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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rembrandt's Homer in the Mauritshuis Steele, Gordon Edward 1973

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REMBRANDT'S HOMER IN THE MAURITSHUIS by GORDON EDWARD STEELE B.Ao, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f FINE ARTS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fine. (jrt< The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date flpr',1 Z7 , m3 ABSTRACT Rembrandt's "Homer" i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s i n The Hague i s but one work o f t h r e e e x e c u t e d f o r the I t a l i a n nobleman, Don A n t o n i o R u f f o o f Messinao R u f f o had p r e v i -o u s l y r e c e i v e d an " A r i s t o t l e " from Rembrandt i n 165^• At some time between I 6 5 3 and 1 6 6 1 , i t was d e c i d e d t o supplement t h i s p a i n t i n g w i t h t h e "Homer" and an " A l e x a n d e r " . That Rembrandt s h o u l d r e c e i v e such a commission from a f o r e i g n p a t r o n a t a ti m e when h i s s t y l e was b e g i n n i n g t o be outmoded by an emerging c l a s s i c i s m i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e e d . There are many problems t h a t c o n c e r n t h e / - p a i n t i n g of "Homer" i t s e l f . One o f t h e f i r s t i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g what Rembrandt's o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n l o o k l i k e s i n c e the "Homer" has been d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d i n s i z e , a p p a r e n t l y t h e r e s u l t o f damage by f i r e . Then t h e r e a r e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what format d i d Rembrandt choose and what v i s u a l p r e c e d e n t s was he f o l l o w i n g f o r h i s p o r t r a y a l o f Homer. Some t e n t a t i v e answers can be found by ex a m i n i n g two drawings a t t r i b u t e d t o Rembrandt, "Homer R e c i t i n g H i s V e r s e s " (Ben.no . 9 i 3 ) and "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o a S c r i b e " ( B e n . n o o l 0 6 6 ) , and a p a i n t i n g o f Homer by one o f Rembrandt's most f a i t h f u l p u p i l s , A e r t de G e l d e r . A l l t h e s e s o u r c e s , however, suggest r a t h e r t h a n d e f i n e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s as t o how t h e "Homer" o r i g i n a l l y appeared. F o r t h e f i g u r e o f Homer h i m s e l f , one can be more d e f i n i t e . Rembrandt t u r n e d t o an a n t i q u e b u s t , known as the H e l l e n -i s t i c , B l i n d Type, of w h i c h he a t l e a s t owned a c a s t ( U r k . l 6 9 , n o . l 6 3 ) . Problems a l s o a r i s e when one v i e w s the "Homer" i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e n t i r e commission. Were the t h r e e p a i n t i n g s commissioned a t t h e same time and who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n , Rembrandt o r R u f f o ? What a r e ' t h e h i s t o r i c a l and i c o n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s f o r making such a c o m b i n a t i o n ? P a r t i a l answers can be o b t a i n e d by a c a r e f u l and c a u t i o u s r e a d i n g o f the documents. The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t Rembrandt not R u f f o s h o u l d be c r e d i t e d w i t h c h o o s i n g a l l the s u b j e c t s or a t t h e v e r y l e a s t t h e " A r i s t o t l e " . To answer why t h e t h r e e s h o u l d be combined, a c l o s e r e a d i n g o f A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s and P l u t a r c h ' s A l e x a n d e r would p r o v i d e sound h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s . Many Rembrandt s c h o l a r s have o f f e r e d v a r i o u s i c o n o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f w h i c h , I f e e l , H e l d ' s f o r the " A r i s t o t l e " and V a l e n t i n e r ' s f o r t h e e n t i r e commission a r e the most c o n c l u s i v e . T h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s depend l a r g e l y on what Homer meant t o Rembrandt h i m s e l f . Homer g e n e r a l l y i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was c o n s i d e r e d as t h e g r e a t t e a c h e r and i n s p i r e d s e e r whose work, i f p r o p e r l y r e a d , would l e a d men t o a r i g h t e o u s and v i r t u o u s l i f e . Homeric a l l e g o r e s i s began i n a n t i q u i t y as a defense a g a i n s t P l a t o n i c c r i t i c i s m and c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l t h o u g h Rembrandt may not have been t o o f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a c t u a l t e x t o f t h e Homeric poems, he would c e r t a i n l y have been aware o f Homer's r e p u t a t i o n s i n c e the Dutch s c h o l a r s were amongst h i s s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t e r s . I t was Homer th e man r a t h e r t h a n h i s work t h a t i n t e r e s t e d Rembrandt. Homer's image as t h e b l i n d s e e r , t h e g r e a t t e a c h e r , and the 'almost' C h r i s t i a n p r o p h e t would have a p p e a l e d t o Rembrandt. The f a c t t h a t Homer was b l i n d , a theme i n h e r e n t i n much o f Rembrandt's work, would o n l y have s e r v e d t o i n c r e a s e t h i s i n t e r e s t . I n e s s e n c e , i t was the n a t u r e o f Homer's b l i n d n e s s t h a t made him, f o r Rembrandt and the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e g r e a t m o r a l e d u c a t o r and t h e d i v i n e p r o p h e t . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i i i I THE MAURITSHUIS HOMER 1 Ao THE FRAGMENT 1 Bo THE PAINTING 5 C. REMBRANDT'S BUST OF HOMER 13 II HISTORICAL PORTRAITS IN PAINTING 16 A. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 16 Bo ARISTOTLE, ALEXANDER AND HOMER 20 1. THE PATRON 20 2 . RUFFO, RIBERA AND REMBRANDT 21 3o THE COMMISSION 25 III THE STATUS OF HOMER IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY J>6 A. HOW HOMER WAS KNOWN 36" B. HOMER AND ALLEGORY 39 C. THE ANTI-HOMERIC CRITIQUE 46 D. REMBRANDT AND HOMER .51 1. THE CLASSICISTIC CRITIQUE 51 2 . THE BLIND BARD 56 3* CONCLUSION 59 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 6 l i i FOOTNOTES s CHAPTER I 62 CHAPTER I I 75 CHAPTER I I I 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 APPENDIX A: GUERCINO'S LETTER OF JUNE 1 3 , 1660 , 9^ APPENDIX B i REMBRANDT AND RAPHAEL 95 APPENDIX Cs REMBRANDT AND ANTIQUE SCULPTURE 97 APPENDIX Ds RENAISSANCE ANTIQUARIANS 99 APPENDIX Es RUFFO"S COMPLAINT AND REMBRANDT'S REPLY 100 APPENDIX Fs COPY OF SHIPPING BILL OF 1654 102 NOTES TO APPENDICES 103 ILLUSTRATIONS 105 i i i L IST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE PAGE 1* HOMER : d e t a i l - Head. I 0 5 2. ARISTOTLE CONTEMPLATING THE BUST OF HOMER 106 3, ARISTOTLE CONTEMPLATING THE BUST OF HOMER s d e t a i l - E n t i r e B u s t . 107 4. ARISTOTLE CONTEMPLATING THE BUST OF HOMER : d e t a i l - Head of B u s t . 108 i v ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to Pro f e s s o r Go Rosenberg who gave so f r e e l y of h i s time and whose many h e l p f u l sugges-t i o n s have been of immeasurable value i n the completion of t h i s worko - 1 -CHAPTER ONE  THE MAURITSHUIS HOMER A. The F r a g m e n t I n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s f r a g m e n t 1 (Br.483)» Homer, 2 s e a t e d m a n a r m c h a i r , i s shown h a l f - l e n g t h and t u r n e d s l i g h t l y t o t h e r i g h t t o g i v e a f u l l t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w o f h i s f a c e . He a p p e a r s i n t h e g u i s e o f a p r o p h e t , a g r e a t s i n g e r a n d a b l i n d s e e r who by d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n "may s e e and t e l l / Of t h i n g s i n v i s i b l e t o m o r t a l s i g h t . H o m e r s t a r e s v a c a n t l y i n t o s p a c e j h i s s i g h t l e s s e y e s a r e s u n k deep w i t h i n t h e i r s o c k e t s - t h e f l e s h h a v i n g b e e n w a s t e d away t h r o u g h l a c k o f u s e . " Y e t t o l o o k a t he was n o t l i k e a b l i n d m a n : f o r g r a c e d w e l t i n h i s empty e y e s . As I t h i n k t h e a r t i s t made h i m s o , t h a t i t m i g h t be e v i d e n t t o a l l t h a t he b o r e t h e i n e x t i n g u i s h a b l e l i g h t o f w i s d o m i n h i s h e a r t . H i s c u r l y g r e y h a i r , f u l l a t t h e s i d e s and t h i n o v e r t h e h i g h f o r e h e a d , i s e n c i r c l e d by a n a r r o w g o l d f i l l e t , " ' a n a t t r i b u t e o f a p o e t . C o v e r i n g h i s head i s a somewhat d r o o p y ; ' b e r e t ' w h i c h , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , m i g h t a p p e a r a s a d o c t o r ' s c a p , b u t u p o n c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i s s e e n t o be a h e a d c l o t h t h a t h a s b e e n d r a w n b e h i n d t h e h e a d a n d f a l l s o n t o t h e nape o f t h e n e c k . T h a t Homer s t i l l p o s s e s s e s t h a t o t h e r v i t a l s e n s e , h e a r i n g , i s c o n v e y e d by h a v i n g h i s e a r p r o t r u d e 6a f r o m amongst h i s g r e y i n g l o c k s . H i s c h e e k s a r e s l i g h t l y f a l l e n . The s k i n , t i g h t o v e r t h e p r o m i n e n t c h e e k b o n e s , i s d r a w n i n t o - 2 -w r i n k l e s t h a t l o s e t h e m s e l v e s i n a f l o w i n g , r o u n d e d y e t w e l l - k e p t b e a r d . Homer e w i t h mouth s l i g h t l y o p e n , i s p o r t r a y e d r e c i t i n g h i s v e r s e s - a s o n g f r o m t h e I l i a d r e l a t i n g some v a l i a n t e x p l o i t o f t h e n o b l e A c h i l l e s , s o a d m i r e d b y t h e y o u n g A l e x a n d e r , w o u l d be most a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n . H i s l e f t hand g r a s p s t h e t o p o f h i s cane w h i l e h i s r i g h t k e e p s e x p r e s s i v e a c c o m p a n i m e n t t o h i s 7 w o r d s . A g l o w i n g g o l d e n m a n t l e i s w r a p p e d a r o u n d h i s s h o u l d e r s and f a l l s down o n t o h i s l a p c o v e r i n g t h e k n e e s . U n d e r n e a t h Homer w e a r s a d u l l r e d d i s h - b r o w n t u n i c , p l e a t e d on t h e b r e a s t a n d e n d i n g a b r u p t l y j u s t u n d e r h i s b e a r d . A w i d e s a s h c i n c h e s t h e t u n i c i n a t t h e w a i s t . B e n e a t h t h e t u n i c Homer i s a p p a r e n t l y w e a r i n g a n u n d e r s h i r t w h i c h r e v e a l s i t s e l f b y a t o u c h o f r e d a t t h e s l e e v e o f h i s r i g h t arm. The c o s t u m e i s c e r t a i n l y n o t G r e e k a nd f i n d s i t s c l o s e t c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e e x o t i c d r e s s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s s e l f - p o r t r a i t o f 1658 ( B r . 5 0 ) . 8 Homer was d i c t a t i n g h i s v e r s e s t o a s c r i b e f o r i n t h e b o t t o m r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r o f t h e c a n v a s t h e r e r e m a i n s p a r t o f a f o r e f i n g e r a n d t h u m b t i p h o l d i n g a p e n , t h e t o p o f a n i n k w e l l a n d s e v e r a l p a g e s o f a n o p e n b o o k . The g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e 'two f i n g e r s ' w i t h t h e p e n i n b e t w e e n w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a b o v e r e a d i n g i s c o r r e c t , a l e a s t j u d g i n g f r o m a g o o d p h o t o g r a p h . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g has b e e n c u t down c a n be s e e n i n t h e u p p e r - l e f t - 3 -corners Rembrandt's s i g n a t u r e appears as " i n d t f . 1 6 6 3 . " The background i s i n half-shadow with the l i g h t coming i n from a r a t h e r h i g h angle on the l e f t and f a l l i n g mainly on Homer's forehead, a l o n g the r i g h t s i d e of h i s face and down onto h i s shoulder and r a i s e d r i g h t arm. Just below the l e v e l o of h i s l e f t s h o u l d e r , there seems to be a m o ulding 7 or p i l l a r base t h a t perhaps marks the i n t e r s e c t i o n of two w a l l s s i n c e the a r e a to the immediate r i g h t i s hidden i n shade. Homer may be seated i n f r o n t of a niche or perhaps at the juncture of two w a l l s somewhat i n the manner of N i c o l a e s van Bambeeck (Br.218) or "An Old Man i n F a n c i f u l Costume H o l d i n g a S t i c k . " (Br.2 3 9 ) • Although the M a u r i t s h u i s fragment has a r a t h e r monochrome brownish tone, Rembrandt, n e v e r t h e l e s s , has managed to c r e a t e a l i v e l y glowing s u r f a c e - a warm yet s c i n t i l l a t i n g harmony of g o l d s , browns and reds so t y p i c a l of h i s l a t e style."*" 0 The p a i n t appears to have been a p p l i e d q u i t e t h i c k l y i n a heavy impasto w i t h a broad, coarse brush or i n some areas such as the mantle p o s s i b l y even with a s p a t u l a . Colour i s p i l e d l a y e r upon l a y e r t o b u i l d up an uneven t r a n s l u c e n t s u r f a c e . Form i s suggested r a t h e r than defineds Homer seems to emerge from the background r a t h e r than b e i n g set o f f a g a i n s t i t . In some p a r t s of the canvas, e s p e c i a l l y the a r e a around the hands, contours are b l u r r e d c r e a t i n g hazy, i n d e f i n i t e forms. The cane, f o r example, was m i s t a k i n g l y seen by Hofstede de Groot as. p a r t of Homer's 11 robe. A p a i n t i n g t h a t 'breathes' the same atmosphere, i n _ 4 -terms of technique and treatment of l i g h t , i s Rembrandt's laughing s e l f - p o r t r a i t ( B r . 6 l ) i n the Wallraf-Richartz 1 2 Museum. - 5 -B. The P a i n t i n g I n a n o t e t o R u f f o ' s a g e n t , R embrandt g a v e t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e " A r i s t o t l e " , " A l e x a n d e r " a n d "Homer" i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: " I f e a c h p i e c e i s 6 p a l m i w i d e a nd 8 h i g h ' , t h e y w i l l be o f a g r e e a b l e d i m e n s i o n s a n d a s c o n c e r n s t h e p r i c e , t h e g e n t l e m a n w i l l n o t be o v e r c h a r g e d . y o u r h o n o u r ' s d e v o t e d s e r v a n t R e m b r a n d t v a n r h i j n . " 1 3 From t h i s n o t e , t h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d be assumed t h a t R e m b r a n d t had i n t e n d e d t o u s e a n u p r i g h t f o r m a t f o r a l l t h r e e p a i n t i n g s . C o n f u s i o n a r i s e s , h o w e v e r , f r o m R e m b r a n d t ' s s k e t c h ( B e n . n o . 14 1066) o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h h a s a n o b l o n g a s o p p o s e d t o a n u p r i g h t f o r m a t . A d d i n g t o t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s a p a i n t i n g o f "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o S c r i b e s " b y A e r t de G e l d e r , one o f R e m b r a n d t ' s p u p i l s , whose work was s u p p o s e d l y d e r i v e d f r o m R e m b r a n d t ' s p a i n t i n g . I t t o o a d o p t s a n o b l o n g f o r m a t . " A r i s t o t l e " , " A l e x a n d e r " a n d "Homer" a r e a l l l i s t e d i n t h e R u f f o c a t a l o g u e w i t h t h e d i m e n s i o n s 8 x 6 p a l m i w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y w o u l d i m p l y t h a t t h e h e i g h t was 8 p a l m i a n d t h e w i d t h , 6 . 1 ^ R u f f o , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , was n o t a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s f o r m u l a . Two p a i n t i n g s b y S a l v a t o r R o s a i n R u f f o ' s i n v e n t o r y a r e l i s t e d w i t h t h e w i d t h f i r s t 17 and t h e n t h e h e i g h t . G u e r c i n o ' s " C o s m o g r a p h e r " , c o m m i s s i o n e d t o a c t a s a p e n d a n t t o R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " , i s l i s t e d i n t h e i n v e n t o r y a s . "A C o s m o g r a p h e r w i t h a T u r k i s h t u r b a n on h i s h e a d , c o n s i d e r i n g a g e o g r a p h i c a l g l o b e h e l d w i t h h i s l e f t h a n d on a t a b l e , w h i l e he p o i n t s t o i t w i t h h i s r i g h t ... 8 x 6 p a l m i . " G u e r c i n o had s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d R u f f o f o r - 6 -t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s p a i n t i n g a s w e l l a s a s k e t c h o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o make h i s p a i n t i n g c o n f o r m . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s p a i n t i n g has b e e n l o s t , b u t a s k e t c h i n t h e Museum o f P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o R o s e n b e r g , 20 p r e s e r v e s t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . I t s m e a s u r e m e n t s (255 x 190 mm) c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e p a i n t i n g g i v e n i n R u f f o ' s i n v e n t o r y a n d w o u l d i n d i c a t e a n u p r i g h t f o r m a t . S l i v e , h o w e v e r , h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e C o s m o g r a p h e r i n t h e d r a w i n g i s n o t w e a r i n g a T u r k i s h t u r b a n , 21 b u t a h a t w i t h a c r o w n , t r i m m e d w i t h f u r . As w e l l , h i s l e f t hand i s h o l d i n g a p a i r o f d i v i d e r s r a t h e r t h a n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l g l o b e on a t a b l e a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i n v e n t o r y . G u e r c i n o c o u l d have c h a n g e d t h e s e f e a t u r e s when he e x e c u t e d t h e p a i n t i n g , b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y do c a s t d o u b t on R o s e n b e r g ' s p r o p o s a l . R e m b r a n d t ' s d r a w i n g ( B e n . n o . 1 0 6 6 ) f A e r t de G e l d e r ' s p a i n t i n g , G u e r c i n o ' s p e n d a n t a nd e v e n R u f f o ' s c a t a l o g u e do l i t t l e t o c l a r i f y t h i s q u e s t i o n . The o n l y c o n c r e t e p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e r e m a i n s R e m b r a n d t ' s n o t e a nd i t i s u p o n t h i s e v i d e n c e t h a t , I f e e l , we must assume t h a t t h e M a u r i t s h u i s Homer d i d have a n k i p r i g h t f o r m a t . The c h o i c e o f f o r m a t i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t d e t e r m i n e s many f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d n e x t . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C o m p o s i t i o n R u f f o ' s i n v e n t o r y g i v e s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p a i n t i n g a s "Homer s e a t e d d i c t a t i n g t o two D i s c i p l e s , h a l f - f i g u r e s , 22 l i f e s i z e " ; t h u s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n o t h e r s c r i b e o r s t u d e n t - 7 -a p a r t f r o m t h e one i n t h e l o w e r r i g h t h and c o r n e r i s i n d i c a t e d . B u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e j u s t e x a c t l y w h e r e t h i s t h i r d f i g u r e w o u l d be l o c a t e d . O n l y V a l e n t i n e r has q u e s t i o n e d t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e R u f f o 23 i n v e n t o r y . J I f t h e i n v e n t o r y s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e were two d i s c i p l e s t h e n t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a s o n t o q u e s t i o n i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y . Some c l u e s t o t h e makeup o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n may be g i v e n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e two d r a w i n g s o f Homer a t t r i b u t e d t o R e m b r a n d t (Ben.nos.9 1 3 and 1066) and A e r t de G e l d e r ' s "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o S c r i b e s " a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . The f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f Homer i n R e m b r a n d t ' s a r t o c c u r s i n t h e d r a w i n g "Homer R e c i t i n g V e r s e s " ( B e n . no.913) 2 S i n J a n S i x ' s A l bum A m i c o r u m ' P a n d o r a ' . J A l l t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s t h a t make up t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g a r e p r e s e n t h e r e . Homer, shown s t a n d i n g , h o l d s a c a n e i n h i s l e f t h a nd w h i l e g e s t u r i n g w i t h h i s r i g h t . H i s mouth i s o p e n a n d h i s s u n k e n , s i g h t l e s s e y e s a r e e m p h a s i z e d by t h e p r o m i n e n t b r o w o f t h e f o r e h e a d . A l t h o u g h h i s c o s t u m e a p p e a r s somewhat p l a i n i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e r i c h d r e s s o f t h e M a u r i t s h u i s Homer, i t d o e s have t h e same b a s i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n : a l o n g t u n i c w i t h a m a n t l e d r a p e d o v e r t h e s h o u l d e r s . I n t h e d r a w i n g , t h e m a n t l e may e v e n c o v e r t h e h e a d and seems t o have a l a u r e l w r e a t h p u l l e d o v e r t o p t o h o l d i t i n p l a c e . Homer's c o s t u m e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s more c l a s s i c a l i n t h a t he d o e s n o t have t h e s a s h a t t h e w a i s t b u t t h i s c l a s s i c a l a s p e c t may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d r a w i n g . A l s o R e m b r a n d t c o u l d have b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by R a p h a e l ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f Homer i n t h e " P a r n a s s u s " o f t h e V a t i c a n S t a n z e f r o m w h i c h he o b v i o u s l y b o r r o w e d h i s i d e a f o r t h e e n t i r e c o m p o s i t i o n . Here too we fin d the chair and the young scribe studiously recording Homer's verses. I f Homer were to s i t down, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of his face, the expressive gesture with the ri g h t hand and his holding the cane i n his l e f t hand would a l l contrive to make him very much l i k e the Homer of the Mauritshuis fragment. E s s e n t i a l l y Ben.no.913 defines the motifs of the Homer painting. The second drawing, "Homer Di c t a t i n g to a Scribe", (Ben.no.1066), defines the s e t t i n g . Here Homer i s not so much the great prophet but the great teacher. He i s i n an i n t e r i o r s e t t i n g shown seated i n an armchair with a single 27 scribe at his side. ' The p o s i t i o n of t h i s scribe i n r e l a t i o n to Homer, however, does not correspond to that occupied by the scribe of the fragment. In the drawing (Ben.no.1066) he i s seen from the front on Homer's immediate l e f t ; whereas, i n the painting, the scribe, judging at least from the p o s i t i o n of the book and hand, must have been seen i n a three-quarter view from the back and has been moved to a point d i r e c t l y i n front of Homer. 0 The advantages of t h i s change are obvious since i t makes f o r a much t i g h t e r bond between the two figures; and, of greater importance, i t allows a much better view of Homer's face. Such a change, moreover, may have been p r e c i p i -tated by the adoption of an upright rather than oblong format. The drawing i s longer than i t i s high (14.5 x I 6 . 7 cm.). Even i f the painting were to have an oblong format, i t s dimensions (192 x 144 cm.) s t i l l would not conform proportionally to those of the drawings they would - 9 -c o r r e s p o n d i n h e i g h t b u t n o t i n l e n g t h . By c o n t r a c t i n g t h e d e s i g n , R e m b r a n d t may have b e e n m a k i n g room f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s e c o n d s c r i b e o r s t u d e n t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n v e n t o r y . A s i d e f r o m t h e f o r m a t a n d p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c r i b e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t b r a n d Ben.no. 1 0 6 6 a s a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h . The b a c k g r o u n d i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f l i g h t a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s . Homer i s s e a t e d i n f r o n t o f a s q u a r e p i l l a r w i t h h i s l e f t s h o u l d e r s i l h o u e t t e d a g a i n s t a r o u n d e d o p e n i n g , a n o p e n i n g t h a t i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h e one t h a t a p p e a r s t o t h e l e f t o f C h r i s t i n t h e e t c h i n g B . 6 7 . The l i g h t i n g , h o w e v e r , i s n o t l o g i c a l f o r i t f a l l s on t h e f i g u r e s f r o m t h e l e f t a s i n t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h no l i g h t e n t e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e r o u n d e d o p e n i n g a s one w o u l d e x p e c t o P e r h a p s t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w a s h a d d e d by a l a t e r h a n d . The f i g u r e o f Homer h i m s e l f , a p a r t f r o m t h e a n g l e o f t h e h e a d , i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o t h e p a i n t i n g . S u c h d e t a i l s a s t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e h a n d s w i t h t h e c a n e a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e same, a l t h o u g h i n t h e p a i n t i n g Homer's hands a r e h e l d c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r . The h e a d d r e s s o f t h e d r a w i n g i s a much more s a t i s f a c t o r y a r r a n g e m e n t t h a n t h e s t r a n g e •cap* o f t h e p a i n t i n g . R e m b r a n d t p r o b a b l y w i s h e d t o r e v e a l Homer's e a r and u n c o v e r t h e f i l l e t s o he was f o r c e d i n t o a d o p t i n g t h e r a t h e r c l u m s y ' c a p ' a r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h e s a k e o f e x p e d i e n c y . Homer's c o s t u m e b o t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g a nd - 10 -d r a w i n g a r e c o m p a r a b l e a l t h o u g h i n t h e l a t t e r i t i s d i f f i -c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e m a n t l e f a l l s s t r a i g h t down i n t o h i s l a p o r i s d r a p e d o v e r h i s r i g h t arm a n d t h e arm r e s t o f t h e c h a i r . The c h a i r i t s e l f d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t i n "Homer R e c i t i n g h i s V e r s e s " ( B e n . n o . 9 i 3 ) i n t h a t i t d o e s n o t have a h i g h s q u a r e b a c k b u t a l o w r o u n d e d one a k i n t o t h o s e i n t h e d r a w i n g s Ben.no.9^8 and Ben.no.A83. 29 A e r t de G e l d e r ' s p a i n t i n g o f Homer h a s a s i m i l a r t y p e o f c h a i r . A e r t de G e l d e r ' s "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o S c r i b e s " r e l a t e s more c l o s e l y t o Ben.no . 1 0 6 6 t h a n t o t h e M a u r i t s h u i s f r a g m e n t . The r a t i o o f h e i g h t t o w i d t h c o r r e s p o n d s a l m o s t e x a c t l y t o t h a t o f t h e d r a w i n g . De G e l d e r ' s Homer i s s e a t e d i n a l m o s t t h e same r e s t r i c t e d t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w o f t h e d r a w i n g , a s c r i b e i s s e a t e d a t h i s s i d e i n much t h e same p o s i t i o n , o n l y n o t q u i t e s o f r o n t a l l y , a n d he l o o k s a t h i s book r a t h e r t h a n a t Homer. The hood t o o i s s i m i l a r o n l y h e r e i t i s h e l d i n p l a c e b y a b a n d p e r h a p s i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p o e t ' s f i l l e t . T h e r e a r e o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n De G e l d e r ' s p a i n t i n g a n d b o t h Ben.no. 1 0 6 6 a n d t h e M a u r i t s h u i s f r a g m e n t . The f i r s t , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t i t i s a m i r r o r image o f R e m b r a n d t ' s w o r k . Homer i s t u r n e d t o t h e l e f t r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e r i g h t . As w e l l t h e r e a r e f o u r d i s c i p l e s a s o p p o s e d t o t h e one o f t h e d r a w i n g a n d t h e two o f t h e p a i n t i n g . De G e l d e r ' s Homer i s w e a r i n g a f u r - l i n e d t u n i c u n l i k e R e m b r a n d t ' s Homer. The h e a v y d a r k s w i r l o f d r a p e r y t h a t - 11 -a p p e a r s o v e r Homer's r i g h t arm i n Ben.no . 1 0 6 6 may s u g g e s t t h a t R e m b r a n d t t o o had o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o r e n d e r s u c h a c l o a k . De G e l d e r seems t o have m i s u n d e r s t o o d R e m b r a n d t ' s e x p r e s s i v e g e s t u r e s i n c e h i s p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e h a n d s i s e x t r e m e l y awkward: Homer's r i g h t a r m , h o l d i n g t h e c a n e , b l o c k s t h e m o t i o n o f h i s l e f t . The c h a i r a s w e l l , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g t h e same b a s i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n a s R e m b r a n d t ' s v e r s i o n , i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e a l m o s t d w a r f i n g t h e a g e d Homer. O v e r a l l , De G e l d e r seems t o have b o r r o w e d more f r o m R e m b r a n d t ' s d r a w i n g (Ben.no. 1 0 6 6 ) t h a n f r o m t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g . T h e r e i s a good c h a n c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t he saw b o t h s i n c e he e n t e r e d R e m b r a n d t ' s s t u d i o i n 1661 a n d r e m a i n e d a p u p i l u n t i l 1 6 6 7 . ^ ° B u t e v e n i f he d i d s e e t h e p a i n t i n g , i t i s e x t r e m e l y p r e c a r i o u s t o u s e h i s v e r s i o n a s a b a s i s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e m i s s i n g p o r t i o n s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s "Homer" b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t s t h e o b l o n g f o r m a t , t h e r e v e r s e d c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e number o f s c r i b e s a n d t h e o t h e r v a r i a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . De G e l d e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e s c r i b e s , h o w e v e r , may s e r v e a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f how Re m b r a n d t may have j u x t a p o s e d h i s two d i s c i p l e s : one may h a v e b e e n l i t t l e more t h a n a h e a d a p p e a r i n g o v e r t h e s h o u l d e r o f t h e s c r i b e . The r e s t r i c t e d w i d t h o f R e m b r a n d t ' s c a n v a s m i g h t make t h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h e most f e a s i b l e . Homer's h e a d d r e s s i n t h e De G e l d e r p a i n t i n g may a l s o r e f l e c t how R e m b r a n d t e n v i s a g e d h i s 'cap* e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e way i t f a l l s on t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k . B o t h A e r t de G e l d e r ' s Homer and R e m b r a n d t ' s d r a w i n g ( B e n . n o . 