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The functional aspects of fountains: both as an artifact and image inherent in medieval Western European… Hanbury, Douglas Bruce 1972

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THE  F U N C T I O N A L A S P E C T S OF F O U N T A I N S : BOTH A S AN A R T I F A C T AND IMAGE I N H E R E N T I N M E D I E V A L • WESTERN E U R O P E A N ART,  by DOUGLAS BRUCE  HANBURY  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a ,  1970  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S MASTER in  FOR THE DEGREE  OF  OF ARTS'  t h e Department o f F I N E A R T S •'  We  accept  required  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H April,  1972  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis i n partial  advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for by  that  copying of t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  thesis f o rfinancial  written  permission.  Department o f  FINE  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  APRTT, l U  i  gain  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ARTS Columbia  1Q7?  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  ABSTRACT  My importance found to  purpose of the  throughout  show by  throughout  this  fountain, both Medieval  as  this  m o t i f becomes  and  functionally  an  an  i s to define  artifact  and  Western European A r t .  means o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l  how  paper  and.graphic  identifiable  inherent i n the  object  a r t of the  an  the image  I intend  variations, artistically  latter  Middle  Ages. The of  the  I  and  any  given  Chapter types, in  clarifying  Biblical  or  relation  ligia not by a  stands only  the  two  to the as  survived, with  only  a  few  defines the  of  parti-  to  any  instances  examples  variations  to  of fountain  formation of a tradition manuscript  deals w i t h the The  pictorial role Fonte  a s u p r e m e e x a m p l e o f how a source  of water  medium e x p r e s s i n g t h e  embedded imagery.  of the  fountain  Maggiore the  means o f i t s e n c y c l o p e d i c s c u l p t u r a l communicative  and  I n a number o f  select  community.  f u n c t i o n s as  a study  aspect.  literary  Chapter in  one  to  disappearance'  to literature  engravings.  deemed i t n e c e s s a r y  illustrate  have  to manuscripts,  drawings  or  fountains dictates  s m a l l number w h i c h  attention  extent  displacement  majority of Medieval  a relatively cular  destruction,  civic  at  fountain  supply, but program,  social,  the  Per-  also  becomes politi-  cal  and t h e h i s t o r i c a l  mune.  content  Furthermore, the highly  program c l e a r l y defines thirteenth  century  The  third  chapter  Again,  function  o f t h e image. The  Two  literary  capitalize  o f the Middle  Biblical  tradition,  artists'  ability  man's  desire,  i m a g e . . One may exist  icoriographic  i n each  assume t h e r e f o r e ,  of  s a t i s f y i n g our physical  society  to find  human, p h y s i c a l  fore,  perhaps  of  Life,  concepts  case  may  into  take,  - that  e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or through  any g i v e n  aspect, that  of Life.  demonstrates the  form t h e fountain  of  the  the foun-  impregnated i n  of Life  f o r a particular function.  surprising  finds  pattern.  exist a similar function  fying  as a  image i n t h e c l o s i n g Deeply  the Fountain  No m a t t e r w h a t does  source  of the Fountain  Ages.  develop.  the p i c t o r i a l  as t h e F o u n t a i n  of this  to formulate  c l e a r , cohesive  Italian  the fountain  construes  literary  paintings  the importance  generations  a  tradition  functioning  f i f t e e n t h century  with  com-  sculptural  was t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y  deals  most i m p o r t a n t  symbolically  sophisticated  the d i r e c t i o n i n which  sculpture  symbol.  tain  of a Medieval'Italian  maintains  The f o u n t a i n  i t s primary  desire  o u r modern  a l l Medieval  relationship with  o f an e n t i r e l y a e s t h e t i c the major  difference  of satisthe mental  fountains as an image  function,  f o rwater.  fountain  there  I t i s not  designers a less  that  replacing  functional  motivation.  There-  between M e d i e v a l and  Modern ism,  fountains  the  latter  former  becoming  tends  t o be  acting  as  in their  nature  a catalyst of  visually,  of functional-  a society,  aesthetically oriented  the  in a  new  tradition. The of  a r t as  and as  tions tive  as  a transmitter  beliefs, an  fountain  therefore,  an  image d e f i n e s  o f images  d e f i n i n g the  agent  o f image  formulation.  as  an  exercise  i n the  i n the  creation  of  standing  i n the  an  key  of i t s significance.  realm  importance of  values  r o l e of the  Hence, t h i s  examination artifact  the  study  of imagery  for a better  artist func-  operaunder-  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  PAGE LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  i v  INTRODUCTION I  THE  1  MEDIEVAL CIVIC  FOUNTAIN  FOUNTAINS  BIBLICAL II  THE  5 7  ILLUSTRATIONS  FONTE MAGGIORE AT PERUGIAN  CIVIC  OF  PERUGIA  24  FOUNTAIN PROTOTYPES  25  THE  S C U L P T O R S AND  27  THE  SCULPTURAL  INSCRIPTIONS  PROGRAM  31 ITS ,  32  LOWER C I S T E R N  334.  . UPPER CISTERN  45  THE  IV  11 20  HISTORY  S C U L P T U R A L ICONOGRAPHY: SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS  III  FOUNTAINS  BRONZE GROUP  50  THE  F O U N T A I N AS A SYMBOL  THE  O R I G I N AND S I G N I F I C A N C E THE OCTAGONAL F O U N T A I N F O U N T A I N OF L I F E : PRADO  AND  OBERLIN SUBJECT  •  .  52  OF . '  PAINTINGS OF THE  •  PAINTING'  SCRIPTURAL ALLUSIONS FOUNTAIN IMAGERY I N JOHN  '60  64 66 68 68  i i  INSCRIPTIONS CONFRONTATION SYNAGOGUE  I N THE P A I N T I N G  OF CHURCH  69  AND 71  E U C H A R I S T I C A S P E C T S I N THE  V  PAINTING  74  THE B A P T I S M A L A S P E C T .  75  THE  FORM OF THE  76  THE  S I G N I F I C A N C E OF THE T A B E R N A C L E  FOUNTAIN  77  MESSIANIC ASPECT F O U N T A I N I M A G E R Y AND THE A N C I E N T C E L E B R A T I O N OF THE F E A S T OF. THE TABERNACLE  79  CONCLUSIONS  80  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS  82  THE  FONTE  THE  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E  FOOTNOTES:  MAGGIORE  85 87  INTRODUCTION  89  CHAPTER  89  I  CHAPTER I I  93  CHAPTER  III  100  CHAPTER  IV  10 4  CHAPTER V  10 7  BIBLIOGRAPHY A P P E N D I X A:  APPENDIX  B:  78  10 9 D I A G R A M M A T I C VIEW OF FONTE MAGGIORE  THE  N U M E R I C A L P L A C E M E N T OF S C U L P T U R A L F I G U R E S SURROUNDING THE" FONTE MAGGIORE  119  120  APPENDIX  C:  ILLUSTRATIONS  V I T R U V I U S AND OF WATER  THE  CONDUCTION  iv  L I S T OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  FIGURE  '  :'' \- •  P A  GE  1.  C I V I C F O U N T A I N AT V I T E R B O  12 5  2.  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E . • G O S P E L S O F ' S A I N T ' MEDARD DE S O I S S O N S  126  3.  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E .  127  4.  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E . MAUSOLEUM P L A C I D I A AT RAVENNA • " •:•  5. '  F O U N T A I N OF L I V I N G WATER.  GODESCALC G O S P E L S  M A N U S C R I P T , BAMBERG  OF  GALLA ' /• -'; ' - •• • ..12 8  REICHENAU ,  129  r  6.  G E N E R A L V I E W , FONTE MAGGIORE' AT --PERUGIA  130  7.  G E N E R A L V I E W , FONTE MAGGIORE A T P E R U G I A  131  8. 9.  FONTE G A I A AT S I E N A B A P T I S M A L FONT I N THE CHURCH OF SAN F R E D I A N O AT L U C C A  132  10.  B A P T I S T E R Y P U L P I T AT P I S A NICOLA PISANO  (1260). 134  1 1 . - P U L P I T FOR THE CHURCH OF S. ANDREA AT P I S T O I A ( 1 2 9 7 - 1 3 0 1 ) . . GIOVANNI PISANO 12.  13.  D E T A I L OF THE R E L I E F P A N E L FROM THE FONTE MAGGIORE. THE L I O N AND THE GRIFFIN D E T A I L OF THE F A L L  OF MAN,  13 3  FROM  135  136  THE  FONTE MAGGIORE  137  14.  R E L I E F PANEL,. FONTE MAGGIORE  138  15.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE MAGGIORE  139  26.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE MAGGIORE  140  17.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE MAGGIORE  141  18.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE MAGGIORE  142  19.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE MAGGIORE  143  V  FIGURE  •  PAGE  20.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  :  .  ]_44 .  21.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  145  22.  RELIEF  P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  146  23.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  147  24.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  148  25.  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  149  26.  R E L I E F P A N E L . . D E T A I L OF  RHETORIC  AND A R I T H M E T I C  150  27.  D E T A I L OF THE U P P E R C I S T E R N  151  28.  D E T A I L OF THE U P P E R  CISTERN  152  29.  D E T A I L OF THE U P P E R C I S T E R N  153  3:0.  D E T A I L OF THE U P P E R C I S T E R N  154  31.  D E T A I L OF THE U P P E R C I S T E R N  155  32.  L E S T R E S R I C H E S HEURES DH DUC DE B E R R Y . THE GARDEN OF E D E N TRES R I C H E S HEURES. M E E T I N G OF THE T H R E E MAGI  15 6 15 7  TRES RICHES HEURES. L I V I N G WATERS  15 8  33. 34. 35.  HIERONYMUS BOSCH. GARDEN OF E A R T H L Y  36.  FOUNTAIN  I N THE  37.  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E  THE  FOUNTAIN  D E T A I L OF THE DELIGHTS  PRADO,  ROMANCE OF THE ROSE. OR L I V I N G  38.  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E .  39.  DETAIL LIFE: DETAIL LIFE:  159 160  WATERS.  PRADO MUSEUM  40.  OF  161 O B E R L I N C O L L E G E MUSEUM 16 2  OF THE O B E R L I N F O U N T A I N THE C H R I S T I A N S OF THE O B E R L I N F O U N T A I N THE JEWS  OF 16 3 OF 164  vi  FIGURE 41.  42. 43.  44.  • D E T A I L OF THE O B E R L I N P A I N T I N G : MUSICAL ANGELS  46.  1  6  5  D E T A I L OF THE PRADO P A I N T I N G :• THE JEWS  16 6  THE C R U C I F I X I O N WITH P E R S O N I F I C A T I O N S OF L I F E AND D E A T H , CHURCH AND • SYNAGOGUE. REGENSBURG'  16 7  FONT COVER FROM THE CHURCH OF SUDBURY S T . P E T E R , ENGLAND' " • ;  45.  ..PAGE  .168  THE F I G U R E OF E C C L E S I A FROM STRASBOURG CATHEDRAL  169  THE F I G U R E CATHEDRAL  17 0  OF SYNAGOGUE FROM STRASBOURG  47.  E C C L E S I A FROM BAMBERG' C A T H E D R A L  171  48.  SYNAGOGUE FROM BAMBERG C A T H E D R A L  172'  INTRODUCTION  The topic  of  o f medieval  fountain  under d i s c u s s i o n throughout  considerably are  concept  minor,  within the last  or f o rthat  the medieval  I  only  a  symbolic  mind  No  choose t o examine one image  becomes the  and g r a p h i c  as. b e i n g ,  not  latter  Middle  I have  itectural  chosen  they the  fountain  gressive towards  not only  of fountain  explicitly  object  of  medieval arch-  the fountain  artistically inherent  two u n r e l a t e d - w o r k s  and a number o f g r a p h i c  and g r a p h i c a l  development  only  i n  Ages.  examine i n d e t a i l , illustrations,  Ages".  interpretation of,the  v a r i a t i o n s , how  an i d e n t i f i a b l e  longer  i n ' the. "Dark  mode o f t h i n k i n g , b u t a l s o t o s h o w , b y m e a n s itectural  changed  superstitious aesthetics  t o dwindle^  or illusionistic  paper, has  few c e n t u r i e s .  matter,  left  this  imagery, the  fortheir  and i m p l i c i t l y  r e l a t e s through  fountain  v a r i a t i o n s ' i n ' arch-,  expressions, imagery  of a r tto  but also  f o r the  i n the variety of con-tain.  I n each  i t s iconography,  d i r e c t i o n of the medieval s o p h i s t i c a t i o n the nearer  mind.  motifs example,  the pro-  The image  one a p p r o a c h e s t h e  moves  2  humanistic  motivation of the  decade o f the no  longer  of  a certain  revival  acceptable  of  though It  to  things, past  being  century, the  concept  both  perhaps  as  should  the  of the  Middle  a historical  highest  Gothic  net  a step  a negative  By  u n i v e r s a l man,  than  and  a  criterion--  very  act  of  aesthetic ideal with Classicism a r t of the  in quality  F o r t u n a t e l y , no of  a  i n the  Middle  lowes:t  clarity  more  a e s t h e t i c judgement.  hence  the  was  spite  A g e s t h e r e f o r e , came  greatest a d v e r s i t y from C l a s s i c a l  reached.  were  "which.in  moment o f  level  closing  forward.  Renaissance,  a l s o c a t e g o r i s e the  the  the  images  result  concept  one—of  seems n a t u r a l t h a t t h e  identifying  the  a n t i q u a r i a n i s m , the  The into  fifteenth  Renaissance.  Classical  longer  t h a t had do  f o r m as  Ages ideas  ever  as  and-,  been •  art historians  the  only  the  possible  accept artistic  ideal. The  practice  a e s t h e t i c way, to  satisfy  and  this  considerations, fountain, having community  life,  accessory  to  for to  one the  to  the  take  as  l o o k i n g at  production  things  in a  of objects  purely  destined  a e s t h e t i c sense to the  exclusion of  other  is a relatively  development.  The  lost  recent  i t s original  i s now  landscape  antique  aesthetics,  of  functional  regarded  as  design.  A perfectly  i s t o presume t h a t were  designed  they  are  as  today.  simply  a  But,  normal  formal  f o r our  in  decorative  fountains  purely  role  concept  belonging problems ancient  in and  3  medieval predecessors, primarily only  of  an e x p r e s s i o n  t o provide  ally,  things.  to ism  pure water, but also  century  centuries, think was  t o embody  accessory.  man  when t h e i l l i t e r a t e  b y means o f c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and b e l i e f s  could  fountain  fountain.  masses were  of verbal  scheme  from  i n t h e image he h a d o f a  i n the abstractions  institutions,  the  He d i f f e r e d  a n a t u r a l way o f i m a g i n a t i v e  was o n l y  was  symbolic-,  i n the external  I. e m p h a s i z e , h e d i d n o t r e g a r d  as a d e c o r a t i v e  twentieth  of the fountain  o f i t s f u n c t i o n , w h i c h was n o t  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of water  simply  For  the design  unable  imageries,  symbol-  t h i n k i n g because i t forms  have  that  ideas,  any c o n v i n c i n g  reality  2 and  popular  valxdxty.  c h a n g e s , a n d how variety  they  of motifs, The  W h a t may h a v e i n turn  constitutes  according  by  man's  culture  by  the psyche  to sufficiently  correspond  can u t t e r .  is  as messages  there the  interpersonal  1 4  of this  thing  roughly  i s deter-  The  to the vocabulary  o f t h e image  In a medieval are received  communication.  w o r d , t h e i m a g e may  reforming  images,possessed  i s often  at i t s  beyond  s o c i e t y , t h e image  from nature  o r through  In a literate  i s enormous e x p a n s i o n o f message p o t e n t i a l :  written  study.  demanding'changes.posed 3  and environment.  what words  direct  the subject  such  i n a  t h e image i s c o n t i n u a l l y  command, b u t t h e r i c h n e s s  altered  expression  i m a g e a man h a s o f a g i v e n  mined by h i s e x p e r i e n c e ; itself  found  constituted  receive  and absorb  society through impulses  4  from d i s t a n t times  and  places.  potential  becomes r e a l i t y  arts  shares  also  images. of  a  The  i n the  visual  as  This  the  s o c i e t y m u s t be  regarded  of  message  development of  formation  artifacts,  idea  and  that as  visual  transmission  i s the  the  the  of  physical  r e s u l t of  the  capital struc-  5 turxng  of  symbols  the  material  provide  the  substance  basic  changes both  occur  and  cultural  transmission  and  biological The  in  the  the be  seen.  --the the  than for  on  of  Life  his  evaluating to  rely  immediate  a student  image.  Visual  through which and  are  genes  to  are  cultured  culture  to  biology  of  a transmitter of  beliefs, image  of  and  the  key  formulation, major  fountain  the  Fonte  Maggiore  images  role  can  my  is alike  artistic  tends  a r t as  and  communication  In  what the  and  agent  of  i n the  a person  values  an  Fountain  similar  recorded  of  Hence,•in both  image  components  are  importance  as  an  transmission.  realm of  artist  and  of  of  readily  illustrations at  Perugia--  i n function, yet  dis-  expression. messages on  challenging  the  image  held,  his  c u l t u r a l background rather 7 experience. I t becomes e s s e n t i a l  a r t h i s t o r y t o become aware o f  the  censor-  s'. .  ing  role^played  him  to  r e j e c t or  Therefore, of  this  by  the  misinterpret study  imagery operative  better  i m a g e s he  understanding  i s an i n the of  holds;  they  often  art unfamiliar to  exercise  i n the  creation of  an  i t s significance.  cause  him.  examination artifact  for  a  5  ' CHAPTER  THE M E D I E V A L  The  destruction,  the majority of Medieval  of  a relatively  to  attention  i s pure,  been i n s p i r e d in  used  of  to manuscripts,  water:  are never  o r an a r t i f i c i a l  life,  and i n times  life,  achieves  the w i l l  as  i tbursts  a  itself."*"  of natural  forth  identific-  enough t o be  fountain. to describe a  contrivance f o r the display Water, the g i v e r o f  destruction,  and i t s ' apparent into  t o have  References of  the taker of  i n t h e f o u n t a i n an appearance  o f man:  and  None o f t h e s e  detailed  f o u n t a i n may b e u s e d  o r even water  to  to literature  f o r purposes  i n reconstructing  word  spring  useful  study  survived, with  and e n g r a v i n g s .  although  as, e v i d e n c e  natural  have  a  as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e s u r e  and topography,  The  disappearance  f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t by fancy.  literature,  ation  or  fountains, dictates  s m a l l number w h i c h  any e x t a n t drawings  sources  FOUNTAIN  displacement  of  particular  I  desire  of  obedience  to. p l e a s e ,  the a i r , or flows p l a c i d l y  b r o n z e ' m o u t h , m u s t h a v e made a s o l e m n  from-a  i m p r e s s i o n on t h e  6  rustic  mind.  of medieval  Clearly,  t h e i m a g e .of a f o u n t a i n  man, p r o d u c e d ' a  feeling  presence  o f some d i v i n e  goodwill  from t h e i n c a l c u l a b l e  ing or  t o Morton,  course to the to  manifestation, forces  a clear  of nature.  a poet  of  Accord-  i ti s a device  equally  Furthermore,  i thas t h e a b i l i t y  t o j o y and melancholy,  t o appeal t o  eye and t o t h e e a r , t o s t a n d a t a s t r e e t f i l l  sign  has given nothing but p l e a s u r e i n the  of a long history.  minister  t h a t h e was i n t h e .  t h e f o u n t a i n h a s no enemies:  invention which  to. t h e m i n d  p o t s , " o r i n a garden  to assist  corner  ready  the meditations of  or philosopher.  The appear  classification  difficult,  of fountains  but i ti s , i n fact,  No m a t t e r how. c o m p l e x o r how m i n u t e classified  i n one o f two  may  at  first  a very simple process.  a fountain,  i t c a n be  categories:  " F o u n t a i n s , " wrote Bacon, " I i n t e n d t o be o f two natures: the one.that sprinkleth o r spouteth water; the other a f a i r receipt o f water, o f some t h i r t y o r f o r t y f o o t s q u a r e , b u t w i t h o u t f i s h o r s l i m e o r mud.' ,l+  Bacon's  description  duality  of fountains:  fall. tains  The l a t t e r  more t h a n  t e n d t o be t y p i c a l l y  ed by t h e s e i c e n t o Medieval into  describes the  which  and waters  classification,  hand, t h e development  uished  waters  accurately rise  or "falling  water"  which foun-  m e d i e v a l w h i l e on t h e o t h e r  of the "jetting  water." i m a g e i s e x p a n d -  i n Italy. fountain  distinct  types  groups--the  may b e f u r t h e r , secular  disting-  and t h e e c c l e s -  7  iastical. in  each  case been passed  fountain In  The e v o l u t i o n  civil,  o f t h e image o f t h e f o u n t a i n , has down f r o m c l a s s i c a l  The  Civic'  The  continuity of Italian  Fountain  development survives as i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  to  the later  tains  are not merely.the  sical  and economic  ence and a m b i t i o n complexity The ships  fountains,  in  a few e x a m p l e s . the transition  i s a gradual  The e v o l u t i o n  of civic  and o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g  o f the towns, they  new e c o n o m i c ,  epitomize  the proximity  the develop-  and p r a c t i c a l  to the civic  of the fountain  o f phy-  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  spiritual,  o f t h e commune.  foun-  independ-  expressed by t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l  of the fountains  process,  flavour  architectural reflection  growth,  t h e main squares  how  type  o f urban o r g a n i z a t i o n  are often  position  through  civic  s t y l e owes much o f i t s d i s t i n c t i v e  a continuity of vision.  ing  and N o r t h e r n  only  f r o m t h e Romanesque t o t h e G o t h i c and  antiquity."*  relation-  juxta-  and r e l i g i o u s  Daniel  Waley  centres  demonstrates  i s i n direct' r e l a t i o n s h i p R  with  the a u t h o r i t a t i v e c e n t r a l core  dispenser site its  of the water  of the medieval accessibility  supply  fountain  o f t h e town, both were  As t h e form and  l a r g e l y determined  by  t o t h e community.  I n ' n o w a y am I s u g g e s t i n g construction  o f t h e town.  developed  during  that  civic  the duration  fountain  of the Middle  8  Ages.  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  Classical  .  .  maintained  theirs.  t o sunken  In both wells,  These  i n less  here  o r spout  a basin  and  falls  clear  basins  every  century I t a l i a n  towns  supply i s  o r i n more h i l l y r e g i o n s regions,  springs  a r e sometimes  which  left  i s scooped  are usually  found  a more  obvious  gush  forth  as t h e y a r e ,  frequented;-places ; though,  often  out i n a r o c k so  a n d i s more e a s i l y  t h e communes, t h e y almost  s u p p l y in,--much t h e  instances, water  and t h e A l p i n e  particularly  in  and f i f t e e n t h  of supply i s the natural  from t h e rocks.  water  water  i n Hellenistic.and  7  throughout Tuscany source  fountains  Rome m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r  same way- a s f o u r t e e n t h  limited  civic  accessible.  fountain  that But,  more r a d i c a l l y  centre has i t s p u b l i c  even  adapted, with  a n d s p o u t s , w h e r e t h e ; women:.!can come t o f i l l p  their  p i t c h e r s ^ and wash t h e i r , c l o t h e s . .Sometimes t h e w a t e r be  brought  close  f r o m some d i s t a n c e  a t hand.  many y e a r s .  t o feed the fountain had t o away i f t h e r e was no  The c o m p l e t i o n o f w a t e r  Be t h i s  a s i t may, we k n o w  1254-, t h e P e r u g i a n s r e s o l v e d Monte' P a c c i a n o , t h o u g h ,  owing  to build  aqueducts  spring took  f o r example, i n  an aqueduct  to the d i f f i c u l t i e s  from t o be q  surmounted, Pliny'the  the water  Elder,  duct'-isystem  d i d not reach the Piazza  observing the highly  developed  until Roman  12 8 0 . aque-  remarked: But i f anyone w i l l n o t e t h e abundance o f w a t e r ..; s k i l f u l l y b r o u g h t i n t o t h e c i t y , f o r p u b l i c u s e s ,  9  f o r baths., f o r p u b l i c b a s i n s , f o r h o u s e s , r u n n e l s , s u b u r b a n gardens and v i l l a s ; i f he w i l l n o t e t h e high aqueducts.required f o r maintaining the proper e l e v a t i o n ; t h e m o u n t a i n s w h i c h h a d t o be p i e r c e d f o r - t h e same r e a s o n ; a n d up t h e v a l l e y s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o f i l l up; he w i l l c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e w h o l e t e r r e s t r i a l orb. o f f e r s n o t h i n g m o r e marvellous.-'- -' 1  It  is interesting  t o compare P l i n y ' s  Republican waterworks transportation Appendix the  C) . "  be  a  Vitruvius  c e n t u r y and  of  account  of  water  i n h i s De_ A r c h i t e t t u r a  (See  functioned well  became t h e  a d o p t a b l e mode  into of  water.  The to  the t e c h n i c a l  Vitruvian hydraulics  L1  sixteenth  conducting  by  with  description  development o f Medieval c i v i c  fairly  varieties:  generalized  water  fountains  statement, consisting  i s discharged into  an  open  of  seems two  receptacle  12 from above, ed by The  or another i n which  a superstructure  form of the  level the  spring  the  ground,  ing  down t o i t .  may  and  the  be  depends  the  i s a t a low  from a nearby water  (as i n t h e  fountain  of the water  c a n be  filled;  or bubbles  up  spring  collected  protect-  Siena).  e x t e n t on  a basin with  or cleft  fountain  into into  a cistern  o r t h e r e may.be no  steps  i n the rock,  The  If  relative  s o u r c e and  a basin.  the  i n a hollow i n  I f i t flows from a h i g h e r ,  from a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n be  Nuovo a t  to a certain  i s usually  piped to the  may  Fohte  is  formation of the region.  level  fountain  natural  spouts  the r e s e r v o i r  lead-  level,  the  jet forth  water  from  from which  spouts, simply a  the  pitchers basin  10  filled to  i n some o t h e r  the level  spouts  of. t h e w a t e r .  i n their  cisterns  with  again,  fountains  r a t h e r they  f o r domestic  c o n s t i t u t e d t h e main  consumption  covered  fountains  f o r the b e n e f i t o f the populace  most p a r t  closely  partially  d u e t o t h e more' . a v a n t - g a r d e n a t u r e  bound t o n a t i v e  and t o t h e g e n e r a l l y  rural  centres..  shaft  rising  fountain  f r o m .a h e x a g o n a l  water  The .design  of  remains  civic  f o r the  t r a d i t i o n . . This  conservative  Viterbo's  imposing  and, n a t u r a l l y , formed  p l a c e s - f o r t h e common f o l k .  installation  have  by  were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  gathering  age  may  close  spouts.  ornamental;  supply  The b a s i n s ,  f r o n t w a l l s , o r may b e r e p l a c e d  Medieval or  w a y , p e r h a p s b y means o f a h o l e  i s •  of the patron-  inclinations. of the  (figure  1, a  columnar  o r round b a s i n ) , f o r i t s  p r o v i d e d - r e l a t i v e l y easy  access  to the  d r i n k i n g "water. As - c i v i c adorned  fountains  fashion, the complexity  proliferated  into  images  be r e a d  ieval  progressed  could  societies,  historical,  relating  the p o l i t i c a l ,  Mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n s most e f f i c i e n t  medium.  an i l l u s t r a t e d through  sculpturally  Sculptural  figurative  being  o f images  b o o k b y t h e med-  and t h e s o c i a l  came i n t o  a  of programization  a communicative like  into  means t h e  aspects  because  they  of-society. are the  m e a n s y e t f o u n d t o m e e t some o f t h e p r e s s i n g 13  needs  of society.  something  t o watch  Accordingly,  man h a s - a l w a y s  over h i s environment  needed  and r e p o r t  to him  11  any  dangers  opinions  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s ;  and f a c t s ,  to h e l p pass society  sometimes  h e l p a group  on l o r e  to circulate  make d e c i s i o n s ;  something  and wisdom and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  t o t h e new m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t y ;  something  to enter-  14 tain  people  on a b r o a d  The al  scale.  