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Clientele variations and urban nightclub locations; a case study of Vancouver Gill, Warren George 1972

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61 CLIENTELE VARIATIONS AND URBAN NIGHTCLUB LOCATIONS: A CASE STUDY OP VANCOUVER by WARREN GEORGE GILL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS •' i n the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In present ing th i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. The Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Department of i i i ABSTRACT This thesis i s concerned with the relations between clientele variations, as indexed by appearance and behavior, and nightclub locations i n Vancouver, B.C. Nightclubs are marketers of experiential products where the customer i s part of the entertainment. The sociological and psychological literature suggest that a person's appearance and behavior at entertainment activities are a reflection of his self image and are components of his l i f e style. Retail location -studies indicated that self image and l i f e style are important factors i n a customer's selection of stores at which to shop. Thus appearance and behavior of clientele can be assumed to be a differentiating factor between nightclubs. Two working hypotheses were advanced: 1) that i n general nightclubs with similar clientele group together i n urban space; and 2) i n some cases nightclubs w i l l group together to permit something akin to comparative shopping. A rating instrument v/as developed to unobtrusively measure seven variables (hair, clothing, f a c i a l decoration, com-panionship, dance, drink, and age) that together describe the appearance and behavior of clientele at nightclubs. The instrument had two subsections, one for male and another for female subjects. The development and testing of the instrument was one of the major tasks of the thesis. Cross tabulations and examination of responses to selected variables indicated that relationships did exist between the categories of the seven variables, for both male and female subjects. It was therefore concluded that there were a number of identifiable client types implicit i n the nightclub population. The nightclubs were classifi e d by a hierarchical grouping technique on the basis of similarity of clientele. Both male and female groups showed a definite segmentation along appearance and behavior lines; the male groups also corresponded closely with the entertainment policies of the nightclubs. Further examination indicated that the nightclub groups were spatially defined into seven subdistricts within the C.B.D. and i n terms of a core-frame pattern. Pour of the subdistricts were determined to be composed of nightclubs with similar clientele, the remaining three subdistricts contained clubs with different yet not incompatible clientele. At a more aggregated scale of five subdistricts, four were shown to have similar-i t i e s i n clientele. The core-frame pattern revealed that there were two groups of clubs with similar clientele; dance and floor show clubs i n the core of the C.B.D., and clubs marketing nude entertainment i n the frame. This pattern was confirmed by an analysis of the quality of the nightclub sites. The analysis of nightclub locations confirmed that, as hypothesized, definite spatial patterns could be determined from variations i n clientele appearance and behavior. A comparison of the male and female group structure indicated that the males were more useful i n segmenting the market. I t was suggested that t h i s s i t u a t i o n was a r e f l e c t i o n of the s o c i a l dominance of the male i n choosing entertainment a c t i v i t i e s . vi TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER Page. I.' EXPERIENCE AS A PRODUCT . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Working Hypotheses 4 Study Area 5 Research Method 5 Chapter O u t l i n e . 7 I I . THE CLIENT AS AN INDEX 9 S o c i a l Measures as a Ba s i s f o r N i g h t c l u b D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : Images, Roles, ('and L i f e S t y l e s 9 Pop Sociology 12 C l o t h i n g 14 Observation of Vancouver N i g h t c l u b s 17 I I I . NIGHTCLUBS IN VANCOUVER 19 Nightclubs and L i q u o r 20 Show Clubs 25 Rock and R o l l and Dance N i g h t c l u b s 27 Nude Entertainment 30 Summary 33 IV. RESEARCH DESIGN 35 Types of Measurement 35 Questionnaire 36 Intervi e w 37 Unobtrusive Measures 38 vii CHAPTER Page Development of the Instrument 41 Nature of the Data 42 The Instrument 44 Summary 50 The C l i e n t e l e Sample 50 The N i g h t c l u b Sample 52 V. NIGHTCLUB CLIENTELE STRUCTURE 54 Male S t r u c t u r e 55 Responses to the V a r i a b l e "Hair" . 60 Cross Tabulations 66 Summary of Male Types /•• 72 Female S t r u c t u r e 73 Responses to the V a r i a b l e "Hair" 76 Cross Tabulations 81 Summary of Female Types 84 Comparison of the Two Genders 85 Aggregate S i m i l a r i t i e s 85 Comments on C l i e n t e l e S t r u c t u r e s 86 Summary 87 VI. THE NIGHTCLUB AS PART OF RETAIL LOCATION 88 Approaches to R e t a i l L o c a t i o n . 88 Behavior and L o c a t i o n / . 89 :; The Image of the Store 92 S o c i a l Class 92 L i f e S t y l e 93 Models of Store Image 93 Summary . 9 6 v i i i CHAPTER Page The Grouping of Nightclubs 97 Male Groups 100 Structure of Male Groups 102 Male Comparison Data 108 Male Clientele: Summary and Recapitulation 110 Female Groups 112 Structure of Female Groups 114 Female Comparison Data 119 Female Clientele: Summary and Recapitulation 122 Similarities of Group Structure f 123 Two Male and Female Groups 127 Summary of the Similarities 128 Locational Patterns 129 A Core-Frame Model 130 . Subdistricts i n the C.B.D. 133 Eccentric Core Locations 137 Non-Core Locations 137 The Site Variables 139 Summary of the Locational and Site Attributes 143 VII. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS' FOR FURTHER STUDY 145 The Working Hypotheses 145 Client Types 145 Market Segmentation 146 Site Analysis 147 CHAPTER ix Page Nigh t c l u b s w i t h S i m i l a r C l i e n t e l e 148 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 149 Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY 152 APPENDIX A. N i g h t c l u b D e s c r i p t i o n and L o c a t i o n 158 B. The Rating Instrument 168 C. S i t e V a r i a b l e s 171 D. Tree Graph of the Grouping of Male (• Subjects 173 E. Tree Graph of the Grouping of Female Subjects 175 F. Tree Graph of the Grouping on S i t e V a r i a b l e s 177 LIST OP TABLES TABLE Page 5.1 Str u c t u r e of the Male P o p u l a t i o n 55 5.2 Male—Responses t o H a i r s t y l e Category 62 5.3 Male Cross Tabulations 68 5.4 S t r u c t u r e of the Female P o p u l a t i o n 74 5.5 Female-—Responses t o H a i r s t y l e Category 78 5.6 Female Cross Tabulations 82 6.1 Membership i n Male Groups 101 6.2 S t r u c t u r e of Male Groups 105 6.3 Membership i n Female Groups 113 6.4 S t r u c t u r e of Female Groups 116 6.5 Ni g h t c l u b s w i t h S i m i l a r Group Membership at the L e v e l of S i x Male and Seven Female Groups 124 6.6 N i g h t c l u b s w i t h S i m i l a r Group Membership-at the L e v e l of Two Male and Female Groups 128 6.7 Group Membership on S i t e V a r i a b l e s 140 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE * Page 6.1 Core-Frame P a t t e r n 131 6.2 S i t e V a r i a b l e s 142 A . l N i g h t c l u b L o c a t i o n 160 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Don Bellamy of the Canadian Restaurant A s s o c i a t i o n and a l l the n i g h t c l u b owners f o r p e r m i t t i n g f r e e access to the n i g h t c l u b s . Miss S h i r l e y •Mooney and P a c i f i c Press L i m i t e d were a l s q very h e l p f u l i n a l l o w i n g me to use the f a c i l i t i e s of the Press L i b r a r y . The i d e a f o r t h i s t h e s i s was o r i g i n a l l y developed f o r a s e n i o r undergraduate geography course taught by Dr. Walter Hardwick. Over the past two years Dr. Hardwick has had the f a i t h and patience to see the study through to completion. H i s many i n s i g h t f u l comments have been i n v a l u a b l e a i d s to the research. The c r i t i c i s m s of Dr. Roger Leigh have been of great a s s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area: of s t y l e and data a n a l y s i s . Fellow comrades Ma r t i n T a y l o r , John Bottomley, Dave Rothwell , and Ar t h u r Howell deserve r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r many c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the t h e s i s i n general. Mike P a t t e r s o n wrote a number of u s e f u l computer programs and E l l i o t t C l arkson provided important t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The f i f t y undergraduate students who f r e e l y gave of t h e i r time to help w i t h the data c o l l e c t i o n . d e s e r v e s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . Mrs. Margaret P a r r o t t deserves a l a r g e measure of c r e d i t f o r enduring the t y p i n g of the f i n a l d r a f t . F i n a l l y , Spectre i s to be remembered f o r good times, good music, and f o r p r o v i d i n g an unusual impetus to academic research. CHAPTER I EXPERIENCE AS A PRODUCT Introduction Entertainment a c t i v i t i e s are an important and i n t e r e s t i n g component of urban l i f e . The cosmopolitanism of a c i t y i s often evaluated i n terms of the amount and d i v e r s i t y of entertainment a v a i l a b l e . New York, Montreal, San Francisco, New Orleans, and Los Angeles each, to a degree, owes i t s reputation as a great c i t y to the v a r i e t y of entertainment f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to resident and v i s i t o r . j Vancouver i s becoming an entertainment centre; references to the c i t y as "San Francisco North" and to the province of B r i t i s h Columbia as the " C a l i f o r n i a of Canada" come from the media, and e f f e c t i v e l y document t h i s development, (Sun, October 19, 1971, p.29) With increasing l e i s u r e time, affluence, and mobility an increasing percentage of urban dwellers demand a lar g e r number and v a r i e t y of d i v e r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . ( T o f f l e r , 1970, pp. 194-210) The resurgence of inter e s t i n f i l m , e s t a b l i s h -ment of greater numbers of l i v e theatre companies, a t t r a c t i o n of major league sport, bookings of road performances, and the expansion and changes i n n i g h t l i f e a c t i v i t i e s are responses to t h i s demand, i n Vancouver no le s s than anywhere else i n North America. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that each of these a c t i v i t i e s 2 i n v o l v e s the marketing of an i n t a n g i b l e commodity, where there i s some form of i n t e r a c t i o n between c l i e n t and a c t i v i t y . In essence the commercialised forms of these a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e marketing.an "experience". This c o n t r a s t s w i t h the ma j o r i t y of conventional r e t a i l i n g which i n v o l v e s a pro-p r i e t o r y f u n c t i o n , the t r a n s f e r of ownership of some a r t i c l e or good such as an automobile, c l o t h i n g , or f u r n i t u r e . Admittedly, there i s i n t e r a c t i o n between c l i e n t and s t o r e , but the major r e s u l t of the t r a n s a c t i o n i s tha t a t a n g i b l e good changes hands t o be used i n some place other than the purchase l o c a t i o n . A t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n i n economic a n a l y s i s i s made between t h i s p r o p r i e t o r y s o r t of r e t a i l i n g and the r e t a i l i n g of s e r v i c e s . However, r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r i n g goods and s e r v i c e s as a dichotomy as i s o f t e n done i n urban l i t e r a t u r e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a continuum of commercial t r a n s a c t i o n s may be d e s i r a b l e . We may argue t h a t i n . s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s there i s a g r a d a t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g i n t a n g i b i l i t y . Business s e r v i c e s such as accounting and a d v e r t i s i n g i n v o l v e the production of " t a n g i b l e s " i n the form of ledgers and advertisements. Personal s e r v i c e s by h a i r d r e s s e r s or c h i r o p r a c t o r s r e s u l t i n some p h y s i c a l change i n the c l i e n t . But where the t r a n s a c t i o n i n v o l v e s a t o t a l l y i n t a n g i b l e good, as i n an evening at the t h e a t r e , the product i s an emotional experience. This i s the extreme of the continuum. The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y that of experience. An evening at the theatre i s the experience of the play . i t s e l f as well as the experience of going to the theatre. This i s not to make the claim that the purchase of clothing may not have an experiential aspect. I t can, but rather i t i s not s o l e l y e x p e r i e n t i a l . For example, cl o t h i n g selected f o r the theatre i s part of the experience of the evening. Thus the c l o t h i n g purchase may involve two types of experience, one associated with purchase, and the other as a component of an entertainment experience. Geographers, marketers, and other urbanists have long been concerned with the marketing of goods and business and personal services. A large l i t e r a t u r e delves into the nature of these transactions and in t o the patterns of l o c a t i o n s i of various goods r e t a i l i n g and service r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s within urban and r u r a l areas. A major series of models which are part of the substance of conventional urban geography-deal .with r e t a i l i n g within the central business d i s t r i c t and within a system of central places. It i s not the purpose of t h i s study to be c r i t i c a l of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . However, we can note that i t has dealt most peripherally with personal services, and has i n f a c t ignored " e x p e r i e n t i a l " a c t i v i t i e s almost e n t i r e l y . Therefore, f o r t h i s thesis one type of entertainment - the nightclub - has been chosen f o r study, to i l l u s t r a t e that "experience" a c t i v i t i e s can be described and subjected to geographic analysis i n a s i m i l a r fashion to other commercial a c t i v i t i e s . Nightclubs deal i n experience as a product. The c l i e n t i s part of the entertainment. Goffman (1967) determines the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to be one of d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Thus the c l i e n t e l e of nightclubs must be part of any analysis of nightclubs or nightclub l o c a t i o n i n a s i m i l a r fashion that goods, p a r t i c u l a r l y specialty goods, are part of analyses of r e t a i l l o c a t i o n . Therefore the. c l i e n t e l e of the nightclub becomes of c e n t r a l importance i n t h i s study. Working Hypotheses The problem focus of t h i s study, or i t s working hypotheses, are not derived from any body of theory or extensive corpus of l i t e r a t u r e . Neither of these e x i s t , although the f i e l d s of behavioral geography and "pop" sociology suggest themes and i n s i g h t s . Rather the stimulus f o r the study and the questions to be investigated stem from the author's own experiences and observations. These "inductively" arrived at hypotheses w i l l guide the study; i n large part the aim of the study i s to develop methods to v e r i f y these observations, observations that are novel i n terms of conventional urban theory but possibly f r u i t f u l f o r a geography of urban experiences. The author"s working experience as a musician, over a f i v e year period, suggested that there were i n fa c t wide variations i n appearance and behavioral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l i e n t s between nightclubs. Patrons of p a r t i c u l a r clubs appeared to be purchasing a common experience. As the nature of the experience varied between nightclubs so did the patrons. 5 Also i t was noticed that there were s p a t i a l r e g u l a r i t i e s i n nightclub locations such that clubs with s i m i l a r c l i e n t groups had s i m i l a r types of l o c a t i o n . These observations lead to the major hypothesis of t h i s study that nightclubs  with si m i l a r c l i e n t e l e group together i n urban space. A secondary hypothesis i s that while o v e r a l l nightclub d i s t r i c t s w i l l have homogeneous c l i e n t e l e , i n a few cases, while c l i e n t e l e w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r , nightclubs w i l l  also be grouped together to permit something akin to comparative  shopping. These hypotheses obviously have some r e l a t i o n to the r e t a i l l o c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . (Garner, 1 9 6 6 ) Study Area The study i s set i n Vancouver, the core c i t y of a metropolitan area of 1 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 , a c i t y classed as a major regional c a p i t a l . (Maxwell, 1 9 6 4 ) For many years commercial entertainment was of the burlesque and bar room v a r i e t y , r e f l e c t i n g the tastes of people engaged i n the "extractive" i n d u s t r i e s of the hinterland, but, i n the l a s t twenty years the range and v a r i e t y of establishments has broadened and now caters to resident, t o u r i s t , and conventioneer, as well as those i n from the bush. Research Method The study requires i n v e s t i g a t i o n of three major topics — establishments, c l i e n t e l e , and intra-urban r e t a i l l o c a t i o n . Twenty-nine nightclubs, three-quarters of those l i s t e d 6 i n the Vancouver Telephone Directory and on the entertain-ment pages of the Vancouver Sun newspaper, were subject to analy s i s . Data on c l i e n t e l e was c o l l e c t e d simultaneously by trained observers i n each club on both Thursday and Saturday nights of one week i n February, 1972. This procedure y i e l d e d two time s p e c i f i c data points f o r the study. In addition, a macro s i t e quality instrument (Claus and Rothwell, 1970) was developed to evaluate some of the neighbourhood character-i s t i c s of each club. As the c l i e n t was determined as the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r between clubs a method of r a t i n g the c l i e n t v a r i a t i o n s was devised. Unobtrusive research methods were selected to overcome the severe r e s t r i c t i o n s of more formal question-naire techniques i n a f e s t i v e environment. A c l i e n t e l e r a t i n g instrument was therefore devised. The basic assumption of the procedure i s that a person's appearance and behaviour, i n terms of the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , i s a r e f l e c t i o n of s e l f image. As gender posed conceptual problems, the instrument was i n two parts designated by sex. Behavioral v a r i a b l e s are i d e n t i c a l on both parts, modifications being i n the appearance variables of each gender. The c l i e n t e l e data The Intention of the research design was to obtain ratings f o r every club i n the Vancouver area marketing dancing, a f l o o r show, or topless-bottomless entertainment. This aim was not f u l l y r e a l i z e d because planning f o r the project was necessarily some weeks ahead of the actual sample dates and did not allow f o r entertainment p o l i c y changes of some establishments or the introduction of new clubs into the market. Further some operators were unwilling to provide the co-operation necessary to survey p a r t i c u l a r nightclubs. was analysed u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques by i n d i v i d u a l and n i g h t c l u b : a grouping a l g o r i t h m was used to i d e n t i f y c l u s t e r s of s i m i l a r c l u b s , whose l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r was then i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s of the c l i e n t e l e a n a l y s i s were evaluated i n l i g h t of e x i s t i n g concepts of i n t r a - u r b a n r e t a i l l o c a t i o n and s t o r e image. E a r l y work, as documented by L e i g h (1965) and Garner (1966), suggested that s e v e r a l concentrations of r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s are found w i t h i n the core. The store image l i t e r a t u r e r a i s e d questions of customer choice and s t o r e l o c a t i o n . I t i s the attempt of t h i s study t o examine n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n s by u t i l i z i n g the c l i e n t e l e ' a s a r e f l e c t i o n of f a c i l i t y image. Chapter Outline The b a s i s f o r the use of the c l i e n t as a u n i t f o r d e s c r i b i n g n i g h t c l u b s i s discussed i n Chapter Two w i t h s p e c i a l reference t o l i f e s t y l e concepts, s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , and the author's f i e l d work. I n Chapter Three the development of the Vancouver n i g h t c l u b market i s examined i n both h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary contexts. The methodology of the study together w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of unobtrusive measures i s the subject of Chapter Pour. Chapter F i v e o u t l i n e s the data gathering procedure and presents the a n a l y s i s of c l i e n t e l e . The r e t a i l l o c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i s discussed i n Chapter S i x together w i t h the a n a l y s i s and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of n i g h t c l u b s and t h e i r 8 locations. A summary of the r e s u l t s and s p e c i f i c recommendations f o r future research i s presented i n Chapter Seven. 9 CHAPTER I I THE CLIENT AS AN INDEX Our hypothesis i s that n i g h t c l u b s w i t h s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e w i l l group together i n urban space, and our assumption i s that the appearance and behavior of the c l i e n t e l e while at the club w i l l provide c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . I t i s f i r s t necessary t o j u s t i f y the choice of customer appearance as the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i a . T h i s can be done by reference t o the w r i t i n g s of s o c i o l o g i s t s and others on the t o p i c s of image, r o l e p l a y i n g , l i f e s t y l e , f a s h i o n , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l o t h i n g . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s a l s o c i t e d as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n ; such observation a l s o a l l o w s us t o suggest that t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of c l u b s has -a geographical dimension, i n the c l u s t e r i n g of s i m i l a r . types of clubs i n s i m i l a r types of l o c a t i o n s i n the c i t y . S o c i a l Measures as a Basis f o r N i g h t c l u b D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t Images, Roles, and L i f e S t y l e s B o o r s t i n (1961) has documented th a t image i s very important i n American l i f e . H is essay, a h i s t o r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n , examines image i n r e l a t i o n t o the news, c e l e b r i t i e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and products. He describes an America c o n t r o l l e d by the u n r e a l r a t h e r than the r e a l . The new i d o l s are no longer heroes, but r a t h e r c e l e b r i t i e s , persons "known f o r t h e i r w e l l knowness". (p. 57) He argues t h a t a person, product, or c o r p o r a t i o n e x i s t s not as i t s e l f but 10 as what i t creates i t s e l f to be i n the public mind. Individuals are i d e n t i f i e d by a created image of themselves rather than actual personality t r a i t s . Boorstin's ideas suggest that the creation and maintenance of image i s an essential part of North American l i f e . In our context, his i n s i g h t s are s i g n i f i c a n t i n that they stress the importance of image. An important assumption of t h i s study i s that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s appearance and behavior at a nightclub i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of decisions regarding personal image. Goffman (1959) uses the technique of a t h e a t r i c a l performance to i l l u s t r a t e the ways i n which people attempt to mold the impressions of others. He notes that by gesture, appearance, and behaviour each person creates an image of what he wants to be i n order to est a b l i s h himself with some a c t i v i t y or s o c i a l group. Goffman quotes Simone de Beauvoir: Even i f each woman dresses i n conformity with her status, a game i s s t i l l being played: a r t i f i c e , l i k e a r t , belongs to the realm of the imaginary. I t i s not only that g i r d l e , brassiere, hair-dye, make-up disguise body and face; but that the least sophisticated of women, once she i s 'dressed*, does not present he r s e l f to observation; she i s , l i k e the picture or the statue, or the actor on the stage, an agent through whom i s suggested someone not there — that i s , the character she represents, but i s not. It i s t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with something unreal, f i x e d , perfect as the hero of.a novel, as a p o r t r a i t or a bust, that g r a t i f i e s her; she s t r i v e s to i d e n t i f y herself with t h i s figure and thus to seem to be s t a b i l i z e d , j u s t i f i e d i n her splendor, (p. 57) In a l a t e r work, Goffman (1967) discusses the s o c i a l aspects of entertainment. Nightclubs f i t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of direct p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Here "the i n d i v i d u a l brings i n t o -I -II himself the role of performer and the role of spectator; he i s the one who engages i n the action, yet he i s the one who i s unl i k e l y to be permanently a f f e c t e d by i t " . (Goffman, 1967, p. 198) Commercialized action o f f e r s the excitement of a large number of people r e v e l l i n g together but also the p o s s i b i l i t y of chance encounters developing in t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s . It i s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y which separates nightclub entertainment from other entertainment a c t i v i t i e s . Nightclubs are one of those special places "set aside f o r making out", (p.210) They o f f e r common ground f o r the development and extension of f l i r t a t i o n s and rel a t i o n s h i p s between the sexes. Goffman suggests that there are special behaviors and s o c i a l conventions to be observed at such places and he notes the appeal of dif f e r e n t locations to s p e c i f i c groups. In short, Goffman emphasizes the s o c i a l aspects of a c t i v i t i e s such as nightclubs and defines the par t i c i p a t o r y role of the c l i e n t i n the en t e r t ainment. Sociologist William Michelson has produced a body of l i t e r a t u r e on the l i f e style concept i n urban research. In regards to housing he argues that people "select themselves f o r d i f f e r e n t home environments according to accurate preconceptions of t h e i r s o c i a l class and l i f e s t y l e , rather than remedying weaknesses i n t h e i r o l d housing such as space". (1969b, p. 1) In a more complete work (1970) he notes that l i f e s t y l e refers not to p a r t i c u l a r s such as sty l e s of dress but rather to st y l e s of l i v i n g . L i f e s t y l e 12 i s the emphasis of certai n r o l e s . Of the numbers of a c t i v i t i e s i n which a person engages, each w i l l emphasize his image of himself or the r o l e which he wishes to play. Michelson notes that c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be more central to the demonstration of ro l e than others and that the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y w i l l be chosen on the basis of a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . These s t y l e s of l i v i n g influence the entire pattern of behavior. Choices w i l l be made which r e f l e c t the p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e . How the family i s organized i s a direct consequence of a l i f e s t y l e . While l i f e s t y l e i s a composite of those roles which a person chooses to emphasize c e r t a i n aspects can be seen as r e f l e c t i v e of the r o l e s . ; A combination of the ideas of Michelson and Goffman yields":the "role r e f l e c t i v e " concept. This idea suggests that i n s o c i a l situations the aim i s to present oneself i n a way which best r e f l e c t s a chosen role and to undertake t h i s presentation i n situations where one's image i s best r e f l e c t e d . For our purposes the "role r e f l e c t i v e " concept i s o l a t e s the choices a c l i e n t makes i n terms of appearance and behavior and views nightclub choice as an extension of the role choice. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of appearance and behavior are r e f l e c t i v e of se l f concept and ce r t a i n aspects of l i f e s t y l e . Elements of appearance include clothing, h a i r s t y l e , and decoration. Pop Sociology Some of the most i n t e r e s t i n g applications of appearance 13 and behavior as a t o o l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are found i n the area of pop s o c i o l o g y and pop j o u r n a l i s m . Perhaps the best pop s o c i o l o g y i s done by Tom Wolfe. I n a s e r i e s of f o u r books he examines v a r i o u s aspects of popular s o c i e t y . He describes and c a t e g o r i z e s the i n d i v i d u a l s who make up t h i s popular s o c i e t y i n terms of t h e i r c l o t h i n g , h a i r s t y l e s , and dancing s t y l e s . He describes the c l i e n t e l e i n a number of n i g h t c l u b s , i n c l u d i n g the Peppermint Lounge i n New York. A l l r i g h t g i r l s , i n t o your s t r e t c h n y l o n denims...! Next h o i s t up those bras, up t o the angle of a Nike m i s s i l e launcher. Then get i n t o the c a b l e - k n i t mohair sweaters, the ones t h a t f l u f f out l i k e a cat by a p r o j e c t h e a t i n g duct. And then u n r o l l the r o l l e r s and explode the h a i r a couple of f e e t up i n the a i r i n t o bouffants, beehives, and P a s s i a c pompadours. Stoke i n the black make-up a l l around the e y e l i d s , so t h a t t h e / eyes look as though Chester Gould, who does Dick Tracy, drew them on. And then put those p a t i e n t c u r l s i n your l i p s . . . . Besides the bouffant babies i n t h e i r s t r e t c h pants, f u r r y sweaters and Dick Tracy eyes, there would be the boys i n P r e s l e y , B i g Bopper, Tony C u r t i s and Chicago boxcar h a i r d o s . They would be steadying t h e i r h airdos i n the r e f l e c t i o n s i n the p l a t e g l a s s of c l o t h i n g s t o r e s on 42nd S t r e e t t h a t f e a t u r e d Nehru coats, Stingy-Brim h a t s , t a b -c o l l a r s h i r t s , and w i n k l e - p i c k e r e l f boots.... There would be the Jersey Teen-agers, every weekend, doing the Mashed Potatoes, the Puppet, and the Twist, s t u d y i n g each other's l e g s and f e e t through the e n t i r e number, never s m i l i n g , serious as always about form. (1965, pp. 42-44) This scene can be contrasted w i t h what Wolfe found i n London a few years l a t e r . ...and i n the gloaming t h e r e are about 250 boys and g i r l s , i n sexy kaks, you know, boys i n codpiece pants, the age of the codpiece pants, m i n i - s k i r t s , mesh s t o c k i n g s , h a l f - b r a s , t a i l o r e d mons v e n e r i s , Cardin coats, navel-deep button-downs, V i c t o r i a shoes, i n v e r t e d p l e a t s , major h a i r , major eyes -14 eyes! - eyes p a i n t e d up to here and down t o t h e r e , w i t h s i l v e r and g o l d beads j u s t set i n there l i k e Christmas b a l l s , set i n the f a l s e eyelashes - a l l of them bucking about, doing the Spasm, the Hump, the Marcel, the Two-backed Beast i n the blackness w h i l e a s t r a y l i g h t from somebody's beaded eye-lashes - .... (1968, pp. 78-79) Throughout h i s work Wolfe i s p r e s e n t i n g a concept of group membership based upon appearance and behavior i n a p r e c i s e s e t t i n g . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of crowds at other popular events, such as rock concerts, i s a common j o u r n a l i s t i c procedure. G i l b e r t (1971) r e p o r t s on the r e t u r n of 1950's rock and r o l l s t a r Gene Vincent t o B r i t a i n . He c h r o n i c l e s w i t h some amazement the appearance of the audience. / I n s i d e , you f e e l the time machine has burped and f l u n g you back 15 years.... I n front...500 Teds and rockers are l e a p i n g , stomping, and (ra r e t h i s f o r a rock show today) s m i l i n g . Two ' l e a t h e r s ' are a c t u a l l y doing the j i t t e r b u g — a dance I thought could only now be read about i n C e c i l Sharp House or glimpsed i n movies of the f o r t i e s . . . . Most of the audience have t h e i r best Ted gear on — the drape jacket's w i t h v e l v e t l a p e l s have been n e a t l y i r o n e d , the bootlace t i e s k n o t t e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n , the w i n k l e p i c k e r s p o l i s h e d , the h a i r c a r e f u l l y brushed forward.... I t seems th a t r o c k e r s , whether Teds or l e a t h e r s , are part of a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n , (p.263) G i l b e r t has witnessed the congregation of a s e l e c t group whose maintenance of c e r t a i n ' standards of appearance and behavior has transcended contemporary f a s h i o n s . C l o t h i n g One of the most important and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d elements of appearance i s c l o t h i n g . I n an e a r l y work on the subject Hurlock (1929) sees c l o t h i n g as the h i s t o r i c a l 1.5 d i f f e r e n t i a t o r of c l a s s and s t a t u s . She o f f e r s the example of the ancient Egyptians. While c l o t h i n g was un i f o r m l y a b e l t and apron, the r o y a l household was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the elaborateness of the embroidery on the apron. F l u g e l (1930) takes t h i s concept f u r t h e r by n o t i n g t h a t while bodies are always hidden, i t i s the manner and f a s h i o n i n which they are hidden that o f f e r s a f i r s t i m pression of a person. He sees c l o t h i n g as expressive of sex, occupation, n a t i o n a l i t y , and s o c i a l standing. P l u g e l a l s o deals e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h the p s y c h o - s o c i a l and sexual aspects of c l o t h i n g . Clothes become symbolic of c e r t a i n behavior p a t t e r n s . Langner (1959) discusses the "greaser" s t y l e of c l o t h i n g p o p u l a r i z e d by the b i r t h of rock and r o l l . The l e a t h e r j a c k e t , blue jeans, and d u c k - t a i l h a i r c u t a t t i r e became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j u v e n i l e delinquency, vandalism, and rowdyism i n the 1950's. High school p r i n c i p a l s f e l t t h a t p r o h i b i t i n g the wearing of such c l o t h i n g would r e s u l t i n a c o n t r o l of behavior. Ryan (1966) t a c k l e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l o t h i n g and the s e l f - c o n c e p t more r i g o r o u s l y than previous students. She separates the self-concept i n t o two p a r t s , the somatic s e l f and the s o c i a l s e l f . The somatic s e l f i s the pe r c e p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f . Through the use of c l o t h i n g these perceived l i m i t s can be extended. The success of t h i s extension i s measured by the s o c i a l s e l f 16 which i n t e r p r e t s the r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . Ryan discusses choices of c l o t h i n g which emphasize a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e , such as a nun's h a b i t or a woman pr o f e s s o r ' s s u i t . An i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e i n the self-concept i s p e r s o n a l i t y . S p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w i l l i n f l u e n c e the self-concept but i t appears that the wearing of p a r t i c u l a r types of c l o t h i n g i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t scores. Choices of c o l o r and f a b r i c , however, may be i n f l u e n c e d by p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . Horn (1968) expands upon t h i s argument, b r i n g i n g f u r t h e r evidence to bear which suggests the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cl o t h e s and s e l f - c o n c e p t . She summarizes: We have seen that the s e l f i s a c o n f i g u r a t i o n of (1) the c o g n i t i v e components of i n t e l l e c t , c h a racter t r a i t s , and v a r i o u s s u b - i d e n t i t i e s , (2) the a f f e c t i v e aspects, of f e e l i n g s and emotions about the s e l f which are conditioned by the s o c i a l environment, and (3) the somatic c o n s t i t u e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g r a t h e r f i x e d p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C l o t h i n g a f f e c t s a l l of these aspects of the s e l f and i s a powerful medium through which the s e l f i s presented to and p e r c e i v e d by s i g n i f i c a n t others i n the s o c i a l m i l i e u . I t i s only as the s e l f i s analyzed, as one develops a vocabulary f o r expressing f e e l i n g s about the s e l f , and as one b r i n g s values and a s p i r a t i o n s t o the conscious l e v e l of r e c o g n i t i o n , that r e s u l t i n g patterns of c l o t h i n g behavior can be m o d i f i e d or a l t e r e d t o a ' s t y l e o f > l i f e ' that w i l l achieve optimal s a t i s f a c t i o n and reward, (p. 107) Horn agrees w i t h Ryan (1966) that c e r t a i n c l o t h i n g s t y l e s are appropriate to emphasize d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and i d e n t i f y membership i n a s t a t u s or l i f e s t y l e group. . Enough has been s a i d t o demonstrate t h a t i t i s reasonable t o argue that people engage i n a v a r i e t y of r o l e 17 playing a c t i v i t i e s that i n aggregate constitute t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . Playing these roles involves creating or i d e n t i f y i n g with an image of the type appropriate to one ro l e ; part of the image creating process i s appropriate dress and mutual behavior i n ce r t a i n l o c a l e s . I f entertainment i s the a c t i v i t y , i n d i v i d u a l s play the role of audience or participant and attempt to create the appropriate image f o r these roles. Dress and behavior are e s p e c i a l l y important devices to assure i d e n t i t y i n these r o l e s , which i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the group as well as the a c t i v i t y . One aim of t h i s thesis i s then to develop a method to categorize both appearance and behavior of nightclub c l i e n t e l e / i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the clubs and to understand l o c a t i o n a l differences of nightclubs. Observation of Vancouver Nightclubs Many of the situ a t i o n s described by the pop s o c i o l o g i s t s have been witnessed by t h i s author. The concept of t h i s thesis i n f a c t developed from my experiences as a member of a Vancouver rock and r o l l band. Over a period of f i v e years t h i s band was employed at many dances and nightclubs i n the Vancouver area. The stage provides a unique observation post. Over the years c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of appearance and behavior could be i d e n t i f i e d with p a r t i c u l a r groups and loca t i o n s . Awareness of t h i s allowed the band to provide the type of entertainment desired i n s p e c i f i c nightclubs. The music and performance could be t a i l o r e d to meet the wants of the p a r t i c u l a r group. With increased experience decisions could be made before the actual performance on the basis of expected c l i e n t e l e . My t r a i n i n g as a geographer also made me se n s i t i v e to other differences between the c l u b s — l o c a t i o n a l differences. The most obvious difference v/as i n the type of c l i e n t e l e attracted to clubs i n core and non-core locations. I t appeared that the core nightclub attracted an older, more business oriented group while the non-core locations had a younger student c l i e n t e l e . With f u r t h e r observation i t was discovered that t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was too simple. It appeared that each club attracted a s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e on the basis of some group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Patrons who did not " f i t " with a p a r t i c u l a r group were uncommon. There was a homogeneity i n the c l i e n t e l e within a club and also subtle r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the l o c a t i o n of nightclubs, as i d e n t i f i e d by the c l i e n t e l e they were attracting,. 19 CHAPTER I I I NIGHTCLUBS IN VANCOUVER The modern era of n i g h t c l u b a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver can be dated from the opening of the Cave Cabaret on December 16, 1938. The Vancouver Province described the expected s i t u a t i o n . Vancouver's smart set w i l l 'go underground' t h i s evening, when t o the s t r a i n s of E a r l H i l l ' s o r c h e s t r a , the Cave Cabaret opens i n Vancouver at 9 o'clock. Opening night v i s i t o r s w i l l step i n t o a r e a l i s t i c r e p l i c a of a cavern, complete w i t h s t a l a c t i t e s , subdued l i g h t i n g and p i r a t e t r e a s u r e . They w i l l dance on a gleaming f l o o r constructed according to the most s c i e n t i f i c methods, and a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g s t a t e d t o be unique i n Vancouver entertainment spots w i l l ensure t h e i r comfort...the i n t e r i o r and f u r n i s h i n g s represent an investment of approximately $40,000.... The s p e c i a l l y constructed s p r i n g f l o o r . . . i s amply l a r g e . . . t o accommodate the crowds which w i l l f l o c k to the new rendezvous, (p. 17) In October, 1971, the t h i r t y - t h r e e year o l d business was s o l d f o r a sum i n excess of $100,000. The new owner was the p r o p r i e t o r of O i l Can Harry's Complex, a dance o r i e n t e d rock and r o l l n i g h t s p o t . T h i s change of ownership was quite s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s t h i r t y - t h r e e year p e r i o d was one of major development i n the Vancouver n i g h t c l u b market. The type of establishment now under study can be b e t t e r understood through a p p r a i s a l of the development of the l o c a l n i g h t c l u b i n d u s t r y . A u s e f u l source of data i s the f i l e s of the two Vancouver d a i l y papers. The f i l e s c o n s i s t of news s t o r i e s , i n t e r v i e w s , and columnist o p i n i o n . I t i s important t o note that much of the m a t e r i a l used here 20 i s based on o p i n i o n and r e c o l l e c t i o n and thus i s more g e n e r a l l y than p r e c i s e l y f a c t u a l . Such m a t e r i a l however allows us t o examine the a t t i t u d e s h e l d by both n i g h t c l u b operators and entertainment r e p o r t e r s tov/ards n i g h t c l u b a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver. Nightclubs and L i q u o r Success of a n i g h t c l u b i n Vancouver has been commensurate wi t h the possession of a l i c e n c e t o s e l l l i q u o r . The controversy over the consumption of l i q u o r i n n i g h t c l u b s has been a subject of l o n g d i s c u s s i o n . At the time of the Gave opening, n e i t h e r cabarets nor n i g h t c l u b s were supposed to permit consumption of l i q u o r on the premises. However, mixer was s o l d and c l i e n t s brought t h e i r l i q u o r b o t t l e s to the clubs i n brown bags and placed them under the t a b l e . The cabarets were thus known as " b o t t l e c l u b s " . The P r o v i n c e reported i n 1939 that the cabaret owners had a p p l i e d f o r an extension of the hours of business beyond the midnight Saturday c l o s u r e r e q u i r e d by the Lord's Day Act. I t was revealed t h a t by a t a c i t agreement an hours grace v/as allowed and i t was the i n t e n t i o n of the cabarets to press f o r l e g a l i z a t i o n of t h i s one o'clock c l o s u r e . C i t y C o u n c i l appeared ready t o go even f u r t h e r and extend hours of business t o two o'clock, u s i n g the argument t h a t i f cabaret doors were c l o s e d the patrons would seek t h e i r entertainment by p a t r o n i z i n g bootleggers. The Province v/as not swayed by t h i s l i n e of reasoning and urged c i t y 21 c o u n c i l to r e j e c t the appeal as " i n p e r m i t t i n g l i q u o r t o be consumed on the premises the cabarets are i n no p o s i t i o n to frown on bootleggers and bootl e g g i n g " . ( P r o v i n c e , June 9, 1939, p. 4) The i n f l u e n c e of cabaret owners seemed to have waned by 1945 when the a p p l i c a t i o n by Mr. Hy Singer to open a the a t r e restaurant i n Vancouver's Chinatown became the subject of controversy. Mr. Singer withdrew h i s a p p l i c a t i o n to the c i t y l i c e n c e committee a f t e r o p p o s i t i o n from the B.C. Temperance League and the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union. The debate had become a p e r s o n a l i t y contest and C i t y C o u n c i l , i n an e f f o r t t o c l e a r Mr. Singer's personal r e p u t a t i o n , endorsed an alderman's statement t h a t "Mr. Singer i s a s u b s t a n t i a l c i t i z e n h o l d i n g property i n the c i t y " . (Sun, August 7, 1945, p.11) In 1954 the cabaret owners succeeded i n g e t t i n g a p l e b i c i t e on the sale of l i q u o r by the g l a s s . The measure was passed but subsequently only two n i g h t c l u b s , the Cave and I s y ' s , r e c e i v e d the appropriate l i c e n c e . The n i g h t c l u b owners formed an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1959 t o campaign f o r more l i c e n c e s . I t was not, however, u n t i l 1965 that more l i c e n c e s were i s s u e d . The Johann Strauss on Howe Street was the f i r s t club without a f l o o r show t o r e c e i v e a l i c e n c e . T h i s a c t i o n v/as f o l l o w e d by the issuance of f o u r more l i c e n c e s but t h i s created another set of problems. Only seven of the between f o r t y and f i f t y n i g h t c l u b s i n Vancouver 22 had l i q u o r l i c e n c e s , w h i l e the r e s t remained b o t t l e c l u b s . George V i c k e r s , owner of the L i v i n g Room, described the d i f f i c u l t y . When you have a b o t t l e c l u b a l l you do i s s e l l s e ats. People don't care what type of entertainment you have, i f a n y . . . a l l they want i s a place t o s i t and d r i n k from t h e i r b o t t l e . . . t h e i r own b o t t l e . (Sun, September 9, 1966, p. 20A) V i c k e r s went on t o note that a l i q u o r l i c e n c e r e q u i r e s t h a t the n i g h t c l u b owner set a cover charge of at l e a s t one d o l l a r and p r i c e the d r i n k s according t o government g u i d e l i n e s . He al s o emphasized the d i f f e r e n c e between b o t t l e c l u b s and those w i t h l i q u o r l i c e n c e s — the former s e l l s only seats while the l a t t e r must s e l l a show. I n the l a t e 1960's most of the n i g h t c l u b s r e c e i v e d l i q u o r l i c e n c e s a f t e r r e v i s i o n s to the Government L i q u o r Act. The l i q u o r l i c e n c e i s now almost e s s e n t i a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l operation. The r e g u l a t i o n s are s t r i c t l y enforced and a l l o w the attorney-general of the province to c o n t r o l the k i n d of entertainment provided. There has been a c o n f l i c t between the cabaret owners and the B.C. Hotels A s s o c i a t i o n on the l i q u o r i s s u e . Under the Government L i q u o r Act only a h o t e l i s permitted to s e l l d r a f t beer and w i t h the extension of beer p a r l o u r hours of s a l e i n a recent r e v i s i o n , the "second show" business at many n i g h t c l u b s has been h u r t . (Province, October 22, 1971, " S p o t l i g h t " , p.3) Major n i g h t c l u b s i n Vancouver have had a "two show" 23 t r a d i t i o n . Because the Government Liquor Act required that f u l l course meals be available to the customers, nightclubs were often known as "supper clubs". This r e s t r i c t i o n allowed the sale of l i q u o r by perpetrating the f i c t i o n of l i q u o r as a dinner supplement. In order to f u l f i l l the required restaurant function the major nightclubs o f f e r r e d a dinner show and a l a t e r show. This "second show" took place a f t e r the c l o s i n g of beer parlours and licensed lounges making the clubs the only f a c i l i t y at which drinks could be l e g a l l y obtained. The second show was e s s e n t i a l to the economic success of the major clubs. The current dispute with the government over t o t a l l y nude performances has also involved the Government Liquor Act. Before we examine t h i s controversy i t would be useful to look at the t o t a l market and some of i t s trends and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Show Clubs As i n most North American c i t i e s Vancouver's "respectable" nightclubs developed from a marrying of two types of entertainment, vaudeville and the speakeasy. Vancouver's two "name act" clubs, the Cave and Isy's, had i n t e r n a t i o n a l reputations as f i r s t class nightspots a t t r a c t i n g the best entertainers. Both clubs were sold i n 1971 by t h e i r owners who had been i n the business f o r oyer twenty-five years. The story of these two clubs i s a major theme i n the history of Vancouver's nightclub 24 market. A t h i r d c l u b , the Palomar, h e l d an important p o s i t i o n before 1950. The Cave opened i n 1938 as a dance club and v/ithout a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . Over the next t e n years i t evolved i n t o a major n i g h t c l u b o f f e r i n g name entertainment. During t h i s t e n year p e r i o d the major competition was between the Cave and the Palomar Ballroom. The Palomar had been opened i n 1937 by Hy Singer and a partner and was a d v e r t i s e d as the "world's most b e a u t i f u l ballroom". (Sun, A p r i l 14, 1955, p.9) Singer, who l a t e r became a dog food manufacturer i n l o s Angeles, a p p l i e d f o r a cabaret l i c e n c e i n 1938. H i s a p p l i c a t i o n was s t i f f l y opposed by church groups but was e v e n t u a l l y granted. ( P r o v i n c e , November 1, 1938, p.5) The cabaret l i c e n c e allowed Singer t o provide t a b l e s and c h a i r s i n a d d i t i o n t o dance entertainment and the Palomar became a " b o t t l e c l u b " . Yvonne De C a r l o , l a t e r a Hollywood movie s t a r , was part of the chorus i n the l a t e 1930's. The club was kept a l i v e f o r a time by crap games and other a c t i v i t i e s , some bordering on e x t o r t i o n , but attempts to keep the c l u b f a i l e d and the Palomar was f o r c e d t o c l o s e . I n e a r l y 1940 the c l u b was purchased by Sandy DeSantis, a trumpet p l a y e r , who had made a name as a l o c a l band l e a d e r . DeSantis h i r e d the M i l l s B r o t h e r s and began a very s u c c e s s f u l p e r i o d of oper a t i o n which l a s t e d u n t i l a f t e r the war. (Sun, A p r i l 14, 1955, p.9) I n 1948, 25 DeSantis began h i r i n g " b i g name" a c t s such as L o u i s Armstrong and B i l l i e H o l l i d a y i n an e f f o r t t o compete w i t h the Cave. This p o l i c y , however, f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t customers due t o a heavy w i n t e r snow and the summer f l o o d i n g of the E r a s e r R i v e r . A f t e r 1948, business never again reached the l e v e l of the war years. Income t a x and s a l e s t a x evasion charges and r o b b e r i e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e of the c l u b . The Palomar was demolished i n 1955 to make way f o r the B u r r a r d B u i l d i n g . The Cave was s o l d twice i n 1951, f i r s t t o an American syndicate and l a t e r t o I s y Walters, a n a t i v e of Vancouver. Isy again began the p o l i c y of b r i n g i n g i n major s t a r s such as Sophie Tucker, the M i l l s Brothers, and the Ames B r o t h e r s . He s o l d the Cave i n 1959 and attempted to get back i n t o v a u d e v i l l e at the o l d Pantages Theatre but met w i t h f i n a n c i a l d i s a s t e r . S i x months a f t e r Isy s o l d the Cave i t was purchased by Ken S t a u f f e r and Bob M i t t e n who had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i v a t e A r c t i c Club. These gentlemen maintained the p o l i c y of b r i n g i n g i n major s t a r s and i n 1962 began b r i n g i n g i n s u p e r s t a r s , beginning w i t h Lena Home. A f t e r h i s f a i l u r e to b r i n g back v a u d e v i l l e I s y Walters opened I s y ' s Supper Club o f f e r i n g major acts i n a smaller and more i n t i m a t e s e t t i n g than the Cave. U n l i k e the Cave, I s y ' s d i d not present superstar performers such as Louis Armstrong or The Supremes but i n s t e a d presented major a c t s such as E a r l Grant and Las Vegas s t y l e " g i r l i e " 2 6 shows. Due to a number of f a c t o r s , these clubs began to l o s e money i n the l a t e 1960's. In a column i n the Vancouver  Sun Jack Wasserman analysed the s i t u a t i o n . The Cave i s one of the l a s t s t r a i g h t n i g h t c l u b s to play major 'names'. Almost without exception the only major league saloons l e f t i n North America have been connected w i t h s l o t machines or r e s o r t business. High p r i c e s f o r s t a r s and changing entertainment t a s t e s k i l l e d the 'big-name' n i g h t c l u b business s e v e r a l years ago but i t l i n g e r e d on i n Vancouver by v i r t u e of both t r a d i t i o n and anomolous l i q u o r laws. When the L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board, on one of i t s r e g u l a r rescue e x p e d i t i o n s , extended the hours of s a l e f o r the B.C. Hotel A s s o c i a t i o n , i t e f f e c t i v e l y k i l l e d the o l d s t y l e n i g h t c l u b t r a d e . Por many years both the Cave and Isy's brought i n expensive entertainment and made the 'gravy' on second shows when customers from the h o t e l s were put out on the s t r e e t at 11:30 p.m. and were f o r c e d i n t o the n i g h t c l u b s i f they wished t o continue the p a r t i e s . A year ago the LCB extended the hours f o r the h o t e l bars and pubs. That enabled the hotelmen who, v/ith very few exceptions perform no s e r v i c e other than p r o v i d i n g booze, to keep t h e i r customers around u n t i l 1 a.m. That i n t u r n reduced audiences a v a i l a b l e f o r second shov/s. I s y Walters got the message immediately. A f t e r a couple of d i s a s t e r s he switched t o s t r i p p e r s very s u c c e s s f u l l y . Ken S t a u f f e r t r i e d to keep the 'name' p o l i c y going a l i t t l e l onger. I t was too much of a s t r u g g l e . (Sun, October 12, 1971, p.39) Another establishment which h a 3 been long i n v o l v e d w i t h the Vancouver n i g h t c l u b scene i s the Marco P o l o , f o r m e r l y the Mandarin Gardens. I n the l a t e 1960's the c l u b booked major e n t e r t a i n e r s such as the P i f t h Dimension but t h i s p o l i c y was abandoned due to the same pressures which f o r c e d changes at the Cave and I s y ' s . The Marco Polo i s now only a part time n i g h t c l u b , o f f e r i n g entertainment only when good a c t s become a v a i l a b l e at a reasonable p r i c e . 27 Owner Alex Louie commented: I l i k e the entertainment business, but i t almost k i l l e d us. Now i f the a c t s come t o me, and they have a b i g enough name and a small enough p r i c e , I'm i n the n i g h t c l u b business. Otherwise we s e l l the smorgasbord and close up e a r l y . I t ' s t r u e t h a t on these e a r l y n i g h t s I might wind up p l a y i n g mah jong and lose a l i t t l e money, but not anything l i k e what I'd l o s e t r y i n g to be i n the n i g h t c l u b business 52 weeks a y e a r . (Sun, February 1, 1972, p.25) Two other f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e of show c l u b s . The f i r s t was the i n c r e a s e d cost of purchasing a c t s and the second was the e s c a l a t i n g cost of musicians* s e r v i c e s t o support these a c t s . ( P r o v i n c e , October 22, 1971, p.3) One of the other reasons g i v e n was the advent of a l a r g e number of b i g name v a r i e t y shows o n ' t e l e v i s i o n . -(Province, J u l y 3, 1970, " S p o t l i g h t " , p.21) The p r o s p e c t i v e patron could see Dean M a r t i n or B i l l Cosby f o r f r e e at home r a t h e r than paying nine d o l l a r s per couple plus l i q u o r and parking c o s t s at a n i g h t c l u b . I n the same a r t i c l e the w r i t e r voices an o f t e n heard o p i n i o n t h a t "the average Joe i s almost always seated i n a bad p l a c e because he can't a f f o r d t o t i p the maitre d'n. A response t o these l a t t e r f a c t o r s was the r e t u r n to the dance n i g h t c l u b s . Rock and R o l l and Dance Nightclubs Weekend dance clubs have been around Vancouver f o r y e a r s , o f f e r i n g the current dance s t y l e s . They v a r i e d from the Commodore, a " b i g band" G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t cabaret, t o v a r i o u s "ballrooms". A l l were b o t t l e clubs and s e v e r a l had a h i s t o r y of p o l i c e involvements dating back f o r t y years. 28 Most were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i q u o r law i n f r a c t i o n s , but some, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Main S t r e e t area, had c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. Por t h i s a n a l y s i s t h i s h i s t o r y i s of only passing i n t e r e s t because the issuance of l i q u o r l i c e n c e s and the s h i f t i n dancing s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h rock and r o l l c r eated a new universe of clubs o p e r a t i n g under new r e g u l a t i o n s . The c l u b which s t a r t e d the movement towards rock and r o l l n i g h t c l u b s v/as O i l Can Harry's. Although not the f i r s t club of t h i s type i t was the most immediately s u c c e s s f u l and r e c e i v e d a great deal of p u b l i c i t y . The c l u b was e s t a b l i s h e d i n a former S a l v a t i o n Army headquarters on the edge of both the h o t e l d i s t r i c t and Vancouver's West End, a densely populated h i g h r i s e apartment d i s t r i c t . The club •  catered to the young "go-go" crowd and o r i g i n a l l y d i d not have a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . Prom the o r i g i n a l 250 seats the club has been expanded to three separate rooms w i t h a t o t a l of 1200 seats. (Province, December 10, 1971, " S p o t l i g h t " , p£7) Another uptown club i s the Johann Strauss. I t was opened by two European immigrants who expanded from an e t h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d cafe they had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n c e j u s t a f t e r World War I I . They had a very s u c c e s s f u l business u n t i l t h e i r o r i g i n a l c l i e n t e l e married and began r a i s i n g f a m i l i e s . (Sun, J u l y .14, 1971, p.39) With the advent of the rock and r o l l n i g h t c l u b , competition was keen and the owners were not s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g new customers. The club was s o l d to American i n t e r e s t s who converted the 29 operation to nude dancing. The r e p u t a b i l i t y of the new owners was questioned and provoked the p r o v i n c i a l government to revoke the l i q u o r l i c e n c e and f o r c e a s a l e . The club was purchased by tv/o men w i t h a background s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the o r i g i n a l owners. I t was t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to have a p o l i c y s i m i l a r to the o r i g i n a l , but w i t h a more contemporary accent. Another s u c c e s s f u l club i s the Town Pump i n G-astown. The Town Pump i s a f a m i l y o r i e n t e d r e s t a u r a n t - n i g h t c l u b o f f e r i n g honky tonk piano, good but inexpensive food, and a low key rock and r o l l band. The owner of t h i s c l u b , Ruben Kopp, was once a bartender w i t h one of the new owners of the Johann Strauss. Both moved from the bar t o the restaurant business to the n i g h t c l u b business and t h e i r n i g h t c l u b s r e f l e c t t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n . ' One of the newest and most popular n i g h t s p o t s i s the Body Shop l o c a t e d near Vancouver's court house. The b r i e f h i s t o r y of t h i s c l u b i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r laws on n i g h t c l u b s . When-.first opened the club o f f e r e d rock and r o l l dance entertainment i n a s e t t i n g of an automotive body shop. Business d i f f i c u l t i e s were so serious that the club was open only on weekends. In an e f f o r t t o a t t r a c t l a r g e r crowds the owner m o d i f i e d the*decor, i n s t a l l e d a very popular rock and r o l l group, and began s e r v i n g f o u r b o t t l e s of beer i n a p i t c h e r . (Sun, February 1, 1971, p.25) l i q u o r laws i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e s t r i c t the s a l e of d r a f t beer t o h o t e l s only, and the i m i t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y , 30 along w i t h the other changes, had the d e s i r e d e f f e c t and the club has become one of the most popular i n Vancouver. Nude Entertainment A number of clubs which opened w i t h a " r e s p e c t a b l e " entertainment p o l i c y have been f o r c e d , i n an e f f o r t to a t t r a c t customers, i n t o a p o l i c y of nude entertainment. One of these clubs i s the Factory, which opened i n 1968 as an i n t i m a t e , "easy l i s t e n i n g " c l u b . ( P r o v i n c e , August 2, 1968, " S p o t l i g h t " , p.9) I n e a r l y 1972 the F a c t o r y , along w i t h other c l u b s , v/as i n v o l v e d i n a controversy w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l . The subject of c o n t e n t i o n was nude dancing, e s p e c i a l l y bottomless performances. I n the summer of 1970 the a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , through the L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board, began a campaign against n u d i t y . ( P r o v i n c e , September 1, 1970, p.1) Bottomless dancing had not yet a r r i v e d i n Vancouver but many n i g h t c l u b s were opening at noon f o r what were termed t o p l e s s lunches. The order was s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d against the use of t o p l e s s w a i t r e s s e s . During e a r l y 1971 noon hour entertainment became bottomless and g r a d u a l l y took over from other forms of n i g h t l y entertainment. 1 One of the c l u b s , the Club Zanzibar, began w i t h t o p l e s s dancing and went on to promote more unusual forms of nude . entertainment such as t o p l e s s w r e s t l i n g and nude r o l l e r -s k a t i n g . M a r t i n Roitman, owner of the Club Z a n z i b a r , commented: 31 The w r e s t l i n g when i t f i r s t a r r i v e d , i t was sort of l i k e a summit. The audience v/as e n t h u s i a s t i c . Go get 1 em, t i g e r . As long as the g i r l s r e t a i n e d t h e i r enthusiasm we f o r g o t the q u a l i t y and went f o r q u a n t i t y . Just f i l l the r i n g with (breasts) and hope f o r the best.... The c l i e n t e l e ? Lunch -l o t s of w h i t e - c o l l a r businessmen, ' Wight - l o t s of w h i t e - c o l l a r and l o t s of rounders - from the Blackstone and the A u s t i n . L o t s of l o g g e r s . We've been very l u c k y . L o t s of rounders, l o t s of b i g spenders. Super-pimps. L e t ' s say ' s u c c e s s f u l ' s o l i c i t o r s ! L o t s of guys j u s t l o o k i n g f o r broads. (Sun, November 10, 1971, p.43) This p a r t i c u l a r c l u b had drawn a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f and the e n t i r e bottomless market one week before t h i s s t o r y appeared. The club was the scene of a b i z a r r e murder where a man was shot during the r o l l of drums at the f i n a l e of the f l o o r show. (Sun, November 9, 1971, p.2) As v i o l e n t crimes of t h i s nature are not common i n Vancouver the act served t o b r i n g a c t i v i t i e s at t h i s club and others l i k e i t even more i n t o the p u b l i c view. Another event served t o focus p u b l i c awareness. I t was the attempt by an American crime syndicate to take over two c l u b s . The L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board revoked or prevented the t r a n s f e r of the l i q u o r - l i c e n c e s of the e s t a b l i s h -ments as the owners were not r e g i s t e r e d t o vote i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a requirement of the Government L i q u o r A c t . (Sun, February 5, 1972, p.31) I t appears as i f the a c t i o n against nude n i g h t c l u b s was a r e s u l t of p u b l i c awareness r a t h e r than a preconceived p l a n by the a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l . H i s campaign v/as provoked by the i n q u i r i e s of a r a d i o nev/s r e p o r t e r . Unable t o defend or approve of bottomless dancing, 32 given h i s previous p u b l i c p o s i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y , the attorney-general suggested t h a t a c t i o n against t h i s n u d i t y would be forthcoming. ( P r o v i n c e , January 4, 1972, p.23). Jack Wasserman commented: As I mentioned e a r l i e r i t appears t h a t the aygee (attorney-general) was trapped i n a r i d i c u l o u s a n t i - n u d i t y posture. But he couldn't admit that i t was a l l going on w i t h the i n f e r r e d b l e s s i n g of h i s own department. So we were then launched i n t o t h i s p a t e n t l y fake campaign which l e d to a squad of able bodied policemen rushing about i n the words of Don Bellamy (head of the Canadian Restaurant A s s o c i a t i o n to- which many n i g h t c l u b s belong) 'snapping more p i c t u r e s than Japanese t o u r i s t s ' . (Sun, February 5, 1972, p.31) A number of club s which were members of the, Canadian Restaurant A s s o c i a t i o n became very concerned about p o t e n t i a l government a c t i o n and u n i l a t e r a l l y decided t o e l i m i n a t e bottomless dancing i n t h e i r c l u b s . Each of the seven clubs posted a $500 bond t o back up the agreement. (Sun, January 29, 1972, p.30) This a c t i o n l e f t only one t r u e bottomless. club i n the c i t y , the Cafe Kobenhavn. ..The Kobenhavn d i d not possess a l i q u o r l i c e n c e and thus was immune to a c t i o n through the L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board. The clu b had been f i n e d i n 1971 f o r p e r m i t t i n g obscene performances by two s i x t e e n year o l d g i r l s . (Province, J u l y 15, 1971, p.13) M a r t i n Roitman, owner of the Club Zanaibar, one of the clubs which had posted a bond, f e l t t hat the p o l i c e would concentrate on the Cafe Kobenhavn as i t d i d not, without•a l i q u o r l i c e n c e , have other forms of entertainment to f a l l back on. He commented f u r t h e r : "Talcing n u d i t y away from them would be l i k e t a k i n g hamburgers away from McDonalds". (Sun, 33 January 29, 1972, p.30) Summary We can summarize the previous d i s c u s s i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g three phases of n i g h t c l u b a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver: 1938-1954, the era of the " b o t t l e " c l u b s ; 1954-1965, when l i q u o r l i c e n c e s were more numerous and entertainment v/as of the "name" f l o o r show v a r i e t y ; and 1965 t o the present, when l i q u o r l i c e n c e s are widely a v a i l a b l e and rock and r o l l ( o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h nude performances) i s the usual entertainment. There are now v a r i o u s club types i n Vancouver which have developed from d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . I n terms of nude entertainment there i s a bottomless c l u b , a number of t o p l e s s c l u b s , and a s t r i p t e a s e c l u b . There are a few clubs o f f e r i n g f l o o r shows i n an a u d i e n c e - e n t e r t a i n e r s e t t i n g and a number combining t h e i r operation w i t h a r e s t a u r a n t . Dance n i g h t c l u b s o f f e r rock and r o l l entertainment i n v a r i o u s forms and what co u l d be termed pop music. The clubs are obviously d i f f e r e n t i n vast or s u b t l e ways. They may be marketing a g e n e r i c a l l y s i m i l a r product but the v a r i a t i o n s of product, atmosphere, and l o c a t i o n serve t o a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e . The clubs s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s are described i n Appendix A i n terms of some of the above f a c t o r s . A d i s c u s s i o n of how the n i g h t c l u b sample was drawn i s presented i n Chapter Four. The clubs are not c l a s s i f i e d i n the appendix since i t i s one objective of the study to group them on the basis of customer types and consequently by l o c a t i o n i 35 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH D E S I G N I can t e l l t hat you're a logger, And not j u s t a common bum 'Cause nobody but a lo g g e r S t i r s h i s c o f f e e w i t h h i s thumb. Prom the song "My Lover Was a Logger" (Webb et a l , 1965) This chapter deals w i t h the question of how one measures c l i e t e l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n so as t o i n t u r n c l a s s i f y n i g h t c l u b s . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter Two there i s good evidence that a person's s e l f image becomes manifest i n c l o t h i n g and behavior, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the person dresses f o r an occasion. S p e c i f i c appearance and b e h a v i o r a l data must be c o d i f i e d t o measure v a r i a t i o n s and develop a c l i e n t typology. Types of Measurement I t i s hypothesized that the c l i e n t e l e vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y between n i g h t c l u b s . They probably vary i n terms of place of residence and s o c i a l c l a s s as w e l l as appearance and behavior i f they f o l l o w g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s developed i n other s t u d i e s of r e t a i l l o c a t i o n . Since most s t u d i e s of c l i e n t e l e have used only simple observation a more r i g o r o u s l y d e f i n e d mode of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e . A number of techniques were examined. Several methods could be a p p l i e d : d i r e c t q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , i n t e r v i e w , unobtrusive measures, d i r e c t s u b j e c t i v e 36 observation. Each has l i m i t a t i o n s ; however an unobtrusive  measure was chosen as the major measurement technique. To j u s t i f y t h i s choice the d e f i c i e n c i e s of a l t e r n a t e approaches can q u i c k l y be reviewed. Questionnaire - Leigh's (1965) study provides a good example of a questionnaire technique being a p p l i e d i n a l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . One phase of that study attempted the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of customer, t r a v e l and purchase behavior. Short q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were l e f t w i t h merchants t o be d i s t r i b u t e d to the customer. Many merchants, however, were u n w i l l i n g to co-operate i n the e f f o r t and of those that d i d some d i s t r i b u t e d the cards i n c o r r e c t l y . The r e t u r n was poor and even i n those cases where c o r r e c t procedures were f o l l o w e d , merchants f o r g o t t o hand out the cards due t o an u n w i l l i n g n e s s or embarrassment about the p r o j e c t . I n t h i s study n i g h t c l u b owner co-operation- would be e s s e n t i a l i n conducting a s i m i l a r card-questionnaire survey at the establishments. I n my judgement, the operators of n i g h t c l u b s are very u n l i k e l y to co-operate and so t h i s option was abandoned. Al s o important i s that q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r the f a c t and depend upon r e c a l l f o r i n f o r m a t i o n — a n u n r e l i a b l e s i t u a t i o n . In an e a r l i e r study by t h i s author the a t t i t u d e s of n i g h t c l u b patrons were t e s t e d but i n non-nightclub l o c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s were encouraging but a number of problems w i t h procedure.were discovered. I n r e c a l l i n g past experiences 37 v a r i o u s n i g h t c l u b s tended to meld together i n the i n t e r v i e w e r s mind when the s t i m u l i were not present. Passing out questionnaires i n clubs was considered, p a r a l l e l i n g i n - s t o r e research, common to shopping centre l i t e r a t u r e . I t v/as f e l t that the n i g h t c l u b c l i e n t would be d i f f i c u l t t o approach as the i n t e r v i e w e r would be i n t r u d i n g on the experience. The n i g h t c l u b , o f f e r i n g an e x p e r i e n t i a l purchase, would appear to r e q u i r e more d e l i c a c y than would normally be r e q u i r e d when conducting an i n t e r v i e w . Interview - In a d d i t i o n t o problems of securing owner and c l i e n t co-operation problems could a r i s e w i t h the r e a c t i o n of the respondent. S e l l i t z et a l ( 1 9 5 9 ) have noted a "guinea p i g e f f e c t " where the subjects f e e l they are being t e s t e d and must make a good impression. Kahn and Cannell (1957) have discussed the i n f l u e n c e of background f a c t o r s on i n t e r a c t i o n . They c i t e f i n d i n g s by Hyman which show that Negro and white i n t e r v i e w e r s obtained d i f f e r e n t responses on questions of r a c i a l problems. This problem i s termed the " r e a c t i v e measurement e f f e c t " by Webb et a l (1966) and has.posed s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v a l i d i t y . Since we would be attempting to measure c l i e n t self-image and behavior the r e a c t i v e measurement e f f e c t would enter s t r o n g l y . Kahn and Connell present a model of b i a s which i s based on the assumptions t h a t : 1.) the i n t e r v i e w i s an i n t e r a c t i v e process i n which the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , 38 and behaviors of both p r i n c i p a l s are imp.oirtant determinants of the product; 2.) i n t e r v i e w e r and respondent are p e r c e i v i n g and r e a c t i n g to the observable background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i c behaviors of each other. The problems inherent i n conducting an i n t e r v i e w i n a " l i v e " s i t u a t i o n as would be the case i n a n i g h t c l u b poses d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s . I f i t were p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n both management and c l i e n t co-operation the v a r i a t i o n s i n l i f e s t y l e and s o c i a l c l a s s over the universe of c l i e n t s would n e c e s s i t a t e a very h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n t e r v i e w technique. Given a possible' i n t e r v i e w e r pool of undergraduate students, the problem of age and a u t h o r i t y as discussed by E h r l i c h and P a e s m a n (1961) would be d i f f i c u l t t o overcome. I n a study of adolescent g i r l s they discovered that the number of acceptable responses d e c l i n e d as the age of the i n t e r v i e w e r d e c l i n e d . While the problem f o r t h i s study may be seen as a reverse s i t u a t i o n , -the d i f f i c u l t i e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a u t h o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y at s t r i p c l u b s , would be almost insurmountable. I t was concluded that the type of measurement which i s most appropriate f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l a r g e number of c l i e n t s over a l l n i g h t -clubs would be one which i s unobtrusive and n o n r e a c t i v e . Unobtrusive Measures Unobtrusive measures are systematic methods of i n v e s t i g a t i n g a problem without the use of i n t e r v i e w or 39 q u e s t i o n n a i r e . They are non r e a c t i v e i n that there i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between the subject and i n v e s t i g a t o r . A major review of l i t e r a t u r e i s found i n the volume Unobtrusive  Measures: Nonreactive Research i n the S o c i a l Sciences by Webb, Campbell, Schwartz, and Sechrest (1965). One of the e a r l i e s t and most i n n o v a t i v e users of unobtrusive measures was S i r F r a n c i s Galton (1822 - 1911). Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin, an A f r i c a n e x p l o r e r , and the dis c o v e r e r of the cyclone - a n t i c y c l o n e s t r u c t u r e i n meteorology ( C a t t e l l , 1965, p.20). He was an astute student of human nature and together w i t h K a r l Pearson invented the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Many o f / h i s w r i t i n g s were concerned w i t h human behavior and the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l methods to a n a l y s i s of p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . , There are two p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g examples of the a p p l i c a t i o n of unobtrusive measures i n Galton's w r i t i n g s . In a l e t t e r t o Darwin i n 1851 he shows h i s innovativeness and humor: T a l k i n g of back bones, as I have j u s t l e f t the l a n d of the H o t t e n t o t s , I am sure that you w i l l be curious to l e a r n whether the Hottentot bodies are r e a l l y endowed w i t h that shape which European m i l l i n e r s so v a i n l y attempt t o i m i t a t e . . . . I have seen f i g u r e s t h a t would d r i v e the females of our n a t i v e l a n d desparate — f i g u r e s that could a f f o r d to s c o f f at c r i n o l i n e , nay more, as a s c i e n t i f i c man and as a l o v e r of the b e a u t i f u l I have dexterously even without the knowledge of the p a r t i e s concerned, r e s o r t e d to a c t u a l measure-ment. Had I been p r o f i c i e n t i n the language, I should have advanced and bowed and smiled l i k e Goldney, I should have explained the dress of the l a d i e s of our country, I should have s a i d that the earth was ransacked f o r i r o n to a f f o r d s t e e l s p r i n g s , t h a t the seas were f i s h e d w i t h 40 consummate daring t o o b t a i n whalebone, that f a r d i s t a n t lands were overrun to possess ourselves of caoutchow — tha t these three products were i n g e n i o u s l y wrought...to the utmost p e r f e c t i o n . . . yet i t v/as nothing before the handiwork of a bounteous nature — there I should have blushed and bowed and smiled again, handed the tape and requested them t o make themselves the necessary measurement as I stood by and r e g i s t e r e d the inches or r a t h e r yards. T h i s , however, I could not do — there v/ere none but m i s s i o n a r i e s near t o i n t e r p r e t f o r me, they would never have entered i n t o my f e e l i n g s and ther e f o r e t o them I d i d not apply — but I sat at a distance w i t h my sextant and as the l a d i e s turned themselves about, as women always do, to be admired, I surveyed them i n every way and subsequently measured the distance of the spot where they stood — worked out and t a b u l a t e d the r e s u l t s at my l e i s u r e . (Pearson, 1914, p.231-232) This example employs hardware (the sextant) i n a d d i t i o n to observation but the p r i n c i p l e i s the same. /Another case i s G a i t o n 1 s (1885) attempt t o measure the r a t e of f i d g e t i n g at a meeting. Due t o an advantageous p o s i t i o n i n the h a l l he was able to d i v i d e the audience i n t o equal groups and count the number of movements during the p e r i o d of one minute. I f the passage being read was r e l a t i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n g the r a t e f o r a 50 person group was 50 f i d g e t s or one per person per minute. As the reading became more bo r i n g the number of f i d g e t s i n c r e a s e d e q u a l l y over the groups. By employing systematic observation Galton t h e r e f o r e was able t o document a small f a c e t of human behavior. I n two s t u d i e s Kane (1958, 1962) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c l o t h i n g worn by o u t p a t i e n t s t o p s y c h i a t r i c i n t e r v i e w s . Prom observation of the c l o t h i n g , perhaps how a woman covered her bust, he v/as able to make suppositions about 41 the p a t i e n t s progress or continued problem. In an a r t i c l e i n Newsweek (Anonymous, 1965) on p o l i c e procedure during c i v i l r i g h t s demonstrations a Southern p o l i c e c h i e f noted that dress was an i n d i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l t r o u b l e . Watch even d e t a i l s of dress, when Negroes are planning a mass j a i l i n , the women w i l l wear dungarees as they enter the meeting p l a c e s , (p.37) Unobtrusive measures employed i n a systematic manner al l o w the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of behavior i n a s i t u a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l stimulus. The methodology employed i n t h i s study i s systematic observation. An instrument was developed from c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l i e n t appearance and behavior t h a t could be e a s i l y c a t e g o r i z e d from o b s e r v a t i o n . | Development of the Instrument The instrument was developed i n two sub-sections, one f o r male s u b j e c t s , the other f o r female and c o n s i s t e d of seven v a r i a b l e s : h a i r , c l o t h e s , f a c i a l d e c oration, companionship, dance, d r i n k , and age. F a c i a l d e c o r a t i o n dealt w i t h make-up f o r females and f a c i a l h a i r (beard or moustache) for. males. These p a r t i c u l a r seven were chosen w i t h an aim towards easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by observation of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of appearance and behavior of n i g h t c l u b c l i e n t e l e . D e s c r i p t i o n s of c l i e n t s on the b a s i s of h a i r s t y l e , c l o t h i n g types, f a c i a l d ecoration, and age are found i n the pop s o c i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The v a r i a b l e s of d r i n k , companionship, and dance developed from my own experiences, and from the pop 42 s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e * Each of the seven v a r i a b l e s were broken i n t o a s e r i e s of mutually e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s i n order to provide a complete l i s t i n g of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or f a s h i o n s . A p r e l i m i n a r y instrument was devised and t e s t e d . I t was discovered t h a t the categories of the v a r i a b l e s were i n many cases not mutually e x c l u s i v e and that some were not e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e by an unobtrusive observer. The instrument was then modified and t e s t e d a second time at s i x n i g h t c l u b s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y that t h e r e were indeed c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of appearance and behavior, that these were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each other and'' t h a t of these a s s o c i a t i o n s many were i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h s p e c i f i c n i g h t c l u b s i n s p e c i f i c s o r t s of l o c a t i o n s . On the b a s i s of the success of the second p r e t e s t the instrument and procedure were considered g e n e r a l l y sound except f o r the need f o r s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n . Nature of the Data The seven v a r i a b l e s broke down i n t o 28 female and 32 male c a t e g o r i e s . W i t h i n each v a r i a b l e the c a t e g o r i e s are mutually e x c l u s i v e ; thus a subject may only score once on each v a r i a b l e . The procedure was t o mark f o r each subject the appropriate category of each v a r i a b l e . The data then was i n the form of a l i s t of seven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r each subject. Nunnally (1967) s t a t e s : Numbers used t o represent c a t e g o r i e s i n a 43 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme have no q u a n t i t a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . Some would speak of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n as r e p r e s e n t i n g the lowest form of measurement. E a r l i e r i t was s t a t e d that c a t e g o r i z a t i o n might be b e t t e r spoken of as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than measurement, (p.12) The data, c o n s i s t i n g of a '1* to denote presence of an a t t r i b u t e and '0' f o r absence i s then dichotomous, i s an accounting r a t h e r than a measurement. W i t h i n the 28 (female) or 32 (male) c a t e g o r i e s only groups of c a t e g o r i e s or s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s are orthogonal. While s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s amongst the c a t e g o r i e s could be obtained using e i t h e r t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s , the p h i c o e f f i c i e n t , or the product-moment formula the procedure was i n v a l i d a t e d by the e x i s t e n c e of spurious c o r r e l a t i o n s between c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n a v a r i a b l e , which were by d e f i n i t i o n mutually e x c l u s i v e . Although Nunnally (1967) suggests that the product-moment formula can be used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s i n dichotomous data there i s some debate as to the use of t h i s technique i n non-parametric cases. The use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s as anything other than a hypothesis generating t o o l i s t h e r e f o r e p r o h i b i t e d due t o the l e v e l and nature of the measurement. The second p r e t e s t data was examined through f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o d i s c o v e r what r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i d e x i s t ; however these r e s u l t s are not reported here. The data from the a c t u a l experiment was analyzed u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s t o s o r t and o b t a i n frequency counts. A f u r t h e r procedure known as h i e r a c h i c a l grouping a n a l y s i s (Veldman, 1967) was 44 employed to group the nightclubs on the basis of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s and i s discussed i n Chapter Six. The Instrument The r a t i n g instrument w i l l be described here i n terms of the variables and categories. Definitions of the variables and t h e i r sub-categories are presented. Three variables whose content describes a t t r i b u t e s which are i d e n t i c a l f o r both male and female parts of the instrument w i l l be described f i r s t . Copies of the instrument are presented i n Appendix B. Companionship - This variable i s concerned with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l aspects of the c l i e n t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t was considered useful to know with whom the c l i e n t presents himself as well as how: 1. ) Single - The subject, male or female i s alone. 2. ) Couple - The subject i s present with one member of the opposite sex. 3. ) Group (Mixed) - A group of mixed sex, i n c l u d i n g a group of couples. 4. ) Group (Same) - The subject i s i n the company of persons of the same gender. 1 Dance - The p a r t i c u l a r mode or fashion of dance i s categorized. Dancing styles are period s p e c i f i c . That i s to say, unless the subject i s i n constant contact with the new st y l e s , his mode w i l l r e f l e c t a s p e c i f i c time period, the period when he learned to dance. The major categories 4 5 are therefore: 1 . ) Non-Contemporary - Subjects who " j i v e " or "twist" and older persons who may be attempting to dance i n a contemporary fashion, but due to background are f a i l i n g , f a l l i nto t h i s category. 2. ) Contemporary - The general fashion of rock dancing following the accents of the second and fourth beats (offbeats) of a four beats per bar piece of music. Contemporary sty l e s of dancing vary but can be i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of the naturalness and ease with which a person responds to the musical stimulus. 3 . ) Frenzied - A very energy consuming form of dancing. The person dancing i n t h i s wild manner consumes more than the s o c i a l l y acceptable amount of dance f l o o r space. 4 . ) Freak - This term has been used f o r a mode which became popular i n the l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s and i s i d e n t i f i e d with the hippie movement and what was known as a c i d rock music, o r i g i n a l l y popularized by such San Francisco groups as the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. The subject dances on .the music rather than with i t and the behavior i s characterized by f l o a t i n g movements often with arms extended. 5 . ) Did not dance. Drink - Type rather than amount of a l c o h o l i c beverage i s i d e n t i f i e d here. The categories are general and simply beer, li q u o r , and non-drinkers. Non-drinkers include those 46 who drank coffee and other n o n - a l c o h o l i c beverages. Age - Age was subdivided i n t o three groups: 1) apparently under 25, 2) apparently 25-35, and 3) apparently over 35* These c a t e g o r i e s were used a f t e r experimenting w i t h d i f f e r e n t numbers of c a t e g o r i e s i n the p r e t e s t s . I t was discovered that more ca t e g o r i e s c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by o b s e r v a t i o n and l e s s caused an i n f o r m a t i o n l o s s . H a i r - This v a r i a b l e i d e n t i f i e s the s t y l e i n which the h a i r i s worn. Every subject could be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one of the c a t e g o r i e s . a) Male / 1. ) Bald - A l a c k of h a i r . T h i s category i n c l u d e s any subject whose s k u l l was p a r t i a l l y naked except those who wore that h a i r which remained i n some p a r t i c u l a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s t y l e e.g. f r e a k . 2. ) M i l i t a r y - A crew cut, brush c u t , o r other very short s t y l e . The name i s derived from t h a t s t y l e worn i n the U.S. Marines. 3. ) S t r a i g h t - The o r d i n a r y , medium l e n g t h , barber cut s t y l e . T h i s s t y l e i s the common f a s h i o n , n e i t h e r too l o n g nor short and would i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c s t y l e s such as " c o l l e g e " c u t s . 4. ) Pompadour - The h a i r i s waved back from the forehead, o f t e n w i t h the use of h a i r o i l s . This s t y l e i s somewhat age s p e c i f i c to men over 35 years and i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the s t y l e s worn by R i c h a r d Nixon and S p i r o 47 Agnew. 5. ) Grease - Here the use of h a i r o i l i s excessive. This style was popularized i n the 1950's and consists of fashioning the hair into waves, waterfalls, and ducktails. 6. ) long-Styled - long h a i r but cut to a s p e c i f i c s t y l e eg. shag. The method of cutting i s associated with men's h a i r s t y l i n g salons rather than barber shops. 7. ) Freak - Very long h a i r worn without a cut st y l e . Although the h a i r may be cut i t i s l e f t shaggy and follows no style but i t s own. b) Female 1. ) long-Straight - Hair that has been cut to emphasize length and i s eithe r n a t u r a l l y straight or curled f o r that e f f e c t . 2. ) Backcombed - As was the case f o r the male "grease" st y l e t h i s fashion orginated i n the 1 9 5 0 *s. I t i s not too popular today as a contemporary s t y l e . Back-combed h a i r i s puffed and teased to create an impression of s i z e . S p e c i f i c styles such as the "beehive" are included i n t h i s category. 3. ) Curled - This category was conceived to i d e n t i f y two groups, the older woman who has her h a i r done at a beauty parlour and the i n c r e d i b l y "done" look of some younger ones. The term i s of descriptive of actual c u r l s i n the h a i r e i t h e r large or small. 4. ) Styled - The h a i r has been cut to a s p e c i f i c 4 8 style either short or long. Included here are shag and shaped s t y l e s . 5 . ) Freak - long, wild, unstraightened h a i r with an i m p l i c a t i o n of weight and bulk. Clothing -a) Male 1. ) Suit - Any apparel which involved the wearing of two pieces, a jacket and pants. This category was designed to i d e n t i f y fashionable, yet conservative s u i t s or sports-jackets and slacks. 2. ) Casual - This category i s f o r casual clothing such as jeans of various hues and s h i r t s . / 3. ) Straight - This i s a combination of the previous two categories, i t implies that the person i s "dressed up" -but without a sportjacket. 4 . ) Mod - Gaudy and very s t y l i s h clothing associated with the most contemporary of fashions. 5 . ) Freak - Outrageous clothing i n terms of what i t i s or how i t looks and could be blue jeans, but the emphasis i s on s c r u f f i n e s s . b) Female 1.) Dress-up - The "party dress" s t y l e . This category i d e n t i f i e s extravagent f l o o r length gowns, low cut dresses, and expensive pantsuits. The fashions are often contemporary but never mod. Subjects are very dressed up. 49 , 2 . ) Casual - As i n the male case subjects i n t h i s category wear jeans and s h i r t s . 3. ) Straight - Contemporary dresses, s k i r t s , and blouses are associated with the straight fashion. The type of clothing generally worn to an o f f i c e job or school i s included here. 4. ) Mod - Clothing, usually gaudy and very s t y l i s h , associated with the most contemporary of fashions. A~ g i r l i n a leather, form f i t t e d jumpsuit would be wearing mod clothing. 5. ) Freak - Unusual and weird clothing with an accent on s c r u f f i n e s s . i F a c i a l Decoration - In the male case t h i s variable describes the manner i n which the beard i s allowed to develop. For females i t i d e n t i f i e s what i s done to the face i n order to h i g h t l i g h t the eyes or a t t r a c t i v e features, a) Male 1. ) Mustache - This category includes those subjects who wear sideburns i n addition to a mustache. 2 . ) Sideburns - These are sideburns which at a minimum reach the ear lobe. 3 . ) Goatee - A beard on the chin alone, often c a l l e d a Van Dyck beard. 4. ) Beard - Subjects i n t h i s category possess a f u l l beard. 5. ) Clean Shaven - This category includes those 5 0 men who exhibit short sideburns, b) Female An attempt was made i n the f i r s t pretest to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c items such as f a l s e eyelashes and s p e c i f i c amounts of eyeliner. The attempt was unsuccessful and thus the categories were changed to r e g i s t e r degree alone. There are three categories: none, l i g h t , and heavy. Summary The instrument was set up i n such a way as to allow ease of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subject a t t r i b u t e s and to provide a r a p i d and e f f i c i e n t system f o r scoring. We w i l l now turn to the question of how the data was gathered and what procedures were followed to obtain a random and unbiased sample. The C l i e n t e l e Sample The data was col l e c t e d by f i f t y undergraduate students. An arrangement was made with the Canadian Restaurant Association to allow free access to the nightclubs. In order f o r the assistants to be able to do the task a t r a i n i n g session was held. At t h i s t r a i n i n g session the procedure was described and some examples of appearance categories were shown. Each student was given a male and female r a t i n g sheet and asked to make appropriate categorization f o r each of eight pictures shown by opaque projector. The pictures, f i v e male and three female, were taken from magazines with an 51 aim to show different types of nightclub c l i e n t e l e . The answers were then checked to determine a b i l i t y . Overall t h i s a b i l i t y to categorize was excellent. The assistants were each assigned a nightclub and a night. At no time were inferences made as to type of c l i e n t e l e expected at di f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . While the author v i s i t e d most locations himself, the actual r a t i n g of each club was done by two different i n d i v i d u a l s . These two fact o r s helped to eliminate bias from the hypothesis. Rosenthal (1963) has described situations where the hypothesis becomes a determinant of experimental r e s u l t s . The procedure i n t h i s experiment was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to eliminate as much bias as possible. The use of d i f f e r e n t raters who were unfamiliar with the hypothesized relationships appears -to have minimized such prejudice. Upon a r r i v a l at the nightclub the research a s s i s t a n t s selected a table that would allow them to e a s i l y observe the c l i e n t e l e and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . A sketch map of the club was produced by the assistant on a 3x5 g r i d to permit equal sampling of a l l the main f l o o r , balcony, and corner areas. A random sel e c t i o n of two chairs from within each square served as the datum points. The nightclub patrons who occupied these chairs became the subjects f o r the study. I f a datum point remained unoccupied the closest occupied seat to the o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n was substituted. Given the sampling procedure just described t h i r t y patrons from each club were scored on each of the nights. If there were not thirty patrons as many as were present were rated. The thirty subjects were not balanced as to sex i n order to provide information on the sex structure of the club. The size of the clientele sample was derived from the pretest results and the desire to survey from ten to fifteen percent of a club's patrons. Each subject was given a number on the grid to f a c i l i t a t e continuous observation of a number of subjects. The Nightclub Sample A total of 35 nightclubs were selected,from the Vancouver Telephone Directory and the entertainment pages of the Vancouver Sun newspaper. These 35 nightclubs constituted the entire population of establishments, except those marketing an ethnic or country and western product. These la t t e r two types of establishments were not included i n the study as i t was f e l t that the clientele would be relatively discrete. It was the aim to survey only those nightclubs which marketed a generically similar product. My experience with the nightclub market suggested that the patrons of ethnically and country and western-oriented clubs constituted a quite separate population from the clients of rock and r o l l , f loor show, or nude entertainment establishments. Ah exception to this rule v/as the Johann Strauss. This night-club offers some ethnic entertainment but i n conjunction with a restaurant and other forms of music. 