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The design and evaluation of a land use simulation game 1972

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THE DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A LAND USE SIMULATION GAME by WILLIAM DONALD BARKLEY B.Sc.(Hons.Zoo.)» University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Adult Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1972 In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t fre e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shal not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adult Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date July 24, 1972. ABSTRACT This study was concerned with the design and evaluation of a land use simulation game for r u r a l residents of the East Kootenay region of B r i t i s h Columbia. The rationale behind the study was that gaming was a technique worthy of investigation for use i n the environmental education of adults. Two hypotheses were proposed to guide the research on the land use simulation game designed. The f i r s t proposed that the game would produce a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n knowledge and change i n attitude, and the second stated that s i g n i f i c a n t relationships would be shown between player c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s / game play data and test r e s u l t s . A simulation game was designed using a modified version of a procedure set out by Glazier (41) for designing educational games. Two preliminary versions were tested and a f i n a l version set up. The game was a board game using an enlarged piece of a land c a p a b i l i t y map. Players bought and planned pieces of land through the four seasons of the year. The objective of the game was to maximize economic returns without severely damaging the environment. Instruments for evaluating the game were simul- taneously designed and tested. The simulation game was played with 40 East Kootenay residents i n school d i s t r i c t number 2, Cranbrook on properties i i i of 50 acres or more. Family groups played the game and completed both a pre and post-test. The people playing the simulation game came mostly from productive farms (82.51). T h i r t y - f i v e percent of the sample were husbands and wives, 45 percent children, and 20 percent were others which included farm hands and neighbours. The mean educational l e v e l of the group was 10.7 years. The mean land holding size was 537.1 acres and the mean number of players per each of the nine gaming sessions was 4.7 persons. Years of schooling correlated p o s i t i v e l y with the t o t a l score a person received on the game. Objective 6 on the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y good and poor land uses correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a number of other variables. This objective appears to be an important one to consider i n future game modi- f i c a t i o n . Knowledge and attitude correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with years of schooling, money scores, t o t a l scores, playing time, number of players, attitude towards the game, and rank within a group; and negative s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found with property size and environmental unit scores. T-test results showed that there had been a general increase i n knowledge and i n p a r t i c u l a r an increase i n the knowledge about the competitive relationships that ex i s t between wild and domestic populations. A change i n attitude about the effects of land use on neighbouring lands was also found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . i v I t was concluded that the simulation game had been a limi t e d success with some learning s t a t i s t i c a l l y demonstrable. Correlation data and subjective data provided s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r - mation for the further modification of this learning device to enhance i t s effectiveness. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . x i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE . . . . . 3 HYPOTHESES 3 PROCEDURE 4 Sample 5 Data C o l l e c t i o n 6 Data Analysis 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . . 8 PLAN OF THE STUDY 9 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . 10 THE SIMULATION GAMING TECHNIQUE 10 RESEARCH RELATED TO SIMULATION GAMING . . . . . 13 Effectiveness of Gaming 13 Evaluations of Business Games 16 Effe c t s of Game Presentation on Game Play . . 18 Validation of the Simulation 19 Behavioral Measures of Game Effectiveness . . 21 Summary 23 v i Chapter Page LAND USE SIMULATION GAMES 24 GAME DESIGN PROCEDURES 28 SUMMARY 30 3. DESIGNING THE EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME ..' 33 DESIGN PROCEDURE 34 SOURCES OF DATA . 35 GOAL 36 SCOPE 36 GAME FORMAT . . 36 PLAYER RESOURCES 38 GAME AND PLAYER OBJECTIVES 42 PRELIMINARY VERSION 42 Number of Players 42 Setting Up the Game Board 43 Seasons 44 Win and Score C r i t e r i a 50 MODIFICATIONS TO THE PRELIMINARY GAME . . . . 51 PILOT STUDY VERSION 52 FINAL VERSION 54 4. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF PLAYING THE SIMULATION GAME 56 CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME PARTICIPANTS . . . . 57 PLAY OF THE GAME 58 Playing Time 58 v i i Chapter Page Game Scores 61 Game Scores i n Relation to Player Characteristics 62 Subjective Observations on Game Play . . . . 65 Game Attitude 66 TEST RESULTS 67 Differences Between Pre and Post-test Results . . . . . . 67 Relationships Among Test Results 69 Player and Game Characteristics i n Relation to Test Results . . . . . . . . . 70 SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 73 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS . . . . 75 SUMMARY . 75 CONCLUSIONS 80 IMPLICATIONS . 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 APPENDICES A. PRE-TEST INSTRUMENT . . . . . . . 91 B. POST-TEST INSTRUMENT 96 C. DEEDS FOR SIMULATED PROPERTIES 103 D. CONSEQUENCE CARDS 108 E. RISK CARDS 113 F. GAME SCORING SHEET 114 v i i i APPENDICES Page G. PLAYER INSTRUCTION CARDS 115 H . CORRELATION MATRIX FOR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS, TEST SCORES, SCORES ON INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES AND GAME SCORES 117 i x LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Carrying Capacities per 50 Acres of the 11 Land Capability C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . . . 44 2. Economic and Environmental Unit Values . . . . 46 3. Exchange Units for Replacement of a Unit of a P a r t i c u l a r Plant or Animal Species with Another 48 4. Revised Table of Economic and Environmental Values 52 5. Summary of Player Characteristics 59 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Game Participants by Property Size and Playing Time 60 7. Frequency Table of Number of Players and Game Playing Time 61 8. Frequency Table of Years of Schooling and Total Score . 63 9. Summary of Pre-test and Post-test Results . . . 68 10. Summary of the Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Objective 6 and Other Game and Test Variables 71 x LIST OF FIGURES gure Page 1. Game Board 39 2. Game Board Set-up for Play 41 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study would not have been possible without the assistance and co-operation of a number of people. The Canadian W i l d l i f e Service made the study possible by providing me with a generous grant and s u f f i c i e n t leave from my job to do the study. The s t a f f at the Wye Marsh W i l d l i f e Centre took on extra work to carry out my duties during my absence. Both the s t a f f and students of the Adult Education Research Center at the University of B.C. offered of the i r expertise f r e e l y whenever i t was requested. Dr. Gary Dickinson i s es p e c i a l l y thanked for his patience, guidance, and advice during the whole course of the study. My family i s thanked for putting up with the upheaval of moving from Ontario to B.C. and the grandparents for baby- s i t t i n g when i t was necessary to do f i e l d work. My wife, Gayle, deserves sp e c i a l thanks for typing the manuscript, e d i t i n g , a s s i s t i n g i n the research and testing the preliminary versions of the game. F i n a l l y , a thanks to a l l those people who par t i c i p a t e d i n the game f o r providing the data. x i i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The deterioration of the natural environment and the apparent public concern stimulated by the mass media have created a need for providing environmental education programs to the public. In North America numerous education programs dealing with the natural environment have been created. Concomitant with t h i s need for public programs i s a need to examine, evaluate and create new methods, techniques and devices for use i n environmental education. One facet of environmental education which i s e s p e c i a l l y challenging i s environmental education for adults. Providing adults with an awareness of environmental processes i s important because they are the decision makers and many envi- ronmental problems cannot wait to be solved by the next generation. A major d i f f i c u l t y i n educating adults i n the public at large i s the lack of a structured educational system so that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental education programs i s voluntary and informal. In view of t h i s , methods and tech- niques must to some degree motivate and i n t e r e s t people enough to take part i n what i s offered. Thus, adult educators need to generate and evaluate methods and techniques which can be adapted to the voluntary and informal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult environmental education. 1 2 One such technique which has p o t e n t i a l and deserves further investigation i s simulation gaming. This technique attempts to reproduce r e a l world processes i n a s i m p l i f i e d form and present them to the pot e n t i a l learner f o r manipulation i n a gaming context. The player, by playing out his r o l e i n the game, must make decisions consistent with the simulated process and hence compatible with r e a l i t y . Complicating the processes r e f l e c t e d are other players operating with c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . Constrained by the rules and simulated processes, players must compete and coroperate with other players to achieve game objectives. The learning that takes place i s a r e s u l t of c o l l e c t i n g data on which to make decisions, nego- t i a t i n g with other players, and bearing the consequences of decisions. A feature of simulation gaming that has been well documented by research studies i s the motivation and i n t e r e s t i t creates i n students. This alone would be s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y using the gaming technique with adults. In addition, simulation games i l l u s t r a t e processes i n a dynamic, s i m p l i f i e d form which i s compatible with what needs to be taught about the environment. For the adult learner simulation games also accommodate a variety of backgrounds, allow for the use of past experience, s k i l l s and knowledge, create a sense of control or e f f i c a c y over environmental phenomena, control for p a s s i v i t y engendered i n more verbal presentations, and provide for the transfer of learning to r e a l l i f e situations because of the r e a l i t y inherent i n the simulation. 3 PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a land use simulation game that would teach r u r a l residents about the processes and outcomes of land use plans. The product r e s u l t i n g from the design process was played with r u r a l residents i n the East Kootenay area of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of the game as an adult education technique. HYPOTHESES Two general hypotheses were formulated to guide the assessment of the effectiveness of the land use planning simulation game. 1. Individuals who play the simulation game w i l l show a s i g n i f i c a n t increase with respect to thei r knowledge and attitudes about land use planning as expressed i n s i x i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives described below: 1 The learner w i l l develop a favorable attitude towards the land use planning process. 2 The learner w i l l develop a more p o s i t i v e attitude towards considering the ef f e c t s of his land use plans on neighbouring lands. 3 The learner w i l l conclude that a given piece of land has certa i n c a p a b i l i t i e s or po t e n t i a l s . 4 4 The learner w i l l describe the interplay between economic and ecological factors i n land use planning. 5 The learner w i l l be able to describe the competitive relationships ex i s t i n g between forestry and f i e l d crops, waterfowl and f i e l d crops, c a t t l e and f i e l d crops, c a t t l e and waterfowl, c a t t l e and big game, forestry and c a t t l e , and big game and forestry. 6 The learner w i l l be able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor land use strategies. 2. The personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those who play the simulation game w i l l be rela t e d to th e i r success i n playing the simulation game as well as to th e i r knowledge and attitudes about land use planning. PROCEDURE The f i r s t stage of thi s study was the design of a simulation game. Data from the East Kootenay Area Land Capability Analysis was examined to determine how the eco- l o g i c a l interactions taking place on East Kootenay lands could be simulated. S t a f f involved i n the East Kootenay Area Land Capability Analysis were consulted for t h e i r opinions on what could be simulated and what r u r a l residents of the East Kootenay needed to know about land use. A land use simulation game was designed using the East Kootenay Area Land Capability 5 Analysis Map (16), the socio-economic survey of the East Kootenay by Verner, Dickinson and Alleyne (85) and Glazier's (41) publication on the design of educational games. The simulation game was then played with various groups of graduate and undergraduate students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia to eliminate operational d i f f i c u l t i e s . The simulation game was taken to a sample of East Kootenay r u r a l families where i t was played with family members i n t h e i r homes. Each i n d i v i d u a l who played the game was given a test before and after playing the game. The Sample The population of potential players of the simulation game was defined as owners of r u r a l land holding 50 or more acres i n School D i s t r i c t Number 2, Cranbrook. Those pro- perties were i d e n t i f i e d i n the tax assessment r o l l s located i n the Cit y of Cranbrook. The population was l i s t e d by the name of the property owner, with properties owned by companies and those showing no improvements on the land excluded for purposes of the study. The t o t a l population of the study consisted of 83 f a m i l i e s . It was intended o r i g i n a l l y to select a 20 percent random sample of the population, however, a high rate of re f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e necessitated the use of a l l names l i s t e d . Contact was established therefore with as many of the l i s t e d names as was possible. Of the 76 families who could be reached, ten consented to p a r t i c i p a t e . One of those ten families l a t e r refused to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the land use game so that the players f i n a l l y numbered nine families comprising 40 persons. Data C o l l e c t i o n A pre-test was constructed consisting of a 16 statement L i k e r t scale which related to i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives 1 and 2, and 20 multiple choice questions testing objectives 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the simulation game (see Appendix A). A pool of 38 multiple choice questions and 24 statements for the Li k e r t scale made up the o r i g i n a l measuring instruments used i n the p i l o t study. An item analysis was ca r r i e d out based on the results of the p i l o t study and 20 items were selected from the multiple choice t e s t and 16 items were chosen for the f i n a l version of the Li k e r t scale. A s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y using the Spearman Brown Prophecy formula was computed to be 0.55 for the Li k e r t scale (based on the 16 items chosen) and 0.37 on the multiple choice items (based on the 20 items chosen). These computations were repeated using the data c o l l e c t e d from the East Kootenay sample and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.46 for the Li k e r t scale and 0.41 for the multiple choice te s t s . The simulation game was played and a post-test comprised of four personal data questions, f i v e L i k e r t items related to attitude towards the game and a repeat of the pre-tes questions l i s t e d i n the previous paragraph. While the players were completing the post-test instrument, subjective comments about the session were recorded as well as t o t a l playing time. 7 Data Analysis The completed instruments were marked and the following three scores per person were recorded: Attitude score - t o t a l score on a 16 item L i k e r t scale with a maximum of 80 and a minimum of 16. Knowledge score - t o t a l score on 20 multiple choice items with a maximum of 20 and a minimum of zero. Game attitude score - t o t a l score on a f i v e item L i k e r t scale with a maximum score of 25 and a minimum of f i v e . In addition there were three game scores t o t a l l e d up on completion of play as follows: Environmental unit score - the t o t a l number of environmental units accumulated by an in d i v i d u a l during the course of play. Money score - t o t a l cash on hand at the end of the play. Total score - the sum of environmental units plus money at the end of the play. Pre-test and post-test attitude and knowledge scores were submitted to t-test to determine i f any s i g n i f i c a n t changes had occurred as a r e s u l t of game play. Each of the six in s t r u c t i o n a l objectives were also t-tested on pre and post- test scores to see i f any s i g n i f i c a n t changes had occurred. Correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson's r) were calculated among a l l of the following variables to determine i f s i g n i f i c a n t associations existed: property s i z e ; family p o s i t i o n ; years of 8 schooling; pre-test attitude scores; pre-test scores for objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; pre-test knowledge scores; post-test attitude scores; post-test scores for objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; post-test knowledge scores; game attitude scores; number of minutes of play; number of players; rank within the group; environmental unit scores; money scores and t o t a l scores. Bivariate tables were constructed to investigate further the relationships between the variables measured. The chi-square t e s t was used to test the significance of differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between variables. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms were defined for the purposes of this study: Simulation game - a learning device which i s designed to represent a segment of r e a l i t y and involves interactions between the learner, the game, and other players. Simulation gaming - the technique of organizing learners to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a learning s i t u a t i o n using a gaming device. Game - completion of two f u l l simulated years or eight simulated seasons of play. Rural residents - actual people l i v i n g on lands of 50 acres or more i n s i z e . Participant - a r u r a l resident owning a simulated piece of property on the game board. 