fountain's  decoration  sculptural  o f a French  cathedral  mass m e d i u m , o r e s s e n t i a l l y around about type  t h e same t i m e , t o l a r g e  Fohte  Maggiore  the  Bible  speak  may b e c a l l e d  reader  o f Fountains  represent subjects  Biblical  illustrations  taken  illustrations.  I mean, o f c o u r s e ,  i n Biblical  title  I have  chosen  I, h a v e n o t u n d e r t a k e n  entitled  Pisano's  from  When I pictures  manuscripts, to explain  them. The  that  This  demonstrated  program on N i c o l a  which  which were i n c o r p o r a t e d or adorn  t h e same m e s s a g e , a t  numbers o f p e o p l e . ^  Illustrations  pictures  of Bible  organized  at Perugia.  Biblical  All  the port-  f a c a d e , becomes a  image i s a d e q u a t e l y  throughout the s c u l p t u r a l  like  a w o r k i n g group  some d e v i c e f o r c i r c u l a t i n g  o f communicative  program,  forthis  an a m b i t i o u s t a s k .  i t "Manuscript Miniatures"  might  justifiably  upon a s u b j e c t  which,  section  expect  indicates  I f I had  or "Illuminations," the  a thorough  disquisition  from the beginning o f manuscript  12  tradition, if  such  poses  many  c o n j e c t u r a l problems.  a theme w e r e . a d e q u a t e l y  comprised w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f :  a  field  reader  thorny with  with  modern s c h o l a r s .agree. This there or  i s no t h o r o u g h  thesis.  I cannot  Alas, there  account here  Biblical  inevitably imply, ation  they  tend  illustrations.  suggests,  a small properly  an i n i t i a l  even present  the  on w h i c h agreement.  t o e x p l a i n why  I.shall a false  miniatures  avoid idea  The w o r d  these,  of early  "miniature"  e t y m o l o g i c a l l y i t does n o t  and e x q u i s i t e p i c t u r e ; and the-word means a d e c o r a t i v e  border  the early B i b l i c a l  seemed t o be n o t h i n g  of this  illumin-  or the decoration  illustrations  sort.  as w e l l as p a g a n b o o k s  incident narrated  main  i t i s  letter.  Among  Christian  though  Because  on m a n u s c r i p t  t o suggest  n o t be  i s n o t much  i n order  i l l u m i n a t i o n s . ' But i n any c a s e ,  Christian  an  this  of the opinions  has been s t a t e d  words because  of  treated, i tcould  controversy,  a summary a c c o u n t  Moreover,  i n the text.  c o n c e r n was t o u s e t h o s e  there  The i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n  attempted  simply  to depict  Hence, t h e i l l u s t r a t o r s '  themes t o p r e s s  home a 17  moral a  lesson  result,  local like  they  accuracy. that  today, text,  o r t o s t r e s s c e r t a i n dogmatic were u t t e r l y Therefore,  o f engraving  i s that  innocent  of historical  the function of  at a later  of illustration  s e r v i n g as a k i n d  tenets.  date  As or  illumination,  o r photography  o r accompaniment t o a w r i t t e n  of pictorial  elucidation.  1  13  The quently might the  fountain  depicted i n Christian  expect, medieval  fountain  existed  figure for  the Virgin  Biblical  illuminators  To s t i l l  or the sacred Christian  illustrative  allegorical i t stood  Scriptures:,  examples,  what  one  fountain.  i n detail,  i n early  Genesis,  No m a t t e r  proceeding,, however, i n examining  the fountain  about  Bible  something  a few  s h o u l d be  illustrations  said  i n general  the form o f the manuscripts. Book i l l u s t r a t i o n s  The  the foun-  c o n n o t a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d , t h e r e r e m a i n e d  Before  and  literary  others  the Four'Gospels.  image .constant t h r o u g h o u t — t h e  about  various  T o some o f t h e i l l u m i n a t o r s ,  and e s p e c i a l l y  As one  c o n t i n u e d "the u s e o f  implicitly  or Ecclesia.  i s fre-  and a r t .  i n Eden, t o o t h e r s i t s t o o d as an  of Christ  Apocalypse  an image w h i c h  literature  motif t o express  interpretations. tain  i s o f course  illustrated  Virgil  were n o t a C h r i s t i a n  i n the Vatican Library,  invention.  ascribed to  20 the  f o u r t h .century,  by i t s date  illustrated.Biblical into  vogue a t about  ascendant, at  least  or  rolls.  ing;  But, because  conserved.  That  about  the earliest  was c o n v e n i e n t  but because-of  that  than  any  a r t form  came  was i n t h e  i t . was d e v e l o p e d  or  ~  must be s a i d  knows - t h a t  this  t h e t i m e when t h e C h u r c h  i t was b y t h e C h u r c h 2f  A word Everyone  text.  alone, i s older  referring  the form o f e a r l y had the form o f  enough  scrolls  f o r continuous  tqgparticular  books.  read-  passages, the  14  form of the first for  of  the  codex  books  adoption  fourth  leaves  a l l for compilations of the  distinguished the  (separate  by  chapter  of the  century..  Christian  Bible, or  of  bound  together)  l a w . a n d became  even before verse.  likely  Therefore,  our  earliest  The  were  Professor Lowrie  not  earlier  liturgical  used  adaptable  i t s contents  c o d e x , was  a r t are-, s c r o l l s .  was  suggests  than  the  examples  of  books  the  of  2 3 C h u r c h w e r e of. c o u r s e Medieval popularity  well  into  rulers  i n the  the  their  where they  'found  styles  which, and  of  f o r the  his  p r o t e c t i o n of  ninth century  the  so-called  most p a r t (the  Corbie-St.  "Palace  and  French  F l a n d e r s , the  School  School  on  Rhine),  call  the  parts, side  of  or  Middle opposed  Denis,  into  flourishing  Carolingian  being.by  School,"  the  the  Emperor  Schools  of  School  in  Franco-Saxon  clearly 26  Wurzburg, reflect  and  the  Ada  these  currents.  abridged  versions of  illustrators  B i b l e s , " which "moralised"  parallel  ruler  continued  of Tours,  Bible  the  secular  Under the  the  Medieval  "historiated  and  found i t s  Carolingian renaissance,  called  Rheims  diametrically  the  codex.  s u c c e s s o r s , a r t i s t s took t h e i r models 24 • ' . . them. . The s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a r t 2 5  successors  the  illustration  s i x t e e n t h century,.  and  istic  form of the  manuscript  under' t h e  Charlemange  i n the  passages  p r o d u c e d w h a t we  Biblical  gave o n l y  Bibles, the  stories the  setting  moral  known  might as  main n a r r a t i v e forth  by  interpretations  the to  be  15  drawn  from them.  particularly and  According t o Emile  influencial  fifteenth  Male,  on t h e a r t i s t s  c e n t u r i e s , were  two works  of the  the Biblia  fourteenth  pauperum, and t h e  28• S p e c u l u m humanae s a l v a t i o n i s ( c a . 1 3 2 4 ) . each  scene  parallel ancient guide  f r o m t h e New  anecdote history.  oldest  above  the Old, or f a i l i n g  that,  from  a veritable  iconography.  fountain  symbols  i n C h r i s t i a n iconography  of Faith, the virtue held  i s one o f indispensable  a l l others t o the salvation of the Christian soul.  Allusions  t o Baptism,  continuously casual very  i s accompanied by a  Therefore, i tconstitutes  t o medieval The  the  from  Testament  In the latter,  and Regeneration a r e  represented i n various  glance  close  Purification  at figures  fashions.  two and t h r e e w i l l  The most  c  reveal the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two C a r o l i n g i a n 29  full-  page i l l u m i n a t i o n s . If disregard ed  about  we  omit  the backgrounds  some d i f f e r e n c e s the tempietto-like  distinction  i s that  on t h e b i r d s  the later  version  little  ing  i ti n a pseudo-perspective.  and animals  f o r i t removes  pictures  present  i n turn  a basin  carry  roof.  We  of water  a small  canopy  group-  (Soissons) treats  are' f o r t u n a t e  any p o s s i b l e  and  remaining  b u i l d i n g i n a more d e s c r i p t i v e f a s h i o n  respect,  tent-like  consideration,  structure,. the only  the  which  from  doubt  that  by  i n this  t h e two  surmounted by e i g h t dome, c o v e r e d  The b a r r i e r s u r r o u n d e d  render-  columns  by a  by t h e columns i n  16  'the  Godescale  preted  as  gestion  picture  a' p i s c i n a ,  of  (figure  3 ) , can  therefore  be  inter-  drawn i n e l e v a t i o n , d e s p i t e t h e  Strzygowski  that  the  diagonally  sug-  cross-hatched  31 area  represents  lattice-work  grilles.  In both i l l u m i n a t i o n s of the  allusion  ietto-like cisely  those  as  which 32  represent,  Therefore,  representations  of baptismal  Life, temp-  i t s elements  are  I would  i t s superstructure,  of  Whatever the  constitute numerical  fonts.  o f w a t e r and  Fountain  number e i g h t .  s t r u c t u r e might  baptismal pool  i s to.the  the  pre-  significance of tend  to  i n both  regard  the  instances,  fonts.  F  A  further allusion  illustrations motif.-' as  the  stag,  The  stems  stag  symbol of man  context years  of  Placidia ation  typifies  the  with  by  the  baptismal  repeated  piety-'and  s o l i t u d e and  use  the  Church.  The  mosaic  p u r i t y of  Baptism. •  tradition  perhaps  be  (figure  m o s a i c , now  i n the of  the  life.  to  of  the  well the  Professor •  as  A  British  similar  thematic  of  Museum, f u r t h e r  in this  the  case  early  Galla inspir-  f'ohte'  s i x t h -century  Christian adaptation 3 6  the  in  i n the  Mausoleum of  illustrations  4).  wo if t ht h ep a rs tt ia gc u lmaor t iefm .p h a's i s  firmly  the  stag  Like  According  regarded  for both manuscript 35  ingenuity  of  of  a s p i r a t i o n , as  fonts, establishes itself  could  aspect  custom of p l a c i n g f i g u r e s o f h a r t s  acq'ua v i t a  the  from the  is purified 34  Underwood,  to  dell'  Carthaginian  demonstrates  of  the  Biblical  text,  on  the  repeated  use  In Gospel the  (figure  deer  stag  the  or hart  there  derives  mere a d j u n c t s On  to  the  use  baptism, exhibited  The St.  around'fonts,  might  easily  a strict  artistic  John's  (figure  to  regarded  as  than- t h e  inclusion  of  I f i t were not  the  d i s r e g a r d such  in  and  their  rites  of  associations.  i t becomes  iconographic  clear  of  What i s i l l u s t r a t e d vision.  how  become.  the  Fountain  is a clear The  As  conformity  e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y ' Bamberg A p o c a l y p s e ,  revelation  for  liturgical  of Life  pictorial  fountain flows  represents  (figure  A n d h e s h o w e d me a p u r e r i v e r o f w a t e r l i f e , c l e a r as c r y s t a l , p r o c e e d i n g o u t t h e t h r o n e o f God, and o f t h e Lamb.  apocalyptic  in  dismissed  illustrations,  have  has  a setting  in literary  ecclesiastic  schools  2)  c o u l d be  picture.  and  The  streams,  T h e s e m i g h t be  significance  of  from  a s s o c i a t i o n of harts with baptism  w i t h i n both  adhered to the  Gospels  t o them i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  one  animal  termed a.hart.  scene or  present, i n the  Godescale  significance  other hand, they  animals  repeated  Soissons  a water  other  references  s u r e l y be  specimens.  more p a r t i c u l a r  physical  can  of the  o f no  the  of the  i s depicted a single  i t s symbolic  f o u r such  Paradise.-  corner  a h a r t longs f o r the running do I l o n g f o r t h e e , 0 God.  illuminator  introduced as  3)  right-hand  family which  As so The  lower  of of  allusion from the  5):  to  John's  heavenly  18  sphere  into  below.  The  the. t e r r e s t r i a l sacred  regeneration.  "clear"  The  level of  the  water brings  Biblical  Paradisial with  image i n t h i s  i t life  case  reduced  to  a didactic  illustration, a pictorial  account  of  the  text,  al  sacred  ated  by  space  the  manuscript excessive  isolates  forms  picture  use  seems t o  be  demonstrative  a somewhat i s o l a t e d  devotion-  space  domin-  and  inner  kernel,  remains.  the  gold  ground.  The  gold  figures,  and  finally  seems  to  correspondingly pattern.  The^  and  take  time,  full  of  and,  forms, released on  an  i n proportion  The dead  Lively  same r h y t h m i c  which  expressive  frozen  to t h e i r  in a  inner  content, figures  of  space  extraordinarily  and  into  the  symmetrical  bondage  is  gestures  Bamberg F o u n t a i n  result  association,  other  f r o m any  unreality  perhaps  human o r g a n i s m , b u t  repetitions.  only  fluttering a sudden  significance,  immobility, assume  size.  animation,  aesthetic  until  a b i l a t e r a l arrangement, the  seem t o h a v e b e e n  supernatural  spiritual  complement-' e a c h  suggestion.  draperies  material l i f e ,  essentially  Treated.in  i s completely  of the  consume a l l t h e i r o r g a n i c ,  the  and  image The  of  and  garden  used  L i f e takes  vitality  which  t o ' some h i g h e r  i s achieved  Even the and  a  of  by  the  f o r symbolic  correspondence.  a  form  i t owes n o t  spiritual  dynamizing  colours, derived only  on  law.  of  to The  symmetrical  from n a t u r a l i s t i c value,  obey  the  19  At position the  what  p o i n t , , o n e may  fifteenth  a number  c a n be n o t i c e d h e r e f r o m one  parallelism  remains  the preceding  eenth  century,  Christian  as  level  to another,  of  generations.  i t may  There  of  and  (figure  39)  Therefore,  stylistic  yet a  associable to Biblical  thematic  illustrations  i s i n each  example  traditionalism.  suffice  t o say t h a t by t h e  t h e f o u n t a i n , as a m o t i f  tendencies  of iconographic  fountain illustrations,  the forerunner  graphic  illustration  thirt-  inherent i n  s y m b o l i s m , c o n v e n i e n t l y sums u p s o m e o f t h e m o s t  progressive Biblical  juxta-  associations.  i s a transition  a perceptible undercurrent Perhaps  Bamberg  a  century' Fountain' o f L i f e  of interesting  progression  of  notice that  o f the eleventh, century  Gothic,  creates  this  of fifteenth  variations,  or.where  interrelationships.  t h e r e f o r e , may  and s i x t e e n t h  "the t r a d i t i o n a l  be  regarded  century aesthetic 37  of  Romanesque  and the. s p i r i t  of Gothic  a e s t h e t i c meet."  20  • CHAPTER  II  FONTE' MAGGIORE' AT  The for  many g e n e r a t i o n s ,  Umbrian  town o f  Piazza, with the  Plazzo  Perugians This of  Piazza Quattro  Perugia.  i t s back  point  out  means o f  figurative  free  Italian  of  highest  the  towards  the  with  charming not  pedic  a  This  ranks  of  thirteenth The  of  the  and  faction.  civic as  the  source  .of w a t e r  customs, h a b i t s  society during  the  in  the  level  of  the  facing  a  fine  6).  example  i n i t s most defines,  by  i d e a l s of  had  the  pride- ( f i g u r e  a t i m e when  The  been  fountain which  a r t was  was  i t has  life  Duomo a n d  only  illustration,  commune.  valuable  record  civic  development, i t a l s o  of passion  besides,  to  On  t h r o w n .off e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and  victims  all  of  s c u l p t u r e , when t h a t  stage  had  centre  monument i s i m p o r t a n t  Italian  N o v e m b r e i s , as  P u b l i c o , stands, a u n i q u e  critical  a  the  PERUGIA  not  life  in  the"people  yet  fallen  Fohte' M a g g l o r e i s , supply, and  an  encyclo-  appearance  c l o s i n g decades  of  of the  century. spectator  move a t w i l l  and  i s free to  i n any  stand  w h e r e he  d i r e c t i o n he  pleases,  likes, or  to  21  remain move.  i n one The  1  place f o r a long  order i n which  the  speed  with  are  up  him.  to  which  he  Water spouts various basin, The  zoomorphic and  sculptural  intellect  shifts  freely  the  f r o m one  fountain point  f r o m t h e mouths distributed  central  only h i s  figures  of  around  and another  the the  second  adorning the top  program, decorated w i t h  of niches containing  to  eyes  motifs  close  read like  monumental  a  an  fountain,  earthquake  a s we  i n 1438,  see  and  from e x c e s s i v e r e s t o r a t i o n . certain the  after  of the  with  s i x hundred  i t t o d a y , was  in  suffered  as  i t was  •  and  from the weathering  the replacement with  of Melchisedek  and  (figure  n i n e t y - t w o y e a r s , as w h e n i t was today  previously  variations  the water  above, and  at  book  finished,  of  copies  30), i t appears, i m p r e s s i v e and although i t  o f h a v i n g been o v e r - c l e a n e d  abrasives.  fountain  a  the  damaged  s u b s e q u e n t l y has  Apart  reliefs,  the appearance  As  which  low  corner figure  functional gives  to  figures  3  of  basin.  relief. The  by  views  o f m e d i e v a l P e r u g i a n s , can be  w i t h .a s e r i e s high  one  protomes  from the  time while  t h e r e a r e two  i n the t h i r t e e n t h  i s discharged into  another i n which  superstructure, Siena.  discussed,  as  by  one  in  an o p e n r e c e p t a c l e  t h e r e s e r v o i r was  illustrated  Although the idea  century:  main  the  of water  Fonte  falling  from  protected  by  Nuo'vo ( 1 2 9 8 ) from a  cupped  22  central  shaft into  twelfth  century  close The  finds  fountain, belonging  (figure The  clearly  and  spiky  forms  cluster then  angular  simple  of Monreale,^  fountain s t i l l to the  late  former  no  -remain."' classification,  F o n t an a d i _ P i a n o ' Scar'aho  sub-division  main b a s i n are  the  swells into  V i t e r b o foh'taha i s d a t e d  a separate  support  round  clover-leaf  i n the  i n the  at  1) .  represents  steps  cloister  for the"Perugian  i t s prototype  Viterbo  basin i s exploited  f o u n t a i n i n the  prototypes  Perugian  a lower  the  base  lower, of the  1279 ,  of the  and  type.  cruciform i n plan. lion-mouthed  central  a superimposed  pair  of  Sharp  spouts  column.  Its  that  The  latter  four-lobed,  basins.  When m e d i e v a l a d o r n m e n t , as  i n both  fountains conceived the  Fohte  sculptural  Magg'idre and  later  in  R  Delia  Querela's' Fonte  subordinate'to  the  Gai'a  (figure  architectonic  lines  shaft,  and. i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r  was  civic,  as  Fbhte  again, i n the  richness.of  the  iconography  rivals  it'was of the  chiefly  kept  basins  religious  Maggiore, that of  or  where  Gothic  and  the  cath-  7 facades. .  edral  The  c o m m i s s i o n was  Benedictine, Boninsegna, from  great  8),  along with a Venetian  h i s work  allied  Guelph  on  the  city  given  to  Fra Bevignate,  a F r a t e A l b e r t o and h y d r a u l i c engineer  a  who  a  certain was  called  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a f o u n t a i n i n the 8 • of Oryieto. As t h e f o u n t a i n p o s e d  technical,  as w e l l  personalities clearly  as o r n a m e n t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ,  were  mentioned  concerned with  many  its. erection  i n t h e numerous  and a r e .  i n s c r i p t i o n s engraved  9 upon  the various The  as  early  cisterns.  conception  a s 12 54-,  According  to the s k i l l  r i m ,  to their  fountain  construction  occurred was  to Vasari, the  and i n d u s t r y  had brought  two m i l e s  civic  but the actual  some t w o d e c a d e s . - ^ thanks  of this  of a friar  city  delayed  Perugians,  of the  from the h i l l  Silvest-  of  away,  an abundance o f w a t e r by l e a d e n 12 by a d e c r e e d a t e d 1254. The f i n a l d e c o r a t i v e was b e g u n i n 1 2 7 7 , a n d w a t e r b r o u g h t f r o m M o n t e  Pacciano,  conduits program Pacciano  13 entered may of  the piazza  have been payments  done  done  The  i n 1280. later  the  same t i m e  i s equally  of the previous  T h r e e names a r e g e n e r a l l y decoration  (1206-1280), Giovanni  Pisano  (1240-1320),  creates  an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o b l e m w h i c h  discussion  at this  p r o g r a m was  point well  (1240-1315).  Attribution of  f u r t h e r on i n t h i s that under  by t h e y e a r way.  associated  of the fountain;  d e l Cambio  say  removed  from the  centuries, while  Arnolfo  other  records  i t comes c l o s e r t o t h e p l a s t i c i t y  complete, or p a r t i a l Pisano  from  work  i n 12 81."'"^  style of sculpture  Romanesque work  of the sculptors'  however, judging  or recorded  old  sculpture.  Part  leads text.  me  of  at Gothic  with  the  Nicola and sculpture  into  an-  I t suffices to  12 7 7 t h e s c u l p t u r a l  24  Perugian  The thirteenth decades. death  t i m e s had century  The  of  Civic  Emperor  i t was  changed  and  for Perugia  for that  Ghibelline  hier,  I I , had  was  subsequently  from the  matter, the  cause, already  Frederick  when M a n f r e d , h i s and  History  succeeding  at  few  u n d e r m i n e d by  been i r r e p a r a b l y  killed  shattered  mid-  Be^/evento i n  when t h e  the  damaged 1266  army o f  the  Siena  was  ^>  15 E m p i r e was bloddily  routed  at  converted  Tagliacozzo  to  the  Guelph  Guelph  stronghold,  which,  among o t h e r t h i n g s , 16  a  civic  idation  entered  fountain. and  sion  that  that  the  of  i s an  society at This point  a period  It is this  of  a  civic  period  in a  civic  expression  of  and  prompted the  perpetuated  erection  126 8.  party,  economic, p o l i t i c a l  Nicola  fountain,  m  the  of  military  consol-  intellectual 17  fountain.  structure,  of  a  affluence,  foundation of  and  Perugia,  I  in this  affluency  of  expan-  am  certain  case a  a  particular  a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s h a l l be c l a r i f i e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  evolution. the  s culpturalV iconography. This such works  as  compendium o f Vincent  of  natural  doctrinal,' moral  clearly  political  al the  framework prestige  affluency  i s reminiscent  B e a u v a i s ' S p e c u l u m Ma'jus , w i t h 18 and  e l e m e n t , now  lay  and  its  historical, subdivisions . apparent w i t h i n  i s , however, symptomatic of of  of  civic  the  organizations  the  tradition-  increase that  The  in  accompanies  25  the  e x p a n d i n g p o w e r arid c o m m e r c i a l  Although  an i n s c r i p t i o n r e c o g n i z e s  Perugia h e r s e l f had recently, centres  o f every ;  o f t h e t o w n s . 1'  complexity  Rome a s c a p u d  like  a hundred  size, consolidated  muridi,  other  similar  h e r own p o s i t i o n  as  20 the  centre  of a universe  Nicola Pisan  c i t i z e n s h i p and p o l i t i c a l  contract.  to  communes  obscure  the existing p o l i t i c a l  destruction  the  were  personally  situation, i s diffi-  o f t h e E m p i r e , as a m a j o r  i n the south,  illustrates  The  involvement  perhaps  o f the independent of the Perugian  develops  of the sculptors.  c l e a r l y the urban  communes  Italian  at this  allusions This  manner o f 22  founlife  time.  Prototypes  erection  antiquity.  decoration  .which  the various  Fountain  classical  rise  rival  P o r t r a i t u r e o f the d i g n i t a r i e s at t h i s time i s 21  found w i t h i n  in  with  awarded t h e  are. r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s c u l p t u r e  the p o l i t i c a l  tain  its  i n P i s a , were u l t i m a t e l y  t h e Church, and t h e consequent  fountain.  to  affiliations  their  discern. The  city  despite  Whether o r n o t they, as P i s a n s ,  concerned with  to  Umbria.  and h i s s o n , G i o v a n n i ,  Ghibelline•party  cult  m  of-public  fountains  goes b a c k t o  The f o r m o f t h e Forite M a g g i b r e and  was i n f l u e n c e d  particular, baptismal  also  fonts,  by analogous  either  round  or  structures, polygonal,  such  as t h e f o n t s i n S . . G i o v a n n i  i n Fonte,  Verona,  i n the 9 3  Baptistery With  this  directly of  at Pisa allusion  a n d S. F r e d i a n o i n L u c c a to baptism,  interrelated  Vincent Beauvais.  humanity  begins  especially season  0  may b e  Vincent stipulated  t h e work o f redemption  the t i l l i n g 24  that  fallen  by manual l a b o u r ,  and h a r v e s t i n g o f t h e s o i l  a t every  o f the year.  f o u n t a i n decor  fountain  stands  parallel  exists  pulpit  between  In time, the  midway b e t w e e n N i c o l a ' s p u l p i t  1301.) ( f i g u r e - i j D ) . More c l o s e l y ,  a close  and t h e P i s a n p u l p i t s .  (1266) and G i o v a n n i ' s  the  Maggiore  9).  b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S p e c u l u m Ma jus.  More d i r e c t l y , the  the' Fonte  (figure  at Siena  a t S. A n d r e a P i s t o i a  I n both,- s i m i l a r i t i e s  the architectonic  may b e  and s c u l p t u r a l  f o u n t a i n i s d e r i v e d i n some m e a s u r e  from  ( 1 2 9 8noted.  detail of  the pulpits  i n t h e P i s a n B a p t i s t e r y ( f i g u r e 10-), a n d - i n t h e Duomo a t 25 • Siena. A p a r t f r o m t h e common p o l y g o n a l f o r m , t h e t r i p l e columns w h i c h - s e p a r a t e lowest basin, in  the panels  and t h e s t a t u e s which  S i e n a , on t h e l o w e r b a s i n .  placed  around  i n t h e. r e l i e f panels  fountain,  and f o rthe.remainder  and in a  t o animal each  lion  have'the  t h e base o f t h e"central  t o scenes  r e c u r on t h e same  Similar  o f the examples—two and a g r i f f i n ,  arts  column a t S i e n a  o f the lowest basin o fthe of his reliefs  Nicola had  f r o m t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , Roman  fables.  function  The g r o u p o f l i b e r a l  reappears  recourse  i n Pisa  zoomorphic  history,  motifs recur  e a g l e s , t h e s y m b o l o f Rome;  t h e symbols  o f t h e Guelph  p a r t y and'  27  Perugia respectively the  corner  orical  statues  personages  history  o f both  pedia  12).  represent connected  On t h e m i d d l e  mythical, Biblical with  the spiritual  Rome a n d P e r u g i a .  ment o f s y m m e t r i e s of music  (figure  silently  ' 2 7 ' o f stone .  and h i s t or political  A considered  and r e p e t i t i o n s ,  o f symbols,  basin,  arrange-  a law o f numbers, a k i n d  co-ordinates  the vast  encyclo-  •  On / t h e f o n t a n a' M a g g i o r e . . . t h e M o n t h s a n d Sciences i n combination w i t h scenes from Genesis make up a h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r l d . But l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s a l s o .play a p a r t i n t h i s h i s t o r y . In o n e o f t h e b a s - r e l i e f s , R o m u l u s a n d Remus a r e a r e m i n d e r o f t h e f a b u l o u s b e g i n n i n g o f Rome, mother o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . The s t a t u e t t e s o f t h e upper b a s i n r e c a l l the o r i g i n s o f Augusta P e r u s i a h e r s e l f . . . the (Trojan) hero A u l e s t e s , legendary king o f E t r u r i a , progenitor o f the race, stands near the s a i n t s Herculanus and Lawrence, who. l a t e r a w a k e n e d i t t o C h r i s t i a n l i f e . 2-8 As  such,  the fountain intermingles a l l four o f the great  scholarly moral,  traditions;:"; t h e h i s t o r i c a l ,  the physical, the  and t h e e n c y c l o p e d i c , and i n t h i s  latter  particul29  arly,  the medieval  The  obsession  S c u l p t o r s and  Attribution leading  thirteenth  inscriptions.  