Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Nightwatches : an English translation of the anonymous German novel Die Nachtwachen des Bonaventura,… Theissen, Elmar Theodore 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 T44.pdf [ 9.92MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101610.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101610-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101610-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101610-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101610-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101610-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101610-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101610-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101610.ris

Full Text

THE  NIGHTWATCHES  An E n g l i s h  translation  of the anonymous German n o v e l D i e Nachtwachen des Bonaventura, 1804 w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n  Elmar Theodore B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  Theissen  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IK PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in Comparative  Literature  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  n npa.-rat.l V P ftT  T.i t . f t r a t i i r e  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  D a t e  A p r i l 27.  \m  - i i -  ABSTRACT  The Nightwatches d e s e r v e s an attempt a t t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h because i t a n t i c i p a t e s some o f modern l i t e r a t u r e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h meaninglessness and n o t h i n g n e s s and e l u c i d a t e s the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s a t t i t u d e toward l i f e b o t h i n form and i n c o n t e n t . W r i t t e n i n 1804, The Nightwatches p o r t r a y s a p o s i t i o n opposed t o the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i d e a l i s m t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s of the European Romantic Movement, and i n s t e a d demonstrates t h a t the i n d e f i n i t e l o n g i n g f o r an unknown t r u t h and the emphasis on the s e l f and on the i n t u i t i v e f a c u l t i e s of man's mind - a l l h a l l m a r k s o f t h i s movement which d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from p r e v i o u s l i t e r a r y t r e n d s - l e d as e a s i l y to d i s s o l u t i o n and n o t h i n g n e s s as to c e r t i t u d e and the concept of a l i v i n g , o r g a n i c u n i v e r s e . T u r n i n g away from the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d and p l a c i n g emphasis l a r g e l y on the mind w i t h i t s dangerous dichotomy o f i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n , The Nightwatches p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t o f the Romantic f a i l u r e t o combine the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l w i t h the r e a l , a f a i l u r e t h a t removed the mind's i n n e r f o u n d a t i o n s of c e r t i t u d e and f a i t h , r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s o f r e l i g i o n and a n e g a t i v e view of e x i s t e n c e . L i f e becomes a d e l u s i o n , and knowledge mere h y p o t h e s i s , and The N i g h t watches m i r r o r s t h i s new awareness w i t h the h e l p o f masks, t h e a t r e imagery, and s a t i r e . Thus, The Nightwatches c h a r t s a world-view w h i c h was developed c o n s i d e r a b l y by n i h i l i s t i c w r i t e r s of the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and which has c u l m i n a t e d , i n our own t i m e s , i n the work of p l a y w r i g h t s of the a b s u r d , n o t a b l y the work o f Samuel B e c k e t t , which demonstrates g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y to the c o n t e n t of The Nightwatches.  -iii-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am i n d e b t e d  t o P r o f e s s o r Marketa S t a n k i e w i c z o f  the Comparative L i t e r a t u r e Programme and t o P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l B u l l o c k o f t h e Department o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g for t h e i r valuable  suggestions  regarding  some problems  o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and the t r a n s l a t i o n , and I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r Edward M o r n i n o f the Department o f German - h i s p a t i e n t c r i t i c a l a d v i c e and indispensable  encouragement made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o  complete t h i s p r o j e c t .  -iv-  TABLE OP CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ,  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i i  TABLE OP CONTENTS INTRODUCTION  i i  ' '  iv I  FOOTNOTES  XLIII  BIBLIOGRAPHY  XLVII  THE  NIGHTWATCHES  . TABLE OP CONTENTS  la-3a  THE NIGHTWATCHES  1-173  INTRODUCTION  As we absorb t h e Western l i t e r a t u r e century,  of the twentieth  we a r e s u r e l y aware t h a t i t i s pervaded w i t h a  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f estrangement from the u n i v e r s e society.  and from  Few w r i t e r s o f s t a t u r e deny modern man's  p r e v a i l i n g state of anxiety prophecy " t h i n g s f a l l a p a r t ;  and e x h a u s t i o n . the centre  Yeats'  cannot  hold"  ("The Second Coming"), w r i t t e n a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , has  become a t e r s e summary o f a m a l a i s e a t t r i b u t e d  v a r i o u s l y t o our advance i n t e c h n o l o g y , t o our i n c r e a s i n g s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , and t o our d i s c o v e r y l e d g e seems mere  t h a t a l l human know-  hypothesis.  As a medium o f communication, l i t e r a t u r e  gives  face-  l e s s a b s t r a c t i o n s a countenance and t r a n s l a t e s a concept i n t o an image, a s t r u c t u r e . o r an a c t i o n .  Eliot's  "thousand s o r d i d images" ("Preludes", 1917) r e f l e c t modern man's a l i e n a t i o n , n i h i l i s m and l o s s o f i d e n t i t y .  The  p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f Hemingway's h e r o e s , c a s t r a t e d , s h e l l -  II-  shocked  and s c a r r e d , m i r r o r s a s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n .  In  the modern t h e a t r e , t h e knowledge o f estrangement, i n h e r e n t i n modern p o e t r y and the n o v e l , i s e x t e n s i v e l y d r a m a t i z e d isolation,  -  s t e r i l i t y and emptiness a r e major themes o f  the contemporary s t a g e .  I n the p l a y s o f P i r a n d e l l o , f o r  example, a n x i e t y , f e a r o f a c h a o t i c v o i d , and a c o n s c i o u s ness o f t h e i l l u s i o n o f a l l moral norms and c a t e g o r i e s p l a y havoc w i t h t h e concepts tragi-comedy meaningful  o f r o l e and i d e n t i t y .  Beckett's  W a i t i n g f o r Godot (1953) s t r e s s e s t h a t  action i n l i f e  i s impossible.  p a t i e n t l y f o r an u n s p e c i f i e d form  Two tramps w a i t  of salvation, f o r a  " c e n t r e " t o g i v e t h e i r l i v e s purpose and d e f i n i t i o n .  They  a r e images o f every man, and t h e s i t u a t i o n i n which they find  themselves  i s a metaphor o f modern man as a s t r a n g e r  i n the u n i v e r s e . S u r v e y i n g modern l i t e r a t u r e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h meaninglessness  and n o t h i n g n e s s , we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a  " f a i t a c c o m p l i " i n most c a s e s .  B e c k e t t ' s tramps, f o r  example, appear t o us a t the end o f t h e i r u n i v e r s e where space  journey, i n a  and time and knowledge a r e m e a n i n g l e s s ,  where human p e r c e p t i o n i s a t b e s t an a b e r r a t i o n , and where s a l v a t i o n seems a h o p e l e s s dream.  We might w e l l ask how  t h i s awareness came i n t o b e i n g , and f o r the answer we must t u r n t o the l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e  o f the p a s t .  -III-  At the  f i r s t g l a n c e , The Nightwatches, p u b l i s h e d  pseudonym Bonaventura"*" i n Germany i n 1804,  u n l i k e l y work f o r our s e a r c h .  under  seems an  Midnight s t r i k e s ;  a night-  watchman p u t s on h i s work c l o t h e s and c r o s s e s h i m s e l f r e l i g i o u s l y as he walks out i n t o the n i g h t . however, we  As we p r o c e e d ,  d i s c o v e r t h a t h i s t a l e i s modern.  We  eventually  f i n d him s i t t i n g a t the edge o f N o t h i n g n e s s : Not a s i n g l e o b j e c t anywhere except a g r e a t , t e r r i b l e I which f e d on i t s e l f and i n s t a n t l y • gave b i r t h t o i t s e l f a g a i n . I d i d not sink, f o r t h e r e was no space t o s i n k i n t o , but n e i t h e r d i d I seem t o r i s e . A l l change had d i s a p p e a r e d t o g e t h e r w i t h time, g i v i n g way t o d r e a d f u l , e n d l e s s boredom. T e r r i f i e d , I t r i e d t o a n n i h i l a t e m y s e l f ^ - but I remained and f e l t m y s e l f immortal. A c e n t u r y and a h a l f l a t e r , t h i s l i t e r a r y  c h a r a c t e r has  h a r d l y moved - the N o t h i n g n e s s p e r s i s t s .  S a r t r e c a l l s the  a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h i s Nothingness "nausea".  Hemingway  w r i t e s about i t i n a p r a y e r : " H a i l n o t h i n g f u l l o f n o t h i n g , n o t h i n g i s w i t h t h e e " (A C l e a n . W e l l - L i g h t e d P l a c e .  1927).  L i k e S a r t r e ' s R o q u e n t i n and Hemingway's o l d w a i t e r , the  watchman i s a l i e n a t e d from h i s own  and from s o c i e t y .  self,  from  God,  Throughout h i s s t o r y he pursues h i s  m e t a p h y s i c a l i d e n t i t y , h i s naked  ego.  He blasphemes  the  God r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s meaningless e x i s t e n c e , and he r e v i l e s h i s fellow-men s a v a g e l y .  F i n a l l y , he chooses t o  f i g h t h i s abysmal v i s i o n w i t h l a u g h t e r .  However, some  modern h e r o e s have l o s t even the a b i l i t y  to laugh.  They  -IV-  wait f o r death with a l i t t l e Faulkner's heroes, for  p a t i e n c e , or endure  like  or drown t h e i r sorrows i n mescal,  as  example does the c o n s u l G e o f f r e y i n Lowry's Under  the V o l c a n o  (1947).  U n l i k e the modern hero,  the watchman hopes, but h i s  hopes a r e c o n s t a n t l y thwarted. beloved die i n c h i l d - b i r t h .  He  l o v e s , and watches h i s  He p r a y s , and  finds himself  mouthing c u r s e s , and views the w o r l d as an "empty, s t u p i d s t a g e f o r f o o l s and masks" (p. 124). of  He  examines the chaos  the microcosm, a t t a c k s the Church, marriage  and p a r o d i e s l o v e , j o y and  sorrow.  s k u l l i s never m i s s i n g b e h i n d life  the f l i r t a t i o u s mask, and  i s o n l y the f o o l ' s costume which Nothingness  o r d e r t o t i n k l e i t s b e l l s f o r a w h i l e and  to  r e n d i t a n g r i l y and  to d i s c a r d i t "  Embedded i n h i s s t o r y , we images s i n c e expanded and  ment.  has  then  donned  finally  (p. 85).  find literary  techniques  explored with greater r e f i n e -  Through the medium of masks and  borrowed from the "commedia d e l l  1  t h e a t r e imagery  a r t e " and  from  Shakespeare,  he makes h i s p o i n t t h a t n o t h i n g can be known w i t h He  justice,  F o r the watchman, "the  in  and  and  s w i t c h e s time sequence, i n s e r t s mad  certainty.  f a n t a s y between  r a t i o n a l argument, mixes p o e t r y w i t h p r o s e , c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s e s the m o t i f s of s i l e n c e and p e t r i f a c t i o n , and in  s a t i r e and  irony.  The  Nightwatches are modern not  in  t h e i r s p i r i t , but a l s o i n some of t h e i r form  and  revels only  presentation  The  y e a r 1804  p l a c e s The  Nightwatches i n t h a t p e r i o d  o f l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y known as Romanticism, a  historical  movement i n a r t and  i d e a s which o c c u r r e d i n Europe i n the  late  e a r l y nineteenth century.  e i g h t e e n t h and  and w r i t e r s throughout s e a r c h i n g f o r a new r e a l i t y and  Thinkers  Germany, F r a n c e , and England  began  system o f e x p l a i n i n g the n a t u r e  the d u t i e s o f man,  of  and European thought  shifted  from c o n c e i v i n g the u n i v e r s e as a mechanism t o c o n c e i v i n g it  as an o r g a n i s m ,  and reasoned 1674 *  n  had  u n i v e r s e o f M i l t o n and D e s c a r t e s .  Milton i n  seen the u n i v e r s e as an immutable h i e r a r c h y , and  P a r a d i s e L o s t had  o f God  i n a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r e g u l a t e d  to man"  sought not o n l y " t o j u s t i f y the ways  - Reason was  h i s t r u s t w o r t h y g u i d e , and  d i v i d e d the u n i v e r s e i n t o what c o u l d be known w i t h and what one reader:  c o u l d not know - but a l s o admonished  " s o l i c i t not thy thoughts  from a l l s i d e s and  w i t h the "unknown" f a c t o r s : Berkeley questioned  the  Hume was  a radical  the r e a l i t y of matter;  n e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h nor prove the essence  rational,  t r i e d to d e a l  and  sceptic; Kant i n h i s  C r i t i q u e o f Pure Reason (1781) argued t h a t r e a s o n  t h a t man  certainty  with matters h i d " .  E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i n k e r s , however, a t t a c k e d the mechanistic universe  he  could  of a t h i n g , and  l a c k e d the f a c u l t i e s r e q u i r e d to p e r c e i v e  God.  -71-  Attacking  the very  philosophy, objects  bases o f t r a d i t i o n a l m e t a p h y s i c s and  he p o i n t e d  out t h a t "the r e a l i t y  i s n o t c a p a b l e o f any s t r i c t  of e x t e r n a l  proof".^  In Germany, t h i n k e r s such as F i c h t e and S c h e l l i n g a l s o r e j e c t e d r e a s o n as a p o s i t i v e method o f p e r c e i v i n g t r u t h , b u t argued t h a t man c o u l d  overcome t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  of t h e mind and e x p e r i e n c e t r u t h i n a s t a t e "out o f himself".  Fichte postulated,  (1794), t h a t the u n i v e r s e s e l f created  i n The S c i e n c e  e x i s t e d i n man's mind.  not only i t s e l f ,  t o observe i t s e l f i n  the a c t o f c r e a t i o n , i t i n f a c t p e r c e i v e d  blurred  The  b u t a l s o the o b j e c t s  s u r r o u n d i n g i t , and once i t l e a r n e d  i n h i s Ideas c o n c e r n i n g  o f Knowledge  truth.  a P h i l o s o p h y o f Nature  Schelling,  (1797),  the d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t u r e and mind; n e i t h e r  mind n o r n a t u r e a r e a b s o l u t e ;  the former i s i n v i s i b l e  n a t u r e , the l a t t e r v i s i b l e mind.  Moreover, he b e l i e v e d  t h a t a l l . s o l i d i t y was mere appearance - a p o l a r i t y o f molecules. and  A t "death", t h e i l l u s i o n o f s o l i d i t y i s l o s t ,  one becomes once more a f l u c t u a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e  i n a r e t u r n t o a g r e a t e r harmony and a f u l l e r l i f e .  For  S c h e l l i n g , t r u t h r e s i d e d i n h i s concept o f the m y s t i c a l u n i o n o f man w i t h n a t u r e : " . . . i n the a b s o l u t e the  spirit  i n s i d e o f us w i t h n a t u r e o u t s i d e  I t was the s p i r i t u a l and i m a g i n a t i v e  i d e n t i t y of 5 of us".  s i d e o f man's  mind which i n t e r e s t e d the Romantic t h i n k e r s .  I n the realm  -VII-  of r e l i g i o n , S c h l e i e r m a c h e r f a i t h and  r a t i o n a l knowledge and  t o each o t h e r . the S o u l the  destroyed  every  placed  l i n k between  them i n a n t i t h e s i s  Herder, i n h i s Knowledge and  Sentiment  of  (1778), p l a c e d emphasis on the h e a r t r a t h e r than  l o g i c a l mind as a t r u e w i t n e s s  o f the w o r l d  e l e c t e d the poet as i n t e r p r e t e r of the s o u l ' s "the p r o p h e c i e s  of p o e t s - they a l o n e  m a t e r i a l f o r the t r u e study S c h l e g e l a l s o saw an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the s o u l " . ^  F o r him,  he  perceptions:  can p r o v i d e us  the a r t i s t as t h a t man of t r u t h .  and  with  Friedrich  best  von  suited for  the a r t i s t became i n -  c r e a s i n g l y aware o f h i m s e l f , d u r i n g a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , an i n d i v i d u a l and  a t the same time as c r e a t o r , and  as  could  d i s c o v e r the d i v i n e element w i t h i n h i m s e l f . I n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s p i r i t u a l a l t e r n a t i v e s to Reason, the German p o e t s and and  t h i n k e r s sought to d e f i n e Romanticism,  d e f i n i t i o n s ranged from "a p r o g r e s s i v e u n i v e r s a l p o e t r y o  to "an  inner regeneration  Writers  of the t o t a l i t y  such as Ludwig T i e c k and  toward l o v e , p o e t r y and s u p e r i o r to reason  of  existence".  Clemens Brentano  imagination  and  considered  as i n t e r p r e t e r s o f man's n a t u r e  turned them and  of  existence. New  thoughts s i m i l a r to those  i n France.  In The  i n Germany took p l a c e  Creed of a P r i e s t  Rousseau, d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h outside His s t a t i c universe,  of Savoy  (1752),  the concept o f a God r e s i d i n g felt  t h a t God  a p a n t h e i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f the w o r l d  was  that  i n nature,  -VIII-  passed i n t o German p h i l o s o p h y w i t h S c h e l l i n g and Moreover,  i n h i s D i s c o u r s e on the S c i e n c e s and the A r t s  (1749), Rousseau c l a i m e d t h a t the " n a t u r a l " man was  Hegel.  s u p e r i o r t o the c i v i l i z e d man  formed  by  of f e e l i n g  rational  c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y , and he s t r e s s e d the uniqueness each  of  individual. Rousseau's i d e a s found a c c e p t a n c e i n Germany t h r o u g h  q Kant i n the 1 7 6 0 s and t h r o u g h Goethe,  and a l i t t l e  !  German i d e a s were d i s s e m i n a t e d i n F r a n c e .  Mme.  de  later,  StaSl  i n t r o d u c e d F r i e d r i c h von S c h l e g e l ' s w r i t i n g s t o F r a n c e i n Of Germany (1810), and a t t r i b u t e d t o him and t o Kant  the  honour o f w i n n i n g f o r German p h i l o s o p h y a p o s i t i o n o f distinction. Between 1817  and 1820,  V i c t o r Cousin l e c t u r e d at  the Sorbonne on F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , and F r i e d r i c h  von  S c h l e g e l and s t r e s s e d the emotions and the h e a r t as  true  witnesses of e x i s t e n c e . I n E n g l a n d , t h e r e was o f Romanticism, Enthusiast  no c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t e d  but the same f o r c e s were a t work.  "movement" I n The  (1740), Joseph Warton advocated a r e t u r n t o  n a t u r e i n the b e l i e f t h a t n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f man human s o c i e t y a r e the b e s t c o n d i t i o n s .  Through  and  Macpherson's  O s s i a n (1762) and S i r W a l t e r S c o t t ' s n o v e l s ( a f t e r  1814),  n a t u r e , p r i m i t i v i s m , s e n t i m e n t a l i s m , and f i g u r e s such as the p r o p h e t and the peasant became major concerns o f  -IX-  English literature.  Between 1798  w r i t e r s such as B l a k e upon the I m a g i n a t i o n  and and  the c e n t r a l p o i n t and For  and  1832,  however,  Coleridge placed great saw  emphasis  the s p i r i t u a l mind o f man  governing  as  f a c t o r o f t r u e knowledge.  Blake: T h i s w o r l d o f I m a g i n a t i o n i s the w o r l d o f E t e r n i t y ; . . . T h i s w o r l d of I m a g i n a t i o n i s I n f i n i t e and E t e r n a l . . . T h e r e e x i s t i n t h a t E t e r n a l World the Permament R e a l i t i e s o f E v e r y T h i n g . . . A l l Things are comprehended i n t h e i r E t e r n a l forms in...The Human Imagination. 1  I n 1817, and  C o l e r i d g e s e t up  the concepts  of the  secondary i m a g i n a t i o n i n h i s B i o g r a p h i a  0  primary  Literaria:  The p r i m a r y I m a g i n a t i o n I h o l d to "be the l i v i n g power and prime Agent of a l l human P e r c e p t i o n s , and as a r e p e t i t i o n i n the f i n i t e mind of the e t e r n a l a c t of c r e a t i o n i n the i n f i n i t e I AM. He  d e f i n e d the secondary i m a g i n a t i o n as t h a t  o f the mind which f a s h i o n s p o e t r y out o f the encountered by the p r i m a r y  faculty experiences  imagination.  L i k e t h e i r German and F r e n c h Romantics f e l t  c o u n t e r p a r t s , the E n g l i s h  t h a t t r u t h c o u l d be apprehended  i n t u i t i v e l y and i d e a l philosophy  imaginatively.  And  was  the  prevalent i n a l l three c o u n t r i e s , three  as t r u e i n t e r p r e t e r s of the w o r l d , and  only  i n a summary o f  c r i t e r i a o f Romanticism emerge: i m a g i n a t i o n and  nature,  i n x ±  symbol and  feeling  an o r g a n i c concept  myth f o r p o e t i c s t y l e .  of  Romanticism  a r e v o l u t i o n i n the European mind a g a i n s t t h i n k i n g  -X-  i n terms of mechanism and  the r e d i r e c t i o n o f the mind to  t h i n k i n g i n terms o f organism.  I t s v a l u e s were "change,  i m p e r f e c t i o n , growth, d i v e r s i t y ,  the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n ,  12 the  unconscious."  How  do The  movement?  Nightwatches f i t i n t o t h i s l o f t y  The watchman negates r a t h e r than a f f i r m s  e x i s t e n c e , and h i s i m a g i n a t i o n l e a d s him i n s t e a d of i n f i n i t e  and  r a t h e r than as a l i v i n g Despite  He views the  c o n t r o l l e d by d e a t h (p.  organism.  the o p t i m i s t i c German p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r m u l a s ,  sentiments  o f the m y s t e r i o u s  and  E n g l i s h idea of c r e a t i v e imagination, attempting  toward Nothingness  eternal creation.  u n i v e r s e as a cosmic c l o c k (p. 33)  French  Romantic  to embrace these  p e r i o d s o f doubt and  infinite,  and  some w r i t e r s , w h i l e  transcendental values,  d e s p a i r and  goodness i n the u n i v e r s e , nor any  saw  the  had  " n e i t h e r beauty  s i g n i f i c a n c e , nor  nor indeed  13 any  order at a l l . . . " .  ledge  Having s h i f t e d the s e a t of know-  from the o u t s i d e to w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s , they were  plagued  by doubts about the r e a l i t y  aware t h a t one hallucinations.  of t h e i r  perceptions,  man's v i s i o n s a r e o f t e n n o t h i n g more The  than  i n d e f i n i t e l o n g i n g f o r an unknown  t r u t h , to be p e r c e i v e d by the i n t u i t i o n a l o n e , l e d to disenchantment "and e n n u i , and o f t e n sought comfort  the w r i t e r s thus  i n s o l i t u d e and  afflicted  r e v e r i e and  became  171)  -XI-  the v i c t i m s of m e l a n c h o l y and In France, hero who  pessimism.  Senancour's Obermann (1802) d e s c r i b e s  r e t r e a t s to S w i t z e r l a n d  the assumption t h a t "the  to l i v e a l o n e  true l i f e  t h a t which he d e r i v e s from w i t h o u t and  subservient". ^  Yet  x  make him  love nature,  of man  and  explore  i s within,  he  t h a t knowledge i s f u t i l e ,  while  i s only adventitious  even the v i s t a o f the A l p s  and  a  cannot  s t a t e s i n a l e t t e r to a  friend  s i n c e i t i s e r r o n e o u s , and  that  a l l h i s attempts to l e a r n t h r o u g h h i s i n t u i t i o n b r i n g  him  o n l y melancholy and  poets,  an awareness o f d e a t h .  A l f r e d de V i g n y e x p r e s s e d between b e l i e f and  i n h i s works an  d i s b e l i e f i n God  and  Among the ambivalence  the  possibility  or i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a supreme v i s i o n - n e i t h e r r e a s o n f e e l i n g l e d to c e r t a i n t y . Olives"  I n h i s poem "The  prays  Mount o f  (1843), even C h r i s t a t Gethsemane, the  f o r a s e a r c h i n g mankind, p r a y s f o r man  and  pleads  i n h i s s e a r c h f o r t r u t h , and  to d e s t r o y doubt and  evil;  but  was  f a c e the s i l e n t  Confession it  as  God  De  For  de  for  h i s o n l y s o l u t i o n was  and to  both  Musset, i n A Modern Man's  (1835), a l s o d i s c u s s e d d e s p a i r and  "the malady of the  ability  the answer to h i s p l e a s  with a despair comprising  resignation.  He  f o r the  condemned never to know the r e a s o n  the g o a l of h i s e x i s t e n c e , and  r e b e l l i o n and  spokesman  i n vain.  i s the sound o f Judas' a p p r o a c h i n g f o o t - s t e p s . V i g n y , man  nor  century",  diagnosed  noting that with  this  •XII-  i  illness:  A cadaverous and p o i s o n o u s l i t e r a t u r e , h a v i n g o n l y a form, and t h a t a h i d e o u s one, commenced to s p r i n k l e w i t h f o e t i d b l o o d a l l the monsters of nature. He was  referring  to the c u l t o f decadence which encompassed  a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l t w i t h degeneracy and and  denied  f a i t h and  artificiality  m o r a l i t y , a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t had  begun  a l r e a d y i n 1791  w i t h de Sade's J u s t i n e , which d e c l a r e d  that nature  d e s t r u c t i v e ( c o n t r a r y to Rousseau's view  was  o f a b e n e v o l e n t n a t u r e ) and which f e a t u r e d  characters  determined to blaspheme Romantic l o v e i n every  perversion  possible.  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e became a s e r i o u s a r t i s t i c  occupation  i n France e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the  (1850-1870) and o f Nature and  second Empire  r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the Romantic c o n c e p t s  i d e a l love.  O f t e n r e s i g n e d and  some w r i t e r s of t h i s c u l t were s e e k i n g no emotion, but  pre-  indifferent,  longer  supreme  supreme s e n s a t i o n , i n t e r e s t e d merely i n the  fresh t i t i l l a t i o n  of man's jaded  i n h i s Flowers of E v i l  (1861  senses.  edition),  b e r e f t of meaning i n the poem "The  Charles  Baudelaire,  described a  universe  Abyss":  A l a s , a l l i s abyss - dream, a c t i o n , p r a y e r , and word, On n i g h t ' s dark depths God's s u b t l e f i n g e r s trace a multiform In "To  and  pitiless  a Madonna", he b e g i n s  i s h i s m i s t r e s s ) and  nightmare.  w i t h blasphemy (the Madonna  ends w i t h the w i s h to murder her  "seven t o r t u r e - K n i v e s , keen to the h i l t "  fashioned  out  with of  -XIII-  tlie seven d e a d l y s i n s , and i n t h e poem "The Sunset o f Romanticism", of  an e x u l t a n t s u n - r i s e i s f o l l o w e d by a n i g h t  m e p h i t i c odours, " b l a c k , gloomy, shadowed w i t h dark  shuddering fogs". In  England too the experience o f a meaningful, b l i s s f u l  w o r l d gave way i n some w r i t e r s t o an e x p e r i e n c e o f emptiness which i n c l u d e d boredom, a c o l l a p s e o f v a l u e s , and a g e n e r a l sense o f h e l p l e s s n e s s . of  The t y p i c a l  symbols  t h i s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e were i n d i v i d u a l s f i l l e d w i t h  d e s p a i r and cosmic a l i e n a t i o n ,  i n d i v i d u a l s such a s Byron's  C h i I d e H a r o l d (1811-1818) and Manfred the  (1817).  most i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h e E n g l i s h Romantics  L o r d Byron, throughout  Europe, was an avowed c y n i c and p e s s i m i s t and from the outset c r i t i c i z e d nature.  t h e Romantic  H a r o l d i s "the wandering  mind" (Canto I I I ) , and Manfred full  emphasis  on i m a g i n a t i o n and  outlaw o f h i s own dark  c o n s i d e r s knowledge a cup  o f sorrow: They who know the most Must mourn t h e d e e p e s t o'er t h e f a t a l t r u t h , The Tree o f Knowledge i s n o t t h a t o f L i f e .  '  B o t h H a r o l d and Manfred a r e o u t s i d e r s t o l i f e , and t h e i r cult In  o f t h e ego and i n d i v i d u a l i s m took Europe  by storm.  R u s s i a , f o r example, P u s h k i n p a t t e r n e d h i s Eugene  Onegin  (1833) on Byron's Don Juan  (1821) and s a i d  outright  t h a t Onegin was " . . . l i k e C h i l d e H a r o l d e , gloomy, l a n g u i d . . . 18  n o t h i n g touched him; he touched n o t h i n g " ,  and Lermontov's  -XIV-  A Hero of our Time (1840) r e f l e c t e d and  ennui  of much of Byron's work: the hero  seduces two  women out o f sheer boredom and  R u s s i a i n s e a r c h of excitement senses.  the w o r l d - w e a r i n e s s Pechorin travels  to s t i m u l a t e h i s  across  jaded  Walking home a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g a game o f  Russian  r o u l e t t e , he a t t r i b u t e s h i s a l i e n a t e d c o n d i t i o n t o e x c e s s i v e p r a c t i c e of  the  imagination:  I n my e a r l y youth, I was a dreamer; I l i k e d to f o n d l e images, gloomy and i r i d e s c e n t by t u r n , t h a t my r e s t l e s s and v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n p i c t u r e d to me. But what was l e f t to me o f i t ? Nothing but w e a r i n e s s , as from a n i g h t b a t t l e w i t h a phantom, and a vague memory f u l l of r e g r e t s . In t h i s v a i n s t r u g g l e , I exhausted the a r d e n c y o f s o u l and the endurance o f w i l l , i n d i s p e n s a b l e -,Q f o r r e a l l i f e . . . I became bored and d i s g u s t e d . I n Romantic w r i t e r s s u c h as C a r l y l e and a negative of  a t t i t u d e toward e x i s t e n c e was  Coleridge,  o f t e n an  aspect  c o n v e r s i o n , p a r t of a s p i r i t u a l d e a t h when the o l d  values  o f Reason d i e d and when the new  transcendental  v a l u e s , such as an o r g a n i c u n i v e r s e w i t h an immament God,  made as y e t no  sense.  In C a r l y l e * s S a r t o r  Resartus  (1831), P r o f e s s o r T e u f e l s d r t t e k h l o s e s h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and No",  i n the s e v e n t h  I n "The  comes over him of  Centre  i s a wanderer and  life.  titled  "The E v e r l a s t i n g  sees the u n i v e r s e v o i d of a l l l i f e and  There f o l l o w s "The he  chapter,  God".  of I n d i f f e r e n c e " d u r i n g which  an o b s e r v e r  E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" and  he  volition.  o f the a b s u r d i t i e s of ( c h a p t e r n i n e ) , a change  sees i n n a t u r e  the  " L i v i n g Garment  C o l e r i d g e , i n h i s b a l l a d The Rime of  the  -XV-  A n c i e n t M a r i n e r (1798) p o r t r a y s a s i m i l a r d e a t h and rebirth.  The m a r i n e r v i o l a t e s l i f e  a l b a t r o s s ; he f a i l s organism.  by s h o o t i n g t h e  t o b e l i e v e i n n a t u r e as a l i v i n g  I s o l a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n a r e the consequences.  But a s he i s touched by an impulse o f l o v e and a c c e p t a n c e , his  d e s p a i r v a n i s h e s and he unawares b l e s s e s t h e water  snakes  surrounding h i s ship.  The u n i v e r s e t a k e s on l i f e  again. I t was n o t u n t i l t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a t h a t i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e man was seen as a h e l p l e s s c r e a t u r e i n a m e a n i n g l e s s u n i v e r s e and a t the mercy o f f o r c e s him.  I n h i s d r a m a t i c poem Empedocles on Aetna  Matthew A r n o l d d e p i c t e d a hero s u f f e r i n g from based  on s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n .  Empedocles  1  around (1853)»  alienation  s t a t e o f mind  is  d e p r e s s i o n and ennui i n a w o r l d which i s f o r him d e v o i d  of  r e l i g i o u s o r e t h i c a l meaning.  and h i s deadness suicide.  to j o y and animated  R o b e r t Browning,  f o c u s s e d on the f a l l i b i l i t y ten  To escape h i s d e p r e s s i o n life,  i n The R i n g and the Book  (1869),  o f man's way o f knowing t r u t h -  w i t n e s s e s t e s t i f y a t a murder t r i a l  c e n t u r y I t a l y , and each has a d i f f e r e n t turning d i r e c t l y  he commits  i n seventeenth story.  Browning,  t o t h e r e a d e r , asks him t o l e a r n  lesson: ...our human speech i s naught, Our human t e s t i m o n y f a l s e , our fame T And human e s t i m a t i o n words and wind. 2  this  -XVI-  I n Germany, the two o u t l i n e d found and  literary  Ludwig T i e c k .  a t t i t u d e s toward e x i s t e n c e e x p r e s s i o n i n the works o f N o v a l i s  I n H e i n r i c h von  Ofterdingen  ( 1799),  N o v a l i s d e s c r i b e s a search f o r a transcendental world the f i g u r e of H e i n r i c h , whose dreams and  conversations  the poet K l i n g s o h r p o i n t a t a t o t a l l y p o e t i c and p e r c e p t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e . with nature  Dream, l o v e , and  i n the symbol of the  success.  Yet  he  "blue  flower". en-  F o r H e i n r i c h , the s e a r c h i s a  even N o v a l i s knew the dangers o f  F o r example, i n a l e t t e r  union  beyond o r d i n a r y  p o e t r y a r e a l l means by which he  compasses i d e a l r e a l i t y .  with  intuitive  H e i n r i c h dreams of a  and an i d e a l r e a l i t y above and  e x i s t e n c e , summed up  in  to C a r o l i n e von  imagination.  Schlegel i n 1799,  stated: I know how i m a g i n a t i o n i s most a t t r a c t e d by what i s most immoral, most a n i m a l , but I a l s o know how l i k e a dream a l l i m a g i n a t i o n i s , how i t l o v e s n i g h t , m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , and solitude. ?  In the n o v e l W i l l i a m L o v e l l  (1793,  completed  Ludwig T i e c k d e s c r i b e s a hero whose i m a g i n a t i v e mind l e a d s him  to c h a o t i c e x c e s s e s .  women f o r s p o r t , gambles h e a v i l y , and whether l i f e a figment  beyond i s an e x p e r i e n c e  o f the i m a g i n a t i o n .  f e e l i n g , yet h i s e c s t a t i c capacities.  He  He  ?  1796),  s t a t e of  seduces s e v e r a l  cannot  decide  of r e a l i t y  i s a man  or m e r e l y  motivated  by  c a p a b i l i t y narrows h i s m o r a l  I n the n o v e l , T i e c k u t i l i z e s dreams,  deception,  -XVII-  d i s g u i s e s , mazes and f a t e f u l  objects to question  reality  s e r i o u s l y and t o r e v e a l i t as a complex l a y e r o f appearances, experiences doubting  lovell's  f r i e n d B a l d e r p o i n t s out t h a t the  o f the i m a g i n a t i o n  reason  a r e always s u b j e c t t o a  and as a consequence:  No one has ever succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n c r e t e t r u t h about e t e r n i t y , God, and the meaning o f the w o r l d ; we wander l o s t t h r o u g h a g r e a t p r i s o n , we whimper f o r freedom and c r y f o r d a y l i g h t , our hand knocks on a hundred i r o n d o o r s , but t h e y ' r e a l l l o c k e d and a h o l l o w echo answers u s .  ?  ,  I n The Rune Mountain (1802), T i e c k d e s c r i b e s a man who e n t e r s a l a n d s c a p e o f mountains and f o r e s t s , a r e a l m s y mb ol iz es  Romantic r e a l i t y beyond the average  N a t u r e , which was f o r N o v a l i s a b e n e f i c e n t , i s f o r Tieck a h o r r i f i c r e a l i t y . nature  that  grasp.  l i v i n g organism,  H i s hero C h r i s t i a n meets  p e r s o n i f i e d as a b l a c k - h a i r e d temptress and he  abandons h i s normal p r o s a i c e x i s t e n c e t o f o l l o w h e r .  To  h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n , the temptress appears as an u g l y crone - t r a n s c e n d e n t a l r e a l i t y appears e v i l and d e s t r u c t i v e . In abandoning h i m s e l f t o n a t u r e , i s destroying himself. f o r nature  i t seems t h a t the hero  F o r T i e c k , the Romantic  feeling  l e d more o f t e n t o d i s s o l u t i o n and t e r r o r t h a n t o  i n n e r wholeness and j o y . The and  Nightwatches, l i k e the work o f C a r l y l e , de V i g n y ,  some o f T i e c k ' s w r i t i n g s , e l u c i d a t e the n e g a t i v e  a t t i t u d e toward e x i s t e n c e , an a t t i t u d e t h a t l i v e d i n  -XVIII-  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Romanticism and  o f t e n sought  to  discredit  the Romantic i d e a l s . F o r Bonaventura, the quest f o r an embodied i d e a l i s a f a i l u r e .  N e i t h e r l o v e , nor i m a g i n a t i o n ,  - n o r r e l i g i o n , nor p o e t r y a i d him,  and n e i t h e r F i c h t e a n nor  S c h e l l i n g e a n p h i l o s o p h y p r o v i d e him w i t h a key He  e x p e r i e n c e s Nothingness  dreams b r i n g him  as he f a c e s the u n i v e r s e .  (X and X I ) , he  l i v i n g u n i v e r s e f o r the f i r s t r e a l i t y , he l o s e s the woman he i f he  poet,  two  t e l l s the s t o r y o f a b l i n d  i s cured by a d o c t o r and  t o become a nun  the  the r e a l - he i s a  but h i s i d e a l s are n o t a c c e p t e d by h i s s o c i e t y . I n  y o u t h who  In  by Romantic " Z e r r i s s e n h e i t " ,  t o combine the i d e a l and  nightwatches  His  t e r r o r i n s t e a d of a b e a t i f i c v i s i o n .  h i s y o u t h , he i s p l a g u e d inability  to h i s s e l f .  time.  sees the sun and  the  But i n the w o r l d  of .  l o v e s because she i s f a t e d  ever r e g a i n e d h i s s i g h t .  Their  c o n t i n u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p l e a d s t o h e r becoming pregnant, she i s b u r i e d a l i v e by h e r convent  sisters.  v i s i o n l e a d s to sorrow and d e a t h .  Significantly,  nightwatchman has  s t u d i e d Jakob Boehme and  The  Moreover, he has  shoemakers  i n o r d e r to  but h i s f e l l o w workers a t the  making shop l a u g h a t him. cannot  the  l e a r n e d the Romantic language of  n a t u r e as he l i s t e n s t o f l o w e r s and f l i e s c i p h e r t h e i r language,  Romantic  Hans Sachs,  p o i n t i n g out t h a t b o t h p o e t s were a l s o competent (IV).  and  U n l i k e Boehme and  f u n c t i o n b o t h i n the i d e a l w o r l d  deshoe-  Sachs, he  of p o e t r y and  the  -XIX-  p r o s a i c w o r l d o f shoemaking.  I n the f i r s t n i g h t w a t c h ,  warns h i s a l t e r ego, a p o e t i n an a t t i c , a n o t h e r , more p r o s a i c t r a d e . h i s c a l l i n g , and f i n a l l y remains  unaccepted;  he  t o take up  The p o e t , however,  commits s u i c i d e because  pursues h i s work  he r e p r e s e n t s the end t o which the  watchman h i m s e l f would have come had he not g i v e n up p o e t r y . 3?or Bonaventura,  p o e t r y i s thus i m p o s s i b l e - c o n t r a r y t o  Romantic f a i t h i n the permament and r e a l v a l u e of p o e t r y i n the e x i s t e n c e o f Bonaventura  man.  a l s o e x p r e s s e s the c o n t r a s t between the  i d e a l and the r e a l i n h i s use  o f Romantic p o e t i c  symbol.  N o v a l i s , f o r example, s t r e s s e s i n Hymns t o the N i g h t t h a t the n i g h t i s a b e a t i f i c  time, s u i t a b l e f o r i n t r o -  s p e c t i o n , and d e s c r i b e s a joyous n o c t u r n a l v i s i o n , all  s p a t i a l and temporal b a r r i e r s a t the grave  b e l o v e d Sophie.  (1797)  But i n The Nightwatches,  dropping  of h i s  this night  becomes a dark hour d u r i n g w h i c h the d e l u s i o n s of mankind a r e unmasked. orders  D u r i n g the n i g h t , a judge s i g n s e x e c u t i o n  (p. 18), a nun  i s buried alive  (p. 109), and  D e v i l p l a y s g o d f a t h e r (p. 164); and f i n a l l y ,  the  the watchman  i s reduced t o s t a r i n g i n t o a darkness b e s i d e w h i c h " n o t h i n g else i s v i s i b l e  i n heaven or e a r t h "  (p. 145).  I n r e a c t i o n t o Romantic i d e a l s t h a t a f f i r m e x i s t e n c e , Bonaventura language  negates  life,  and he employs the Romantic  and i t s metaphors and  symbols not to agree w i t h  t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n t l y p o s i t i v e view  o f - t h e w o r l d , but t o  -XX-  prove  t h e s e views f a l s e .  I n the words o f M i c h a e l Novak:  The p e r s o n g r i p p e d by the e x p e r i e n c e of Nothingness sees n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g i n ' r e v e r s e image'. What o t h e r s c a l l c e r t a i n , he sees as p r e t e n d ; what o t h e r persons c a l l pragmatic or e f f e c t i v e , he sees as a most i r o n i c a l d e l u s i o n . There i s no r e a l w o r l d out t h e r e , he s a y s . Within human b e i n g s and o u t s i d e o f them, t h e r e i s o n l y a great darkness...". The watchman a t t a c k s l o v e i n v a r i o u s ways. o f l o v e as an e n t r a n c e  i n t o a meaningful  o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y i s negated his f i r s t  by h i s own  world  The beyond  personal experiences  l o v e a f f a i r t a k e s p l a c e i n a madhouse, and  c r i e s n o t so much over the d e a t h of h i s b e l o v e d as their failure  to f i n d  he  over  t h e i r s e l v e s i n the l o v e a f f a i r ,  and he has a v i s i o n o f Nothingness born.  idea  He weeps a second  while h i s c h i l d i s being  t e a r over the c o n f i s c a t i o n o f a  puppet; h i s t r u n c a t e d c a p a c i t y f o r l o v e has been t r a n s f e r r e d to a l i f e l e s s m a r i o n e t t e ,  to a wooden v e h i c l e f o r s a t i r e .  I n the f o u r t h and f i f t h n i g h t w a t c h e s ,  he  tells  s t o r y of l o v e and murder t w i c e : the second a Southern seeks  story  utilizes  s e t t i n g p o p u l a r i n Romantic l i t e r a t u r e ,  and  t o p r o v i d e some p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t a i l about Don  murderous m o t i v e s . man  the same  More i m p o r t a n t , however, the  e x p l a i n s i n the p r e v i o u s n i g h t w a t c h  the r o l e s of l i f e players.  nightwatch-  t h a t Don  crimes a r e d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o God who  has  Juan's  Juan's muddled  and has a s s i g n e d the wrong p a r t s t o the  I n a j u s t u n i v e r s e , Don  Ines, but i t i s Don  Ponce who  Juan s h o u l d have m a r r i e d  possesses her.  The  reality  -  -XXI-  p r e s e n t e d i n the f i f t h n i g h t w a t c h , i n a Romantic v e i n , i s stripped  o f i t s i l l u s i o n and d e c e p t i o n i n the p r e v i o u s  watch - emotion, meaning, and the concept o f f r e e w i l l a r e denied.  The  s t o r y t o l d i n IV i s t r u e r t h a n the same s t o r y  t o l d i n V, and i t i s t h i s k i n d o f t r u t h which the e n t i r e  pervades  Nightwatches.  Bonaventura's  approach t o n a t u r e i s d i r e c t l y  opposed  t o the i d e a s e x p r e s s e d "by N o v a l i s i n Germany and by Wordsworth i n E n g l a n d .  He sees n a t u r e not as a r e f l e c t i o n o f  a l i v i n g u n i v e r s a l mind, but as a c o l d and p e t r i f i e d r e f l e c t i n g N o t h i n g n e s s and d e a t h .  While pantheism,  p r e v a l e n t r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y o f the Romantics,  state the  identified  God w i t h the p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e , and saw no o t h e r God t h a n the sum Bonaventura  in i t  t o t a l o f m a t t e r , law and energy t h a t i t c o n t a i n s , c o n s i d e r s man  s e p a r a t e d from c r e a t i o n ; i n  X I I I , the watchman i n d u l g e s i n a dithyramb about s p r i n g here i s n a t u r e , calm i n i t s grandeur, and here i s man,  ill  a t ease because n a t u r e has n o t completed him i n c r e a t i o n , but has l e f t him u n f i n i s h e d and u n d e f i n e d .  The  o f n a t u r e b r e a k s o f f a t the p o i n t where man  e n t e r s the  picture. God,  In the p a n t h e i s t i c  continuum  sense, the h e a r t o f n a t u r e i s  but the watchman i s s e p a r a t e d from God  : nature i s  empty, "a d r e a d f u l b i r t h - m a c h i n e which gave b i r t h t o i t s e l f and t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e own"  (and) has no h e a r t o f i t s  (p. 171). Throughout  The N i g h t w a t c h e s  t  nature i s l i f e l e s s .  In  -XXII-  the  first  n i g h t w a t c h , the watchman wanders t h r o u g h the  town which seems t o have been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o stone. are  lifeless  The c h a r a c t e r s e n c o u n t e r e d on h i s n i g h t l y  o f t e n surrounded by l i f e l e s s  petrifaction.  A dying a t h e i s t  statues,  rounds  signifying  ( I ) , a judge ( I I I ) and a  f r o z e n beggar  (X) a r e a l l d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f c o l d n e s s  and r i g i d i t y ,  and t h e s e m o t i f s o f p e t r i f a c t i o n  to  the l i v i n g ,  applied  t o n a t u r e , and t o puppets (V) s t r e s s the  l i f e l e s s n e s s and d e l u s i o n o f l i v i n g  organisms i n the w o r l d  as Bonaventura c o n s t r u c t s i t . B o n a v e n t u r a s view o f r e l i g i o n too i s c y n i c a l and 1  opposed t o the views o f S c h l e i e r m a c h e r and N o v a l i s , the two  c h i e f Romantic  exponents o f r e l i g i o n i n Germany.  watchman does not b e l i e v e i n a b e n e f i c e n t God, and l i t e r a l l y p l a y the r o l e to  of d e v i l s  (II).  The  priests  The o n l y p e r s o n  d i e w i t h a s m i l e on h i s f a c e i s an avowed a t h e i s t whose  s m i l e , however, i s l a t e r negated by Bonaventura: a f t e r d e a t h i s so m e a n i n g l e s s and empty t h a t even p i c t u r e d as the inmate o f an asylum, f i n d s  life God,  eternity  tedious (IX). Nor does the watchman share the Romantic b e s t e x p r e s s e d by Wackenroder loving Friar  l o v e o f music  i n O u t p o u r i n g s of an a r t -  (1797) i n which the c h a r a c t e r Joseph  B e r g l i n g e r r e a c t s to music as f o l l o w s : It  seemed t o him as i f h i s s o u l were s p r e a d i n g  -XXIII-  g r e a t wings, as moor, as i f the i n f r o n t of h i s f l o a t i n g toward Music, l i k e p o e t r y , was of  i f he were l i f t e d o f f an a r i d c l o u d e d sky were d i s a p p e a r i n g m o r t a l eyes, and as i f he were the c l e a r heavens. f o r the Romantics  reaching a transcendental ideal.  however, music  i s p l a y e d b a d l y by incompetent  dissonances of l i f e In to are  dirges,  The watchman  discordantly  107), and i n IV and V I I I d i s c u s s e s how  music  Nightwatches,  c o n s i s t s o f storms and thunder,  and accompaniments to a dance o f d e a t h ( X ) .  (p.  Mozart's  musicians.  a r e i m p l i e d by these  Significant  allusions.  h i s a t t a c k on Romantic i d e a l s , Bonaventura  i r o n y and s a t i r e  c  a n o t h e r method  I n The  d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as an i n s t r u m e n t tuned  2  to make h i s p o i n t t h a t these  resorts  ideals  not i n accordance w i t h h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y .  Many o f the i r o n i e s i n the n o v e l d e a l w i t h death and illusion. the  The watchman w r i t e s a f u n e r a l speech t o c e l e b r a t e  b i r t h o f a c h i l d , p o i n t i n g out t h a t man  as soon as he i s b o r n (pp. 6 4 - 6 5 ) . s t o r y o f Don immortal.  Juan who  begins to d i e  I n IV, he t e l l s  the  seeks death, but i s f a t e d t o remain  In X, he d e s c r i b e s a nun who  affirmed  life  and gave b i r t h t o a c h i l d and i s c o n s e q u e n t l y b u r i e d  alive  by h e r convent  affirm  sisters - i t i s ironic  e x i s t e n c e must d i e , w h i l e those who stay a l i v e .  