brief passage identifies the pervading mood of Hot Pot. The old ideas are still present, but there is now a more contemplative tone: 124 Men dwell so much together in cities, and the crowded noisy companionship is so little for their mental and moral improvement, that the few hours' quiet and rest, or reflection, which the true banker gets when away by himself on Thames or Lea, act like a moral and even physical bath to him.68 Perhaps Francis was reflecting on Davy's Salmonia when he said Let each [man] take an interest in his own [pursuit], and strive to work it so that it may produce the greatest real benefit to the greatest number.^ 9 In any event, Hot Pot is sensually reflective. Its sights, sounds, and smells identify it from Francis' earlier writings. Only an insensitive reader could refuse the invitation to linger with the author along the riverbend, where the reeds and sedges whisper their secrets to each other. Occasionally an.alder or an old pollard stoops over the bank, beneath which the stream sparkles and eddies a long in the sunlight, over swaying water weeds of a hundred strange and beautiful patterns, broken now and again with patches of silvery gravel. The scent of distant upland hay, with nearer May-bush and honeysuckle, mingled with crushed water-celery and wild horsemint, fills the nostrils with delicious natural perfume. The lark roams higher and higher and higher yet, till it is lost in the sky, though its voice still peals downwards in a constant ripple of melody; the blackbird whistles in every little grove or plantation; the sedgewarbler twitters and chirrups its low, sweet song; and, blending with all, the reeds and river rustle and gurgle in chords of harmony.^  Francis' story-telling is as able as ever, but, now, there is an unmistakeable, even unguarded serenity in his sketches. Even the passages of high victory are toned down. The following vignette is typical: "That's a big chap, your honour," says William Tipper, deferentially, and pointing to the stump of an old split-up pollard on the opposite bank, where a fish is taking every 125 fly that passes, and with as little disturbance in the water as though he were but a wee sprattie of half an ounce. The line is swept to and fro a few times to dry and straighten it, and, as a gentle summer breeze softly ruffles the surface, away goes the deceitful imitation, and lights like thistledown, or like the real fly, some two feet above the victim. Gracefully it sails down to him on the surface, with two other real flies in company. "Now- it is over him, sir! and there he rises!" "Beautifully struck, sir!" and away rushes the "wee sprattie," jumping out of the water with two mad leaps, and displaying the golden, crimson-spotted sides of a noble four-pounder, who, after trying all his strength and artifice to escape in vain, is at last led gently into the landing-net upon a shelving ledge of chalk some twenty yards down stream. "And to think of his pickin' out your artificial from between the two naturals!" says William Tipper, blowing out and drying the fly. "I never see such a thing; well, they are beauties, surely, and as like as natur! Them wings, sir, when you hold 'em up to the light, is the very colour to a moral."'x Francis' last work, Angling Reminiscences, was published:! posthumously, in 1887. Although some of the chapters—notably the one on barbel fishing—are strictly handbook matter, the overall amount of instructional matter is;slight, and seldom intrusive. Reminiscences reflects Hot Pot in both form and temper; it is a collection of anecdotes and short tales, and its wit and general good humour are somehow secondary to its reflective mood. Digressions, or interruptions, areeslightly more noticeable in Reminiscences. Sometimes several side-trips or reflections occur within the framework of a single anecdote'. In freely following the tangential paths of associated thoughts, Francis gives various of his anecdotes a sort of dilute stream-of-consciousness. Over and over again the reader is struck by the fact that the anecdotes are statements of powerful emotions recollected 126 in tranquility. In describing one of his salmon encounters, Francis reminds the reader of several earlier writers. The reel's delicious music recalls Stoddart, and the overall vigour and excitement recall Colquhoun, Wilson, and Kingsley. But there is, too, the stamp of Francis: Then he took a violent rush down stream on the further side of the eddy, and once more the reel discoursed delicious music. "Ye'11 hae him full surely," said Jock, "for it's a fine deep watter, and there's nae obstructions." For several minutes the fine fellow made frantic rushes up and down, but as I wound him in after each they grew shorter and shorter, and I felt I was becoming rapidly his master. My excitement was aesthetic, intense. To all languid, passive natures, if you want to feel too, too utterly utter, I say, hook your first salmon, and if you want to penetrate the depths of despair, lose him....Then for an hour we sat down and gazed at the beauty in varied postures and settings, and he was lovely and unrivalled in all. One may in after years retain but a hazy recollection of his first sweetheart. There is a doubt possibly whether the hair was golden or dark, whether the eyes were blue or black, but one never forgets one's "first salmon."72 It is as impossible, to forget Francis as it is to forget one's first salmon, or the particularly game fish that leaves its indelible mark on the memory. There exists, between a genuine angler and his fish, a mysterious communication. When a fish is particularly sluggish, the angler might experience a feeling that borders on contempt. When a fish is particularly determined, the angler feels what Francis felt: I could not have supposed, after the awful mauling I had given him, that he had another start left in him; but he had. It was his last, however; the gallant fish at the end of it turned slowly on his side, and I led him gently in to doom. But, like a thoroughly plucky and game fish, he would resist to the death, even if it was 127 only to give a last faint shake of the head, which he did as he came in. That shake won him the victory, for the sorely-tried hold cai^ away, and one of the most plucky fish I ever handled won his freedom, fairly and nobly. I don't grudge it him now, for determination should win. and a more determined fish I never hooked.... J Despite being far less the all-round angler-writer than Francis, William Senior—the second-published author of the middle period—is worthy of the reader's attention, though not so deserving of detailed investigation. Senior's strength lies, not in fishing hints or philosophical commentaries, but in descriptions and historical and biographical gleanings. In By Stream and Sea (1877), he includes information on Davy and Kingsley; in Lines in Pleasant Places (1920), he includes a vital chapter on his friend and angling companion, Halford; in Travel and Trout in the Antipodes (1879), he includes an interesting account of the transplantation of trout from the British Isles to Australia and New Zealand. Senior's descriptive powers are evident in each of his works. His feeling for nature, angling, and for life is often etched with a precision that inexorably impells the reader to be a participant in a recollected experience: A sharp frost hardened up the country dufingtthe night—and the sun rose boldly into a cloudless sky without any shilly-shally before nine o'clock. It was along iron-bound roads, with the meltings of yesterday converted to ice, that I drove to my allotted beat. There was a wonderful change from yesterday; the golden plover on the flats were not briskly moving on the moistening turf as before, though flocks of woodpigeons were astir. The pure snow, which remained on the low land, was crisp and sparkling, diamonding a fair white world. The river had fallen, of course, since 128 the snow of yesterday had made no difference. The evidence was p l a i n enough. You read i t i n the green margin g l i s t e n i n g against the snow l i n e sinuously l e f t along the banks. Tay looked b e a u t i f u l l y black, moreover, and the boatman said "They ought to come."'^ The c o l l e c t i o n of angling essays i n Near and Far (1888) i s Senior at his best. If not.the f i n e s t , then c e r t a i n l y one of the f i n e s t , chapters i s e n t i t l e d "The M i l l Pool." T y p i c a l l y , for Senior, the s t y l e i s unhurried. The reader i s slowly led into the f i s h i n g matter. Senior approaches h i s topic t h i s way: There are some people, I believe who f i n d t h e i r highest enjoyment i n an i n v i t a t i o n to dinner. In t h i s l i f e a banquet of numerous courses i s t h e i r crowning d e l i g h t , and I suspect that i f they knew that i n the world to come there was no dining and giving of dinners they would go through the remainder of t h e i r l i v e s as men absolutely without hope.75 To Senior, a pre-fishing-journey breakfast i s a f a r more satisfactory.; i n v i t a t i o n because i t i s also an i n v i t a t i o n to f i s h . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Senior describes the i n t e r i o r of the "modest diggings" where the breakfast occurs, but he does not dwell on the breakfast i t s e l f . The journey i s a worthier subject: The joyousness of our l i t t l e t r i p was increased by the c r i s p a i r of the September morning. The gossamer webs of the spider were suspended i n g l i s t e n i n g threads from hedge to hedge, clear evidence that we were the f i r s t t r a v e l l e r s who had passed that way since yesternight.