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Responsibilities of provincial departments of education for school library service Bell, John Charles 1972

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICE by JOHN CHARLES BELL B.A. , University of British Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF Augus t BRITISH COLUMBIA 1972 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le fo r reference and study. I f u r ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f thi,s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on o f th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. John C. Bell Faculty of Education  The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 1972 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the present status of the responsibilities assumed by Canada's ten provincial departments of education for school library service. The study was limited to an examination of the nature and extent of the legal bases of provincial department of education responsibilities for school library service; the personnel employed by departments for service to school librarians and school libraries; the duties performed by these personnel; the principal areas of responsibilities and services for school librarians and school libraries in departments of education; the methods by which these responsibilities and services are put into practice by each depart-ment; and the strengths and needs of departments of education in giving service to school librarians and school libraries. Data for each education department was obtained through the use of a closed-form questionnaire. An instrument developed in 1959 by the United States Office of Education for a survey of the status of state department of education responsibilities for school libraries was adapted for use with provincial departments of education in this investigation. The questionnaire was administered during interviews held with members of the staffs of ten departments of education during the summer of 1971. Completed questionnaires were received from all departments in the fall of 1971. Frequency counting was used in analyzing and tabulating the quantitative and qualitative data reported. i i iii The results of the study show school library service to be a constituent part of provincial department of education responsibilities. Ten departments of education have legal responsibilities for school libraries and all departments perform services relating to them. Laws and regulations pertaining to these responsibilities apply to all provin-cially-supported elementary and secondary schools, and also, in one province, to non-provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools. Certification, guidelines (standards), supervision, statistics, research, the provision of information, and co-operation for school library develop-ment are the major categories of department of education responsibilities for school library service. Basic responsibilities, such as effecting co-operation for school library development and collection of school library statistics, are fulfilled in a greater number of departments than other areas of service. All provinces provide some form of financial aid to local school authorities for the development of school library service. One full-time person is employed in the central office of eight departments of education for the supervision of school libraries. Other personnel having some responsibilities related to school library service in all departments include deputy ministers of education and assistants, certification officers (registrars), directors of teacher education, curriculum or subject supervisors, audio-visual supervisors, research officers, school plant officers, and finance officers. School library specialists employed by departments of education spend the highest per-centage of their time on field services and the lowest on attending meetings out of province. Statements by these officers reveal that iv major needs of departments of education in giving service to school librarians and school libraries include: 1. increased staff; 2. integration of school library and audio-visual service units; 3. more co-operative planning involving the department of education and local school boards; 4. improvement of publications and research; 5. increased provincial grants to local school authorities; and the 6. updating of standards and certification regulations. The results of the study indicate, in summary, that provincial departments of education have broad responsibilities for the development of school library service and are fulfilling them to some extent. In-sufficient personnel and inadequate budgets, however, are curtailing their programs for the development of this service. The data received and reported in this study will, it is hoped, provide a base for further research studies and assist departments of education in giving leadership for the development of school library service in Canada. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . ii LIST OF TABLES ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xii Chapter I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 1 DESCRIPTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Scope and Importance of the Problem 1 ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE AND NEED FOR THE STUDY . . . . 2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM: THE 1960's . . . . . . . . . . 4 School Library Development in the United States . . . . 5 Leadership for School Library Development in Canada . . 6 Canadian School Library Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Role of the School Library Program in Instruction . . . 13 School library services . 14 The expanded concept of the school library service role . 16 PROCEDURE 17 Selection of the Questionnaire 17 v Page Administration of the Questionnaire 18 Analysis of Data 19 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 20 DEFINITION OF TERMS 20 School Library . . . . . . 20 School Library Service 21 PLAN OF THE STUDY 21 FOOTNOTES . 23 II LEGAL BASES OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RESPON-SIBILITIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICE 26 Provincial Laws and Regulations Concerned with 9 7 School Library Service Legal Basis of School Library Supervisory Positions 28 in Provincial Departments of Education Provincial Aid for School Librarians, School Library Quarters, and School Library Materials 29 Application of Laws and Regulations Concerning School Library Service to Grade Levels and Types of Schools . 34 Mandatory and Adopted provincial Lists for School Libraries . . . . . . . . ^ Centralized Ordering and Processing Services for School Library Books and Materials in Provincial Departments of Education 43 Estimated Percentages of Total Budgets of Provincial Departments of Education Allotted to Department Services for School Librarians and School Libraries 45 Demonstration or Laboratory Schools with School Libraries Maintained by Province 6^ FOOTNOTES 47 vii Page III PERSONNEL FOR SERVICE TO SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION . . . . . 48 Establishment of School Library Supervisory Positions and Number of Persons Who Have Held These Positions . . 51 Current School Library Supervisory Professional and Clerical Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Divisions of Provincial Departments of Education in Which School Library Supervisory Positions are Located . 55 Employment Procedures for School Library Supervisors and Professional Status of School Library Supervisors. . 56 Professional Education and Experience of School Library Supervisors 59 Activities of School Library Supervisors and Time Spent on Activities ~^ Professional Personnel Other Than School Library Super-visors Providing Part-Time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries ^ FOOTNOTES • • • 7 2 IV RESPONSIBILITIES AND SERVICES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION. . 7 3 Certification of School Librarians . . . . . . . . . . . 7^ Personnel Participating in Certification of School 81 81 Librarians « 9 Standards (Guidelines) for School Libraries Personnel Contributing to the Formulation of Standards (Guidelines) for School Libraries **2 Supervision of School Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Personnel Participating in the Supervision of School Libraries °' Co-operation for School Libraries ®J Personnel Responsible for Effecting Co-operation for School Libraries 90 viii Page Statistics and Research Concerned With School Libraries 92 Personnel Participating in Statistics and Research Concerned With School Libraries . . . . 93 Provision of Information on School Libraries . . . . 95 Personnel Responsible for Providing Information on School Libraries . . . . . . 96 Methods Employed for Service to School Librarians and School Libraries 98 FOOTNOTES 101 V STRENGTHS AND NEEDS OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION IN GIVING SERVICE TO SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES STRENGTHS 102 NEEDS 104 Personnel . . 104 Finance . . . . . . . . . . 106 Standards and Certification 107 VI SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 110 SUGGESTED FURTHER RESEARCH 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . 115 APPENDIX A 120 APPENDIX B 121 APPENDIX C 122 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Legal Basis of Provincial Department of Education Responsibilities for School Library Service, by Province . 27 2. Legal Basis of School Library Supervisory Positions in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province . . . 28 3. Provision of Direct Provincial Aid for School Librarians, School Library Quarters, and School Library Materials, by Province 31 4. Plans for Direct Provincial Aid for School Library Materials, by Province 33 5. Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Librarians Apply, by Province 36 6. Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Quarters Apply, by Province 37 7. Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Materials Apply, by Province 38 8. Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Services Apply, by Province 39 9. Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial ) Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Appro-priations Apply, by Province 40 10. Number of Provincially-Supported and Non-Provincially-Supported Schools, by Province: 1969-1970 '. . . 41 11. Number of School Library Personnel to Whom Provincial Departments of Education are Responsible for Giving Service, by Province: 1969-1970 42 ix X Table Page 12. Provincial Departments of Education Providing Centralized Ordering and Processing for School Library Books and/or Materials, by Province 44 13. Percentages of Total Budgets of Provincial Departments of Education Allotted to Services for School Librarians and School Libraries . 45 14. Dates of Establishment of School Library Supervisory N Positions and Number of Persons Who Have Held Positions in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province . . . 52 15. Number of School Library Supervisory Professional and Clerical Personnel, Titles of Professional Personnel, and Divisions of Provincial Departments of Education in Which Supervisory Positions are Located, by Province. . 53 16. Employment Procedures for School Library Supervisors, and Titles of Other Positions Comparable in Status and Salary, in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province . 57 17. Professional Education and Experience of School Library Supervisors in Provincial Departments of Education . . . . 60 18. Aggregate Years of Prior Experience of School Library Supervisors as School Librarians and Teachers 61 19. Average Percentages of Time Spent on Activities by School Library Supervisors 63 20. Ranking of Average Percentages of Time Spent on Activities by School Library Supervisors 65 21. Number of Professional Personnel Other Than School Library Supervisors in Provincial Departments of Education Providing Part-Time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries, and Estimated Percentages of Time Given by this Personnel for Service, by Province . . . . 68 22. Ranking of Total Numbers of Provincial Department of Education Personnel Giving Part-Time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries, by Titles of Personnel . 23. Number of Provincial Departments of Education and Number of Boards of Education Authorized to Administer Respon-sibilities and Services for School Librarians and School Libraries 69 75 xi Table Page 24. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Participate in Certification of School Librarians • . 80 25. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Contribute to Standards for School Libraries . . . . . . . 83 26. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Participate in Supervision of School Libraries . . . . . . 86 27. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers are Responsible for Effecting Co-operation for School Libraries . . . . . . 91 28. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Participate in Statistics and Research Concerned With School Libraries . 94 29. Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Provide Information on School Libraries . 97 30. Average Number of Times Methods are Used for Service to School Librarians and School Libraries in Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, by Method 100 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere thanks are extended to Mr. Gordon Stubbs for his help and guidance throughout this study and to Dr. Patricia Montgomery and Miss Sheila Egoff for their assistance as members of the thesis committee. The writer is also indebted to school library supervisors and other officers in ten provincial departments of education for their co-operation in furnishing the data requested in this investigation. Finally, special thanks are due Mrs. Heather Troche for her typing of this manuscript. xii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem To analyze the current status of responsibilities assumed by provincial departments of education for school library service. Scope and Importance of the Problem Educators generally acknowledge the fact that library service is an essential component of educational programs in elementary and secondary schools. The provision of library service in all Canadian schools, however, has proved to be a complex problem, requiring for its solution the understanding and continual effort of leaders in edu-cation at both the provincial and local levels. Provincial departments of education have given leadership to the promotion and improvement of school libraries for more than fifty years. Within the last twenty years, and particularly during the recent decade, effective programs for school library development have emerged in some departments of education. Provincial school library supervisors, aided by other department of 1 2 education personnel, have made important contributions to education in publicizing the need for improved school library service and in securing support for its development.'' This study is being conducted to analyze the present nature and extent of the responsibilities assumed by the ten provincial education departments for school library service. It will examine the current status of: a) the legal bases of the responsibilities assumed by provincial departments of education for school library service; b) the personnel employed by departments of education for service to school librarians and school libraries; c) the duties which are performed by these personnel; d) the principal areas of responsibilities and services for school librarians and school libraries in departments of education; e) the methods by which these responsibilities and services are put into practice by each department; and f) the strengths and needs of departments of education in giving service to school librarians and school libraries. ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE AND NEED FOR THE STUDY The most recent statement of the responsibilities of provincial and local authorities for implementing school library service is contained 2 in the 1967 Standards of Library Service for Canadian Schools. The 3 establishment of effective school library service in each province depends, the Standards emphasize, on co-operation between all levels of government and educators at the department of education, district and school levels. Responsibility for developing and administering this service must be shared between the department of education, which is to "give leadership and establish policy in the development of school libraries," and school boards and school administrators, who should possess the necessary authority to translate or adapt provincial policy into "practical library 3 service designed to meet today's educational needs." Departments of education are urged by the S tandards to assume basic responsibilities related to planning, supervision and leadership, standards, and finance. Each department is specifically asked to: devise a plan to provide school library resources and services to every student in the province; appoint a provincial supervisor of school libraries with full-time professionally-trained assistants, a suitable budget and adequate quarters to -a) implement the provincial plan for province-wide pro-motion and establishment of school library service, b) give consultant service to boards of education, c) provide reference, centralized purchasing, materials processing and other services at the provincial level to schools not served by local library service centres; formulate provincial school library standards and promote their attainment; and 4 provide grants in aid of school libraries to boards of education. 4 Complete details of the responsibilities for school library service actually assumed by departments of education are not available for all departments in current published sources. Printed annual reports of the education departments, reports of annual Statistics Canada surveys, publications of the Canadian School Library Association and articles by provincial school library supervisors present some evidence that most departments of education fulfill all or nearly all of the responsibilities outlined in the Standards. There is, however, no source which examines in detail both the nature and extent of the responsibilities presently assumed by each of the ten departments for the establishment of library service in schools. Such a source could have much value for all personnel concerned with providing leadership for the expansion of school library service in Canada. BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM: THE 1960*s During the last decade school library service in Canada has expanded rapidly. Factors contributing to this development include the growth of school library service in the United States, leadership within the school library profession in Canada, changes in methods of instruction and improvement in the quantity, quality and variety of instructional materials available, and the publication of Canadian standards for library service in elementary and secondary schools-. Each of these factors will be briefly examined on the following pages. School Library Development in the United States 5 In the early 1960's a combination of elements gave impetus to school libraries in the United States. In 1959 the United States Office of Education was requested by the Council of Chief State School Officers to survey the status of responsibilities for school libraries in fifty state departments of education. The Office's study report, published in 1960, is a definitive study of state participation in the development of school library service. Forty-eight departments reported legal respon-sibilities for school libraries while all departments indicated that they performed some service for school libraries. Certification, standards, supervision, research, statistics, the provision of information and co-operation for school library development were indentified as major cate-gories of departmental responsibilities for school libraries."' A policy statement on school libraries published in 1961 by the Council of Chief State School Officers urged state departments of education to assume comprehensive responsibility for implementing and administering library service in the public schools of their respective states. Included in this statement are state-level functions related to the planning of state-wide programs for school library development, supervision and leadership, co-ordination and co-operation, certification of school librarians, school library standards, statistics and research, and budgeting and f, 6 finance. The publication of Standards for School Library Programs in 1960 gave much momentum to efforts to improve school library service in the United States.^  In this revised set of standards for school libraries 6 the American Association of School Librarians set high goals, both quan-titatively and qualitatively, for school library programs. State and regional standards for school libraries were revised upward in the years following the publication of the new standards. This process of revision was guided and accelerated by the School Library Development Project and by the Knapp School Libraries Project, a national school library demon-stration project. The former attempted in 1961-62 to encourage and assist g state and local groups in implementing the new standards. The Knapp Project had as one of its central aims the creation, in different parts of the United States, of selected school library programs designed to meet the national standards, so that a complete program of school library 9 services could be observed and evaluated. The movement to improve school library service assumed large proportions with the provision of federal government aid to school lib-raries under Titles I and II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Funds supplied under these titles have enabled nearly 62,000 existing school libraries to expand their collections and services. They have also contributed to the establishment of over 3,500 centralized school libraries where none had existed before.^  Leadership for School Library Development in Canada During the past decade various individuals and groups have been responsible for changing attitudes about the importance of library services in Canadian schools. Although teachers and administrators have contributed 7 much to new thinking about the place of the library in the school, it has been the school library profession that has guided attempts to win national support for school library development. The Canadian School Library Association has since 1961 assumed a leadership role in communicating the need for urgent measures to improve library service across the nation. The Association in 1961 passed a resolution urging all departments of education to appoint school library supervisors, provide library-related courses in the curricula of teacher-training institutions, offer summer courses in school librarianship for teacher librarians, provide a capital or establishment budget for central school library facilities and a central collection of books and materials in schools, provide a minimum annual budget for the continued development of the central school library, and direct school administrators to appoint trained school librarians to administer school library services.^  This resolution is echoed in the Association's national set of school library 12 standards published in 1967. Descriptions of school library development in Canada have been provided by the Association through its tri-monthly 13 journal, Moccasin Telegraph. In co-operation with Encyclopaedia Britan-nica Publications Ltd. it has established a program under which school systems which have made outstanding progress in developing school library service may be selected to receive cash awards. Since the Encyclopaedia Britannica Canadian School Library Awards were initiated in 1966-67, thirteen school systems have received an award or won honourable mention 14 for their efforts to improve school library service. 8 Provincial school library organizations have also contributed to changing attitudes about the importance of library services in elemen-tary and secondary education. Surveys of school library service have been co-sponsored or undertaken by two provincial school library organi-zations. A survey of provincial school library programs made by the Saskatchewan Association of School Librarians in 1963 provided a basis for proposed standards for school libraries in Saskatchewan.