UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The design and evaluation of a land use simulation game Barkley, William Donald 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A8 B37.pdf [ 6.88MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101609.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101609-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101609-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101609-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101609-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101609-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101609-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101609-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101609.ris

Full Text

THE DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A LAND USE SIMULATION GAME by WILLIAM DONALD BARKLEY B.Sc.(Hons.Zoo.)» U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Adult Education  We accept t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I f u r t h e r agree  that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  Department of  Adult  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Education  Columbia  J u l y 24, 1972.  permission.  that shal  ABSTRACT T h i s study was concerned with  the design and e v a l u a t i o n  of a l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n game f o r r u r a l r e s i d e n t s o f the East Kootenay r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h The  Columbia.  r a t i o n a l e behind the study was t h a t gaming was a  technique worthy o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r use i n the environmental education  of adults.  Two hypotheses were proposed to guide the r e s e a r c h on the l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n game designed.  The f i r s t proposed t h a t  the game would produce a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n knowledge and change i n a t t i t u d e , and the second s t a t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s would be shown between p l a y e r game p l a y data and t e s t  significant  characteristics/  results.  A s i m u l a t i o n game was designed u s i n g a m o d i f i e d of a procedure s e t out by G l a z i e r (41) f o r d e s i g n i n g games. set  The game was a board game u s i n g an enlarged  l a n d c a p a b i l i t y map.  version  piece of a  P l a y e r s bought and planned p i e c e s o f l a n d  through the f o u r seasons o f the y e a r . was  educational  Two p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n s were t e s t e d and a f i n a l  up.  version  The o b j e c t i v e o f the game  to maximize economic r e t u r n s without s e v e r e l y damaging the  environment. taneously  Instruments f o r e v a l u a t i n g the game were s i m u l -  designed and t e s t e d .  The  s i m u l a t i o n game was p l a y e d with  40 East Kootenay  r e s i d e n t s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t number 2, Cranbrook on p r o p e r t i e s iii  of 50 acres or more.  Family groups p l a y e d the game and  completed both a pre and p o s t - t e s t . The people p l a y i n g the s i m u l a t i o n game came mostly from p r o d u c t i v e farms (82.51).  T h i r t y - f i v e percent o f the  sample were husbands and wives, 45 percent c h i l d r e n , and percent were others which i n c l u d e d farm hands and The mean e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the group was mean l a n d h o l d i n g s i z e was  537.1  10.7  neighbours. years.  The  acres and the mean number o f  p l a y e r s per each of the nine gaming s e s s i o n s was  4.7  persons.  Years of s c h o o l i n g c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y with t o t a l score a person  20  r e c e i v e d on the game.  the  O b j e c t i v e 6 on  the  a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y good and poor land uses c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a number o f other v a r i a b l e s . appears to be an important fication.  one  This objective  to c o n s i d e r i n f u t u r e game modi-  Knowledge and a t t i t u d e c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  p o s i t i v e l y with years o f s c h o o l i n g , money s c o r e s , t o t a l s c o r e s , p l a y i n g time, number of p l a y e r s , a t t i t u d e towards the game, and rank w i t h i n a group; and negative s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found with p r o p e r t y s i z e and environmental  unit scores.  T - t e s t r e s u l t s showed t h a t there had been a general i n c r e a s e i n knowledge and  i n p a r t i c u l a r an i n c r e a s e i n the  knowledge about the competitive r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t between w i l d and domestic p o p u l a t i o n s .  A change i n a t t i t u d e  about the e f f e c t s o f l a n d use on neighbouring found to be  significant. iv  lands was  also  I t was concluded that the s i m u l a t i o n  game had been a  l i m i t e d success w i t h some l e a r n i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y C o r r e l a t i o n data and s u b j e c t i v e mation  data p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t  f o r the f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n  enhance i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  v  demonstrable. infor-  o f t h i s l e a r n i n g d e v i c e to  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  x  LIST OF FIGURES  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . . . . .  x i i  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSE  2.  . . . . .  3  HYPOTHESES  3  PROCEDURE  4  Sample  5  Data C o l l e c t i o n  6  Data A n a l y s i s  7  DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . .  8  PLAN OF THE STUDY  9  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  . . .  10  THE SIMULATION GAMING TECHNIQUE  10  RESEARCH RELATED TO SIMULATION GAMING . . . . .  13  E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Gaming  13  E v a l u a t i o n s o f Business Games  16  E f f e c t s o f Game P r e s e n t a t i o n on Game Play  . .  18  V a l i d a t i o n o f the S i m u l a t i o n  19  B e h a v i o r a l Measures o f Game E f f e c t i v e n e s s . .  21  Summary  23  vi  Chapter  3.  Page LAND USE SIMULATION GAMES  24  GAME DESIGN PROCEDURES  28  SUMMARY  30  DESIGNING THE EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME ..'  33  DESIGN PROCEDURE  34  SOURCES OF DATA  .  GOAL  36  SCOPE  36  GAME FORMAT  . .  36  PLAYER RESOURCES  38  GAME AND PLAYER OBJECTIVES  42  PRELIMINARY VERSION  42  Number o f P l a y e r s  42  S e t t i n g Up the Game Board  43  Seasons  44  Win and Score C r i t e r i a  50  MODIFICATIONS TO THE PRELIMINARY GAME  4.  35  . . . .  51  PILOT STUDY VERSION  52  FINAL VERSION  54  ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF PLAYING THE SIMULATION GAME CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME PARTICIPANTS PLAY OF THE GAME P l a y i n g Time  56 . . . .  57 58 58  vii  Chapter  Page Game Scores  61  Game Scores i n R e l a t i o n t o Player C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S u b j e c t i v e Observations on Game P l a y  62 . . . .  Game A t t i t u d e  65 66  TEST RESULTS  67  D i f f e r e n c e s Between Pre and P o s t - t e s t Results  . . . . . .  67  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Test Results  69  P l a y e r and Game C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n R e l a t i o n to T e s t R e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 5.  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY  .  . . . .  70 73 75 75  CONCLUSIONS  80  IMPLICATIONS .  81  BIBLIOGRAPHY  84  APPENDICES A.  PRE-TEST INSTRUMENT  . . . . . . .  B.  POST-TEST INSTRUMENT  C.  DEEDS FOR SIMULATED PROPERTIES  103  D.  CONSEQUENCE CARDS  108  E.  RISK CARDS  113  F.  GAME SCORING SHEET  114  viii  91 96  APPENDICES  Page  G.  PLAYER INSTRUCTION  CARDS  H.  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS, TEST SCORES, SCORES ON INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES AND GAME SCORES  ix  115  117  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Page C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t i e s p e r 50 Acres o f the 11 Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  2.  Economic and Environmental U n i t Values  3.  Exchange U n i t s f o r Replacement o f a U n i t o f a P a r t i c u l a r P l a n t o r Animal Species w i t h Another Revised Table o f Economic and  4.  . . .  44  . . . .  46  48  Environmental Values 5.  Summary o f P l a y e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  6.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Game P a r t i c i p a n t s by Property S i z e and P l a y i n g Time Frequency Table o f Number o f P l a y e r s and Game P l a y i n g Time  7. 8. 9. 10.  52 59 60 61  Frequency Table o f Years o f S c h o o l i n g and T o t a l Score . Summary o f P r e - t e s t and P o s t - t e s t Results Summary o f the C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between O b j e c t i v e 6 and Other Game and Test V a r i a b l e s  x  63 . . .  68  71  LIST OF FIGURES gure  Page  1.  Game Board  39  2.  Game Board Set-up f o r Play  41  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e without the a s s i s t a n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a number o f people.  The  Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e made the study p o s s i b l e by p r o v i d i n g me w i t h a generous grant and s u f f i c i e n t leave from my job t o do the study.  The s t a f f a t the Wye Marsh W i l d l i f e Centre  on e x t r a work to c a r r y out my d u t i e s d u r i n g my absence. the s t a f f and students o f the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research  took Both  Center  at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. o f f e r e d o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e f r e e l y whenever i t was requested. thanked  Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n i s e s p e c i a l l y  f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , guidance, and advice d u r i n g the whole  course o f the study. My f a m i l y i s thanked  f o r p u t t i n g up w i t h the upheaval  of moving from O n t a r i o t o B.C. and the grandparents s i t t i n g when i t was necessary t o do f i e l d work. deserves s p e c i a l thanks  f o r baby-  My w i f e , Gayle,  f o r t y p i n g the manuscript,  editing,  a s s i s t i n g i n the r e s e a r c h and t e s t i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n s of the game. F i n a l l y , a thanks  to a l l those people who p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the game f o r p r o v i d i n g the d a t a .  xii  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION The d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment  and the  apparent p u b l i c concern s t i m u l a t e d by the mass media have c r e a t e d a need f o r p r o v i d i n g environmental e d u c a t i o n programs to the p u b l i c .  In North America numerous e d u c a t i o n programs  d e a l i n g with the n a t u r a l environment Concomitant  have been c r e a t e d .  w i t h t h i s need f o r p u b l i c programs i s a need t o  examine, e v a l u a t e and c r e a t e new  methods, techniques and  devices f o r use i n environmental e d u c a t i o n . One  f a c e t o f environmental education which i s e s p e c i a l l y  c h a l l e n g i n g i s environmental e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s .  Providing  a d u l t s w i t h an awareness of environmental processes i s important because  they are the d e c i s i o n makers and many e n v i -  ronmental problems cannot wait to be s o l v e d by the next generation.  A major d i f f i c u l t y i n educating a d u l t s i n the  p u b l i c a t l a r g e i s the l a c k o f a s t r u c t u r e d e d u c a t i o n a l system so that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental e d u c a t i o n programs i s v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l .  In view o f t h i s , methods and t e c h -  niques must to some degree motivate and i n t e r e s t people enough to take p a r t i n what i s o f f e r e d .  Thus, a d u l t educators need  to generate and e v a l u a t e methods and techniques which can be adapted to the v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t environmental e d u c a t i o n . 1  2 One  such technique which has p o t e n t i a l and  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s i m u l a t i o n gaming. attempts to reproduce  deserves  T h i s technique  r e a l world processes i n a s i m p l i f i e d  form and present them to the p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n i n a gaming c o n t e x t .  The p l a y e r , by p l a y i n g out h i s r o l e i n  the game, must make d e c i s i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s i m u l a t e d process and hence compatible w i t h r e a l i t y .  C o m p l i c a t i n g the  processes r e f l e c t e d are other p l a y e r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h interests.  conflicting  C o n s t r a i n e d by the r u l e s and s i m u l a t e d p r o c e s s e s ,  p l a y e r s must compete and coroperate w i t h other p l a y e r s to achieve game o b j e c t i v e s .  The  l e a r n i n g t h a t takes p l a c e i s a  r e s u l t o f c o l l e c t i n g data on which t o make d e c i s i o n s , negot i a t i n g with other p l a y e r s , and b e a r i n g the consequences of decisions. A f e a t u r e of s i m u l a t i o n gaming t h a t has been w e l l documented by r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i s the m o t i v a t i o n and i t creates i n students.  interest  T h i s alone would be s u f f i c i e n t  j u s t i f y u s i n g the gaming technique w i t h a d u l t s .  to  In a d d i t i o n ,  s i m u l a t i o n games i l l u s t r a t e processes i n a dynamic, s i m p l i f i e d form which i s compatible w i t h what needs to be taught about the environment.  For the a d u l t l e a r n e r s i m u l a t i o n games a l s o  accommodate a v a r i e t y o f backgrounds, allow f o r the use of p a s t experience, s k i l l s  and knowledge, c r e a t e a sense of c o n t r o l or  e f f i c a c y over environmental  phenomena, c o n t r o l f o r p a s s i v i t y  engendered i n more v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and provide f o r the t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g t o r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s because o f the r e a l i t y i n h e r e n t i n the s i m u l a t i o n .  3  PURPOSE The  purpose o f t h i s study was t o design and evaluate  a l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n game t h a t would teach r u r a l about the processes  residents  and outcomes o f land use p l a n s .  product r e s u l t i n g from the design process  The  was p l a y e d  r u r a l r e s i d e n t s i n the East Kootenay area o f B r i t i s h i n order t o i n v e s t i g a t e and evaluate the game as an a d u l t education  with Columbia  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  technique.  HYPOTHESES Two general hypotheses were formulated  to guide the  assessment o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l a n d use p l a n n i n g s i m u l a t i o n game. 1.  I n d i v i d u a l s who p l a y the s i m u l a t i o n game w i l l show a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r knowledge and a t t i t u d e s about land use planning  as expressed i n s i x i n s t r u c t i o n a l  o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d below: 1  The l e a r n e r w i l l develop a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards the land use p l a n n i n g  2  process.  The l e a r n e r w i l l develop a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t s o f his  3  l a n d use plans on neighbouring  lands.  The l e a r n e r w i l l conclude t h a t a given  piece  of l a n d has c e r t a i n c a p a b i l i t i e s o r p o t e n t i a l s .  4 4  The l e a r n e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the i n t e r p l a y between economic and e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  5  The l e a r n e r w i l l be able t o d e s c r i b e the c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between f o r e s t r y and f i e l d c r o p s , waterfowl and f i e l d c r o p s , c a t t l e and f i e l d c r o p s , c a t t l e and waterfowl,  c a t t l e and b i g game, f o r e s t r y and  c a t t l e , and b i g game and f o r e s t r y . 6  The l e a r n e r w i l l be able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor l a n d use s t r a t e g i e s .  2.  The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f those who p l a y the s i m u l a t i o n game w i l l be r e l a t e d t o t h e i r success i n p l a y i n g the s i m u l a t i o n game as w e l l as t o t h e i r knowledge and a t t i t u d e s about land use p l a n n i n g . PROCEDURE  The  first  s i m u l a t i o n game.  stage o f t h i s study was the d e s i g n o f a Data from the East Kootenay Area Land  C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s was examined to determine how the ecol o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e on E a s t Kootenay lands be s i m u l a t e d .  could  S t a f f i n v o l v e d i n the E a s t Kootenay Area Land  C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s were c o n s u l t e d f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s on what c o u l d be s i m u l a t e d and what r u r a l r e s i d e n t s o f the E a s t Kootenay needed t o know about land use. game was designed  A l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n  u s i n g the E a s t Kootenay Area Land C a p a b i l i t y  5 A n a l y s i s Map  (16), the socio-economic  Kootenay by Verner,  survey o f the East  D i c k i n s o n and A l l e y n e  (85) and G l a z i e r ' s  (41) p u b l i c a t i o n on the design of e d u c a t i o n a l games. The  s i m u l a t i o n game was  then played w i t h v a r i o u s groups  o f graduate and undergraduate students  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia to e l i m i n a t e o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The  s i m u l a t i o n game was  taken to a sample of E a s t  Kootenay r u r a l f a m i l i e s where i t was  p l a y e d with f a m i l y members  i n t h e i r homes.  p l a y e d the game was  Each i n d i v i d u a l who  a t e s t before and The  given  a f t e r p l a y i n g the game.  Sample The  game was  p o p u l a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l p l a y e r s o f the s i m u l a t i o n  d e f i n e d as owners o f r u r a l l a n d h o l d i n g 50 or more  acres i n School D i s t r i c t Number 2, Cranbrook.  Those pro-  p e r t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n the tax assessment r o l l s l o c a t e d i n the C i t y o f Cranbrook.  The p o p u l a t i o n was  l i s t e d by  name of the p r o p e r t y owner, with p r o p e r t i e s owned by  companies  and those showing no improvements on the l a n d excluded purposes of the The families.  for  study.  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the study c o n s i s t e d of I t was  the  intended o r i g i n a l l y to s e l e c t a 20  83  percent  random sample of the p o p u l a t i o n , however, a high r a t e o f r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e n e c e s s i t a t e d the use o f a l l names l i s t e d . Contact was names as was reached,  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e f o r e with as many of the possible.  ten consented  Of the 76 f a m i l i e s who to p a r t i c i p a t e .  One  listed  c o u l d be  of those  ten  f a m i l i e s l a t e r r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the land use game so t h a t the p l a y e r s f i n a l l y numbered nine f a m i l i e s comprising 40 persons. Data C o l l e c t i o n A p r e - t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d c o n s i s t i n g o f a 16 statement L i k e r t s c a l e which r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s 1 and 2, and  20 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e questions t e s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s 3, 4, 5,  and 6 o f the s i m u l a t i o n game (see Appendix A ) . 38 m u l t i p l e choice questions and 24 statements  A pool of f o r the L i k e r t  s c a l e made up the o r i g i n a l measuring instruments p i l o t study.  used i n the  An item a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out based on the  r e s u l t s o f the p i l o t study and 20 items were s e l e c t e d from the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t and 16 items were chosen f o r the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the L i k e r t s c a l e .  A s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y using  the Spearman Brown Prophecy formula was computed t o be 0.55 f o r the L i k e r t s c a l e (based on the 16 items on the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e items  chosen) and 0.37  (based on the 20 items  chosen).  These computations were repeated u s i n g the data c o l l e c t e d from the East Kootenay sample and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.46 f o r the L i k e r t s c a l e and 0.41 f o r the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e tests. The comprised  s i m u l a t i o n game was played and a p o s t - t e s t  o f f o u r p e r s o n a l data q u e s t i o n s , f i v e L i k e r t  items  r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e towards the game and a repeat o f the p r e - t e s questions l i s t e d i n the previous paragraph. were completing  the p o s t - t e s t instrument,  While the p l a y e r s  s u b j e c t i v e comments  about the s e s s i o n were recorded as w e l l as t o t a l p l a y i n g time.  7 Data A n a l y s i s The  completed instruments were marked and the f o l l o w i n g  three scores p e r person were  recorded:  A t t i t u d e score - t o t a l score on a 16 item L i k e r t s c a l e with a maximum o f 80 and a minimum o f 16. Knowledge score - t o t a l score on 20 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e items with a maximum o f 20 and a minimum o f zero. Game a t t i t u d e score - t o t a l score on a f i v e  item  L i k e r t s c a l e w i t h a maximum score o f 25 and a minimum o f f i v e . In a d d i t i o n there were t h r e e game scores t o t a l l e d up on completion  o f p l a y as f o l l o w s :  Environmental  u n i t s c o r e - the t o t a l number o f  environmental  u n i t s accumulated by an i n d i v i d u a l  d u r i n g the course o f p l a y . Money score - t o t a l cash on hand a t the end o f the p l a y . T o t a l score - the sum o f environmental  units plus  money a t t h e end o f the p l a y . P r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t a t t i t u d e and knowledge scores were submitted  to t - t e s t to determine i f any s i g n i f i c a n t changes  had o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f game p l a y .  Each o f the s i x  i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s were a l s o t - t e s t e d on p r e and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s to see i f any s i g n i f i c a n t changes had o c c u r r e d . Correlation coefficients  (Pearson's  r ) were c a l c u l a t e d  among a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s t o determine i f s i g n i f i c a n t associations existed:  p r o p e r t y s i z e ; f a m i l y p o s i t i o n ; years o f  schooling; pre-test a t t i t u d e scores; objectives  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; p r e - t e s t knowledge  p o s t - t e s t a t t i t u d e s c o r e s ; p o s t - t e s t scores  scores;  f o r o b j e c t i v e s 1,  2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; p o s t - t e s t knowledge s c o r e s ; scores;  8  p r e - t e s t scores f o r  game a t t i t u d e  number o f minutes o f p l a y ; number o f p l a y e r s ;  rank  w i t h i n the group; environmental u n i t s c o r e s ; money scores and  total  scores.  