^6 Then follows the f i s h i n g adventure i t s e l f , and f i n a l l y , the pleasant evening with pleasant company, and the return journey: ...towards dusk the gallant chestnut pony was spinning across the marshes, while l a n d r a i l s and other birds were c a l l i n g sometimes close to us, ^ and again i n the distance i n the gathering mist. 129 In a chapter headed "My Saturday Out," a brief description of stream-bank foliage—complete with sounds that suit the sense—reminds the reader of a remarkably close parallel in Francis (quoted above under the discussion of Hot Pot): There was a thicket of reed-mace at the lower end [of an islet] that for lustiness of growth you shall not equal. Its dark green swords cluster close, and it is always in motion, rustling softly in summer; and in winter, when it "Becomes straw colored, and a collection of tall, dry spears, with tasselled heads, it rattles weirdly.78 Though Travel and Trout is really an illegitimate inclusion here—being about non-British happenstances—it is nevertheless impossible to leave Senior without recalling an apocrophal, page-long story about a one-eyed trout that appears in that volume. Here is the story: There was a famous one-eyed trout, enjoying a reputation amongst all the Christchurch anglers, which just previous to my arrival had met with a most ignominious fate. His demise was a subject of general lament. By fair means and foul he had been angled for from his youth upwards, until he reached the weight of seven pounds, and was grisly about the occiput and shoulders, which was tantamount in his line of life to being grey-headed. Veteran sportsmen who had struggled with the mighty salmon in Loch Tay and alain him, accomplished fly-fishers who could achieve the thistledown trick and circumvent the timid trout when their comrades never moved a fish, acknowledged that he was their master. Theroists thought about' him night and day in vain. Youngv-men regardless of expense, wrote home for costly tackle and the latest improvements. Unprincipled fellows tried to take a mean advantage of his physical infirmity, and literally to get on his blind side. Wives and mothers were kept in perpetual anxiety because their loved ones exposed themselves to the midnight air, and returned depressed and haggard at daylight. It was even said that two friends, the Jonathan and David of the day, had become mortal foes on account of this obstinate brown trout, and 130 that a young lady, catching the prevailing enthusiasm, would accept no offer save from the man who could wage victorious conflict with him. The story as thus told me by a very humorous Christchurch man was exciting and touching: And one day a cry was heard. Workmen dropped their tools and hurried to the bridge; agitated emissaries were met hastening to the town. A wretched, ragged boy, with a couple of yards of coarse twine, a great rusty hook, a bean stick, and a dirty piece of beef, had approached the popular object in the one unguarded moment of a long and honourable life, and had, with demoniacal whoop, hauled him bodily to bank.79 That the third writer of the middle period was a gentleman, scholar, and true Waltonian cannot be doubted. What can be questioned is whether he deserves to be included among the "principal writers" of nineteenth century angling literature. His works give the impression of having been written by an author who happened to be an angler, rather than having been written by an angler. Nor did Marston claim':.to be an accomplished angler. That much is suggested by the title of his first-published work, An Amateur Angler's Day in Dove Dale. From that date—1884—forward, Marston wrote under the adopted name of "The Amateur Angler." His obvious lack of angling talent is best explained by Marston himself: "I have been a business man for nearly fifty years, alas..., and during all that time nature 80 and I. have been for the most part strangers to each,other...." In his "Preface" to Days in Clover (1892), Marston issues a warning to the reader that could apply equally well to his other volumes. Days in Clover, he says, is mainly a collection of "letters" previously published in the Fishing Gazette, and pretends to be nothing more than a "booklet." He goes on to say that those seeking 131 "solid information" on angling should seek elsewhere than in his 120-pagerlong treatise. It could also be.said of Marston's works that they are rambling and travel-guidish. Marston's myriad of topics include discussion of his family, castles, abbies, ruins of many types, scenery, and natural history. He concludes his Easy-Chair Memories (1911) by reporting a conversation that occurred between Napoleon and a first-hand observer. Marston's general approach can be gleaned from The Globe's abbreviated review of Fresh Woods and Pastures New (1887) which appeared, prior to the titlepage, under the heading "Extracts from Reviews:" "Fresh Woods and Pastures New" has more variety of interest and a greater charm of style than either of its predecessors. [An Amateur Angler's  Days in Dove Dale and Frank's Ranche; or, My Holiday  in the Rockies] Of the fiteen letters of which the book is composed, the first five describe a week at a farmhouse, and we read not only of fly-fishing in the Teme and the Lugg, but of a swing in a barn, of wood-chopping and thistle-mowing, of plovers and plovers' eggs, of owls, of turkeys, of peacocks, and the like...and so the writer goes on—ever in love with all that is charming in nature, and not unmindful of all that is best in man. It is notable, too, that though he does not discourse directly of books, he everywhere shows evidence of literary taste and knowledge. Though he did not discourse on books in Fresh Woods, Marston certainly did in several of his other works. And those discussions—Marston dislike referring to himself as a reviewer— are largely the reason for Marston being included here. The serious student of angling literature will find Marston a worthwhile guide. In Days of Clover, Marston devotes one chapter to Andrew Lang's Angling Sketches; in Easy-Chair Memories (1911), he praises 132 Christopher North; and throughout much of his other writings, he writes brief sketches, too numerous to list, on a host of famous angler-writers from Walton to Senior. On the basis of their worth as angling literature, Marston's pre-1900 works clearly outshadow his post-1900 writings. Among the titles that first appeared after 1900,,are Easy-Chair  Memories—mentioned above—An Old Man's Holiday (1900), Dove  Dale Revisited (1902), and Fishing for Pleasure (1906). Marston's love of angling may have been seriously interrupted by business for nearly fifty years, but his genuine love of the gentle art and of nature are never concealed from the reader. For those not offended by his rambling style, An Amateur Angler's Days in Dove  Dale, By Meadow and Stream (1896), and On a Sunshine Holyday (1897) make pleasant reading. In Dove Dale, Marston recognizes the value of angling as an escape, and looks back regretfully on his many years away from nature. He even cautions the young not to make the mistake 81 he did. In By Meadow and Stream, he repeats his fondnesses and 82 regrets, gives a sketch of his early fishing days (and.tackle — which, incidentally, echoes Wilson's description), and quotes an American writer as having made the comment that, after eating Shad, "you should strip off all your clothing and rub yourself down with sandpaper to remove any of the bones projecting 83 through the skin," a comment worthy of Kingsley. He also improves Tennyson somewhat: "'Tis better to have hooked and lost / Tharumever to have hooked at all."84 In On a Sunshine 133 Holyday, Marston writes an excellent "discussion" on Walton, and suffers the embarrassment of hooking himself in the nose. Three titles—Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice (1889), Dry-Fly Entomology (1897), and Modern Development of the Dry-Fly (1910)—are sufficient to suggest that F.M. Halford, the late period's first-published author of angling books, was indeed an elitist. Further evidence is easily garnered from within the texts themselves. IntvAn Angler's Autobiography (1903), Halford says At the age of twenty-four my introduction to the Wandle [River] first brought prominently to my mind the art of fishing the dry-fly. At the outset it fascinated me, and since those days I have never for a moment wavered in the opinion that it is the highest conceivable form of-sport.85 And, in Dry-Fly Fishing, the "purists" are identified as the dry-fly fishermen who will not under any circumstances cast except over rising fish, and prefer to remain idle- the entire day rabher than attempt to persuade the wary inhabitants of the stream to rise at an artificial fly, unless they have previously seen a natural one taken in the same position.