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The effect of idioms on children's reading and understanding of prose Edwards, Peter 1972

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THE EFFECT OF IDIOMS ON CHILDREN'S READING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PROSE by Peter Edwards B.A., Univers ity of Western Au s t r a l i a , 1964 B.Ed., Univers ity of Western Au s t r a l i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date / k + U } /<?7Z ABSTRACT A survey of re lated l i t e r a t u r e showed that, although many educational researchers have stressed the importance of idioms in the English language, very few experimental studies have been carr ied out to ascertain the ro le played by idioms in the reading process. The author conducted a study to determine whether idioms cause d i f f i c u l t y for chi ldren in the reading and understanding of.prose. A p i l o t study was performed to f a c i l i t a t e the se lect ion of test items and to establ i sh test ing procedures. The experimental study consisted of four randomly chosen groups in each of two schools. Randomly assigned chi ldren in each group were given one of the four reading tests as fo l lows: Non L i t e ra l 1 (N.L. 1 ) , which contained idioms in a l l eighteen test items; Non L i t e r a l 2 (N.L. 2 ) , which contained idioms in twelve of the eighteen test items; Non L i t e r a l 3 (N.L. 3 ) , which contained idioms in s ix of the eighteen test items; L i t e r a l , which did not contain idioms in any of the eighteen test items. The chi ldren read the i r assigned test and answered comprehension questions by se lect ing one of the four mult ip le choice a lternat ives for each test item. The fol lowing s t a t i s t i c a l results were obtained: the treatment e f fect was highly s i g n i f i c an t ; the means increased s tead i l y , with the highest scores associated with the L i t e r a l test and the lowest scores associated with Non L i t e r a l 1 tes t . There was no s i g n i f i c an t difference between the performance of g i r l s and boys in the tests ; there was no l i near or cu rv i l i near interact ion with I.Q. and treatment, nor was there a sex by t r ea t -ment in te ract ion . An analysis of the four treatment groups showed that there were s i gn i f i c an t differences between the means of a l l groups except Non L i t e r a l 1 and Non L i t e r a l 2, the two groups containing the greatest number of idioms in the test items. The results of the study raised several implications which necessitate further research. Several questions are concerned with the incidence and type of idiomatic language used in books and the best method of teaching idioms to school ch i ldren. Another raises the p o s s i b i l i t y of having to allow fo r idioms when compiling readab i l i t y formulae. A further impl icat ion i s that there may be a need for s t r i c t l y l i t e r a l reading materials which would serve as a t rans i t i ona l l i nk between the m u l t i p l i c i t y of d ia lect s ex i s t ing in society today, and the need to read and understand wr i t ten Standard Engl ish. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my deep gratitude to the members of my thesis committee for the help that they gave me with this study: to the chairman, Dr. G.M. Chronister, for his i n i t i a l help and encouragement with the thesis proposal and for his advice and guidance throughout the ent i re project; to Dr. R. McConnell fo r her many invaluable suggestions and for her time and expertise in designing the test items and in re f in ing the presentation of much of th i s thes i s ; to Dr. T.D.M. McKie for his i n i t i a l assistance with the thesis proposal and for the considerable time and e f f o r t which he spent with the test items and the experimental design. I am also indebted to Dr. McKie for his work and advice on the s t a t i s t i c a l aspects of th is study. I would also l i k e to thank Dr. F. Bowers fo r his help in constructing the test items and for the advice that he gave on various aspects of th is thes is . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY ' . . 1 I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 2 I I I. DEFINITION OF TERMS . . 3 Idioms . . 3 L i t e r a l 4 Prose 4 Standard English 4 IV. HYPOTHESIS 4 V. RELATED RESEARCH . . . . . 5 Idioms as Language 5 Idioms and Understanding . . . . . . 13 Research Studies 17 Special Problems 20 II. RESEARCH DESIGN 24 I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 24 Selection of Classes and Assignment,. of Treatments 24 Item C r i t e r i a 25 Measurement Conditions 27 II. STATISTICAL DESIGN 28 I I I. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 30 I. REGRESSION ANALYSIS 31 II. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE 32 I I I. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 33 Newman-Keuls Test 34 Tests for Trend 36 CHAPTER PAGE IV. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 38 IV. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 41 I. CONCLUSIONS 41 II. LIMITATIONS 41 I I I. DISCUSSION 42 IV. IMPLICATIONS 43 REFERENCES . . 46 APPENDICES 49 I. TEST CONSTRUCTION 50 II. PILOT STUDY . 60 II I. INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TEST . . . 68 IV. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS 69 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. MEANS FOR ALL TREATMENT GROUPS 30 II. TREATMENT MEANS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS . . . 30 I I I. TOTAL GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS 31 IV. SOURCE OF TEST VARIANCE 31 V. SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE . . . 33 VI. SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE . . . . 34 VII. SUMMARY OF NEWMAN-KEULS TEST 35 VIII. TESTS FOR TREND 37 IX. SUMMARY OF PILOT STUDY SCORES 61 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. THE TWO IDIOMATICITY AREAS IN ENGLISH ft (Makkai) 6 2. SEMOLOGICAL MUTATION STRUCTURE (Chafe)... 9 3. LITERALIZATION OF IDIOMS 10 C H A P T E R I DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY I. INTRODUCTION There is considerable evidence in education research to show that a great many normal chi ldren have d i f f i c u l t y in understanding what they read. This study proposes to tes t one reason why the reading d i f f i c u l t y may occur. Several researchers have pointed out the v i t a l ro le of idioms in the English language. (Chafe, 1967; Makkai, 1969). A number of recent classroom studies have i l l u s t r a t e d the incidence of idioms in school texts and have suggested the need to teach idiomatic language as part of the English language programs in school'. Very few research projects , however, have concentrated on the e f fec t of idioms on the a b i l i t y of a c h i l d to understand a passage of prose. (The issues raised here w i l l be dealt with in Related Research). It i s the purpose of this study to determine whether idioms cause chi ldren to experience d i f f i c u l t y when reading prose. A tes t containing a number of idioms which are in common usage in English prose w i l l be constructed and administered to randomly assigned grade eight students. I t w i l l then be argued that the inc lus ion of idiomatic expressions into prose content causes 2. d i f f i c u l t y in understanding for the students. I I. BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM By the time a ch i l d enters formal education in the elementary school he 'd isplays language performance which re f lec t s a high degree of competence1. (Ruddell, 1970) That i s , most f i r s t graders can both converse and 'process ' or understand what is being said to them. They therefore understand sentence patterns and a var iety of transformations: (e.g. commands, statements, questions, embedded sentences, e t c . ) . The f i r s t reference to a teaching of idioms in A Guide  to Teaching the English Language Arts in the Intermediate Years, Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1968, occurs on page 78, under the heading, "Study S k i l l s 1 ' : Dict ionary: 2. Derive meanings: Point #14; ' a b i l i t y to interpret idiomatic usages, for example, " to pick a bone w i t h " ! . Presumably the teaching of idioms would be l e f t to the d i scret ion of the indiv idual teachers-involved. Yet i t has been stated that an appreciation of idioms i s basic for understanding the (English) language, since they const itute a large part of i t (Adkins, 1970). The wr i te r has personally noted the lack of understanding of idiomatic language by Canadian and Austra l ian youngsters a l i k e . Much of ch i ld ren ' s l i t e r a t u r e i s wr i t ten by people who use a great var iety of idioms as part of the i r s t y l e . I f i t can be demonstrated ) 3. that reading materials which include idiomatic expressions are less eas i l y comprehended by chi ldren than the same passages in which only l i t e r a l expressions are used, a l l other factors being cont ro l led , then: (a) A presumption w i l l have been established that reading materials constructed of l i t e r a l English should be used for ins t ruct iona l purposes in the fol lowing s i tuat ions : ( i ) with students who are at the beginning phase of the i r reading experiences; ( i i ) with students who are experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with the reading process; ( i i i ) with English second-language students. (b) A basis w i l l have been l a i d fo r further experimental studies to evolve sat i s factory methods of ins t ruct ion to improve pupil comprehension of prose that contains idiomatic language. I I I. DEFINITION OF TERMS IDIOMS As used in this study, idioms w i l l re fer to expressions or phrases which are pecul iar to a given language and which carry e i ther a l i t e r a l meaning or a non - l i t e ra l meaning depending on the intent of the wr i t e r . In other words idioms, as the term i s used here, are ambiguous, and to be understood must e i ther be known as a un i t , or deduced from the context. That i s , the intended meaning cannot be arr ived at by l i t e r a l analys is . 4. e.g. 'he kicked the bucket' can l i t e r a l l y mean jus t that, but i t usually conveys i t s idiomatic meaning: 'he d i e d ' . LITERAL This refers to wr i t ing which means exactly what the words s tate. It i s analysable in terms of the referent meanings of i t s constituents. PROSE In th is study, prose wr i t i ng w i l l be re s t r i c ted to the type of wr i t i ng found in narrat ive works, and w i l l exclude ' s c i e n t i f i c ' wr i t i ng designed so le ly to impart knowledge. STANDARD ENGLISH This term w i l l represent the wr i t ten d i a l ec t of the educated users of the language in Canada and w i l l not include slang. IV. HYPOTHESIS Non- l i te ra l passages of prose w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t fo r chi ldren to understand than comparable passages of l i t e r a l prose. D i f f i c u l t y of understanding w i l l be measured in terms of the number of correct responses to the questions asked about the passages. Greater d i f f i c u l t y w i l l be indicated by fewer correct responses by an indiv idual or group, and less d i f f i c u l t y by more correct responses. While i t i s expected that th i s hypothesis w i l l hold for 5. chi ldren with d i f fe rent levels of general mental a b i l i t y (measured by the Lorge-Thorndike I.Q. t e s t ) , th is i s not hypothesized. In-stead the fol lowing question i s posed: Wi l l the e f fect postulated in the hypothesis hold to the same extent for a l l indiv idual cases regardless of I.Q., or w i l l there be an interact ion effect? V. RELATED RESEARCH The word " id iom" i s derived from the Greek word "idioma" which means "pecul iar phraseology" IDIOMS AS.LANGUAGE The problem of thoroughly examining the structure of idioms and the i r influence on the understanding of the English language has been strangely neglected by l i n gu i s t i c s and educa-t iona l researchers a l i k e . Hal l iday (1961) pointed this out when he stated that l i ngu i s t s have a l l too often 'given up' on the problem of analysing the e f fec t of idioms on the English language. Makkai (1969) supports th i s view in the introduction to his analysis of i d iomat i c i t y . This involved,but very en l i gh t -ening, study defines the two major areas of idiomatic usage where 6. misunderstandings may occur. Makkai postulates that there are polylexonic lexemes such as ' h i t the r o o f , ' k i ck the bucket ' , ' b l a c k m a i l ' , e tc ; and polysemonic sememes t yp i f i ed by 'a chip o f f the old block ' and 'too many cooks spo i l the b ro th 1 . FIGURE I THE TWO IDIOMATICITY AREAS IN ENGLISH (MAKKAI, 1969) SEMEMIC STRATUM LEXEMIC STRATUM LEXON SEMON SEMEME LEXEME SECOND IDIOMATICITY AREA (POLYLEXONIC LEXEMES) FIRST IDIOMATICITY AREA (POLYSEMONIC SEMEMES) The f i r s t category of idioms contains parts of speech which are read i ly understood when used separately in other s i tuat ions . However, polylexonic lexemes which contain lexons that are not independent lexemes when used separately are termed 'pseudo-idioms' by Makkai. Expressions such as " k i t h and k in " and "spick and span" are in this category, fo r the lexons " c ran " , " k i t h " , and "spick" have no semonic meaning when used separately. 