B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d  to investigate  f u r t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e s measured.  The  c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s . DEFINITION OF TERMS The f o l l o w i n g terms were d e f i n e d this  f o r the purposes o f  study: Simulation  game - a l e a r n i n g device which i s designed  to represent  a segment o f r e a l i t y and i n v o l v e s  i n t e r a c t i o n s between the l e a r n e r , the game, and other p l a y e r s . Simulation  gaming - the technique o f o r g a n i z i n g  l e a r n e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n u s i n g a gaming  device.  Game - completion o f two f u l l simulated e i g h t simulated Rural  residents  years o r  seasons o f p l a y .  - a c t u a l people l i v i n g on lands o f  50 acres o r more i n s i z e . P a r t i c i p a n t - a r u r a l r e s i d e n t owning a piece o f property  on the game board.  simulated  9 PLAN OF THE STUDY The  study c o n s i s t s o f f i v e c h a p t e r s .  chapter the second chapter i s a review  Following  o f the l i t e r a t u r e on  s i m u l a t i o n gaming which was deemed p e r t i n e n t to t h i s Chapter 3 d e s c r i b e s the process  study.  o f d e s i g n i n g the East Kootenay  l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n game and the end product, game i t s e l f .  this  the s i m u l a t i o n  In the f o u r t h chapter the data c o l l e c t e d  during  the p l a y i n g o f the game with the r u r a l r e s i d e n t s o f the E a s t Kootenay was analyzed  to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the  game and how the game c o u l d be m o d i f i e d to make i t more ,: effective.  The f i f t h and c o n c l u d i n g chapter presents a  summary, the c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study.  Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE The  LITERATURE  l i t e r a t u r e about s i m u l a t i o n gaming i s v a s t .  i s concerned with two broad  areas, s i m u l a t i o n gaming as  a p p l i e d to education and s i m u l a t i o n gaming f o r use investigations.  It  T h i s review  of the l i t e r a t u r e  i n research  includes  s t u d i e s on gaming which p e r t a i n to i t s e d u c a t i o n a l uses  and  which were u s e f u l i n the design and e v a l u a t i o n of the l a n d use p l a n n i n g game developed The  for this  study.  f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s chapter concerns the sim-  u l a t i o n gaming technique  and examines b r i e f l y the h i s t o r y o f  gaming and some o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The  next s e c t i o n  deals with r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s which have examined the gaming process  and attempted to assess  i t s effectiveness.  Existing  l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n games are d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter.  In c o n c l u s i o n , the chapter d i s c u s s e s  l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on the procedures THE  of game d e s i g n .  SIMULATION GAMING TECHNIQUE  S i m u l a t i o n gaming has f e u d a l times when war games.  a n c i e n t o r i g i n s d a t i n g back to  lords trained their soldiers using  However, i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the formal  s e t t i n g i s quite recent. Association  the  In 1956  educational  the American Management  (2) i n t r o d u c e d a business management game as  educational device.  Dating from t h a t time hundreds of 10  war  an  11 s i m u l a t i o n games have appeared i n business s t a f f t r a i n i n g devices.  and i n d u s t r y as  Other games c o v e r i n g a wide spectrum  o f t o p i c s appeared i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s as the e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s o f s i m u l a t i o n games were r e c o g n i z e d . Schild  (10) i n t r a c i n g the h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l games  d e s c r i b e three h i s t o r i c a l stages has moved.  through which t h i s  device  The p e r i o d 1956 to 1963 was the stage o f  "acceptance on f a i t h " . all  Boocock and  S i m u l a t i o n games were seen as a cure-  f o r the p l e t h o r a o f e d u c a t i o n a l i l l s  formal e d u c a t i o n a l system.  t h a t plagued the  The second stage  occurring  between 1963 and 1966 was c a l l e d the "post honeymoon". Researchers began t o d i s c e r n t h a t many o f the claims made about s i m u l a t i o n games were not supported F i n a l l y , the stage  by r e s e a r c h .  from 1967 to the present was l a b e l l e d  " r e a l i s t i c optimism" i n which i t became e v i d e n t t h a t games were u s e f u l i n some but not a l l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and t h a t each s i m u l a t i o n game r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s effectiveness. The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i m u l a t i o n games can be d i v i d e d  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , those  t h a t appear advantageous to the  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and those which are disadvantageous. Those deemed as p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s a r e : 1.  Economy - s i m u l a t i o n games can be l e s s i n terms o f time and money than u s i n g  expensive real  processes. 2.  Visibility  - f u n c t i o n i n g processes  r e s u l t s can be e a s i l y  observed.  and t h e i r  12 3.  Reproducability  - d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s can produce  the same r e s u l t s from m a n i p u l a t i n g the s i m u l a t i o n . 4.  Safety  - i f the event being simulated  has dangerous  consequences these can be removed from the simulation 5.  exercise.  S i m p l i c i t y - complex processes are s i m p l i f i e d to enhance understanding.  6.  I n t e r e s t and M o t i v a t i o n simulation  7.  gaming.  Application - simulation and  8.  - are heightened i n  games allow  for application  t e s t i n g o f knowledge.  I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s - a wide range o f a b i l i t i e s can be accommodated i n a game.  9.  10.  D e c i s i o n making s k i l l s  - are p r a c t i s e d and  improved by the gaming  exercises.  Transfer  - reality  facilitates 11.  inherent  i n simulation  games  transfer.  Non-verbal a b i l i t i e s  - l a t e n t a b i l i t i e s not  i d e n t i f i e d by v e r b a l  l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s are  important i n many s i m u l a t i o n games. 12.  E f f i c a c y - a sense o f being able  to c o n t r o l  phenomena r e l a t e d t o one's personal  life is  developed. 13.  Reinforcement - games have b u i l t  i n rewards and  punishments. 14.  Feedback - r a p i d feedback i n consequence t o an act i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  15.  A t t e n t i o n span -• a t t e n t i o n span i s lengthened due  t o the p a r t i c i p a t o r y , i n v o l v i n g  nature  o f games. The negative aspects o f gaming are as f o l l o w s : 1.  Oversimplification - this results i n unreal p e r c e p t i o n s o f the processes being s i m u l a t e d .  2.  Dehumanization - d e c i s i o n s are made o b j e c t i v e l y without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the w e l f a r e o f the people who w i l l be a f f e c t e d .  3.  Expense - the development o f a s i m u l a t i o n game o f t e n r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l expenditure o f time and money.  4.  Gaming atmosphere - f o r the i n s t r u c t o r there i s some apprehension  about " f u n and games" being  r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g .  The student may be i n c l i n e d  not t o take games s e r i o u s l y . 5.  Competition  there i s concern t h a t t h i s emphasis  might repress c r e a t i v i t y . Both s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l a c k any s u b s t a n t i a l  verification  and t h e r e f o r e r e s e a r c h i s d i r e c t e d a t v e r i f y i n g the chara c t e r i s t i c s noted here f o r s i m u l a t i o n games. RESEARCH RELATED TO SIMULATION GAMING E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Gaming Cherryholmes (19) examines some o f the accepted assumptions concerning the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s i m u l a t i o n gaming technique.  He posed f i v e  hypotheses:  14 Students  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l reveal  more i n t e r e s t i n a s i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e than i n more c o n v e n t i o n a l classroom H2  Students  activities.  participating i n a simulation w i l l learn  more f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s than by s t u d y i n g i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l manner. H  Students  3  participating i n a simulation w i l l  retain  i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d longer than i f they had l e a r n e d i t i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l manner. H  Students  4  participating i n a simulation w i l l  a c q u i r e more c r i t i c a l skills  t h i n k i n g and d e c i s i o n making  than w i l l students  classroom Students  i n more c o n v e n t i o n a l  activities. p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s i m u l a t i o n w i l l have  t h e i r attitudes s i g n i f i c a n t l y altered r e l a t i v e to a t t i t u d e change produced by more c o n v e n t i o n a l classroom  methods.  Using the s i m u l a t i o n game, " I n t e r - N a t i o n Simulation' , Cherryholmes 1  attempted to c a r r y out measures o f the degree to which the above hypotheses were supported. and  Using the r e s u l t s from h i s study  those o f s i x s i m i l a r s t u d i e s he determined t h a t the only  unanimously accepted hypothesis was H^; t h a t more i n t e r e s t would be developed classroom  by a s i m u l a t i o n game than by more c o n v e n t i o n a l  activities.  The only other hypothesis  not r e j e c t e d  c o n c l u s i v e l y was H,. which s t a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s would change more as a r e s u l t o f the s i m u l a t i o n than by c o n v e n t i o n a l techniques.  Cherryholmes was not able to f i n d support  f o r any  15 of the other hypotheses r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g o f f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s , retention of information t h i n k i n g and d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s .  and a c q u i s i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l In c o n c l u s i o n  proposed that b e t t e r r e s u l t s might be achieved  t h i s study  i f more e f f o r t  was r e q u i r e d o f the student t o v e r i f y the s i m u l a t i o n  game w i t h  r e a l i t y and i f students designed new games or redesigned e x i s t i n g games based on t h e i r v a l i d a t i o n e f f o r t s . A study c a r r i e d out by Inbar (50) focused games have on i n d i v i d u a l p l a y e r s .  on the e f f e c t s  Four p l a y e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  which Inbar i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the game "Community D i s a s t e r " were; v a r i a t i o n i n p l a y e r backgrounds, d i f f e r e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s ( d e s i r e t o l e a r n more about a t o p i c , v o l u n t a r i l y p l a y i n g the game and w i l l i n g to give time to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games), d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience and behavior during teristics  o f the group t h a t played  the game, and the characthe game.  His results  i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n and group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had a major impact on l e a r n i n g and the enjoyment o f games. Research i n t o the e f f e c t s of a s i m u l a t i o n procedure i n a teacher  t r a i n i n g program was c a r r i e d out by Cruickshank and  Broadbent  (26).  teachers;  an experimental group who were i n v o l v e d i n the  The study i n v o l v e d two groups o f student  s i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e and a c o n t r o l group who performed the r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e teaching  duties.  The s i m u l a t i o n  exercise  c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f f i l m e d sequences o f classroom s i t u a t i o n s perceived  as d i f f i c u l t  Student teachers  by f i r s t year classroom  teachers.  were presented these f i l m e d sequences and  asked to r e a c t t o them as i f they were i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n .  16 D i s c u s s i o n o f the r e a c t i o n by the student were m o d i f i e d where n e c e s s a r y .  f o l l o w e d and responses  As i n most e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s  the s i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e r a t e d h i g h on i t s m o t i v a t i o n t i c i p a t i o n measures as compared with p r a c t i c e  teaching.  Follow-up s t u d i e s a few months a f t e r the experiences no d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e or behavior and  and par-  revealed  between the experimental  c o n t r o l groups.  Evaluations  o f Business Games  Zaltman (88) undertook a study o f a business  game t o  determine the e f f e c t s o f the amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n on l e a r n i n g . He compared p a r t i c u l a r r o l e s i n games which allowed degrees o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . more o p p o r t u n i t y  different  The r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t the  an assumed r o l e allowed  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n the  g r e a t e r the l e a r n i n g . McKenney and D i l l  (57) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f a business  management game on 650 M.B.A. program students  a t Harvard.  The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t u s i n g e x i s t i n g groups ( i . e . , groups o f people who had worked together  on a previous  p r o j e c t ) and homo-  geneous grouping by i n t e l l i g e n c e and past achievement d i d n o t produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r l e a r n i n g e f f e c t s .  T h i s study a l s o  i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s o f e x t e r n a l a d v i s o r s on l e a r n i n g r e s u l t i n g from s i m u l a t i o n game p l a y .  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d  t h a t as long as the a d v i s o r ' s r o l e i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as an i n f o r m a t i o n a l one and he does not attempt t o manipulate game p l a y , h i s presence enhanced l e a r n i n g .  17 A study by Starbuck and Kobrow (75) o£ the e f f e c t s of a d v i s o r s was c a r r i e d out u s i n g 88 graduate students i n i n d u s t r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p l a y i n g a business management game. Three teams had a d v i s o r s and three without; the r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n economic gains between the two groups. A comparison  between a business game and a case study  c a r r i e d out by Moore (61) y i e l d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A summary o f h i s data r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  The case study group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f a c t mastery  2.  score.  A t e s t f o r concept e x p l i c i t n e s s showed a nons i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups.  3.  T e s t s o f general s t r u c t u r a l l e a r n i n g game nonsignificant  4.  results.  T e s t s f o r l o g i c a l reasoning a b i l i t y non-significant  5.  produced  results.  O v e r a l l l e a r n i n g tended to f a v o r the case study.  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered t o the students r e v e a l e d t h a t both the case study group and the game group p e r c e i v e d gaming as a more h i g h l y m o t i v a t i n g technique.  Moore p o i n t s  out t h a t the m o t i v a t i o n a l aspect o f gaming may be more a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o m p e t i t i v e process i n v o l v e d i n gaming than w i t h the amount o f l e a r n i n g which r e s u l t s .  P l a y i n g the  game thus becomes an end i n i t s e l f r a t h e r than achievement o f the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s the game s e t out to accomplish.  18  Effects of Game Presentation on Game Play Research into the presentation and playing of a game by Baldwin (3) found that strategies which develop i n games can lead to r i g i d patterns of play with the result that a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to play are usually l e f t unexplored.  He suggests  that simulation game designers should recognize this l i m i t a t i o n and b u i l d i n rewards and directions f o r exploring variant strategies.  Baldwin points out that i n many games the  instructors directed the game to the point of i n h i b i t i n g imaginative play.  Games often r e f l e c t e d the game director's  expectations rather than the learners' i n t e r a c t i o n with the processes being simulated.  In observing play he also concluded  that successive game plays enhanced learning.  Whereas the  f i r s t game play was spent learning the mechanics, l a t e r play concentrated on understanding  the process being  simulated.  He further pointed out that simulation games o f f e r i n g various levels of play from simple to complex provide for practice i n gaming procedures while providing a more i n depth of the processes being simulated.  experience  S i m i l a r l y , changes i n game  parameters develops imaginative play and an opportunity to attempt new strategies. Baldwin observed that suggestive labels often i n h i b i t e d or directed play (e.g., urban planning game towns labelled S u p e r i o r v i l l e vs. Nowhereville).  A  s i m i l a r conclusion was reached i n a study by Blunt (6) on a simulation for aldermen i n which the central focus of the simu l a t i o n was a town c a l l e d "Bunkum".  Blunt reports that ". . . .  the jocular use of place names i n the materials appeared to con-  19 t r i b u t e t o a l i g h t - h e a r t e d approach to the l e a r n i n g task and some waste o f time. . ." (6:8).  Over-constraining  r u l e s and  i l l o g i c a l p a y o f f s were observed by Baldwin t o i n h i b i t game e f f e c t i v e n e s s as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l . s u c c e s s f u l p l a y remaining  This results i n  unrewarded and hence n e g a t i v e  rein-  forcement with the r e s u l t t h a t p l a y e r s may l e a r n the wrong things. Simon (72) examined how changing s c e n a r i o s changes d e c i s i o n making i n the course u n i v e r s i t y students, resource  o f gameinplay.  groups o f 15 p l a y e d three v e r s i o n s o f a  a l l o c a t i o n game.  The game i n v o l v e d a l l o t t i n g  i n such a manner as to maximize the resources s t a r t e d with.  Using 90  resources  t h a t the p l a y e r  Three forms o f the game were developed; one  v e r s i o n had the three resources  i d e n t i f i e d with nonsense  titles,  the second was t i t l e d a war game, and the t h i r d a b u s i n e s s game.  The r e s u l t s showed t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n s t r a t e g i e s  attached to each form.  Simon found t h a t the a b s t r a c t game  produced lower scores and p l a y e r s were w i l l i n g to take more risks. V a l i d a t i o n o f the S i m u l a t i o n Most e d u c a t i o n a l games i n c l u d e the s i m u l a t i o n o f some r e a l world p r o c e s s .  Since a s i m u l a t i o n i s j u s t a dynamic,  f u n c t i o n i n g model i t s c r e a t i o n i n v o l v e s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and u s u a l l y the compression o f time.  Care must be taken t o ensure  t h a t t h e s i m u l a t i o n does n o t c o n t a i n s e r i o u s d i s t o r t i n n s o f r e a l i t y which w i l l p r e s e n t wrong i n f o r m a t i o n t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  20  A l i m i t e d amount o f r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d out w i t h educational  games t o v e r i f y the r e a l i t y o f the s i m u l a t i o n  employed. Smoker (73) attempted t h i s type o f v a l i d a t i o n by running two separate games o f " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Process Simulation".  One game was played  by a group o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  d e c i s i o n makers from i n d u s t r y , b u s i n e s s , m i l i t a r y who represented  reality.  government and the  The other  group was made up  o f 16 and 17 year o l d students who represented  non-reality.  His hypothesis was t h a t the r e a l i t y group's r e a c t i o n s to the game would r e f l e c t t h e i r experiences i n r e a l world d e c i s i o n making and i f the model presented by the game was f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y the n o n - r e a l i t y group would make the same responses. His data i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the two groups on what he c a l l e d "past world d e c i s i o n s " .  These were  d e c i s i o n s the members o f the group had to make u s i n g the information  h i s t o r y had p r o v i d e d ,  f o r example working out a  p l a n f o r the r e s o l u t i o n o f the Korean c o n f l i c t .  He found  t h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d where the two groups were asked to p r e d i c t f u t u r e events, a s i m i l a r example would be the development o f a p l a n t o s e t t l e t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p u t e s r e s u l t i n g from l a n d i n g on other p l a n e t s . groups r e a c t e d  Discrepancies  between the way  to problems o f f o r e i g n and domestic c o n f l i c t  demonstrated a f a i l u r e o f the s i m u l a t i o n to r e p r e s e n t area  i n the game.  this  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the s i m u l a t i o n  r e q u i r e s a l t e r a t i o n i n those areas t h a t d e a l w i t h  future  p r e d i c t i o n s , domestic c o n f l i c t and f o r e i g n c o n f l i c t .  The  21 study c a u t i o n s readers t h a t there i s some danger i n assuming the r e a l i t y o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n makers * f u t u r e oriented decisions. Boocock (11), u s i n g a game e n t i t l e d "Generation Gap" c a r r i e d out a study to assess game v a l i d i t y .  The game was  administered to 17 c h i l d — p a r e n t p a i r s who completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r i o r to and a f t e r the game p l a y .  Boocock used the  r e s u l t s from the study to examine three kinds o f v a l i d i t y ; v a l i d i t y , e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y and t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y .  face  Briefly,  face v a l i d i t y was based on asking the p a r t i c i p a n t a f t e r the game i f the game s i m u l a t e d t h e i r r e a l l i f e E m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y was determined  experiences.  by comparing t h e i r  on the pre-game q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h e i r game p l a y .  responses Finally,  t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y was measured by a s s e s s i n g whether or not game p l a y f o l l o w e d one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l theories:  exchange theory, r o l e theory and s o c i a l power t h e o r y .  