1066) c a n o n l y s u g g e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o r a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r - 12 -t h a n g i v e a n y p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e a s t o t h e f i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g . The o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e f r a g m e n t w i t h i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f t h e work a l s o h a s g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f i n a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e f r a g m e n t h a s b e e n c u t down on a l l f o u r s i d e s , t h u s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t i n g a n y p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e . The p r o b l e m i s t o d i s c o v e r i n what a r e a s t h e "Homer" s u f f e r e d i t s g r e a t e s t l o s s e s . Of t h e t h r e e p a i n t i n g s c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r R u f f o , t h a t o f "Homer" has l o s t t h e most a r e a w i s e ; t h e " A r i s t o t l e " i s t h e most c o m p l e t e . ^ 1 H e l d a s s u m e s t h a t t h e " A r i s t o t l e " l o s t most o f i t s f i f t y - t h r e e c e n t i m e t e r s a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e c a n v a s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e "Homer" must h a v e had i t s e i g h t y -f o u r c e n t i m e t e r - l o s s i n h e i g h t c h i e f l y t a k e n f r o m t h e b o t t o m o f t h e c a n v a s s i n c e t h e s c r i b e i n t h e l o w e r r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a be l e f t t o h i m i f he were t o a p p e a r l i t t l e more t h a n a b u s t - l e n g t h f i g u r e . S u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t w o u l d t e n d t o o r i e n t t h e f r a g -ment i n t h e u p p e r l e f t o f t h e p a i n t i n g . I f a s e c o n d s c r i b e o r s t u d e n t w e re t o a p p e a r c l o s e t o h i m on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e c a n v a s , t h e n t h e f r a g m e n t w o u l d have t o be moved e v e n 32 f u r t h e r t o t h e l e f t . T h a t t h e p a i n t i n g h a s b e e n r e d u c e d on t h e l e f t a s w e l l i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e r e m n a n t s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s 3 3 s i g n a t u r e a s h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . J y The q u e s t i o n i s j u s t how much a r e a h a s b e e n l o s t h e r e . Some i d e a may be g i v e n b y t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i g n a t u r e i t s e l f s i n c e R e mbrandt - 13 -f r e q u e n t l y s i g n e d h i s w o r k s q u i t e c l o s e t o e i t h e r e d g e . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e "Homer" t h e n t h e l o s s o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e c a n v a s m i g h t he v e r y s m a l l i n d e e d . A l t h o u g h a n y o r i e n t a t i o n must r e m a i n p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e , p l a c i n g t h e f r a g m e n t i n t h e u p p e r l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r o f t h e p a i n t i n g i s , I f e e l , t h e most p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n . C 0 R e m b r a n d t ' s B u s t o f Homer The f a c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e Homer i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s f r a g m e n t a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e o f t h e b u s t o f Homer i n R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " . T h a t R e m b r a n d t owned s u c h a v i s u a l p r e c e d e n t i s p r o v e n b y t h e I656 i n v e n t o r y o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s . Among t h e many b u s t s l i s t e d i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e , t h e r e i s a b u s t o f Homer ( U r k . 1 6 9 , no . 1 6 3 ) w h i c h s t o o d b e s i d e one o f A r i s t o t l e ( U r k . 1 6 9 , n o . 1 6 4 ) . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e 34 w h e t h e r t h i s b u s t was a g e n u i n e a n t i q u e o r a p l a s t e r c a s t . A t a n y r a t e , R e m b r a n d t ' s Homer c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n a n t i q u e b u s t known a s t h e H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d Type o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t w e n t y - t w o e x t a n t h e a d s t h a t a l l a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e 35 f r o m one G r e e k o r i g i n a l . T h r e e o f t h e f i n e s t e x a m p l e s a r e i n t h e L o u v r e , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f N a p l e s a n d t h e B o s t o n Museum o f F i n e A r t s . H e l d b e l i e v e s t h a t R e m b r a n d t owned a c a s t o f t h e B o s t o n h e a d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t shows t h e e a r s c l e a r l y ?6 w h i c h a r e h i d d e n i n o t h e r v e r s i o n s . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e e a r s a r e p e r h a p s s l i g h t l y more p r o m i n e n t i n t h i s e x a m p l e , b u t t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o p i e s a s w e l l t h a t h a v e t h e e a r s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e ~ t h e u n c o v e r e d e a r s a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - 14 -feature pf the H e l l e n i s t i c , Blind Type of bust. An equally good candidate, i n my opinion, i s a 37 bust i n the Museo Capitolino. O r i g i n a l l y i t may have been a f u l l - l e n g t h terminal f i g u r e . Drawings by Girolamo da Carpi and Heemskerck supposedly represent t h i s same bust before being cut down. Carlo Maratta drew the head only presumably a f t e r the herm had been reduced. PinaroLr's guidebook, A n t i c h i t a d i Roma of 1703» records that t h i s bust 39 was at that time part of the Capitoline C o l l e c t i o n . Although the right ear i s not quite as prominent as that of the Boston Head, i t i s , nonetheless, very noticeable. The arrangement of the h a i r , moreover, seems closer to Rembrandt's painted version than does that of the Boston head. A t u f t of h a i r i n front of the right ear forms a fork at the l e v e l of Homer's eye and then swerves up to create a s l i g h t enclave i n the h a i r . In the Boston version, t h i s t u f t of hair emerges from beneath the f i l l e t as two separate and d i s t i n c t strands quite unlike the hair s t y l e of Rembrandt's Homer. The f i l l e t too of the Capitoline bust being s l i g h t l y narrower than that of the Boston head i s again closer to Rembrandtfs. The Capitoline head, nevertheless, varies considerably from Rembrandt's 'graven image' e s p e c i a l l y with respect to the body of the bust. Rembrandt's Homer i s wearing a chiton whereas the Capitoline Homer has the chest and shoulders bare. This difference could possibly - 15 -be explained by the fact that Rembrandt may have had only a cast of the head and not the entire bust. Held, furthermore, has pointed out that the body of Rembrandt's bust i s non-40 c l a s s i c a l . Other less noticeable differences such as the general proportions of the head and the shape of the beard should caution one from making too d e f i n i t e a s e l e c t i o n . On-rsuch s l i g h t s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s i t cannot be stated with any certainty that Rembrandt did own a cast of the Capitoline bust, but at least t h i s head can be considered as a possible candidate f o r such a s e l e c t i o n . The simple fact that i t was known at le a s t shortly a f t e r Rembrandt's time and perhaps before helps to assert i t s claim. - 16 -CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL PORTRAITS I N PAINTING A. O r i g i n and D e v e l o p m e n t The p r a c t i s e o f c o l l e c t i n g p o r t r a i t s o f t h e W i s e Men o f A n t i q u i t y owed i t s , o r i g i n t o a n c i e n t a u t h o r s . C i c e r o , S u e t o n i u s , H o r a c e and J u v e n a l a l l m e n t i o n t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f p o r t r a i t s o f l i t e r a t i a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s was t h e mark o f t h e l e a r n e d man. 1 P l i n y r e c o r d s t h a t i t was A s i n i u s P o l l i o , a f r i e n d o f J u l i u s C e a s a r , who b e g a n t h e c u s t o m o f d e c o r a t i n g l i b r a r i e s w i t h s t a t u e s and b u s t s o f 2 t h e a n c i e n t s a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y o f Homer. T h i s t r a d i t i o n was r e v i v e d i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y b y t h e b o o k - l o v i n g F e d e r i g o de M o n t e f e l t r o who c o m m i s s i o n e d t w e n t y - e i g h t p o r t r a i t s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s , p o e t s and f a t h e r s o f t h e G r e e k a n d L a t i n C h u r c h f o r h i s s t u d y i n t h e P a l a z z o 3 D u c a l e o f U r b i n o . E a c h o f t h e famous p e r s o n a g e s i s shown i n h a l f - l e n g t h o r t o t h e k n e e s . T h o s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l k i n s h i p l i k e P l a t o a n d A r i s t o t l e o r Homer a n d V i r g i l t u r n t o w a r d s one a n o t h e r a s i f i n d i s p u t a t i o n . F r i e d l a n d e r a t t r i b u t e s t h e s e w o r k s t o J o o s v a n G e n t ; t h e i r s t y l e i s h a l f N e t h e r l a n d i s h , h a l f I t a l i a n . The q u e s t i o n o f who s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d was a n s w e r e d b y t h e h u m a n i s t i c s c h o l a r s o f F e d e r i g o * s c o u r t , p e r h a p s by F e d e r i g o h i m s e l f . J o o s v a n G e n t , a t a n y r a t e , - 17 -must have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e q u e n c e i n w h i c h t h e f i g u r e s w e r e t o be p o r t r a y e d a n d , a b o v e a l l , on t h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f e a c h p e r s o n a g e , a k n o w l e d g e o f w h i c h f o r many o f them c o u l d o n l y be g a i n e d f r o m l i t e r a r y sources» Not a l l t h e p o r t r a i t s were ' i d e a l i z e d * o r i n v e n t e d s i n c e a f e w were men t h e Duke knew o r h a d known a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y a g o o d l i k e n e s s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d . A l s o t h e p o r t r a i t s o f s u c h w e l l - k n o w n f i g u r e s a s D a n t e a n d P e t r a r c h had b e e n p r e s e r v e d by l o c a l t r a d i t i o n w i t h w h i c h J o o s w o u l d h a v e had t o become f a m i l i a r . F o r t h e r e m a i n d e r , h o w e v e r , t h e N e t h e r l a n d e r had t o r e l y on h i s own i n v e n t i v e -n e s s g u i d e d b y I t a l i a n s c h o l a r s , k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n a n t i q u e l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s . T h e r e c o u l d be no m i s t a k i n g t h e i d e n t i t y o f e a c h f i g u r e anyway s i n c e e a c h p o r t r a i t was a c c o r d e d a name and a c c o m p a n i e d b y a l a u d a t o r y ^ l e g e n d . A f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e was t h e a l l o t m e n t o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t r i b u t e t o t h e i l l u s t r i o u s man p o r t r a y e d . P o e t s a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y shown w i t h t h e i r hand r e s t i n g on a b o o k , e i t h e r o p e n o r c l o s e d , w h i l e t h e i r o t h e r h a n d i s r a i s e d i n a n e x p l a n a t o r y g e s t u r e . S i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s c a n be f o u n d i n d r a w i n g s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s i n m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s . A l a t e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t r y m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y (M.S. B o d l e y 9^ +3) o f t h e D i e t s a n d S a y i n g s  o f t h e P h i l o s o p h e r s c o n t a i n s s u c h s k e t c h e s : Hermes, P l a t o , S o c r a t e s , a n d Homer a r e r e p r e s e n t e d h o l d i n g a b o ok a n d p e n -c a s e ; H i p p o c r a t e s , w i t h a p e n - c a s e and d o c t o r ' s v e s s e l ; A l e x a n d e r , w i t h c r o w n a n d s c e p t r e : and S t . G r e g o r y i s shown - 18 -p r e a c h i n g f r o m a n op e n b o o k . T h i s m a n u s c r i p t a l s o i n c l u d e d a p o r t r a i t o f A r i s t o t l e w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y h a s b e e n l o s t . S i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b o o k s c o n t a i n i n g f e i g n e d p o r t r a i t s o f t h e a n c i e n t s c a r r i e d on t h i s t r a d i t i o n . Two e x a m p l e s a r e G u i l l a u m e R o v i l l e ' s P r o m p t u a i r e d e s m e d a l l e s  d e s p l u s renommees p e r s o n n e s q u i on e s t e d e p u i s l e commencement du monde, L y o n s 1553t a n d A n d r e T h e v e t ' s L e s v r a i s p o u r t r a i t s e t v i e s d e s hommes i l l u s t r e s g r e c s , l a t i n s e t p a y e n s , P a r i s 1584^ I n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e f a s h i o n f o r h i s t o r i c a l p o r t r a i t s o f t h e i l l u s t r i o u s men o f t h e p a s t was / 7 r e j u v e n a t e d b y t h e S p a n i s h Duke o f A l c a l a ( 1 5 8 4 - 1 6 3 7 ) . B o t h i n t a s t e a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s , he was a k i n t o t h e e n l i g h t e n e d F e d e r i g o de M o n t e f e l t r o . A l c a l a was a c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r o f some m e r i t a n d a l s o h a d a l a r g e l i b r a r y . T h e r e i s a g o o d c h a n c e t h a t he saw F e d e r i g o ' s s t u d y a n d l i b r a r y d u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o U r b i n o i n 1 6 2 6 . S u c h a v i s i t may ha v e s p a r k e d h i s d e s i r e t o d e c o r a t e h i s own l i b r a r y i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . To c a r r y o u t h i s p l a n he t u r n e d t o J u s e p e R i b e r a , r e n o w n e d f o r h i s p o r t r a i t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s . The W i s e Men t h a t J u s e p e R i b e r a p a i n t e d were a l s o i n a s e n s e i n v e n t e d p o r t r a i t s w i t h l i t t l e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e a n t i q u e . T h e y w e r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , q u i t e a p a r t f r o m p u r e l y f i c t i t i o u s p o r t r a i t s s u c h a s t h o s e t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n t h e 8 p a l a c e s a t Como, F l o r e n c e a n d M o n d r a g o n e . - 19 -R i b e r a ' s W i s e Men f o r A l c a l a , l i k e V a n G e n t ' s f o r F e d e r i g o , were b a s e d o n a s c h o l a r l y i n q u i r y i n t o t h e a n t i q u e s o u r c e s . I n t h i s s e n s e t h e y w e re j u s t a s much p o r t r a i t s a s were t h e a n c i e n t b u s t s o f Homer. A l c a l a h i m s e l f may h a v e p l a y e d a p a r t i n d e f i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a g e s f o r he had i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e a n c i e n t b u s t s t h a t more a n d more w e r e f i n d i n g t h e i r way i n t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n s o f I t a l i a n a n t i q u a r i a n s . Some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p o r t r a i t s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s c o u l d be g a i n e d b y e x a m i n i n g t h e w o r k s o f S t a t i u s , U r s i n u s a n d i a b e r w i t h t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s e n g r a v e d b y L a f r e r y a n d G a l l e . A n i n t e r e s t i n g n o t e , w h i c h may have some b e a r i n g on t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " , i s t h a t t h e s e p o r t r a i t s u n l i k e F e d e r i g o ' s k w e r e t o be l e f t unnamed. A l c a l a ' s l e a r n e d g u e s t s w e re t o g u e s s who e a c h p o r t r a i t r e p r e s e n t e d . H e r e a g a i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s y m b o l s w ere a d d e d a s h i n t s t o a s s i s t i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . B o o k s , c h a r t s , p a p e r s , g l o b e s a n d w r i t i n g i m p l e m e n t s were t h e f a m i l i a r t o o l s o f t h e s e e r u d i t e s . Some h a d p e c u l i a r a t t r i b u t e s s u c h a s S o c r a t e s w i t h h i s m i r r o r a n d D i o g e n e s w i t h h i s l a n t e r n . The s u c c e s s o f t h e s e ' i n v e n t e d ' p o r t r a i t s was w i d e s p r e a d w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e c o p i e s a n d r e p l i c a s b e i n g made 0 R i b e r a ' s s a g e s , some i n c o p i e s a n d o t h e r s o f d u b i o u s a u t h e n t i c i t y , w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e P r i n c e o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n , Don Ramon M a r o t o o f P a l m a de M a l l o r c a , - 20 -t h e l a r g e s t number b e i n g owned by D r . J o a c h i m C a r a v a l h o a t t h e C h a t e a u de V i l l a n d r y . As i n a n c i e n t t i m e s , t h e y w e r e t h e mark o f a l e a r n e d man. B. A r i s t o t l e , A l e x a n d e r a n d Homer 1. The P a t r o n R i b e r a had a n o t h e r p a t r o n n o t u n l i k e t h e Duke o f A l c a l a i n h u m a n i s t i c i n t e r e s t s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . H i s name was Don A n t o n i o R u f f o o f M e s s i n a , p a t r o n o f b o t h R i b e r a a n d Rembrandt."'" 0 Don A n t o n i o , b o r n i n 1610, was t h e y o u n g e s t o f s i x c h i l d r e n o f t h e Duke o f B a g n a r a whose f a m i l y had p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n C a l a b r i a e v e r s i n c e t h e M i d d l e A g e s . H i s m o t h e r came f r o m a p r o m i n e n t f a m i l y i n S i c i l y , a n d a f t e r h e r h u s b a n d ' s d e a t h , she r e t u r n e d t o M e s s i n a and b u i l t a l a r g e p a l a c e i n t h e n e w l y e r e c t e d q u a r t e r n e a r t h e h a r b o u r . Don A n t o n i o moved h e r e w i t h h i s b r i d e i n 1646. He was a w e a l t h y man and p e r s o n a l l y s u p e r v i s e d t h e a f f a i r s o f h i s e s t a t e a s w e l l a s t a k i n g a n a c t i v e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l s p h e r e s . On t h e c u l t u r a l s i d e , h i s p a l a c e s e r v e d a s a m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s and s c i e n t i s t s w i t h whom he f o u n d e d a n academy o f t h e f i n e a r t s . Don A n t o n i o was a s c h o l a r i n h i s own r i g h t p o s s e s s i n g a f a m ous c o l l e c t i o n o f m e d a l s and a n i m p o r t a n t l i b r a r y . The p a l a c e i t s e l f was d e c o r a t e d w i t h m y t h o l o g i c a l f r e s c o e s , s c u l p t u r e , g o l d s m i t h ' s w o r k and t a p e s t r i e s -t h e l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g a s e t d e s i g n e d by R u b e n s . Ruben's - 21 -t a p e s t r i e s i n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h were f r o m t h e L i f e o f A c h i l l e s s e r i e s , so~> R u f f o a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y was n o t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e w o r k o f Horner.^""'" M o s t i n t e r e s t i n g o f a l l , h o w e v e r , was h i s p i n a c o t e c a where a s e a r l y a s 1649 he a l r e a d y owned 166 c a n v a s e s , 'and by t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h i n I 6 7 8 , h a d au g m e n t e d h i s c o l l e c t i o n t o i n c l u d e 350 p a i n t i n g s . R u f f o k e p t a c a t a l o g u e o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n w h i c h he l i s t e d t h e a r t i s t , t h e s u b j e c t , t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d e v e n s o m e t i m e s t h e p r i c e . H i s l i s t o f a r t i s t s i s i m p r e s s i v e i n d e e d : D u r e r , L u c a s v a n L e y d e n , T i t i a n , V a n D y c k , P o u s s i n , J o r d e a n s , G u i d o R e n i , t o name b u t a f e w . 2. R u f f o , R i b e r a a n d Rem b r a n d t The y e a r a f t e r R u f f o moved i n t o t h e p a l a c e , he o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a g e n t s i n N a p l e s f o u r h a l f - l e n g t h f i g u r e s b y R i b e r a , a l l o f t h e m p i c t u r e s o f S a i n t s . E v i d e n t l y , J u s e p e ' s w o r k p l e a s e d t h e n o b l e m a n f o r he o r d e r e d a P i e t a o f w h i c h R i b e r a s e n t h i m a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , R i b e r a ' s p r o t r a c t e d i l l n e s s i n 1649-50 d e l a y e d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e w o r k a nd must have v e x e d t h e p a t r o n s i n c e 12 he r e d u c e d t h e p r o m i s e d p r i c e b y t e n p e r c e n t . O d d l y e n o u g h , R u f f o , who was i n t h e m a r k e t f o r p h i l o s o p h e r s , d i d n o t o r d e r a n y f r o m R i b e r a - t h e l e a d i n g a r t i s t i n t h i s g e n r e . Don A n t o n i o , h o w e v e r , may have b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o d e a l w i t h a n a r t i s t i n f a i l i n g h e a l t h . R u f f o , a t a n y r a t e , i n I652, t h e y e a r o f R i b e r a ' s d e a t h , t u r n e d t o R e m b r a n d t f o r a p h i l o s o p h e r . S e v e r a l - 22 -q u e s t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y come t o m i n d . Why d i d Don A n t o n i o p i c k R e m b r a n d t f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n ? D i d he a s k s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a n A r i s t o t l e o r m e r e l y f o r a p h i l o s o p h e r ? To a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s we must known s o m e t h i n g o f R e m b r a n d t ' s r e p u t a t i o n a s a n a r t i s t i n I t a l y a n d t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n . R e m b r a n d t ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n was s e e m i n g l y b a s e d c h i e f l y on h i s s k i l l a s a n e t c h e r . G u e r c i n o ' s l e t t e r b e a r s w i t n e s s t o t h i s f a c t : "As f o r t h e h a l f - f i g u r e o f R e m b r a n d t w h i c h came i n t o y o u r h a n d s , i t c a n n o t be o t h e r t h a n c o m p l e t e p e r f e c t i o n , b e c a u s e I h a v e s e e n v a r i o u s w o r k s o f h i s p r i n t s w h i c h have come t o o u r r e g i o n . T h e y a r e v e r y b e a u t i f u l i n e x e c u t i o n , e n g r a v e d w i t h g o o d t a s t e a n d done i n a f i n e m a nner, so t h a t one c a n assume t h a t h i s w o r k i n c o l o u r i s l i k e w i s e o f c o m p l e t e e x q u i s i t n e s s a n d p e r f e c t i o n . I s i n c e r e l y e s t e e m h i m a s a g r e a t a r t i s t . " 1 3 D i d R u f f o a l s o b a s e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R e m b r a n d t ' s p a i n t i n g s t y l e on a k n o w l e d g e o f R e m b r a n d t ' s p r i n t s , o r d i d he have a c c e s s t o o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ? R u f f o n o r m a l l y o p e r a t e d t h r o u g h a m i d d l e m a n a n d may h a v e r e l i e d on t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s p a i n t i n g s . P e r h a p s R u f f o was n o t t o o c o n c e r n e d s i n c e he was p r o n e t o s t r i v i n g f o r d i v e r s i t y i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n b o t h i n t h e g e n r e r e p r e s e n t e d 14 a n d i n t h e n a t i o n a l i t i e s o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g a r t i s t s . F i t z D a r b y p o i n t s o u t t h a t b o t h R i b e r a a n d R e m b r a n d t w o u l d have b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e l e a d i n g e x p o n e n t s 15 o f t h e s t i l e t e n e b r o s o a t t h i s t i m e . The s t y l e was - 2 3 -outmoded a t l e a s t b y 1670 when Abraham B r e u g e l m a l i g n e d R e m b r a n d t ' s w o r k , b u t h i s c r i t i c i s m r e f l e c t s t h e t h e n 16 c u r r e n t c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i q u e . R u f f o was o b v i o u s l y p l e a s e d w i t h R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " a n d e v e n B r e u g e l i n I 6 7 0 was f o r c e d t o a d m i t t h a t R e m b r a n d t ' s h a l f - f i g u r e was b e t t e r t h a n a n y made by t h e b e s t I t a l i a n p a i n t e r g . R e m b r a n d t ' s t r e a t m e n t o f a n h i s t o r i c a l p o r t r a i t d i f f e r s somewhat f r o m how R i b e r a c o n c e i v e d h i s t a s k . The modus o p e r a n d i o f t h e l a t t e r c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n A n t i q u e p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s u p p l y i n g c l u e s t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f h i s s u b j e c t i . e . b o o k s a n d a p e n - c a s e f o r p h i l o s o p h e r s . R e m b r a n d t , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , g o e s a s t e p f u r t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o s u p p l y i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y m b o l s , he p r o v i d e s , i n t h e " A r i s t o t l e " , more c o n c r e t e v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e s t h a t n o t o n l y i d e n t i f y t h e s u b j e c t b u t a l s o r e l a t e t o t h e p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y o f t h e p h i l o s p h e r . The b u s t o f Homer a n d t h e c h a i n w i t h t h e m e d a l l i o n o f A l e x a n d e r a r e n o t m e r e l y a t t r i b u t e s ; t h e y a r e s u p p l e m e n t a r y p o r t r a i t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t t h a t f o r m t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f A r i s t o t l e ' s e n t i r e b e i n g . R e m b r a n d t was a p p a r e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h a t y p e o f p o r t r a i t u r e i n w h i c h one o r more f i g u r e s a r e shown t o g e t h e r "I Q w i t h b o o k s a nd c l a s s i c a l b u s t s . One o f t h e f i n e s t e x a m p l e s i s R u b e n ' s p a i n t i n g o f h i m s e l f w i t h h i s b r o t h e r P h i l i p a n d t h e s c h o l a r s L i p s i u s a n d W o v e r i u s . A b u s t o f t h e s o - c a l l e d - 2k -S e n e c a i s p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d s i n c e L i p s i u s had e d i t e d S e n e c a ' s w o r k s . I n t h i s t y p e o f p o r t r a i t u r e , t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l bond t h a t l i n k s t h e p e r s o n p o r t r a y e d w i t h t h e b u s t . The b u s t s , h o w e v e r , u s u a l l y - r e m a i n mere a n t i q u a r i a n o b j e c t s t h a t d e f i n e t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l r a n g e o r i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s i t t e r , n o r i s t h e r e a n y p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e person_.and t h e s c u l p t u r e . Von E i n e m p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s m o t i f o f p l a c i n g t h e h a n d on t h e b u s t owes i t s o r i g i n t o V e n e t i a n p o r t r a i t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e s t u d i o o f T i n t o r e t t o . - ^ P r e s u m a b l y t h e s e p o r t r a i t s w e r e o f c o l l e c t o r s a n d a n t i q u a r i a n s . N o r m a l l y t h e r e i s no e m o t i o n a l b o nd b e t w e e n t h e s i t t e r a n d t h e a n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e . H e l d a r g u e s t h a t t h i s g e s t u r e may h ave d e r i v e d f r o m c o l l e c t o r s p o r t r a i t s t o show t h e i r p r i d e o f o w n e r s h i p , b u t he f e e l s t h a t i t c o u l d have a more 20 p r o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n h i s o p i n i o n i t c o u l d be a n a l o g o u s t o t h e g e s t u r e o f p l a c i n g a hand on a s k u l l i n d i c a t i n g a n a w a r e n e s s o f man's m o r t a l i t y . By s u b s t i t u t i n g a b u s t f o r a s k u l l , t h i s g e s t u r e w o u l d t h e n s u g g e s t a theme o f s u r v i v a l , p e r h a p s a s p e c i a l k i n d o f s u r v i v a l i n v e s t e d i n 21 a w o r k o f a r t . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , a r t may be c o n s i d e r e d a h a n d m a i d e n t o Fame who h e l p s p r e s e r v e t h e memory o f g r e a t men o f t h e p a s t . To R i b e r a , p o r t r a i t s o f t h e W i s e Men w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e human f a c e a s i t r e v e a l s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n . S u c h a p r e o c c u p a t i o n - 2 5 -was not t r i v i a l : physiognomy was d e f i n e d as a t r u e s c i e n c e by t h e f o l l o w e r s o f A r i s t o t l e and s p u r i o u s l y by A r i s t o t l e 22 h i m s e l f . I r o n i c a l l y , G u e r c i n o judged Rembrandt's h a l f -f i g u r e t o r e p r e s e n t a P h y s i o g n o m i s t , t h e r e f o r e , he tho u g h t 23 i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o p a i n t a Cosmographer as a pendant. As H e l d has so a d e q u a t e l y shown, Rembrandt's p o r t r a i t o f A r i s t o t l e d e a l s w i t h f a r deeper c o n c e r n s . Rembrandt i s not c o n t e n t w i t h merely u n v e i l i n g t h e s e c r e t s o u l but a s o u l caught i n - t h e c e n t r e o f c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s . Here i s where t h e d i f f e r e n c e between R i b e r a and Rembrandt a s s e r t s i t s e l f . 3 . The Commission S i x y e a r s a f t e r h a v i n g r e c e i v e d t h e A r i s t o t l e , ' R u f f o commissioned t h e i . a g i n g Bolognese p a i n t e r G u e r c i n o t o p r o v i d e a campanion-piece. The i n t r i q u i n g q u e s t i o n i s why s h o u l d he choose -Guercino? Was he vexed w i t h Rembrandt as he had been w i t h R i b e r a ? D i d Rembrandt r e c e i v e t h e commission f o r t h e A l e x a n d e r and Homer some ti m e p r e v i o u s t o 1660 and t h e n , f o r some u n e x p l a i n e d r e a s o n , perhaps h i s h a b i t u a l p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , f a i l e d t o d e l i v e r on t i m e ? Had Don A n t o n i o grown t i r e d o f w a i t i n g and i n f r u s t r a t i o n had t u r n e d t o G u e r c i n o ? At any r a t e , G u e r c i n o was commissioned t o p a i n t ., 24 a pendant p o r t r a i t on June 13, 1660 ; he had f i n i s h e d h i s 2 work by October 6, 1660. A p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e months l a t e r - 26 -on J u l y 3 0 , 1661. Rembrandt s h i p p e d t h e "Homer" and" Alexander" from Amsterdam: t h e y t o o were t o a c t as pendants t o t h e 26 " A r i s t o t l e " and a r r i v e d i n M e s s i n a i n t h e f a l l o f 1661. O n l y t h e " A l e x a n d e r " was b i l l e d a t t h i s t i m e . The"Homer" was s h i p p e d u n f i n i s h e d ; i t was r e t u r n e d t o Rembrandt on November 16, 1662 but was r e f e r r e d t o on November 1: " i n v i o con i l d.° q u a r d r o d ' A l e s s a n d r o un a l t r o d'Homero m e z z o f i n i t o s o p r a t e l a b e l l a e nova ... d e n t r o una i n c i r a t a . " Why had Rembrandt s h i p p e d t h e Homer u n f i n i s h e d ? Was i t t o p l a c a t e an angry R u f f o so he would not l o s e the commission? 