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Attitudes of mobile home owners toward mobile home parks Contractor, Roda 1972

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ATTITUDES OF MOBILE HOME OWNERS TOYfARD MOBILE ' HOME PARKS by RODA CONTRACTOR BiA. , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED I F PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF • MASTER OF ARTS  i m the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY: OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY; 1972;'  .In: presenting this: thesis: i m p a r t i a l fulfilment o f the. requirements:- f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library; s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  X further  agree that permission f o r extensive copying of this.? thesis: f o r scholarly purposes: may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by; his - representatives.  I t i s understood  that.copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain:shall not be allowed without my written: permission.  School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  A p r i l 28th, 1972  iii ABSTRACT  Planning is:concerned  with understanding and r e l a -  t i n g to the needs o f various; segments- o f the Thus i t is; imperative  population.  that planners; should comprehend  the views o f any group which f a l l s within t h e i r administ r a t i v e or regulatory  jurisdiction;  This; study has undertaken: to examine the attitudes; of mobile home owners: toward the park i n which t h e i r mobile home i s ; located.  Responses to: a questionnaire  by 281. residents; l i v i n g i m a t o t a l o f 31 parks were used as:, the primary, source o f information;  U t i l i z i n g multivariate a n a l y t i c a l techniques-, the study investigated, f i r s * , the dimensions involved i m mobile home l i v i n g and,  second, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  resident s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and physical and s o c i a l  character-  i s t i c s o f the mobile home, park.' Physical park characteristics:-that were examined included:: size and age o f the mobile home parkj; services and f a c i l i t i e s ; within; the parkf size o f lots;, location: of the parki,, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the park included resident of: differences between conventional  single  Social perception!  family/neigh-  borhoods, and mobile home parks; degree of f r i e n d l i n e s s  of park dwellers as; compared to residents; of other types; of neighborhoods;:, constraints on s o c i a l interaction: outside the park because o f distance from other r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods; and/or community f a c i l i t i e s ; ; constraints / on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n outside the park due to negative attitudes o f nomrpark dwellers;  In; additions, information  concerning; attitudes toward r u l e s and regulations as: well as the extent of resident interaction: within, the park" was; sought out,  A number o f conclusions emerged from: the study which; are considered to be useful t o planners; in; making future decisions concerning mobile home parks. sions indicated;  These conclu-  the minimum size for development o f  a s a t i s f a c t o r y park; those park features that account . s i g n i f i c a n t l y for resident s a t i s f a c t i o n ; the r o l e o f the municipality i n the development o f mobile home parks; the appropriate l o c a t i o n f o r mobile home parks;  F i n a l l y , a number o f questions were raised that were considered to require further research.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  SECTION-I  GENERAL INTRODUCTION:  Chapter 1  Introduction.  Chapter 2  Overview:; M o b i l e Home P a r k s ; Manufacturing; S o c i a l Aspects.....  Page 1  5  SECTION I I  HYPOTHESIS: SURVEY'  Chapter 3  Hypothesis  22  Chapter 4  Methodology........  30  SECTION I I I ANALYSIS Chapter 5 Chapter 6 C h a p t e r 7;  Chapters  SECTION IV Chapter 9  Sample P o p u l a t i o n : Socio-Ecohomic P r o f i l e ; ; Length o f Residency..  38  Km E x a m i n a t i o n ' o f t h e Dimensions o f M o b i l e Home P a r k L i v i n g .  64  Ah: E x a m i n a t i o n : o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between: Respondent A t t i t u d e s and P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s . The R e s i d e n t s Speak.....  92 ...109  CONCLUSION Planning Implications;.....  BIBLIOGRAPHY  APPENDIX A  =  130  146  QUESTIONNAIRE  157  vi L I S T OF TABLES  Table . I  II  HI:  IV  Page Twelve American S t a t e s w i t h L a r g e s t Number o f M o b i l e Home- P a r k s ; i n : 1 9 6 8 . . 6 Number o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s : and M o b i l e * Homes: im Canada - 1968  8  M o b i l e Home P r o d u c t i o n i m the U n i t e d S t a t e s : and Canada............... 9 S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e f o r M o b i l e Home Parks: i n . the Lower M a i n l a n d and Vancouver I s l a n d January/1972.....  35  Annual F a m i l y Income  40, 41  S i z e o f Household  43  Age o f Respondents*  45, 46  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n : ! o f C h i l d r e n . .  48* 49, 50  Occupation: o f t h e Maim Breadwinner.......  54, 55  X  E d u c a t i o n a l Background o f Respondent.....  57, 58  XI  L e n g t h o f Time i n : P r e s e n t P a r k . . . . . . . . . . .  60  T o t a l Number o f P a r k s L i v e d I n .  61  H i g h e s t L o a d i n g V a r i a b l e s on: 24 F a c t o r s . .  70  V, VI VII VIII IX  XII XIII  vii Table XIV  XV  Page Tne' Independent -Dimensions:: Attitude-Determining Variables  95  Loadings o f A t t i t u d i n a l on 2 F a c t o r s .  98  Variables  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O r i g i n a l V a r i a b l e s " and D e r i v e d C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s  99  XVII  Frequency o f M e n t i o n by S u b j e c t C a t e g o r i e s ; o f 187 Responses to. the Quest i o n : ; "Are t h e r e any f u r t h e r comments; you? w i s h t o make c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l cond i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and/or s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i n ; youi* m o b i l e home park o r parks' i n general?". I l l  XVIII  G e n e r a l S u b j e c t C a t e g o r i e s and Frequency o f Mention; by 187 Respondents; t o t h e Question: "Are t h e r e any f u r t h e r comments you w i s h t o make c o n c e r n i n g phys i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and/or s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i n . y o u r m o b i l e home p a r k o r parks; i n : g e n e r a l ? " . 112~  viii L I S T OP FIGURES  Figure  page.  1  F a c t o r Scores o f 281 Respondents on. F a c t o r I and F a c t o r V......  .  84  2  281 F a c t o r Scores om F a c t o r s ; I X and X I I .  3 • .  . 281 F a c t o r S c o r e s on: F a c t o r s ; I I and XXI.,^ 89  .  Chart 1  ,  87  CHART  • "  Page S i z e o f M o b i l e • Home Parks: i n t h e Province  II-  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.  S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n ! and g r a t i t u d e a r e extended t o Dr. N.d. C h e r u k u p a l l e f o r h e r v i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n ; . a n d participation;, i n a very worthwhile l e a r n i n g experience. . The i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l  s u g g e s t i o n s o f P r o f e s s o r B.  Wiesmam have a l s o been much a p p r e c i a t e d .  For her i n t r o -  d u c t i o n ! t o a n unknown f i e l d , , I am i n d e b t e d t o M i s s Jean. C. Downing o f t h e O n t a r i o Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s .  F i n a l l y , I wish to g r a t e f u l l y , but inadequately, acknowledge t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t , a s s i s t a n c e and support o f my p a r e n t s ; t h r o u g h o u t t h i s ; s t u d y .  ATTITUDES OF MOBILE HOME OWNERS TOWARD MOBILE HOME PARKS  SECTION' i :  GENERAL INTRODUCTION:  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  More t h a n any o t h e r t y p e o f h o u s i n g , m o b i l e homes have, o v e r t h e y e a r s , developed such a c l e a r s t e r e o t y p e i n t h e p u b l i c s mind, t h a t any s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g them 1  must make some acknowledgement o f t h i s f a c t .  This stereo-  type has l a r g e l y been n e g a t i v e , concerned w i t h t h e supp o s e d l y t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e o c c u p a n t s , t h e sluml i k e appearance  m o b i l e homes presumably  they l o c a t e , t h e consequent  c r e a t e wherever  depreciation of land values  s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a r e a , and t h e f a i l u r e o f occupants t o bear t h e i r f a i r share o f m u n i c i p a l t a x e s f o r s e r v i c e s provided.  The purpose o f t h i s paper i s not t o d e l v e i n t o t h e a c c u r a c y o f these s t e r e o t y p e s .  I t must be s t a t e d , however,  t h a t these s t e r e o t y p e s a r e b o t h t h e r e a s o n and t h e impetus f o r t h i s study.  Thus, i t i s because o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d  to be t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t u r e o f p a s t assumptions  con-  c e r n i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s t h a t t h i s study i s b e i n g undertaken.  P r i m a r i l y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s concerned w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s o f mobile home owners toward t h e p a r k i n which they r e s i d e .  Such a statement i s based  on t h e premise t h a t mobile home park l i v i n g i s i n d e e d d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g n e i g h b o r hoods.  Moreover, i t i s f e l t t h a t m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g  i s something more t h a n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f p e o p l e  living  i n m o b i l e home u n i t s ; t h a t park l i v i n g i s a s p e c i a l e n t i t y t h a t must be i n v e s t i g a t e d d i r e c t l y ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l e home u n i t must t a k e a secondary r o l e f o r purposes of t h e s t u d y .  I n t h e p a s t , t h e two main s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e home l i v i n g have been, f i r s t l y , t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s and t h e i r a n c i l l a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e American M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n and, s e c o n d l y , governmental a g e n c i e s a t a l l l e v e l s , municipal, provincial, national.  Some independent r e -  s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d , m o s t l y by u n i v e r s i t i e s .  The main c o n c e r n o f a l l these s t u d i e s has f o c u s e d on f o u r a s p e c t s : demographic d a t a c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e home owners; f i n a n c i a l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u r c h a s i n g o f t h e m o b i l e home; o p i n i o n s u r v e y s i n v e s t i g a t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e m o b i l e home u n i t ; t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  matters such as health standards and zoning regulations?. At present, increasing research i s being conducted the taxation.problems  into  surrounding mobile homes ( i . e .  whether to tax them as personal property or r e a l estate).  This study does not attempt to examine a l l thes« aspects of mobile home l i v i n g .  The general introduction  covers two aspects: of mobile home l i v i n g f o r which imformation, i s : required to lay the basis f o r the subsequent investigation; these are the s o c i a l aspects of park l i v i n g and the geographical dispersion o f mobile home parks in: Forth America.  The bibliography has: been  arranged so that various: reports:, studies?-, a r t i c l e s and books have been grouped according to the p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f mobile home l i v i n g being investigated.  Cer-  tain' books: may be considered basic texts i n that they are well-knowna for t h e i r comprehensive treatment of the whole subject-matter.  1  Other reports, are concerned 2 primarily with l o c a l park situations', while others: concentrate om national survey techniques, to gather 3 s t a t i s t i c a l data. Taxation and finance issues: form 4 another specialized area o f concern, ) while works: 5 dealing with park design and standards, probably best f i t within the t r a d i t i o n a l planning frame of reference.  4 FOOTNOTES  1.  See e s p e c i a l l y E.R. Bartley,£iF.H. B a i r , M o b i l e Home P a r k s and Comprehensive Community Planning,' I 9 6 0 . Section A o f the Bibliography.  2.  See S e c t i o n s B, C, and E o f t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y .  3.  T h i s d a t a w i l l be u s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 w h i c h i s concerned w i t h personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f mobile home p a r k dwellers:. See S e c t i o n . D o f t h e B i b l i o graphy.  4.  See S e c t i o n H o f t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y .  5.  See S e c t i o n G o f t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y .  fef.  CHAPTER 2  OVERVIEW:  MOBILE HOME PARKS; MANUFACTURING; SOCIAL ASPECTS  M o b i l e Home P a r k s . M a n u f a c t u r i n g The major source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n N o r t h America i s a n American p u b l i s h i n g house, W o o d a l l , w h i c h a n n u a l l y p u b l i s h e s t h e names o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n N o r t h Ameri c a a s w e l l a s r a t i n g each i n terms o f p h y s i c a l  quality.  I n 1968, Woodall e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 22,000 m o b i l e 1 home p a r k s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The major g e o g r a p h i c a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I: shows t h a t  American  s t a t e s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t number o f m o b i l e home p a r k s and t h e l a r g e s t number o f h o m e s i t e s a r e F l o r i d a and C a l i f o r n i a . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a r i t y o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g i n t h e more temperate c l i m a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d , ;  i n d i r e c t l y , i t s presence i n a r e a s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f r e t i r e d p e r s o n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t Woodall e s t i m a t e s t h a t n e a r l y 1,000 m o b i l e home p a r k s go o u t o f b u s i n e s s e v e r y y e a r : "Some o f those d i s a p p e a r i n g a r e t o o s m a l l t o be e c o n o m i c a l , o t h e r s , o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f u r b a n a r e a s , now occupy c h o i c e r e a l e s t a t e s i t e s and  6  •  TABLE I:  TWELVE AMERICAN STATES WITH LARGEST NUMBER OF MOBILE HQME PARKS IN' 1968  State  Number o f Paries;  Florida California Arizona Michigan Ohio: Illinois; New York Washington! Indiana Texas Pennsylvania. Oregon-  1,271 2,058 475 402 498 386 445 487 337 374 437 395  Souxce:  Number^of Home S i f e s  165,023 160,107 40,304 39,496 36,318 33,740 24,037 23,334 21,220 20,675 . 19,460 17,577  Woodall P u b l i s h i n g Company, M o b i l e Home S i t e s Show Sharp I n c r e a s e i n 1968, H i g h l a n d P a r k , I l l i n o i s , 1968, p. 3. ~  7 are b e i n g p u r c h a s e d f o r o t h e r developments. In addition, t e c h n i c a l t r e n d s i n t h e m o b i l e home b u i l d i n g industryhave made many o l d e r p a r k s o b s o l e t e . Most o l d e r p a r k s , even though t h e y may have f u l l p l a n t i n g s and f u l l u t i l i t y developments, were b u i l t f o r e i g h t - f o o t wide m o b i l e homes^ and v e r y few o f t h e s e a r e manufactured today. The i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d toward t w e l v e - f o o t wide m o b i l e homes and a n o t h e r t r e n d toward double-wides ( t w e n t y - f o u r - f o o t wide) has made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r many o l d e r p a r k s t o house t h e newer m o b i l e homes." 2 An a c c u r a t e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n Canada i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n because o f t h e l a c k o f comprehensive  surveys.  A s t u d y conducted by t h e  Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n (CMHTTA) i n 1968 c a n o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d a c c u r a t e i n terms o f 3 minimum f i g u r e s s i n c e i t was n o t a comprehensive  survey.  T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s t h i s e s t i m a t e i o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n Canada a s w e l l a s t h e e s t i m a t e d number o f m o b i l e homes^. ( I t w i l l be seen s h o r t l y t h a t t h e e s t i m a t e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, a t l e a s t , a r e much t o o low.)  Correspondence  w i t h t h i s w r i t e r from t h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e CMHTTA i n F e b r u a r y , 1972,  s t a t e d t h a t i t was now e s t i m a t e d t h a t 4 t h e r e a r e 125,000 m o b i l e homes i n Canada. In  Canada, t h e r e a r e twenty companies m a n u f a c t u r i n g  m o b i l e homes, two o f which a r e s u b s i d i a r i e s o f l e a d i n g 5 m o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  main c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i s i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . Table I I I i n d i c a t e s t h e c o n t i n u i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e  8  TABLE I I NUMBER OF MOBILE HOME PARKS AND MOBILE HOMES I F CANADA - 1968  Province  No. o f Parks:  Newfoundland 8Prince Edward I Si 7 Fova Scotia 47 Few Brunswick 31 Quebec:; 60 Ontario 81 Manitoba 20 Saskatchewam 132 Alberta 105 B r i t i s h Columbia 230 721  Source;  No. o f Mobile Home ss i m Parks:  538 357 1,599 1,511 2, ..500 3,676 1,041 3,000 3,789 3,,950 21,961 '  .  No. of; Mobile Home S3 Not i n Parks.:  Total  700 250 1 ,600 2,789 "4,500 8 ,324 3 ,959 1 ,700 4,450 4,200  1,238 607 3,199 4,300 7,000 12;000 5,000 4,700 8, 239 8,150  32 ,472 .  54,433  ;  Canadian Mobile Home and Travel T r a i l e r Association, B r i e f to the Federal Task Force oni Housing and Urban: Development, December, 1968, p. 10.  9  TABLE I I I MOBILE HOME. PRODUCTION"" IF" THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA  1 United States;  Year.  1963 1964 1965 1966; 1967 1968 1969  Sources:-  150,840 191,320 • 216,470 217,350 240 ,.360 317,950 400,000 (approx.)  |2 Canada  1,562 2,152 3,093 3,215 5,179 ' 7,068 12,000 ( e s t . )  Total Units; 2 S o l d i n ; Canada  3,075 4,112 4,877 4,688 7,463 10,103 15,000 ( e s t . )  1.  S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t o f t h e U n i t e d States.y 1969, p. 698, as s t a t e d i m B r i t i s h Columbia D e p a r t ment o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, M o b i l e Homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia,. 1971, p. 11.'  2.  Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, Canada, The M o b i l e Home in.Canada, 1970, p. 13.  10 . m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y i n terms o f t h e number o f u n i t s p r o duced both i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s w e l l a s t h e number o f u n i t s s o l d i n Canada, from 1963 t o 1969.  .  A 1971 s t u d y by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f  I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 502 m o b i l e home p a r k s i n B r i t i s h 6 w i t h some 12,206 home s i t e s .  Columbia  "They a r e w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d  o v e r t h e whole p r o v i n c e w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e E a s t Kootenays, t h e Okanagan, t h e N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r and 7 the lower Mainland." U n l i k e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s where t h e average  park  s i z e c o n s i s t e d o f 70 m o b i l e home s i t e s p e r p a r k i n 1968, t h e B.C. s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d an average o f 21 homes i n each p a r k , w i t h an average p a r k p o p u l a t i o n o f 58 p e o p l e . Chart 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s by s i z e , i n a c r e s , i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The m a j o r i t y o f p a r k s i n B.C. have been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r f i v e y e a r s o r l e s s ( 5 4 $ ) , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t 30$ have been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r 10 y e a r s  o r more.  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e a r e 6 m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f  CHART  Source:  1  B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f I n d u s t r i a l - Development, Trade, and Commerce, M o b i l e Homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , March 197l, p. 13. ~~  12 o f m o b i l e homes.  I n 1970 a n e s t i m a t e d 1,208 m o b i l e homes  were manufactured  i n B.C.  I n 1969, 2,870 m o b i l e homes  were s o l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h some 3,434 marketed i n 1970.  These two y e a r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e some  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g growth and s t r e n g t h o f t h e m o b i l e home market i n B.C.  S o c i a l Aspects V e r y few s t u d i e s have been conducted c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l aspects o f park l i v i n g .  " S o c i a l " i n t h i s context  i n c l u d e s , i n d i r e c t l y and d i r e c t l y , b o t h p h y s i c a l butes and s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e p a r k .  attriOne o f  t h e most i n s i g h t f u l e x a m i n a t i o n s was conducted i n t h e 8 e a r l y 1950's i n a F l o r i d a m o b i l e home p a r k by G.C.  Hoyt.  The f o c u s o f H o y t s s t u d y was n o t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k 1  p e r se b u t t h e l i f e o f r e t i r e d i n a t r a i l e r e x c l u s i v e l y f o r r e t i r e d persons.  community  As he s t a t e s :  "For  t h e most p a r t o u r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s community stems more f r o m from t h e f a c t t h a t a t l e a s t p a r t i a l r e t i r e m e n t i s a cond i t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e t h a n from t h e i n c i d e n t a l f a c t t h a t i t 9 i s a t r a i l e r park." However, h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s something p e c u l i a r t o m o b i l e home l i v i n g t h a t would n o t be p r e s e n t  13 i n . s i m p l y any r e t i r e d community.  "To most r e s i d e n t s , "  Hoyt s t a t e s , " l i v i n g i n F l o r i d a " , " l i v i n g i n a t r a i l e r " , and " l i v i n g i n t h i s community" a r e .so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d 10 t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make."  - Hoyt p o i n t s ;  out t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l m o b i l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home i s seldom a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d by t h e o c c u p a n t s o f t h e s e homes, and t h u s s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g may be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e .  communities  However, he negates t h i s l a t t e r  statement t o an e x t e n t i n s t a t i n g t h a t "the p o t e n t i a l m o b i l i t y o f t h e t r a i l e r home p r o v i d e s a sense o f freedom, i m p o r t a n t t o many p e r s o n s , which cannot be p r o v i d e d i n t h e c o t t a g e community." Hoyt found t h a t t h a t p a r t o f p a r k l i v i n g w i t h most a p p e a l t o t h e 186 male r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p a r k was  "socia-  b i l i t y and a s s o c i a t i o n " ( 5 5 $ ) , w i t h p a r k a c t i v i t i e s as t h e second most a p p e a l i n g a s p e c t ( 1 5 $ ) .  I n terms o f  the c h i e f advantages o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g t h i s same group f e l t t h a t s o c i a b i l i t y and a c t i v i t i e s was t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r ( 5 2 $ ) , w i t h economy (25$) b e i n g t h e second most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r .  Hoyt f e l t t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e h i g h l e v e l o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the park.  One  o f t h e most o b v i o u s r e a s o n s was t h a t , b e i n g a r e t i r e m e n t  14 community, " a l l r e s i d e n t s a r e g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s , (so t h a t ) these  activities  tend t o "be more h i g h l y s a n c t i o n e d than, would be l i k e l y . to be t h e case i n a community i n w h i c h t h e predominant 12 i n t e r e s t s c e n t e r e d around economic a c t i v i t y . " However, Hoyt a l s o s t a t e s t h a t " i n a 'favorable c l i m a t e e s p e c i a l l y , the l i m i t e d s i z e o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t may l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d time b e i n g spent o u t o f d o o r s , and t h i s f a c t , when taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e e l o s e phys i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t s and t h e u s e o f c e n t r a l l a u n d r y and l a v a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s , g i v e s r i s e t o i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t and, i n t i m e , t o i n f o r m a l a s s o c i 13 a t i o n s o f a more i n t i m a t e n a t u r e . "  Such a statement i s  v e r y r e l e v a n t f o r any s t u d y concerned w i t h p a r k l i v i n g and w i l l be examined a s p a r t o f t h e study conducted i n t h e Vancouver R e g i o n . Although,  on t h e one hand, m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g  can be c o n s i d e r e d u n i q u e i n many o f i t s f e a t u r e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, i t s t i l l r e t a i n s t i e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s concerned w i t h neighborhoods i n g e n e r a l .  Indeed i t s o l v e s  v e r y n e a t l y one c o n c e p t u a l problem u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e i g h b o r h o o d s , namely, t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s . Rarely can-there  be doubt a s t o where a m o b i l e home p a r k  15 b e g i n s and where i t ends.  W i t h i n a developed a r e a , i t i s  w e l l demarcated e i t h e r by a t r e e d b u f f e r , f e n c e s , e x t e r n a l roads, o r n o n - s i m i l a r adjacent l a n d uses such as i n d u s t r y o r commerce.  I n t h e r u r a l s e t t i n g , t h e m o b i l e home p a r k  i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by t h e absence o f any o t h e r  grouping  o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n i t s immediate e n v i r o n s .  Two c o n c e p t s concerned w i t h t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f neighborhoods a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study..  The  f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between homogeneity o f p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e degree o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; ; t h e second i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r o l e o f d i s t a n c e o r p r o p i n q u i t y on t h e development o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I t has been s t a t e d t h a t where homogeneity i s n o t p r e s e n t , a neighborhood does n o t e x i s t ? t h a t t h e one . .14 i s indispensable f o r the l i f e o f the other.  The ques-  t i o n o f homogeneity has f o r a l o n g t i m e p r e s e n t e d many problems f o r t h e p l a n n e r i n terms o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t c r e a t e s a more f a v o u r a b l e environment and t h u s t o be encouraged.  On t h e one hand, i t i s argued t h a t p e o p l e  w i t h s i m i l a r backgrounds and i n t e r e s t s a r e more l i k e l y t o develop s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; on t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t such a p o i n t o f v i e w l e ^ d s to.  '  '  16; •  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s ; towards m i n o r i t y groups; (e.g; r a c i a l , c u l t u r a l , low-income) which c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f , f o r example, i n . r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t s .  M o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s g e n e r a l l y - d i s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t degree o f homogeneity v i s r - a - v i s ; e d u c a t i o n a l , background, income, and types., o f o c c u p a t i o n .  They a l s o t e n d  t o be c l u s t e r e d w i t h i n : certain'! age groups.  T h i s homo-  geneity, o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ; m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d i m examining; a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s .  