UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A taxonomic and ecological study of the intertidal, sand-dwelling dinoflagellates of the north eastern… Baillie, Kenneth Dale 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A6_7 B35.pdf [ 9.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101582.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101582-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101582-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101582-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101582-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101582-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101582-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101582-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101582.ris

Full Text

A TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INTERTIDAL, SAND-DWELLING DINOFLAGELLATES OF THE NORTH EASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN by KENNETH DALE BAILLIE B . S c , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE "DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of Botany We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1971 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT The primary purpose of this study was to deal with the taxonomy of the sand-dwelling dinoflagellates occurring in the North East Pacific Ocean. A preliminary examination of the community and the major ecological parameters affecting these organisms (exposure, grain size, temperature and salinity) was also undertaken. Although the study was mainly confined to those species inhabiting the inter-t i d a l zones of five marine beaches i n British Columbia, some subtidal work was done. The conclusions are based on the analysis of approx-imately 120 samples from 15 f i e l d trips over a one year period. Forty-one species were recorded of which 12 could not be identi-fied and may warrant being described as new species. In general, the number of both species and individual cells increased from winter to spring and summer with maximum comentrations between March and Septem-ber. Out of the environmental parameters measured, grain size (which is primarily determined by tides and currents) i s probably the most important factor i n determining the distributions of these organisms in the summer months. i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3 A. Sampling 3 B. Analysis of Samples 5 RESULTS 11 A. Taxonomic 11 B. E c o l o g i c a l 67 1) Population Results 67 2) Environmental Parameter Results 67 DISCUSSION 89 A. Taxonomic Section 89 B. E c o l o g i c a l Section 90 1) Seasonal Trends i n Populations 90 ( i ) Species v a r i a t i o n per month 91 ( i i ) T o t a l c e l l v a r i a t i o n per month 91 ( i i i ) Associations between species 92 2) Population Survival 93 3) Environmental Parameters 94 ( i ) Exposure 94 ( i i ) Grain s i z e 95 ( i i i ) Temperature 97 (iv) S a l i n i t y 98 (v) Comparison of beach communities 99 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 101 REFERENCES 103 V. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Southwest B r i t i s h Columbia and associated waters showing the p o s i t i o n of the f i v e beaches which served as c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s . 7 2 Boundary Bay c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . 8 3 Brady's Beach c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . 8 4 Pachena Beach c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . 9 5 Wilson Creek c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , Sechelt. 9 6 Willows Bay c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , Oak Bay, V i c t o r i a . 10 7 Sand sampler. 10 8 Seasonal grain analysis of Boundary Bay s i t e . 77 9 Seasonal grain analysis of Brady's Beach s i t e . 77 10 Seasonal grain analysis of Pachena Beach s i t e . 78 11 Seasonal grain analysis of Wilson Creek s i t e . 78 12 Seasonal grain analysis of Willows Bay s i t e . 78 13 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Boundary Bay. 79 14 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Brady's Beach. 79 15 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Pachena Beach. 79 16 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Wilson Creek. 80 17 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Willows Bay. 80 18 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Boundary Bay. 81 19 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Brady's Beach. 81 20 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Pachena Beach. 81 V I . 21 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Wilson Creek. 82 22 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Willows Bay. 82 23 V a r i a t i o n i n the number of species/cm 3 per month at Boundary Bay. 83 24 V a r i a t i o n i n the number of species/cm 3 per month at Brady's Beach. 83 25 V a r i a t i o n i n the number of species/cm 3 per month at Pachena Beach. 84 26 V a r i a t i o n i n the number of species/cm 3 per month at Wilson Creek, Sechelt. 84 27 V a r i a t i o n i n the number of species/cm 3 per month at Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . 85 28 V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of c e l l s / c m 3 per month at Boundary Bay. 86 29 V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of ce l l s / c m 3 per month at Brady's Beach. 87 30 V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of c e l l s / c m 3 per month at Pachena Beach. 87 31 V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of c e l l s / c m 3 per month at Wilson Creek, Sechelt. 88 32 V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of c e l l s / c m 3 per month at Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . 88 V l l . LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Seasonal grain analysis of a l l beaches. 68 2 Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at a l l beaches. 69 3 Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at a l l beaches. 70 4 Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n population at Boundary Bay. 71 5 Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n population at Brady's Beach. 72 6 Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n population at Pachena Beach. 73 7 Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n population at Wilson Creek, Sechelt. 74 8 Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n population at Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . 75 9 The grouping of organisms as determined by j o i n t occurrence analysis by the method of Fager (1963). J o i n t occurrences of 0.5 or greater i n d i c a t e close a f f i n i t y . 76 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. F.J.R. Taylor who served as thesis advisor and whose i n t e r e s t , guidance and f r i e n d l y c r i t i c i s m during the course of t h i s study was invaluable. Dr. R.F. Scagel deserves s p e c i a l mention and thanks. I am deeply indebted to him not only f o r h i s time and advice given through-out t h i s study but also for the help and guidance he provided during my undergraduate years making i t possible f o r me to complete my B.Sc. I would l i k e to express my appreciation to my mother who has provided help i n so many ways throughout my e n t i r e l i f e . Without her, t h i s thesis would never have been possible. I t i s also my pleasure to extend s p e c i a l thanks to Mrs. Marian E. Slater f or her numerous hours spent i n t r a n s l a t i n g various papers and a r t i c l e s f o r me. I also wish to thank my brother Brenton to whom I s h a l l forever be indebted. His invaluable help i n so many ways w i l l always be remembered. F i n a l l y i t i s my pleasure to thank my brother Dwight and Mr; D.R. Pace for t h e i r assistance, co-operation and company on many of the c o l l e c t i n g t r i p s made. INTRODUCTION This study had three aims: f i r s t l y , as there has been no pub-l i s h e d study of any type on sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the north eastern P a c i f i c Ocean, the c r i t i c a l taxonomy of B r i t i s h Colum-bian species was considered of primary i n t e r e s t . Secondly, in'view of the r a r i t y of studies on t h i s group of d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s , the species composition of t h i s community was considered d e s i r a b l e . T h i r d l y , a preliminary examination of some e c o l o g i c a l parameters of t h i s commu-n i t y might a s s i s t any future, more d e t a i l e d studies. Sand samples were c o l l e c t e d on a monthly basis from f i v e marine beaches i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The beaches were chosen i n an attempt to obtain a diverse range of h a b i t a t s . A d d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n s from miscellaneous beaches were also made whenever possible. The major environmental parameters considered were grain s i z e , s a l i n i t y , expo-sure, temperature and season. It was hoped that community structure and species d i s t r i b u t i o n might be correlated with one or more of these. Studies on the sand m i c r o - f l o r a have dealt p r i m a r i l y with diatom populations (Aleem 1950; Castenholz 1963; Hopkins 1963, 1964, 1966) with only scant attention being paid to the sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g -e l l a t e s . The f i r s t notable works on sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s were the b r i e f and s u p e r f i c i a l studies of W.A. Herdman (1911a-, b; 1912a, b;. 1913a, b; 1914) who was one of the f i r s t to report d i s -colouration of i n t e r t i d a l sand due to d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s on the beaches of Port E r i n , I s l e of Man. He pointed out that these f l a g e l l a t e s were e x c l u s i v e l y associated with the i n t e r s t i t i a l water of sand grains. He also observed that they underwent v e r t i c a l migration and alternated i n abundance with diatom populations throughout the summer. 2. The next major studies on this topic were by h i s daughter, E.C. Herdman (1921, 1922, 1924a, b) i n the same l o c a l i t y . Her s e r i e s of papers comprise the f i r s t works dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with the taxonomy of these organisms. In them she l i s t e d and described approx-imately f o r t y species, considering most of them as new. Balech (1956) and Dregesco (1965) have also described several new species and redescribed some of E.C. Herdman's forms i n t h e i r studies on the beaches of Roscoff, France. Hulbert (1957) l i s t e d twenty-six planktonic and benthic species inhabiting the shallow embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, several of which are known to occur i n sand. A l l other publications are of minor importance dealing e i t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l l y with the subject (Storrow 1913; Whitehead 1914; Laurie 1914; Jorgensen 1918, Bursa 1968), or are d e t a i l e d studies of only one or a few species (Kofoid and Swezy 1921; Lebour 1925; Von Bernuth 1967). This b r i e f i ntroduction constitutes almost a complete l i t e r a t u r e c i t a t i o n of works dealing with the taxonomy of sand-dwelling dino-f l a g e l l a t e s . Papers dealing with the ecology of the sand-dwelling community as a whole are mentioned where relevant i n the discussion section. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS A. Sampling Samples were taken on a monthly basis from f i v e marine beaches i n lower B r i t i s h Columbia. Three of these (Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a , F i g . 1, F i g . 6; Pachena Beach, Bamfield, F i g . 1, F i g . 4, and Brady's Beach, Bamfield, F i g . 1, F i g . 3) were located on Van-couver Island. The remaining two (Wilson Creek, Sechelt, F i g . 1, F i g . 5; and Boundary Bay, Tsawwassan, F i g . 1, F i g . 2) were situated on the mainland. The beaches were chosen i n an attempt to obtain a diverse range of environmental parameters (e.g. grain s i z e , s a l i n i t y , temperature and exposure). C o l l e c t i o n s were made during low t i d e and as near to the middle day of each month as poss i b l e . Due to the s h i f t i n g d i u r n a l p e r i o d i c i t y of the t i d a l cycle a f i x e d time of day f o r c o l l e c t i n g could not be scheduled. Each beach was sampled once per month. On each beach, ten random depressions were dug, ranging from the high t i d e mark to the low water l i n e . A f t e r each had seeped f u l l with i n t e r s t i t i a l water, the water i n i t was thoroughly s t i r r e d and a 250 ml sample taken. Care was taken to include some sand with each sample. The ten samples were then poured i n t o a three l i t r e precooled isotherm. Precooling was done by i n s e r t i n g a sealed 500 ml p l a s t i c b o t t l e containing frozen sea water into the isotherm p r i o r to c o l l e c t i n g . The isotherm was then thoroughly shaken and a 250 ml subsample taken and preserved by adding three to f i v e drops of modified Lugols Iodine s o l u t i o n (10 g iodine, 20 g potassium iodine dissolved i n 200 ml of 10% g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d , UtermHhl 1958) followed by 25 ml 4. of buffered 5% formalin. This preserved sample was used as a per-manent record of the beach community and as a supplement to the taxonomic analysis. I t hopefully contained representatives of most of the species present. The three l i t r e isotherm sample was then returned to the lab-oratory and kept at approximately 15° C. I t was used to examine the sand d i h o f l a g e l l a t e s i n t h e i r l i v i g state and to look for d e l i c a t e species which tend to be destroyed by preservation methods. In the midtidal region a 25 cm3 sample of the sand was taken by using the designed apparatus ( f i g . 7). Only the top centimeter of sand was c o l l e c t e d as several authors have shown that i n t e r t i d a l communities generally l i v e within t h i s area (Aleem 1950a; Hopkins 1963). The chamber was pushed into the sand surface at a random point i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone. A t h i n p l e x i g l a s s sheet was then s l i d underneath i t and the sampler removed, turned upside down and the excess sand scraped o f f . The remaining sand i n the sampler (exactly 25 cm3) was added to 25 ml H.A. m i l l i p o r e f i l t e r e d (.45y) sea water i n a 250 ml b o t t l e . This was preserved by adding a few drops of the modified Lugol's s o l u t i o n followed by 2.5 ml of buffered 5% formalin. This sample would then be used for the quantitative enumeration of the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s present. The temperature and density of the i n t e r s t i t i a l water was also taken from a point i n the m i d - i n t e r s t i t i a l zone by using a U.S. Stan-dard Hydrometer Set. The s a l i n i t y was determined by using Sea Water Temperature and Density Reduction Tables, U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Special P u b l i c a t i o n No. 298. Samples used for sand grain analysis were obtained twice during 5. the year from each beach (once i n the summer - Jul y ; and once i n the winter - J a n u a r y ) . Sorting was c h i e f l y c a r r i e d out according to Mor-gan (1956). After drying, the sample was passed through a serie s of U.S. Standard Sieves (mesh sizes 2,000y, l,000y, 500y, 250y, 125y and 63y). This was done to determine i f the average grain s i z e on the beach varied with season. Miscellaneous samples were taken when possible throughout the year. B. Analysis of Samples The d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s were counted at the species l e v e l using a sedimentation method. The counts were made with a C a r l Zeiss inverted "plankton microscope". A 25 cm3 pressured sand sample was thoroughly shaken and aliquots of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 5.0 ml were pipetted in t o 10.0 ml. Zeiss sedimentation chambers. The chambers were then f i l l e d with H.A. m i l l i p o r e f i l t e r e d (.45y) sea water and allowed to s e t t l e f o r a 24 hour period. The chamber selected for counting depended upon the amount of det r i t u s present i n the sample. The en t i r e chamber was always counted. Scanning was done with a 6.3 X Neofluar objective with phase con-t r a s t i l l u m i n a t i o n and 12.5 X oculars. A 16 X Neofluar objective was used to scan the chamber when there were many c e l l s or consider-able amounts of de t r i t u s present. Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were made with a 40 X Neofluar objective and 12.5 X oculars. Counting r e s u l t s were extrapolated to give the number of c e l l s per one cm3 of sand. Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , scale drawings and photographs were made using both the l i v e and preserved samples. This involved the use of a C a r l Zeiss Photomicroscope I I , d i s s e c t i n g microscope and inverted 6. microscope. Plate patterns were determined either by using photo-graphs taken on the scanning electron microsope by Dr. F..J.R. Taylor or by the use of Iodinated Hydroiodic acid stain (von Stosch 1969). In order to determine whether or not certain species tended to be grouped together, an association analysis was done as outlined by Fager (1963). Each beach was considered a sample station and assigned a seperate edge-punch card (5 cards i n a l l ) . Each dinoflag-ellate species was assigned a code number which corresponded to a position on the margin of the edge-punch cards (e.g. Katodinium asym- metricum #31). The presence of each species on a particular beach was recorded on that beach's card by notching the appropriate space in the margin. After this had been done for each species, the 5 cards were placed together and by counting the number of notches opposite each species code number a frequency number (1 to 5) was determined for each. The cards were again placed together and a sorting needle run through each pair of species. The number of times 2 species occurred together was determined by counting the number of cards which f e l l from the needle. These numbers were recorded as joint occurrences "c" and placed in the t r e l l i s diagram (Table 9). These were then used i n the calculation of an index of joint occurrence defined by: I = __c_ - 1 YaE 2VF where a and b are the frequency of species a and b respectively, c is the number of joint occurrences of the two species and b> a> ^. The values for the indices for each pair of species were tabulated in the t r e l l i s diagram mentioned above. Joint occurrence index values of 0.5 or greater were taken to indicate close association (Fager 1963). Figure 1. Southwest British Columbia and associated waters showing the position of the five beaches which . served as collection sites. 8. Top Figure 2 Boundary Bay collection site Bottom Figure 3 Bradys Beach collection site 9. Top Figure~4 Pachena Beach collection site Bottom Figure 5 Wilson Creek collection site Sechelt Top -figure 6 Willows Bay collection site Oak Bay Victoria Bottom- Figure 7 Sand Sampler 1 0 . RESULTS A. Taxonomic Results. During this study a total of 41 species of dinoflagellates belonging to 13 genera was encountered. Of these 12 species could not be positively identified and may warrant being designated new species. These dinoflagellates are listed below in an alphabetical manner. For each there has been written a taxonomic review and a morphological description. Distributional patterns both local and global have been included and comments have been made where necessary. The species found were: 12. Adenoides eludens (E.C. Herdman) Balech 1956: 30, f. 1-8. (PI. 1, f . 