28 H e l d a t l e a s t t h i n k s s o . J u d g i n g from P r e t i ' s l e t t e r o f December 1 ? , 1661, t h e p i c t u r e s had g r e a t l y p l e a s e d t h e nobleman when t h e y 2Q f i r s t a r r i v e d . A y e a r l a t e r , however, Don A n t o n i o complained t h a t t h e A l e x a n d e r was u n p r o f e s s i o n a l l y made up o f f o u r p i e c e s o f canvas and t h a t the seams were 30 d i s t u r b i n g l y v i s i b l e . Rembrandt was a c c u s e d o f t a k i n g a head he had p a i n t e d e a r l i e r and e n l a r g i n g i t i n t o a h a l f -l e n g t h f i g u r e by a d d i n g s t r i p s o f canvas. R u f f o was s t i l l w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t i t i f t h e p r i c e were reduced by h a l f , w h i c h he added was s t i l l more t h a n what an I t a l i a n p a i n t e r would r e c e i v e , o t h e r w i s e Rembrandt s h o u l d p a i n t a r e p l a c e -ment. The Homer would be a c c e p t e d i f i t were p r o p e r l y f i n i s h e d . Rembrandt, o b v i o u s l y angered by R u f f o ' s c o m p l a i n t , r e t o r t e d t h a t t h e r e were no good c o n n o i s s e u r s i n M e s s i n a , and t h a t t h e seams would not show i f t h e p i c t u r e were hung - 27 -i n t h e r i g h t l i g h t . The m a s t e r o f f e r e d t o p a i n t a n o t h e r A l e x a n d e r i f R u f f o w e re w i l l i n g t o p a y a n a d d i t i o n a l 100 f l o r i n s more t h a n t h e c o s t o f t h e f i r s t a n d r e t u r n i t a t 31 h i s own e x p e n s e and r i s k . The outcome i s n o t known. R e m b r a n d t . . . n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i d c o m p l e t e t h e "Homer" a n d r e t u r n e d i t t o S i c i l y i n 1664. From t h e a v a i l a b l e f a c t s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t R e m b r a n d t d i d i n d e e d r e c e i v e t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o p a i n t t h e c o m p a n i o n - p i e c e s f o r t h e " A r i s t o t l e " b e f o r e R u f f o t u r n e d t o G u e r c i n o . The e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . -t h e r e a r e no d o c u m e n t e d f a c t s . R e m b r a n d t ' s s h i p p i n g t h e " A l e x a n d e r " a n d " H o m e r " o n l y n i n e m onths a f t e r G u e r c i n o had c o m p l e t e d h i s " C o s m o g r a p h e r " w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t a c o m m i s s i o n b e t w e e n R u f f o a n d R e m b r a n d t had b e e n p r e v i o u s l y a r r a n g e d . A l s o t h e f a c t t h a t the"Homer"was s h i p p e d u n f i n i s h e d p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t R e m b r a n d t was a n x i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d t h a t he m i g h t l o s e t h e c o m m i s s i o n . R u f f o ' s c o m p l a i n t , m o r e o v e r , m i g h t be c o n s t r u e d a s a p e n a l t y , a s had b e e n t h e c a s e w i t h R i b e r a ' s " P i e t a " , t h a t he t r i e d t o i m p o s e on t h e t a r d y N e t h e r l a n d e r . P e r h a p s t h i s i s u n j u s t s i n c e R u f f o ' s c o m p l a i n t may have i n f a c t b e e n l e g i t i m a t e . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t a t t h i s t i m e R e m b r a n d t was i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n f o r h i s l a r g e s t p a i n t i n g , t h e " C o n s p i r a c y o f C l a u d i u s C i v i l i s " f o r t h e A m s t e r d a m Town H a l l a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y 32 he may have b e e n p r e s s e d f o r t i m e . - 28 -By e n l a r g i n g an a l r e a d y f i n i s h e d p o r t r a i t head, Rembrandt may have th o u g h t he c o u l d dupe t h e I t a l i a n connoisseur. E x a c t l y when R u f f o had commissioned th e " A l e x a n d e r " and "Homer", and who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g them as pendants remains u n c l e a r . To f i n d an answer we must t u r n once a g a i n t o the " A r i s t o t l e " s i n c e i t i n e f f e c t d e t e r m i n e s many a s p e c t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f the two l a t e r p a i n t i n g s . F i r s t , c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n , H e l d f e e l s , and I am i n c l i n e d t o a g r e e , t h a t Rembrandt al o n e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h o o s i n g A r i s t o t l e as t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s p a i n t i n g . V a l e n t i n e r and Rousseau b e l i e v e t h a t b o t h 34 R u f f o and Rembrandt were i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n . H e l d r e j e c t s t h i s t h e o r y s i n c e he n o t e s t h a t f o r a t i m e Don A n t o n i o a p p a r e n t l y d i d not know the s u b j e c t o f t h e p a i n t i n g . The I t a l i a n nobleman f i r s t r e g i s t e r e d i t on S e p t . 1 , 1 6 5 ^ as a " H a l f - l e n g t h f i g u r e o f a p h i l o s o p h e r made i n Amsterdam by t h e p a i n t e r named Rembrandt ( i t seems t o be an A r i s t o t l e o r an A l b e r t u s Magnus)."3 5 ms guess i s c o r r e c t , o r n e a r l y s o , but t h i s i s p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s own e r u d i t i o n . I n an a c c o u n t book o f Jan.8, l 6 5 7 » i t s t a t e s : "Three ounces f o r a frame f o r t h e p a i n t i n g o f A l b e r t u s Magnus."-^ A n o t h e r f a c t s u p p o r t i n g Held's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t R u f f o d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y o r d e r an A r i s t o t l e i s t h a t i n 1 6 6 0 G u e r c i n o was f o r c e d t o g u e s s , and guess w r o n g l y , what the - 29 -subject was. The f i r s t clear i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the main figure as A r i s t o t l e emerged i n a copy written i n 1662 of the o r i g i n a l shipping b i l l of 1 6 5 ^ .^ One wonders whether Ruffo had seen the o r i g i n a l b i l l , or why even a copy should be made of i t eight years l a t e r . It should be noted i n t h i s respect also that Guercino i n spite of asking for Rembrandt's subject was l e f t free to choose his "Cosmographer" even though i t was s p e c i f i c a l l y intended to be a pendant p o r t r a i t to Rembrandt's " A r i s t o t l e " . Guercino had asked for Rembrandtis subject but obviously received no reply. S i m i l i a r l y , the Neopolitan painter, Mattia P r e t i , was free to pick his own subjects "I have waited to write you i n order to see whether, along with my l e t t e r , I might send the picture with the h a l f - f i g u r e which also has a turban wound about i t s head, just as i n the other two extremely beautiful works already i n your possession. Mine w i l l represent Dionysius of Syracuse 0 . . " 3 8 In t h i s l i g h t , i t seems highly unlikely that Ruffo would have asked Rembrandt to paint any more than a philosopher and not a s p e c i f i c philosopher. It i s also u n l i k e l y that Ruffo would have c a l l e d upon Rembrandt to paint an "Alexander" and a "Homer" as pendants when he placed no such r e s t r i c t i o n s on either Guercino or P r e t i . Besides, Alexander and Homer are already present i n e f f i g y i n the " A r i s t o t l e " . When pendants were ordered they would have been Rembrandt's natural choice. - 30 -The q u e s t i o n o f whether or not t h e i d e a f o r the e n l a r g e d commission e x i s t e d a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g cannot he d e f i n i t e l y answered. H e l d argues t h a t a l l the elements w i t h i n t h e " A r i s t o t l e " would had one t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t was meant t o be seen a l o n e . 7 The o n l y e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t Rembrandt was concerned how the t h r e e p a i n t i n g s would harmonize i s c o n t a i n e d i n a n o t e , u n f o r t -40 u n a t e l y undated, c o n c e r n i n g the s i z e and a second document of 1661 by an Amsterdam agent s a y i n g t h a t t h e "Homer" s t i l l needs work, and t h a t when the t h r e e p i c t u r e s were hung t o g e t h e r , t h e " A l e x a n d e r " ought t o be p l a c e d i n t h e 4 l m i d d l e . What t h i s note means i n e f f e c t i s t h a t t h e " A r i s t o t l e " and "Homer" were t o be pendants t o the " A l e x a n d e r " . I f t h e " A r i s t o t l e " e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the t h r e e f i g u r e s , why i n t h e expanded commission does i t not occupy t h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n ? By f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on A l e x a n d e r , who i s so u n o b t r u s i v e i n t h e " A r i s t o t l e " , does Rembrandt i m p l y a n o t h e r meaning o r g i v e added s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p ? To answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s we must examine the r e a s o n s why Rembrandt s h o u l d choose t o combine A r i s t o t l e , A l e x a n d e r and Homer i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . There a r e sound h i s t o r i c a l and i c o n o l o g i c a l ... r e a s o n s f o r such a c o m b i n a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y i t i s known t h a t b o t h A r i s t o t l e and A l e x a n d e r admired Homer's works t o such an e x t e n t t h a t i t amounted t o i d o l a t r y . A r i s t o t l e - 3 1 -i n h i s P o e t i c s c o n s i d e r e d Homer t h e i n c o m p a r a b l e m a s t e r o f a l l p o e t r y . Homer's name a n d r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e I l i a d a n d t h e O d y s s e y a p p e a r c o n s t a n t l y t h r o u g h o u t h i s w o r k . "Homer's p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s p e c u l i a r s " j u s t a s he was i n t h e s e r i o u s s t y l e t h e p o e t o f p o e t s , s t a n d i n g a l o n e n o t o n l y t h r o u g h l i t e r a r y e x c e l l e n c e , h u t a l s o t h r o u g h t h e d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r s o f h i s i m i t a t i o n s , s o t o o he was t h e f i r s t t o o u t l i n e f o r us t h e g e n e r a l f o r m s o f Comedy by p r o d u c i n g n o t a d r a m a t i c i n v e c t i v e , b u t a d r a m a t i c p i c t u r e o f t h e R i d i c u l o u s ; h i s M a r g i t e s i n f a c t s t a n d s i n t h e same r e l a t i o n t o o u r c o m e d i e s a s t h e I l i a d a n d O d y s s e y t o o u r t r a g e d i e s . " ^ 2 I n A r i s t o t l e ' s e y e s , Homer was t h e P r i n c e o f P o e t s . A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r Homer was e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d . I t h a s b e e n r e c o r d e d t h a t he c a r r i e d w i t h h i m a n d k e p t a t n i g h t u n d e r h i s p i l l o w a c o p y o f t h e I l i a d , e d i t e d b y A r i s t o t l e . "And s i n c e he t h o u g h t a nd c a l l e d t h e I l i a d a v i a t i c u m o f t h e m i l i a t r y a r t , he t o o k h i m A r i s t o t l e ' s r e c e n s i o n o f t h e poem, c a l l e d t h e I l i a d o f t h e C a s k e t , a n d a l w a y s k e p t i t l y i n g w i t h h i s d a g g e r u n d e r h i s p i l l o w . " ^ 3 The " I l i a d o f t h e C a s k e t " i t s e l f i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e h i g h e s t e e m i n w h i c h A l e x a n d e r h e l d Homer's w o r k . "When a s m a l l c o f f e r was b r o u g h t t o h i m , w h i c h t h o s e i n c h a r g e o f t h e baggage an d w e a l t h o f D a r e i u s t h o u g h t t h e most p r e c i o u s t h i n g t h e r e , he a s k e d h i s f r i e n d s what v a l u a b l e o b j e c t t h e y t h o u g h t w o u l d most f i t t i n g l y be d e p o s i t e d i n i t . And when many a n s w e r e d a n d t h e r e w e re many o p i n i o n s , A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f s a i d he was g o i n g t o d e p o s i t t h e I l i a d t h e r e f o r s a f e k e e p i n g . " ^ - 32 -When A l e x a n d e r v i s i t e d t h e Tomb o f A c h i l l e s , he c a l l e d A c h i l l e s l u c k y b e c a u s e t h e s t o r y o f h i s l i f e had b e e n 45 t o l d b y Homer. P a r t o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e g r e a t p o e t c o u l d have stemmed f r o m A r i s t o t l e , s i n c e A r i s t o t l e h a d b e e n h i s t u t o r f o r n i n e y e a r s i n M a c e d o n i a . P l u t a r c h r e c o r d s , h o w e v e r , i n h i s L i f e o f A l e x a n d e r t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two became s t r a i n e d i n l a t e r l i f e . " A r i s t o t l e he a d m i r e d a t t h e f i r s t , a n d l o v e d h i m , a s he h i m s e l f u s e d t o s a y , more t h a n he d i d h i s f a t h e r , f o r t h a t one had g i v e n h i m l i f e , b u t t h e o t h e r h a d t a u g h t h i m a n o b l e l i f e ; l a t e r , h o w e v e r , he h e l d h i m i n more o r l e s s o f s u s p i c i o n , n o t t o t h e e x t e n t o f d o i n g h i m any harm, b u t h i s k i n d l y a t t e n -t i o n s l a c k e d t h e i r f o r m e r a r d o u r a n d a f f e c t i o n t o w a r d h i m , and t h i s was p r o o f o f e s t r a n g e m e n t . P a r t o f t h i s e s t r a n g e m e n t r e s u l t e d f r o m A l e x a n d e r ' s e x e c u t i o n o f C a l l i s t h e n e s who had b e e n r a i s e d i n A r i s t o t l h o u s e a n d may e v e n h a v e b e e n a nephew. P l u t a r c h ' s A l e x a n d e r was one o f t h e most w i d e l y r e a d a n c i e n t t e x t s . H e l d p l a c e s g r e a t e m p h a s i s on t h i s b o ok i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " . A s i d e f r o m t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t s f o r c o m b i n i n g t h e t h r e e , s e v e r a l i c o n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s have a l s o b e e n p o s t u l a t e d . V a l e n t i n e r b e l i e v e s t h e t h r e e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t a n a b s t r a c t o f humanism. A l e x a n d e r t h e c o n q u e r o r o f t h e w o r l d r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a c t i v i t y o f - 33 -man a t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s w o r l d l y s u c c e s s ; A r i s t o t l e and Homer, t h e p h i l o s o p h e r a n d p o e t , a s e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e m i n d , f o r m e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e a c t i v e m i n d . Emmens p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e t h r e e may be e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e P o e t i c S p i r i t o r I n b o r n T a l e n t , i n g e n i u m , ( H o m e r ) , t h e s p e c u l a t i v e S c i e n c e o f A r t , a r s , ( A r i s t o t l e ) , a n d 48 t h e a c t i v e P r a c t i c a l T r a i n i n g , e x e r c i t a t i o , ( A l e x a n d e r ) . Thus i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , A r i s t o t l e , A l e x a n d e r a nd Homer c o u l d be t h o u g h t o f a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f R e m b r a n d t ' s t h e o r y o f a r t a s f a r a s he c a n be s a i d t o have o n e . H e l d a d d s t h a t t h e y m i g h t f o r m a T r i p t y c h i " 4Q o f Fame. 7 Homer, A r i s t o t l e a n d A l e x a n d e r a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a s s p e c i a l f a v o u r i t e s o f Fame i n a n e a r l y r s i x t e e n t h -c e n t u r y F r e n c h T a p e s t r y . 5 ° A l s o i n c l u d e d were C h a r l e m a g n e , P l a t o , C i c e r o a n d V i r g i l . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , we a r e d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h two l e v e l s o f m e a n i n g - t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n d t h e i c o n o l o g i c a l . One d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n e g a t e t h e o t h e r . I f we t u r n t o t h e " A r i s t o t l e " t o d i s c e r n how R e m b r a n d t o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n t h e s e t h r e e famous men, a s s u m i n g t h a t H e l d i s c o r r e c t i n c o n s i d e r i n g i t a s b e i n g c o m m i s s i o n e d a l o n e , t h e n b o t h - 34 -l e v e l s o f m e a n i n g must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Haverkamp-Begemann, Von E i n e m , and S a x l a l l i n t e r p r e t t h e " A r i s t o t l e " a s a n a l l e g o r y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e k i n s h i p o f P h i l o s o p h y a n d P o e t r y , t h e f o r m e r r e p r e s e n t e d by A r i s t o t l e a n d t h e l a t t e r ' p e r s o n i f i e d ' by t h e b u s t o f H o m e r . ^ T h e i r a r g u m e n t s s u f f e r , h o w e v e r , f r o m t h e e x c l u s i o n o f A l e x a n d e r and t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s . O n l y H e l d h a s managed t o i n c l u d e a l l t h r e e i n what c o u l d be c a l l e d a m o r a l a l l e g o r y r e s u l t i n g f r o m a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a n h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I n H e l d ' s o p i n i o n , A r i s t o t l e i s c a u g h t b e t w e e n t h e b u s t , s y m b o l i z i n g t h e more e n d u r i n g v a l u e s , a n d t h e c h a i n , t h e t o k e n o f 52 s e c u l a r h o n o u r . He shows h i s p r e f e r e n c e b y t o u c h i n g t h e b u s t o f Homer w i t h t h e f a v o u r e d r i g h t hand a n d w i t h 53 h i s l e f t f i n g e r s t h e c h a i n . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , R e m b r a n d t ' s " A r i s t o t l e " c a n be c a l l e d a t r u e h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g : i t h a s b o t h a d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n a n d d e r i v e s f r o m a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t R e m b r a n d t c o u l d o n l y h a v e l e a r n e d t h r o u g h a " p r e c i s e r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r y " ^ - i n t h i s i n s t a n c e P l u t a r c h ' s A l e x a n d e r . The m a j o r p r o b l e m i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n d e f i n i n g how Homer becomes a s y m b o l o f t h e more " e n d u r i n g v a l u e s " . The q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d h e r e i s n o t how A r i s t o t l e a n d A l e x a n d e r saw Homer, b u t how d i d R e m b r a n d t s e e Homer. A c l o s e r e a d i n g o f A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s o r P l u t a r c h ' s A l e x a n d e r w o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h i s 'image* o f Homer. To f i n d a n a n s w e r we must e x a m i n e t h e s t a t u s - 3 5 -o f Homer i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n g e n e r a l and Rembrandt's i n t e r e s t i n t h e b l i n d b a r d i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h i c h a r e the s u b j e c t s o f t h e nex t c h a p t e r . B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , however, I would mention t h a t t h e ac c e p t a n c e o f Hel d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e " A r i s t o t l e " does n o t i n v a l i d a t e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f V a l e n t i n e r , Emmens, or even He l d ' s own s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e t h r e e may r e p r e s e n t a G a l l e r y of Fame when v i e w i n g t h e commission as a whole. I t h i n k Rembrandt's s u g g e s t i o n t o p l a c e t h e " A l e x a n d e r " i n t h e c e n t r e i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t and may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f a more g e n e r a l meaning. - 36 -CHAPTER THREE  THE STATUS OF HOMER I N THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY A. How Homer was Known K n o w i n g Homer i n v o l v e s b o t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f h i s work a n d , o f more i m p o r t a n c e , how h i s w o r k s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d . A c c e s s t o and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e H o m e r i c poems, t h e r e f o r e , a r e t h e two c r i t e r i a g o v e r n i n g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Homer i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F i r s t , we w i l l e x a m i n e how w e l l h i s w o r k s were known.''' By t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y Homer had a l m o s t d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m W e s t e r n E u r o p e . The I l i a s L a t i n a o r P i n d a r u s T h e b a n u s de b e l l o T r a . j a n o , a l i t t l e e p i t o m e o f t h e I l i a d i n l e s s t h a n 1100 v e r s e s , was t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f k n o w l e d g e o f Homer's p o e t r y i n t h e m e d i e v a l p e r i o d . H o m e r i c r e f e r e n c e s t h a t o c c u r i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f D a n t e , R o g e r B a c o n a n d C h a u c e r were known t h r o u g h o t h e r a n c i e n t a u t h o r s s u c h a s H o r a c e a nd C i c e r o r a t h e r t h a n f r o m a d i r e c t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e I l i a d a n d O d y s s e y . I t was i n 135^ t h a t Homer c a n be s a i d t o h a v e r e t u r n e d t o E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , f o r i n t h a t y e a r S i g e r o s p r o c u r e d a G r e e k m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e H o m e r i c poems i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e f o r P e t r a r c h . I r o n i c a l l y , P e t r a r c h c o u l d n o t r e a d G r e e k a n d f i n a l l y e m p l o y e d L e o n t i u s - 37 -P i l a t u s t o t r a n s l a t e some p a s s a g e s i n t o L a t i n s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r . The t r a n s l a t i o n g§ p l e a s e d P e t r a r c h a n d B o c c a c c i o t h a t t h e y u r g e d h i m t o make a c o m p l e t e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e I l i a d and t h e O d y s s e y i n t o L a t i n p r o s e . P i l a t u s was i n v i t e d t o F l o r e n c e , where i n t h e home o f B o c c a c c i o a n d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f P e t r a r c h , he c o m p l e t e d t h e t a s k . The m a n u s c r i p t s were g i v e n t o P e t r a r c h a n d a r e now h o u s e d i n t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . L e g e n d h a s i t t h a t P e t r a r c h d i e d w i t h a c o p y o f Homer i n h i s h a n d s . The k n o w l e d g e o f Homer b e g a n t o s p r e a d . B e v e n u t o d a I m o l a , who c o m p l e t e d h i s commentary on t h e D i v i n a  Commedia i n I 3 8 O , f o r e x a m p l e , q u o t e d o r r e f e r r e d t o Homer a b o u t s e v e n t y t i m e s . B u t i t was n o t u n t i l A n g e l o P o l i z i a n o (1454-1494) c o m p l e t e d t h e L a t i n v e r s i o n o f t h e • • . I l i a d b e g u n by C a r l o M a r s u p p i n i t h a t Homer r e a l l y b e g a n t o be r e a d i n t h e W e s t . D e m e t r i u s C h a l k o n d y l e s u n d e r t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e n o b l e F l o r e n t i n e , B e r n a r d o de• N e r l i , e d i t e d t h e f i r s t p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f Homer i n 1488. T h i s e d i t i o n was f o l l o w e d b y t h o s e f r o m t h e A l d i n e p r e s s i n V e n i c e i n 1 5 0 ^ , a s e c o n d i n 1 5 1 7 a n d a t h i r d i n 1 5 2 4 . I n t h e f i r s t h a l f -d e c a d e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Homer's I l i a d was s u p p l e m e n t e d by o t h e r a c c o u n t s o f t h e T r o j a n War by Q u i n t u s S m y r n a e u s , C a l l u t h u s , a n d T r y p h i o d o r u s . P o r p h y r y ' s H o m e r i c Q u e s t i o n s a n d Cave o f t h e Nymphs, a d d e d i n 1 5 2 1 a n d , i n 1 5 3 1 , were f o l l o w e d b y t h e anonymous work M o r a l I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e W a n d e r i n g o f O d y s s e u s . The m a s s i v e , - 38 -t w e l t h - c e n t u r y c o m mentary o f E u s t a t h i u s , B i s h o p o f S a l o n i c a , was p r i n t e d i n 15^2 a s was t h e H o m e r i c C o m m e n t a r i e s o f P r o c u l u s t o be f o l l o w e d i n 155^ by t h e H o m e r i c A l l e g o r i e s o f H e r a c l i t u s o f P o n t u s . Homer, h o w e v e r , n e v e r e n j o y e d a p o p u l a r v ogue s u c h a s E u r i p i d e s s i n c e he was o u t s i d e o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l a g e , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , f r o m t h o s e a s p e c t s o f a n c i e n t c u l t u r e w h i c h h a d t h e most a p p e a l t o t h e L a t i n s c h o l a r s o f I t a l y . As a r e s u l t , Homer e x e r c i s e d a l e s s p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on t h e f i f t e e n t h a n d s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h a n one a t f i r s t m i g h t e x p e c t . I n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e a l o n e t h e r e were s e v e n t y - f i v e e d i t i o n s o f Homer's 2 w o r k s . A l t h o u g h t h i s f i g u r e may s o u n d i m p r e s s i v e , Homer was s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d , s i n c e f o r t h e most p a r t t h e s e e d i t i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f a s i n g l e s o n g , m a i n l y f r o m t h e I l i a d , a n d were i n t e n d e d f o r s c h o l a r l y u s e . B e t w e e n 1640 and 1660 t h e r e a p p e a r e d i n H o l l a n d a t l e a s t two e d i t i o n s r e p r o d u c i n g t h o s e o f P a r i s o f 1622-24: t h e A m s t e r d a m , L a u r e n t e d i t i o n i n 1648 a n d t h e R a v e s t y n e d i t i o n i n I65O0 A new e d i t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by a L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n b y C o r n e l l s S c h r e v e l i u s , r e c t o r o f R e m b r a n d t ' s o l d L a t i n s c h o o l i n L e y d e n , was p u b l i s h e d i n Amste r d a m i n 1656 a s w e l l a s i n L e y d e n i t s e l f . I t was i n E n g l a n d , h o w e v e r , a t t h e end o f t h e 1660's t h a t one f i n d s t h e most i m p o r t a n t e d i t i o n s o f Homer. - 3 9 -B. Homer and A l l e g o r y A n t i q u i t y saw t h e p o e t a s a s a g e , t e a c h e r a n d e d u c a t o r . I t was t h e p e d a g o g i c a l c o n c e p t o f p o e t r y t h a t was h e l d i n h i g h e s t e e m . The two b a s i c p r o b l e m s t h a t c o n c e r n e d a n t i q u e l i t e r a r y t h e o r y w e r e : Was Homer u s e f u l a n d was he t r u e ? T h e s e same b a s i c q u e s t i o n s p e r s i s t e d r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e M i d d l e A g e s , t o t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E a c h age p o s e d s i m i l a r q u e r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e m e a n i n g a nd v a l u e o f Homer, an d o f t e n a r r i v e d a t much t h e same a n s w e r s . The q u e s t i o n s o f Homer's u s e f u l n e s s a n d h i s t r u t h f u l n e s s i n v o l v e t h e a n c i e n t q u a r r e l b e t w e e n p o e t r y and p h i l o s o p h y - a q u a r r e l t h a t was a l r e a d y a n c i e n t i n P l a t o ' s t i m e . "And l e t us f u r t h e r s a y t o h e r ( p o e t r y ) l e s t s h e condemn u s f o r h a r s h n e s s a n d r u s t i c i t y , t h a t t h e r e i s f r o m o l d a q u a r r e l b e t w e e n p h i l o s o p h y a n d p o e t r y . " ^ The c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y meant p o e t r y s i n c e G r e e k t h e o l o g y was l a r g e l y f a s h i o n e d b y t h e p o e t s . B o t h Homer a n d H e s i o d were c o n f r o n t e d b y t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a t t a c k . X e n o p h a n e s , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e s : "Homer and H e s i o d have a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e gods a l l t h i n g s t h a t a r e s h a m e f u l a n d s c a n d a l o u s among men: t h e f t , a d u l t e r y , a n d m u t u a l t r e a c h e r y . " - ' The o v e r t h r o w o f U r a n u s b y C r o n u s a nd t h e l a t t e r b y Z e u s , o f w h i c h H e s i o d r e l a t e s , was a n o t h e r s o r e p o i n t t h a t o f f e n d e d p h i l o s o p h i c s e n s i b i l i t y a n d was one o f t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r P l a t o ' s b a n i s h i n g Homer f r o m h i s i d e a l s t a t e : " t h e b a t t l e s o f t h e - ko -g o d s i n Homer's v e r s e a r e t h i n g s t h a t we must n o t a d m i t i n t o o u r c i t y e i t h e r w r o u g h t i n a l l e g o r y o r w i t h o u t a l l e g o r y . " P o e t r y i n P l a t o ' s o p i n i o n was p e d a g o g i c a l l y h a r m f u l . G r e e k s c h o l a r s s o u g h t a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n p o e t r y and p h i l o s o p h y a n d f o u n d i t i n a n a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Homer. H o m e r i c a l l e g o r e s i s came i n t o e x i s t e n c e t o d e f e n d Homer a g a i n s t t h e c h a r g e s o f i m p i e t y l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t h i m by t h e P l a t o n i s t s . T h i s p r a c t i c e was i n harmony w i t h one o f t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f G r e e k r e l i g i o u s t h o u g h t : t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e gods e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n c r y p t i c f o r m , i n o r a c l e s a n d m y s t e r i e s . I t was t h e d u t y o f t h e d i s c e r n i n g man t o s e e t h r o u g h t h e s e v e i l s a nd c o v e r i n g s w h i c h h i d t h e s e c r e t . The v a r i o u s t i t l e s o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p u b l i c a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e M o r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e  W a n d e r i n g s o f O d y s s e u s o r t h e H o m e r i c A l l e g o r i e s o f H e r a c l i t u s o f P o n t u s show t h a t a l l e g o r y became a b a s i c t o o l o f H o m e r i c t e x t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c h o l a r s f o u n d i n H e r a c l i t u s a s t o u t s u p p o r t e r o f Homer. B o r n i n t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , he was c o n f u s e d w i t h h i s b e t t e r , H e r a c l i t u s o f E p h e s u s a n d was t h o u g h t t o be a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f S o c r a t e s . T h i s f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was due i n p a r t t o t h e n a t u r e o f h i s d e f e n s e o f Homer i n r e f u t i n g many o f t h e c h a r g e s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e p o e t i n P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c . H e r a c l i t u s s t a t e d o p e n l y t h a t i f t h e e p i c s d i d n o t h a v e an y h i d d e n m e a n i n g t h e n Homer was t r u l y t h e most b l a s p h e m o u s o f men; b u t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e c h a r g e o f i m p i e t y s h o u l d i n e f f e c t be made - 41 -a g a i n s t t h e r e a d e r who was i g n o r a n t o f t h i s s e c r e t m e a n i n g . The m a j o r f i g u r e i n H o m e r i c c r i t i c i s m f o r t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , a n d i n d e e d f o r t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was B i s h o p E u s t a t h i u s , To p r o v i d e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t o u n c o v e r t h e H o m e r i c m y s t e r i e s , he t u r n e d t o a s many a n c i e n t s o u r c e s a s he p o s s i b l y c o u l d - n e a r l y f i v e h u n d r e d e a r l y a u t h o r i t i e s . E u s t a t h i u s was e x t r e m e l y t h o r o u g h l e a v i n g no e t y m o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n , n o r m o r a l o r p h y s i c a l a l l e g o r y , a n d no e u h e m e r i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n o u n i n v e s t i g a t e d . He b e l i e v e d t h a t Homer i n v e n t e d some o f h i s f a b l e s b u t t h a t o t h e r s were p u r e l y a l l e g o r i e s . The I l i a d , a c c o r d i n g t o E u s t a t h i u s , was h e r o i c a n d s u b l i m e , b u t t h e O d y s s e y was t o be more a d m i r e d s i n c e i t was f i l l e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r men. F o r e a r l y r e a d e r s o f Homer, O d y s s e u s ' w a n d e r i n g s f r o m one t e m p t a t i o n t o a n o t h e r was a n a l o g o u s t o a C h r i s t i a n ' s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h l i f e . C l e m e n t i n e o f A l e x a n d r i a a n d A u g u s t i n e t h o u g h t t h e s e w a n d e r i n g s w e r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t . Maximus i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , f o r e x a m p l e , e q u a t e s t h e a d v e n t u r e w i t h t h e S i r e n s w i t h C h r i s t t y i n g H i m s e l f t o t h e c r o s s a s O d y s s e u s