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Some unpublished letters from Thomas Henry Hall Caine to Dante Gabriel Rossetti (July 1879 - July 1881) Dolman, Florence Janet Lucy Caple 1972

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SOME UNPUBLISHED LETTERS MOM THOMAS HENRY HALL GAIUE TO DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI (JULY 1879 - JULY 1881) edited by FLORENCE JANET LUCY DOLMAN B.A., University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August. 1972 ABSTRACT This thesis i s a selected e d i t i o n of t h i r t y - s i x unpublished l e t t e r s and fragments from Thomas Henry H a l l Caine to Dante Gabriel Rossetti with an introduction and explanatory notes. The l e t t e r s have been chosen to i l l u s t r a t e Caine's t y p i c a l i n t e r e s t s and concerns as these appear i n the body of eighty-six unpublished l e t t e r s and fragments contained i n the Angeli Papers i n Special C o l l e c t i o n s at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. Although the l e t t e r s are f a r from being masterpieces of epi s t o l a r y a r t , they are of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t as a chronicle of the friendship which was i n i t i a t e d by l e t t e r . The introduc-t i o n provides a background f o r the l e t t e r s , using, i n so f a r as possible, unpublished contemporaneous material from the Angeli and P e n k i l l Papers. H a l l Caine knew Rossetti f o r l e s s than three years; f o r two of those years the friendship was conducted almost exclusively by l e t t e r , but f o r the l a s t ten months of R o s s e t t i 1 s l i f e they l i v e d together. The friendship began when Caine published a e u l o g i s t i c a r t i c l e on Rossetti's poetry, and sent a copy to him. Caine was then an eager, ambitious, and very naive twenty-six year old Liverpudlian; Rossetti, a known painter and poet of f i f t y - o n e , was lonely, frightened, f i l l e d with morbid phantasies and a c h l o r a l hydrate addict. He was v i r t u a l l y a recluse i n h i s gloomy London house, but Caine's l e t t e r s revived h i s i n t e r e s t i i i litjei!a^/cri4iGism;-.and- during' the l a s t years of h i s l i f e R ossetti taught Gaine about l i t e r a t u r e . His "pupil's" i n t e r e s t and energy also helped to inspir e Rossetti on h i s own behalf, f o r i n 1881 he published a revised e d i t i o n of Poems and a new book, Ballads and Sonnets. Very shortly a f t e r Rossetti*s death, Caine published h i s Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1882) , a biography of h i s f r i e n d which included some seventy-five fragments of the "nearly two hundred l e t t e r s " he had received from R o s s e t t i . In 1908 Gaine included a large section on Rossetti i n Mv_ L i f e , and i n 1928 he produced a considerably altered version of h i s f i r s t biography. Gaine became a p r o l i f i c and popular n o v e l i s t and playwright, was knighted f o r h i s war e f f o r t , and made a Companion of Honour " i n recognition of h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e , " but i n spite of h i s successes, skepticism remains concerning h i s r e l i a b i l i t y as Rossetti's biographer. The doubts must have sprung from Caine's character—he, had a romantic s e n s i b i l i t y , a f l a i r f o r seeing the simplest events dramatically, and a d i s t i n c t taste f o r self-aggrandizement. However, although contemporaneous materials indicate that he inspired a c e r t a i n wariness among Rossetti*s intimates, there are no concrete reasons to doubt h i s ver a c i t y i n matters of f a c t . TABLE GP CONTENTS Page PREFACE i i ABBREVIATIONS v INTRODUCTION 1 Gaine as " b i o g r a p h e r . . . 1 H a l l Gaine 11 Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . . 1 6 "Dante 1 s Dream" 2 8 I n Cumberland 3 2 A t Cheyne Walk 3 6 A t B i r e h i n g t o n - o n - t h e - S e a 4 0 R i v a l B i o g r a p h e r s 42 L E T T E R S . . 4 6 SOURCES C O N S U L T E D . . . 1 1 6 APPENDICES 1 2 3 I Census o f L e t t e r s 1 2 3 I I "Whatever I s , I s B e s t " . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 5 I I I " O l i v e r Madox Brown" 1 3 7 IV "The S o n n e t ' s V o i c e : A M e t r i c a l L e s s o n by the Seashore" 1 3 8 PREFACE Thomas Henry H a l l Caine's l e t t e r s to Dante Gabriel Rossetti are f a r from being masterpieces of e p i s t o l a r y a r t , but they are of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t as a chronicle of a friendship, which was i n i t i a t e d and c h i e f l y conducted by l e t t e r , and because they reveal the character of t h e i r young writer. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Li b r a r y contain eighty-six manuscript l e t t e r s and fragments from Caine to R o s s e t t i . Of these t h i r t y - s i x have been chosen and edited, i n order to show that which i s t y p i c a l i n matters of s t y l e , i n areas of the writers' concerns, and i n the progress of the r e l a t i o n s h i p — avoiding undue r e p e t i t i o n and peripheral concerns. Many of Caine's l e t t e r s i n the Angeli Papers are about l i t e r a t u r e , but these have not been included because they have already been p a r t l y published, not as l e t t e r s , but as comments upon Rossetti's l e t t e r s , p r i n c i p a l l y i n Caine's Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1882). The Introduction s t r i v e s not merely to r e t e l l a t h r i c e -t o l d t a l e , but to provide a background f o r Caine's l e t t e r s , using, i n so f a r as i s possible, unpublished contemporaneous material from the Angeli and P e n k i l l Papers. Caine fs l e t t e r s i n t h i s e d i t i o n are a l l written i n ink, with the exception of one p e n c i l l e d note \3 September 1880 The paper i s of various q u a l i t i e s , mainly 7" "by 9"» folded. The Angeli Papers i n the Special C o l l e c t i o n s of the i i None has a printed letterhead except that f o r [l September 188oJ, which i s printed "Hollingbury Copse, Brighton." The sender's address has been s i l e n t l y removed from a l l Caine's l e t t e r s which were written from Liverpool, but supplied f o r l e t t e r s not written from Liverpool, where i t adds meaning to the l e t t e r . Salutations, addressee's names, and signatures, with a l l t h e i r stock compliments, have also been s i l e n t l y deleted. A l l other deletions have been marked i n the usual manner. Grossings-out have been restored only where they change or expand the thought of a l e t t e r ; these are then marked < 7 • Contractions have been expanded s i l e n t l y , as have ampersands and other abbreviations! book t i t l e s and foreign words have been i t a l i c i z e d , and the names of paintings and works printed i n c o l l e c t i o n s have been put into quotation marks. Ho changes i n s p e l l i n g or punctuation have been made within the body of the l e t t e r s . Additions and dates which have been established f o r t h i s e d i t i o n are marked with square brackets; dates i n parentheses are those written d i r e c t l y upon the manuscript i n another hand, presumably William Michael Rossetti's. Dates i n parentheses i n the introduction or notes are eithe r those marked on the manuscript i n another hand (probably by A l i c e Boyd i n the case of William B e l l Scott's l e t t e r s , and William Michael Rossetti's i n a l l other cases), or, i f the l e t t e r i s from a published source, the date i s that i d e n t i f i e d by the editor of that source. i i i Unless otherwise indicated the l e t t e r s c i t e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n have not been previously published as l e t t e r s . A l l of Caine*s l e t t e r s c i t e d i n the introduction or notes and included i n t h i s e d i t i o n are marked with an a s t e r i s k . The numeral f o r Caine's l e t t e r s to D. G. Rossetti r e f e r s to the census of l e t t e r s i n Appendix I . i v ABBREVIATIONS AB Alice Boyd AP Angeli Papers OR Christina Rossetti OR! Family Letters of Christina Georgina Rossetti. ed. WMR, 1908. DGR Dante Gabriel Rossetti PL Dante Gabriel Rossetti: His Family-Letters with a Memoir, vol. 2, ed. WMR, 1895. PMB Ford Madox Brown LDGR. Letters of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ed. 0. Doughty and J. Wahl. 4 vols. 1965-1967. LMR Lucy Madox Rossetti Memoir Dante Gabriel Rossetti: His Family-Letters with a Memoir, vol. 1, ed. WMR, 1895. 0MB Oliver Madox Brown PP Penkill Papers THG Thomas Henry Hall Caine TW (TW-D) Theodore Watts(-Dunton) WMR William Michael Rossetti v INTRODUCTION The friendship between Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Thomas Henry H a l l Caine has been l a r g e l y ignored by R o s s e t t i 1 s biographers and distorted through misunderstanding by Rossetti"s friends and family. Yet the peculiar three-year r e l a t i o n s h i p lessened the boredom of Rossetti*s f i n a l years with a renewed i n t e r e s t — l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m — a n d was almost c e r t a i n l y respon-s i b l e i n part f o r the pu b l i c a t i o n of Ballads and Sonnets. Rossetti's second book of poetry and a revised version of h i s f i r s t book, Poems. The only detailed chronicle of Rossetti's l a s t years l i e s i n Gaine's three books on the subject, Recollections of Dante  Gabriel Rossetti (1882), Mv, Story (1908), and Recollections of  Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1928), and i n the correspondence which 1 passed between the two. William Michael Rossetti's biography passed over the end of h i s brother's l i f e i n almost indecent haste, considering h i s l a v i s h expenditure of words upon the smallest d e t a i l s of Rossetti's e a r l i e r l i f e . Perhaps he was ashamed of the years a f t e r 1877 when h i s brother was a recluse, shut away i n the depth of h i s gloomy house at 16 Gheyne Walk, and even more deeply locked i n the miseries of c h l o r a l addic-t i o n . Other biographers have followed William*s example, but perhaps with more reason, f o r they had no access to the l i f e R o s setti l i v e d during those years, except through H a l l Caine*s books, which have inspire d suspicion. i Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i ; His Pamily-Letters with a Memoir. (Vol. 1 Memoir: v o l . 2 Pamily Letters.) ~~ 2 R o s s e t t i 1 s most recent biographer, Oswald Doughty, asks 2 twice i n the space of four pages " i f Caine i s to be believed" without anywhere c i t i n g a cause f o r h i s doubt. The question i s echoed by W. E. Predeman as recently as 1968. There are no concrete reasons to question Caine*s v e r a c i t y ! Rossetti*s family and intimate friends of h i s l a t e r years made no public disclaimer of the contents of Caine's reminiscences. I.n private l e t t e r s they only disparage the haste with which the f i r s t book was published a f t e r Rossetti*s death, and question whether Caine had any r i g h t to publish a biography a f t e r such short acquaintance when so many other of Rossetti*s friends were better equipped f o r the task. Skepticism of Caine*s r e l i a b i l i t y as a biographer has sprung mainly from the character of the man himself; he had a romantic s u s c e p t i b i l i t y , a f l a i r f o r seeing the simplest events dramatically, and a d i s t i n c t taste f o r self-aggrandizement. The Angeli and P e n k i l l Papers^ contain considerable unpublished materials, none of which d i r e c t l y contradicts Caine*s f a c t u a l statements, although some differences of i n t e r -pretation may e x i s t , as i s only natural between various sources. However, Caine*s sources were not bolstered by contemporaneous A V i c t o r i a n Romantic, Dante Gabriel Ro s s e t t i , (London: Oxford University Press, 1960), pp. 632, 63!H 3 Review of l e t t e r s of Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . ed. 0. Doughty and J . R. Wahl, Victoriaii^S*tudies. XII. 105. ^Special C o l l e c t i o n s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. 3 correspondence and family memoirs, but were confined to the reminiscences of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who talked the l o n e l y nights away with an adoring and fascinated f r i e n d . Consequently, Caine*s interpretations were bound to be colored by R o s s e t t i 1 s own attitudes and i n t e r e s t s . So i t i s odd that only i n one area can Caine's evidence be impeached* i n the matter 5 of Fanny Cornforth, an old and i n many ways the most intimate f r i e n d of Rossetti whose strange power over him made her a troublesome presence at Cheyne Walk when Caine l i v e d there, and an awkward "nurse'' at the. Yale of St. John. Rossetti* s a t t i -tude may have been responsible i n Fanny*s case, f o r he was always tenderly s o l i c i t o u s of Fanny; or perhaps i t was f o r William and Christina's sake that the disreputable Fanny did not appear i n Caine's f i r s t books, and only appeared anonymously i n h i s l a s t . When Recollections was published, seven months a f t e r Rossetti*s death, i t was received without enthusiasm by the Rossetti family, but with s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e protest, either at the time of publication, or subsequently. Caine sent the rough proofs to William, asking f o r any "practicable suggestions," with the warning: I am compelled to say frankly that you w i l l not enjoy my book unless you read i t from my i n d i v i d u a l standpoint. I believe I have written the exact t r u t h i n every p a r t i c u l a r but i t i s the t r u t h as i t came to my mind, and I had but one informant on matters that did not come within my personal experience, and that was your brother himself.° •5 -\Also known as Sarah Cox, Fanny Hughes and Fanny Schott at various periods of her l i f e . 6THC:WMR 20 September 1882 AP. 4 William Michael's wife, Lucy, read the proofs at the same time, found a reference to her dead brother O l i v e r Madox Brown, of which she disapproved, and went to C h r i s t i n a i n a t y p i c a l f l u r r y of panic. Between them they decided that the publisher, 7 E l l i o t Stock, was t h e i r c h i e f safe-guard against error,' but that i n matters of in t e r p r e t a t i o n they should apply d i r e c t l y to Caine, from whom Lucy received a most soothing r e p l y : ... I have read your l e t t e r with greatest i n t e r e s t and deepest f e e l i n g and have resolved to remove the passages that hurt you. I have been moved to t h i s decision not at a l l by any misgiving as to the fa i t h f u l n e s s of my report, but e n t i r e l y from a desire to avoid wounding your father (J-ord Madox Brownj and s i s t e r jghristina Rossetti} 8 as I have (however unintentionally) wounded you. I deeply regret that what I have done should have c a l l e d f o r t h so much feeling.° By the end of October the book was out and respectably 10 reviewed. Theodore Watts-Dunton, who had simmered with anger when he f i r s t learned that Caine should presume to write a memoir f»r Rossetti, r e f r a i n e d from publie comment and even William B e l l Scott's extreme contempt of the book did not 11 become public knowledge u n t i l a f t e r h i s death. The close family received the memoir with a quiet united front, r e f r a i n i n g 7PMB: LMR 12 October 1882 AP. 8 I t was a habit with C h r i s t i n a and Lucy to r e f e r to each other as " s i s t e r . " 9THC: LMR 2 October 1882 AP. 1 G B y J . A. Symonds, Academy. 22 (October 1882) 305-306. 11 When Scott's l i b r a r y was dispersed h i s copy of Recollections (1882) was found to contain p e n c i l l e d annotations i n h i s own hand which were "mainly directed against Mr. H a l l Caine, f o r whom he seems to have entertained a strong f e e l i n g of contemptuous d i s l i k e ... ". Much of Scott's contempt seems to have been directed against Caine's c r i t i c i s m of Rossetti*s poetry. The Dai l y Chronicle (London), January 12, 1893. 5 from adverse comment either i n public or p r i v a t e . William, whose planned memoir must now he at l e a s t second i n the f i e l d , seemed to accept the book p l a c i d l y , and did not repudiate or correct i t l a t e r i n h i s own books on h i s brother. With C h r i s t i n a and her mother the reception was j u d i c i a l but luke-warm: We have been reading Mr. Gaine 1s memoir. Considering the circumstances under which h i s experiences occtuj(ed I think i t may f a i r l y be pronounced neither unkind nor unfriendly, but I hope someday to see the same and a wider f i e l d traversed hy some f r i e n d of older standing and consequently of a f a r warmer a f f e c t i o n towards h i s hero; who, whatever he was or was not, was l o v a b l e . ^ Public acceptance of the book was avid. From a publisher's point of view, the book came at a propitious time: af t e r being out of the public eye since the p u b l i c a t i o n of Poems i n 1870, Rossetti's works had suddenly come into prominence with a revised issue of Poems, a new book Ballads and Sonnets. and the sale of h i s largest painting, "Dante's Dream," to the municipal art g a l l e r y at Liverpool, a l l i n 1881. But the man himself remained a mystery, a source of c u r i o s i t y which Recollections promised to s a t i s f y . The book also revealed Caine, with unhappy r e s u l t s : i f the young man had had a l i t e r a r y reputation, or even a wide s o c i a l acquaintance, h i s book might have been accepted at face value, but lacking e i t h e r he was appraised as an opportunist who had attached himself to Rossetti's reputation on small acquaintance. Max Beerbohm r e c a l l e d : 12CR:LMR (? November 1882] AP. Part. pub. PJj. p. 121. The " f r i e n d of older standing" to whom CR r e f e r s i n T. Watts-Dunton, to whose projected biography of Rossetti WMR deferred h i s own work f o r over a decade. 6 It was the fashion to decry him. I never, thank Heaven for self-respect! went to tea-parties. But I know that at tea-parties i t was always possible to raise a t i t t e r "by the mention of Hall Caine fs name. More or less i t was everywhere so. And there i s no denying that Hall Caine had rather brought this on himself. There had come a time when he got himself interviewed too much, photographed too much, seen too much, advertised i n every way too much. I think this lust for publicity may have been a result of residence with Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Conceive: a raw and excitable stripling, caught suddenly from Liverpool into s t i l l more v i t a l London, to li v e incessantly apart for almost two years (sic} with a man of genius who suffered from agoraphobia i n an acute form. It was thought that Hall Caine lost too l i t t l e time after Rossetti 1s death i n bringing out a book about him. Poor young man! — I think i t was natural that he should desire to lose not a moment. Light! a i r ! publicity at any price and at once!13 Of Caine's three books on Rossetti, Recollections (1882) i s the most revealing record of Caine. It contains material from four areas: the story of Rossetti's l i f e as he told i t to Caine, about seventy-five letters or fragments of letters from Rossetti to Caine, a discussion of some of Rossetti's work, and a first-hand account of the period i n which they lived together at Cheyne V/alk, at Cumberland, and at Birchington-on-the-Sea. The book was i n proof six months after Rossetti's death, which would have been a d i f f i c u l t feat, even for a man of Caine's energy, had not much of i t been written before Rossetti died. Letters form the largest single body of material in the book because Caine had had both sides of the correspon-dence and sil e n t l y used material from his letters to Rossetti as comment upon the correspondence. (Por instance, the long paragraph on pp. 1 13 - 114 f concerning P. G. Stephens' v i s i t to Liverpool, i s taken directly from Caine's letter to Rossetti •^ "Nat Goodwin — and Another," Mainly on the Air pp. 76-77. which reported i t . ) ^ Gaine borrowed h i s l e t t e r s to Rossetti 15 from William, who had read through them and set aside a bundle, which he allowed Caine to borrow f o r reference, but, f o r reasons Gaine did not understand, asked that these not be 16 used i n the book. Other than Caine no one has published l e t t e r s from the correspondence, although William's e d i t i n g marks appear on many of Caine's l e t t e r s and head-notes i n h i s hand are provided f o r some of the l e t t e r s , i n d i c a t i n g that he had intended to include a record of the friendship i n h i s sequel Rossetti Papers (1903), which he prepared but f o r which he could not f i n d a publisher. Rossetti's l e t t e r s to Caine are among the most important he wrote, f o r they contain almost the only record of h i s 17 opinions on l i t e r a t u r e j 1 yet these l e t t e r s have apparently been seen by no one but Gaine and t h e i r author, and perhaps Caine's son, S i r Derwent H a l l Gaine, who has not allowed scholars access to them. Perhaps i t i s t h i s secrecy which has l e d to c u r i o s i t y concerning t h e i r contents, but no one could suggest that Caine had invented or augmented the correspondence, f o r Rossetti's published l e t t e r s are obviously those of a mature and entire v i s i o n , couched i n a sure, f l u i d s t y l e , while Caine*s 14THC:DGR 23,*9 June1880. 15 *\A.t William's request Caine returned the l e t t e r s i n 1901. THC:WMR 14 November 1901 AP. 16THC:WMR 13 A p r i l 1883 AP. 17 'With the possible exception of the missing eighty-odd l e t t e r s to John Ruskin, most of which are probably about art rather than l i t e r a t u r e , according to Dr. W. E. Predeman, Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia English Department. 8 are callow and plunging, f u l l of the cant of s u p e r f i c i a l l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . Caine could hardly have produced those l e t t e r s he attr i b u t e s to Rossetti, f o r when he published Recollections he was only two years older than the naive, fumbling youth who wrote to Ro s s e t t i . S t i l l , the l e t t e r s remain suspect, as indicated by Doughty and Wahl's omission, i n t h e i r 18 e d i t i o n of R o s s e t t i 1 s l e t t e r s , of the l e t t e r s and fragments i n Gaine»s books, which, although not dated i n p r i n t , are very e a s i l y dated by using Gaine's l e t t e r s i n the Angeli papers, to which the editors had access. Most of the c r i t i c a l material which i s interspersed through Recollections may also have been written before Rossetti's death, although not, of course, with the int e n t i o n of posthumous pu b l i c a t i o n . Almost c e r t a i n l y Rossetti had read i t , and commented upon i t , as he did upon a l l h i s protege's c r i t i c a l papers. Gaine wrote: "My long paper has reached 40 pages and i s now perforce put aside i n order to allow of my doing some reviewing. I think i t w i l l prove the most 19 philosophical analysis of your claim to front rank as a poet." On returning from a v i s i t with Rossetti i n London he re f e r r e d 20 to i t as "our notice of your own work," implying a co-operation on the paper which gives i t , i f not authorial cachet, at l e a s t 18 Letters of Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . 4 v o l s . , hereafter r e f e r r e d to as LDljRT These editors also omitted to publish the indisputable facsimile l e t t e r i n My Story. (New York: D. Appleton and Go., 1909), opp. p. "64. 1%HC:DGR 78, *5 Jul y 1881. Also see Recollections (1882), p. 133. 20THC:DGR 62, *24 A p r i l 1881. 9 an added importance for scholars. It i s consistent with Caine*s practice of s i l e n t l y using his own letters as commentary upon Rossetti's, that i n the race for publication he should use a piece of c r i t i c a l work i n progress. A quarter of a century passed before Caine wrote again of his friendship with Rossetti. Mjr Story (1908) i s admittedly an autobiography of Caine*s f i r s t twenty-five years as a writer and his friends of those times, yet of i t s 398 pages, 197 are concerned with his short friendship with Rossetti. However, the book contains nothing not touched upon i n the previous volume except a facsimile letter from Rossetti (dated 6 August 1879) facing page 64 i n the edition published by D. Appleton and Company, lew York, i n 1909. Most of the material i s condensed from Recollections, with the emphasis shifted to Caine as the central figure. Caine was by that time a well-known author with ten novels, eight plays, and five non-fiction works to his credit. He had earned a considerable public following and a small fortune by his pen. My. Story i s really an Horatio Alger story of success through perseverance, a journey from humble beginnings to great glory, which i s directed to the young man who wishes to earn his l i v i n g at literature but finds his stout 21 heart f a i l i n g . However noble i t s moral purpose, to Theodore Watts-Dunton i t was simply "Hall Caine*s nightmare," an 22 "amazing production." 2 1 p . 374. 22TW-D:WMR 10 November 1908 AP. 10 Gaine*s l a s t t r i b u t e to Rossetti was published i n 1928, the centenary of Rossetti's b i r t h , as a t r i b u t e to a great friendship, "the greatest, the most intimate, the most 23 b e a u t i f u l that has ever come to me," I t was a friendship which Caine apparently f e l t crossed the borders of death, f o r i t i s dedicated to a "great friendship, 1879-1928." The 1928 Recollections of Rossetti i s not simply a re p r i n t of the f i r s t book by that name, but a much more mature and frank appreciation of Rossetti*s l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y concern-ing h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with close friends and family, by then a l l dead. Although i t contains short fragments of some of Rossetti*s l e t t e r s , i t contains none of Gaine*s, perhaps because he had returned them to William. I t condenses the material i n the f i r s t Recollections, omitting the c r i t i c a l appraisals of Rossetti*s works, and tending to be reminiscent, rather than f a c t u a l . Prom the books and correspondence i t i s clear that Rossetti and H a l l Gaine were friends, despite twenty-six years difference i n age and an even greater difference i n background and experience. The r e l a t i o n s h i p , which many of Rossetti's old friends found p e c u l i a r and hard to define, was not based upon s i m i l a r i t i e s at a l l , hut rather upon complementary needs which the two men could f u l f i l l f o r each other. Rossetti*s l i f e had entered a bleak period; he was lone l y and often bored; h i s int e r e s t s and energies were unfocussed. He needed the reassuring admiration which Gaine*s l e t t e r s brought him and 2 3 p . 27. 11 the i n t e l l e c t u a l focus which Caine*s l i t e r a r y education demanded. Caine needed the f e e l i n g of importance that the association with a known man of l e t t e r s gave him but even more he needed the education i n taste and l i t e r a r y s k i l l s which Rossetti gladly provided f o r him. The educative process i s cl e a r i n Caine*s l e t t e r s : he grows from a self-conscious young man to a person of some judgement and authority. Thomas Henry H a l l Caine, the eldest son of an expatriate Manxman and a Cumberland mother, was born i n Cheshire on 14 May, 1853. His father had l e f t the farming and f i s h i n g l i f e on Man fo r the industry of Liverpool i n order to support h i s family, but young Tommy was sent back each year to v i s i t h i s peasant grandmother during the school holidays. H a l l Caine always considered himself a Manxman, although he loved Cumberland so well he named h i s son Derwent, a f t e r a Cumberland r i v e r . A f t e r completing h i s early education i n Liverpool, Caine was appren-t i c e d to an arc h i t e c t at the age of fourteen, and at the same time began a furious program of self-education: he haunted the Liverpool Free Library, attended public lectures on a l l subjects, and read anything that came under h i s hand. He even launched a l i t e r a r y magazine i n manuscript with h i s f r i e n d William Tirebuck. 2^* When he was seventeen he gave up architecture to replace h i s uncle as schoolteacher on the I s l e of Man. Here he 24 ^Tirebuck*s book Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i. His Work and Influence, Including a B r i e f Survey of^Recent Art Tendencies. (London: E l l i o t t Stock, 1882) was the f i r s t book" about DGR published a f t e r h i s death. 12 b u i l t himself a house, c a l l e d Phoenix Cottage, but at the end of a year he returned to h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l apprenticeship, at hi s employer's request. His self-improvement continued, but with an increased confidence. He began to write knowledgeable a r t i c l e s f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l magazines i n London, whose proprietors would no doubt have been h o r r i f i e d to discover that t h e i r expert writer was only eighteen. Some of the a r t i c l e s supported John Ruskin's notions against res t o r a t i o n , which l e d to a correspondence with Ruskin, but despite t h i s heady encouragement, young Gaine quit the arch i t e c t ' s firm to become assistant to a builder, a job which gave him time f o r reading and writing during h i s working hours. In these years he became increasingly fascinated with the processes of the creative imagination and avid to know more. Slowly h i s i n t e r e s t s drew him onto the periphery of Liverpool a r t i s t i c l i f e where he met a group of eager young men of si m i l a r pursuits who banded together to found the Liverpool Notes and Queries Society. As corresponding secretary of the Society Caine wrote to public-minded l i t e r a r y figures a l l across England asking them to supply "notes," f o r t h e i r p u blication, or to le c t u r e . In t h i s capacity he wrote to both Rossetti brothers requesting them to be members of the 25 Society's honorary council, ^ a t i t u l a r p o s i t i o n which William accepted, but which Rossetti probably refused. 25THC:DGR 1, 2 October 1878, and THC:WMR 8 October 1878 AP. According to a note i n WMR's hand included with THC:DGR 1, 2 October 1878. 