9) Syn.: Amphidinium eludens E.C. Herdman 1922: 22, f. 1; E.C. Herdman 1924: 63; Lebour 1925: 32, Tab. I l l , f . 5; S c h i l l e r 1933: 1, 288, f. 279. Amphidinium k o f o i d i i E.C. Herdman 1922: 26, f . 2. Description : - This i s a medium sized photosynthetic species. Its body i s broadly e l l i p s o i d a l i n l a t e r a l view with the dorso-ven-t r a l axis being about 0.8 of the t o t a l length. An evident theca i s present but the plates are not disti n g u i s h a b l e when the c e l l contents are present. The epicone i s small and sometimes hidden i n l a t e r a l view. The hypocone i s sac-shaped with i t s greatest width (dorso-v e n t r a l l y ) between 0.4 and 0.6 of the t o t a l length from the pos t e r i o r end. The g i r d l e i s shallow without obvious displacement. The sulcus extends approximately halfway to the antapex and i s not extended on to the epitheca. The transverse flagellum completely e n c i r c l e s the g i r d l e and i s usually e a s i l y v i s i b l e . The posterior flagellum extends beyond the antapex usually at 30° to the l o n g i t u d i n a l axis i n l a t e r a l view. The c e l l contents are yellowish-green and appear to contain only one or a few large chloroplasts. One of the most s t r i k i n g f e a t -ures of t h i s species i s the presence of two large pyrenoids situated m i d - l a t e r a l l y , only one of which i s v i s i b l e at any one time i n a l a t -e r a l view. Numerous c l e a r , smooth granules are usually present through-out the c e l l . The nucleus i s large and usually situated p o s t e r i o r -vent r a l l y . i l ' 'y Length 25 - 40y, width 22 - 26y r - /" . . K / U - M - U H , Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; England; Roscoff, France-Comments: - Balech i n 1956 created the genus Adenoides based on Amphidinium eludens E.C. Herdman 1922: 22, f. 1. The specimens found here correspond to those of Balech's (1956: f. 1-8). However, Balech' figures are more s i m i l a r to Herdman's f i g u r e of Amphidinium k o f o i d i i than they are to her figu r e of Amphidinium eludens. Because of t h i s , Balech's choice of f i g u r e 1 as the type species seems inappropriate unless they are both the same species. Balech makes no comment of t h i s i n h i s text. In view of the differ e n c e between Herdman's A. e l u - dens and A. k o f o i d i i , and since no one has found a species s i m i l a r to her A. eludens since she reported i t , i t i s possible that the genus may have to be revised i n the future. Amphidinium asymmetricum Kofoid et Swezy, 1921: 133, f . u5, Tab. 1, f . 1 (PI. 1, f . 10) S c h i l l e r , 1933: 279, f . 266; Grass**, 1952: 328, f. 231 F non E. Syn.: A. asymmetricum Kofoid et Swezy var britannicum E.C. Herdman, 1922: 21, f . 5; 1924: 62-63 (et E.C. Herdman, 1921: 61, f. B 2 sub A. asymmetricum Kofoid, 1922: 15-16). A. asymmetricum Kofoid et Swezy var compactum E.C. Herdman, 1922: 22, f. 6; 1924: 62-63. A. britannicum Lebour ex E.C. Herdman var britannicum 1924: 81; Lebour, 1925: 27, Tab. 2, f. 5, 6; S c h i l l e r 1933: 280, f. 268 a-c. A. britannicum Lebour ex E.C. Herdman var compactum E.C. Herdman 1924: 81, f. 26, 27; Lebour 1925: 27; Throndsen 1969: f . 25. A. operculatum sensu W.A. Herdman, 1912: 372; 1913a: 63, f. 9 d, f, k, 1, lOh v i x f . 9 c, e, i ; 1913b: 558; 1914: 39, f. 6 f ; sensu Laurie 1913: 510. Vix Spirodinium aureum Conrad 1926: 89, f. 23-27. Desc r i p t i o n : - A r e l a t i v e l y large photosynthetic species which i s moderately f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The body i s e l l i p s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view and i t s surface can appear f a i n t l y s t r i a t e d . The epicone i s extremely asymmetrical due to the course of the g i r d l e ; the r i g h t side being the longest. The g i r d l e i s descending (left-handed) and forms a steep, uniform, descending curve. The sulcus which i s confined to the hypocone extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex of the c e l l . The l e f t edge of the sulcus s l i g h t l y overlaps the r i g h t margin. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum, which i s about equal i n length to that of the body, projects p o s t e r i o r l y from the antapex of the c e l l . The nucleus i s large and situated mid-ventrally. Numerous small, yellow-green chloroplasts radiate out from the center of the c e l l . They are usually so densely packed that the appearance may be that of a s i n g l e lobed c h l o r o p l a s t . Many minute o i l (?) droplets are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Length 37 - 60y, transverse diameter 30y, dorso-ventral diameter 28y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Wilson Creek, Sechelt and Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; coast of C a l i f o r n i a . Comments: - E.C. Herdman (1922) considers her A. britannicum a separate species from Kofoid and Swezy's (1921) A.' asymmetricum. She separated them on the bases that her species had dorso-ventral f l a t -tening and was not s t r i a t e d . Although the B r i t i s h Columbian specimens more c l o s e l y resemble the d e s c r i p t i o n and figures f o r A. britannicum E.C. Herdman, my culture of t h i s species (culture number ) has shown that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used by E.C. Herdman are extremely v a r i a b l e . This suggests that the c r i t e r i a f o r separating the two species are doubtful and that perhaps E.C. Herdman's specimens should be considered only v a r i a t i o n s of A. asymmetricum K. & S. D i v i s i o n i n t h i s species i s such that one daughter c e l l may r e -ceive almost a l l the epicone and very l i t t l e hypocone; the other daughter c e l l of course receives the opposite. Because of t h i s , the daughter c e l l c o nsisting p r i m a r i l y of epicone may not appear to f i t the c r i t e r i a f o r the genus Amphidinium immediately a f t e r d i v i s i o n . Amphidinium bipes E.C. Herdman 1924: 78, f. 19. (PI. 1, f. 3a, b; PI. 8, f. 2a, b) Lebour 1925: 29, f. 8f; S c h i l l e r 1933: 280, f . 267; Lackey, J.B. and E.W. Lackey 1963; Bursa, 1968: 70, f . 12, 13. V i x Wood, 1963: 22, f. 70. Description: - A medium si z e d , non-photosynthetic species which i s f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s roughly oval i n v e n t r a l view with a strong antapical notch creating a d i s t i n c t l y bilobed hy-pocone. The granular cytoplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s , but usually contains strong pigment action i n the ant a p i c a l regions of the lobes. The e p i -cone i s small, roughly t r i a n g u l a r i n v e n t r a l view and overhangs the dorsal side. The g i r d l e i s deeply impressed; more so on the l e f t and dorsal side than on the r i g h t . The sulcus extends onto the epicone curving to the l e f t . On the hypocone i t i s only d i s t i n c t i n the lower h a l f of the c e l l . The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum originates w i t h i n the posterior t h i r d of the c e l l . The large nucleus i s usually situated w i t h i n the l e f t lobe. A small accumulation body i s commonly present i n the r i g h t lobe. Length 22 - 38u, dorso-ventral diameter 16 - 22u, transdiameter 16 - 42u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; C a l i f o r n i a ; Alaska. Comments: - E.C. Herdman's (1924) fig u r e of t h i s species shows no diff e r e n c e between the length of the antapices of the hypocone. Although both lobes are sometimes equal, the usual s i t u a t i o n i s for the l e f t one to be longer. Amphidinium compressum (Calkins) Taylor et B a i l l i e comb. n. (PI. 1, f. 6; PI. 8,'f. 3) Syn.: Glenodinium compressa Calkins 1901: 430, f. 21 a, b, c. Description: - This i s a nonphotosynthetic species which is strongly compressed laterally. The c e l l i s approximately sub-oval in lateral view. The girdle is higher on the l e f t than on the right and due to the flattening of the c e l l , displacement is d i f f i c u l t to determine. The sulcus deeply impresses the hypocone particularly in the v i c i n i t y of the origin of the longitudinal flagellum. Due to the transparency of.the c e l l this can easily be seen i n lateral view. In ventral view the sulcus excavates the l e f t side more than the right. The p e l l i c l e is firm, lacking surface striations and numerous minute depressions can sometimes be seen covering i t s sur-face. The cytoplasm is granular and may appear either colourless or slightly brownish, particularly i n the periphery of the c e l l . One or more accumulation bodies may be present. The nucleus is large and situated central dorsally. Length 36 - 40u, dorso-ventral dia-meter 24 - 32y, transdiameter 16 - 18p. Comments: - This species is very similar to Amphidinium semi- lunatum and for this reason a new combination has been proposed. It can be distinguished from A. semilunatum by i t s shape in lateral view (the latter is cuneiform and has a greater degree of excavation of the sulcus in the region of the origin of the longitudinal flag-ellum) . Local distribution: - Willows Bay, Victoria. World distribution: - Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Comments: - Calkins (1901) places this species in the wrong genus even though he points out that i t s "shell i s soft and struc-tureless". This species should be placed into the genus Amphidinium as above. Amphidinium corpulentum Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 134, f. 6, 13, Tab. 1, f. (PI. 5, f. 5) Syn.: ? Amphidinium ovum E.C. Herdman 1924b: 78, f. 25. ? Chilodinium cruciatum Massart 1920: 128, f . 12 A, B. ? Amphidinium pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1922: 27, f . 7; 1924a: 63; 1924b: 77, f. 14-16; Lebour 1925: 28, f . 8 d; S c h i l l e r 1933: 309, f. 309 Ganapati, Rao & Rao 1959. Non A. pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1924b: f. 17, 18; sensu Conrad & Kuf-f e r a t h 1954: 83, Tab. 9, f. 1; sensu Dragesco 1965: 97, f . 9. Non A. pellucidum Redeke 1935: 391, f . 1. Des c r i p t i o n : - A medium sized species which may contain chloro-plasts? The c e l l i s elongated, rotund and moderately compressed dor-so v e n t r a l l y . The g i r d l e may or may not be displaced i n a descending (left-handed) manner. The epicone i s asymmetrical, being larger on the r i g h t . The sulcus i s extended onto the epicone and curves to the l e f t forming a s l i g h t s e m i - c i r c l e around the apex. On the hypocone the l e f t side of the sulcus overlaps the r i g h t side and notches the antapex s l i g h t l y . The cytoplasm can contain numerous, d i s c o i d , y e l -lowish chloroplasts or may appear colourless.with reddish-orange accum-u l a t i o n bodies scattered throughout. The nucleus i s large, s l i g h t l y elongated arid usually situated i n the r i g h t side of the c e l l . Length 34 - 54u, transdiameter 24 - 34u, dorso-ventral diameter 17u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach. World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a . Comments: - This species corresponds extremely well to the d e s c r i p t i o n given by Kofoid & Swezy; i t d i f f e r s only i n that the s i z e range tends to be smaller f o r the B.C. form. Amphidinium k e s s l i t z i S c h i l l e r 1933: 297, f . 291 a, b. (PI. 6, f. 3) Syn.: ? Gymnodinium nanum S c h i l l e r 1933: 389, f. 401. Description : - A very small, non-photosynthetic species which i s extremely f a s t moving. The c e l l i s s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d dorso-v e n t r a l l y and asymmetrical, being longest on the r i g h t side. The epicone i s r e l a t i v e l y large, roughly t r i a n g u l a r and curves to the r i g h t . The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e with i t s r i g h t side being s l i g h t l y concave; i t s l e f t being convex. The g i r d l e i s asymmetrical, o r i g i n -ating j u s t to the l e f t of the mid-ventral l i n e . There i s no d i s -placement, but the furrow r i s e s more steeply on the r i g h t than on the l e f t . The sulcus extends p o s t e r i o r l y from the g i r d l e , curving s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t . I t traverses the hypocone for approximately 3/4 of i t s length; i t does not reach the antapex. The cytoplasm i s colourless and hyaline. The nucleus could not be observed. Length 10 - 12y, transdiameter 6 - 7p. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt. World d i s t r i b u t i o n : -Comments: - THis form d i f f e r s from that of S c h i l l e r ' s i n that the B.C. species i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r (10 - 12p x 6 - 7\i, whereas S c h i l l e r gives a s i z e of 7 - 8u x 4.5 - 5y) and i s non-photosynthetic. Also, the g i r d l e i s not as deeply impressed. Amphidinium k l e b s i Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 144, f . u-14. (PI. 3, f. l a , b; PI. 7, f. 3) E.C. Herdman 1922: 25, f. 4; 1924a: 63; 1924b: 76, f. 6-10; Lebour 1925: 23, Tab. 2, f. 1; S c h i l l e r 1933: 298, f. 292 a-f; Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 77; Dragesco 1965: 101, f . 11 A, B, C, 12 A, B; Bursa 1968: 70, f. 12/11. A. operculatum Clap, et Lach. sensu Klebs 1884: 723, 726, 732, 739, Tab. 10, f. 11, 12. A. operculatum Clap, et Lach. sensu Paulsen 1908: 96, f. 128. Vix A. operculatum Clap, et Lach. sensu Martin 1929: 13, Tab. 3, f . 24. Vix A. operculatum Clap, et Lach. sensu Massart 1920: f. 13 A, B, P, sensu Conrad 1926: 72, f. B/A, B, P. Vix A. operculatum Clap, et Lach. sensu Calkins 1901: 432, f . 27; sensu Grasse 1952: 328, f . c. Non A. k l e b s i i . Kofoid et Swezy sensu Carter 1937: 58, Tab. 8, f. 12-15 Non A. k l e b s i i Kofoid et Swezy sensu D.L. Taylor (1971). Description : - a medium to large species which usually contains obvious chloroplasts. The c e l l i s roughly e l l i p t i c a l to sub-oval i n v e n t r a l view and dorso-ventrally f l a t t e n e d . The epicone i s small, tongue-like and curves to the l e f t , s l i g h t l y overhanging the anterior rim of the hypocone. The l e f t side of the hypocone i s somewhat l a r -ger than the r i g h t , r e s u l t i n g i n an upsloping of the po s t e r i o r margin. The g i r d l e i s deeply impressed and not obviously displaced. The sulcus extend from the g i r d l e obliquely to the r i g h t and ends on the r i g h t margin of the c e l l . The cytoplasm i s granular and a pyre-O I noid and/or a b r i g h t l y coloured accumulation body i s often present. The nucleus l i e s i n the po s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l . Length 30-46u, transdiameter 28 - 36y, dorso-ventral diameter Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey; Bay of Naples; sand at Port E r i n , I s l e of Mann; sand at Cu l l e r c o a t s , Northumberland. Comments: - This species has been separated from other morphol-o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r species of Amphidinium [e.g. A. ovoideum (Lemm.) Lemm. 1900 and A. carterae Hulbert 1959] on the basis of i t s p h y s i c a l s i z e (30y or greater i n length) and on i t s number of ch l o r o p l a s t s . Because both these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem extremely v a r i a b l e , the v a l -i d i t y of t h i s being a separate species may be doubtful. Amphidinium latum Lebour 1925: 26, Tab. 2, f. 3. (PI. 2, f. 10; PI. 6, f. 4; PI. 10, f. 4) E.C. Herdman 1924: 78, f. 20; S c h i l l e r 1933: 302, f . 298 a-c; Conrad and Kufferath 1954: 79. Description : - A small, fast moving species which does not appear to contain chloroplasts. The c e l l i s somewhat rectangular i n v e n t r a l view and moderately to strongly compressed dorso-ventrally. The epicone i s very small and almost f l a t . The hypocone i s notched s l i g h t l y at the antapex and minute depressions can sometimes be seen covering i t s surface. The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide, deeply exca-vated and may or may not be s l i g h t l y displaced to the l e f t (descend-ing) . The sulcus can appear to completely traverse the hypocone and i s extended onto the ri g h t side of the epicone curving d o r s a l l y to form a sem i - c i r c l e around the apex. The cytoplasm i s colourless and may become s l i g h t l y brownish and granular towards the po s t e r i o r of the c e l l . The p o s i t i o n of the nucleus i s mid-ventral or s l i g h t l y a n t erior. A small reddish brown accumulation body i s sometimes pres-ent. Length 10 - 20y, transdiameter 9 - 18y Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; Cull e r c o a t s , Northumberland; France. Amphidinium manannini E.C. Herdman 1924b: 79, f. 21 (PI. 1, f. 12) Lebour 1925: 34, f. 80; S c h i l l e r 1933: 303, f . 301; Conrad and Kuf-ferath 1954: 81, Tab. 2, f. 5. Description : - A medium s i z e d , non-photosynthetic species which i s moderately to strongly f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s e l l i p s o i d a l to rectangular i n v e n t r a l view. The epicone i s moder-ate l y large, comprising approximately one-quarter of the c e l l . There may or may not be left-handed (descending) displacement of the g i r -dle. The sulcus extends from the hypocone, where i t s l i g h t l y notches the antapex, up onto the epicone. The cytoplasm varies i n colour: i t may appear f a i n t l y yellowish-orange, or i t may be colourless with small, bluish-green o i l (?) droplets and orangish-yellow accumulation bodies scattered throughout. Chloroplasts appear to be absent. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; coast of France. Comments: - This appears to be an extremely rare species as i t was found only a few times during the course of t h i s study. E.C. Herdman (1924b) notes that i t was l a t e r a l l y f l a t t e n e d whereas the B r i t i s h Columbian specimens are compressed dorso-ventrally. Amphidinium m a s s a r t i i Biecheler 1952: 24, f. 4, 5, 64. (PI. 3, f. 4; PI. 7, f. l a , b) Vix: A. ovoideum (Lemm.) Lemm. 1900. A. rostratum Pr. Lavrenko 1945. A. rhynchocephalum Anissimova 1926. A. w i s l o u c h i i Hulbert 1957: 199, Tab. 1, f. 2. A. sp. Wislouch 1924: 121, Tab. 3, f. 11. A. c o r a l l i n i u m Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 75, PI. 9, f . 8 a, b. A. dubium Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 76, Tab. 10, f. 4. A. coeruleum Conrad 1939: X, 10, f . 13-16; Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 74, Tab. 10, f . 2 A, B. A. celestinum Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 74, Tab. 10, f . 3 A, B, C. A. ornithocephalum Conrad 1939: 10, 7, f. 1-5. A. purpufeum Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 86, Tab. 2, f. 7 a, b. Description : — A small to medium sized photosynthetic species which i s f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l appears roughly e l l i p -s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view. The epicone i s small, tongue-like, deflected to the l e f t and may s l i g h t l y overhang the anterior rim of the hypocone. The hypocone i s not s t r i a t e d and i s divided asymmetrically by the sulcus so i t s l e f t side i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y deeply impressed and there appears to be no displacement. The sulcus extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex, curving s l i g h t l y to the l e f t . The cytoplasm contains numerous d i s c o i d chloroplasts which may be so densely packed that they give the appearance of being a s i n g l e lobed chloroplast. Minute o i l (?) droplets are commonly present and the occurrence of a pyrenoid seems v a r i a b l e . No eyespot could be observed. Length 9 - 29y, transdiameter 8 - 21u, dorso-ventral diameter approx-imately 8 - 20u. Local distribution: - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; Victoria. World distribution: - Atlantic, east and west coasts. Comments: - Most of the British Columbian specimens best f i t the description of A. massafti Biecheler. But forms closely resem-bling A. ovoideum (Lemm.) Lemm. 1900, A. rhynchocephalum Anissimova 1926, A. rostratum Pr. Lavrenko 1945 and A. wislouchii Hulbert 1957 have also been found. Whether or not these are a l l distinct species is questionable as their separation has been based primarily on the number and shape of the chloroplasts and the size of the c e l l ; both these characteristics seem extremely variable and upon preservation the cells tend to round up and become more distorted. Amphidinium pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1922: 27, f . 