d i d t o t h e mast i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e d e s i r e s o f p l e a s u r e so t h a t a l l men w o u l d be s a v e d f r o m s h i p w r e c k i n 9 t h e w o r l d . I n t h i s l i g h t , t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e a d e r o f Homer f o u n d i n h i m a s many h i d d e n m e a n i n g s a s t h e B i b l e . - 42 -P l a t o ' s e x p u l s i o n o f Homer b e c a u s e o f t h e harm-f u l e f f e c t s o f h i s v e r s e was r e f u t e d by J e a n de Sponde i n 1583« He e x p r e s s e d t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n v i e w t h a t p o e t r y was a s o l i d b r a n c h o f human k n o w l e d g e a nd was o f enormous v a l u e t o m a n k i n d 8 ^ ° E a r l y p o e t s , he a s s e r t s , were o f t e n k i n g s and p h i l o s o p h e r s moved by a S i n g l e Power t o l e a d t h e i r r e a d e r s t o Him. From t h i s p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n , t h e i r poems t e a c h f o r t i t u d e , t e m p e r a n c e , l i b e r a l i t y , c l e m e n c y , i n t e g r i t y , f r a t e r n i t y , j u s t i c e a n d p r e j u d i c e . " ^ What i s more t h e y recommend r e m e d i e s f o r t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f a l l t h e c o n t r a r y v i c e s . The f i r s t among t h e s e p o e t i c a l t e a c h e r s o f m a n k i n d was Homer. A l t h o u g h de Sponde o m i t t e d t h e c u s t o m a r y a l l e g o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , h i s p r e f a c e l e a v e s l i t t l e d o u b t a s t o how t h e H o m e r i c poems were t o be u n d e r s t o o d . The a l l e g o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e H o m e r i c poems c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B a u d o i n - C o m e s i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f h i s M y t h o l o g y t o o k up t h e theme t h a t t h e f a b l e s had b e e n i n v e n t e d by t h e a n c i e n t s i n o r d e r t o t r a n s m i t i n v i a b l e f o r m t h e s e c r e t s o f p h i l o s o p h y . S i m i l a r l y , i n V a l e n s i n a u g u r a l a d d r e s s t o t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e , he s a i d t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f Homer was c o n v e n i e n t t o a l l a g e s 5 Homer c h a r m s t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e p l e a s u r e o f h i s f a b l e s a n d t h e f o r m o f h i s widsom: he t e a c h e s v i r t u e s a n d good b e h a v i o u r t o a d o l e s c e n t s ; t o men he shows t h e manner o f good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r p u b l i c l i f e and g i v e s them t h e 12 \ b e s t p r i v a t e a d v i c e f o r m i l i t a r y l i f e . When L a R i v i e r e p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f t w e n t y - f o u r e n g r a v i n g s on t h e I l i a d - 43 -i n 1613j he a d d e d a m o r a l c a p t i o n t o e a c h one t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i m a g e s l e a d one t o v i r t u e . One f i n d s a n e c h o o f E u s t a t h i u s i n B a u d o i n - C o m e s when he s p e a k s o f t h e O d y s s e y i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e I l i a d f o r m o r a l e d u c a t i o n s " I f one c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r s a l l t h a t i s w r i t t e n o f U l y s s e s , one w o u l d f i n d t h a t t h e w h o l e c o u r s e o f human l i f e i s e x p r e s s e d t h e r e , a n d t h a t s u c h f a b l e s c o n t a i n t h e b e s t t e a c h i n g s t o g i v e us c o u r a g e and t o a l l o w us t o s u p p o r t a l l s o r t s o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e s and a d v e r s i t i e s t h a t t h i s m i s e r a b l e l i f e i s s u b j e c t t o . " 1 3 A n o t h e r s e r i e s o f e n g r a v i n g s by Van T h u l d e n , a f t e r t h e p a i n t i n g s o f P r i m a t i c c i o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t o r y o f U l y s s e s i n a g a l l e r y o f F o n t a i n e b l e a u , were e d i t e d by T a v e r n i e r i n 1663. L i k e t h o s e o f L a R i v i e r e f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r , t h e r e was a c o m m e n t a r y m o r a l u n d e r e a c h p l a t e . T a v e r n i e r a s s e r t e d t h a t a l l t h e i n v e n t i o n s w o u l d be u s e f u l s i n c e t h e y c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l g ood m o r a l s f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f l i f e . Some r e a d e r s s e a r c h e d t h r o u g h t h e I l i a d and t h e 14 O d y s s e y f o r e v i d e n c e s o f u n i v e r s a l C h r i s t i a n w i s d o m . Homer's l i f e was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f Moses t o show t h a t t h e y were a l m o s t t h e same p e r s o n i n a n anonymous D i s c o u r s e n f o r m e  de c o m p a r a i s o n s u r l e s v i e s de Moyse e t d'Homere o f 1604. J . B . P e r s o n a i n N o c t e s s o l i t a r i a e s i v e de l i s quae  s c i e n t i f i c e s c r i p t a s u n t ab Homero i n O d y s s e a ( V e n i c e , 1613) d i s c o v e r e d i n Homer a n a w a r e n e s s o f a n e t e r n a l , p e r f e c t , c r e a t i n g , u n i f i e d God, who i s o m n i p r e s e n t , o m n i s c i e n t , a n d p o s s e s s e d o f a n u n o p p o s a b l e w i l l . P e r s o n a was p l e a s e d t o f i n d Homer knew t h e s o u l t o be s e p a r a t e and i m m o r t a l . _ !|4 _ I n a n o t h e r work d a t i n g f r o m 1655° J a c q u e s H u gues' V e r a h i s t o r i a Romana, s e u o r i g o L a t i i v e l I t a l i a e  a c Romanae u r b i s , t h i s s e a r c h f o r C h r i s t i a n p r o p h e c y i n c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s was c a r r i e d t o t h e e x t r e m e . The f a l l o f T r o y was c o n s t r u e d a s a h i s t o r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e B a b y l o n i a n and Roman c a p t u r e s o f J e r u s a l e m . T i r e s i a s o r Abraham i s d e s c r i b e d a s b l i n d b e c a u s e he p r o p h e c i z e s t h e c o m i n g o f C h r i s t y e t n e v e r s e e s Him. F o l l o w i n g H u g u e s ' r e a s o n i n g , C a s s a n d r a , who p r e d i c t e d t h e f a l l o f T r o y , i s J e r e m i a h . Homer's g o d s and h e r o e s a r e i n w o r d and d e e d none o t h e r t h a n J e s u s C h r i s t i n a G r e e k g u i s e . I n a s i m i l a r v i e w , J o v e ' s e x p l u s i o n o f H e p h a e s t u s i s t h e P e n t e c o s t , a n d T h e r i s t e s becomes S a u l T h a r s i t e s , t h e o p p o n e n t o f A c h i l l e s - C h r i s t and O d y s s e u s - P e t e r , whose c o n v e r s i o n i s p r e d i c t e d when H e c t o r i s p i e r c e d by t h e s p e a r o f A c h i l l e s . A c h i l l e s s p e a r i s l i k e n e d t o t h e c r o s s o f C h r i s t w h i c h no o t h e r man c o u l d l i f t . O d y s s e u s when he c a r r i e s o f f t h e P a l l a d i u m and arms o f A c h i l l e s i s P e t e r b r i n g i n g t h e c r o s s and k e y s t o Rome. H i s v e r y name means " s i n g e r o f J e s u s " , "ode" + " e u s o u s " , a n d P e n e l o p e , h i s w i f e , i s t h e C h u r c h , w h e r e a s h e r s u i t o r s a r e h e r e t i c s . How Hugues' r e a d i n g o f Homer was r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y i n t e r p r e t e r s i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t known, b u t i t i s b o u n d t o have p r o v o k e d a r e a c t i o n , a n g e r i f n o t m i r t h . $ The c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r , Z a c h a r y B o g a n , t o o k a more c o n s e r v a t i v e s t a n c e . He p u b l i s h e d i n 1658 a m a s s i v e - 4 5 -c o m p i l a t i o n o f p a r a l l e l passages w i t h the t i t l e EBRAISON; s i v e c o m p a r a t i o Homeri cum S c r i p t o r i b u s S a c r i s quoad norman  l o q u e n d i . Bogan p l a c e d q u o t a t i o n s from Homer and o t h e r p o e t s s i d e by s i d e w i t h v e r s e s from t h e B i b l e . Thus G e n e s i s 2 8 : 2 0 - 2 1 , where Jacob s a y s , " I f God w i l l be w i t h me and keep me i n the way I go ... I s h a l l come a g a i n t o my f a t h e r ' s house i n peace" f i n d s i t s p a r a l l e l i n I l i a d X.284-85, where Diomedes i n v o k e s Athena t o " f o l l o w w i t h me now even as you f o l l o w e d w i t h my f a t h e r , t h e good Tydeus". B e s i d e s t h e s e v e r b a l echoes, Bogan g i v e s more c o n c r e t e examples such as when t h e d a u g h t e r of A n t i p h a t e s comes down t o the s p r i n g A r t a c i a i n Odyssey X. 103 - 1 1 she i s Rebecca a t t h e w e l l . A n t e i a ' s p a s s i o n f o r B e l l e r o p h o n , I l i a d V i . l 6 0 - 9 9 « i s t h e Homeric v e r s i o n o f Joseph and P o t i p h a r ' s w i f e . Bogan, however, was more c a u t i o u s t h a n Hugues and he p l a c e d Homer's o b s e r v a t i o n s about Jehovah i n an appendix so as not t o o f f e n d . The s e a r c h f o r C h r i s t i a n prophecy i n the Homeric works was c a r r i e d on by l a t e r r e a d e r s , but t h e two examples a l r e a d y mentioned a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o show j u s t how f a r t h i s a l l e g o r i z i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d be c a r r i e d . Homer, i n t h e g e n e r a l consenus of s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o p i n i o n , was thought o f as the g r e a t moral t e a c h e r whose work i f i n t e r p r e t e d c o r r e c t l y would l e a d men t o a v i r t u o u s l i f e . He had p o l y -m a t h i c knowledge. To some he was more t h a n an e d u c a t o r ; he was a ' d i v i n e ' p r o p h e t c a p a b l e o f f o r e t e l l i n g even C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n . - 46 -C. The A n t i - H o m e r i c C r i t i q u e Homer's r o l e as t h e g r e a t t e a c h e r o r prophe t d i d not go uncontested,, Echoes o f P l a t o n i c c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l and a g a i n s t Homer i n p a r t i c u l a r as i t s l e a d i n g exponent c o n t i n u e d t o be heard t h r o u g h o u t the c e n t u r i e s . F r a G i r o l a m o w r i t i n g i n 1492 d e c l a r e d t h a t he was not a g a i n s t p o e t r y but t h e abuses o f i t ; y e t , when he was f i n i s h e d l i s t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e abuses, t h e r e was l i t t l e l e f t t h a t c o u l d be c a l l e d p o e t r y . 1 ^ To him the S c r i p t u r e s were t h e h i g h e s t form o f p o e t r y and he l o o k e d askance a t any l o w e r form as c o n d u s i v e t o i m m o r a l i t y . F r a G i r o l a m o was e s p e c a i l l y i n t o l e r a n t o f c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w h ich he f e l t tended t o undermine C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e j u s t as the Homeric poems were c o n s i d e r e d h a r m f u l t o P l a t o ' s i d e a l s t a t e . S a v o n a r o l a viewed p o e t r y w i t h a s i m i l a r d i f f i d e n c e . The major i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t Homer h i m s e l f came i n 1561 w i t h t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f the P o e t i c e s by J u l i u s C a e s a r S c a l i g e r . A g a i n a P l a t o n i c b i a s can be d e t e c t e d i n S c a l i g e r ' s charges i n t h a t t h e y a re d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t i m p i e t y and u n t r u t h f u l n e s s , n o t i n p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l , however, o n l y i n the Homeric works. The I l i a d and t h e Odyssey a r e o n l y f a b l e s , g a r r u l o u s and a t o l e r a b l y r i d i c u l o u s rough s k e t c h o f t h e d i v i n e work o f t h e A e n e i d . Homer i s mer e l y an ape o f n a t u r e , a t e l l e r o f o l d wive's t a l e s and one l o o k i n g a t gods and men from t h e vantage p o i n t o f a s w i n e h e r d . " ^ S c a l i g e r ' s condemnation o f Homer i s o n l y e q u a l l e d by h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r V i r g i l . V i r g i l i s compared w i t h t h o s e p a i n t e r s and s c u l p t o r s who, s e l e c t i n g the b e s t from many - if-7 -o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e a nd c o m b i n e d t h e s e e x c e l l e n c e s i n t o one image seem " n o t t o have l e a r n e d f r o m n a t u r e , b u t t o have v i e d w i t h h e r , o r r a t h e r t o have c r e a t e d l a w s f o r h e r t o 17 o b e y . " I n a n o t h e r p a s s a g e , S c a l i g e r p r a c t i c a l l y d e i f i e s V i r g i l by r e f e r r i n g t o h i m a s a s e c o n d n a t u r e t o whom w r i t e r s c a n t u r n i n p l a c e o f n a t u r e i t s e l f , s i n c e " n o t h i n g was o m i t t e d b y t h a t h e a v e n l y g e n i u s : t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be a d d e d u n l e s s b y f o o l s , n o t h i n g t o be c h a n g e d u n l e s s b y 18 t h e i m p u d e n t . " A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , i n 1607, e x a c t l y , Homer s u f f e r e d a n o t h e r a t t a c k , n o t a s s a v a g e , b u t n e v e r t h e -l e s s c o n d e m n i n g . P a o l o B e n i i n h i s C o m p a r a t i o n e d i Homero, V i r g i l i o e T o r q u a t o s e a r c h e d t o p r o v e t h a t G o d f r e y o f T a s s o c o n f o r m s more t o t h e h e r o i c i d e a l t h a n e i t h e r A c h i l l e s o r A e n e a s , has b e t t e r u n i t y i n t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a n d o e s h i s a n t i q u e p r e d e c e s s o r s , a n d t h a t T a s s o , b e t t e r t h a n Homer o r V i r g i l , a t t a i n s t h e b r e a d t h a n d g s a n d l e u r t h a t i s e x p e c t e d 19 o f a n e p i c poem. B e n i ' s c r i t i q u e , a l t h o u g h n o t h a v i n g t h e a c r i m o n y o f S c a l i g e r ' s , i s p e r h a p s e v e n more d a m a g i n g . Homer i s a c c u s e d o f l a c k i n g a r t , o f p r i m i t i v i s m , o f e r r o r s i n m o r a l o r d e r , o f g r o s s m i s t a k e s i n c o m p o s i t i o n b o t h i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w h o l e a nd e v e n i n t h e d e t a i l s s u c h a s t h e t i t l e s a n d i n v o c a t i o n s . I t was S c a l i g e r ' s c r i t i q u e , h o w e v e r , t h a t f o u n d f a v o u r w i t h s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s i n F r a n c e . L i k e i n S c a l i g e r , V i r g i l was t h e L e a r n e d P o e t ; Homer, t h e V u l g a r P o e t . ~ I n J a n u a r y o f 1636, C o l l e t e t p r e s e n t e d a D i s c o u r s - 48 -de 1 ' e l o q u e n c e e t de 1 ' i m i t a t i o n d e s a n c i e n s "before t h e F r e n c h Academy. The a d d r e s s s p o k e o f V i r g i l i n l a u d a t o r y t e r m s s "by means o f i m i t a t i n g Homer, H e s i o d a n d T h e o c r i t u s , one i s a b l e t o s a y o f h i m , t h a t he o u t d i s t a n c e d t h e f i r s t , t r e a d e d e q u a l l y w i t h t h e s e c o n d , a n d f o l l o w e d t h e l a s t s o c l o s e t h a t he c e d e d h i m n o t h i n g , i f i t i s o n l y t h e o r d e r o f 21 t i m e . " By t h i s f o r m u l a , Homer l o s t n o t o n l y h i s p o s i t i o n a s t h e u n i v e r s a l P r i n c e o f P o e t s , b u t e v e n h i s p r i m a c y among t h e G r e e k p o e t s . A n o t h e r F r e n c h c r i t i c , P i e r r e de L a n c r e , r e s t a t e d t h e P l a t o n i c c r i t i c i s m o f Homer i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e i m p i e t y and i m m o r a l i t y o f h a v i n g men f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e g o d s , a s w e l l a s o f t h e i n t o l e r a b l e a n d r i d i c u l o u s b e h a v i o u r o f t h e H o m e r i c c h a r a c t e r s . A c h i l l e s , f o r e x a m p l e , s u l k s i n h i s t e n t n u r s i n g a n i n s a n e g r u d g e w h i l e h i s c o u n t r y m e n a r e b e i n g a n n i h i l a t e d . P. G a r a s s e a l s o a c c u s e d Homer o f h a v i n g i n v e n t e d a b s u r d h i s t o r i e s , b u t i t was L a M e s n a r d i e r e , a b o v e a l l , who t o o k Homer t o t a s k f o r t h e r i d i c u l o u s a n d i m p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r o f h i s h e r o e s . He c i t e s t h e e x a m p l e s o f O d y s s e u s c r y i n g l i k e a l i t t l e , t w e l v e - y e a r o l d g i r l b e c a u s e h i s s h i p i s i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g l o s t , a n d t h e n o b l e A c h i l l e s r a n t i n g a n d r a v i n g l i k e a madman m e r e l y b e c a u s e f l i e s h ave a t t a c h e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e wounds o f t h e d e a d P a t r o c l u s . L a M e s n a r d i e r e w o n d e r s what t h e g r e a t c a p t a i n w o u l d have done i f l i o n s a n d p a n t h e r s had t o r n t h e b o d y o f h i s f r i e n d i n t o a t h o u s a n d p i e c e s . He c o n c l u d e s b y f i n d i n g V i r g i l ' s h e r o , A e n e a s , much s u p e r i o r i n m o r a l b e h a v i o u r . - 4 9 -Although a l l these attacks were inspired by Scaliger, they have been tempered by the seventeenth-century conception of morality. A certa i n n a t i o n a l i s t i c flavour can be detected i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to A c h i l l e s who makes his own countrymen suffer f o r his own personal i n t e r e s t s . Homer began to be c r i t i z e d f or more than his base and vulgar images that offended seventeenth -century norms of behaviour. Charles Sorel i n Berger extravagant of 1 6 2 7 , and Descartes i n a l e t t e r to Beekman of 1 6 3 0 , began to question the very process of a l l e g o r i z i n g the Homeric poems. A s i m i l a r scorn for Homer's fables was delivered i n an address to the French Academy i n Feb.26, 1635 by Boisrobert. He expressed an opinion that was l a t e r to develop into the controversial Quarrel between the Ancients and Moderns: the current prejudice i n favour of antiquity impeded the development of modern works. Homer was singled out as his special target. Boisrobert t y p i f i e d him as a cheap singer of the public squares who sold his verse to the rabble i n order to gain his pitance. Was Homer t r u l y the master of philosophy, the master of morals? Was he what they said he was? These questions were beginning to be asked by more and more seventeenth-century, French, l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , and t h e i r answers were soon to erupt i n f u l l force i n the l a t t e r half of the century. C o l l e t e t i n a publication of 1 6 5 8 casts doubt on Homer's r o l e : " i f on occasion he (Homer) l e t escape several moral sentences, t h i s was only i n passing, - 50 -s i n c e h i s p r i n c i p a l d e s i g n seems t o have b e e n more o f a d i v e r s i o n t h a n o f g i v i n g p r e c e p t s f o r t h e m o d e r a t i o n o f t h e m i n d and f o r t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e m o r a l s ..."22 S u c h a t t a c k s , i t must be p o i n t e d o u t , were i n t h e m i n o r i t y i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y a n d were a l l e s s e n t i a l l y F r e n c h . A d e f i n i t e a n t i - H o m e r i c p a r t y had n o t y e t e m e r g e d . Homer was n o t w i t h o u t h i s d e f e n d e r s . The F l e m i s h a n d D u t c h a u t h o r s were among h i s most a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e y were w e l l a ware o f t h e F r e n c h c r i t i q u e o f Homer o r a t l e a s t w i t h S c a l i g e r ' s . J u s t u s L y p s i u s , f o r e x a m p l e , r a l l i e d t o Homer's d e f e n c e p l a c i n g h i m abo v e V i r g i l . D a n i e l H e i n s i u s ( I 5 8 O - I 6 6 5 ) » t h e p r o f e s s o r a n d l i b r a r i a n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f L e y d e n a n d e d i t o r o f A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s , was p e r h a p s Homer's g r e a t e s t a d m i r e r . Any p a s s a g e s i n t h e H o m e r i c poems t h a t were o f f e n s i v e t o s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y t a s t e were a t t r i b u t e d b y H e i n s i u s t o l a t e r i n t e r -2 3 p o l a t i o n s o r c o r r u p t i o n s . G e r h a r d J o h a n n V o s s i u s ( 1 5 7 7 - 1 6 4 9 ) was a n o t h e r s u p p o r t e r . He was t h e p r o f e s s o r o f h i s t o r y a t A m s t e r d a m f r o m 1 6 3 3 a n d , i n a b o o k on p o e t i c s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 6 4 7 > he a l s o r a t e d Homer a b o v e V i r g i l . I t s h o u l d be remembered t o o t h a t C o r n e l l s S c h r e v e l i u s , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , had p u b l i s h e d a new e d i t i o n o f Homer's w o r k s i n Amst e r d a m i n I 6 5 8 . As w e l l , V o n d e l i n a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l came t o t h e d i p l o m a t i c c o n c l u s i o n t h a t b o t h Homer 24 an d V i r g i l w e r e s u p e r b p o e t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . E v e n i n - 51 -F r a n c e , a s l a t e a s 1667, Homer c o u l d f i n d s u p p o r t e r s f o r h i s c a u s e . P e l l i s s o n i n a n a d d r e s s t o t h e Academy o f 25 L a m o i g n i o n l i s t e d s e v e n a d v a n t a g e s o f Homer o v e r V i r g i l . Homer f o r t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was t h e P r i n c e o f P o e t s . O n l y i n F r a n c e i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y was h i s p o s i t i o n o f a s c e n d e n c y q u e s t i o n e d . D. R e m b r a n d t and Homer 1. The C l a s s i c i s t i c C r i t i q u e H a v i n g e x a m i n e d Homer's s t a t u s i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , what c a n we l e a r n o f R e m b r a n d t ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Homer. What was i t a b o u t t h i s a n c i e n t b a r d t h a t R e m b r a n d t w o u l d f i n d s o a p p e a l i n g ? K e i s e r a n d H e l d have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s p a r a g i n g a t t a c k s l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t Homer by a c l a s s i c i z i n g l i t e r a r y t h e o r y may h a v e e n d e a r e d h i m t o R e m b r a n d t . ^ R e m b r a n d t a n d Homer h a d a common i n t e r e s t i n p o r t r a y i n g man's p h y s i c a l a n d e m o t i o n a l l i f e . E v e n t u a l l y , b o t h o f them were t o be c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r v u l g a r i t y a n d b a s e n a t u r a l i s m . The c r i t i c i s m i n s p i r e d b y S c a l i g e r e s s e n t i a l l y b r a n d e d Homer a s a V u l g a r P o e t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t he s i n n e d a g a i n s t d e c o r u m . H i s h a v i n g men f i g h t w i t h t h e g o d s and t h e o f t e n r i d i c u l o u s b e h a v i o u r o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , a s m e n t i o n e d b y s u c h c r i t i c s a s L a M e s n a r d i e r e , a r e t h e s t a n d a r d e x a m p l e s . - 52 -Rembrandt, by a n a l o g y , was l a t e r c o n s i d e r e d as a V u l g a r P a i n t e r by a c l a s s i c i s t i c a r t t h e o r y . He was i l l - a d v i s e d i n h i s c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t s when he p o r t r a y s a f i g u r e such as the "Nude Seated on a Mound" (B.198), an e t c h i n g e x e c u t e d around I 6 3 I . J a n de B i s s h o p ' s famous remark t h a t i t was i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e p r e s e n t g a r t e r marks on the f l e s h was once thought t o have been made w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e t c h i n g i n mind. I n a poem of 1 6 8 1 , A n d r i e s P e l s does a p p l y i t t o Rembrandt's work as j u s t one o f h i s many e r r o r s . "He chose no Greek Venus as h i s model But r a t h e r a washerwoman o r a t r e a d e r o f peat from a b a r n And c a l l e d h i s whim ' i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e * . E v e r y t h i n g e l s e t o him was i d l e ornament. F l a b b y b r e a s t s 111 shaped hands, nay, t h e t r a c e s o f the l a c i n g s Of t h e c o r s e t on t h e stomach, of t h e g a r t e r s on t h e l e g s , Must be v i s i b l e , i f n a t u r e i s t o g e t her due. T h i s i s h i s n a t u r e , w h i c h would s t a n d no r u l e s 2 o No p r i n c i p l e s o f p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e human body." The Important words a r e " i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e " . A c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i c i s t i c t h e o r y as proposed by De B i s s h o p , a r t i s t s s h o u l d not f o l l o w n a t u r e but s e a r c h out a s e l e c t d i s t i l l a t i o n o f n a t u r e w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y c o u l d be found not i n n a t u r e 28 i t s e l f but i n a n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e . De B i s s h o p ' s f o r m u l a f o r a r r i v i n g a t b e a u t y i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o S c a l i g e r ' s p r a i s i n g V i r g i n as one who i s so s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t he v i e s w i t h and even s u r p a s s e s n a t u r e . The L e a r n e d Poet l i k e t h e Learned P a i n t e r can f i n d t h e p r o p e r d i s t i l l a t i o n o r model - 53 -b y t u r n i n g t o a n t i q u i t y ; f o r S c a l i g e r t o V i r g i l : f o r De B i s s h o p t o a n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e . A s y n o p t i c v i e w o f t h e c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i q u e o f R e m b r a n d t w o u l d s t a t e t h a t he f o l l o w e d n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n t h e i d e a l b e a u t y b e h i n d n a t u r e , he d e s p i s e d t h e a c a d e m i e s a n d t h e r u l e s g o v e r n i n g a n atomy and p r o p o r t i o n , 2Q p e r s p e c t i v e a n d i m i t a t i o n o f t h e a n t i q u e . 7 T h e s e a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l c r i t i c i s m s i m p l i e d i n P e l s ' poem. H a r d - c o r e c l a s s i c i s m , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t f u l l y emerge u n t i l 1669 w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f J a n de B i s s h o p ' s two v o l u m e s o f I c o n e s a n d P a r a d i g m a t a ( I 6 7 O ) d e d i c a t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y - and I w o u l d a d d s i g n i f i c a n t l y - t o C o n s t a n t y n H u y g e n s , J o h a n A u g u s t y n W t e n b o g a r d a nd J o h a n n e s S i x . The P a r a d i g m a t a opens w i t h a r e m a r k b y S i x c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f b e a u t y a n d i t s r o l e i n a r t . D r a w i n g ( d i s e g n o ) , he d e c i d e s , i s t h e d i s t i n q u i s h i n g f e a t u r e common t o a l l b e a u t y i n a r t . 3 0 T h i s r e s p e c t f o r d r a w i n g u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e s , a s do many o f t h e p o e t i c a l and r h e t o r i c a l t e r m s f o u n d i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r t c r i t i c i s m , f r o m V a s a r i ' s comments on V e n e t i a n a r t i s t s . T h ey were c o n s i d e r e d i g n o r a n t o f t h e a n t i q u e , w e r e a c c u s e d o f s l a v i s h o b e d i e n c e t o n a t u r e , t o t h e l i v i n g m o d e l , and o f p a i n t i n g w i t h o u t a n y t h o r o u g h g o i n g 31 p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y e x c e l i n c o l o u r i n g a n d a c h i e v e a d e c e p t i v e l i k e n e s s t o n a t u r e , t h i s s t r e n g t h i s m e r e l y u s e d t o c o v e r up t h e i r w e a k n e s s i n d r a w i n g . - 54 -V a s a r i ' s l i f e o f T i t i a n i n c l u d e s a l l t h e p o s t u l a t e s o f t h i s c r i t i q u e - a c r i t i q u e t h a t s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r t t h e o r o t i c i a n s c o u l d a n d i n e v i t a b l y d i d a p p l y t o R e m b r a n d t . B r u e g e l ' s l e t t e r - ^ 2 t o R u f f o , c o n c e r n i n g t h e " A r i s t o t l e " , " A l e x a n d e r " a n d "Homer", r e f l e c t s t h i s c r i t i c i s m . R e m b r a n d t , i n B r u e g e l ' s o p i n i o n , u s e s c o l o u r and c h i a r o s c u r o t o d i s g u i s e h i s i n a b i l i t y t o draw; R e m b r a n d t i s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e V e n e t i a n camp. The l e a d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e V u l g a r P a i n t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l i a n c r i t i c s , was, o f c o u r s e , C a r a v a g g i o . V i n c e n z o C a r d u c h o , B a g l i o n i , S c a n e l l i a n d B e l l o r i a l l saw i n him t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t were s o d i s t a s t e -f u l t o t h e c l a s s i c i s t i c t h e o r y : he l a c k e d d e c o r u m , o b s c u r e d o u t l i n e s i n t h e name o f n a t u r a l i s m , i m i t a t e d t h e m o d e l d i r e c t l y w i t h o u t j u d g e m e n t o r f o r e t h r o u g h t , and r e l i e d 33 s o l e l y on h i s own p o w e r s o f i n v e n t i o n . y T h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s o f c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e d t o C a r a v a g g i o s i n c e I 6 3 0 were e v e n t u a l l y e m p l o y e d a g a i n s t F r e n c h a n d D u t c h p a i n t e r s b y 1668. A c l a s s i c a l l y o r i e n t e d v i e w o f a r t , h o w e v e r , a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n H o l l a n d b e f o r e 1 6 5 0 , h a v i n g b e e n p r o m o t e d 34 a n d s t i m u l a t e d i n The Hague by C o n s t a n t y n H u y g e n s . H u y g e n s , i t s h o u l d be remembered, had a d v i s e d R e m b r a n d t a n d L i e v e n s e a r l y i n t h e i r c a r e e r s t o go t o I t a l y t o s t u d y a n d become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e w o r k s o f R a p h a e l and M i c h e l a n g e l o . I t was a l s o Huygens who c o u n s e l l e d F r e d e r i k H e n r y on t h e - 55 -"building and decoration of his palaces and the expansion of his art c o l l e c t i o n s . Other indications of the presence of the c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i q u e can be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the period. Certain features i n Carel van Mander show a d i s p o s i t i o n towards classicism, but i t i s i n Franciscus Junius with the t r a n s l a t i o n of his De P i c t u r a Veterum into Dutch i n I637 that we f i n d a precursor to the c l a s s i c i s t s ? ^ William Goeree i n his Inleydinge Tot de Al-gemeene Teycken -Konst of 1668, an i n f l u e n t i a l c l a s s i c i s t i c work, respected the postulates of Junius' art theory. Rembrandt bore the brunt of the c l a s s i c i s t i c attack a f t e r 1670, but whether he was aware of any c l a s s i c a l bias against his work i n the previous two decades i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. The fact that De Bisshop*s books were dedicated to Six and Huygens, the exponents of t h i s new classicism and both former patrons of Rembrandt, does r e f l e c t a change of taste i n the 1670's. A preference for c l a s s i c i s t i c art may have manifested i t s e l f e a r l i e r i n the decade and could be a possible reason for the apparent cooling i n the friendship between Rembrandt and Jan Six 37 mentioned by White. Emmens, moreover, has shown that the e s s e n t i a l features of the c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i q u e were already present i n the e a r l i e r t r e a t i s e s of the I t a l i a n c r i t i c s . Breugel's l e t t e r shows that t h i s c r i t i q u e was applied to Rembrandt shortly a f t e r his death. - 56 -The c l a s s i c i s t i c c r i t i q u e o f Rembrandt, l i k e t h a t d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t Homer, i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e seven-t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a t any r a t e , would not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t o s e r i o u s l y hamper h i s a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n as i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e number of commissions he r e c e i v e d i n t h e 1 6 6 0 ' S o I t cannot be s t a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t the c l a s s i c i z i n g c r i t i q u e o f Homer would have endeared him t o Rembrandt, a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d v e r y w e l l have p l a y e d a . p a r t e s p e c i a l l y i f Rembrandt were aware o f a s i m i l a r i n v e c t i v e 39 a g a i n s t h i m s e l f . Rembrandt would have been aware, as w e l l , o f t h e g e n e r a l c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f Homer i n the s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y N e t h e r l a n d s . There a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s , however, t h a t I f e e l p l a y e d a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g Rembrandt's a t t r a c t i o n t o Homer. 