7. The second type of idiom also contains lexons which occur elsewhere in the language as lexemes. Makkai points out that the sememic idiom, "don ' t count your chickens before they ' re hatched", contains lexemes which i f re-arranged would make sense in an en t i r e l y d i f fe rent s i t ua t i on . "Don't hatch your chickens before they ' re counted", therefore, might be considered good advice to a poultry farmer but the statement would have l o s t i t s idiomatic qua l i t y . t Thus the meaning of an idiom i s not a combination of the meanings of each of i t s parts, but is more l i k e the meaning of a s ingle l e x i c a l item. Chafe (1968) i l l u s t r a t e s th is by using the idiom ' k i ck the bucket ' . He notes that the meaning of th is idiom i s not derived from ' k i c k ' (verb), ' t he ' (de f in i te a r t i c l e ) , 'bucket ' (noun), but rather ' k i ck the bucket' has a meaning some-thing l i k e ' d i e ' . This example also emphasises the 'concrete ' nature of l i t e r a l expressions and the abstract meaning conveyed by idioms. I t i s this move away from l i t e r a l English towards an abstraction of ideas which makes many idioms d i f f i c u l t to decode. It should be noted at this point that a reader 's a b i l i t y to cope with idiomatic language may be related to his or/her understanding the process of making and decoding metaphors. That i s , the f a c i l i t y to discern the metaphorical aspect of an idiom w i l l often enable the reader to successful ly comprehend the meaning 8. of an idiomatic expression. In th is study, Makkai's two types of idioms were used; e.g. polylexonic lexemes, ( ' h i t i t o f f , ' t o take issue w i t h ' ) ; and polysemonic sememes, ( 'w i ld goose chase ', ' a f l y in the ointment ' ) . Both types of idiomatic expression present d i f f i c u l t y in decoding, for idioms rare ly give ' s i gna l s ' that they are about to appear. L ingu i s t i c research into i d i omat i c i t y , according to Makkai, would allow not only a deeper understanding of the structure of Engl i sh, but would also give further ins ight into st ructura l semantics on a comparative basis i f a universal factor could be establ ished. In "Language as Symbolization", (1967) Chafe also states his surprise at the paucity of research on idioms, pa r t i cu l a r l y in the f i e l d of id iomat ic i zat ion. He c i tes one reason for this being the great emphasis h i s t o r i c a l l i ngu i s t s have placed on phonological surface semological aspects of language. Chafe's concept of the deeper implications of semological theory f l ' i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 2. 9. FIGURE 2. SEMOLOGICAL MUTATION STRUCTURE (CHAFE, 1967) CONTENT EXPRESSION ^SURFACE SEMOLOGY »INITIAL SYMBOLIZATION FORM V_ DEEP SEMOLOGY FINAL SYMBOLIZATION SUBSTANCE (EXPERIENCE) (SOUND) Chafe maintains that idioms enable a language to cope with more experiences by greatly extending the vocabulary. He points out that even though a l l idioms have l i b e r a l i z a t i o n s , not a l l have l i t e r a l counterparts. The idiom ' h i t the r o o f can be broken down into i t s parts and each word w i l l have a l i t e r a l meaning as shown in Figure 3. 10. FIGURE 3 LITERAL IZATION OF IDIOMS COMPLEMENTATION— V N V h i t the roof the roof h i t (idiom) (LEXICAL UNITS) This applies to a l l idioms. However not a l l idioms have a l i t e r a l interpretat ion as they stand. The expression, ' t o t r i p the l i g h t f a n t a s t i c ' , i s ce r ta in l y idiomatic but i t means nothing other than the pa r t i cu la r meaning attached to i t — i t can-not be taken l i t e r a l l y as an ent i t y . On the basis of the " l i t e r a l counterpart" aspect, Chafe is able to c l a s s i f y idioms as ' l i v e ' (having a l i t e r a l counterpart) — or 'dead 1 . The value of this concept is that i t focuses attention on the e f fec t of idioms on the reading process. I f the reader i s aware of the presence of a ' l i v e ' idiom, he is faced with the task of using i t e i ther id iomat ica l l y or l i t e r a l l y . Therefore according to Chafe any sentence which contains a l i v e idiom i s necessari ly ambiguous. If the reader i s not aware of the ' l i v e ' idiom, he decodes the sentence l i t e r a l l y , and is 11. automatically wrong! The wr i te r has often seen chi ldren completely confused by statements such as, 'h i s right-hand man' (only one hand?), etc. Faced with a 'dead' idiom, the reader e i ther knows i t and can symbolize i t s ro le in the language s t ructure, or he is bewildered by i t s apparent, but non-existent, l i t e r a l counterpart. For example, imagine the consternation of a young reader endeavour-ing to understand ' t r i p the l i g h t f a n t a s t i c ' ! Adkins (1968) stresses the need to have an operational de f i n i t i on of ' id iom ' before attempting to engage in research. She points out that idioms can be descr ipt ive phrases ( ' to be short-handed'); can be composed of verbs and preposit ions, ( ' to f i l l i n ' ) ; or can be combinations of verbs and adverbs ( ' look forward ' ) . Examples of these types of idioms which were used in the study are given in APPENDIX IV. Wingfield (1969) suggests that there are four main d iv i s ions of English idioms: ( i ) 'Culture - bound' idioms which are now accepted as l e x i ca l items in the language; e.g. They took a short-cut to the park. Many phrasal verbs such as put o f f (postpone) and keep back (retain) are in th i s group. (2) Metaphori-cal idioms which are readi ly understood; e.g. The so ld ie r l o s t  his head completely. (3) Metaphorical idioms which require some background knowledge of the i r source; e.g. They knew that the man had something up his sleeve (conjuring). (4) Culture-bound idioms 12. which can be used only in s pec i f i c s i tua t ions ; e.g. The g i r l said that she couldn ' t stand the man. This l a t t e r section also contains numerous phrasal verbs, but with a cu l tura l connotation; e.g. l e t on ( reveal ) , turn up (appear). The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n out l ined here has two main weaknesses. In the f i r s t place, i t doesn't explain how 'culture-bound' idioms are also not metaphorical. (One could pose the question; Aren ' t a l l idioms metaphorical?) Secondly, Wingfield makes no attempt to give his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a taxonomical s t ructure. The reader can only surmise that the d iv i s ions of idioms are not necessari ly meant to be in order of d i f f i c u l t y or complexity. In another a r t i c l e , Chafe (1968) i n s i s t s that the Chomskyan paradigm, which led to so much f r u i t f u l research into l i n g u i s t i c s over the l a s t decade, w i l l have to be modified to explain adequately the functions of i d iomat ic i t y . He suggests that the generative syntax approach of Chomsky's theory cannot successfuly account for the pecu l i a r i t i e s of idiomatic language. Chafe's point i s that l i n g u i s t i c models should now s h i f t from a generative syntact ic pos it ion to a generative semantic one. To support his premise, Chafe notes that both Katz and Pos ta l , and l a te r Weinreich, have proposed the inc lus ion of l i s t s of idioms in d ict ionar ies to help f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of idiomatic ' p i t - f a l l s ' for the unsk i l led or unaware reader. 13. IDIOMS AND UNDERSTANDING Most chi ldren beginning the i r formal education would appear to have a reasonably adequate set of language s k i l l s . S t r ick land (1962) observed that chi ldren exhibited fa r greater s k i l l in using language patterns than was previously rea l i zed . Yetta M. Goodman conducted a study with f i r s t grade chi ldren and reported that they were able to 'sample and draw on syntact ic and semantic information when the reading material was presented as f u l l y formed language'.^ Reading, however, is not merely word-cal l ing. A perceptual process must accompany the deciphering of graphic symbols. Dechant (1970) states th is admirably when he refers to the complete reading act being an involvement in which the reader brings meaning to the printed symbols through his cu l tura l and exper ient ia l background. The perceptual process involves seeing the printed word, recognizing the word, understanding i t s meaning, and re la t ing the word to i t s context. But what i f an adequate knowledge of vocabulary depends on what Pei (1967) refers to as an understanding of s ta le metaphors, s im i le s , and idioms, which in the words of George Orwell, 'construct From a doctoral study of development of reading in f i r s t grade chi ldren by Yetta M. Goodman, College of Education, Wayne State Univers i ty. 14. Your sentences for you think your thoughts for you and conceal your meaning even from y o u r s e l f ? In e f fect i f we use Chomsky's model of deep sentence structures transforming experiences into phonological or graphological surface un i t s , the reader must be able to choose the correct interpretat ion even when the sentence i s t ru ly idiomatic and therefore ambiguous. (Wardhaugh 1968) The problem is exacerbated i f the ch i l d does not have a sa t i s factory home environment where he can be exposed to a wide var iety of language and reading experiences. Ruddell (1970) mentions the fac t that a young person's language comprehension i s d i r e c t l y related to his ' s t rateg ies and ob jec t s ' . I f the ch i l d has had l i t t l e or no experience in ident i f y ing and understanding the complexities of idiomatic language, he w i l l be at a disadvantage when confronted with idioms in his reading mater ia l . As mentioned e a r l i e r , a good understanding of metaphors w i l l usually help a l l e v i a t e this d i f f i c u l t y . Fami l i a r i t y with idioms and metaphors w i l l also enable a young person to cope more e f f ec t i ve l y with the changing nature of the English language. Idioms, in numerous instances, are the results of the evolutionary aspect of language. An interest ing example of th is i s given by Bolinger (1968), who c i tes the manner in which leftovers consigned as b i rd food came to be accepted as ' i t ' s f o r the b i rd s ' - - worthless. 15. Idiomatic expressions in reading material pose further d i f f i c u l t i e s when adults wr i te books for chi ldren without f i r s t making a careful study of the preva i l ing modes of popular language usage. The successful authoress, Maria Wotzchowski, maintains that wr i t i ng ch i ld ren ' s books should be attempted only by wr iters who can appreciate the needs and a b i l i t i e s of the i r young readers. This perhaps over-emotional observation has nevertheless some v a l i d i t y from a s t r i c t l y l i n g u i s t i c point of view. Lachenmeyer (1969), in postulating his concept of fee l ing in language, states that he had considered the arguments of both Osgood's s t imul i and response theory of word meanings ( l a te r modified by Mowrer), and Skinner 's ins istence on a s t r i c t l y ' funct ional approach' where 'go to he l l you bastard! ' i s simply an adverse reaction to someone you don 't l i k e ! Lachenmeyer concludes by stat ing that we arrange words in a par t i cu la r way and this causes associations to the words to produce re su l t s . This concept, however, would not seem to apply to idiomatic language, fo r in the case of ' l i v e ' idioms we often do not mean anything l i k e the words we use. Furthermore Chafe's (1968) comment that speakers are aware of l i t e r a l i z a t i o n s and the re la t i on between idioms and the i r l i t e r a l counterparts is interest ing to consider at th is stage. Chafe's point i s that i f the encoder of the language was not aware of the confusion caused by idioms, 'many puns would be impossible to create and appreciate, and l i t e r a t u r e would be a very d i f fe rent and much du l le r thing than i t i s ' . Surely th i s i s the 16. issue! What i f chi ldren don 't fol low the use of idiomatic language? What indeed does happen to communication and l i t e r a r y appreciation? Bolinger appears to make the same fau l ty general-i z a t i on . He states that the essence of syntax is choice, and the main consideration one should have for his audience i s the fact that syntax w i l l fol low c lea r l y defined ru les. Again i t would seem idioms remain an uncontrolled var iab le. Likewise the semantic theory c losely related to Chomsky's, which proposed that reading material without l e x i c a l items that could be interpreted ' i n a manner consistent with each other ' should be rejected, would also appear to ignore an idiomatic p o s s i b i l i t y of in terpretat ion. (Wardhaugh, 1968). A good example of th i s l a s t point i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the fol lowing sentences: 1. "Tom is a f a t ca t " . 