The r e s u l t s o f the study i n d i c a t e d t h a t "Generation Gap" demonstrated some face v a l i d i t y f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s were s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e and the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y was weakly demonstrated by the presence o f s t r a t e g i e s based on r o l e theory and exchange t h e o r y . author concludes  The  t h a t "Generation Gap" i s a v a l i d s i m u l a t i o n  game but f u r t h e r t r a i l s with changes i n r u l e s and parameters would p r o v i d e a f u l l e r t e s t o f v a l i d i t y . B e h a v i o r a l Measures o f Game E f f e c t i v e n e s s Boocock and S c h i l d  (10) and others have p o i n t e d out the  22 difficulty  i n measuring  which i s perhaps  the non-verbal l e a r n i n g t h a t occurs  the most s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g i n games.  Anec-  d o t a l records tend to support the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i t i s o f t e n not the high a c h i e v i n g student who u l a t i o n games.  emerges the winner i n sim-  Since h i g h a c h i e v e r s are u s u a l l y r a t e d as such  by v e r b a l measures i t lends support to the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t nonv e r b a l s k i l l s are necessary i n gaming. A comparison  between a case study approach  s i m u l a t i o n gaming experience was  and a  c a r r i e d out by Robinson  (68).  Although h i s r e s u l t s were very much the same as those r e p o r t e d by Moore (61) p r e v i o u s l y , he noted an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c r e p a n c y between student p e r c e p t i o n of s i m u l a t i o n game e f f e c t i v e n e s s a c t u a l demonstrated  behavior.  Records of book withdrawals  the l i b r a r y , frequency o f questions asked, and s t a y i n g  and from  after  c l a s s a l l r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amount of a c t i v i t y i n the s i m u l a t i o n group over the case study group. procedures  Since both  covered p r e c i s e l y the same m a t e r i a l i t appears  that  s i m u l a t i o n gaming s t i m u l a t e d more a c t i v i t y which c o u l d be associated with learning.  The students r e p o r t e d from both the  case study and s i m u l a t i o n groups that they p e r c e i v e d gaming as being more enjoyable but that they c o u l d l e a r n more from  case  studies. Lee and O'Leary (54) r e p o r t a study i n which a f o l l o w up of a three day t o t a l immersion " I n t e r - N a t i o n S i m u l a t i o n " was c a r r i e d out one month a f t e r the e x p e r i e n c e .  As a r e s u l t of  p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t measures they determined  that a  p e r s o n a l i t y change had o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of the e x p e r i e n c e .  A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s demonstrated an enhanced a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n complex d e c i s i o n making environments. They a l s o noted t h a t game success c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h game enjoyment.  One o b s e r v a t i o n  that i s made a t the end o f the  study i s t h a t s i m u l a t i o n games o f t e n d u p l i c a t e the kinds o f l e a r n i n g t h a t takes p l a c e o u t s i d e o f the formal  learning  s e t t i n g and perhaps a study o f non-formal kinds  of learning  c o u l d y i e l d u s e f u l knowledge which c o u l d enhance l e a r n i n g theory  and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . Lee  (53) i n a l i t e r a t u r e review f o r a study on  "Inter-Nation  Simulation"  says:  "But, as the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have focused p r i m a r i l y on f a c t u a l l e a r n i n g s i m u l a t i o n games, i n e f f e c t , have been assessed up t o now p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f c r i t e r i a more a p p r o p r i a t e t o t r a d i t i o n a l classroom techniques. As the main o b j e c t i v e f o r u s i n g s i m u l a t i o n games presumably i s not t o teach only f a c t s , but to go beyond t h i s t o develop i n s i g h t s , concepts, awarenesses and s k i l l s o f a k i n d o r d i n a r i l y not p o s s i b l e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l teaching methods--this means t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y unique cont r i b u t i o n o f the game technique to education has not been a p p r o p r i a t e l y t e s t e d . " (53:16) Summary Two f e a t u r e s  o f s i m u l a t i o n gaming which emerge i n most  s t u d i e s are the i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n gaming. iveness  The l a c k o f s u b s t a n t i v e  developed by s i m u l a t i o n  evidence f o r l e a r n i n g  effect-  i s e i t h e r an i n a b i l i t y o f t h i s technique t o cause  l e a r n i n g o r more probably the f a i l u r e o f the r e s e a r c h themselves.  Robinson's study  y i e l d information  (68) i n which b e h a v i o r a l  studies measures  i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the non-behavioral measures  p o i n t s up the d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring the degree o f l e a r n i n g  24 o c c u r r i n g i n games.  Lee  (53)  are not t e s t i n g what games  summarizes by s t a t i n g perhaps  teach.  Although the r e s e a r c h  reviewed here presents  d e f i n i t i v e answer to the q u e s t i o n are e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g d e v i c e s ,  some o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  experience i n d e c i s i o n making and  Games are based on  experiences.  past  i t i s w e l l documented t h a t  a d u l t s b r i n g a v a s t amount of experience to any Therefore,  no  as to whether or not games  seem to s u i t them to a d u l t education.  situation.  we  learning  games would take advantage of the  adults'  A d u l t educators o f t e n propose that l e a r n i n g  environments should be kept i n f o r m a l f o r the a d u l t and  gaming  o f f e r s a means to develop an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. Games are h i g h l y m o t i v a t i o n a l  and  i n t e r e s t i n an area of knowledge.  o f f e r a way  to develop  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  initial  have  i n d i c a t e d that gaming p o t e n t i a l l y can accommodate people with varying  l e v e l s of education  and  d i f f e r i n g backgrounds and  t h i s s u i t s most a d u l t l e a r n i n g groups.  Thus, gaming can be  very worthwhile technique f o r the a d u l t educator to when p l a n n i n g  l e a r n i n g experiences f o r the LAND USE  Simulation  and  again a  consider  adult.  SIMULATION GAMES s i m u l a t i o n gaming i s i n common usage i n  urban land use p l a n n i n g .  The  p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r can employ a  s i m u l a t i o n to work out the i m p l i c a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r types of land use.  O f t e n such s i m u l a t i o n s  are computer a s s i s t e d to speed  up the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of complex i n t e r a c t i o n s . designed an urban land use  Duke  game c a l l e d " M e t r o p o l i s " .  (32) I t s purpose  25 was  t o i n t r o d u c e young p r o f e s s i o n a l s to the d e c i s i o n making  problems o f urban l a n d use p l a n n i n g . was  The emphasis i n the game  p l a c e d on the p h y s i c a l development p a t t e r n , the e f f e c t s o f  v a r i o u s community i s s u e s , and the l i n k a g e s between the p l a y e r s , the c a p i t a l improvements, and the i s s u e s .  This  simulation  game i n v o l v e d e x t e n s i v e p l a y i n terms o f time, and the prer e q u i s i t e knowledge r e q u i r e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t . In c o n t r a s t to " M e t r o p o l i s " i s a s i m u l a t i o n game designed by Godschalk (42) c a l l e d "Negotiate".  Godschalk's  purpose was t o have c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g He hypothesized  process.  t h a t i n c r e a s e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n would l e a d  to i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and c r e a t i v e n e s s  i n planning  Godschalk a l s o proposed t h a t the game experience source o f new a t t i t u d e s , values "Negotiate"  focused  and s o c i a l  outcomes.  would be a  behavior.  on the problem o f s e t t i n g up a  f e d e r a l l y supported low income housing p r o j e c t near two developing  middle income s u b d i v i s i o n s .  The p l a y e r s ' r o l e s  c o n s i s t e d o f two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from middle income groups, two from low income groups and the c i t y p l a n n e r . are d e c l i n i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , u p r o o t i n g  Problems faced  o f low income f a m i l i e s  to new housing l o c a t i o n s , p r o v i s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l parks,  f a c i l i t i e s of  schools and other s e r v i c e s , the c l a s h between two s o c i o -  economic s t r a t a and the b e n e f i t s from i n f u s i o n o f f e d e r a l money. These v a r i o u s problems and p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s are worked i n t o the p l a y e r s ' r o l e s and game r u l e s . takes p l a c e on a three dimensional  The a c t u a l p l a n n i n g  exercise  s c a l e model o f the p r o j e c t .  26  P l a y o f the game p o i n t e d up a number o f f r u s t r a t i o n s f o r the p l a y e r s .  They f e l t t h a t the p l a n n i n g process was  v i r t u a l l y completed b e f o r e p l a y s t a r t e d and that more p l a y i n g time would be e s s e n t i a l t o develop t r u s t between the d i f f e r e n t socio-economic groups  and the p l a n n e r .  Although no c o n c l u s i o n s were reached as t o a t t i t u d e change and i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and c r e a t i v e n e s s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , tape r e c o r d i n g s o f the s e s s i o n  demonstrated  a good d e a l o f s e l f - a n a l y s i s and group a n a l y s i s of the reasons f o r t a k i n g c e r t a i n stands.  The d e s i g n e r o f the game recommended  longer p l a y i n g time and more o b j e c t i v e measures o f s u c c e s s , and concluded w i t h recommendations t o modify the d e s i g n o f the game. "Downtown: was  An Economic-Environmental  designed by Long ( 5 5 ) t o demonstrate  S i m u l a t i o n Game"  the c o n f l i c t between  the economic development o f a community and i t s environmental quality.  The game employs two types o f c u r r e n c y , environmental  quality units  (E.Q.U's) and money.  i s demonstrated  throughout  Using these two u n i t s , i t  the game that there are no c l e a r c u t  s o l u t i o n s to community p l a n n i n g problems.  Groups w i t h v a r i o u s  i n t e r e s t s work through the town c o u n c i l to have t h e i r p l a n s implemented.  Equations have been worked out t o show the e f f e c t s  of c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s f o r both the economic-environmental and governmental  p a r t s o f the game.  P l a y e r s use e x i s t i n g  and d e r i v e new ones t o demonstrate events.  formulas  the e f f e c t s : o f c e r t a i n  For example, economic i n t e r e s t s and environmental  i n t e r e s t s work out the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f changing a s m a l l park  27 area i n t o a p a r k i n g l o t .  Each group then p r e s e n t s i t s data t o  the town c o u n c i l f o r zoning d e c i s i o n s .  Although Long does not  present an e v a l u a t i o n o f the game, the degree o f complexity would i n v o l v e a good d e a l o f p r e p a r a t i o n and a long i n v o l v e d play.  The use o f two types o f c u r r e n c y , money and E.Q.U's.,  p o i n t s out the problems faced by the economic, environmental and governmental s e c t o r s o f the r e a l  community.  Two e c o l o g i c a l games which have some b e a r i n g on the problems b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d are " W i l d l i f e " designed by Meier e t a l (58) and "The Moose-Beaver-Wolf-Environment of I s l e Royale" by Meier and Doyle (59). s t r a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n dynamics a new environment.  System  " W i l d l i f e " demon-  o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l organism i n  The value o f t h i s game i s i n showing how  e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s are a p p l i e d to demonstrate the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y occur between an organism and i t s environment.  "The Moose-Beaver-Wolf-Environment  System o f I s l e  Royale" does much the same t h i n g as " W i l d l i f e " except t h a t i t demonstrates the use o f r e a l data; namely, the a c t u a l  inter-  a c t i o n s that occur on I s l e Royale. The s e v e r a l s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d above are samples o f ways s i m u l a t i o n gaming has been a p p l i e d to demonstrate the p l a n n i n g process and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l  principles.  Each has an unique o f f e r i n g :  the d e c i s i o n  Duke (32) emphasized  making p r o c e s s , Godschalk (42) attempted to i n v o l v e l a y people i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , Long  (55) showed the e f f e c t i v e use o f  two measures o f c u r r e n c y and Meier (58,59) i n both s t u d i e s demonstrated how e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s can be gamed.  28 GAME DESIGN PROCEDURES Boocock and S c h i l d  (10) p o i n t out i n t h e i r book t h a t  d e s i g n i n g a game i s p a r t l y an " a r t i s t i c u n d e r t a k i n g " .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t there i s no c l e a r c u t method which can be r i g i d l y adhered to which w i l l produce as an end product a s u c c e s s f u l game.  However, most o f the g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e s ,  such as Tansey and Unwin ( 7 9 ) , Boocock and S c h i l d  (10),  Raser ( 6 5 ) , Abt (1) and Gordon ( 4 3 ) , have presented a general method which p r o v i d e s a t l e a s t a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r game d e s i g n . Since the major focus of t h i s study i s t o design a game, a by-product  a n t i c i p a t e d i s the embellishment  o f each o f the steps  l i s t e d below f o r d e s i g n i n g a r u r a l land use s i m u l a t i o n game. Glazier  (41) presents the "Ten Steps  o f Game Design" as  formulated by Dr. C l a r k C. Abt; they a r e : 1.  Define the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s .  2.  Determine  scope:  -duration -geographic  area  -issues. 3.  I d e n t i f y key p a r t i c i p a n t s o r a c t o r s — i n d i v i d u a l s or groups.  4.  Determine the o b j e c t i v e s o f each a c t o r .  5.  Determine the resources o f a c t o r s : -physical -social -economic  -political -information. 6.  Determine the i n t e r a c t i o n sequence among a c t o r s .  7.  Determine the d e c i s i o n r u l e s or c r i t e r i a on the b a s i s o f which a c t o r s decide what resources and information  to t r a n s m i t  or r e c e i v e and what  a c t i o n s to take. 8.  I d e n t i f y e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s on a c t i o n s o f the actors.  9.  Formulate s c o r i n g r u l e s or win c r i t e r i a on the b a s i s o f the degree t o which a c t o r s or teams o f a c t o r s achieve t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s w i t h utilization  10.  of resources.  Choose the form of p r e s e n t a t i o n and  efficient  and m a n i p u l a t i o n  sequence o f o p e r a t i o n s :  -board game -role  play  -paper/pencil -computer The  t e n steps  listed  exercise  simulation. i n G l a z i e r , although d i f f e r e n t i n minor  d e t a i l s , e x h i b i t much i n common w i t h procedures presented by other  game d e s i g n e r s . Twelker (83), assuming a somewhat more  generalized  approach, puts emphasis on d e c i d i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y simulation ification  o f the  game process f o r what i s t o be taught, c a r e f u l specof behavioral  o b j e c t i v e s so as t o s e t up measurable  c r i t e r i a , and the development o f an i n t e n s i v e v a l i d a t i o n system.  30 The  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g the technique  the v a l i d a t i o n of the design are important process  b e f o r e beginning stages  and  i n the  of s i m u l a t i o n game d e s i g n . SUMMARY S i m u l a t i o n gaming as an e d u c a t i o n a l technique,  having  a n c i e n t o r i g i n s , has  only come i n t o common usage i n the  formal e d u c a t i o n a l system i n r e c e n t y e a r s . been made i n support  by r e s e a r c h .  i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  c r e a t e d by games and The  Many claims have  o f gaming as an e d u c a t i o n a l technique  most are s u b j e c t i v e and are not supported notable e x c e p t i o n  but  One  interest  the m o t i v a t i o n to pursue a l e a r n i n g t a s k .  s t u d i e s of Cherryholmes (19), Moore (61), and  (68) c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y support  Robinson  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of gaming.  I t i s a l s o noted t h a t the negative find objective  although  aspects  of gaming f a i l  to  support.  Three s t u d i e s showed t h a t the r o l e of the e x t e r n a l a d v i s o r or e d u c a t i o n a l agent i s an extremely s e n s i t i v e Zaltman (88), McKenney and D i l l concluded  one.  (57), and Baldwin (3) a l l  t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l agent must be cautious  about  h i s e n t r y i n t o game p l a y because of p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s to l e a r n i n g .  Baldwin (3) and  whole area o f game p r e s e n t a t i o n and game parameters, be  Simon (72) pursued  the  found a need to a l t e r  c a r e f u l o f game l a b e l s , and a t t e n d to  d e t a i l s to ensure t h a t the intended  l e a r n i n g was  occurring.  E d u c a t i o n a l games are u s u a l l y s i m u l a t i o n games; t h a t i s , they simulate some aspect of r e a l i t y .  Smoker (73) and  Boocock  31 (11)  c a r r i e d out r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t o v e r i f y the r e a l i t y o f the  s i m u l a t i o n p a r t o f the game.  T h i s i s an important p a r t o f  d e s i g n i n g any s i m u l a t i o n game s i n c e i f the s i m u l a t i o n i s n o t accurate  i t can produce the wrong l e a r n i n g outcomes. Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e authors make  frequent  r e f e r e n c e t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f measuring the l e a r n i n g which takes p l a c e as the r e s u l t o f a gaming experience. suggestion  The  i s t h a t a l l o f what a game teaches cannot be measured  be v e r b a l means alone. observations  Robinson (68) made some b e h a v i o r a l  o f a group o f people p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s i m u l a t i o n  game and found the t e s t r e s u l t s and the b e h a v i o r a l measures were very d i s c r e p a n t .  The b e h a v i o r a l measures i n d i c a t e d t h a t  more l e a r n i n g had occurred  than d i d the v e r b a l measurements.  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f s i m u l a t i o n games i n v o l v i n g l a n d use and e c o l o g i c a l concepts were examined. "Negotiate",  and "Downtown" were three urban l a n d use games  which presented the c i t y .  "Metropolis",  three u s e f u l approaches t o land use problems i n  Duke's (32) game " M e t r o p o l i s " designed f o r pro-  f e s s i o n a l planners  brought development p a t t e r n s  issues into play.  "Negotiate"  and s o c i a l  designed by Godsehalk (42)  emphasized the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the c i t z e n r y i n urban l a n d use planning.  The c o n f l i c t between the environment and the urban  economy was the focus o f Long's (55) game "Downtown".  Meier's  (58,59) game " W i l d l i f e " and the r e a l s i m u l a t i o n on I s l e Royale shows how e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s can be gamed. Game d e s i g n i n g  i s d i s c u s s e d by many authors but a l l  admit t h a t i t i s a complex undertaking  r e q u i r i n g the development  of a procedure f o r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s .  Glazier  (41) presented  the ten steps f o r d e s i g n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l games which was g u i d e l i n e f o r the game designed i n t h i s study. were not r i g i d l y adhered  the  These t e n steps  to and the next chapter w i l l p r e s e n t  the procedure of d e s i g n as i t was  modified f o r t h i s  study.  Chapter 3 DESIGNING THE EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME The simple.  process  o f d e s i g n i n g a s i m u l a t i o n game i s not  As p o i n t e d out p r e v i o u s l y there i s no one c l e a r l y  d e f i n e d procedure t h a t guarantees the p r o d u c t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e learning device.  Designing  i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g the component  p a r t s o f the problem t o be gamed and then p u t t i n g them  together  i n a format t h a t can be manipulated by the game p a r t i c i p a n t s . The  first  step i n d e s i g n i n g the land use p l a n n i n g game  i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g sources source  of information.  The p r i n c i p a l  o f i n f o r m a t i o n was a number o f s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by  the Canada Land Inventory  i n the E a s t Kootenay.  The next  steps i n s e t t i n g up the s i m u l a t i o n were to decide on what was to  be gamed and how i t was t o be presented.  The resources o f  the p l a y e r s then had t o be i d e n t i f i e d , both the t a n g i b l e resources  t o be used i n the game and resources  i n the form o f  information. The  f i n a l stage  i n the design process was t o put the  v a r i o u s component p a r t s together  i n t o a p l a y a b l e game. For  t h i s purpose two t r i a l v e r s i o n s emerged and both were m o d i f i e d u n t i l a t h i r d v e r s i o n was developed.  Although the t h i r d  v e r s i o n was used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and i s c a l l e d the f i n a l v e r s i o n , there i s no doubt t h a t more m o d i f i c a t i o n s to t h i s " f i n a l v e r s i o n " would be r e q u i r e d to maximize i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 33  34 DESIGN PROCEDURE The  procedure used i n d e s i g n i n g  t h i s game resembles the  procedure o u t l i n e d by G l a z i e r (41). The steps followed  t h a t were  included: 1.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f sources o f r e a l data f o r use i n designing  2.  Deciding  the s i m u l a t i o n p a r t o f the game. on the scope o f the game i n terms o f i t s  g o a l s , geographic area, time span, and i s s u e s to be 3.  presented.  D e c i d i n g how the s i m u l a t i o n would be presented (game  4.  format).  S e t t i n g out what resources  the p l a y e r s would have  available. 5.  Determining the game and p l a y e r o b j e c t i v e s .  6.  S e t t i n g up a p r e l i m i n a r y game and p l a y i n g i t .  7.  Modifying  8.  S e t t i n g up a second game based on the m o d i f i c a t i o n s  the f i r s t game.  of the f i r s t 9. 10.  Modifying  and p l a y i n g i t .  the second game.  S e t t i n g up a f i n a l v e r s i o n t o be used i n the East Kootenay.  11.  P l a y i n g the game and c o l l e c t i n g data on i t s effectiveness.  