53 Of these 35 n i g h t c l u b s data was c o l l e c t e d f o r 29 i on two n i g h t s , a Thursday and Saturday of the same week. A l l data was gathered on the same two n i g h t s over a l l n i g h t -c l u b s so as t o provide a d i s c r e t e p o p u l a t i o n sample. S e l e c t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r days was made on the b a s i s of the author's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the market. Thursday n i g h t i s the peak weeknight, a t t r a c t i n g the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e crowds necessary f o r a u s e f u l sample. On the weekend, Saturday i s the b u s i e s t evening, demand being so great th a t prospective patrons o f t e n queue at the door awating a t a b l e . The Thursday survey was taken between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and midnight and the Saturday survey between 9V00 and 11:00 p.m. The p a r t i c u l a r times were s e l e c t e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the commencement of a c t i v i t i e s at the c l u b s . The eventual a n a l y s i s was done on the t o t a l of a l l data c o l l e c t e d f o r each n i g h t c l u b . See Footnote 1, p. 6. CHAPTER V 54 NIGHTCLUB CLIENTELE STRUCTURE In t h i s chapter we s h a l l describe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t e l e of the nightclub sample, on the basis ' of t h e i r appearance and behavior. This section deals only with the aggregate c l i e n t e l e population and e s s e n t i a l l y explores i n a preliminary way the relationships betv/een the variables that index c l i e n t appearance. Individual nightclubs w i l l be dealt with l a t e r i n Chapter Six. The method here s h a l l be to f i r s t l y inspect the frequency of respqnse to the categories within each variable i n order to determine the most common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t e l e (eg. male long styled h a i r , casual clothes, and so on). The second stage of i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l deal with the pattern of responses when the variable "hair"! i s held constant. A t h i r d l e v e l of analysis w i l l examine, through comprehensive cross tabulations, the relationships between the categories of a l l the variables, i n an endeavour to i d e n t i f y relevant clusterings of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The aim i s to b u i l d up as complete a picture as possible of the c l i e n t e l e of the sample nightclubs, and to detect d i f f e r e n t i a t e d customer types i n the population. The existence of rela t i o n s h i p s among the variables consistent with the notion of customer types i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the assumption that t h i s i s a v a l i d basis on which to d i f f e r e n t i a t e 55 n i g h t c l u b s . The search f o r such r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l a l s o provide i n s i g h t s u s e f u l f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the d i r e c t a n a l y s i s and comparison of i n d i v i d u a l n i g h t c l u b s which i s t o f o l l o w , I. MALE STRUCTURE The t o t a l male sample c o n s i s t e d of 957 su b j e c t s . The v a r i a b l e s were i n d i v i d u a l l y examined i n order t o determine the most s i g n i f i c a n t category w i t h i n each. The breakdown of responses i s presented i n Table 5,1, TABLE 5.1 / Str u c t u r e of the Male P o p u l a t i o n A. HAIR D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent B a l d 82 8.57 M i l i t a r y 56 5.85 S t r a i g h t 374 39.08 Pompadour 102 10.66 Grease 60 6.27 Long 208 21.73 Freak 75 7.84 T o t a l 957 100.00 56 Table 5.1 continued: B. CLOTHING D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent S u i t 299 31.24 Casual 358 37.41 S t r a i g h t 174 18.18 Mod 107 11.18 Freak 19 1.99 T o t a l 957 100.00 I C. FACIAL DECORATION D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Clean shaven 381 39.81 Mustache 168 17.55 Side bums 309 > 32.29 Goatee 29 3.03 Beard 70 7.31 T o t a l 957 100.00 57 Table 5.1 continued: D. COMPANIONSHIP D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent S i n g l e 208 21.73 Couple 200 20.90 Group/Mixed 206 21.53 Group/Same 343 35.84 T o t a l 957 100.00 ( E. DANCING D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Non-Dancers 632 66.04 Non-Contemporary 83 8.67 Contemporary 194 20.27 F r e n z i e d 21 2.19 Freak 5 0.52 M i s s i n g Data 22 2.30 T o t a l 957 100.00 58 Table 5.1 continued: P. DRINKS Description Number Percent Non-drinkers 76 66.04 Beer 366 38.24 liquor 514 53.71 Missing Data 1 0.10 Total 957 100.00 G. AGE Description Number Percent Under 25 297 31 .03 25-35 394 41.17 ' Over 35 266 27.80 Total 957 100.00 In terms of the variable "hair" the largest category of male subjects had barber cut, medium length hair styles, identified as "straight". This group was followed i n 59 descending order by the long, s t y l e d category and the pompadour category. These three groups accounted f o r seventy-one percent of the male subjects, with the remaining four categories each accounting f o r less than ten percent of the sample. Clothing types were more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . One h a l f of the male c l i e n t e l e can be described as being "dressed up", wearing either conservative suits or sports jackets or a " s t r a i g h t " type of clothing. The largest single clothing type, however, was casual dress — jeans and s h i r t s . A l e s s e r but s i g n i f i c a n t group was the "mod" cloth i n g s t y l e . /' Within the f a c i a l decoration variable, the largest single category consisted of persons with no f a c i a l h a i r . Sixty percent of the male patrons wore some type of f a c i a l h a i r . Sideburns and mustaches were equally popular while beards and.goatees accounted f o r l e s s than ten percent of t h i s group. In terms of companionship, the order of categories was same sex group, single, and mixed sex group. As f o r dancing, two t h i r d s of the male subjects did not dance. Contemporary styles formed the largest single group f o r those male subjects who did dance. On the drink variable, a very few (eight percent) of the men did not drink; f o r the remainder l i q u o r was more popular than beer. The subjects were f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between the three 60 categories of age. The largest single age group was 25-35 years. Responses to the Variable "Hair" We now have a picture of the t o t a l male sample i n aggregate. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to investigate the relationships among the variables; f o r example, are the majority of the customers with " s t r a i g h t " h a i r also dressed casually, or does t h i s h a i r category cut across dress style? Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p of these variables to age, and so on? A decision was made to i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f y the response patterns by holding one variable constant, so as to provide a more simple structure. Hair s t y l e was chosen as the "dependent" variable. The patterns of responses through the other six variables are investigated by category of h a i r . We do expect there to be patterns i n the scores on the variables; associations of p a r t i c u l a r responses can be expected that w i l l begin to i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t i v e c l i e n t types. Examination of responses to the variable h a i r i s but one stage of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As the next stage we s h a l l examine complete cross tabulations of responses by variable and move from associations between variables to syndromes of responses on the v a r i a b l e s . Arguments could be made to employ other variables as the dependent case, yet h a i r style i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and i s the variable with the greatest number of categories. 61 This allows a f i n e r breakdown i n t o . s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e and a i d s i n d e s c r i b i n g c l i e n t e l e types. The method th e r e f o r e w i l l be to i n v e s t i g a t e each h a i r s t y l e category, p r o g r e s s i n g from the most common to the l e a s t . The breakdown of responses i s presented i n Table 5.2. Of the c l i e n t s i d e n t i f i e d by the " s t r a i g h t " h a i r s t y l e over h a l f were dressed up and of these the m a j o r i t y wore s u i t s . Paces were e i t h e r clean shaven o r e x h i b i t e d sideburns. The " s t r a i g h t " h a i r s t y l e patron was most commonly without feminine companionship, d i d not dance, drank l i q u o r more o f t e n than beer, and was i n the. 25 to 35 age group. I t can be hypothesized, i n fact;, from the data thus analyzed that there are two d i s t i n c t groupings of c l i e n t s under t h i s h a i r s t y l e , one i d e n t i f i e d as being o l d e r , wearing a s u i t , being c l e a n shaven, d r i n k i n g l i q u o r , and not dancing, the other younger, more c a s u a l l y dressed, possessing more f a c i a l h a i r , more o f t e n dancing, and consuming beer i n g r e a t e r amounts. The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f a c t o r here i s age. I t can be suggested that there i s a continuum of " s t r a i g h t n e s s " w i t h the two d i v i s i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t stages i n the p r o g r e s s i o n . The general group i s o l a t e s the appearance and b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the average c i t i z e n who f o l l o w s contemporary fa s h i o n s but does not deviate to extremes. This s u p p o s i t i o n , however, must be examined l a t e r through more e x p l i c i t cross t a b u l a t i o n s . Long, s t y l e d h a i r i s the next most s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE 5.2 Male — Responses to H a i r s t y l e Category N = 957 HAIR S t r a i g h t Long-Styled Pompadour B a l d Freak Grease M i l i t a r y # 374 208 102 82 75 60 56 % 39.08 21.73 10.66 8.57 7.84 6.27 5.85 CLOTHING # % # % # % # % # % # % # % S u i t 118 31.55 32 15.38 64 62.75 50 60.98 4 5.33 9 15.00 22 39.29 Casual 150 40.11 82 39.42 23 22.55 14 17.07 36 48.00 32 53.33 21 37.50 S t r a i g h t 94 25.13 24 11.54 13 12.75 15 18.29 6 8.00 13 21.67 9 16.07 Mod 11 2.94 67 32.21 2 1.96 2 2.44 15 20.00 6 10.00 4 7.14 Freak 1 .27 3 1.44 0 .00 1 1.22 14 18.67 0 .00 0 .00 FACIAL DECORATION Clean Shaven 168 44.92 40 19.23 53 Mustache 51 13.64 60 28.85 12 Sideburns 130 34.76 78 37.50 34 Goatee 9 2.41 9 4.33 1 Beard 16 4.28 21 10.10 2 COMPANIONSHIP S i n g l e 80 21.39 42 20.19 25 Couple 77 20.59 45 21.63 15 Group-Mixed 78 20.86 45 21.63 32 Group-Same 139 37.17 76 36.54 30 51.96 59 71.95 14 18.67 17 28.33 30 53.57 11.76 4 4.88 27 36.00 5 8.33 9 16.07 33.33 15 18.29 11 14.67 28 46.67 13 23.21 .98 0 .00 4 5.33 5 8.33 1 1.79 1.96 4 4.88 19 25.33 5 8.33 3 5.36 24.51 21 25.61 14 18.67 13 21.67 13 23.21 14.71 20 24.39 15 20.00 14 23.33 14 25.00 31.37 16 19.51 13 17.33 10 16.67 12 21.43 29.41 25 30.49 33 44.00 23 38.33 17 30.36 TABLE 5.2 continued S t r a i g h t Long-•Styled Pompadour B a l d Freak Grease M i l i t a r y DANCE # % # * # % # % # % # % # % Non-Dancers 256 68.45 114 54.81 81 79.41 57 69.51 48 64.00 42 70.00 34 60.71 Not Contemp. 23 7.49 4 1.92 17 16.67 15 18.29 0 .00 6 10.00 13 23.21 Contemporary- 76 20.32 75 36.06 4 3.92 6 7.32 15 20.00 11 18.33 7 12.50 F r e n z i e d 4 1.07 9 4.33 0 .00 1 1.22 6 8.00 1 1.67 0 .00 Freak 1 .27 0 .00 0. .00 0 .00 4 5.33 0 .00 0 .00 M i s s i n g Data 9 2.41 6 2.88 0 .00 3 3.66 2 2.67 0 .00 2 3.57 DRINK Non-Drinkers 36 9.63 10 4.81 9 8.82 11 13.41 6 8.00 3 9.63 1 1.79 Beer 139 37.17 80 38.46 31 30.39 21 25.61 39 52.00 32 53.33 24 42.86 L i q u o r 199 53.21 118 56.73 62 60.78 50 60.98 30 40.00 25 41.67 30 53.57 M i s s i n g Data 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 1 1.79 AGE Under 25 107 28.61 107 51.44 3 2.94 0 .00 51 68.00 22 36.67 7 12.50 25 to 35 180 48.13 88 42.31 29 28.43 11 13.41 23 30.67 34 56.67 29 51.79 Over 35 87 ,23.26 13 6.25 70 68.63 _ 7 1 86.59 1 1.33 4 6.67 20 35.71 64 c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . C l i e n t s possessing t h i s a b e r r a t i o n are e i t h e r c a s u a l l y or modishly dressed; e x h i b i t mustaches, sideburns, and a few beards; are the most frequent dancers of any category, drink l i q u o r more o f t e n than beer, and are under 2 5 . The age v a r i a b l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l i m i n a t e s persons over 35 years of age. I n t u i t i v e l y , t h i s p a t t e r n suggests the young very contemporary male, wearing l o n g i s h h a i r but m a i n t a i n i n g appearance and behavior w i t h i n current s o c i e t a l norms. The pompadour group i s very d i s t i n c t , emphasizing more formal c l o t h i n g s t y l e s , notably the s u i t . Sideburns are i n some evidence but the l a r g e s t s i n g l e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s t h a t of the c l e a n shaven. In comparison to;' the o t h e r h a i r s t y l e groups t h i s group has the g r e a t e s t w i t h i n group percentage a s s o c i a t e d w i t h not dancing, and being i n the company of a group of mixed sex. They d r i n k l i q u o r t w i c e as o f t e n as beer and are predominately over the age of 3 5 . This p a t t e r n i s d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age; however, i t can be i n t e r p r e t e d as i d e n t i f y i n g a group which have not f o l l o w e d contemporary f a s h i o n s . The f o u r t h h a i r s t y l e p a t t e r n , b a l d , i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the pompadour group. Formal a t t i r e i s very dominant as i s the l a c k of f a c i a l h a i r . Again, dancing i s not popular w i t h t h i s group, while those who do dance do not f o l l o w contemporary s t y l e s . The dominant age group i s over 3 5 and beverage preference i s l i q u o r . Of the "freak" group about h a l f are c a s u a l l y dressed 65 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n the mod and f r e a k c a t e g o r i e s . These patrons are not c l e a n shaven - mustaches and beards are more popular here than i n any other p a t t e r n . T h i s group was most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d i n the company of other males, d r i n k i n g beer over l i q u o r , and when dancing doing so i n a contemporary or w i l d e r f a s h i o n . Most patrons were under 25 w i t h some being i n the 25-35 span. Those patrons e x h i b i t i n g a "grease" h a i r s t y l e were i n the 25-35 age group and younger, d i d not dance, wore c a s u a l c l o t h i n g , and drank beer. The goatee or Van Dyck beard was more popular here than w i t h any other group; however, the most common category was that of s i d e -burns. The companionship v a r i a b l e does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h i s group, but again, the group of same sex i s the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g category. The f i n a l h a i r response p a t t e r n i n c l u d e s those subjects w i t h extremely short or m i l i t a r y s t y l e s . Types of c l o t h i n g are evenly d i v i d e d between formal s u i t s and casual jeans. More than h a l f of the s u b j e c t s were without f a c i a l h a i r although some possessed sideburns. Again, the companionship v a r i a b l e does not d i s c r i m i n a t e w e l l , the patrons being f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d over a l l c a t e g o r i e s . The m a j o r i t y of t h i s group d i d not dance, but those who d i d , as was i n the case f o r the b a l d and pompadour groups, danced i n a non-contemporary manner. L i q u o r was s l i g h t l y p r e f e r r e d over beer and the modal age category was 25-35. Using t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e method based on h a i r s t y l e , 66 d i f f e r e n t response patterns can be i d e n t i f i e d . The p r o f i l e s outline major within group behaviors, or note s i g n i f i c a n t differences from the pattern over a l l groups. It cannot be said, however, that every i n d i v i d u a l within a p a r t i c u l a r h a i r group possesses the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s outlined here. More i n s i g h t s w i l l come from a tabulation of one variable against another so that f u r t h e r associations can be discovered. Cross Tabulations The t h i r d stage of in v e s t i g a t i o n i s concerned with the examination of cross tabulations of the responses between a l l the var i a b l e s , with an aim towards the i s o l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the development of some general c l i e n t p r o f i l e s . Complete cross tabulations were developed but are not reported here. Instead the cross tabulations were inspected to determine which category of variable 'Y' had the strongest r e l a t i o n to each category of variable 'X'. A minimum l e v e l of 40 percent of t o t a l variable response within a single category was selected as a c r i t e r i o n of a "strong" r e l a t i o n s h i p between variables and i t i s only on these strong relationships that we focus. I f each category of a l l the variables i s then l i s t e d both i n terms of i t s own at t r i b u t e s (relevant categories from other variables) and also as an a t t r i b u t e (those categories i n which the p a r t i c u l a r category was i t s e l f relevant) then mutual 67 relationships can be i d e n t i f i e d . I t i s not the point of t h i s exercise to determine absolute numbers of patrons with re l a t e d scores, but rather to i d e n t i f y what r e l a t i o n -ships e x i s t . The relevant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each category are summarized i n Table 5.3. One group of male patrons which can be i d e n t i f i e d i s a " s u i t " group. There i s a strong relationship between wearing a suit and being clean shaven, not dancing, drinking l i q u o r , and being over 35 years of age. A l l of these items, including the s u i t , are also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of two h a i r s t y l e s — b a l d and pompadour. Non-contemporary dance styles are strongly related to the wearing of a su i t and being clean shaven, drinking l i q u o r , being over 35, and i n a couple. I t would appear that the wearing of a suit i s characterized by common appearance and behavioral att r i b u t e s but with an i n t e r -c h a n g i b i l i t y of h a i r s t y l e . Within t h i s s u i t group of non-dancers there i s group, not defined by ha i r s t y l e , which exhibits a non-contemporary s t y l e of dance. We can suggest that t h i s l a t t e r group i s a part of the dance nightclub c l i e n t e l e while the pompadour-bald su i t group i s probably associated with establishments where dancing i s l e s s common. Casual clothing i s a common f a c t o r over a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Not dancing, the drinking of beer and l i q u o r , being under 25, and having "straight" h a i r are TABLE 5.3 Male Cross Tabulations 1 * i n d i c a t e s a score on the v a r i a b l e g r e a t e r than 40% of t o t a l response. HAIR CLOTHING FACIAL DEC. COMP. DANCE o T3 0 rH *>> -P d bD ' c i 0 co -P . H a to i ^ 'd -H cd ft a$ tuO ro H i H JH 0 0 Pi 0 C3 -H 4 s O O U fq g co PH c!3 B a l d M i l i t a r y S t r a i g h t y Pompadour w Grease Long-Styled Freak § S u i t ^ Casual g S t r a i g h t i-q Mod ° Freak g Clean Shaven Mustache ^ Sideburns M Goatee ^ Beard p H -p A •H M U 'C* 0 . _ -P O fn W D W S ^ * * t o 0 * •X-<D ti O p! 0 -p h O 0 g co e> pq <D M •H S I 0) \% CO 0 0 H H P i f t ttO ft 3 2 £ 2 O p •H O IM IM co O C> c i ft to U 0 © 0 + 3 ti ti cd o R a 1 i ti ti o o ft 0 0 -ri 0 •p ti o {s; O PH PH * * * * * * * * DRINK 0 I ti o U o U 2 0 a 1 0 -H !si W * * * AGE oo i n i A U LA 0 tA U •ci I 0 ti i n r* D OJ o * ** * * TABLE 5.3 continued HAIR CLOTHING FACIAL DEC. COMP. DANCE DRINK AGE H crj PQ U crj WJ'cS • P T-I c<5 P - H •H cd r-i U ft c3 CD r-l -p Ci) CO • r l - P O ^ O ^ g to PH Kb PH . S i n g l e g Couple o Group-Mixed 0 Group-Same •H 3 •p ,fl - P O ?H to o co S PH CD CO 10 s. CD H . . . CO 3 -H CD CP Ti - P rH crj O5 O CO re! <p co M I § co co co I t W) ft 3 3 si .3 o o • r l O JH ?H co o cb ci ra ft CO CO o - p O 0 -rH I I - P fl C<3 fl Pi fl CO 0) o o o u u & {25 o PH PH CQ rH CD •H rH R I fl o u o rH 3 co a1 CD - r l £<PHHH C\J L A L A U L A CO K \ fH I CO fl L A > t=> CvJ O Non-Dancers pq Non-Contemp, Contemp. Fren z i e d Freak o * * * W Non-Drinkers M Beer £j L i q u o r * * Under 25 g 25-35 <J Oyer 35 * * 1 Rows i n d i c a t e the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d across the top which have a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d down the s i d e . Columns i n d i c a t e t o which ca t e g o r i e s l i s t e d down the s i d e the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d across the top have a strong r e l a t i o n . 70 a l l strongly associated with casual clothing. Straight h a i r has the a t t r i b u t e s of casual clothing, not dancing, the drinking of l i q u o r , the 25-35 age group, and no f a c i a l h a i r . There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p here-; however, i t i s not u n t i l we examine those categories which have casual clothing as an a t t r i b u t e that the pattern becomes c l e a r . The discriminating variable i n casual clothing i s age. In the under 25 age group casual c l o t h i n g i s associated with "freak" h a i r and dance, mustaches, and a preference f o r beer. Those male subjects who danced i n a contemporary fashion are also under 25, wear casual clothing, prefer beer, but are found i n couples. However, casual c l o t h i n g i s also an a t t r i b u t e of being i n a couple as i s a preference f o r l i q u o r over beer. This under 25 casual clothing group can be broken into three basic sections; a straight h a i r group who are not dancing and prefer l i q u o r , a straight h a i r group who dance i n a contemporary fashion and prefer beer, and a freak h a i r group who dance i n a f r e a k i s h fashion and drink beer. There also i s a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between freak dancing and the wearing of freak c l o t h i n g . Mustaches are associated with casual clothing i n general, but more dominately with the under 25 age group. The age 25-35 casual clothing group i s characterized by not dancing, straight h a i r , a preference f o r l i q u o r over beer, and sideburns. A second pattern within t h i s 71 group i s that a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the "grease" h a i r s t y l e . These patrons have sideburns and goatees, p r e f e r beer over l i q u o r , and a l s o do not dance. Another category which can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the age group 25-35 and w i t h casual c l o t h i n g i s the wearing of beards, however, there are no other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a l l o w f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " S t r a i g h t " c l o t h i n g has as a t t r i b u t e s being clean shaven, not dancing, d r i n k i n g l i q u o r , being i n the 25-35 age group, and having s t r a i g h t h a i r . T h i s appears to be a f a i r l y w e l l defined p a t t e r n , yet s t r a i g h t c l o t h i n g i s not an a t t r i b u t e of any other c a t e g o r i e s . This would suggest that t h i s i s a d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n but'' not of great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o the s t r a i g h t h a i r -c a s u a l c l o t h e s group. Another p a t t e r n which has an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c a s u a l group i s that of the non-drinkers. These patrons, as w e l l as. not d r i n k i n g , do not dance, are c l e a n shaven, have s t r a i g h t h a i r , but are c a s u a l l y dressed. As non-d r i n k i n g accounts f o r l e s s than t e n percent of the t o t a l sample i t would appear that the p a t t e r n i s f a i r l y d i s t i n c t i v e and c o n s t i t u t e s a separate group from other c a s u a l c l o t h e s wearers. As might be expected non-dancers are most commonly found i n groups of same sex. Group "mixed sex" i s an a t t r i b u t e of both f r e n z i e d and f r e a k dance s t y l e s . F r e n z i e d dance i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mod c l o t h i n g , long s t y l e d h a i r , 72 a preference for liquor, and being under 25. There i s an association between mod clothing and long styled hair, but the reverse i s not true. Summary of Male Types There are a number of relationships or clusters of characteristics,which can be identified; a "suit" grouping, a number of "casual" groups, a non-drinking group, a "straight clothes, straight hair" group, and a mod group. For each of these, behavior i s not totally defined, yet they offer examples of different types of nightclub patrons. In comparison with the analysis of response to the variable "hair" a number of points can be made. The supposition that there i s a continuum of I'straightness" based on the category straight hair was not borne out i n the cross tabulation analysis. What v/as identified as the older straight group, wearing a suit, being clean shaven, drinking liquor, and not dancing does exist but not within the definition of the cross tabulation investiga-tion. On further inspection of the data i t i s noted that no category of hair style accounts for 40 percent of the variability i n the suit category. The straight hair category i s however twice as large as any other, at 39 percent. Given this evidence and the notation of a younger casual clothing-straight hair group the concept of a continuum appears much more plausible. 73 The cross t a b u l a t i o n data suggests that the b a l d and pompadour h a i r s t y l e s b a s i c a l l y i d e n t i f y the same patron and that m i l i t a r y h a i r s t y l e s do not show up s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The grease and f r e a k h a i r groups appear f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t through both stages of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The long s t y l e d h a i r group i s s p l i t between mod and ca s u a l c l o t h i n g fashions at both l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s and n o t a b l y , those w i t h modish dress are more l i k e l y t o dance i n a f r e n z i e d f a s h i o n . I I . ' FEMALE STRUCTURE The female po p u l a t i o n was much smaller/ i n number than the male, the a n a l y s i s d e a l i n g w i t h 558 s u b j e c t s . The h a i r v a r i a b l e i d e n t i f i e s three major groups, l o n g and s t r a i g h t , s t y l e d , and c u r l e d . These ca t e g o r i e s account f o r 90 percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the data. The . p a t t e r n f o r c l o t h i n g i s s i m i l a r w i t h three major c a t e g o r i e s : s t r a i g h t , dress up, and cas u a l . Make-up i s best d e f i n e d by the " l i g h t " c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s w i t h the other two sub-d i v i s i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g only 30 percent of the patrons. I n c o n t r a s t to the male scores, females attend n i g h t c l u b s i n couples and mixed sex groups and dance more o f t e n . There i s a l a r g e group of non-dancers but they are not m a j o r i t y as was the male case. Dancing s t y l e s are mostly contempory wi t h s m a l l e r numbers d i s p l a y i n g non-contemporary and f r e n z i e d modes. L i q u o r i s the popular beverage w h i l e 74 the most frequent age response i s under 25. TABLE 5.4 St r u c t u r e of the Female P o p u l a t i o n A. HAIR D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Long, s t r a i g h t 193 34.59 Backcombed 52 9.32 Curled 113 20.25 S t y l e d 191 34.23 Freak 9 / 1.61 T o t a l 558 100.00 B. CLOTKENG-D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Dress-up 162 . 29.03 Casual 129 23.12 S t r a i g h t 170 30.47 Mod 90 16.13 Freak 7 1.25 T o t a l 558 100.00 75 Table 5.4 continued C. FACIAL DECORATION D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent None 57 10.22 L i g h t 384 68.82 Heavy- 114 20.43 M i s s i n g Data 3 0.54 T o t a l 558 100.00 D. COMPANIONSHIP • t l i D e s c r i p t i o n Number Pereent Non-Dancers 244 43.73 Non-Contemporary 66 11.83 Contemporary 229 41.04 F r e n z i e d 17 3.05 Freak 2 0.36 T o t a l 558 100.00 76 Table 5.4 continued P. DRINKS D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Non-Drinkers Beer l i q u o r 32 137 389 5.73 24.55 69.71 T o t a l 558 100.00 G. AGE / / D e s c r i p t i o n Number Percent Under 25 25 t o 35 Over 35 284 174 100 50.90 31.18 17.92 T o t a l 558 100.00 Responses to the V a r i a b l e "Hair" The long, s t r a i g h t h a i r f a s h i o n was only s l i g h t l y more popular than the s t y l e d f a s h i o n . The women w i t h long s t r a i g h t h a i r wore c a s u a l , s t r a i g h t , mod, or dress-up types of c l o t h i n g . I n g e n e r a l , the women i n t h i s group had l i g h t make-up, drank l i q u o r , were found i n mixed sex 77 combinations, danced i n a contemporary f a s h i o n , and were under 25. Only 3 percent of v/omen i n t h i s group were over the age of 35, the lowest p r o p o r t i o n of any h a i r s t y l e p a t t e r n . While we can i d e n t i f y t h i s general type, i t should be noted t h a t those wearing mod c l o t h i n g are more l i k e l y t o have heavy make-up and those wearing " s t r a i g h t " c l o t h i n g may be more f r e q u e n t l y i n the 25 to 35 age group. The second p a t t e r n i s that a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t y l e d h a i r . C l o t h i n g types are dress-up, s t r a i g h t , c a s u a l , and mod. The f i r s t two, the more formal f a s h i o n s , account f o r 60 percent of t h i s group. These women wear l i g h t make-up, are found p r i m a r i l y i n mixed sex groups and se c o n d a r i l y i n couples, dance a contemporary f a s h i o n i f they dance, d r i n k l i q u o r , and are o l d e r than the previous group. Almost h a l f are under 25 but there are s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n the 25-35 and over 35 c a t e g o r i e s . I n t u i t i v e l y , one would expect some of the su b j e c t s i n t h i s group t o be very s i m i l a r t o those of the f i r s t group but here one i s i s o l a t i n g more of the o l d e r working women. Twenty percent of the female subjects wore t h e i r h a i r c u r l e d . The p a t t e r n here showed an incre a s e d emphasis on the more formal c l o t h i n g s t y l e s , e s p e c i a l l y those which are t y p i f i e d by the " s t r a i g h t " category. Dancing s t y l e s showed the greatest emphasis of any group on the non-contemporary mode, although there were many who d i d dance i n a contemporary f a s h i o n . The age v a r i a b l e was TABLE 5.5 Female — Responses to H a i r s t y l e Category N = 558 HAIR l o n g - S t r . S t y l e d C urled Backcombed Freak # 193 191 113 52 9 * 34.59 34.-23 20.25 9. 32 1 .61 CLOTHING # % # % ' # % # % # % Dress-up 35 33.63 63 32.98 38 33.63 25 48.08 1 11.11 Casual 62 12.39 46 24.08 14 12.39 6 11.54 1 11.11 S t r a i g h t 53 43.36 53 27.75 49 43.36 14 26.92 1 11.11 Mod 39 9.73 28 14.66 11 9.73 7 13.46 5 55.56 Freak 4 .88 1 .52 1 .88 0 .00 1 11.11 FACIAL DECORATION None 26 13.47 18 9.42 8 7.08 1 1.92 4 44.44 L i g h t 144 74.61 139 72.77 71 62.83 27 51.92 3 33.33 Heavy- 20 10.36 34 17.80 34 30.09 24 46.15 2 22.22 M i s s i n g Data 3 1.55 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 COMPANIONSHIP S i n g l e 14 7.25 11 5.76 8 7.08 7 13.46 2 22.22 Couple 83 43.01 76 39.79 44 38.94 18 34.62 3 33.33 Group-Mixed 72 37.31 84 43.98 51 45.13 20 38.46 4 44.44 Group-Same 23 11.92 20 10.47 10 8.85 7 13.46 0 .00 M i s s i n g Data 1 _,—,—, 1 .52 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 TABLE 5.5 continued Long - S t r . S t y l e d Curled Backcombed Freak LANCE # % # % # % # % # • % Non-Dancers 75 38.86 85 44.50 53 46.90 27 51.92 4 44.44 Not Contemporary 11 5.70 22 11.52 24 21.24 6 11.54 3 33.33 Contemporary 99 51.30 79 41.36 32 28.32 18 34.62 1 11.11 F r e n z i e d 8 4.15 4 2.09 3 2.65 1 1.92 1 11.11 Freak 0 .00 1 .52 1 .88 0 .00 0 .00 DRINK Non-Drinkers 13 6.74 11 5.76 6 5.31 2 3.85 0 .00 Beer 49 25.39 47 24.61 25 22.12 14 26.92 2 22.22 L i q u o r 131 67.88 133 69.63 82 72.57 36 69.23 7 77.78 AGE Under 25 146 75.65 87 45.55 24 21.24 19 36.54 8 88.89 25 t o 35 43 22.28 63 32.98 46 40.71 22 42.31 0 .00 Over 35 4 2.07 41! 21.47 43 38.05 11 21.15 1 11.11 l O 80 weighted towards the top i n d i c a t i n g that t h i s group had the l a r g e s t percentage of any i n the over 3 5 category. The beverage was predominately l i q u o r , and makeup was l i g h t , and attendance was again i n mixed combinations. A much sm a l l e r grouping v/as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h backcombed h a i r . Women i n t h i s group wore dress-up and, t o a l e s s e r extent, " s t r a i g h t " types of c l o t h i n g , were i n the under 35 age group, drank l i q u o r and had a n o t i c e a b l y h i g h percentage of t h e i r numbers i n the heavy makeup group. Companionship scores were s i m i l a r t o the other groups w i t h the exception of s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than normal s i n g l e and group, sex c a t e g o r i e s . The d a n c i n g ' v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s that not a t y p i c a l l y , h a l f of t h i s group were non-dancers. The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the s t y l e d h a i r group w i t h the m a j o r i t y of dancers i n the contemporary category and a few not f o l l o w i n g t h i s mode. The f i n a l h a i r s t y l e p a t t e r n , f r e a k , was not a l a r g e group, r e p r e s e n t i n g a l e s s than 2 percent of the female s u b j e c t s . The m a j o r i t y wore mod c l o t h i n g , d i d not use makeup, and were under 2 5 years of age. Of the f i v e of the nine subjects who d i d dance three were c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w i n g a non-contemporary s t y l e . I n each of the cases where the "f r e a k " patron i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s mode of dancing they v/ere the only patrons i n the h a i r s t y l e category i n the p a r t i c u l a r n i g h t c l u b . Most of these women v/ere i n mixed sex combinations and drank l i q u o r . 