t h a t those who  seek o b l i v i o n must  Other i r o n i e s l i e i n the watchman's own  c o n c e p t i o n s : he a c t s as a prophet who  rails  against  mis-  -XXIV-  mankind's moral and  metaphysical  i s fooled constantly.  d e l u s i o n s , y e t he  himself  F o r example, he attempts to t a l k a  y o u t h out o f committing s u i c i d e ( X I I ) o n l y to l e a r n t h a t the y o u t h i s a c t u a l l y an a c t o r s t u d y i n g a r o l e f o r a p l a y . F i n a l l y , he admits o n l y u n c e r t a i n t y , and even the has  corpse  a great v o i d ,  of h i s f a t h e r , which a t f i r s t  conquered t r a n s i t o r i n e s s and  b e n e a t h h i s p r o b i n g hands.  death, f a l l s  he  as  thinks  i n t o dust  Throughout the n o v e l ,  the  i r o n i e s p o i n t a t N o t h i n g n e s s r a t h e r than a m e a n i n g f u l w o r l d . In the t h i r d n i g h t w a t c h , two  l o v e r s mistake  the  watchman f o r a s t a t u e o f S t . C r i s p i n , and  as he moves h i s  c l o a k s l i g h t l y to d e s t r o y  they merely  t h a t the  their illusion,  statue's foundation  has  caved i n and  t h a t i t has  l o s t balance.  A l t h o u g h the l o v e r s a r e d e s c r i b i n g a  we  p r o c e e d t h r o u g h the book, t h a t  know, as we  out o f  and  is  balance.  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the  time.  a t the l i t e r a r y  Philistine  of the e i g h t e e n t h  century,  t o t a l of a l l a c t i v i t y :  i n The  this  pedantic  to whom u t i l i t y  was  Memorable C h r o n i c l e  o f the G-othamites (1796), the p o p u l a c e c o n c e i v e s m e r e l y as a means of improving  and  Ludwig T i e c k w i e l d e d  weapon h a b i t u a l l y , mocking, f o r example, the  sum  i n fact  h i s view o f the w o r l d  Romantic s a t i r e tended to aim  the  statue,  their  statement d e s c r i b e s the watchman h i m s e l f - he has l o s t h i s inner foundation,  insist  of  poetry  e r r i n g humanity; c r i m i n a l s  -XXV-  are not  executed - one  r e a d s them odes or shows them a  d r a m a t i c scene i n an i n f i r m a r y . satirized The  Moreover, some w r i t e r s  the Romantics; August von  F a t e f u l F o r k (1826), a t t a c k e d  c o n j u r i n g up  i n h i s play  the drama o f  destiny,  an amusing f a b r i c a t i o n h i n g i n g upon f a t e .  the f a t e f u l and  accursed  i n the fate-dramas are l e a d s an  Platen,  knives  and  daggers which f i g u r e  s y m b o l i z e d by a d r e a d f u l f o r k which  e n t i r e f a m i l y to d e s t r u c t i o n .  Bonaventura s s a t i r e i s d i r e c t e d equally at  Philistines  1  and  All  Romantics.  his satire;  the  But  more i m p o r t a n t , an abyss yawns beneath  satire  Nightwatches may  be  c o n s t a n t l y t u r n s upon i t s e l f .  divided into five  s e c t i o n s , each  g i n n i n g w i t h a s a t i r e whose comedy l e a d s b i t t e r denunciation In the  of the  The be-  to an i n c r e a s i n g l y  world.  second n i g h t w a t c h , the watchman  satirizes  r e l i g i o n w i t h h i s s t o r y of t h r e e p r i e s t s d i s g u i s e d  as  d e v i l s who  endeavour to k i d n a p the dead body of an a t h e i s t .  In I I I , he  f o i l s a p a i r of a d u l t e r e r s and  d e l i v e r s them  i r o n i c a l l y i n t o the hands of a s t e r n husband.  In  VI,  however, i t becomes c e r t a i n t h a t n e i t h e r r e l i g i o n nor have a meaning - Don God  i s a fumbling  love  Juan's t a l e r e v e a l s a heaven whose  t h e a t r e d i r e c t o r who  hero d i e d e s p i t e h i s p r a y e r s  and  who  w i l l not  has  l e t the  assigned  the wrong  p e r s o n s to p l a y the r o l e of l o v e r s . In I I , the watchman a l s o s a t i r i z e s p o e t r y ,  replacing  -XXVI-  i t w i t h a trumpet which he blows to c a l l to  announce a f a l s e Judgement Day  i n t o h i s own landed  him  p a s t and  V I I I , he r e c o u n t s  i n VI.  d e s c r i b e s how  f i r s t i n p r i s o n and  out the hour Then he  reaches  h i s s a t i r i c a l poems  then i n the madhouse.  the s u i c i d e of the  town p o e t , who  h i m s e l f upon r e c e i p t of h i s r e j e c t e d tragedy; meaningless undertaking  and  In hangs  poetry  is a  i n t h i s world.  A g a i n the watchman r e t u r n s t o s a t i r e , d e s c r i b i n g the inmates o f a madhouse i n the n i n t h n i g h t w a t c h . the  Subsequently,  s a t i r e y i e l d s to t h r e e v i g n e t t e s : a beggar f r e e z i n g t o  d e a t h , the wedding o f a y o u t h and f u n e r a l of h i s p r e v i o u s who  beloved,  a t the same time and  a misanthropic  d i r e c t s the watchman to the b u r i a l of a nun.  tells  p a r t of the s t o r y o f the nun's l o v e r and  the Romantic i d e a l i s negated i n the w o r l d A f o u r t h time he  of  p r i d e s h i m s e l f on owning the d i s c a r d e d  men  to assume importance i n h i s society... ( X I I ) .  porter  In XI,  shows  how  character  c l o t h e s of  he  he  to an a r t museum, i n which the  d e s c r i b e s h i s own  love a f f a i r  l e a r n s t h a t the s e l f i s n o t h i n g  great  This i s statues  of a n t i q u i t y seem to come a l i v e i n a b i t t e r phantasy. XIV,  he  reality.  t u r n s to s a t i r e , d e s c r i b i n g a  who  f o l l o w e d by a v i s i t  the  In  i n the madhouse where  and where he has  a dream  about N o t h i n g n e s s . He  r e a c h e s a g a i n i n t o the p a s t and  as a puppet d i r e c t o r , and  describes his  career  c l o s e s the work w i t h a scene i n  -XXVII-  the cemetery where he watches h i s f a t h e r d i s s o l v e  into  dust. Each s e c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h s a t i r e t h a t mocks t h e imp e r f e c t i o n o f man's w o r l d - a d u l t e r y , bad p o e t r y , Romantic l o v e , r a t i o n a l i s m and s a n i t y , and i m m o r t a l i t y a r e a l l attacked with equal r e l i s h .  But i n s t e a d o f p o i n t i n g a t  new i d e a l s t o r e p l a c e those which the s a t i r e has mocked as b e i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t , Don  each s e c t i o n ends i n a c a t a s t r o p h e -  Juan's t a l e o f l o v e and crime, the s u i c i d e o f t h e poet,  the young man whose b e l o v e d i s b u r i e d , t h e end o f t h e watchman's h a p p i n e s s  i n t h e madhouse, and the f i n a l  o u t b u r s t i n the cemetery.  nihilistic  I n each s e c t i o n , the s a t i r e  becomes l e s s o c c a s i o n a l , t h e comedy more h o l l o w - even s a t i r e i s meaningless no  cosmic  and w i t h o u t use i n a world t h a t has  meaning o r v a l u e .  Bonaventura's s a t i r i c  may be summed w i t h the l a s t n i g h t w a t c h  method  i n which the watchman  p a r o d i e s the musings o f the E n g l i s h g r a v e - y a r d  school of  p o e t s , n o t a b l y Young's N i g h t Thoughts ( 1 7 4 2 ) and t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n o f N o v a l i s ' Hymns t o the N i g h t  (1797)  i n order to  conclude: And t h e echo i n t h e c h a r n e l house c r i e s out f o r t h e l a s t time: NOTHING! . (p. 1 7 3 ) The  v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f the book r e f l e c t s  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the u n i v e r s e i s chaos.  Bonaventura's  The work i s a 27  f i c t i o n a l biography  told  out o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r .  -XXVIII-  Por  example, the watchman was c o n c e i v e d  and  an a l c h e m i s t  and  he was found by a shoemaker ( I V ) ; the watchman grew up  (XVI);  by a gypsy woman  the gypsy b u r i e d the boy i n a  casket  as a shoemaker and p o e t , i s thrown i n t o a madhouse ( V I I ) and has  a love a f f a i r  there  (XIV).  on a w i n t e r n i g h t , w h i l e  The t e n t h watch takes  the f i r s t  the a c t i o n a t the v e r n a l equinox. to  intervene  sentence o f X I I I  horn.  i n an a d u l t e r y , b u t i n V I , which c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the r i g h t t o blow  N i g h t w a t c h V, the watchman t e l l s u s , i s a c t u a l l y  w r i t t e n d u r i n g the day. thematic  places  I n I I I , he blows h i s h o r n  p r e c e d e s I I I , he r e l a t e s how he has l o s t his  place  I t i s o n l y i n the l i g h t  o f the  s t r u c t u r e w i t h i t s f i v e s e c t i o n s t h a t the work  makes sense, and the c o n f u s i o n  o f time elements s e r v e s t o  r e i n f o r c e Bonaventura's view o f man's p r e c a r i o u s ,  uncertain  existence. The  stylistic  elements o f The Nightwatches show a  s i m i l a r l a c k of u n i t y . t e l l a unified  story.  summary o f the f i r s t  Only the f i r s t  two n i g h t w a t c h e s  The t h i r d watch b e g i n s two.  with a  The f o u r t h watch mixes b i o g r a p h y  w i t h an a c c o u n t o f a puppet p l a y .  The t e n t h watch d e s c r i b e s  a beggar f r e e z i n g t o death, moves on t o a p o e t i c a c c o u n t o f l o v e and the l o v e f o r l o v e  (a r e d and a w h i t e b r i d e ) , and  ends w i t h the d e a t h o f the nun. . The f o u r t e e n t h watch mixes poems about the moon and l o v e w i t h an exchange o f l e t t e r s between two madhouse inmates.  I n i t s s t r u c t u r a l and  stylistic  a p p r o a c h , the n o v e l i s q u i t e modern. • I t i s , f o r example,  -XXIX-  r e m i n i s c e n t o f W i l l i a m Burroughs' Naked Lunch  (1959) i n  which the a u t h o r r e o r g a n i z e s h i s own w r i t i n g ,  slicing  pages  and s h u f f l i n g them so t h a t e v e n t s appear i n random o r d e r ; sometimes i t i s the v/ork o f o t h e r w r i t e r s or paragraphs from newspapers which he c u t s or f o l d s i n . Burroughs of  Bonaventura,  d e t a c h e s the r e a d e r from a s t e a d y f o r w a r d p l o t  n a r r a t i v e , and o f f e r s fragments  p a s t and p r e s e n t , f a c t and  of i n c i d e n t s that  blur  dream.  The watchman i n f o r m s us t h a t l i f e men  Like  i s a stage and  a r e puppets p l a y i n g c o n f u s e d r o l e s .  that  The m o t i f o f the  m a r i o n e t t e u n d e r l i n e s the m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s o f l i f e .  I n IV,  the  wooden puppets r e p r e s e n t i n g Don  are  c o n t r o l l e d by w i r e s ; they have no v o l i t i o n o f t h e i r  own,  and the p l a c e o f f a t e i s t a k e n by a b u f f o o n whose  b l u n d e r i n g p r e v e n t s Don tries XV,  Juan and h i s b r o t h e r  Juan from p u r s u i n g h i s l o v e - he  t o f o l l o w her and runs i n t o the clown i n s t e a d .  the watchman says o f a puppet's head  In  t h a t i t i s *!the  most m e c h a n i c a l t h i n g i n the w o r l d and doesn't c o n t a i n s i n g l e thought" (p. 1 5 5 ) . the  one  I n The N i g h t w a t c h e s . the use o f  puppet m o t i f r e s t s : . . . i n the a n t i t h e s i s o f the uncanny m e c h a n i c a l c o n t r o l o f courageous w i l l and man's s p i r i t s t r i v i n g toward the i n f i n i t e , an a n t i t h e s i s which makes a l l human a c t i o n s and deeds and a l l moral endeavours seem absurd.  ? f i  Throughout  The N i g h t w a t c h e s . the watchman examines  r e a l i t y and s t r i p s away l a y e r a f t e r l a y e r , but r e a c h e s o n l y " n o t h i n g " i n s t e a d o f t r u t h , and as he u n c o v e r s a l l appearances,  -XXX-  all he  the f a l s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the s e l f , a l l the masks, is left  with a d e r e l i c t  W i t h metaphors o f masks and  s e l f and a h a t r e d f o r the i l l u s i o n , he  t r i e s to  us t h a t n o t h i n g can he known w i t h c e r t a i n t y . masks seem h a r m l e s s : nightwatch  wear d e v i l s ' masks.  i s dead.  By the time we  f e a t u r e and  a satire,  t a k e s on a b i t t e r meta-  to f i n d a n y t h i n g except  the watchman  a s e r i e s o f masks which Existence  itself  i s a mask, because " e v e r y t h i n g i s r o l e , the  itself  as w e l l as the p l a y e r i n s i d e i t " (p. can f i n d  role  143).  o b s e r v a t i o n s on r o l e s and masks a k i n to  Bonaventura's e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h P i r a n d e l l o i n 1917 appearance and  priests  seems a mere  i n c l u d e h i s f e e l i n g s of j o y , sorrow, and h a t r e d .  We  the  first  I n I I , the  p h y s i c a l meaning - s e a r c h i n g f o r the s e l f , i s unable  At f i r s t ,  r e a c h the t e n t h watch,  the m o t i f of the masks, which a t f i r s t stylistic  convince  the a t h e i s t ' s f e a t u r e s i n the  are r i g i d because he  world.  dramatized  century.  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between  r e a l i t y t h a t makes the p u r s u i t of a b s o l u t e  knowledge c h i m e r i c a l . the c h a r a c t e r L a u d i n  I n R i g h t You  Are  ( I f You  Think  So),  proclaims:  You are condemned to the 'wonderful' torment of h a v i n g b e f o r e your v e r y eyes, suddenly c l o s e to you, on the one hand t h i s w o r l d of f a n t a s y and on the o t h e r , r e a l i t y . . . a n d of not b e i n g a b l e to Q d i s t i n g u i s h one from the o t h e r . 2  P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s seen as the p r o d u c t s i t u a t i o n s which c i r c u m s t a n c e  of the r o l e s  f o r c e s upon us.  We  all,  and  - X X X I -  s u g g e s t s P i r a n d e l l o i n h i s c o l l e c t e d p l a y s Naked Masks (1914), are s t e r e o t y p e d  characters with r o l e s prescribed  by l o n g t r a d i t i o n , a statement which Bonaventura wouid have applauded s i n c e one  of h i s c h a r a c t e r s comes to  the  same c o n c l u s i o n : ...You must know l i v e been p l a y i n g t h i s r o l e f o r c e n t u r i e s , a n d . t h a t I'm one o f the I t a l i a n s t o c k c h a r a c t e r s t h a t n e v e r l e a v e the t h e a t r e , (p. I n Bonaventura's w o r l d , where e v e r y t h i n g i s merely appearance, any  s o r t o f knowledge i s an i l l u s i o n .  Yet  man's conduct i s based on what he knows; i t i s t h e r e f o r e no wonder t h a t the watchman h i m s e l f i s amoral.  In  the  t e n t h n i g h t w a t c h , he watches a beggar f r e e z e to d e a t h does n o t h i n g  to intervene, having  the drama o f l i f e w r i t e s i t s e l f , even w i t h  i t s catastrophe"  Judgement Day  a direct result  course  j u s t i c e has  of the n o v e l we  s h o u l d not In V I ,  competent and  interfere  the watchman's  s u i c i d e of a young  In summary of The  even know h i s own  free w i l l  him, (IV)  and  is in-  mind ( I X ) .  Nightwatches, i t i s c l e a r t h a t  the watchman's e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t throughout the  Although  are made aware t h a t f o r  r e l i g i o n have no base i f God  does not  man,  p a i r to the husband, i n  no meaning, s i n c e he d e n i e s  s i n c e m o r a l i t y and  and  one  of the watchman's grim prophecy.  i n I I I he r e v e a l s the a d u l t e r o u s the  noted i n IV t h a t "when  (p. 31).  prank l e a d s to the  and  have l e d o n l y to  s t o r y he  takes p a i n s  disillusion, to c o n t r a d i c t  -XXXII-  the  c o n c e i t of Romantic b e l i e f s ,  mind's power t o f i n d t r u t h , and constructs. l e a d s not  He  discovers  to harmony and  to t e r r o r .  For  the r e a l i t y  of the mind's  t h a t abandonment o f the communion w i t h the  the watchman, l i f e  knowledge, whether i n the  self  infinite,  i s a delusion,  form of i n t e l l e c t  i s a mask thrown over a core not  o p t i m i s t i c f a i t h i n the  or  and  imagination,  of meaninglessness.  o n l y t r a n s i t o r y , b e g i n n i n g and  Life i s  e n d i n g i n death, i t i s  so m e a n i n g l e s s t h a t an a f t e r l i f e would be h o r r i b l e . the m i d s t of a botched u n i v e r s e , presides, able  cowers the  self,  over which the  consuming i t s e l f  to r e t a i n i t s i n t e g r i t y o n l y by  constantly  to the  true c o n d i t i o n of  A l t h o u g h the watchman u s e s the f r e q u e n t l y , he  does not use  calling  purpose,  attention  reality. term  "nothing"  the word " n i h i l i s t "  I t remained f o r Turgenev to i n v e n t  nihilist,  the  Use  In  Devil  to no  himself.  character  but  Barazov i n F a t h e r s  to  the  and  describe  self-styled  Sons (1861).  of the word s p r e a d r a p i d l y throughout Europe, l o s i n g  most o f i t s a n a r c h i s t i c and implying  i n s t e a d the d o c t r i n e  cannot be of d e s p a i r existence. i n 1804.  revolutionary flavour, t h a t moral norms or  j u s t i f i e d by r a t i o n a l argument, and over the The  emptiness and  triviality  the  standards concept  of human  Nightwatches embraced a l l t h r e e  Moreover, n i h i l i s m was  and  connotations  g e n e r a l l y equated w i t h  a t h e i s m , s i n c e b o t h views d e n i e d any  moral norms, and  there  -XXXIII-  are  many l i t e r a r y t y p e s o f t h e n i h i l i s t - a t h e i s t , as f o r  example Stepan T r o f i m o v i t c h who s t a t e s , i n Dostoevsky's The P o s s e s s e d (1871), t h a t  "life  and man i s u n h a p p y . t h e r e  i s no freedom beyond;  all,  and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g  i s pain, l i f e  beyond".^  N i e t z s c h e was the f i r s t  i s terror, that i s  0  p h i l o s o p h e r to make e x t e n s i v e  use o f t h e term " n i h i l i s m " , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t as a m a t t e r of  h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , a t h e i s m was u s h e r i n g i n t h e age o f  nihilism.  "God i s dead! God remains dead! And we have  k i l l e d him", he p r o c l a i m e d i n 1882.  S i x y e a r s l a t e r , he  explained: The b e l i e f i n the a b s o l u t e i m m o r a l i t y o f n a t u r e , i n a i m - and m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y e f f e c t once the b e l i e f i n God and ^ an e s s e n t i a l l y m o r a l o r d e r becomes u n t e n a b l e . ?  C l e a r l y , t h e watchman i s a n i h i l i s t of  i n the f u l l e s t  the word, and N i e t z s c h e has summarized  sense  a c o n d i t i o n which  we have seen a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g t h e European Romantic  Movement.  from a p o s i t i v e  The Nightwatches e l u c i d a t e the s h i f t  t o a n e g a t i v e view o f heaven and e a r t h .  " N i h i l i s m i s an i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n imposed on the  experience of nothingness",  and Bonaventura's  story  q u a l i f i e s as a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a l a r g e amount o f n i h i l i s t i c literature  s i n c e 1804.  However, except f o r h i s pose o f l a u g h t e r and anger, the  watchman does n o t e l a b o r a t e upon the s p i r i t u a l b e h a v i o u r  and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms o f t h e n i h i l i s t .  The  -XXXIV-  q u a l i t i e s o f e n n u i , a n x i e t y , and d e s p a i r , and more r e f i n e d e n q u i r i e s i n t o masks and metaphors pursued by l a t e r w r i t e r s .  o f i l l u s i o n , were  Bonaventura p r e s e n t s the watch-  man's l a c k of m o r a l i t y w i t h l i t t l e  detail,  f o r example,  i t remained f o r Dostoevsky t o e x p l o r e the e t h i c a l of the n i h i l i s t ;  i n Crime and Punishment  and  position  (1880), the s t u d e n t  R a s k o l n i k o v commits murder to t e s t the power o f h i s a m o r a l i t y , on the assumption t h a t a man  o f g e n i u s and  p e r s o n a l moral c o n v i c t i o n s can j u s t i f y to h i m s e l f any a c t , i n c l u d i n g murder.  And w i t h Notes from the Underground  a c o n f e s s i o n i n the Romantic nihilist  (1864),  v e i n , the c h a r a c t e r o f the  i s f u l l y f i x e d i n D o s t o e v s k y ' s d e p i c t i o n o f an  a l i e n a t e d and r e j e c t e d man s o c i e t y , who  who  i s bent on revenge  against  has g i v e n up a l l s e a r c h f o r meaning, and  who  i n h i s own words might as w e l l be a "piano-key", as f a r as h i s human s i g n i f i c a n c e i s concerned. I n Germany, Btlchner wrote dramas t h a t  perfectly  e x p r e s s e d the watchman's c o n d i t i o n some t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r 1804,  u s i n g s i m i l a r m o t i f s of puppet t h e a t r e and masks o f  the s e l f , as f o r example the d i s s o l u t i o n of the s e l f i n V a l e r i a ' s mask scene i n Leonce and Lena i n The Death o f Panton  (1835) t h a t  (1836), and  stating  "the w o r l d i s chaos.  34 Nothingness i s the God about to be b o r n " . ^  A p a r t i c u l a r l y modern f e a t u r e o f The Nightwatches i s i t s  -XXXV-  t r e a t m e n t of drama. "tragi-comedy" and the  classic  Bonaventura employs the " f a r c e " (p. 33)  concept of t r a g e d y  a d e f i n e d moral u n i v e r s e has he  constructs i t .  the s t o r y of Don and  Two  terms  t o p o i n t out  that  with i t s three u n i t i e s  no meaning i n the w o r l d  as  p l a y s are o f f e r e d i n the n o v e l  Juan, performed as puppet t h e a t r e  the p o e t ' s r e j e c t e d t r a g e d y  Man.  away the masks of e x i s t e n c e  I n "both p l a y s ,  Harlequin  such as p r e t e n s i o n s  f e e l i n g s of l o v e and  sorrow.  of  In  e x p l a i n s t h a t i t i s u s e l e s s to take  the  H a r l e q u i n alone  can p l a y a decent r o l e because he  i s a comedy i n which  the p l a y f o r what i t i s : - a f a r c e " (p. 40).  knowledge and  thereby  recognizes  In V I I I ,  poet s u b s t i t u t e s the Greek chorus f o r a b u f f o o n , l i v e s a senseless  i s aware of the f a c t , and  the  l i f e seriously,  last analysis l i f e  and  a  existence  a f o o l because he mocks h i s  expresses  h i s freedom.  The  puppet  stupid  c r e a t u r e s l o v e to s u p p l y  for  to  kill  i t to be"  (p. 84).  not  serious  Moreover, the  t h a t i n the p o e t ' s t r a g e d y ,  o n l y b l i n d n e s s , and  everything...  " w i l l be funny enough  the audience w i t h l a u g h t e r no m a t t e r how  wants to make sure reach  causal explanations  the p o e t ' s t r a g e d y  the poet i n t e n d e d  the  "tragic  p l a y i s " s u b l i m e l y u n m o t i v a t e d . . . a l t h o u g h we  (p. 41), and  strips  IV,  because " i n the  clown" - t r a g i c because he  -  (IV),  f i g u r e of the f o o l dominates, a c t i n g as an agent who  i n t e l l e c t and  and  "man  buffoon will  t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n somewhere  11  -XXXVI-  i n a s u b - p l o t " (p. 86). tragi-comedy  His r o l e  i n the modern  This i s essentially modern p l a y w r i g h t .  i s to t u r n t r a g e d y  into  sense.  the r o l e now  attributed  to the  F r i e d r i c h Dtirrenmatt, f o r example,  explains: The u n i v e r s e f o r me i s chaos. The w o r l d (hence the stage which r e p r e s e n t s the w o r l d ) i s f o r me something monstrous, a r i d d l e of m i s f o r t u n e s which must be a c c e p t e d but b e f o r e which one must not recapitulate. F o r him,  comedy supposes an unformed w o r l d , a w o r l d  u p s i d e down and about presupposes  to f o l d .  Tragedy,  turned  on the o t h e r hand,  g u i l t , d e s p a i r , v i s i o n and a sense  of r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t y , but these c o n c e p t s are absurd i n a w o r l d  that  i s merely appearance and has no v a l u e - comedy a l o n e i s a suitable  d r a m a t i c medium, and l a u g h t e r i s man's o n l y  p o s s i b l e response  to the r i d d l e  of e x i s t e n c e .  man's freedom becomes m a n i f e s t .  Consequently,  In l a u g h t e r , Dtirrenmatt  sees i n the e v o l u t i o n of the t r a g i c hero a t r e n d comedy. tragic  toward  A n a l o g o u s l y , the f o o l becomes more and more of a figure.  The n a t u r e of the modern p l a y w r i g h t ' s l a u g h t e r i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by Samuel B e c k e t t i n h i s n o v e l Watt as  (1953),  follows: . . . o n l y t h r e e I t h i n k need d e t a i n us, I mean the b i t t e r , the h o l l o w and the m i r t h l e s s . They c o r r e s p o n d to s u c c e s s i v e . . . e x c o r i a t i o n s of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . t h e b i t t e r l a u g h laughs a t t h a t which i s not good, i t i s the e t h i c a l l a u g h . The  -XXXVII-  h o l l o w l a u g h l a u g h s a t t h a t which i s not t r u e , i t i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l l a u g h . Not good! Not true! V/ell w e l l . But the m i r t h l e s s l a u g h i s the d i a n o e t i c l a u g h , down the s n o u t . . . I t i s the l a u g h of l a u g h s . . . t h e l a u g h l a u g h i n g a t the laugh... The  modern p l a y w r i g h t i n v i t e s the audience  w i t h him a t the deluded  to  , ^  laugh  a n t i c s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s on  the  s t a g e , and Bonaventura a l s o employs a l l t h r e e forms o f this laughter.  The  h i t t e r and  h e r e n t i n the i r o n y and watches  t  and  the h o l l o w l a u g h are i n -  the s a t i r e t h a t permeat The  the m i r t h l e s s l a u g h i s the o n l y response  the o n l y hope l e f t  1  w o r l d h i s t o r y u n t i l the l a s t a c t , and mountain peak and  and  t o s t a n d on the  (p. 33).  I n the  the watchman d i s c u s s e s the n a t u r e  concludes,  life  Juan to s u r v i v e  to amuse h i m s e l f "by w h i s t l i n g  stomping a t the whole f a r c e "  and  " L e t me  I shall  last  and  eleventh of l a u g h t e r  have l a u g h t e r f o r the r e s t  of  my  endure."  There are o t h e r s i m i l a r i t i e s Bonaventura and B e c k e t t .  e s p e c i a l l y between  Both employ the f i g u r e of the  f o o l , but w h i l e Bonaventura draws from day and uses a H a r l e q u i n and  the s o u r c e s of h i s  a buffoon, Beckett, i n  W a i t i n g f o r Godot, models h i s two  clowns V l a d i m i r and  E s t r a g o n on more contemporary s o u r c e s - the two ville  and  to Bonaventura s c h a r a c t e r s i n a world  t h a t i s a v o i d - the watchman a d v i s e s Don  nightwatch,  Night-  c h a r a c t e r s w i t h u n s u i t a b l e bowler h a t s and  are vaudescavenged  clothes. In  The  Nightwatches,  the p o e t ' s  t r a g e d y seeks  to  h o l d l i f e up t o a d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r t o r e v e a l " i t s abysses  -XXXVIII-  in and  the furrows and  wrinkles  on the b e a u t i f u l cheek" (p.  75)  to r e v e a l the v o i d beneath a l l appearances t h r o u g h  the use  of l a u g h t e r  Waiting  f o r Godot i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r - the p l a y d e s -  cribes a universe r e a l i t y we  see  employed by  devoid  o f meaning.  Beckett's  For B e c k e t t ,  i s j u s t a p r o j e c t i o n of our  We're h a b i t u a l l y a d a p t i n g , order  the b u f f o o n .  "the  consciousness.  f a l s i f y i n g , f a k i n g evidence  to a d j u s t the human organism to the c o n d i t i o n s  in  of  37 its  existence".  ignorance  and  V l a d i m i r and  Estragon  experience  p a i n an e x i s t e n c e w h i c h they  u n d e r s t a n d nor  identify.  Nor  can they  the form or essence of a n y t h i n g  they  can  in  neither  in reality  comprehend  encounter.  Bonaventura's H a r l e q u i n p l a y s a r o l e s i m i l a r to t h a t of Lucky i n W a i t i n g  f o r Godot.  Both p e r f o r m a dance  and  u t t e r a speech which p o i n t s out t h a t God's c r e a t i o n i s a mistake and  unfinished.  against science, education, "for  Lucky's speech i s a t i r a d e and  r e l i g i o n , and  r e a s o n s unknown" p r e d o m i n a t e . ^  seeks to p o i n t out t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i l l u s i o n , but he  Harlequin's  in life  contradicts himself  the words speech  i s no more than  c o n s t a n t l y "and  after  a l o n g , r i d i c u l o u s d i s c o u r s e f i n d s h i m s e l f back where started"  (p.  38).  L i k e Bonaventura's c h a r a c t e r s , B e c k e t t ' s s t u c k i n time, suspended i n e t e r n i t y . time and  he  space have l i t t l e  A world  heroes are without  human s i g n i f i c a n c e , and  i t is  -XXXIX-  a w o r l d w h i c h Bonaventura c o n s t r u c t s w i t h the m o t i f s o f s t a t u e s and  of p e t r i f a c t i o n .  Both the watchman and  V l a d i m i r have been p o e t s , and w h i l e the f i r s t to s i l e n c e ,  the second  has been reduced  watchman w r i t e s a speech  i s reduced  to r a g s .  e x p l a i n i n g t h a t man  The  d i e s as  as he i s born, and Pozzo, i n W a i t i n g f o r Godot,  soon  concludes:  They g i v e b i r t h a s t r i d e o f a grave, the l i g h t gleams an i n s t a n t , then i t ' s n i g h t once more. Beckett's play stresses h i s conviction that " a u n i v e r s e l a c k i n g a meaning, an answer, a g e s t u r e o f grace 40  n o t to be found  i n mind or body, i s w o r t h l e s s " ,  have seen t h a t The viction.  Nightwatches e x p r e s s a s i m i l a r  t h a t B e c k e t t expects h i s audience l a u g h i n response  con-  must assume  to attempt  the m i r t h l e s s  t o h i s d e p i c t i o n of e x i s t e n c e .  F o r t u n a t e l y , b o t h the views of B e c k e t t and a r e o n l y one  a s p e c t o f modern thought.  and A l a n Watts, f o r example, c o n s i d e r the o f Nothingness  Bonaventura  Modern exponents  o f "expanded c o n s c i o u s n e s s " such as T e i l h a r d de  Chardin  apprehension  an out-moded and m i s d i r e c t e d world-view.  C h a r d i n t r a c e s the p a t t e r n of man's p s y c h i c a l  s p i r i t u a l development and p r i m i t i v e animal and he  we  However, the watchman s t i l l has h i s l a u g h t e r .  V l a d i m i r and E s t r a g o n do not l a u g h , and we  De  and  e s t a b l i s h e s a movement  consciousness  to r e a s o n and  and from  imagination,  e n v i s i o n s an i n c r e a s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a p r o c e s s  from  XL-  w i t h i n d i r e c t e d by an i n d w e l l i n g God  who  took charge of  e v o l u t i o n by i n s e r t i n g h i m s e l f i n t o m a t t e r . s h o u l d l e a d man Chardin  to a f i n a l  This evolution  s t a t e of awareness which de  terms "the omega p o i n t " , which w i l l p l a c e man's  mind i n the c e n t r e of the l i v i n g u n i v e r s e . ^ in  negating  the a n x i o u s  upon Zen Buddhism and  A l a n Watts,  q u e s t i o n i n g of the n i h i l i s t s ,  Taoism to d i s c u s s a form of awareness  i n which the mutual i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of a l l t h i n g s all  events  becomes a c o n s t a n t  F o r Watts, man whose n a t u r e  has  s e n s a t i o n i n man's  and  consciousness.  become a b e i n g c e n t r e d i n h i s own  ego,  i s u n i v e r s a l r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l , and  become c e n t r e d i n c l a s h , c o n f l i c t and for  draws  an i s o l a t e d  has  discord, searching  s e l f t h a t does not e x i s t , i g n o r i n g the  p e r f e c t i o n o f h i s organism as a whole. Cosmology (1962), he  I n The  Joyous  explains:  L i f e i s b a s i c a l l y a g e s t u r e , but no one, no t h i n g , i s making i t . . . F o r i t i s n ' t d r i v e n by a n y t h i n g ; i t j u s t happens f r e e l y of i t s e l f . . . There i s s i m p l y no problem of l i f e ; i t i s c o m p l e t e l y p u r p o s e l e s s p l a y - exuberance which i s i t s own end. B a s i c a l l y t h e r e i s the g e s t u r e . Time, space and m u l t i p l i c i t y a r e c o m p l i c a t i o n s of i t . There i s no r e a s o n whatever to e x p l a i n i t , f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s are j u s t another form of c o m p l e x i t y , a new m a n i f e s t a t i o n . of l i f e on top o f l i f e , of g e s t u r e s g e s t u r i n g .  d  I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n some r e s p e c t s The  Nightwatches i s an immature work, the pose of a  angry a t the w o r l d , positive  incapable  man  of s t r u g g l i n g toward a  statement about s o c i e t y and  the nature  of  man  -XLIand  God.  H i s w i t i s o f t e n e n t e r t a i n i n g , and h i s  d e v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g the s t r u c t u r e and  the use  stylistic  of masks and  l a u g h t e r , a r e sometimes s t a r t l i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  modern l i t e r a t u r e - but h i s c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s o f n e g a t i o n h a r d l y does j u s t i c e to the w o r l d . is  s a c r e d , and who  " W r i t e r s t o whom n o t h i n g  a c c o r d i n g l y stop t h e r e a t , have no  o c c a s i o n f o r s u r p r i s e on f i n d i n g , a t the end  of  their A. 3  o p e r a t i o n , t h a t n o t h i n g i s a l l they have l e f t " . a one-sided  Such  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and  Nightwatches extends  The  t h i s o p e r a t i o n o f n e g a t i o n to i t s  l o g i c a l and unhappy c o n c l u s i o n : " I t ' s n o b l e r t o hate world  use  s p e c i f i c modernity  o f modern thought  T u r n i n g away from largely and  and  of the n o v e l r e s t s i n i t s  to some e x t e n t i n i t s s t y l e .  the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d  and p l a c i n g  emphasis  on the mind w i t h i t s dangerous dichotomy of  i m a g i n a t i o n , Bonaventura was  h i s own  caught  The  intellect  in illusions  making which l e d j u s t as e a s i l y to  as to meaning. and  165).  t h a n to l o v e i t " (p. The  the  of  Nothingness  l o s s of contact with f i n i t e  reality  c o n c o m i t a n t l y , w i t h the i n t e g r i t y o f the s e l f , became  a s h a t t e r i n g and  t e r r i f y i n g experience.  As he  sought  s e p a r a t e the A l l from h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he graduated an e x a m i n a t i o n world. he p a i d .  The  to toward  of the p r o c e s s e s w i t h which he p e r c e i v e d the  l o s s of r e l i g i o n was  Moreover, he was  caught  one  of the  i n an  prices  endless  -XLI  IE-  game - he c o u l d c o n s t r u c t a n y t h i n g he p l e a s e d , and y e t he  could not point a t a l i v i n g t r u t h .  Beckett's  tramps,  when i n t r o d u c e d on the s t a g e , became an i n t e r n a t i o n a l sensation.  The u n i v e r s e they p o r t r a y , and man's c o n d i t i o n  t h e r e i n , was e x p l o r e d some hundred and seventy y e a r s ago by the watchman as he made h i s n i g h t l y rounds.  -XLIII-  FOOTNOTES  The Nightwatches went a t f i r s t u n n o t i c e d except by E.T.A. Hoffmann, who a t t r i b u t e d a u t h o r s h i p t o the philosopher Schelling. A f t e r a r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n i n 1877, the mystery of the a u t h o r became a f o c a l p o i n t o f scholarly criticism. E.T.A Hoffmann was c o n s i d e r e d a l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e (R.M. Meyer, "Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", i n E u p h o r i o n , X, 1903). I n 1909, F. S c h u l t z , i n h i s Der Y e r f a s s e r der N.v.B.: Untersuchungen z u r d e u t s c h e n Romantik, d e s t r o y e d p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s h i p arguments and a d v o c a t e d E.G. W e t z e l (1779-1819) by s e t t i n g up p a r a l l e l s between The Nightwatches and W e t z e l ' s o t h e r works. In 1912, E. Frank ("Clemens B r e n t a n o , Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", GRM, IV) used p h i l o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s s i m i l a r t o those o f S c h u l t z and a t t r i b u t e d a u t h o r s h i p to Clemens Brentano, and i n 1921, K a r l Hofmann, i n h i s Prague d i s s e r t a t i o n Zur Y e r f a s s e r f r a g e der Nachtwachen, a l s o a s c r i b e d the work t o Brentano, d i s c u s s i n g s t y l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s between the two w r i t e r s to p l e a d h i s cause. However, the a u t h o r s h i p of The Nightwatches w i l l remain a mystery u n l e s s some d i r e c t e v i d e n c e i s found. More r e c e n t s c h o l a r s a v o i d the q u e s t i o n o f the a u t h o r and i n s t e a d d e a l w i t h the c o n t e n t o f the n o v e l . Die Nachtwachen des Bonaventura (Munich, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 146* ( A l l subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t h e s i s w i l l r e f e r t o t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n .) Morse Peckham, i n h i s "Toward a Theory o f Romanticism", PMLA, LXVI, March 1951, p o i n t s out t h a t s i n c e D e s c a r t e s ' t i m e s , the u n i v e r s e was seen as a p e r f e c t l y r u n n i n g machine. God gave i t laws, s e t i t i n motion, and r e t i r e d from i t . In t h i s mechanism, a l l p o s s i b l e e v e n t s and r e a l i t i e s were r e a l i z e d from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g , l e a v i n g no room f o r adjustment or change. Immanuel Kant, C r i t i q u e of Pure Reason, J.M.D. M e i k l e j o h n (London, 1879), p. 33.  transl.  -XLIV-  ^ F.W.J, von S c h e l l i n g , Werke, ed. Manfred S c h r O t e r (Munich, 1927), I , p. 706. (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) ^ J.G. von Herder, "Knowledge and Sentiment o f the S o u l " , Werke ( C a r l s r u h e , 1820), V I I I , p. 19. (my t r a n s lation) 7  A.W. S c h l e g e l and F. S c h l e g e l , ed. Atheneum (Darmstadt, I 9 6 0 ) , I I I , p. 204. (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) g J o s e p h von E i c h e n d o r f f , " H a l l e und H e i d e l b e r g " , Gesammelte Werke ( B i e l e f e l d , 1959), I I , p. 573. (my translation") 9  c f . E r n s t C a s s i r e r . Rousseau, Kant, Goethe; Two E s s a y s ( P r i n c e t o n , 1947), t r a n s l . James Gutmann e t a l . "A V i s i o n o f the L a s t Judgement", P o e t r y and P r o s e of W i l l i a m B l a k e , ed. G e o f f r e y Keynes, 4 t h . ed. TTondon, 1939), I , p. 639. ±  Q  ±  L  J.  Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e , B i o g r a p h i a L i t e r a r i a . Shawcross ( O x f o r d , 1907), I , p. 202.  ed.  12  Morse Peckham, PMLA, p. 14. See a l s o A r t h u r 0. L o v e j o y , The G r e a t C h a i n of B e i n g (New York, I960) w i t h i t s t h r e e c r i t e r i a o f Romanticism: o r g a n i c i s m , dynamicism, and d i v e r s i t a r i a n i s m . 1  3  p. 5»  I b i d , p. 20. E t i e n n e P i v e r t de Senancour, Obermann (London, ( t r a n s l a t o r anonymous)  1909),  15  ' G.F. 16  A l f r e d de Musset, A Modern Man's C o n f e s s i o n , Monkshood (London,""n.d. ), pT 16.  transl.  C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e , The F l o w e r s o f E v i l and o t h e r Poems, t r a n s l . F r a n c i s Duke (1961), p. 2o3 (ATT q u o t a t i o n s a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n , ) 17  L o r d Byron, "Manfred, A D r a m a t i c Poem", Works (London, 1866), V, p. 9. 18 A l e k s a n d r P u s h k i n , Eugene Onegin, t r a n s l . V l a d i m i r Nabokov (New York, 1964), I, p. 114. 19  M i h a i l Lermontov, A Hero o f our Time, t r a n s l . Nabokov (New York, 19587, pp. 18"8-89.  Vladimir  -XLV-  20  Thomas C a r l y l e , S a r t o r R e s a r t u s : The L i f e and O p i n i o n s o f H e r r • T e u f e l s d r o c k h , ed. C.F. H a r r o l d (New York, 1 9 3 7 7 , p. 149. 2 1  R o b e r t Browning, "The R i n g and the Book", P o e t i c a l Works (London, 1896), I I , p. 291. 22 N o v a l i s ( F r i e d r i c h von H a r d e n b e r g ) , Gesammelte Werke, ed. C. Z e e l i g ( Z u r i c h , 1954), V, p. 274. (my translation) ' Ludwig T i e c k , " W i l l i a m L o v e l l " , S c h r i f t e n 1828), V I , p. 1 4 8 , (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) -  (Berlin,  24 M i c h a e l Novak, The E x p e r i e n c e o f N o t h i n g n e s s (New York, 1970), p. 13. 25 W i l h e l m H e i n r i c h Wackenroder, " H e r z e n s e r g i e s s u n g e n e i n e s k u n s t l i e b e n d e n K l o s t e r b r u d e r s " , Werke und B r i e f e (Jena, 1910), I , p. 130. (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) J e f f r e y L. Sammons, D i e Nachtwachen v o n Bonaventura: A S t r u c t u r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (The Hague, 1965), pp. 33-57.  i  27 J . L . Sammons p l a c e s t h e c h r o n o l o g y as f o l l o w s : XVI, IV, V I I , IX, XIV, XV, V I , I , I I , I I I , ( I V ) , V, V I I I , X, X I , X I I , X I I I , ( X V I ) . 2 8  E l e o n o r e Rapp, D i e M a r i o n e t t e i n d e r Deutschen D i c h t u n g vom Sturm und Drang b i s z u r Romantik ( L e i p z i g , 1924), p. 38^ (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) L u i g i P i r a n d e l l o , R i g h t You A r e ( I f You T h i n k S o ) . t r a n s l . F r e d e r i c k May ( M i d d l e s e x , 1969), p. 196, ( I t a l i c s a r e mine,) 2  9  ^ Fyodor D o s t o e v s k y , The P o s s e s s e d , t r a n s l . G a r n e t t (New York, 1916), p. 105.  Constance  ^ F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The J o y f u l Wisdom, t r a n s l . Thomas Common (New York, 1964), p. 16B~^ ^ F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The W i l l t o Power, t r a n s l . W. Kaufmann and K . J . H o l l i n g d a l e (New York, 1967), p. 35. 2  The E x p e r i e n c e o f N o t h i n g n e s s , p. 16. 34 (my  Georg Biichner, Gesammelte Werke (Munich, 1964), p. 74* translation)  -XLYI35  F r i e d r i c h . Dtirrenmatt, Problems o f the T h e a t r e , t r a n s l . Gerhard N e l l h a u s (New York, 1958), p. 32. 5  6  Samuel B e c k e t t , Watt (New  York, 1953), p. 48.  37 Ronald Hayman, Samuel B e c k e t t  TO  (London, 1969), p. 17.  Samuel B e c k e t t , W a i t i n g f o r Godot p. 28. 3  9  (New York,  1953),  I b i d , p. 57.  40 J . J a c o b s e n and W.R. M u e l l e r , The Testament B e c k e t t (New York, 1964), p. 24.  41  o f Samuel "  T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n , B u i l d i n g the E a r t h , t r a n s l . N o e l L i n d s a y (London, 1965), pp. 56-57. ^ A l a n Watts, The Joyous Cosmology: A d v e n t u r e s i n the C h e m i s t r y o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s (London, 1962), p. 72. 2  43 (New  The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l osophy. ed. P a u l Edwards York, n . d . j , V, p7"524.  -XLVII-  LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED  P r i m a r y Sources  Anonymous, D i e Nachtwachen des Bonaventura. Munich,  I960.  B a u d e l a i r e , C h a r l e s , The F l o w e r s o f E v i l and Other Poems, t r a n s l . F r a n c i s Duke, U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a P r e s s , 1961. B e c k e t t , Samuel, W a i t i n g f o r Godot. , Watt. New  York,  New  York,  1954.  1970.  B l a k e , W i l l i a m , P o e t r y and P r o s e , ed. G e o f f r e y 4th. ed., London, 1939. Browning,  Robert, P o e t i c a l  Works. I I , London,  Btlchner, Georg, Gesammelte Werke. Munich, Byron, George  York,  1896.  1964.  N o e l Gordon, Works. V, London,  Burroughs, W i l l i a m , Naked Lunch. New  Keynes,  1866.  1962.  C a r l y l e , Thomas, S a r t o r R e s a r t u s : The L i f e and O p i n i o n s of H e r r T e u f e l s d r O c k h , ed. C F . H a r r o l d , New York, 1937. C o l e r i d g e , Samuel T a y l o r , B i o g r a p h i a L i t e r a r i a , J . Shawcross, O x f o r d , 1907. Dostoevsky, Fyodor, Crime and Punishment, G a r n e t t , New York, 1916. A.R.  ed.  transl.  , Notes from the Underground, MacAndrew, New York, 1916.  Constance transl.  -XLVIII-  , The P o s s e s s e d , t r a n s l . G a r n e t t , New York, 1916.  Constance  E i c h e n d o r f f , J o s e p h von, Gesammelte Werke. I I , B i e l e f e l d , 1959. Eliot,  Thomas S t e a r n e s , S e l e c t e d Poems. London, 1956  F i c h t e , Johann G o t t l i e b , The S c i e n c e o f Knowledge, A.E. K r o e g e r , London7"T8BT: ^"  transl.  Hemingway, E r n e s t , The Snows o f K i l i m a n j a r o and Other S h o r t S t o r i e s •„ New York, 1955. Herder, Johann G o t t f r i e d von, Sammtliche Werke. V I I I , C a r l s r u h e , 1820. """" Kant, Immanuel, C r i t i q u e o f Pure Reason, t r a n s l . J.M.D. M e i k l e j o h n , London, 1897. Lermontov, M i h a i l , A Hero o f Our Time, t r a n s l . Nabokov, New York, 1958.  Vladimir  Lowry, Malcom, Under the V o l c a n o . T o r o n t o , 1956. M i l t o n , John, Complete Poems and Major P r o s e , ed. M e r r i t Y. Hughes, New York, 1957. Musset, A l f r e d de, A Modern Man's C o n f e s s i o n , G.F. Monkshood, London, n.d.  transl.  N i e t z s c h e , F r i e d r i c h , The J o y f u l Wisdom, t r a n s l . Thomas Common, New York, 1964. •  . The W i l l t o Power, t r a n s l . W. Kaufmann and R.J. H o l l i n g d a l e " , New York, 1967.  N o v a l i s , Gesammelte Werke, ed. C. Z e e l i g , 5 v o l s . ,  Zurich,  P i r a n d e l l o , L u i g i , R i g h t You A r e ( I f You T h i n k S o ) , t r a n s l . F r e d e r i c k May, London, 1969. 1952.  , Naked Masks, ed. E r i c B e n t l e y , New York,  Platen-Hallermttnde, August von, D i e V e r h a n g n i s v o l l e G a b e l . S t u t t g a r t , 1826.  -IL-  P u s h k i n , A l e k s a n d r , Eugene Onegin, t r a n s l . V l a d i m i r Nabokov, 4 v o l s . , New York, 1954. Rousseau, Jean Jacques, D i s c o u r s s u r l e s s c i e n c e s e t l e s A r t s . New York, 194TT. The Creed o f a P r i e s t o f Savoy,  t  t r a n s l . A.H. B e a t t i e , New York~7 T95FI Sade, D.A. F r a n c o i s de, J u s t i n e , C a s a v i n i , P a r i s , 1953. S a r t r e , Jean P a u l , Nausea, York, 1964.  transl.  Pierallessandro  t r a n s l . Lloyd Alexander,  New  S c h e l l i n g , F.W.J, von, Werke, ed. Manfred S c h r B t e r , I , Munich, 1927. S c h l e g e l , F. and A.W. von, ed., Atheneumo v o l s . 1 and Darmstadt, I960.  3,  Senancour, E t i e n n e P i v e r t de, Obermann, t r a n s l . n . l . , London, 1909. StaftT., Anne L o u i s e G-ermaine ( N e c k e r ) , De L'Allemagne. - 1958. ~~ T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n , P i e r r e , B u i l d i n g N o e l L i n d s a y , London, 1965. T i e c k , Ludwig, S c h r i f t e n  0  Paris,  the E a r t h , t r a n s l .  v o l s . 6 and 9, B e r l i n ,  1828.  Turgenev, I v a n S., F a t h e r s and Sons, t r a n s l . R. Edmunds, B a l t i m o r e , 1965. Watts, A l a n , The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures i n the C h e m i s t r y o f Consciousness« London, 1962. V i g n y , A l f r e d V i c t o r de, P o e s i e s . Yeats, William Butler,  Collected  Paris, Poems  9  n.d. London,  1965.  Secondary Sources Berend, Eduard, "Zu den Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", f . d t . P h i l o l . , L I (1926), pp. 329-330.  Zeitschr.  L-  Bowra, C M .  , The  Romantic I m a g i n a t i o n .  London,  1950.  Brinkmann, R i c h a r d , "Nachtwachen von Bonaventura, K e h r s e i t e der Frtihromantik?", i n Die Deutsche Romantik, ed. H. S t e f f e n , G S t t i n g e n , 19o"7. C a r t e r , A.E., The Idea of Decadence i n F r e n c h Romantic L i t e r a t u r e 1830-1900. The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto: P r e s s , 1958. C a s s i r e r , E r n s t , Rousseau, Kant, Goethe: Two E s s a y s , t r a n s l . James Gutmann e t a l . , P r i n c e t o n n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947. u  Clement, N.H.,  Romanticism i n F r a n c e .  New  York,  Dtirrenmatt, F r i e d r i c h , Problems of the T h e a t r e , Gerhard N e l l h a u s , New York, 1958. Edwards, P a u l , ed., The New York, n.d.  Encyclopedia  1939. transl.  