35 SOURCES OF DATA The  c h i e f reason  f o r choosing  o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h i s study was  the East Kootenay area t h a t the land c a p a b i l i t y  a n a l y s i s had been r e c e n t l y completed f o r t h i s r e g i o n by Canada Land Inventory. of i n f o r m a t i o n was area.  T h i s meant t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume  a v a i l a b l e on land use and the people  T h e r e f o r e , before beginning  sources  the  of the  to design the game the  o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as a r e s u l t o f the land cap-  a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s were i d e n t i f i e d . C o l l e c t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n began with a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h v a r i o u s members of the Canada Land Inventory  staff in  V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia who  o f background  i d e n t i f i e d sources  i n f o r m a t i o n on the Canada Land Inventory and  land use  (78)(31)(29)(63)(30)  i n the E a s t Kootenay (44) (16)(13)(14).  p r o v i d e d a great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r own i n the E a s t Kootenay and p r o v i d e d the names o f two working i n the E a s t Kootenay who  experiences people  might have more i n s i g h t s  the problems of l a n d use i n t h a t area, the Regional Director  They a l s o  (60) and the Regional W i l d l i f e B i o l o g i s t  into  Planning  (28).  Those  people were contacted and p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n which aided i n the The  design. i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the game should be  upon the land use c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s map f o r the East Kootenay area.  I t was  which was a v a i l a b l e  determined t h a t l a n d use  f o r f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and a g r i c u l t u r e presented i n this region.  F u r t h e r , i t was  built  suggested  some c o n f l i c t  t h a t landowners were  36 not very knowledgeable as t o the consequences o f c e r t a i n land use procedures.  Landowners f o r the most p a r t f e l t t h a t  they  should be able t o do whatever they wanted with t h e i r own land and what they d i d on t h e i r land o n l y a f f e c t e d them. GOAL The  goal o f the game was to develop the p a r t i c i p a n t s *  knowledge o f and a t t i t u d e s towards land use p l a n n i n g . method t o be employed to achieve  The  t h i s goal was t o have p l a y e r s  p l a n simulated p i e c e s o f land and experience  the consequences  of t h e i r land use d e c i s i o n s . SCOPE Both the land b e i n g s i m u l a t e d and the p l a y e r s who would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the game would be r e s t r i c t e d to the geographic area represented  by the E a s t Kootenay Area Land C a p a b i l i t y  A n a l y s i s map prepared  by the Canada Land Inventory  F u r t h e r , the game would t r y to simulate  (16).  a f i v e year time span  so t h a t p l a y e r s would see the e f f e c t s o f l a n d use p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s over a long p e r i o d o f time. The  i s s u e s t o be represented  i n the game would be  r e s t r i c t e d to the i n t e r p l a y between l a n d use f o r f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e and w i l d l i f e to the e x c l u s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l , mining, and other l a n d uses. GAME FORMAT S i m u l a t i o n game formats which i n i t i a l l y  seemed  a p p l i c a b l e were a board game, a game with some r o l e p l a y ,  37  or a paper and p e n c i l e x e r c i s e .  I t was decided  t h a t a board  game o f f e r e d the best format as i t would have recorded  on the  board the moves o f each p l a y e r , i t would have p l a y e r i n v o l v e ment i n manipulating  p i e c e s and i t would p r o v i d e  p r e s e n t a t i o n than a paper and p e n c i l e x e r c i s e .  a less abstract Role p l a y would  be p a r t o f the game but r e s t r i c t e d t o the r o l e o f a landowner of a simulated The  piece of land.  f i r s t attempt a t a format i n v o l v e d d e s i g n i n g a  game which used the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own land as the game board. A map o f each p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l a n d c o u l d be drawn and p l a y e r s would then p l a n the uses o f v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the l a n d . approach would probably  produce a game which would be extremely  meaningful to the p l a y e r s , but presented problems.  Firstly,  many d i f f i c u l t  design  there was t h e problem o f how t o c o n s t r u c t  a game which would be general of p r o p e r t y .  This  enough to accommodate a l l types  Secondly, there would be so many v a r i a b l e s  i n v o l v e d t h a t even i f a l l were known i t would be extremely difficult  to f i t them i n t o a s i n g l e game.  on the success  Finally,  deciding  o r f a i l u r e o f the game as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  device  would i n v o l v e judging the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l gaming s e s s i o n s s i n c e games with completely be d i f f e r e n t games. dismissed  d i f f e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s would  T h i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d format was thus  as d e s i r a b l e but o v e r l y d i f f i c u l t  to achieve.  A second attempt a t a s p e c i f i c format examined the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g the whole East Kootenay Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s map as a game board. planning  T h i s e x e r c i s e would i n v o l v e  l a r g e p i e c e s o f the East Kootenay area by the p a r -  38 t i c i p a n t s , but a board t o represent  t h i s area on a s c a l e which  c o u l d be e a s i l y worked with would be q u i t e l a r g e .  In a d d i t i o n ,  i t would be an u n r e a l i s t i c task f o r a person l i v i n g on a s p e c i f i c p i e c e o f land t o apply  h i s experience t o the whole  East Kootenay area.  i t was decided  Therefore,  that  this  approach would produce a game which would be too g e n e r a l . The  approach t h a t was f i n a l l y adopted was t o s e l e c t a  small p i e c e o f the land c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s map and enlarge i t . The  area s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e d a l l o f the land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s -  s i f i c a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , b i g game, f o r e s t r y , waterfowl and n a t i v e range. met  A two square mile s e c t i o n was chosen which  those requirements and was enlarged  square game board  (Figure 1 ) .  i n t o nine p r o p e r t i e s ranging Each p r o p e r t y  t o form a two f o o t  The game board was then d i v i d e d i n s i z e from 550 t o 1300 a c r e s .  c o n s i s t e d o f a number o f land c a p a b i l i t i e s , a t  l e a s t one o f which was a w i l d l i f e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b i g game or waterfowl. PLAYER RESOURCES P l a y e r resources  consisted of physical  resources  such as money, land and a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and i n f o r m a t i o n a l resources and  which were found i n the land deed, consequence cards  r i s k cards.  The land c a p a b i l i t i e s represented  on a l l pro-  p e r t i e s were s u f f i c i e n t to support numerous w i l d and domestic p l a n t and animal s p e c i e s . managability  For the sake o f s i m p l i c i t y and  the number o f d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s and animals t h a t  c o u l d be represented  on the game board was l i m i t e d to f i v e  Figure 1 Game Board  40 i n c l u d i n g c a t t l e , f i e l d crops, b i g game, waterfowl and f o r e s t s . Each resource was  represented  on the game board as a c o l o r e d  t i l e - - b r o w n f o r c a t t l e , pink f o r f i e l d c r o p s , orange f o r b i g game, blue f o r waterfowl and  green f o r f o r e s t s (Figure 2).  s i n g l e ceramic t i l e s  represented  one  and  represented  ten u n i t s .  the double t i l e s Money was  The  u n i t of u n s p e c i f i e d s i z e  also a player resource.  During the p l a y  of  the game p a r t i c i p a n t s would attempt to maximize the moneys they s t a r t e d with by wise l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  A bank was  the game with p l a y money i n denominations o f $5, $100,  $500, $1000 and Each p r o p e r t y  s e t up  $10,  $20,  $50,  $5000. had  a deed (Appendix C) and  players  were able to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n  about t h e i r h o l d i n g from  deed.  of a p i e c e of l a n d as w e l l  Information  on the value  the numbers of c a t t l e , f i e l d c r o p s , waterfowl, b i g game  1  f o r e s t s t h a t could be put on the land was A d d i t i o n a l information l a n d was  contained  for  as  and  on the deed.  on the p l a n n i n g  on Consequence Cards.  their  of a piece  of  P l a y e r s drew a c a r d  each time they made some change to the l a n d by removing or adding u n i t s of animals or p l a n t s . from the cards how own  l a n d and  P l a y e r s were to l e a r n  d i f f e r e n t land use d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e i r  the land of t h e i r neighbours.  T h i s was  to show  t h a t changes i n the land can have a f f e c t s on l a n d t h a t are p r e d i c t a b l e and for  not  to allow a l l p l a y e r s to note these consequences  f u t u r e land use d e c i s i o n s .  when a p l a y e r over-populated  Another s e t of cards was  an area with  domesticated p l a n t s or animals.  either native  These cards were c a l l e d  used or Risk  Figure 2 Game Board Set-up f o r Play  42  Cards.  T h e i r purpose was e x a c t l y the same as f o r the conse-  quence cards; t o show p l a y e r s the r e s u l t s o f o v e r - p o p u l a t i n g and  to provide i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u t u r e  planning.  GAME AND PLAYER OBJECTIVES Once the format had been s e t out the next step was t o formulate  the game and p l a y e r o b j e c t i v e s .  The o b j e c t i v e was  to maximize the economic r e t u r n s from a p i e c e o f land and minimize the environmental d i s r u p t i o n .  The economic r e t u r n s  to a landowner were the r e s u l t o f s e l l i n g p l a n t or animal farm produce, l o g g i n g and s e l l i n g f o r e s t s and a l l o w i n g the h u n t i n g of w i l d animals.  Improper management o f the l a n d r e s u l t e d i n  environmental d i s r u p t i o n such as f l o o d s , d i s e a s e or famine. P l a y e r s would thus have t o c o n s i d e r both the environmental and economic e f f e c t s o f t h e i r l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . PRELIMINARY VERSION T h i s stage  i n v o l v e d s p e c i f y i n g the d e t a i l s o f p l a y  which would be compatible  w i t h the format chosen, the resources  a v a i l a b l e , and the p l a y e r and game o b j e c t i v e s . game was formulated  A playable  so t h a t i t c o u l d then be m o d i f i e d and  f i t t e d t o the pre-determined c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above and the s i x i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s noted p r e v i o u s l y . Number o f P l a y e r s The  number of p l a y e r s was l i m i t e d by the number o f  p r o p e r t i e s represented  on the game board.  The maximum number  t h a t c o u l d be accommodated was nine i n d i v i d u a l s or nine teams of p l a y e r s .  Two p l a y e r s  or teams of p l a y e r s would be the  minimum number who c o u l d p l a y and have the a p p r o p r i a t e actions  inter-  occur.  S e t t i n g Up the Game Board At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the game a l l p r o p e r t i e s on the game board would be i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e . would be f o r e s t e d and have w i l d animals present  of land t o make i t r e p r e s e n t Deeds p r o v i d e d  tiles  The land  but no domes-  t i c a t e d s p e c i e s would be on the game board a t t h i s Game p a r t i c i p a n t s s e t out the a p p r o p r i a t e  represented  stage.  on t h e i r  piece  i t s pre-agriculture condition.  information  on how many p l a n t s and  animals were on the land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f a p i e c e of l a n d .  The number o f n a t i v e p l a n t s or animals was i n d i c a t e d  by r e d numbers on the deed.  C a l c u l a t i o n o f the a b i l i t y o f the  land t o h o l d s p e c i f i c numbers o f p l a n t and animal  species  i n v o l v e d d e c i d i n g on the number t h a t c o u l d be s u s t a i n e d acres based on the r a t i o n a l e that the h i g h e r  on 50  classifications  c o u l d support more than the lower c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  The choice  o f 50 acres was a r b i t r a r y and the a c t u a l s i z e o f a u n i t was l e f t unspecified.  The c a l c u l a t i o n s were based on the f i g u r e s  shown i n Table 1.  By l e a v i n g the s i z e o f the u n i t s u n s p e c i f i e d ,  i t was unnecessary to work out p r e c i s e d e t a i l s on the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the l a n d .  44 Table 1 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y p e r 50 Acres o f the 11 Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Carrying  Land C a p a b i l i t y  Forest Units/50 Acres  High C a p a b i l i t y A g r i c u l t u r e  1  Moderate C a p a b i l i t y Agriculture  1  Limited  Capacity/50 acres of Land B i g Game Units/50 Acres  Waterfowl Units/50 Acres  Capability  Agriculture  1  High C a p a b i l i t y F o r e s t r y Moderate C a p a b i l i t y F o r e s t r y  16 8  Limited Capability Forestry High C a p a b i l i t y B i g Game  4 --  8  Moderate C a p a b i l i t y B i g Game  —  4  High C a p a b i l i t y Waterfowl  —  —  Waterfowl  --  --  N a t i v e Range  --  8  16  Moderate C a p a b i l i t y 8  A f t e r the land was s e t up i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e the deeds were s e t out on each p i e c e  o f p r o p e r t y (Figure 2 ) .  Seasons Winter The p l a y was t o take i n one f u l l year and each round o f play  involved  a season o f the year b e g i n n i n g w i t h w i n t e r .  To  45 decide who would i n i t i a t e game p l a y a p a i r o f d i c e was r o l l e d and  the person with  the h i g h e s t score s t a r t e d p l a y .  then proceeded i n a clockwise The  beginning  direction.  p l a y e r chose a p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y and  p a i d the purchase p r i c e i n d i c a t e d on the deed. thus chose a p i e c e o f land and was r e - s e a t e d p o s s i b l e to h i s l a n d .  The p l a y  Each p l a y e r  as near as  P l a y e r s were then given the deed to  t h e i r land and $5000 i n p l a y money from which they p a i d the purchase p r i c e f o r the l a n d . The  f i r s t move t o s t a r t the game was by the person  a c t i n g as banker s p i n n i n g a p o i n t e r t o decide weather e f f e c t s .  on seasonal  The s p i n n e r c o u l d l a n d on one o f f i v e  u n u s u a l l y wet f l o o d i n g decreases a l l p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n s  options; by t e n  u n i t s , u n u s u a l l y warm weather i n c r e a s e s b i g game and waterfowl by f i v e u n i t s , d r i e r than normal so animal and p l a n t  populations  decrease by f i v e u n i t s , c o n d i t i o n s e x c e l l e n t f o r p l a n t popu l a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e p l a n t s i n c r e a s e by f i v e u n i t s , and normal or no change.  A l l p l a y e r s were to c a r r y out the i n s t r u c t i o n s  i n d i c a t e d by the p o i n t e r .  Unpurchased l a n d was a l s o a f f e c t e d  by the chance e f f e c t s o f weather. The  p l a y e r then had to decide what n a t u r a l  would be removed to prepare h i s land f o r farming.  populations Removal was  s i g n i f i e d by t u r n i n g over the c o l o r e d t i l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the p l a n t or animal t o be removed.  The r e s u l t s o f removal i n c l u d e d  a c q u i r i n g some money from the bank f o r the s a l e o f the n a t i v e p l a n t s and animals, d i m i n i s h i n g environmental u n i t s , and drawing a c a r d to f i n d out the consequences o f what he had done.  46 The amount of money r e c e i v e d was  decided by r o l l i n g  two c o l o r e d d i c e .  I f the r e d d i e was  h i g h e s t the v a l u e of  each u n i t s o l d was  doubled, i f the white one was  h a l v e d , and i f doubles were r o l l e d there was  h i g h i t was  no change.  The  values r e c e i v e d by the removal of p o p u l a t i o n s are shown i n Table  2. Table 2 Economic and Environmental U n i t Values Animals and P l a n t s  Economic Values  Environmental Values  Forest  $25  25 Environmental U n i t s  Big Game  $25  50 Environmental U n i t s  Waterfowl  $25  50 Environmental U n i t s  Cattle  $50  0 Environmental U n i t s  $25  0 Environmental U n i t s  Field  Crops  Every p i e c e of p r o p e r t y i n i t i a l l y had units.  2000 environmental  T h e r e f o r e , the decrease i n environmental u n i t s was  the  number o f each s p e c i e s removed times i t s environmental u n i t s s u b t r a c t e d from the t o t a l environmental v a l u e f o r t h a t p i e c e of property. A consequence c a r d was group.  Any  drawn and read out to the whole  changes i n n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a  f u r t h e r decrease i n environmental u n i t s . consequence c a r d was  The content o f each  l a b e l l e d i n c r e a s e or decrease; the  that a p p l i e d depended on whether the p o p u l a t i o n had been  one  47  i n c r e a s e d or decreased.  As with the s p i n n e r , consequence  cards  i n f l u e n c e d unpurchased lands as w e l l as the land h e l d by the players. Spring A f t e r each p l a y e r had made the a p p r o p r i a t e moves f o r winter,  the weather s p i n n e r was spun and a l l p l a y e r s  out the a p p r o p r i a t e the domesticated  carried  i n s t r u c t i o n s . The p l a y e r s then decided on  animals and p l a n t s t o put on t h e i r l a n d .  The  number t o be p l a c e d on a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f land was c o n t r o l l e d by a t a b l e o f exchange values  on each deed (Table 3). The  values are read h o r i z o n t a l l y f o r each c a p a b i l i t y so t h a t f o r the removal o f one s p e c i e s i t can be determined how many o f another s p e c i e s can r e p l a c e i t . A l l u n i t s t h a t were put on the game board i n exchange f o r p r e v i o u s l y removed p l a n t s or animals were p a i d f o r a t the bank.  The p l a y e r r o l l e d d i c e t o determine the c o s t t o him  (red d i e h i g h — t w i c e value, a p a i r — n o  the v a l u e , white d i e h i g h — o n e h a l f the  change).  The d i c e were r o l l e d to determine  any n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e i n w i l d animal p o p u l a t i o n s .  A high r e d  d i e i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e by two u n i t s and a low white or doubles r e s u l t e d i n no change. Since domesticated environmental value  p l a n t and animal s p e c i e s had no  (Table 2) there was no change t o e n v i r o n -  mental u n i t s c o r e s , but any n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f w i l d s p e c i e s r e s u l t e d i n an a p p r o p r i a t e i n c r e a s e i n the environmental  score.  48  Table 3 Exchange U n i t s f o r Replacement o f a U n i t of a P a r t i c u l a r P l a n t or Animal Species w i t h Another Exchange  Capability  Field C a t t l e Crops per 50 p e r 50 Acres Acres  Units  Forest p e r 50 Acres  Big Game p e r 50 Acres  Waterfowl p e r 50 Acres  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  6  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  Limited Agriculture  2  4  1  1  0  High F o r e s t r y  2  2  16  1  0  Moderate F o r e s t r y  2  2  8  1  0  Limited  2  2  4  1  0  High B i g Game  8  0  1  8  0  Moderate B i g Game  4  0  1  4  0  High Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  16  Moderate Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  8  N a t i v e Range  8  8  0  8  0  Forestry  49  Consequence cards were drawn, the contents read aloud, and the i n d i c a t e d changes were made before p l a y proceeded t o the next person.  I f any p o p u l a t i o n s were above the l i m i t s  shown on the deed a r i s k card was drawn. Summer To determine two  the success or f a i l u r e o f f i e l d  c o l o r e d d i c e were r o l l e d .  field  crops the  I f the r e d d i e was high two more  crops were added to the land o f those p l a y e r s who a l r e a d y  had f i e l d  crops, i f white was high f i e l d  crops decreased by two,  and i f doubles were r o l l e d there was no change. The next step was t o buy back w i l d p o p u l a t i o n s t o r e p l a c e those removed by h a r v e s t i n g or the moves o f other players.  At t h i s p o i n t p l a y e r s c o u l d r e g a i n  environmental  u n i t s that were l o s t p r e v i o u s l y . The purchase to determine  o f w i l d s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d r o l l i n g the d i c e  the value  (red h i g h — t w i c e  one h a l f the v a l u e , d o u b l e s — n o Table 2).  Environmental  the v a l u e , white  high-  change i n value shown on  u n i t s r e g a i n e d by purchase  to the score as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2.  were added  Consequence cards and  r i s k cards were drawn as necessary. Fall As with the other seasons,  f a l l began w i t h s p i n n i n g the  weather s p i n n e r and making the changes i n d i c a t e d .  A l l field  crops and one h a l f o f a l l remaining c a t t l e , b i g game and waterfowl were then s o l d , with t h e i r removal i n d i c a t e d by t u r n i n g over the u n i t s s o l d .  Sale p r i c e was determined by  50 r o l l i n g the two c o l o r e d d i c e as b e f o r e .  A l l c a t t l e t h a t were  kept had to be p r o v i d e d w i n t e r f e e d a t $20 per u n i t p a i d t o the bank. Environmental u n i t s were t o t a l l e d having some i f waterfowl and b i g game were s o l d . r i s k cards were drawn as necessary Fall  subtracted  Consequence and  and t h e i r e f f e c t s read o u t .  ended the f i r s t year o f p l a y .  P l a y then resumed  w i t h winter o f the second year and the seasons were The  repeated.  only change i n the second and subsequent rounds was t h a t  to buy back any c a t t l e or f i e l d crops  t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y s o l d  r e q u i r e d only a payment t o the bank and t u r n i n g over the t i l e s already on the board without  need t o c o n s u l t the exchange value  table. At the beginning  o f the second and subsequent winters  p l a y e r s c o u l d purchase a d d i t i o n a l p i e c e s of p r o p e r t y i f they were a v a i l a b l e . Play continued Win  and S c o r i n g The  f o r f i v e f u l l years o r 20 seasons.  Criteria  final  score c o n s i s t e d o f the t o t a l amount o f money  a p l a y e r had on the f i n a l t o t a l environmental u n i t s .  f a l l season o f p l a y added t o the T h i s score was c a l l e d the t o t a l  score.  To win the game a person must have had the h i g h e s t t o t a l score and have maintained above 1000 p o i n t s .  the environmental u n i t s a t o r  51 MODIFICATIONS TO THE P l a y i n g t h i s game with flaws  i n the design,  The  first  two  people showed up a number o f  the most c r u c i a l of which was  took to p l a y the game. s e s s i o n s with two  PRELIMINARY GAME  One  the time i t  f u l l year on three separate  people took 150,  165,  155  playing  minutes.