with  scientia  Inscriptions  of the sculptural  century  universalis.  program t o the three  sculptors i s primarily  To w h a t e x t e n t  Nicola or Giovanni  based Pisano,  o r A r n o l f o d i Cambio s y s t e m i z e d  the fountain i s purely  conjectural.  Vermiglioli  Giovanni  Battista  on  i n 182 7  examined  28  the  inscriptions  and a s s e r t a i n e d  that:  ...dell'acquedotto e d e l l a fontana maggiore di Perugia ornata dalle sculture d i Niccolo e Giovanni P i s a n i e d i Arnolfo fiorentino...30 Additional  scholarship  i n 1834 b y S i l v e s t r o  Massare  main-  tained: Le s c u l t u r a d i N i c c o l o e G i o v a n n i d a P i s a e d i A r n o l f o f i o r e n t i n o che ornano l a fontana maggiore d i P e r u g i a . ^ 3  According both he  t o Vasari, the ornamentation  bronze  thereupon  a n d m a r b l e was e n t r u s t e d  of the fountain  t o Giovanni,  s e t h i s hand t o t h e work, making  i n .  so that  three  basins,  32 one  above  Milanese by  elaborates  dating  August,  the other,  Arnolfo  1277. One  work t o both  two i n m a r b l e , one i n b r o n z e . on V a s a r i ' s  account o f N i c o l a  fiorentino i n Perugia  Pisano  on t h e 2 7th o f  3 3  of the longest  inscriptions  N i c o l a and Giovanni  appears  ascribing the on t h e m i d d l e  basin: Nomina s c u l p t o r u m f o n t i s sunt i s t a bonorum . . . r a t u s N i c o l a u s admodum g r a t u s Est flos sculptorum gratissimus isque proborum E s t g e n i t o r p r i m u s g e n i t u s c a r i s s i m u s imus C u i s i no dampnes nomen d i e e s s e J o h a n n e s . . . i t u P i s a n i . . . s i n t multo- tempore s a n i . The  name o f G i o v a n n i  lowest  basin  abbreviated  Pisano  containing  occurs  on a p a n e l  of the  two e a g l e s  i n relief,  where i n  form t h e words  are i n s c r i b e d , which  Venturi  reads as: Magister  Johannes  e s t sculptor hujus  35 opens;  29  It between that  i s clear  from the remains  F r a Berivegnate  the latter  in  t h e work.  in  Perugia  February,  i n the year There  until 1281.  and N i c o l a ' s  3  of a  correspondence  former p u p i l ,  Arnolfo,  12 77 w a s c a l l e d u p o n t o a s s i s t  i s no r e c o r d  he r e c e i v e d  of Arnolfo's  payment  f o r work  presence  done i n  7  Martedi  4  febraio  Item dedit e t s o l v i t maystro A r n u l f o pro labore e t opre f o n t i s i n foro pro x x i i i j diebus.. Item dedit e t s o l v i t p r e d i c t o maystro A r n u l f o p r o v e t u r a u n i s e q u i , quern d e b e b a t • • l a t e r e c a u s a e u n d i e t r e d e u n d i Roman p r o v i i j diebus... 3  The  documentary  Arnolfo  evidence  although,  assume t h a t Nicola  the  i n 127 7,  great.  Pisano  was r e q u e s t e d .  h i s share  Therefore,  h i s name w o u l d h a v e  and Giovanni  that  the s c u l p t u r a l program o f t h e  h i s assistance  h e came t o P e r u g i a  cannot have been  of  does n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y p r o v e  was c o n c e r n e d w i t h  fountain, fact  8  o f t h e work  i t seems  appeared  I f i n  reasonable to  along  with  those  i n the i n s c r i b e d verses  on  fountain. From t h e above  Milanesi's planned  discussion  account, the natural  t h e work, and Giovanni  As^M-r<^*Swarzenski p o i n t s determine with  i n relation  inference took  charge  to Vasari-  i s that  Nicola  of the detail.  o u t ,i ti s not possible t o  p r e c i s i o n t o what p o i n t  t h e s t y l e a n d man39  nerisms separate 1*7 7  of Nicola  and Giovanni had a t t a i n e d .  the fountain  from the Sienese  pulpit,  Ten y e a r s and by  30  12 7 7 N i c o l a was  seventy-two years  There and  a directness  "classical" encies  of  orians  that  Nicola  and  his  the  son.  that  the  a f t e r the  1 2 8 0 - 8 1 , and  and  the  that  weather have  the one  a t t r i b u t i o n of sculptor  increased  by  the  assistance  source  also  As  be  may  was of  solve  the  the  the  histby  in  com-  of  Pisa  most  of  Giovanni.  action  of  water  carvings  to  such  particular reliefs  or  statues  fact that  of helpers  i n a task i s t o be  i n e q u a l i t y and  The of  such  given  extent to is  magnitude,  p r e s u m e d , and  has  an  obscurity  from  v a r i e t y must h a v e b e e n  fountain  men,  executed  died  hand  tend-  younger  indicate that  i s mere s p e c u l a t i o n .  expected, the  "Gothic"  the  Nicola  the  the  executed  c o m m i s s i o n was  h o w e v e r , and  affected  i t with  the  i t may  that  style  some m o d e r n  i s that  program b e g a n , ^  time,  and  fountain  Arnolfo, the  i n the  associate  s c u l p t u r a l program r e l a t e s to of  reserve  father  work  fact that  and  Lapse  the  practical  The  age.  conclude with the  and  and  which the  I f we  pupils, Giovanni  year  of  the' d e s i g n - o f  . b e t w e e n 1277  any  i n design  tendencies  plexities .  a  is a simplicity  of  rise  to  produced.^ many 42  attributions,  most o f w h i c h  are  extremely  this  divergent.  31  The  It aesthetic him  S c u l p t u r a l ' Program  i s n o t by v i s u a l  purpose that  enchants  t o pursue h i s o r b i t  finds apt  himself  life  unity  the beholder,  a new  encyclopedia  statues  of style  round  t h e upper b a s i n  individual  d i f f e r e n c e t o suggest  basin  displays upright  representing  ifications  saints,  high  there  One  (figures  2.7 a n d '30/).  reliefs  Lorence  da C o r r e g i o ,  hands.  of individual  o f two c i v i c  The s t a t u e s  and refinement.  definite  t h e work o f s e v e r a l  and Lake  fig-  personTrasimeno,  dignitaries  o f Moses, David,  John t h e B a p t i s t and S t . Benedict  distinction  a certain  i s sufficient  o f the Church, V i c t o r y , Theology,  C h i u s i and p o r t r a i t s  Matteo  have  sinners, prophets,  Perugia,  of  encouraging  the city's  bespeaking the influence of a  b u t a t t h e same t i m e  St.  purely  i n marble,  as t h e hub r o u n d w h i c h  tradition,  ures  and a  revolves. The  The  alone,  around the Perugian•fountain.  confronting  to i t s situation  means  Solomon,  are wanting i n  On t h e o t h e r  Herman, " D i v i n i t a s  hand, t h e f i g u r e s Excelsa", St.  t h e Deacon, and " C l e r i c u s P r o d i t o r S a n c t i E r c u l a n i " ,  are  rendered  and  with  i n a style  a cogency  that  a t once b r o a d ,  and  direct,  i tw o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o exceed.  Sancta E c c l e s i a ,  "Roma C a p u t M u n d i " , a n d t h e S a i n t  in  Contemplation,  probably  or  closely  hand, having  allied  simple  represent  t h e work  i t s highest  o f t h e same  expression i n  32  the  "Roma" a n d s h o w i n g  SS.  Peter  and Paul  i t s weakness' i n t h e heads o f  ( f i g u r e s ' 30' a n d 3 1 ) .  Among t h e f e m i n i n e tolerably Victory, bearing tist.  d i s t i n c t and u n i f o r m type t h e Lady  Lake  43  figures,  personifications  o f t h e Corn  t o be n o t i c e d  Lands, t h e Lady  and Salome b e a r i n g  Grace  t h e head  o f medieval  i s a i n the.  of the Fish-  o f John t h e Bap-  . and s i m p l i c i t y c h a r a c t e r i s e  but i ti s the grace  there  a l l these and n o t c l a s s i c a l  tradition. The an  fountain  upper basin.  there  a g r i f f i n , ^  ages  sculpture  the purpose  bolic  l a t t e r part  images  of setting  arms  structure,  intertwined, and a  authority.  before  of personifications,  philosophy  of the  and  o f t h e w h o l e monument i s d e s i g n e d  and scenes, o f B i b l i c a l  complete  cisterns  t h e emprasa o f t h e c i t y ,  t h e symbol o f t h e Guelph The  with  In this  o f two l o w e r  i s a g r o u p o f t h r e e women w i t h  supporting lion,  consists  of life  u s , b y means o f symo f h i s t o r i c a l person-  stories and  and f a b l e s ,  a  society.  Sculptural' Iconography:  I t s Social'  Implications  In  discussion,  these  the following  general  ideas  45 are on The  given  as b r i e f l y as p o s s i b l e .  the upper c i s t e r n bas-reliefs  relate  on t h e l o w e r  The t w e n t y - f o u r  to the constitution cistern  deal with  of the  statues society. devel-  33  opmerit o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f w h i c h (figures  sculpture  make t h e n o t e s  simpler  B, d e s c r i b i n g  and naming both which  i s an attempt  of the sculpture  the F a l l ,  areas o f  i s given  the r e l i e f  in. Appendix  panels  and t h e  they now.occupy.^ t o analyse  as a c o m p l e t e  Man w a s c r e a t e d After  on t h e v a r i o u s  to follow, a l i s t  i n the order  now r e q u i r e d tion  i s composed  14 t o 2 5 ) . To  statues,  society  What i s  or explain  the inten-  program.  i n t h e image  and l i k e n e s s  h i s s u p r e m e d e s i r e was t o e s c a p e  bondage o f t h e f i n i t e  and r e t u r n  o f God.  from the  to the i n f i n i t e ,  to the 47  r-  source  from, w h i c h h e was  According life  t o medieval  of society  conscious  ideology,  of having  sprung.  the organization  a n d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l was  of the  directed  to this  form o f end. It of  that  o f t h e microcosm, and partook  nature  of the Giver,  utmost p o s s i b l e  i n some d e g r e e  development  must  of a l l aptitudes, that  the whole  e a c h o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l members s h o u l d U8 . . .  ized,  of the l i ei n and  capacity  be f u l l y . .  actual-  .The u l t i m a t e . . . r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i s t s  in  the perception  ed  with  but  and m e n t a l — w a s t h e  t h e way o f r i g h t l i v i n g  s o c i e t y must, be s o c o n s t i t u t e d of  as t h e w h o l e c o n s t i t u t i o n  the i n d i v i d u a l — p h y s i c a l , moral  gift  the  was b e l i e v e d  o f t r u t h , n o t t h e t r u t h as i t i s c o n c e r n -  r e l a t i o n s o f t h e phenomena o f t h e v i s u a l  t h e t r u t h as i t i s p e r c e i v e d  i n the general  world,  principles  34  lying  beyond, which  form the .  in  the  the  transitory  rightly  the  the  purpose  balanced  Society  which  ize  capacities.  by  upper  which  man  c i s t e r n , on  figure  ual.  In each panel  fountain  the  p r o g r a m as  into of  the  58  note  the world.  of Man  does not  body  asserts i t s e l f reason  wrongly  perceive  suffers  basin  may  attain  speculative  Constitution of to  actualthe  of Philosophy  (figure  16),  d i v i n e and with  The  nature  life  against the  the  will  to  individ-  the  B. and  D i s c o r d has  is-the and  the  given  in relation  i n harmony w i t h  what  on  number  i n harmony w i t h  clearly  of  Temptation  series.  longer  microcosmic.  panels  related  i n Appendix  13).  the  the  the  placement  whole  i s no  God,' n o r . i s h i s own  will  the  the  lower  idea of  d i s c u s s e d , the  (figure  the  individual  developed  outlined  a  intellect.  individual  the  duly  a sound body,  f o r the  I begin are  a nature  of the  to the  corresponding  Panel strikes  which  the  s u m m i n g up  out  Speculation'as  trained  explains the  Lower C i s t e r n .  represents  9  s c u l p t u r e on  enables  The  i n the  lower  fully  necessary  fully  reaches  a  must be  s h o w how  cistern  most  i s found  e t e r n a l element  i s d e p e n d e n t on  and  life  The  his  man  of the  fountain i s to  habit.  whole  of  directed w i l l ,  truly  Li  i n i t s parts; there  The of  .  and  conditions of nature.  supremeafunction  harmonized  animating  entered the  will  itself.  The  true  the  Fall  good,  reason,  the while  a l i k e f r o m an i l l - g o v e r n e d b o d y and a 50 directed will. P e r h a p s , V i c e and I g n o r a n c e take  35  the  place  o f V i r t u e and Knowledge. From t h i s  p o i n t onward, N i c o l a o r G i o v a n n i , t h e  designer  of the panels,  the  and t h e r e a s o n ,  body  Panels  nature;  man i s t o b e b r o u g h t t h e supreme Panels and  55.  of  order  In these  suggest  functions.  deal with the  how t h e w i l l  of  good.  are represented  the re-establishment  physical relations  4 5 , 4 6 , 56 a n d 5 7 .  of intellectual by search  after  and t h e beginning  Biblical  These  proper  t r u e h a r m o n y , s o t h a t i t may  a n d harmony.; i n t h e i r  conditions  world  into  they  their  38, 39, 40, 4 1 , 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54,  Panels  perfected  are to recover  47 , 49., 59 a n d 6 0 .  moral and r e l i g i o u s  desire  s e t h i m s e l f t o show how t h e w i l l ,  account  These  t o man.  explain the  h a r m o n y , a n d how t h e r e a s o n i s truth.  The c r e a t i o n o f t h e  o f human h i s t o r y  were r e p r e s e n t e d  according  pictorial!Ly  to the  from-a  very  51 early  date. Panel  presents the  58 A.  the apple  tree with  In the Temptation  t o Adam, a n d i m m e d i a t e l y  the serpent  design  i s extremely  large,  as o f t e n h a p p e n s Panel  and  Eve have  God  ,in. t h e l e f t  shall  leave  and F a l l — E v e ,  simple;  5 8 B.  covered  twined  around t h e stem.  t h e heads  i n other  corner: s i g n i f i e s  t h e "garden.  with  power o f God i s s y m b o l i z e d  The  works.  from  Paradise--Adam  leaves.  The h a n d o f  t h e command t h a t  The s i m p l e  h e ri s  are disproportionally  Pisani  The E x p u l s i o n themselves  behind  they  method by w h i c h t h e  i s striking.  36  Panel strength, floats The  47 A.  tearing  The s t o r y  open t h e l i o n ' s  Panel  47 B.  power i s e f f e c t i v e l y  Samson l i e s  of Delilah.  She.has  his  s t r e n g t h as w e l l  physical  18)--the  49.  as h i s m o r a l  indicate  The s t o r y  stands  ready  between simple ive  shepherd  o f t h e source  clothed the  i n armour  effect  To  with the  the origin  in  a well  appointed ;  i s a remarkable  i s most c o m p e t e n t l y  o f Rome.  resent  the giant,  gained,  design;  and t h e  i s skillful. t h e scenes  four reliefs  organized social  Panel  suggest-  This  from  sacred Old  are i n t r o d u c e d which  deal  The s y m b o l i c a l image r e l a t e s t o  The i n d i v i d u a l  agent  i s a contrast  lies  i d e a t h a t n o man c a n s t a n d  sufficient.  There  Goliath,  counterbalance  Testament h i s t o r y ,  (A) The y o u t h f u l  (B)  of the figure  (fig-  i n David i s  o f power.  o f death  disposition  admirably.  and t h e m a i l c l a d w a r r i o r ,  slain.  The  and G o l i a t h  working  with h i ssling.  lost  vigour.  the point  o f David  power o f t h e s p i r i t  i n the lap  and he has  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e weakness o f Samson. David  hair  rendered.  w i t h h i s head  cut off his hair,  o f the composition Panel  ure  m o u t h , S a m s o n .J s  on h i s s h o u l d e r s , t h e symbol o f h i s moral, v i g o u r .  expression of physical  lines  o f S a m s o n - - i n a show o f  alone--no  man i s s e l f -  can o n l y be p r o p e r l y state,  f o rtemporal  developed  a n d Rome w a s t h e d i v i n e l y  rule.  59 A £ B, ( f i g u r e . 1 7 ) .  t h e twin m y t h i c a l founders  These f i g u r e s  o f Rome,' e a c h  rep-  s e a t e d and  37  holding drawn and  v u l t u r e s ' i n t h e i r h a n d s ,' i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a u g u r y  from t h e f l i g h t  which  decided the s i t e  name o f t h e c i t y . 'Panel  twins  6 0.  The, m i r a c u l o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n  nourished by a w o l f .  animal the  o f these birds  i s the' F i c u s  cradle  river.  The t r e e  ofthe  a t t h e back  ofthe  rumihalis_, t h e sacred f i g which  of the future  founders  T h i s i s one o f t h e most  as i t f l o a t e d  caught  down t h e  picturesque o f the lower  reliefs. Panel The  fable  a wolf.  6 1 A.  o f t h e c r a n e who d r a w s a b o n e  the  (figure 19)--  from t h e throat o f  When t h e r e w a r d w h i c h - h a s b e e n o f f e r e d  the w o l f reminds reward  A Fable from Aesop  enough.  t h e crane that The a l l u s i o n  labour o f the poor,  many b e n e f i t s  6 1 B.  s t r e a m as an excuse  The  moral  and  cruelty  drawn h e r e  the rich,  the wolf.  and r e t u r n  f o rs i e z i n g  i s that  add t o t h e i r  who l i v e  They  evil  by  receive  f o r good.  t h e lamb  of fouling  and devouringh e r .  t h o s e who a c t w i t h  s i n by calumniating  violence  t h o s e whom  injured. The  called,  are like  f r o m h i s jaws i s  The w o l f a c c u s e s  the  they have  i s that  from t h e poor,  Panel  escape  i s claimed,  use o f parables,  o r "exempla,"  as t h e y  were  w a s common i n m e d i e v a l p r e a c h i n g , a n d e s p e c i a l l y 53  so  after  the rise  o f mendicant  sed t o t h e l i t e r a t e ,  fables  orders.  and s t o r i e s  trations, t o f i xt h e a t t e n t i o n  I n sermons were  used  o f the audience.  as  addresillus-  Collections  38  of these in  " e x e m p l a " w e r e made f o r t h e  many w e l l - k n o w n  The  drift  perhaps  of the  against  by  the  the  On  54  the  panels the  suggested seasons,  the  sun  of  season.  t h e weak, and  they  and  attached. a  warning  and  cruelty,  the  of  of  the  correspond  rich  the  body,  social  pleasures  the  heavens two  illustration  there  the  the  i s the  labours  rather a  life  panels  o f man  the  of  is  heavens, of  are  occupied  the  consequent assigned  the  fruition  to  o f human e n e r g y .  sign of  the  blessing.  life,  to bring to  the  of  s u b t l e harmony  associated with and  and  a f f o r d i n g scope The  of the  order  seasons  Twenty-four panels  Each month has  panels  and  necessary  earth.-  of  existence.  labours  through  some a p p r o p r i a t e  and  course  and  to  the  with  means o f m a i n t a i n i n g  parallel  of the  deals  '• . a punishment, but  not  wants  panels  They r e p r e s e n t  i t i s the  labours  the  f o u n t a i n was  of r e l i e f  forces of nature  and  of  these  as  i n the  powers  with  against  group  pleasures  between the  the  next  o f man,  supplying for  strong  L a b o u r was  these  the  m o r a l was  vices'of pride, oppression  material Creation.  pleasures year.  on  of preachers,  poor.  The the  a recognized  "exempla"  against the  exercised  in  cases  use  course change i t with  I n one  Zodiac,  t o mark  and  labour.  of the  55 relation  between the  sun,  This  offers  series  the  season,  the  a- m a r k e d c o n t r a s t t o  the  figures  56 which  adorn the  must have been  portal familiar  of the  Baptistery i n Pisa.  t o N i c o l a and  their  They  influence i s ,  39  moreover, v i s i b l e  i n one o f t h e images  (fjigure  21).  Perugia  are conceived i s very d i f f e r e n t  effect  The s p i r i t ,  produced  devoted  however, i n which  by t h e d e l i c a t e  t h e Months a t  from  Hellenistic  t o March  the static and B y z a n t i n e  57 style  of the figures  ography  at Pisa.  of the Italian  of  produced  the church  of  time  ities  by m e d i e v a l  the f a l l ,  life  of childhood t o those was c u r s e d  that  nature  ities  o f t h e body. necessary The thus  Daily  of old'age.  from  The e a r t h  every  necessarily  her increase.  o f h i s brow tempered bread  and d a i l y  conditions expressed  growth of  her fruits.  hand.  T h e new  The passage  summed u p t h e s e  The  food  the infirm-  work became  of fallen i n terms  human  nature  o f t h e changes the earth i s  The p a s s i n g o f t i m e was life  evident  o f s p r i n g w a s f o l l o w e d b y the;;;  o f summer a n d t h e f r u i t i o n  winter.  like-  a n d i t was o n l y b y l a b o u r  wrought by t i m e , and o f t h e l a b o u r by which  on  the infirm-  f o r existence.  material  made t o y i e l d  on t h e p o r c h  Verona.  c o u l d b e made t o y i e l d  man w o n b y t h e s w e a t  were  a r t i s t s , that 58  was a p a s s a g e  f o r h i s sake,  which  equally  o f one o f t h e f i n e s t  man b e c a m e s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s  and change--his  wise  icon-  may b e i n t r o d u c e d t o s o m e  t h e scenes  o f San Zeno a t  After  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  cycles,  e x t e n t by s u r v e y i n g b r i e f l y examples  . . .  o f autumn by t h e d e a t h  o f the sun through  i d e a s o f change  just  power o f h i s r a y s became t h e symbol  t h e heavens  as t h e l i f e - g i v i n g f o rthe idea o f l i f e .  40  The  course  became an Perhaps sun  of the allusion  the  so  the  marked by  to the  allusion  through  things,  sun  here  natural  d i d the  life  the  signs of the  of Christ  suggests,  Zodiac  passage-  of  as  upon e a r t h .  the  gave l i f e Christ  Zodiac  passage  to the  through  of  the  material  the  Spiritual  59 life  to the  l i f e .of m a n k i n d . :  The conditions life  of  were w i d e l y  spring  was  regarded  the  seasons  seed,  a n a l o g i e s between p h y s i c a l  from  as  the  from The  the  the  out  the  path  the  by  of  the  by  which  man  can  find  barns,  taking  up  old life  o f man.  c r o p , and  the  of a  new  i n winter  the  passage  The  sowing  of of  threshing of  o f t h e Word o f  judgement, and  the  seasons.  the  through  and  as  and  they were 60  the heavens.  God  dividing  the  labour  the  physical  relation  ploughing, sowing, place i n the  in  of  therefore  of  ideas.as  r e a p i n g and  the  labours  beneficence  effects  popular  through-  r e g u l a t e d by Thus, the  to such  of  connection  interests  expression of divine  overcome  their  sun  L a b o u r was  various occupations  is in this  t h a t we  rising  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of work  of the year,  sun  spiritual  evil.  months became an  It  ages  planting  coming t o  of the  the  months  of the  the  l e d to the  course  expressed  of the  c o n n e c t i o n between  naturally  with  as  The  of resurrection;  the h a r v e s t i n g of the  good  man  death  illustrated  the h e a r t , the  the  the type  g r a i n were, i m a g i n e d in  developed.  and  the  fall.  these  gathering  expression  of  into  41  medieval  religion,  between the  divine w i l l  man's, f a l l e n  nature.  dissemination at  Lucca,  from  pleasures find or ous  the  of l i f e  figures  gaily  has  The  of  the  from  fresh  reason, the labours are on  many  of  wide found  French  (figure  they  the  21)  the  illustrate  labours.  This life  and  by  January  i s an of the  one  joy-  e x p r e s s i o n . o f the  sym-  season  i t i s said:  allegorized from  as  the  19)  and  the  promises  " t h o s e who The  referring sacraments  fear  passage i n the  t o t h o s e who of the  joys  figure  crown  also  of of  that  order of  These months  pleasures connected of such  hands,  of the  (figure  of labours.  in fulfillment  the  I t i s usual to  sometimes  l e d i n harmony w i t h t h e  series  generally  holding flowers i n their  labour of t h e i r hands."  strength  May  as  Prepare the t a b l e , watch tower, eat, drink... was  infirmities,  flowers forming the heavenly  life,  127:2, where the  than  flowers,  a hawk.  illustrated  drinking,  and  inasmuch  and  December and  always  the  the. r e l a t i o n  earthy flowers they bear, being the  spiritual  apart  for this  s u b j e c t s as  rather  between the  rewards  a n d "the p h y s i c a l  of A p r i l  the r e s t ,  w i t h a wreath  youth.  express  Marco i n V e n i c e , and  panels  them c l a d  pathy  they  facades. The  differ  S.  f a r as  Perhaps  o f such  Pisa,  cathedral  i n so  creation.  stand are  nearly  with, e a t i n g  and  as  that  of  the  Lord  shall  Isaiah  Psalm eat  21:5:  watch  receive  Church.  spiritual  I t i s probable  42  that has  an i d e a  such  connected  some  as t h i s - ' l a y  dimly  behind  the habit  Christian anniversaries  with  that  festive  pleasures. Panels" Griffin--the  44- A a n d B h a v e r e s p e c t i v e l y a L i o n  former symbolic  o f Guelph  and  authority; the 61  latter,  t h e empresaaof t h e ' c i t y o f Perugia The  basin arts  last  d i v i s i o n ,of t h e p a n e l s  (45-,46 , 56 , 5 7 ) .are.' c o n c e r n e d w i t h and philosophy The  first  ( f i g u r e 12.)  on t h e l o w e r the seven  liberal  ( f i g u r e s 14 a n d 1 5 ) . three  figures  are those  o f Grammar, 62  Dialectic by  and R h e t o r i c ,  w h i c h man  i s taught  Grammar o p e n s is  to preserve  studied  in  on  man  teaches  due r e g a r d  teaches  brought both regulation  i s regulated touch with  syntax.  either  the expressive  and d i v e r s i t y  of right reasoning, o f medieval  and i l l ,  zealously  proving  change  and r e s t r a i n e d , so  the a r t of discussing  element  good  of  become  rightly,  of  and  expression. truthfully.  and i t formed t h e  education. itself  antique  o f tongue.  i s the a r t of discussing  the rules  most i m p o r t a n t  Grammar was  t o p r e c i s i o n and aptness  Dialectic It  o f knowledge; h e r f u n c t i o n  By means o f Grammar,  o f the strangeness  Grammar a l s o with  o f speech  Trivium  reasoning.  but i t d i d not there  does n o t l o s e  account  the gate  or'dialectical.  the habit  that  the a r t of  p u r i t y o f language.  i n Italy,  speculative  m a k i n g up t h e M e d i e v a l  So  dialectic  h e l p f u l i n the  43  Rhetoric  (figure  26), the third  o f these  three  f a c t o r s , teaches' t h e a r t o f d i s c u s s i n g p e r s u a s i v e l y so t h a t man may b e d i r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g To the  these  Medieval  succeed  to the w i l l  the four  of the  figures  Quadrivium--Arithmetic,  speaker.  representing  Geometry, Music  and  65  •  Astronomy.  The r a t i o n a l e  in  o f man.  the nature  ally, as  o f the world's  The S e v e n L i b e r a l  creation  Arts,  and  lies' incident-  a l l human k n o w l e d g e , p r o m o t e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  well  as t h e s a v i n g  teachings  contained  o f man 66 i n Scripture. 67  This  w a s t h e common m e d i e v a l  proves  i t through  bolism  and a l l e g o r i c a l  view;  application  b u t Hugo o f S t . V i c t o r ,  of the principles  interpretation.  o f sym-  Hugo s t a t e s h i s  position: A knowledge o f t h i n g s r e q u i r e s a knowledge of t h e i r form and o f t h e i r n a t u r e . Form c o n s i s t s in external c o n f i g u r a t i o n , nature i n i n t e r n a l quality. Form i s t r e a t e d as a number, t o w h i c h a r i t h m e t i c a p p l i e s ; o r as p r o p o r t i o n , t o w h i c h m u s i c a p p l i e s ; o r as a d i m e n s i o n , t o w h i c h geometry a p p l i e s ; o r as m o t i o n , t o w h i c h p e r t a i n s astronomy. But physics (physica) looks t o the inner nature o f things.^8 From t h i s as  being  we may  observe  disposed  the universe  of according  measure; hence, t h e importance the  four  t o number, w e i g h t ,  by, or and  o f mathematics', w h i c h  includes  arts. At  this  appropriate. in  as c o n c e i v e d  The f i r s t  the medieval Panel  point a consideration o f the panels i s three  panels  constitute the Trivium  scheme o f e d u c a t i o n . 4 5 A.  