13 I t was through the Society that Caine f i r s t came to know Rossetti*s work, fo r although he had heard the dim romantic rumours of a t r a g i c love and poems exhumed, i t was not u n t i l 1878, when a Society member, J . Ashcroft Noble, l e n t him Poems (1870), that Caine read any of Rossetti*s works. Caine became "so ardent a sympathizer" 27 that he wrote a lecture on Rossetti's poetry which he delivered three times i n the winter of 1878-1879. While he was preparing the lecture Caine's acquaintance expanded: he met Mr. George Rae, a patron of Rossetti's, whose house he v i s i t e d to view Rossetti's pictures; he wrote to William Michael Rossetti asking f o r "approximate dates of the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of 'Sister Helen' of 'Jenny' of ' l a s t Confession 1 and of the love sonnets," as " t h i s information would help me mate r i a l l y to understand the poems and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to 28 each other and I should thank you h e a r t i l y f o r the a i d . " A f t e r the f i r s t lecture was delivered, Caine sent William a newspaper c l i p p i n g , which asserted that "the information ^con-tained i n the l e c t u r e ^ was communicated to Mr. Caine by Mr. W. M. Ro s s e t t i , brother of the poet-painter, by whose and the poet's permission i t i s employed i n the l e c t u r e . " Caine offered apologies and a correction f o r "upon looking again over your l e t t e r I do not see that you gave me permission to use the dates, and I remember I asked f o r them i n order that they might 2 7Noble:DGR 4 October 1880 AP. 28THC:WMR 15 November 1878 AP. 2Q help me understand the poems." William accepted the error with patient grace: "I gave the information—though with some reluctance, as I knew that my Brother d i d not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to have anyone intervening i n such matters without h i s express approval. I had not expected to see my name published i n a newspaper as the informant. However, there was no r e a l harm 30 done, nor yet intended."^ When the speech was published i n Colburn 1s New Monthly. Gaine again wrote to William enclosing a l e t t e r f o r Rossetti which William was to forward with the magazine, i f the lecture contained "nothing i n i t which you think l i k e l y to hurt h i s [Rossetti* s 3 acute s e n s i b i l i t y . " ^ 1 However, Caine*s tender s o l i c i t u d e soon gave way to impetuousity, f o r when he heard that the magazine had not yet arrived at William*s, tc 33 he quickly sent another copy with the letter-^ d i r e c t to Rossetti, and wrote to t e l l William what he had done.' The whole family approved of the l e c t u r e : C h r i s t i n a , vacationing at Seaford, wrote: •'Thank you f o r l e t t i n g me too read Mr. Caine*s L e c t u r e , — a remarkable work by an author who r e a l l y thinks, f e e l s , and therefore has somewhat to express. I f you come to know him I should l i k e to know what he i s l i k e : c o n f l i c t i n g images of him evolve themselves from my inner consciousness, and he cannot be l i k e both." Her mamma added 29THC:WMR 24 November 1878 AP. 5 0 A note i n WMR»s hand attached to the MS of THC:WMR 24 November 1878 AP. 31 THC:WMR 6 July 1879 AP. 52THC:DGR 2, *24 Jul y 1879. 55THC:WMR 25 Jul y 1879 AP. 15 the note that she would "read his review a second time...so much pleasure does i t give me," and then decided she was so charmed that she would "buy the magazine. Best of a l l , Rossetti 1s reply was kindly, i f muddled, and included an invita-tion to c a l l upon him i n London: "Your estimate of the impulses influencing my poetry i s such as I should wish to suggest, and I believe i t , this suggestion must be this always to a true-*55 hearted nature." Encouraged, Gaine wrote again to Rossetti, including a magazine which contained his article "The Supernatural i n Poetry," so that Rossetti could see that Gaine*s enthusiasm for his poetry was not merely the "freak of a feverish fancy but the 36 serious outcome of a mind that aims to f i x i t s standards high. n > In return he received another warm lette r , a more pressing invitation to call and Rossetti's offer to send him a copy of Dante and his Circle. Peeling himself to be i n the midst of a li t e r a r y correspondence, young Caine reported the whole matter to William, assured him that Rossetti*s letters were "in a very special sense my private property" and enclosed, for William's 38 delectation, a very bad poenr which he said was inspired by 34CR:DGR (25 July 1879) AE; CRL, p. 8G. ^5DGR:THC 29 July 1879 AP. Misquoted i n Recollections (1882), p. 105. 56THC:DGR 3, *2 August 1879. ^Recollections (1882), pp. 105-106. ^ 8Apfendix II. 16 cross-pollination from a picture by Arthur Hughes and a poem by Christina Rossetti. J Since i t was William*s habit to v i s i t Rossetti regularly, and to bring with him articles or letters he thought might amuse his brother, he probably showed the poem to Rossetti, hut even this did not cause Rossetti to lose interest i n Caine, who wrote frequently, enclosing his articles for Rossetti to read. 4 0 Emboldened by the warmth and frequency of Rossetti*s replies, Caine asked Rossetti to accept the dedication of a pamphlet, Po l i t i c s and Art, which he had written on the theme that poets and painters, as men of vision, ought to take part i n the public and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of their country. This was very near to John Ruskin*s early themes, but to Rossetti i t was entirely anti-pathetic. The public weal concerned him not at a l l , i n fact he hardly knew i t existed, and so he declined. 4^ Caine did not reply ito-^the. w letter of refusal, and for about six weeks the exchange stopped, u n t i l Rossetti revived i t by writing to ask i f he had offended Gaine, and requesting a l e t t e r i n r e p l y . 4 2 Pive years earlier Rossetti would certainly not have pressed for a continued correspondence; he would have returned 59THC:WMR 27 September 1879 AP. 40THC:DGR 5, *28 October and THC:DGR 6, *7 December 1879. 4^Rossetti thought the pamphlet " b r i l l i a n t though rather wrong-headed." DGR:FMB 11 August 1880 (LDGR 2312). 42DGR:THG, Recollections (1882), p. 106. 17 the magazine (months later) with one of his charming l i t t l e notes, and perhaps had a hearty laugh about the c r i t i c a l extravagances of his provincial admirer. But i n those five years Rossetti had greatly changed: he was lonely, i l l , bored, frightened of poverty and apparently resigned to his dependence on chloral hydrate. It i s impossible to t e l l whether chloral was entirely to blame for his personality changes,^ or whether the degeneration came as a result of the anxieties for which he took the drug, but i t would seem that the chloral must have played a large part i n the increasing depression and personality changes of his last eight years. When chloral hydrate (introduced i n 1866) was recommended for Rossetti 1s insomnia i t was a new drug, considered to be non-addictive and relatively non-toxic.^ Today, although i t i s a standard drug i n the pharmacopeia, l i t t l e more i s known about i t , for i t i s seldom used owing to wide variations i n individual tolerance: a fa t a l dose i s usually 150 grains, but death of adults has been reported at as l i t t l e as 20 grai n s . ^ However, a Br i t i s h physician has reported using 120 grains during a normal childbirth and up to 380 grains over a twenty-hour period i n a prolonged labour, i n order to produce a 46 condition resembling general anaesthesia. On the other hand, a woman i s reported to have died i n 1962 as a result of taking 4-3 •^\A.s both Gaine and William Michael Rossetti believed. ^"Today's Drugs," Br i t i s h Medical Journal. 2 (18 May 1968), 410. . ^ E x t r a Pharmacopeia, ed. R. G. Todd, (London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1967), pp. 296-298. 4 6"Letters," B r i t i s h Medical Journal. 2 (8 June 1968), 627. 18 4.7 40 to 50 grains a day over a period of several years. It would seem that the danger therefore l i e s not i n large doses of chloral hydrate but i n prolonged use of large doses. The drug i s an hypnotic of the non-barbiturate type which usually provides from five to eight hours of deep sleep, and which i s especially recommended for patients with mania or nervous insomnia. It can cause physical damage to people with marked l i v e r or kidney impairment and must be freshly made up. as i t i s relatively unstable i n solution and deteriorates into hydrochloric acid, trichloracetic acid and formic acid, which burn the l i n i n g of the mouth and throat. The toxic symptoms are a deep stupor, low blood pressure, gastric i r r i t a t i o n and i n i t i a l vomiting, with death from depressed respiration. Chronic poisoning presents the symptoms of chronic alcoholism, but with more severe gastritis and occasional skin manifesta-tions, sometimes on or around the mouth.48 It i s impossible to make any accurate estimate of Rossetti 1s daily intake of chloral because he was procuring i t from two sources, from his regular pharmacist, Be l l , on 49 prescription of John Marshall, and from a secret source,^ 50 perhaps through the "good offices" of Fanny and her husband. 4 7"Hotes," The Pharmaceutical Journal. 190 (19 July 1963), 45. , 8 Extra Pharmacopeia, pp. 296-298. 49 ^As Rossetti's friend Frederic Shields suggested i n a letter to Rossetti's doctor, John Marshall, surgeon, 20 October 1881 AP. 50 Doughty, A Victorian Romantic. p. 596. 1 9 Because Mr. Marshall was eager to wean Rossetti from the drug, the c h l o r a l from B e l l ' s was probably dil u t e d , but the quantity and qua l i t y of the drug from the secret source remain a mystery. I t seems u n l i k e l y that Rossetti could have h a b i t u a l l y taken 51 the 180 grains a day, of which he boasted to Caine, and s t i l l have survived, but even i f Marshall's dose were d i l u t e d to h a l f he would be having 90 grains per day i f he took only of B e l l ' s mixture and up to 180 grains per day i f he drank only from h i s secret source. The Mickey Finn of San Francisco's Barbary Coast days was only 30 grains of c h l o r a l hydrate dissolved i n 52 neat alcohol, and reputedly rendered i t s v i c t i m unconscious i n minutes, d e l i v e r i n g a t e r r i b l e hang-over. Rossetti was taking the c h l o r a l equivalent of a t r i p l e Mickey Finn every night f o r several years, a most damaging pra c t i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a man who eventually died of kidney malfunction. Even i f the dose was as l i t t l e as 60 grains a day Rossetti was c e r t a i n l y s u f f e r i n g from chronic c h l o r a l poisoning, and symptoms resembling those of chronic alcoholism make fo r uneasy friendships and an unhappy household. Chloral was c e r t a i n l y p a r t l y to blame f o r much of the peculiar behaviour h i s friends noted. He had become increasingly depressed, f u l l of morbid imaginings and s e l f - p i t y ; he was i r r i t a b l e and p a r t i -c u l a r l y sensitive to sound and l i g h t , and above a l l suspicious that the world was conspiring against him i n malign and devious ways. As he became more depressed h i s o r i g i n a l creative impulse 5 1 R e c o l l e c t i o n s (1882), p. 229. 5 2 M I e t t e r s , " B r i t i s h Medical Journal 2, (8 June 1968),627. 20 lessened. Although he s t i l l painted a good deal he was not 5 3 painting anything new, hut rather copying old subjects, painting from e a r l i e r themes and f i n i s h i n g pictures begun long before, i n order to make money. Slowly h i s c i r c l e of friends dispersed, each going about hi s own pursuits, and with happier f r i e n d s : the Eelmscott i d y l l with Janey Morris ended i n 1874, and any r e a l friendship with William Morris had ended long before; Edward Burne-Jones had d r i f t e d away; both the f a i t h f u l George Hake and the amusing Charles Augustus Howell had been sent away—Hake a f t e r a quarrel and Howell because of h i s double-dealing; Algernon Swinburne seldom l e f t h i s home at Putney H i l l ; Pord Madox Brown had moved to Manchester to paint frescoes on the walls of the Town H a l l ; and even Rossetti*s painting assistant, Henry T r e f f r y Dunn, had had to accept private painting commissions because Rossetti never quite remembered to pay him h i s salary. Friends who l i v e d i n town tended to v i s i t l e s s frequently, f o r they were busy with more pressing concerns and an evening s i c k - v i s i t i n g with the touchy and temperamental Rossetti could hardly f u l f i l l t h e i r notion of recreation. Both William B e l l Scott and William Rossetti worked during the day, Scott as an art teacher and William as a c i v i l servant. Scott, a close neighbour of R o s s e t t i 1 s , was absent during the summers. William had been the mainstay of Rossetti*s companionship since they were boys, but he had -^DGR's l a s t o r i g i n a l painting "La P i a " was f i n i s h e d i n December 1880. DGR:William Davies LDGR 2357. 21 married a young demanding wife who was a i l i n g and often went away to the country to recover her health,leaving William to manage a household and a growing family. Shortly a f t e r William's marriage h i s mother and C h r i s t i n a l e f t h i s house to e s t a b l i s h a household of t h e i r own i n Torrington Square. C h r i s t i n a was i l l and h i s mother e l d e r l y , so they depended upon t o b<5, him A t h e i r source of news from the outside, and to handle a l l t h e i r business a f f a i r s . Somehow he also found time f o r e d i t i n g chores, to work at the poetry he so longed to write and to v i s i t h i s brother at l e a s t once a week. The most frequent v i s i t o r was Theodore Watts, who handled Rossetti's business a f f a i r s and advised on h i s corres-pondence. Watts was a lawyer turned c r i t i c who was learning the art of the sonnet under Rossetti's tutelage. He v i s i t e d often, but not often enough to s a t i s f y Rossetti, whose l e t t e r s show a steady stream of demands that Watts must come to dinner, or come for the night, or come to advise on the smallest but most 54. urgent business. ^ Frederic Shields, who came often to paint with Rossetti, was a deeply r e l i g i o u s man of nervous and inflammatory temperament, hardly a soothing v i s i t o r . Other people came too, young men l i k e the b l i n d poet, P h i l i p Bourke Marston, and new friends l i k e William Sharp, but these were not welcome when Rossetti was i l l , so there was never enough company to f i l l the long hours a f t e r the l i g h t grew too dim to paint by and before Rossetti took h i s f i r s t dose of c h l o r a l i n the very 54XDGR, Yol. IV, passim. 22 early morning. When other company f a i l e d Fanny Schott would come i n . She l i v e d nearby i n a place Rossetti had rented f o r her. Servants changed frequently at 16 Cheyne Walk, but Fanny was always delighted to help out during domestic emergencies; Rossetti gave her money when he could afford to (and often when he could not a f f o r d to) and sometimes gave her h i s drawings as w e l l . Except f o r Brown, and of course William, Fanny was the l a s t close f r i e n d who remained from the old days, f o r she had known Rossetti before h i s marriage, and l a t e r had been h i s model and possibly h i s mistress. Even a f t e r her marriage to John B. Schott she nearly always came i n response to an affectionate plea from Rossetti to h i s "dear Elephant." She was available and amusing, at l e a s t to Rossetti, but h i s friends and family, who had tolerated her r e i g n as housekeeper and gossip at Cheyne Walk i n 1862, now d i s l i k e d and mistrusted her. She was con-sidered to be an unhealthy influence, whether to h i s morals or h i s pocket-book i s not c l e a r . Perhaps they thought she had been 55 a "lady of the n i g h t " ^ and that she inspired Rossetti to low themes, or perhaps they suspected i t was she who provided the contraband c h l o r a l . William S. Stillman said Rossetti was "one of the men Doughty makes a case f o r Fanny's "profession," which unfortunately he supports with reverse biographical c r i t i c i s m . A V i c t o r i a n Romantic. p. 681 (n). 23 most dependent on company that I have ever known. 56 This was more true than ever before i n the l a s t eight years of R o s s e t t i 1 s l i f e , as he seldom l e f t h i s house and only through friends did he l e a r n of the world outside h i s door. Rossetti had never read systematically, hut depended upon books and p e r i o d i c a l s recommended by h i s friends, or presentation volumes sent by t h e i r authors. As h i s c i r c l e of c a l l e r s diminished so did h i s contact with the world. Caine's adulatory l e t t e r s were soothing balm to Rossetti*s f a i l i n g self-esteem, but more important they opened a whole new world of thought f o r him, a reason f o r turning over the pages of h i s mind, re-appraising everything he had ever read, i n order to teach Caine. Rossetti had always been at h i s best and most patient when he had a "pupil":, i t was so with Elizabeth S i d d a l l and with Frederic Shields, and so i t was with Caine, who was eager and apparently t i r e l e s s , and whose education replaced the morbid introspection of many of Rossetti*s nights. but Rossetti also asked d i r e c t personal questions which Caine answered frankly and f u l l y , so although they did not meet f o r fourteen months, Rossetti soon had a f a i r estimation of h i s friend's character. By way of confirmation he introduced Caine, by l e t t e r , to two old friends of Pre-Raphaelite days, Frederic Autobiography of a J o u r n a l i s t . 2 Vols. (Hew York: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 190i ) " T l 7 T7o7 Most of t h e i r correspondence was about l i t e r a t u r e , 57 57 Por example: 24 G. Stephens, the axt c r i t i c , and Ford Madox Brown. Stephens reported that Caine "seems a very i n t e l l i g e n t fellow with a laudable independence of views and a considerable frankness of expression, and an informed admirer" of R o s s e t t i . A month l a t e r , at Caine's prompting,^® Rossetti sent him a l e t t e r of introduction to Brown at Manchester i n which he described Caine as "my valued and intimate young friend...whom you w i l l 61 l i k e . " Brown's acknowledgement of Rossetti's l e t t e r of i n t r o -duction also served to revive a correspondence between the two men which had languished some time before.*' 2 Caine and Brown did l i k e each other and a friendship began which l a s t e d u n t i l the younger man offended the touchy Mathilde Blind, a close f r i e n d of the Browns. Even though two of Rossetti's oldest friends approved of Caine, news that he would c a l l at Cheyne Walk produced a barrage of contrary notes from Rossetti, which i l l u s t r a t e h i s degree of dete r i o r a t i o n . Caine was forewarned: J Caine described the meeting i n 3JHC:DGR 2 3 , *9 June 1880 and THC:DGR 2 4 , * [mid June 1880J 59 60 9Stephens: DGR 14 June 1880 AP. THC:DGR 2 6 , *14 J u l y 1 8 8 0 . 61DGR:FMB 15 J u l y ( 1 8 8 0 ) LDGR 1 7 9 3 . 62DGR:FMB 11 August 1880 AP LDGR 2 3 1 2 . 25 Hence by return of the post that bore him my missive came two letters, the one obviously written and posted within an hour or two of the other. In the f i r s t of these he expressed courteously his pleasure at the prospect of seeing me, and appointed 8:30 P.M. the following evening as his dinner hour at his house i n Cheyne Walk. The second letter begged me to come at 5:30 or 6 P.M., so that we might have a long evening....An hour later...came athird epistle, which ran: "Of course when I speak of your dining with me, I mean tete-a^ttte and without ceremony of any kind. I usually dine i n my~*studio and i n my painting coat!"...in order to reach Chelsea at 6 P.M., I must needs set out at mid-day, but oblivious of this necessity, Rossetti had actually posted a fourth letter on the morning of the day on which we were to meet begging me not on any account to talk, i n the course of our interview, of a certain personal matter upon which we had corresponded.°3 Caine dined on Monday evening, went about his business and returned to stay overnight on Thursday of the same week. During his v i s i t he f i r s t saw his correspondant as a whole man and much of what he saw he could not approve. He found the dark house oppressive, was upset when Rossetti spoke of his chloral intake and spoke out against Rossetti's "habit of l i f e which does not admit of as much active exercise as might throw off 64. some nervous i r r i t a t i o n such as appears to be wearing you." * But Rossetti read his poetry aloud and they talked far into the ^Recollections (1882), p. 208-9. The "personal matter" may well have been Rossetti's chloral dependence. His fourth note probably resulted from a fear that other callers would come during Caine's v i s i t , particularly WMR, with whom Rossetti's chloralizing.was a very touchy subject. There i s no reference to chloral or any other "personal matter" i n Caine's letters of this period so perhaps i t was letters referring to chloral which formed WMR's mysterious bundle of letters later lent to Caine for his reference but not for publication. THC:DGR 36, *13 September 1880. 26 morning and by the end of the v i s i t Caine was determined to go 65 to London and l i v e by l e c t u r i n g . In order to achieve h i s goal he must f i r s t meet h i s f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward h i s mother and s i s t e r s , and must also b u i l d himself a l i t e r a r y reputation. To t h i s end he worked even more f u r i o u s l y than usual on a host of small projects and two major ones: an anthology of sonnets and a series of 66 lectures on early nineteenth century poetry c r i t i c i s m . These two projects form the basis of h i s correspondence with Rossetti u n t i l the summer of 1881. I t was Rossetti who f i r s t suggested the sonnet book. Sonnets were becoming a popular poetic form-—David Main's Treasury of English Sonnets (1880) had sold w e l l , and Waddington had an anthology i n the making—here was the p o s s i b i l i t y of both p r o f i t and reputation. The o r i g i n a l plan was that Caine should use only published sonnets, but he shrewdly r e a l i z e d that a publisher was u n l i k e l y to accept an anthology of t h i s kind from an unknown editor, so he approached E l l i o t Stock with the proposal that he would include unpublished sonnets as w e l l . How should he approach poets, he innocently enquired of R o s s e t t i , who r e p l i e d , "Ye heavens! how does the cat's-meat-man approach Grimalkin?—and what i s that r e l a t i o n i n l i f e when compared to the rapport established between the l i v i n g bard and the fellow-creature who i s disposed to cater to h i s caterwauling appetite " C u r i o s i t i e s of C r i t i c i s m , " l a t e r published as Cobwebs of C r i t i c i s m . 27 for p u b l i c i t y ? " ' In the end i t was Rossetti and Brown who played cat's-meat-men f o r Caine—from friends and through friends they got sonnets which Gaine, an unknown name on a l e t t e r , would simply have been refused. Since the anthology was to be Caine*s debut as a man of l e t t e r s , R ossetti was eager that i t should succeed, and consulted i n every d e t a i l from theory 68 to s e l e c t i o n , although at f i r s t he refused to have an un-published sonnet of h i s own included, apparently more from mis-t r u s t of the public press than mistrust of Caine, who he had decided seemed "modest, yet not l i k e l y to miss a chance that can 69 be duly seized," and "much too good f o r h i s present work." A l l the l i t e r a r y stimulation he found i n writing to Caine and i n choosing sonnets f o r the anthology, plus the f a c t that i n the spring of 1880 he had been helping Mrs. Alexander G i l c h r i s t prepare a second e d i t i o n of her husband*s L i f e of  Blake« apparently turned Rossetti*s thoughts to publishing another book of h i s own poetry. Although he had not published a book since 1870 he had been writing • a l i t t l e a l l along, but i n 1880 he developed an enthusiasm f o r a new form—the b a l l a d . He began to write much more, and as a r e s u l t published two books i n 1881. Ballads and Sonnets contained three new ballads, some miscellaneous l y r i c s , twenty-five sonnets (some of which had ^ R e c o l l e c t i o n s (1882), p. 243. g o Between them they rejected two unpublished sonnets by Gerard Manley Hopkins, which had been submitted with a note of explanation by Canon R.W. Dixon. THC:DGR 59, * £ 2 2 March 1881J and THC:DGR 68, *15 May 1881. 6 9DGR:MB (20 September 1880) AP (LDGR 2333) 28 been published i n p e r i o d i c a l s ) , and the completed sonnet-sequence "The House of L i f e , " of which 54 of the 102 sonnets had been published i n Poems (1870). The other book was a new e d i t i o n of Poems i n which the removed "House of L i f e " sonnets were replaced by "The Bride's Prelude." Both books were well received, but Ballads and Sonnets could be c a l l e d a c r i t i c a l success owing i n part to Rossetti's masterful management of f r i e n d l y c r i t i c s . S t i l l another c r i t i c a l success awaited Rossetti i n 1881, the sale of h i s lar g e s t picture, "Dante's Dream." Caine had seen the picture at Cheyne Walk during h i s overnight v i s i t , and heard i t s sad h i s t o r y : twice sold and twice returned to Rossetti because of 70 i t s s i z e . Caine was rapturous about the picture's beauties and set himself the task of r i d d i n g Rossetti of the cumbersome canvas by f i n d i n g i t an honorable home at a p r i n c e l y p r i c e . And so i n December, 1880, when h i s enemy P h i l i p Rathbone stepped down as chairman of the Liverpool Council's music and f i n e arts committee, Caine approached the new chairman, Alderman Edward Samuelson, about buying the painting to hang i n the municipal Walker Gallery. Caine»s c h i v a l r i c temper must often have been sorely t r i e d during the eight-month long negotiations, f o r he was e s s e n t i a l l y naive i n the matter of C i t y Council p o l i t i c s , 70 The painting, 10' by 7 !, was o r i g i n a l l y commissioned by William Graham, M.P. f o r Glasgow, i n 1869. I t proved too large f o r h i s house, so he returned i t and i n 1873 i t was trans-fer r e d to L.R. Valpy, a London s o l i c i t o r . When Valpy r e t i r e d to a small house i n Bath i n 1878 he found the painting too large to hang, and returned i t on the understanding that he would receive i t s value i n others of Rossetti's paintings. 29 and Rossetti was very superstitious about the twice-returned 71 picture and would not allow i t to be moved away unless i t s sale was f i n a l and binding. He would allow no leniency f o r goodwill or word of honor i n the matter, nor would he exhibit i t p u b l i c l y before i t was sold. The committee members were businessmen and p o l i t i c i a n s , eager to receive good value f o r t h e i r money, but not at a l l sure how to judge a r t . They were surprised that Rossetti had not exhibited the picture i f i t was so valuable, and even more surprised that he should quote h i s price i n guineas—they were suspicious of the whole arrangement, p a r t i c u l a r l y when Rossetti refused to see Rathbone, then the curator of the Walker Gallery. This l a s t trouble Caine had brought about when he cast himself i n the r o l e of Jack-the-Giant-Killer, with Rathbone 72 playing the giant' : a f t e r one of Caine*s lectures on Rossetti, Rathbone, as chairman, had thanked the speaker, and then warned the audience that "so f a r from being animated mainly, or even l a r g e l y by s p i r i t u a l passion, Rossetti i s the most sensuous, not to say sensual, of English poets, and i n h i s character as a r t i s t I can best describe him as the greatest animal painter 71 V i o l e t Hunt, an unreliable source, says the picture was stored i n an old shed behind William B e l l Scott's house. Her t a l e i s that Scott was a f r a i d Rossetti "might s p o i l i t by retouching. He was now u n f i t to handle i t . " Wife of Ross e t t i . (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1932 ) , p. x x i i . 72THC:DGR 17, * 13 A p r i l 1880. 30 73 a l i v e . " This re-opened the whole p a i n f u l Contemporary controversy i n Rossetti*s mind, so of course he would have nothing to do with "Ratsbane," as he c a l l e d him. During the winter various members of the committee (and doubting co u n c i l l o r s ) came to see the picture, and each time i t won new a l l i e s , c h i e f among whom was Alderman Samuelson, who was determined that Liverpool should have the p i c t u r e . Rathbone's approval was needed, however, so he was f i n a l l y persuaded to send a h a l f -hearted apology fo r what "I cannot r e c o l l e c t and therefore am unable to explain," and claimed he^constantly misrepresented by the press " e s p e c i a l l y so i n the confusion between sensuous and -74. sensual which has brought upon me absurd misunderstanding.," Rossetti must have been somewhat m o l l i f i e d by the apology, fo r when Rathbone c a l l e d at 16 Cheyne Walk he was admitted. He viewed the painting and approved of i t s purchase. F i n a l l y the committee made an o f f e r : they could not spend the proceeds of the Autumn Ex h i b i t i o n upon a picture which the owner declined to exhibit, but i f Rossetti exhibited i t without a p r i c e , and i f he wrote a covering l e t t e r s t a t i n g at what price i t would be available to the Liverpool Municipal 75 Council, the committee assured him i t would be purchased. As t h i s was tantamount to e x h i b i t i n g the picture himself, Rossetti refused. He had s^ldc^ exhibited h i s own works p u b l i c l y , and i f 73 ' Mv. Story, p. 122. Nearly a l l Rossetti's paintings have women as the central f i g u r e . 7 4Rathbone:DGR 20 J u l y 1881 AP. 7 5Samuelson:THC 23 J u l y 1881 AP. 31 he were to change h i s p o l i c y he would exhibit i n London rather than i n L i v e r p o o l . 7 6 The d i f f i c u l t y was f i n a l l y solved hy "giving" the picture to Caine, who exhibited i t and lectured on i t i n Liverpool. He then sold i t to the c i t y , and paid Rossetti the £1650 p r i c e . 