^  Despite all this, and despite the fact that much of his writing is, in fact, handbook-oriented, it would be wrongheaded in the extreme to deny that Halford is one of the nineteenth century's "principal writers" of angling books. In a very important sense, Halford was no more the elitist than was Scrope. Halford preferred chalk stream dry-fly fishing, but occasionally wet-fly fished;? for salmon. Scrope preferred wet-fly fishing for salmon, but occasionally dry-fly fished for 134 chalk stream trout. It was not so much that Halford scrupled against the wet fly, then, but that he was against wet flies being used on fish that would respond to the dry fly. He recognized that the various branches of the angling art each possessed their particular ethics, and required particular skills. The ethical angler simply fished in the manner which demanded the most skill. Halford's dislike of nymph-fishing techniques partly stemmed from the fact that the method caused many trout to be foul-hooked: It has been darkly rumoured that some anglers are invariably able to get good sport among bulging fish, and that the plan adopted is to cast up-stream with a good-sized sunk fly "put directly above. The slightest movement of the trout is answered by a quick and somewhat violent strike, the effect of this action being to drive the hook into some part of the moving fish, but probably not into its mouth. I am inclined to doubt the possibility of accomplishing this with a single hook, although it has been vouched for by fishermen of ripe experience and unimpeachable veracity. Be this as it may, there are no words strong enough to express the contempt which a true sportsman should feel for a pot-hunter who would descend to such strategy.^ 7 It is clear, too, that for Halford, ethics must be based on facts. That:&s why he argues against the "encore plus royalistes'" claim that Mayfly fishing is poaching. Halford says that it is probably not only the most difficult but also 88 the least productive dry-fly fishing methods. Halford's respect for facts is manifest in several other important instances. Although he obviously had high regard for both Francis and Ronalds, he had even more regard for accuracy. He accepted nothing; he experimented for himself. Inidoing so, 135 he uncovered several entomological errors made by Francis and Ronalds. He wondered how Ronalds and Francis made some of their mistakes, but he condemned outright those writers who simply copied statements without bothering to verify anything for 89 themselves. Nor is Halford afraid to confront time-honored beliefs. In Dry-Fly Entomology, he dispells the idea that insects which fall from stream-bank trees constitute a significant portion of a trout's diet by saying that not one example of these three windfalls has been found in the hundreds of autopsies which [he] made, and all the caterpillars and spiders that fall from the trees in a mile of water would not suffice to feed a single pound trout for a single day.90 That Halford considers it essential to fish with both the hands and the head is apparent in each of his works. And Halford givessillustrations of the practical value of thinking and observing. In addition to experiencing delight in turning out a fly which is a "truer and better imitation of nature than the generality of those he has seen before...," the fly-tier will fish this improved pattern with a fuller sense of confidence in its efficacy than he would with an inferior imitation, and, as has been so often written before, confidence in a particular fly is one of the most potent factors tending to render it successful in use.91 Similarly, the angler who closely observes the most carefully cast winged pattern will note that it does not land on the water like "the proverbial thistledown." Rather, he "will be disgusted at the force with which it falls, and the disturbance it makes 136 on the surface." On the other hand, should the angler t i e and test a wingless hackle pattern, he w i l l f i n d that i t s landing on the water " w i l l not scare the f i s h , but.very possibly r i s e and k i l l i t . " 9 3 It i s worth observing how d i f f i c u l t i t would be to co r r e l a t e a charge of e l i t i s m to Halford's willingness to share his knowledge, a willingness that i s stated&in the opening chapter of Dry-Fly Entomology and i n the cl o s i n g chapter of Modern Development of the Dry-Fly. "The main object" of the former i s to give the rudimentary knowledge required to enable an enquiring Angler to recognise such insects as are at once p l e n t i f u l on the water, and serve as food for trout and grayling.94 Halford even went so far as to use "the simplest language, avoiding, as far as possible, s c i e n t i f i c terms which are not 95 always e a s i l y understood." Halford's sincere good naturedness shines through his conclusion to Modern Development: Fishermen as a class are accused of being f a r too s e l f i s h i n the pursuit of t h e i r sport, and perhaps we deserve t h i s reproach i n many cases. It i s not much of a point i n our favour'to urge that to the majority of our fellowmen—whether fishermen or n o t — t h e same charge might be applied with equal j u s t i c e . Let us, however, one and a l l show some consideration for the future sport of our brother anglers.';^.. I can honestly say that any experience gained throughout a long apprenticeship has been f r e e l y given to the comparatively small section of the public which reads iny books, and nothing that I have thought could be of advantage to the angling f r a t e r n i t y has ever been kept back.96 Although i t would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine any serious trout or salmon fisherman not de l i g h t i n g i n the richness of Halford's knowledge and reasoning on a wide range of topics, i t i s nevertheless possible. Any who would be numbered i n that category would l i k e l y 137 be best advised to read only Dry-Fly Fishing and An Angler's  Autobiography, the two works which contain the most n o n - s c i e n t i f i c matter. The following b r i e f example from Dry-Fly Fishing i s t y p i c a l of Halford i n that i t contains a lesson: the rewards of angling often go to the observant and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d angler: In a stagnant bay of a small side stream a quiet r i s e had been seen. Across the neck of t h i s bay a plank was extended to serve as a bridge when walking up the stream. Without a moment's h e s i t a t i o n , Mr. Marryat |close f r i e n d and collaborator to Halford] cast his spent gnat over the plank into t h i s l i t t l e bay, and waited for some minutes, when his patience was rewarded by a bold rise....Not one i n a hundred anglers would have waited so long for the r i s e , and the smallest movement of the rod would have produced a drag on the f l y , and i n f a l l i b l y scared t h i s wary old stager.97 The following passage, t y p i c a l f or An Angler's Autobiography, demonstrates the f a c t u a l focus of Halford's narrative technique: i I went down occasionally during the month of May, and on the 20th, just i n the gloaming, saw a good f i s h r i s e i n the stream flowing from the cu l v e r t . I had been changing f l i e s pretty frequently that afternoon, as the trout seemed very shy, and had a small Coachman on the cast at the moment. Judging the length of the l i n e with extra care, I managed to cover the spot, and rose and hooked.the f i s h . I scrambled on to the bridge and had a long tussle with the f i s h , eventually netting i t , and as i t was then nearly dark, walked down to the Inn to get a mouthful of food before s t a r t i n g on my homeward journey. Another fisherman, regaling himself at the Inn, enquired as to my sport, and was very surprised when he saw the trout I had j u s t k i l l e d . I had estimated i t s weight at about 2 1/4 l b s . , but he laughed at me, and offered to bet that i t would p u l l down the scales at 3 l b s . Sending f o r scales and weights, we were both astonished at f i n d i n g that i t weighed 3 l b s . 2 ozs. It was a t y p i c a l Wandle f i s h of that period, 15 i n s . in41ength and 15 1/2 ins. g i r t h — o n e of those short t h i c k , hog-backed 138 l o o k i n g f ema le t r o u t w i t h t i n y h e a d , w h i c h a r e v e r y r a r e l y seen now-a -day s .98 The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h f rom the same book i s n o t t y p i c a l . I t i s about sa lmon f i s h i n g . H a l f o r d does no t i m i t a t e S c rope and o t h e r s by g o i n g i n t o r a p t u r e s about s u b d u i n g a sa lmon. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s r e p o r t o r i a l s t y l e does n o t c o n c e a l h i s e x c i t e m e n t : P r e s e n t l y t he g i l l i e was c r o u c h i n g down, i n t h e w a t e r , g a f f i n h a n d , and a f t e r two o r t h r e e a t tempt s I managed to b r i n g t h e . s a l m o n w i t h i n h i s r e a c h . C a l m l y , and w i t h o u t h u r r y he d rove the g a f f home and s t a g g e r e d up the bank w i t h . t he a s s i s t a n c e o f "Red S p i n n e r " [pseudonym f o r W i l l i a m S e n i o r , one o f H a l f o r d ' s c l o s e f r i e n d s and f i s h i n g c o m p a n i o n s ] , w i t h a huge male f i s h , w h i c h was d e p o s i t e d on the ground w h i l e : w e a l l had t o r e s t and get a m o u t h f u l o f wh i skey to r e c u p e r a t e . I n e v e r f e l t ; s o r . € i r e d . i n a m y x l i f e ^ a d r i p p l n g f rom p e r s p i r a t i o n f rom head t o f o o t , my l e g s s h a k i n g so t h a t I c o u l d s c a r c e l y s t a n d , and b o t h arms a c h i n g w i t h p a i n . 