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Study of the work of Guy le Fevre de la Boderie, 1541-1598 Cromie, Maureen Ann 1971

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A STUDY OF THE WORK OF GUY LE FEVRE DE LA BODERIE (1541-1598) by MAUREEN ANN CROMIE B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1958 M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1966 A THESIS SUMBITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of French We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f French  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e A p r i l 1971 i i ABSTRACT The aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s to present an a n a l y s i s of the work of a l a t e French Renaissance poet and l i n g u i s t , Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e . Considered as a C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t , he i s p laced i n the c o n -t e x t of the c o n t i n u i n g F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n . The thematic content of h i s o r i g i n a l works i s s t u d i e d , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s to those works i s e s t a b l i s h e d . La B o d e r i e ' s use of symbol ic imagery i s shown to c o n s t i t u t e a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of h i s adherence to the N e o - P l a t o n i s t t r a d i t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , La Boder ie i s shown to have sought i n the m u l t i p l i c i t y of t r a d i t i o n s c i t e d by s y n c r e t i z i n g Renaissance w r i t e r s a proof of the u n i t y of t r u t h and the foundat ions f o r a u n i v e r s a l harmony i n h i s age of c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s d i s c o r d . Throughout h i s work La Boder ie appears as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a l b e i t a h i g h l y s i n g u l a r one, of a P l a t o n i c - H e r m e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n of thought common to many Renaissance w r i t e r s . Drawing on the supposed i i i a n c i e n t wisdom of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a f o r C a t h o l i c a p o l o g e t i c purposes of u n i f i c a t i o n , he found a l s o i n the N e o - P l a t o n i c and K a b b a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s a s t o r e of imagery to which he a t t r i b u t e d a symbol ic v a l u e . By means of these symbols he i n t e r p r e t e d the " v e i l e d t r u t h " of a d i v i n e l y orda ined u n i v e r s a l harmony. L i k e the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , La Boder ie revered the legendary Orpheus as a d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d p o e t - p r i e s t - p r o p h e t whose m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " were e t h i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l . He a t t r i b u t e d to h i m s e l f , as l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s p o e t , the r o l e of the "new O r p h e u s . " Through h i s own work as w e l l as through h i s e x h o r t a t i o n s to contemporary poets to adopt a new C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m , L a Boder ie endeavoured to b r i n g about a moral and s p i r i t u a l renewal i n h i s c o m p a t r i o t s . Thus L a B o d e r i e stands out among the w r i t e r s i n the P l a t o n i c - H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n both f o r h i s constant use of i t s themes and imagery and a l s o f o r h i s concept ion of a new C h r i s t i a n p o e t i c which he attempted to i l l u s t r a t e by r e f e r e n c e to that t r a d i t i o n . I n L a B o d e r i e ' s two major works are to be found a unique s y n c r e t i z a t i o n of themes and imagery drawn f o r the most p a r t from the N e o - P l a t o n i s t and K a b b a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s . The E n c y c l i e , a work of p o s t -T r i d e n t i n e C a t h o l i c a p o l o g e t i c s , uses the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a to prove tha t there i s one t r u t h o n l y , however v a r i o u s l y i t may have been concealed by the " v e i l s " of imagery under which d i v e r s e r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s have both concealed i t from the profane and r e v e a l e d i t to the i n i t i a t e . The G a l l l a d e , a work of m y s t i c o - n a t i o n a l i s t h i s t o r y , adopts concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a and Gui l laume P o s t e l ' s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n s to show that France i s the home of i v a l l p o s t - d i l u v e a n knowledge and tha t the French k i n g i s d i v i n e l y e l e c t e d to be u n i v e r s a l monarch i n a new and harmonious age of man's s p i r i t u a l renewal . L a B o d e r i e ' s s h o r t e r p i e c e s , l i k e the pre faces to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s , r e i n f o r c e these express ions of h i s v i s i o n of a u n i v e r s a l harmony which i t i s the task of the t r u e poet to apprehend and to i n t e r p r e t . Al though h i s p e r s o n a l achievement as poet i s acknowledged to have f a l l e n s h o r t of the O r p h i c aims he propounded, i t i s proposed tha t Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H i s a t tempt , as a humanist s c h o l a r and p o e t , to f i n d i n e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n s of supposed a n t i q u i t y a b a s i s f o r a s p i r i t u a l renewal commensurate w i t h the g l o r y of the r e s t i t u t i o n of a r t s and l e t t e r s marks him as t y p i c a l of an important c u r r e n t of Renaissance thought . H i s unique p r e s e n t a t i o n of m u l t i p l e f a c e t s of e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h e s him as an i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r . V TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THE MAN AND THE INTELLECTUAL CLIMATE OF HIS WORK 9 A . HIS LIFE 9 B. HIS CONCEPT OF HIS HISTORICAL ROLE 13 C. HIS SOURCES 27 I I I . . THE THEMATIC CONTENT OF THE WORK: ORIGINAL WORKS 63 A . L'ENCYCLIE 66 B. LA GALLIAPE 104 C. HYMNES ECCLESIASTIQUES 139 D. DIVERSES MESLANGES POETIQUES 144 I V . THE THEMATIC CONTENT OF THE WORK: TRANSLATIONS 162 A . LE TRAICTE DU NOUVEAU COMETE 162 B. LA CONFUSION DE LA SECTE DE MUHAMED 168 v i C. L'HARMONIE DU MONDE 169 D. DE LA RELIGION CHRESTIENNE; LA HARAHGUE DE LA DIGNITE DEL'HOMME 178 E . DISCOURS DE L'HONNESTE AMOUR 180 F . LES TROIS LIVRES DE LA VIE 181 G. DE LA NATURE DES DIEUX 184 H . NOVUM TESTAMENTUM 186 V . THE SYMBOLIC IMAGERY OF THE WORK 194 V I . CONCLUSION 228 BIBLIOGRAPHY 235 APPENDIX 244 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r wishes to express her warmest thanks to D r . A l i s t a i r R. MacKay, of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , f o r h i s p e r c e p t i v e c r i t i c i s m and p a t i e n t encouragement not o n l y i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s but a l s o over the years of her graduate s t u d y . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The poetry produced i n France during the middle years of the sixteenth century wars of r e l i g i o n shows a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n o r i e n t a t i o n of the poet's purpose from that i l l u s t r a t e d by the poets of the Pldiade and the i r epigones. A concern for r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l matters i s seen to bring about a modification from " s c i e n t i f i c " or " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " subjects treated i n the works of such e a r l i e r poets as P e l e t i e r du Mans, Sceve, Belleau or even Ronsard, to the apologetics of a Du Bartas. Furthermore, a search for "inwardness" i n r e l i g i o u s matters finds expression i n the new C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m of such poets as Sponde or La Ceppede. Although the former " s c i e n t i f i c " apologetic poetry has received less attention than the l y r i c a l poetry of the l a t t e r s o - c a l l e d "baroque" poets, more innovative i n form, many scholars since Boase's pioneer work on Sponde have attempted to reassess i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t post-Pleiade poetry i n general. 2 I t i s the f i r s t purpose of the present work to s i t u a t e the p o e t i c p r o d u c t i o n of a l i t t l e - k n o w n Counter -Reformat ion poet and a p o l o g i s t , Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie (1541-1598), i n the context of the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the p o e t ' s r o l e d u r i n g the l a s t t h i r d of the s i x t e e n t h century i n F r a n c e . La B o d e r i e ' s work i s d e d i c a t e d throughout to the cause of the C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n . A t the time of the C o u n c i l of Trent i n 1566 La Boder ie was a p a r t i c i p a n t , as the pre-eminent o r i e n t a l i s t of h i s day, i n the P o l y g l o t B i b l e of Antwerp commissioned by P h i l i p I I of S p a i n . Subsequent -to p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1571 of h i s f i r s t p o e t i c work designed to persuade P r o t e s t a n t s and f r e e - t h i n k e r s to t u r n to the one t rue Church , he was s e c r e t a r y and i n t e r p r e t e r to the Due d ' A l e n c o n , younger b r o t h e r of C h a r l e s IX and Henry I I I . In t h i s r o y a l household La Boder ie took i t upon h i m s e l f to preach w i t h e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g f e r v o u r the somewhat unorthodox message of Gui l laume P o s t e l to the e f f e c t that the French k i n g had been d i v i n e l y chosen not o n l y as u n i v e r s a l monarch but a l s o as l eader of the u n i v e r s a l C a t h o l i c Church . Thus La B o d e r i e ' s a p o l o g e t i c purpose may be seen as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the s p i r i t of the " c o n f r ^ r i e s " of Counter -Reformat ion " p o l i t i q u e s " such as the " C h e v a l i e r s de 1 ' E s p r i t S a i n t " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Henry I I I . La B o d e r i e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h B a i f ' s Academy of Poetry and M u s i c , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1570, can only have enhanced h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Counter -Reformat ion group of Henry I l l ' s Pa lace Academy. H i s i m i t a t i o n s of " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l hymns" and of the Psa lms, designed to counterac t the e f f e c t s of P r o t e s t a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psa lms , are w i t n e s s not on ly to h i s t i e s w i t h the 3 B a i f Academy but a l s o to the b a s i c purpose of h i s work to e f f e c t moral and s p i r i t u a l re form i n the context of the C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n . In s h o r t , L a Boder ie may be c o n s i d e r e d as a Counter -Reformat ion w r i t e r both because of h i s s t a t e d purpose i n w r i t i n g and because of the m i l i e u f o r which he w r o t e . A j u s t e v a l u a t i o n of La B o d e r i e ' s purpose r e q u i r e s , however, a broader view of the Renaissance r e l i g i o u s s p i r i t . La B o d e r i e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e i s based on the s y n c r e t i z i n g t r a d i t i o n of the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , from which he chose the f i g u r e of Orpheus the p o e t - p r i e s t - p r o p h e t to represent h i s p e r s o n a l r o l e as s p i r i t u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l p o e t . S y n c r e t i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a n c i e n t wisdom found i n the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , which was supposed to embody C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , i s c o l o u r e d i n La B o d e r i e ' s works l a r g e l y by Gui l laume P o s t e l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s K a b b a l i s t element and by P o s t e l ' s p e r s o n a l i l l u m i n i s m . Thus the main body of the present work i s an attempt to show i n La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c p r o d u c t i o n h i s a d o p t i o n of F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t , K a b b a l i s t and P o s t e l l i a n themes and imagery. La B o d e r i e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s y n c r e t i s t i c C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s based on the P l a t o n i c - H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l though s i n g u l a r i n i t s d e t a i l s , i s f a r from unique i n i t s genera l s p i r i t . Many French Renaissance w r i t e r s , from L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s to Pontus de Tyard and i n c l u d i n g R a b e l a i s , a s s o c i a t e d P l a t o w i t h the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i or a n c i e n t t h e o l o g i a n s who were supposed to have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a p a r t i a l p r e - C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d by Moses to the E g y p t i a n p r i e s t s . 4 Thus w i t h the p i a p h i l o s o p h i a of P l a t o and H e l l e n i s t i c N e o - P l a t o n i s m were a s s o c i a t e d the l o o s e l y - t e r m e d Hermetism not on ly of the corpus  hermeticum but a l s o of the i n i t i a t o r y mystery c u l t s evoked by the name of Orpheus, the o c c u l t s c i e n c e s of a s t r o l o g y and alchemy a t t r i b u t e d to Zoroas ter and to Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , and the o c c u l t i s m of the m y t h o l o g i z i n g Jewish Kabbalah . The Druids were o f t e n c i t e d as o c c i d e n t a l counterpar t s of the o r i e n t a l Hermetic p r i s c i t h e o l o g i . These p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , t r e a t e d f i r s t i n France by Symphorien Champier, had been f i r s t revered as p r e - C h r i s t i a n r e c i p i e n t s of a d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n by F i c i n o . S e v e r a l l i s t s of p r i s c i t h e o l o g i appear ing i n h i s t r e a t i s e on P l a t o n i c theology gave some a u t h o r i t y f o r l a t e r w r i t e r s ' use of t h e i r works i n a C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t , whether E v a n g e l i s t , P r o t e s t a n t or C a t h o l i c . But the a u t h o r i t y of S t . August ine h i m s e l f and of e a r l y Church F a t h e r s , n o t a b l y Clement of A l e x a n d r i a and E u s e b i u s , was probably e q u a l l y important f o r a p o s t - T r i d e n t i n e C a t h o l i c such as La B o d e r i e . P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a ' s f o c u s s i n g of i n t e r e s t i n the Jewish Kabbalah was j u s t i f i e d by j u s t such p a t r i s t i c a u t h o r i t i e s . Furthermore the r e l e v a n c e of the Kabbalah to C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s was made e x p l i c i t by f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h century I t a l i a n churchmen such as G i l l e s of V i t e r b o and F r a n c i s c o G i o r g i o . La B o d e r i e ' s extended t r a n s l a t i o n s of F i c i n o , P i c o and G i o r g i o , as w e l l as h i s i m i t a t i o n s of the Psalms and of "hymns" of the e a r l y Church F a t h e r s , Hermetic t h e o l o g i and I t a l i a n C h r i s t i a n humanists are a l l w i t n e s s to h i s dependence on the f o r e g o i n g t r a d i t i o n . I t i s indeed that s y n c r e t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n based on the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i 5 which informs most of h i s work as C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t and C h r i s t i a n poe t . R e l a t e d to tha t t r a d i t i o n , f u r t h e r m o r e , i s the m i l l e n a r i a n i l l u m i n i s m La Boder ie adopted from the v i s i o n a r y Gui l laume P o s t e l . For La B o d e r i e , who was p r i m a r i l y a l i n g u i s t and p h i l o l o g i s t , the g r e a t e s t o r i e n t a l i s t of h i s day a f t e r P o s t e l and P o s t e l ' s chosen s u b s t i t u t e i n work on the 1571 P o l y g l o t B i b l e of Antwerp, the i n f l u e n c e of P o s t e l was a l l - p e r v a s i v e . That i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n La B o d e r i e ' s work i n h i s use of K a b b a l i s t themes and images based on P o s t e l l i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Zohar , and i n h i s adopt ion of P o s t e l ' s m i l l e n a r i a n pronouncements f o r h i s own h i s t o r i c o - p r o p h e t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of F r a n c e ' s pre-eminent r o l e i n u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y . As a f o l l o w e r of P o s t e l , La Boder ie was able to l i n k h i s Counter -Reformat ion propagandis t purpose of support of the one u n i v e r s a l C a t h o l i c Church w i t h an a l l i e d r e l i g i o - n a t i o n a l i s t i c purpose of support of the French k i n g as d i v i n e l y - a p p o i n t e d u n i v e r s a l monarch. Thus P o s t e l encouraged i n L a Boder ie a l a t e - m e d i e v a l m y s t i c a l and even a Crusading s p i r i t not u n f o r e i g n to the age of Henry I I I . The a s s o c i a t i o n of t h i s s p i r i t w i t h the l i b e r a l humanism of e a r l y Renaissance f i g u r e s such as F i c i n o and P i c o lends to L a B o d e r i e ' s work a s i n g u l a r f l a v o u r . La B o d e r i e ' s o f t e n a n a c h r o n i s t i c themes and p o e t i c technique are i n c o n t r a s t a l s o w i t h h i s repeated p leas f o r a new r o l e f o r the poe t . I t i s a f u r t h e r purpose of the present work to s tudy La B o d e r i e ' s use of symbol i c imagery and to f i x h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the new concept 6 of the p o e t ' s r o l e which evolved d u r i n g the l a s t t h i r d of the s i x t e e n t h century i n F r a n c e . In choosing to present h i m s e l f as the new Orpheus, La Boder ie was not o n l y f a i t h f u l to the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t e l e v a t i o n of Orpheus to the r o l e of p r i n c i p a l m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e of i t s " p o e t i c theo logy" but a l s o e x p l i c i t i n h i s d e s i r e to a s s i g n to the poet the r o l e of d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d i n i t i a t e and e t h i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l s i n g e r . The a s s o c i a t i o n of Orpheus w i t h David had l o n g been e s t a b l i s h e d . Both were cons idered exemplary p o e t - s i n g e r s as w e l l as p r o p h e t - p r i e s t s . As such they had used m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " to t r a n s m i t a d i v i n e message and so to t rans form a wayward p e o p l e . To La B o d e r i e , a s s o c i a t e of the B a i f Academy of Poe t ry and Music where such e t h i c a l l y - i n f l u e n t i a l m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " were s t u d i e d and where i m i t a t i o n s of the Psalms were under taken , h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h Orpheus seemed f u l l y j u s t i f i e d . La Boder ie e n t r e a t s h i s contemporary poets to abandon " E p i c u r e a n " m a t e r i a l i s m and hedonism and the v a n i t i e s of Venus and her b l i n d archer i n favour of a l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s s p i r i t u a l i l l u m i n a t i o n i n d e v o t i o n to the one t r u e God. Thus was Orpheus supposed, a c c o r d i n g to many Renaissance w r i t e r s , to have r e j e c t e d Greek p o l y t h e i s m i n favour of a m o n o t h e i s t i c and even T r i n i t a r i a n i n s p i r a t i o n . Furthermore , the d o c t r i n e of " v e i l e d t r u t h " j u s t i f i e s La B o d e r i e ' s Orphic a n a l o g y . R e l a t e d to Hermetic correspondences between the microcosm and the macrocosm, and c e n t r a l to s y n c r e t i z i n g F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s ' study of the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i and to t h e i r 7 concept of the image as embodiment of the essence , that d o c t r i n e c l a r i f i e s La B o d e r i e ' s concept of the poet as l e a r n e d i n i t i a t e whose i n s i g h t and i n s p i r a t i o n q u a l i f y him to seek out and to d i s c l o s e an e t e r n a l e x t r a - p e r s o n a l t r u t h . Thus even before Du B a r t a s , La Boder ie attempted to found a new C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m , d i s t i n c t i n i t s m o r a l i z i n g purpose from the i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l m y s t i c a l poe t ry of the l a t e - s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y - s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ye t r e l a t e d to i t s s p i r i t u a l i t y . I n summary, the present work attempts to show the re levance of the work of Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie to the s tudy of French Renaissance l i t e r a t u r e . In the f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e h i s a d o p t i o n of the P l a t o n i c - H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n was t y p i c a l of many w r i t e r s of the Renaissance , h i s work p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o P l a t o n i c - K a b b a l i s t i c c u r r e n t s of thought i n f l u e n t i a l i n the l a s t h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h century i n France . In the second p l a c e , h i s use of symbol i c imagery d e r i v e d from tha t t r a d i t i o n and adapted to a new concept of C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e v o l u t i o n of French p o e t r y . A NOTE ON THE TEXTS Quotat ions from La B o d e r i e ' s works r e t a i n the s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l s i x t e e n t h century e d i t i o n s . M i s p r i n t s are c o r r e c t e d o n l y where the t rue r e a d i n g i s i n no p o s s i b l e doubt . 8 Consonantal ' i ' and ' u ' have throughout been rendered as ' j ' and ' v ' r e s p e c t i v e l y , and a l l ampersands and a b b r e v i a t i o n s r e s o l v e d . 9 CHAPTER I I THE MAN AND THE INTELLECTUAL CLIMATE OF HIS WORK There i s no a u t h o r i t a t i v e biography of Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e . In h i s own century La C r o i x du Maine and Du V e r d i e r r e p o r t e d l i t t l e of h i s l i f e and even some of t h e i r f a c t s are inaccurate." ' " L i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s from the seventeenth century to the present day have based t h e i r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of h i s l i f e and of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s on re ferences to h i m s e l f i n h i s own works and 2 on d e d i c a t i o n s of some of those works . The f o l l o w i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l o u t l i n e i s based l a r g e l y on f a c t s to be found i n the work of M. F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , who has r e c o n s t r u c t e d La B o d e r i e ' s l i f e as f a r 3 as i t i s p o s s i b l e to do so . Our purpose f o r i n c l u d i n g a b iography i n the present study i s out of a d e s i r e f o r completeness . I t i s presumed tha t the poet was born on August 9, 1541 a t 4 the manor of La Boder ie near F a l a i s e i n Normandy. He was the e l d e s t of e i g h t c h i l d r e n of Jacques Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , of whom two other c h i l d r e n gained fame, A n t o i n e as ambassador and N i c o l a s as 10 c o l l a b o r a t o r w i t h Guy on the 1572 P o l y g l o t B i b l e of Antwerp. A f t e r e a r l y s t u d i e s at Caen,^ i n c a . 1562 Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie went to P a r i s where he was a s tudent of Hebrew at the T r i l i n g u a l C o l l e g e . ^ By 1568 he had d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y as a l i n g u i s t to be chosen by Gui l laume P o s t e l , the g r e a t e s t o r i e n t a l i s t of the day, to be h i s replacement at Antwerp g i n work on the P o l y g l o t B i b l e commissioned by P h i l i p I I of S p a i n . La B o d e r i e , accompanied by h i s b r o t h e r N i c o l a s , there completed h i s S y r o - C h a l d a e i c d i c t i o n a r y as w e l l as the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n t o Hebrew and the t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o L a t i n and Greek of the S y r i a c New Testament. This important p i e c e of c r i t i c a l e d i t i n g which he accomplished i n e i g h t e e n months of arduous work l e f t him p h y s i c a l l y exhausted to the p o i n t of almost m o r t a l i l l n e s s . 1 ^ He was to r e c e i v e no monetary recompense f o r t h i s w o r k . 1 1 He d i d w i n f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , however, the p r a i s e of some of h i s most eminent contemporaries i n the humanist 12 R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . La B o d e r i e ' s f i r s t p o e t i c work, L ' E n c y c l i e des s e c r e t s de l ' 6 t e r n i t 6 , was p u b l i s h e d i n 1571 a t Antwerp by C h r i s t o p h e r P l a n t i n , 13 p u b l i s h e r of the P o l y g l o t B i b l e . I t i s . a n attempt at " s c i e n t i f i c " C a t h o l i c a p o l o g e t i c s . 14 E a r l y i n 1572 La Boder ie was once aga in i n P a r i s . The t i t l e pages of h i s l a t e r works i n d i c a t e that he was there g i v e n a p l a c e i n the r o y a l household as s e c r e t a r y and i n t e r p r e t e r of f o r e i g n languages f o r the k i n g ' s b r o t h e r , the Due d ' A l e n c o n to whom he had d e d i c a t e d h i s E n c y c l i e . 11 1572, the year of La B o d e r i e ' s r e t u r n to P a r i s , was the year of the great comet whose appearance i s s a i d to have s t i r r e d more s p e c u l a t i o n than C o p e r n i c u s ' n e w l y - p u b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s . " ^ For La B o d e r i e , as f o r h i s s p i r i t u a l master Gui l laume P o s t e l , the comet's appearance and s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n over P a r i s was cosmic c o n f i r m a t i o n of a p o c a l y p t i c p r o p h e c i e s . La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the s p e c u l a t i o n s on the comet by Mugnoz, a Spanish H e b r a i c i s t and mathemat ic ian , was p u b l i s h e d i n 1574, accompanied by La B o d e r i e ' s own p e r s u a s i v e "Cant ique sur l a n o u v e l l e e s t o i l l e ou apparence lumineuse q u i s ' e s t monstree au c i e l depuis l ' o n z e ou douzieme de november 1572 jusques a present 20 de J a n v i e r 1574. L e q u e l cant ique f u t d e s l o r s l e u e t presents a t r e s haut e t t r e s p u i s s a n t P r i n c e Monseigneur l e Due d ' A l e n c o n , f i l s e t f r e r e du Roy, au chasteau du Louvre a P a r i s . 1574 saw the p u b l i c a t i o n of a second t r a n s l a t i o n , even more p o l e m i c a l i n s p i r i t than tha t on the comet, the C o n f u s i o n de l a  sec te de Muhamed by Juan Andres , a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t converted from Mohammedanism. No record remains of La B o d e r i e ' s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the years 1574 to 1578. Monsieur Secre t a t t r i b u t e s t h i s s i l e n c e to ravages of the wars of r e l i g i o n , q u o t i n g a l a t e r b i o g r a p h e r of the La Boder ie f a m i l y who recounts the p i l l a g e of the Abbey of S a i n t -J e a n - d e - F a l a i s e and the r e s u l t i n g l o s s of many of La B o d e r i e ' s works . _ 18 xn m a n u s c r i p t . By 1578 La Boder ie was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the r o y a l h o u s e h o l d , " S e c r e t a i r e de Monseigneur , et son I n t e r p r e t e aux langues 12 p e r e g r i n e s " ( G a l l i a d e , t i t l e page) . I t has not y e t been shown d e f i n i t i v e l y what h i s p e r s o n a l r o l e may have been in the c i r c l e of 19 the Due d ' A l e n c o n . Frances Yates has advanced p r o p o s a l s , however, as to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s he formed among the a r t i s t s and poets of the 20 r o y a l household and the B a i f Academy of P o e t r y and M u s i c . La B o d e r i e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s of 1578 are h i s most i m p o r t a n t , not o n l y f o r t h e i r q u a n t i t y but a l s o f o r t h e i r i n d i c a t i o n of themes to which he r e t u r n e d c o n s t a n t l y . H i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the f i f t e e n t h century F l o r e n t i n e 21 N e o - P l a t o n i s t s i s seen i n s e v e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s : F i c i n o ' s De amore, and F i c i n o ' s De Christiana r e l i g i o n e p u b l i s h e d w i t h P i c o ' s O r a t i o de 22 d i g n i t a t i s h o m i n i s . The t r a n s l a t i o n of the K a b b a l i s t and Neo-23 P l a t o n i s t Francesco G i o r g i o ' s Harmonia mundi was c e n t r a l to La B o d e r i e ' s e x p r e s s i o n of h i s p o e t i c t h e o r i e s . The Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , which c o n t a i n not on ly t r a n s l a t i o n s of Church F a t h e r s , of Psalms and of works from v a r i o u s a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s but a l s o o r i g i n a l poems, i n d i c a t e the d i v e r s i t y of La B o d e r i e ' s sources as w e l l as h i s d e s i r e to counter -ba lance the e f f e c t s of P r o t e s t a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psa lms . F i n a l l y , La G a l l i a d e , ou De l a r e v o l u t i o n 25 des a r t s et sc iences shows La B o d e r i e ' s unique c o n s o l i d a t i o n of many c u r r e n t s of p h i l o s o p h y , myth and r e l i g i o n i n t o a m y s t i c o - n a t i o n a l i s t u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y and p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n . La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n 1581 r e i n f o r c e themes a l r e a d y found i n e a r l i e r works . T r a n s l a t i o n of C i c e r o ' s De deorum 26 n a t u r a was undertaken at the request of Henry I I I as p a r t of h i s 13 program of r e l i g i o u s r e s t o r a t i o n . The t r a n s l a t i o n of F i c i n o ' s 28 De v i t a t r i p l i c i r e c a l l s La B o d e r i e ' s constant theme of man's harmonious attunement to h i s own n a t u r e , to c r e a t i o n and to God. S i x o r i g i n a l sonnets appended to the t r a n s l a t i o n develop the theme w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the p o e t ' s own purpose i n w r i t i n g . I n 1582 there appeared the c o l l e c t i o n of D i v e r s e s meslanges poe' t iques, i n c l u d i n g o r i g i n a l works and t r a n s l a t i o n s or i m i t a t i o n s 29 from a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . In a l l , these wo'rks which i n c l u d e La B o d e r i e ' s e a r l i e s t remain ing composi t ions show him as a s y n c r e t i z i n g C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t . The 1584 e d i t i o n of La B o d e r i e ' s e a r l i e r t r a n s l a t i o n of the 30 New Testament i s d e d i c a t e d to Henry I I I . The d e d i c a t i o n , the l a s t of La B o d e r i e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s , shows him f i r e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d z e a l to persuade the k i n g to ac t i n accordance w i t h the m i l l e n a r i a n prophec ies which had shaped much of the p o e t ' s work. L i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s s i n c e B a i l l e t have f i x e d Guy Le Fevre de 31 La B o d e r i e ' s death i n 1598. LA BODERIE'S CONCEPT OF HIS HISTORICAL ROLE The f a c t s of La B o d e r i e ' s l i f e are indeed few. H i s re ferences to h i s concept of h i s h i s t o r i c a l r o l e r e v e a l him however as a humanist and poet , the o r i e n t a t i o n of whose w r i t i n g s i s t y p i c a l 14 of that of many o thers of h i s t i m e . La Boder ie s t u d i e d and wrote from c a . 1555 to 1584. I t was a p e r i o d marked by r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s between P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c sec ts and l a t e r between the C a t h o l i c L i g u e u r s and the P o l i t i q u e s p a r t i s a n s of Henry I I I . This p e r i o d of r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c i s m was a l s o a time of r e l i g i o u s doubt occas ioned i n p a r t by the growing 32 i n f l u e n c e s of r a t i o n a l i s t thought . Many turned to the o c c u l t s c i e n c e s whose magicians and medic ine men f requented the c o u r t of C a t h e r i n e 33 de M e d i c i . Even though he was a s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l e of the v i s i o n a r y and 34 proc la imed h e r e t i c Gui l laume P o s t e l , La Boder ie a f f i r m e d a r d e n t l y and s i n c e r e l y h i s adherence to the C a t h o l i c cause which he defended by re ference to a l l o ther known a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n s . He may be seen as a unique a p o l o g i s t and would-be prophet p e c u l i a r to t h i s time of i • • * , 3 5 r e l i g i o u s ferment . La Boder ie saw h i s m i s s i o n as e s s e n t i a l l y r e v e l a t o r y ; as the l earned and v i r t u o u s poet -prophet he was l i t e r a l l y to remove the v e i l s which from the time of Adam had guarded the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " from the uncomprehending gaze of i m p e r f e c t man. The epigraph to La G a l l i a d e s t a t e s most s u c c i n c t l y h i s concept of h i s r o l e as v i s i o n a r y : C ' e s t l a g l o i r e de Dieu l a p a r o l e cacher , C ' e s t l a g l o i r e des Rois l a p a r o l e c h e r c h e r . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n which a r i s e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h i s v e r s e from the Book of Proverbs XXV, 2 i s : who are the k i n g s who may w i n 15 g l o r y i n s e a r c h i n g out the t r u t h ? We f i n d i n P o s t e l ' s w r i t i n g s that a " k i n g " i s a v i r t u o u s man who has l e a r n e d to overcome h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e ; he i s "de s o i 36 v i c t o r i e u x . " For La Boder ie the t r u e poet i s not on ly the " k i n g " a c c o r d i n g to P o s t e l ' s d e f i n i t i o n , but a l s o the l earned i n i t i a t e i n t o the m y s t e r i e s . Both "docte e t v e r t u e u x , " the t r u e poet has r e f u s e d t r a n s i e n t and e s s e n t i a l l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l e a r t h l y rewards i n favour of d e v o t i o n to study i n the s e r v i c e of e t e r n a l t r u t h . The second q u e s t i o n suggested by the epigraph from the Book of Proverbs i s : f o r what reason d i d La Boder ie b e l i e v e h i m s e l f c a l l e d to r e v e a l the t r u t h he had sought out? As Secret has p o i n t e d o u t , i n P o s t e l ' s m i l l e n a r i a n v i s i o n the end of the s i x t e e n t h century c a l l e d f o r r e v e l a t i o n of the 37 m y s t e r i e s to a l l men i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the new age. In the passage r e f e r r e d to above he wrote of " n o s t r e temps de l a R e s t i t u t i o n de 38 toutes c h o s e s . " In h i s Thresor des P r o p h e c i e s , which we know was 39 copied by h i s d i s c i p l e La Boder ie he i s even more e x p l i c i t . A c c o r d i n g to P o s t e l a l l the prophec ies c o n f i r m that a new age i s imminent, a new age of which he i s not o n l y the prophet but a l s o the s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r , the "p.ape A n g e l i k e " to the u n i v e r s a l monarch who, he d e c l a r e d , was to be the k i n g of France . La B o d e r i e , as d i s c i p l e of P o s t e l , endeavoured to prepare man f o r t h a t r e s t o r a t i o n of man's p r i m a l 40 v i s i o n which had been obscured by Adam's s i n . La Boder ie echoes r e p e a t e d l y h i s m a s t e r ' s a p o c a l y p t i c b e l i e f s , s u b s c r i b i n g to the J o a c h i m i t e prophec ies of the new coming 16 of C h r i s t a f t e r s i x thousand years and adducing as proof of t h e i r v a l i d i t y not o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n s on the remarkable comet of 1572 but a l s o the a s t o n i s h i n g r e s t i t u t i o n of the a r t s and l e t t e r s i n the French Renaissance . P o s t e l had f i x e d the new coming f o r 1583. Secret conc ludes , i n f a c t , tha t i f La Boder ie can be q u a l i f i e d as an " i l l u m i n f e " l i k e h i s master , then the p o e t ' s d e s i r e to r e s t o r e to man h i s " v i s i o n " of t r u t h s l o n g v e i l e d i n order that man be r e b o r n at the new coming 42 of C h r i s t can be seen as the key to h i s p o e t r y of r e n e w a l . This v i s i o n a r y aspect of La B o d e r i e ' s work cannot however account a lone f o r the importance he g ives to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of symbols . As a constant admirer and t r a n s l a t o r of the f i f t e e n t h century F l o r e n t i n e 43 N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , La Boder ie adopted not o n l y t h e i r s y n c r e t i s t i c r e l i g i o u s o u t l o o k but a l s o an important a t t i t u d e about the a r t i s t and poet as l e a r n e d i n t e r p r e t e r of symbols . Gombrich has shown that a concept ion of r e v e l a t i o n through study and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of symbolism gained new importance i n the 44 Renaissance w i t h the r e v i v a l of N e o - P l a t o n i s m . For La B o d e r i e , as f o r P i c o , the u n i v e r s e i s "one v a s t system of correspondences i n 45 which each l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e p o i n t s to another l e v e l . " A c c e p t i n g to a c e r t a i n degree the N e o - P l a t o n i c i d e a of a h i e r a r c h y of w o r l d s , La Boder ie too sought i n a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r s a key to the "correspondences" which are v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the unique t r u t h . F o l l o w i n g God's w i l l the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i had h i d d e n the t r u t h i n myster ious symbols to prevent i t s be ing prematurely p r o f a n e d . The time of r e s t i t u t i o n and of r e v e l a t i o n was a t hand. Thus f o l l o w i n g h i s 17 N e o - P l a t o n i s t predecessors he hoped to f i n d i n the a n c i e n t f a t h e r s of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a a means of unders tanding the symbols . A l though La Boder ie minimized the importance of the c l a s s i c a l Greek and L a t i n myths as r e v e l a t i o n s of t r u t h , he accepted the n a t u r a l w o r l d as a h i e r o g l y p h of t r u t h which cou ld be understood i f c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d , and he emphasized the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the legendary Z o r o a s t e r , the Chaldaean O r a c l e s , Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , Orpheus, Pythagoras and e s p e c i a l l y the Jewish Kabbalah . L a B o d e r i e ' s concept ion of h i s r o l e of d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d and l e a r n e d i n t e r p r e t e r of symbols f i n d s s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s repeated re fe rence to h i m s e l f as the new Orpheus. For La Boder ie as f o l l o w e r of the K a b b a l i s t b e l i e f i n the e s s e n t i a l v a l u e of the name i t s e l f as c o n t a i n i n g the substance , the f a c t tha t an anagram of h i s own name, Guidon L e f e v r e , produced " L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE" was proof of h i s c o n s e c r a t i o n to and i n s p i r a t i o n by the One, God, the unique and e t e r n a l T r u t h . The importance f o r Renaissance w r i t e r s of the N e o - P l a t o n i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Orpheus myth has been se t f o r t h by D . P . W a l k e r . I t was not M a r s i l i o F i c i n o alone who saw Orpheus as the p r o t o t y p e of 46 the i n s p i r e d and i n s p i r i n g p o e t - p r i e s t . For the Renaissance P l a t o n i s t s i n g e n e r a l , as f o r La Boder ie the a p o l o g i s t , the r i c h n e s s of connotat ions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the myth of Orpheus as h e r o , r e l i g i o u s teacher , p h i l o s o p h e r and poet r e i n f o r c e d the persuas iveness of the Orphica (the w r i t i n g s a t t r i b u t e d to Orpheus) as p a r t of the p r i s c a  t h e o l o g i a i n c o n f i r m i n g the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of P l a t o n i s m w i t h 18 C h r i s t i a n i t y . As p o e t , La Boder ie invoked above a l l the s p i r i t of Orpheus the legendary s i n g e r possessed of P l a t o n i c f u r o r , d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d to l e a d the people to harmonious concord through a v i s i o n 48 of h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l l y r e v e a l e d knowledge. La B o d e r i e makes c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e to h i s concept of h i s own r o l e as p o e t . Orpheus and D a v i d were f o r him the models of the t r u e p o e t , i n s p i r e d by " the One," the t r u e God, to guide men to Him 49 by the enchantment of t h e i r m u s i c . The motto p r i n t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g and end of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s , s i n g s f o r t h h i s c o n t i n u i n g p o e t i c a s p i r a t i o n : CAPIQE AA&IA Op$IK-»2 f£.N BPT"0| ("May Holy David s p r o u t f o r t h as One o r p h i c a l l y " ) . " ^ The most f u l l y developed p r e s e n t a t i o n of La B o d e r i e ' s concept of the p o e t ' s r o l e i s to be found i n a l o n g e x h o r t a t i o n to the poets of h i s day, i n which t r a n s l a t i o n s of Orphic fragments and of the Psalms are embedded i n order to show tha t the same God i n s p i r e d b o t h . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the poem addressed to La B o d e r i e ' s contemporaries i s o f f e r e d i n an attempt to c l a r i f y La B o d e r i e ' s p o s i t i o n p r e l i m i n a r y to a p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s major w o r k s . The " c a n t i q u e " e n t i t l e d "Guidon Le Fevre de La Boder ie aus Poetes de ce Temps, se jouant a bon e s c i e n t sur 1'Anagrammatisme de son nom, L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE" was p u b l i s h e d i n 1571 w i t h o ther s h o r t poems a t the end of the E n c y c l i e . La Boder ie i s t h e r e f o r e presumably a d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f to the poets of the P16iade and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . He expresses f i r s t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r p o e t i c f u r o r : 19 Poetes excellens, Espris venus des Cieus . . . (Encyclie, p. 189) He believes them to have been led astray i n t h e i r excessive i m i t a t i o n of and admiration for c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y , however, and emphasizes that the immortality which they sought could be won only through a f a i t h f u l presentation of the t r u l y divine i n s p i r a t i o n of the One true God: Vous le s vieus admirans admirables aus vieus, Ausquels l e Luth Gregeois, de qui l e chant enchante, Rend l a Lyre de Dieu beaucoup moins allechante: Je vous p r i de penser que l a douceur du son Ne se d o i t pas nommer l'Ame de l a chanson: Mais l'Ame est l e subjet que l a Muse veut suivre, Qui s ' i l est e t e r n e l , e t e r n e l l e f a i t v i v r e La chanson avec l u i . . . (Encyclie, pp. 189-190) Of a l l the ancient poets Orpheus alone, d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d singer and theologian, i s worthy of i m i t a t i o n : Imitez pour l e moins pour avoir plus d'honneur D'entre les Sonneurs Grecs tout l e premier Sonneur. (Encyclie, p. 190) The f i r s t stanza closes with a couplet which i s to be repeated with v a r i a t i o n s as a r e f r a i n throughout the poem: Ecoutez l e s beaus Chans de sa Lyre etofee, Comme Orfee est unique, aussi L'UN GUIDE ORFEE. (Encyclie, p. 190) There follow f i v e stanzas con s i s t i n g mainly of t r a n s l a t i o n s and adaptations of Orphic hymns designed to confirm Orpheus as one of the ancient fathers of the p r i s c a theologia whose writings were interpreted by s y n c r e t i z i n g Renaissance Neo-Platonists as v e i l e d 52 presentations of the one eternal truth. Greek polytheism i s 20 interpreted i n the Orphic hymns as a mask of monotheism: "Voy l e Verbe d i v i n . . . "II est UN, de par soy, toutes choses encore "Lui-memes a cree, et en e l l e s i l est, . . . "Et J u p i t e r est Un, un Pluton, Bacchus Un, "Un S o l e i l , Un Dieu Seul, a tous ces noms commun. "Jove est l e premier Dieu, Jove est l e dernier Dieu, "Jove est principe et Chef, Jove est f i n , et m i l i e u , "Et de Jove tout est: . . . "Seul et unique Dieu, de tout l'autheur supreme. (Encyclie, pp. 190-192) Not only i s Orpheus made to confirm the unity of revealed truth, but also he i s interpreted as having announced the C h r i s t i a n T r i n i t y i n Unity: Meme ce grand Harpeur a voulu designer Le F i l s , et saint E s p r i t pour les siens enseigner. "La Sagesse, d i t - i l , fut l a mere premiere "Avec l e dous Amour, 6 Bouche de lumiere! (Encyclie, p. 1 9 2 ) 5 3 In the seven stanzas of the second section Orpheus as the d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d singer i s shown to have h i s counterpart i n David, with translations of psalms of the one r e i n f o r c i n g t ranslations of hymns of the other: "Tu temperes, d i t - i l , tout ce grand monde creus "Seul aveques ta Harpe aus accords sonoreus. Que veut i c i chanter ce Harpeur et Poete Sinon ce qu'a chante' l e Harpeur et Prof£te Que 1'Esprit saint dleut quand i l voulut changer La h o u l l e t t e en un sceptre, et en Roy l e Berger? "Les Cieus vont racontant l a g l o i r e a Dieu rendue, "Et l'oeuvre de ses mains montre leur gtendue . . . (Encyclie, p. 193) The r e f r a i n i s accordingly modified i n these stanzas to: 21 Ecoutez l e s beaus Chans de l e u r L y r e e to fee S i L ' U N guide D a v i d , a u s s i L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 193) La Boder ie emphasizes the u n i t y of t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n : On d i r o i t que l ' 0 r f £ e a u r o i t ouy D a v i d , Ou que David du son d 'Orf£e se r a v i t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 193) The u n i t y i s not f o r t u i t o u s . F o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a suggested by F i c i n o , La Boder ie p l a c e s Orpheus i n the l i n e of i n h e r i t o r s of the Mosaic t r a d i t i o n : Car Orfee en Egypte aus sacrez l i v r e s l e u t . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 1 9 6 ) 5 4 He p o i n t s out t h e i r common e t h i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n c i v i l i z i n g and e l e v a t i n g t h e i r peoples by the p o e t i c power of t h e i r d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n : Oyez j e vous en p r i ce q u ' i l va r e c o r d a n t , Oyez comme es t Orfee a David a c c o r d a n t . David c o n d u i t aus mons l e s troupeaus de sa L y r e , Et de sa L y r e OrfSe a soy l e s bes tes t i r e . David a gouverne" par L o i s l e peuple H£brieu, Et l e sacre 0 r f £ e i n t e r p r ^ t e de D i e u A d^tourne" du meurtre e t v i v r e deshonneste Les hommes i m i t a n s toute sauvage b e s t e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 195) A t r u l y s u p e r n a t u r a l power was i n v e s t e d i n D a v i d and Orpheus, supreme examples of the poet devoted to hymning the One God: Et a sa L y r e Orfee un t e l accord p r e s t a , Que l e s f l e u v e s courans tout c o u r t i l a r r e s t a , Et f e i s t que des f o r e s t s et des rochers l a danse Saute loyent apres l u i i m i t a n s sa cadance. Ou pour d i r e l e vray sans p l u s p o e t i s e r , I I sceut s i b i e n de D i e u l e s ouvrages p r i s e r , Et Nature sonder en toute chose i n f u s e , Que p l u s grand que Nature on f e i n t l ' a r t de sa Muse. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 195) True to t h e i r v o c a t i o n , these poets were able not o n l y to move the 22 n a t u r a l w o r l d but a l s o to combat the power of E v i l i t s e l f : Avec ses Chans d i v i n s aus v i l l e s et aus mons David sceut empecher l a f o r c e des Demons, Et avecques sa Harpe, et ses Odes s e r a i n e s Sceut Orfee enchanter l e dous chant des S e r e i n e s , Ou b i e n des v o l u p t e z , e t des d e l i c e s seurs Qui l e s hommes morte l s p i p e n t de l e u r s douceurs ( E n c y c l i e , p . 196) The f o r e g o i n g examples of a common i n s p i r a t i o n of two revered p o e t - p r o p h e t - p r i e s t s are f o r La Boder ie c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e . u n i t y of t r u t h and of the harmony of the w o r l d which that u n i t y i m p l i e s : Et que d i r a i - j e p lus? David chante en e s p r i t Le beau Chant n u p t i a l de l ' E g l i s e et de C h r i s t , Et Orfee a c o n j o i n t par sa Muse d i s c r e t e La Nature avec Dieu d ' a l l i a n c e s e c r e t e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 196) In the t h i r d p a r t of the poem La Boder ie addresses h i m s e l f once a g a i n d i r e c t l y to h i s contemporar ies . He assumes a p o l e m i c a l tone to induce them to f o l l o w the examples of Orpheus and D a v i d , to seek out that u n i t y of t r u t h and to hymn that harmony. They are to abandon a l l immoral verse d e d i c a t e d to the b l i n d archer Cupid and i n f a c t a l l i m i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l legend and myth. Pegasus ' wings are u s e l e s s ; those of the dove of God can a lone e l e v a t e t h e i r songs . I g n o r i n g Parnassus , they should l i f t up t h e i r eyes unto the t r u e magni f icence of C h r i s t i a n i n s p i r a t i o n : Je vous p r i e et s u p p l i e , 6 F r a n c o i s chantres dous, A i n s i qu 'eus desormais que L ' U n nous guide t o u s , Et p l u s 1 'aveugle A r c h e r , n i ses f a i s impudiques Ne servent d'argument a r e m p l i r noz C a n t i q u e s : Et de mensonges ores n ' e s t i m o n rendre beaus Nos v e r s , a i n s i que f o n t l e s p e i n t r e s l e u r s Tab leaus . 23 Le grand Tableau du C i e l , et l a r i c h e p e i n t u r e De ce Rond Ornement, e t toute l a Nature Du grand P e i n t r e montrant l e s oeuvres et v a l e u r s , Nous donneront assez de p l a i s a n t e s c o u l e u r s . Et ne mendion p l u s pour p e i n d r e une Chim£re, Les contes monstrueus d 'Hes iode e t d'Hom£re: Que 1 ' E s p r i t s a i n t de Dieu en colombe v o i l e 1 Nous ouvre l e sourgeon, non l e Cheval a i l £ : Et C h r i s t l e mont des mons nous s o i t en n o s t r e Europe, Comme i l e s t homme et D i e u , Parnasse a double crope . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 197) The r e f r a i n i s once aga in m o d i f i e d to enhance the tone of e x h o r t a t i o n : Et sonne sa bonte n o s t r e L y r e e t o f e e , Que L ' U N nous guide t o u s , comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 197) The theme of v i r t u e as the f i r s t r e q u i s i t e f o r a t rue poet i s e l a b o r a t e d . La Boder ie condemns the s u p e r f i c i a l hedonism of the c o u r t p o e t s : Ou 1 ' E n f a n t que Ion p e i n t avecques un bandeau Bandez nous t i e n d r a - i l t o u s j o u r s de son cordeau? ( E n c y c l i e , p . 1 9 8 ) 5 5 He despises c l a s s i c a l sources i n as f a r as they are r e l a t e d to the " faus G r e g e o i s , " p o l y t h e i s t i c i d o l - w o r s h i p e r s whom he d i s t i n g u i s h e s from the " t r u e " p o e t - p r i e s t s of the mystery r e l i g i o n s ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 197-198). H i s condemnation of the Greeks extends even to i m i t a t i o n of Greek terms: Et Cinges n ' u s o n p l u s de tan t d ' e t ranges mots De ces Cinges Gregeois p l u s l a s c i f s que marmots. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 19 7) La Boder ie compares P l a t o ' s banishment of the poets from h i s R e p u b l i c 24 w i t h h i s own c a l l to p e r s o n a l v i r t u e i n accordance w i t h the example of C h r i s t : Et s i P l a t o n b a n i t de sa f e i n t e C i t e Les Poetes menteurs p l e i n s d 1 i m p u d i c i t e , C h r i s t q u i nous a b a s t i l a C i t e s u p e r n e l l e Nous d e f f e n d r a - i l p o i n t que nous n ' e n t r i o n s en e l l e ? C h r i s t es t ne chastement d'une chaste P u c e l l e , Et chaste i l a vescu en n o s t r e c h a i r m o r t e l l e , Et l e s chastes i l ayme, et en f a i t ses mignons: Soyon done chastes t o u s , et a C h r i s t nous j o i g n o n s : Chastes de corps et coeur , chastes en n o s t r e d i r e , Et r i e n que chastete* n o s t r e vers ne s o u p i r e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 1 9 8 ) 5 6 M o d i f i c a t i o n of the r e f r a i n i n the two s tanzas on v i r t u e so f tens the tone p r e p a r a t o r y to the f i n a l hymning of the One: B r i e f sonne chastement n o s t r e L y r e e t o f e e , Que L ' U N nous guide t o u s , comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 198) The f o u r s tanzas of the f i n a l s e c t i o n are indeed a hymn to the p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y which w i t h i t s c o r o l l a r y of harmony can be seen as the l e i t m o t i f o f a l l La B o d e r i e ' s work . The f i n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the r e f r a i n repeats h i s e n t r e a t y to h i s contemporaries to f o l l o w h i s example to a poet ry of C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m : Sonne done L 'UN par tout n o s t r e L y r e e t o f e e , Que L ' U N nous guide t o u s , comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 200) La Boder ie f i r s t draws a n a l o g i e s of the supreme u n i t y of God i n every realm of n a t u r e , and i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s : Toutes l e s p i e r r e s t i r e une Pantaure a s o y , Le l i s de toutes f l e u r s es t 1 'unique et s e u l Roy . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 198-199) 25 The f e r v o u r of h i s i n v o c a t i o n to t h i s p r i n c i p l e of U n i t y as 58 p e r f e c t i o n i s moving w i t n e s s of La B o d e r i e ' s e s s e n t i a l f a i t h i n a u n i v e r s a l harmony. The m u l t i p l i c i t y and the d i v e r s i t y of n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l f a c t o r s , even t h e i r c o n t r a s t s and c o n t r a r i e t i e s are f o r h im a p r o f u s i o n of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the supreme One which i s a t once t h e i r source and t h e i r end: 0 p a r f a i t e U n i t e q u i te peut l i m i t e r ? 0 p a r f a i t e Unite" q u i te peut i m i t e r ? A i n s i que l a Lumiere es t p l u s digne que l 'ombre A i n s i es t l ' U n i t e " p l u s digne que l e Nombre. Et comme es t tout l e Temps c l o s de l ' E t e r n i t i , A i n s i es t tout l e Nombre enc los de l ' U n i t e . De tous l e s m e r v e i l l e u s n ' e s t p o i n t L ' U N l a m e r v e i l l e Qui son c o n t r a i r e u n i t e t 1 ' i m p a i r a p a r e i l l e ? Ce q u i en p l u s i e u r s pars se d i v i s e et resout Par l a f o r c e de L ' U N es t unique en son t o u t . Ce q u i par acc idens a nom de m u l t i t u d e Revient par l e s u j e t a L ' U N et s o l i t u d e . L 'UN es t de s o y , par s o y , e t en soy r e t o u r n e , L ' U N orne toute chose, e t de n u l es t orn£ : Bre f L ' U N es t sa r a c i n e , e t se nomme soymdme, L ' U N son Quarre , son Cube, et sa r e g i e supreme. Sonne done L ' U N par tout n o s t r e L y r e d t o f £ e , Que L ' U N nous guide t o u s , comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 200) Thus the c i r c l e i s La B o d e r i e ' s favoured symbol , f o r i t shows not on ly p e r f e c t form but a l s o p e r f e c t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n the continuous r e t u r n of a l l c r e a t i o n to the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e of U n i t y : Un C e r c l e entre l e s p lans es t ma FIGURE ELUE, Unique aus profons Corps l a S fere r e v o l u e : Et tout l e Monde es t un . . . „ ( E n c y c l i e , p . 200) The search f o r u n i t y i s the theme of which a l l La B o d e r i e ' s works are v a r i a t i o n s . The term i t s e l f , " l ' u n , " becomes here a f u r t h e r proof of the p o e t ' s r o l e as l e a r n e d and above a l l v i r t u o u s i n t e r p r e t e r 26 of the u n i v e r s a l harmony: S i vous r e t o u r n e z L ' U N , vous y t r o u v e r e z N u l , Et q u i veut nu a nu L ' U N admirable entendre , Faut q u ' i l s o i t N u l en soy pour en soy L ' U N comprendre: On ne c o n n o i s t p o i n t L ' U N f o r s par p r i v a c i o n De m a t i e r e , de sens , e t toute p a s s i o n . fif. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 200) The poem c l o s e s w i t h a s imple a f f i r m a t i o n of h i s f a i t h : E n f i n L ' U N e s t sans f i n , l ' E t e r n i t e " u n i e , Une l a Deite" e t e r n e l l e , i n f i n i e . Sonne done L ' U N par tout n o s t r e L y r e gtofge Que L ' U N nous guide t o u s , comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 201) La B o d e r i e ' s cho ice of Orpheus and David to e x e m p l i f y h i s concept of the r o l e of the poet i s thus s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i t i n d i c a t e s h i s deep c o n v i c t i o n that there i s one u n i v e r s a l t r u t h , however v a r i o u s l y i t may have been expressed , which the t rue poet i s c a l l e d to g l o r i f y . As has been shown above, La Boder ie f e l t that h i s p e r s o n a l v o c a t i o n was to r e v e a l tha t t r u t h which had p r e v i o u s l y been presented under d i v e r s e v e i l s . Secondly , the l i n k i n g of a Greek p o e t -p r i e s t and of a Hebrew p o e t - k i n g p o i n t s to La B o d e r i e ' s d e s i r e to search out i n a l l known a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n s ( t h a t i s the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a he d i s c o v e r e d p a r t l y from h i s F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t predecessors and p a r t l y through h i s own l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s ) c l u e s as to the " s e c r e t s " of e t e r n a l t r u t h . T h i r d l y , h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r two f i g u r e s esteemed by the Renaissance N e o - P l a t o n i s t s f o r t h e i r m u s i c a l as w e l l as f o r t h e i r v e r b a l e f f e c t s suggests the importance which he w i l l l a t e r g i v e to the rhythmic v e r s e of hymns and psa lms. 27 LA BODERIE'S SOURCES C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the u n i v e r s a l harmony composed by God the Arch imus icus was La B o d e r i e ' s purpose as a poet ; r e v i v a l of a n c i e n t wisdom was h i s means to that end. Even as a l a t e - R e n a i s s a n c e C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t La Boder ie had t h e c u r i o s i t y o f a n e a r l y h u m a n i s t p h i l o l o g i s t a n d a d e l i c a t e " temperament to which the N e o - P l a t o n i s t " p o e t i c t h e o l o g y " was p a r t i c u l a r l y 61 a t t r a c t i v e . Thus he r e t u r n e d c o n s t a n t l y to the body of supposedly a n c i e n t wisdom found i n the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a r e v i v e d by F i c i n o and the 62 N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . I n these e s o t e r i c w r i t i n g s , as w e l l as i n the Jewish Kabbalah and i n the a p o c a l y p t i c prophec ies of Gui l laume P o s t e l can be found the bases of La B o d e r i e ' s concept of u n i v e r s a l harmony That r e v e l a t i o n was to be e f f e c t e d through a r e v i v a l . In a n a l y z i n g F i c i n o ' s i d e a of h i s h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n K r i s t e l l e r has c l a r i f i e d such a n o t i o n as b e i n g l e s s a " r e v i v a l of c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y " than a " r e b i r t h of the a r t s guided by a n t i q u i t y ; " i t was a concept " d e r i v e d from c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s n o t i o n s of the M i d d l e Ages that r e f e r r e d o r i g i n a l l y to a p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and were l a t e r 63 a p p l i e d to the a r t s and to s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . " I n t h i s l i g h t La B o d e r i e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l founded on a r t i s t i c r e v i v a l i s c l e a r . The r e b i r t h of the a r t s was an i n d i c a t i o n of the 64 w i l l of d i v i n e Providence that the hour of r e v e l a t i o n was n e a r . I t i s c l e a r a l s o why as d i s c i p l e of F i c i n o he turned to the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a 28 as a u t h e n t i c test imony of a venerable t h e o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d through P l a t o ' s r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y to the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . La Boder ie was of course not alone i n f o l l o w i n g F i c i n o ' s p r o b i n g i n t o the s e c r e t s of the e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n . The s y n c r e t i z i n g process of f i n d i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i n a n c i e n t mystery r e l i g i o n s which was r e v i v e d i n the Renaissance by F i c i n o was 66 advanced even more r a d i c a l l y by P i c o . T h e i r I t a l i a n f o l l o w e r s adopted the o c c u l t r e v e l a t i o n s f o r i n t e r e s t s as d i v e r s e as t h e i r m a g i c o - a s t r o l o g i c a l teachings or the concepts of symbol ic imagery 6 7 developed by F i c i n o and P i c o . D. P . Walker has shown that French w r i t e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a was d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n f l u e n c e of these 6 8 I t a l i a n N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . The French were however both more c a u t i o u s w i t h regard to i m p l i c a t i o n s of magic , paganism and h e r e s y , and a l s o more p a t r i o t i c i n that they p r a i s e d the D r u i d s as the e a r l i e s t of the sages a f t e r the F l o o d and even i n c l u d e d the medieva l S t . Denis i n the 69 l i n e of wise men i n r e c e i p t of the o r i g i n a l r e v e a l e d t r u t h . The French Renaissance was i n f l u e n c e d by the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a through f i g u r e s as d i v e r s e i n time and s p i r i t as L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s and Jean B o d i n . ^ Among these w r i t e r s L a Boder ie stands out both f o r h i s constant use of elements of the e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n and f o r h i s r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of that t r a d i t i o n i n h i s unique m y s t i c o -n a t i o n a l v i s i o n . The a u t h o r i t y of the Church Fathers and t h e i r acceptance i n the Renaissance as c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s he lps to e x p l a i n why La B o d e r i e , 29 who had proc la imed h i m s e l f a C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t , b e l i e v e d h i m s e l f j u s t i f i e d i n adducing i n h i s a p o l o g e t i c works the p r e - C h r i s t i a n p r i s c a  t h e o l o g i a . ^ S t . August ine was predominant among the e a r l y Church .Fa thers i n h i s i n f l u e n c e on Renaissance humanism through P e t r a r c h and on 72 Renaissance P l a t o n i s m through F i c i n o . A u g u s t i n e ' s works were read and r e - i n t e r p r e t e d , w i t h those of the o ther F a t h e r s , as p a r t of the a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e on the c u r r i c u l u m of the new humanis t s . Even more important f o r the present s t u d y , A u g u s t i n e ' s a u t h o r i t y determined F i c i n o ' s attempt at c r e a t i n g a system of C h r i s t i a n P l a t o n i s m i n which A u g u s t i n e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c and N e o - P l a t o n i c elements were r e v i v e d and l a t e r t r a n s m i t t e d to p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e o l o g i a n s and poets i n f l u e n c e d by F i c i n o ' s P l a t o n i s m . Raymond M a r c e l has p o i n t e d out that as August ine served as a model f o r a s y n c r e t i s m of C h r i s t i a n and P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e , so o ther 73 Greek Fathers served as sources f o r a w i d e r r e l i g i o u s s y n c r e t i s m . D. P . Walker has c l a r i f i e d the p o i n t i n a f f i r m i n g tha t the Neo-P l a t o n i c gnosis was en larged by elements of o r i e n t a l and Greek mystery r e l i g i o n s found i n the w r i t i n g s of the supposed a n c i e n t w i s e men, the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , and t r a n s m i t t e d through the e a r l y Greek Fathers such 74 as J u s t i n , Clement, Epiphanus, E u s e b i u s , C y r i l and L a c t a n t i u s . For a C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g i s t and humanist such as La Boder ie the a u t h o r i t y of these Greek Fathers as t h e o l o g i a n s enhanced t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s of the p r e - s c h o l a s t i c p e r i o d . I t must be emphasized that however i r r e l e v a n t and even V 30 a n t i p a t h e t i c to C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e c e r t a i n elements of the o r i e n t a l c u l t u r e s such as t h e u r g i c magic , a s t r o l o g y and alchemy might seem, the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a as a whole was invoked i n defense of the p o i n t s of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e which most concerned the a p o l o g i s t s of the Renaissance . The H e r m e t i c a , the O r p h i c a and P l a t o were used " t o show the u n i v e r s a l i t y and a n t i q u i t y of the b e l i e f i n one God, i n the T r i n i t y , i n the c r e a t i o n ex n i h i l o , i n the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l and an a f t e r -75 l i f e of punishments and r e w a r d s . " As a humanist p h i l o l o g i s t i n the l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n of the e a r l y Renaissance La Boder ie was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to the a t t r a c t i o n s of a n o n - C h r i s t i a n a n c i e n t c u l t u r e and concerned to ensure i t s s u r v i v a l . Even though he was w r i t i n g a f t e r the C o u n c i l of Trent of 1566, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p e r f e r v i d debates of the p o s t - t r i d e n t i n e Counter-Reform, La Boder ie c l u n g to the example of the Church Fathers whose a u t h o r i t y seemed to permit such a l i b e r a l acceptance of n o n -C a t h o l i c c u l t u r e . ^ I t i s i n p a r t t h i s a l l - e m b r a c i n g l i b e r a l i s m which accounts f o r c r i t i c i s m of h i s work i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y . ^ The t e x t s which La Boder ie so eager ly s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d f i r s t of a l l those r e s u r r e c t e d and adopted by s y n c r e t i z i n g F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . F i c i n o had f i r s t suggested the l i n e of descent of the p r i s c i 78 t h e o l o g i . H i s v a r i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n s of the a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n comprised o r i e n t a l sages such as Zoroas ter and Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , l e a d e r s of Greek mystery c u l t s such as Orpheus and P y t h a g o r a s , P l a t o h i m s e l f as w e l l as the N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , and even the D r u i d s and the pseudo-Dionys ius 31 the A r e o p a g i t e , a l l of whom were thought to have v e i l e d t h e i r knowledge of the one Truth d i v i n e l y r e v e a l e d to them. Moses ' supposed legacy to the E g y p t i a n p r i e s t s had f a c i l i t a t e d the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n , f o r a l l the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i were s a i d to have l e a r n e d from them. T h e concept of v e i l e d t r u t h which was to c o l o u r the N e o - P l a t o n i s t e s t h e t i c d e r i v e d from the Mosa ic t r a d i t i o n i n the Kabbalah a l s o ; had not God on M t . S i n a i g i v e n Moses on ly two t a b l e t s , i n s t r u c t i n g him to r e v e a l on ly H i s " f a c e " and not H i s e n t i r e presence to a people as ye t unprepared f o r f u l l r e v e l a t i o n ? F i c i n o and h i s f o l l o w e r s from P i c o on sought to make a v a i l a b l e the teachings of these n e w l y - a p p r e c i a t e d a n c i e n t poets and p r i e s t s and to probe t h e i r w r i t i n g s f o r c lues to the u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . La Boder ie chose Orpheus as the pre-eminent a n c i e n t poet and prophet . Not o n l y d i d he i n c o r p o r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Orphic Hymns i n h i s own works but a l s o he sang h i s p r a i s e s i n many o r i g i n a l poems. In t h i s choice he was s u r e l y i n p a r t f o l l o w i n g F i c i n o , f o r whom Orpheus occupied a p a r t i c u l a r l y important p l a c e among the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i inasmuch as he was the o l d e s t of the Greek mystery t h e o l o g i a n s , 79 and was thought to be the teacher of Pythagoras and thus of P l a t o . As D. P . Walker has emphasized, f o r F i c i n o , who p r a c t i s e d a r i t u a l of s i n g i n g Orphic hymns i n the garden at Careggi to the accompaniment of h i s l y r e i n order to induce a s p i r i t u a l e l e v a t i o n , Orpheus was a l s o the poet i n s p i r e d by a l l the f u r o r s , p o e t i c , b a c c h i c , p r o p h e t i c and amorous, and who was able to t r a n s m i t tha t i n s p i r a t i o n to anyone who 32 sang or l i s t e n e d to h i s v e r s e s . The O r p h i c a u t i l i z e d by Renaissance s c h o l a r s f a l l i n t o three 81 groups . The f i r s t group of fragments was e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n from the l a t t e r h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Of these Orphic fragments found embedded i n a n c i e n t w r i t i n g s , c h i e f l y those of the Greek Fathers such as P s e u d o - J u s t i n , Clement of A l e x a n d r i a and E u s e b i u s , and i n those of P r o c l u s , some were p o s s i b l y p r e - P l a t o n i c but most were H e l l e n i s t i c . Inasmuch as they had been used by the Greek Fathers to show that a n y t h i n g v a l u a b l e i n Greek p h i l o s o p h y had been d e r i v e d from Moses, they were an important element i n Renaissance r e l i g i o u s s y n c r e t i s m . The second group of O r p h i c a , the Orphic Hymns d a t i n g from the second or t h i r d century A . D . , were t r a n s l a t e d by F i c i n o i n 1462 and c i t e d i n many of h i s works be fore t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1500. La Boder ie r e j e c t e d r i t u a l i s t i c or t h e u r g i c p r a c t i c e s of F i c i n o and P i c o , p r i z i n g the Hymns i n s t e a d f o r t h e i r m u s i c a l and e t h i c a l e f f i c a c y 82 and f o r t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y to s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The t h i r d Orphic t e x t i s the A r g o n a u t i c a , a poem of the l a t e f o u r t h century A . D . based l a r g e l y on the A r g o n a u t i c a of Rhodes. These v e r s e s were of i n t e r e s t to Renaissance s c h o l a r s i n g e n e r a l f o r t h e i r s h o r t passages of cosmogony and f o r the mention tha t Orpheus had t r a v e l l e d to Egypt . La Boder ie used them a l s o i n h i s development of a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y i n La G a l l i a d e . I n summary, the O r p h i c a were accepted by La Boder ie as by o ther Renaissance s y n c r e t i s t s f o r two main reasons . Al though they were not a l l n e c e s s a r i l y composed by Orpheus h i m s e l f , t h e i r content was 33 c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of a v e r y a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n which p e r m i t t e d the Renaissance i n t e r p r e t e r s to l i n k Moses w i t h P l a t o and both w i t h C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . T h e i r form was cons idered to be i n d i c a t i v e not o n l y of the power of m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " but a l s o of the v a l i d i t y of the N e o - P l a t o n i s t theory of the v e i l i n g of t r u t h w i t h symbols . The H e r m e t i c a , t e x t s a t t r i b u t e d to M e r c u r i u s or Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , were s i m i l a r l y i n t e r p r e t e d by Renaissance s c h o l a r s as 83 p a r t of an a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n . Modern c r i t i c i s m has e s t a b l i s h e d tha t these t e x t s of supposedly a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n o r i g i n d e r i v e m a i n l y from A l e x a n d r i a n P l a t o n i s m of the t h i r d century A . D . , thus c l a r i f y i n g what Renaissance s c h o l a r s cons idered a remarkable 84 congruence w i t h C h r i s t i a n and N e o - P l a t o n i s t thought . The A s c l e p i u s (De v o l u n t a t e d i v i n a ) had been q u i t e w e l l known i n the M i d d l e Ages i n a L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d to A p u l e i u s , h a v i n g been c i t e d i n A u g u s t i n e ' s C i v i t a t e D e i . The other t e x t s i n c l u d e the Pimander (De s a p i e n t i a et p o t e s t a t e D e i ) , the D e f i n i t i o n e s A s c l e p i i , a group of f i f t e e n s h o r t d i a l o g u e s , and the C r a t e r Hermetis (De l a Connaissance de Dieu et de soi-meme i n the French t r a n s l a t i o n of 1557 by du Pre'au) . A c c o r d i n g to D. P . W a l k e r , they had been unknown i n western Europe be fore the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when F i c i n o ' s and Lodovico L a z z a r e l l i ' s 85 t r a n s l a t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e d the d i f f u s i o n of the hermet i c w r i t i n g s . I n France the Hermet ica were accepted f i r s t f o r t h e i r a p o l o g e t i c u s e f u l n e s s . L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s p u b l i s h e d , w i t h a commentary, 34 F i c i n o ' s L a t i n Pimander as e a r l y as 1494, r e - e d i t i n g i t w i t h the A s c l e p i u s and L a z z a r e l l i ' s C r a t e r Hermetis i n 1505. Symphorien Champier gave the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of L a z z a r e l l i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of 86 the D e f i n i t i o n e s A s c l e p i i i n 1507. Hermetic l i t e r a t u r e , h a l f - s c i e n t i f i c , h a l f - r e l i g i o u s , l e n t i t s e l f to d i v e r s e uses and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . D u r i n g the time of C a t h e r i n e de M e d i c i i n the middle of the s i x t e e n t h century the " s c i e n t i f i c " a s t r o l o g i c a l and a l c h e m i c a l w r i t i n g s were probed i n an attempt to a c q u i r e o c c u l t powers. Dagens a s c r i b e s the " g o l d e n age" of r e l i g i o u s h e r m e t i c i s m however to the end of the s i x t e e n t h century 8 7 and the b e g i n n i n g of the seventeenth c e n t u r y . La B o d e r i e ' s use of the Hermet ica becomes c l e a r . L a B o d e r i e , as C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t , was wary of the m a g i c a l and demonologica l powers which had a t t r a c t e d most of the w r i t e r s of 88 the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H i s t r a n s l a t i o n of some of F i c i n o ' s a s t r o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s w i t h h i s Les T r o i s l i v r e s de l a v i e i n d i c a t e s , however, h i s acceptance of F i c i n o ' s l e s s d e t e r m i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e to a s t r a l i n f l u e n c e which s t i l l permits a concept of u n i v e r s a l harmony. In La B o d e r i e ' s v iew of the w o r l d as m u l t i p l e r e v e l a t i o n s of a d i v i n e U n i t y the v e r y concreteness of " s c i e n t i f i c " h e r m e t i c i s m , the a f f i n i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d between the macrocosm and man the microcosm as w e l l as between d i v e r s e elements of the non-human w o r l d served as p r o o f s of 89 the One God. L a Boder ie prolonged the t r a d i t i o n of F i c i n o and L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s i n a d o p t i n g the Hermet ica f o r a p o l o g e t i c purposes . In so 35 d o i n g he u t i l i z e d not the m y s t i c a l gnosis but r a t h e r the " s c i e n c e " of a f f i n i t i e s between man, the cosmos and the supreme I n t e l l i g e n c e permeating the u n i v e r s e . He thus found i n the concrete w o r l d a s torehouse of symbols to enhance h i s p o e t i c purpose . L i k e the Hermet ica the Chaldaean O r a c l e s were supposed by Renaissance s c h o l a r s to be of immense a n t i q u i t y , a l though they were 90 i n r e a l i t y a product of the time of Marcus A u r e l i u s . The magico-m y s t i c a l aspects of both bodies of w r i t i n g s corresponded to Neo-P l a t o n i s t and C h r i s t i a n g n o s t i c b e l i e f s of the H e l l e n i s t i c e r a . A l l were r e c e i v e d by those y e a r n i n g f o r r e v e l a t i o n i n tha t time of d i s t r u s t 91 of the i n t e l l e c t and s p i r i t u a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . The f i f t e e n t h century N e o - P l a t o n i s t s i n h e r i t e d the fragments known as the Chaldaean O r a c l e s c h i e f l y from N e o - P l a t o n i c w r i t e r s such as I a m b l i c h u s , the f i r s t s y s t e m a t i z e r of the o c c u l t s c iences who i n c o r p o r a t e d the O r a c l e s i n t o h i s " T h e u r g y , " and Porphyry whose On the P h i l o s o p h y of the O r a c l e s was the main source from which e c c l e s i a s t i c a l w r i t e r s drew t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n concern ing these 92 O r a c l e s . A g a i n , E u s e b i u s ' a u t h o r i t y as an e a r l y F a t h e r i n c o n s i d e r i n g these o r a c l e s to be a u t h e n t i c encouraged the Renaissance s y n c r e t i s t s to accept them as a d d i t i o n a l proof of the unique t r u t h propounded by the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i . I n f a c t the Chaldaean O r a c l e s were to a great e x t e n t , l i k e much of the H e r m e t i c a , formulas f o r a s t r o l o g i c a l and a l c h e m i c a l magic , the term "magic" i t s e l f b e i n g taken from the Chaldaean Magi who were 36 thought to have been i n h e r i t o r s of Z o r o a s t e r ' s o c c u l t knowledge. The metamorphoses of the legend of Zoroas ter up to the time of F i c i n o ' s i n c l u s i o n of him as one of the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i are i n t e r e s t i n g . B idez and Cumont have proved that to the Greeks Zoroas ter was known not as the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , t r u e t h e o l o g i a n and c r e a t o r of a s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s system, but r a t h e r as m a g i c i a n , a s t r o l o g e r , cosmographer, n a t u r a l i s t and teacher of the a l c h e m i s t 93 Ostanes . H e l l e n i s t i c Jews added the great name of Z o r o a s t e r to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n e i t h e r by a s s i m i l a t i n g him to a f i g u r e from the Old Testament or even by making him the d i s c i p l e of Abraham, cons idered to 94 , be the i n v e n t o r of a s t r o l o g y . C h r i s t i a n s , h a v i n g heard the Gospel s account of the Magi who h a v i n g seen a s t a r i n the East came to adore the C h r i s t at Bethlehem, transformed Zoroas ter i n t o a p r e c u r s o r of 95 the new f a i t h . A c c o r d i n g to B idez and Cumontj F i c i n o ' s a d o p t i o n of Zoroas ter and the Chaldaean Orac les f o r h i s P l a t o n i c theology was p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d p r i n c i p a l l y by P l e t h o who i n h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n of o r i e n t a l r e l i g i o n s to P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a t t r i b u t e d the o r a c l e s 96 to Zoroas ter and to h i s Chaldaean M a g i . A l l the f o r e g o i n g aspects of the legendary Zoroas ter and h i s f o l l o w e r s appear i n La B o d e r i e ' s work, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to the Jewish t r a d i t i o n as La Boder ie m o d i f i e d i t i n the u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y of La G a l l i a d e . 37 Pythagoras ' p l a c e among the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i was assured because of the N e o - P l a t o n i s t s ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , as one of the a n c i e n t Greek mystery c u l t l e a d e r s he had been both an i n i t i a t e i n the O r p h i c 97 m y s t e r i e s and a teacher of P l a t o . Furthermore there was a t r a d i t i o n 9 t h a t supposed Pythagoras to have l e a r n e d i n Egypt the Mosa ic d o c t r i n e s . The l i n k between hermet i c a s t r o l o g y and P y t h a g o r a s ' s p e c u l a t i o n s on 99 numbers o n l y added to h i s a u t h o r i t y as a p r i e s t . Even medieva l t h e o l o g i a n s such as S t . Thomas and Bonaventura had s a n c t i o n e d a s t r o l o g y , together w i t h the number s c i e n c e s which i t s u p p o r t e d , as demonstra t ion of the fundamental s t r u c t u r e of the cosmic o r d e r . La B o d e r i e , i n h i s e l a b o r a t i o n s of u n i v e r s a l harmony, was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e to s p e c u l a t i o n s on the s u b s t a n t i a l r e a l i t y of number as symbol which c a r r i e s i n i t s e l f the essence of a d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e and possesses t h e r e f o r e an a c t i v e f o r c e . T h i s concept of the sacred p r o p e r t i e s of number was c e n t r a l to K a b b a l i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e d La Boder ie p r o f o u n d l y , and to the d i v i n e o r d e r i n g of the u n i v e r s e demonstrated i n the ten S e p h i r o t h of the Kabbalah . The Kabbalah thus r e i n f o r c e d Pythagorean s p e c u l a t i o n s on number i n La B o d e r i e ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r s e e i n g s i g n s of the One i n m u l t i p l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . In h i s attempt to r e v e a l t r u t h through n u m e r i c a l symbolism he was a g a i n guided by a n c i e n t w r i t e r s such as the e a r l y N e o - P l a t o n i s t s who, a c c o r d i n g to Hopper, as N e o - P y t h a g o r i c i a n s " c o n t i n u e d to see i n the decad the a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n of the u n i v e r s e 102 and i n the members of the decad the e x p r e s s i o n of d i v i n e i d e a s . " . 38 La Boder ie revered as o r i g i n a l d i s s e m i n a t o r s of the t r u t h of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a the D r u i d s of a n c i e n t G a u l , supposedly even more a n c i e n t than the v e n e r a b l e Greek and o r i e n t a l p o e t - p r i e s t s c i t e d above. On the a u t h o r i t y of Clement of A l e x a n d r i a , F i c i n o had i n c l u d e d the D r u i d s on some of h i s l i s t s as d e p o s i t a r i e s of a profound r e l i g i o u s 103 t r u t h . But the I t a l i a n N e o - P l a t o n i s t s ' i n t e r e s t i n the G a l l i c f o r e f a t h e r s was s l i g h t compared to tha t of t h e i r French f o l l o w e r s . The c h r o n i c l e s of the pseudo-Berosus forged by Annius of V i t e r b o p r o v i d e d French n a t i o n a l i s t s w i t h an a u t h o r i t y , however d o u b t f u l , f o r 104 t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n of G a l l i c supremacy. With p a t r i o t i c f e r v o u r Ramus and e s p e c i a l l y Symphorien Champier e x a l t e d the D r u i d i c p r i e s t s as p o e t s - m u s i c i a n s - p h i l o s o p h e r s -t h e o l o g i a n s who had communicated to a l l the peoples of a n t i q u i t y — E g y p t i a n s , Greeks and Romans—their g a l l i c a t h e o l o g i a , which preached the i m m o r t a l i t y , of the s o u l , together w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c f r u i t s of t h e i r h i g h l y developed c i v i l i s a t i o n . 1 * ^ La B o d e r i e , as d i s c i p l e of Gui l laume P o s t e l , was u n c r i t i c a l l y r e c e p t i v e to the pseudo-Berosus . M a r g i n a l comments i n h i s h i s t o r y of c i v i l i s a t i o n se t f o r t h i n La G a l l i a d e r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r the reader to Annius of V i t e r b o ' s f a l s e c h r o n i c l e s i n showing France to be the p l a c e of origin and the t r u e home of c i v i l i s a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to d i v i n e w i l l . The Druids here supersede a l l o ther p r i s c i t h e o l o g i f o r they are seen to be the teachers not o n l y of A n t i q u i t y but a l s o of Moses h i m s e l f . D i o n y s i u s the A r e o p a g i t e found a p l a c e i n the F l o r e n t i n e 39 N e o - P l a t o n i s t s ' p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a by reason of the s i m i l a r i t y of h i s w r i t i n g s to those of the O r p h i c P l a t o n i s t s and the Jewish Kabbalah . H i s supposed d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to S t . P a u l made him thus a l i n k between the most a n c i e n t r e v e l a t i o n s and C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e f o r P l a t o n i c t h e o l o g y . In France L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s and Symphorien Champier a s s i m i l a t e d the pseudo-Dionys ius to the f i g u r e of S t . Denis of P a r i s . A c c o r d i n g to D. P . Walker , t h e i r s was a humanist and a l s o n a t i o n a l i s t i c attempt " t o ensure an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y between the pagan and the C h r i s t i a n w o r l d s which i s to i n c l u d e medieva l France and thus l e a d up u • • ..107 to t h e i r own t i m e . La Boder ie too gave the pseudo-Dionys ius a p l a c e of cho ice among the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , l i n k i n g h i m , i n La G a l l i a d e , w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s and w i t h the D r u i d s . A s tudy of P l a t o and of the e a r l y N e o - P l a t o n i s t s i s beyond the scope of t h i s b r i e f o u t l i n e of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a u t i l i s e d f i r s t by F i c i n o i n order to r e c o n c i l e pagan p h i l o s o p h y and C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e i n a p i a p h i l o s o p h i a . I n h i s e l a b o r a t i o n of N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s m as developed by F i c i n o and P i c o , La Boder ie was a t t r a c t e d more by the scope f o r a c c r e t i o n of e s o t e r i c r e v e l a t i o n than by the f o u n d a t i o n of P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y which had a t t r a c t e d F i c i n o . I t w i l l be seen tha t La B o d e r i e , a l though he d e r i v e d much of , h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n from the F l o r e n t i n e Neo-i, 40 P l a t o n i s t s , was a l s o a G a l l i c a n C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t who e x a l t e d France as the home not o n l y of c i v i l i s a t i o n but a l s o of t rue r e l i g i o n , and a v i s i o n a r y at tuned to P o s t e l l i a n i l l u m i n i s m based on the Kabbalah r a t h e r than to r a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . I t was i n the context of C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s t h a t the Jewish 108 Kabbalah was f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e d by Renaissance s c h o l a r s . Al though P i c o was not the f i r s t to mention the Kabba lah , as he c la imed i n h i s C o n c l u s i o n e s , nor a Hebrew s c h o l a r of the f i r s t rank , s t i l l , as Secret has a f f i r m e d , h i s i n f l u e n c e was of prime importance i n the e v o l u t i o n of K a b b a l i s t themes i n the Renaissance because of the humanist 109 dimension which he gave to C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s . The r e v i v a l of the Kabbalah was regarded as p a r t of that g e n e r a l r e v i v a l of a n t i q u i t y s a n c t i o n e d by the example of Church Fathers and s t i m u l a t e d by humanist p h i l o l o g i a n s ' i n t e r e s t i n Hebrew and o ther o r i e n t a l l a n g u a g e s . 1 1 ^ The t r a d i t i o n a l nature of t h i s body of m y s t i c a l thought i s underscored i n the term " K a b b a l a h " i t s e l f which s i g n i f i e s i n Hebrew " r e c e p t i o n " or " r e c e i p t . " Kabbalah i s not one d o c t r i n e , one c e r t a i n dogma or system, but the whole e s o t e r i c t r a d i t i o n of Jewish m y s t i c i s m . 