of P h i l o s o p h y ,  E s s l i n , M a r t i n , B r i e f C h r o n i c l e s . London,  7 vols.,  1970.  Fowlie, Wallace, Climate of V i o l e n c e : French LiteraryT r a d i t i o n from B a u: d e l a i r e to the P r e s e n t . New York,  TWT.  Frank, E., "Clemens B r e n t a n o j GRM, IV (1912). GBlz,  Nachtwachen von  Bonaventura",  s., Die Formen der U n m i t t e l h a r k e i t i n den N.v.B., d i s s . F r a n k f u r t , 1955.  Gundolf, F., "Fber Clemens Brentano", Z e i t s c h r . f . Deutschkunde. XXXXII (1928). . Guthke, K a r l S., Die M y t h o l o g i e Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht,  der E n t g S t t e r t e n Welt. 1970.  Hayman, Ronald, Samuel Beckett,,  London,  1969.  Hofmann, K a r l , Zur V e r f a s s e r f r a g e der Nachtwachen, d i s s . Prague, 1921. Jacobsen, J . and M u e l l e r , W.R., Beckett» New York, 1964.  The  Testament of Samuel  K o h l s c h m i d t , Werner, " N i h i l i s m u s i n der Romantik", i n Form und I n n e r l i c h k e i t . B e r l i n , 1955.  -LI-  K o r f f , H.A., G e i s t d e r G o e t h e z e i t : V e r s u c h e i n e r I d e e l l e n Entwicklung der Klassischen-Romantischen L i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e . 3 v o l s . , L e i p z i g , 1941. Lamont, R o s e t t e , C . "The M e t a p h y s i c a l P a r c e : B e c k e t t and Ionesco", The F r e n c h Review, XXXII (1959). f  L o v e j o y , A r t h u r 0., The Great C h a i n o f B e i n g : A Study i n the H i s t o r y o f an Idea. New York, I960. Meyer, R.M., "Nachtwachen v o n Bonaventura", X (1903).  Euphorion,  M t i l l e r , J . , D i e Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", Wissen., X I I (1936).  Neue J b . fttr  Novak, M i c h a e l , The E x p e r i e n c e o f N o t h i n g n e s s . New 1970.  York,  0 ' B r i a n , Elmer, V a r i e t i e s o f M y s t i c E x p e r i e n c e . New 1964.  York,  P a u l s e n , W., " B o n a v e n t u r a l s Nachtwachen i n l i t . Raum, Sprache, und S t r u k t u r " , J a h r b u c h d. d e u t s c h e n S c h i l l e r - G e s e l l s c h a f t , IX (1965). Peckham, Morse, "Toward a Theory o f Romanticism", LXVI (March, 1951).  PMLA,  Sammons, J . L . , D i e Nachtwachen von Bonaventura: A S t r u c t u r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The Hague, 1965. S c h u l t z , F r a n z , Der V e r f a s s e r d e r N.v.B. Untersuchungen zur deutschen Romantik. B e r l i n , 1909. ,"Gundolf und d i e Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", Euphorion,.XXIX (1928). T h i e l e , G. "Untersuchungen z u r Frage des A u t h o r s d e r N.v.B. m i t H i l f e e i n f a c h e r T e x t c h a r a c t e r i s t i k e n " , Grundlagen aus K y b e r n e t i k und G e i s t e s w i s s e n s c h a f t , IV (1963). Thimme, G., "Nachtwachen von Bonaventura", X I I I (1906).  Euphorion,  Trube, H., "F.G. W e t z e l : Leben und Werk", Germanische S t u d i e n , L V I I I (1928).  THE NIGHTWATCHES  -2a-  Ta-ble o f C o n t e n t s  1  FIRST NIGHTWATCH The  dying  freethinker.  SECOND NIGHTWATCH The  7  d e v i l makes a n a p p e a r a n c e .  THIRD NIGHTWATCH  ..  14  S t . C r i s p i n ' s sermon on a d u l t e r y . FOURTH NIGHTWATCH  25  Some wood-cuts, and t h e l i f e o f a madman performed a s puppet t h e a t r e . FIFTH NIGHTWATCH The  44  s t o r y o f the two b r o t h e r s .  SIXTH NIGHTWATCH  f  53  Judgement Day. SEVENTH NIGHTWATCH  63  Some a t t e m p t s a t s e l f - p o r t r a i t u r e - a f u n e r a l o r a t i o n f o r the b i r t h o f a c h i l d - the m i n s t r e l a slander s u i t . EIGHTH NIGHTWATCH The p o e t ' s a s c e n s i o n i n t o heaven - a l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n - the f o o l ' s p r o l o g u e t o t h e t r a g e d y Man.  74  -3*-  NINTH NIGHTWATCH  88  The asylum - monologue o f t h e i n s a n e c r e a t o r the s e n s i b l e madman.  -  TENTH NIGHTWATCH  100  The w i n t e r n i g h t - the dream o f l o v e - t h e w h i t e and the r e d "bride - the f u n e r a l o f a nun - a run through the s c a l e . ELEVENTH NIGHTWATCH  I l l  The v i s i o n s o f a b l i n d man - t h e vow - t h e f i r s t r i s i n g o f t h e sun. TWELFTH NIGHTWATCH  116  The sun e a g l e - t h e i m m o r t a l w i g - t h e f a l s e p i g - t a i l - an a p o l o g y on l i f e - t h e comedian. THIRTEENTH NIGHTWATCH  126  A s p r i n g dithyramb - t h e t i t l e w i t h o u t a book the resthome o f o l d gods - t h e a r s e o f Venus. FOURTEENTH NIGHTWATCH  134  Two f o o l s i n l o v e . FIFTEENTH NIGHTWATCH The  s t o r y o f the puppet  149 theatre.  SIXTEENTH NIGHTWATCH The gypsy - t h e v i s i o n a r y - my f a t h e r ' s  159 grave.  FIRST NIGHTWATCH  The m i d n i g h t hour  s t r u c k ; I wrapped m y s e l f up i n my  s t r a n g e garb, took my p i k e and horn, went out i n t o t h e d a r k n e s s , and c a l l e d out the hour a f t e r f i r s t " c r o s s i n g myself a g a i n s t e v i l  spirits.  I t was one o f those e e r i e n i g h t s i n which l i g h t and dark a l t e r n a t e i n f l a s h e s . t h r o u g h the sky l i k e  Wind-swept c l o u d s winged  g r e a t monsters and the moon kept  c o n s t a n t l y v a n i s h i n g and r e a p p e a r i n g .  A d e a t h l y calm  r e i g n e d i n the s t r e e t s , h u t h i g h up i n the a i r the storm was  r a g i n g l i k e an i n v i s i b l e  spirit.  I d i d n ' t mind a t a l l and s m i l e d a t the l o n e l y of my s t e p s .  Surrounded  by s l e e p e r s , I f e l t  p r i n c e i n the t a l e o f t h e enchanted had  t u r n e d every l i v i n g  to  last  comparison  l i k e the  c i t y where a demon  t h i n g i n t o s t o n e , o r l i k e the  s o l e s u r v i v o r o f a world-wide The  echo  plague o r f l o o d .  made me s h i v e r and I was g l a d  d i s c o v e r a s i n g l e dim lamp s t i l l  b u r n i n g h i g h above  -2-  the c i t y i n a s o l i t a r y I knew who  attic.  l i v e d up t h e r e - a r u i n e d poet who  o n l y a t n i g h t when a l l h i s c r e d i t o r s  (everybody  worked  except  the Muses) were a s l e e p . I c o u l d n ' t r e s i s t h a r a n g u i n g him as "You, because  follows:  s t a l k i n g around up t h e r e . . . I know you  I used to be l i k e you.  But I gave i t a l l up f o r  an honest t r a d e which a f f o r d s me w i t h o u t i t s own  a l i v i n g and which  p o e t r y once you get used t o i t .  been put i n y o u r way  well  isn't  I've  as a k i n d o f s a t i r i c a l S t e n t o r , t o  i n t e r r u p t the dreams o f i m m o r t a l i t y which you're  spinning  up t h e r e w i t h r e m i n d e r s about time and change, e v e r y hour on the hour.  We  b o t h keep watch by n i g h t , but i t ' s too  bad t h a t y o u r hours b r i n g no p r o f i t a t a l l i n these p r o s a i c days w h i l e mine y i e l d a t l e a s t alive.  enough t o keep  me  When I wrote p o e t r y i n the n i g h t l i k e you, I had  to s t a r v e l i k e you and sang t o deaf e a r s . . . w h i c h I do now,  cold  except I get p a i d f o r i t .  Oh,  f r i e n d p o e t : whoever  seeks to s u r v i v e i n t h i s age must not w r i t e p o e t r y ! i f you were born t o s i n g and become a watchman l i k e me  just  still  And  can't l i v e w i t h o u t i t ,  and a t l e a s t t h e y ' l l l e t you  s i n g w i t h o u r s t a r v i n g you to d e a t h .  Goodnight, b r o t h e r  poet." I l o o k e d up once more and glimpsed the p o s t u r e o f h i s shadow a g a i n s t the w a l l , one hand c l u t c h i n g h i s h a i r  -3-  and  the o t h e r a sheet o f paper from which he was  probably-  r e c i t i n g h i s c l a i m to g l o r y . I blew my  horn,  shouted  as I c o u l d , and went on my Wait!  the  The man  to him as l o u d  way.  There a s i c k man  dreams l i k e  out the time  l i e s awake, dreaming  feverish  poet.  was  an i n c u r a b l e f r e e t h i n k e r , f a c i n g h i s f i n a l  hour as s t a u n c h l y as V o l t a i r e . c r a c k i n the s h u t t e r : p a l e and  I can see him calm, he  through  stares into  a  the  v o i d which he must soon e n t e r to s l e e p a dreamless s l e e p forever.  The  roses of l i f e  have l e f t h i s cheeks, but  they  a r e blooming i n the f a c e s of the t h r e e handsome boys around him.  In c h i l d i s h ignorance,  the youngest t h r e a t e n s  p a l e countenance because i t no once d i d . yet  The  o t h e r two  the  l o n g e r s m i l e s a t him as i t  s t a n d l o o k i n g on e a r n e s t l y , unable  t o sense the presence  of d e a t h  i n t h e i r f r e s h young  lives. The  young w i f e , however, her h a i r w i l d and  her  b e a u t i f u l b r e a s t s b a r e , gazes d e s p a i r i n g l y i n t o the a b y s s , now  and  then m e c h a n i c a l l y w i p i n g  black  the sweat from  the d y i n g man's c o l d brow. Burning with rage, a p r i e s t  stands nearby, h o l d i n g  up a c r o s s to c o n v e r t the f r e e t h i n k e r .  H i s words s w e l l  l i k e a t i d e as he p a i n t s the beyond i n f u r i o u s s t r o k e s - not the b e a u t i f u l dawn of a new  day,  not u n f o l d i n g blossoms  -4and of  a n g e l s , but t h e flames  and p i t s and a l l the h o r r o r s  Dante's I n f e r n o , l i k e a p a i n t i n g by H e l l In v a i n j  a terrible  Breughel.  The d y i n g man remains mute and f i r m .  calm he sees  the t r e e o f h i s l i f e  With  one l e a f a f t e r the o t h e r f a l l  and f e e l s the c o l d r i n d  from  o f death  rise  h i g h e r and h i g h e r toward h i s h e a r t . The  n i g h t wind r a t t l e d  the decayed s h u t t e r s and  w h i s t l e d through my h a i r l i k e an a p p r o a c h i n g death.  I shuddered: as i f h e a l e d by a m i r a c l e , the s i c k  man suddenly betrayed surge  s p i r i t of  c a s t around the room a v i g o r o u s g l a n c e  a new, more i n t e n s e l i f e .  o f t h e f a d i n g flame,  This swift  c e r t a i n harbinger  c a s t s a l u s t r o u s glow on t h e n i g h t - s c e n e  that  brilliant  o f near  death,  before the dying  man and i l l u m i n a t e s , f o r a moment, i t s p o e t i c , v e r n a l world  o f f a i t h and p o e t r y - t h e t w i n gleam o f a  n i g h t which b l e n d s  the. e a r t h l y and the h e a v e n l y  Coreggio into a  d i v i n e whole. By h i s f i r m d e n i a l o f a l l h i g h e r t h i n g s , the d y i n g man now provoked a d r a m a t i c  scene.  The enraged  priest  c a s t thunder and l i g h t n i n g i n t o h i s s o u l and i n d e s p e r a t i o n c o n j u r e d up a f l a m i n g p i c t u r e o f h e l l i t s e l f l a s t hour.  But t h e v i c t i m  i n the man's  j u s t s m i l e d and shook h i s head.  A t t h a t moment, I was c e r t a i n o f h i s c o n t i n u a t i o n , for  only a mortal creature f e a r s a n n i h i l a t i o n while the  immortal  s o u l can f r e e l y s a c r i f i c e  itself,  j u s t as I n d i a n  -5women h u r l themselves i n t o f i r e and to  dedicate  themselves  immolation. As he watched t h i s ,  the p r i e s t was  s e i z e d by a f r e n z y ,  and  s i n c e mere d e s c r i p t i o n seemed u s e l e s s , he now  the  X e v i l i n the f l e s h , a r o l e  played with great v i r t u o s i t y ,  acted  t h a t f i t t e d him w e l l .  He  g e n u i n e l y demonic i n the  grand s t y l e , f a r s u p e r i o r to the s h a l l o w manners of  the  modern D e v i l . T h i s was s u l l e n l y and  too much f o r the s i c k man. looked  h i s bed-side. last  time.  He  t u r n e d away  a t the t h r e e s p r i n g r o s e s  standing at  Glowing l o v e b l a z e d i n h i s h e a r t f o r the  A blush l i t  h i s p a l e f a c e l i k e a memory.  He  asked f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , k i s s e d them w i t h g r e a t e f f o r t ,  and  then dropped h i s heavy head on the s w e l l i n g b r e a s t of h i s wife.  B r e a t h i n g a low,"  Aaah..." which seemed to  express  s e n s u a l d e l i g h t r a t h e r than p a i n , he d i e d l o v i n g l y i n l o v e ' s embrace. True to h i s s a t a n i c r o l e , corpse's  the p r i e s t  thundered i n t o  the  e a r , a c t i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t a  dead man's h e a r i n g remains s e n s i t i v e f o r some time, swore i n h i s own  name t h a t the D e v i l would c a r r y away not  o n l y the s o u l , but a l s o the body o f the With t h a t , he rushed become confused the D e v i l and  and  and  jabbed  i n my my  sinner.  out i n t o the s t r e e t .  I  had  d e l u s i o n r e a l l y b e l i e v e d he  p i k e a g a i n s t h i s c h e s t as he  was tried  -6-  to I  get p a s t . gathered  my  "Go  to the  w i t s and  D e v i l ! " he s n o r t e d .  s a i d , " P a r d o n me,  but i n a moment of madness I took you t h e r e f o r e s e t my from you. He  Your Reverence,  f o r the D e v i l  p i k e a g a i n s t your h e a r t to save  F o r g i v e me  this  he were a s l e e p .  more p e a c e f u l  She  thought  seemed unaware of h i s d e a t h y e t , life  - a  not a l t o g e t h e r i n a c c u r a t e i n a h i g h e r  c h i l d r e n k n e l t solemnly  youngest  now.  i n h e r arms as i f  t h i n k i n g perhaps t h a t s l e e p would g i v e him new  The  myself  stormed away.  b e a u t i f u l wife c r a d l e d her beloved  noble  and  time."  Back i n the room, the scene was The  At t h a t ,  son was  mother s i l e n t l y  a t the b e d - s i d e ;  o n l y the  t r y i n g to wake h i s f a t h e r , w h i l e c a l l e d him w i t h a g l a n c e and  sense.  the  l a i d her hand  on h i s c u r l y head. The  scene was  too moving - I t u r n e d away t o miss  moment her i l l u s i o n In to  vanished.  a low v o i c e , I sang a requiem beneath the window  b a n i s h w i t h more g e n t l e tones the p r i e s t ' s b u r n i n g words  from  the s t i l l  l i s t e n i n g ear.  d y i n g - i t i s the f i r s t and  the  Music  sweet sound of the next  the Muse of song i s a m y s t i c  the way In  i s a f r i e n d to the world,  s i s t e r o f Mercy, who  leads  t o heaven. the same way,  Jakob Boehme f e l l a s l e e p f o r e v e r to  the sounds of d i s t a n t music t h a t nobody but he as he l a y d y i n g .  could  hear  -7-  SECOND NIGHTWATCH  A g a i n n i g h t c a l l e d me t o my n o c t u r n a l round. s t r e e t s i n f r o n t o f me were d e s e r t e d except o c c a s i o n a l merry f l a s h o f l i g h t n i n g , w h i l e  The  f o r an i n the f a r  d i s t a n c e t h e r e was a mumbling l i k e an u n i n t e l l i g i b l e spell. My poet had quenched h i s lamp, f o r the sky was l i t up w i t h l i g h t s which he thought more p o e t i c and a l s o cheaper.  Leaning  out o f h i s window h i g h above, he s t a r e d  i n t o the t h u n d e r b o l t s , h i s white n i g h t s h i r t throat, h i s black h a i r b r i s t l i n g .  open a t the  I remembered  similar  p o e t i c moments o f my own, moments o f i n n e r storm when the l i p s would speak thunder and the hand would seek l i g h t n i n g i n s t e a d o f the q u i l l t o w r i t e words o f f i r e . Then the mind speeds from p o l e and p o l e and f l i e s  on wings  a c r o s s the u n i v e r s e , but the words which i t f i n a l l y u t t e r s a r e a c h i l d i s h b a b b l i n g and the hand q u i c k l y t e a r s up the page. I used t o b a n i s h t h i s p o e t i c demon, who i n the end  -8always g l o a t e d over my music.  Now  d e f e a t , w i t h the i n c a n t a t i o n s of  I u s u a l l y b l a s t a few  d i s c o r d a n t notes  on  my  h o r n w i t h the same e f f e c t . I would l i k e  to recommend the sound o f my  watchman's  horn as an a n t i d o t e a g a i n s t the p o e t i c urge to a l l those who  f e a r t h i s disease l i k e a fever.  i n e x p e n s i v e and  My  preventative i s  of g r e a t v a l u e , s i n c e nowadays, i n agreement  w i t h P l a t o , p o e t r y i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a d e l i r i u m , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t the o l d Greek c a l l e d i t a  curse  from the gods, not from the madhouse. Whatever the case, p o e t r y has become a dubious t r a d e a t b e s t because t h e r e are so few  l u n a t i c s as compared w i t h  such an o v e r f l o w o f sane people who fill  up a l l t r a d e s , i n c l u d i n g p o e t r y .  a t r u e madman l i k e m y s e l f I now  can  Under such c o n d i t i o n s  c a n ' t f i n d a job anywhere.  So  merely s k i r t around p o e t r y , meaning I have become  a humorist, time  among themselves  and  a p r o f e s s i o n f o r which a watchman has a l l the  o p p o r t u n i t y i n the  world.  Perhaps I ought to demonstrate by work as a  humorist,  but t h e r e i s no need, s i n c e a t the moment the w o r l d i s concerned we  w i t h v o c a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than v o c a t i o n .  have poets who  c a l l e d upon - I ' l l A moment ago, and  have no  c a l l i n g , although  they  Thus, feel  leave i t at that. a f l a s h of l i g h t n i n g s i n g e d the a i r ,  I caught s i g h t of t h r e e c a r n i v a l masks s l i n k i n g  past  -9-  the w a l l of the c h u r c h y a r d .  I c h a l l e n g e d them, hut b l a c k  n i g h t had a l r e a d y f a l l e n a g a i n and  I saw  a g l o w i n g t a i l and f i e r y  I heard  eyes, and  thunder merge w i t h a v o i c e nearby to  a Don  Giovanni a r i a .  "Mind your own  too much f o r me  the  except  distant  l i k e an accompaniment  owl, and don't meddle w i t h the work of T h i s was  nothing  b u s i n e s s , you n i g h t spirits."  and I h u r l e d my  p i k e i n the  d i r e c t i o n of the v o i c e ; l i g h t n i n g f l a s h e d a g a i n , but  the  t h r e e had v a n i s h e d i n t o the a i r l i k e Macbeth's w i t c h e s . " S p i r i t s , " I shouted a f t e r them i n anger, h o p i n g would hear me,  "You  don't a c c e p t me  as one  of your k i n d ,  and y e t I've been a p o e t , a m i n s t r e l , a puppet and a few  other s p i r i t e d  I  - p r o v i d e d they  a r e a l r e a d y out of i t - t o see i f mine was or  director,  t h i n g s one - a f t e r the o t h e r .  w i s h I had known your s p i r i t s d u r i n g l i f e  they  equal to yours;  has d e a t h g i v e n you an e x t r a t o u c h of s p i r i t , as some-  times happens to g r e a t men  who  grow famous o n l y a f t e r  t h e i r d e a t h s , and whose w r i t i n g g a t h e r s s p i r i t by around,  lying  j u s t as wine g a t h e r s s p i r i t w i t h age?"  I had almost r e a c h e d freethinker.  A pale l i g h t  the house of the  excommunicated  shone out i n t o the n i g h t  the open door, merging s t r a n g e l y w i t h the l i g h t n i n g ,  through and  the r u m b l i n g from the f a r mountains grew l o u d e r as i f the s p i r i t r e a l m were about  to e n t e r the drama.  -10-  The  corpse was  demanded.  s t r e t c h e d out i n the h a l l as  A few u n c o n s e c r a t e d  because the p r i e s t , b l e s s them.  The  or a t h i s own  c a n d l e s burned around i t  of d i a b o l i c a l memory, had  corpse was  custom  r e f u s e d to  s m i l i n g , perhaps a t the  f o o l i s h n e s s i n denying  an a f t e r l i f e ,  priest, and  the s m i l e gleamed l i k e a d i s t a n t r e f l e c t i o n of l i f e his  across  r i g i d features. A t the end  of a l o n g dark h a l l , i n an a l c o v e hung i n  b l a c k , the t h r e e boys and  the wan  mother k n e l t  motionless  b e f o r e an a l t a r - Niobe w i t h h e r c h i l d r e n - p r a y i n g d e s p e r a t e l y to s n a t c h the body and i n s p i t e of the The faith  priest.  b r o t h e r o f the dead man,  i n heaven and  even the D e v i l , was coffin.  the s o u l from the D e v i l  He  i n h i s own  a s o l d i e r w i t h a calm  courage which c o u l d f a c e  the o n l y p e r s o n  stood p l a c i d l y and  a l t e r n a t e l y i n t o the s t i l l  candles.  and  with i t s cross-shaped  a w o r l d l y and The except  the  expectantly, looking  f a c e of the deceased and  the l i g h t n i n g which cut m a l e v o l e n t l y the  s t a n d i n g watch a t  into  i n t o the f l i c k e r  of  H i s unsheathed saber r e s t e d on the dead body, pommel i t seemed to me  a t once  a c l e r i c a l weapon.  s i l e n c e of the grave r e i g n e d everywhere,  f o r the d i s t a n t mumbling of the  c r a c k l i n g of b u r n i n g  candles  So i t remained, u n t i l  I heard  storm and  and the  nothing.  the slow booming c a t h e d r a l  bell  -11-  announced m i d n i g h t - then the winds h i g h above  suddenly-  whipped a l o n g the storm c l o u d l i k e a nightmare  until i t s  winding-sheet The  had  covered the whole sky.  c a n d l e s around  the c o f f i n went out, thunder p e a l e d  a n g r i l y l i k e a r e b e l l i o u s power, r o u s i n g even the h e a v i e s t s l e e p e r , and the c l o u d s spat flame a f t e r flame, and b r u t a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g the dead I saw  periodically  face.  the s o l d i e r ' s s a b r e f l a s h i n the n i g h t as  he  prepared f o r b a t t l e . J u s t i n time - the a i r bubbled and  the t h r e e Macbeth  w i t c h e s were suddenly v i s i b l e a g a i n , as i f the storm dragged  them a l o n g by the h a i r .  The  lightning  had  flashed  i n t o c o n t o r t e d masks, snake h a i r - i n t o a l l of the  hellish  masquerade. And  now  the D e v i l dragged  me  i n by a h a i r t o o , and  as the t h r e e came sweeping up the s t r e e t ,  I j o i n e d them.  They seemed s t a r t l e d by an u n i n v i t e d f o u r t h member, as i f they were up t o no  good.  "What the h e l l ? as w e l l ? " t h a t I've brothers.  was  the D e v i l walk a s t r a i g h t  I laughed w i l d l y .  "In t h a t case, don't  caught you on a crooked one. L e t me  They r e a l l y "God  Can  join  r a t h e r odd and  fret  on your  side,  you."  seemed embarrassed.  p r e s e r v e us!" and  I'm  path  One  crossed himself.  of them I thought  s a i d , " B r o t h e r N i c k , don't  gasped, this  s t e p out of  -12-  character l i k e mistake you  t h a t or I ' l l  l o s e a l l f a i t h i n you  f o r a s a i n t or a t l e a s t f o r someone who's  been b a p t i s e d .  But  the more I t h i n k about i t , the more I  feel like  c o n g r a t u l a t i n g you  c r o s s and  developing  born d e v i l i n t o a My me  and  and  the  t a l e n t to change a t w i l l from a  saint."  manner of s p e a k i n g threatened  communication and  f o r f i n a l l y d i g e s t i n g the  me  gave me  away.  They t u r n e d  i n t r u l y c l e r i c a l tones w i t h  the l i k e  on  ex-  i f I s t o o d i n t h e i r way  much  longer. "Don't worry," I s a i d .  "Up  b e l i e v e d i n the D e v i l , but now c e r t a i n you you.  to now  I've  know your t r a d e w e l l .  I never  really  seen the l i g h t and Don't l e t me  No watchman can handle b o t h h e l l and  I'm  disturb  the Church a t  once." They swept away i n t o the house and  I followed  them  diffidently. The  scene was  appalling.  alternated i n flashes. three  First  i t was  looked  the  s t e a d f a s t s o l d i e r and  on unmoved, h i s p a l e r i g i d  Then i t t u r n e d  darkness  b r i g h t and  of them s t r u g g l e f o r the c o f f i n w h i l e  f l a s h e d i n the hand of the man  L i g h t n i n g and  I saw  the  sabie the  dead  f a c e l i k e a mask.  deep n i g h t except f o r the p a l e  shimmer  from the a l c o v e i n the background where the k n e e l i n g mother and  her  c h i l d r e n laboured  i n desperate  prayers.  -13-  The b a t t l e raged s i l e n t l y , b u t suddenly the sky c r a s h e d as i f Satan had g a i n e d the upper hand.  The l i g h t -  n i n g ceased and dense n i g h t s e t t l e d f o r a l o n g time.  But  soon, two f i g u r e s came r u s h i n g t h r o u g h the door and I saw, i n the l i g h t  of t h e i r g l i n t i n g  eyes, t h a t they were r e a l l y  c a r r y i n g a corpse. Cursing to myself, I stood i n f r o n t h a l l was b l a c k and l i f e l e s s ,  and I thought t h a t the v a l i a n t  s o l d i e r t o o had a t l e a s t a broken  neck.  Then the c l o u d d i s c h a r g e d i t s e l f ecstatic  o f the door; the  c o m p l e t e l y : an  sheet o f l i g h t n i n g l i t the a i r , a r a i s e d  t h a t would n o t d i e .  torch  And I saw the s o l d i e r s t a n d i n g c a l m l y  and c o l d l y b e s i d e the c o f f i n ,  and the corpse s m i l i n g as  b e f o r e b u t - what a s u r p r i s e !  A demonic mask w i t h o u t a  body l e e r e d b e s i d e the dead man's f a c e , and a s c a r l e t r i v e r o f b l o o d c o l o u r e d the f r e e t h i n k e r ' s Shuddering, I wrapped my mantle  shroud.  tighter,  forgot  a l t o g e t h e r t o blow my h o r n and s i n g out the time, and fled  toward my h u t .  -14-  THIRD NIGHTWATCH  We watchmen and p o e t s care activities;  little  about man's daytime  nowadays i t i s common knowledge: men a r e much  too p r o s a i c when they a r e a t t h e i r most a c t i v e and become i n t e r e s t i n g only i n t h e i r  dreams.  Consequently, I r e c e i v e d the  outcome o f the f o r e g o i n g  repeat  them e q u a l l y  I t was no o r d i n a r y  incoherent  r e p o r t s about  e v e n t s , and I s h a l l have to  incoherently.  the head which p u z z l e d  most heads s i n c e i t was  head, but the D e v i l ' s v e r y  w i t h t h i s head, d i s m i s s e d outside  only  i t s jurisdiction.  own.  the case s a y i n g I t was  The law, f a c e d  t h a t heads l a y  indeed a confounded  b u s i n e s s and t h e r e were arguments as to whether the s o l d i e r should  be charged w i t h a c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e  s i n c e he had  committed manslaughter, or whether he s h o u l d s i n c e the v i c t i m was more c o n t r o v e r s y :  the D e v i l .  be c a n o n i z e d  This, i n turn, l e d to  f o r s e v e r a l months nobody d e s i r e d  absolution,  -15-  denying  the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the D e v i l and c i t i n g the  head, which had meanwhile been taken i n t o custody, as proof. hoarse  From t h e i r p u l p i t s ,  the p r i e s t s preached  themselves  c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e D e v i l c o u l d l i v e w i t h o u t a head,  a t h e o r y which they sought evidence  to support w i t h a v a r i e t y o f  from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e .  No-one c o u l d make head o r t a i l  o f the head.  a physiognomy o f i r o n , b u t a p a d l o c k  on one s i d e i n v i t e d  the s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e D e v i l might have a second h i d d e n beneath the f i r s t ,  I t had  face  a f a c e perhaps r e s e r v e d f o r  special holidays.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the key t o t h e l o c k , and  thus t o t h e second  f a c e , was m i s s i n g .  Who knows what  a l a r m i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s might have been made about t h e D e v i l ' s countenance - b u t w i t h o u t  a key o n l y the s t a n d a r d  f e a t u r e s p o r t r a y e d i n any wood-cut were a v a i l a b l e f o r study. Amidst a l l t h i s c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e head's a u t h e n t i c i t y , a d e c i s i o n was made t o send Doctor  G a l l i n Vienna  i t to  so t h a t he might examine i t and  e s t a b l i s h c o n c l u s i v e l y the presence  of s a t a n i c protuberances.  But now the Church e n t e r e d the f r a y and, d e c l a r i n g H e r s e l f alone q u a l i f i e d  t o make d e c i s i o n s , o r d e r e d the head be  handed over t o Her s a f e k e e p i n g , and soon rumours t h a t i t had v a n i s h e d . insisted  spread  S e v e r a l gentlemen o f the c l e r g y  t h a t they had seen the D e v i l h i m s e l f s t e a l h i s  -16-  head a t a l o n e l y hour o f the n i g h t . Thus, the case remained as good as u n s o l v e d , e s p e c i a l l y as the o n l y man who might have e x p l a i n e d the mystery, namely t h e p r i e s t who excommunicated the f r e e t h i n k e r , had suddenly d i e d o f a s t r o k e . and  t h e Church had i t - f o r nobody had a c t u a l l y seen the  corpse hot  So a t l e a s t rumour  as i t had been b u r i e d q u i c k l y on a c c o u n t o f the  weather. The  s t o r y p l a g u e d me c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g my watch  because u n t i l now I had b e l i e v e d o n l y i n a p o e t i c D e v i l , never a r e a l one. cerned,  And as f a r as t h e p o e t i c one i s con-  i t ' s unfortunate  accepting a p r i n c i p l e virtuous v i l l a i n s  t h a t we've n e g l e c t e d him: i n s t e a d o f  of absolute  e v i l , we c u l t i v a t e the  o f I f f l a n d ' s and Kotzebue's dramas, i n  which the D e v i l appears human and human beings A t o t t e r i n g world stand nor  d i s t r u s t s a l l absolutes  demonic.  and a l l t h a t can  on i t s own, and thus we t o l e r a t e n e i t h e r t r u e j o y  true seriousness, n e i t h e r ultimate v i r t u e nor u l t i m a t e  evil.  The c h a r a c t e r o f our age i s s t i t c h e d t o g e t h e r  like  a f o o l ' s j a c k e t , and what i s worst - the f o o l i n s i d e t r i e s to be s e r i o u s . Absorbed i n these a corner,  t h o u g h t s , I had come t o a h a l t i n  i n f r o n t of a statue  w e a r i n g a grey  c l o a k l i k e mine.  approached and almost leaned  o f S t . C r i s p i n , who was Suddenly a man and a woman  a g a i n s t me t h i n k i n g I was the  -17b l i n d , deaf, and dumb s t a t u e . The man  worked h i m s e l f i n t o a r h e t o r i c a l l a t h e r  r a n t e d i n the same b r e a t h about  l o v e and  and  constancy, while  the woman h e s i t a t e d c o n v i n c i n g l y and wrung her hands a r t fully.  Now  the man  c a l l e d upon me  a u d a c i o u s l y and  he would be as c o n s t a n t and f a i t h f u l as the stone At t h i s , my  the rogue  i n me  awoke, and as the man  c l o a k as i f t o swear by me,  in spite.  I shook m y s e l f  A l t h o u g h they were b o t h s t a r t l e d ,  r e c o v e r e d q u i c k l y , s a y i n g t h a t p r o b a b l y my had  swore saint.  clutched slightly  the  lover  foundation  caved i n and t h a t I had l o s t b a l a n c e somewhat. I m i t a t i n g a t l e a s t t e n c h a r a c t e r s from the  dramas and faithful;  t r a g e d i e s , he t h e n swore by h i s s o u l t o be f i n a l l y he r a v e d l i k e Don  he had seen t h a t e v e n i n g , and "May  t h i s marble  I break my  latest  vow  s t a t u e appear  to love  G i o v a n n i i n the p l a y  concluded  significantly,  a t our d i n n e r t o n i g h t i f  you..always."  I made a mental note o f t h i s and f u r t h e r  overheard  her d e s c r i b i n g the house and a s e c r e t s p r i n g on the so he c o u l d open i t ,  door  w h i l e a t the same time she s e t t l e d  on  midnight f o r dinner. I arrived the door, and  t h e r e h a l f an hour e a r l y , found the house, the h i d d e n s p r i n g , and  several f l i g h t s hall.  of b a c k s t a i r s u n t i l  Light f e l l  through two  and l o o k e d t h r o u g h one  crept q u i e t l y  I reached a gloomy  g l a s s doors; I  of them and  up  saw  approached  a creature i n a  -18-  dressing-gown i n f r o n t d e c i d e whether i t was  of a desk. a man  At f i r s t  I couldn't  or a clock-work f i g u r e - a l l  t r a c e s of humanity were e r a d i c a t e d l e a v i n g o n l y an of  too much work.  T h i s c r e a t u r e s a t w r i t i n g , surrounded  w i t h documents, l i k e a L a p l a n d e r to  me  life  expression  buried a l i v e .  as i f he wished to e x p e r i e n c e of the dead w h i l e  still  I t seemed  the a c t i v i t y and  alive,  for a l l passion  the and  sympathy had  been wiped from h i s brow - he was  a puppet,  l i f e l e s s and  e r e c t i n a c o f f i n made of documents f u l l  of  bookworms. An  invisible  c l a c k e d , grasped  t h r e a d was a pen,  and  p u l l e d , and  s i g n e d t h r e e papers.  c l o s e r : three death warrants. lay  b e s i d e him  the f i n g e r s  J u s t i n i a n and  on h i s desk l i k e an  the  I  looked  Institutes  image of h i s puppet  soul personified. I could hardly c r i t i c i z e , reminded me and  t h i s f r o z e n judge  of the g u i l l o t i n e which c l e a v e s w i t h o u t  h i s desk o f an e x e c u t i o n y a r d on which he had,  t h r e e s t r o k e s of the pen, minute.  God,  i f I had  destroyed  I was  lifeless  s i t t i n g motionless o r i g i n a l were not  with  the  living  law.  even more i n c e n s e d when I saw  s c u l p t e d i n wax, one  of the  will,  three l i v e s i n a  the c h o i c e , I'd r a t h e r be  s i n n e r than t h i s dead s e r v a n t  if  but  his likeness,  i n f r o n t of him  as  enough, but r e q u i r e d a  double to d i s p l a y t h i s dead wonder from two  different sides.  -19-  Now  the woman a l r e a d y mentioned e n t e r e d ,  puppet, seemingly a f r a i d , "beside  and  took o f f h i s cap and  the  placed i t  him.  "Haven't you of l i f e  you  gone to bed  y e t ? " she  said.  are l e a d i n g . . . t o o much work k i l l s  "What k i n d the  i m a g i n a t i o n , you know!" "Imagination?  What do you mean?" he asked i n s u r p r i s e .  " I can h a r d l y understand  the new  j a r g o n you use  these  days." "Because you have no even i n the  Why,  here...I'm h a v i n g  of c o u r s e ! "  "What?  I've  I was  those  "Oh  my  no.  so o f t e n I'm  hoping  to p l e a s e you w i t h t h i s because  books i n which everybody d i e s a l l the  time.  f o r your b i r t h d a y ! "  nerves!" L a t e l y you've been h a v i n g scared before  go away, p l e a s e .  Go  fainting  spells  i t even happens!"  " W e l l , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g you  The  executed."  sentiments!"  even s e t the e x e c u t i o n date "God,  he answered smugly," Look  three c r i m i n a l s  "Good g r i e f , what  read  i n h i g h e r t h i n g s ; not  tragic!"  "Tragic?  you  interest  can do  to h e l p me.  Just  to b e d i "  c o n v e r s a t i o n was  finished  and  he  left,  enough, I now  drying  sweat from h i s brow.  Diabolically  to  create a s i t u a t i o n  i n which h i s w i f e would s t a n d  in  h i s c o u r t , so t h a t he might g a i n j u r i s d i c t i o n over  the  resolved accused her  -20-  again. Before  l o n g , Mars came c r e e p i n g  to h i s Venus.  Since  I was b o r n w i t h a limp and a c e r t a i n h o m e l i n e s s , I l a c k e d nothing  to p l a y the r o l e  of Vulcan  except  a golden n e t ,  which I hoped t o r e p l a c e w i t h a few g o l d e n maxims. well;  At f i r s t  the performance b e f o r e  the y o u t h s i n n e d  t r u t h s and moral  me went  tolerably  only against poetry with h i s  tendency toward f l e s h l y d e s c r i p t i o n s : he p a i n t e d a heaven full  o f nymphs, and t e a s i n g C u p i d s on the canopy o f the bed  on which he l u s t e d t o s p o r t , and he strewed the p a t h l e a d i n g i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n w i t h r o s e s which he s c a t t e r e d p r o f u s e l y i n elegant  c o n c e i t s , a v o i d i n g the t h o r n s ,  now and a g a i n wound h i s f e e t , w i t h f r i v o l o u s - But as t h i s w r e t c h threw h i m s e l f t o t a l l y f u r y , and as he r o l l e d  down the green s i l k  which  leaps. into a poetic  c u r t a i n s above  the doors t o t u r n t h e p l a y i n t o a bedroom f a r c e , I h u r r i e d l y employed my p o e t i c a n t i d o t e - I blew my h o r n piercingly.  A t the same time,  pedestal reserved  poetry  being  s i l e n t and s t i l l .  d r e a d f u l sound roused  the two l o v e r s from  and the husband from h i s bed, and a l l t h r e e  r u s h i n g i n t h r o u g h two d i f f e r e n t "The  marble s t a t u e . " c r i e d  "Ah,  my s t a t u e o f J u s t i c e , "  finally  onto an empty  f o r a statue of J u s t i c e s t i l l  m o d e l l e d , and stood The  I leaped  completed.  their came  doors. the l o v e r and q u i v e r e d . s a i d the husband. " I t ' s  V/hat a l o v e l y s u r p r i s e , d a r l i n g . "  "You're making a bad m i s t a k e , " I s a i d .  "Justice i s  -21-  still  over a t the s c u l p t o r ' s workshop.  I'm' j u s t s t a n d i n g  i n t e m p o r a r i l y so the p e d e s t a l won't he empty a t moments l i k e  this.  important  Of course i t ' s o n l y an emergency  measure because the r e a l s t a t u e i s m a r b l e - c o l d and no h e a r t , w h i l e I'm  a poor w r e t c h who's gone s o f t  s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and who's o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c l i n e d poetic.  However, I am  c a l l s and  has with  toward  the  good enough f o r o r d i n a r y house-  I can be a.marble guest i n an emergency.  Such  g u e s t s have the advantage over o t h e r s i n t h a t they  don't  eat  the  or c a t c h f i r e where i t c o u l d be h a r m f u l , w h i l e  o t h e r s d i s r u p t the h o u s e h o l d much to the sorrow  Devil,  stammered the husband.  stones are s t a r t i n g to speak, you mean?  the f r i v o l i t y  of our age.  One  s h o u l d never  I always say, but our young men  I took t h i s man  That's  t a l k of the  of the w o r l d  t h i s w h i l e t r y i n g to seduce the weaker sex and t h e i r heroic side.  easily,  of husbands."  "What i s t h i s ? " "That  by c a t c h i n g f i r e v e r y  ignore  display  a t h i s word, a l t h o u g h  I b e l o n g out i n the market p l a c e , as S t . C r i s p i n i n my grey c l o a k . " My  God,  what i s t h i s ! "  the husband asked  i n fear.  " T h i s i s out of o r d e r and unheard o f . " " C e r t a i n l y , f o r a lawyer!  S t . C r i s p i n was  a shoemaker, but he became a t h i e f and an overdose  of v i r t u e and  actually  out of sheer h o l i n e s s  s t o l e l e a t h e r to make shoes  V  -22-  for  t h e poor.  What i s your v e r d i c t ?  no s o l u t i o n except t o hang him f i r s t afterwards. to  T e l l me.  I see  and make him a s a i n t  And a d u l t e r e r s , who a f t e r a l l break the law  keep peace i n the home, s h o u l d be d e a l t w i t h i n the  same f a s h i o n , t h e i r motives a r e good, and t h a t ' s the most important p o i n t .  I f i t weren't f o r f a m i l y  friends  g i f t e d w i t h a f i n e moral sense which has t u r n e d them i n t o l e c h e r s , many wives would soon nag t h e i r husbands t o death. There...I've of  touched upon the main i s s u e , and i n the name  God l e t us b e g i n our i n q u i s i t i o n .  h e r e t i c s are unconscious.  But I see the two  So l e t us a d j o u r n f o r the  moment." "Heretics?  I don't  see any," s a i d the husband  dully.  "That one over t h e r e i s my o t h e r h a l f . " "Fine. said?  We'll deal with her f i r s t .  That's always  agony o f m a r r i a g e . an exemplary joy  union.  Other h a l f , you  the h a l f t h a t s u p p l i e s the c r o s s and And merely h a l f a c r o s s i s a c t u a l l y I f you a r e t h e h a l f t h a t p r o v i d e s  and b l e s s i n g , your matrimony must be heaven on e a r t h . " "Joy and b l e s s i n g ! " he s i g h e d d e e p l y . " P l e a s e , no maudlin m a r g i n a l n o t e s , my f r i e n d .  us now d e a l w i t h the o t h e r accused who i s l i k e w i s e unconscious  s i n c e meeting  a talking statue.  Let lying  I f we a r e  a l l o w e d t o p l e a d f o r l e n i e n c y f o r people w i t h arguments based  on t h e i r own e t h i c s , I'd l i k e  to be t h i s man's  -23-  a t t o r n e y , t o p r o t e c t him from a beheading, a f a t e our C a r o l i n a would s u r e l y i n s i s t upon. such wretches  i s l i k e beheading  s o u l s l a c k s a good head  which  B e s i d e s , t o execute  effigies,  s i n c e these poor  to begin with."  "You mean t o say C a r o l i n a has suddenly become so c r u e l ? " he asked, v e r y c o n f u s e d now. she shuddered when I mentioned  "A few moments ago  the word e x e c u t i o n . "  "I don't blame you f o r m i x i n g up the two C a r o l i n a s , " I replied,  "Because your l i v i n g  one i s e a s i l y  mistaken  f o r the l e g a l one - n e i t h e r i s the type t o t u r n e a r t h heaven.  In fact,  into  I'd almost say t h a t the one made o f  f l e s h i s worse than the one made o f books - a t l e a s t t h e r e i s no t a l k o f l i f e l o n g t o r t u r e i n the second one." "Good God, t h i s c a n ' t go on," the husband seeming  t o wake up a l l o f a sudden.  said,  "I'm n o t sure i f I'm  waking or s l e e p i n g , and I'd have t o p i n c h m y s e l f t o make s u r e , b u t I c o u l d swear I h e a r d the watchman a w h i l e ago." "Yes, by God," I c r i e d . c a l l e d me by name.  "You j u s t woke me up - you  Thank heavens I wasn't s t a n d i n g t o o  h i g h , on a r o o f somewhere, o r on the c r e s t inspiration.  Otherwise  neck f o r s u r e . supposed  o f some p o e t i c  I would've f a l l e n and broken my  L u c k i l y I'm no h i g h e r t h a n J u s t i c e i s  t o be, and I'm g l a d to f i n d m y s e l f s t i l l  among men.  Don't l o o k a t me l i k e  that...I'll  a man  explain.  the watchman o f t h i s c i t y , and a t the same time I'm a  I'm  -24-  s l e e p - w a l k e r - t h e r e ' s room f o r b o t h i n most p e o p l e when I'm  working,  I o f t e n have the urge f o r s l e e p - w a l k i n g  a l o n g s t e e p g a b l e s and how my  I must have reached desperate  - and  i n o t h e r hazardous a r e a s , and t h i s p e d e s t a l of Themis.  inclination will  meantime i t h e l p s me  c o s t me  my  that's  Someday  neck, but i n the  t o p r o t e c t the good c i t i z e n s of  this  c i t y from a l l s o r t s of t h e f t p r e c i s e l y because I c r a w l and  c l i m b i n t o every c o r n e r .  I t ' s the ones who  work i n  the open, f o r c i n g c l o s e d s h u t t e r s w i t h crow-bars, who the l e a s t dangerous of c r o o k s . me,  I t h i n k , and I  left  This observation  I ' l l t h e r e f o r e say  t a l k e d about a f t e r I  left.  excuses  goodnight."  the s u r p r i s e d husband and  had r e g a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  are  I have no  the two  lovers,  i d e a what they  who  -25-  FOURTH  The of  NIGHTWATCH  b u r i a l c h a p e l o f the o l d g o t h i c c a t h e d r a l i s one  my f a v o u r i t e haunts d u r i n g my n i g h t w a t c h e s .  Here I  s i t by t h e dim glow o f t h e s i n g l e e t e r n a l flame and o f t e n t h i n k o f myself meditation,  as a n i g h t s p i r i t .  The p l a c e  invites  and t o n i g h t i t l e a d s me i n t o my own h i s t o r y .  More or l e s s out o f boredom, I am l e a f i n g t h r o u g h the c r a z y and  confused The  book o f my l i f e .  very f i r s t  page i s a l r e a d y q u e s t i o n a b l e , and by  the time we r e a c h the f i f t h  page, we a r e no l o n g e r  about my b i r t h , but about t r e a s u r e - h u n t i n g . mystic  Cabbalistic  talking  I'm l o o k i n g a t  s i g n s and a t some wood-cuts d e p i c t i n g  a c o b b l e r who wanted t o g i v e up shoe-making and l e a r n how to  make g o l d i n s t e a d .  and to  T h i n and y e l l o w , h e r h a i r matted  t o u s l e d , a gypsy woman b e s i d e him i n s t r u c t s him i n how d i g f o r t r e a s u r e , hands him a d i v i n i n g r o d , and r e v e a l s  the exact days  l o c a t i o n where he i s t o l i f t  the treasure  three  later. But  t o n i g h t , I'd r a t h e r study  the wood-cuts than the  -26-  t e x t , and so I t u r n t o the Second Wood-cut. And  here i s our c o b b l e r a g a i n , w i t h o u t  and  t h i s time t h e a r t i s t has succeeded i n making h i s f a c e  more e x p r e s s i v e .  t h e gypsy woman,  I t s s t r o n g f e a t u r e s show t h a t t h e man  d i d n o t stop a t the bottom, b u t went beyond h i s f e e t and let  t h i n g s go t o h i s head.  comment on the b l u n d e r s  T h i s s t r i k e s me as a s a t i r i c a l  o f genius  and e x p l a i n s why a man  who c o u l d have made good h a t s t u r n s out bad shoes, o r v i c e v e r s a i f t h e example i s stood The  on i t s head.  background shows a c r o s s r o a d , and b l a c k l i n e s  convey  an image o f n i g h t w h i l e a z i g - z a g a g a i n s t the sky suggests a f l a s h of l i g h t n i n g .  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the average honest  workman would have f l e d maker i s u n t r o u b l e d .  such s u r r o u n d i n g s ,  He has l i f t e d  deep h o l e , and has i n d e e d  but our shoe-  a massive c h e s t from a  a l r e a d y opened i t . But oh heavens,  o n l y a c o l l e c t o r o f c u r i o s i t i e s would c a l l i t s c o n t e n t s a t r e a s u r e - f o r I myself  am i n s i d e , w i t h o u t  but a ready-made c o s m o p o l i t e Our recorded  treasure-hunters s 1  any p o s s e s s i o n s ,  nevertheless. r e a c t i o n to h i s f i n d i s not  on the wood-cut, f o r the a r t i s t had no d e s i r e t o  r e a c h beyond the l i m i t s  of h i s a r t .  T h i r d Wood-cut. Here a shrewd commentator i s r e q u i r e d . - I am s i t t i n g on one book w h i l e  reading another.  My f o s t e r f a t h e r i s busy  -27-  w i t h a shoe, and  a t the same time he  seems engrossed  some p r i v a t e m e d i t a t i o n s about e t e r n i t y .  The  in  book on which  I'm  s i t t i n g c o n t a i n s Hans Sachs' S h r o v e t i d e p l a y s , and  one  I'm  r e a d i n g i s Jakob Boehme's A u r o r a .  These two  the  are  the k e r n e l of our l i b r a r y because b o t h a u t h o r s were competent shoemakers and p o e t s a t the same time. S i n c e the wood-cut d e a l s m o s t l y w i t h my I'll  go no f a r t h e r i n my  explanations.  q u i e t l y r e a d the accompanying t h i r d w r i t t e n by my c o u l d , and  c o b b l e r who  to custom, I was I can't f i t him  who  chapter to myself. I t ' s  r e c o r d e d my  life  as b e s t as  doubts about C r o s s r o a d s  i n t o any  i s just l i k e  found).  of the u s u a l c a t e g o r i e s , f o r t h e r e like  s t a r t e d by l o o k i n g a t shoes and  t h e r e was  i n o l d Boehme,  ended up i n mystery.  t h a t - o r d i n a r y t h i n g s seems to  him v e r y e x t r a o r d i n a r y , t h i n g s l i k e  the s u n - r i s e f o r  example, which a f t e r a l l takes p l a c e e v e r y day and i s thought  he  (according  named a f t e r the p l a c e where I was  something exuberant i n him,  Crossroads  Instead, I ' l l  i t b e g i n s as f o l l o w s :  "I o f t e n have my  is  own p r e c o c i t y ,  of by most p e o p l e  the s t a r s i n the sky,  as a normal o c c u r r e n c e .  or the f l o w e r s of the e a r t h :  sure they t a l k to each o t h e r and nonsense t o g e t h e r . a s k i n g about a shoe.  which  Not  Or  he's  get up to a l l s o r t s o f  so l o n g ago,  he  confused  F i r s t he asked  me  about the  me  by  different  p a r t s of a shoe and when I answered him about each m a t e r i a l ,  -28-  he l e d me h i g h e r and h i g h e r , a t f i r s t  i n t o the n a t u r a l  s c i e n c e s as he t r a c e d the l e a t h e r t o the cow, then farther u n t i l of  I found  even  m y s e l f w i t h my shoe h i g h i n the realms  t h e o l o g y , a t which p o i n t he t o l d me s t r a i g h t t h a t I  was a b u n g l e r  i n my t r a d e because I c o u l d n ' t answer h i s  f i n a l questions.  And he o f t e n c a l l s f l o w e r s a s e c r e t language  which we haven't y e t l e a r n e d t o r e a d , and the same w i t h v a r i c o l o u r e d pebbles  and r o c k s .  