9 9 I t wou ld be d i f f i c u l t to become t i r e d o f r e a d i n g H a l f o r d ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y . He might be f a c t u a l , bu t he i s n e v e r d u l l ; he might no t be d e s c r i p t i v e , bu t he i s a lways a c t i v e . He c o n c l u d e s by q u o t i n g a pas sage f rom W a l t o n , a pas sage wh i ch a l s o b r i n g s t o mind the same s e n t i m e n t e x p r e s s e d i n d i f f e r e n t words by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s o f a n g l i n g b o o k s : I can sum up my c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the commendation o f a n g l i n g i n t he words o f I zaak W a l t o n , i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f h i s " c o m p l e t e A n g l e r , " where i n the c o l l o q u y between V e n a t o r , A u c e p s , and P i s c a t o r , the l a s t - n a m e d s a y s : "The q u e s t i o n i s r a t h e r whether you be c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g i t ? f o r a n g l i n g i s somewhat l i k e p o e t r y — m e n a r e t o be b o r n s o ; I mean w i t h i n c l i n a t i o n s to i t , though b o t h may be . 'he ightened by d i s c o u r s e and p r a c t i c e ; b u t he t h a t hopes to be a good a n g l e r must no t o n l y b r i n g an i n q u i r i n g , s e a r c h i n g , o b s e r v i n g w i t , bu t he must b r i n g a l a r g e measure o f hope and p a t i e n c e , and a l o v e and p r o p e n s i t y t o t he a r t i t s e l f , but h a v i n g once got 139 and practised it, then doubt not but angling will prove to be so pleasant that it will prove to be, like virtue, a reward to itself."100 The second writer of the late period, Andrew Lang, agrees with Halford and Walton that the angler, like the poet, "'must be born so. '"^^ And Lang's explanation for believing himself to be born an angler is undeniably similar to Davy's: Well, it is stronger than myself, the love of fishing; perhaps it is an inherited instinct, without the inherited power. I may have had a fishing ancestor who bequeathed to me the passion without the art. Although Lang is an observant,pphilosophic angler, the tone of his single but important contribution to the angling literature of the nineteenth century—Angling Sketches, first published in 1891—is far lighter than either Halford or Davy. It could also be added that Lang is less knowledgeable than Halford, and less philosophic than Davy. His compensating virtue, should he need one, is that he is more humorous than both. In this last particular, Lang reminds of both Francis and Scrope—perhaps more of Scrope than of Francis—the other two fishing wits to be numbered among the "principal writers" of angling books. The attentive reader will remember that Halford forever "manages." He manages to make a particular cast; he manages to get a wary trout to rise; he manages to net hisnprize. Lang is not quietly modest. His overstatement of clumsiness is guaranteed to remind the reader of some of his own acts of clumsiness. Lang's statement-reminder comes in a most palatable form: 140 Nature, that made me enthusiastically fond of fishing, gave me thumbs for fingers, short-sighted eyes, indolence, carlessness, and a temper which (usually sweet and angelic) is goaded to madness by the laws of matter an|L of gravitation; For example: when another man is caught up in a branch he disengages his fly; I jerk at it till something breaks. As for carelessness, in boyhood I fished, by preference, with doubtful gut and knots ill-tied; it made the risk greater, and increased the excitement if one did hook a trout....On the Test I thought it'seemly to carry a landing-net. It had a hinge, and doubled up. I put the handledthrough a button hole of my coat: I saw a big fish rising, I put a dry fly over him; the idiot took it. Up stream he ran, then down streamj then he yielded to the rod and came near me. I tried to unship my landing-net from my buttonhole. Vain labour! I twisted and turned the handle, it would not budge. Finally, I stooped, and attempted to ladle the trout out with the short net; but he broke the gut, and went off. A landing-net is a tedious thing to carry, so is a creel, and a creel is, to me, a superfluity. There is never anything to put in it. If I do catch a trout, I lay him under a big stone, cover him with leaves, and never find him again. Lang, too, has a Scrope fish. But Lang deals with his fish in a manner very different from that described by Scrope or Francis: ...near shore there was just one trout who never stopped gorging all day. He lived exactly opposite the nick in the distant hills, and exactly a yard farther out than I could throw a fly. He was a big one, and I am inclined to think that he was the Devil. For, if I had stepped in deeper, and the water had come over my wading boots, the odds are that my frail days on earth would have been.ended by a chill, and.I knew this, and yet the fish went on tempting me to my ruin. I suppose I tried to reach him a dozen times, and cast a hundred, but it was fco no avail. At length, as the afternoon grew grey and chill, I pitched a rock at him, by way of showing that I saw through his fiendish guile, and I walked away.1°4 141 The reader is regaled with tales of missed fish, broken rods, and "hideous insects," (which Lang cannot identify or imitate but which the trout dearly love).^ ^ In his descriptive passages, Lang often reverses the Scrope-Kingsley method by starting off on a lightly frivolous tone, and then gradually developing a more quietly contemplative voice. Lang's comments to the contrary notwithstanding, the reader never doubts that the author's love of nature has been long and deep: Now Nature is all very well. I have nothing to say against her of a Sunday, or when trout are not rising. But she was no comfort to me now. Smiling she gazed on my discomfiture [his inability to tempt some actively-feeding trout]. The lovely lines of the hills, curving about the loch, and with their deepest dip just opposite where I sat, were all of a golden autumn brown, except in the violet distance. The grass of Parnassus grew thick and white around me, with its moonlight tint of green in the veins. Cn a hillside by a brook the countryfolk were winning their hay, and their voices reached me softly from far off. On the loch the marsh-fowl flashed and dipped, the wild ducks played and dived and rose....106 Although he does not say as much, Lang would likely agree that the love of nature, as the love of angling, is born into man. In a calm reflection, he recalls his boyhood loves: Memory, that has lost so much and would gladly lose so much more, brings vividly back the golden summer evenings by Tweedside, when the trout began to splash in the stillness—brings back the long, lounging, solitary days beneath the woods of Ashiesteil—days so lonely that they sometimes, in the end, begat a superstitious eeriness.107 142 The role of nature in making the child the father of the man . recalls Wordsworth, and the role of memory in reminding of the virtue of innocence recalls many angling authors. And, like so many of the nineteenth century's angling authors—particularly those of the last half of the century—Lang is saddened by the deterioration in fishing. As a boy, Lang fished the same south Scotland rivers as Stoddart had fished. During Lang's boyhood, the rivers were experiencing the very abuses Stoddart had feared. Like all authors of angling books, Lang would like the impossible—a return to Eden, a return to a world in which external nature has not yet been defiled: '•In times before the, hills were drained,bbef ore the manufacturing towns were so populous, before pollution, netting, dynamiting, poisoning, sniggling, and the enormous increase of fair and unfair fishing, the border must have been the angler's paradise. From his awareness of the past and his present, Lang can only forecast a bleak future: "Man in the future will enjoy bridks, asphalte, fog, machinery, 'society,' even 109 picture galleries, as many men and most women do already." His prophecy, of course, has come true. It is probably also true that matters will get a great deal worse before they get better—if they ever will improve. Nevertheless, so long as there is even a prospect in fishing, man could do worse than to heed Lang's recommendation to follow the older spirit, to follow the footsteps of Izaak Walton even if they lead to "streams less clear" and "meadows less fragrant" than they 110 once were; 143 Grey hairs come, and stiff limbs, and shortened sight; but the spring is green and hope is fresh for all the changes in the,;.world and in ourselves. We can tell a hawk from a.hand-saw, a MarchLBrown from a Blue Dun; and if our success be as poor as ever, our fancy can dream as well as ever of better things and more fortunate chances. For fishing is like life; and in the art of living, too, there are duffers, though they seldom give us their confessions. Yet even they are kept alive, like the incompetent angler, by this undying hope: they will be more careful, more skilful, more lucky next time. The gleaming untravelled future, the bright untried waters, allure us from day to day, from pool to pool, till, like the veteran on Coquet side, we "try a farewell throw," or,Hike Stoddart, look our last on Tweed.m The last of the late period's writers, Edward Grey (Viscount Grey of Fallodon), made three magnificently fine throws intoithe pool of angling literature. His first—Fly Fishing, published in 1899—was the farthest-reaching. His