7 7 At Easter i n 1881 Gaine spent ten days with Rossetti and saw everyday l i f e at Cheyne Walk. I t i s u n l i k e l y he managed to do any of h i s own work during the v i s i t , f o r everyone who came into Rossetti*s o r b i t was pressed into h i s service i n some way and h i s appetite f o r conversation was i n s a t i a b l e . During t h i s v i s i t the subject of Gaine's l i v i n g at Cheyne Walk arose f o r VR the second time, but Caine did not accept immediately. Although he was longing to l i v e i n London, he had now seen that l i f e with Rossetti was so demanding and so time-consuming that he doubted i f he would have the longed-for wr i t i n g hours. 79 When Caine wrote h i s "bread-and-butter" l e t t e r , * he was s t i l l i n doubt, and pleaded poverty and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , though he was evidently sorely tempted. Rossetti wrote again and pressed h i s o f f e r , adding that the money d i f f i c u l t i e s would be e a s i l y solved, as he planned to give Caine a commission on the sale of "Dante*s Dream." Gaine r e p l i e d that the thought of 76DGR:THG 4 Jul y 1881 AP. 7 7 R e c o l l e c t i o n s (1928), p.128. Gaine«s £ 1,550 i s obviously i n error, f o r the price named was £1,500 plus £150 commission. 7 % o s s e t t i had mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y on Caine*s f i r s t v i s i t but probably at that time he had i n mind a secretaryship, rather than a friendship. Story, p. 129. 79THC:DGR 62, *24 A p r i l 1881. 32 personal reward had never entered h i s mind, hut he did not refuse outright. However, the o f f e r must have reassured him, for i n June he l e f t h i s job and went to the Yale of St. John, i n Cumberland, to follow h i s "unconquerable love of l i t e r a r y 81 pursuits." By t h i s time h i s contract with James L o v e l l of an the Liverpool Mercury. as an outside correspondent, had probably been ra i s e d to ^ 150 per year, and as well he had the prospect of reviews from a v a r i e t y of sources, some of which 84 William Michael Rossetti had helped him e s t a b l i s h . 8 ^ In July, he asked Rossetti to stay with him i n the Vale of St. John, and at the end of the month i t was se t t l e d that Caine would become a resident of Cheyne Walk. Caine arrived on August 6, and l e f t again immediately f o r Liverpool to work on the sale of "Dante's Dream" which he took with him. The sale was announced 87 on September 5th, and although Rossetti may well have wished to stay i n London to receive congratulations on the sale and to await the pu b l i c a t i o n of Ballads and Sonnets he was becoming very i l l as a r e s u l t of the worry attendant on p u b l i c i t y , and noise 80THC:DGR 68, *15 May 1881. 81THC:DGR 78, *5 Jul y 1881. op Samuel Norris, Two Men of Manxland (Douglas, I s l e of Man: The Norris Press, 1947), p."l>. 85THC:WMR 31 March 1881 AP. 84THC:DGR 78, *5 Ju l y 1881. 8 5DGR: Mrs. Gabriele Rossetti 3 August 1881 AP; FL, pp. 381-382; LDGR 2525. 86DGR:TW ( 4 August 1881) LDGR 2528. 87DGR:TW (30 August 1881) LDGR 2545. 33 from b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s taking place on tne land which had once been the garden behind h i s house. So on September 20 they set 88 o f f f o r the Vale of St. John encumbered by a mountain of luggage, unfinished paintings, and books, and by Fanny i n the ro l e of nurse. R o s s e t t i 1 s friends were astonished by h i s sudden and uncharacteristic departure; William B e l l Scott wrote: "I was surprised by a le t t e r from Rossetti, whom we had l e f t i n a very low state of general health, even s u f f e r i n g from a t o t a l l o s s of the hope of recovery, the greatest l o s s a s i c k man can suf f e r . The l e t t e r was dated from an out-of-the-way farmhouse i n Cumberland, whither he had passively allowed himself to be carr i e d by a young man to whom he had suddenly become exclus i v e l y attached, Mr. T. H a l l C a i n e . " 8 9 At f i r s t the v i s i t seemed a great success; Rossetti l i k e d the house, the setting, the land-lady and above a l l the O Q quiet.* He even climbed the Great Hough, a mountain of 1200 feet, with Caine and Fanny, but descended triumphantly "on a natural basis broader and also i n such a case more rapid than 91 the feet."* He worked on a r e p l i c a of "Proserpine" f o r Valpy, and boasted that he was reducing the c h l o r a l with Fanny's 88DGR:WMR (18 September 1881) PL, p. 387; LDGR 2557. OQ ^Autobiographical Notes, I I : 304. 90!EHC:WMR 22 September 1881 AP, and DGR: Mrs. Gabriele Rossetti (22 September 1881) AP; FL, pp. 387-388; LDGR 2558. 91DGR:TW (28 September 1881) LDGR 2562. help. In the evenings Caine read to them from novels which he was studying f o r a course of lectures, Rossetti r e c i t e d h i s poetry, and they talked a great deal. A f t e r a f o r t n i g h t , the newness of the place began to wear o f f , and Rossetti, who needed fresh company above everything else, became bored. Gaine's company could hardly be c a l l e d varied, and at t h i s time he was going into Liverpool f o r a day and a h a l f each week to l e c t u r e , leaving Rossetti alone with Fanny. S t i l l Rossetti wrote a rather restrained l e t t e r to h i s mother describing Caine as "good company....excessively attentive and f r i e n d l y and r e a l l y an abnegator of s e l f . " ^ His l e t t e r brought a furious reply from C h r i s t i n a which must have warned Rossetti to beware of h i s own impulsiveness with people, and perhaps reminded him that r e l a t i o n s h i p s with George Hake and Dunn had begun with an exaggerated estimate of t h e i r perfections which could not possibly be f u l f i l l e d , and so both r e l a t i o n s h i p s had ended with a c e r t a i n amount of bitterness, at l e a s t on Rossetti's side. She evidently f e l t her brother's glowing expectations were un f a i r to Caine, who was very young and inexperienced, and who, as Rossetti*s house-mate, would have a d i f f i c u l t task. Perhaps 9 2DGR:T¥ (1 October 1881) LDGR 2568; DGR:Shields (c. 29 September 1881) LDGR 2567; and DGR:Mrs. Gabriele Rossetti (29 September TJ38T) AP; FL, p. 389; LDGR 2564. 9 5DGR: Mrs. Gabriele Rossetti (10 October 1881) AP; FL, p. 390; LDGR 2570. In A V i c t o r i a n Romantic. p. 648, Doughty in e x p l i c a b l y refers""to t h i s as a d e s c r i p t i o n of Fanny, as proof of her worth. 35 she also reminded her brother that Caine had h i s own work to do, and was to be a f r i e n d , not a servant. Rossetti seems to 94. have sent an equally sharp reply, ^ to which C h r i s t i n a wrote: I dare say my 'burst' read quite as abruptly as yours! but i t had i t s source simply i n your own words to our Mother; £see above]] ....Hero-worship i s not the f e e l i n g I dedicate to George Hake, much l e s s to Mr. Dunn, though I have a warm l i k i n g f o r the former and a secondary d i t t o f o r the l a t t e r : but I can imagine grave f a u l t s i n both, and am quite sure you know a great deal about them which must (and i s most welcome to) continue unknown to me. Yet I r e c o l l e c t our good Maria once remarking that one never understood a person unless one l i k e d him, and so f a r I fancy I may have the best chance of grasping our subject. Nevertheless f a c t s are stubborn things, not to be modified by a Quixotic view-point.95 The penultimate sentence i s the t e l l i n g one, f o r C h r i s t i n a implied that her brother tended to base h i s judgements of h i s companion-assistants upon how usef u l and unobtrusive they could be, rather than upon t h e i r r e a l human worth. This i s not a f l a t t e r i n g estimate of Rossetti's character, nor of h i s treatment of those who befriended him, but i t i s t y p i c a l of Christina's astringent honesty and temper. Obviously tempers at Cumberland were frayed. The c h l o r a l consumption was mounting again, f o r boredom always had t h i s e f f e c t on Rossetti, and Caine, who was i n charge of the c h l o r a l , had decided to t r y dr a s t i c measures to reduce i t . Mr. Marshall had warned that one b o t t l e of c h l o r a l was a l l that Rossetti 3 Neither of these l e t t e r s i s a v a i l a b l e . 95CR:DGR 17 October 1881 AP, CRL, p. 100. The l e t t e r was written on a Monday and therefore cannot be October 19 as WMR dates i t . His comment upon the l e t t e r (CRL, pp. 99-100) implies that i t was the culmination of an exchange of eulogies on THG to which sentiment Rossetti no longer concurred. 36 should have, hut when he began demanding another b o t t l e at dawn, Caine decided that the dependence on the drug was only psychological, and f i l l e d the second bo t t l e with water, which Rossetti took and sle p t . Unfortunately he t o l d Fanny of h i s t r i c k , which Fanny promptly repeated to Ro s s e t t i . Thereafter Rossetti refused to believe that a l l the doses were not tampered 96 with, and began to use whiskey as an addit i o n a l sedative. Fanny l e f t suddenly and Rossetti became more and more i l l , p a r t l y because of the increased c h l o r a l and the whiskey, and perhaps because the medicine was now several weeks old and had begun to deteriorate into hydrochloric a c i d . When they returned to Cheyne Walk on October 18 Rossetti was i n a state of near collapse as a r e s u l t of c h l o r a l poisoning. Nurses were brought i n twice during October and November, and the c r i s i s receded, but none of the friends, or even the doctor, who had seen Rossetti through previous c r i s e s , seemed worried about the gravity of the condition. Rossetti was too i l l to write himself, but he dictated to Shields a p i t i f u l note f o r Mr. Marshall i n which he confessed that he had been over-indulging and i f Marshall would only come to see him he would t r y to pay £100 on h i s b i l l by Christmas.*' Marshall t o l d Gaine that there was r e a l l y nothing to worry about, as Rossetti had survived twice the dose previously, but that the 98 drug should be reduced. 9 6My Story, pp. 193-197; Recollections (1928), pp. 188-192. The incident i s not mentioned i n Recollections (1882). 97shields: John Marshall 20 October 1881 AP. 98THC:WMR 24 October 1881 AP. 37 Caine then r a l l i e d Rossetti 1s friends around him; i t i s i n William Bell Scott's letters to Alice Boyd that we find an account of the period: ....on Tuesday Forenoon I had a c a l l from Caine, the new friend and care taker of D.G.R. who had come to t e l l me how i l l Gabriel was. He said he had been to Marshall who was coming, but he thought he should inform some of his friends, ....On enquiring into the kind of illness however, I knew i t was only an attack of chloral... .He made an arrangement with me that I was to go in tonight as Shields and Watts were both to go on the two previous evenings ... so I wrote Gabriel asking how he was and i f I should come i n . In reply his new servant brought me back my own note with a scrawl i n pencil which I l i t e r a l l y could not read....I found him half dressed twisted up on the sofa and attended by Fanny. At f i r s t I was horrified, he seemed emaciated, and worn out, a mere wreck, perspiring and coughing that old cough but much worse, for five minutes at a time he went on coughing, and yet no result and no apparent cause. He protested he was dying, that such a success as he had had with both book and picture, was a forerunner of death ... I thought of the former time and feared his mind <haS) gone again, but gradually after a long talk he became very much better. Fanny l e f t to go to look into the kitchen...As for reading to him, i t was out of the question. He can attend to nothing. I am going again tomorrow evening.99 After his next v i s i t Scott reported: I have read a good many of my poems to D.G.R. who already i s a good deal better, i n fact one can't help feeling there i s a good deal of a kind of pretence about his quivering hand and continuous cough.''0® But about the poems*-the impression they made...was overpowering—he never before expressed himself so strongly about anything I think....He actually cried oyer [one} ...Then he i s no doubt, i n a very nervous shattered state at the moment. Yesterday before I parted from him we spoke of the great success of the ;'King's Tragedy/!101 and he became almost paralytic, said that the writing of that had torn his v i t a l s out and f a i r l y broke down. Is i t not strange? this i s evidently the result of anxiety and deranged sensibility about the exhibition of his picture at Liverpool, and his volume coming at the same moment. After these I read a few other l i t t l e ones (jjoemsj but a l l were received with enthusiasm, and then WBS:AB 27 October 1881 PP. ,0WMR agreed: Memoir, p. 376. )1 One of the new ballads published in Ballads and Sonnets. 38 he declared they had done him a great deal of good and got up and walked about with a s t i c k c e r t a i n l y but I don't think he needed i t . Whether the e f f o r t was too much for him or not he protested he could stand no more.... t cxw ev3 When I went i n today Fanny was there. She went^certainly immediately, but t h i s i s a renewal of an i n f l i c t i o n one can't r e a l l y bargain f o r . He acknowledged that he had had Fanny down to Cumberland with him! and that William had expressed himself too strongly i n disapprobation of her being there. I also expressed myself strongly, which only brought on another attack of shattered nerves. The explanation of the whole matter i s that the splendid tavern-hotel i n Jermyn St. has collapsed, i t has not succeeded and she i s l e f t to sort f o r h e r s e l f , her reputed husband continuing i n the Jermyn St. establishment, and she f a l l i n g back on Gabriel. Is i t not discouraging? Another a f f a i r I found i t practicable to t a l k over with him was Dunn's departure.102 I t appears he has not paid Dunn anything f o r years, and that he was under an engagement at i, 2.10 a week. Dunn now claims £300 which no doubt i s the true sum and D.G. refuses to pay. He w i l l pay hy degrees! Funny! i s i t not, when h i s pictures bring such sums?''0^ While Caine was away on business i n Liverpool the f a i t h f u l Scott v i s i t e d R ossetti again and reported the somewhat chaotic condition of the household at 16 Cheyne Walk: . Fanny came running before I got into the studio saying "He's very much better he's painting!! I got him to paint!" He was s i t t i n g at the easel with a picture f i x e d i n i t and a sponge and rags streaming with wet, the f l o o r being also streaming. "What i s i t " I asked, "Water or turpentine?" Turpentine, he was cleaning the picture.... 1°4 Rossetti's friends were quite sure he could stop the c h l o r a l i f he would: they considered h i s condition was a r e s u l t of hypocondria and perversity, rather than physical addiction. Dunn had been t o l d h i s place was occupied, and that Gaine would henceforth be l i v i n g i n h i s room. DGR:TW 24 J u l y 1881 LDGR 2517. 103WBS:AB 28 October 1881 PP. In t h i s l e t t e r i s WIS' request to AB that she "throw i t i n the f i r e . " 104WBS:AB 4 November 1881 PP. 39 William had a fir m t a l k with, h i s brother, and even Shields decided that the misery of Rossetti*s condition weighed upon him insupportably, so "now I must disburden a l l I f e e l to h i m — an ordeal I have shrunk from, yet I t r u s t i t may prove l e s s t e r r i b l e than I have feared, since he was not offended at your exercise of the brotherly r i g h t of speaking the t r u t h i n love ...." Shields longed to see the cessation of "the mad inf a t u a t i o n which beguiles him....Short of that he i s a doomed man" and he hoped that Marshall would bring back "the admirable nurse he l a t e l y had...on condition she i s not overborne by another 105 influence." J He had decided that unless Rossetti would r e -nounce the c h l o r a l and Fanny, he would cease v i s i t i n g the house, but amended h i s ban to a two-week suspension of the v i s i t s . He wrote to William: Whatever steps I take w i l l not be taken i n dudgeon, but those I judge best and wisest f o r h i s sake, who has been very dear to me, only there must be a l i m i t to the su f f e r i n g which presses upon me, so that I can think of l i t t l e else, as I see him s t i l l unfreed from the cunning influence of one who i s causing me to f e e l f o r h i s sake that »I f i n d more b i t t e r than death the woman whose heart i s snares and nets, and her hands as bands.' She i s the kind good f r i e n d — t h e f a i t h f u l nurse, so she represents h e r s e l f , without whose indulgence he would die f o r want of s l e e p — i e stuper (sic3 purchased by a l c o h o l — we may r e j o i c e that Marshall has sent an able nurse, but she would f e e l her hands strengthened by ins t r u c t i o n s from you that no one i s to i n t e r f e r e with, much l e s s over-ride her in s t r u c t i o n s , or circumvent her vigilance—in^7restraining.;,him. P r i v a t e l y — the old housekeeper seems under the s p e l l of that woman, but i t w i l l be most unwise to say a word about t h i s to G. under the present circumstances. I t i s a comfort to think that Caine appears si n c e r e l y desirous to save and shows much courage and devotion i n the p a i n f u l task. '^Shields:WMR 23 November 1881 AP. The lady of malevolent influence i s obviously Fanny Cornforth. Fanny super-vised the household when Caine was away from town on business, a s i t u a t i o n which both Scott and Shields saw \*as l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . 0 1 0 6Shields:WMR 28 November 1881 AP. 40 Obviously Fanny would have to go i f the c h l o r a l were to be controlled, but before anything f i n a l was done Rossetti 107 suffered an attack of p a r a l y s i s , ' and was put to bed under the supervision of a nurse and a resident doctor, to undergo a treatment of morphia, ether, and bromine, which was to end the c h l o r a l addiction. The p a r a l y s i s f i n a l l y receded from both legs and one arm, but h i s l e f t hand remained paralyzed. A change of a i r was recommended and when, through John Seddon, Rossetti was lent a commodious bungalow at Birchington-on-the-Sea, near Margate, he set o f f on February 4 with Gaine, Mrs. Abrey (a r e a l nurse t h i s time) and Caine's thirteen-year-old s i s t e r , 108 l i l y , "a very nice a t t r a c t i v e l i t t l e g i r l . " When they arri v e d at the bungalow Rossetti took an instant d i s l i k e to i t and wanted to leave. I t must have seemed a very common house to one who c a l l e d Tudor House i n Cheyne Walk h i s home, but Caine was adamant, so they stayed. Rossetti did not get better, but rather worse. His strength decreased d a i l y but h i s friends and William did not take h i s i l l n e s s s e r i o u s l y u n t i l the very end. As C h r i s t i n a wrote to William: ...pray do not ascribe a l l h i s doings and non-doings to foundationless fidgetiness, poor dear fellow. Don't you think neither you nor I can quite appreciate a l l he i s undergoing at present, what between wrecked health at l e a s t i n some measure, nerves which appear to f a l s i f y f a c t s , and most anxious money matters? I t i s t r y i n g to have to do with him at times, but what must i t be to be himself! And he i n so many ways the head ^and flower^ of our f a m i l y — i t doubles the pity.'°9 1 0 7December 11, 1881. 108DGR:CR (3 February 1882) AP; FL, p.392; LDGR 2602. 109CR:WMR (19 February 1882) AP. 41 And William reported to Ford Madox Brown: . ..G(abriel] has these several weeks been not only much depressed but not a l i t t l e cross i n the bargain, and I don't suppose he has written anything to anyone except to meet some occasion of the moment of h i s own...When I heard from him (10 or 12 days ago) heHtiimself said he was worse: but Watts, who had been with him up to a day or two preceding, t o l d me that there was no ground f o r considering him worse—so I don't f e e l exactly anxious or alarmed, although i t i s by t h i s time cl e a r that h i s i l l n e s s or numbness etc. was not to be considered a t r i f l e . . . . 1 1 0 C h r i s t i n a and her mother went down to stay at Birching-111 ton on March 6., and C h r i s t i n a again warned William: "Pray do not doubt the r e a l i t y of poor Gabriel's i l l n e s s : do not l e t 112 any theory or opinion influence you to entertain such a doubt." Rossetti himself wrote to Joseph Knight, signing i t , "With love 113 from what i s l e f t of me." Brown retained h i s doubt u n t i l the l a s t : "I c e r t a i n l y , from what I saw of him l a s t , do not believe i n h i s l o s s of muscular force, nor i n h i s l o s s of s i g h t — b u t the state of nervous depression i n which he i s seems to l a s t so long that the very gravest r e s u l t s would not surprise. I t 114 would be a good thing to get him o f f to I t a l y . . . " Toward the end, news of h i s i l l n e s s got about and many friends came to c a l l , even the banished Charles Augustus Howell, 1 1 0WMR:FMB27 F bruary 1882 AP. 1 1 1DGR:CR (28 February 1882) AP; FL, p.395, LDGR 2611. 112CR:WMR 14 March 1882 AP. 1 1 5DGR:Knight 5 March 1882 LDGR 2612. Knight published h i s L i f e of Dante Rossetti i n 1887. 114FMB:WMR 31 March 1882 AP. 42 who had just passed through bankrupcy court, hut i t was Caine who was the mainstay through the l a s t months. On Good Friday, Rossetti made h i s w i l l , leaving everything to h i s mother and William, except f o r a number of mementoes which h i s close friends were allowed to choose. So fr a c t i o u s and suspicious had he become by t h i s time that i t was only with great d i f f i c u l t y that Gaine and Watts persuaded him to include William B e l l Scott 115 among the friends to receive mementoes. On Sunday, A p r i l 9, Rossetti died. Gaine went up to London the following day, leaving the grieving family the privacy of the bungalow. Before he returned fo r the funeral he had packed up a l l h i s possessions and shipped them North. His l i f e with V Rossetti was ended. By early summer a great many people were planning to write about R o s s e t t i . William B e l l Scott reported: Watts was here yesterday a f t e r dinner i n a state of simmer — I might say b o i l i n g over, about Sharp and Caine having prepared themselves as r i v a l acrobats to write books about D.G.R.! He says Gabriel on h i s death bed begged him to l e t no one else write "a L i f e " - — t o write i t himself i f i t was necessary. He had prevailed on Caine to be quiet, but suddenly the other hanger-on whom as Watts says "I have brought a l i t t l e into notice; and who was seeing me d a i l y and hourly," has, without mentioning h i s intention, got Macmillan to commission him f o r a book of 300 pages, as the intimate f r i e n d of the deceased! and then Caine says, "Well! i f he does i t I s h a l l too!" I t seems D.G.R. has written whole buncTles of l e t t e r s to Caine some of them 6 or 8 pages long! Watts i s cut out of the game and i n despair. "Rossetti has f a l l e n among the P h i l i s t i n e s " i s h i s commentary, "and I can't help him!" Sharp, as I think I mentioned i n a former note came here and announced to me h i s having undertaken a book on the "Character of DGR's art and poetry and i t s influence on English art and l i t e r a t u r e . " I was astonished as you may suppose. A f t e r a 18 October 1892 AP. 43 few moments I said, h i s influence on Art was simply n i l — that i n f a c t no one had seen any of h i s paintings except h i s private f r i e n d s . He had no reply, The cause of a l l t h i s i n t e r e s t i n Gabriel's painting i s r e a l l y h i s secretiveness and the c u r i o s i t y of the public to see what has been kept dark. I hope the re v e l a t i o n w i l l not break up the charm.... 1' 6 In J u l y he reported on another book: 117 Stock has sent me a new l i t t l e book about D.G.R.! I t i s by someone no one knows. Eloquent i n i t s way, and good, yet wholly i n the dark about the r e a l character of D.G. However, i t i s only about h i s painting, very l i t t l e about h i s poetry. I have read i t , so i t i s not very l o n g . . . . 1 1 8 Theodore Watts disagreed: I t o l d Stock of.the immense f o l l y of p r i n t i n g such a baby-l i k e product as that of the ass Tirebuck or whatever else i s hi s damned name. A l o t of fellows w i l l s c r i b b l e about him [p.G.RTj and vulgarize h i s name....119 William had planned to write a memoir and publish i t 120 with family l e t t e r s , but i n the face of Watts' disappoint-ment he considered turning the family l e t t e r s over to Watts, and allowing him to write the memoir. His wife, Lucy, did not approve: 116WBS:AB June 13 1882 PP. William Sharp, Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i : A Record and a Study. (London: Macmillan, 1882). The book followed Tirebuck's and Gaine's. 117 'William Tirebuck, Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . His Work  and Influence. Including a B r i e f Survey of Recent' iLrt Tendencies. IChTs volume was also the r e s u l t of Caine*s association with. R o s s e t t i . Tirebuck, an old Liverpool f r i e n d of Caine»s, must have been infected by Caine's enthusiasm for Rossetti, trans-mitted i n conversation, by l e t t e r , and i n Caine's Liverpool lecture on "Dante's Dream." I t i s l i k e l y that Tirebuck's attitude toward Rossetti r e f l e c t e d Caine's, since there.is no evidence that Tirebuck ever met Ro s s e t t i . 118WBS:AB 10 Jul y 1882 PP. 119TW:WMR 24 Jul y 1882 AP. 1 20 This plan was f u l f i l l e d i n 1895, a f t e r Watts defaulted on h i s planned volume, by D.G. Rossetti's Family Letters with a Memoir, 2 v o l s . "~ 44 ••••I don't know what to say about combining with Watts about the l e t t e r s . I don't quite l i k e the idea myself. A l l the time Watts knew Gabriel, was i n the unnatural part of h i s l i f e he humoured Gabriel and Gabriel was much under h i s influence. I think you could get more of h i s e a r l i e r l e t t e r s to Papa and combine with him i f he were able something most i n t e r e s t i n g and valuable might be made.'*21 Another combination was suggested, that of P.G. Stephens and Theodore Watts: ....I had from Stephens a most pathetic l e t t e r i n answer to one of mine i n which I had said you seemed sorry he and Watts should not do the l i f e of D.G.R. He seemed to be much h u r t — a s indeed you know i s S.'s wont when anything displeases him with regard to himself. I thought the best thing to do was to write a long l e t t e r explaining the whole matter. How Caine came there at a l l , and how Gabriel made him give up h i s business i n Liverpool and become h i s private secretary f o r no salary and confided to him a l l h i s most private a f f a i r s . How Caine was i n f a c t l e f t i n the l u r c h by D.G.'s death, with f o r a l l property an amount of private information which i t became necessary to publish or control somehow. I t o l d him a l l I could to soften wounded f e e l i n g s — e x p l a i n i n g what I believe to be true, that neither you nor your husband could possibly have wished these two young men to do the r e a l work i n preference to him and Watts. That indeed i t seems to me that i t might s t i l l be done between WMR and Watts and himself..,. 122 Even Scott seemed to have plans to use some l e t t e r s , f o r he wrote to Miss Boyd: "I suppose you took the l e t t e r s of D.G.R. we spoke of. I must be writing or doing something i n P e n k i l l . " 1 2 5 Watts was s t i l l considering h i s book about Rossetti i n 1892, and wrote to William, "I am extremely anxious to see what I have written about G. i n p r i n t now," and outlined the proposed book, but upon the back of t h i s l e t t e r William noted that he 121LMR:WMR 17 August 1882 AP. 122PMB:LMR 12 October 1882 AP. 125WBS:AB 24 (May 1882) PP. 4 5 wrote to the publishers on July 31 suggesting they write to Watts, rather than himself, s t a t i n g that unless a substantial part of h i s manuscript was " i n the p r i n t e r s 1 hands by 1/1/93, we s h a l l regard the project as lapsed, and s h a l l do whatever we 124. think f i t apart therefrom." ^ The book was never published. H a l l Caine's book was the f i r s t memoir of Rossetti published, and afterwards he returned to London to t r y to es t a b l i s h a public reputation there as "the Bard of Manxland"--. 125 which Rossetti had t o l d him was a worth while thing to be. He was knighted i n 1918 for h i s energetic support of the B r i t i s h war e f f o r t , and i n 1921 was made a Companion of Honour " i n 126 recognition of h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e . " One of Caine's f i r s t and perhaps most valued honors was William's understanding gratitude f o r the year Caine cared f o r R o s s e t t i : ... Rossetti*s g i f t s and h i s temperament always made him a leader i n any associateship, and now h i s i n f i r m i t i e s reinforced the claim; and Mr. Caine was soon drawn within a vortex from which escape—unless he had decided to escape from the house altogether—was not e a s i l y manageable. His own work got impeded; h i s days and evenings were cut up by numerous and miscellaneous attentions paid to h i s highly sensitive and not seldom morbidly wayward f r i e n d and host. I f he looks back upon the months from J u l y 1881 to A p r i l 1882 as a period of s t r a i n and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , he may at l e a s t console himself with the r e f l e c t i o n that he did a great deal to soothe and tend a man of eminent genius and wide renown, and that he amply earned the gratitude of those members of the family who survived Dante Rossetti.127 "TW:WMR 23 Jul y 1892 AP. 'Recollections (1928), p. 167. 'Norris, Two Men of Manxland. p. 62. Memoir, p. 370. 46 LETTERS EROM THOMAS HENRY HALL CAINE TO DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 2. 24 July 1879 I have grown to f e e l an i n t e r e s t i n you and your work so e n t i r e l y personal as seems to j u s t i f y the above f a m i l i a r i form of address. I f there he, however, anything i n i t unwarranted hy the proper attitude of a student to the poet he loves pray pardon and forget i t . I send you a copy of Colburn 1s New Monthly Magazine containing my lecture on your poetry. I wish you to read i t i f you have the l e i s u r e and the kind i n c l i n a t i o n . I t r u s t you may approve of what I have written, and may f i n d that however imperfect a t r i b u t e I have offered to the r i c h beauty of your work I have aimed to say a word i t was well to have spoken, and have said i t , too, i n the r i g h t way. At a l l events I have said i t s i n c e r e l y . I owe you much gratitude. So f a r as I can know the workings of my mind I believe i t i s to you more than to any other that I owe i t that with a l l the ardour of an earnest and I think ardent nature I "love the p r i n c i p l e of beauty i n a l l things." Accept my best wishes. You have shewn me precious s u b t i l t i e s of the heart and I f e e l f o r that the l e s s temptation to a f a l s e and ugly l i f e . p o s t s c r i p t s You w i l l , I fear, f i n d my essay imperfectly p r i n t e d — f o r that I am not responsible. ^"Dear Mr. R o s s e t t i " instead of the more formal "My dear S i r . " This i s THC's f i r s t personal l e t t e r to DGR. -47 3. 