2. "Thomas i s a rotund, f e l i n e quadruped". Goodman (1970) argues that when a ch i l d reads the second sentence, he ' s to re s ' words in his memory bank un t i l he can deduce the i r meaning - or un t i l he looks the word up in a d ict ionary. The wr i te r wonders, however, what would happen i f in e f fect the eas ier sentence of the two: "Tom is a f a t c a t " , was in e f fect « more d i f f i c u l t ! What i f th is sentence referred to the modern i d i o -matic usage of the term, " f a t ca t " , (e.g. cTom i s a r i ch shrewd person; a 'cool customer'). The reader would then be faced with 17. the problem of solv ing an ambiguous statement so le ly with the aid of contextual clues which in many cases are not provided. I t i s for th is reason that Constance McCullough (1968) suggested in her work for the Indian Government that to enable the reader to progress s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , elementary and secondary school textbooks should have idioms and the i r meanings l i s t e d . RESEARCH STUDIES As Makkai and Chafe noted e a r l i e r in this paper, there has been l i t t l e evidence of research work into the effects of idioms on reading comprehension. Weiner, who compiled a book on idioms and figures of speech found in Engl ish, echoed the i r sentiments, as did Robert J . Dixon who suggested teaching idioms through the use of extensive pract ice exercises. (Adkins, 1968). The few experimental studies reported in research l i t e r a t u r e have taken place in the United States of America, and have concentrated on students learning English as a second language. Holmes (1959) in an unpublished Master's thes i s , reported a study into ch i ld ren ' s a b i l i t y to comprehend " e x t r a - l i t e r a l " language. Her paper also pointed out that there was a constant use of f i gu ra t i ve and idiomatic speech in textbooks which the chi ldren were reading. The subjects being tested in Holmes' study were a group of f i f th -g rade Negro chi ldren of low economic status. She found that there was a v i t a l need to help the chi ldren concerned to understand the ro le played 18. by idiomatic and f i gu ra t i ve language in reading comprehension. Holmes recommended the d i rec t teaching of th is area of language through word exercises to develop basic concepts. In another unpublished Master's thes i s , Maurine Yandell found that fourth grade Anglo-American chi ldren had a decided advantage in comprehending common idiomatic expressions when compared to s ix th grade Indian and Spanish American students. The l a t t e r groups tended to interpret the idioms in a l i t e r a l sense and as a re su l t the i r median scores when compared with those of the Anglo-American chi ldren were at the second percent i le and f i r s t percent i le respect ive ly. Several studies of a s im i l a r nature but on a much larger scale have been conducted by Pa t r i c i a Adkins (1968) from the Univers ity of Texas. In order to test the be l i e f that idioms should be taught to students learning English as a second language, Adkins set up a p i l o t study in two high schools: one in El Paso, Texas, the other in Gasden, New Mexico. The purpose of th is i n i t i a l invest igat ion was to determine the incidence of idiomatic and f i gurat i ve expressions in the seventh grade reading textbooks, then being used by the grade nine E.S.L. students in the two states. The study of reading Maurine Yandel l , "Some D i f f i c u l t i e s Which Indian Children Encounter with Idioms in Reading", (unpublished Master's thes i s , the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1959). 19. material revealed that there was an average of 3.32 idioms and figures of speech per page throughout the basal readers and soc ia l studies texts. Accordingly a group of forty-two Spanish speaking students were tested on the i r understanding -of idiomatic and f i gurat i ve language. Adkins reported that only 37% of the language examples tested were known. Furthermore a high proportion of the wrong answers were e i ther misconceptions or cases where no answer had been attempted. Adkins thus concluded that there must be a considerable quantity of prescribed reading material which was not r ea l l y understood by the ninth grade chi ldren who were tested. In another research study with s ixty-two grade three chi ldren in El Paso, Texas, P a t r i c i a Adkins (1967) set up two groups consist ing of th irty-one native English speakers and thirty-one native Spanish speakers, respect ive ly. On this occasion a story, "Nathan and the Peddler", was selected from a school basal reader, Looking  Ahead, (Houghton M i f f l i n ) , and was examined for idiomatic and f i gurat i ve language. As a r e su l t , f o r t y - f i v e expressions were used in a series of comprehension tests throughout the da i ly reading of the th i r t y -e i gh t page story. The results confirmed the be l i e f that the chi ldren could not comprehend many of the " e x t r a - l i t e r a l " pass-ages. A " t " tes t computed on the mean d i f ference, equalled 3.51, s i gn i f i c an t beyond .001, with 88 degrees of freedom. When the ' e r ro r means' for both groups were compared, the Spanish speaking 20. group was considerably higher (10.62 to 6.93). A l l of the research projects c i ted here attempted to ascertain whether chi ldren understood the meaning of various idioms. As a resu l t the idioms were presented both in context and in i s o l a t i o n , and the students were given mult ip le choice a l ternat ives . The present study, however, was not merely concerned with the understanding of a number of idioms. It sought to establ i sh that the inc lus ion of idiomatic expressions into English prose causes d i f f i c u l t y in understanding for the student reader. The study thus examined the question of idioms and the reading of prose in much greater depth than had been previously discussed in published research studies. SPECIAL PROBLEMS The problems of students attempting to understand idiomatic content in reading materials are c l ea r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by c u l t u r a l l y deprived ch i ldren. There has been a considerable amount of research in this f i e l d and an examination of some of the findings w i l l add background to the study being pursued in th is paper. Chall (1968) raises the pertinent question: Why the cumulative de f i c i t s found in reading achievement among disadvantaged children? I f reading i s the 'psychol ingu i s t ic quessing game1 suggested by Goodman, Chall proposes that we should look further. Figurel claims that the problem i s that disadvantaged chi ldren don 't r ea l l y understand basic Standard English patterns, a fee l ing which i s shared by Muriel S a v i l l e (1970). Chafe, however, has previously shown that id iomat ic i ty pervades the English language and forms a major part of i t s understanding, so that even i f chi ldren appear to know0 the components of what they are reading, the comprehension of the message may, escape them. A recent study by Cohen and Kornf ie ld (1970) appear to lend support to Chafe's pos it ion out l ined above. They decided to test the theory that urban disadvantaged black chi ldren have smaller vocabularies than middle-class chi ldren of the same age, and that th is factor accounts for the blacks ' retardation in reading. After using the Thomas oral vocabulary procedure on a group of f i r s t -grade urban ghetto chi ldren who were experiencing d i f f i c u l t y in reading, t h e y found that these students were in fact capable of handling most of the vocabulary in the basal readers for grade one. The authors concluded that a great deal more work remained to be done in the area of how Standard English reading materials affected reading performance in disadvantaged youngsters. Now the point is that even though the grade one books would probably not contain very much idiomatic usage, the negro chi ldren were s t i l l bringing to the reading act the i r own var iety of idiomatic language learned in the i r homes and neighborhood. S a v i l l e adds support to this observation. She maintains that the question i s bound up in the incongruences which ex i s t between the syntax of the native tongue and that of Standard English. Shuy (1964) agrees, adding that i f a c h i l d ' s oral language doesn't reasonably match his reading mater ia ls , he w i l l experience d i f f i c u l t y . Metaphors and other types of unpredictable language (idioms) width according to Shuy, worsen the pos i t ion. Mamenta (1969) is yet another re -searcher who has supported this argument. Her work involved reading programs and oral in s t ruct ion in English for F i l i p i n o ch i ldren. She concluded that there was need to invest igate a possible rapproachment between 'acceptable language structures used by English Second Language chi ldren and reading passages con-s i s t i n g of Standard Eng l i sh ' . There i s considerable evidence to suggest that teachers are also at f a u l t when teaching disadvantaged chi ldren to read, by not r ea l i z i n g that they speak one 'language' (middle-class Standard Engl ish), and the i r pupils speak another (d ia lec t or sub-Standard Engl ish). Labov has described this as ' the ignorance of Standard English rules by the readers, and the ignorance of non-Standard English rules by the teachers and w r i t e r s ' . (Baratz, 1969) Surely this also applies to chi ldren who are neither E.S.L. students nor c u l t u r a l l y deprived. I f they don 't understand idioms which are frequently used in reading mater ia l , they have a language problem! Several studies have offered suggestions and procedures 23. to help a l l e v i a te the problem facing E.S.L. students. Stewart (1969) states that i t might be best to allow the ch i l d to begin reading in his own d i a l ec t and then move to Standard Engl ish. S av i l l e agrees, pointing out that unless a c h i l d ' s spoken language habits (slang, idiomatic expressions) are considered ca re fu l l y , reading programs for disadvantaged chi ldren w i l l not be e f f ec t i ve . A coro l la ry to this i s Goodman's theory that chi ldren should be made to read Standard English mater ia ls, but then be allowed to discuss them in the i r own d i a l e c t . I f one considers the l a s t point ca re fu l l y i t can be seen that th is i s what r ea l l y happens when anyone relates an ex-perience. (Surely we a l l r e t e l l s to r i e s , e t c . , in our own pa r t i cu la r s t y l e , and how many of us use no idioms or col loquial isms to color our descr ipt ion!) This i s what Scott (1964) emphasised when he stated that being able to read another language involves learning something of the culture of the native speakers. McDavid J r . (1964) suggests that the best approach would be to teach Standard English to disadvantaged chi ldren as a foreign language. That i s , i t would not be a case of adding on to the c h i l d ' s language s t ructure, but more of making a completely new s t a r t , teaching the basics f i r s t and continuing from there. The d i f f i c u l t y with this proposal i s that i f care i s not exercised, l i t e r a t u r e and reading experiences can degenerate into mere s k i l l - b u i l d i n g lessons. The main task i s to adapt the reading se lect ion so that the students can u t i l i z e l i n g u i s t i c patterns which they already possess. 24. C H A P T E R II RESEARCH DESIGN 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Selection of Classes and Assignment of Treatments In order to test the hypothesis and answer the question posed, the study was conducted in two secondary schools in the North Vancouver area. Four classes were randomly selected from each school. One hundred and twenty-eight grade eight chi ldren were used from each of the two schools. The chi ldren were selected from hetero-geneously grouped classes and were not c l a s s i f i e d as "academic", "voca-t i o n a l " , or "occupational" students. The students ' scores of general mental a b i l i t y measured by the Lorge-Thorndike scale were recorded. The Lorge-Thorndike scale has been used by North Vancouver schools for some time and so standard-ized scores were avai lable for a l l students. A table of random numbers was used to assign the students equally into four experimental conditions with in each c lass . Thus I.Q. and sex were randomly d i s t r ibuted over the four tes t s . A l l students received a set of eighteen passages of prose, the same for each experimental condit ion, except as fo l lows: 25. N.L. 3 (Non-Literal 3) A l l passages contained idiomatic language. These were the or ig ina l eighteen passages chosen. N.L. 2 (Non-Literal 2) The same eighteen passages except that s i x of them were rewritten in L i t e r a l Engl ish. N.L. 1 (Non-Literal 1) The same eighteen passages except that twelve of them were rewritten in L i t e r a l Engl ish. LIT ( L i t e ra l ) A l l eighteen of the passages were rewritten in L i t e r a l Engl ish. The sets of prose were made up into test booklets (see APPENDIX IV.) and questions were asked about each prose se lec t ion . In order to answer the questions co r rect l y , the students were required to have an understanding of the idiomatic expressions, or l i t e r a l counterparts, in context. Four a l te rnat i ves , (a), (b), ( c ) , (d) were given for each passage. The a lternat ives were expressed in L i t e r a l English and were ident ica l for the four sets. I f the students d i dn ' t agree with any of the choices being.offered, they were to ld to wr ite what they considered the best answer next to (e). The c r i t e r i a fo r inc lus ion of the prose passages and a l ternat ives were as fo l lows: ITEM CRITERIA 1. To obtain a correct answer to an item (other than by random choice), the student must have understood the passage as a whole. This applied to both the idiomatic and the l i t e r a l 26. versions. 2. I t must not be possible for a student who understands the idiom (or i t s equivalent in the l i t e r a l version) to f a i l to comprehend the passage as a whole. The passage there-fore must contain no further language d i f f i c u l t i e s of any kind. 3. I t should not be possible for students to in fe r the meaning of a passage i f they do not comprehend the idiom (or i t s 1 l i t e r a l counterpart). I f the idiom or i t s equivalent in the l i t e r a l version was not understood by the student, comprehen-sion of the passage must be impossible and a wrong answer must ensue (except for guessing). 