seond—an essay entitled "Fly-Fishing"—was written specifically for inclusion in Fallodon  Papers (1926), which was otherwise a collection of already-published, non-angling papers. His third—two new chapters for the previously-published Fly Fishing—appeared in a new edition of the book published in 1930. By the time he wrote the last two, Grey'seeyesight, which had been failing for years, was so deteriorated that he could no longer see the bright waters onto which he cast. Shortly after the war, his vision had become so weakened that he could only see his fishing rod; no more could he see either the "draw of the stream" on his line, or even a hint of the 112 line. Despite the physical handicap, Grey's inward vision remained as sharp as ever. 144 Grey's insights into the attractions and the art of fishi n g are expressed c l e a r l y and calmly i n the Fallodon Paper's chapter on f l y f i s h i n g . Grey's b e l i e f that f l y - f i s h i n g i s the acme of the angling art i s quickly evident. But he does not f i n d i t necessary to subdivide f l y - f i s h i n g into categories of excellence: It i s ungracious and f u t i l e to compare the merits of the different forms of f l y - f i s h i n g : salmon f i s h i n g , wet-fly and dry-fly f i s h i n g for trout. Each i f i t be good of i t s kind, has special charms and s a t i s f a c t i o n of i t s own. Not the least of his reasons for c a l l i n g f l y - f i s h i n g "the very crown and consummation of the pleasure of angling" i s that there i s a sense of high art i n inducing f i s h to take for food something which i s composed of feathers and materials that have, taken separately i n themselves, no resemblance to any edible thing whatever. H4 In addition, the casting alone requires continued s k i l l and e f f o r t ; the fly-fisherman i s always doing something; and, sometimes i n salmon f i s h i n g , and usually i n trout f i s h i n g , "there i s the pleasure of seeing the r i s e , the motion of the f i s h as i t takes the f l y on or just under the surface of the w a t e r . i t i s not in s i g n i f i c a n t that Grey made the last-mentioned observation long after he was no longer able to see the r i s e . Elsewhere, Grey echoes writers from Walton forward on the gubject of anglers being born, then perfected: F l y - f i s h i n g i s but one,form of angling, and to enjoy i t to the f u l l a man must be born an angler. The passion may be latent, for years i t may not discover i t s e l f owing to lack of opportunity, but i f i t i s not revealed when opportunity comes, i t i s not there. H6 145 One of the major discoveries that the angler makes i s that there i s delight to be had i n external nature.. And, i n Grey's de s c r i p t i v e passages, there i s the inescapable f l a v o r of Walton:. ...the fresh l i g h t a i r i s l i k e a caress, the warm sun shines interrupted only by the occasional passage of small white clouds, the water meadows are bright with buttercups, and the woods and hedges that are on t h e i r borders are white with hawthorn blossom or l i t by the candelabra of horse-chestnut flower. Birds of many sorts, most notably blackbirds, are singing, and the angler i n h i s hour of waiting has such entertainment as seems more than imperfect man can deserve or comprehend.117 Grey knew that, j u s t as some people w i l l never understand the pleasures of poetry, others w i l l never understand the pleasures of angling. But, the fact that others do not comprehend a pleasure does not render the pleasure any the less r e a l , or powerful. The pleasure of angling, he says, i s too subtle in some of i t s forms to be analyzed; too intimate to be explained.... The g i f t of the power to enjoy has various forms and diverse objects. There i s no need for those who have one form of t h i s g i f t to look askance at those who have another. But surely as l i f e draws to a close no one can look back on days of recreation with more certain gratitude than he who has had the opportunity of f l y - f i s h i n g and has been born with the g i f t of enjoying angling.H8 In Fly F i s h i n g , there i s no escaping the fact that Grey i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the pleasures of angling. Books about angling, he says, should be written and read, p a r t l y perhaps for the sake of • h i n t s , information, and i n s t r u c t i o n , but much more in the hope that the sense of refreshing pleasure, which has been f e l t by the w r i t e r , may s l i d e into a sympathetic mind-H^ 146 And, f u r t h e r : ...most of us endeavour to d i v i d e our l i v e s i n t o three p a r t s , work, r e s t , and r e c r e a t i o n ; and i t i s w i t h the management of the t h i r d p a r t , and the place of angling w i t h regard to i t , that t h i s book i s concerned.120 What pleases Grey about both angling and ang l i n g l i t e r a t u r e helps i d e n t i f y the nature of the angler, and e x p l a i n why the f r a t e r n i t y of anglers i s such a strong brotherhood. Grey, l i k e so many other a n g l e r s , enjoys Walton f o r h i s p a s t o r a l calm: ...the charm of Walton's Complete Angler i s at any r a t e p a r t l y due to the s i m p l i c i t y and p u r i t y of nature, which f i n d expression i n h i s book. There i s a qui e t and benign l i g h t i n h i s w r i t i n g , which draws us to i t , and makes us choose to l i n g e r over i t . 1 2 1 But calmness i s not the only sensation that s u i t s a n g l i n g . The gentle a r t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a l s o admits passion. L i k e so many of those who have w r i t t e n about salmon f i s h i n g , the experience of p l a y i n g and landing a fresh-run f i s h l e f t Grey weak from excitement: The salmon weighed eig h t pounds ten ounces, and i t had taken perhaps h a l f an hour to land i t . There was no p h y s i c a l reason f o r being exhausted, and yet f o r a l i t t l e time I could do nothing. A l l power had gone frmm me; my limbs were tr e m b l i n g , and there was a looseness of the knees which made i t d i f f i c u l t to walk. Such are the great times of sheer excitement which happens i n fishing.122 L i k e o t h e r s , too, the landing of a salmon gave Grey the f e e l i n g 123 of triumph. That some anglers d e r i v e greater p l e a s u r e — o r a wider range of p l e a s u r e — f r o m the p u r s u i t i s n a t u r a l enough. Grey suggests that part of the reason i s to be found i n the d i f f e r e n t 147 stages of a n g l i n g maturity that the i n d i v i d u a l has a t t a i n e d . The f i r s t stage i s the d e s i r e for successj and the excitement that comes w i t h success; the second stage i s the d e s i r e f o r s k i l l , which tends to make the a n g l e r c o m p e t i t i v e ; and the f i n a l stage i s to care more f o r the s k i l l i t s e l f than f o r the success that 124 s k i l l b r i n g s . Grey a l s o i d e n t i f i e s the a n g l e r ' s three main q u a l i t i e s : p h y s i c a l c l e v e r n e s s , suggestive mind, and s e l f -c o n t r o l . To Grey, s e l f - c o n t r o l means f a r more than the p a t i e n c e that 125 so many b e l i e v e to be the a n g l e r ' s primary requirement. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the stagesoof maturity and the q u a l i t i e s of the a n g l e r are s e l f - e v i d e n t . It i s , of course, the h i g h l y - s k i l l e d and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d angler who i s most l i k e l y to concern h i m s e l f with p h i l o s o p h i c a l matters. And so i t i s thatTGrey searches h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s to d i s c o v e r p r e c i s e l y what i t at the center of the sensation of g l o r y that accompanies the l a n d i n g of a salmon. His c o n c l u s i o n l i k e l y a p p l i e s to a l l f i s h i n g : "the supreme moment i s undoubtedly 126 the a c t u a l hooking oft the f i s h . " A g : t h e angler grows i n m a t u r i t y , h i s e t h i c a l standards must a l s o become r e f i n e d . The beginning a n g l e r , s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g for s u c c e s s , might be incapable of understanding the v a l i d i t y of Grey 's condemnation of w e t - f l y f i s h i n g at n i g h t : Night f i s h i n g w i t h a l a r g e wet f l y should not be allowed on good dry f l y water. It i s poor fun to h a u l out of the r i v e r by main force i n the dark, on t h i c k gut , a t r o u t that might give good sport i n dayl ight.127 In the e a r l y s t a g e s , the a n g l e r ' s d e s i r e for success b l i n d s him to the f u l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of p l e a s u r e . He might even f i s h f o r t r o u t 148 with roe simply because he equates pleasure with profit. As he matures, he learns that roe-fishing requires relatively little skill. When his self image demandstthat he exhibit more skill;":, he takes up fly-fishing. As his self-confidence grows, his mind seeks new challenges. He begins to observe nature more closely and, finally, when fishing a dry-fly for trout, he will try to make his imitation "float as if it were buoyant, cheerful, and in the best of spirits—natural flies having the appearance 12 8 of being very frivolous and light-hearted." The angler is mature when he has overcome his