81 Cross Tabulations The female cross t a b u l a t i o n s were examined u s i n g the same procedure and d e f i n i t i o n s employed f o r male s u b j e c t s . Table 5.6 summarizes the a s s o c i a t i o n s between c a t e g o r i e s . The category of no make-up i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both f r e a k h a i r and f r e a k c l o t h e s . Two groups of subjects under the age of 25, may be i d e n t i f i e d here. The f i r s t group has f r e a k h a i r and wears mod c l o t h i n g . Beverage preference i s l i q u o r and companionship i s i n mixed sex groups. A second group wears f r e a k c l o t h i n g , has long s t r a i g h t h a i r , d r i n k s beer, and i s found i n couples. A t h i r d group may a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d ; those patrons w i t h no make-up, long s t r a i g h t h a i r , who wear casual c l o t h e s , do not dance, d r i n k l i q u o r , are i n groups of mixed sex, and are a l s o under 25. As the no make-up category only accounts f o r t e n percent of t o t a l f a c i a l d e c o r a t i o n s , the s p l i t i n t h i s category i s quite s i g n i f i c a n t . Age d i s c r i m i n a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o two d i s t i n c t companionship and dance.groups. Those females under 25 are normally i n groups of mixed sex and are dancing. The contemporary dance s t y l e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the under 25 category. Being under 25 i s " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f r e n z i e d and f r e a k dance s t y l e s , as w e l l as the contemporary.fashion. The age 25-35 group are non-dancers and are i n couples. Backcombed and c u r l e d h a i r , i n a d d i t i o n t o heavy make-up, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the 25-35 age category^ COMP PAC.DEC. CLOTHING HAIR * 4 4 O H - O > H - O HOc+coh i 4 ,t+ P p & O O C 3 P 03 2 C D C b t - i C O f D ( 5 ^ 4 o !3 p, C C O W <i D" CD P P £ W P H H WOS H-W W H H ^ c f t< H ' p O ) S ' f l l O O x O 1 I C D C D Ot} H I p* P* O p p P- C f c+ CD g X CD 4 m CD CD ft • ft P CO * * * * * L o n g , Str. g ( B a c k c o m b e d 5 . $ C u r l e d H S t y l e d W § P r e a k * * C a s u a l * * * * * * * * * * * * U n d e r 25 * * * * 25-35 Over 35 t f CD D r e s s - u u Q 4 o p * S t r a i g h t . g £ * Mod y CD P r e a k Q 4 CD i . • (» 3^ c+ > CD * . * None p * * * * * * * * * * * L i g h t W c+ * H e a v y 6 p I $ * S i n g l e 0 0 * * * * * C o u p l e o H J * * * * * * * * G r o u p - M i x e d ^ H -Group-Same * 4 CD * * * * * *. * # * * * N o n - D a n c e r s <n Non-Contemp. > o * * * * * * * Contemp. £ g F r e n z i e d w CD F r e a k u N o n - D r i n k e r s ^ * B e e r § T . P S i i i q u o r 28 TABLE 5.6 continued HAIR CLOTHING FAC.DEC. COMP. DANCE DRINK AGE Long, Str. Backcombed Curled Styled Freak Dress-up Casual Straight Mod Freak o P ti bfl K5 O - H (D 525 H i W Single Couple Group-Mixed Group-Same Non-Dancers Non-Contemp. Contemp. Frenzied Freak Non-Drinkers Beer Liquor Under 25 25-35 Over 35 o i Non-Dancers Non-Contemp. Contemporary F r e n z i e d Freak * •x-* * * * * •X- * * * * * * •x-* * * •x-* •X-•x- * •X-* •X-•X-* DRINK N on-Drinkers Beer L i q u o r * * * * * * * * * * * * •X-* •X-AGE Under 25 25-35 Over 35 * •X--X-•x-* * * •X-* Rows i n d i c a t e the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d across the top which have a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d down the s i d e . Columns i n d i c a t e to which cat e g o r i e s l i s t e d down the side the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d across the top have a strong r e l a t i o n . CO 84 however the dominant make-up i n t h i s age category i s l i g h t . Dress-up c l o t h i n g i s a l s o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both backcombed h a i r and heavy make-up. Age over 35 years has as a t t r i b u t e s c u r l e d and s t y l e d h a i r and i s an a t t r i b u t e of non-contemporary dance. Again non-drinkers are non-dancers. I n g e n e r a l , these subjects had long s t r a i g h t h a i r , l i g h t make-up, were i n couples and under 25 years of age. Beer d r i n k i n g i s an a t t r i b u t e of f r e a k dancing and has as an a t t r i b u t e contemporary dance. Beer d r i n k e r s are contemporary dancers but contemporary dancers are not beer d r i n k e r s ; t h i s dance form has as an a t t r i b u t e l i q u o r d r i n k i n g , l i q u o r d r i n k i n g and dress-up c l o t h i n g are both a t t r i b u t e s of non-contemporary dance. The couple c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s as s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l dance s t y l e s except non-contemporary. There i s a group of s u b j e c t s who are under 25, have l o n g s t r a i g h t h a i r , are i n couples, wear l i g h t make-up, are contemporary dancers, and d r i n k liquor*. A l l these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s except the couple c a t e g o r i z a t i o n are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a s u a l c l o t h i n g . However, mod and " s t r a i g h t " c l o t h i n g have many of these c a t e g o r i e s as a t t r i b u t e s as w e l l , suggesting that t h i s p a t t e r n i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by a p a r t i c u l a r c l o t h i n g category. Summary of Female Types From the cross t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s of female su b j e c t s we can i d e n t i f y a "long s t r a i g h t hair-contemporary 85 dance" group which does not have a p r e c i s e c l o t h i n g p a t t e r n , a number of no make-up "freak" groupings, an under 25 companionship-dancing group, a 25-35 companionship-non-dancing group, an over 35 group, a non-drinking group, and a "backcombed hair-heavy make-up" group. The "long s t r a i g h t hair-contemporary dance" group has a stro n g r e l a t i o n t o the l o n g s t r a i g h t group i d e n t i f i e d i n the a n a l y s i s of responses to the v a r i a b l e " h a i r " . No d e f i n i t i o n through the cross t a b u l a t i o n s i s made of the h a i r c a t e g o r i e s s t y l e d and c u r l e d except i n terms of an age d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Backcombed h a i r i s present i n a group wit h s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s t o that described thro,ugh h a i r category. The "freak" category of h a i r would appear to be an inadequate c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . The cross t a b u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that f r e a k i s h n e s s i s not s o l e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one h a i r s t y l e but r a t h e r i s a s e r i e s of three patterns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the common f a c t o r of no make-up. C l o t h i n g does not appear t o be a good d i f f e r e n t i a t o r of the female p o p u l a t i o n . In n e i t h e r the h a i r response a n a l y s i s nor the cross t a b u l a t i o n s are particular'modes of dress a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e patterns of behavior. The only exception t o t h i s r u l e would be the a s s o c i a t i o n of backcombed h a i r w i t h dress-up c l o t h i n g and heavy make-up. I I I . COMPARISON OP THE TWO GENDERS Aggregate S i m i l a r i t i e s I n g e n e r a l , i t can be noted t h a t the women are 86 younger than t h e i r male counterparts, modal age being under 25 f o r the former and 25 to 35 f o r the l a t t e r . I n the male case one h a i r s t y l e group i s most prominent while f o r females two groups are e q u a l l y dominant. The p a t t e r n of companion-ship i n d i c a t e s that men are most o f t e n i n the company of t h e i r own sex while the opposite i s t r u e f o r females. To g e n e r a l i z e on the a s s o c i a t i o n s between the male and female p r o f i l e s i t i s necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n d i v i d u a l n i g h t c l u b and rate the s t r u c t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l clubs and groups of n i g h t c l u b s . Comments on C l i e n t e l e S t r u c t u r e s , The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between male cate g o r i e s are more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e than those between female c a t e g o r i e s . Male subject p a t t e r n s can be i s o l a t e d from the c l o t h i n g c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as from h a i r s t y l e . The cross t a b u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t there are probably only f i v e r e l e v a n t male h a i r s t y l e s r a t h e r than the seven p o s t u l a t e d i n the instrument. Age d i s c r i m i n a t e s a group of male patrons wearing c a s u a l c l o t h e s . Age i n the female case only d e f i n e s companionship and dancing s t y l e . ' The female cross t a b u l a t i o n s suggest a more comprehensive "freak" group than i s i d e n t i f i e d by h a i r style.- A " f r e a k " group, although small i n number, appears c o n s i s t e n t l y i n both genders. A l s o c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d i n both genders i s a 8 7 non-drinking—non-dancing group. These patrons appear t o be very t y p i c a l of a young contemporary group who deviate n e i t h e r to "high" nor past f a s h i o n s . As noted i n the summary of aggregate pa t t e r n s there i s a d i s t i n c t i v e male group over 35 years of age, but no comparable one f o r female s u b j e c t s . Females can not be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d from c l o t h i n g s t y l e s w h i l e the h a i r categories of s t y l e d and c u r l e d appear not r e l a t e d to comprehensive appearance and behavior p a t t e r n s . Summary In t h i s chapter we have attempted t o demonstrate tha t n i g h t c l u b c l i e n t e l e can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by appearance and behavior. A number of c l i e n t "types" have been i d e n t i f i which have consistency over both the a n a l y s i s of responses to the v a r i a b l e " h a i r " and the cross t a b u l a t i o n s . The existence of these c l i e n t types suggests t h a t i t i s l o g i c a l to proceed t o attempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n s on the b a s i s of c l i e n t appearance and behavior. The c l i e n t types i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s chapter w i l l not be r e f e r r e d to again. The a n a l y s i s of n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n s w i l l d i r e c t l y examine groups of n i g h t c l u b s w i t h s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e and w i l l then examine the d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups by i d e n t i f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c l i e n t e l e scores of each n i g h t c l u b group. 88 CHAPTER VI THE NIGHTCLUB AS PART OE RETAIL LOCATION This chapter w i l l look d i r e c t l y at the n i g h t -clubs i n terms of t h e i r c l i e n t ' s appearance and behavior and develop groups of n i g h t c l u b s w i t h s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e and entertainment p o l i c i e s . These n i g h t c l u b groups w i l l be examined t o determine how the c l i e n t e l e vary between the p a r t i c u l a r groups. The l o c a t i o n s of n i g h t c l u b s w i l l then be r e l a t e d to t h i s grouping, i n order t o d e f i n e the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s study can be seen i n the t r a d i t i o n of some of the more recent work r e l a t i n g consumer behavior t o f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n . Before proceeding w i t h the a n a l y s i s some of the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n of commercial s e r v i c e businesses i n the c i t y w i l l be b r i e f l y reviewed. I . APPROACHES TO RETAIL LOCATION The l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l i n g and s t o r e image i s u s e f u l i n s t u d y i n g n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n . A number of major review papers are a v a i l a b l e i n c l u d i n g those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e n t r a l place theory, (see Berry, 1963 and 1967; Berry and Pred, 1965; and Garner, 1966) Most do not p e r t a i n to t h i s study. The p a r t i c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l i n g reviewed by L e i g h (1965) as a preface to h i s study of high-order a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver i s 89 r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study. L e i g h argues, i n c o n t r a s t t o c e n t r a l p l a c e , that h i g h order a c t i v i t i e s need not be l o c a t e d i n the core of the c i t y . He recognizes the dynamic nature of the c i t y and notes that new establishments w i l l i n f a c t be l o c a t e d outside the core. C e n t r a l t o h i s argument i s the n o t i o n that high-order a c t i v i t i e s are not o r i e n t e d to the e n t i r e metropolitan area but r a t h e r to some segments of i t . A sample of high-order stores was drawn and data gathered from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s t o r e owners, a n a l y s i s of c r e d i t records, and a card q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Leigh concluded t h a t although the C.B.D. s t i l l dominated r e t a i l t r a d e , the 'c stores there were only appealing to a segment of the t o t a l c i t y market. He notes that the higher the order of good the more important were n o n - s p a t i a l f a c t o r s i n determining store h i n t e r l a n d . Leigh's study i s u s e f u l i n th a t i t cha l l e n g e s . d i s t a n c e m i n i m i z a t i o n and c e n t r a l place models (Berry et a l ) and provides an overview of r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver. Behavior and L o c a t i o n That the r e a l world i s more complex than c e n t r a l place theory allows has been recognized by geographers i n recent years. Olsson ( 1 9 6 9 ) has t a c k l e d the e n t i r e question of the approach of students of c e n t r a l place theory and has o u t l i n e d a l t e r n a t e epistemologies. One of these a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s has been suggested by Pred 90 (1967 and 1969). Pred argues f o r a b e h a v i o r a l approach to the l o c a t i o n of the f i r m which depends on the i n f o r m a t i o n and the a b i l i t y t o act of a p a r t i c u l a r entrepreneur. The approach i s process o r i e n t e d , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the dynamic nature of s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as opposed to the s t a t i c approach of s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . While Pred's work marks a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from the s t r u c t u r a l approach to s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i t i s s t i l l concerned w i t h economic man. Although he attempts to develop the concepts of s a t i s f i c i n g and of boundedly r a t i o n a l economic man the optimum s o l u t i o n of h i s b e h a v i o r a l m a t r i x s t i l l y i e l d s boundlessly r a t i o n a l economic man. '• Pred's work was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by Claus (1969). In a study of g a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n i n d u s t r y i n C a l i f o r n i a he employed the concept of the boundedly r a t i o n a l s a t i s f i c e r to i n v e s t i g a t e l o c a t i o n . Two v a r i a b l e s , -gallonage and s t a t i o n l i f e , v/ere taken as measures of performance. Claus developed a s i t e r a t i n g instrument to evaluate both the micro aspects ( s i z e and shape of the layout and v i s i b i l i t y ) and the macro aspects (neighbourhood' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) . Por a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the instrument, see Claus and Rothwell (1970). The a b i l i t y to act and i n f o r m a t i o n dimensions of the seven major o i l companies i n C a l i f o r n i a v/ere assessed u s i n g psychometric i n t e r v i e w techniques. Claus found that both i n f o r m a t i o n and a b i l i t y to act v/ere s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the 91 micro s c a l e and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the macro s c a l e . C o r r e l a t i o n s between the b e h a v i o r a l matrix data and t o t a l s i t e r a t i n g scores were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . R othwell (1970) concentrated on the s i t e q u a l i t y aspects of s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s i n Vancouver. By r e f i n i n g Claus' instrument he was able to p r e d i c t gallonage g i v e n a r a t i n g instrument score and he r a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n company behavior and p r i c e - c u t t e r s t a t i o n s . The b e h a v i o r a l aspects of the study are those concerning the marketing of the product by the c o r p o r a t i o n . I n a study of medical doctors i n Vancouver, Bottomley (1971) evaluated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p h y s i c i a n s themselves and compared this;' w i t h s i t e data. While Rothwell*s study can be seen as the i s o l a t i o n and refinement of the s i t e aspects of Claus' work, Bottomley's concentrates more on b e h a v i o r a l aspects. By using an i n t e r v i e w technique he was a b l e t o develop a "degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " s c a l e f o r p h y s i c i a n s and found s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between score and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The methods of t h i s approach come c l o s e r t o under-standing r e a l world s i t u a t i o n s than those of the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s t s . The i n t e r v i e w technique and the s i t e r a t i n g instruments are both u s e f u l t o o l s t o research. The l a t t e r i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance to t h i s study. I n t h i s t h e s i s a crude instrument, based upon t h a t devised by Claus, was developed to appraise macro, or e x t e r n a l , s i t e 92 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample of n i g h t c l u b s . I I . THE IMAGE OP THE STORE Apart from s t r u c t u r a l and " b e h a v i o r a l " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s there i s extensive l i t e r a t u r e on the image of the r e t a i l s t o r e . The b a s i c question r a i s e d by t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s why, regardless of i n t r a - c i t y d i s t a n c e , a purchase i s made at a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . Work i n t h i s area concentrates more on consumer behavior than on behavior of the entrepreneur. S o c i a l C l a s s Martineau (1958a) f e l t t hat the consumer's image of the s t o r e was one of the e n t i r e store r a t h e r than of p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the s t o r e such as a counter or a department. What the customer buys "depends on the s u b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s t h a t are part of the s t o r e images - atmosphere, s t a t u s , personnel, other customers". (Martineau, 1958a, p.55). Martineau a l s o noted that there were s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n preference of p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e s . The d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s concept was continued i n a second a r t i c l e (Martineau, 1958b). On the b a s i s of a study of s o c i a l c l a s s i n Chicago he concludes that s t o r e s must be designed to meet a s e l e c t e d segment of the market. While most s t o r e s w i l l have a c l i e n t e l e of more than one s o c i a l c l a s s the p a r t i c u l a r mix v a r i e s ( l e v y , 1966). In terms of cosmetic purchase Levy (1966). found that upper-class women were more apt t o p a t r o n i z e 93 department s t o r e s w h i l e l o w e r - c l a s s women p r e f e r r e d v a r i e t y s t o r e s . He enunciates a tendency f o r women of lower status t o p r e f e r " l o c a l , f a c e to face places where they f e e l they w i l l get a f r i e n d l y r e c e p t i o n , easy c r e d i t i f needed, e t c . As a consequence the same products (and brands) may be purchased i n d i f f e r e n t channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n by members of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l classes',1.' (p. 153) L i f e S t y l e I n two other a r t i c l e s on the subject Levy (1959 and 1964) introduces the concept of l i f e s t y l e . He makes the point (1959) that w h i l e the consumer may once have been "economic man" v/h'en needs such as f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r were urgent, w i t h i n c r e a s e d income, s t a t u s , and m o b i l i t y t h i s i s no longer t r u e . Products are thus marketed i n terms of images i n attempt to connect, i n the mind of the-consumer, the symbol that i s the product w i t h personal g o a l s , f e e l i n g s , and s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . Thus, "marketers do not j u s t s e l l i s o l a t e d items t h a t can be i n t e r p r e t e d as symbols; r a t h e r pieces of a l a r g e r symbol — the consumer's l i f e s t y l e " . (Levy, 1964, p.150) Models of Store Image The most elegant model of consumer behavior i s presented by Engel et a l (1968). T h e i r concern i s not w i t h store image per se but r a t h e r w i t h the e n t i r e purchase process. One of the e a r l i e s t models of store image was 94 presented by l i s l e (1962). The model i s conceptu a l l y i n two p a r t s , a model of determinants of customer behavior and a model of determinants of stor e image. While an i n t e r e s t i n g e f f o r t , F l s k ' s model s u f f e r s from a poverty of theory and creates problems of o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of weighing determinants. K l u n k e l and Berry (1968) present a much more elegant model. While F i s k r e s t r i c t e d h i s assessment of image to s i x components K l u n k e l and Berry have i s o l a t e d twelve i n an e f f o r t to define image w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n . They advocate a be h a v i o r a l approach based on l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , s u b s t i t u t i n g a b e h a v i o r a l conception of image f o r c o g n i t i o n and f e e l i n g . Most i m p o r t a n t l y K l u n k e l and Berry note the dynamic nature of development of image. , The consumer weights d i f f e r e n t experiences i n developing an image. T h e i r twelve image components were t e s t e d f o r v a l i d i t y u s i n g an open ended questionnaire on subjects drawn from c r e d i t records of three department s t o r e s . I n each case the i n t e r v i e w concerned only that s t o r e at which the subject had a c r e d i t r e c o r d . The responses were coded by content a n a l y s i s i n t o the r e l e v a n t hypothesized component and subcomponents. Those th a t could not be coded were assigned t o a t h i r t e e n t h category. Using t h i s procedure they were able to c l a s s i f y 99 percent of the responses i n t o the twelve components of image. The three s t o r e s had s i m i l a r marketing p o l i c i e s , aiming f o r segments w i t h i n 95 the upper middle c l a s s , but each had a d i f f e r e n t image. Gruen and Gruen (1967) present a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t approach to store image. T h e i r concern i s the optimum l o c a t i o n f o r a r e t a i l f i r m . They u t i l i z e a b e h a v i o r a l approach to construct p r o f i l e customers f o r the e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n s of a f i r m . These p r o f i l e customers (as w e l l as p r o f i l e noncustomers) are i n t e r v i e w e d to determine t h e i r g eneral a t t i t u d e s towards p o t e n t i a l new l o c a t i o n s . A demographic a n a l y s i s of p o t e n t i a l market areas i s then conducted and r e s u l t s compared w i t h customer p r o f i l e s . By u t i l i z i n g a b e h a v i o r a l approach the Gruens are able to o b t a i n very s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on customers u n a v a i l a b l e from aggregated sources such as census data. The p o t e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s are o r d i n a l l y ranked on the b a s i s of which best s u i t s the p r o f i l e customer of the s t o r e . Becker (1967) delves further, i n t o the b e h a v i o r a l aspects of. s t o r e image. H i s t h e s i s i s t h a t "image i s but a symbol of a t t i t u d e (p.23)". He develops the argument that a t t i t u d e s underly the c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l dimensions. Theory i n d i c a t e s that a t t i t u d e s can be measured e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t s . Becker discusses f i f t e e n components of s t o r e image which are i n f l u e n t i a l i n c r e a t i n g or modifying a t t i t u d e s . He breaks these down i n t o two groups; those c o n t r o l l a b l e by the r e t a i l e r and those which are only p a r t l y c o n t r o l l a b l e . The f i r s t group i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n a l determinants such as l o c a t i o n , p a r k i n g , p r i c e and q u a l i t y , depth and width of assortment, and layout and d i s p l a y . The second group i s composed of p s y c h o l o g i c a l determinants and i n c l u d e s c h a r a c t e r of s a l e s personnel, packaging, a d v e r t i s i n g tone, and s t y l e of merchandise. I n f l u e n c i n g both these groups are the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s of group i n f l u e n c e s : primary group, s o c i a l c l a s s , reference group, and s t a t u s . T a y l o r (1972) o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a t t i t u d e measurement techniques i n the f i e l d of s t o r e image, A s e l e c t i o n of 172 items on st o r e image was d e r i v e d from u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 27 undergraduate students. These items were then r a t e d by a sample of 120 s u b j e c t s on a r a t i o a t t i t u d e s c a l e . Seventy of these items were then f a c t o r analyzed to determine the u n d e r l y i n g dimensions. Ten f a c t o r s ' w i t h eigen values g r e a t e r than 1.0 r e s u l t e d and e x p l a i n e d 55 percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data. Of these ten f a c t o r s f i v e were p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t : boutiqueness, cheapness, r e l i a b i l i t y , convenience, and e x c l u s i v e n e s s . T a y l o r ' s study i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t hat the s t r u c t u r e of people's images forms the b a s i s f o r the development of the components. Summary A v a r i e t y of approaches t o , and concepts about, the o r g a n i z a t i o n and nature of r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s have been discussed. Each of the approaches has f l a w s ; however, from t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i t appears that s t r u c t u r a l analyses e s p e c i a l l y , 97 leave much t o be de s i r e d i n terms of explanatory power. The work on consumer behavior and store image would i n d i c a t e t h a t purchase d e c i s i o n s are made i n response to a t t i t u d e s and l i f e s t y l e . T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the image of n i g h t -clubs and the k i n d of c l i e n t e l e they a t t r a c t . F u r t h e r , t h i s s e c t i o n demonstrates t h a t n i g h t c l u b s , l i k e other r e t a i l establishments, are differentiated;—dependent upon image and r e l a t e d concepts t o a t t r a c t customers, r a t h e r than distance determination o r l o c a t i o n a l convenience. I I I . THE GROUPING OP NIGHTCLUBS i I n Chapter Pive the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the va r i o u s c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were explored. C e r t a i n c l i e n t e l e , types were i d e n t i f i e d at the aggregate l e v e l . I t i s now u s e f u l to proceed t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l i e n t e l e and n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n s . To permit such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n the n i g h t c l u b s were grouped by s t a t i s t i c a l methods on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t y of c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s . These groups were then examined f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o p a r t i c u l a r entertainment p o l i c i e s (eg. nude entertainment or rock and r o l l ) i n order to i d e n t i f y any c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n the groups. The entertainment p o l i c y of each club i n the sample had been documented by the research a s s i s t a n t s during the c l i e n t e l e survey (see Appendix A). 98 The patrons of the n i g h t c l u b s i n p a r t i c u l a r groups were then i n v e s t i g a t e d and the major d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups, on the b a s i s of c l i e n t e l e a t t r i b u t e s , were then noted. The c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s of each of the groups were then compared w i t h the data f o r the t o t a l sample so as t o i d e n t i f y major d e v i a t i o n s from the p o p u l a t i o n norms. T h i s e n t i r e procedure was f o l l o w e d f o r both male and female s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s of these two separate analyses were then compared to e s t a b l i s h the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the n i g h t c l u b group s t r u c t u r e s . The grouping procedure v/as as f o l l o w s : scores were t o t a l l e d by category and by sex f o r each/nightclub. These t o t a l s were transformed i n t o percentage f i g u r e s u s i n g the number of patrons present as the base. I t should be noted that the f i g u r e s were the t o t a l over both survey n i g h t s . As each subject i s i d e n t i f i e d by only one response t o each v a r i a b l e the t o t a l of the respondants i n the cat e g o r i e s of a v a r i a b l e equals the number of s u b j e c t s . Thus, each v a r i a b l e assesses the. e n t i r e p o p ulation independ-e n t l y from the other v a r i a b l e s . Percentage scores are the percentage by category f o r each v a r i a b l e . Given the nature of the data, as discussed i n Chapter Pour, the only appropriate s t a t i s t i c a l technique f o r developing c l u s t e r s of n i g h t c l u b s on the basis of the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s i s h i e r a r c h i c a l grouping a n a l y s i s . H i e r a r c h i c a l grouping a n a l y s i s i s discussed 99 by Veldman (1967) and he notes the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : Given a set of N o b j e c t s (persons, t e s t items, and so f o r t h ) , each measured on K d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , one may ask t o what extent there e x i s t n a t u r a l groups among the IT o b j e c t s - groups which •are s i m i l a r i n t h e i r scores on the K v a r i a b l e s used to d e s c r i b e them. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , on optimum grouping of the o b j e c t s can be d e f i n e d f o r each p a r t i c u l a r number of groups from 2 to N-1. (One group and N groups of one each one l i m i t i n g cases.) Such an optimum grouping should minimize the average intra-group d i s t a n c e . Unfortunately the computational burden i n v o l v e d with f o u r groups and 20 o b j e c t s -a r e l a t i v e l y small problem - i s p r o h i b i t i v e even w i t h the a i d of a computer since every p o s s i b l e grouping of the 20 o b j e c t s i n t o f o u r sets would have to be used as a b a s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g an index of c l u s t e r s e p a r a t i o n . Ward (1963) has provided a compromise approach ...the method begins by d e f i n i n g each o r i g i n a l object as a "group". These N groups aire then reduced i n number by a s e r i e s of step d e c i s i o n s u n t i l a l l N persons have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one or the other of two groups. At each step some p a i r of "groups" i s combined, thus reducing the number of groups by one. The d e c i s i o n regarding the p a r t i c u l a r p a i r to be combined at any stage i s made on the b a s i s of some p a r t i c u l a r "value r e f l e c t i n g " f u n c t i o n . . . . T h i s procedure i s a compromise v/ith the t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a l of optimum grouping described e a r l i e r , s ince at each stage of the process the previous grouping i s accepted as the b a s i s f o r determining the next r e d u c t i o n . One can imagine t h i s process l e a d i n g g r a d u a l l y t o a s o l u t i o n which i s not optimum, but only under circumstances where the " n a t u r a l " c l u s t e r i n g i s q u i t e weak. (Veldman, 1967, pp. 308-309) I n t h i s problem the 32 male ca t e g o r i e s and the 28 female c a t e g o r i e s are defined as the K v a r i a b l e s . This. prodecure c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y questioned as t h e r e are a c t u a l l y only seven v a r i a b l e s i n each case. However, the use of the Y/ard al g o r i t h m does not appear to be dependent upon orthogonal dimensions. The N o b j e c t s i n both cases 100 are the 29 n i g h t c l u b s . The l e v e l of grouping which determines a number of " n a t u r a l " groups can be a s c e r t a i n e d from the e r r o r . The e r r o r index i s the sum of the squared d i f f e r e n c e s between corresponding scores i n the p r o f i l e s , d i v i d e d by the number of obj e c t s i n the p o t e n t i a l group. (Veldman, 1967, p.310) At c e r t a i n stages i n the grouping procedure the e r r o r increases s i g n i f i c a n t l y suggesting that the previous stage i s a l e v e l of " n a t u r a l " c l u s t e r i n g . To determine which n i g h t c l u b s had s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e two grouping a analyses were conducted, one f o r male subjects and another f o r female. The method s h a l l be t o examine the analyses i n d i v i d u a l l y before attempting comparison of the data. Male Groups The 29 n i g h t c l u b s were grouped on the 32 ca t e g o r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the male p r o f i l e s . On i n s p e c t i o n , the l e v e l of s i x groups would appear to be a " n a t u r a l " c l u s t e r i n g (see Appendix D), Group membership i s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 6,1. Reference to the p a r t i c u l a r groups w i l l be made by the name of the f i r s t member..* In g e n e r a l , the grouping i s i n t u i t i v e l y a ppealing. Group One, the Club Z a n i z i b a r group, c o n s i s t s of those establishments which o f f e r t o p l e s s entertainment o r genuine s t r i p t e a s e . The n i g h t c l u b s i n the Mad Dolphin group, w i t h one exception,. market what could be termed a "go-go" product. 101 TABLE 6.1 Membership i n Male Groups GROUP ONE - STRIP TWO - POP MUSIC THREE - ROCK AND ROLL Club Zanzibar Sneaky Pete's Mad Dolphin The Place D i r t y S a l ' s The Body shop The Factory Image I Pharoah 1s K u b l a i Khan Lasseter's Den Gassy Jack's P l a c e The Bunny Room Town Pump The Reef Isy's S t r i p C i t y S m i l i n ' Buddha The Backroom The Penthouse O i l Can Harry's GROUP j POUR - SKID ROW PIVE - PLOOR SHOW SIX - BOTTOMLESS Gulf Club Down Under Cafe Kobenhavn K i t Kat Klub L i v i n g Room The Bayside Room Johann Strauss Quadra Club The emphasis i s on d r i n k i n g and dancing to l i v e commercial r o c k - a n d - r o l l music. The exception, Gassy Jack's P l a c e , was p r e s e n t i n g a "show" product during the week of the survey. The p a r t i c u l a r show s t a r r e d P a u l Horn, a noted j a z z f l a u t i s t whose r e p u t a t i o n r e f l e c t s , t o a degree, h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h rock and r o l l c e l e b r i t i e s . Both Group Pour c l u b s are found i n Vancouver's Skid Road, . the. o l d commercial d i s t r i c t , near the wa t e r f r o n t . Rooming houses, pawnshops, 102 cheap h o t e l s , hard drugs, and "bay rum" are as s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s t r i c t . The Down Under group clubs market a dance product but the emphasis i s more on popular r a t h e r than rock and r o l l entertainment. At the time of the survey the Cafe Kobenhavn was the only n i g h t c l u b i n Vancouver p r o v i d i n g t o t a l l y nude entertainment and d i d not possess a l i c e n c e to s e l l l i q u o r . The Group Two clubs are not as e a s i l y defined as the o t h e r s . They b a s i c a l l y market a popular music product, rock and r o l l o r i e n t e d , but comparatively tame and commercial. The S m i l i n ' Buddha i s an exception being a S k i d Row n i g h t -club o f f e r i n g s t r i p - t e a s e i n a d d i t i o n to the music product. We must now examine the c l i e n t e l e from which the groups were developed. T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l a l l o w us t o develop an understanding of the d i f f e r e n c e s between c l i e n t e l e associated, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r n i g h t c l u b groups and t o l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t e i f these d i f f e r e n c e s are s p a t i a l l y defined.. S t r u c t u r e of Male Groups The Club Zanzibar group d i s p l a y e d the s t r a i g h t , l o n g - s t y l e d and pompadour h a i r s t y l e s . The " s t r a i g h t " f a s h i o n was most common, w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t - numbers of lo n g s t y l e d and pompadour patrons. The two primary c a t e g o r i e s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o v e r a l l male data. These c l i e n t s wore s u i t s o r dressed c a s u a l l y , d i d not dance, and were i n same sex combinations. They were over 25 years of age, 103 drank l i q u o r r a t h e r than beer, and e x h i b i t e d sideburns or no f a c i a l h a i r . The patrons of Group Two n i g h t c l u b s wore t h e i r h a i r i n the same f a s h i o n as those i n Group One and i n approximately the same p r o p o r t i o n s . C l o t h i n g s t y l e s were ca s u a l or s u i t s and companionship was i n mixed sex groups or couples. L i q u o r was s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d as a beverage, sideburns were the most common type of f a c i a l h a i r , age was evenly d i s t r i b u t e d , and those who danced d i d so i n a contemporary s t y l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s group and the previous one i n c l u d e a more casual type of dr e s s , more conservative and g r e a t e r amounts of f a c i a l h a i r , a mixed r a t h e r than s i n g l e companionships, a preference f o r l i q u o r , and a younger, though e v e n l y 1 d i s t r i b u t e d , c l i e n t e l e . The t h i r d group, i d e n t i f i e d by the Mad Dolphin n i g h t c l u b , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h younger patrons. Few males were over 35, v/hile the under 25 category accounted f o r three f i f t h s of the patrons. The h a i r s t y l e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s bimodal, s t r a i g h t and lo n g , s t y l e d accounting f o r two t h i r d s of the su b j e c t s . A r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of patrons were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the "freak" h a i r s t y l e . Seventy percent of the patrons had f a c i a l h a i r , w i t h the--most s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g on mustaches. Companionship was mixed sex combinations, beer was the p r e f e r r e d refreshment, and contemporary dance was the modal category i n t h i s group. C l o t h i n g s t y l e s were predominantly casual w i t h some patrons ' 104 wearing s t r a i g h t or mod f a s h i o n s . T h i s group of patrons were younger and more contemporary than the two p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d . The Gulf Club and the K i t Kat Klub are the s o l e members of Group Pour. H a i r s t y l e s were s t r a i g h t , grease, and m i l i t a r y . The l a t t e r two groups each accounted for:, over one quarter of the su b j e c t s . C l o t h i n g s t y l e s v/ere l i m i t e d , w i t h c a s u a l wear the dominant category. The male patrons of these two clubs p r e f e r r e d beer over l i q u o r , v/ere mostly between 25 and 35 years of age, and were present as s i n g l e s or couples. Those few who d i d dance e x h i b i t e d a non-contemporary mode. F a c i a l h a i r was present as sideburns and o c c a s i o n a l l y goatees. O v e r a l l , t h i s group appears to i d e n t i f y a segment of the p o p u l a t i o n who have maintained f a s h i o n s w i t h t h e i r peer group while f a s h i o n .in general has changed. Group Five c h a r a c t e r i z e s an o l d e r and more formal type of c l i e n t . The two c h i e f h a i r s t y l e s are s t r a i g h t and pompadour w i t h greater than "normal" numbers of patrons i n the bald and m i l i t a r y c a t e g o r i e s . S u i t s were the most common a t t i r e and the beverage preference v/as l i q u o r . There were few patrons under 25 i n these c l u b s , the modal category i s age over 35* For those patrons who danced, the s t y l e was not contemporary - f a c i a l h a i r v/as not dominant but sideburns were i n evidence. Group S i x has a s i n g l e member, the Cafe Kobenhavn. TABLE 6.2 St r u c t u r e of Male Groups N = 957 GROUP ONE TWO THREE POUR FIVE SIX # 357 194 187 34 135 50 % 37.61 20.27 19.54 3. 55 14.11 5.22 HAIR :# % # % # % # % # % // % Bald 34 9.52 15 7.73 5 2.67 1 2.94 19 14.07 8 16.00 M i l i t a r y - 17 4.76 7 3.61 7 3.74 9 26.47 16 11.85 0 .00 S t r a i g h t 149 41.74 77 39.69 67 35.83 11 32.35 43 31.85 27 54.00 Pompadour 41 11.48 23 11.86 4 2.14 2 5.88 25 18.52 7 14.00 Grease 12 3.36 17 8.76 9 4.81 10 29.41 9 6.67 3 6.00 Long-Styled 75 21.01 45 23.20 62 33.16 1 2.94 21 15.56 4 8.00 Preak 29 8.12 10 5.15 33 17.65 0 .00 2 1.48 1 2.00 CLOTHING S u i t 129 36.13 52 26.80 19 10.16 4 11.76 85 62.96 10 20.00 Casual 132 36.97 79 40.72 90 48.13 22 64.71 16 11.85 19 38.00 S t r a i g h t 47 13.17 40 20.62 42 22.46 8 23.53 17 12.59 20 40.00 Mod 38 10.64 21 10.82 31 16.58 0 .00 17 12.59 0 .00 Preak 11 3.08 2 1.03 5 2.67 0 .00 0 .00 1 2.00 O U l TABLE 6.2 continued ONE TV/0 THREE FOUR FIVE SIX # * # % # % # % # fo # FACIAL DECORATI ON Clean Shaven 153 42.86 64 32.99 57 30.48 15 44.12 59 43.70 33 66.00 Mustache 43 12.04 43 22.16 59 31.55 2 5.88 14 10.37 6 12.00 Sideburns 125 35.01 77 39.69 44 23.53 12 35.29 47 34.81 5 10.00 Goatee 10 2.80 3 1.55 8 4.28 3 8.82 5 3.70 0 .00 Beard 26 7.28 7 3.61 19 10.16 2 5.88 10 7.41 6 12.00 COMPANIONSHIP Si n g l e 93 26.05 34 17.53 33 17.65 14 41.18 17 12.59 17 34.00 Couple 36 10.08 45 23.20 52 27.81 12 35.29 52 38.52 3 6,00 Group-Mixed 44 12.32 62 31.96 59 31.55 0 .00 40 29.63 1 2.00 Group-Same 184 51.54 53 27.32 43 22.99 8 23.53 26 19.26 29 58.00 DANCE Non-Dancers 320 89.64 91 46.91 76 40.64 24 70.59 71 52.59 50 100.00 Not Contemp. 8 2.24 21 10.82 8 4.28 8 23.53 38 28.15 0 .00 Contemporary 7 1.96 73 37.63 92 49.20 2 5.88 20 14.81 0 .00 Fr e n z i e d 0 .00 7 3.61 8 4.28 0 .00 6 4.44 0 .00 Freak 0 .00 2 1.03 3 1.60 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 M i s s i n g Data 22 6.16 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 TABLE 6.2 continued ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX # # # # * # # DRINK -Non-Drinkers 10 2.80 2 1.03 8 4.28 2 5.88 4 2.96 50 100.00 Beer 151 42.30 48 24.74 106 56.68 20 58.82 41 30.37 0 .00 L i q u o r 196 54.90 144 74.23 73 39.04 11 32.25 90 66.67 - 0 .00 Mi s s i n g Data 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 1 2.94 0 .00 0 .00 AGE Under 25 79 22.13 86 44.33 106 56.68 7 20.59 11 8.15 8 16.00 25 to 35 167 46.78 66 34.02 72 38.50 21 61.76 51 37.78 17 34.00 Over 35 111 31.09 42 21.65 9 4.81 6 17.65 73 54.07 25 50.00 H O 108 The m a j o r i t y of patrons wore t h e i r h a i r i n the " s t r a i g h t " f a s h i o n , although ba l d and pompadour s t y l e s v/ere a l s o common. The m a j o r i t y of patrons v/ere over 25 years while h a l f the patrons were over 35 years. There was no dancing and no d r i n k i n g due to the nature of the show and l a c k of the necessary l i c e n c e . The companionship p a t t e r n was overwhelmingly s i n g l e or group same sex. F a c i a l h a i r was g e n e r a l l y absent although a s i g n i f i c a n t number of bearded and mustachioed patrons v/ere present. At the next l e v e l of grouping t h i s club i s i n c l u d e d i n Group One. Male Comparison Data , A convenient method of comparison i s t o examine the groups i n r e l a t i o n t o the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n and t o r a t e those c a t e g o r i e s w i t h percentage respondents g r e a t e r than the sample p o p u l a t i o n norm. Group One c l o s e l y approximates the standard f o r the h a i r v a r i a b l e w i t h s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r numbers i n the s u i t and casual c a t e g o r i e s of the c l o t h i n g v a r i a b l e . The companionship and dance v a r i a b l e s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r responses i n the group same sex and none c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Age i s weighted more to the o l d e r and of the scale and mustaches are l e s s common than the norm. H a i r s t y l e s and c l o t h i n g i n Group Two are s i m i l a r t o the population while the f a c i a l h a i r v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a g r e a t e r percentage of mustaches and sideburns. Companion-ship i s weighted towards mixed sex combinations and more 109 people dance i n these c l u b s . The d r i n k i n g of l i q u o r i s much more popular here than o v e r a l l w i t h the age v a r i a b l e s h i f t e d somewhat to the younger end of the s c a l e . In Group Three we f i n d some i n t e r e s t i n g d e v i a t i o n s from the standard. The under 25 age group i s much more dominant here as are l o n g - s t y l e d and f r e a k h a i r s t y l e s . Mod and ca s u a l c l o t h i n g are much more popular i n t h i s group w i t h the companionship v a r i a b l e showing preference f o r the mixed sex category. Dancing i n the contemporary, f r e n z i e d , and f r e a k fashions i s much more common as i s the preference f o r beer. Group Pour shows d e v i a t i o n s from the norm i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n from the previous group. The grease and m i l i t a r y h a i r categories have an ap p r e c i a b l y g r e a t e r response as does the casual category of c l o t h i n g . Mustaches are l e s s popular but t h i s i s balanced by a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r response i n the none and sideburns c a t e g o r i e s . As noted i n the group d e s c r i p t i o n the s t r e n g t h of response i n the s i n g l e and couple s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s and the not contemporary dance category i s d i f f e r e n t from other groups and the pop u l a t i o n norm. Beer i s a more popular beverage than i s common and the age v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a p o p u l a t i o n predominately i n the 25 to 35 category. The f i f t h group again deviates from the norm. The categories of pompadour, ba l d , and m i l i t a r y have a g r e a t e r response than the p o p u l a t i o n standard. The wearing of s u i t s i s d i s t i n c t l y more common and d r i n k i n g 110 patterns show an. i n c r e a s e d preference f o r l i q u o r . The not contemporary c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of dance, the mixed sex combinations of s t a t u s , and the over 35 age category are d i s t i n c t i n t h e i r i n c r e a s e d frequency of response. The f a c i a l h a i r v a r i a b l e i s s i m i l a r to the p o p u l a t i o n norm except f o r a decrease i n the number of mustaches present. The Cafe Kobenhavn, the s i n g l e member of Group S i x , shows two d e v i a t i o n s consistent w i t h the nature of the club -the l a c k of dancing and d r i n k i n g . Other d i f f e r e n c e s are apparent i n the number of s t r a i g h t , pompadour, and b a l d h a i r s t y l e s . " S t r a i g h t " c l o t h i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more popular while f a c i a l h a i r i s l e s s so. The group same sex and age over 35 categories a l s o show an i n c r e a s e d response. Male C l i e n t e l e : Summary and R e c a p i t u l a t i o n I t can be noted that there are d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e groups a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t groupings of n i g h t c l u b s . C e r t a i n groups of club s account f o r s p e c i a l i z e d components of the male p o p u l a t i o n . Five of the s i x n i g h t c l u b groups could be i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of d i f f e r e n t entertainment p o l i c i e s . These entertainment p o l i c i e s were: s t r i p , pop music, rock and r o l l , f l o o r show, and bottomless. The s i x t h group was i d e n t i f i e d by i t s l o c a t i o n on Vancouver's S k i d Row. The patrons of the s t r i p c l u b s ( i n c l u d e s t o p l e s s ) were over 25 years of age, d i d not dance, drank l i q u o r , 111 were most o f t e n c l e a n shaven, wore s u i t s or were dressed c a s u a l l y , and were i n groups of same sex. Those at the pop music clubs were s i m i l a r t o those at the s t r i p clubs except that they were more o f t e n c a s u a l l y dressed than i n a s u i t , possessed more f a c i a l d e c o r a t i o n , v/ere more commonly i n mixed sex groups, and danced more o f t e n . The rock and r o l l c lubs were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a younger c l i e n t e l e who drank beer, danced i n a contemporary f a s h i o n , had abundant f a c i a l d e c o r a t i o n , and had s t r a i g h t or l o n g - s t y l e d h a i r . I n t h i s group dancing i n the f r e n z i e d and f r e a k fashions was much more common than i h the i p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. The c l i e n t e l e of the two S k i d Row n i g h t c l u b s had t h e i r h a i r i n the s t r a i g h t , m i l i t a r y , or grease s t y l e s ; wore c a s u a l c l o t h i n g , danced i n a non-contemporary f a s h i o n , were i n s i n g l e s or i n couples, drank beer, and were i n the 2 5 to 3 5 age category. The f l o o r show clubs had a l a r g e group of patrons over 3 5 who wore s u i t s , had s t r a i g h t o r pompadour h a i r , and drank l i q u o r . The bottomless c l u b a t t r a c t s c l i e n t s who' are g e n e r a l l y over 2 5 years of age and most o f t e n over 3 5 . " S t r a i g h t " c l o t h i n g and " s t r a i g h t " h a i r were most common and companionship was as a s i n g l e or i n groups of same sex. There was no dancing or d r i n k i n g . These s i x male groups show a v a r i a t i o n i n terms of both entertainment p o l i c y and c l i e n t e l e s t r u c t u r e . Before 112 drawing any conclusions about t h i s v a r i a t i o n we must f i r s t examine the groupings of clubs based upon female scores. Female Groups I n the female case there are 28 ca t e g o r i e s of the seven v a r i a b l e s which measure appearance and behavior. Due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n female sample s i z e over the l o c a t i o n s , an e x t r a v a r i a b l e , the percentage of females to males, was added to the o r i g i n a l l i s t . The 29 n i g h t c l u b s sampled were grouped on these 29 c a t e g o r i e s . There are no ap p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n the e r r o r over the grouping procedure i n d i c a t i n g that there were perhaps no " n a t u r a l " groups. Given the choice of s i x groups i n the male case a d e c i s i o n was made to i n s p e c t a l e v e l of female groups of . approximately the same number. A s l i g h t i n c rease i n the e r r o r term between l e v e l seven and s i x i n d i c a t e s that seven groups would be appropriate f o r our purpose. The female groups are not as appealing as the male f o r the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the groups i s not so c o n s i s t e n t w i t h entertainment p o l i c y . As was the case i n the a n a l y s i s of the male groups the name of the f i r s t member w i l l be used t o i d e n t i f y the e n t i r e group. This i n f o r m a t i o n may be d e r i v e d from Table 6.3» Membership i n Female Groups. Group One i s composed of n i g h t c l u b s marketing a rock and r o l l dance product. Some s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s group and male Group Three can be noted and w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. 113 TABLE 6.3 Membership i n Female Groups GROUP ONE - ROCK AND ROLL TWO - MIXED THREE - STRIP Pharoah' s Gassy Jack's Place The Penthouse The Bodyshop Down Under I s y ' s S t r i p C i t y Mad Dolphin New D e l h i K u b l a i Khan Lasseter* s Den The Factory The Bunny Room The Backroom The Place Club Zanzibar The Bay side Room Johann Strauss ' ( Town Pump The Reef GROUP FOUR - POP MUSIC FIVE - SKID ROW 1 SIX - BOTTOMLESS L i v i n g Room Gulf Club Cafe Kobenhavn Image I K i t Kat Klub D i r t y S a l ' s Sneaky Pete's SEVEN - SKID ROW 2 Quadra Club S m i l i n ' Buddha O i l Can Harry's Gassy Jack's P l a c e i s the l e a d member of Group Two, a mixed c o l l e c t i o n of clubs o f f e r i n g v a r i o u s entertainments. Four of the c l u b s market t o p l e s s or s t r i p t e a s e , two a floorshow, t h r e e popular music, and one commercial rock and r o l l . Group Three c o n s i s t s of f o u r clubs which market 1 1 4 a topless or striptease product while the two clubs i n Group Pive, the Gulf Club and the Kit Kat Klub are found on Vancouver's Skid Road. This particular grouping i s identical with that for male scores. There are two single member groups, the Smilin' Buddha and the Cafe Kobenhavn. The latter's status i n this grouping i s identical to that i n the male grouping. As referred earlier, this i s the only nightclub in Vancouver which markets a product of total nudity and i s without a licence to s e l l liquor. The Smilin' Buddha, the sole member of Group Six, i s another Skid Road nightclub, but apparently attracts a different clientele from the Gulf and Kit Kat /clubs. In the male analysis this club was classifie d into a group of clubs marketing a commercial rock and r o l l product and was noted as an exception. In a later level of grouping the Smilin' Buddha i s included with those clubs of Group Three, marketers of topless or striptease entertainment. Group Pour i s a collection of nightclubs a l l marketing a dance product. However, the product varies from "popular" music to hard rock and r o l l . The groups w i l l now be examined i n terms of modal clientele profiles i n an effort to comprehend the grouping procedure. Structure of Pemale Groups In Group One the hair categories of long, straight and styled received the largest and equal responses. Clothing styles v/ere casual, straight, and mod while 115 make-up was i n general, lig h t . Companionship was determined as couple and mixed sex groups. Dancing was very popular, with the great majority of patrons displaying a contemporary style. Liquor was slightly more popular than beer with the age variable indicating a very young population. There were no subjects i n the over 35 category; the bulk were i n the under 25 category. This group describes the young contemporary female who follows current fashion and i s an active participant in the nightclub experience. The second collection of clubs, identified by Gassy Jack's Place, are patronized by persons of a l l ages. No category of the age variable i s distinct from the others. The modal category of hair i s the styled fashion with numbers of subjects i n the long, straight category. These • patrons wore "straight" or dress-up types of clothing indicating more formal attire than the previous group. Make-up was again light and status was i n mixed sex combina-tions. Dancing was not popular and of those patrons .who did dance, styles were equally s p l i t between contemporary and not contemporary modes. Beverage preference was overwhelmingly liquor. The subjects i n Group Three wore their hair i n the long, straight and styled fashions with some loadings on the curled and backcombed styles. Liquor, as in the previous group, was the popular refreshment and make-up was i n general light although there was a significantly large response i n the heavy category. Clientele companionship TABLE 6.4 St r u c t u r e of Female Groups N = 558 GROUP ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN # 136 213 53 132 10 6 8 % 24.37 38.17 9.49 23 .65 1.77 1.07 1 .43 HAIR # % # % # % # % # % # % # % Long-Str. 54 39.71 58 27.23 19 35.85 58 43.94 2 20.00 1 16.66 1 12.50 Backcombed 5 3.68 22 10.33 7 13.21 11 8.33 3 30.00 0 .00 4 50.00 Curled 22 16.18 51 23.94 9 16.98 27 20.45 3 30.00 0 .00 1 12.50 S t y l e d 54 39.71 79 37.09 15 28.30 35 26.52 2 20.00 5 83.33 1 12.50 Preak 1 0.74 3 1.41 3 5.66 1 0.76 0 .00 0 .00 1 12.50 CLOTHING Dress-up 14 10.29 76 35.68 21 39.62 43 32.58 0 .00 3 50.00 5 62.50 Casual 44 32.25 39 18.31 5 9.43 34 25.76 5 50.00 1 16.66 0 .00 S t r a i g h t 41 30.15 84 39.44 12 22.64 25 18.94 5 50.00 2 33.33 2 25.00 Mod 33 24.26 14 6.57 15 28.30 27 20.45 0 .00 0 .00 1 12.50 Preak 4- 2.94 0 .00 0 .00 _ 3 2.27 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 FACIAL DECORATION None 13 9.56 24 11.27 5 9.43 11 8.33 1 10.00 0 .00 3 37.50 Li g h t 101 74.26 156 73.24 27 50.94 91 68.94 3 30.00 3 50.00 3 37.50 Heavy 19 13.97 33 15.49 21 39.62 30 22.73 6 60.00 3 50.00 2 25.00 M i s s i n g Data 3 2.21 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 TABLE 6.4 continued ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN # % # # # # % # % # COMPANIONSHIP S i n g l e 12 8.82 14 6.57 6 11.32 6 4.55 3 30.00 0 .00 1 12.50 Couple 49 36.03 74 39.74 26 49.06 61 46.21 7 70.00 3 50.00 4 50.00 Group-Mixed 47 34.56 111 52.11 19 35.85 48 36.36 0 .00 3 50.00 3 37.50 Group-Same 28 20.59 13 6.10 2 3.77 17 12.88 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 M i s s i n g Data 0 .00 1 0.47 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 DANCE Non-Dancers 23 16.91 136 63.85 44 83.02 29 21.97 3 30.00 6 100.00 3 37.50 Not Contemp. 4 2.94 35 16.43 7 13.21 14 10.61 4 40.00 0 .00 2 25.00 Contemporary 105 77.21 38 17.84 2 3.77 79 59.85 3 30.00 0 .00 2 25.00 F r e n z i e d 2 1.47 4 1.88 : 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 Freak 2 1.47 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 DRINK Non-Drinkers 8- 5.88 10 4.69 3 5.66 _ 3 2.27 2 20.00 6 100.00 0 .00 Beer 56 41.18 53 24.88 4 7.55 10.61 5 50.00 0 .00 5 62.50 L i q u o r 72 52.94 150 70.42 46 86.79 115 87.12 3 30.00 0 .00 3 37.50 AGE Under 25 113 83.09 78 36.62 22 41.51 6,5 49.24 3 30.00 0 .00 3 37.50 25 t o 35 23 16.91 69 32.39 28 52.83 43 32.58 7 70.00 3 50.00 0 .00 Over 35 0 .00 66 30.99 3 5.66 24 18.18 0 .00 3 50.00 5 62.50 118 was i n couples or mixed sex groups and the s i n g l e most common c l o t h i n g s t y l e dress-up. Mod and " s t r a i g h t " types of c l o t h i n g were a l s o i n evidence. The 25-35 age group i s the modal category, f o l l o w e d by the under 25 group. There was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t number of sub j e c t s i n the over 35 category. Dancing was not common, of the s m a l l percentage who d i d dance, the mode was not contemporary. Group Pour i s s i m i l a r i n general s t r u c t u r e t o the previous group but there are notable exceptions. The l o n g , s t r a i g h t h a i r category i s more prominently represented at the expense of the backcombed and f r e a k c a t e g o r i e s . Make-up was more o f t e n l i g h t and although dress-up i s the modal c l o t h i n g category there are i n t h i s group a s i g n i f i c a n t number of sub j e c t s i n the c a s u a l category. This was not the case i n Group Three. The dancing v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a strong preference to dance i n a contemporary f a s h i o n and the age v a r i a b l e i s weighted to the under 25 category and se c o n d a r i l y t o the 25 to 35 category. The Gulf and K i t Kat club group i s n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from those already described. There are equal s p l i t s between backcombed and c u r l e d h a i r s t y l e s and casual and s t r a i g h t c l o t h i n g , make-up i s heavy w i t h age d i s t r i b u t i o n dominated by the 25 to 35 category. Dancing c a t e g o r i e s are none and not contemporary w i t h the beverage preference, beer. There are only two companionship c a t e g o r i e s present, s i n g l e and couple. Of these the couple c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n has the l a r g e r response. This group and the next two may be i n f l u e n c e d 119 by the small number of women who attended the f o u r n i g h t -c l u b s . I t can be suggested, however, that i n these cases the c l i e n t on which the trade i s b u i l t has been i d e n t i f i e d . Group S i x , the Cafe Kobenhavn, o f f e r s no dancing or l i q u o r . S t y l e d h a i r was most common while c l o t h i n g s t y l e s were e i t h e r dress-up or s t r a i g h t . There was an equal s p l i t on three v a r i a b l e s , make-up, companionship, and age. Companionship was e i t h e r group mixed o r couple, make-up l i g h t or heavy, and age 25-35 or over 35. At the S m i l i n ' Buddha h a l f the women wore t h e i r h a i r i n a backcombed f a s h i o n w i t h the remainder e q u a l l y s p l i t over the remaining c a t e g o r i e s . C l o t h i n g was predominately formal w i t h the "dress-up" and " s t r a i g h t " c ategories accounting f o r almost 90 percent of app a r e l . The make-up cate g o r i e s had about an equal response w i t h weighting tov/ards none and l i g h t . Age was over 35 and beverage preference was beer. The dancing v a r i a b l e records a response s i m i l a r t o the make-up v a r i a b l e w i t h the none category having the greatest response, and the not contemporary and contemporary c a t e g o r i e s having a s l i g h t l y l e s s e r . b u t equal response. Female Comparison Data > The responses by v a r i a b l e w i l l now be compared by group against the p o p u l a t i o n data as reported i n Chapter F i v e . The Pharoah's c o l l e c t i o n , Group One, has a few more respondents i n the lo n g , " s t r a i g h t " and s t y l e d h a i r categories than the norm, and a much g r e a t e r response i n the casual and mod 120 c l o t h i n g c a t e g o r i e s . Make-up and companionship f o l l o w the norm but w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis on l i g h t make-up and the group same sex s t a t u s . The dance v a r i a b l e shows almost twice as many su b j e c t s dancing i n a contemporary f a s h i o n i n these c l u b s . While l i q u o r was the m a j o r i t y choice of drin k the response t o the beer category was much h i g h e r here. As noted i n the general d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s group the under 25 category predominates almost to the e x c l u s i o n of the others. While h a l f the o v e r a l l female sample pop u l a t i o n was under 25 the number of subjects i n t h i s category sets t h i s group apart from the others. Group Two shows more sub j e c t s i n the s t y l e d , c u r l e d and backcombed ca t e g o r i e s of h a i r s t y l e than the o v e r a l l female p o p u l a t i o n . This i n c r e a s e i s at the expense of the long, s t r a i g h t category. The age v a r i a b l e shows a hig h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the subjects to be over age 35 which creates an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r a l l . Companionship i s more weighted towards the grouped mixed category w h i l e make-up c l o s e l y approximates the norm, although the l i g h t category shows a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e . Dancing i s l e s s common i n t h i s group of clubs and response t o t h i s v a r i a b l e shows an i n c r e a s e i n the percentage of subjects e x h i b i t i n g a non-contemporary s t y l e . C l o t h i n g s t y l e s are the same as the two c h i e f p o p u l a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s but i n d i c a t e an inc r e a s e d f o r m a l i z a t i o n . The Penthouse group of n i g h t c l u b s show an i n c r e a s e d 121 preference f o r the couple and s i n g l e companionship c a t e g o r i e s . Mod and dress-up c l o t h i n g i s n o t i c e a b l y more dominant i n these clubs as i s the preference f o r l i q u o r . The h a i r v a r i a b l e shows an i n c r e a s e d number of patrons e x h i b i t i n g backcombed and "freak" s t y l e s . Dancing i s decidedly l e s s popular here and the make-up v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n wearing heavy make-up. Group Pour can be noted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d response i n a number of c a t e g o r i e s , l o n g , s t r a i g h t h a i r -s t y l e s are more popular by ten percent while both contemporary dancing and the d r i n k i n g of l i q u o r show a twenty percent i n c r e a s e . Make-up and age are s i m i l a r to the /population norm but the c l o t h i n g v a r i a b l e has a sharp drop i n the number of subjects wearing " s t r a i g h t " f a s h i o n s . The couple c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n of companionship shows a s l i g h t increase at the expense of the group same sex category. I n the Gulf and K i t Kat Klub grouping there are a number of d e v i a t i o n s from the norm. Heavy make-up and couple companionship are much more predominant here. The h a i r v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the number of sub j e c t s w i t h backcombed and c u r l e d h a i r , the same being t r u e of the dress-up and casual c a t e g o r i e s of c l o t h i n g . Beer was more popular i n these clubs as was the non-contemporary dance s t y l e . The age v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e r 2 5 - 3 5 group than i s the norm. As noted e a r l i e r the r e l a t i v e l y small number of 1 2 2 female subjects at the Cafe Kobenhavn and the S m i l i n 1 Buddha p r e j u d i c e s the r e s u l t s . The Cafe Kobenhavn deviates from the norm i n the cases of in c r e a s e d response i n the s t y l e d h a i r , dress-up c l o t h i n g , and the 25 to 35 and over 35 age c a t e g o r i e s . At the S m i l i n 1 Buddha backcombed h a i r was f i v e times as common as the norm and dress-up c l o t h i n g twice as popular. The over 3 5 age category showed a l a r g e i n c r e a s e as d i d the beer category of d r i n k , and.'