He hopes t o l e a r n  language someday and has promised t o t e l l me some things i n i t . and  flies  their marvellous  O f t e n he l i s t e n s q u i t e s e c r e t l y t o gnats  as they buzz i n the sun because he b e l i e v e s t h e y ' r e  d i s c u s s i n g important When he b a b b l e s  matters  o f which no man i s y e t aware.  these t h i n g s t o the a p p r e n t i c e s and o t h e r  workers i n the shop, they l a u g h a t him, b u t he v e r y s e r i o u s l y c a l l s them deaf and b l i n d because they c a n ' t hear or see the w o r l d around them. Now he s i t s day and n i g h t over h i s Jakob Boehme and Hans Sachs, two s t r a n g e  shoemakers who confused  even i n t h e i r own day and age. Crossroads to  everybody  One t h i n g i s v e r y c l e a r -  i s no o r d i n a r y c h i l d .  After a l l ,  I d i d n ' t come  him by o r d i n a r y means. I ' l l never f o r g e t the e v e n i n g when I f e l l a s l e e p  my t h r e e - l e g g e d  over  l a s t , d i s a p p o i n t e d a t my low e a r n i n g s - t h a t  i t was t h r e e - f o o t e d i s n o t w i t h o u t  significance,  I've been  t o l d - and dreamed about f i n d i n g a t r e a s u r e i n a l o c k e d  -29-  c h e s t , but I was awake.  I t was  t o l d not to open t h i s c h e s t u n t i l I  a l l so c l e a r and o b v i o u s , s i n c e dreaming  s l e e p i n g were so c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , get to  i t out of my h e l p me  find  head, and f i n a l l y  But i n s t e a d  At  first  I found m y s e l f a  this  earth. I was  d i s c o n c e r t e d because  make you r i c h .  over, I f e l t  B e s i d e s , the boy was  t h e r e was  a living  treasure  by an i n a n i m a t e one i f i t i s  laughed about i t when I s t a r e d a t him. it  gypsy  r e a l l y awake, and then opened  o f the g o l d I expected, I found  s h o u l d always be accompanied to  that I couldn't  I found the c h e s t which I had  dreamed about, made sure I was  p r o d i g y i n the  and  the t r e a s u r e .  E v e r y t h i n g went w e l l .  it.  was  s t a r k naked and But when I thought  more to a l l t h i s than met  eye, and I c a r e f u l l y c a r r i e d my  the  t r e a s u r e home."  So much f o r our honest shoemaker - when suddenly I i n t e r r u p t e d i n my wrapped i n a cape,  r e a d i n g by an odd s p e c t a c l e . stepped toward me  and stopped a t a g r a v e s t o n e . nearby  column j u s t as he threw  A tall  was man,  t h r o u g h the v a u l t  Silently,  I crept behind a  o f f the cape, and I saw  dark and s u l l e n f a c e , w i t h a p a l e - g r e y Southern  a  complexion,  b e h i n d b l a c k h a i r t u m b l i n g deep over the f o r e h e a d . I n v a r i a b l y , I approach a f o r e i g n , u n u s u a l p e r s o n w i t h the to  same f e e l i n g s as I have on w a i t i n g f o r the rise  on a Shakespeare  play.  I'm  curtain  most impressed when the  -30performance, l i k e  the one  I was  besides true seriousness I l i k e  watching,  is a  tragedy;  o n l y t r a g i c humour, and  f o o l s l i k e i n K i n g L e a r - o n l y these are t r u l y b o l d  and  g r e a t i n t h e i r l a u g h t e r , which stands above c o n c e r n f o r o r d i n a r y humanity. the t i n y w i t s and  On  the o t h e r hand, I t h o r o u g h l y  s e n t i m e n t a l hacks who  f a m i l y dramas and never d a r e , the gods themselves,  and  detest  struggle only with  l i k e Aristophanes,  to mock  I e q u a l l y d e t e s t the m a u d l i n  s o u l s who,  i n s t e a d of d e s t r o y i n g one  above l i f e  itself,  life  to r a i s e mankind  d e a l o n l y w i t h minor s u f f e r i n g s and  even  s u p p l y t h e i r tormented c h a r a c t e r s w i t h a d o c t o r to p r e s c r i b e the e x a c t degree o f t o r t u r e so t h a t the poor wretch, a l t h o u g h h a l f - b r o k e n on the wheel, might s t i l l his  life  - as i f one  escape w i t h  man's l i f e were more important  than  mankind, which goes beyond e x i s t e n c e . L i f e i s h a r d l y more than the f i r s t  a c t , h a r d l y more than the I n f e r n o of the  D i v i n e Comedy which man The  man  who  t r a v e r s e s i n p u r s u i t of h i s i d e a l .  k n e l t near me  on the g r a v e s t o n e ,  gleaming sharp dagger i n h i s hand drawn from a worked sheath,  seemed of the t r u l y t r a g i c  chained  presence.  to h i s  I had  no d e s i r e to sound the alarm  a  beautifully  s t u f f , and  I  i f he d i d something  serious.  N e i t h e r d i d I want to p l a y the c o n f i d a n t who  the f i f t h  a c t a t a c e r t a i n cue rushes  c u r t a i n to stop the hero's  arm.  was  out from behind  His l i f e  seemed to me  in the like  -31-  the a r t f u l l y  wrought sheath  i n h i s hand c o n c e a l i n g  dagger, or l i k e C l e o p a t r a ' s b a s k e t deadly  one  should not i n t e r f e r e  When I was who  The  the same wooden, a n t i q u e  to d i e p r o p e r l y on our  man's arm  even w i t h i t s c a t a s t r o p h e .  to a h a i r .  puppets from l i v e a c t o r s , who  The  p l a y had was  writes  a puppet d i r e c t o r , I owned a K i n g  resembled t h i s man  gestures,  how  w i t h r o s e s h i d i n g the  p o i s o n o u s snake - when the drama o f l i f e  itself,  Saul  same m e c h a n i c a l  s t y l e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s  don't even know these  days  stages.  n e a r l y reached  the f i n a l c u r t a i n - the  p o i s e d f o r the d e a t h - d e a l i n g blow.  of a sudden he f r o z e and  the  k n e l t on the stone  But a l l  like  a statue.  Only an i n c h of space remained between the dagger's t i p and  the man's b r e a s t , which i t was  d e a t h crowded c l o s e upon l i f e . r e f u s i n g to march onward, and and  supposed to p i e r c e , and  But  time seemed suspended,  the one  moment between  life  d e a t h seemed t u r n e d i n t o an e t e r n i t y beyond a l l changes. I grew a f r a i d and  c a t h e d r a l c l o c k , and  was  I f e l t p a r a l y z e d , and  f r o z e n and  dead.  church w i t h i t s l i f e l e s s stone c a r v e d , k n e e l i n g k n i g h t s and w a i t i n g f o r a new  aghast a t the f a c e o f  t h e r e the hand p o i n t e d s t i l l  s t r a i g h t at midnight. around me  glanced  time,  The  man  the  and world  on the grave,  columns and  life  the  monuments, i t s  s a i n t s - a l l seemed to  f o r a new  the  i n a new  age  be to  animate them. I t passed - the c l o c k f r e e d i t s e l f , the hand s l i d  -32-  forward,  and the f i r s t  through the d e s e r t e d  s t r o k e o f m i d n i g h t boomed  arches.  I t seemed as i f the man had  come a l i v e t h r o u g h the c l o c k . stone  slowly  The dagger c l a t t e r e d  t o the  f l o o r and s h a t t e r e d . "A c u r s e  on t h i s c a t a l e p s y , " he s a i d  were used t o t h i s d i s e a s e . blow."  coldly,  as i f he  " I t never l e t s me f i n i s h the  He stood up and t u r n e d  t o go as i f n o t h i n g had  happened. " I l i k e you," I c r i e d . and  genuine t r a g i c  dignity  "You've got p o i s e i n your  serenity.  of men who hated  life,  I've always l o v e d the c l a s s i c  words v/here a c t i o n was more  suitable,  and a death l e a p l i k e the one f o r which you were  preparing  i s no s m a l l g e s t u r e  - i t ' s the k i n d o f t o u r de  f o r c e t h a t you r e s e r v e f o r the v e r y end." " I f you can h e l p me up.  jump," he s a i d morosely," speak  I f n o t , don't s t r a i n y o u r s e l f w i t h  opinions.  Too much has been w r i t t e n about the a r t of  l i v i n g , but I'm s t i l l dying.  In vain!  l o o k i n g f o r a volume on the a r t of  I cannot d i e . "  " I f o n l y some of our most p o p u l a r talent  f o r immortality!"  remain ephemeral w h i l e and  compliments and  could continue  remain p o p u l a r  I cried  they  out.  w r i t e r s had your " T h e i r work c o u l d  themselves c o u l d be immortal  their transitory  u n t i l Judgement Day.  w r i t i n g s e t e r n a l l y to Unfortunately,  their  hour comes much too soon, and they must d i e t o g e t h e r w i t h  their  -33-  May-flies.  My f r i e n d ,  i f only I could l i f t  to the l e v e l o f a Kotzebue,  you r i g h t  now  your work would never d i e and  even when e v e r y t h i n g comes t o an end, your  achievements  c o u l d be a H o g a r t h i a n t a i l - p i e c e t o e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has ever been s a i d , and time c o u l d l i g h t h i s l a s t p i p e t o a scene from your l a s t p l a y and c o u l d then s k i p over i n t o  enthusiastically  eternity."  The man t r i e d  to e x i t q u i e t l y , without launching i n t o  a r e s o u n d i n g t i r a d e l i k e a bad a c t o r , b u t I grasped h i s hand and s a i d , " Don't be i n such a h u r r y , my f r i e n d . I t ' s not n e c e s s a r y because you have so much time, p r o v i d e d t h a t time a p p l i e s t o your case s i n c e ,  j u d g i n g from your words,  I t h i n k you a r e the Wandering Jew, p u n i s h e d t o l i v e among the d y i n g because he mocked e t e r n i t y . g r i e v e d , you unique man, perhaps because your l i f e  forever  You a r e  the t h r e a d o f  cannot be s e v e r e d by the hand o f time, which  w h i r l s around the cosmic c l o c k - f a c e l i k e a sharp sword, n e v e r c e a s i n g t o murder. itself  i s destroyed.  situation.  You cannot d i e u n t i l  the c l o c k  But t h i n k o f the b r i g h t s i d e o f your  I t w i l l be v e r y funny and worth your w h i l e  to be the o n l y s p e c t a t o r t o watch t h i s tragi-comedy, h i s t o r y o f the w o r l d , u n t i l  the l a s t a c t .  this  On the L a s t Day,  as the o n l y s u r v i v o r of the f l o o d , you can stand on the l a s t mountain  peak, amuse y o u r s e l f by w h i s t l i n g and stomping  a t the whole f a r c e , and f i n a l l y h u r l y o u r s e l f i n t o the  -34-  a b y s s , w i l d and angry l i k e a second " I ' l l whistle a l lright,"  Prometheus."  the man s a i d d e f i a n t l y , " i f  o n l y the a u t h o r o f t h e p l a y hand't s a d d l e d me w i t h a l e a d i n g r o l e - I ' l l never f o r g i v e him f o r t h a t . " "All the  play.  all,  the b e t t e r , " I l a u g h e d .  "We'll have a r e v o l t i n  The hero r e b e l s a g a i n s t the p l a y w r i g h t .  i t happens o f t e n enough i n t h e l i t t l e  i m i t a t i n g the g r e a t comedy o f l i f e .  After  comedies a l l  I n the end, the hero  grows l a r g e r t h a n the a u t h o r i n t e n d e d so t h a t the l a t t e r can no l o n g e r c o n t r o l him. to  E t e r n a l wanderer,  I'd l i k e  hear your s t o r y , so I can k i l l m y s e l f w i t h l a u g h t e r .  I  always l a u g h h e a r t i l y d u r i n g a p r o f o u n d t r a g e d y , j u s t as I o c c a s i o n a l l y weep d u r i n g a good  comedy because t h e t r u l y  g r e a t and p r o f o u n d must be approached from b o t h at  once." *?I u n d e r s t a n d you, clown," the man s a i d .  I  extremes  "Right now,  f e e l mad enough t o l a u g h and t e l l you the whole  story.  But by God, a s i n g l e frown from you and I ' l l s t o p immediately." "Don't worry, my f r i e n d , " I s a i d . laugh."  " I ' l l h e l p you  He s a t down among a marble f a m i l y o f k n i g h t s  p r a y i n g a t a grave and began. " Y o u ' l l agree i t ' s t e d i o u s t o t e l l l e i s u r e l y from c h a p t e r t o c h a p t e r . so  one's l i f e  story  I p r e f e r a c t i o n and  I ' l l p r e s e n t i t i n the form o f a puppet p l a y  complete  -35-  with Harlequin - i t ' l l  make my t a l e more g r a p h i c and  amusing. F i r s t we have a Mozart v i l l a g e musicians. life  symphony, p l a y e d by amateur  This f i t s  i n very well with a ruined  and e l e v a t e s the mind by means o f n o b l e t h o u g h t s ,  w h i l e a t the same time one wishes  the f i d d l e - s c r a p i n g a l l  to  hell.  Now H a r l e q u i n e n t e r s and excuses the d i r e c t o r  of  the p l a y who has been p l a y i n g God and has g i v e n the  most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s t o the a c t o r s w i t h the l e a s t He mentions  t h a t such b l u n d e r s have t h e i r good p o i n t s i n -  s o f a r as the performance the  talent.  w i l l be t e r r i b l y m a u d l i n , which i s  f a t e o f a l l g r e a t and t r a g i c m a t e r i a l t a c k l e d by hack  artists. about  life  He c o n c l u d e s h i s speech w i t h some inane remarks and the n a t u r e o f the age i n g e n e r a l , d e c l a r i n g  t h a t b o t h have degenerated  from comedy i n t o melodrama, and  t h a t one c o u l d c r y r a t h e r than l a u g h about mankind, so t h a t he h i m s e l f has become a moral, sober b u f f o o n a p p e a r i n g o n l y i n t h i s n o b l e genre i n which he has r e c e i v e d much applause. E n t e r the puppets  themselves.  Two b r o t h e r s w i t h o u t  h e a r t s embrace each o t h e r , and H a r l e q u i n laughs a t the c l a c k i n g o f t h e i r arms and a t t h e i r wooden k i s s i n t o no l i f e w i l l perfectly,  come.  which  One o f the b r o t h e r s p l a y s the puppet  talking i n s t i f f  sentences w i t h long, dry p e r i o d s  i n a p e r f e c t demonstration of prose s t y l e .  The o t h e r  -36-  puppet, however, would l i k e o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t o poor and  t o p l a y a l i v e a c t o r and f a l l s  iambics  and rhymed e n d - s y l l a b l e s ,  H a r l e q u i n nods h i s head and launches i n t o a speech  about the warmth o f a puppet's f e e l i n g s and about the elegant  d e l i v e r y of heroic poetry.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , the  b r o t h e r s pump each o t h e r ' s hand and e x i t .  As an added  a t t r a c t i o n between a c t s , H a r l e q u i n dances a s o l o , and then Mozart i s once more b u t c h e r e d The  c u r t a i n r i s e s again.  by the v i l l a g e r s . Two new puppets  enter:  Columbine and a page-boy who has opened a p a r a s o l over h e r head.  She i s the primadonna o f t h e puppet troupe and,  without Her  f l a t t e r i n g her,  the f o r m c u t t e r ' s  masterpiece.  f e a t u r e s a r e t r u l y Greek w i t h a s t r o n g tendency toward  idealization. He sees h e r , h i s heart  The b r o t h e r who t a l k s i n p r o s e now e n t e r s . immediately s t r i k e s h i m s e l f i n the p l a c e where  i s , and suddenly b e g i n s  t o gush v e r s e ,  h i s endings and even u s i n g assonance u n t i l completely  terrified,  rhyming  Columbine,  f l e e s o f f - s t a g e w i t h h e r page-boy.  He r u s h e s a f t e r her, b u t s i n c e the d i r e c t o r has committed a b l u n d e r , a very  he c o l l i d e s w i t h H a r l e q u i n who a d - l i b s  c r u e l , i r o n i c a l speech i n which he e x p l a i n s to the  d i s t r a u g h t puppet t h a t h i s c r e a t o r - namely the d i r e c t o r o f t h e p l a y - has no i n t e n t i o n o f g i v i n g him the l a d y , and t h a t t h i s w i l l make f o r a v e r y funny p l a y because t h e a c t i o n s of a melancholy f o o l a r e always the most amusing p a r t o f  -37-  a comedy - i n r e p l y , the despair slanders  even the d i r e c t o r u n t i l  tears with laughter. f i n d i n g h e r , and  o t h e r puppet c u r s e s and  the a u d i e n c e i s i n  But a t l a s t , he g r a s p s a t the hope of  he d e c i d e s  H a r l e q u i n accompanies  to s e a r c h a t l e a s t the  the second b r o t h e r . An  They s i n g a t e n d e r  o l d , harassed  of musicians  who  Pantaloon  p l a y gay  i n a u d i b l e , which p u z z l e s to  the music, and  ventures  defends the  a u d i b l e o n l y i n the warm South. impossibly  humorously - a few utterly  and  a few  comments  on  o l d t a l e about n o t e s thawing and  The  p l a y has  becoming become v e r y  to judge e i t h e r s e r i o u s l y or  c r i t i c s among the audience t h i n k i t ' s  the  two  the f i r s t  l o v e b i r d s go to bed,  brother return.  The  and  i n d e s p a i r d e c l a r e s he w i l l take h i s own  opens a f l a p  to p o l e w i t h o u t  so much t h a t he He  finding  i n the puppet's b r e a s t and  p r i s e t h a t i t a c t u a l l y has  insists,  a heart.  can't h e l p  j u s t as  puppet  he went from p o l e  ideas.  are  Everyone dances  how  him  exchange  mad.  Finally, q u i n and  duet and  with  a r r i v e s w i t h a group  the a u d i e n c e .  b e i n g f r o z e n a t the N o r t h - p o l e  and  flirts  music except t h a t the n o t e s  Pantaloon  music a p p r e c i a t i o n and  strange,  theatre.  him.  In the t h i r d a c t , Columbine r e t u r n s and  rings.  in his  The  spilling  Harle-  describes Columbine,  life.  Harlequin  f i n d s to h i s discovery  sur-  shakes  out some c l e v e r  f o r example, t h a t e v e r y t h i n g  in  life,  -38-  p a i n as w e l l as  joy, i s no  such i l l u s i o n s are never s u s p e c t but  instead consider  E x c i t e d l y , he harangues the  contradicts himself discourse  t h e n makes h i s  one  j o i n s the  general  a c t can  and  but  ridi-  started.  meet, and  as  be heard accompanying h i s words. i s very  confused.  comments on l o v e , s a y i n g  He  i n his actors.  the  soundless s t r a i n s  Harlequin  that i t i s  sentiment s i n c e i t doesn't c o n t r i b u t e  good.  to  a l s o demands t h a t the d i r e c t o r remove  And  o v e r h a u l of the w o r l d , and t o l d why  brother,  laughs m a l i c i o u s l y ,  b e g i n s to speak, the  instil  finally,  e x a m i n a t i o n of the human r a c e  being  legitimate  a f t e r a long,  brothers  l o v e from the r e s t of the p l a y and values  exploited,  first  back where he  two  w i t h o u t the h e a r t  hardly a heroic the  c o n s t a n t l y and  f o u r t h a c t , the  two  puppets  t r u e n a t u r e of puppets,  to the a u d i e n c e , he  w i t h the h e a r t  brother  that  exit.  o f the p r e v i o u s The  the  finds himself  In an a s i d e  In the  f o o l e d and  themselves important and  a t t e m p t i n g to r e v e a l to him  culous  and  f o r e v e r a s e c r e t so t h a t the  themselves of b e i n g  human b e i n g s .  he  more than i l l u s i o n ,  and  then he  he  higher  moral  demands a r e -  an u r g e n t l y stubbornly  required insists  on  he must p l a y the f o o l i n f r o n t of an unknown  audience. And The  now,  a t r a g i c i n c i d e n t i s performed most i n e p t l y .  b e a u t i f u l Columbine appears, and  as the  brother  - 3 9 -  without sags  the h e a r t i n t r o d u c e s h e r as h i s w i f e , the  to the f l o o r c l u m s i l y and  a stone.  The  two  other  h i t s h i s wooden head a g a i n s t  l o v e r s hasten  o f f - s t a g e t o get a s s i s t a n c e .  But H a r l e q u i n h e l p s him up, wipes the b l o o d from h i s head, and  asks him  a stone and  q u i t e c a l m l y to s t o p b r e a k i n g h i s head over the whole s t u p i d a f f a i r  such t h i n g as t h i n g s i n themselves.  over  s i n c e t h e r e i s no  Then he p r a i s e s the  d i r e c t o r f o r d i s p e n s i n g w i t h Greek f a t e and i n t r o d u c i n g i n s t e a d a new,  moral p h i l o s o p h y of happy endings  into  the  theatre. The  l a s t a c t i s r e a l l y too absurd  the m u s i c i a n s and  grind  f o r words.  out s i l l y w a l t z e s t o soothe  First  the minds,  then the puppet w i t h the h e a r t e n t e r s and r e s o r t s t o  s y l l o g i s m s and  sophisms to c o n v i n c e  d i r e c t o r has mixed up t h e r e f o r e a mistake,  the puppets, and  Columbine t h a t the t h a t her marriage  t h a t she belongs  the modern p l o t demands a happy ending.  is  to him because Columbine seems  c o n v i n c e d , but her moral sense and h e r r e s p e c t f o r the d i r e c t o r p r e v e n t her from  co-operating.  t h r e a t e n s to abduct  She  ly.  her.  He d e s p a i r s and  pushes him away contemptuous-  He a c t s i n s a n e , b a t t e r s h i s wooden head a g a i n s t the  w a l l , and  l o a d s h i s v e r s e w i t h assonance.  Finally  he  e x i t s , but not b e f o r e he has h u r l e d the handsome page-boy, who  i s s t u m b l i n g around s l e e p i l y i n h i s n i g h t gown, i n t o  h e r room.  He  l o c k s the door and  storms away.  -40-  In a moment, he r e t u r n s w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , who h o l d i n g a sword, and and  stabs f i r s t  who  l a u n c h e s a s h o r t , wooden speech,  the page-boy, t h e n Columbine, and  himself.  The  among the  t h r e e puppets now  out to  is  other brother  s a y i n g a n o t h e r word, he  stands  still  sprawling  and  finally  wide-eyed  on the boards.  s n a t c h e s the  sword and  With-  attempts  r u n h i m s e l f through to f o l l o w the o t h e r s , but a t t h a t  moment the w i r e , p u l l e d too e n e r g e t i c a l l y by the  director,  snaps and  dangles  h i s arm  uselessly. his  At the  puppet, who idiotic  he's  t h r u s t and  same time, a s t r a n g e  t h r o a t , saying,"You must l i v e Harlequin  is  cannot complete the  v o i c e sounds i n  forever!"  e n t e r s once more to comfort and  i s c a r r y i n g on f a r too much, by f o r a puppet to r e f l e c t  can e a s i l y put him  pleases.  comments i n t e l l i g e n t l y  He  and  - a l l i n an e f f o r t  u s e l e s s to take  since  moods of  back i n t o s t o r a g e  the i f he  on f r e e w i l l and  the madness of puppet b r a i n s , d i s c u s s i n g the realistically  the  saying that i t  about h i m s e l f  no more t h a n a pawn to the f i t s  d i r e c t o r who  calm  on  issues quite  to e x p l a i n t h a t i t i s  t h i n g s s e r i o u s l y , because i n the  a n a l y s i s l i f e i s a comedy i n which H a r l e q u i n a decent r o l e because he r e c o g n i z e s  alone  last can  play  the p l a y f o r what i t  i s : a farce." Here the man out w i l d l y , " T h e r e  ceased f o r a moment and you  then b l u r t e d  have the whole c a r n i v a l performance  -41-  i n which I've  played  the "brother w i t h the h e a r t .  i t ' s r i g h t to carve the accordingly inviting  - I can be  the  as blasphemous as  criticism  t a l e appears s u b l i m e l y r e a l i t y , a l t h o u g h we explanations  s t o r y i n t o wood and  of m o r a l i s t s .  I please  T o l d my  f o r everything  w h i l e the  s t r i k e s out m i s t a k e n r o l e s l i k e mine. of the p l a y and  w i l l not  l e t me  escape.  The  more and  more, f o r you  way,  go no m a t t e r how  worst p a r t  characters I've  t o the  i s my  law  and  l o v e to s u p p l y  the  I was and  counsel,  and  which they l e t me  attempts a t  of the  me  Italian  I surrendered myself three  defense e s t a b l i s h e d  jurisdiction.  the r e s u l t was  one  he  times  pronounced t h e i r v e r d i c t :  t h a t t h e r e f o r e my  their  tried  been p l a y i n g  a c r i m i n a l and  I hadn't o r d e r e d the a s s a s s i n a t i o n s  nature outside  never  theatre.  First  to s t a y a l i v e because my  v o c a l terms, and  no  F o r ages, I've  i n v e n t i v e my  t h a t I'm  never l e a v e  They t r i e d me  causal  d i r e c t o r does  must know t h a t I've  confessed  in  boredom, w h i c h p l a g u e s  t r i e d i n every way.  a murderer. I was  who  the  escape t h a t d i r e c t o r , but  t h i s r o l e f o r c e n t u r i e s , and stock  without  u n m o t i v a t e d , j u s t as i t was  stupid creatures  think  to a c t i t out  such t h i n g , which a c c o u n t s f o r the f a c t t h a t he  to l e a p out  I  a mild  i n c l e a r and crime was I cursed slander  that  unequi-  of a mental my  defense  suit, after  go.  I j o i n e d the army and  missed not  a s i n g l e b a t t l e , but  -42-  f a t e d i d n ' t w r i t e my name on a s i n g l e b u l l e t , and embraced me  on the b a t t l e f i e l d amidst a thousand  s o l d i e r s and I  even had  dying  t o r e h i s l a u r e l s to share them w i t h me.  Yes,  t o p l a y a h e r o ' s r o l e i n the d e t e s t a b l e drama  of  life,  and I c u r s e d my  at  every  turn.  A thousand lips,  death  i m m o r t a l i t y which f r u s t r a t e d  times I have put the p o i s o n e d g o b l e t t o  and a thousand  times i t has f a l l e n from my  b e f o r e I c o u l d empty i t .  murderous blow, and  E v e r y m i d n i g h t I s t e p out of the  every n i g h t I s t e p back a g a i n a f t e r  s t r o k e , t o r e t u r n and d i s a p p e a r i n t o e t e r n i t y  the f i g u r e .  my  hand  o b s c u r i t y l i k e a f i g u r e on a c l o c k f a c e , t o complete  last  me  I f o n l y I knew where t o f i n d  the  like  the clockwork  of  time - I'd h u r l m y s e l f i n t o the wheels to t e a r i t a p a r t or  to be d e s t r o y e d .  I go mad  t r y i n g to f u l f i l  s e s s i o n , and i n d e s p a i r I h a t c h a thousand my  my  ob-  p l a n s t o make  d e a t h p o s s i b l e - and then I suddenly l o o k deep i n s i d e  m y s e l f , i n t o a b o t t o m l e s s abyss i n which time f l o w s d a r k l y l i k e a r i v e r t h a t never d r i e s .  And  out of the b l a c k  depths the word FOREVER echoes up, and I shudder from m y s e l f , and y e t I cannot The man  and  flee  escape."  ended, and I longed to g i v e t h i s  w r e t c h the h e a l i n g draught w i t h my  own  sleepless  hand, the hemlock  for  which h i s f e v e r e d and r e d eyes l o n g e d i n v a i n .  was  afraid  t h a t h i s o b s e s s i o n might  But I  abandon him a t the  -43-  d e c i s i v e moment, t h a t a t the door o f death he would suddenly l o v e l i f e a g a i n , ness.  love i t f o r i t s very  transitori-  We a r e made up o f such paradoxes: we l o v e  life  because we f e a r d e a t h , and we would hate t o l o s e what we fear. I c o u l d do n o t h i n g madness and h i s d e s t i n y .  f o r him, and so I l e f t him t o h i s  -44-  FIFTH NIGHTWATCH  The result  l a s t n i g h t w a t c h had l a s t e d a l o n g time, w i t h t h e  t h a t I had i n s o m n i a , l i k e  instead  the wandering s t r a n g e r , and  of snoring through the p r o s a i c d a y l i g h t hours, a  h a b i t I had c o p i e d from the S p a n i s h ,  who t r e a t day as i f i t  were n i g h t , I was f o r c e d t o s t a y awake and t o bore m y s e l f to  death i n t h i s bourgeois  life,  among a l l the w a k e f u l  sleepers. For  lack of anything  b e t t e r to do, I t r a n s l a t e d my  w i l d , p o e t i c n i g h t i n t o c l e a r and d u l l p r o s e , the l i f e and  I captured  o f the madman on paper, s u p p l y i n g some  motivation  an appearance o f o b j e c t i v i t y , and had i t p r i n t e d , f o r  the d e l i g h t and e d i f i c a t i o n o f a l l the c l e v e r d a y w a l k e r s . Actually, and  the w r i t i n g was an attempt t o p u t m y s e l f t o s l e e p ,  I planned to p r o o f - r e a d  my opus d u r i n g  t o n i g h t ' s watch  because I c o u l d h a r d l y f a c e d a y l i g h t and p r o s e combined f o r a second time. E v e r y t h i n g has worked out a c c o r d i n g l y t o p l a n , as  -45-  follows: The home of Don  Juan was  where every t r e e and man life  i s more f i e r c e l y  f i e r y , passionate Spain,  t h r i v e s more wantonly  colourful.  Don  and where  Juan, however, seemed  transplanted into t h i s p e r p e t u a l spring l i k e a Northern g l a c i e r - he was  c o l d and  severe.  Yet i t seemed t h a t  sometimes an earthquake  trembled beneath h i s f e e t , and  were a f r a i d and a v o i d e d  him.  H i s b r o t h e r Don  Ponce, on the o t h e r hand, was  as m i l d  as a v i r g i n , and had a manner of speech which f l o w e d wreathed  i t s e l f around- e v e r y t h i n g so t h a t he  through l i f e  men  and  strolled  as i f t h r o u g h a magic garden wrapped i n green.  The w o r l d adored him, and Juan h i m s e l f d i d not e x a c t l y hate him - he merely r e s e n t e d h i s manner of which choked  speech,  a l l t h a t i s s t a r k and n o b l e i n n e e d l e s s  f l o u r i s h e s and  e x c e s s i v e ornamentation  i n order to f a s h i o n  a more d e l e c t a b l e w o r l d , not u n l i k e hack p o e t s who n a t u r e a second  time r a t h e r t h a n t o c r e a t e a new  t h r o u g h t h e i r own The  two  garnish  world  efforts.  l i v e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r each o t h e r , and  whenever they embraced, i t was  as i f two  corpses stood  s u p p o r t i n g each o t h e r : t h e i r h e a r t s were c o l d , n e i t h e r by l o v e nor h a t r e d . mask of l o v e i n f r o n t  possessed  Ponce h e l d the s i m p e r i n g  of h i s f a c e , but h i s h o l l o w  l a c k e d the f r i e n d l y b a n t e r and roughness  speeches  of b r o t h e r - t a l k .  -46-  In  r e p l y , Don  Juan grew more b r i t t l e ,  more r e s e r v e d , and  the a u s t e r e N o r t h blew d e s t r u c t i o n i n t o the m i l d and  the a r t i f i c i a l Pate  f l o w e r s shed t h e i r p e t a l s  South,  rapidly.  seemed i n c e n s e d a t the i n d i f f e r e n c e i n the  b r o t h e r s ' h e a r t s and m a l i g n a n t l y sowed hate and t h e i r path.  S c o r n i n g l o v e , they might  chaos i n  r e a c h each o t h e r  as enemies. It  was  i n S e v i l l e , where Juan was  f i g h t , w i t h g r e a t boredom. a r e n a toward  H i s g l a n c e s s t r a y e d from  He n o t i c e d a box  r u g s which covered the b a l u s t r a d e s .  t h a t was  still  empty and watched i t ,  w i t h o u t any r e a l i n t e r e s t , perhaps  At  about  to r i s e  hoping t h a t here  on the r e a l drama of the  the day.  l a s t , a s i n g l e n o b l e woman wrapped deep i n a b l a c k  m a n t i l l a appeared,  f o l l o w e d by a d a z z l i n g page-boy  p r o t e c t e d her a g a i n s t the heat w i t h a p a r a s o l . very s t i l l  i n the box,  equally s t i l l . life  He f e l t  might  who  She  stood  and a c r o s s from h e r , Juan s t o o d as i f an important s e c r e t of h i s  were h i d d e n behind t h a t v e i l ,  he dreaded it  the  crowd than by the i m a g i n a t i v e d e c o r a t -  embroidered  c u r t a i n was  bull-  the rows of s p e c t a t o r s and were c a p t i v a t e d  l e s s by the l i v e l y i o n s and  watching a  but a t the same time  the moment the v e i l would be l i f t e d as  though  r e v e a l the b l o o d y ghost of a Banquo.  Finally  the moment came and  the m a n t i l l a opened to  r e v e a l an e n c h a n t i n g f e m i n i n e f i g u r e l i k e a white  lily.  -47-  Her  cheeks were l i f e l e s s ,  and h e r p a l e l i p s were c l o s e d ;  she seemed the p o r t e n t o u s p i c t u r e  of a wonderful, other-  w o r l d l y b e i n g r a t h e r t h a n a woman o f f l e s h and b l o o d . Juan e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h a deep t e r r o r and p a s s i o n a t e love.  A chaos u n c o i l e d w i t h i n him,  c r y was a l l t h a t escaped him. s h a r p l y and l e f t ,  but a s i n g l e ,  loud  The woman s t a r e d a t him  a t the same time t h r o w i n g the m a n t i l l a  back over h e r f a c e . Juan hastened without success.  to f i n d her.  He combed S e v i l l e -  T e r r o r and l o v e drove him away from the  c i t y , and back a g a i n , b u t i n r a r e moments he o f t e n saw the i n s t a n t i n which he would f i n d h e r , b o t h d r e a d f u l and l o n g e d f o r ; he s t r u g g l e d t o h o l d on t o h i s p r e m o n i t i o n , i f o n l y once,  i n order to understand  it,  but i t flowed past  him q u i c k l y l i k e a n o c t u r n a l dream and when he found hims e l f back i n r e a l i t y ,  i t was once more d a r k n e s s , and h i s  mind was empty. Three  times he journeyed through S p a i n w i t h o u t  the wan f a c e which had shone i n t o h i s l i f e loving.  F i n a l l y , homesickness  and the f i r s t  meeting  so l e t h a l and  drove him back t o S e v i l l e ,  man he met was Don Ponce.  Each was d i s t u r b e d a t the s i g h t o f the o t h e r ; they had become so e s t r a n g e d as t o be p u z z l e s t o each o t h e r . Juan's  s e v e r i t y had v a n i s h e d : he was on f i r e ,  a volcano  whose i n n e r flame had a t l a s t b u r s t through i t s thousand  -48-  a n c i e n t l a y e r s o f r o c k ; but now i t seemed a l l the more dangerous i n h i s p r o x i m i t y .  Ponce's m i l d n e s s ,  on the o t h e r  hand, had t u r n e d a u s t e r e , and he seemed f r o z e n b e s i d e h i s brother. life  A l l the f a l s e t i n s e l had dropped away from h i s  so t h a t he stood l i k e a t r e e r e a c h i n g naked branches  i n t o the sky, robbed o f i t s v e r n a l g l o r y .  The same  lightning  that s t r i k e s a f o r e s t , to f i l l  the h o r i z o n w i t h flames f o r  a thousand n i g h t s , might b l a s t  only s u p e r f i c i a l l y  a moor t o s c o r e and w h i t h e r  sparse  across  flowers without  showing  a trace. With c o l d c o u r t e s y , Ponce i n v i t e d Don Juan t o h i s home, t o i n t r o d u c e him t o h i s w i f e . ly.  I t was s i e s t a time;  covered  Juan a c c e p t e d  listless-  the b r o t h e r s walked i n t o a v i n e -  p a v i l i o n - and t h e r e Juan's p a l e v i s i o n r e s t e d  q u i e t l y , l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a sarcophagus, b e s i d e a s t a t u e of Death whose i n v e r t e d t o r c h touched h e r b r e a s t . Juan stood r o o t e d t o the ground: h i s dark r o s e up i n t o h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s  and d i d n o t s i n k back as  b e f o r e , and e v e r y t h i n g grew t e r r i b l y s e c r e t as i t was suddenly he  slumped u n c o n s c i o u s  clear, like  unravelled.  against a  When he awoke, he found  Oedipus'  H i s senses f l e d and  stone.  h i m s e l f f o r s a k e n except f o r  the s i l e n t page-boy, who had s t a y e d behind  t o a t t e n d him.  With t u r m o i l and r e v o l t i n s i d e him, he rushed open.  forebodings  out i n t o the  Around him, the w o r l d had  seemed changed now.  r e t u r n e d and a grey d e s t i n y had roused  to  r u l e over heaven and e a r t h once a g a i n .  he  felt  her  h i m s e l f pursued a t every  Like  from s l e e p Orestes,  face m a l i c i o u s l y .  f o r c e d Ponce t o l e a v e S e v i l l e f o r some  t i m e , Don Juan crawled of the l i g h t .  itself  t u r n by a Fury who p a r t e d  snake h a i r t o d i s p l a y h e r f a i r When b u s i n e s s  The p a s t  out o f h i d i n g l i k e a c r i m i n a l a f r a i d  I n h i s s o u l , e v e r y t h i n g was f i x e d and d e t e r -  mined, but he f l e d h i s own company so t h a t he would n o t have t o take a c c o u n t a g a i n s t h i m s e l f . he  A secret to himself,  sought out Ponce's e s t a t e and e n t e r e d  Ines:  she r e c o g n i z e d  the room o f Dona  him a t once and, f o r t h e f i r s t  time,  the w h i t e r o s e bloomed r e d and a r d e n t  - l o v e animated  Pygmalion's c o l d s t a t u e .  sun shone r e d t h r o u g h  the  t r e e s and Ines,  The e v e n i n g  i n i n n o c e n c e , blamed the f i r e s o f  heaven f o r h e r b l u s h e s .  Trembling,  she reached f o r h e r  harp, and as Juan accompanied h e r on the f l u t e , forbidden  conversation without  confessed  and answered l o v e .  words began, and the n o t e s  So i t s t a y e d , u n t i l Juan grew b o l d e r , mystic sin left  scorned the  h i e r o g l y p h , and r e v e a l e d h i s b e a u t i f u l ,  i n c l e a r language. the i n n o c e n t  recognize  their  mysterious  Then and t h e r e , the t w i l i g h t  trance  woman, and o n l y now d i d she seem t o  e v e r y t h i n g around h e r as i f through a h o s t i l e  glow o f t o r c h e s , and f o r the f i r s t time s h i v e r i n g and  -50-  terrified,  she s a i d h i s name,"  Brother!"  A t the same moment, the sun went down, and the f a c e t h a t had j u s t heen i l l u m i n a t e d was now as p a l e as b e f o r e . Juan stood  silenced.  Ines r a n g the b e l l and as the  page-boy, as p e r f e c t as a god o f l o v e , e n t e r e d he  the room,  left. I t was b l a c k i n the f o r e s t o u t s i d e , and he stumbled  aimlessly.  Suddenly, Don Ponce appeared b e f o r e  him.  p u l l e d h i s dagger and stabbed w i l d l y - h i s v i s i o n The  dagger s t u c k deep i n a t r e e t r u n k .  had  he murdered h i s b r o t h e r . Ponce f i n a l l y r e t u r n e d ,  secret. learned for  Juan  faded.  Only i n h i s dreams  but Ines d i d n o t r e v e a l Juan's  She h i d l o v e and s i n deep i n h e r b r e a s t .  Juan  t o l o a t h e the d a y l i g h t , and he began t o l i v e  only  the n i g h t : the t h i n g s w i t h i n him were l i g h t - s h y and  dangerous.  As soon as n i g h t f e l l ,  he c r e p t toward Ponce's  e s t a t e and s p i e d a t Ines' window, but as soon as dawn came, he  l e f t w i l d l y and g r u d g i n g l y .  One n i g h t , he saw Ines  w i t h h e r page-boy i n the lamp l i g h t ,  and h i s i m a g i n a t i o n  w h i s p e r e d t h a t she had r e j e c t e d him f o r t h e boy, and t h a t she  devoted a l l h e r sweet n i g h t hours s e c r e t l y t o him. With  savage j e a l o u s y , he swore d e a t h t o the boy and r e s o l v e d to k i l l  him as soon as p o s s i b l e .  t h a t the l i g h t  As he kept watch, he saw  i n h e r room never faded,  the boy always a t h e r s i d e .  and he imagined  T r e m b l i n g w i t h rage and l o v e  -Si-  he w a i t e d u n t i l m i d n i g h t and t h e n c r e p t toward of  the house, half-mad  only p a r t l y closed.  and  out of c o n t r o l , and found i t  With u n c e r t a i n , t o t t e r i n g s t e p s , he  r e a c h e d her door, gave i t a q u i c k push, and She was  the e n t r a n c e  swung i t open.  s l e e p i n g q u i e t l y , as i f she were s t i l l  a g a i n s t the sarcophagus.  Her n i g h t gown b i l l o w e d  and her h a i r had wrapped i t s e l f  leaning  softly,  i n g a r l a n d s around  the  s t r i n g s of the harp a g a i n s t h e r b r e a s t .  Involuntarily,  name of h i s b r o t h e r escaped Juan's  lips,  and he  thought he  had  saw  i n her the F u r y who  the l o c k s which framed i n t o a n e s t of v i p e r s .  the  suddenly  s e p a r a t e d them, and  the b e a u t i f u l f a c e seemed to change Then she became the woman of h i s  l o v e a g a i n , and beyond s e l f - c o n t r o l , he sank down a t her f e e t and p r e s s e d h i s f e v e r e d l i p s to her b r e a s t .  She  s t a g g e r e d up s t a r t l e d , r e c o g n i z e d him i n the glow o f the lamp, and pushed him away from h e r s e l f w i t h a v i o l e n t t h r u s t , her eyes f i l l e d w i t h t e r r o r and For  a moment, t h i s  revulsion.  s i n g l e g l a n c e crushed him,  but h i s  demon took h o l d and he r u s h e d away, not knowing what he about  t o do - the b l o o d y p l a n was  was  h i d d e n too d e e p l y i n h i s  mind. Roused by a l l the n o i s e , the page-boy  stumbled  s l e e p i l y from h i s q u a r t e r s i n the f r o n t room, and grasped him and  Juan  s a i d q u i c k l y , " Y o u r m i s t r e s s wants you a t  h e r s i d e ; she wants to go to e a r l y mass!"  The  boy  rubbed  -52-  his  eyes and  h e r room. found and  Juan watched him  F a t e had  planned  u n t i l he had v a n i s h e d  the c a t a s t r o p h e w e l l : Don  h i s b r o t h e r ' s room, r o u s e d him  r e v e a l e d to him  into  from h i s f i r s t  h i s wife's adultery.  Juan  sleep,  Ponce a r o s e  q u i c k l y , demanding more e x p l a n a t i o n s , but Juan prodded him a l o n g the h a l l s and He  pushed Ponce i n t o her room. Then, a dead calm  c h a t t e r i n g , he searched his  p r e s s e d a dagger i n t o h i s hand.  stood t e r r i f i e d and  And  came a n o i s e , and  Juan.  now  chaos f i l l e d  His teeth  a l o n e i n the n i g h t  and  j u s t g i v e n to  the n i g h t .  Now  there  the door c r a s h e d open on i t s h i n g e s .  lamp i l l u m i n a t e d the d r e a d f u l n i g h t s c e n e .  page-boy sprawled spouted  Don  f r e n z i e d l y f o r the dagger he had  brother.  The  surrounded  dead on the f l o o r and  The  a r i v e r of b l o o d  from Ines' b r e a s t , c l i n g i n g to her snow-white  veil  l i k e a wreath of r o s e s . Juan s t o o d l i k e a s t a t u e . her p a l e l i p s were c l o s e d , and profound As he  l o v e , and  A  her eyes t e n d e r l y .  she d i e d , Ponce was  lost  but  she r e v e a l e d n o t h i n g .  the f i r s t  to awake f u l l y ,  seemed r e a l l y to l o v e her f o r the f i r s t  he had he  s l e e p touched  Ines l o o k e d a t him,  time now  to f e e l l o v e i n h i s h e a r t o n l y  and  because so  c o u l d p i e r c e i t . S i l e n t l y , he m a r r i e d her once a g a i n . Don  Juan s t o o d mute and  i n s a n e among the dead.  SIXTH NIGHTWATCH  What I wouldn't g i v e f o r t h e g i f t polishing a story l i k e pamphleteers  o t h e r honest  o f o r g a n i z i n g and  P r o t e s t a n t p o e t s and  who i n so d o i n g have made t h e i r fame and g l o r y  and have t r a d e d i n t h e i r g o l d e n v i s i o n s f o r g o l d e n  realities  I don't have the t a l e n t , however, and t h i s s h o r t , simple tale  o f murder has c o s t me sweat and t o i l  still  enough though i t  l o o k s u n p o l i s h e d and c o n f u s e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the y e a r s o f my youth were wasted - I  was  a f l o w e r n i p p e d i n the hud.  youths  Unlike other  educated  and p r o m i s i n g y o u n g s t e r s who a l l o w e d themselves t o  become ever more s e n s i b l e and c l e v e r , I f o r my p a r t always had a s p e c i a l l i k i n g f o r madness, and I have t r i e d t o c r e a t e w i t h i n myself a b s o l u t e d i s o r d e r so t h a t , l i k e the good L o r d , I might f i r s t  complete  a good and e n t i r e  of chaos out o f which t o f a s h i o n a p a s s a b l e w o r l d on, whenever I f e l t  like  it.  Yes, i n s t r a i n e d  mind, I o f t e n t h i n k t h a t man has botched  state  later  states of  chaos i t s e l f by  -54-  f a s h i o n i n g lav/ and has  o r d e r much too soon, so t h a t n o t h i n g  ever heen put i n i t s r i g h t p l a c e , and  C r e a t o r would soon d i s m i s s and  I w i s h the  erase t h i s world  as a  failed  system. T h i s o b s e s s i o n has n e a r l y c o s t me  my  The  first  into trouble.  to a n t i c i p a t e Judgement Day  out the time, r e s u l t was  called  out the end  and,  of the  f o r such an unexpected  to be  impassioned and  unprepared  of which I happened  s p e c t a t o r among a crowd s e r v i n g me  a c t o r s , was  highly entertaining.  h y s t e r i a of the people was  thronged  world.  event.  s p e c t a c l e of t h i s f a l s e alarm,  the o n l y calm  instead  t h a t c l e r i c a l and w o r l d l y gentlemen  a l i k e f l e w out of t h e i r beds, embarrassed by and  The  Once i t  30b when d u r i n g the l a s t hour of the  century, I decided of c a l l i n g  o f t e n l e d me  t o g e t h e r and  worth s e e i n g .  The  frenzy  Aristocrats  t r i e d d e s p e r a t e l y to o r g a n i z e them-  s e l v e s a c c o r d i n g to rank i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r meeting Lord.  as  A pack of lawyers  and  o t h e r s o r t s of wolves  their tried  to jump out of t h e i r s k i n by s t r u g g l i n g f i e r c e l y to change i n t o sheep, f l i n g i n g huge p e n s i o n s who  orphans  r a n around i n t e r r o r , p u b l i c l y r e v o k i n g u n j u s t  v i c t i o n s , and Day,  a t widows and  promising  to repay,  a l l the money which they had  reduced  r i g h t a f t e r Judgement e x t o r t e d and which  some poor d e v i l s to beggary.  s u c k e r s and  con-  had  A h o s t of b l o o d -  vampires denounced themselves worthy of b e i n g  -55-  first  hanged and then beheaded, i n s i s t i n g t h a t the sentence  be c a r r i e d  out immediately,  so t h a t they would  punishment from a h i g h e r hand.  escape  The p r o u d e s t man i n the  s t a t e , h i s crown i n h i s hand, s t o o d humble and almost crawled t o t r a d e compliments  w i t h a pauper,  because the  dawn o f a u n i v e r s a l b r o t h e r h o o d suddenly seemed a p o s s i b i l i t y . H i g h o f f i c e s were abandoned, r i b b o n s and medals were t o r n o f f by t h e i r unworthy owners and shepherds  o f the  s o u l vowed s o l e m n l y to p r o v i d e t h e i r f l o c k n o t o n l y w i t h good words, but a l s o w i t h a good example i f o n l y the L o r d would l e t them o f f t h i s  time.  I t i s h a r d t o d e s c r i b e how the p e o p l e on the stage b e f o r e me r a n around  i n the utmost  confusion, praying,  c u r s i n g , l a m e n t i n g , and h o w l i n g i n t h e i r t e r r o r ; how suddenl y e v e r y f a c e o f t h i s grand b a l l l o s t i t s mask, r e v e a l i n g k i n g s i n pauper's  c l o t h e s and v i c e v e r s a , and w e a k l i n g s i n  k n i g h t l y armour, d e m o n s t r a t i n g the e t e r n a l paradox  between  man and h i s c l o t h e s . I was d e l i g h t e d  t o note t h a t the crowd, i n t h e i r  m o r t a l f e a r , h a r d l y n o t i c e d the t a r d i n e s s o f heaven's justice:  the whole c i t y found time t o uncover i t s v i r t u e s  and v i c e s b e f o r e me, i t s humblest  citizen.  Only one  a t r o c i o u s y o u t h , p l a g u e d by so much boredom t h a t he had a l r e a d y r e s o l v e d n o t to e n t e r the new c e n t u r y ,  committed  a s t r o k e of genius by s h o o t i n g h i m s e l f d u r i n g the o l d one,  -56-  to  determine whether death was s t i l l  of  i n d i f f e r e n c e between d y i n g and r e s u r r e c t i o n because he  felt  p o s s i b l e -in t h i s moment  no d e s i r e t o c a r r y h i s boredom d i r e c t l y  over  into  e t e r n i t y w i t h him. Apart  from m y s e l f ,  poet a t h i s window. Michelangelo  the o n l y o t h e r calm p e r s o n was the  He s t a r e d down d e f i a n t l y i n t o  p a i n t i n g , contemplating  this  the end o f the w o r l d  p o e t i c a l l y from h i s Olympian h e i g h t s . Not  f a r from me an astronomer f i n a l l y remarked t h a t  the g r e a t moment had been p r o l o n g e d  too l o n g , and t h a t the  f l a m i n g sword i n the N o r t h might be the N o r t h e r n instead  o f the sword o f J u s t i c e .  Lights  A t t h i s d e c i s i v e moment,  when some wretches were a l r e a d y t r y i n g to l i f t  t h e i r heads  a g a i n , I thought  remorse  i t necessary  to p r o l o n g t h e i r  somewhat by means of a s h o r t , e d i f y i n g  speech.  " F e l l o w c i t i z e n s . A s t a r - g a z e r can h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d a competent fills  - the a w f u l phenomenom t h a t  our sky can't s i m p l y be taken f o r an i n s i g n i f i c a n t  comet. of  judge of t h i s event  Rather  the world.  does i t appear o n l y once i n the h i s t o r y T h e r e f o r e , l e t us n o t abandon our solemn  mood so l i g h t l y ,  but l e t us make some important  observations  r e l e v a n t t o our e x i s t e n c e . "On t h i s Day o f Judgement, n o t h i n g c o u l d i n t e r e s t us more than a l a s t feet,  l o o k a t t h i s p l a n e t t r e m b l i n g beneath our  the p l a n e t t h a t i s about t o c o l l a p s e w i t h a l l i t s  -57-  Edens and dungeons, i t s madhouses and i t s c e n t r e s o f learning. history, what we  I n t h i s f i n a l hour, now l e t us r e v i e w s h o r t l y how  have a c c o m p l i s h e d s i n c e we  t h a t we  end the w o r l d ' s  we have c a r r i e d emerged from  on and  chaos.  