^  In British Columbia a survey of school libraries was undertaken by the Department of Education in 1964 in response to a proposal made by the British Columbia Teachers' Federation and endorsed by the provincial school librarians' association. The report of the survey, known as the Levirs' Report, has served as the more or less official standard for library development in the province's schools."^  In 1968 the British Columbia School Librarians' Association and its parent body co-sponsored a second survey of British Columbia school libraries. The report of the survey, Personalizing  Learning, is a significant review of the present status of school libraries in British Columbia.^  Both national and provincial school library organizations have attempted to improve programs for school library education in Canada. In 1968 the Alberta School Library Council and the Saskatchewan Asso-ciation of School Librarians co-operated with the Canadian School Library Association in convening a workshop for the purpose of examining the training needs of both professional and para-professional school library 18 personnel. Several institutions of higher education have since 1968 been induced to establish and/or expand training programs for school library personnel. Training leading to a professional library degree is now offered by graduate schools of library science in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia. Seven provinces provide training for school librarians in teacher education institutions. The programs offered at these institutions may lead to a specialist certificate in school librarianship or to a bachelor's degree with a major in school library science. In three provinces, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince 19 Edward Island, summer courses for school librarians have been established. Canadian School Library Standards Standards of Library Service for Canadian Schools were developed by the Standards Committee of the Canadian School Library Association in co-operation with sixteen other national and provincial organizations 20 and were published in 1967. A French language edition was published 21 in 1969. A revised set of national standards is currently in preparation. They are to be a joint effort of the Educational Media Association of Canada and the Canadian School Library Association which is a division 22 of the Canadian Library Association. The 1967 national standards represent an attempt to produce a genuinely Canadian statement on the purpose and organization of school libraries. Grouped in five sections dealing with the role of the library, the elements of effective service, district and provincial services, special aspects of service, and responsibilities for service, the contents of the document emphasize the way in which the library supports a total school program. Appendices provide quantitative summaries for materials, quarters, staff and budgets. 10 The Standards are based on the concept of the single resource center housing all the school's print and non-print instructional materials. Chapter I describes a library as "a co-ordination of informational and enrichment services for a specific community utilizing organized material in all forms through the direction and guidance of specially trained 23 personnel." The library collection should consist of "books, disc records, tapes, pictures, pamphlets, periodicals, filmstrips, film slides, microfilm, charts and museum objects - all materials which might be used to instruct and inspire as well as encourage and facilitate the learning 24 programme." In order that these materials may be effectively used there should be provision for study carrels wired for listening and viewing, for conference rooms and library classrooms equipped for projec-tion and recording, and for audio-visual preparation areas for teachers and students. Chapter II offers details of the human, physical and instructional materials resources that should be present in individual school programs. A new school, the Standards emphasize, should have ready for use on opening day as part of its initial establishment for service a basic or "core" collection of materials. The cost of establishing this initial collection of 5,000 books and other materials should be provided as part of capital expenditures in building a school. Subsequent expansion of the collection 26 may be undertaken through annual purchases. The space provided for the library quarters should be large enough to accommodate activities related to reading, viewing and listening. The library's reading area should contain seating for up to 30 per cent of the student body. Half 11 of this number should be accommodated at individual study carrels, 20 per cent in small-group study rooms, and the remaining 30 per cent at 27 conventional tables or in lounge furniture. To administer a center with this enlarged concept of library service both professional and clerical staff are proposed. One full-time librarian for each 300 students and one full-time clerk for each 500 students are recommended. Schools with 150 to 300 students are asked to employ at least a half-time librarian. Separate recommendations are made for schools enrolling less than 150 students. Such schools should be provided with a basic collection of 1,000 books and other materials and receive service on a part-time 29 basis from the staff of the district's library service center. In Chapter III attention is given to co-operative library service arrangements that should be pursued by schools of various sizes. The value of the district library service center is emphasized and specifi-cations are given for the organization, administration and operations of such a center. Also included in this chapter is an outline of services to be provided at both the district and provincial levels by library supervisors, co-ordinators or consultants.^  Chapter V emphasizes the fact that school library service, to be successful, represents co-operation at all levels of government, as well as among educators on the district level and in the school. The chapter specifies the responsibilities of provincial departments of education, boards of education, superintendents of schools, school adminis-trators, teachers and school librarians in planning for and implementing the school library services described in preceding chapters. 12 When the Standards were introduced in 1967 there were only a few school libraries which could claim to meet them completely or even 31 exceed them. Recent statistics relating to school libraries in Canada reveal a large gap between the level of development provided for in the standards and that which has actually been achieved, despite the fact that the standards are supposed to be viewed as necessary minimum levels of achievement. In 1968-1969, 10,945 of the nation's 16,165 public elementary and secondary schools reported information on school libraries to the Education Division of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Reported were the number of schools with centralized libraries, size of collec-tions, enrollment served and per pupil payments for library materials. Of the 10,945 schools reported, 6,451 or 58.9 per cent had cen-tralized libraries. Over 90 per cent of the 1,453 secondary schools and 72 per cent of the 1,543 combined elementary-secondary schools reported had centralized libraries. In the 7,944 elementary schools reported only 50.5 per cent had centralized libraries. For the 10,945 schools reported, nearly 9 7 per cent of pupils enrolled in secondary schools, 86 per cent of pupils enrolled in combined elementary and secondary schools, and 70 per cent of pupils in elementary schools attended schools with centralized libraries in 1968-1969. The total book stock of the 6,451 schools with centralized libraries was 23,988,913, or 7.9 books per pupil served. Payments for books and other library materials ranged from $1.00 per pupil served in New Brunswick to $7.57 in Ontario. The 32 average expenditure for the nation was $5.97. 13 A greater gap is evident between the number of full-time school librarians reported in Canada and the recommended 1967 standards. Wright, in a recent study, reports 847 full-time school librarians in the four 33 western provinces. He estimates that to provide even one school lib-rarian for every 500 students in these provinces, a ratio below the recommended 1967 standards, some 3,000 persons would be required. For all provinces a minimum of 11,500 full-time personnel would be needed 34 if the ratio of 1:500 were to be met. The Role of the School Library Program in Instruction In general, the school library has begun to play a greater role in the educational mission of the school than it did in the past. The growing acceptance of independent study and the individualization of instruction in both American and Canadian schools has accounted for the increased importance of the school library in school curricula. The development of team teaching has also influenced the role of the school library in elementary and secondary education. Curriculum revision in many areas - social studies, mathematics, language arts - has stressed the need for more and better learning materials. School libraries aid the educational function of the school by promoting a policy that makes more and better materials easily accessible to all students. The school library serves, therefore, as a direct instru-ment of instruction when the instructional program of the school is or-ganized, to include independent study. In these circumstances, the school 14 library program is able to make a maximum contribution to the school's instructional program. A school librarian may participate directly in instruction or as a member of a teaching team. He has, in any case, direct contact with groups of students when he offers instruction on the nature and use of library materials, and has many opportunities to reach students through informal contacts in the library. The school librarian performs an instructional function just as other teachers do, although his teaching role is focussed on the resources and services of the school library. Although a fully developed team-teaching system places much emphasis on independent study and takes maximum advantage of the library, it is not absolutely necessary that team-teaching be present in an elemen-tary or secondary school in order to establish an effective library pro-gram. It is however, essential that appropriate library resources and services, offered by a qualified library staff, be available in each school. Students' time should be scheduled so that they are able to make use of library services and resources, and teachers should plan their teaching in such a way that the use of instructional materials is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. School library services. The school library cannot perform its function in the educational program by simply acquiring and processing materials and making them available for use. The library must create an active program of services for students and teachers if it is to 15 function effectively. Gaver and Jones have identified various services 35 that school libraries are capable of performing. These are summarized below. Important services offered by school library programs to students include: increasing the accessibility of library materials by means of photo duplication; reserve book and multiple copy service; duplication of titles through provision of paperbacks; interlibrary loan; home use of reference and audio-visual materials; provision of equipment for the use of audio-visual materials; extended library hours; general instruction in library use and library orientation, as well as library instruction integrated with specific subject areas; reading guidance for individual students and groups of students; the provision of vocational materials, college catalogs and other materials to assist students in career planning; school newspaper publicity and book reviews; and, school programs on libraries and books. Important library services for teachers include: assistance and co-ordination with the instructional materials aspects of curriculum and course planning; consultation with faculty members on resources and services; provision of materials for classroom collections and for class-room use of reference and audio-visual materials; orientation of new teachers on the materials and services the library program makes avail-able; special releases on new acquisitions and services; and, provision of collections of professional materials in individual school buildings and in district materials centers. In addition to direct services to students and teachers, the library performs certain general services, such as: consultation and 16 co-ordination of its activities with other school libraries and with public libraries; library talks to parents and youth groups; publicity and book reviews through outside agencies; participation in book fairs; observation of book weeks and library weeks; and, other special cele-brations or observances. In the past, school libraries tended to emphasize, because of their limitations in staff resources, those services which could be made available to a maximum number of students and teachers at a 36 i minimum of time and expense. This situation changed in the 1960's as greater resources of staff, materials, and equipment became avail-able for use in school library programs. The expanded concept of the school library service role. School libraries have long been a facility open and available to students during school hours only. Three developments are altering this pattern. Firstly, school libraries increasingly are opening before classes begin and/or staying open for one or more hours in the afternoon after classes end. Secondly, there is growing interest in many parts of the nation in providing school library services for pre-school children. Thirdly, in some provinces, school libraries are providing supervised night study sessions for students. 17 PROCEDURE Data for each province were gathered by means of a questionnaire mailed to school library specialists in departments of education and by interviews held with these persons and other departmental personnel having some responsibility for school library service. The following sections describe the selection and modification of the questionnaire used, the scheduling of personal interviews with departmental personnel, and the analysis of data received. Selection of the Questionnaire The detailed questionnaire developed, pre-tested and used by the United States Office of Education for its 1959 survey of state department of education responsibilities for school libraries was adapted for use in the present investigation. The choice of this instrument was based on two assumptions: firstly, that the United States has had much influence on the development of school library service in Canada; and secondly, that provincial departments of education have responsi-bilities for elementary and secondary education which resemble those of state departments of education. Several changes were made in the wording of the questionnaire to permit the instrument to be used in a Canadian context. The word "state" was replaced by the words "province" and "provincial." Other changes in terminology included the replacement of "State board of education" by "Lieutenant-Governor in Council" (Section 1:2B); and 18 "Chief State School Officer" by "Deputy Minister- of Education" (Section III:column 3). The category of "community.college" was omitted from item 5 of section I. The term "school libraries," where used to refer not only to library quarters and collections but also to library personnel and their functions, was replaced by "school library service." A copy of the modified questionnaire is provided in Appendix C. Administration of the Questionnaire Names of department of education personnel primarily concerned with school libraries were obtained from staff lists in the current annual reports of departments of education and from a list of provincial supervisors of school libraries submitted to the writer by Mrs. Doris Fennell, Assistant Superintendent of Curriculum, Ontario Department of 37 Education. From these sources a mailing list was compiled. A letter was sent to an officer in each department of education explaining the purpose of the survey and requesting his co-operation in completing a questionnaire which would be sent to him shortly by mail. Permission 38 for a personal interview was also requested in this letter. Two copies of the questionnaire were mailed to each of the ten departmental officers. Officers were asked to complete one of the copies and return it to the writer. A letter accompanying each set of question-naires stated that the writer intended to visit each officer after he had received and examined all completed questionnaires. Such a visit 19 would be made for the purpose of clarifying or explaining any question 39 which the respondent had been unable to answer. All officers agreed to co-operate in the study. Eight indicated, however, that they wished to discuss the content of the questionnaire with the writer before returning the instrument to him. After examining completed questionnaires received from the remaining two officers the writer made arrangements to visit each of the respondents. Structured interviews with the ten officers were conducted during the months of June, July and August, 19 71. In five departments of education additional meetings were arranged with deputy ministers of education and directors of curriculum for the purpose of completing Parts I and III of the questionnaire. Completed questionnaires were received from the ten departments during the months of August, September and October, 1971. Analysis of Data Frequency counting was employed in analyzing and tabulating responses to the closed-form items in the first four parts of the ques-tionnaire. Responses to the open-form question in part five were or-ganized into categories and summarized to facilitate comparison and listing. 20 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Three limitations should be considered in interpreting the re-sults of this study. Firstly, it was not possible to interview in every department of education each of the staff members identified in Part III of the questionnaire. As a result, accurate and complete data may not have been received in response to items in Part III and Part IV. Secondly, responses to most items were to a greater or lesser degree influenced by the role expectations of individual respondents and the extent of their perceived fulfillment. Finally, interviewer-interviewee interaction could have affected the outcomes of the study, particularly when it was necessary to interpret an item. DEFINITION OF TERMS School Library Generally, school libraries have contained only printed materials in their collections. Non-print or audio-visual materials, if available at all, were seldom part of the library collection. Educators and school library authorities have recently come to realize that instructional programs are advanced by the utilization of materials in many forms and that the most efficient way to make all media available in the school is to provide them through a single, integrated instructional materials program. This view has been referred to as the "unity of materials 40 concept." It is reflected in the growing use of the term "resource 21 center," "instructional materials center" or "media center" in place of the conventional term "school library." In this study the conventional term "school library" has been retained. The term is used to denote the school library in its tradi-tional form as well as in its emerging form as "a learning center in a school where a full range of print and audio-visual media, necessary equipment, and services from media specialists are accessible to students and teachers."^  School Library Service The purposeful co-ordination of print and audio-visual media and the equipment needed for their use, a library area, a librarian and auxiliary personnel to perform specific functions in support of a school's educational program. PLAN OF THE STUDY The report of the study is presented in six chapters. Chapter I has explained the need for the study, the purpose and scope of the inves-tigation and the procedures followed. A summary of developments which provide a background to the problem has been included in the chapter. Chapters II, III, IV and V contain an analysis of the data from the ten completed questionnaires. Responses to the questionnaires are discussed under the following chapter headings: 22 II Legal Bases of Provincial Department of Education Responsibilities for School Library Service III Personnel for Service to School Librarians and School Libraries in Provincial Departments of Education IV Responsibilities and Services for School Librarians and School Libraries in Provincial Departments of Education V Strengths and Needs of Provincial Departments of Education in Giving Service to School Librarians and School Libraries. Chapter VI summarizes the data given in the preceding chapters, reports significant findings of the study, and suggests areas where additional research could profitably be undertaken. FOOTNOTES Hfary I. Mustard and Doris P. Fennell, "Libraries in Canadian Schools," Librarianship in Canada, 1946 to 1967: Essays in Honour of  Elizabeth Homer Morton, ed. Bruce Peel (Ottawa: Canadian Library Asso-ciation, 1968), pp. 122-133. 2 Canadian School Library Association, Standards of Library Service  for Canadian Schools (Toronto: Ryerson, 1967). 3 Ibid., p. 46, p. 51. 4 Ibid., p. 46. M^ary Helen Mahar, State Department of Education Responsibilities  for School Libraries (Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education, 1960), pp. 30-31. C^ouncil of Chief State School Officers, Responsibilities of  State Departments of Education for School Library Services: A Policy Statement (Washington: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1961). A^merican Association of School Librarians, Standards for School  Library Programs (Chicago: American Library Association, 1960). 8 Mary Francis Kennon and Leila Ann Doyle, Planning School Library  Development (Chicago: American Library Association, 1962), pp. v-vi. 9 Peggy Sullivan, Impact: the School Library and the Instructional  Program: A Report on Phase I of the Knapp School Libraries Project (Chicago: American Library Association, 1967), pp. 13-14. N^elson Associates Incorporated, School Libraries in the United  States: a Report Prepared for the National Advisory Commission on Libraries (Washington: U. S. Office of Education, 1967), p. 6. "''"''"Resolutions of the 16th Annual Conference," Canadian Library, XVIII, 2 (September 1961), 50. 12 Canadian School Library Association, Standards of Library  Service for Canadian Schools (Toronto: Ryerson, 1967). 23 24 13 Canadian School Library Association, Moccasin Telegraph (Ottawa, 1958- ). 14 Mary Coggin, Surrey, B. C., telephone call, February 10, 1972. S^askatchewan Association of School Librarians, Proposed Stan- dards for School Libraries in the Province of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon: Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation, 1964). ^British Columbia, Department of Education, Survey of British  Columbia School Libraries (Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1964). "^ John S. Church, Personalizing Learning: a Study of School  Libraries and Other Educational Resource Centers in British Columbia. A study sponsored jointly by the Educational Research Institute of British Columbia and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (Vancouver: Educational Research Institute of British Columbia, 1970). 18 Education for School Librarianship in Canada. Proceedings of a Workshop held at Jasper Park Lodge, Alberta, on Saturday, June 8, 1968, sponsored by the Canadian School Library Association, the Alberta School Library Council, and the Saskatchewan Association of School Lib-rarians (Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1970). 19 Grace d'Arcy, "Education for School Librarianship: a CSLA Committee Report," Moccasin Telegraph, XIV (February 1972), 58-69. 20 Canadian School Library Association, Standards of Library  Service for Canadian Schools (Toronto: Ryerson, 1967). 21 Association Canadienne des Bibliothecaires Scolaires, Normes  de Service de Bibliothfeque pour les Ecoles Canadiennes (Montreal: Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, 1968). 1971), 4. 23 22 "Revision of Standards," Moccasin Telegraph, XIV (November Canadian School Library Association, Standards, p. 1. Ibid., p. 3. 25Ibid., pp. 18-20. I^bid., p. 28. 27 Ibid., p. 53. ^^ Ibid., p. 57. 29 Loc. cit. 30 Ibid., pp. 35-37. 25 John C. Wright, "Canadian Standards for School Libraries," School Progress, XXXVI, 6 (June 1967), 18. 32 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Preliminary Statistics of  Education 1968-69 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970), pp. 61-62. 