9 PLAN OF THE STUDY The study consists of f i v e chapters. Following t h i s chapter the second chapter i s a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on simulation gaming which was deemed pertinent to this study. Chapter 3 describes the process of designing the East Kootenay land use simulation game and the end product, the simulation game i t s e l f . In the fourth chapter the data c o l l e c t e d during the playing of the game with the rur a l residents of the East Kootenay was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the game and how the game could be modified to make i t more ,: e f f e c t i v e . The f i f t h and concluding chapter presents a summary, the conclusions and implications for further study. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e about simulation gaming i s vast. It i s concerned with two broad areas, simulation gaming as applied to education and simulation gaming for use i n research investigations. This review of the l i t e r a t u r e includes studies on gaming which pertain to i t s educational uses and which were useful i n the design and evaluation of the land use planning game developed for t h i s study. The f i r s t section of t h i s chapter concerns the sim- u l a t i o n gaming technique and examines b r i e f l y the history of gaming and some of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The next section deals with research studies which have examined the gaming process and attempted to assess i t s effectiveness. E x i s t i n g land use simulation games are discussed i n the t h i r d section of t h i s chapter. In conclusion, the chapter discusses the l i t e r a t u r e available on the procedures of game design. THE SIMULATION GAMING TECHNIQUE Simulation gaming has ancient origins dating back to feudal times when war lords trained t h e i r soldiers using war games. However, i t s introduction into the formal educational se t t i n g i s quite recent. In 1956 the American Management Association (2) introduced a business management game as an educational device. Dating from that time hundreds of 10 11 simulation games have appeared i n business and industry as s t a f f t r a i n i n g devices. Other games covering a wide spectrum of topics appeared i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s as the educational potentials of simulation games were recognized. Boocock and Schild (10) i n tracing the history of educational games describe three h i s t o r i c a l stages through which this device has moved. The period 1956 to 1963 was the stage of "acceptance on f a i t h " . Simulation games were seen as a cure- a l l for the plethora of educational i l l s that plagued the formal educational system. The second stage occurring between 1963 and 1966 was c a l l e d the "post honeymoon". Researchers began to discern that many of the claims made about simulation games were not supported by research. F i n a l l y , the stage from 1967 to the present was l a b e l l e d " r e a l i s t i c optimism" i n which i t became evident that games were useful i n some but not a l l learning situations and that each simulation game required careful evaluation of i t s effectiveness. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of simulation games can be divided into two categories, those that appear advantageous to the learning s i t u a t i o n and those which are disadvantageous. Those deemed as po s i t i v e attributes are: 1. Economy - simulation games can be less expensive i n terms of time and money than using re a l processes. 2. V i s i b i l i t y - functioning processes and th e i r results can be e a s i l y observed. 12 3. Reproducability - d i f f e r e n t individuals can produce the same results from manipulating the simulation. 4. Safety - i f the event being simulated has dangerous consequences these can be removed from the sim- u l a t i o n exercise. 5. Simplicity - complex processes are s i m p l i f i e d to enhance understanding. 6. Interest and Motivation - are heightened i n simulation gaming. 7. Application - simulation games allow for application and testing of knowledge. 8. Individual differences - a wide range of a b i l i t i e s can be accommodated i n a game. 9. Decision making s k i l l s - are practised and improved by the gaming exercises. 10. Transfer - r e a l i t y inherent i n simulation games f a c i l i t a t e s transfer. 11. Non-verbal a b i l i t i e s - latent a b i l i t i e s not i d e n t i f i e d by verbal learning exercises are important i n many simulation games. 12. E f f i c a c y - a sense of being able to control phenomena related to one's personal l i f e i s developed. 13. Reinforcement - games have b u i l t i n rewards and punishments. 14. Feedback - rapid feedback i n consequence to an act i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 15. Attention span -• attention span i s lengthened due to the pa r t i c i p a t o r y , involving nature of games. The negative aspects of gaming are as follows: 1. Oversimplification - this results i n unreal perceptions of the processes being simulated. 2. Dehumanization - decisions are made objectively without consideration of the welfare of the people who w i l l be affected. 3. Expense - the development of a simulation game often requires a substantial expenditure of time and money. 4. Gaming atmosphere - for the instructor there i s some apprehension about "fun and games" being related to learning. The student may be i n c l i n e d not to take games seriously. 5. Competition there i s concern that this emphasis might repress c r e a t i v i t y . Both sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s lack any substantial v e r i f i c a t i o n and therefore research i s directed at v e r i f y i n g the char- a c t e r i s t i c s noted here for simulation games. RESEARCH RELATED TO SIMULATION GAMING Effectiveness of Gaming Cherryholmes (19) examines some of the accepted assumptions concerning the effectiveness of the simulation gaming technique. He posed f i v e hypotheses: 14 Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l reveal more in t e r e s t i n a simulation exercise than i n more conventional classroom a c t i v i t i e s . H 2 Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l learn more facts and p r i n c i p l e s than by studying i n a more conventional manner. H 3 Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l r e t a i n information learned longer than i f they had learned i t i n a more conventional manner. H 4 Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l acquire more c r i t i c a l thinking and decision making s k i l l s than w i l l students i n more conventional classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation w i l l have t h e i r attitudes s i g n i f i c a n t l y altered r e l a t i v e to attitude change produced by more conventional classroom methods. Using the simulation game, "Inter-Nation Simulation' 1, Cherryholmes attempted to carry out measures of the degree to which the above hypotheses were supported. Using the results from his study and those of s ix s i m i l a r studies he determined that the only unanimously accepted hypothesis was H^; that more intere s t would be developed by a simulation game than by more conventional classroom a c t i v i t i e s . The only other hypothesis not rejected conclusively was H,. which stated that attitudes would change more as a r e s u l t of the simulation than by conventional techniques. Cherryholmes was not able to f i n d support for any 15 of the other hypotheses related to learning of facts and p r i n c i p l e s , retention of information and a c q u i s i t i o n of c r i t i c a l thinking and decision making s k i l l s . In conclusion this study proposed that better results might be achieved i f more e f f o r t was required of the student to v e r i f y the simulation game with r e a l i t y and i f students designed new games or redesigned ex i s t i n g games based on th e i r v a l i d a t i o n e f f o r t s . A study carried out by Inbar (50) focused on the effects games have on in d i v i d u a l players. Four player c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which Inbar investigated i n the game "Community Disaster" were; va r i a t i o n i n player backgrounds, d i f f e r e n t predispositions (desire to learn more about a topic, v o l u n t a r i l y playing the game and w i l l i n g to give time to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games), differences i n experience and behavior during the game, and the charac- t e r i s t i c s of the group that played the game. His results indicated that predisposition and group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had a major impact on learning and the enjoyment of games. Research into the effects of a simulation procedure i n a teacher t r a i n i n g program was carried out by Cruickshank and Broadbent (26). The study involved two groups of student teachers; an experimental group who were involved i n the simulation exercise and a control group who performed the regular practice teaching duties. The simulation exercise consisted of a series of filmed sequences of classroom situations perceived as d i f f i c u l t by f i r s t year classroom teachers. Student teachers were presented these filmed sequences and asked to react to them as i f they were i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n . 16 Discussion of the reaction by the student followed and responses were modified where necessary. As i n most evaluative studies the simulation exercise rated high on i t s motivation and par- t i c i p a t i o n measures as compared with practice teaching. Follow-up studies a few months a f t e r the experiences revealed no differences i n attitude or behavior between the experimental and control groups. Evaluations of Business Games Zaltman (88) undertook a study of a business game to determine the effects of the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n on learning. He compared p a r t i c u l a r roles i n games which allowed d i f f e r e n t degrees of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The results demonstrated that the more opportunity an assumed role allowed for p a r t i c i p a t i o n the greater the learning. McKenney and D i l l (57) studied the effects of a business management game on 650 M.B.A. program students at Harvard. The results indicated that using e x i s t i n g groups ( i . e . , groups of people who had worked together on a previous project) and homo- geneous grouping by i n t e l l i g e n c e and past achievement did not produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y better learning e f f e c t s . This study also investigated the effects of external advisors on learning r e s u l t i n g from simulation game play. The results indicated that as long as the advisor's role i s c l e a r l y defined as an informational one and he does not attempt to manipulate game play, his presence enhanced learning. 17 A study by Starbuck and Kobrow (75) o£ the effects of advisors was carried out using 88 graduate students i n i n d u s t r i a l administration playing a business management game. Three teams had advisors and three without; the results showed no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n economic gains between the two groups. A comparison between a business game and a case study carried out by Moore (61) yielded some intere s t i n g information. A summary of his data revealed the following: 1. The case study group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher fact mastery score. 2. A test for concept explicitness showed a non- s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups. 3. Tests of general st r u c t u r a l learning game non- s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . 4. Tests for l o g i c a l reasoning a b i l i t y produced non-significant r e s u l t s . 5. Overall learning tended to favor the case study. A questionnaire administered to the students revealed that both the case study group and the game group perceived gaming as a more highly motivating technique. Moore points out that the motivational aspect of gaming may be more associated with the competitive process involved i n gaming than with the amount of learning which r e s u l t s . Playing the game thus becomes an end i n i t s e l f rather than achievement of the learning objectives the game set out to accomplish. 18 Effects of Game Presentation on Game Play Research into the presentation and playing of a game by Baldwin (3) found that strategies which develop in games can lead to ri g i d patterns of play with the result that alternative approaches to play are usually l e f t unexplored. He suggests that simulation game designers should recognize this limitation and build in rewards and directions for exploring variant strategies. Baldwin points out that in many games the instructors directed the game to the point of inhibiting imag- inative play. Games often reflected the game director's expectations rather than the learners' interaction with the processes being simulated. In observing play he also concluded that successive game plays enhanced learning. Whereas the f i r s t game play was spent learning the mechanics, later play concentrated on understanding the process being simulated. He further pointed out that simulation games offering various levels of play from simple to complex provide for practice in gaming procedures while providing a more in depth experience of the processes being simulated. Similarly, changes in game parameters develops imaginative play and an opportunity to attempt new strategies. Baldwin observed that suggestive labels often inhibited or directed play (e.g., urban planning game towns labelled Superiorville vs. Nowhereville). A similar conclusion was reached in a study by Blunt (6) on a simulation for aldermen in which the central focus of the sim- ulation was a town called "Bunkum". Blunt reports that ". . . . the jocular use of place names in the materials appeared to con- 19 tribute to a light-hearted approach to the learning task and some waste of time. . ." (6:8). Over-constraining rules and i l l o g i c a l payoffs were observed by Baldwin to i n h i b i t game effectiveness as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l . This results in successful play remaining unrewarded and hence negative r e i n - forcement with the re s u l t that players may learn the wrong things. Simon (72) examined how changing scenarios changes decision making i n the course of gameinplay. Using 90 univers i t y students, groups of 15 played three versions of a resource a l l o c a t i o n game. The game involved a l l o t t i n g resources i n such a manner as to maximize the resources that the player started with. Three forms of the game were developed; one version had the three resources i d e n t i f i e d with nonsense t i t l e s , the second was t i t l e d a war game, and the t h i r d a business game. The results showed t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t decision strategies attached to each form. Simon found that the abstract game produced lower scores and players were w i l l i n g to take more r i s k s . V a l i d a t i o n of the Simulation Most educational games include the simulation of some rea l world process. Since a simulation i s just a dynamic, functioning model i t s creation involves s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and usually the compression of time. Care must be taken to ensure that the simulation does not contain serious d i s t o r t i n n s of r e a l i t y which w i l l present wrong information to the pa r t i c i p a n t s . 20 A l i m i t e d amount of research has been c a r r i e d out with educational games to v e r i f y the r e a l i t y of the simulation employed. Smoker (73) attempted this type of v a l i d a t i o n by running two separate games of "International Process Simulation". One game was played by a group of professional decision makers from industry, business, government and the m i l i t a r y who represented r e a l i t y . The other group was made up of 16 and 17 year old students who represented non-reality. His hypothesis was that the r e a l i t y group's reactions to the game would r e f l e c t t h e i r experiences i n real world decision making and i f the model presented by the game was functioning properly the non-reality group would make the same responses. His data indicated a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between the two groups on what he c a l l e d "past world decisions". These were decisions the members of the group had to make using the information history had provided, for example working out a plan for the resolution of the Korean c o n f l i c t . He found that no correlations existed where the two groups were asked to predict future events, a si m i l a r example would be the development of a plan to s e t t l e t e r r i t o r i a l disputes r e s u l t i n g from landing on other planets. Discrepancies between the way groups reacted to problems of foreign and domestic c o n f l i c t demonstrated a f a i l u r e of the simulation to represent t h i s area i n the game. The results indicated that the simulation requires a l t e r a t i o n i n those areas that deal with future predictions, domestic c o n f l i c t and foreign c o n f l i c t . The 21 study cautions readers that there i s some danger i n assuming the r e a l i t y of the professional decision makers * future oriented decisions. Boocock (11), using a game e n t i t l e d "Generation Gap" car r i e d out a study to assess game v a l i d i t y . The game was administered to 17 c h i l d — p a r e n t pairs who completed question- naires p r i o r to and af t e r the game play. Boocock used the results from the study to examine three kinds of v a l i d i t y ; face v a l i d i t y , empirical v a l i d i t y and the o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y . B r i e f l y , face v a l i d i t y was based on asking the part i c i p a n t a f t e r the game i f the game simulated t h e i r r e a l l i f e experiences. Empirical v a l i d i t y was determined by comparing t h e i r responses on the pre-game questionnaire with t h e i r game play. F i n a l l y , t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y was measured by assessing whether or not game play followed one or more of the following s o c i o l o g i c a l theories: exchange theory, role theory and s o c i a l power theory. The results of the study indicated that "Generation Gap" demonstrated some face v a l i d i t y for the par t i c i p a n t s , the empirical v a l i d i t y correlations were strong and po s i t i v e and the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y was weakly demonstrated by the presence of strategies based on role theory and exchange theory. The author concludes that "Generation Gap" i s a v a l i d simulation game but further t r a i l s with changes i n rules and parameters would provide a f u l l e r test of v a l i d i t y . Behavioral Measures of Game Effectiveness Boocock and Schild (10) and others have pointed out the 22 d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring the non-verbal learning that occurs which i s perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t learning i n games. Anec- dotal records tend to support the observation that i t i s often not the high achieving student who emerges the winner i n sim- u l a t i o n games. Since high achievers are usually rated as such by verbal measures i t lends support to the hypothesis that non- verbal s k i l l s are necessary