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s suggested were those t h a t would  shorten  the p l a y i n g time.  carried  out:  The  f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s were  Winter: The  weather s p i n n e r was  removed from subsequent p l a y  and weather c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d consequence c a r d s .  R o l l i n g the d i c e was  i n t o the  omitted  from  p l a y i n d e c i d i n g on moneys r e c e i v e d from the s a l e of wild populations purchase and  and  a t a b l e of values  a s a l e p r i c e was  including a  s u b s t i t u t e d (Table  4).  Spring: As with winter r o l l i n g was  the weather spinner and  a l l dice  removed.  Summer: The  same changes as s p r i n g .  Fall: The  same changes as summer.  had  to be s o l d whereas w i l d s p e c i e s were not  One  other major m o d i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d because of  difficulties  In a d d i t i o n , a l l c a t t l e to be s o l d .  i n v o l v e d i n accumulating money i n the game.  economic values were t h e r e f o r e r e v i s e d as shown i n Table  the The 4.  52 Table  4  Revised Table of Economic and Environmental Values Economic Values Purchase Sale Price Price  Animals and P l a n t s  Environmental Values  Forest  $25  $50  25 Environmental U n i t s  Big Game  $40  $50  25 Environmental Units  Waterfowl  $40  $50  25 Environmental U n i t s  Cattle  $50  $100  0 Environmental U n i t s  F i e l d Crop  $10  $25  0 Environmental U n i t s  PILOT STUDY VERSION The  p i l o t study was  c a r r i e d out w i t h  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. with a mean s i z e of 5.8  23 students  at the  Four groups p l a y e d the game  persons per  group.  A f t e r each group played the game, suggestions improvement were noted by observers  and p l a y e r s .  for  Modifications  were a p p l i e d to the subsequent p l a y i n g s e s s i o n s to see i f the problems noted c o u l d be overcome. S e s s i o n Number 1 (6 p l a y e r s ) 1.  The  e x p l a n a t i o n of how  f a c i l i t a t e d by having  to read the deed c o u l d one  be  of the deeds d u p l i c a t e d  so t h a t each p l a y e r c o u l d look at the same deed d u r i n g the e x p l a n a t i o n . number 5 was  The  deed f o r p r o p e r t y  d u p l i c a t e d f o r t h i s purpose  (see Appendix C ) .  53 2.  Money l e s s the p r i c e o f a p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y and the numbers o f f o r e s t u n i t s , waterfowl u n i t s and b i g game u n i t s on the u n d i s t u r b e d p r o p e r t y  could  be counted out i n advance to speed up p l a y .  This  was done with money and t i l e s being p l a c e d i n separate 3.  envelopes f o r each p r o p e r t y .  The person  running  the game had to supply  con-  tinuous v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s o f what to do i n each season.  Cards showing the sequence o f events  f o r each season were s u p p l i e d . 4.  Some consequence cards r e q u i r e d r e w r i t i n g to c l a r i f y t h e i r meaning.  S e s s i o n Number 2 (4 p l a y e r s ) P l a y i n g time took three hours f o r two f u l l y e a r s .  Most  of the time was spent t r y i n g t o manage more than one p i e c e o f property.  T h e r e f o r e , p l a y e r s on subsequent games were r e s t r i c t e d  to owning only one p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y . S e s s i o n Number 3 (4 p l a y e r s ) Consequence cards were reduced  t o f o u r p e r resource  category i n c l u d i n g two consequences f o r i n c r e a s e and two f o r decrease  (see Appendix D).  T h i s was done so t h a t p l a y e r s c o u l d  l e a r n the consequences more e a s i l y . m o d i f i e d and reduced  to f i v e .  Risk cards were a l s o  The contents  o f the consequence  and r i s k cards were l i s t e d i n Appendixes D and E.  54  S e s s i o n Number 4 (& p l a y e r s ) S e t t i n g up unpurchased l a n d with a l l the t i l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t r e e s , b i g game and waterfowl was unnecessary s i n c e only one p r o p e r t y c o u l d be purchased.  Some rewards on  the consequence cards were too generous and were reduced. FINAL VERSION A s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s was developed i n t r o d u c i n g people outlined b r i e f l y 1.  t o the game.  These i n s t r u c t i o n s are  here.  The purpose o f the game was d e s c r i b e d as p r o v i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s with experience of  i n planning a piece  land and s e e i n g how changes a f f e c t e d t h e i r  own and neighbouring 2.  and used f o r  lands.  An E a s t Kootenay Area Land Use C a p a b i l i t y map was shown t o the game p a r t i c i p a n t s and i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t the v a r i o u s c o l o r s i n d i c a t e d p o t e n t i a l l a n d uses.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the game board and the Land Use C a p a b i l i t y map was e x p l a i n e d and the p i e c e o f the map  represented  on the board was i d e n t i f i e d . 3.  Each o f the c o l o r s on the game board was r e l a t e d to  the l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y i t r e p r e s e n t e d .  The r e d  boundary l i n e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s were explained. 4.  The f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s o f t i l e s were e x p l a i n e d as to  the resource t h a t they r e p r e s e n t e d  c a t t l e , blue--waterfowl,  orange--big  (brown-game, green--  forests, p i n k — f i e l d shown as double t i l e s The  crops).  U n i t s of t e n were  (£ i n c h by 1 i n c h ) .  t a b l e of values on the game board was p o i n t e d  out and the d i f f e r e n c e s between purchase p r i c e , s a l e p r i c e and environmental  u n i t s were e x p l a i n e d .  The  deed f o r p r o p e r t y number 5 was  The  i n f o r m a t i o n on the deed i n c l u d e d ; purchase  p r i c e , environmental  explained.  v a l u e , s i z e of p r o p e r t y ,  exchange values and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s .  The use  of the deed was demonstrated by s e t t i n g out prop e r t y number- 5 and showing howr the exchange u n i t s were used. The money score and the environmental were d e s c r i b e d .  units score  P l a y e r s were shown how the t o t a l  score was a r r i v e d at and t h a t environmental must be maintained  a t 1000 or more u n i t s .  of the score sheet  (Appendix F) was  units The use  explained.  A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n as to how the consequence and r i s k cards were used i n the p l a y was The  given.  r u l e s and sequence of p l a y cards were q u i c k l y  read over by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and e x p l a i n e d (see Appendix G).  Chapter 4 ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF PLAYING THE SIMULATION GAME As d e s c r i b e d  i n the f i r s t chapter the data c o l l e c t i o n  c o n s i s t s o f pre and p o s t - t e s t use  scores f o r knowledge and land  a t t i t u d e s , a game a t t i t u d e s c o r e ,  p e r s o n a l data q u e s t i o n s .  and the answers to four  In a d d i t i o n game scores f o r money,  environmental u n i t s and t o t a l score  (sum o f money and e n v i r -  onmental u n i t score) were recorded f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t . The  a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s focused on examining the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the game and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives  l i s t e d previously.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were r e l a t e d to other v a r i a b l e s Some s u b j e c t i v e  i n achieving Participant  o f game p l a y .  data were c o l l e c t e d and presented to a i d i n  detecting  areas o f the game r e q u i r i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n .  reactions  to v a r i o u s  parts  Player  o f the gaming emerged and i t appears  that a number o f major game m o d i f i c a t i o n s  may t h e r e f o r e be  necessary. S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s c a r r i e d out on the p r e - t e s t t e s t data were used to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  and p o s t -  o f the game  i n terms o f whether or not changes i n a t t i t u d e s o r knowledge occurred. variables  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that only  three o f e i g h t  showed any s i g n i f i c a n t change a t the .10 l e v e l o f  significance.  Knowledge and a t t i t u d e t e s t r e s u l t s were examined  56  57 to f i n d the i n t e r p l a y between t e s t r e s u l t s and p l a y e r and game c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h the purpose of determining d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of the game on d i f f e r e n t types of p a r t i c i p a n t s . relationships to determine  among the t e s t r e s u l t s themselves the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t e s t s  The  were examined used.  CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME PARTICIPANTS The  game was  p l a y e d with nine f a m i l y groups comprising  a t o t a l of 40 people.  Seventy-eight percent or seven of the  games were p l a y e d with groups of f o u r or f i v e Group s i z e ranged 4.7  participants.  from three to seven and the mean s i z e  was  persons. The  t o t a l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the sample  divided  i n t o 19 or 47.5  percent males and  females  (Table 5).  l a r g e s t category i n terms of f a m i l y  p o s i t i o n was sample.  The  c h i l d r e n who  Although  accounted  21 or 52.5  was  percent  f o r 45 p e r c e n t of the  data were not c o l l e c t e d on age, a l l of the  c h i l d r e n were over 12 years of age and some were married a d u l t s l i v i n g on t h e i r parent's l a n d h o l d i n g .  There were seven  (17.5 percent) and seven male household represented.  Eight participants  heads (17.5  female  percent)  were c l a s s i f i e d as " o t h e r s " ,  and t h i s represented 20 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l sample. category c o n s i s t e d p r i n c i p a l l y of people  from  That  neighbouring  ranchs and farm hands. Because o f the minimum of 50 acres of p r o p e r t y r e q u i r e d for  eligibility  l i v e d on farms.  to p l a y the game, most of the The  participants  data showed t h a t 33 or 82.5  percent of  58 the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d on farms whereas o n l y 17.5 p e r c e n t d i d not l i v e on land t h a t was farmed (Table 5 ) . Twenty-four l a n d h o l d i n g s (60 percent) were under 500 acres i n s i z e , nine acres and seven (Table 5 ) .  (22.5 percent) were between 500 and 949  (17.5 percent) were i n excess o f 950 acres  The mean p r o p e r t y s i z e was 537.1 a c r e s .  The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s as measured by t h e i r t o t a l number o f years o f s c h o o l i n g produced 10.7 years f o r the 40 p a r t i c i p a n t s .  a mean o f  The modal group c o n s i s t e d  of people w i t h 9 to 12 years o f s c h o o l i n g which i n c l u d e d 47.5 percent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The category o f 0 t o 8  years o f s c h o o l i n g i n c l u d e d 27.5 p e r c e n t and the remaining 25 percent were i n the 13 years and more c a t e g o r y .  The lowest  number o f years o f s c h o o l i n g i n the group was f i v e years and the h i g h e s t was 19 years  (Table 5 ) .  PLAY OF THE GAME P l a y i n g Time P l a y i n g time i n c l u d e d the time taken t o p r o v i d e p r e game i n s t r u c t i o n s p l u s the a c t u a l p l a y i n g time.  The mean time  f o r game p l a y was 137.5 minutes and the range was from 110 to 180 minutes.  Three c a t e g o r i e s were used to d e s c r i b e the p l a y i n g  time; i n the s h o r t e s t time p e r i o d o f 110 t o 125 minutes were 21 participants  (52.5 p e r c e n t ) , i n the next 126 to 140 minutes were  eight participants  (20 p e r c e n t ) , and i n the l o n g e s t time  category 141 or more minutes were 11 people  (27.5 p e r c e n t ) .  59  Table  5  Summary o f P l a y e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s  Number of Persons  Percentage O f Sample  Sex Male Female  19 21  47.5% 52.5%  Family P o s i t i o n Husband Wife Child Other  7 7 18 8  17.5% 17.5% 45.0% 20.0%  Farm R e s i d e n t  33  82.5%  7  17.5%  Years o f S c h o o l i n g 0 - 8 years 9 -12 y e a r s 13 + years  11 19 10  27.5% 47.5% 25.0%  Property Size 50 - 499 a c r e s 500 - 949 a c r e s 950 acres  24 9 7  60.0% 22.5% 17.5%  Non-Farm R e s i d e n t  60 P l a y i n g time c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y with property  s i z e (r= -.56) (Appendix G).  This  indicates that  the owners o f l a r g e r p r o p e r t i e s took l e s s time t o p l a y the game than d i d the owners o f s m a l l e r p r o p e r t i e s .  A l l players  w i t h 500 o r more acres were i n the s h o r t e s t p l a y i n g time p e r i o d whereas o n l y 21 percent 500 acres  fell  o f the p l a y e r s w i t h l e s s than  i n the s h o r t e s t time p e r i o d . Table 6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Game P a r t i c i p a n t s by Property S i z e and P l a y i n g Time Property S i z e (Acres)  Game P l a y i n g Time (Minutes) 110 - 125 126-c Total No. Percentage No. Percentage No. Percentage 5  21%  19  79%  24  100%  500 *  16  100%  0  0%  16  100%  Total  21  50 - 499  19 x = 24.13, 2  The  number o f p l a y e r s  40  df = 1, p < .01 i n a game would seem t o be r e l a t e d  d i r e c t l y t o the p l a y i n g time as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f r - .77 was computed f o r number o f p l a y e r s p l a y i n g time.  Table 7 shows t h a t 16 o f the 21 p l a y e r s  versus (76 per-  cent) i n the s h o r t e s t time category were a l s o i n the category o f fewest p l a y e r s and only f i v e (5 t o 7) p l a y e r  (24 percent) were i n the l a r g e s t  category.  Game p l a y i n g time a l s o showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the amount o f money earned by the p a r t i c i p a n t  at  the end  of a gaming s e s s i o n  (r=.31).  time r e s u l t e d i n more money being  Increase i n p l a y i n g  earned by  game p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Table 7 Frequency Table of Number of P l a y e r s and Game P l a y i n g Time Game P l a y i n g Time Number of Players  No.  110 h 125 Percentage  No.  (Minutes)  126 + Percentage  No.  Total Percentage  0-4  16  76 %  3  24%  19  100%  5-7  5  241  16  76%  21  100%  Total  21  19 x  40  « 1 4 . 5 9 , df - 1, p  2  <.01  Game Scores The  s c o r i n g as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i s t e d of  i n d i v i d u a l scores. money score  and  more p l e n t i f u l  The  t o t a l score was  a composite of  three  the  the environmental u n i t s c o r e .  Since money  than environmental u n i t s i t was  the l a r g e s t  c o n t r i b u t o r to the t o t a l s c o r e .  The  the 40 p l a y e r s was  T h i s score demonstrated a  7291  points.  mean t o t a l score  considerable  amount of v a r i a b i l i t y as would be  the standard  d e v i a t i o n was  $5646 with a standard represents  2293.  The  d e v i a t i o n of 2274.  for  expected  mean money score  was  and was  T h i s mean score  what would seem to be an e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e amount  o f money, but  s i n c e a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s began w i t h $5000 out  of which they p a i d from $1100  to $2600 f o r t h e i r  land.  P a r t i c i p a n t s began w i t h 2000 environmental  units  (E.U.'s).  Managing a p i e c e o f l a n d r e q u i r e s some d i s r u p t i o n to the environment, and s i n c e p l a y e r s had to m a i n t a i n t h e i r E.U.'s above 1000, a mean score o f 1643 d i d not seem  unreasonable.  The v a r i a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d by the standard d e v i a t i o n was 538 p o i n t s . Game Scores i n R e l a t i o n to P l a y e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T o t a l score showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e ( r - . 47) with the number o f years o f s c h o o l i n g .  correlation  This indicates  that the more education a person has the h i g h e r the score he was able to achieve on the game.  The b i v a r i a t e  frequency  d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r these two v a r i a b l e s produced a s i g n i f i c a n t chi-square a t the .05 l e v e l  (see Table 8 ) . Table 8 shows  that 20 percent o f those with 0 to 8 years o f s c h o o l i n g were i n the h i g h e s t t o t a l score category, whereas 45 percent o f those i n t h a t category had 13 o r more years o f s c h o o l i n g . The  lowest t o t a l score category, however, c o n t a i n e d only one  person with 13 or more years o f education w h i l e 35 p e r c e n t had 0 t o 8 y e a r s .  These f i g u r e s suggest  t h a t the game  needs to be a d j u s t e d to accommodate the lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the 9 to 12 year category who represent the mean e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r the p o p u l a t i o n . T o t a l score c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the money score with a positive significant correlation  (r-.97).  s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n  (r--.63) between the t o t a l  score and rank w i t h i n the p l a y i n g group.  There was a l s o a  T h i s was  expected  63  Table 8 Frequency Table o f Years o f S c h o o l i n g and T o t a l Score Years of Schooling  Above Median  Below Median  Frequency Percentage  Frequency Percentage  Total  0-8 years  4  20%  7  35%  11  9-12 13 +  7 9  35% 45%  12 1  60% 5%  19 10  20  100%  20  100%  40  Total  years years  x  2  = 8.62,  d . f . = 2, p<.05  64 s i n c e the t o t a l score determined  the rank; the person  the h i g h e s t score i n the group ranked w i t h the lowest ranked  with  f i r s t w h i l e the  last.  Money scores demonstrated almost  the same r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h the v a r i a b l e s as d i d the t o t a l s c o r e s .  There was  n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between money score and w i t h i n the p l a y i n g group Cr*-. 55) and a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between money score and schooling  a sigrank  positive  the number of years  of  (r=.46).  U n l i k e the money scores and t o t a l scores no  sig-  n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between environmental (E.U.'s)- and e i t h e r money or t o t a l s c o r e s . n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between E.U. w i t h i n the group ( r - -.35). a person  person  There was  a sig-  score and the rank  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h i g h e r  ranked w i t h i n a group the h i g h e r was Although  units  h i s E.U.  the c o r r e l a t i o n s and the b i v a r i a t e  score.  frequency  d i s t r i b u t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r f a m i l y p o s i t i o n  versus  any of the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned scores there i s a t r e n d e x h i b i t e d i n the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  A l l of the  correlations  f o r these three v a r i a b l e s (money s c o r e , environmental  unit  score and t o t a l score) were negative and the s m a l l e s t one (r= -.23)  i s w i t h i n .08  of being s i g n i f i c a n t which i n d i c a t e s  a tendency towards h i g h e r scores being r e l a t e d to the f a m i l y p o s i t i o n s c a t e g o r i z e d on the lower end of the s c a l e with f o r husband, two and  one  f o r w i f e , three f o r c h i l d , f o u r f o r r e l a t i v e  f i v e f o r other.  One  area which r e f l e c t s t o t a l score i s  rank w i t h i n the p l a y i n g group and t h i s does c o r r e l a t e  65 s i g n i f i c a n t l y (r^.37) and p o s i t i v e l y with family p o s i t i o n . This means there appears to be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between those achieving f i r s t place and husbands who  rank f i r s t  the family p o s i t i o n scale and so on down the l i s t .  on  This tends  to support the previously mentioned trend indicated between scores and family p o s i t i o n . Subjective Observations  oh Game Play  The comments recorded immediately a f t e r game play revealed some useful information for future modifications of the game.  In a l l playing sessions i t was  the Consequence Cards were too generous.  noted that many of Players were  receiving so many free c a t t l e as a r e s u l t of consequences of t h e i r own  and t h e i r neighbours' land usage that i t became  unnecessary for them to buy any.  Players were reluctant to  spend money and except for a few individuals invested very l i t t l e i n the play and were l e f t with larger sums of money then would seem r e a l i s t i c .  This would seem to necessitate  the use of more monetary constraints such as land taxes  and  income taxes i n the game play. Family members tended to co-operate and advise another rather than compete.  The elder players often described  to younger players examples of how problems developing  one  they dealt with p a r t i c u l a r  i n the game on t h e i r own  land.  Thus, the  game appeared to stimulate additional benefits other than those that were i n t e n t i o n a l l y designed.  66 Another m o d i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d was i n terms o f the ease with which p l a y e r s were able t o r e g a i n environmental u n i t s . Often  those who succeeded t o rank f i r s t  depleted in  i n the game had  t h e i r environmental u n i t scores  to a negative  value  the f i r s t year o f the game. One comment recorded  on f o u r o f the nine game s e s s i o n s  was t h a t f a m i l i e s took the a t t i t u d e " i t ' s j u s t a game" and did  not s e r o u s l y c o n s i d e r i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to r e a l problems on  t h e i r own l a n d .  T h i s appears to be due to a p r e v a i l i n g  a t t i t u d e about games but i n p a r t may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the amount o f chance which determined success l a n d use s i m u l a t i o n game.  or f a i l u r e i n the  One i n d i r e c t method o f reducing  chance would be to extend the number o f rounds o f p l a y because i t appeared t h a t near the end o f the l a s t and  round  i n d i s c u s s i o n s a f t e r the game p l a y e r s were beginning t o  p e r c e i v e game s t r a t e g i e s . Game A t t i t u d e The  a t t i t u d e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s toward the game  were measured by a f i v e statement L i k e r t s c a l e (Appendix B) which had a maximum score o f 25 p o i n t s and a minimum score o f five.  The mean f o r the group was 19.4 with  a t i o n o f 2.4.  a standard  devi-  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t most people were s a t i s f i e d  w i t h the game and t h a t there was l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y demonstrated i n the s e t o f s c o r e s . None o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s or b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s showed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between game a t t i t u d e and other p l a y e r or game p l a y v a r i a b l e s .  67 TEST RESULTS Table 9 summarizes the r e s u l t s of the pre and t e s t measurements.  