.an i n c r e a s e i n both the none and heavy cat e g o r i e s of make-up can be noted. Couple companionship and both not contemporary and f r e n z i e d dancing categories were more common than i n the o v e r a l l sample. / Female C l i e n t e l e : Summary and R e c a p i t u l a t i o n The female groups are not as c l e a r l y defined i n terms of entertainment p o l i c y as the male groups. F i v e of j the seven groups have i d e n t i f i a b l e p o l i c i e s : rock and r o l l , mixed, s t r i p , pop music and bottomless. There are two other groups which both have S k i d Row l o c a t i o n s . Although t h i s entertainment p o l i c y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can be made there i s not the same degree of consistency of p o l i c y w i t h i n the groups that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the male groups. The patrons of the rock and r o l l group clubs have long s t r a i g h t and s t y l e d h a i r , wear c a s u a l and mod c l o t h i n g , are under 2 5 , and dance i n a contemporary f a s h i o n . The mixed c l u b group had a more formal c l i e n t e l e i n that they " s t r a i g h t " and dress-up c l o t h i n g and d i d not dance. No 123 age category was dominant although there was a l a r g e r percent-age of over 35 patrons than the p o p u l a t i o n norm. S t y l e d , c u r l e d , and backcombed h a i r and non-contemporary dance a l s o showed an i n c r e a s e d response over the norm. Beverage preference v/as l i q u o r . The s t r i p c l u b s show an incr e a s e d number of patrons i n the couple and s i n g l e companionship c a t e g o r i e s , mod and dress-up c l o t h i n g , and heavy make-up. The c l i e n t e l e of the pop music clubs are s i m i l a r to those of the s t r i p c l u b s but w i t h a g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l o n g s t r a i g h t h a i r and casual c l o t h i n g . At the bottomless c l u b s t y l e d h a i r and dress-up c l o t h i n g v/ere most common. / The patrons of the f i r s t S k i d Row group had c u r l e d o r backcombed h a i r , wore casual o r s t r a i g h t c l o t h i n g , / were 25-35, d i d not dance, and drank beer. The second S k i d \ Row group v/as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r m a l a t t i r e , age over 35 y e a r s , and beer as a beverage. The female grouping does d i f f e r e n t i a t e the n i g h t -c l u b sample but v/ithin group r e l a t i o n s h i p s to entertainment p o l i c y and sharp d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s are not as c l e a r as i n the male case. S i m i l a r i t i e s of Group Structure As noted e a r l i e r there are d i f f e r e n c e s between the grouping of n i g h t c l u b s based on male and female scores. The male groups are most i n t u i t i v e l y appealing as t h e i r group s t r u c t u r e corresponds t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 124 n i g h t c l u b s by entertainment p o l i c y . T h i s correspondence i s not as c l e a r i n the case of the female groups. However, some groups of clubs are i d e n t i c a l over the male and female analyses and others show a strong resemblance. Table 6.5 summarizes the four t e e n n i g h t c l u b s which are c l a s s i f i e d s i m i l a r l y i n both male and female analyses. Female Group F i v e and male Group Four both c o n s i s t of the same two establishments, the Gulf Club and the K i t Kat Klub. There was a strong preference f o r a beer as a beverage and i n general both male and female patrons can be described as e x h i b i t i n g appearance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are "not contemporary". These clubs are pat r o n i z e d by • persons who could be i d e n t i f i e d as "greasers" who have maintained appearance standards of the l a t e 1950's and e a r l i e r 1960's. Both male and female subjects were predominately i n the 25 to 35 age group and danced i n a manner t h a t i s not contemporary. Female make-up was heavy and there were a number of male su b j e c t s w i t h goatees. TABLE 6.5 Nigh t c l u b s With S i m i l a r Group L e v e l of S i x Male and Seven Membership at the Female Groups GROUP ONE - SKID ROW TWO - ROCK AND ROLL THREE- POP MUSIC Gulf Club Mad Dolphin D i r t y Sal's K i t Kat Klub The Bodyshop Sneaky P e t e 1 s Pharoah's Image I The Backroom 125 TABLE 6.5 continued GROUP FOUR - BOTTOMLESS FIVE - STRIP Cafe Kobenhavn K u b l a i Khan The Bunny Room Isy's S t r i p C i t y The Penthouse Group S i x of both genders c o n s i s t s of the same cl u b , the Cafe Kobenhavn. As p r e v i o u s l y noted t h i s v/as the only c l u b which o f f e r e d t o t a l l y nude entertainment and was without a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . The male patrons were o l d e r , wore t h e i r h a i r i n s t r a i g h t , b a l d , and pompadour s t y l e s , and were dressed i n the " s t r a i g h t " f a s h i o n . Female patrons wore s t y l e d h a i r , dress-up or s t r a i g h t c l o t h i n g and were over 25 years of age. They were always v/ith a male companion. Patrons were overwhelmingly male and a no t a b l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of these were of o r i e n t a l descent. These patrons v/ere businessmen and they showed an unwavering devotion t o the product. In genera l , the women appeared to be v/ives with the exception of one v/ho i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f as a p r o s t i t u t e . Female Group Three c o n s i s t s of the Penthouse, Is y ' s S t r i p C i t y , the K u b l a i Khan, and the Bunny Room. These f o u r clubs are found i n male Group One and they a l l market a t o p l e s s or s t r i p t e a s e product. The Penthouse i s notable f o r the number of p r o s t i t u t e s v/ho use the club as a base of operations. From n o t a t i o n s by the re s e a r c h 1 2 6 a s s i s t a n t s i t would appear that the female scores i d e n t i f y women of t h i s occupation who search those l o c a t i o n s o f f e r i n g entertainment which appeals p r i m a r i l y to.the o l d e r male. The r e s t of the n i g h t c l u b s i n male Group One are c l a s s i f i e d on female scores i n t o Group Two. These clubs have s i m i l a r i t i e s i n entertainment p o l i c y which can e x p l a i n the s t r u c t u r e . Besides the clubs from the male grouping which market a t o p l e s s o r s t r i p t e a s e product the e n t e r t a i n -ment i s , .with two exceptions, produced f o r a conservative c l i e n t e l e . The product i s popular music or a f l o o r show. Many of these c l u b s do a l a r g e r e s t a u r a n t trade i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a cabaret f u n c t i o n . I n the female grouping a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the clubs appears t o be the l a c k of dancing. While t h i s i s the case i n other groupings, we are here a l s o i s o l a t i n g female patrons of a more formal a t t i r e . Female Group One i s s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t o male Group Three. These clubs are marketers of a rock and r o l l dance product. Included i n the male group are two clubs from female Group Two. I t can be noted that w h i l e male appearance and behavior at Gassy Jack's P l a c e and The Reef i s s i m i l a r t o the young contemporary patrons of the rock and r o l l c lubs the female patrons are d i s c r i m i n a t e d by a more formal a t t i r e . Three members of male Group Two and female Group Pour are i d e n t i c a l but no other s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between them. 127 These clubs, Sneaky Pete's, Image I, and Dirty Sal's are a l l in the same area, the f i r s t two being within half a block of one another. They cater to an older clientele who have an interest i n dancing. Two Male and Pemale Groups. If we now examine the group structures at the level of tv/o groups, greater similarities can be noted. At this level twenty-two night-clubs group similarly over both genders. Table 6.6 indicates a group structure which can be derived from this investigation. Por the male scores the tv/o groups separate dance from strip and floor show clubs. Two exceptions are the Living Room and the Quadra Club which are i n the second group.s These clubs offer dancing as entertainment, but their appeal i s to the older more conservative patron. A third exception i s Gassy Jack's Place, a "show" club v/hich i s c l a s s i f i e d with the dance clubs. However, the male clientele are young in appearance terms and follow f a i r l y closely the fashion evidenced by those i n the dance clubs. At the level of two female groups this club i s i n the strip and floor show group. As noted earlier the females are dressed i n a more formal attire here although other appearance characteristics correspond with those of dance club patrons. The two female groups are similar to the male i n that they divide the clubs into the same structure. Two exceptions are the Town Pump and the Reef v/hich are grouped with the strip and floor show clubs. The Town Pump 128 TABLE 6.6 N i g h t c l u b s w i t h S i m i l a r L e v e l of Two Male Group Membership at the and Female Groups GROUP 1 ONE TWO Club Zanzibar Pharoah's The P l a c e Image I The Factory D i r t y S a l ' s Gulf Club The Backroom Down Under O i l Can'Harry's K u b l a i Khan' La s s e t e r ' s Den New D e l h i Sneaky Pete's The Bayside Room Mad Dolphin Cafe Kobenhavn The Bodyshop / I s y ' s S t r i p C i t y j The Penthouse Johann Strauss K i t Kat Klub a t t r a c t s a l a r g e r e s t a u r a n t trade i n f a i r l y formal a t t i r e while the Reef, l o c a t e d i n Poin t Roberts, Washington, has a h i g h l o a d i n g on backcombed h a i r s t y l e s , a s t y l e .more common at the s t r i p and floorshow c l u b s . At the t h i r d anomaly, the S m i l i n * Buddha, the female sample s i z e was v e r y . s m a l l , and of these a high p r o p o r t i o n danced. * ' • ' Summary of the S i m i l a r i t i e s I n comparing the male and female analyses a number of groups w i t h common entertainment p o l i c i e s and s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e can be i d e n t i f i e d . Fourteen n i g h t c l u b s are c l a s s i f i e d i n a s i m i l a r way by both male and female groupings 129 (Table 6.5). These clubs i d e n t i f y f i v e of the major entertainment p o l i c i e s : rock and r o l l , pop music, bottomless, s t r i p ( t o p l e s s ) , and S k i d Row. The f l o o r show clubs do not group s i m i l a r l y . I f we in s p e c t the s t r u c t u r e at the l e v e l of tv/o male and female groups twenty-two have s i m i l a r membership (Table 6.6). These two groups create a d i s t i n c t i o n between dance-oriented and s t r i p and f l o o r show n i g h t c l u b s . When comparing the male and female groupings i t appears that the males are more e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d by entertainment p o l i c y and c l i e n t e l e s t r u c t u r e . The success of the grouping procedure .suggests th a t there i s a strong r e l a t i o n between c l i e n t appearance and . behavior and i n d i v i d u a l groups of n i g h t c l u b s . The comparison of the male and female groups o f f e r s more evidence of t h i s f a c t , although as noted p r e v i o u s l y , the male groups are more co n s i s t e n t . t h a n the female. We have i d e n t i f i e d two types of c l i e n t e l e groups; one defined i n terms of f i v e entertainment p o l i c i e s , the other i n terms of only two. Both these s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be u t i l i z e d to t e s t whether the v a r i a t i o n s i h p o l i c y and c l i e n t -e l e are s p a t i a l l y defined. IV. IOCATIONAL PATTERNS On the b a s i s of the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s c e r t a i n conclusions may be drawn about concentrations of n i g h t c l u b s . 130 These n i g h t c l u b concentrations w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n t o a core-frame model, u t i l i z i n g the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s at the l e v e l of two male and female groups (Table 6.6); and i n terms of p a r t i c u l a r s u b d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the core, using the l e v e l of s i x male and seven female groups as a data base (Tables 6.1 and 6.3). Appendix A describes entertainment and l o c a t i o n a l aspects of each club i n the sample. Prom these d e s c r i p t i o n s and the accompanying map (Pigure A.1) a p a t t e r n can be a s c e r t a i n e d . A Core-Prame Model P a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i s the s p a t i a l , d i f f e r e n t i a -i t i o n of dance as compared to s t r i p n i g h t c l u b s i n the down-town area. The dance and f l o o r show clubs c l u s t e r i n the f i n a n c i a l and commercial d i s t r i c t s and are surrounded by a r i n g of s t r i p c l u b s . T h i s p a t t e r n can be l i k e n e d to a core-frame model. (Horwood and Boyce, 1959) The core of the C.B.D. i s the major management area and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t a l l b u i l d i n g s , concentrated daytime p o p u l a t i o n , and h i g h r e t a i l p r o d u c t i v i t y per u n i t area. (Garner and Yeates, 1971) The frame i s a more h o r i z o n t a l l y dominated area i n which the core r e s t s and i s 1 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h warehousing, lower q u a l i t y and m u l t i f a m i l y residences, and l i g h t manufacturing. Garner and Yeates (1971) describe the frame as b l i g h t e d . Pigure 6.1 o u t l i n e s the core and frame of Vancouver and p l o t s n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the C.B.D. 132 There i s an exception to the pattern of separation of dance and f l o o r show nightclubs from s t r i p clubs. Isy's S t r i p City i s located i n the core between The Bayside Room and other clubs marketing "respectable" entertainment. This deviation from the core-frame pattern can be explained i n two ways. Isy's was one of the major entertainment centres of the c i t y , o f f e r i n g "name" entertainment i n a f l o o r show set t i n g and has only recently changed to a striptease p o l i c y . Secondly, the Bayside Room has an eccentric l o c a t i o n given the regular pattern f o r "respectable" clubs as the club i s part of a major hotel complex on the edge of Vancouver's yacht basin. The club i s also r e l a t i v e l y new i n the Vancouver market. By examining the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s at the l e v e l of two groups (Table 6 . 6 ) some i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons with s p a t i a l pattern can be made. The two groups generally divide the downtown into a core-frame configuration. In the female case of the grouping of clubs with similar c l i e n t e l e a l l 12 of the s t r i p nightclubs have s i m i l a r group membership, while i n the male case 11 of the 12 are members of the same group. These are the clubs located i n the frame. Their s i t e s are i n d i s t r i c t s t y p i f i e d by warehousing, older hotels, and rooming houses. The pattern of l o c a t i o n of dance clubs i s not as e a s i l y defined from the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s . Only nine of the t h i r t e e n clubs have a s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e grouping 1 3 3 over both sexes. Ni g h t c l u b s i n c l u d e d w i t h the s t r i p c l u b s , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t f o r each sex, are a l l c l u b s appealing to an o l d e r c l i e n t e l e and s e r v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s t a u r a n t f u n c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o that of a cabaret. The dance n i g h t c l u b s form the core of the model. While not overwhelming the evidence would i n d i c a t e that there i s a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p betv/een c l i e n t e l e and a core-frame p a t t e r n . T h is i d e a w i l l be f u r t h e r examined i n the a n a l y s i s of s i t e v a r i a b l e s to determine the exact v a r i a t i o n s i n the s i t e s of the n i g h t c l u b s of the core and the frame. S u b d i s t r i c t s i n the C.B.D. Sk i d Row. The s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of n i g h t c l u b a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver can be broken down f a r t h e r i n t o s p e c i f i c s u b d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the urban core. C l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s at the l e v e l of s i x male and seven female groups w i l l provide the a n a l y t i c a l base. On Vancouver's S k i d Row there are three n i g h t c l u b s . In both the male and female analyses two of these clubs appear as a separate group. The t h i r d c l u b , the S m i l i n ' Buddha, i s found i n the male a n a l y s i s i n a group of dance clubs of " s t r a i g h t " and o l d e r c l i e n t e l e . I n the female grouping i t appears as a separate group at the l e v e l of seven groups yet i s i n c l u d e d w i t h the other two clubs at the l e v e l of two groups. From the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s i t was discovered that the patrons of the S m i l i n 1 Buddha were most s i m i l a r t o the patrons of the other two 134 S k i d Row l o c a t i o n s except that they e x h i b i t e d an i n c r e a s e d propensity t o dance. These n i g h t c l u b s of s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e group together i n a s u b d i s t r i c t of the core. Uptown. Of the f o u r uptown c l u b s , three are found i n the same group f o r both genders. The Penthouse i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s group i n the male a n a l y s i s . Por females the Penthouse i s i n c l u d e d w i t h three other clubs o f f e r i n g nude entertainment. This d i f f e r e n c e was noted e a r l i e r as due t o the high p r o p o r t i o n of p r o s t i t u t e s among the female c l i e n t e l e . The Bunny Room i s i n t h i s female group as w e l l , while i n the male a n a l y s i s i t i s grouped w i t h the uptown c l u b s . On t h i s b a s i s i t would appear t h a t there i s an uptown o r i e n t a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e , e s p e c i a l l y those of the male gender and that The Bunny Room's c l i e n t e l e i s s i m i l a r to that of uptown l o c a t i o n s . Chinatown. The Chinatown l o c a t i o n s are grouped together i n the male a n a l y s i s and are a l s o grouped w i t h the uptown l o c a t i o n s . The female grouping i n d i c a t e s a s p l i t s i m i l a r to that f o r uptown l o c a t i o n s . Thus, there i s a s i m i l a r i t y of c l i e n t e l e at the Chinatown l o c a t i o n s which i s s i m i l a r as w e l l t o t h a t found at uptown l o c a t i o n s . F i n a n c i a l D i s t r i c t . The n i g h t c l u b s i n the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t a l s o group together on the c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s . The three c l u b s , Sneaky Pete's, Image I , and the L i v i n g Room, are members of the same female group but only the f i r s t two are members of the same male group. The L i v i n g Room i s grouped w i t h those c l u b s marketing a f l o o r show product 135 or o f f e r i n g popular music as an entertainment. West End. O i l Can Harry's i s a more complex case. The entertainment f a c i l i t y c o n s i s t s of three c l u b s , under one roof, and c a t e r i n g t o d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e s . D i r t y S a l ' i n the a n a l y s i s of both genders, groups w i t h the cl u b s of the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t . The Backroom and O i l Can's group together i n the male s e c t i o n but are separate i n the female The Backroom i s a member of a s i m i l a r female group to th a t of the two clubs i n the male a n a l y s i s but O i l Can's i s grouped w i t h the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t c l u b s . The males i n the two clubs then are s i m i l a r to those found at other rock and r o l l dance n i g h t c l u b s while only h a l f the females f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , the r e s t being more s i m i l a r to the patrons of more conservative rock and r o l l and popular music c l u b s . O i l Can Harry's complex along w i t h I s y ' s S t r i p C i t y may be considered 'Vest End l o c a t i o n s . The evidence would suggest that t h i s i s an area r e f l e c t i n g a shopping agglomeration. The c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s and these conclusions are commensurate w i t h the marketing s t r a t e g y (Sun, August 20, 1970, p.35) of the O i l Can Harry's complex Courthouse. A t h i r d group of clubs i n the same area as the previous two i s that of the Bodyshop and the Johann Strauss. These clubs have no c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s i m i l a r i t y . The Johann Strauss i s long e s t a b l i s h e d at the l o c a t i o n w i t h the Bodyshop a r e l a t i v e l y recent e n t e r p r i s e . The patrons of the Bodyshop are s i m i l a r t o those of the Backroom while the Johann Strauss a t t r a c t s a male c l i e n t e l e 136 s i m i l a r t o the L i v i n g Room and a female c l i e n t e l e s i m i l a r to Sneaky Pete's or Image I . The areas of the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t and the West End could be considered along w i t h the Bodyshop - Johann Strauss group t o be part of a l a r g e r s u b d i s t r i c t . By making t h i s assumption there develops an area w i t h two d i f f e r e n t yet a s s o c i a t e d c l i e n t e l e s . Both are dance o r i e n t e d and observe contemporary f a s h i o n s ; however, one group i s much more conservative i n these matters. The anomaly of Isy's S t r i p C i t y has been discussed p r e v i o u s l y . Both the c l i e n t e l e groups and marketing s t r a t e g i e s of the clubs are more s i m i l a r to each other than they are to any other group or p o l i c y . Gastown. Of the three n i g h t c l u b s i n the Gastown area, two are i n the centre of the development, while a t h i r d i s on the western periphery. I n each of the analyses a d i f f e r e n t - t w o of the three clubs were grouped toget h e r . Gassy Jack's Place groups w i t h Pharoah's i n the male a n a l y s i s and w i t h the Town Pump i n the female a n a l y s i s . In the male case the two clubs group w i t h n i g h t c l u b s market-i n g a rock and r o l l dance product. The Town Pump i s grouped w i t h clubs o f f e r i n g a more conservative rock and r o l l entertainment such as t h a t found i n the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t . The female case groups the two c l u b s w i t h those p r e s e n t i n g a nude or f l o o r show product. Pharoah's i s again found w i t h rock and r o l l c l u b s . The s i t u a t i o n suggests a d i v e r s -i f i e d area yet w i t h some s i m i l a r i t y of c l i e n t e l e . The males at Pharoah's and Gassy Jack's Place are young, o f t e n 1 3 7 w i t h f a c i a l h a i r , and dress f a i r l y modishly. At the Town Pump the patrons are o l d e r and more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y dressed. The females of Pharoah 1s are young and very con-tempor a r i l y dressed while at Gassy Jack's and the Town Pump dress i s much more f o r m a l . E c c e n t r i c Core Locations The Cafe Kobenhavn has a d i s t i n c t c l i e n t e l e . I t appears as a s i n g l e member group i n both the male and female analyses. The l o c a t i o n of t h i s c l u b , near the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway S t a t i o n , i s as d i s t i n c t as i t s c l i e n t e l e . The e c c e n t r i c i t y of the l o c a t i o n of the Bayside Room has been discussed p r e v i o u s l y . I n the male a n a l y s i s t h i s c l u b i s found i n a group of clubs which appeals t o an o l d e r and more f o r m a l l y dressed c l i e n t e l e . I ncluded i n t h i s group i s the Quadra Club, another d i s t i n c t l o c a t i o n . The p o s i t i o n s of these two clubs i n the female a n a l y s i s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The Quadra Club groups w i t h c l u b s of the f i n a n c i a l and West End d i s t r i c t s while the Bayside Room i s found w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n of nude and f l o o r show c l u b s . There i s t h e r e f o r e some s i m i l a r i t y between the c l i e n t e l e : of these tv/o cl u b s and the e c c e n t r i c nature of t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . Non-Core Lo c a t i o n s Included i n t h i s a n a l y s i s are f o u r n i g h t c l u b s that are not l o c a t e d i n the urban core. Their l o c a t i o n s are 138 d i s t i n c t - a n d thus there are no l o c a t i o n a l groups to examine. The n i g h t c l u b groupings based on the c l i e n t e l e pro-f i l e s are complex i n r e l a t i o n t o these f o u r c l u b s . The male a n a l y s i s places L a s s e t e r ' s Den wit h the clubs of the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t and the Down Under w i t h a mixed c o l l e c t i o n of f l o o r show and popular music c l u b s . The Mad Dolphin and The Reef group w i t h clubs of the Vfest End, Courthouse, and Gastown d i s t r i c t s . I n the female case the Mad Dolphin and l a s s e t e r ' s Den are found w i t h clubs of these d i s t r i c t s . The Down Under and The Reef are amongst that mixed c o l l e c t i o n of nude and f l o o r show clu b s . Of these c l u b s , the Mad Dolphin i s the one v/hich most c l o s e l y resembles one p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e group. I t i s most s i m i l a r to The Bodyshop and Pharoah's, clubs i n the courthouse and Gastown d i s t r i c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Reef i s a s p e c i a l l o c a t i o n a l case as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter and i n Chapter F i v e . The c l i e n t e l e i s a mix of c a s u a l l y dressed males and more f o r m a l l y a t t i r e d females. The c l u b appeals to an age group between that of the rock and r o l l c lubs and those o f f e r i n g popular music. A l a r g e r than normal number of v/omen at t h i s c l u b wear t h e i r h a i r i n a backcombed f a s h i o n . The Down Under i s most c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h those clubs which o f f e r a f l o o r show or popular music as entertainment, l a s s e t e r ' s Den's male patrons are most s i m i l a r t o the c l i e n t e l e of the rock and r o l l c l u b s while the female patrons are most s i m i l a r to the more conservative rock clubs 139 of the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t . V. THE SITE VARIABLES A macro s i t e r a t i n g instrument (Clause and Rothwell, 1970) was developed to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the n i g h t c l u b s on the b a s i s of s i t e q u a l i t y . E i g h t v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d to measure s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l u b s . These i n c l u d e d the number of h o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and beer p a r l o u r s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of a club . The purpose of the s i t e r a t i n g instrument was t o i d e n t i f y c l u s t e r s of entertainment a c t i v i t i e s and to assess the "respecta-b i l i t y " of d i f f e r e n t n i g h t c l u b s . The s i t e v a r i a b l e s are described i n Appendix C. The n i g h t c l u b s were grouped using the Y/ard a l g o r i t h m , on the ei g h t e x t e r n a l s i t e v a r i a b l e s . Three groups were chosen f o r i n s p e c t i o n , as l i s t e d i n Table 6.7. Group One c o n s i s t s of n i g h t c l u b s w i t h l o c a t i o n s i n the downtown core of Vancouver. The m a j o r i t y of these clubs are i n the major h o t e l d i s t r i c t which i n c l u d e s a number of e x c e l l e n t r e s t a u r a n t s . The exceptions, Gassy Jack's Place and the Town Pump, are i n Vancouver's Gastown, the o r i g i n a l t ownsite v/hich has been r e s t o r e d as a h i s t o r i c and t o u r i s t s i t e . A l l market a dance or f l o o r show product w i t h the exception of I s y ' s S t r i p C i t y . In that the Group One clubs are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the h o t e l , r e s t a u r a n t , and business s e c t o r of downtown, f o r the purposes of t h i s study they are c l a s s i f i e d as "respectable". J 1 4 0 TABLE 6.7 Group Membership On S i t e V a r i a b l e s GROUP ONE TrlO THREE Sneaky Pete's Club Zanzibar S m i l i n 1 Buddha Image I The Place K i t Kat Klub Johann Strauss The Penthouse Gulf Club The Bodyshop The Factory L i v i n g Room Quadra Club D i r t y S a l 1 s The Bunny Room The Backroom New D e l h i O i l Can H a r r y 1 s K u b l a i Khan Town Pump Cafe Kobenhavn • • / Gassy Jack's Place Pharoah's Is y ' s S t r i p C i t y Lasseter' s Den Mad Dolphin The Reef The Bayside Room Down Under Group Two n i g h t c l u b s have l o c a t i o n s which are not adjacent t o h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s and often there are no other n i g h t c l u b s i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . T h i s group i n c l u d e s a l l the nude entertainment c l u b s , w i t h the exception of those on Sk i d Row. Pharoah's, the Quadra Club, and the Bayside Room although i n the downtown area have e c c e n t r i c l o c a t i o n s . Pharoah 1s borders on the Gastown d i s t r i c t but i s somewhat d i s t a n t from other entertainment s e r v i c e s . The Bayside Room i s part of a major h o t e l on the 141 westermost f r i n g e of the urban core while the Quadra Club i s i n a d i s t i n c t l o c a t i o n j u s t o f f the h o t e l d i s t r i c t . The t h i r d group of clubs are a l l l o c a t e d on Van-couver' s S k i d Row. They score h i g h l y on the v a r i a b l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the number of clubs and beer p a r l o u r s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that t h i s area had the highest number of beer p a r l o u r s of any s t u d i e d . I n t h i s group scores are s i m i l a r to the f i r s t group but l a c k i n g response on the h o t e l and restaurant v a r i a b l e s . Prom the s i t e v a r i a b l e s i t can be noted that the core dance c l u b s , e s p e c i a l l y those marketing rock and r o l l entertainment, group together i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h a strong entertainment f u n c t i o n . The t o p l e s s and s t r i p t e a s e clubs are a l l i n the downtown area but i n p e r i p h e r a l or frame l o c a t i o n s . S k i d Row n i g h t c l u b s are a s p e c i a l case and have an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h an entertainment of a "lower order" than t h a t of Group One. The suburban dance clubs are found i n Group Tv/o due to t h e i r s e c l u s i o n but a d i f f e r e n c e should be noted i n that they are suburban while the nude clubs are a l l core l o c a t i o n s . Figure 6.2 c a r t o g r a p h i c a l l y shows the " r e s p e c t a b l e " clubs i n t h e i r core c l u s t e r s and the s t r i p clubs i n the frame. The n o t i o n of " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " corresponds w i t h the c o n s t r u c t s of the core as described by Horwood and Boyce (1959). The Group Three c l u b s , on S k i d Row, possess some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the core but the a c t i v i t i e s 143 are " l e s s r e s p e c t a b l e " on t h i s s c a l e . Summary of the L o c a t i o n a l and S i t e A t t r i b u t e s The body of evidence presented would i n d i c a t e t h a t there i s a s p a t i a l dimension t o the groupings of n i g h t c l u b s as derived from the appearance and behavior of the c l i e n t e l e , and,the s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the cl u b s . A core-frame p a t t e r n can be recognized. The "respect-a b l e " dance and f l o o r show n i g h t c l u b s are i n the commercial and f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t , o r core of the c i t y . W i thin the frame, i n the l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l and o l d e r p a r t s of the C.B.D., are the n i g h t c l u b s which o f f e r n u d i t y as entertainment. Dance and f l o o r show clubs have "high" q u a l i t y s i t e s and are a s s o c i a t e d with f i r s t c l a s s h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s . The clubs