33 John G. Wright, "School Librarianship in Western Canada: A Decade of Professional Growth," Moccasin Telegraph, XIII (February 1971), 12. "^ Ibid. , p. 8 35 Mary V. Gaver and Milbrey L. Jones, "Secondary Library Services: A Search for Essentials," Teachers College Record, LXVIII, 3 (December 1966), 200-210. 36Ibid., p. 207. 37 List received from Doris P. Fennell, March 15, 1971. 38 Specimen letter in Appendix A. 39 Specimen letter in Appendix B. N^elson Associates Incorporated, School Libraries in the United  States: A Report Prepared for the National Advisory Commission on Lib-raries (Washington: U. S. Office of Education, 1967), p. 56. 41 American Association of School Librarians and the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association, Stan- dards for School Media Programs (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969, p. xv. CHAPTER II LEGAL BASES OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICE Canada is a federal nation in which responsibility for the organization and administration of public education is exercised by the provincial governments. The legal basis for this responsibility is the British North America Act which states that "in and for each province the legislature may exclusively make laws in relation to education.""'' In each province responsibility for educational policy is usually shared between three branches of government: the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, or provincial cabinet, the provincial legislature, and local boards of education. Each of the ten provinces has a department of education or provincial educational leadership agency which heads its common school system and develops policy according to the authority vested in it by the provincial government. Certain legal responsibilities, such as establishing regulations and standards, providing supervisory services, training and certifying teachers, rendering financial assistance to local school authorities, and making reports devolve on provincial 2 departments of education. School library service is a constituent part of these responsibilities. 26 27 Provincial Laws and Regulations Concerned with School Library Service The bases of legal responsibilities for school library service in provincial departments of education are shown in Table 1. In seven provinces responsibilities are delegated to departments of education by specific provincial laws relating to school libraries, while in nine provinces general provincial laws providing for regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council are the authorization for these respon-sibilities. Six provinces have both specific and general laws placing responsibility for school library service in departments of education. Although the responsibilities for school library service which are carried out in one department are minimal, all departments of education perform some functions in relation to them. TABLE 1 Legal Basis of Provincial Department of Education Responsibilities for School Library Service, by Province Province Specific provincial laws relating to school library service General provincial laws providing for regulations by Lieutenant-Governor in Council  Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 28 Legal Basis of School Library Supervisory Positions in Provincial Departments of Education To assist in carrying out their responsibilities for school libraries, eight departments of education employ school library super-visors or consultants. In all provinces these positions are established through the general powers of the provincial departments of education to employ supervisory personnel. Table 2 shows the legal bases on which these positions are established, by province. TABLE 2 Legal Basis of School Library Supervisory Positions in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province Province Provincial law Provincial department of education regulation Other authori-zation Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia 8 x x X X X X X X No super-visor 29 Provincial Aid for School Librarians, School Library Quarters, and School Library Materials Provincial aid for school librarians, school library quarters and school library materials is a complicated subject. All provinces provide aid for schools in accordance with formulae established by law. During the fiscal year ending March 31, 1966 departments of education distributed approximately one billion dollars in grants to local school districts.3 School capital and operating costs are provided for in the two types of grants made to boards of education in every province. Capital grants cover all or part of the cost of building, renovating, enlarging and equipping new or existing schools when the construction or conversion of these schools has been authorized by the department. Non-capital or operating grants assist local authorities in meeting the annual cost of providing day-to-day services, including administration, instruction, health services, pupil transportation services, operation of plant, maintenance of plant, and fixed charges. For many years non-capital aid has been offered through flat or incentive grants, special grants and equalization grants. Recently, several provinces have adopted some form of foundation program under which a minimum level of services is guaranteed after local authorities have applied the proceeds from a tax on an equalized assessment, the province making up the balance. A school district may levy taxes to provide additional services. The provinces which have adopted foundation programs appear to base their policy on the concept that providing funds not earmarked for specific 30 purposes gives local school boards the option of determining the areas for which these funds are most needed. If departments of education at the same time have enforceable standards or regulations concerning minimum levels of service in schools, it is likely that this provincial aid will be used to strengthen weaker aspects of school programs, such as school library service. In one province, Ontario, this philosophy seems to be helping to produce effective school libraries. Whether it will lead to a similar improvement of resources'for learning in other provinces is a matter for study and consideration by departments of education. No province provides direct provincial aid to school librarians. Each province, however, provides some form of direct aid to school lib-raries, and six offer direct aid for school library materials. Patterns in the plans of direct provincial aid for school libraries and school library materials vary in the provinces which provide for this assistance. Table 3 shows the provinces which provide such aid. Descriptions of provincial aid plans are given in Table 4. In most provinces aid to school librarians is furnished in-directly by means of foundation program grants which include provision for salaries of school personnel. School librarians are entitled to assistance if they are certified teachers. In provinces without foun-dation programs a teacher entitlement grant may be applied to the cost of a school librarian's salary if the librarian holds teacher certi-fication. Under the Alberta foundation program a specific payment of $10,812.00 is made to a local board for support staff which includes 31 non-teaching principals, guidance counsellors and librarians. The number of support staff grants which a board is eligible to receive is calculated according to the following formula: seven support staff grants for every 1,000 pupils enrolled in grades one to nine and eight support staff grants for every 1,000 puils enrolled in grades ten to twelve. Under the Manitoba foundation program a specific payment of $800.00 is made to school boards for a school library supervisor in each unitary school division. Similar cost-sharing plans have been arranged in Quebec to provide for the appointment of library co-ordinators in that province's school districts and in New Brunswick to permit the appointment of exten-sion librarians (schools) in each of that province's five library regions. TABLE 3 Provision of Direct Provincial Aid for School Librarians, School Library Quarters, and School Library Materials, by Province School School School library library Province lib rarians quarters materials 1 2 3 4 Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X All provinces provide capital grants to pay at least a share of the costs of building and equipping libraries in new schools when the building of such schools has been authorized by the department of education. Most provinces also provide capital grants for converting existing school space to a library or enlarging library quarters in older schools, when approved by the department. Four provinces, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec and Manitoba, pay 100 percent of the cost of constructing and furnishing new school libraries. The Alberta Department of Education pays part of the cost of construction of library space in new schools on a basis of three square feet per student in elementary schools and three and one half square feet per student in secondary schools. The Ontario Department of Education provides similar capital grants on the basis of five square feet per s tudent. Direct provincial aid for school library materials is usually a set amount based on enrollment, type of school or number of teachers in a school district. In Newfoundland and New Brunswick the amount is $5.00 and $1.25, respectively, per pupil enrolled, while in Prince Edward Island schools are given aid according to type, elementary or secondary, rather than according to their enrollment. In Manitoba the amount is $60.00 per teacher in each school division. New Brunswick and Quebec provide establishment grants for library collections in new or remodelled schools. Under plans adopted in Nova Scotia and Quebec a school board is required to invest a minimum amount in school library materials in order to qualify for funds under the province's foundation program. 33 TABLE 4 Plans for Direct Provincial Aid for School Library Materials, by Province Province Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Plan for Provincial aid $5.00 per pupil enrolled for resource materials for school libraries. Department of education subsidizes 25% of cost of audio-visual equip-ment purchased by schools. Province provides $500.00 annually to high school libraries and $200.00 annually to elementary school libraries for the purchase of books. Nova Scotia Province shares under its foundation program expenditures made for books and related library materials for any amount up to $5.00 per s tudent enrolied. New Brunswick Quebec Manitoba $1.25 per pupil enrolled for library materials. Under the province's foundation program all schools which have been constructed since January 1, 1967 or which have had four or more classrooms added to them since that date qualify for a library establishment grant of $6.00 per pupil enrolled. The grant is awarded for a three-year period. Under its foundation program province shares expenditures for library service and audio-visual service in schools according to the following rates: a) secondary schools - shares amounts at up to $22.00 per pupil enrolled b) elementary schools - shares amounts at up to $8.00 per pupil enrolled; and an additional amount of $8.00 per exceptional child enrolled in special classes. A grant of $50,000.00 plus an amount of $50.00 per pupil is provided to a school board for the establishment of a basic library in a new comprehensive secondary school. Under province's foundation program the sum of $60.00 per teacher in each school division is specifically set aside for library books. 34 Application of Laws and Regulations Concerning School Library Service  To Grade Levels and Types of Schools Various laws and regulations are made or adopted by provinces concerning school librarians and school libraries. They include certi-fication requirements for school librarians, standards for school library collections of material, equipment and supplies, and specifications for the construction or renovation of school library quarters in school buildings. In most provinces these requirements, standards and speci-fications are to some extent used as measuring instruments in depart-mental evaluations of secondary schools. Regulations concerning school librarians and libraries may also, however, apply to elementary schools. In one province the same laws and regulations apply to non-provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools. Tables 5-9 show, by province, the grade levels and types of schools to which laws or regulations concerning school libraries and school librarians apply. An examination of these tables shows that it is in relation to school library quarters that most provinces formulate laws or regulations. These apply almost exclusively to provincially-supported schools. Ten provinces have laws or regulations concerning school library quarters which apply to elementary as well as secondary schools. Few provinces, on the other hand, have laws or regulations which concern school librarians. Tables 5-9 demonstrate that more provinces show concern through laws and regulations for school library materials, services and appropriations than for school library personnel. The application of laws and regulations concerning school lib-raries and school librarians to non-provincially-supported schools 35 occurs to a much lesser degree than their application to provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools. In only one province do laws and regulations concerning school libraries and school librarians apply to non-provincially-supported schools. Since in ten provinces departments of education have legal responsibilities for school libraries and school librarians which apply in a large majority of provinces to all provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools, and in one province to non-provincially-supported schools, the magnitude of these responsibilities can best be represented in terms of numbers of schools and school librarians, by provinces. Table 10 shows the number of provincially-supported and non-provincially-supported schools in each province. Table 11 gives the number of school librarians to whom provincial departments of education are responsible for giving service. For some provinces, figures on school library personnel were not available, while for others estimates were provided. A comparison of Table 10 with Table 11 offers an index of the number of schools without full-time librarians. 36 TABLE 5 Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Librarians Apply, by Province Province Provincially-supported elementary schools Provincially-supported secondary schools Non-pro vincially-supported schools Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x x X X X X X X X 37 TABLE 6 Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Quarters Apply, by Province Province Provincially-supported elementary schools Provincially-supported secondary schools Non-provincially supported schools Total 10 10 Newfoundland X X Prince Edward Island X X Nova Scotia X X New Brunswick X X Quebec X X Ontario X X Manitoba X X Saskatchewan X X Alberta X X British Columbia X X 38 TABLE 7 Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Materials Apply, by Province Province Provincially-supported elementary schools Provincially^  supported secondary schools Non-provincially-supported schools Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 39 TABLE 8 Grade Levels and Types, of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Services Apply, by Province Province Provincially-supported elementary schools Provincially-supported secondary schools Non-provincially-supported schools Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x X X X X X X X X X X 40 TABLE 9 Grade Levels and Types of Schools to Which Provincial Laws or Regulations Regarding School Library Appropriations Apply, by Province Province Provincially-supported elementary schools Provincially-supported secondary schools Non-provincially-supported schools Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia x x X X X X X X X X TABLE 10 Number of Provincially-Supported and Non-Provincially-Supported Schools, by Province: 1969-19 70 Provincially-supported Non-provincially-supported Province Total Elementary and secondary Schools for the blind and/or deaf Total Private Indian3 1 2 3 ' 4 5 6 7 Total 15,532 15,510 22 1,385 1,104 281 Newfoundland 894 893 1 4 4 Prince Edward Island 267 266 1 2 1 1 Nova Scotia 743 741 2 16 12 4 New Brunswick 616 616 12 5 7 Quebec 3,508 3,500b 8 635 610 25 Ontario 4,927 4,923 4 322 244 78 Manitoba 795 793 2 86 48 38 Saskatchewan 1,048 1,047 1 70 17 53 Alberta 1,255 1,254 1 59 33 26 British Columbia 1,479 1,477 2 179 130 49 Schools for Indian children which are administered by the Education Branch of the federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 3Estimate. Source: Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Advance Statistics of  Education 1970-71 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970), pp. 22-27. TABLE 11 Number of School Library Personnel to Whom Provincial Departments of Education are Responsible for Giving Service, by Province: 1969-1970 (Totals are based in part on estimated figures) Librarians of combined elementary Provincially- Provincially- and Librarians City, county supported supported secondary of non-Province and district school library supervisors elementary school librarians secondary school librarians schools (provincially-supported) provincially-supported schools Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 257 996 149 4 20 1,426 Newfoundland 1 5 7 13 Prince Edward Island u v. v, 49b Nova Scotia 3 5b 37b 4b New Brunswick Quebec 110 c 54C 105C 269C Ontario 50 A 50b Manitoba 12 1 2 5d 20b 15 7b Saskatchewan 28 82d 110 Alberta 7e 331d e 338 British Columbia 466 394d'e 440 F^igures not available. Estimated figure. F^igures for 1968-69. Includes librarians of secondary schools and combined elementary and secondary schools which are provincially-supported. eFigures for 1967-68. 43 Mandatory and Adopted Provincial Lists for School Libraries No department of education maintains mandatory or adopted lists from which school libraries must purchase books and/or other materials. All departments, however, provide as a purchasing guide for teachers and school librarians special or periodic lists of library materials and/or materials selection aids. In some provinces lists are provided on request while in others they are issued to schools at monthly, quarterly or semi-annual intervals. Centralized Ordering and Processing Services for School Library  Books and Materials in Provincial Departments of Education Centralized ordering and processing services for school library books and materials occur rarely in departments of education. Centralized ordering is provided by two departments and centralized processing by three (Table 12). When these services are given, substantial discounts in quantity ordering of materials and supplies for processing can be obtained, and the time saved for local school librarians in book pro-cessing, or directing book processing, can be employed in service to teachers and pupils. However, province-wide ordering services may result ,in an unacceptable time lag between ordering and acquiring materials in local schools, and the possibility exists for undue influence on local schools and school systems in the selection of materials. In several provinces many city, town and district school systems are providing centralized ordering and processing of books and materials in order to 44 create efficient and economical service and to free librarians in in-dividual schools for the development of school library programs. These services have received consultative advice and encouragement from school library supervisors in departments of education but have remained the administrative and financial responsibility of the local school systems. Centralized ordering and processing services in local school systems have proven to be helpful to school librarians in allowing more time for educational services and are welcomed by school administrators in systems where they are organized. TABLE 12 Provincial Departments of Education Providing Centralized Ordering and Processing for School Library Books and/or Materials, by Province Province Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Provincial department provides centralized ordering Provincial department provides centralized processing a,b *b x F^or schools receiving the Basic Book Programme Grant. D^epartment provides schools with processing kits for French-language materials. Schools are responsible for physical processing. 'Cataloguing only for 1,300 book titles. 45 Estimated Percentages of Total Budgets of Provincial Departments of Education Allotted to Department Services for School Librarians and School Libraries4 Estimated percentages of total budgets of provincial departments of education allotted to department services for school librarians and school libraries were reported by nine departments. (The department from which no estimate could be obtained did not employ a provincial school library supervisor.) In nine provinces the range of percentages reported is as follows: TABLE 13 Percentages of Total Budgets of Provincial Departments of Education Allotted to Services for School Librarians and School Libraries Number of provinces Range of total budget percentages allotted to provincial department of education services for school librarians and school libraries 4 2 3 .01 - .04 .05 - .09 1.0 - 1.9 All departments reporting budget expenditures for school libraries, except one, employ school library supervisors; that is, eight departments employing school library supervisors at the time of reporting make finan-cial provision in budgets for services for school librarians and school 46 libraries. These departmental expenditures include salaries and travel for school library personnel employed by departments of education. Since comparative figures for budget items in departments of education are not available, it is not possible to indicate relation-ships of department expenditures for school library development with expenditures for other school services. Demonstration or Laboratory Schools with School Libraries  Maintained by Province No province maintains demonstration or laboratory schools with libraries in provincially-supported teacher-education institutions. Working models of superior school libraries have been established under the auspices of provincial school library demonstration projects in selected elementary schools in two provinces."* The establishment of demonstration school libraries has been assisted by direct provincial aid in one of the two provinces. FOOTNOTES Statutes of the United Kingdom, British North America Act, 1867, sec. 93. 2 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book 1970-71 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1971), p. 414. 3 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Survey of Education Finance 1966 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970), p. 25. 4 Including salaries, travel, printing, mailing, but excluding provincial aid to school districts for the construction and equipping of school library quarters and the acquisition of school library materials. T^hree demonstration school libraries have been established in Saskatchewan since 1965 under the Saskatchewan School Library Demon-stration Project. Project schools include Columbia Elementary School, Yorkton (1965), Watrous Elementary School, Watrous (1968), and John Diefenbaker Elementary School, Prince Albert (1969). Two demonstration school libraries have recently been established in British Columbia under a demonstration school library project co-sponsored by the British Columbia Teachers' Federation and the Vancouver and Vernon School Boards. The two project schools are Lord Selkirk Elementary School, Vancouver (1971) and Harwood Elementary School, Vernon (19 72). 47 CHAPTER III PERSONNEL FOR SERVICE TO SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION The history of public education in Canada shows that provincial departments of education have maintained a high degree of control over almost every aspect of school operation and policy. In very recent years, however, a trend to decentralize authority has become evident in some provinces. An increasing number of departments are relinquishing much of their traditional control of school organization, curricular content and examinations to local school boards. Fewer departments remain engaged in activities of a purely regulatory or inspectional nature; such activities are being replaced by a concern for developing improved programs and policy-making activities.