4. There should be no opportunity for the student to perceive s im i l a r wording or structural, s i m i l a r i t y between the prose passage and the correct mult ip le choice a l ternat ive being offered. A panel of four judges accepted the c r i t e r i a and independently appraised each a l ternat ive to determine whether a person responding with the keyed answer displayed an understanding of the meaning of the passage while a person who responded otherwise did not. One hundred per cent agreement among judges was required for each item to be included, thus contributing to content v a l i d i t y . 27. Measurement Condition The reading passages were timed to ensure that students could complete the work in a normal school period. The schools used in the study were checked to ensure that the class periods were uniform and of adequate duration. As an added precaution, a p i l o t study was conducted in another school having the same period length as the schools used in the study, to ensure that the tasks could be completed in the time a v a i l -able. The test booklets were given at s im i l a r times in each school. The study was carr ied out in l a te January, as by that time the chi ldren had se t t led down a f te r the Christmas holidays and were not d i s t racted by impending exams. The test booklets were constructed to look l i k e normal class exercises. No mention of the terms " l i t e r a l " or " n o n - l i t e r a l " was made at any time during the tes t ing. Regular s t a f f members conducted the tests in each school employing instruct ions that were standard for a l l groups. (APPENDIX III) Reading materials used in the test booklets were selected from, or were s im i l a r to , resource materials designed for use. by grade-eight students in B r i t i s h Columbian schools. 28. I I. STATISTICAL DESIGN Three s t a t i s t i c a l procedures were employed in the study. The main ana lyt ic technique was a one-way ANOVA to test the hypothesis that non - l i t e ra l passages of prose would be more d i f f i c u l t to understand than l i t e r a l passages. The ANOVA was preceded by a series of regression analyses to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of sex e f fec t or a treatment-by-I.Q. e f fec t . This was necessary to see whether differences between treatment groups held to the same extent at a l l levels of I.Q. Af ter f inding that there was no such e f f e c t , e i ther l i nea r or cu rv i l i nea r , (described in Chapter IV), a one-way ANACOVA was performed using I.Q. as covariate. This procedure determined whether differences among treatments remained when I.Q. was held constant or when the groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y equalized on I.Q. The ANOCOVA was merely a refinement on the ANOVA, since the four groups were random. The F values for both the series of regression analyses and the ANACOVA were calculated by a mult iple-regress ion program using the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia's I.B.M. 360/67 computer. 29. The ANOVA, which indicated a highly s i gn i f i c an t treatment e f f e c t , was followed by: (a) a Newman-Keuls test to locate which means d i f fered s i g n i f i c a n t l y ; and (b) a test of trend to determine whether the trend of means was in fact l i near or had some element of c u r v i l i n e a r i t y . C H A P T E R III RESULTS OF THE STUDY The means for a l l treatment groups and the means for boys and g i r l s are presented in TABLES I and II respect-i ve l y . TABLE ntcontains other information pertinent to this study. TABLE I MEANS FOR ALL TREATMENT GROUPS NL-j NL 2 NL 3 LIT 13.00 13.58 14.47 15.59 TABLE II TREATMENT MEANS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS TREATMENT NL] NL^ NL^ BOYS 12.92 13.30 14.54 GIRLS 13.10 13.78 14.35 TREATMENT MEAN LIT 15.47 15.72 TABLE III TOTAL GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS* I.Q. TREATMENT MEAN 112.68 14.16 STD. DEV. 11.274 2.108 *The S.D.'s were computed using N-1 in the denominator I. REGRESSION ANALYSIS A model which employed treatments, I.Q., treatments x I.Q., and treatments x I.Q. as var iab les , was used in the study. The contributions to predict ion of test variance calculated from increments to the mult iple R 2, were as fo l lows: TABLE IV SOURCE OF TEST VARIANCE PREDICTOR PROPORTION OF TEST VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR Treatment x I.Q. 0.000 Treatment x I.Q. 0.008 Treatments 0.236 I.Q. 0.12.1 TOTAL 0.365 32. The inc lus ion of both sex and sex x treatment terms ' in the model increased the proportion of test variance accounted for by only .01 Of a l l the predictors considered, only treatments and I.Q. were s i gn i f i c an t . Both were s i gn i f i c an t beyond the 0.00001 l e v e l . I t was expected that differences in I.Q. level would be related to test performance dif ferences. The important conclusions from this preliminary analysis are: 1. Treatments did not interact with I.Q., so the ANACOVA procedure is j u s t i f i e d . 2. Treatments accounted for a s i g n i f i c an t and substantial proportion of test variance. This resu l t was confirmed in the succeeding analyses. I I. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE In th is procedure, treatment and sex were used as indepen-dent variables and I.Q. was used as a covariate. The results con-firmed the e a r l i e r observations, that the treatment e f fec t was highly s i gn i f i c an t even when differences in a b i l i t y among groups were cont ro l led, and that the sex factor exerted no s i g n i f i c an t e f fect on the study. 33. I t should be noted here that the F values depended on the order of test ing because the design was non-orthogonal, (127 boys and 129 g i r l s ) . However the F values for treatment for two d i f fe rent orderings were 30.8291 and 30.6364. In e i ther case, when I.Q. was contro l led, treatments accounted fo r some 24% of test variance. TABLE V SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE (Effects Tested in Reverse Order of L i s t ing) p Source of Var iat ion d.f. (num) d.f. (den) R F P Treatment x Sex 3 247 .006 0.8265 0.4802 N.S. Sex 1 253 .002 0.6941 0.40579 N.S. Between Treatments 3 251 .236 30.6364 .00000 S ig. I I I . ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE The hypothesis stated that non - l i te ra l passages of prose w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t fo r chi ldren to understand than comparable passages of l i t e r a l prose. The summary of the analysis of variance is in TABLE V. On the basis of these re su l t s , the nul l hypothesis was rejected, ju s t as in the preceding and somewhat more ref ined analyses. 34. TABLE VI SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Source of Var iat ion d.f. S.S. . M.S. F P Treatment 3 245.43 81.81 23.24 .00001 Within ce l l s 252 887.025 3.52 (error) Total 255 1132.455 F = 23.24 F = 2.65 3,252 3,252; .95 In order to determine which means d i f fe red s u f f i c i e n t l y to lead to re ject ion of the overal l hypothesis that a l l four means would be equal, a Newman-Keuls test was performed. Newman-Keuls Test The results of th is procedure showed that there were s i gn i f i c an t differences between a l l pairs of means except those for groups NL^ and NL 2 which had the highest proportion of idiomatic items. The fol lowing table gives a summary of the resu l t s . (35. TABLE VII SUMMARY OF NEWMAN-KEULS TEST* (Underlining indicates s i gn i f i can t d i f f e r -ences between means) ORDER NL1 NL 2 NL^ LIT q r * * Rr* * * Means (13.000) (13.5781) (14.4687) (15.5937) oc=.05 NL-j .5781 1.4687 2.5937 3.65 .8559 NL 2 0.8906 2.0156 3.34 .7832 NL 3 1.1250 2.79 .6543 LIT * Figures in the table are differences between pairs of means. * * The qr are the c r i t i c a l values of the studentized range s t a t i s t i c . ***The Rr are the c r i t i c a l ranges for<*= .05 / M.S. error" = 13.520 = I (1.876) = .2345 V n V 64 8 Rr = .2345 qr 36. Tests for Trend The tests for trend are presented in two parts; (a) tes t for l i n e a r i t y , and (b) test for non- l inear i ty . The procedures fol low those discussed in Winer, pp. 177 - 186. The procedure involves par t i t i on ing into two components the v a r i a b i l i t y among scores resu l t ing from differences among treatments. These components are a sum of squares ( s- s--|-j n) resu l t ing from the tendency of the treatment means to fol low a s t r a i gh t - l i ne trend, and a second sum of squares (S.S. ,. ) r e f l e c t i ng the tendency ^ v non -nn ' 3 J for the means to depart from th i s s t r a i gh t - l i ne trend. The s ign i f icance of these components i s tested by obtaining the corresponding mean squares for l i n e a r i t y and non- l inear i ty , and forming the i r rat ios with the mean square for errors (M.S.^), these rat ios being d i s t r ibuted as F. The ca lcu lat ion of the component sums of squares, using orthogonal polynomial c oe f f i c i en t s , i s shown /in TABLE VIII. 37. TABLE VIII TESTS FOR TREND NL 2 NL 3 LIT Sums (T.) J 832 869 926 998 Linear c o e f f i -cients (C.) 3 -3 -1 1 3 -2496 -869 926 2994 9 1 1 9 nZCj M.S. Tin = S • S - l i n = (555).' n n 1280 240.65 (a) Test for L inear i ty F] ? c o = M.S. Tin = 240.65 = 68.37 M.S. w 3 . 5 2 , C r i t i c a l value was: F, 0 1 - 0 ; .95 = 3.90 1,252 38. (ia) Test for non- l inear i ty S.S. non Tin = S.S.. . - S.S.,. = 245.430 - 240.650 between Im = 4.78, d.f. 3 - 1 = 2 M ' S - nnn I n n = 4 • 7 8 = 2 • 3 9 non-nn — F 2 2 5 2 = 2.39 < 1 (N.S.) ' 3.52 The conclusion i s that the s l i g h t l y cu rv i l i nea r trend in the sample means can be explained by differences in random samples. The e f fect cannot be claimed to be a resu l t which would hold for the population. IV. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS The study was designed fo ( i ) invest igate the e f fect idioms have on ch i ld ren ' s understanding of prose, and ( i i ) to see i f there was an interact ion e f fect between I.Q. and performance. The procedures followed made use of (a) a series of regression analyses, (b) analysis of covariance, (c) analysis of variance, (d) post hoc comparisons between pairs of means, and (e) trend analys is. The sex factor was also considered in the two i n i t i a l procedures. This section of the study deals with a l l procedures except the analysis of covariance. Children with high I.Q. scores performed better in any 39. given test than did chi ldren with low I.Q. scores. Boys performed much the same as g i r l s did in the tes t s . The nu l l hypothesis which stated that idioms w i l l not cause d i f f i c u l t y to ch i ld ren ' s understanding of prose was rejected. The treatments d i f f e r ed , with means ranging from 13.0000 for the N.L..J t e s t , to 15.5937 for the LITERAL te s t . The differences were s i gn i f i c an t far beyond the .00001 l e v e l . Idioms, therefore, have considerable e f fect on ch i ld ren ' s a b i l i t y to understand prose, as defined in th i s study. The analysis of variance procedure, however, did not i n d i -cate the s ign i f icance of var iat ions between pairs of means. The Newman-Keuls tes t showed that the only means which were not s i g n i f i -cantly d i f fe rent were N'.L.^ and N.L^. These two groups contained the greatest number of idiomatic items: eighteen and twelve res -pect ive ly. When compared with the other two groups which were mainly l i t e r a l in content, s i gn i f i c an t differences between pairs of means were obtained. These findings substantiated the results of.the analysis of variance which led to the reject ion of the nul l hypothesis. The results of the test for l i n e a r i t y supported the s i gn i f i c an t l i nea r trend between the stages of the tes t . Children experienced decreasing d i f f i c u l t y with test items as idiomatic content was replaced with i t s l i t e r a l counterpart. 40. There was no r e l i a b l e evidence in the data for a cu rv i l i near trend. The s l i g h t c u r v i l i n e a r i t y between the stages of the test was at t r ibutab le to sampling v a r i a b i l i t y . 41. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH I. CONCLUSIONS The main purpose of th i s study was to attempt to determine whether or not idioms had an adverse e f fect on c h i l d -ren's reading and understanding of prose. A highly s i gn i f i c an t e f fect was found. The results of the study also showed that there was a pos i t ive re lat ionsh ip between the incidence of idioms in the test material and the amount of d i f f i c u l t y experienced by the ch i ldren. Further, the e f fec t seemed not to depend on sex, and although chi ldren with high I.Q.'s had less d i f f i c u l t y than those with low I.Q.'s, th i s held equally at a l l levels of id iomat i c i t y . The assumption can be made, therefore, that chi ldren who lack an understanding of idioms and yet are asked to read material containing numerous idiomatic expressions w i l l experience d i f f i c u l t y unless they can u t i l i z e other techniques such as context clues to gain understanding. I I. LIMITATIONS The findings of th i s study can be applied only to the student body from which the subjects were randomly chosen. 