7. (PI. 6, f. 6) E.C. Herdman 1924a: 63; 1924b: 77, f. 14-16; Lebour 1925: 28, f. 8d; S c h i l l e r 1933: 309, f. 309; Conrad and Kufferath 1954: 83, Tab. 9, f. 1; Dragesco 1965: 97, f. 9. Vix Amphidinium pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1924b: 83, f i g s . 17 and 18; Ganapati, Rao and Rao 1959: Non A. pellucidum Redeke 1935: 391, f . 1. Description : - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic specis which i s dorso-ventrally f l a t t e n e d . The c e l l i s roughly e l l i p s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view with a slight a p i c a l notch. The epicone i s large and s l i g h t l y narrower than the hypocone. The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e . The g i r d l e , which i s extremely deeply impressed, i s displaced about one g i r d l e width i n a left-handed (descending) manner. The sulcus extends p o s t e r i o r l y from the g i r d l e as a wide furrow and gradually becomes a narrow groove which reaches the antapex. The r i g h t margin of the sulcus overlaps the l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow f o r most of i t s length. The sulcus extends onto the epicone as a t h i n groove. The a p i c a l notch suggests that i t a c t u a l l y reaches the apex of the c e l l although t h i s could not be d e f i n i t e l y determined. The cytoplasm appears s l i g h t l y yellowish but no chloroplasts could be seen. The nucleus i s large, elongated and situated i n the hypocone. Numerous large reddish-brown accumulation masses can be seen scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Length 32 - 36y; transdiameter 22 - 24y; dorso-ventral diameter approximately 17 - 19u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man. Comments: - This form f i t s the description of E.C. Herdman (1922) except that i t i s approximately one-half the size of the cells she found. Since this species was observed only once during this study i t may have been an abnormally small specimen. 29. Amphidinium scissum Kofoid et Swezy 1921 (PI. 2, f. 2; PI. 7, f. 4; PI. 8, f i g . 4 a, b) E.C. Herdman 1922: 28; 1924a: 63, f. 5; Lebour 1925: 26, Tab. 2, f . 4; S c h i l l e r 1933: 314, f. 316 a-c; Grass€ 1952: f. 231D. Vix A. cornutum Digby N.S. sensu Bursa 1968: f. 4-6. Descr i p t i o n : - A large,.non-photosynthetic species which i s strongly compressed dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s roughly rectangular to sub-oval i n l a t e r a l view. The epicone i s asymmetrically divided i n t o two parts. I t s l e f t side i s fl a t t e n e d and usually t i l t e d t o -wards the centre; i t s r i g h t side i s considerably larger and slopes dorso-ventrally. The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e , with a deep, p o s t e r i o r , semicircular notch. A c l e a r , colourless p r o j e c t i o n (flap?) located v e n t r a l l y covers t h i s excavated region. The g i r d l e appears to be displaced i n a left-handed (descending) manner. The sulcus i s ex-tended onto the epicone; on the hypocone i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n -guish. An inverted "Y"-shaped structure i s situated on the hypocone, j u s t anterior to the excavated area and apparently i n t e r n a l l y ; whether or not t h i s i s r e l a t e d to the sulcus i s unknown. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum projects p o s t e r i o r l y from the excavated region. The cy-toplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s , becoming more granular towards the periphery of the c e l l . One or more b r i g h t l y coloured accumulation bodies and numerous minute o i l (?) droplets are common. The nucleus i s large and situated approximately mid-ventally. Length 38 - 60y; trans-diameter 30 - 50u; dorso-ventral diameter 18 - 25y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a . Comments: - This description differs from that given by Kofoid and Swezy (1921) in that the British Columbian specimens appear to be less colourful, non-striated, and have their sulcus indistinct on the hypocone. Amphidinium semi lunar, um D.C. Herdman 1924a: 59, f. 7. (PI. 1, f. 8 a, b; PI. 10, f. 7) Lebour 1925: 33, f . 9 b; S c h i l l e r 1933: 315, f. 317; Bursa 1968: 70, f. 12/8. Description : - A large, non-photosynthetic species which i s roughly cuneifrom i n l a t e r a l view (the dorsal side being almost s t r a i g h t , the v e n t r a l side convex). The c e l l i s strongly f l a t t e n e d l a t e r a l l y . The g i r d l e usually curves higher on the l e f t side than on the r i g h t and displacement, i f any, i s hard to determine. The sulcus deeply excavates the hypocone, a feature which i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n l a t e r a l view due to the c e l l ' s transparency, and extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex. The p e l l i c l e i s fir m and surrounds a granular cytoplasm which ranges i n colour from almost clear to s l i g h t l y brownish, p a r t i c u l a r l y towards the periphery of the c e l l . The nucleus i s situated mid-ventrally and one or more b r i g h t l y c o l -oured accumulation bodies may be present. Length 38 - 55u, dorso-v e n t r a l diameter 28 - 40y, transdiameter 12 - 20y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; Alaska. Comments: - E.C. Herdman noted that the g i r d l e i s highest i n the r i g h t dorsal region whereas with the B r i t i s h Columbian specimens i t was usually highest on the l e f t l a t e r a l side. This species, a l -though r e l a t i v e l y common, never appeared i n great abundance. Amphidinium testudo E.C. Herdman 1924b: 76, f . 2, 3, 5, non f. 4. (PI. 1, f. 7; PI. 6, f . l a , b; PI. 10, f . 6) Lebour 1925: 29, f. 8 e; S c h i l l e r 1933: 318, f. 322 a-e. Description : - A medium sized photosynthetic species. The : c e l l i s oval i n v e n t r a l view and extremely f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The epicone i s small, v e n t r a l l y placed, and not p r o j e c t i n g beyond the an-, t e r i o r of the hypocone. Under o i l immersion i t can be seen to be b i -lobed. The hypocone i s large; i t s v e n t r a l side i s s l i g h t l y concave and i t s dorsal side i s strongly convex. The anterior rim can be curved d o r s a l l y and i s more or less notched and connects with the deeply im-pressed g i r d l e . The sulcus i s narrow, becoming i n d i s t i n c t i n the pos-t e r i o r region of the c e l l where i t widens. It may notch the antapex. The cytoplasm i s f i l l e d with numerous yellowish-green d i s c o i d chloro-p l a s t s and granules which radiate from the center of the body. Around the complete periphery of the c e l l l i e s a d i s t i n c t hyaline zone. The nucleus i s elongate and appears as a s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r region i n the po s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l . A pyrenoid may be present, suggesting the p o s s i b i l i t y that only one chloroplast may be present. Length 20 -35u, transdiameter 20 - 30u, dorso-ventral diameter approximately 10 -15y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Sechelt; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man. Amphidinium sp. 1 sp. n. (PI. 2, f. 5 a, b, c; PI. 7, f . 6 a, b) Vix Amphidinium pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1924b: f. 17, 18; Ganapati, Rao & Rao 1959. Non A. pellucidum E.C. Herdman 1922: 27, f. 7; 1924a: 63; 1924b: 77, f. 14-16; Lebour 1925: 28, f. 8 d; S c h i l l e r 1933: 309, f . 309; Conrad and Kufferath 1954: 83, Tab. 9, f. 1; Dragesco 1965: 97, f . 9. Non A. pellucidum Redeke 1935: 391, f. 1. D e s c r i p t i o n : - A large, non-photosynthetic species. The c e l l i s broadly fusiform with the apex rounded and the antapex usually drawn into a slender point. Even when the posterior of the c e l l i s more b l u n t l y shaped, a d e f i n i t e antapical protrusion e x i s t s . The c e l l s are usually rounded but s l i g h t dorso-ventral compression may occur. The g i r d l e i s descending (left-handed). The sulcus runs the complete length of the body. It divides the epicone asymmetrically, making the r i g h t side the l a r g e s t , and i t notches the apex. On the hypocone the sulcus gradually fades, becoming only a f a i n t depression near the antapex. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum emerges from i t i n the p o s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l . The cytoplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s . One of i t s most s t r i k i n g features i s the presence of two large pusules which occupy much of the p o s t e r i o r region of the c e l l . Minute o i l (?) drop-l e t s and one or more b r i g h t l y coloured accumulation bodies are common. The nucleus i s s i t u a t e d approximately mid-ventrally. Length 50 - 80u, transdiameter 22 - 40u, dorso-ventral diameter 22 - 40p. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek, Sechelt. Comments: - E.C. Herdman's (1922-1924) d e s c r i p t i o n and figures of A. pellucidum correspond very c l o s e l y to that given by Kofoid and Swezy (1921) for A. corpuletitum. E.C. Herdman's (1924b) figures 17 and 18 are the only ones which vaguely bear some similarity to the species described above. This dinoflagellate can easily be dis-tinguished from A. scissum and A. diabolum as the hypocone i s not divided into right and l e f t lobes. Amphidinium sp. 2 n. sp. (PI. 2, f. 6) Description : - A large, non-photosynthetic species which i s fl a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s roughly rectangular i n ven-t r a l view. The epicone i s s l i g h t l y narrower than the hypocone and almost f l a t . Its shape i s " h a t - l i k e " , having the c e n t r a l and outer regions projecting more a n t e r i o r l y than the middle region. The hy-pocone i s large, having i t s p o s t e r i o r b l u n t l y rounded. The g i r d l e i s narrow, not deeply impressed and without displacement. The s u l -cus i s confined to the hypocone. I t i s s t r a i g h t f o r most of i t s length and follows the mid-ventral l i n e f o r approximately 2/3 of the distance to the antapex. At t h i s point i t curves s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t and notches the p o s t e r i o r - r i g h t margin of the c e l l . The cy-toplasm i s c l e a r and co l o u r l e s s . It becomes quite granular and i s packed with reddish-brown accumulation masses i n i t s po s t e r i o r r e -gions. Length 44 - 48u, transdiameter 32 - 36u., dorso-ventral d i a -meter approximately 25 - 28u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt. Comments: - This appears to be an extremely rare species as i t was only observed once during t h i s study. Amphidinium sp. 3 (PI. 2, f. 3; PI. 8, f . 5) Description: - One of the largest non-photosynthetic species found i n t h i s study. The c e l l i s roughly rectangular i n v e n t r a l view and i s strongly f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The epicone i s r e l a t i v e l y small and asymmetrically divided by the sulcus. Its l e f t side i s fla t t e n e d and usually slopes towards the center; the r i g h t side i s larger and i s t i l t e d dorso-ventrally. The hypocone has a large, semicircular excavation at the antapex, giving i t a d i s t i n c t bilobed appearance. The g i r d l e appears to be s l i g h t l y displaced i n a descending (left-handed) manner. The sulcus extends from the apex onto the hypocone where i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h . An inverted "Y"- shaped sturcture i s situated on the hypocone j u s t an-t e r i o r to the excavated region and apparently i n t e r n a l l y ; whether or not t h i s i s rel a t e d to the sulcus i s unknown. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum originates from the excavated region. The cytoplasm i s colourless and becomes quite granular towards the periphery of the c e l l . One or more b r i g h t l y coloured accumulation bodies and numer-ous minute o i l (?) droplets are common. The nucleus i s large, elongate and si t u a t e d i n the p o s t e r i o r of the c e l l . Length 42 - 51M, transdiameter 30 - 36y, dorso-ventral diameter approximately 14 - 20u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt. Comments: - This species d i f f e r s from A. scissum Kofoid et Swezy 1921 i n the following ways: no colourless f l a p covers the excavated region; the g i r d l e i s not so strongly displaced; the o r i g i n of the g i r d l e and sulcus l i e s on the mid-ventral l i n e and i s not s h i f t e d to the r i g h t as i n A. scissum. Amphidinium sp. 4 (PI. 3, f. 8 a, b; PI. 10, f . 9) Description : - A large, non-photosynthetic species which i s l a t e r a l l y compressed. The c e l l i s roughly rectangular i n v e n t r a l view. The epicone i s bi-lobed, sloping both to the l e f t and ven-t r a l l y . The hypocone i s large with a d i s t i n c t p osterior excavation. The g i r d l e i s wide and incomplete; i t fades out on the r i g h t ven-t r a l side. The sulcus i s continuous with the g i r d l e and descends to the antapical end of the c e l l . Here i t deeply excavates the complete length of the po s t e r i o r region and continues forward to notch the p o s t e r i o r - d o r s a l margin of the hypocone. The cytoplasm i s colourless and contains clear spheroid bodies. The nucleus i s usually situated mid-ventrally. Length 40 - 64y, dorso-ventral diameter 30 - 44y, transdiameter 26 - 40y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; Willows Bay^ V i c t o r i a . Comments: - This species looks most s i m i l a r to Amphidinium  sulcatum Kofoid et Swezy but d i f f e r s from i t i n the course of i t s sulcus and g i r d l e and i t does not have s t r i a t i o n s on i t s epicone. Amphidinium sp. 5 (PI. 2, f. 4; PI. 10, f . 4) Description : - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic species which i s s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The body i s roughly e l l i p s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view. The epicone i s small and almost t r i -angular; i t curves to the r i g h t and s l i g h l y overhangs the dorsal edge of the c e l l . The hypocone i s sub-oral. The g i r d l e i s shallow, r e l a t i v e l y wide and meets without displacement. I t i s extended p o s t e r i o r l y on the hypocone f o r a short distance. The sulcus i s a shallow furrow which extends a n t e r i o r l y from the antapex; i t becomes i n d i s t i n c t j u s t before j o i n i n g the g i r d l e . The cytoplasm i s colour-l e s s and very granular. The nucleus i s situated s l i g h t l y p o s t e r i o r l y . Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt. Comments: - This species d i f f e r s from A. ma s s a r t i i Biecheler i n that i t s g i r d l e and sulcus do not j o i n . A rare species as i t was only observed once. Amphidinium sp. 6 sp. n. (PI. 2, f. 8; PI. 9, f . 6) E.C. Herdman 1924b: 76, f i g . 4 (sub Amphidinium testudo). Description: - A large, photosynthetic (or colourless) species which i s extremely fl a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s e l l i p -s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view and surrounded by a t h i c k , hyaline p e l l i c l e . The epicone i s small, roughly t r i a n g u l a r and curves to the l e f t . I t s apex i s b l u n t l y rounded with the anterior region appearing clear and c o l o u r l e s s . The anterior margin of the epicone barely projects beyond the a n t e r i o r rim of the hypocone. The g i r d l e i s narrow, shallow and without displacement. The sulcus i s confined to the hypocone and i s a t h i n groove which projects p o s t e r i o r l y from the bottom of the epicone. In the antapical region of the c e l l i t fades and becomes d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h . The cytoplasm i s densely packed with small, irregularly-shaped chloroplasts ( t h i s may be one extremely lobed chloroplast) which mask almost a l l other c e l l u l a r d e t a i l . The nucleus appears as a c l e a r , reniform shaped region s i t -uated c e n t r a l l y i n the hypocone. Length 70 - 70y; transdiameter 38 - 52u; dorso-ventral diameter 20 - 30u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Sechelt. Comments: - Several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s species d i s t i n g u i s h i t from Amphidinium operculatum Claparede et Lachmann. These are: (a) the sulcus does not d i s t i n c t l y extend to the antapex, (b) there i s no small spheroid body (pyrenoid?) i n the center of the hypocone, (c) the chloroplasts do not radiate out from a c e n t r a l point, (d) the s i z e i s much greater, (e) the anterior region of the epicone appears clear and c o l o u r l e s s . Chilodinium cruciatum Massart 1920: 128, f. 12. (PI. 2, f. 1) Conrad 1926: 77, Tab. 1, f . 6-10. Syn.: Gymnodlnlum cruciatum Massart i n S c h i l l e r 1935: 350, f . 357 a-d Massart 1901: 82. Description : - A large, non-photosynthetic species which i s roundly e l l i p t i c a l i n v e n t r a l view. The c e l l may be s l i g h t l y com-pressed l a t e r a l l y . The epicone i s approximately the same s i z e as the hypocone and possesses a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . This fi n g e r l i k e lobe originates on the r i g h t side of the epicone and curves dor-s a l l y and to the l e f t ; i t i s c l o s e l y appressed to the c e l l ' s surface throughout i t s complete length. The g i r d l e i s displaced i n a descend ing (left-handed) manner about two g i r d l e widths. The sulcus, which i s r e l a t i v e l y wide and deeply impressed on the hypocone, descends from the g i r d l e to notch the antapex of the c e l l . On the epicone i t i s only a narrow, f a i n t depression which reaches the apex and follows the curve of the a p i c a l lobe. The cytoplasm i s colourless and the nucleus i s situated approximately i n the center of the c e l l . Length 39 - 50y, transdiameter 30 - 38y, dorso-ventral diameter approximately 30 - 38y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach. World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Nieuport, France. Comments: - A r e l a t i v e l y rare species which was only observed a few times throughout t h i s study. 41. E x u v i a e l l a marina Cienkowski 1881: 12; 159, f . 36, 37. (PI. 3, f. 2; PI. 10, f . 3) Klebs 1884, T. 10, f. 10, 13, 14; 1912 I.e. 370, f. 1 D, E, F; Calkins 1901: 429, f . 19; E.C. Herdman 1924b: 75, 82, f. 1; Lebour 1925: 13, Tab. I, f. l a - I d ; Carter 1937: 57, Tab. 6, f. 32-34; Biech-e l e r 1952: 20; Chatton i n Grass e' 1952: 323, 278, f. 225 A, B; Conrad and Kufferath 1954: 71; Dragesco 1965: 93, f. 5, 6, 7, 8; Pouchet 1885: 50, T2, f. 6-8; non Schlltt 1895: T.I, f. 1. Syn. : E x u v i a e l l a lima (Ehrenberg) BUtschli 1885, T. 51, f. 2, p. 5; Schlltt 1896, I.e., 7, f . 9; Paulsen 1908, Nord. Tab. 5, Klebs 1912, I.e., 373, 374; Calkins 1901: 428, f . 18; E.C. Herdman 1922: 21; Martin 1928: 11, Tab. 1, f. 1-2, Tab. 3, f . 