2 August 1879 I have not hastened to reply to your very kind l e t t e r because I have the pleasant prospect of a b r i e f holiday and I have been endeavouring to f i n d how f a r my arrangements w i l l admit of a v a i l i n g myself of what had afforded me so much delight-~your permission to c a l l upon you. I have not yet determined upon the course I s h a l l take and so I prefer to defer no longer my acknowledgement of your courtesy. I am yearning to see Swiss mountains and I t a l i a n Gothic Churches; and i n the event of my going so f a r from home I s h a l l assuredly pass through London and do my utmost to see you. I s h a l l , however, be ca r e f u l to give you the day's notice of my int e n t i o n . |postscriptJ I have been thinking I should l i k e you to know what other poetry I love: I mean that I could wish you to f e e l that my enthusiasm f o r your work i s not at a l l the freak of a feve r i s h fancy but the serious outcome of a mind that aims to f i x i t s standard high. And so I send you the August Colburn's 2 which contains an essay written by me and which (as i t i s my only copy) I s h a l l trouble you kindly to return to me. 5. 28 October 1879 I have l o s t the Secretaryship of the So c i a l Science 2 "The Supernatural i n Poetry." 48 Association. There were 166 candidates and I have just dropped out at the last three. I had set my heart upon l i v i n g i n London, hut now that must stand over awhile. As you say I may nevertheless turn up a l l right eventually in my true sphere. As Bums has i t "the best of my l i f e must he before me." It i s a painful thought, however, that there are probably very many thoroughly capable men a l l over the country who seek work which they can never pursue for the passion of i t and which can scarcely yield them^300 a year. I trust you sympathised with much my Congress paper contained:—I sent you a Builder i n which the f u l l text was printed. My Ruskin Society lecture I might also have published, but I f e l t that i t was not altogether an adequate performance and now I am engaged i n re-writing i t . I intend to offer i t to the Nineteenth Century. When I have finished i t and 2 lectures I give shortly and 2 or 3 t r i f l e s for Theatre magazine, I intend to start upon an essay I have long contemplated and to which I think I can bring special sympathy and i n s i g h t — a study of the genius of Keats. I have mentioned this to Mr. Chapman of Westminster Review and to him I mean to send it,—-unless something else shews i t s e l f . The treatment shall be distinctly psychological and into i t I intend to put a l l my power, and as I do not think there i s 3-ln lateSSeptember IHC has asked DGR and WMR for letters of recommendation for the secretaryship, (THC:DGR 4, 25 September 1879 AP). WMR sent a letter immediately. Caine submitted i t with nine other letters of recommendation (THC:WMR 27 September 1879 AP). 49 any l i v i n g man whose instinct on such a theme would he so sure as your's I shall ask you before I publish my paper to do me the great kindness of looking at i t . — T h a t , however, w i l l not be earlier than the new year. 6. 7 December 1879 Your letter brought the colour to my pale cheeks, 4 but i t did me great good. I had offered one of my 'restoration' 5 papers to Jhe editor of the Contemporary and he had written a very courteous letter saying that nothing but sheer pressure of M.S.S. compelled him to decline for the present what he f e l t was an able paper. I do not think I am easily disheartened but I f e l t the same or similar conditions would be almost certain to obtain i n whatever other quarter I might care to see i t . And then the editor of that magazine of which I sent you two numbers wrote inviting the contribution. I was halting between two opinions, whether to send him the paper and have done with i t , or whether to burn what I had written with a l l my heart rather than see i t appear amidst dishonouring associations, when your letter was brought into this room. My decision was at once made and the M.S. l i e s s t i l l on the table. I confess to you I did not know the character of the magazine when I was f i r s t invited to contribute to i t . With i t s 4DGR has obviously been c r i t i c a l of a paper THC has sent him and of C,ovlbaipn.t,s: Newv Monthly. -'The papers on drama mentioned i n IHC:DGR 5, *28 October 1879. 50 early issues of f i f t y years ago I was f a m i l i a r but i t s l a t e r numbers had f a l l e n quite out of sight. And then when my paper on your poetry was sent to me and I saw that i n addition to many harassing errors of the press within i t s e l f , i t was surrounded, as you say, by such a farrago of absolute garbage I was i n doubt whether a f t e r a l l i t could be. a proper thing to l e t you see i t . I was i n fear l e s t I might incur your contempt and yet, knowing and loving that poetry as I did, I f e l t I should reproach myself f o r ever i f I were prevented from making such a r i s k . Three other papers of mine have since then appeared i n the same publication, but from sheer shortsightedness, the M S S were a l l i n the e d i t o r ^ hands before I saw the magazine. I thank you very h e a r t i l y f o r your most kind promise to read my Keats a r t i c l e when i t i s written. I f e e l an assurance that i t w i l l , prove to be very much.the best thing I have written or am l i k e l y soon to write. A l l my sympathy goes out to i t . I n c i d e n t a l l y i n a popular lecture a few nights ago I alluded to Keats and friends say I never spoke so w e l l . I am glad you say he i s the one true h e i r of Shakspere amongst a l l h i s contempor-aries who established t h e i r names. That i s just what I have seen i n h i m — v a s t l y more of Shakspere than of Spenser, except i n simple ou t l i n e . Charles Wells, too, had a great deal of the young Shakspere i n him. With h i s drama I am not so f a m i l i a r as I ought to be. I read i t i n snatches at the Library. I read your reference to him i n the supplementary chapter (attributed 51 to you I think) of (Alexander] G i l c h r i s t ' s Blake. I wonder i s that p o r t r a i t f a i t h f u l they give of him on the t i t l e page of h i s hook (Mr. Swinburne's e d i t i o n ) , I could not hut set i t side hy side with the p o r t r a i t of Keats and think how much was wanting i n the one face which i n the other was s a l i e n t . Keats had, so to speak, a l l my heart whilst Wells took a l l my mind. In the cl e a r eyes and broad, strong brow of Wells there was lacking, so I thought, much of a l l the winged a s p i r a t i o n that spoke out of the great l i q u i d eyes and upturned look of Keats; but i n the c l e a r l y outlined, strong lower face of Wells there seemed the mark of the man who through a l l untoward fortune 8 could bide h i s time. I have been spending an hour now and an hour again at the Library with your Dante and h i s C i r c l e . but I do not know the book at a l l properly. Your promise to send me a copy i f I have not got i t gives me the greatest d e l i g h t . I s h a l l value the book very much and l e a r n greatly from i t , but I s h a l l , i n one sense, value the present much more. Dante i s a world I have yet r i g h t l y to explore. I do not know him as I know Shakspere and Goethe and others. 6 L f f e of William Blake. "Pictor Ignotus". 2 v o l s . (London and' Cambridge: Macmillan and Company, 1863). G i l c h r i s t died i n 1861 before the work was completed. Mrs. Anne G i l c h r i s t , h i s widow, asked DGR and several others to help complete the work. 7 Charles Wells, Joseph and h i s Brethren: a dramatic  poem f o r which Swinburne wroie an^inlroduc^ ion. (Uondon: CnaEto and Windus, 1876). Q The passion of the age f o r phrenology and physiognomy i s c l e a r l y shared by THC. 52 I have never t o l d you (nor s h a l l I t e l l you u n t i l I can do so as I should) how much your painting has moved me. I Q almost wish your "Lady at the Window" were coming to Mr. Rae's, f o r then I should see i t as I have seen the others. I offered 7 papers to a publisher a while ago to be made up into a small 200 page volume. The papers embraced: .1: on Restoration, 1 on your poetry and 4 on Shakspere subjects, beside my forthcoming Keats. The publisher said he would be glad to share the r i s k with me, but that was an arrangement I declined. Is i t not a strange thing that a man should be asked to pay f o r the p r i v i l e g e of teaching such of the public as know le s s than he does? But then I am a very young man yet and although I am older by some months than Keats was (heaven forgive the connection) when he f i n i s h e d h i s l i f e ' s work I have time yet, I hope, to work i n . I hope too I s h a l l not weary you with t h i s . 7. {? January 188eJ 1 0 Your mention of Qlarrv] Buxton Forman reminds me that i t 11 was he who edited Keats's l o v e - l e t t e r s . Polks here as e l s e -where said the book was a l i t e r a r y indecency such as a true lover of Keats should never, or even could never, have perpetrated. I do not think I had any f e e l i n g of that kind. Indeed I had no ^George Rae, a patron of DGR's, who l i v e d i n Liverpool. 10 Dated i n r e l a t i o n to DGR:THC i n Recollections. (1882), p. 171. : t l L etters of John Keats to Fanny Brawne Written i n the Years 1819 and 1820 (London: Reeves and Turner, 18787. 5 3 time to r e f l e c t upon i t thus passively and o b j e c t i v e l y . The hook had e n t h r a l l i n g charms fo r me, from the f i r s t page whereon ha i r , dank and matted over the glorious forehead, cold with the death-dew, to the l a s t l i n e of the l e t t e r p r e s s . I had i t only f o r a day or two, however. I f I remember aright your brother wrote on i t i n the Academy, and h i s admiration of Keats seemed to me then to have grown greatly since the days when he wrote 13 h i s b e a u t i f u l note to the E d i t i o n of Keats he edited. A t r u l y l o v e l y passage i n that note, beginning—"That i s an age-long and shoreless water" appears to me i n much the same manner as your 14. r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Keats*s self-chosen epitaph. advance i n d i r e c t s i m p l i c i t y . I t seems to me the most perfect thing he did. Not that I value i t as much as I value other things of h i s , — t h e great Ode f o r example, one stanza of which i s heart-breaking i n i t s pathos,—but I see i n i t , as you do, an i n d i c a t i o n of to what chast i t y he was progressing. He was w r i t i n g then with judgement. His style was l o s i n g nothing i n richness, and l i g h t , but i t was gaining i n directness and e f f o r t l e s s strength. This poem takes a place side by side i n drawn the once redundant locks of r i c h "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" i s , as you say, a c l e a r The a t t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s e d i t i o n i s "frontespiece by Severn-Scott." The P o e t i c a l Works of John Keats: with a C r i t i c a l  Memoir (London: E. Moxon and Son 1 8 7 2 ) . "" See Recollections ( 1 8 8 2 ) , p. 1 7 ° . 54 my mind with (amongst others) Coleridge's "Genevieve". There i s the same simplicity of motif the same natural begetting of one incident out of the last, one image out of the image that precedes i t ; the same instinctive selection of faultless material, the same moulding and vivifying of the language out of the thought as well as of the thought out of the language, — i n a word, the same utter union of manner and matter carried to such perfectness that i t i s hard to say i f the story have [sicT} not been told, simply and absolutely, for the sheer joy of t e l l i n g i t . There i s something of the same feeling found i n the last 2 stanzas of the "Nightingale"—a feeling that i t matters not at a l l what purpose i s served by i t beyond the beautifying influence of i t s mere existence. No, I have never met with Cristabel as a mediaeval rame. I have never met with i t outside the poem earlier than the poem. I think Coleridge's grandchild must have been about the f i r s t to bear the name. One feels that the other names i n the poem belong to another family of names—that i s , names with a d i f f e r -ent kind of origin and range of significance—Leoline, Geraldine, Roland and then again Bracy. I shouldn't wonder i f I were to hear that Coleridge invented the name, but my own impression (formed quite without inquiry) i s that he brought i t back to England with him from Germany. He was there you know with Wordsworth seeing [iriedrichj Klopstock i n 1798 and I think *(jHC's note} Of course I mean the later of the 2 poems under that t i t l e , the f i r s t being merely a boyish rhyme. 55 " C h r i s t a b e l " must have been w r i t t e n about t h a t t i m e — a t l e a s t the f i r s t and b e s t p a r t o f i t . The Germans, y o u know, have names o f a k i n d r e d e t y m o l o g y — C h r i s t i a n f o r example . I f my guess be wide o f the t r u t h i t may s t i l l be a f a c t t h a t the name has German r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A n o t h e r c o n j e c t u r e t h a t seems to me a r e a s o n a b l e one i s t h a t C o l e r i d g e e v o l v e d the name out o f the i n c i d e n t s o f the open ing passages o f the poem. The b e a u t i f u l t h i n g , no t more from i t s beauty t h a n i t s s u g g e s t i v e n e s s , s u i t s h i s purpose e x a c t l y . As a v e r y s m a l l m a t t e r I may ment ion an i d e a t h a t once p o s s e s s e d me d e s p o t i c a l l y : i t was t h a t where the poet s a y s . "Her s i l k e n rohe and i n n e r v e s t D r o p t to h e r f e e t and f u l l i n v i ew B e h o l d ! h e r bosom and h a l f h e r s i d e A s i g h t to dream o f and not to t e l l , s h i e l d the l a d y C h r i s t a b e l ! " he meant u l t i m a t e l y to show eyes i n the b r e a s t o f the w i t c h . I f a n c i e d t h e n I had got h o l d o f an i d e a by whose l i g h t the passage must e l e c t r i f y r e a d e r s . The f i r s t p a r t o f the poem seems to me immeasurably the s u p e r i o r p a r t . D e s p i t e 2 grand t h i n g s i n the second p a r t ( the passage on the severance o f e a r l y f r i e n d s h i p s and the c o n c l u s i o n ) the d e x t e r i t y o f hand shewn i n the f i r s t p a r t i s nowhere seen i n i t , u n l e s s i n d e e d i t be i n the passage i n which G e r a l d i n e b e - w i t c h e s C h r i s t a b e l . S i r W a l t e r S c o t t even c o u l d i m i t a t e the second p a r t , but s u r e l y he n e v e r touched the w e i r d and s u b t l e b e a u t y o f the f i r s t p a r t w i t h so much as the p o i n t o f a s p e a r . Anent •your jjocose a l l u s i o n to the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f " C h r i s t a b e l , " do you know t h a t a c o n t i n u a t i o n 56 was a c t u a l l y written and published i n Coleridge's own paper, 15 The Morning Post? J I t would be about 1820 or e a r l i e r . I t was s a t i r i c a l of course, and h i t o f f the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of v e r s i f i c a t i o n c l e v e r l y i f no more. What you said i n your l e t t e r about my numerous Germanisms amused me greatly. You l e t me o f f very l i g h t l y . I do not doubt you are altogether r i g h t . I don't think however that my study of German l i t e r a t u r e i s l i k e l y to injure me permanently. I never become saturated i n German idiom although everything I write (even my present l e t t e r ) bears traces of i t . Those words you quote are c e r t a i n l y crushers. The worst i s that I can't even 1 6" plead German precedent f o r some of them. Euhemeristic i s a c t u a l l y a monstrosity of my own inventing. I much fear that besides being ugly i t i s out of a l l harmony with i t s Greek o r i g i n a l . My head was then f u l l of J.A. Symonds and h i s Greek Poets and of my own reading of Aeschylus. Professor Edward Dowden says I am f a s t c l a r i f y i n g my s t y l e and I am sure I am t r y i n g to do so—making i t , as f a r as I can, more simple, manly, English and d i r e c t . I have just revised my Dramatic Study, eliminating a l l 17 a l l u s i o n to current dramatic a f f a i r s . The gain i s great. When I have had time to write a paper on Shakspere, the man, 1 5See Recollections (1882), pp. 152-158, e s p e c i a l l y concerning the ideas about "Christabel". 16 I t i s not of THC's inventing, according to the OED. 17 'In i t s f i n a l form the paper was "Two Aspects of Shakespere's Art," Contemporary Review. 43 (June 1883), 883-900. 57 and another on the V i c t o r i a n c r i t i c s of Shakspere,I 111 t r y to publish the whole of them together as my f i n a l contribution to Shaksperean l i t e r a t u r e . Wednesday morning I have just received your l e t t e r . I t i s quite l i k e your kindness to send me a second l e t t e r whilst I was s t i l l your debtor i n l e t t e r w r i t i n g . I am very g r a t e f u l to you f o r your kind s o l i c i t u d e concerning my health. Yes, I am better now. Three years ago I had a serious breakdown, but a f t e r r a l l y i n g through that I had very good health a l l round down to the middle of l a s t year, when I began to f a i l again. The fac t i s , as nearly as I can le a r n i t from the medical diagnosis of my case, my brain i s 18 abnormally large and heavy. This unhappily does not enable me to see things a whit more c l e a r l y than other f o l k s but impoverishes most of the other parts of my body, rendering me es p e c i a l l y l i a b l e to colds, blood-pressure and the l i k e . I was ashamed of the namby-pamby tone that ran through my l a s t l e t t e r , but when I t e l l you that before writing that l e t t e r I destroyed a l e t t e r I had written previously because i t contained too much of that kind of thing, you w i l l , I know, acquit me of any sus-p i c i o n you may properly have attached to me of weak young-manish [ s i c ] a f f e c t a t i o n . The night on which I wrote that l e t t e r 18 Again THC's i n t e r e s t i n phrenology and physiognomy i s revealed. Photographs and descriptions of THC indicate that he was a small man with a large head. He had reddish h a i r , worn rather long, and a pale complexion. 58 brought rather s t a r t l i n g proof of i t s s i n c e r i t y . I went to bed i n the usual health but next morning when I awoke I found a stream of blood on my pillo w and my mouth and throat and n o s t r i l s h a l f f u l l of blood. I was a l i t t l e alarmed but fortunately covered up a l l trace of i t and went about that day as a l w a y s — f e e l i n g myself scarcely "too much i'the sun." I posted that l e t t e r to you and at night went to see the doctor and t o l d him calmly a l l about i t . I imagine that doctor would expect me to f a i n t i f I saw a woman pr i c k her finger, but I v e r i l y believe he thinks me a b i t of a hero where my own su f f e r i n g i s concerned, and I am confident he would frankly have t o l d me i f anything had been wrong. I was r e l i e v e d to hear that the bleed-ing was from the head and that I might expect to f e e l much better a f t e r i t , and I have f e l t better. No harm whatever was done— rather good. I am not sure that I have not a congenital tendancy to c e r t a i n weaknesses, but I am assured that there i s no reason why I should not grow strong. One day I ' l l take a long holiday and then a l l w i l l be w e l l . Travel i s good no doubt, but my brother t r a v e l l e d h a l f the world over and came home and died at l a s t . I do not think I s h a l l die e a r l i e r than other people and I do not think that work hurts me much. I t i s worry that k i l l s . To-day I am f e e l i n g b r i l l i a n t , and so I want very much to go on with the Keats matter,—only I want to do i t just when I can. I laughed h e a r t i l y at your project r e l a t i v e to essays written during i n t e r v a l s of penal servitude, and r e a l l y f e e l that my own have been done almost exclusively under such conditions, 59 notwithstanding t h a t I have most a p p r e c i a t i v e and considerate people to d e a l w i t h . Of course Buxton Forman w i l l w r i t e an essay on Keats to 19 / preface the new e d i t i o n o f h i s works. ( I do t r u s t h e ' l l cut out some of the l e s s e r t h i n g s ) and e q u a l l y of course Matthew 20 Arnold w i l l p u b l i s h soon h i s promised essay on Keats. Besides t h i s Fred. Wedmore ( I t h i n k i t i s he) reviews a l i t t l e book on the same subject i n t h i s week's Academy. I am, notwithstanding, 21 going ahead w i t h my own essay, although i t may be f o o l i s h hardihood to do so. I am quite sure to take a d i f f e r e n t l i n e and what I w r i t e may perhaps f i n d a p l a c e . I have j u s t r u i n e d one of my copies of Keats, by t e a r i n g out of i t a l l my comments w r i t t e n on the margins on the m e t r i c a l i m p e r f e c t i o n s . I don't t h i n k those i m p e r f e c t i o n s ought to have more than a passing word. As S h e l l e y said,, the poems ("Hyperion" and one or two others excepted) are v e r y f a u l t y and there an end. But where can we l o o k f o r more poetry per page than Keats f u r n i s h e s ? I don't t h i n k the poetry i n Keats i s ever o f the very highest order, but i t i s marvellous n e v e r t h e l e s s . That was a good shot at the t r u t h about my being a Roman C a t h o l i c and yet I am not one. I sometimes go to the 19 ^ P o e t i c a l Works and Other W r i t i n g s of John Keats. 4 v o l s . (London: Reeves and T a y l o r , 1883). 20 I n The E n g l i s h Poets. Thomas Humphrey Ward, gen. ed. (London: Macmillan and Company 1880), IV: 427-37. 21 The f i n a l essay was published i n THC's Cobwebs of  C r i t i c i s m . (London: E l l i o t Stock 1883), pp. 158-90. 60 Catholic Chapel on the other side of t h i s street, and more frequently to an Anglican Church of very pronounced r i t u a l . A l l my friends here are Unitarians, p o s i t i v i s t s , s e c u l a r i s t s and broad churchmen and my antagonism to a l l these things and p a r t i a l sympathy with what i s contemptuously c a l l e d the " r e l i g i o n of the cross" (as distinguished from the r e l i g i o n of Christ) i s notorious and a subject of surprise. I'm not a Catholic, God knows, and yet I f e e l the beauty of Catholicism i n the abstract: I f e e l too the other beauty of Protestantism, and indeed I f e e l that they have between these two a beauty i n common which should 22 make them a l l i e s . I heard a p o s i t i v i s t sermon on Sunday and thought with Emerson i f Luther had but known what h i s act would lead to, he would have cut o f f h i s r i g h t hand rather than n a i l up h i s theses. I t was a passionless ghost of a f a i t h we were taught; a piece of weak fa c t o r i n g . My P o l i t i c s and A r t 2 I s not even out yet, but I send you an imperfect copy i n advance. I think i t i s quite 50$ better than when you saw i t f i r s t . The only responsive return P o l i t i c s makes me i n recognition of my great labour i s to kick my work out of the way. The general e l e c t i o n keeps i t back. Of course I might perhaps with advantage postpone pub l i c a t i o n 22 DGR, although a Protestant by upbringing, was often considered to be a Roman Catholic because of h i s I t a l i a n name and h i s use of Catholic symbols i n several of h i s paintings. 23 A pamphlet arguing THC's b e l i e f that poets and painters, as men of v i s i o n , ought to take part i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the country. THC offered to dedicate i t to DGR, who rejected the idea. TEG:DGR 9, 24 February, 1880 AP. However, DGR suggested he send the pamphlet to the Athenaeum f o r review. THC:DGR 11, 29 February 1880. 61 u n t i l a f t e r the general e l e c t i o n . A fr i e n d here (W ^llianQ 24-Watson—Main has a sonnet or two of his) has also a hook kept hack hy the e l e c t i o n and though we have employed a l l our combined public influence to get the general e l e c t i o n postponed u n t i l a f t e r the publication of our booklings we have not, strange and sad to say, been able to compass that end. Such i s the . fundamental and ineradicable antagonism of P o l i t i c s and A r t -a l l my crowning triumphs of l o g i c notwithstanding! 25 I expect a portion of my Stones Crying Out from Oxford tomorrow. I f i t looks tolerable I ' l l send i t to you. I much fear, however, that I have taken the wind out of one chapter by repeating parts of passages (unconsciously) i n P and A. Not that the public memory i s l i k e l y to be long enough to note so small a matter, but then I know i t and you w i l l see i t . I t r u s t your health i s a l l that I could wish i t to be. I do hope t h i s l e t t e r may not injure i t . Seriously, however, I am ashamed of the length. Perhaps i f I had had more time I should have written l e s s . But I have written i t ' homoeopathi-c a l l y — p e r h a p s you w i l l read i t so. Jpostscript] I must act u a l l y put these sheets into 2 envelopes. 15. 31 March 1880 .... What a splendid subject the Sonnet would be f o r an 24. David M. Main, A Treasury of English Sonnets. (Manchester: Printed by 1". Ireland and Company, 1880). pamphlet an a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e s t o r a t i o n very much influenced by the ideas of John Ruskin. 62 26 exhaustive work, the labour of say a whole year! .... 16. begun A p r i l 5, 1880 2 7 ....I think my health i s bettering fast—what a v i l e phrase! These r i v e r s of morning a i r do wonders f o r me. Surely spring i s the most l i f e - g i v i n g of a l l the seasons. I t would he an enquiry fraught with curious i n t e r e s t to f i n d i n what numbers those who have the greatest love of the beauty of the spring were bom i n i t . One f e e l s one could name a goodly number amongst the English p o e t s . . . . 2 8 17. 13 A p r i l 1880 ....when I lectured l a s t on your poetry....The chairman, 29 a f o o l i n a l l senses, had the assurance to say at the close "50 a l o t of things I need not repeat. My God! didn't I hew him up before the l o r d ! That after-speech was said to be worth a l l the r e s t ; but I was unwell a f t e r i t f o r nearly a week.... 26 i DGR had been reading and c r i t i c i s i n g THC's sonnets and sending him h i s own, a process of education which f i n a l l y resulted i n THC's Sonnets of Three Centuries, edited at DGR's suggestion. 27 A long l e t t e r written over several days. DGR, f o r instance, and THG, hopefully. 29 •'Philip Rathbone, l a t e r known between DGR and THC as"Ratsbane," not "Ratsbone" as i n LDGR 2516. 30 He did not repeat them, however, on h i s f i r s t overnight v i s i t to DGR. See Mjr Story, pp. 122-123. 63 20. 15 May 1880 . . . . I am truly delighted that you consider my second Sonnet a great advance on the first....Thank you heartily. My friends here are actually of the opinion that the Sonnet i s now a really fine one....I am delighted to know that you were well pleased with the other sonnet, written for May 12th. The sincerity of the writer i s , I hope, beyond discussion and the truth of what i s said beyond debate. I am more immediately concerned i n what you say and the manner of i t , although the matter was of course the only thing I thought of when I wrote i t . . . . 23. Wednesday 9 June 1880 5 2 . . . . I find the utmost enjoyment i n writing these poor letters to you and have f e l t these past few days great temptation to let other things go by in order that I might t e l l you something 33 of Mr. Stephens's public and private appearances here this week. Of course I presented the card you so kindly sent me (after I had declined a formal introduction) and thank you again for sending i t , for now I know (what I previously surmised) how much more valuable an introduction i t was to me 5 1DGR»s birthday. Por an example of THC's later s k i l l as a sonneteer see Appendix I I . ^Continuation of Thursday, 3 June 1880. 33 y^Frederic G. Stephens, art c r i t i c and friend of DGR's from Pre-Raphaelite days. 64 than any I could other wise have obtained. I post you to-day's newspaper report of yesterday's conversazione and you may perhaps be interested to look i t through. I fear the lecture was almost too good f o r our f o l k s , many of whom claim to be lovers of art and cover the walls of t h e i r houses with b e a u t i f u l representations of l o v e l y landscape, but at the same time erect huge furnaces which emit vast volumes of black smoke such as prevent the sky of any Liverpool landscape being f o r a moment l o v e l y . I don't think Stephens could have treated h i s subject more popularly and yet there seemed to me a p a i n f u l lack on the part of the audience of merited appreciation. The archaisms ( i f the word can apply to painting as well as l i t e r a t u r e ) of some of the pictures chosen f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n (Byzantine examples c h i e f l y ) caused c e r t a i n of our l o c a l wise-acres to smile at much of Stephens's loving enthusiasm. Then the subsequent speaking was weak to the verge of s t u p i d i t y . Not one word of i n t e l l i g e n t comment: not one word of suitable praises only the usual bot t l e d up formality and then the vote of thanks. I f e l t angry that Liverpool, as represented by i t s best men, could treat a man so shabbily. But S. didn't appear to f e e l i t and assured me he would carry home with him only a gr a t e f u l sense of the kindnesses u n i v e r s a l l y showered on him. And indeed i n private he did get l i o n i z e d . I thought him f a r too "dreadfully attended" and determined not to add to h i s discomfiture by imposing much of my own society upon him, but 65 i n the kindest way possible he sought me out when I had turned aside to r e l i e v e him of one troublesome presence and kept me by him u n t i l he l e f t . Even then I walked with him to the Landing Stage where he l e f t me to go to [George] Rae's, at whose house he i s staying. He spoke of you with the utmost enthusiasm, indeed with marked a f f e c t i o n . I quite expected to f i n d i n him an attitude of admiration and regard f o r you, but I was struck by the warmth of i t . Upon receiving the card he said i t bore a much-loved hand. I was pleased to note that he r e a l l y knew something of my doings and thought well of them. He repeated, too, some kind word or two that William Morris had said of me. ^ I was r e a l l y h e a r t i l y g r a t i f i e d . One thing I observed with secret and yet scarcely con-cealed delight; h i s courageous l o y a l t y i n defence of the men he admires. Of course l o t s of f o o l s (his* own judgement of them i s too generous) gave him the benefit of t h e i r valuable opinions on art questions free, g r a t i s etc. etc.; and some, as was natural, made p i t i f u l s l i p s . One superlative imbecile (a great man i n L i v e r p o o l ) ^ gave him a wonderfully f a c i l e and racy comment on the pre-Raphaelite painters and f i n a l l y paused f o r Stephens's appreciative responsive echo. But S. was not to be 34. ^DHC had corresponded with Morris f o r the Liverpool Notes and Queries Society, f o r which Morris wrote several "notes." See Mv, Story, p. 50. ^^Very probably THC's te\e n o i r . P h i l i p Rathbone, again. 