i n gaming. A comparison between a case study approach and a simulation gaming experience was car r i e d out by Robinson (68). Although his results were very much the same as those reported by Moore (61) previously, he noted an inte r e s t i n g discrepancy between student perception of simulation game effectiveness and actual demonstrated behavior. Records of book withdrawals from the l i b r a r y , frequency of questions asked, and staying a f t e r class a l l revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater amount of a c t i v i t y i n the simulation group over the case study group. Since both procedures covered pre c i s e l y the same material i t appears that simulation gaming stimulated more a c t i v i t y which could be associated with learning. The students reported from both the case study and simulation groups that they perceived gaming as being more enjoyable but that they could learn more from case studies. Lee and O'Leary (54) report a study i n which a follow- up of a three day t o t a l immersion "Inter-Nation Simulation" was carried out one month afte r the experience. As a r e s u l t of pre-test and post-test measures they determined that a personality change had occurred as a r e s u l t of the experience. A s i g n i f i c a n t number of participants demonstrated an enhanced a b i l i t y to function i n complex decision making environments. They also noted that game success correlated highly with game enjoyment. One observation that i s made at the end of the study i s that simulation games often duplicate the kinds of learning that takes place outside of the formal learning setting and perhaps a study of non-formal kinds of learning could y i e l d useful knowledge which could enhance learning theory and i t s application. Lee (53) i n a l i t e r a t u r e review for a study on "Inter-Nation Simulation" says: "But, as the research studies have focused primarily on factual learning simulation games, i n e f f e c t , have been assessed up to now primarily i n terms of c r i t e r i a more appropriate to t r a d i t i o n a l classroom techniques. As the main objective for using simulation games presumably i s not to teach only facts, but to go beyond th i s to develop insights, concepts, awarenesses and s k i l l s of a kind o r d i n a r i l y not possible with t r a d i t i o n a l teaching methods--this means that the p o t e n t i a l l y unique con- t r i b u t i o n of the game technique to education has not been appropriately tested." (53:16) Summary Two features of simulation gaming which emerge i n most studies are the intere s t and motivation developed by simulation gaming. The lack of substantive evidence for learning e f f e c t - iveness i s either an i n a b i l i t y of th i s technique to cause learning or more probably the f a i l u r e of the research studies themselves. Robinson's study (68) i n which behavioral measures y i e l d information i n c o n f l i c t with the non-behavioral measures points up the d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring the degree of learning 24 occurring i n games. Lee (53) summarizes by s t a t i n g perhaps we are not testing what games teach. Although the research reviewed here presents no d e f i n i t i v e answer to the question as to whether or not games are e f f e c t i v e learning devices, some of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem to s u i t them to adult education. Games are based on past experience i n decision making and i t i s well documented that adults bring a vast amount of experience to any learning s i t u a t i o n . Therefore, games would take advantage of the adults' experiences. Adult educators often propose that learning environments should be kept informal for the adult and gaming offers a means to develop an informal learning environment. Games are highly motivational and o f f e r a way to develop i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n an area of knowledge. Some researchers have indicated that gaming p o t e n t i a l l y can accommodate people with varying levels of education and d i f f e r i n g backgrounds and again t h i s s u its most adult learning groups. Thus, gaming can be a very worthwhile technique for the adult educator to consider when planning learning experiences f o r the adult. LAND USE SIMULATION GAMES Simulation and simulation gaming i s i n common usage i n urban land use planning. The professional planner can employ a simulation to work out the implications of p a r t i c u l a r types of land use. Often such simulations are computer assisted to speed up the consideration of complex interactions. Duke (32) designed an urban land use game c a l l e d "Metropolis". Its purpose 25 was to introduce young professionals to the decision making problems of urban land use planning. The emphasis i n the game was placed on the physical development pattern, the effects of various community issues, and the linkages between the players, the c a p i t a l improvements, and the issues. This simulation game involved extensive play i n terms of time, and the pre- requisite knowledge required by the p a r t i c i p a n t . In contrast to "Metropolis" i s a simulation game designed by Godschalk (42) c a l l e d "Negotiate". Godschalk's purpose was to have c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning process. He hypothesized that increased c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n would lead to increased e f f i c i e n c y and creativeness i n planning outcomes. Godschalk also proposed that the game experience would be a source of new attitudes, values and s o c i a l behavior. "Negotiate" focused on the problem of set t i n g up a fede r a l l y supported low income housing project near two developing middle income subdivisions. The players' roles consisted of two representatives from middle income groups, two from low income groups and the c i t y planner. Problems faced are declining property values, uprooting of low income families to new housing locations, provision of municipal f a c i l i t i e s of parks, schools and other services, the clash between two socio- economic s t r a t a and the benefits from infusion of federal money. These various problems and possible benefits are worked into the players' roles and game rules. The actual planning exercise takes place on a three dimensional scale model of the project. 26 Play of the game pointed up a number of frustrations for the players. They f e l t that the planning process was v i r t u a l l y completed before play started and that more playing time would be essential to develop trust between the d i f f e r e n t socio-economic groups and the planner. Although no conclusions were reached as to attitude change and increased e f f i c i e n c y and creativeness i n the planning process, tape recordings of the session demonstrated a good deal of s e l f - a n a l y s i s and group analysis of the reasons for taking cer t a i n stands. The designer of the game recommended longer playing time and more objective measures of success, and concluded with recommendations to modify the design of the game. "Downtown: An Economic-Environmental Simulation Game" was designed by Long ( 5 5 ) to demonstrate the c o n f l i c t between the economic development of a community and i t s environmental qual i t y . The game employs two types of currency, environmental qual i t y units (E.Q.U's) and money. Using these two uni t s , i t i s demonstrated throughout the game that there are no clear cut solutions to community planning problems. Groups with various interests work through the town council to have t h e i r plans implemented. Equations have been worked out to show the effects of cer t a i n decisions for both the economic-environmental and governmental parts of the game. Players use exis t i n g formulas and derive new ones to demonstrate the effects: of ce r t a i n events. For example, economic interests and environmental interests work out the implications of changing a small park 27 area into a parking l o t . Each group then presents i t s data to the town council for zoning decisions. Although Long does not present an evaluation of the game, the degree of complexity would involve a good deal of preparation and a long involved play. The use of two types of currency, money and E.Q.U's., points out the problems faced by the economic, environmental and governmental sectors of the re a l community. Two ecological games which have some bearing on the problems being investigated are " W i l d l i f e " designed by Meier et a l (58) and "The Moose-Beaver-Wolf-Environment System of Isle Royale" by Meier and Doyle (59). " W i l d l i f e " demon- strates the population dynamics of a hypothetical organism i n a new environment. The value of this game i s i n showing how ecological p r i n c i p l e s are applied to demonstrate the i n t e r - actions that could possibly occur between an organism and i t s environment. "The Moose-Beaver-Wolf-Environment System of Is l e Royale" does much the same thing as " W i l d l i f e " except that i t demonstrates the use of r e a l data; namely, the actual i n t e r - actions that occur on Isle Royale. The several studies discussed above are samples of ways simulation gaming has been applied to demonstrate the planning process and the application of ecological p r i n c i p l e s . Each has an unique o f f e r i n g : Duke (32) emphasized the decision making process, Godschalk (42) attempted to involve lay people i n the planning process, Long (55) showed the e f f e c t i v e use of two measures of currency and Meier (58,59) i n both studies demonstrated how ecological p r i n c i p l e s can be gamed. GAME DESIGN PROCEDURES 28 Boocock and Schild (10) point out i n th e i r book that designing a game i s partly an " a r t i s t i c undertaking". The implication i s that there i s no clear cut method which can be r i g i d l y adhered to which w i l l produce as an end product a successful game. However, most of the general references, such as Tansey and Unwin (79), Boocock and Schild (10), Raser (65), Abt (1) and Gordon (43), have presented a general method which provides at least a s t a r t i n g point for game design. Since the major focus of thi s study i s to design a game, a by-product anticipated i s the embellishment of each of the steps l i s t e d below for designing a r u r a l land use simulation game. Glazier (41) presents the "Ten Steps of Game Design" as formulated by Dr. Clark C. Abt; they are: 1. Define the o v e r a l l objectives. 2. Determine scope: -duration -geographic area -issues. 3. Identify key participants or actors — individuals or groups. 4. Determine the objectives of each actor. 5. Determine the resources of actors: -physical - s o c i a l -economic - p o l i t i c a l -information. 6. Determine the int e r a c t i o n sequence among actors. 7. Determine the decision rules or c r i t e r i a on the basis of which actors decide what resources and information to transmit or receive and what actions to take. 8. Identify external constraints on actions of the actors. 9. Formulate scoring rules or win c r i t e r i a on the basis of the degree to which actors or teams of actors achieve t h e i r objectives with e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. 10. Choose the form of presentation and manipulation and sequence of operations: -board game -role play -paper/pencil exercise -computer simulation. The ten steps l i s t e d i n Glazier, although d i f f e r e n t i n minor d e t a i l s , exhibit much i n common with procedures presented by other game designers. Twelker (83), assuming a somewhat more generalized approach, puts emphasis on deciding the s u i t a b i l i t y of the simulation game process for what i s to be taught, careful spec- i f i c a t i o n of behavioral objectives so as to set up measurable c r i t e r i a , and the development of an intensive v a l i d a t i o n system. 30 The j u s t i f i c a t i o n for using the technique before beginning and the v a l i d a t i o n of the design are important stages i n the process of simulation game design. SUMMARY Simulation gaming as an educational technique, although having ancient o r i g i n s , has only come into common usage i n the formal educational system i n recent years. Many claims have been made i n support of gaming as an educational technique but most are subjective and are not supported by research. One notable exception i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n t e r e s t created by games and the motivation to pursue a learning task. The studies of Cherryholmes (19), Moore (61), and Robinson (68) c i t e d previously support t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of gaming. It i s also noted that the negative aspects of gaming f a i l to f i n d objective support. Three studies showed that the role of the external advisor or educational agent i s an extremely sens i t i v e one. Zaltman (88), McKenney and D i l l (57), and Baldwin (3) a l l concluded that the educational agent must be cautious about his entry into game play because of possible detrimental effects to learning. Baldwin (3) and Simon (72) pursued the whole area of game presentation and found a need to a l t e r game parameters, be careful of game labe l s , and attend to d e t a i l s to ensure that the intended learning was occurring. Educational games are usually simulation games; that i s , they simulate some aspect of r e a l i t y . Smoker (73) and Boocock 31 (11) carried out research studies to v e r i f y the r e a l i t y of the simulation part of the game. This i s an important part of designing any simulation game since i f the simulation i s not accurate i t can produce the wrong learning outcomes. Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e authors make frequent reference to the d i f f i c u l t y of measuring the learning which takes place as the re s u l t of a gaming experience. The suggestion i s that a l l of what a game teaches cannot be measured be verbal means alone. Robinson (68) made some behavioral observations of a group of people p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a simulation game and found the test results and the behavioral measures were very discrepant. The behavioral measures indicated that more learning had occurred than did the verbal measurements. Several studies of simulation games involving land use and ecological concepts were examined. "Metropolis", "Negotiate", and "Downtown" were three urban land use games which presented three useful approaches to land use problems i n the c i t y . Duke's (32) game "Metropolis" designed for pro- fessional planners brought development patterns and s o c i a l issues into play. "Negotiate" designed by Godsehalk (42) emphasized the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the citzenry i n urban land use planning. The c o n f l i c t between the environment and the urban economy was the focus of Long's (55) game "Downtown". Meier's (58,59) game " W i l d l i f e " and the re a l simulation on Isle Royale shows how ecological p r i n c i p l e s can be gamed. Game designing i s discussed by many authors but a l l admit that i t i s a complex undertaking requiring the development of a procedure f o r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Glazier (41) presented the ten steps for designing educational games which was the guideline for the game designed i n this study. These ten steps were not r i g i d l y adhered to and the next chapter w i l l present the procedure of design as i t was modified for t h i s study. Chapter 3 DESIGNING THE EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME The process of designing a simulation game i s not simple. As pointed out previously there i s no one c l e a r l y defined procedure that guarantees the production of an e f f e c t i v e learning device. Designing involves i d e n t i f y i n g the component parts of the problem to be gamed and then putting them together i n a format that can be manipulated by the game par t i c i p a n t s . The f i r s t step i n designing the land use planning game involved i d e n t i f y i n g sources of information. The p r i n c i p a l source of information was a number of studies ca r r i e d out by the Canada Land Inventory i n the East Kootenay. The next steps i n setting up the simulation were to decide on what was to be gamed and how i t was to be presented. The resources of the players then had to be i d e n t i f i e d , both the tangible resources to be used i n the game and resources i n the form of information. The f i n a l stage i n the design process was to put the various component parts together into a playable game. For this purpose two t r i a l versions emerged and both were modified u n t i l a t h i r d version was developed. Although the t h i r d version was used for data c o l l e c t i o n and i s c a l l e d the f i n a l version, there i s no doubt that more modifications to thi s " f i n a l version" would be required to maximize i t s effectiveness. 33 DESIGN PROCEDURE 34 The procedure used i n designing this game resembles the procedure outlined by Glazier (41). The steps that were followed included: 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sources of real data for use i n designing the simulation part of the game. 2. Deciding on the scope of the game i n terms of i t s goals, geographic area, time span, and issues to be presented. 3. Deciding how the simulation would be presented (game format). 4. Setting out what resources the players would have available. 5. Determining the game and player objectives. 6. Setting up a preliminary game and playing i t . 7. Modifying the f i r s t game. 8. Setting up a second game based on the modifications of the f i r s t and playing i t . 9. Modifying the second game. 10. Setting up a f i n a l version to be used i n the East Kootenay. 