Grammar--the t e a c h e r  l a y s h e r hand  44  upon a c h i l d ' s in  shoulder.  A  pleasant panel  and  effective  simplicity. Panel  and  robes;  45. B.  D i a l e c t i c — w e a r s a doctor's  holding a scorpion.  The  divided  tail  hood  of  this  69 animal  with  signified  the  Panel  A.  46  f o l d e d a r m s , as The  next  terms  of the  syllogism.  Rhetoric--the pupil though  actively  four panels  stands  in  front  reciting,(figure  constitute  the  15).  medieval  Quadrivium. Panel before  the  of  a pair  the  B.  teacher  Panel with  46  of  most  Arithmetic—the scholar  counting  5 6 A.  (figure  26).  Geometry--represented  compasses bending  g r a c e f u l and  over  effective  stands  as  a desk.  figures  a woman This  i n the  is  one  whole  series. Panel bells  with  a  Music--a  5 7 A.  queen and  57  seated  position  figure  p l a y i n g a row  A s t r o l o g y — t h e teacher  gaze upward toward Panel  the  B.  of  hammer.  Panel pupils'  56  B. on  the  that Philosophy  the  stars.  Philosophy--she a throne.  directs  Her takes  i s crowned  grand  as  a  a i r i s worthy  i n the  of :T  scheme o f t h e  fountain. Surveying may with  these  perceive, that there religion  and  sculptured panels are  morals;  as  a whole  three main d i v i s i o n s  with the  one  dealing  material world;  and  with  45  the  intellectual  and  moral  panels state  teaching  o f which  exemplified  with  The  religious  i n the subjects  to the foundation  on t h e "  of the social  Rome b e c a m e t h e s u p r e m e e x a m p l e . .  o f man  to the other  forces  faculty  by which  o f t h e months; and  ignorance  i n t h e s e r i e s o f t h e Seven  The  of creation i s  i n the s e r i e s - o f the labours  reasoning  dealt  i s enforced  from t h e Temptation  relationship  the  i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s o f man.  i s overcome i s  Liberal  A r t s and  Philosophy. Religion directed ness  capacity  and energy  t h a t have overtaken  with  which  the f a l l ,  learning,  Vice  by a  are healed  the forces of  t h e human r a c e , cursed  by t h e sacrament  dark-  nature.  and t h e s t e r -  as t h e r e s u l t  of love, of-  and o f l a b o u r .  the upper  attached  rightly  enlightening;the  developing  t h e e a r t h has been  Upper'Cistern. round  overcoming  a l l f u r n i s h t h e means o f p e r f e c t i n g human  evils  ility of  intellectual  o f ignorance,  nature, The  will,  and Morals  cistern  to their  Turning we  find  base, which  ing  placement  that  r e l a t i v e 'position.  been r e s t o r e d , and i t i s evident the  t o the twenty-four no i m p o r t a n c e  statues can be  The f o u n t a i n h a s  from t h e i n s c r i p t i o n  does n o t r u n i n s e q u e n c e ,  round  that the exist-  o f t h e f i g u r e s i s n o t t h e one  originally  intended. The society  s c u l p t u r e 'on t h e u p p e r  asoa whole,  cistern  deals  and as-.it has e x i s t e d under  with  t h e o l d and  46  the  new  dispensations.  Priest,  the  Lawgiver  Melchisedek, o l d and  the  Baptist.  Empire, To  the  the  as  the  Paul,  worlds  the  divinely been  temporal by  special  needs  Lorenzo  and  of  are  temporal  direction  of  but  detail  government  Perugia--her of Aulestus  between of  the  and the  spiritual,  society.  St.  John  the  the will  of  and  These  to  Benedict,  under the  31). the  Peter  while  the  are  "Roma" . ( f i g u r e  SS.  God.  and  the  protection of  SS.  of  origin the  Rome a s  and  Podesta,  rule and  s o c i e t y are  under  the  r e p r e s e n t i n g i m p e r i a l power, i s committed being the  to the  explained  Captain  city  i n the  of the  of figure  People  30). I  the  link figure  of  figures of  desires of  general  Society  by  Church  agents  the  Ercolano.  The  (figure  the  on  here  c o n t r o l s o c i e t y through  under the  Perugia  based  s o c i e t y under  Romana" and  forces which  The  i n the  to  on  committed  " C l e r i c u s e x c e l s a " and  the  pass  destinies of  forth  typified  i s found we  was  Solomon.  appointed  "Eccles'ia  are. s e t  Society  King;  and  Through him  spiritual  Church  the  dispensation resting  represented The  new  C h u r c h has  Empire  and  Moses, David  the  Christian  Ancient  begin  my  under the  relief  of  the  'analysis with  the  sculpture  old dispensation—the Old  "Temptation"  and  examples  illustrating are  " F a l l " o o n the  over lower  basin. Panel  29.  David  the  King  p l a y i n g h i s harp.  This  47  figure  a n d some o t h e r s n e a r  falling  water.  by t h e '  '  Panel the  i t a r e much s p o i l t  31.  Moses t h e L a w g i v e r  with the tables  of  law and h o l d i n g t h e r o d o f a u t h o r i t y . Panel  the  temporal  28.  Solomon r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e wisdom o f  ruler.  The  An u n d i g n i f i e d  figure.  bond between t h e A n c i e n t s o c i e t y  Modern i s found, i n t h e s t a t u e o f S t . J o h n  and t h e  the Baptist  (panel 27). We now t u r n u n d e r t h e New Church  to the constitution•of  Dispensation.  Pope m e r e l y  ulating  This which  It be  ruler  formally  n o r was reg-  discipline.  E m p e r o r was c o n c e r n e d  becomes p o s s i b l e  through  acts i n accordance  he i s e n a b l e d  intellectual  one.' ' T h e  administrator,  with temporal  i s t o be g a i n e d by t h e r e a l i s a t i o n  When man which  the ecclesiastical  dogma a n d The  the temporal  Society  idea of the  a n d E m p i r e was i n t h e o r y a v e r y w i d e  E m p e r o r was n o t m e r e l y the  The m e d i e v a l  Modern  capacity  the teachings of Philosophy.  w i t h these  t o do b y t h e l i g h t  virtues,  o f human  felicity.  t h e n he enjoys  instructions, o f the moral  terrestrial  i s -for t h e Emperor t o g u i d e - t h e . w o r l d so t h i s  and  happiness. e n d may  reached. The  life. Spirit,  This  Pope i s c o n c e r n e d  with the f e l i c i t y  of external  i s t o be g a i n e d by t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e Holy  which  i n the light  of theological  virtues—Faith,  48  Hope, and forth of  by  Charity—makes the  i s the  regulate  the  the  of  joys  Sacred  life,  duty  of  and  the  Empire the  paradise.  enjoyed  the  revelation set  W r i t e r s , and  which  Infinite  set  a  these  21.  The  the  Son  This  of  a plain is a  It  ferrato. setting,  7  3  of  da  the  of  pass  the  duties  celestial  of  the  goal, the  the  primary  and  (panel  soldier  (figure  robe  with  29),  strong,  cap,  built  gains  to  (figure  i s dressed sword  capable  r a t h e r than the  man,  knight  compare the  excellent naturalistic, important  Pod-  being  as  a  and  figures.  30),  citizen,.weargloves.  suggestive  of  errant. Master  the P i s a n i p o r t r a i t of • Both a r c h i t e c t o n i c a l l y dependent upon  of h i s t o r i c a l l y  the  •  and  Sasseferrato  Ekkehard with  offer  vision  simplicity.  i n 1278,  is interesting  life'  17).  f o u n t a i n was  carrying a short a  active  sculptures  series'begins  citizen's  Ernano  People  the  from  e t e r n a l i n the  Correggio  time  from i t s  figure of  citizen  portrayal  cap  The  may  to  God.  of  Perugia  figure in a  the  the  Pope  •  P a n e l . 24.  ing  ideas.  Matteo  at  some d i s t i n c t i o n  Captain  those  reaches h i s  list  the  man  7 9  Perugia  (1278).  to  community w i t h  o f the- t o w n o f  •  of  last  following is a  Panel  esta  at  that  a l l the  foretaste of  and  forth  government  Emperor and  Church  exercised  s p e c u l a t i o n , man  The  the  earthly paradise  Having  and  of the  the  the  man  God. It  of  Prophets,  clear to  of  Naumburg's  Sassetheir  characterizations  49  A --the  number o f  Church  and  Panel woman b e a r i n g  holding  the  The  a church,  on  relate  Empire, both  33.  Panel queen s e a t e d  statues  15.  Church  a throne,  The  Church  i s f u r t h e r expressed  Peter  (panel  dignity of  32).and  i n the  their  the  heads  f i g u r e s of the is.entirely  Panel-37saint  of  appears the  Perugia,  inscription,  "Sanctus  in  the  a deacon's  St.  strength,  and  on  a  crowned and  the  victorius ,  figure  of  fountain.  presence  (figure  Lorenzo  d r e s s ; he  simplicity  young  The  There  of  is a  27),  Duomo i s  (panel  Laurentius  Church m i l i t a n t .  by  SS. certain  the  sculpture  unworthy.  i n w h o s e name t h e  citizen.  i n Rome..  A p o s t l e s , but  St.. L a w r e n c e  heavenly  wears  the  35).  two  i n a ,two-fold. r e l a t i o n  He  mundi."  by  (panel  powers  seat  a  peaceful  most . b e a u t i f u l  Paul  their  i s f i g u r e d as  a palm branch--"Roma caput i s one' o f  great  Romana".  (figure. 31),  church  two  i s represented  Empire  the  the  having  "Ecclesia  The  to  36).  the  patron  dedicated, He  represents  i s manifested  with  bonum opus o p e r a t u s  i s the  worker  of  est."  good  This- s c u l p t u r e i s a model  his  deeds of  directness. \  Panel  19.  St. Herculanus  the  Bishop  and  defender  74 of the well  city  against  proportioned  King  and  Totila.  dignified  He  i s shown h e r e  figure, with  a  as  a  vigorous  personality. Panel rule  of  the  26.  order  St.  Benedict  (figure  to his  disciple  S.  28)  Maurus.  gives The  the  figureo  50  of  an  angel  at  inspiration group  ear  wanting  of  granted,St.  i s remarkably  a.striking  study,  fine.  but  Bronze  accordance with  the  The  the  The  the  drapery  kneeling  Saint himself  divine  of  disciple  5  the is  also  i s unrefined  and  character.  Group. the  monk s i g n i f i e s  Benedict.  i n elevation of The  in  the  From the  inscriptions,  difficulties  i n recording  According, to  Blunt, •  the  following material' one  sculpture  .  may to  perceive  any  one  the  figure.  '•'/•  . . . t h e r e - i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e b r o n z e g r o u p o f c a r y a t i d f i g u r e s t h a t m e l t i n t o one a n o t h e r a t the summit o f t h e " f o u n t a i n i s b o t h l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y t h e c r o w n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f i t s s c u l p t u r a l program.7 5 .  The with It  the  was  bronze  group  assistance  cast  by  the  of  Giovanni  work  xs  probably  perhaps  lost-wax  "Rubeus," presumably surviving  7  the  these  either is  process  bronze  or his  f a t h e r , i t - has  group  the  i s hardly  carvings unless  masters.  and  of  There  heads  the  and  comparable  had  no  worked  founder.  assistants.  As  a  part  hands  the  hand  of  one  sole either  one  although  are  finely  waxes o f  My  other  that  the  conception  wrought,  mastery  Giovanni.  and  or  proof  and  i n formal  i n the  by  been g r e a t l y admired  wax  upon the  Giovanni,  i s signed 7 7  i s , h o w e v e r , no  e i t h e r Nicola or  Giovanni  h a n d s , he  and  other  i n m e t a l t o h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d by  a c t u a l l y modelled  noble  work of  a number o f  some a u t h o r i t i e s a t t r i b u t e ' i t t o 7 8 of  the  to  guess  the  the is  heads  a c t u a l manufacture  of  the stone that  or the  51  bronze, which or based  on  are based  may  o r may  d e s i g n s by  upon t h e  • The  n o t be  the unaided work o f  Giovanni or Nicola,  which  "Rubeus"  in  turn  antique.  prototype f o r the three  caryatid  figures  can  79 be  found at P i s t o i a .  Church the an  o f . S.  similar upper  marble  free  intention  were  faced with font  into  a new  was  to create  Three support  a moveable, used  female  the base  m  the  juxtaposes  figures the  to support  Pisani  the problem of t r a n s l a t i n g  By;adopting the bronze  e n o u g h t o be  at Pistoia,  Undoubtedly,  medium.  viable  font,  of u s i n g c t h e female  cistern.  triple-figure  able  standing  Giovanni Fuorciritas  sculptural  sculptors  The  as  expressive  technique, the sensitive  supporting  figures,  on w h i c h  and  group  bronze  sculptor of  figures,  figures.  each w i t h  are poised  the  one  arm  the l i o n s  upraised,  and  griffins  80 which  crown  technical lion  and  the  fountain.  accomplishment griffin  restoration  symbols  of the  show a m u s c u l a r i t y maidens. the  To  carvings  like  and  the eight  figures  order.  are  The  a  bronze  of Perugia, which, before the i n 19 4 9 ,  surface  surmounted  tension  lacking  e x t e n t , the group  of a g r i f f i n , column  female  of the highest  fountain  a certain  of the central and  These  an  e a g l e and  of the P i s t o i a  surviving  bronze  the  i n the  i s comparable a lion  pulpit  at the  (figure  animal-head  which  j u t from the upper  stone basin,  under  Giovanni's eye, i f they are not  caryatids,  argue  base  11),  protomes  their  from h i s  to.  execution 81 hand.  CHAPTER I I I  '  ' THE' F O U N T A I N A S A  Conveyors the ed  functional by s y m b o l i c  and guardians  aspects  of the life-giving  o f f o u n t a i n s , have  allusions.  of expression  a r e symbols  intended  t o designate.  A certain  inheres  itself  Throughout coalescence "...the  o f many  static  of nature sanctity in  divergent  means  and opposing  and t h e s a c r e d of water  Indigenous  and t h e p r o f a n e . " w i t h i n an the polarity  t o a l l c u l t u r e s was t h e of water  deities  i t s u n i v e r s a l d e s i g n a t i o n as a  and r i t u a l  p r o p e r t i e s as w e l l  a  constituents:  enclosed  the veneration  civilizations;  qualities  symbolism  f o r t h e mind i n  the fountain symbolizes  hence  of purification  magical ing  structure, and o f a r t .  ancient  unavoidable  the ages, the fountain represents  and dynamic  o f water;  other  t o images."''  A n a t u r a l s p r i n g o r source artificial  and  enrich  of whatever they are  i n human m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s ;  knowing, turns  element  o f t e n been  Words, p i c t u r e s ,  vehicles  also  SYMBOL  purging  of sins.  Water's  as i t s c u r a t i v e a n d l i f e - e n h a n c -  are stressed i n the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e .  In  53  turn,  fountains .•  the  as h a b i t a t s  of• s p i r i t s ,  •  dwellings a purely  are'conceived  3  o f sources', and p l a c e s iconographical  o f theophany.  In addition  d e v e l o p m e n t h a d p a v e d t h e way t o  i n c l u s i o n o f the Fountain  flourishing  .  o r even r e v i v e d  of Life,  a motif  i n fourteenth  s t i l l  and e a r l y  fifteenth  u century a r t . Considering not  i t s manifold  surprising to find  characteristics,  the fountain,  as  the spiritual  and p h y s i c a l nexus  or  of Paradise.  In fact,  feature out it  o f the medieval  of a l l proportion appears.  each  other  Bible  Compare  "the w e l l of o f scenes  the fountain  of the creation  i s often  t o t h e s i z e o f the garden the fountain  i n works  the chief  as remote  the'Garden o f E a r t h l y and mineral  line' Fountain  forms  of Life 5  Museum t r i p t y c h .  Usually  from whose  of  this  flow  i s thus  Riches  C h r i s t ! (Antwerp) , ( f i g u r e 35) .  i n Bosch's  panel  associated  springs  fountain  by Bosch  intermingle  i n the left  Eternal' Life Paradise,  Delights  from-  century  i n the' T r e V  from V i t a  depicted  i n which  a s t h e A d a m and' E v e i n t h e f i f t e e n t h  Mb r a i l ' s e e ; t h e ' E a r t h l y ' P a r a d l s e  Vegetal  life,"  garden, and i t i s f r e q u e n t l y  He'ures ; t h e 1512' G a r d e n o f E d e n and  i t i s  crystal-  o f t h e Prado  with forth  closely  the' F o u n t a i n the four  rivers  interwoven*'with'..  R  such  O l d Testament  passages which  metaphorically  refer  to: ...the  Lord,  the fountain  of  of a l l l i v i n g waters. J e r e m i a h , 17:13 •  54  In  a figurative  or  source  of  sense, the Lord  i s spoken  o f as - a  Fountain  life:  The f e a r o f t h e L o r d i s t h e f o u n t a i n o f l i f e f o r t h e man who w o u l d e s c a p e t h e s n a r e s o f death. Proverbs 14:27. It becomes  i s also the Fountain  o f Living' Waters  one o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e V i r g i n  which  Mary:  ...and t h o u g i v e s t them w a t e r f r o m t h e flowing stream o f thy d e l i g h t s ; for with thee i s the fountain o f l i f e , i n t h y l i g h t we a r e b a t h e d w i t h l i g h t . P s a l m 36:8-9 The  most prominent  symbol  feature  f o r t h e Immaculate  supported  by t h e verses  o f the Hortus Conception  CohcTu'sus  i s a  of the Virgin  i n t h e Song o f Solomon  as  4:12;  A g a r d e n e n c l o s e d i s my s i s t e r , my s p o u s e ; a s p r i n g shut up, a f o u n t a i n s e a l e d . Regarding the  faithful,  three the  the miniature  (figure  34).  monuments  of Life  three  the  pilgrimage' s i t e .  Magi w i t h  of a hexagonal  with  by Charles  occurs-  nudes, while  their  splendid  cited  a t one o f t h e  V to line  As t h e f a i t h f u l  of the  o f Jesus i n  1 4 1 6 , may b e  the route  converge  i n Van Eyck's' A d o r a t i o n  the  ed  to the Life  Here t h e assemblage  constructed  place f o r  d e p i c t i n g the meeting  Heur'es , C h a n t i l l y ,  t o S t . Denis.  Fountain  that  as a g a t h e r i n g  magi i n t h e s e c t i o n devoted  Tres' Riches  Paris  the fountain  from  upon t h e  o f t h e Lamb, s o  r e t i n u e s , gaze  towards  The f o r m o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f i s s p i r e crowned w i t h the others  spike  are v i s i b l e  finials,  adorn-  i n niches  below.  Architecturally, the  Fountain  of  1  terrestrial  the Life  a manner w h i c h  in  the  of  central to the  the  on  north  symbol  i n the  the  to  the  aforementioned  evokes the  baptismal thoughts  theme o f t h e  i n the  early  one  encasing  scene  of  the  panel  of  of  and  of  the  Fountain  s c h o o l , and  Life  of  of  of  Ll'fe  exist  Used  triptych, ca.  this  a  the  represents  blood  i n i t s conception,  as  attributed  1520,  the  in  Youth.  Salvation in  dated  overflowing with  medieval  Fountain  Fountain  a sixteenth century  Netherlandish  Fountain  font i s represented  sixteenth century.  Redemption, the  Literary,  is similar  Paradise.  Sometimes  Variations  tower  of  Christ.  fountain,  . . . f e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by t h e b l o o d i s s u i n g . f r o m Christ's.wounded s i d e and t h e m i l k s p u r t i n g f r o m t h e - . b r e a s t o f t h e V i r g i n , i s c i t e d as a s t r a n g e amalgam t o p r o d u c e t h e - e l i x i r o f s a l v a t i o n Also "Precious  related  Blood",  to  i s the  the  cult  Fountain  . . . w i t h j o y s h a l l we the fountains of the  These one of  compositions,  group;  and  however  that they  Redemption, the  and of  liturgy  draw w a t e r Saviour Isaiah,12:3  from  diverse i n detail,  or  the  belong  merely  Christ  crucified  o f Grace to  two  dogma o f  and  "Grace."  E u c h a r i s t , but  may  a l s o be  i t is this  versions of the  Fountain  of  Life'!"'"  1  The  the .  Thus t h e  fountain  i n t e r p r e t e d as  whole .  be  Fountain applied  same p a i n t i n g — t h e O b e r l i n a n d fountain i t s e l f ,  .  symbolizing  the'  c o n n o t a t i o n w h i c h may  to  allegories  9 Catholic  the  Life:  r e p r e s e n t , not  Passion  of  with hosts  Prado  below,  56  is  the Gothic type which  mid-fifteenth  became q u i t e  popular toward  c e n t u r y as p o r t r a y e d by  the  a number o f N o r t h e r n  artists. In the  view  of the persistence  Renaissance, i t i s hardly  of  secluded cloisters  in  the  sixteenth  uishable  from, t h e  fountain  as  It  century garden.  religious  of the  from the  earlier  Guillaume century  de  Lorris  allegorical  duality  s e c u l a r becomes  of  indistingthe  e v e n more  the Renaissance' Fountain' of  of love  and  Jean  as de  part  vividly  of the  apparent. Love  tradition  p o r t r a y e d by  Meung i n t h e  p o e m , Roman de  in  are frequent  Eden becomes  the  f o u n t a i n w h i c h was  garden  forms  that reminiscences  romances As  of love,  and  seems p r o b a b l e t h a t  descends  surprising  or chivalric  garden  of medieval  thirteenth  l a ' Rose.  B u t now l e t u s t a l k o f t h e b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s that are enclosed i n t h i s lovely park...It i s i n d e e d r i g h t t h a t i t s h o u l d be s o , f o r a l l good t h i n g s w e l l f o r t h f r o m t h e same f o u n t a i n , one that waters the e n t i r e enclosure, from i t s str.ea.ms d r i n k t h e a n i m a l s who w i s h a n d d e s e r v e t o e n t e r ^ t h e r e . . . T h e f o u n t a i n i s so p r e c i o u s and h e a l t h - g i v i n g , so b e a u t i f u l and c l e a r , c l e a n and pure, t h a t a f t e r t h e y have drunk from i t , they can never b e t h i r s t y . . . Then he is  says  brighter  also  that,  than pure  since  i t never  stops,  the  fountain  silver.  The f o u n t a i n t h a t I h a v e s p o k e n o f , w i t h i t s . b e a u t y a n d ' i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a c u r e f o r a l l t i r e d out animals, always r o l l s i t s d e l i c i o u s waters, • sweet, c l e a r , and l i v e l y , f r o m t h r e e f i n e springs. I t n e e d s no m a r b l e s t o n e n o r t h e c o v e r ing of a tree, f o r the water, never ceasing, comes f r o m a s o u r c e s o h i g h t h a t no t r e e c a n grow so t a l l t h a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e w a t e r i s not greater.H  57  These  few  passages., u n d e r l i n e  fountain  imagery  fountain  had  place  a l l the  of  between the the  state  of  considered garden  be  Romance.'  interpreted both  faithful Law  the  and  and  the  as  a kind  New,  the  perception  as  a  The  meeting  of boundary  state  of  of  mark  nature  and  grace. as  as  as  fanciful  seen throughout  come t o  Old  If  as  the  i n the a  the  medieval  fortress  garden of  of  adventure  love,  'one  the  pay  v i l l a is.  view  the  villa  love.  •Here [ G a r d e n o f L o v e ] h e a r t s a r e c h a n g e d ; i n t e l l i g e n c e and m o d e r a t i o n h a v e no b u s i n e s s here,'where there i s only the simple w i l l to l o v e , t h a t C u p i d , son. o f V e n u s , sowed t h e s e e d o f l o v e t h a t had dyed the whole f o u n t a i n , h e r e t h a t he s t r e t c h e d h i s n e t s and p l a c e d h i s s n a r e s "to t r a p y o u n g men and women; f o r l o v e w a n t s no o t h e r b i r d s . Because the seed that'was sown, t h i s f o u n t a i n has b e e n r i g h t l y c a l l e d t h e Fountain of Love, about which s e v e r a l have spoken i n many p l a c e s , i n b o o k s a n d i n r o m a n c e s ... x 3  With a  this  notion  suitable  of the  this  terrestrial  gathering  a l l y , the  couples in  for love,  of  that  impact  of  making  century  became t h e  the  or  focal  ^  constant.  tales,  music near  art.  realm,  theme, c h a n g e s  relatively  Boccaccio's  love  entrenched  f o u n t a i n cat- t h e  a more s e c u l a r  although are  the  firmly  as  centre  point;  lovers.  e m b a r k i n g on  elements  fifteenth  .garden r a t h e r  paradise  place  come a p p a r e n t  the  the  surrounding  In  by  of  the  the  i t will  stylistic-  Perhaps  motif  fountain  be-  of is  impelled  the recurrent  58  Fountains legend  i n Ovid's  illustrating  the  Echo and  Metamor'phosis^^ a l s o f a l l  same c a t e g o r y .  I t i s however, v i a the  European p r i n t s  of the  fifteenth  Narcissus  within  medium o f  the North  century, that the  fons  15 amoris  tradition  examples  are  (studio),  i s most w i d e l y  visible  i n works  The. F o u n t a i n  diffused.  such  o f Lb v e ,  as  Antonio  Borgia apartments;  Diirer, Aldegrever tury the  and  .  and  Holbein.  German e n g r a v i n g s  stress  Love theme becomes  m  the  the  of  the  to  the  the  prints  sixteenth  more e r o t i c  allied  Victoria,  Elders i n  the Northern  Because  further  Vivarini's  National Gallery  Melbourne;-'-^ P i n t u r r i c h i o ' s ' S u s a n n a h .and 17 • Vatican  Similar  of cen-  components, Fountain  of  Youth. As fanciful teenth  p o i n t e d out  water  century  f o u n t a i n s , as  candelabra -| o  taste.  One century  a painting Berlin, of the  by  dated  Bertha Wiles, the  accessories of  of the  teenth  by  forms,  of the  as  the  type Rest.on  Musical angels completely  early  f o u n t a i n s may the  Flight hover  and  vertical  most e l a b o r a t e o f t h e  Altdorfer,  f o u n t a i n which  well  fifteenth  were q u i t e a s s i m i l a b l e  Renaissance  1510.  Italian  complex  be  into  around  and six-  lines  to  German  sixseen  in  Egypt, the  o v e r w h e l m s t h e H;oly  rim Family  seated beside i t . An i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e t a b l e t o f t h e 19 p r o b a b l y done by t h e a r t i s t as a "ex v o t o " t o t h e V i r g i n . fountain i n d i c a t e d to F r i e d l a n d e r t h a t the p a i n t i n g was S i m i l a r elements are observed i n the m a g n i f i c e n t woodcut,  59  The  Holy. F a m i l y  three-shelled  a t the  Fountain,  font w i t h i n the  ca.  1512-15, i n which  chapel  i s decidedly  the  outside 20  medieval  variations, Strongly  Fountain  of  Life  rejuvenation, aqua vit'ae izing  and  as  expressed  sacred  of  grace  provide  o f Love  i n the  and  the  of  The  significant  a water  idea of  and  i t became a means  ritual  theme  for purificationsprior  reawakens  and  re-  of water  was  performed  as  a  fountain to  This  like  practices  the  of  symbol-  For  considered  function of  the  purification,  cleansing aspect  A b l u t i o n was  of  of Youth.  i s evoked.  i n the  mode.  i s the  Fountain  The  energy  spirit.  fountains.  the  baptism.  m  tradition  Fountain' o f Youth p u r i f i e s , • 2 1 '  particularly at  the  the' F o u n t a i n  a rebirth  the  juvenates  with  Renaissance  i s also a water of oblivion,  and  Baptism,  typically  interwoven  regeneration  renewal  and  the  sign to  invocation  27 of  a- s a i n t .  of  changing  It is this the  s o u l as ' w e l l as  formed  f r o m a. r e l i g i o u s  teenth  century.  last  chapter  Pollphili, Polia,  cline  with  the  body w h i c h  secular context of  the  medieval  romance;  thereby  While  a  the  instance  (1499) by  Baptism,  to  t h a t w a t e r has  An  i s led.-to a  performed; with  of  notion  Francesco  sacred the  i s now  this  f o u n t a i n where  allied  to  representations the  the of  be  is trans-  i n the cited  six-  from  where the certain  formerly Fountain  the  Ages,"  heroine,  rites  are  associated of  the' F o u n t a i n  Middle  property  Hypnerotomachia 2 3  Colonna,  regeneration  "waning o f  may  the  the  Love.' of  Life  idea of  dethe  60  Fountain degree,  o f Love, ( f i g u r e the  Renaissance.•  the  pages  fountains with  the  north is  the  Colonna's  seeds  courtly  as  'Origin  Early  In an  and  r e v i v e d and  present  l o v e as  first  i t s reaction epilogue  to the  Significance  Christian  of numerological  writers  Hypnerotomach1a  Middle  Ages.  Oct a g o n a l  were at and  the  m y s t i c a l and  magical  theless , the  number h e l d  al  and  allusions  odds w i t h  into  of this  the  tradition, The  ieval the by  of the  Ages  plan, well  civic  developed  monasteries.  