7-9. E x u v i a e l l a marina var lima S c h i l l e r 1933: 21, f. 16 a, b. Ex u v i a e l l a l a e v i s (Stein) Schrtfder 1900: 15. Amphidinium operculatum Pouchet 1883: 427, Tab. 18r-19, f . 7-7b. Cryptomonas lima Ehrenberg 1859: 793, f. 73, Tab. I, f. 25, i n S c h i l l e r 1933. Dinopyxis l a e v i s Stein 1883, Tab. I, f . 27-30? or f . 31-33? Prorocentrum lima Kent i n Calkins 1901: 428. P y x i d i c u l a Ehrenberg i n Calkins 1901: 428. Description : - A large, photosynthetic species which i s oval i n v e n t r a l view. The c e l l i s strongly f l a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally and the anterior ends of both valves are indented. The two f l a g e l l a o r i -ginate from t h i s a p i c a l dep ression. There are no spines. The walls of the valves are r e l a t i v e l y thick and enclose two large yellow-green chloroplasts. Numerous starch granules and o i l (?) droplets are scat-tered throughout the cytoplasm; these may be so densely packed that they mask the appearance of other c e l l u l a r i n c l u s i o n s . The nucleus i s s i t u a t e d i n the posterior of the c e l l . A large pusule can often be seen connecting with the a p i c a l depression. Length 36 - 50y, transdiameter 28 - 32u, dorso-ventral diameter approximately 17 - 20y Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach Wilson Creek, Sechelt; Willows Beach, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - coasts of Europe and the United States. Glenodinium marinum Massart 1920: 133, f. 23. (PI. 5, f . 4) Vix: Glenodinium danicum Paulsen 1908: 23 Nordisches Plankton; Mar-t i n 1928: 21, Tab. 2, f. 11, Tab. 3, f. 27-30; Lebour 1925: 86, Tab. 12, f . 6; Wailes 1928: 3, Tab. 1, f. 25, 26, 32; Wailes 1939: 25, f. 72 a-c. Glenodinium cinctum Ehrenberg sensu Calkins 1902: 430, f . 22. Gymnodinium a g i l e Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 184, f . Y, 9, Tab. 3, f . Gymnodinium hamulus Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 218, f. Y, 5, Tab. 9, f. 97. Gymnodinium oppressum Conrad 1926: 82, Tab. 1, f. 17, 18, 19. Gymnodinium v a r i a b i l e E.C. Herdman 1924b: 80, f . 35-45; Dragesco 1965: 112, f. 17. Description : - A small to medium photosynthetic species which i s subcir c u l a r i n v e n t r a l view. The theca i s thick hyaline and may be s l i g h t l y compressed dorso-ventrally; i t i s not divided i n t o plates. The epicone i s s l i g h t l y larger than the hypocone and may possess a small a p i c a l notch. The g i r d l e i s wide, shallow and may or may not be displaced i n a left-handed (descending) manner. The sulcus i s wide and extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex. The cytoplasm i s densely packed with small, d i s c o i d , yellow-green chloroplasts. A d i s t i n c t red stigma (eyespot) i s usually visible near the junction of the two furrows. No pyrenoids or accumulation bodies could be seen but may be present. The nucleus i s probably situated i n the epicone. Length 18 - 30y, transdiameter 18 - 28y, dorso-ventral diameter approximately 17 - 28y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach. World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Nieuport, France. Comments: - This was one of the most abundant species found i n Boundary Bay i n A p r i l , 1970. I t reached a c e l l density of 27,540 individuals/cm 3. Gymnodinium a g i l e Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 184, f . Y, 9, Tab. 3, f . 31. (PI. 7, f . 5) S c h i l l e r 1928: 139; S c h i l l e r 1933: 328, f . 331; Wood 1963: 10, f. 29. Non E.C. Herdman 1924: 81, f. 29; Lebour 1925: 40, f. 11c; E.C. Herdman 1922: 29; E.C. Herdman 1923: 62, f. 2. D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium-sized, photosynthetic species which i s dorso-ventrally f l a t t e n e d . The c e l l i s oval to s u b c i r c u l a r i n v e n t r a l view and possesses a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n (notch). This f i n g e r -l i k e p r o j e c t i o n curves d o r s a l l y and to the l e f t . The epicone and hypocone are sub-equal. The g i r d l e i s median, r e l a t i v e l y wide and has no displacement. The sulcus extends from the g i r d l e p o s t e r i o r l y to notch the antapex s l i g h t l y ; i t may be extended onto the epicone although t h i s was d i f f i c u l t to determine. The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and contains a number of greenish-yellow d i s c o i d c h l o r o p l a s t s . The nucleus i s situated a n t e r i o r l y . Minute o i l (?) droplets are scattered throughout the c e l l . Length 20 - 28u, transdiameter 14 - 26u, dorso-v e n t r a l diameter approximately 10 - 20u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a ; A u s t r a l i a . Comments: - This species i s s i m i l a r to Gymnodinium hamulus Kofoid et Swezy (a form not found during t h i s study) i n the posses-sion of the a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ; however i t d i f f e r s from G_. hamulus i n i t s larger s i z e and absence of s t r i a e . Gymnodinium sp. 1 (sp. n.) (PI. 3, f. 5, 6; PI. 10, f. 2) Syn.: Gymnodinium a g i l e Kofoid et Swezy sensu E.C. Herdman 1922: 29; 1924a: 62, f. 2; 1924b: 81, f. 29; sensu Lebour 1925: f. 11c. Vix Gymnodinium sp. E.C. Herdman 1921: 61. Non Gymnodinium a g i l e Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 184, f. Y, 9, Tab. 3, f. : Description : - An average-sized, non-photosynthetic species which has undergone dorso-ventral f l a t t e n i n g . The c e l l i s s u b - c i r c u l a r i n v e n t r a l view with a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n (spine) which curves to the l e f t . Minute pores can occasionally be seen covering the sur-face of the c e l l . The o r i g i n of g i r d l e and sulcus i s to the l e f t of the mid-ventral l i n e . The g i r d l e i s usually e q u a t o r i a l , however i t may be s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y towards the anterior of the c e l l . The g i r d l e i s incomplete, fading on the r i g h t v e n t r a l surface (just before i t should r e j o i n the s u l c u s ) . The sulcus extends from the g i r d l e post-e r i o r l y to notch the antapex and i s asymmetrically placed, being nearer the l e f t margin of the c e l l . Its r i g h t margin overlaps the l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow and i s drawn in t o a d i s t i n c t p osterior p r o j e c t i o n (spine) possibly with a f i n . The cytoplasm i s colourless and may be extremely granular and packed with numerous minute o i l (?) droplets. One or two large pusules are often present i n the hypocone. The nucleus i s elongated and usually situated i n the epicone. Length 30 - 35y, transdiameter 30 - 35y, dorso-ventral diameter 20 - 25y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . Comments: - This has been considered a new species as i t d i f f e r s from the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Gymnodinium a g i l e Kofoid et Swezy 1921 in the following ways: the girdle is incomplete; the right margin of the sulcus overlaps the longitudinal furrow and i s drawn into a sharp posterior spine; there are no coral-red pusules and no orange-green chromatophores; the nucleus i s usually situated i n the epicone; the protoplasm (cytoplasm) is always colourless and may be hyaline or densely granular. There i s a possibility that this species may possess a theca. If so, then i t w i l l have to be placed into another genus determined by i t s plate pattern. Gymnodinium sp. 2 (PI. 3, f . 3) Description : - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic form. The c e l l i s broadly fusiform with both the apex and antapex being rounded. There i s no dorso-ventral compression of the c e l l . The epicone i s sub-conical i n shape, s l i g h t l y smaller than the hypocone and asym-me t r i c a l ; i t s r i g h t side being the larges t (longest). The amphiesma on both the epicone and hypocone i s covered with l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a e extending from the apex to the antapex. The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide, shallow, and displaced i n a left-handed (descending) manner. On the hypocone the sulcus i s a sinuous furrow extending from the g i r d l e to the antapex; on the epicone i t becomes i n d i s t i n c t j u s t before reaching the apex. The cytoplasm i s clear and contains min-ute o i l (?) droplets. The nucleus i s situated mid-ventrally. Length approximately 32y, transdiameter 20y, dorso-ventral diameter 20y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach. Comments: - This species was only seen once during t h i s study. Its habitat i s probably more planktonic than i n t e r t i d a l . It i s sim-i l a r to Gymnodinium abbreviatum Kofoid et Swezy 1921 but d i f f e r s i n the course of i t s sulcus, and i n being colourless and much smaller. Gymnodinium sp. 3 (PI. 1, f. 5) Syn.: ? Gymnodinium b i c i l i a t u m Ohno 1911: 77-91, Tab. 1, f. 1-37; S c h i l l e r 1933: 336, f. 341; Kofoid and Swezy 1921: 190, f. X* 14. Description : - A small, photosynthetic species which i s compressed dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s e l l i p s o i d a l to sub-oral i n v e n t r a l view. Both the epicone and hypocone are sub-equal. The g i r d l e i s wide and originates s l i g h t l y to the l e f t of the mid-ventral l i n e . I t i s d i s -placed approximately one g i r d l e width i n a left-handed (descending) manner. The sulcus i s a wide shallow furrow which descends to the antapex. I t extends onto the epicone for a short length then fades and becomes obscure. The cytoplasm appears yellowish-green due to the presence of one (?) or several (?) chlo r o p l a s t s . The nucleus i s located approximately mid-ventrally. Length 13 — 15p, transdiameter 9 - l i p , dorso-ventral diameter 8 - 9y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt. Comments: - This species i s s i m i l a r to G_. b i c i l i a t u m Ohno. However G_. b i c i l i a t u m d i f f e r s i n that i t possesses 3 f l a g e l l a (prob-ably a d i v i d i n g c e l l ) , i s found i n fresh water and i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . Gyrodinium lebourae E.C. Herdman 1924b: 81, f. 28. (PI. 2, f. 8) Lebour 1925: 53, f. 14f; S c h i l l e r 1933: 476, f. 506. Description: - A small, photosynthetic species which i s s l i g h t l y compressed dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s enclosed i n a thick, hyaline amphiesma. The g i r d l e i s shallow and displaced about one t h i r d of the t o t a l body length i n a left-handed (descending) manner. The sulcus extends p o s t e r i o r l y as a s t r a i g h t furrow which s l i g h t l y notches the antapex; i t i s barely distinguishable between the ends of the g i r d l e . The cytoplasm i s densely packed with what appears to be numerous, yellow-green d i s c o i d c h l o r o p l a s t s . The nucleus i s large and s i t u a t e d midventrally. Length 15 - 22y, transdiameter 13 - 18y, dorso-ventral diameter 10 - 12y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man. Comments: - A rare, active species' which was only observed a few times during t h i s study. I t d i f f e r s from E.C. Herdman's o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n that i t i s photosynthetic and possesses a thick amphi-esma. 51. Hemidinium ochraceum (?) Levander i n S c h i l l e r 1937: 91, f . 77 a, b. (PI. 5, f . 6) Vix Amphidinium operculatum Claparede et Lachman sensu Massart 1920: f. 13e and d; S c h i l l e r 1933, f. 304 e, f. Des c r i p t i o n : - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic species which i s strongly f l a t t e n e d l a t e r a l l y . The c e l l i s almost oval i n l a t e r a l view and surrounded by a thick hyaline amphiesma. The epicone i s a large, f i n g e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n curving d o r s a l l y and t i g h t l y appressed to the surface of the hypocone. The g i r d l e i s incomplete and i s a t h i n , shallow furrow which originates on the l e f t l a t e r a l side of the c e l l . I t curves d o r s a l l y and hooks around the anterior margin of the epicone; becoming i n d i s t i n c t on the r i g h t l a t e r a l side of the c e l l . The sulcus origina t e s v e n t r a l l y on the l e f t l a t e r a l side of the hypocone. I t curves d o r s a l l y , to the l e f t and unites with the g i r d l e . The two furrows merge i n such a manner that the two are inseparable. The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and granular. The nucleus i s located i n the hypocone. Length 20 - 23y, dorso-ventral diameter 18 - 21u, transdiameter approximately 12u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Finland; Sweden. Comments: - This d e s c r i p t i o n d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the o r i g i n a l i n that the g i r d l e - s u l c u s furrow i s s h i f t e d more towards the v e n t r a l margin of the c e l l and i t did not seem to extend as f a r p o s t e r i o r l y on the r i g h t l a t e r a l side. I t d i f f e r s from Amphidinium oculeatum Daday i n Kofoid and Swezy 1921: 132, f. u-17 i n that i t has no spines (no s i z e range i s given). There i s some doubt as to whether or not t h i s form i s a c t u a l l y H. ochraceum as no plate pattern was observed. Hemidinium sp. 1 (PI. 3, f. 7 a, b) Description and comments: - A medium-sized, photosynthetic species which is slightly flattened dorso-ventrally and is extremely active. The motile c e l l was isolated and grown as a unialgal culture in the hope that structural detail could be obtained. The culture was l e f t unattended for five months without replenishing the medium. After i t s rediscovery the flask contained a healthy culture of motile cells along with numerous, thin, green filaments. The filaments con-sisted of densely packed rectangular cells and were associated with an encysted stage of the motile form. The cysts appeared green and possessed an incomplete girdle and a distinct apical depression. This depression may be the point at which the cells are attached to each other while in chains. The sulcal detail of the cyst could not be determined exactly. A bright red eyespot (?) was present within most cysts. This seems to suggest that the l i f e cycle of this spec-ies may consist of both a free-living motile stage and a filamentous benthic stage. Further investigation must be carried out before a more detailed description can be given. Lengh approximately 10 -12u, transdiameter approximately 10 - 12u. Local distribution: - Willows Bay, Victoria. Katodinium asymmetricum (Massart) Loeblich III 1965 (PI. 1, f. 4; PI. 9, f. 3; PI. 10, f. 8) Basionym: - Gymnodinium asymmetricum Massart 1900: 82; 1920: 133, f. 22 A-D. Syn.: Massartia asymmetrica (Massart) S c h i l l e r 1933: 434, f. 460 a-c; Biecheler 1952: 27, f. 15/1-2. Non Massartia asymmetrica (Massart) S c h i l l e r sensu Hulbert 1957: 207, Tab. 1, f. 5., 6, 7, 8; sensu Carter 1937: 59, Tab. 8, f. 17, 18. ? Massartia asymmetrica sensu Bursa 1968: 70, f. 12/6. ? Massartia globosa (Massart) S c h i l l e r 1933: 437, f. 463. ? Gymnodinium fungiforme Anissimova o r i g . S c h i l l e r 1933: 359, f. 365 a, b;'Harris 1939: 8, f. 1 I-N; Biecheler 1952: 32, f. 9/1-4. D e s c r i p t i o n : - A r e l a t i v e l y small, non-photosynthetic species which i s only s l i g h t l y dorso-ventrally f l a t t e n e d . The epicone i s approximately twice the s i z e of the hypocone, with i t s apex b l u n t l y rounded. There i s no a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n (notch). The hypocone i s approximately 2/3 the width of the epicone and i s asymmetrical; i t s r i g h t side being the l a r g e s t . The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide and has no displacement. The sulcus originates at the g i r d l e to the l e f t of the mid-ventral l i n e and curves s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t , ending at the antapex. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum i s almost twice the length of the c e l l and a f t e r leaving the sulcus i s often curved a n t e r i o r l y . The cytoplasm i s colourless and may contain accumulation bodies and o i l (?) droplets. The nucleus i s probably situated i n the epicone. Length 10 - 17u, transdiameter 8 - 14y, dorso-ventral diameter 7 - 12u.. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay, Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; Victoria. World distribution: - Nieuport, France. Comments: - This species has three characteristics which dis-tinguish i t from K. glandulum and Katodinium sp. 14. These are: 1) no apical projection; 2) hypocone not as wide as the epicone and 3) sulcus originating to the l e f t of the mid-ventral line. Katodinium glandulum (Herdman) Loeblich III 1965. (PI. 1, f . l a , b; PI. 9, f. 2) Basionym: - Gymnodinium glandula E.C. Herdman 1924b: 81, f. 30, 31; Lebour 1925: 41, f. 11 g. Syn.: Massartia glandula (Herdman) S c h i l l e r 1933: 435, f. 461 a-b. Massartia asymmetrica (Massart) S c h i l l e r sensu Carter 1937: 59, Tab. 8, f. 17, 18; sensu Hulbert 1957: 207, Tab. 1, f. 10, 14; sensu Conrad et Kufferath 1954: 103, Tab. 9, f. 2 a, b. D e s c r i p t i o n : - A non-photosynthetic species of medium s i z e . The c e l l i s roughly oval i n v e n t r a l view and f l a t t e n e d to about one-half i t s width dorso-ventrally. The epicone i s large, approximately twice the s i z e of the hypocone and possesses a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l protuberance (notch?). This f i n g e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n i s appressed t i g h t l y to the c e l l surface and curves towards the l e f t . The g i r d l e i s extremely wide, deeply impressed, and has no displacement. The hypocone i s almost as wide as the epicone and i s roundly asymmetrical; i t s r i g h t side being the smallest. The sulcus originates at the g i r d l e , s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t of the mid-veritral l i n e and extends obliquely to the l e f t , ending at the antapex. The l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum projects p o s t e r i o r l y . from the sulcus and i s nearly twice the length of the body. The cytoplasm i s colourless and contains numerous, pale greenish o i l (?) droplets throughout. Accumulation bodies are often present ranging i n colour from reddish brown to s l i g h t l y pinkish. The nucleus i s usually situated i n the epicone. Length 14 - 35y, width transdiameter 13 - 25p, dorso-v e n t r a l diameter 9 - 22y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; I s l e of Wight; Woods Hole; France. Comments: - E.C. Herdman notes that on her smaller specimens the culcus may be extended a short distance onto the epicone. This condi-t i o n could not be detected on any of the B.C. specimens. This species can be distinguished from K. asymmetricum (Massart) Loeblich 1965 and Katodinium sp. 1 by the width and shape of i t s hypo-cone. The c e l l may possess an extremely d e l i c a t e theca as shown i n PI. 9, f. 2. The taxonomy of t h i s species becomes confused when Carter 1937 describes t h i s species and labels i t as Massartia asymmetrica instead of Massartia glandula. I have separated the two based on the presence or absence of an p i c a l notch, t h e i r s i z e range and t h e i r s u l c a l furrow. In my opinion these are enough c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on which to separate them d i s t i n c t l y . K a t o d i n i u m sp. 1 ( P I . 1, f . 2 a, b, c; P I . 9, f . 