11. Playing the game and c o l l e c t i n g data on i t s effectiveness. SOURCES OF DATA 35 The chief reason for choosing the East Kootenay area of B r i t i s h Columbia for this study was that the land c a p a b i l i t y analysis had been recently completed for this region by the Canada Land Inventory. This meant that a considerable volume of information was available on land use and the people of the area. Therefore, before beginning to design the game the sources of information available as a r e s u l t of the land cap- a b i l i t y analysis were i d e n t i f i e d . C o l l e c t i n g this information began with a discussion with various members of the Canada Land Inventory s t a f f i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia who i d e n t i f i e d sources of background information on the Canada Land Inventory (78)(31)(29)(63)(30) and land use i n the East Kootenay (44) (16)(13)(14). They also provided a great deal of information from t h e i r own experiences i n the East Kootenay and provided the names of two people working i n the East Kootenay who might have more insights into the problems of land use i n that area, the Regional Planning Director (60) and the Regional W i l d l i f e B i o l o g i s t (28). Those people were contacted and provided valuable information which aided i n the design. The information indicated that the game should be b u i l t upon the land use c a p a b i l i t y analysis map which was available for the East Kootenay area. It was determined that land use for forestry, w i l d l i f e and agriculture presented some c o n f l i c t i n this region. Further, i t was suggested that landowners were 36 not very knowledgeable as to the consequences of certa i n land use procedures. Landowners for the most part f e l t that they should be able to do whatever they wanted with t h e i r own land and what they did on t h e i r land only affected them. GOAL The goal of the game was to develop the participants* knowledge of and attitudes towards land use planning. The method to be employed to achieve this goal was to have players plan simulated pieces of land and experience the consequences of t h e i r land use decisions. SCOPE Both the land being simulated and the players who would pa r t i c i p a t e i n the game would be r e s t r i c t e d to the geographic area represented by the East Kootenay Area Land Capability Analysis map prepared by the Canada Land Inventory (16). Further, the game would try to simulate a f i v e year time span so that players would see the effects of land use planning decisions over a long period of time. The issues to be represented i n the game would be r e s t r i c t e d to the interplay between land use for forestry, agriculture and w i l d l i f e to the exclusion of recreational, mining, and other land uses. GAME FORMAT Simulation game formats which i n i t i a l l y seemed applicable were a board game, a game with some role play, 3 7 or a paper and pe n c i l exercise. It was decided that a board game offered the best format as i t would have recorded on the board the moves of each player, i t would have player involve- ment i n manipulating pieces and i t would provide a less abstract presentation than a paper and pe n c i l exercise. Role play would be part of the game but r e s t r i c t e d to the role of a landowner of a simulated piece of land. The f i r s t attempt at a format involved designing a game which used the participants' own land as the game board. A map of each participants' land could be drawn and players would then plan the uses of various parts of the land. This approach would probably produce a game which would be extremely meaningful to the players, but presented many d i f f i c u l t design problems. F i r s t l y , there was the problem of how to construct a game which would be general enough to accommodate a l l types of property. Secondly, there would be so many variables involved that even i f a l l were known i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to f i t them into a single game. F i n a l l y , deciding on the success or f a i l u r e of the game as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device would involve judging the effectiveness of individual gaming sessions since games with completely d i f f e r e n t properties would be d i f f e r e n t games. This i n d i v i d u a l i z e d format was thus dismissed as desirable but overly d i f f i c u l t to achieve. A second attempt at a s p e c i f i c format examined the p o s s i b i l i t y of using the whole East Kootenay Land Capability Analysis map as a game board. This exercise would involve planning large pieces of the East Kootenay area by the par- 38 t i c i p a n t s , but a board to represent this area on a scale which could be e a s i l y worked with would be quite large. In addition, i t would be an u n r e a l i s t i c task for a person l i v i n g on a s p e c i f i c piece of land to apply his experience to the whole East Kootenay area. Therefore, i t was decided that t h i s approach would produce a game which would be too general. The approach that was f i n a l l y adopted was to select a small piece of the land c a p a b i l i t y analysis map and enlarge i t . The area selected included a l l of the land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s - s i f i c a t i o n s f o r agriculture, b i g game, forestry, waterfowl and native range. A two square mile section was chosen which met those requirements and was enlarged to form a two foot square game board (Figure 1). The game board was then divided into nine properties ranging i n siz e from 550 to 1300 acres. Each property consisted of a number of land c a p a b i l i t i e s , at least one of which was a w i l d l i f e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of big game or waterfowl. PLAYER RESOURCES Player resources consisted of physical resources such as money, land and a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and informational resources which were found i n the land deed, consequence cards and r i s k cards. The land c a p a b i l i t i e s represented on a l l pro- perties were s u f f i c i e n t to support numerous wild and domestic plant and animal species. For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y and managability the number of d i f f e r e n t plants and animals that could be represented on the game board was limited to f i v e Figure 1 Game Board 40 including c a t t l e , f i e l d crops, big game, waterfowl and f o r e s t s . Each resource was represented on the game board as a colored tile--brown for c a t t l e , pink for f i e l d crops, orange for big game, blue for waterfowl and green for forests (Figure 2). The single ceramic t i l e s represented one unit of unspecified size and the double t i l e s represented ten units. Money was also a player resource. During the play of the game participants would attempt to maximize the moneys they started with by wise land use planning. A bank was set up for the game with play money i n denominations of $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500, $1000 and $5000. Each property had a deed (Appendix C) and players were able to obtain information about t h e i r holding from th e i r deed. Information on the value of a piece of land as well as the numbers of c a t t l e , f i e l d crops, waterfowl, big game1 and forests that could be put on the land was on the deed. Additional information on the planning of a piece of land was contained on Consequence Cards. Players drew a card each time they made some change to the land by removing or adding units of animals or plants. Players were to learn from the cards how d i f f e r e n t land use decisions affected t h e i r own land and the land of t h e i r neighbours. This was to show that changes i n the land can have affects on land that are not predictable and to allow a l l players to note these consequences for future land use decisions. Another set of cards was used when a player over-populated an area with either native or domesticated plants or animals. These cards were c a l l e d Risk Figure 2 Game Board Set-up for Play 42 Cards. Their purpose was exactly the same as for the conse- quence cards; to show players the results of over-populating and to provide information for future planning. GAME AND PLAYER OBJECTIVES Once the format had been set out the next step was to formulate the game and player objectives. The objective was to maximize the economic returns from a piece of land and minimize the environmental disruption. The economic returns to a landowner were the re s u l t of s e l l i n g plant or animal farm produce, logging and s e l l i n g forests and allowing the hunting of wild animals. Improper management of the land resulted i n environmental disruption such as floods, disease or famine. Players would thus have to consider both the environmental and economic effects of t h e i r land use decisions. PRELIMINARY VERSION This stage involved specifying the d e t a i l s of play which would be compatible with the format chosen, the resources available, and the player and game objectives. A playable game was formulated so that i t could then be modified and f i t t e d to the pre-determined c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above and the six in s t r u c t i o n a l objectives noted previously. Number of Players The number of players was limited by the number of properties represented on the game board. The maximum number that could be accommodated was nine individuals or nine teams of players. Two players or teams of players would be the minimum number who could play and have the appropriate i n t e r - actions occur. Setting Up the Game Board At the beginning of the game a l l properties represented on the game board would be i n th e i r natural state. The land would be forested and have wild animals present but no domes- tic a t e d species would be on the game board at thi s stage. Game participants set out the appropriate t i l e s on t h e i r piece of land to make i t represent i t s pre-agriculture condition. Deeds provided information on how many plants and animals were on the land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of a piece of land. The number of native plants or animals was indicated by red numbers on the deed. Calculation of the a b i l i t y of the land to hold s p e c i f i c numbers of plant and animal species involved deciding on the number that could be sustained on 50 acres based on the rationale that the higher c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s could support more than the lower c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The choice of 50 acres was ar b i t r a r y and the actual size of a unit was l e f t unspecified. The calculations were based on the figures shown i n Table 1. By leaving the size of the units unspecified, i t was unnecessary to work out precise d e t a i l s on the carrying capacity of the land. 44 Table 1 Carrying Capacity per 50 Acres of the 11 Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Carrying Capacity/50 acres of Land Forest Big Game Waterfowl Units/50 Units/50 Units/50 Land Capability Acres Acres Acres High Capability Agriculture 1 Moderate Capability Agriculture 1 Limited Capability Agriculture 1 High Capability Forestry 16 Moderate Capability Forestry 8 Limited Capability Forestry 4 High Capability Big Game -- 8 Moderate Capability Big Game — 4 High Capability Waterfowl — — 16 Moderate Capability Waterfowl -- -- 8 Native Range -- 8 After the land was set up i n i t s natural state the deeds were set out on each piece of property (Figure 2). Seasons Winter The play was to take i n one f u l l year and each round of play involved a season of the year beginning with winter. To 45 decide who would i n i t i a t e game play a pair of dice was r o l l e d and the person with the highest score started play. The play then proceeded i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n . The beginning player chose a piece of property and paid the purchase price indicated on the deed. Each player thus chose a piece of land and was re-seated as near as possible to his land. Players were then given the deed to thei r land and $5000 i n play money from which they paid the purchase price for the land. The f i r s t move to s t a r t the game was by the person acting as banker spinning a pointer to decide on seasonal weather e f f e c t s . The spinner could land on one of f i v e options; unusually wet flooding decreases a l l plant populations by ten units, unusually warm weather increases big game and waterfowl by f i v e units, d r i e r than normal so animal and plant populations decrease by f i v e units, conditions excellent for plant pop- ulations therefore plants increase by f i v e u nits, and normal or no change. A l l players were to carry out the instructions indicated by the pointer. Unpurchased land was also affected by the chance effects of weather. The player then had to decide what natural populations would be removed to prepare his land for farming. Removal was s i g n i f i e d by turning over the colored t i l e s representing the plant or animal to be removed. The results of removal included acquiring some money from the bank for the sale of the native plants and animals, diminishing environmental units, and drawing a card to f i n d out the consequences of what he had done. 46 The amount of money received was decided by r o l l i n g two colored dice. I f the red die was highest the value of each unit s o l d was doubled, i f the white one was high i t was halved, and i f doubles were r o l l e d there was no change. The values received by the removal of populations are shown i n Table 2. Table 2 Economic and Environmental Unit Values Animals and Plants Economic Values Environmental Values Forest $25 25 Environmental Units Big Game $25 50 Environmental Units Waterfowl $25 50 Environmental Units Cattle $50 0 Environmental Units F i e l d Crops $25 0 Environmental Units Every piece of property i n i t i a l l y had 2000 environmental units. Therefore, the decrease i n environmental units was the number of each species removed times i t s environmental units subtracted from the t o t a l environmental value for that piece of property. A consequence card was drawn and read out to the whole group. Any changes i n natural populations resulted i n a further decrease i n environmental units. The content of each consequence card was l a b e l l e d increase or decrease; the one that applied depended on whether the population had been 4 7 increased or decreased. As with the spinner, consequence cards influenced unpurchased lands as well as the land held by the players. Spring Afte r each player had made the appropriate moves for winter, the weather spinner was spun and a l l players ca r r i e d out the appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n s . The players then decided on the domesticated animals and plants to put on the i r land. The number to be placed on a p a r t i c u l a r piece of land was controlled by a table of exchange values on each deed (Table 3). The values are read h o r i z o n t a l l y for each c a p a b i l i t y so that for the removal of one species i t can be determined how many of another species can replace i t . A l l units that were put on the game board i n exchange for previously removed plants or animals were paid for at the bank. The player r o l l e d dice to determine the cost to him (red die high—twice the value, white die high—one h a l f the value, a p a i r — n o change). The dice were r o l l e d to determine any natural increase i n wild animal populations. A high red die indicated an increase by two units and a low white or doubles resulted i n no change. Since domesticated plant and animal species had no environmental value (Table 2) there was no change to environ- mental unit scores, but any natural increase of wild species resulted i n an appropriate increase i n the environmental score. 48 Table 3 Exchange Units for Replacement of a Unit of a Pa r t i c u l a r Plant or Animal Species with Another Exchange Units F i e l d Big Cattle Crops Forest Game Waterfowl per 50 per 50 per 50 per 50 per 50 Capability Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres High Agriculture 8 6 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 Limited Agriculture 2 4 1 1 0 High Forestry 2 2 16 1 0 Moderate Forestry 2 2 8 1 0 Limited Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 High Big Game 8 0 1 8 0 Moderate Big Game 4 0 1 4 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Moderate Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 8 Native Range 8 8 0 8 0 49 Consequence cards were drawn, the contents read aloud, and the indicated changes were made before play proceeded to the next person. If any populations were above the li m i t s shown on the deed a r i s k card was drawn. Summer To determine the success or f a i l u r e of f i e l d crops the two colored dice were r o l l e d . If the red die was high two more f i e l d crops were added to the land of those players who already had f i e l d crops, i f white was high f i e l d crops decreased by two, and i f doubles were r o l l e d there was no change. The next step was to buy back wild populations to replace those removed by harvesting or the moves of other players. At this point players could regain environmental units that were l o s t previously. The purchase of wild species involved r o l l i n g the dice to determine the value (red high—twice the value, white h i g h - one h a l f the value, doubles—no change i n value shown on Table 2). Environmental units regained by purchase were added to the score as indicated i n Table 2. Consequence cards and ri s k cards were drawn as necessary. F a l l As with the other seasons, f a l l began with spinning the weather spinner and making the changes indicated. A l l f i e l d crops and one ha l f of a l l remaining c a t t l e , big game and waterfowl were then sold, with t h e i r removal indicated by turning over the units sold. Sale price was determined by 50 r o l l i n g the two colored dice as before. A l l c a t t l e that were kept had to be provided winter feed at $20 per unit paid to the bank. Environmental units were t o t a l l e d having subtracted some i f waterfowl and big game were sold. Consequence and ri s k cards were drawn as necessary and t h e i r effects read out. F a l l ended the f i r s t year of play. Play then resumed with winter of the second year and the seasons were repeated. The only change i n the second and subsequent rounds was that to buy back any c a t t l e or f i e l d crops that were previously sold required only a payment to the bank and turning over the t i l e s already on the board without need to consult the exchange value table. At the beginning of the second and subsequent winters players could purchase additional pieces of property i f they were available. Play continued for f i v e f u l l years or 20 seasons. Win and Scoring C r i t e r i a The f i n a l score consisted of the t o t a l amount of money a player had on the f i n a l f a l l season of play added to the t o t a l environmental units. This score was c a l l e d the t o t a l score. To win the game a person must have had the highest t o t a l score and have maintained the environmental units at or above 1000 points. MODIFICATIONS TO THE PRELIMINARY GAME 51 Playing this game with two people showed up a number of flaws i n the design, the most c r u c i a l of which was the time i t took to play the game. One f u l l year on three separate playing sessions with two people took 150, 165, 155 minutes. The f i r s t modifications suggested were those that would shorten the playing time. The following modifications were car r i e d out: Winter: The weather spinner was removed from subsequent play and weather considerations were incorporated into the consequence cards. Rolling the dice was omitted from play i n deciding on moneys received from the sale of wild populations and a table of values including a purchase and a sale price was substituted (Table 4). Spring: As with winter the weather spinner and a l l dice r o l l i n g was removed. Summer: The same changes as spring. F a l l : The same changes as summer. In addition, a l l c a t t l e had to be sold whereas wild species were not to be sold. One other major modification resulted because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n accumulating money i n the game. The economic values were therefore revised as shown i n Table 4. 52 Table 4 Revised Table of Economic and Environmental Values Animals Economic Values Purchase Sale Environmental and Plants Price Price Values Forest $25 $50 25 Environmental Units Big Game $40 $50 25 Environmental Units Waterfowl $40 $50 25 Environmental Units Cattle $50 $100 0 Environmental Units F i e l d Crop $10 $25 0 Environmental Units PILOT STUDY VERSION The p i l o t study was ca r r i e d out with 23 students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Four groups played the game with a mean size of 5.8 persons per group. After each group played the game, suggestions for improvement were noted by observers and players. Modifications were applied to the subsequent playing sessions to see i f the problems noted could be overcome. Session Number 1 (6 players) 1. The explanation of how to read the deed could be f a c i l i t a t e d by having one of the deeds duplicated so that each player could look at the same deed during the explanation. The deed for property number 5 was duplicated for t h i s purpose (see Appendix C). 53 2. Money less the price of a piece of property and the numbers of forest units, waterfowl units and big game units on the undisturbed property could be counted out i n advance to speed up play. This was done with money and t i l e s being placed i n separate envelopes for each property. 