^ " The decentralization of authority has been accompanied by a reorganization and enlargment of the staffs of all education departments. By upgrading the qualifications of existing staff and employing new personnel with higher levels of education and specialization, depart-ments have been able to expand their services in such fields as health, audio-visual aids, art, music, agriculture, special education, corres-2 pondence courses and prevocational and trade courses. Professional personnel operating in these fields are, as departmental organization 48 49 charts indicate, organized into a few major divisions to provide for co-ordination as a unit in furthering the improvement of education. Recent annual reports of the ten departments of education show such personnel as engaged in activities relating to planning, consultation, research, co-ordination, public relations and in-service education. In the school library field a similar pattern of supervision at the provincial level has emerged. A report published in 1947 gives the principal work of a provincial school library supervisor as: pre-paring booklists for schools, publicity for school libraries, arranging book displays, contacts with school trustees, teachers and parents, school visits, appraising libraries, relations with publishers, planning 3 school library facilities, and training school librarians. A more recent source affirms school library supervision to be primarily con-cerned with the improvement and extension of school library service so that the quality of the educational program and the learning situation 4 may be improved. National school library standards published in 1967 state that the provincial school library supervisor should work with the professional staff members of the department of education in planning the province's role in the development of school libraries."* Another statement lists two responsibilities of such a supervisor: providing consultative service to boards of education, district library super-visors, teachers and librarians, and directing services on the provincial level to small schools not served by a district library service center.^  A further source states that the provincial supervisor should guide the development of school library standards, encourage the establishment of 50 centralized technical services, interpret the role of the library to the public and to educators, and promote and direct programs for the pre-service and in-service training of school library personnel.^  These statements emphasize a highly desirable type of leadership activity. The inter-relationship of departmental supervisory and consul-tative personnel in working together to produce curriculum guides and in leading workshops for in-service development of local school personnel appears to be a major feature of effective education departments. Such co-operation at the provincial level has led to the formation of committees of leading teachers, librarians and administrators within the province for the purpose of developing curriculum guides, courses of study, biblio-graphies and other related materials. Well-qualified professional personnel employed under a non-political merit system, given professional status and salary commensurate with the responsibilities of the position and sufficient clerical assistance, are ne-essary to perform the work demanded by current functions of provincial education departments. The status of professional personnel in depart-ments of education needs to be based on educational background, experi-ence, length of service and personal qualifications. On such a basis those people having equal qualifications and equal responsibilities ought to be placed on equal status. j 51 Establishment of School Library Supervisory Positions and Number of Persons Who Have Held These Positions The establishment of school library supervisory positions in departments of education is a relatively recent development (Table 14). The first province to establish a provincial school library supervisor's position was Saskatchewan, in 1946. In 1954 a school library super-visory position was established in the Ontario Department of Education. With the exception of these two provinces, the major development of school library supervision in departments of education began in the 1960's. Departments establishing positions in school library supervision in the last decade include Nova Scotia, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Alberta, Manitoba and Newfoundland. Current School Library Supervisory Professional and Clerical Personnel Eight departments of education reported in October 19 71 a total of eight full-time professional school library supervisors, or one full-time supervisor each (Table 15). Two provinces have no professional school library supervisors, either full-time or part-time, in their education departments. There are thirty full-time and twenty part-time clerical workers assigned in departments of education to school library matters (Table 15). Each of the eight school library supervisors reported has some clerical assistance, although in three departments this consists of only one part-time clerk. The Quebec Department of Education has twenty-three full-time 52 TABLE 14 Dates of Establishment of School Library Supervisory Positions and Number of Persons Who Have Held Positions in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province Province First profes-sional position Second profes-sional position Third profes-sional position Number of persons, including incumb-bents, who have held positions as supervisors 1 2 3 4 5 Total 16 Newfoundland 1969 1 Prince Edward Island 1964 1 Nova Scotia 1960 1 New Brunswick Quebec 1961 3 Ontario 1954 1962 1966a 4 Manitoba 1967 1 Saskatchewan 1946 4 Alberta 1966 1 British Columbia ^his position replaced the two positions created in 1954 and 1962. TABLE 15 Number of School Library Supervisory Professional and Clerical Personnel, Titles of Professional Personnel, and Divisions of Provincial Departments of Education in Which Supervisory Positions are Located, by Province Province Professional Full- Part-time time Clerical Full- Part-time time Titles of positions of professional personnel providing full-time service Division in which supervisory positions are located 6 Total Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec 30 23 20 10 Supervisor of school libraries Supervisor of school libraries Supervisor of school libraries Directeur adjoint, service des biblio-theques d'enseignement Instructional media section, Division of instruction Eucational media branch, Division of youth and education School libraries section, Nova Scotia provincial libraries, Cultural service program Division de 1'elementaire et du secondaire, service des bibliotheques d' enseignement, Service ui general des bibliotheques Continued . . TABLE 15 - Continued Province Professional Full- Part-time time Clerical Full- Part-time time Titles of positions of professional personnel providing full-time service Division in which supervisory positions are located Total Ontario 30 20 Assistant superintendent of curriculum-learning materials Curriculum branch, Instruction division Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta Supervisor of school libraries Program consultant-school libraries School libraries con-sultant Directorate of instruction and supervisory services Instructional services section, Program Develop-ment (general education) Directorate of field services British Columbia Figure does not include five full-time bibliographers and cataloguers. Central office personnel only; figure does not include five full-time Program Consultants-Learning Materials (specialists in school libraries) in the regional offices of the Ontario Department of Education. Figure does not include a full-time Librarian Consultant- Cataloguer. 55 and twenty part-time clerical personnel for service to school libraries. (Centralized cataloging and classification services are provided by the Quebec department.) Divisions of Provincial Departments of Education in Which School  Library Supervisory Positions are Located Divisions in which school library supervisory positions are located in education departments are listed on Table 15. In four pro-vinces these positions are located in divisions of instruction, while in two provinces they are located in library service divisions. Division of Youth and Education and Directorate of Field Services are divisions in which the two remaining positions are placed. Table 15 shows that the placing of school library supervisory positions in divisions of instruction is most prevalent. Professional opinion generally leans toward this location, since, in this adminis-trative arrangement, school library supervisors and other instructional supervisors or consultants can work readily together. However, school library supervisors in divisions other than instruction often work effectively with instructional supervisors or consultants. These re-lationships are influenced by factors such as administrative policies in establishing and maintaining co-operation among department of education staff members, size of education departments, and physical location of offices or staff conference rooms. 56 Employment Procedures for School Library Supervisors and  Professional Status of School Library Supervisors Eight departments of education reported their employment pro-cedures for school library supervisors. In each department both civil service commission and department of education regulations are used for filling supervisory positions (Table 16). It is difficult to evaluate the professional status of provincial school library supervisors by equating their positions with those of other personnel in education departments, as comparable positions in several departments may be of different status. Titles of other positions in departments of education comparable in status and salary to school library supervisors are listed in Table 16, column 4. In those departments which have subject supervisors, there is a tendency to treat the school library supervisor as another subject supervisor. The school library profession in both Canada and the United States has maintained for many years that the school library is not another "subject," but a service agency for the entire school program, including such special services as guidance. That is, the school library's services include guidance (service to all teachers and pupils), as well as all other aspects of the educational program. If this concept were accepted by departments of education, then the school library supervisors' positions might be more appropriately ranked with those of supervisors of elementary and secondary education. In considering the enormous task confronting departments of education in developing effective school libraries in all schools of their respective provinces, it is essential that provincial school TABLE 16 Employment Procedures for School Library Supervisors, and Titles of Other Positions Comparable in Status and Salary, in Provincial Departments of Education, by Province Employment procedures Titles of other positions in Provincial merit provincial department of system (Civil Department rules education comparable in status Province Service Commission) and regulations and salary Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba x X X X X X Consultants - English, social studies, reading Supervisor of physical education and recreation consultant Supervisors - public libraries; legislative library; reference library Chef, division du collegial et de 1'universitaire, service des biblio-theques d'enseignement Assistant superintendents for other subject areas and age divisions in Curriculum branch Supervisors - Visual education; radio and television; home economics; physical education; guidance. Continued TABLE 16 - Continued Province Employment procedures Provincial merit system (Civil Service Commission) Department rules and regulations Titles of other positions in provincial department of education comparable in status and salary Saskatchewan x Consultants - Audiovisual education; radio and tape; television Alberta x Supervisors - Home economics; industrial arts British Columbia oo 59 library supervision be accepted as an endeavour co-ordinated with all other provincial department services. Whether this task can be accomp-lished by one school library supervisor working in comparable status to a supervisor of social studies, for example, or physical education, is a question which departments will need to answer in measuring the strength of their services. One department of education (Ontario) has already answered this question in part by adding five full-time school library specialists to the staff of its regional offices. In two other provinces, Quebec and Alberta, where regional offices of the provincial department of education have recently been established, a similar staffing plan is under consideration. Professional Education and Experience of School Library Supervisors Table 17 analyzes the professional education and experience of the eight professional school library supervisors serving in eight departments of education at the time of this study. All eight possess baccalaureate degrees, of which one is a Bachelor of Science, six are Bachelors of Arts and two, Bachelors of Education. All hold, in addition, specialized degrees in Library Science, either Bachelor's or Master's. Six of the supervisors have Bachelor's degrees in Library Science while two have Master's degrees in Library Science. Two supervisors have, or are completing, a Master's degree in Education. All except two provincial school library supervisors have had prior experience as school librarians (Table 17). Three school library supervisors have had experience as librarians in combined elementary-TABLE 17 Professional Education and Experience of School Library Supervisors in Provincial Departments of Educatioh Years of experi- Years in present ! i ence as public position and i j Professional education - Degrees Years of experi- Years of experi- and college and/ total years of of school library supervisors ence as school ence as teachers or university prior experi- ! librarians librarians ence ! ] : i Com-bined elemen-tary i Com-: bined elemen-i tary As As college or univer-Prior profes-! i Ele- Sec- and ~> Ele- Sec- | and public s i t y sional Total men- ond- second- men- ond- I second- l i b r a r i - l i b r a r i - Present experi- , experi-Supervisor B,A, B,S, B, Ed, ! B,L,S, : M, Ed, M,L,S, tary ary ary tary ary ! ary ans ans position ence 1 ence 1 2 3 A | 5 •6 7 8 . 9 10 11 12 1 13 14 • 1 15 16 17 ', 1 8 Total 6 1 2 : 6 : 2 2 6 14.10 16 14 63 i 27 1.25 36.30 141.35 177.65 Average i j in years i : 1 4.54 17.67 22.21 1 X X 6 2 1 1 1 .25 1.8 3.25 11.05 2 X 4 ! 6 7 10 17 3 X X j 10 10.75 10 i 20.75 X X 1 23 j 2 24 ! 26 5 X X X ! 2 2b 9 2 1 5 15 1 20 6 X X X : 8 7 b 5 13 S 4 33 i 37 7 X X ; 1.10 21 C ! .75 22.10 22.85 8 X j X X | 7 ! i ! : i 10 1 5 18 23 As school d i s t r i c t library co-ordinator. As school d i s t r i c t library supervisor. |13 years as pr i n c i p a l . Being conrpleted. ON o 61 secondary schools or as school district library supervisors. The total number of years of experience in such positions, shared by the three supervisors is sixteen. Five supervisors have had experience as secondary school librarians, with the aggregate years of experience at 14.10. One supervisor has had experience as an elementary school librarian. Five school library supervisors have served as teachers in secondary schools from two to twenty-three years. Two supervisors have had experience as elementary school teachers, ranging from five to nine years. A comparison of the aggregate numbers of years of experience, as elementary school librarians, as elementary school teachers, and secondary school librarians and teachers, shared by provincial school library supervisors is provided by Table 18. TABLE 18 Aggregate Years of Prior Experience of School Library Supervisors as School Librarians and Teachers Positions Elementary school librarians Elementary school teachers Secondary school librarians Secondary school teachers Aggregate years of school library super-visors' prior experi-ence in positions 6 14 14.10 63 Four, or 50 percent, of the school library supervisors have had previous experience as public librarians and/or college or university librarians. In one. instance, this was the only type of experience prior to the school library supervisory position. The aggregate years of experience in public library positions (twenty-seven) and in college or university library positions (1.25) indicate a broader background of library experience than is generally supposed for school librarians. It is to be expected, however, that provincial school library super-visors' major prior experience would be in elementary and secondary school librarianship and teaching. Table 17 demonstrates that such is the case with most of the incumbent supervisors. Columns 16-19 of Table 17 show the total number of years in present positions in provincial school library supervision, total number of years of prior professional experience, and total years of experience of provincial school library supervisors. The average number of years in present positions is 4.54, the average years of prior professional experience, 17.67, and the average of total experience, 22.21 years. These figures indicate a generally high level of professional experience on the part of school library supervisors now serving in provincial departments of education. Activities of School Library Supervisors and Time Spent on Activities Eight departments of education reported on time spent on activities by their school library supervisors. The activity on which provincial school library supervisors spend the most time is field services (Table 19, column 7). In five departments school library supervisors spend at least 20 percent of their time in field services. Only one department TABLE 19 Average Percentages of Time Spent on A c t i v i t i e s by School L i b r a r y S u p e r v i s o r s Confer- A t t e n d - Attend- Conduct- 1 j 1 t ences i n g i n g i n g Reading Prepar- 1 v i t h p r o f e s - p r o f e s - s t a t i s - and Ing W r i t i n g i n d i v - s i o n a l s i o n a l t i c a l r e viewing s p e c i a l Prepar- recommen-Super v i s o r i d u a l s Organ- Prepar- meetings meetings and s c h o o l o r i i n g C o r r e - d a t i o n s , or i z i n g i n g i n out of F i e l d research l i b r a r y p e r i o d i c p u b l i - spon- r e p o r t s , Other T o t a l <K = 8) groups meetings t a l k s p r o v i n c e p r o v i n c e s e r v i c e s s tudies m a t e r i a l s l i s t s ' c a t i o n s dence a r t i c l e s . 1 a c t i v i t i e s • percent 1 ? 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 T o t a l • percent 69 35 31 36 23 152 28.5 59.5 55 ! 64 119 7 i ; 57 800 Average • • 1 percent 8.63 4.38 3.88 4.50 2.88 19 3.56 7.44 7.86 8 14.88 a . a a 9.50 j 103.39 a 1 15 5 3 5 2 5 5 15 10 S 15 10 1 2 ! 100 2 10 5 5 3 5 15 8 7 7 10 15 100 3 10 5 4 5 3 20 2 7 7 5 15 3 t 14 | 100 4 10. 5 5 5 3 25 .50 1.50 10 25 10 ! j 100 5 5 5 5 3 2 20 2 5 3 5 10 5 30 j 100 6 5 4 2 5 5 20 1 2 2 10 20 20 4 : 100 7 4 3 2 1 8 17 17 12 9 3 5 ; 100 8 10 2 4 8 2 32 2 5 9 1 4 10 10 2 | 100 a E r r o r of 3.39 percent i s a r e s u l t of t o t a l percentages of 152 and 119 reported f o r columns 7 and 12, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ON reported less than 15 percent of the supervisor's time spent on this activity. Field services for provincial school library supervisors may be divided generally into two categories: visits to schools and participation in organized meetings. Supervisors' visits to schools are usually made at the request of school administrators, district school library supervisors and librarians, to advise on various aspects of school library service. Such requests for consultative service, particularly from rural school systems, are numerous. Provincial school library supervisors, as a result, sometimes spend much time travelling from school to school and have a large geographic area to cover. Supervisors frequently participate in regional and district conferences of school librarians. They also often attend and contribute to the meetings of school administrators,,teachers, and PTA and Home and School groups. Their functions at these conferences require preparation and reports so that the actual time spent in the field is not the entire time devoted to this service. School library supervisors give the least amount of time to attending professional meetings out of province. This low figure is to be expected in view of the widespread restrictions which most provincial departments of education impose on out-of-province travel. It is unfor-tunate that such restrictions exist, since it is important for provincial school library supervisors to participate in national and regional conferences of educational organizations. Table 20 ranks average percentages of time spent on activities by school library supervisors in provincial departments of education. 65 TABLE 20 Ranking of Average Percentages of Time Spent on Activities by School Library Supervisors Average Activity Percent 1. Field services 19 2. Correspondence 14.88 3. Other activities 9.50 4. Writing recommendations, reports, articles 8.88 5. Conferences with individuals or groups 8.63 6. Preparing publications 8 7. Preparing special or periodic lists 7.86 8. Reading and reviewing school library materials 7.44 9. Attending professional meetings in province 4.50 10. Organizing meetings 4.38 11. Preparing talks 3.88 12. Conducting statistical and research studies 3.56 13. Attending professional meetings out of province 2.88 Total 103.39a ^rror of 3.39 percent is a result of percentage totals exceeding 100 percent reported for columns 7 and 12 in Table 19. 66 For those activities which require working directly with indi-viduals and groups - field services, conferences, correspondence, or-ganizing meetings and attending professional meetings in- and out-of-province - the average time spent by school library supervisors is 54.27 percent. Reading and reviewing school library materials, preparing special or periodic lists, preparing publications, writing recommen-dations, reports and articles, preparing talks, conducting statistical and research studies, and "other activities" occupy an average of 49.12 percent of school library supervisors' time. The totals listed in Table 20 provide an index of the general pattern of provincial school library supervisory activities. The developmental aspects of school library supervision, which might be said to include the writing of recommen-dations and reports, preparing lists and publications, reading and re-viewing school library materials and preparing talks, occupy a substantial portion of the school library supervisors' time. Field services often require time spent beyond the normal work week; however, statements received from five supervisors indicate that two activities - reading and reviewing library materials and preparing talks - were also conducted outside of regular work hours. Provincial departments of education, in evaluating the needs of school library supervisors or in establishing new positions in school library supervision, could find these objective1 data helpful. 