through  Never-  store of  tradition-  The. N e o - P l a t o n i c  Roman p e r i o d , f o u n d the  learned  their  interpreter  Augustine.  octagonal  fountains of  imagery the  Middle  the  Ll  o f numbers.  s y m b o l i c a l meanings. i n the  Fountain  gnostic speculation  f o r them a r i c h  number t h e o r i e s , ' i m p o r t a n t way  property  the human-  9  on  forth  Renaissance  o f the  abstraction  budding  expressed, i n  to  of  harmony  then  i n the  in  f u r n i s h e d by  f o r a number  i n complete was  les'ser  expanded  was  romance,  a r t which  Always  l a Rose.  ism , i t serves  spirit  d e p i c t e d , are  Alps.  a slightly  undoubtedly  fanciful  o f a new  theme o f  Roman' de  Inspiration  therein  of the  to  Fountain- of Youth--is  the  of  36)--and  by  nigh  and  garden a l i k e ,  the  church  I t s importance  number i n v o l v e d .  universal  and  f o r med-  derives  widely  i s i n the  from  disseminated significance  61  The  Church  on:  a tradition  the  five  science there  Fathers  of n a t u r a l or  f i n g e r s on which  are  the  twelve  signs  the  sixth  hand;  of  day.  W h e r e m o d e r n man  him  zodiac;  relate  C h r i s t was  man  saw  a  Resurrected other  from the  biblical  traditions, tradition  of The  of day  the  was  crucified  the  sixth  world  day.  numbers,  . 2 5  the  the  eighth  Ark.  day.  other very  Christ  This  and  was •'  numerological strongly to  the  ancient  well.  plenty  For  after  already Hebrews:  acquired i t was  connotations the  eighth  purification 26 uncleanliness, of circumcision a f t e r b i r t h . E i g h t was a s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r i n t h e G r e c o - R o m a n as  of  of  created  relationship.  number e i g h t  number e i g h t had  w h i c h was  Pythagorean  Resurrection.  s a n c t i t y among t h e  after  on  15:17),  Man  combined w i t h  r e l a t e d the  the  on  as  Babylonian  to numbers.  s u r v i v o r s on  dead  octaves  and  •  There were e i g h t  numbers  (Genesis  a mere c o i n c i d e n c e  significant  of  numbers, such  f r o m Ur  • medieval  teaching  a s t r o l o g y , the  the  observes  their  elementary  Abraham took w i t h  numerology, a l l things on  built  Cicero  fasting., of  i t was  humerus' p l e n u s ,  a  perfect  27 number. sacred was  Eight fountains  also  used  columns and  supported  the  funeral brothroi.  f o r mausolea, which  important b u i l d i n g types civilizations.  canopy The  over  most  octagonal  i n turn•gave r i s e to 28 • • 2 9 i n Islamic and C h r i s t i a n  form  62  Christian in  the  death  t e c t u r e was  and the  baptism being  a ritual  r e s u r r e c t i o n of model  the  choseriifor the  participation  Lord,  funerary  archi-  baptistery, especially  30 m  post-Constantiman  time  that  the  f o n t s , had  prevalent  definite  of  found  the  St..  octagonal  to  Paul  first  around  four  the  for  some-  form i n b a p t i s t e r i e s 31  Underwood, the  of  font  b e e n known  and  meaning.  number, e i g h t , w i t h  i n the  inscribed  I t has  symbolic  According ing  Italy.  respect  the of  eight  key  to  the  to baptism, distichs  S a i n t Ambroseds  mean-  is  which  were  baptistery.of  Thecla, at M i l a n . The- t e m p l e o f e i g h t n i c h e s ' r o s e ' up f o r h o l y use, The o c t a g o n a l f o u n t a i n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t rite (baptism), I t was f i t t i n g t h a t the house of h o l y baptism r i s e up i n t h i s n u m b e r , By w h i c h , t r u e s a l v a t i o n r e t u r n e d t o m a n k i n d . With the l i g h t of C h r i s t r i s i n g again,oof C h r i s t who o p e n s t h e g a t e s o f d e a t h , And r a i s e s t h e dead f r o m t h e i r tombs And f r e e i n g c o n f e s s e d s i n n e r s f r o m t h e s t a i n of s i n , Cleanses them w i t h the w a t e r o f the pure-flowing font. 3 2  3 3  Even when l a r g e built  as  b a p t i s t e r i e s , the  urrection atria  of  western their  octagon b u i l d i n g s  number i n i t s o c t a g o n a l early basilicas,  manuscripts,  Therefore,  generally  the  saving  speaking,  b a p t i s t e r i e s were  font  shape.  monastic  assumed the  association with  octagonal  baptismal  ceased.to retained  the  Fountains  in  the  fountains,  and  cloister  octagonal waters  i t would  introduced  be  of  shape  through  eternal  seem t h a t  res-  life.  round  into C h r i s t i a n ar  or  63  architecture and  only  after'the  t h a t . they, d i d n o t 34  century.  middle  of  the  b e c o m e common u n t i l  fourth the  century,  fifth.  64  • CHAPTER  THE  F O U N T A I N OF  PRADO AND  The that has  has  be  never.been to  modern c o n c e p t i o n scriptural fountains and  or  ance  of  sixteenth  attempt w i l l ieval  be  concepts  iconographic  able  to  some o f to  to  these  others  both  i s through  title  that  refer,  waters.  way  or  another,  of  of  Throughout  demonstrate  imagery  formulate  the  various  to  the  ways  importand  chapter  i n which  a major p o r t i o n  of  an medthe  paintings.  antiquarian  a number o f  antiquarians,  the  fifteenth  this  to  Carolingian  illuminations established prior  The  illustrative,  examination  operative  Life,  paintings,  varied  sources,"'"  the  i n E d e n as  an  one  is  interpretations  same theme--The' F o u n t a i n , o f  i t stood  of  established.  i n one  An  prototypes.  content  the  to  the  reconstruct  relating  attached  of  made t o  From the  t i t l e , ' Fountain  clearly  imagery  of  PAINTINGS  knowledge  manuscript  century  the  LIFE:  my  living  fountain  of  firmly  passages  Gothic  0BERLIN  suitability  come t o  IV  fountain  Life.  existed  allegorical  To in  figure  Eden, of  65  Christ the  or Ecclesia.  Sacred  Christian  In  Synagogue the  Fountain  Fountain  p a i n t i n g known  o r t h e Triumph o f t h e Church  (figure  38).  of Living  or  Gospels.  M e m o r i a l A r t Museum a t O b e r l i n ,  an H i s p a n o - F l e m i s h  of Life  f o rthe Virgin  S c r i p t u r e s , especially" t h e Four  1952, t h e A l l e n  Ohio, acquired Fountain  To o t h e r s , i t s t o o d  A near  identical  Over' t h e  p a i n t i n g known as  W a t e r , The M y s t i c  o f G r a c e , now h a n g s  as The •  Fountain  at the Prado  and t h e  Museum i n M a d r i d  (figure 37).  The P r a d o P a i n t i n g  The P r a d o p a i n t i n g was b r o u g h t of  s c h o l a r s i n 1 8 3 8.  Lady a  of E l Parral  gift  is  by Henry  probably  Acquired one an  to the attention  I t had been i n t h e monastery  near  Segovia  s i n c e i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n as  2 I V o f C a s t i l e , i n ' 1455 .  the f i r s t  by t h e Prado  Flemish  o f Our  The P r a d o ' s  painting to enter  panel 3  Spain.  i n 1 8 7 2 , i t was l o n g a t t r i b u t e d t o  o f t h e V a n E y c k b r o t h e r s ; i t i s now  considered  1  t o be by  unknown f o l l o w e r o f Van E y c k . The O b e r l i n P a i n t i n g  Late seen  another  chapel  i n the eighteenth painting identical  of the Cathedral  century, to that  of Palencia.^  Antonio  Ponz h a d  at E l Parral  i n a  The P a l e n c i a p a i n t -  66  ing in  i s next Paris  i n 1863.  attributed on  t o an  the basis  Oberlin work,  by  Now-  a. F r e n c h m  of external  picture  and  current  medieval  at the  and  evidence.  and  i t is ca.150 0 The  conception.  as w e l l  fifteenth  i t  century  Fountain' of L i f e ,  iconography  saw  dated  a mid-fifteenth  i n technique  end. o f t h e  who  collection,  artist  internal  i s a copy o f  understanding of the  its•late  art critic  the O b e r l i n  unknown S p a n i s h  already archaic  proper of  mentioned  as  For  the  the  c e n t u r y may  a  tradition  concepts now  be  considered.  :  Subject of the  The remind the  one  of the  artist  archaic g  plays Van  central  and case  Lamb.  Apostle  by  altarpiece,  the  borrowed  introduced.  e a r t h were  unknown  from  Celestial  Jan  the  medlr  r e p r e s e n t e d by  two  levels  Jerusalem.  Virgin  contemplates' a passage  on  On  were m u l t i - p u r p o s e p r o p s ,  the  setting  conventional set for miracle  were  i s flanked  immediately  Mystic Fountain r e l i e d  paintings  of the  Ghent  Eycks,  latest  towers  enthroned  of the  Van  elements  stage'mansions"  the  the  pictorial  and  painting  U n l i k e the n a t u r a l i s t i c  which  stage heaven  the  that  of the  panel of the  o f the. Prado's  format;  into  Eyck's  ieval  format  s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d by  Flemish an  s u b j e c t and  Adoration of the  of the  Painting  and  this  Christ  St. John.  i n h i s Book o f  in  The  Revelation.  67  At  C h r i s t ' s f e e t , a lamb r e p o s e s  grotto,  directly  flowing  through  sit  below,  towers  grasping  terrestrial octagonal the  a spring gives  a clump  on t h e f l o w e r y  of grass.  mead  (figure  important  level  there  fountain.  rise  t o the stream  41), others  angels  grace the  In the centre  i s an e l a b o r a t e l y  into  dais:'. I n a  Music-making  scrolls.  Numerous  stream emptying  on a s m a l l  of the  decorated,  communion w a f e r s , b o r n e  the basin,  float  by  upon t h e w a t e r ' s •7  surface. much  behind  fittingly  at  twin  occupies  celestial  through  towers;  and t e r r e s t r i a l  Paradise  must p a s s  by t h e f o u n t a i n . o f the Saviour.  representing  through  stands  the church, i t  of the vertical levels.  . A Immed-  tower and t h e f o u n t a i n  the centre  plane  The s t r e a m  i ti n order'to  between flowing  emerge  the font. •' C o n t r a s t i n g  on  the throne  the tabernacle  aedicule with  the  tower.rises  l a r g e r one crowns  iately an  A tabernacle  groups  f i l l " the t e r r e s t r i a l  e i t h e r s i d e . '"At t h e L o r d ' s  ranks,  kneel  ranks  high  priest  bear  scrolls  hand, i n h i e r a r c h i c a l  t h e C h r i s t i a n s l e d by t h e Pope  Roman s o v e r e i g n Jewish  right  (figure  39).  a r e i n d i s a r r a y and c o n f u s i o n .  whose i n s c r i p t i o n s  of the picture  (figure 40).  and t h e Holy  B u t on t h e o t h e r  b l i n d f o l d e d and h o l d i n g will  space  a broken clarify  hand, the  L e d by t h e lance,  they  t h e meaning  68  Scriptural  The related of  g e n e r a l theme o f t h e p a i n t i n g  to the appropriate scriptural  the inscriptions Fountain  of  Aliusions  the picture  present  Imagery  i s based  c a n now b e  source  i n the painting  i n John.  and t h e import assesed.  The A p o c a l y p t i c theme  on R e v e l a t i o n 2 2 : 1 :  T h e n t h e a n g e l s h o w e d me t h e r i v e r o f l i f e , r i s i n g f r o m t h e t h r o n e o f G o d a n d o f t h e Lamb a n d f l o w i n g c r y s t a l c l e a r down t h e m i d d l e o f t h e city•street. The Messiah, his of  of life  flows  the Fountain of Life.  Gospel, John  and Jesus  from t h e throne In the fourth  use t h i s  h i m s e l f and H i s M e s s i a n i c r o l e .  and he  river  was r e t u r n i n g had these words  to Galilee.  of the  chapter o f  metaphor i n speaking Jesus  had been b a p t i z e d  Stopping a t Jacob's  f o rthe Samaritan  well,  woman:  Whoever d r i n k s t h i s w a t e r w i l l get thirsty again; b u t a n y o n e who d r i n k s t h e w a t e r t h a t I s h a l l g i v e w i l l never be t h i r s t y again;the water that I s h a l l give w i l l turn into a spring inside him, w e l l i n g up i n t o e t e r n a l l i f e . . , .. J o h n 4: 1 3 - 1 4 . This  passage  i s closely  related  to the following  Revelation: I am t h e - A l p h a a n d t h e Omega, t h e B e g i n n i n g and t h e end. I w i l l give water from the w e l l o f l i f e t o a n y b o d y who i s t h i r s t y . Rev. 21:6  from  69  And  again: T h e S p i r i t a n d t h e B r i d e s a y 'Come.' L e t e v e r y o n e who l i s t e n s a n s w e r 'Come. T h e n l e t a l l who a r e t h i r s t y c o m e : A l l who w a n t i t may h a v e t h e w a t e r o f l i f e , and have i t f r e e . Rev. 22:17 Inscriptions  tower  above  verse  f r o m t h e Song o f  i n the P a i n t i n g .  An  t h e Hebrews h o l d s a b a n n e r  1  angel i n the  inscribed with  a  Songs:  F o u n t a i n t h a t makes t h e g a r d e n grow f e r t i l e , well of l i v i n g water, s t r e a m s f l o w i n g down f r o m L e b a n o n . S g . 4:15 • A  Christian interpretation of this  Messianic water.  fountain, By  extension,  as t h e Body o f In by  the.Jews  lettering  vivifying  text  t h e New  sees  Christ  Israel with  t h e image i s a p p l i e d  as  the  living  to the  Church  Christ.  the o r i g i n a l were  Prado p a i n t i n g  inscribed with  ( f i g u r e 42).:  the banners  meaningless  Genuine  H e b r e w was  held  pseudo-Hebrew substituted  by  8 the  master of the  Hebrew ing,  copy.  Although  i n s c r i p t i o n s ' are s u b s t i t u t e d  there  From.such Flemish and  Oberlin  does  a p p e a r t o be  minor  errors, i t i s possible  artist  was  familiar with  ecclesiastical  a s s i s t e d by  in translation.  to imagine that  a Jew  paint-  the  c o n v e r s a n t i n Hebrew, According  t o a. f a m i l i a r  the remaining verses of a  are  i n f e r r e d from the quotation  The  text  on  i n the Oberlin errors  the' C o n c o r d a n c e . ^  convention,  authentic  t h e pennant"'""'" h e l d  of the by  first  the high  line  psalm  alone.^  p r i e s t i s from  70  Chronicle lines  1:16:34,.and c a n b e f o u n d  o f p s a l m s . 1 0 6 , 10 7 , 1 1 8 a n d .136.  formula  i n the  I t i s a  first  stock  of praise: It  i s g o o d t o g i v e t h a n k s t o t h e Lord'-,", for h i s love endures'forever. C h r o n i c l e 1:16:34  Give  In t h e l i g h t as  repeated  depicted  thanks t o Yahweh, f o r he i s good his love i s everlasting. Psalms 106, 107, 118, . a n d 136 . of the situation  and behaviour  o f t h e Jews  i n t h e p a i n t i n g and o f t h e g e n e r a l  context  of  12 the work, Psalm prefixed form  106 i s . p e c u l i a r l y  with'the  inscription,  apt.  The P s a l m i s  "National Confession;" i t s  i s that.of a collective entreaty: We h a v e s i n n e d q u i t e a s m u c h a s o u r f a t h e r s , We h a v e b e e n w i c k e d , we a r e g u i l t y ; ' Our, a n c e s t o r s i n : E g y p t n e v e r g r a s p e d t h e meaning o f o u r marvels. Ps. 106:6-7 They r e f u s e d a l a n d o f d e l i g h t , h a v i n g no f a i t h i n h i s p r o m i s e ; t h e y s t a y e d i n t h e i r camp a n d g r u m b l e d , they would n o t l i s t e n t o the Lord's v o i c e . Ps. 106:24-25 13  At  the feet of the high  priest  the inscription  reads:  .. He h a s w o n a name b y h i s m a r v e l l o u s ' d e e d s ; the Lord i s gracious and compassionate. He g i v e s f o o d t o t h o s e w h o f e a r h i m , P s . I l l :'4-5 This the  i s a reference  i n terms o f  m i r a c l e o f t h e manna a n d q u a i l s . ( E x . 1 6 : 1 4 ) . The  of  t o the E u c h a r i s t couched  the Fourth  t e x t on t h e b a n n e r t o t h e r i g h t Psalm:  1 1 4  i s a  fragment  71  ...more j o y t o my h e a r t t h a n o t h e r s f o r a l l t h e i r corn and wine. In peace i l i e . . . Ps. The  importance  picture preted  quotation  i s not clear.  Perhaps  to-Jews because  By millenium  Old in  i n the context  the verse  of their  may  of  of the  be  inter-  reproach  reputed  wealth  by  C h r i s t i a n s . •'  Confrontation  a  knew,  4:7-8  as an a h t i - S e m e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n  addressed envious  of this  ever  o f Church  t h e end o f t h e Middle of scriptural  Numerical  Ages,  after  exegeses, every  Testament had been r e l a t e d t h e New.  a n d S y n a g o g u e ,.  as a t y p e  coincidences,  more  detail o f some  antitheses,  than  of the element similarities  15 and  parallels  Adoration  of a l l kinds  had been noted.  Thus, m  o f t h e ' Lamb b y J a n , V a n E y c k , t h e A p o s t l e s  complemented by t h e i r  O l d Testament  the  are  counterparts, the  Prophets. The trasted  C h u r c h was  u s u a l l y complemented by, o r con-  t o t h e Synagogue.  The c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w e r s  of  C h r i s t and Moses i n the' F o u n t a i n  in  the p i c t o r i a l  by  the a l l e g o r i c a l  the a  convention  of Life  of the crucified  f i g u r e s o f t h e Church  face  averted,  Lord,  flanked  and t h e Synagogue,  former r e c e i v i n g the blood, from t h e - s i d e  c h a l i c e and t h e l a t t e r ,  has i t s o r i g i n  of Christ i n  b l i n d f o l d e d , and  72  holding  a broken  back  the  to  l a n c e ' ( f i g u r e .43) .  lance, of  Longinus  This, m o t i f  and  forward  harkens  t o the. b r o k e n -in  lance  of the  high, p r i e s t  This and  tradition  Synagogue becomes  a  development of Northern sculptural tation  of  C h r i s t i a n , and  Kidson,  d r e w my  throughout  of p e r s o n i f y i n g both I placing close  do  both  Ecclesia perhaps  and at  Harmonious breathe  Gothic  facing  use  certain  and  the  sculptural  the  Synagogue  other  On  the  particularly century.  across  prototypes, tradition,  tradition in a  of  relatively  a Church  portal  contrary, "statues Reims  1  Synagogue.  the  each  confron-  Germanic s c u l p t u r e ,  sculptural  and  the  century  thirteenth  pattern, or  Church  in  of. t h e  m o t i f , becomes  d i s c u s s i o n of  Ecclesia  motif  thirteenth  continued  Jewish  of  cathedral,  9  of and  Chartres." two  the  beautiful  47)  figures  at both  sides, of the  i n p r o p o r t i o n and  century  of Ecclesia  and  portal  at  SynBamberg,  German t a s t e f o r G o t h i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y .  a stateliness  and  and  Synagogue e x i s t e d at  (figure  represent  The  suggest  i n Germany.  The agogue  twelfth  the  Ecclesia  position  originates  fifth  not  a  Life.  frequently repeated  a number o f  establishing  of  juxtaposition  Germany i n t h e  i n a recent  attention to  formally  of the  iconography.-  disseminated Dr.  i n the: F o u n t a i n  and  austere  Greek s t a t u e s  Germanic t r a i t s  balance  i n movement,  heroism  despite the are  mingled  which  fact with  recall  that a  they  both  monumental  73  classicism. 45. a n d side  46)  Two  beautiful  statues  are,, l i k e , t h o s e  of the  portal.  at  with  at  about the  difference is characteristic.  bourg  are  i n France,  gesting, a classical sense  of  the  conception  i n the  this  in  Italian  sculpture of  the  of the  influence of  Giovanni  (figure  46)  Fountain  of  to  the  Life,  the  both  stand  occur  motifs.  In both  Fountain  of  personified bourg  and  retain  Life, as  the  conclude  On  this  Synagogue, t h e r e f o r e , , by  in  the  sug-  Perhaps i t manifested  century  from  detail  An  century  i s retained.  lance  tradition  sculptural  and  and  pictorial  the  Prado  r e p r e s e n t i n g Synagogue i s  the  other hand, at both  Strasfemale.  confrontation of Ecclesia the  illumination  and  interesting  manuscript  fifteenth  a well defined tradition  manuscript  by  Strasbourg  fifteenth  broken  between the  a male.  Stras-  developed  Bamberg,'- S y n a g o g u e i s ; a y o u n g , b e a u t i f u l To  existed  Synagogue  averted.  the .figure  at  Pisano.  i n the  Regensburg  they  Yet  bodies  round..  iconographic  b l i n d f o l d e d head does  to.the  thirteenth  of  priest  similar  personifications  late  figure  high  Both  difference  statues  German r e a l i s m t h a t becomes  Comparing  either  same t i m e ,  turn of their  is  way  The  more s l e n d e r , e l e g a n t , c l o s e r  style  on  (figures  t h e m somehow i n s p i r i t .  their  Gothic  Strasbourg  Bamberg, p l a c e d  Executed  seem a l s o c o n n e c t e d  at  and  of the  century,  there  juxtaposition  sculpture.  and  both  74  Eucharistic  A s p e c t s , i n the' P a i n t i n g  Just  Middle Ages  as  interpretation fathers, the  so  of  they  patristic  potent  the the also  as  accepted,  the  of  the  replacing  organization  seems t o fourth  division the  gives  i t to  doctrine It the  i s not  of  but the  at  e f f i c a c y of and  Jewish  diverse  John's  Life."  d o e s -so b y  theme o f  elements  comparing  of  from that  a ritual  of  re-enactment i t only  of  the  the  served  anti-Eucharistic  to  find  passion to  precise, most  bread  and  that  and  increase  malevolence  on  of  an  Gospel  The  basis  the  book  Feasts.  "Another  the  "He  not  Christian and  contrast-  taught  (Jn. the  this  6:59). rejection  i t s form  allegorical death  of  Christian belief, i n part  of  medieval  changed  sacrificial  the  for  The  chapter  f a m i l i a r to  Eucharistic- liturgy meal to  of  i t with  Indeed,  I s r a e l , ' , a theme  As  Church  Christian  is entitled  exposition  Passover.  C h r i s t i a n s .'  the  Its sixth  surprising, therefore, by  such  The  Passover.  Liturgical  Gospel 2 2  thorough  Jewish  the  Jewish  of  the  the  Eucharist.  Capernaum, in- the.Synagogue"  Eucharist  Lord,  the  the  the  Bread  a very  Eucharist, ing  m  have been the  Passover, only  of  by  20  J o h n i s d o m i n a t e d by  Passover,  allegorical  e v e n made m o r e  •  transubstantiated  St.  the  and  water of baptism  • wine  the.  Scriptures, elaborated  i n c u l c a t i o n of  symbols  followed  of  the  Jews.'  the  75  In piety  view  flourishing  Fountain  of Life  relationship  have  a t t h e end  and  l e d one  Christi  popular  mention  the  Eucharistic  the Eucharist. contemporary  developments  idolatrous and  have  practice  Grail  painting  cults  of  of the Precious Blood:  amazed t h e  c c a n n o t be  legend of the  close  It is  Nevertheless, the  of Christ),  the .  conception of the  to the a l lbut  devotionsswhich would  These r e l i g i o u s to  than  to expect.  (Body  of the  of the Middle Ages,  B a p t i s m and  patristic  owes i t s e x i s t e n c e Corpus  extremes  presents a lofty  between  more b i b l i c a l would  o f the errant  as  Apostles.  examined  a  here,  save  contributing 23  factor  to the  The Of basic  and  of the Precious Blood.  Baptismal Aspect a l lthe n a t u r a l  most u n i v e r s a l  symbolisms. tuality  cult  The  waters  from which  integrating have  a l l forms  C o n t a c t w i t h , t h e w a t e r .has m  it,  d e a t h ; and This  the  Pauline  epistle  view  phenomena, w a t e r has element  signified  a  arise  a l l must  and  of Baptism i s most c l e a r l y  the  religious  formlessv i r -  meant d i s s o l u t i o n ; . . .  emersion, p u r i f i c a t i o n  doctrine,  in  been  and  ultimately  return.  immersion . regeneration. based  expressed i n St.  upon Paulis  t o t h e . Romans: Know y e n o t 5 t h a t s o many o f u s a s w e r e b a p t i z e d i n t o Jesus C h r i s t were b a p t i z e d unto h i s death?  2  76  T h e r e f o r e we a r e b u r i e d w i t h h i m b y b a p t i s m u n t i l . death:. t h a t l i k e as C h r i s t was r a i s e d from t h e dead b y t h e g l o r y o f t h e F a t h e r , e v e n -so we a l s o s h o u l d w a l k i n n e w n e s s o f life. Romans 6:3-4  The' F o r m o f t h e ' F o u n t a i n  The  a l lbut universal  t h e M i d d l e Ages was t h a t Baptismal III,  of  Church  i n Rome.  the illumination font.  plinth.  i n Chapter  the first  font  t o be r e c o g n i z e d  o c c u r r e d i n 435 A.L., w i t h i n t h e The i n s c r i p t i o n  i n d e c i d i n g t h e date  baptismal  on a  r e c r e a t e t h e image o f a fons' v i t a e .  the Fountain o f Life  useful  o f a basin supported  c a n be no doubt t h a t  Lateran  o f baptismal font i n  t y p e s , as I have a l r e a d y s t a t e d  symbolically  There as  font  type  of origin  o f t h e fons. v i t a e  bears  evidence  and t h e provenances i n i t s g u i s e as a  Accordingly, the verses  read:  The---city,. a p e o p l e ' t o b e c o n s e c r a t e d , h e r e s p r i n g s i n t o being from f r u i t f u l seed: which t h e S p i r i t b r i n g s f o r t h from impregnated waters. Be d i p p e d i n t h e . s a c r e d s t r e a m , 0 s i n n e r c a l l e d t o p u r i t y : ' whom t h e w a t e r w i l l r e c e i v e o l d , b u t b r i n g f o r t h new. T h e r e i s n o d i s t i n c t i o n among t h o s e b o r n a g a i n , whom o n e f o n t , . o n e S p i r i t , o n e f a i t h make one.. F r o m h e r v i r g i n a l womb M o t h e r C h u r c h g i v e s b i r t h i n t h e s t r e a m t o h e r c h i l d r e n , whom s h e c o n c e i v e s t h r o u g h t h e b r e a t h o f God. Wouldst thou be pure, cleanse t h y s e l f i n t h i s • b a t h , w h e t h e r t h o u a r t o p p r e s s e d by. o r i g i n a l s i n o r t h i n e own g u i l t . . This i s t h e f o u n t a i n o f l i f e , which purges t h e w h o l e w o r l d , t a k i n g i t s c o u r s e f r o m t h e wound of Christ.  77  Hope  Let  f o r t h e K i n g d o m o f H e a v e n , y e who a r e r e b o r n i n t h i s f o n t ; t h e b l e s s e d l i f e does n o t a c c e p t t h o s e who a r e b o r n o n l y o n c e . n o t t h e number o r t h e k i n d o f h i s s i n s f r i g h t e n anyone; born o f t h i s stream he w i l l be h o l y . 2  It  s h o u l d be c l e a r  concerned  6  that  the inscriptions  w i t h the concept But  the less  chosen by t h e a r t i s t image t o t a k e  for  of  o f b a p t i s m as a  specialized  form  rebirth.  of the  o f the' F o u n t a i n o f L i f e  on a b r o a d e r  associated with baptism, reflecting  are- o v e r w h e l m i n g l y  significance.  i s also  the octagonal dais  fountain  enabled the  The  octagon,  a paradisial, motif,  f o r the Lord's  throne  and  t h e Lamb .  The  Significance  The  structure  c o l o u r e d marble  but  Van E y c k ' s  g i v e n way  of the Tabernacle  of the fountain with inset  follows  that  brass hydrant  o f t h e Ghent  panels  altarpiece,  w i t h i t s gargoyle spouts  t o a tabernacle tower.  has  The t a b e r n a c l e c r o w n e d  E u c h a r i s t i c - c u s t o d i a o f G o t h i c C h u r c h e s was  a feature of  27 font  lids  ples,  i n Northern  i t w a s :a s i g n  Europe  of  phoenix, Christ,  symbols  signify  44).  In both  o f the sacramental presence  On t h e t a b e r n a c l e , t h e c a r v e d the  (figure  figures  of the sacrifice  that  the fountain,  of  Christ.  of the pelican and both  exam-  and  resurrection B a p t i s m a l and  Eucharistic , i s the dwelling place of Christ He w i l l make h i s home a m o n g t h e m . Rev. 21:3  among  men:  78  Baptism the  monster  ological a part  of the  theme..  Ritual  descent  resurrection,  vices  fonts  as  the  of Christ retains in. i t s  disregard  for the  Messianic  Aspect  i t s integrating  d i v i n e " -1'ife a p p e a r s  and  epiphanies of the a vehicle and  the  Conflict  this  28  The  water  seen  of  as  victor-  i n the of  • virtues  medieval  as  of  a  the  consonat,.  Baptism.  a medium various  a life-giving as  his  battle  in' connection with  Spirit;  and  confrontation  sacred r i t e  as  forms  a re-enact-  m o t i f on  c o u l d be  role,  combat  element  decorative The  as  abyss  mythic  ritual.  