S i n c e Adam, a m u l t i t u d e o f y e a r s has passed - u n l e s s we a c c e p t the c a l e n d a r of the Chinese - and what have we achieved?  I say - n o t h i n g .  "Don't gape a t me self-importance.  like  t h a t ; today i s n o t a time f o r  L e t us r i s e above o u r s e l v e s and  practice  humility. " T e l l me,  how  w i l l you f a c e your c r e a t o r , my  r u l e r s , u s u r e r s , w a r r i o r s , murderers, civil  servants,  and whatever because  jurists,  thieves, fools,  e l s e your t r a d e and p r o f e s s i o n might be -  today no-one dare absent h i m s e l f from t h i s  Give t r u t h i t s due! the  capitalists,  theologians, philosophers^  a l t h o u g h I see some of you would  all  brothers,  assembly,  g l a d l y take to your h e e l s .  What have you done t h a t was  worth  effort?  "You p h i l o s o p h e r s , f o r example, have you ever s a i d a n y t h i n g more i m p o r t a n t than t h a t you d i d not know what t o say  - the e s s e n t i a l and most e n l i g h t e n i n g statement of a l l  p h i l o s o p h i e s to d a t e !  You  s c h o l a r s , what has your  learning  brought except a decay and e v a p o r a t i o n of the human s p i r i t , until  f i n a l l y you can expend  your time and your simple -  minded s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e on the r e m a i n i n g 'caput mortuum'.  -58-  You t h e o l o g i a n s , t r y i n g t o be c o u n t e d among t h e members o f heaven's c o u r t by o g l i n g a t and f a w n i n g on God, what have y o u done e x c e p t o r g a n i z e  t h e e a r t h i n t o a den o f c u t -  t h r o a t s by d r i v i n g men a p a r t i n s t e a d o f u n i t i n g them, by hacking  them i n t o s e c t s so t h a t you have t o r n a s u n d e r  u n i v e r s a l b r o t h e r h o o d and t h e f a m i l y .  And what have y o u  done, y o u j u r i s t s , y o u h a l f - m e n who s h o u l d be o f one f l e s h w i t h t h e t h e o l o g i a n s b u t i n s t e a d became s e p a r a t e d a t some a c c u r s e d theologians  f r o m them  h o u r t o condemn men's b o d i e s as t h e  condemn t h e i r s o u l s ?  only a t the gallows,  shaking  The two o f y o u meet  again  hands i n f r o n t o f t h e d a n g l i n g  s i n n e r , and t h e hangman o f t h e body and t h e hangman o f t h e s o u l stand d i g n i f i e d beside  each  other.  "What a m i t o s a y o f y o u , you men o f s t a t e , you who have r e d u c e d men t o m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ?  W i l l you s u r -  v i v e a h e a v e n l y i n s p e c t i o n w i t h y o u r p o l i t i c a l maxims? how w i l l you c o m f o r t t h e h o l l o w men who stumble b e s i d e t h r o u g h e t e r n i t y ? - you knew o n l y how t o use t h e i r because you k i l l e d  their spirit.  And you  shells,  And what a b o u t t h e  s o l i t a r y g i a n t s among y o u , t h e r u l e r s and k i n g s who pay w i t h men i n s t e a d o f c o i n s , c o n t r a c t i n g a d r e a d f u l s l a v e trade w i t h death? " I ' v e w a t c h e d y o u , and I've grown a n g r y . you,  As I see  c r a w l i n g a l o n g w i t h y o u r d u b i o u s v i r t u e s and m e r i t s ,  I'd l o v e t o be t h e D e v i l f o r j u s t one h o u r on t h i s Judgement  -59-  Day,  i f o n l y t o shake you w i t h more v i o l e n t "The  repent.  f i n a l act i s s t i l l  speeches.  d e l a y e d t o g i v e you time t o  So go ahead, p r a y and howl, you h y p o c r i t e s , j u s t  as you always do b e f o r e death, when your m i s t a k e n l o n g e r has a purpose,  l i f e no  when you've become i n c a p a b l e o f more  sinning. "The  h i s t o r y o f the w o r l d  l i e s b e h i n d you l i k e a  f o o l i s h n o v e l , w i t h a few a c c e p t a b l e and innumerable less characters.  God made o n l y one mistake  hope-  i n t h a t he  d i d n ' t c o l l a b o r a t e , but l e f t you t o w r i t e i t y o u r s e l f . me, w i l l he c o n s i d e r i t worthwhile c r e a t i o n i n t o a h i g h e r language,  t o t r a n s l a t e your  o r i s n ' t i t more  Tell  botched  likely  when he sees i t l y i n g b e f o r e him i n a l l i t s s h a l l o w n e s s tha;t h e ' l l t e a r i t a p a r t i n wrath and a s s i g n you and your plans to o b l i v i o n ? of  I c a n ' t see any o t h e r way.  Can any  you j u s t i f i a b l y make a c l a i m e i t h e r t o heaven o r h e l l ?  F o r the one you a r e too wicked, f o r the o t h e r too b o r i n g . "The  solemn deed i s s t i l l  not t o r e l a x . world  Forge  collapses.  d e l a y e d , but I beseech you  ahead, i n t o  c o n t r i t i o n , b e f o r e the  I ' l l g i v e you the b e s t r e a s o n f o r d o i n g  so: t h e L o r d once spared Sodom and Gomorrha because o f one r i g h t e o u s man, and you might be i n s o l e n t t h a t He w i l l harbour a p l a n e t f u l l of  a few r e a s o n a b l y p i o u s men.  sensible  enough t o t h i n k  o f h y p o c r i t e s because  Can any o f you o f f e r a  s u g g e s t i o n as t o where He s h o u l d p l a c e you?  The  -60-  l a t e Kant  e x p l a i n e d some time ago t h a t time and space a r e  merely p r o d u c t s o f the senses.  You know t h a t n e i t h e r  exists  i n the v/orld o f e t e r n i t y , and I ask you - how w i l l you f i n d room where no room i s , i f you have l i v e d l u s t i n g senses? end?  o n l y through  your  What w i l l you do when time comes t o an  Even when a p p l i e d t o your g r e a t e s t s c h o l a r s and p o e t s ,  i m m o r t a l i t y i s no more than an empty l a b e l . mean t o poor wretches  What does i t  l i k e you who have d e a l t w i t h n o t h i n g  except e a r t h l y goods and who know n o t h i n g o f the s p i r i t except the s p i r i t  o f wine, through which your p o e t s  induce  an e x p e r i e n c e a k i n t o i n s p i r a t i o n . - J u s t l e t one o f you f i n d a l i k e l y s o l u t i o n ; f o r by the D e v i l , I don't know where t o p u t you." I noted a d i s t u r b a n c e i n the crowd b e f o r e me and c l e a r l y heard some y o u t h f u l f r e e t h i n k e r s  (nowadays synonymous  w i t h n o n - t h i n k e r s ) d e c l a r e b o l d l y t h a t the a f f a i r was o n l y a f a l s e alarm.  The k i n g had a l r e a d y p u t h i s crown back on  h i s head, and the f i r s t r e e v e , who had p r e v i o u s l y denounced h i m s e l f , now spouted a n g r i l y t h a t anyone who p l a y e d the f o o l w i t h the whole c i t y t h a t I was the c h i e f  s h o u l d be p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y , and  culprit.  I gave up now and asked  o n l y f o r one more moment o f  s i l e n c e by a p p e a l i n g to the k i n g , s a y i n g , " A Judgement Day speech l i k e  t h i s c o u l d be u s e f u l even i f i t were merely  a f a l s e a l a r m - f o r the sake  o f government, i t would be  -61-  n i c e to h u r l l i g h t n i n g from every peak and w i t h the h e l p  of some p h y s i c a l experiments and  hundred-weights of gun  powder, i n o r d e r  i s by no means o m n i s c i e n t , c o u l d of h i s s t a t e now  and  again.  He  ment i n i t s n a t u r a l naked s t a t e and  the  adorn the f a v o u r i t e s and o r i g i n a l inventor  a p a t e n t on my  only  on parade,  s t a t e ' s t a i l o r s and  the a d v i s o r s .  Yes,  of poor s o u l s r a i s e d a g a i n suddenly f a l l e n - i n t o my  by means of my  and  :  I had  a l a r m , and  s t a t e w i t h a few  the  curses  I myself,  already  t h a t now  as u n f e a s i b l e , and  But i t was  blessings  of s a i n t s  i t would not the  replacements i n o f f i c e s ,  what to do.  of  i n the  I even  mounted such a p r e v i e w  to s t r a i g h t e n up  shoved h i s crown back and  decided  as  the p r o f i t s  s i l e n c e around me,  Nobody spoke a t f i r s t when I was king  who  meagre p u r s e . "  courage from the  to s t a r t r e p a i r s and  Jews  or  of t h i s government experiment, demand  i n v e n t i o n so t h a t I can put  dared to suggest t h a t  govern-  view i t s d i s e a s e s ,  t h e s e pseudo-Judgement Days - p r o f i t s l i k e the  Gathering  who  a general r e v i s i o n  examine the  because u s u a l l y i t i s p r e s e n t e d to him c l o t h e d d e c e p t i v e l y by  few  t h a t the k i n g ,  organize could  a  to mount such a  phantasmagoric preview of Judgement Day  the  tower r e g u l a r l y ,  be  amiss  t i l t e d house executions,  f i n i s h e d , and  of etc.  the  f o r t h on h i s head as i f unend,  my  i n v e n t i o n was  by mercy a l o n e t h a t I was  rejected  merely  -62-  r e g a r d e d as a f o o l and l o s s of my To  t h a t I was  i n s u r e t h a t I would never a g a i n  clock invented  order  by Samuel Day,  a l l e g e d , my  t h i e v e s and  It's  s i n g i n g gave me  t h e r e f o r e must be a b o l i s h e d as  I wander q u i e t l y and  unbelievable  sleep.  Trump.  one  nightand  because,  away to  unfunctional.  are removed from  s a d l y through the  my  empty  c a r d i n t o the n i g h t - c l o c k every hour.  how  my  s i l e n c e has  Those s e c r e t s i n n e r s who  of Judgement Day,  of the  r e d u c e d to a s i l e n t  b l o w i n g and  s t r e e t s , banging my  false  so t h a t from a s i n g i n g  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the d a y - t h i e v e s and  sound a  implemented the use  t r u m p e t i n g watchman I was  vigil  the  job.  alarm, a cabinet  i t was  not punished w i t h  are now  no  improved  everybody's  once s l e p t f i t f u l l y ,  l o n g e r d i s t u r b e d by my  afraid  Last  They snore s o u n d l y i n t h e i r p i l l o w s .  These n i g h t - c l o c k s are so c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t the watchman must s t i c k a s l i p of paper i n t o a s l o t , which moves f o r w a r d and becomes a c c e s s i b l e o n l y a t c e r t a i n hours, i n order f o r him to prove t h a t he has made h i s r e g u l a r rounds. In the morning, a p o l i c e o f f i c e r u n l o c k s the c l o c k to see i f there i s a s l i p of paper i n each s l o t .  SEVENTH NIGHTWATCH  I've life no  has  got  onto the  subject  of my  madnesses, but  been the worst i n s a n i t y of a l l , and  longer allowed  to spend my  might as w e l l c o n t i n u e Sitting  since  time s i n g i n g and  w i t h my  my I'm  tooting, I  life  story  tonight.  i n f r o n t of the m i r r o r  of my  imagination,  have o f t e n t r i e d to c o n s t r u c t a p a s s a b l e  self-portrait,  I've  i n t o the  always ended up by  smashing my  because I f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  fist  thetically  out  viewing  from.  I grew so confused about m y s e l f t h a t to e x p l a i n  u l t i m a t e r e a s o n f o r my  as a  reflection  seen from the f r o n t , a  d e v i l , a l l depending on v/hich a n g l e I was  ween the  but  i t as a t r i c k p a i n t i n g  d e p i c t i n g a Grace, a monkey and  Finally,  I  t h a t one  sheets  existence,  dark n i g h t  I have c o n c l u d e d hypo-  the D e v i l h i m s e l f  crept  of a newly c a n o n i z e d woman and wrote me  ' l e x c r u c i a t a ' f o r our dear L o r d , of H i s mind p u z z l i n g about me  the  so t h a t He would  on Judgement  Day.  betdown go  -64-  T h i s damned c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n my  nature  has  got so f a r  out of hand t h a t the Pope h i m s e l f c o u l d n ' t be more devout i n h i s prayers  than I am  i n my  blasphemy, s i n c e whenever  I happen to be r e a d i n g a m o r a l l y e d i f y i n g book, I h e l p making m a l i c i o u s m a r g i n a l intelligent to  build  collect for  and  notes.  s e n s i t i v e people  While  other  wander out i n t o  themselves p o e t i c a l t a b e r n a c l e s and the most d u r a b l e and  S e v e r a l times  I've  i s p o s s i b l e : e i t h e r the w o r l d  or I am.  i s mad,  v o i c e of the m a j o r i t y d e c i d e s , I am  I first few  I f the  b r i g h t c o l o u r s and  painting at  must l i m i t myself  to  hues.  made a modest r e p u t a t i o n f o r myself  The  ugly  to d e l i n e a t e them f o r a w h i l e .  p o e t i c pamphlets which I launched  shoemaker.  conclusion  f e a t u r e s are  I won't p a i n t a f l a t t e r i n g p i c t u r e , f o r I am  s t r o n g shades and  of  lost.  Whatever the case, and whether my  can't use  prose  out of whore-  Only one  n i g h t and  and  been chased out  houses because I went t h e r e to pray.  continue  first  one was  wrote to c e l e b r a t e the b i r t h o n l y the b e g i n n i n g ,  I  exquisite building materials  churches because I went t h e r e to l a u g h , and  or handsome, I w i l l  nature  Tabor h u t s ,  a madhouse i n t o which I l o n g to throw poets  writers alike.  can't  with  a  from the shop of  my  a f u n e r a l sermon which I of h i s son.  I can remember  which went something l i k e  "There they a r e p r e p a r i n g him  this:  for his f i r s t  coffin  -65-  until  they've f i n i s h e d  deeds and of  the second one  misdeeds w i l l be  k i n g s are p l a c e d f i r s t  a casket carried time.  on which a l l h i s  i n s c r i b e d , j u s t as the i n a temporary box  covered w i t h t r o p h i e s and  and  corpses later in  i n s c r i p t i o n s which i s  to a tomb where the body i s c o f f i n e d f o r a second I beg you  to d i s t r u s t  the  shimmer of l i f e  and  r o s e s on the cheeks of t h i s c h i l d - t h a t ' s n a t u r e ' s p r e s e r v i n g the embalmed body i n a s t a t e r e s e m b l i n g like a skilled and  worms growing from seeds of j o y and q u i c k l y so t h a t the corpse  as  born,  they are p a r a d i n g  which you  t o s s on him  c a r r y him  ready  life,  falls  see  p a i n , worms which gnaw  to d u s t .  He  lived  him  i t destroys i t s e l f . on h i s bed,  but  the  only  Right flowers  a r e autumnal f l o w e r s f o r h i s shroud.  I n the d i s t a n c e , the c o f f i n - b e a r e r s are a l r e a d y to  of  j u s t as h a p p i n e s s l i v e s .only i n hope -  soon as i t becomes r e a l ,  now,  way  d o c t o r ; i n s i d e , decay i s a l r e a d y gnawing  i f you were to open up h i s . i n n a r d s , you would  b e f o r e he was  the  away w i t h a l l h i s j o y s , and  her v a u l t to r e c e i v e him.  preparing  e a r t h i s making.:  Everywhere, o n l y d e a t h  and  decay a r e s t r e t c h i n g out t h e i r arms g r e e d i l y , to consume him  little  by l i t t l e ,  to f i n a l l y r e s t on h i s empty tomb,  t i r e d from a l l t h e i r murdering when h i s p a i n s , h i s j o y s , his  memories and  h i s dust a r e swept away.  By  that  n a t u r e w i l l a l r e a d y have used h i s ashes to n o u r i s h for  new  corpses."  time, flowers  -  I have f o r g o t t e n the r e s t  of the speech.  Everybody  -66-  p r a i s e d i t but  s a i d t h a t the  o b v i o u s l y I was my  o r a t i o n was  seemed an e r r o r , s i n c e  t a l k i n g about d e a t h i n s t e a d of b i r t h - so used a t s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n ' s f u n e r a l s .  A young a u t h o r has s i n c e he  title  enormous o b s t a c l e s to cope w i t h  can become known o n l y through h i s works.  b l i s h e d and  applauded w r i t e r , on the  by means of h i s name a l o n e ; p o e t s and  An  esta-  o t h e r hand, can t h r i v e  p e o p l e r a r e l y admit t h a t  great  g r e a t heroes have t h e i r o f f - d a y s d u r i n g which  they b r i n g t o the  light  of day  poems and  deeds which are  o f t e n worse than the worst work of o t h e r mediocre t a l e n t s . Height  and  depth are never f a r a p a r t , and  the l e v e l p l a i n has  no f e a r of  I , however, was was  the  pursued by good f o r t u n e , and  were a b l e to hang out the  shop door a g a i n ,  to the  state.  And  thereby  poem as f o r a shoe, my my  three-legged  one.  arts  important  p a i d almost as much f o r a  shoemaker was  Thus my  so  o l d Hans Sachs s i g n over  pleased  and  d i s r e p u t a b l e t r a d e to l i v e p e a c e f u l l y b e s i d e  respectable  soon I  t h a n shoes,  amalgamating two  s i n c e I was  on  falling.  g i v e n more rhymes to hammer t o g e t h e r  t h a t we  o n l y the man  Delphic  triad  allowed his  stood beside  his  last.  I t h i n k Providence  has  done a s e n s i b l e t h i n g i n con-  f i n i n g many people to a narrow, p i t i f u l between f o u r w a l l s , where t h e i r l i g h t  sphere of a c t i o n  can glimmer  only  f e e b l y i n the musty dungeon a i r , i l l u m i n a t i n g ' n o t h i n g  but  -67-  the p r i s o n i t s e l f . might  The same l i g h t  f l a m i n g i n freedom  b u r s t f o r t h l i k e a v o l c a n o and s e t the w o r l d on f i r e .  As f o r m y s e l f , I began t o s p a r k l e and spark a t an e a r l y age, but my l i g h t  c o n s i s t e d o n l y o f f l a r e s which i l l u m i n a t e d  the t e r r a i n r a t h e r than bombs to ravage and d e v a s t a t e i t . Sometimes d r e a d f u l t e r r o r would take h o l d o f me and I f e l t l i k e a g i a n t who has been w a l l e d up i n a low room as a c h i l d and who grows and expands o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t h i s b r a i n i s s l o w l y b e i n g c r u s h e d by the c e i l i n g , b e i n g compressed i n t o a deformed c r e t i n . break  t h a t he i s  I f such men c o u l d  out of t h e i r dungeons, they would r i s e as enemies  of mankind - they would f a l l upon men l i k e a p l a g u e , an earthquake  o r a h u r r i c a n e , and r u b open a good p o r t i o n o f  the p l a n e t and burn i t t o powder.  But we guard these sons '  o f Enak c l o s e l y , and mountains have been p l a c e d on top o f them as on t o p o f the T i t a n s , and they can do n o t h i n g underneath burns  except shake themselves  out s l o w l y , and v e r y seldom  f r e e i n g themselves  furiously.  fuel  do they succeed i n  and h u r l i n g t h e i r f i r e s a t heaven.  I, however, threw the populace  into turmoil  w i t h my f i r e w o r k s , and a s u p e r f i c i a l s a t i r i c a l p u r p o r t i n g t o be by an a s s wondering at a l l ,  Their  caused a s e n s a t i o n .  merely  speech,  why a s s e s must  exist  I had n o t h i n g s e r i o u s i n  mind, by God, and the whole t h i n g was d i r e c t e d a t everyone i n g e n e r a l , but a s a t i r e  i s l i k e a t o u c h s t o n e : every m e t a l  -68-  you t o u c h i t with, l e a v e s b e h i n d a mark of i t s v a l u e or i t s w o r t h l e s s n e s s ; and work and  thought  so i t was  here too - *** r e a d  t h a t every word a p p l i e d to him.  thrown i n t o the tower, where I had angrier. man  t h a t of k i n g s , who  o n l y t o d e s t r o y him i n whole Finally, to keep me  they l e t me  t h a t my  counts as a man  go when the unknown payments  Now  and how  man  armies.  I saw  man  c l e a r l y how  o l d shoemaker  and vagabonds and  man  fallen  no  longer  has no p o s s e s s i o n s o t h e r than  those which he buys or wins i n b a t t l e . beggars  hatred f o r  a l l a l o n e i n the w o r l d , as i f I had  from a n o t h e r p l a n e t .  was  f a v o u r the i n d i v i d u a l  i n p r i s o n stopped, and because my  had d i e d I was  I  l o t s of time t o grow  I discovered, i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  i s like  my  o t h e r wretches  I t enraged l i k e me  me  that  had  s u r r e n d e r e d t h e i r law of the sword, g i v i n g i t - i n s t e a d the k i n g s who privilege.  e x e r c i s e d i t on a mass s c a l e as t h e i r  divided  every p a r t among  themselves,  i g n o r i n g the law of n a t u r e , the o n l y p o s i t i v e and and p u s h i n g t h e i r  every nook and the t h i e f who hanged  royal  I c o u l d not f i n d a s i n g l e p i e c e of e a r t h f o r  m y s e l f - they had  law,  to  own  universal  s p e c i a l r i g h t s and b e l i e f s  cramry r e m a i n i n g .  I n S p a r t a , they  into  praised  s t o l e b e s t , and next door i n Athens they  him.  I saw  t h a t they had  s e i z e d a l l of n a t u r e ' s f r e e  common p r o p e r t y s h o r t of the b i r d s i n the sky and  the  and fish  -69-  in  the water, and  t h a t I would never he  a s i n g l e seed u n l e s s t h i n g to stave  I paid for i t .  g r a n t e d as much as  Yet  I had  o f f s t a r v a t i o n , so I took up  which enabled me  to s i n g about them and  became a s i n g e r l i k e  to do  the  some-  first  trade  t h e i r schemes - I  the b l i n d Homer, who  was  also  forced  t o make h i s l i v i n g as a m i n s t r e l . I had e l s e , and  learned  that people love blood  t h a t when they a r e not  they adore w a t c h i n g i t f l o w poems and  in real l i f e ,  battles.  So  and  everything  s p i l l i n g i t themselves,  elsewhere i n p a i n t i n g s  p r e f e r a b l y i n the form of  and great  I began to e n t e r t a i n them w i t h murder s t o r i e s  I made a good l i v i n g .  consider  above  Before long,  I even came to  m y s e l f a b e n e f i c i a l member of the  s t a t e , the  equal  of f e n c i n g masters, gunpowder m i l l e r s , m u n i t i o n makers, ministers  of war,  doctors,  and  so on,  worked hand i n hand w i t h death, and  a l l of whom  I began to  apparently  think  h i g h l y of m y s e l f s i n c e I t r i e d m i g h t i l y to harden l i s t e n e r s and blood  and  s t u d e n t s and  them to a l l manner of  gore.  Eventually, s t o r i e s and  however, I grew t i r e d  which I d e r i v e d I would add  of l i t t l e  hazarded some more a m b i t i o u s p i e c e s ,  s p i r i t u a l assassinations  r i g g e d by Church and  good m a t e r i a l from h i s t o r y .  murder such as  State,  for  Occasionally,  d e l i g h t f u l i n t e r l u d e s , such as: Honour  b u t c h e r e d by m a l i c i o u s hearted  to i n u r e  my  youths, Loyalty  Rumour, Love a n n i h i l a t e d by  cold-  s l a i n by f a l s e f r i e n d s , J u s t i c e  -70-  murdered by l a w - c o u r t s , Reason k i l l e d so on.  And  t h i s l e d to t r o u b l e - I was  w i t h more than f i f t y c o u r t , as my around  by C e n s o r s h i p ,  own  charges  of s l a n d e r .  d e v i l ' s advocate;  a table i n front  of me,  suddenly  confronted  I appeared  h a l f a dozen men  holding their  faces.  These men  and  the second h a l f of t h e i r  understand  in sat  individual  masks of j u s t i c e b e f o r e t h e i r f a c e s to h i d e t h e i r comic physiognomies  and  own Hogarth  the a r t of Rubens, h i s  skill  i n changing a l a u g h i n g f a c e i n t o a c r y i n g v i s a g e a t a s i n g l e s t r o k e , and  they employ h i s t e c h n i q u e as soon as  they lower themselves  i n t o t h e i r c h a i r s , so t h a t nobody  might ever be tempted to confuse them w i t h the s i n n e r s they a r e about warning  to t e l l  a g a i n s t me,  to judge.  A f t e r h a v i n g been i s s u e d a  the t r u t h r e g a r d i n g the charges  laid  I began:  "Your honours!  I s t a n d b e f o r e you accused  and a l l the evidence p o i n t s a g a i n s t me. to  stern  count you, your honours,  among my  crimes, that  ' c o r p o r a d e l i c t i ' , but a l s o whose b o d i e s house crime.  I would  like  e v i d e n c e , because i t  i s not o n l y o b j e c t s such as crov/bars and which h i n t a t s p e c i f i c  But  of s l a n d e r ,  thieves' ladders,  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  o b j e c t s such as human b e i n g s , I t wouldn't be a bad  idea i f  you were a c q u a i n t e d w i t h crime not o n l y i n t h e o r y , but also i n practice.  Many p o e t s , f o r example, complain  t h a t t h e i r c r i t i c s a r e i n c a p a b l e of w r i t i n g a s i n g l e  bitterly decent  -71-  v e r s e , "but t h a t they n e v e r t h e l e s s judge p o e t r y - so what would you say, your honours,  i f a thief, adulterer,  or  some o t h e r such s c o u n d r e l whom you planned to judge, gave you a s i m i l a r nut to c r a c k and r e f u s e d t o acknowledge as competent i n h i s f i e l d his  practiced  profession. "In  its to  s i n c e you have never  you  own  f a c t , i t seems to me shortcomings  t h a t the law has r e c o g n i z e d  and has t h e r e f o r e made arrangements  a b s o l v e you of many crimes you commit.  you may  F o r example,  s t r a n g l e w i t h c o r d s , hack w i t h swords, and  w i t h c l u b s ; you may  smash  burn, sack, q u a r t e r , t o r t u r e and  bury  a l i v e - a l l g r o s s misdeeds which o n l y you can p e r f o r m w i t h o u t f e a r of punishment.  The  laws even a b s o l v e you  s m a l l c r i m e s , such as those which f o r c e me the r o l e  of the a c c u s e d .  are  caught "It  to appear i n  LEX X I I I , p a r a g r a p h  •de i n u r i i s ' a l l o w s you to i n s u l t  1 and  those v e r y people  i n the meshes of a l i b e l  of  2 who  suit.  i s u n b e l i e v a b l e what advantages  these arrangements  c o u l d g i v e t o the s t a t e ; f o r example, many more crimes c o u l d be dragged  i n t o the l i g h t  o f day i f r e s p e c t a b l e  j u r o r s were to v i s i t whorehouses p e r s o n a l l y , t o l e a p i n t o lust  so as to i n d i c t  the g u i l t y p a r t y immediately  after-  wards, or i f they would mix as t h i e v e s among t h i e v e s i n o r d e r t o l e t t h e i r comrades hang, or i f they would commit a d u l t e r y , so as t o r e c o g n i z e p o t e n t i a l a d u l t e r e s s e s and  -72-  o t h e r s who have an i n c l i n a t i o n and l i k i n g f o r t h i s and  crime  s h o u l d he c o n s i d e r e d h a r m f u l members o f the s t a t e . "Good God, the advantages o f these arrangements a r e  so obvious  I'll  n o t d i s c u s s them f u r t h e r .  t h a t my immeasurable s u g g e s t i o n a l o n e immediate  But I t h i n k  e n t i t l e s me to an  acquittal.  " I s h a l l now p r e s e n t my a c t u a l d e f e n s e , your I have been charged  w i t h an ' i n i u r i a o r a l i s ' , a  honours! 'chanted  i n s u l t ' a c c o r d i n g to s u b s e c t i o n 'beta', t o be p r e c i s e . And  here  I already d i s c e r n a reason f o r d i s m i s s i n g t h i s  c a s e : s i n g e r s b e l o n g t o the c a s t e o f poets and the l a t t e r , s i n c e i n accordance a t a purpose,  w i t h t h e new s c h o o l they do n o t aim  s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o s l a n d e r and blaspheme  as much as they want i n t h e i r p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . p o e t s and s i n g e r s s h o u l d be immune t o the charge  Indeed, of slander  f o r the very reason that i n s p i r a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a drunkenness, which s h o u l d immediately punishment, u n l e s s the accused  f r e e them from a l l  c u l p a b l y put himself i n t o  t h i s c o n d i t i o n , h a r d l y the case w i t h i n s p i r a t i o n s i n c e i t is a gift  o f the gods.  I'll  f o r m u l a t e my defense  even  more c o n v i n c i n g l y by r e f e r r i n g you t o the works o f our b e s t new l e g a l t h e o r e t i c i a n s ,  i n which i t i s proved  that  j u s t i c e has n o t h i n g to do w i t h m o r a l i t y and t h a t o n l y  such  o f f e n s e as i n f r i n g e s a man's m a t e r i a l r i g h t s can be termed p u n i s h a b l e by law.  Now, I have i n j u r e d and s l a n d e r e d i n a  -73-  m o r a l or i n n e r sense o n l y , so I d i s m i s s the charges a g a i n s t me as i n s u f f i c i e n t because stand under  the ' f o r o p r i v i l e g a t i o  "Furthermore,  brought  as a moral p e r s o n I 1  of another world.  s i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o Weber's d i s c u s s i o n  of s l a n d e r i n h i s f i r s t  c h a p t e r , page XXIX "no i n s u l t can  be u t t e r e d a g a i n s t a p e r s o n who has renounced m o r a l i t y " , I would l i k e  honour and  t o extend the a n a l o g y t o c o n c l u d e  t h a t you, as judges, have a b j u r e d a l l m o r a l i t y .  Therefore,  I am f r e e t o i n s u l t you, w i t h every s l a n d e r p o s s i b l e , i n open c o u r t . and immoral  I f I dare t o denounce you as c o l d ,  a l t h o u g h k i n d and j u s t gentlemen,  here  heartless,  my words a r e  to be c o n s t r u e d as p r a i s e r a t h e r than s l a n d e r , and I d i s m i s s any charges a r i s i n g a g a i n s t me out of t h i s . " Here I stopped, and a l l s i x o f them l o o k e d a t each o t h e r w i t h o u t coming t o a v e r d i c t .  I waited calmly.  they had p u n i s h e d me w i t h the s t r a p p a d o , the s p i n n i n g the i r o n maiden, or w i t h f r y i n g ,  s k i n n i n g or  If cage,  disembowel-  ment (which i n Japan i s thought v e r y h o n o u r a b l e ) , I would have much p r e f e r r e d i t t o the m a l i c e which the judge and chairman p e r p e t r a t e d upon me when he gave the v e r d i c t the crimes c o u l d n o t be counted a g a i n s t me because 'mente c a p t i s ' . insanity, without  My t r e s p a s s i n g was the r e s u l t  that  I was  of p a r t i a l  so t h a t I s h o u l d be d e l i v e r e d t o the asylum  fail.  I t ' s too much; I ' l l  end t h i s  c o n f e s s i o n and go t o bed.  -74-  EIGHTH NIGHTWATCH  P o e t s a r e a h a r m l e s s h r e e d w i t h t h e i r dreams and e c s t a s i e s and heavens f u l l o f Greek gods w h i c h t h e y w i t h them i n t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n .  carry  B u t a s soon a s t h e y  dare  t o a p p l y t h e i r v i s i o n t o t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y , t h e y become dangerous by i n v a d i n g a w o r l d w i t h w h i c h t h e y have n o t h i n g in  common.  However, t h e y w o u l d r e m a i n h a r m l e s s  i f only  t h e y were g i v e n t h e i r p l a c e i n r e a l i t y and i f t h e y were n o t c o n s t a n t l y f o r c e d t o l o o k back i n t o r e a l i t y and a l l i t s s c r a m b l i n g and h u r r y i n g .  The w o r l d i s much t o o s m a l l f o r  the s c a l e o f t h e i r i d e a l s , which reaches past the c l o u d s , though t h e y c a n ' t see t h e end o f t h e i r s t i c k so t h a t t h e y choose t h e s t a r s a s t h e i r p r o v i s i o n a l God  o n l y knows how many s t a r s  day w i t h t h e i r l i g h t s t i l l  l i m i t s , although  are s t i l l  i n v i s i b l e to this  on i t s j o u r n e y towards u s .  The p o e t i n h i s a t t i c was one o f t h o s e i d e a l i s t s who have been f o r c i b l y c o n v e r t e d i n t o r e a l i s t s t h r o u g h hunger, creditors,  court t r i a l s ,  e t c . , n o t u n l i k e Charlemagne, who  d r o v e t h e pagans i n t o t h e r i v e r w i t h h i s sword t o b a p t i s e  -75-  them. and  I had  s t r u c k up an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h  the  night-owl,  a f t e r punching the time c l o c k I o f t e n went to see  to marvel as he  fermented and  bubbled, p a c i n g  l i k e an e c s t a t i c a p o s t l e r a g i n g a g a i n s t man, dancing  over h i s head.  the c o m p l e t i o n  He was  of a t r a g e d y  pouring  the  him,  attic  a flame  a l l his talents into  i n which the sublime  and  m y s t e r i o u s f i g u r e s of Love, H a t r e d , Time, and E t e r n i t y , presented  as i f h a v i n g  a body and  s t a r r i n g as the grand s p i r i t s running  o u t e r c o v e r i n g s , were  of mankind, and which  t h r o u g h i t , i n s t e a d of a chorus,  a g r o t e s q u e and dramatist  t e r r i b l e mask.  a tragic  clown,  With an i r o n f i s t ,  h e l d l i f e ' s handsome f e a t u r e s up  had  the  to h i s g r e a t  d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r , i n which the f a c e c o n t o r t e d w i l d l y and revealed  i t s abysses i n the f u r r o w s and  the b e a u t i f u l cheeks - and  t h i s he  ugly wrinkles  on  copied.  I t i s good t h a t many d i d not u n d e r s t a n d , because i n our age  of o p t i c s the g r e a t e s t s u b j e c t s a r e  t h a t one  can see  the h e l p  of t e l e s c o p e s ; l i t t l e  thoroughly  them o n l y v a g u e l y  so f a r removed  i n the d i s t a n c e  with  t h i n g s , however, a r e  c u l t i v a t e d because the s h o r t - s i g h t e d see  near  t h i n g s much more s h a r p l y . The  poet had  finished  the p l a y r e c e n t l y and  hoped  t h a t the gods c i t e d i n h i s i n v o c a t i o n would f o r once appear i n the form of a g o l d e n r a i n so t h a t he hunger, h i s c r e d i t o r s , and  the  could banish  court c l e r k .  Today,  his he  -76-  was  to r e c e i v e the  of a l l censors  'imprimatur' of the most  - to w i t h i s p u b l i s h e r .  d e s i r e to see him  l o c k s and  bars  the  armed s e r v a n t s ,  C u r i o s i t y and  i n joyous c e l e b r a t i o n w i t h  on e a r t h speeded my  steps.  But  entrance  isn't  influential the  the gods here  i t sad t h a t mankind  to i t s banquets w i t h  guards  and  so t h a t a poor beggar, unable to a f f o r d  a  b r i b e , must s t e a l away f r i g h t e n e d ? Panting,  I climbed  opened the door.  But  up  to the p o e t ' s Olympus  i n s t e a d of one  tragedy,  and  which f r a n k l y  I d i d n ' t expect to be back from the p u b l i s h e r , I found o f them.  One  had  o t h e r was  i t s author,  ex-tempore and  had  been r e t u r n e d who  had  from the p u b l i s h e r , and  composed the second  himself played  the p r o t a g o n i s t .  he  l a c k e d the t r a g i c dagger, he had,  be  excused i n i m p r o v i s e d  c o r d which had  served  two the  one Since  i n a h u r r y which  can  dramas, chosen f o r h i s weapon the  the r e t u r n e d m a n u s c r i p t as a b e l t  d u r i n g i t s t r a v e l s , and  he was  d a n g l i n g from i t above h i s  work, q u i t e a i r - b o r n e w i t h a l l h i s e a r t h l y b a l l a s t  cast  o f f , l i k e a s a i n t r i s i n g toward heaven. The  room was  tame mice, who pets,  s i l e n t and  g h a s t l y except f o r a p a i r of  were p l a y i n g p e a c e f u l l y a t my  feet like  squeeking w i t h hunger or e l s e h a p p i n e s s -  hunger, s i n c e one immortality,  of them began to gnaw on the  on h i s posthumous opus r e t u r n e d  probably poet's  from  the  publisher. "You  poor d e v i l , "  I s a i d l o o k i n g up  know whether your a s c e n s i o n  a t him,"  i s comic or sad.  I don't  However, I  -77-  find  i t amusing t h a t you t r i e d t o a c t the Mozart among  poor v i l l a g e m u s i c i a n s , a country f u l l is  laughed  and i t ' s n a t u r a l t h a t you q u i t ; i n  of limping c r i p p l e s  anyone who walks p r o p e r l y  a t as a s t r a n g e misshapen  as h o n e s t y would have to he p u n i s h e d state f u l l and  of thieves.  s i n c e your  w i t h hanging  E v e r y t h i n g i n t h i s world  countrymen were used  r a t h e r than noble  'lusus n a t u r a e ' ,  just  ina i s relative,  to abominable s h r i e k s  songs, t h e y i g n o r e d you as they would a  nightwatchman, which i s i n c i d e n t a l l y my r e a s o n f o r becoming one.  Oh, how man f o r g e s onward, and I would l i k e t o s k i p  a thousand  y e a r s ahead and then s t i c k my head i n t o  s i l l y world;  I b e t I would see a n t i q u e c a b i n e t s and museums  d i s p l a y i n g the v i l e s t form  o f u g l i n e s s i n an attempt t o  a c h i e v e t h e u l t i m a t e i n h o r r o r because beauty denounced as a second like  this  French school of poetry.  has been Or I would  t o a t t e n d one o f t h e new m e c h a n i s t i c l e c t u r e s on n a t u r e  i n which they w i l l p r o b a b l y t e a c h t h a t a w o r l d b u i l t with l i t t l e  can be  or no e f f o r t , and where t h e y ' l l  young men to become c r e a t o r s o f w o r l d s , moment t h e y ' r e merely  trained  train  s i n c e a t the  to be c r e a t o r s o f t h e i r  own egos.  Good God, what advances w i l l have been made  a thousand  y e a r s i n a l l s c i e n c e s ' - what p r o g r e s s we have  made a l r e a d y !  There w i l l be as many r e p a i r m e n  t h e r e a r e now clock-makers;  t h e r e w i l l be  in  o f n a t u r e as  correspondence  w i t h the moon, which a l r e a d y f u r n i s h e s us w i t h r o c k s ;  /  I  S h a k e s p e a r i a n p i e c e s w i l l become e x e r c i s e s f o r the l o v e and  f r i e n d s h i p and  loyalty will  t h e a t r e f a r e - a l r e a d y we fool;  exterminated  they've found a cure w i l l be a r r a n g e d You  f o r the  f o r death; and  sane o n l y ,  the  doctors  storms and  earthquakes  as e a s i l y as f i r e w o r k d i s p l a y s nowadays.  poor d a n g l i n g d e v i l , your i m m o r t a l i t y would have  a f a v o u r by g e t t i n g out But  j u s t as a man  from now.  You  when I l o o k e d  i n time." laughing uproariously f i n a l l y  o n l y j o y and  i n my  i n t o a c o r n e r where h i s c h i l d h o o d  meaningfully  confronted  a t the  an  bursts  good mood silently  the p a l e deceased l i k e  same time as h i s o n l y r e m a i n i n g  of f u r n i t u r e ; i t was  no  have done y o u r s e l f  i n t o t e a r s , so I suddenly grew s e n t i m e n t a l  the  of  as h a r m f u l members of s o c i e t y because  meaning a thousand y e a r s  and  standard  have a b o l i s h e d the r o l e  madhouses w i l l be b u i l t  w i l l be  stop b e i n g  retarded  his piece  o l d , weathered p a i n t i n g on which  c o l o u r s were a l r e a d y h a l f - f a d e d , j u s t a s , a c c o r d i n g  s u p e r s t i t i o n , p o r t r a i t s of the dead l o s e the r e d of cheeks.  I t d e p i c t e d the poet as a c h i l d w i t h a  to  their  friendly  s m i l e , p l a y i n g a t h i s mother's b r e a s t ; a l a s , her handsome f a c e was to  him  still  his f i r s t  until  died.  surrounded him  garden f u l l and  she  and  o n l y l o v e , and  she remained  loyal  Here i n the p i c t u r e , c h i l d h o o d  m e r r i l y , and  he  stood  of c l o s e d buds, whose f r a g r a n c e  whose p o i s o n p e t a l s , once open, brought  i n i t s vernal he him  longed  for  -79-  death.  I had  copy, t h i s  to t u r n away s h u d d e r i n g as I compared  s m i l i n g c u r l y - h a i r e d boy,  the  w i t h the model i n i t s  present state, a dangling Hippocratic face s t a r i n g black and  terrible  l i k e a Medusa a t the p o r t r a i t  of h i s youth.  In h i s f i n a l minute, he seemed to have thrown a l a s t a t the p a i n t i n g , f o r h i s body was and  the lamp was  altar.  Oh,  y e a r s and  twisted i n that d i r e c t i o n ,  b u r n i n g i n f r o n t of i t as i f b e f o r e  the p a s s i o n s are s l y r e s t o r a t o r s who  the b l o s s o m i n g  glance  an  retouch  Raphael f e a t u r e s of y o u t h w i t h the p a s s i n g  c o n t o r t and d i s t o r t  i t with constantly harsher  s t r o k e s u n t i l the a n g e l ' s head has become a H e l l  Breughel's  mask. The  p o e t ' s desk - h i s a l t a r  of A p p o l l o - was  s l a b , f o r a l l the wood he had p o s s e s s e d consumed by the flames  the p i c t u r e frame.  l a y on the s l a b .  I t was  His r e j e c t e d  e n t i t l e d MAN,  of r e s i g n a t i o n to l i f e ,  i s w o r t h l e s s , and  as f i c t i o n  (my  I s t r i k e him  t r a g e d y ) hasn't  Life. out.  My  MAN  has  or n o n - f i c t i o n .  even found a p u b l i s h e r  to advance the c o s t of p r i n t i n g , and man ( m y s e l f ) has  tragedy  as f o l l o w s :  not found a p u b l i s h e r , e i t h e r as f i c t i o n Man  to the  and b e s i d e i t was  A L e t t e r of R e s i g n a t i o n to Man  stone  l o n g s i n c e been  of h i s n o c t u r n a l s a c r i f i c e s  Muses, a l l except  a letter  had  a  as  non-fiction  been abandoned even by the D e v i l .  The  world  -80-  s t a r v e s me l i k e an U g o l i n o i n t h e g r e a t e s t dungeon o f them all,  the world i t s e l f ,  b e f o r e my v e r y eyes. left  and has thrown t h e key i n t o t h e s e a I am l u c k y t o have enough s t r e n g t h  t o c l i m b t h e tower  o f my p r i s o n and t o h u r l m y s e l f o f f .  I thank t h e p u b l i s h e r f o r t h i s , here i n my testament, f o r a l t h o u g h he d i d n ' t h e l p me g e t away, he a t l e a s t threw a c o r d down t o me i n my tower  so t h a t I can c l i m b up.  I t h i n k t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s merry up t h e r e , and has a good, open view;  i n any case i t w i l l be b e t t e r than down  here even i f I s h o u l d see n o t h i n g , because c a r e ; - b u t o l d U g o l i n o had t o stumble from hunger,  I no l o n g e r  i n h i s tower,  and knew he v/as b l i n d , and l i f e  blind  s t r u g g l e d so  madly i n s i d e him t h a t he c o u l d n o t k i l l h i m s e l f . L i k e him I t o o had some g o l d e n c h i l d r e n w i t h whom I dallied  i n my p r i s o n , c h i l d r e n whom I c r e a t e d a l o n e , a t  n i g h t , and who p l a y e d by my s i d e i n y o u t h and i n g o l d e n dreams.  Through  them, whom I planned t o l e a v e b e h i n d , I  t i e d myself warmly t o l i f e  - b u t even they have been t a k e n  away from me, f o r t h e hungry  a n i m a l s i m p r i s o n e d w i t h me  have gnawed them t o p i e c e s , and I have o n l y memories t o d e l i g h t me now. So be i t !  The door has been slammed shut b e h i n d me,  and t h e l a s t time they opened i t , i t was o n l y t o c a r r y in  the c o f f i n  o f my l a s t  c h i l d - and now I l e a v e n o t h i n g  b e h i n d and walk toward you d e f i a n t l y , God o r N o t h i n g !  -81-  T h i s was a l l t h a t was l e f t o f a f l a m e w h i c h had been f o r c e d t o consume i t s e l f .  I t o o k t h e l e t t e r and c o l l e c t e d  as much o f t h e r e l i c s o f MAN as I c o u l d f r o m t h e hungrymice, a p p o i n t i n g myself h e i r t o the poet's If  property.  I am e v e r g i v e n a chance t o make more money, I  s h a l l p r i n t the tragedy  MAN, however gnawed and  a t my own c o s t and d i s t r i b u t e i t f r e e .  F o r t h e moment, I  can o n l y r e l a t e a p a r t o f t h e f o o l ' s p r o l o g u e . i n t r o d u c t o r y speech, the poet f i r s t daring to introduce  the f o o l i n t o a  incomplete,  I n a short  excuses h i m s e l f f o r tragedy:  " I n t h e i r t r a g e d i e s , t h e a n c i e n t Greeks had. a c h o r u s whose u n i v e r s a l comments t u r n e d  t h e gaze o f t h e a u d i e n c e ,  away f r o m t h e s i n g l e d r e a d f u l a c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e the m i n d one  0  should  soothed  I t h i n k t h i s i s no time f o r s o o t h i n g , and t h a t i n s t e a d be making p e o p l e a n g r y and r e b e l l i o u s ,  because n o t h i n g  e l s e has any e f f e c t , and mankind on t h e  whole has become so s l a c k and m a l i c i o u s t h a t i t a c t s mechanically  and commits i t s s i n s o u t o f s h e e r l a s s i t u d e .  Mankind s h o u l d  be s t r o n g l y s t i m u l a t e d , l i k e an a s t h e n i c  p e r s o n , and I am t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g t h e f o o l t o make men go w i l d because j u s t a s , a c c o r d i n g  t o the proverb, the  t r u t h comes f r o m t h e mouths of babes and f o o l s , so t h e y a l s o promote t h a t w h i c h i s d r e a d f u l and t r a g i c , s i n c e t h e f i r s t p u t i t so b l u n t l y i n t h e i r i n n o c e n c e w h i l e t h e second  -82-  even mock and p l a y f o o l i s h games w i t h i t . of  the f u t u r e w i l l do j u s t i c e unto The p a r t I would l i k e  Aestheticians  me."  t o quote from the m a n u s c r i p t  goes as f o l l o w s :  The P o o l ' s P r o l o g u e t o the Tragedy Man. "I will  appear as man's p r o l o g i s t .  A j u d i c i o u s audience  the more r e a d i l y o v e r l o o k the f a c t t h a t I'm a f o o l  by t r a d e when I p o i n t out t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Darwin the  ape, undoubtedly more s i l l y  t h a n a mere f o o l , i s  a c t u a l l y p r o l o g i s t f o r the whole human r a c e , and t h a t my and your thoughts and f e e l i n g s have been merely and c u l t i v a t e d are in  still  refined  through the p a s s i n g o f time a l t h o u g h they  thoughts and f e e l i n g s which o r i g i n a l l y were born  the head and h e a r t o f the ape.  Dr. Darwin, whom I quote  as my spokesman and a t t o r n e y i n t h i s m a t t e r , m a i n t a i n s t h a t man owes h i s e x i s t e n c e to a s p e c i e s o f ape found near the  M e d i t t e r a n e a n Sea, a s p e c i e s which a c q u i r e d r e f i n e m e n t  when i t l e a r n e d t o use i t s thumb muscles and f i n g e r t i p s were a b l e t o t o u c h .  A f t e r several succeeding  g e n e r a t i o n s o f apes, t h i s accomplishment c o n c e p t u a l thought, u n t i l f i n a l l y  so t h a t thumb  culminated i n  the s p e c i e s took on the  form o f r a t i o n a l men, a form which, be seen w a l k i n g about today i n c o u r t  incidentally,  can s t i l l  -83-  d r e s s and o t h e r  uniforms.  Darwin's t h e o r y has m e r i t ; we can s t i l l species.  a f t e r thousands o f y e a r s ,  f i n d p a r a l l e l s and c o n t r a s t s t o the o r i g i n a l  Indeed, I t h i n k I c o u l d p o i n t t o a few admired  p e r s o n s here and t h e r e who haven't y e t l e a r n e d t o use t h e i r thumb muscles p r o p e r l y , l i k e and  certain writers f o r instance,  o t h e r s who push pens f o r t h e i r l i v i n g .  I f my ob-  s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o r r e c t , i t ' s a n o t h e r mark f o r Darwin. c o n t r a s t , we f i n d and  t h a t the ape has r e t a i n e d s e v e r a l  By  skills  emotions which we, i n our d a r i n g l e a p t o become  civilized  c r e a t u r e s , have l o s t  completely.  F o r example, t o  t h i s v e r y day a mother ape l o v e s h e r son more than many mothers o f p r i n c e s l o v e t h e i r s , and the o n l y t h i n g one c o u l d say i n disagreement i s t o argue t h a t the l a t t e r n e g l e c t s her c h i l d the by  through t o o much l o v e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e  same t h i n g as the former who g e t t h e r e a b i t f a s t e r crushing t h e i r c h i l d  to death.  Enough, I agree w i t h Dr. Darwin and o f f e r a p h i l a n t h r o p i c suggestion  t h a t we s h o u l d v a l u e  our younger b r o t h e r s , the  apes o f the w o r l d , more h i g h l y and t h a t we s h o u l d  raise  them, who a r e now o n l y our p a r o d i s t s , up to our l e v e l t h o r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r fingertips  so t h a t they  b e t t e r to c o n s i d e r Dr.  Darwin than t o w a i t  thumb and  can a t l e a s t push a pen.  the ape our a n c e s t o r w i t h  with  It i s  the f i r s t  f o r a second one to suggest  other  -84-  w i l d animals as our p r e d e c e s s o r s , which he c o u l d  perhaps  s u p p o r t w i t h e q u a l l y good r e a s o n s i n c e most p e o p l e , i f one c o v e r s the lower p a r t of t h e i r f a c e w i t h i t s mouth whose words seek to h i d e t h e i r a n i m a l n a t u r e , have a resemblance  remarkable  e s p e c i a l l y to b i r d s of p r e y , such as v u l t u r e s  and f a l c o n s , e t c .  Yes,  the o l d a r i s t o c r a t s too can  trace  t h e i r f a m i l i e s more e a s i l y t o b e a s t s of p r e y r a t h e r t h a n t o apes, which c l e a r s up not o n l y the meaning of t h e i r p a s s i o n f o r r o b b e r y d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages, but a l s o the meaning of t h e i r e s c u t c h e o n s , which p o r t r a y m o s t l y l i o n s , e a g l e s , and  other w i l d  tigers,  animals.  