67 Professional Personnel Other Than School Library Supervisors Providing  Part-time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries Since school library service is related to all aspects of school programs, many department of education personnel other than school library supervisors have some responsibility for, or connection with, school libraries and librarians. For purposes of tabulating the department of education officials providing part-time service for school libraries and librarians, the following designations of department personnel were used for Table 21 (Number of Professional Personnel Other than School Library Supervisors in Provincial Departments of Education Providing Part-time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries, and Estimated Percen-tages of Time Given by this Personnel for Service, by Province): 1. Deputy Ministers of Education and assistants 2. Certification Officers (Registrars) 3. Directors of Teacher Education 1 4. Curriculum or Subject Supervisors 5. Audio-Visual Supervisors 6. Research Officers 7. School Plant Officers 8. Finance Officers 9. Other Officers As it was not possible to describe all departmental personnel by the first eight designations, Table 21, column 21 lists other titles which do not fit into these categories. Ten departments of education reported a total of 437 professional personnel (other than school library supervisors) providing part-time service for school librarians and school libraries. The numbers for each department ranged from seven to forty-nine, except for Ontario, which reported 206. The lowest totals, seven and fifteen, respectively, were reported by British Columbia and New Brunswick, the two provinces TABLE 21 Number o f P r o f e s s i o n a l Personne l Other than School L i b r a r y S u p e r v i s o r s ln P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Educat ion P r o v i d i n g P a r t - t i m e S e r v i c e to School L i b r a r i a n s and School L i b r a r i e s , and Est imated Percentages of T i n e Given by t h i s Personnel f o r S e r v i c e , by Prov ince Est imated t of Time of P r o f e s s i o n a l Personnel Given f o r S e r v i c e to School L i b r a r i a n s £ L i b r i r i e s Deputy C e r t i f i c a - D i r e c t o r s C u r r i c u l u m A u d i o - Research School Finance Other T i t l e s of M i n i s t e r t i o n o f f i - of t e a c h - or subjec t v i s u a l O f f i c e r s p l a n t O f f i c e r s O f f i c e r s o t h e r § of Educa- c e r s (Reg- er educa- super super- O f f i c e r s off l e e r s a t i o n l s t r a r s ) t i o n v i s o r s v i s o r s Prov ince >cr of Profci Personnel of officers .ng service time :n by each of officers .ng service tlme » by each of officers ing service ' time m by each of officers log service time ;n by each of officers ing service f time ;n by each of officers Ing service f time ;n by each of officers Ing service f time ;n by each of officers ing service F time -*n by each of officers ing service f time an by each 1 • > "S s . > o > • > o > • > o > . > o > • > o > o > • > o > • > o > ss •% « V. a K oo n cc as 1 ss ee M 00 X oo w ao oo . / oc VS 00 1 2 ) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 T o t a l \\ " 10 1 230 ii 5 11 10 126 Range of X .01-1 .25-; 1-5 2-4C 1-5 1 1-90 Newfoundland 17 1 - 1 2 T 3-5 2-40 3 1-5 p r i n c e Edward la. H 1 1 5 2 1 2 1 11 C h i e f L i b r a r i a n , Pr ince Edward i s -land L i b r a r i e s ; D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n -tendents (10) Nova S c o t i a i 2 1 a 1 a 12 a 1 a 3 a I a 23 1-25 D i r e c t o r , Nova S c o t i a P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i e s ; C h i e f C u r a t o r , Educa-t i o n , Nova S c o t i a Museums; D i v i s i o n -a l Inspectors and S u p e r v i s o r s of Schools (21) New Brunswick 15 2 1 I 1 10 1-50 D i r e c t o r , New Brunswick L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s ; C h i e f Super intendent of Schoo l s ; Reg iona l Super intendents (8 ) Quebec 20 1 .01 1 6 1-5 1 10 1 2 1-5 2 1 6 80-90 D l r e c t e u r , S e r v i c e des B i b l i o t h e q u e s d'Enseignement; Bibl iographies et c a t a l o g u e u r s , C e n t r a l e des B i b l i o t h e q u e s (5) Ontar io 206 1 1 1 186 13 10-40 1 2 1 Manitoba 47 1 1 .25 4 3-5 2 10 1 1 37 4-25 L i b r a r i a n , D e p a r t -ment of Youth and E d u c a t i o n a l L i b r a r y p i v i s i o a a l S c h o o l Inspectors (36) Saskatchewan 49 1 1 2 1 3 2-10 1 T 59 D i r e c t o r , Sask-atchewan Book Bureau; Reg iona l and D i s t r i c t Superintendents o f Schools (43) A l b e r t a 10 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 B r i t i s h Columbia 7 lb 1 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a a Less than 1 per cent . b S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s 69 without school library supervisors. Curriculum or subject supervisors (which include directors or supervisors of elementary and secondary education and consultants and supervisors in specialized areas such as English, reading, or social studies) accounted for 230 of the 437 pro-fessional personnel providing part-time service to school libraries, or 52.6 percent. The numbers of personnel giving part-time service to school libraries and librarians are ranked according to title in Table 22. TABLE 22 Ranking of Total Numbers of Provincial Department of Education Personnel Giving Part-time Service to School Librarians and School Libraries, by Titles of Personnel Ranking of Personnel numbers Curriculum or subject supervisors 230 "Other" officers 126 Audio-visual supervisors 27 School plant officers 17 Deputy ministers of education and assistants 11 Certification officers (Registrars) 10 Finance officers 10 Research officers 5 Directors of teacher education 1 It is reasonable that curriculum supervisors or directors of instruction would be the most numerous in serving school libraries and librarians. Since certification and school plant regulations are basic 70 responsibilities of departments of education, it is also to be expected that officials assigned to these responsibilities would be concerned with school librarians and school library quarters. The total numbers, however, of certification and school plant officers reported giving part-time service to school libraries and librarians is low, considering the number of schools for which departments are responsible. A feature of Table 22 deserving special comment is the low number of provincial directors of teacher education or directors of professional development giving part-time service to school librarians. (Data obtained from section 3 of the questionnaire reveals more than one director of teacher-education giving part-time service.) Since the recruitment and pro-fessional education of school librarians are pressing issues in Canada at the present time, this figure indicates an area needing study and development by departments of education. Estimated percentages of time spent for school libraries and librarians by personnel other than school library supervisors were not available from three provinces. Although percentage figures were not reported for every officer identified by the remaining seven departments of education, two general conclusions can be drawn from the data shown on Table 21: 1. The most usual range of percentages of total time spent by provincial department officers on matters relating to school libraries and librarians is from 1 to 5 percent. 2. In the two provincial departments of education without school library supervisors the officers giving the largest percentage of their total time in service to school libraries and librarians (1-50 percent) are the Superin-tendent of Instructional Services (British Columbia) and the Director of the New Brunswick Library Services (New Brunswick). The employment of a school library super-visor in each department could do much to relieve both officers of some of the responsibilities they now have for school library development. FOOTNOTES "^"Major Trends: Reorganization and Decentralization," Education  Canada, IX, 3 (September 1969), 43-44. 2 Gordon L. Mowat, "Changing Relations Between Departments and School Boards," Education Canada, X, 4 (December 1970), 58. 3 Saskatchewan, Department of Education, Annual Report 1946-47 (Regina: King's Printer, 1947), p. 51. 4 Saskatchewan Association of School Librarians, Proposed Standards  for School Libraries in the Province of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon: Saskat-chewan Teachers' Federation, 1964), p. 20. C^anadian School Library Association, Standards of Library  Service for Canadian Schools (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1967), p. 36. I^bid., p. 36. 7John G. Wright, "The Politics of the School Library," APIA Bulletin, XXX, 3 (September 1966), 77-78. 72 CHAPTER IV RESPONSIBILITIES AND SERVICES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION Responsibilities and services of provincial departments of education for school librarians and school libraries may be divided into six general categories (Table 23): 1. Certification of school librarians; 2. Standards (guidelines) for school libraries; 3. Supervision of school libraries; 4. Co-operation for school libraries; 5. Statistics and research concerned with school libraries; 6. Information on school libraries. These categories fit into what appears to be the pattern of department of education functions for all areas of service. Recent annual reports of the ten education departments show most departments to be concerned with six functions: planning, regulating, supervising and advising, co-ordinating, statistics and research, and public relations. Although not all departments of education are functioning in all six areas of responsibilities for school library service, there is suffi-cient evidence offered in departmental publications to support the 73 74 acceptance of certification, standards (guidelines), supervision, co-operation, research, and information as responsibilities and services for school librarians and school libraries in education departments. Table 23, "Number of Provincial Departments of Education and Boards of Education Authorized to Administer Responsibilities and Services for School Librarians and School Libraries," lists in column 1, the six general areas of responsibilities and services identified above, with appropriate subdivisions. Column 2 gives the number of departments of education authorized to administer the responsibilities and services, and column 3, the number of provinces in which local boards of education are authorized to administer them. In answering the section of the questionnaire in which these data were requested, some respondents wrote "item does not apply" after certain items. However, all departments are represented in most figures of column 2. A comparison of column 2 with column 3 shows that it is departments of education and not boards of education, which have authority to administer services to school libraries and librarians in the areas of certification, standards, supervision, co-operation, research and information. Figures in column 2 demonstrate that all departments are functioning in one or more of the six areas. In interpreting data concerning personnel in departments assigned to the six areas of responsibility (Tables 24-29), significant facts appeared when the data from departments employing school library super-visors, and from departments without school library supervisors, were separated. 75 TABLE 23 Number of Provincial Department of Education and Number of Boards of Education Authorized to Administer Responsibilities and Services for School Librarians and School Libraries Number of provinces in which Number of local depart- boards of ments of education education are author-authorized ized to Responsibility or service to adminis- administer ter item item 1 2 3 A.. Certification of School Librarians: 1. Formulating regulations for certification of school librarians 2 2. Evaluating credentials of school lib-rarians for certification 2 B. Standards for School Libraries: 3. Formulating standards for elementary school libraries: a) Personnel 6 b) Materials 7 c) Organization 6 d) Services 6 e) Quarters 10 f) Appropriations 10 4. Formulating standards for secondary school libraries a) Personnel 6 b) Materials 7 c) Organization 6 d) Services 6 e) Quarters 10 f) Appropriations 10 C. Supervision of School Libraries: 5. Employing permanent professional super-visory staff 8 6. Employing clerical assistants for super-visory staff 8 7. Providing for participation of school library supervisors in provincial, regional and national professional conferences 8 Continued 76 Table 23 - Continued Number of provinces in which Number of local depart- boards of ments of education education are author-authorized ized to Responsibility or service to adminis- administer ter item item 1 2 3 8. Evaluating school libraries for purposes of accreditation of schools 1 9. Evaluating programs of library education in provincial institutions of higher edu-cation offering professional education for school librarians, for purposes of accre-ditation, etc. NA 10. Employing temporary consultants for prov-incial programs of school library develop-ment 3 11. Formulating recommendations and programs for provincial school library development 10 12. Giving consultative services on school libraries to individual a) Boards of education 8 b) School administrators 8 c) School librarians 8 d) Teachers 8 e) Citizens 8 13. Giving consultative services on school libraries to organizations a) of administrators 8 b) of school librarians 8 c) of teachers 8 d) of citizens 8 14. Effecting co-operative programs between organizations of school librarians and other professional organizations 8 15. Co-operating in organization and programs of student library assistant groups 3 16. Assisting in recruitment of school lib-rarians 9 i Continued 77 Table 23 - Continued Number of provinces in which Number of local depart- boards of ments of education education are author-authorized ized to Responsibility or service to adminis- administer ter item item 1 2 3 D. Co-operation for school libraries within provincial departments of education 17. Effecting co-operation among all provincial department staff concerned with school libraries 18. Effecting co-operation between school library supervisor and: a) Certification officer b) Director of teacher education c) Curriculum or subject supervisors or consultants d) Audio-visual director e) Research officer f) School plant officer g) Finance officer 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Effecting co-operation for school libraries of provincial departments of education with other agencies: 19. Effecting co-operation with: a) Provincial library 10 b) Provincial library extension agency 10 c) Finance division of provincial administration 10 d) Purchasing division of provincial administration 9 20. Effecting co-operation with institutions of higher education offering education for teachers and school librarians 10 21. Effecting co-operation with accrediting agencies concerned with school libraries NA 22. Effecting co-operation with city, county and district boards of education 10 23. Effecting co-operation with professional associations 8 Continued 78 Table 23 - Continued Number of provinces in which Number of local depart- boards of ments of education education are author-authorized ized to Responsibility or service to adminis- administer ter item item 1 2 3 F. Statistics and Research concerned with school libraries 24. Collecting statistics of school libraries 10 25. Conducting research studies on school libraries 9 G. Information on school libraries: 26. Providing information on professional qualifications of school librarians 10 27. Interpreting functions and significance of school libraries 10 28. Interpreting school library standards: a) National 9 b) Provincial 10 29. Providing information on professional u meetings, trends and developments 8 2b 30. Providing information on professional V. publications 8 2b 31. Providing information on print and non-print materials for school libraries: a) Periodic lists 2 b) Special lists 10 32. Reporting statistics and research on school libraries to: a) Ministers of education and provincial legislatures 10 b) Provincial boards 10 c) General users of school library statistics and research 10 NA - not applicable to any province. In one province regional library boards are authorized to administer item. In nine provinces provincial libraries and provincial library extension agencies are combined in one agency. 79 Each number on Tables 24-29, inclusive, represents the total number of departments of education whose respondents checked each item once on section III of the questionnaire.^  For example, Table 25, columns 13-14, indicates that in six departments audio-visual specialists contribute to the formulating of guidelines or standards relating to services offered in school libraries. Since all ten departments completed the questionnaire, it can be concluded that in each of the remaining four departments there is no audio-visual specialist participating in this service for school library development. Ten departments of education employ audio-visual specialists. Certification of School Librarians The certifying of qualified school instructional personnel is fundamental to every province's program of elementary and secondary education. Since school librarians are interpreted as teachers by most departments of education, departments require that they meet teacher certification requirements for school librarians. Only two provinces (Ontario and Manitoba) require school librarians to meet additional certification requirements in library education. The evaluating of credentials of school librarians in both teaching and librarianship is similarly confined to these two provinces. One province (Quebec) does not require school librarians to possess a teaching certificate. TABLE 24 Number of Provincial Departments of Education With and Without, School Library Super-visors, in Which Officers Participate in Certification of School Librarians (Figures of column 2 are not totals of columns 3 through 14) Certification of school librarians Number of departments of education authorized to administer certification Number of departments with and without school library supervisors in which officers participate in certification Deputy Minister of Education School library supervisor Certifi-cation officer Director of teacher education Curriculum or subject supervisor Audio-visual director W WO W WO w WO w WO 10 w 11 wo 12 w 13 WO 14 1. Formulating regu-lations for certifi-cation of school librarians 2 2 2 1 2. Evaluating creden-tials of school librarians for certification 2 2 2 ^ - in departments of education with school library supervisors. bW0 - in departments of education without school library supervisors. 81 Personnel Participating in Certification of School Librarians Personnel of the Ontario Department of Education participating in the certification of school librarians include the certification officer (registrar), school library supervisor and audio-visual director. The first two officers also participate in the evaluation of credentials of school librarians for certification (Table 24). In the Manitoba Department of Education responsibilities for formulating certification regulations and evaluating the credentials of school librarians for certification are assigned to the certification officer and school library supervisor. In departments which have not established specific certifi-cation requirements in library education, the evaluation of the teaching credentials of persons who are appointed to positions as school librarians is a responsibility of certification officers (registrars). Standards (Guidelines) for School Libraries A traditional function of departments of education is the formu-lation of standards or guidelines for secondary school libraries. More recently, departments have been developing guidelines for elementary school libraries. The term "guidelines" tends to be used in place of "standards" by most departments. Guidelines for personnel, materials, organization, services, quarters or appropriations for school libraries have in many provinces been employed as criteria in the evaluation and accreditation of secondary schools. The use of these guidelines in school accreditation procedures has been a strong influence on the 82 development of libraries in secondary schools. Standards or guidelines for elementary school libraries have not been applied to any great extent as measures of elementary schools. The relatively low number of elemen-tary schools with centralized libraries is probably a reflection of the non-regulatory nature of existing departmental guidelines and stan-dards for elementary school libraries. Standards of Library Service for Canadian Schools and its French translation, Normes de Service de Bibliotheque pour les Ecoles Canadiennes, have since their publication in 1967 and 1968, respectively, caused most departments to revise or up-grade their own guidelines or standards 3 for school libraries. Although the national standards exceed those formulated by departments of education, portions of these standards have been adopted by some departments. A few departments have also adopted standards relating to audio-visual materials and equipment 4 formulated by the Educational Media Association of Canada. Departments of education in developing standards for school libraries, have need to examine the joint standards being prepared by the Canadian School Library Association and the Educational Media Association of Canada and to consider methods by which standards are best implemented. Personnel Contributing to the Formulation of Standards (Guidelines)  for School Libraries Table 25 shows the numbers of departments of education which are authorized to formulate standards or guidelines for school libraries. Figures reported in column 2 indicate that guidelines for both elementary TABLE 25 Number of P r o v i n c i a l Departments of E d u c a t i o n W i t h , and Without, S c h o o l L i b r a r y S u p e r v i s o r s , i n Which O f f i c e r s C o n t r i b u t e To Standards f o r School L i b r a r i e s ( F i g u r e s of Column 2 are not T o t a l s of Columns 3 Through 20) Number of departments Number of departments w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s i n which o f f i c e r s c o n t r i b u t e to standards Standards f o r School L i b r a r i e s of e d u c a t i o n Deputy School C e r t i f i - D i r e c t o r C u r r i c u - Audio- Research S c h o o l Finance a u t h o r i z e d t o M i n i s t e r L i b r a r y c a t i o n of lum or v i s u a l O f f i c e r P l a n t O f f i c e r a d m i n i s t e r of Edu- Super- O f f i c e r t e a c h e r Subject D i r e c t o r O f f i c e r s t a n d ards c a t i o n v i s o r E d u c a t i o n Super-v i s o r W wob W WO W WO W WO W WO W WO W WO W WO W WO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1. F o r m u l a t i n g standards f o r elementary s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s : (a) P e r s o n n e l 6 5 1 2 1 1 (b) M a t e r i a l s 7 5 l c 4 1 4 (c) O r g a n i z a t i o n 6 5 1 1 2 (d) S e r v i c e s 6 5 2 1 5 1 (e) Quarters 10 8 i c 3 8 2 ( f ) A p p r o p r i a t i o n s 10 8 i c 1 1 8 2 2 . F o r m u l a t i n g standards f o r secondary s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s : (a) P e r s o n n e l 6 5 1 2 1 1 (b) M a t e r i a l s 5 1= 4 1 4 Cc) O r g a n i z a t i o n 5 1 1 2 (d) S e r v i c e s 6 5 2 1 5 1 (e) Quarters 10 8 l c 1 3 8 2 (f) A p p r o p r i a t i o n s 10 8 1 1 8 2 a,. b. c in departments of e d u c a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s . WO - i n departments of e d u c a t i o n w i t h o u t s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s F u n c t i o n performed by d i r e c t o r of p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . 00 OJ 84 and secondary school libraries tend to be formulated by the same number of departments. Data in this column suggest also that in preparing guidelines, departments have greater concern for school library quarters and appropriations than for personnel, materials, organization and services. Ten departments report the development of guidelines concerning quarters and appropriations, whereas only six report the preparation of guidelines related to personnel, materials, organization and services. The numbers of departments where instructional supervisory staff (curriculum or subject specialists) and instructional support services personnel (audio-visual specialists) particpate in the formulation of guidelines, especially in relation to materials and services, are shown in columns 11-14 of Table 25. Figures in column 12 indicate that, in one of the two departments without a school library supervisor, school library guidelines are mainly the responsibility of these officers. This close relationship between school library supervision, instructional supervision and instructional support services is revealed frequently in the data of this chapter (Tables 25-29). Supervision of School Libraries For the purposes of collecting data on responsibilities of departments of education in supervision of school libraries, this service was interpreted to include the following areas: employment of school library supervisory staff; provision for the participation of school library supervisors in professional conferences; evaluation of school 85 libraries and programs of library education in provincial institutions of higher education; formulation of programs for province-wide school library development; provision of consultative services to individual schools, school systems, and professional and lay organizations; and recruitment of school librarians (Table 26). These areas are divided into twelve sub-headings under "Supervision of School Libraries" on that table. In general, they constitute a composite of departmental supervisory and consultative programs for school libraries. The following factors must, however, be considered in evaluating the data concerning supervision of school libraries, as shown on Table 26: 1. Departments of education are changing in their traditional philosophies toward school supervision. Although they hold the primary objective of supervision to be the improvement of instruction, departments today interpret supervision to mean democratic leadership and guidance, as opposed to the older concept of authoritarian inspection and rating. This philosophy is reflected in a tendency to permit local school authorities to assume greater responsibility for and control of local school organization, curricular content and examinations. The practice of school accreditation has been generally discontinued. Many departments are now providing consultative services only when asked to do so by school boards."' 