2. The B l i n d Bard V a r i o u s Rembrandt s c h o l a r s , i n r e l a t i o n t o Homer, have mentioned Rembrandt's c o n c e r n w i t h b l i n d n e s s . T h i s theme i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the number of i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g T o b i t ' s l o s s and r e c o v e r y o f s i g h t . B l i n d o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d f i g u r e s appear c o n s t a n t l y i n Rembrandt's work, the " B l i n d i n g o f Samson" (Br . 5 0 1 ) of 1636, "Jacob B l e s s i n g t h e Sons o f Joseph" (Br.5 2 5 ) o f 1 6 5 6 , and t h e " C o n s p i r a c y <s£ C l a u d i u s C i v i l i s " (Br.482) o f 1 6 6 1 . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e are drawings o f b l i n d beggars (Ben.nos.749 9 7 5 0 ), o f f i d d l i n g beggars who are a l s o p r o b a b l y b l i n d (Ben.nos.739, 740) as i s t h e one i n the e t c h i n g o f I 6 3 I (B.I38). B e l i s a r i u s , t h e B z y a n t i n e g e n e r a l , who ended h i s - 57 -l i f e a s a b l i n d b e g g a r i s f o u n d i n a d r a w i n g o f t h e l a t e 1 6 5 0 ' s (Ben.no. 1 0 5 3 ) w i t h a n i n s c r i p t i o n i n D u t c h : "Have p i t y f o r p o o r B e l i s a r i u s who was o n c e i n g r e a t e s t e e m b e c a u s e o f h i s h e r o i c d e e d s and who was b l i n d e d t h r o u g h hi j e a l o u s y . " A b l i n d man, and p o s s i b l y a b l i n d woman, a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e e t c h i n g "The H u n d r e d G u i l d e r P r i n t " ( B . 7 4 ) . B l i n d n e s s , t h e r e f o r e , was i n h e r e n t i n much o f R e m b r a n d t ' s w o r k . The p r o b l e m i s t o d e t e r m i n e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d e s p e c i a l l y how Rem b r a n d t i n t e r p r e t e d i t i n r e l a t i o n t o Homer. H e l d o f f e r s s e v e r a l c o n j e c t u r e s w h i c h may a s s i s t m a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon. T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e l o s s o f s i g h t was i n t e r p r e t e d a s a r e t r i b u t i v e p u n i s h m e n t and was c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e w o r s t t r a g e d i e s t h a t c o u l d b e f a l l a man. S i n c e t h e p a i n t e r ' s c r a f t demands i n a s e n s e t h a t he be a v o y e u r , a n o v e r c o n c e r n w i t h s i g h t may r e f l e c t a s u b c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g o f g u i l t . B l i n d n e s s w o u l d t h e n be t h e r e t r i b u t i v e f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h e F r e u d i a n ' l u s t o f t h e e y e " . H e l d p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f Homer's b l i n d n e s s , w h i c h p r o t e c t e d h i m f r o m d e f i l e m e n t t h r o u g h v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w o r l d , may have made h i m a n i d e a l f i g u r e f o r R e m b r a n d t . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r R e m b r a n d t ' s c o n c e r n w i t h b l i n d n e s s may s t e m f r o m h i s own f a t h e r . T h e r e i s g o o d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t Harmen G e r r i t s v a n R y n was b l i n d . The o n l y c e r t a i n p o r t r a i t o f h i m , a d r a w i n g i n t h e A s h m o l e a n Museum ( B e n . n o . 5 6 r ) w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he had - 58 -i n d e e d l o s t h i s s i g h t . A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s b e l i e f i s t r u e c a n be f o u n d i n a p a i n t i n g , " T o b i t a n d S a r a h W a i t i n g f o r T o b i a s ' R e t u r n " , by R e m b r a n d t ' s p u p i l , G e r a r d Dou, i n w h i c h t h e m a s t e r h i m s e l f may have had a h a n d . B a u c h has r e c o g n i z e d Harmen G e r r i t s ' f e a t u r e s i n t h e f i g u r e 43 o f T o b i t . I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f Homer's b l i n d n e s s , a t a n y r a t e , t h a t R e m b r a n d t , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , w o u l d have f o u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l i n g . F o r t h e G r e e k p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e s u b j e c t o f b l i n d n e s s was a t o p i c o f much d e b a t e . To t h e S t o i c s i t was a d e s i r a b l e a f f l i c t i o n t h a t f r e q u e n t l y p l a g u e d t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s , t h e A c a d e m i c s . S i g h t was s o i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e Z e n o n i s t t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n a w i s e b l i n d man w o u l d p r e f e r d e a t h r a t h e r t h a n s u f f e r i t s l o s s . W h e t h e r a man s h o u l d t a k e t h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was much a r g u e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . I t was t h e E p i c u r e a n s who i n t e r p r e t e d b l i n d n e s s m t h e p o s i t i v e s e n s e . C i c e r o , i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f b l i n d n e s s a n d o f b l i n d men he knew, r e l a t e s i t s p o s i t i v e a d v a n t a g e s : "When D e m o c r i t u s l o s t h i s s i g h t he c o u l d n o t , t o be s u r e , d i s t i n g u i s h b l a c k f r o m w h i t e : b u t a l l t h e same he c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h g ood f r o m b a d , j u s t f r o m u n j u s t , h o n o u r a b l e f r o m d i s g r a c e f u l , e x p e d i e n t f r o m i n e x p e d i e n t , g r e a t f r o m s m a l l , and i t was p e r m i t t e d h i m t o l i v e h a p p i l y w i t h o u t s e e i n g c h a n g e s o f c o l o u r ; i t was n o t p e r m i s s i b l e t o do so w i t h o u t t r u e i d e a s . And t h i s man b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s i g h t o f t h e e y e s was a n o b s t a c l e t o t h e p i e r c i n g v i s i o n o f t h e s o u l a n d , w h i l s t o t h e r s o f t e n f a i l e d t o see what l a y a t t h e i r f e e t , he r a n g e d f r e e l y i n t o t h e i n f i n i t e w i t h o u t f i n d i n g a n y b o u n d a r y t h a t b r o u g h t him t o a h a l t . " ^ 5 - 5 9 -Homer's b l i n d n e s s was a t f i r s t seen i n t h e r e t r i b u t i v e sense i n t h a t i t was i n f l i c t e d upon him as a punishment f o r s l a n d e r i n g H e l e n o f T r o y , but S u i d a s r e i n t e r p r e t e d i t 46 as a means t o keep t h e mind u n v i t i a t e d by s e n s u a l a p p e t i t e s . F i n a l l y , Homer was c r e d i t e d w i t h t h i s " P i e r c i n g v i s i o n o f the s o u l . " That Rembrandt was aware o f such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b l i n d n e s s can be seen i n a s k e t c h o f C h r i s t h e a l i n g a b l i n d man ( B e n . n o . C 9 2 ) , known i n a copy, i l l u s t r a t i n g t he n i n t h c h a p t e r i n Johns "As he passed by, he saw a man b l i n d from h i s b i r t h . And h i s d i s c i p l e s asked him, R a b b i , who s i n n e d , t h i s man or h i s p a r e n t s , t h a t he was b o r n b l i n d ? J e s u s answered, " I t was not t h a t t h i s man s i n n e d , o r h i s p a r e n t s , but t h a t t h e works o f God might be made m a n i f e s t i n him.'" Homer, i n t h e same s e n s e , i s a prophe t n ot i n s p i t e o f h i s b l i n d n e s s but because o f h i s b l i n d n e s s . 3* C o n c l u s i o n Rembrandt was e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Homer t h e man r a t h e r t h a n i n h i s works. I n c o n t r a s t t o h i s t r e a t m e n t o f O v i d , he borrows o n l y one s u b j e c t from Homer, " T h e t i s seeks A c h i l l e s t o t a k e p a r t i n B a t t l e " (Ben.no . A 4 5 ), and even t h i s i s o f d o u b t f u l a t t r i b u t i o n . Rembrandt d i d not use the Homeric poems as s o u r c e s f o r h i s s u b j e c t s . H i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h Homer i s , I f e e l , w i t h t h e image o f Homer as the i n s p i r e d p r o p h e t and t h e g r e a t t e a c h e r whose words must be c o p i e d down f o r t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t and b e n e f i t o f mankind. I t i s t h e importance o f t h e word t h a t Rembrandt - 60 -c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s e s . B o t h i n "Homer R e c i t i n g H i s V e r s e s " (Ben.no.9 1 3 ) and i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g , Homer i s shown t e a c h i n g . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o r m e r , I t h i n k i t s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t R e m b r a n d t a d o p t s a s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n f o r h i s d e p i c t i o n o f " C h r i s t P r e a c h i n g " ( B . 6 7 ) . U s i n g V o n E i n e m ' s w o r d s , " B o t h Homer and C h r i s t a r e m e d i a t o r s o f t h e D i v i n e " . i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s "Homer", Rembrandt a g a i n e m p h a s i z e s Homer's d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n . E v e n t h e Homer-t y p e o f f i g u r e i n s u c h w o r k s a s " N a t h a n A d m o n i s h i n g D a v i d " (Ben.no.9 ^ 8 ) i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . Homer was j u s t a s much A l e x a n d e r ' s t e a c h e r a s A r i s t o t l e had b e e n . A l t h o u g h R e m b r a n d t may n o t have b e e n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t e x t o f Homer's w o r k , he was most c e r t a i n l y aware o f h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s a s o u r c e o f u n i v e r s a l and p e r h a p s e v e n C h r i s t i a n t r u t h . T h r o u g h t h e medium o f a l l e g o r y , Homer ho was c r e d i t e d w i t h d i v i n e w i sdom a n d p b l y m a t h i c k n o w l e d g e ! t h r o u g h t t h e medium o f p a i n t , R e m b r a n d t made hi m t h e d i v i n e t e a c h e r and e d u c a t o r o f m a n k i n d . - 61 -LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. B. Adam B a r t s c h , C a t a l o g u e r a i s o n n e de t o u t e s l e s estampes q u i forment l ' o e u v r e de Rembrandt  ... compose p a r l e s s i e u r s G e r s a i n t , H e l l e , Glomy e P. Yver (Viennas1797)« 2. Ben. O t t o Benesch, The Drawings o f Rembrandt„ (London. V o l s I and I I , 1 9 5 4 j V o l s . I l l and IV, 1 9 5 5 ; V o l s . V and V I , 1 9 5 7 ) . 3 « B r e d . A. B r e d i u s , Rembrandt P a i n t i n g s , ( 4 t h ed. r e v i s e d by H. G e r s o n ) , (London: P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1971)• 4 . HdG C. H o f s t e d e de G r o o t , A C a t a l o g u e Raisonne o f t h e Works of t h e Most Eminent Dutch P a i n t e r s  o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t r y , V I , (London: M a c M i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1916). 5« Urk. C. H o f s t e d e de G r o o t , D i e Urkunden uber Rembrandt, ( 1 5 7 5 - 1 7 2 1 ) , (The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1 9 0 6 ) . - 62 -FOOTNOTES I have i n c l u d e d many arguments and p e r s o n a l comments i n t h e notes t o Chapter One t h a t c o u l d have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the body o f the t e x t , but f e e l t h a t , because o f t h e i r n a t u r e and d e t a i l , t h e y a re more s u i t a b l y p l a c e d h e r e . CHAPTER I 1. The fragment i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n (see page 12 and rm.31 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the d i m e n s i o n s ) . I t has been damaged by f i r e . G o l d s c h e i d e r mentions t h a t t h e r e was a f i r e i n t h e R u f f o p i c t u r e g a l l e r y i n 1848 d u r i n g w h i c h t h e "Homer" was s e v e r e l y damaged, and t h e " A l e x a n d e r " was p r o b a b l y l o s t . ( L . G o l d s c h e i d e r , Rembrandt. London, 1967» p»l'?5)« Rousseau, however, b e l i e v e s t h a t b o t h t h e "Homer" and t h e " A r i s t o t l e " were p r o b a b l y s o l d i n Nap l e s b e f o r e 1815 . (T. Rousseau " A r i s t o t l e C o n t e m p l a t i n g the Bust o f Homer," M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . 2 0 , No.5, 1 9 6 2 , p. I 5 5 T . These two p a i n t i n g s , a t any r a t e , d i d e v e n t u a l l y end up i n E n g l a n d . The " A r i s t o t l e " was e x h i b i t e d i n London i n 1815» but t h e whereabouts o f t h e "Homer" a t t h i s t i m e u n f o r t u n a t e l y has not been d e t e r m i n e d . F i n a l l y , however, i t was bought by T. Humphrey Ward i n 1894 from t h e London a r t d e a l e r s , S.T. S m i t h and Son, f o r t h e sum o f t w e l v e s h i l l i n g s , and was s u b s e q u e n t l y a c q u i r e d by Dr. A. B r e d i u s i n t h e same y e a r who e x h i b i t e d i t on l o a n i n t h e R o y a l G a l l e r y a t The Hague. (C. Ho f s t e d e de G r o o t , A C a t a l o g u e Raisonne o f t h e  Works o f t h e Most Eminent Dutch P a i n t e r s o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h  C e n t u r y , London, 1916 , no.2 1 7 , p. 14-3). A l t h o u g h t h e ' A r i s t o t l e " has been reduced i n s i z e , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t t h i s r e d u c t i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f a f i r e . Both " A l e x a n d e r s " (Br.4 7 9 and B r . 4 8 0 ) , i f e i t h e r can be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f the R u f f o commission, would a l s o have s u f f e r e d from a s i z e r e d u c t i o n , but once a g a i n whether t h i s l o s s i s due t o f i r e damage i s not c l e a r . Gerson i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e R u f f o p o r t r a i t s s t a t e s s i m p l y t h a t some have s u f f e r e d from heat w i t h o u t naming which ones (A. B r e d i u s , Rembrandt, ( r e v i s e d by H. Gerson) 3 ed., London, 1 9 6 9 , p» 5 9 4 ) . I f a l l t h r e e p a i n t i n g s were damaged by t h e same f i r e , i t would have had t o o c c u r b e f o r e J u l y 2 1 , 1 ? 3 8 , the da t e d o f t h e s a l e o f the Glasgow " A l e x a n d e r " (Br.4 8 0 ) i n B r u s s e l s , o r , assuming t h e G u l b e n k i e n " A l e x a n d e r " (Br.4 7 9 ) t o be the " l o s t " p a i n t i n g , b e f o r e June 5t 17^5» when i t was s o l d i n Amsterdam. The f i r e o f 1848, a t any r a t e , t h e r e f o r e , would not appear t o have been t h e one t h a t harmed t h e Rembrandt p a i n t i n g s . - 63 -U n t i l more i s l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f t h e damage o f t h e " A r i s t o t l e " , " A l e x a n d e r ( s ) " a n d "Homer", l i t t l e c a n be s a i d o t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e "Homer" was damaged by f i r e a t some t i m e . X-Ray e x a m i n a t i o n s may p e r h a p s g i v e some f u r t h e r c l u e s a s t o t h e damage s u f f e r e d b y t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a i n t i n g s . S l i v e , f o r e x a m p l e , s u s p e c t s t h a t A r i s t o t l e ' s l a r g e b e r e t c o u l d be o v e r p a i n t i n g s i n c e A r i s t o t l e i s l i s t e d i n t h e R u f f o i n v e n t o r y a s w e a r i n g a T u r k i s h T u r b a n . H e l d , h o w e v e r , m e n t i o n s t h a t X - R a y s have i n d e e d b e e n t a k e n o f t h e " A r i s t o t l e " b u t r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e s l e e v e on A r i s t o t l e * l e f t arm w h i c h was much n a r r o w e r t h a n i t i s now. He f a i l s t o s a y a n y t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e h a t . ( J . H e l d , R e m b r a n d t ' s  A r i s t o t l e a n d o t h e r R e m b r a n d t S t u d i e s , P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 9 , p.16 , n . 5 D • 2. C f . p.10. 3 . M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , B k . I I I , 54-55 . 4 . C h r i s t o d o r u s i n The G r e e k A n t h o l o g y , B k . I I , 322 f f . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Homer was made f r o m a b r o n z e s t a t u e i n t h e c e l e b r a t e d gymnasium c a l l e d Z e u x i p p o s , e r e c t e d u n d e r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s a t B y z a n t i u m a n d d e s t r o y e d by f i r e s h o r t l y a f t e r C h r i s t o d o r u s w r o t e (A.D . 5 3 2 ) . 5 . The f i l l e t o r c r o w n t h a t h a s b e e n t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o e t s i s o f c o u r s e t h e l a u r e l w r e a t h . A c c o r d i n g t o Homer c r o w n s were p r e s e n t e d t o o n l y d i v i n e b e i n g s s u c h a s t h e O l y m p i a n g o d s ( I I . X V I I I , 4 8 5 ) o r t o a n e n t i r e army ( I I . X I I I , 736) : b u t t h e y were n e v e r p r e s e n t e d t o a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l no m a t t e r how g r e a t h i s v a l o u r . L a t e r t h e l a u r e l w r e a t h was awardddo t o t h e v i c t o r s i n t h e P y t h i a n games a t D e l p h i w h i c h were h e l d i n h o n o u r o f A p o l l o , t h e god o f p o e t r y a n d s o n g . The n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e s t s i n T h u c y d i d f i s ' o p i n i o n ( B k . I l l , C I V . 2 - 5 ) i s d e f i n e d b y Homer h i m s e l f i n t h e "Hymn t o t h e D e l i a n A p o l l o " : " A t o t h e r t i m e s , P h o e b u s , D e l o s i s d e a r e s t t o t h y r h e a r t , where t h e I o n i a n s i n t r a i l i n g r o b e s a r e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r w i v e s a n d c h i l d r e n i n t h y v s t r e e t ; t h e r e t h e y d e l i g h t t h e e w i t h b o x i n g a n d d a n c i n g a n d s o n g , m a k i n g m e n t i o n o f t h y v name, w h e n e v e r t h e y o r d a i n t h e c o n t e s t . " A p o l l o was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a u r e l i n v a r i o u s ways: he had b e e n p u r i f i e d b y t h e b l o o d o f t h e p y t h o n i n t h e l a u r e l g r o v e s o f Tempe a n d , i n t h e Daphne l e g e n d , h i s l o v e f o r t h e nymph was s p i t e d b y h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o t h e t r e e t h a t a f t e r w a r d s b o r e h e r name. Daphne i s t h e G r e e k name f o r t h e l a u r e l t r e e . (A. W h i t t i c k , S y m b o l s S i g n s a n d t h e i r M e a n i n g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , i 9 6 0 , p . 2 0 6 ) o C l a s s i c a l b u s t s o f Homer, n e v e r t h e l e s s , do n o t show him w e a r i n g a l a u r e l w r e a t h b u t i n s t e a d a f i l l e t p r o b a b l y e i t h e r o f l i n e n o r w o o l . P l a t o , f o r e x a m p l e , when he b a n i s h e s - 64 -Homer f r o m h i s i d e a l s t a t e s a y s : "we s h o u l d s e n d h i m away t o a n o t h e r c i t y , a f t e r p o u r i n g m y r r h down o v e r h i s h e a d a n d c r o w n i n g h i m w i t h f i l l e t s o f w o o l . " ( P l a t o , R e p u b l i c , Bk.111,398). I n Roman t i m e s a n e m b r o i d e r e d f i l l e t o f l i n e n o r s i l k was t h e a t t r i b u t e o f s o v e r e i g n t y a n d was o f o r i e n t a l o r i g i n . . R e m b r a n d t a p p a r e n t l y h a s t r a n s f o r m e d t h e w o o l i n t o g o l d . P l i n y i n N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , I V , B k . X V I , I I I 8 - r e c o r d s t h a t i n Roman t i m e s g o l d e n c r o w n s r a n k e d b e l o w c i v i c w r e a t h s . T h e r e were s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s a w a r d e d f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s . One d e c o r a t e d w i t h t u r r e t s , f o r e x a m p l e , was g i v e n t o t h e f i r s t man who s c a l e d t h e w a l l s o f a b e s i e g e d c i t y . A n o t h e r v a r i e t y o f t r i u m p h a l c r o w n was c a l l e d c o r o n a a u r e a . The c o r o n a n a v a l i s o r r o s t r a t a was d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h e b e a k s o f s h i p s a n d was a w a r d e d t o t h e f i r s t s a i l o r who b o a r d e d a n enemy s h i p a n d l a t e r t o a commander who won a n i m p o r t a n t v i c t o r y . T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n , h o w e v e r , o f a w a r d i n g a g o l d e n c r o w n f o r p o e t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s and a l l t h e c r o w n s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a w a r d s f o r m i l i t a r y v a l o u r . A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s A l e x a n d r i I , X I I , 1 r e c o r d s t h a t : "When A l e x a n d e r r e a c h e d I l i u m , M e n o e t i u s t h e n a v i g a t o r c r o w n e d h i m w i t h a g o l d e n w r e a t h a n d s o d i d C h a r e s R e m b r a n d t must h a v e assumed t h a t Homer's f i l l e t was made o f g o l d , o r a t l e a s t was g o l d i n c o l o u r , n o r w o u l d t h e c l a s s i c a l b u s t i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n ( U r k . l 6 9 , no.163) l e a d h i m t o t h i n k o t h e r w i s e . G o l d i n f a c t w o u l d seem a more l o g i c a l c h o i c e t h a n l i n e n o r w o o l b e c a u s e o f i t s i n h e r e n t v a l u e . The f a c t t h a t R e m b r a n d t a d o p t e d t h i s a n c i e n t s y m b o l i n p l a c e o f t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l o n e , t h e l a u r e l w r e a t h , shows h i s r e s p e c t f o r t h e a n t i q u e m o d e l . Homer i n t h e d r a w i n g Ben.no.913» f o r e x a m p l e , d o e s seem t o be c r o w n e d w i t h a l a u r e l w r e a t h . M ost R e n a i s s a n c e a n d B a r o q u e p o r t r a i t s o f Homer, e s p e c i a l l y I t a l i a n , e m p l o y t h e l a u r e l w r e a t h r a t h e r t h a n t h e w o o l f i l l e t e v e n t h o u g h t h e s e a r t i s t s w o u l d have had e v e n b e t t e r a c c e s s t o a u t h e n t i c c l a s s i c a l b u s t s . S e e : R a p h a e l ' s Homer i n t h e " P a r n a s s u s " o f t h e V a t i c a n S t a n z e ; J o o s v a n G e n t ' s "Homer" i n t h e P a l a z z o B a r b e r i n i , Rome; P i e r f r a n c e s c o M o l a ' s "Homer D i c t a t i n g h i s V e r s e s " , R u m j a n t z e f f Museum, Moscow, "Homer P l a y i n g t h e V i o l a " , C o r s i n i G a l l e r y , Rome a n d t h e r e p l i c a o f t h e l a t t e r i n D r e s d e n . The l a u r e l w r e a t h was t h e h i g h e s t h o n o u r t h a t a p o e t c o u l d r e c e i v e . P e t r a r c h , on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f K i n g R o b e r t o f N a p l e s , was g i v e n t h e p o e t ' s c r o w n o f l a u r e l a t t h e ha n d o f t h e Roman s e n a t o r on t h e C a p i t o l . No g r e a t e r homage c o u l d be p a i d t o h i m . ( V . H a l l J r . , R e n a i s s a n c e L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , New Y o r k , 19^5» P»65)« 6. The "cap ' V i n t h i s r e s p e c t w o u l d be s i m i l a r i n a r r a n g e m e n t t o t h e t y p e o f h e a d c l o t h t h a t N a t h a n w e a r s i n " N a t h a n A d m o n i s h i n g D a v i d " (Ben.no.9^8) and a l s o t h a t w o r n by t h e 'Homer' p r o p h e t i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f " C h r i s t a n d t h e Woman o f S a m a r i a " (Br.588). Homer i n "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o a - 65 -S c r i b e " (Ben.no.1066) may hav e a k e r c h i e f s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e m a n t l e a s d o e s A e r t de G e l d e r ' s b a r d i n "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o S c r i b e s " i n B o s t o n ( r e p r o d u c e d i n H. G e r s o n R e m b r a n d t P a i n t i n g s , New Y o r k , 1968, p.140, f i g . 3 7 1 ) . A l s o R e m b r a n d t ' s " C h r i s t " (Br.6 2 9 ) a p p e a r s t o have h i s h e a d c o v e r e d i n a s i m i l i a r f a s h i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y Homer was shown, b o t h i n s c u l p t u r e a n d p a i n t i n g , w i t h h i s h e a d b a r e . T h e r e i s one c l a s s i c a l p r e c e d e n t , a b u s t i n t h e Museo C a p i t o l i n o (R. a n d E . B o e h r i n g e r , Homer, B i l d n i s s e und N a c h w e i s e , p i . 6 3 , c , d ) , t h a t r e p r e s e n t s Homer w i t h h i s m a n t l e d r a p e d 7 , o v e r t h e b a c k o f h i s h e a d . T h i s r e g i o n o f t h e b u s t , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y r e s t o r e d . V i s c o n t i m e n t i o n s t h a t i t i s a s i g n o f d e i f i c a t i o n , y e t B e r n o u l l i s t a t e s t h a t t h i s m o t i f i s more Roman t h a n G r e e k . A c c o r d i n g t o L i v y i t was a t r a d i t i o n among t h e Romans f o r t h e p o n t i f e x maximus o r o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t t o v e i l h i s h e a d when p e r f o r m i n g a s a c r e d r i t e . U n d o u b t e d l y t h i s v e i l e d h e a d had some s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r R e m b r a n d t . He seems t o be e q u a t i n g Homer w i t h t h e p r i e s t a n d p r o p h e t f i g u r e s t h a t a p p e a r i n o t h e r w o r k s s u c h a s t h e ' P r i e s t ' i n t h e " C o n s p i r a c y o f C l a u d i u s C i v i l i s " (Br.4 8 2 ) o r e v e n t o S t . P e t e r i n t h e " A p o s t l e P e t e r D e n y i n g C h r i s t " (Br .59^-)« F i t z D a r b y p o i n t s o u t t h a t a s k u l l c a p was t h e mark o f a t e a c h e r o r p h i l o s o p h e r , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e R e m b r a n d t ' s c a p c o n f o r m i n g t o t h i s t y p e a l t h o u g h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f Homer a s t h e g r e a t t e a c h e r w o u l d be most a p p r o p r i a t e * (D. F i t z D a r b y , " R i b e r a and t h e Wi s e Men,'". The A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . 4 4 , I 9 6 2 , p.2 9 7 ) . 6. a . C f . n . 6 and p . 9 » 7. The c l o s e s t c o u n t e r p a r t s t o t h i s g e s t u r e c a n be f o u n d i n " K i n g D a v i d w i t h a Boy" by M e m l i n g ( c f . , M. F r i e d l a n d e r , E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t i n g , V o i . V I , P a r t I , pi. 7 8 ) a n d a " P o r t r a i t o f C l e m e n t V I I " b y S e b a s t i a n o d e l P iombo ( r e p r o d u c e d i n F. H a r t t "Power a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l i n M a n n e r i s t A r t " , A c t s o f t h e XX I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e e s o f t h e  H i s t o r y o f A r t . S t u d i e s i n W e s t e r n A r t , I I , I963V p i . L T V , f i g . 6 ) . B o t h w o r k s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t t h e y show a y o u t h t o t h e i m m e d i a t e r i g h t o f t h e f i g u r e i n a manner n o t u n l i k e R e m b r a n d t ' s d r a w i n g o f "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o a S c r i b e " (Ben.no . 1 0 6 6 ). The g e s t u r e o f t h e r a i s e d r i g h t h and may have u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d f r o m p o r t r a i t s o f famous d o c t o r s o f t h e c h u r c h s u c h a s t h o s e e x e c u t e d b y J o o s v a n Gent i n t h e s t u d i o l o o f F e d e r i g o de M o n t e f e l t r o a t U r b i n o ( r e p r o d u c e d i n F r i e d l a n d e r , o p . c i t . , p l a t e s 106-115)• A u s u a l f o r m u l a , a l t h o u g h n o t a d o g m a t i c o n e , was t o show t h e f i g u r e s e a t e d w i t h t h e l e f t h a n d r e s t i n g on o r h o l d i n g a n o p e n o r c l o s e d b o ok w h i l e t h e r i g h t hand i s r a i s e d a s i f t h e p e r s o n w e re a b o u t t o s p e a k . S u c h a g e s t u r e m i g h t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a b e n e d i c t i o n i P o e t s a n d P h i l o s o p h e r s i n t h i s same s e r i e s a l s o h ave s i m i l a r e x p l a n a t o r y g e s t u r e s a s i f t h e y were - 66 -d i s p u t i n g some q u e s t i o n i n t h e i r w o r k . S u c h g e s t u r e s , m o r e o e v e r , were e m p l o y e d i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e o l o g i c a l l e c t u r e s where a n i n s t r u c t o r e x p l a i n s some p o i n t o f dogma: t o s t u d e n t s ( s e e a " T h e o l o g i c a l L e c t u r e " b y D o m e n i c o d i M i c h e l i n o , Bergamo, A c c a d e m i a C a n a r a r e p r o d u c e d i n J . B u r c k h a r d t , The C i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , L o n d o n , 1937* p i . 2 0 1 ) . R e m b r a n d t i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g a d o p t s t h i s g e s t u r e a s one o f i n s t r u c t i o n t y p i f y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r . H e r e Homer r e p r e s e n t s t h e t e a c h e r o f m a n k i n d who knows " a l l t h e a r t s , a n d a l l t h i n g s human p e r t a i n i n g t o v i r t u e a n d v i c e , a n d a l l t h i n g s d i v i n e . " ( P l a t o , R e p u b l i c , 4 3 3 ) . R e m b r a n d t e m p l o y s t h i s same e x p r e s s i v e f o r m u l a , once a g a i n , i n a s i m i l a r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i t u a t i o n " D o c t o r N i c o l a e s T u l p D e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e Anatomy o f t h e Arm" ( B r . 4 0 3 ) • T u l p l i k e Homer i s shown w i t h mouth s l i g h t l y o p en g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h h i s hand - i n t h i s i n s t a n c e s t h e l e f t h a nd - t o a s s i s t i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f some a s p e c t c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n a t o m y o f t h e arm t o h i s a t t e n t i v e o n l o o k e r s . R e m b r a n d t seems t o have b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f ' p a i n t i n g ' t h e v o i c e . H i s p o r t r a i t o f "The M e n n o n i t e m i n i s t e r C o r n e l l s C l a e s z . A n s l o i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a woman" (Br.4 0 9 ) may i n f a c t be a n a n s w e r t o s u c h a c h a l l e n g e o f f e r e d b y t h e p o e t J o o s t v a n d e n V o n d e l . V o n d e l d e d i c a t e d a n e p i g r a m o f f o u r l i n e s e i t h e r t o t h i s p o r t r a i t o f A n s l o , e x e c u t e d i n 1 6 4 1 , o r t o a n e t c h i n g o f h i m a l s o d a t e d i n t h e same y e a r ( B . 