These remarks are meant t o j u s t i f y my  r o l e as  figure  and mask i n the t r a g e d y MAN,  which i s about  promise  i n advance t h a t i t w i l l  funny  my  esteemed a u d i e n c e  enough to k i l l  s e r i o u s and  tragic  them w i t h l a u g h t e r , no m a t t e r  the poet i n t e n d e d i t t o be.  what i s the use of s e r i o u s n e s s , s i n c e man f o o l i s h b e a s t who t h a n the one  to begin.  I be  how  After  all,  i s by n a t u r e a  i s s i m p l y p l a y i n g upon a stage  larger  o c c u p i e d by the a c t o r s i n Hamlet; no  matter  how  i m p o r t a n t he t h i n k s h i m s e l f , he must take o f f crown  and  s c e p t r e and t h e a t r e dagger  creep as an a c t o r who  has l e f t  b e h i n d the c u r t a i n s  and  the stage i n t o h i s dark  changing-room u n t i l i t p l e a s e s the d i r e c t o r t o announce a new  comedy.  I f he were to show h i s s e l f i n i t s n a t u r a l  s t a t e , or even i n i t s n i g h t gown and  s l e e p i n g cap, by  the  -85-  Devil,  everybody  uselessness;  would r u n away from such i n s i p i d n e s s  so he c o v e r s i t w i t h c o l o u r f u l  r a g s and h o l d s the masks of j o y and  sound more m e a n i n g f u l  artificial merely  Yes,  t h i s patched-up pomposity;  the second  mandilion,which  but  no who  seen  has put up  an  b r e a s t to f e i g n the e x i s t e n c e of a h e a r t , i s  s t i t c h e d t o g e t h e r more a r t f u l l y and h o l d s a more  d e c e i v i n g l y c r a f t e d mask i n f r o n t The  of the  s k u l l i s never m i s s i n g behind  mask, and has  thing.  o t h e r s e l v e s d r e s s e d even p o o r e r  p r a i s e and worship under the l i g h t ,  mounted  the s e l f l o o k s down upon the  t h i n k s they are the i m p o r t a n t  doubt t h e r e e x i s t  of h i s  to make h i s words  through the speaking-tube  i n s i d e the mask; and f i n a l l y r a g s and  theatrical  love i n f r o n t  f a c e , t o appear more i n t e r e s t i n g , and  and  life  i s o n l y the f o o l ' s  skull.  the  flirtatious  costume t h a t  Nothingness  donned i n o r d e r to t i n k l e i t s b e l l s f o r a w h i l e  then f i n a l l y  to rend i t a n g r i l y and  t h i n g i s N o t h i n g and  chokes and  t h i s v e r y f e e d i n g upon i t s e l f which f r a u d u l e n t l y s u g g e s t s while a c t u a l l y ,  and  to d i s c a r d i t .  gulps i t s e l f  greedily,  i s the m a l i c i o u s  t h a t something  is  Every-  sham-struggle happening  i f the g u l p i n g would stop j u s t f o r once,  N o t h i n g would appear v e r y c l e a r l y so t h a t they would frightened  and  be  of i t ; f o o l s t h i n k t h a t t h i s pause i s e t e r n i t y ,  but i t i s r e a l l y and  e s s e n t i a l l y N o t h i n g and a b s o l u t e  s i n c e on the c o n t r a r y l i f e  i s c r e a t e d o n l y through  death,  continuous  -86-  dying. I f a l l t h i s were t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , i t c o u l d  easily  l e a d t o t h e madhouse, b u t I o n l y t a k e i t l i k e a f o o l and use  i t t o l e a d t h e p r o l o g u e towards t h e t r a g e d y ,  i n which  t h e p o e t has c e r t a i n l y t a k e n e v e r y t h i n g s e r i o u s l y and has even i n v e n t e d  a God and an i m m o r t a l i t y i n o r d e r t o make  h i s man more m e a n i n g f u l .  However, I hope t o p l a y i n i t  the p a r t o f t h e o l d d e s t i n y t h a t among t h e Greeks r u l e d even t h e gods, and t o c o n f u s e t h e l e a d i n g f i g u r e s t o d i s t r a c t i o n so t h a t t h e y w i l l n e v e r make sense o f thems e l v e s u n t i l man s h a l l f i n a l l y t h i n k t h a t he i s God  Himself  or s h a l l a t l e a s t p a t t e r n h i m s e l f a f t e r s u c h a mask, l i k e i d e a l i s t s , and w o r l d h i s t o r y . Now I have more o r l e s s i n t r o d u c e d m y s e l f and can l e t the tragedy  begin  on i t s own w i t h i t s t h r e e  Time - w h i c h I s h a l l s t r i c t l y a d h e r e t o , so t h a t  unities: man  won't l o s e h i m s e l f i n e t e r n i t y o f a l l t h i n g s ; P l a c e  -  w h i c h w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n w i t h i n l i m i t s -; and A c t i o n , w h i c h I w i l l l i m i t as much as p o s s i b l e , so t h a t O e d i p u s , or man, w i l l r e a c h somewhere i n a  o n l y b l i n d n e s s , and n o t t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n  sub-plot.  I have n o t opposed t h e use o f masks, because t h e more masks a r e p i l e d on t o p o f each o t h e r , t h e more f u n it  i s t o p u l l them o f f one a f t e r a n o t h e r down t o t h e  penultimate  s a t i r i c a l one, t h e H i p p o c r a t i c one, and t h e  -87-  f i n a l s o l i d one which no l o n g e r l a u g h s without his  or c r i e s - the s k u l l  h a i r or p i g t a i l w i t h which the t r a g i c o m e d i a n makes  e x i t a t the end.  Nor have I opposed the use o f v e r s e  w h i c h i s no more than a comic l i e , j u s t as the cothurnus is  o n l y a more comic Exit  Prologus!  conceit."  -88-  NINTH NIGHTWATCH  I am  happy to say t h a t I found  among the many t h o r n s surrounded by  thorns  of my  life;  at least  although  one  she was  t h a t I c o u l d r e a c h her  only  b l e e d i n g hands and w i t h her l e a v e s h a l f t o r n , I her n e v e r t h e l e s s , and  her d y i n g f r a g r a n c e d i d me  T h i s s i n g l e b l e s s e d month of my among my  many w i n t e r s and  life,  autumns, was  full  rose  so  with plucked good.  the o n l y r o s y summer spent  - in a  madhouse. Man  i s l i k e an onion and  layer u n t i l  he has  disappeared  h i d e s beneath l a y e r upon into a t i n y core.  We  take  the temple of the u n i v e r s e , on whose dome the v/orlds f l o a t like  s a c r e d h i e r o g l y p h i c s , and  temples w i t h s m a l l e r domes and these we  squeeze s t i l l  u n t i l we  have reduced  w h i l e around us f o r e s t s and  b u i l d within i t smaller i m i t a t i o n s t a r s , and  s m a l l e r c h a p e l s and the H i g h e s t  into  tabernacles  to a m i n i a t u r e  in a  the g r e a t Mystery hovers i n mountains  lifts  i t s h o l y wafer of the sun i n t o the  so t h a t ::nations f a l l  down b e f o r e  i t . And  ring, and sky  i n the same manner,  -89-  we  hack the g r e a t r e l i g i o n of l i f e ,  to  us i n her  tribal And to  of  the l a s t group, not chop i t s e l f  Pagans and C h r i s t i a n s .  even s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s ,  into s t i l l  even the madhouse of the w o r l d ,  i t s windows  a s m a l l one  - probably  out the b i g one  found  and  was  overcrowded.  me  the  because I  f e l l o w l u n a t i c s by p o r t r a y i n g  which happened now  and  to  introduce  a g a i n because due  h a r m l e s s madness, the warden of the i n s t i t u t e  appointed  into  congenial.  them d u r i n g the d o c t o r ' s v i s i t , when I had  my  too  I even p r e f e r r e d the s m a l l e r one  I can b e s t d e s c r i b e my  them to him,  threw me  v e r y much l i k e  the i n s a n i t y of the inmates v e r y  has  for special  because the f i r s t was  I d i s c o v e r e d , however, t h a t one other; indeed  full  sometimes t o t a l l y i n s a n e ,  been d i v i d e d i n t o f u r t h e r madhouses d e s i g n e d They dragged me  continues  smaller sects.  heads sometimes p a r t i a l l y ,  cases.  reveals  thousand forms, i n t o s m a l l e r n a t i o n a l and  r e l i g i o n s f o r Jews, T u r k s ,  Yes,  which n a t u r e  h i s v i c e - w a r d e n and  sergeant.  The  to  had last  time,  I l e d the d o c t o r around w i t h the f o l l o w i n g speech: "Dr.  Oehlmann, or r a t h e r  y o u r s e l f i n d i s s e r t a t i o n s and  ' O l e a r i u s ' - as you  call  •  a b s t r a c t s , t r a n s l a t i n g your  name i n t o a h i g h e r form through the medium of a dead language - a l l men not  s u f f e r more or l e s s from f i x e d  o n l y s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s , but whole groups and  F o r example, many of the l a t t e r  s e l l not  ideas; faculties.  o n l y wisdom, but  -90-  a l s o a p p l y themselves  t o the h a t - t r a d e , t h i n k i n g t h a t  can t u r n s t u p i d people i n t o wise  they  ones merely by l i g h t l y  p r e s s i n g a h a t from t h e i r f a c t o r y upon t h e i r heads; y e s , sometimes they put such a h a t upon t h e i r own bare body and thus a p p a r e n t l y form p h i l o s o p h e r s , s i n c e the l a t t e r tend t o go i n t o h i d i n g anyway beneath when f a c e d w i t h o v e r l y d i f f i c u l t  usually  the b r i m o f t h e i r  hats  s p e c u l a t i o n s . - Now I've  l o s t t h e t h r e a d o f my speech w i t h a l l the examples  that  sprung t o mind, and I'd b e t t e r s t a r t a g a i n . " Here Oehlmann shook h i s d o c t o r ' s h a t as i f he doubted t h a t my head would ever d e s e r v e any o f the h a t s I had mentioned. "Are you s h a k i n g your head because  I was c r e a t e d a  f o o l by n a t u r e r a t h e r than made a d o c t o r by the a u t h o r i t y of the Emperor?" I asked.  "Never mind, l e t ' s move on and  l e a v e my i n s a n i t y and i t s cure u n t i l t h e end." " P a t i e n t number one i s a s h i n i n g example o f humanity, e x c e l l i n g a l l d e f i n i t i o n s ever p u b l i s h e d .  I can never  walk p a s t him w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g o f the g r e a t heroes o f antiquity,  o f C u r t i u s , C o r i o l a n u s or Regulus.  H i s madness  c o n s i s t s o f t h i n k i n g too h i g h l y o f mankind and too low o f himself.  And so, u n l i k e bad p o e t s , he k e e p s h i s b l a d d e r  i n c o n s t a n t check, because  he f e a r s t h a t i f he l e t s i t a l l  f l o w , the w o r l d w i l l be drowned i n a d e l u g e . f e e l angry because  Sometimes I  I don't have i n r e a l i t y the problem  which  -91-  he t h i n k s he has - t r u l y ,  I'd use the e a r t h as my chamber  pot; and drown a l l d o c t o r s u n t i l on the s u r f a c e .  A g r e a t thought,  seem t o grasp i t .  only t h e i r hats but t h i s wretch  floated can't  See f o r y o u r s e l f how he stands and  s u f f e r s and c r o s s e s h i s l e g s out o f sheer l o v e f o r mankind. And  u n l e s s we h e l p him, he w i l l d i e .  fires,  I've p r e s c r i b e d  empty r i v e r s w i t h i d l e m i l l s and s t a r v i n g men on  the s h o r e s . I conduct  I t h i n k Dante's h e l l may make good t h e r a p y -  him through i t every day and he has made i t h i s  g o a l to e x t i n g u i s h i t .  A p p a r e n t l y , he used  t o be a poet  who c o u l d n ' t channel h i s c r e a t i v e o u t p o u r i n g s through the booksellers. Numbers two and t h r e e a r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l o p p o s i t e s : an i d e a l i s t  and a r e a l i s t .  The f i r s t  g l a s s b r e a s t , w h i l e the second  i s s u f f e r i n g from a  i s s u f f e r i n g from a g l a s s  r e a r - e n d and has t o s t a n d up c o n s t a n t l y .  The i d e a l i s t  f i n d s i t easy t o s i t down, o f c o u r s e , but he a v o i d s any moral  statement  and c o v e r s h i s g l a s s b r e a s t  Number f o u r i s here  o n l y because h i s knowledge p u t  him h a l f a c e n t u r y ahead o f everybody o t h e r s l i k e him s t i l l  carefully.  else - there are  f r e e , but they a r e , q u i t e r e a s o n a b l y ,  c o n s i d e r e d as mad as he i s . Number f i v e they brought  spoke too r a t i o n a l l y and r e a s o n a b l y , so  him h e r e .  Number s i x t u r n e d mad because he was c r a z y enough t o  -92-  take the jokes of a k i n g s e r i o u s l y . Number seven s i n g e d h i s b r a i n when he climbed too h i g h i n t o p o e t r y , and number e i g h t put so much sentiment comedies t h a t h i s r e a s o n was While  the former  f l o w s around the two  swept away by a l l the  tears.  t h i n k s he i s a b u r n i n g flame, the  latter  l i k e water.  opposing  into his  elements  Once or t w i c e I t r i e d  t o consume  by p i t t i n g them a g a i n s t each  o t h e r , but the f i r e mauled the water so b a d l y t h a t I had c a l l f o r number n i n e , who two.  t h i n k s he i s God,  to s e p a r a t e  to the  T h i s l a s t number o f t e n h o l d s v e r y s t r a n g e monologues,  and you  can l i s t e n to one  of them j u s t now  i f you have  the p a t i e n c e . " Monologue of the Insane " T h i s t h i n g here watch i t through my next  i n my  hand i s v e r y s t r a n g e , and as I  m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s from one moment to the  (down t h e r e they c a l l  the s i t u a t i o n appears I don't  to me  each of these moments a c e n t u r y ) , more confused than e v e r ,  know whether I s h o u l d l a u g h or become angry  e i t h e r were a p r o p e r t h i n g f o r me of it,  Creator.  sundust  c r a w l i n g around  I thought  i t was  but I c e r t a i n l y  still  a novelty -  However, I had my  f u n , and  i n eternity;  e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t r e c r e a t i o n or amusement.  speck  when I c r e a t e d  a l l r i g h t because i t was  i s welcome up here  - if  That l i t t l e  c a l l s i t s e l f man;  spoke too soon.  a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s new  to do.  and  I'm  Of c o u r s e , I am  s a t i s f i e d w i t h some of the t h i n g s I made, such  as  b r i g h t f l o w e r s and f l y i n g flowers,  c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g among them, and  the b u t t e r f l i e s and  t h e i r c a r e l e s s youth l e f t d r i n k t h e i r m i l k and breast. life  But  i n s e c t s , which i n  t h e i r mothers and  s l e e p and  now  and  again with  The  but  l o n g e r knows which way  ness of God  w i t h i n i t does l i t t l e  confusion.  In the one  they  charming f i g u r e s and  carved  as the homes of Gods. I l i t up study,  dust has  f o r them and  c a l l e d the Golden  put them i n t o  marvelled  come to t h i n k i t i s God,  carved.  I going  and  has  to do w i t h i t ?  madly up here i n e t e r n i t y which b o t h e r s  built  Yet  I have to do  in the  systems to un-  l e t i t l e a p about even me  sometimes?  them, because I  Sometimes they  t h i n k t h a t because they  w i l l become t r u e .  sun which  the puppet  o t h e r hand, I don't want to d e s t r o y  i m m o r t a l i t y and  little  t h i s i s the worst -  I s h o u l d have l e f t  would be w i t h o u t e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  Age,  a t i n the next second  F i n a l l y - and  Hell,  the  i t s aware-  v/hich i s , compared to the l i g h t  glorify itself.  On  poor  except cause i t more  They used to p r a y to the  a mere spark.  What am  gone  little  t o t u r n , and  second they  houses whose r u i n s are now  divinity  t r o u b l e , f o r the  c r e a t u r e no  breathed  creature's  I should've known r i g h t away t h a t so  d i v i n i t y would cause n o t h i n g  my  i n t o which I  i t s spark of  w h i c h I gave away much too h a s t i l y . crazy.  y e t r e t u r n to  d i e a t t h e i r mother's  t h i s t i n y piece of d i r t  angers me  the  discuss  can dream about i t t h a t  something!  T r u l y , the  Some s c i e n t i s t s e t up the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the f i r s t i n s e c t s were o n l y p l a n t f i l a m e n t s which a c c i d e n t a l l y s e p a r a t e d from the p l a n t s .  probl  -94-  is  too much even f o r me!  Shall  I l e t the c r e a t u r e d i e ,  and d i e a g a i n , each time e r a s i n g i t s memories of i t s e l f t h a t i t r i s e s and walks about anew? would bore me because  to r e p e a t the nonsense  a g a i n would be t i r i n g . until  that  a g a i n and  The b e s t t h i n g to do i s t o w a i t  I can t h i n k of a d e f i n i t e  which time I might  But i n the end  so  date f o r Judgement Day,  at  come up w i t h a b e t t e r i d e a -"  "What an abominable madness," I i n t e r r u p t e d , as number n i n e ceased f o r a second. rattle  " I f a normal p e r s o n were t o  o f f t h i s k i n d of t h i n g on paper, i t would be  fiscated  con-  immediately."  Oehlmann shook h i s head and made a few  significant  comments on d i s e a s e s of the mind i n g e n e r a l . The  c r e a t o r , who  b a l l which he was pause," How  now  began to p l a y v/ith a  h o l d i n g i n h i s hand, c o n t i n u e d a f t e r  the d o c t o r s of p h y s i c s must now  about the change i n temperature! to b u i l d  new  child's  t h e o r i e s to s u i t i t !  How  be  a  puzzling  they w i l l be  trying  Yes, t h i s p l a y i n g of  mine i s perhaps c a u s i n g earthquakes and o t h e r v i s i t a t i o n s and g i v i n g t e l e o l o g i s t s  wide scope f o r s p e c u l a t i o n .  Oh,  t h i s speck of dust has a wondrous mind and r e d u c e s even the  most c o n f u s e d and a c c i d e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s to some o r d e r ;  yes,  i t o f t e n p r a i s e s and w o r s h i p s me because i t i s s u r -  p r i s e d t h a t I am as i n t e l l i g e n t as i t i s . How  they r u n  around i n c o n f u s i o n and then g a t h e r t o g e t h e r l i k e  ants,  -95-  h o l d i n g meetings as i f they had something to say! my  ear-trumpet I can hear something - the p u l p i t s  Through and  l e c t e r n s a r e b u z z i n g w i t h p r o f o u n d speeches about the wise o r d e r of n a t u r e . the b a l l ,  And a l l the time I'm  only p l a y i n g with  d e s t r o y i n g a few dozen c o u n t r i e s and c i t i e s  and  these a n t s , which a r e m u l t i p l y i n g much too q u i c k l y anyway s i n c e they i n v e n t e d a remedy f o r the cow-pox. one second they've become so i n q u i s i t i v e  Hell, i n  t h a t I c a n ' t even  sneeze up here w i t h o u t t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the phenomenom thoroughly.  I must be c r a z y t o p l a y God w i t h such c r e a t u r e s  and t o be c r i t i c i z e d ! " J u s t l o o k how  I'd l i k e  to c r u s h the whole  ball!"  angry he i s a t the w o r l d , d o c t o r , " I  added as the c r e a t o r f i n i s h e d . f o r us o t h e r f o o l s because we  "Life  c o u l d become  dangerous  t o l e r a t e such a T i t a n among  us - h i s system of r e d u c i n g e v e r y t h i n g to a s m a l l s c a l e i s as c o n s e q u e n t i a l as t h a t of F i c h t e , and he a c t u a l l y even l e s s o f mankind than the l a t t e r , who m e r e l y from heaven and h e l l ,  we  child  i t i n t o the s m a l l " I "  can pronounce.  can e x t r a c t from t h i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t  mogenies,  s e p a r a t e s man  but i n compensation t a k e s a l l  t h a t i s c l a s s i c a l and compresses which any l i t t l e  thinks  As each of us p l e a s e s , s h e l l whole c o s -  t h e o s o p h i e s , h i s t o r i e s , and what n o t , t o g e t h e r  w i t h t h e i r matching p i c t u r e s .  T h i s would be g r e a t  w o n d e r f u l i f o n l y the format were not so t i n y ! S c h l e g e l fumed a g a i n s t such microcosms,  and  Even  and I too must  -96-  c o n f e s s t h a t the I l i a d , p u b l i s h e d i n a pocket volume, v/ould never p l e a s e me; nutshell,  i t would mean the Olympus packed  so t h a t the gods and heroes must e i t h e r  themselves to a lower c e i l i n g You're doctor.  into a  l o o k i n g a t me  let's  necks.  and s h a k i n g your head a g a i n ,  Yes, you're r i g h t ,  and n o r m a l l y I am  or break t h e i r  t h i s i s a l l p a r t of my  creator.  Numbers t e n and e l e v e n here e x e m p l i f y the m i g r a t i o n o f s o u l s : the f i r s t  into a wolf.  madness  e x a c t l y of the o p p o s i t e o p i n i o n .  l e a v e the  serve a t c o u r t ;  accustom  trans-  barks l i k e a dog and used to  the second has changed from a c i v i l s e r v a n t  There i s room f o r thought h e r e , don't  you  think? Twelve,  thirteen, fourteen, f i f t e e n  and s i x t e e n are  v a r i a t i o n s of the same s t r e e t song - l o v e . Number seventeen i s absorbed e n t i r e l y i n h i s nose. Do you f i n d  that p e c u l i a r ?  Not me!  O f t e n whole  faculties  a b s o r b themselves i n a s i n g l e l e t t e r of the a l p h a b e t t o d e c i d e whether to take i t f o r an a l p h a or an omega. E i g h t e e n i s a m a t h e m a t i c i a n t r y i n g to f i n d number.  N i n e t e e n i s b r o o d i n g about a t h e f t which  government committed this  the  last  the  a g a i n s t him - but he can brood  about  o n l y i n the madhouse. Number twenty f i n a l l y  i s my  own  little cell.  and l o o k around; b e f o r e God, we're a l l the same and o n l y from d i f f e r e n t  lunacies;  Come i n suffer  our c o l l e c t i v e i n s a n i t y s i m p l y  -97-  manifests  itself  can see a b u s t the s i z e  i n d i f f e r e n t nuances.  Over t h e r e ,  of S o c r a t e s , whose wisdom you  of h i s nose j u s t as you  of Scaramouche over t h e r e .  you  can gauge by  can see f o l l y by the nose  T h i s manuscript  I have  here  c o n t a i n s p a r a l l e l s which I have drawn between the two, it  f a v o u r s the f o o l .  be  cured,  shouldn't  The it?  r a t i o n a l seems absurd all  defend I've  t h a t end  myself  a t t i t u d e of mine r e a l l y I'm  to me,  very stubborn  often tried  ought to  - everything  and v i c e v e r s a .  against this  and  I can't a t  thought!  to s e i z e wisdom by the h a i r , and  to  I have s t u d i e d p r i v a t e l y i n a l l t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l  faculties  so t h a t a f t e r sx>me s h o r t academic n u p t i a l s w i t h  the Muses, I might have m y s e l f  d e c l a r e d a Holy T r i n i t y f o r  the good of mankind and walk around w i t h t h r e e d o c t o r ' s on top o f one  another.  Oh,  I thought  c o u l d wander around l i k e a P r o t e u s t h e o r e t i c a l terms s i m p l y through of h a t s !  in practical  a l l his i l l s  you  and  a quick unnoticed  to r e l i e v e  change  the p a t i e n t h i m s e l f of  i n the q u i c k e s t manner!  To embrace the  a f t e r a q u i c k change of h a t s , as h i s lawyer  s e t t l e h i s c h a t t e l s , and  to f i n a l l y  show him  t o heaven s i m p l y by p u t t i n g on the cassock. manner, one through  how  To w r i t e d i s s e r t a t i o n s about the s h o r t e s t methods  of h e a l i n g d i s e a s e s and  man,  to m y s e l f ,  hats  could achieve  the b e s t and  dying  and  to  the t r u e In  way  this  the h i g h e s t  d i f f e r e n t h a t s , l i k e d i f f e r e n t machines i n a  result  -98-  factory.  And what an abundance o f wisdom and w e a l t h - the  d e s i r e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o p p o s i n g b l e s s i n g s , a sublime i d e a l i z a t i o n o f man's c e n t a u r n a t u r e , i n which the w e l l s a t e d a n i m a l p r a n c e s i n s o l e n t l y beneath  i t s divine  rider.  But when I examined a l l my i d e a s more c l e a r l y , I found i n a l l our vaunted wisdom o n l y a b l a n k e t draped the Moses f e a t u r e s o f l i f e You  over  to h i d e God.  can see where a l l t h i s has l e d , and i t i s my  o b s e s s i o n t h a t I'm more r a t i o n a l than the r a t i o n a l i t y which we have r e d u c e d t o a system,  and w i s e r than the wisdom  taught a t our u n i v e r s i t i e s . I'd  like  t o c o n s u l t you l o n g e r i n your c a p a c i t y as •  d o c t o r t o d i s c o v e r how my madness can be approached to  l e a r n what cures a r e a v a i l a b l e .  for  and  This i s s u e i s important,  how can one f i g h t a d i s e a s e when one i s , as you know,  u n c e r t a i n o f one's premises as t o i t s n a t u r e , and when one is  s u s p i c i o u s o f the system;  y e s , when once c o n f u s e s  sublime h e a l t h w i t h d i s e a s e , and v i c e v e r s a . Who  d e c i d e s i n the end whether i t i s we f o o l s here i n  the madhouse who a r e m i s t a k e n auditoriums? death l i f e I  Perhaps  or the p r o f e s s o r s i n t h e i r  d e l u s i o n i s t r u t h , madness wisdom,  - w h i l e r a t i o n a l l y we assume the o p p o s i t e j  can see I'm  Oh,  incurable."  A f t e r p r o l o n g e d d e l i b e r a t i o n , Dr. Oehlmann p r e s c r i b e d vigorous exercise.and l i t t l e  or no t h i n k i n g s i n c e he  thought  -99-  t h a t my  madness was  revelry,  j u s t as i n d i g e s t i o n  culinary indulgence. I'll  caused by e x c e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s o f t e n caused by too much  I l e t him  go.  save a n o t h e r n i g h t w a t c h f o r an a c c o u n t of the  r o s e mentioned a t the b e g i n n i n g .  -100-  TENTH NIGHTWATCH  I t i s a s t r a n g e n i g h t ; moon beams come and go l i k e ghosts  through  the g o t h i c a r c h e s  o f the c a t h e d r a l - a  s l e e p - w a l k e r i s c l i m b i n g around on the l a n t e r n o f the tower w i t h a baby under h i s arm. i s watching  I t i s the s e x t o n , and h i s w i f e  him from a window, w r i n g i n g h e r hands, b u t as  s i l e n t as the grave,  so t h a t the s l e e p - w a l k e r , who i s  s c a l i n g the most dangerous p l a c e s i n p e r f e c t s a f e t y and w i t h the s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n o f a man w i t h o u t wake a t the c a l l i n g w i t h the c h i l d .  o f h i s name and f a l l  to h i s death  A c r o s s town, a b u r g l a r i s b r e a k i n g  a p a l a c e , b u t i t ' s n o t my t e r r i t o r y condemned t o s i l e n c e . music come from  cares, w i l l not together  into  and b e s i d e s , I've been  So l e t him s t e a l .  Quiet s t r a i n s of  the d i s t a n c e , l i k e the b u z z i n g o f gnats,  or as i f Koch were i m p r o v i s i n g l a t e a t n i g h t on h i s mouthorgan;  and near the h o r i z o n , s k a t e r s t u r n a i r i l y and  joyfully  on the i c y m i r r o r o f a meadow, d a n c i n g  the B a s e l  Death Dance. The w o r l d  itself  l i e s c o l d and m o t i o n l e s s and rough, and  -101-  nature's  body stands  mutilated, reaching p e t r i f i e d  naked o f h e r g a r l a n d s The  night i s s t i l l  stumps  o f p e t a l s and l e a v e s i n t o the sky.  and e e r i e , f u l l  o f a c o l d d e a t h which  l u r k s i n v i s i b l e w i t h a s t r a n g l e - h o l d on l i f e .  Occasionally,  a f r o z e n crow tumbles from the r o o f o f the church, and nearby a beggar w i t h o u t s l e e p which i s s e e k i n g  home or t r a d e  t o s t e e r him s e c r e t l y i n t o the  tempting arms o f d e a t h , l i k e ponsible fishermen S h a l l I cheat  i s struggling against  the s i r e n who -lures i r r e s -  i n t o the waves w i t h h e r song. d e a t h o f a beggar's l i f e ?  By the d e v i l ,  I don't know which i s b e t t e r - To Be or Not To Be! those w i t h a c o n c e r t i n a South and s p r i n g - t i m e  - Oh,  p a i n t e d on  t h e i r bed-room w a l l s when the r e a l one o u t s i d e has d i e d never c o n s i d e r  such a q u e s t i o n and i n s t e a d p r e p a r e  own v e r s i o n o f n a t u r e in  l i k e a d a i n t y meal on a p l a t e , s i p p i n g  i n t e r r u p t e d pauses so as t o r e t a i n t h e i r t a s t e .  vagabond r e s t s r i g h t a t the b r e a s t now warms, now crushes l i k e a l l o l d women. mother n a t u r e ,  their  But t h i s  o f o l d mother Nature who  h e r c h i l d r e n , e c c e n t r i c and moody  But no - you a r e f o r e v e r  constant,  and you o f f e r your c h i l d r e n the f r u i t s o f  the green garden w i t h which you shade them, and you g i v e them f i r e s ,  and memories of you when you s l e e p ; but J o s e p h  was c a s t out i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s  by h i s b r o t h e r s and they  l o c k e d away your g i f t s m a l i c i o u s l y which you had g i v e n t o him  as t o the o t h e r  children.  Oh, the b r o t h e r s  don't deserve  -102-  a Joseph among them. But now  L e t him r e s t i n peace!  the f a c e i s a l r e a d y c o l d and r i g i d , and s l e e p  has put h i s s t i f f  corpse i n t o the arms of h i s b r o t h e r .  shall raise  so t h a t i t w i l l s t a n d and  i t up  Medusa i n t o the r i s i n g still  sun.  had knowledge of l i f e  I  stare l i k e  Murderous death, the  a  beggar  and l o v e - a l o c k of brown  h a i r from the head of h i s w i f e i s h i d d e n beneath  the r a g s  on h i s b r e a s t .  - and  yet  You  s h o u l d n ' t have murdered him,  The Dream of Love Love i s not b e a u t i f u l - i t ' s o n l y the dream of l o v e  t h a t enchants us. see my  Hear my  b e l o v e d a t my  prayer, burning youth!  b r e a s t , p l u c k the r o s e q u i c k l y  c a s t a w h i t e v e i l over her b l u s h i n g f a c e . of  death i s l o v e l i e r  memories of l i f e Garlanded and  I f you  than her r e d s i s t e r ,  and  The white f o r she  and r e n d e r s i t p r e c i o u s and  rose  promises  desirable.  f o r e v e r young, her image hovers above the  grave of the b e l o v e d and r e a l i t y never c o n t o r t s her f e a t u r e s and does not touch her t o make her grow c o l d and the embrace. because  Oh youth,  she r e t u r n s a g a i n i n my  winds the wreath toward  q u i c k l y rob me  heaven.  remains w i t h me,  of my  dreams and  songs, and i n my  Only the l i v i n g one and  our l o v e and  L i s t e n ! - Dance music  and  of my  interrupt  beloved,  songs, and  she  notes r i s e s away  d i e s ; the dead  one  our embrace i s e t e r n a l !  f u n e r a l chants - r i n g i n g  -  -103-  c h e e r f u l l y l i k e the b e l l s of a f o o l . by a l l means! the b r i d e .  Pine!  Play harder,  Whoever drowns out t h e d i r g e w i l l t a k e home  But a l a s !  I see two b r i d e s , a w h i t e one and a  r e d one - two m a r r i a g e s , t o one o f w h i c h the mourners a r e h o w l i n g t h e i r d i r g e s on t h e l o w e r f l o o r ;  one s t o r y h i g h e r  the m u s i c i a n s a r e b l o w i n g and f i d d l i n g m e r r i l y , and t h e c e i l i n g above the death-chamber and t h e c o f f i n i s t r e m b l i n g and booming f r o m t h e d a n c i n g . W i l l somebody p l e a s e e x p l a i n t h i s n o c t u r n a l n o i s e ! Leonore r i d e s p a s t - t h e w h i t e b r i d e here i n t h e s i l e n t marriage  chamber l o v e s t h e y o u t h who  and t h i s i s l i f e  i s waltzing upstairs;  - she loved-, he f o r g o t , she grew p a l e , and  he caught f i r e f o r a r e d r o s e w h i c h he i s t a k i n g home t o d a y w h i l e the f i r s t  one i s c a r r i e d away. -  There i s t h e o l d mother o f t h e w h i t e b r i d e , a t t h e c o f f i n - she does n o t weep; she i s b l i n d - and the w h i t e one does n o t c r y e i t h e r and s l e e p s and dreams s w e e t l y . Now  t h e wedding g u e s t s , s t i l l  d a n c i n g , come t h u n d e r i n g  down t h e s t a i r s - and s u d d e n l y t h e y o u t h i s s t a n d i n g between two b r i d e s .  He t u r n s a l i t t l e p a l e .  Silence!  The  blind  mother r e c o g n i z e s him by h i s f o o t - s t e p s . - She l e a d s him t o t h e wedding-bed o f t h e s l e e p i n g b r i d e . "She went t o s l e e p e a r l i e r t o n i g h t t h a n y o u . her.  She i s s l e e p i n g so s w e e t l y , b u t she was  a b o u t you u n t i l s l e e p o v e r t o o k h e r .  Don't wake  thinking  There i s y o u r  picture,  -104-  on her b r e a s t . breast  Oh,  don't p u l l your hand back from  so f r i g h t e n e d ; the n i g h t w i t h  always the l o n g e s t , and the  y o u t h now  Horror stands  t h a t ' s the  l i e s alone  Now  the  has  turned  between two  course  trumpet and  of l i f e .  i n bed,  without  the r e d r o s e w h i t e , and pale brides.  Oh,  corpse  Away, away,  i f o n l y I were a l l o w e d  g l i d e s t h r o u g h the  to  streets followed  by  s i l e n t glow of l a n t e r n s on the w a l l s , as i f d e a t h t r y i n g to h i d e from l i f e .  e a r t h c r a c k s under the the f u r t i v e and  steps  of the  The  frozen  coffin-bearers - that i s  i n s i d i o u s wedding song.  They l a y her  in  chamber. But  nearby, o t h e r youths s i n g and  away t h e i r l i v e s and  l o v e s and  r e v e l and  squander  poetries i n short,  quick  b u r s t s which have f l e d by morning, when a l l t h e i r dreams, hopes, and wishes and cold  the  sing!  were p a s s i n g by and  her  the h e a v i e s t f r o s t i s  bride-groom." Look!  the  she  her  deeds,  w o r l d s have grown sober  and  again. Late  that n i g h t , I n o t i c e d strange  nunnery of S t . U r s u l a .  The  a g a i n , as m u f f l e d  bell  now  and  the  c h u r c h windows, whose a r c h e s  w a l l s , a strange  light  tolled  g o i n g s - o n i n the s o f t l y and  dully  as a storm i n a dream, and looked  f l e d p a s t and  over the  nunnery  died quickly.  I walked around the w a l l s which surround  the h o l y  on  Lonely, virgins  -105-  l i k e a magic c i r c l e .  Suddenly, I encountered someone i n  a dark c l o a k , but what I l e a r n e d from him next nightwatch. this  What I d i d , however, s t i l l  belongs i n  one. The  who  b e l o n g s i n the  p o r t e r a t the gate was  l i k e d me  give h i s g a l l  I o f t e n v i s i t e d him  some e x e r c i s e , and  sitting  at night  talking.  "Do  laughs m a l i c i o u s l y while  you  to  covered know the  him.  company of  w i t h a cap and  to  c r e a t u r e whose f a c e  the mask i n f r o n t o f i t weeps?  The  c r e a t u r e t h a t mentions God  the  c r e a t u r e whose i n s i d e i s f i l l e d w i t h d e a d l y  the  thorn apple?  The  he  t o n i g h t I went to see  i n h i s hut by h i s lamp, i n the  a b l a c k b i r d whose head he had whom he was  o l d misanthrope  because I a c t e d as a w a l l a g a i n s t which  c o u l d throw h i s r a g e .  He was  a bitter,  when i t t h i n k s of the dust  creature that sings melodic  Devil, like  lines  t h r o u g h the a r t f u l l y wound s p e a k i n g - t u b e i n t o which i t calls  out r e v o l t ,  o n l y to t e a r you  the  to p i e c e s , the  l i k e a snake b e f o r e breast?  - Who  creature that smiles l i k e a  i s this creature, black  the  p o r t e r , " but correctly. The  "man"  your  one?"  one  speaks," s a i d  he answers each of my  to s l e e p , b l a c k  b i r d repeated  fang i n t o  you  unpleasantly.  o n l y word the b l a c k  t h a t i s why Go  t h a t embraces  i t s t r i k e s i t s deadly  "Man," the a n i m a l cawed "It's  creature  sphinx  questions  one."  t h r e e more times  the  before  -106-  p e r c h i n g i n a dark c o r n e r as i f m e d i t a t i n g d e e p l y - but i t was  only dozing. "They're p e r f o r m i n g b u r i a l r i t e s a t the nunnery t o n i g h t , "  s a i d the o l d man. U r s u l i n e nun  "Would you  like  became a mother today.  to watch?  A  chaste  I n the o l d days, i t  would've been noted down as a m i r a c l e and become a but they've  l o o k e d i n t o God's c a r d s l o n g ago  b e l i e v e s i n m i r a c l e s any more. w i l l be b u r i e d a l i v e . He through  I'll  took the key and the c l o i s t e r s  Tonight  l e t you  the h i n g e s  legend,  so nobody  the h o l y v i r g i n  i n - amuse y o u r s e l f . " squeaked, and  s t e p p i n g over g r a v e s .  The  I walked glow o f  t o r c h e s danced over the monuments on which s l e p t the s t a t u e s of v i r g i n s , t h e i r f a c e s s c u l p t u r e d i n an  white  attitude  o f p r a y e r - but down i n the nunnery, the o r i g i n a l s  had  a l r e a d y thrown o f f t h e i r masks. I h i d b e h i n d a column and  l o o k e d i n t o an open v a u l t  a l o n e l y u n d r e s s i n g room f o r the dead.  A dim  -  death-lamp  burned i n the v a u l t , and a l o a f of bread, a jug of wine, a c r u c i f i x and a p r a y e r book s t o o d on a r a i s e d stone.  I n the c h a p e l above the v a u l t , deep s i l e n c e r e i g n e d  among the s a i n t s l o o k i n g down from walls.  t h e i r n i c h e s i n the  O c c a s i o n a l l y , a gust o f wind swept the organ  a p i p e sang The  slab of  and  shrilly.  f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n f i n a l l y appeared  through  the  columns - a h o s t of s i l e n t v i r g i n s w i t h the l i v i n g b r i d e  -107-  o f death  i n t h e i r midst.  For a p o e t i c a l l y  sentimental  s p e c t a t o r , the whole scene would have evoked a sense of h o r r o r , f o r i t was  performed i n an almost  mechanically  f r i g h t e n i n g manner, j u s t as the t r a g i c Muse a f f e c t s more the l e s s she wrings her hands. is  However, my  h i m s e l f who  were p l a y i n g )  n o t h i n g was  accomplished  was  Run  except  a mad  v a i n f o r i t to stand s t i l l  - c r i e s man passes  by.  b e f o r e me? a t me  like  one  the  cries i n  f o r a moment so t h a t he i t l e e r s a t him.  The  do you  s m i l e a t me?  P a i n , l o o k i n t o my  But a l r e a d y i t has t h a t - I no  eyes!  fled.  sooner ask  am  c a l l e d a man  - and  ask  masks of answer  The  mask g r i n s  Why  do you  Rage, why  than you  can  Joy,  appear  do you  look  disappear.  " I n a r i o t o u s dance, the masks t w i s t around me who  scale,  broke o f f i n a d i s c h o r d :  as d i s t o r t e d as the o t h e r .  - why  basically  r u n through  so q u i c k l y t h a t he  what i t wants of him and why emotion f l y by,  can  Through the S c a l e .  " L i f e h u r r i e s p a s t man  me  (which  Devil  h a r d l y moved, and  which went r o u g h l y as f o l l o w s and  and  soul  l i k e a harp p o t e n t i a l l y out of tune so t h a t nobody  ever p l a y sweet music on i t u n l e s s i t were the  me  us  - around  I stumble i n t h e i r midst,  giddy  a t the s i g h t , t r y i n g h o p e l e s s l y to grasp a w h i r l i n g shape and  to r i p o f f i t s masks so t h a t I can see  but they dance on and circle?  Who  am  on - and  I - what am  I i f the masks d i s a p p e a r ?  the r e a l f a c e I d o i n g i n the Give me  a mirror,  -108-  you  c a r n i v a l p l a y e r s , so t h a t I might  I'm s i c k o f w a t c h i n g your heads.  What!  your changing f e a t u r e s .  You shake  I s there'no v i s i o n of my s e l f i n t h e  m i r r o r when I s t e p b e f o r e i t ? a thought,  see m y s e l f as I am -  Am I merely  the dream o f a dream?  the thought o f  Can't you h e l p me t o a  body, and w i l l you shake y o u r f o o l ' s b e l l s f o r e v e r w h i l e I keep p r e t e n d i n g t h a t they a r e mine?  Oh!  It i s terribly  l o n e l y here i n the I as I d e t a i n you, masks, and t r y t o l o o k a t m y s e l f - a l l i s a music  without a dying f a l l  -  nowhere a shape I can g r a s p , and y e t I see - i t must be N o t h i n g t h a t I seej  Away, away from m y s e l f - dance on,  masks!" Now the nun i s c l i m b i n g down i n t o the v a u l t . let  Oh,  t h e p l a y end so t h a t I may know whether I am w a t c h i n g  a comedy o r a t r a g e d y .  Even d u r i n g h e r l a s t walk i n l i f e ,  the b r i d e o f d e a t h i s f o l l o w e d by a mask - madness. mask s m i l e s m y s t e r i o u s l y . f a c e beneath  Who can t e l l  The  me whether the r e a l  i t trembles or s m i l e s e c s t a t i c a l l y ?  The nuns a r e b u r y i n g h e r w i t h a v i p e r t o keep h e r company, the v i p e r o f hunger which w i l l h e r b r e a s t and gnaw i n t o h e r s e l f .  soon c r a w l a c r o s s  And when the l a s t mask  is  e a t e n away, when the s e l f i s a l o n e w i t h i t s e l f  it  spend  - how w i l l  eternity?  Now the hammers o f the b r i c k l a y e r s echo through the vault.  One stone a f t e r a n o t h e r i s f i t t e d  i n t o the v a u l t  -109-  of  the tomb.  By the l a n t e r n l i g h t ,  I can now see o n l y  through a narrow c r a c k the m y s t e r i o u s nun  s m i l e o f the b u r i e d  - now o n l y a shimmer c r e e p i n g through - and now  every-  thing i s closed.  The l i v i n g dead s i n g a ' M i s e r e r e ' as  a good-night over  the head o f the i n t e r r e d nun.  I went and found  the p o r t e r a g a i n .  u s u a l w i t h h i s a n c i e n t mask of h a t r e d . mankind?" he asked  He was s i t t i n g as "Now do you hate  me.  "I'm almost a l o n e w i t h m y s e l f , "  I answered," and I  hate and l o v e as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e .  I t r y t o t h i n k L'm  not t h i n k i n g , and maybe i n the end I might even l e a r n who I  am." "Take t h i s c r e a t u r e w i t h you," he c o n t i n u e d ,  a blanket  to r e v e a l a sleeping c h i l d .  keep him here,  "I don't want t o  because sometimes I get a t t a c k s o f l o v e f o r  my f e l l o w men, and d u r i n g one o f these choke the c h i l d  s p e l l s I might  to death."  I c r a d l e d the baby i n my arms, and the l i f e rested  still  waking l i f e  raising  which  dreaming i n my hand r e c o n c i l e d me w i t h the around me  again.  "They t o l d me t o get r i d o f i t , " the p o r t e r added. "They don't t o l e r a t e a n y t h i n g male among them,these nuns, except You  have j u s t  pious  i n p a i n t i n g s , to stimulate t h e i r f a n t a s i e s . seen the mother o f the boy b e i n g b u r i e d .  l o o k f o r the f a t h e r , or j u s t throw the c h i l d  Now  out i n t o the  -110-  w o r l d - h e ' l l be i n no d a n g e r , f o r mankind w i l l  never  sink." " I know the f a t h e r , " I answered, l e a v i n g the O u t s i d e , the s t r a n g e r s t o o d h u d d l e d out h i s hand t o s t o p "The  hut.  i n h i s c l o a k and  me.  bride i s buried.  This i s your  son."  With  words I p u t the c h i l d i n h i s arms, and he p r e s s e d i t silently  reached  to h i s breast.  these  -111-  ELEVENTH NIGHTWATCH  The  f o l l o w i n g i s a fragment from the s t o r y o f the  stranger  i n the cloak.  I l o v e the s e l f ,  so l e t the man  speak f o r h i m s e l f . "What i s the sun?" I asked my mother one day as she described  t o me the s u n r i s e over the mountains.  "My poor c h i l d , y o u ' l l never know, you were born blind," and  she s a i d , p a s s i n g h e r hand g e n t l y over my  forehead  my eyes. I was on f i r e  - h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s h e l d me  spell-bound.  There was a d i v i d i n g w a l l between mankind and my l o v e f o r mankind - i f o n l y I c o u l d  see the sun j u s t  once, I thought,  the w a l l would crumble, and I c o u l d be c l o s e r t o my mother. Prom then on, my i m a g i n a t i o n spirit  was busy as my  longing  s t r o v e w i t h a l l i t s might to break beyond the  l i m i t a t i o n s o f my body t o b e h o l d the l i g h t . was the l a n d o f my p r e m o n i t i o n s , miracles  o f a r t and n a t u r e .  I n the l i g h t  an I t a l y f u l l  o f the  -112-  Around me,  everybody t a l k e d  and about day, but f o r me  c o n s t a n t l y about  t h e r e was  night  o n l y e t e r n a l day, or  perhaps an e t e r n a l n i g h t - everybody thought i t was  the  latter. I  s a t i n my  w o r l d was I was  alive  d a r k n e s s , and a l t h o u g h the marvel i n my mind, i l l u m i n a t i o n was  merely c l i m b i n g around on l i f e  eyes as on a t o w e r i n g r o c k ; I f e l t and drank t h e i r  s m e l l , but i n my  f l o w e r i t s e l f was or  her s i l k e n One  and  the s i l k of f l o w e r s  dreams I knew t h a t the  i n f i n i t e l y more b e a u t i f u l than her  smell  cheek.  n i g h t , I had a m a r v e l l o u s dream i n which I saw E v e r y t h i n g i n the dream was  I  i n v a i n to r e c a l l the v i s i o n .  It  missing,  with blind-folded  light. tried  of-the  was  real.  Yet when I awoke,  d u r i n g t h i s time t h a t music walked  g e n i u s i n t o my  dark dungeon, sweet  There was  I t a l y o f my  a l s o an a n g e l who  Muses and i n t r o d u c e d them to me,  l i k e a tender  garlands of poetry  wrapped around the s t r i n g s of her harp. s a c r e d s o i l - the f i r s t  the  She l e d me  onto  longings.  hovered between the  two  an a n g e l to whom the d i v i n e  Madonna h e r s e l f had g i v e n her name - M a r i a .  She was  age, and she e n r a p t u r e d the b l i n d boy w i t h songs  my  own  and  m e l o d i e s , r e v i v i n g the l o v e and hope of h i s worn dreams until  they stepped back i n t o h i s l i f e  virgins.  like beautiful  Vestal  -113-  M a r i a was  an orphan,  had made a solemn vow God  and  on a d o p t i n g her my  to d e d i c a t e her to the s e r v i c e  i f I s h o u l d ever r e g a i n my  l e s s f o r the sun, songs away from  because  sight.  And  now  me.  l o v e f o r M a r i a s t r u g g l e d i n my  might  help  soul.  I almost  had  be f o r c e d to see the d o c t o r . He  I  her  I wavered between c o n f l i c t i n g p a s s i o n s - l o v e f o r the  sun and to  of  I longed  t h a t would take M a r i a and  Soon I heard about a d o c t o r whose s k i l l me.  mother  t o l d me  to be calm - and my  s t o o d a t the gates of l i f e  time.  stormed  as i f I were b o r n a  I f e l t a s e a r i n g p a i n i n my  cause my  spirit  dream r e t u r n e d - I saw  eyes and  light.  instead. second  screamed  A thousand  be-  brilliant  f l a s h e s and beams; a b r i e f g l a n c e i n t o the t r e a s u r e of life. Then the f a m i l i a r darkness f e l l blind-fold  over my  e n t e r the new I'll I was  again.  They put a  eyes, making c e r t a i n t h a t I d i d not  w o r l d except by s m a l l s t e p s .  say n o t h i n g of a l l the s t a g e s between the s t e p s -  shown a few  o b j e c t s , but n o t h i n g a l i v e  d o c t o r , u n t i l he thought me  except f o r the  s t r o n g enough t o f a c e even the  greatest experience. He  l e d me  out i n t o the n i g h t .  c o n s t e l l a t i o n s burned,  infinitely  l i k e a drunkard beneath a thousand w i t h o u t h a v i n g to c a l l H i s name. mountains surged up,  dark and  Above me,  the  removed, and I r e e l e d w o r l d s , aware of In'front  splintered  of me,  God  the  i n the n i g h t ,  ruins  -114-  of a p r e v i o u s  e a r t h , and  sky f l i c k e r e d  above t h e i r  and  p a l e l i g h t n i n g from a c l o u d l e s s summits.  s h e l t e r e d a t t h e i r f e e t , and  the t r e e s trembled stood b e s i d e me  softly.  - a few  Sombre and  - I  Suddenly the landscape over  fear.  Behind me,  And  and  changed; s p i r i t s  But  the  a t the thought t h a t God  i n the  was  r o s e s f l e w up  mountains i n t o the b l u e a i r , and  Now,  - the  with  ocean.  approaching.  down on the e a r t h , v e i l i n g  as the s t a r s d i e d , g o l d e n  p a s t , and  doctor  seemed to  sky the s p i r i t s advanced  the sky - m i g h t i e r and  the  s t a r s grew dim  a great mirror unfolded  mists pressed  tenderly.  silent,  prayed.  the mountains, and  I trembled  o n l y the b l a c k peaks of  s t e p s away something moved, not  unlike a veiled figure.  gather  F o r e s t s s l e p t deep  her  powerfully,  over  the  a magic s p r i n g b l e s s e d  m i g h t i e r - now  a whole sea  rolled  flame a f t e r flame burned i n the waves of heaven. gleaming i n a thousand l i g h t s ,  above the p i n e s l i k e a world to cover my  eyes and  fell  When I awoke, the god h i s b r i d e had  to the  rose  I threw up my  hands  ground.  