divine:  of the Holy  of this  the  with  encountered' myth-  Baptism  into  and' J e w s , t h e r e f o r e ,  the  God,  rites .  a n n a t u r a l consequence.  In  as  Combat.  re-enactment  b e c a m e .a f a m i l i a r  Christians ant,  Ritual  deep i s a f r e q u e n t l y  exorcisms- prominent and  the  o f many i n i t i a t o r y  ment o f t h e ious  and  of functions  fluid;  W i s d o m , Law,  World  of  Messiah.  I f a n y man i s t h i r s t y , l e t h i m come t o me. . L e t t h e man come a n d d r i n k who believes i n me! As t h e s c r i p t u r e s a y s : From h i s breast s h a l l flow fountains of l i v i n g . water. J o h n 7:37-8 The", h i s t o r i c a l Jesus  context of this  i s most i n s t r u c t i v e .  section  o f John's  Gospel  pronouncement  I t i s recorded i n the  devoted  to the  activity  by  fifth of  Jesus  79a  during  the Feast  of  Tabernacles.  29  I t was a f a l l h a r v e s t f e s t i v a l w i t h p r a y e r s f o r r a i n as e n j o y e d upon t h e I s r a e l i t e s by Z e c h a r i a h . 30 Zechariah Not  only  tural the  i s the fourteenth chapter  source  f o r John  twenty-second  14:18  of Zechariah  the scrip-  7:38, i t i s a l s o t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r  chapter  of Revelation.  F o u n t a i n Imagery and t h e A n c i e n t C e l e b r a t i o n of the Feast o f the Tabernacle  Each ritual  day o f t h e f e s t i v a l :  31  the pool  of. S i l o a m .  pitcher with water,  Temple  which  •  While  the choir  the Priest  filled  a  sang:  And y o u w i l l draw w a t e r j o y f u l l y springs of salvation. I s i a h 12:13 The  saw a  p r o c e s s i o n down t o t h e f o u n t a i n o f G i h o n  supplied golden  at Jerusalem  from t h e  i s associated with the fountain i n Ezekiel:  He b r o u g h t me b a c k t o t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e T e m p l e , w h e r e a s t r e a m came o u t f r o m u n d e r t h e Temple t h r e s h o l d . Ezekiel Since  t h e Temple h a d b e e n d e d i c a t e d on t h e F e a s t  Tabernacles, with Jesus  47:1  i t was h o n o u r e d  t h e f o u n t a i n o f Gihon. spoke  fountain  during the f e s t i v i t i e s I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  o f h i m s e l f as t h e Temple  Most  important,  of  (John  here  along that  2:19-21).  t h e M e s s i a n i c hope e x p r e s s e d i n  i m a g e r y was t h e d o m i n a n t t h e m e o f t h e f e s t i v a l  80  at  the time  o f J e s u s , and remained 39  uries of  cent-  •  thereafter.  the Messiah  so f o r s e v e r a l  The p a i n t i n g  expresses: t h e n o t i o n  as Temple a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v e r s e s  from  R e v e l a t i o n 2 1 : 2 2 - 2 3: I saw no t e m p l e i n t h e c i t y ; f o r i t s t e m p l e was t h e s o v e r e i g n L o r d . God a n d t h e Lamb.  Conclusions  In  the Eucharistic  s h o u l d be n o t e d taught by John  that  aspect examined  Christian  Eucharistic  i n a Jewish setting  Jewish  objections.  Gospel  i s i t s polemical attitude  beyond  a defense  on  Judaism,  A conspicuous  doctrine  feature toward  t h e Jews.  to a pointed  i n some i n s t a n c e s J u d a i c  or a rabbinical  Furthermore,  the strength  effectiveness Spain, all  under  religions It  into  of the painting  scriptures. that  attack  pluralism,  lies  can be s e e n . f r o m  sought.to  this  be f o r a  (well  therefore,  t h e o l o g y , - i n t h e eyes  33  i n the when  assimilate society.  how p r e g n a n t  could  i f h e -were a c o n v e r s o I t i s well  attack  legal  on J u d a i s m ,  a predominately Christian  m e a n i n g the' F o u n t a i n o f L i f e especially  I t goes  mode o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n .  o f i t s poignant religious  over  of the Fourth  • principles  was  and undoubtedly  of Christian•claims  employing  above, i t  with  Christian,  versed)  i nthe  to remind•ourselves.  o f t h o s e who  commissioned  this  81  picture,  was  an e x a c t  symbolical  paintings  of  defined  rigidly  compositions,  science. are l i k e l y  dogmas  and w i l l  Hence, t h e o l o g i c a l and t o be e x a c t  or ideas  only  representations  rather than  be u n d e r s t o o d  by  fanciful those  34 acquainted • that  with  these  T h e ob j e c t i v i t y ' o f t h e p a i n t i n g s t r o n g l y  a systemized  individual, polemical  dogmas o r i d e a s .  who  p r o g r a m m e was  d i c t a t e d by a  chose t h e s u b j e c t  effectiveness.  •5  suggests  learned  p r i m a r i l y f o ri t s  82  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS  The  fountain  maintains'its physical our  desire  modern  function, that  for.water.  fountain  relationship entirely  primary  as an image o f any g i v e n  with  aesthetic  of satisfying our  I t i s not surprising to  designers  a less  society  replacing  t h e human  f u n c t i o n a l aspect,  that  find  physical o f an  motivation..  ...Fountains, i n that they contain not only the a r c h i t e c t u r a l • a n d s c u l p t u r a l elements appealing to t h e e y e , a l s o c o n t a i n t h e animate and o f t e n dynamic element o f water... appealing t o t h e e a r as w e l l as t o t h e y e y e . . . a n d p e r h a p s to. s o m e t h i n g d e e p e r as w e l l . l W h a t we h a v e w i t n e s s e d  throughout  'of t h e f u n c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n major  tends  the  acting  former  becoming  visually  paper  of fountains.  d i f f e r e n c e between medieval  therefore,  this  t o be i n t h e i r  i s a  Perhaps t h e  and modern  nature  of  study  fountains,  functionalism,  as a c a t a l y s t o f a s o c i e t y , t h e l a t t e r aesthetically oriented  i n a new  trad-  ition . One m u s t k e e p aesthetic  i n mind  that  t r a d i t i o n a l i s m developed  this  idea  throughout  o f an. the Middle  83  Ages  as t h e p l a s t i c  direction.  The F o n t e M a g g i o r e  functional highly part  a r t s moved  aspects  conceived  i n a classically exemplifies  inspired  not only the  o f f o u n t a i n s , b u t a l s o b y means  s c u l p t u r a l program, i t f u l f i l l s  of fountain  d u a l i t y — t h a t of achieving  of a  t h e second  aesthetic  effectiveness. In  literature,  o r perhaps  more  Italian  literature,  t h e f o u n t a i n was  in•very  generalized  terms;  1.  a fact  explicitly,  invariably  presented  reflecting:  The c h a r a c t e r  o f language  2.  The w e i g h t  tradition.  3.  The m e d i e v a l  as an  artistic  expression.  Language of  any g i v e n  niques  required  cadence  craft.  ness of  traditionally  o f speech  the visual  The n a t u r e  and  determinent  associated  t h e sounds  with  properties  of the techof  motifs  i t .  and meanings  The  poet  o f words,  and t h e i n h e r i t e d c o n v e n t i o n s  n o v e l i s t , working  of h i s world,  o f words  reality.  t o shape i t and o f t h e k i n d  The I t a l i a n  immediacy  of  as a Medium.  n o v e l i s t works w i t h  the  view  medium a r e a m a j o r  w h i c h become or  of  and t h e i r  was  content  evocative  ofhis  i n the timeless  with  the  resonance.  appearance o f a p a r t i c u l a r  manifolddrichThe  recording  t h i n g was  a  matter 3  thought best The  left  to sculptors, painters  Weight  c u l t u r e was. v i s i b l e  of Tradition. i n the ruined  and a r c h i t e c t s .  The g h o s t  of  classical  monuments, b u t i t was  84  everywhere court,  audibly present  chancery  surprising  Certain  and u n i v e r s i t y .  that the Middle  of the great  models  literary  earliest  Therefore,  Ages, l i v i n g  of the past,  of  i n the  after  of the heart's  presence originality.  century.  of the fountain tradition  as t h e g a r d e n s p o t  church,  i t i s not  d i d not value  topics recur, century  appearance  literature  i n t h e spoken word  The  i n Western desire, of 4  life The  after locus  romances poetry, and  death,  i s m  amoenus enjoyed  Homer's  of Latin a great  especially  great  e p i c , t h e Odyssey.  pastoral poetry  and  vogue i n m e d i e v a l  after  the eleventh  chivalric  prose  century.  and  Latin  The  tree  meadow, s p r i n g a n d b r o o k , b i r d s a n d f l o w e r s , s h a d e a n d  g e n t l e breeze.. w e r e i t s f a m i l i a r  elements  evoke a c e r t a i n  quality  of experience  the  particulars  of a place.  was  a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  T h e new  images, o f which the n a t u r a l world reflection  more t h a n  to describe  vernacular  literature  was  topics,  ideal  only  obscure  an  i n a pond o r "mirror.  The idealism  intending to  Medieval  dominated  View o f R e a l i t y .  the outlook  Platonic  of the Middle  Ages  due  R  largely nature the  was  ideal,  years can  t o the influence o f Augustine. regarded  Everything i n  as a c o p y , more o r l e s s  an a t t i t u d e w h i c h  o f the Renaissance.  perfect, of  survives throughout  The p e r v a s i v e n e s s  be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e f r e q u e n t  speculum  .  ( m i r r o r ) i n book t i t l e s  the early  o f any  image  appearance o f t h e word and i t s r e - o c c u r r i n g use  85  as  a literary  f i g u r e by medieval  and Renaissance w r i t e r s .  Omnis m u n d i c r e a t u r a quasi l i b e r et pietura nobes e s t i n speculum, nostre v i t a e , nostre sortis nostre status, nostre mortis f i d e l e signatum.8 Little ural the  s t r e s s was p l a c e d  spring  and a r t i f i c i a l  same i d e a l  fons.  of  their  of  the qualities  ed,  reality.  rather  instance.  fountain  since  between  they  The a r t i s t  saw t h e f o u n t a i n  i n terms  o f t h e appearances  With  t h e advent  of a  the metaphysical  mirror  visual  image was f i n a l l y •  The  Fonte  The  importance  o f today,  Maggiore  o f t h e Fonte' M a g g i o r e  gives  one a f a i r  indication ofthe  throughout  t h e c l o s i n g d e c a d e s .of t h e t h i r t e e n t h  only civic  does  a structure  to the.  o f such  the fountain  activity,  the'' M i d d l e  ication values  Ages.  replaces held  as a n image  century.  . P e r h a p s -the' v i s u a l particular  designers.  centre  i t s sculptural  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f an I t a l i a n  i n this  by modern  transmitter  r e t a i n - i t s f u n c t i o n as a  i ta l s o r e l a t e s through  program, t h e h i s t o r i c a l of  particular  o f t h e mode o f c o m p l e t e  importance  of  reflect-  aside.  Perugians  Not  property  o f t h e e t e r n a l model i t .obscurely i n terms  nat-  mirrored  S e m b l a n c e was a n e s s e n t i a l  than  representation, set  on t h e d i s t i n c t i o n  commune'  i m a g e o f commun-  instance,  the aesthetic  86  Ironically, people  f o u n t a i n s a r e meant t o i n v i t e  seem i r r e s i s t i b l y  drawn towards  fingers  i n the cool water.  without  doubt  observer by  i s completely  the iron  ticipate  cage  most  highly conceived  shown  i n relation  intense  systematic  level.  Every  political,  The  figure,  Italy,  the antique  Gothic  par-  immersion. of the fountain i s  ornamentation.  Man i s  cycle of the earth.  exists relief  at a h i g h l y  An  organized  and t h e h i s t o r i c a l  relationship  technique  i n Italy  o f t h e two P i s a n  a highly stylized  tempering  from beyond  evolved  as an i n d e p e n d e n t  the Alps.  n o t as a d i a l e c t  language w i t h  o f i t s own.  o f N i c o l a and G i o v a n n i ,  t h e new  Therefore, Italian  style  s c u l p t u r e was to  at  which  o f French  under the  In  right,  For t h i s  a syntax,  come o f a p e r s o n a l , s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d w i l l  artists  manner.  e x i s t e d a s a f o r c e i n i t s own  and t h e n  southwards  :  to  divulges the  form o f a r t i n t o  resisting  vocabul'ary;  of  invited  panel  s.culptoral  this  filtered  every  the  d e f i n e d e n c l y c l o p e d i c manner.  brings  first  t o the cosmic formalism  longer  aspect  sculptural  the social  in' a c l e a r l y  but  important  Y e t , today  removed from t h e f o u n t a i n  i s no  i n the natural pleasure The  its  One  their  attraction i s  setting.  physically  fence.  them to. d a n g l e  Some o f t h i s  a function of their  contact;  reason Gothic,  grammar  and  initiation the form.  out-  87  The'  Fountain'  The  Oberlin  opportunity orial  exists ation  imagery  (figure 38), offers  into a pictorial  Renaissance  o f the preceding  a definite literary  John's  an  of the Early  organic  The  you  painting  source  central motif  see i n a book"  graphic  (Rev. 1:11).  command  shared  that-the  Fonte  Mag'gdire a n d  Fountain  of Life,  reach  a comparatively  it  The is  that  v i s u a l language  capacity  meanings resembled  pictorial  of verbal  language  John,  setting  apparently  o f image  unHis  trans-  Prado-Oberlin paralleled function. and i n c l u s i v e n e s s , s p e e c h upon  o f the Fountain  visual representation."^ propositions  t e r m s was more d e m a n d i n g t h a t conventions.  like  of  which  e x t e n t . d e p e n d e n t . "^  o f a complete  translation  i n this  f o rmultiple  was t o a l a r g e  down a l l  t h e same p r e - r a t i o n a l o r i g i n s a s  mission,  archaic  upon  i n h i s medium.  I t i s perhaps  the  There inspir-  depends  "write  Jerusalem,  b y any' l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t  i t s capacity  its  The v i s u a l a r t i s t  speech.  In  trad-  centuries.  transmitting  c u l t u r e would have responded  symbols  to the older,  of the fountain  down h i s v i s i o n o f t h e H e a v e n l y troubled  pict-  medium.  following o f the angel's  archaic  an  t o c o m p a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e new  language  itional  o f L i f e '.  into i t s  of  Life  Successful  pictorial  the use o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  J a n Van Eyck h a d s u c c e e d e d  i n giving  pictorial  88  expression  to. S t . J o h n ' s  vision,  painter, o f t h e O b e r l i n and Prado fusion is  o f tongues  and is  definition reduced  determinate ation  on t h e i m a g e - s i g n .  space.  imagery  imposing  The t i m e l e s s  of a particular  T h e mode o f c o m p l e t e  i s fundamentally  theme.  The  diminished i n the process  t h e medium n e c e s s a r i l y  to a facsimile  capable  pictures, betrays the  i n a t t e m p t i n g t h e same  nevertheless inevitably  materialization,  but the less  conimage  of  i t sbias image  object i n a visual  represent-  a t odds w i t h t h e p r o c e s s  of archaic  expressing i t s e l f  i n myth  and  allegory.  FOOTNOTES  INTRODUCTION  1 W i l l i a m Fleming, A r t , Music 19 70 ) , p . 1 2 5 .  and Ideas  (New Y o r k :  2 B a l d w i n Smith,' A r c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism o f I m p e r i a l Rome and' t h e M i d d l e A g e s ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : 19 56 ) , p . 5"! see pp.  3 To u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t K e n n e t h B o u l d i n g ' s ' The Image 45-46.  o f image f o r m u l a t i o n , ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : 19 6 1 )  4' I b i d . , p . 47 5 Ibid.,  p . 5 8.  6 I.A. T a y l o r , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects o f V i s u a l Communications," S y m b o l o g y (New Y o r k : 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 2 4 - 2 5 . 7 B o u l d i n g , op. c i t . ,  p. 70.  CHAPTER I  1 H.V. M o r t o n , p. 1 7 . 2  T h e W a t e r s ' o f Rome  (London:  1966),  Ibid.  3 Ibid_._ Although this psychological appeal o f fount a i n s i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y a Renaissance and Baroque concept, i t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e Middle Ages. 4 Bacon's quote  may b e f o u n d  i n Morton,' i b i d . , p. 17.  90  5 There a r e a number o f e x c e l l e n t r e f e r e n c e s f o r an exhaustive study of fountains i n - a n t i q u i t y . See p a r t i c u l a r l y ; G i u s e p p i U n g a r i e t t i , F o n t ahe d ' I t a l l a ( R o m e : 1 9 6 7 ) , a n d F e d e r i c o M a s t r i g l i , A c q u a A c q u e d o t t x e F o n t a h e d i Roma (Rome: 192 8 ) . 6 A s a n e x a m p l e ; D a n i e l W i a l e y , The' I t a l i a n C i t y R e p u b l i c s ( T o r o n t o : 1969), pp. 58-59; c i t e s a number o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f o u n t a i n and i t s p r o x i m i t y t o such s t r u c t u r e s as t h e P a l a z z o R e p u b l i c o o r t h e Duomo. H i s p h o t o g r a p h i c example shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e f o u n t a i n a t Beyagna t o i t s major c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e Palazzo d e i Consoli. 7 I do n o t f e e l i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d w e l l o n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e f o u n t a i n i n t h e a n i | t : q u e . Roman h y d r a u l i c s i i s t h o r o u g h l y c o v e r e d b y V i t r u v i u s , De • a r c h i t t e t u ' r a , B o o k V I I I , C h a p t e r V I , ( S e e A p p e n d i x C ) . See a l s o t h e . t w o e x c e l l e n t monographs d e a l i n g ' w i t h t h e problem o f w a t e r s y s t e m s i n t h e a n t i q u e ; B. D u n k l e y , " G r e e k F o u n t a i n B u i l d i n g s B e f o r e 30 0 B . C . " , B r i t i s h S c h o o l a t A t h e n s „.( L o n d o n : 19 3 9 ) V o l . 3 6 . , p p . 1 4 2 - 2 0 4 ; J a n e M a y n a r d , B e r n i n i ' s F o u n t a i n s , M.A. T h e s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : September 1967).  see  8 F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f Greek B. D u n k l e y , o p . c i t . , p . 15 5, p l a t e 4.  fountain  9 W i l l i a m Heywood, A H i s t o r y o f P e r u g i a (London: 1 9 1 0 ) , pp. 3 57-8. In this particular Instance, there i sa.duration of t w e n t y - s i x years from t h e f o u n t a i n s c o n c e p t i o n and t h e u l t i m a t e p h y s i c a l entry o f t h e f i r s t drops o f water i n t o the c i s t e r n . 10 P l i n y , ' N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , e d . b y D.E. (London: 1962), x x x v i , pp. 121-22.  Eichholtz  11 V i t r u v i u s , T h e T e n B o o k s o n A r c h i t e c t u r e , t r a n s . b y M.H. M o r g a n . ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : 19 26 ) V I I I , C h a p t e r V I , pp. 244-248. 12 P r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e f o r m o f t h e c o l u m n a r f o u n t a i n made t h i s t y p e d i f f i c u l t t o a b a n d o n , f o r i t s ' i n s t a l l a t i o n provided- easy access t o t h e d r i n k i n g water. 13 W i l b u r S c h r a m m , Mas's C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 1960), p. 115. 14  Ibid.  (Urb.anna,  Illinois:  91  15 ' I b i d . , p .  116  16 T h e r e e x i s t s a p r o l i f e r a o f m o d e r n s c h o l a r s h i p o n the subject o f Manuscript I l l u m i n a t i o n . To m e n t i o n o n l y a few: J.A. Herbert,' I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s (London: 1911) 2nd. e d . ; B. S m a l l e y , T h e S t u d y o f t h e ~ B i b l e i n t h e M i d d l e Ages ( O x f o r d : 1 9 4 1 ) ; L o u i s Reau,' H i s t o i r e de l a P e i n t u r e au Mbyeh Age: l a M i n i a t u r e (Meluin: 1946 ) ; K u r t W e i t z m a n n , The N a r r a t i v e i n t h e L i t u r g i c a l G o s p e l I l l u s t r a tions: N e W ~ T e s t a m e n t M a n u s c r i p t s ( C h i c a g o : 19 5 0 ) ; TT. D i r i n g e r , T h e I l l u m i n a t e d Book": I t s H i s t o r y and Product i o n ( L o n d o n : .,1967 ) 2 n d . e d . ; a n d D. B l a n d , A H i s t o r y ' o f B o o k I l l u s t r a t i o n s ( L o n d o n : 19 5 8 ) . 17 P.H. B r i e g e r , " B i b l e I l l u s t r a t i o n a n d G r e g o r i a n Reform," Studies i n Church H i s t o r y (1965), I I , p. 155. 18 P a u l U n d e r w o o d , " T h e F o u n t a i n o f L i f e i n M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e G o s p e l s , " D u m b a r t o n Oaks P a p e r s (Camb r i d g e , M a s s . : 19 5 0 ) V, p . 4 9 . 19 S e e : K u r t (19593. 20 K u r t (Princeton,  Weitzmann, Ancient  Book  Weitzmann, I l l u s t r a t i o n s N . J . : 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 132. ;  Illumination  i n Roll  and  Codex ~~  21 From t h e C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d o n w a r d , M o n a s t i c s c r i p t o r i u m s were founded, w i t h t h e intentstabove a l l , to copy a n c i e n t m a n u s c r i p t s , and t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f 3 s a c r e d t e x t s g r e w t o b e a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h o s e texts. D a v i d D i r i n g e r ' s The I l l u m i n a t e d Book: I t s H i s t o r y and P r o d u c t i o n , d i v i d e s t h e v a r i o u s monastical i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t o d i f f e r e n t schools of production. 22 W a l t e r L o w r i e , A r t i n t h e E a r l y 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 200 . • 23 I b i d . , p .  Church  (New  York:  201  24 H a n n s S w a r z e n s k i , ' E a r l y (New Y o r k : 19 5 1 ) , p . 1 0 .  Medieval  Illustrations  2 5 S t e p h e n S c h e r , The R e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e T w e l f t h C e n tury (Providence, R h o d e I s l a n d : 19 69 ) , p . 6~~j a l s o H a s k i n s Renaissance o f the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, Mass.:1927), p. 1 1 . 26 H a n n s p.  S w a r z e n s k i , b p . "ext. , p.  27 A n d r e L e j a r d , ' A r t o f t h e F r e n c h 9-11..  10. Book  (Paris:  1947),  92  Age  2 8 E m i l e M a l e , ' L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x de l a f i n d u Moy'an en France ( P a r i s : 1922) 2nd e d . ; p. 312.  29 A c c o r d i n g t o Kurt Weitzmann s I I 1 u s t r a t i o n s 1n R o l l and Codex: A Study o f t h e O r i g i n and Method o f T e x t I l l u s t r a t i o n ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : 1970), p. 104; t h e u l t i m a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n manus c r i p t t r a d i t i o n was t h e c r e a t i o n o f a " s i n g l e p i c t u r e w h i c h f i l l e d a f u l l page. Figure 3 belongs t o the Godescale G o s p e l s , c a . 781-83, P a r i s B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . Andre L e j a r d , ( A r t o f t h e F r e n c h B o o k , p . 9, p i . 1 5 , m a i n t a i n s t h a t f i g u r e 2 belonged t o Charlemagne's s o n , Louis t h e Pious. I t represents a section o f a very b e a u t i f u l Gospel-book w h i c h he p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Abbey o f S a i n t Medard, i n S o i s s o n s , on t h e o c c a s i o n o f h i s v i s i t t h e r e i n A.D. 8 2 7 . S e e a a l s o ; P a u l U n d e r w o o d , ' o p . c i t . , p l a t e 2 6 . 1  30 I n t h e c a s e o f t h e f o u n t a i n s i n t h e a r c h e s o f t h e Canon T a b l e s , s e v e n columns s u r r o u n d a c i r c u l a r ' p i s c i r i a , .or b a t h i n g b a s i n . 31 S t r z y g o w s k i , " D e r P i n i e n z a p t e n a l s W a s s e r s p e i e r " , Romisches Jahrbuch f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e (1903), x v i i , pT 1 9 9 . On t h e c o n t r a r y t o S t r z y g o w s k i * s a r g u m e n t , I f e e l t h e c r o s s - h a t c h e d a r e a marks t h e a c t u a l h e i g h t o f the b a s i n . A c c o r d i n g t o . t h e e i g h t c o l u m n s , i t w o u l d seem h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t o suggest t h e b a s i n represents t h e octagonal a l l u s i o n t o l i t u r g i c a l numerology. 32 I b i d . clarified m  (New  The t o p i c o f f o u n t a i n n u m e r o l o g y Chapter I I I .  33 G e o r g e F e r g u s o n , S i g n s Y o r k : 19 6 6 ) , p . 2 5 . 34  and Symbols  shall  be  i n Christian Art  U n d e r w o o d , op'." c i t . , p . 5 1 .  35 Paolo Lino Zovatto,' I I Mausoleo d i G a l l a ( R a v e n n a : 19 6 8 ) , p . 7 8 , p i . 2 4 , ( f i g u r e 4 ) .  Placidia  36 B r i t i s h M u s e u m G u i d e t o t h e E a r l y C h r i s t i a n a n d B y z a n t i n e A n t i q u i t i e s (London: 1921), p. 79, p i . 49. 3 7 C.R. D o d w e l l , 19 7 1 ) ,. p . .20 7 .  Painting  i n Europe  80 0-120 0  (London:  93  CHAPTER I I  11 S u s a n n e E t i e n e , 1961), p. 125.  e d . R e f l e c t i o n s ' o n A r t (New  York:  2 G i u s t a N i c c o F a s o l a , L a F o n t a n a d i ' P e r u g i a (Rome: 19 5 1 ) , p . 1 1 ; a n d A . V e n t u r l ' , S t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e I t a l i a n a , V o l . 4 ( N e n d e l n : . K r a u s e R e p r i n t o f 19 0 6 e d . ; 1 9 6 7 ) p p . 1 2 27. 3 Fasola, i b i d . , notes that f o l l o w i n g the various natu r a l d i s a s t e r s t o t h e f o u n t a i n , i t was i n c o r r e c t l y r e s t o r e d i n 1471-and r e c o n s t r u c t e d p r o p e r l y i n 1948-9. Therefore, t h e f o u n t a i n a s we v i e w i t t o d a y , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , represents the thirteenth version. 4 A c c o r d i n g t o John W h i t e , . A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y 12 5 0 - 1 4 0 0 ' ( M i d d l e s e x : 19 6 6 ) , p . 40 3; t h e b a p t i s m a l f o n t I n San F r e d i a n o a t L u c c a i s a c l o s e r p a r a l l e l t o t h e Perugian type, than the Monreale fountain. 5 I b i d . , p. 5 1 . See a l s o ; T o e s c a , S t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e I t a l i a n a (Turin:1913), p . 7 1 4 a n d f i g u r e s 45 8 a n d 4 59 f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Monreale fountain. 6 For a complete compilation o f t h e H i s t o r y r e l a t i n g to' G a l a s e e ; A n n H a n s o n , J a c o p o d e l l a Q u e r e l a ' s F o n t e G _ a i j r ~ T O x f o r d : 19 6 5 ) . 7 Bertha Wiles, and T h e i r F o l l o w e r s , Mass.:1933), p.3.  Fountains' o f F l o r e n t i n e Sculptures from Donatello t o B e r n i n i A Cambridge,  1400  8 John White,' A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e "in I t a l y ( M i d d l e s e x : 1 9 6 6 ), p.30.  tion  9 G.H. C h r i c h t o n , N i c o l a P i s a n o , p . 9 5 . E a c h i n s c r i p i s : i n ' t h e f o r m a f a p o e m s e t up i n h e x a m e t e r v e r s e .  10 G e o r g S w a r z e n s k i , N i c o l o P i s a n o : P l a s t i k ( F r a n k f u r t : 1 9 2 6 ) , p. 43. 11 refers  Meister  12 5 0 -  der  Vasari's mention o f a " f r i a r o f the S i l v e s t r i n i , " t o Fra Bevignate o f the Benedictine order.  12 G i o r g i o V a s a r i , ' L i v e s o f t h e P a i n t e r s , S c u l p t o r s ' a n d A r c h i t e c t s , e d . b y W i l l i a m G a u n t ( L o n d o n : 1 9 6 3) , p . 4 6 .  94  in  13 K. H o f f m a n - C u r t i s , ' Das' - P r o g r a m der. F o n t a n a P e r u g i a ( D u s s e l d o r f : 19 6 8 ) , 8~!  Maggiore  14 N i c c o F a s o l a , ' L a F o n t a n a de P e r u g i a , p . 5 9 . He l i s t s , i n chronological order a l l a r c h i v a l material r e l a t i n g t o p a y m e n t o f c o m m i s s i o n s and m a t e r i a l s . Ample d o c u m e n t a t i o n h e l p s one t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e s n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e the p r o j e c t . For example: Anno 1 2 8 1 . . . " I t e m d e d i t Pucio M a f e y de c i v i t a t e a r e t i n a p r o b p e r e q u o d f e c i t i n l e o n e e t g r i f o n e p o s t i s ad f o n t e m , p r o mercede s u a . . . V e n e r d i 7 marzo." 