2 7 1 ) . The poem r u n s a s f o l l o w s : "0, R e m b r a n d t p a i n t C o r n e l i u s ' v o i c e . The v i s i b l e i s t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i m : The i n v i s i b l e one o n l y l e a r n s t h r o u g h t h e e a r s He who w a n t s t o s e e A n s l o , must h e a r h i m . " (See J.A. Emmens, "Ay R e m b r a n d t , M a a l C o r n e l l s S t em," N e d e r l a n d s K u n s t h i s t o r i c h J a a r b o e k , 7» 1 9 5 6 .p. 1 3 3 . B r e d i u s , o p . c i t . , p.5 8 3 ; S. S l i v e , R e m b r a n d t a n d h i s C r i t i c s 1 6 3 0 - 1 7 3 0 . The Hague, 1 9 5 3»P«7 3 )• I f V o n d e l * s poem were made w i t h t h e e t c h e d p o r t r a i t i n m i n d , a s s u m i n g i t was done f i r s t , t h e n R e m b r a n d t ' s p a i n t i n g o f t h e m i n i s t e r c a u g h t i n m i d - c o n v e r s a t i o n g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h h i s l e f t hand m i g h t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s R e m b r a n d t ' s a n s w e r t o t h e p o e t ' s c h a l l e n g e . By p a i n t i n g Homer, Re m b r a n d t a g a i n a c c e p t s t h e c h a l l e n g e w h e r e t h e ' p a i n t i n g * o f t h e v o i c e a s sumes a n e v e n more p r o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 . C l a r k ( R e m b r a n d t and t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , L o n d o n , 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 3 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p l e a t e d s h i r t was a p a r t o f s . i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n d r e s s . R e m b r a n d t was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i n g c l a s s i c a l c o s t u m e . H e l d ("Rembrandt e n de k l a s s i e k e w e r e l d , " De K r o n i e k v a n h e t R e m b r a n d t h u i s , - 6? -1972, 1, pp.3-17) m o r e o v e r , m e n t i o n s t h a t R e m b r a n d t b o r r o w e d many o f h i s c o s t u m e s f o r h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s f r o m t h e f a s h i o n s and c o s t u m e s o f t h e s t a g e . The " D r a w i n g o f a n A c t r e s s " (Ben.no.3 1 8 ), f o r t h e m e d i e v a l drama " G i j s b r e g h t v a n A m s t e l " f o r e x a m p l e , shows t h e a c t r e s s i n a c o s t u m e t h a t R e m b r a n d t was l a t e r t o e m p l o y i n d r e s s i n g t h e G r e e k p r i n c e s s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f t h e e t c h i n g t h e " M a r r i a g e o f J a s o n and C r e u s a " (B . 1 1 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o r t r a i t s o f " L u c r e t i a " ( B r . 4 8 4 and Br.485) a s w e l l a s t h e " J u n o " (Br.6 3 9 ) a l l have t h e h e r o i n e c l o t h e d i n a s t y l e o f d r e s s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f V e n e t i a n p o r t r a i t u r e . H e l d r e m a r k s t h a t t h e su m p t u o u s a n d l u x u r i o u s c o s t u m e s o f s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V e n i c e w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y c l a s s i c a l f o r t h e h e r o e s a n d g o d s o f d i s t a n t h i s t o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o R i c h t e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f G r e e k c o s t u m e (The S c u l p t u r e a n d S c u l p t o r s o f t h e G r e e k s (4 e d . ) , L o n d o n , 1970, pp.57-58) Homer s h o u l d be w e a r i n g a c h i t o n a n d h i m a t i o n o r m a n t l e . The c h i t o n was a t u n i c o f s o f t l i n e n o r w o o l made f r o m one a b l o n g c l o t h f o l d e d on one s i d e a n d sewn on t h e o t h e r , o r two r e c t a n g u l a r p i e c e s sewn on b o t h s i d e s . S l e e v e s were f o r m e d b y e i t h e r p i n n i n g o r s e w i n g t h e c h i t o n a t t h e t o p o v e r t h e s h o u l d e r s . G e n e r a l l y t h e c h i t o n h a d a b e l t o v e r w h i c h t h e g a r m e n t was p u l l e d t o f o r m a p o u c h . C o r d s t o o were o c c a s i o n a l l y u s e d a c r o s s t h e b a c k a n d s h o u l d e r s t o k e e p t h e c h i t o n i n p l a c e e s p e c i a l l y i f i t w e re l o n g . A v a r i a n t o f t h e t u n i c was t h e e x o m i s f a s t e n e d w i t h a b r o a c h on one s h o u l d e r o n l y , w o r n a l s o w i t h a b e l t , b u t c o n s i s t i n g s i m p l y o f a r e c t a n g u l a r c l o t h . The h i m a t i o n o r m a n t l e , was a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r p i e c e o f c l o t h a b o u t s e v e n o r e i g h t f e e t l o n g a n d e q u a l i n w i d t h t o t h e w e a r e r ' s h e i g h t . I t was w r a p p e d a b o u t t h e body i n e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e manner. 9. T h i s ' m o u l d i n g * i s s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o t h e one t h a t a p p e a r s t o t h e immediate., r i g h t o f t h e p o e t J a n Hermansz K r u l (Br . 1 7 1 ) and may i n d i c a t e a d i v i s i o n o f t h e w a l l s u r f a c e a s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f "De S t a a l m e e s t e r s " ( B r . 4 1 5 ) i b u t I s u s p e c t t h a t i t i s a c t u a l l y p a r t o f a p i l l a r l i k e t h e one t h a t a p p e a r s i n t h e d r a w i n g "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o a S c r i b e " (Ben.no . 1 0 - 6 6 ) . 10. The c o n t r a s i n g r e d - g o l d a c c o r d o f t h e 50's so s t r i k i n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e " A r i s t o t l e " i t s e l f a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n s u c h w o r k s a s " J a c o b B l e s s i n g t h e C h i l d r e n o f J o s e p h " (Br.5 2 5 ) b y t h e end 0f t h e d e c a d e b e g i n s t o m e l l o w p r o d u c i n g a more monochrome y e t n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t e n s e c o l o u r harmony - a ' n e u t r a l i z i n g ' t r e n d t h a t c a n be d e t e c t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e "Homer" b u t a l s o i n t h e p a i n t i n g s t h e " A p o s t l e P e t e r D e n y i n g C h r i s t " (Br.5 9 4 ) o r t h e " R e t u r n o f t h e P r o d i g a l S o n " ( B r . 5 9 8 ) . I n s u c h l a t e p a i n t i n g s a s t h e - 68 -" D o r d r e c h t Merchant Jacob T r i p " (Br.314) c o l o u r a l o n e d e f i n e s s u r f a c e s . Rembrandt's t e c h n i q u e f o r c o l o u r c r e a t i n g form i s perhaps most apparent i n h i s l a s t u n f i n i s h e d work o f "Simeon w i t h t h e C h r i s t C h i l d i n t h e Temple" ( B r . 6 0 0 ) . 11. HdG, op_. c i t . , p.143. 12. W. Stechow ("Rembrandt-Democritus" i n A r t  Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . V I I , No.4, 1944, p.223) was the f i r s t t o compare the y e l l o w l i g h t upon the s h o u l d e r w i t h the M a u r i t s h u i s "Homer". The g e n e r a l p a i n t e r l y t e c h n i q u e w i t h t h e l i g h t f a l l i n g upon the g l o w i n g mantle and t h e q u i c k , c o a r s e t r e a t m e n t o f the f a c e s t r o n g l y r e c a l l t h e p a i n t i n g o f Homer. 13* G.J. Hoogewerff, "Rembrandt en een I t a l i a a n s c h e Maecenas," i n Pud H o l l a n d , XXXV, 1917» p.138. Hoogewerff r e p r o d u c e s Rembrandt's notes " A l s i d e r s t u e k 6 palmen b r e e d t i s en 8 hoogh, s u l l e n t e goede for m a e t e n weesen, en de p r i j s aengaende en s u l l e n den Heer N i e t o v e r s c h a t t e n . U.E. Gheneegen d i e n a e r Rembrandt van r h y n " . 14. Ben.1066, fig. 1 2 8 3 "Homer D i c t a t i n g t o a S c r i b e " . Pen and b i s t r e i n I n d i a n i n k , b r u s h , h e i g h t e n e d w i t h w h i t e , t o p c o r n e r s rounded o f f ; y e l l o w , g r e y washes p a r t l y by a l a t e r hand 5 33.45 x 167 mm.; S t o c k h o l m N a t i o n a l -museum; C o l l e c t i o n o f J.T. S e r g e i . The d r a w i n g was f i r s t a t t r i b u t e d t o Rembrandt i n 1908 by G. F a l k whose a t t r i b u t i o n was f i r s t s u p p o r t e d by J . Kruse and t h e n r e j e c t e d by him i n 1909* (See J . K r u s e , "Eine n e u e n t d e c k t e Homerus-Zeichnung von Rembrandt i n Nationalmuseum zu S t o c k h o l m , Studis zum Gemalde im M a u r i t s h u i s " , i n Pud H o l l a n d , X X V I I , 1909, p.221-228). I t was a l s o r e j e c t e d by Schmidt-Degener i n 1915» hut has been a c c e p t e d by Neumann, V a l e n t i n e r and B r e d i u s as a u t h e n t i c . The c u r r e n t g e n e r a l consensus o f o p i n i o n i s t h a t i t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o Rembrandt a l t h o u g h i t has obviously.;; been tampered w i t h . (See W.R. V a l e n t i n e r , Rembrandt Handzeichnugen 2 Band, New Y o r k , 193^-» no . 5 6 7 ; Rembrandt. N a t i o n a l Museum Sto c k h o l m C a t a l o g u e , 1956, no.186; C. M u l l e r H o f s t e d e , "Die R e m b r a n d t - A u s s t e l l u n g i n S t o c k h o l m , " i n K u n s t c h r o n i k , I X , I 9 5 6 , p.94; Rembrandt 1669/1969. RL'jksmuseum Amsterdam C a t a l o g u e , I9691 no . 138) . 15. See pp.10-12. 16. V. R u f f o , " G a l l e r i a R u f f o n e l s e c o l o X V I I i n M e s s i n a " , i n B o l l e t t i n o d ' A r t e , Rome, V o l . 1 0 , f a s c 9-10, 1916, p.318. - 69 -17 • I b i d * The p a i n t i n g s i n q u e s t i o n by S a l v a t o r Rosa are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : no.242 " S t o r i a d i P i t a g o r a che compra i p e s c i da* p e s c a t o r e i n una b a r c a , scena m a r i t t i m a . . . 7 x 5 " and no. 244 " I I f i l o s o f o A n c h i t a t a r a n t i n o con l a sua colomba ... 3§ x 5§»" C o n v e r t i n g t h e p a l m i t o meters would make t h e di m e n s i o n s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a i n t i n g s 1.68 x 1.20 m. and 0.84 x 1.32 m. L. S a l e r n o ( S a l v a t o r Rosa, M i l a n o , I963) g i v e s t h e di m e n s i o n s o f t h e f i r s t (Cat.no.6 8 ) as 1.27 x I . 8 7 m. ( f o r s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s see C a t a l o g u e o f P a i n t i n g s i n the Daihlem Museum, B e r l i n , I 9 6 8 , No.1/59, 1.31 x I . 8 7 m.) and o f t h e second (Cat.mo.88) as I . 3 2 x O.96 m. By r e v e r s i n g t h e h e i g h t and w i d t h , t h e r e f o r e , t h e dime n s i o n s c o r r e s p o n d q u i t e c l o s e l y t o t h o s e l i s t e d i n the R u f f o i n v e n t o r y . 18. "Cosmografa con un t u r b a n t e t u r c h i n o i n t e s t a che c o n s i d e r a un mappamondo t e n a t o con l a mano s i n i s t r a s o p r a un t a v o l i n o e con l a d e s t r a v a accennando ... 8 x 6 p a l m i . ( R u f f o , o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 6 ) . 19. See Appendix A. I quote t h e r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n from J . Rosenberg, "Rembrandt and G u e r c i n o , " i n A r t Q u a r t e r l y , v i i , 1944, p.130. " W i l l y o u , t h e r e f o r e , k i n d l y send me the measurements, b o t h the h e i g h t and t h e b r e a d t h o f the p a i n t i n g , so t h a t I , on my p a r t , s h a l l not f a i l t o use the same d i m e n s i o n s , and as much as my po o r a b i l i t y w i l l a l l o w , you y o u r s e l f w i l l see e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s p i c t u r e . I f you would a l s o , on t h e o c c a s i o n o f s e n d i n g me t h e measurements, be w i l l i n g t o honour me w i t h a l i t t l e s k e t c h o f Rembrandt's p i c t u r e , done by some p a i n t e r , so t h a t I c o u l d see the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the h a l f - f i g u r e , I s h o u l d c o n s i d e r i t t h e g r e a t e s t f a v o u r , and s h o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o make a c o u n t e r p a r t , as w e l l t o p l a c e t h e l i g h t i n t he r i g h t p l a c e . I s h a l l w a i t a l s o t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h I am t o r e p r e s e n t , i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o conform more c l o s e l y t o y o u r w i s h e s ...." 2 0 . I b i d . 21. S l i v e , o p . c i t . , p.62, n . l . 22. R u f f o , o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 8 . 2 3 . W.R. V a l e n t i n e r (Rembrandt and S p i n o z a , London, 1957* P»73« n . l ) r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t t h e "A l e x a n d e r " i s mentioned i n t h e R u f f o i n v e n t o r y b e i n g s e a t e d as " o b v i o u s l y one o f the e r r o r s which o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e o l d i n v e n t o r i e s . " - 70 -2 4 . Ben.9 1 3 , f i g . 1 1 2 3 "Homer R e c i t i n g V e r s e s " R e e d - p e n a n d b i s t r e , a r c h e d t o p ; i n s c r i b e d a n d d a t e d b y t h e a r t i s t s "Rembrandt a e n J o a n n u s S i c x . l 6 5 2 " ; 255x180 mm.; Amsterdam S i x C o l l e c t i o n . See A p p e n d i x B. 25» The d r a w i n g s Ben.no.913 a n d Ben.no.914 "Anna Wymer. B u r g o m a s t e r J a n S i x ' s M o t h e r , a s P a l l a s , i n h e r s t u d y " , a r e i n a b o o k , a q u a r t o v o l u m e , c u t , g i l d e d a n d b ound i n p a r c h m e n t . On t h e b i n d i n g i n d e l i c a t e s c r i p t i s i n s c r i b e d " P a n d o r a , 1651" . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e , t i t i e i s g i v e n b y two l o o s e l e a v e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a g o u a c h e c o p y a f t e r t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n B l o e m a r t ' s e n g r a v i n g " C r e a t i o n o f P a n d o r a " a n d a s m a l l s l i p o f p a p e r on w h i c h i s w r i t t e n s " L e s D i e u x e n r i c h i s s e n t P a n d o r e de l e u r s d£>ns p r e c i e u x p o u r l a r e n d r e a g r e a b l e a u x Hommes." The two d r a w i n g s a p p e a r a l m o s t i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e book a f t e r a b o u t t h i r t y - f o u r b l a n k p a g e s where i t i s assumed t h a t R e m b r a n d t c o u l d make them most e a s i l y s i n c e t h e y a r e d r a w n d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e b o o k and n o t s t u c k i n . B e s i d e s t h e L i b e r a m i c o r u m , J a n S i x owned a " g r o o t e P a n d o r a " c o n s i s t i n g o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f q u o t a t i o n s , p r o v e r b s , maxims a n d j o k e s w r i t t e n on t h e UEtusad s h e e t s o f a Town C o u n c i l r e c o r d b o o k . S i x m e r e l y t u r n e d i t b a c k t o f r o n t a n d u p s i d e down a n d w r o t e " P a n d o r a " o n what h a d b e e n t h e b a c k c o v e r . (See D o r a a n d E r w i n P a n o f s k y , P a n d o r a ' s B o x , New Y o r k , 1956, p.68 , n . 3« ) C l a r a B i l l e i n t e r p r e t s "Homer R e c i t i n g h i s V e r s e s " a s a n i m p l i e d c o m p l i m e n t t o t h e y o u n g p o e t S i x who s h e s e e s a s t h e y o u n g s c r i b e s i t t i n g a t t h e f e e t o f Homer. (See C l a r a B i l l e , "Rembrandt a n d B u r g o m a s t e r J a n S i x , " i n A p o l l o , 85 , I967 . pp . 2 6 0 - 2 6 5 ) . 26. See A p p e n d i x B. 27. The t r a d i t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t i n g s c r i b e s c o p y i n g down t h e w o r d s o f t h e i l l u s t r i o u s p e r s o n p o r t r a y e d , p e r h a p s s t e m m i n g f r o m R a p h a e l , c a n be f o u n d i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n p o r t r a i t s s u c h a s one a t t r i b u t e d t o G i r o l a m o d a C a r p i " I p p o l i t o d e ' M e d i c i c o n f e r r i n g a n o f f i c e on M o n s i g n o r M a r i o B r a c c i " ( r e p r o d u c e d i n S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y L o n d o n C a t a l o g u e , 1964, p.95) o r S e b a s t i a n o d e l P i o m b o ' s p o r t r a i t o f " B i s h o p C a r o n d o l e t " ( r e p r o d u c e d i n H. Von E i n e m , "Rembrandt und Homer," i n W a l l r a f - R i c h a r t z - J a h r b u c h , V o l . X I V , 1952, p . l 9 8 , p l . l 7 4 ) . T h a t V a n D y c k was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n c a n be s e e n f r o m h i s p o r t r a i t o f "Thomas W e n t w o r t h , E a r l o f S t a f f o r d , w i t h _ h i s S e c r e t a r y S i r P h i l i p M a i n w a r i n g " ( r e p r o d u c e d i n G. G l u c k , Van D y c k , New Y o r k , 1931,S .483) . P i e r f r a n c e s c o M o l a ' s p o r t r a i t s o f "Homer D i c t a t i n g H i s V e r s e s " a n d "Homer P l a y i n g a V i o l a " ( r e p r o d u c e d i n H. V o s s , D i e M a l e r e i d e s B a r o c k i n  Rom, B e r l i n , 1924, p . 2 8 6 ) a n d a c o p y o f t h e l a t t e r i n D r e s d e n ( r e p r o d u c e d i n F. S c h m i d t D e g e n e r , "Rembrandt e n Homerus", i n F e e s t - B u n d e l , A m s t e r d a m , 1915, p l . 1 2 ) a r e a l l - 71 -p a r t o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t R e m b r a n d t must have come i n c o n t a c t w i t h . S c r i b e s a p p e a r i n some o f R e m b r a n d t ' s w o r k s s u c h a s t h e one i n t h e " J u s t i c e o f B r u t u s " ( ? ) (Br . 4 6 o ) o r t h e a c c o u n t k e e p e r i n t h e " P a r a b l e o f t h e L a b o u r e r s i n t h e V i n e y a r d " ( B r . > 5 5 8 ) o F o r Homer a s a p r o p h e t a n d t e a c h e r s e e C h a p t e r T h r e e * 2 8 o I v i s u a l i z e t h e s c r i b e b e i n g s e a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e "Man D i c t a t i n g a L e t t e r t o a S c r i b e " ( B e n . n o . 5 9 9 ) ° T h i s a n g l e o f v i e w i n g a f i g u r e f r o m t h e b a c k i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f s e v e r a l d r a w i n g s a nd a p p e a r s a s w e l l i n "The D e p a r t u r e o f T o b i a s " ( B e n . n o . 5 9 7 ) » "The U n w o r t h y W e d d i n g G u e s t " ( B e n . n o . 6 l 2 ) a n d i n " C h r i s t c o n v e r s i n g w i t h M a r y a n d M a r t h a " ( B e n . n o . 6 3 i ) . The p o s i t i o n o f M a r y , on t h e r i g h t i n t h e l a t t e r d r a w i n g , shown h o l d i n g a n o p e n b o o k i s , I f e e l , how R e m b r a n d t d e p i c t e d h i s s c r i b e i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s "Homer". He w o u l d be t u r n e d , h o w e v e r , s l i g h t l y more away f r o m t h e v i e w e r t o g i v e a t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o f i l e v i e w i n t h e c a s e o f M a r y . 29. T h e r e a r e two d r a w i n g s o f " N a t h a n A d m o n i s h i n g D a v i d " , B e n . n o . 9 ^ 7 and B e n . n o . 9 4 8 o f w h i c h t h e l a t t e r i s t h e more m a t u r e a n d shows more o f t h e c h a i r . B o t h d r a w i n g s , h o w e v e r , r e l a t e q u i t e c l o s e l y t o t h e d r a w i n g Ben.no . 1066 a n d t h e M a u r i t s h u i s f r a g m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e ' H o m e r - t y p e ' o f f i g u r e . N a t h a n l i k e Homer i s shown g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i t h r a i s e d r i g h t a r m , a g e s t u r e a k i n t o t h a t o f t h e M a u r i t s h u i s "Homer". T h i s g e s t u r e i s c l o s e r t o t h e p a i n t i n g i n B e n . n o . 9 4 8 t h a n i n B e n . n o . 9 4 7 s i n c e i n t h e f o r m e r t h e b a c k o f t h e hand i s s e e n w h e r e a s i n t h e l a t t e r more o f t h e p a l m i s v i s i b l e . The c h a i r r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ben.no . A 8 3 i s p r o b a b l y t h e c l e a r e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f how t h e c h a i n i n t h e M a u r i t s h u i s p a i n t i n g s h o u l d l o o k . 30. A e r t de G e l d e r , 1 6 4 5 - 1 7 2 7 . p r o b a b l y came t o R e m b r a n d t ' s a t e l i e r when t h e m a s t e r was w o r k i n g on t h e " C i v i l i s " a n d w i t n e s s e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f R e m b r a n d t ' s l a s t g r e a t w o r k s . De G e l d e r - was t h e p u p i l most f a i t h f u l t o R e m b r a n d t ' s l a t e s t y l e . 31 . The " A r i s t o t l e " h a s l o s t 5 3 cm. i n h e i g h t and 1 1 cm. i n w i d t h ; t h e G u l b e n k i a n " A l e x a n d e r " ( B r . 4 7 9 ) » 7 4 cm. i n h e i g h t , 5 3 cm. i n w i d t h ; t h e G l a s g o w " A l e x a n d e r " ( B r . 4 8 0 ) , 5 ^ . 5 cm. i n h e i g h t , 56.5 cm. i n w i d t h ; a n d t h e "Homer", 8 4 cm. i n h e i g h t a n d 61.5 cm. i n w i d t h . 32. I f t h e f r a g m e n t were more c e n t r a l l y a l i g n e d t h e n i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o have t h e s e c o n d s c r i b e a p p e a r i n t h e l o w e r - l e f t c o r n e r o f t h e p a i n t i n g . S u c h a f i g u r e m i g h t be a k i n t o t h e ' a d m i r e r ' who i s shown s e a t e d r e s t i n g h i s arm on Homer's c h a i r i n t h e d r a w i n g "Homer R e c i t i n g - 72 -h i s V e r s e s " (Ben.no.9 1 3 ) o r "to a s i m i l a r f i g u r e who a p p e a r s a t C h r i s t ' s f e e t on t h e l e f t i n t h e e t c h i n g 'Le p e t i t e tombe* B . 6 7 . T h a t R e m b r a n d t was f o n d o f s u c h a n a r r a n g e -ment c a n be s e e n f r o m a n o t h e r d r a w i n g , Ben.no.5^-1 "The B r e t h r e n o f J o s e p h R e q u e s t i n g B e n j a m i n f r o m t h e i r F a t h e r " w h ere R e m b r a n d t h a s a c t u a l l y s u p e r i m p o s e d s u c h a f i g u r e s e a t e d on t h e l e f t on t h e r a i s e d p l a t f o r m . 3 3 . C f . p . 3 . 3 ^ . I t h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t R e m b r a n d t ' s b u s t was a c a s t . C f . B e r n o u l l i , G r i e c h i s c h e I k o n o g r a p h J l e , I , p. 1 1 , no. 1 7 ; B o e h r i n g e r , o p . c i t . , p . 9 9 » no.D, p l s . 5 3 - 5 5 » R i c h t e r , The P o r t r a i t s o f t h e G r e e k s , 1 , p. 5 2 . R e m b r a n d t ' s i n v e n t o r y o n l y l i s t s "one p l a s t e r c a s t o f a G r e e k a n t i q u e " ("een p l e y s t e r g i e s t a l v a n e e n G r e e k s a n t i q " ) , U r k . l 6 9 » n o . 3 2 3 , b u t o t h e r w o r k s i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n s u c h a s t h e a n t i q u e " L a o c o o n " , U r k o l 6 9 » n o . 3 2 9 » must have b e e n c a s t s a s w e l l . R e m b r a n d t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a n t i q u e c a s t s owned a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p l a s t e r w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e " c a s t f r o m l i f e " . U r k . l 6 9 » n o s . : 6 . o n e h e a d i n p l a s t e r ; l 6 l . o n e h e a d o f a Moor e a s t f r o m l i f e ; 1 7 8 . e i g h t l a r g e p i e c e s o f p l a s t e r w o r k , c a s t f r o m l i f e ; 3 l 6 . a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f h ands a n d h e a d s c a s t f r o m l i f e ; 3 1 7 * s e v e n t e e n h a n d s a n d a r m s , c a s t f r o m l i f e . C l a r k , o p . c i t . , p.200 p o i n t s o u t t h a t l i f e c a s t s w e r e u s e d f o r t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s up t o t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e t h c e n t u r y . C a s t s o f a n t i q u e s and a n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e i t s e l f p r e s u m a b l y were u s e d f o r s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s . See A p p e n d i x C. 35* The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t o f Homer i s unknown s i n c e he l i v e d ca.8 0 0 - 7 0 0 B.C. d u r i n g t h e G e o m e t r i c p e r i o d o f G r e e k a r t when no i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l i k e n e s s c o u l d have b e e n p r o d u c e d . I t was d u r i n g t h e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d t h a t t h e i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t r e a c h e d i t s maximum m a t u r i t y . The p r a c t i c e o f d e c o r a t i n g l i b r a r i e s w i t h p o r t r a i t s o f t h e g r e a t p o e t s a n d p r o s e w r i t e r s o f t h e p a s t g ave new i m p e t u s t o i t s e v o l u t i o n . P l i n y (XXXV,2 . 9 ) i n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e p o r t r a i t s a d d s t h a t " e v e n o u r y e a r n i n g f o r them g i v e s b i r t h t o c o u n t e n a n c e s t h a t have b e e n h a n d e d down t o us a s o c c u r s i n t h e c a s e o f Homer." T h e s e i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t s , t h e r e f o r e , h a d no r e a l i c o n o g r a p h i c b a s i s b u t were c h a r a c t e r - t y p e s o r p o r t r a i t c o m p o s i t i o n s b a s e d e i t h e r on l e g e n d o r l e f t t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s . F o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f Homer p o r t r a i t s h ave b e e n r e c o g n i z e d ? t h e s o - c a l l e d E p i m e n i d e s type", t h e s o - c a l l e d Modena t y p e ; t h e s o - c a l l e d A p o l l o n i o s o f T y a n a t y p e ; a n d f i n a l l y t h e H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y p e . I n t h e f i r s t , t h e p o e t i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a v e n e r a b l e o l d man w i t h a l o n g f l o w i n g b e a r d . H i s l o s s o f s i g h t i s s u g g e s t e d b y c l o s e d e y e s , a m o t i f a d o p t e d b y R a p h a e l f o r h i s Homer i n t h e " P a r n a s s u s " o f t h e V a t i c a n S t a n z e . T h e r e a r e o n l y two known - 73 -c o p i e s o f "the Modena t y p e b o t h i n b r o n z e , t h u s i t s i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r a r t i s t s would be v e r y l i m i t e d - The t h i r d t y p e , A p p o l l o n i o s o f Tyana, was i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g Homer c h i e f l y by i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o a head i n s c r i b e d Homeros on Roman c o i n s o f A m a s t r i s i n P a p h l a g o n i a , a c o l o n y o f Smyrna. F. U r s i n u s , t h e R e n a i s s a n c e a n t i q u a r i a n , owned a s t a t u e t t e , now HiQst, w h i c h resembled t h i s t y p e and was drawn by G a l l e u s (Vat.Cod.Cupp.228, no.120) as w e l l as by Rubens ( c f . B o e h r i n g e r , o p . c i t . , pp . 4 3 f f . pi.1 7 b and 1 8 c ) . The H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y p e o f Homer i s t h e most c e l e b r a t e d o f a l l t h e i n v e n t e d p o r t r a i t s . I t was d u r i n g t h e H e l l e n i s t i c e r a t h a t t h e s c u l p t o r s , w i t h t h e i r i n t e n s e l o v e o f r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , were a b l e t o t a k e t h e s c a n t y l i t e r a r y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Homer and c r e a t e a p o r t r a i t o f the b a r d not as he was but as he ought t o have been. T h i s type c a p t u r e s t h e p o e t i c g e n i u s and t h e whole i n t e l l e c t u a l b e i n g o f Homer so c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine him o t h e r -w i s e . The H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y p e o f head seems t o d e r i v e from one c r e a t e d a t A l e x a n d r i a between 200 and 50 B.C. where Homer and h i s work were t h e f a v o u r i t e s o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a L i b r a r y and t h e s c h o o l s o f t h e P t o l e m a i c c o u r t . Rembrandt w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t i n d e p i c t i n g aged s c h o l a r s would have been n a t u r a l l y a t t r a c t e d t o such a head. 36. H e l d , o p . c i t . , p.18. 37» C f . B e r n o u l l i , G r i e c h i s c h e I k o n o g r a p h i e , I , p.8 , n o . l | B o e h r i n g e r , o p . c i t . , pp.102 f f • , n o . l , p l s . 5 9 » 60; R i c h t e r , The P o r t r a i t s o f t h e Greeks, I , p.50* f i g s . 64 -66. 38. Two s k e t c h e s o f a f u l l - l e n g t h t e r m i n a l f i g u r e i n M a r t e n van Heemskerck's Roman S k e t c h book (1535-1536) V o l . 1 , f o l i o 64 v , now i n t h e B e r l i n e r K u p f e r s t i c h -k a b i n e t t , has been t h o u g h t by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s b u s t b e f o r e b e i n g c u t down ( r e p r o d u c e d i n B o e h r i n g e r , o p . c i t . , p i . 5 2 , a,b.) Both B e r n o u l l i and R i c h t e r , however, s t a t e t h a t t h e l i k e n e s s o f t h i s b u s t t o t h e H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y pe i s s l i g h t . I f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e c o r r e c t i n q u e s t i o n i n g t h e f a c t t h a t Heemskerck's drawings may not be o f the C a p i t o l i n e b u s t , but t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e drawings does not r u l e out t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . The f r o n t a l v i e w c o u l d i n d e e d be a Homer whereas th e p r o f i l e v i e w seems t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : t h e f o r m e r appears t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p o e t ' s f i l l e t , t h e l a t t e r does n o t . G i r o l a m o da C a r p i ' s d r a w i n g ( a t t r i b u t e d t o him by A.E. Popham, r e p r o d u c e d i n C.C. Vermeule, I I I , "The D a l P o z z o - A l b a n i Drawings o f C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t i e s i n the B r i t i s h Museum," i n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n  P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . 5 0 , P a r t 5 , I 9 6 0 , p.27, no . 3 9 0 , f i g . 8 9 ) appears t o be t a k e n from a H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y p e o f herm, but whether i t i s o f t h e C a p i t o l i n e b u s t a g a i n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . - 74 -39 ' Vermeule, o p . c i t . , p.27 records that t h i s bust apparently came before the museum r e c e i v e d the A l b a n i C o l l e c t i o n . 40. Held, o p . c i t . . p.18. - 75 -CHAPTER I I 1. D. F i t z Darby, " R i b e r a and t h e B l i n d Men," i n The A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . 3 4 , 1957, p.203* 2 . P l i n y , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , XXXV, 2 . 9 . 3o See M. F r i e d l a n d e r , " D i e r i c Bouts und Joos van Gent," i n E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t i n g , V o l . 1 1 1 , Leyden, 1958, pp.49-54. 4 . Dante's f e a t u r e s a r e p r e s e r v e d i n a bronze b u s t , now i n the Museo N a z i o n a l e i n N a p l e s , as w e l l as i n M i c h e l i n o ' s "Dante and H i s ' D i v i n e Comedy'" i n t h e Duomo of F l o r e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , we f i n d P e t r a r c h i n a f r e s c o by Andrea d e l Castagno i n S a n t ' A p p o l l o n i a i n F l o r e n c e and a g a i n i n a p o r t r a i t by an unknown f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y master i n the G a l l e r i a Borghese a t Rome. ( F o r r e p r o d u c t i o n s , see r e s p e c t i v e l y B u r c h a r d t , o p . c i t . , f i g s . 213, 218, 221, 2 2 2 ) . 5» S o S c r o p e , W. W o r c e s t e r and Anonymous T r a n s l a t o r ( t r a n s . ) , The D i e t s and S a y i n g s o f t h e P h i l o s o p h e r s , London, 1941, p p . x x - x x i . A l t h o u g h we might f i n d i t odd t o have such f i g u r e s as Hermes and A l e x a n d e r c o n s i d e r e d as p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h i s a t t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t s from m o r a l i z i n g t h e events o f t h e i r l i f e . S i n c e t h e i r s t o r i e s have p h i l o s o p h i c a l v a l u e , t h g y t h e m s e l v e s were c o n s i d e r e d p h i l o s o p h e r s . 6. D. F i t z Darby, " R i b e r a and the Wise Men," i n The A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . 4 4 , 1962, p.296. 