2. Budgets of departments of education are sometimes so limited that travel to out-of-province professional meetings, employing 86 TABLE 26 Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers Participate in Supervision of School Librarlee (Figures of Column 2 are not Totals of Columns 3 Through 18) Supervision of School L i b r a r i e s Number of departments of education authoriied to administer supervision Deputy Minister of Edu-cation Number of departments with and without school library supervisors ln which officers participate ln supervision . F - * - P - I a — i - dio- R ~ School Library Super-visor ; a r t i f i -catlon Officer Director of teacher Education C u r r i c u -lum or Subject Super-v i s o r v i s u a l D i r s c t o r WO Research O f f i c e r School Plant O f f i c e r 17 18 1. Employing permanent professional supervisory staff 2. Employing clerical assistants for supervisory staff 3. Providing for participation of school library supervisors in provincial, regional, and national professional conferences 4. Evaluating school libraries for purposes of accreditation of schools 5. Evaluating programs of library education In provincial Institutions of higher education offering professional education for school librarians, for purposes of accreditation, etc. 6. Employing temporary consultants for provincial programs of school library development 7. Formulating recosDendatlons and programs for provincial school . library development 8. Giving consultative services on school libraries to Individual (a) Boards of education (b) School administrators (c) School librarians (d) Teachers (e) Citizens 9. Giving consultative services on school libraries to organizations (a) of administrators (b) of school librarians (c) of teachers (d) of citizens 10. Effecting co-operative programs between organizations of school librarians and other pro-fessional organizations 11. Co-operating In organization and programs of student library assistant groups 12. Aaslstlng in recruitment of school librarians w - in departments of education with school library supervisors. WO - ir departments of education without school library supervisor CNA - not applicable to any province. Function performed by director of provincial library services. 87 temporary consultants or employing additional permanent supervisory staff, must be delayed until larger appro-priations are made available. 3. The resulting lack of contact with professional personnel both inside and outside the province deprives deputy ministers of education and directors of instructional services of needed advice and professional information on trends in school library service. 4. The shortage of individuals with advanced training in both education and librarianship tends to discourage departments from initiating developmental program models in areas of school library service where the resources of district or regional school authorities do not permit local initiatives. Personnel Participating in the Supervision of School Libraries Department of education officers most often concerned with the supervision of school libraries are deputy ministers of education, school library supervisors, curriculum supervisors or directors of instruction, and audio-visual directors. Participation in the super-vision of school libraries by these officers is notably higher in depart-ments of education with school library supervisors (Table 26). The area of school library supervision in which the highest number of departments (ten) is authorized to function is in formulating recom-mendations and programs for province-wide school library development 88 (Table 26, item 7). Almost as many departments (eight) possess authority for giving consultative service to boards of education, school adminis-trators, school librarians and teachers (Table 26, item 8). It could be expected that departments would be more apt to be responsible for service to school personnel in their professional positions rather than in associations. However, Table 26, item 9 demonstrates that eight depart-ments are authorized to give consultative service on school libraries to professional organizations of administrators, teachers, and school librarians, as well. In one province without a school library super-visor regional library boards are authorized to provide this service (Table 23, items 12 and 13). Items 5 and 12 of Table 26 deserve particular attention. In view of the need for effective training programs for school librarians, it is significant that no department is authorized to evaluate programs of library education in provincial institutions of higher education offering education for school librarians. Nine departments do assist in the recruitment of school librarians. Seven assign this function to school library supervisors. However, only one department assigns this responsibility to a director of teacher education or professional development. This information indicates that directors of teacher education or professional development are not involved in nine provinces in the recruitment of school librarians. Columns 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 of Table 26 should be examined for evidence of the amount of school library supervisory services available from departments without school library supervisors. Data for 89 three of twelve supervisory service areas are reported in these columns. In only one of these three areas (item 12) are both departments reported to be providing service. These data indicate that school library super-visory services tend to be implemented only in departments where a school library supervisor is employed. Co-operation for School Libraries The co-operative effort of departmental personnel in many areas and subject fields is essential to the development of school libraries as effective instruments of education. The participation of various departmental officers in service to school libraries has been made evident in this chapter. Since co-operation for school libraries in departments of education is so important, however, one illustration of how such co-operation is undertaken may be useful. An example of a method by which departments can be effective in strengthening instructional programs is in the co-operative planning of courses or units of study by curriculum specialists, school library supervisors and teachers. If lists of printed and non-printed materials, or sources of lists of materials are incorporated in provincial curri-culum guides, with suggestions for their use in schools, such guides can be helpful to school administrators, teachers and librarians in improving instruction and the library's service to it. The separate preparation by school library supervisors of lists for school librarians and curriculum guides without lists by subject supervisors or consultants 90 for teachers, although of value, cannot be as effective in demonstrating the interdependence of instruction and school libraries. This study attempted to ascertain the numbers of department of education officers responsible for effecting co-operation in various areas of service to school libraries, both within the departments and between departments and other provincial and local agencies. Data ob-tained in this sector of department of education responsibilities are provided on Table 27. Personnel Responsible for Effecting Co-operation for School Libraries Table 27 shows that effecting co-operation for school libraries is most often the responsibility of school library supervisors. Of particular interest is the number of departments in which the deputy ministers of education or curriculum supervisors (the directors or superintendents of instruction) are responsible for effecting co-operation. In five departments the director or superintendent of instruction is responsible for effecting co-operation among all departmental members having some connection with school libraries (Table 27, A, item 1). In one department the deputy minister of education discharges this function. For more specific aspects of co-operation among departmental staff members in a greater number of departments the responsibility for effecting co-operation is left to the staff members themselves. Of the three officers who share with school library supervisors a respon-sibility for school libraries, audio-visual directors are the most numerous. TABLE 27 Number of Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without, School Library Supervisors, in Which Officers are Responsible For Effecting Co-operation for School Libraries (Figures of Column 2 are not Totals of Columns 3 Through 14) Co-operation for School Libraries Number of departments of education authorized to administer co-operation Deputy Minister of Educa-tion Number of departments with and without school library supervisors in which officers are responsible for effecting co-operation WO School Library Super-visor Certifi-cation Officer WO Director of Teacher Education Curricu-lum or Subject Super-visor W WO Audio-visual Director 1 10 12 A. Co-operation for school libraries within departments of education: 1. Effecting co-operation among all department staff concerned with school libraries 2. Effecting co-operation between school library supervisor and: (a) Certification officer (b) Director of teacher education (c) Curriculum or subject supervisors or consultants (d) Audio-visual director (e) Research officer (f) School plant officer (g) Finance officer B. Effecting co-operation for school libraries of departments of education with other agencies: 1. Effecting co-operation with: (a) Provincial library0 (b) Provincial library extension agency0 (c) Finance division of provincial administration (d) Purchasing division of provincial administration 2. Effecting co-operation with institutions of higher education offering education for teachers and school librarians 3. Effecting co-operation with accrediting agencies con-cerned with school libraries 4. Effecting co-operation with city, county and district boards of education 5. Effecting co-operation with professional associations 10 10 10 10 9 10 NAd 10 W - in departments of education with school library supervisors. W^O - in departments of education without school library supervisors. cIn nine provinces provincial libraries and provincial library extension agencies are combined in one agency. N^A - not applicable to any province. 6Function performed by director of provincial library services. 92 Audio-visual directors have responsibility for effecting co-operation for school libraries with other agencies in three departments of education (Table 27, B) . The most significant data on Table 27 can be isolated when the columns "with" and "without school library supervisors" are compared (Table 27, columns 3-6, 7-10, 11-14). In departments of education with school library supervisors, a greater number of other officers are responsible for effecting co-operation than in departments without school library supervisors. Awareness of the need for co-operation for school libraries is stimulated by school library specialists in departments of education; such awareness may be lacking where there is no specialist to encourage co-operative activities for school lib-raries. Statistics and Research Concerned With School Libraries Of central importance to the planning of departmental policy is the collection of information from local school systems. All depart-ments employ reports from local school boards and annual or special surveys for gathering routine data on pupil enrolment, teaching staff, number of schools, costs per pupil and other matters relating to elemen-tary and secondary schools. Information received by departments is compiled and reported annually to the Education Division of Statistics Canada which arranges for its publication in a series of reports. Statistics on school libraries have, since 1959, been included in the data gathered and reported by all departments to the Education Division. To facilitate uniform accounting and reporting of this data a standard survey form is employed by each department. Information sought in the form sent to local boards in June 19 70 included the number of schools with centralized libraries, pupil enrolments, size of collec-tions of printed and audio-visual materials, payments for library materials, automation of library services, number of professional and para-profes-sional staff and size of the physical facilities of school libraries.^  Information obtained through the annual survey of school lib-raries conducted in each province is of value to departments in planning programs for the improvement of library service in provincial schools. It also enables departments or local school authorities to undertake research studies in problem areas specifically concerned with aspects of school library management, policy or services. Table 28 shows that nine departments have authority to conduct research studies relating to school libraries. Personnel Participating in Statistics and Research Concerned With  School Libraries Responsibilities for collecting statistics and conducting research are assigned in departments of education to school library supervisors, curriculum supervisors and research officers (Table 28). Significant differences appear when the numbers of departments with research officers assigned to both functions are compared. In six departments research officers have responsibility for collecting statistics on school libraries, while in one department, a research officer is responsible for participating TABLE 28 Number of P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education With, and Without School L i b r a r y S u p e r v i s o r s , i n Which O f f i c e r s P a r t i c i p a t e i n S t a t i s t i c s and Research Concerned With School L i b r a r i e s (Figures of column 2 are not t o t a l s of columns 3 through 16) S t a t i s t i c s and research concerned w i t h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s Number of departments au t h o r i z e d to a d m i n i s t e r research and s t a t i s t i c s Number of departments w i t h and without s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s i n which o f f i c e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n research and s t a t i s t i c s  Deputy m i n i s t e r of education W WO School l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r W WO C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r WO D i r e c t o r of teacher education W WO Cu r r i c u l u m or s u b j e c t s u p e r v i s o r U WO A u d i o - v i s u a l d i r e c t o r WO Research o f f i c e r WO 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1. C o l l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s of s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s 2. Conducting research s t u d i e s on sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s 10 W - i n departments of education w i t h s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s . WO - i n departments of education without s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s . Function performed by d i r e c t o r of p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . 95 in research studies related to school libraries. These data indicate that although departments may recognize the need for research studies involving school libraries, most departments attach greater importance to the routine collection of statistics. The participation of a curriculum supervisor or director of instruction in the collection of school library statistics in three departments and in conducting research related to school libraries in one department would seem to be due to the fact that, in these depart-ments, statistics and research on school libraries are combined with statistics and research concerned with curriculum. School library supervisors have expressed the opinion that the incorporation of school libraries with other areas of school programs on departmental statistical forms insure greater significance to the resulting data. Some departments use both separate and combined statistical forms for data on school libraries. In eight departments of education school library supervisors have responsibilities for collecting statistics of school libraries and, in two departments, school library supervisors conduct research studies relating to school libraries (Table 28). Provision of Information on School Libraries An important function of departments of education is the provision of information concerning school library service to librarians, school administrators, teachers and others interested in its development. 96 School library supervisors send periodic bulletins of information on school library materials, sources of materials, professional meetings, and trends to school administrators and librarians; certification officers (registrars) provide information on certification regulations for school librarians through correspondence and the preparation of bulletins; and school library and audio-visual supervisors interpret national and provincial standards for school libraries. Reports on statistical and research studies are made by deputy ministers of education and school library supervisors. Department of education personnel answer many inquiries from the public on the organization and administration of school libraries, especially for elementary schools. The interpretation of the functions and significance of school libraries is one of the major concerns of the school library profession in Canada and particularly of school library supervisors. Personnel Responsible for Providing Information on School Libraries School library supervisors, audio-visual directors and curri-culum supervisors are again the officers to whom a responsibility for school libraries is assigned most frequently in departments of education -in this case, the provision of information on school libraries (Table 29). In departments without a school library supervisor, the relatively low number of items to which any officer is assigned indicate that infor-mation provided by these departments on school libraries may be meagre. In seven departments of education audio-visual directors or specialists are responsible for providing information on materials for TABLE 29 Number of P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education, With and Without, School Library Supervisors i n Which O f f i c e r s Provide Information on School L i b r a r i e s (Figures of Column 2 are not Totals of Columns 3 Through 16) Information on School L i b r a r i e s Number of departments authorized to administer information Number of departments with and without school l i b r a r y supervisors i n which o f f i c e r s provide information on school l i b r a r i e s Deputy Minister of Educa-tion WO School Library Super-v i s o r W O C e r t i f i -cation O f f i c e r WO Director of Teacher Education WO Curricu-lum or Subject Super-v i s o r WO Audio-v i s u a l Director WO Research O f f i c e r 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. Providing information on professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of school l i b r a r i a n s 2. Interpreting functions and si g n i f i c a n c e of school l i b r a r i e s 3. Interpreting school l i b r a r y standards: (a) National (b) P r o v i n c i a l 4. Providing information on professional meetings, trends and developments 5. Providing information on professional publications 6. Providing information on p r i n t and non-print materials for school l i b r a r i e s : (a) Periodic l i s t s (b) Special l i s t s 7. Reporting s t a t i s t i c s and research on school l i b r a r i e s to: (a) Ministers of education and p r o v i n c i a l legislatures (b) Provincial boards (c) General users of school l i b r a r y s t a t i s t i c s and research 10 10 9 10 8 8 2 10 10 10 10 1" 1 C °W - l n departments of education with school l i b r a r y supervisors. b W 0 - in departments of education without school l i b r a r y supervisors. 0Function performed by d i r e c t o r of p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . 98 school libraries. Ten departments employ audio-visual directors, distinct from school library supervisors. Most school library supervisors have some responsibilities related to audio-visual materials. The importance today of audio-visual materials in instruction underlines the need for increased information on sources of non-print materials and techniques for their evaluation, organization, and use. Since school librarians select, organize, and circulate non-print materials, co-operation between school library supervisors and audio-visual directors in departments of education is necessary. Methods Employed for Service to School Librarians and School Libraries To obtain data on methods used by departments of education in carrying out their responsibilities for school library service, respondents were asked to indicate, from a list of twenty-one possible methods, those practices employed for the six areas of service for school librarians and school libraries - certification, standards, supervision, co-operation, statistics and research, and information. (Appendix C: Questionnaire, section IV.) Data obtained from section IV were tabulated by adding and averaging the number of times methods were employed in departments of education with school library supervisors, and in those without school library supervisors. Table 30 summarizes the average number of times methods were used for service in departments of education so categorized. All methods except three - "administrative decision," "conferences of department staff members," and "working with professional committees" - are employed at least twice as many times in departments employing school library supervisors, and the above three are employed more frequently in departments with school library specialists. 100 TABLE 30 Number of Times Methods are Used for Service to School Librarians and School Libraries in Provincial Departments of Education With, and Without School Library Supervisors, by Method Average number of times used In depart- In depart-ments with ments with-school lib- out school Method rary super- library visors supervisors Administrative decision 9 5 Conferences of department staff members 18 10 Conferences with staff members of other agencies 9 4 Preparing provincial curriculum guides 4 2 Preparing bibliographies 5 2 Preparing periodic bulletins and/or book lists 6 3 Preparing brochures, handbooks, manuals 8 4 Reviewing plans of school library quarters 8 4 Providing or arranging for loans of books and materials 8 1 Constructing statistical forms 4 1 Editing statistical forms 3 1 Designing and carrying out research studies 3 1 Working with professional committees 11 8 Organizing meetings 9 3 Conducting institutes and in-service education programs 7 0 Participating in meeting of organizations 9 4 Visits to schools 9 1 Visits to institutions of higher education 3 1 Formulating recommendations 16 3 Correspondence 17 5 Writing reports 10 5 FOOTNOTES See Appendix C. 2 Requirements for Teaching Certificates in Canada (Toronto: Canadian Education Association, 19 71). 3 Canadian School Library Association, Standards of Library  Service for Canadian Schools (Toronto: Ryerson, 1967); Association Canadienne des Bibliothecaires Scolaires, Normes de Service de Biblio-theque pour les Ecoles Canadiennes (Montreal: Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, 1968). 4 James D. Miller (ed.), Media Canada: Guidelines for Educators, 2d ed. rev. (Toronto: Pergamon, 1970). G^ordon L. Mowat, "Changing Relations Between Departments and School Boards," Education Canada, X, 4 (December 1970), 58-59. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Survey of Libraries: Part II  Academic Libraries 1967-68 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19 70), p. 36. C^anada, Bureau of Statistics, "Survey of Libraries in Publicly-Operated Schools - June 1970" (Mimeographed questionnaire-school form). 