1 a, b, c) D e s c r i p t i o n : - T h i s f o r m was t h e l a r g e s t n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s o f K a t o d i n i u m f o u n d . The c e l l i s s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d d o r s o -v e n t r a l l y and has an e x t r e m e l y t h i c k , h y a l i n e amphiesma on w h i c h numerous m i n u t e d e p r e s s i o n s can sometimes be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The e p i c o n e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e t h e s i z e o f t h e hypocone and p o s s e s s e s a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o t u b e r a n c e . T h i s f i n g e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n .curves t o t h e l e f t o f t h e c e l l . The hypocone i s as w i d e as t h e e p i c o n e and t a p e r s e l o n g a t e l y p o s t e r i o r l y i n t o a s h a r p a n t a p i c a l p o i n t ( t r i a n g u l a r s h a p e ) . The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y w i d e and i n c o m p l e t e , e n d i n g on t h e r i g h t v e n t r a l s i d e . The s u l c u s i s s t r a i g h t and s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e . I t s l e f t m a r g i n i s r a i s e d i n t o a p r o m i n e n t r i d g e w h i c h i s c o n t i n u o u s between t h e e p i c o n e and hypo-cone. The l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m i s a l m o s t t w i c e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c e l l . The c y t o p l a s m i s c o l o u r l e s s and may c o n t a i n a c c u m u l a t i o n bod-i e s w h i c h range i n c o l o u r from o r a n g i s h brown t o p i n k . Numerous o i l (?) d r o p l e t s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e l l . The n u c l e u s l i e s i n t h e e p i c o n e . L e n g t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26 - 30u, t r a n s d i a m e t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 - 18y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l d i a m e t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 - 16p. L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - B r a d y ' s Beach; Pachena Beach. Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s f r o m K. asymmetricum i n t h a t i t i s l a r g e r and i t p o s s e s s e s an a p i c a l n o t c h ( p r o j e c t i o n ) . I t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m K. g l a n d u l u m i n t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y l o n g e r and i t p o s s e s s e s a l o n g , t a p e r e d hypocone i n s t e a d o f a b l u n t l y rounded one. Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin 1841: 347, Tab. 5, f. 4. (PI. 5, f. 3) Calkins 1901: 425, f. 15; Massart 1920: 132, f. 21; Kofoid et Swezy 1921: 117, f. R3; Lebour 1925: 19, Tab. I, f. 6a-6e; Wailes 1939: 7, 14; S c h i l l e r 1933: 264, f. 255 a-g; Biecheler 1952: 22, 93, f. 53, 54; Chatton i n Grass£ 1952: 107, f. 49, 50, 233 G, H; Conrad et Kuf-ferath 1954: 72; Hulbert 1957: 197; Bursa 1968: f. 12/13. Description : - A small to medium, non-photosynthetic species. Its body i s elongated, f l a t t e n e d , roughly e l l i p s o i d a l , with the po s t e r i o r region being asymmetrical. The epicone i s broadly c o n i c a l . It i s approximately twice the s i z e of the hypocone. The hypocone i s displaced to the r i g h t , being d e f i c i e n t on the l e f t . Its anta-pex i s b l u n t l y rounded. The g i r d l e i s imperfect as i t fades out on the r i g h t dorsal side. The sulcus i s underdeveloped and represented only by a broad, p o s t e r i o r excavation, which i s divided mid-ventrally by a t e n t a c l e - l i k e lobe. The two f l a g e l l a are separated by t h i s stout lobe; the l o n g i t u d i n a l flagellum o r i g i n a t i n g on the r i g h t side of i t and the transverse one on the l e f t . The cytoplasm i s colourless with the nucleus l y i n g i n approximately the center of the epicone. An orangish brown accumulation body i s often present i n the p o s t e r i o r of the c e l l . Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Pachena Beach; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - A t l a n t i c , east and west coasts. Comments: - Only the major references to t h i s species have been given. For a more complete l i s t see Kofoid and Swezy 1921 or S c h i l l e r 1933. P o l y k r i k o s l e b o u r a e E.C. Herdman 1924: 60, f . 6. (PI. 1, f . 11; P I . 8, f . 1 a, b) Lebour 1925: 68, Tab. X, f . 3; S c h i l l e r 1933 1 ( 3 ) : 549, f . 579/a-b; Grasse" 1952: f . 243/A; B a l e c h 1956: 35, f . 23-25; H u l b e r t 1957: 216; Dragesco 1965: 105, f . 14/A-K, 15/A-B. Non B u r s a 1968, f . 12/12, 13/9. M i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s : P o l y k r i k o s s p . ? , E.C. Herdman 1921: 4, f . A. P o l y k r i k o s S c h w a r t z i , s e n s u E.C. Herdman 1922: 30. D e s c r i p t i o n : - B o t h p h o t o s y n t h e t i c and n o n p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s t r a i n s o f t h i s s p e c i e s e x i s t . The c o l o n y i s b r o a d l y o v a t e and c o n s i s t s o f 8 z o o i d s f l a t t e n e d l a t e r a l l y . The body i s o v a l i n l a t e r a l v i e w . The g i r d l e s a r e s l i g h t l y d i s p l a c e d , t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t b e i n g l e f t - h a n d e d ( d e s c e n d i n g ) . The s u l c u s , w h i c h i s c o n t i n u o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e body, s l i g h t l y n o t c h e s t h e a n t a p e x . The 8 l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g -e l l a a r e l o n g and c o n s p i c u o u s . Two n u c l e i a r e p r e s e n t . I n t h e non-p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s t r a i n t h e c y t o p l a s m i s c o l o u r l e s s b u t commonly c o n t a i n s l a r g e a c c u m u l a t i o n b o d i e s . The p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s t r a i n c o n t a i n s numer-ous s m a l l , y e l l o w i s h g r e e n c h l o r o p l a s t s . T h e r e a r e no n e m a t o c y s t s . L e n g t h 52 - 60y, w i d t h 40 - 50y. L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Pachena Beach; W i l s o n C r e e k , S e c h e l t ; W i l l o w s Bay, V i c t o r i a . W o r l d d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e o f Man; R o s c o f f , F r a n c e ; Woods H o l e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . Comments: - B a l e c h 1956 i n c o r r e c t l y l i s t s t h i s as a "comb. n.". B u r s a 1968 i n c o r r e c t l y l i s t s t h i s as b e i n g d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y compressed and h i s f i g u r e i s p r o b a b l y n o t P_. l e b o u r a e . Sinophysis e b r l o l a (E.C. Herdman) Balech 1956: 32, f. 9-22. (PI. 6, f. 2; PI. 9, f. 4) Syn.: Phalacroma e b r i o l a E.C. Herdman 1924: 79, f. 24. Phalacroma ebriolum Lebour 1925: 77, f. 20 c. Dinophysis e b r i o l a E.C. Herdman 1924: 82. Thecadinium ebriolum Kofoid et Skogsberg 1928: 32. Thecadinium ebriolum S c h i l l e r 1933: 51, f. 50. D e s c r i p t i o n : - This i s a medium siz e d , non-photosynthetic spec-ies which i s extremely f l a t t e n e d l a t e r a l l y . The epitheca i s small and slanted d o r s a l l y ; i t s a n t e r i o r - d o r s a l edge may be drawn in t o a sharp p r o j e c t i o n . The hypotheca i s roughly s a c - l i k e with i t s a n t e r i o r -v e n t r a l margins often projectin g higher than the epitheca; i t s anterior dorsal edge i s often drawn in t o a sharp, s p i k e - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n a l s o . The g i r d l e i s wide and deeply impressed. The sulcus extends approx-imately 3/4 of the distance to the antapex. It s l e f t margin i s drawn into a d e f i n i t e l i s t or f i n . The cytoplasm i s cle a r and c o l o u r l e s s . Two large pusules often l i e i n the anterior region of the hypotheca. The nucleus i s located near the antapex. Length 32 - 41y, dorso-v e n t r a l diameter 25.5 - 34u, transdiameter approximately 12 - 15y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; Roscoff, France. Comments: - For the d e t a i l e d plate pattern for t h i s species see Balech 1956: 32, f. 9-22. Thecadinium hirsutum Balech 1956: 40, f. 38-40. (PI. 4, f. 2; PI. 6, f. 5; PI. 9, f. 5) Vix Amphidinium sp. S i l v a 1952: 29, Tab. 2, f. 6, 6a. Des c r i p t i o n : - A large, non-photosynthetic species which i s fl a t t e n e d dorso-ventrally. The c e l l i s roughly square to rectangular i n v e n t r a l view. Minute depressions can be seen covering the thecal plates of t h i s species. The eiptheca i s small i n height, but i s as wide as the hypotheca. I t s apex can be almost f l a t or s l i g h t l y rounded; an a p i c a l spine may occur. The hypotheca i s almost square; i t s o u t l i n e consists of both smooth and rough sections. The g i r d l e i s s l i g h t l y displaced i n a right-handed (ascending) manner. The sulcus i s wide, confined to the hypotheca and extends from the g i r -dle to the antapex. A large, d i s t i n c t f i n arises from the l o n g i t u -d i n a l furrow and projects towards the r i g h t s u l c a l margin. The cy-toplasm i s co l o u r l e s s . The nucleus i s probably located i n the hypo-theca. Length 48 - 51u, transdiameter 43u, dorso-ventral diameter 18 - 20y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek Sechelt; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Roscoff, France. Comments: - For the plate pattern of t h i s species see Balech 1956: 40, f. 38-40. This i s one of the few species i n which r i g h t -handed (ascending) displacement of the g i r d l e occurs. I t d i f f e r s from Thecadinium sp. 1 i n that i t (T. hirsutum) i s l a r g e r , and does not have i t s s u l c a l f i n drawn into a d i s t i n c e antapical p r o j e c t i o n . Although the plate patterns have not been f u l l y determined for the two, both w i l l no doubt f i t into t h i s genus. Thecadinium incllnatum Balech 1956: 40, f. 34-37. (PI. 3, f. 9; PI. 5, f. 1 a-c; PI. 7, f. 2 a-b) Von Bernuth 1967: 58 pp. Vix T. k o f o i d i sensu S c h i l l e r 1933: 51, f. 51 f and g. Vix Phalacroma K o f o i d i E.C. Herdman i n Lebour 1925: 77, Tab. XI, f. I f and l g . Description: - A large, photosynthetic species which i s usually oval i n v e n t r a l view. The c e l l i s sometimes s l i g h t l y compressed l a t -e r a l l y with i t s apex and antapex rounded. The theca consists of th i c k , armoured plates heavily ornamented with pores. I t s plate pattern i s 2', 3'', 5''', 1^, 1''''. The epicone i s strongly asymmetrical, being long-est on the r i g h t and extending over much of the v e n t r a l surface. The g i r d l e i s deeply impressed. I t r i s e s sharply on the l e f t and s p i r a l s down to converge with the sulcus on the r i g h t . The sulcus i s deep, short, confined to the hypocone and sometimes s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t of the mid-ventral l i n e . The edges of the 5th postcingular and the f i r s t p o s terior i n t e r c a l a r y plates form f i n s which border both sides of the sulcus. There are usually two i r r e g u l a r , s t e l l a t e c l u s t e r s of small, beadlike, yellow-brown c h l o r o p l a s t s , one anterior and one pos t e r i o r to the nucleus. The nucleus i s large, e l l i p t i c a l and e a s i l y v i s i b l e as a c l e a r i s h area approximately i n the center of the c e l l . Starch and l i p i d granules are scattered throughout the c e l l (Von Bernuth 1967). Length 30-65y (51y u s u a l l y ) , transdiameter 30-40y, dorso-ventral diameter 30-40y ( u s u a l l y ) . Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Blaine, Washington; Roscoff, France. Thecadinium petasatum Kofoid et Skogsberg 1928: 32. (PI. 5, f. 7 a-c) Syn.: Amphdinium k o f o i d i var petasatum E.C. Herdman 1922: 26, f . 3. Phalacroma k o f o i d i E.C. Herdman 1924a: 60; 1924b: 79, f. 23; Lebour 1925: 77, Tab. 11, f. 1 a-g (vix f.- 1 f and g). Thecadinium K o f o i d i Kofoid et Skogsberg sensu S c h i l l e r 1933: 51, f. 51 a-g ( f i g s , f and g look l i k e T_. inclinatum [Kofoid and Skogsberg didn't make t h i s comb.]; Wood 1963: 3, f. 4; Dragesco 1965: 103, f. 13 a-g; Grasse* 1952: 324, f. 226 b-d; Lackey and Lackey 1963. Amphidinium sulcatum Kofoid et Swezy sensu E.C. Herdman 1921: 61, f. c^, C.2. Description : - A medium sized non-photosynthetic species. The c e l l i s strongly compressed l a t e r a l l y and i s narrowly e l l i p s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view. The out l i n e of the body may be ei t h e r smooth or i r r e g -u l a r . The epitheca i s small and f l a t ; the hypotheca i s s a c - l i k e . The hypotheca has numerous, longitudinal rows of minute pores which give i t a s t r i a t e d appearance (these are not present i n the zone im-mediately to the l e f t of the sul c u s ) . Near the bottom quarter of the hypotheca these rows of pores disperse to form an apparently random network of a r t i c u l a t i n g plates. The g i r d l e i s wide, deep and under-cuts the hypotheca e s p e c i a l l y on the dorsal side. The sulcus i s wide and descends s l i g h t l y obliquely from the g i r d l e to the antapex. A d i s t i n c t h o r i z o n t a l indentation (step-like) can be seen within the sulcus approximately 1/3 of the way from the antapex. The r i g h t an-t e r i o r margin of the sulcus i s drawn into a small f i n . The cytoplasm i s granular, colourless and may contain accumulation bodies or amyloid bodies. The nucleus i s probably situated near the center of the hypotheca. Length 29 - 35u, dorso-ventral diameter 20 - 25y, trans-diameter 15y. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Port E r i n , I s l e of Man; Roscoff, France; San Diego Bay. Comments: - Lebour 1925: 77 gives a d e s c r i p t i o n with " d i s t i n c t yellow chromatophores r a d i a t i n g from the center". No photosynthetic forms of t h i s species were seen i n B.C. Thecadinium swedmarki Balech 1956: 42, f. 41-42. (PI. 4, f. 4 a-f; PI. 10, f. 1) Syn.: ? Amphidiniopsis k l e b s i i Woloszynska 1929: 174, Tab. VII, f. 1-17. Description: - A large, non-photosynthetic species which has undergone s l i g h t l a t e r a l compression. The c e l l i s roundly rectan-gular i n v e n t r a l view. Its plate pattern i s 3', 1 , 8'', 3(?)g, 5'*', 2''''. The epitheca possesses a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l pore and i s b l u n t l y rounded so as to appear almost f l a t . The hypocone i s almost rectangular with a smooth margin. The g i r d l e appears to have l i t t l e or no displacement; but i f displaced then i t i s i n a right-handed (ascending) manner. The sulcus i s wide, moderately curved, and extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex. A large d i s t i n c t f i n a r i s e s from the l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow and projects towards the r i g h t s u l c a l margin. The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and col o u r l e s s . The nucleus i s located p o s t e r i o r l y and d o r s a l l y i n the hypotheca. Two large pusules often appear along the v e n t r a l margin of the c e l l . Numerous o i l (?) droplets are scattered throughout. Length 32 - 48u, dorso-ventral diameter 28 - 36u, transdiameter 25 - 30u. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; V i c t o r i a . World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Roscoff, France. Comments: - This species bears a strong resemblance to Amphi- di n i o p s i s k l e b s i i Woloszynska 1929: 174, Tab. 7, f. 1-17 but d i f f e r s i n that the exact plate patterns are not the same. However, the basic plate pattern seems to be i d e n t i c a l , suggesting that further study may merit a r e v i s i o n of t h i s genus. Thecadinium sp. 1 (PI. 4, f. 1 a-c) Description: - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic species which has not undergone any compression. The c e l l is sub-oval in ventral view with a distinct antapical spine. The epicone is slightly narrower than the hypocone and is asymmetrical; i t s l e f t side being the longest. The hypocone is sac-like with a thick hyaline margin. The girdle is relatively wide and deeply impressed. The sulcus extends from the apex to the antapex. On the hypocone i t is a wide furrow curving slightly to the l e f t . Its l e f t margin is drawn into a large hyaline f i n which terminates as a sharp antapical spine. This spine curves slightly to the right. On the epicone, the sulcus is only a narrow groove. The cytoplasm is colourless and contains various-sized, clear, spheroid bodies. The position of the nucleus could not be determined. Length 32 - 35y, transdiameter 25 - 28y, dorso-ventral diameter 25 - 28y. Local distribution: - Boundary Bay; Pachena Beach; Sechelt; Victoria. Comments: - Although the exact plate pattern of this species was not completed, i t w i l l most li k e l y f i t into the genus Thecadinium. It is very distinctive in that i t s sulcal margin is drawn into a distinct antapical spine. 67. B. E c o l o g i c a l Results The e c o l o g i c a l data c o l l e c t e d f o r the 5 beaches has been divided i n t o 2 categories: (1) Population r e s u l t s (2) Environmental parameter r e s u l t s . 1) Population Results These are presented i n tabular or graphic form and i n d i c a t e major trends i n the community structure. They consist of the follow-ing tables or f i g u r e s : Tables 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 represent v a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number of species and cells/cm 3/month/beach. Figs. 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 - represent v a r i a t i o n s i n the t o t a l number of species/cm 3/month/beach. Fig s . 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32 - represent v a r i a t i o n s i n the t o t a l number of cells/cm 3/month/ beach. Table 9 - represents an asso c i a t i o n analysis between the species showing to what degree they occurred together. 2) Environmental Parameter Results These r e s u l t s are also expressed i n tabular or graphic form i n d i c a t i o n major changes occurring i n the parameters measured. They consist of the following figures and tables: Table 1 and F i g s . 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 - represent v a r i a t i o n i n g r ain size/beach/season (summer versus winter). Table 2 and F i g s . 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 - represent v a r i a -t i o n i n temperature/month/beach. Table 3 and F i g s . 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 - represent v a r i a t i o n i n s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water/month/beach. TABLE I SIEVE ANALYSIS Location Time Size F r a c t i o n (y) <63 63 125 250 500 1,000 2,000 Summer .30 4.10 5.44 .11 .01 (July) Boundary Bay Winter .20 3.50 4.25 2.01 .01 - -(Jan.) Summer — .44 9.02 .48 .03 „ (July) Brady's Beach Winter .01 .35 7.92 1.64 .03 .02 -(Jan.) Summer .01 2.28 5.20 .97 .47 1.04 _ (July) Pachena Beach Winter .01 .02 6.61 1.14 .51 1.69 -(Jan.) Summer .02 .09 1.04 5.99 2.46 .36 _ (July) Sechelt Winter - .06 .90 4.40 4.20 .40 -(Jan.) Summer — .08 8.54 1.28 .06 _ _ (July) V i c t o r i a Winter - .02 3.91 4.65 1.05 .33 -(Jan.) TABLE II TEMPERATURE °C Location F M A M Time (Months) J J A S 0 N D J Boundary Bay 18 .0 21. 0 23. 0 25.0 32.0 30.0 30.0 15 .0 7.0 2. 0 0, ,0 7. 0 Brady's Beach 9 .5 8. 5 12. 0 14.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 11 .0 10.0 7. 0 6. .0 6. 0 Pachena Beach 8 .5 12. 0 10. 0 13.0 18.0 15.0 14.0 8 .0 12.0 5. 0 6, .0 5. 0 Sechelt 7 .5 10. 0 13. 0 22.0 20.0 28.0 24.0 18 .0 9.0 6. 0 2, ,0 6. 0 V i c t o r i a 12 .0 11- 0 -14. 0 20.0 19.0 18.0 15.0 15 .0 7.0 5. 0 6. ,0 7. 0 TABLE I I I MONTHLY SALINITY OF INTERSTITIAL WATER AT ALL BEACHES Location F M A M J Time J (Months) A S 0 N D J Boundary Bay 29. ,3 31.2 33. 