66 drawn into such d i s l o y a l t y even f o r an instant or by a word and at the r i s k of r u f f l i n g the plumage of one of our mightiest corporate cacklers frankly expressed himself i n terms of unmixed approbation of the school of art that had been just condemned. I have written a very b r i e f sketch of the lecture f o r publi c a t i o n next Monday. I f e l t s i n cerely delighted to meet with Stephens f o r hi s own sake and quite as much so because I knew him to be an old and dear f r i e n d of yours. He has asked me to v i s i t him when I f i n d myself next i n London.... 24. [mid-June 188o) ...I was r e a l l y most happy with Stephens when he was here and I regret that I saw so l i t t l e of him. Have you seen him since h i s return to London? I s h a l l be interested to hear h i s ultimate opinion of that Colquist St. conversazione. Do you think that he was quite s a t i s f i e d with the welcome given him, or did he f e e l , as I f e l t , that the fo l k s were on the whole a poor l o t ? Not that there were not some able and worthy men present—but I fear they were few. I am much interested i n and indeed concerned about what you say of your friendships. I have heard you spoken of by men who have known you as long as 15 or 20 years and always with high regard. Yet I had gathered some impression, such as George Rae, Lord Houghton, H.A. Bright, E.G. Stephens and perhaps William Morris. 67 your l e t t e r s accentuate, of your comparative i s o l a t i o n , not to say lonesomeness. Stephens touched upon i t as we walked together, with a delicacy of f e e l i n g and phrase that must (had you heard him) have attached him the more to you. Then one of your early l e t t e r s to me dwelt on the causes of i t , and to that l e t t e r I have since repeatly (sic] returned with sure sympathy and a sense of i t s i n f i n i t e suggestiveness. Well, i t does seem c r u e l that the soothing a n t i c i p a t i o n of troops of dear friends,who w i l l grudge no s a c r i f i c e , many t r u l y great men may not look to have. I do f e e l more and more that from whatever cause of envy or s t r i f e of tongues, or even more innocent s l o t h on the part of him who suffers, a man can never a t t a i n l o f t i e r heights than the mass of men without becoming sadder and wearier than they need be: sadder and wearier and more alone, l e s s cheered by small delights i f l e s s vexed by t r i f l i n g aches. 26. 14 J u l y 1880 ....Just one item more. I hoped to keep out of journalism but the Pates of finance have ruled things against me and I am 37 very soon to be again temporarily i n newspaper harness. I 38 think I could manage a few " s t i c k s " on PMB!s frescoes. Would he care to have them described? I f so, i s he s t i l l at Manchester, 37 'As outside correspondent f o r the Liverpool Mercury, ^ ^ r i n t e r ' s slang f o r "columns of type". 68 and would he he w i l l i n g to l e t me look at him as well as h i s 40 •2Q work? I adored h i s "Milton and Cromwell"^ and now I've yet another l i n k that hinds him to me: I've read O l i v e r ' s hooks. 27. 16 Ju l y 1880 ....I was hugely delighted to get your l e t t e r on Friday, 4.1 1 enclosing the introduction to FMB;^ and since my cu r i o u s i t y (usually under entire control) l e d me to glance within the envelope you l e f t open out of courtesy to me, permit me to thank you i n one warm word f o r the most generous terms i n which you phrased the l e t t e r i t contained. Ian hoping to go to Manchester on Saturday next; e a r l i e r than that I fear I cannot go; and when there I s h a l l he most c a r e f u l to observe your i n s t r u c t i o n regarding a l l mention of O l i v e r . I am f e e l i n g a strange confidence that i n that p a r t i c u l a r I s h a l l not transgress, f o r i t i s my unhappy retrospect that I have not been without at l e a s t one sad experience that has tutored me f o r such intercourse. Of the Black Swan and Dwale Bluth you w i l l perhaps permit me to write to you at length some time soon. I have been greatly fascinated; the personality of the young author as seen behind •^Painting e n t i t l e d "Cromwell, Protector of the Vadois." 4°01iver Madox Brown, FMB's son, who died i n 1874 at the age of 19. He wrote two novels. The Dwale Bluth and The Black  Swan (otherwise known as Gabriel Denver). 41DGR:FMB 15 Ju l y (1880) LDGR 2294. 69 the t h i n v e i l of h i s rare creations has had i r r e s i s t a h l e a t t r a c t i o n s ; even the very weaknesses of the y.oung romance writer (so f a r as I can claim to have discovered them) have been arousing a sweet sympathetic sense. I wish I could write a decent sonnet to embody the sort of fragmentary f e e l i n g these f i n e fragments have been c a l l i n g into play.... 28. 27 July 1880 ....I have been up to Manchester and have seen Mr. Brown 4-2 and h i s work. I found the utmost enjoyment i n my v i s i t and have now to thank you h e a r t i l y to whom I owe i t . The frescoes 4,3 are r e a l l y most noble things.... I w i l l send you a proof of what I write about them....I was not i n best health on Saturday and so must have been somewhat d u l l e r than usual, but Mr. Brown was e s p e c i a l l y bright and genial, t a l k i n g f o r at le a s t 5 hours about the men of whom I wished c h i e f l y to hear. What he said of you was very pleasant, and would, I am sure, be gra t e f u l to you i f you were to hear i t . He gave me i n that quiet, picturesque way of h i s that i s enchanting, h i s e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n s of you, dating back, I think, 3° years. He said a good many things that made me laugh h e a r t i l y and others that did not make me laugh. I should imagine you can have no more 4 2 THC f i r s t v i s i t e d MB on Saturday, 24 Ju l y 1880. 43"The frescoes" were water-glass paintings on the walls of the Manchester Town H a l l : "The Roman Camp at Inacunium" and "The Bap'tism of King Edward." On the same v i s i t THC saw a cartoon f o r a projected t h i r d fresco, "The Expulsion of the Danes." 70 passionate admirer or affectionate f r i e n d . He talked of O l i v e r , too, at great length: somehow I had not the smallest fear of transgressing i n that d i r e c t i o n ; nor did I, that I can remember.... jpostscript] I am to go up again when the 2nd panel i s f i n i s h e d . ....His FMB i s a si n g u l a r l y f i n e face I think: a face that remains with one, r e c a l l i n g Milton's face somewhat, with a touch of S c h i l l e r ' s . 4 4 His t a l k , too, though so e n t i r e l y gentle and wanting i n the meteoric quality which one somehow always associates with b r i l l i a n t conversation i s i n the highest degree enchanting. I t may he that I saw him i n a s p e c i a l l y happy mood; I think I did; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to believe that one could always f i n d him so f u l l of f i n e f e e l i n g , with a quiet but most penetrative and fa s c i n a t i n g humour, too, when needed. ....Thinking over a l l PMB's kindness (and I have heard from him since my v i s i t and I am going up to Manchester again very soon, and he has asked me to c a l l on him when i n London) I have been?wondering i f I could possibly write a sonnet on h i s son (to whose genius I wish on other grounds to o f f e r t r i b u t e ) such as would be g r a t e f u l to him to read. A f t e r night-long incubation I have just (9 a.m.ish) hatched something which I 29. Begun 4 August 1880 44 •Johann Christoph F r i e d r i e h von S c h i l l e r (1759-1805), the German Romantic dramatist and poet. 71 fear w i l l prove to be the feeblest of cock-chickens. Here i s 4.5 the f i r s t draft copy of i t — i t s f i r s t p u l l e t crow. 31. Saturday morning Q l August 188oJ . . . . P h i l Rathbone (as he i s called) i s a member of N and QS 4^ and i s , as you say, an i n f l u e n t i a l man; moreover, PMB knows him and thinks well of him—but I could never f o r an instant attempt to work with h i m — c e r t a i n l y never f o r a f r a c t i o n of an instant i n subordination to him. More than once I've seriou s l y 4,7 c o l l i d e d with him, p u b l i c l y as well as p r i v a t e l y , and the r e s u l t has been such as he remembers, and with good cause, too. He was well-spoken of by PMB, but I t e l l you he i s an insincere buffoon and I have a c t u a l l y heard him, with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c antic posturing, disparage Brown himself, and make a sort of mild sport of O l i v e r . Nevertheless he i s a more considerable man i n Liverpool (God help i t ) than I can claim to be, and perhaps h i s aid would be valuable to PMB.... 32. Sunday {22 August 188q] I have been a l l day haunted by the fear that i n my h a s t i l y written note posted early on Saturday morning I expressed myself ^ S e e Appendix I I I . Aft * She Liverpool Notes and Queries Society, of which THO was a founding member. 4 7 S e e THC:DGR 17, *13 A p r i l 1880. 72 4.8 with unwonted and ungenerous vehemence on the person whose name was mentioned to you (quite naturally) as that of a man l i k e l y to he i n f l u e n t i a l i n the contemplated l e c t u r i n g a f f a i r s . ^ And indeed i t i s hut f a i r to say that those who know him much better than I do usually speak of him with more kindness than I can ever summon up....At the same time I must add...that I know of no Liverpool a r t i s t or l i t e r a r y man who holds that person i n high esteem...I noticed that h i s name, mentioned i n the studio of a young a r t i s t here...was received a l l round with a shrug of the shoulders and c u r l of the l i p . Indeed Charlaton was the name then and there applied to him. I am none the l e s s sorry i f anything I said i n my l e t t e r seemed i n any, even the remotest, way to r e f l e c t upon the judgement of Mrs. WM Rossetti who probably knows him quite favourably ... 33. Sunday morning {29 August 1 8 8 o J 5 0 I did go up to Manchester yesterday afternoon and had quite a great time of i t . Strangely, Mr. Brown had written to me that 4 8 P h i l i p Rathbone. AQ ^The p o s s i b i l i t y of FMB's l e c t u r i n g i n Liverpool had arisen during THC's f i r s t v i s i t to the Browns. PMB had evidently written to h i s daughter, Lucy (Mrs. WMR), and she, always eager for her father's advancement, had discussed the p o s s i b i l i t y with DGR, suggesting that Rathbone might be i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s regard, DGR1s enquiry of THC had provoked the "vehement response." The lectures did not take place. 5 0 T h i s and the following two l e t t e r s have been given dates which seem most l i k e l y i n view of the exchange of l e t t e r s and the elapsed period of "a f o r t n i g h t " i n THC:DGR 36, *13 September 1880. However, WMR's notation on t h i s l e t t e r i s (? July 1880). 73 afternoon about the l e c t u r i n g . We had a lon g t a l k on the su b j e c t . He s a i d Mr. George Rae had s a i d quite the same t h i n g as I s a i d of our L i v e r p o o l p u b l i c . I t was determined to l e t the matter stand over u n t i l my r e t u r n from London, when i t was understood I would make f u r t h e r i n q u i r y and communicate the r e s u l t . I saw Mrs. Brown a l s o , and stayed t e a , and afterwards went w i t h them to an organ r e c i t a l by Hendrick Pyne—»an o r g a n i s t , i n a l l r e s p e c t s , I t h i n k , s u p e r i o r to Best. I l e f t Manchester at 9:30 l a s t n i g h t a f t e r a thoroughly enjoyable day. 0, I gave PMB the Sonnet.5 1 He was ob v i o u s l y deeply moved, going out of the room to read i t q u i e t l y . I n a tone of r e a l emotion he thanked me w i t h few but touching words, saying i t was wholly b e a u t i f u l and most g r a t e f u l to him. He gave i t to Mrs. Brown. I n o t i c e d , too, t h a t he c o u l d n f t t a l k to O l i v e r afterwards and so I never mentioned him. 52 Your Sonnet on O.M.B. i n the Athenaeum i n 1874 i s e n t i r e l y b e a u t i f u l . I w i l l not say I f e l t ashamed of mine a f t e r r e a d i n g yours, because such remark would imply ( q u i t e c o n t r a r y 5 1On O l i v e r Madox Brown. See Appendix I I I . PMB mentioned the sonnet to DGR who r e p l i e d : "Caine has w r i t t e n a few other sonnets l e s s rugged than the one i n question which however pleased me i n i t s main i d e a . " (LDGR 2333). However, WBS wrote t o John Ingram: " I know of two sonnets a l s o i n h i s 0MB's p r a i s e , one of which some f r i e n d s of mine l o o k upon as the g r e a t e s t joke i n verse, t h a t i s Mr. Caine's: the other, R o s s e t t i ' s , i s n e a r l y as much so, except t o s p i r i t u a l i s t i c t a b l e -t u r n e r s . " (17 February 1883). Janet Camp T r o x e l l , Three  R o s s e t t i s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937)p.48. No. 2456 (November 21, 1874) p. 678. 74 to the fact) that I half-expected my own to be, however remotely, akin i n qu a l i t y to your's. at 8 p.m. I hope to be with you. The time a f t e r that hour u n t i l time to leave f o r Fleet St. w i l l be c r u e l l y b r i e f ; and I f e e l that circumstance the more because from various causes the cer t a i n t y of your l i k i n g me at f i r s t i s I am confident very f a r from assured, and I s h a l l scarcely have had l e i s u r e to regain the natural manner proper to me before I s h a l l have to hasten o f f . But may I see you again when I get back to town from Brighton, where I go f o r 2 days ' to v i s i t 1.0. H a l l i w e l l -P h i l l i p p s , who bought f o r the public New Place, Stratford, you remember. 34. Hollingbury Copse, Brighton, say i r i d a y i s most convenient to you. I t was arranged between us on Monday that I should dine with you and sleep at your house on Thursday. I t r u s t I have not blundered as to that. I f I have I t r u s t (notwithstanding your hatred of telegrams) y o u ' l l not permit me to make the graver blunder of c a l l i n g inopportunely. 5 5THC's "about a fortnight l a t e r " (Recollections. 1928, p. 77) i s evidently an error. Tomorrow morning I leave at 9 o'c f o r St. Pancras, and Wednesday Your l e t t e r has just reached me from Liverpool. You 7 5 I f I do not hear from you before noon (I t r u s t I may not) I ' l l conclude I am to be with you at 6 to-morrow night. I have been able to think of l i t t l e else (since I heard i t ) than the b a l l a d of "The White Ship". I t i s t r u l y magnificent work. 3 5 . 16 Cheyne Walk To anticipate a question always asked, (I t h i n k ) — I slept soundly, never better. I'm confoundedly angry with the Pates that I should have had that miserable ache whilst you were reading "Rose-Mary"; and so have had my enjoyment of i t considerably disturbed. The burden of the "White Ship" I can remember and a good number of other short passages as w e l l . May I ask now and here a kindness I could not muster courage enough to beg l a s t n i g h t — a copy of "Without Her"? In case you give i t me, no one else whatever s h a l l so much as see i t . I should value only l e s s than t h i s the Sonnet about the Dead Sea and the song over which some singer has not wept—but for the possession (again f o r e n t i r e l y personal enjoyment) of that one I can better wait. I ' l l l e t you know what Stock says of the Sonnet-book. TA. p e n c i l l e d note written a f t e r THC's f i r s t overnight v i s i t at Cheyne Walk, while DGR was s t i l l asleep. - ^ E l l i o t Stock, who published THC's Sonnets of Three  Centuries, as well as Recollections (1882). 76 I n case lie t h i n k s favourably of the proposal I b e l i e v e I s h a l l on the s t r e n g t h of i t , and of some revi e w i n g work t h a t i s o f f e r e d me, come down to London to l i v e , and i n the l e c t u r i n g -season l o o k up the l e c t u r i n g brotherhood and see what can be done. I s h a l l he warmly prompted to bend a l l energy i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n by the r e c o l l e c t i o n of l a s t n i g h t and the prospect of other n i g h t s of the s o r t at i n t e r v a l s . Of course I don't know how I s t r u c k you l a s t n i g h t ( n o r — p l e a s e b e l i e v e me—do I wish you to t e l l me) but I had a l l evening an awkward f e e l i n g t h a t though e n t i r e l y easy and n a t u r a l , I was wanting i n a l l the quick sense o f s t r e n g t h which the environments (more than any I have ever experienced) ought so e a s i l y to have e x c i t e d — b u t t h i s i n the e a r l y p a r t of the n i g h t was probably due to t h a t d gut's ache. Goodbye. 36. Monday, 13 September 1880 . . . . I am e q u a l l y g l a d to have your good word f o r Noble's 56 Sonnet-paper. I judge I am at l i b e r t y to communicate the substance of your l e t t e r as w e l l as the message of thanks at the c l o s e . I f e e l t h a t you are g i v i n g me l i m i t l e s s g r a t i f i c a t i o n , f o r i t i s s u r e l y one of the best joys of l i f e to communicate true p l e a s u r e . Noble w i l l be proud of your generous p r a i s e , and ^ 6 J . A s h c r o f t Noble, a L i v e r p o o l f r i e n d o f THC's, had published an essay "The Sonnet i n England," Contemporary  Review. 38 (September 1880), 446-471. DGR had read the essay before THC came to v i s i t . (LDGR 2323, 2324). I t was Noble who f i r s t introduced THC to DGR 1s poetry. 77 indeed M s love of Wordsworth i s scarcely deep enough to make your s t r i c t u r e s h u r t f u l . I v e r i l y believe that the bountiful treatment given to that p r i e s t of nature i s due i n large part to the enthusiasm of my own personal comments made d a i l y whilst that portion of the paper was being written, and we were staying together at the house of a f r i e n d . I remember well that Noble talked banteringly of Wordsworth a l l day long and refused to see much i n him u n t i l one a f t e r one I r e c i t e d or read h i s best things ... Si n c e r i t y , however, i s not, i t must be said, the sal i e n t feature i n f r i e n d Noble's character, good fellow though he i s , and so perhaps h i s abuse of the great Lakist was af t e r a l l no more than provoked by a mischievous desire to enjoy my occasional anger... .Noble—when he gives h i s honest nature quite f a i r p l a y — i s a very ardent admirer of yours and has more than once, i n a l i n e here and there, given expression to h i s enthusiasm. But f r i e n d of mine though he i s I w i l l say h i s i s not what one might name a great nature, nor i s h i s mind a great mind, and so I f e e l sometimes, however unw i l l i n g l y , a shadowy 57 d i s t r u s t of h i s printed judgement.... 1 I can quite believe i t must be g r a t i f y i n g to you to f e e l the strong hold you have assuredly of young and earnest men who i n the course of nature must outlive you and carry a good way into the future the down-right a f f e c t i o n ( f o r i t amounts to that) they f e e l f o r you.... 57 DG-R's "good word" fo r Noble's work evidently provoked t h i s jealous outburst from THC. 78 My dear Mr. Rossetti, I thank you heartily for your letter intended to warn me against too rashly leaving Liverpool without providing for the painful interval of delay which would almost certainly intervene before I should be i n a f a i r way i n London. I do not think there i s much danger of my acting hastily: the opposite i s my weakness, and indeed I go on ruminating upon any step I contemplate u n t i l I appear to lose the power of carrying i t out. It has been and s t i l l i n some measure i s so in this matter of going to London, but then I have now other interests to consider than my own merely: a painful accident which occurred about 1 % years ago having invalided the head of our household. My own needs would be ridiculously small and you would smile i f I were to say how inconsiderable a part of £ 500 a year would, i f quite assured to me, take me away from here, but I cannot and must not r i d myself of the responsibility which makes the necessity for a certain sum a lasting one. I shall not trouble you with the facts, painful enough to me at the best and always hampering. So you w i l l see I'm not l i k e l y to run away too heedlessly. I have a good many things to think of and I'm not the least b i t of a hero and sometimes with my carelessness thoughtlessness and wastefulness, these environments threaten to overwhelm me. London to-day seems more remote than i t did a fortnight ago, and yet come what may I must bend a l l my energies in that direction. I was greatly delighted to hear that your brother spoke of me with interest: i n simple truth I was as much surprised as 79 d e l i g h t e d j f o r t u r n i n g over again and again the events of my general c o n d i t i o n I do h o n e s t l y and most a b s o l u t e l y b e l i e v e you saw me (as he saw me) at my very weakest and worst. Of course the a f o r e s a i d mully grubs had some share i n my d i s c o m f i t u r e on the Thursday evening .... I s h a l l never i n my l i f e f o r g e t e i t h e r the Monday, Thursday or F r i d a y morning I spent at your house. I w i l l venture t o say t h a t my r e c o l l e c t i o n s are always hound up w i t h a s o r t of u n d e r l y i n g mental p r o t e s t against a h a b i t of l i f e which does not admit of as much a c t i v e e x e r c i s e as might throw o f f some nervous i r r i t a t i o n such as appears to be wearing you. I know y o u ' l l f o r g i v e t h i s : i t i s the outcome of deeper personal regard than you can ever know. I t b r i n g s to me a h u r t f u l twinge t o remember tha t you d i d not seem to me to give your h e a l t h a l t o g e t h e r f a i r p l a y . Your garden i s very l a r g e and would be b e a u t i f u l i f much cared f o r : I'm very s o r r y you are l o s i n g i t . 58 I must thank, you now once more f o r the "Hamlet" photo. I t has wonderfully l i g h t e d up w i t h an added charm my dusky but w i t h a l dear l i t t l e room. 37. 22 September 1880 . . . . I do not f o r a moment doubt your judgement on my n o t i c e of 59 Brown's work and when I say i n what manner i t was produced you 58 Photograph of DGR's drawing "Hamlet and Ophelia." 59 ^The n o t i c e i s a newspaper a r t i c l e on PMB's Manchester f r e s c o e s , i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of which DGR had given THC an i n t r o d u c t i o n to PMB. 80 w i l l see how f a i r a shot you made f o r the t r u t h when you s a i d i t was the outcome of an unfavourable moment. I wrote i t between 6:30 am and 8:30 am ( q u i t e the middle of the n i g h t y o u ' l l say) soon a f t e r my r e t u r n home: I had not time to r e v i s e i t before sending i t to the p r i n t e r s and I had 10 minutes only i n which to c o r r e c t i t i n proof. I had l o s t some p o r t i o n of my data and had to w r i t e almost e n t i r e l y from memory of the f a c t s as given to me by Brown h i m s e l f . . . . I see p l a i n l y enough the exaggeration of manner of which you complain and thank you f o r your f r a n k opinion....That n o t i c e , however, has been much t a l k e d about and warmly admired ( r a t h e r f o r i t s subject I imagine than f o r i t s e l f ) and has been r e p r i n t e d and quoted here and t h e r e — i n the B u i l d e r and elsewhere. I f e e l g l a d of t h i s f o r FMB's sake.... 41. 21 October 1880 . . . . I have had sonnets from P h i l i p Marston, Miss ^Mathilde] B l i n d , Edward Dowden and others and I am promised others from {Edmund) Gosse, [jamesj Thomson, ^Arthur) O'Shaughnessy, Mrs. Louise Moulton (authoress of Swallow P l i g h t s — a n American work) and many other "poets of the r i s i n g generation." I s h a l l c e r t a i n l y be able t o make up my 50 o r i g i n a l sonnets, perhaps more. Madox Brown i s r e a l l y most k i n d i n tha t connection. I s h a l l be f o r ever g r a t e f u l f o r h i s e x e r t i o n s i n the i n t e r e s t s of my book. Doubtless you are r i g h t i n what you say as to the d i f f i c u l t y which prevents your o f f e r i n g me a sonnet of your own. 81 Malevolence would possibly be g r a t i f i e d by such an opportunity f o r saying that my advocacy had no genuine spontaneity. Unfortunately (at l e a s t i n one sense) your kindness i n giving me a sonnet would be observed even among the witnesses of so many si m i l a r kindnesses. . . . . E l l i o t Stock asks me to be sure to send him the MSS of my 60 lectures when I have done with them, and he w i l l see i f he can make me a proposal f o r t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . I am to have £lO f o r them from the Corporation here, and I hope to get as much i n Manchester and also i n Leeds; so that i f at the end of the winter Stock o f f e r s me another 3r10 I s h a l l have made as much out of the lectures as I have any r i g h t to expect. The Curator s h a l l post you a prospectus when i t i s printed. You w i l l see your own name on the syllabus; and doubtless w i l l surmise that I mean to read something from that shameless attack 61 i n the Contemporary. Of course you w i l l be able to t r u s t me to employ that c r i t i q u e i n a r i g h t s p i r i t of righteous wrath; but i f you think i t would be best to l e t the f i l t h y thing drop out, as one would vermin, please s t r i k e out the name and return the proof to me. In my view no harm could come to you as the 60 " C u r i o s i t i e s of C r i t i c i s m , " published as part of Cobwebs of C r i t i c i s m (London: E l l i o t Stock, 1883). The lectures axe abouT; peculiar c r i t i c a l attitudes and c r i t i c a l f l y t i n g matches of the early nineteenth century. THC' gleaned h i s informa-t i o n from contemporaneous journals. 61 "The Fleshly School of Poetry," The Contemporary Review, 18 (October 1871) 334-350, signed "Thomas Maitland" but wriHen by an obscure young poet Robert Buchanan. The a r t i c l e damned the poetry of DGR, among others, as "moral poison," the product of "bankruptcy of minds" comparable to Baudelaire's Pleurs du Mal and the Marquis de Sade's Justine. 82 r e s u l t of the sc a t h i n g s a t i r e I i n t e n d — t h e p o i n t envenomed, too, w i t h the poison "brought of some l i t t l e p e rsonal knowledge 62 of the t r a d u c e r . But please say what you t h i n k best. I am s t i l l w r i t i n g my weary sketches, whereof the only 63 joy comes of the guineas they b r i n g . . . . 42. Sunday, 31 October, 1880 I t i s good of you to be so s o l i c i t o u s about my h e a l t h . I am much b e t t e r now and I i n t e n d to be more c a r e f u l i n the f u t u r e . L a t t e r l y I have been working about 15 hours a day, and of course such procedure has exposed me to c o l d , and has, besides, had the worse e f f e c t of making me unendurably low-s p i r i t e d . A f t e r g e t t i n g your l e t t e r on Monday I thought c a r e f u l l y over the subject of i t , and f i n a l l y concluded t h a t i t would be wise s t so t o a l t e r the scheme of my l e c t u r e s as t o exclude a l l mention of contemporary w r i t e r s . I could s c a r c e l y bear the thought of d e a l i n g w i t h other men and o m i t t i n g a l l reference to you, e s p e c i a l l y as I f e l t t h a t your own case f u r n i s h e d one of the most s t r i k i n g examples of unmerited v i t u p e r a t i o n s u f f e r e d by l i v i n g men of l e t t e r s . On the other hand I q u i t e saw t h a t 62 THC's "venom" was not sustained, f o r Buchanan's poetry found a place i n Sonnets of Three C e n t u r i e s . 63 B i o g r a p h i c a l sketches of eminent l i v i n g men f o r the L i v e r p o o l Mercury, to which THC was under a c o n t r a c t f o r £100 per year. 83 m i s c h i e f might r e s u l t upon such comment as I contemplated; f o r I knew too w e l l t h a t the person i n question could not a f f o r d to ignore such an expose as I intended, however obscure he might consider the author of i t . A f i g h t w i t h the f e l l o w might do me no harm, whatever personal n a s t i n e s s he might have recourse t o , hut i t could do me no good, and would almost c e r t a i n l y be fraught w i t h some e v i l to the subjects of i t . So I decided, I t h i n k w i s e l y , to confine my examples to the f i r s t quarter of the century. C u r i o u s l y , I had s c a r c e l y c o r r e c t e d the Sy l l a b u s to make i t answer the a l t e r e d design, when, quite without thought, I took up the B i o g r a p h i a l i t e r a r i a and opened on a page i n which Coleridge says t h a t ( f o r reasons i n a l l r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r t o those t h a t i n f l u e n c e me) he had a l t e r e d the Prospectus of h i s l e c t u r e s on Poetry at the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n , so as to avoid mention of the Lake poets, and so escape a controversy w i t h 64. J e f f r e y * and Co. on Wordsworth. I t i s a v a i n - l o o k i n g t h i n g t o r e f e r t o t h i s c u r i o u s p a r a l l e l , but I thought i t s t r i k i n g enough to be worthy of a word on i t s own independent m e r i t s ; and I was s t i l l more s t r u c k by another p a r a l l e l to which, h a p p i l y , I may r e f e r without any appearance of v a n i t y . You say i n your l a s t l e t t e r t h a t you advised Swinburne s t r o n g l y not to p r i n t those three or f o u r v e r y p e c u l i a r poems i h the Poems and B a l l a d s which have been the occasion of so much s c u r r i l i t y . W e l l , i t appears 64. TPrancis, Lord J e f f r e y , a S c o t t i s h b a r r i s t e r and p r o p r i e t o r of the Edinburgh Review. 