101 CHAPTER V STRENGTHS AND NEEDS OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION IN GIVING SERVICE TO SCHOOL LIBRARIANS AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES Descriptive statements made by departments of education con-cerning their strengths and needs in serving school librarians and school libraries add instructive information to this study. STRENGTHS School library supervisors emphasized the following strengths: 1. Establishment of position of school library supervisor in department of education; location of position in division of instruction, amalgamation of all personnel concerned with instructional media in one unit within division of instruction; re-organization and integration of previously separate programs for instructional television, radio, film and school libraries. 2. Establishment of regional offices of the department of education; appointment of school library and audio-visual specialists to these.offices. 3. Co-operation among staff members in central and regional offices of department of education. 102 103 4. Flexibility of department of education regulations for local boards of education; freedom of local schools in meeting departmental guidelines. 5. Provincial aid matching local funds; foundation programs. 6. Guidelines for certification of school librarians. 7. Centralized cataloguing service for school libraries. 8. In-service training programs and field services; school library visitations. 9. Support of school library demonstration projects and experimental programs. 10. Publication of lists of new and recommended materials for school libraries. 11. Availability of materials for regional and district school library supervisory personnel. 12. Co-operation with provincial universities for library education programs for school librarians and teachers. 13. Support of local school authorities, school administrators, teachers and librarians for department of education programs for school library development. Strengths emphasized by departments without school library super-visors were as follows: 1. Awareness of the importance of school libraries, and sup-port for their development by department of education staff. 2. Establishment, by region, of a province-wide system of integrated public and school library service. 3. Guidelines for elementary and secondary school libraries. 4. Publications dealing with new materials. 5. Adequacy of secondary school libraries evaluated as part of accreditation process. 6. Procedures for approving plans for school library facilities in both new and enlarged schools. NEEDS Needs of departments of education in giving service to school librarians and school libraries reported by school library supervisors concerned several areas of departmental responsibilities for school library service: Personnel Five school library supervisors stated that additional profes-sional staff were needed to carry out school library programs of depart-ments and to meet requests for service from the field. Four of the statements received are partially reported as follows: Our greatest need is for more staff at the departmental level to provide provincial services. Since there is only one school library specialist employed by the department, school visitations (by the specialist) must be limited to requests from rural school systems which have few if any trained school librarians. It is impossible for one staff member to undertake the many projects (standards, evaluation of materials, provision of information, research, etc.) needed for province-wide develop-ment of school libraries. The establishment of regional offices of the department of education and the location in such offices of school library specialists' positions would help us to provide many district-level services now lacking and greatly needed. 105 Three supervisors made specific mention of the need for more clerical help. The status of the school library supervisory position was ques-tioned by a few supervisors. Two supervisors said that the salary of the supervisor was not commensurate with duties performed or with the salaries of other subject area supervisors or consultants in divisions of instruction. Lack of office space for professional materials and conferences, and distances between the offices of school library and other instructional services personnel, were conditions mentioned by several supervisors as needing correction. Two supervisors commented on the need for greater understanding of school library service and increased co-operation with school libraries on the part of other depart-ment of education personnel. Particular emphasis was given to co-operation between school library and audio-visual specialists. Two supervisors said that there was a need for integration of departmental services in the school library and audio-visual areas. Several supervisors stated the need for co-operative planning involving departments of education, © boards of education and public library authorities to develop regional library service centres capable of providing central ordering, cataloguing and processing services for both school and public libraries. Those areas of departmental services for school libraries and librarians supervisors mentioned most frequently as in need of improve-ment were in-service training programs for school librarians, publications, field services and research. For all of these areas insufficient personnel and budgets were offered as reasons for the needs. In each province, 106 more workshops and in-service training programs are needed in addition to regular training programs for school librarians in university faculties of education and schools of library science. Publications are required to provide lists of recommended materials and to promote an understanding of school libraries by professional personnel and by taxpayers. School library supervisors need more time to provide consultative service to local school administrators and librarians. Three supervisors ex-pressed a need for more school library supervisors in municipal and district school systems. Field service for the organization and pro-motion of elementary school libraries is a pressing need in all provinces. Research studies cannot be undertaken due to lack of time. Finance The need for greater provincial aid for school libraries was mentioned, especially for the establishment of basic collections of materials in new or remodelled schools. Four supervisors said that existing provincial aid formulae for school instructional personnel should be revised to include specific appropriations for school lib-rarians. Two supervisors stated the need for provincial grants or bursaries to assist teachers and school librarians to undertake training in school librarianship. As has been mentioned, both department budgets for school library services and salaries of supervisors were considered inadequate. 107 Standards and Certification Several school library supervisors mentioned the need for up-to-date standards for elementary school libraries and for more work with schools on the implementation of existing school library guidelines and standards. The need for revised certification regulations for school librarians was mentioned; six supervisors stated that a person employed as a school librarian should be required to complete a minimum number of library courses. All supervisors noted the lack of local funds to enable schools to employ sufficient numbers of trained librarians and to meet Canadian School Library Association standards in materials, organization and services. Departments of education without school library supervisors tended to explain the needs of the province's school districts rather than of the department in school library service. Listed as needs were higher standards of training for school librarians, more professional school librarians at the school building and regional levels, in-service training of teachers in the use of school libraries, higher school budgets, and centralized ordering, cataloguing and processing services at the district or regional level. One department said that the re-grouping of local school districts in library regions was necessary for the organization of school libraries, while the second department stated that a review of the policies and practices of school and public libraries was a present need in determining the relationship that should or could exist between both agencies. 108 In general, departments of education, both with and without school library supervisors, in discussing their own strengths and needs in serving school librarians and school libraries, showed awareness of their importance to education as well as an interest in improving departmental programs for their development. Most departments of edu-cation have small staffs and very limited budgets. Even those with larger staffs and more generous financial support are called upon to serve hundreds of schools beyond their capacity to meet demands. Inter-pretation of the requirements of departments in staff and funds for all aspects of education, including school library service, is undoubtedly a central need. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to analyze the current nature and extent of responsibilities assumed by provincial departments of education for school library service. The study was confined to an examination of the status of the legal bases of provincial department of education responsibilities for school library service; the personnel employed by departments of education for service to school librarians and school libraries; the duties which are performed by these personnel; the principal areas of responsibilities and services for school lib-rarians and school libraries in departments of education; the methods by which these responsibilities and services are put into practice by each department; and the strengths and needs of departments of education in giving service to school librarians and school libraries. Information was obtained using a closed-form, structured ques-tionnaire. The instrument utilized was based upon one designed and employed by the United States Office of Education for a 1959 survey of state department of education responsibilities for school library develop-ment. The questionnaire was administered during interviews held with members of the staffs of ten departments of education during the summer of 1971. The data received and reported here will, it is hoped, provide a base for further research studies and assist departments of education in giving leadership for the development of school library service in Canada. 109 110 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The development of school library service is a constituent part of provincial department of education responsibilities. Ten depart-ments of education have legal responsibilities for the development of school libraries and all departments perform services relating to them. Laws and regulations pertaining to these responsibilities apply to all provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools, and in one province, to non-provincially-supported elementary and secondary schools. Certification, guidelines (standards), supervision, statistics, research, the provision of information and co-operation for school library development are the major categories of department of education respon-sibilities for school library service. Basic responsibilities, such as effecting co-operation for school library development and collection of school library statistics, are fulfilled in a greater number of depart-ments than other areas of service. Ten provinces provide some form of direct aid for the construction and equipping of school libraries, and six offer varying forms of direct aid for school library materials. No province provides direct provincial aid earmarked for school librarians. Centralized ordering services for school library materials are offered by two departments of education and some form of centralized processing by three. Exclusive of provincial aid for school library construction and school library materials, nine departments allocate percentages of their total budgets for services to school libraries and school librarians. A figure is not available from one department of education. All Ill departments provide special or periodic lists of library materials and/or materials selection aids for the guidance of school librarians and teachers. One department of education provides direct assistance to a provincial school library demonstration project. In 1969-70, the year for which data were collected for this study, eight departments of education employed professional school library supervisors. There is presently in the central office of each of the eight departments one school library supervisory position. One department with a school library supervisory position in its central office has established, in addition, five school library specialist positions in its regional offices. The most generally used employment procedures for school library supervisors are provincial civil service commission and department of education regulations. The positions are equated in education depart-ments with subject supervisors or consultants. In departments of education with library divisions, they are usually on the same level as supervisors of other types of libraries. All incumbent school library supervisors possess Bachelor's degrees and have specialized in Library Science. Prior experience of incumbents was most extensive in the fields of secondary school librarianship and teaching. School library supervisors spend the highest percentage of their time on field services and on activities requiring work with groups and individuals. Activities such as attending out-of-province professional meetings and conducting research studies occupied a much lower average percentage of their time. Heavy demands for field services were reported by all departments of education employing supervisors. 112 Services for school librarians and school libraries are rendered by department of education personnel other than school library supervisors: deputy ministers of education and assistants; certification officers (registrars); directors of teacher education; curriculum or subject supervisors; audio-visual supervisors; research officers; school plant officers; finance officers, and others. Of these, audio-visual and curriculum or subject supervisors and consultants are the officers who contribute in the highest number and to the greatest extent to service for school library development. In one of the two departments of education without school library supervisors a curriculum supervisor has chief responsibility for the department's services for school lib-rarians and school libraries. In the second department a director of provincial library services has this responsibility. The participation of all department of education personnel other than school library supervisors in service for school librarians and school libraries occurs to a higher degree in departments with school library supervisors than in those without. Provincial department of education personnel have some under-standing of their own strengths and needs in relation to services for school librarians and school libraries. Of first importance, in state-ments made by members of department professional staffs, is the appoint-ment of additional school library specialists and clerical staff in central and/or regional offices of departments of education. Other needs especially noted were the integration of departmental school library and audio-visual service units, co-operative planning with 113 local authorities for the establishment of centralized ordering, cata-loguing and processing services at the regional or district level, the improvement of publications, the development of research, and the broad-ening of field services, particularly to local school administrators and librarians. More service to elementary schools was also stressed. Increased provincial aid and up-to-date standards for school libraries are considered essential for school library development. Department of education personnel are aware of the necessity for up-grading certification regulations for school librarians and for co-operating in the development of training programs for school librarians. The study demonstrates that provincial departments of education have broad responsibilities for the development of school library service and are fulfilling them to some extent. Insufficient personnel and inadequate budgets, however, are seriously curtailing their programs for the development of this service. SUGGESTED FURTHER RESEARCH Several areas of the present study merit further investigation. Subsequent studies might be made to examine in depth: 1. the development of school library services in individual departments of education; 2. provincial legislation and regulations concerning school libraries and librarians; 3. the financial support provided by provinces for the develop-ment of school library service; 114 4. provincial school library supervisors: their duties, training needs, attitudes and recruitment; 5. problems related to the integration of audio-visual and school library services in departments of education; 6. co-operation between departments of education and local school boards in developing school library service; 7. the role of departments of education in planning province-wide information systems or networks which include school libraries; and 8. the methods employed by department of education personnel in securing the support of local school personnel and the public for programs for school library development. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Government Publications Alberta. Department of Education. Annual Report 19 70. Edmonton: Queen's Printer, 19 71. British Columbia. Department of Education. Annual Report 1969-70. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 19 71. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Advance Statistics of Education 1970-71. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Advance Statistics of Education 19 71-72. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Canada Year Book 19 70-71. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19 71. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. The Organization and Administration of  Public Schools in Canada. 3d ed. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1966. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Preliminary Statistics of Education  1968-69. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19 70. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Survey of Education Finance 1966. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19 70. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. "Survey of Libraries in Publicly-Operated Schools - June 19 70." (Questionnaire: School Form) Canada. 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School Library Supervision: Proceedings of the Second Library Institute. Los Angeles: Immaculate Heart College, 1958. American Association of School Librarians. Standards for School  Programs. Chicago: American Library Association, 1960. Library 117 American Association of School Librarians and Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association. Standards for  School Media Programs. Chicago: American Library Association, 1969. American Association of State Libraries. Standards Revision Committee. Standards for Library Functions at the State Level. Chicago: American Library Association, 19 70. Association Canadienne des Bibliothecaires Scolaires. Normes de Service de Bibliotheque Pour les Ecoles Canadiennes. Montreal: Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, 1968. Barker, Catherine and Brian Burnham. The New School Library: Problems  in its Evolution and Recommendations for its Development. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1968. Canadian School Library Association. Standards of Library Service for  Canadian Schools. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1967. Church, John S. Personalizing Learning: a Study of School Libraries  and Other Educational Resource Centres in British Columbia. A study sponsored jointly by the Education Research Institute of British Columbia and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Vancouver: Educational Research Institute of British Columbia, 1970. Council of Chief State School Officers. Responsibilities of State Departments of Education for School Library Services: a Policy  Statement. Washington: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1961. d'Arcy, Grace. "Education for School Librarianship: a CSLA Committee Report," Moccasin Telegraph, XIV (February 1972), 58-69. Davis, Sally M. "Meet Your Supervisor of School Libraries," NTA Journal, LXI, 2 (December 1969), 16-18. "Developments in Canadian Education: 1968-69," Education Canada, IX, 3 (September 1969), 43-54. Education for School Librarianship in Canada. Proceedings of a workshop held at Jasper Park Lodge, Alberta, on Saturday, June 8, 1968, sponsored by the Canadian School Library Association, The Alberta School Library Council, and the Saskatchewan Association of School Librarians. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1970. Evans, Lyle, "Provinces Control - School Libraries in Canada," School  Libraries, VII (March 1958), 17-19. 118 Fennell, Doris. "From Mini to Multi-School Libraries in Ontario," Ontario Library Review, LII, 2 (June 1968), 71-74. Friderichsen, Blanche. "School Libraries in Alberta," Education Canada, IX, 2 (June 1969), 14-20. Gaver, Mary V. and Milbrey L. Jones. "Secondary Library Services: a Search for Essentials," Teachers College Record, LXVIII, 3 (December 1966), 200-210. Graham, Mae. "State Agency Responsibilities for School Media Programs," School Libraries, XIX, 4 (Summer 19 70), 12-16. Katz, Joseph. Society, Schools and Progress in Canada. London: Pergamon, 1969. Kennon, Mary Francis and Leila Ann Doyle. Planning School Library  Development. Chicago: American Library Association, 1962. "Major Trends: Reorganization and Decentralization," Education Canada, IX, 3 (September 1969), 43-54. Marshall, John M. and June E. Munro. "Summary of a Survey of Library Technician Training Programs in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan," Feliciter, XVII, 1-2 (January-February 19 71), 3-12. Miller, James D. (ed.). Media Canada: Guidelines for Educators. 2d ed. rev. Toronto: Pergamon, 19 70. Mowat, Gordon L. "Changing Relations Between Departments and School Boards," Education Canada, X, 4 (December 19 70), 57-59. Newcomb, Ruth Becker. "Role Expectations of the School Library Super-visor as a Function of the Distance Between Expected and Perceived Fulfillment," Educational Leadership, XXVIII, 6 (March 19 71), 637-640. Peel, Bruce (ed.). Librarianship in Canada, 1946 to 1967: Essays in  Honour of Elizabeth Homer Morton. Ottawa: Canadian Library Asso-ciation, 1968. Requirements for Teaching Certificates in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Education Association, 19 71. "Resolutions of the 16th Annual Conference," Canadian Library, XVIII, 2 (September 1961), 50. "Revision of Standards," Moccasin Telegraph, XIV (November 1971), 4. 119 Saskatchewan Association of School Librarians. Proposed Standards for School Libraries in the Province of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation, 1964. Saunders, Helen E. The Modern School Library: Its Administration as a  Materials Center. Metchuen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1968. Scott, Margaret B. "School Libraries in Canada, 19 71," Canadian Library  Journal, XXIX, 2 (March-April 19 72), 118-138. Sullivan, Peggy. Impact: the School Library and the Instructional Program. A Report on Phase I of the Knapp School Libraries Project. Chicago: American Library Association, 1967. "A Survey of School Libraries in Canada," Canadian Library Association  Bulletin, XV, 5 (March 1959, 172-201. Welch, Robert. "Budgets and School Boards," Educational Media, III, 3 (June 1971), 19. Wilson, J. Donald, Robert M. Stamp, and Louis-Philippe Audet (eds.). Canadian Education: a History. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1970. Wright, John G. "Canadian Standards for School Libraries," School  Progress, XXXVI, 6 (June 196 7), 16-18. Wright, John G. "Directory of School Library Associations in Canada, 19 70-71," Moccasin Telegraph, XIII (February 19 71), 25-28. Wright, John G. "The Politics of the School Library," APLA Bulletin, XXX, 3 (September 1966), 75-79 Wright, John G. "School Librarianship in Western Canada: a Decade of Professional Growth," Moccasin Telegraph, XIII (February 1971), 3-13. C. Unpublished Material Coggin, Mary. Telephone call. February 10, 19 72. Sbrocchi, Frances M. "School Libraries in British Columbia: From Boxes of Books to Resource Centres, 1872-19 70." Unpublished essay, University of British Columbia, 19 71. P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r Schoo l L i b r a r y S e r v i c e Res pons i b i 1 i t i es 1969-70 Th i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s i n P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment s o f e d u c a t i o n . Th i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s sought by the w r i t e r f o r a s t udy wh ich he i s u n d e r t a k i n g i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the degree o f Ma s te r o f A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Cop ie s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a re be i n g s en t to the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r o r o t h e r o f f i c i a l h a v i n g s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n each of the ten depa r tment s o f e d u c a t i o n . Two c o p i e s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a re e n c l o s e d f o r y o u r u se . P l e a s e comp le te one o f the c o p i e s and r e t u r n i t to the w r i t e r as soon as p o s s i b l e by r e g i s t e r e d ma i l i n the stamped enve l ope p r o v i d e d . Your c o o p e r a t i o n w i l l be d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t e d . DIRECTIONS FOR COMPLETING THIS QUESTIONNAIRE 1. P l e a s e s u p p l y f i g u r e s f o r the 1969-70 s c h o o l y e a r , i n o r d e r t h a t depa r tment of e d u c a t i o n annua l r e p o r t s f o r t h a t y e a r may be r e a d i l y u s e d . 2. P l e a s e answer a l l q u e s t i o n s w i t h a check (/ ) , o r c h e c k s , e x c e p t as o t h e r w i s e d i r e c t e d . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED 1. E l emen ta r y s c h o o l . A s c h o o l composed o f any span o f grades not above grade s e v e n . S p e c i a l c l a s s e s o r s c h o o l s f o r e m o t i o n a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y hand i capped c h i l d r e n a re i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . 122 123 2. Secondary s c h o o l . A s c h o o l wh ich compr i s e s any span of g rades b e g i n n i n g w i t h the nex t grade f o l l o w i n g the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and end ing w i t h or below grade 12. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y are j u n i o r h i gh s c h o o l s , h i gh s c h o o l s , c o l l e g i a t e s , and v o c a t i o n a l o r t r a d e h i gh s c h o o l s . 3. N o n - p r o v i n e i a l l y - s u p p o r t e d s c h o o l . A s c h o o l e s t a b -l i s h e d by an agency o t h e r than the P r o v i n c e o r i t s s u b d i v i s i o n s wh i ch i s p r i m a r i l y s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r than p u b l i c f u n d s , and the o p e r a t i o n of whose program r e s t s w i t h o t h e r than p u b l i c l y e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s . 4. S choo l l i b r a r i a n s . F u l l - t i m e p e r s o n n e l who have more than h a l f of t h e i r w o r k l o a d devo ted to s e r v i c e as s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s . SECTION I LEGAL BASES OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICE 1. Does P r o v i n c i a l law p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment o f e d u c a t i o n ? YES NO 2. Is the l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment of e d u c a t i o n f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d by: (a) Specific Provincial laws relating to school libraries? (b) General Provincial laws providing for rules and regulations by Lieutenant-Governor in Council? 3. Is the p o s i t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r of s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment of e d u c a t i o n by: (a) Provincial law? (b) Provincial department of education regulation? (c) Other? (Please specify) ' 124 Does the P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e d i r e c t P r o v i n c i a l a i d f o r Schoo l l i b r a r i a n s ? YES NO_ Does the P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e d i r e c t P r o v i n c i a l a i d f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s ? YES NO_ I f y o u r answer i s " y e s " to e i t h e r (a) o r ( b ) , o r both (a) and ( b ) , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the p l a n f o r P r o v i n c i a l a i d : Do P r o v i n c i a l laws or r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l  1 i b r a r i a n s a p p l y t o : 1. Provincially-supported elementary schools? 2. Provincially-supported secondary schools? 3. Non-provincially-supported schools? Do P r o v i n c i a l laws or r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l l i b r a r y q u a r t e r s a p p l y t o : 1. Provincially-supported elementary schools? 2. Provincially-supported secondary schools? 3. Non-provincially-supported schools? Do P r o v i n c i a l laws o r r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l  1 i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s (books and non-book m a t e r i a l s ) a p p l y t o : 1. Provincially-supported elementary schools? 2. Provincially-supported secondary schools? 3. Non-provincially-supported schools? Do P r o v i n c i a l laws o r r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l  1 i b r a r y s e r v i c e s a p p l y t o : 1. Provincially-supported elementary schools? 2. Provincially-supported secondary schools? 3. Non-provincially-supported schools? 125 (e) Do P r o v i n c i a l laws or r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l l i b r a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s a p p l y t o : 1. Pvovincially-supported elementary schools? 2. Provincially-supported secondary schools ? 3. Non-provincially-supported schools? 6. Does the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment of e d u c a t i o n m a i n t a i n a mandatory l i s t f rom wh ich s c h o o l l i b r a r y books and/or non-book m a t e r i a l s must be pu rchased ? YES NO Does the P r o v i n c i a l depar tment o f e d u c a t i o n adopt l i s t s f rom wh ich s c h o o l l i b r a r y books and/or non-book m a t e r i a l s must be pu rchased ? YES NO Does the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment o f e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e c e n t r a l i z e d o r d e r i n g s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y books and non-book m a t e r i a l s ? YES NO 9. Does the P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e or pay f o r c e n t r a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y books? YES NO_ 10. P l e a s e g i v e e s t i m a t e d p e r c e n t o f t o t a l budget o f P r o v i n c i a l depar tment o f e d u c a t i o n a l l o t t e d to depar tment s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s ( i n c l u d i n g s a l a r i e s , t r a v e l , p r i n t i n g , m a i l i n g , but e x c l u d i n g P r o v i n c i a l a i d ) . 11. P l e a s e g i v e the number o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s w i t h s choo l l i b r a r i e s m a i n t a i n e d by the P r o v i n c e i n p u b l i c l y - s u p p o r t e d t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n i ns t i t u t i ons . 12. P l e a s e l i s t P r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s o t h e r than t he P r o v i n c i a l depar tment o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . 1 . 2. 126 SECTION II PERSONNEL FOR SERVICE TO SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND SCHOOL LIBRARIANS IN PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION 1. How many p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l are t h e r e to p r o v i d e f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s ? 2. How many c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l a re t h e r e to a s s i s t f u l l -t ime p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l i n s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s ? (a) Full-time c l e r i c a l personnel? (b) Part-time c l e r i c a l personnel? 3. P l e a s e g i v e the t i t l e s o f p o s i t i o n s of p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l p r o v i d i n g f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s . (a) (b) (c) 4. P l e a s e g i v e the name of the d i v i s i o n of the depa r tment o f e d u c a t i o n i n wh i ch f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r -v i s o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s a re l o c a t e d . 5. P l e a s e g i v e the t i t l e s of o t h e r p o s i t i o n s i n the d e p a r t -ment of e d u c a t i o n comparab le i n s t a t u s and s a l a r y t o a f u l l - t i m e s u p e r v i s o r of s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s or s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s c o n s u l t a n t . (a) (b) (c) 6. P l e a s e g i v e date o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f : (a) f i r s t professional position in school l i b r a r y supervision (b) second professional position in school l i b r a r y supervision , (c) t h i r d professional position in school l i b r a r y supervision 127 7. P l e a s e g i v e t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f , who have h e l d p o s i t i o n s as f u l l - t i m e P r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s or c o n s u l t a n t s s i n c e s u p e r v i s o r y s e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d . 8. P l e a s e p r o v i d e a b r i e f summary o f y o u r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . P l e a s e p r o v i d e the same i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a s s i s t a n t s u p e r v i s o r ( s ) under you r d i r e c t i o n . Item S u p e r v i s o r 1 S u p e r v i s o r 2 S u p e r v i s o r 3 T i t l e o f S u p e r v i s o r U n i v e r s i t y degrees No. o f y e a r s as e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n No. o f y e a r s as s econda ry s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n No. o f y e a r s as e l emen ta r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r No. of y e a r s as s econda ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r No. of y e a r s as a p u b l i c l i b r a r i a n No. o f y e a r s as a c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i a n No. of y e a r s i n p r e s e n t pos i t i on 128 9. P l e a s e g i v e e s t i m a t e d p e r c e n t o f the t ime wh i ch you spend on a c t i v i t i e s f o r s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i o r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s . ( I f t h e r e i s more than one a s s i s t a n t s u p e r v i s o r under y o u r d i r e c t i o n p l e a s e g i v e average p e r c e n t . ) A c t i v i t y E s t i m a t e d % o f t ime 1. Con fe rence s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups 2. O r g a n i z i n g meet ings 3. P r e p a r i n g t a l k s 4. A t t e n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l meet ing s i n the P r o v i n c e 5. A t t e n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l meet ing s o u t s i d e t he P r o v i nee 6. F i e l d t r a v e l and f i e l d s e r v i c e s 7. C o n d u c t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s 8. Read ing and r e v i e w i n g s c h o o l l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s 9. P r e p a r i n g s p e c i a l o r p e r i o d i c l i s t s 10. P r e p a r i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s 11 . Co r r e spondence 12. W r i t i n g r ecommenda t i on s , r e p o r t s , a r t i c l e s 13. O the r a c t i v i t i e s {Please specify) 100% 129 10. P l e a s e g i v e number o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y p e r s o n n e l i n the P r o v i n c e to whom the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment o f e d u c a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g i v i n g s e r v i c e . I f 1969-70 f i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e p l e a s e e s t i m a t e . I f e s t i m a t e s a re u s e d , w r i t e " e s t . " a f t e r f i g u r e . P e r s o n n e l Number 1 . C i t y , county and d i s t r i c t s c h o o l l i b r a r y s uperv i s o r s 2. P r o v i n c i a l l y - s u p p o r t e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l 1 i b r a r i ans 3. P r o v i n c i a l l y - s u p p o r t e d s e conda r y s c h o o l 1 i b r a r i ans 4. L i b r a r i a n s o f combined e l e m e n t a r y - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s wh ich a re p r o v i n c i a l l y - s u p p o r t e d 5. L i b r a r i a n s o f n o n - p r o v i n c i a l l y - s u p p o r t e d s c h o o l s 11. Are p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l o f the P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment of e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s i o n a p p o i n t e d (a) under a p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l service merit system? (b) according to P r o v i n c i a l department rules and regulations for position? (c) other? ' (Please describe b r i e f l y ) 12. P l e a s e g i v e the number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l o f the P r o v i n c i a l depar tment o f e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d i n g p a r t - t i m e s e r v i c e to s choo l l i b r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s . I n c l u d e s t a f f such as c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r , s c h o o l p l a n t o f f i c e r , p u r c h a s i n g o r f i n a n c e o f f i c e r . 130 13. P l e a s e g i v e the t i t l e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l o f the depar tment of e d u c a t i o n engaged i n p r o v i d i n g p a r t - t i m e s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s , and e s t i m a t e the p e r c e n t of t ime g i v e n by them i n s e r v i c e to s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and l i b r a r i a n s : T i t l e s o f P e r s o n n e l Es t i mated % o f t ime 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5 -6. 7. 8. 9 . 10 SECTION m Present Provincial Department of Education Responsibilities and Services for School Libraries • Directions for completing the following table: j 1. Column 1 lists responsibilities and services for school libraries. | 2. Please place a check (y) opposite an item in the column or columns, which indicate the agency (Provincial department of education, board of educa-I • tion or other agency) authorized to administer the item, and the department of education staff members to whom responsibility or service is assigned. | 3. If an item is not administered by any Provincial or local agency in your province, please write "does not apply" opposite the item. Responsibility or service Provincial department of educa-tion is authorized to administer __ item Item is assigned in Provincial department of education to Local board of education is author-ized to administer item Assistant Deputy Minister of Edu-cation School library super-visor Certifi-cation officer Director of teacher educa-tion Curricu-lum or subject super-visor or consul-tant Audio-visual director Research officer School plant officer Purchas-ing or finance officer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A. Certification of School Librarians: 1. Formulating regulations for certification of school libra-rians 2. Evaluating credentials of school libarians for certification . B. Standards for School Libraries: 3. Formulating standards for elementary school libraries: (a) Personnel (h) M t^Ti^ U (c) Organization _ (d) Services -(e) Quarters _ (f) Appropriations _ _ 4. Formulating standards for secondary school libraries: (a) Personnel (h) Materials (c) Organization (d) Services (e) Quarters (0 Appropriations C. Supervision of School Libraries: 5. Employing permanent professional supervisory staff 6. Employing clerical assistants for supervisory staff 7. Providi  for p rticipatio  of school library supervisors in Pr vi cial, regional and national rofessional confer-ences 8. Evaluating school libraries for purposes of accreditation of schools 9. Evaluating programs of library education in Provincial institutions of higher education offering professional education for school librarians, for purposes of accre-ditation etc 10. Employing temporary consultants for Provincial programs of school library development 11. Formulating recommendations and programs for Provin-cial school library development 12. Giving consultative services on school libraries to indi-vidual (a) Board*; nf education (h) School fldminiQ(ratr>r^ (r) Schnnl l ibrarians (H) TVarhprs (e) Citizens 13. Giving consultative services on school libraries to orga-nizations (a) nf administrators (b) nf school lihrarians (r) nf tparhers (H) nf ritizpps 14. Effecting cooperative programs between organizations of school librarians and other professional organizations. 15. Cooperating in organization and programs of student library assistant groups 16. Assisting in recruitment of school librarians D. Cooperation for school librarie  within Provincial depart-ments of education (ie) in curriculum development: 17. Effecting cooperation among all Provincial department staff concerned with school libraries. 18. Effecting cooperation between school library supervisor and: ' (a) Certification officer (b) Director of teacher education (c) Curriculum or subject supervisors or consultants (d) Audio-visual director (e) Research off icer (f) School plant nfficer (g) Purchasing or finance officer —. E. Effecting ooperatin for school Libraries of Provincial de-partments of education with other agencies: 19. Effecting cooperation with: (a) Provincial library (b) Provincial library extension agency (c) Finance division of Provincial administration ' (d) Purchasing division of Provincial administration 1 20. Effecting cooperation with institutions of higher education offering education for teachers and school librarians... 21. Effecting cooperation with accrediting agencies concern-ed with school libraries 22. Effecting cooperation with city, county and district Boards of education _ 23. Effecting cooperation with professional associations F. Statistics and Reserch concerned with schol libraries: 24. Colecting statistics of school libraries 1 25. Conducting research studies on school libraries G. Information on chool librari : 26. Providing information on professional qualifications of school librarians 27. Interpreting functions and significance of school libraries 28. Interpreting school library standards: (a) National. (b) Provincial 29. Providing information on professional meetings, trends and developments 1 30. Providing information on professional publications ! 31. Providing information on print and non-print materials i for school libraries: (a) Periodic lists • (b) Special lists 32. Reporting statitics and research on school libraries to: (a) Ministers of education and Provincial legislatures (b) Provincial boards (c) General users of school library statistics and research SECTION IV Methods by Which Provincial Departments of Education Responsibilities and Services for School Libraries are Put into Practice i Directions for completing the following table: J 1. Column 1 lists responsibilities and services for school libraries. ; 2. Please place a check 0") opposite an item in the colum or columns which indicate the methods by which responsibilities and services are put into practice. 3. If an item is not administered by your Provincial department of education, please check column 23. Item is put into practice in Provincial department of education by Responsibility or service Ad-mini-strative deci-sion Confer-ences of depart-ment staff mem-bers Confer-ences with staff mem-bers of other agen-cies Prepar-ing Provin-cial curri- \ culum guides Prepar-ing biblio-gra-phies Prepar-ing perio-dic bulle-tins and/or book lists Prepar-ing bro-chures, hand-books, man-uals Re-viewing plans of school library quar-ters Provid-ing or arrang-ing for loans of books and mate-rials Con-struct-ing statis-tical forms Editing statis-tical forms Design-ing and carry-ing out re-search studies Work-ing with profes-sional com-mittees Orga-nizing meet-ings Con-ducting Insti-tutes and in-service educa-tion pro-grams Partici-pating in meet-ing of organi-zations Visits to schools Visits to institu-tions of higher educa-tion Formu-lating recom-menda-tions Corre-spon-dence Writ-ing reports Item does , not apply 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1* 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 A. Certification of School Librarians: 1. Formulating regulations for cer-tification of school librarians. 2. Evaluating credentials of school librarians for certification B. Standards for School Libraries: 3. Formulating standards for ele-mentary school libraries: (a) Personnel (b) Materials (c) Organization. (d) Services (e) Quarters (f) Appropriations. 4. Formulating standards for sec-ondary school libraries: (a) Personnel (b) Materials (c) Organization (d) Services _ (e) Quarters i (f) Appropriations C. Supervision of School Libraries: 5. Employing permanent profession-6. Employing clerical assistants for supervisory staff 7. Providing for participation of school library supervisors in Provincial, regional and na-tional professional conferences 8. Evaluating school libraries for purposes of accreditation of schools 9. Evaluating programs of library education in Provincial institu-tions of higher education offer-ing professional education for school librarians, for purposes of accreditation, etc. , — • — = — 10. Rinptoylnu ifmnnniry conmttlintN for Provincial prolinuria of school library development 11. Formulating recommendations and programs for Provincial school library development 12. Giving consultative services on school libraries to individual (a) Boards of education (b) School administrators. (d) Teachers (e) Citizens. 13. Giving consultative services on school libraries to organizations! (a) of administrators (b) of school librarians (c) of teachers (d) of citizens | 14. Effecting cooperative programs j between organizations of ] school librarians and other 1 professional organizations i 15. Cooperating in organization and | programs of student library j assistant groups i 16. Assisting in recruitment of school D. Cooperation for school libraries within Provincial departments of education (ie) in curriculm de-velopment: 17. Effecting cooperation among all Provincial department staff concerned with school libraries 18. Effecting cooperation between school library supervisors and: (a) Certification officer (b) Director of teacher education (c) Curriculum or subject supervisors or consultants.. (e) Research officer (f) School plant officer . . ...... g) Purchasing or finance officer E. Effecting cooperation for school libraries of Provincial departments of education with other agencies: 19. Effecting cooperation with: (a) Provincial library (b) Provincial library extension age y (c) Finance division of Provincial administration (d) Purchasing division of Provincial administration .... 20. Effecting cooperation with in-stitutions of higher education offering education for teachers and school librarians 21. Effecting cooperation with ac-crediting agencies concerned wi t h school libraries 22. Effecting cooperation with city, county and district Boards of cducit ion 23. Effecting cooperation with pro-f #*cc i n n nt i c * 2 r \ f i f i t t r t f l G F. Statistics and Research concerned with school libraries: 24. Colecting statistics of school 25. Conducting research studies on G. Information on school libraries: 26. Providing information on pro-fessional qualifications of c r h r * r i 1 l i h r n r i n t i Q 27. Interpreting functions and sig-nificance of school libraries.— 28. Interpreting school library stan-dards: ( LS ^  P TC\ V1 f l /*• i a 1 29. Providing information on pro-fessional meetings, trends and developments 30. Providing information on pro-fessional publications 31. Providing information on print and non-print materials for school libraries: (a) Periodic lists (b) Special lists 32. Reporting statistics and research on school libraries to: (a) Ministers of education and Provincial legislatures (b) Provincial boards c General users of school library statistics and ; 1 research i 133 SECTION V P l e a s e i n d i c a t e b r i e f l y the s t r e n g t h s and needs o f y o u r P r o v i n c i a l depa r tment o f e d u c a t i o n i n g i v i n g s e r v i c e t o s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s and s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . 

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