1 " * " 1 Having been t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y at f i r s t , and o n l y to i n i t i a t e s , i t i s a s e c r e t t r a d i t i o n i n a double sense: i t t r e a t s of the h i d d e n t r u t h s of bo th the human and the d i v i n e w o r l d s , and a l s o i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to a s m a l l e l i t e of the chosen who impart t h e i r knowledge to t h e i r 112 113 d i s c i p l e s . For the C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t s of the Renaissance the most important of s e v e r a l documents r e l a t e d to the Kabbalah was the 41 p s e u d o - e p i g r a p h i c Zohar , a product of t h i r t e e n t h century S p a i n , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to G. G. Scholem, "became a k i n d of B i b l e to the K a b b a l i s t s and f o r c e n t u r i e s enjoyed an unquest ioned p o s i t i o n as a sacred and 114 a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t . " In h i s o r a t i o n on the d i g n i t y of man P i c o prepared the course of C h r i s t i a n Kabbal i sm by s e t t i n g the Jewish m y s t i c a l h e r i t a g e of r e v e l a t i o n by symbols"'"''"^ i n the context of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a i n which were to be found v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s of the one t r u t h . I n h i s two s e r i e s of K a b b a l i s t i c Conclusiones"*""*"^ and n o t a b l y i n h i s 118 Heptaplus P i c o developed many of the themes which were to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of h i s C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t s u c c e s s o r s . The successors i n the s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n found i n the Kabbalah a t reasure -house of r e v e l a t i o n , whether by means of s p e c u l a t i o n on numbers, on names, on p o i n t s and l e t t e r s i n the Hebrew language, sacred because i t was tha t o f the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n , or by means of s tudy of the Hebrew l e t t e r s , the o r i g i n a l symbols of r e v e l a t i o n . Pre-eminent among the humanists was the Hebrew s c h o l a r Jean R e u c h l i n (1455-1522), w i t h those of the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i n I t a l y , n o t a b l y G a l a t i n ( c . 1460-1540), G i u s t i n i a n i (1470-1536), F r a n c i s c o G i o r g i o (1460-1540) and Ambrogio 119 (1469-1540) . In France i n t e r e s t i n the Kabbalah was r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t 120 b e f o r e the second h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n 1518 Symphorien Champier wrote of tha t o r a l r e c e p t i o n which a l l o w e d the i n i t i a t e to understand d i v i n e law as w e l l as d i v i n e and human t r u t h s , but warned 42 a g a i n s t misuse of such knowledge f o r m a g i c a l or d i v i n a t o r y ends. The same s u s p i c i o n of " c a b a l l e s v i e i e u s e s " i s found i n the F r a n c i s c a n Jean Thenaud's S a i n c t e e t t r e s c h r e s t i e n n e cabale (1519) composed a t the request of F r a n c i s I , and which was f o l l o w e d by h i s s c a r c e l y more sympathet ic e x p o s i t i o n i n the T r a i c t e de cabale based l a r g e l y on the work of R e u c h l i n . C o r n e l i u s A g r i p p a , i n h i s De o c c u l t a p h i l o s o p h i a (1533), drew on C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t s ' themes of correspondences between the p h y s i c a l and c e l e s t i a l w o r l d s to enhance h i s r e a l s u b j e c t of n a t u r a l , c e l e s t i a l and ceremonial magic . R a b e l a i s ' gibes at " H e r r T r i p p a " i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l s u s p i c i o n of soothsayers and m a g i c i a n s ; the h u m a n i s t s ' i n t e r e s t appears , however, i n the famous l e t t e r i n which Gargantua ' s i n j u n c t i o n s f o r study i n c l u d e : "sans contemner l e s 121 Thalmudistes et C a b a l i s t e s . " I t was indeed under the impetus of humanist p h i l o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t , w i t h the s tudy of Hebrew a f t e r the opening of the r o y a l t r i l i n g u a l c o l l e g e i n 1530, tha t the Kabbalah was s e r i o u s l y cons idered i n F r a n c e . Gui l laume P o s t e l , bo th s tudent and teacher a t tha t c o l l e g e , found i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Zohar the key to the u n i v e r s e . La B o d e r i e , s tudent of Hebrew at the r o y a l c o l l e g e and l a t e r d i s c i p l e of P o s t e l , was to f i n d i n the Kabbalah a s t r u c t u r e f o r h i s v i s i o n of the u n i v e r s e . He was proud to p r o c l a i m h i m s e l f the f i r s t French poet to present i n verse " l e s s e c r e t z des Herbrieus" ( E n c y c l i e , p . 25) . L a B o d e r i e ' s use of the Kabbalah had thus a t h r e e f o l d b a s i s . F i r s t l y , he cont inued the N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n , f i n d i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n P i c o and i n F r a n c i s c o G i o r g i o themes arid symbols conducive 43 to an e x p l a n a t i o n of u n i v e r s a l harmony. Secondly , h i s e x t e n s i v e p h i l o l o g i c a l work i n Hebrew, S y r i a c and Chaldaean s t i m u l a t e d an exact 122 r e a d i n g of the t e x t s . T h i r d l y , he developed the c o s m o l o g i c a l and e s c h a t o l o g i c a l themes which P o s t e l had d e r i v e d from h i s r e a d i n g of the Zohar and other K a b b a l i s t i c t e x t s . Gui l laume P o s t e l (1510-1581) was one of the most a s t o n i s h i n g 123 f i g u r e s of the French Renaissance . L i n g u i s t w i t h o u t equal i n h i s day, Hebrew s c h o l a r and p u b l i s h e r of the f i r s t A r a b i c grammar, but a l s o l e a r n e d i n botany, mathematics , m e d i c i n e , cosmography and B i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s , he was s u c c e s s i v e l y p r o f e s s o r of mathematics and f o r e i g n languages at the C o l l e g e de L e c t e u r s Royaux, s e l f - a p p o i n t e d c h a s t i s i n g prophet to F r a n c i s I , f o l l o w e r of I g n a t i u s L o y o l a , p r o c l a i m e d h e r e t i c , c o l l e c t o r and t r a n s l a t o r of r a r e o r i e n t a l m a n u s c r i p t s , and an e x c e e d i n g l y p r o l i f i c w r i t e r . But P o s t e l ' s p r o p h e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n exceeded even h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l energy—indeed he adduced tha t energy as proof of h i s " e l e c t i o n . " As s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d "Pape A n g e l i k e , " the r e i n c a r n a t i o n 124 of the prophet E l i j a h , he b e l i e v e d h i m s e l f d i v i n e l y appointed to l e a d the G a l l i c k i n g i n h i s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l m i s s i o n as u n i v e r s a l monarch to a consummation of the w o r l d and r e s t i t u t i o n of humanity to i t s p r e - l a p s a r i a n golden age. P o s t e l , who had been p r o c l a i m e d "amens" ( sense less ) by h i s F r a n c i s c a n I n q u i s i t o r a t Venice i n 1555, was f i n a l l y c o n f i n e d as a madman at the monastery of Sa in t -Mar t in -des -Champs from 1564 to the end of h i s l i f e . The l a b y r i n t h i n e windings of P o s t e l ' s i l l u m i n i s m defy s imple 44 a n a l y s i s . M . Secret has n e v e r t h e l e s s presented the g e n e r a l sense of the m i l l e n a r i a n b e l i e f s , based l a r g e l y on h i s r e a d i n g of the Kabba lah , 125 which informed not o n l y P o s t e l ' s w r i t i n g s but a l s o h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e . He f i r s t attempted to e s t a b l i s h a " c o n c o r d i a mundi" by demonstra t ing the reasons f o r the w o r l d ' s adopt ing C h r i s t i a n i t y , f o r which p r o j e c t he had planned a p o l y g l o t B i b l e . Subsequent to a s e r i e s of i l l u m i n a t i o n s he p r o c l a i m e d tha t man and the w o r l d were to l i v e f o u r ages: those of n a t u r e , of the w r i t t e n Law and of grace , and f i n a l l y that of concord when man was to be r e i n s t a t e d i n h i s o r i g i n a l p u r i t y and know a g a i n the c l a r i t y of unders t andi ng granted to Adam Kadmon, the p r i m o r d i a l man, be fore the f a l l . Two K a b b a l i s t i c themes, f i r s t of the s p i r i t of the Messiah as the a r c h e t y p a l man of whose substance a l l men par take and to whose p e r f e c t i o n a l l w i l l be r e s t o r e d , and second, of the G i l g u l or r e c i r c u l a t i o n of s o u l s to t h e i r d i v i n e o r i g i n are b a s i c to t h i s 126 e s c h a t o l o g i c a l v i s i o n . P o s t e l h i m s e l f , who exper ienced a " r e b i r t h " as E l i j a h / M e s s i a h a t the time of h i s " i m m u t a t i o n " i n 1552, b e l i e v e d h i m s e l f t h e n c e f o r t h not o n l y to understand a l l the s e c r e t s h i d d e n s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of the w o r l d but a l s o c a l l e d upon to r e v e a l them. P o s t e l a t t r a c t e d s e v e r a l d i s c i p l e s and admirers i n h i s p e r s i s t e n t attempts to e x p l a i n the word of God i n order to prepare f o r the new coming o f C h r i s t " i n t r a nos" and the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Church f o r which P a r i s was to be the new Jerusalem and the k i n g of 127 France the u n i v e r s a l monarch. A f t e r P o s t e l ' s confinement at S a i n t -Mart in-des-Champs these d i s c i p l e s cont inued to d i sseminate h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n and of heavenly s i g n s such as 45 the comet of 1572 and to exhort the French k i n g and h i s s u b j e c t s to f u l f i l l t h e i r d i v i n e l y - o r d a i n e d m i s s i o n . Notable among these d i s c i p l e s were Jean Boulaese , chosen to e x p l a i n i n France and abroad the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the E u c h a r i s t i n the M i r a c l e of Laon of 1566; La B o d e r i e , chosen w i t h h i s b r o t h e r N i c h o l a s to represent P o s t e l i n t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r the 1572 P o l y g l o t B i b l e ; and Char les T o u s t a i n and B l a i s e de Vigenere who, l i k e La B o d e r i e , cont inued P o s t e l ' s p r e d i c a t i o n to H e n r i I I I about G a l l i c supremacy. 128 La Boder ie may be q u a l i f i e d as P o s t e l ' s " d i s c i p l e e ' l u . " H i s remarkable l i n g u i s t i c v o c a t i o n , second only to P o s t e l ' s , must have l e d to t h e i r meeting d u r i n g P o s t e l ' s s tay i n P a r i s from 1562-1564, f o r a f t e r P o s t e l ' s confinement to the monastery he recommended La Boder ie to Masius as the o n l y s c h o l a r capable of t a k i n g up the t o r c h of A r a b i c and S y r i a c s t u d i e s and the one who should r e p l a c e him 129 at Antwerp i n work on the p o l y g l o t B i b l e . As l i n g u i s t , La Boder ie thus h e l p e d to r e a l i s e P o s t e l ' s f i r s t dream of concord . As poet , La Boder ie e l a b o r a t e d P o s t e l ' s v i s i o n of U n i v e r s a l r e s t i t u t i o n by c o n s t r u c t i n g i n La G a l l i a d e a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y to c o n f i r m P o s t e l ' s G a l l i c prophec ies a c c o r d i n g to h i s own " t h d o l o g i e r e s o l u t i v e . " In summary, i t has been shown tha t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s t ime to t r a c e a d e t a i l e d b iography of Giiy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e . H i s pre-eminence among h i s contemporaries as an o r i e n t a l l i n g u i s t h a s , however, been e s t a b l i s h e d by r e f e r e n c e to h i s e a r l y b i o g r a p h e r s . 46 In so f a r as La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c p r o d u c t i o n i s concerned, o n l y re fe rence to the works themselves can y i e l d a j u s t a p p r e c i a t i o n both of the a u t h o r ' s c o n c e p t i o n of h i s h i s t o r i c a l r o l e as poet and of h i s s y n c r e t i z a t i o n of d i v e r s e aspects of " a n c i e n t wisdom" from the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a i n the f u l f i l m e n t of tha t r o l e . An a n a l y s i s of La B o d e r i e ' s e x h o r t a t i v e verse addressed to h i s contemporary poets has r e v e a l e d the s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l bases of h i s p o e t i c m o t i v a t i o n as the s e l f - s t y l e d "new Orpheus" d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d to l e a d men by h i s melodious chant to a t rue r e b i r t h , a " r e s t i t u t i o n " not o n l y of a n c i e n t wisdom but a l s o of p r i m a l v i r t u e and communion w i t h the d i v i n e . La B o d e r i e ' s a d o p t i o n of the f i g u r e s of D a v i d , the Hebrew p o e t - p r i e s t , and of Orpheus, the l e a d e r of Greek mystery r e l i g i o n s , to represent h i s concept of the t r u e poet has been seen to i l l u s t r a t e not o n l y the r e l i g i o u s b a s i s but a l s o the s y n c r e t i z i n g method of h i s p o e t i c work. Al though La B o d e r i e ' s s u g g e s t i o n of a new C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m f o r French poet ry was o r i g i n a l i n the l a t e 1560 ' s , h i s s y n c r e t i z i n g use of a n c i e n t and o r i e n t a l mystery c u l t s r e c o n c i l e d to P l a t o n i c and C h r i s t i a n precepts has been shown to f o l l o w the t r a d i t i o n of the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . La B o d e r i e ' s r e s p e c t f o r the p r i s c a  t h e o l o g i a i n d i c a t e s h i s co nf o rmi ty w i t h the tenet of Renaissance humanist f o l l o w e r s of F i c i n o that a body of p r e - C h r i s t i a n knowledge t r a n s m i t t e d i n mystery c u l t s down to and through P l a t o c o u l d be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n . La B o d e r i e ' s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the Kabba lah , however, has been p o i n t e d out as i n d i c a t i v e 47 of h i s p e r s o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the common a t t r i b u t i o n of importance to elements of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , and a l s o of h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the o r i e n t a l i s t and v i s i o n a r y Gui l laume P o s t e l . That a s s o c i a t i o n has i n t u r n been emphasized because of i t s importance f o r the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of m i l l e n a r i a n and i l l u m i n i s t aspects of La B o d e r i e ' s work. Sources f o r the thematic c u r r e n t s of La B o d e r i e ' s v e r s e are thus seen to be p r i n c i p a l l y N e o - P l a t o n i s t i n so f a r as they f l o w from the F l o r e n t i n e s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n of r e v i v a l of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , p r i n c i p a l l y the Kabbalah , f o r C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c purposes . Coloured by P o s t e l l i a n p r o p h e c i e s , tha t t r a d i t i o n w i l l be shown to assume i n La Boder ie a h i g h l y s i n g u l a r e x p r e s s i o n . Thus, i n the present work, the content of La B o d e r i e ' s verse w i l l be seen to be of i n t e r e s t on the one hand f o r i t s r e f l e c t i o n , somewhat d i s t o r t e d i n the P o s t e l l i a n m i r r o r , of e a r l y l i b e r a l humanist attempts a t r e l i g i o u s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t r a n s f e r r e d to the h i g h l y - c h a r g e d p e r i o d of r e l i g i o u s tens ions p r e c e d i n g and d u r i n g the r e i g n of Henry I I I . On the o ther hand, La B o d e r i e ' s work w i l l be shown to suggest one aspect of a n e w l y - f o r m i n g d e f i n i t i o n of the p o e t ' s r o l e as i n t e r p r e t e r of s p i r i t u a l and r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s , both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l , of which other aspects were to be i l l u s t r a t e d by Du B a r t a s , 130 by d ' A u b i g n i , by La Ceppede, by Sponde. 48 CHAPTER I I : FOOTNOTES See L a C r o i x du M a i n e , B i b l i o t h e q u e ( P a r i s , 1584), p p . 133-134; A n t o i n e Du V e r d i e r , B i b l i o t h e q u e (Lyon, 1585), p p . 521-532. Le P . J e a n - P i e r r e N i c e r o n , Memoires ( P a r i s , 1727-1745), X X X V I I I , p . 303, s t a t e s : " S i quelques Autheurs en ont f a i t ment ion , ce q u ' i l s ont d i t n ' e s t qu'une s u i t e de f a u t e s , que nous pouvons r e c t i f i e r par ses Ouvrages, q u ' i l s n ' a v o i e n t pas v u s . " N i c e r o n c l a r i f i e s n o t a b l y , p p . 304-305, the date of La B o d e r i e ' s b i r t h and h i s p o s i t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e r i n the household of the Due d ' A l e n c o n . 2 . A d r i e n B a i l l e t , Jugemens des scavans ( P a r i s , 1685-1686), I I I , 209-210; l e P . J e a n - P i e r r e N i c e r o n , Memoires ( P a r i s , 1727-1745), X X X V I I I , 303-304; J . G. de C h a u f e p i e , Nouveau d i c t i o n n a i r e h i s t o r i q u e  et c r i t i q u e (Amsterdam, L a Haye, 1750), I I , 33-34; l ' A b b e G o u j e t , B i b l i o t h e q u e . f r a n c o i s e ( P a r i s , 1752), X I I I , 395-410; Melanges t i r e s  d 'une grande b i b l i o t h e q u e ( P a r i s , 1780), V I I , G , 318-320; Hector de La F e r r i e r e - P e r c y , Les La Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1857); F e l i x Neve, Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , o r i e n t a l i s t e e t poete ( B r u x e l l e s , 1862); l e P . F r a n c o i s M a r t i n , B i o b i b l i o g r a p h i e normande: Athenae Normanorum (Caen, 1901), I and I I , f a s c . 1 , 415-427; P i e r r e F . L e l i e v r e , "Guy LeFevre de La B o d e r i e , poete c h r e t i e n , " i n Ecole N a t i o n a l e des C h a r t e s , P o s i t i o n s des theses . . . 1927 ( P a r i s : P i c a r d , 1927), p p . 72-77. (The manuscr ipt f o r the above-mentioned t h e s i s i s not a v a i l a b l e . ) 3 L ' E s o t e r i s m e de Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , Etudes de p h i l o l o g i e e t d ' h i s t o i r e , X (Geneve: D r o z , 1969) . 4 N i c e r o n , Memoires, p . 304. The year of h i s b i r t h i s c a l c u l a t e d from the i n s c r i p t i o n accompanying h i s p o r t r a i t i n the E n c y c l i e , he b e i n g " i n h i s t h i r t i e t h y e a r " i n 1571, date of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . The day of h i s b i r t h i s a f f i r m e d as " 1 ' a v a n t - j o u r de s a i n c t L a u r e n s " i n La B o d e r i e ' s D i v e r s e s meslanges poe'tiques ( P a r i s , 1582), f o l . 6 2 r . ~* S e c r e t , E s o t £ r i s m e , p . 5 . N i c e r o n , Memoires, p . 314, mentions o n l y three other b r o t h e r s . See " E p i s t r e en faveur d ' u n amy de l ' a u t e u r , " D i v e r s e s meslanges, f o l . 103: "Je l a i s s e Caen pour v o i r et P a r i s et Lyon / Et l e Mascon v o i s i n . " No r e c o r d remains of La B o d e r i e ' s hav ing v i s i t e d e i t h e r of these p l a c e s . As f o r h i s years i n Caen, we have o n l y some sugges t ions from h i s own w o r k s . The f i r s t i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to h i s s t u d i e s , i n h i s E n c y c l i e des s e c r e t s de 1 ' e tern i te " (Anvers , 1571), p . 317: 49 Les poetes a l l e c h a n s ont us§ mon enfance , Et l a mathematique a eu 1 ' ado lescence ; De l a f i l o s o f i e ay s e n t i devancer L ' a g e q u i v i e n t a p r e s ; p u i s l e s langues d i v e r s e s La junesse r e s t a n t ont comble' de t r a v e r s e s . The second passage i n d i c a t e s h i s r e a c t i o n to teachers i n f l u e n c e d presumably by Paduan r a t i o n a l i s m ( E n c y c l i e , p . 3 ) : " I I y a p l u s de quinze ans passes [ca . 1555 when L a Boder ie was approx imate ly f i f t e e n years o l d ] , q u ' a mon grand r e g r e t j ' a y e s t § f a i t c e r t a i n , que sous semblance humaine i l se t r o u v o i t de t e l s monstrueux e s p r i t s , q u i osoyent ple inement d e n i e r e t D i e u et sa p r o v i d e n c e , e t tenoyent pour r e s o l u ent re eux que toutes choses a l l o y e n t a l ' a v e n t u r e . " S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 8, conf i rms t h a t : "Malheureusement l e s p r e c i e u s e s etudes de Prentout tan t sur 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y de Caen que sur l a RSforme en Normandie, ne permettent pas de s i t u e r mieux La Boder ie a c e t t e 6poque." ^ La B o d e r i e ' s d e d i c a t i o n to Henry I I I o f the 1584 e d i t i o n of h i s New Testament t r a n s l a t i o n d e s c r i b e s h i s remarkable v o c a t i o n f o r the s tudy of S y r i a c , and conf i rms h i s attendance at the r o y a l T r i l i n g u a l C o l l e g e ( c i t e d i n S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , pp . 9 -10) : " L a nature m'engendra sous quelque a s t r e f a v o r a b l e pour developper 1 'e tude de c e t t e langue s a c r o s a i n t e . J ' o s e r a i d i r e de moi sans f o r f a n t e r i e que pour l ' a p p r e n d r e j e n ' a i eu aucun prcScepteur, pas meme pour en t r o u v e r 1 ' a l p h a b e t e t l ' £ p e l e r . Je f u s , comme ne c r a i g n i t pas de l e d i r e Gui l laume Bud£, pour ses Etudes grecques, a u t o d i d a c t e e t thcSodidacte. En e f f e t , quand a P a r i s j ' e u s consacrei quelques mois a 1'cStude de l ' h e b r e u sous vos l e c t e u r s royaux , j e me mis a u s s i t o t a £ t u d i e r l e s rudiments de l a langue s y r i a q u e . Je ne f i s a l o r s qu 'apprendre a e p e l e r 1 ' a l p h a b e t et a en t r a c e r l e s c a r a c t e r e s . I I n ' e x i s t a i t a l o r s n i grammaire n i d i c t i o n n a i r e . Ce n ' e s t q u ' e n s u i t e que j e me mis a r e c o p i e r e t a t r a d u i r e l e Nouveau Testament s y r i a q u e p u b l i e a V i e n n e . Encore que l a d i f f i c u l t e depassat mes propres f o r c e s , j e pus r ^ u s s i r , avec l ' a i d e de l a grace d i v i n e . " 8 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 17-26. 9 D i c t i o n a r i u m s y r o - c h a l d a i c u m ( A n t v e r p i a e , 1572). B i b l i a s a c r a  p o l y g l o t t a , H e b r a i c e , C h a l d a i c e , Graece , et L a t i n e (Antwerp, 1569-1572) , V . C f . B a i l l e t , Jugemens des scavans , I I I , 209: "Guido Faber , a l i a s , F a b r i c i u s B o d e r i a n u s , mort en 1598; N i c o l Faber , a l i a s , F a b r i c i u s Boder , son f r e r e . Ces deux f r e r e s avec Andre Masius et quelques autres ont rendu a 1 ' E g l i s e e t aux L e t t r e s des s e r v i c e s s i g n a l e z dans 1 ' e d i t i o n de l a P o l y g l o t t e d 'Anvers q u ' A r i a s Montanus c o n d u i s o i t chez P l a n t i n . Mais Guy s ' e s t rendu p l u s c e l e b r e que N i c o l a s . Monsieur B r o c h a r t e t B u x t o r f l e r e c o n n o i s s e n t pour un t r e s h a b i l e homme dans l e s langues Hebra ique , S y r i a q u e , e t C h a l d a i q u e , et q u i n ' a v o i t presque pas son semblable a l o r s pour son e x a c t i t u d e 50 et son h a b i l e t e sur tout dans l a langue Syr laque ou i l a v o l t f a i t de f o r t e s habi tudes par de longues E t u d e s . " ^ S e c r e t , E s o t 6 r i s m e , p . 19, quotes La B o d e r i e ' s d e d i c a t i o n i n 1571 to P h i l i p I I of h i s S y r i a c New Testament: " C ' e s t en 1567 [ s i c ] , i l y a t r o i s ans , que j ' a c h e v a i de t r a n s c r i r e l e s c a r a c t e r e s s y r i a q u e s en h e b r a i q u e s , e t l a t r a d u c t i o n du t e s t e s y r i a q u e en l a t i n . Ce f u t au p r i x d ' u n t r a v a i l s i e p u i s a n t que par deux f o i s j ' e n f i s maladie a m o u r i r . Mais avec l a grace e t l e secours de Dieu j ' e n v i n s a bout en d i x h u i t m o i s , s o i t a F a l a i s e en Normandie ou j e s u i s n£ , s o i t a P a r i s . " C f . a l s o La B o d e r i e ' s "Complainte a D i e u , f a i t e par l ' A u t h e u r e s t a n t malade en A n v e r s , l ' a n 1571 , " E n c y c l i e , p p . 301-305. ^ " E l e g i e : A l a Boder ie . . . , " D i v e r s e s meslanges, f o l . 6 4 r - 6 5 V : A mes despens j ' e n t r e p r i n s ce voyage [a A n v e r s ] , J ' y despendy et ma peine e t mon age Avec mon f r e r e , e t mes l a b e u r s donne1 Sans e s t r e en r i e n pour c e l a guerdonnC. Je ne me p l a i n s , e t d'honneur m'en d i s p e n s e , Que de P l a n t i n j e n ' a y eu recompense De mes t r a v a u x , son cueur e n t i e r e t bon Par moy congneu m'es t un ample guerdon. Je ne veux p o i n t qu 'aucun pour moy se f a s c h e , Mais j e veux b i e n que l ' a g e a d v e n i r scache Que j e n ' a y eu de P r i n c e s ny de Roys Icy ny l a , de mes labeurs l e s d r o i c t s . Mais pour c e l a s i ne me v e u x - j e f e i n d r e Tant que v i v r a y d ' i l l u s t r e r e t de p e i n d r e L ' a n t i q u e honneur du nom de Dieu s a c r e , N 'en a t tendant des hommes grace ou g r § . See f o r example Chaufepi§, Nouveau d i c t i o n n a i r e h i s t o r i q u e  e t c r i t i q u e , p . 33 , n . B: "Les Savans ont p a r l C gCnCralement d'une maniere avantageuse de ces Ouvrages e t de l e u r A u t e u r : A r i u s Montanus l u i a t t r i b u e une grande connoissance de l ' H C b r e u e t s u r - t o u t du S y r i a q u e , H e b r a i c i i d i o m a t i s p e r i t i s s i m u m atque adeo S y r i a c a e  L inguae i n s i g n i c o g n i t i o n e ornatum. B u x t o r f dans une L e t t r e a Utenbogart du 15 Mars 1610, en p a r l e comme d ' u n Grand-homme, quantus  v i r I d i t - i l , et Bochart assure q u ' i l a eu peu d'Cgaux en ce genre de L i t t S r a t u r e , V i r q u i i n h i s L i t e r i s paucos h a b u i t a e q u a l e s . " G o u j e t , B i b l i o t h e q u e f r a m b o i s e , X I I I , 401, adds: "On assure que l e Pape P i e I V , informC du t r a v a i l de Guy de l a B o d e r i e , v o u l u t l ' a t t i r e r a Rome dans l e d e s s e i n de 1 ' C l e v e r au C a r d i n a l a t ; mais q u ' i l ne put v a i n c r e sur c e l a l a modestie de l ' A u t e u r . " L ' E n c y c l i e des s e c r e t s de l ' e t e r n i t e (Anvers , 1571). 51 14 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 51 . 1 5 I b i d . , p . 53. ^ Traicte" du nouveau comete, e t du l i e u ou i l s se f o n t , et comme  i l se v e r r a par l e s P a r a l l a x e s combien i l s sont l o i n g de l a t e r r e , e t du p r o n o s t i c d ' i c e l u y . Compose" premierement en Espagnol , par M . Hieronyme Mugnoz, P r o f e s s e u r o r d i n a i r e de l a langue Hebraique et des Mathematiques, en 1 ' u n i v e r s i t y de V a l e n c e . Et depuis t r a d u i c t en Francoys par Guy l e Fevre de l a B o d e r i e . P l u s un Cant ique sur l a d i c t e E s t o i l l e ou Apparence lumineuse ( P a r i s , 1574) . Confus ion de l a sec te de Muhamed. L i v r e premierement compose' en langue Espagnole par Jehan Andre , j a d i s More e t A l f a q u i , n a t i f de l a Cite" de S c i a t i v i a , e t depuis f a i c t C h r e s t i e n et P r e s t r e : e t tourne" d ' l t a l i e n en F r a n c o i s . Par Guy l e Fevre de l a Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1574). 18 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 69. 19 I b i d . , p . 73. 20 French Academies of the S i x t e e n t h Century (London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1947), pp . 43, 56. 21', D i s c o u r s de l ' h o n n e s t e amour sur l e Banquet de P l a t o n , par M a r s i l e F i c i n . . . . T r a d u i c t de Toscan en F r a n c o i s par Guy l e Fevre de l a Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1578). 22 De l a r e l i g i o n c h r g t i e n n e , par M a r s i l e F i c i n , avec L a Harangue  de l a dignite" de l'homme, par Jean P i c u s , t r a d u i c t par Guy l e Fevre de l a Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1578). 23'? L'Harmonie du monde, par F r a n c o i s George, t r a d u i c t e t i l l u s t r e par Guy l e Fevre de La Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1578) . 24 Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , cant iques s p i r i f u e l s e t autres meslanges  pogt iques ( P a r i s , 1578) . 25 La G a l l i a d e , ou De l a r e v o l u t i o n des a r t s et s c i ences ( P a r i s , 1578). De l a nature des d i e u x ( P a r i s , 1581) . 52 27 P i e r r e H . J . B . Champion, La G a l e r i e des r o i s ( P a r i s : G r a s s e t , 1934) , pp . 175-176. 28 Les T r o i s l i v r e s de l a v i e . . . avec une A p o l o g i e pour l a medecine et a s t r o l o g i e . Le t o u t compose premierement en L a t i n par M a r s i l e F i c i n . . . e t t r a d u i t en F r a n c o i s par Guy l e Fevre de La B o d e r i e ( P a r i s , 1581) . 29 D i v e r s e s meslanges poe'tiques ( P a r i s , 1582). 30 Novum Jesu C h r i s t i Testamentum, ex v u l g a t a e d i t i o n e e t t r a n s l a t i o n e ex s y r i a c o . . . . ( P a r i s i i s , 1584). 31 S e c r e t , E s d t e r i s m e , p . 162, n . 233. 32 C f . H e n r i Busson, Le R a t i o n a l i s m e dans l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e de l a Renaissance , 1533-1601, r e v . e d . ( P a r i s : V r i n , 1957), p p . 516-517: " I I e s t b i e n d i f f i c i l e de ja—apres 1550—de c l a s s e r l e s h e r e t i q u e s . . . I I p a r a i t c e r t a i n cependant q u ' i l y a v a i t des athees ou tout au moins des d e i s t e s b i e n dec ides en assez grand nombre en 1560. A p a r t i r de c e t t e d a t e , en e f f e t , l e s a p o l o g i s t e s de langue f r a n c a i s e . . . denoncent l e u r e x i s t e n c e et a u s s i r e s e r v e n t dans l e u r s l i v r e s p l u s i e u r s c h a p i t r e s pour demontrer 1 ' e x i s t e n c e de D i e u . Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , q u i consacra sa v i e a l e s r e f u t e r , en a meme connu avant 1560 . " 33' See E . Def rance , C a t h e r i n e de M e d i c i s , ses a s t r o l o g u e s et ses  magic iens envouteurs . Documents i n e d i t s sur l a d i p l o m a t i c ' e t l e s  s c iences o c c u l t e s du XVl '^ s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1911) . 3 4-For a thorough study of La B o d e r i e ' s debt to P o s t e l see S e c r e t , E s o t g r i s m e , p a s s i m . 35 D. P . W a l k e r , "The P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a i n F r a n c e , " J o u r n a l of the  Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , X V I I (1954), p . 227, comments: "But L a B o d e r i e , though he i s , I t h i n k , a s i g n i f i c a n t example of the l a t e French Renaissance a t t i t u d e to these q u e s t i o n s , i s by no means a normal o n e . " For L a B o d e r i e ' s p l a c e i n the development of the s e r i o u s l y r i c i s m of the end of the s i x t e e n t h century i n France , see M a r c e l Raymond, L ' I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard sur l a pogs ie f r a n c a i s e , 1550-1585, r e v . e d . , Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance , 73 (Geneve: D r o z , 1965), p p . 266-267. 36 See S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 127. 53 37 I b i d . , p . 128. See a l s o F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , " G u i l l a u m e P o s t e l e t l e s courants prophcltiques de l a R e n a i s s a n c e , " S t u d i f r a n c e s i , I I I (1957) , pp . 375-395. See above n . 36. 39 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 17. See a l s o Gui l laume P o s t e l , Le  Thresor des p r o p h e t i e s de l ' u n i v e r s , e d . F . Secret (La Haye: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1966). 40 See S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 127-128. 41 For the C i s t e r c i a n m y s t i c Joachim of F i o r e ( F l o r i s ) , 1130-1201 or 1202, see New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967), V I I , p p . 990-991, which comments: " Joach im's e n t i r e d o c t r i n e i s r e d u c i b l e to h i s t e a c h i n g on the T r i n i t y and on h i s t o r y . . . . The same t r i t h e i s t i c tendency appeared i n Joachim's developmental theology of h i s t o r y , which moves from the Age of the Fa ther (Old Testament) . . . to the Age of the Son (New Testament) . . . to the Age of the Holy S p i r i t , due to b e g i n about 1260 . . . . This d o c t r i n e was taken up by the S p i r i t u a l F r a n c i s c a n s , i . e . , the J o a c h i m i t e s , mixed w i t h ideas from the Apocrypha , and c a r r i e d f a r beyond Joachim's i n t e n t i o n s . " 42 See S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 162. 43 See below p p . 162 f f . C f . a l s o F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , "L'Humanisme f l o r e n t i n , vu par un K a b b a l i s t e c h r e t i e n , Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , " R i n a s c i m e n t o , I (1954) , p p . 105-112. 44 " E . Gombrich, " Icones Symbol icae , the V i s u a l Image i n Neo-P l a t o n i s t Tho ught , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , X I (1948) , pp. 167-168. 45 I b i d . , p . 167. 46 D. P . W a l k e r , "Le Chant Orphique de M a r s i l e F i c i n , " i n Musique  et p o e s i e au XVI s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Centre N a t i o n a l de Recherche S c i e n t i f i q u e , 1954) , p p . 17-33. 47 D. P . Walker , "Orpheus the Theolog ian and Renaissance P l a t o n i s t s , " J o u r n a l o f the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , XVI (1953) , p p . 100-120, 48 C f . i b i d . , p p . 100-101: Jean R i c h e r , N e r v a l , exper ience e t c r e a t i o n ( P a r i s : H a c h e t t e , 1963), p . 534, 54 notes that Orpheus' l y r e , as a N e o - P l a t o n i s t image, a l l u d e d to the harmony of the spheres and, more g e n e r a l l y , to cosmic harmony. Fur thermore , from the C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of v i e w , adopted by the Church Fathers and by Dante, Orpheus i s the image of the Word. 49 C f . Y a t e s , French Academies, pp . 23-25, 36-42, f o r the importance of m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s . " For the r o l e s of Orpheus and David i n Renaissance w r i t i n g s on m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s , " see Walker , "Chant O r p h i q u e , " pp . 22, 24. Walker , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " p . 10, n . 2, notes many j u x t a p o s i t i o n s of Orpheus and David from Clement of A l e x a n d r i a to M a r o t . 51 For the importance of Orpheus as e s o t e r i c t h e o l o g i a n and as d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d s i n g e r , see Walker , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " pp . 100-120. For Orpheus' importance as the pr imary m y t h i c a l f i g u r e , superseding H e r c u l e s and even Prometheus as p r o t o t y p e of the i d e a l man as w e l l as of the i d e a l a r t i s t , see Andre C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e  F i c i n et l ' a r t (Geneve: D r o z , 1954), p p . 173-176. 52 Walker , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " p . 119, s t a t e s : "The Orphica remain , however c h i e f l y i m p o r t a n t , not because of t h e i r content or c o n t e x t , but because they r e i n f o r c e the b e l i e f i n , and form p a r t o f , a p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a which conf i rms the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of P l a t o n i s m w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y . " 53 Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p p . 226-227, comments t h a t these Orphic fragments were " r e g u l a r l y used by Renaissance P l a t o n i s t s to demonstrate tha t Orpheus was a monotheist and T r i n i t a r i a n . . . " See W a l k e r , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " p p . 105-106, f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of the l i n k i n g of Moses and Musaeus, c o n s i d e r e d sometimes the d i s c i p l e and sometimes the teacher of Orpheus. 5 5 C f . P a u l i n e M. Smi th , The A n t i - C o u r t i e r Trend i n S i x t e e n t h Century French L i t e r a t u r e , Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance , 84 (Geneve: D r o z , 1966), p p . 152-218. 5 6 La B o d e r i e ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the a r t i s t and poet was very s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s r e a d i n g of the N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . For a d i s c u s s i o n of F i c i n o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P l a t o ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the a r t i s t , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , pp . 64-70. Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard, p . 273, s t a t e s : " [ L a B o d e r i e ] t e n t a de f o n d e r , avant Du B a r t a s , l e grand l y r i s m e c h r £ t i e n . " 55 58 See below p . 198 f f . 59 La B o d e r i e i s of course here u s i n g another anagram of h i s name: Gui Le Fevre = FIGURE ELUE. C f . E n c y c l i e , p . 301: " S i l a Rondeur es t ma FIGURE E L U E . " For F i c i n o ' s concept of the a e s t h e t i c p e r f e c t i o n of u n i v e r s a l c r e a t i o n i n "1 ' image du c e r c l e i n f i n i q u i es t l e p l u s Eminent des symboles de l a d i v i n i t e , " see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et  1 ' a r t , p . 58. C f . a l s o Georges P o u l e t , Les Metamorphoses du c e r c l e ( P a r i s : P l o n , 1961), p p . x x - x x i i i . 60 La Boder ie s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the poet s s p i r i t u a l detachment p r e r e q u i s i t e to an i n t i m a t e knowledge of the D i v i n i t y , "pour en soy L ' U N comprendre , " r e c a l l s F i c i n o ' s precepts f o r a l i b e r a t i o n of the s o u l so tha t i t may f i n d i t s t r u e harmony w i t h the u n i v e r s e . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s concept to N e o - P l a t o n i s t use of symbols , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 71-79. 61 C f . C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , p . 173. 6 2 The H e l l e n i s t i c o r i g i n s of the s o - c a l l e d " a n c i e n t wisdom" have been p o i n t e d out by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s . See f o r example Edgar Wind, Pagan m y s t e r i e s i n the Renaissance , r e v . e d . (New Y o r k , Barnes and N o b l e , 1968 [ c l 9 6 7 ] ) , pp . 27-28, and W a l k e r , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 209. 63 P . 0 . K r i s t e l l e r , The P h i l o s o p h y of M a r s i l i o F i c i n o (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1943), p p . 20-22. 6 4 , ,' See below p . 186. 65 For an a n a l y s i s of F i c i n o s p o s i t i o n see K r i s t e l l e r , P h i l o s o p h y , pp. 25-29. With regard to the g e n e r a l Renaissance a t t i t u d e to r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y , Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 210, d e f i n e s as "undoubtedly the predominant v i e w " that which h e l d " t h a t the o n l y or main p r e - C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n was the Jewish one; but tha t t h i s f i l t e r e d through to the G e n t i l e s , the u s u a l channel of communication b e i n g Egypt , where Moses had taught the p r i e s t s or l e f t b o o k s . " 66 For P i c o s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to h i s a t t i t u d e to imagery as the v e i l e d t r u t h of " p o e t i c t h e o l o g y , " see Wind, Pagan M y s t e r i e s , p p . 24-30. For h i s use of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a i n g e n e r a l , and e s p e c i a l l y of the Kabba lah , see the f o l l o w i n g : Eugenio Anangine , G. P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a : S i n c r e t e s i m o  r e l i g i o s o - f i l o s o f i c o , 1463-1494 ( B a r i , 1937); Eugenio G a r i n , G i o v a n n i  P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a , v i t a e d o t t r i n a ( F i r e n z e : Le M o n n i e r , 1937), p p . 137 f f ; F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , " P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a e g l i i n i z i d e l l a c a b a l a C h r i s t i a n a , " C o n v i v i u m , XXV nuove s e r i e (1957), p p . 31-47. 56 6 7 See f o r example C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 71-79; Gombrich, "Icones s y m b o l i c a e , " pp . 169-192; D. P . Walker , S p i r i t u a l  and Demonic Magic from F i c i n o to Campanel la , S tudies of the Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 22 (London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1958; Nendeln / L i c h t e n s t e i n : Klaus R e p r i n t , 1969). 6 8 Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " pp . 206-207. 69 l b i d . , p p . 204, 220. The present i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of La B o d e r i e ' s use of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a i s based l a r g e l y on t h i s a n a l y s i s by Walker of i t s importance i n F r a n c e . ^ Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p p . 204-206, c i t e s L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s , Pontus de T y a r d , D u p l e s s i s - M o r n a y and e s p e c i a l l y Symphorien Champier and Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie as h a v i n g used the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a . He mentions a l s o o ther w r i t e r s as h a v i n g been r e c e p t i v e to t h i s " a n c i e n t wisdom": Amaury Bouchard, L o u i s Le Caron, L o u i s Le Roy, F r a n c o i s de F o i x , C h a r l e s de B o u r g u e v i l l e , Georges P a c a r d , Gui l laume P o s t e l , M i c h a e l S e r v e t u s , as w e l l as M a r g u e r i t e de N a v a r r e , P i e r r e de P a s c h a l , Bartolomeo Delbene , F r a n c o i s H e b e r t , Guy de B r u S s , P i e r r e de L o s t a l and Jean B o d i n . For a s tudy of R a b e l a i s ' c o n t i n u a l use of t h i s t r a d i t i o n , see G. M a l l a r y M a s t e r s , R a b e l a i s i a n D i a l e c t i c  and the P l a t o n i c - H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n (Albany , N . Y . : S ta te U n i v e r s i t y of N . Y . P r e s s , 1969). ^ C f . W a l k e r , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 204: "Many C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g i s t s from the e a r l i e s t Fathers onwards, have had the p r a c t i c e of c i t i n g t e x t s from p r e - C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s , p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , of supposedly great a n t i q u i t y , i n order to show the c o n f o r m i t y w i t h C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . These t e x t s — O r p h i c a , H e r m e t i c a , O r a c u l a C h a l d a i c a , fragments from p r e - S o c r a t i c Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s , S i b y l l i n e prophec ies—appear i n company w i t h P l a t o , whose r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s are thought to d e r i v e from them and from the Jewish S c r i p t u r e s . This p r a c t i c e i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , p a r t l y because of the r e v i v a l of P l a t o n i s m and the d e s i r e to i n t e g r a t e i t i n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , and p a r t l y because many more such t e x t s became a v a i l a b l e . " 72 P . 0 . K r i s t e l l e r , " A u g u s t i n e and the R e n a i s s a n c e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l  S c i e n c e , I (1941), pp . 7 f f . 73 R. M a r c e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n ( P a r i s : Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1959), pp. 603, 612. Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 258, s t a t e s : " I t was these e a r l y Greek Fathers [ J u s t i n , Clement and E p i p h a n u s ] , together w i t h 57 E u s e b i u s , C y r i l and L a c t a n t i u s , w r i t i n g on the same l i n e s , who were the c h i e f s torehouses of the t e x t s of the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , and the main models f o r the s y n c r e t i z i n g use of these t e x t s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d p o s t - t r i d e n t i n e C a t h o l i c s , such as La B o d e r i e , De F o i x and Le Roy, a c c e p t i n g and u s i n g the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a . " 75 76 77 I b i d . , p . 252. C f . i b i d . , pp . 255-256. See f o r example M . Mersenne, Quaestiones i n Genesim ( P a r i s , 1623), c o l s . 1854-1877. 7 8 Walker , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " p . 105, c i t e s a t y p i c a l l i s t of a n c i e n t t h i n k e r s , e x p l a i n i n g the b e l i e f i n t h e i r common debt to the Mosaic t r a d i t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d through Egypt . See a l s o K r i s t e l l e r , P h i l o s o p h y , p . 15, f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of F i c i n o ' s debt to P l e t h o i n h i s development of the i d e a of an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n of a pagan theology l e a d i n g to P l a t o . C f . a l s o M a r c e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n , p p . 588-589. 79 See M a r c e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n , p . 614, f o r an a n a l y s i s of the c o n t i n u i t y of a t r a d i t i o n from Orpheus through Aglaophemus to Pythagoras and thus to P l a t o . 80 Walker , "Chant O r p h i q u e , " p . 22 and W a l k e r , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p p . 101-103. 81 The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e of the importance of the O r p h i c a i s based on W a l k e r , "Orpheus the T h e o l o g i a n , " p p . 103-107, and W a l k e r , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p p . 207-209. 82 See below p . 199 f f . 