7. I b i d . t pp.279-307* 8. I was not a b l e t o o b t a i n much i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o r t r a i t s i n the p a l a c e s o f Como, F l o r e n c e and Mandragone but t h e r e a re a s e r i e s o f such p o r t r a i t s i n a s m a l l g a l l e r y i n t h e G a l l e r i a Borghese ( s a l a X V ) . They ar e a r r a n g e d i n two t i e r s and c o n s i s t o f s m a l l l i k e n e s s e s o f famous Greeks and Romans d e p i c t e d i n a t t r a c t i v e m e d a l l i o n s i n s c r i b e d w i t h t h e i r names. The f e a t u r e s o f each, however, a r e p u r e l y i n v e n t e d . No attempt was made t o se c u r e a r e a l l i k e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l even when a c e r t a i n l y i d e n t i f i e d p o r t r a i t o f him was known a t t h e t i m e . (See R i c h t e r , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 ) . 9 . See Appendix D. 10. See F. H a s k e l l , P a t r o n s and P a i n t e r s , London, I9639 pp.204 - 2 1 0 ; T. Rousseau, " A r i s t o t l e C o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e B u s t . o f Homer," i n The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . X X , No.5, 1962, pp.149 -156; V. R u f f o , " G a l l e r i a R u f f o n e l S e c o l o X V I I i n M e s s i n a , " i n B o l l e t t i n o d 1 A r t e , V o l . 1 0 , f a s c . 1 - 2 , 1916, pp.21-29. - 76 -1 1 . I b i d . , p.28. Rubens made a s e r i e s o f e i g h t p a i n t e d s k e t c h e s around 1626-1627 t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d scenes from the l i f e o f A c h i l l e s : seven a r e i n the Boymans Museum' and t h e e i g h t h i s i n t h e Whitcomb C o l l e c t i o n a t D e t r o i t . They were meant t o be d e s i g n s f o r t a p e s t r i e s and were mentioned i n t h e i n v e n t o r y o f D a n i e l Fourment, Ruben's f a t h e r - i n - l a w , i n 1643 a t Antwerp. The themes were t a k e n from Homer, V i r g i l , P a u s a n i a s and S t a t i u s : _ T h e t i s submerging h e r new-born i n t h e S t y x ; A c h i l l e s educated by the C e n t a u r C h i r o n ; A c h i l l e s w i t h t h e d a u g h t e r s o f Lycomedes; Deeds d u r i n g t h e T r o j a n War; Wrath a g a i n s t Agammenon; T h e t i s ' r e q u e s t t o V u l c a n t o f o r g e armour f o r her son; S t r u g g l e between A c h i l l e s and H e c t o r ; and f i n a l l y t h e Death o f A c h i l l e s . I t i s not known what s u b j e c t s Ruff.o.'s s e t o f t a p e s t r i e s had. See R. Van L u t t e r v e l t , TheRijksmuseum and  o t h e r Dutch Museums, London, 1967» p.l35» A.S. C a v a l l o , T a p e s t r i e s o f Europe and o f C o l o n i a l P e r u i n t h e Museum of  F i n e A r t s , B o s t o n , B o s t o n , I 9 6 7 , c a t . n o . 3 6 . 1 2 . D. F i t z Darby, " R i b e r a and t h e Wise Men," o p . c i t . , p«303» 13 . C f . Appendix A. T r a n s l a t i o n by M i s s Ruth Magurn. 14. H a s k e l l , o p . c i t . , p.2 0 9 At l e a s t some f i r s t hand knowledge o f Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g s t y l e c o u l d have been known i n I t a l y from t h e D a n i s h p a i n t e r , B e r n h a r d t K e i l . B a l d i n u c c i employed him as an o r a l s ource i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f Rembrandt. K e i l had s t u d i e d w i t h Rembrandt i n Amsterdam from around 1 6 4 2 t o 1 6 4 4 and remained t h e r e u n t i l he l e f t f o r I t a l y i n I 6 5 I where he remained u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n I 6 7 8 . See S l i v e , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 0 6 - 1 0 8 . 15« F i t z Darby, " R i b e r a and the Wise Men',' o p . c i t . , p.303• 16. Abrahaam B r u e g e l ' s l e t t e r t o Don A n t o n i o R u f f o on Jan.24, I 6 7 O : "By y o u r l e t t e r o f Dec.29, I see t h a t you have had made v a r i o u s h a l f - f i g u r e s by t h e b e s t p a i n t e r s o f I t a l y , and t h a t none o f them approach th o s e o f Rembrandt. I t i s t r u e I agree w i t h t h i s but one must c o n s i d e r t h a t g r e a t p a i n t e r s , l i k e t hose by whom you have had y o u r h a l f f i g u r e s made, a r e not u s u a l l y w i l l i n g t o l o w e r t h e m s e l v e s f o r a t r i f l i n g draped h a l f f i g u r e i n w h i c h the l i g h t shows o n l y the t i p o f the nose, and i n w h i c h one dlQjes n ot know where the l i g h t comes from, s i n c e a l l t h e r e s t i s d a r k . The g r e a t p a i n t e r s t r y t o show a b e a u t i f u l nude body, i n w h i c h one can see t h e i r know-ledge o f d r a w i n g . But an incompetent p e r s o n , on t h e c o n t r a r y t r i e s t o c o v e r h i s f i g u r e s w i t h dark clumsy garments, and t h i s k i n d of p a i n t e r does t h e c o n t o u r s so t h a t one does not know what t o make o f i t .... - 77 -What I m e r e l y want t o say i s , t h i s i s no b u s i n e s s of g r e a t men, t o occupy t h e m s e l v e s w i t h such t r i f l e s , w hich almost anyone can do. But I beg you t o f o r g i v e me f o r s p e a k i n g so f r e e l y . My l o v e o f p a i n t i n g l e a d s me t o do so T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s from Rosenberg, "Rembrandt and G u e r c i n o , " op. c i t . , 1 3 2 - 1 3 ^ and was made by M i s s Ruth Magurn. 1 7 . For r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f the Wise Men see F i t z Darby, " R i b e r a and t h e Wise Men," o p . c i t . , pp.2 7 9 - 3 0 7 ° 18. See J . H e l d , Rembrandt's A r i s t o t l e and Other  Rembrandt S t u d i e s , P r i n c e t o n , 1969s pp. 2 1 - 2 9 . 1 9 . H. von Einem, "Rembrandt und Homer," i n W a l l r a f - R i c h a r t z - J a h r b u c h , V o l . X I V , 1 9 5 2 , pp. 1 9 0 - 1 9 5 ° See p l a t e s 168, I69, 1 7 0 , 1 7 1 , f o r f i g u r e s w i t h t h e i r hand on a c l a s s i c a l b u s t . 2 0 . H e l d , o p . c i t . , p.2 7 . 2 1 . The o n l y f a u l t w i t h Held's s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e b u s t becoming a symbol o f s u r v i v a l i s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t and the l i v i n g f i g u r e . I n t h e case where th e s k u l l i s used the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more d i r e c t s t h e man i s made aware o f h i s own p e r s o n a l m o r t a l i t y . I n t h e case o f t h e b u s t , however, t h e theme of s u r v i v a l would depend l a r g e l y on t h e i d e n t i t i y o f t h e b u s t i t s e l f . Would any c l a s s i c a l b u s t do t o suggest t h i s theme o f s u r v i v a l and make t h e ? p e r s o n p o r t r a y e d aware o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y i The c o n n e c t i o n does not seem t o be as s t r o n g as w i t h t h e s k u l l . 2 2 . I b i d . , p.7. 2 3 . L e t t e r from G u e r c i n o t o Don A n t o n i o R u f f o , Oct.6 1660 quoted from Rosenberg, "Rembrandt and G u e r c i n o , " o p . c i t . , p.130 s "For the h a l f - f i g u r e t o accompany t h a t o f Rembrandt, wh i c h I judge r e p r e s e n t s a P h y s i o -gnomist , I t h o u g h t i t would be v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e t o p a i n t a Cosmographer, as I have i n f a c t a l r e a d y done." 24. C f . Appendix A. 23° C f o n o 2 2» 2 6 . H e l d , o p . c i t . , pp. 7-8, n . 2 1 . 2 7 . I b i d . 2 8 . I b i d . - 7 8 -29« R u f f o , o p . c i t . , p.242; H e l d , o p . c i t . , p . l l , f » n . 3 1 » 3 0 o See Appendix E, 3 1 • See Appendix F. 3 2 © The d i f f i c u l t y t h a t Harmen B e c k e r e n c o u n t e r e d i n t r y i n g t o o b t a i n t h e "Juno" ( B r . 6 3 9 ) from Rembrandt may a l s o r e f l e c t the a r t i s t ' s l a c k o f t i m e . 3 3 ° H e l d , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 2 - 1 3 * 3 4 . See W0R0 V a l e n t i n e r , Rembrandt and S p i n o z a , London, 1 9 5 7 » P « 6 7 a n ^ T o Rousseau, o p . c i t . , p p . 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ' 3 5 * H e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 1 2 . 3 6 . I b i d . 3 7 « See Appendix G. 3 8 . T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was made by M i s s Ruth Magurn from J . Rosenberg, "Rembrandt and G u e r c i n o , " o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 2 ; R u f f o , o p . c i t . , p.241 s "Mi sono t r a t t e n u t o a non ' s c r i v e r e a S.S. 1 1 1 . ma p e r vedere d i m a n d a r l i asieme con l a l e t t e r a un pezzo d i q u a t r o con una mezza f i g u r e che ancha l e g a i l t o r b a n t e i n t e s t a come l ' a t t r i due che t i e n e a s s a i b e l l e e i l mio s a r a D i o n i s i o Seragoseno ...." 3 9 * H e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 2 2 » 40. I b i d . , p . 1 2 . 41. R u f f o , o p . c i t . , p.128: " I n q u e l modo che f e c e una v o l t a s o p r a l a t e l a , mentre s t a r e b b e bene a p p r e s s o l ' a l t r o p e r m e t t r e A l e x a n d r o n e l mezzo se cosL\l comandano me l o a v v i s a n o . " R u f f o assumed t h a t Don A n t o n i o put t h e "Homer" and " A l e x a n d e r " t o g e t h e r ; t h e " A r i s t o t l e " had G u e r c i n o ' s "Cosmographer" as i t s pendant. H e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 2 1 , f . n . 6 9 s t a t e s t h a t such an arrangement would a u t o -m a t i c a l l y put "Homer" on t h e l e f t and " A r i s t o t l e " on t h e r i g h t f a c i n g toward the c e n t r e . B o t h Hoogewerff and V a l e n t i n e r , however, p l a c e " A r i s t o t l e " on t h e l e f t and "Homer" on t h e r i g h t . See G.J. Hoogewerff, "Rembrandt en een I t a l i a a n s c h e Maecenas," Pud H o l l a n d , XXXV, 1 9 1 7 . p.138 and WoR. V a l e n t i n e r , Rembrandt and S p i n o z a , London, 1 9 5 7 , V*67. I t h i n k H e l d ' s arrangement i s t h e most s u i t a b l e c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y w i t h b o t h " A r i s t o t l e and "Homer" f a c i n g the c e n t r e . T h i s note would appear t o be by R u f f o ' s agent i n Amsterdam and i t must be remembered t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t o p l a c e " A l e x a n d e r " i n t h e c e n t r e comes v i a t h i s i n t e r m e d i a r y . One would n a t u r a l l y t h i n k t h a t the " A r i s t o t l e " would be t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i f t h e " A l e x a n d e r " and "Homer" were c o n s i d e r e d as p e n d a n t s . I t would seem n a t u r a l , a l t h o u g h perhaps - 79 -r e d u n d a n t , t o have "Homer" on the l e f t and " A l e x a n d e r " on the r i g h t f a c i n g A r i s t o t l e . The i n t e n s i t y o f meaning t h a t H e l d sees i n the " A r i s t o t l e " would a l s o j u s t i f y p l a c i n g i t i n t h e c e n t r e . I t s h o u l d he noted h e r e , however, t h a t b o t h the " A r i s t o t l e " and the "Homer" are e s s e n t i a l l y p a i n t i n g s complete w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e " A l e x a n d e r s " a r e not so complete. I f e i t h e r " A l e x a n d e r " can be c o n s i d e r e d t h e R u f f o p a i n t i n g , t h e n p l a c i n g t h e " A r i s t o t l e " and t h e "Homer", on t h e r i g h t and l e f t r e s p e c t i v e l y , might g i v e i t added s u p p o r t . I f e e l t h a t the n o t e ' s a d v i c e , a l t h o u g h c a u t i o u s l y , must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . Such an a r r a n g e -ment a l s o agrees b e t t e r w i t h my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Homer and A r i s t o t l e as the t e a c h e r s o f the young A l e x a n d e r . 4 2 . A r i s t o t l e , P o e t i c s , I V , 1 0 - 1 5 . 4 3 . P l u t a r c h , A l e x a n d e r , V I I I . 2 . 4 4 . P l u t a r c h , A l e x a n d e r , XXVI. 1 . 4 5 . A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s A l e x a n d r i , B k . l , X I I . 4 6 . P l u t a r c h , A l e x a n d e r , V I I I . 3 4 7 * V a l e n t i n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 6 7 « 4 8 . J.A. Emmens, Rembrandt en de R e g e l s van'de K u n s t , U t r e c h t , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 2 0 3 - 2 0 5 . 4 9 . H e l d , o p o c i t . , p . 2 2 . 5 0 . "The Triumph of Fame over Death" i s r e p r o d u c e d i n P. V e r l e t , M. F l o r i s o o n e , A. H o f f m e i s t e r and F. Tabard, The A r t o f T a p e s t r y , London, 1 9 6 5 » P« ? 5 5 1 . See E. Haverkamp-Begemann, "Rembrandt's 'Anna Wymer as Minerva'," i n A c t s o f t h e XX I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress  o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t , S t u d i e s i n Western A r t I I I , P r i n c e t o n , 19&3s P» ° 5 » n « 1 9 ; H e r b e r t von Einem, "Rembrandt und Homer," i n W a l l r a f - R i c h a r t z - J a h r b u c h , XIV, 1 9 5 2 , pp . 1 8 2 f f . ; and F r i t z S a x l , "Rembrandt and C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y , " ' L e c t u r e s , London, 1957s. p p » 2 9 8 f f . 5 2 . H e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 4 0 . 5 3 . I b i d . , p . 3 9 . 5 ^ o On October 1 8 , 1 6 4 1 , P h i l i p A n g e l i n an a d d r e s s g i v e n i n Leyden on S t . Luke's day used Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g , "Samson's Wedding F e a s t " ( B r . 5 0 7 ) » as an example o f how i t i s a p a i n t e r ' s d u t y t o i n f o r m the v i e w e r s o f t h e p a s t . Rembrandt " a c h i e v e d t h i s by a p r e c i s e r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r y and by c a r e f u l l y t h i n k i n g about the meaning o f what he r e a d . " See S. S l i v e , Rembrandt and h i s C r i t i c s I 6 3 0 - I 7 3 0 , The Hague, 1 9 5 3 s p p . 3 7 - ^ 0 . - 80 -CHAPTER I I I 1. F o r t h i s s e c t i o n see: D.Co A l l e n , M y s t e r i o u s l y  Meant, B a l t i m o r e and London, 1970, pp.83-105; N. Hepp, Homere en France au X V I I e S i e c l e , P a r i s , I 9 6 8 ; J.A. S c o t t , Homer and H i s I n f l u e n c e , New Yo r k , I 9 6 3 , pp.122-130, 2. See Hepp, o p . c i t . , pp.790-792. 3 . F o r t h i s s e c t i o n s ee: A l l e n , o p . c i t . . , pp.83-105; E.R. C u r t i u s , European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n M i d d l e Ages, London, 1948, pp.203-207; Hepp, o p . c i t . , pp.107-117; Go de F. L o r d , Homeric R e n a i s s a n c e , London, 1956, pp.33 - 7 8 . 4. P l a t o , R e p u b l i c , Bk.X, V I I I . 5 . C u r t i u s , o p . c i t . , p.204* 6. P l a t o , R e p u b l i c , Bk.II, X V I I . 7. See Hepp, o p . c i t . , p.97. E u s t a t h i u s r e c e i v e d h i s g r e a t e s t sphere o f i n f l u e n c e between 1600 and 1650. Such e r u d i t e s as I s a a c Casaubon and Saumaise l e f t t h e i r m a n u s c r i p t s c o v e r e d w i t h n o t e s t a k e n from E u s t a t h i u s . A l e s s e r s c h o l a r , P i e r r e de Marcussus even composed an e x t r a c t o f rem a r k a b l e t h i n g s he found i n b o t h Homer and t h i s eminent i n t e r p r e t e r . When Gass e n d i was r e a d i n g Homer, he asked h i s f r i e n d P e i r s e c t o send him a copy o f E u s t a t h i u s , but he d i d not f i n d i n i t what he had hoped t o . 8. A l l e n , o p . c i t . > p*59° 9 . I b i d . , p.9 1 , 10. A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s r e s t o r e d p o e t r y as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c i e n c e o f p o e t r y and conceded i t b o t h an e t h i c a l and a p h i l o s o p h i c a l v a l u e . T h i s e x p l a i n s why e v e r s i n c e the m i d d l e o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t r y , h i s P o e t i c s has been t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s t o a l l a t t e m p t s t o d i s c u s s t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . See C u r t i u s , o p . c i t . , p.146. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t i t i s A r i s t o t l e and not P l a t o who has h i s hand on th e b u s t o f Homer. The k i n s h i p between p h i l o s o p h y and p o e t r y i s e s s e n t i a l l y an A r i s t o t l e a n bond. 11. A l l e n , o p . c i t . , p*97« 12. Hepp, o p . c i t . , p.ll4« 13. I b i d . , p.115. 14. F o r t h i s s e c t i o n see A l l e n , o p . c i t . , pp.1 0 0 - 1 0 5 * - 81 -15• V. H a l l , J r . , R e n a i s s a n c e L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , New Y o r k , 19^5. p.70. 16. See K. B o r i n s k i , D i e A n t i k e i n P o e t i k und  K u n s t t h e o r i e , I , D armstadt, 1965, P«231 and G. F i n s l e r , Homer i n der N e u z e i t von Dante b i s Goethe, L e i p z i g - B e r l i n , 1912, p.49 and p p . l 3 3 f f . l ? . R.W. L e e , "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s s The H u m a n i s t i c Theory of P a i n t i n g , " i n The A r t B u l l e t i n , X X I I , 1940, p.203, n . 3 1 . 18. I b i d . , p.206, n . 4 4 . 19° Hepp, o p . c i t . , p.13^« 2 0 . The f e a t u r e s o f t h e V u l g a r P oet were drawn from th e works o f Horace: h i s p o r t r a i t o f t h e F o o l i s h Poet i n t h e second E p i s t l e o f Book Two. Both t y p e s are c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by l i m i t l e s s f a i t h i n t h e i r own i n s p i r a t i o n and n a i v e a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r own work. Horace recommends t h a t a p oet s h o u l d s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between I n v e n t i v e n e s s ( i n g e n i u m ) , a f e a t u r e o f Homer p r a i s e d even by h i s enemies, and D i s c i p l i n e ( s t u d i u m ) . V o n d e l ' s A a n l e i d i n g t e r N e d e r d u i t s D i c h t k u n s t s t a t e d the case f o r t h i s H o r a t i a n b a l a n c e f o r Dutch p o e t s . (See Emmens, o p . c i t . , pp.180-181). F o r t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e L e a r n e d P a i n t e r see Lee, o p . c i t . , pp.235-242. 21 . Hepp, o p . c i t . , p.13^« 2 2 . I b i d . , p.140* 2 3 . F i n s l e r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 9 , 24. H e l d , " A r i s t o t l e " ,p_p_. c i t . , p.20, n . 6 7 « 25» The seven advantages were: th e g l o r y o f I n v e n t i o n ; h i s r e p u t a t i o n among t h e Greeks - b o t h P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e admired him; h i s h e r o e s ' c h a r a c t e r s were b e t t e r d e f i n e d ; he was more i n s t r u c t i v e i n m a t t e r s o f morals and p o l i t c s as w e l l as h a v i n g r i c h e r p o e t r y ; he was c o n s i d e r e d t h e t r e a s u r e o f t h e Greek language whereas V i r g i l d i d not occupy the same p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e L a t i n l anguage; h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f combats and wars were b e t t e r ; and f i n a l l y t h e f a c t t h a t he had been r e v e r e d f o r a l l t i m e . See Hepp, o p . c i t . , p.39^-» 2 6 0 H e l d , " A r i s t o t l e , " o p . c i t . , pp.20-21 and n . 6 8 . 27« S l i v e , o p . c i t . , p.102. 28. J.G. van G e l d e r , "Jan de B i s s h o p * s Drawings A f t e r A n t i q u e S c u l p t u r e , " i n A c t s o f t h e XX I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Congress of t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t , S t u d i e s i n Western A r t I I I , P r i n c e t o n , 1963* PP°56-57» - 8 2 -2 9 o Emmens, o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 0 . 3 0 . I b i d o , p . l 8 7 „ 31= I b i d . , pp. 1 8 1 - 1 8 2 * 32« See B r e u g e l ' s l e t t e r C h . I I , n . 1 6 * 33» Emmens, o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 2 - 1 8 3 « 3 4 . J . G. van G e l d e r , "Jan de B i s s h o p , " i n Pud H o l l a n d , V o l . L X X X V I , P a r t 4 , 1 9 7 1 . p. 2 1 0 . 35« Emmens, o p . c i t . , p. i 8 6 0 36. I b i d . 37" See C. W h i t e , Rembrandt and H i s W o r l d , London, 1 9 6 4 ; C l a r a B i l l e , "Rembrandt and Burgomaster J a n S i x , " i n A p o l l o , 8 5 , I 9 6 7 , p p . 2 6 0 - 2 6 5 . S i x had l e n t Rembrandt 1 , 0 0 0 f l o r i n s i n 1 6 5 3 and had h i s p o r t r a i t p a i n t e d by t h e master i n 1 6 5 4 ( B r . 2 7 6 ) w h i c h would i n d i c a t e a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two a t t h a t t i m e , a t l e a s t on a p a t r o n - p a i n t e r b a s i s . A f t e r 1 6 5 8 , however, t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f any c o n t a c t between them. A p o s s i b l e c o o l i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p may be r e f l e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t M a r g a r e t a T u l p , m a r r i e d t o T u l p i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , had her p o r t r a i t p a i n t e d by Govert F l i n c k r a t h e r t h a n by Rembrandt. An o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t c o o l i n g a g a i n concens F l i n c k . U y l e n b u r g was recommending F l i n c k t o h i s many i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d s , one o f whom was Jan S i x . Rembrandts debt t o S i x has a l s o been mentioned as a p o s s i b l e s o r e p o i n t between the two, but S i x l o s t no money i n t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n s i n c e he had s o l d t h e p r o m i s o r y note t o Gerbrandt O r n i a . I t was Ludewyck van L u d i c k who had t o s t a n d s e c u r i t y f o r t h e 1 , 0 0 0 f l o r i n s p l u s 2 0 0 f l o r i n s i n t e r e s t . J u s t how c l o s e Rembrandt and S i x had been s t i l l r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 38. See C h a p t e r I I , note 1 5 « 39» S c h o l a r s such as H.van de Waal ("The I c o n o l o g i c a l Background o f Rembrandt's C i v i l i s , " i n S a r t y c k K o n s t h i s t o r i s k T i d s k r i f t , XXV, 1 - 2 , I956, pp. 1 2 - 2 5 ) and J.W. von M o l t k e ( G o v a e r t . ; F l i n c k , Amsterdam, 1 9 6 5 ) have suggested t h a t "The C o n s p i r a c y o f C l a u d i u s C i v i l i s " ( B r . 4 8 2 ) was removed from the Amsterdam Town H a l l because o f a c l a s s i c i s t i c b i a s . Rembrandt may have s i n n e d a g a i n s t decorum i n p o r t r a y i n g such d e t a i l s as showing C i v i l i s w i t h o n l y one eye and r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o a t h as almost a ' b a r b a r i c ' r i t u a l . There are o t h e r r e a s o n s , b o t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l and economic, t h a t may e x p l a i n why Rembrandt's canvas was t a k e n down. - 83 -The budding s p i r i t o f c l a s s i c i s m may have been a f a c t o r t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the burgomasters not t o r e i n s t a t e Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g , but i t does not t e l l t h e whole s t o r y s i n c e t h e y must have been aware o f Rembrandt's c a p a b i l i t i e s when t h e y commissioned him t o do the p a i n t i n g i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . 40. F o r t h i s s e c t i o n see H e l d , "Rembrandt and t h e Book o f T o b i t , " p ^ . c j L t . , pp.104-128. 41. Quoted from H e l d , o p . c i t . , p.1 2 5 n.3» Benesch g i v e s t h e r e a d i n g ass "Have p i t y w i t h / t h e poor B e l i s a r i u s / who was once i n g r e a t / esteem because o f h i s / m a n l i k e deeds / and who because o f j e a l o u s y / was d e p r i v e d o f h i s e y e - s i g h t . 42. I b i d . , pp . 1 2 5-128. 4 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 7 . 44. C i c e r o ( T u s c u l a n D i s p u t a t i o n s , V, XX X V I I I ) r e f l e c t s t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c v i e w when he s a y s : " i t was the s o u l which r e c e i v e s t h e o b j e c t s we see. Now the s o u l may have d e l i g h t i n many d i f f e r e n t ways, even w i t h o u t t h e use o f s i g h t , f o r I am s p e a k i n g o f an educated and i n s t r u c t e d man w i t h whom l i f e i s t h o u g h t ; and the thought o f t h e wise man s c a r c e l y ever c a l l s i n t h e sup p o r t o f t h e eyes t o a i d i n h i s r e s e a r c h e s . " 4 5 . I b i d . 46. See E r w i n P a n o f s k y , S t u d i e s i n I c o n o l o g y , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 . p.l09» n.48. Both Homer and S t e s i c h o r u s were accused o f m a l i g n i n g Helens "There can be no doubt about t h e l a t t e r ( S t e s i c h o r u s ) , f o r I saw him t h e r e - by t h a t t i m e H e l e n had f o r g i v e n him". S t e s i c h o r u s had s a i d h a r s h words o f He l e n and was b l i n d e d by C a s t o r and P o l l u x f o r h i s p r e s u m p t i o n . He r e c a n t e d i n a famous P a l i n o d e , o f wh i c h some l i n e s a r e s t i l l p r e s e r v e d and so r e c o v e r e d h i s e y e s i g h t . ( L u c i a n , A True S t o r y , I , 1 5 ) • "And f o r a l l who s i n i n m a t t e r o f l e g e n d s , t h e r e i s an a n c i e n t form o f p u r i f i c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h S t e s i c h o r u s was a c q u a i n t e d , though Homer was n o t . F o r when he was d e p r i v e d o f h i s e y e s i g h t f o r m a l i g n i n g H e l e n , he was not i g n o r a n t , l i k e Homer, o f t h e cause, but a t r u e v o t a r y o f t h e Muses, he l e a r n t h i s f a u l t , and s t r a i g h t w a y sang F a l s e was my t a l e - unpassed the r o l l i n g s e a , And T r o y ' s proud t u r r e t s n ever viewed by t h e e . And s o , h a v i n g composed a l l h i s p a l i n o d e , as i t i s c a l l e d , he i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o v e r e d h i s s i g h t . " ( P l a t o , Phaedrus, 243a). - 84 -That Homer was i n f a c t b l i n d stems from t h e b e l i e f t h a t he was t h e a u t h o r o f t h e Hymn t o t h e Deli'an  A p o l l o 8 "Come now, l e t A p o l l o be g r a c i o u s and A r t e m i s l i k e w i s e , and f a r e w e l l , a l l ye maidens, Yet remember me even i n a f t e r t i m e s , whenever some o t h e r t o i l - e n d u r i n g man, a d w e l l e r upon the e a r t h , s h a l l v i s i t t h i s i s l e and asks '0 maidens, what man i s t h e swe e t e s t o f t h e m i n s t r e l s t o you o f a l l who wander h i t h e r , and i n whom do you t a k e most d e l i g h t e * Do you make answer, a l l w i t h one a c c o r d , i n g e n t l e words, 'The b l i n d man who d w e l l s i n rugged Chios'." ( T h u c y d i d e s , B k . I I I , CIV. 5 ) . Not a l l A n t i q u e a u t h o r s , however, were w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t Homer's b l i n d n e s s . L u c i a n (A True S t o r y , I I , 20) f o r example, s t a t e s : "That he was not b l i n d , as t h e y s a y , I un d e r s t o o d a t once - I saw i t , and so had no need t o a s k " , but t h i s may be i n t e n d e d as a j o k e . Others such as Pa u s a n i u s (Bk.IV, X X X I I I , 7) b e l i e v e d Homer l o s t h i s s i g h t t h r o u g h d i s e a s e . The number of w r i t e r s p r o f e s s i n g Homer's b l i n d n e s s outweighed t h o s e a g a i n s t . Homer's b l i n d n e s s became a t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t . 47. Von Einem, o p . c i t . , p.186. 48. P o e t r y b e s i d e s c o n t a i n i n g s e c r e t wisdom a l s o t a u g h t u n i v e r s a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge. B o t h Q u i n t i l i a n and P l u t a r c h s t a t e t h a t Homer was f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l t h e a r t s . M e lanchthon l a b e l l e d Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n o f A c h i l l e s s h i e l d as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r astronomy and p h i l o s o p h y . S i m i l a r l y D i o n y s i u s o f H a l i k a r n a s s u s a s s e r t s t h a t t h r o u g h Homer a l l o t h e r s t u d i e s came i n t o Greece and u l t i m a t e l y p h i l o s o p h y . As l a t e as 1713» Anthony C o l l i n s c a l l e d t h e I l i a d t h e "epitome o f a l l a r t s and s c i e n c e s " . Homer had pl a n n e d i t f o r a l l e t e r n i t y " t o p l e a s e and i n s t r u c t mankind"s See C u r t i u s , o p . c i t . ,p.206 and D.S. M a r g o l i o u t h , The Homer of A r i s t o t l e , O x f o r d , 1923» p . 2 3 7 . - 85 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , D.C. M y s t e r i o u s l y Meanto Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1970. A l l e n , DoC. "The Renaissance A n t i q u a r i a n , " i n Medieval and Renaissance S t u d i e s . 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"Rembrandt and C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y , " i n L e c t u r e s I . London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 5 7 , p p , 2 9 8 - 3 1 0 . S c h a f f r a n , E. " J u s t u s von Gent, Pedro B e r r u g u e t e und d e r Hof von U r b i n o , " i n Das M u n s t e r , 1 0 , 1 9 5 7 , p p . 3 7 5 - 3 7 7 ° Schmidt-Degener, F. Rembrandt. Amsterdam: A.M. M e u l e n h o f f , 1 9 5 0 . Schmidt-Degener, F. "Rembrandt en Homerus," i n F e e s t - B u n d e l . Amsterdam: Boek-Kunst - En H a n d e l s d r u k k e r i j H. Gebroeders B i n g e r , 1 9 1 5 , pp. 1 5-24, S c o t t , J.A. Homer and H i s I n f l u e n c e . New York: Cooper Square P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ° S c r o p e , S., W. W o r c e s t e r and Anonymous T r a n s l a t o r . ( t r a n s . ) The D i e t s and S a y i n g s o f t h e P h i l o s p h e r s . London: Ox f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 . - 92 -S i x , J . "De Homerus v a n R e m b r a n d t , " i n Pud H o l l a n d , 15 I 8 9 7 , p p . l - 1 0 o S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y I t a l i a n S c h o o l s . N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y L o n d o n C a t a l o g u e , 1964. S l i v e , Si D r a w i n g s o f R e m b r a n d t * 2 v o l s . New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965» S l i v e , S. R e m b r a n d t a n d H i s C r i t i c s 1630-1730. The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1 9 5 3 . S t e c h o w , W. "Rembrandt - D e m o c r i t u s , " i n The A r t  Q u a r t e r l y ] , ' 7 » 1 9 4 4 , p p . 2 3 3 - 2 3 8 . S t e c h o w , W. Rubens a n d t h e C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . T h u c y d i d e s ^ H i s t o r y o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n War. 4 v o l s . t r a n s , b y C.F. S m i t h , L o n d o n : W i l l i a m H einemann L t d . , 1 9 5 3 . V a l e n t i n e r , W.R. R e m b r a n d t and S p i n o z a . 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"The I c o n o l o g i c a l B a c k g r o u n d o f R e m b r a n d t ' s C i v i l i s , " i n S a r t z i k K o n s t h i s t o r i s k T i d s k r i f t , 2 5 , 1 9 5 6 , p p . 1 2 - 2 5 . Wade-Grey, H.T. The P o e t o f t h e I l i a d . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 . W a l l a c e , R. The W o r l d o f R e m b r a n d t I606- I669 . New Y o r k : Time L i f e " ~ B o o k s , 1968. W h i t e , C. R e m b r a n d t a n d H i s W o r l d . L o n d o n : Thames & H u d s o n , 1964. - 93 -W h i t e , C. Rembrandt as an E t c h e r 0 London; A. Zwemmer L t d . , 1969. W h i t e , C. and K.G. Boon. Rembrandt's E t c h i n g s . 