2 32. 8 28. 2 28. 9 30. .8 29 .5 29.5 26.7 24.1 11. 8 Brady's Beach 27. ,3 23.5 10. 1 27. 2 30. 3 29. 5 19. .0 27 .5 22,1 19.6 9.2 10. 5 Pachena Beach 22. ,3 23.0 25. 2 21. 3 24. 6 19. 6 27. .7 19 .5 20.1 21.0 23.7 23. 0 Sechelt 24. .9 25.9 26. 1 22. 7 19. 3 25. 0 17. .0 20 .0 22.5 21.8 23.0 25. 2 V i c t o r i a 25. ,0 28.9 26. 9 29. 8 30. 1 29. 8 25, .1 15 .4 28.4 30.6 25.9 28. 4 TABLE IV MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT BOUNDARY BAY (CELLS/CM3) Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Adenoides eludens P 60 Amphidinium bipes 72 48 A. k l e b s i i 72 340 100 200 60 A. latum 40 40 20 A. massartia 72 48 P 720 240 160 160 A. semilunatum P 60 P 10 A. testudo 120 1,040 240 P A. sp. 4 96 1,344 1,020 160 A. sp. 6 432 E x u v i e l l a marina 48 1,020 180 80 20 Glenodinium marinum 360 18,000 27,540 240 P 40 Gymnodinium sp. 1 P 40 Hemidinium ochraceum 8 Katodinium asymmetricum 40 80 40 K. glandula 182 1,010 40 P 140 12 4 Sinophysis ebroleum 20 Thecadinium petasatum 24 T. swedmarki 96 60 T. sp. 1 96 3,400 40 20 Tot a l no. of species/cm 3 8 9 10 .12 4 8 5 0 4 2 1 1 T o t a l no. of cells/cm 3 864 20,072 35,373 1,720 - 600 542 203 0 90 200 12 4 TABLE V MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT BRADY'S BEACH (CELLS/CM3) Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan Amphidinium bipes 8 16 P A. corpulentum A. k l e b s i i 55 8 48 8 A. latum 4 48 48 64 112 32 A. massartia 3 8 252 528 240 8 64 A. scissum 24 6 288 88 1,464 4,028 2,920 344 88 A. semilunatum P 16 P 16 56 24 A. sp. 3 48 16 88 16 16 244 88 A. sp. 4 P 4 4 14 16 24 16 Chilodinium cruciatum 3 E x u v i e l l a marina 218 48 16 Glenodinium marinum 288 Gymnodinium sp. 1 7 8 6 G. sp. 2 P G. sp. 3 P 2 Gyrodinium lebourae 8 Hemidinium ochraceum P P 384 48 16 12 Katodinium asymmetricum 192 32 K. glandula 153 3 20 24 112 288 176 264 168 K. sp. 1 8 16 P Sinophysis e b r i o l a P Thecadinium hirsutum 2 T. petasatum 31 3 4 24 16 P 24 40 T. swedmarki 4 Tot a l no. of species/cm 3 13 3 7 11 11 12 15 9 10 3 4 1 T o t a l no. of cells/cm 3 331 12 348 250 2,150 5,581 3,867 1,092 540 12 48 2 TABLE VI MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT PACHENA BEACH (CELLS/CM3) Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Amphidinium bipes 20 72 1,224 304 A. k l e b s i i 2 8 8 192 A. latum 1 8 32 288 64 A. massartia 184 5,828 4 8 A. scissum 22 8 8 32 64 22 8 52 A. semilunatum 64 120 4 40 32 2 A. sp. 1 2 30 A. sp. 3 56 24 120 72 624 16 80 2 8 8 136 A. sp. 4 64 400 32 104 E x u v i e l l a marina 8 80 Glenodinium marinum 48 4 Gymnodinium sp. 1 16 G. sp. 3 4 10 Katodinium asymmetricum 168 K. glandulum 22 32 100 288 512 4 8 136 12 20 12 K. sp. 1 8 232 8 Oxyrrhis marina 16 Polykrikos lebourae P 80 P Sinophysis e b r i o l a 8 Thecadinium hirsutum 8 16 8 T. sp. 1 4 Tot a l no. of species /cm3 5 7 5 11 17 4 10 7 4 4 3 3 To t a l no. of cells/cm 3 103 96 246 841 9,820 16 537 496 38 28 36 200 TABLE VII MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT WILSON CREEK, SECHELT (CELLS/CM3) Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Amphidinium asymmetricum 16 120 1,392 16 A. bipes 20 8 A. k l e b s i i P 16 8 A. k e s s l i t z i P A. latum 5 8 8 40 A. massartia P 168 48 50 20 A. scissum 8 A. semilunatum 8 P 8 P 20 A. testudo P 112 144 640 88 1,440 1,540 96 A. sp. 1 30 P A. sp. 2 P A. sp. 3 P A. sp. 4 15 5 P 80 280 80 A. sp. 5 A. sp. 6 120 29 40 60 8 P 15 E x u v i e l l a marina 8 35 Gymnodinium a g i l e 5 24 16 20 G. sp. 1 16 G. sp. 3 P Katodinium asymmetricum P 80 P K. glandula 14 8 8 32 40 P 80 Polykrikos lebourae P Sinophysis e b r i o l a 24 8 8 P P Thecadinium hirsutum 8 P T. sp. 1 10 160 P T o t a l no. of species/cm 3 6 7 5 10 9 2 8 11 5 5 8 3 To t a l no. of cells/cm 3 168 92 137 204 897 136 1,965 1,647 1,585 56 443 103 TABLE VIII MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT WILLOWS BAY, VICTORIA (CELLS/CM3) Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Jul y Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Amphidinium asymmetricum 1 , 6 3 2 1 9 1 2 0 5 4 8 2 0 P P 1 6 1 2 A. bipes 3 2 1 9 2 0 6 0 A. compressum 2 4 0 8 0 1 0 P A. k l e b s i i 2 5 6 1 0 2 0 2 A. latum 2 A. manannini 3 0 6 0 2 1 0 A. massartia 1 2 8 1 4 4 1 6 P A. pellucidum 4 2 1 4 4 8 0 3 2 A. scissum 6 4 2 4 8 0 1 0 1 6 8 4 4 A. semilunatum 3 2 1 9 2 0 1 0 8 1 6 2 0 3 2 4 P A. testudo 2 5 6 2 2 0 A. sp. 4 5 1 4 0 5 6 1 3 6 3 2 3 2 P E x u v i e l l a marina 6 4 P 4 Gymnodinium a g i l e G. sp. 1 P P 8 9 2 3 2 P 8 P Gyrodinium lebourae 2 i. Hemidinium ochraceum H. sp. 1 P 2 0 8 Katodinium asymmetricum 3 2 P P 2 0 K. glandula P P P 2 0 4 P P Oxyrrhis marina 4 0 Polykrikos lebourae P Sinophysis e b r i o l a P r Thecadinium hirsutum P T. inclinatum 5 2 0 3 2 4 6 4 T. petasatum 6 4 o T. swedmarki 9 6 3 3 4 0 0 3 2 2. T. sp. 1 2 0 6 1 8 1 6 T o t a l no. of species/cm^ 1 1 1 0 1 8 1 2 1 3 6 9 1 0 1 1 3 2 6 T o t a l no. of cells/cm 3 2 , 5 9 4 1 3 3 9 1 1 8 2 1 5 6 0 6 4 3 0 7 4 4 5 2 2 3 2 0 8 8 8 41 78 78 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 5 3 2 5 1 3 2 3 1 5 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 3 3 4 76. TABLE IX THE GROUPING OF ORGANISMS AS DETERMINED BY JOINT OCCURRENCE ANALYSIS BY THE METHOD OF FAGER (1963) (Joint occurrences of 0.5 or greater i n d i c a t e close a f f i n i t y ) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 - • • - • .29 • • . — . .35 • _ .29 . _ . . .29 . _ . . _ . .29 .29 .25 41 .35 .35 .41 .45 .52 .65 .35 .12 .41 .35 .65 • .41 • .65 .41 • .12 .65 .12 .35 .41 .41 • .65 .52 .41 .45 .35 .12 .12 .45 78 - - .78 .67 .55 .41 - .55 .78 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 - .50 .50 - .25 .29 • • • - • • • - • .35 - • • .35 .29 .50 -. - • .35 .29 - .25 .50 .29 .29 .25 - • • - .25 • • .29 - • • .50 - .29 • - .50 .29 .35 .29 - - .35 • • - .25 • .29 .29 • - • - .25 .29 .35 .50 .29 - .50 .35 - • .35 - • .29 • • • - - • • .29 - .25 • • • .25 78 - — .78 .67 .55 .41 - .55 .78 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 78 - - .78 .67 .55 .41 - .55 .78 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 - - .78 .67 .55 .41 - .55 .78 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 1 .50 - .25 .29 • • • - • • • - • .35 - • • .35 .29 .50 - - • .35 .29 - .25 .50 .29 .29 .25 1 1 - .25 .29 • • • - • • • - • .35 - • • .35 .29 .50 - - • .35 .29 - .25 .50 .29 .29 .25 5 1 1 .67 .55 .41 - .55 .78 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 .55 .55 .67 4 1 1 4 .32 .45 .25 .61 .67 .25 .10 .25 .67 .32 .45 .67 .25 .61 .45 .32 .25 .67 .67 .45 .45 .61 .67 .75 .25 .32 .32 .50 3 1 1 3 2 .12 .29 .05 .55 .29 .52 • .55 .05 .52 .55 • .05 .12 .38 .29 .55 .55 • .12 .38 .55 .32 .29 .38 .38 .61 2 2 2 1 .35 .52 .41 .35 .65 • .41 .12 .65 .41 • .52 • • • .41 .41 .65 .65 .52 .41 .45 • • .45 1 1 1 1 1 .29 - .50 .35 • - • .35 - • .29 • • • - - • • .29 - .25 • • .25 3 3 3 1 2 1 .55 .29 .12 .29 .55 .38 .12 .55 .29 .72 .12 .05 • .55 .55 .52 .12 .38 .55 .61 .05 .05 .32 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 - .41 - .78 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 .55 .55 .67 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .35 • .35 - • .29 • • • - - • • .29 - .25 • • .25 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 .41 .12 .65 • 41 • .12 • .12 • .41 .41 • • .12 .41 .10 .12 .12 .45 1 1 1 1 1 - .29 • - .50 .29 .35 .29 • - - .35 • • - .25 .29 .29 • 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 .55 .41 .78 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55; .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 • .55 .29 .38 .12 .38 • .55 .55 .52 .12 .05 .55 .32 .38 .38 .32 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 .41 • .12 .65 .12 .35 .41 .41 • .65 .52 .41 .45 .35 .12 .12 .45 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 5 3 2 - .55 .41 .55 - .78 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 1 1 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 .29 .35 .29 • - - .35 • • - .25 • .29 .29 • 3 3 3 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 ' 3 2 1 3 1 .12 .05 • .55 .55 .52 .12 .35 .55 .61 • .05 .05 .32 2 1 1 2 2 1 . 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 .52 .35 .41 .41 .65 .65 .12 .41 .45 . 35 .52 .52 .10 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 2 .29 .55 .55 .12 .12 .05 .55 .32 .29 .72 .72 .32 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - • .35 .29 - .25 .50 .29 .29 .25 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 5 3 2 •5 1 3 2 3 1 .78 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 5 3 2 5 1 3 2 3 1 5 .41 .41 .55 .78 .67 - .55 .55 .67 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 .65 .12 .41 .45 • .12 .12 .10 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 .52 .41 .45 .35 .12 .12 .45 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 .55 .61 .29 .05 .05 .61 5 1 1 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 1 2 1 5 3 2 5 1 3 2 3 1 5 5 2 2 3 .67 - .55 .55 .67 4 1 1 4 4 2 2 1 3 4 1 1 1 4 2 2 4 1 3 2 2 1 4 • 4 2 2 3 4 .25 .32 .32 .50 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .29 .29 .25 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 .72 .32 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 .32 4 1 1 4 3 3 2 1 2 4 1 2 4 2 2 4 2 1 2 1 4 4 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 2 Jo i n t Occurrences F/&.8. GRAIN ANALYSIS yv/Nrex 6UAJMSR <63 63 /25 £SO £00 /OOO PART/CLi 5/Z£ (ycj <63 63 /Z5 2SO SOO /OOO PARTICLE SIZE /°ARTICL£ Size Q**-) TEMPERATURE ('c) yfXS TIME (MONTHS) 80. T£MP£fi.AT(JM£ ('c) V£RS T/M£ (MOA/THS) FI6./6. SY/£SOA/ Cfi££/Ci S£C//££T. 30 j O 1 ' ' ' —• ' • 1 1 1 1 . 1— P M A M J J A <S O N O J r/ME (MOHTHS) 81. QALIN/Tf % V£RS TIME (MONTHS) S I 1 1 , 1 , , , , , , , | F M A M J J A S O N D J TIME (MONTHS) F/62Q. PACHENA 3£ACff SOT <0 /o - 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 r-A/ A M J J A S 0< A/ D J TIME (MONTHS) SAL/N/Tr /* V£R5 T/Mf F/G.2/. fiV/LSOM CAffX, SfCHfLT v. 3 30 25 20 15 A? M A U J J A 5 7~/MS (MOUTHS) a N FIG. 22. W/LLOWS BAY, V/CTOR/A ss 30 25 20 X IS-M A M J J A S 77Me fMONTHS) Q N 83. NO. Of SPECIES/CM3 VERS T/MF (MONTHS) F/G. 23. BOUNDARY BAY. /6 /4 *> 12 A "0 o JO 8 6 V\ 1 4 Z 0 i Y P M A M . J J A S O N D TIME (MONTHS) F/6. £4-. SftADYS BfACtf. /6 14 /2 •*» v . /O } e h 1 6 4 • 2 O F M A M J J A S O N O TIME (MO/VTHSj 1 1 J HO. OF SPECIES/ CM3 VF/fS T/M£ (MONTHS) FIG. 25. PACHENA BEACH. F/6. 26. W/ISOM CP.EFK, SECHEL T. NO. OF SPECIE'S/CM3 VERS TIME (MONTHS) F/6. £7. W/LLOWS SAY, VICTORIA. - * 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 i r i i F M A M J S A 5 O N O J TIME (MONTHS) TIMS' (MOA/THS) FIG. 29 •- 3RADYS 3EACH NO. OF CELLS/'CM3 \/£RS TIME 6 M A M S J A S O N D <X TIME (MONTHS) IO TIME (MONTHS) DISCUSSION A. Taxonomic Section During t h i s study 41 species (12 of which could not be i d e n t i f i e d and may warrant being designated as new species) were found belonging to 13 genera. As there has been no published report on the sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s of t h i s area, t h i s constitutes an extension of range f o r the 29 species previously known. The main genera found ( i n r e l a t i o n to number of species) were Amphidinium (19 species), Thecadinium (5 species), Gymnodinium (4 species), and Katodinium (3 species). This agrees r e l a t i v e l y w e ll with work done by other i n -vestigators such as E.C. Herdman (1920-1924) and Dregesco (1956). Both l i s t most of t h e i r species as belonging to eit h e r the genus Amphidinium or Gymnodinium. Hulbert (1957) found that Gyrodinium was the most common genus followed by Amphidinium and Gymnodinium; but h i s study did not deal e x c l u s i v e l y with sand-dwelling forms. Lackey (1961) , Lackey and Lackey (1963) , and Lackey and Clendenning (1965) l i s t e d i n t h i s s e r i e s of papers several genera of d i n o f l a g e l -lates including Amphidinium, Gymnodiriium, Katodinium and Thecadinium as being present i n sand and mud sediments. Bursa (1968) reported that h i s records (as yet unpublished) contain 96 i n t e r s t i t i a l species of which the genus Amphidinium i s most commonly represented. He reported that Gymnodinium and Thecadinium, together with several other genera common to B r i t i s h Columbia, were also present. Since approximately three-quarters of the species found i n B r i t i s h Columbia have already been reported from other areas (the coasts of England, France and the U.S.A.) i t suggests that the majority of sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s may be cosmopolitan i n d i s t r i b u t i o n (at l e a s t i n the 90. temperate northern hemisphere). An i n t e r e s t i n g problem a r i s e s wtm considering the recognition and n u t r i t i o n of c e r t a i n species of these d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s . Some (e.g. Polykrikos lebourae) seem to be able to e x i s t as both chloro-plast-containing or colourless forms, as both states have been ob-served. This feature i s either i n t r i n s i c ( d i s t i n c t s t r a i n s or spe-cies) or i s perhaps due to a symbiont, ingested food material or c h l o r o s i s . I have assumed that such states represent conditions w i t h i n the same species. Another feature of these organisms i s that most can be placed into one of two categories of shape modification: (1) dorso-ventrally f l a t t e n e d or (2) l a t e r a l l y f l a t t e n e d . Bursa (1968) has suggested that t h i s might be an adaptation mechanism which allows the c e l l s to move more e a s i l y through the i n t e r s t i t i a l spaces. This has been reported to be the case with c i l i a t e s where t h e i r morphological s i z e , shape and p l a s t i c i t y are f actors i n determining t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the i n t e r t i d a l zone (Faure"-Fremiet 1951; Fenchel 1967, 1969). Also, the majority of the species i n h a b i t i n g the B r i t i s h Colum-bian beaches were usually non-photosynthetic. However, there appeared to be a general increase i n the number of photosynthetic forms during the summer months as compared with those of the winter. B. E c o l o g i c a l Section (1) Seasonal trends i n populations Since only one sample of sand (25 cm3) could be analysed per month for each beach, the s t a s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s i s ques-tionable. Nevertheless perhaps general trends can s t i l l be drawn keeping i n mind that the samples taken may not be e n t i r e l y represen-t a t i v e of the complete beach. ( i ) Species v a r i a t i o n per month Generally the number of species present seemed to increase from winter to spring and summer, with a maximum number of species occurring between March and September. Three of the beaches (Vic-t o r i a , Pachena and Boundary Bay) had a maximum number of species between A p r i l and June. The maximum number of species found i n any one sample was 18 per cm3. ( i i ) T o t a l c e l l v a r i a t i o n per month To t a l c e l l populations also increased from winter to summer, reaching t h e i r maximum concentrations between March and September. Similar r e s u l t s have been found with diatom populations (Mare 1942, Aleem 1950a, b). The r e s u l t s also i n d i c a t e that an i n t e r t i d a l pop-u l a t i o n can increase r a p i d l y , forming a bloom which i s present one month and absent the next. These rapid changes i n d i n o f l a g e l l a t e populations were f i r s t noted by W.A. Herdman (1911-1913). He r e -ported that the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s alternated i n abundance with the diatom population every 3-4 days for several successive weeks. C e l l concentrations on B r i t i s h Columbian beaches can reach 35,373 individuals/cm 3 (Boundary Bay i n A p r i l , 1970). Dragesco (1965) reported d i n o f l a g e l l a t e populations reaching between 1,000 and 2,000 individuals/cm 2. Fenchel (1967) also found that large d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s may exi s t in"numbers between 10 5 and 1.5 x 10 7 i n d i -viduals/m 2. In V i c t o r i a a bloom of Amphidinium asymmetricum Kofoid et Swezy occurred during early spring s u f f i c i e n t to discolour the sand a yellowish-brown. The f i r s t recording of dis c o l o u r a t i o n of beach sand was by Bergh (1882). Blooms l i k e t h i s may, i n part, be due to the presence of humic substances which are contained i n water seepage from the land. Prakash and Rashid (1969) found that low concentrations of these substances stimulate the growth of dino-f l a g e l l a t e s . Another trend observed was that during the months with increased i n s o l a t i o n there seemed to be a general increase i n the number of photosynthetic forms, as compared to that of the winter months, ( i i i ) Associations between species Because of the small sample s i z e the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the a s s o c i a t i o n analysis (Table 9) i s also questionable. Neverthe-l e s s the r e s u l t s seem to i n d i c a t e that quite a high percentage of the species present are associated with one another. This i s not s u r p r i s -ing i f one considers the conditions under which these organisms e x i s t . The environment of the i n t e r t i d a l zone i s harsh and undergoes such ex-tremes that only those species which can adapt to i t are able to sur-vive i n i t . Therefore these i n t e r t i d a l , sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s tend to have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and because of t h i s , one would expect to f i n d a high degree of a s s o c i a t i o n between them. Great d i v e r s i t y cannot occur as i t does i n the ocean where a more stable, uniform environment e x i s t s . As taxonomy (not s t a t i s t i c s ) was the major objective of t h i s t h e s i s , the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s are meant to i n d i c a t e only major trends. However, i n order to decrease error as much as possible only those species with an a s s o c i a t i o n index of 0.70 (instead of 0.50 as used by Fager 1963) or greater w i l l be considered associated. The following species f a l l into t h i s category and from these two groups can be recognized. Group (1) consists of: A. bipes, A. k l e b s i i , A. latum, A. m a s s a r t i i , A. semilunatum, A. sp. 4, E x u v i e l l a marina, Gymnodinium sp. 1, Katodinium asymmetricum, K. glandula, Sinophysis  ebrolum. Group (2) consists of: Hemidinium ochraceum, Thecadinium  petasatum, T_. swedmarki. These associations suggest that d i f f e r e n t types of communities may e x i s t f o r various types of beaches or f o r d i f f e r e n t locations on the same beach. From the data i n t h i s thesis i t i s impossible to conclude that the two groups are d e f i n i t e l y representative of d i f f e r -ent beach habitats. However, through future more d e t a i l e d studies i t may be possible to characterize beaches by t h e i r community fe a -tures (e.g. an Amphidinium bipes, Katodinium asymmetricum beach). (2) Population s u r v i v a l The question arose as to how the beaches became repopulated a f t e r the winter months i f species are absent. Two c o l l e c t i o n s were made during the winter, on the same day and at the same l o c a l i t y i n an attempt to c l a r i f y t h i s problem. One was a standard i n t e r t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n made while the i n t e r t i d a l zone was completely frozen and covered i n i c e . The second was a s u b t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n to a depth of 17 meters using S.C.U.B.A. gear. Analysis showed that the i n t e r t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n was completely barren of d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s whereas the