This;  s t u d y does n o t d i r e c t l y a t t e m p t t o measure t h e degree t o which homogeneity  plays a part in. residents'  attitudes;,  i t does attempt t o d i s c o v e r whether t h e m o b i l e home p a r k i s ; considered s u f f i c i e n t as a u n i t f o r s o c i a l  interactions  I t i s w e l l worth; b e a r i n g i m mind Hoyt's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "perhaps;the i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s ; t h a t t h e r e a r e no sharp f e e l i n g s o f status - the residents are l i k e l y to assert • 15 t h a t t h e r e a r e no s t a t u s ; d i f f e r e n c e s . "  The u n i f o r m i t y o f p h y s i c a l appearance o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t s may f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e the f e e l i n g o f s o c i a l homogeneity within; a park.  I t may be w o r t h w h i l e t o i n v e s t i -  g a t e , i n ; t h e coming y e a r s , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e presence o f double-wide m o b i l e home u n i t s ; w i t h i n ; a p a r k on s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , between: t h e s e owners and those o f t h e  traditional  single-wides.  Distance  between n e i g h b o r s o r p r o p i n q u i t y a l s o  been c o n s i d e r e d  an i m p o r t a n t  group f o r m a t i o n .  At one  has  ingredient i n successful  end i s . the p h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m  p o i n t o f v i e w which s t a t e s t h a t the p l a n n e r o r a r c h i t e c t can decide  the p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l l i f e among p e o p l e by  manner i n which r o a d s and l o t s are l a i d o u t , i . e . by o v e r a l l s i t e plan. l a r g e and  Obviously,  t h i s designates  a  the the  very  s i g n i f i c a n r o l e t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r  architect.  and  ( I t i s hardly s u r p r i s i n g that t h i s view i s  g e n e r a l l y propounded by a r c h i t e c t s and p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s . ) . A more moderate p o i n t o f v i e w i s s t a t e d by H e r b e r t G-ans: " A l t h o u g h p r o p i n q u i t y i n i t i a t e s many s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m a i n t a i n s l e s s i n t e n s i v e ones, such as "being n e i g h b o r l y " , i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t by i t s e l f to create i n t e n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Friendship r e q u i r e s homogeneity." 16  P r o p i n q u i t y i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t f o r purposes o f t h i s study  because o f the h i g h d e n s i t y d i s p l a y e d w i t h i n a  l a r g e number o f m o b i l e home p a r k s .  "The  opportunity  for  v i s u a l and s o c i a l c o n t a c t i s g r e a t e r a t h i g h d e n s i t i e s t h a n a t low ones, but o n l y i f n e i g h b o r s a r e 17 horizontally.»  adjacent  As i n t h e case o f homogeneity, t h i s  study does not d i r e c t l y attempt t o seek out the r o l e o f propinquity.  I t does, however, attempt to e s t a b l i s h  18 whether d i s t a n c e between - n e i g h b o r s i s c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t by r e s i d e n t s , as w e l l a s w h e t h e r such d i s t a n c e , s u f f i c i e n t or not, r e s u l t s i m increased  communlcation;  S t u d i e s o f m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s ' p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s ! w i t h housing; (and thus, a p r o s p e c t i v e i n d i c a t i o n , o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o t h e i r p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g ) a r e v e r y few.  Wo  such s t u d y e x i s t s , i m Canada*, however, a r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Owen/Corning P i b e r g l a s Company does p r o v i d e am • 18 i n d i c a t i o n , o f t h e American 1  situation.  Park dwellers  were s u r v e y e d throughout t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ;  I t was found  t h a t 44$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had l i v e d ini a s i n g l e f a m i l y house b e f o r e moving i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t m o b i l e home, t h a t 30$ had l i v e d i n a n apartment a n o t h e r m o b i l e home.  and t h a t 21$ had l i v e d i m  Asked what t y p e s ? o f h o u s i n g they  had c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e b u y i n g a m o b i l e home,. 39$ r e p l i e d a s i n g l e f a m i l y house, 39$ a n apartment,  and 2$ a towm-  house This examination, o f the s o c i a l aspects; o f park  living  has been, c o n s i d e r e d necessary; groundwork f o r t h e formulation;, of a hypothesis concerning s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i m the park.  Thus, i t may be assumed t h a t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k ••  i s ; a neighborhood, u n i t and t h a t i t s ; s o c i a l  characteristics;  cam be i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h i n ; the framework o f t r a d i t i o n a l  19 neighborhood  theory.  Indeed, Hoyt* si a n a l y s i s : i n d i c a t e s ;  t h a t , f o r purposes o f s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s : , t h e m o b i l e .home p a r k h a s i m p l i c i t l y beeni t r e a t e d a s a neighborhood,  1  F i n a l l y , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n : o f past housing experiences^ and h o u s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f p a r k d w e l l e r s has; been i n c l u d e d i n . o r d e r t h a t t h e s e may serve a s a backdrop to. a t t i t u d e s . , t o ward mo b i l e home l i v i n g . .  20  FOOTNOTES'  1.  Woodall P u b l i s h i n g Company, " M o b i l e Home S i t e s Show Sharp I n c r e a s e i n 1968", n e w s l e t t e r , 1968.  2.  Ibid.« p. 3 .  3.  Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i e f S u b m i t t e d To The F e d e r a l Task F o r c e On H o u s i n g And Urban Development, T o r o n t o . 1968.  4.  Frank Young, E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , CMHTTAf l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 7 2 .  5.  Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, The M o b i l e Home i n Canada, M a t e r i a l s Branch, Ottawa, 1970, p. 2 0 .  6.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, M o b i l e Homes I n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971, p. 8.  7.  I b i d . , p. 1 1 .  8.  Hoyt, G.C., "The L i f e o f t h e R e t i r e d i n a T r a i l e r P a r k " , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 5 9 , July-May 1 9 5 3 , pp. 361-370.  9.  I b i d . , p. 3 6 9 .  10.  I b i d . . p. 368  11.  I b i d . , p. 3 7 0 .  12.  I b i d . , p. 3 6 9 .  21  13.  I b i d . , p. 369. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t c e r t a i n obs e r v a t i o n s a r e o b s o l e t e s i n c e a l l m o b i l e homes now c o n t a i n t h e i r own l a v a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s and many, t h e i r own l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s .  14.  Caplow, T., Forman, R., "Neighborhood I n t e r a c t i o n i n a Homogeneous Community/, A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l i R e v i e w , V o l . 15, No. 3,'.-June 1950, pp. 357-66.""  15.  Hoyt, E.C., op. c i t . , p. 370.  16.  Gans, H.J., " P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l l i f e " , J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 277 No. 2, May 1961, p. 135.  17.  Ibid.  18.  Owens/Corning F i b e r g l a s , Focus On The M o b i l e Home M a r k e t , 1971.  SECTION I I  v  HYPOTHESIS:;  SURVEY  22 CHAPTER 3  HYPOTHESIS  V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been u n d e r t a k e n o f the m o b i l e home p a r k , a s seen t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f t h e r e s i dent.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o two r e a s o n s : f i r s t , most  o f t h e p u b l i c i t y c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes emanate from the m a n u f a c t u r e r s who a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l l i n g an i n d i v i d u a l u n i t t h a n i n i t s u l t i m a t e  destination;  second, t h e m o b i l e home p a r k may n o t appear to'be anyt h i n g more than a group o f m o b i l e homes c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r i n r e l a t i v e l y close proximity.  Indeed we d e f i n e a m o b i l e  home p a r k f o r purposes o f t h i s s t u d y s i m p l y a s : "any p l o t o f ground upon w h i c h spaces a r e l e a s e d o r r e n t e d 'for two o r more independent m o b i l e homes o c c u p i e d and used a s  1  dwellings."  As opposed t o t r a i l e r s t h a t a r e o n l y used  s e a s o n a l l y , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d here t h a t m o b i l e homes i n 2 a p a r k a r e o c c u p i e d , in.most c a s e s , on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s . I n i t i a l input f o r the formulation o f a hypothesis took p l a c e i n t h e summer of.1971 when t h e w r i t e r v i s i t e d o v e r t h i r t y mobile home p a r k s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . O u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s t h a t were o b s e r v e d , and c l e a r l y r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: t h e r o l e o f management  23 and t h e l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ; s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e park; appearance o f t h e park;  location  o f t h e p a r k w i t h i n t h e community; t h e degree o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the park.  The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s was s u b s e q u e n t l y  formulated:  V a r y i n g a t t i t u d e s o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s toward t h e i r park i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p a r k i n which the m o b i l e home i s l o c a t e d .  I n measuring a t t i t u d e s o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k  dwel-  l e r s , we a r e , i n t h e main, a t t e m p t i n g t o measure l e v e l s o f satisfaction.  S a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h i s context i s considered  to be whatever t h e r e s p o n d e n t p e r c e i v e s i t t o be i n h i s own h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s ^ . " I f t h e p a r a meters and v a r i a b l e s i n t h e model a r e a l l o w e d t o r e p r e s e n t expected v a l u e s o f a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d p o p u l a t i o n , t h e n the model c a n be u s e f u l a s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e most p r o 3 bable preference response."  H o p e f u l l y , one e x p e c t s t o  see a t r e n d develop which r e v e a l s a c o n s i s t e n t s t a n d a r d . T h i s s t a n d a r d would be comprised  o f v a r i o u s s o c i a l and  p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p a r k a l i g n e d i n such a manner t h a t movement towards t h i s s t a n d a r d i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and movement away i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s i n g d i s satisfaction.  Measurement o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d b o t h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y .  D i r e c t l y , r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l be  a s k e d about t h e i r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s such a s : p a r k d e n s i t y ; p h y s i c a l . a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e park; l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r k ; a t t i t u d e toward o v e r n i g h t trailers;  p r e f e r e n c e a s t o t y p e o f h o u s i n g i f no c o n s t r a i n t s  were p r e s e n t .  I n d i r e c t l y , measurement o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l aspects o f park l i v i n g  w i l l be: degree o f s o c i a l i n t e r -  a c t i o n ; s u f f i c i e n c y o f the park as a s o c i a l u n i t ; e x t e n t o f agreement w i t h p r e s e n t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ;  degree  o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p a r k management.  T h i s s t u d y d i f f e r s from R o b e r t Zehner's r e c e n t a n a l y s i s o f neighborhood s a t i s f a c t i o n i n one s i g n i f i c a n t 4 respect.  Zehner e s t a b l i s h e s a s i n g l e o v e r a l l n e i g h b o r -  hood s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e by a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o r a t e t h e i r neighborhood on t h r e e f i v e - p o i n t a t t i t u d e i t e m s (attractive-unattractive,  p l e a s a n t - u n p l e a s a n t , v e r y good  p l a c e t o l i v e - v e r y poor p l a c e t o l i v e ) and one i t e m f o r w h i c h r e s p o n s e s c o u l d range from "agree s t r o n g l y " t o " d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y " : "When I go o u t s i d e and l o o k around me a t t h e s t r e e t and t h e n e i g h b o r s ' home I l i k e what I 5  see."  Having e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s s i n g l e s a t i s f a c t i o n  scale,  25 Z'ehner q u e s t i o n s r e s i d e n t s on t w e n t y , p l a u s i b l e s o u r c e s o f neighborhood  satisfaction.  T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , however, i n i t i a l l y a t t e m p t s t o determine s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s on a more' d i s a g g r e g a t e d level.  Thus s a t i s f a c t i o n here i s measured i n t h r e e p r i -  mary a r e a s : i n t e r n a l p h y s i c a l p a r k features?; p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o t h e p a r k ; i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to the park.  social  I t i s ' - f e l t t h a t such a  d i s a g g r e g a t e d approach l e a d s t o more m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s and i s a more h e l p f u l a i d t o t h e p l a n n i n g o f m o b i l e home p a r k s f o r b o t h t h e d e v e l o p e r and t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r . However, a s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i t i s hoped t h a t a c o n s i s t e n t s t a n d a r d o f s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s w i l l emerge t h a t , combined, would a l l o w f o r a s i n g l e  satis-  faction, scale.  " P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s " o f t h e park, both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l , t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o a f f e c t  satisfaction  l e v e l s are* a)  s i z e o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k ;  b)  age o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k ;  c)  s i z e o f l o t s i n r e l a t i o n t o s i z e o f t h e m o b i l e home;  d)  presence o f o v e r n i g h t t r a i l e r s ;  e)  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p a r k ;  26  f)  l o c a t i o n o f the park;  g)  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the park to other types o f housing neighborhoods!,  " S o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s " o f the park that a r e considered to a f f e c t s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s a r e : a)  p e r c e p t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y neighborhoods and m o b i l e home p a r k s ;  b)  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e degree o f ' f r i e n d l i n e s s ' o f m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s a s compared t o r e s i d e n t s o f o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g neighborhoods;  c)  c o n s t r a i n t s on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e p a r k because o f d i s t a n c e from r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods and/or community f a c i l i t i e s ;  d)  p e r c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e i n t h e o u t s i d e community toward m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s ;  e)  a t t i t u d e toward r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e park.  I n o r d e r t o determine t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s toward t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ' o f t h e p a r k , the  significance of various factors i n i n i t i a l selection of  the  p a r t i c u l a r p a r k w i l l be sought o u t a s w e l l a s t h e  r e a s o n s f o r l i v i n g i n a m o b i l e home.  Zehner, i n h i s s t u d y , i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r a community o r nieghborhood's a p p e a l t o a r e s i d e n t p r i o r to moving t o i t on t h e premise t h a t " g i v e n t h e s e a f f l u e n t , w e l l - e d u c a t e d r e s i d e n t s who presumably c o u l d have a f f o r d e d to l i v e i m a number o f communities, i t dis o f i n t e r e s t t o  27 know what a t t r c t e d them to t h e community 6  t h e y a c t u a l l y chose."  environment  However the approach o f t h i s  s t u d y i s one s t e p backward and one s t e p f©reward o f Zehner''s approach.  First,  we make no  assumption.concern-  i n g t h e degree o f c h o i c e a v a i l a b l e but w i l l ask r e s p o n  T  dents t h e i r housing: p r e f e r e n c e as: w e l l as the number o f parks v i s i t e d i n i t i a l l y . #  Secondj  our i n t e r e s t i n examin-  i n g p r i o r a p p e a l o f a p a r k l i e s i n the b e l i e f t h a t p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s may  be i n v o l v e d  both  i n park  s e l e c t i o n which, i n t u r n , c o u l d a f f e c t the r e s p o n d e n t s 1  a t t i t u d e toward .the p a r k once he/she has moved i n .  Thus,  f a c t o r s to be examined i n p a r k s e l e c t i o n a r e : l a c k o f o t h e r space a v a i l a b l e ( i . e . no c h o i c e ) ; a b  accessibility  to work;  c  accessibility'to  d  accessibility  e  appearance  f  s i z e o f lots:;  g  s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by management;  h  p r e s e n c e o f f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s i m the p a r k .  shopping;  to s c h o o l s ;  of area surrounding the park;  Factors considered relevant i n a m o b i l e home a r e : a)  ; l i t t l e maintenance  b)  suitable family  c)  mobility;  t o the d e c i s i o n  to l i v e  , compared to o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g ;  space  needs;  28 d)  l i k e l i v i n g a t ground  level;  e)  l a c k o f other housing i n desired area;  f)  s u i t a b l e monthly  g)  purchase p r i c e o f m o b i l e home.  expenses;"  F i n a l l y , background o f t h e respondent must be cons i d e r e d , n o t o n l y i n terms o f demographic  d a t a , but a l s o  i n terms o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h m o b i l e home p a r k s as w e l l as o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g neighborhoods.  29 FOOTNOTES  1.  M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Winnipeg, P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , M o b i l e Homes I n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg And The A d d i t i o n a l T o n e , February. 1970. p. o~l  2.  Downing, J e a n C., The M o b i l e Home From A P l a n n i n g S t a n d p o i n t , Seminar on m o b i l e home p a r k s , S t . C l a i r R e g i o n Development C o u n c i l , November 1971, p. 1.  3.  P e t e r s o n , G.I., "A Model o f P r e f e r e n c e : Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f t h e P e r c e p t i o n : o f t h e V i s u a l Appearance o f R e s i d e n t i a l Neighborhoods," J o u r n a l o f R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 7, No. 1, 1967, p. 19.  4.  Zehner, R.B., "Neighborhood and Community S a t i s f a c t i o n ! i n New Towns and l e s s P l a n n e d Suburbs", AIP, V o l . 37, No. 6, November 1971, p. 375-385.  5.  I b i d . , p. 383.  6.  I b i d . , p. 380.  CHAPTER 4  METHODOLOGY  I m d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h methodology/,, two a l t e r n a t i v e s were c o n s i d e r e d : f i r s t , t h e r e c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w s ; conducted  w i t h p a r k d w e l l e r s ; second, t h e r e c o u l d be quesr-  t i o n n a i r e s ; m a i l e d o r handed t o park r e s i d e n t s .  The f i r s t  a l t e r n a t i v e was; r e j e c t e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s .  Since  i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f r e s i d e n t s - w i t h i n ; a s i n g l e m o b i l e home park would d i s p l a y a h i g h degree o f homogeneity,; i t was; n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o i n t e r v i e w a l a r g e number o f r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n ; a s i n g l e o r a few p a r k s .  park,  I t was; thus; c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o .  seek o u t t h e views; o f r e s i d e n t s i m a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f d i f f e r e n t p a r k s ;  This, in;turn, required a  s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e sample w i t h i n . e a c h park i m o r d e r t o o b t a i n ; s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t data f o r subsequent analysis;.  Given, the time c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n which t h e  s t u d y was; t o o p e r a t e , t h e i n t e r v i e w method was n o t considered feasible.  S e c o n d l y , i t would n o t have been; pos:-  s i b l e , a s l a t e r c o n f i r m e d i m the p r e - t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , , to  a d e q u a t e l y forewarn; p r o s p e c t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s  impending i n t e r v i e w .  1  o f the  31 G i v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y non-open-ended n a t u r e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e method was d e c i d e d upon> s i n c e i t c o u l d be completed q u i c k l y and a t t h e resrpondent's c o n v e n i e n c e .  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t would a l l o w t h e  respondent more time t o m u l l o v e r q u e s t i o n s t o which he/she might need t o r e c o l l e c t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s o r d e c i sions.  The P r e - T e s t  A p r e - t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d t o two m o b i l e home p a r k s i n December o f 1971.  The purpose o f t h i s p r e -  l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o determine whether any amb i g u i t i e s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s were p r e s e n t i n t h e q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might be c l a r i f i e d b e f o r e t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t o u t .  The sample c o n s i s t e d o f a  l a r g e p a r k in:Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h 92 m o b i l e home spaces o f w h i c h 25$ o r 23 m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s were to be sampled, and, a s m a l l p a r k i n P o r t A l b e r n i ,  Vancouver  I s l a n d , w i t h 21 m o b i l e home spaces o f w h i c h 50% o r 11 m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s were t o be sampled.  The o r i g i n a l  l i s t from which t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s were s e l e c t e d came from t h e Economic  and S t a t i s t i c s Branch o f t h e B.C. D e p a r t -  ment o f I n d u s t r i a l Development,  Trade, and Commerce, w h i c h  32 had c o m p i l e d i t i n o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t i t s s u r v e y o f p a r k s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  iml970.  The l i s t i n g s d i d n o t g i v e t h e s i z e o f each m o b i l e home park.  T h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e  Municipal D i r e c t o r i e s o f the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n which these p a r k s were l o c a t e d .  Obviously, those parks  t h a t were l o c a t e d i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s c o u l d n o t be sampled a s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o determine beforehand t h e s i z e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l e home park.  The p r e - t e s t was an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , a l t h o u g h n o t i n t h e manner e x p e c t e d and s t a t e d above.  Two major problems were encountered: f i r s t , no  r e s i d e n t o f t h e Kamloops m o b i l e home p a r k r e c e i v e d a quest i o n n a i r e s i n c e mailmen o n l y knew r e s i d e n t s by name and not by t h e l o t o r bay number by which t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e envelopes: had been a d d r e s s e d ( t o ensure anonymity f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t ) ; second, s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s from t h e P o r t A l b e r n i m o b i l e home p a r k were r e t u r n e d u n d e l i v e r e d b e cause, a l t h o u g h a mobile home space d i d e x i s t a t t h e bay number g i v e n , no m o b i l e home was a t t h e time i n t h e p a r ticular  space.  The 3 3 $ r a t e o f response from "the P o r t A l b e r n i p a r k  33 was  not s u f f i c i e n t to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the f i n a l ques-  t i o n n a i r e a l t h o u g h a few changes were made as a r e s u l t this preliminary  questionnaire.  The major r e s u l t o f the p r e - t e s t was i t was  of  d e t e r m i n e d tha/t a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  twofold: must be  first, delivered  i n p e r s o n i n o r d e r to ensure t h a t e v e r y r e s i d e n t i n the sample d i d r e c e i v e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f empty bays would be encountered. a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t time and  and  t h a t no  problems  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was;  f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s ; would  n e c e s s i t a t e l i m i t i n g the study to p a r k s i n the  Greater  Vancouver R e g i o n and a p a r t o f C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d , i n s t e a d o f the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e T h i s l a t t e r d e c i s i o n was,  as o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d .  i n e s s e n c e , a t r a d e - o f f between  l o s i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n concerned w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a l  differences  (e.g. B. p a r k i n a n o r t h e r n r e s o u r c e - b a s e d community as opposed to one  l o c a t e d i n a southern retirement  community),  and g a i n i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n by d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n  of  the i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s a t the time o f d e l i v e r y o f the quest i o n n a i r e s and  on subsequent o c c a s i o n s .  bore out t h a t , under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , while  trade-off.  L a t e r evidence i t was  a worth-  34 The Survey A t o t a l o f 31 m o b i l e home p a r k s were v i s i t e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f J a n u a r y 1972.  Of t h e s e , 24 were l o c a t e d i n  the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n and 7 were l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  d e l i v e r e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y t o t h e m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t o r placed i n mailboxes.  A self-addressed  envelope, was en-  closed f o r r e t u r n o f the questionnaires.  c o n s e r v a t i o n s and n o t e s on t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f each p a r k was made by t h e w r i t e r a t t h e time o f q u e s t i o n naire delivery.  I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l random  interview-  c o n v e r s a t i o n s took p l a c e between t h e w r i t e r and p a r k r e sidents.  A l l these were i n t e n d e d t o be used a s a rough  g u i d e l i n e f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s o f residents?' r e s p o n s e s .  The p a r k s were d i v i d e d i n t o 6 major s i z e  categories.  A s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l i n g procedure was used, w i t h  sample.  s i z e v a r y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k and t h e degree o f v a r i a t i o n a n t i c i p a t e d 1 each c a t e g o r y .  within  A t o t a l o f 639 m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s were sampled.  The r a t e o f r e s p o n s e was 44$ o r 281 completed  tionnaires.  Table I V i n d i c a t e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  ques-  i n more  35 TABLE I V SAMPLING PROCEDURE FOR MOBILE HOME PARKS I F THE LOWER MAINLAND AND VANCOUVER ISLAND JANUARY 1972  Park Size (No. o f Homes?)-  under 20 20 - 29 30 - 49 50 - 74 75 - 100 o v e r 100  No. of: Parks:  11 5 S 5 1 1 3T  Percentage of Population! Sampled  100 ($) 75 50 50 50 50  Questionnaires; Delivered! Returned  126 69 172 150 44 78 539  47 28 80 6813 45 281  36  d i s a g g r e g a t e d form.  The r a t e o f response was  approxi-  m a t e l y 10$ g r e a t e r t h a n t h e response, r a t e a n t i c i p a t e d t h r o u g h p r e v i o u s .surveys;  FOOTNOTE  S t u a r t , A., B a s i c Ideas o f S c i e n t i f i c  1962.  Sampling.  SECTION I I I  ANALYSIS  CHAPTER 5  SAMPLE POPULATION:  Socio-Economic P r o f i l e :  SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE; LENGTH OF RESIDENCY  Introduction  B e f o r e c a r r y i n g o u t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e hypot h e s i s i t i s i m p e r a t i v e to understand the nature o f the p o p u l a t i o n under e x a m i n a t i o n .  