15 C.W. Orton, ed., "Twelfth Century to the V o l . I I . p p . 7 0 2 - 3 .. 16 17  J o h n W h i t e , bp-,  Shorter Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y R e n a i s s a n c e " ( C a m b r i d g e : 1958) , c i t . , p.  52.  Ibid.  18 H e n r y O s b o r n T a y l o r , The M e d i e v a l M i n d ( L o n d o n : 19 3 8 ) , V o l . I I , p p . 3 4 5 - 3 5 2 . V i n c e n t c o m p i l e d the most famous o f t h e m e d i e v a l e n c y c l o p e d i a s , employing i n that l a b o u r , enormous n u m b e r s of- a s s i s t a n t s . His ponderous Speculum Majus i s drawn f r o m the most s e r v i c e a b l e contemporary scholastics.- Encyclopedias attempted to include a l l k n o w l e d g e , and s t i l l were i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r aim by'a r e l i g i o u s purpose. 19  John White,  op.  20  Ibid.,  51-2.  pp.  c i t . , p.  51.  "  21 The o n l y p r o t o t y p e s of p o l i t i c a l sculpture i n I t a l y b e f o r e t h i s t i m e o c c u r s i n t h e Norman p r o v i n c e o f S i c i l y under the auspices of F r e d e r i c k I I . Here, the emphasis i s on t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f Norman i m p e r i a l r u l e juxtaposed t o t h a t o f t h e C a e s e r o p a p i s t i c Roman p o r t r a i t u r e o f t h e f i r s t t h r o u g h t o t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.. tThe d e v e l opment o f N o r t h e r n t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t ure cameeabout p r i o r t o the i n i t i a t i o n o f I t a l i a n examples. As p o i n t e d o u t b y P e t e r K i d s o n , " T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y German S c u l p t u r e a t Bamberg, Naumburg and M a g d e b u r g , " l e c t u r e d e l i v e r e d 17 M a r c h 19 72 , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; German s c u l p t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Naumburg, i n c l u d e d a vast p r o l i f e r a of character portrayals. A very important e x a m p l e of. t h i s t y p e i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E k k e h a r d and Uta (ca. 1250-60). F o r e x a m p l e s s e e ; H.W. Janson, Key M o n u m e n t s ' o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t (New Y o r k : 19 59 ) , p p . 4 8 889. I t I s p e r h a p s b y way o f n o r t h e r n r e a l i s m t h a t G i o v a n n i Pisano i n p a r t i c u l a r i n h e r i t e d within his sculpture, a sense of humanistic n a t u r a l i s m .  95  22  H.O.  T a y l o r , dp . c i t . , V o l .  I I , p.  2 3 G.H.  O r i e n t oh.,•• d p '.' c i t . , p .  9 4..  24 H.O. T a y l o r , dp'.' c t h i s m o t i f a p p e a r s on t h e d i r e c t connection between utilitarian fountain. See ( L o n d o n : 19 69 ) , p . 44.  i t . , pp. 349.50. The c h o i c e o f F o n t e M a g g i o r e and r e f l e c t s t h e t h e b a p t i s m a l f o n t and the Michel Ayrton, Giovanni' Pisano  2 5 C r i c h t o n , dp'.' c i t . , p , 26  345.  94.  Ibid.  2 7 H e n r i F o c i l l o n , The A r t G o t h i c ' A r t ( L o n d o n : 196 3 ) , V o l . 2 8 Michel  Ayrton,  op.  29 J . S e z n e k , ' The1953 ) , p. 128.  of the 1. , p .  c i t . , p.  West: 8.  Romanesque  and "  53.  S u r v i v a l o f Pagan  Gods,(New  York:  30 A d o l f o V e n t u r i , ' S t o r i a D e l l ' A r t e I t a l i a n a , "La S c u l t u r a d e l T r e c e n t o " r e p r i n t o f 19 0 6 e d . (Nendeln: 1967 ) , p . 12. 31  Ibid.  32  Georgio  V a s a r i , ' op.  c i t . , p.  33 G i o r g i o V a s a r i , V i t e . 1 8 7 8 ) , p. 306. 34  C r i c h t o n , bp.  35  A.  36  C r i c h t o n , op.  37  G.N.  38  p.  c i t . , p.  V e n t u r i , bp.  ed.  Milanesi  (Florence:  9 5.  b i t . , p..16  c i t . , p.  G.  46.  .  95.  F a s o l a , dp/.' c i t . , p .  59.  Ibid.  39 G e o r g 55 .  Swarzenski,  N i c o l a Pisano:  Meister  der  Plastik,  40 V a s a r i - M i l a n e s e , ' d p . c i t . , p p . 3 0 6 - 7 . Gives the d e a t h d a t e o f N i c o l a , 1 2 7 8 , i n h i s home t o w n o f P i s a . See a l s o Hans G r a b e r , N i c o l a P i s a n o ( S t r a s b u r g : 1 9 1 1 ) , p. 5 .  41  C r i c h t o n , ' bp. c i t . , p. 97.  42 I n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e . a g r e e m e n t . a n d d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n M. S a u e r l a n d , ' D i e B i l d w e r k e d e s G i o v a n n i P i s a n o (Dusseldorf: 1904), a t t r i b u t e s t h e bronze group t o Giovanni; whereas, Swarzenski gives i t t o N i c o l a . On t h e o t h e r hand, both agree i n a t t r i b u t i n g t h e " E c c l e s i a Romana" t o G i o v a n n i . Venturi, Giovanni Pisano (Bologna: 1928), a s c r i b e s t o Giovanni t h e Bronze group, t h e s t a t u e s o f t h e m i d d l e b a s i n a n d most o f t h e r e l i e f s on t h e l o w e s t basin, Nicola being responsible f o rthe rest. Sauerland, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e n i e s N i c o l a a n y s h a r e i n t h e r e l i e f s b u t sees h i s s t y l e i n a number o f t h e s t a t u e s , w h i l e he a t t r i b u t e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l panels t o Arnolfo. Swarzenski again excludes A r n o l f o from a l l p a r t i n t h e s c u l p t u r e and h i s o p i n i o n i n a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s i s c o n t a i n e d i n a few words on page 56: "Apart from exc e p t i o n s t h e s c u l p t u r e i s i n f a c t t h e common w o r k o f both sculptors. A t one p o i n t N i c o l a i s more p r o m i n e n t , at another Giovanni. The i n f l u e n c e o f G i o v a n n i i s more evident i n the r e l i e f s , that of Nicola i n the statues." 43 M o s t s o u r c e s a g r e e t h a t t h e s t a t u e r e f e r s t o Salome. S e e V e n t u r i , b p . c i t . ; F a s o l a , ' op,' c i t . ; a n d H o f f m a n - C u r t i s ,' b p . b i t . . T o b e J u d i t h a s s u g g e s t e d by J . W . C r u i c k s h a h k , U m b r l a h Towns ( L o n d o n : 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 84; the head w o u l d be c a r r i e d on a s i l v e r c h a r g e r . At the same t i m e • t h e r e s h o u l d b e some e v i d e n c e o f a s w o r d . The whole m a t t e r o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f each f i g u r e i n c o r r e c t i c o n o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e a l t w i t h by Erwin Panofsky, Studies i n Iconography (New Y o r k : 1967), p. 1 2 . 44 T h e o r i g i n a l  griffins  a r e now  i n the Civic  museum.  45 S e e , H o f f m a n - C u r t i s , Das P r o g r a m d e r F o n t a n a Maggiore i n P e r u g i a ; f o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f h e r diagrama t i c a l view o f t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s pieces o f t h e s c u l p t u r a l . p r o g r a m , s e e my A p p e n d i x "A." 46 T h e n u m e r i e a l l c i a s s i f i c a t i o n i n A p p e n d i x " B " i s t a k e n f r o m A y r t o n , G i o v a n n i P i s a h o , p p . 44 a n d 5 7 . By u s i n g a number system, t h e whole p r o g r a m c a n be seen i n r e t r o s p e c t when compared t o A p p e n d i x "A." 4 7 J.W. 48 49  Cruickshank,' op. c i t . , p. 87.  Ibid. H.O.  Taylor,' bp. b i t . , V o l . I , pp.  219-20.  97  50 . C r u i c k s h a n k , : op. c i t . , p. 88. 51 A c c o r d i n g t o C r i c h t o n ,'• N i c o l a - - P i s a n o , p . 1 0 1 , t h e f i r s t extant scenes o f t h e Vienna Genesis c o n t a i n t h e F a l l a n d E x p u l s i o n f r o m P a r a d i s e . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Adam a n d E v e a p p e a r o n C h r i s t i a n s a c r o p h a g i ; s e e , CtaM. D a l t o n , B y z a n t i n e A r t a n d A r c h a e o l o g y ( O x f o r d : 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 19 3, p l a t e 116, f o r an example o f a s a r c o p h a g u s . With t h e r e v i v a l o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e C r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d and t h e F a l l o f Man came t o b e common r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n m o s a i c , a n i l l u s t r a t i o n w h i c h c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e Duomo a t Monreale, and i n t h e n o r t h p o r t a l s c u l p t u r e o f C h a r t r e Cathedral. F o r a n e x a m p l e , s e e A. G a r d n e r , M e d i e v a l S c u l p t u r e i n F r a n c e ( C a m b r i d g e : 19 3 1 ) , p . 2 5 3 , p l a t e s 2 50 a n d 2 5 2 . 5 2 P e r h a p s , E. P a n o f s k y ' s E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t i n g (New Y o r k : 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 1 3 8 ; i c o n o g r a p h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a n be r e l a t e d t o t h e P e r u g i a n O l d T e s t a m e n t f i g u r e s - - S a m s o n slaying the P h i l i s t i n e s (prefiguring the triumph o f Christ o v e r s i n ) ; t h e d e a t h o f Samson . ( p r e f i g u r i n g t h e C r u c i f i x i o n ) ; and t h e v i c t o r y o f David over G o l i a t h (prefiguring Christ's victory over the Devil). 5 3 H.O.  Taylor,  op. c i t . ,  V o l . I I , p. 115.  54 T o t h e r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the" months i n t h e e a r l y M i d d l e A g e s , t h e t w e l f t h century succeeds w i t h ' a wealth o f examples, e s p e c i a l l y , i n France and I t a l y — a n i n c r e a s e i n which t h e custom o f u s i n g t h e t h e m e i n s c u l p t u r e o n t h e p o r t a l s o f t h e many c h u r c h e s built during this period played a large part. See J . C . W e b s t e r , "The L a b o u r s o f t h e M o n t h s : i n A n t i q u e a n d M e d i e v a l A r t , " ' N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n t h e H u m a n i t i e s , No. 4 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 57. :  5 5 "The s i g n s o f t h e Z o d i a c , p r o c l a i m , a s t h e y do i n t h e f a c a d e s o f . s o many - c a t h e d r a l s a n d a b b e y c h u r c h e s , t h a t t h e K i n g o f ' K i n g s r u l e s t h e p h y s i c a l as w e l l as t h e s p i r i t u a l u n i v e r s e . " E r w i n P a n o f s k y , op. c i t . , p. 138. 56  Crichton,  op. c i t . , p. 98, p l a t e  5 7.Ibid. 5 8 J.C. Webster, op. c i t . , 59  Ibid.  p. 58.  8.  98  6 0 W e b s t e r , i b i d , p . 9 4.. " T h e t h o u g h t o f man's a c t i v i t i e s upon e a r t h a t i t s . v a r i o u s phases accompanied t h e s e divisions o f t h e y e a r , a r e determined by t h e c l i m a t i c changes which m a r k e d t h e m , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o b y t h e amount o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h t h e human f i g u r e s w e a r . " 61  A. V e n t u r i , b p . c i t . , I V , p . 1 7 .  62 T a y l o r , T h e M e d i e v a l M i n d , V o l . I I , p p . 1 5 6 - 5 7 . He s u g g e s t s t h e b a s i s f o r L i b e r a l s t u d i e s h a d n o t r u e r home t h a n t h e c a t h e d r a l s c h o o l o f C h a r t r e s . Contemporary w r i t e r s p i c t u r e t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h i s . s t u d y was t h e r e made t o p e r f o r m i t s m o s t l i b e r a l o f f i c e , u n d e r f a v o u r a b l e medieval c o n d i t i o n s , i n t h e . f i r s t h a l f o f the t w e l f t h century. 63  Ibid.  64  Ibid.  65  Ibid.,  66  I b i d . , p . 93 .  p . 154 .  6 7 C.W. P r e v i t e - O r t o n , ' T h e S h o r t e r C a m b r i d g e M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , " T h e L a t e r Roman E m p i r e t o t h e T w e l f t h Century", V o l . I,(Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : 1952), p . 6 29.. Hugo o f S t . V i c t o r ( o b . 1 1 4 1 ) was a g e n u i n e mystic: mystical' i n s i g h t surpassed the capacity of reason. He f o s t e r e d t h e C h u r c h ' s i n b r e d l o v e o f a l l e g o r y i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S c r i p t u r e , i t s way o f e x t r a c t i n g t h e l a s t grain o f s i g n i f i c a n c e from t h e sacred t e x t , which accorded w i t h t h e medieval search f o r and submission t o a n c i e n t , i n s p i r e d , a u t h o r i t a t i v e pronouncements, t h e c i t a d e l o r the refuge o f a l l p a r t i s a n s seeking t o j u s t i f y t h e i r cause i n morals, p o l i t i c s , o r creed. 6 8 H. 0. T a y l o r , b p . c i t . , Art  p. 93.  69 G e o r g e F e r g u s o n , S i g n s " a n d S y m b o l s (New Y o r k : 19 66 ) , p . ~75~.  70 B y a n a n c i e n t Kingdoms.  society, I refer  i n Christian  t o t h e O l d Testament  71 T h e q u e s t i o n o f t e m p o r a l a n d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f power w i t h i n . a . g i v e n c i v i c a r e a , i s c l a r i f i e d by J o s e p h B e r i n g t o n , The L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f t h e " M i d d l e " A g e s ( L o n d o n : 1 8 4 6 } , p p . 236 f f .  99  72 S.ee D a n i e l W a l e y , T h e I t a l i a n R e p u b l i c s ( T o r o n t o : 19 69 ) , p . 6 9;. f o r .a d e s c r i p t i o n a n d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e P o d e s t a i n t h e I t a l i a n commune. .7 3 S e e H.W. J a n s o n , Key Monuments o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t , p . 4 8 9 ; f o r a n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e M a s t e r o f Naumburg's, Ekkehard. 74  Heywood, dp.  c i t . , p.  91.  75  J o h n W h i t e , dp. c i t . , p p .  5 2-3.  76 G.H. C r i c h t o n , N i c o l a P i s a n o , p . 10 3. P e r h a p s , as C r i c h t o n s u g g e s t s " t h e b r o n z e g r o u p was p r o b a b l y d o n e b y Giovanni. A l t h o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s d i s a g r e e i n some o f t h e a t t r i b u t i o n s , m o s t do a g r e e t h e w o r k i s c o n n e c t e d i n some way w i t h b o t h N i c o l a a n d G i o v a n n i . " T h e t h i r d name s u g g e s t e d b y G.N. Fasola,' La Font ana d i P e r u g i a , pp. 40-41; i s t h a t o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio. 7 7 M. A y r t o n , d p . c i t . , p . 5 3 ; s e e a l s o W h i t e , o p . c i t . , p. 53; f o r an a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e R u b e u s , t h e c r a f t s man who s i g n e d t h e b a s i n . 78  Ibid.  .79 S e e C e s a r e G n u d i , N i c o l a A r n o l f o L a p p L ' A r e a d i S. D d m e h i c o i n ' B o l o g n a ( F l o r e n c e : 1 9 4 8 ) , p l a t e s 8 l ^ 82", 83 , 97 , a n d 98 . 80 M . A y r t o n , o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 . The two a n i m a l s r e p e a t t h e a l l u s i o n . t d t h e Guelph a u t h o r i t y , and t h e of Perugia. :  again city  81 F a s o l a , o p . c i t . , p . 7 0 , s t a t e s t h a t t h e P e r u g i a s y m b o l s may o r i g i n a l l y h a v e s t o o d o n a s e p a r a t e , c o l u m n , l i k e t h e l i o n o f S t . Mark i n V e n i c e . I t i s also possible t h a t t h e y p o s t d a t e the' f o u n t a i n , an a r g u m e n t p a r t l y b a s e d on t h e w a t e r p i p i n g a d a p t e d t o t h e group w h i c h p a s s e s through the creatures heads. Of t h e t w e l v e protomes he a c c e p t s e i g h t as o r i g i n a l .  100  CHAPTER I I I  1 H e n r y O s b o r n e T a y l o r , ' The 19 3 8 ) , V o l . I I , p . 6 7.. ,  Medieval  Mind  2 M a r c e a E l i a d e , The S a c r e d and P r o f a n e ? - , W i l l a r d R. T r a s k (New Y o r k : 19 6 1 ) , p . 130.  (London:  trans,  by  3 Erwin P a n o f s k y E a r l y Netherlandish Painting (New Y o r k : 19 7.1) V o l . 1, P. 216 ; d i s c u s s e s t h e f o u n t a i n a s one of t h e o l d e s t s y m b o l s o f s a l v a t i o n , and r e f e r s t o t h e p a s s a g e i n R e v e l a t i o n 2 2 : 1 , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e f o u n t a i n -.: w i t h t h e " p u r e r i v e r o f w a t e r o f l i f e , c l e a r as c r y s t a l , p r o c e e d i n g o u t o f t h e t h r o n e o f God a n d t h e Lamb." 4 I b i d . , p . 2 1 6 , n o t e 2; m e n t i o n s t h e " c o u n t l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the' F o u n t a i n o f L i f e i n t h e s p e c i f i c context of Genesis." See F i g u r e 37. 5 V a r i a t i o n s on t h i s t h e m e a p p e a r i n a n u m b e r o f o t h e r Bosch p a i n t i n g s i n c l u d i n g the V e n e t i a n , P a l a z z o Ducale, Garden o f Eden, w h e r e i n the s o u l s o f t h e e l e c t gaze upon t h e f o u n t a i n o f l i f e , and i n t h e l e f t p a n e l o f the' L a s t J u d g e m e n t t r i p t y c ' h i n B r u g e s , i i n w h i c h a' F o u n t a i n o f L I f e _ Is d i s p l a y e d amidst v i s i o n s o f P a r a d i s e . F o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these f o u n t a i n s which appear i n the works of B o s c h , s e e W. F r a n g e r , The M i l l e n n i u m o f H i e r o n y m u s B o s c h ( C h i c a g o : 19 5 1 ) . 6  Panofsky,  op.  cit.,  p.  216.  7 To c i t e b u t a f e w e x a m p l e s o f t h e ' H o r t u s C o n c l u s u s , s e e t h e 14 35' S p e c u l u m H u m a n a e S a l v a t i o n e s , o r t h e e v e n m o r e e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e same m a n u s c r i p t where Mary i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Garden; see Frank Crisp,' M e d i e v a l Gardens (London: 1924), V o l . I I , e s p e c i a l l y f i g u r e s 10 a n d 1 1 . Quite popular too i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t were those s e r i e s i l l u s t r a t i n g . t h e story of the L i f e of the V i r g i n . 8 G. B a z i n , " I m a g e s e t D o c u m e n t s " , ' L ' A m o u r de T ' A r t , 2 6 , No. 2 (19 4 6 ) , p . 4 0 ; n o t e s t h e r a r i t y . o f t h i s - f u s i o n , i e . , t h e R e d e m p t i o n s y m b o l i z e d by the' F o u n t a i n o f L i f e a n d n o u r i s h e d by' t h e b l o o d o f C h r i s t . Nowhere e l s e does this intercession occur. 9 The m o d e r n r e a d e r , a c c u s t o m e d t o i d e n t i f y i n g "Grace" w i t h a t h a n k s g i v i n g b e f o r e m e a l s , may f i n d i t h a r d t o r e a l i z e t h e enormous p a r t p l a y e d by t h i s c o n c e p t i o n w i t h i n t h e  101  C a t h o l i c dogma. The s t a n d a r d works, i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t o f G r a c e a r e -somewhat f o r m i d a b l e . . J o s e p h P o h l e ' s " C h r i s t i a n G r a c e " , ' C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , V o l . V I (190.9)., p. 714. The a u t h o r s a y s t h i s a u t h o r i t y i s " t h e p i l l a r on which, by a s p e c i a l o r d i n a t i o n o f God, the m a j e s t i c e d i f i c e of Christianity rests i n i t s entirety." Among t h e t h r e e fundamental i d e a s - - s i n , redemption and g r a c e - - g r a c e p l a y s t h e p a r t o f t h e means i n d i s p e n s a b l e a n d d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d t o e f f e c t t h e redemption from s i n through C h r i s t , and t o l e a d men t o t h e i r e t e r n a l d e s t i n y i i n h e a v e n . "Grace i s i n f a c t c o n c e i v e d as t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e d i v i n e o r s p i r i t u a l l i f e , and t h e C h r i s t i a n d i s p e n s a t i o n — p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C h r i s t i a n s c a r a m e n t s - - a s t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h i t r e a c h e s mankind." Obviously, Christ i s , f o r C h r i s t i a n s , the source o f such s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Hence, t h e b l o o d w h i c h he shed f o r man's r e d e m p t i o n e a s i l y b e c a m e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h g r a c e ; which i s the free g i f t o f a "supernatural" merit o r q u a l i t y t o " n a t u r a l . ' man. Theological dualism divides the universe i n t o t h e " w o r l d o f n a t u r e " and t h e " w o r l d o f g r a c e . " 3  1  10 J o s h u a B r u y n , "A P u z z l i n g P i c t u r e a t O b e r l i n , T h e Fountain o f L i f e , " B u l l e t i n o f the A l l e n Memorial A r t M u s e u m ( O b e r l i n , O h i o , 1 9 5 8 ) , 16 , p p . 5-17 . B r u y n d e m o n s t r a t e s how p a i n t i n g r e i n f o r c e s t h e m y s t i c a l e q u a t i o n between t h e F o u n t a i n o f L i f e and C h r i s t c r u c i f i e d (figure 43), thus b e a r i n g out t h e medieval commentaries. 11 G u i l l a u m e de L o r r i s a n d J e a n Meun, The Romance o f t h e R o s e , t r a n s , b y C. D a h l b e r g ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : 19 7 1 ) , pp. 334-335. D e p i c t i o n s o f f o u n t a i n s a r e common t h r o u g h o u t m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e Romance: a number o f l o v e s c e n e s o c c u r by a f o u n t a i n w h i c h i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y more o r l e s s the s a m e — e i t h e r hexagonal o r round b a s i n s from which rises a p i l l a r , with provisions f o rwater jets (figure 36). For f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e romantic fountains see both: M a r i a Gotheim, H i s t o r y o f Garden A r t . ( L o n d o n : 1928), V o l . I . , p . 19 7, f i g u r e 13 3; a n d P r a n k C r i s p , b p . c i t . . A c c o r d i n g t o Gotheim, t h e f o u n t a i n which keeps t h e lawn f r o m g e t t i n g -dry and b a r e becomes a n a t u r a l f o c a l p o i n t f o r lovers i n a s e c r e t o r e n c l o s e d garden. 12 E r w i n P a n o f s k y , • o p .  b i t . , p. 216.  13  op. c i t . , p. 53.  G u i l l a u m e de L o r r i s ,  14 S e e a l s o F. G o m b r i c h , " B o t t i c e l l i ' s M y t h o l o g i e s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg' and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e , ' . v i i i , (1945), pp'. 7-60 . On p a g e s , 4 0 - 1 G o m b r i c h n o t e s t h a t t h e m a i n themes i n t h e l a t e Q u a t t r o c e n t o "were drawn f r o m t h e w o r l d o f c h i v a l r y and c o u r t l y l o v e , " w i t h s u c h s u b j e c t s as g a r d e n s , bowers o f l o v e and F o u n t a i n s o f Y o u t h , f o r e v e r r e a p p e a r i n g .  102  14 O v i d , ' Me t a m o r p h o s e s. > t r a n s , a n d e d . b y F r a n k J . M i l l e r ( L o n d o n : 19 5 1 ) , 2 v o l s " . ' ; s e e e s p e c i a l l y v o l u m e I , I I I , p p . 407 f f ; w h e r e N a r c i s s u s f a l l s h o p e l e s s l y i n l o v e w i t h h i s own i m a g e r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e w a t e r . 15 T h e s e e x a m p l e s a r e p r e c e d e d b y a n u m b e r o f e a r l i e r F l o r e n t i n e works. S e e ; R. v a n M a r i e , ' I c o n o g r a p h i e de 1 ' A r t P r o f a n e a u M c y e n - A g e e t a l a R e n a i s s a n c e ( T h e H a g u e : 19 32 ) . The c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e " J a r d i n d'Amour" p a r t i c u l a r l y , pp. 4 2 6 - 4 4 5 , a r e e s p e c i a l l y i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the' f o n s a m o r i s tradition. The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s t h e m e i n f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y Germany and I t a l y i s s t r e s s e d . See a l s o ; i b i d . j f i g u r e 4 53.i Van M a r i e , I t a l i a n S c h o o l s o f P a i n t i n g (The H a g u e : 19 2 7 ) , V o l . 9, p p ~ 1 0 5 - 6 ; m e n t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f I t a l i a n a r t i s t s on German e n g r a v e r s o f t h e f i f t e e n t h century. Marie's i l l u s t r a t i o n notes too, the fountain d a t e d c a . 1440, c o m p r i s e d o f a h e x a g o n a l base and a s l e n d e r column i n t e r r u p t e d by a c y l i x w h i c h goes back t o the t r a d i t i o n of Paolo d i Stefano. 16 F o r a n e x a m p l e a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e M e l b o u r n e p a i n t i n g , see B e r n a r d Berenson,' I t a l i a n P i c t u r e s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : V e n e t i a n S c h o o l ( L o n d o n : 19 5 7 ) , T] p l a t e 9 0 . 17 P i n t u r r i c h i o ' s p a i n t i n g c o n t a i n s • a n i n o r d i n a t e l y g r a n d f o u n t a i n , i n a somewhat r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g a r d e n landscape. 18 B e r t h a W i l e s , F o u n t i a n s o f F l o r e n t i n e S c u l p t o r s f r o m D o n a t e l l o t o B e r n i n i ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : 19 3 3 ) p"! 29 . She n o t e s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e I t a l i a n f o u n t a i n s u n d e r w e n t when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o German t a s t e , i e . , t h e t e n d e n c y was t o s u p p r e s s t h e b a s i n s a n d e m p h a s i z e the central shaft. 19 Max F r i e d l a n d e r , A l b r e c h t A l t d o r f e r ( B e r l i n : 1921-3), pp. 31-32, p l a t e 33. He c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o a n u m b e r o f d i s p a r a t e f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e marv e l o u s and i m p e l l i n g f o u n t a i n , w h i c h i s more a p p r o p r i a t e as t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a t o w n m a r k e t p l a c e t h a n as a monument a l o n g t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e . Although the s t y l e of the f o u n t a i n undoubtedly derives i t s prototype from I t a l i a n p r i n t s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the e x i s t e n c e of cruder v e r s i o n s i n * Germany. 20 F r a n z W i n z i n g e r , A l b r e c h t A l t d o r f o r G r a p h l k ( M u n i c h : 1 9 6 3 ) , V o l . I , pp. 7 9 - 8 1 , C a t a l o g u e No. 8 3 . He t r a c e s t h e sources of t h i s fountain to the Master of Tarocchi or a s t u d e n t , f o l l o w e r o f Mantegna. 21  G.  B a c h e l a r d , L'Eau e t  l e s Reves  (Paris:  19 4 2 ) ,  103  p p . 19 7 - 2 0 1 . He . d i s c u s s e d t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l significance o f t h e F o u n t a i n o f Youth.. M o r e o v e r , s p e c i a l n o t e i s made o f the h e a l i n g powers " . . . l ' e t r e va demander a l a f o n t a i n e une p r e m i e r e , - p r e u v e de q u e r i s o n p a r u n r e v e i l de 1 ' e n e r g i e . . ." I b i d . , p. 230. 22 T h e C h r i s t i a n f o u n t a i n o f p u r i f i c a t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d s to the I s l a m i c t r a d i t i o n of the r i t u a l a b l u t i o n , required b e f o r e t h e f i v e d a i l y o r a t i o n s , t h e mosque b e i n g provided with a b l u t i o n fountains f o r that purpose. Mohammed t a u g h t t h a t w a t e r was t h e p e r f e c t i n d i s p e n s a b l e , a n d p r i c e l e s s element of p u r i f i c a t i o n . The w a s h i n g o f h a n d s a n d the r i n s i n g o f t h e mouth b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e m e a l s was customary. 