3. The person running the game had to supply con- tinuous verbal directions of what to do i n each season. Cards showing the sequence of events for each season were supplied. 4. Some consequence cards required rewriting to c l a r i f y t h e i r meaning. Session Number 2 (4 players) Playing time took three hours for two f u l l years. Most of the time was spent t r y i n g to manage more than one piece of property. Therefore, players on subsequent games were r e s t r i c t e d to owning only one piece of property. Session Number 3 (4 players) Consequence cards were reduced to four per resource category including two consequences for increase and two for decrease (see Appendix D). This was done so that players could learn the consequences more e a s i l y . Risk cards were also modified and reduced to f i v e . The contents of the consequence and r i s k cards were l i s t e d i n Appendixes D and E. 5 4 Session Number 4 (& players) Setting up unpurchased land with a l l the t i l e s representing trees, big game and waterfowl was unnecessary since only one property could be purchased. Some rewards on the consequence cards were too generous and were reduced. FINAL VERSION A set of instructions was developed and used for introducing people to the game. These instructions are outlined b r i e f l y here. 1. The purpose of the game was described as providing participants with experience i n planning a piece of land and seeing how changes affected t h e i r own and neighbouring lands. 2. An East Kootenay Area Land Use Capability map was shown to the game participants and i t was explained that the various colors indicated pote n t i a l land uses. The relationship between the game board and the Land Use Capability map was explained and the piece of the map represented on the board was i d e n t i f i e d . 3. Each of the colors on the game board was related to the land use c a p a b i l i t y i t represented. The red boundary lines for in d i v i d u a l properties were explained. 4 . The f i v e d i f f e r e n t colors of t i l e s were explained as to the resource that they represented (brown-- c a t t l e , blue--waterfowl, orange--big game, green-- forests, p i n k — f i e l d crops). Units of ten were shown as double t i l e s (£ inch by 1 inch). The table of values on the game board was pointed out and the differences between purchase p r i c e , sale price and environmental units were explained. The deed for property number 5 was explained. The information on the deed included; purchase p r i c e , environmental value, size of property, exchange values and carrying cap a c i t i e s . The use of the deed was demonstrated by setting out pro- perty number- 5 and showing howr the exchange units were used. The money score and the environmental units score were described. Players were shown how the t o t a l score was arrived at and that environmental units must be maintained at 1000 or more units. The use of the score sheet (Appendix F) was explained. A b r i e f explanation as to how the consequence and r i s k cards were used i n the play was given. The rules and sequence of play cards were quickly read over by a l l participants and explained (see Appendix G). Chapter 4 ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF PLAYING THE SIMULATION GAME As described i n the f i r s t chapter the data c o l l e c t i o n consists of pre and post-test scores for knowledge and land use attitudes, a game attitude score, and the answers to four personal data questions. In addition game scores for money, environmental units and t o t a l score (sum of money and envir- onmental unit score) were recorded for each p a r t i c i p a n t . The analysis of results focused on examining the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the game and i t s effectiveness i n achieving the i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives l i s t e d previously. Participant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were related to other variables of game play. Some subjective data were c o l l e c t e d and presented to aid i n detecting areas of the game requiring modification. Player reactions to various parts of the gaming emerged and i t appears that a number of major game modifications may therefore be necessary. S t a t i s t i c a l tests c a r r i e d out on the pre-test and post- test data were used to determine the effectiveness of the game i n terms of whether or not changes i n attitudes or knowledge occurred. The results indicate that only three of eight variables showed any s i g n i f i c a n t change at the .10 l e v e l of sig n i f i c a n c e . Knowledge and attitude test results were examined 56 57 to f i n d the interplay between test results and player and game ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s with the purpose of determining d i f f e r e n t i a l effects of the game on d i f f e r e n t types of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The relationships among the test results themselves were examined to determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the tests used. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME PARTICIPANTS The game was played with nine family groups comprising a t o t a l of 40 people. Seventy-eight percent or seven of the games were played with groups of four or f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Group size ranged from three to seven and the mean size was 4.7 persons. The t o t a l number of participants i n the sample was divided into 19 or 47.5 percent males and 21 or 52.5 percent females (Table 5). The largest category i n terms of family po s i t i o n was children who accounted for 45 percent of the sample. Although data were not col l e c t e d on age, a l l of the children were over 12 years of age and some were married adults l i v i n g on t h e i r parent's landholding. There were seven female (17.5 percent) and seven male household heads (17.5 percent) represented. Eight participants were c l a s s i f i e d as "others", and this represented 20 percent of the t o t a l sample. That category consisted p r i n c i p a l l y of people from neighbouring ranchs and farm hands. Because of the minimum of 50 acres of property required for e l i g i b i l i t y to play the game, most of the participants l i v e d on farms. The data showed that 33 or 82.5 percent of 58 the participants l i v e d on farms whereas only 17.5 percent did not l i v e on land that was farmed (Table 5). Twenty-four landholdings (60 percent) were under 500 acres i n s i z e , nine (22.5 percent) were between 500 and 949 acres and seven (17.5 percent) were i n excess of 950 acres (Table 5). The mean property size was 537.1 acres. The educational l e v e l of the participants as measured by t h e i r t o t a l number of years of schooling produced a mean of 10.7 years for the 40 pa r t i c i p a n t s . The modal group consisted of people with 9 to 12 years of schooling which included 47.5 percent of the pa r t i c i p a n t s . The category of 0 to 8 years of schooling included 27.5 percent and the remaining 25 percent were i n the 13 years and more category. The lowest number of years of schooling i n the group was f i v e years and the highest was 19 years (Table 5). PLAY OF THE GAME Playing Time Playing time included the time taken to provide pre- game instructions plus the actual playing time. The mean time for game play was 137.5 minutes and the range was from 110 to 180 minutes. Three categories were used to describe the playing time; i n the shortest time period of 110 to 125 minutes were 21 participants (52.5 percent), i n the next 126 to 140 minutes were eight participants (20 percent), and i n the longest time category 141 or more minutes were 11 people (27.5 percent). 59 Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s T a b l e 5 Summary o f P l a y e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Number o f Persons Percentage O f Sample Sex Male Female F a m i l y P o s i t i o n Husband Wife C h i l d Other Farm R e s i d e n t Non-Farm R e s i d e n t Years o f S c h o o l i n g 0 - 8 y e a r s 9 -12 y e a r s 13 + y e a r s P r o p e r t y S i z e 50 - 499 acres 500 - 949 acres 950 acres 19 21 7 7 18 8 33 7 11 19 10 24 9 7 47.5% 52.5% 17.5% 17.5% 45.0% 20.0% 82.5% 17.5% 27.5% 47.5% 25.0% 60.0% 22.5% 17.5% 60 Playing time correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and negatively with property s i z e (r= -.56) (Appendix G). This indicates that the owners of larger properties took less time to play the game than did the owners of smaller properties. A l l players with 500 or more acres were i n the shortest playing time period whereas only 21 percent of the players with less than 500 acres f e l l i n the shortest time period. Table 6 Di s t r i b u t i o n of Game Participants by Property Size and Playing Time Property Size Game Playing Time (Minutes) (Acres) 110 - 125 126-c Total No. Percentage No. Percentage No. Percentage 50 - 499 5 21% 19 79% 24 100% 500 * 16 100% 0 0% 16 100% Total 21 19 40 x 2= 24.13, df = 1, p< .01 The number of players i n a game would seem to be related d i r e c t l y to the playing time as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e cor- r e l a t i o n of r - .77 was computed for number of players versus playing time. Table 7 shows that 16 of the 21 players (76 per- cent) i n the shortest time category were also i n the category of fewest players and only f i v e (24 percent) were i n the largest (5 to 7) player category. Game playing time also showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with the amount of money earned by the participant at the end of a gaming session (r=.31). Increase i n playing time resulted i n more money being earned by game pa r t i c i p a n t s . Table 7 Frequency Table of Number of Players and Game Playing Time Game Playing Time (Minutes) Number of Players No. 110 h 125 Percentage No. 126 + Percentage No. Total Percentage 0 - 4 16 76 % 3 24% 19 100% 5 - 7 5 241 16 76% 21 100% Total 21 19 40 x 2 «14.59, df - 1, p <.01 Game Scores The scoring as described previously consisted of three i n d i v i d u a l scores. The t o t a l score was a composite of the money score and the environmental unit score. Since money was more p l e n t i f u l than environmental units i t was the largest contributor to the t o t a l score. The mean t o t a l score for the 40 players was 7291 points. This score demonstrated a considerable amount of v a r i a b i l i t y as would be expected and the standard deviation was 2293. The mean money score was $5646 with a standard deviation of 2274. This mean score represents what would seem to be an excessively large amount of money, but since a l l participants began with $5000 out of which they paid from $1100 to $2600 for t h e i r land. Participants began with 2000 environmental units (E.U.'s). Managing a piece of land requires some disruption to the environment, and since players had to maintain t h e i r E.U.'s above 1000, a mean score of 1643 did not seem unreasonable. The v a r i a b i l i t y as indicated by the standard deviation was 538 points. Game Scores i n Relation to Player Characteristics Total score showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r - . 47) with the number of years of schooling. This indicates that the more education a person has the higher the score he was able to achieve on the game. The bi v a r i a t e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for these two variables produced a s i g n i f i c a n t chi-square at the .05 l e v e l (see Table 8). Table 8 shows that 20 percent of those with 0 to 8 years of schooling were in the highest t o t a l score category, whereas 45 percent of those i n that category had 13 or more years of schooling. The lowest t o t a l score category, however, contained only one person with 13 or more years of education while 35 percent had 0 to 8 years. These figures suggest that the game needs to be adjusted to accommodate the lower educational levels and p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the 9 to 12 year category who represent the mean educational l e v e l for the population. Total score correlated with the money score with a positi v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r-.97). There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r--.63) between the t o t a l score and rank within the playing group. This was expected 63 Table 8 Frequency Table of Years of Schooling and Total Score Years of Above Median Below Median Schooling Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Total 0-8 years 4 20% 7 35% 11 9-12 years 7 35% 12 60% 19 13 + years 9 45% 1 5% 10 Total 20 100% 20 100% 40 x 2 = 8.62, d.f. = 2, p<.05 64 since the t o t a l score determined the rank; the person with the highest score i n the group ranked f i r s t while the person with the lowest ranked l a s t . Money scores demonstrated almost the same relationships with the variables as did the t o t a l scores. There was a s i g - n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between money score and rank within the playing group Cr*-. 55) and a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between money score and the number of years of schooling (r=.46). Unlike the money scores and t o t a l scores no s i g - n i f i c a n t correlations were found between environmental units (E.U.'s)- and either money or t o t a l scores. There was a s i g - n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between E.U. score and the rank within the group ( r - -.35). This indicates that the higher a person ranked within a group the higher was his E.U. score. Although the correlations and the b i v a r i a t e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t for family p o s i t i o n versus any of the previously mentioned scores there i s a trend exhibited i n the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix. A l l of the correlations for these three variables (money score, environmental unit score and t o t a l score) were negative and the smallest one (r= -.23) i s within .08 of being s i g n i f i c a n t which indicates a tendency towards higher scores being related to the family positions categorized on the lower end of the scale with one for husband, two for wife, three for c h i l d , four for r e l a t i v e and f i v e for other. One area which r e f l e c t s t o t a l score i s rank within the playing group and this does correlate 65 significantly (r^.37) and positively with family position. This means there appears to be a positive relationship between those achieving f i r s t place and husbands who rank f i r s t on the family position scale and so on down the l i s t . This tends to support the previously mentioned trend indicated between scores and family position. Subjective Observations oh Game Play The comments recorded immediately after game play revealed some useful information for future modifications of the game. In a l l playing sessions i t was noted that many of the Consequence Cards were too generous. Players were receiving so many free cattle as a result of consequences of their own and their neighbours' land usage that i t became unnecessary for them to buy any. Players were reluctant to spend money and except for a few individuals invested very l i t t l e in the play and were l e f t with larger sums of money then would seem r e a l i s t i c . This would seem to necessitate the use of more monetary constraints such as land taxes and income taxes in the game play. Family members tended to co-operate and advise one another rather than compete. The elder players often described to younger players examples of how they dealt with particular problems developing in the game on their own land. Thus, the game appeared to stimulate additional benefits other than those that were intentionally designed. 66 Another modification required was i n terms of the ease with which players were able to regain environmental u n i t s . Often those who succeeded to rank f i r s t i n the game had depleted t h e i r environmental unit scores to a negative value i n the f i r s t year of the game. One comment recorded on four of the nine game sessions was that families took the attitude " i t ' s just a game" and did not serously consider i t s application to real problems on th e i r own land. This appears to be due to a p r e v a i l i n g attitude about games but i n part may be attributable to the amount of chance which determined success or f a i l u r e i n the land use simulation game. One i n d i r e c t method of reducing chance would be to extend the number of rounds of play because i t appeared that near the end of the l a s t round and i n discussions after the game players were beginning to perceive game strategies. Game Attitude The attitudes of the participants toward the game were measured by a f i v e statement L i k e r t scale (Appendix B) which had a maximum score of 25 points and a minimum score of f i v e . The mean for the group was 19.4 with a standard devi- ation of 2.4. This indicates that most people were s a t i s f i e d with the game and that there was l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y demonstrated i n the set of scores. None of the co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s or b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s showed s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between game attitude and other player or game play variables. TEST RESULTS 67 Table 9 summarizes the results of the pre and post- test measurements. One feature i n the mean scores that i s worth commenting on i s the low l e v e l of the mean scores on both knowledge tests. The means seem somewhat lower than would be expected and r e f l e c t s either on the d i f f i c u l t y of the instrument used or the f a i l u r e of the game to teach information about land use planning or a combination of both reasons. Differences Between Pre-test arid Post-test Results A s i g n i f i c a n t difference was observed between scores attained for i n s t r u c t i o n a l objective 2 at the .10 l e v e l . That objective stated that the learner w i l l develop a more p o s i t i v e attitude towards considering the effects of his land use plans on neighbouring lands. The t- t e s t on the knowledge scores produced a s i g - n i f i c a n t r e s u l t at the .10 l e v e l implying that some increase i n knowledge occurred. Objective 5 which was part of the knowledge test produced a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t at the .025 l e v e l . This objective stated that the learner w i l l be able to describe the competitive relationships e x i s t i n g between forestry and f i e l d crops, waterfowl and f i e l d crops, c a t t l e and f i e l d crops, c a t t l e and waterfowl, c a t t l e and big game, forestry and c a t t l e and big game and forestry. Non-significant t - t e s t results occurred with respect to the attitude test t o t a l score and objectives 1, 3, 4 and 6. Thus, modifications to the game res u l t i n g from this study must Table 9 Summary of Pre-test and Post-test Results Tests Maximum Score Test Scores Mean Mean Pre-test Post-test Score Score Change T-value P r o b a b i l i t y Objective 1 Land Use Planning Attitude 40 Objective 2 Attitude Towards Ef f e c t s of Land Use on Neighbours 40 Total Attitude Test Score 80 Objective 3 Knowledge of Land Use Ca p a b i l i t i e s 5 Objective 4 Economic, Ecological Interaction 5 Objective 5 Competitive Relationships 5 Objective 6 Good and Bad Land Use Strategies 5 Total Knowledge Test Scores 20 25.70 26.70 52.60 2.25 3.13 1.73 2.25 9.13 26.00 27.80 53.80 2.40 3.15 2.28 2.28 10.18 0.30 1.10 1.20 0.15 0.02 0.56 0.03 1.05 0.53 1.43 1.04 0.58 0.10 2.04 0.09 1.56 p >.10 p < .10 p ;>.io p ^.10 p ^ .10 p < .025 p ^ . 