marketing a nude product are most o f t e n l o c a t e d i n areas devoid of other entertainment a c t i v i t i e s . However, on S k i d Row these n i g h t c l u b s are found i n a "lower" q u a l i t y entertainment concentration where there are a high number of beer p a r l o u r s . .. As a f u r t h e r refinement there are p a r t i c u l a r sub-d i s t r i c t s of n i g h t c l u b s as c l a s s e d by the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e w i t h i n the C.B.D. Seven s u b d i s t r i c t s can be i d e n t i f i e d . I n f o u r of these the n i g h t c l u b s had s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e . They v/ere S k i d Row, Uptown, Chinatown, and the F i n a n c i a l D i s t r i c t . I n two s u b d i s t r i c t s , Courthouse and the West End, the clubs were demonstrated to be a t t r a c t i n g a somewhat 144 d i s s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e . However, when combined they had a sim i l a r dance-oriented patronage. Gastown was.fairly d i v e r s i f i e d i n types of c l i e n t e l e , yet there was a general s i m i l a r i t y . Although the clubs located outside of the core are grouped i n terms of t h e i r s p e c i f i c c l i e n t e l e the s i t e variable analysis cannot be applied meaningfully to them. 145 CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY The Working Hypotheses The evidence presented i n the l a s t chapter i s strong enough to accept the hypothesis: n i g h t c l u b s with  s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e group together i n urban space. The core-frame dichotomy, the i d e n t i f i a b l e s u b d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the core i n which d i s t i n c t i v e n i g h t c l u b s c l u s t e r , the e c c e n t r i c core l o c a t i o n s , and the d i s t i n c t non-core l o c a t i o n s support t h i s hypothesis. At the l e s s aggregated sc a l e of seven core s u b d i s t r i c t s t h i s hypothesis must be accepted c o n d i t i o n a l l y . The n i g h t c l u b s of three s u b d i s t r i c t s have d i f f e r i n g c l i e n t e l e and grout) together t o permit something a k i n t o  comparative shopping. Thus, the second hypothesis must als o be accepted. In s h o r t , n i g h t c l u b s i n Vancouver demonstrate the two patterns of r e t a i l l o c a t i o n t y p i c a l of s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l i n g , where the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of a club and d i s t r i c t a t t r a c t d i s c r e t e customer groups and where "comparative shopping" f o r d i f f e r i n g experiences i s common. C l i e n t Types The employment of unobtrusive measurement techniques to sample the n i g h t c l u b p o p u l a t i o n proved to be a u s e f u l method. When the data was analyzed by frequency of response 146 to categories w i t h i n each of the seven v a r i a b l e s ( h a i r , c l o t h i n g , f a c i a l decoration, companionship, dance, d r i n k , and age) d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e appearance and behavior was i n d i c a t e d . P r o f i l e s were developed from the most common responses to the v a r i a b l e " h a i r " , and through more e x p l i c i t cross t a b u l a t i o n s "strong" r e l a t i o n s h i p s between categories,were i d e n t i f i e d . The c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s and the existence of these "strong" r e l a t i o n -ships i n d i c a t e d that there were, on the b a s i s of appearance and behavior, c e r t a i n customer types among the t o t a l n i g h t c l u b c l i e n t e l e p o p u l a t i o n . / Market Segmentation The grouping of n i g h t c l u b s by the Ward alg o r i t h m i n d i c a t e d that c e r t a i n groups o f clubs a t t r a c t e d s p e c i f i c components of the o v e r a l l n i g h t c l u b c l i e n t e l e . T h i s was demonstrated at the l e v e l of s i x male and seven female c l i e n t groups. Complications arose w i t h the comparison of the male and female group s t r u c t u r e s . Of the 29 n i g h t c l u b s i n the sample only 14 were presented i n i d e n t i c a l con-f i g u r a t i o n s over both analyses. An examination of the remaining 15 c l u b s suggested that i n most cases these d e v i a t i o n s were caused by the female group s t r u c t u r e . The data when inspected at the l e v e l of two male and female groups revealed 22 n i g h t c l u b s of s i m i l a r p a t t e r n over both genders v/hich d i v i d e d the sample i n t o two types of 1 4 7 product, dance clubs and those marketing s t r i p o r a f l o o r show. A c o n c l u s i o n drawn at t h i s stage i s that the males as a group, were u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r s of n i g h t c l u b c h a r a c t e r and l o c a t i o n . The male groups were c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the basis of both appearance and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h clubs of a d i s t i n c t entertainment p o l i c y . The female groups i n d i c a t e d a d e f i n i t e market segmentation along appearance l i n e s but the groups were not as e a s i l y c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h clubs w i t h p a r t i c u l a r marketing p o l i c i e s . The male appears to be the dominating f o r c e i n commercial entertainment. N i g h t c l u b s f u l f i l l a f u n c t i o n as places f o r s o c i a l i z i n g . I n many cases i t seems tha t the male s e l e c t s the l o c a t i o n on the basis of which n i g h t -club best r e f l e c t s h i s own s e l f image. The females apparently o f t e n do not have the opportunity, e s p e c i a l l y on casual dates, to s e l e c t the n i g h t c l u b i n accordance w i t h t h e i r own s e l f image. F u r t h e r , those n i g h t c l u b s marketing nude entertainment c a t e r to the o l d e r male. Females at these l o c a t i o n s are o f t e n p r o s t i t u t e s i n search of customers. This business f u n c t i o n f o r the p r o s t i t u t e transcends the entertainment f u n c t i o n of the n i g h t c l u b . S i t e A n a l y s i s The s i t e r a t i n g instrument, while crude, i n d i c a t e d some i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n i n the e x t e r n a l aspects of 148 n i g h t c l u b l o c a t i o n s . The l e v e l of three groups was chosen f o r i n s p e c t i o n . The s i t e instrument, w i t h a few exceptions, separates the clubs i n t o core l o c a t i o n s ; near the major h o t e l and restaurant d i s t r i c t which o f f e r dance and f l o o r show entertainment, frame l o c a t i o n s ; which market nude entertainment, and S k i d Row clubs which a l s o market a nude product. The non-core l o c a t i o n s are i n c l u d e d w i t h the second group. I t i s concluded that there i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p betv/een the " q u a l i t y " of the d i s t r i c t and type.of entertainment. N i g h t c l u b s w i t h S i m i l a r C l i e n t e l e Seven s u b d i s t r i c t s of n i g h t c l u b s i n the urban core were i n t e r p o l a t e d from the l o c a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s in-Appendix A. Pour of these s u b d i s t r i c t s ; Uptown, the F i n a n c i a l D i s t r i c t , Chinatown, and S k i d Row were determined to have i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t c l i e n t e l e p r o f i l e s . The West End and Courthouse d i s t r i c t s were discovered t o be areas w i t h v a r i e d c l i e n t e l e . Clubs i n these areas group together i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r to a comparative shopping f u n c t i o n . This was the r e s u l t of a d e f i n i t e marketing p o l i c y . These two areas along with the F i n a n c i a l D i s t r i c t have more s i m i l a r i t y to each other than t o clubs i n other areas. Gastown was r e v e a l e d to be an area of n i g h t c l u b s w i t h some s i m i l a r i t y of c l i e n t e l e but w i t h an emphasis 149 on d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than s i m i l a r i t y . The grouping a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that one of the e c c e n t r i c core c l u b s , the Cafe Kobenhavn, was d i s t i n c t from a l l other c l u b s , and that the other two e c c e n t r i c l o c a t i o n s were d i f f e r e n t from other c l u b s , but s i m i l a r to each other. The non-core clubs were revealed t o be s i m i l a r to c e r t a i n types w i t h i n the core, yet w i t h unusual c l i e n t e l e mixes. Only one, the Mad Dolphin, was found i n the same group on male and female scores. The remaining three clubs had a mix of c l i e n t e l e , each r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t from one another and from the core l o c a t i o n s . I t i s concluded t h a t the c l i e n t e l e of these c l u b s suggests that they are unique cases. I t was al s o shown that at an aggregate s c a l e there v/ere two groups of n i g h t c l u b s w i t h s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e , each w i t h a d i s t i n c t s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n . Those clubs marketing a "respectable" product were i n the core of the C.B.D. whil e those marketing nude entertainment were.in the frame. I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study This study has p o s t u l a t e d and demonstrated an o p e r a t i o n a l approach to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the marketing of e x p e r i e n t a l products Por students of urban geography i t f u r t h e r documents the dynamic nature of the core and p o i n t s out some i n t e r e s t i l o c a t i o n a l aspects of s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y . When added to 150 other s t u d i e s reviewed i n Chapter S i x i t demonstrates the need f o r more e m p i r i c a l research on i n t r a - u r b a n l o c a t i o n w i t h an aim to develop a more comprehensive b e h a v i o r a l theory of the s p a t i a l aspects of s o c i a l -r e t a i l i n t e r a c t i o n . Suggestion f o r F u r t h e r Research The approach used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s r e l a t i v e l y n o v e l . There i s a need f o r the development of more comprehensive r a t i n g instruments. The v a r i a b l e s and cat e g o r i e s employed here can be a l t e r e d f o r study of any s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . I t i s suggested that two s p e c i f i c e f f o r t s be made: 1) A refinement of the ca t e g o r i e s to a l l o w a more p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r appearances and behavior. 2) The r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the instrument through the use of i n t e r n a l or r a t i o s c a l i n g techniques to a l l o w a more comprehensive s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s to be employed. I t i s hoped that f u t u r e researchers w i l l work at the development of non-reactive research methods. The s u i t a b i l i t y and usefulness of unobtrusive measures has^ been demonstrated; c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s w i l l a l l o w the development of a rigourous a l t e r n a t i v e and companion t o survey research. Two s p e c i f i c suggestions can be made which would enlarge the scope of t h i s study. The s i t e r a t i n g instrument 151 could be improved and expanded. An instrument that v/ould evaluate p r e c i s e l y both the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l aspects of s i t e would a l l o w a comprehensive study of the r e l a t i o n -ships of c l i e n t e l e to l o c a t i o n . Decor, s e a t i n g arrange-ments, amount of l i g h t , stage p r e s e n t a t i o n , and q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e are but a few v a r i a b l e s worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Secondly, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of appearance and behavior to a t t i t u d e s and socio-economic background needs to be explored. P r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s by the author have i n d i c a t e d that there i s a v a r i a t i o n between s p e c i f i c c l i e n t e l e groups and a t t i t u d e s . The o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of such a study i n v o l v e s a number of problems, many of which are discussed i n Chapter Pour. 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Sv/eden, Royal University of Lund, 1969. Revised Statutes of Brit i s h Columbia: 1960. "Chapter 166: Government Liquor Act," Victoria: Queen's Printer 1960. Rosenthal, R. "On the Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment," American Scientist, 1963, 51, 268-283. Rothwell, D.C. Marketing Strategy and Its Effect on Retail  Site: A Case Study of the Vancouver Gasoline  Market. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1970. Ryan, M.S. Clothing: A Study i n Human Behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1966. S e l l t i z , C , Jahoda, M., Deutsch, M. , and Cook, S. Research Methods in Social Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1959. Taylor, S.M. Spatial Perspectives at the Consumer-Store Interface. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University'of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. Toffler, A. Future Shock. New York: Random House, 1970. Veldman, D.J. ' Fortran Programming for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Ward, J.H. "Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize on Objective Function," American Statistical Association  Journal. 1963, 58, 236-244. Webb, E.J. , Campbell, D.T., Schv/artz, R.D., and Sechrest,L. Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive•Research in the  Social Sciences? Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966. 156 B. NEWSPAPERS Vancouver Province, " P r o t e s t s Against Downtown Cabaret Cause Co u n c i l Storm," Nov. 1, 1938, p.20. Vancouver Province. "Gala Ooening i s Planned f o r Modern Cave Cabaret," Dec.16, 1938, p.17. Vancouver Province. "The Cabarets," June 9, 1939, p.14, Vancouver Province. "Cabaret Owners Organize," Oct. 19, 1959, p.1. Vancouver Province. "Pop Scene: The New Trend i n Nightspot Appeal," by Jay Durwood, Aug. 2, 1968, " S p o t l i g h t , " p.9. Vancouver Province. "Save the Clubs? Why?,'" by B r i a n ! McLeod, J u l y 3, 1970, " S p o t l i g h t , " p.21. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . "Cover up Tops, LCB T e l l s G i r l s , " Sept. 1, 1970, p.1. Vancouver Prov i n c e. "Owner Pined f o r Blue Show," J u l y 15, : 1971, p.13. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . "Ken S t a u f f e r : People Think That I t s A l l : Glamourous," by Ray C h a t e l i n , Oct. 22, 1971, : " S p o t l i g h t , " p.3. Vancouver Prov i n c e. "Goodbye Isy...1 Can't See This Rock," by Ray C h a t e l i n , Dec. 10, 1971, " S p o t l i g h t , " p.26. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . "Hello Danny..,We'11 B r i n g B i g Names," : by Ray C h a t e l i n , Dec. 10, 1971, " S p o t l i g h t , " p.27. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . '"Twas Just a Storm i n a D-Cup," by " Bob McConnell, Jan. 4, 1972, p.23. Vancouver Sun. "Singer Drops Scheme Por New Cabaret," " Aug. 7, 1945, p.11. Vancouver Sun', " l a s t Act Opens at Palomar — And I t Brings ~ Down House," by Jack Wasserman, Apr. 14, 1955, p.9. Vancouver Sun. "George V i c k e r s : Cabaret Owner," Sept. 9, " 1966, p.20A. Vancouver Sun. " O i l Can Harry's Now Largest i n West End," Aug. 20, 1970, p.35. 157 Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. by Alex Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver Sun. Jack Wasserman. J u l y 14, 1971, p. 39 Jack Wasserman. Oct. 12, 1971, p.39. Jack Wasserman. Oct. 19, 1971, p.29. "Drums Drown Out Murder," Nov. 9, 1971, p. A l l a n Potheringham. Nov. 10, 1971, p.43. "Club Owners Toe the G-String L i n e , " McDonald, Jan. 29, 1972, p.30. Jack Wasserman. Peb. 1, 1972, p.25. Ale x M c G i l l i v r a y . Peb. 4, 1972, p.2A. Jack Wasserman. Peb. 5, 1972, p.31. APPENDIX A Nightclub Description and Location 159 A P P E N D I X A Nightclub D e s c r i p t i o n and l o c a t i o n The clubs which have been u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study-have been assigned a number and l o c a t i o n can be determined by r e f e r r i n g to that number on Pigure A.1. 1.. O i l Can Harry's The o r i g i n a l club i n an entertainment complex on the edge of Vancouver's West End, a h i g h r i s e apartment d i s t r i c t . This area i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as the most densely populated square mile i n Canada. The club borders on the c h i e f h o t e l and management areas of the c i t y and i s surrounded by beer p a r l o u r s popular w i t h younger persons. Entertainment i s rock and r o l l and dancing and d r i n k i n g are the primary o r i e n t a t i o n s . 2. D i r t y Sal's A l s o a part of O i l Can Harry's entertainment complex, t h i s i s a much smaller and more i n t i m a t e c l u b o r i e n t e d as much to d r i n k i n g i n a r e l a x e d atmosphere as t o dancing. 3. The Backroom The t h i r d club i n the aforementioned complex, t h i s room i s very l a r g e . The decor i s Roaring Twenties w i t h an ample dance f l o o r and a l a r g e s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y . The music o f f e r e d i s commercial rock and r o l l and the most s u c c e s s f u l acts provide e a s i l y r ecognizable and danceable music. 4. I s y ' s S t r i p C i t y A former "name" f l o o r show c l u b , the entertainment 161 i s s t r i p t e a s e with i n f l u e n c e s from burlesque. . This club i s l o c a t e d on Georgia S t r e e t , one of the major east-west c o r r i d o r s i n Vancouver and the c h i e f route t o the Lion's Gate Bridge and the a f f l u e n t r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of the no r t h shore of Burrard I n l e t . The club i s only one h a l f block from the O i l Can Harry's complex and shows many of i t s l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s . 5. The Bayside Room The Bayside Room i s one of the l a s t clubs o f f e r i n g a f l o o r show. Performers are c e l e b r i t i e s but are very r a r e l y w e l l known s t a r s . The a c t s are imported from the United States and are of the Las Vegas lounge v a r i e t y . The management combines a restaurant f u n c t i o n w i t h enter-tainment and dancing. The l o c a t i o n of the club i s i n one of the most b e a u t i f u l areas of the c i t y . I t i s part of a major h o t e l , the Bayshore Inn, s i t u a t e d on Coal Harbour. I t i s c l o s e to the northwest extremity of the West End and to the management centre of the c i t y . 6. The Bodyshop A former automobile r e p a i r f a c i l i t y , the Bodyshop i s c l o s e to the major h o t e l s , popular beer p a r l o u r s , and Vancouver's Theatre Row. The club o f f e r s commercial rock and r o l l entertainment w i t h an emphasis on dancing and, notably here, the d r i n k i n g of beer. 7. The Johann Strauss The o r i e n t a t i o n here i s t o provide a complete evening's entertainment w i t h d i n i n g and dancing. The 162 club i s l o c a t e d next door to the Bodyshop and has been i n existence f o r many years. There are two bands providing-popular and ethnic music wi t h an emphasis on polkas and other energetic but not contemporary dance s t y l e s . 8. Image I Located on Hornby S t r e e t , Image I markets a rock and r o l l product. The club i s sm a l l but i t s design c a p i t a l i z e s on t h i s f a c t p r o v i d i n g a lar g e number of seats i n a r e l a t i v e l y i n t i m a t e s e t t i n g . The club i s near both the h o t e l and f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t s and o f f e r s t o p l e s s luncheons t o a t t r a c t the businessman. 9. Sneaky Pete 1 s Also l o c a t e d on Hornby S t r e e t , t h i s c l u b i s unusual i n that i t i s s i t u a t e d on the top of a high r i s e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g . The f a c i l i t y i s run i n conjunction w i t h a restaurant i n the same b u i l d i n g and i s a dancing and d r i n k i n g establishment. The music could be termed popular rock and r o l l but much of the drive' which u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r -i z e s rock music i s absent. 10. The L i v i n g Room One of the f i r s t clubs t o o b t a i n a l i q u o r l i c e n c e , the entertainment i s b a s i c a l l y popular music. O r i e n t a t i o n i s not t o rock and r o l l but r a t h e r a q u i e t e r , l e s s exhuberant experience. The l o c a t i o n i s on lower Hornby S t r e e t near the previous two c l u b s . 11. Pharoah's This c l u b a d v e r t i s e s i t s e l f as "The Gateway t o 163 Gastown", Vancouver's o r i g i n a l townsite which has been r e s t o r e d and has become an entertainment and t o u r i s t c e n t r e . The entertainment i s rock and r o l l and the s e t t i n g very i n t i m a t e due to the small s i z e of the c l u b . The oper a t i o n i s w e l l p a t r o n i z e d and the b u i l d i n g v/as the s i t e of the f i r s t rock and r o l l o r i e n t e d n i g h t c l u b i n Vancouver, 12. The Town Pump The Town Pump i s another of those clubs whose c h i e f , f u n c t i o n i s that of a re s t a u r a n t . I t i s i n Gastown, has a l a r g e s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y , and i s decorated w i t h a r t i f a c t s and s t u f f e d animals. The atmosphere i s pleasant and dancing i s to l i g h t commercial rock and r o l l music, 13. Gassy Jack's P l a c e This n i g h t c l u b i s very much a part of the Gastown "scene". The owners have had a p o l i c y of present i n g f l o o r show entertainment, u s u a l l y rock and r o l l or j a z z . The club has been used as a playhouse f o r l o c a l drama companies and the entertainment p o l i c y has a t t r a c t e d a c u l t u r a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the c i t y . 14. The Gulf Club This c l u b , l o c a t e d on S k i d Row, a d v e r t i s e s the "worst f l o o r show i n town" and r e l i e s on nu d i t y as an entertainment s t a p l e . 15. The S m i l i n ' Buddha Another S k i d Row Club, the entertainment here combines s t r i p t e a s e w i t h a f l o o r show of s o r t s . 164 16. The K i t Kat Klub This club i s i n the same area as the previous two but o f f e r s country-rock music i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i p t e a s e . 17. The K u b l a i Khan The K u b l a i Khan was one of the f i r s t n i g h t c l u b s to receive a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . In recent years the estab-lishment has been known as the Shanghai Junk but the name r e v e r t e d to the o r i g i n a l w i t h a change of ownership. The l o c a t i o n borders both on the Sk i d Row d i s t r i c t and Chinatown, a- s i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n the names the c l u b has had. Entertainment i s a combination of rock music and s t r i p t e a s e . ; 18. The New D e l h i The club i s l o c a t e d i n the same area as the K u b l a i Khan, entertainment here i s a s t r i p show. 19. The Cafe Kobenhavn Here the name i s i n d i c a t i v e of the type of entertainment. This c l u b deals i n t o t a l l y nude dancing and does not have a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . The decor i s simple. Seating i s on k i t c h e n c h a i r s and the dance music i s provided by a rock band. The club's l o c a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to that of the two previous clubs although f u r t h e r removed from S k i d Row and Chinatown, 20. The Bunny Room Formerly the Old Vienna Cabaret, t h i s n i g h t c l u b i n s t i g a t e d a t o p l e s s p o l i c y i n an attempt to a t t r a c t customers. The l o c a t i o n by the bus depot i s unusual i n 165 that i t i s i s o l a t e d from other s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 21. The Quadra Club T h i s i s a very popular uptown l o c a t i o n . The c l u b i s j u s t o f f the major h o t e l d i s t r i c t and i s near the c h i e f r e t a i l i n g area. Entertainment could be termed modern, a music w i t h i n f l u e n c e s from rock and r o l l , but much d i l u t e d . The restaurant o r i e n t a t i o n i s quite s t r o n g . 22. The Penthouse This ciub i s the "home" of t r a d i t i o n a l s t r i p t e a s e i n Vancouver. I t was the most famous of the " a f t e r hours" clubs and one of the l a s t to r e c e i v e a l i q u o r l i c e n c e . The owners have maintained a s t r i c t l y t o p l e s s ' p o l i c y and d i d not f o l l o w the t r e n d to bottomless. The club i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n and has as many as f i f t y g i r l s v/orking the place a n i g h t . ' The l o c a t i o n i s uptown Vancouver, i n the core, but away from the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t . 23. The Club Zanzibar This club has a t t a i n e d a c e r t a i n n o t o r i e t y f o r o f f e r i n g t o p l e s s w r e s t l i n g and r o l l e r s k a t i n g as e n t e r t a i n -ment. Once a r e g u l a r dance club the p o l i c y has been adapted to b o l s t e r attendance. I t i s l o c a t e d i n the same general area as the Penthouse. 24. The Place Another uptown c l u b , the Place i s l o c a t e d on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , one of the c i t y ' s major a r t e r i e s . The entertainment i s s l i g h t l y b i z a r r e , combining a s t r i p show w i t h n o v e l t y acts such as snake charmers and escape a r t i s t s . 166 25. The Factory Located on Davie S t r e e t the Factory borders on the West End but i t s entertainment p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t those of an uptown l o c a t i o n . The club i s i n t i m a t e l y designed wi t h t o p l e s s dancers as entertainment. 26. The Down Under This i s one of f o u r non-core clubs i n v e s t i g a t e d . The l o c a t i o n i s at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of two major a r t e r i e s , Kingsway and Broadway, on the east s i d e of the c i t y . Entertainment i s singalong and dance i n two rooms. 27. Lasseter* s Den The club was opened by two former p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s . The decor i s an i m i t a t i o n of the Cave w i t h s t a l a c t i t e s to give the impression of a n a t u r a l cavern. Rock and r o l l music wi t h o r i e n t a t i o n towards d a n c a b i l i t y has been the entertainment p o l i c y since the club opened at Broadway and Commercial S t r e e t s , a com-m e r c i a l ribbon i n east end Vancouver. 28. Mad Dolphin Dancing and d r i n k i n g to rock and r o l l music i s the f u n c t i o n of t h i s c l u b i n downtown New Westminster, a small c i t y on the banks of the F r a s e r R i v e r ten m i l e s east of Vancouver. With the urban growth of the Lower Mainland New Westminster has become a part of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. 29.. The Reef Th i s club i s i n P o i n t Roberts, U.S.A., a small. 1 6 7 peninsula cut by the f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l , and twenty m i l e s from any other American t e r r i t o r y . The community f u n c t i o n s as an entertainment centre f o r Vancouver r e s i d e n t s . Being exempt from B r i t i s h Columbia l i q u o r laws the .Reef can serve d r a f t beer and open Sundays. T h i s club and one other at Poi n t Roberts combine the t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h Columbian beer p a r l o u r w i t h a n i g h t c l u b o f f e r i n g rock and r o l l music f o r dancing. / / APPENDIX B The Rating Instrument 169 A . M A L E A P P E N D I X B The Rating Instrument 170 BY FEMALE 1 1 NIGHTCLUB STUDY FEMALE .0CATI0N: DATE: IME: f r o a to ENTERTAINMENTS Su b j e c t Number l j 2 i 3 ] 4 5:617 8 1317:141151 I6n.7ii8l9 2Q ?1J22 2324 25'26 28 ?A 30. Lons. S t r . "• | ' j 1 i ! " 1 IIAIH B^ckconbed- ! i i i !. 1 IIAIH C u r l e d | j i i 1 1 l 1 IIAIH S t y l e d • j i . ! 1 i - j I i 1 IIAIH F r eak ... . . i . . . i a Dress-up ... 4 1 -i i - n i ! • i i C a s u a l ! i 1' t i i j i i — i—i S S t r a i g h t •r 1 i i 1 Mod 1! i i ' ! o Freak • : 1 !' i 1 • i ; i | | FAC-DEC ! None j '• ! i | FAC-DEC ! L i p h t Heavy i j t •• i i ! • J i . . . i 1 I i - r - -| FAC-DEC ! Ou X o u S i n g l e H " • -I Couple 1 Croup—Mixed 1 i • i J i Group—Same i ; 1 1 l i - T ; Non-dancers 1 ' 1 j i i j — 1 — u t-i o y Q NotContemp : ! i | '• i ! Contemp ! 1 , i I F r e n z i e d i ! • 1 . i i Frenk i 1 ! : ! 1 t , tc h-t s Non-drin'<ers ' I i • i-Beer t • i L i q u o r i ^ j — u o «< Under 2 ? ' . ! 1 . j 25-35 ' . i i ; : ; - - - - •- -Over 35 ' \ I . 1 1— ; % ; 1 ' APPENDIX C Site Variables 172 APPENDIX C Site Variables Variable 1 Number of Clubs Within Two Blocks 2 Number of Major Hotels•Within One Block 3 Number of Beer Parlours Within One Block 4 Number of F i r s t Class Restaurants Within One Block-5 Number of Major Hotels Within Tv/o Blocks 6 Number of F i r s t Class Restaurants Within Two Blocks 7 Number of Beer Parlours Within Two Blocks 8 Number of Clubs Within One Block [• APPENDIX D Tree Graph of the Grouping of Male Subjects APPENDIX D Tree Graph of the Grouping of Male Subjects ITEMS GRDJPED STEP I J ERROR .13 14 J 5 . 10 20 21 ~22~ 23 •#• 26 27 18 22 15 2 0 11 2 9 21 12 2 7 2 8 14 2 5 23 19 13 17 10 26 16 24 4 5 JS 1 7 . 3 ^ 9 10 2 11 2C -12 1 16 17 18 J . 14 8 . 6 9 0 5 0 2 1 7 12 9 . 0 0 5 9 6 2 3 7 10 5 . 4 6 1 5 6 5 « 7 9 5 . 7 3 9 6 F 8 8 7 18 1 0 . 4 4 6 8 9 4 6 28 1 l . 3 7 4 6 1 2 8 ~ ^ 7 19 6 26 27 _21 1 2 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 5 1 7 . 16 1 9 . A 5 . . _ 2 3 . 29 2 5 . 2 2 3 . 13 2 9 7 2 7 2 7 9 7 56 3C52 8 3 6 9 f 5 1 7 5 5 0 7 3 7 4 4 4 5 5 7 1 9 2 2 4 1 3 6 4 "23 3 0 . 20 31 25 3 5 . 5 6 5 0 1 7 7 7 4 1 2 4 1 5 1 6 9 6 9 3 0 4 4 6 S 746"" 8 1 6 7 6 7 7 3 4 8 1 1 4 0 24 ^ 1 " . 11 4 4 . 72 5 6 . 4 5 7 . 6 7 5 . 7 9 8 7 5 4 J 3 35 8 2 4 2 6 4 5 02 £ = 7 6 4 2 2"<:ce49" 3 9 5 1 5 6 9 2 0 7 1 C 7 5 5 3 5 c 3 7 7 7 5 2 7 2 4 6 9 7 3 2 0 5 6 1 5 3 3 2 0 " I I I I l__l I l_ I 1 I I I I ! I I I i I I I I l_l I I I I I I t i l l ! ! I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I L i .' i i ' I i I I I i 1 11 1 i ! 1 V H-t I I I I I I I LI I I I J I. I I I I I I I. I I I I I I I L J L T i i i i i i i f f 1 - ' I I I I I - H -I I I I I l _ l I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I l_l - h r l__l I _ I I I " I I I r i i i i i i i i i i i i i _ i "i"" r i i i i i i cr i i i i i i t-1 APPENDIX E Tree Graph of the Grouping of Female Subjects . APPENDIX' E Tree Graph of the Grouping of Female Subjects I T E M S G R O U P E D .1 8 5 12 9 21 7 25 1* 4 ' 6 10 11 3 21, STEP I J EKKUK 29 27 28 17 23 13 22 19 l o 2 26 20 15 Id * ; * 1 9 11 4.377535o3 * I I I i I I I I J I I I I I I I I_1 I I I I I I I J I I I * 2 5 6 5.di737u*l * 1 1 I I I I 1 I I _ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 * 3 A 27 8.29b7it>io * I I I I I l _ l I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I # 4 4 16 9.539<:i7JO * I I I I I I __ I . | | | | | | " | | | | | j j j j j 1 1 1 * 5 14 29 9.63979340 * I |_| I I | | I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I v 6 3 13 10.5794to9 * I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I _I I I 1 I I I * 7 5 28 11 ./59-*odl * i F~ i I j | | J | | | | j | i | ~\ j j j j j fT~ 8 10 17 l i . 679ild9 * I I I I | J I I l _ l I J I I I I I I J I I I * 9 9 23 12.3222294 * I I | I | ' I I I I I I I | |_ | I | I I I I * 10' 3 15 12.ddoi390 * I I I I | | j j " j " | | | | t i l l I I I I I 11 9 20 i-t.9dD.io5o * I I I I I J I I I I I | J | I I I I I * 1? 1 14 15.95.07^17 * I I I I 1 I | I | | I | | I I I I I * 13 9 21 17.9740753 * I I I | I I I I I l _ _ l I 1 I I I I * 14 2 12 19.0144d0o * I I I I I l _ l I I I I I I I I I * 1 5 . 1 19 .21.9799194 * | | I J [ _ | | | _ | _ l __ I I I I I * 16 3 7 22.62240o0 * i l " " I j ~" j j , ~ I _ I 1 I 1 I * 17 4 5 23 . 109o497 * | | | | | | | | I I I I I * 18 2 10 26. 344o9S0 * | | J | | | j | | | | | » ' 19 2 ~Ib 32.055<jtdd * ' ~. V 1 | | "I j j \ j |~T~ 2C 1 8 35.4947938 * I I | | J | I I I I * 21 18 25 40.0160370 * _ I |_ J j | _ | 1 | I « 22 2 9 ~40.8d3499 1 " " * " " "| " '"' TJ~_L_'_„ J " j " j 1"" 7"* 23 1 4 4t.823o034 * | | '1 | I J I I » 24 3 24 51.J37O3J1 * j ; j | | | | » 25 2 3 3d. 29339o0 * I | ZI I I * 26 2 22 t>2.6250000 * J | j | * 27 2 18 85.O59o4oo__ * .__ I j _ _ | _| * ' 28 1 2 "129. 313648 "* I Z_ ZIl_-lZ-lIiZLZIIIlZII--I~- 1 ~ ~ ~ " *" * ' * APPENDIX P Tree Graph of the Grouping on Site Variables APPENDIX F Tree Graph of the Grouping on S i t e Variables I T E M S GPOUPtU 1 5 27 Id 9 .25 8 17 2 l i £ 1 19 22 29 20 S T E P I J E K K U K 3 12 23 6 It 26 1 0 4 l i 16 2d 24 7 15 * : * 1 3 4 O.OOOOOOOJ * I I I-I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I * 2 11 12 O.OOOCOOOO # 1 1 I | | _ | I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I J | I i J ] J | -* 3 11 13 0 . O O O 0 O O O 0 * I I | | | j j | j | J | j | | j | j | | ( | j j | | | ^ 4 14 24 O.OOOOOOJO * I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I j " " i l l I I I I 1 I I I I * 5 14 25 0 .00000000 * I I 1 | | I I I I I I I I | I J | 1 I I I | | | I « 6 14 29 0 .00000000 * I I | | | I I I I I I I I I I 7 | I I I I I I I * ~7 16 ia o.oooooooo * i i i i i i j j f_l i i i i i T T~ i i i i i i * .. 8 16 19 0 . 2 0 7 9 o l d 0 # 1 1 I I | I I I | | I I I I | 1 I I I I I I * ... 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