of e a r t h hovered i n the sky,  c a s t a s i d e her v e i l s ,  i n t i m a t e charms to the eye Sacred  on f i r e .  the sun  of the  and  d i s p l a y i n g her most  god.  ground everywhere - s p r i n g hung l i k e a sweet  dream i n a l l the mountains and  meadows, the s t a r s shone as  f l o w e r s i n the dark g r a s s , and  a sea of l i g h t  flowed  from  -115-  a thousand s o u r c e s i n t o the garden of c r e a t i o n and c o l o u r s r o s e from i t l i k e magic l o v e and l i f e  spirits.  A universe f i l l e d with  - r e d f r u i t s and b l o s s o m i n g g a r l a n d s i n the  t r e e s , and f r a g r a n t wreaths around the h i l l s and mountains brilliant  diamonds i n the grapes - b u t t e r f l i e s l i k e  d a n c i n g f l o w e r s i n the a i r - song from a thousand  flying, glad  t h r o a t s , p r a i s i n g , w o r s h i p p i n g - and the eye o f God l o o k e d back from the i n f i n i t e  s e a o f the u n i v e r s e and from the  dewy p e a r l s i n the c a l i x e s o f the f l o w e r s . I dared t o see God! Suddenly, I heard a r u s t l i n g behind me - new  veils  dropped from my eyes - I l o o k e d back and saw, f o r the f i r s t time, the eye o f my mother,  weeping.  Oh n i g h t , n i g h t come back! this light  and l o v e .  I can no l o n g e r s u f f e r a l l  -  -116-  TWELFTH NIGHTWATCH  The  a f f a i r s o f t h e w o r l d come and go i n t o t a l  so I f e e l f r e e t o i n t e r r u p t t h e s t r a n g e r his story. wishing  I a l s o think that there  disorder,  i n the middle of  i s no harm i n my  t h a t many a g r e a t p o e t and a u t h o r w o u l d sometimes  i n t e r r u p t h i m s e l f a t t h e p r o p e r moment, and t h a t  death  m i g h t i n t e r r u p t t h e l i v e s o f some g r e a t men - c e r t a i n examples i m m e d i a t e l y s p r i n g t o mind. Sometimes, a man w i l l s o a r up t o t h e s u n l i k e a n e a g l e and seem so removed t h a t t h e e a r t h - b o u n d gape a f t e r the  transfigured being i n a l l h i s glory.  the  egotist returns  - But suddenly,  f r o m h i s f l i g h t , and i n s t e a d o f  b r i n g i n g back t h e s t o l e n r a y s o f t h e s u n l i k e a second Prometheus, he c o v e r s up t h e eyes o f t h e p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a r o u n d h i m i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e s u n i s b l i n d i n g them. Who h a s n ' t seen t h i s e a g l e s o a r i n g  through our recent  history! I n c i d e n t a l l y , as f a r as t h e s t r a n g e r  i s concerned, I  -117-  g i v e my  word to any  authors  hungering  after  romantic  m a t e r i a l t h a t h i s s t o r y promises a r e a s o n a b l e royalties  - l e t them f i n d him  finish his tale. During a wig,  i f they want to and  t o n i g h t ' s watch I w i t n e s s e d  f o l l o w e d immediately  a great  and  i t was  u n c e r t a i n whether  or whether he  b e i n g chased.  I n t r i g u e d by t h i s a m b i g u i t y ,  and  to  "My  know how  is  said,"  i n t u r n she  difficult  infinitely  I detained  I'm  him  i n f l y i n g p u r s u i t of  i s c h a s i n g me.  No  i t i s to become a c e l e b r i t y ,  more d i f f i c u l t  complaining  was  confess.  f r i e n d , " he  i m m o r t a l i t y , and  commotion:  by i t s owner, came f l y i n g out  c h a s i n g the a r t i c l e b e f o r e him  f o r c e d him  l e t him  -  of the door of a famous poet, he was  income i n  i t i s to l i v e ;  every  s t a y i n g a l i v e i s no  and  you  how  business  about e x c e s s i v e c o m p e t i t i o n , and  of becoming f a m o u s a n d  doubt  the  business  exception.  Moreover, t h e r e have been so many c o m p l a i n t s  about a l l the  shoddy workers a d m i t t e d  businesses  t h a t now  you  especially, at f i r s t You  more.  I n my  t h e r e were many o b s t a c l e s put i n my unable  i f he  case  way,  and  to amount to a n y t h i n g .  y o u r s e l f know - what chance does a man  sound limbs?  w i t h him,  i n t o both  can't b e l i e v e anybody any  I was  t h i s world and  by mistake  have i n  e n t e r s i t w i t h n o t h i n g but h i s naked - Unless,  self  t h a t i s , he happens to have  a l r e a d y formed i n the womb, a crown f o r h i s head,  -118-  or t h e a b i l i t y  to c l i m b up the branches o f h i s f a m i l y  t r e e the moment he has crawled  from h i s egg.  I can't t h i n k  of any g r e a t e r nonsense i n t h i s age o f o u r s , where titles,  and r i b b o n s and s t a r s a r e ready  f o r e he i s ready  t o wear them.  offices,  f o r a p e r s o n be-  Wouldn't a poor d e v i l who  a t h i s b i r t h c o u l d n ' t s l i p r i g h t away i n t o a warm coat p r e f e r to l e a v e h i s mother's body as a Christmas be admired and consumed immediately?  l o g , to  I hope you u n d e r s t a n d  me, my f r i e n d ! I tried vain, u n t i l  to promote m y s e l f  i n every way p o s s i b l e . I n  I d i s c o v e r e d one day t h a t I had Kant's nose,  Goethe's e y e s , - L e s s i n g ' s f o r e h e a d , S c h i l l e r ' s mouth and the b u t t o c k s o f s e v e r a l o t h e r g r e a t s p i r i t s ;  I advertised  all  I went f u r t h e r ,  t h i s , and people  began t o marvel a t me.  and wrote t o famous men a s k i n g them f o r t h e i r o l d d i s carded  junk.  I was l u c k y . For example, I am w a l k i n g i n  the shoes which Kant used  t o wear.  During  the day, I p u t  on Goethe's h a t and L e s s i n g ' s w i g , and i n the e v e n i n g I wear S c h i l l e r ' s n i g h t c a p . Kotzebue and sneeze l i k e  I even l e a r n e d how t o c r y l i k e T i e c k , and you'd h a r d l y b e l i e v e  the a t t e n t i o n I now command.  We a r e c r e a t u r e s o f the body  and we would r a t h e r s t i c k w i t h t h a t than the s o u l ; j o k i n g when I t e l l you t h a t somebody who saw me i n front  of him l i k e  I'm n o t  strolling  Goethe, w i t h h i s h a t on back t o f r o n t  and w i t h my hands i n the f o l d s  of my c l o a k , a s s u r e d me t h a t  -119-  t h i s was more amusing than Goethe's - S i n c e then, I've been i n v i t e d  latest  writings.  to the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d  t a b l e s , and I'm e n j o y i n g m y s e l f . But today I've been u n l u c k y - when I t r i e d t o eavesdrop public,  i n private  on a c e l e b r i t y who  o f t e n speaks i n  I was welcomed l i k e a t h i e f d e s p i t e the f a c t  that  a n y t h i n g I managed t o a c q u i r e by eye and e a r i s h a r d l y worth  mentioning." A t t h i s , he put Les sing.' s wig back on h i s head and  added s a r c a s t i c a l l y :  "My f r i e n d , what i s the use o f  immortal fame i f a f t e r h i s d e a t h the wig i s more i m p o r t a n t than the man who wore i t ? - I don't even want t o t a l k about  immortality during l i f e ,  f o r the most m o r t a l w r e t c h  can s t r u t about l i k e an immortal god d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e w h i l e the genius i s a t t a c k e d w i t h f i s t s whenever he shows h i m s e l f - remember the head  t h a t wore t h i s wig b e f o r e  me.  Good n i g h t . " I l e t the f o o l r u n o f f . There was a young man l o i t e r i n g i n the g r a v e - y a r d by m o o n l i g h t .  I walked  n o t i c i n g me because  r i g h t up to him w i t h o u t h i s  he was busy whipping h i m s e l f i n t o a  s t a t e o f d e s p a i r w i t h the h e l p o f i n t e n s e g e s t u r e s and declamation*  H i s method i s e f f e c t i v e - I used t o know  a p r e a c h e r who had the e a r l y morning moved to t e a r s except by the sound  mass who  c o u l d n ' t be  of h i s own r a n t i n g .  The  -120-  whole performance f i n a l l y  seemed a l i t t l e  dubious  t o me,  so I l e a p e d i n t o h e l p him out and handed him back h i s pig-tail But  t o g e t h e r w i t h a speech  in his first  dagger,with  excitement,  s u i t a b l e f o r the o c c a s i o n .  he n e a r l y mistook i t f o r a  which i n v a i n he t r i e d  to s t a b h i m s e l f s e v e r a l  times. I tried  t o calm him down w i t h the comment t h a t t r a g i c  s i t u a t i o n s a r e d e s t r o y e d by c e r t a i n comic touches, K i n g Lear d r o p p i n g h i s p i g - t a i l and  such as  w h i l e he i s i n h i s p a s s i o n ,  I was s u c c e s s f u l i n s o f a r as I got him to s i t down on a  grave and agree head.  While  an apology quietly  t o me f a s t e n i n g h i s p i g - t a i l  I did this,  on l i f e ,  I tried  back onto h i s  t o r e f o r m him by means o f  to which he had to s i t and l i s t e n  s i n c e I was h o l d i n g him by the h a i r :  Apology on L i f e . By God, l i f e it  away l i k e  While to  i s beautiful.  a pig-tail,  How can you p o s s i b l y  young man.  throw  Hold t h i s r i b b o n h e r e .  I wind your h a i r I ' l l t r y t o unwind a few b e a u t i e s  you as b r i e f l y  as p o s s i b l e .  What i n heaven's name - p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s a heaven, or a t h i r d  second  or a f o u r t h b e s i d e the one i n the sky -  c o u l d be b e t t e r than e a r t h ?  Don't you f i n d  the world t o  your  liking?  The s c i e n c e s , the a r t s and manners a r e i n  full  f l o w e r and walk the s t r e e t s i n modern f a s h i o n .  Like  -121-  H o l l a n d , the s t a t e i s i n t e r s e c t e d by c a n a l s and d i t c h e s , i n t o which a l l human t a l e n t s a r e d i v i d e d and c h a n n e l l e d cleverly,  so t h a t t h e r e i s no f e a r o f t h e i r u n i t i n g t o  f l o o d the whole c o u n t r y . situated and  There a r e men who a r e so w e l l -  t h a t one might c o n s i d e r them v e r y good hammers  pliers,  though t h e i r i m m o r t a l i t y s u f f e r s no d e c l i n e ;  j u s t l o o k a t t h i s c o l o s s u s o f mankind, how h i s whole body i s busy and working and a l i v e , as one man c l i m b s over the o t h e r , and over t h i s second c l i m b s a t h i r d , l i k e a group of a e r i a l a r t i s t s , w i t h one c a r r y i n g i n v e n t i o n s and another dragging  i d e a s up on the way t o the t o p , and i t i s  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the human r a c e , as i t c l i m b s h i g h e r and h i g h e r on i t s own s h o u l d e r s , as i t p u l l s i t s e l f up by i t s own h a i r l i k e Mtinchhausen, w i l l i n t o heaven u n t i l heaven.  e v e n t u a l l y climb  right  t h e r e i s no need to t h i n k o f a second  - I f the p i g - t a i l  on the head of mankind  t o g e t h e r and i f i t i s n o t a f a l s e  one l i k e  holds  the one which  I am p l a i t i n g , what's the use o f t r y i n g to f i n d any o t h e r way than t h i s o f r e a c h i n g a h i g h e r world? My f r i e n d , what do you t h i n k y o u ' l l g a i n up t h e r e ? B e t t e r laws perhaps? down h e r e !  C e n t u r i e s a r e ready  B e t t e r customs?  a p o i n t t h a t we a r e almost constitutions ? you  t o vouch f o r ours  We have r e f i n e d p l a c e d above them!  them t o such Better  Haven't you got enough o f them l y i n g  l i k e a l l the c o l o u r s on a map?  Go to F r a n c e ,  before  my f r i e n d ,  -122-  where c o n s t i t u t i o n s change w i t h f a s h i o n s , and y o u c a n t r y on one a f t e r a n o t h e r , f r o m monarchy t o r e p u b l i c , and back to  despotism again.  There y o u c a n be b i g , and t h e n s m a l l ,  and f i n a l l y a v e r a g e , t h e s t a t e w h i c h seems t o s u i t mankind best. My f r i e n d , t h e r e a r e e x c e l l e n t r e m e d i e s  f o r misanthropy;  I m y s e l f once had an e x p e r i e n c e where a good meal p r e v e n t e d me f r o m c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e and where I s a i d , w e l l - s a t e d , " L i f e i s b e a u t i f u l indeed!"  While others c o n s i d e r the  head o r t h e h e a r t t o be t h e s e a t o f l i f e ,  I t h i n k i t ' s the  stomach - t h e stomach i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h i n g s g r e a t and m a r v e l l o u s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s w o r l d . ravenous  Man i s a  b e a s t , and i f he i s g i v e n t o o much t o e a t , he  v o m i t s up t h e most w o n d e r f u l t h i n g s d u r i n g d i g e s t i o n and i s t r a n s f i g u r e d t h r o u g h h i s e a t i n g and becomes i m m o r t a l . Thus, what a w i s e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t a t e t o l e t i t s c i t i z e n s t a r v e p e r i o d i c a l l y - as y o u would dogs i n t r a i n i n g them t o p e r f o r m !  F o r t h e sake o f a m e a l ,  warble l i k e n i g h t i n g a l e s , p h i l o s o p h e r s concoct  poets  systems,  judges pass s e n t e n c e , d o c t o r s h e a l , p r i e s t s h o w l ,  workers  hammer, pound, b u i l d , and p l o u g h , and t h e w o r l d f e e d s i t s e l f into a higher state.  Yes, I c l a i m that i f the Lord  had f o r g o t t e n t h e stomach, t h e w o r l d would  s t i l l be a s  crude as v/hen i t was c r e a t e d and now would h a r d l y be w o r t h discussing.  -123-  What do you t h i n k o f any l i f e  beyond i n t o which you  won't take the stomach, t h i s v e r y s o u l o f c u l t u r e , and which you p l a n to e n t e r o n l y i n the s p i r i t ! move, I'm  j u s t k n o t t i n g the f i r s t r i b b o n to t i e y o u r h a i r  and p i g - t a i l the  spirit  spirit the  - Don't  together.  i s like  - My f r i e n d , w i t h o u t the stomach  a l a z y b e a r s u c k i n g i t s own paws.  The  i s o n l y the f i r s t m i n i s t e r o f the r o y a l p u r s e o f  stomach, and i f you e l i m i n a t e the stomach, the  i s done f o r .  spirit  I f t h e r e i s such a t h i n g as t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ,  which I don't doubt i n the l e a s t , and i f the s o u l s o f the dead e n t e r f l o w e r s and f r u i t s  as w e l l as a n i m a l s , which  i s a l s o p r o b a b l e , t h e n where e l s e can the c o n n e c t i o n l i e but  i n the stomach t h a t e a t s them?  The s o u l c l i m b s up  from the stomach as i t l o s e s i t s a n i m a l a t t r i b u t e s and r i s e s as a vapour i n t o the mind - i n any c a s e , i t ' s t h a t we  certain  can absorb the g r e a t e s t sages such as P l a t o , or  Hemsterhuis, or Kant, s i m p l y by i n g e s t i n g a good meal. C o n s i d e r these examples: Goethe, who  assimilated  Hans Sachs, the Romantics and the Greeks, i s as good an e a t e r as he i s a p o e t , and i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d he has d i n e d on t h e i r s p i r i t s .  Bonaparte may  Caesar, and o n l y the s p i r i t  have d i n e d on J u l i u s  o f B r u t u s seems to e x i s t uneaten  somewhere. How  i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r you to renounce t h i s  and t h i s l i f e ,  stomach  my f r i e n d , and t r y t o escape t h i s a r t i f i c i a l  -124-  machine i n which a thousand wheels t u r n and along.  Look a t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  protagonist!  the  theatre  engaged at the  court  i n t e r r u p t e d , g i v i n g a bow secure and  I'm  again.  "The  of l i f e "  the  t h e a t r e , " the young  by  here o n l y because I'm  as  -  of thanks f o r the  pistol,  you  open to you  B a t t l e - f i e l d s , almanacs, j o u r n a l s ,  s m a l l t h e a t r e s and "I'm  still  prod  the way,  tail  i s not  man  now loaded,  t r y i n g to absorb the r o l e  of a s u i c i d e which I must p l a y on stage tomorrow. S o b r i e t y i s the into passions my  grave of a r t !  feeling.  I can be m i s e r l y i f I am  L i k e the g r e a t e s t  studying  i f I have to p l a y a  With t h a t , he and  foolish.  "Oh  left  me  your i n h a b i t a n t s .  You  masks, and  of e x a l t a t i o n w h i l e seemed to me  under the b l a n k e t e d wings over the  masters,  lunatic." there,  feeling  absurd  are an  even the p i g - t a i l s  i t i s impossible standing  on  to f e e l any  sense  you."  as i f I were d i s s o l v i n g i n the moon and  earth l i k e  of  empty, s t u p i d stage f o r  were h o v e r i n g  the D e v i l .  on g r e a t  I shook m y s e l f  laughed, h o p i n g to arouse every s l e e p e r below me s u r p r i s e man  and  d e c e i t f u l world," I c r i e d a n g r i l y , i s honest, not  It  play  the r o l e of a m i s e r ,  standing  "Nothing about you  f o o l s and  slip  as I would i n t o combat-gloves, I can  characters with  I can be mad  I f I p o s s i b l y can  and  i n h i s underwear, s t r i p p e d of make-up,  night black and to  -125-  false  teeth, false  pig-tails,  false  b r e a s t s and  a r s e s so t h a t I c o u l d w h i s t l e and stomp my f e e t whole absurd heap.  false a t the  -126-  THIRTEENTH NIGHTWATCH  I climbed  up the h i l l  o u t s i d e the c i t y - i t was the  time o f t h e v e r n a l equinox, and Mother E a r t h l a y o u t s i d e brewing h e r n o c t u r n a l herbs t o r i s e a g a i n i n the morning, her  s i l v e r h a i r p u t a s i d e and h e r w r i n k l e s smoothed o u t ,  wreathed and r i n g l e t e d l i k e a young nymph, and t o r a i s e h e r newborn c h i l d r e n up t o h e r s w e l l i n g b r e a s t s . the v a l l e y , a shepherd was blowing told  such an e n t r a n c i n g t a l e  Down i n  h i s h o r n , and the notes  o f a d i s t a n t c o u n t r y and  l o v e and y o u t h and hope t h a t t o t h e i r accompaniment I couldn't r e s i s t  composing the f o l l o w i n g :  A S p r i n g Dithyramb. You  approach, and your dark b r o t h e r takes  heels i n f r i g h t .  H i s s h i e l d and armour c l a t t e r t o the  ground and break; and b e h o l d , the young E a r t h s t e p s forward, and  to h i s  you k i s s the b e l o v e d ,  b l u s h i n g i n the f i r e l i k e a blossoming  oh youth,  o f dawn,  virgin;  and wind the b r i d a l  -127garland  i n her h a i r .  Now  the f r o z e n element f l o w s canopied  f r e e and  by green bushes.  huts high i n t o the  the l a s t g l a c i e r must thaw,  slopes.  the b l u e  The  sky,  dream of l o v e , and  the e a g l e God,  and  fragrant garlands  s o a r s p r a y i n g up  The and  t r e e s wind  offer  The  b r i d a l chamber, and  every  sucks l i f e  and  - Only man  -  them to heaven;  c a l i x of every  l e a f a t i n y world.  died  A l l creation  of the mother!  s u d d e n l y ceased, and  the l a s t word f a d e d and  hand d i d you  put  the pen  never t e l l us why  the l a s t note  together.  o n l y man  to c o n t i n u e  the work?  stands  the echo of my A l o n e ! sneers  - Where l i e s  own  words - am  You  you  a r e happywhich  the temple of A p o l l o  I so  the m a l i c i o u s v o i c e .  so s i l e n t ?  l a s t word i f you  Will  wide awake a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s  where i s the v o i c e t h a t w i l l f i n a l l y r e p l y ?  a r e you  I n t o whose  a l l your c r e a t u r e s dream and  are never answered?  why  towards  flov/er becomes a  D i d you w r i t e o n l y t h u s , Mother Nature?  but  their  to the sun as i f a i m i n g  l o v e from the warm h e a r t  Here the a l p - h o r n  while  the  the l a r k w h i r l s i n h i s wake, e x u l t i n g h i g h above  the adorned e a r t h .  and  Alpine  d a p p l e d herds c l i n g to  n i g h t i n g a l e s i n g s i n the bushes. branches i n t o  flowers,  mountains h o l d t h e i r  and  F l o w e r s bloom and  s i l e n t among the  and  I hear  -  nothing  alone? Mother, mother,  s h o u l d not have w r i t t e n c r e a t i o n ' s  p l a n n e d to s t o p  there.  I l e a f and  leaf  -128-  through  t h e pages o f t h e g r e a t book and f i n d n o t h i n g  t h i s one word a b o u t me and b e h i n d  except  i t a d a s h , as i f t h e p o e t  had k e p t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r he meant t o c o m p l e t e i n s i d e h i s head and had g i v e n me o n l y a name. I f my c h a r a c t e r was t o o d i f f i c u l t  t o d e v e l o p , why d i d n ' t  the p o e t a l s o c r o s s o u t my name, w h i c h now s t a n d s wondering a t i t s e l f , unable  alone  t o fathom i t s e x i s t e n c e ?  C l o s e t h e book, name, u n t i l t h e p o e t i s i n t h e mood to f i l l title!  t h e empty pages t o w h i c h y o u a r e no more t h a n a -  On t h e m o u n t a i n , i n t h e m i d s t o f t h a t huge museum, o f n a t u r e , a s m a l l a r t museum had been e r e c t e d , and now a number o f e x p e r t s and amateurs f i l e d i n t o i t , c a r r y i n g t o r c h e s so t h a t t h e y m i g h t imagine i n the f l i c k e r i n g flame.  t h e dead t o be a l i v e  I too o c c a s i o n a l l y get i n t o the  mood f o r a r t , more o r l e s s o u t o f p e r v e r s i t y , and I o f t e n l i k e t o s t e p f r o m t h e g r e a t museum i n t o t h e l e s s e r one t o see how man, though he l a c k s t h e a b i l i t y t o b r e a t h e  life  i t s e l f i n t o h i s c r e a t i o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s s c u l p t s and c a r v e s q u i t e n i c e l y and even i n s i s t s a f t e r w a r d s t h a t h i s work transcends I  nature.  f o l l o w e d t h e e x p e r t s and a m a t e u r s !  The  marble gods w h i c h I saw t h e r e were c r i p p l e s  without  arms and l e g s , and some even l a c k e d heads: t h e most b e a u t i f u l and e x a l t e d v i s i o n s dreamt by man, t h e whole heaven  -129-  of  a g r e a t and v a n i s h e d r a c e dug up as c o r p s e s from  Herculaneum  and the bed o f the T i b e r .  A resthome o f  immortal gods and heroes s t a n d i n g among a p i t i f u l  mankind.  The a n c i e n t a r t i s t s who had thought and shaped  these  t o r s o s wandered through my mind. Now a l i t t l e to  amateur from among the v i s i t o r s  c l i m b a M e d i c i Venus who had l o s t h e r arms.  puckered, and almost weeping,  he s t r u g g l e d  began  H i s mouth  to k i s s h e r  r e a r - e n d , famous as the most s u c c e s s f u l l y executed p a r t of  t h e goddess.  I grew angry because  i n these h e a r t l e s s  times I c a n ' t s t a n d the mask o f enthusiasm which some f a c e s can assume so e a s i l y , and I l e a p e d enraged onto an empty p e d e s t a l t o squander away a few words. "Young a r t l o v e r , " I s a i d , " The d i v i n e a r s e i s much too  h i g h f o r you.  With your s h o r t s t a t u r e , you c a n ' t r e a c h  i t w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g your neck. k i n d n e s s o f my h e a r t because  I'm s o r r y t o see you c l i m b i n g  around endangering your l i f e . Adam measured a hundred  in  A c c o r d i n g t o the r a b b i s ,  e l l s b e f o r e the f a l l  we have grown s i g n i f i c a n t l y are  I'm s p e a k i n g out o f t h e  o f man, but  s m a l l e r s i n c e then, and we  p r o g r e s s i v e l y d i m i n i s h i n g throughout the ages so t h a t our c e n t u r y one s h o u l d be warned a g a i n s t a l l neck -  b r e a k i n g attempts such as the one we a r e now w i t n e s s i n g . What do you want o f t h i s marble maiden, who a t any moment c o u l d t u r n i n t o an i r o n maiden f o r you i f she weren't  lacking  -130-  r e a l arms f o r an embrace; her s u b s t i t u t e arms a r e u s e l e s s and  c o u l d n ' t even serve as a f i s t  they resemble  for Berlichingen, for  o n l y the wooden arms of s o l d i e r s who  been shot to p i e c e s .  My  f r i e n d , no matter how  have  our a r t  r e s t o r e r s h e a l and mend, they w i l l never put t o g e t h e r a g a i n these gods maimed by c r u e l time l i k e h e r e , and  they can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d o n l y as i n v a l i d s  celebrities arms and  this f a l l e n torso  of the p a s t .  Once, they stood t a l l and  t h i g h s and heads, and a r a c e of heroes  b e f o r e them i n the d u s t .  Now  and had  knelt  the s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d :  they l i e on the ground w h i l e our e n l i g h t e n e d c e n t u r y h i g h and w h i l e we My to  o u r s e l v e s t r y to pass as gods.  dear a r t l o v e r , what has become of us t h a t we  d i g up  these g r e a t graves  dead i n t o the l i g h t  though we  o f gods and  lightened c r i t i c s  The  immortal  Of c o u r s e , our  en-  c o n s i d e r the dead gods to be i d o l s ,  t o be a pagan s e c t which has  worship  drag the  dare  know t h a t the Romans p u n i s h e d  the v i o l a t i o n even of human g r a v e s .  art  stands  these i d o l s .  But what i s your o p i n i o n , my  a n c i e n t s chanted hymns.  s t r u c t e d the chorus  c r e p t i n to d e i f y  and  and friend?  A e s c h y l u s and Sophocles  con-  to p r a i s e the gods, our modern a r t  r e l i g i o n p r a y s i n c r i t i q u e s and h o l d s i t s d e v o t i o n s i n the b r a i n r a t h e r than the h e a r t as the t r u e b e l i e v e r We  does.  s h o u l d put the a n c i e n t s back i n t h e i r graves a g a i n , I  think.  K i s s the a r s e , young man  - go ahead and k i s s i t -  -131-  and  then l e t i t be! But  i f you don't  r e a l l y want t o worship,  I r e f u s e t o l e t you gawk and marvel I p r o t e s t your attempt your  my  friend,  a t the expense o f n a t u r e ;  t o t u r n these gods i n t o men.  c h o i c e - e i t h e r p r a y t o them, or bury  them! -  My dear f e l l o w , don't  that!  l o o k a t me l i k e  Why  you b r i n g n a t u r e , and I mean r e a l n a t u r e , i n t o t h i s and  l e t h e r speak?  By the D e v i l ,  Take  don't  gallery  she w i l l l a u g h a t man's  f o o l i s h f e a t u r e s , which must appear t o h e r as absurd as the bugbear i n Horace's e p i s t l e s t o the P i s o n e s . Let  her t e l l  you whether she would ever have c r e a t e d  t h i s nose t o f i t t h a t t o e , t h i s f o r e h e a d  t o f i t t h a t mouth,  those b u t t o c k s f o r t h a t hand; I'm sure she would be angry i f you t r i e d  to i n s i s t  t h a t she d i d .  T h i s A p o l l o would  p r o b a b l y have been a c r i p p l e i f she had c o n t i n u e d the j o b begun a t the l i t t l e  t o e , and t h i s A n t i n o u s would  have t u r n e d out a T h e r s i t e s , and t h a t t r a g i c ,  probably  magnificent  Laocobn perhaps a k i n d o f C a l i b a n i f e v e r y t h i n g were r e formed a c c o r d i n g t o h e r laws. to  t h i s Minerva,  this  Yes, what would happen  epitome o f an i d e a l , whose  invisible like a l l spirits,  i s now enthroned  spirit,  i n s i d e her  m i s s i n g head? T h i s h e a d l e s s Minerva,  by the way, e x c i t e s my i m a g i n a t i o n  much more than Agamemnon weeping beneath h i s c l o a k i n Timanthes' famous p a i n t i n g .  J u s t as the l a t t e r  advised  -132-  a r t i s t s merely to h i n t a t the presence o f agony, so does t h i s M i n e r v a merely h i n t a t the p o s s i b i l i t y beauty.  Our modern s c u l p t o r s s t i l l  a d v i c e , and t h e i r heads  follow  o f sublime Timanthes!  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be seen as  n o t h i n g but s u r r o g a t e s . f o r heads  i n a two-fold  s t a n d i n g up t h e r e l i k e  merely t o complete the  figure.the  ornaments  sense,  The a n c i e n t s , l i k e Prometheus over t h e r e i n  c o r n e r , baked  t h e i r human f i g u r e s out o f c l a y , b u t  they a l s o b r e a t h e d i n t o them the f i r e  o f the sun; - we,  however, a r e a f r a i d o f danger and don't l i k e t o p l a y w i t h fire,  and t h e r e f o r e we d i s p e n s e w i t h the spark; - we  have a f i r e  even  b r i g a d e - c e n s o r s h i p and r e v i e w boards -, which  q u i c k l y chokes any flame which t h r e a t e n s t o break o u t . With u s , the spark o f l i f e fine  s o c i a l arrangement  doesn't s t a n d a chance.  o f ours t o p r e f e r  machinery t o courageous s p i r i t the  What a  functional  among our c i t i z e n s ,  t o whip  f o x out o f h i s s k i n and to use o n l y the s k i n , and t o  v a l u e the hands and f e e t o f our s u b j e c t s , which a r e d u r a b l e s p i n n i n g and t r e a d l i n g machines, - The s t a t e needs  h i g h e r than the head.  o n l y one head, but a hundred arms,  like  B r i a r e u s - but t h a t ' s enough!" I broke o f f i n f r i g h t , because i n the d e c e p t i v e glow of  the t o r c h e s the v/hole c r i p p l e d Olympus around me suddenly  seemed t o come t o l i f e ; his  an angry J u p i t e r s t r u g g l e d up from  t h r o n e , an e a r n e s t A p o l l o r e a c h e d f o r h i s bow and h i s  -133-  r i n g i n g h a r p , the s e r p e n t s  c o i l e d m i g h t i l y around a  s t r u g g l i n g Laocoon and h i s d y i n g  sons, Prometheus  the stumps of h i s arms, and mute Niobe  formed  men  with  the  s m a l l e s t of her c h i l d r e n a g a i n s t the f a l l i n g arrows  of the sun.  The Muses, w i t h o u t  hands, arms or l i p s  as i f l a b o u r i n g to p l a y and s i n g a n c i e n t but  protected  stirred  songs l o n g dead  -  e v e r y t h i n g remained s i l e n t and no more than the spasms  o f the d y i n g beyond  on a b a t t l e - f i e l d ;  - o n l y deep i n the background  the l i g h t , a chorus o f F u r i e s stood  petrified,  f r o z e n and  s t a r i n g dark-eyed and t e r r i b l e a t the s t r u g g l e .  -134-  FOURTEENTH NIGHTWATCH  Come back w i t h me t o the madhouse, dear r e a d e r ,  silent  companion o f my n i g h t l y rounds. You  w i l l remember my l i t t l e  l o s t the thread little  cell,  provided  you haven't  o f my t a l e , w h i c h weaves h i d d e n l i k e a  brook between t h e r o c k s  heaped around i t .  I  and f o r e s t s which I have  was l y i n g i n t h a t c e l l as i n t h e cave  o f t h e Sphinx, shut i n w i t h my own r i d d l e , and I was happily  on the r o a d toward a c c e p t i n g  decent system, h a v i n g d i s c o v e r e d durable of a l l philosophies.  madness as the o n l y  that lunacy  After a l l ,  was t h e most  I had o p p o r t u n i t y  enough t o compare the r e s u l t s o f the u n i v e r s a l s c h o o l o f l i f e with t h i s smaller  institutions  " L e t me e x p l a i n , " say w r i t e r s whenever they want t o s t a r t from t h e b e g i n n i n g , and I must do l i k e w i s e , tonight  I p l a n to hatch the s i n g l e n i g h t i n g a l e  since  egg o f my  l o v e ; f o r around me n i g h t i n g a l e s a r e s i n g i n g i n e v e r y b r a n c h and  bush t o n i g h t and a r e b u r s t i n g i n u n i s o n i n t o one g r e a t  song.  -135-  In a guest r o l e , t h e a t r e because  of my  I once performed Hamlet a t a c o u r t anger a t mankind, and to v e n t  s p l e e n a t the f r o n t row  my  of the audience as they s a t t h e r e .  That e v e n i n g i t happened t h a t O p h e l i a took her imagined madness too s e r i o u s l y and r a n o f f the stage q u i t e i n s a n e . There was  a g r e a t t u r m o i l , and w h i l e o t h e r d i r e c t o r s  themselves c o a c h i n g p e o p l e i n t o r o l e s , all  h i s might  to coach h i s primadonna  busy  ours s t r u g g l e d w i t h out o f her r o l e ;  but i n v a i n , the p o w e r f u l hand o f Shakespeare,  that  -  second  c r e a t o r , had s e i z e d her too v i o l e n t l y , and to the amazement of everyone b a c k s t a g e , he would not l e t her go. me,  t h i s i n t r u s i o n of a g i a n t ' s hand i n t o a  l i f e was  For  stranger's  an i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c t a c l e , t h i s metamorphosis  of a r e a l p e r s o n i n t o a p o e t i c  one, who  now  began to pace  the stage on her b u s k i n s and to s i n g ragged v e r s e s t h a t sounded  like  divine oracles.  r e a s o n s everybody fighting her to an  so b i t t e r l y  good were the  she r e f u s e d to come to her senses,  t h a t t h e r e was  no c h o i c e but to send  asylum.  Much t o my was  gave,  No matter how  s u r p r i s e , I met  her here a g a i n .  Her  door  c l o s e to mine, and I c o u l d hear her s i n g e v e r y day  about the c l o g s and the s h e l l - h a t o f her l o v e r . l i k e me, body l i k e  full  A wretch  o f h a t r e d and s c o r n , born not from a mother's  o t h e r men  but from a pregnant v o l c a n o , has  sympathy f o r l o v e and such l i k e ;  n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was  no  -136-  s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t w h i c h c r e p t up on me  h e r e i n the mad-  h o u s e , and y e t i n s t e a d of r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n the symptoms, s u c h as a p r o c l i v i t y f o r m o o n l i g h t , h e a d a c h e s , and on my  such l i k e ,  upon the But  poetic  i t f i r s t came as a h e c t i c a t t e m p t  part to w r i t e a manifesto  c o l o n y f o r l u n a t i c s who  usual  f o r f o o l s and  to found a  were e v e n t u a l l y t o be s e t  loose  world. soon t h i s i n s a n e  e m o t i o n c a l l e d l o v e , w h i c h once  dropped l i k e a p a t c h o f heaven upon the a r i d d e s e r t c a l l e a r t h , t o o k h o l d of me  i n e a r n e s t , and  t o my  we  horror  I w r o t e s e v e r a l poems- i n v e r s e , gaped a t the moon, and sometimes even w a r b l e d t o accompany the n i g h t i n g a l e s clamouring  o u t s i d e my window.  Once, I h o n e s t l y f e l t  e m o t i o n on a s o - c a l l e d s e n t i m e n t a l e v e n i n g ; moments I c o u l d l o o k c o n t e n t e d l y C a u c a s i a n cave and  yes, i n rare  out of the h o l e of  my  t h i n k a b o u t l e s s t h a n n o t h i n g . - I even  p u t some o f t h e s e m e d i t a t i o n s I ' l l r e s u r r e c t a few i n c l i n e d t o w a r d the  some  on p a p e r d u r i n g t h a t t i m e ,  of them f o r the b e n e f i t of any  souls  sentimental:  To the Moon. Gentle  f a c e f i l l e d w i t h goodness and  feeling; surely  you must p o s s e s s b o t h s i n c e you n e v e r open y o u r mouth up t h e r e i n the s k y , n e i t h e r t o c u r s e nor t o yawn when a t h o u s a n d f o o l s and  l o v e r s a d d r e s s t h e i r s i g h s and  prayers  and  -137-  to you and p i c k you as t h e i r c o n f i d a n t ; as l o n g as have been r u n n i n g around  t h i s e a r t h , as her  you  companion  and  C i c i s b e o , you have always been a steady and  and  one  true f r i e n d ,  can't f i n d a s i n g l e example i n w o r l d h i s t o r y a l l  the way  back to Adam of your becoming u n w i l l i n g or  blowing  your nose or assuming s l y f a c e s a l t h o u g h you have heard these s i g h s and  laments  r e p e a t e d times w i t h o u t number.  always pay a t t e n t i o n , and  sometimes you even h i d e  the h a n d k e r c h i e f of a c l o u d to d r y your t e a r s . audience  than you  c o u l d a poet  what b e t t e r f r i e n d l o v e here  how  s t a r e a t you r i g h t now.  How  p a l e you a r e , my  The  stand  and  even cover your f a c e , when sympathy overpowers you,  except  t r u s t y one,  you good  To  you like  can see n o t h i n g of you .  the back of your head grown b a l d w i t h g r i e f !  Goodbye, you  your  the same good o l d  consume y o u r s e l f - y e s ,  the weeping Agamemnon, so t h a t one  your  and  I have no doubt about  unwavering sympathy, f o r you are s t i l l l o s e weight  How  and  e s p e c i a l l y today as  and you l o o k q u i t e r o t u n d  w e l l - f e d ; but g a i n as you w i l l ,  and w i l l  friend.  g e n t l e n e s s of your f a c e c o u l d  for stupidity,  f a c e has g a i n e d weight  man  What b e t t e r  choose t o r e a d h i s work t o ,  a c c e s s i b l e to a l l those who  e a s i l y be mistaken  behind  c o u l d I choose as I waste away w i t h  i n the asylum.  sympathetic,  You  -  one!  Love.  Woman, what do you want from me,  c l i n g i n g to me  like  -138-  that?  Haven't you l o o k e d  c l o s e l y a t my f a c e y e t ?  w i t h your s m i l e and your sweet, f l i r t i n g  glances,  w i t h a l l t h a t rage and anger i n my Medusa f a c e . loved,  c o n s i d e r , we p r e s e n t  me go, by the D e v i l ! You  - You and I My he-  a much too unmatched p a i r . L e t  I w i l l have n o t h i n g  s m i l e a g a i n and h o l d me back?  t o do w i t h you!  What i s t h i s mask o f  a god in..front o f your f a c e w i t h which you l o o k a t me? I'll it;  t e a r i t away from you to l e a r n about the a n i m a l really,  I don't t h i n k your t r u e f a c e i s one o f the  most e n c h a n t i n g .  - Heavens, I'm g e t t i n g worse and worse,  I coo and l a n g u i s h p i t i f u l l y completely fiddle  behind  mad!  l i k e me!  - a r e you t r y i n g t o d r i v e me  Woman, how can you enjoy The c o m p o s i t i o n  playing a screeching  was w r i t t e n t o accompany  a c u r s e , and I'm f o r c e d to s i n g a l o v e song.'  Oh, l e t me  c u r s e r a t h e r than p i n e away i n such d r e a d f u l tones.  Breathe  your s i g h s i n t o a f l u t e - from me they i s s u e f o r t h as from a bugle,  and when I coo I'm pounding b a t t l e drums. - And  now even the f i r s t survived, l i k e in  k i s s - oh, e v e r y t h i n g e l s e I  e v e r y t h i n g which e x i s t s o n l y i n language and  sound, and I s t i l l would've been p e r m i t t e d  own s i l e n t doubts - but the f i r s t before,  could've  out of h a t r e d  t o have my  k i s s - I have never k i s s e d  f o r a l l tender  and moving h y p o c r i s y  monster, i f I knew you c o u l d t r i c k me i n t o t h a t , I would summon my l a s t  s t r e n g t h and f l i n g you from me!  In s u c h l i k e fragments, I t r i e d  t o b r i n g m y s e l f down  -  -139-  to  e a r t h and  to r i d m y s e l f  and m e t h o d i c a l  of my  p a s s i o n s i n an o r d e r l y  f a s h i o n , l i k e many a w r i t e r who  flings  his  emotions on paper f o r so l o n g t h a t f i n a l l y  they've  all  gone and he  sober.  But  can stand t h e r e burned-out and  e v e r y t h i n g went wrong.  became ever more c r i t i c a l v e r y much absorbed  and  i n myself  humbled b e f o r e the w o r l d .  Indeed, the  some v a l u e and  and  felt  almost  of the a n i m a l s ,  might even be  t r i t e as any  a t w r i t i n g v e r s e , and a l e n g t h of time and  human and  Once I even thought  that  t h a t man  this might  t h a t he might be  of  immortal.  At t h i s p o i n t , I gave m y s e l f as t e d i o u s and  symptoms  I began to wander around  might p o s s i b l y be the b e s t of a l l w o r l d s , be more than the f i r s t  down  lover.  up f o r l o s t and I was  no  became  longer  horrified  I c o u l d even s t a y s e n t i m e n t a l f o r grew used to c e r t a i n l o v e - s i c k  e x p r e s s i o n s which p r e v i o u s l y I would've r e f u s e d to u t t e r . Now  I launched  my  first  l o v e l e t t e r , which t o g e t h e r w i t h .  the o t h e r exchanges of l e t t e r s ,  I w i l l add  f o r your  edification.  Hamlet to O p h e l i a . "To  the c e l e s t i a l , and my  beautified my  first  Ophelia".  letter  T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , which I used i n  to you when we  s t a g e , might delude  s o u l ' s i d o l , the most  you  were o n l y l o v e r s on  into t h i n k i n g that I s t i l l  the labour  -140-  under a f e i g n e d l u n a c y ,  as i n those  p h y s i c a l s o p h i s t r i e s gathered  days, and under meta-  i n my s t u d e n t  don't l e t y o u r s e l f he d e c e i v e d , my i d o l , I'm r e a l l y i n s a n e and  - everything r e a l l y  o u t s i d e o f us n o t h i n g  i s real.  years.  But  because t h i s  lies  time  i n ourselves,  Indeed, a c c o r d i n g t o  the most r e c e n t s c h o o l o f thought, we don't r e a l l y know whether we a r e s t a n d i n g on our heads or our h e e l s , and we have o n l y a c c e p t e d I'm d e a d l y  the former through t r u s t and f a i t h .  -  s e r i o u s , O p h e l i a , and you must n o t b e l i e v e f o r  a moment t h a t I'm f a k i n g .  - Oh, how e v e r y t h i n g i s changed  i n your poor Hamlet - t h i s whole e a r t h , which once seemed t o him a n e g l e c t e d garden o f t h o r n s and n e t t l e s , a gathering-place  o f p e s t i l e n t i a l v a p o u r s , has been t r a n s -  formed b e f o r e h i s eyes i n t o an E l d o r a d o , garden o f the H e s p e r i d e s ;  into a  blossoming  when he used to hate the w o r l d ,  he was so f r e e and h e a l t h y , and now t h a t he l o v e s i t , he i s a s l a v e and n e a r l y i l l . say  - My d e a r e s t - I w i s h I c o u l d  "my most d e t e s t e d " , and then t h e r e would be n o t h i n g  w h i c h c o u l d c h a i n me t o t h i s s t u p i d p l a n e t and I c o u l d myself Nothing you  fling  down from i t h a p p i l y and j o y f u l l y i n t o e t e r n a l - my d e a r e s t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y !  as I d i d b e f o r e ,  "Get thee  I w i l l no l o n g e r  tell  t o a nunnery!", f o r I'm  mad enough t o b e l i e v e t h a t i f a man l o v e s , he i s something more than n o t h i n g  even though he i s s t i l l  towards d e a t h and d e a t h towards him u n t i l  r u s h i n g headlong the two f i n a l l y  -141-  m e e t and  e m b r a c e f i r m l y and  forever  the  s t o n e where S t .  Gustav d i e d ,  the  b e a u t i f u l Maria  bled,  I know f o r s u r e laughing  o r a t any  and  t h a t he  has  faces  so  that  t h e y can  f o r a moment.  s e i z e d the  mask a n d  death's head t h a t  lies  am  mask d i d n o t  hold  i t up  I too  flirting  human r a c e  exist,  propagation  m i g h t want t o see  so  that  our  amazement - f i n d i t a l t o g e t h e r But longer  l e t me  avoid  no  Lord,  by  finally  get  m a t t e r how  to the  the  with Devil, Oh,  sons of  law  else  hour, would to  his  man.  p o i n t w h i c h I can  I t r y - t o my  i f  earth  with a  or whoever  of  man  mis-  w i t h you.  depopulated  an  in front  tenderly  then the  the w o r l d ' s f i n a l  earth,  h a v e t o my  s u r e l y h a v e c i r c u m v e n t e d J u d g e m e n t Day  against  place.  c h i l d r e n of  b e h i n d i t and,  have a mind to p r o p a g a t e the accursed  See,  where  t h r o w n l o v e , as  mask, down u p o n i t f o r a l l t h e just  at  worse or b e t t e r  scornfully,  of t h e i r  would  scaffold  D e v i l hovers over the  over  the  the  the  to f i g h t  the  on  that  enchanting  fortune  - w h e t h e r i t be  no  d e c l a r a t i o n of  love! Since  my  birth,  o r more m i s a n t h r o p i c rage t h a t I love you, the  u r g e t o h a t e and  t h a n t o h e a r you  no  moment h a s  been madder, w i l d e r  t h a n t h i s moment when I w r i t e that loathe  confess  I w o r s h i p you, you,  I h a v e no  your love  for  me.  Your l o v i n g Hamlet.  and  that  greater  in a besides desire  -142-  Ophelia  t o Hamlet  My r o l e demands l o v e and h a t r e d , and f i n a l l y madness as w e l l - b u t t e l l me,  do any o f t h e s e r e a l l y e x i s t i n  t h e m s e l v e s so t h a t I m i g h t know and choose a c c o r d i n g l y ? Is there anything  i n i t s e l f o r i s i t a l l o n l y word  and b r e a t h and much f a n t a s y ?  - See, I c a n ' t f i n d my  way,  w h e t h e r I'm a dream - w h e t h e r i t i s o n l y i l l u s i o n o r t r u t h , and w h e t h e r t r u t h i s more t h a n dream - one o n i o n a r o u n d the o t h e r , and I'm  layer  o f t e n a t the p o i n t of l o s i n g  my  mind a b o u t i t . H e l p me myself.  s t u d y m y s e l f back i n t o my r o l e u n t i l I f i n d  Do I e x i s t a t a l l o u t s i d e my r o l e , o r i s e v e r y t h i n g  r o l e , and I m y s e l f n o t h i n g ?  The a n c i e n t s had t h e i r gods,  and t h e y c a l l e d one o f them Dream. strange a dream.  He must have  felt  i m a g i n i n g h i m s e l f r e a l t h o u g h he knew he was I sometimes t h i n k t h a t man  only  i s l i k e t h a t god.  I'd l i k e t o t a l k w i t h m y s e l f f o r a moment t o l e a r n w h e t h e r it  i s I who  l o v e s , o r w h e t h e r i t ' s t h e name O p h e l i a  does t h e l o v i n g .  See, I'm  that  t r y i n g t o c a t c h up t o m y s e l f ,  but I'm a l w a y s r u n n i n g ahead w h i l e my name t r a i l s  behind,  and now I'm back t o my r o l e a g a i n - b u t t h e r o l e i s n o t I.  I f you c a n l e a d me t o my s e l f , I ' l l a s k i t i f i t l o v e s  you. Ophelia.  -143-  Hamlet t o O p h e l i a . Don't t h i n k so much about these Ophelia,  f o r they a r e so c o n f u s i n g  l e a d t o the madhouse!  Everything  t h i n g s , my dear  t h a t they i s role,  could  easily  the r o l e  itself  and  the a c t o r who i s i n s i d e , and i n s i d e him h i s t h o u g h t s  and  schemes and joys and f o o l i s h pranks - e v e r y t h i n g  b e l o n g s t o the moment and f l e e s q u i c k l y l i k e  t h e word from  the l i p s  theatre,  of the a c t o r .  - Everything  i s only  whether the a c t o r p l a y s on the e a r t h i t s e l f higher  or two s t e p s  on t h e boards, or two s t e p s down i n t h e s o i l , where  the worms s n a t c h up the d e p a r t e d spring, winter,  king's  c u e - l i n e s , whether  summer o r autumn d e c o r a t e  the stage and  whether the d i r e c t o r hangs out a sun or a moon o r makes thunder and storms o f f - s t a g e - e v e r y t h i n g p a s s e s , i s extinguished  and changes - except f o r s p r i n g i n the h e a r t  o f man; and when the scenery only a strange, c o l o u r and l i f e , still  running You  the  handful  i t , without  and the s k e l e t o n g r i n s a t the o t h e r  actors  around. y o u r s e l f out o f your r o l e , down t o  - Behold, there  o f dust  stands  the s k e l e t o n , throws a  i n t o the a i r and c o l l a p s e s - and i n the  background t h e r e i s mocking l a u g h t e r . the u n i v e r s e ,  been removed, i t ' s  naked s k e l e t o n s t a n d i n g behind  want to study  self?  has f i n a l l y  I t ' s the ghost o f  or the D e v i l - or an echo o f n o t h i n g !  -144-  To be  or not  to be!  How  t h a t q u e s t i o n , p l a c i n g my  s t u p i d I was  f i n g e r to my  i n f i n i t e l y more s t u p i d a l l those who a f t e r me  and  when I asked  nose, and  repeated  p u z z l e d about the meaning behind  should've asked "to be"  about i t s own  days on the  stage,  I was  still  d o c t r i n e of i m m o r t a l i t y which I had and  I used to be a f r a i d  immortality if  - and  t h i s tedious  by a second one So, and if  my  o n l y out  to  will  justified  f o r g e t a l l you  propagate and  of revenge so t h a t our  t e a r the  be". the  As a m a t t e r  o f d e a t h because of  I would be  t h i s tedious l i f e  to  then  p i c k e d up a t u n i v e r s i t y ,  - I t h i n k i t doesn't mean  dear O p h e l i a ,  I  burdened w i t h  the  i n so  'comedie l a r m o y a n t e ' were to be  l e t us l o v e and  perpetuate who  by God,  phrase  i t all.  "not  I pursued i t t h r o u g h a l l i t s c a t e g o r i e s .  of f a c t ,  the  e x i s t e n c e , and  something might be fathomed l a t e r about the In those  how  doing  followed  anything. have been s a y i n g  commit every  foolishness -  seed w i l l h e l p  to  u n t i l an a c t o r f i n a l l y a r r i v e s  s c r i p t a p a r t and  fall  out  of h i s r o l e  stop t h i s s e n s e l e s s p l a y - a c t i n g f o r the b e n e f i t of a  non-existent Love me,  audience. i n o t h e r words, v/ithout f u r t h e r  brooding!  Hamlet.  Ophelia You  to Hamlet.  