23 F r a n c e s c o C o l o n n a , H y p n e r o t o m a c h i a P b l i p h i l i (Venice: 1499). See a l s o : A n t h o n y B l u n t , A r t i s t i c T h e o r y i n I t a l y 145 0-1600 ( O x f o r d : 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 3 9 - 4 3 ; and G e o r g e W. P a i n t e r , The H y p h e r o t o m a c h i a P b l i p h i l i o f 149 9 ; a n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Dream, t h e Dreamer, t h e A r t i s t and the P r i n t e r ( L o n d o n : 196 3 ) , p p . 3-16. 9  1938)  2 4 Vincent , p. 69.  Hopper, Medieval"  Number S y m b o l i s m  (New  York:  2 5 M e d i e v a l man saw C h r i s t a s t h e s e c o n d A d a m , e n g i n e e r i n g a new C r e a t i o n b y h i s d e a t h o n t h e s i x t h day o f t h e w e e k , m a k i n g a«p,urposeful p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f AHam o n t h e s i x t h day. 26 S e e . L o u i s F i n k e l s t e i n , . e d . , The J e w s : T h e i r H i s t o r y C u l t u r e and R e l i g i o n , R a c h e l W i s c h n i t z e r , " J u d a i s m and A r t " (New Y o r k : 19 60 ) ,. 3 r d e d . , p p . 132231348. 2 7 C i c e r o , S o m n i u m S c i p i o n i s De R e p u b l i c a , vi:12. C i c e r o t a u g h t .that s e v e n and e i g h t w e r e p e r f e c t n u m b e r s ; e i g h t was p e r f e e t u s o c t o n a r i u s , ( p e r f e c t e d octave). 28 J o h n D . H o a g , "The Tomb o f U l u g h B e g a n d A b d u Razzag at G h a z n i ; a Model f o r the Taj Mahal," J o u r n a l o f the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s (1968), x x v n , pp. 234-48. The o c t a g o n a l t o w e r w i t h a l o w e r e n c o m p a s s i n g passageway f o r . r i t u a l circumambulations i n I r a n i a n s e p u l c h r e s ? and I t a l i a n b a p t i s t e r i e s b o t h s t e m f r o m p a g a n maus'olea. The o c t a g o n a l f o u n t a i n i s v e r y common a s a p a r a d i s i a l . i m a g e " i n . I r a n . - .. 29- P a u l U n d e r w o o d , o p . b i t . , p p . 4 1 - 1 3 8 . The author e x p l o r e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a g a n m a u s o l e a on t h e C h r i s t i a n baptistery.  104  30 The C h u r c h o f t h e H o l y • S e p u l c h e r i n J e r u s a l e m w a s t h e g r a n d m o d e l o f o c t a g o n a l c h u r c h e s ' as w e l l as b a p t i s t e r i e s i n Western Europe. The B a p t i s t e r y o f t h e L a t e r n i n Rome w a s t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e I t a l i a n , F r e n c h , and G e r m a n i c b a p t i s t e r i e s . For the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these b a p t i s t e r i e s s e e G u g l i e l m o de A n g e l i s D ' O s s a t , " O r i g i n e e F o r t u n a d e l B a t t i s t e r i A m b r o s i a n i , " ' A r t e Lomb.arda ( 1 9 6 9 ) , x i v , pp. 1-21. 31 R i c h a r d K r a u t h e i m e r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a n I c o n ography of Medieval A r c h i t e c t u r e , " ' S t u d i e s i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n M e d i e v a l a n d R e n a i s s a n c e A r t (New Y o r k : 19 69 ) , p p . 1 3 2 - 3 . 32  Underwood,' op.  c i t . , p.  81.  33 Ibid.. The i n s c r i p t i o n , p r o b a b l y p l a c e d t h e r e d u r i n g t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e c h u r c h a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , shows t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b a p t i s m a l f u n c t i o n a l i s m w i t h i n . t h e C h r i s t i a n Church. 34  CHAPTER  Krautheimer,  op.  c i t . , p.  133.  IV  1 S e e R a u l U n d e r w o o d , "The F o u n t a i n o f L i f e , " The D u m b a r t o n Oaks P a p e r s (19 5 0 ) , p. 4 9 . He d e s c r i b e s t h e v a r i o u s c o d i c e s and m a n u s c r i p t s a l l a l l u d i n g t o t h e thematic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of forites v i t a e . (New  2 H a r r y B. W e h l e , A r t T r e a s u r e s Y o r k : 19 5 9 ) , p . 2 3 9 . p l a t e 7 4 . 3 Ibid.,  p.  of the  Prado  Museum  2 39.  4 J o s h u a B r u y n , "A P u z z l i n g P i c t u r e a t O b e r l i n ; t h e F o u n t a i n o f L i f e , " ' ' O b e r l i n C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n (1958 ) , x v i : 1, p . 6 . 5  Ibid.  6 Wehle,' o p .  cit^_,  p.  2 39 ; a l s o  Bruyn,  op.  c i t . , p.  13.  7 S p i r e s o f G o t h i c o p e n - w o r k w e r e common a s f o n t c o v e r s as w e l l as e u c h a r i s t i c t a b e r n a c l e s i n S o u t h N e t h e r l a n d s and German c h u r c h e s b y t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; see J . G o r d e n D a v i e s ,'. The' A r c h i t e c t u r a l : S e t t i n g o f B a p t i s m (London.: 1 9 6 2 ) , f i g u r e 4 4 ; a n d B r u y n , o p . c i t . , p~ 15 . 8 Bruyn,  op.  cit.,  p.  17.  105  9 The o n l y m a j o r e r r o r seems t o o c c u r i n t h e H i g h Priests', banner: h e r e h e b r e a k s o r s e p a r a t e s , t h e name of t h e Lord. A c o n v e r s a n t J e w w o u l d n o t make s u c h a blasphemous mistake. F u r t h e r m o r e , m i n o r e r r o r s .do o c c u r i n each o f t h e other i n s c r i p t i o n s . In keeping with the c o r r e c t C o n c o r d a n c e s p e l l i n g , t h e v e r s e s , when r e a d r i g h t to l e f t , c a n n o t , i n most c a s e s , be c a r r i e d o n . They seem to be c u t - o f f b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n . 10 A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e t o R u d o l f K i t t e l ' s B i b l i a H e b r a i c a ( S t u t t g a r t : 19 37 ) . 11  The Hebrew  verse  from  the Priests' (I  banner  reads:•  C h r . 16 : 34;)  12 T h e l a s t v e r s e o f t h i s p s a l m ( P s . 1 0 6 : 4 8 ) i s a doxology c o n c l u d i n g t h e f o u r t h book o f t h e p s a l t e r . P s a l m 1 0 7 , i s a hymn o f t h a n k s g i v i n g , i t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n mood. I t can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e most g e n e r a l s e n s e . P s a l m 1 1 8 , p r o c e s s i o n a l hymn f o r t h e "Feast o f t h e T a b e r n a c l e s " and Psalm 136, " L i t a n y o f Thanksg i v i n g , " a r e b o t h j o y f u l o u t p o u r i n g s and a t odds w i t h t h e p i c t o r i a l context. 13 T h e i n s c r i p t i o n c o n t a i n s f i r s t l i n e o f v e r s e 5.  only  Psalm  111:4, and t h e  14 T h e s c r o l l i s r i p p e d , p e r h a p s i n t e n t i o n a l l y l e a v i n g out t h e pre-nominal s u f f i x . Furthermore, the text i s e n d e d a b r u p t l y i n v e r s e 8, g i v i n g h o i n d i c a t i o n i t s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d . 15 S e e ; E p h r a e m S y r u s , M a ' a r r a t h G a z z e : t h e B o o k o f _ t h e G a v e T r e a s u r e s , t r a n s . b y E . A . B u d g e . ( L o n d o n : 19 2 7 ) , p p . 2 2 1 f f . . I n t h e s e p a g e s the' S y r i a n a u t h o r i n g e n i o u s l y c o m p a r e s i n d e t a i l t h e e v e n t s o f C r e a t i o n w e e k a n d Holy>" Week, d r a w i n g p a r a l l e l s o f a l l k i n d s , p e r c e i v i n g c o n t r a s t s and similarities. 16 A c c o r d i n g t o J a c o b u s d e V o r a i g n e . ' s G o l d e n L e g e n d ( T o r o n t o : 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 9 1 ; L o n g i n u s was t h e C e n t u r i o n a s s i g n e d t o C h r i s t ' s c r u c i f i x i o n , a n d i t w a s h e who pierced the side of Christ with a lance. 17 S e e M a u r i c e V l o b e r g , L ' E u c h a r i s t i e d a n s 1 ' A r t ( P a r i s : 19 4 6 ) , V o l . I . , p . 1 5 9 . T h e a u t h o r d e a l s w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e . i c o n o g r a p h y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c r u c i f i x i o n a s a. J£ucha r i s t i c m o t i f i n a w o r k w h i c h c o v e r s t h e w h o l e gamut o f E u c h a r i s t i c symbols throughout C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y . ;  106  at at  18 P e t e r K i d s o n , " T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y G e r m a n S c u l p t u r e Bamberg, Naumburg and Magdeburg," a l e c t u r e d e l i v e r e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (March 17, 1972.).  19 W.R. 1956 ) , pp. 20  V a l e n t i n e r , ' The 68-69.  Henry  Bamberg R i d e r  O s b o r n T a y l o r , ' op.  (Los  Angeles:  c i t . , V o l . I I , p.  86.  21 A c c o r d i n g t o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t h e Hebrew r o o t w o r d P e s a c h ( P a s s o v e r ) p e r s i s t s i n t h e word' f o r E a s t e r i n a l l European languages except E n g l i s h . 22 John," 23.  " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e G o s p e l and L e t t e r s o f S t . T h e J e r u s a l e m B i b l e , New T e s t a m e n t , p . 14-2. M.  V l o b e r g , op', c i t . , V o l . I I , p p .  146-148.  24 M i r c e a E l i a d e , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 2 9 3 2 . S e e a l s o : K r a u t h e i m e r , b p . c i t . , " p. 137.. A m y s t i c a l e q u a t i o n seems t o be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n b a p t i s m , d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n , d e a t h . s y m b o l i z i n g t h e d y i n g o f t h e O l d Adam and a t t h e same t i m e a m y s t i c a l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t . "Water, though sometimes a s s o c i a t e d i n a bad sense w i t h the i d e a o f an o v e r w h e l m i n g f l o o d o f e v i l and o f s w i f t d e s t r u c t i o n , i s o r d i n a r i l y t a k e n as a s y m b o l o f c l e a n s i n g and regeneration or of refreshment." F.E. H u l m e , S y m b o l i s m i n C h r i s t i a n A r t . ( N e w Y o r k : 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 210. T  2 5 Texts r e f l e c t i n g ' the views o f b a p t i s m are extensive. S e e , K r a u t h e i m e r , 'op'.' c i t . ; a n d P a u l op'.' b i t . , p p . 4 3-138 . 26  Underwood, bp.  b i t . ,. p .  very Underwood,  54.  27 S e e " G o r d e n D a v i e s , b p Y b i t . , p . 7 1 , p l a t e s 24 a n d 25; a l s o F r a n c i s Bond, F o n t s and Font Covers (London: 1908), pp. 2 82-83. F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a t a b e r n a c l e f o n t c o v e r see f i g u r e 44. 2 8 An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l o f t h i s p e r s i s t e n t , c o n f l i c t may b e f o u n d i n t h e B i b l i c a l t a l e o f J o n a h a n d t h e W h a l e . The s w a l l o w i n g o f J o n a h b y t h e s e a m o n s t e r a n d h i s d e l i v e r ance' a f t e r t h r e e d a y s was t a k e n t o be a t y p e o f t r i u m p h ant r e s u r r e c t i o n o f the L o r d o v e r the powers o f death and t h e u n d e r w o r l d . 29 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e ' J e r u s a l e m B i b l e , New. T e s t a m e n t ; J o h n e m p l o y e d t h e a n n u a l c y c l e o f o J ew i s n l i t u r g i c a l feasts to define progressive stages i n the mission of Jesus c u l m i n a t i n g i n the l a s t Passover. The  107  o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r a l p l a n o f t h e G o s p e l o f John i s s t i l l d i s p u t e d ; not a l l B i b l i c a l scholars -agree w i t h t h e d i v i s i o n s s u g g e s t e d above. 30 R a y m o n d E. B r o w n , ' The Go's p e l ' A c c o r d i n g t o St'. J o h n , V o l . X X I X o f t h e A n c h o r B i b l e „ C G a r d e n C i t y : 19 6 6 ) , pp. 326' f f . 31 F o r a h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h i s g a t h e r i n g see G a a l y a h u C o r n f e l d , ' D a n i e l t o P a u l : An I l l u s t r a t e d ' G u i d e t o t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t a n d I t s B a c k g r o u n d (New York:1962), p p . 30 6-7 . 3 2 ..Ibid. 3 3 R.  Brown, op.  cit. .  34 E v e l y n U n d e r h i l l , "The F o u n t a i n o f L i f e : An Icono g r a p h i c a l Study," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine ( A p r i l , 1910), V o l . 17, pp. 99-109. She a t t e m p t s t o t i e t h e Fountain of L i f e t r a d i t i o n w i t h a group of s y m b o l i c a l p i c t u r e s , m o s t l y p r o d u c e d i n t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i n the north.  CHAPTER  V  1 C h a r l e s M o o r e , "The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f W a t e r , " C a n a d i a n A r c h i t e c t (November, 1 9 5 9 ) , 4:1, p. 40. 2 I t has happened h i s t o r i c a l l y t h a t a f a v o u r e d medium i n c u l t u r e has e n t e r e d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e upon other media; i e . , the i n f l u e n c e of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e i v o r y c a r v i n g s and m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the Middle Ages.  on  3 Once t h a t o b j e c t i v e had o c c u r r e d t o t h e artists, t h a t i s . I t has. b e e n shown a b o v e t h a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f graphics are content with conceptual images comparable t o words. '••'... 4 Homer's' O d y s s e y c o n t a i n s : t h e u n i n h a b i t e d goat i s l a n d , O'd. i x , 132- f f ; t h e g a r d e n o f A l c i n o u s ,' O'd.. v i i , 1 1 2 ; t h e g r o t t o o f C a l y p s o , ' Od. v , 6 3 ; t h e g r o t t o o f t h e n y m p h s , I t h a c a , O'd. . x i i i , 1 0 2 ; a n d t h e p e r p e t u a l s p r i n g o f E y s i u m , O'd. i v , • 5 6 5 ;'. c i t e d . i n . E . R. C u r t l u s , E u r o p e a n ' L i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e ' L a t i n M i d d l e A g e s , ' t r a n s , b y W.R. Trask TUew Y o r k : 1 9 5 3 ) , p.-18 3.  5  Ibid.  6 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e a r c h the. w o r k s o f A u g u s t i n e and d i s c o v e r t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p h i l o s o p h i e s , P l a t o n i s m had c r e a t e d an i n t e l l e c t u a l and i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r l d , wherein a d i s s o l v i n g d i a l e c t i c turned the c o g n i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l phenomena i n t o a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e mind's i d e a l s . 7 H.O.  T a y l o r , op. c i t . ,  p. 57.  8 F r e d e r i c k B. A r t z , T h e M i n d o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s (New Y o r k : 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 378~ " A l l C r e a t i o n i s l i k e a book and p i c t u r e ; o u r l i v e s , o u r f a t e , o u r s t a t e , o u r d e a t h a r e f a i t h f u l l y p r e s e n t e d t o us as i n a m i r r o r . " 9 John Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n ( L o n d o n : 19 5 5 ) , p . 3.  Gothic  Sculpture  10 S o f u n d a m e n t a l i s l a n g u a g e t o t h e p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t t h a t s p e e c h u n c o n s c i o u s l y becomes t h e model o f o t h e r languages i n o t h e r media. See Edward S a p i r , L a n g u a g e: A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S t u d y o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k : 1949), pp. 13-23. 11 B y " c o m p l e t e v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " i s m e a n t t h a t the use o f various kinds o f p e r s p e c t i v e s , and other p i c t o r i a l devices i n the creation o f n a t u r a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l surface. Admittedly, the Fountain o f L i f e r e t a i n s many p i c t o r i a l a r c h a i s m s , a n d i s s t i l l f a r s h o r t o f f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e mode.  109  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A c k r o y d , P.R. a n d C.-F. E v a n s . 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L o n g o , 196 8.  Placidia.  Munich:  Ravenna:  119  1 i  •  . .  APPENDIX A ~ :— !  Hoffmann-Curtis, Kathrln. Das P r o g r a m m d e r Fontana Maggiore i n Perugia. Dusseldorf: R h e i n l a n d V e r l a g , 19 6 8.:  120  APPENDIX  B  The f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l l i s t i s i n a c c o r d a n c e t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n found i n M i c h a e l Ayrton's Giovanni Pisano London: Thames a n d H u d s o n , 1 9 6 9 . RELIEF  PANELS  38  January  39  February  40  March  41  July  42  August  43  September  44  The L i o n  and G r i f f i n  45  Grammar.  Dialectics  46  Rhetoric.  47  Samson a n d t h e feion. Samson a n d D e l i l a h  48  A  49  David  50  April  51  May  52  June  53  October  54  November  55  December  56  Geometry.  Arithmetic .  Morality and  of Perugia  Goliath  Music  121  57  Astrology.  Philosophy  58  The F a l l  59  Romulus  a n d Remus  60  Romulus  a n d Remus a n d R h e a  and E x p u l s i o n  Now i n t h e G a l l e r i a 61  A Fable  from  62  An  63  An E a g l e  from  Eden  Silva.  Nazionale,  Perugia  Aesop  Eagle with  inscription  A N G L E F I G U R E S FROM THE U P P E R C I S T E R N 15 T h e C i t y o f Rome, now i n t h e G a l l e r i a Nazionale, Perugia 16  The C i t y  of  17  The C i t y  of Perugia  18  Lake  19  S t . Herculanus  20  The C l e r i c  2 21  Trasimeno  Matteo  o f Herculanus  da Correggio  22  St. Michael  23  Aulestes  24 25  Chiusi  Ernano  d i Sasseferrato  Victory  26  S t . Benedict  27  S t . John t h e  28  Solomon  . 29  David  30  Salome  31  Moses  '  Baptist'  -  122  32  St.  Peter  33  The  C h u r c h o f Rome '  34  Theologia  35  St. Paul  36  The  37  St.  Cleric  , o f S t . L a w r e n c e '.  Lawrence  APPENDIX C  VITRUVIUS Vitruvius. Ten Books on A r c h i t e c t u r e , t r a n s , b y M.H. M o r g a n , C a m b r i d g e , Mass.:... Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1914. BOOK V I I I , AQUEDUCTS,  CHAPTER V I  W E L L S , AND  CISTERNS  1. There a r e t h r e e methods o f c o n d u c t i n g w a t e r , i n channels through masonry c o n d u i t s , o r i n l e a d p i p e s , o r i n pipes o f baked c l a y . I f i n c o n d u i t s , l e t t h e masonry be as s o l i d as p o s s i b l e , a n d l e t t h e b e d o f t h e c h a n n e l have a g r a d i e n t o f n o t l e s s than a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h f o r e v e r y h u n d r e d f e e t , and l e t t h e masonry s t r u c t u r e be a r c h e d o v e r , s o t h a t t h e s u n may n o t s t r i k e t h e w a t e r a t a l l . When i t h a s r e a c h e d t h e c i t y , b u i l d a r e s e r v o i r w i t h a d i s t r i b u t i o n tank i n t h r e e compartments connected with the r e s e r v o i r t o r e c e i v e t h e water, and l e t t h e r e s e r v o i r h a v e t h r e e p i p e s , one f o r e a c h o f t h e c o n n e c t i n g t a n k s , so t h a t when t h e w a t e r r u n s o v e r f r o m t h e t a n k s a t t h e e n d s , i t may r u n i n t o t h e o n e b e t w e e n t h e m . 2. From t h i s c e n t r a l t a n k , p i p e s w i l l be l a i d t o a l l t h e b a s i n s and f o u n t a i n s ; from t h e second t a n k , t o b a t h s , s o t h a t t h e y may y i e l d a n a n n u a l i n c o m e t o t h e s t a t e ; a n d from t h e t h i r d , t o p r i v a t e h o u s e s , so t h a t w a t e r f o r publ i c use w i l l n o t r u n s h o r t ; f o r p e o p l e w i l l be unable t o d i v e r t i t i f t h e y h a v e o n l y t h e i r own s u p p l i e s f r o m h e a d q u a r t e r s . T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n w h y I h a v e made t h e s e divis i o n s , a n d a l s o i n o r d e r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who t a k e w a t e r i n t o t h e i r h o u s e s may b y t h e i r t a x e s h e l p t o m a i n t a i n t h e conducting o f t h e water by t h e c o n t r a c t o r s . 3. I f , however, there a r e h i l l s between t h e c i t y and t h e s o u r c e o f s u p p l y , s u b t e r r a n e a n c h a n n e l s must be d u g , and b r o u g h t t o a l e v e l a t t h e g r a d i e n t m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . I f t h e b e d i s o f t u f a o r o t h e r s t o n e , l e t t h e c h a n n e l be c u t i n i t ; b u t i f i t i s o f e a r t h o r s a n d , t h e r e must be v a u l t e d masonry w a l l s f o r t h e c h a n n e l , and t h e w a t e r s h o u l d thus be conducted, w i t h s h a f t s b u i l t a t every two hundred and f o r t y f e e t .  4.. B u t i f t h e w a t e r , i s t o b e ..".conducted i n l e a d p i p e s , f i r s t b u i l d a r e s e r v o i r at the s o u r c e ; t h e n , let. t h e p i p e s h a v e a n i n t e r i o r a r e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g .to. t h e . a m o u n t o f w a t e r and l a y t h e s e p i p e s from t h i s r e s e r v o i r t o t h e r e s e r v o i r which i s inside the c i t y w a i l s . 5. The c o n d u c t i n g o f t h e w a t e r t h r o u g h l e a d p i p e s i s t o be managed as f o l l o w s . I f there i s a r e g u l a r f a l l from the s o u r c e t o t h e c i t y , w i t h o u t any i n t e r v e n i n g h i l l s t h a t are h i g h enough t o i n t e r r u p t i t , b u t w i t h d e p r e s s i o n s i n I t , t h e n we m u s t b u i l d s u b s t r u c t u r e s t o - b r i n g . , i t up t o t h e l e v e l as i n t h e c a s e o f c h a n n e l s and c o n d u i t s . I f the dis tance round such depressions i s not great, the water may be c a r r i e d r o u n d c i r c u i t o u s l y ; b u t i f t h e v a l l e y s a r e ext e n s i v e , t h e c o u r s e w i l l b e d i r e c t e d down t h e i r s l o p e . On r e a c h i n g t h e b o t t o m , a low s u b s t r u c t u r e i s b u i l t so t h a t the l e v e l t h e r e may c o n t i n u e a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e . This w i l l f o r m t h e " v e n t e r " . Then, on r e a c h i n g t h e h i l l on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e v e n t e r makes t h e w a t e r s l o w i n s w e l l i n g up t o r i s e t o t h e t o p o f t h e h i l l . 6. B u t I f t h e r e i s n o s u c h v e n t e r made i n t h e v a l l e y s n o r any s u b s t r u c t u r e b u i l t on a l e v e l , b u t m e r e l y an e l bow, t h e w a t e r w i l l b r e a k o u t , . a n d b u r s t t h e j o i n t s o f t h e pipes. And i n t h e v e n t e r , w a t e r c u s h i o n s must be c o n s t r u e ted t o r e l i e v e t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e a i r . T h u s , t h o s e who h a v e t o c o n d u c t w a t e r t h r o u g h l e a d p i p e s w i l l do i t m o s t s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s , b e c a u s e i t s d e s c e n t s , c i r c u i t s , v e n t e r s , and r i s i n g s c a n be managed i n t h i s way, when t h e l e v e l o f t h e f a l l f r o m t h e s o u r c e s t o t h e c i t y i s once o b t a i n e d . 12. B u t i f t h e r e a r e n o s p r i n g s f r o m w h i c h we c a n c o n s t r u c t aqueducts, i t i s necessay to d i g w e l l s . Now i n the d i g g i n g o f w e l l s we m u s t n o t d i s d a i n r e f l e c t i o n , b u t m u s t d e v o t e much a c u t e n e s s a n d s k i l l t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i n g s , because the e a r t h con t a i n s many v a r i o u s s u b s t a n c e s , i n i t s e l f ; f o r l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , i t i s composed o f t h e f o u r e l e m e n t s . In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s i t s e l f e a r t h l y , and o f m o i s t u r e i t cont a i n s springs of water, also h e a t , which produces s u l p h u r , a l u m , and a s p h a l t ; and f i n a l l y , i t c o n t a i n s g r e a t c u r r e n t s o f ' a i r , w h i c h , c o m i n g up i n a p r e g n a n t s t a t e t h r o u g h t h e porous f i s s u r e s t o t h e p l a c e s where w e l l s are b e i n g dug, a n d f i n d i n g men e n g a g e d i n d i g g i n g t h e r e , s t o p up t h e b r e a o f l i f e i n t h e i r n o s t r i l s b y t h e n a t u r a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e '• exhalation. So t h o s e who d o n o t q u i c k l y e s c a p e f r o m t h e spot, are k i l l e d there.  125  FIGURE CIVIC  FOUNTAIN  1 AT  VITERBO  126  FIGURE 2 F O U N T A I N OF L I F E FROM THE G O S P E L S OF S A I N T MEDARD DE S O I S S O N S  127  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E FROM GODESCALC G O S P E L S  THE  mtm B » hmmt ImaK  FIGURE 4 F O U N T A I N OF L I F E FROM THE MAUSOLEUM OF G A L L A P L A C I D I A AT RAVENNA  FIGURE 5 F O U N T A I N OF L I V I N G WATER FROM THE R E I C H E N A U M A N U S C R I P T , BAMBERG  130  131  FIGURE 7 FONTE MAGGIORE AT  PERUGIA  132  FIGURE FONTE G A I A AT  8 SIENA  133  FIGURE 9 B A P T I S M A L FONT I N THE CHURCH OF SAN F R E D I A N O AT L U C C A  FIGURE  10  B A P T I S T E R Y P U L P I T AT P I S A (1260 ) . NICOLA PISANO  FIGURE 11 P U L P I T FOR THE CHURCH OF S. ANDREA AT P I S T O I A ( 1 2 9 7 - 1 3 0 1 ) . GIOVANNI PISANO  F I G U R E 12 D E T A I L OF THE R E L I E F P A N E L FROM THE FONTE MAGGIORE. THE L I O N AND THE G R I F F I N  F I G U R E 13 D E T A I L OF THE F A L L OF MAN, FROM THE FONTE MAGGIORE  FIGURE RELIEF  14  P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  139  F I G U R E 15 R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  F I G U R E 16 RELIEF  P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  FIGURE  17  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  142  F I G U R E 18 R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  143  F I G U R E 19 R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  FIGURE  20  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  145  FIGURE 21 R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  FIGURE  22  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  147  FIGURE RELIEF  23  P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  148  FIGURE  24  R E L I E F P A N E L , FONTE  MAGGIORE  149  FIGURE  26  R E L I E F P A N E L . D E T A I L OF R H E T O R I C AND A R I T H M E T I C  FIGURE 2 7 UPPER  CISTERN  FIGURE UPPER  28  CISTERN  153  UPPER  CISTERN  FIGURE UPPER  30  CISTERN  155  FIGURE UPPER  31  CISTERN  FIGURE  32  THE GARDEN OF EDEN FROM L E S TRES R I C H E S HEURES DU DUC DE B E R R Y  157  FIGURE  33  M E E T I N G OF THE THREE. MAGI FROM L E S TRES R I C H E S HEURES  IMS*  Complaaut  aaOfcu  lurauasmriommfdd ummioum mnifgut.  mmcm UOCttrOt  (in com mmm etrffitot mmmu din mux aiUdOm F I G U R E 34 THE F O U N T A I N OF L I V I N G WATERS FROM L E S T R E S RICHES HEURES  FIGURE  35  HIERONYMUS BOSCH. D E T A I L OF THE PRADO, GARDEN OF E A R T H L Y DELIGHTS  160  ! it*touttt{aftcmbkt a Vttc S  I 0 OHiatitfoilfc*ft&\KK<*. FIGURE  36  THE " T R I N I T A R I A N " F O U N T A I N OF L I F E FROM THE ROMANCE OF THE ROSE  FIGURE  37  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E OR L I V I N G WATERS. PRADO MUSEUM  162  FIGURE  38  F O U N T A I N OF L I F E . C O L L E G E MUSEUM  OBERLIN  FIGURE  39  D E T A I L OF THE O B E R L I N F O U N T A I N OF L I F E : THE CHRISTIANS  FIGURE  40  D E T A I L OF THE O B E R L I N F O U N T A I N OF L I F E : THE JEWS  165  D E T A I L OF THE O B E R L I N PAINTING: MUSICAL ANGELS  FIGURE  42  D E T A I L OF THE PRADO THE JEWS  PAINTING  167  FIGURE 4 3 THE C R U C I F I X I O N WITH P E R S O N I F I C A T I O N S OF L I F E AND D E A T H , CHURCH AND SYNAGOGUE FROM THE REGENSBURG M A N U S C R I P T  F I G U R E 44 FONT COVER FROM THE CHURCH OF SUDBURY S T . P E T E R , ENGLAND  FIGURE 45 THE FIGURE OF ECCLESIA FROM STRASBOURG CATHEDRAL  FIGURE 46 THE FIGURE OF SYNAGOGUE FROM STRASBOURG CATHEDRAL  171  FIGURE 4 7 E C C L E S I A FROM BAMBERG C A T H E D R A L  FIGURE 4 8 SYNAGOGUE FROM BAMBERG C A T H E D R A L  

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