need to prove his skill, when he has overcome his need to exact a payment from external nature. He can then experience angling as a vehicle for experiencing something beyond physical or concrete gratification. It is unlikely that Grey's sensations would be experienced by any but the reflective angler, the complete Waltonian: Often after walking a mile or two on the way to the river, atta brisk pace, there comes upon one a feeling of "fitness," of being madedbf>ho'thlng but health and strength so perfect, that life need have no other end but to enjoy them. It is as though now for the first time the whole lungs were filled with air. The pure act of breathing at such times seems glorious. People talk of being a child of nature, and moments such as these are the times, when it is possible to feel so; to know the full joy of animal life—to desire nothing beyond. There are times when I have stood still for joy of it all, on my way through the wild freedom of a Highland moor, and felt the wind, and looked upon the mountains and water and light and sky, till I felt conscious oniy of the strength of a mighty current of life, which swept away all consciousness of self, and made me a part of all that I beheld.129 149 Perhaps Grey's message is this: when man truly observes ;> nature, he becomes part of that which he observes, and when he becomes a part of, instead of apart from, nature, he will have risen above the common fears and complaints of man. Perhaps the result is peace of mind. In any event, it is certainly true that Grey's writing exhibits a strong current of tranquility. It is worth repeating, here, a passage in which Grey describes how-his awareness of nature triggers serious contemplation: When fishing is not productive it is pleasant to be in the warm April sun at the edge of the trees on the top of a high bank on the left-hand side of the river, and to look down upon this pool [the Falls Pool on the Cassley River]; for it is a fine, fascinating, and beautiful place. Poets under such benign influences of Nature are moved to soothing thoughts of how-life may end....Most peaceful of all is Wordsworth's description of the actual close of the life of an old clergyman in the Lake-country. He was still able-bodied and hale, though in extreme old age, when— Like a shadow thrown Softly and lightly fromaa passing cloud, Death felltuipon him, as reclined he lay For noontide solace on the summer grass, The warm lap of his mother earth. So to one whose work was done and whose strength had failed might the end come fitly and happily while he lay listening to the sound of the falling water, his last sight that of the splendid pool with the sun shining on it, andlihis closeing thought the exceeding beauty of the world in which he lived.130 It is worth noting, too, that the above passage is from one of the two chaptersGGrey added to Fly Fishing in 1930, long after he was no longer able to see with direct eyes. But thoughhis eyes had failed him, his vision had not. 150 Our farewell to Grey is our farewell to angling books of the nineteenth century, and there could be no more fitting farewell than Grey's final farewell to his reader: The time must come to all of us, who live long, when memory is more than prospect. An angler who has reached this stage and reviews the pleasures of life will be grateful and glad that h. he has been an angler, for he will look back upon days radiant with happiness, peaks and peaks of enjoyment that are not less bright because they are lit in memory by the light of a setting sun.131 151 Footnotes •^ Sir Humphry Davy, Salmonia, 5th ed. (London, 1869), p. vii. 2Ibid. Francis Francis, Fish Culture, 2nd ed. (London, 1865), pp. 5-6. 4Davy, pp. 162-63. 5Ibid., p. 168. I^bid., p. 161. 7 Ibid., p. 266. 8Ibid., p. 279. 9Ibid., p. 9. 10John Waller Hills, A History of Fly Fishing for Trout (New York, 1921), p. 97. 1:LSir Walter Scott, "Salmonia, or Days of Fly Fishing," a review of Sir Humphry Davy's work, in The Quarterly Review, 38, October 1828, 503-35. 12Ibid. , p. 513. 13 T, . j Ibid. 14Ibid., p. 505. 15Ibid., p. 504. 16Ibid., p. 505. Davy, p. 8. 152 18Ibid., p. 241. 19 Scott, p. 532. 20Ibid., pp. 524-25. 21Davy, pp. 159-60. 22 Thomas Tod Stoddart, Angling Reminiscences of the Rivers  and Lochs of Scotland (London, 1887), p. 53. 23Ibid., pp. 55-56. 24Ibid., p. 29-31. 25 Ibid., p. 31. 26 Thomas Tod Stoddart, An Angler's Rambles and Angling Songs (Edinburgh, 1866), p. 137. 27Ibid., p. 195. 28 Thomas Tod Stoddart, The Angler's Companion to the Rivers  and Lochs of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1847), p. 2. 29Ibid., pp. 376-77. 30 Stoddart, Rambles, p. 62. 31Ibid., pp. 101-102. 32 Stoddart, Companion, p. 157. 33 JJIbid. 34Ibid., p. 268. 35Ibid., p. 319. 36 William Scrope, Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing in the  River Tweed (London, 1885), p. 180. 153 37Ibid., pp. 107-108. 38Ibid., pp. 251-53. 39Ibid. , p. 253. 40Ibid., p. 132. 41Ib±d., p. 102. 42Ibid., pp. 105-106. 43Ibid., p. 21. 44Ibld., p. 209. 4 I^bid., p. 275. 46 Francis, Fish Culture, p. v« Ibid. , p. vn. Ibid., 49 Ibid. , p. x. 50T, ., Ibid. "^ Ibid. , p. 17 . ^2Ibid., p. 16. 5 3 Francis Francis, A Book of Angling, 2nd ed. (London, 1867), p. 4. ^4Ibid., p. 161. 55Ibid., p. 219. 56Ibid., p. 138. 154 5 7 I b i d . , p. 131. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 271.' 5 9 I b i d . , pp. 266-67. 6°Francis F r a n c i s , By Lake and R i v e r (London, 1874), 308-309. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 348. 6 2 l b i d . , p. 219. 6 3 I b i d . , pp. 352-53. 6 4 I b i d . , p. 353. 6 5 I b i d . , pp. 46-47. ^ I b i d . , p. 57 . 6 7 F r a n c i s F r a n c i s , Hot Pot (London, 1880), p. 5. 6 8 I b i d . , p. 130. I b i d . 7 0 I b i d . , pp. 88-89. 7 1 I b i d . , pp. 90-91. 7 2 F r a n c i s F r a n c i s , Angling Reminiscences (London, 1887), 124-25. 7 3 I b i d . , p. 177. 7 4 W i l l i a m Senior, Lines i n Pleasant P l a c e s , (London, 1920), 88. 7 5 W i l l i a m S e n i o r , Near and Far, (London, 1890), p. 82. 155 76Ibid., p. 84. 77Ibid., p. 92. 7 8Ib id., p. 7 8. 79 William Senior, Travel and Trout in the Antipodes, (London, 1880), pp. 268-269. on Edward Marston, An Amateur Angler's Days in Dove Dale (London, 1884), p. 13. 8L, ., Ibid. 82Edward Marston, By Meadow and Stream, (London, 1896), p. 18. 83Ibid., p. 35. 84.,., Ibid. , p . 51. • 85Frederic Michael Halford, An.Angler's Autobiography (London, 1903) , p. 283. 86Frederic Michael Halford, Dry-Fly Fishing jn Theory  and Practice, 4th ed. rev. (London, 1902), p. 66. 87Ibidr, p. 167. 88Frederic Michael Halford, Dry-Fly Entomology (London, 1902), p. 70. 89 Halford, Autobiography, pp. 160-61. 90 Halford, Entomology, p. 147. 91Halford, Modern Development of the.Dry Fly (London, Frederic Michael, 1923), p. 3. 92 Halford, Entomology, p. 155. 93 JIbid. 156 94 Ibid. , p. 1. Ibid., pp. I V - V . 96 Halford, Modem Development, pp. 215-16. 9 7 Halford, Dry-Fly Fishing, pp. 145-46. 98 Halford, Autobiography, pp. 44-45. 99 Ibid., p. 62. 100Ibid., pp. 285-86. 101Andrew Lang, Angling Sketches (London, 1891), p. 10. 102T, . , ,. Ibid., p. 5. 103 Ibid., pp. 2-3. 104Ibid., p. 102. 105Ibid., p. 100. Ibid., p. 101. 107T, Ibid., p. 35. 108Ibid., p. 19. Ibid., p. o. Ibid. :. Ibid., p. 9. 112 Sir Edward Grey (Lord Grey of Fallodon) Fly Fishing (London, 1899), p. 230. Sir Edward Grey (Lord Grey of Fallodon) Fallodon Papers (London, 1926), p. 144. ll4Ibid., p. 130. 115Ibid., p. 132. ll6Ibid., p. 128. 117Ibid., p. 133. 118Ibid., pp. 144-45. ll9Grey, Fly Fishing, p. l20Ibid., p. 9. 121Ibid., p. 4. l22Ibid. , p. 16. 123Ibid. , p.. 216. 124Ibid., pp. 11-17. l25Ibid., p. 19. 126Ibid., p. 136. 127Ibid., p- 43. 128 Ibid., pp. 50-51. l29Ibid., p. 133. 130Ibid., p. 211. 131Ibid.., p. 240. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINCIPAL"NINETEENTH CENTURY ANGLING WORKS CONSULTED Akerman, John Yonge. Spring-Tide; or The Angler and his Friends. London: Richard Bentley, 1850. Boosey, Thomas. Piscatorial Reminiscences and Gleanings by. an Old Angler and Bibliopolist. . London: William Pickering, 1835. Bowlker, Charles. The Art of Angling, Great-ly Enlarged and Improved; Containing Directions for Fly-Fishing, Trolling, Bottom Fishing, Making Artificial Flies, Etc., Etc. Ludlow: Procter and Jones, 1829. Chatto, William Andrew. The Angler's Souvenir, by P., Fisher (pseud.). London: C. Tilt, 1835. Charleton, T.W. The Artaof Fishing. A Poem. North Shields (England): J.K. Pollock, 1819. Chitty, Edward. The Illustrated Fly-Fisher's Text Book; a Complete Guide to the Science of Fly-Fishing for Salmon, Trout, Grayling, Etc. , by Theophilus South (pseud.)'. London: H.G. Bohn, 1845. Colquhoun, John. Salmon Casts and Stray Shots, Being Fly-Leaves  from the Note-Book of John Colquhoun. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1858. Cook, Charles Henry. The Book of the All-Round Angler. A Comprehensive Treatise on Angling in Both Fresh and Salt  Water, by John Bickerdyke (pseud.). Fifth edition revised, much enlarged. London: Bazaar, Exchange and Mart, 1922. Crawhall, Joseph, ed. A Collection of Right Merrie Garlands for  North Country Anglers... continued to this Present  Year. (Cover and half-title: The Newcastle Fisher's Garlands.) Newcastle-on-Tyne: George Rutland, 1864. _. The Compleatest Angling Booke that Ever Was Writ, Being Done Oute of ye Hebrewe and Other Tongues by a  Person of Honor. Adorn'd with Sculptures. Newcastle-on-Tyne, by Andro Reid for "ye author," 1881. 