1 0 P<-10 Z 69 focus e s p e c i a l l y on improving learner performance i n those areas. Relationships Among Test Results Of the nine possible correlations between attitude pre- test and post-test scores, seven were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , one was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l and one was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The consistency indicated between pre-test and post-test scores demonstrated that very l i t t l e change i n attitude occurred from pre-test to post-test. This was not e n t i r e l y unexpected i n that attitude change generally involves a longer period of time than existed between measurements i n this study. The knowledge a person had on entering the game seemed to show a d i r e c t p o s i t i v e relationship to the attitude measured by both the attitude pre-test and post-test. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n existed between knowledge pre-test and both attitude pre-test (rr.37) and post-test (r=.36). Objective 2 on the post-test which states participants w i l l develop a more po s i t i v e attitude towards the effects of land use on neighbouring lands correlates s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with pre-test score for objective 4 (r=.31) which says learners w i l l describe the interplay of economic and ecological factors in land use planning. This implies the more a participant knew about this economic and ecological interplay the more po s i t i v e was his attitude towards the effects of land use on neighbouring land a f t e r playing the game. 70 Table 10 summarizes the numerous s i g n i f i c a n t cor- relations between pre and post-test objective 6 scores and other test and game scores. Objective 6 states that the learner w i l l be able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor land use strategies. There seem to be at least two possible explanations of the correlations that are shown for objective 6 either the other measures are measuring the same things as objective 6 or a knowledge of good and poor land uses affects the degree of achievement of the variables noted i n Table 10. If objective 6 i s a general measure for the other scores i t correlates with i t suggests an a l t e r a t i o n of the instruments and possibly the game scoring i s necessary. The co r r e l a t i o n between pre-test and post-test objective 6 of r- ...52 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l shows that participants enter the game with a knowledge of the difference between good and poor land uses and this tends not to change as a r e s u l t of the playing of the game. Therefore i f the game could be modified to increase the knowledge of good and poor land uses the scores on the s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated variables would increase which i s of special importance on the post-test scores since by r a i s i n g these scores more learning would be achieved. Player and Game Characteristics i n Relation to Test Results Post-test objective 1 which stated that the learner w i l l develop a more favorable attitude towards the land use planning process showed a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n - (r=-:37) with property size so that owners with larger pro- perties had less favorable attitudes towards land use planning o co *d cr o o o CD H o CD rt W H-< o CD 3 w ct I r+ CD (A rt ON IS 15 loo CM CM CM 00 I CM I-1 IS o o CM cn CM CM O 00 T3 vTO H O. O CD CD H I O CD rt rt w « H* W < O ft ct> 3 ON cn CM Cv) - P . ON CM t o cn CM oo cn tsJ CM Cn CM O cr <o o ft < CD ON Pre-test Attitude Score Pre-test Score Objective 1 Pre-test Score Objective 2 Post-test Attitude Score Post-test Objective 2 Score Pre-test Knowledge Score Post-test Knowledge Score Post-test Objective 6 Score Game Attitude Score Money Score Total Score 1 H CD to ct P» a Cu cn 3 n> CO o o H CD 00 CO CO c CD 3 Sfi CD H CD X 3 O O HN cr <-»• rt tr CD CD < o CD H H ON CD $» 3, CD < $0. H r-> H. pi (U Pi 3 rt cr cu H- M O O 3 n ct *3 *n CD O »-i CD rt> H t-h CD H- to O Ct H- CD pi 3 3 ft Cu to 72 than those with smaller properties. Property size showed a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r=-.31) with post-test attitude score. Thus landowners with larger properties tended to f i n i s h the game with a less p o s i t i v e attitude. Years of schooling correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y (r=.32) with the post-test results of objective 6. This objective concerns the a b i l i t y of the game players to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between good and poor land uses. The players with more years of schooling were better able to distinguish between good and poor land uses. The attitude post-test scores had a s i g n i f i c a n t neg- ative c o r r e l a t i o n with the t o t a l number of environmental units scored on the game ( r * -.32). Fewer environmental units were thus acquired by people who had developed a more po s i t i v e attitude toward land use planning. Money score correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with pre-test (r=.34) and post>test objective 6 (r=.31) and pre-test (r=.42) and post-test knowledge (r=.36) score t o t a l s and post-test objective 5 scores (r-.31). It appears that the money score and knowledge scores were cl o s e l y related, thus, the more a person knew about land use planning on entering and on completion of the game, the higher was his money score. Since the money score was the largest contributor to t o t a l score, exactly the same correlations existed for t o t a l score. Objective 5 on the pre-test, which i s concerned with the competitive relationships, correlated p o s i t i v e l y with minutes of play (r-.37) showing that increased playing time si. should increase learning on objective 5. That objective also had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with the number of people i n a group playing the game (r*.44) which indicates that the more people playing the game the better was the achievement on objective 5. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n existed between objective 6 (good and poor land uses) on the post-test and attitude towards the game (r=.35). The better the attitude towards the game, the higher the score on this objective. The number of players correlated negatively with the knowledge of good and poor land uses, objective 6, on the post-test ( r ; -.33) so that fewer players led to better results on post-test objective 6. The rank a person achieved within a playing group demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n with t o t a l score on the knowledge pre-test (rs -.32). The implications of this were that the more knowledge a person had on entering the game, the better the chances of success. SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The data analysis showed that a number of s i g n i f i c a n t correlations existed between par t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , game play data and attitude and knowledge test scores. Playing time correlated negatively with property size and p o s i t i v e l y with the number of players, money scores, score on pre-test objective 5. Property size correlated negatively with the post-test attitude score and score on objective 1 on the attitude towards land use planning. A po s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n 74 was found between the number of people in the playing group and objective 5 on competitive relationships and post-test score on objective 6 on knowledge of good and poor land uses. The number of years of schooling correlated positively with the total score on the game and post-test scores on objective 6. Knowledge as measured on the pre-test correlated positively with pre and post-test attitude score and money score. Rank within a playing group and family position was related so that family heads and their spouses tended to win the game more frequently. Objective 6 had 20 significant correlations with other variables which indicated that perhaps a knowledge of good and poor land uses is an important consideration for future modifications of this game. Stati s t i c a l tests carried out on pre and post-test attitude and knowledge scores revealed that some learning had occurred. There was a significant increase in knowledge of land use planning with a notable increase in knowledge about competitive relationships among domestic and native populations. The only change in attitude noted was related to participants' attitude towards the effects of his land use plans on neigh- bouring lands which was shown to become slightly more positive. The data analysis presents a great deal of material which w i l l ultimately be useful in modifying the existing East Kootenay Land Use Simulation Game. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The concluding chapter of this study emphasizes that the nature of thi s investigation has been that of a p i l o t study. Since the game used i n the study was untried on the population selected many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s with the game and i t s administration were unforeseen. The results of the study w i l l help i n modifying the present game and carrying out studies of this nature with s i m i l a r r u r a l populations. There seems l i t t l e doubt that the technique has u t i l i t y for adult environmental education; however, i t i s also evident that the development of gaming requires a substantial investment of time and energy. Whether or not thi s investment i s j u s t i f i e d i s dependent on the techniques and devices available, i n s t r u c t i n n a l objectives and the target population being considered. With the population represented i n this study, both th e i r physical i s o l a t i o n from i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms of education and the evidence available on the i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education programs makes i t appear that the time and e f f o r t i n developing an e f f e c t i v e game for in s t r u c t i n g people about land use would be worthwhile. SUMMARY The purposes of the study were three-fold; to examine the usefulness of simulation gaming for environmental education, 76 to design a land use simulation game and to analyze the effect- iveness of the designed game. The rationale behind the purpose was that environmental matters are of major public concern and people need to be we'll informed about them. To provide the adult populace with the education requres that new techniques need to be examined and simulation gaming was chosen as a technique that has characteristics that suit i t to adult environmental education. The hypotheses which the study set out to investigate were two. The f i r s t was whether or not the game produced any significant change in the players knowledge or attitudes. This hypothesis included the six behavioral objectives the game was to achieve. The second hypothesis proposed that there would be relationships between player characteristics, game play and test results. The procedure used in the study involved two separate parts. A procedure for designing the game had to be identified, which included finding a source of data from which to develop the simulation. The procedure outlined by Glazier (41) which involved ten steps was adopted. As a source of data the land capability analysis for the East Kootenay area of British Columbia which had been recently completed was used. Once the game was designed a series of playing sessions followed to work out "bugs" that were s t i l l present in the game. The next step was to design the appropriate evaluation instruments. Finally the game was taken to the East Kootenay to be played by 40 residents of properties larger than 50 acres 77 l i v i n g i n School D i s t r i c t number 2, Cranbrook, B r i t i s h Columbia. The game was taken to the homes of nine f a m i l i e s . A pre-test was administered before the game, the game was played , and a post-test was completed. The game was to be a board game using an enlarged two square mile section of a representative area on the map. Players were to have money and t i l e s to represent c a t t l e , big game, for e s t s , waterfowl and f i e l d crops as th e i r planning resources. The objective of the game i s to maximize the economic returns while minimizing environmental destruction. Players had to increase t h e i r money and maintain t h e i r environmental units to compete with other players to win the game. Two preliminary designs were tested and a f i n a l version of the game was produced. The f i n a l version involved players beginning the game by buying simulated pieces of property. A maximum of nine players or groups of players could p a r t i c i p a t e and a minimum of two. Following this players went through a seasonal cycle. Play began with winter at which time land had to be cleared and prepared for domesticated crops and animals. Spring followed as a time for placing domesticated species on the board. Summer followed as the time for buying back w i l d l i f e . F a l l ended the f i r s t year with s e l l i n g o f f produce. The game continued another year and the player with the highest t o t a l score (money score plus environmental unit score) and who had kept the environmental unit score above 1000 won the game. 78 The player c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed that of the 4 0 , 4 7 . 5 percent were male, 5 2 . 5 percent female and 45 percent were children, 1 7 . 5 percent wives, 1 7 . 5 percent husbands and 20 percent were others. The mean educational l e v e l of the group was 1 0 . 7 years. Eighty-two and a half percent of the people resided on farms and the mean land size was 5 3 7 . 1 acres. The play of the game took an average of 1 3 7 . 5 minutes. Correlations between property size and playing time were s i g - n i f i c a n t at r s - . 5 6 . The number of players correlated s i g n i f - i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with playing time. The three game scores t o t a l score, money score and envir- onmental unit score had means of 7291 points, $ 5 6 4 6 and 1 6 4 3 points respectively. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of r - . 4 7 between the number of years of schooling and t o t a l score was present. Total score correlated ( i s . 9 7 ) with money score. Money scores showed exactly the same correlations as t o t a l score due to t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the scoring procedures. Environmental unit scores showed no s i g n i f i c a n t cor- relations with player c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The rank within a group correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with family p o s i t i o n . The subjective data on game play indicated a number of areas for possible game modification. Consequence cards should be less generous i n giving away free c a t t l e and environmental units were too e a s i l y regained. A reduction of chance in the game would overcome some of the problems with the attitude expressed in " i t ' s just a game". 79 1 The mean game attitude score was 19.4 out of a possible total of 25. This score did not correlate with any of the participant or game play variables. The t-tests, produced three significant results. The attitude towards the effects of land use on neighbouring lands was increased significantly at the .10 level by the game. Players increased their knowledge of competitive relationships significantly at the .025 level. An overall increase in knowledge was attained and deemed significant at the .10 level of significance. Test results showed relationships among themselves. Eight of nine possible correlations between pre-test and post- test attitude scores were significant. Entering knowledge correlated significantly and positively with attitude. Objective 6 dealing with a player's knowledge of how to dis- tinguish between good and poor land uses correlated significantly with six other test scores. Knowledge and attitude correlated significantly and positively with the following player and game characteristics; years of schooling, money scores, total scores, playing time, number of players, attitude towards the game and rank within the playing group. Negative significant correlations were found between knowledge and attitude test scores and property size and environmental unit score. 80 CONCLUSIONS The data collected has shown that some learning occurred among the participants after playing the East Kootenay Land Use Simulation Game. Although learning failed to be measurable in a number of areas under investigation i t should be borne in mind that i t was anticipated that much of the information gathered in this study would assist in modifying this version of the simulation game to improve its learning effectiveness. Examination of the data revealed that the participants* knowledge of land use planning had increased and specifically their knowledge of the competitive relationships among wild and domesticated species had increased. It also was found that while there was l i t t l e overall change in attitude a more positive attitude towards considering the effects of land use plans on neighbouring lands developed after the game was played. Numerous relationships among participant characteristics, game play data and knowledge and attitude test scores were discerned. These relationships described many of the character- i s t i c s of this learning device which need to be examined to see i f alteration can improve game effectiveness. Participants with more years of schooling and who were family heads were the most successful game participants in terms of winning the game. It was determined that property size influenced the playing time of the game and the participants attitude towards land use planning. The larger the property the 81 shorter the playing time and the more negative the attitude towards land use planning. Money scores and attitude were related to the knowledge a person already had about land use planning. The more a person knew about land use planning the more positive was his attitude towards i t and the more likely was he to achieve a higher money score and thus game success. Instructional objective 6 on the participants a b i l i t y to differentiate between good and poor land uses was found to be an important variable as far as i t s correlation with other variables was concerned. The numerous correlations suggest that this objective played a prominent role in the learning that occurred and the success of game play. The simulation game studied had limited success in terms of learning effectiveness as would be expected the device had not been previously f i e l d tested. The study did supply valuable data for use in making this simulation game into a more effective learning device. IMPLICATIONS The implications of this study are mainly concerned with what modifications should be made to the game which was designed in the study. Any modifications suggested of course requires further play of the game to find out i f they enhance the play and effectiveness of the game. Money scores, i t is suggested, are too high. This requires the placing of some further monetary constraints on the 82 game which can be done in a number of ways. Less money could be given to players at the start of the game, the differential between purchase and sale price could be reduced, or external monetary constraints such as taxes or in consequence cards could be added to the game, to decrease the amount of money earned. Correlations between game success and years of school- ing would appear to indicate that the game requires some decrease i n complexity to accommodate the lower educational levels. The way this could be done i s not entirely clear, perhaps simplification of the vocabulary and less complex arithmetic operations. The subjective data collected suggests consequence cards need to less liber a l l y dispense free cattle, regaining environmental units i s to easy, and the attitude " i t ' s just a game" is a negative influence. Overcoming the problem with the consequence cards is quiet simple and requires only modifications of the rewards within the cards. However, making environmental units more d i f f i c u l t to regain poses a more d i f f i c u l t problem. Possible solutions are to have severe financial penalties for allowing environmental units to drop below a certain level or perhaps reduce value of the units when they are re-acquired. The only modification for the attitude " i t ' s just a game" is to reduce chance events and provide logical explanations for any chance events that do occur. 