Thus, t h e r e must be some  knowledge o f the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n .  Socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f t h e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f f a m i l y income, h o u s e h o l d s i a e , age o f o c c u p a n t s , and o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l background o f the main breadwinner.  A l l r e s p o n d e n t s c a n be p l a c e d on  each o f t h e s u b - c a t e g o r y continuums;  these  continuums,  t o g e t h e r , form t h e substance o f t h e socio-economic p r o file.  Annual F a m i l y Income Out o f a t o t a l o f 281 r e s p o n d e n t s , 247 answered t h e q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g annual f a m i l y income.  I t was found  t h a t b o t h t h e mean and median income was i n t h e $6,000$7,999 c a t e g o r y .  The income span ranged from under  39 $2,000 (6$) t o o v e r $14,000 ( 7 $ ) .  T a b l e s Y ( a ) and V("b)  i n d i c a t e t h e r e s u l t s more c l e a r l y .  I n , r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t have been cond u c t e d examining income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s , t h e median income would appear t o be n e a r l y t h e same.  A s u r v y conducted i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n  1970 i n d i c a t e d t h a t 25$ o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s  fell  w i t h i n the $5,000-17,499 income r a n g e , w i t h 25$ and 14$ i n t h e $7,500-^9,999 and $10,000-$14,999 income ranges 1 respectively.  A s u r v e y conducted i n : t h e l o w e r B r i t i s h  Columbia  M a i n l a n d i n 1968 was compared w i t h the. r e s u l t s o f t h e present i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The former s t u d y had a somewhat 1  l a r g e r number o f r e s i d e n t s i n . the l o w e r income r a n g e s , 2 w i t h 46$ h a v i n g f a m i l y incomes under $5,999.  This  d i f f e r e n c e may be due e i t h e r t o s a m p l i n g v a g a r i e s o r t o the e x p e c t e d r i s e i n incomes o v e r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d . To p r o v i d e a source f o r comparison w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e average  family  income i m B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1970 was e s t i m a t e d a t 3 $9,800.  T h i s i s a somewhat h i g h e r income l e v e l t h a n t h a t  o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s examined i n t h i s s t u d y .  (e)A 3 i a v i  001 1  06 1  09 1  OL 1  09 1  09  0 ti  01  0?:  OL  1  1  1  1  1  0 1 1  SKNOIISJW  J.Od  (hC  ON  I  (:>s  ) » + *« + *•******#«*«*»•*>»»**««••** + «*  I;;SI  O'O  1 I  1T>C I " L  II li A 0 fl M V 0 0 0 ' li I 5 ) •»»t»*tt*»t*t«***ttH  (02  I  O'J'H  . '  I I  J3d  Z"H  (CZ  bbb'i. I S-000 'ii £ I ) ***•**••»» x »•>»**•»**••*« * OO'i. I I  IDti 5 *C I  (9t  ecu'I I-coo'01 $ 1 ) ***•*»*•**• i *•*** + **• + **•* * *#**•*»«•*•* •  03*9  I I  tSbb ' 6 S - 0 0 0 ' H $  1  I  1  t,ht. '/_:f-0l)0'91  IOd  b"8  (SZ  i  1 Cbt,'5'f-000'tiJ I ) *********• + * * • • * • * • * * » * • • *  0 0 " I'  1 1  (iCfc'f r - o o o ' r s X3d  £"01  (b£  T  ) #**•«*»*#*•»•«**>•«»>*••»»**•»  00"£ I  ooo' Z't N vi,,i, s'jau  ( *D L  13d  I  I •1 WD DN 1  A11KV3  i  ) *»«****»«•**«*»• 1VI1KNV  00"l  moo  u)  ANNUAL  FAMILY  INCOME  VALUE  LESS  THAN'  £2,000  AflSOLUTE FREQUENCY  RELATIVE FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  1.00  IS  5.3  $ 2 , 0 0 0 - 1.1, 999  2.00  29  10.3  « 4 , O O O - . T . 5,999  3.00  25  ti,, 0 0 0 - tl, 0 0 9  '1.00  4 3  $n,ooo-.f. *),')•)')  5.00  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT) 6. 1  CUMULATIVE ADJ FREQ (PERCENT)  6. 1  11.7  1 7. 8  1 0. 1  2 7. 9  15.3  1 7.U  ll 5 . 3  54  19. 2  21.9  67. 2  6.00  38  1.3.5  1 S.4  82.6  $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 - $ 13, 9 9 9  7.00  23  8. 2  9. 3  9 1.9  $ 1 U,000  H.OO  20  7. 1  a. i  100.0  0.0  34  12. 1  MISSING  100. 0  TOTAL  2U 1  100.0  100. 0  $  ooo- 1 1 , 999  IO,  NU  AMD OVER  RESPONSE  8.9  JOO.O  STATISTICS,  fl KAN  «.f.ll  STD ERROR  0.123  MEDIAN  4 . 7 13  10UE  5.000  STD D EV  1.930  VARIANCE  3.726  S ANGE  7.000  KURTOSIS a JN  mm  VALTO MISSINC  SK EWN ESS  -0.765  MAXIMUM  1.000 OI1SERVATIOXS OBSERVATIONS  -  -0.080 8.000  2 47 34  TABLE  V(b)  42 Household  Size  Of t h e sampled m o b i l e home h o u s e h o l d s , 59$ c o n s i s t e d o f two o c c u p a n t s , 18$ o f one o c c u p a n t , and 11$ o f t h r e e and f o u r occupants r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T a b l e V I shows t h i s ,  more c l e a r l y .  A 1970 U.S. s u r v e y o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s l i g h t l y more t h r e e - p e r s o n households (27$) and s l i g h t l y l e s s one-person households (9$) t h a n 4 found i n t h i s s t u d y .  the  The 1968 l o w e r M a i n l a n d s u r v e y c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s 5 p r e s e n t s t u d y i n terms o f h o u s e h o l d s i z e .  I n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia t h e average 6 s i z e i n 1966 was 3.7 and 3.4 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  household  This study  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e average m o b i l e home h o u s e h o l d s i z e i s s m a l l e r , a t 2.2 p e r s o n s p e r h o u s e h o l d , t h a n t h e p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s .  SIZE  OF  HOUSEHOLD  VALUE  ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY  1  OCCUPANT  1 .00  50  2  OCCUPANTS  2.00  3  OCCUPANTS  4 5  NO  RELATIVE FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  CUMULATIVE A D J FREQ (PERCENT)  .17.8  1 8.0  18.0  16 5  5 8.7  5 9.4  7 7.3  3.00  30  10.7  10.8  8 8.1  OCCUPANTS  4 . 00  24  8.5  8. 6  96. 8  OCCUPANTS  5.00  8  2. 8  2. 9  99.6  7.00  1  0.4  0.4  0.0  3  1.1  28 1  100.0  RESPONSE  TOTAL  10 0 . 0  MISSING  100.0  100. 0  100.0  TABLE VI  44 Age o f Respondents; Of the-278 male o r female head o f households answeri n g t h e q u e s t i o n . c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r age, 35$ s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were o v e r 60 y e a r s o f age,. 27$ were between 50-59 y e a r s , 17$ between 20^29 y e a r s and the r e m a i n i n g were between 30-49 y e a r s o l d (21$).  The median,age was n e a r l y 50 y e a r s ;  T a b l e s V I I ( a ) and V I I ( b ) i n d i c a t e t h e outcome more c l e a r l y .  I n ; a 1970 U n i t e d S t a t e s ; s u r v e y o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s , i t was found t h a t 22$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were unrder 25 y e a r s , 28$ were between; 25-34 y e a r s o l d b u t , more i m p o r t a n t t o r t h i s s t u d y , i t was found t h a t o n l y 19$ o f 7  h o u s e h o l d h e a r s were 55 y e a r s o l d o r o v e r .  However,  a n o t h e r study conducted i n : t h e same y e a r showed t h a t 833$ o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s were o v e r 58 y e a r s o l d . The 1966 Canadian; Census i n d i c a t e d t h a t 10$ o f t h e 9 p o p u l a t i o n was o v e r 60 y e a r s o l d .  Of t h e t o t a l num-  b e r w i t h i n ; t h i s age group, 10$ l i v e d i n r t h e P r o v i n c e of. B r i t i s h Columbia. portionally  Thus i t i s : apparent t h a t a p r o -  l a r g e r number o f persons i n . t h i s age group  a r e l i v i n g i m m o b i l e home p a r k s .  The p r o p o r t i o n s o f  t h e r e m a i n i n g . a d u l t age groups i n t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y from t h e g e n e r a l Canadian; p r o f i l e .  U a,  rO  « * * •  *tf  CJ OJ  tf •  O  t  r-  o cr  ** ****  cr  •  •  o  «  * •*  o •  EU  •  *• * * tf *  •—  ro• cr  tf *  »  *«*  tf tf * •  •  tf tf tf tf tf • tf «tf  #  •  tf  ct;  >-  *tf tf crgr tf l tf « cr *-~ tf * c o  •  #  •  »  -"X  tf  >*  » » tf  1"  • tf  1 o  tf  <~~  «  tf c o  •  tf  •* *  •  «  •  *  tf tf #  — *  w  t  O  c o o  • in  Z3  ex  o  ir. <  a  o  p"  tf tf tf *-  O  •»  •»  *tf=r tf i tf o *«  CT' tf » •_r  •0- > «• C  tf  *  LO  tf «  >•  c  i o  E-  >  to 10 CO EC  *E CD  Q  UJ  X  s  LTi  it; '-0  M  *c  O  tf tf tf >tf » O  •_J  o  f~ >•  vO  4  o '— sr.  zr. a:  tf tf a.  i.; cn  <•  » M  X rs  t". cr:  «•  c  •  a  *  -•>  tf •jo  t  sC  tf «  #  C o  z  •<  W o  • »  *  * ~ *«• >"  •  w  |  «  •  •  M C=  o  #  «-  «  cr X c  •  tf  tf *  #  in  «  tf « « «  *#  <.  •  *  * *«  •  -0-  •  •  tf »  #  tf # tf 11  •  » «  tf tf tf «  *  *  *  ** tf  4  • •  * • *•  CN  tf  «  •  O •z.  O  tf tf # tf  *  vO  an  »  »  •  o  *  tf  * tf *  OQ <  t  UJ <  •* *  **  •  o o o  OR  * *** *ir  * *w  U  M  •  *»  x • r*—  m  * « * * *  r-  tf tf tf «• C O  t  (JT  p—i  1—*  rs:  •  C o o  C  •  t  *— 1  O o o •  o  , . 6-  CD  Q  -0 o — t cr.  3C  ^:  JC  f  to  n  H  n c-  *>  >  W c: CCi CO O  «  -—  1  L", •zr T. C  O O  i  <  r-  tr. *c  *>*  tr  CCl  >-* <  v. t,-: IT  AGE  OF  RESPONDENT  VALUE  ABSOLUTE  RELATIVE  ADJUSTED  CUMULATIVE  FREQUENCY  FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  A D J F R EQ (PERCENT)  19-29  YRS  1.00  48  30-39  YRS  2.00  26  40-49  YRS  3.00  50-59  YRS  60  YRS  NO  RESPONSE  AND  OVER  17.3  17.3  9. 3  9. 4  2 6.6  v3 1  1 1. 0.  11 . 2  4.00  76  2 7. 0  2 7. 3  5.00  97  34.5  34.9  0.0 TOTAL  17.1  3  1.1  28 1  100.0  3 7.8 b >. 1 r  100.0  MISSING  100.0  100. 0  100.0  TABLE V I I ( b )  47? Children I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e were 51 m o b i l e home households (18$) w i t h a t o t a l o f 66 c h i l d r e n .  Of t h e 31 c h i l d r e n  i n t h e under 5 age group, 65$ o f these households had o n l y one c h i l d i n t h i s group, 29$ had two c h i l d r e n , and 7$ had t h r e e c h i l d r e n under 5 y e a r s .  Of t h e 21 c h i l d r e n  i n t h e 5-12 age group, 62$ o f t h e households had o n l y one c h i l d o f t h i s age group, and 29$ had two c h i l d r e n f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h i s group.  Of t h e 14 c h i l r e n i n t h e 1 3 -  18 age group, 71$ o f t h e s e households had o n l y one c h i l d o f t h i s age and 29$ had two c h i l d r e n .  Tables V I I I ( a ) ,  V I I I ( b ) , and V I I I ( c ) c l a r i f y these r e s u l t s f u r t h e r .  I n a U.S. survey conducted i n 1970, 32$ o f m o b i l e 10 home households had c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home. i s a somewhat h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e t h a n t h o s e  This  households  examined i n t h i s study. The 1968 Lower M a i n l a n d s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 29$ o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n had c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e mob i l e home.  Once a g a i n . t h i s i s a h i g h e r percentage 11 that c i t e d i n the present.  than  The whole q u e s t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h i n m o b i l e home p a r k s must be examined withisa number o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  CHILDREN il N Dc R > r  YK  VALUE  ABSOLUTE  RELATIVE  ADJUSTED  FREQUENCY  FREQUENCY  FREQUENCY  (PERCENT)  .  (PERCENT)  CUMULATIVE ADJ  PR EQ  (PERCENT)  1  OCCUPANT  1.00  9  3.2  81.8  81.8  2  OCCUPANTS  2.00  2  0.7  18.2  10 0 . 0  NO  OCCUPANTS  0. 0  270  TOTAL  2ft1  96 . 1 100.0  KISSING  100.0  100.0  100.0  TABLE V III (a )  CH I LDREN 5-12  YRS.  VALUE  ABSOLUTE  RELATIVE  F K E C U EN C Y  Fi? E Q U 0NC Y (PERCENT)  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  C HP! U L A T I V S A D O FH EQ (PERCENT)  1  OCCUPANT •  1. OO  6  2.1  75.0  75. 0  2  OCCUPANTS  2.00  2  0.7  2 5. 0  10 0. C  K I S S ! lie,'  10 0 . 0  NO  OCCUPANTS  0.0  27 3  07 .2  TO T A L  28 1  10 0 . 0  1 0 0. 0  TABLE VI I l ( b )  10 0 . 0  CHILDREN 13-18  Yfi!  VALUE  O C C U P A NT 0  OCCUPANTS  ABSOLUTE  RELATIVE  ADJUSTED  CUMULATIVE  FREQUENCY  FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  A D J F R EQ (PERCENT)  100. 0  100.0  K I S S I NG  10 0 . 0  100. 0  10 0 . 0  4  1. 4  0.0  27 7  98 .6  TOTAL  28 1  100.0  1 .00  TABLE VI I I ( c )  Many p a r k s ins the Vancouver .Region, have r e s t r i c t i o n s : conc e r n i n g c h i l d r e n , e i t h e r by n o t a l l o w i n g any t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e p a r k , o r o n l y a c c e p t i n g c h i l d r e n ! under a c e r t a i n : a g e ( i . e . p r e - s c h o o l ) , o r by p l a c i n g a c e i l i n g om t h e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r m i t t e d t o l i v e i n t h e p a r k a t a. given, time.  One o f t h e maim reasons; f o r t h e u n s t a b l e  child  p o p u l a t i o n . i s t h e l a c k o f c l a r i t y o f l o c a l t a x a t i o n , pol i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g p a r k d w e l l e r s i n : r e g a r d t o assessment f o r school taxes.  .  52 Occupation The p r i m a r y g o a l i n r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f p a r k d w e l l e r s was n o t t o have a f i n e breakdown o f a number o f o c c u p a t i o n , c a t e g o r i e s but t o c l a s s i f y a c c o r d i n g t o broad s o c i a l  groupings.  These broad g r o u p i n g s would t h u s a l l o w f o r a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s o c i a l p r o f i l e o f m o b i l e home p a r k  dwel-  l e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e populace a t l a r g e .  .The  f o u r broad o c c u p a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  unskilled  blue c o l l a r ; s k i l l e d blue c o l l a r ; white c o l l a r - o f f i c e ; white c o l l a r - p r o f e s s i o n a l .  The p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r y  i n c l u d e s such o c c u p a t i o n s as t e a c h e r s , n u r s e s , and engineers (with university training). o f f i c e category i n c l u d e s c l e r k s , and s e c r e t a r i e s .  The w h i t e c o l l a r -  salesmen,  managers,  The s k i l l e r b l u e c o l l a r group c o n s i s t s  o f such t r a d e s a s l o c o m o t i v e e n g i n e e r , plumber, b o i l e r maker, and w e l d e r .  F i n a l l y , the unskilled  blue  collar  c a t e g o r y i s comprised o f t h o s e engaged a s l a b o u r e r s , warehousemen, and j a n i t o r s .  Not o n l y those who were p r e s e n t l y employed were asked t o name t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , but t h o s e r e t i r e d were a l s o asked t o s t a t e t h e i r p a s t o c c u a t i o n .  However i t i s  i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t 29$ o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s  53 were r e -  tired.  Gf t h e 237 responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n , 26$ were found t o b e l o n g t o t h e u n s k i l l e d b l u e c o l l a r group, 40$ were i n t h e s k i l l e d b l u e  collar  c a t e g o r y , w h i l e 27$ and 7$ were i n . t h e w h i t e c o l l a r o f f i c e , , and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i n g s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I X ( a ) and I X ( b ) more c l e a r l y  Tables:  i n d i c a t e the trend. .  A 1967 mobile home s u r v e y by t h e U.S. Department o f Housing, and Urban Development r e v e a l e d t h a t , whereas o n l y 15$ o f m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l , managers, and p r o p r i e t o r s c a t e g o r i e s , 43$ c o u l d be found i n such o c c u p a t i o n s a s c r a f t s m e n , 12 foremen, and o p e r a t o r s , i . e . s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d . This i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the findings? o f the present study. Ino t h e 1968 l o w e r M a i n l a n d s u r v e y , 22$ o f t h e r e s pondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were r e t i r e d - a somewhat 13 s m a l l e r percentage than t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l s .  OCCUPATION OF THE MATS  M<RADWINNEU  COCE 1. C0  2. CO  3. CO  I »•**»»*••**»«<••*«•*•«*+*<»*****+#*+*•+»•««•+»**•**•**»*»***** I UNSKILLED-BLUE COLI.K  (  61)  21.7 PCT  1 1  *«»»*»*»•*«***•«»«»*»**«»»*«•<*** + *»*****»***********«*********•*•*********•***»***»**#**»*••*• I SKILLED-i>.L.M E COLLAR I I *•«*«****«»•« * 4 »*» t <•** t *•«*«••********* +*•*«#*••***••<•**<'*******• » ( 6 i ) 23.1 PCT T OFFICE-WHITE COLLAR  (  gn)  33.5 PCT  r  I,  r  1.0 0  O^o  (MISSING)  ***«»***»*+***4«+* I PROFESSIONAL I I  (  17)  0.0 PCT  <.««»»*******• * <.»**#*<.»#*•*<.*«»*»»«**# *« 4 * < * » * (  I NO RESPONSE I I I 0 10 FREQUENCY  I 20  I 30  I UO  I 50  [((») 15.7 PCT T 60  I 70  I 80  I 90  I 100  STATISTICS. . DEAN  2.160  ST D EFKOR  0.058  MEDIAN  2.112  MODE  2.000  STD DEV  0.892  VARIANCE  0.796  SK^HNESS  0.29 1  RANGE  3.000  MAXIMUM  U.000  KURTOSIS n  is i  nil  VALID KISSING  n  -0.7.3U 1.000 OBSERVATIONS OBSERVATIONS -  237 HH  TABLE  IX ( a )  OCCUPATION  OF  THE  MAIN  BREADWINNER  VALUE  ABSOLUTE F R E C U EN C Y  RELATIVE FREQU ENCY (PER CENT)  SO  IONAL  RESPONSE  94  3 3.5  .3 9 . 7  6 5. 4  3.00  6 5  23. 1  27.4  92.8  4.00  17  6.0  0.0  44  15.7  MISSING  10 0 . 0  TOTAL  20 1  10 0 . 0  100. 0  100.0  2.00  COLLAR  OFFICE-WHITE P R O F ESS  2 5. 7  .COLLAR  SKILLED-HLU E  COLLR  1  2 5. 7  6  E  CUMULATIVE A D J F R EQ (PERCENT)  21.7  1 .00  UNSKILLED-DLU  ADJUSTED F R E Q U E NCY (PERCENT)  7. 2  TABLE  100.0  IX (b )  56 Education? Of t h e 263 r e s p o n s e s c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l back-, ground, 11$ s t a t e d t h a t they had completed  elementary  s c h o o l ; 28$ s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had had some h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . ( t h e median s c h o o l i n g ) w h i l e 30$ s a i d t h a t they had completed h i g h s c h o o l .  Some 13$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  s a i d t h a t , e i t h e r t h e y had had some v o c a t i o n a l o r community c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g , o r t h a t they had completed type o f e d u c a t i o n .  this:  There were 10$ who had e i t h e r comple-  t e d o r p a r t i a l l y completed u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e 2$ had p o s t - g r a d u a t e g r a i n i n g .  T a b l e s X ( a ) and 1 ( b )  show these r e s u l t s : more c l e a r l y .  The 1967 HUD mobile home s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 8$ o f m o b i l e home heads had 7 t h grade o r l e s s , 29$ had p a r t i a l l y completed h i g h s c h o o l , 44$ had completed  high  s c h o o l , w h i l e 16$ had e i t h e r completed o r had some c o l 14 lege educations  These p e r c e n t a g e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y  s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t h i s study.  EDUCATIONAL- BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENT CODE 1.(10  I *»•***»*«•*** ( 12) U.3 PCT I SOME ELEMENT.OR LESS I  r. ?.C0  # 4 **•**•«<•*•« t « * * * * * + * * * * » • • • * * * I CO MP LE T EC EL EM EN T A!l Y  (  31)  11.0 PCT  t •^00  Li^ 00  I  I T. I  SOME IIIGI! SCHOOL  I I I  CO MP L ET. !l Tfill SCHOOL  (  <.****»****»**«» + « » * * » • * * • 4•«»»**•*»*•***« 4 «*»»*»»*****•*»• 4  ( id) 5.7 PCT T SOME VOCAT-COM.COLL I T 6.CO »4»•******••4<4**+** ( 19) 6.8 PCT I CO MP T.VOCAT-COM.COLL I I 7^00 ( 17) 6.0 PCT I SOME UNIVERSITY I I li.C0****»******( 10) 3.6 PCT I COMPLT.UNIVERSITY I T 9. CO 4 «•(.*»* ( „) 2.1 PCT I POST-CRACUATE I I 0.0 4»»44 + *4*44«4»44*** ( 1(1) 6.U PCT (MISSING) I NO RESPONSE I I I I I 1 0 10' 20 30 UO FREQUENCY  *  73)  »  (  26.0 PCT  79)  28. 1 PCT  5.00  1 50  I ' 60  I 70  I 80  I 90  I 100  TABLE X ( a )  EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENT VALUE  ABSOLUTE R ELAT IVH F R Z CU E N CY FREQU ENCY (PERCENT) 4. 3  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT) 4.6  CUMULATIVE A DJ FREQ (PERCENT)  LESS  1.00  12  COMPLETED ELEMENTARY  2.00  3 1  1 1.0  1 1. fi  16.3  SOME MICH SCHOOL  3.00  73  26.0  2 7. 8  44. 1  CO MP LET. II10II  SCHOOL  U.00  79  28. 1  30. 0  74. 1  SOME VOCAT-COM.COLL  5.00  16  5.7  6. 1  80.2  COMPT.VOCAT-COM.COLL  6.00  19  6.8  7. 2  87. 5  SOME UNIV EHS TTY  7.00  17  6.0  6. 5  93.9  CoM"LT. UNIV E R S I. T Y  n.oo  10  3.6  3. 8  9 7. 7  POS T-G K A L'U ATE  9.00  6  SO RESPONSE  0.0  lil  TOTAL  20 1  SUM" ELEMENT.OR  2. 1 6.U 100.0  • 2 . 3  4. 6  100.0  MISSING  100. 0  100. 0  100.0  STATISTICS., MEAN  4.015  STD EFKOR  0.112  MEDIAN  3.696  MODE  4.OOO  STD D EV  1.812  VARIANCE  3. 282  K!)|> TOS IS  0.367  SKEW MESS  0.R57  RANGE  8.000  M IN T Ml' M  1.000  MAXIMUM  9.000  VALID M I .IS ING  OBSERVATIONS CHS L'RVATIONS  263 18  TABLE X ( b )  59 Length o f Residency Given the r e a d i l y understandable stereotype o f the transitory special  n a t u r e o f " m o b i l e " home d w e l l e r s , i t i s o f  interest  dwellers.  t o know t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y o f p a r k  I t was found t h a t 31$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had  l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t park f o r between 3-5 y e a r s , t h e same percentage had r e s i d e d f o r 1-2 y e a r s , w h i l e 24$ had l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p a r k f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r . The r e m a i n i n g 13$ had l i v e d i n t h e i r p a r k f o r o v e r s i x years.  Table X I summarizes t h e s e r e s u l t s .  Some 72$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had o n l y l i v e d i n . one m o b i l e home p a r k , w h i l e 16$ wrote t h a t they had l i v e d i n two p a r k s .  Table X I I i n d i c a t e s more  c l e a r l y t h i s outcome.  The s t e r e o t y p e o f p a r k d w e l l e r s a s b e i n g t r a n s i t o r y does n o t appear t o be a t r u e assumptions from t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study.  LENGTH  OF  TIME  IN  PRESENT  VALUE  LESS 1  -  3 - 5 6 - 1 0 MORE MO  ABSOLUTE F R E Q U ENCY  R E L AT I V E FREQU ENCY (PERCENT)  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  CUM UL AT I V E A D J F R EQ (PERCENT)  1. 0 0  68  24 . 2  2 4. 3  2 4. 3  YRS  2.00  8 8  3  31.4  55. 7  YRS  3.00  8 8  3 1.3  3 1.4  8 7. 1  4.00  20  10.3  10. 4  97. 5  5.00  7  2.5  2. 5  0.0  1  0.4  THAN 2  PARK  1  YR  YRS THAN  10  RESPONSE  YRS  TOTAL  28 1  1.3  100. 0  100.0  MISSING  100.0  10 0 . 0  10 0 . 0  TABLE  XI  TOTAL  MIIM DF. R  OF  PARKS  LIVED  VALUE  IN  ABSOLUTE F R EQU E N C Y  1  PARK  1.00  203  2  PARKS  2.00  3  PARKS  4  P A R KS  5  NO  OR  MOT? E  PARK:  RESPONSE  RELATIVE  ADJUSTED  FREQUENCY  FREQUENCY  (PERCENT)  (PERCENT)  CUMULATIVE ADJ  FREQ  (PERCENT)  72. 2  72. 5  7 2.5  4 4  15.7  1 5. 7  88. 2  3.00  14  5.0  5. 0  9 3. 2  4.00  8  2.8  2. 9  9 6. 1  5.00  10  3.6  3. 6  9 9.6  6.00  1  0.4  0. 4  0.0  1  0.4  28 1  100.0  TOTAL  100.0  M ISSING  10 0 . 0  100. 0  10 0 . 0  TABLE  XI  I  62 FOOTNOTES  1.  Owens/Corning F i b e r g l a s , .Focus on t h e M o b i l e Home M a r k e t , 1971, p. 6.  2.  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area,, M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , 1 9 7 1 , Appendix I I , T a b l e ' V I . ' •  3.  As s t a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade,, and Commerce, Econom i c s and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , M o b i l e Homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 28.  4.  Owens/Corning F i b e r g l a s , op.' c i t . . , p. 6.  5.  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Area,, op. c i t . , A p p e n d i x I I , Table I I .  6.  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s - , C a t a l o g u e No*, 93.603, Households and F a m i l i e s , 1966.  7.  Owens/Corning F i b e r g l a s , op. c i t . , p. 6.  8.  e d i t by C M . Edwards, "A Survey o f t h e Mobilehome Consumer", T r a i l e r T o p i c s , 1970, p. 1.  9.  As; c a l c u l a t e d ,from Dominion; Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , C a t a l o g u e Ho~ 92.625,-1966.  10.  Edwards, CM.,, op. c i t . , p. 1.  11  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , op. cit»,. p. 8.  63  IT,S. Department o f H o u s i n g and Urban Development, H o u s i n g S u r v e y s , P a r t 2, M o b i l e Homes and t h e H o u s i n g S u p p l y , 196T, p; 90. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , op. c i t . , p. 10. U.S. Department o f H o u s i n g and Urban Development,. op. c i t . , p. 88.  CHAPTER 6  A F EXAMINATION* OF THE DIMENSIONS OP MOBILE HOME PARK LIVING? 7  I n t r o d u c t i o n : t o M u l t i v a r i a t e Techniques Used i n , t h i s G i v e n t h e l a r g e a r r a y o f v a r i a b l e s concerned  Study  with  m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o d i s c o v e r t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s that, e x i s t among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s * Moreover, we w i s h t o m i n i m i z e t h e r e d u n d a n c i e s ; o c c u r r i n g whem l o r e t h a n one v a r i a b l e i s measuring t h e same dimen-sion.  Ultimately,  o u r a i m i s t o reduce t h e t o t a l number  of variables required under  t o f u l l y comprehend t h e phenomena,  investigations  I n order t o f u l f i l these goals, the best.approach i s t o conduct a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .  A factor analysis .will,  f i r s t o f a l l , reduce t h e dimensions: o f t h e s e t o f 75 v a r i a b l e s , by t a k i n g advantage e x i s t i n g among them.  o f the intercorrelations:  Second, i t w i l l r e v e a l how  v a r i a b l e s can. be combined t o produce maximum among i n d i v i d u a l s a l o n g a. s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n .  several  discrimination? Finally, a  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s h o u l d a l l o w u s t q i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e t h e fundamental and m e a n i n g f u l dimensions w i t h i n t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e domain;  65  I t i s important to c l a r i f y ,  i n i t i a l l y , that m u l t i -  v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i s c o m p r i s e d o f two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : a n a l y s i s o f dependence and a n a l y s i s . o f independence. " I n t h e l a t t e r we a r e i n t e r e s t e d in.how a group o f v a r i a t e s ' a r e r e l a t e d among, t h e m s e l v e s , no one b e i n g marked out by the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e problem as o f g r e a t e r p r i o r i m p o r t a n c e t h a n t h e o t h e r s , whereas i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f dependence we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n how a. c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d group ( t h e dependent v a r i a t e s ) depend on t h e others:;" 1 The approach o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o , f i r s t o f a l l , conduct a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h a t i s t o say, an a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r dependence.  Prom t h i s v a r i a b l e s w i l l be e x t r a c t e d t o be  used f o r an a n a l y s i s o f dependence, namely, c a n o n i c a l correlation .  Wo: attempt w i l l be made t o u n d e r t a k e a n  1  e x p o s i t i o n o f the mathematical procedures behind these analyses;  these are adequately dealt with i n p a r t i c u l a r 2  statistical  works.  t h e o r y w i l l be  However, a b r i e f summary o f b a s i c  given.  A B r i e f Review o f F a c t o r  Analysis  A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r i n g methods, t h e one u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e p r i n c i p a l components method.  Im t h e p r i n c i p a l components method, each f a c t o r  a c c o u n t s f o r a d i m i n i s h i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f the l i n e a r l y independent d i m e n s i o n s . for  Thus t h e f i r s t f a c t o r a c c o u n t s  t h e g r e a t e s t variance;; t h e second f a c t o r a c c o u n t s f o r  l e s s v a r i a n c e t h a n t h e f i r s t f a c t o r ; the t h i r d l e s s t h a m  66  the  second, and  The  so f o r t h .  outcome o f a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s  should  g i v e the f o l l o w i n g "byproducts:: (1)  i n d i c a t i o n o f the p r o p o r t i o n f o r by each f a c t o r ;  of variance accounted  (2)  i n d i c a t i o n o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f each f a c t o r ;  (3)  i n d i c a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i o n : : f o r d e t e r m i n i n g number o f f a c t o r s ;  (4)  i n d i c a t i o n , of v a r i a t i o n s of dimensions w i t him a b l e s w i t h i n ^ the new f a c t o r s .  the vari-  A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n ' o f each Of t h e s e byproducts; f o l l o w s . (1)  The  p r o p o r t i o n . o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e accounted f o r  by  a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r can be determined by e x a m i n i n g the corresponding l a t e n t root ('2)  The  (eigenvalue),  of that  factor.  w e i g h t o f v a r i a b l e x om f a c t o r Z can be  as the f a c t o r l o a d i n g o f the v a r i a b l e on t h a t Thus the sum  o f the  f a c t o r l o a d i n g s on-a  defined  factor.  factor  deter-  mines the e i g e n v a l u e o f that: f a c t o r . (3)  I h our p r i n c i p a l components" s o l u t i o n we w i s h t o  r e t a i m only those f i r s t m factors, which w i l l for  account,  a s u f f i c i e n t l y , l a r g e amount o f the v a r i a n c e  the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s ; .  