sub-t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y densely populated i n both number and species. This suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that repopulation of the i n -t e r t i d a l zone may occur from s u b t i d a l populations which are protected from extreme environmental conditions. Even i n the peak season i n t e r t i d a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s survive extreme and abrupt environmental changes. They must be able to t o l e r a t e wide ranges i n l i g h t , temperature, s a l i n i t y and dessication. Also the abrasive action of the sand grains and the p u l l of t i d a l currents i s a constant threat to t h e i r s u r v i v a l . Thus, i n order to survive, these organisms have evolved means by which they can avoid the ex-tremes that t h e i r environment presents. One method by which some species may avoid extremes i s by undergoing v e r t i c a l migration (E.C. Herdman 1922, 1923). Mucilage production i s another mechanism by which some d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s protect themselves (Dragesco 1965). The mucliage serves as a pro t e c t i v e envelope against dessication (Hop-kins 1964) and also s t a b i l i z e s the sand by cementing the grains to-gether (Bursa 1968; Faure-Fremiet 1951). Lebour (1925) stated that species with large s u l c a l f l a p s use them i n order to s t i c k themselves to sand grains. This could possibly be a method by which these c e l l s r e s i s t t i d a l currents. Bursa (1968) pointed out that the f l a t t e n i n g of the c e l l s probably allows the organisms to move more f r e e l y through the i n t e r s t i t i a l spaces. This could a i d i n the c e l l s ' v e r t i c a l mi-gration when t r y i n g to avoid the t i d e . (3) Environmental parameters ( i ) Exposure In terms of exposure to wave action the beaches could be c l a s s -i f i e d ( i n r e l a t i o n to each other) as follows: Pachena Beach extremely exposed, Brady's Beach moderately exposed, Willows Beach ( V i c t o r i a ) moderately sheltered, Wilson Creek (Sechelt) moderately sheltered, and Boundary Bay, extremely sheltered. The beaches were selected p a r t l y on the basis of exposure with the i n t e n t i o n of making compar-isons between them. Wave act i o n i s important i n c o n t r o l l i n g popula-t i o n densities on a beach. Steele and Baird (1968) found that on exposed beaches, wave action i s so l i m i t i n g i n the l i t t o r a l zone, that seasonal changes i n incident r a d i a t i o n had comparatively l i t t l e e f f e c t on the diatom populations. Under extreme conditions wave ac-t i o n has been reported to a l t e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of the fauna by washing many out to sea and thereby decreasing t h e i r num-bers (Ganapati and Rao 1962). This s i t u a t i o n may have occurred i n J u l y , 1970 on Pachena Beach when, a f t e r several days of severe storms, the population of d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c e l l s was only 16 individuals/cm 3 whereas the previous month i t was 9,820 individuals/cm 3. The popu-l a t i o n of Brady's Beach which i s within a few miles of the Pachena s i t e , but not as exposed, appeared to be unaffected. The c e l l pop-u l a t i o n data also shows that the Pachena Beach s i t e loses i t s pop-u l a t i o n s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r i n the F a l l than does Brady's Beach. This could possibly be due to winter storms, which would a f f e c t the more exposed s i t e e a r l i e r . If correct, however, one would expect the increase i n spring populations to be s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r on the more protected beach (Brady's) than at Pachena Bay. However, comparison between tables 5 and 6 and f i g s . 29 and 30 indicates the opposite. But, i f t h i s data i s compared with that c o l l e c t e d f o r Boundary Bay (Table 4, f i g . 28), which i s extremely sheltered, then i t can be seen that the r i s e i n number of c e l l s / c m 3 does occur much e a r l i e r than that on ei t h e r Brady's Beach or Pachena Beach. Wave action i s also most important i n determining the p a r t i c l e s i z e on a beach (Steele, Munro and Giese 1970). ( i i ) Grain s i z e The 5 beaches have been divided into 3 categories based on grain s i z e during the summer months. These are: (1) Coarse beaches -O n l y S e c h e l t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h i s c a t e g o r y s i n c e i t has t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of t h e 2 5 0 u-sized p a r t i c l e s ; (2) F i n e beaches - O n l y Boundary Bay f i t s t h i s c a t e g o r y s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c l e s f a l l i n t o t h e 125y s i z e b u t i t a l s o c o n t a i n s q u i t e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f f i n e sand and s i l t (63y s i z e and b e l o w ) ; (3) Medium beaches - The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e beaches ( B r a d y ' s , Pachena and V i c t o r i a ) f i t h e r e as a l l seem t o have an a v e r a g e g r a i n s i z e o f 125y w i t h a s m a l l e r p e r -c e n t a g e o f f i n e sand t h a n t h a t a t Boundary. S t r o n g c u r r e n t s and t i d a l f l o w may be i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g g r a i n s i z e . I f s o , t h i s m i g ht e x p l a i n why t h e m o d e r a t e l y s h e l t e r e d beaches ( V i c t o r i a and S e c h e l t ) have g r a i n s i z e s w h i c h a r e e q u a l t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e more exposed beaches. However i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n o f c e l l s / c m 3 t h e r e seems t o be no c o r r e l a t i o n between i t and t h e g r a i n s i z e on t h e beach s i t e s a t S e c h e l t , V i c t o r i a , Pachena and B r a d y ' s . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e p o p u l a t i o n can e a s i l y s u r v i v e i n a r e a s i f t h e a v e r a g e p a r t i c l e s i z e f a l l s between 125 and 250y. However t h e s i t u a t i o n a t Boundary Bay a p p ears t o be d i f f e r e n t . G e n e r a l l y t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f i n e p a r t i c l e s on t h e beaches becomes l a r g e r d u r i n g t h e summer. T h i s seems t o have no e f f e c t on t h e popu-l a t i o n s e x c e p t a t Boundary Bay where an e x c e s s i v e amount o f f i n e p a r t i c l e s b u i l d s up t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer, a s s o c i a t e d , p r e s u m a b l y , w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d o u t f l o w o f t h e n e a r b y F r a s e r R i v e r . The c l o g g i n g o f t h e i n t e r s t i t i a l s paces by t h i s i n c r e a s e c o u l d p o s s i b l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e p o p u l a t i o n on t h i s beach i s r a t h e r low t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer. When w i n t e r a r r i v e s most o f t h e s e " f i n e s " a r e l o s t and s p r i n g blooms o c c u r b e f o r e t h e y a r e b u i l t up a g a i n . 97. This i s not the f i r s t time that i n t e r s t i t i a l populations have been reported to be r e s t r i c t e d by p a r t i c l e s i z e . Fenchel (1967, 1969) found t h i s to be true f o r c i l i a t e populations and stated that i n clayey bottoms the i n t e r s t i t i a are so clogged that no i n t e r -s t i t i a l fauna occur. Wieser (1952), Jansson (1967a, b) and Ganapati and Rao (1962) have obtained s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Grain s i z e also becomes important i n determining other proper-t i e s of the beach which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the population. Bruce (1928) found that the grade of sand on a beach determines the water retentive and absorptive c a p a c i t i e s of a sand as well as i t s c a p i l l a r y l i f t i n g power and i t s porosity to gases. Gomoiu (1967) found that with decreasing grain s i z e , l i g h t penetration decreases and at 6 mm only 3% of the surface l i g h t remains. Taylor and Palmer (1963) found that l i g h t was even more r e s t r i c t e d and that only 1% of the surface l i g h t reaches a depth of 3 mm. Fenchel (1969) and Webb (1969) have discussed t h i s subject i n great d e t a i l commenting on t o t a l surface area, porosity, permeability, c a p i l l a r i t y , d i f f u s i o n rates of dissolved compounds and the s i z e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r s t i t i a . The reader i s r e f e r r e d to these f o r a more de t a i l e d discussion, ( i i i ) Temperature In s e l e c t i n g the beaches i t was hoped that some general tempera-ture difference between them might be found. The temperature graphs seem to i n d i c a t e that t h i s i s true. Both Pachena and Brady's Beaches are subject to open ocean water and therefore remain at a more constant, lower temperature than the others. Boundary Bay,, being both extremely shallow and protected, undergoes the greatest f l u c t u a t i o n s i n tempera-ture. Sechelt and V i c t o r i a have more moderate f l u c t u a t i o n s . Tempera-ture (along with light) is probably important to some degree i n con-tr o l l i n g the number of individual cells/cm 3 (but not the number of species/cm3 as most species are common to a l l beaches) in a seasonal sense. For example, a greater increase in the number of cells/cm 3 occurs earlier at Boundary Bay than the other beaches and i s probably due i n part to the earlier rise in temperature at this site. How-ever, to correlate the high temperatures during the summer months with the low population/cm3 on this beach would probably be invalid as these organisms can cope with extreme temperature by vertical mi-gration or mucilage production as already mentioned. Fenchel (1969) also finds that temperature alone could not explain the general dis-tribution of c i l i a t e s . Similar results have been found i n relation to diatom population (Aleem 1950). (iv) Salinity It i s d i f f i c u l t to correlate any of the salinity data with popu-lation trends on or between any of the beaches studied. From this and other studies i t appears that salinity i s probably not of great impor-tance in limiting sand-dwelling dinoflagellates except i n the extreme. Only when the salinity is drastically decreased due to excessive rain-f a l l or land drainage i s the population perhaps slightly affected. Even then, Ganapati and Rao (1962) found that heavy r a i n f a l l only varies the i n t e r s t i t i a l sea water salinity 2-3% from that of the adjacent sea water. Herdman (1924a) has shown that several species of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium eludens, Gymnodinium placidum and Glenodinium monense) appear to survive fresh water for periods up to 24 hours i f transferred gradually. Other species were affected to a greater extent yet some i n d i v i d u a l s s t i l l survived. However Bruce (1925) concluded that s a l i n i t y i s a major factor i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of A. hermani. Braarud (1951) found that s a l i n i t y does a f f e c t the repro-ductive rate of various planktonic marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s . This could also apply to sand-dwelling forms thus making s a l i n i t y an im-portant f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the abundance of a species on a beach rather than a c t u a l l y l i m i t i n g i t from the beach habitat. With regard to c i l i a t e s , Fenchel (1969) found that s a l i n i t y generally could not explain t h e i r f i e l d d i s t r i b u t i o n as d i l u t e , brack-i s h 'water contains many marine forms. (v) Comparison of beach communities Sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s are not the sole micro-organismal inhabitants of the i n t e r t i d a l zone. Numerous papers have been pub-l i s h e d dealing with the diatom communities (Aleem 1950a, b; Casten-holz 1963; Hopkins 1963, 1964, 1966; Leach 1970; Moul and Mason 1957; Palmer 1960; Palmer and Round 1965, 1967; Round and Palmer 1966; Steele and Baird 1968; Steele, Munro and Giese 1970; Taylor and Palmer 1963) and c i l i a t e communities (Borrow 1963; Ganapati and Rao 1962; Fenchel 1967, 1968, 1969) which also e x i s t i n t h i s habitat. Because these organisms are l i v i n g under the same severe stresses of a highly changeable environment i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that they share c e r t a i n general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, both photo-synthetic sand d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and diatoms have been shown to undergo v e r t i c a l migration and to produce mucilage. They both have the a b i -l i t y to encyst, and to ex i s t temporarily below the euphotic zone. A l i m i t e d heterotrophic a b i l i t y i s probable. Their d i s t r i b u t i o n i s governed to some extent by grain s i z e and t h e i r lowest populations are usually found i n winter. S i m i l a r l y , comparisons can be drawn between both the non-photo-synthetic sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and c i l i a t e s . For example, c i l i a t e s are known to be phagotrophic feeders with herbivorous, car-nivorous and bacteria-eating forms. Herbivorous d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s e x i s t (Tab. 7, f i g . 6a shows an ingested diatom) and i t i s possible that carnivorous and b a c t e r i a eating types e x i s t also. Both have d i s t r i b u t i o n s governed to some extent by grain s i z e with 2 to 4% clay content excluding a l l c i l i a t e s and probably d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s also. Temperature and s a l i n i t y do not seem to be too important i n deter-mining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e i t h e r group. C i l i a t e s can e x i s t above, at, or below the redox d i s c o n t i n u i t y l a y e r ; however, to date the majority of dinos have been reported to be aerobic and l i v i n g above the redox zone (Fenchel 1969 l i s t s some dinos as being present below the redox d i s c o n t i n u i t y l a y e r ) . Future studies may show that f a r more common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t between these organisms. This type of information would be useful i n helping to form a more cmplete picture of the complex ecology of the i n t e r t i d a l zone. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1) Forty-one species of sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s were recorded from the beaches of South West B r i t i s h Columbia during the one year period of t h i s study. Twelve of these species could not be i d e n t i f i e d and may warrant being designated as new species. They study indicates that major changes i n the taxonomy of some of the species found may have to be made. 2) These sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s are most abundant during the l a t e spring and summer seasons. Some species seem to be permanent residents and are found during a l l seasons of the year. Others are found only during the warmer months. 3) If the i n t e r t i d a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e population i s d r a s t i c a l l y re-duced by freezing during the winter months, repopulation may o r i g i n -ate from s u b t i d a l populations which are protected from these envir-onmental extremes. 4) Temperature i s an important factor i n determining major seasonal trends of a beach population (e.g. summers versus winters). But i t does not seem to be too important i n determining the species compo-s i t i o n between beaches located i n the same general area (e.g. South West B r i t i s h Columbia). 5) S a l i n i t y appears to be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant i n r e l a t i o n to determining what species w i l l be found on a beach. Only i n very extreme cases ( i . e . fresh water) does i t probably a f f e c t the d i s t r i -bution of a species. I t i s probably more important i n determining the number of c e l l s (reproductive rate) of a species on a beach rather than a species d i s t r i b u t i o n . 6) There i s an i n d i c a t i o n that c e r t a i n species tend to be associated with each other and may form distinct communities. 7) Sand-dwelling dinoflagellate populations seem to be able to live on most beaches as long as there i s not much s i l t (less than 63y size) particles present. As soon as the s i l t fraction builds up i t clogs the i n t e r s t i t i a l spaces and the population decreases drastically. 8) Heavy wave action i s important in determining particle size on a beach and decreases the sand-dwelling dinoflagellate population by sweeping them out to sea. The surface layer of the sand i s mixed and redistributed during storms and heavy waves and therefore these organisms cannot escape from being swept away by vertical migration. 9) Strong currents and tides may also be important in determining particle size on a beach. However, in this case the dinoflagellates can cope with the situation (by vertical migration or cementing them-selves down) as the surface layer of the sand i s not mixed. REFERENCES Aleem, A.A. 1950. Distribution and ecology of Bri t i s h marine l i t -toral diatoms. J. Ecol. 38: 75-106. Aleem, A.A. 1950. The diatoms communitiy inhabiting the mud-flat at Whitstable. New Phytol. 49: 174-188. Balech, E. 1956. IStude des dinoflagelles du sable de Roscoff. Rev. Algolog. N.S. 2(1-2): 29-52. Bergh, R.S. 1882. Uber die systematische Stellung der Gattung Amphi-dinium Clap, et Lachm. Zoologische Anzeiger Biecheler, B. 1952. Recherches sur les Peridiniens. Bull. B i o l , de France et de Belgique. Supplement 36: 1-149. Borror, A.C. 1963. Morphology and ecology of the benthic cil i a t e d Protozoa of Alligator Harbor, Florida. Arch. Protistenk. 106: 465-534. Braarud, T. 1951. Salinity as an ecological factor in marine phy-toplankton. Physiol. Plant. 4: 28-34. Bruce, J.R. 1925. The metabolism of the shore l i v i n g dinoflagellates. B r i t . Journ. Exper. B i o l . 2: 413-426. Bruce, J.R. 1928. Physical factors on the sandy beach. Part I. Tidal, climactic, and edaphic. J. mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 15: 535-552. Bruce, J.R. 1928. Physical factors on the sandy beach. Part I I : Chemical changes, carbon dioxide concentration and sulphides. J. mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 15(2): 553-565. Bursa, A.S. 1967. I n t e r s t i t i a l Dinophyceae of Canadian arctic and related problems. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Annual Report Arctic Biological Station No. 30 Bursa, A.S. 1967. Some immediate problems in taxonomy of Dinophyceae. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Annual Report Arctic Biolog-i c a l Station No. 31 BUtschli, 0. 1885. "Dinoflagellata" in "Protozoa" (1880-89), in Bronn, "Klass. u. Ordn. des Thierreichs", 1: 906-1029, pis. 51-55. Calkins, G. 1902. Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole. Bull. U.S. Bur-eau Fish. 21: 413-468. Carter, N. 1937. New or i n t e r e s t i n g algae from brackish water. Archiv fl l r Protistenkunde 90: 1-68. Castenholz, R.W. 1963. An experimental study of the v e r t i c a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n of l i t t o r a l marine diatoms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8: 450-462. Cienkowski, L. 1871. Uber Schwarmerbildung b e i Noctiluca m i l i a r i s . Arch. f. mikr. Anat. 7: 131-139, p i s . 14, 15. Conrad, W. 1926. Recherches sur l e s f l a g e l l a t e s de nos eaux sau-matres. l r e p a r t i e . I. Introduction I I . Origine du materiel I I I . D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s . Arch. Protistenk. 