83 The objective on discriminating good and poor land use strategies seems an important one. Perhaps more emphasis should be placed on this in the game. At the end of each annual cycle judgement could be passed on the land use strategies employed to that point. Finally not related to modifications to this game the study has demonstrated that a land use planning game has potential as a device for use in adult environmental education. Although the potential is not fully realized in this game i t is probably more due to the failure of the game design at this point i n i t s development than the inabi l i t y of this technique to produce the desired results. Simulation games generally have had a history of use with adults. Business games, war games and p o l i t i c a l games are commonly used in adult education. The reasons for their use with adults is probably related to the practicality adults demand of their learning experience. Games tend to demonstrate theoretical knowledge applied to real situations rather than talking about i t in the abstract. Adults can use their vast store of practical knowledge and experience to solve problems presented by games and also have a chance to apply new knowledge at various stages of the game. Also not to be ignored is the informality of this approach which is of special benefit to those whose experiences with formal education has l e f t them with a negative attitude to classroom—lecture type learning techniques. Finally games of the simple non- computerized form are easily taken into the home of the clientele, as was done in this study, thus overcoming a hurdle which often limits participation in adult education ventures. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abt, C C . Serious Games. New York: Viking Press, 1970. American Management Association. Simulation arid Gaming: A Symposium. AMA Management Report Number 55, 1957. Baldwin, J.D. "Influences Detrimental to Simulation Gaming." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 12:14-20, July-August, 1969. Beck, I.H. and F J . Broadbent. "Some Dimensions of Simulation." Educational Technology, 9:45, October, 1969. Berne, E r i c . Games People Play. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1964. Blunt, Adrian. "An Evaluation of Two Orientation Programs for Aldermen." Center for Continuing Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., September 1, 1971 (Mimeographed). Boocock, S.S. "An Experimental Study of the Learning Effects of Two Games with Simulated Environments." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:8-17, October, 1966. . "The L i f e Career Game." Personnel arid Guidance, 41T7728-334, December, 1967. ' ' and J.S. Coleman. "Games with Simulated Environments i n Learning." Sociology of Education, 39:215-236, Summer, 1966. ' and E.O^ Schild. Simulation.Games in Learning. Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a ! Sage Publication Inc., 1968. ________ "Va l i d i t y - T e s t i n g of An Intergenerational Relations Game. Simulation arid Games* 3:29-40, March, 1972. Bresson, F. and M. Montmollin (ed.). The Simulation of Human Behavior. Paris: Dunod, 196*97 B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department of Industrial Development, Trade and Commerce. The CraribrookRegion: An Economic Survey, V i c t o r i a : The Bureau, 19687 84 85 14. • The Kimberley Area; An Economic Survey, V i c t o r i a : The Bureau, 1967. 15. Campbell, D.T. and J.C. Stanley. Experimental arid Quas i - experimerital Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1963. 16. Canada Land Inventory. Land Cap a b i l i t y Analysis of the East Kootenay Area. Ottawa: Queen's Prin t e r , 1970. 17. Carlson, E. "Games i n the Classroom." Saturday Review, A p r i l 15, 1967. 18. . Learning Through Games: A New Approach to Problem Solving. Washington: Public A f f a i r s Press, 1969. 19. Cherryholmes, C.H. "Some Current Research on the Effectiveness of Educational Simulations: Implications for Alternative Strategies." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:4-5, 1966. 20. Cohen, B.C. " P o l i t i c a l Gaming i n the Classroom." Journal of P o l i t i c s . 24:367-380, 1962. 21. Cohen, K.J. and E. Rhenman. "The Role of Management Games i n Education and Research." Management Science, 7:131-166, 1961. 22. Coleman, J.S. "Games New Tools for Learning." Scholastic Teacher, LI:9, November 9, 1967. 23* " l n Defense of Games." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:3-4, October, 196~6~T . "Opinions D i f f e r : Learning Through Games." National Education Association Journal, LVI:69-70, January, 1967. 25. "Games as Vehicles of Social Theory." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 12:2-6, July-August, T9W: 26. Cruickshank, D.R. and F.W. Broadbent. "An Investigation to Determine Effects of Simulation Training on Student Teaching Behavior." Educational Technology, 9:50, October, 1969. 27. Crawford, M.P. "Dimensions of Simulation." American Psychologist, 21:788-95, August, 1966. 28. Demarchi, R. Personal Correspondence, December 6, 1971. 86 29. Department of Regional and Economic Expansion. The Canada Land Inventory: Objectives, Scope and Organization. Ottawal Q u e e n P r i n t e r , 1970. 30. Dickinson, G. "A Technical Approach to Land Use Planning Based on the Canada Land Inventory." Department of Adult Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. (Mimeographed). 31. Duffy, P.J.B. "Canada Land Inventory at Midpoint." Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, A p r i l , 1971. 32. Duke, R. Gaming Simulation i n Urban Research. Lansing, Michigan: Ins t i t u t e of Community Development Services, 1964. 33. Farran, D.C. "Games Work with Underachievers." Scholastic Teacher, LI:12-13, November 9, 1967. 34. Feldt, A.G. "Operational Gaming i n Planning Education." Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 22:17-24, 1966. 35. Fletcher, Jerry. "Evaluation of Learning i n Two Social Studies Simulation Games." Simulation and Games, 2:259-286, September, 1971. 36» "The Effectiveness of Simulation Games as Learning Environments: A Proposed Program of Research." Simulatloh and Games, 2:425-453, December, 1971. 37. Foreign Policy Association. New Dimensions. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1968. 38. Gagne, R.M. "Training Devices and Simulations: Some Research Issues." American Psycholog!st, 9:95-107, 1954. 39. Garvey, D.M. and W.H. S e l l e r . "On Simulation Teaching." Phi Delta Kappan, 69:473, A p r i l , 1968. 40. Gearon, J.D. "Labour Versus Management: A Simulation Game." Sociology of Education, 30:421-2, October, 1966. 41. Glazier, Ray. How to Design Educational Games. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Associates Inc., 1969. 42. Godschalk, D.R. "Negotiate: An Experimental Planning Game." i n E.H. Sanoff and Sidney Conn (ed.). The Proceedings of the F i r s t Environmental Research" Design Association Conference. Baltimore: E.D.R.A. January, 1970. 87 43. Gordon, A.K. Games for Growth: Educational Games i n the Classroom. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1970. 44. Gram, R.H. Central Kootenay Research Study. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: ARDA, 1970. ! 45. Guetzkow, H.S. Simulations i n the Social Sciences: Readings. Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1963. 46. Simulation i n International Relations: Developments for Research arid Teaching. Englewood- C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1963. 47. Guss, C. "Role Playing Simulation i n Instruction." Audio-Visual Instruction, 11:443-4, June, 1968. 48. Hermann, C F . "Validation Problems i n Games and Simulations with Special Reference to Games of International P o l i t i c s . " Behavioral Science, 12:216-31, May, 1967. 49. I l l i c h , Ivan. De-Schooling Society• New York: Harper Row, 1970, pp.81-82. 50. Inbar, M. "The D i f f e r e n t i a l Impact of a Game Simulating a Community Disaster." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:18-27, October, 1966. 51. Kersh, B.Y. "The Classroom Simulator." Journal of Teacher Education, 13:110, March, 19677 - 52. Kibee, J.M., C.J. Kraft, and B. Nanus (ed.). Management Games. New York: Reinhold Press, 1961 53. Lee, R. "The Inter-nation Simulation as a Learning Experience: A One—Month Follow-up Experiment." White Plains, New York: I.B.M. Corporation, September, 1970 (Mimeographed). 54' : and A. O'Leary. "Attitude and Personality Ef f e c t s of a Three Day Simulation." Simulation and Games, 2:309-47, September, 1971. 55. Long, W. "Downtown: An Economic Environmental Simulation Game." in J . Archia and Chas. Eastman (ed.) Proceedings of the Second Annual Environmental Research Design Conference• Pittsburgh: E.D.R.A., October, 88 56. McKecknie, G.E. "Measuring Environmental Dispositions with the Environmental Response Inventory." In J. Archea and Chas. Eastman (ed.), Proceedings of the Second Annual Environmental Research Design 'Conference. Pittsburg: E.D.R.A., October, 1970. 57. McKenney, J.L. and W.R. D i l l . "Influences on Learning i n Simulation Games." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:28-32, October, 1966. 58. Meirer, R.L., E.H. Blakelock and H. Hinomoto. "Simulation of Ecological Relationships." Behavioral Science, 9:67-76, 1964. 59. ' and J.P. Doyle. "Simulation of the Concept of Community i n Ecological Systems; The Moose-Beaver- Wolf Environment System of Isle Royale." Report Number 16. Ann Arbor: Mental Health Research In s t i t u t e , 1965. 60. M i l l e r , A l f r e d . Personal Correspondence, December 6, 1971. 61. Moore, L.F. "Business Games vs. Case Studies as Tools of Learning." Monograph, Faculty of Commerce, Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1967. 62. Munroe, M.W. "Games as Teaching Tools: An Examination of C.L.U.G." Unpublished, M.Sc, Thesis, Cornell University, 1968. 63. National Committee on Forest Land. Towards Integrated Resource Management. Ottawa: Queen's Prin t e r , im — 64. Proshansky, Harold M., Wm. H. Ittel s o n and L.G. R i v l i n . Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1970. 65. Raser, J.R. Simulation and Society: An Exploration of S c i e r i t i f i c Gaming• Boston: A l l y n and Bacon Inc., 1969. 66. Rapoport, A. and A.M. Chammah. "The Game of Chicken." American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t , 10:10-28, November, TMW. ! 67. Research News. "Games Simulation and Learning." O f f i c e of Research Administration the University of Michigan, 21, Number 9, March, 1971. 89 68. Robinson, J.A. "Simulation and Games." in P.H. Rossi and B.J. Biddle (ed.) New Media arid Education (Chapter 3). Chicago: Adline Publishing Co., 1966. 69. Schild, E.O. "Shaping Strategies." American Behavioral Scientist, 10:1-4, October, 1966. 70. Schneiberger, K.C. "Gaming as Instruction of Farm Management Education - A Development and Evaluation." Unpublished, Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 1968. 71. Shubik, M. (ed.). Game Theory arid Related Approaches to Social Behavior"" New York: John Wiley, 1964. 72. Simon, R.I. "Scenarios and Functional Forms: Considerations for Design of Experimerital Games." Simulation arid Games, 3:3-16, March, 1972. 73. Smoker, Paul. "Social Research for Social Anticipation." American Behavioral Scientist, 12:7-13, July-August, 74. Snider, J.C. "Development of and Utilization of a Simulation Game Designed to Instruct Leaders of Adult Education in Program Development." Unpublished, Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1970. 75. Starbuck, W.H. and E. Kobrow. "The Effects of Advisors on Business Game Teams." American Behavioral Scientist, 10:28-30, October, 1966. ! 76. S t o l l , C.S. and S.S. Boocock. "Simulation Games: New Visual Aid for Social Studies." Audio-Visual Instruction, 13:840-41, October, 19687 77. Suits, B. "What is A Game?" Philosophy of Science, 34:48-56, January, 1969. 78. Symington, D.F. "Land Use In Canada: The Canada Land Inventory." Canada Land Inventory, Department of Regional andTfcoriomic Expansion. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, June, 1970. 79. Tansey, P.J. and D. Unwin. Simulation and Gaming in Education. London: Methuen Ltd., 1964. 80. Terry, Mark. Teaching for Survival. New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1971. ~ 81. Toffler, Alvin. Future Shock. New York: Random House, 1970. 90 82. Twelker, P.A. "Classroom Simulation and Teacher Preparation." School Review, 75:197-204, Summer, 1967. 83- ' "Designing Simulation Systems." Educational Technology, 9, 64-70, October, 1969. 84. Instructional Simulation Systems: An Annotated Biblibgraphyv C o r v a l l i s , Oregon: A Continuing Education Book, 1969. 85. Verner, C. "Instructional Methods for Adult Education." Review of Educational Research, 29:262-68, June, T9T9T ! 86. A Conceptual Scheme for the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes for Adult Education. Washington: Adult Education Association, 1962. 87. ,. G'. Dickinson and E.P. Alleyne. "A Socio- economic Survey of the East Kootenay Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia." ARDA Canada Land Inventory, Report Number 2, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1968. 88. Zaltman, G. "Degree of P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Learning i n the Consumer Economic Game." i n S.S. Boocock and E.O. Schild, Simulation Games i n Learning (pp. 205-215). Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1968. APPENDIX A- PRE-TEST INSTRUMENT PART A - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY. Groups # • Person # Card # 1 Instructions: Please check one of the five categories (from strongly arree to strongly disagree) for each statements 2, 3. 4 . 5. 6 . 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. >> CD >»0) H rt H © r&  9 b o o a> •** otJ O «J W *-l 10 <D •H -P H co<q < ft CO P» Landowners should be able to do what they wish with their land. Land use planning i s just couwon sense. Our national parks should be preserved i n their natural state with roads and buildings prohibited. What I do with my own land i s ray own business. Land users must attempt to miniraize possible bad effects on neighbouring lands. Farming operations should not have to change their plans to accommodate some wildlife population. A l l landowners should have registered land use plans approved by a qualified land use planner. Landowners with high capability land for agriculture should not s e l l their property for building developments. Wildlife populations damaging cash crop or competing with cattle must be removed. By planning land use i t i s possible to foresee environmental problems. Individual landowners have no respon- s i b i l i t i e s toward wild animal populations. When economic interests conflict with ecological interests the decision should be made i n favor of economic gain. 92 PART A - 2 - hfi CO o cj> u +> y j wj o O 0> O +» 13 • I would be w i l l i n g to t i t down and work out a land use plan with a professional land use planner. 14. The land uses of one piece of land have no eff e c t on neighbouring lands. 15. Building programs that disrupt the ecology should be abandoned and the land returned to i t s natural state. 16. Any land can be successfully farmed provided enough money and tin e i s available to develop i t . 93 PART B - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME Group # EVALUATION STUDY Person # Card # 1 Instructions: Please select the BEST answer for each of the following questions. 1. Land capability refers to: ( ) a) uses the land i s being put to presently. b) what originally grew on undisturbed land. c) the land's natural a b i l i t y to support native or domestic plants and animals. d) the land's potential for agricultural production. 2. Moderate capability big game land has: • ( ) a) only the a b i l i t y to support big game. b) the a b i l i t y to support big game and cattle. c) the a b i l i t y to support big game, cattle, f i e l d crops and forests. d) the a b i l i t y to support big game, cattle and forests. 3. High capability agricultural land can support: ( ) a) more cattle than big game. b) as many cattle as big game. c) fewer cattle than big game. d) more big game than cattle. 4. High capability forestry land can support ( ) a) waterfowl, cattle and forests. b) big game, and cattle. c) f i e l d crops, forests, cattle and big game. d) waterfowl, forests, f i e l d crops, big game and cattle. 5. Land capabilities are the result of: ( ) a) natural conditions. b) man-made conditions. c) economic conditions. . d) traditional uses. 6. The cost of maintenance of environmental quality: ( ) a) i s the responsibility of the landowner. b) i s the responsibility of the government. c) both. d) neither. 94 7. Increasing environmental qua l i t y often: ( ) a) increases p r o f i t s , b) decreases p r o f i t s . c) does not af f e c t p r o f i t s . 8. The economic gain and environmental q u a l i t y are: ( ) a) frequently i n c o n f l i c t . b) never i n c o n f l i c t . c) only occasionally i n c o n f l i c t . 9. Big game and waterfowl populations have: ( ) a) no economic value. b) great economic value. c) some economic value. 10* Maintaining a high degree of environmental q u a l i t y : ( ) costs landowners a l o t of money, costs the landowner nothing, c) s l i g h t l y increases the landowner's costs. 11o Forest removal can r e s u l t i n : ( ) a) increase i n b i g game animals. b) decrease i n b i g game animals. c) 1"tetter s o i l conditions. d) fewer c a t t l e . 12. Big game and c a t t l e compete f o r : ( ) a) sources of water. b) the same food supply. c) none of the above. 13. Increase i n c a t t l e can cause: ( ) a) decrease i n waterfowl. b) increase i n for e s t s . c) decrease i n for e s t s . d) increase i n f i e l d crops. 14« Decrease i n f i e l d crops can cause: ( ) a) increase i n c a t t l e . b) decrease i n fo r e s t s . C J decrease i n waterfowl, d) increase i n bi/j game. PART B - 3 - 15. Increase i n big game can cause: a) decrease i n cattle. b) decrease i n f i e l d crops. . c) increase i n cattle, d) increase i n f i e l d crops. 16. Exceeding the carrying capacity of land and bringing i n extra feed for cattle i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 17. Changes i n the land which affect a neighbours' land are: a) good land use, b) bad land use. c) neither. 18. Converting a l l land of any capability to agriculture uses i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 19. Using limited agriculture land for f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 20. Removing waterfowl by draining wetland to increase f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. APPENDIX B - POST-TEST INSTRUMENT PART C - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME EVALUATION STUDY Group # Person # Card # Property Size Please f i l l i n the appropriate information below: A) 1. Male 2. Female B) What i s your p o s i t i o n i n the family? 