For t h i s r e a s o n we  within  shall speci-  fy that only factors with corresponding eigenvalues;greate r t h a m l are t o be c o n s i d e r e d , the a s s u m p t i o n b e i n g that, w i t h i n : t h i s c r i t e r i o n , an a c c e p t a b l e amount o f the  total  variance (4)  w i l l be a c c o u n t e d f o r .  Factor  s c o r e s a l l o w p r e c i s e measurements t o be p r o -  v i d e d o f t h e l o c a t i o n . o f a l l o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the f a c t o r s c a l e .  Thus, s i n c e each respondent i n t h i s :  study has a f a c t o r s c o r e on; each f a c t o r , a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n : i s a l l o w e d o f where t h i s respondent i s p l a c e d on the f a c t o r s c a l e i n . r e l a t i o n , t o a l l o t h e r respondents:. Factor  s c o r e s . h a v e t h e g r e a t advantage o v e r o r i g i n a l  v a l u e s i n t h a t t h e c o m p u t a t i o n . p r o c e d u r e produces a standardized  or normalized value.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  u s e f u l i n subsequent a n a l y s i s o f dependence.  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Dimensions o f Responses B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p l a c e t h i s a n a l y s i s w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s . w i l l be r e c a l l e d , s t a t e d (1)  The h y p o t h e s i s , i t  that:.  v a r y i n g a t t i t u d e s o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s toward .. t h e i r p a r k i s a f u n c t i o n : o f t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p a r k i n which t h e m o b i l e home i s : located.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , we s t a t e d t h a t we were a t t e m p t i n g t o r (2)  d i s c e r n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e m o b i l e home park;,  (3)  i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n on a d i s a g g r e g a t e d l e v e l , t h a t i s . t o say, i n terms o f p a r k f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , p a r k l o c a t i o n , and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e park.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s proved t o be e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g , b o t h i m terms o f t h e o r i g i n a l hypotheses a s w e l l a s i n terms o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r r a y o f q u e s t i o n s asked t o p a r k d w e l l e r s ; :  The s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e p r o v e d , i n . f a c t , t o be i n t e r r e l a t e d and t h u s "became a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e factor analysis.  A l s o , t h e v a r i a b l e s i n many c a s e s grouped  themselves i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e y had been grouped on t h e o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( o n t h e assumption t h a t t h e y were concerned w i t h m e a s u r i n g t h e same a s p e c t o f p a r k l i v i n g . , - See Appendix I ) .  Thus t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s bore  out t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n d e e d m e a s u r i n g t h e range o f phenomena t h a t had o r i g i n a l l y b e e n : p o s t u l a t e d t o r e l a t e to the hypothesis.  S i n c e i t had been s p e c i f i e d t h a t o n l y f a c t o r s ; w i t h corresponding- e i g e n v a l u e s e q u a l o r g r e a t e r t o 1 were t o be considered,, the r e s u l t was: t h e emergence o f 24 i n d e pendent, l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s . t o account f o r the o r i g i n a l 75 variables:-;  These 24 f a c t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r . 70$ o f  t r a c e , that i s t o say, the p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y i m t h e d a t a accounted f o r by t h e s e 24 f a c t o r s - was. 70$.  A l t h o u g h n o t an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e , i t  i s c e r t a i n l y adequate f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y .  69 Of the 24 f a c t o r s , 18 a r e d e s c r i b e d below,  each  under a t i t l e which b e s t s u i t s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n . S c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the f a c t o r m a t r i x , but g e n e r a l l y i n . t h e t a i l - e n d , a r e f a c t o r s which cannot be c o n s i d e r e d " c o h e r e n t " i n . t e r m s o f f i t t i n g a nomenclature o f what t h a t dimension r e p r e s e n t s .  These w i l l not be d e s c r i b e d . .  HOwever, a l l f a c t o r s w i t h t h e i r h i g h e s t l o a d i n g variables;; are  shown- i n Table X I I I .  P a r k Q u a l i t y Index ( F a c t o r 1) The f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , t h e P a r k QualityI n d e x , r e v e a l s t h o s e f a c e t s o f the m o b i l e home p a r k w h i c h , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , can be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the park. the  The s i z e o f t h e p a r k , ina terms o f  number o f m o b i l e homes, would appear t o have a s t r o n g  i n f l u e n c e on: the q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r k , t h a t i s t o say, t h e l a r g e r the park the b e t t e r the q u a l i t y o f the park  im  terms o f f a c i l i t i e s such as i n d o o r s t o r a g e u n i t s , o u t door s t o r a g e a r e a s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , underground and a m e n i t i e s such as s h u f f l e b o a r d s .  wiring,  I n terms o f p a r k  l o c a t i o n ^ , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the b e t t e r t h e q u a l i t y o f the p a r k the l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t o be l o c a t e d n e x t t o a highway ( s i n c e t h i s v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e s  nega-  t i v e l y o n . t h i s f a c t o r ) but the more l i k e l y t h a t i t i s next to a r e s i d e n t i a l area.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e b e t t e r  70a  TABLE X I I I HIGHEST LOADING VARIABLES O F 24 FACTORS  F a c t o r 1 ( 1 1 . 8 3 $ o f Common: V a r i a n c e ) Variable  Loading  Indoor storage u n i t S i z e o f m o b i l e home p a r k (number o f m o b i l e homes?) Outdoor s t o r a g e a r e a Other f a c i l i t i e s : Underground w i r e s Rent Location: next t o r e s i d e n t i a l area Street l i g h t i n g L o c a t i o n : n e x t t o highway  ~.8A ^81 .78 ,75 .67 .64 .49 .36 -..79  F a c t o r 2 (6.15$) . 48 -.71 -.71 -.71  Age o f respondent Employment s t a t u s o f w i f e Employment s t a t u s : o f main, breadwinner Income  ;  F a c t o r 5 (4.73$) Importance Importance Importance Importance Importance  o f purchase p r i c e o f m o b i l e home o f monthly expenses o f l a c k o f maintenance o f l i v i n g a t ground l e v e l of mobility  •  .72 .69 .56 .53 .35  F a c t o r 4 (3.94$) L o c a t i o n next t o f i e l d s L o c a t i o n ! n e x t t o commercial b u s i n e s s  .86 -v76  F a c t o r 5 (3.89$) S a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h p a r k appearance S a t i s f a c t i o n , w i t h park l o c a t i o n : S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h d i s t a n c e between m o b i l e homes: S a t i s f a c t i o n ! w i t h management Grassy a r e a w i t h i n m o b i l e home p a r k P r e f e r e n c e r e owning o r r e n t i n g l o t Age o f m o b i l e home p a r k A r e a o f l o t (square f e e t )  .71 . 68 .65 .61 .48 .48 .39 .32 ;  70b) F a c t o r 6 (3.34$)  loading  L e n g t h o f time spent i n : a l l p a r k s L e n g t h o f time spent i n p r e s e n t p a r k T o t a l number o f p a r k s l i v e d i n Factor 7  .90 .79 .50  (2.97$)  Pool Factor 8  ,81 (2.82$)  Number o f c h i l d r e n Size o f household  .81 .77  .-  F a c t o r 9 (2.76$) D i f f i c u l t y m e e t i n g people because community .78 facilities far D i f f i c u l t y m e e t i n g people because o t h e r n e i g h .72 borhoods f a r D i f f i c u l t y m e e t i n g people because t h e y don t w i s h t o be f r i e n d l y w i t h m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s ? .50 M o b i l e home p a r k s u f f i c i e n t f o r making f r i e n d s ; .55 ,!  F a c t o r 10 (2.57$) L o c a t i o n n e x t t o water P l a y g r o u n d equipment w i t h i m p a r k F a c t o r 11 (2.38$) P r e v i o u s d w e l l i n g - s i n g l e f a m i l y detached house P r e v i o u s d w e l l i n g - apartment ( l o w - r i s e and/or high-rise)  .84 .80  F a c t o r 12 (2.31$) Degree o f s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h i n p a r k M o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g d i f f e r e n t , P a r k d w e l l e r s f r i e n d l i e r t h a n apartment d w e l l e r s ? P a r k d w e l l e r s f r i e n d l i e r t h a n s i n g l e f a m i l y house dwellers?  .61 .32 -.66 -.70  F a c t o r 15 (2.18$) Importance o f b e i n g near work Importance o f b e i n g near s c h o o l s Importance o f b e i n g near s h o p p i n g  -.62 -.72 -.73  70c; Factor 14 (2.05$) Laundry f a c i l i t y within park Location next to industry  --.Loading ".11 -.69  Factor 15 (1.89$) Importance Importance Importance Importance Importance  of services provided by management o f general appearance o f park o f cost of renting l o t of size of l o t o f area surrounding the park  -.358 -.42 -.60 -.66 -.67  Factor 16 (1.82$) Sex o f respondent  .79  Factor 17 (1.76$) Preference re location", of mobile homes  -.66  Factor 18 (1.64$) Store within park Location next to h i l l s Roads paved withimpark  .58 .53 -.86  Factor 19 (1.59$) Education;of respondent . Occupation! of maim breadwinner  .83 .72  Factor 20 (1.54$) Other reasons for l i v i n g i n a mobile home  -•75  Factor 21 (1.46$) Preference re type of housing Importance o f no other housing available i m desired area  .66  Importance o f no other space or l o t available  .47  Factor 22 (1.43$) Area of mobile home (square feet) Number o f other parks v i s i t e d Recreation building within park  .65  -.41 -.45 -.46  70d F a c t o r 23 (1.38$) Degree o f s t r i c t n e s s o f r e g u l a t i o n s Regulations disagreed with F a c t o r 24  Loading .77 -. 53  (1.34$)  P r e s e n c e o f temporary t r a i l e r s w i t h i n p a r k E f f e c t on.appearance o f p a r k o f temporary t r a i l e r s  -.78 -.80  71 t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r k , t h e h i g h e r i s the r e n t f o r a l o t w i t h i n , t h a t park.  The P a r k Q u a l i t y Index emerges as the most i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n o f the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s not o n l y i n terms o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y accounted f o r by t h i s f a c t o r , but a l s o because i t g i v e s us a s t a n d a r d , c o m p r i s e d o f a number o f s u b - c a t e g o r i e s ( v a r i a b l e s ? ) whereby a l l parks? may  be judged.  Thus, r e s p o n d e n t s d i s p l a y i n g - h i g h p o s i t i v e  f a c t o r s c o r e s o m t h i s f a c t o r can.be c o n s i d e r e d t o be l i v i n g i n a h i g h - q u a l i t y park.  Socio-Economic Index ( F a c t o r 2) The second f a c t o r c l e a r l y d e f i n e s t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f the respondent.  I t i s concerned w i t h t h e age  and f a m i l y income o f the r e s p o n d e n t , whether t h e w i f e o f the main breadwinner works (where a p p l i c a b l e ) , and t h e maim breadwinner i s r e t i r e d o r employed.  whether  I t must be  n o t e d t h a t t h r e e o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , employment s t a t u s o f t h e m a i n breadwinner, employment " s t a t u s o f t h e w i f e , and a n n u a l f a m i l y income, c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y on t h i s factor.  Thus, h i g h n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h i s dimen-  s i o n ! would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e respondent i s o v e r s i x t y y e a r s o l d , t h a t he/she i s r e t i r e d , t h a t the w i f e o f t h e  72 male head o f h o u s e h o l d does n o t work, and t h a t t h e a n n u a l f a m i l y income i s i n t h e l o w e r income, b r a c k e t s . . N e e d l e s s to  say, such i s g e n e r a l l y t h e . c a s e o f a r e t i r e d  status.  Reasons f o r L i v i n g i n a M o b i l e Home ( F a c t o r 3) A group o f q u e s t i o n s were asked c o n c e r n i n g t h e degree o f importance o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n t h e d e c i s i o n . t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home.  F a c t o r 3 n e a t l y summarizes a  number o f t h e s e r e a s o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e importance o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e m o b i l e home, t h e monthly expenses, t h e l a c k o f maintenance the  f o r t h e m o b i l e home, t h e s u f f i c i e n c y o f  space w i t h i n t h e home f o r f a m i l y r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e  importance o f l i v i n g a t ground l e v e l ( a s opposed t o a m apartment) and t h e m o b i l i t y f e a t u r e s ( r e a l o r I m p l i e d ) of t h e m o b i l e home.  Respondents  displaying high posi-  t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s o m t h i s f a c t o r would c o n s i d e r a l l these r e a s o n s f o r l i v i n g i n a^m'oMle home t o be v e r y important.  P a r k L o c a t i o m ( F a c t o r 4) A l t h o u g h t h e P a r k Q u a l i t y Index i n c l u d e s l o c a t i o n a l aspects, t h i s f a c t o r deals s p e c i f i c a l l y with park l o c a tion.  B a s i c a l l y , i t concerns i t s e l f w i t h a p a r k l o c a t i o n !  which i s next to f i e l d s ( i . e . r u r a l ) but not next t o  73 commercial b u s i n e s s .  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be s a i d  t o be g e n e r a l l y t r u e .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  t h i s f a c t o r c o r r e l a t e s n e g a t i v e l y (but not h i g h l y ) w i t h t h e importance o f being; near work, s c h o o l s and shopping; Thus, f o r t h o s e l i v i n g i n a r u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g such matters; a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a m o b i l e home park.  S a t i s f a c t i o n , I n d e x ( F a c t o r 5) The S a t i s f a c t i o n Index i s , i n terms o f o u r h y p o t h e s i s t h e second most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o emerge.  Within t h i s  f a c t o r i s encompassed a l l t h o s e i n d i c a t o r s t h a t measure s a t i s f a c t i o n concerning a v a r i e t y o f f e a t u r e s o f mohile home p a r k l i v i n g .  These i n c l u d e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a r k  appearance, w i t h p a r k l o c a t i o n s and park, management.  Per-  c e p t i o n o f t h e adequacy o f t h e d i s t a n c e between m o b i l e homes by t h e respondent i s y e t a n o t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n imd i e a t o r w i t h i n t h i s dimension,  l o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , the size  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l o t s and t h e age o f t h e park ( g e n e r a l l y , , t h e newer t h e p a r k , t h e l a r g e r t h e l o t s i z e ) p l a y a p o s i t i v e r o l e in:, d e t e r m i n i n g , t h i s l a t t e r o p i n i o n ;  Interesting  l y , t h e d e s i r e t o own o r r e n t a l o t i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e more s a t i s f i e d t h e p a r k d w e l l e r , t h e more l i k e l y t h a t he/she would w i s h t o r e n t the l o t .  The l e s s s a t i s f i e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t , t h e g r e a t e r  74 i s t h e d e s i r e t o own a l o t . . Such an a t t i t u d e may w e l l be t h e r e s u l t o f a d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e c o n t r o l o v e r a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h , a t p r e s e n t , would be o u t of; the hands of the renter/tenant.  Respondents d i s p l a y i n g ; h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s s c o r e s : o n : t h i s dimension, c l e a r l y , a r e v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r park.  M o b i l e Home P a r k E x p e r i e n c e  ( F a c t o r 6)  T h i s f a c t o r i s : concerned w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f time l i v e d i n m o b i l e home p a r k s .  This includes the t o t a l  number o f p a r k s l i v e d i n , t h e l e n g t h o f time spent i n the p r e s e n t p a r k , and t h e l e n g t h o f time l i v e d i n a l l m o b i l e home p a r k s .  Respondents w i t h h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r "  s c o r e s have had t h e l o n g e s t e x p e r i e n c e  w i t h m o b i l e home  park l i v i n g .  Household S i z e ( F a c t o r 8). T h i s f a c t o r i s concerned w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e househ o l d and t h e number o f c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e h o u s e h o l d an. o b v i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Thus those r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h  h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s have households w i t h c h i l d r e n (i.e. larger  households).  75  E x t e r n a l - S o c i a l A s p e c t s ; ( F a c t o r 9) The c o n c l u s i o n s which cam he d e r i v e d from t h i s : f a c t o r are  extremely i n t e r e s t i n g .  F i r s t , i t s h o u l d he n o t e d  that a l l four variables, l o a d i n g h i g h l y on t h i s  factor  had o r i g i n a l l y been grouped w i t h i n a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n ; which;began:  "Have you f o u n d , on o c c a s i o n , t h a t i t i s  d i f f i c u l t t o meet and become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e p a r k because:....."  The suggested r e a s o n s f o r  d i f f i c u l t y i m m e e t i n g p e o p l e were p o s t u l a t e d t o be: d i s t a n c e from o t h e r neighborhoods;, d i s t a n c e from commu:n i t y f a c i l i t i e s ; ; ; general u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f people t o r ward m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s ; , the o p i n i o m t h a t t h e p a r k was s u f f i c i e n t f o r making f r i e n d s .  S i n c e a l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s l o a d e d p o s i t i v e l y on t h i s f a c t o r , respondents; h a v i n g h i g h f a c t o r s c o r e s : would f e e l t h a t t h e p a r k was s u f f i c i e n t f o r making f r i e n d s , b u t on.the o t h e r hand, t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o become a c q u a i n ted  w i t h o u t s i d e p e o p l e because community f a c i l i t i e s and  o t h e r neighborhoods were f a r away,, and a l s o , o t h e r p e o p l e did  n o t want t o be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h m o b i l e home p a r k dwel-  lers:;  I n , o t h e r words, i t c a n be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e p a r k  i s : c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t only, because e x t e r n a l  factors:  do not. a l l o w f o r m a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o t h e r than: t h o s e w i t h i n : the park.  76 I n . t e r m s o f our o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s  which s t a t e d  t h a t a t t i t u d e s o f r e s i d e n t s toward t h e i r p a r k was,  in  p a r t , a f u n c t i o n o f the s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f the p a r k , we can see here t h a t p h y s i c a l 1 o c a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s ,  as  w e l l as e x t e r n a l s o c i a l f a c t o r s a r e prime d e t e r m i n a n t s o f these a t t i t u d e s .  Previous Housing Experience,(Factor The  11)  two v a r i a b l e s l o a d i n g h i g h l y on F a c t o r 11  concerned w i t h the p r e v i o u s h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f park dweller.  are the  Since both past residency i n a s i n g l e  f a m i l y detached house as w e l l as i n , an apartment ( e i t h e r h i g h - r i s e and/or l o w - r i s e ) l o a d p o s i t i v e l y o n . t h i s : f a c t o r , h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e respondent has l i v e d i n b o t h t h e s e t y p e s o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s .  S o c i a b i l i t y Index (Factor  12)  T h i s f a c t o r , the S o c i a b i l i t y I n d e x , s h o u l d be examined c l o s e l y with Factor 9, E x t e r n a l S o c i a l Aspects. l o a d i n g h i g h l y on t h i s f a c t o r a r e concerned w i t h  Variables? how  o f t e n the r e s i d e n t s o c i a l i z e s w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e park,, whether the r e s i d e n t p e r c e i v e s l i v i n g i n a m o b i l e home p a r k t o be d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n . a c o n v e n t i o n a l  single .  f a m i l y h o u s i n g neighborhood, and whether he/she c o n s i d e r s .  77  p a r k d w e l l e r s t o be f r i e n d l i e r t h a n t h o s e l i v i n g i n an. apartment o r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g neighborhood.  I n - s e v e r a l ways t h e manner i n which v a r i a b l e s have l o a d e d on: t h i s f a c t o r i s p a r a d o x i c a l .  The f i r s t  two  v a r i a b l e s l o a d e d p o s i t i v e l y on t h i s f a c t o r w h i l e the l a s t two l o a d e d n e g a t i v e l y .  T h i s : would i n d i c a t e  that  w h i l e , on t h e one hand, the p a r k d w e l l e r s o c i a l i z e s ; f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n -the p a r k and c o n s i d e r s l i v i n g i n a p a r k t o be d i f f e r e n t from a. c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g : neighborhood ( f r e q u e n t l y c i t i n g the r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r ence as b e i n g t h a t park, d w e l l e r s a r e f r i e n d l i e r ) , on t h e o t h e r hand, he/she does not c o n s i d e r p e o p l e l i v i n g  im  m o b i l e home p a r k s t o be any f r i e n d l i e r t h a n t h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n . an.apartment  or a single family  house.  In. terms o f t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s , I t . can be  said  t h a t the degree o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . , w i t h i n , the p a r k i s t i e d w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t l i v i n g i n : a p a r k is? d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r k i n d s o f neighborhoods.  P a r k S e l e c t i o n ; - A c c e s s i b i l i t y F e a t u r e s ( F a c t o r 13) Respondents  were asked a number o f q u e s t i o n s con-  c e r n i n g why a p a r t i c u l a r p a r k had been s e l e c t e d i n which to l i v e .  T h i s f a c t o r summarizes? those a s p e c t s o f s e l e c t i o n .  78 concerned w i t h l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r k i n r e l a t i o n to ext e r n a l p o i n t s o f importance, these being a c c e s s i b i l i t y to work, s c h o o l s , and shopping.  Respondents d i s p l a y i n g  h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t these a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e a s o n s were v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f a park.  P a r k S e l e c t i o n - I n t e r n a l P a r k F e a t u r e s - ( F a c t o r 15) While F a c t o r 13 r e v e a l e d t h e e x t e r n a l l o c a t i o n a l dimension o f p a r k s e l e c t i o n , t h i s f a c t o r r e v e a l s t h e i m portance o f i n t e r n a l f e a t u r e s i n choosing a park.  These  i n c l u d e : , s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by management;, g e n e r a l a p p e a r ance o f t h e p a r k ; c o s t o f r e n t i n g a. l o t ; s i z e o f t h e l o t s ; ; I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e appearance o f t h e g e n e r a l a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p a r k a l s o l o a d s h i g h l y on t h i s f a c t o r .  A  h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e would show t h a t t h e respondent found a l l o f t h e s e a s p e c t s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n . h i s / h e r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a p a r t i c u l a r park.  L o c a t i o n o f the M o b i l e Home ( F a c t o r 17) Only one v a r i a b l e l o a d e d h i g h l y on: t h i s  factor.  T h i s v a r i a b l e was concerned with, e l i c i t i n g t h e r e s i d e n t ' s ? opinion;.concerning where, i n r e l a t i o n , t o o t h e r t y p e s o f housing,, m o b i l e homes s h o u l d be l o c a t e d - w i t h i n a m o b i l e  79 home p a r k / s u b d i v i s i o n , o r w i t h i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e , f a m i l y h o u s i n g neighborhood.  The r e s i d e n t was: a l s o g i v e n  the o p t i o n o f s t a t i n g - t h a t he d i d n o t know where m o b i l e homes s h o u l d be l o c a t e d .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note here  t h a t no o t h e r v a r i a b l e l o a d e d h i g h l y on  to this  factor,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f l o c a t i o n o f mobile homes i s a c o m p l e t e l y independent dimension.  High  negative  f a c t o r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t respondents  f e e l t h a t mobile  homes s h o u l d be l o c a t e d i n m o b i l e home p a r k s / s u b d i v i s i o n s .  Occupation! - E d u c a t i o n ; ( F a c t o r 19) The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r c o n c e r n i n g educ a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s o b v i o u s . Those respondents, w i t h h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r g s c o r e s have a h i g h degree o f e d u c a t i o n ! ( r e l a t i v e l y speaking) a s w e l l as h i g h e r - s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s .  Other Seasons f o r L i v i n g i m a M o b i l e Home ( F a c t o r 20) I n a d d i t i o n t o a s k i n g t h e importance  of a variety of  r e a s o n s i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a mobile home ( a s r e v e a l e d i n F a c t o r 3 ) , t h e park d w e l l e r was a l s o given, t h e o p t i o n , o f s t a t i n g any " o t h e r r e a s o n " t h a t was c o n s i d e r e d important.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s e " o t h e r r e a s o n s " came  out a s a s e p a r a t e dimension, i n t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .  Other r e a s o n s t h a t were s t a t e d i n c l u d e d ; " t o b u i l d e q u i t y " ; "good f o r one person.";; " s h o r t e r l e n g t h o f mortgage"; " p r i v a c y o v e r a p a r t m e n t " ; • " c l o s e t o m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n " ; " r e a s o n a b l e downp'ayment"* " p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e t i r e ment"; " g r e a t e r independence outdoor l i v i n g " ;  in. l i v i n g s t y l e " ; : " c l o s e t o  "mobile home, a s s i g n e d by employer".  A' h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e would i n d i c a t e t h a t such r e a s o n s were v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n , t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home.  Choice i n Housing.-, ( F a c t o r 21) T h i s f a c t o r i s concerned w i t h . b o t h r e a l and hypot h e t i c a l choices i n housing.  R e s i d e n t s were asked t h a t  i f t h e y had t h e c h o i c e , what t y p e o f h o u s i n g would be p r e f e r r e d ( e . g . s i n g l e f a m i l y house, m o b i l e home, a p a r t ment e t c . f .  A l s o , i n terms o f p a r k s e l e c t i o n ! and t h e  d e c i s i o n . t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home, i t was asked how i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s d e c i s i o n was t h e f a c t t h a t no o t h e r space was a v a i l a b l e and t h a t no o t h e r h o u s i n g was; a v a i l able i n the desired area.  Since.** a l l v a r i a b l e s l o a d e d p o s i t i v e l y , two i n t e r pretations-are possible.  The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d  be t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t , h a v i n g had t o make a second-best  81 d e c i s i o n i n terms o f h o u s i n g , would n o t w i s h t o admit t h a t t h e c h o i c e was a poor one, and thus would s t a t e t h a t he/she p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home.  The second  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d be t h a t w h i l e t h e d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home may w e l l have been.by d e f a u l t , t h e r e s pondent found t h a t once t h e d e c i s i o n , was made, i t was a good one.  We t e n d t o l e a n h e a v i l y toward t h i s l a t t e r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r several reasons.  F i r s t , the acute  s h o r t a g e o f m o b i l e home spaces a v a i l a b l e a t p r e s e n t irfcd i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s f a r more o f a problem t h a n t h e l a c k of suitable housing-alternatives.  P u t i n a n o t h e r way,  i t c a n be s a i d t h a t p r o b a b l y s u f f i c i e n t a l t e r n a t e h o u s i n g does e x i s t , and t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f a m o b i l e home goes beyond a s i m p l e l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e s .  T h i s must be con-  s i d e r e d e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t h e case o f higher-income residents.  