84 from a note i n the B |iographia| L |Iteraria| t h a t Coleridge advised the omission of some few poems "by Wordsworth from the e a r l y L y r i c a l B a l l a d s . and C{ o l e r i d g e j says t h a t i f the hundred l i n e s he i n d i c a t e d had been suppressed n e a r l y a l l the abuse W(ordsworth] s u f f e r e d from would have been avoided. The p a r a l l e l seems to me c o m p l e t e — n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t Swinburne's questionable poems are so u n l i k e the dubious ones by Wordsworth tha t the "High P r i e s t of Nature" would probably consider i t a s u f f i c i e n t r e t r i b u t i o n f o r a l l the s i n s he ever committed i n the f l e s h , to have t h e i r names mentioned together. I have r e c e i v e d Qtf.HT) Davies*s Songs of a Wayfarer and thank you h e a r t i l y f o r i t . I presume I am to r e t u r n i t to you when I have f i n i s h e d w i t h i t . Pardon me i f , by saying t h i s , I seem by i m p l i c a t i o n to ask f o r the volume as a g i f t — o f course t h i s i s not so. I have spent some pleasant hours today i n reading i t . I note now, and indeed I noted at the f i r s t d i p i n t o i t , a strong and most r e l i s h a b l e f l a v o u r of Eliz a b e t n a n i s m i n many of the poems. My guess i s t h a t the author i s a warm l o v e r of Shakspere's work i n h i s f i r s t p e r i o d . There i s much i n t h i s book too, t h a t b r i n g s back to me the atmosphere of 65 Shakspere's l a s t work of a l l — W i n t e r * s Tale: so many of Davies's l o v e l y t h i n g s seem set to the time of t h a t e q u i s i t e passage beginning: "0 P r o s e r p i n a Por the flowers now, t h a t f r i g h t e d , thou l e t ' s t f a l l . " 65 Follows the d a t i n g of Edward Dowden, Shakspere: A C r i t i c a l Study of H i s Mind and A r t . 1875. The same d a t i n g i s fo l l o w e d by WMR, i n L i v e s of Famous Poets. 85 You w i l l judge from what I say that I have found great enjoyment i n the hook, f o r nothing gives me more delight than to he reminded of Shakspere, except i t he (strange as i t may sound, from one who i s not a moralist,) to he reminded of the B i b l e . To my own mind, hy the way, i t affords a key to the pleasure I f i n d i n "Lost Days" that almost every one of i t s precious fourteen l i n e s conjures up a figure that seems to have i t s counterpart only i n the B i b l e . The intensely imaginative phantasy, f o r example, f o r s p i l t water cheating the dreams of men i n h e l l , causes my mind i n s t a n t l y to revert to the picture of the r i c h man, and Lazarus i n Abraham's bosom. A l l t h i s i s , of course, by the > way, and only meant to emphasize the remark that Davies's book i s the more enjoyable to me from i t s reminiscences of Shakspere. I t i s not that there i s any d i r e c t reminiscence, but the i n d i r e c t i o n s (as Walt Whitman would term them) are Shaksperean. I think there are Sonnets here and there (for example "Man a Symbol" and "True l i b e r t y " ) that afford traces of Wordsworth's influence, but the influence i s never a very pronounced one, I think, except, perhaps, p o l i t i c a l l y rather than p o e t i c a l l y . Davies's p o l i t i c s are the p o l i t i c s of a poet: the only p o l i t i c s a poet can ever have: hatred of wanton change, of everlasting poor gabble: love of repose and r e c t i t u d e . There i s a sunny open-airness a l l through h i s work, which r a r e l y gets into shadow or into barren confines, and t h i s appears to me at once h i s strength and weakness. I l i k e well the Sonnet— "Beside a stream one summer afternoon" 86 and I love the temper t h a t can compass such r e s i g n a t i o n , hut I do not wonder th a t the mind hy which i t can he possessed should t h i n k the m i n s t r e l s y of Keats f a i l s of t r u t h when i t says to t h i n k i s to he f u l l of sorrow. Davies*s nature i s h a l e r than Keats's hut l e s s ardent and, I t h i n k , l e s s Dantesque. Thank you again f o r such enjoyable r e a d i n g . My Sonnet-hook i s going along very p l e a s a n t l y . I am s t i l l pegging away at s t u p i d sketches, hut the E d i t o r of the B u i l d e r i s going to give a place at the f i r s t o p portunity, and then I s h a l l abandon biography. My sketches get r e p r i n t e d up and down: I saw one o f them i n a l o c a l paper a day or two back. They b r i n g me i n v i t a t i o n s too, but I grudge the time spent at some dinners, and I hate the ceremony, and so I don't always accept them. This reminds me, by the f o r c e of a powerful reverse f e e l i n g , t h a t E.M.B. asked me to spend to-day and yesterday i n Manchester w i t h him. But much as I h e a r t i l y d e s i r e d t o go I could not p o s s i b l y do so thence my b r i e f v i s i t stands postponed u n t i l the 13th. Meantime E.M.B. goes, from 4 t h t o 8th , to London. 4 3 . [November 188(5] 6 7 ....You ask me about my prospects f o r a London campaign. Ah, London gets f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r away every week. I seem to 6 6 S e e note f o r THC:DGR 41, *21 October 1880. 67 Dated i n r e l a t i o n t o the n o t i c e of the f r e s c o e s and EMB's v i s i t to London. 87 see i t now through the inverse end of a telescope, the s l i d e s of which are being drawn out, out, out every day, farther and fa r t h e r . Nothing, I can see, but an appointment i n London would make i t a safe thing to go. I f I had but myself to consider I should speedily take my chance. Even i f my forthcoming lecturing-tour prove i n a l l respects a success I s h a l l be no nearer residence i n London. I s h a l l only be a sort of i t i n e r a n t showman with a p i l e of MS f o r baggage. I t r u s t , however, I may one day get away from a l l t h i s , and then I hope men w i l l not see i n my manner or mind that I have been doing a l l sorts of shoddy i n t e l l e c t u a l work. 6 8 I wish I could see your new Dante pi c t u r e . I s h a l l never lose the impression made upon me by your "Dream of Dante." That insane remark at the end of my notice of Brown*s frescoes was provoked by the emotion occasioned by that picture, r e c o l l e c t e d i n a moment of t r a n q u i l l i t y . A few days ago I was s i t t i n g i n the studio of a very g i f t e d young a r t i s t here, and there were present 2 or 3 other a r t i s t s , a l l most promising men, from Manchester and elsewhere. I described your "Dante's Dream" picture, and did so with unwonted animation, I think. The a r t i s t s were a l l figure-painters and how f a r they were admirers of your art you w i l l judge when I t e l l you what one said and the others approved: "Does he know that i n the opinion of countless capable c r i t i c s he i s the greatest c o l o r i s t since T i t i a n ? " 6 8 Probably a small r e p l i c a of "Dante's Dream" f o r William Graham, upon which DGR was working at t h i s time. 88 45. 8 November 1880 I am i n the heart of my second l e c t u r e , and so I must beg of you t o permit me to defer my r e p l y u n t i l I have t h i s stage of my work completed. The time of d e l i v e r y , too, i s drawing near, and every day, as i t passes, leaves me j u s t a shade more anxious to conservate, f o r the present, a l l a v a i l a b l e energy and l e i s u r e . I am g e t t i n g along very favourably and without s e r i o u s i n j u r y to my h e a l t h . I n f a c t I have accepted your warning and now I work only every other e v e n i n g — d e v o t i n g every a l t e r n a t e one to the t h e a t r e , l o n g walks, v i s i t s — a n y t h i n g i n f a c t , t h a t promises to engross my a t t e n t i o n and keep me out of the m i s c h i e f of too much fagging. The doctor, too, t o l d me I was g e t t i n g i n t o a had way, and so I've dropt my bad h a b i t of overwork and now I am g e t t i n g along q u i t e n i c e l y . Mr. John Payne promises Miss B l i n d 6 9 to send me, i f I can r e c e i v e them, 3 French Sonnets. I am a b s o l u t e l y ignorant of the language and beside being unable to judge of the q u a l i t y of the Sonnets (which may be quite above question) I doubt the a d v i s a b i l i t y of p u b l i s h i n g sonnets w r i t t e n i n any but the E n g l i s h tongue. What do you t h i n k of the matter? I am g l a d you sent me a l i s t of the sonnets you have marked i n Davies*s book. By the way I t r u s t you w i l l remember to thank him f o r me f o r the g i f t of the volume. I thank you a l s o , f o r of course i t i s due to you t h a t I have r e c e i v e d i t . 6 9 M a t h i l d e B l i n d , a close f r i e n d of FMB's. 89 I can get at the Charles Wells sonnet on Chaucer. The sonnet you sent me by [Charles] Whitehead, beginning ( I t h i n k ) : "As you lone lamp w i t h i n my s i l e n t room," ought to be i n c l u d e d . I have almost decided to have 2 s e c t i o n s to my sonnet-book: one devoted to o r i g i n a l sonnets e n t i r e l y ; the other to sonnet.^ s e l e c t e d — p r e f e r e n c e i n the l a t t e r being given to great sonnets f o r g o t t e n . Gf course some of the g r e a t e s t and best-remembered of a l l must f i n d p l a c e s . The question of a name has come up i n more places than one—what do you t h i n k of a t i t l e p a r t l y borrowed from t h a t of the book of s e l e c t i o n s you once p r o j e c t e d , namely The Sonnet  C a s t a l y ? 7 0 I am g e t t i n g new sonnets every week. I ' l l send you a l i s t of them by and by. I almost hope you w i l l be at l a s t able to see your way to j o i n i n . I could almost wish f o r the sonnet on the sonnet (done f o r your mother's copy of Mains ^sic} Treasury) f o r an i n t r o d u c t o r y t h i n g . ' But don't t r o u b l e to say anything on the subject yet awhile. I t i s very good of you t o speak of asking Davies f o r a sonnet. There's ample time—we s h a l l not p r i n t before March. 70 This p r o j e c t was never r e a l i z e d . 71 THC i s r e f e r r i n g t o "A Sonnet i s a moment's monument" which DGR used h i m s e l f as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the "House of L i f e " sonnet sequence i n h i s B a l l a d s and Sonnets (1881). 90 W i l l you k i n d l y accept f o r the present, t h i s meagre apology f o r a l e t t e r ? EMB i s i n London—you w i l l see him almost to a c e r t a i n t y . I t r u s t y o u ' l l not f i n d our northern c l i m a t e i n j u r i n g him. I've w r i t t e n 114 pages of M.S. towards my course of l e c t u r e s . I'm hoping you w i l l l i k e , when you see i t , a reference to you i n the s e c t i o n of my second l e c t u r e devoted to C o l e r i d g e . 5 3 . Wednesday, 16 February 1881 I had a tremendously i n t e r e s t i n g and exceedingly able l e t t e r from Watts, to which I am preparing a c a r e f u l r e p l y . I don't yet see the whole case as he puts i t i n a l l i t s bearings but my present n o t i o n i s t h a t there are not 100 sonnets (outside your own book) i n the language t h a t f u l f i l the c o n d i t i o n s o f h i s c r i t i c a l t e s t s , which a r e — 1. That there should be i n every sonnet a d i s t i n c t i n t e l l e c t u a l wave, w i t h f l o w and ebb. 2. That there should be a corresponding wave i n the technique of every sonnet. 3 . That the form of the octave should be what i s known as " l e g i t i m a t e " , namely 12211221, and t h a t only. 4. That the c l o s e of the f i r s t q u a t r a i n should not be marked by any r e s t , but t h a t the octave should f l o w on without a break down to the l a s t rhymed word. (I'm not quite c e r t a i n t h a t I represent him r i g h t l y on t h i s p o i n t . ) 91 72 5. That the sestette should he a dying echo of the octave. Of course Watts allows that such a standard as t h i s would have to he lowered i n a l l s e lecting from old authors. 73 I'm making a table of sonnets answering such r i g i d requirements. Of course I see that the model of sonnet described i s the best possible and absolutely perfect, but so f a r I can judge from your t r a n s l a t i o n few even of Dante's t a l l y with i t . The necessity f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l wave I do see and have seen from the f i r s t , and I have been putting aside a l l sonnets that do not contain some trace of an altered movement at the point where the octave ends and the sestette begins. More on t h i s l a t e r on. I am h e a r t i l y glad of what you t e l l me of the prospect of a sonnet from your brother. There i s not the l e a s t fear of the unknown names overweighting the known names, which i n the o r i g i n a l section could scarcely be more numerous. Brown thinks I ought to ask Watts to l e t me publish h i s l e t t e r i n the notes. The sonnets I have chosen from your book are l o s t Days Wine of Circe S t i l l b o r n Love *For a Venetian Pastoral Known i n Vain Mary Magdalene 72 Watts incorporated h i s theory of the sonnet i n h i s own sonnet "The Sonnet's Voice: A M e t r i c a l Lesson by the Seashore", i n William Sharp, Sonnets of This Century. (London: W. Scott, 1886). See Appendix IV. 73 'The published table categorized the sonnets by M i l t o n i c , contemporary or miscellaneous structure. 92 Refusal of Aid etc. love-Sweetness *The Monochord *Mary's Childhood (*Have not quite decided about these) The work of copying i s now almost complete, and I have been reading the sonnets over again to-day:—the Shakspere, Milton, Drayton, Drummond, etc. included. I do think they make a magnificent and most quintessential body of Sonnet-work. I've read Main about 6 times—but I've written always from o r i g i n a l sources. The Courier wrote for my Blake review the other day and I was compelled to send back an apology f o r delay. I've had some speechmaking to do l a t e l y which (although i n i t s e l f easy enough) has robbed me of several evenings.... 54. Wednesday [24 February 188lJ I have been much out of sorts or would have written at length many days ago. To-night I f e e l a l i t t l e dizzy, so I s h a l l h a s t i l y despatch a few of the many things I wish to say. I did not write to Watts on Brown's suggestion, so I am placed i n no dilemma regarding the l e t t e r he sent me. Indeed I am not sure that I ever considered the suggestion seriously, because I knew that Brown was advising the pu b l i c a t i o n of the l e t t e r without personal knowledge of i t s contents. I am sure he meant i t i n a l l kindness, and thought only of the value to my work of a powerfully written essay on the technique of the sonnet. I am equally sure that he did not think i t would act 93 as an impeachment of much sonnet-work he h e a r t i l y admires and 74-loses no chance of l o y a l l y d e f e n d i n g . B e s i d e s , I gathered from h i s note that he quite expected that I would endeavour to fence the l e t t e r as I had t r i e d to fence i t i n writing to him. In short, I have yet no thought whatever of p r i n t i n g Watt's l e t t e r , hut even the act of p r i n t i n g i t would not necessarily (I think) prejudice the c o l l e c t i o n . Watts seems to me to he sett i n g himself to upset some extremely stupid remarks hy James Spedding i n an introduction to a recent e d i t i o n of the sonnets 75 of Tennyson-Turner, and perhaps he has heen hetrayed into too r i g i d forms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Spedding f o o l i s h l y says that there i s no good reason f o r re q u i r i n g that even the conventional l i m i t as to length should he observed; and that the only use i n art of the legitimate model i s to "supply a poet with something to do when h i s invention f a i l s . " Watts (who does not mention Spedding, however) shows that the form of the true sonnet has i t s foundation i n nature, and says that even as i t i s impossible (as Keats found out f o r himself) to improve upon the best accepted form, so that form should, with l i t t l e or no v a r i a t i o n , be worked to. I confess I see something i n Watts's view, and indeed I believe you cannot but allow that the very best of your 7 4 T h a t i s , DG-R's. "^Charles Turner, (brother of A l f r e d , Lord Tennyson) Collected Sonnets. Old and New. (London: Kegan Paul and Company, 1880). Spedding's essay was reprinted from the Nineteenth Century. 94 own work i s just that part of i t which accords exactly with h i s t e s t s . Variety may, as you say, he e s s e n t i a l to a series, and whether desirable or otherwise i n a c o l l e c t i o n such as mine, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e , f o r there are but few great sonnets i n the language (fewer perhaps than 100) that would he found impeccable to Watts's ear. Of course I need not say that I would not set over the advantage to me of p r i n t i n g f i f t y l e t t e r s as f i n e as t h i s one of Watts 1s against the disadvantage of no p r i n t i n g selections from your sonnets, but I judge that you would have no f e e l i n g with respect to i t i f I were to make free use of such opinions as those i n question f o r purposes of c r i t i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n . G a r n e t t 7 6 sends me the sonnet you mentioned by ^Charles) Wells (I did not say you recommended i t ) and r e a l l y I don't care for i t . Have you seen i t recently? : i f not, may I post i t f o r your reconsideration? Fanny Kemble's sonnet I think very 77 b e a u t i f u l , and I have got the ffestus dedication also. Where s h a l l I seek f o r j£harlesj Whitehead's sonnet on the dying lamp? which of Ebenezer Jones's did you mention?—-I can't a l i g h t on the passage i n your l e t t e r a l l u d i n g to i t . I want your advice on one or 2 points. Ought I to p r i n t the old sonnets (Sidney, Spenser etc.) i n the old spelling? They are a l l copied out so. Ought I to p r i n t a l l sonnets i n the form f i r s t given by the authors? or 7 6 P r o b a b l y Richard Garnett of the B r i t i s h Museum. 77 ''A dramatic poem by P h i l i p J . Bailey. 9 5 may I re-set them to s u i t my own views of how the flow of thought and style may "best he seen? I would l i k e to put a " l e a d " 7 8 sometimes "between octave and sestette; and I would also l i k e always so to p r i n t the sonnets as to show the scheme of rhyme. I get heaps of fresh sonnets from America and elsewhere, but I am not p r i n t i n g anything but excellent work. Excepting 2 or 3, my authors are a l l known men—of more or l e s s d i s t i n c t i o n . 5 5 . Monday (late February 188j3 I am glad indeed to have Mc. {jfilliamj Sharp's sonnet. I l i k e i t — t h e opening l i n e s e s p e c i a l l y . The second quatrain has a suggestion of r e a l beauty, but wants c l a r i f y i n g a l i t t l e I think. Also the t r a n s i t i o n between the scenery of the octave and that of sestette seems l i t t l e too sudden and v i o l e n t . Would i t not help the transparency of the whole i f the 12th l i n e were made to begin: "Even then on t o i l i n g seas" etc. as equivalent and sequel to: "And while the n e s t — e t c . " I am very glad to f i n d a place for i t i n my volume. I think i t very promising. Would i t help Mr. Sharp i f I were to say i n my notes some few words of anticipatory comment on h i s forthcoming poems? I f my doing so were considered a good thing perhaps your f r i e n d would kindly l e t me look at something of h i s from which a f a i r judgement could be formed. l i n e s of type." 78 A p r i n t e r ' s term meaning "a blank space between two 96 Your brother William i s i n Manchester to-day and I was by Brown's i n v i t a t i o n to have gone up there with the two-fold purpose of seeing him and of being painted on the front of the t h i r d of the frescoes; but I cannot get away. The new sonnets are coming i n f a s t : and many of them are f i r s t - r a t e . Have you heard further from f w . H T ] Davies? I intended to write 4 days ago1:,'; hut pressure of work prevented my doing so. form of the sonnet: I know that you have used i t with excellent e f f e c t ; hut I l i m i t my objection to Spenser's c l o s i n g couplets which appear to me to r u i n 50 per cent of h i s sonnets. Main's book contains that part of Spenser's sonnet-work which i s f r e e s t from the rip-rap sort of e f f e c t I d i s l i k e . I t would perhaps be more to the purpose to say maudlin e f f e c t , f o r my objection i s not so much to anything t e c h n i c a l l y i n a r t i s t i c i n Spenser's c l o s i n g couplet as to a c e r t a i n breaking of the s p e l l of v i s i o n i n order to f i n i s h with a d i r e c t personal a p p l i c a t i o n . I don't know i f I make my meaning c l e a r . I think moreover that the form i n question f a l l s short of the f i n e s t because of that tendency to rip-rap which propinquity of rhyme induces, and from want of that roundness which i s imparted to a sonnet when the ear i s made to l i s t e n deep, so to speak, f o r the accordant sound. On the other hand the couplet gives emphasis much needed at the 56. March As to the c l o s i n g c o u p l e t — I do not object to i t as a 97 c l o s e , where c o n c e n t r a t i o n of thought and condensation of words do not of themselves impart i t . I n no case whatever do I t h i n k the rhymes ought to he separated by a l l the l i n e s t h a t go between the f i r s t l i n e of the s e s t e t t e and the l a s t ; f o r I doubt i f the mosttenacious ear could h o l d out so l o n g . I t h i n k your own f e e l i n g cannot be much wide of t h i s , f o r your published works c o n t a i n few examples of e i t h e r k i n d — i n d e e d none at a l l t h a t I can remember of the l a t t e r s o r t . I;suppose v a r i e t y i s needed i n a s e r i e s , but (except where the sonnet i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y f i n e ) a rhymed couplet at the c l o s e has an e f f e c t on my ear s i m i l a r to th a t produced by Shakspere*s couplets at the ends of some of h i s a c t s — p u t i n , I fancy, to enable the a c t o r s t o make emphatic e x i t s . As to what you say to so much purpose about Shakspere's sonnets, I t h i n k the adoption of such a method of p r i n t i n g them would help m a t e r i a l l y towards a popular understanding of them. I have heard ( p r o f . Edward] Dowden recommend a s i m i l a r rearrange-m e n t — h i s method being, however, simply confined to p u t t i n g the sonnets i n t o 2 s e c t i o n s , namely 1-126 and 127-154—the two l a s t being to h i s mind experiments i n verse and on the author's mysterious m i s t r e s s . I have not yet had time to lo o k up the 79 passage you mention i n your brother's L i v e s . ^ I i n t e n d to search f o r i t . S u r e l y I y i e l d to none i n ardent admiration of c e r t a i n 7 9 L i v e s of Famous Poets (London: E. Moxon, Son and Company, 1878) p. 53. The reference i s to WMR's candidate f o r the "W.H." of Shakespeare's sonnets, who WMR maintained was the E a r l . o f Pembroke. 98 of Shakspere*s sonnets, hut I do t h i n k the number of these t h a t w i l l bear to be used i n a c o l l e c t i o n such as mine i s very-l i m i t e d , l o v e l y as they are i n a continuous s e r i e s , I t h i n k you w i l l a l l o w t h a t few of them stand w e l l alone. One might as p r o p e r l y i s o l a t e a sonnet of the V i t a Nuova as remove the most precio u s of these treasures from i t s s e t t i n g . Number 30, f o r example, standing apart from i t s f e l l o w s , l o s e s something i n s i g n i f i c a n c e to the most passionate Shaksperean, and to one unacquainted w i t h the s e r i e s becomes almost i r r i t a t i n g i n the b a f f l i n g a l l u s i v e n e s s of i t s l a s t 2 l i n e s . An honoured and beloved name at the head of i t would of course set t h i n g s r i g h t , but, the name being w i t h h e l d , i t needs a l l the enchanting d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t goes before, to r e c o n c i l e us to what i s s a i d at the end. In my view there are few indeed of such beauty as the one named. Indeed, although every f u l l y a u t h e n t i c a t e d Sonnet it has something a b o u t A o f the charm p e c u l i a r to Shakspere whenever the p e r s o n a l i t y of the c r e a t o r i s seen behind the v e i l of the c r e a t i o n , I doubt i f there are not very many poor t h i n g s i n the s e r i e s when judged o f as sonnets, not as p a r t s of a poem. I have thought much and o f t e n over what you s a i d about Q my book, and have decided to p r i n t only sonnets of the century. The work of copying i s now f a r advanced and p r e s e n t l y I begin to c o l l a t e my notes. I have chosen 9 of yours and though t h a t OA This p l a n was not adhered t o . 99 seems a large number I w i l l ask you to l e t me r e p r i n t them. I have also chosen 3 by Scott, 2 by Tennyson, 3 by Davies, 4 by your s i s t e r , 3 by P h i l i p Marston, 2 by Swinburne, 2 by Arnold, 2 by Gosse, 2 by Symonds, 2 by Longfellow, 1 by Garnett, 1 by Watson, 1 by Noble, 2 by Lord Hanmer, 2 by Blackie, 1 by Allingham—I also have 6 or 7 by Wordsworth; 5 or 6 by Keats, 3 by Shelley, 1 by Byron, 2 by Coleridge (what about "The House that Jack B u i l t " — s h o u l d i t go i n , think you?) 4 by Hartley Coleridge, 6 by Tennyson Turner, 8 by Mrs. Browning, 3 ( l o v e l y things) by Tom Hood, besides sundry ones by a multitude of other writers: the hundred and f i f t y i n a l l , and 50 fresh ones added. Each author's works w i l l be printed together under h i s name, and the whole thing arranged chronologically and i n about 3 or 4 sections. I say chronologically, but Shelley, Hunt and Keats s h a l l not be divided (by reason of the accident of t h e i r not coming together i n the order of time). In the same way I mean Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey and Hartley Coleridge to go together i n one batch, regardless of the f a c t that Leigh Hunt and Co. would crop up somewhere between these names, i f dates of b i r t h or even of p u b l i c a t i o n were considered to the prejudice of everything e l s e . At the same time I hope to avoid offensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I s h a l l c e r t a i n l y not tabulate the batches i n any more d i s t i n c t i v e way than by numbers. I f e e l the premonitory symptoms of a head-ache tonight, 81 A s a t i r i c a l sonnet by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 100 so I must make an end long before I've f i n i s h e d . I have had a heavy day. I t r u s t you are very w e l l . The f r o s t did me no harm; I did not f e e l i t : but t h i s wet weather hurts me much. 57. Monday, In greatest haste March 188l] 8 2 I am much more than sorry that I cannot give you due notice of Samuelson's v i s i t . I t i s not put into my power to do so, although l a s t week I t r i e d to f i n d out what now I learn of the chances of a v i s i t tomorrow. I confess I f e l t the hot blood i n my cheeks when I read that R Jathbone]8^ was to he with S; but there was nothing to do but g r i n and hear i t . R i s , I suppose, so important a person here that even S cannot act without consulting and c o n c i l i a t i n g him. I am sure you w i l l do what i s best under the circumstances. I may add that R always professes to be a vast admirer of your painting, and has something of yours which once he i n v i t e d me most c o r d i a l l y to c a l l and see. I f R and S are pleased the purchase w i l l he made almost c e r t a i n l y and Liverpool w i l l be the r i c h e r . Of course S i s 'boss' t h i s year, but the other fellow has influence. I was h e a r t i l y sorry to telegraph.... 82 Written on r e c e i p t of a note from Alderman Edward Samuelson. (Chairman of the Liverpool council's fine art and music committee; who said he and P h i l i p Rathhone (curator of the Walker Art Gallery) would be i n London on the following day, and asking THC to inform DGR that they would come to view "Dante's Dream." (Samuelson: THC 7 March 1881 AP). 83 •^Rathhone had referr e d to DGR as an "animalpainter." See also THC:DGR 31, *21 August 1880, and THC:DGR 17, *13 A p r i l 1880 n. DGR refused to receive them on t h i s occasion, hut Samuelson came alone a few days l a t e r . 101 5 9 . Tuesday J22 March 1 8 8 l ] The Sonnets you mention I have got. Would you k i n d l y trouble to drop me the very b r i e f e s t l i n e by return saying how the enclosed sonnet s t r i k e s you. I t comes to me through D i x o n 8 4 from a young Jesuit 8-* who has written a great deal of poetry but published none, from fear of i n c u r r i n g the displeasure of the society. I think i t a most remarkable production, distinguished by marked o r i g i n a l i t y both of thought and structure, but I also think i t an outcome of an extremely eccentric genius and doubt i f I ought to p r i n t i t . I enclose Dixon's l e t t e r as the best means of explaining the metrical p e c u l i a r i t i e s . Indeed I w i l l enclose both sonnets sent, adding 8 6 that the S t a r l i g h t one i s that I had i n view when wri t i n g the foregoing. At to the p i c t u r e — o u r s i s a r i c h corporation and there i s no reason why the purchase should not be made. We can at l e a s t wait and hope. [Edward^ Samuelson seems glad nov/ they missed jjjohnj M i l l a i s * "Basic Pot". You are r i g h t that he i s a c a p i t a l fellow. I can't conceive how I should have got along i n Liverpool without him. I t i s exceedingly good of you to promise to pour into 8 4Canon Richard Watson Dixon. 