42. Repl ication of the study in other areas would be valuable to establ i sh whether the effects obtained are general or l o c a l . A to ta l of eighteen idioms was used in the tes t s . This number was chosen because i t enabled three variat ions of the or ig ina l test to be constructed. Other multiples of three could have been used; (e.g. 21, 24, 27), but i t was decided to concentrate on eighteen items which exhibited good content v a l i d i t y and which could conveniently be administered in the time avai lable to the invest igator. The item stems were b r i e f and were designed merely to f a c i l i t a t e an overal l understanding of the passage which contained the idiom or i t s l i t e r a l counterpart. Because of the brevity of the test stems, the student was unable to gain much assistance from context clues. The items containing idioms were evenly spaced throughout the tests in which they appeared. No attempt was made to experiment with other arrangements or combinations of idiomatic and l i t e r a l i terns. I I I . DISCUSSION The author feels that i t would be unfa ir to label chi ldren as "poor readers" without f i r s t defining the type of reading material they were using. Children who can function 43. adequately when reading l i t e r a l English (as defined in th i s study) should receive praise and encouragement. These young-sters should then be motivated to continue to the next phase of the i r reading experience - that of Standard English that includes idioms. This s i tuat ion has par t i cu la r meaning for Canadian Indian chi ldren and other minority groups r who lack an understanding of the cu l tura l background expressed in most of the books that they read. However there are many disadvantaged Canadian chi ldren who are not members of a minority group and they also need attention in th i s regard. IV. IMPLICATIONS Several areas fo r further research are indicated by the results of th i s study. A great deal needs to be known about the incidence and type of idiomatic language encountered by Canadian students in the i r prescribed and recreational reading materials. Such information would be useful to educational author i t ies involved in the se lect ion of school text books and in cu r r i cu la planning. Aspir ing authors of reading material designed for schools would no doubt also f ind the information useful . The e f fect of idioms on types of reading material 44. other than prose remains to be invest igated. Perhaps the occurrence of idioms in the descr ipt ive s ty le of wr i t ing found in many soc ia l studies books would produce s im i l a r re su l t s . Various methods of teaching an understanding of idioms should be explored. Should idioms be taught as i so lated un i t s , or should they be taught in context? Is i t possible to t ra in chi ldren to discern idioms by the use of 'context c l u e s ' , or should idioms be taught through an understanding of metaphorical language? The answers to these and other questions would be i n -s t ruct i ve to teachers in the classroom. The role of idioms in language may necessitate a modi-f i c a t i on of ex i s t ing readab i l i ty formulae to make allowance for a new level of d i f f i c u l t y in reading material - namely the incidence and type of idiomatic expression encountered. Reading selections of s t r i c t l y l i t e r a l material could serve as a t rans i t i ona l l i n k between written Standard English and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of d ia lect s which ex i s t in Canada today. This would in e f fect create three levels of Engl ish; n o n - l i t e r a l , 1 i t e r a l , and d i a l e c t . I t i s to be hoped that future research into reading d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by Canadian chi ldren w i l l concentrate more on the non - l i t e ra l aspects of English language. In th is way when there are valuable lessons to be learned from research studies in the United States of America and elsewhere, at least comparative assessment w i l l be possible. 46. REFERENCES Adkins, P a t r i c i a G., "Relevancy in Chi ldren ' s Language", The  Reading Teacher, 24, October, 1970 Adkins, P a t r i c i a G., "Teaching Idioms and Figures of Speech to Non-Native Speakers of Eng l i sh " , Modern Language Journal, • 52, 1968. Baratz, Joan C , "Beginning Readers fo r Speakers of Divergent D ia lect s . " Paper presented at the International Reading Association Conference, Ap r i l - May, 1969. Kansas C i t y , Missouri. Bol inger, Dwight, Aspects of Language . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1968. Bormuth, John R., Development of Readabil ity Analyses. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Final Report, Project No. 7 - 0052, Off ice of Education, Bureau of Research, March, 1969. Chafe, Wallace L., " Id iomat ic i ty as an Anomaly in the Chomskyan Paradigm", Foundations of Language, 4, 1968. Chafe, Wallace^L-Ur/1 Language As Symbolization", Language, Vo l . 43 Baltimore, 1967. Cha l l , Jeanne, "Research in L ingu i s t ics and Reading In s t ruct ion " , Extending Frontiers in Research, Symposium I, International Reading Associat ion: Boston, 1968. Cohen, Alan S., and Komfield, Gita S., "Oral Vocabulary and Beginning Reading in Disadvantaged Black Ch i ld ren " , The Reading Teacher, 24, October, 1970. Chomsky, Noam, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, Mass. M.I.T. Press, 1965. Dechant, Emerald, V., Improving The Teaching of Reading, Prent ice-Hal l Inc., New Jersey, 1970. Figure!, A l len J . , "Are the Reading Goals for the Disadvantaged Atta inab le? " , Reading Goals for the Disadvantaged, (ed) J . A l len F i gu re l , I.R.A., 1970. Goodman, Kenneth S., "D ia lect Barr iers to Reading Comprehension", Elementary Engl ish, 42, December, 1965. Goodman, Kenneth S., "Reading: A Psychol inguist ic Guessing Game", in Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, (eds) Harry Singer and Robert B. Ruddell, I.R.A. Newark, 1970. 47. Hal l iday, M.A.K., "General L ingu i s t ics and Its Appl icat ion to Language Teaching", in Patterns of Language: Papers in  General, Descriptive and Applied L i ngu i s t i c s , (eds) Angus Mcintosh and M.A.K. Ha l l iday, Longmans, 1966. Henderson, B.L.K., A Dictionary of English Idioms, Parts I and I I, James Blackwood and Co. L t d . , London, 1962. Homes, E l i zabeth, Chi ldren ' s Knowledge of Figurative Language, Unpublished Master's thes i s , Univers ity of Oklahoma, 1959. Jenkinson, Marion D., "Information Gaps in Research in Reading Comprehension", Reading: Process and Pedagogy, Vol. 1 Wisconsin, 1970. Lachenmeyer, Charles, "The Feeling of the Language of L i te ra ture : A Conceptual Ana lys i s " , L i ngu i s t i c s , 55, Mouton, December 1969. Makkai, Adam, "The Two Idiomatic ity Areas in English and the i r Membership: A S t r a t i f i c a t i o n View", L i ngu i s t i c s , Volume 50-53, The Hague, Mouton, 1969. Mamenta, Rosario, "An Investigation of the Language Structures in Beginning Readers Compared With the Language Structures Taught for Oral Prof ic iency in the Teaching of English as a Second Language in the Ph i l i pp ine s " , (unpublished doctoral d i s se r ta -t i o n ) , Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. Martin, R.G., "Decoding and the Quest of Meaning", Journal of Reading  Behaviour, 1, National Reading Conference, F a l l , 1969. McCullough, Constance M., Preparation of Textbooks in the Mother Tongue, National Ins t i tute of Education, New Delh i , International Reading Assoc iat ion, Newark, 1968. McDavid J r . , Raven I., "Social D ia lects : Cause of Symptom of Social Maladjustment", Social Dialects and Language Learning, (ed.) Roger W. Shuy, National Council of Teachers of Engl ish, I l l i n o i s , 1964. Pe i , Mario, (et a l ) , Language Today, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967 Ruddell, Robert B., "Language Acquis i t ion and the Reading Process", Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, (eds) ; Harry Singer and Robert B. Ruddell, Newark, I.R.A., 1970 S a v i l l e , Muriel R., "Language and the Disadvantaged", Reading for the Disadvantaged,Ced.) Thomas D. Horn, International Reading Association New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1970. 48. Scott, Charles T. " L i te rature and the E.S.L. Program", The  Modern Language Journal, XLVIII, 8, December, 1964. Shuy, Roger W. "Language Variations and L i t e racy " , Reading Goals fo r the Disadvantaged, (ed) J . A l len Figurel,.i.R.A., 1970 Shuy, Roger W., "The Problem of American Indian Eng l i sh " , Social Dialects and Language Learning, (ed) Roger W. Shuy, National Council of Teachers of Engl ish: I l l i n o i s , 1964. Smith, Kenneth J . , and Henry M. Truby, "D ia lecta l Variance Interferes with Reading In s t ruct ion " , Reading and Realism, fed.) J . -A l l en F i gu re l , Vo l . 13, Newark, 1968. Smith, N i l a Banton, "The Good Reader Thinks C r i t i c a l l y " , Developing Comprehension, Including C r i t i c a l Reading, (ed.) Mildred Ai Dawson, International Rdg. Associat ion, 1968. Stewart, Wil l iam A., "On the Use of Negro Dialect in the Teaching of Reading", Teaching Black Children to Read,(ed.) Joan C. Baratz, (et aTp. Washington, D.C., 1969. Stewart, Wil l iam A., "Urban Negro Speech: Soc io l i ngu i s t i c Factors Af fect ing English Teaching", Social Dialects and Language^ Learning, (edj Roger W. Shuy, National Council of Teachers of Engl ish, I l l i n o i s , 1964. S t r i ck land, Ruth G., "The Language of Elementary School Chi ldren: Its Relationship to the Language of Reading Textbooks and the Quality of Reading of Selected Ch i ldren" , Bu l l e t i n of the  School of Education, 38, Indiana Univers i ty, 1962. S t r i ck land, Ruth G., "The Contribution of Structural L ingu i s t ics to,the Teaching of Reading, Writing and Grammar, in the Elemen-tary School", Bu l l e t i n of the School of Education, v o l . 40, Indiana Univers i ty , 1964. Thorn's, Eleanor Wal l , Teaching Reading to Non-English Speakers. New York; Co l l ier -Macmi l lan, 1970. Venezky, Richard L., "English Orthography: Its Graphic Structure and Its Relation to Sound", Reading Research Quarterly, 2, International Reading Associat ion, Spring, 1967. Wardhaugh, Ronald, "Current L ingu i s t i c Research and i t s Implications for the Teaching of Reading", Forging Ahead In Reading, 12, (ed) J . A l len F i gu re l , Newark: International Reading Associat ion, 1967-68 Winer, B .J . , S t a t i s t i c a l Pr inc ip les in Experimental Design, McGraw-Hill Inc. Toronto, 1971. 49. APPENDICES 50. A P P E N D I X I TEST CONSTRUCTION A major d i f f i c u l t y experienced in th i s study was in attempting to ensure the content v a l i d i t y of the test items. C r i t e r i a established for th i s purpose were discussed in an e a r l i e r chapter dealing with the design of the study. A sample of approximately 200 idioms was taken from the grade eight text books: Short Stories of D i s t i nc t i on , L.H. Newell & J.W. MacDonald, Book Society of Canada, 1960; The Craft of Wr i t ing, R.J. McMaster, Longmans (Ont. 1965); from Accent On Reading (ed) G.M. Chronister, Holt , Rinehart & Winston, (Toronto 1968); and from other supplementary reading materials. This f igure was reduced by ha l f before the idioms were presented in test form. Some for ty idioms were then selected for possible use and twenty of these were used in a p i l o t study (See APPENDIX II). F i na l l y eighteen idioms were accepted by the judges and the test was compiled. The fol lowing examples w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e some of the problems encountered in the construction of the tes t . 1. The main problem in item construction was caused by the need to have two 'bas ic tests : (a) one test containing an idiom in every item; and 51. (b) one test containing a l i t e r a l counterpart for the idioms. The other two tests were var iat ions of these two basic tes t s . (See Chapter I I ) . Because of th is format, the most accurate l i t e r a l counterpart was unavailable for the mult iple-choice answers accompanying each item, and so another va l i d synonymous expression had to be ob-tained in each case. In many instances, however, synonyms do not mean exactly the same thing as the words they replace. Also the number of synonyms which can be used ih a given s i tuat ion is l im i ted . Both of these factors had to be care fu l l y considered. e.g. #13: The Canadian go l fer was in the running for the trophy un t i l the l a s t hole of the golf tournament. The idiom ' i n the running' has as i t s l i t e r a l counter-part 'had a chance to w i n 1 . However th i s had to be used in the l i t e r a l form of the te s t , so another su i tab le a l ternat ive had to be found. , The mult iple-choice answers therefore contained the fo l lowing: (a) The Canadian gol fer tncreas:ed hts lead. (b) The Canadian go l fer was out of breath. (c) The Canadian go l fer was awarded the trophy. (d) The Canadian go l fer was not awarded the trophy. The correct answer (d) had to give the same in terpre -tat ion when used with the item containing jthe idiom 'was in the running',as i t did when i t was used with the item containing the l i t e r a l counterpart 'had a chance to w i n ' . The mult iple-choice answers accompanying each item had to be free of any possible value judgment on the part of the student. e.g. #13: The Canadian gol fer was in the running for the trophy un t i l the l a s t hole of the golf tournament. What happened at the l a s t hole? (a) The Canadian go l fer increased his lead. (b) The Canadian go l fer stopped hurrying. (c) The Canadian go l fer was awarded the trophy. (d) The Canadian gol fer was not awarded the trophy. It i s v a l i d to o f fe r as an a l ternat ive (a) 'The Canadian go l fer increased his l e a d ' , because in f ac t he couldn ' t have. Therefore this i s a legit imate response which cannot possibly be correct. However (b), "The Canadian go l fer stopped hur ry ing ' , is not v a l i d , for we are not to ld in the content that he d i dn ' t play better when he hurried his shots. This a l ternat ive therefore was rejected and was replaced with 'The Canadian go l fer was out of b reath ' . S im i l a r l y the fol lowing item i s not acceptable, because the lady in question could presumably be 'put out ' or'annoyed' by 53: (a), (b), or (d). This ent i re item was f i n a l l y rejected by the judges. e.g. The lady who wanted to change the toaster was put out by the store manager's l e t t e r . What was the store manager's decision? (a) The lady was allowed to choose a free g i f t . (b) The lady was evicted from the store. (c) The lady was allowed to change the toaster. (d) , The lady was not allowed to change the toaster. 