S e c o n d l y , those' e x p r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  t h e i r m o b i l e home p a r k may w e l l have f o u n d t h a t , having: moved i n t o t h e p a r k , a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u e d which o r i g i n a l l y had n o t p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home.  I n o t h e r words, e x -  p e r i e n c e w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g may w e l l have or eradicated previous misgivings.  "mellowed"  82 Regulations  ( F a c t o r 23)  T h i s f a c t o r v e r y n e a t l y summarizes t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p a r k r e s i d e n t s toward r e g u l a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s conc e r n i n g t h e p a r k s e t down by management.  Respondents  were asked whether r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be l e s s o r more s t r i c t , o r t h e same a s t h e p r e s e n t ones.  They were a l s o  asked t o s t a t e whether t h e r e were any r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t were d i s a g r e e d  with.  S i n c e t h e former v a r i a b l e l o a d s  p o s i t i v e l y , t h i s : would i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e f o r s t r i c t e r r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r v a r i a b l e , l o a d i n g negat i v e l y , , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t a r e disagreed  with.  Temporary T r a i l e r s ( F a c t o r 24) T h i s f i n a l f a c t o r i s concerned w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f temporary t r a i l e r s i n t h e p a r k ( i f , i n f a c t , they are allowed).  The n e g a t i v e  loadings  c a t e t h a t i f no temporary t r a i l e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d  indiwithin,  the p a r k , t h e r e i s , o b v i o u s l y , no d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e appearance o f t h e p a r k .  Conversely, a high p o s i t i v e f a c t o r  score would show t h a t temporary t r a i l e r s a r e a l l o w e d and t h a t t h e y n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t the appearance o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k .  H i g h l i g h t s o f .the Dimensions o f Responses;:  Summary  H a v i n g examined t h e 24 factors:-, i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to. i n v e s t i g a t e the manner i n : which respondents; were p l a c e d on. the f a c t o r space.  Thus, i n o r d e r t o more c l e a r l y un-  d e r s t a n d the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f F a c t o r 1, P a r k Q u a l i t y Index,, and F a c t o r 5, S a t i s f a c t i o n ; I n d e x , respondents: were f i r s t grouped a c c o r d i n g to t h e s i z e o f the p a r k i m which t h e y resided.  N e x t , t h e i r f a c t o r s c o r e s : on: t h e s e two  were p l o t t e d .  factors:  The outcome i s shown: i n : F i g u r e 1.  As can be seen, 22$ o f the respondents; l i v e i m h i g h q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s w i t h which t h e y a r e v e r y w e l l s a t i s f i e d (Quadrant I ) . Two  o f the park s i z e c a t e g o r i e s pre-  dominate i n : t h i s group, namely,, p a r k s : w i t h 50 - 74 homes: and a p a r k w i t h over 100 homes.  I t s h o u l d be  emphasized  here t h a t t h e r e was: o n l y one p a r k sampled i m each o f the 75 - 100 homes, and o v e r 100 homes c a t e g o r i e s , so t h a t r e s u l t s - m u s t be examined b e a r i n g t h i s - i m mind.  Respondents  l i v i n g i n : s m a l l e r s i z e d p a r k s (under  48 homes), p o s s e s s i n g few o r none o f the f a c i l i t i e s  and  f e a t u r e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e P a r k Q u a l i t y Index, a r e d i v i d e d concerning t h e i r l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the park, a l t h o u g h a somewhat l a r g e r number f e l l w i t h i n : t h e p o s i tive satisfaction;quadrant.  These l a t t e r , however, w i t h :  I  OURLITX  P A R K  . . 2-40  .. f .JO  /.to  A J.4so  .*«o  + -l.xo  - i . o ( T -I.fro  *I.C©  -l-MO  -i.io  -i-oo  -.80  +  +  -.to  +  -.MO  -4-  a.  _t  -.to  »-  5misFfic-r  .10 . *<o 1  .20 1  .to 1  .5o =»  i.oo 1  no 1  / . i o * i.to 1 1  i.po 1  z.oo 1  i..2,o T T 1  ++  A  • + °  .MO  60  «  -f-  ^+  S i t e OP R^SPONQSNT'S  Less THAN Zo Kones •o "L6 hones •f heroes o A 50 - 14 honCS  +4-  o  i-..oo°  0  A fS-loohoneS  (|  -i.io o  o  PARK)  ^ Qv/eR loohones (I P A M )  + * w  o  0  +  *  o  -f-  ©' © 0  FACTOR SCORES OF t£2l ResPON DENTS  ON FACTOR  FIGURE  1  I  AND  FACTOI?  y  (oOlo  ION  85 v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , a r e n o t h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d .  Ambiva-  l e n c e may w e l l be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h park appearance, t h e s e r e s i d e n t s  neverthe-  l e s s have good,, i . e . s a t i s f a c t o r y , r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r management.  Because o f t h e i r s c a t t e r t h r o u g h a l l f o u r q u a d r a n t s ^ m o b i l e home p a r k s i n : the 50 - 74 homes c a t e g o r y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s i z e o f p a r k may w e l l be t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l zone between a h i g h - q u a l i t y , h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y p a r k , and one t h a t i s the o p p o s i t e .  Thus we see i n : t h i s group parks;  r a n k i n g p o s i t i v e l y on; b o t h t h e P a r k Q u a l i t y and Satisrf a c t i o n . I n d i c e s , p a r k s o f poor q u a l i t y and m a r g i n a l  satis-  f a c t i o n ; o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ; l e v e l s , and p a r k s w i t h p o s i t i v e park q u a l i t i e s but w i t h d i s s a t i s f i e d  residents;.  The l a s t case may w e l l be due t o poor r e l a t i o n s ; w i t h management w h i c h i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e appearance o f t h e p a r k .  Ihi summary, we a r e a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t ,  generally,  the l a r g e r t h e p a r k , t h e h i g h e r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r k and  the greater  Factor  the r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n .  s c o r e s were also, p l o t t e d a g a i n s t  Factor  9  86  E x t e r n a l S o c i a l A s p e c t s , and F a c t o r 12, t h e S o c i a b i l i t y Index.  As shown i n F i g u r e 2, t h e o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s  are t h e l a c k o f s c a t t e r , t h e l a c k o f h i g h f a c t o r s c o r e s , the c l u s t e r i n g a t quadrant a x e s , and t h e n e a r l y even, groupings w i t h i n the f o u r quadrants.  The 31$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s l o c a t e d i n t h e f i r s t quadrant can'febe i n t e r p r e t e d t o f e e l t h a t e x t e r n a l  fac-  t o r s h i n d e r t h e development o f r e l a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e park, that r e s i d e n t s s o c i a l i z e o f t e n w i t h neighbors; w i t h i n , the p a r k and t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r l i v i n g i m a park t o be d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g n e i g h borhoods.  The 25$ o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e second quadrant  also  consider external factors l i m i t i n g to the formation o f o u t s i d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t , on. the o t h e r hand, t h e y do n o t c o n s i d e r t h o s e l i v i n g i n m o b i l e home p a r k s t o be any f r i e n d l i e r than people i n o t h e r types o f housing neighborhoods.  The 44$ found i n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h q u a d r a n t s do not f e e l t h a t e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v e n t t h e i r people o u t s i d e t h e park.  meeting  However, 20$ o f these r e s i d e n t s ? ,  a l t h o u g h f e e l i n g m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s a r e f r i e n d l i e r ,  2.4022°  An  2-oo  249  I  1.90 1.40  52  '7£  2 3 8  177  61  250 "  2.73  50  «9  70  9,  m.  191  222  ISI  1%  • /50  „  5  J.XO  I0Z  t6o  ir  MO  30  ._. ax , g  A  »5f  I3Z  tit  p  2S5 2A, 103 , ~  lot*  « L  '75 z,f  228 53  LOM&V 2*o 73  7 2  115  202  1  -zio ~Z-ao 1 1  W  , 9 7  2 9 0  241 "2Ao  5 3  ,(,0 -J  -1.So - 1 . 4 0 - 1 . ^ 0 ~J.2o - 1 . 0 0  1  1  1  *  »— Z9  9 5  1  4o  'if.  IOO  7.X,  HO  44 2u  _4  1  2CR in 193  78  1.4,0 I.SO 200 ( { —I  277  13 £ 7 ,  2*6 « •\%°1o%±  Zoo  2 * 5  ZSg  -MO -.10  4 7 /3o  '89.  ZZO !  139 Z90 !  EXTERNAL SOCIAL FtSPQCTS  I9O  %t\z>  .  1  5 7  59  I* I 1  »5S  2.'° 2 ' 3  3t  224  77  2/^  I36>  2??  /42  135  xo io<r 253 I-,40  9 3  ni  1-1.40  7/ 75  10  m  229  9 9  I3H  ill  l-J.So  I*i5  1/0  <  FACTOR  ScOftCS  OM  FACTORS  $5%  10%  133  Z $\  Z3S  1*4%31%  65  2  &9  I5Z  264  2X1  F I G U R E  \5t> lis  ZSl  272  9  113  ?2  4.-1.00  9 7  105  ZZ1  T X AfoD  JX  88  do n o t s o c i a l i z e o f t e n among t h e i r n e i g h b o r s .  The r e -  m a i n i n g 24$ do s o c i a l i z e o f t e n w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s .  The c o n c l u s i o n drawn would be t h a t no g e n e r a l consensus e x i s t s among p a r k d w e l l e r s c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g ,  further-  more, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f shades and nuances t h a t must c o n s t a n t l y be examined when i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g .  F i n a l l y , f a c t o r s c o r e s were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t F a c t o r 2, Socio-Economic  Index, and F a c t o r 21, Choice i n Housing.  Some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s emerged a s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.  The near-even g r o u p i n g s w i t h i n t h e f o u r quad-  r a n t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f h o u s i n g p r e f e r r e d , i f no c o n s t r a i n t s a r e p r e s e n t , i s due t o r e a s o n s o t h e r than economic ones.  Thus we see t h o s e o f h i g h e r income  s t a t u s p r e f e r r i n g m o b i l e homes; ( 2 5 $ ) , w h i l e t h e same p e r centage p r e f e r r i n g t o l i v e i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y house.  detached  We see t h e same p e r c e n t a g e w i t h i n t h e l o w e r eco-  nomic g r o u p i n g p r e f e r r i n g a m o b i l e home, w h i l e a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h i s group s t a t i n g a d e s i r e t o l i v e i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y house.  51  rn 26  17. 39  ("73  tt<r  . 9?  93  ,.l-9°  230 22%  us  /77  4?  0-33 ;  w  i?6  13^  i.oo lU  Si 2J3  Wo 3«  97  2S2  244  3«f.  100 2X3  &7.  1:4© i«  5<? ^7  2 3 t  9  »«  *  «...  7Z  7 5  f-  '«  O  .41  W  «5 V  9?  /«2 «7  33  51  264  in  262.  2?o  HI  »38  207  53  10*  in"  23S 70  277  "to Iff*,  110  »o3  89  111-  H5  <?5  MO  f  9  2  "  3  »5™ ^ o  A  4  o  *r z n• 24? n? jo| 2*7 3 ' « 47 Zl1 *>5  r  /  9  1  •  o  8  /7?  !  !  106  170  108  -  1  I/3  75  Zoo,  18 -279  111  110  206  '  2H* IS to  So 77 V.0O  m  JO 263  ****  W /op  1S3  ISS.  , 2 3 I 3 5  ^  19 '] '22  33  46 2<}  27/  26» 193  /4  235 2oo 17  ALS  103 73 131  19  9  119 m  5o  , 2'2 ' " " 3 5 27t  i?** "  ZSI  2 « * " H S m IIS*** i49-2Q,.y ..4o .go  ~LMO -I.IO - 2 . 0 O 1  65  2<*3  24,  107  »6S  HI  li S 270  HO  25  «232*  58  "UO Vt  P6 52%  262.  .228  36  12o* II  )3  2-00  55  20 "220  1  FIGURE 3  2?I  FACTOR 7?  ScoRes  ON  TncToRs  II  ANJO  SO  iSS  52%  <2?7. 2^%  2^%  90  Given t h e g e n e r a l s t e r e o t y p e o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g as a second-best,  low-income form o f h o u s i n g , t h e r e -  s u l t s p r e s e n t e d would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i n d e e d i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y the case.  I n o t h e r words, we must l o o k e l s e -  where i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a n a l y z e why p e o p l e choose t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home.  Our c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e park aspects:  o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g may w e l l be an i m p o r t a n t k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g these preferences:.  I n short, the q u a l i t y  o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k , a s w e l l a s . i t s s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t i n determining housing preferences^  role  91. FOOTNOTE  1.  K e n d a l l , M.G., S m i t h , B.B., "Factor A n a l y s i s " , J o u r n a l ; o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , S e r i e s B., V o l . 12 NO. 1, 1950, p. 60. fJ  2.  See e s p e c i a l l y C o o l e y , W.W., Lohnes, P.R., M u l t i v a r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s For The B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , (John W i l e y & Sons, New Y o r k ) 1962.  CHAPTER 7  AFEXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESPONDENT ATTITUDES AND PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBILE HOME PARKS  Introduction to Canonical Correlation: The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r l a i d o u t t h e dimensions o f m o b i l e home park l i v i n g .  I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t measure-  ment o f respondent s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l l w i t h i n a s i n g l e l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n ; t h a t a d i m e n s i o n emerged which would a l l o w u s t o judge t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k i n terms;; o f p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ; t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f p a r k l i v i n g was i n f l u e n c e d by n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l f o r c e s and t h a t group i n t e r a c t i o n : w i t h i n . t h e p a r k c o u l d not be a n a l y s e d w i t h i n c l e a r - c u t b e h a v i o r - a t t i t u d e  res-  ponses;  Having discerned  the b r o a d o u t l i n e o f m o b i l e home  p a r k l i v i n g , we have y e t , however, t o determine how t h e a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s (including the s a t i s f a c t i o n  scales)  f u n c t i o m i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s measuring  vari-  ous a s p e c t s o f p a r k l i v i n g ( t h e a t t i t u d e - d e t e r m i n i n g variables;).  93 A l t h o u g h one  c o u l d a t t e m p t t o examine b i v a r i a t e  r e l a t i o n s , t h i s method i s too cumbersome and would p r o duce m u t u a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s ; i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e how  The  the a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s behave  i m r e l a t i o n } , t o the a t t i t u d e - d e t e r m i n i n g cal  b e s t approach  ones.  A  canoni-  c o r r e l a t i o n ? , s h o u l d succeed i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s  goal.  Such an a n a l y s i s w i l l c o r r e l a t e the a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s ? (i.e.  the dependent v a r i a b l e s ) w i t h the  attitude-deter-  mining; ones ( i . e . t h e independent v a r i a b l e s ) .  "The  c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n ? i s ? the maximum c o r r e l a t i o n between l i n e a r f u n c t i o n s o f the two v e c t o r v a r i a b l e s  Geo-  m e t r i c a l l y , the c a n o n i c a l model can be c o n s i d e r e d  an  ex-  p l o r a t i o n o f the e x t e n t t o which i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p y the same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i m one  measurement space as t h e y  T.  do in? the o t h e r . " t h a n one  Moreover,, t h e r e may  w e l l e x i s t more  s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent  dependent v a r i a b l e s . independent and  and  Thus, h a v i n g l o c a t e d t h a t p a i r o f  dependent v a r i a b l e s t h a t m a x i m a l l y c o r -  r e l a t e , the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l  them  attempt t o l o c a t e a d d i t i o n a l p a i r s o f m a x i m a l l y c o r r e l a t i n g vector variables.  This i s subject only to  the  r e s t r i c t i o n . t h a t each new  p a i r must be o r t h o g o n a l  and  independent t o a l l p r e v i o u s l y l o c a t e d p a i r s o f dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s .  94;  Role of Factor Analysis  i n C a n o n i c a l Correlation?; A n a l y s i s  N o r m a l i z e d f a c t o r s c o r e s w i l l be u s e d as dependent and  independent dimensions i n : a c a n o n i c a l  analysis.  However, the  correlation?  f a c t o r s c o r e s from the  first,  a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r cannot be u t i l i z e d .  T h i s i s due  that a l l factors within.a  to the o b v i o u s r e a s o n  f a c t o r m a t r i x a r e , by  tion?, o r t h o g o n a l t o each o t h e r , and lations.  T h e r e f o r e , two  conducted, one  defini-  t h u s , have z e r o  corre-  more f a c t o r a n a l y s e s must be  c o n s i s t i n g of a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s ,  other of attitude-determining  the  variables.  As e x p e c t e d , the a t t i t u d e - d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e d o n l y s l i g h t l y from the f i r s t  factor  analysis?  factor analysis,  e x c e p t f o r the m i s s i n g a t t i t u d e - s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s . The  r e s u l t s : o f the second f a c t o r a n a l y s i s are shown i n  Table  XIV.  Dimensions o f A t t i t u d e s and The  Satisfaction?  t h i r d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was  concerned w i t h f i v e  v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s toward the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r park.  These c o n s i s t e d  o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the  appear-  ance o f the p a r k , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f  the  95a  TABLE XIV THE INDEPENDENT DIMENSIONS: ATTITUDE-DETERMINING VARIABLES  Factor  Comments:  P a r k Q u a l i t y I n d e x (1)  The same as:- f a c t o r 1 o f t h e f i r s t anal y s i s save t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e - l o c a tion, next t o a r e s i d e n t i a l area - d i d not l o a d h i g h l y .  Economic S t a t u s (2)  Unlike factor 2 o f the f i r s t analysis, t h i s f a c t o r o n l y l o a d e d h i g h l y on e c onomic i n d i c e s , i . e . t h e a n n u a l f a m i l y income, whether t h e respondent was r e t i r e d o r employed, whether t h e w i f e a l s worked.  Reasons f o r L i v i n g i m a M o b i l e Hbme (3) P a r k L o c a t i o n (4)  General I n t e r n a l Park F e a t u r e s (5)  M o b i l e Home p a r k E x p e r i e n c e (6) External  Same a s f a c t o r 3 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis.  This; f a c t o r came o u t more c l e a r l y def i n e d t h a n . t h e same f a c t o r i n t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s . Variables: l o a d i n g high l y : p a r k l o c a t i o n , n e x t t o commercial b u s i n e s s , f i e l d s , and/or r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Parks: l o c a t e d n e x t t o r e s i d e n t i a l and/or commercial a r e a s a r e not l o c a t e d i n a r u r a l - t y p e s e t t i n g generally a true observations; Variables loading highly: size o f the l o t ; whether t h e r e i s : c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t d i s t a n c e between m o b i l e homes; whether temporary t r a i l e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d a n d , i f ao, whether t h e y n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e p a r k appearance; whether any p a r k r e g u l a t i o n s : a r e dis?agreed with. Same a s f a c t o r 6 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis.  S o c i a l A s p e c t s : (8) Same a s f a c t o r 9 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis.  S o c i a b i l i t y I n d e x (9)  Same a s f a c t o r 12 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  95b Factor  Comments  O c c u p a t i o n - E d u c a t i o n (10)  Same a s f a c t o r 19 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  Park Selection - Accessib i l i t y F e a t u r e s (11)  Same as f a c t o r 13 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  P r e v i o u s Housing Experi e n c e (12)  Same a s f a c t o r 11 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  Park Selection - I n t e r n a l P a r k F e a t u r e s (13)  Same a s f a c t o r 15 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  l o c a t i o n o f the Mobile Home (17)  Same as f a c t o r 17 o f t h e f i r s t  analysis  Sex (18)  Same as f a c t o r 16 o f t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s A negative f a c t o r score i n d i c a t e s the respondent i s male.  F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e (20)  T h i s f a c t o r c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e Household S i z e f a c t o r of the f i r s t analysis. Variables l o a d i n g h i g h l y : age o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ; number o f c h i l d r e n ; s i z e o f t h e household. A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n on t h e f i r s t v a r i a b l e and n e g a t i v e ones on the o t h e r two i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o l d e r t h e respondent, the l e s s l i k e l y that c h i l d r e n a r e l i v i n g i n t h e m o b i l e home, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s m a l l e r t h e household size.  96  p a r k , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h management, p r e f e r r e d dwelling  type o f  ( i f a c h o i c e were t o e x i s t ) , p e r c e p t i o n o f p a r k  l i v i n g a s b e i n g d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g neighborhoods.  As e x p e c t e d from t h e f i r s t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s f e l l w i t h i n a . s i n g l e , l i n e a r dimens i o n , t h e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index.  H i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r scores;  on t h i s f a c t o r would i n d i c a t e a h i g h l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c tion;  L e s s e x p e c t e d , however, was t h e outcome f o r t h e o t h e r two v a r i a b l e s , b o t h o f w h i c h l o a d e d h i g h l y on: t h e second f a c t o r .  T h i s f a c t o r c a n be termed L i v i n g S t y l e .  H i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s on:, the L i v i n g S t y l e reveal that residents  factor  c o n s i d e r m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g  t o be d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g neighborhoods.  Generally,  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was c i t e d  as b e i n g due t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e s i d e n t s  were " f r i e n d -  l i e r " ; however, n e g a t i v e r e a s o n s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  were  a l s o c i t e d , these i n c l u d i n g a l e s s e r degree o f p r i v a c y and  t h e w a t c h f u l presence o f management.  In addition,  a h i g h p o s i t i v e f a c t o r score would i n d i c a t e t h a t , the c h o i c e , home.  the resident  given  would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e  The f a c t o r l o a d i n g s on t h e s e two dimensions a r e  97 summarized  i n . T a b l e XV.  A n a l y s i s o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Respondent A t t i t u d e s and Personal/Park Character!sties The independent v a r i a b l e s o f t h e c a n o n i c a l  corre-  l a t i o n a n a l y s i s were comprised o f the 1 5 d e f i n e d  dimemr  s i o n s (out o f 2 1 ) emerging from t h e second f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e 2 a t t i t u d i n a l factors.  The outcome i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table XV3T, i n  which t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between each o f t h e o r i g i n a l  vari-  a b l e s and t h e d e r i v e d c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s a r e l i s t e d .  As  i s evident, lations.  t h e r e a r e two s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l  In:other  corre-  words, t h e r e a r e two independent d i -  mensions on t h e dependent  s e t o f v a r i a b l e s , which a r e s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g dimensions o f the independent s e t o f v a r i a b l e s .  The f i r s t dependent  dimension: i s seen t o be p o s i -  t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h park q u a l i t y , general and p a r k s e l e c t i o n - i n t e r n a l f e a t u r e s .  park features^ A l l these l a t t e r  independent v a r i a t e s a r e concerned w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l appearance o f the m o b i l e home p a r k .  We c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e presence o f i n d o o r u n i t s , outdoor storage areas, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g ,  storage  underground  TABLE XV' LOADINGS OP ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES OW. 2 FACTORS  F a c t o r 1 (33?31$ o f Common V a r i a n c e ) Variable  Loading  S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a r k appearance S a t i s f a c t i o n i w i t h park l o c a t i o n ! S a t i s f a c t i o n : w i t h p a r k management  ,85 ^'80 ",69  F a c t o r 2 (21.54$) Housing preference M o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g d i f f e r e n t o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods  from  .'73 ,72  99 TABLE XVI CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ORIGINAL VARIABLES AND DERIVED CANONICAL VARIATES 1st Canonical .57  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Independent  Variables  S a t i s f a c t i o n Index .93 P a r k Q u a l i t y Index .42 Living Style .35 S o c i a b i l i t y Index -.40 Park Location -138 General I n t e r n a l park Features . 35 Location o f the Mobile Home -.30 P r e v i o u s H o u s i n g E x p e r i e n c e - . 25 Park Selection - Internal Features . 25 Economic S t a t u s -.22 Family L i f e Cycle . 21 Occupation - Education -. 20 Park Selection - Accessib i l i t y Features .14 Reasons f o r L i v i n g i n a M o b i l e Home .05 M o b i l e Home P a r k E x p e r i e n c e .03 Sex .02 E x t e r n a l S o c i a l Aspects .01  2nd Canonical 31  Living Style .93 P r e v i o u s Housing E x p e r i e n c e - . 4 5 S a t i s f a c t i o n Index-.35 G e n e r a l I n t e r n a l p a r k Features -.41 Sex .37 E x t e r n a l S o c i a l Aspects -.33 Park S e l e c t i o n - Internal Features -.30 Economic Status.; -. 26 S o c i a b i l i t y Index -. 25 P a r k Q u a l i t y Index -.15 Reasons f o r L i v i n g i n a M o b i l e Home ,15 M o b i l e Home P a r k E x p e r i e n c e - ^ 1 5 Family L i f e Cycle .13 Occupation* - E d u c a t i o n .13 L o c a t i o n o f t h e M o b i l e Home .12 Park Location. -.12 Park Selection. - Accessib i l i t y Features-.04  100  w i r i n g , and a m e n i t i e s such as s h u f f l e b o a r d s a l l bute t o r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n .  contri-  Furthermore, general  i n t e r n a l p a r k f e a t u r e s such a s the s i z e o f t h e l o t s and whether the r e s i d e n t c o n s i d e r s t h e s i z e t o be s u f f i c i e n t also affect resident  satisfaction.  The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n on t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n o f the p a r k r e v e a l s t h a t a r u r a l - t y p e s e t t i n g next t o f i e l d s and away from commercial b u s i n e s s e s and/or d e n t i a l areas increases resident  resi-  satisfaction.  Furthermore, t h e r e s i d e n t ' s l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e degree o f importance o f p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s i n s e l e c t i n g a p a r k , such as s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by management, s i z e o f t h e l o t s , c o s t o f r e n t i n g a l o t , and appearance o f t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the p a r k . I n a o t h e r words, t h e more i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e s e r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r park, the greater i s the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the park.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h o s e  r e s p o n d e n t s who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o make a c h o i c e between p a r k s , chose t h a t p a r k which b e s t met t h e r e q u i r e ments l i s t e d above.  The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n on l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes? i n : r e l a t i o n , t o o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  16$ more s a t i s f i e d t h e r e s i d e n t , t h e more he/she f e e l s t h a t m o b i l e homes s h o u l d be l o c a t e d w i t h i n p a r k s o r s u b d i v i s i o n s , i . e . n o t mixed w i t h o t h e r types: o f d w e l l i n g units;  Pour independent v a r i a b l e s concerned w i t h t h e p e r sonal h i s t o r y o f the respondent c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y , w h i l e one c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y .  These were:- economic  s t a t u s ; m o b i l e home p a r k e x p e r i e n c e ; previous  educationr-occupation;  dwellings; family l i f e cycle.  