85„ Gerard Manley Hopkins. 8 6"The S t a r l i g h t Night"; THC printed neither. 102 h i s ear the l i t t l e message I sent y o u . 8 7 I could hardly do that duty f o r myself and from you i t would come with a thousand times more weight than from any Liverpool man whatever. Perhaps i t w i l l i n any case he best to wait u n t i l the book gets published (which now ought to be very soon) because these l o c a l magnates are usually (Sjamuelsoi^ and others of course excepted) s c e p t i c a l as to the powers of a fellow towns-man (stupid as i t seems) u n t i l they hear that he has the advantage of a good report on the l i p s of London c r i t i c s . There i s some whisper of my succeeding to a Professorship of l i t e r a -ture, but one can't wait with conscious patience u n t i l the oldest of old men dies. And when i t comes ( i f ever) the duties may not be l i g h t e r than the fees.... Thanks also for getting your brother to copy the o p Reynolds sonnet.... I wrote a l i n e to Watts l a s t night and a scrap to Scott, whose l e t t e r , hy the way, I did not receive u n t i l yesterday, although posted i n January. I t o l d the Edi t o r of the Academy I could write a note on Brown's l a s t fresco, and he asked me to do so. I have written i t : I suppose i t w i l l appear soon. 8 7 'THO wanted a l e c t u r i n g appointment which was i n the Liverpool Council's g i f t , and hoped a word from DG-R would be i n f l u e n t i a l . The job was given to an "in t o l e r a b l e Oxford noodle." See THC:DGR 68, *15 May 1881. PP John Hamilton Reynolds, a f r i e n d of Keats. I t was not used. 103 BjrownJ says i t i s on record that you t e l l a sweet story of how he flew into a t e r r i f i c rage and cursed h i s maker when I t i m i d l y asked him to give me h i s "Boccaccio" sonnet f o r publication. Of course I can attest that our gentlest of friends blushed to the c o l l a r with modest confusion when I charged him with being not only one of the most b r i l l i a n t painters but also a poet; and I must therefore conclude that your poet's eye has for p l a y f u l exercise been bodying f o r t h the forms of things unknown and giving to a i r y nothings etc. I had a volcanic outburst at your Nick Bottomly joke. 61. Sunday [lO A p r i l 188fJ 8 9 Not i l l - h e a l t h but absence from town has l e f t me so long an arrearage i n correspondence. True, E l l i o t Stock's l e t t e r reads the reverse of ardent, but from the beginning he has been opposed to publishing i n the Spring and I h a l f suspect he has kept back t h i s l a s t d i f f i c u l t y to the end as a f i n a l and absolute quasher. To publish any time during the summer i s of course out of the question, and hence the delay must needs cover the whole period between May and September. The opinion however amongst 8 9Dated i n r e l a t i o n to DGR:TW (13 A p r i l 1881) LDGR 2456, and to THC's 'bread-and-butter' l e t t e r ( 6 3 , *Sunday 24 IprTl 1881), i n which he re f e r s to "the l a s t ten days." Presumably he arrived at Cheyne Walk on Thursday, 14 A p r i l and l e f t again on Saturday, 22 A p r i l , before DGR was awake. 104 j o u r n a l i s t s appears to be a unanimous one that the l a t e r season i s the better book season, and on that head I am h a l f disposed to reconcile myself to the change. That the al t e r e d arrangement i n t e r f e r e s with your own sonnet i s of course a matter of sincere regret to me, and you w i l l believe me when I say that I s h a l l be pained indeed i f you permit the Sonnet I have to remain out of your hook at the cost of d i s l o c a t i n g the "House of L i f e . " Pray give i t i t s due place i n that series and l e t my c o l l e c t i o n take i t s chance of being enriched by a fresh sonnet from your pen that s h a l l be independent of such connection. You know well that t h i s i s not written as the r e s u l t of any altered opinion of the great value to me of that sonnet which becomes more and more b e a u t i f u l i n my view. Of Blanco White's 9 0 only other sonnet and of kindred matters we may t a l k at length when we meet. Meantime I s h a l l t r y to work o f f some prodigious arrears of correspondence and beg you to pardon t h i s hasty and inadequate reply to your l e t t e r . As to my departure f o r London, I cannot yet speak with absolute certainty, hut I hope to be able to leave Liverpool on Thursday evening. Of course you s h a l l hear from me again on , Jose Maria Blanco y Crespo, born i n S e v i l l e , Spain i n 1775, grandson of an Irishman named White. He joined the Roman Catholic priesthood, but became d i s i l l u s i o n e d with that f a i t h and f l e d to England, where he became a Church of England clergyman and changed h i s name to the rather redundant Joseph Blanco White. He i s best known fo r h i s anti-Catholic writings. The "only other sonnet,"Night and Death," was much admired by S.T. Coleridge and i s published i n Main's Treasury, p. 397. 105 b r i e f l y on this point. It i s a delightful prospect I have ahead of me, and my stay i n Chelsea w i l l leave me lasting memories. From now forward I mean to observe absolute silence as to my healths Assuredly my friends (to whom i t has served as apology for many shortcomings) shall be pained no more by the mention of i t . The doctor I go to says I ought to be free from my periodical attacks of blood-pressure. I am sincerely sorry to hear such i l l news of Watts. I recommended fomentation as the best curative agent for such inflammation as his but I don't know i f he has tried i t . 62. Sunday 24 April 1881 I had a long (six hours and half) journey home, but I did not feel specially weary, and I am now quite recovered from th? touch of indisposition which troubled me on Thursday. I need hardly repeat that my stay at your house was entirely enjoyable and leaves me with the pleasantest recollections. I have visited London countless times, but never under such delightful conditions as recently. I shall work the better for the interlude of holiday. When you write you w i l l perhaps t e l l me what [Frederic J 91 Shields thinks I ought to say to Cassells people about his 9 1Cassell and Company, publishers. 106 qp Blake sketch. Of course there can he no hurry as to t h i s , hut the review s h a l l he written immediately. We can keep hack u n t i l next Summer (1882) our notice of o,3 your own work-^.... I have always forgotten to say that jj-eorge] Rae might have influence anent the large p i c t u r e — h u t I s h a l l ne ntion the matter to him as some favourable moment. Samuelson came home l a s t evening and I am to be with him to-night. I am going to draw up a f u l l scheme f o r such a magazine 9 4 as we talked of, and i f Stock takes i t up I s h a l l no longer hesitate to go permanently to London. Of course there i s something i n what Watts says against such a course: namely, that a man of any g i f t s i s sooner f e l t i n the provinces than i n the metropolis. But on the other hand there remains the fac t that the utmost success possible i n a place l i k e t h i s i s scarcely such that the rumour of i t can reach London. I f the publisher takes warmly to the proposal I s h a l l be able to leave behind me (out of past husbandings) what may keep things square f o r -g- a year at home and surely s i x month's s t a r t ought to do something f o r any man of energy. 9/2 * A sketch F.J. Shields had made of the unaltered room i n which William Blake worked and died, at 3 Fountain Court, Strand, London. •"k long essay THC was writing about DGR, See also THC:DGR 78, *5 Jul y 1881. The words "our notice" are in t e r e s t i n g , f o r they give THC's discussions of the poetry, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n Recollections (1882), an added authority. 9 4Nothing came of the planned magazine. 107 As to what you so generously proposed anent my possible residence—»I can hardly t r u s t myself to write at t h i s or any moment: i t i s so much too much of a kindness. Moreover such a course would I can see involve occasional inconveniences to you which I should be pained to f e e l that you must be put to on my account. I don't r e f e r to the i n t r u s i o n of c a l l e r s of whom I should have none except perhaps the publisher and h i s messengers. To take the simplest view of such a case—there would be times when you could wish to be alone. I s h a l l not dwell on your unexampled proposal now or at any time. I s h a l l only say, once f o r a l l , that I must a l l my l i f e be as g r a t e f u l for i t as i f I had availed myself of i t — i f I do not do so. 0.5 I am confidently t r u s t i n g your book may be a great triumph. I t s h a l l not f a i l of ardent upholding at my hands. Yet i t needs no e f f o r t to make i t s splendour f e l t . The leagues on leagues that divide your work from the reams of verbosity which issue yearly even from the pens of men of rank has never been f e l t by me so surely as during my recent v i s i t . I may say to you that I have h a l f unconsciously been measuring myself these l a s t 10 days against some men of comparative d i s t i n c t i o n and have sometimes f e l t that with h a l f t h e i r opportunities I could hold my own with c e r t a i n of them. This i s a pugnacious thing to say but I v e r i l y believe i t to be a f a i r statement of the truth, and I allude to i t i n order to add the confident ^ B a l l a d s and Sonnets (1881), which contains the ba l l a d "The King's Tragedy". 108 assurance that a poem l i k e "The King's Tragedy" r i s e s now and f o r a l l time e n t i r e l y above the r i v a l r y of any work save that 96 of one other l i v i n g poet. Of course you know that by what i s written overpage I mean no comparison of myself with the one or two strong men of your own c i r c l e whose c r i t i c a l powers are scarcely greater than t h e i r poetic g i f t s promise to be. p o s t s c r i p t ] I've dropt the H and the dismembered signature 97 looks to me l i k e the p i g i n the proverb. 68. 15 May 1881 I think the draft l e t t e r to Samuelson admirable i n a l l respects. I could not desire to see i t altered, unless i t were to admit some single word of recognition of the Committee with which S. acts. I am glad you have thought i t well to add your personal opinion of the way i n which the commission would be discharged, f o r though our f r i e n d i s himself very sensible of every claim I can put f o r t h , some of the people with whom he has to co-operate are t o t a l l y ignorant of l i t e r a r y matters, and take a l l t h e i r opinions r e l a t i n g thereto from approved sources. Moreover, such f o l k s (as i s usual i n such cases) have generally a more profound respect f o r an a r t i c l e that comes to them from a distance than f o r one which l i e s at t h e i r hand, 96 v Possibly Algernon Swinburne. 97 J His signature then became "T. H a l l Caine", rather than "T. H. H a l l Gaine." 109 and hence i t has come about t h a t the Committee i n question has w i t h i n the past week appointed an i n t o l e r a b l e Oxford noodle who ean l e c t u r e about as i n t e l l i g i b l y as a jack-daw, t o d e l i v e r 98 them a course o f l e c t u r e s i n the autumn^ —»this mainly because he has a lo n g a r r a y of l e t t e r s a f f i x e d to h i s name and because he has the countenance of h i s u n i v e r s i t y . . . . S^amuelson) i s going to see £&eorgeJ Rae about the b i g p i c t u r e — a t Rae*s own i n s t a n c e — h e being anxious to t e l l S t h a t i n h i s view the "Dante's Dream" i s the cheapest p i c t u r e i n England at the p r i c e named, and t h a t only i t s s i z e keeps i t out 99 of 'Redeourt'. ^ I f you have occasion t o w r i t e to R you might perhaps a l l u d e to the matter as one t h a t has been mentioned between h i m s e l f and me.... The delay seems a l o n g and i s assu r e d l y a vexatio u s one, but S whispered the other day t h a t i t i s occasioned e n t i r e l y or mainly by the circumstance t h a t the committee have not got £ 200 i n the t r e a s u r y at t h i s moment and t h a t the Mayor's promised a s s i s t a n c e would have t o be accepted. They f e a r the charge of l i v i n g above t h e i r income, hut they expect £ 2000 before very l o n g , and i n the event of the purchase would pass the amount over to next year's accounts.... The Academy f o l k s are sending me Miss B l i n d ' s b o o k . 1 0 0 I d i d not ask f o r i t . They are p r i n t i n g one of my Sonnets. 98 THC had hoped to be appointed t o give the l e c t u r e s . oq "^Rae's home. 1 0 0 M a t h i l d e B l i n d , The Prophecy of S t ^ Oran and Other  Poems. (London: Newman and Company, T88TJ. 110 As t o your forthcoming volume they seem a l i t t l e uneasy as to what I mean to do w i t h i t . I h a l f suspect they t h i n k the n o t i c e may prove a shade too e u l o g i s t i c a l — h u t they say nothing d e f i n i t e , promising to w r i t e f u r t h e r . Of course you know t h a t the b i t t e r e s t r i v a l r y e x i s t s between the Academy and Athenaeum and the l a t t e r being a known admirer of yours e x c i t e s on the p a r t of the former d i s t r u s t of a c r i t i c o f whom the busy-bodies amongst the younger bards may have whispered t h a t he i s an int i m a t e of yours. 101 I see t h a t the Bridges man who amused us so much the 102 day he came w i t h Dixon . i s reviewed f a m i l i a r l y i n i t s (Academy's) pages. The Raes spoke of tha t J e s u i t who wrote the funny s o n n e t s 1 0 ^ as a f r i e n d of your s i s t e r ' s . 1 0 4 He has sent me a 20-page l e t t e r : v ery c l e v e r , very c o n c e i t e d , very cheeky, 105 — a n d very f l a t t e r i n g w i t h a l . . . . ^ I have kept t o the l a s t my few words of deep thanks f o r what you have s a i d as to my s e t t l i n g i n London, and now I f e e l q u i te powerless to w r i t e r e s p e c t i n g i t . I can but say i n one word—thank you. I t would be a great t h i n g to me to stay at 101 Robert B r i d g e s , G r rd M nley Hopkins' f r i e n d ande d i t o r . 102 Canon R. ¥. Dixon. 1 0 3 ^Gerard Manley Hopkins. See a l s o THC:DGR 59, *22 March 1881. THC's s u p e r i o r and p a t r o n i z i n g a t t i t u d e toward Hopkins denied him.the l i t e r a r y i m m o r t a l i t y of being the f i r s t to p u b l i s h Hopkins' poems. 1 0 4 T h e r e i s no evidence they were f r i e n d s , but only t h a t Hopkins "was under the s p e l l o f two A n g l i c a n poets, George Herbert and C h r i s t i n a R o s s e t t i " i n 1865. I n W.H. Gardner, Poems  and Prose of Gerard Manley Hopkins. (Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Book's, 1966) p. x i x . 1°5 But u n f o r t u n a t e l y not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s e d i t i o n . 1.11 your house even i f circumstances were other than they are. 106 As to the further matter mentioned — y o u w i l l helieve me when I say that i f the thought of a personal reward had occurred to my mind i n the f i r s t instance as even a possible r e s u l t of what I was about to do, nothing whatever could have been done. I must either have banished i t or l e t the matter go by. That proves perhaps that i n one important r e l a t i o n of l i f e I am a hopeless f o o l , but the fac t remains (of which I v e r i l y believe you do not need to be apprised) that no thought of personal benefit came to me. I am sure you mentioned your possible purpose i n order to reassure me at a time when I needed reassuring. Thank you. ^ R e a l l y I do not know what my attitude of mind might be even to a proposal so generously intended i f I were not labouring under an old man's cares without having enjoyed such a one's o p p o r t u n i t i e s ^ Hang a l l t h i s d o l e f u l s t u f f , however. Things are r e a l l y looking brighter with me and my health i s better. 107 As to the bui l d i n g behind your house ' — i f your owner happens not to have had h i s plans prepared I helieve I could devise a good scheme fo r him: I could speedily acquire a knowledge of the London bye-laws and work i t out. As to 1 0 6DGR had offered THO a commission of £15° i f "Dante's Dream" were sold. 1 0 7 T h e owners of 16 Cheyne Walk had divided the property and were now planning to put up a bui l d i n g on what had once been DGR's garden. He was so a f r a i d of the noise that he was considering moving to Brixton. 112 minimizing the nuisance of workmen's n o i s e s — t h a t might to some extent he done, but only i f one were i n some sort of command as Clerk of Works—an o f f i c e requiring perhaps an hour or 2 108 hour's labour d a i l y — s c a r c e l y otherwise I fear. I need not say that i f I were with you at a time such as you speak of anything and everything within my power should be done—but that would not be much. 78. [Fisher Ghyll, T a l e of St. John, CumberlandQ Tuesday 5 J u l y 1881. 109 I have been very c a r e f u l not to show your book. J Neither W[illiam Watson] nor any other s h a l l l e a r n that I have i t . Tou may remember that I was i n v i t e d to review the book on i t s p u blication f o r the A jcademyjjl Yesterday the E d i t o r wrote that the work had not reached him, but upon i t s coming into my possession he would be glad to receive a review from me as early as I could send one. You see he i s anxious to be early i n the f i e l d . I r e p l i e d that he should have the a r t i c l e i n due course, but I mean to observe your wish as to the Athenaeum being f i r s t out. 108 Possibly a hint that DGR should recommend him f o r the job. A new l e v e l of intimacy had begun just a f t e r THC's Easter v i s i t at Cheyne Walk; the salutation on THC's l e t t e r s i s "My dear Ross e t t i , " rather than "My dear Mr. R o s s e t t i , " from 27 A p r i l 1881. 109 *k pre-publication copy of Ballads and Sonnets. 113 110 My long paper has reached 40 pages and i s now perforce put aside i n order to allow of my doing some reviewing. I think confidently i t w i l l prove the most philosophical analysis of your claims to front rank as a poet. I think thus f a r i t i s written i n a high and comprehensive way and whilst warmly enthu s i a s t i c a l i s also j u d i c i a l i n tone. Of course I don't mean i t f o r the pages of the Academy. I hope to get i t into some prominent magazine. I think S jamuelson] w i l l he pleased with the note you have sent him. I am much interested i n what you say of the Brixton 111 o f f e r . The rent i s l e s s than you pay I think, and I have c e r t a i n l y always heard the l o c a l i t y spoken of as a healthy one. If:'you determine to take steps i n the matter and think my presence i n London f o r a time would he h e l p f u l to you I t r u s t you w i l l not hesitate to command me. I am well enough now and free enough to t r a v e l . You w i l l be glad to know that I have ample work already to keep me occupied f o r months—not the most p r o f i t a b l e work, perhaps, but i t w i l l do;. My l a t e employers do not wish to accept my resignation and say the place s h a l l remain awhile open fo r my return. I 1 1 G S e e THG:DGR 62, *24 A p r i l 1881. 111 DGR was so upset by the builders' noise behind h i s house that he was considering subletting Tudor House and moving out of London fo r the duration of the building a c t i v i t i e s . Brixton was a possible refuge. 114 cannot help t e l l i n g you (against express injunctions as to secrecy) that my l a t e s t advice from them states f o r my private guidance that the recent w i l l of the p r i n c i p a l provides that i n the event of h i s death the whole business i s to he offered to me "on easy terms and with the loan of a s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l . " Doubtless you think t h i s looks tempting, but what can i t ever be worth? The p r i n c i p a l i s a man of 40, i n robust health, belonging to a family remarkable f o r longevity. He i s well enough o f f to r e t i r e , but he won't. I t i s not possible that I can outl i v e him. The chief value the circumstance has i n my eyes i s that of a splendid testimonial to one of the youngest men (out of 100) i n the employ. There are two great obstacles to my return: my health, (which though improving i s s t i l l uncertain) and my unconquerable love of l i t e r a r y pursuits, (which now I have followed long enough not to mistake them.) 112 I am v a s t l y interested i n the new b a l l a d project. Is i t possible (without endangering other works or unduly delay-ing t h e i r completion) f o r you to come here? Finer mountain scenery I cannot conceive: the landscape i s constantly changing aspects. Doubtless the actual presence of these h i l l s would give you a great freshness of i n s p i r a t i o n . I could arrange everything f o r you; (you would come by r a i l to Windermere and by coach to t h i s v a l l e y — 2 hours dri v e ) ; but pray do not 112 Perhaps t h i s projected b a l l a d was "Jan van Hunks." l e t me draw you o f f prematurely, delighted as I should he to see you here t h i s very day. I think the b i g picture a f f a i r w i l l go o f f smoothly by and by.... 116 SOURCES CONSULTED Manuscript Sources Angeli Papers, Special C o l l e c t i o n s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. P e n k i l l Papers, Special C o l l e c t i o n s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. Works Caine, Thomas Henry H a l l . Cobwebs of Criticsm; A Review of the P i r s t Reviewers of the 'Lake 1. 1 Satanic 1 ""and 1Cockney 1  SofTools. London: E l l i o t Stock7-1883. - . . "Lectures and Notes on Shakspere and other English  Poets, by S. Taylor Coleridge." Academy, XXV (January •1884), . 19-20. . L i f e of Christ, eds. G.R. H a l l Caine, and Derwent H a l l Caine. Toronto: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1938. . " L i f e of Percy Bysshe Shelley by Edward Dowden." Academy. !OT"(5e"cember 1886). 395. 412. . The Master of Man. London: William Heinemann, 1921. • M£ Story. London: William Heinemann f o r C o l l i e r and Co.,~?908. . "The New Watchwords of P i c t i o n . " The Contemporary Review. LVII ( A p r i l 1890), 470-488. - " . "Obituary: Dante Gabriel Rossetti." Academy, XXI (lay~1882), 266. -. "A Pageant and Other Poems by C h r i s t i n a R o s s e t t i . " Academy, IX (August"T§81), 15T7^ ' •*'* . Recollections of Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . London: E l l i o t Stock, 1882. Recollections of Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . London: C a s s e l l and Company, 19"2"8. 117 . ed. Sonnets of Three Centuries. London: E l l i o t Stock, 1882. . "Two Aspects of Shakspere's Art." The Contemporary  Review. XLIII (June 1883), 883-900. The White Prophet. 2 v o l s . London: William Heinemann, 1909. . . The' Woman Thou Gayest Me. London: William Heinemann, 1917. Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. Ballads and Sonnets. London: E l l i s and White, 1881. The Collected Works, ed. William Michael Rossetti, London: E l l i s and Elvey, 1886. . Dante and His C i r c l e . London: E l l i s and Elvey, T892T . The Ear l y I t a l i a n Poets. London: Smith. Elder and CoT7"186T: : • J a x i Van Hunks, ed. John Robert Wahl. New York: The New YoTk"Toblic l i b r a r y , 1952. . Poems. London: P.S. E l l i s , 1870. . Poems. A New E d i t i o n . London: E l l i s and White, 1881. t and Algernon Charles Swinburne, A Romance of L i t e r a t u r e . London: Thomas J . Wise, 191"2. Reference Sources Adrian, Arthur A. "The Browning-Rossetti Friendship: Some Unpublished Letters." PMLA. LXXIII (December 1958), 538-544. ~ Angeli, Helen Madox Ro s s e t t i . Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i: His  Friends and Enemies. London: H. Hamilton, 1949. Baum, P a u l l Franklin, ed. Letters to Fanny Cornforth. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1940*7 Beerbohm, Max. "Nat Goodwin — and Another," Mainly on the  A i r , pp. 67-80. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1958"" 118 Briggs, R.G.H. "Letters to Janey." Journal of the, William  Morris Society. I : i v (1964), 3-22"T" Brooke, Stopford A. Four V i c t o r i a n Poets t A Study of plough, Arnold, Rossetti and Morris."""New York:"* Russellwand Russell, Inc., 1964. B u t t e l , Helen. "Rossetti*s 'Bridal Birth',» Expl., XXIII (November 1964), Item 22. Doughty, Oswald. Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . B r i t i s h Book Council, Writers and Their Works No. 85. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1957. . A V i c t o r i a n Romantic: Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . London: ""Oxford University Press, 1960"". . and John Robert Wahl, eds. Letters of Dante Gabriel. 4 v o l s . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965-1967. Dowden, Edward. Shakspere: A C r i t i c a l Study of His Mind and  A r t . London! Routledge7 Kegan, Paul, 194 "§ . . "Sonnets of Three Centuries, by T. H a l l Caine." Academy. X l l (I'ehruary 1882), 129-130. Dunn, Henry T r e f f r y . Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and His C i r c l e . ecf". Gale PedrieT". London: STkin Mathews, Ehrsam, Theodore G., Robert H. Deily and Robert M. Smith, eds. Bibliographies of Twelve V i c t o r i a n Authors. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1936. Eldredge, Harrison. "On an Error i n a Sonnet of Rossetti*s." VP, V (Spring 1967), 302-303. Fleming, Gordon H. Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. London: Hart-Davis, 1967. Fredeman, William E. "The Pre-Raphaelites," The V i c t o r i a n  Poets: A Guide to Research, rev. ed. Frederic E. Faverty,""pp. 251""3'16. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968. Pre-Raphaelitism: A B i b l i o c r i t i c a l Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965. . "Rossetti*s 'In Memoriam* An Elegaic Reading of The House of L i f e . " BJRL, XLVII (1964-1965), 298-341. 119 • "Rossetti's Letters." The Malahat Review. Part 1, TJTaimaxj 1967), 134-H1; ParTT, it (April 1 $68), 115-126. "Letters of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. eds. Oswald DmigEty and John R ^ e W T r a h l . " VS, H i (September 1968), 104-108. Gardner, W. H., ed. Poems and Prose of Gerard Manley Hopkins. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Book's, 1966. The Germ. (1850). Pacsimile r e p r i n t , i n t r o . William Michael R o s s e t t i . London: E l l i o t Stock, 1901. Gray, Ni c o l e t t e . Rossetti. Dante and Ourselves. London: Paber and Paber, 19T7". G r y l l s , R. Glynn. "The Reserved Rossetti Letters." TLS. 30 January 1964, p. 96. "Hall Caine: A New Novelist." Westminster Review. CXXYIII (April-December 1887), 840-8T"9~I Howard, Ronnalie R. " R o s s e t t i 1 s 'A Last Confession": A Dramatic Monologue." TP, V (Spring 1967), 21-29. Hueffer, Pord Madox (Pord Madox Pord). R o s s e t t i : A C r i t i c a l  Essay on h i s A r t . New York: E. P. Dutton and~"Co., 1902. Hunt, V i o l e t . Wife of R o s s e t t i . New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1932. ' Hyder, Clyde K. "Rossetti*s Rose Mary: A Study i n the Occult." VP, I (January 1963), 1 * 9 1 ^ 0 7 ^ " Johnson, Wendell Stacy. "D. G. Rossetti as Painter and Poet." VP, I I I (Winter 1965), 9-18. Johnston, Robert De Sales. "Imagery i n Rossetti*s House of L i f e . " DA, XX (1960), 2783-2784. (Missouri). Juhnke, Anna K. "Dante Gabriel and C r i s t i n a R o s s e t t i : The Poetry of love, Death and Faith." DA, XXVII (1967), 4222A. (Indiana). Kendall, J . L. "The Concept of the I n f i n i t e Moment i n The • t House of L i f e . " VN, No. 28 ( F a l l 1965), 4-8. Kenyon, Charles Fredrick. H a l l Caine: The Man and the Novelist. (English Writers of Today, No. 4) London: Greening and Company, Ltd., 1901. 120 Knight, Joseph. L i f e of Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . London: W. Scott, 18877" "Letters." B r i t i s h Medical Journal. II (June 8 ) , 1968, 627. "Letters." The Pharmaceutical Journal. CXG, 45. MacCarthy, Desmond. "Rossetti and H a l l Caine," P o r t r a i t s . New York and London: Putnam, 1931. Maitland, Thomas Robert Buchanan . "The Pleshly School of Poetry." Contemporary Review. XVIII (October 1871), 334-350. M a r i l l i e r , H.C. Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i : An I l l u s t r a t e d Memorial of His Art and L i f e . London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1899. * Megroz, Rodolphe Louis. Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Painter Poet  of Heaven i n Earth. London: Paber and Gwyer, 1928. M e r r i t t , James D. ed. The Pre-Raphaelite Poem. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1966. Minto, W. "Cobwebs of C r i t i c i s m by T. H a l l Caine." Academy. XXIV (December T8"83), 389-390. Norris, Samuel. Two Men of Manxland: H a l l Caine. Novelist. T. E. Brown."Toet. Douglas, I s l e of Man: The Norris Press, 1947. Packer, Lona Mosk, ed. The Rossetti-Macmillan L e t t e r s : Some  155 Unpublished Letters Written to Alexander Macmillan. ' P. S. E l l i s , and Others, by Dante Gabriel. C h r i s t i n a . and""William R o s s e t t i . 1861-1889. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1965.' Paolucci, Anne. "Ezra Pound and D.G. Rossetti as Translators of Guido Cavalcanti." RR, I I (December 1960), 256-267. Pedrick, Gale. "Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i 1 s Guardian Angel." Listener. LXIV (October 1960), 738-739, 743. - . L i f e of Rossetti . or No Peacocks Allowed. London: Macdonald, 1964. Peterson, C a r l Adrian. "The Poetry and Painting of Dante Rosset t i . " DA, XXI (1961) , 3460. (Wisconsin). Pissarro, Lucien. R o s s e t t i . London: T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1907 . 121 "Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti by I . H a l l Caine." Athenaeum."T882. i i , 590-591. "Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti by T. H a l l Caine." WLSl T9"2"87~iv, 705" ! R o b i l l a r d , Douglas J . "Rossetti*s 'Willowwood' Sonnets and the Structure of The House o f , l i f e . " JN, No. 22 ( P a l l 1962). Rossetti, William Michael, ed. Bibliography of the Works of  Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i . London: E l l i s , "T90T7 - Dante Gabriel Rossetti as Designer and Writer. London: C a s s e l l and Co., 1889. . ed. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: C l a s s i f i e d L i s t s of His Writings with the Dates. London "1 p r i v a t e l y printed, TW6. . ed. Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i : His Family-Letters  With a Memoir! 2" v o l s . London: E l l i s and Elvey, 1895. ed. Family Letters of C h r i s t i n a Georgina R o s s e t t i . London: Brown, Longham and~c"o., 1908. Lives of Famous Poets from Chaucer to Longfellow. London: Ward,Tock and Co., 1878. . ed. Preraphaelite D i a r i e s and Le t t e r s . London: Hurst and Blackett, -utd., 1) ed. Rossetti Papers (1862-1870). London: Sands and Co., 1903. ed. Ruskin:Rossetti:Preraphaelitism. London: George A l l e n , 1899. Samhrook, A.J. "D. G. Rossetti and R. W. Dixon." EA, XIY (October-December 1961), 331-338. Scott, William B e l l . Autobiographical Notes of the L i f e of William B e l l Scott and Notices of His A r t i s t i c and  Po e t i c a l C i r c l e of Friends. 1850-1882. ed. W. Minto. 2 v o l s . London: Osgood, Mcllvaine and Cox., 1892. Sharp, William. Dante Gabriel R o s s e t t i : A Record and Study. London: Macmillan and Co., 1882. "" "Sonnets of Three Centuries hy T. H a l l Caine." Saturday Review of P o l i t i c s . L i t e r a t u r e . Science and Art."*"*^ LIII (February 1882), 208-209. " 122 Symonds, John Addington. "Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti by T. H a l l Caine." Academy. XXII (October 1882) 305-306. Tirebuek, William Edwards. Dante Gabriel Rossetti. His Work  and Influence. Including a B r i e f Survey of RecenF*Art  Tendencies. London: E l l i o t Stock, 1882. "Today's Drugs." B r i t i s h Medical Journal. I I (May 18, 1968), 410. Todd, R. G. ed. Extra, Pharmacopeia. London: Pharmaceutical Press', 1967. T r o x e l l , Janet Camp, ed. Three Rossettis: Unpublished Letters to and from Dante Gabriel. C h r i s t i n a . William. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937. Vaughan, Charles Edwyn. Bibliographies of Swinburne. Morris. and R o s s e t t i . English Association Pamphlet No. 29. Oxford: The University Press, 1914. Vogel, Joseph P. "Rossetti's The House of L i f e . LXXXYII." Expl. XXII ( A p r i l 1963), T^enTtf. . "Rossetti's 'Memorial Thresholds*." Expl.. XXIII (December 1964), Item 29. . • "*White Rose' or 'White Robe' i n 'The Blessed Damozel'?" ELN. I (December 1963), 121-123. Waller, R. D. The Rossetti Family. 1824-1854. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1932. Warner, Charles Dudley, ed. "Thomas Henry H a l l Caine," Library of the World's Best L i t e r a t u r e . New York: R. S. PeaTe~and J 1. A. DuaTey H i l l , 18^7, V, 3067-3068. Watson, George, ed. "Dante Gabriel Ro s s e t t i , " CBEL Supplement, (1957), IY, 593-594. -Watts, Theodore. "Sonnets of Three Centuries ed. T. H a l l Caine." Athenaeum. 25 February 1882, pp. 243-245. Weatherby, Harold L. "Problems of Form and Content i n the Poetry of Dante Gabriel Rossetti." VP, I I (Winter 1964), 11-19. ~ Wright, Herbert G. "Unpublished Letters from Theodore Watts-Dunton to Swinburne." RES, X ( A p r i l 1934), 129-155. 123 APPENDIX I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A Census of the l e t t e r s from H a l l Caine to D. G. Rossetti i n the Angeli Papers 2 October 1878 In another hand, signed by THC. A request that DGR become a member of the Liverpool "Notes and Queries" Society Honorary Council. *24 July 1879 P i r s t personal l e t t e r to DGR "from a student to a poet he loves" asking him to read a lecture hy THC on DGR's poetry printed i n Colburn 1s New Monthly, which he has also sent. *2 August 1879 THC plans to pass through London on a holiday and w i l l a v a i l himself of DGR's permission to c a l l . Has sent ano-ther Colburn 1 s New Monthly with h i s work i n i t f o r DGR's appraisal. 25 September 1879 Asks DGR to write recommending him for a job and otherwise employ h i s influence "with any member of the Council of the Association". *28 October 1879 THC hasn't been given the job. Has sent DGR a Builder containing h i s Congress paper. Working on lectures and other a r t i c l e s . Hopes DGR w i l l read h i s psychological treatment of Keats' genius when he has fi n i s h e d i t . *7 December 1879 DGR has been c r i t i c a l of the paper sent and of the qua l i t y of journal i n which THC i s publishing. (Frag.) Very long l e t t e r . Discussion of Keats, Coleridge, THC's health and h i s r e l i g i o n . 19 January 1880 Long l e t t e r continuing l i t e r a r y subjects i n previous l e t t e r . Has fi n i s h e d "Stones Crying Out" a pamphlet on a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e s t o r a t i o n . 24 February 1880 Reply to DGR's r e f u s a l of dedication i n THC's pamphlet " P o l i t i c s and Art". DGR has encouraged THC to organize a fund i n Liverpool for Keats' s i s t e r , Mme. Llanos. THC advises against subscription, suggests a lecture 124 on Keats, sponsored by c i t y and with mayor presiding. I f "no one better could he found, THC off e r s to write l e c t u r e . 10. 25 February 1880 Discussion of "Stones Crying Out". THC confesses that at 16 or 17 he sent a 1,000 l i n e poem to George G i l f i l l a n , who said i t had genius on almost every page, hut should go out yet. 11. 29 February 1880 Comments on DGR's advice that THC's paper has been harsh with Shelley and Coleridge.. THC concurs, but stands f a s t i n h i s judgement of Wordsworth, whom he does not value. THC busy with Keats lecture, which he hopes w i l l r a i s e £ 50 f o r Mme. llanos and more when i t i s published. 12. 9 March 1880 THC determined to give Keats lecture, although DGR has advised that he should do i t only i f i t helps the Keats paper. THC complains how l i t t l e Liverpool cares f o r art, and finds himself weary and stranded there; the exchange of l e t t e r s between himself and DGR i s very important to him. 13. 21 March 1880 (Frag, unsigned.) THC comments on the irony of h i s " P o l i t i c s and Art" pamphlet not being able to be published u n t i l a f t e r the General E l e c t i o n . They have been corresponding about the sonnets of Milton, Keats and Coleridge; THC extends the discussion to comment on DGR's sonnets, apologizes f o r doing i t badly. 14. [~26 March 188c] Thanks DGR f o r the g i f t of two copies of the Tauchnitz (1873) e d i t i o n of Poems. Has read DGR's sonnet on Keats and encloses h i s own e f f o r t on the subject f o r the "greatest l i v i n g sonneteer" to read. 15. *31 March 1880 THC accepts DGR's ve r d i c t on h i s Keats sonnet: "... you think the attempt does not show that I have any sp e c i a l vocation f o r that emphatic and condensed form of expression....." Abandons h i s b e l l i g e r e n t stance against Milton's sonnets on DGR's advice. F i r s t mention of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a sonnet book. Comments on DGR's proposed amendments to "S i s t e r Helen" and discusses DGR's Keats sonnet. 125 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. *5 A p r i l 1880 Research f o r Keats essay and speech has s t a r t e d him reading copies of p e r i o d i c a l s of 1816 to 1822, which >he f i n d s of great i n t e r e s t . DGR has suggested THC should e d i t a sonnet hook; t h i n k i n g through h i s pen, THC plans i t . D i s c u s s i o n of Keats and L e i g h Hunt, and of W i l l i a m Watson*s soon-to-be-published P r i n c e ' s Que s t . *13 A p r i l 1880 DGR has commented on THC*s c r i t i c i s m of DGR's Keats sonnet. THC apologizes f o r h i s c r i t i c a l blunders. (Frag, unsigned.) THC has become concerned w i t h Keats* c r i t i c s through the o l d p e r i o d i c a l study. Finds a r e l a t i o n s h i p between authors* h e a l t h and reviewers c a u s t i c comments, wonders i f . c r i t i c s f u l f i l l any r e a l need i n s o c i e t y . Has w r i t t e n to Watson about h i s long n a r r a t i v e poem. 2 May 1880 Thanks DGR and WMR f o r t h e i r attempts to have " P o l i t i c s and A r t " reviewed i n the Athenaeum. Keats l e c t u r e w i l l come about. *15 May 1880 DGR has found second sonnet on Keats an improvement; THC has sent a sonnet t o DGR f o r h i s b i r t h d a y . Keats l e c t u r e w i l l become a "kind of Keats C e l e b r a t i o n Meeting." P a r t of THC*s Keats essay has been sent to DGR. 27 May 1880 Comments on DGR's c r i t i c i s m and suggestions f o r the Keats essay. THC s u r p r i s e d at the esteem i n which DGR holds C h a tterton, and i s l e d to search f o r d e r i v a t i o n s from C h a t t e r t o n i n Keats. DGR working on a Blake sonnet. 1 June 1880 THC had hoped to have Lord Houghton i n the c h a i r at h i s Keats C e l e b r a t i o n , hut has heard t h a t Lord Houghton i s annoyed because he planned t o o b t a i n a pension f o r Mme. Llanos, but t h a t Buxton Forman had e a r l i e r a p p l i e d on her b e h a l f f o r a grant from the Royal Bounty. *3 June 1880 (Two-part l e t t e r , continued 9 June.) Concerned w i t h the l i f e of Chatterton, which THC has read; Keats Celebration- not s e t t l e d . June 9 c o n t i n u a t i o n r e p o r t s on F.G. Stephens' v i s i t to L i v e r p o o l . (Frag.) Comments on what Stephens has t o l d him of DGR's sadness and l o n e l i n e s s . 126 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. [ e a r l y J u l y 1880] Short note thanking DGR f o r a photograph of a pen sketch and mentioning the death o f a L i v e r p o o l f r i e n d . *14 J u l y 1880 THC hasbeen f o r a b o a t i n g h o l i d a y i n Windermere, f o r his- h e a l t h . Proposes he w r i t e a newspaper a r t i c l e on FMB's f r e s c o e s . *16 J u l y 1880 THC now confesses he adores C o l e r i d g e , although he has decided h i s personal character i s not unblemished, nor does THC care f o r h i s K a n t i a n philosophy and Germanisms. Prom p e r i o d i c a l s he has formed a poor o p i n i o n of Leigh Hunt, who d i d not stand by Keats when needed. Has r e c e i v e d DGR's l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n to FMB and w i l l c a l l . Has read 0MB's books. Suggests Poe as "meat f o r a sonnet". *27 J u l y 1880 Reports on v i s i t to FMB, which he has enjoyed. FMB has t o l d him t a l e s o f DGR's l i f e t h i r t y years before. #4 August 1880 (Unsigned.) More on v i s i t to PMB, who has asked him to v i s i t again. Has enclosed a sonnet on 0MB. 11 August 1880 (Frag.) Plans a v i s i t to London soon. Reports on the fund f o r Mme. L l a n o s . * fei August 1880] Reports on the proposal t h a t FMB give f o u r l e c t u r e s i n L i v e r p o o l but denies DGR's suggestion t h a t Rathbone could be of any help i n arranging them. * [|2 August 1880] Apologizes f o r h i s hasty judgement of Rathbone i n the preceding l e t t e r , not intended to r e f l e c t upon the judgement of FMB's daughter. Does not withdraw h i s judgement, however. THC has again been to Manchester and has given FMB h i s sonnet on 0MB. THC plans to c a l l on DGR on h i s way to B r i g h t o n and again on h i s way home to L i v e r p o o l . (From Brighton.) To c o r r e c t DGR's misconception t h a t THC w i l l be coming to v i s i t on F r i d a y r a t h e r than Thursday. DGR had read him "The White Ship" when he c a l l e d e a r l i e r i n the week. 127 35. * p September 188(5] (Pencilled note of farewell written at 16 Cheyne Walk af t e r THC's overnight v i s i t and before DGR was awake.) I f THC's proposed sonnet hook finds a publisher he plans to l i v e i n London and supplement h i s income by l e c t u r i n g . 36; *13 September 1880 THC denigrates the a b i l i t i e s of J.A. Noble, a f r i e n d whose essay DGR has admired. DGR has warned THC against coming to l i v e i n London without assuring himself of an income. THC explains h i s family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and h i s plans f o r meeting them. He chides DGR f o r h i s lack of exercise. 37. *22 September 1880 DGR has not approved of THC's a r t i c l e on PMB. THC agrees, explains, but says that the a r t i c l e has been admired. Lord Houghton has obtained an annuity f o r Mme. Llanos, so the Keats subscription has been closed. E l l i o t Stock, publisher, has discussed the proposed sonnet book, so THC has begun to draw DGR into the matter of c o l l e c t i n g sonnets. DGR i s not sure he wants h i s association with THC known and commented on by reviewers. 7 October 1880 Stock has not sent a f i r m proposal. Noble has read DGR*js comments on h i s essay and i s planning to write to him. THC has dined with Lord Houghton. [early October 188q] (Frag, unsigned.) THC foresees plenty of work f o r the coming winter: w i l l soon d e l i v e r three lectures on " C u r i o s i t i e s of C r i t i c i s m " , gleaned from p e r i o d i c a l s a f t e r 1800; Ruskin Society has asked him to write for t h e i r p e r i o d i c a l . Plans to include o r i g i n a l sonnets i n h i s book. 40. (mid October 1880] (Frag.) THC plans to write to WMR and CR to ask f o r sonnets. Discusses and praises h i s favourites, also mentions those of DGR's he l i k e s best. Has offended DGR with the suggestion that the book w i l l contain o r i g i n a l and s p e c i a l l y translated sonnets. THC apologizes, but asks i f i t i s possible to get more o r i g i n a l sonnets than he now has. 41. *21 October 1880 L i s t s sonnets he has. Hopes fo r at l e a s t f i f t y o r i g i n a l sonnets and praises FMB's help i n obtaining them. DGR has refused to have one.of h i s sonnets i n the book. Stock may publish the " C u r i o s i t i e s " l e c t u r e s . THC 38. 39. 128 4 3 . 4 4 . 4 5 . 4 6 . 4 7 . has included "Mai-bland*s" Contemporary comments on DGR i n the syllabus, and defends his choice, but allows DGR to refuse i f he wishes. *31 October 1880 (Frag, unsigned.) Because DGR does not want the Contemporary controversy discussed, THC has decided to omit a l l contemporary writers. Finds parallels between his decision and a similar one by Coleridge. Also finds a parallel between DGR's advice to Swinburne and Coleridge's-advice to Wordsworth. DGR has sent him W.H. Davies-' Songs of a Wayfarer, which he discusses. Praises DGR's "lost Days" as reminiscent of the Bible. (Frag.) DGR has enquired when THC w i l l come to li v e i n London, but THC has decided he must have a job there before he can take the risk . Reports an artist's opinion that DGR i s the greatest colourist since Titian. (Frag, unsigned.) T W-D and FMB have been corresponding on the sonnet technique. Asks DGR i f he has Whitehead's sonnet on the Lone Lamp. *8 November 1880 Due to i l l health THC i s working only every other day, on DGR's advice. Has decided the book should include original sonnets and a section of reprinted sonnets, particularly great sonnets that have been forgotten. Hopes that DGR w i l l recommend and select sonnets. Asks for DGR's sonnet on the sonnet as an introductory piece. 13 January 1881 DGR has been i l l . TW-D has written to THC on sonnet technique, and, at FMB's prompting, promises a f u l l e r l e t t e r . First-mention.of Samuelson and the possible sale of "Dante's Dream" to Liverpool. 22 January 1881 Suggests schemes to arouse the interest of the Liverpool council i n "Dante's Dream". THC has obtained a letter about the .picture...from F.G. Stephens to weight the case, although DGR objects. THC may soon move to New Brighton. 25 January 1881 DGR has suggested THC exclude a l l old sonnets; THC suggests Sonnets of this Century as a t i t l e . 129 [late January 1881? (Frag, unsigned.) THC agrees that Stephens may he te c h n i c a l l y a fine art c r i t i c , hut that he does not see into the heart of a picture as well as WMR. Suggests that DGR publish h i s ballads i n one volume and h i s sonnets i n another, under the t i t l e The House  of L i f e . {end January 1881? DGR has heard from Stock that THC has promised a l l new sonnets, rather than only a selection, including some new sonnets. THC t r i e s to soothe DGR and explain h i s error. (29 January 188l] DGR complained that THC has used si m i l a r rhymes i n h i s sonnets on OMB, Coleridge and Keats. Hew version of OMB sonnet enclosed. THC reassures DGR that he not promoting FMB's paintings to Samuelson. at the same time as he i s working on the sale of "Dante's Dream". [early February 188lJ (Frag.) Suggests Sonnets of Three Centuries f o r h i s sonnet c o l l e c t i o n . Has read Waddington's c o l l e c t i o n and doesn't l i k e i t . *16 February 1881 Reports on a l e t t e r from TW-D o u t l i n i n g h i s theory of the sonnet. THC considers the theory r i g i d . Has chosen ten printed sonnets by DGR which he wishes to include. Reassures DGR that TW-D's r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n of the sonnet and FMB's praise.of the p o s i t i o n i n no way r e f l e c t a d i s l i k e of DGR's sonnets, few of which f i t the d e f i n i t i o n . Considers TW-D influenced by a "stupid essay by James Spedding. W i l l not ask to include TW-D's l e t t e r i n h i s introduction. Implication i s that-DGR has said none, of h i s sonnets may be used i n a book containing TW-D's theory. *{late February 188l] DGR has sent a sonnet by William Sharp f o r which THC makes suggestions f o r improvement. * [4 March 188l] THC defends h i s d i s l i k e of the "rip-rap" e f f e c t produced by a clos i n g couplet although DGR doesn't agree. Compromises h i s defence by saying that i n a series the couplet may be used f o r v a r i e t y . THC has reverted to the idea of only using nineteenth century sonnets. 130 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. * ( j March 1 8 8 2 L e t t e r f o l l o w i n g a t e l e g r a p h to warn DGR tha t Samuelson and Rathbone might c a l l d uring the week on short n o t i c e . THC hopes t h a t Samuelson and h i s Pine A r t s Committee w i l l engage him to give an annual course of twelve l e c t u r e s so he can give up commerce. Suggests o b l i q u e l y t h a t DGR might i n f l u e n c e Samuelson. * [22 March 1 8 8 l J Sends DGR -Ewo Gerard Manly Hopkins sonnets w i t h a l e t t e r from Canon Dixon to e x p l a i n the m e t r i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s . DGR considers Samuelson a " c a p i t a l f e l l o w " and has promised to suggest THC f o r the l e c t u r e s h i p . THC has heard a whisper t h a t he may succeed to a P r o f e s s o r s h i p of l i t e r a t u r e . [end March 188l] Mentions DGR's proposal t h a t THC l i v e at Cheyne Walk, but does not make a f i r m r e p l y . P r a i s e s DGR's Czar sonnet and "Winter", both of which DGR has sent him. THC's book postponed u n t i l the P a l l , a f t e r DGR's B a l l a d s and Sonnets, so THC w i l l not use any of the "House of l i f e " sonnets but hopes f o r new ones from DGR. He i s pl a n n i n g to spend a h o l i d a y at Cheyne Walk. *24 A p r i l 188.1 A f t e r THC's h o l i d a y v i s i t to DGR. He discusses but does not accept DGR's i n v i t a t i o n to l i v e a t Cheyne Walk. Considers a magazine as a money-making scheme. P u b l i c a t i o n of h i s essay on DGR's poetry to be postponed u n t i l the Summer of 1882. 27 A p r i l 1881 Prom t h i s l e t t e r on, THC's s a l u t a t i o n i s the in t i m a t e "My dear R o s s e t t i " . THC compares h i m s e l f to S.T. Co l e r i d g e . 3 May 1881 Samuelson to be i n London on May 4, and could v i s i t DGR to work out the arrangements f o r the sa l e of "Dante's Dream". [5 May 188-Q DGR has had photographs of "Dante's Dream" made. THC and Samuelson consider the photographs of the f u l l p i c t u r e should not be shown to the committee, as they do not do the p a i n t i n g j u s t i c e . Some st u d i e s made of the heads i n the p a i n t i n g , are, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , very n i c e . 131 66. J j May 188l) 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. Pour members of the committee are coming to see the p a i n t i n g , so no more photographs need be taken. 11 May 1881 THO has been i l l , p lans a h o l i d a y i n Grasmere before going to London. Asks DGR to use h i s i n f l u e n c e w i t h Samuelson to get THC the l e c t u r e s h i p , so THC can give up commercial j o u r n a l i s m . THC w i l l review DGR's new book. *15 May 1881 DGR has sent THC a d r a f t l e t t e r to Samuelson recommending THC f o r the l e c t u r e s h i p . Committee has already appointed an " i n t o l e r a b l e Oxford noodle" f o r a s e r i e s i n the P a l l . "Dante's Dream" arrangements slowed because the Committee does not have the cash a v a i l a b l e . G.M. Hopkins wrote THC a 20-page l e t t e r . THC has decided to l i v e at Cheyne Walk. 22 May 1881 DGR has not sent l e t t e r about THC to Samuelson, as he f e e l s i t might put him i n an awkward p o s i t i o n . TW-D i s r e a d i n g sonnet book MS. THC plans a book on the companions of Shakespeare i n a " b r i g h t , p i c t u r e s q u e , i n c i s i v e s t y l e " ; w i l l w r i t e i t i n London i f DGR agrees. Rae's c o l l e c t i o n of DGR's p a i n t i n g s to be reproduced, i f DGR permits. 2 June 1881 Samuelson says the "Dante's Dream" business "as good as s e t t l e d " . DGR to proceed w i t h a l t e r a t i o n s ; w i l l r e c e i v e o f f i c i a l l e t t e r i n a month, then o n e - t h i r d of purchase p r i c e . P i c t u r e t o be sent, before end of August. THC to Grasmere on h o l i d a y . (Frag.) Committee member Galloway has decided to read DGR's Dante and h i s C i r c l e . Samuelson w i l l communicate progress of tne p i c t u r e s a l e through THC at Grasmere. 8 June 1881 DGR wants a note from Samuelson saying the purchase i s as good as concluded; Samuelson won't w r i t e , but w i l l only give h i s word, says i f DGR has commissions he should stop a l t e r a t i o n work. THC has explained to Samuelson the danger of! l e a v i n g a l t e r a t i o n s too l a t e . THC has asked h i s employers f o r a leave of absence to r e c r u i t h i s h e a l t h , but plans to leave t h e i r employ a l t o g e t h e r . Has had a l e t t e r from Canon Dixon about h i s two "Supernatural papers", the contents of which he r e p o r t s to DGR. 132 74. j] 5 J u n e 1 8 8 3 (From "Fisher Place, Fisher Ghyll, Vale of St. John, Cumberland".) THC has received DGR's Ballads and  Sonnets in-proof. DGR has asked i f he should include a note i n i t saying that the sonnets are neither personal nor autobiographical. THC advises against the note because too much protest w i l l draw readers to the wrong conclusions. Suggests instead that TW-D should make the point i n h i s review. Also suggests that DGR delete the note explaining the r e p r i n t i n g of some of the sonnets i n "House of l i f e " and not marking those reprinted as people might otherwise be i n c l i n e d to think of the genesis of the love sonnets. 75. 19 June 1881 (Cumberland.) THC has l e f t h i s job, not sure of h i s future, but looking forward to h i s new vocation and freedom. THC.has seen DGR's l e t t e r to Samuelson saying "Dante's Dream" cannot leave h i s studio u n t i l i t i s absolutely sold. DGR has t o l d THC of scheme to complete "The Bride's Prelude"; THC suggests the addition of the supernatural element to i t . June 188{1 (Cumberland.) THC reassures DGR that Samuelson i s the r e a l power on the Committee. DGR has suggested that THC come to London i n a fo r t n i g h t ; THC i n v i t e s DGR to return to Cumberland with him f o r a month's stay. 77. "J25 June 188l] (Cumberland.) Picture sale cannot be f i n a l u n t i l J uly 6. Building operation behind Tudor House very noisy. THC again suggests Cumberland as a refuge. He has read DGR's book i n proof three times and i s at work on a long review. His paper on DGR's entire p o e t i c a l works w i l l be about f i f t y pages. W i l l send i t for DGR's approval. 78. *5 J u l y 1881 (Cumberland.) THC w i l l review DGR's book i n the Academy, but w i l l observe DGR's wish that i t be reviewed i n the Athenaeum f i r s t . DGR so upset by the bui l d i n g noises that he i s considering moving to Brixton. THC again presses him to v i s i t Cumberland. THC has enough work to keep him for the winter. 79. [mid July 1881] (Cumberland.) Sonnet book i n press. THC has shown h i s " C u r i o s i t i e s " MS to Stock, who l i k e d i t but has too much i n hand that season to publish i t . Asks DGR to send a Keats sonnet. DGR has said he may go to Cumberland. 133 80. 18 J u l y 1881 (Cumberland.) DGR d i s t u r b e d because he hears Samuelson has been granted £ 6 , 0 0 0 , but has not w r i t t e n about the p i c t u r e s a l e . THC e x p l a i n s t h a t the money i s f o r a g a l l e r y extension and does not a f f e c t the p i c t u r e s a l e . THC a n t i c i p a t e s t r o u b l e w i t h PMB over h i s review of Mathilde B l i n d ' s book, which the Academy shortened before p r i n t i n g . THC has had h i s sonnet on Joseph Severn published i n the Athenaeum. He seems to have borrowed money from DGR which he has promised h i m s e l f he w i l l repay on t h i s day, but cannot. 81. J23 J u l y 188JJ (Cumberland.) Rathbone has v i s i t e d DGR, who has t r e a t e d him court e o u s l y . THC has been reading o l d MSS and has found an unpublished poem by Wordsworth, which .he considers "so-so". 82. 28 J u l y 1881 (Cumberland.) Further d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s a l e of "Dante's Dream". DGR has l o s t h i s r e g u l a r housekeeper. Because DGR l i k e d the l a s t sonnet THC sent him, THC encloses another, hoping DGR w i l l use h i s i n f l u e n c e w i t h TW-D to get them both pu b l i s h e d i n the Athenaeum, g i v i n g THC "a c e r t a i n rank" as a sonnet w r i t e r and thus h e l p i n g Sonnets of Three C e n t u r i e s . J u l y 188lJ (Cumberland.) THC's a r t i c l e on DGR f i n i s h e d . He enquires whether he should b r i n g i t to DGR when he goes to London, or leave i t i n Cumberland f o r DGR to read when, he hopes, they r e t u r n there together. 84. 30 J u l y 1881 (Cumberland. W r i t t e n l a t e r i n the day than the previous l e t t e r , a f t e r h e a r i n g from Samuelson.) THC r e p o r t s Samuelson i s g r e a t l y d i s t r e s s e d because he t h i n k s DGR charges him w i t h d e c e i v i n g him. P i c t u r e n e g o t i a -t i o n s have h a l t e d again, but THC t h i n k s Rathbone i s t o blame, not Samuelson, who he s t i l l t h i n k s means w e l l . THC w i l l t a l k to Samuelson on h i s way to London l a t e r i n the week. 85. [2 August 188-Q (Cumberland.) THC reassures DGR tha t the L i v e r p o o l s a l e w i l l go through. P i c t u r e needed at the end of August. W i l l send MS of h i s essay on DGR by r e g i s t e r e d post the f o l l o w i n g day. •X34-6 August 1881 ( L i v e r p o o l . ) THC i n L i v e r p o o l to d i s c u s s s a l e w i t h Samuelson and Galloway, hut wants w r i t t e n guidance from DGR as to the terms he w i l l accept. Suggests DGR agree to send p i c t u r e i f Samuelson, Galloway or the mayor would come to London to give t h e i r words as gentlemen, or w r i t e a guarantee t h a t the p i c t u r e would not he returned. The three have already promised to provide the money i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the Cou n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n . The p i c t u r e would then he e x h i b i t e d , hut marked as s o l d , so t h a t the other e x h i b i t o r s would not be offended. APPENDIX II What Is, Is Best. "Ten years! so many and so long and what a gulf between,11 She s t i f l e d the murmur of her song: He spake of what had been. "The years have passed you gently by; Have l e f t you on the lee; Time on your brow breathes l o v i n g l y , I t writes i t s sears on me; Writes deep the furrows of the t o i l s that be." "Ten years! so many and so long; And what a gulf between; Time that divides ne'er does the wrong: What i s , i s best, I ween" She touched the zithe r soft and slow, I t spake the words she would: "love that i s l o s t i s better so: Who'd wake i t i f he could? Wake the l o s t love when what thing i s , i s good 136 Her c h i l d climbed up to h i s embrace, And kissed him with her rare Ripe cherub l i p s and o'er h i s face Shook down her yellow h a i r ; "Blest with the blessings that thou hast, Thou stretchest f o r t h i n vain Wo feeble hands to touch the past Whence loves comes not again: Whence love, once l o s t , pays f o r i t s b l i s s with pain." Her trembling fingers struck the chord of some forgotten l a y : "Love i s the crown" he said "and l o r d Of l i f e and hope alway; I bear with me a void despair, A languor i n the quest I f any goal be to me where Whatever i s , i s best: Whatever i s , of a l l things else, i s b l e s t . " -T. H. H a l l Caine 137 APPENDIX I I I O l i v e r Madox Brown (1855-74) author of The Dwale B l u t h W r e s t l i n g , we cannot l e t our angels go T i l l they a r i s e and "bless us: sunward then Wearing the rose of youth they pass our ken Adown t h e i r westering way i n eve's red glow. Nor c o u l d s t we y i e l d thee, hoy, w i t h outward show Of gladdened hearts to l o r d l i e r uses when (Thy world undowered) the b u i l d e d hopes of men Deep under ashes l a y i n overthrow. But ah! thy s o f t palm's k i s s we h o l d i n keep! B l e s s i n g and b l e s t thou nearest now the abode Where s t i l l He g i v e t h H i s beloved sleep! 1 And c l u s t e r i n g boughs of dwale b l u t h r o o f the road Sunward thou t r e a d s t , arid round thy face a f a r Thy aureole shines where crowned the deathless are! -T. H. H a l l Caine The l i n e contains a b o t a n i c a l a b s u r d i t y , since dwale b l u t h i s deadly nightshade, a poisonous member of the tomato f a m i l y , which grows to a height of three f e e t . APPENDIX IV The Sonnet's Voice: A M e t r i c a l Lesson hy the Seashore You s i l v e r y billows breaking on the beach P a l l back i n foam beneath the star-shine clear, The while my rhymes are murmuring i n your ear A r e s t l e s s love l i k e that the billows teach; Por on these sonnet waves my soul would reach Prom i t s own depths, and r e s t within you dear, As, through the billowy voices yearning here Great nature s t r i v e s to f i n d a human speech. A sonnet i s a wave of melody; From heaving waters of the impassioned soul A b i l l o w of t i d a l music one and whole Flows i n the 'octave*; then returning free I t s ebbing surges i n the 'sestet' r o l l Back to the deeps of l i f e ' s tumultuous sea. -T. Watts-Dunton 

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