One  f e a t u r e i n the mean scores t h a t i s  worth commenting on i s the low both knowledge t e s t s . would be expected instrument  post-  The  l e v e l of the mean scores  on  means seem somewhat lower than  and r e f l e c t s e i t h e r on the d i f f i c u l t y of the  used or the f a i l u r e of the game to teach  about l a n d use p l a n n i n g or a combination  of both  information  reasons.  D i f f e r e n c e s Between P r e - t e s t arid P o s t - t e s t R e s u l t s A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  observed  between scores  a t t a i n e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e 2 at the  .10  o b j e c t i v e s t a t e d t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l develop  level.  That  a more p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e towards c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t s of h i s l a n d use on neighbouring The  plans  lands.  t - t e s t on the knowledge scores produced a s i g -  n i f i c a n t r e s u l t at the knowledge o c c u r r e d .  .10  l e v e l implying t h a t some i n c r e a s e i n  O b j e c t i v e 5 which was  t e s t produced a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t at the  p a r t o f the knowledge .025  level.  This  o b j e c t i v e s t a t e d t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l be able to d e s c r i b e c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between f o r e s t r y and crops, waterfowl and and waterfowl, game and  f i e l d crops, c a t t l e and  the  field  f i e l d crops,  cattle  c a t t l e and b i g game, f o r e s t r y and c a t t l e and b i g  forestry. N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t - t e s t r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d with r e s p e c t to  the a t t i t u d e t e s t t o t a l score and o b j e c t i v e s 1, 3, 4 and  6.  Thus, m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the game r e s u l t i n g from t h i s study must  Table 9 Summary o f P r e - t e s t and P o s t - t e s t Results  Tests Objective 1 Land Use P l a n n i n g Attitude  Test Mean Pre-test Score  Scores Mean Post-test Score  Change  25.70  26.00  0.30  0.53  p >.10  26.70  27.80  1.10  1.43  p < .10  52.60  53.80  1.20  1.04  p ;>.io  2.25  2.40  0.15  0.58  p ^.10  3.13  3.15  0.02  0.10  p ^.10  1.73  2.28  0.56  2.04  p < .025  5  2.25  2.28  0.03  0.09  p^.10  20  9.13  10.18  1.05  1.56  P<-10  Maximum Score  40  Objective 2 A t t i t u d e Towards E f f e c t s o f Land Use on Neighbours  40  T o t a l A t t i t u d e T e s t Score Objective 3 Knowledge o f Land Use Capabilities  80  5  Objective 4 Economic, E c o l o g i c a l I n t e r a c t i o n Objective 5 Competitive R e l a t i o n s h i p s Objective 6 Good and Bad Land Use Strategies T o t a l Knowledge T e s t Scores  5  T-value  Probability  5  Z  69 focus  e s p e c i a l l y on improving l e a r n e r performance i n those  areas. R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among T e s t  Results  Of the nine p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e pret e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s , seven were s i g n i f i c a n t at the l e v e l , one was significant.  s i g n i f i c a n t at the The  p o s t - t e s t scores a t t i t u d e occurred  consistency  .05  l e v e l and  one  was  .01 not  i n d i c a t e d between p r e - t e s t  demonstrated that very  little  and  change i n  from p r e - t e s t to p o s t - t e s t .  T h i s was  e n t i r e l y unexpected i n t h a t a t t i t u d e change g e n e r a l l y  not involves  a longer p e r i o d of time than e x i s t e d between measurements i n this  study. The  knowledge a person had  on e n t e r i n g the game seemed  to show a d i r e c t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the a t t i t u d e measured by both the a t t i t u d e p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t .  A  significant  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between knowledge p r e - t e s t both a t t i t u d e p r e - t e s t Objective  (rr.37) and p o s t - t e s t  and  (r=.36).  2 on the p o s t - t e s t which s t a t e s p a r t i c i p a n t s  w i l l develop a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the e f f e c t s of land use  on neighbouring lands  p o s i t i v e l y w i t h p r e - t e s t score says l e a r n e r s w i l l d e s c r i b e  correlates significantly  and  f o r o b j e c t i v e 4 (r=.31) which  the i n t e r p l a y of economic  e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n land use p l a n n i n g .  and  This implies  the  more a p a r t i c i p a n t knew about t h i s economic and e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p l a y the more p o s i t i v e was e f f e c t s of land use  h i s a t t i t u d e towards  the  on neighbouring land a f t e r p l a y i n g the game.  70 Table 10 summarizes the numerous s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between pre and p o s t - t e s t o b j e c t i v e other t e s t and game s c o r e s .  Objective  6 scores and  6 s t a t e s t h a t the  l e a r n e r w i l l be able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor land use s t r a t e g i e s . explanations  There seem t o be a t l e a s t two p o s s i b l e  o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t are shown f o r o b j e c t i v e  6 e i t h e r the other measures are measuring the same things as o b j e c t i v e 6 or a knowledge o f good and poor l a n d uses a f f e c t s the degree o f achievement o f the v a r i a b l e s noted i n Table 10. I f o b j e c t i v e 6 i s a general  measure f o r the other scores i t  c o r r e l a t e s with i t suggests an a l t e r a t i o n o f the instruments and  p o s s i b l y the game s c o r i n g i s necessary.  The c o r r e l a t i o n  between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t o b j e c t i v e 6 o f r - ...52 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l shows that p a r t i c i p a n t s enter the game w i t h a knowledge o f the d i f f e r e n c e between good and poor land uses and t h i s tends not t o change as a r e s u l t o f the p l a y i n g o f the game. to i n c r e a s e scores  T h e r e f o r e i f the game could be m o d i f i e d  the knowledge o f good and poor land uses the  on the s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s would  which i s o f s p e c i a l importance on the p o s t - t e s t scores by r a i s i n g these scores  since  more l e a r n i n g would be achieved.  P l a y e r and Game C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n R e l a t i o n t o T e s t Post-test objective  Results  1 which s t a t e d t h a t the l e a r n e r  w i l l develop a more f a v o r a b l e planning  increase  a t t i t u d e towards the land use  process showed a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n  (r=-:37) w i t h property  -  s i z e so that owners w i t h l a r g e r p r o -  p e r t i e s had l e s s f a v o r a b l e  a t t i t u d e s towards land use p l a n n i n g  o co *d cr o o o w CD H ct o CD I rt W r+ CD H-  < o CD  3  (A  rt  O 00 T3 vTO H O . O CD CD H I O CD rt rt w « H* W < O ft  ct>  ON  ON  IS  cn  15  CM Cv)  loo  -P. ON  3  O  cr  <o o ft  < CD ON  Pre-test Attitude  Score  P r e - t e s t Score Objective 1  CO CO c CD 3  Sfi  P r e - t e s t Score Objective 2  CD H CD X  3  O  O HN CM CM  CM 00  I CM  CM  t o  cn  I-  1  Post-test Objective 2 Score Pre-test Knowledge Score  IS  CM oo  Post-test Knowledge Score  o o  cn tsJ  Post-test Objective 6 Score Game A t t i t u d e Score  CM  cn  cr  Post-test A t t i t u d e Score  CM  CM Cn  Money Score  CM  CM  Total Score  1  <-»• CD rt  tr CD  $»  3, H  CD  to ct P»  a Cu cn  3  CD  < o  < CD HH $0.  CD r-> H. pi (U Pi 3 rt  H  ON  cr cu M  O  n ct  H-  O  3  *3*n  n>  CD O »-i CD  CO  H t-h  o o  H CD 00  rt>  CD Hto O Ct HCD pi 3 3 ft  Cu to  72 than those with s m a l l e r p r o p e r t i e s .  P r o p e r t y s i z e showed a  s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r=-.31) with p o s t - t e s t a t t i t u d e score.  Thus landowners with l a r g e r p r o p e r t i e s  to f i n i s h the game w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . schooling  correlated significantly  r e s u l t s of o b j e c t i v e 6. of the game p l a y e r s  players  to d i s t i n g u i s h between good and  a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with the  by people who  a t t i t u d e toward land use  with pre-test pre-test and  a s i g n i f i c a n t neg-  had  Fewer environmental u n i t s developed a more p o s i t i v e  planning.  c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y  (r=.34) and p o s t > t e s t o b j e c t i v e 6 (r=.31) and  (r=.42) and p o s t - t e s t knowledge (r=.36) score t o t a l s  post-test objective  money score  and  5 scores  knowledge scores  (r-.31).  I t appears t h a t  planning  on completion of the game, the h i g h e r was  Since the money score was score,  on  entering  h i s money  the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r  to  score.  total  e x a c t l y the same c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d f o r t o t a l Objective  the  were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , thus,  the more a person knew about land use and  had  poor land uses.  t o t a l number o f environmental  on the game ( r * -.32).  Money score  poor  with more years of s c h o o l i n g were  a t t i t u d e p o s t - t e s t scores  were thus acquired  ability  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and  b e t t e r able  u n i t s scored  post-test  T h i s o b j e c t i v e concerns the  The  The  Years of  (r=.32) with the  land uses.  tended  score.  5 on the p r e - t e s t , which i s concerned with  the competitive  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y with  minutes of p l a y  (r-.37) showing that i n c r e a s e d  should increase  l e a r n i n g on o b j e c t i v e  5.  playing  time  That o b j e c t i v e  also  si.  had  a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with the number o f  people i n a group p l a y i n g the game (r*.44) which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the more people p l a y i n g the game the b e t t e r was the achievement on o b j e c t i v e 5. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between o b j e c t i v e 6 (good and poor land uses) on the p o s t - t e s t and a t t i t u d e towards the game (r=.35). towards the game, the higher The  The b e t t e r the a t t i t u d e  the score  on t h i s  objective.  number o f p l a y e r s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y with the knowledge  of good and poor land uses, o b j e c t i v e 6, on the p o s t - t e s t ( r ; -.33) so that fewer p l a y e r s  l e d to b e t t e r r e s u l t s on  p o s t - t e s t o b j e c t i v e 6. The  rank a person achieved  w i t h i n a p l a y i n g group  demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t negative score on the knowledge p r e - t e s t  c o r r e l a t i o n with  ( r s -.32).  total  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  of t h i s were that the more knowledge a person had on e n t e r i n g the  game, the b e t t e r the chances o f success. SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The  data a n a l y s i s showed t h a t a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , game p l a y data and a t t i t u d e and knowledge t e s t s c o r e s . P l a y i n g time c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y with p r o p e r t y  s i z e and  p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the number o f p l a y e r s , money s c o r e s , score on p r e - t e s t o b j e c t i v e 5.  Property  size correlated negatively  w i t h the p o s t - t e s t a t t i t u d e score  and score on o b j e c t i v e 1 on  the a t t i t u d e towards land use p l a n n i n g .  A positive correlation  74  was found between the number of people i n the playing group and objective 5 on competitive  relationships and post-test  score on objective 6 on knowledge of good and poor land uses. The number of years of schooling correlated p o s i t i v e l y with the t o t a l score on the game and post-test scores on objective 6.  Knowledge as measured on the pre-test correlated p o s i t i v e l y  with pre and post-test attitude score and money score.  Rank  within a playing group and family p o s i t i o n was related so that family heads and t h e i r spouses tended to win the game more frequently.  Objective 6 had 20 s i g n i f i c a n t correlations with  other variables which indicated that perhaps a knowledge of good and poor land uses i s an important consideration f o r future modifications of this game. S t a t i s t i c a l tests carried out on pre and post-test attitude and knowledge scores revealed that some learning had occurred.  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n knowledge of  land use planning with a notable increase i n knowledge about competitive  relationships among domestic and native  populations.  The only change i n attitude noted was related to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' attitude towards the effects of h i s land use plans on neighbouring  lands which was shown to become s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e . The data analysis presents  a great deal of material  which w i l l ultimately be useful i n modifying the e x i s t i n g East Kootenay Land Use Simulation Game.  Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The c o n c l u d i n g chapter o f t h i s study emphasizes that the nature o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been t h a t o f a p i l o t study.  Since the game used i n the study was u n t r i e d on the  p o p u l a t i o n s e l e c t e d many o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the game and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were unforeseen.  The r e s u l t s o f the study  w i l l help i n modifying the p r e s e n t game and c a r r y i n g out s t u d i e s o f t h i s nature w i t h s i m i l a r r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s . There seems l i t t l e doubt that the technique has u t i l i t y f o r a d u l t environmental e d u c a t i o n ; however, i t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t the development o f gaming r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l investment  o f time and energy.  Whether o r n o t t h i s  investment  i s j u s t i f i e d i s dependent on the techniques and d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , i n s t r u c t i n n a l o b j e c t i v e s and the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n being c o n s i d e r e d .  With the p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s  study, both t h e i r p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n from i n s t i t u t i o n a l of e d u c a t i o n and the evidence a v a i l a b l e on t h e i r  forms  participation  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs makes i t appear t h a t the time and e f f o r t i n d e v e l o p i n g an e f f e c t i v e game f o r i n s t r u c t i n g about  people  l a n d use would be worthwhile. SUMMARY The purposes  o f the study were t h r e e - f o l d ; t o examine  the u s e f u l n e s s o f s i m u l a t i o n gaming f o r environmental  education,  76  to design a land use simulation game and to analyze the e f f e c t iveness of the designed game.  The rationale behind the purpose  was that environmental matters are of major public concern and people need to be we'll informed about them.  To provide the adult  populace with the education requres that new techniques need to be examined and simulation gaming was chosen as a technique that has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that s u i t i t to adult environmental education. The hypotheses which the study set out to investigate were two. The f i r s t was whether or not the game produced any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the players knowledge or attitudes.  This  hypothesis included the s i x behavioral objectives the game was to achieve.  The second hypothesis proposed that there would be  relationships between player c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , game play and test r e s u l t s . The procedure used i n the study involved two separate parts.  A procedure for designing the game had to be i d e n t i f i e d ,  which included finding a source of data from which to develop the simulation.  The procedure outlined by Glazier (41) which  involved ten steps was adopted.  As a source of data the land  c a p a b i l i t y analysis f o r the East Kootenay area of B r i t i s h Columbia which had been recently completed was used. Once the game was designed a series of playing sessions followed to work out "bugs" that were s t i l l present i n the game. The next step was to design the appropriate evaluation instruments.  F i n a l l y the game was taken to the East Kootenay  to be played by 40 residents of properties larger than 50 acres  77 l i v i n g i n School D i s t r i c t number 2, Cranbrook, The game was p r e - t e s t was  British  Columbia.  taken to the homes of n i n e f a m i l i e s .  administered b e f o r e the game, the game was  and a p o s t - t e s t was The game was  A  played ,  completed. to be a board game u s i n g an e n l a r g e d  square m i l e s e c t i o n o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e area on the  two  map.  P l a y e r s were to have money and t i l e s to r e p r e s e n t c a t t l e , b i g game, f o r e s t s , waterfowl and f i e l d crops as t h e i r p l a n n i n g resources. The o b j e c t i v e o f the game i s to maximize the economic r e t u r n s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g environmental d e s t r u c t i o n . had to i n c r e a s e t h e i r money and m a i n t a i n t h e i r  Players  environmental  u n i t s to compete w i t h other p l a y e r s to win the game. Two  p r e l i m i n a r y designs were t e s t e d and a f i n a l v e r s i o n  of the game was  produced.  The  f i n a l version involved players  beginning the game by buying s i m u l a t e d p i e c e s of p r o p e r t y .  A  maximum of nine p l a y e r s or groups of p l a y e r s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e and a minimum of two. seasonal c y c l e .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s p l a y e r s went through a  P l a y began w i t h w i n t e r at which time l a n d had  to be c l e a r e d and prepared f o r domesticated crops and  animals.  S p r i n g f o l l o w e d as a time f o r p l a c i n g domesticated s p e c i e s on the board.  Summer f o l l o w e d as the time f o r buying back w i l d l i f e .  F a l l ended the f i r s t year with s e l l i n g o f f produce.  The game  continued another year and the p l a y e r w i t h the h i g h e s t t o t a l score  (money score p l u s environmental u n i t score) and who  kept the environmental u n i t score above 1000  won  the game.  had  78  The p l a y e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed t h a t of the 4 0 , percent were male, 5 2 . 5 percent c h i l d r e n , 1 7 . 5 percent wives, p e r c e n t were o t h e r s . was  1 0 . 7 years.  female and  45 percent were  1 7 . 5 p e r c e n t husbands and  20  The mean e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the group  Eighty-two  and a h a l f percent of the  r e s i d e d on farms and the mean l a n d s i z e was The  47.5  people  5 3 7 . 1 acres.  p l a y of the game took an average of 1 3 7 . 5 minutes.  C o r r e l a t i o n s between p r o p e r t y s i z e and p l a y i n g time were s i g n i f i c a n t at r s  -.56.  The  number of p l a y e r s c o r r e l a t e d  signif-  i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with p l a y i n g time. The  three game scores t o t a l s c o r e , money score and e n v i r -  onmental u n i t score had means of 7 2 9 1 p o i n t s , $ 5 6 4 6 and points respectively.  A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of  r - . 4 7 between the number of years of s c h o o l i n g and t o t a l was  present.  1643  T o t a l score c o r r e l a t e d  (is.97)  score  w i t h money s c o r e .  Money scores showed e x a c t l y the same c o r r e l a t i o n s as t o t a l due  score  to t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the s c o r i n g procedures. Environmental  u n i t scores showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r -  r e l a t i o n s with p l a y e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The  rank w i t h i n a group c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  p o s i t i v e l y with f a m i l y p o s i t i o n . The  s u b j e c t i v e data on game p l a y i n d i c a t e d a number of  areas f o r p o s s i b l e game m o d i f i c a t i o n . be  Consequence cards  l e s s generous i n g i v i n g away f r e e c a t t l e and  u n i t s were too e a s i l y r e g a i n e d .  environmental  A r e d u c t i o n of chance i n the  game would overcome some of the problems w i t h the expressed  i n " i t ' s j u s t a game".  should  attitude  79  1  The mean game attitude score was 19.4 out of a possible t o t a l of 25.  This score did not correlate with any of the  participant or game play The  variables.  t-tests, produced three s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The  attitude towards the effects of land use on neighbouring lands was  increased  s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .10 l e v e l by the game.  Players increased  t h e i r knowledge of competitive relationships  s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .025 l e v e l .  An o v e r a l l increase i n  knowledge was attained and deemed s i g n i f i c a n t at the .10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Test results showed relationships among themselves. Eight of nine possible correlations between pre-test and posttest attitude scores were s i g n i f i c a n t .  Entering knowledge  correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with attitude. Objective 6 dealing with a player's knowledge of how to d i s tinguish between good and poor land uses correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with six other test scores. Knowledge and attitude correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with the following player and game c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; years of schooling, money scores, t o t a l scores, playing time, number of players, attitude towards the game and rank within the playing group.  Negative s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found  between knowledge and attitude test scores and property size and environmental unit score.  80 CONCLUSIONS The data collected has shown that some learning occurred among the participants a f t e r playing the East Kootenay Land Use Simulation  Game.  Although learning f a i l e d to be  measurable i n a number of areas under investigation i t should be borne i n mind that i t was anticipated that much of the information  gathered i n this study would a s s i s t i n modifying  this version of the simulation game to improve i t s learning effectiveness. Examination of the data revealed  that the participants*  knowledge of land use planning had increased  and s p e c i f i c a l l y  their knowledge of the competitive relationships among wild and domesticated species had increased.  It also was found that  while there was l i t t l e o v e r a l l change i n attitude a more positive attitude towards considering  the effects of land use  plans on neighbouring lands developed a f t e r the game was played. Numerous relationships among participant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , game play data and knowledge and attitude test scores were discerned.  These relationships described  many of the character-  i s t i c s of this learning device which need to be examined to see i f a l t e r a t i o n can improve game effectiveness. Participants with more years of schooling and who were family heads were the most successful game participants i n terms of winning the game.  I t was determined that property size  influenced the playing time of the game and the participants attitude towards land use planning.  