T h i s : would i n d i c a t e , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t r e s i d e n t s on t h e l o w e r end o f t h e income and  educations-occupation:  s c a l e s , a s w e l l a s o l d e r r e s i d e n t s a r e more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r park.  Such a f i n d i n g may w e l l be r e l a t e d  t o e x p e c t a t i o n s ^ , t h a t i s t o s a y , i t c a n be  hypothesized  t h a t t h o s e o f l o w e r socio-economic^ s t a t u s e x p e c t l e s s : o f t h e i r p a r k i n terms o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g environment and t h u s a r e more r e a d i l y s a t i s f i e d .  I t was^ a l s o found t h a t t h e l e s s e r t h e p e r i o d o f time t h e r e s p o n d e n t has r e s i d e d i n a m o b i l e home p a r k , the g r e a t e r i s : the degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n .  T h i s may-  w e l l be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t m o b i l e home l i v i n g i s : i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g v i e w e d as. t h e f i r s t c h o i c e i n : h o u s i n g  102  and n o t t h e s e c o n d - b e s t , a s was: more g e n e r a l l y t h e case i n the past.  A l s o , those h a v i n g r e s i d e d f o r a s h o r t e r  p e r i o d o f time i n . a m o b i l e home p a r k p r o b a b l y l i v e i n newer m o b i l e homes w h i c h n o t o n l y a r e l a r g e r , b u t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e f e a t u r e s : n o t found i n : the o l d e r homes;  F i n a l l y , t h e n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n on p r e v i o u s dwell i n g s r e v e a l s t h a t , i f t h e respondent h a s l i v e d i n an; apartment, t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e m o b i l e home p a r k .  T h i s may w e l l be more a r e f l e c t i o n , on apartment  l i v i n g t h a m on p a r k l i v i n g .  The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ; on t h e s o c i a b i l i t y i n d e x would i n d i c a t e t h a t , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p a r k s a t i s f a c t i o n , m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s a r e n o t v i e w e d as; b e i n g any/ more f r i e n d l y thano. p e r s o n s i m o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g n e i g h borhoods.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s : may be am. i n d i c a t i o n ;  t h a t t h e more s a t i s f i e d a r e s i d e n t i s w i t h h i s / h e r p a r k , t h e l e s s does he/she v i e w m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s as. being- d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r p e o p l e .  The second c a n o n i c a l f a c t o r r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e dimensions concerned w i t h  103 p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r k d w e l l e r and t h o s e concerned w i t h l i v i n g s t y l e .  N e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were  found on., economic s t a t u s , m o b i l e home p a r k e x p e r i e n c e , p r e v i o u s d w e l l i n g s , and s e x o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t .  T h i s would i n d i c a t e , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t t h e l o w e r income r e s i d e n t s ? viev; p a r k l i v i n g a s b e i n g d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i m o t h e r types? o f neighborhoods.  Such am  a t t i t u d e c o u l d t e n t a t i v e l y be c o n s i d e r e d a n i n d i c a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n from t h e community and m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y .  I t was also? found t h a t t h e l e s s t h e p e r i o d o f time l i v e d i m p a r k s , the greater the perception; o f " d i f f e r entness".  T h i s c o u l d w e l l be an i n d i c a t i o n o f g r e a t e r  sensitivity  t o a s t i l l new environment..  Uurthermore,  those havings l i v e d p r e v i o u s l y i m apartments were more l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e p a r k l i v i n g as? b e i n g d i f f e r e n t ( i m a p o s i t i v e sense).  Finally,  more females? c o n s i d e r e d p a r k l i v i n g t o  be d i f f e r e n t t h a n male r e s i d e n t s - a t o t a l l y finding.  unexpected  A l t h o u g h i t is? d i f f i c u l t t o p o s t u l a t e t h e  r e a s o n s f o r such an outcome, i t can. be c o n t e m p l a t e d t h a t women, e s p e c i a l l y those n o t employed, a r e g e n e r a l l y  more s e n s i t i v e t o , and p o s s e s s g r e a t e r awareness o f s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r neighborhood environment.  The  negative  c o r r e l a t i o n on t h e p a r k q u a l i t y  index  would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p o o r e r the q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r k , the more l i k e l y t h e p e r c e p t i o n ' t h a t p a r k l i v i n g was; d i f ferent.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  p a r k l i v i n g here c a n be c o n -  s i d e r e d n e g a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n . o t h e r  types?,  o f h o u s i n g neighborhoods^  The  negative  c o r r e l a t i o n ! om "park s e l e c t i o n ! -  nal f e a t u r e s " r e v e a l s that c r i t e r i a f o r park  selection;  s u c h a s s i z e and c o s t o f l o t s : , a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g g e n e r a l appearance o f the park,, and s e r v i c e s  inter-  the park,  provided  by management were n o t i m p o r t a n t i n p e r c e p t i o n , o f d i f f e r entness i n park l i v i n g .  The  negative  c o r r e l a t i o n : on. the s o c i a b i l i t y  i n d i c a t e s that the general  index  perception! o f differentness  in; park l i v i n g i s ; not r e l a t e d  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  m o b i l e home p a r k d w e l l e r s a r e f r i e n d l i e r . correlation; with external social  The  aspects reveals  that  negative that  perception;! o f p a r k l i v i n g a s a s t y l e o f l i f e i s n o t due  t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n : m e e t i n g o u t s i d e p e o p l e because  community f a c i l i t i e s and/or o t h e r neighborhoods a r e  105 far  away, o r because p e o p l e a r e u n f r i e n d l y w i t h p a r k  dwellers..  The  negative  c o r r e l a t i o n . o h general  i n t e r n a l park  f e a t u r e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o a n a l y z e s i n c e i t i s composed o f a m i x t u r e o f p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y l o a d e d  items.  Summary The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s we have seen emerge between xesr-  pondent a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l  and p a r k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  have a i d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n : our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o r i g i n a l hypothesis.  We  have seen t h a t the l e v e l  s a t i s f a c t i o n : i s r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f 1  park,, b o t h i n t e r n a l i n : terms of. f a c i l i t i e s : and  the of the  layout,  and e x t e r n a l i n : terms, o f l o c a t i o n ;  Thus the presence o f i n d o o r s t o r a g e u n i t s , o u t d o o r storage areas,  s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , underground w i r i n g a l l  contributed to resident s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Furthermore, i t  can be s t a t e d t h a t g e n e r a l i n t e r n a l p a r k f e a t u r e s such as: s i z e o f the l o t s a l s o a f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t  satisfaction.  In: a d d i t i o n , l o c a t i o n i n . a r u r a l - t y p e a r e a was increase resident  satisfaction;  found t o  .106' I t was a l s o found t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t h e r e s p o n d e n t , i n c l u d i n g income, age, l e n g t h o f r e -  s i d e n c y i n m o b i l e home p a r k s , and p r e v i o u s t y p e s o f d w e l l i n g s , a l l r e l a t e d t o park s a t i s f a c t i o n .  I t was?  s u r m i s e d t h a t o l d e r r e s i d e n t s and those om t h e l o w e r end o f t h e income and e d u c a t i o n s c a l e s e x p e c t e d l e s s .from t h e i r p a r k in. terms o f f a c i l i t i e s and a m e n i t i e s and thus? were more r e a d i l y s a t i s f i e d .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h o s e who  had l i v e d i n . p a r k s f o r a l e s s e r p e r i o d o f time were more s a t i s f i e d .  T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n i n d i c a t i o n  t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n . s t e m m e d n o t o n l y from t h e p a r k but a l s o from t h e m o b i l e home  itself  w h i c h was assumed t o be,  g e n e r a l l y , newer and more modern f o r t h e newer r e s i d e n t .  The a n a l y s i s a l s o found t h a t t h o s e r e s i d e n t s who had c o n s i d e r e d , o r were i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r , a number o f f e a t u r e s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e p a r k b e f o r e movingi n , were found t o be more s a t i s f i e d .  These p a r k s e l e c -  t i o n , f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e d : s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by management, s i z e o f t h e l o t s , c o s t o f r e n t i n g a l o t , and appearance of  the area surrounding the park.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i v i n g s t y l e and e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p a r k was: found not t o be r e a d i l y d e f i n a b l e and r e p r e s e n t s t h e most  d e l i c a t e a r e a o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I t was  c l e a r l y ob-  s e r v e d , however, t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward l i v i n g s t y l e were r e l a t e d t o the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r k d w e l l e r , i n c l u d i n g income, age,  the  sex, l e n g t h o f r e -  s i d e n c y i n m o b i l e home p a r k s , and p r e v i o u s t y p e s o f d w e l lings lived in.  Iir. a d d i t i o n , the presence o r l a c k  c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and  features  a f f e c t e d the r e s i d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n a particular style of l i v i n g .  w i t h i n the  o f park residency  of park as  108 FOOTNOTE  1.  C b o l e y , W.W. , l o h n e s , P.R., M u l t i v a r i a t e Data (John-.Wiley, New York) 1971, p. 169.  Analysis,  CHAPTER 8.  THE RESIDENTS SPEAK  One o f t h e most i l l u m i n a t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h i s ; studywas: t h e response t o t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e q u e s t i o n naire:  "Are t h e r e any f u r t h e r comments you w i s h t o make  c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s and/or  social  l i f e w i t h i n , y o u r m o b i l e home p a r k o r p a r k s i n . g e n e r a l ? " The answers t o t h i s : q u e s t i o n a r e o f importance i n : t h a t they, r e v e a l those m a t t e r s t h a t a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n to m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s .  W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f  t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e comments c a n be t a k e n : a s a framework w i t h i n i w h i c h t o conduct t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s desc r i b e d i m e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s and thus: t h e s e comments: a l l o v r f o r a. p r o p e r s e t t i n g f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s : .  Of t h e t o t a l 281 r e s p o n d e n t s , 188 chose t o answer t h i s f i n a l question:.  Respondents: a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n :  l i v e d i n p a r k s o f a l l s i z e s and v a r y i n g q u a l i t i e s .  Thus:,  t h e r e would n o t appear t o be any b i a s towards responses: from-a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f park.  Answers, ranged from a  few words o r s e n t e n c e s t o h a l f a page t o two pages; most answers, however, were o f h a l f page l e n g t h .  lio Certain subject-matters recurred with continuing r e g u l a r i t y and a hand t a b u l a t i o n was made o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f responses i n a p a r t i c u l a r area.  Table X V I I i n d i c a t e s  t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s mentioned, by c a t e g o r y , i n d e c r e a s i n g order o f frequency.  Of c o u r s e , many respondents; c o v e r e d  more t h a n one s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y so t h a t t o t a l frequencies;, exceed t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s .  The r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e breakdown o f responses? i n T a b l e X V I I c a n be regrouped i n t o b r o a d e r c a t e g o r i e s as? i n d i c a t e d i n Table X V I I I .  These s i x b r o a d e r c a t e g o r i e s  of I n t e r n a l Park Features, S o c i a l life/Regulations/Management, Government and E x t e r n a l Community, P a r k l o c a t i o n , l o t Ownership, and Other Subjects? w i l l be more c l o s e l y examined by s e l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e s w i t h i n each category i n order to f u r t h e r understand the s p e c i f i c concerns and a t t i t u d e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s *  I n t e r n a l Park Features In. g e n e r a l , one would c o n s i d e r t h e u s e o f t h e word "park" i n t h e phrase "mobile home p a r k " a s a p u b l i c i t y d e v i c e f o r a t t r a c t i n g p o t e n t i a l consumers;; however, a t l e a s t one respondent t o o k t h e word q u i t e s e r i o u s l y : "Our c h o i c e o f t h e p a r k , t h e 8 t h we checked, was d e c i d e d by  Ill TABLE X V I I FREQUENCY OF MENTION" BY SUBJECT CATEGORIES OF 187 RESPONSES TO THE QUESTION': "ARE THERE ANY FURTHER COMMENTS YOU WISH TO MAKE CONCERNING PHYSICAL CONDITIONS! REGULATIONS, AND/OR SOCIAL L I F E WITHIN: YOUR MOBILE HOME PARK OR PARKS I N GENERAL?" Frequency o f k Mention"  S u b j e c t Category  Improve (poor) s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n p a r k . ^ 30 More r e c o g n i t i o n : by governments and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; . . . . . . 2 5 D e s i r e owned l o t s and/or m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n s 124 More s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s : w i t h i n p a r k 21 Larger lots; required 20 P o o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h management 19 More good m o b i l e home p a r k s r e q u i r e d 18 P r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n a good m o b i l e home p a r k . 17 Need a r e c r e a t i o n , b u i l d i n g w i t h i n p a r k . . . . . 15 Rent t o o h i g h f o r s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . • 9 Problems w i t h c a r p a r k i n g w i t h i n park 9 Good r e l a t i o n s w i t h management o f p a r k 8 R e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n p a r k s h o u l d be e n f o r c e d . . 8 M o b i l e home owners s h o u l d r e c e i v e Home Owners' Grant 7 M o b i l e home p a r k has community s p i r i t . • 7 Frequent r e n t increases;; 6 B e t t e r park l o c a t i o n required. 5 B e t t e r s e r v i c e f o r aged and i n f i r m w i t h i n p a r k 5 M o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d 2nd c l a s s c i t i z e n s . 5 S t r i c t e r regulations within, the park 4 Parks located closer to c i t y required 4 Poor r e l a t i o n s with other tenants 3 M o b i l e home d e a l e r s ? s h o u l d n o t r e n t and h o l d s p a c e s . . ^ . . . 3 Park regulations forbidding children.discriminatory 3 M o b i l e home l i v i n g good f o r o l d e r p e o p l e . . 3 Lack o f s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i n park.. • 2 M o b i l e homes - l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g 2 M o b i l e homes - n o t l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g 1 Lack o f p r i v a c y 1 Choice r e q u i r e d i n b u y i n g a m o b i l e home 1 D i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e m o b i l e home space 1 1  11% TABLE X V I I I GENERAL SUBJECT CATEGORIES AND FREQUENCY OF MENTION BY 187 RESPONDENTS .TO. THE. QUESTION: .."ARE THERE ANY FURTHER COMMENTS YOU WISH TO MAKE CONCERNING PHYSICAL CONDITIONS, REGULATIONS, AND/OR SOCIAL L I F E WITHIN YOUR MOBILE HOME PARK OR PARKS I F GENERAL?"  General Subject  Frequency/ o f Mention  Category  Government and E x t e r n a l Community Total more r e c o g n i t i o n ) by govts:; and muaic... 25 Home owners!' g r a n t 7 2nd c l a s s c i t i z e n s 5 I n t e r n a l Park Features l i v i n g i m a good p a r k improve s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s more s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s ; need a r e c r e a t i o m b u i l d i n g problems w i t h c a r p a r k i n g larger l o t s required.  Total .17 30 .....21 15 9 20  Park Locatiom better park l o c a t i o n . . parks c l o s e r to c i t y . . . . . .  Total  5 4  S o c i a l Life/Regulations/Management Total good r e l a t i o n s w i t h management 8 p a r k has community s p i r i t 7 m o b i l e home l i v i n g good f o r r e t i r e d . . . . 3 poor r e l a t i o n s w i t h management 19 enforce r e g u l a t i o n s 8 s t r i c t e r regulations 4 poor r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e n a n t s 3 forbidding children -discriminatory... 3 lack of social l i f e 2 lack of privacy L o t Ownership  37  112  9  58  1 Total  Other S u b j e c t s Total more good p a r k s .18 r e n t too high 9 frequent rent i n c r e a s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 b e t t e r s e r v i c e f o r aged 5 d e a l e r s s h o u l d n o t r e n t spaces... 3 m o b i l e homes - l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g . . . . . . . . 2 m o b i l e homes - n o t l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g . . . . 1 c h o i c e i n b u y i n g m o b i l e home 1 d i f f i c u l t y i m f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e space... 1  24 46  113 the t r e e s , which means b i r d s t o o .  L i k e housing develop-  ments, so many p a r k s were s t a r t e d by removing t h e PARK features - trees."  A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , however,  were n o t as s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p a r k i n which t h e y r e s i d e d . As one respondent s t a t e d :  "The r a t i o o f decent p a r k s  to l i v e i n : and t h e ones, t h a t do e x i s t a r e a d i s g r a c e . P e o p l e s h o u l d n t be c o m p e l l e d t o l i v e l i k e sheep herded l!  i n t o t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e s e u n g o d l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s because o f income and/or p r a c t i c a b i l i t y problems  "  W i t h i n ' t h i s statement l i e s a number o f p o i n t s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by many r e s p o n d e n t s : are  "There  no paved r o a d s , no snow r e m o v a l , no r e g u l a r r o a d  maintenance.  P o o r water p r e s s u r e and poor  s t a n d a r d s a r e a l s o problems.  neatness  There i s a c r y i n g need f o r  b e t t e r p o l i c i n g o f b y l a w s , b e t t e r design: i n . m o b i l e p a r k s . They s h o u l d be p l a n n e d a s a p l a c e f o r p e o p l e t o l i v e a s opposed t o a p l a c e t o s t a c k m o b i l e homes."  One r e s -  pondent f e l t t h a t t h e r e ought t o be " r e g u l a r weekly i n r s p e c t i o n s by m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r s t o see t h a t a l l bylaws a r e e n f o r c e d . "  P a r t i c u l a r age groups appeared t o have p a r t i c u l a r problems:  "To a young f a m i l y , g e n e r a l l y , m o b i l e home  parks are u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  The good p a r k s do n o t a l l o w  c h i l d r e n i n them.  I would c e r t a i n l y l i k e to move t o a  p a r k where i t was s e t up f o r m o b i l e home l i v i n g .  I rea-  l i z e I would pay more r e n t , but i f t h e p a r k was l a i d out p r o p e r l y one c o u l d be much more proud o f h i s i n v e s t m e n t . " Another respondent s t a t e d the problem o f the f a m i l y w i t h a young c h i l d more s i m p l y :  " N o t h i n g f o r c h i l d r e n t o do;  ean''t even r i d e around on b i k e s . "  O l d e r age groups a l s o s t r e s s e d p a r t i c u l a r problems. One  female respondent o v e r s i x t y y e a r s o l d , l i v i n g  alone,  mentioned t h a t she "would l i k e i n t h e p a r k a s t o r e o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to one from t h e p a r k on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ; a l s o f o r a m a i l b o x o n : t h i s s i d e o f the highway as I cannot get a c r o s s busy highway."  Further d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the  e l d e r l y were p o i n t e d out by a young respondent:  "....snow  removal p a t h e t i c - emergency v e h i c l e s c o u l d n o t get i n t h i s w i n t e r , and w i t h most o c c u p a n t s b e i n g e l d e r l y , t h i s i s a r e a l problem."  S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s mentioned  that  t h e y p r e f e r r e d p a r k s t o be d i v i d e d so t h a t one s e c t i o n was s o l e l y f o r those w i t h c h i l d r e n and a n o t h e r s e c t i o n f o r t h o s e retired.  A l l age groups were i n t e r e s t e d i n h a v i n g a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , f i r s t l y , a r e c r e a t i o n : b u i l d i n g and, a pool.  secondly,  One gentleman d e s c r i b e d a p a r k i n O n t a r i o as a  1 1 5  good example:-  "It's  a completely s e l f - c o n t a i n e d park  w i t h a l l t h e a m e n i t i e s - swimming p o o l , r e c r e a t i o n : c e n t r e , shopping c e n t r e e t c . "  Problems w i t h s m a l l l o t s ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n : the o l d e r  m o b i l e home parks., were c o n t i n u o u s l y mentioned. the  "I think  t r a i l e r s : s h o u l d be a l o t f u r t h e r a p a r t as: our n e i g h -  b o r s have c o m p l a i n e d as we h i t t h e w a l l i n our s l e e p . " S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d o u t f u r t h e r dangers due t o m o b i l e homes b e i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r :  "Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  w i t h t h e amount o f l a n d a l l o w e d f o r the m o b i l e home space... C o n s i d e r t h e cramped space a f i r e h a z a r d . " for  Suggestions:  i n c r e a s i n g l o t s i z e ranged from 3200 square f e e t t o  a minimum o f 5000 square f e e t .  One respondent s t a t e d  t h a t "a m o b i l e home w i t h an a t t a c h e d c a r p o r t and  cabana,  not jammed up a g a i n s t others;, i s a t h i n g o f beauty  "  C e r t a i n : p a r k f e a t u r e s were l o o k e d upon more p o s i t i v e l y by some respondents: t h a n o t h e r s . h o l d head wrote:  Por example, one  house-  "Some p a r k s have got c a r r i e d away w i t h  the  number o f speed bumps used t o slow down: t r a f f i c i n ;  the  parks."  On: t h e o t h e r hand, a female respondent wrote  t h a t "we have speed bumps p l a c e d t h r o u g h o u t the p a r k and although a l i t t l e annoying i t i s b e a u t i f u l l y q u i e t .  Really  116 a p p r e c i a t e d by a l l I'm s u r e . "  S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s had v a r y i n g comments c o n c e r n i n g the  upkeep and maintenance  and l o t s .  o f i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l e homes  One female respondent s t a t e d :  " M o b i l e home  owners s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o keep t h e i r homes n e a t , c l e a n : and r e p a i r e d on t h e o u t s i d e when n e c e s s a r y .  Older mobile  homes c a n become v e r y shabby a s they g e t o l d e r , a s any accomodation c a m  T h i s i n t u r n c a n make a p a r k l o o k  n e g l e c t e d and run.down."  P r o b a b l y t h e f e e l i n g s o f many  were summed up by one respondent who wrote:'  "I think a  w e l l k e p t , w e l l c o n t r o l l e d p a r k such a s t h e one I l i v e i n i s an a s s e t t o t h e community."  Social  Life/Regulations/Management  M o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s a r e n o t a m b i v a l e n t about t h e i r management.  As t e n a n t s , t h e y e x p r e s s e i t h e r s t r o n g -  l y p o s i t i v e v i e w s about t h e i r management o r s t r o n g l y neg a t i v e ones.  P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards management were  g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e who f e l t t h a t t h e y were being treated f a i r l y .  I n l o o k i n g f o r a m o b i l e home p a r k ,  one respondent e x p r e s s e d d i f f i c u l t y owners o f p a r k s .  " i n f i n d i n g honest  Ours i s f a i r l y r e a s o n a b l e i n comparison  to many o t h e r s we i n v e s t i g a t e d . "  Another s t a t e d :  "The  owner o f t h i s m o b i l e home p a r k i s v e r y n i c e and a l l i f you are f a i r to him.  fair  Another a p p r e c i a t e d  11  f a c t t h a t , "the l a n d l o r d i s v e r y good  i n not  to  the  raising  r e n t s t o a r i d i c u l o u s f i g u r e and t r i e s to make t h i n g s pleasant.  Owning a c o u r t i s a b i g j o b . "  One  respon-  dent who  f e l t t h a t she had good management a l s o added  t h a t "we  t r y t o be good  tenants."  A somewhat l a r g e r number o f t e n a n t s w i t h t h e i r management.  The  felt  displeased  causes f o r t h i s were e i t h e r  poor s e r v i c e s and/or f a c i l i t i e s , o r s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , o r what was  considered  t o be  " u n f a i r " treatment.  s i m p l y s t a t e d t h a t they wanted "a new a f t e r the p a r k . "  A  few  manager to l o o k  Others e l a b o r a t e d , s t a t i n g t h a t  "the  p a r k owners are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what t h e y can get  out  o f i t , not the w e l l - b e i n g o r i n t e r e s t o f the t e n a n t s  -  a l l business  has t o make a p r o f i t but notHDO^v"  "I  t h i n k t h a t management c o u l d make t h i s m o b i l e home p a r k look a l o t neater  than i t does."  S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t management d i d not t r e a t a l l tenants i m p a r t i a l l y :  "Some p e o p l e get away  w i t h a b u s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w h i l e o t h e r s don't. you cannot have dogs but about a p p r o x i m a t e l y home owners have them.  For example, 10 m o b i l e  A l s o , some don't pay $2.50 e x t r a  ,118 f o r a n o t h e r c a r w h i l e o t h e r s do."  A few s o l u t i o n s were o f f e r e d t o remedy p o o r l a n d l o r d tenant r e l a t i o n s .  One male r e s p o n d e n t suggested:  "Bet-  t e r o r more communication w i t h management e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard  t o snow r e m o v a l , p a r k i n g a f t e r m i d n i g h t and com-  firming of written regulations."  A more f a r - r e a c h i n g  suggestion; was t h e development o f c o - o p e r a t i v e sions:  subdivi-  "In a l a n d l o r d park the tenants l i v e i n f e a r o f  the l a n d l o r d .  In: a . c o n t r o l l e d ( c o - o p e r a t i v e )  subdivi-  s i o n t h e management c a n be changed by t h e m a j o r i t y o f tenants."  R e g u l a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h p e t s , c h i l d r e n and parking; were a l l s o u r c e s o f f r i c t i o n  between l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t .  Some t e n a n t s wanted t o be a l l o w e d  t o have p e t s whereas  o t h e r s f e l t t h e y ought t o be f o r b i d d e n trolled.  or s t r i c t l y  Some young f a m i l i e s c o n s i d e r e d  con-  the forbidding  o f c h i l d r e n i n some parks? t o be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y whereas o l d e r r e s i d e n t s wished p a r k s r e s t r i c t e d t o a d u l t s  only.  The l a c k o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y v i s i t o r p a r k i n g was a n o t h e r source o f t e n s i o n between l a n d l o r d and  tenant.  One r e s i d e n t f e l t t h a t "the more r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u -  l a t i o n s a r e brought about by the t e n a n t s , e.g.  parked  c a r s b l o c k i n g s t r e e t s , i g n o r i n g speed l i m i t s w i t h i n t h e t r a i l e r p a r k , t u r n i n g dogs l o o s e t o l i t t e r and n e i g h b o r s ' l a w n s .  streets?  11  The method o f communicating dered i m p o r t a n t by some:  "We  r e g u l a t i o n s was  consi-  f e e l that a set o f w r i t t e n  r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be p o s t e d so as t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l r e s i d e n t s r a t h e r t h a n spoken r u l e s which v a r y from person to person."  Numerous r e s p o n d e n t s made comments c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i n the p a r k .  