159 Davy, Sir Humphry. Salmonia: : or Days of-Fly Fishing. In a  Series of Conversations. With some Accounts of the  Habits of Fishes Belonging to the Genus Salmo. 5th ed., with illustrations. London: John Murray, 1869. • Edinburgh Angling Club. Songs.:.. With .Illustrations Drawn and  Engraved by Members of the Club. New edition, with additions. Edinburgh: printed privately, 1879. Fitzgibbon, Edward. The Book of the .Salmon; in Two Parts, by Ephemera (pseud.). Assisted by Andrew Young. London: Longman, Brown, Greenland Longmans, 1850. . A Handbook of Angling: Teaching Fly-Fishing, Trolling, Bottom-Fishing, and Salmon-Fishing; with the.Natural  History of River Fish, and.the Best Modes of Catching  Them, by Ephemera (pseud.). 3rd ed., cor. and improved. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1853. Francis, Francis. Angling Reminiscences. London: H. Cox, 1887. . A Book on Angling: Being a Complete Treatise on the Art of Angling in Every Branch. 2nd ed., rev. and much enlarged. London: Longmans, Greenj 1867. . By Lake and River: An Angler's Rambles in the'-'North of England and Scotland. London: "The Field" Office, 1874. . Fish Culture; a Practical Guide to the Modern System of Breeding and Rearing Fish. 2nd ed., rev. and enlarged. London: Routledge, Warne and Routledge, 1865. .' Hot Pot; or, Miscellaneous Papers. London: "The Field" Office, 1880. Glover, Richard H. An Angler's Strange Experiences, a Whimsical Medley, and an Of-Fish-All Record without A-Bridge-Ment, by Cotswold Isys (pseud.). London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1883. Grey, Edward (Viscount Grey of Fallodon). Fallodon Papers. London: Constable, 1926. . Fly Fishing. London and Toronto, J.M. Dent, 1931. Grimble, Augustus. The Salmon Rivers of Ireland. 2 vols. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1903. . The Salmon Rivers of Scotland. 2nd. ed. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1902. 160 . The Salmon and Sea Trout Rivers of England and Wales. 2 vols. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1904. . Shooting and Salmon Fishing, Hints, and Recollections. London: Chapman and Hall, 1892. Halford, Frederic Michael. An Angler's Autobiography. Introduction by William Senior. London: Vinton, 1903. . Dry-Fly Entomology. Leading Types of Natural Insects Serving as Food for Trout and Grayling; with the 100 Best  Patterns of Floating Flies and the Various Methods of  Dressing Them. 2nd. ed., rev. London: Vinton, 1902. . Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice. 4th. ed.j rev. London: Vinton, 1902. . Making a Fishery. London: Vinton, 1902. . Modern Development of the Dry Fly, the New Dry Fly Patterns, the Manipulation of Dressing Them and Practical  Experiences of their Use. London: Routledge, 1923. Hansard, George Agar. Trout and Salmon Fishing in Wales. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1834. Houghton Fishing Club. Chronicles of,the Houghton Fishing Club, 1822-1908, ed. Sir Herbert Maxwell. London: Edward Arnold, 1908.' . ' . Jesse, Edward. An Angler's Rambles. London:" J. Van Voorst, 1836. Kingsley, Charles. New Miscellanies. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860. Lakeland, R. The Teesdale Angler. Barnard Castle, Durham:, R. Barker, 1858. Lang, Andrew. Angling Sketches. London;^  Longmans, Green, 1891. Liddell, Robert. The Lay of the Last Angler. In Four Cantos. To which is Added Jack's Dangers and Deliverances.... Kelso: J. & J.H. Rutherford, 1884. Marston, Edward. An Amateur Angler's Days in-Dove Dale, or, How  I Spent my Three Week's Holiday. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1884. By Meadow and Stream; Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Places, by the Amateur Angler. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1896. 161 . Days::in Clover, by the Amateur Angler. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1892. . Dove Dale Revisited, with Other Holiday Sketches, by the Amateur Angler. London: Sampson Low, Marston; New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1902. . Easy-Chair Memories and Rambling Notes, by the Amateur Angler (E. Marston). London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1911. . Fishing for Pleasure and Catching It. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1911. . Fresh Woods and Pastures New, by the author of "An Amateur Angler's Days in Dove Dale," "Frank's Rahche," etc. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and ;: Rivington, 1888. . An Old Man's Holidays, by the Amateur Angler. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1900. . On a Sunshine Holyday, by the- Amateur Angler. London:. Sampson Low, Marston, 1897. Medwin, Thomas. The Angler in Wales, .or Days and Nights of  Sportsmen. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley, 1834. Novice, A., A.F. & F. (pseud.) The Anglican Friar, and the Fish  which he Took by Hook and by Crook. A Comic Legend, Dedicated to All Lovers of Angling. London: J. and D.A. Darling, 1851. Penn, Richard. Maxims and Hints for an Angler and Miseries of  Fishing. London: Murray, 1833. Phillips, Henry. The True Enjoyment of Angling. London: William Pickering, 1843. Pulman, George Philip Rigney. Rustic Sketches; Being Rhymes on Angling and Other Subjects Illustrative of Rural Life, etc., in the Dialect of the West of England; with Notes and a  Glossary. London: John Gray Bell, 1853. . The Vade Mecum of Fly-Fishing for Trout; Being a Complete Practical Treatise on that Branch of the Art of Angling, with Tables of Flies, Arranged on an Entirely New Plan. 2nd. ed., greatly enlarged. London: Longman, Brown, 1846. Ronalds, Alfred. The Fly-Fisher's Entomology, with Coloured Representations of the Natural and Artificial Insect and  a Few Observations and Instructions on Trout—and Grayling- Fishing . 6th. ed. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1862. 162 Salter, Thomas Frederick. The Angler's Guide, Being a Plain and  Complete Practical Treatise on the Art of Angling for  Sea, River and Pond Fish, Deduced from. Many Years  Practice and Observation. To Which is added A Treatise  on Trolling. The^ eighth edition, with the author's last corrections and additions. London: John Wicksteed, 1833. Scott, Sir Walter. "Salmonia, or Days of Fly Fishing," a review of Sir Humphry Davy's work of the same title, in The  Quarterly Review, 38, Oct. 1828, 503-35. Scrope, William; Days and Nights•of •Salmon Fishing in the River  Tweed. London: Hamilton, Adams; Glasgow, Thomas D. Morison, 1885. Senior, William. By Stream and&Sea; a Book for Wanderers and  Anglers. London: Chatto and Windus, 1877. . Lines in Pleasant Places; Being the Aftermath of an Old Angler. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1920. ______ Near and Far; an Angler's Sketches of Home Sport and Colonial Life. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1890. . Travel and Trout in the Antipodes; an Angler's Sketches in Tasmania and New Zealand. London: Chatto and Windus, 1880. Stewart, W.C. The Practical Angler; or the Art of Trout-Fishing, More Particularly Applied to Clear Water. 8th ed. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1883. Stoddart, Thomas Tod. The Angler's Companion to the Rivers and  Lochs of Scotland. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1847. . An Angler's Rambles and Angling.Songs. Edinburgh: -Edmonston and Douglas, 1866. . Angling Reminiscences of the Rivers and Locks of Scotland. London: Hamilton, Adams, 1887. White, Charles. Sporting Scenes and Country Characters, by Martingale (pseud.). London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1840. Williamson, Thomas. The Complete Angler's Vade-Mecum; Being a Perfect Code of Instruction on the Above Pleasing Science; Wherein are Detailed a Great Variety of Original Practices  and Inventions; Together with All that can Contribute to  the Sportsman's Amusement and Success. London: Payne and MacKinlay, 1808. .16,3 Wilson, Professor John (Christopher North). Noctes Ambrosianae, ed. R. Shelton Mackensie, rev. ed., vols. I, IV. New York: Redfield, 1857. . . Recreations of Christopher North. New York: J.C. Derby, 1854. Younger, John. River Angling for Salmon and Trout; with a Memoir and List of the Tweed Salmon Casts. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1864. 164 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SECONDARY SOURCES Gingrich, Arnold. The Wel-Tempered Angler. New York: Knopf, 1965. Hills, John Waller. A History of Fly Fishing for Trout. New York: F.A.Stokes, 1921. " McClane, Albert Jules, ed. M'cClanes Standard Fishing Encyclopedia and International Angling Guide. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1965. McDonald, John Dennis. The Origins of Angling, by John McDonald assisted by Sherman Kuhn and Dwight Webster and the ? editors of Sports Illustrated. With paintings by John Langley Howard, and a new printing of the Treatise on  Fishing with an Angle, attributed to Dame Juliana Berners. Garden City, New York: Doubleday,.1963. Robb, James ;;r\ Notable Angling Literature. London: Jenkins, 1946. Starkman, Susan and Stanley E. Read. The Contemplative Man's Recreation: A Bibliography of Books on Angling and Game Fish  in the Library of the University of British Columbia. Vancouver: The Library of the University of British Columbia, 1970. 