2 v o l s . Amsterdam: Van Gendt & Co. I969 . White", C Rubens and H i s World. London: Thames and Hud s on, 1968. W h i t t i c k , A. Symbols S i g n s and t h e i r Meaning. M a s s a c h u s e t t s : C h a r l e s T. B r a n f o r d Company, i 9 6 0 . _ 94 -APPENDIX A 1 G u e r c i n o ' s L e t t e r o f June 1 3 » 1 6 6 0 E x c e r p t from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by G u e r c i n o t o Don A n t o n i o R u f f o ; c i t e d from V. R u f f o " G a l l e r i a R u f f o n e l S e c o l o X V I I i n M e s s i n a , " i n B o l l e t t i n o d ' a r t e , X, 1 9 1 6 , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 : C i r c a i l p a r t i c o l a r e d e l l a mezza f i g u r a d e l N Reimbrant c a p i t a t a a l l e mani d e l l a S.V. 111 .ma non puo e s s e r e che d i t u t t a p e r f e t i o n e , p e rche i o ho veduto d i v e r s e sue Opere i n stampa comparse i n q u e s t e n o s t r e p a r t i , l i q u a l i sono r i u s c i t e molto b e l l e , i n t a g l i a t e d i buon gusto e f a t t e d i buona m a n i e r a , dove s i puo a r g o -mentare che i l d i l u i c o l o r i r e s i a p a r i m e n t i d i t u t t a e s q u i s i t e z z a e p e r f e t i o n e , e t i o ingenuamente l o sti m o p e r un gran v i r t u o s o . I n quanto p o i a l i a mezza f i g u r a che e l l a d e s i d e r a v a da ma p e r accompagnamento d i q u e l l a d e l Reim b r a n t , ma d e l l a mia p r i m a m a n i e r a g a g l i a r d a , i o sono p r o n t i s s i m o p e r c o r r i s p o n d e r e e t e s e q u i r e l i d i l e i o r d i n i ; r e s t a che l e i s i c o m p i a c c i a d ' i n v i a r m i l e mesure, s i d e l l a l u n g h e z z a come d e l l a l a r g h e z z a d e l quadro che d a l mio can t o non manchero d'i m p i e g a r e t u t t o me s t e s s o , e quanto p o t r a e sapra. f a r e l a mia d e b o l e z z a L e i medesina l o m i r e r a i n d e t t o quadro e s p r e s s o . Se p o i a n c o r a con l ' o c c a s s i o n e d ' i n v i a r m i l a m i s u r a V.S. 1 1 1 . ma v o l e s s e onorami d i un poco d i s c h i z z o d e l Quadro d e l Reimbrant f a t t o p e r mano d i q u a l c h e P i t t o r e a c c i o p o t e s s i vedere l a d i s p o s i t i o n e d e l l a mezza f i g u r a , i l f a v o r e mi sarebbe s i n g o l a r i s s i m o e p o t r e i g o v e r n a r m i m e g l i o p e r 1'acconroagnamento, s i come p e r p i g l i a r e i l lume a l suo l u g g o ; s t a r o s i m i l m e n t e attendendo i l s o g g e t t o che dovro e s p r i m e r e a c c i o maggiormente i o p o s s a c o n f r o n t a r m i c o l d e s i d e r i o d i V.S. 1 1 1 . ma a c u i ... mentre confermo l a mia d e v o t i s s i m a o.sservanza; q u i r e s t o , e r i v e r e n t e m e n t e g l i e n e b a c i o l e mani. Bologna l i 13 Guigno 1 6 6 0 . D i V.S. 111 .ma D e v o t i s s i m o e t O b b l i g a t i s s i m o s e r v o G i o v a n n i F r a n c e s c o B a r b i e r i - 95 -APPENDIX B Rembrandt and R a p h a e l Many s c h o l a r s have p o i n t e d out t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t : between Rembrandt's "Homer R e c i t i n g H i s V e r s e s " (Ben.no.913) and Raphael's " P a r n a s s u s " i n t h e V a t i c a n S t a n z e . Homer of t h e S t a n z e i s shown s t a n d i n g w i t h Dante t o h i s r i g h t and V i r g i l t o h i s l e f t . The b l i n d b a r d r e a c h e s out w i t h h i s r i g h t hand w h i l e he g r a s p s h i s robe w i t h h i s l e f t hand. Homer's head, crowned w i t h l a u r e l , i s t u r n e d skyward perhaps f o r d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n as he s i n g s h i s v e r s e s . A young s c r i b e a t h i s f e e t l i f t s h i s pen f o r a moment and t u r n s a t t e n t i v e l y towards th e poet i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r hear the i n s p i r e d words. Rembrandt, of c o u r s e , c o u l d not have seen R a p h a e l ' s work i n p e r s o n , but i t was made known t o him t h r o u g h a p r i n t by M a r c a n t o n i o Raimondi a f t e r Raphael (B . 2 4 7 ) . M a r c a n t o n i o ' s p r i n t e n j o y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n . I t i s n o t , however, an e x a c t d u p l i c a t e o f t h e V a t i c a n f r e s c o , but r e f l e c t s an e a r l i e r i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e . There are e x t r a n e o u s a d d i t i o n s such as t h e f i v e f l y i n g p u t t i w i t h g a r l a n d s , A p o l l o i s p l a y i n g a l y r e r a t h e r t h a n a v i o l i n , and t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r f o r m a t has been changed t o an o b l o n g one. M a r c a n t o n i o ' s p r i n t i t s e l f i s known i n two c o p i e s : one adds a n o t h e r s t r i n g t o the l y r e and the second has o n l y t h r e e p u t t i . I t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t Rembrandt owned a p r i n t o f M a r c a n t o n i o ' s e n g r a v i n g o r a t l e a s t one o f t h e c o p i e s . H i s i n v e n t o r y , f o r example, r e c o r d s t h a t he owned a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o l l e c t i o n o f p r i n t s done a f t e r Raphael's work: Urk . 1 6 9 , nos . 196 one book w i t h c o p p e r - p l a t e e n g r a v i n g s by ( a f t e r ) R a p h a e l of U r b i n o ; 205« one book w i t h p r i n t s a f t e r Raphael o f U r b i n o j 206. one book w i t h p r i n t s a f t e r t h e same, v e r y v a l u a b l e ; 214. one book a f t e r Raphael o f U r b i n o , v e r y f i n e i m p r e s s i o n s . Rembrandt, n e v e r t h e l e s s , has t r a n s l a t e d R aphael's c o m p o s i t i o n i n t o h i s own p e r s o n a l i d i o m . From Raphael he borrows th e i d e a f o r an o p e n - a i r s e t t i n g , t h e h i l l o c k and l a u r e l g r o v e , Homer's g e s t u r e , and t h e a t t e n t i v e s c r i b e and a d m i r i n g a u d i e n c e . These s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e , n e v e t h e l e s s , s u p e r f i c i a l ; Homer i n Rembrandt assumes a new r o l e . Here i n t h e d r a w i n g Homer i s p o r t r a y e d not as t h e P r i n c e o f P o e t s r e c e i v i n g t h e a d u l a t i o n o f h i s f o l l o w e r s , but as a p r o p h e t f i g u r e p r e a c h i n g t o a l l common p e o p l e . Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h a t Rembrandt chose a s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r h i s e t c h i n g " C h r i s t P r e a c h i n g " (La p e t i t e tombe', B . 6 7 ) . C h r i s t , s t a n d i n g on a r a i s e d p l a t f o r m w i t h a y o u t h a t h i s f e e t , l i k e Homer's s c r i b e , s p r e a d s th e d i v i n e word t o a q u i e t , c o n t e m p l a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f every-day p e o p l e . As w e l l , t h e g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f - 96 -t h e young C h r i s t i n " C h r i s t D i s p u t i n g w i t h t h e D o c t o r s " ( B 0 6 5 ) , a l s o e x e c u t e d i n 1652, r e c a l l s t he d i d a c t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f Homer's g e s t u r e i n t h e dr a w i n g . F o r t h e f i g u r e o f Homer h i m s e l f , Rembrandt t u r n s once more t o t h e I t a l i a n m aster as i n t e r p r e t e d "by M a r c a n t o n i o . Here a g a i n , however, Rembrandt t r a n s f o r m s the r a t h e r ' b l a t a n t ' r h e t o r i c a l g e s t u r e o f the p r i n t i n t o a s l i g h t , s u b t l e move-ment o f t h e hand f e e l i n g out the tempo o f e v e r y word. Homer i s not so much l o u d l y p r o c l a i m i n g h i s v e r s e s as s o f t l y s i n g i n g them. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d . o u t t h a t M a r c a n t o n i o ' s image o f Homer i s much more ' b o i s t e r o u s ' t h a n Raphael's o r i g i n a l . The Homer o f t h e Stan z e has h i s mouth o n l y s l i g h t l y open and t h e g e s t u r e o f t h e hand appears more l i k e t he i n a r t i c u l a t e g r o p i n g o f a b l i n d man t h a n the r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h o f t h e Raimond i . The f e a t u r e s o f Homer's f a c e - the open mouth, the deep, i n s e t e y e s , t h e f u l l , rounded beard - a l l a re found i n the Homer o f Raphael and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n Rembrandt. T h e i r u l t i m a t e o r i g i n i r o n i c a l l y comes not from a c l a s s i c a l b u s t o f Homer, but from t h e famed "Laocoon," a H e l l e n i s t i c s c u l p t u r e o f t h e second c e n t u r y , B.C., d i s c o v e r e d i n Rome on J a n u a r y 14, 1506,3 Rembrandt ' s i n v e n t o r y l i s t s an ' a n t i q u e ' Laocoon i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e (Urk, l69.no.329)» That Raphael used t h i s s c u l p t u r e as t h e model f o r h i s Homer can be seen i n a dr a w i n g i n the R o y a l L i b r a r y , Windsor. Raphael adopts t h e a n c i e n t m o t i f f o r t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b l i n d n e s s , the c l o s e d e y e s , w h i c h may suggest a knowledge o f t h e s o - c a l l e d Epimenides t y p e o f Homer b u s t a l t h o u g h he p r o b a b l y would n o t have known i t as such . Whether Homer's eyes a r e c l o s e d i n Ben.no.913 i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . P i e r f r a n c e s c o Mola's l a t e p o r t r a i t s o f Homer i n the G a l e r i a C o r s i n i and t h e d u p l i c a t e i n Dresden s t i l l adopt t h i s m o t i f . I t s h o u l d be no t e d t h a t Joos van Gent's "Homer" i s s i m i l a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i t y o f Raphael's " P a r n a s s u s " must have h e l p e d t o s t e r e o t y p e Homer's f e a t u r e s b e f o r e a more c r i t i c a l a r c h e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e r i v e d from c l a s s i c a l b u s t s became w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . T h i s p o p u l a r i t y i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e f a c t t h a t R a p h a e l ' s Homer a g a i n t u r n s up i n t h e t i t l e - p a g e o f the Odysses i n Chapman ' s Whole Works  of Homer o f l 6 l 6 ( r e p r o d u c e d i n George de F. L o r d , Homeric  R e n a i s s a n c e , London, 1956)» The "P a r n a s s u s " i t s e l f s e r v e d as a d e s i g n f o r a F r e n c h t a p e s t r y i n 1682 ( r e p r o d u c e d i n A. L e j a r d , F r e n c h T a p e s t r y , London, 1946, p.6 6 ) . F o r Rembrandt, however, t h e H e l l e n i s t i c , B l i n d t y p e o f Homer o f f e r e d a much b e t t e r i d e a o f how the a n c i e n t s p i c t u r e d t h e i r g r e a t e s t poet and i t was t o t h i s p r e c e d e n t t h a t he t u r n e d f o r t he M a u r i t s h u i s Homer. - 97 -APPENDIX C Rembrandt and A n t i q u e S c u l p t u r e I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e heads of Homer and A r i s t o t l e , Rembrandt owned a s e r i e s o f twenty b u s t s o f Roman emperors t h a t were a r r a n g e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r s ^ Twelve were i n t h e Kunst Caemer and e i g h t more were i n t h e back room 0 Such a c o l l e c t i o n o f a n t i q u e s was not uncommon i n H o l l a n d i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P r i n c e F r e d e r i k H e n d r i k , f o r example, not o n l y had c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e s i n The Hague, but a l s o a t h i s c o u n t r y p a l a c e s R i j s w i j k and H o n s e l a a r s d i j k . A c o l l e c t i o n o f marble s t a t u e s was s h i p p e d t o H o l l a n d from Antwerp i n 1646 t h r o u g h t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e v e r s a t i l e S i r M i c h e i l Le B l o n , e n g r a v e r , a r t l o v e r and s e c r e t agent. A l t h o u g h t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n i s unknown, i t must have been q u i t e l a r g e s i n c e i t was d i v i d e d up among t w e n t y - s i x of Amsterdam's l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s , f o r t h e sum o f 6,400 f l o r i n s . One o f t h e buyers was Rembrandt. He spent 186 f l o r i n s f o r h i s share o f the consignment. I t has been assumed t h a t e i g h t e e n o f the above mentioned b u s t s o f Roman emperors (Urk . 1 6 9 , nos.147, 1^9° 152, 156, 160, 168-173) were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s purchase. 7 The i n v e n t o r y mentions A u g u s t u s , C a l i g u l a , Marcus A u r e l i u s , G a l b a , O t t o , A g r i p p a , V i t e l l i u s , V e s p a s i a n u s , Nero, F a u s t i n a , G a i s u s S i l i u s and some unnamed b u s t s . Of t h r e e o f them, Rembrandt made pen s k e t c h e s : one i n t h e l i b r a r y a t T u r i n (Ben.no.452) r e n d e r s j u s t t h e g e n e r a l o u t -l i n e o f a Roman emperor; t h e p r o f i l e b ust i n t h e B e r l i n P r i n t Room (Ben.no.770) was c o p i e s from h i s b u s t o f G a l b a ; and t h e t h i r d (Ben.no.770a) i n t h e A l b e r t i n a i s a n o t h e r s t u d y o f a Roman emperor. Rembrandt may have been a t t r a c t e d by t h e v e r i s t i c q u a l i t y o f Roman p o r t r a i t s . I n h i s d r awing o f G a l b a (Ben.no . 7 7 O ), f o r example, Rembrandt c a p t u r e s the essence o f t h i s d o m i n e e r i n g Roman: the b u l g i n g c r a n i u m , t h e bony s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s k u l l and t h e h a w k - l i k e f e a t u r e s o f t h e f a c e . A s i d e from t h e t h i r t y - e i g h t o r t h i r t y - n i n e a n t i q u e s and c a s t s of a n t i q u e s , Rembrandt a l s o owned drawing a f t e r t h e a n t i q u e (Urk . l 6 9 » no .251) and a n o t h e r book o f s t a t u e s (Urk . 169,no.261) drawn from l i f e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y none of t h e s e drawings have s u r v i v e d . To t h i s c o l l e c t i o n can be added a book of s t a t u e s engraved on copper ( U r k . 1 6 9 , no.226) and p o s s i b l y one c o n t a i n i n g e n g r a v i n g s by Heemskerk o f a l l h i s works (Urk . 1 6 9 , no.227) . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s t o what purpose d i d Rembrandt use h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f A n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e ? S l i v e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were a c q u i r e d e s s e n t i a l l y f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s p u p i l s . ^ van G e l d e r p o i n t s out t h a t from t h e s i x t e e n t h - 98 -t o s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s a r t i s t s s t u d i e d works of s c u l p t u r e t o d i s c o v e r t h e V i t r u v i a n system o f p r o p o r t i o n s . 1 0 A t r e a t i s e by C r i s p i j n van de P a s s e , D e l l a l u c e d e l d i p i n g e r e  e t d i s p g n a r e , was p u b l i s h e d i n Amsterdam i n 1643-44 w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h i s t r a i n i n g f o r a young a r t i s t . - * - ! ^ e b a s i s o f s t u d y was not t h e a n t i q u e works i n t h e m s e l v e s but t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a n t i q u i t y i n mathematics. Drawing from a n t i q u e s c u l p t u r e , a p p a r e n t l y i n Rembrandt's s t u d i o was but a p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o draw from l i v e models. A d r a w i n g by Van Renesse i n t h e Darmstadt Museum shows a l i v e model w h i l e i n t h e background t h e r e a r e Roman b u s t s t h u s i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e a r t i s t s i n t h e d r a w i n g have l e f t t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e b e h i n d and a r e now c a p a b l e o f d r a w i n g from l i f e . 1 2 That Rembrandt s t r e s s e d p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g e s p e c i a l l y d r a w i n g from l i v e models can be seen from h i s e t c h i n g "The W a l k i n g Trainer ' . ' 1 3 Once the s t u d e n t had p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s e s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s , d r a w i n g from s c u l p t u r e and d r a w i n g from l i f e , t h e n he c o u l d r e l y on h i s own memory f o r h i s g u i d e . Rembrandt, moreover*- :must have had an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e works of a n t i q u i t y h i m s e l f o t h e r t h a n j u s t u s i n g them as models f o r h i s p u p i l s . C l a r k f e e l s t h a t Rembrandt employed them as a s o u r c e o f harmonious and i n t e g r a t e d forms t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h he s t a t e s t h a t Rembrandt d i d not seem t o p r o f i t t o o much from h i s s t u d y o f f i g u r e s i n t h e r o u n d . Perhaps Benesch i s c l o s e r t o t h e t r u t h when he sees Rembrandt s t u d y i n g a n t i q u e p o r t r a i t s i n much the same manner t h a t he s t u d i e d o l d men, t o c a p t u r e t h e c h a r a c t e r , t h e s e c r e t s o u l as r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and t h e eyes. The v e r i s t i c n a t u r e o f H e l l e n i s t i c and Roman p o r t r a i t u r e would have been a n a t u r a l magnet a t t r a c t i n g t h e master. - 99 -APPENDIX D l A f R e n a i s s a n c e A n t i q u a r i a n s I n 1558 F u l v i u s U r s i n u s became the l i b r a r i a n t o C a r d i n a l R a n u c c i o F a r n e s e . U r s i n u s ' s i n t e r e s t i n Greek p o r t r a i t s had been s t i m u l a t e d by the i n s c r i b e d h e a d l e s s herms i n the V i l l a o f J u l i u s I I I and he soon began t o c o l l e c t them b o t h f o r h i m s e l f and f o r h i s p a t r o n s , t h e Farnese c a r d i n a l s . H i s study of Greek p o r t r a i t u r e soon made him t h e foremost s c h o l a r i n t h i s f i e l d . U r s i n u s , however, was not t h e f i r s t t o p u b l i s h a book on Greek p o r t r a i t u r e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was l e f t t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e A c h i l l e s S t a t i u s who i n 1659 i s s u e d I n l u s t r i u m v i r o r u t e x s t a n t i n Urbe e x p r e s s i v u l t u s , Romae MDLXIX, f o r m i s A n t o n i i L a f r e r i . I t c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y - t w o a s s o r t e d p l a t e s but no d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1570» U r s i n u s p u b l i s h e d h i s book Imagines et e l o g i a v i r o r u m i l l u s t r i u m e t  e r u d i t o r . ex a n t i q u i s l a p i d i b u s e t nomismatib. e x p r e s s a  cum a n n o t a t i o n i b . ex b i b l i o t h e c a F u l v i Ursinig> MDLXX, Romae, Ant. L a f r e r i i f o r m e i s . Theodorus G a l l a e u s or D i r k G a l l e , a n a t i v e o f Antwerp, was a l l o w e d t o draw p o r t r a i t s i n U r s i n u s ' s c o l l e c t i o n , i n t h a t o f t h e F arnese c a r d i n a l s , and a l s o some i n o t h e r Roman c o l l e c t i o n s . These drawings were t h e n used t o make e n g r a v i n g s w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d i n 1598 i n a book w i t h t h e t i t l e I l l u s t r i u m  i m a g i n e s ex a n t i q u i s marmoribus, nomismatibus et gemmis  e x p r e s s a e , quae e x s t a n t Romae, ma.jor p a r s F u l v . Ursinum, Theodorus G a l l a e u s d e l i n e a b a t Romae ex a r c h e t y p i s , i n c i d e b a t  A n t w e r p i a e 1598. Once a g a i n t h e r e was no d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t . U r s i n u s p l a n n e d t o make c o r r e c t i o n s and add f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o t h i s work but t h i s p l a n was i n t e r r u p t e d by h i s d e a t h i n 1600. The t a s k was t a k e n up by Johannes F a b e r , a p h y s i c i a n and a n t i q u a r i a n from Bamberg. Fa b e r ' s book f i n a l l y appeared i n 1606 as a second e d i t i o n o f G a l l e u s ' work. I t had t h e same t i t l e o n l y w i t h the a d d i t i o n E d i t i o a l t e r a , a l i q u o t i m a g i n i b u s , e t J . F e b r i ad s i n g u l a s  commentario a u c t i o r atque i l l u s t r i o r . Ant w e r p i a e ex  o f f i c i n a P l a n t i n i a n a , 1606. These works remained the b a s i s f o r the s t u d y of Greek p o r t r a i t s f o r a l m o s t two c e n t u r i e s . L a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o u t i l i z e G a l l a e u s * r e p r o d u c t i and U r s i n u s ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s and a t t r i b u t i o n s . - 100 -APPENDIX E 1 5 R u f f o ' s C o m p l a i n t and Rembrandt's R e p l y - 1662 a Primo Novembre i n M e s s i n a -Raccordo p e r i l S i g - r e Console G i o . B a t t i s t a V a l l e m b r o t n e l l ' a r r i v o che f a r a i n Asterdam. S i g n i f i c h e r a a l S i r e I s a c h J u s t l a poca s o d i s f a t i o n e t i e n e 1'amico d i M e s s i n a d e l quadro d e l A l e s s a n d r o p e r c o n t o d e l q u a l e d e t t o quadro s i commise, c o s i h a v e r s i pagato d a v a n t a g g i o d e l l ' A r i s t o t i l e che a n n i sono s i commeBSe d a l Sitre Giacomo d i B a t t i s t a p e r conto d e l l a medesima p e r s o n a a l S*.re C o r n e l i o Vangaor come p e r e s s e r e dio quadro d i A l e s s a n d r o p i n t g t o s o p r a q u a t t r o t e l e c u c i t e che fanno q u a t t r o c u s t u r e c o s i pessime, che non s i possono c r e d e r e , o l t r e che i l tempo p o i l e f a r a crepare, ed i n consequenza v i e n e a p e r d e r s i d e l l ' i n t u t t o d e t t o guadro ne i n due canto p e z z i d i q u a d r i che l a d e t t a p e r s o n a t i e n e d e l l i m i g l i o r i s o g g e t t i d'Europa, s i r i t r o v a quadro con t e l a g u i n t a t a , come i l sud.° L , . A l e s s a n d r o , i l q u a l e , p e r che da p r i n c i p i o non e r a p i u che una T e s t a i n t e l a sana i l S i r e P i t t o r e Rembrant p e r v o l e r l o p o i f a r d i v e n i r e mezza f i g u r a , p e r c a u s a , o l d i r i s p a r m i a r f a t i g a o- p e r l e molte o c c u p a t i o n s che l e s o v r a s t a v a n o , p i g l i o p e r e s p e d i e n t e d ' a n d a r l i g i u n t a n d o l a t e l a , p r i m a l o c o n e l l a l u n g h e z z a e p o i perche i l quadro l e r i u s c i v a s t r e t t p l o g i u n t o n e l l a l a r g h e z z a , e p e r remediare a l l ' u n o e a l l * a l t r o mancamento, i n v i o con i l d e t t o quadro d ' A l e s s a n d r o un a l t r o d'Homero mezzo f i n i t o s o p r a t e l a b e l l a e nova che apunto sara. s t a t a q u e l l a t e l a , q u a l e se ne p i g l i o 18 f i o r i n i , q u a l e sud.o quadro d'Homero mezzo? f i n i t o d e n t r o una i n c i r a t a , e sua c a s s a r i d o t t o n e l l a m i s u r a d e g l i a l t r i , s i rimanda ad e f f e t t o d i p e r f e c t i o n a r s i , con p e n s i e r o d'havere i n questo a s o d d i s f a r e i l mancamento d e l l ' a l t r o d e l q u a l e non s i puo c a l c u l a r e p i u che una t e s t a , v o l e n d o s i r i t e n e r e che s i potrebbono c a l c u l a r e l a meta d e l l i 500 f i o r i n i che s'ha p i g l i a t o d e g l i a l t r i due i n v i a t i , che s a r e b b e r o f i o r i n i 250 p r e z z o q u a t r i p l i c a t o p i u d i q u e l l o che s i p r a t t i c a i n I t a l i a d a g l i p i u c e l e b r i p i c t o r i , l i q u a l i d'una T e s t a han s t a b i l i t o i l p r e z z o d i scudi^ 2 5 e d'una mezza f i g u r a s c u d i 50 e t a n t o maggiormente che i l quadro d'Homero se l ' i n v i a e q u a s i mezzo s p e d i t o e s i ha da d u r a r e l a meta. f a t i c a meno che sarebbe a p e r f e t t i o n a r l o p e r 1 ' i n t i e r o p e r che i n quanto a l l e t e l e g i u n t a t e rendono t a n t a mala v i s t a che e n e c e s s a r i o l e v a r l e che i n caso p o i non v o l e s s e usare q u e s t a c o r t e s i a , l a q u a l e e r a g g i o n e v o l e e d o v u t a , s i remandera. p a r i m e n t i i l medesmo A l e s s a n d r o p e r f a r l e r e s t i t u i r e i l p r e z z o non essendo dovere a t e n e r e un quadro d i t a n t a spesa i n c a s a c o s i d i f e t t o s o convenendo a n c o r a a l i a r e p u t a t i o n e ed a l l ' a m i c o d i V.S. p e r non f a r meno d i q u e l l o f e c e i l S i g . r e Vangaor :ed a l - 101 -P i c t o r e R e m b r a n t d i f a r r e s t a r e s o d i s f a t t a l a c u r i o s i t a d e l c o m p r a t o r e i l q u a l e c o n q u e s t a s o d i s f a t i o n e i - n o n m a n c h e r a d i f a m e d e g l i a l t r i c h e p e r l o meno t i e n e i n t e n t i o n e d i c o m p l i r n e una mezza d o z z a n a p e r l i q u a l i v o l e n d o n e i l P i c t o r e mandare g l i s c h i z z i se p o t r a f a r i n f o g l i d i c a r t a , d i l a p i s , o r o s s o , o n e r o c o n f o r m e p i u l e p i a c e r a p e r p o t e r e p o i d a q u e s t i che p o t r a n n o v e n i r e d e n t r o un p i e g o da l e t t e r a o ^ e r mare d e n t r o uno s c a t o l i n o e l i g e r e i l c o m p r a t o r e q u a l i p i u l e s a r a n n o d i s u a s o d i s f a t i o n e e t a l s u o f e l i c e r i t o r n o c h e f a r a d a A s t e r d a m c o n l a m e d esima c a s s a e t e l a i n c e r a t a p o t r a p o r t a r e i l q u a d r o d'Romero p e r f e c t i o n a t o . C o p i a d i r i c e v u t a d e l c a p . n o N i c o l o d i C o r n e l i o V a n h o l t r a s f o r m a t a i n I t a l i a n a . 1662 a d i 16 Novembre i n M e s s i n a I o s o t t o s c r i t t o c a p . n o N i c o l o d i C o r n e l i o V a n h o l d e l l a n a v e n o m i n a t a A r i o n c o n f e s s o h a v e r r i c e v u t o d a l S i g . r e Don A n t o n i o R u f f o u n a C a s s a d e n t r o un q u a d r o s e g n a t o come f u o r i c h e p r o m e t t o c o n s e g n a r e se D i o m i c o n c e d e r a b u o n v i a g g i o i n A s t e r d a m a l S i g . r I s a c h J u s t e n , p a g a n d o m i p e r i l mio n o l o t r e f i o r i n i , e t i n f e d e d e l v e r o ho f i r m a t o t r e r i c e v u t e d'un t e n o r e una s o d i s f a t t a r e s t a n o l ' a l t r e d i n e s s u n v a l o r e i l d i come s o p r a e s o t t o s c r i t t o . N i c o l o d i C o r n e l i o V a n h o l . - R e s p o s t a d e l P i t o r e R e m b r a n d t -M o l t o me m a r a v i g l i o d e l modo che s c r i v o n o d e l A l e s s a n d r o che e f a t t o t a n t o b e n e , c r e d o che v i s o n o p o c h i a m a t o r i a M e s s i n a e p o i che V.S. l a m e n t a t a n t o d e l p r e z z o q u a n t o d e l l a t e l a ma se V.S. comanda t o r n a r l o s o p r a sue s p e s e , a suo r e s i c o come a n c o r a i l s c h i z z o H u m e r i o f a r o un a l t r o A l e x a n d r o p o i i n q u a n t o a l i a t e l e me ha m a n c a t o p i n g i e n d o che f u i . de b i s o g n i o a l u n g a r l o ma p e r o q uando pende g i u s t o s o p r a suo g i o r n o n o n s i v e d r a n i e n t e . - Se V.S. p i a g e i l A l e x a n d r o c o s s i v a bene se n o n a V.S. p i a c e s s e t e n e r i l d e t t o A l e x a n d r o i l manco p r e z z o l i f . n i 600 - f i o r i n i . E i l H u m e r i o F . n i 500 - e t i l c o s t o d e l l a t e l a , l e s p e s e se i n t e n d a d o v e r l e f a r e V.S. l e p i a c e n d o h a v e r l o f a t t o r e s t e r a s e r v i t o d i mandarmi l a g i u s t a m i s u r a q u a n t o l e v o l e g r a n d e z z a . E ne a t t e n d o l a r e s p o s t a p e r meo g o v e r n o R e m b r a n d t v a n R y n . - 102 -APPENDIX F Copy o f S h i p p i n g B i l l o f 1654 C o p i a d e l con t o e spese d e l quadro d e l l ' A r i s t o t i l e f a t t o p i n t a r e d a l P i c t o r e Remhrant i l S«re C o r n e l i o E y s b e r t Vangaor d ' o r d i n e d e l f u Giacomo d i B a t t i s t a p e r conto d e l S i g . r e Don A n t o n i o R u f f o d i M e s s i n a . 1654 a 19 Guigno i n Amsterdam P e r l a p i c t u r a d e l Remhrant p e r l a f a t t u r a . 0 F 0 500 P e r l a c a s s e t t a e chiodame . . . 0 • B O O S o F • 3.12 P e r °/3 d i montatura e p e s a t u r a 0 0 O ft 0 * 0 F 9 6 P e r i l c o n v o g l i o . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 F 0 2.19 P e r l i d i l e t t o n i d i N.o 120 . . 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 F 0 1. 4 I n bordo d e l l a Nave i n T e x e l . . 0 « 0 0 0 9 . F. 1. 8 F.515.85»l6.8 - 1 0 3 -NOTES TO APPENDICES 1 . See t r a n s l a t i o n s C h . I I , n . 1 9 and p . 2 2 . 2. B a r t s c h , Le P e i n t r e G r a v e u r , V i e n n e , 1 8 0 3 - 1 8 2 1 , XIV, no.247, p . 2 0 0 ; G. Cumberland, E s s a y on I t a l i a n E n g r a v i n g s , London, 1 8 2 7 , p . i J - 9 i i - 4 9 5 . 3. See L. D u s s l e r , R a p h a e l , A C r i t i c a l C a t a l o g u e  o f h i s P i c t u r e s , W a i l - P a i n t i n g s and T a p e s t r i e s , London, 1 9 7 1 ; R o Cocke, The Drawings o f R a p h a e l , London, 1 9 6 9 ; 0 . F i s c h e l , R a p h a e l , V o l . 1 , London, 1 9 ^ - 8 ; K.T. P a r k e r , C a t a l o g u e o f t h e Drawings i n the Ashmolean Museum, V o l . 1 1 , O x f o r d , 1 9 5 6 ; N. Ponente, Who was R a p h a e l ? , Ohio, 1 9 6 7 ; A.E. Popham and J . W i l d e , The I t a l i a n Drawings o f t h e XV and XVI C e n t u r i e s  a t Windsor C a s t l e , London, 1 9 ^ - 9 » 4 . J o Rosenberg, S. S l i v e and E.H. t e r K u i l e , Dutch A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e 1 6 0 0 - 1 8 0 0 , Harmondsworth, 1 9 6 6 , p . 7 0 o 5. J . G. van G e l d e r , "Jan de B i s s h o p * s Drawings a f t e r A n t i q u e S c u l p t u r e , " i n A c t s o f the XX I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Congress o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t , S t u d i e s i n Western A r t I I I , P r i n c e t o n , I 9 6 3 i P « 5 1 « 6 . I b i d . , p . 5 2 , f . n . 4 . The buyers were: R e y n i e r Pauw ; B a l t h a z a r , J o s e f , and J a n Coyman; N a t a n i e l G e e r a e r d t s ; A d r i a e n T r i p ; (Joan) Huydecoper; F r e d e r i c k Alewyn?; J a n de N e u f u i l l e ; Burgomaster Baequix ( ? ) ; Thomas de Kernel ( ? ) ; P i - e t e r and J a n van den A b e l e ; Jacques B u r c h g r a v e ; J a n van Helmondt; Rembrandt van R i g n ; H e n d r i c k S c h o l t e n ; V o l e k e r t R o s e n d a e l ; Dr. V o g e l ; W i l l e m Dobbes; A n d r i e s Ackerswen ( ? ) ; C h r i s t o f f e l TUhysz; Gaspar van R i c q u e f o r t ; W i l l e m van de Werve; J a n Fonteyn; Thomas B r o e r s . 7 . C l a r k , o p . c i t . , p . 7 7 b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e b u s t s came from t h e C o l l e c t i o n of S i r Dudly C a r l e t o n who s o l d them t o Rubens i n 1 6 1 8 . The agreement was c o n c l u d e d on May 2 0 and i n c l u d e d 2 1 l a r g e s t a t u e s , 8 s t a t u e s o f c h i l d r e n , 4 t o r s o s , 5 7 heads, 1 7 p e d e s t a l s , 5 u r n s , 4 b a s - r e l i e f s , 18 b u s t s o f Roman emperors p l u s sundry fragments and s m a l l p i e c e s . V ery l i t t l e i s known o f t h e s e works but some i d e a o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t i o n can be g a i n e d from the group o f a n c i e n t s t a t u e s and b u s t s w h i c h one sees i n t h e background o f an " I n t e r i o r o f the House o f an A r t C o l l e c t o r , " assumed t o be Rubens, i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , S t ockholm ( r e p r o d u c e d i n C. Whit e , Rubens and h i s W o r l d , London, 1 9 6 8 , p . 3 8 ) . The C a r l e t o n marbles remained i n Ruben's p o s s e s s i o n u n t i l 1 6 2 7 t h e n t h e y were s o l d t o t h e Duke o f Buckingham. — 104 -8. V a l e n t i n e r (628A) has t r i e d t o i d e n t i f y t h i s d r a w i n g o f G a l b a (Ben*no .770) w i t h a Roman "bust i n th e Museum o f St o c k h o l m . Benesch, however, q u e s t i o n s the s i m i l a r i t y o f the f e a t u r e s between the Stockholm b u s t and th e Rembrandt d r a w i n g . H e l d ("Rembrandt en de k l a s s i e k e w e r e l d , " i n De K r o n i e k van het Rembrandthuis, 1972, 1, p . 7 ) mentions t h a t t h e body o f t h e b u s t s o f t h e t h r e e Roman emperors, as w i t h Rembrandt's b u s t o f Homer, are non-c l a s s i c a l . 9. S l i v e , o p . c i t . , p .87» n . 3 . 10 . Van G e l d e r , o p . c i t . , p . 5 ^ . 1 1 . I b i d . 12. J . H e l d , "Rembrandt en de k l a s s i e k e w e r e l d , " i n De K r o n i e k van het Rembrandthuis, 1972, 1, p . 8 . 13 . J.A. Emmens, Rembrandt en de R e g e l s van de  K u n s t , 1968, p.201. 14. See R i c h t e r , o p . c i t . , p.22 -23 . 15 . R u f f o , o p . c i t . , pp .165 and 166. 16 . I b i d . , p.128. F i g . 2 F i g . 3 

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