The larger the property the  81 shorter the playing time and the more negative the attitude towards land use planning. Money scores and attitude were related to the knowledge a person already had about land use planning. knew about land use planning  The more a person  the more p o s i t i v e was h i s attitude  towards i t and the more l i k e l y was he to achieve a higher money score and thus game success. Instructional objective 6 on the participants a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor land uses was found to be an important variable as f a r as i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with other variables was concerned.  The numerous correlations suggest that  this objective played a prominent role i n the learning that occurred  and the success of game play. The simulation game studied had limited success i n  terms of learning effectiveness as would be expected the device had not been previously f i e l d tested.  The study d i d supply  valuable data for use i n making this simulation game into a more e f f e c t i v e learning device. IMPLICATIONS The implications of this study are mainly concerned with what modifications i n the study.  should be made to the game which was designed  Any modifications  suggested of course requires  further play of the game to f i n d out i f they enhance the play and effectiveness of the game. Money scores, i t i s suggested, are too high.  This  requires the placing of some further monetary constraints on the  82  game which can be done i n a number of ways.  Less money could  be given to players at the s t a r t of the game, the d i f f e r e n t i a l between purchase and sale price could be reduced, or external monetary constraints such as taxes or i n consequence cards could be added to the game, to decrease the amount of money earned. Correlations between game success and years of schooling would appear to indicate that the game requires some decrease i n complexity levels.  The way  to accommodate the lower educational  this could be done i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r ,  perhaps s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the vocabulary  and less complex  arithmetic operations. The subjective data c o l l e c t e d suggests consequence cards need to less l i b e r a l l y dispense free c a t t l e , regaining environmental units i s to easy, and the attitude " i t ' s just a game" i s a negative influence.  Overcoming the problem with  the consequence cards i s quiet simple and requires only modifications of the rewards within the cards.  However,  making environmental units more d i f f i c u l t to regain poses a more d i f f i c u l t problem.  Possible solutions are to have severe  f i n a n c i a l penalties for allowing environmental units to drop below a c e r t a i n l e v e l or perhaps reduce value of the units when they are re-acquired.  The only modification for the  attitude " i t ' s just a game" i s to reduce chance events and provide l o g i c a l explanations occur.  for any chance events that do  83  The objective on discriminating good and poor land use strategies seems an important one. be placed on this i n the game.  Perhaps more emphasis should  At the end of each annual cycle  judgement could be passed on the land use strategies employed to that point. F i n a l l y not related to modifications to this game the study has demonstrated that a land use planning game has potential as a device f o r use i n adult environmental education. Although the potential i s not f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n this game i t i s probably more due to the f a i l u r e of the game design at this point i n i t s development than the i n a b i l i t y of this technique to produce the desired r e s u l t s .  Simulation games generally  have had a history of use with adults.  Business games, war  games and p o l i t i c a l games are commonly used i n adult education. The reasons for their use with adults i s probably related to the p r a c t i c a l i t y adults demand of t h e i r learning experience. Games tend to demonstrate t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge applied to r e a l situations rather than talking about i t i n the abstract. Adults can use their vast store of p r a c t i c a l knowledge and experience to solve problems presented by games and also have a chance to apply new knowledge at various stages of the game.  Also not to  be ignored i s the informality of this approach which i s of special benefit to those whose experiences with formal education has l e f t them with a negative attitude to classroom—lecture type learning techniques. computerized  F i n a l l y games of the simple non-  form are e a s i l y taken into the home of the clientele,  as was done i n this study, thus overcoming a hurdle which often l i m i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education ventures.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abt, C C .  Serious Games.  New York:  V i k i n g P r e s s , 1970.  American Management A s s o c i a t i o n . S i m u l a t i o n arid Gaming: A Symposium. AMA Management Report Number 55, 1957. Baldwin, J.D. " I n f l u e n c e s D e t r i m e n t a l to S i m u l a t i o n Gaming." American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 12:14-20, July-August, 1969. Beck, I.H. and F J . Broadbent. "Some Dimensions o f S i m u l a t i o n . " E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 9:45, October, 1969. Berne, E r i c . Games People P l a y . Inc., 1964.  New York:  Grove Press  Blunt, A d r i a n . "An E v a l u a t i o n o f Two O r i e n t a t i o n Programs f o r Aldermen." Center f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., September 1, 1971 (Mimeographed). Boocock, S.S. "An Experimental Study o f the L e a r n i n g E f f e c t s o f Two Games with Simulated Environments." American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 10:8-17, October, 1966. . "The L i f e Career Game." Personnel arid Guidance, 41T7728-334, December, 1967. '' and J.S. Coleman. "Games w i t h Simulated Environments i n L e a r n i n g . " S o c i o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n , 39:215-236, Summer, 1966. '  and E.O^ S c h i l d . Simulation.Games i n L e a r n i n g . Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a ! Sage P u b l i c a t i o n Inc., 1968.  ________ " V a l i d i t y - T e s t i n g o f An I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s Game. S i m u l a t i o n arid Games* 3:29-40, March, 1972. Bresson, F. and M. Montmollin ( e d . ) . The S i m u l a t i o n o f Human Behavior. Paris: Dunod, 196*97 B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce. The C r a r i b r o o k R e g i o n : An Economic Survey, Victoria: The Bureau, 19687 84  85 14.  • The Kimberley Area; An Economic Survey, Victoria: The Bureau, 1967.  15.  Campbell, D.T. and J.C. S t a n l e y . Experimental arid Quas i experimerital Designs f o r Research. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1963.  16.  Canada Land Inventory. Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s o f the East Kootenay Area. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970.  17.  C a r l s o n , E. "Games i n the Classroom." Saturday Review, A p r i l 15, 1967.  18.  . L e a r n i n g Through Games: A New Approach to Problem S o l v i n g . Washington: Public A f f a i r s Press, 1969.  19.  Cherryholmes, C.H. "Some Current Research on the Effectiveness of Educational Simulations: Implications f o r A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s . " American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 10:4-5, 1966.  20.  Cohen, B.C. " P o l i t i c a l Gaming i n the Classroom." J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c s . 24:367-380, 1962.  21.  Cohen, K.J. and E. Rhenman. "The Role o f Management Games i n E d u c a t i o n and Research." Management S c i e n c e , 7:131-166, 1961.  22.  Coleman, J.S. "Games New Tools f o r L e a r n i n g . " S c h o l a s t i c Teacher, LI:9, November 9, 1967.  23*  " l Defense o f Games." American S c i e n t i s t , 10:3-4, October, 196~6~T n  Behavioral  . "Opinions D i f f e r : L e a r n i n g Through Games." N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , LVI:69-70, January, 1967. 25.  "Games as V e h i c l e s of S o c i a l Theory." American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 12:2-6, J u l y - A u g u s t , T9W:  26.  Cruickshank, D.R. and F.W. Broadbent. "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n to Determine E f f e c t s o f S i m u l a t i o n T r a i n i n g on Student Teaching Behavior." E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 9:50, October, 1969.  27.  Crawford, M.P. "Dimensions o f S i m u l a t i o n . " American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 21:788-95, August, 1966.  28.  Demarchi, R.  P e r s o n a l Correspondence, December 6, 1971.  86 29.  Department o f Regional and Economic Expansion. The Canada Land Inventory: O b j e c t i v e s , Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n . Ottawal Q u e e n P r i n t e r , 1970.  30.  D i c k i n s o n , G. "A T e c h n i c a l Approach t o Land Use P l a n n i n g Based on the Canada Land Inventory." Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. (Mimeographed).  31.  Duffy, P.J.B. "Canada Land Inventory a t M i d p o i n t . " Pulp and Paper Magazine o f Canada, A p r i l , 1971.  32.  Duke, R. Gaming S i m u l a t i o n i n Urban Research. Lansing, Michigan: I n s t i t u t e o f Community Development S e r v i c e s , 1964.  33.  F a r r a n , D.C. "Games Work with Underachievers." Teacher, LI:12-13, November 9, 1967.  34.  F e l d t , A.G. " O p e r a t i o n a l Gaming i n P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 22:17-24, 1966.  35.  Fletcher, Jerry. " E v a l u a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g i n Two S o c i a l Studies S i m u l a t i o n Games." S i m u l a t i o n and Games, 2:259-286, September, 1971.  36»  Scholastic  "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S i m u l a t i o n Games as L e a r n i n g Environments: A Proposed Program o f Research." S i m u l a t l o h and Games, 2:425-453, December, 1971.  37.  F o r e i g n P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n . New Dimensions. F o r e i g n P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968.  New York:  38.  Gagne, R.M. Research 1954.  39.  Garvey, D.M. and W.H. S e l l e r . "On S i m u l a t i o n Teaching." Phi D e l t a Kappan, 69:473, A p r i l , 1968.  40.  Gearon, J.D. "Labour Versus Management: A S i m u l a t i o n Game." S o c i o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n , 30:421-2, October, 1966.  41.  G l a z i e r , Ray. How t o Design E d u c a t i o n a l Games. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt A s s o c i a t e s Inc., 1969.  42.  Godschalk, D.R. "Negotiate: An Experimental Planning Game." i n E.H. Sanoff and Sidney Conn (ed.). The Proceedings o f the F i r s t Environmental Research" Design A s s o c i a t i o n Conference. Baltimore: E.D.R.A. January, 1970.  " T r a i n i n g Devices and S i m u l a t i o n s : Some I s s u e s . " American P s y c h o l o g ! s t , 9:95-107,  87 43.  Gordon, A.K. Games f o r Growth: E d u c a t i o n a l Games i n the Classroom. Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1970.  44.  Gram, R.H. C e n t r a l Kootenay Research Study. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: ARDA, 1970. !  45.  Guetzkow, H.S. S i m u l a t i o n s i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : Readings. E n g l e w o o d - C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1963.  46.  Simulation i n International Relations: Developments f o r Research arid Teaching. EnglewoodC l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1963.  47.  Guss, C. "Role P l a y i n g S i m u l a t i o n i n I n s t r u c t i o n . " A u d i o - V i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n , 11:443-4, June, 1968.  48.  Hermann, C F . " V a l i d a t i o n Problems i n Games and Simulations with S p e c i a l Reference t o Games o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s . " Behavioral Science, 12:216-31, May, 1967.  49.  I l l i c h , Ivan. De-Schooling Row, 1970, pp.81-82.  50.  Inbar, M. "The D i f f e r e n t i a l Impact o f a Game S i m u l a t i n g a Community D i s a s t e r . " American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 10:18-27, October, 1966.  51.  Kersh, B.Y. "The Classroom S i m u l a t o r . " Journal of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 13:110, March, 1 9 6 7 7  Society•  New York:  Harper  -  52.  Kibee, J.M., C.J. K r a f t , and B. Nanus ( e d . ) . Management Games. New York: Reinhold P r e s s , 1961  53.  Lee, R. "The I n t e r - n a t i o n S i m u l a t i o n as a L e a r n i n g Experience: A One—Month Follow-up Experiment." White P l a i n s , New York: I.B.M. C o r p o r a t i o n , September, 1970 (Mimeographed).  5  4'  55.  :  and A. O'Leary. " A t t i t u d e and P e r s o n a l i t y E f f e c t s o f a Three Day S i m u l a t i o n . " S i m u l a t i o n and Games, 2:309-47, September, 1971. Long, W. "Downtown: An Economic Environmental S i m u l a t i o n Game." i n J . A r c h i a and Chas. Eastman (ed.) Proceedings o f the Second Annual Environmental Research Design Conference• P i t t s b u r g h : E.D.R.A., October,  88 56.  McKecknie, G.E. "Measuring Environmental D i s p o s i t i o n s w i t h the Environmental Response Inventory." In J . Archea and Chas. Eastman (ed.), Proceedings o f the Second Annual Environmental Research Design 'Conference. Pittsburg: E.D.R.A., October, 1970.  57.  McKenney, J.L. and W.R. D i l l . " I n f l u e n c e s on L e a r n i n g i n S i m u l a t i o n Games." American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 10:28-32, October, 1966.  58.  M e i r e r , R.L., E.H. B l a k e l o c k and H. Hinomoto. "Simulation of E c o l o g i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . " Behavioral S c i e n c e , 9:67-76, 1964.  59.  '  and J.P. Doyle. " S i m u l a t i o n o f the Concept o f Community i n E c o l o g i c a l Systems; The Moose-BeaverWolf Environment System of I s l e Royale." Report Number 16. Ann Arbor: Mental H e a l t h Research I n s t i t u t e , 1965.  60.  Miller, Alfred. 1971.  61.  Moore, L.F. "Business Games v s . Case S t u d i e s as Tools of L e a r n i n g . " Monograph, F a c u l t y o f Commerce, Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1967.  62.  Munroe, M.W. "Games as Teaching T o o l s : An Examination of C.L.U.G." Unpublished, M.Sc, T h e s i s , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1968.  63.  N a t i o n a l Committee on F o r e s t Land. Towards I n t e g r a t e d Resource Management. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r ,  im  P e r s o n a l Correspondence,  December 6,  —  64.  Proshansky, H a r o l d M., Wm. H. I t t e l s o n and L.G. R i v l i n . Environmental Psychology: Man and His P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston Inc., 1970.  65.  Raser, J.R. S i m u l a t i o n and S o c i e t y : An E x p l o r a t i o n o f S c i e r i t i f i c Gaming• Boston: A l l y n and Bacon Inc., 1969.  66.  Rapoport, A. and A.M. Chammah. "The Game o f Chicken." American B e h a v i !o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 10:10-28, November,  TMW.  67.  Research News. "Games S i m u l a t i o n and L e a r n i n g . " O f f i c e of Research A d m i n i s t r a t i o n the U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan, 21, Number 9, March, 1971.  89  68.  Robinson, J.A. "Simulation and Games." i n P.H. Rossi and B.J. Biddle (ed.) New Media arid Education (Chapter 3). Chicago: Adline Publishing Co., 1966.  69.  Schild, E.O. "Shaping Strategies." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:1-4, October, 1966.  70.  Schneiberger, K.C. "Gaming as Instruction of Farm Management Education - A Development and Evaluation." Unpublished, Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 1968.  71.  Shubik, M. (ed.). Game Theory arid Related Approaches to Social Behavior"" New York: John Wiley, 1964.  72.  Simon, R.I. "Scenarios and Functional Forms: Considerations for Design of Experimerital Games." Simulation arid Games, 3:3-16, March, 1972.  73.  Smoker, Paul. "Social Research for Social A n t i c i p a t i o n . " American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 12:7-13, July-August,  74.  Snider, J.C. "Development of and U t i l i z a t i o n of a Simulation Game Designed to Instruct Leaders of Adult Education i n Program Development." Unpublished, Ph.D. Dissertation, F l o r i d a State University, 1970.  75.  Starbuck, W.H. and E. Kobrow. "The Effects of Advisors on Business Game Teams." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:28-30, October, 1966. !  76.  S t o l l , C.S. and S.S. Boocock. "Simulation Games: New Visual A i d for Social Studies." Audio-Visual Instruction, 13:840-41, October, 19687  77.  Suits, B. "What i s A Game?" Philosophy of Science, 34:48-56, January, 1969.  78.  Symington, D.F. "Land Use In Canada: The Canada Land Inventory." Canada Land Inventory, Department of Regional andTfcoriomic Expansion. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, June, 1970.  79.  Tansey, P.J. and D. Unwin. Simulation and Gaming i n Education. London: Methuen Ltd., 1964.  80.  Terry, Mark. Teaching for Survival. Books Inc., 1971. ~  81.  Toffler, Alvin. 1970.  Future Shock.  New York:  New York:  Ballantine  Random House,  90 82.  8384.  85.  Twelker, P.A. "Classroom S i m u l a t i o n and Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n . " School Review, 75:197-204, Summer, 1967. '  "Designing S i m u l a t i o n Systems." E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 9, 64-70, October, 1969. I n s t r u c t i o n a l S i m u l a t i o n Systems: An Annotated B i b l i b g r a p h y v C o r v a l l i s , Oregon: A Continuing Education Book, 1969.  Verner, C. " I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 29:262-68, June, T9T9T  !  86.  A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Processes f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Washington: A d u l t Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962.  87.  ,. G'. D i c k i n s o n and E.P. A l l e y n e . "A S o c i o economic Survey o f the East Kootenay Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia." ARDA Canada Land Inventory, Report Number 2, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968.  88.  Zaltman, G. "Degree o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L e a r n i n g i n the Consumer Economic Game." i n S.S. Boocock and E.O. S c h i l d , S i m u l a t i o n Games i n L e a r n i n g (pp. 205-215). Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1968.  APPENDIX A- PRE-TEST INSTRUMENT  PART A - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY.  Groups # • Person # Card #  1  Instructions: Please check one of the f i v e categories (from strongly arree to strongly disagree) f o r each statements >>  H  o o a> co<q  Landowners should be able to do what they wish with t h e i r land. 2,  Land use planning i s just couwon sense.  3.  Our national parks should be preserved i n t h e i r natural state with roads and buildings prohibited.  4.  5.  What I do with my own land i s ray own business. Land users must attempt to miniraize possible bad effects on neighbouring lands.  6.  Farming operations should not have to change t h e i r plans to accommodate some w i l d l i f e population.  7.  A l l landowners should have registered land use plans approved by a q u a l i f i e d land use planner.  8.  Landowners with high c a p a b i l i t y land f o r agriculture should not s e l l t h e i r property f o r b u i l d i n g developments.  9.  W i l d l i f e populations damaging cash crop or competing with c a t t l e must be removed.  10.  By planning land use i t i s possible to foresee environmental problems.  11.  Individual landowners have no respons i b i l i t i e s toward wild animal populations.  12.  When economic i n t e r e s t s c o n f l i c t with ecological i n t e r e s t s the decision should be made i n favor of economic gain.  CD  r&  rt  <  •** <D  otJ W •H  ft  >»0)  H  ©  9 b  O «J *-l 10 -P H CO P»  92  PART A  -  2  -  hfi O  o 0>  +> y j  13 •  I would be w i l l i n g to t i t down and work out a l a n d use p l a n w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l l a n d use p l a n n e r .  14.  The l a n d uses o f one p i e c e o f l a n d have no e f f e c t on n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n d s .  15.  B u i l d i n g programs that d i s r u p t t h e ecology should be abandoned and the l a n d r e t u r n e d to i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e .  16.  Any l a n d can be s u c c e s s f u l l y farmed p r o v i d e d enough money and t i n e i s a v a i l a b l e t o develop i t .  cj>  CO u  wj  o  O  +»  93  PART B - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY  Group # Person # Card #  1  Instructions: Please select the BEST answer f o r each of the following questions.  1.  Land c a p a b i l i t y refers to:  (  )  a) uses the land i s being put to presently. b) what o r i g i n a l l y grew on undisturbed land. c) the land's natural a b i l i t y to support native or domestic plants and animals. d) the land's p o t e n t i a l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l production. 2.  Moderate c a p a b i l i t y b i g game land has:  • • (  )  a) only the a b i l i t y to support b i g game. b) the a b i l i t y to support b i g game and c a t t l e . c) the a b i l i t y to support b i g game, c a t t l e , f i e l d crops and forests. d) the a b i l i t y to support b i g game, c a t t l e and forests. 3.  High c a p a b i l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l land can support: a) b) c) d)  4.  5.  6.  )  (  )  (  )  natural conditions. man-made conditions. economic conditions. . t r a d i t i o n a l uses.  The cost of maintenance of environmental q u a l i t y : a) b) c) d)  (  waterfowl, c a t t l e and f o r e s t s . b i g game, and c a t t l e . f i e l d crops, forests, c a t t l e and b i g game. waterfowl, f o r e s t s , f i e l d crops, b i g game and c a t t l e .  Land c a p a b i l i t i e s are the r e s u l t of: a) b) c) d)  )  more c a t t l e than b i g game. as many c a t t l e as b i g game. fewer c a t t l e than b i g game. more b i g game than c a t t l e .  High c a p a b i l i t y forestry land can support a) b) c) d)  (  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the landowner. i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government. both. neither.  94 7.  I n c r e a s i n g environmental q u a l i t y o f t e n :  (  )  (  )  a) i n c r e a s e s p r o f i t s , b) decreases p r o f i t s . c) does not a f f e c t p r o f i t s . 8.  The economic g a i n and environmental q u a l i t y a r e : a) f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t . b) never i n c o n f l i c t . c) o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c o n f l i c t .  9.  B i g game and waterfowl p o p u l a t i o n s have:  (  )  a) no economic v a l u e . b) g r e a t economic v a l u e . c) some economic v a l u e . 10*  M a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h degree o f environmental q u a l i t y : c o s t s landowners a l o t o f money, c o s t s the landowner n o t h i n g , c) s l i g h t l y increases the landowner's  11o  F o r e s t removal can r e s u l t a) b) c) d)  12.  in:  (  )  (  )  costs.  i n c r e a s e i n b i g game a n i m a l s . decrease i n b i g game a n i m a l s . 1"tetter s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . fewer c a t t l e .  B i g game and c a t t l e  compete f o r :  (  )  a) sources o f water. b) t h e same food supply. c) none o f the above. 13.  Increase i n c a t t l e a) b) c) d)  14«  decrease increase decrease increase  can cause:  increase decrease decrease increase  )  (  )  i n waterfowl. i n forests. i n forests. i n f i e l d crops.  Decrease i n f i e l d crops can cause: a) b) CJ d)  (  i n cattle. i n forests. i n waterfowl, i n bi/j game.  PART B  -  3  -  15. Increase i n b i g game can cause: a) b) . c) d)  decrease decrease increase increase  i n cattle. i n f i e l d crops. i n cattle, i n f i e l d crops.  