3. Care had to be taken that words which were used in the test stem were not inadvertently used again in the mult iple-choice answers, thus serving as "cues" or " s i gna l s " to the testee. e.g. "Wel l , sha l l we go on with the experiment?" asked Mr. G r i f f i t h s , looking at Todman. "Why not?" answered Todman. "Of course no one w i l l bel ieve us". "That i s the one f l y in the ointment", said Mr'.: G r i f f i t h s . 1 What was Mr. G r i f f i t h s ' opinion of the experiment? (a) He thought that no one would believe them. (b) He thought i t would produce a monster. (c) He thought i t was not a complete success. (d) He thought i t was a complete success. Obviously a l ternat ive (a) is a d i rec t visual clue to the testee, as the wording "no one - bel ieve - " i s in both the stem and the a l te rna t i ve . 54. The testee can thus answer this item correct ly without under-standing the passage. Thus a l ternat ive (a) was rejected and replaced with ' i t was completely ru ined ' . The stem was also rewritten as: #1 : Dr. G r i f f i t h s said that the experiment s t i l l had a f l y in the ointment. 4. The mult ip le choice answers must be stated in a s im i l a r manner; i . e . e i ther be a l l pos i t i ve , a l l negative, or a l l neutra l , e.g. A f ter the women had seen the young boy win the skating championship, they agreed that he was a chip o f f the old block. What are you to ld about the boy? (a) He was rather stupid. (b) His father was a very good skater. (c) He was not popular. (d) His parents couldn ' t skate very w e l l . The only ' p o s i t i v e ' answer among the a lternat ives i s Cb). This answer tends to stand out among the others and could therefore be selected cor rect ly on th i s basis alone. (This test item was f i n a l l y considered unsuitable and was rejected.) 5. Items selected for use in the test had to be constructed so that the correct answer was not inferred by the stem. e.g. Af ter l i s ten ing to the o ld man for ha l f an hour, the boys were s t i l l not sure what he was dr iv ing at . What was the old man try ing to do? 55. (a) Get his car to s t a r t . (b) Explain something to the boys. (c) Injure the boys. (d) Run into something. In th i s item there is d i rect inference from " l i s t en i n g to the old man" to "expla in something to them". This answer (b) which i s correct , i s the only answer associated with communication. For th is reason the item was not used in the tes t . 6., A l l test-items had to deal with subject matter which was considered to be "common knowledge" to grade eight students. e.g. When the condemned prisoner heard the resu l t of his appeal, he knew that the wr i t i ng was on the w a l l . What did the news t e l l the prisoner? (a) There wasn't enough evidence to convict him. (b) He was going to be set f ree. (c) His appeal had been dismissed. (d) His appeal had been granted. The term "appeal" was considered by the judges to necessitate an understanding of court procedure and therefore the test item was rejected. S im i l a r l y the terms " f r aud " , and "manslaughter" in the fol lowing item were considered too d i f f i c u l t and the item was rejected. 56. e.g. When the pol ice found out that the robbery was a put up job they made a quick ar rest . What would the pol ice charge be? (a) Armed robbery '(b) Attempted murder (c) Attempted fraud (d) Manslaughter 7. The vocabulary used in the tes t items had to be at the level of grade eight students in B r i t i s h Columbia schools. This requirement exacerbated the problem outl ined e a r l i e r in No. I, for in many cases synonymous phrases for a par t i cu la r expression were found to be more d i f f i c u l t than the idiomatic content they were replacing. inclusiong in the te s t , but i t s l i t e r a l counterparts 'make subtle d i s t i n c t i on s ' or 'make f ine d i s t i n c t i on s ' were deemed too d i f f i c u l t and the idiom was rejected. re su l t of the i r " l i t e r a l transformation" were also rejected. The idiom ' s p l i t ha i r s ' was i n i t i a l l y considered for Many other idioms which presented the same d i f f i c u l t y as a e.g. IDIOM LITERAL wet behind the ears inexperienced or immature drummed out cashiered or courtmartialed rough diamond good qua l i t i e s under a rough exter io r 57. white elephant rare but burdensome 8. The imagery evoked by the idiom had to be free of other f i gu ra t i ve connotations in the stem of the test item. e.g. The plans to launch the rocket were up in the a i r when the accident happened. The associat ive imagery of "up in the a i r " and " rocket" was considered to be too pos i t i ve l y re la ted, and thus the test item was inva l idated. e.g. When the pol ice found out that the robbery was a put up job they made a quick arrest. The connotation between "put up job" and "put 'em up!" (robbery) was a major reason for reject ing th i s item. 9. The l i b e r a l counterparts of idioms being considered fo r se lect ion in the test had to be ca re fu l l y examined to ensure that they were in fact " l i t e r a l " . In many cases the best synonymous a l te rnat i ve for an idiomatic expression was found to be non - l i t e ra l i t s e l f and the items were therefore rejected. e.g. IDIOMS ALTERNATIVE ( " l i t e r a l " counter-part) Ci) beat around the bush not to come s t ra ight to the point Cit) s a i l i n g close to the wind on the border of dishonesty or indecency ( i i i ) playing second f i dd l e always being under ( iv) s i t on the fence not to take sides 58. (v) w i ld goose chase a fa l se lead (v i ) s e t t l e a score get even with ( v i i ) pu l l together get on together ( v i i i ) throw l i g h t on make clear ( ix) f a l l back on turn to for help 10. Numerous idiomatic expressions come under the heading "slang or co l loqu ia l terms". Idioms of th is nature were not included in test items because they are mainly used in conversation and are not acceptable in standard English wr i t i n g . . e.g. IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION CLASSIFICATION to cut classes co l loqu ia l to gun a motor slang su i t s me down to the ground co l loqu ia l to hang out somewhere slang 11. Idioms which required an understanding of archaic practices or which were considered to be too far removed from the cu l tu ra l background of Canadian grade eight students, were not included in the tes t . e.g. ( i ) ' f l a s h in the pan" necessitates a knowledge of old fashioned f ire-arms, ( i i ) ' t o buy a pig in a poke', had i t s or ig ins i n an English rural se t t i ng . 5 9 . ( i i i ) 'show the white f ea the r ' , i s based on a white feather in the t a i l of English game birds which denotes bad breeding, ( iv ) ' scot f ree ' refers to the h i s t o r i c pract ice in England of having to contribute one's share to municipal expenses. 60. A P P E N D I X I I PILOT STUDY There were three major reasons for conducting a p i l o t study. The author wished to establ i sh which of the twenty test items were su i table for inc lus ion in the experimental study; how long a s im i l a r type of test would take; and what type of problems were encountered by students and teachers. The p i l o t study was held in a Vancouver elementary school and 125 grade seven students were selected. One type of test containing twenty test items Call with idioms included) was administered to the students. The students were c l a s s i f i e d by the i r teachers as "good", "average", or "poor" readers and the numbers 1, 2, or 3 were used to denote the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The p i l o t study was given at the same time to the students and was presented as a normal English lesson. The test took approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes to administer and no problems were reported by the teachers. As a re su l t of the p i l o t study, nine of the twenty tes t items were discarded. Most of the others were rewritten and modified in some way. A discussion of th i s aspect of the p i l o t study i s given in Appendix I. A summary of the range of test scores i s given in Table IX TABLE IX Number of items Frequency Cum. Frequency FX. correct (x) 20 0 125 0 19 0 125 0 18 1 125 18 17 4 124 68 16 2 120 32 15 4 118 60 14 13 114 182 13 19 101 247 12 13 82 156 11 15 69 165 10 17 54 170 9 11 37 99 8 6 26 48 7 9 20 63 6 6 11 36 5 4 5 20 4 0 1 0 3 1 1 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 TOTALS: •125 1367 MEAN tx) = 10.9 Median = 11.1 62. READING COMPREHENSION NAME: SEX: AGE: ( F i r s t ) (Last) CLASS/COURSE: DATE OF TEST: SCHOOL: DIRECTIONS: Read each passage ca re fu l l y . Choose the best answer and c i r c l e the l e t t e r in f ront of i t : (a), (b), (c) or (d). I f you don 't agree with any of the answers given, wr i te your own answer in the space, provided: (e). 1. "Shal l we go on with the experiment?" asked Mr. G r i f f i t h s . "Why not?" answered Todman. "Of course no one w i l l bel ieve us." "That i s the one f l y in the ointment," said Mr. G r i f f i t h s . What i s Mr. G r i f f i t h s worried about? (a) He thinks that Todman i s stupid. (b) He thinks that no-one w i l l believe them. (c) He thinks that the experiment has been ruined. (d) He thinks that they may create a monster. 2. The blackmailer was furious when he heard that his victims were going to draw the l i ne on how much they would pay him. What made the blackmailer so angry? (a) He knew the po l ice had now set a trap for him. (b) He knew that his victims were using marked bank-notes. (c) He thought that he wasn't going to get any money. (d) He wanted more money from his v ict ims. (e) (e) / Page 2. "You think you ' re good ju s t because you were chosen to lead the group!" Bob y e l l e d . "I 'm not wet behind the ears, anyway," repl ied Dick. Why did Dick say that he was chosen to lead the group? (a) He was the most popular. (b) He d i dn ' t y e l l l i k e Bob. (c) He was t i d i e r than Bob. (d) He was the most experienced. (e) ; "Mr. Hopper w i l l jump at any o f fe r that you make him on that property, Michael to ld his f r i end. What did Michael know about Mr. Hopper? (a) He was a nervous man. Cb) He wanted to s e l l the property. Cc) He d i dn ' t want to s e l l the property. (d) He would attack his f r i end . (e) When the condemned prisoner heard the resu l t of his appeal, he knew that the wr i t ing was on the w a l l . What did the news t e l l the prisoner? (a) There wasn't enough evidence to convict him. Cb) He was going to be set f ree . (c) His appeal had been dismissed. (d) His appeal had been granted. Ce) ; Lance and Margaret h i t i t of f the f i r s t time that they met. What do you know about Lance and Margaret? Ca) They l i ked each other, (b) They hated each other. Cc) They were both a t h l e t i c , (d) They fought a l o t . Page 3. 64. 7. " I ' d be careful of accepting any o f fe r Mr. Jackson made you," B i l l to ld his f r i end . "He usually has an axe to gr ind. " What was B i l l warning his f r iend about? (a) He thought that Mr. Jackson was mad. (b) He thought that Mr. Jackson was going to k i l l his f r i end . (c) He thought that Mr. Jackson was s e l f i s h . (d) He thought that Mr. Jackson was old-fashioned. (e) ; . 8. The man said that a year in the army would l i c k the boy into shape. What was the man's opinion of army l i f e ? (a) He thought that i t would do the boy good. (b) He thought that i t would be too hard for the boy. (c) He thought that i t was cruel to young people. (d) He thought that i t would teach him badlhabits. (e) 9. The beggar's pleading fo r food and money l e f t the people in the marketplace co ld. How would the people t reat the beggar? (a) Take no notice of him. (b) Give the beggar a l o t of money. (c) Beat him and dr ive him away. (d) Give the beggar blankets. (e) ; ; 10. When the pol ice found out that the robbery was a put up job they made a quick ar rest . What would the pol ice charge be? (a) Armed robbery (b) Attempted murder (c) Attempted fraud. (d) Manslaughter. Page 4. 65. 