1. Husband 2. Wife 3. Child 4. Relative 5. Other C) How many years of school have you completed? ______________ years. D) Was more than $250 worth of agriculture produce sold from t h i s land i n 1971? 1. Yes 2. No 97 PART D - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME Group # EVALUATION STUDY Person # Card # • 2 Instructions: Please check any one of the five categories (from strongly agree to strongly disagree) for each statement, O <D CD -P <tf O CO U h. ^ 3 0 0 h 0 3 -p bA W) CD .rt • 4» -d co < «< a « co« 1, This game was enjoyable, ____ 2, I wouldn't mind playing this game again, — — — — —— 3, This game isn't really like the real m m m m mmm_ m m m m ____ problems landowners face. 4, I would recommend this game to my ____ ____ , friends to play. 5, I think every landowner should have m t m m mmmmm m m m m a chance to play this game. 9,8 PART A - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION Group--# GAME EVALUATION STUDY. Person # Card # 1 Instructions: Please check one of the five categories (from strongly a^ree to strongly disagree) for each statement, >> o> >» © op a u bhu H 0) 0) t* w G fcifl O <U O CtJ O « J U f r U s in JHI W co< < a ft COR 1 8 Landowners should be able to do what <-__ - — >. , they wish with their land, ~~~ 2, Land use planning i s just common sense, ^^ m m m m 3. Our national parks should be preserved i n m m i lii i t r . . their natural state with roads and buildings prohibited, 4» What I do with my own land i s my own business, 5, Land users must attempt to minimize <___ m m m mmomm m m m possible bad effects on neighbouring lands, 6, Farming operations should not have to m m m m m m m ^ . change their plans to accommodate some wildlife population. 7« A l l landowners should have registered land t use plans approved by a qualified land use planner, 8, Landowners with high capability land for i i n < agriculture should not s e l l their property for building developments. • 9. Wildlife populations damaging cash crop .... or competing with cattle must be removed, 10, By planning land use i t i s possible to . . , foresee environmental problems, 1 1 , Individual landowners have no respon- m m m _ t j s i b i l i t i e s toward wild animal populations, 12 , When economic interests conflict with in. ecological interests the decision should be made i n favor of economic gain. 99 PART A - 2 - 13, I would be w i l l i n g to s i t down and work out a land use plan with a professional land use planner, 14, The land uses of one piece of land have no effe c t on neighbouring lands. 15. Building programs that disrupt the ecology should be abandoned and the land returned to i t s natural state. 16. Any land can be successfully famed provided enough money and time i s available to develop i t . ~? r-i © r-l 0> a o © u ta pj cp o o> o +> tj p eJ f t i ) M 3 < r t 49-rt CQ <q < a « to« \ 100 PART B - EAST KOOTENAY LAND USE SIMULATION GAME Group # EVALUATION STUDY P e r s o n # _ Card # 1 Instructions: Please select the BEST answer f o r each of the following questions. 1. Land c a p a b i l i t y r e f e r s to: ( ) a) uses the land i s being put to presently. b) what o r i g i n a l l y grew on undisturbed land. c) the land's natural a b i l i t y to support native or domestic plants and animals. d) the land's p o t e n t i a l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l production. 2. Moderate c a p a b i l i t y b i g game land has: . ( ) a) only the a b i l i t y to support big game. b) the a b i l i t y to support b i g game and c a t t l e . c) the a b i l i t y to support b i g game, c a t t l e , f i e l d crops and fo r e s t s . d) the a b i l i t y to support big game, c a t t l e and fo r e s t s . 3. High c a p a b i l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l land can support: ( ) a) more c a t t l e than b ig game. b) as many c a t t l e as b i g game. c) fewer c a t t l e than b i g game. d) more b i g game than c a t t l e . 4. High c a p a b i l i t y f o r e s t r y land can support ( ) a) waterfowl, c a t t l e and f o r e s t s . bV b i g game, and c a t t l e . c) f i e l d crops, fo r e s t s , c a t t l e and b i g game. d) waterfowl, f o r e s t s , f i e l d crops, b i g game and c a t t l e , 5. Land c a p a b i l i t i e s are the r e s u l t of: ( ) a) natural conditions. b) man-made conditions. c) economic conditions.. d) t r a d i t i o n a l uses. 6. The cost of maintenance of environmental q u a l i t y : ( ) a) i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the landowner. b) i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government, c) both. d) neither. PART B ( 2 ) 101 7. Increasing environmental q u a l i t y often: (. ) a) increases p r o f i t s . b) decreases p r o f i t s . c) does not af f e c t p r o f i t s . 8. The economic gain and environmental q u a l i t y are: ( ) a> frequently i n c o n f l i c t . b) never i n c o n f l i c t . c) only occasionally i n c o n f l i c t . 9. Big game and waterfowl populations have: ( ) a) no economic value. b) great economic value. c) some economic value. 1 0 c Maintaining a high degree of environmental q u a l i t y : ( ) a) costs landowners a l o t of money. b) costs the landowner nothing. c) s l i g h t l y increases the landowner's costs. 1 1 o Forest removal can r e s u l t i n : ( ) a) increase i n bi g game animals. b) decrease i n bi g game animals. c) T~?.tter s o i l conditions, d) fewer c a t t l e . 1 2 . Big game and c a t t l e compete f o r : ( ) a) sources of water. b) the same food supply. c) none of the above. 1 3 . Increase i n c a t t l e can cause: ( ) a) decrease i n waterfowl. b) increase i n fo r e s t s . c) decrease i n fo r e s t s . d) increase i n f i e l d crops. 1 4 . Decrease i n f i e l d crops can cause: ( ) a) increase i n c a t t l e . b) decrease i n forests, c) decrease i n waterfowl, d) increase i n bi/j game. PART B - 3 - 15. Increase i n big game can cause: a) decrease in cattle. b) decrease i n f i e l d crops. c) increase i n cattle. d) increase i n f i e l d crops. 16. Exceeding the carrying capacity of land and bringing i n extra feed for cattle i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 17. Changes i n the land which affect a neighbours' land are: a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 18. Converting a l l land of any capability to agriculture uses i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 19. Using limited agriculture land for f i e l d crop production i s : a) good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. 20. Removing waterfowl by draining wetland to increase f i e l d crop production i s : a} good land use. b) bad land use. c) neither. APPENDIX C - DEEDS FOR SIMULATED PROPERTIES 103 Property 1 600 Acres Land Value $1200 Enviro-Value 2000 Exchange Units F i e l d Big C a p a b i l i t i e s Cattle crop torest Game Waterfowl Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 Limited Agriculture 2 4 1 1 0 Moderate Big Game 4 0 1 4 0 Property 2 Land Value $1800 900 Acres Enviro-Value 2000 Exchange Units F i e l d Big C a p a b i l i t i e s Cattle Crop frorest Game Waterfowl Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 Limited Agriculture 2 4 1 1 0 Moderate Forestry 2 2 8 1 0 Limited Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Moderate Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 8 Moderate Big Game 4 0 1 4 0 104 Property 3 1250 Acres Land Value $2500 Enviro-Value Exchange Units F i e l d 2000 Big C a p a b i l i t i e s C a t t l e Crop i-orest Game Waterfowl Moderate Forestry 2 2 8 1 0 Limited Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 Moderate Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 8 . . . . Property 4 Land Value $2600 1300 Acres Enviro-Value 2000 Exchange Units F i e l d Big C a p a b i l i t i e s Cattle crop torest Game Waterfowl High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 High Forestry 2 2 16 1 0 Moderate Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 Limited Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 High Big Game 8 0 1 8 0 105 Property 5 Land Value $2000 1000 Acres Enviro-Value 2000 Exchange Units F i e l d Big Waterfowl C a p a b i l i t i e s Cattle Crop forest Game High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 Moderate Forestry 2 2 8 1 0 Limited Forestry 2 2 4 1 0 Moderate Big Game 4 0 1 4 0 Property 6 900 Acres Land Value $1800 Enviro-Value 2000 Ca p a b i l i t i e s Cattle Exchange Units F i e l d Big Crop Forest Game Waterfowl High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Limited Agriculture 2 4 1 1 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Moderate Big Game 4 0 1 4 0 106 Property 7 550 Acres Land Value $1100 Enviro-Value 2000 Exchange Units FieTcI Big Cap a b i l i t i e s Cattle Crop Forest Game Waterfowl High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Property 8 Land Value $2100 1050 Acres Enviro-Value 2000 Ca p a b i l i t i e s Cattle Exchange Units F i e l d Crop Forest Big Game Waterfowl High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 High Forestry 2 2 16 1 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Native Range 8 8 0 8 0 107 Property 9 950 Acres Land Value $1900 Enviro- Value 2000 Ca p a b i l i t i e s Cattle Exchange Units F i e l d Big Crop Forest Game Waterfowl High Agriculture 8 16 1 4 0 Moderate Agriculture 4 8 1 2 0 High Waterfowl 0 0 0 0 16 Native Range 8 8 0 8 0 APPENDIX D - CONSEQUENCE CARDS Forest Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: Extra range land i n reforested area unavailable for grazing. Decrease c a t t l e and big game by 2 units on your's and neighbouring lands. Decrease: More rangelend available. You and your neighbours get 4 free units of c a t t l e or big game. Card 2 Increase: Reforesting prevents s o i l erosion you receive 25 EU's for each unit of forest purchased. Decrease: More rangeland a v a i l a b l e . You and your neighbours get 4 free units of c a t t l e or big game. Card 3 Increase: Extra range land i n reforested area unabailable for grazing. Decrease c a t t l e and big game by 2 units on your's and neighbouring lands. Decrease: Cut over area i s no longer available to control spring runoff. Floods destroy 5 units of forest on your's and neighbours' lands. Card 4 Increase: Reforesting prevents s o i l erosion you receive 25 EU's for each unit of forest purchased. Decrease: Cut over area i s no longer available to control spring runoff. Floods destroy 5 units of forest on your's and neighbours' land. 109 Waterfowl Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: Conservation measures have prevented possible destruction of this l o c a l population. Add 25 EU's for each unit of waterfowl increased. Decrease: Less damage to f i e l d crops results because of fewer ducks and geese. You and your neighbours receive 3 free units of f i e l d crops. Card 2 Increase: Ducks destroy crops pay your neighbours with f i e l d crops $20/unit each unit of waterfowl increased. Decrease: Disease and winter k i l l destroys 5 additional units of the population. If whole population wiped out 200 additional EU's l o s t . Card 3 Increase: Conservation measures have prevented possible destruction of this l o c a l population. Add 25 EU's for each unit of waterfowl increased. Decrease: Disease and winter k i l l destroy 5 additional units of the population. If whole population is wiped out 200 additional EU's are l o s t . Card 4 Increase: Ducks destroy crops pay your neighbours with f i e l d crops $20/unit for each unit of waterfowl increased. Decrease: Less damage to f i e l d crops results because of fewer ducks and geese. You and your neighbours receive 3 free units of f i e l d crops. 110 Big Game Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: This increase maintains the population at a healthy l e v e l you receive an additional 50 EU's/unit increased. Decrease: Severe winter k i l l s o f f 2 additional units of big game. Card 2 Increase: Drought reduces feed available f o r grazing a l l populations of big game and c a t t l e oh the board decrease by 2 units. Decrease: Severe winter k i l l s o f f 2 additional units of big game. Card 3 Increase: Drought reduces feed available for grazing a l l populations of big game and c a t t l e on the board decrease by 2 un i t s . Decrease: Competition for rangeland i s decreased so you and your neighbours get 5 free units of c a t t l e . Card 4 Increase; This increase maintains the population at a healthy l e v e l you receive an additional 50 EU's/unit increased. Decrease: Competition for rangeland i s decreased so you and your neighbours get 5 free units of c a t t l e . F i e l d Crop Consequence Cards 111 Card 1 Increase: Water used to i r r i g a t e f i e l d crops lowers the water l e v e l i n waterfowl areas. Decrease waterfowl by 5 units on your's and neighbours' lands. Card 2 Increase: Poof c a p a b i l i t y lands for f i e l d crops, a l l those except moderate and high agriculture and native range, require f e r t i l i z e r at an additional $10/unit of f i e l d crop purchased. Card 3 Increase: F i e l d crops better q u a l i t y than normal t h i s year. Keep this card and c o l l e c t 2 times value of f i e l d crops at sale time i n the f a l l . Card 4 Increase: F i e l d crops provide more feed for waterfowl. Waterfowl populations on your's and neighbours' land increase by 2 units. Cattle Consequence Cards Card 1 Increase: Cattle on lands c l a s s i f i e d as limited agriculture or any forestry c l a s s i f i c a t i o n require a feed sup- plement costing $25/unit of c a t t l e bought. Pay the bank. Card 2 Increase: Cattle spread disease to big game animals. Reduce big game populations by 2 units on your's and neighbours' land. 112 Card 3 Increase: One a l l land immediately next to a waterfowl area the c a t t l e disturb the nesting s i t e s . Reduce waterfowl by 3 units . Card 4 Increase: The market i s high for livestock products you r a i s e . Keep this card and c o l l e c t twice market value at sale time. This card must be returned to the p i l e next f a l l whether used or not. APPENDIX E - RISK CARDS Card 1 Disease spreads through population over produced. You and your neighbours l o s e 5 units of whatever was over produced. Card 2 Neighbours and you lose 100 EU's due to damage to land caused by over production. Card 3 If c a t t l e or big game are over the l i m i t or over grazing decrease c a t t l e and big game on your's and neighbours' land by 5 u n i t s . I f waterfowl are over the l i m i t decrease your's and neighbours' f i e l d crops by 5 units. Card 4 Land reduced to one ha l f i t s carrying capacity for 1 year. Remove over produced animals and number of animals equal to one h a l f carrying capacity. Card 5 Severe weather conditions decrease your population by overproduced amount plus 5 . Card 6 No change. 114 APPENDIX F - GAME SCORING SHEET GROUP NO. .PERSON NO. CARD NO. * EU's + JMohey. EU' s Money Year 1 2 3 4 5 Keep a running t o t a l of EU's. At end of each year put t o t a l EU's i n above chart. It i s ONLY i n the f i n a l year that i t i s necessary to count up money and t o t a l of EU's-f" money. 2000 115 APPENDIX G - PLAYER INSTRUCTION CARDS Rules 1. You may negotiate with your neighbour as to the planning of his or her land. 2. Your EU's (environmental units) must be above 1000 by the end of the game. 3. Risk - i f you exceed the limits in numbers of forest, big game, waterfowl, cattle or f i e l d crops for a given piece of land you must draw a risk card every turn the population is maintained beyond the limits. 4. Four or fewer players may buy only properties: 4, 5, 6, or 8. 5. More than 4 players: the person getting the highest number on a role of the dice gets f i r s t choice with the person next highest getting second choice and so on. 6. Only One piece of property may be purchased. Winter 1. Decide which wild populations you wish to s e l l to make room for cattle and f i e l d crops: s e l l big game, s e l l waterfowl, s e l l forests. Turn over a unit when i t has been sold (white side up). 2. Record the number of Environmental Units (EU's) lost by selling wild populations (forests, big game, waterfowl). 3. Draw appropriate consequence card or cards. Spring 1. Buy f i e l d crops and cattle to put on land from which forests and big game have been removed. 2. Draw appropriate consequence card or cards. 116 Summer 1. If you have cattle you must buy 1 unit of f i e l d crop for each unit of cattle. *You may buy i t from yourself (just turn over the number of pink blocks equal to number of units of cattle you have). *You may buy them from your neighbour at a price he decides. *You may buy them from the bank at twice the sale price ($50/unit). 2. You may buy back big game, waterfowl or forests. Remember to add EU's gained to your score. 3. Draw appropriate consequence card or cards. F a l l 1. Sell f i e l d crops, s e l l cattle. 2. Total up EU's and cash on hand. 117 APPENDIX H — Over APPENDIX H CORRELATION MATRIX FOR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1. 1.00 2. -.21 1.00 3. .02 -.10 1.00 4. -.15 .23 .09 1.00 5. -.09 .25 -.01 ._74 1.00 6. -.14 .15 .15 >M .25 1.00 7. -.31 .21 .02 .65 .54 .48 1.00 8. -.37 .10 .04 .44 .48 .25 .76 1.00 9. -.21 .23 .00 .S9 .38 ._57 J$9 .40 1.00 10. -.08 -.-12 .22 .20 .22 .08 -.00 -.06 .05 1.00 11. -.21 .09 .13 .37 .14 .JO .36 .23 .36 .07 1.00 12. .04 -.02 .04 .02 .09 -.09 -.01 .08 -.09 -.04 .45 1.00 13. -.16 .08 -.01 .14 -.02 .26 .21 .07 •_31 .15 _.48 -.01 1.00 14. -.30 .05 -.11 .07 .11 .19 .21 .13 .22 -.20 .64 .13 .35 15. -.29 -.03 .23 .51 .32 .46 .43 .22 Al .01 ill .20 .09 16. .13 .01 .20 .25 .16 .20 .14 -.09 .29 .18 .23 .33 17. -.11 .28 .28 .04 .15 -.05 .03 -.04 .13 -.01 .22 .02 .13 18. .21 .03 -.15 .02 -.14 .13 .02 -.10 .14 .12 .16 .08 .36 19. .13 -.15 .07 -.02 -.11 .02 .01 -.09 .09 .01 .30 .25 .19 20. .12 -.11 .32 .56 .47 .38 .33 .05 .38 .35 .31 .17 .21 21. .29 -.28 .06 -.26 -.14 -.28 -.52 -.30 -.25 .20 .05 .16 .20 22. -.23 -.23 At -.10 -.09 .25 .26 .19 .26 .19 Al .02 .19 23. -.16 -.30 A] .04 -.12 .18 .18 .12 .20 .24 .43 .06 .23 24. -.56 -.03 -.12 -.11 -.11 -.04 .22 .26 .14 -.09 .24 -.11 .28 25. -.45 .21 -.26 -.23 -.19 -.20 .14 .08 .17 -.26 .25 -.04 .26 26. -.13 .37 -.35 .06 .27 -.13 .04 .05 -.02 -.28 -.32 .00 -.29 s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l (r>.31) , 118 TEST SCORES, SCORES ON INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES, AND GAME SCORES* 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 L i s t of Variables:-- Variable Description .00 .20 1.00 .29 .38 1.00 .01 .18 .55 1.00 .57 .02 .19 .28 .23 .37 .44 .07 .08 .05 .61 .16 1.00 ,13 _52 ,03 ,35 ,_35 ,16 ,11 ,17 .63 .05 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 .65 .17 Property Size Family Position Number of Years of Schooling Pre-test Attitude Score Pre-test Score for Objective 1 Pre-test Score for Objective 2 Post-test Attitude Score Post-test Score for Objective 1 Post-test Score for Objective 2 Attitude Towards the Game Pre-test Knowledge Score Pre-test Score f o r Objective 3 Pre-test Score for Objective 4 Pre-test Score for Objective 5 Pre-test Score for Objective 6 Post-test Knowledge Score Post-test Score Objective 3 Post-test Score Objective 4 Post-test Score Objective 5 Post-test Score Objective 6 Environmental Unit Score Money Score Total Score Number of Minutes of Play Number of Game Participants Rank Within the Playing Group .14 .10 .36 .16 .24 1.00 .20 .21 1.00 .18 -.04 .14 1.00 .04 .31 .31 -.08 1.00 .39 .18 .08 .29 .34 .15 ^97 1.00 .05 .07 -.00 .04 -.23 -.19 ^ .26 1.00 .00 .09 .09 .15 -.33 .09 -.02 -.04 .77 1.00 .11 .10 -.01 -.13 -.23 -.35 -.55 -.63 .21 .29 1.00 s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l (V;?.41).

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