165 CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NOTABLE PRE-1800 ANGLING WORKS CONSULTED 1496 Berners, Dame Juliana. The Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an  Angle, in The Origins of Angling, by John D. McDonald. Garden City, New York: : Doubleday, 1963. 1577 The Arte of Angling. Edited by Gerald Eades Bentley, with an introduction by Carl Otto v. Kienbusch, and explanatory notes by Henry L. Savage. Princeton: Princeton University Library, 1956. 1590 Mascall, Leonard. A Bookeof Fishing with Hooke and Line. London: W. Satchell and Co., 1884. 1613 Dennys, John. The Secrets of Angling, a reprint with introduction by Thomas Westwood. London: W. Satchell, 1883. 1614 Markham, Gervase. The Pleasure of Princes,Aor Good Mens Recreations. Together with The Experienced Angler  by Colonel Robert Venables. Preface by Horace Hutchinson. London: The Cresset Press, 192 7. 1653 Walton, Izaak. The Compleat Angler,.ed. Margaret Bottrall. London: Dent, 1965. 1657 Barker, Thomas. Barker's Delight: or, The Art of Angling. Wherein are discovered many rare Secrets very necessary  to be known by all that delight in that Recreation, both for catching Fish, and Dressing thereof. 2nd. ed., much enlarged. London: Humphrey Moseley, 1659. 1662 Venables, Robert. The Experienced Angler; or Angling Improved, .Imparting Many of the Aptest Ways and Choisest  Experiments for the Taking Most Sorts of Fish in Pond  or River. London: Septimus Prowett and Thomas Gosden, 1825. 1674 Franck, Richard. Northern Memoirs, calculated, for the  meridan of Scotland. London: H. Morlock, 1694. 1676 Cotton, Charles. "Part Two" of The Compleat Angler by Izaak Walton. Tricentennial Edition, ed. Eugene Burns. Pennsylvania: Stackpole, 1953. 1758 Bowlker, Charles. The Art of Angling, Greatly Enlarged and Improved; Containing Directions for Fly-Fishing, Trolling, Bottom Fishing, Making Artificial Flies, Etc. Ludlow: Procter and Jones, 1829. 166 CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FIRST PUBLICATION DATES FOR NINETEENTH CENTURY ANGLING WORKS MENTIONED IN THESIS 1808 Williamson, Thomas. The Complete Angler's Vade-Mecum. 1814 Salter, T.F. The Angler's Guide. 1819 Charleton, T.W. The Art of Fishing: A Poem. 1828 Davy, Sir Humphry. Salmonia; or.Days.of Fly Fishing. 1829 Bowlker, Charles. The Art of Angling. 1833 Penn, Richard. Maxims and Hints for an Angler. 1834 Hansard, George A. Trout and Salmon Fishing in Wales. 1834 Medwin, Thomas. ' The Angler in Wales. 1835 Boosey, Thomas. Piscatorial Reminiscences and Gleanings. 1835 Chatto, W. Andrew. The Angler's Souvenir. 1836 Jesse, Edward. An Angler's Rambles. 1836 Ronalds, Alfred. The Fly-Fisher's Entomology. 1837 Stoddart, Thomas Tod. Angling Reminiscences of the Rivers and Lochs of Scotland. 1840 Colquhoun, John. The Moor and the-Loch. 1840 White, Charles. Sporting Scenes, and Country Characters. 1840 Younger, John. On River Angling for Salmon and Trout. 1841 Pulman, G.P.R. The Vade Mecum of Fly-Fishing for Trout. 1842 Pulman, G.P.R. Rustic Sketches. 1842 Wilson, Professor.John (Christopher North). The Recreations of Christopher North. 1843 Phillips, Henry. The True Enjoyment of Angling. 1843 Scrope, William. Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing in the River Tweed. 167 1845 Chitty, Edward. The Illustrated Fly-Fisher's Text Book. 1847 Fitzgibbon, Edward. A Handbook of Angling. 1847 Stoddart, Thomas Tod. The Angler's Companion for the  Rivers, and Lochs of Scotland. 1850 Akerman, John Yonge. Spring-Tide. 1850 Fitzgibbon, Edward. The Book of the Salmon. 1857 Stewart, W.C. The Practical Angler. 1858 Lakeland, R. The Teesdale Angler. 1859 Kingsley, Charles. "Chalk Stream Studies." 1863 Francis, Francis. Fish Culture. 1864 Crawhall, Joseph. The Newcastle Fisher's Garlands. 1866 Stoddart, Thomas Tod. An Angler's Rambles and Angling Songs. 1867 Francis, Francis. A Book on Angling. 1867 Liddell, Robert. "The Lay of the Last Angler." 1874 Francis, Francis. By Lake and River. 1877 Senior, William. By Stream and Sea. 1878 Edinburgh Angling Club. Songs. 1879 Senior, William. Travel and Trout in the Antipodes. 1880 Francis, Francis. Hot Pot. 1881 Crawhall, Joseph. The Compleatest Angling Booke. 1883 Glover, Richard E. An Angler's Strange Experiences. 1884 Marston, Edward. ?-AmeAmateur3Mg'ierastDays ain«rD,ove Dale. 1887 Francis, Francis. Angling Reminiscences. 1887 Marston, "Edward. Fresh Woods and Pastures New. 1888 Senior, William. Near and Far. 1889 Cookj Charles Henry. The Book of the All-Round Angler. 168 1889 Halford, F.M. Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice. 1891 Lang, Andrew. Angling Sketches. 1892 Grimble, Augustus. Shooting and Salmon Fishing. 1892 Marston, Edward. Days in Clover. 1896 Marston, Edward. By Meadow and Stream. 1897 Halford, F.M. Dry-Fly Entomology. 1897 Marston, Edward. "On a Sunshine Holyday." 1899 Grey, Edward (Lord Grey of Fallodon). Fly Fishing. 1900 Grimble, Augustus. The Salmon River of Scotland. 1900 Marston, Edward. An Old Man's Holiday. 1902 Halford, F.M. Making a Fishery. 1902 Marston, Edward. Dove Dale Revisited. 1903 Grimble, Augustus. The Salmon Rivers of Ireland. 1903 Halford, F.M. An Angler's Autobiography. 1904 Grimble, Augustus. The Salmon and'Sea Trout Rivers of England and Wales. 1906 Marston, Edward. Fishing for Pleasure. 1908 Houghton*Fishing Club. Chronicles. 1910 Halford, F.M. Modern Development of the Dry Fly. 1911 Marston, Edward. Easy-Chair Memories and Rambling Notes. 1920 Senior, William. Lines in Pleasant Places. 1926 Grey, Edward (Lord Grey of Fallodon). Fallodon Papers. 169 Appendix 1: Pseudonyms Used by Nineteenth. Century Authors Mentioned in Thesis. Pseudonyms Real Names The Amateur Angler B i eke rdyke, John Ephemera Fisher, P. IsySj Cotswold Martingale Piscator Red Spinner South, Theophilus Marston, Edward Cook, Charles Henry Fitzgibjbon, Edward Chatto, William Andrew Glover, .Richard H. White, Charles Pulman, George Philip Rigney Senior, William Chitty, Edward 170 Appendix 2: Brief Biographical Facts on Some of the Authors Mentioned in Thesis. Akerman, John Yonge (1806-1873). Born in London. Numismatist and antiquary. Dictionary of National Biography, I. Boosey, Thomas (1795-1871). Bookseller and publisher of operas. Modern English Biography, I. Chatto, William Andrew (1799-1864). Born in Newcastle-on-Tyne. Wholesale tea dealer, journalist, and miscellaneous writer. DNB, IV. Chitty, Edward (1804-1863). Legal reporter, publisher of bancruptcy reports, and author. DNB, IV. Colquhoun, John Campbel (1803-1870). Born in Edinburgh. . Politician and author. DNB, IV. Cook, Charles Henry (1858-1933). Born in London. Journalist, editor (of the Field's angling section), novelist, and writer, on angling and other sports. Who Was Who, III (1929-1940). Crawhall, Joseph (?-1913). Illustrator, artist, editor, and writer on angling. aWhop.WasrWhc^ i^ I89^ gI916)i^ ho^ Iltf Davy, Sir Humphry (1778-1829). Born in Penzance, Cornwall. Scholar and poet. It has been said that he was "not only one of the greatest, but one of the most benevolent and amiable of men." DNB, V. Fitzgibbon, Edward (1803-1857). Born in Limerick. Journalist, drama critic, and writer on angling. Devoted to angling from boy-hood. DNB, VII. Francis, Francis (1822-1886). Born in Seaton, Devonshire. Editor (of the Field's angling section for more than quarter century), writer on angling, and active advocate of fish culture. DNB, VII. Grey, Sir Edward (Viscount Grey of Fallodon — 1862-1933). Born in London. Statesman, bird-lover, and fly-flsher.' "He saw a grim future for mankind, the more so as he had less than no sympathy with the-increasing mechanization of life." DNB, 1931-40. 171 Grimble, Augustus (1840-1925). Professional soldier and writer of angling books. Who Was. Who, II (1916-1928). Halford, F.M. (1844-1914) .f. Contributor to the Field (under the nom-de-plume, Detatched Badger), and author of several books on fly fishing and related subjects. Who Was  Who, I (1897-1916). Jesse, Edward (1780-1868). Born in Yorkshire. Editor and miscellaneous writer. DNB, X. Kingsley, Charles (1819-1875). Born in Devonshire. Prolific writer. DNB, XI. Lang,.Andrew•(1844-1912). Born in Selkirk. Scholar, folk-lorist, poet, and man of letters. ":[:N] o man ever helped more lame dogs over stiles." DNB, 1912-21. Liddell, Robert (1808-1888). Vicar, lecturer, and writer. Modern English Biography, II. Marston, Edward (1825-1914). Author and publisher. Who Was . Who, I (1897-1915). Medwin, Thomas (1788-1869). Biographer of Shelly, author of the Conversations of Lord Byron, and author of angling books. DNB, XIII. Penn, Richard.(1784-1863). Employed in the Colonial Office. Known for his quaint humour. DNB, XV. Phillips, Henry (1801-1876). Born in Bristol. Musician, actor, and writer on angling. DNB, XV. Pulman, George Philip Rigney (1819-1880). Born in Devonshire. Organist, essayist, editor, and writer on angling. DNB, XVI. Salter, Thomas Frederick (.? - 1826). Hatter and writer on angling. DNB, XVII. Scrope, William (1772-1852). Scholar, artist, sportsman, and angling author. DNB, XVII. Senior, William (? -1920). Lecturer, journalist, editor^ .(succeeded Francis Francis as the Field's angling editor)', kridFauthor. Who Was Who, II (1916-1928). Stoddart, Thomas Tod (1810-1880). Born in. Edinburgh. Poet, angler, and anti-pollutionist, DNB, XVIII. 172 Wilson, Professor John ("Christopher North" — 1785-1854). Scholar, professor, essayist, and editor. DNB, XXI. Younger, John (1785-1860). Shoemaker, poet, and writer on angling. DNB, XXI. 


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