11. The people of the c i t y found out that the i r new opera house was a white elephant. What do you know about the new opera house? (a) I t was mainly designed for c ircus shows. (b) I t was a great success. (c) I t was only ha l f b u i l t . (d) I t was not successful. Ce) 12. Mr. Johnston took the old couple in with his advice of how they could safely invest the i r money. What do you learn about Mr. Johnston? (a) He was an honest man. (b) He was a dishonest man. (c) He was a wealthy man. (d) He was a helpful man. (e) 13. The mayor was accused of putting the cart before the horse when he spoke to the meeting. What was wrong with the mayor's speech? (a) I t was only about transport. (b) I t dealt with old-fashioned things. (c) I t was very disorganized. (d) No-one could understand what he sa id. (e) . 14. When John heard Barry 's opinion of the war, in Vietnam he decided to j o i n issue with him. What did John think of the war in Vietnam? (a) He agreed with Barry. (b) He had no opinion. (c) He wasn't going to t e l l anyone. (d) He disagreed with Barry. Page 5 66. 15. A f ter the i r w i ld goose chase, the two mounties returned to pol ice headquarters to make out a report. What would the mounties' report state? (a) Their mission had been a success. (b) They had been on vacation. (c) Their mission had f a i l e d . (d) They had arrested an escaped prisoner. (e) ; 16. The lady who wanted to change the toaster was put out by the store manager's l e t t e r . What was the store manager's decision? (a) The lady was allowed to choose a free g i f t . (b) The lady was evicted from the store. (c) The lady was allowed to change the toaster. (d) The lady was not allowed to change the toaster. (e) . 17. When the detectives questioned the suspected bank-robber they were certa in that he was beating around the bush. What would the detectives think of the suspect 's story? (a) They would think that he was t e l l i n g the t ru th . (b) They would think that he was t ry ing to hide something. (c) I t to ld them where the suspect had been hiding. (d) They knew where the money was hidden. (e) 18. The results of the test were published yesterday and Glor ia has been crowing about i t a l l evening. What resu l t did G lor ia get in the test? (a) She got a very high mark. (b) She f a i l e d badly. (c) Her paper had s t i l l to be marked. (d) _ She had forgotten to do the tes t . (e) Page 6. 67, 19. " I t ' s usually those students who are at a loose end who get into trouble, " the pr inc ipa l sa id. How could the pr inc ipa l best help the students? (a) Give them extra free periods. (b) Get them medical attent ion. (c) Find out what they would l i k e to do. (d) Leave them alone. (e) 20. Af ter l i s t en ing to the old man for ha l f an hour, the boys were s t i l l not sure what he was dr iv ing at. What was the old man try ing to do? (a) Get his car to s t a r t . (b) Explain something to them. (c) Injure the boys. (d) Run into something. (e) A P P E N D I X III INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TEST Suggested Procedure for Teachers: 1. I have written students' names on each "test. Please have them complete other information at the top of page 1. 2. Present as "informally" as possible. Make i t just like another class exercise. 3. Children may take a l l period i f you wish - or you may collect the papers as they finish. 4. Try to treat queries about the test on an individual basis as there w i l l be four variations of the test in each of your classes. 5. Please don't mention idioms at any time during the test. 6. Collect papers and leave them at the office. Thank you for your co-operation. 69. APPENDIX IV TEST I Page 1 N 0 N - L I T I READING COMPREHENSION NAME: . SEX: AGE: CLASS/COURSE: DATE OF TEST SCHOOL: ;  DIRECTIONS: Read each passage ca re fu l l y . Choose the best answer and c i r c l e the l e t t e r in front of i t ; (a), (b), (c) or (d). I f you don't agree with any of the answers given write your own answer in the space provided at (e). 1. Dr. G r i f f i t h s said that the experiment s t i l l had a f l y in the ointment. What was Dr. G r i f f i t h s ' opinion of the experiment? (a) He thought i t was completely ruined. (b) He thought i t would produce a monster. (c) He thought i t was not a complete success. d) He thought i t was a complete success. e) • ; 2. "Mr. Harper w i l l jump at any o f fe r that you make him on that property," Michael to ld his f r i end . What did Michael know about Mr. Harper? (a) He was a nervous man. (b) He wanted to s e l l the property. (c) He d i dn ' t want to s e l l the property. (d) He would attack his f r i end. (e) 3. Lance and Margaret h i t i t o f f the f i r s t time that they met. What are you to ld about Lance and Margaret? (a) They l i ked each other. (b) They d i s l i ked each other. (c) They were both a t h l e t i c . (d) They fought a l o t . (e) TEST I Page 2 Many people in Canada today l i v e from hand to mouth. What are you to ld about the people? (a) They always have plenty of money. (b) They never have very much money. (c) They don 't use knives and forks. (d) They usually eat at a d r i v e - i n . (e) .  The man said that a year in the army would Itck the boy into shape. What was the man's opinion of army l i f e ? (a) He thought that i t would be too hard on the boy. (b) He thought that i t would do the boy good. (c) He thought that i t was cruel to young people. (d) He thought that i t would teach the boy bad habits. (e) The beggar's pleading for food and money fn the market-place l e f t the people co ld. How did the people treat the beggar? (a) They gave him blankets. (b) They gave the beggar a l o t of money. (c) They beat him and drove him away. (d) They took no notice of him. (e) ; ; When John heard Barry ' s opinion of the war in Vietnam he decided to take issue with him. What did John think of Barry ' s opinion of the war? (a) He wasn't going to t e l l anyone. (b) He agreed with Barry. (c) He disagreed with Barry. (d) He had no opinion. 71. TEST I Page 3 8. A f ter the i r w i ld goose chase, the two motilities returned to pol ice headquarters to wr ite a report. What would the mounties' report state? (a) They had arrested an escaped prisoner. (b) They had taken a hol iday. (c) Their mission had been successful. (d) Their mission had f a i l e d . (e) ; 9. The results of the test were given out yesterday and Glor ia has been crowing about i t a l l evening. What re su l t did G lor ia get in the test? (a) She scored a high mark. (b) She f a i l e d badly. (c) She found that her paper had not been marked. (d) She had been absent from the te s t . (e) ' 10. " I t ' s usually those students who are at loose ends who get into t rouble, " the teacher sa id . How did the teacher think he could best help the students? (a) Give them extra free periods. (b) Leave them alone. (c) Get them medical a t tent ion. Cd) Provide them with extra a c t i v i t i e s . Ce) 11. Many so ld iers in World War II thought they would lose face i f tftey^ surrendered to the enemy. What were the so ld iers concerned about? (a) What people would think of them. (b) What food the enemy would give them. (c) Whether they would be tortured or d i s f i gured. (d) Whether they would ever be set f ree. (e) TEST I 72. Page 4 12. Diana and A l i c e d i dn ' t l i k e the teacher because his lessons were always over the i r heads. What d i dn ' t the g i r l s l i k e about the teacher? (a) He never looked s t ra ight at them. (b) He d i dn ' t give them enough work. (c) The work he gave them was too d i f f i c u l t . (d) The work he gave them was too easy. (e) :  13. The Canadian gol fer was i n the running for the trophy un t i l the l a s t hole of the golf tournament. What are you to ld happened at the l a s t hole? (a) The Canadian go l fer increased his lead. (b) The Canadian gol fer was out of breath. (e) The Canadian go l fer was awarded the trophy, (d) The Canadian gol fer was not awarded the trophy. •(e) 14. Although Tania was in only one act of the play at the Pac i f i c Coliseum, she s to le the show. What do you know about Tania? (a) She was very nervous. (b) She couldn ' t be trusted. (c) She was very enterta in ing. (d) She was not very enterta in ing. (e) 15. Mr. Johnson took the old couple in with his advice on how they could invest t he i r money. What do you learn about Mr. Johnson? (a) He was an honest man. (b) He was a dishonest man. (c) He was a wealthy man. (d) He was a helpful man. (e) 73. TEST I Page 5 16. When the hockey player was to ld he was to be transferred, he said i t was the red - l e t te r day of his l i f e . How did the hockey player feel about his transfer? (a) He said he would r e t i r e . (b) He refused to comment. (c) He was very sad. (d) He was very pleased. (e) 17. The p o l i t i c i a n said that he wasn't going to give the figures on taxation o f f the top of his head. (a) He wasn't sure that the figures were correct. (b) He thought that people would laugh at his appearance. (c) He said that nobody would l i s t e n to him. (d) He said that people would think that he was mad. (e) _ _ 18. The blackmailer was furious when he heard that his victims were going to draw, the l i ne at $5,000.00 What made the blackmailer so angry? (a) He d i d n ' t l i k e to hurt people. (b) He knew that he would be given marked bank notes. (c) He thought that he wasn't going to get any money. (d) He wanted a l l the money he had demanded. (e) ; TEST II Page 1 READING COMPREHENSION N 0 N - L I T 2 NAME: (F i r s t ) ! ( l a s t ) CLASS/COURSE: . DATE OF TEST: SCHOOL: DIRECTIONS: Read each passage ca re fu l l y . Choose the best answer and c i r c l e the l e t t e r in f ront, of i t ; (a), (b), (c ) , or (d). I f you don 't agree with any of the answers given, wr i te your own answer in the space provided at (e). 1. Dr. G r i f f i t h s said that the experiment s t i l l had one thing wrong with i t . What was Dr. G r i f f i t h s ' opinion of the experiment? (a) He thought i t was completely ruined. (b) He thought i t would produce a monster. (c) He thought i t was not a complete success. (d) He thought i t was a complete success. •(e) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. "Mr. Harper w i l l jump-at any o f fe r that you make him on that property," Michael to ld his f r i end . What did Michael know about Mr. Harper? (a) He was aclnervous man. (b) He wanted to s e l l the property. •(e) He d i dn ' t want to s e l l the property. (d) He would attack his f r i end . (e) 3. Lance and Margaret h i t i t o f f the f i r s t time that they met. What are you to ld about Lance and Margaret? (a) They l i k e each other. (b) They d i s l i ked each other. (c) They were both a t h l e t i c . (d) They fought a l o t . (e) _ 74. SEX: AGE: 75. TEST II Page 2 Many people in Canada today are unable to save anything. What are you to ld about the people? (a) They always have plenty of money. (b) They never have very much money. (c) They don 't use knives and forks. (d) They usually eat at a d r i v e - i n . (e) The man said that a year in the army would l i c k the boy into shape What was the man's opinion of army l i f e ? (a) He thought that i t would be too hard on the boy. (b) He thought that i t would do the boy good. (c) He thought that i t was cruel to young people. (d) He thought that i t would teach the boy bad habits. (e) The beggar's pleading for food and money in the market-place l e f t the people co ld. How did the people t reat the beggar? (a) They gave him blankets. (b) They gave the beggar a l o t of money. (c) They beat him and drove him away. (d) They took no notice of him. (e) When John heard Barry 's opinion of the war in Vietnam he decided to argue with him. What did John think of Barry 's opinion of the war? (a) He wasn't going to t e l l anyone. (b) He agreed with Barry. (c) He disagreed with Barry. (d) He had no opinion. (e) TEST II 76. Page 3 8. A f ter the i r w i ld goose chase, the two mounties returned to pol ice headquarters to wr i te a report. What would the mounties' report state? (a) They had arrested an escaped prisoner. (b) They had taken a holiday. (c) Their mission had been successful. (d) Their mission had f a i l e d . (e) 9. The results of the test were given out yesterday and Glor ia ha? been crowing about i t a l l evening. What re su l t did G lor ia get in the test? (a) She scored a high mark. (b) She f a i l e d badly. [cj She found that her paper had not been marked, (d) She had been absent from the te s t . Ce)'' - - - - - " . 