16. Exceeding the carrying capacity of land and bringing i n extra feed f o r c a t t l e i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 17. Changes i n the land which a f f e c t a neighbours' land are: a) good land use, b) bad land use. c) neither. 18. Converting a l l land of any c a p a b i l i t y to a g r i c u l t u r e uses i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 19. Using l i m i t e d agriculture land f o r f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 20. Removing waterfowl by draining wetland to increase f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither.  APPENDIX B - POST-TEST INSTRUMENT PART C - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY Group # Person # Card # Please f i l l A)  Property Size i n the a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n below:  1. Male 2. Female  B)  What i s your p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y ? 1. Husband 2. Wife 3. C h i l d 4. R e l a t i v e 5. Other  C)  How many years o f s c h o o l have you completed? ______________  D)  years.  Was more than $250 worth o f a g r i c u l t u r e produce s o l d from t h i s l a n d i n 1971? 1. Yes 2. No  97  PART D - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY  Group # Person # Card # • 2  Instructions: Please check any one of the f i v e categories (from strongly agree to strongly disagree) f o r each statement,  O <D  CD  -P  co <  «<  a  ^ W)  U h. -p bA  1,  This game was enjoyable,  2,  I wouldn't mind playing this game again,  3,  This game i s n ' t r e a l l y l i k e the r e a l problems landowners face.  4,  I would recommend t h i s game to my friends to play.  5,  I think every landowner should have a chance to play t h i s game.  3 CD  <tf  00  h  .rt •  O CO  03  4» -d  « co«  ____ — mmmm  — _  mmm  ____  —  — ____  mmmm  ____  mtmm  ——  mmmmm  ,  mmmm  9,8  PART A - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION  Group--#  GAME EVALUATION STUDY.  Person # 1  Card #  Instructions: Please check one of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s (from s t r o n g l y a^ree to strongly disagree) f o r each statement, >> op H 0)  >» ©  a t*  u w CtJ  bhu G fcifl O  s  in  JHI W  a  ft  COR  0) O  <U  O  o>  U f r U  1  8  Landowners should be able to do what they wish with t h e i r land,  <  co< __ ~~~  <-  2,  Land use planning i s just common sense,  3.  Our national parks should be preserved i n t h e i r natural state with roads and buildings prohibited,  4»  What I do with my own land i s my business,  5,  Land users must attempt to minimize ___ possible bad effects on neighbouring l a n d s ,  6,  Farming operations should not have to change t h e i r plans to accommodate some w i l d l i f e population.  7«  A l l landowners should have registered l a n d use plans approved by a q u a l i f i e d l a n d use planner,  8,  Landowners with high c a p a b i l i t y land f o r agriculture should not s e l l t h e i r property f o r building developments.  9.  W i l d l i f e populations damaging cash crop or competing with c a t t l e must be removed,  -—>  .  ,  ^^ m m i  lii i  «J  mmmm  . .  tr  own  <  m m m  By planning land use i t i s possible to foresee environmental problems,  11,  Individual landowners have no respons i b i l i t i e s toward wild animal populations,  12,  When economic i n t e r e s t s c o n f l i c t w i t h ecological i n t e r e s t s the d e c i s i o n should be made i n favor of economic gain.  mmomm  m m m  mmmm  ^  .  t  iin<  •  10,  m m m  .... . . ,  m m m  .  in  _  tj  99  - 2 -  PART A  r-i  ~?  a o  o o> f t i )  CQ  13,  I would be w i l l i n g to s i t down and work out a l a n d use p l a n w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l l a n d use planner,  14,  The l a n d uses o f one p i e c e o f l a n d have no e f f e c t on n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n d s .  15.  B u i l d i n g programs that d i s r u p t the ecology should be abandoned and the l a n d r e t u r n e d to i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e .  16.  Any l a n d can be s u c c e s s f u l l y f a m e d p r o v i d e d enough money and time i s a v a i l a b l e t o develop i t .  \  <q  ©  o  u  +>  M  3  <  a  ©  r-l 0>  tj  p eJ  ta pj  < r t  «  cp  49-rt  to«  100 PART B - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY  P  Group # _ e  r  s  o  n  #  Card # I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please select following questions.  1.  1  the BEST answer f o r each o f the  Land c a p a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o :  (  )  . (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  a) uses the l a n d i s b e i n g put t o p r e s e n t l y . b) what o r i g i n a l l y grew on u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d . c) t h e l a n d ' s n a t u r a l a b i l i t y t o support n a t i v e o r domestic p l a n t s and animals. d) t h e l a n d ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . 2.  Moderate c a p a b i l i t y b i g game l a n d has: a) o n l y t h e a b i l i t y t o support b i g b) t h e a b i l i t y t o support b i g game c) t h e a b i l i t y t o support b i g game, crops and f o r e s t s . d) t h e a b i l i t y t o support b i g game, forests.  3.  l a n d can support  waterfowl, c a t t l e and f o r e s t s . b i g game, and c a t t l e . f i e l d c r o p s , f o r e s t s , c a t t l e and b i g game. waterfowl, f o r e s t s , f i e l d c r o p s , b i g game and c a t t l e ,  Land c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e the r e s u l t o f : a) b) c) d)  6.  more c a t t l e than b i g game. as many c a t t l e as b i g game. fewer c a t t l e than b i g game. more b i g game than c a t t l e .  High c a p a b i l i t y f o r e s t r y a) bV c) d)  5.  c a t t l e and  High c a p a b i l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d can s u p p o r t : a) b) c) d)  4.  game. and c a t t l e . cattle, field  natural conditions. man-made c o n d i t i o n s . economic c o n d i t i o n s . . t r a d i t i o n a l uses.  The cost o f maintenance o f environmental q u a l i t y : a) b) c) d)  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e landowner. i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e government, both. neither.  PART B  (2)  101 7.  I n c r e a s i n g environmental q u a l i t y o f t e n :  (.  )  (  )  a) i n c r e a s e s p r o f i t s . b) decreases p r o f i t s . c) does not a f f e c t p r o f i t s . 8.  The economic g a i n and environmental q u a l i t y a r e : a> f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t . b) never i n c o n f l i c t . c) o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c o n f l i c t .  9.  B i g game and waterfowl p o p u l a t i o n s have:  (  )  a) no economic v a l u e . b) great economic v a l u e . c) some economic v a l u e . 10c  M a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h degree o f environmental q u a l i t y :  (  )  (  )  a) c o s t s landowners a l o t o f money. b) c o s t s the landowner n o t h i n g . c) s l i g h t l y increases t h e landowner's c o s t s . 11o  F o r e s t removal can r e s u l t a) b) c) d)  12.  in:  i n c r e a s e i n b i g game animals. decrease i n b i g game animals. T~?.tter s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , fewer c a t t l e .  B i g game and c a t t l e  compete f o r :  (  )  a) sources o f water. b) the same food supply. c) none o f t h e above. 13.  Increase a) b) c) d)  14.  i n cattle  decrease increase decrease increase  can cause:  increase decrease decrease increase  )  (  )  i n waterfowl. i n forests. i n forests. i n f i e l d crops.  Decrease i n f i e l d crops can cause: a) b) c) d)  (  i n cattle. i n forests, i n waterfowl, i n b i / j game.  PART B  -  3  -  15. Increase i n b i g game can cause: a) b) c) d)  decrease decrease increase increase  in in in in  cattle. f i e l d crops. cattle. f i e l d crops.  16. Exceeding the carrying capacity of land and bringing i n extra feed f o r c a t t l e i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 17. Changes i n the land which a f f e c t a neighbours' land are: a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 18. Converting a l l land of any c a p a b i l i t y to a g r i c u l t u r e uses i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 19. Using l i m i t e d agriculture land f o r f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 20. Removing waterfowl by draining wetland to increase f i e l d crop production i s : a} good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither.  103 APPENDIX C - DEEDS FOR SIMULATED PROPERTIES Property 1 Land Value $1200  Capabilities  600 Acres  Cattle  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000 Exchange U n i t s Big Field crop torest Game  Waterfowl  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  Limited  2  4  1  1  0  4  0  1  4  0  Agriculture  Moderate B i g Game  Property 2 Land Value $1800  Capabilities  900 Acres  Cattle  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000 Exchange U n i t s Big Field Crop frorest Game  Waterfowl  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  Limited  Agriculture  2  4  1  1  0  Forestry  2  2  8  1  0  2  2  4  1  0  High Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  16  Moderate Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  8  Moderate B i g Game  4  0  1  4  0  Moderate Limited  Forestry  104 Property 3 Land Value $2500  Capabilities  1250 Acres  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000 Exchange U n i t s Field Big Crop i-orest Game  Cattle  Waterfowl  Moderate F o r e s t r y  2  2  8  1  0  Limited  2  2  4  1  0  0  0  0  8  Forestry  Moderate Waterfowl  0 .  .  .  .  Property 4 Land Value $2600  Capabilities  1300 Acres  Cattle  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000  Exchange U n i t s Field Big crop torest Game  Waterfowl  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  16  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  High F o r e s t r y  2  2  16  1  0  Moderate F o r e s t r y  2  2  4  1  0  Limited  2  2  4  1  0  8  0  8  0  Forestry  High B i g Game  1  105 Property 5 Land Value $2000  Capabilities  1000 Acres  Cattle  Enviro-Value  2000  Exchange U n i t s Field Big Crop forest Game  Waterfowl  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  16  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  Moderate F o r e s t r y  2  2  8  1  0  Limited  2  2  4  1  0  4  0  1  4  0  Forestry  Moderate B i g Game  Property 6 900 Acres Land Value $1800  Capabilities  Enviro-Value  Cattle  2000  Exchange U n i t s Field Big Crop Forest Game  Waterfowl  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  16  1  4  0  Limited Agriculture  2  4  1  1  0  High Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  16  Moderate B i g Game  4  0  1  4  0  106 Property 7 550 Acres Land Value $1100  Capabilities  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000  Cattle  Exchange Units FieTcI Big Crop Forest Game  Waterfowl  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  16  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  High Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  16  Property 8 1050 Acres  E n v i r o - V a l u e 2000  Land Value $2100  Capabilities  Cattle  Exchange U n i t s Field Big Game Crop Forest  Waterfowl  High A g r i c u l t u r e  8  16  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  High  2  2  16  1  0  High Waterfowl  0  0  0  0  16  N a t i v e Range  8  8  0  8  0  Forestry  107 Property 9 Land Value $1900  Capabilities  950 Acres  Cattle  E n v i r o - Value 2000  Exchange U n i t s Big Field Crop Forest Game  Waterfowl  8  16  1  4  0  Moderate Agriculture  4  8  1  2  0  High  0  0  0  0  16  8  8  0  8  0  High  Agriculture  Waterfowl  N a t i v e Range  APPENDIX D - CONSEQUENCE CARDS F o r e s t Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: E x t r a range l a n d i n r e f o r e s t e d area u n a v a i l a b l e for grazing. Decrease c a t t l e and b i g game by 2 u n i t s on your's and neighbouring l a n d s . Decrease: More rangelend a v a i l a b l e . You and your neighbours get 4 f r e e u n i t s o f c a t t l e o r b i g game. Card 2 Increase: R e f o r e s t i n g prevents s o i l e r o s i o n you r e c e i v e 25 EU's f o r each u n i t o f f o r e s t purchased. Decrease: More rangeland a v a i l a b l e . You and your neighbours get 4 f r e e u n i t s o f c a t t l e o r b i g game. Card 3 Increase: E x t r a range l a n d i n r e f o r e s t e d area u n a b a i l a b l e for grazing. Decrease c a t t l e and b i g game by 2 u n i t s on your's and neighbouring lands. Decrease: Cut over area i s no longer a v a i l a b l e to c o n t r o l s p r i n g r u n o f f . Floods destroy 5 u n i t s of f o r e s t on your's and neighbours' l a n d s . Card 4 Increase: R e f o r e s t i n g prevents s o i l e r o s i o n you r e c e i v e 25 EU's f o r each u n i t o f f o r e s t purchased. Decrease: Cut over area i s no longer a v a i l a b l e to c o n t r o l spring runoff. Floods d e s t r o y 5 u n i t s o f f o r e s t on your's and neighbours' l a n d .  109 Waterfowl Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: Conservation measures have prevented p o s s i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Add 25 EU's f o r each u n i t o f waterfowl i n c r e a s e d . Decrease: Less damage t o f i e l d crops r e s u l t s because o f fewer ducks and geese. You and your neighbours receive 3 free u n i t s of f i e l d crops. Card 2 Increase: Ducks destroy crops pay your neighbours w i t h f i e l d crops $20/unit each u n i t o f waterfowl increased. Decrease: Disease and winter k i l l destroys 5 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I f whole p o p u l a t i o n wiped out 200 a d d i t i o n a l EU's l o s t . Card 3 Increase: C o n s e r v a t i o n measures have prevented p o s s i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Add 25 EU's f o r each u n i t o f waterfowl i n c r e a s e d . Decrease: Disease and w i n t e r k i l l d e s t r o y 5 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I f whole p o p u l a t i o n i s wiped out 200 a d d i t i o n a l EU's a r e l o s t . Card 4 Increase: Ducks d e s t r o y crops pay your neighbours w i t h f i e l d crops $20/unit f o r each u n i t o f waterfowl i n c r e a s e d . Decrease: Less damage t o f i e l d crops r e s u l t s because of fewer ducks and geese. You and your neighbours r e c e i v e 3 f r e e u n i t s o f f i e l d crops.  110 Big  Game Consequence Cards  Card 1 Increase: T h i s i n c r e a s e maintains the p o p u l a t i o n a t a h e a l t h y l e v e l you r e c e i v e an a d d i t i o n a l 50 EU's/unit i n c r e a s e d . Decrease: Severe w i n t e r k i l l s o f f 2 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s o f b i g game. Card 2 Increase: Drought reduces f e e d a v a i l a b l e f o r g r a z i n g a l l p o p u l a t i o n s o f b i g game and c a t t l e oh the board decrease by 2 u n i t s . Decrease: Severe w i n t e r k i l l s o f f 2 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s of b i g game. Card 3 Increase: Drought reduces f e e d a v a i l a b l e f o r g r a z i n g a l l p o p u l a t i o n s o f b i g game and c a t t l e on the board decrease by 2 u n i t s . Decrease: Competition f o r rangeland i s decreased so you and your neighbours get 5 f r e e u n i t s of c a t t l e . Card 4 Increase; T h i s i n c r e a s e maintains t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t a h e a l t h y l e v e l you r e c e i v e an a d d i t i o n a l 50 EU's/unit i n c r e a s e d . Decrease: Competition f o r rangeland i s decreased so you and your neighbours get 5 f r e e u n i t s of c a t t l e .  111 F i e l d Crop Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: Water used to i r r i g a t e f i e l d crops lowers the water l e v e l i n waterfowl a r e a s . Decrease waterfowl by 5 u n i t s on your's and neighbours' l a n d s . Card 2 Increase: Poof c a p a b i l i t y lands f o r f i e l d c r o p s , a l l those except moderate and h i g h a g r i c u l t u r e and n a t i v e range, r e q u i r e f e r t i l i z e r a t an a d d i t i o n a l $10/unit of f i e l d crop purchased. Card 3 Increase: F i e l d crops b e t t e r q u a l i t y than normal t h i s y e a r . Keep t h i s c a r d and c o l l e c t 2 times v a l u e o f f i e l d crops a t s a l e time i n the f a l l . Card 4 Increase: F i e l d crops p r o v i d e more feed f o r waterfowl. Waterfowl p o p u l a t i o n s on your's and neighbours' land i n c r e a s e by 2 u n i t s .  C a t t l e Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: C a t t l e on lands c l a s s i f i e d as l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r e or any f o r e s t r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e a feed supplement c o s t i n g $25/unit o f c a t t l e bought. Pay the bank. Card 2 Increase: C a t t l e spread d i s e a s e to b i g game animals. Reduce b i g game p o p u l a t i o n s by 2 u n i t s on your's and neighbours' l a n d .  112 Card 3 Increase: One a l l land immediately next to a waterfowl area the c a t t l e d i s t u r b the n e s t i n g s i t e s . Reduce waterfowl by 3 u n i t s . Card 4 Increase: The market i s h i g h f o r l i v e s t o c k products you raise. Keep t h i s c a r d and c o l l e c t twice market value at s a l e time. T h i s c a r d must be r e t u r n e d to the p i l e next f a l l whether used or not.  APPENDIX E - RISK CARDS Card 1 Disease spreads through p o p u l a t i o n over produced. You and your neighbours l o s e 5 u n i t s o f whatever was over produced. Card 2 Neighbours and you l o s e 100 EU's due t o damage to l a n d caused by over p r o d u c t i o n . Card 3 I f c a t t l e or b i g game are over the l i m i t or over g r a z i n g decrease c a t t l e and b i g game on your's and neighbours' l a n d by 5 u n i t s . I f waterfowl are over the l i m i t decrease your's and neighbours' f i e l d crops by 5 u n i t s . Card 4 Land reduced t o one h a l f i t s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r 1 y e a r . Remove over produced animals and number o f animals equal t o one h a l f c a r r y i n g capacity. Card 5 Severe weather c o n d i t i o n s decrease your p o p u l a t i o n by overproduced amount p l u s 5 . Card 6 No change.  114 APPENDIX F - GAME SCORING SHEET  GROUP NO.  .PERSON NO. CARD NO.  *  JMohey.  EU' s  EU's + Money  Year 1 2 3 4 5  Keep a running t o t a l o f EU's. A t end o f each year put t o t a l EU's i n above c h a r t . I t i s ONLY i n the f i n a l year that i t i s necessary t o count up money and t o t a l o f EU's-f" money. 2000  115 APPENDIX G - PLAYER INSTRUCTION CARDS Rules 1. 2. 3.  4. 5.  6.  You may negotiate with your neighbour as to the planning of his or her land. Your EU's (environmental units) must be above 1000 by the end of the game. Risk - i f you exceed the l i m i t s i n numbers of forest, big game, waterfowl, c a t t l e or f i e l d crops for a given piece of land you must draw a r i s k card every turn the population i s maintained beyond the l i m i t s . Four or fewer players may buy only properties: 4, 5, 6, or 8. More than 4 players: the person getting the highest number on a role of the dice gets f i r s t choice with the person next highest getting second choice and so on. Only One piece of property may be purchased.  Winter 1.  2. 3.  Decide which wild populations you wish to s e l l to make room for c a t t l e and f i e l d crops: s e l l big game, s e l l waterfowl, s e l l forests. Turn over a unit when i t has been sold (white side up). Record the number of Environmental Units (EU's) l o s t by s e l l i n g wild populations (forests, big game, waterfowl). Draw appropriate consequence card or cards.  Spring 1. 2.  Buy f i e l d crops and c a t t l e to put on land from which forests and big game have been removed. Draw appropriate consequence card or cards.  116 Summer 1.  2. 3.  I f you have c a t t l e you must buy 1 unit of f i e l d crop for each unit of c a t t l e . *You may buy i t from yourself (just turn over the number of pink blocks equal to number of units of c a t t l e you have). *You may buy them from your neighbour at a price he decides. *You may buy them from the bank at twice the sale price ($50/unit). You may buy back b i g game, waterfowl or forests. Remember to add EU's gained to your score. Draw appropriate consequence card or cards.  Fall  1.  S e l l f i e l d crops, s e l l cattle.  2.  Total up EU's and cash on hand.  117 APPENDIX H —  Over  APPENDIX H CORRELATION MATRIX FOR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS, 1 1.  1.00  2.  -.21  3.  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  11  12  13  1.00  .02 -.10 1.00  4.  -.15  .23  .09  5.  -.09  .25  -.01  6.  -.14  .15  .15  >M  .25  7.  -.31  .21  .02  .65  .54  .48 1.00  8.  -.37  .10  .04  .44  .48  .25  .76  9.  -.21  .23  .00  .S9 .38  ._57  J$9  1.00 ._74 1.00 1.00  1.00 .40 1.00  10.  -.08 -.-12  .22  .20  .22  .08 -.00 -.06  .05  11.  -.21  .13  .37  .14  .JO .36  .36  .04  .02  .09  12.  10  .09  .04 -.02  -.09  -.01  .23  .08 -.09  1.00 .07 1.00 -.04  .45  1.00  13.  -.16  .08 -.01  .14 -.02  .26  .21  .07  •_31  14.  -.30  .05  -.11  .07  .11  .19  .21  .13  .22 -.20  .64  .13  .35  15.  -.29  -.03  .23  .51  .32  .46  .43  .22  Al  .01  ill  .20  .09  16.  .13  .01  .20  .25  .16  .20  .14 -.09  .29  .18  .23  .33  17.  -.11  .28  .28  .04  .15  .03  .13  .22  .02  .13  18.  .21  .03  19.  .13  -.15  20.  -.04  -.01  _.48 -.01  1.00  .13  .02 -.10  .14  .12  .16  .08  .36  .07 -.02 -.11  .02  .01  -.09  .09  .01  .30  .25  .19  .12 -.11  .32  .38  .33  .05  .38  .35  .31  .17  .21  21.  .29  -.28  .06  -.26  .20  .05  .16  .20  22.  -.23  -.23  At  -.10 -.09  23.  -.16  -.30  A]  24.  -.56  -.03  25.  -.45  .21  26.  -.13  -.15  .02 -.14  -.05  .15  .56  .47  -.14 -.28 -.52 -.30 -.25  .04 -.12  .25  .26  .19  .26  .19  Al  .02  .19  .18  .18  .12  .20  .24  .43  .06  .23  -.12 -.11  -.11  -.04  .22  .26  .14 -.09  .24 -.11  .28  -.26  -.23  -.19  -.20  .14  .08  .17 -.26  .25  .26  .37 -.35  .06  .04  .05  .27 -.13  -.02 -.28 -.32  s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l  -.04  .00 -.29 (r>.31) ,  118 TEST SCORES, SCORES ON INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES, AND GAME SCORES* 14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  L i s t of Variables:-Variable 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26  .00 .20 1.00  Description Property Size Family P o s i t i o n Number o f Years o f S c h o o l i n g P r e - t e s t A t t i t u d e Score P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 1 P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 2 P o s t - t e s t A t t i t u d e Score P o s t - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 1 P o s t - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 2 A t t i t u d e Towards the Game P r e - t e s t Knowledge Score P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 3 P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 4 P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 5 P r e - t e s t Score f o r O b j e c t i v e 6 P o s t - t e s t Knowledge Score P o s t - t e s t Score O b j e c t i v e 3 P o s t - t e s t Score O b j e c t i v e 4 P o s t - t e s t Score O b j e c t i v e 5 P o s t - t e s t Score O b j e c t i v e 6 Environmental U n i t Score Money Score T o t a l Score Number o f Minutes o f P l a y Number o f Game P a r t i c i p a n t s Rank W i t h i n the P l a y i n g Group  .29  .38 1.00  .01  .18  .55 1.00  .08  .05  .61  .16 1.00  .57  ,13  .63  .05  .24 1.00  .02  _52  .65  .17  .20  .19  ,03  .14  .10  .18 -.04  .14 1.00  .28  ,35  .36  .16  .04  .31  .31 -.08 1.00  .23  ,_35  .39  .18  .08  .29  .34  .37  ,16  .05  .07 -.00  .04 -.23 -.19 ^  .44  ,11  .00  .09  .15 -.33  .07  ,17  .11  .10 -.01 -.13 -.23 -.35 -.55 -.63  .09  .21 1.00  s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l  (V;?.41).  .15 ^97 1.00 .26 1.00  .09 -.02 -.04  .77 1.00 .21  .29 1.00  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101609/manifest

Comment

Related Items