A few s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e  i s no s o c i a l l i f e w i t h i n t h i s p a r k " , however, o t h e r s g e n e r a l l y were e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e v a r i o u s  social  a s p e c t s o f p a r k l i v i n g - "one can be as f r i e n d l y o r a s r e c l u s e d as one wants to be i n a p a r k . " l i f e can be tremendous f o r anyone who  "The  social  i s seeking f r i e n d -  s h i p , " wrote a n o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t , w h i l e a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t stated that:  " I n t h e s h o r t p e r i o d I have been here more  p e o p l e have spoken t o me t h a n w h i l e l i v i n g 10 y e a r s i n the C i t y o f Vancouver neighbor i n the  where I d i d n ' t know the n e x t door  apartment."  Others f e l t t h a t p a r k l i v i n g was a "wonderful  way  120 o f l i v i n g f o r o l d e r p e o p l e . . . . There i s always someone nearby who w i l l h e l p i n case o f s i c k n e s s . " friendlier  "People  and more c o n s i d e r a t e and n o t a l o n e l y  life.  H e l p s o l d e r p e o p l e t o be h a p p i e r and l i v e l o n g e r , " was";. •:• a n o t h e r comment.  The theme o f n e i g h b o r s a i d i n g each o t h e r  was echoed by y e t a n o t h e r occupant:  "Why I moved i n a  t r a i l e r p a r k was f o r s e c u r i t y . ( I l i v e a l o n e . )  In a  t r a i l e r p a r k y o u r n e i g h b o r s watch o v e r you and y o u r t r a i l e r w h i l e y o u ^ r e a t work, so I f e e l more s e c u r e t h a n i n a house'. "  By way o f e l a b o r a t i o n o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s  within  t h e p a r k , one female respondent d e s c r i b e d how "we have bingo games e v e r y two weeks i n w i n t e r . suppers.  The odd p o t - l u c k  A t Xmas, owners g i v e a d i n n e r f o r a l l tenants:>  w i t h f r i e n d s coming i n a f t e r f o r a dance.  We a r e a l l o w e d  t o have o u r g u e s t s u s e p o o l w i t h u s . "  Government and E x t e r n a l Community The theme o f second c l a s s c i t i z e n s h i p r a n t h r o u g h s e v e r a l respondents' answers:  "The m a j o r i t y o f we m o b i l e  home owners have a t one time o r a n o t h e r owned o u r own home and we would l i k e t o be t r e a t e d a g a i n a s f i r s t citizens.  class?  We a r e l o o k e d upon by M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s a s  slum d w e l l e r s and t h e y w i s h we would v a n i s h . " wrote:  Another  " I w i s h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y would s t o p t r e a t i n g u s  l i k e t r a n s i e n t s and second c l a s s c i t i z e n s . here t h i r t y y e a r s and i n t e n d t o s t a y . " h o l d head p o i n t e d o u t t h a t :  I have been  A female house-  " I t h i n k m o b i l e homes a r e  as w e l l i f n o t b e t t e r b u i l t t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l t y p e  houses.  I d o n 1 know why as  Yet t h e y a r e n o t as w e l l a c c e p t e d .  1  I have seen some run-down houses."  Two s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f a c t i o n were suggested t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n .  F i r s t , i t was f e l t t h a t " i f  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would u p h o l d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t h e y have s e t f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s , t h e y c o u l d be v e r y n i c e a d d i t i o n s t o a community."  Another respondent p u t t h e same  s u g g e s t i o n somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y :  " I f these Councils  would e n f o r c e t h e i r own bylaws and make t h e c o u r t owne r s a b i d e by them, t h e r e w o u l d n 1 be t h e "slummy" c o u r t s 1  around t o be e y e s o r e s . "  A second s u g g e s t i o n was a program o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c and government:  " I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e we have  got t o make t h e p u b l i c r e a l i z e t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o l d t r a i l e r p a r k s and new m o b i l e home p a r k s or s u b d i v i s i o n s . . . . . T r a i l e r parks a r e f o r t o u r i s t s t h a t a r e never s a t i s f i e d and keep on t h e move; m o b i l e home  322  p a r k s can be made v e r y a t t r a c t i v e , as we l i k e our  own  l i t t l e l o t o f g r a s s and f l o w e r s and not too much t o l o o k a f t e r and can be p a i d f o r by o r d i n a r y p e o p l e s ' e a r n i n g s . . . . There i s no r e a s o n we c a n ' t become f i r s t c l a s s c i t i z e n s and l i v e i n peace and harmony w i t h our n e i g h b o r s and c i l o f the D i s t r i c t . "  coun-  A n o t h e r male respondent l i v i n g i n  one o f the more modern m o b i l e home p a r k s s t a t e d t h a t have no i d e a what a m o b i l e home i s .  I tell  "people  people t h a t I  l i v e i n a m o b i l e home and t h e y l o o k down t h e i r noses; when t h e y come i n t o the u n i t I have, t h e y e x p r e s s s u r p r i s e . They e x p e c t e d t o come i n a s m a l l t r a i l e r i n a d i r t y o l d t r a i l e r c o u r t n o t a three-bedroom, feet of l i v i n g  square  space."  A g r e a t e r awareness u r g e d by many:  two-bath, 1560  on the p a r t o f government  was  " I would suggest t h a t most problems p e r -  t a i n i n g t o m o b i l e home p a r k l i v i n g can be a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k o f knowledge and i n t e r e s t , when m o b i l e homes f i r s t became a way o f l i f e ,  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government."  A r e t i r e d r e s i d e n t wrote:  "Over 50$ o f r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s  p a r k a r e on f i x e d income o r r e t i r e d .  More c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s h o u l d be shown by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and government f o r t h i s type o f r e s i d e n c e f o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s who w i s h t o l i v e i n condominiums o r a p a r t m e n t s . "  do n o t  223 Two problems o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o mobile home r e s i d e n t s were t h e s a l e s t a x a t t h e time o f purchase o f t h e m o b i l e home, t h e 5$ monthly t a x p a i d on t h e m o b i l e home and t h e n o n - r e c e i p t o f a B r i t i s h Columbia Home Owners' G r a n t .  "The most a n n o y i n g p a r t o f m o b i l e home  ownership i s government r e g u l a t i o n s , i . e . p a y i n g a 5$ s a l e s t a x on o r i g i n a l purchase and a l l o t h e r purchases o f mobile homes - as i f t h e y were c a r s r a t h e r t h a n homes. A l s o , t h e p a r t about p a y i n g an "occupancy  fee" rather  t h a n a t a x , thus e l i m i n a t i n g u s from home owners' g r a n t s , government second mortgages e t c .  I t i s time t h e m o b i l e  home owners were t r e a t e d a s home owners and n o t as t r a n sient gypies." tax  A male respondent wrote t h a t "the s a l e s  (5$) s h o u l d be removed and t h e m o b i l e homes pay t h e i r  f a i r share o f community t a x e s .  The p a r k o p e r a t o r pays  t a x e s a t commercial r a t e s and p a s s e s on t h e s e t a x e s a s r e n t t o t h e t e n a n t s who t h e n pay t h e s e p r o p e r t y t a x e s and are  d e n i e d a v o t e on money m a t t e r s tha$; d i r e c t l y  the t e n a n t s . "  affect  A p e n s i o n e r wrote t h a t " i t i s suggested  t h a t t a x e s on p r o p e r t y do n o t i n c l u d e a t a x on t h e m o b i l e home as t h e t a x has a l r e a d y been p a i d a t t h e time o f p u r chase o f t h e m o b i l e home.  W i t h o l d age p e n s i o n e r s i n  p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d income, t h i s would g i v e them t h e f e e l i n g o f independence  and a s s u r e them o f an  124 adequate s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and a decent way o f l i f e w i t h o u t b e i n g t a x e d beyond t h e i r means w h e r e i n h a r d s h i p i s experienced."  F i n a l l y , a female respondent  wrote:  " I t h o r o u g h l y d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e $12.00 t a x p u t on u s t h i s p a s t y e a r ( c a l l e d a p r o p e r t y t a x - when we own no p r o perty).  The " l e e c h e s " make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h o s e  on p e n s i o n s , y e a r by y e a r .  I f e e l s o r r y f o r them and  am v e r y t h a n k f u l I have employment."  L o t Ownership Many respondents mentioned, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n p a s s i n g , t h a t they would l i k e t o be a b l e t o own t h e i r p l o t o f l a n d on which t o p l a c e t h e i r m o b i l e home.  It  was suggested t h a t l a n d be developed e i t h e r as co-opera t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s o r a s s u b d i v i s i o n s l a i d o u t by municipalities.  T y p i c a l comments were:  "People s h o u l d be  a b l e t o p u t m o b i l e homes on t h e i r own p r o p e r t y " ; " a l l owners want t o own a p i e c e o f l a n d f o r t h e i r m o b i l e home and pay t a x e s l i k e o t h e r people and have a r o o f t o c a l l our own"; " I would l i k e t o be a b l e t o buy a m o b i l e home l o t i n a s u b d i v i s i o n near a r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a w i t h t h e same r e g u l a t i o n s as a home owner."  125: The r o l e p l a y e d "by Government i n l o t ownership was p e r c e i v e d as a c r u c i a l one. wrote:  As one male  respondent  "Mobile homes a r e the answer to the h o u s i n g p r o b -  lems i f we were a l l o w e d t o b u i l d c o - o p e r a t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s where we would own l a n d .  I am a member o f a co-op  t h a t was formed t o t r y t o b u i l d such a development but c o u n c i l s r e f u s e t o rezone l a n d t h a t we s e l e c t e d .  Their  o p i n i o n seems t o be t h a t as l o n g as we a r e i n some out o f t h e way  s p o t where no one can be c o n t a m i n a t e d by us  t h a t i t would be f i n e . " portance o f l o c a t i o n :  A n o t h e r a l s o mentioned  the im-  "The p r o p e r t y i f a l l o w e d s h o u l d  not be w a s t e l a n d n e x t t o , f o r example, a r e f i n e r y o r sawmill. "  T h i s respondent went on t o say: "Most people i n  m o b i l e homes t a k e p r i d e i n t h e i r homes and would do so even more i f t h e y owned t h e i r own p r o p e r t y . "  One  respondent p o i n t e d out b e n e f i t s t h a t would  a c c r u e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f owned l o t s were p e r m i t t e d : "Our M o b i l e Home Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n has r e p e a t e d l y t r i e d t o show t h e s e C o u n c i l s t h a t i f t h e y opened up  subdivisions  f o r m o b i l e homes and s o l d l o t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80  feet  by 40 f e e t , we c o u l d be t a x e d l i k e c o n v e n t i o n a l home owners and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y would g a i n much more t h a n t h e y do now."  T h i s same respondent  a l s o added t h a t ,  " i f s u b d i v i s i o n s opened up, t h e p r e s e n t c o u r t owners  126 would n o t s u f f e r , because t h e c o u r t s would be f r e e t o accomodate t o u r i s t t r a v e l t r a i l e r s , space f o r which i s b a d l y needed.  The m a j o r i t y o f o u r p r e s e n t c o u r t s were  b u i l t t o accomodate t h a t s i z e u n i t , n o t t h e s e b i g homes we have.  11  Park L o c a t i o n S e v e r a l respondents expressed o p i n i o n s concerning the l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s :  "Parks o r m o b i l e  subdivi-  s i o n s s h o u l d n o t be t u c k e d away i n some f a r c o r n e r o f an area.  They s h o u l d be n e a r shopping and r e c r e a t i o n a l  f a c i l i t i e s ( i f p o s s i b l e ) as t h e y a r e a v e r y good f a c i l i t y for retirement l i v i n g . "  A n o t h e r respondent wrote:  "I  would l i k e t o see more p a r k s opened near towns o r shopp i n g c e n t r e s o r b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r mothers and o l d e r p e o p l e who don't d r i v e . "  Another p o i n t e d out that  because so many m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e b u i l t n e x t t o highways,  " e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c n o i s e has always been a  major problem i n m o b i l e home l i v i n g . "  Changes f e l t t o be r e q u i r e d i n z o n i n g bylaws due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n m o b i l e homes were a l s o p o i n t e d out:  " I t h i n k o u r community l a w s o f z o n i n g a r e o u t - d a t e d  i n n o t p e r m i t t i n g d o u b l e - w i d t h t r a i l e r s i n any r e s i d e n t i a l  127;: a r e a o f s i m i l a r c o s t houses."  Other S u b j e c t s The theme o f m o b i l e homes a s l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g r a n t h r o u g h t h e comments o f s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s , b o t h from a n e g a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w ( i . e . c o u l d a f f o r d no o t h e r t y p e o f h o u s i n g ) , a s w e l l as a p o s i t i v e one ( i . e . c o u l d a f f o r d o t h e r type o f h o u s i n g b u t p r e f e r r e d m o b i l e home).  On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e i t was s t a t e d :  " I do n o t t h i n k  m o b i l e home owners a r e i n f e r i o r c i t i z e n s any more t h a n home owners i n s u b u r b i a ; some o f u s j u s t do n o t p r e f e r to t i e o u r s e l v e s down t o e x o r b i t a n t mortgage p r i c e s f o r a house we a r e h a r d l y ever i n and keep up t h e s e payments f o r n e a r l y o u r whole l i f e t i m e .  I think that there i s a  v e r y r e a l p l a c e f o r m o b i l e homes i n o u r modern day...." A n o t h e r respondent wrote:  "We a r e v e r y happy l i v i n g h e r e .  We have more t i m e t o r e l a x and a b l e t o g e t o u t more. A l s o expenses a r e so much l e s s , so we a r e n o t t i e d down t o l a r g e mortgages and t a x e s . . . . "  More on t h e n e g a t i v e s i d e i t was s t a t e d t h a t ,  "though  we would a l l l i k e t o d r i v e C a d i l l a c s , some o f u s have t o d r i v e Volkswagons;  we l i v e i n t h e s e o l d e r p a r k s because  128 o f o u r economic  c o n d i t i o n and because o f o u r c h o i c e . "  Another respondent l i v i n g i n an o l d e r p a r k wrote:  "The  o n l y comment I have i s , why c a n ' t t r a i l e r c o u r t s : be l e f t a l o n e and a s i s ? Anyone who i s n t s a t i s f i e d c a n always T  move t o a p a r k where he w i l l be s a t i s f i e d .  I f we a r e  p r i c e d o u t o f t h e p a r k s , where w i l l we l i v e , on s k i d r o a d o r some p l a c e l i k e  that?"  S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s mentioned h i g h monthly r e n t s and c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g r e n t s .  "Stop t h e s p i r a l i n g  r e n t s f o r t h e r e t i r e d f o l k s , " wrote one r e s p o n d e n t , and another stated:  "Rent o f space f a r i n excess o f s e r v i c e s :  r e n d e r e d and s i z e o f l o t . "  F i n a l l y , as s t a t e d i n d i r e c t l y e a r l i e r i n t h i s  chap-  t e r , , a number o f r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e need f o r more w e l l l a i d o u t m o b i l e home p a r k s : a lot.  " I found i t v e r y h a r d t o f i n d  There s h o u l d be more a v a i l a b l e . , "  A n o t h e r wrote:  " A l l a r e a s s h o u l d i n c r e a s e m o b i l e home parks:. help the overcrowding."  This; would  129 Conclusion The comments t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d here i n d i c a t e t h a t m o b i l e home park r e s i d e n t s have a wide range o f concerns.  Not a l l v i e w s e x p r e s s e d were n e g a t i v e and many  a t t e m p t e d n o t j u s t t o s t a t e t h e problem, b u t a l s o t o offer solutions.  W i t h i n t h e context o f t h i s study i t  i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h e s e comments f o r t h e y a l l o w emp h a s i s t o be p l a c e d on t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e problem u n der i n v e s t i g a t i o n which r e q u i r e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i n t h e planning f i e l d .  These comments a l s o a l l o w f o r a more  r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and c o h e r e n t c o n t e x t w i t h i n which to p l a c e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study. And f i n a l l y , a s p l a n n e r s i n a day o f i n c r e a s i n g  citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t t e r s o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n , i t i s import a n t t o l i s t e n t o t h o s e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d and a f f e c t e d by p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s b e f o r e such d e c i s i o n s a r e made.  SECTION" IV  CONCLUSION"  CHAPTER 9  PLANNING IMPLICATIONS  In. coming t o t h e c l o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ! o f m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s ? i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a number o f q u e s t i o n s have been answered b u t a l s o a number have been.raised.  A l t h o u g h am i n i t i a l a t t e m p t was made t o examine r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n ! om a d i s s a g g r e g a t e d l e v e l , i m terms: o f p a r k appearance, p a r k l o c a t i o n ;  and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  the r e s p o n d e n t w i t h management, i t was found t h a t a l l these s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s : were, i m f a c t , The r e s u l t was a s i n g l e s c a l e  interrelated.  t h a t c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f O r  measuring r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n ;  Thus we c o u l d d e s c r i b e ,  w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , r e s i d e n t r e s p o n s e i n terms o f t h i s a l l encompassing  satisfaction;scale.  The degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n ! w a s found t o v e r y a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the park,  as w e l l a s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . The p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were concerned w i t h :  and age o f t h e m o b i l e home park;, s e r v i c e s  size  and f a c i l i t i e s ?  w i t h i n ; the park; s i z e o f l o t s ; l o c a t i o n o f the park.  131 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the park i n c l u d e d p e r c e p t i o n of:  d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y n e i g h -  borhoods and m o b i l e home p a r k s ; t h e degree o f " f r i e n d l i n e s s " o f p a r k d w e l l e r s a s compared t o r e s i d e n t s o f o t h e r types: o f r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods:; c o n s t r a i n t s on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , o u t s i d e the p a r k because o f d i s t a n c e from o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods and/or community  facili-  t i e s ; c o n s t r a i n t s : : on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e p a r k due t o n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s : o f non-park dwellers..  In addi-  t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e s : toward r u l e s : and r e g u l a t i o n s as w e l l as the extent o f r e s i d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e p a r k was; sought o u t .  The more g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i v i n g s t y l e i n v o l v e d i n r e s i d i n g i n a m o b i l e home p a r k , was a l s o found t o be r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l  attri-  b u t e s o f t h e p a r k a s w e l l a s t h e p e r s o n a l background o f the  respondent.  The l i v i n g s t y l e v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d  whether r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d m o b i l e homes t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d h o u s i n g c h o i c e as; w e l l as: whether t h e y p e r c e i v e d p a r k l i v i n g t o be d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y neighborhood.  132 I t i s n e c e s s a r y , however, t o ask what t h e s e r e l a t i o n t s h i p s mean i n . t e r m s o f p l a n n i n g f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . The m a t t e r c a n be v i e w e d from two, e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , perspectives.  The f i r s t p e r s p e c t i v e i s . t h a t o f the muni-  c i p a l p l a n n e r concerned w i t h the d i r e c t and  immediate  p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s : ; the second p e r s p e c t i v e i s a more g e n e r a l v i e w w i t h a b r o a d e r frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  The q u e s t i o n , the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r w i l l pose i s : "Of what a i d a r e t h e v i e w s o f m o b i l e home p a r k r e s i d e n t s : in. d e t e r m i n i n g q u e s t i o n s o f z o n i n g , p a r k l a y o u t , and park q u a l i t y standards?" q u e s t i o n would be:;  A n o t h e r manner o f p u t t i n g t h i s  "What have we l e a r n e d i m t h i s s t u d y  about a p a r t i c u l a r group w i t h i n ; the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t can aid  planners in:making d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h i s  group?"  In: answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s the most s i g n i f i c a n t w i l l now be  'I  findings:  stated.  S i z e o f t h e M o b i l e Home p a r k One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y  i s concerned w i t h the s i z e o f the m o b i l e home p a r k . The s t u d y examined a r e l a t i v e l y wide range o f m o b i l e home s i z e s , from t h o s e w i t h under 20 m o b i l e homes t o one w i t h o v e r 100 homes;  A c h i e f concern o f planners  must be t o determine what s i z e o f p a r k t o encourage.  133 What are the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f e n c o u r a g i n g s m a l l and how  does one  define  "small"??  parks?',  A l t e r n a t e l y , what a r e  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f encouraging' " l a r g e " p a r k s ?  T h i s s t u d y found t h a t , from the p e r s p e c t i v e  of  the  r e s i d e n t , , those most s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p a r k s g e n e r a l l y l i v e d in-ones; o f o v e r 50 homes.  Conversely, those l i v i n g -  i n p a r k s w i t h under 50 homes were, g e n e r a l l y , t h e most dissatisfied.  Thus the p l a n n e r i s : g i v e n here an i n d i c a t i o n )  o f a minimum p a r k s i z e , i . e . the t h r e s h o l d s i z e t h a t termines resident s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Further research  p a r k s o f s e v e r a l hundred m o b i l e homes would be  de-  with  required  t o d i s c o v e r what the maximum s a t i s f a c t o r y s i z e c i s : cons i d e r e d t o be from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e these  IT  o f t h o s e who: l i v e i n .  parks.  Park F a c i l i t i e s UO  concerted  e f f o r t has; been made i n . t h i s s t u d y to  d e f i n e a l l t h o s e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s : and  f a c i l i t i e s ? within?  a park that c o n t r i b u t e to r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . f o u n d , however, t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f i n d o o r a general  It  was  storage units:,  s t o r a g e a r e a f o r o u t d o o r equipment, as w e l l  as t h e e x i s t e n c e o f underground w i r e s and  street lighting  a l l contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to resident  satisfaction.  134 I m a d d i t i o n , a p a r k l o c a t i o n near r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and away.-from highways a l s o was s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n ; A l t e r n a t e l y , not as s i g n i f i c a n t was t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n : o f a r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g , p o o l and p l a y g r o u n d equipment withine the p a r k .  We cam t e n t a t i v e l y v i e w t h e f i r s t s e t o f f a c i l i t i e s : as e s s e n t i a l s o r b a s i c minimums f o r r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n , whereas t h e second group might be c o n t e m p l a t e d as: o p t i o n a l features.  However, i t i s up t o t h e p l a n n e r and f u t u r e  researchers  t o d e v i s e a f a r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and compre-  hensive s c a l e o f park q u a l i t y f o r v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f r e s i dent s a t i s f a c t i o n ;  III  Socio-Economic P r o f i l e T h i s s t u d y found t h a t age and f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n ;  c o u l d not be u s e d as am i n d i c a t o r o f whether t h e r e s pondent p r e f e r r e d a s i n g l e f a m i l y house o r a m o b i l e home (these were, o v e r w h e l m i n g l y , t h e o n l y two a l t e r n a t i v e s : chosen).  In; o t h e r words, t h e r e s i d e n t s  socio-economic  status d i d not r e f l e c t o r p r e d i c t his/her housing p r e f e r ence.  I m the p a s t , p l a n n e r s have g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d m o b i l e homes as low-income h o u s i n g f o r those who c o u l d a f f o r d  135 nothing better.  However, t h e k e y f o r t h e p l a n n e r i s :  t o r e a l i z e t h a t m o b i l e home l i v i n g is:- a f l e x i b l e form o:f housing;  Ini r e a l i z i n g t h i s : , t h e p l a n n e r must t h e n r e a l i z e  t h a t i t i s : i n s u f f i c i e n t t o view a l l parks as m o n o l i t h i c i m terms o f q u a l i t y and s t a n d a r d s : - " q u a l i t y " here b e i n g d e f i n e d a s f a c i l i t i e s and s t a n d a r d s over and above t h o s e acknowledged may  a s b a s i c minimums.  Thus, c e r t a i n : p a r k s  be d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s e r v e low-income groups',  o t h e r s f o r r e t i r e d groups, o t h e r s f o r those who a r e w i l l i n g t o pay f o r luxury, f a c i l i t i e s ;  In: o t h e r words, t h e  c l i e n t e l e t o be s e r v e d cannot be v i e w e d a s homogeneous and p a r k p l a n n i n g , consequently,, must show a r e s p o n s i v e a t t i t u d e toward p a r t i c u l a r needs o f p a r t i c u l a r  TV  groups;  Role o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : I m c o n n e c t i o n : w i t h t h i s : v i e w o f v a r y i n g types: o f  m o b i l e home p a r k s , t h e i d e a suggested by s e v e r a l r e s p o n dents t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g parks; becomes., f a r more m e a n i n g f u l .  There i s ; no doubt  t h a t p r i v a t e market f o r c e s cannot s a t i s f y t h e needs o f a l l citizens.  However, i t i s : c e r t a i n l y n o t n e c e s s a r y  that municipalities  be t h e s o l e d e v e l o p e r s : o f p a r k s ,  j u s t a s t h e r e i s no r e a s o n : why p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s ; s h o u l d dominate  t h e e n t i r e f i e l d , a s i s t h e case a t  136  present.  I t can.be argued t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y r e a l  p o s i t i o n ; f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n . a s s i s t i n g i n the d e v e l opment o f p a r k s f o r lower-income c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h l a n d assembly and s e r v i c i n g .  These p a r k s c o u l d e i t h e r r e n t  l o t s a t subsidized rates: or s e l l l o t s a t cost p r i c e o r do b o t h a s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; i n d i c a t e .  v  Role o f E n t r e p r e n e u r - C o - o p e r a t i v e M o b i l e Home P a r k s : C e r t a i n l y there i s s t i l l a r o l e f o r the entrepreneur  e s p e c i a l l y : i m t h e development o f l u x u r y p a r k s .  These  p a r k s c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e numerous e x t r a f a c i l i t i e s y features;, and s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e o n l y l i m i t e d by t h e e x t e n t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l consumer market w i l l i n g - t o pajr t h e h i g h e r r e n t s .  There i s , i m a d d i t i o n , a p l a c e f o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e mobile home p a r k w h i c h p r o b a b l y would l i e between: the o t h e r two types: i n : terms o f q u a l i t y .  VI  L o c a t i o n : o f Parks. I t s h o u l d be apparent  t h a t t h e r e i s no need t o assume  t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e same f o r a l l parks:, a l t h o u g h i t i s c l e a r from t h i s study t h a t o n l y l o c a t i o n s : c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l environments: s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  137 Once a g a i n : t h e k e y I s f l e x i b i l i t y i n : p l a n n i n g f o r park locations:;  A p a r k which has? beem p l a n n e d a s a s e l f -  contained u n i t i n c l u d i n g a v a r i e t y o f amenities as w e l l as s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e a l o c a t i o n : n e a r t h e same community f a c i l i t i e s .  