10. " I t ' s usually those students who have nothing to do who get into t rouble, " the teacher sa id. How did the teacher think he could best Help the students? Ca) Give them extra free periods. Cb) Leave them alone. Cc) Get them medical at tent ion. Cd) Provide them with extra a c t i v i t i e s . Ce) • 11. Many so ld iers in World War II thought they would lose face i f they surrendered to the enemy. What were the sold iers concerned about? (a) What people would think of them. (b) What food the enemy would give them. Cc) Whether they would be tortured or d i s f i gured. (d) Whether they would ever be set f ree. (e) :  77. TEST II Page 4 12. Diana and A l i ce d i dn ' t l i k e the teacher because his lessons were always over the i r heads. What d i d n ' t the g i r l s l i k e about the teacher? (a) He never looked s t ra ight at them. (b) He d i dn ' t give them enough work. (c) The work he gave them was too d i f f i c u l t . . (d) The work he gave them was too easy. (e) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13. The Canadian gol fer had a chance to win the trophy un t i l the l a s t hole of the golf tournament. What are you to ld happened at the l a s t hole? (a) The Canadian golfer increased his lead. (b) The Canadian gol fer was out of breath. (c) The Canadian gol fer was awarded the trophy. (d) The Canadian gol fer was not awarded the trophy. (e) 14. Although Tania was i n only one act of the play at the Pa c i f i c Coliseum, she s to le the show. What do you know about Tania? (a) She was very nervous. (b) She couldn ' t be trusted. (c) She was very enterta in ing. (d) She was not very enterta in ing. (e) _ _ 15. Mr. Johnson took the old couple in with his advice on how they could invest the i r money. What do you learn about Mr. Johnson? (a) He was an honest man. (b) He was a dishonest man. (c) He was a wealthy man. (d) He was a helpful man. (e) TEST II 78. Page 5 16. When the hockey player was to ld he was to be transferred, he said i t was the happiest day of his l i f e . How did the hockey player feel about his transfer? (a) He said he would r e t i r e . (b) He refused to comment. (c) He was very sad. (d) He was very pleased. (e) 17. The p o l i t i c i a n said that he wasn't going to give the figures on the taxation o f f the top of his head. What was the p o l i t i c i a n worried about? (a) He wasn't sure that the figures were correct. (b) He thought that people would laugh at his appearance. (c) He said that nobody would l i s t e n to him. d) He said that people would think that he was mad. 18. The blackmailer was furious when he heard that his victims were going to draw the l i n e at $5,000.00. What made the blackmailer so angry? (a) He d i d n ' t l i k e to hurt people. (b) He knew that he would be given marked bank notes. (c) He thought that he wasn't going to get any money. Id) He wanted a l l the money he had demanded. 79. TEST III Page 1 READING COMPREHENSION N 0 N - L I T 3 NAME: SEX: AGE (F i r s t ) : (Last) ~ CLASS/COURSE:_ DATE OF TEST: SCHOOL: DIRECTIONS: Read each passage ca re fu l l y . Choose the best answer and c i r c l e the l e t t e r in f ront of i t ; (a), (b), ( c ) , or (d). I f you don 't agree with any of the answers given, wr i te your own answer in the space provided at (e). 1. Dr. G r i f f i t h s said that the experiment s t i l l had one thing wrong with i t . What was Dr. G r i f f i t h s ' opinion of the experiment? (a) He thought i t was completely ruined. (b) He thought i t would produce a monster. (c) He thought i t was not a complete success. (d) He thought i t was a complete success. (e) ' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. "Mr. Harper w i l l eagerly accept any o f fe r that you make him on that property," Michael to ld his f r i end . What did Michael know about Mr. Harper? (a) He was a nervous man. (b) He wanted to s e l l the property. (c) He d i dn ' t want to s e l l the property. (d) He would attack his f r i end . (e) T E S T r n 80. Page 2 Lance and Margaret h i t i t o f f the f i r s t time that they met. What are you to ld about Lance and Margaret? (a) They l i ked each other. (b) They d i s l i ked each other. (c) They were both a t h l e t i c . (d) They fought a l o t . "(e) Many people in Canada today are unable to save anything. What are you to ld about the people? (a) They always have plenty of money. (b) They never have very much money. (c) They don 't use knives and forks. (d) They usually eat at a drive-in,; (e) -The man said that a year in the army would make the boy f i t and e f f i c i e n t . What was the man's opinion of army l i f e ? (a) He thought that i t would be too hard on the boy. (b) He thought that i t would do the boy good. (c) He thought that i t was cruel to young people. (d) He thought that i t would teach the boy bad habits. (e) : The beggar's pleading for food and money in the market-place l e f t the people co ld. How did the people t reat the beggar? (a) They gave him blankets. (b) They gave the beggar a l o t of money. (c) They beat him and drove him away. (d) They took no notice of him. (e) ; TEST III Page 3 7. When John heard Barry 's opinion of the war in Vietnam he decided to argue with him. What did John think of Barry ' s opinion of the war? (a) He wasn't going to t e l l anyone. (b) He agreed with Barry. (c) He disagreed with Barry. (d) He had no opinion. (e) -8. A f ter the i r useless search, the two mounties returned to pol ice headquarters to wr i te a report. What would the mounties' report state? (a) They had arrested an escaped prisoner. (b) They had taken a hol iday. (c) Their mission had been successful. (d) Their mission had f a i l e d . (e) ••-9. The results of the test were given out yesterday and Glor ia has been crowing about i t a l l evening. What resu l t did Glor ia get in the test? (a) She scored a high mark. (b) She f a i l e d badly. (c) She found that her paper had not been marked. (d) She had been absent from the tes t . (e) 10. " I t ' s usually those students who have nothing to do who get into trouble, " the teacher sa id. How did the teacher think he could best help the students? (a) Give them extra free periods. (b) Leave them alone. (c) Get them medical at tent ion. (d) Provide them with extra a c t i v i t i e s . (e) TEST III •82. Page 4 11. Many so ld iers in World War II thought they would be shamed i f they surrendered to the enemy. What were the sold iers concerned about? (a) What people would think of them. (b) What food the enemy would give them. (c) Whether they would be tortured or d i s f igured. (d) Whether they would ever be set f ree. (e) 12. Diana and A l i c e d i dn ' t l i k e the teacher because his lessons were always over the i r heads. What d i dn ' t the g i r l s l i k e about the teacher? (a) He never looked s t ra ight at them. (b) He d i dn ' t give them enough work. (c) The work he gave them was too d i f f i c u l t . (d) The work he gave them was too easy. Ce) ; 1.3. The Canadian gol fer had a chance to win the trophy un t i l the l a s t hole of the golf tournament. What are you to ld happened at the l a s t hole? (a) The Canadian gol fer increased his lead. (b) The Canadian gol fer was out of breath. (c) The Canadian go l fer was awarded the trophy. (d) The Canadian go l fer was not awarded the trophy, (e) 14. Although Tania was in only one act of the play at the Pa c i f i c Coliseum, she got most of the audience's at tent ion. What do you know about Tania? (a) She was very nervous. (b) She couldn ' t be trusted. (c) She was very enterta in ing. (d) She was not very enterta in ing, (e) TEST I I I 83. Page 5 15. Mr. Johnson took the old couple in with his advice on how they could invest the i r money. What do you learn about Mr. Johnson? (a) He was an honest man. (b) He was a dishonest man. (c) He was a wealthy man. (d) He was a helpful man. (e) 16. When the hockey player was to ld he was to be transferred, he said i t was the happiest day of his l i f e . How did the hockey player feel about his transfer? (a) He said he would r e t i r e , (bj He refused to comment. (c) He was very sad. (d) He was very pleased. 17. The p o l i t i c i a n said that he wasn't going to give the figures on taxation without f i r s t checking them. What was the p o l i t i c i a n worried about? (a) He wasn't sure that the f igures were correct. (bj He thought that people would laughtat his appearance. (cj He said that nobody would l i s t e n to him. (d) He said that people would think that he was mad. C e ) : ; 18. The blackmailer was furious when he heard that his victims were going to draw the l i ne at $5,000.00. What made the blackmailer so angry? (a) He d i dn ' t l i k e to hurt people, (bj He knew that he would be given marked bank notes, (cj He thought that he wasn't going to get any money, (dj He wanted a l l the money he had demanded. (e) ; 84. TEST IV Page 1 READING COMPREHENSION L I T E R A L NAME: CLASS/COURSE: SCHOOL: SEX AGE DATE OF TEST: DIRECTIONS: Read each passage ca re fu l l y . Choose the best answer and c i r c l e the l e t t e r in f ront of i t ; (a), (b), ( c ) , or (d). I f you don 't agree with any of the answers given, wr i te your own answer in the space provided at Ce). 1. Dr. G r i f f i t h s said that the experiment s t i l l had one thing wrong with i t . What was Dr. G r i f f i t h s ' opinion of the experiment? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) He thought i t was completely ruined. He thought i t would produce a monster. He thought i t was not a complete success He thought i t was a complete success. 2. "Mr. Harper w i l l eagerly accept any o f fe r that you make him on that property," Michael to ld his f r i end . What did Michael know about Mr. Harper? (a) He was a nervous man. (b) He wanted to s e l l the property. (c) He d i dn ' t want to s e l l the property. (d) He would attack his f r i end . (e) TEST IV Page 2 85. 3. Lance and Margaret were attracted to each other the f i r s t time that they met. What are you to ld about Lance and Margaret? (a) They l i ked each other. (b) They d i s l i ked each other. (c) They were both a t h l e t i c . (d) They fought a l o t . (e) 4. Many people in Canada today are unable to save anything. What are you to ld about the people? (a) They always have plenty of money. (b) They never have very much money. (c) They don 't use knives and forks. (d) They usually eat at a d r i v e - i n . (e) • 5. The man said that a year in the army would make the boy f i t and e f f i c i e n t . What was the man's opinion of l i f e ? (a) He thought that i t would be too hard on the boy. (b) He thought that i t would do the boy good. (c) He thought that i t was cruel to young people. (d) He thought that i t would teach the boy bad habits. (e) 6. The beggar's pleading for food and money in the market-place was ignored by the people. How did the people t reat the beggar? (a) They gave him blankets. (b) They gave the beggar a l o t of money. (c) They beat him and frove him away. (d) They took no notice of him. (e) TEST IV Page 3 86. 7. When John heard Barry ' s opinion of the war in Vietnam he decided to argue with him. What did John think of Barry 's opinion of the war? (a) He wasn't going to t e l l anyone. (b) He agreed with Barry, (•c) He disagreed with Barry, (d) He had no opinion. Ce). 8. After the i r useless search, the two mounties returned to pol ice headquarters to wr i te a report. What would the mounties' report state? (a) They had arrested an escaped prisoner. (b) They had taken a hol iday. (c) Their mission had been successful. (d) Their mission had f a i l e d . (e) ; 9 . The results of the test were given out yesterday and Glor ia has been boasting about i t a l l evening. What resu l t did G lor ia get in the test? (a) She scored a high mark. (b) She f a i l e d badly. (c) She found that her paper had not been marked. (d) She had been absent from the tes t . (e) 10. " I t ' s usually those students who have nothing to do who get into trouble, " the teacher sa id. How did the teacher think he could best help the students? (a) Give them extra free periods. (b) Leave them alone. (c) Get them medical attent ion. (d) Provide them with extra a c t i v i t i e s . (e) :  TEST IV 87. Page 4 11. Many soldiers in World War II thought they would be shamed i f they surrendered to the enemy. What were the soldiers concerned about? (a) What people would think of them. (b) What food the enemy would give them. (c) Whether they would be tortured or d i s f igured. (d) Whether they would ever be set f ree . (e) 12. Diana and A l i ce d i dn ' t l i k e the teacher because they couldn ' t understand his lessons. What d i dn ' t the g i r l s l i k e about the teacher? (a) He never looked s t ra ight at them. (b) He d i dn ' t give them enough work. (c) The work he gave them was too d i f f i c u l t . (d) The work he gave them was too easy. (e) ; .  13. The Canadian gol fer had a chance to win the trophy u n t i l U h e l a s t hole of the golf tournament. What are you to ld happened at the l a s t hole? (a) The Canadian golfer increased his lead. (b) The Canadian gol fer was out of breath. (c) The Canadian gol fer was awarded the trophy. (d) The Canadian go l fer was not awarded the trophy. (e) : :  14. Although Tania was in only one act of the play at the Pac i f i c Coliseum, she got most of the audience's a t tent ion. What do you know about Tania? (a) She was very nervous. (b) She couldn ' t be trusted. (c) She was very enterta in ing. (d) She was not very enterta in ing. (e) ; 88. TEST IV Page 5 15. Mr. Johnson deceived the old couple with his advice on how they could invest the i r money. What do you learn about Mr. Johnson? (a) He was an honest man. (b) He was a dishonest man. (e) He was a wealthy man. (d) He was a helpful man. (e) _ -16. When the hockey player was to ld he was to be transferred, he said i t was the happiest day of his l i f e . How did the hockey player feel about his transfer? (a) He said he would r e t i r e . (b) He refused to comment. (c) He was very sad. (d) He was very pleased. (e) 17. The p o l i t i c i a n said that he wasn't going to give the figures on taxation without f i r s t checking them. What was the p o l i t i c i a n worried about? (a) He wasn't sure that the figures were correct. (b) He thought that people would laughtat his appearance. (c) He said that nobody would l i s t e n to him. (d) He said that people would think that he was mad. (e) • • ' 18. The blackmailer was furious when he heard that his victims were going to set a l i m i t at $5,000.00. What made the blackmailer so angry? (a) He d i d n ' t l i k e to hurt people. (b) He knew that he would be given marked bank notes. (c) He thought that he wasn't going to get any money. (d) He wanted a l l the money he had demanded. (e) :  

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