55: 63-100. Conrad, W.. 1939. Notes p r o t i s t o l o g i q u e s . IX. Sur t r o i s d i n o f l a g e l -lates de l'eau saumatre. B u l l . Mus. roy. H i s t . nat. Belgique 15(12): 1-10. Conrad, W. and Kufferath, H. 1954. Recherches sur les eaus saumatres des environs de L i l o o . Mem. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belg. 127: 1-346. Dragesco, J . 1965. E*tude cytologique de quelques flagelle*s mesop-sammiques. Cahiers de b i o l o g i e marine 4: 83-115. Dujardin, F. 1841. H i s t o i r e n a t u r e l l e des Zoophytes. Infusoires comprenant l a physiologie et l a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n des ces animaux et l a maniere de les etudier a l ' a i d e du microscope. In: "Suites a Buffon" (Paris, Roret), x i i i + 684 pp., A t l a s , 16 pp., 22 p i s . Fager, E.W. 1963. Communities of organisms i n The Sea, Ideas and Observations on Progress i n the Study of the Seas, Vol. 2. The Composition of Sea-Water, Comparative and Descriptive Oceanography, edited by M.N. H i l l , Interscience Publishers (John Wiley and Sons), 3 v o l s . , ppi 415-437. Faure-Fremiet, E. 1951. The marine sand-dwelling c i l i a t e s of Cape Cod. B i o l . B u l l . 100: 59-70. Fenchel, T. 1967. The ecology of marine microbenthos. I. The quantitative importance of c i l i a t e s as compared with metazoans i n various types of sediments. Ophelia 4: 121-137. Fenchel, T. 1968. The ecology of marine microbenthos. I I . The food of marine benthic c i l i a t e s . Ophelia 5: 73-121. Fenchel, T. 1968. The ecology of marine microbenthos. I I I . The re-productive p o t e n t i a l of c i l i a t e s . Ophelia 5: 123-136. Fenchel, T. 1969. The ecology of marine microbenthos. IV. Structure and function of the benthic ecosystem, i t s chemical and phys-i c a l factors and the microfauna communities with s p e c i a l r e f -erence to the c i l i a t e d protozoa. Ophelia 6: 1-182. Ganapati, P.N., Lakshmana Rao, M.V. and Subba Rao, D.V. 1959. T i d a l rhythms of some diatoms and d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n h a b i t i n g the i n t e r t i d a l sands of Visakhapatnam Beach. Curr. S c i . 11: 450-451. Ganapati, P.N. and Chandrasekhava Rao, G. 1962. Ecology of the i n -t e r s t i t i a l fauna i n h a b i t i n g the sandy beaches of Waltair Coast. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. India 4(1): 44-57. Gomoiu, M.-T. 1967. Some quantitative data on l i g h t penetration i n sediments. Helgol. wiss. Meeresunters. 15(1-4): 120-127. Grasse", P.P. 1952. (Ed.) T r a i t e de Zoologie, Anatomie, Syste*matique, B i o l o g i e . Tome I, Phylogenie Protozoaires: Ge'ne'ralite's. F l a g e l l e s (Premier F a s c i c u l e ) : 1071 pp. Ha r r i s , T.M. 1939. A contribution to the knowledge of the B r i t i s h freshwater D i n o f l a g e l l a t a . Proc. L i n . Soc. London 152: 4-33. Herdman, E.C. 1921. Notes on d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and other organisms causing d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of the sand at Port E r i n (Read 10th D e c , 1920). Proceedings and Transactions of the Liver p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 35: 59-63. Session 1920-1921. Herdman, E.C. 1922. Notes on d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and other organisms causing d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of the sand at Port E r i n II (1921) (Read 26 May, 1922). Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpo o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 36: 15-30. Session 1921-1922. Herdman, E.C. 1924. Appendix C(2). Notes on d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and other organisms causing d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of the sand at Port E r i n I I I (Read 11 Oct., 1923). Proceedings'and Transactions of the Liver p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 38: 58-63. Session 1923-1924. Herdman, E.C. 1924. Notes on d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and other organisms causing d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of the sand at Port E r i n IV (Communicated 8 May, 1924). Proceedings and Transactions of the Liver p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 38: 75-84. Session 1923-1924. Herdman, W.A. 1911. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and diatoms on the beach. Nature (London) 86(2173): 554. Herdman, W.A. 1911. On the occurrence of Amphidinium operculatum Clap, et Lach. i n vast quantities at Port E r i n ( I s l e of Man) (Read 1st June, 1911). The Journal of the Linnean Society (Zool.) 32: 71-75. Herdman, W.A. 1911. Occurrence of Amphidinium operculatum at Port E r i n . Nature 88 (2192): 25. Herdman, W.A. 1912. The microscopic l i f e of the beach. Proceedings and Transactions of the Liver p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 26: 46-57. Session 1911-1912. Herdman, W.A. 1912. Minute l i f e on our sea-beaches. Nature 90(2248) 371-373. Herdman, W.A. 1913. The minute l i f e of the sea beach. Proceedings and Transactions of the Live r p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 27: 60-68. Herdman, W.A. 1913. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Amphidinium. Nature 91(2283): 558. Herdman, W.A. 1913. Coloured organisms on sea-sand. Nature 92(2288) 5-6. Herdman,.W.A. 1914. The minute l i f e of the sea beach. Proceedings and Transactions of the Live r p o o l B i o l o g i c a l Society 28: 39-43. Hopkins, J.T. 1963. A study of the diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex. I. The movement of the mud-flat diatoms i n response to some chemical and p h y s i c a l changes. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. . 43(3): 653-664. Hopkins, J.T. 1964. A study of the diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex. I I . The ecology of the mud-flat diatom f l o r a . J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 44(2): 333-341. Hopkins, J.T. 1966. The r o l e of water i n the behaviour of an estu-arine mud-flat diatom. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 46(3): 617-626. Hulbert, E.M. 1957. The taxonomy of unarmoured Dinophyceae of s h a l -low embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. B i o l . B u l l . 112(2): 196-219. Hulbert, E.M., J.J.A. McLaughlin and P.A. Zahl. 1960. Katodinium  dorsalisulcum, a new species of unarmored Dinophyceae. J . Protozool. 7(4): 323-326. Jansson, B.-O. 1967. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of oxygen for the i n t e r s t i t i a l fauna of sandy beaches. J . Expt. Mar. B i o l . and E c o l . 1: 123-143. Jansson, B.-O. 1967. Diurnal and annual v a r i a t i o n s of temperature and s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water i n sandy beaches. Ophelia 4: 173-201. Jansson, B.-O. 1967. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of grain s i z e and pore water content for the i n t e r s t i t i a l fauna of sandy beaches. Oikos 18: 311-322. Jorgensen, 0. 1918. Occurrence of Amphidinium operculatum at Cul-l e r c o a t s . Rep. Dove Marine Laboratory for 1918 Klebs, G. 1884. Ein k l e i n e r Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Peridineen. Z e i t s c h r i f t fltr Botanik 42: 721-733, 737-745. Kofoid, C. and Skogsberg, T. 1928. The Dinoflagellata: The Dino-physoideae. Mem. of the Mus. of Comp. Zool. at Harvard College 51: Kofoid, C. and Swezy, 0. 1921. The free-living tmarmored dinoflagellata. Memoirs of the University of California, 5: 562 pp. Lackey, J.B. 1961. Bottom sampling and environmental niches. Limnol. and Oceanog. 6: 271-279. Lackey, J.B. and Lackey, E.W. 1963. Microscopic algae and protozoa i n the waters near Plymouth in August 1962. J. mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 43: 797-805. Lackey, J.B. and Clendenning, K.A. 1965. Ecology .of the microbiota of San Diego Bay, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 14(2): 9-40. Laurie, R.D. 1914. On the bionomics of Amphidinium operculatum Clap, et Lach. Report of the 83rd Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Birmingham 1'913) . Leach, J.H. 1970. Epibenthic algal production i n an inte r t i d a l mud-f l a t . Limnology and Oceanography 15(4): 514-521. Lebour, M.V. 1925. The dinoflagellates of northern seas. J. mar. bi o l . Ass. U.K. Plymouth, 250 pp., 53, fig.» 35 p i . Lemmerman, E. 1910. Kryptogamenflora der Mark Brandenburg und angrenzender Gebiete, Dritter Band. Algen I (Schizophyceesi, Flagellaten, Perid-ineen), 712 pp. Loeblich, A.R. 1965. Dinoflagellate nomenclature, Taxon 14(1): 15-18. Mare, M. 1942. A study of a marine benthic community with special reference to the microorganisms. J. mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 25: 517-554. Martin, G.W. 1929. Dinoflagellates from marine and brackish waters of New Jersey. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud. Nat. Hist. 12(9): 1-32. Massart, J. 1901. Liste des flagellates observers aux environs de Coxyde et de Nieuport. Mem. Soc. Beige Micr., Brussels 27: 75. Massart, J. 1920. Recherche sur les organismes inferieurs. VIII. • Sur l a motilite des flagellates. B u l l . CI. Sci., Acad. Roy. Belg. Ser. 5, 6: 116-141. Morgans, J.F.C. 1956. Notes on the analysis of shallow-water soft substrata. J. Anim. Ecol. 25: 367-387. Moul, E.T. and Mason, D. 1957. Study of diatom populations on sand and mud f l a t s i n the Woods Hole area. B i o l . B u l l . 113: 351. Ohno, N. 1911. Beobachtungen an einer SUsswasser Peridinee. Jour. College S c i . Imp. Univ. Tokyo 32: 77-92, p i . I. Palmer, J.D. 1960. The r o l e of moisture and i l l u m i n a t i o n on the expression of the rhythmic behavior of the diatom Hantzschia  amphioxys. B i o l . B u l l . mar. b i o l . Lab., Woods Hole 119: 330. Palmer, J.D. and Round, F.E. 1965. Pe r s i s t e n t , v e r t i c a l migration rhythms i n benthic m i c r o f l o r a . I. The e f f e c t of l i g h t and temperature on the rhythmic behavior of Euglena obtusa. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 45(3): 567-582. Palmer, J.D. and Round, F.E. 1967. Persi s t e n t v e r t i c a l - m i g r a t i o n rhythms i n benthic m i c r o f l o r a . VI. The t i d a l and d i u r n a l na-ture of the rhythm i n the diatom Hantzschia v i r g a t a . B i o l . B u l l . 132(1): 44-55. Paulsen, 0. 1908. P e r i d i n i a l e s . Nordisches Plankton 18: 124 pp. Pouchet, G. 1833. Contribution a l ' h i s t o i r e des c i l i o - f l a g e l l e s J . Anat. P h y s i o l . 19: 399-455. Pouchet, G. 1885. Nouvelle contribution a l ' h i s t o i r e des Peridiniens marins. J . Anat. P h y s i o l . 21: 28-88. Pouchet, G. 1885. Troisi&me contribution a l ' h i s t o i r e des P e r i d i n -iens. J . Anat. P h y s i o l . 21: 525-534. Prakash, A. and Rashid, M.A. 1969. Influence of humic substances on the growth of marine phytoplankton: D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s . Lim-no l . and Oceanog. 13(4): 598-606. Redeke, H.C. 1935. Amphidinium (Rotundinium) pellucidum nov. spec., eine neue Peridinee des Niederlandischen brakwassers. Recueil des travaux botaniques neerlandais, Amsterdam 32: 391-395. Round, F.E. and Palmer, J.D. 1966. P e r s i s t a n t , v e r t i c a l migration rhythms i n benthic m i c r o f l o r a . I I . F i e l d and laboratory study of diatoms from the banks of the River Avon. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 46(1): 191-214. S c h i l l e r , J. 1931. D i n o f l a g e l l a t a . In: "Kryptogamen F l o r a " (ed. L. Rabenhorst) 10(3): 1-617. S c h i l l e r , J. 1918. Kleinere Mitteilungen Ueber neue Prorocentrum und E x u v i e l l a arten aus der Adria. Arch. Protistenkunde 38(2). SchrHder, B. 1900. Phytoplankton des Golfes von Neapel. M i t t . Zool. Stat. Neapel 14: 1-38, T . l . Schlltt, F.R. 1886. P e r i d i n i a l e s . Engler u. P r a n t l . Die Nat. P f l a n z -enfam. I. B., L e i p z i g . Sea Water Temp. & Density Reduction Tables, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Coast & Geodetic Survey Special P u b l i c a t i o n No. 298. S i l v a , E.S. 1952. Estudos de Plancton na Lagoa de Obidos, 1 Diatom-dceas e Dinoflagelados. Universidade de Lisboa, Revista da Faculdade de Ciencias, 2 A Serie, C - Ciencias Naturais 2(1): 1-44. Steele, J.H. and Baird, I.E. 1968. Production ecology of a sandy beach. Limnology and Oceanography 13: 14-25. Steele, J.H., Munro, A.L.S. and Giese, G.S. 1970. Environmental factors c o n t r o l l i n g the epipsammic f l o r a on beach and s u b l i t -t o r a l sands. J . mar. b i o l . Ass. U.K. 50(4): 907-918. Stein, F.R. von 1883. Der Organismus der Infusionstheire, I I I , 2. Die Naturgeschichte der Arthrodelen F l a g e l l a t e n . L e i p z i g . Storrow, B. 1913. F a u n i s t i c notes. Rep. Dove Marine Laboratory f o r 1912. Taylor, D.L. 1971. Taxonomy of some common Amphidinium species. Br. phycol. Journal. Taylor, W.R. and Palmer, J.D. 1963. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i g h t and photosynthesis i n i n t e r t i d a l benthic diatoms. B i o l . B u l l . 125: 395. Throndsen, J . 1969. F l a g e l l a t e s of Norwegian coastal waters. Nytt Mag. Bot. 16(3-4): 161-216. UtermHhl, H. 1958. Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phyto-plankton - Methodik. M i t t . Int. Ver. Limnol. 9: 1-38. Von Bernuth, J.E. 1967. Some e c o l o g i c a l studies on the psammon d i n o f l a g e l l a t e Thecadinium inclinatum Balech. Master's t h e s i s , Univ. Washington, Seattle. Von Stosch, H.A. 1969. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e n aus der Nordsee I. Ub er Cachonina n i e i Loeblich (1968) , Gonyaulax g r i n d l e y i Reinecke (1967) und eine Methode zur Darstellung von Peridineenpanzern. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 19: 558-568. Wailes, G.H. 1928. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and protozoa from B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. Study from the Stations of the B i o l o g i c a l Board of Canada. Reprinted from the Vancouver "Museum Notes", Vol. I l l : 41 pp. Wailes, G.H. 1939. Canadian P a c i f i c Fauna 1. Protozoa, l e . Mastigo-phora. Printed by The Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press f o r the Fi s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada: 45 pp. Webb, J.E. 1969. B i o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t properties of submerged marine sands. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 174: 355-402. Whitehead, 1914. Notes. Rep. Dove Marine Laboratory for 1913. Wieser, W. 1952. The e f f e c t of grain s i z e on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of small invertebrates i n h a b i t i n g the beaches of Puget Sound. Limnology and Oceanography 4: 181-194. Wislouch, S. 1924. BeitrHge zur Bi o l o g i e und Entstehung von H e i l -schlamm der Salinem der Krim. Act. Soc. Bot. Polon. 2(2): 99-129. Woloszynska, J . 1929. D i n o f l a g e l l a t a Polskiego Ba^tyku 1 B#ot Nad Piasn i c a . Arch. Hydrobiol. i Ryb.: 153-278, p i . II-XV. Wood, E.J.F. 1963. Di n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the Au s t r a l i a n Region. I I . Recent C o l l e c t i o n s . D i v i s i o n of F i s h e r i e s and Oceanography, Technical Paper No. 14: 55 pp. Wood, E.J.F. 1963. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the Au s t r a l i a n Region. I I I . Further C o l l e c t i o n s . D i v i s i o n of F i s h e r i e s and Oceanography, Technical Paper No. 17, 20 pp. P L A T E 1 Figure 1. Katodinium glandula a) Ventral view b) Ventral view Figure 2. Katodinium sp. 1 a) Ventral view b) Plate pattern c) Plate pattern Figure 3. Amphidinium bipes a) L a t e r a l view b) Ventral view Figure 4. Katodinium asymmetricum (ventral view) Figure 5. Gymnodinium sp. 3 (ventral view) Figure 6. Amphidnium compressum Figure 7. Amphidinium testudo Figure 8. Amphidinium semilunatum a) Ventral view b) L a t e r a l view Figure 9. Adenoides eludens ( l a t e r a l view) Figure 10. Amphidinium asymmetricum Figure 11. Polykrikos lebourae Figure 12. Amphidnium nanammini (sp.) v e n t r a l view PLATE 2 Figure 1. Chilodinium cruciatum (ventral view) Figure 2. Amphidinium scissum (ventral view) Figure 3. Amphidinium sp. 3 (ventral view) Figure 4. Amphidinium sp. 5 Figure 5. Amphidinium sp. 1 a) Ventral view b) L a t e r a l view c) Ventral view Figure 6. Amphidinium sp. 2 Figure 7. Gyrodinium lebourae (ventral view) Figure 8. Amphidinium sp. 6 (ventral view) Figure 9. Amphidinium latum (Ventral view) PLATE 3 Figure 1. Amphidinium k l e b s i i a) Ventral view b) Ventral view Figure 2. E x u v i e l l a marina (ventral view) Figure 3. Gymnodinium sp. 2 Figure 4. Amphidinium massartia (ventral view) Figure 5. Gymnodinium sp. 1 a) Ventral view b) Ventral view Figure 6. Hemidinium sp. 1 a) Filamentous stage b) Encysted stage Figure 7. Amphidinium sp. 4 a) L a t e r a l view b) Ventral view Figure 8. Thecadinium inclinatum (ventral view) PLATE 4 Figure 1. Thecadinium sp. 1 a) Ventral view b) Ventral view c) Ventral view Figure 2. Thecadinium hirsutum (ventral view) Figure 3. Thecadinium petasatum? a) L a t e r a l view b) Ventral view Figure 4. Thecadinium swedmarki a) Right l a t e r a l view b) Ventral view c) Le f t l a t e r a l view d) Dorsal view e) Posterior view f) A p i c a l view PLATE 5 Figure 1. Thecadinium inclinatum a) Right l a t e r a l view b) Ventral view c) L e f t l a t e r a l view Figure 2. Gymnodinium a g i l e (ventral view) Figure 3. Oxyrrhis marina (ventral view) Figure 4. Glenodinium marinum (ventral view) Figure 5. Amphidinium corpulentum Figure 6. Hemidinium ochraceum (ventral view) Figure 7. Thecadinium petasatum a) Right l a t e r a l side b) Ventral view c) Right l a t e r a l side PLATE 6 Figure 1. Amphidinium testudo a) Ventral view b) Ventral view Figure 2. Sinophysis ebrolum (right lateral view) Figure 3. Amphidinium b e s s l i t z i (ventral view) Figure 4. Amphidinium latum (ventral view) Figure 5. Amphidinium hirsutum (ventral view) Figure 6. Amphidinium pellucidum (ventral view) PLATE 7 Figure 1. Amphidinium massartia a) Ventral view b) Ventral view Figure 2. Thecadinium inclinatum a) Ventral view b) Lateral view Figure 3. Amphidinium klebsii (lateral view) Figure 4. Amphidinium scissum (ventral view) Figure 5. Gymnodinium agile (ventral view) Figure 6. Amphidinium sp. 1 a) Ventral view b) Ventral view PLATE 8 Figure 1. Polykrikos lebourae a) L a t e r a l view b) L a t e r a l view Figure 2. Amphidinium bipes a) L a t e r a l view b) L a t e r a l view Figure 3. Amphidinium compressum ( l a t e r a l view) Figure 4. Amphidinium scissum a) Ventral view b) L a t e r a l view Figure 5. Amphidinium sp. 3 (ventral view) PLATE 9 Figure 1. Katodinium sp. 1 (lateral view) a) Cell contents b) and c) Partial plate pattern Figure 2. Katodinium glandula Figure 3. Katodinium asymmetricum (ventral view) Figure 4. Sinophysis ebrolum (lateral view) Figure 5. Thecadinium hirsutum (ventral view) Figure 6. Amphidinium sp. 6 (ventral view) PLATE 9 Figure 1. Katodinium sp. 1 ( l a t e r a l view) a) C e l l contents b) and c) P a r t i a l p l a t e p a t t e r n Figure 2. Katodinium glandula Figure 3. Katodinium asymmetricum ( v e n t r a l view) Figure 4. Sinophysis ebrolum ( l a t e r a l view) Figure 5. Thecadinium hirsutum ( v e n t r a l view) Figure 6. Amphidinium sp. 6 ( v e n t r a l view) PLATE 10 Figure 1. Thecadinium swedmarkii (ventro-lateral view) Figure 2. Gymnodinium sp. 1 (ventral view) Figure 3. Exuviella marina (ventral view) Figure 4. Amphidinium latum (ventral view) Figure 5. Amphidinium sp. 5 (ventral view) Figure 6. Amphidinium testudo (ventral view) Figure 7. Amphidinium semilunatum (lateral view) Figure 8. Katodinium asymmetricum (ventral view) Figure 9. Amphidinium sp. 4 (lateral view) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101582/manifest

Comment

Related Items