Moreover,  a p a r k d e s i g n e d f o r r e t i r e d p e r s o n s would h a r d l y have need f o r a l o c a t i o n : n e a r s c h o o l s . p l a n n e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r lower-income  P r o b a b l y those parks; groups s h o u l d be so  l o c a t e d as t o be a b l e t o maximally, b e n e f i t from commurnity  V  I  1  facilities-.  Social Implications o f Park location: I t was found i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t d i s t a n c e from com-  munity f a c i l i t i e s ; - , o t h e r neighborhoods: a s w e l l as: p e r c e i v e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f nom-park d w e l l e r s , i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h i n , the park.  Such am outcome  i n d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s b o t h on: p a s t z o n i n g p o l i c i e s ( e . g p l a c i n g p a r k s i n . a r e a s zoned c o m m e r i c i a l ) , a s w e l l as; ;  negative o f f i c i a l  a t t i t u d e s ( w h i c h m i r r o r community ones}.  P a s t p o l i c i e s : have r e f u s e d t o acknowledge m o b i l e homes a s a l e g i t i m a t e h o u s i n g form and m o b i l e home p a r k s a s ; a l e g i t i m a t e r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood.  The r e s u l t  has been t h e i s o l a t i o n , b o t h l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y ,  138  o f a segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n - from t h e r e s t o f t h e community.  I t i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o determine t o  what e x t e n t t h e a c c e p t a n c e and development o f m o b i l e home p a r k s a s a c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g form, w i t h t h e same c r i t e r i a and r e q u i r e m e n t s a s f o r o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h borhoods w i l l a f f e c t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e m o b i l e home p a r k .  VIII  L o c a t i o n ) o f M o b i l e Homes:; T h i s study has found t h a t t h e more s a t i s f i e d t h e  r e s i d e n t i s w i t h t h e p a r k , t h e more he/she p r e f e r s - m o b i l e homes t o be l o c a t e d w i t h i n . p a r k s o r s u b d i v i s i o n s .  Be-  cause m o b i l e homes have, f o r a l o n g t i m e , had t h e s t e r e o type o f b e i n g a low-income,  second- o r t h i r d - b e s t h o u s i n g  c h o i c e , t h e mobile home p a r k has; been v i e w e d and t r e a t e d as a v e r i t a b l e low-income g h e t t o by m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s ; " P r o g r e s s i v e " elements: w i t h i n : t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n : f r e q u e n t l y demand i n t e g r a t i o n : o f a l l segments: o f t h e population.  T h i s : s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e answers a r e n o t n e a r l y so c l e a r - c u t .  On: t h e one hand, t h e r e has: emerged an:  o b v i o u s need t o t r e a t m o b i l e home p a r k s a s c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods c r i t e r i a f o r general l o c a t i o n ;  i n : terms o f  On: t h e o t h e r hand, we  139 f i n d t h a t r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r t h e m o b i l e home "unique" and w i s h t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n homogeneity d e r i v e d by k e e p i n g t o g e t h e r those who have chosen t h i s ; form o f hous^ ing.  What i s c a l l e d f o r , t h e n , i s : a n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p l a n n i n g a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e home parks: i n . r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; y e t , a t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e must be r e c o g n i t i o n , o f t h e u n i q u e p o s i t i o n : o f m o b i l e homes; w i t h i n t h e spectrum o f h o u s i n g forms. s h o r t , m o b i l e homes must be viewed a s a p o s i t i v e  In  addition  t o t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k a s w e l l a s a means whereby t h e h o u s i n g c h o i c e s : a v a i l a b l e t o t h e consumer a r e expanded.  IX  The M o b i l e Home P a r k As A R e s i d e n t i a l  Environment  I t was r e v e a l e d i m t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e p o o r e r the q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r k , t h e more l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t v i e w e d p a r k l i v i n g as b e i n g d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n o t h e r types: o f r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods.  T h i s has  b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t r e s i d e n t s v i e w t h i s ; " d i f f e r e n t n e s s " negatively,,, t h a t i s : t o s a y , a s b e i n g i n terms: o f t h e p o o r e r q u a l i t y o f t h e i r environment son: t o o t h e r neighborhoods. tant conclusions.  i n : compari-  T h i s l e a d s t o two impor-  140 F i r s * , we see t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t l i v i n g i n . a p o o r q u a l i t y p a r k p o s s e s s e s t h e same n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o ward t h e p a r k a s a r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t a s c a n be found i n : the n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . :  Following-  from t h i s , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r k r e s i d e n t s a s p i r e f o r t h e same type o f h o u s i n g environment a s e x i s t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g neighborhood. Thus, a l t h o u g h i t has p r e v i o u s l y been s t a t e d t h a t r e s i dents v i e w t h e m o b i l e home as a unique h o u s i n g form i n a p o s i t i v e sense i n t h a t I t i s : t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e o f d w e l l i n g , n e v e r t h e l e s s , w i t h i n t h e i r parks they d e s i r e t h e same t y p e o f environment a s p o s s e s s e d by t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l housing counterparts.  Therefore, to the  e x t e n t t h a t a p a r k has f a i l e d t o "be l i k e " o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods, t h e r e s i d e n t o f a poor q u a l i t y park views t h e park as being unique, i . e . i n a negative sense.  T h i s c a n be c o r r o b o r a t e d from a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e by t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e more s a t i s f i e d a r e s i d e n t i s : w i t h t h e p a r k , t h e l e s s does he/she v i e w p a r k d w e l l e r s : as: b e i n g d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r p e o p l e .  Thus a poor q u a l -  i t y p a r k l e a d s t o a sense o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i n which d w e l l e r s a r e viewed a s b e i n g d i f f e r e n t , whereas a h i g h e r  141 q u a l i t y p a r k f u l f i l s t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s norms c o n c e r n i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods and t h e r e b y r e moves any sense o f s o c i a l  isolation;  For t h e p l a n n e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e c l e a r .  Although,  as p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s and t y p e s o f p a r k s s h o u l d be encouraged, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o r context o f r e s i d e n t a s p i r a t i o n s i s t o wards t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o m ment.  P a r k l a y o u t and s t a n d a r d s would r e q u i r e t h a t t h i s :  be kept c o n s t a n t l y i n mind, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f minimum  requirements;  long-Range I m p l i c a t i o n s SO f a r we have v i e w e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r whose c o n c e r n i s f o c u s e d on t h e immediate and d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s . ' t h a t may be d e r i v e d from t h i s s t u d y .  However, t h e r e i s  a l s o a r o l e f o r p l a n n i n g on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n e ; a r o l e which must attempt t o s t a n d back from immediate p l a n n i n g problems.  I m t h e case o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g , t h i s  of planning w i l l ask the questions:  "Why do people  type chose  142  t o l i v e i n mobile homes?"; "What i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g ? " ; "Is. m o b i l e home l i v i n g a t r a n s i t o r y o r permanent phenomenon! i n our s o c i e t y ? , and e i t h e r way, why?"'  I t has been; suggested t h a t we v i e w t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y f r e e - s t a n d i n g house as a symbol, o f s e l f , t h e o u t s i d e b e i n g what we w i s h t o p r e s e n t t o the w o r l d , 1  t h e i n s i d e b e i n g our r e a l and p r i v a t e s e l v e s .  To v i e w  a home as something whose e x t e r n a l facade r e a l l y i s not so i m p o r t a n t , and which may  be t r a d e d i n every few y e a r s ,  as m o b i l e home manufacturers- a r e e n c o u r a g i n g , s t r i k e s a t t h e v e r y r o o t o f our f r o n t i e r c o n c e p t s o f house and home. Any form o f h o u s i n g t h a t t h r e a t e n s the t r a d i t i o n a l c e p t can be c o n s i d e r e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y . may  con-  This, i m p a r t ,  e x p l a i n : p u b l i c a n t i p a t h y toward m o b i l e homes. The p l a n n e r has n o t been; i n t h e vanguard o f examin-  i n g what t h e l o n g - r a n g e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f m o b i l e homes a r e . I s ; the m o b i l e home a h a r b i n g e r o f h o u s i n g forms: to come?; s h o u l d m o b i l e home p a r k s be l a i d out i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e manner i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may future housing innovations?.  r e a d i l y adapt t o  The p l a n n e r has not  answers t o these v i t a l q u e s t i o n s .  sought  143 E v e n more i m p o r t a n t i s . t h e questions  "What do  r e s i d e n t s f e e l about m o b i l e homes and how would t h e y l i k e t o see them d e v e l o p ? "  Too i n f r e q u e n t l y has t h e  planner asked t h i s question.  I n a day when groups; w i t h i n  our s o c i e t y a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a r t i c u l a t e i n v o i c i n g t h e i r d e s i r e s and needs, t h i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . We have s e e n t h a t r e s i d e n t s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s ; d i s p l a y a wide range o f c o n c e r n s .  These have i n c l u d e d : t h e  d e s i r e f o r a more p o s i t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e o n the p a r t o f government o f f i c i a l s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; w i t h management; v a r i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e improvement o f m o b i l e home parks;  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f owning l o t s  on, which t o p l a c e m o b i l e homes-.  These a r e j u s t a few  o f the concerns o f r e s i d e n t s which r e q u i r e thorough investigation.  I n c o n c l u s i o n ^ i t i s apparent t h a t the r o l e o f the p l a n n e r has become i n c r e a s i n g l y more complex.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f planner as r e g u l a t o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and a s s i s t a n t i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g o f the p l a n n i n g  function.  i s s t i l l v e r y much a p a r t  I n a d d i t i o n , however, t h e  p l a n n e r i s now c a l l e d upon t o be i n t h e vanguard o f e x a m i n i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f new t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a t i o n s such a s f a c t o r y - b u i l t houses.  inno-  Moreover, t h e  144  p l a n n e r is:; e x p e c t e d to r e a d i l y comprehend and p r e p a r e f o r new and e v e r - c h a n g i n g s t y l e s o f l i v i n g .  In. a d d i t i o n ,  t h e p l a n n e r ' s c o n s t i t u e n c y can.no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d s i m p l y as "the g e n e r a l p u b l i c " .  He/she must a l s o r e c o g -  n i z e t h o s e d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s and groups which this-general public.  comprise  These groups/not o n l y r e q u i r e t o  be k e p t c o n t i n u a l l y i n f o r m e d about p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g them.but, e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t , t h e y must be sought out by the p l a n n e r as a source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge.  I t i s o n l y by w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a c c e p t i n g and w o r k i n g w i t h i m t h i s ; expanded framework, t h a t t h e p l a n n e r  cam  make t r u l y wise d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g matters? o f d a i l y , concern.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i m a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g  to m o b i l e home l i v i n g .  145 FOOTNOTE  Cooper, C l a r e , The House As Symbol Of S e l f , I n s t i t u t e o f Urban and R e g i o n a l Development u n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , Working P a p e r No. 120, May 1971. t  BIBLIOGRAPHY  14-6  BIBLIOGRAPHY  S e c t i o n ; A;  Comprehensive S t u d i e s  B a r t l e y , E.R., and B a i r , P.H., M o b i l e Home p a r k s and Comprehensive Community P l a n n i n g , S t u d i e s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , NO. 1 9 , ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C l e a r i n g S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a ) I960. Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, Canada, The M o b i l e Home i n Canada, BEAM Program, M a t e r i a l s ? Program, M a t e r i a l s " B r a n c h , Ottawa, 1970. D r u r y , M.J., M o b i l e Homes? The U n r e c o g n i z e d R e v o l u t i o n i n American H o u s i n g , M a s t e r s ; t h e s i s , Department o f H o u s i n g and D e s i g n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New Y o r k , 1967. 1  Symonds, D., Standards- f o r M o b i l e Home Developments i n t h e Urban A r e a , u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ^ t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o l T T o r o n t o , " T o r o n t o , 1970. 1  Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , M o b i l e Home P a r k s ; B u l l e t i n ? 6 6 , Washington, 1971.  Part I , Technical  S e c t i o n B;  Panada - M u n i c i p a l and P r o v i n c i a l S t u d i e s ( e x c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia)  C a l g a r y , P l a n n i n g Department, Survey o f T r a i l e r i n C a l g a r y , C a l g a r y , 1969.  Courts  Edmonton, P l a n n i n g Department, M o b i l e Home P a r k s i n t h e Urban Environment, Edmonton, 1968. 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F;  S t u d i e s Concerned W i t h Or R e l a t i n g To S o c i a l Aspects of Park L i v i n g " "  Caplow, T., and Forman, R., "Neighborhood I n t e r a c t i o n i n a Homogeneous Community", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 15, No. 3, June 1950, pp. 357-366. Cooper, C., The House As Symbol o f S e l f , Working Paper NO. 120, I n s t i t u t e o f Urban & R e g i o n a l Development, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , May 1971. Gans, H.J., " P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l L i f e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . . 2 7 , No. 2, May 1961,  pp.  134-140.  Gutman, R., " S i t e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , V o l . 22, No. 4, October 1966, pp. 1 0 3 - 1 1 5 . Hoyt, G.C., "The L i f e o f the R e t i r e d i n a T r a i l e r P a r k " , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 59, J u l y - M a y 1953-54, pp. 361-370. I s a a c s , R., "The Neighborhood Theory, An A n a l y s i s o f i t s ? Adequacy", J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 14, S p r i n g 1948, pp. 15-23. L a n s i n g , J.B., and Marans, R.W., "Evaluation o f Neighborhood Q u a l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 35, No. 3, May 1969, pp. 195-199. M i c h e l o n , L . C , "The New L e i s u r e C l a s s " , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 59, J u l y - M a y 1953-54, pp. 371-378. Condon, G., " P u b l i c and P r i v a t e A t t i t u d e s t o M o b i l e Home P a r k s " , Nova S c o t i a Community P l a n n i n g C o n f e r e n c e , Octob e r 29-30, 1970, I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , No. 86, H a l i f a x , 1971.  152  P e t e r s o n , G.L., !!A Model o f P r e f e r e n c e : Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f . t h e . P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V i s u a l Appearance o f R e s i d e n t i a l Neighborhoods", J o u r n a l o f R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 7, No. 1, 1967, pp. 19-31. . Zehner, R.B., "Neighborhood and Community S a t i s f a c t i o n i n New Towns and L e s s P l a n n e d Suburbs", J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 37, No. 6, November 1971, pp. 375-585:  153  S e c t i o n G:  D e s i g n Standards f o r M o b i l e Home P a r k s  C a l i f o r n i a , Mobilehomes and Mobilehome P a r k s , Requirements f o r C o n s t r u c t i o n and O p e r a t i o n o f Mobilehqme P a r k s i n C a l i f o r n i a , D e p a r t m e n c o f H o u s i n g and Community Development, D i v i s i o n o f Building., and Housing S t a n d a r d s , S a c r a vtmento, 1965. Canadian M o b i l e Home A s s o c i a t i o n , H i n t s on B u i l d i n g a M o b i l e Home P a r k , T o r o n t o , I960. ~~ Canadian M o b i l e Home A s s o c i a t i o n , Suggested By-Law C o v e r i n g L i c e n s i n g , R e g u l a t i n g and G o v e r n i n g M o b i l e Home P a r k s , 1960. C o u n c i l o f t h e F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, How To Make The Most Out Of A M o b i l e Home Space, Vancouver, 1971. M i n i s t r y o f Housing and L o c a l Government, Caravan P a r k s , (Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, U n i t e d K i n g dom) 1962. Swaback, V.D., " P r o d u c t i o n D w e l l i n g s : An O p p o r t u n i t y f o r E x c e l l e n c e " , Land Economics, V o l . 47, No. 4, November 1971. U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Minimum P r o p e r t y Standards f o r M o b i l e Home C o u r t s , (U.S. Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington D.C.) 1962. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Housing and Urban Development, M o b i l e Home Court Development Guide, (U.S. Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington D.C.) 19l0~~.  154 S e c t i o n H:  T a x a t i o n and F i n a n c e  Berney, R.E., and L a r s o n , A . J . , " M i c r o - A n a l y s i s o f M o b i l e Home C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Tax P o l i c y " , Land Economics, V o l . 44, No. 3, November 1966. Boehm, H.R., M o b i l e Housing: F a c t o r s and P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e 1970's, E l e c t r i c U t i l i t y Market Research C o u n c i l , Denver, C o l o r a d o , May 5, 1971. Hodes, B., and Robinson, G.G., The Law o f M o b i l e Homes, (Commerce C l e a r i n g House I n c . , New York) 1957. "How M o b i l e Home P a r k s Generate Income and D e p r e c i a t i o n f o r B u i l d e r s and I n v e s t o r s " , P r o f e s s i o n a l B u i l d e r , November 1969. "Mobile Home P a r k s " , S m a l l B u s i n e s s R e p o r t e r , Bank o f America S m a l l B u s i n e s s A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , 1966. Wehrly, M.S., "The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e House T r a i l e r " , Urban Land, V o l . 26, March 1967.  155 Section I:  Other S t u d i e s and R e p o r t s  Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e Western Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i e f Presented, t o t h e F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing ana"Urban Development, T o r o n t o , 1968. Downing, J.C., The M o b i l e Home From A P l a n n i n g S t a n d p o i n t , Seminar on M o b i l e Home P a r k s , S t . C l a i r Region Development C o u n c i l , Chatham, O n t a r i o , November 9, 1971. "Mobile Homes: ' T i n Boxes' o r a Housing S o l u t i o n ? " , A p p a l a c h i a , V o l . 4, No. 7, May-June 1971.  156 Section J:  S t a t i s t i c a l References  Cooley, W.W., and lohnes, P.R., Multivariate Procedures f o r the Behavioral Sciences, (John Wiley & Sons, Hew York) 1962. : : ; . . , Multivariate Data Analysis, (John Wiley & Sons, New York) 1971. Kendall, M.G., and Smith, B.B., "Factor Analysis", Journal of the Royal S t a t i s t i c a l Society, Series B, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1950, pp. 60-73. Ray, D.M., and Berry, B.J.I., "Multivariate Socio-Economic Regionalization: A P i l o t Study i n Central Canada", Papers on Regional S t a t i s t i c a l Studies, (no locationsfgiven)  1965:  :  Stuart, A., Basic Ideas of S c i e n t i f i c Sampling, G r i f f i n ' s S t a t i s t i c a l Monographs & Courses, No. 4,  1968.  APPEFDIX A  NOTE:  12.  PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE SQDARE(S) AND PILL IN THE INDICATED BLANKS.  1.  How many mobile home parks have you l i v e d i n ( t o t a l number)?  2.  •1 Q> Cb D4 D 5 or more How long have you l i v e d i n mobile home parks (including a l l parka) ? years  3.  How long have you l i v e d i n t h i s mobile home park? years months  4.  How many other mobile home parks d i d you v i s i t or s e r i o u s l y consider before s e l e c t i n g t h i s one? •o  Ol  D2  D3  04  -  13.  ft.  Width  ft.  What i s the size of your l o t ?  8.  What i s the length and width of your mobile home? Length ft. Width ft.  9.  Do you feel that there i s s u f f i c i e n t distance between your mobile home and those next to your's? DSTes ONo  10.  Length_  How s a t i s f i e d are you with the general physioal appearance of your park? very s a t i s f i e d • satisfied D n o t too s a t i s f i e d  R  dissatisfied 11. Are overnight or temporary t r a i l e r s allowed i n your park? •Yes QNO  •Doesn't  traileri  make any differenoe  How important are the following f a c t o r s i n determining the appearance of a mobile home park? Rank i n order o f importance with '1' being the most important Taotor an<T"* 6' or ' 7' being the l e a s t important. Rank landscaping within the park (e.g. trees, shrubs) appearance of roads park lay-out (e.g. shape o f roads, p o s i t i o n i n g o f mobile homes l o c a t i o n of wires ( i . e . above ground or underground) neatness of i n d i v i d u a l l o t s age of mobile homes other ( l i s t )  14.  What services and f a c i l i t i e s does management provide? Check f ^ f as many answers as applicable. Hpaved streets " underground wires "street lighting lockers or storage sheds storage area f o r outdoor equipment laundry f a c i l i t i e s  15.  B  16.  shopping area grassy open area playground equipment swimming pool Trecreation building other ( l i s t )  Where i s your mobile home park located? answers as applicable. next next next next  Approximately when was your present mobile home park begun? • b e f o r e I960 Dl960-1965 Ch.966-1970 Ddon't know  7.  QNo  •Yes  • 5 or more  How important were the following factors i n choosing your present mobile home park? Ho Some Very Import. Import. Import. Import no other space a v a i l a b l e . . , . . . within easy reach o f work..... within easy reach of shopping, •... within easy reach of schools., area surrounding the park (e.g. mountains, industry)... size of l o t s 3 . . . cost o f renting l o t , . » * . < general appearance o f park.... services provided by management •>.. had friends or r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n park  I f 'Yes' to Question 11, do you f e e l that temporary negatively a f f e c t the appearance o f the park?  to to to to  a highway a r e s i d e n t i a l area commercial business industry  Check  as many  next to woods/fields next to hills/mountains next to water  Are you s a t i s f i e d with the l o c a t i o n o f your park? ery s a t i s f i e d dissatisfied  Qsati3fied  []not too s a t i s f i e d  17.  I f you had the choice would you prefer to own your l o t or to rent i t ? Qown Qrent  18.  In r e l a t i o n to other types of single family housing, where should mobile homes be located? Qmobile homes should be mixed with conventional s i n g l e family housing. D n o b i l e homes should be separate within mobile home parks or subdivisions. Qdon» t know  19- Have you ever l i v e d i n any of the following types of housing?  B  single family detached house  f l low-rise apartment  other neighbourhoods the mobile home park making friends community f a c i l i t i e s people don't l i k e to residents of mobile  single family attached house [ j high-rise apartment 20. I f you had the choice, i n what type of housing would you prefer to l i v e ? single family house (rented) _ single family house (owned) mobile home  low-rise apartment high-rise apartment other ( l i s t )  no other housing a v a i l able i n desired area s a t i s f a c t o r y monthly expenses........ purchase price of  osyiiS  •  |_J  Q  J_J  , (_J  |_j  •  •  •  °  n  .••  D  •  |_j • a  •  22. Do you consider l i v i n g i n a mobile home park to be d i f f e r e n t from l i v i n g i n a conventional single family housing neighbourhood?  a  No Q Don't know Yes ( i n what respects)  24. How often do you s o c i a l i z e with other residents of the park (e.g. v i s i t each other, play cards, go on outings together)? Qsometimes  B  Qnever  are f a r o f f be f r i e n d l y with home parks  written regulations  Q  Yes  Q Yes LJYes Yes  No (Z1 No I 1 No | I No  Qspoken regulations  no regulations 27. Do mobile homes situated i n your park have to be bought from the park owner? • Yes • No 28. If 'Yes' to Question 27, would you prefer to have a choice as to where to buy your mobile home?  B  would prefer choice  f j d o e s not matter  would buy from park owner 29- Are children allowed in the park? DYes Q No fjDon't know 30. Is there an extra charge f o r each additional occupant a f t e r a certain number? QYes DNO QDon't know 31. Is there a r e s t r i c t i o n concerning the number of people allowed to l i v e i n each mobile home? QYes  0  N o  • Don't know  32. Is a security deposit required when a mobile home moves into the park? • Yes  23. Do you think that residents of mobile home parks are f r i e n d l i e r with t h e i r neighbours than i n the following types of housing communities? apartment O^es PNO • Don't know single family housing _ neighbourhood |_J Yes |_JN° LJ Don't know  Q often  are f a r o f f i s sufficient for  26. How are the regulations of your mobile home park communicated?  21. How important were the following factors i n your decision to l i v e i n a mobile home? Very Some No Import. Import. Import. Import. l i t t l e maintenance Q Q I I T~\ suited family space needs O • • • ability £j H U M l i k e l i v i n g at ground  level  25- Have you found, on occasion, that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to meet and become acquainted with people outside the park because:  Amount $  DNO  DDon't know  33. How much advance notice must a resident give the management when vacating a l o t ? Don't know 34. In the case of e v i c t i o n , how much advance notice must the management give the resident? Q Don' t know 35. Under what circumstances can the management enter a mobile home? QDon't know  36.  Can a mobile home owner sub-let (rent) his mobile home to another person?  B 37.  Yes No  D e s , depending on park management's permission P Don't know Y  Are there any regulations or restrictions that you disagree with? • No D i e s (explain)  •6.  What i s your eduoational background? Tsome elementary or less ™ completed elementary _ some high school Jcompleted high school some vocational school • or community college  completed vocational sohool or community college some university completed university post-graduate studies  Pleas* state whether this questionnaire has been completed  njthe male household head 38.  Should regulations in the park be..... .Q more striot " l e s s striot same as present?  39.  To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement: "Living i n this park i s made more pleasant because the management i s concerned about my satisfaction."  B  strongly agree Qagree strongly disagree  fl unc ertaln  /month  What i s the l o t rental per month?  41.  What i s or was the occupation of the main breadwinner of your household?  42.  Is the main breadwinner  43.  Does the wife of the head of the household work? OYes  QNO  retired...... Q  employed?  Ouot applicable  44.  How many members of your household f a l l within the following age groups? No. of houseNo. of household members Age Group Age Croup hold members under 5 30 to 34 5 to 12 35 to 39 13 to 18 40 to 49 50 to 59 19 to 24 60 and over 25 to 29  45.  What i s the total annual family income before taxes? less than 2,000 2,000 to 3,999 J4,000 to 5,999 6,000 to 7,999  8,000 to 9,999 10,000 to 11,999 ^12,000 to 13,999 14,000 and over  Are there any further comments you wish to make oonoerning physical conditions, regulations, and/or social l i f e within your mobile home park or parks i n general?  D di sagree  40.  D  O t h e female household head  THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ASSISTANCE!  

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