are a cue-word i n the r o l e I p l a y , and  I cannot  -145-  erase you any more than I can t e a r out the pages on which my l o v e f o r you i s w r i t t e n . out  o f my r o l e ,  e x i t , behind Then I ' l l besides  I'll  study  And s i n c e I can't  study  myself  on t o the end and the f i n a l  which the e s s e n t i a l s e l f w i l l be w a i t i n g .  perhaps be a b l e t o t e l l you i f t h e r e ' s  the r o l e ,  anything  i f my s e l f i s a l i v e , and i t i t l o v e s you. Ophelia.  T h i s exchange o f l e t t e r s was f o l l o w e d by an exchange of words, and f u r t h e r exchanges o f g l a n c e s and  such l i k e f i n a l l y  and k i s s e s  l e d t o an exchange o f our s e l v e s .  A few months l a t e r we had c r e a t e d the cue-word f o r a new r o l e . experienced  - I f e l t almost happy d u r i n g t h i s time and f o r the f i r s t  time a s o r t o f l o v e f o r man i n  the asylum, so t h a t I thought s e r i o u s l y about p l a n s f o r making P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c lunatics.  a r e a l i t y with  the h e l p o f f e l l o w  But then the Dream God c r o s s e d  out a l l my  plans. O p h e l i a became p a l e r and p a l e r and more and more r a t i o n a l , although increasing:  the d o c t o r  thought t h a t h e r madness was  t h i s was the o n l y time he had ever  talked  sense. I t was storming pressed  furiously  o u t s i d e the asylum - I  a g a i n s t the bars and s t a r e d i n t o the n i g h t - n o t h i n g  e l s e was v i s i b l e  i n heaven or e a r t h .  I t seemed as i f I  -146-  were s t a n d i n g on the b r i n k o f a v o i d c a l l i n g without had  into i t  making a sound - I grew s c a r e d , t h i n k i n g t h a t I  a c t u a l l y c r i e d out l o u d , but I o n l y h e a r d m y s e l f some-  where i n s i d e m y s e l f .  Lightning without  i t s accompaniment  o f t h u n d e r c u t a r r o w - s h a r p t h r o u g h the n i g h t , and w i t h i t a k i n d o f d a y l i g h t came and went r a p i d l y . me,  a madman r a t t l e d  h i s c h a i n s h o r r i b l y , and  s i d e , I could hear Ophelia but  On  one  s i d e of  on the  s i n g i n g fragments of her b a l l a d s ,  o f t e n her melodies turned  i n t o s i g h s , and  finally  e v e r y t h i n g seemed a g r e a t d i s h a r m o n y t o w h i c h the chains played I saw  the accompaniment.  myself alone  l a s t dim  now  except a great, t e r r i b l e  no  the  only a thought  Not  self;  I had  time,  stopped  a s i n g l e o b j e c t anywhere  I w h i c h f e d on i t s e l f and  to i t s e l f again.  darkly  the f i n a l t o l l i n g o f  I t h o u g h t my  thinking everything else.  died.  A s i n g l e note trembled  - i t was  e t e r n i t y began.  gave b i r t h  I f e l t as i f I- had  - b u t i t was  j u s t ended.  t h r o u g h the n o t h i n g n e s s and  rattling  i n nowhere; i n the f a r d i s t a n c e  l i g h t of e a r t h faded  o f mine w h i c h had  other  I d i d not  instantly  s i n k , f o r there  space t o s i n k i n t o , but n e i t h e r d i d I seem t o r i s e .  change had  disappeared  d r e a d f u l , endless m y s e l f - but  t o g e t h e r w i t h t i m e , g i v i n g way  boredom.  I r e m a i n e d and  Terrified, f e l t myself  Here the dream d e s t r o y e d n e s s and  I tried  All to  to a n n i h i l a t e  immortal.  i t s e l f t h r o u g h i t s own  I awokej s i g h i n g d e e p l y  was  - the l i g h t was  great-  gone,  and  -147-  n i g h t was everywhere; I heard O p h e l i a quietly, like lullabies. of my c e l l ,  my way a l o n g  the w a l l s  and o u t s i d e i n the darkness some l u n a t i c s  crept along beside  me, h i s s i n g  I opened O p h e l i a ' s bed,  I felt  singing her b a l l a d s  t r y i n g to l u l l  breast; a crazy g i r l  door.  softly. She was l y i n g p a l e  a still-born  child  stood beside  on h e r  to s l e e p a t h e r  her, her f i n g e r h e l d  to h e r l i p s as i f warning me t o s i l e n c e . "Now i t ' s s l e e p i n g , " s a i d O p h e l i a s m i l e was l i k e an open grave. t h i n g as d e a t h w i t h o u t She  s m i l i n g , and h e r  "Thank God t h e r e ' s  eternity," I said  such a  involuntarily.  kept on s m i l i n g and began t o w h i s p e r , as i f h e r  words were about t o melt i n t o vapour and v a n i s h i n t o s i l e n c e , " My r o l e i s f i n i s h e d , but my s e l f remains, and it's  only the r o l e which they bury.  Thank God t h a t I've  found my way out o f the p l a y and can c a s t away my assumed name; a f t e r the performance, the s e l f "The  self  i s nothing,"  I s a i d , shaking  Almost i n a u d i b l e , she c o n t i n u e d , behind fully  begins." my head.  "There i t stands  the scenes w a i t i n g f o r me; i f o n l y the c u r t a i n were down!  - I l o v e you!  That i s my l a s t  speech i n  the p l a y and the o n l y p a r t I ' l l t r y t o keep - i t was the best p a r t ! The and  L e t them bury the r e s t !  curtain f e l l ,  and O p h e l i a  e x i t e d - nobody applauded,  i t was as i f the t h e a t r e were empty.  She s l e p t  with  -USher  c h i l d a t h e r b r e a s t and b o t h were p a l e and one c o u l d  not hear any b r e a t h ,  f o r d e a t h had a l r e a d y put h i s white  mask upon them. I stood b e s i d e  the bed w i t h a storm g a t h e r i n g i n s i d e  me, and something b u r s t out of me i n t o the a i r , l i k e l a u g h t e r - I grew a f r a i d , l a u g h t e r , I wept the f i r s t one  wild  f o r i n s t e a d of the expected t e a r i n my l i f e .  Nearby, some-  e l s e was h o w l i n g - but i t was o n l y the storm w h i s t l i n g  t h r o u g h the madhouse. When I l o o k e d  up, I saw l u n a t i c s i n a s e m i - c i r c l e  around the bed, and a l t h o u g h  they remained s i l e n t ,  were g e s t i c u l a t i n g and miming i n s t r a n g e smiling, shaking and  ways; a few were  o t h e r s v/ere deep i n thought, w h i l e  o t h e r s were  t h e i r heads or woodenly w a t c h i n g the p a l e  the c h i l d .  sleeper  Number n i n e was among them, h o l d i n g h i s  f i n g e r to h i s l i p s I felt  they  i n a significant  gesture.  a shudder of f e a r i n t h e i r  circle!  -149-  v  Although  FIFTEENTH NIGHTWATCH  everyday  e x p e r i e n c e proves  that f o o l s are  t o l e r a t e d i n every walk o f l i f e ,  the a u t h o r i t i e s n e v e r t h e l e s s  r e s e n t e d my attempt  f o o l s , and as punishment  to propagate  t h e y threw me out o f the asylum. Alas, I f e l t  v e r y unhappy h a v i n g t o say f a r e w e l l t o  my b r o t h e r s and t o c o n s o r t w i t h the sane a g a i n ; and as the door  o f the asylum  c l a n g e d shut behind me, I s t o o d a l l by  m y s e l f and went s a d l y t o f i n d had  c a r r i e d Ophelia.  the g r a v e y a r d t o which they  I f o n l y I c o u l d have found  some  L a e r t e s t o f i g h t w i t h b e s i d e the grave, f o r when I l e f t the asylum, I took w i t h me an i n c r e a s e d h a t r e d f o r a l l the sane people w a l k i n g p a s t me on the s t r e e t w i t h t h e i r  dull,  vacant f a c e s . Both  the r i c h and the poor have one g r e a t advantage  over a l l o t h e r men i n t h a t they can i n d u l g e t h e i r urge t o t r a v e l as much as they p l e a s e .  The r i c h man u n l o c k s the  s p l e n d o u r s o f the e a r t h w i t h a g o l d e n key, w h i l e the pauper  -150-  has f r e e a d m i s s i o n to n a t u r e and can move i n t o the b e s t mansions i f he wants; today i n t o Aetna,  tomorrow i n t o  F i n g a l ' s cave; t h i s week i n t o Rousseau's summer p l a c e a t Lake Geneva and next week i n t o the m a r v e l l o u s halls  o f the F a l l s  rainbows  instead  crystal  o f the Rhine, where the sun weaves  of a painted c e i l i n g  over h i s head and  where n a t u r e r e - b u i l d s h i s p a l a c e by d e s t r o y i n g i t constantly. Show me the k i n g who can l i v e  i n g r e a t e r splendour  t h a n a pauper! Moreover, I t r a v e l l e d w i t h t h e advantage hounding  o f no-one  me to pay f o r my d r i n k s , and I had t o thank nobody  f o r my e v e n i n g supper f o r the e a r t h s t i l l  except o l d Mother Nature  herself;  kept a few r o o t s i n h e r l a p which she  d i d n o t deny me, and she o f f e r e d my t h i r s t y l i p s a f r e s h , b u b b l i n g d r i n k from h e r w a t e r - f a l l i n a d i s h c a r v e d out i n the r o c k . I. f e l t  - I was f r e e and happy and hated men, whenever  like  it,  f o r c r e e p i n g about  t h i s g r e a t sun temple  i n t h e i r p a l t r y and u s e l e s s ways. Once, I had j u s t got up from ray bed o f f r a g r a n t , f l o w e r i n g t u r f , and was l o o k i n g i n t o the dawn as i t r o s e like a spirit  out o f the sea w h i l e I was b i t i n g  of r o o t which I had dug up out o f the ground, combining  the p r a c t i c a l w i t h the p l e a s a n t .  characteristic  on a p i e c e  thus  It i sa  o f human g r e a t n e s s to be a b l e to i n d u l g e  -151-  i n secondary  b u s i n e s s i n the presence  o f awesome  events,  such as c o n f r o n t i n g the sun w i t h a p i p e i n one's mouth, or d i n i n g on macaroni d u r i n g a t r a g e d y , and so on; man has made e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r o g r e s s i n such As  matters.  I l a y t h e r e so c o m f o r t a b l y , my mood prompted me  t o s o l i l o q u i z e as f o l l o w s : "There's it  almost  n o t h i n g b e t t e r than l a u g h t e r , and I v a l u e  as much as o t h e r educated  though a t e a r i s e a s i l y brought  men p r a i s e weeping,  f o r t h s i m p l y by s t a r i n g  a t one s p o t , or by m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a d i n g a Kotzebue drama, or even by bouts emaciated rising  of laughter.  man shed p l e n t i f u l  D i d n ' t I r e c e n t l y see an t e a r s a t the s i g h t o f the  sun, w h i l e o t h e r s s t a n d i n g nearby p r a i s e d the t e a r s  as p r o o f o f a s e n s i t i v e s o u l u n t i l a t the c r y i n g man?  they too began to weep  I was the o n l y one t o a s k , "My  does the s i g h t r e a l l y move you so much?"  friend,  "Of course n o t ! "  he s a i d , " But a c c o r d i n g t o new o b s e r v a t i o n s , the r a y s o f the sun, b e s i d e s c a u s i n g sneezes  and t e a r s , a l s o  s e x u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n ; and I was i n I t a l y ! " the man, who was s t a r i n g i n t o the sun t h i n g more r e a l than f a n t a s t i c .  I understood  l o o k i n g f o r some-  As I t u r n e d away l a u g h i n g ,  the o t h e r s , s t i l l weeping, b e r a t e d me h a r s h l y . the c o n t r a s t , I laughed  affect  S t r u c k by  a l l the h a r d e r , and i f I hadn't  r u n , they would've stoned me out o f sheer s e n s i t i v i t y ! What c o u l d be a b e t t e r weapon than l a u g h t e r f o r  —  -152-  d e f y i n g the w o r l d ' s s c o r n and heavily-armed and  fate i t s e l f ?  enemy i s f r i g h t e n e d by  misfortune  t h i s e a r t h and  i t s sentimental  By  at a l l ,  Everything  s e n s i t i v e l y t h a t the D e v i l , the  i f the e a r t h has  arranged  so t h o r o u g h l y  end  once l o o k i n g i t over to pass  so t h a t mankind a c c e p t e d  and  L e t me  I shall  defiantly.  stood  beside  him.  I happen to need one you  "He's  my  h o l d i n g the puppet toward me.  trunk  feel like  until  the of  endure." ear, and when I  around, I found a wooden puppet s t a r i n g me i n s o l e n t l y and  with  have l a u g h t e r f o r the l e n g t h  "Hoho," somebody shouted i n my  man,  master  her w i l l i n g l y ,  the. mask dropped to mock the w o r l d  f a c e of s a t i r e . life  and  sent down L a u g h t e r , which managed to sneak i n  masked as Joy i n the  any  i s a t home here.  time, grew angry; to avenge h i m s e l f on the  b u i l d e r he  my  the D e v i l , what i s  i t ' s o n l y because l a u g h t e r  on t h i s p l a n e t was  s c a r e d , whenever  companion the moon good f o r  i f not f o r l a u g h i n g a t - i n d e e d , value  the s a t i r i c a l mask,  i t s e l f moves away from me,  I dare to mock i t w i t h l a u g h t e r !  Even the most  patron," A large  face  s a i d a huge travelling  "You'd make a t a l e n t e d clown,  f o r the  i t , j o i n me;  i n the  turned  one  the  I had  and  j u s t d i e d today.  job pays w e l l , so you  can  s t u f f y o u r s e l f w i t h b e t t e r t h i n g s than r o o t s . " During  this  so t r u s t i n g l y  conversation,  that I f e l t  the puppet l o o k e d  drawn to him  as  i f to a  at  me  friend.  If  -153-  "The  f e l l o w was c a r v e d  i n Venice,"  said  the p u p p e t - p l a y e r  as i f to encourage me - "and I b e t he does h i s job b e t t e r than any o t h e r . if  J u s t l o o k how he stands and s t r u t s as  h i s l e g s v/ere r e a l ;  see how he p u t s h i s hand to h i s  h e a r t , how he d r i n k s and e a t s when I p u l l how he l a u g h s is pulled  the s t r i n g s and  and c r i e s l i k e a normal human when the s t r i n g  lightly."  "All right,  I'll  a c c e p t your  the t r u n k on my s h o u l d e r s .  offer," I said, putting  As I c a r r i e d i t a l o n g , the  wooden s o c i e t y i n s i d e r a t t l e d as i f p e r f o r m i n g  a French  R e v o l u t i o n t o pass the time. A t the i n n , v/e found  the t h e a t r e ready and some  v i l l a g e r s w a i t i n g t o see the performance.  The d i r e c t o r  gave me a q u i c k l e s s o n on the t h e o r y of t r a g e d y and comedy, and  to amuse me he opened a s m a l l s i d e - d o o r where my  predecessor  was l y i n g i n the straw  dressed i n a  shroud,  w i t h h i s r o l e a l l f i n i s h e d ; h i s f a c e was c o n t o r t e d m a l i c i o u s l y , and the d i r e c t o r s a i d , " He d i e d because he was l a u g h i n g so hard he choked." "A b e a u t i f u l death," to d i r e c t  the troupe  I r e p l i e d , and we made p r e p a r a t i o n s  o f puppets.  My p a r t n e r ' s  specialty  was l o v e r s and m i s t r e s s e s , v/hom he p l a y e d i n a h i g h falsetto.  My major r o l e ,  but as a s i d e - l i n e  on the o t h e r hand, was the clown,  I a l s o had to l o o k a f t e r  When the c u r t a i n f e l l ,  the k i n g s .  the d i r e c t o r embraced me p a s s i o n a t e l y  -154-  and  insisted  I was  However, how a t h i n g we all  had  near  had  d e a r l y one  can pay  s e t up  our stage i n a l i t t l e On  u n s u c c e s s f u l debut and  had  i n which a k i n g makes an  i n which the b u f f o o n , i n the  liberty,  just  rattles  role  s k u l l s i n s t e a d of b e l l s .  the u n f o r t u n a t e i d e a of i n t r o d u c i n g Holof.ernes  the s t a g e , and  t h i s so enraged  the farmers who  t h a t they stormed the s t a g e , k i d n a p p i n g and  German v i l l a g e  the o t h e r s i d e , they were  e n a c t i n g the g r e a t tragi-comedy  We  was  this:  the F r e n c h b o r d e r .  of e q u a l i t y and  for directing  o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n even among puppets; i t  happened l i k e We  a c r e d i t to the p r o f e s s i o n .  on  were p r e s e n t  our puppet J u d i t h  d r a g g i n g her t o g e t h e r w i t h H o l o f e r n e s ' s e v e r e d wooden  head to the house of the mayor, v/here they demanded no l e s s than the l a t t e r ' s  own  head.  The  head thus  threatened  grew v e r y p a l e as the r e b e l s c o n f r o n t e d him w i t h b l o o d y wooden one,  and  the  s i n c e the s i t u a t i o n seemed to be  becoming worse and worse, I d e c i d e d t o change t h i n g s f o r the b e t t e r . a r o c k , and  I s e i z e d the head of H o l o f e r n e s , i n my  fright  tried  to put t o g e t h e r  jumped  onto  this  speech: "Dear Countrymen. Look a t t h i s b l e e d i n g v/ooden head of a k i n g t h a t h o l d i n g up f o r a l l of you sitting  to see.  on i t s neck, i t was  When i t was  still  c o n t r o l l e d by s t r i n g s ,  and  I'm  -155-  the to  s t r i n g i n t u r n was  c o n t r o l l e d by my hand and so on  i n f i n i t y , where the s e a t of c o n t r o l remains a mystery.  T h i s i s the head  o f a k i n g , but I who  t h a t i t nodded or shook l i k e average w r e t c h o f l i t t l e  this,  p u l l e d the s t r i n g s so  or l i k e  t h a t , I am  importance to the s t a t e .  an  How  can you then be angry a t t h i s H o l o f e r n e s when he nods and shakes as I p l e a s e ? countrymen!  - Y e t somehow your anger a t t h i s head  been t r a n s f e r r e d that u n j u s t i f i e d . my  - I t h i n k my words make sense,  to the head - L e t me  of your mayor - and I f i n d e x p l a i n m y s e l f more  H o l o f e r n e s doesn't p l a y to your l i k i n g ;  m i s e r a b l e w r e t c h , on the hands, w i r e s which I p u l l , might  has  clearly:  so s l a p me,  a  so t h a t my m i n i s t e r s , the  change d i r e c t i o n u n t i l  head w i l l nod or shake more g r a c e f u l l y ,  or more  the intelligently.  What has t h i s poor head done to you t h a t you t r e a t i t so; it  i s the most m e c h a n i c a l t h i n g i n the w o r l d and doesn't  c o n t a i n one  s i n g l e thought.  Don't  l i b e r t y - i t doesn't have any!  ask t h i s head f o r  - Moreover, what you  freedom i s a dubious t h i n g a t b e s t ; the puppet p l a y saw of  today i n which the wooden k i n g was  so e a s i l y  call you  deprived  h i s head i s n o t h i n g - I have o t h e r s even more f u l l  e r r o r s i n my  t r u n k , i n which the a u t h o r was  his  m a t e r i a l so t h a t l i k e  the  republic  of  not e q u a l to  the p o e t s of p o l i t i c s he made  of which he was  w r i t i n g into a tyranny.  c o u l d p l a y such t h i n g s f o r you!  - However, u n n a t u r a l  I  -156-  punishment,  such as c u t t i n g o f f a b r a i n l e s s head, i s a l -  ways u n j u s t i f i e d ,  f o r t h i s wooden head here i s o n l y  to l o o k a t , and f o r t u n a t e l y I know how i t s neck a g a i n , which lot  of other cases.  r e a l head  something  to put i t back on  c o u l d n ' t be done s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a And  God  h e l p my  poor puppets  if a  ever got the n o t i o n to s u b s t i t u t e f o r the wooden  one here i n my  hand, to nod and shake and break the  s t r i n g - t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y make a s e r i o u s t r a g e d y of a comedy.  - I t h i n k I've s a i d  On the whole, man  enough, dear  countrymen!"  i s an h o n e s t , simple c r e a t u r e  whenever he i s not s u f f e r i n g from f i x e d i d e a s , and  he  e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e s h i m s e l f to c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ; y e s ,  I'm  sure i f today he broke some t h i n snare t h a t t i e d him down, he would l e t h i m s e l f be thrown i n t o c h a i n s tomorrow w i t h the same enthusiasm.  Anybody l o o k i n g on from above must  have p i t y f o r such a r a c e .  So, my  farmers abandoned  their  r e v o l u t i o n g o o d - n a t u r e d l y and f e t e d t h e i r mayor i n s t e a d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the h a p p i n e s s of the l i v e a c t o r s  brought  b i t t e r m i s e r y upon the wooden ones. I t happened t h a t d u r i n g the next n i g h t we  directors  were roused by a s t e a d y n o i s e coming from the d i r e c t i o n of the t h e a t r e ; a t f i r s t ,  we  blamed i t on the a c t o r s !  jealousy  o f each o t h e r or on an i n t r i g u e among the t r o u p e , but when we  i n v e s t i g a t e d , we  found the mayor, whose head  I had  put back on h i s s h o u l d e r s , c l u t c h i n g our H o l o f e r n e s ,  just  -157-  accompanied by c o u r t - c l e r k s who proceeded  to a r r e s t  our whole c a s t i n the name o f the law, e x p l a i n i n g t h a t our p l a y e r s were p o l i t i c a l l y dangerous. in  A l l my arguments were  v a i n and b e f o r e my v e r y eyes they p u l l e d s e v e r a l k i n g s  and gentlemen,  such as Solomon, Herod, D a v i d and A l e x a n d e r  from the t r u n k i n o r d e r t o d r a g them away. the s t a t e t r e a t s i t s own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s !  T h i s i s how - My clown was  the l a s t one t o go; I n e a r l y stooped t o begging him - b u t I was t o l d t h a t a s t r i c t bade a l l s a t i r e  t o save  c e n s o r s h i p decree  for-  i n the s t a t e w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n and t h a t  measures had been taken t o c o n f i s c a t e t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s a t i r e w h i l e i t was s t i l l was  l o d g e d i n the head.  a l l o w e d t o h o l d the puppet  Finally, I  f o r a f l e e t i n g moment, and  I took him behind one o f the wings and here i n the s o l i t u d e I f u r t i v e l y p r e s s e d h i s wooden mouth t o mine and wept a second  t e a r , f o r b e s i d e s O p h e l i a , he was the o n l y c r e a t u r e  on e a r t h I had t r u l y l o v e d .  My p a r t n e r stumbled  the next day l i k e a man i n a dream and toward  through  evening  they  found him d a n g l i n g from a stage c l o u d , too ashamed t o c a n c e l the tragi-comedy And  which he had announced.  so, t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g o f my l i f e  ended s a d l y  l i k e a l l t h e o t h e r s , and v/orn out by the t r i a l s tried  s e r i o u s l y to f i n d a s t e a d y job i n s o c i e t y .  of l i f e ,  I  There i s  n o t h i n g b e t t e r on e a r t h than b e i n g needed and e n j o y i n g a s a f e income; - man i s n o t o n l y a wanderer, but a l s o a  -158-  citizen.  -  B l e s s e d i s the man who has c o n n e c t i o n s - I was a b l e to  o b t a i n an audience w i t h the m i n i s t e r ' s s e r v a n t , who  happened t o be i n a good mood and recommended me t o h i s master.  I was pushed  state u n t i l to the  I r e a c h e d the top rung, where I threw  the ground job.  i n which  h i g h e r and h i g h e r up the l a d d e r o f myself  and was m e r c i f u l l y g i v e n hopes o f o b t a i n i n g  I s u b m i t t e d t o and passed a thorough I had t o demonstrate  examination  t h a t I had b o t h a q u i e t  v o i c e , so as not t o wake the monarch when he was a s l e e p , and an educated and sonorous musical s e n s i b i l i t i e s  one, so as not t o o f f e n d h i s  on s l e e p l e s s n i g h t s , and a f t e r  study had been h i g h l y recommended  to me,  ness o f s e e i n g m y s e l f h i r e d as watchman.  further  I had the h a p p i -  -159-  SIXTEENTH  NIGHTWATCH  I w i s h I c o u l d p a i n t t h i s f i n a l e and H o g a r t h i a n tail-piece  t o my n i g h t w a t c h e s c l e a r l y b e f o r e everybody's  eyes; but s a d l y enough I'm l a c k i n g t h e c o l o u r s o f the day here i n t h e n i g h t , and so I can p r o j e c t o n l y shadows and d i s s o l v i n g p i c t u r e s t h r o u g h the l e n s o f my magic  lantern.  Whenever I f e e l i n the mood t o group k i n g s and paupers t o g e t h e r i n a happy b r o t h e r l y s o c i e t y , I wander around the c h u r c h y a r d over t h e i r graves and imagine them l y i n g p e a c e f u l l y down t h e r e i n the ground b e s i d e each o t h e r , i n an environment  o f t h e g r e a t e s t freedom and e q u a l i t y , where  o n l y i n t h e i r s l e e p t o they have s a t i r i c a l dreams and g r i n m a l i c i o u s l y from t h e i r h o l l o w eye s o c k e t s .  Down t h e r e  they a r e a l l b r o t h e r s , and above them on t h e t u r f t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be seen except perhaps a moss-covered  stone  on which the o l d , b a t t e r e d coat-of-arms o f some n o b l e a r e i n s c r i b e d , w h i l e the beggar's grave has perhaps a w i l d f l o w e r or a n e t t l e as i t s s o l e ornament. -  -160-  So t o n i g h t I v i s i t e d  t h i s f a v o u r i t e s p o t o f mine  a g a i n , t h i s suburban t h e a t r e where Death i s the and  d i r e c t s mad  p o e t i c b u r l e s q u e s as s e q u e l s to the p r o s a i c  dramas performed n i g h t was  producer  a t c o u r t and  o p p r e s s i v e and  on the w o r l d  s u l t r y , and  stage.  The  the moon peered  f u r t i v e l y a t the graves w h i l e b l u e s t r e a k s of l i g h t n i n g f l a s h e d a c r o s s h i s f a c e now There was was  God  and  and  a poet t h e r e who  eternal l i f e  then. thought  dead l i f e  merely  f o r a w h i l e ; j u s t as a r o t t i n g t r e e seems t o  I had  come t o a s t o p a t the  grave-stone  symbols  from  Cabbala. The  to  into  an a l c h e m i s t ; a s t r o n g , o l d head l o o k e d out of the  c a r v e d stone i n s c r i b e d w i t h u n i n t e l l i g i b l e the  crumbles  Unconsciously,  of  a mocking  d e l u d i n g l i g h t which f o l l o w e d the  glow f o r a w h i l e a t n i g h t , u n t i l i t f i n a l l y dust.  lightning  i l l u m i n a t i n g the graves - I ,  however, took i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t i t was reflection, a dull,  t h a t the  poet wandered among the graves f o r a w h i l e  talking  s k u l l s s c a t t e r e d on the ground, t o s e t h i m s e l f on  as he  said;  I became bored  and  fire,  f e l l a s l e e p a t the grave  -  stone. And  i n my  s l e e p I heard a storm r i s i n g , and  wanted to put the thunder  i n t o music and  words, but the n o t e s would not be  the  the music  o r g a n i s e d , and  poet  into  the words  -161-  seemed t o explode and f l y i n t o fragmented  syllables.  Sweat r a n from the p o e t ' s brow because he c o u l d n o t make any sense out o f h i s n a t u r e poem - so f a r the f o o l had tried  composing  o n l y on paper.  The dream became more i n v o l v e d .  U s i n g a s k u l l as a  desk, the poet once more s e i z e d h i s pen and s t a r t e d to w r i t e - he a c t u a l l y began,  and soon I saw h i s t i t l e  completed: A Poem on I m m o r t a l i t y . The s k u l l began t o l e e r beneath the paper, but the poet was u n t r o u b l e d as he wrote h i s i n v o c a t i o n , on i m a g i n a t i o n t o d i c t a t e t o him. some p o r t r a i t  calling  Then he began a g r u e -  of d e a t h i n o r d e r to g l o r i f y  immortality  the more i n the end, l i k e a s u n - r i s e a f t e r d a r k e s t He was t o t a l l y  lost  night.  i n h i s f a n t a s i e s and d i d n o t n o t i c e  t h a t a l l the graves around him  had opened  and t h a t  their  s l e e p e r s were s m i l i n g m a l e v o l e n t l y , but w i t h o u t moving. Nov; he had r e a c h e d the t u r n i n g p o i n t o f h i s poem and began to sound  trumpets and p r e p a r e f o r Judgement Day.  j u s t about to r e s u r r e c t visible  He was  the dead when suddenly some i n -  t h i n g seemed to s t o p h i s hand.  He l o o k e d up  amazed - and down i n t h e i r death-chambers s l e p t and s m i l e d , and none would wake. up h i s pen a g a i n and c a l l e d  the dead  He q u i c k l y  still picked  l o u d e r , g i v i n g v o i c e to  thunder and trumpets - i n v a i n , the dead merely shook  their  -162-  heads i l l - h u m o u r e d l y , more soundly,  turned  over on t h e i r  s i d e s to s l e e p  and showed him the naked backs of t h e i r  heads. "What, i s t h e r e no God then!" and  the echo threw back the word  stood  dumbfounded  and chewed  he c r i e d  "God" l o u d and c l e a r .  on h i s pen s t u p i d l y .  D e v i l c r e a t e d the echo!" he s a i d f i n a l l y , " to  out d i s t r a u g h t , He  "The  I t ' s impossible  t e l l whether the sound i s an echo or whether someone i s  a c t u a l l y t a l k i n g back." He t r i e d finally behind  once more, but no words came to the page;  t i r e d and almost calmed down he put h i s pen back h i s ear and s a i d d u l l y , " I m m o r t a l i t y  is  stubborn,  p u b l i s h e r s pay by the page, and r o y a l t i e s a r e s m a l l days; w r i t i n g t h i s to  dramas a g a i n ! "  these  s t u f f i s u n p r o f i t a b l e - so I ' l l go back -  With these words, I woke up and found t h a t the dream and  the poet had v a n i s h e d  Gypsy woman was  together.  s i t t i n g by my  s t u d y i n g my f a c e i n t e n t l y .  Instead,  a brown  s i d e , and she seemed to be  Her g i g a n t i c frame and her  dark f a c e whose v i v i d f e a t u r e s seemed to have been w r i t t e n down by an u n u s u a l and s i n g u l a r way f r i g h t e n e d me  to d e a t h .  said mysteriously,  "Give  of l i f e  nearly  me your hand, s t r a n g e r , "  she  and I s t r e t c h e d i t toward her i n -  voluntarily. The s t r o n g e r and s u r e r a man  i s of h i m s e l f ,  the more  -163-  he w i l l d e r i d e every mystery and m a r v e l , from t h e Masonic Order t o the s e c r e t s o f a n o t h e r w o r l d . for  the f i r s t  But today I trembled  time i n my l i f e because a s i f she were  r e a d i n g out o f a book, the woman r e a d my complete  early  h i s t o r y from my hand a s f a r as the p a r t where I was l i f t e d from the ground as a t r e a s u r e . Then she added," You s h a l l  (See the f o u r t h  a l s o see your f a t h e r ,  t u r n around, he i s s t a n d i n g b e h i n d you!" q u i c k l y - and the solemn, s t a r i n g a t me.  nightwatch.)  stone head  stranger;  - I t u r n e d around  of the a l c h e m i s t was  She r e s t e d h e r hand on the s t o n e , s m i l i n g  o d d l y , " That's him^ and I'm your mother." What a mad, t o u c h i n g f a m i l y r e u n i o n - the brown Gypsy mother and the stone a l c h e m i s t who was s t i c k i n g h a l f out of  the ground as i f he were t r y i n g t o c l a s p h i s son t o h i s  cold breast.  To round o f f the f a m i l y t a b l e a u , I embraced  b o t h o f them, and as I s a t down between them, the woman chanted l i k e a b a l l a d e e r , " I t was C h r i s t m a s Eve, and your f a t h e r wanted t o c o n j u r e up the D e v i l . from a book by the l i g h t  He r e a d passages  of three u n s a n c t i f i e d  candles -  something began t o s t i r u n d e r n e a t h the ground, as i f the e a r t h were making waves, and the l i g h t stopped  turned blue.  j u s t b e f o r e the p a r t where heaven  i s d e n i e d and  h e l l p l e d g e d , and l o o k e d a t each o t h e r s i l e n t l y . it's  We  "Well,  o n l y f o r f u n , " your f a t h e r s a i d then and we r e a d the  passage  out l o u d l y - something began t o l a u g h  stealthily  -164-  somewhere between the two o f u s , and we laughed t o o , so as not t o s t a n d t h e r e s t u p i d l y .  Now something began t o move  around us i n the n i g h t and we n o t i c e d we weren't  alone.  I p r e s s e d c l o s e r t o your f a t h e r i n the middle o f the r i n g we had drawn around u s , and as we a c c i d e n t a l l y touched t h e s i g n o f the e a r t h s p i r i t , we were suddenly i n h e a t .  The  D e v i l came when our eyes were h a l f - c l o s e d - t h e v e r y moment we c r e a t e d you...we h a r d l y saw him.  He was i n a f i n e mood  and wanted t o be your g o d f a t h e r ; he seemed a p l e a s a n t man i n the prime o f l i f e , resemblance  and I'm r e a l l y  s u r p r i s e d a t your  t o him, except you're more s a t u r n i n e , a h a b i t  you s h o u l d break.  When you v/ere born, I f e l t  enough  c o n s c i e n c e t o have you p u t i n t o C h r i s t i a n hands, and I p l a y e d you i n t o the hands o f t h a t t r e a s u r e - h u n t e r who brought you up.  And now you know your f a m i l y  background,  stranger." What an i l l u m i n a t i o n t h i s speech was f o r me o n l y a p s y c h o l o g i s t can imagine: I had been g i v e n the key t o my s e l f and I was a b l e t o open f o r t h e f i r s t  time w i t h awe  and s e c r e t t r e m b l i n g t h e l o n g - c l o s e d door - and t h e r e i t l o o k e d l i k e B l u e b e a r d ' s s e c r e t room, and i t would've t h r o t t l e d me had I dared t o be l e s s f r i g h t e n e d . a dangerous  I t was  p s y c h o l o g i c a l key!  I'd l i k e  t o l i e down b e f o r e a group o f s k i l l e d  p s y c h o l o g i s t s f o r d i s s e c t i o n and anatomy t o see whether  -16 5-  they  c o u l d d e t e c t i n me  by which, i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  what I c o u l d now I imply no  i n f a c t read  o f f e n s e to a s c i e n c e  which I admire the more h i g h l y because i t does not to  waste time and  -  bother  energy on such a h y p o t h e t i c a l o b j e c t  as  the s o u l . I must've spoken some of these r e f l e c t i o n s out for  the Gypsy s a i d l i k e an o r a c l e , " I t ' s n o b l e r  to hate  the w o r l d  than to l o v e i t ; whoever l o v e s , needs.  who  is self-sufficient  hates  hatred inside  and  needs n o t h i n g  r e c o g n i z e d her as t r u l y b e l o n g i n g  old  But  he  except  the  him."  These words were the motto of her l i f e ,  some s i l e n c e ,  loud,  she  to my  said mysteriously,"  codger a g a i n and watch him  perform  and  family.  I'd l i k e  I  finally  After to see  his last  the  chemical  experiments on h i m s e l f ; he's  been underground f o r so  long  c o u l d t h e r e be a n y t h i n g  of him?  look!  - A f t e r these words, she the c h a r n e l - h o u s e , and  s k u l l s and a  bones to shovel,  mysteriously,,  s t r a n g e work, f o r t h e r e  among the graves  nearby, w a l k i n g  c i r c l e s as i f t r y i n g to dodge some i n v i s i b l e  b l o c k i n g h i s way. he  the ground  her a l o n e a t her  someone s t u m b l i n g and  c r e p t over  - L e t ' s have a  came back w i t h a p i c k and  began to d i g up  I left  left  At times  he  t u r n e d away f r i g h t e n e d and  i n loop  figure  seemed to s m i l e , but t r e m b l i n g and  was  often  s h i e d away a  -166-  few  steps, u n t i l  something would f o r c e him to f l e e a g a i n  i n yet another d i r e c t i o n . my  As I approached,  hand, gave a s i g h of r e l i e f , and  a l i v i n g person! I thought he was happen.  Help me mad  he  grasped  s a i d , " Thank  God,  get to t h a t grave over t h e r e . "  and went w i t h him t o see what would  Sometimes, when I brushed  too c l o s e to a grave,  he would push me a s i d e so t h a t I wouldn't  t o u c h the a i r  above i t , but f i n a l l y he seemed to g a t h e r courage  and  caught h i s b r e a t h f o r a w h i l e between t h r e e l a r g e monuments, t o p p l e d columns w i t h t a b l e t s b e a r i n g the names of dead princes. "We  can r e s t a w h i l e , " he s a i d ,  "There i s n o t h i n g  above the ground here except s t o n e s and monuments, and underground the  t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y o n l y a h a n d f u l of dust b e s i d e  crowns and  s c e p t r e s ; such grand gentlemen  q u i c k l y , f o r they f e a s t and  r o t away  eat too much d u r i n g t h e i r  l i f e t i m e s and absorb a l a r g e amount o f e a r t h matter v e r y early." I l o o k e d a t him must t h i n k I'm h e r e , f o r I was  mad,  s u r p r i s e d , and he c o n t i n u e d , " You but you're wrong!  I don't l i k e  born w i t h some k i n d of s i x t h sense,  d e s p i t e m y s e l f I can see the dead  coming and  i n t h e i r graves more or  l e s s c l e a r l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r degree  of d e c o m p o s i t i o n .  As l o n g a s - t h e deceased down t h e r e i s s t i l l whole, I can see h i s form above the grave, and  o n l y as the body c o r r u p t s  -167-  does the f o r m a l s o d i s s o l v e i n t o shadow and v a p o u r , it  until  f i n a l l y e v a p o r a t e s c o m p l e t e l y when t h e g r a v e i s empty.  The whole e a r t h , o f c o u r s e , i s one g i a n t g r a v e y a r d , b u t t h e f i g u r e s of t h e decayed  assume a f r i e n d l i e r  aspect  t h a n when t h e y were a l i v e , and t u r n i n t o p r e t t y But h e r e i n t h e cemetery, t h e y keep l o o k i n g a t me,  flowers.  t h e y a r e s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e and so I grow a f r a i d .  have come h e r e i f i t w e r e n ' t  f o r my  I v/ould n e v e r  rendez-vous."  "Your s w e e t h e a r t c o u l d s u r e l y have p i c k e d a b e t t e r p l a c e t h a n t h i s , " I s a i d , a n g r y a t h i s unknown b e l o v e d , as he c e a s e d t a l k i n g f o r a moment. "She lives  d o e s n ' t have any c h o i c e , " he s a i d .  -  "She  here!" Now  i t dawned on me,  and I u n d e r s t o o d him when he  p o i n t e d t o a d i s t a n t grave.,  -"She  l i v e s down t h e r e - she  d i e d i n f u l l f l o w e r , and t h i s i s the o n l y wedding-chamber I'll  e v e r see h e r i n .  She's s m i l i n g a t me  f r o m the d i s t a n c e ,  and I've got t o h u r r y ; l a t e l y h e r f o r m has begun t o grow h a z y , and o n l y t h e s m i l e on h e r l i p s i s s t i l l  clearly  visible." "An uncommon l o v e a f f a i r , t o say the l e a s t , " I added. "And  by the way,  e a r t h t h a n a man As we of  t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g more t e d i o u s on  this  i n love."  c o n t i n u e d . o u r c o u r s e , he drew a few  the t e n a n t s l a y i n g a l o n g the way.  sketches  "Over t h e r e i s a  -168-  c o u r t f o o l who has kept and  the s a t i r e  i n good shape, i n c l u d i n g the s c o r n  i n h i s smile.  - Here a poet i s w a i t i n g f o r  the day when a l l the dead w i l l r i s e a g a i n , hut he h i m s e l f i s almost  f i n i s h e d now because I can see o n l y t h i n vapour  and have t o s t r a i n my i m a g i n a t i o n t o make any sense him.  out o f  Here's a mother w i t h a c h i l d a t h e r b r e a s t , and t h e y ' r e  both s m i l i n g ! grave!)  - ( T h i s shook me, because i t was O p h e l i a ' s  - Here l i e a p o l i t i c i a n and a banker t o g e t h e r ,  but t h e y ' r e b o t h i n v e r y bad shape. must b e l o n g to a n o t o r i o u s m i s e r ; n e a r l y v a n i s h e d , he i s s t i l l We had reached  - The grave  over  a l t h o u g h h i s hand has  c l u t c h i n g the edge o f h i s shroud."  the l o v e r ' s grave and he asked  l e a v e him a l o n e ; from  there  me t o  the d i s t a n c e I c o u l d see him embrace  the a i r and p l a n t ' p a s s i o n a t e k i s s e s - i t was an odd r e n d e z vous i n d e e d !  -  Meanwhile, the Gypsy had opened my f a t h e r ' s grave, and  the decayed c o f f i n emerged.  The m o o n l i g h t ,  curious,  s l i p p e d down a l o n g h a l f - f a d e d emblems and d e c o r a t i o n s , and  the c r o s s on the l i d gleamed b r i g h t and w h i t e .  nervous as I w i t n e s s e d  the grey p a s t p r o j e c t i n g  i n t o the p r e s e n t , and as my f a t h e r ' s l a s t r o c k e d him t o s l e e p r o s e up. lid,  and t o g i v e m y s e l f  I felt  itself  c r a d l e which had  I h e s i t a t e d t o remove the  courage I p i c k e d up a worm  w r i g g l i n g out o f the ground b e s i d e the c o f f i n and a d d r e s s e d it  thus:  -169-  "Except f o r the f a v o u r i t e s o f k i n g s and n o b l e s , is  o n l y one o t h e r breed which enjoys l i v i n g  there  o f f the f l e s h  of h i s majesty; and you're one o f them, worm!  The k i n g  f e e d s on the marrow of h i s c o u n t r y , and i n t u r n you f e e d on him, and thus the k i n g i s soon brought back i n t o t h e lap,  or a t l e a s t  i n t o the b e l l i e s ,  of h i s l o y a l  subjects  a f t e r a journey t h r o u g h t h r e e or f o u r d i f f e r e n t as Hamlet has a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out.  s  stomachs,  On how many k i n g l y  and n o b l e b r a i n s have you s t u f f e d y o u r s e l f , you f a t p a r a s i t to r e a c h t h i s s t a t e o f w e l l - b e i n g and c o r p u l e n c e ?  The  i d e a l s o f how many p h i l o s o p h e r s have you r e d u c e d t o your brand o f r e a l i s m .  You're an i r r e f u t a b l e argument  pragmatic a p p l i c a t i o n of a l l o f f the wisdom o f many heads.  f o r the  i d e a l s , f o r you've grown f a t You h o l d n o t h i n g  sacred,  n e i t h e r beauty n o r u g l i n e s s , n e i t h e r v i r t u e n o r v i c e ; you'r like  Laocoon's snake, wrapping y o u r s e l f around e v e r y t h i n g ,  and you prove your i n t e n s i v e s u p e r i o r i t y over the whole o f mankind. enchantment  What happened or f l a s h e d  t o the eye which once  commands?  You squat a l o n e  smiled inside  the empty s o c k e t and g l a n c e i n s o l e n t l y about you, you satirist,  and the head which perhaps h a t c h e d the schemes  of a Caesar or an A l e x a n d e r i s t u r n e d i n t o a home, or a s t y , f o r you.  What i s t h i s p a l a c e now which e n c l o s e s a  whole w o r l d and a heaven i n i t s e l f ;  this fairy  castle i n  which l o v e and magic dance; t h i s microcosm i n which  -170-  e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s g r e a t and is  d r e a d f u l and  noble,  awe-inspiring  lies  and  everything  together  that  i n the same  germ, t h i s microcosm which gave b i r t h to temples and inquisitions  and  head of man! if  devils;  this culmination  - I t ' s the home of a worm.  i t s thoughts are n o t h i n g ,  of c r e a t i o n What i s the  i f e v e r y t h i n g i s but a  illusion!  What i s the use  s p r i n g and  of f l o w e r s , i f the dreams fade  of the  the  world  fleeting  of e a r t h ' s dreams, the use i n s i d e the  of house  grave, i f here i n the f i n a l Pantheon, a l l gods must  stumble from t h e i r p e d e s t a l s u n t i l worms and possession. of the  Oh,  spirit  threads all  gods,  don't t a l k  - here l i e s  to me  about the  w i t h them the w o r l d  take  separate  i t s r u i n e d f a c t o r y , and  which once used to weave the net  t o r n , and  decay  life  the  thousand  of the v/orld a r e  itself.  Even the  old-timer  here i n h i s bedroom w i l l have thrown o f f h i s costume, and m a l i c i o u s w r e t c h i n my  hand p r o b a b l y  campaign which i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n my Whatever the  case,  came from the  this  clean-up  f a t h e r ' s l a s t house.  I ' l l f a c e the v o i d and  j o i n him  in  my  mind so t h a t I won't f e e l a s i n g l e t r a c e of humanity when at  l a s t I too must go!" Nov/ I had  the  -  courage I needed to l i f t  although  I f e l t my  nothing,  l i k e a l l the r e s t .  How to be  strange  anger and  - as the  empty opened, he was  the l i d ,  rage were p a r t of a  great  -  s i l e n t chamber which I expected still  lying intact  on h i s p i l l o w ,  -171-  his  f a c e solemn and p a l e , h i s h a i r b l a c k and t o u s l e d  brow and temple; which was rarity,  i t was  still  the form modelled a f t e r  s t o r e d here i n death's underground  and  around life  museum as a  the o l d m a g i c i a n seemed to d e f y n o t h i n g n e s s .  "That's e x a c t l y what he l o o k e d l i k e when he c o n j u r e d up the D e v i l , " the Gypsy s a i d , " Only they f o l d e d h i s hands a f t e r he d i e d so t h a t he's f o r c e d to p r a y a g a i n s t h i s w i l l ! " - And why  s h o u l d he be p r a y i n g ? " I asked a n g r i l y .  above us, innumerable of  s t a r s s p a r k l e and f l o a t  "Up  i n the sea  heaven, but i f they a r e w o r l d s , as many c l e v e r heads  insist,  t h e r e are a l s o s k u l l s and worms upon them, l i k e  down h e r e ; and  so i t c o n t i n u e s through the whole of i n f i n i t y ,  and  the B a s e l Death Dance merely becomes f u n n i e r and w i l d e r  and  the dance h a l l l a r g e r .  around  on top of graves and  - Oh,  how  a l l of them who  on top of the t h o u s a n d - f o l d ,  p i l e d - u p l a v a of p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s - how for  run  they a l l whimper  l o v e and f o r a n o b l e h e a r t above the c l o u d s a g a i n s t  w h i c h they c o u l d n e s t l e w i t h a l l t h e i r w o r l d s !  Whimper  no more - these myriad w o r l d s h u r t l e through the heavens o n l y through the g i a n t s t r e n g t h of n a t u r e , and t h i s ful  b i r t h - m a c h i n e which gave b i r t h to i t s e l f and  t h i n g e l s e has no h e a r t of i t s own,  but merely  dread-  to e v e r y -  forms  little  h e a r t s f o r amusement and d i s t r i b u t e s them among us - go ahead and own  c l i n g to them, and  l o v e and  coo as l o n g as  h e a r t s don't break! - I r e f u s e to l o v e and w i l l  your remain  -172-  c o l d and unmoved so t h a t perhaps I can l a u g h about i t a l l when the g i a n t hand e v e n t u a l l y crushes me! "The  o l d magician  -  seems t o be l a u g h i n g a t me.  your w o r l d a b e t t e r one,  c o n j u r e r of the D e v i l ?  got a new,  more m a g n i f i c e n t Pantheon than t h i s  empty one,  a new  noble  one  gods can r e a l l y  that reaches  praised.  i n so t h a t he w i l l no  infinite  space  l o n g e r have t o choke and  hate,  f r e e l y i n t o the sky on open, s h i n i n g wings.  i d e a almost  i n s p i r e s me!  - But not a l l of them s h o u l d - What do a l l the pygmies  c r i p p l e s want i n t h i s g r e a t , m a r v e l l o u s Pantheon, i n  which o n l y beauty afraid how  and  I f you have, then l e t i t be  be r e s u r r e c t e d ; not a l l of them! and  crushed  smashing t h e i r heads  f i n a l l y reach h i s necessary  but can r i s e The  you  I t might even be worth the t r o u b l e to watch some  great s p i r i t to l i v e  Have  i n t o the c l o u d s , where  s t a n d up w i t h o u t  a g a i n s t the low c e i l i n g .  Is  s h o u l d t h r o n e , and  of such a crowd o f t e n enough down here  c o u l d one  allowed  share heaven w i t h them!  to r i s e  from your  slumber,  who  appear crowned throughout  you  inspired  and worship fully  the gods!  and  s i n g e r s who it!  The  you  Oh^  one i s  on e a r t h , and  - Only you  should  be  g r e a t , k i n g l y heads  the h i s t o r y of the w o r l d ,  speak e n r a p t u r e d  of the  o t h e r s can s l e e p q u i e t l y and  and  sublime peace-  have p l e a s a n t dreams, f o r a l l I c a r e .  "I wouldn't mind w a l k i n g o l d a l c h e m i s t , but don't  the r o a d t o g e t h e r w i t h  p l e a d w i t h heaven f o r me  -  you, don't  -173-  beg - r a t h e r take i t by storm i f you have the s t r e n g t h . A f a l l i n g T i t a n i s worth more than an e a r t h f u l l c r i t e s a t t e m p t i n g to sneak i n t o the Pantheon  o f hypo-  with a b i t  of  m o r a l i t y and some t h r e a d b a r e v i r t u e s .  in  arms a g a i n s t the g i a n t o f the h i g h e r w o r l d ; we can  plant  our f l a g  o n l y i f we a r e worthy  - Cease your begging; by might!  of l i v i n g there!  t e a r your f o l d e d hands a p a r t  -  "Alas! delude me? you?  I will  L e t us march  What i s t h i s - a r e you too o n l y a mask t o - I can no l o n g e r see you, f a t h e r ; where a r e  - As I touched you, you f e l l  a h a n d f u l o f dust remains  i n t o ashes., and o n l y  on the ground,  and a few w e l l - f e d  worms c r e e p i n g away l i k e m o r a l i s t i c f u n e r a l p r e a c h e r s who have o v e r - i n d u l g e d a t the wake. of  I  commit t h i s h a n d f u l  p a t e r n a l dust t o the winds - n o t h i n g remains!" "In  the  the d i s t a n c e , the v i s i o n a r y i s s t i l l  b e l o v e d grave, embracing "And  last  s t a n d i n g over  Nothing!  the echo i n the c h a r n e l - h o u s e c r i e s f o r the  time: NOTHING!"  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101610/manifest

Comment

Related Items