83 The most complete p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Hermet ica i s to be found i n , A . - J . F e s t u g i e r e , La R e v e l a t i o n d'Hermes T r i s m e g i s t e , 3^ e d . ( P a r i s : L e c o f f r e , 1950), 4 v o l s . , and i n A . D. Knock and A . - J . F e s t u g i e r e , Hermes T r i s m e g i s t e . Corpus hermeticum ( P a r i s : Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1945). The f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s are of i n t e r e s t w i t h regard to Renaissance i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the H e r m e t i c a : J . Dagens, "Hermetisme e t Cabale en France de L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s a B o s s u e t , " Revue de l i t t g r a t u r e compared, XXXV (1961) , p p . 1-20; P . 0 . K r i s t e l l e r , " M a r s i l i o F i c i n o e Lodovico L a z z a r e l l i ; c o n t r i b u t o a l i a d i f f u s i o n e d e l l e idee ermet iche n e l R i n a s c i m e n t o , " i n S t u d i e s i n Renaissance Thought and L e t t e r s (Roma: E d i z i o n i d i S t o r i a e L e t t e r a t u r a , 1956), p p . 221-257; Henry Weber, 58 "Y a - t - i l une po£s ie herme'tique au XVI s i e c l e en France?" C a h l e r s  de 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l e des Etudes F r a n c a i s e s , XV (mars 1963) , p p . 41-58; A . - M . Schmidt , "Haute s c i e n c e e t p o C s i e , " Cahiers d 'Hermes, no . 1 (1947), p p . 10-49; Frances Y a t e s , Giordano Bruno and the  Hermetic T r a d i t i o n (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1964), pp . 1-19. The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i s in tended only to p r o v i d e a background to La B o d e r i e ' s use of the H e r m e t i c a . 84 See above n . 62, and K r i s t e l l e r , " M a r s i l i o F i c i n o e Lodovico L a z z a r e l l i , " p p . 221-222. 85 86 87 88. Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 208. Dagens, "Herme"tisme et C a b a l e , " p . 5, I b i d . , p . 6. See below p . 92. See a l s o J . C. Lyons , " L i t e r a r y Evidence of the P r e s t i g e of the B l a c k A r t s i n French L i t e r a t u r e of the R e n a i s s a n c e , " S tudies i n P h i l o l o g y , XXXI (1934) , p p . 224-235. 89 • C f . F e s t u g i e r e , La R g y g l a t i o n d'Hermes T r i s m C g i s t e , pp . 359-360. See below pp. 194 f f . , f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s system w i t h La B o d e r i e ' s concept of correspondences . 90 C f . H . Lewy, Chaldaean Orac les and Theurgy: M y s t i c i s m , Magic  and P l a t o n i s m i n the L a t e r Roman Empire (Le C a i r e : I n s t i t u t F r a n c a i s d ' A r c h a f i o l o g i e O r i e n t a l e , 1956) , p . x i i i . 91 Knock and F e s t u g i e r e , Corpus hermeticum, p . v i i , s t a t e : "Hermfetisme et Orac les Chaldaiques o f f r e n t de f rappantes ressemblances avec maints e c r i t s du g n o s t i c i s m e c h r C t i e n . Ce phCnomene p a r a i t d u , non pas a un emprunt d i r e c t , mais au f a i t q u ' i l s dependent ensemble d ' u n meme fonds i n t e l l e c t u e l et repondent a des beso ins analogues de l a s e n s i b i l i t e de l ' e p o q u e : d e s i r de c e r t i t u d e et de r e v e l a t i o n , gout pour 1 ' e s o t e r i s m e , penchant pour l e s a b s t r a c t i o n s , s o u c i de l ' ame et de son s a l u t , tendance a c o n s i d e r e r l e monde par r a p p o r t au s o r t de l ' a m e , e t l e s o r t de l ' ame par r a p p o r t au monde." C f . a l s o Lewy, Chaldaean O r a c l e s , p . 7. La B o d e r i e ' s p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , as expressed i n the E n c y c l i e , p p . 3-4 and e l sewhere , might be r e l a t e d to the mood of the e a r l y N e o - P l a t o n i s t time as p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s t a s t e f o r the e s o t e r i c d o c t r i n e s of the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i . 92 • Lewy, Chaldaean O r a c l e s , p p . x i i i , 65 . 59 93 J . B idez and F . Comont, Les Mages h e l l e n i s e s : Z o r o a s t r e , Ostanes  e t Hystaspe d ' a p r e s l a t r a d i t i o n grecque ( P a r i s : Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1938), p . v i i i . 94 I b i d . , p p . 41-42. 95 I b i d . , p p . 50-51. 96 I b i d . , p . 162, 97 See above n . 79. 98 See above n . 94. 99 C f . Dagens, "Hermc4tisme et C a b a l e , " p p . 6-7, C f . V . F . Hopper, M e d i e v a l Number Symbolism: I t s Sources , Meaning  and I n f l u e n c e on Thought and E x p r e s s i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h and Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , 132 (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938) . See a l s o E r n s t C a s s i r e r , An Essay on Man (Toronto , New Y o r k , London: Bantam Books, 1970 [ c l 9 4 4 ] ) , p . 233. See below pp. 208 f f . C f . a l s o E . R. C u r t i u s , European L i t e r a t u r e  and the L a t i n M i d d l e Ages (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1953), p p . 501-509, f o r an e x p o s i t i o n of the medieva l concept of " n u m e r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , " e s p e c i a l l y h i s comment on Dante whom La Boder ie had t r a n s l a t e d : "Here number i s no longer an outer framework, but a symbol of the cosmic o r d o . " 102 Hopper, M e d i e v a l Number Symbolism, p . 37. 103 See Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 213. 104 See below p . 156, n . 57. See C. V a s o l i , "Temi e f o n t i d e l l a t r a d i z i o n e e r m e t i c a i n uno s c r i t t o d i Symphorien Champier , " i n Umanesimo e e s o t e r i s m o , A t t i d e l V Convegno I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i U m a n i s t i c i (Padova: Cedam, 1960) , p p . 240-242. V a s o l i emphasizes a n a t i o n a l i s t i c sent iment growing i n France from the time of Champier 's p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the p e r i o d of L o u i s X I I ' s s u c c e s s f u l I t a l i a n campaigns. The e x a l t a t i o n of the D r u i d s , a c c o r d i n g l y , became "un tema oltremodo caro a l i a nuova s e n s i b i l i t a n a z i o n a l e d e g l i u m a n i s t i f r a n c e s i . " 60 The New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , X I , 943-944, s t a t e s : "Pseudo-D i o n y s i u s i s the name assumed by the author of four Greek t r e a t i s e s on l i t u r g i c a l and m y s t i c a l theology tha t appeared a t the b e g i n n i n g of the s i x t h century and were f i r s t r e f e r r e d to by the Monophysite t h e o l o g i a n s i n the t r a i n of Severus of A n t i o c h . The author c l a i m s a p o s t o l i c s a n c t i o n f o r h i s w r i t i n g s by p u b l i s h i n g them as the work of the D i o n y s i u s who was b a p t i z e d a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to a sermon S t . P a u l preached i n the Areopagus of Athens (Acts 1 7 . 3 4 ) . . . . In the West, the legendary b iography i d e n t i f y i n g Pseudo-D i o n y s i u s w i t h both the A r e o p a g i t e and the p a t r o n of P a r i s , which was composed by the Abbot of H i l d u i n and a t tached to the L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n of h i s w r i t i n g s , se t the t r a d i t i o n tha t p r e v a i l e d down to modern times . . . . Down to the f i r s t decade of the seventeenth c e n t u r y , the a u t h o r i t y of these w r i t i n g s was unchal lenged by C a t h o l i c and many P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n s . " Walker , " P r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , " p . 220, e x p l a i n s f u r t h e r : "They have prevented the i n c a r n a t i o n from b r e a k i n g h i s t o r y i n two, and they themselves s tand i n the unbroken s u c c e s s i o n of p r i s c i t h e o l o g i which s t r e t c h e s back , through the P a r i s i a n t h e o l o g i a n s , to D i o n y s i u s -S t . Denys, P l a t o , Orpheus, Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s and M o s e s . " 10 8 The present b r i e f account of the use of the Kabbalah by Renaissance humanists i s based l a r g e l y on F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , Les K a b b a l i s t e s c h r e t i e n s de l a Renaissance ( P a r i s : Dunod, 1964). See i b i d . , pp . v i - v i i , f o r the reasons f o r which the book by Joseph L . B l a u , The C h r i s t i a n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Cabala i n the  Renaissance (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1944) should be c o n s u l t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . 109 I b i d . , pp . 1-2, 29-30. 110 . C f . F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , Le Zohar chez l e s k a b b a l i s t e s Chretiens de l a Renaissance ( P a r i s : Mouton, 1958) , p p . 13-14, 18. M. Secre t c o n s i d e r s the r e v i v a l of the Kabbalah to have been of great importance i n the h i s t o r y of i d e a s . I t should be s t u d i e d not as a c u r i o s i t y but "dans l e cadre meme des grands evenements du s i e c l e de l a Renaissance e t de l a Reforme , " b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e v i v a l not on ly of l i n g u i s t i c but a l s o of B i b l i c a l s t u d i e s . See G . G. Scholem, On the Kabbalah and i t s Symbolism (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1965), p . 89, and G. G. Scholem, Major  Trends i n Jewish M y s t i c i s m (London: Thames and Hudson, 1955), p . 18. 112 Scholem, Major Trends , p . 21. 61 113 For the use of the term " C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t s " see S e c r e t , K a b b a l i s t e s c h r C t i e n s , p p . v - x . 114 Scholem, On the Kabbalah , p . 89. The Zohar was p u b l i s h e d f i r s t i n I t a l y , i n 1558 by a Jewish and i n 1560 by a C h r i s t i a n e d i t o r . See S e c r e t , Zohar, p . 23. For a d e f i n i t i o n of s y m b o l i c a l thought as " the main c o n s t i t u e n t of the [ K a b b a l i s t s ' ] f a i t h and t h e i r method" see Scholem, On the  Kabbalah , pp . 96-97, and Scholem, Major Trends , p p . 26-28. 116 • >• C f . La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of P i c o ' s Harangue de l a d i g n i t e de l'homme, p p . 435-436: "Ces l i v r e s que j ' a i acquis a p r i x d ' o r , j e l e s a i l u s de fond en comble, avec une a t t e n t i o n soutenue et un t r a v a i l sans r e l a c h e , e t j ' y a i t rouve (Dieu m'es t temoin) non pas tan t l a r e l i g i o n de Moise que l a r e l i g i o n c h r e t i e n n e : i c i l e mystere de l a T r i n i t e , l a 1 ' i n c a r n a t i o n du Verbe , l a encore l a d i v i n i t e du M e s s i e : j ' y a i l u . . . l a meme chose que ce que nous l i s o n s tous l e s j o u r s chez P a u l et Denys, chez Jerome et chez A u g u s t i n . M a i s , en ce q u i regarde l a p h i l o s o p h i e , on c r o i r a i t vra iment entendre Pythagore et P l a t o n , dont l e s p r i n c i p e s sont t e l l e m e n t v o i s i n s de l a f o i chre t i enne . . . . En resume, i l n ' y a aucun p o i n t de c o n t r o v e r s e ent re l e s J u i f s e t nous, s u r l e q u e l nous ne p u i s s i o n s l e s combattre e t l e s confondre par l e s l i v r e s des c a b a l i s t e s . . . . " P i c o ' s A p o l o g i a f o r the suspect theses of h i s Conc lus iones i n c l u d e s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s famous d e c l a r a t i o n tha t there i s no s c i e n c e which g i v e s us more c e r t a i n t y of the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t than magic and the Kabba lah . He c a l l s to w i t n e s s E s d r a s , P a u l , O r i g e n , and H i l a i r e , to which were added the a u t h o r i t y of S t . Jerome and E u s e b i u s , tha t God gave to Moses both a l i t e r a l Law which was to be preserved i n w r i t i n g and communicated to the p e o p l e , and a l s o a r e v e l a t i o n of the m y s t e r i e s t h e r e i n conta ined which were to be c o n f i d e d o n l y to the seventy w i s e men and t r a n s m i t t e d o n l y o r a l l y to t h e i r i n i t i a t e d i s c i p l e s i n order tha t the m y s t e r i e s be guarded from p r o f a n a t i o n . See S e c r e t , K a b b a l i s t e s Chretiens, p p . 2 - 5 . 118 T r a n s l a t e d i n t o French by N i c h o l a s Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e and p u b l i s h e d w i t h Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o French of F r a n c i s c o G i o r g i o ' s Harmonia mundi , f o r which see below p . 119 S e c r e t , K a b b a l i s t e s c h r e t i e n s , p p . 44-140. 120 I b i d . , p p . 151-171. 62 121 In the pro logue to P a n t a g r u e l R a b e l a i s r e f e r s a l s o to une r e l i g i e u s e c a b a l l e . " 122 S e c r e t , Zohar , p.. 23, notes t h a t e n t r i e s i n La B o d e r i e ' s D i c t i o n a r i u m s y r o - c h a l d a i c u m i n d i c a t e a thorough r e a d i n g of the Zdhar . La B o d e r i e ' s d i c t i o n a r y was the f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c attempt to e s t a b l i s h a g l o s s a r y of K a b b a l i s t i c terms. 123 For the most complete s t u d i e s of P o s t e l see the works by F r a n c o i s Secret i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y of the present essay . See a l s o W. J . Bouwsma, C o n c o r d i a mundi : the Career and Thought of  P o s t e l (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957). 124 For the f i g u r e of E l i j a h as "he who c a r r i e s the d i v i n e message from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n , he who a t the end of time w i l l r e c o n c i l e a l l the c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s , t r a d i t i o n s , and d o c t r i n e s mani fes ted i n J u d a i s m , " see Scholem, On the Kabbalah , p . 20. 125 . K a b b a l i s t e s c h r d t i e n s , p . 176. 126 For a b r i e f comparison of these themes w i t h C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m and w i t h N e o - P l a t o n i s t thought see Scholem, Major Trends , p p . 19-20. 127 S e c r e t , K a b b a l i s t e s Chretiens, p p . 187-217. See a l s o S e c r e t , "De quelques courants p r o p h e t i q u e s , " p p . 1-32. 128 ~ >• S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , pass im. 129 I b i d . , p p . 9 - 1 1 , 20. See a l s o F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , "Guy Le Fevre de La Boder ie r e p r e s e n t a n t de G . P o s t e l a l a P o l y g l o t t e d ' A n v e r s , " De Gulden P a s s e r , XLIV (1966) , p p . 245-257. C f . Terence C. Cave, D e v o t i o n a l P o e t r y i n F r a n c e , c . 1570-1613 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969) . 63 CHAPTER I I I THEMATIC CONTENT OF THE WORKS: ORIGINAL WORKS The c a r d i n a l themes of La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c work can be t r a c e d i n L ' E n c y c l i e and La G a l l i a d e . A study of the minor verse and the p o e t ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s d i s c l o s e s v a r i a t i o n s on those themes as w e l l as t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the context of the a u t h o r ' s n o t i o n of h i s r o l e as a p o e t . I n A . - M . Schmidt ' s s tudy of the s c i e n t i f i c poetry of the French Renaissance , an attempt to "ordonner en une cosmologie l e s rcSsultats £pars de l a p h i l o s o p h i e n a t u r e l l e , " he p o i n t s out that " c e t t e poes ie forme l a p r e t e n t i o n d ' e t r e l 'achevement u n i t a i r e des s c i e n c e s : a p l u s f o r t e r a i s o n encore l o r s q u ' e l l e se reclame du monisme h e r m e t i q u e . " ^ In that context of an e f f o r t toward a demonstra t ion of the u n i t y of knowledge La B o d e r i e ' s works deserve a p l a c e , even though many of h i s themes appear to the reader 2 " s t u p £ f i a n t s d 'anachronisme en 1578 . " La Boder ie appears to have 64 d i s r e g a r d e d or even r e j e c t e d the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and even the d e v e l o p i n g s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t of h i s century i n favour of an i d e a l i s m r e l a t e d to the H e l l e n i s t i c g n o s t i c i s m common to e a r l y C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g and to many elements of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a t r a n s m i t t e d through the A l e x a n d r i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s to the F l o r e n t i n e Neo-P l a t o n i s t s . Yet i t i s a c e r t a i n o p t i m i s m , a p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as a m e t a p h y s i c a l i d e a l i s m which marks him as a man of the Rena issance . H i s " w o r l d p i c t u r e " may be compared to that of the E n g l i s h E l i z a b e t h a n s as c l a r i f i e d by T i l l y a r d . He shares t h e i r " p r e p o n d e r a t i n g f a i t h " i n t h e i r " p e r i l o u s l y p o i s e d w o r l d " d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Copernican astronomy "had by then broken the f i c t i o n of the e t e r n a l 3 and immutable h e a v e n s . " La B o d e r i e ' s i s the w o r l d of the medieva l " g r e a t c h a i n of 4 b e i n g " of which the h i s t o r y has been t r a c e d by L o v e j o y . I t i s a w o r l d of Hermetic correspondences between the planes of the d i v i n e and the a n g e l i c , of the macrocosm, the e lementa l w o r l d of t e r r e s t r i a l c r e a t i o n , and of man the microcosm and of h i s s o c i a l body p o l i t i c . La B o d e r i e ' s f o r m a t i v e concept i s above a l l tha t of a u n i v e r s a l harmony which i m p l i e s i n a l l c r e a t i o n the p r i n c i p l e s of degree and consonance, analogous to m u s i c a l i n t e r v a l s and harmonies . I t i s a concept which i s supported c h i e f l y by c l a s s i c a l Pythagorean and P l a t o n i c as w e l l as N e o - P l a t o n i c t h e o r i e s , ^ by the K a b b a l i s t i c imagery of the S e p h i r o t h , and by an A u g u s t i n i a n n o t i o n of order and of C h r i s t i a n l o v e as the harmonic bases of c r e a t i o n . ^ 65 La B o d e r i e ' s p r i n c i p a l theme i s symbol ized i n the c i r c l e , h i s " f i g u r e g l u e . " La Boder ie shows h i m s e l f a d i s c i p l e o'f F i c i n i a n Neo-P l a t o n i s m i n choosing t h i s f i g u r e of t o t a l i t y and of p e r f e c t order i n a form of p r i m a l s i m p l i c i t y . ^ Through harmony the m u l t i p l i c i t y of c r e a t i o n i s r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the p e r f e c t u n i t y of God. The p o e t - m u s i c i a n i s thus a g o d - l i k e composer of harmonies se t on the p a t t e r n of d i v i n e c r e a t i o n and designed to c e l e b r a t e tha t c r e a t i o n as w e l l as to l e a d g men to a proper attunement w i t h i t s fundamental concordances . La B o d e r i e ' s s y n c r e t i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n f o r b i d s a r i g o r o u s l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the o f t e n incoherent and redundant thematic content of h i s works . On the o ther hand, i t i s j u s t t h i s harmoniz ing s p i r i t of the p o e t - m u s i c i a n i m i t a t o r of the Arch imus icus which a f f o r d s him 9 a c e r t a i n power of shaping a p o e t i c w o r l d . A . L'ENCYCLIE DES SECRETS DE L'ETERNITE L ' E n c y c l i e des s e c r e t s de l ' g t e r n i t g , La B o d e r i e ' s f i r s t p o e t i c work , was p u b l i s h e d i n 1571 a t Antwerp by P l a n t i n , p u b l i s h e r of the P o l y g l o t B i b l e . This work i s se t f o r t h i n one hundred and f i f t y - s i x pages i n octavo to which are appended some two hundred pages of v e r s e d e d i c a t e d to h i s contemporaries and of v e r s e t r a n s l a t i o n s from the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i . L ' E n c y c l i e can be r e l a t e d s u p e r f i c i a l l y to Sceve 's Microcosme as w e l l as to Du B a r t a s ' Semaine i n i t s e n c y c l o p e d i c treatment of man's c o n d i t i o n and i n i t s " s c i e n t i f i c " approach to a p o l o g e t i c s through a reasoned argument. The s o l e m n i t y of La B o d e r i e ' s " p h i l o s o p h i c " C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m i n the E n c y c l i e r e c a l l s too the e s t h e t i c of " p h i l o s o p h i c " l y r i c i s m of Ronsard ' s Hymnes. "*"^  The term " e n c y c l i e " of the t i t l e d e s c r i b e s the expanding c i r c l e s caused by a stone b e i n g dropped i n t o w a t e r . I t suggests both the t o t a l i t y of the c i r c l e and the correspondences between the planes of b e i n g i n the macrocosm and the microcosm. I t suggests above a l l the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e of c r e a t i o n , f o r the image of the " e n c y c l i e " can be l i k e n e d to the cont inuous emanations i n the K a b b a l i s t S e p h i r o t h or to the P l a t o n i c ariima mundi s e t t i n g i n motion the heavenly spheres I n La B o d e r i e ' s " t h ^ o l o g i e r e s o l u t i v e " the term represents 67 a l s o the c y c l i c a l movement by which man can r e t u r n through a comprehension o f d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s to a v i s i o n of the d i v i n e i t s e l f . Thus the t i t l e c o n t a i n s i n i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n both of La B o d e r i e ' s K a b b a l i s t and N e o - P l a t o n i s t a f f i l i a t i o n s and the a u t h o r ' s p r i n c i p a l image f o r h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y . " L ' E n c y c l i e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a work of C a t h o l i c a p o l o g e t i c s i n 12 the t r a d i t i o n of N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s m . I n s p i t e of the somewhat suspect P l a t o n i c ideas and the importance g i v e n to P o s t e l l i a n i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of K a b b a l i s t i c themes, the work appeared "avec p r i v i l e g e " inasmuch as La Boder ie had i n c l u d e d p r e c a u t i o n a r y m a r g i n a l notes ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 87, 94) and the f o l l o w i n g statement i n the p r e f a c e : D'advantage t u pourras t r o u v e r en c e s t Oeuvre quelques poins t i r e z du s a c r a i r e de l a p h i l o s o p h i e p r i n c i p a l e m e n t P l a t o n i q u e : comme de l 'Ame du Monde, des I n t e l l i g e n c e s mouvantes l e s S f e r e s , de l ' H a r m o n i e des C i e u s , et autres semblables ; Lesquels j e ne veus n i entens e s t r e autrement receus de moy, que comme L ' E g l i s e Romaine et u n i v e r s e l l e en aura determine , au jugement de l a q u e l l e j ' a y soumis e t soumets non seulement l e present Oeuvre, mais a u s s i tous autres miens e s c r i p t s que par cy apres j e pourroye met tre en l u m i e r e , v o i r e tous mes d i e t s et a c t i o n s ; e s t a n t deuement asseure que hors i c e l l e i l n ' y a p o i n t de s a l u t , e t q u ' e n t r e ses mains sont l e s c l e f s de toute v e r i t e , par ce q u e l l e e s t r e g i e du S. E s p r i t q u i en es t l e sourgeon i n e p u i s a b l e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 7 ) 1 3 The Hebrew legend accompanying the a u t h o r ' s p o r t r a i t ( E n c y c l i e , p . 2 ) , f r e e l y t r a n s l a t e d by h i s b r o t h e r N i c h o l a s , conf i rms the a u t h o r ' s b e l i e f i n the v a l i d i t y of h i s s e t t i n g f o r t h the C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e i n the t r a d i t i o n of the great poets of a n t i q u i t y : 68 Le Fevre en q u i David r e v i t , R e v i t FEU VERGILE et sa fee Et l a l y r e q u i tout r a v i t R e v i t en L ' U N QUI GUIDE ORFEE. A s i m i l a r s p i r i t informs the Greek motto e n c i r c l i n g the p o r t r a i t of the a u t h o r , and which accompanies a l l of La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c works : V\riC>£ A A & I A OP§lK**I3 ( t H 8PT0I (May Holy David s p r o u t f o r t h as one O r p h i c a l l y ) . The p r e f a t o r y "Adver t i ssement au L e c t e u r " presents the a u t h o r ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u n d e r t a k i n g such an e x p o s i t i o n of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y , " the genesis of the work i t s e l f , i t s f o r m , and the a u t h o r ' s purpose i n w r i t i n g . One might wonder, he a d m i t s , t h a t i n the e n l i g h t e n e d time of the Renaissance there s h o u l d be r e l i g i o u s s c e p t i c s : . . . a t tendu q u ' i l n ' e s t c r o y a b l e , q u ' e n un s i docte s i e c l e , i l se t rouve des e s p r i t s t an t d g n a t u r e z , et a v e u g l e s , q u ' i l s osent r ' a p p e l l e r en doute un tant c e r t a i n e t s t a b l e fondement. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 3) But La Boder ie h i m s e l f , presumably as a s tudent a t Caen, had encountered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the new r a t i o n a l i s m : A quoy j e r e s p o n , q u ' i l y a p l u s de quinze ans p a s s e z , q u ' a mon grand r e g r e t j ' a y este" f a i t c e r t a i n , que sous semblance humaine i l se t r o u v o i t de t e l s monstrueus e s p r i t s , q u i osoyent ple inement d e n i e r e t D i e u e t l a P r o v i d e n c e , e t tenoyent pour r e s o l u entre eus que toutes choses a l l o y e n t a 1 ' a d v e n t u r e . Et f u r e n t b i e n aucuns d ' e n t r e eus . . . s i temerairement impudens que de m'en t e n i r p r o p o s , e t me voyant en ma premiere adolescence , me p r o -posoyent des doutes touchant l a C r e a t i o n du Monde; que f a i s o i t Dieu avant i c e l l e , ou i l e s t o i t , ou 69 Ion p o u r r o i t a s s i g n e r l e l i e u des E n f e r s , e t t e l l e s autres ques t ions v a i n e s e t c u r i e u s e s . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 3-4) H i s p e r s o n a l exper ience was symptomatic , i n f a c t , of a growing r a t i o n a l i s t and even a t h e i s t i c c u r r e n t which Busson has c l a s s i f i e d as one aspect of the s p i r i t u a l ferment of the period." '"" ' W r i t i n g a t the time and i n the s p i r i t of the Counter -Reform, La Boder ie looked w i t h h o r r o r on s c e p t i c s , R e f o r m i s t s and above a l l a t h e i s t s : Mais par ce qu 'en t e l l e c o n f u s i o n e t meslange de sec tes e t h e r e s i e s q u i de n o s t r e temps se sont e levens en toute 1 'Europe , se n o u r r i t secret tement c e l l e q u i e s t l e comble de toutes l e s a u t r e s , e t q u i f a i t p r o f e s s i o n de ne r i e n c r o i r e , j e veus d i r e des AthCes . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 6) The a u t h o r ' s own e a r l y s p i r i t u a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h o v e r l y -r a t i o n a l i s t i c humanist s c h o l a r s h i p was to o r i e n t a l l h i s subsequent work both as s c h o l a r and as poet toward C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s : D e s l o r s j e fus e g u i l l o n d d'embrasser e s t r o i t e m e n t e t autant que mon aage p o u v o i t p o r t e r , l ' e s t u d e de l a p h i l o s o p h i e ; ne me proposant au t re f i n presque en tout l e d i s c o u r s des d i s c i p l i n e s que gloutement j e d e v o r o i s , s i n o n de rechercher tout ce q u i f a i s o i t a l a preuve n a t u r e l l e des A r t i c l e s de n o s t r e Foy et de r e c o n n o i s t r e de p l u s en p l u s l a Toute-p u i s s a n c e , Sagesse, et Bonte" de l ' E s t a n t e t e r n e l par l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n de ses Oeuvres a d m i r a b l e s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 4) La Boder ie c la ims to have begun the E n c y c l i e a t a v e r y young age, and indeed the f i r s t seven " C i r c l e s " of the work were completed by h i s t w e n t y - f i r s t y e a r , t h a t i s to say be fore h i s major o r i e n t a l l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 4 - 5 ) . The K a b b a l i s t i c theme of the Tabernacle i n the important E i g h t h C i r c l e shows the f r u i t of those s t u d i e s and of 70 L a B o d e r i e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Gui l laume P o s t e l . As f o r the method of t h i s p r o p a g a n d i s t i c work, La B o d e r i e has chosen to p l a y the r o l e of the i g n o r a n t q u e s t i o n e r i n order to have h i s p u r p o s e f u l l y misguided arguments c o n c l u s i v e l y r e f u t e d i n h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h the c e l e s t i a l Muse U r a n i e : Et combien que j ' a y e p r i n s l e masque et l e manteau de l ' i n c r e d u l e c u r i e u s pour mieus j o u e r son r o l l e , s i o s a y - j e d i r e que comme l e f i l de l ' o e v r e m'a condui t j e n ' a y l a i s s e o b j e c t i o n aucune dond j e me s o i s peu s o u v e n i r , l a q u e l l e j e n ' a y e essaye de d i s s o u l d r e par p l u s f o r t argument, e t a y a n t , comme on d i e t , l a p e l o t t e en l a main , ne m'en s u i s p o i n t pour tant f a i t p l u s beau j e u . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 5-6) The p r o p o s i t i o n s are not e x p l i c i t l y based on a u t h o r i t y , inasmuch as the readers whom the author wishes to persuade c o n s i d e r themselves to be swayed only by reason : Je ne veus omettre de t ' a d v e r t i r , L e c t e u r , que j e n ' a l l e g u e en ces t Oeuvre aucun autheur , par ce que j e scay que t e l l e maniere de gents a q u i j ' a y a f f a i r e , r e j e t t e n t et se moquent de toute a u t h o r i t e , demandans a chasque mot r a i s o n , de l a q u e l l e i l s n ' o n t pas une once . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 6) The work as a whole i s arranged i n " C i r c l e s , " around which the thread of the arguments i s designed to l e a d the reader from n a t u r a l to s u p e r -n a t u r a l r e v e l a t i o n s of t r u t h : . . . en l ' e n t r e s u i t e e t l i a i s o n des causes i e s u i s monte jusques a l a p r e m i e r e . ' ( E n c y c l i e , p . 7) I n a l l , t h i s work l i k e La B o d e r i e ' s l a t e r works i s conceived as p r i m a r i l y u s e f u l r a t h e r than p l e a s u r a b l e . To p o e t i c i m m o r t a l i t y achieved by a r t i s t i c re f inements of which he was sometimes suspic ious , " ' " 71 La Boder ie p r e f e r r e d the s a t i s f a c t i o n of s e r v i n g h i s contemporar ies , e s p e c i a l l y the humanist e l i t e , through h i s g l o r i f i c a t i o n of a t i m e l e s s God: . . . ayant neantmoins t o u s j o u r s ce but devant l e s y e u s , de rendre mon s t i l e l e p l u s c l a i r et aisce q u ' i l m'a es te p o s s i b l e . Car j e n ' e u jamais d e s i r d ' e s c r i r e aus mors, mais aus v i v a n s , et de p r o f i t e r au peuple de France . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 8) . . . j a p i e c a j e pretens De p l a i r e en p r o f i t a n t aux d o c t e s . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 15) La Boder ie d e d i c a t e d h i s E n c y c l i e to h i s f u t u r e r o y a l p a t r o n to whom he had been recommended as e a r l y as 1568 ( E n c y c l i e , p . 5 ) . The "Chant en forme d ' e p i s t r e d e d i c a t o i r e . . . a T r e s - h a u l t et T r e s -i l l u s t r e P r i n c e Monseigneur l e Due d ' A l l e n c o n f r e r e du Roy T r e s -c h r e s t i e n Char les neufigme" presents aga in the a u t h o r ' s reasons both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l f o r u n d e r t a k i n g an e x p o s i t i o n of " the s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " i n a tempestuous age when men are threatened by the S c y l l a and Charybdis of " l a monstrueuse bes te / Qu'on nomme O p i n i o n en l a R e l i g i o n " and " l ' A b i s m e " of " l ' l m p i e t e i " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 1 0 ) . A long e x h o r t a t i o n to the f r e e - t h i n k e r s and s e c t a r i a n s of the day urges them to c o n s i d e r the o r d e r , the harmony and the beauty of the u n i v e r s e as 18 p r o o f s of i t s d i v i n e C r e a t o r and of a d i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e , c h a s t i s i n g the "devoyez" f o r t h e i r misguided r e a s o n i n g : T o u t e s f o i s contemplans du Monde l e b e l o r d r e , Qui c o n t i e n t tous ces ars et tous l e u r s a r t i s a n s , Vous osez impudens ou mesconnoistre ou mordre Du Moteur l e c o n s e i l , - ^ aveugles mfidisans; Et ne voyez vous p o i n t que 1 'on ne p o u r r o i t t o r d r e 72 Ces c e r c l e s encercle 's par mouvemens d [ i ] v i s a n s Sans une grand R a i s o n ; veu que pour l e s entendre , I I nous f a u t tout 1 ' E s p r i t et l a Raison estendre? ( E n c y c l i e , p . 15) and c o n c l u d i n g : Ne doutez done jamais voyant t e l l e concorde Qui s e c r e t t e e n t r e t i e n t l e Monde en sa beaute", Q u ' i l n ' y ayt un P a t r o n q u i manie et q u i torde L ' a n c r e e t l e g o u v e r n a i l s e l o n sa v o l o n t C , Et quoy que maintenant vous voyez l a d i s c o r d e Pour l a R e l i g i o n , ou pour l a RoyauteY Ne vous l a i s s e z a l l e r comme une g i r o t l e t t e Qui sans aucun a r r e s t a tout vent p i r o u e t t e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 22) The p o e t ' s c y c l i c a l and G a l l i c themes, which he w i l l develop l a t e r i n La G a l l i a d e , are suggested here by re fe rence to the Druids as the f i r s t p o e t - p r i e s t s whose r e l i g i o u s i n s i g h t and whose a r t , t r a n s m i t t e d through the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i on whom La Boder ie has drawn, are to be renewed i n Renaissance France : 20 Sous l ' H e r c u l e Gauloys ces te facon ant ique De r a i s o n n e r de D i e u , p r i n t son commencement, Et des Druydes v i e u s q u i avoyent l a p r a t i q u e Du Monde, de N a t u r e , e t son advancement, Par l e s Meoniens de Gaule en Terre A t t i q u e Fut por tee . . . Et ores nous devons des Romains l e s reprendre Et posseder l e b i e n q u i e s t de noz ayeus, A f i n que l e s c a v o i r , de 1 'Empire c o u v e r c l e , Viene en Gaule avec vous [ s i c ] f i n i r l e rond du C e r c l e . Chez nous encor l e s V e r s , et l a Lyre es to fee Ont es te i n v e n t e z des Bardes anciens . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 23) The D r u i d s , l i k e Orpheus and D a v i d , represent a l s o f o r La B o d e r i e the type of the e t h i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l s i n g e r whom he wishes to emulate , f o r so p o w e r f u l was t h e i r a r t that t h e i r songs would charm even w a r r i o r s i n the f i e l d : 73 Mars c r u e l r e v e r a n t des Muses l e s M e r v e i l l e s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 24) The d e d i c a t i o n c l o s e s w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n to God f o r guidance i n the p o e t ' s e n t e r p r i s e , o r i g i n a l i n h i s t i m e , of s e t t i n g f o r t h i n verse the essence of the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n on Mount Z i o n , the v e i l e d t r u t h t r a n s m i t t e d through Moses to the K a b b a l i s t i n i t i a t e s : Mais 6 grand D i e u c ' e s t toy q u i m'accordant accordes Sur mon P s a l t e r i o n l e s s e c r e t z des H e b r i e u s , Lesque ls j ' a y l e premier d ' e n t r e tous noz Pontes Ouvers , e t decouvers en rimes non muet tes . Guide-moy done mon Dieu . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 25) Wi th h i s accustomed w o r d - p l a y i n anagrams, La Boder ie s t r e s s e s the new s e r i o u s n e s s of h i s concept ion of the r o l e of the p o e t , r e v e a l e r of m y s t e r i e s , as compared even w i t h the r o l e of the e a r l y Ronsard: Guide-moy done mon D i e u , fay que j e ne m'egare De tes s e n t i e r s connus, e t a i n s i q u ' o n a veu En PIERRE DE RONSARD SE REDORER PINDARE, Fay q u ' e n te c o n n o i s s a n t , l ' U n premier j ' a y e e l e u , L ' U n j e s e r v e , l ' U n j ' a y m e , e t de l ' U n s o i s avare : S o i t avec son Cesar FEU VERGILE pourveu , Et a L 'ALCIDE HEVREUS que ma L y r e e to fee L u i face ouyr a c l a i r comme L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 25) Thus as the new Orpheus the poet proposes , w i t h the i n s p i r a t i o n of d i v i n e wisdom p e r s o n i f i e d i n the c e l e s t i a l Muse, " l a s a i n t e U r a n i e / 21 LUMIERE ARCHE D I V I N E , " to move h i s readers to a mora l renewal and a s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h . Having i n v i t e d h i s reader to enter w i t h him i n t o the t a b e r n a c l e of t r u t h , La Boder ie assumes the r o l e of c u r i o u s doubter , the " S e c r e t a i r e . " I n the " A v a n t - J e u du D i a l o g u e " he f i r s t poses a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s . U r a n i e ' s s i b y l l i n e answers to such q u e r i e s d e f i n e a g a i n the p o e t ' s h i g h 74 purpose . He s h o u l d a v o i d .the s e n s u a l , the m a t e r i a l and w o r l d l y f o r they can b r i n g o n l y doubt and care and are of no e s s e n t i a l v a l u e : " Q u i me f a i c t done de D i e u ces mots douteus l a c h e r ? " " L a C h a i r . " "Que p o u r r a i - j e t r o u v e r aus e s c r i s d ' E p i c u r e ? " " C u r e . " "Combien e s t i m e s - t u tout l ' h o n n e u r t e r r i e n ? " " M e n . " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 28) H i s Muse demands tha t the poet must be v i r t u o u s and l e a r n e d : "Que d o i - j e done f u i r pour e s t r e a ton s e r v i c e ? " " V i c e . " "Que d o i - j e f a i r e a f i n d ' y accorder ma L y r e ? " " L i r e . " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 28) She w i l l then guide him to an unders tanding of the s u p e r n a l moving f o r c e of the u n i v e r s e : " Q u ' e s t l a Loy de dessus , d ' a u t r e Loy d i s p e n s e e ? " " P e n s e e . " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 27) Thus w i l l h i s work prove of l a s t i n g v a l u e : "Ou se poussent l e s Chants de ton e s p r i t s c a v a n t ? " " A v a n t ! " " Q u i v e r r a tes Secrets dans ces t Ombre v o l a g e ? " " L ' A g e . " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 27) The f i r s t seven C i r c l e s of the E n c y c l i e l e a d the reader through v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s of thought , from p s y c h o l o g y , b i o l o g y , mathematics , moral p h i l o s o p h y , s o c i o l o g y , p h y s i c s , metaphysics to t h e o l o g y . In the E i g h t h C i r c l e l y r i c a l p r a i s e of i n t u i t i v e and m y s t i c a l - e c s t a t i c knowledge complements the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u r s i v e reason ing and i n t r o d u c e s a 75 c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " i n an e l a b o r a t i o n of the symbolism of the K a b b a l i s t i c t a b e r n a c l e . The F i r s t C i r c l e f i x e s the d i a l o g u e i n " u n l i e u s a c r C , s o l i t a i r e , a l ' C c a r t " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 29) where U r a n i e ' s " s e c r e t s e t mysteres" w i l l 22 not be p r o f a n e d . To the S e c r e t a r y ' s f i r s t q u e s t i o n about the e x i s t e n c e of an e t e r n a l God, U r a n i e answers w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the P l a t o n i c concept of the an imat ing w o r l d s o u l and a c o n s t a t a t i o n of the w o r l d -wide b e l i e f i n gods which preceded a m o n o t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n . The doubt ing S e c r e t a r y r e j e c t s human a u t h o r i t y , however, demanding "pour tous tesmoins r a i s o n et v e r i t y " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 23 [ 3 1 ] ) . There f o l l o w s an exchange of p r o p o s i t i o n s i n which U r a n i e , c o u n t e r i n g the S e c r e t a r y ' s arguments drawn p r i n c i p a l l y from P l i n y and other c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s , f i r s t shows man alone to be possessor of the d i v i n e l i g h t of reason and f i n a l l y makes of the autonomy of r e a s o n , which i s a lone not s u b j e c t to m a t e r i a l change, a proof of d i v i n i t y . The f i r s t of the Muse 's l o g i c a l deduct ions i s based on the premise tha t even a combinat ion of p a r t s cannot produce a q u a l i t y which the p a r t s themselves do not c o n t a i n . Reason must t h e r e f o r e be a f a c u l t y q u i t e independent of the f o u r elements and of the senses , f o r the r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s , a l though based on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the senses , comprises c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , judgment and c h o i c e and i s based on s y n t h e s i s , a n a l y s i s and memory beyond the a s s i m i l a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the senses a c c o r d i n g to f a c u l t a t i v e psycho logy : 76 N u l des quatre elemens de d i s c o r d a n s accors N ' a l e p o u v o i r a ide des organes du corps D ' i n v e n t e r e t p r e v o i r , juger e t p u i s e l i r e Par un l i b r e v o u l o i r l e m e i l l e u r ou l e p i r e . Quand i l s son assembles l e u r c o m p o s i t i o n Ne peut doncques a v o i r tant d i v i n e a c t i o n . Ces c o n t r a i r e - a m i s aus f e n e s t r e s ouvertes Peuvent b i e n r e c u e i l l i r l e s images o f f e r t e s Chascun en son e n d r o i t , non pas l e s composer U n i v e r s e l l e m e n t , et p u i s l e s d i v i s e r . N u l d 'eus ne peut mouvoir l i b r e m e n t l a Memoire, Ou b i e n se r e c o r d e r sans un o b j e t n o t o i r e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 34) Furthermore , examples such as those of " a r t f u l " memory i n b i r d - s o n g or of i n s t i n c t u a l f o r e s i g h t i n the ant are shown to be p r o o f s not of reason i n animals but r a t h e r of the d i v i n i t y of Nature t h e i r g u i d e : S i Nature a donne aus bestes l a R a i s o n Et a i n s i qu'aus humains Musique , e t O r a i s o n , Nature es t r a i s o n n a b l e , e l l e e s t m u s i c i e n n e , Finablement Nature es t r h e t o r i c i e n n e . S i l a Nature a u s s i l e u r a donne p o u v o i r De p r e v o i r l e f u t u r , e t au f u t u r p o u r v o i r , Nature l e peut b i e n : s i Nature domine Dessus l e Temps, e l l e e s t etemeLle e t d i v i n e . Ce que t u c h e r c h o i s d o n c q ' , ores t u l ' a s t r o u v e , Et Dieu s u r n a t u r e l par nature es t prouve . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 41-42) But n a t u r a l f a c u l t i e s are o n l y as the shadow of the d i v i n e l i g h t of reason of which man alone p a r t a k e s : Mais comme 1'Ombre en soy obscurement r a p p o r t e Du corps son compagnon quelque f i g u r e morte , Tout a i n s i l a N a t u r e , ou l e Sens ombrageus Montre gross ierement quelques t r a i s nuageus De l a b e l l e R a i s o n , l a l u m i e r e feconde Tout homme i l l u m i n a n t l e q u e l v i e n en ce Monde. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 43) Man the chameleon i s s u p e r i o r to a l l o ther animals i n h i s c a p a c i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y : 77 Mais c ' e s t tout autrement que de l ' e s p e c e humaine, Q u i , quand, et comme on v e u t , l ' A r t e t nature meine: S i que t r o p et t rop p l u s que d'hommes s i n g u l i e r s Ya d 'oeuvres d i v e r s a l'homme f a m i l i e r s . Sur nature e l l e a done quelque v i g u e u r supreme, Car l a nature d o i t resembler a soym£me. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 42) Only man i s possessed of the f r e e l y a c t i n g autonomous s p i r i t c o n t r a s t e d to the n a t u r a l animal senses which can do no more than r e a c t to a s t i m u l u s ; man's s p i r i t i s " s i m p l e , " tha t i s to say pure and f r e e of any m a t e r i a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n : P u i s doncques que 1 ' E s p r i t peut toute chose entendre Et dans l e Monde e s t a n t sur l e Monde s ' e s t e n d r e , I I s ' e n s u i t q u ' i l es t s i m p l e , et q u ' i l es t arr ive" Exemt de tout amas, de meslange pr ive" . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 45) T h i s n o n - m a t e r i a l pure s p i r i t , " l a Pens£e , e t l i b r e jugement , " f r e e of the laws of e lementa l m u t a b i l i t y of the t e r r e s t r i a l w o r l d becomes, a t the end of the F i r s t C i r c l e , U r a n i e ' s f i r s t proof of a D i v i n i t y : Que s i e l l e e s t de s o y , jamais e l l e ne f i n e , Ne commencant j a m a i s : p a r t a n t e l l e e s t d i v i n e . Mais s i c ' e s t un ouvrage, i l n ' e s t pas sans A u t h e u r : Et pource i l e s t un DIEU admirable en h a u t e u r . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 46) In the Second C i r c l e the S e c r e t a r y ' s ques t ions about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of reason to the senses provoke Uranie to a statement of the d u a l i t y of e x i s t e n c e , m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l , p r e l i m i n a r y to a f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of psychology based on the p r i n c i p l e of d i v i n e - • 2 3 reason i n n a t e i n man. 78 Change and death are f u n c t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d o n l y . In the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , inasmuch as the s o u l grows w i t h i n c r e a s e d knowledge, o n l y ignorance i s to be f e a r e d : . . . car s i par l a Sc ience L'Ame c r o i s t en grandeur , c ' e s t une mesme essence: Or l e c o n t r a i r e s e u l peut rompre t e l a c c o r d , Ignorance es t c o n t r a i r e , Ignorance es t done M o r t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 48) Not w i t h o u t humour U r a n i e c h a s t i s e s the na'ive S e c r e t a r y : P o u r t a n t j e mebahi que l a Mort ne te tue Qui de t e l l e ignorance as l 'Ame r e v e s c u e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 48) Knowledge of the e lementa l w o r l d i s a c q u i r e d s u p e r f i c i a l l y through the senses by a process s i m i l a r to magnetism. Given the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the senses which are always s u b j e c t to e r r o r , however, U r a n i e argues that man must have a pr imary i n n a t e s t o r e of n u m e r i c a l and v e r b a l concepts w h i c h , d e v e l o p i n g as h i s knowledge i n c r e a s e s , enables him to understand h i m s e l f and the u n i v e r s e and even the e t e r n a l and the i n f i n i t e : 0 P r i n c i p e s d i v i n s , q u i rendent l 'Ame a p r i s e A comprendre l e s C i e u s , sous q u i l 'Ame es t comprise , La guindant sur l e Temps, dedans un L i e u sans l i e u , L i e u sans commencement, sans f i n , e t sans m i l i e u ! ( E n c y c l i e , p . 49) I n the great c h a i n of b e i n g , man i s the l i n k between the s t a b l e d i v i n e and c e l e s t i a l w o r l d s and the mutable t e r r e s t r i a l w o r l d of the e lements : T e l z sont l e s N a t u r e l z c e r t a i n s et p e r d u r a b l e s , Qui des muables c o r p s , sont t o u s j o u r s immuables. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 49) I t i s suggested that these i n n a t e concepts , i l l u s t r a t e d by c e r t a i n 79 unchangeable axioms, are drawn from the p r i m a l I n t e l l i g e n c e , the f i r s t -c r e a t e d Logos a s s o c i a t e d elsewhere w i t h C h r i s t the A r c h e t y p e : Et q u ' i l s e s t o i e n t premier que du Monde l e c o u r s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 56) T h e i r i m m u t a b i l i t y and a l s o t h e i r n o n - m a t e r i a l q u a l i t y f u r n i s h proof a g a i n of man's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i v i n e i m m o r t a l i t y : I l z sont done en 1 ' E s p r i t q u i l e s c o n t i e n t ensemble: Car l e Sens ne r e c o i t que ce q u i l u i ressemble . Or 1 ' E s p r i t es t d a i l l e u r s , p a r t a n t une Ra ison E n t r e t i e n t des E s p r i s l a f o r c e et l i a i s o n ; Et commence par s o y , se perpet i ie en e l l e , Et en e l l e f i n i t , a jamais e t e r n e l l e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 57) Man as a moral as w e l l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l b e i n g bears w i t n e s s to the element of the d i v i n e i n h i m . The T h i r d C i r c l e t r a c e s the source of " l ' H o n n e s t e t e , l ' O r d r e , e t l a B i e n - s e a n c e " and of these " L o i s de N a t u r e , appuy des bonnes moeurs" to i n n a t e r u l e s of conscience analogous to the i n n a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts p r e v i o u s l y a f f i r m e d . Human a p p e t i t e s or pass ions have , l i k e the senses , the e f f e c t of a heavy smoke which r i s k s c l o u d i n g the d i v i n e l i g h t of reason w i t h v i c e as w i t h e r r o r : Mais comme l ' o e i l s i l l e , q u i t i e n t sa f lame e n c l o s e , Ne se v o u l a n t o u v r i r ne v o i d aucune chose, Tout a i n s i l a R a i s o n , q u i es t l ' o e i l des E s p r i s , Quand e l l e se r e s e r r e en son p e t i t p o u r p r i s , Et sans penser a r i e n au sens lache l a b r i d e , Celuy q u ' e l l e g u i d o i t , ces tuy mesme l a g u i d e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 64) But i n so f a r as man par takes of the d i v i n e " R a i s o n p r e m i e r e " he has been granted not o n l y unders tanding but a l s o f r e e w i l l : 80 P u i s done que j ' a y prouve que 1 ' e l i t e du b i e n , Et l e mespris du m a l , en tous hommes n ' e s t r i e n , S inon l e mouvement de l a s e u l e Pensee: P u i s que 1 ' a f f e c t i o n n ' e s t au Coeur commencee, A i n s en 1'Entendement, . . . P u i s que l e s premiers t r a i s des r e g i e s N a t u r e l l e s R e l u i s e n t en 1 ' E s p r i t , . . . S ' e n s u i t q u ' i l e s t un D i e u , l e premier des E s p r i s , L e q u e l a dedans vous ces P r i n c i p e s e s c r i s . C ' e s t l a R a i s o n p r e m i e r e , et l a r a i s o n en toy Quand e l l e e s t confermee, e s t une j u s t e L o y . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 65) M o r a l i t y becomes a f u n c t i o n of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f o r t r u e m o r a l i t y i s the " r i g h t reason" d e r i v e d from man's harmonious attunement w i t h the u n i v e r s e and i t s d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of La B o d e r i e ' s views on the bases of m o r a l i t y 24 and on the r o l e of the poet i s c l e a r . H i s s c h o l a r l y h u m a n i s t ' s emphasis on l e a r n i n g demands that the poet be above a l l "docte et v e r t u e u x " i n order to search out and to express the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e s i n c r e a t i o n , the "pommes d ' o r " of the epigraph to L ' E n c y c l i e . The concept of j u s t i c e i m p l i c i t i n the " R a i s o n p r e m i e r e " of which i n d i v i d u a l man par takes i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l j u s t i c e i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e as U r a n i e d e s c r i b e s i t i n the F o u r t h C i r c l e . The p r i n c i p l e of a dominant l e a d e r or primum i n every c l a s s of the great c h a i n of b e i n g f u r n i s h e s indeed another proof of God necessary to dominate the u n i v e r s a l h i e r a r c h y as the monarch dominates the s o c i a l 25 h i e r a r c h y of the body p o l i t i c . 81 To the S e c r e t a r y ' s o b j e c t i o n s of e q u a l i t y by n a t u r a l r i g h t and h i s comment tha t even the i r r a t i o n a l animals i n f e r i o r to man can l i v e independent of a s o c i a l order U r a n i e r e p l i e s tha t N a t u r e ' s a r t r e q u i r e s v a r i e t y w i t h i n the whole and that speech as w e l l as reason g ive man alone the a b i l i t y to r e c o n c i l e v a r i e t y i n u n i t y : Nature e s t p l e i n e d ' A r t , et f a i t tout pour l e mieus , R i e n sans cause, et sans f i n : c ' e s t l e d i t des p l u s v i e u s . Ce q u ' e l l e veut u n i r , c ' e s t ce q u ' e l l e v a r i e , R a i s o n et O r a i s o n , l e c l o u , l ' a i m a n t e t c h e i n e , Qui assemble e t q u i t i e n t l a Compagnie humaine. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 68) V a r i a t i o n s on these two themes make up the argument of the F o u r t h C i r c l e . Speech i s a d i v i n e g i f t vouchsafed to man a l o n e ; the n a t u r a l v o i c e common to a l l animals i s merely i t s i n s t r u m e n t . I t i s indeed the d i v i n e g i f t of speech i t s e l f which i s the b a s i s of c i v i l i s e d s o c i e t y : 0 P a r l e r m e r v e i l l e u s ! e t asses de louanges Ne te p o u r r o i e n t donner l e s Nat ions estranges' . Tu as a p p r i v o i s e s l e s hommes p l e i n s d ' e f r o y , Tu l e s as j o i n s du neud de Foy , de L o y , de Roy: Tu as p o l y l e s meurs des Sauvages a u s t e r e s , Tu as u n i l e s Gens vagues, e t s o l i t a i r e s , Tu as f a i t l e s C i t e s , et as entre tenus Dedans l e u r s a p p e n t i f s tous l e s Barbares n u s . En somme, c ' e s t par t o y , que tout homme s ' a p p l i q u e Pour a c c r o i s t r e l e b i e n de l a C h o s e - p u b l i q u e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 69) La B o d e r i e ' s K a b b a l i s t i c concept of the name as substance i s r e l a t e d to t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of language as a d i v i n e essence. As the v o i c e g i v e s body to s p i r i t i n speech, so the word i s the " v e i l " of the 26 w o r d ' s essence. The p o i n t i s made here i n the context of a d e f i n i t i o n of n o b i l i t y as a q u a l i t y c o m p r i s i n g v i r t u e and l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than as 82 an i n h e r i t e d r i g h t : Noblesse mesme g i s t en l a docte v e r t u , Noble es t l e s e u l Scavant de l a v e r t u v e s t u . Non l ' o r n ' a n o b l i t pas , ny l e s honneurs de r a c e : L'homme en luymesme d o i t en imprimer l a t r a c e Par b o n t i seulement, l e bon es t noble nom: Tourne NOBLE au r e b o u r s , t u t r o u v e r r a s LE BON. Voy combien ce beau nom convient b i e n a l a chose! Sous l e v o i l e du mot 1 'essence se repose . Vrayment l e s Noms c e r t a i n s ne sont p o i n t composes Par o p i n i o n d'homme, e t par homme imposes: Mais Nature a cache" dessous l e u r s Carac teres Ne scay q u e l l e v i g u e u r p l e i n e de grans M y s t e r e s . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 72-73) The theme of d i v e r s i t y of purpose as b a s i s of the s t r u c t u r e of the body p o l i t i c i s e l a b o r a t e d f i r s t i n the context of the t r i p l e l i a i s o n of couples i n the f a m i l y : man and w i f e , parent and c h i l d , and master and s e r v a n t . The f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s i t s e l f the model of m u n i c i p a l , o f n a t i o n a l and of i m p e r i a l government, f o r a l l conform to the r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e of order which r e q u i r e s that the lower be governed by the h i g h e r power. Once a g a i n r e a s o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d here i n the s t r u c t u r e of c i v i l i s e d s o c i e t y , supports U r a n i e ' s proof of a s u p e r i o r d i v i n i t y : Bre f Nature c o n t r a i n t en r a i s o n n a t u r e l l e Confesser tous humains e s t r e assembles par e l l e . Et l a R a i s o n c o n t r a i n t Nature par sa l o y De confesser q u ' e l l e e s t par aut re que par soy : Mais c e s t u y - l a q u i es t l a Nature supreme Peut d i r e q u ' i l e s t Tout , et U n - s e u l par soymeme. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 75) The F i f t h C i r c l e e x p l o r e s the cosmos f o r proof of God. I t i s opened by U r a n i e ' s double d e f i n i t i o n of Nature as the d i v i n i t y i t s e l f and a l s o as h i s t o o l or moving f o r c e , n a t u r a n a t u r a n s . Nature assumes 83 a new d i v i n e d imens ion . I t i s no l o n g e r the f a t a l power of the a n c i e n t s nor i s i t a secondary f o r c e s u b s e r v i e n t to the d i v i n e s p i r i t as i n the medieva l concept . Rather i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h tha t s p i r i t c i r c u l a t i n g through the u n i v e r s e : L ' u n e Nature es t D i e u , mais e l l e es t i n f i n i e . L ' a u t r e , son i n s t r u m e n t , e s t a i n s i d e f i n i e . C ' e s t l a f o r c e , et v i g u e u r eparse en l ' U n i v e r s , La cause du r e p o s , et mouvemens d i v e r s . ^ ( E n c y c l i e , p . 75) This d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s the concept of God as a t the same time immanent and t rans cendent , f o r c r e a t i o n becomes a s e r i e s of emanations of the i n f i n i t e Godhead through the c o n t e m p l a t i o n of which man can approach God: Car e l l e q u i e s t s i m p l e , et s u b t i l e en ses f a i c t s , Cache son e x c e l l e n c e , et ses propres e f f a i c t s (Au c o n t r a i r e de l ' A r t ) dedans chacune chose, De s o r t e q u ' e l l e mesme e l l e s ' y es t e n c l o s e . C ' e s t a f i n que l ' O u v r i e r q u i ne peut l i m i t e r Ses ouvrages c o u v e r s , ne p u i s s e l ' i m i t e r : Et que a l 'ombrage obscur de son l u s t r e i l se m i r e , A f i n q u ' e n l ' a d m i r a n t , l ' A u t h e u r d ' e l l e i l admire . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 7 6 ) 2 8 There i s a s u g g e s t i o n of the m y s t i c s ' d e f i n i t i o n of God as the c i r c l e whose cent re i s everywhere and whose c i rcumference i s i n f i n i t e : A u s s i l ' O u v r i e r p a r f a i c t , de q u i Nature est l ' a r t , Es t estendu par tout et c l o s en n u l l e p a r t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 77) The p e r f e c t i o n of the c i r c l e and of c i r c u l a r movement both as s t a t i c form and as dynamic order i s the b a s i s of U r a n i e ' s argument f o r the e x i s t e n c e of God m a n i f e s t i n the spheres of the u n i v e r s e . The S e c r e t a r y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of pantheism and of temporal l i m i t a t i o n s i n the d e f i n i t i o n of God / Nature as immanent are f i r s t r e j e c t e d by 84 means of a comparison w i t h f r e e l y - m o v i n g thought and the immorta l human s o u l not f e t t e r e d by the m a t e r i a l body: Ton ame e n c l o t l e s C i e u s , et des Cieus es t e n c l o s e ! P e u s - t u f a i r e c e l a , et Dieu ne l e peut pas? Et p u i s q u ' e l l e [ l 'ame] a t t a i n t b i e n j u s q u ' a l ' E t e r n i t e ' , I I te f a u t confesser une D i v i n i t d : Car s ' i l n ' e n e s t o i t p o i n t , ton Ame tant i s n e l l e Ne p o u r r o i t c o n c e v o i r une Essence e t e r n e l l e . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 80-81) Furthermore , as i n the medieval concept , the w o r l d i s a f i n i t e , u n i f i e d summa; i t s u n i t y and i t s harmonious movement exc lude the p o s s i b i l i t y of a v o i d or of a p l u r a l i t y of wor lds f o r they imply the p e r f e c t order conceived of as e t e r n a l and i n f i n i t e : Mais v o s t r e o e i l e s t tesmoin que dedans l ' u n i v e r s I I n ' y a r i e n c o n f u s , b i e n que tout s o i t d i v e r s . Or s i par contupois i ceus [ d ' a u t r e s mondes] se t e n o i e n t fermes L o i n g ent re e u l s separes dans l e Vuide sans termes, Vrayment ce Monde i c y p a r f a i t en 1 ' U n i t e A . l ' e x e m p l e e t p a t r o n de ces te E t e r n i t e , Ne s e r o i t p l u s nomine" l e S imulacre d ' e l l e , Et e l l e ne s e r o i t du Monde l e M o d e l l e . Mais comme i l n ' y a p o i n t p l u s d'une E t e r n i t e , L a q u e l l e embrasse tout en son I n f i n i t e , Et q u i ne l a i s s e r i e n q u i s o i t pur e n t e n d i b l e : A i n s i l e Monde e n c l o t toute chose s e n s i b l e . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 85-86) I t i s that p e r f e c t i o n f i g u r e d f o r t h i n the c i r c u l a r form of the e a r t h and the c i r c u l a r movement of the heavenly spheres which i s at the same time both the e x p r e s s i o n and the proof of God's immanence and transcendence : Et s i c e s t u n i v e r s es t a p p e l i e l e Beau, Le Monde, l 'Ornement , l u y s i e d pas l e Rondeau? Q u e l l e forme v o i s - t u p l u s p a r f a i c t e ny b e l l e , Que c e l l e q u i c o n t i e n t toute aut re forme en e l l e ? 85 Neantmoins ent re t o u s , par s imple e l e c t i o n Unique es t l a Rondeur b e l l e en p e r f e c t i o n . A u s s i e l l e a l e l i e u de l a Forme p r e m i e r e , Et s e u l e e l l e r e t i e n t sa beaute cous tumiere . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 87) By i t s u n i t y as by i t s uniqueness the c i r c l e represents God the c r e a t o r of which the n a t u r a naturans i s one a s p e c t . Thus by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of p h y s i c s which ignores Renaissance s c i e n c e U r a n i e o f f e r s a " reasoned" proof of a God m a n i f e s t i n the u n i v e r s e . H i s immanence i n c r e a t i o n may be i n t e r p r e t e d not as pagan 29 pantheism but as C h r i s t i a n polyphony echoing the u n i v e r s a l ' harmony. From p h y s i c s U r a n i e progresses to metaphysics i n the S i x t h C i r c l e . Imagery must r e p l a c e d i s c u r s i v e reasoning as the Muse e l u c i d a t e s the m y s t e r i e s of e s s e n t i a l b e i n g . Man's s p i r i t , which a c c o r d i n g to a b e l i e f a s c r i b e d to Z o r o a s t e r had been d e p r i v e d of i t s two wings when i t assumed a m a t e r i a l body, must be r e s t o r e d by a v i t a l f o r c e , " l ' e a u de v i e , " b e f o r e i t can r e g a i n i t s o r i g i n a l c l a r i t y : A i n s i que ton E s p r i t ses deus a i l e s p e r d i t A l o r s que du haut C i e l en Terre i l d e s c e n d i t Dedans ton corps de boue: a u s s i a v a n t , que d ' e s t r e J u s q u ' a u C i e l r e g u i n d i , i l f a l l o i t l a i s s e r c r o i s t r e Les a i l e s derechef , et pour l e v o l oser Convint tes a i l e r o n s d 'eau de v i e a r r o u s e r , A f i n de r e c o u v r e r ton asure" plumage, Et du t r a v a i l d ' a u t r u y r S p a r e r ton dommage. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 99) C h r i s t ' s redemptive power, suggested by the "eau de v i e " i s developed i n the myth of the p e l i c a n who: 86 . . . de son bee p o i n t u s ' e s t f e r u l a p o i t r i n e Pour de son sang v e r m e i l p l e i n d'amour et d o c t r i n e Vous rddonner l a v i e , e t f a i r e r e j e t t e r Un plumage nouveau a f i n de v o l e t e r . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 99-100) U r a n i e develops a s e r i e s of images to i l l u s t r a t e the a l l -p e n e t r a t i n g s p i r i t u a l f o r c e of God emanating i n the c e l e s t i a l and the t e r r e s t r i a l w o r l d s and ye t t ranscendent over them: P u i s q u ' i l demeure vray que l a grand ' Ame s o i t Dedans et hors l e Monde . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 102) The rays of the sun are constant w i t n e s s to the p r i n c i p l e of immanence: Le S o l e i l , l e s e u l - O e i l q u i tout l e Monde g c l a i r e E lance b i e n ses r a i s par l a v e r r i n e c l a i r e , Et ne l a b r i s e pas , pourquoy d ' u n v u e i l m a l i n L ' E s p r i t b r i s e r o i t - i l son C e r c l e c r i s t a l i n ? ( E n c y c l i e , p . 101) The movement of a i r i n organ p i p e s , l i k e the expanding c i r c l e s or " e n c y c l i e " caused by a stone dropped i n w a t e r , i n d i c a t e the power of a prime mover which remains separate from i t s v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , both human and a n g e l i c , l i k e the God of the m y s t i c s ' c i r c l e : A i n s i b i e n que du Coeur e t du Centre du Monde L'Ame b o u i l l e , et sourgeonne, et s ' i n s p i r e a l a ronde Parmy l e s i n t e s t i n s e t membres du grand Corps Emboites l ' u n dans 1 ' a u t r e , et tous ent re eus r e t o r s : Et b i e n que meint E s p r i t chantourne en son c o u v e r c l e Comme l a dormante eau peu a peu, c e r c l e a c e r c l e , Par l e j e t d ' u n c a i l l o u commence d ' o n d o y e r , Et de l a p l u s au l o i n g p l y sur p l y d e p l o y e r : Ou comme du g o s i e r l a v o i s a r t i c u l e e Est en l ' A i r spacieus au compas t o r t i l e e : Sans l ' a i d e t o u t e s f o i s d ' u n Moteur p l u s cache, C e r c l e S p i r i t u e l a n u l Corps a t tache Dont l e Centre es t par t o u t , e t l a C i r c o n f e r e n c e N ' e n es t en l i e u q u i s o i t . . . . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 103-104) 87 In s h o r t , l i n k i n g her two s u b j e c t s of man's e s s e n t i a l na ture and the nature of the d i v i n e , U r a n i e a f f i r m s tha t the mystery of an immanent/transcendent God as the p r i n c i p l e of b e i n g i n the macrocosm as i n the microcosm i s a c c e s s i b l e to the v i r t u o u s man i n so f a r as h i s s p i r i t i s r e s t o r e d to i t s o r i g i n a l d i v i n e p u r i t y . In La B o d e r i e ' s v i s i o n of a u n i v e r s e ordered by the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e of harmony, such an apprehension of d i v i n i t y i s approached through a r e c e p t i v i t y to the c e l e s t i a l harmony of the spheres which i s too r e f i n e d f o r man's sensory c a p a c i t i e s a l o n e : Presque en ce mesme p o i n t l ' E t e r n e l l e Pensee Du t o u t en t o u t sans l i e u , e t en l i e u d i s p e r s e e , F a i t s o u r d r e , b o u i l l o n n e r , se respandre , e t j a l i r L'Ame dont l e sourgeon ne peut jamais f a i l l i r : Et p e n e t r e , e t s ' i n f o n d l e P r i n c i p e des V i e s Aus Sere ines q u i sont deca , de l a r a v i e s : 3 0 Les S e r e i n e s , j e d i , Anges non oc ieus Qui g l i s s e n t tout a v a l des grans Vases des C i e u s : Et q u i f o n t r e t e n t i r dedans l e s voutes creuses Du Theatre mondain maintes chansons nombreuses. Car l ' A m e , comme V o i s , des l a Scene s 'epand ( J ' e n t e n du P o i n t c e n t r a l ) e t tournoye , en f r a p a n t Les Ames de sous e l l e , en c e r c l e s es tendues , Qui resonnent s i h a u t , e t ne sont entendues Q u ' e n t r e e l l e s seulement, e t l e s Hommes purgez Du b r o u i l l e m e n t des Sens, e t de c h a i r dechargez . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 104-105) Theology i t s e l f i s the s u b j e c t of U r a n i e ' s e x p l a n a t i o n i n the Seventh C i r c l e devoted to " l e s Mysteres cachez au S a c r a i r e du Temple" ( E n c y c l i e , p . 105) . P e n e t r a t i o n of the h i g h e s t of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " r e q u i r e s of the b e d a z z l e d Secre tary a v i s i o n c l e a r e r than that r e q u i r e d 88 f o r d i s c u r s i v e r e a s o n i n g : Tes r a i s sont S b l o u i s , ouvre l ' o e i l , ouvre l ' o e i l , Et fay r e l u i r e en toy l e l u s t r e du S o l e i l , Le m i r o i r des E s p r i t s , source de beaute" p u r e , Dont l e S o l e i l mondain n ' e s t r i e n que 1'Ombre obscure : Mais l e s p e c t a c l e beau de l a l u m i e r e immense Est un s e c r e t ferme sous l a c l e f du s i l e n c e , Que t u ne peus o u v r i r , ny v o i r en son profond Les mouvemens d i v i n s q u i sourdent e t s ' y f o n t , ^ ^ Tant que premierement t ' a [ s i c ! veiie e g a l l i ^ e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 109) A c c o r d i n g l y U r a n i e ' s p r o t r a c t e d exegesis of P l a t o ' s myth of the Cave terminates w i t h a comparison of three means to unders t anding represented by the three suns : by e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i n the n a t u r a l context ("Ombrage"), by i d e a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n i n the r a t i o n a l context (" Image") , and by i l l u m i n a t i o n i n the s p i r i t u a l contex t ( " R e s p l e n d e u r " ) . U r a n i e ' s l y r i c a l i n v o c a t i o n to the D e i t y , addressed as " O e i l i n f i n i " and " S o l e i l immense," i s a prayer f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , " l e s r a i z de t a semence" ( E n c y c l i e , p . 113) , i n order t h a t she may i l l u m i n a t e the sacred mystery of U n i t y i n the T r i n i t y , " l ' A m o u r , l ' A i m e , l ' A m a n t " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 115) . E l u c i d a t i o n of the mystery of the T r i n i t y f o l l o w s . To the S e c r e t a r y ' s e x p r e s s i o n of a double aspect of u n i t y supported by a q u o t a t i o n from P l a t o ' s Parmenides , U r a n i e adds the concept of the m e d i a t i n g f o r c e : Le Moteur moyenneur, q u i e s t a d r o i t e voye Qui de l a m u l t i t u d e a l ' U N s e u l nous convoye. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 119) T h i s mediator i s " l e m i r o i r de l ' A m e " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 119) but i t i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C h r i s t the M e d i a t o r represented as the " O e i l moyenneur" 89 or the "Lune e x e m p l a i r e " r e f l e c t i n g the s u n . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d fur thermore w i t h the Word, the " P a r o l l e . . . / Qui es t l ' O u t i l mouvant, e t du Monde l e M o u l e " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 114) . A T r i n i t y i s thus formed of the Immobile, the Moving and the Moved: T r o i s done f o n t l ' e n t r e t i e n : l ' u n es t l a Masse morte Qui es t meiie, e t ne meut: l ' a u t r e q u i l u y apporte Le mouvement r e g l £ , meut e t es t meu a u s s i : Et l e T i e r s , n ' e s t meu, e t s i meut c e s t u y - c i . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 120) Enraptured by h i s new v i s i o n , the S e c r e t a r y invokes a f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t i o n of the i n e f f a b l e Godhead, the Tetragrammaton pronounceable o n l y s i n c e the advent of C h r i s t . He addresses h i m s e l f to C h r i s t the f i r s t - c r e a t e d Logos: 0 Sagesse! 6 V e r t u qu 'en s i l e n c e j ' a p p e l l e ! 0 Lumiere ! 6 Beaute" des beautes l a p l u s b e l l e Qui f u t onques f o r m i e ! 6 V i e ! 6 V e r i t y ! 0 l a premiere V o i s de l a D i v i n i t e ! . . . 6 alme Sapience : Car i l te p o s s e d o i t des l e commencement, Tu e s t o i s j a devant ses Oeuvres longuement. Done 6 Germe l u i s a n t , 6 1'Image du P e r e , 0 son cher N o u r r i s s o n , F i l l e de Dieu prospere Ange du grand c o n s e i l , l e f i d e l l e i n t e r p r e t e Du S i l e n c e d i v i n en p a r o l l e s e c r e t e . . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 120-124) The E i g h t h C i r c l e i s p r i n c i p a l l y a f i g u r a t i o n of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " embodied s y m b o l i c a l l y i n the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e " s e c r e t " 32 r e v e l a t i o n of the Jewish T a b e r n a c l e . P r e l i m i n a r y to the e l u c i d a t i o n of the m y s t e r i e s of the 90 Tabernac le , U r a n i e d e s c r i b e s the way to u l t i m a t e i l l u m i n a t i o n . F i r s t h a v i n g the S e c r e t a r y r e c a l l a dream, " v i s i o n , o r a c l e e t songe p r o f e t i c " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 124) i n which he had seen the moon e c l i p s e d by the sun i n the middle of the n i g h t , U r a n i e e x p l a i n s the symbol i c v a l u e of the 33 sun and the moon w i t h r e f e r e n c e to man's u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The dark of the moon i s man's s e n s o r y , e a r t h l y aspect which i s i l l u m i n e d more or l e s s by the t r a n s p a r e n t c l a r i t y o f the s u n - l i k e h i g h e s t Reason a c c o r d i n g to h i s p r o g r e s s i o n from v i r t u e through s p i r i t u a l l o v e to f u l l u n i o n w i t h God: Tout a i n s i l a PensSe ayant sa l i a i s o n Et son cent re f i c h g au C i e l de l a R a i s o n , I l l u m i n e ton Ame en un c e r c l e a r r o n d i e De l 'ombrage du Corps tachde , e t e n l a i d i e , Et l a v i e n t i l l u s t r e r de ses r a i s a l l u m C s , Comme de l o i n g ou pres de l 'Ame i l z sont humCs. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 126) Consummation of the m y s t i c u n i o n r e q u i r e s f i r s t an e l e v a t i o n above the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b o d i l y d e s i r e s to a r e s t o r a t i o n of h i s s o u l ' s o r i g i n a l c l a r i t y and p u r i t y as p a r t i c i p a n t i n the d i v i n e : Mais i l f a u t o u b l i e r t a propre v o l o n t e Pour te j o i n d r e a l a vraye et unique Bont£ , Et a f i n de p u i s e r l a l u m i e r e fgconde Qui tout homme i l l u m i n e a r r i v a n t en ce Monde. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 128) For the s o u l , l i k e the moon, i s a m i r r o r ; i n order to r e f l e c t the d i v i n e l i g h t i t must be f r e e of a l l e a r t h l y d e f i l e m e n t : A i n s i l e rond de l 'Ame es t de l u m i e r e p l e i n , Et va r e m i r e r D i e u jusques dedans son s e i n , Et pour y p a r v e n i r Amour en es t l a r e g i e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 130) U l t i m a t e i l l u m i n a t i o n i s e f f e c t e d i n the s u r p a s s i n g l o v e p o r t r a y e d as 91 the m y s t i c death by the k i s s , the " rav issement a l ' A m e " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 129) of the mors o s c u l i e x e m p l i f i e d i n Moses, C h r i s t , E l i j a h , the V i r g i n , P a u l and John the A p o s t l e ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 129-130) . P e r f e c t l o v e i s thus the means of r e b i r t h through C h r i s t the M e d i a t o r : Et b r i e f ce feu d'Amour embrase au m i l i e u : D' un E s p r i t e l e v e , l e t ransforme en son D i e u , Et a l o r s s ' a c c o m p l i t l ' e f f e c t de l a p r i e r e , Que pour vous adressa 1'Amour mesme a son P e r e . 0 P e r e , d i s o i t i l , Q u ' i l z soyent en moy f a i c t s un A i n s i q u ' a toy e t moy en s e u l E s t r e es t commun. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 131) God's purpose i s accomplished i n the c y c l i c a l r e b i r t h and r e t u r n of the d i v i n e l y - g i v e n human s o u l to u n i o n w i t h the d i v i n e : L ' U n , l e Bon, l ' E t e r n e l , l ' I m m o b i l , l ' l n f i n i , Leque l t ' a u r a t i r e , e t avec soy u n i . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 133) T h i s theme of r e b i r t h and r e s t i t u t i o n i s fundamental to La B o d e r i e ' s e n t i r e work. Seen here i n the context of i n d i v i d u a l s a l v a t i o n , i t w i l l be developed i n a h i s t o r i c a l context i n La G a l l i a d e . K a b b a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Tabernacle i s the b a s i s f o r U r a n i e ' s f i g u r a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e i n the remainder of the E i g h t h C i r c l e . The symbolism of the Tabernacle c o n t a i n s many of the major 34 themes which La Boder ie adopted from the Kabbalah . The e x p l a n a t i o n of the s y m b o l i c v a l u e of the correspondences between the planes from the d i v i n e to the microcosmic enhances L a B o d e r i e ' s v i s i o n of u n i v e r s a l harmony, and i s thus c e n t r a l to h i s C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s which s t r e s s e s the u n i t y of the d i v i n e i n the m u l t i p l i c i t y of c r e a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e of the macrocosm and of the microcosm are 92 p o r t r a y e d i n the Tabernacle as God, i n h i s o r i g i n a l r e v e l a t i o n to Moses, d i r e c t e d tha t i t should be b u i l t as an image of c r e a t i o n : Saches done pour c e r t a i n , s i t u en as doute,. Que ce b e l Ornement, ce grand Monde v o u t e , Mesme l e Corps humain, l e Temple a l ' a r c h e ronde, L ' A b r e g e du grand Tout , e t vrayment P e t i t Monde, Tant c e s t u y , que c e l u y , tant aus membres, q u ' a u Corps Et t an t par l e dedans, comme par l e dehors , N ' e s t r i e n que l e P o r t r a i t du l u i s a n t Tabernac le , Ou l a g l o i r e de Dieu r e c e l e son O r a c l e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 134) The three w o r l d s , i n t e l l i g i b l e , c e l e s t i a l and t e r r e s t r i a l can thus be shown to be l i n k e d w i t h each o ther and w i t h man by a v a s t system of correspondences . The cont inuous emanations of the K a b b a l i s t S e p h i r o t h are l i n k e d to the a s t r o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s of the p l a n e t s . I n them, as i n the K a b b a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of symbols , numbers and names i s embodied an e s s e n t i a l t r u t h which those forms were d i v i n e l y intended to v e i l from the gaze of the p r o f a n e . Thus there i s a danger of t h e i r be ing used f o r e m p i r i c a l or m a g i c a l ends: Et vous tous q u i l i r e z l e s hauts Noms en ce l i v r e , Gardez , gardez vous b i e n que ne v e n i e z e n s u i v r e Par c u r i e u s e e r r e u r l e v i c e audacieus Du magique S o r c i e r importunant l e s C i e u s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 152) Understanding of the t r u t h conta ined i n the symbols must be a means of knowing God who i s the source of a l l knowledge: Qu'a toy sans p l u s j e s o i s dequel s e u l j ' a y mon e s t r e , Que pour c o n g n o i s t r e tout j e te p u i s s e c o n n o i s t r e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 155) E x p l a n a t i o n of K a b b a l i s t i c m y s t e r i e s i s t h e r e f o r e a means of p e n e t r a t i n g the m y s t e r i e s of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e and as such i t i s undertaken i n t h i s work of a p o l o g e t i c s designed to r e c a l l men by 93 " r e a s o n " to the t rue f a i t h and i t s promise of redemption and r e b i r t h : L a s ! l e s premiers tableaus de l a Foy sont rompus, Ou b i e n tant o b s c u r c i s , q u ' i l z en sont corrompus, Du depuis qu 'un chascun s ' e s t f a i t un propre I d o l e : Et pource i l e s t beso ing que derechef on do le Les Tables de 1 ' E s p r i t , e t l e s f a u t a p l a n i r A f i n que l a R a i s o n p u i s s e a l a Foy s ' u n i r . Je dy vraye R a i s o n , e t vraye A u t h o r i t y , Car comme Dieu es t u n , une e s t l a V e r i t y . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 140-141) In t h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n of reason to f a i t h the p r i n c i p a l theme i s that of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d i v i n i t y through C h r i s t the M e d i a t o r who has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r a l l men to be i l l u m i n e d by the s e c r e t r e v e l a t i o n which had f o r m e r l y been a c c e s s i b l e o n l y to h i g h p r i e s t s : Mais l e s e u l F i l z q u i es t dedans l e s e i n du Pere Es tant v o l e cy bas du m i l i e u de sa S fere Sur l e s a i l e s d'Amour, luy-meme a revele" Le P e r e , e t 1 ' E s p r i t s a i n t au paravant v o i l g . C ' e s t l u y , c ' e s t l u y q u i f u t l e P r o p i c i a t o i r e . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 142) U r a n i e ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s of the s t r u c t u r e of the Tabernacle and the meaning of the Candelabra ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 134-143) , her i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the importance of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of names, l e t t e r s and numbers, her e l u c i d a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the ten S e p h i r o t h or d i v i n e emanations ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 143-145) , and her a n a l y s i s of the symbolism of the h i g h p r i e s t ' s vestments and the Tetragrammaton ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 147-149) together present the main themes of C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s m . The p o e t ' s purpose i n r e c o n c i l i n g K a b b a l i s t w i t h C h r i s t i a n themes i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n the S e c r e t a r y ' s p r a y e r f o r d i v i n e s a n c t i o n f o r h i s attempt to e f f e c t moral re form and s p i r i t u a l renewal by means of 94 the i n s i g h t s a f f o r d e d by " D i v i n e R a i s o n " i n an age of r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t : Que j ' a n n o n c e au Repos que j a l e s f l o t z i r e z Qui couvroyent l e s h a u l t s mons, sont un peu r e t i r e z . Ja du chef des humains l ' e a u des v a i n e s perisees Se seche peu a peu, des sectes insensees Le Deluge se p e r d , l a D i v i n e R a i s o n De l a Terre e t du C i e l r e f a i t l a l i a i s o n . Viene l e S e r a f i n , e t d ' u n charbon me touche, A f i n de n e t t o y e r e t ma langue , e t ma bouche, Et q u ' i l me s o i t permis en ce j o u r s o l e n n e l Prononcer l e grand Nom du grand Dieu E t e r n e l . ( E n c y c l i e , pp . 151-152) S t r e s s i n g the u n i t y of t r u t h , whatever the form i n which i t has been d i v i n e l y v e i l e d , La B o d e r i e ' s " S e c r e t a r y " addresses God i n h i s f i n a l i n v o c a t i o n , f i r s t as the t ranscendent C h r i s t i a n T r i n i t y m a n i f e s t i n c r e a t i o n : 0. Dieu Tout -bon , T o u t - g r a n d , E t e r n e l , I n f i n i , Createur T r i p l e - e n - u n du Tr ip le -monde u n i , Qui du Throne h a u t a i n de g l o i r e e t d ' e x c e l l e n c e Avecques l e grand O e i l de t a grand Providence Gouvernes toute chose, et donnes, e t depars E s t r e , V i e , et R a i s o n au Tout e t a ses p a r s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 153) He then p r a i s e s God i n a l i t a n y of the d i v i n e names a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the K a b b a l i s t Sephi ro th i n which he emanates c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout c r e a t i o n . The S e p h i r o t h are l i k e n e d to the "garment" of the d i v i n e form, as the word i s the "garment" to body f o r t h an i d e a : Les d i x l u y s a n t s H a b i t s comme 6 c l a i r foudroyant Dond se v e s t i t j a d i s 1 ' E t e r n e l t o u t - v o y a n t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 144) Convinced of the u n i t y of t r u t h , La Boder ie makes h i s " S e c r e t a r y " spokesman f o r h i s own purpose , as C h r i s t i a n p o e t , of s e e k i n g out the " s e c r e t s " h i d d e n under the many v e i l s of d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n : 95 Tu as d i t t o u t e s f o i s , V e r i t e p e r e n n e l l e , Que c e s t e - l a sans p l u s es t l a V i e e t e r n e l l e , Te c o n g n o i s t r e v r a y D i e u , e t par ton mesme E s p r i t Celuy qu 'as envoye au monde J e s u - C h r i s t . Fay done que ton rayon v i e n e dans moy depeindre Tes t r o i s Faces , autant que l'homme en peut a t t e i n d r e , A f i n que descendant de t o y , en t o y , par t o y , Par tout te voye empreint Grand P r e s t r e , Juge, e t Roy. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 1 5 6 ) 3 5 The sense f o r La Boder ie of the p i g r a p h to the E n c y c l i e , chosen from the Book of P r o v e r b s , XXV, 11 , i s thus c l a r i f i e d . D i v i n e t r u t h , one and e t e r n a l , i s represented by the "pommes d ' o r " h i d d e n under the " t r e i l l e s d ' a r g e n t " of the d i v e r s e f i g u r a t i v e r e v e l a t i o n s of " p o e t i c t h e o l o g y . La Boder ie was never to complete h i s e x p o s i t i o n of Church d o c t r i n e i n c i r c l i n g back to e a r t h from the F i r s t Cause, as he had announced i n the pre face ( E n c y c l i e , p . 7 ) . The E i g h t h C i r c l e marked " F i n de l a premiere p a r t i e de 1 ' E n c y c l i e " i s t h e r e f o r e the end of t h i s work. Some two hundred pages of verse complete the p u b l i c a t i o n . Many of these are c i r c u m s t a n t i a l p ieces d e d i c a t e d to f i g u r e s of the Court o r , more o f t e n , to f r i e n d s of La B o d e r i e . Devices i n the s t y l e of the Grands R h e t o r i q u e u r s decorate t h e i r p r a i s e s or c o n s o l a t i o n s or l a y s e r m o n i s i n g which are of minor i n t e r e s t f o r the present s tudy of La B o d e r i e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to French p o e t r y . Two of these sonnets c l a i m a t t e n t i o n i n that t h e i r r e w o r k i n g of K a b b a l i s t i c themes seems to evoke La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c f i r e . " A B a r t h e l e m i G r i v e a u M e d i c i n " t r e a t s of t r u e s p i r i t u a l l o v e . The p r i n c i p l e or essence i t s e l f i s , a c c o r d i n g to K a b b a l i s t t h e o r i e s , embodied 96 i n the Hebrew w o r d , f o r Hebrew was the embodiment of the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n . Furthermore , i n t h i s sonnet l o v e becomes the p r i n c i p l e of renewal and r e b i r t h i n the p e r f e c t c i r c l e whose form and movement symbol i se always f o r La B o d e r i e the d i v i n e l y orda ined u n i v e r s a l harmony: 0 que l e nom d'Amour en l a langue premiere Est un nom amoureus! 6 qu'amoureusement Sa nature amyable i l sonne heureusement! L'Amour MERE DU FEU, e t DE LUMIERE MERE. L 'Amant , l ' A y m e , 1'Amour, T r i n i t e de Lumiere Fut c e l l e q u i crea des l e commencement Tout ce q u ' o n peut aymer, a f i n tant seulement D ' e s t r e e l l e mesme aymee et premiere e t d e r n i g r e . L'Amour du grand Amy s i bas l e f e i s t descendre Pour l 'ennemy d'Amour a 1'Amour amy r e n d r e : L'Amour l 'Ame r a v i t , et l 'Ame ne se journe Tant qu'Amour l a t ransforme en sa propre s p l e n d e u r : A i n s i l e d i v i n cent re a t t i r a n t sa rondeur Le bon C e r c l e d'Amour du b i e n au b i e n r e t o u r n e . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 2 5 0 - 2 5 1 ) 3 7 The sonnet " A Jean Dorat poete du Roy T r e s c h r e s t i e n " e x e m p l i f i e s L a B o d e r i e ' s reverence f o r l e a r n i n g as a prime q u a l i t y of the poet "docte e t v e r t u e u x . " A g a i n , t o o , he f i n d s i n D o r a t ' s name i t s e l f c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s e s s e n t i a l power of i l l u m i n a t i o n : Ce n ' e s t pas sans r a i s o n que t u s o i s honorg Comme R o y a l poete , et premier p r i n c e en France Sur t a n t de beaus E s p r i t s que ton Ronsard devance, Et que ton beau nom s o i t de tous presque ador£: Car e t ton nom e s t d ' o r , e t t a Muse dor£e Mais de l ' O r beaucoup p l u s a ton Ame gpurde, S i i ' o s e b i e n mesler a mon F r a n c o i s l ' H e b r i e u . Car l a Lumiere es t O r , a u s s i d i s o i t P i n d a r e Que l ' O r est comme un feu q u i s e r t l a n u i t d ' u n F a r e , Comme l ' O r de ton nom rayonne en chascun l i e u . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 251) S e v e r a l o ther r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i e c e s have a themat ic i n t e r e s t . 97 Bes ides the " C a n t i q u e . . . aus poetes de son temps" these i n c l u d e a L a t i n poem, s e v e r a l sonnets and some t r a n s l a t i o n s i n which La Boder ie se t s f o r t h aga i n h i s concept of the r o l e of the poet as i n t e r p r e t e r of God's r e v e l a t i o n and shows h i s own c l o s e dependence i n t h i s r o l e on the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a . In r e a c t i o n to the f r i v o l i t y of much of the v e r s e i n h i s age of r e l i g i o u s t u r b u l e n c e , La Boder ie c r i t i c i z e s r e p e a t e d l y the c l a s s i c a l h e r i t a g e on which the P16iade poets and t h e i r e p i g o n i had drawn. Not o n l y were such p o e t s ' p r o d u c t i o n s " v a i n " i n t h e i r emphasis on the theme of e a r t h l y l o v e but a l s o they r i s k e d d i v e r t i n g t h e i r readers from true unders tanding i n so f a r as t h e i r imagery r e f l e c t e d the p o l y t h e i s t i c 39 pantheon of the " faus G r e g e o i s . " In "Aus Poetes F a b u l e u s , " f o r example, La Boder ie condemns t h i s p r a c t i c e : C ' e s t t rop l o n g temps s u i v y d ' u n Aveugle l a t r a c e , Poetes a v e u g l e z : de Lede l e s deus oeufs Germez d ' u n faus DCmon avecques l e u r s faus Dieus Ont e c l o s et couvC des mensonges l a r a c e . Chasson tous l e s Demons du grand Harpeur de Thrace Que l u i mesme chassa pour l e Dieu des H e b r i e u s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 311) A sonnet to the Norman poet Jean V a u q u e l i n i m p l i e s t h i s a t t i t u d e , as w e l l as La B o d e r i e ' s deep m i s t r u s t of a r t i f i c e which he q u a l i f i e s as " f a r d G r e g e o i s " : L a i s s o n s , mon V a u q u e l i n , ces va ines Poes ies Qui en noz Junes ans nous ont t an t d e l e c t e ; L a i s s o n s ce f a r d G r e g e o i s , ce p a r l e r a f f e c t e , Et du v i e l A s c r e a n l e s f a b l e s j a m o i s i e . Quitons du f o l Amour l e s f e i n t e s c o u r t o i s i e s , Et ne vantons l e s grans q u i ne l ' o n t m e r i t e ; Mais c e l e b r o n de D i e u l a pure v e r i t e , Ensuyvant des neuf Cieus l e s neuf Muses c h b i s i e s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 248) 98 La Boder ie i s more impassioned i n defence of h i s own work , i n a sonnet addressed to " M e s s i r e Rene de Voyer . . . Sur 1 ' E n c y c l i e de G. l e Fevre de l a B o d e r i e " : Qu'on l a i s s e l e caquet des b a b i l l a r d e s Seurs , Leurs r i v e s , l e u r s s e n t i e r s , e t l e u r croppe gemel le , Qui d ' u n £mail d i v e r s nos E s p r i s e n s o r c e l l e Sous ombre de c e u i l l i r l e s Poet iques f l e u r s : Qu'on n ' a i l l e mendier l e s Troiennes f u r e u r s Qui b l e m i s s o y e n t l e f r o n t de l a f o l l e P u c e l l e , Qu'on ne d e s c r i v e p lus une f e i n t e q u e r e l l e D ' u n M a r s , d 'une P a l l a s l e s Tragiques h o r r e u r s : Soyent des Chams E l y s e z l e s f o r e s t s o u b l i e e s , Et l e s bourbes d ' E n f e r par neuf f o i s r e p l i C e s : Qu'on cherche seulement l e s mystCres de D i e u , Que l e F e v r e , q u i n ' e s t i g n o r a n t l ' H e b r a i q u e , A r a b i c , S y r i e n , L a t i n , n i C h a l d a i q u e , F r a n c o i s nous a c e r c l C s en l a Langue du l i e u . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 157) The test imony of Jean Dorat i n h i s L a t i n v e r s e on the E n c y c l i e supports La B o d e r i e ' s b e l i e f i n the u n i t y of t r u t h as found i n the composite t r a d i t i o n of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , e s p e c i a l l y La B o d e r i e ' s chosen antecedents , Orpheus and D a v i d : D i v i n i s f l u x i t d i v i n a P o e s i s Hebrae is F o n t i b u s ; Orpheus quod, quodque S i b y l l a p r o b a t . Nam taceam ut f a l s a s Graeca de gente S i b y l l a s , Una D e i v e r i n u n t i a v e r a f u i t . Quo f i t u t e t s a c r i s non d i s s o n a m u l t a l o q u a t u r F a b r i c i u s d o c t i s quod probat E n c y c l i i s . F a b r i c i u s Graeca , s i m u l et p e r f e c t u s Hebraea A r t e : Quibus j u n x i t nunc u t r i u s q u e l y r a m . Orpheus u t iam f i t D a v i d , f i t David e t Orpheus: D a v i d i s atque Orphei f i t l y r a F a b r i c i a . ( E n c y c l i e , p p . 156-157) S e v e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s and i m i t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e La B o d e r i e ' s debt to the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i and to the Greek p a t r i s t i c w r i t e r s f o r themes s y n t h e s i z e d i n the E n c y c l i e . 99 For example, i n the O r p h i c "Hymne de l a N a t u r e " La Boder ie r e c a l l s the d i v i n i t y of Nature as he had d e f i n e d i t i n the E n c y c l i e . In t h i s i m i t a t i o n , Nature can be seen to assume even some of the aspects of C h r i s t the f i r s t - c r e a t e d "Sagesse" as p r i n c i p l e of c r e a t i o n r e l a t e d both to the P l a t o n i c w o r l d s o u l and to the tenth K a b b a l i s t i c S e p h i r a of A d o n a i , M a c l u t h or " l e Regne": 0 l a mere de t o u s , 6 Deesse N a t u r e , Mere a r t i f i c i e l l e , et donnant g d n i t u r e , P r o d u i s a n t e beaucoup, h o n o r a b l e , D£mon Qui Royne t o u t - d o n t a n t e t indontge as nom, Gouvernante a v i s £ e , e t en tous l i e u s l u i s a n t e , La Regente de t o u s , honorge, e x c e l l e n t e , Et p l u s digne que t o u s , non corrumpue au c o u r s , La premiere engendr£e, ancienne des j o u r s . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 275) A s i m i l a r concept of the c r e a t i v e Word i s found i n "Le Serment ou Veu en forme de serment" of Gregory the Nazarene: 0 Lumigre du P e r e , 6 l e Verbe conceu De l a grande Pensee, ample Rayon i s s u Du sourgeon de L u m i e r e , 6 P a r o l l e 6 t e r n e l l e Exc§dant tout p a r l e r , Semblance p e r e n n e l l e Et sp lendeur de c e l u y q u i s e u l ressemble a soy : Donnant essence e t v i e a t o u t ce q u i se fonde Sous l a voute du C i e l , l ' O u v r i e r grand et p a r f a i t De ce q u i f u t , q u i e s t , ou q u i d o i t e s t r e f a i t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 306) The N e o - P l a t o n i s t t r a d i t i o n i s represented by P o r p h y r y , i n whose work, t r a n s l a t e d by La Boder ie under the t i t l e , " O r a c l e d ' A p o l l o n " i s found a m o n o t h e i s t i c t ranscendent God who encompasses m u l t i p l i c i t y i n h i s h a r m o n i z i n g u n i t y symbol i sed by the c i r c l e : . . . Forme t o u t - f o r m a n t , Ame, E s p r i t , Armonie , e t Nombre t o u t - f e r m a n t . Sur l e C i e l d i l a t e " en sa S f § r e pendue 100 R e l u i t une s p l e n d e u r , e t 1'immense estendue De l ' a l m e E t e r n i t e " , et e s t l e Pere grand E n t r e l e s b ien-heureus t e l que tout i l comprand, Et de n u l e s t compr is , du tout i n e s t i m a b l e En ses c o n s e i l s p r o f o n s , s i de l a grace aymable Luyme"me ne se donne en c o n s e i l pur e t n u , Et s ' i l ne se reve"le a f i n d ' e s t r e connu. ( E n c y c l i e , p . 328) In L ' E n c y c l i e La Boder ie thus appears p r i m a r i l y as a l a t e f o l l o w e r of the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n , b r i n g i n g to h i s C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s a r i c h s t o r e of themes c u l l e d more from the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i , p r i n c i p a l l y the Jewish Kabbalah , than from the s t r i c t l y orthodox Chruch d o c t r i n e . H i s consc ious d e s i r e to conform to that d o c t r i n e i n order to " p r o f f i t e r au peuple de France" by showing them the way from c i v i l chaos to p e a c e f u l harmony i s however c l e a r . I t i s i n f a c t the a s s o c i a t e d w i s h to g ive a new d i r e c t i o n to French p o e t r y which prompts h i s own work and which i s the most o r i g i n a l 40 c o n t r i b u t i o n of the E n c y c l i e . That d e s i r e i s made e x p l i c i t i n h i s apostrophes to o ther poets to forego the rewards of p o e t r y which was to h i s v iew at b e s t merely d e l i g h t f u l and at wors t blasphemous and o v e r l y a r t i f i c i a l , i n order to g a i n t r u e i m m o r t a l i t y through v e r s e which would serve a u s e f u l r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l purpose . I t would seem tha t f o r L a Boder ie a r t i s t i c i m m o r t a l i t y had to cede to s p i r i t u a l 41 i m m o r t a l i t y . A n a l y s i s of the E n c y c l i e as a whole has shown tha t i t can be c l a s s i f i e d as an example n e i t h e r of s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i s m nor of d e v o t i o n a l l y r i c i s m . I t i s r a t h e r i n the A u g u s t i n i a n t r a d i t i o n of 101 reason p r i z e d not f o r i t s own sake but f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of b e l i e f . The d i d a c t i c i n t e n t of the E n c y c l i e may be compared to that which may have m o t i v a t e d La Boder ie to t r a n s l a t e C i c e r o ' s De deorum n a t u r a , assured as he was that r a t i o n a l i s t s ' arguments cou ld be e f f e c t i v e l y r e f u t e d 42 by r e a s o n . The thematic burden of the work, however, demands an acceptance of i t s h e r m e t i c and even g n o s t i c element as fundamental both to i t s argument and to i t s p o e t i c q u a l i t y . La B o d e r i e ' s pr imary v i s i o n i s t h a t of a w o r l d whose c o m p l e x i t i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s can be analysed by reason but can be u l t i m a t e l y understood only i n an e c s t a t i c s y n e s t h e s i a of l i g h t and harmony. The approach to f i n a l unders t andi ng i s through tha t of the correspondences between d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s throughout the u n i v e r s e and i n man the microcosm. La Boder ie d e l i g h t s i n e l a b o r a t i n g the m u l t i p l e correspondences which e n r i c h the m a t e r i a l and c e l e s t i a l w o r l d s by t h e i r i n t i m a t i o n s of the d i v i n e . P a r t a k i n g of P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m and of the g n o s t i c i s m common to the e a r l y Church Fathers and the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a e s t a b l i s h e d i n H e l l e n i s t i c t i m e s , La B o d e r i e ' s s y n c r e t i s t i c thought i s f i n a l l y expressed 43 i n t h i s work through the "symbolisme f l a m b o y a n t 1 of the Kabba lah . In so f a r as i t suggests m u l t i v a l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a " C h r i s t i a n 44 p o e t i c s of k a l e i d o s c o p i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of symbols" La B o d e r i e ' s i s a p o e t i c r a t h e r than a s c i e n t i f i c v i s i o n of u n i v e r s a l harmony. We hope to have shown i n the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s of the E n c y c l i e tha t La B o d e r i e ' s work r e p r e s e n t s a unique s y n c r e t i z a t i o n of N e o - P l a t o n i s t and K a b b a l i s t i c n o t i o n s i n the s e r v i c e of p o s t - T r i d e n t i n e 102 C a t h o l i c a p o l o g e t i c s . Al though he s t a t e d that he wishes to persuade the " d e v o y e z , " f r e e - t h i n k e r s and R e f o r m i s t s of h i s day, by reasoned argument a l o n e , La Boder ie n e v e r t h e l e s s proceeds by way of h i s muse U r a n i e ' s use of e x p l a n a t i o n s drawn from the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , to prove t h a t there i s one t r u t h o n l y , however v a r i o u s l y i t may have been concealed by the " v e i l s " under which d i v e r s e r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s have both concealed i t from the profane and r e v e a l e d i t to the i n i t i a t e . Thus he proposes to present tha t t r u t h , the "pommes d ' o r " concealed under " t r e i l l e s d ' a r g e n t " of h i s ep igraph from the Book of P r o v e r b s , XXV, 11, not by reason but r a t h e r by r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the symbol i c va lues of the d i v e r s e v e i l s . In the E n c y c l i e the poet r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on the F i c i n i a n N e o - P l a t o n i s t t r a d i t i o n . He adopts n o t a b l y the concepts of the w o r l d s o u l and of man's reminiscence of i n n a t e ideas to a C h r i s t i a n e x p l a n a t i o n of c r e a t i o n and of man's p l a c e i n i t . H i s p o e t i c theology accepts the N e o - P l a t o n i s t h i e r a r c h y of knowledge ascending from the sensory through the d i s c u r s i v e r a t i o n a l to the i n t u i t i v e . Thus i n the E n c y c l i e the h i g h e s t p l a c e i s g i v e n to the e c s t a t i c v i s i o n of the C h r i s t i a n s a i n t s , a v i s i o n based on l o v e and a s s o c i a t e d here w i t h the mors o s c u l i o f the K a b b a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . We hope to have shown that i n La B o d e r i e ' s e s s e n t i a l l y m y s t i c a l approach to a p o l o g e t i c s the f i n a l e l a b o r a t i o n of the symbol i c v a l u e s of the K a b b a l i s t themes of the temple and of the names of God i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s s t a t e d purpose of s e r v i n g h i s compatr io t s i n a time of c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e by i l l u s t r a t i n g f o r them the fundamental 103 u n i t y of t r u t h . In the present work we hope to have shown f u r t h e r tha t La B o d e r i e ' s purpose as a p o e t , which i s l a r g e l y i m p l i c i t i n the E n c y c l i e i s made e x p l i c i t i n s e v e r a l s h o r t e r p ieces p u b l i s h e d w i t h the E n c y c l i e N e a r l y a decade be fore the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t n o t a b l e works of C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m such as Du B a r t a s ' Semaine or the Muse c h r e s t i e n n e , La Boder ie was c a l l i n g f o r a s p i r i t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n of s e r i o u s poet ry of which he , l i k e the p o e t - p r i e s t s Orpheus and D a v i d , hoped to g i v e the example. \ 104 B. LA GALLIADE, OU DE LA REVOLUTION DES ARTS ET SCIENCES The importance a t t r i b u t e d by h i s contemporaries to La B o d e r i e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n of La G a l l i a d e , ou De l a r e v o l u t i o n des a r t s e t s c i e n c e s 45 (1578) i s a t t e s t e d by the l a u d a t o r y verses which precede the work . 46 Of these the most n o t a b l e are L a t i n verse by Jean D o r a t , s i g n e d "Johannes Auratus Poeta R e g i u s , " L a t i n verse by Char les T o u s t a i n , another Norman d i s c i p l e of P o s t e l l i a n p r o p h e t i c s , odes by La B o d e r i e ' s b r o t h e r N i c o l a s , the l i n g u i s t and t r a n s l a t o r of P i c o ' s Heptaplus and h i s b r o t h e r A n t h o i n e , the d i p l o m a t , s i g n e d w i t h anagrams of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e names, "L (E) SCERAFIN VOLE" and "EN (LUI) HANTE ORFEE;" and a sonnet s i g n e d "Henry B e l l i n . . . H i s t o r i o g r a f e e t Poete du Roy C a t h o l i q u e . " La B o d e r i e i s p r a i s e d above a l l f o r h i s l e a r n i n g ; h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the h a r m o n i s i n g image of the c i r c l e i s r e c a l l e d , as i s h i s c l a i m to renew the powers of David and Orpheus and the anagrammatica l ly evoked "FEU VERGILE; " and the n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t of the G a l l i a d e i s emphasized by D o r a t ' s i n t r o d u c t o r y , "Quid non c o g i t amor p a t r i a e ? " and B e l l i n ' s r e f e r e n c e to "France mere des a r t s . " L a G a l l i a d e i t s e l f i s however l e s s a n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y than a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r i c a l - p r o p h e t i c work which p r o c l a i m s France to be both 105 the o r i g i n a l home of the a r t s and sc iences and the centre of t h e i r u l t i m a t e p e r f e c t i o n or consummation. Thus the work can be seen i n the context of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century a c c e n t u a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n both 47 n a t i o n a l and Old Testament h i s t o r i e s . But i t should i n no way be cons idered analogous to Ronsard 's F r a n c i a d e , as La B o d e r i e ' s e x p l i c a t i o n of the t i t l e makes c l e a r . In h i s p r e f a t o r y "Adver t i ssement aux l e c t e u r s " the author d i s d a i n s the c l a s s i c a l e p i c t r a d i t i o n , the " I l i a d e s , E n e i d e s , et aut res t e l s Po'emes e t i n v e n t i o n s empruntees de f a b l e s m o i s i e s des Grecs , ou des v i e u x Romans." H i s purpose i s not " l a d e l e c t a t i o n , et l a vray-semblance" but r a t h e r " l ' u t i l i t e et l a v e r i t y . " He d e f i n e s the term " G a l l i a d e " as b e i n g d e r i v e d from the Hebrew " G a l a l , q u i 48 s i g n i f i e Reployer et r e t o u r n e r . " Al though the work r e c a l l s F i c i n o i n g l o r i f y i n g the p e r f e c t i o n of the a r t s and sc iences i n the Renaissance , i t i s designed p r i m a r i l y to i l l u s t r a t e the a n t i q u i t y of G a l l i c supremacy i n the a r t s and sc iences i n order to prove the p r o v i d e n t i a l j u s t i c e of renewed Franch a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l supremacy. La Boder ie m a i n t a i n s that the p o s t - d i l u v e a n t r a d i t i o n of the D r u i d s had subsequent ly been developed by t h e i r successors i n the a n c i e n t w o r l d , but was to a t t a i n i t s u l t i m a t e f u l f i l m e n t o n l y i n the renewal and p e r f e c t i o n of the a r t s and sc iences i n the France of h i s d a y . ~ ^ The " A d v e r t i s s e m e n t " s t a t e s : Je me s u i s essaye d ' y t r a i t e r de l a R e v o l u t i o n des A r t s et S c i e n c e s , et ensemblement y r e c u e i l -l i r l e s honorables tesmoignages et marques de l ' A n t i q u i t e , que tous l e s bons Autheurs presque de toutes langues et n a t i o n s donnent aux anciens G a u l o i s noz majeurs et d e v a n c i e r s : 106 ausquels i l s a t t r i b u e n t 1 ' i n v e n t i o n des A r t s , d i s c i p l i n e s , et escholes p u b l i q u e s i n c o n t i n e n t apres l e Deluge u n i v e r s e l . . . . j ' a y d i v i s e ' 1 'Oeuvre e n t i e r en c i n q C e r c l e s , au r e p l y desquels j ' a y mis peine d ' e n c e r c l e r brevement l ' o r i g i n e , progrez et p e r f e c t i o n q u ' o n t presque par tout l e Rond de l a T e r r e , et nommement en n o s t r e G a u l e . The a u t h o r ' s purpose i s f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d i n the seventeen d e d i c a t o r y sonnets addressed to h i s r o y a l p a t r o n , F r a n c o i s , Due d ' A l e n c o n , b r o t h e r of Henry I I I . The Gauls formed the f i r s t c i v i l i s a t i o n a f t e r the F l o o d : Gaule est l e premier nom de l a t e r r e noyee Du deluge des eaux, e t l e peuple G a u l o i s Es t l e peuple premier en L e t t r e s e t en L o i s , Et q u i a l e premier t e r r e et mer tournoyee . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 3) I t i s f i t t i n g that a c c o r d i n g to the p e r f e c t i o n of c i r c u l a r movement France should be the cent re of the f i n a l p e r f e c t i o n of the a r t s t r a n s -m i t t e d through the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i : Comme de l ' I n f i n y de l a Couronne ronde Decoule l a Sagesse au sourgeon e t e r n e l , Tout a i n s i par rondeurs son r u i s s e a u perenne l Es s i e c l e s re tournez se r e t o r n e en ce Monde. En L u z ^ 1 I s r a e l beut de sa source feconde, Moyse en a r r o u s a l e t e r r o i r s o l e n n e l Qui e s t baigne du N i l , grand Mercure i s n e l L ' y p u i s a , et depuis Orfee encor l ' y sonde: P u i s l e d i v i n P l a t o n d ' E g i p t e l a d e r i v e En l a v i l l e ou P a l l a s f e i s t n a i s t r e son O l i v e . Et d 'Athenes Denis sur Seine l a borna : S i que P a r i s sans p a i r de l a v i l l e a M i n e r v e , De Thrace , E g i p t e , e t Luz f u t f a i t e l a r e s e r v e , Ou l e Rond accomply des Sc iences t o r n a . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 8) 107 In accord w i t h the u n i v e r s a l r u l e of one supreme exemplar of every s p e c i e s i n the c h a i n of b e i n g , the French k i n g i s u n i v e r s a l monarch: "Mais l e f r a n c Roy de France es t des Monarques Roy" ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 10) . I t behoves h i m , t h e r e f o r e , i n s p i t e of the c i v i l chaos of the t i m e s : " L a rage et cruautcS en n o s t r e Gaule e s p r i s e " ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 9 ) , to assure the p e r f e c t i v e c o m p l e t i o n of the c y c l i c a l r e t u r n of the G a l l i c a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e : Procurez done, M o n s i e u r , que des A r t s l a grandeur Dont v o s t r e Gaule but l a premiere es t renee , Pour o u v r i r en p l e i n Rond ces te Couronne ornee P u i s s e en Gaule a c q u e r i r sa p a r f a i t e Rondeur. ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 2) Not o n l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c but a l s o a s p i r i t u a l r e s t o r a t i o n informs La B o d e r i e ' s message to the p r i n c e the anagram of whose name proves h i s m i s s i o n : Sous l e nom de Cesar pour l a seconde f o i s P u i s s e n a i s t r e en nos coeurs l e C h r i s t et Roy des R o i s , SA FOY LOY D'UN CESAR domptant l a Terre e t l ' o n d e . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 5) The poet h i m s e l f may complain of h i s l a c k of m a t e r i a l recompense: Mais j e p u i s hardiment aux peuples r a c o n t e r Que ny P r i n c e ny Roy, sans que l e u r nom j e p i n s e , D'aucun p r i x ou l o y e r , t a n t s o i t p e t i t ou mince , N ' a soulage l e f a i x q u ' i l m'a f a l l u p o r t e r . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 5) H i s h i g h r e s o l v e to serve the h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t s of h i s contemporaries remains f i r m , however: Et sous v o u s , mon Cesar , s o i t ou mon a v e n t u r e , Le D e s t i n ou l e S o r t , j a p i e c a j e pretens De p l a i r e en p r o f i t a n t aux doctes que j ' e n t e n s Que vous f a v o r i s e z comme enfans de Mercure . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 15) 108 H i s constant purpose i s to r e v e a l what he b e l i e v e s to be the t r u t h i n the s e r v i c e of France : De Moy j e s u i s content pour ma p a r t d ' a v o i r p r i s La charge d ' i l l u s t r e r l e s i l l u s t r e s E s p r i t s , De f a b l e s n ' o u r d i s s a n t une longue I l i a d e : Mais de j u s t e l o y e r et l o s de v e r i t e Ornant mon Peuple et Gent , comme i l a m e r i t e , Et des G a u l e s , G a u l o i s , chantant l a G a l l i a d e . ( G a l l i a d e , p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet 7) The main body of La G a l l i a d e comprises one hundred and twenty-s i x f o l i o pages of a l e x a n d r i n e verse rhymed i n c o u p l e t s . I t s s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s the c i r c u l a r c o n n o t a t i o n of the t i t l e a c c o r d i n g to La B o d e r i e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Hebrew term, G a l a l . Thus each s e c t i o n of the work i s termed a " C e r c l e . " The author t races f i r s t the h i s t o r y of the p e o p l i n g of the e a r t h and the development of c i v i l i s a t i o n . In the Second C i r c l e he t r e a t s of a r c h i t e c t u r e . In the T h i r d , he e x t o l l s D r u i d i c eminence i n a l l s c i ences i n c l u d i n g n a t u r a l magic . I n the F o u r t h and F i f t h C i r c l e s he analyses the p r i n c i p l e s of e a r t h l y music a c c o r d i n g to the model of the music of the spheres , and f i n a l l y p r a i s e s poet ry as a d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d a r t whose muse i s t w i n to tha t of m u s i c . The work as a whole i s marked s t r o n g l y by a P l a t o n i s t s p i r i t which r e j e c t s e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n favour of i d e a l i s t i c concepts , -and by K a b b a l i s t i c " p r o o f s " based on s p e c u l a t i o n s on the h idden meanings of words , l e t t e r s and numbers and on the s e c r e t i n f l u e n c e s of the p l a n e t s . P o s t e l l i a n prophec ies f i n d t h e i r echo i n the s p i r i t of the work as a w h o l e , as does h i s " e m i t h o l o g i z i n g " word p l a y i n i t s d e t a i l s . I t i s apparent that La B o d e r i e , i n s p i t e of the r h e t o r i c and redundancy of h i s s t y l e h e a v i l y weighted w i t h the s c h o l a r l y apparatus 109 of ' l ' e t e r n e l tScolatre" and the " l e x i c o g r a p h e i m p e n i t e n t , " had a d i s t i n c t v i s i o n o f h i s i n t e n t i o n . Inasmuch as the u n p a r a l l e l e d f l o u r i s h i n g of the a r t s of tha t " g o l d e n age" denoted a d i v i n e w i l l to r e s t o r e man to h i s p r i m o r d i a l c l a r i t y of comprehension a t the same time t h a t seemingly i r r e m e d i a b l e r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e i n d i c a t e d the coming of the great a p o c a l y p t i c sabbath and a s t r o l o g i c a l s i g n s betokened the approaching new age of C h r i s t ' s second coming, La Boder ie sought to prepare h i s countrymen to f u l f i l l t h e i r p r o v i d e n t i a l 53 r o l e . In La G a l l i a d e he amassed h i s e n c y c l o p e d i c c o l l e c t i o n of a n c i e n t e s o t e r i c wisdom to the end of expos ing t h a t , as p a r t of the constant " r e v o l u t i o n " of c r e a t i o n , the r e t u r n from East to West had made God's chosen people once more the French i n the p l a c e of the Jews, and P a r i s the new Jerusalem of C h r i s t ' s second coming. La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c m i s s i o n was t h u s , q u i t e s i m p l y , to seek out and to r e v e a l to h i s compatr io ts the d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n s of t h e i r d i v i n e d e s t i n y . The epigraph to La G a l l i a d e d e f i n e s t h a t c a l l i n g : C ' e s t l a g l o i r e de D i e u l a p a r o l e cacher , C ' e s t l a g l o i r e des Rois l a p a r o l e c h e r c h e r . The E g y p t i a n image of the serpent c o i l e d back upon i t s e l f to b i t e i t s t a i l i n t r o d u c e s the f i r s t C i r c l e of La G a l l i a d e . T h i s c i r c u l a r movement, l i k e the p e r f e c t c i r c l e of God; " rond i n f i n i , " r epresents f o r L a Boder ie the c i r c u l a r movement of knowledge w h i c h : Par c e r t a i n e s rondeurs de s i e c l e s ordonnez R e v i v e n t aux e s p r i t s des hommes y donnez Dedans l e propre b i e n de ce globe t e r r e s t r e Ou j a d i s on l e s v e i t commencer et r e n a i s t r e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . l r ) 110 The image i l l u s t r a t e s the r e t u r n of the a r t s and s c i e n c e s to G a u l , t h e i r p l a c e of o r i g i n , the h i s t o r y of which i s the p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t of the f i r s t C i r c l e . The p e o p l i n g of the e a r t h a c c o r d i n g to the legend of Noah was 56 a p o p u l a r t o p i c from the M i d d l e Ages to the seventeenth c e n t u r y . Suppor t ing h i s a f f i r m a t i o n s by a n a l y s i s of the Hebrew names a c c o r d i n g to P o s t e l ' s " e m i t h o l o g i e , " and r e l y i n g on the account of Annius of V i t e r b o , the p s e u d o - B e r o s u s L a Boder ie a s s i g n s A s i a , A f r i c a , and Europe to Noah's sons Sem, Ham, and Japhet r e s p e c t i v e l y . Furthermore , he ass igns to A t l a n t u s , f a t h e r of D i s , the f i r s t k i n g of G a u l , the whole of the n e w l y - d i s c o v e r e d w o r l d of America which " l e Gregeois . . . a p p e l l a l a b e l l e I s l e A t l a n t i q u e . " Gaul i t s e l f was founded by a son of Japhet , Gomer, "accomply dessus un m i l l i o n . " To h i s descendants i s due a l l honor f o r h a v i n g developed the sc iences of mathematics , astronomy, a s t r o l o g y , and p h i l o s o p h y and f o r thus h a v i n g shown to a l l peoples the way to a knowledge of God: . . . l ' E s c h e l l e a remonter aux Cieux Et moyen d ' a l l i e r l e s hommes et l e s D i e u x . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 29 v ) From Gaul was spread abroad the f i r s t a l p h a b e t , a g i f t to the chosen people from Noah adumbrated as D e u c a l i o n Janus , he of two f a c e s , 58 two v o i c e s , or the two modes of w r i t i n g and of s p e a k i n g . I f the Greeks have pretended o therwise i t i s but one more proof of the e r r o r i n t o which t h e i r p o l y t h e i s m l e d them b e f o r e the coming of the m o n o t h e i s t i c Orpheus: I l l Car ces te n a t i o n t r o p menteresse et v a i n e Par ses contes fangeux a t r o u b l e l a f o n t a i n e De l a v e r i t e p u r e , et seme en tous l i e u x La boiie e t puanteur des m a l i n s et faux D i e u x . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 23 r ) I n t r u t h , i n the new w o r l d e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the f l o o d sent to p u n i s h I s r a e l , God's favour has always been shown to the G a l l i c descendants of Gomer: C ' e s t un a r r e s t du C i e l , l ' E t e r n e l a trouv£ Et au l i e u d ' I s r a e l pour un temps reprouve" I I s ' e s t cho i sy Gomer par son Prophete Osee, ^ L a q u e l l e e s t o i t p u t a i n aux faux Dieux exposee. Dieu m a i n t i e n d r a t o u s j o u r s l a F l e u r - d e - l i s o u v e r t e . Et en t re toutes f l e u r s de tous j a r d i n s p o l i s I I a e s l e u pour soy l a s e u l e f l e u r de l i s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 25 v ) By a s s i m i l a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l S t . Denis of France to the pseudo-Dionys ius the A r e o p a g i t e who was supposed to have been i n s t r u c t e d by S t . P a u l h i m s e l f , La Boder ie makes France the home of A p o s t o l i c r e v e l a t i o n and thus of t r u e t h e o l o g y : [Denis] en a abreuve tout l e peuple de F r a n c e , France heureuse vrayment, dont l ' A p o s t r e a es te De l a P h i l o s o p h i e en jeunesse a l a i t e Pour c o n c e v o i r apres c e l l e q u i l a surpasse P l u s que l e C i e l n ' e s t haut dessus l a t e r r e basse . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 27 r ) The secondary theme of the F i r s t C i r c l e i s tha t which the author c a l l s the marr iage of heaven and e a r t h . The p o s t - d i l u v e a n w o r l d 60 was d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the twelve houses of the Z o d i a c . Each of the seventy-two n a t i o n s b e i n g s u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e , to the i n f l u e n c e of " l e Monde i n t e l l i g i b l e , " each has a d i v i n e m i s s i o n to f u l f i l l : 112 A i n s i f u t repeuple" tout l e Monde u n i v e r s D ' h a b i t a t e u r s nouveau en langue et meurs d i v e r s , Par l e s douze maisons du Zodiac v i s i b l e (Comme par des canaux) du Monde i n t e l l i g i b l e Recevants 1 ' i n f l u e n c e : a i n s i remar iez Furent l a Terre e t C i e l ensemble a p p a r i e z . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 2 7 r ) 6 1 A g a i n the primacy of the Gauls i s s t r e s s e d , f o r they were the f i r s t to have d e v i s e d the laws of mathematics and the a n c i e n t a r t s of astronomy and a s t r o l o g y . T h e i r a r t i s s a i d to have f l o u r i s h e d from the t ime of Z o r o a s t e r and Abraham, the legendary teachers of a s t r o l o g y to the E g y p t i a n s . I t was d e r i v e d from the sum of knowledge i n s c r i b e d on the double columns by a n t e d i l u v e a n sages and passed on to the p o s t - d i l u v e a n chosen people of Gaul by Noah through A t l a n t u s and h i s r o y a l son D i s and h i s descendants ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 28 ) . The importance of mathematics and of a s t r o l o g i c a l astronomy i n La B o d e r i e ' s s c i e n t i f i c a p o l o g e t i c s i s l i n k e d to h i s p r o p o s i t i o n 6 2 of i n n a t e i d e a s . Reason leads man from the m a t e r i a l to the d i v i n e j u s t as , w i t h i n the microcosm, i t l i n k s sensory p e r c e p t i o n of the "shadows" to an unders tanding of t r u t h : C ' e s t doncques Samothes Roy de n o s t r e P r o v i n c e Qui au P r i n c e des A r t s es t l ' A u t h e u r e t l e P r i n c e , De l a Mathematique a s s i s e en u n i o n Dessus l a v e r i t y , non sur 1 ' o p i n i o n , Et q u i t i e n t l e m i l i e u en sa r i c h e p e i n t u r e Entre l ' a r t s a i n c t de D i e u , e t l ' A r t de l a N a t u r e . Ne p lus ne moins q u ' e n nous 1 ' E s p r i t e t l a R a i s o n Qui recherche et d i s c o u r t , c o n j o i n t l a l i a i s o n D ' e n t r e l 'Ame q u i e s t aux ombres a r r e s t e e , Et l a pure pensee en tout temps apprestee De l u i en 1 'Archetype e t en l a p u r i t § Du m i r o i r des E s p r i t s l e s r a i s de v e r i t £ : R e c u e i l l a n t l e s rayons tout d r o i t a l a c l a r t e 113 De 1 'unique S o l e i l q u i sa l u m i e r e i n f o n d e En tout homme q u i v i e n t h a b i t e r en ce monde. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 2 8 v - 2 9 r ) A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e n a r r a t i o n of the b e n e f i t s which have accrued to mankind as a r e s u l t of the G a u l s ' development of mathematics , astronomy, geography, and cosmography, the author r e t u r n s to h i s main theme of e x a l t a t i o n of the D r u i d i c h e r i t a g e i n the r e n a i s s a n c e of the a r t s and sc iences i n France : Je vous salu'e E s p r i t s c l a i r s e t d i v i n s f lambeaux, Qui avez . . . chasse de l a France Le monstre tenebreux de l ' a v e u g l e Ignorance. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 31 v ) With p r o f e s s o r s of Hebrew and of mathematics from the C o l l e g e des l e c t e u r s royaux appear o u t s t a n d i n g humanists of the e a r l y Renaissance 6 3 such as L e f e v r e d ' E t a p l e s , Bude, and even Erasmus, as w e l l as Amyot, Lazare de B a i f , P o s t e l , Ramus, P e l e t i e r du Mans, among o ther humanists of l e s s l a s t i n g fame. The Second C i r c l e presents a h i s t o r y of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the 64 context of the a u t h o r ' s i d e a l i s t i c and o c c u l t i n t e r e s t s . Development of the a r t s and s c i e n c e s depends, f o r La B o d e r i e , on the r e a l i s a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s i n n a t e i n man r a t h e r than on an e m p i r i c a l s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s . The a r c h i t e c t i s thus presented p r i m a r i l y as a h i e r o p h a n t whose a r t d e r i v e s l e s s from h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge than from h i s a s t r o l o g i c a l and m a g i c a l i n s i g h t . D i s c o v e r y of the a r t of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a s c r i b e d to the D r u i d k i n g Magus-Magog, a c c o r d i n g to the " e m i t h o l o g i e " of the name from the 114 Hebrew term f o r r o o f , s i g n i f y i n g " 1 ' i n v e n t i o n de c o u v r i r e t b a s t i r l e s m a i s o n s . " W e l l v e r s e d i n geometry, p e r s p e c t i v e and p a i n t i n g , Magus developed t o o l s , d imens ions , and d e c o r a t i o n s f o r b u i l d e r s of temples and of p a l a c e s , and a l s o f o r c i t y p l a n n e r s . A p r i m i t i v i s t i c totemism r e g u l a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t G a u l i s h c i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to La B o d e r i e , who supports the concept of t i t u l a r y s p i r i t s by r e f e r e n c e to Macrobius and to P l i n y : [Les bourgs et l e s v i l l e s ] i l s ont nommez vouSz et dediez A Anges purs e t bons . . . A c e l l e f i n d ' a v o i r en chaque v i l l e et l i e u Un Ange g a r d i e n m i n i s t r e du grand D i e u . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 36 r ) This "marr iage of heaven and e a r t h " propounded i n the F i r s t C i r c l e i s r e l a t e d to the e x p l a n a t i o n from the Zohar of Noah's i n s p i r a t i o n by the f i r s t - c r e a t e d I n t e l l i g e n c e : A i n s i l ' a v o i t a p p r i s Noach l e P a t r i a r c h e Qui a v o i t aveq ' l u y l e P a v i l i o n e t l ' A r c h e De l a D i v i n i t y , Genie u n i v e r s e l , Et des faces l e P r i n c e , Ange du Grand C o n s e i l . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 3 6 r ) 6 6 Not o n l y had Noah d i v i d e d the e a r t h a c c o r d i n g to the m y s t i c numbers f o u r , f i v e , and seven , w i t h the seventy- two n a t i o n s b e i n g governed by the c e l e s t i a l i n f l u e n c e of the twelve s i g n s of the Zodiac ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 3 6 r - 3 7 r ) , but a l s o to each c i t y was ass igned a guardian a n g e l . In c l a i m i n g f o r P a r i s the archange l Z a r f a t i e l , whose name i s e x p l a i n e d i n a m a r g i n a l note as " l e Genie de l a Gaule r e p u r g ^ e , " L a Boder ie i n c o r p o r a t e s the P o s t e l l i a n e s c h a t a l o g i c a l theme of the second coming 6 7 of C h r i s t when P a r i s i s to be the new Jerusa lem, home of the b l e s s e d . The P a r i s i a n coat of arms i s f u r t h e r adduced as evidence of Magus' 115 knowledge of magic charms, f o r i t represents the p r o t e c t i v e images which he taught s h o u l d be h i d d e n under the foundat ions of a c i t y " a f i n de garder par t e l s Magiques s o r t s " ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 38 ) a g a i n s t d i s a s t e r by f i r e , f l o o d , or s e i g e . Thus the a r t of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s d e r i v e d from a m i x t u r e of m y s t i c i s m and of magic a s c r i b e d to the a n c i e n t G a l l i c k i n g Magus-Magog whose precepts are s a i d to have been f o l l o w e d by the great b u i l d e r s of the a n c i e n t w o r l d and developed above a l l i n Renaissance Tuscany to f l o u r i s h f i n a l l y i n Renaissance France under Henry I I I . L a B o d e r i e ' s p r a i s e t h e r e f o r e i s extended to the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the "humanis t " a r t i s t s A l b e r t i , S a n g a l l o , Bramante and M i c h e l a n g e l o , as w e l l as to those I t a l i a n or I t a l i a n - t r a i n e d a r t i s t s and a r c h i t e c t s of 68 the " c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d " of the s i x t e e n t h century i n France . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e S e r l i o , P h i l a n d e r , Goujon, C l a g n y , Jean M a r t i n , P h i l i b e r t de l 'Orme and, among l e s s e r p a i n t e r s , C o u s i n . La B o d e r i e ' s eulogy of the great a r c h i t e c t s and s c u l p t o r s of h i s time emphasizes ag a in t h e i r s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r than t h e i r t e c h n i c a l competence, f o r the a r t of these "doctes E s p r i t s " d e r i v e s from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d i v i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e which informs human reason and not from a p u r e l y human o p e r a t i v e c a p a c i t y . A r c h i t e c t s , l i k e God, c rea te from an Idea which i s to be represented i n m a t t e r . Thus they resemble the f i r s t -c r e a t e d "Sagesse" a s s i m i l a t e d elsewhere to the C h r i s t f i g u r e : I m i t a n t s l e grand D i e u q u i a v o i t dispensee La machine du Monde au rond de sa pensee Avant que de l ' o u v r i r , e t l a p r o d u i r e au j o u r , Pe ignant sa grand Idee en l ' o e u v r e f a i t au t o u r . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 40 v ) 116 The T h i r d C i r c l e g l o r i f i e s the D r u i d s as the f i r s t men of l e a r n i n g by whom the supreme d i s c i p l i n e s of p h i l o s o p h y and theology were developed. They are s a i d to have been the f i r s t to have e s t a b l i s h e d an e d u c a t i o n a l system embracing a l l the humanist d i s c i p l i n e s and the f i r s t great p h i l o s o p h e r - p r i e s t s whose l e a r n i n g p e r m i t t e d them to penetra te to an unders tanding of the " s e c r e t s of e t e r n i t y " and even to b e n e f i t from 69 a type of t h e u r g i c magic . La B o d e r i e ' s pre face summarizes: Au C e r c l e t i e r s j e d i s c o u r s p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t du s c a v o i r admirable de nos Druydes en l a connaissance de toutes d i s c i p l i n e s , jusques au sommet et s u p e r i e u r degre de l a magie n a t u r e l l e et f a c u l t e de p r e d i r e l e s choses a v e n i r . En quoy comme en passant j ' a y remarque quelques p o i n t s de l a magie reprouvee et condamnee . . . . I t i s to be expected that La B o d e r i e , as t r a n s l a t o r of P i c o ' s o r a t i o n on the d i g n i t y of man, s h o u l d g l o r i f y man the "chameleon" f o r h i s c a p a c i t y f o r l e a r n i n g which d i s t i n g u i s h e s him both from the animal and from the a n g e l i c spec ies of c r e a t i o n . ^ La Boder ie r e l a t e s the name of D r i u s , founder of the D r u i d p r i e s t h o o d to the Hebrew " D o r a s , " s i g n i f y i n g " t o search o u t . " Thus he f i n d s i n these " v i e u x Recher-cheurs de s e c r e t s " the proto types of the humanist i d e a l of l e a r n i n g through which man a f f i r m s h i s pre-eminence over the lower forms of mutable c r e a t i o n and even over the s t a b l e a n g e l i c w o r l d . Inasmuch as man has been d i v i n e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d both from the unreasoning beas t and from the i n t u i t i v e l y - u n d e r s t a n d i n g angel by h i s c a p a c i t y f o r l e a r n i n g , h i s e x e r c i s i n g t h i s g i f t by s e a r c h i n g a f t e r knowledge of a l l types i s an e t h i c a l and even a r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r . By f r e e l y 117 e x e r c i s i n g h i s g i f t f o r d i s i n t e r e s t e d knowledge p r i m a r i l y through d i s c u r s i v e r e a s o n i n g , he may l e a r n . s o m e t h i n g of God. The Druids are shown to have d i s c o v e r e d through t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s correspondences which l i n k the microcosmic and the macrocosmic wor lds w i t h the d i v i n e . La B o d e r i e ' s constant d e s i r e f o r harmony, f o r that r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of a l l phenomena which he suggested i n the f i r s t two C i r c l e s as a "marr iage of heaven and e a r t h " by use of a s t r o l o g y , i s here developed a t l e n g t h i n an account of D r u i d i c theology based on magic : E t par - sus tous c e u x - l a q u i osent rechercher Les s e c r e t s de N a t u r e , e t du C i e l esplucher Les mysteres p r o f o n d s , et l e u r Theologie En Nature fondee avecques l a M a g i e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 42 V ) I t i s f o r t h e i r approach to God through a s tudy of nature that the D r u i d s are revered above a l l : . . . hommes p a r f a i t s Les p l u s procha ins des D i e u x , q u i sceussent l e s e f f e t s Des choses , l e u r s v e r t u s , causes e t o r i g i n e , Et q u i connussent b i e n l a nature d i v i n e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 44 v ) As possessors of knowledge both human and d i v i n e the D r u i d p h i l o s o p h e r - p r i e s t s were n e c e s s a r i l y masters of the a r t of v e i l i n g the m y s t e r i e s they passed on to t h e i r i n i t i a t e s . This concept of p o e t i c v e i l i n g of t r u t h i n order to p r o t e c t i t from the c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the profane had been enunciated by D i o n y s i u s the A r e o p a g i t e and adopted i n the Renaissance by the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , f o r whom i t was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the study of the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a . ^ I n the context of D r u i d i c m y s t e r i e s La Boder ie e l a b o r a t e s tha t concept which was c e n t r a l to h i s own view of the p o e t i c r o l e . 118 The D r u i d s ' c u l t i s based, a c c o r d i n g to La B o d e r i e , on an o r a l t r a d i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l a n c i e n t mystery r e l i g i o n s whose s e c r e t s were r e s t r i c t e d to the i n i t i a t e . Thus Noah-Janus i s s a i d to have 72 i n s t r u c t e d the Razenuins (Gauls) to guard t h e i r s e c r e t knowledge j u s t as the a n t e - d i l u v e a n prophets had done: J a - J a depuis Enoch d'Adam l e s e c r e t a i r e D&s l e s i e c l e p r e m i e r , l e s peres s o u l o i e n t t a i r e Au peuple tout g r o s s i e r l e s mysteres v o i l e z , Les que lz de pere en f i l s l e u r e s t o i e n t r e v e l e z . A i n s i l e bon Janus d e c e l a ses mysteres Aux v i e u x Razenuins ses loyaux s e c r e t a i r e s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 48 r ) The m y s t e r i e s were a c c e s s i b l e o n l y to the i n i t i a t e s i n the a n c i e n t mystery r e l i g i o n s of the Hebrews, the Chaldaeans and the D r u i d s : Qui r e t i n d r e n t t o u s j o u r s ces te facon ant ique De ne r e v e l e r p o i n t l a s c i e n c e myst ique A l a tourbe i g n o r a n t e , a i n s aux doctes Jurez La b a i l l e r seulement dessous sens f i g u r e z . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 48 v ) This p r a c t i c e i s l i n k e d to the h i s t o r y of the K a b b a l i s t i c m y s t e r i e s t r a n s m i t t e d by Moses to the seventy wise men and by them to succeeding p r o p h e t - p r i e s t s ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 4 8 V ) . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d f u r t h e r w i t h the c u l t s of Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , Z o r o a s t e r , Orpheus, the Hindu v r Brahmins, Pythagoras and P l a t o ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 48 -49 ) . C h r i s t h i m s e l f spoke i n parab les ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 49 ) . Furthermore the e c s t a t i c v i s i o n which i s the h i g h e s t of a l l forms of knowledge i n tha t i t u n i t e s man w i t h the d i v i n e i s e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - d i s c u r s i v e and f i g u r a t i v e . Thus many evocat ions of s a i n t s and prophets r a v i s h e d i n the m y s t i c u n i o n of the e c s t a t i c "septieme v o l " are crowned by t h a t of S t . John ' s A p o c a l y p s e . A l l are r e l a t e d to the s e c r e t r e v e l a t i o n s 119 of the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i ; Mais tous comme s i l o r s i l s eussent s o m m e i l l e , Tout ce q u ' i l s a v o i e n t v e u , en e s p r i t e s v e i l l e I l s l e c o u v r o i e n t soudain des ombrages e t v o i l e s De 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n , comme sous c l a i r e s t o i l e s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 66 v ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the h i d d e n t r u t h r e q u i r e s the c o n s e c r a t i o n of the t rue p o e t , the l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s " k i n g " of the epigraph to La G a l l i a d e . Only he can uncover the " g o l d e n a p p l e s " r e f e r r e d to i n the epigraph to L ' E n c y c l i e here r e c a l l e d : . . . meme l e P r o f e t e , I n t e r p r e t e de D i e u , d ' u n au t re homme i n t e r p r e t e Se t rouve a v o i r b e s o i n , q u i de rayons a i l e z D i s s i p e l e s nuaux des mysteres v o i l e z : Et l e q u e l scache o s t e r l e s ombres e t l e s f u e i l l e s De q u i l e s Pommes d ' o r sous a r g e n t i n e s t r e i l l e s Se couvrent a demy, pour f a i r e p e r c e v o i r A c l a i r j o u r l e j o u r c l a i r du myst ique - s c a v o i r . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 66^- 67 r ) A c c o r d i n g to La Boder ie the D r u i d s ' r e l i g i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y tha t o f the C h r i s t i a n humanis ts . F i r s t l y , i t made man the f o c a l p o i n t of a l l c r e a t i o n , a s s i g n i n g to him a l s o the r o l e of b e i n g the means of the u n i o n of God w i t h h i s c r e a t i o n : Dieu q u i a tout c r e e , q u i tout c l o s t et consomme, Pour 1'homme f e i s t l e monde, et pour l u y s e u l f e i s t 1'homme. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 51 v ) Secondly , even the p r a c t i c e of human s a c r i f i c e i s construed as a p r e f i g u r a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n redemption through the p a s s i o n and as a s u g g e s t i o n of the V i r g i n b i r t h : P o s s i b l e que Janus [Noah] par e s p r i t p r o f e t i q u e A v o i t s i g n i f i e a Dis l e u r pere ant ique Que 1'homme q u i e s t o i t tombe de son degre Qui e s t o i t bany du P a r a d i s s a c r e , Ne p o u v o i t r e c o u v r e r ces te grace perdue, 120 S l par l a mort d ' u n homme e l l e n ' e s t o l t rendue: Et s i 1'homme Archetype ayant p r i s un vray c o r p s , Par mort ne r e d o n n o i t l a v i e et l e s accords Des bas , moyens, et h a u t s , par chaine e n t r e s u y v i e Resouldant l e s canaux par ou coule l a v i e . Pource v o u l u r e n t - i l s dedans Char t res p l a n t e r A c e l l e q u i d e v o i t e s tant V i e r g e e n f a n t e r , Un Temple consacre . . . . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 53 r ) Thus i n the D r u i d s ' r e l i g i o n can be found not o n l y the concept of i m m o r t a l i t y suggested by t h e i r b e l i e f i n metempsychosis ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 44 V ) but a l s o a p r e - C h r i s t i a n concept of s a l v a t i o n . D r u i d i c r e l i g i o n was remarkable f o r i t s m a g i c a l as w e l l as i t s m y s t i c a l p r e -eminence. A l a r g e s e c t i o n of the T h i r d C i r c l e i s devoted to t h e i r t h e u r g i c powers. They were p r o p h e t s : Les Druydes d i v i n s , q u i tant par l e s augures Que par s a i n c t e f u r e u r toutes choses f u t u r e s Au peuple p r e d i s o i e n t , . . . 7 „ ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 53 r ) T h e i r v i r g i n p r i e s t e s s e s ' i n c a n t a t o r y powers were comparable and even s u p e r i o r to those of the Greek s i b y l s : Par l e u r s carmes e t chants e l l e s a v o i e n t p o u v o i r De t r o u b l e r l e s grands mers, e t tous l e s vents mouvoi r . Les ombres des tombeaux t i r e r des morts t r o u b l e z Donner contre tous maux remede et g u a r i s o n , Et chasser devant soy l e charme et l a p o i s o n . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 5 3 v - 5 4 r ) I n s h o r t , the D r u i d s ' r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e p e r m i t t e d a harmonious r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of heaven and e a r t h through a l l forms of knowledge c u l m i n a t i n g i n n a t u r a l magic r e l a t e d to a s t r o l o g y . The D r u i d s e x e m p l i f i e d f o r La Boder ie h i s i d e a l of the p e r f e c t man, i n harmony w i t h h i m s e l f and at tuned to the u n i v e r s e and thus able to f u l f i l l h i s r o l e of u n i t i n g 121 God and c r e a t i o n : V o i r e s i l1homme a r r i v e a p a r f a i c t e accordance , I I p o u r r a commander j u s q u ' a l a Providence Par dessus tous l e s Cieux . . . . Tant grande e s t l a p u i s s a n c e , e t h a u t a i n l e courage De l'homme a Dieu c o n j o i n t , e t Chef de son ouvrage. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 55 v ) Man the microcosm becomes the means of complet ing a p e r f e c t c i r c l e through h i s unique g i f t of l e a r n i n g which a l l o w s him to r e l a t e c r e a t i o n to the C r e a t o r : 0 v r a y Dieu que ces t homme es t un m i r a c l e grand , Qui en soy l ' A b r e g e de t r o i s mondes comprend, Et dans l e q u e l t u f a i s toymesme r e s i d e n c e Chef de N a t u r e , e t d ' A r t , D e s t i n , e t P r o v i d e n c e ! C ' e s t l e P r i n c e et P r e l a t que t u voulus l o g e r En ton grand Temple r o n d , heraut e t messager Que tu as e s t a b l y e n t r e tes C r e a t u r e s , Aux pures f a m i l i e r , redoutab le aux impures , De Nature i n t e r p r e t e , entre -deux et moyen D ' E t e r n i t e e t temps, du Monde l e l i e n , Le Neud, l ' A c c o u p l e m e n t , ou p l u s t o s t l 'Hymenee, Dont en Terre e s t l e C i e l , l a Terre au C i e l menee. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 56 r ) Al though t h e u r g i c magic used f o r a r e l i g i o u s purpose was the h i g h e s t form of D r u i d i c knowledge, La Boder ie condemns an i r r e s p o n s i b l e v r use of o c c u l t knowledge f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 58 -59 ) . Only the o r i g i n a l D r u i d s , not L a B o d e r i e ' s contemporar ies , may be excused t h e i r e r r o r s inasmuch as they had not known the C h r i s t i a n r e v e l a t i o n : Des tenebres d ' e r r e u r s i l s e s t o i e n t o b s c u r c i e s , Et V e r i t e nous a de ses r a i s e s c l a r c i s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 59 r ) Having ass igned to the D r u i d s the source of a l l knowledge which was l a t e r to f l o w to the great p h i l o s o p h e r - p r i e s t s and s c i e n t i s t s of the 122 a n c i e n t w o r l d , La Boder ie completes h i s T h i r d C i r c l e by p r a i s i n g the r e t u r n of tha t h e r i t a g e i n the great p h i l o s o p h e r s and t h e o l o g i a n s , s a i n t s and humanists of Renaissance France . France has t r a d i t i o n a l l y encouraged p h i l o s o p h e r s and a r t i s t s , f o r i t i s the home of the great u n i v e r s i t i e s , as w e l l as of the jeux f l o r a u x , the p o e t i c puy i n which La Boder ie h i m s e l f had won fame ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 6 8 V - 7 3 r ) . ^ The T h i r d C i r c l e c l o s e s , t h e r e -f o r e , w i t h p r a i s e of the great exemplars of p i e t y and l e a r n i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l D r u i d p h i l o s o p h e r - p r i e s t s . A d d r e s s i n g these worthy successors as " E s p r i t s d i v i n s , et de haute v a l u g , " L a Boder ie i n c l u d e s i n h i s eulogy t h e o l o g i a n s , s a i n t s , l a w y e r s , o r a t o r s , and d o c t o r s , from S a i n t Denis to Ambrose Pare\ A l l are w i t n e s s to the comple t ion of the c i r c l e of h i g h e s t knowledge whose o r i g i n was the G a l l i c D r u i d s . The F o u r t h and F i f t h C i r c l e s t r e a t of music and poet ry r e s p e c t -i v e l y . Frances Yates has u n d e r l i n e d the s p i r i t common to L a Boder ie and to the B a i f Academy i n the l i n k i n g of these a r t s . ^ M u s i c i s the supreme m a n i f e s t a t i o n of harmony as a p r i n c i p l e of o r d e r , t o t a l i t y and C h r i s t i a n 76 l o v e . I n so f a r as i t i s r e l a t e d to mathemat ica l knowledge i t i s a means f o r man to surpass h i s sensory c a p a c i t i e s i n order to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i v i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e which i s the p r i n c i p l e of a l l c r e a t i o n . Music i s thus f a r more than an a r t of d e l e c t a t i o n of the senses . I t i s a supremely s e r i o u s s t u d y , the most u s e f u l of the s c i e n c e s . I t s harmony p r o v i d e s man w i t h a model of good h e a l t h i n body and i n s p i r i t and of concord i n the body p o l i t i c , as Pythagoras and P l a t o had t a u g h t . Even more i m p o r t a n t , however, the laws of m u s i c a l harmony suggest a 123 d i v i n e u n i v e r s a l attunement which s i n c e the F a l l i s beyond man's sensory c a p a b i l i t i e s and even beyond h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n . ^ F u r t h e r -more, the m u s i c a l s c a l e r e p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l i t y of the w o r l d s o u l which i s r e f l e c t e d by the human s o u l i s a means of r e p r e s e n t i n g f i g u r a -t i v e l y the p e r f e c t i o n of d i v i n e c r e a t i o n . For La Boder ie a n a l y s i s of m u s i c a l harmony i s thus e s s e n t i a l l y a means of apprehension of the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e which informs a l l c r e a t i o n . Through a s tudy of music man can 78 l e a r n something of God; by the power of music he can a t t a i n a m y s t i c a l e l e v a t i o n of the s o u l to God which i s a foreknowledge of e t e r n i t y . La B o d e r i e ' s p r e f a t o r y statement e s t a b l i s h e s the context of h i s s tudy of m u s i c : Au quatrieme C e r c l e , j ' a y t r a i t s de l a Musique , e t Harmonie, tant du Monde A r c h e t y p e , C e l e s t e , e t E l e m e n t a i r e , que c e l l e de 1'Homme ou du P e t i t - M o n d e , et des m e r v e i l l e u x e f f e t s q u ' e l l e p r o d u i t . ( G a l l i a d e ; Adver t i ssement aux l e c t e u r s ) Constant i n h i s purpose to show Gaul as the home of a l l knowledge, L a Boder ie a t t r i b u t e s the o r i g i n s of music and of poetry to the s i x t h k i n g of the G a u l s , Bardus , whose name t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o Chaldaean s i g n i f i e s " f i l s du Fondement" or " f i l s de l a Resonnance." H i s f o l l o w e r s are s a i d to have i n v e n t e d the m u s i c a l ins t ruments ( n o t a b l y the o r g a n , the v i o l , the l u t e , the harp and the l y r e ) and to have e x e r c i s e d t h e i r m u s i c a l a r t w i t h such s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y that even w a r r i o r s i n the m i d s t r r of b a t t l e were rendered p e a c e f u l ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 77 -78 ) . Bardus i s s a i d to have understood the p r i n c i p l e s of c e l e s t i a l music on which human music i s p a t t e r n e d . To him i s a t t r i b u t e d a P l a t o n i c concept of 124 the music of the spheres ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 79 ) . The supreme U n i t y of the w o r l d s o u l generates from i t s p l e n i t u d e the numbers whose attunement produces a heavenly harmony. That harmony i s the p r i n c i p l e of c r e a t i o n : Donq l e nombre premier q u i s ' a s s i e d e t se met A i n s i qu 'en Pyramide a l a p o i n c t e e t sommet, Es t l a s a i n c t e Unite! . . . Or de ces nombres beaux desquels Dieu composa L'Ame de l ' U n i v e r s , a l o r s q u ' i l d i s p o s a Tout ce q u i e s t , q u i v i t , e t q u i sent en Nature Et tout ce q u i entende, par p o i d s , nombre e t mesure, Se forment ent re nous l e s s i x genres d ' a c c o r d s Sur l e s tons sonoreux des grands C e l e s t e s c o r p s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 79 v) The major p o r t i o n of the f o u r t h C i r c l e i s devoted to e l a b o r a t i o n of m u s i c a l theory and of the theme of cosmic harmony. I n both s u b j e c t s La B o d e r i e ' s debt to both the P l a t o n i c and K a b b a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s i s c l e a r . D a v i d , Orpheus, Pythagoras and P l a t o are shown to have i l l u s t r a t e d or d e s c r i b e d the u n i v e r s a l harmony whose a n a l y s i s r e l a t e s Greek mathematics to K a b b a l i s t i c m y s t i c i s m . Greek M u s i c a l theory i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the S e p h i r o t h . The whole i s made to i l l u s t r a t e C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , as f o r example i n the supreme harmony of C h r i s t the A r c h e t y p e : Mais l 'Homme-Dieu JESUS, l e C h r i s t , l ' O i n t , l e David Qui de D a v i d 1 ' e s p r i t par son E s p r i t r a v i t , Du Systeme f o r m e l es t l a quinziesme chorde . Et l e d ix iesme n e r f du d i v i n Decachorde, Qui pour s ' e s t r e a b a i s s g , e t comme anneanty En v e s t a n t n o s t r e c h a i r . . . . . . s ' e s t s i haut r e j e t t e Que du s e p u l c h r e yssant sans en rompre l a p i e r r e , T r a v e r s a l e s d i x Cieux . . . E t monta par -dessus l e s neuf ordres des Anges Qui en nombreux accords resonnent ses louanges , J u s q u ' a u c e r c l e i n f i n i de l a D i v i n i t y . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 9 1 r V ) 125 The d i v i n e u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e of harmony not on ly generates the music of the spheres but a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s the b a s i s of e a r t h l y harmony: S i donques 1 ' A r c h e t y p e , e t l e s Cieux a c c o m p l i s , L'Homme, e t l e s Elements sont de l ' E s p r i t r e m p l i s , L ' E s p r i t harmonieux, e t s i ce q u i embrasse Toute chose dans s o y , q u ' i l accorde e t compasse A s c i e n c e de v o i x . . . Se d o i t - o n estonner que par s e c r e t e amorce E l l e en face s e n t i r aux Animaux l a force? ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 9 1 v - 9 2 r ) A l l c r e a t i o n i s thus r e c e p t i v e to the e f f e c t s of m u s i c . R e f e r r i n g to c l a s s i c a l Greek authors as w e l l as to the Zohar , La Boder ie i l l u s t r a t e s c a t h a r t i c , t h e r a p e u t i c , c o n s o l a t o r y , e t h i c a l , m a r t i a l and p r o p h e t i c powers of m u s i c . He s t r e s s e s the theme of music as i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of o r d e r , of reason over the senses , and the P l a t o n i c theme of i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n the body p o l i t i c as an ins t rument of j u s t i c e and p i e t y . Thus La Boder ie the a p o l o g i s t and prophet of r e s t i t u t i o n i s l e d to enunc ia te h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the p o e t - m u s i c i a n as c o u n s e l l o r to k i n g s : Entonnez, entonnez au coeur des P r i n c e s brave A mode D o r i e n n e , et ton severe et g r a v e , L a vraye P i e t e , et du grand Dieu l e s d r o i t s Qui f a i t et q u i d e s f a i t l e s Regnes et l e s R o i s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 96 v ) C i v i l s t r i f e i n the body p o l i t i c of F r a n c e , l i k e s i n i n the microcosm, i s a temporary d i s s o n a n c e : A i n s i l 'Ame es t confuse au p o l i t i q u e c o r p s , Et l e grand l u t h du Regne a perdu ses a c c o r d s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 96 v ) 126 The p r i n c i p l e of r e t u r n found i n the descendant-ascendant movement of P l o t i n u s ' N e o - P l a t o n i s t metaphysics as w e l l as i n the c i r c u l a r movement of the K a b b a l i s t i c S e p h i r o t h and i n the C h r i s t i a n concept of man's c r e a t i o n , f a l l and redemption a l l suggest t h a t the d i s c o r d a n t d e v i a t i o n s of human h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e the need f o r the poet to show the way to a r e t u r n to harmony. The Hermet ic Pimander conf i rms the harmonic p r i n c i p l e of c r e a t i o n as a proof of the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l , f o r e v e r y t h i n g r e t u r n s to i t s o r i g i n a l form: S ' e l l e [ l 'ame] e s t o i t harmonie , i l f a u d r o i t par r a i s o n Q u ' e l l e s ' a l i a s t r e j o i n d r e en harmonie r g s o n . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 99 v ) S ince the d i v i n e harmony a c c o r d i n g to which the s o u l i s c o n s t i t u t e d makes i t r e c e p t i v e to h o l y m u s i c , the supreme purpose of the m u s i c i a n , as of the p o e t , i s to g l o r i f y the d i v i n e w i t h sacred hymns: Donq de motets d i v i n s e t cant iques t r e s s a i n t s F a i t e s que ses accords dans l e corps s o i e n t a t t e i n t s , Et l ' y entre tenez par une n o u r r i t u r e Qui de na ture s o i t conformes a s a n a t u r e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 100 r ) The p o e t - m u s i c i a n must i m i t a t e the d i v i n e harmony of the s p h e r e s , that great cosmic dance which f i g u r e s d y n a m i c a l l y the order and degree of the u n i v e r s a l harmonic p r i n c i p l e : Fa i tes -moy tournoyer par nombreuses p a r o l l e s Et l e s E s p r i t s mouvans, e t du C i e l l e s c a r o l l e s : Entonnez es tuyaux des Orgues longs e t ronds Des Cieux o r g a n i s e z l a Musique et l e s t o n s : F a i t e s s u r l e c l a v i e r d'une douce E s p i n e t e Marcher d ' o r d r e e t de rang P l a n e t e apres P l a n e t e Sous l e b a l du grand C i e l . . . . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 101 r ) M u s i c i s preponderant among the a r t s , f o r i t i s at once the 127 model and the means to u n i v e r s a l harmony and peace. La B o d e r i e ' s concept of h i s p e r s o n a l m i s s i o n i s nowhere b e t t e r expressed than i n h i s c o n c l u d i n g hymn to God. He wishes to be above a l l a s t i m u l u s f o r the development of a newly s e r i o u s and s p i r i t u a l poe t ry c l o s e l y a l l i e d i n form and content to the Psa lms: Sus s u s , P l a s t e r i o n , sus sus 6 Harpe encore , Tost t o s t r e s v e i l l e z - v o u s , j ' e s v e i l l e r a y l ' A u r o r e : I I me p l a i s t , i l me p l a i s t o r ' l e pas avancer , Et d ' u n s a u l t redouble devant l ' A r c h e dancer , Et par un A v a n t - j e u vous monstrer par exemple Comme on d o i t l o u S r Dieu dedans son sacrS Temple. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 103 r ) The p o e t - m u s i c i a n who would f o l l o w h i s example of v i r t u e and l e a r n i n g should a t t a i n a pure s e n s i t i v i t y equal to tha t of p r e l a p s a r i a n man, ab le to hear the c e l e s t i a l harmony beyond the sensory c a p a b i l i t i e s of f a l l e n man, and to penet ra te to e c s t a t i c communion w i t h God, " l ' O e i l de l a PenstSe" : 0 nous tous d 'une v o i x rendon grace sacree A l u y q u i meut l e s C i e u x , e t l a Nature c r e e : C ' e s t l ' o e i l de l a Pensee, e t l u y q u i l a c o n q o i t , L'hymne b i e n v o l o n t i e r s des Puissances r e c o i t . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 105*) The t r u e poet exper iences an e c s t a t i c s y n e s t h e s i a of the N e o - P l a t o n i c d i v i n e l i g h t and m u s i c : Louez l ' U N et l e Tout , o mes f o r c e s , q u ' o n oye Les v e r t u s de mon Ame accorder a ma j o y e . 0 Connaissance s a i n t e , Ame p l e i n e d ' a r d e u r Qui emprunte de soy sa l u m i e r e et s p l e n d e u r , Par toy chantant i c y l a l u m i e r e e n t e n d i b l e Mon coeur t r e s s a u t e , et sent une joye i n d i c i b l e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 105 r ) C l a s s i c s y n e s t h e s i a as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of w o r l d harmony informs the C h r i s t i a n Renaissance s p i r i t which i s sometimes l o o s e l y termed 128 " p a n t h e i s m . " I t i s c e n t r a l to La B o d e r i e ' s metaphor of the p o e t -m u s i c i a n a t t u n i n g h i s i n s t r u m e n t , w i t h the r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n of h i s a t t u n i n g h i s s o u l to d i v i n e harmony as shown i n the u n i v e r s e and as of h i s sacred r o l e of the t u n i n g of man to the w i l l of God the * . 80 A r c h i m u s i c u s . A f i n a l apostrophe to the "Chantres des R o i s " admonishes them to i m i t a t e D a v i d i n s i n g i n g unto the Lord a new song to the g l o r y of God and f o r the mora l enl ightenment of man, and echoes f o r t h i s purpose a l l the m u s i c a l ins t ruments of Psalm CL. The s e r i o u s n e s s of the m u s i c i a n ' s r o l e i s comparable to tha t of the poe t : Vous donq q u i recreez l e s P r i n c e s a l e u r t a b l e , Rendez-moy par t e l s chants l e u r p l a i s i r p r o f i t a b l e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 106 v ) Music and p o e t r y have been, i n f a c t , i n d i s s o l u b l y a l l i e d from the time of t h e i r common B a r d i c o r i g i n : A i n s i de main en main l a Musique c h o i s i e Qui anime, et q u i meut l a douce P o e s i e , Et l a p o r t e dans l ' a i r s u r ses accords a i l e z , P r i n t son commencement des Bardes o r e i l l e z , Qui l e s premiers ont j o i n t l e s vers a. l a Musique . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 107 r ) P o e t r y , the s u b j e c t of the F i f t h C i r c l e , i s f o r La Boder ie the t w i n s i s t e r of m u s i c , i n s e p a r a b l e from i t not only i n i t s f o u n d a t i o n on number and measure but a l s o i n i t s purpose of g l o r i f y i n g the d i v i n e . Yet the t r u e poet i s even s u p e r i o r to the m u s i c i a n , f o r not o n l y does he i n c o r p o r a t e the p r i n c i p l e s of order and s y n t h e s i s but a l s o he i s the p h i l o s o p h e r - p r i e s t and d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d p r o p h e t . H i s model i s L a Boder ie 129 Orpheus, the e t h i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l s i n g e r l e a d i n g a l l c r e a t i o n by h i s m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " and whose name analysed by " femithologie" shows him to be the "Bouche de L u m i e r e " ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 115V) or spokesman of the d i v i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e . La B o d e r i e ' s p r e f a c e u n d e r l i n e s the e x c e p t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of poet ry i n h i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g h i s t o r y of human a r t s and s c i e n c e s : F inalement au cinquieme et d e r n i e r [ C e r c l e ] j ' a y t r a i t e de l a Poesie^ l a q u e l l e b i e n que j e l ' a y e mise e n t r e l e s A r t s e t s c i e n c e s , semble t o u t e s f o i s e s t r e p l u s t o s t une s a i n c t e f u r e u r e t e l e v a t i o n d ' e s p r i t , que non pas une d o c t r i n e acquise par i n d u s t r i e e t pu issance humaine . . . . ( G a l l i a d e , Adver t i ssement aux l e c t e U r s ) P o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e f o r La Boder ie i s thus c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to F i c i n o ' s N e o - P l a t o n i c t h e o r i e s of d i v i n e f e r v o u r adopted by Ronsard r a t h e r than 81 to Du B e l l a y ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g tha t La B o d e r i e ' s unique defence and i l l u s t r a t i o n of French language and l i t e r a t u r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d on premises both more r e l i g i o -n a t i o n a l i s t i c and l e s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y p r e c i s e than those of Du B e l l a y . La B o d e r i e ' s endur ing d i s t r u s t of the a n c i e n t p o l y t h e i s t i c Greeks f o r b i d s h i s adopt i ng the P l e i a d e ' s i n j u n c t i o n of i m i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l models j u s t as i t prevents h i s j u s t a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s contemporaries who had e x c e l l e d i n such i m i t a t i o n . H i s m i s t r u s t of the " f a u x G r e g e o i s " and of t h e i r p o l y t h e i s t i c mythology i s e v i d e n t i n h i s d e s i r e to a s s i g n the o r i g i n s of t rue poetry to the s i m p l e r and p u r e r age of the D r u i d i c Bards when: L a p e i n t u r e du C i e l n ' e s t o i t l o r s desguisee 130 Des f a b l e s dont l a Grece a es te abusee. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 107V) The p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y which informs a l l L a B o d e r i e ' s thought i s a f f i r m e d to have been understood by the a n c i e n t G a l l i c s i n g e r s who, a l though they l e f t no w r i t t e n r e c o r d of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , are revered as the o r i g i n a l t rue p o e t s : Les Bardes simplement d e s i g n o i e n t l a p e i n t u r e Du grand t a b l e a u du C i e l , et l e s f a i t s de Nature Cherchez profondement, et en tout l ' U n i v e r s Un s e u l Dieu p r e s i d o i e n t a tous oeuvres d i v e r s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 108 r ) The laws of v e r s i f i c a t i o n are a t t r i b u t e d to Bardus , whose name t r a n s c r i b e d from the Chaldaean as " f i l s de l a Resonnance" shows h i s f i t t i n g n e s s f o r the a t t u n i n g of the w o r l d ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 77 n . ) . P o e t i c form i s however secondary to i t s r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l purpose : Donq l ' a n c i e n Bardus f i l s de l a Resonnance Et pere des doux vers e t de l a Consonance, . . . i n v e n t a s e u l l e s l o i s Des carmes sonoreux, e t sonoreuses modes Pour l o u e r l e grand Dieu e t l e s hommes en Odes, Et envoyer l e nom aux s i e c l e s ensuivans Des P i e u x tuez en g u e r r e , e t par g l o i r e v i v a n s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 108 v ) M u s i c and p o e t r y were thus from the f i r s t i n d i s s o l u b l y a l l i e d i n the "carmes sonoreux" : Et s ' e n t r ' a i m o i e n t l e s deux en s i p a r f a i t s a c c o r d s , Que ce n ' e s t o i t qu'une Ame envigourant deux c o r p s . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 109 v ) That n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e , l i k e the a r t l e s s s i n c e r i t y which La Boder ie opposes to the " f e i n t a r t i f i c e " of the Greeks and of many of h i s contemporar ies , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o e t r y of an e s s e n t i a l l y i n s p i r e d 131 and i n s p i r a t i o n a l n a t u r e . Thus music and poet ry are s a i d to have a t t a i n e d a s imple p e r f e c t i o n i n p o s t - d i l u v e a n G a u l : Par nature e t sans a r t a meints b i e n - n e z e s p r i s Le moyen de chanter des Odes et des Hymnes, Et se f a i r e r a v i r par ces f u r e u r s d i v i n e s Qui desrobent n o s t r e Ame, e t l u y f o n t v o i r au s e i n Des hautes D e i t e z meint subl ime d e s s e i n . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 109V) V a r i a t i o n s on the theme of d i v i n e f e r v o u r , the "Enthousiasme s a i n c t " of the t r u e p o e t , r e f l e c t a K a b b a l i s t i c reverence f o r d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n i n f i g u r a t i v e form. The t r i u m p h a l hymn a f t e r the c r o s s i n g of the Red Sea, as w e l l as the e l e g i a c verse of the Book of Job and the t h e u r g i c power of Joshua 's i n c a n t a t i o n b e f o r e the w a l l s of J e r i c h o are a l l a t t r i b u t e d to Moses as p r i e s t and pro to type o f the marriage of music and the p o e t i c muse i n v o c a l g l o r i f i c a t i o n of God. A g a i n K a b b a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the name, Moses-Music -Muse , j u s t i f i e s the concept : Et tout ent re l e s Gents f u t t o u s j o u r s est imee Sa s c i e n c e d i v i n e e t c l a i r e renommee, Qui sceut s i b i e n n o u r r i r de l a manne des Cieux Ces deux gemelles Seurs au son d e l i c i e u x , Que longs s i e c l e s apres l a Muse e t l a Musique Userent simplement de l a langue Hebraique Sans mensonge et sans f a r d , sans impudique e s c r i t , Pour l o u S r Dieu sans p l u s e t de bouche et d ' e s p r i t . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . l l l r ) D a v i d ' s psalms and Solomon's Song of Songs are f u r t h e r evidence of the supremacy of d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d p o e t r y whose e x p r e s s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y m u s i c a l . La B o d e r i e ' s N e o - P l a t o n i c theme of d i v i n e " s e c r e t " r e v e l a t i o n through the v e i l i n g of t r u t h by p o e t i c metaphor i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s 132 p r e s e n t a t i o n of Orpheus as the p o e t - m u s i c i a n par e x c e l l e n c e . As e l s e -where i n L a B o d e r i e ' s work, Orpheus i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the e a r l y Greeks because of the m o n o t h e i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which La B o d e r i e and h i s N e o - P l a t o n i c predecessors gave to h i s work . Orpheus i s shown to have announced the important themes of the T r i n i t y , of c r e a t i o n by d i v i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e , of the A p o c a l y p s e , and of the harmony of the t o t a l i t y of c r e a t i o n i n the d i v i n e U n i t y . He i s presented as the poet of d i v i n e f r e n z y who adapted the Chaldaean concept of the wine of s p i r i t u a l sustenance to the "douceurs i n f u s e s " of Bacchus and the Muses. I n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l survey of the development of p o e t r y , La Boder ie shows Orpheus to have l e a r n e d from the Egypt ians the necessary a r t o f p o e t i c v e i l i n g of t r u t h which t h e y , i n t u r n , had r e c e i v e d as a Mosaic h e r i t a g e . Hermes T r i s m e g i s t u s , the S i b y l l i n e o r a c l e s , and Z o r o a s t e r are s a i d to have been the means of h i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the sacred r i t e s of p o e t i c r e v e l a t i o n . The h idden t r u t h , d i v i n e l y r e v e a l e d to the i n i t i a t e p o e t -p r i e s t , was to be expressed by him o n l y i n the harmonious v e r s e and metaphoric v e i l s of p o e t r y . L i k e the golden apples of La B o d e r i e ' s epigraph f o r the E n c y c l i e , the beauty of Orpheus' v e r s e was an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n : Mais l u y a q u i de D i e u l a d o c t r i n e c e l e e S e c r e t t e a v o i t es te en s e c r e t r e v e l e e Sous l e sacre s i l e n c e , a i n s i que l e s d i s c r e t s S e c r e t a i r e s d i v i n s r e v e l o i c ^ t l e s s e c r e t s , Les t r a i t a n t p a r - a p r e s en poet iques nombres Les p e i g n i t et v o i l a de nuages et d 'ombres , A f i n ent re l e s s i e n s de se rendre admire?, Et qu 'on ne sceus t 1 'autheur dont i l a v o i t t i r £ Ses beaux t r a i t s rayonnans sous l ' e s c o r c e des f a b l e s , Comme sous l e s berceaux des J a r d i n s d e l e c t a b l e s 133 Le r a i s i n v i o l e t , e t l e s c i t r o n s dorez L u i s e n t aux b o i s f u e i l l u s de verdeur c o l o r e z . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 112 v -113 r ) Poet and p r i e s t became one i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d i v i n e . L a B o d e r i e ' s concept of t r u e poet ry i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to P i c o ' s p r o j e c t e d " p o e t i c t h e o l o g y " which would be a summa of a l l knowledge, a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of a l l phenomena through an 82 unders tanding of the correspondences which l i n k man to God. Thus Orpheus, w i t h L i n u s and Musaeus, are to be revered as A u g u s t i n e had t a u g h t : . . . pour a v o i r t r a i t e en l e u r s v e r s Musicaux Les mysteres d i v i n s , e t s e c r e t s Phys icaux Avec l a n a t u r e l l e e t profonde M a g i e , Sont d i t s l e s t r o i s Autheurs de l a T h e o l o g i e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 116 r ) L a B o d e r i e ' s h i s t o r i c a l survey of the development of poe t ry thus moves to Greece to which Orpheus i s s a i d to have brought the h e r i t a g e of the Gauls from the Jewish and Chaldaean p o e t - p r i e s t s who had t r a n s m i t t e d the s e c r e t d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n , " d o c t r i n e g a r d e e , " i n a f i g u r a t i v e f a s h i o n , "en sens couvers " ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 1 1 6 V ) . There f o l l o w s a survey of the Greek poets i n a l l the genres from e p i c to l y r i c to show the comprehensiveness of the p o e t i c muse: Et b r e f entre l e s Grecs l a Muse a bouche ronde A sur tout argument desploye sa faconde. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 119 r ) From Greece , poe t ry and music are f o l l o w e d to Rome where, a l though somewhat deformed "en chants l a s c i f s e t m o u l s , " they were e v e n t u a l l y r e s t o r e d to sonorous d i g n i t y by the great V i r g i l . Among the L a t i n poets 134 L a Boder ie c o n s i d e r s worthy of mention there f i g u r e a l s o Horace , P r o p e r t i u s , T i b u l l u s , C a t u l l u s , O v i d , M a n i l i u s , Lucan , the Gaul S t a t i u s , Seneca, M a r t i a l , B o e t h i u s , and the Gauls Ausonius and S i d o n i u s A p o l i n a r u s . Dante alone i s honored among the poets of the l a t e M i d d l e Ages . Wi th P e t r a r c h he i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p o e t r y ' s a d o p t i o n of the v u l g a r tongue. Sannazaro, Bembo, A r e t i n o , and A r i o s t o are d i s t i n g u i s h e d among the poets of the I t a l i a n Renaissance . But aga in La B o d e r i e ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r a solemn and s e r i o u s p o e t r y i s apparent i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of the v e n a l and a r t i f i c i a l tone of I t a l i a n Renaissance poet ry and m u s i c : Tout a i n s i l e s deux Seurs e r r a n t ' s par l a Toscane Ont acquis non un t e i n t e t c o u l e u r de basane, A i n c o i s un t e i n t f a r d e , un m a i n t i e n decevant , Et gestes p l u s l a s c i f s qu'onques au p a r a v a n t , Un Amour f e i n t q u i s q a i t l e t r a n s y c o n t r e f a i r e , B r e f l ' a i r I t a l i e n q u i a tous ne peut p l a i r e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 1 2 2 r _ v ) The c y c l i c a l h i s t o r y of poet ry i s "shown to have moved to comple t ion i n F r a n c e , i t s o r i g i n a l home, under F r a n c i s I . I n p r a i s e of the e a r l y French Renaissance L a Boder ie c i t e s M a r o t , S a l e l , M e l l i n de S a i n t G e l a i s , H e r o e t , and the music ians A l b e r t , C e r t o n , and J a n e q u i n . The age of Henry I I i s shown as a f l o w e r i n g of p o e t i c and m u s i c a l r i c h n e s s which had grown through the c e n t u r i e s s i n c e the semina l B a r d i c s i m p l e songs . L a Boder ie p r a i s e s " l a C o n f r e r i e / Des Poetes d i v i n s , et des Chantres e s l u s , " the "Enfans de l ' H a r m o n i e " ( f o l . 124 ) who have c l o s e d the c i r c l e of p o e t r y ' s r e v o l u t i o n : Mercy des beaux E s p r i t s q u i l ' o n t remise au j o u r , E t i c y a r r e s t e de son c e r c l e l e t o u r . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 124 r). 135 L a B o d e r i e ' s a t t r i b u t i o n of p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e to h i s contemporaries i s not always c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the judgment of l a t e r c r i t i c s . The l e a r n e d Dorat i s g i v e n f i r s t p l a c e , but i s succeeded by h i s s o n - i n - l a w , " l e docte G o u l u . " Ronsard i s p r a i s e d f o r h i s i m i t a t i o n of the c l a s s i c s , Du B e l l a y f o r h i s grace and n o b i l i t y . With J o d e l l e are a s s o c i a t e d the d r a m a t i s t s Peruse and the l e a r n e d G a r n i e r . However, Sceve, P e l e t i e r du Mans and Pontus de Tyard m e r i t a h i g h p l a c e i n L a B o d e r i e ' s e s t i m a t i o n f o r t h e i r s e r i o u s n e s s of purpose , the "sens p r o f o n d " which he reveres above a l l : Pource q u ' i l s ont change" en un p l u s grave ton Le son t rop demene" d'Amour, e t d ' E r a t o n , Sublimes decorans l e u r s Tableaux et p e i n t u r e Des hauts s e c r e t s du C i e l , e t des f a i t s de N a t u r e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 125 r ) In. these " s c i e n t i f i c " p o e t s ' s tudy of man and of h i s w o r l d La Boder ie read an approach to an apprehension of the D i v i n e which was h i s i d e a l f o r the p o e t - p r i e s t on the Orphic model . Pontus de Tyard e s p e c i a l l y c o u l d be r e l a t e d to Orpheus because of h i s treatment of music as the "image of the whole E n c y c l o p a e d i a " : Mais s o i t du grand T h i a r d l a couronne a deux rancs Qui a s i b i e n r e j o i n t de l a L y r e l e s f l a n e s , Et r ' a n i m a n t l a Muse e t l a Musique encore , A r'anime" P l a t o n , BoSce, e t Pythagore . „„ ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 125 r ) On the o ther h a n d , B a i f , B e l l e a u , and Desportes are g i v e n e q u a l p l a c e w i t h the Count of A l s i n o i s " q u i a s i b i e n chantS l ' E n f a n c e du C h r i s t " ir 84 85 ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 125 ) and the two r o y a l M a r g u e r i t e s . P a s s e r a t , the Normans Char les T o u s t a i n and F i l l e u l , the l earned M u r e t , the Hermet ic poet Hesteau de Nuysement, and the s c h o l a r l y Davy are p r a i s e d w i t h Jamyn, 136 Des A u t e l s , and the cour t poet V a u m e s n i l . Together w i t h the mus ic ians 86 Orlando de L a s s u s , C o u r v i l l e , B o n i , C o s t e l y and S a i n t L a u r e n t , the f o r e g o i n g poets c o n s t i t u t e f o r La Boder ie the consummation of the G a l l i c h e r i t a g e of p o e t i c ardour i n the s e r v i c e of d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n and whose m u s i c a l l y measured e x p r e s s i o n g l o r i f i e s the d i v i n e harmony of the u n i v e r s e : Bre f t a n d i s qu 'on v e r r a au monde e s t r e en est ime Les carmes e t l e s t o n s , l e s nombres, e t l a ryme, S o i e n t t o u s j o u r s es t imez l e s e s c r i t s e t l e s noms De vos bons E s c r i v a i n s , e t de vos chantres bons , Qui apres tan t de tours des S feres l e s p l u s tardes Ont f a i t en nouveaux corps r e v i v r e l e s v i e u x Bardes . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 126 r ) The theme of r e t u r n or " r e v o l u t i o n " of the a r t s and sc iences to G a l l i c France has been shown to c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i c framework of L a G a l l i a d e i n a l l i t s r e v o l v i n g C i r c l e s . La B o d e r i e ' s n a t i o n a l i s t i n t e r e s t i s apparent throughout . Yet even more fundamental to h i s p e r s o n a l v i s i o n i s a m y s t i c a l sent iment of r e n e w a l , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P o s t e l l i a n prophec ies of the new age to be i n s t i t u t e d under the French u n i v e r s a l monarch at the imminent second coming of C h r i s t i n men's s o u l s . I t i s i n t h i s context t h a t the work as a whole takes on i t s f u l l i m p o r t . Thus the r e c u r r i n g condemnation of the "Gregeois menteurs" w i t h t h e i r f a l s e gods can be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h L a B o d e r i e ' s p r a i s e of Orpheus, who was commonly supposed to have presented the many- face t ted U n i t y i n the guise of the Greek O l y m p i a , and a l s o w i t h L a B o d e r i e ' s acknowledgement of Renaissance a r t i s t s ' p a r t i a l debt to t h e i r Greek h e r i t a g e . Furthermore , the p o e t ' s emphasis on the r e l i g i o u s 137 b a s i s of the D r u i d i c B a r d s ' u n w r i t t e n legacy of m u s i c a l verse can be r e c o n c i l e d both w i t h the c l a s s i c a l Pythagorean and P l a t o n i c t h e o r i e s of harmony i n the u n i v e r s e and a l s o w i t h the K a b b a l i s t i c and Neo-P l a t o n i c acceptance of f i g u r a t i v e p o e t i c language as the substance of d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n presented as v e i l e d t r u t h . I n s h o r t , La B o d e r i e ' s seemingly c h a u v i n i s t i c h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e of c y c l i c a l r e t u r n i s i n r e a l i t y a m y s t i c o - r e l i g i o u s hymn of u n i v e r s a l r e n e w a l . Al though i t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of a French medieva l m y s t i c o - n a t i o n a l i s t i c c r u s a d i n g s p i r i t , i t d e r i v e s e s s e n t i a l l y from an e n t h u s i a s t i c i d e a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Renaissance consciousness of r e s t i t u t i o n . R e s t i t u t i o n of a r t s and sc iences i n the "go lden age" of the Renaissance was f o r La B o d e r i e a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of man's s p i r i t u a l r e s t i t u t i o n to h i s p r e l a p s a r i a n s p i r i t u a l c l a r i t y and p u r i t y of the o r i g i n a l C h r i s t i a n golden age. "Le P h e n i x , " a l o n g poem appended to La G a l l i a d e , presents through the image of the phoenix La B o d e r i e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c y e a r n i n g f o r order i n a u n i v e r s a l harmony which i s to be a t t a i n e d by a m y s t i c a l r e n e w a l . The phoenix i s the symbol of that renewal through the mors  o s c u l i : Luy mesme, e t non luy-mesme en rondeur p e r e n n e l l e Qui par l e b i e n de mort a c q u i e r t v i e e t e r n e l l e . ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 1 3 1 r ) 8 7 I t i s a l s o the symbol of the supreme uniqueness of the D e i t y . By the analogy of correspondences , on the p lane of the body p o l i t i c the French k i n g should be the supreme u n i v e r s a l monarch under whose p r o t e c t i o n the 138 one t r u e Church s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d . In a w o r l d thus u n i t e d the peace of a t r u l y u n i v e r s a l harmony would p r e v a i l . I t s h e r a l d was L a B o d e r i e , the new Orpheus, d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d by the unique t r u t h of the one t rue God. Thus L a Boder ie invokes the s p i r i t of uniqueness and t o t a l i t y which i s embodied i n the phoenix as w e l l as i n the c i r c l e , h i s own " f i g u r e e l u e " : Pren l e v o l mon P h e n i x , e t au regne G a u l o i s Va s a l u e r mon Roy l e s e u l Phenix des R o i s , Comme sa Gaule et Gent sur toutes p l u s ant ique Des Regnes e t des Gents es t l e Phenix u n i q u e : Et v o l e s u r son chef d ' u n doux v o l aplany Pour un s i g n a l heureux, que du grand Monde uny Un Roy de France un j o u r guidant 1 'unique Barque De l ' E g l i s e en P h e n i c e , en s e r a l e Monarque Et 1 'unique P h e n i x , e t comme a ce m i l i e u R e d u i r a toutes Gents sous l e Phenix de D i e u , Y h a u l s a n t pour l e Coq l e Phenix en T r o f e e . S o i t un Roy s u r tous R o i s , t o u s j o u r s L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE. ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 131 r ) 139 C. HYMNES ECCLESIASTIQUES, CANTIQUES SPIRITUELS ET AUTRES MESLANGES POETIQUES Both t r a n s l a t i o n s and o r i g i n a l works by L a Boder ie c o n s t i t u t e the volume of Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , cant iques s p l r i t u e l s et autres 88 meslanges poet iques (1578 and 1582) . I n b o t h , L a B o d e r i e ' s purpose was to counterac t the e f f e c t s of the P r o t e s t a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psalms and to use m u s i c a l " e f f e c t s " comparable to those of Orpheus i n order to b r i n g back the e r r i n g d i s s e n t e r s to the C a t h o l i c church : "par un c o n t r e c h a n t , comme j a d i s O r f e e , m'opposer au chant p i p e u r des 89 Syrenes" ( " A d v e r t i s s e m e n t " ) . The d e d i c a t i o n of the second e d i t i o n to Henry I I I i s even more e x p l i c i t : S i r e , tout a i n s i que ceux q u i se sont piques des s c o r p i o n s ont accoustumte de chercher l e u r g u a r i s o n et medecine en i c e u x mesmes, a i n s i c o n s i d e r a n t l e s Pseaumes de David t r a d u i t s en n o s t r e v u l g a i r e , par l a douceur de l a musique e t du chant melodieux que l ' o n y a ad jouste ont alleche" e t d i s t r a i t non moins de v o s t r e peuple que l e s assemblees e t presches des m i n i s t r e s de l a r e l i g i o n pretendue reformee, j e me s u i s a v i s e pour un remede et contre p o i s o n de t r a d u i r e l e s hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s et autres cant iques s p i r i t u e l s composes par l e s s a i n c t s docteurs e t anciens P e r e s , colonnes e t p i l l i e r s de n o s t r e r e l i g i o n unique e t v e r i t a b l e . . . . (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , n . p . ) 140 The t r a n s l a t i o n s i n c l u d e i m i t a t i o n s of works as wide r a n g i n g i n time as they are i n s u b j e c t . The Psalms are juxtaposed to works by the f o u r t h century C h r i s t i a n poet P r u d e n t i u s , by S t . Gregory , by the Venerable Bede, by Dante , by P e t r a r c h and by the s i x t e e n t h century I t a l i a n humanist and Church r e f o r m e r , V i d a . A n c i e n t Hebrew Psalms as w e l l as e a r l y C h r i s t i a n , medieva l and Renaissance r e l i g i o u s poet ry and t h e o l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n , a l l are adduced to serve La B o d e r i e ' s purpose of s p i r i t u a l re form brought about by m u s i c a l and p o e t i c " e f f e c t s . " Secre t has p o i n t e d out tha t d e d i c a t i o n s of the t r a n s l a t i o n s 90 and of the o r i g i n a l verses r e v e a l " t o u t un c l i m a t de l ' e ' p o q u e . " Not o n l y do they show La B o d e r i e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Academy through such f i g u r e s as Ronsard , Pontus de T y a r d , B a i f and D o r a t , b u t a l s o they suggest r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men of l e t t e r s and patrons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Counter Reformat ion movement under Henry I I I : f o r example, the H e b r a i c i s t G i l b e r t Genebrard, the P a r i s i a n s Amelot , S t . Germain and Desprez , and the Abbot 91 of S t . V i n c e n t of L a o n , s i t e of the m i r a c l e of 1566. O r i g i n a l works by La Boder ie comprise the second h a l f of the volume the " P a r t i e de 1 ' I n v e n t i o n . " Those addressed to Tyard (Hymnes r r e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 170 -184 ) and to Ronsard (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 184 r -213 V ) repeat La B o d e r i e ' s earnes t g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the Holy T r i n i t y as i n the E n c y c l i e and h i s abominat ion of the poet ry he c o n s i d e r e d f r i v o l o u s which i n i m i t a t i n g " y v r e Anacreon" was devoted to "Venus l a v a i n e " (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 1 7 0 V ) . In h i s o n l y r e f e r e n c e to contemporary events o ther than r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l , La B o d e r i e ' s acknowledgment of the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s of the Renaissance i s 141 made to serve h i s f i n a l i s t concept of c y c l i c a l r e t u r n to the d i v i n e U n i t y . S i m i l a r l y , he a s s i m i l a t e s a s t r o n o m i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s to the medieva l C a t h o l i c concept of one w o r l d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g them as s i g n s from God: S i que depuis peu d 'ans l e Nautonnier a c c o r t Nous a peuples nouveaux en nouveau monde o u v e r t : Jusqu 'aux A m e r i c a i n s sans f o y , sans Roy, sans Loy Et decouvert au C i e l 1 ' a u t r e C r o i x q u i se fonde En l ' A n t a r t i q u e Gond, s u r q u i tourne l e monde: Somme tous r e v o l t e z e t toute Gent q u i e r r e Par toutes Regions du Globe de l a T e r r e , A toy r e t o u r n e r a Roy s e u l E t h e r i e n , Te confessant vray Dieu c e l e s t e e t t e r r i e n Et s e l o n t a p a r o l e en l a t e r r e c h e r i e N ' y aura qu 'un P a s t e u r e t une b e r g e r i e Ce q u i vous es t e n c o r ' au pur C i e l d e s i g n ^ Qu'on a veu tant de f o i s en n o s t r e age signe" De feux p r o d i g i e u x . . . . (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 203 -207 La B o d e r i e ' s concept of p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n i s enuncia ted i n the 92 "Cant ique de l a na i ssance de n o s t r e Seigneur J e s u s - C h r i s t " addressed r r to the Bishop of Bayeux (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 230 -232 ) . L a B o d e r i e ' s c l a i m to a C h r i s t i a n r a t h e r than a c l a s s i c a l muse i s emphasized by h i s a d a p t a t i o n of the A p o l l o n i a n f r e n z y to an ecs tasy of C h r i s t i a n l o v e : Je ne veux p l u s invoquer l e s neuf Soeurs Je ne veux p l u s m'abreuver des douceurs De l ' H y p o c r e n e ent re l e s Grecs l o u 6 e , Je ne veux p l u s s u r H e l i c o n monter, A i n s rec lamer l e s Syrenes des C i e u x , A i n s m'enyvrer du chant d e l i c i e u x De l a v i v e eau . . . . 142 A i n s mieux songer des montz sur l e h a u l t mont, C h r i s t homme-Dieu a double chef profond Pour y p u i s e r l a haute f u r e u r s a i n c t e . _ (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 230 ) A t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h the b a s i s of a new C h r i s t i a n l y r i c i s m , La Boder ie s t i l l r e c a l l s the l e a r n e d " r h e t o r i q u e u r " u s i n g a medieva l f i x e d form, the "chant r o y a l " i n which he had e x c e l l e d at the p o e t i c 93 " p u y " . However, "chants royaux" g l o r i f y i n g the V i r g i n i n c o r p o r a t e imagery drawn from the Kabbalah . The f i r s t of these , f o r example, i s e n t i t l e d "Sur l a t r e s s a i n t e et pure Concept ion de l a V i e r g e M a r i e mere de D i e u " (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 2 3 7 V - 2 3 8 V ) . In t h i s poem the image of the b u t t e r f l y weaving i t s round cocoon i s adapted from the K a b b a l i s t Zohar . I t i s a s s i m i l a t e d to the K a b b a l i s t i c v i s i o n of the u n i v e r s e as the great sphere of ten S e p h i r o t h at the h e a r t of which La B o d e r i e p l a c e s the unique V i r g i n mother of C h r i s t . Kabbalah and C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e are thus i n t i m a t e l y fused i n an a f f i r m a t i o n of f a i t h which concludes w i t h La B o d e r i e ' s profound b e l i e f i n the u n i f y i n g power of a C h r i s t i a n p o e t i c : . P r i n c e du Puy, sur l a t e r r e e t l e s mers J u s q u ' o u Phebus a ses bornes e t meres F a i t e s que Seine entonne sur son onde Mieux que C y p r i s mere aux amours amers Le P a p i l l o n q u i f a i t sa Tente ronde . . . (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 238 ) r r The succeeding "chants royaux" (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 239 -250 ) i n t e g r a t e o ther images from the Zohar to the same end of p r a i s e of the V i r g i n : the b i r d from the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e a t the P o l e , the unique 94 Jewish p e a r l , the t r a n s p a r e n t sphere . "Chants royaux" based on 143 arguments from P i n d a r , from Pythagoras and the A r g o n a u t i c a (Hymnes r v e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 247 -249 ) complete the s e r i e s . La B o d e r i e ' s "Cant ique sur l a n o u v e l l e E s t o i l l e " (Hymnes v r 95 e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 250 -258 ) i s f o l l o w e d by f u r t h e r t r a n s l a t i o n s of Orphic Hymns (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 258 V f f . ) . La B o d e r i e ' s own f i n a l "Cant ique a. D i e u " (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 285 V -286 V ) a f f i r m s y e t aga i n the mora l and s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s to u n i t y and r e v e l a t i o n which m o t i v a t e d h i s p u b l i c a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s hymns: A s p i r e moy de g r a c e , a f i n qu 'en maint Cant ique Je c e l e b r e l ' h o n n e u r de ton s a i n c t nom a n t i q u e , Et l e s Hymnes d i v i n s qu 'en l ' E g l i s e des S a i n t s Les t i e n s f o n t resonner sous lambrissemens p e i n t s Par q u i de Pere en F i l z tous l e s peuples estranges Racontent en tous l i e u x tes d i v i n e s louenges . v (Hymnes e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , f o l . 286 ) La B o d e r i e ' s mot to , "May the Holy David sprout f o r t h as one O r p h i c a l l y " summarizes e s p e c i a l l y a p t l y La B o d e r i e ' s m o t i v a t i o n i n p u b l i s h i n g t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of Psalms and hymn s . This s y n c r e t i s t i c work , which r e c a l l s the e a r l y Renaissance i n i t s d e r i v a t i o n not o n l y from the Psalms and from the Church f a t h e r s but a l s o from the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , was g i v e n a second e d i t i o n at a time of extreme i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s antagonisms. That t h i s s h o u l d be so p o i n t s to a c o n t i n u i n g academic s p i r i t a t the c o u r t of 96 Henry I I I and among the C a t h o l i c " p o l i t i q u e s . " The wide r a n g i n g s y n c r e t i s t i c c h a r a c t e r of the work argues f o r La B o d e r i e ' s own s i n c e r i t y of b e l i e f i n the harmony to be rendered even out of d i s c o r d . 144 D. DIVERSES MESLANGES POETIQUES The D i v e r s e s meslanges poet iques (1582) r e c a l l many themat ic preoccupat ions e v i d e n t i n La B o d e r i e ' s major w o r k s . S e v e r a l bear w i t n e s s i n t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n s to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the l i t t e r a t i of h i s age. This c o l l e c t i o n , the l a s t of La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n c l u d e s minor v e r s e d a t i n g from as e a r l y as 1571. 97 References to h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e are few. S e v e r a l poems i n d i c a t e La B o d e r i e ' s moral purpose as the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d "new 98 Orpheus" i n an age of chaos . The sonnet , "Ce n ' e s t pas moy" (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 107 V f f . ) i n d i c a t e s the importance which the a u t h o r , l i k e the poets of the P l e i a d e , a t t r i b u t e d to h i s p r a i s e of h i s contemporar ies . F o l l o w i n g the Druids who i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s hymns sang p r a i s e s of t h e i r m i l i t a r y heroes ( G a l l i a d e , f o l . 7 7 V ) , La Boder ie chose to g l o r i f y the great men of C h r i s t i a n humanism: Mais b i e n c ' e s t moy q u i d e s i r e en tout l i e u En toute l angue , en tout temps, e t tout age Au ver tueux donner bon tesmoignage, E t c e l e b r e r l e s louenges de D i e u . Dieu s o i t p r i n c i p e e t s o i t f i n , e t m i l i e u De mes chansons: sa Providence sage S o i t 1'argument de mon appren t i s sag e Et de mes Ronds s o i t l e C e n t r e , e t l ' e s s i e u : Des gents de b i e n l e s nobles noms ant iques 145 Soyent l ' o rnement de mes humbles Cantiques Mesmes des S a i n c t s et martyrs b ienheureux Qui par l e u r mort ont couronne l e u r v i e Non p l u s s u b j e c t s i c y bas a l ' e n v i e Qui s u i t v e r t u comme un fantosme ombreux. v (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 110 ) Thus there are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n an ode to Thevet , r o y a l cosmographer (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 5 0 V f f . ) , a t r a n s l a t i o n of a L a t i n work a g a i n s t Copernicus by the mathematic ian and " l e c t e u r r o y a l , " C o r n e l i u s Gemma (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 7 1 V f f . ) , a sonnet i n p r a i s e of P i c o , " a d m i r a b l e P h e n i x " (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 81 ) , and a proloque to E t ienne J o d e l l e ' s C l e o p a t r e (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 92 -100 ) which b ears f u r t h e r w i t n e s s to La B o d e r i e ' s c l o s e 99 a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the B a i f Academy. Themes which La B o d e r i e e l a b o r a t e d i n h i s major works are r e c a l l e d b r i e f l y i n the verses of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n : the primacy of the D r u i d s , (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 48 ) , a cosmology based on the three w o r l d s of the a r c h e t y p e , the heavens and the elements w i t h man as the microcosm (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 51 ) , the concept of a golden age of man's r e b i r t h (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 5 2 V ) , the chaos of the times engendered by d i s r u p t i o n of the great c h a i n of b e i n g (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 79 ) , and the Orphic theme of d i v i n i s e d nature (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 1 0 7 r f f . ) . One s e r i e s of sonnets (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 8 1 V f f . ) stands out as a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of L a B o d e r i e ' s attempts to p r o v e ' t h e u n i t y of t r u t h i n the context of h i s b e l i e f i n man's c y c l i c a l r e t u r n from m u l t i p l i c i t y to the d i v i n e U n i t y . H i s s y n c r e t i s t i c a s s i m i l a t i o n of 146 K a b b a l i s t i c w i t h Pythagorean and P l a t o n i c n u m e r i c a l t h e o r i e s supports the F i c i n i a n v iew of the u n i v e r s e as harmonious s t r u c t u r e to be i n t e r -p r e t e d through "mathemat ica l i m a g e s : " E t l e t r a v a i l oyseux ou souvent t u me v o i s M ' a rendu s o l i t a i r e a l a v i l l e e t aux b o i s Pour t o u j o u r s r e m i r e r l e p r i n c i p e du nombre. (Diversesmeslanges , Sonnet 2, f o l . 82 ) The e s t h e t i c p e r f e c t i o n of the w o r l d conf i rms always f o r L a Boder ie the presence of the D i v i n i t y conceived i n the p e r f e c t form of the c i r c l e , and the c y c l i c a l r e t u r n i m p l i c i t i n the movement of the p e r f e c t form: Tout ce q u i e s t cy bas , au C i e l , e t sur l e monde S u i t l e Rond accomply, du grand Dieu commencant Le Centre de Bont£ , e t en D i e u f i n i s s a n t , Duquel l ' I n f i n i t e e s t une S f e r e ronde . (Diversesmeslanges , Sonnet 3 , f o l . 82 ) The f i r s t o f the sonnets of t h i s s e r i e s , " L e Grand Q u a t e r n a i e , " presents the most c o n c i s e evidence of La B o d e r i e ' s s y n c r e t i s m upon which was founded h i s f a i t h i n a genuine " r e n a i s s a n c e " of man. La Boder ie r e j e c t s the c o n v e n t i o n a l term, " Q u a t e r n a i r e , " i n favour of a n e o l o g i s m , " Q u a t e r n a i e , " proposed by the C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t R e u c h l i n , to i n d i c a t e the necessary r e s t i t u t i o n of a l l t h i n g s . " ' " ^ On the b a s i s of the Pythagorean t e t r a k t y s comprehensive of a l l c r e a t i o n , La Boder ie uses the number " 4 , " which was c e n t r a l a l s o to K a b b a l i s t i c and P o s t e l l i a n s p e c u l a t i o n s , i n o r d e r to a s s i m i l a t e the c o n s t i t u t i v e elements of 102 r e l i g i o u s l i f e , human n a t u r e , and of the u n i v e r s e . L ' O c c i d e n t , l ' A q u i l o n , l ' O r i e n t , l e M y ' J o u r , T h o b i a s , Job , J u d i t h , Es ther de l i s . f l o r i e , L ' H i s t o i r e , l e M o r a l , F i g u r e , A l l e g o r i e Cernent c o r p s , Ame, E s p r i t , et l a Pensee a u t o u r . Le Boeuf, l'Homme, e t L i o n , e t l ' A i g l e d ' u n r e t o u r L u c , M a t h i e u , Marc e t Jean c e r c l e dans c e r c l e l i e , 147 M a r t y r s , D o c t e u r s , H e r a u t s , e t l e s V l e r g e s a l l l e C h r i s t meurt , n a i s t , r e s u s c i t e , et monte en son s e j o u r . Le S a u l e , l e C i t r o n e t l a Palme et l e M y r t e , La N a t u r e , l a L o y , Grace et R a i s o n d ' e l i t e P h i s c h o n , G i l o n , K i d k e l e t P e r a t h arousant Nostre t e r r e , n o s t r e eau, n o s t r e a i r , e t feu sans cendre , D ' e s t r e , de v i v r e a u s s i , de s e n t i r e t d ' en tendre Vont n o s t r e P a v i l i o n a quatre co ins posant . (Diverses meslanges, f o l . 81 ) A n c i e n t s c i e n c e i s a s s i m i l a t e d to Jewish r e v e l a t i o n as a p r e f i g u r a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , the whole e n r i c h i n g the concept of man the microcosm of the great " P a v i l i o n " or temple which represents the harmoniously c o n s t r u c t e d u n i v e r s e . Two s e r i e s of sonnets (Diversesmeslanges , f o l . 84 V f f . and f o l . 87 f f . ) r e l a t i n g the p o e t ' s "songe ou v i s i o n " d i f f e r i n tone and i n manner from the r e s t of La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c o u t p u t . The more p e r s o n a l tone, the more p a r t i c u l a r m y s t i c a l imagery may perhaps be understood i n the context of the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t e m p l a t i v e and m y s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r which the P a l a c e Academy assumed i n the e a r l y 1580's under the i n f l u e n c e 103 of Henry I I I . The d i d a c t i c purpose i s s t i l l pre-eminent f o r La B o d e r i e , however, as i t was i n h i s former use of p u b l i c symbols . P r e s e n t a t i o n of the " b e l l e Nef dor§e" i s o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y to the g e n e r a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the marr iage of C h r i s t and h i s Church , "1'homme A r c h e t y p e " and "une P a s t o u r e l l e en douce contenance . " S i m i l a r l y , i n the second se t of two sonnets , the " C h e v a l et P o u l l a i n " marked by a new s t a r i n d i c a t e the e l e v a t i o n of P a r i s as the new i 104 J e rusa lem. The volume of Diverses meslanges j o S t i q u e s thus c o n t a i n s the l a s t of La B o d e r i e ' s p o e t i c w o r k s . I t shows him to have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 148 i n c r e a s i n g l y s p i r i t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n of poets i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the s i x t e e n t h century i n France i n which Raymond has s i t u a t e d the b e g i n n i n g of " l e regne de l a pocesie r e l i g i e u s e . La B o d e r i e ' s t i e s were i n the p a s t , however. Humanist and e n c y c l o p e d i s t i n the s y n c r e t i s t c u r r e n t of the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , L a B o d e r i e ' s v i s i o n i s not the p e r s o n a l one of Sponde or La Ceppede, 10 6 nor of the m y s t i c a l poets of the e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r y . We hope to have suggested i n the above p r e s e n t a t i o n of the thematic content of La B o d e r i e ' s o r i g i n a l works t h e i r i n t e r e s t f o r the s tudent of the l a t e French Renaissance . In the f i r s t p l a c e , a l l h i s work, and e s p e c i a l l y the E n c y c l i e , demonstrates a c o n t i n u i n g a l l e g i a n c e among c e r t a i n French men of l e t t e r s to the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n . La B o d e r i e ' s f e r v e n t concern f o r the s p i r i t u a l renewal of h i s countrymen assumed a t y p i c a l l y c y c l i c a l movement of r e t u r n to a n t i q u i t y f o r reassurance of a fundamental harmony of thought and of r e l i g i o u s r e v e l a t i o n . His m o t i v a t i o n of seek ing f o r u n i t y i n a time of c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e e x p l a i n s the anachronisms of many of h i s arguments and suggests as w e l l the v a l u e of h i s work as one example of the p o p u l a r i t y i n h i s day of v a r i o u s forms of e s o t e r i c wisdom which cou ld be adduced to suggest a u n i v e r s a l harmony. In the second p l a c e , the m y s t i c o - n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t which informs the G a l l i a d e i s i n d i c a t i v e not o n l y of a h u m a n i s t ' s p r i d e i n 149 the achievements of the French Renaissance , but a l s o of c u r r e n t s of p r o p h e t i c and m i l l e n a r i a n thought which found favour d u r i n g the r e i g n of Henry I I I . I n the t h i r d p l a c e , L a B o d e r i e ' s repeated re ferences to the new s o c i a l r o l e he e n v i s i o n e d f o r the p o e t , and f o r h i m s e l f as the "new Orpheus , " as d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d and e t h i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l s i n g e r not o n l y c l a r i f y the content of h i s own work , but a l s o form h i s most important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l a t e French Renaissance p o e t i c . In t h i s context h i s c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s to seek out and to se t f o r t h the symbol ic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the one t r u t h which informs a l l r e l i g i o u s r e v e l a t i o n s become m e a n i n g f u l , as do h i s repeated e x h o r t a t i o n s to contemporary poets to cas t a s i d e v a i n amatory verse i n favour of a s p i r i t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n by w h i c h , i f they are l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s , they w i l l be i l l u m i n a t e d . Thus t o o , La B o d e r i e ' s i n s i s t a n c e on the necessary a l l i a n c e of music and p o e t r y , expounded i n the G a l l i a d e and i l l u s t r a t e d i n the i m i t a t i o n s of Psalms and hymns i n the Hymnes  e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s i s seen to be c e n t r a l to h i s purpose of s p i r i t u a l renewal through an " O r p h i c " charm. 150 CHAPTER I I I : FOOTNOTES ^ Schmidt , PotSsie s c i e n t i f i q u e , p . 3 . 2 I b i d . , p . 204. 3 E . M. W. T i l l y a r d , The E l i z a b e t h a n World P i c t u r e (New Y o r k : Random House [ c l 9 4 3 ] ) , p . 106. 4 See A . 0 . L o v e j o y , The Great Chain of B e i n g : A Study i n the H i s t o r y  of an Idea (New Y o r k : Harper and Row [ c l 9 3 6 ] ) . For a s u c c i n c t account of the i n f l u e n c e of F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s m on the s c i e n t i f i c as w e l l as the a r t i s t i c thought of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , p p . 74-75. ^ For a f u l l a n a l y s i s of the development of the i d e a of the harmonic bases of c r e a t i o n from c l a s s i c a l to C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r s , see Leo S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony: A Prolegomena to an  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Word "St immung," e d . Anna G r a n v i l l e Hatcher ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1963) , p p . 5 -63 . 7 For the importance of the c i r c l e i n F i c i n i a n a e s t h e t i c s and metaphysics d e r i v e d from P l a t o , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , p . 58. g For an a n a l y s i s of t h i s theme i n F i c i n o , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e  F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 57-63. 9 For the concept of the C r e a t o r as A r c h i m u s i c u s , see S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, p p . 7, 10. See Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard, p p . 27 7-278. For the image of expanding c i r c l e s see the q u o t a t i o n from the E n c y c l i e , pp . 103-105, below p . 86. 12 C f . the analyses of t h i s work by Busson, R a t i o n a l i s m e , p p . 584-588 and by Schmidt , Pogs ie s c i e n t i f i q u e , p p . 182-214, and "Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e , chrcStien, poete et k a b b a l i s t e , " Cahiers du Sud (1950) , 151 p p . 169-182. S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 27-28, notes tha t n e i t h e r of these c r i t i c s has grasped the r e a l import of the K a b b a l i s t i c themes i n the E n c y c l i e because of t h e i r l a c k of knowledge of P o s t e l . 13 With r e f e r e n c e to acceptance of La B o d e r i e ' s work as or thodox , i n s p i t e of the heresy of the Son as not b e i n g c o - e t e r n a l w i t h the F a t h e r , F r a n c o i s Secret ("Les J f i s u i t e s e t 1e kabbal isme c h r C t i e n , " B i b l i o t h e q u e d'humanisme et r e n a i s s a n c e , X X [1958], p p . 546 f f . ) , notes La B o d e r i e ' s good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the J e s u i t s at the time of h i s work on the P o l y g l o t B i b l e i n Antwerp. 14 Reproduced i n S e c r e t , K a b b a l i s t e s Chretiens, p l a t e X . One notes the two anagrams of La B o d e r i e ' s name: FEU VERGILE = Gui Le F e v r e ; L ' U N [QUI] GUIDE ORFEE = Guidon Le F e v r e . 15 16 Busson, R a t i o n a l i s m e , p p . 516-517. For the c i r c l e as a constant image i n h i s work , see below p p . 198 f f . In h i s p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet " A son l i v r e " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 9) he vaunts the o r i g i n a l i t y of h i s form as a d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n : . . . a n u l des devanc iers t a forme t u ne d o i s N i modernes, n i v i e u s , l a i d ou beau que t u s o i s : Mais l ' h o n n e u r en e s t deu au s e u l Dieu que j e l o u e . One n o t e s , however, tha t he was a t r a n s l a t o r of Dante, whose use of c i r c l e s must have s t i m u l a t e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . La B o d e r i e ' s s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n ( E n c y c l i e , p . 7) of comple t ing h i s e x p o s i t i o n by " e n c i r c l i n g " C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e i n p r o g r e s s i o n from the h i g h e s t to the lowest " cause" was never c a r r i e d o u t . ^ C f . f o r example h i s " C a n t i q u e . . . aus Poetes de ce Temps" ( E n c y c l i e , p . 189) : Je vous p r i de penser que l a douceur du son Ne se d o i t pas nommer l 'Ame de l a chanson. 18 For the F i c i n i a n cosmology based on a e s t h e t i c a n a l y s e s , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , p p . 57-63, and K r i s t e l l e r , P h i l o s o p h y , pp . 60-73 . 19 " C o n s e i l " or d i v i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e i s r e l a t e d i n P o s t e l l i a n exeges is to the f i g u r e of C h r i s t the M e d i a t o r . S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 33, c i t e s P o s t e l : " . . . 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e de l a nature e n t i e r e , q u i e s t l ' A n g e du grand c o n s e i l en v e r i t e comme dans l a t r a d i t i o n de l ' E g l i s e , q u i a l ' h a b i t u d e de chanter a l a messe de Noel s e l o n l a t r a d u c t i o n des Septante : 'Un enfant nous es t ne , et un f i l s nous a e te donne: i l s ' a p p e l l e r a l ' A n g e du grand c o n s e i l ( I s . I X , 6 ) . ' " 152 20 A c c o r d i n g to the pseudo-Berosus , the G a l l i c H e r c u l e s was Gomer, the founder of France a f t e r the F l o o d . La Boder ie r e l a t e s the l i n e of French k i n g s to h i m . C f . h i s " D i s c o u r s " to the Due d ' A l e n c o n , E n c y c l i e , p . 221: Car Japhet f u t A t l a s , e t l ' H e r c u l e G a u l o i s Fut l e G a u l o i s Gomer q u i nous donna ses L o y s . Comme done vous p o r t e z l ' i l l u s t r e nom d ' H e r c u l e . . . . 21 For the s i g n i f i c a n c e of U r a n i e to La Boder ie as d i s c i p l e of P o s t e l , see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 29-34. A c c o r d i n g to P o s t e l ' s d i s t o r t e d etymology, the " e m i t h o l o g i e " by which he c la imed to d i s c o v e r the t rue sense of a name, " U r a n i e " i s d e r i v e d from " O r " meaning l i g h t and " A r o n " s i g n i f y i n g the a r c . C f . F r a n c o i s S e c r e t , " L ' E m i t h o l o g i e de Gui l laume P o s t e l , " Umanesimo e e s o t e r i s m o , A t t i d e l V . Convegno I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i U m a n i s t i c i (Padova: Cedam, 1960), p p . 381-427. U r a n i e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P l a t o n i c concept o f the World S o u l as i t i s made to r e l a t e to the f i r s t - c r e a t e d I n t e l l i g e n c e , "Sagesse" or "Sapience" i n C h r i s t the M e d i a t o r , the Word of God. This a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d i n the G a l l i a d e , f o l . 36: A i n s i 1 ' a v o i t a p p r i s Noach l e p a t r i a r c h e Qui a v o i t a v e q ' l u y l e P a v i l i o n et l ' A r c h e De l a D i v i n i t g , Genie u n i v e r s e l , Et des faces l e P r i n c e , Ange du grand C o n s e i l . Secret concludes tha t U r a n i e i s thus f o r La Boder ie more s i g n i f i c a n t than the " d i v i n i t e t u t e T a i r e des chantres du C h r i s t " suggested by Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard , p . 268. 22 e H e n r i Weber, La C r e a t i o n poe t ique au XVI s i e c l e en France , de Maur ice Sceve a A g r i p p a d 'Aubigne ( P a r i s : N i z e t , 1955) , p . 112, p o i n t s out the importance to the Pythagoreans of s e c r e t and s o l i t a r y p l a c e s f a v o r a b l e to the i n s p i r a t i o n of the i n i t i a t e who would enter i n t o a magic contac t w i t h the s e c r e t forces of the u n i v e r s e . The c u l t o f the Muses i n c l a s s i c a l mythology was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h caves and s o l i t a r y f o u n t a i n s . 23 Schmidt , Pogs ie s c i e n t i f i q u e , p . 187, emphasizes the o r i g i n a l i t y of La B o d e r i e ' s p s y c h o l o g y . Whereas i n Sceve 's e m p i r i c a l v iew man had been p o r t r a y e d as u s i n g h i s s t r e n g t h and i n g e n u i t y i n l i n e a r progress toward d i v i n i s a t i o n , i n L a B o d e r i e ' s work he possesses from b i r t h the g i f t o f d i v i n e i d e a s , and thus must r e t u r n i n a c i r c u l a r p r o g r e s s i o n to h i s o r i g i n a l d i v i n i t y . See a l s o L a B o d e r i e ' s analogy of the d i v i n e l y - w r i t t e n t a b l e s of the law w i t h the d i v i n e l y - g r a n t e d i n n a t e i d e a s , E n c y c l i e , p . 140: . . . ces p e t i t s f e u s , ou n o t i o n s p r e m i e r e s , Ces pr^ceptes ennez, ces p e t i t e s l u m i e r e s , Que Nature l e d o i g t d u Tout -bon , e t Tout -beau, Vous e s c r i p t dedans l 'Ame a i n s i qu 'en un T a b l e a u . 153 La B o d e r i e ' s concept i s r e l a t e d to the F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s ' i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n of the myths of Prometheus and H e r c u l e s . See C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 173-175. 24 For the a s s o c i a t i o n of wisdom and v i r t u e i n Renaissance thought and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Ronsard 's precepts f o r the p o e t , see H . F r a n c h e t , Le Poete et son oeuvre d 'apres Ronsard ( P a r i s : S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1969, c l 9 2 3 ) , p p . 43-113, 147-175. 25 C f . K r i s t e l l e r , P h i l o s o p h y , p p . 146-170, and C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e  F i c i n e t l ' a r t , pp . 81-85, f o r F i c i n o ' s concept of the primum i n  a l i q u o genere a c c o r d i n g to which each of the degrees of b e i n g i s dominated by a primum which guards i t . 26 For the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s concept to tha t of the "garment of s t y l e " and to the N e o - P l a t o n i s t acceptance of the image as embodiment as w e l l as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an i d e a , see below p . 225, n 27 Schmidt , P o e s i e s c i e n t i f i q u e , pp . 187-188, compares t h i s new metamorphosis of Nature as d i v i n e to the p o e t ' s d i v i n i s a t i o n of man through the n o t i o n of i n n a t e ideas e l a b o r a t e d i n the T h i r d and Four th C i r c l e s . He i n d i c a t e s the resemblance of t h i s concept of Nature to the O r p h i c cosmic E r o s . For L a B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Orphic "Hymn to N a t u r e " see below p . 99. 28 For R a b e l a i s ' s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n to the concept of an immanent / t ranscendent God as found i n N e o - P l a t o n i s t and e s p e c i a l l y K a b b a l i s t w r i t i n g s , see M a s t e r s , R a b e l a i s i a n D i a l e c t i c and the P l a t o n i c - Hermetic T r a d i t i o n , p . 6. 29 C f . S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, p p . 32-33. For the F i c i n i a n cosmology, "une i n t e r p r e t a t i o n rad ica lement ' s y m b o l i q u e ' des f a i t s p h y s i q u e s , " i n which the a e s t h e t i c s of l i g h t dominates , see C h a s t e l , M a r c e l F i c i n et l ' a r t , p p . 81-85. 30 The P l a t o n i c anima mundi m o t i v a t i n g the " S e r e i n e s " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c e l e s t i a l spheres p o r t r a y s the d i v i n e power immanent i n c r e a t i o n . U r a n i e thus suggests that the " S e c r e t a i r e , " l i k e the p o e t , must a d j u s t h i s v i s i o n to surpass the l i g h t of d i s c u r s i v e reason i n order to be equal to the b l i n d i n g l i g h t of m y s t i c a l e c s t a s y . C f . F i c i n o ' s metaphysics of l i g h t e x p l a i n e d i n C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n et l ' a r t , p p . 81-85. 154 32 La B o d e r i e , i n h i s cho ice of the Tabernacle as the symbol which embodies d i v i n e c r e a t i o n , may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the F i c i n i a n analogy between the church e d i f i c e and the d i v i n e l y - c r e a t e d " temple du monde." See C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p . 59. 33 U r a n i e ' s e x p l a n a t i o n i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to an argument adapted by Jamyn from Leone Ebreo f o r a Pa lace Academy debate . See Y a t e s , French Academies, p . 143. 34 See below p p . 214 f f . 35 For f u r t h e r re ferences to v e i l e d t r u t h , see D i v e r s e s meslanges. f o l 2 6 r ; E n c v c l i e . p . 134; G a l l i a d e . f o l . 4 8 r - 4 9 v , 1 1 2 v - 1 1 3 r . 36 C f . Wind, Pagan m y s t e r i e s , p p . 25 f f . 37 C f . the P o s t e l l i a n " e m i t h o l o g i e " of "amour" f o r C h r i s t as the means to redemption, E n c y c l i e , p p . 130-131. 38 See above p p . 18-26. 39 C f . above pp 54, n . 55 . 40 In h i s E n c y c l i e , p . 5 , La Boder ie s t a t e s tha t the major p a r t of t h i s work was completed as e a r l y as 1568. 41 C f . La B o d e r i e ' s " C a n t i q u e a mondit S e i g n e u r . l e Due [d 'Alencon] pour Estrenes l ' A n 1569 , " E n c y c l i e , p . 241: Viene donques b i e n t o s t l e temps que j e s o u h a i t e , E t me rendre m e i l l e u r Prophete que Po'ete. 42 ., e L e o n t i n e Z a n t a , La Renaissance du s toxcisme au XVI s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Champion, 1914), p p . 129, 132-133. 43 S e c r e t , "Humanisme f l o r e n t i n , " p . 107. 44 S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, p . 24. 45 For summary s t u d i e s of the work see Henry H o r n i c k , "Guy Le Fevre de La B o d e r i e ' s L a G a l l i a d e and Renaissance S y n c r e t i s m , " Modern Language  Notes , LXXVI (1961) , p p . 735-742; Schmidt , Pogs ie s c i e n t i f i q u e , p p . 190-209; and S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 123-152. 155 46 Y a t e s , French Academies, p . 14, remarks tha t Dorat c o n t r i b u t e d a s e t of c o n g r a t u l a t o r y verses f o r almost every book of importance p u b l i s h e d i n France i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 47 See L u c i e n Febvre , Au coeur r e l i g i e u x du se iz ieme s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Sevpen, 1957), p p . 281-287. C f . a l s o Schmidt ' s comment ( i n PoCs ie  s c i e n t i f i q u e , p . 209) on L a B o d e r i e ' s c h a u v i n i s m ; " c e t t e tendance a improuver l a d e i f i c a t i o n d 'Athenes e t de Rome, au nom d'une hypothe t ique t r a d i t i o n b i b l i q u e e t g a u l o i s e . " 48 For a d d i t i o n a l connota t ions of the term a c c o r d i n g to P o s t e l ' s " e m i t h o l o g i e " see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 125. The name i s r e l a t e d to the descendants of Noah as " G a l l i , r e t i r e des o n d e s . " I t i m p l i e s a l s o the r e s t i t u t i o n prophes ied i n " ' l a G a l l i a ou G a l u y a h , c ' e s t - a -d i r e chose decouverte e t es levee vers l e c i e l ' " as w e l l as the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h r i s t the Archetype represented by the f i n a l " H e " of the Tetragrammaton i n " l a G a l e o r i a , l a g l o i r e , r e v e l a t i o n de l a l u m i e r e supreme et i n f i n i e , partage du peuple g a l l i q u e q u i a retenue l e premier nom de l ' u n i v e r s . " 49 For the F i c i n i a n concept of the b a s i c u n i t y of a l l the a r t s and sc iences and of t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n i n the " g o l d e n age" of the Renaissance , see C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 61 , 174. C f . G a l l i a d e , f o l . 6 9 r . 50 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 125, notes the importance of P o s t e l ' s theme of " l a Gomerie, ' l a consommation de t o u t , " 1 r e l a t e d to the name of Gomer, son of J aphet , o r i g i n a l founder of France and ances tor of a l l French k i n g s . See above p . 152, n . 20. F . Godefroy , D i c t i o n n a i r e de l ' a n c i e n n e langue f r a n c a i s e . . . , ( P a r i s , 1888; Vaduz: Klaus R e p r i n t , 1965) , v o l . 5 , p . 54, g i v e s : " L U S , l u z , s . f . , l u m i e r e . " D i v i n e i l l u m i n a t i o n or r e v e l a t i o n i s s a i d to have been granted f i r s t to I s r a e l . 52 53 54 55 Schmidt , P o e s i e s c i e n t i f i q u e , p p . 260, 199. C f . below pp. 165 f f . See above pp. 14-15. T h i s image was used by F i c i n o to represent the s p a t i a l u n i v e r s e . I t was a l s o o f t e n adopted, w i t h the m o d i f i c a t i o n of. added w i n g s , as an image of temporal r e v o l u t i o n . See C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , 156 p . 72, and Gombrich, " Icones s y m b o l i c a e , " p . 172. C f . E r w i n P a n o f s k y , S tudies In Icor io logy: Humanis t i c Themes i n the A r t of. the Renaissance (New Y o r k : Harper and Row, 1967, c l 9 3 9 ) , p l . X X I I , XXXIV. 56 Don Cameron A l l e n , The Legend of Noah: Renaissance R a t i o n a l i s m  i n A r t , S c i e n c e , and L e t t e r s (Urbana, 1 1 1 . : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1963), pp . 113-137. C f . Du B a r t a s ' treatment of the theme i n h i s Seconde Semaine and Lemaire des B e i g e s 1 Les I l l u s t r a t i o n s de  Gaule e t s i n g u l a r i t e z de Trdye . Annius of V i t e r b o p u b l i s h e d i n 1498 h i s Commentaria super opera  d iversorum auctorum de a n t i q u i t a t i b u s . I t c o n t a i n s a forged h i s t o r y of Babylon from the time of Noah which p u r p o r t s to be tha t of Berosus , a h i s t o r i c a l p r i e s t of B a b y l o n . The work i n c l u d e s an account of Gomer, the m y t h i c a l founder of G a u l . For a b r i e f account of t h i s work , see A l l e n , Legend of Noah, p p . 114-115. 5 8 For adumbrations of the f i g u r e of Noah as Prometheus, S a t u r n , Ogyges, D e u c a l i o n , Janus , H e r c u l e s , G a l l u s , S o l , e t c . , see i b i d . , p . 83 . 59 For an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s P o s t e l l i a n theme of h e r m a p h r o d i t i c metempsychosis , see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 130. 60 The K a b b a l i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i v i s i o n s i n t o f o u r , f i v e , seven and seventy- two as w e l l as the twelve of the Zodiac i s t r e a t e d i n the Second C i r c l e of the G a l l i a d e , f o l . 3 6 v - 3 7 v . For the m u l t i p l e va lency of the number s e v e n t y - t w o , see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 130-133. 61 Schmidt , P o e s i e s c i e n t i f i q u e , p . 197, remarks: " R i e n n ' e s t mieux propre que ce passage a montrer combien 1 ' i m p l a c a b l e determinisme a s t r a l des Ronsard et des P e l e t i e r peut e t r e extenue par une s o r t e de kabbale p l a t o n i c i e n n e dont l e s modes i n f l u e n c e n t toute l a p o e s i e s c i e n t i f i q u e de l a f i n de l a Renaissance f r a n c a i s e . " 6 2 See above p p . 78-79. 6 3 A m a r g i n a l note r e f e r s to a l e t t e r from Erasmus to Bude i n which Erasmus d e c l a r e s H o l l a n d to be a p a r t of G a u l . ^ 4 A l though La B o d e r i e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r e . i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u l t i s m and magic , i t s i d e a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l L a B o d e r i e ' s themes can be understood i n the context o f e x p o s i t i o n s of u n i v e r s a l harmony common to T y a r d ' s d i a l o g u e s on music and P h i l i b e r t de l ' O r m e ' s t r e a t i s e on a r c h i t e c t u r e . See Y a t e s , French Academies, p . 140, and C f . C h a s t e l , M a r s i l e F i c i n e t l ' a r t , p p . 57-59, 64, 77, n . 3 . 99-106. 157 65 For the c o n t r a s t of L a B o d e r i e ' s " s c i e n t i f i c " thought w i t h t h a t of o ther poets of the French Renaissance , see Schmidt , P o e s i e s c i e n t i f i q u e , p . 198. See a l s o above p . 152, n . 23. 66 For the P o s t e l l i a n a s s o c i a t i o n of these terms w i t h C h r i s t , see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 33. For medieva l typology of Noah, see A l l e n , Legend of Noah, p . 139. ^ For the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Z a r f e t i e l , see S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 130. For La B o d e r i e ' s use of the theme of P a r i s as the new Jerusa lem, see below p p . 163 f f . 6 8 For an account of these " c l a s s i c a l " Renaissance a r t i s t s and a r c h i t e c t s , see Anthony B l u n t , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n F r a n c e , 1500- 1700 (London: P e n g u i n , 1953) , p p . 37-72. 69 C f . the account of F i c i n o ' s p r a i s e of the p h i l o s o p h e r - p o e t - p r i e s t i n K r i s t e l l e r , P h i l o s o p h y of M a r s i l i o F i c i n o , p p . 309-323. ^ C f . P i c o , La Harangue de l a d i g n i t e de 1'homme, t r . Guy Le Fevre de L a Boder ie ( P a r i s , 1578), p p . 381-399. ^ C f . Gombrich, " Icones s y m b o l i c a e , " p . 167. 72 A m a r g i n a l note i d e n t i f i e s the etymology of " R a z e n u i n s " who " f u r e n t a i n s i d i t s de R a z i n , q u i s i g n i f i e s e c r e t s , e t de Jenun, q u i s i g n i f i e p r o p a g a t e u r s , comme propagateurs de s e c r e t s . " La Boder ie r e f e r s i n t h i s passage to the pseudo-Berosus . 73 The seven means of p r o p h e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d i n the G a l l i a d e , f o l . 5 9 v - 6 6 v . 74 See Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard , p . 70. ^ Y a t e s , French Academies, pp . 43-44, 56 , 66, 140, makes the p o i n t tha t the Fourth and F i f t h C i r c l e s of the G a l l i a d e show L a B o d e r i e ' s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B a i f ' s Academy of Poe t ry and Music founded i n 1570. That r e l a t i o n s h i p i s apparent e s p e c i a l l y i n the concept of music as an "image of the E n c y c l o p a e d i a , " i n the h i s t o r i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n which c o n s i d e r s the G a l l i c Bards r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a n c i e n t m u s i c , and above a l l i n the emphasis l a i d on the m o r a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l " e f f e c t s " of p o e t r y and music seen as i n d i s s o l u b l y a l l i e d . 158 76 For a f u l l a n a l y s i s of the H e l l e n i s t i c and medieval C h r i s t i a n development of c l a s s i c a l P l a t o n i c and Pythagorean t h e o r i e s on m u s i c a l harmony, see S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, pp. 5-63 . 77 o f The n o t i o n tha t p r e l a p s a r i a n man could hear the m u s i c A t h e spheres i s r e l a t e d to the P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e that l e a r n i n g i s the r e c a l l i n g of p r e n a t a l l y known t r u t h a c c o r d i n g to which the human s o u l heard b e f o r e i t s b i r t h , but has s i n c e f o r g o t t e n , the cosmic harmony i m p e r c e p t i b l e to earthbound senses . The l e a r n e d p o e t - m u s i c i a n was o f t e n supposed, i n the Renaissance , to p e r c e i v e that harmony. C f . E t ienne J o d e l l e ' s " C h a p i t r e en faveur d ' O r l a n d e [de Lassus] e x c e l l e n t m u s i c i e n , " c i t e d i n R. V . M e r r i l l and R. Clements , P l a t o n i s m i n French Renaissance P o e t r y (New Y o r k : New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957) , p . 20. 78 C f . below pp. 169-178. 79 C f . S p i t z e r , C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, pp. 24, 127-132. 80 81 82 83 C f . i b i d . , p . 135. See Weber, C r e a t i o n p o g t i q u e , p p . 109-111. See Wind, Pagan M y s t e r i e s , p p . 17-25. For a s tudy of Pontus de T y a r d ' s importance i n B a ' i f ' s Academy w i t h regard to the concept of the un ion of poet ry and music and the " e f f e c t s " which were to gained thereby , see Y a t e s , French Academies, p p . 77-94. 84 N i c o l a s D e n i s o t , f o r whose name the Count of A l s i n o i s i s an anagram, e x e r c i s e d the a r t s of p a i n t i n g , music and p o e t r y . He was a f r i e n d of Ronsard and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B a i f ' s Academy. For h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Academy of Poe t ry and Music and f o r h i s c o m p o s i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n hymns of the Counter R e f o r m a t i o n , see Y a t e s , . French  Academies, p p . 19, 192, and Weber, C r e a t i o n p o e t i q u e , p p . 136, 151. 85 The s i s t e r of F r a n c i s I , author of the Heptameron, was p r o b a b l y admired by La Boder ie p r i n c i p a l l y because of the N e o - P l a t o n i s t elements i n her p o e t r y . The s i s t e r of Henry I I I , w i f e of the f u t u r e Henry IV of F r a n c e , was a member of the Pa lace Academy and a p p a r e n t l y w e l l -d i sposed to La B o d e r i e . See below p . 192, n . 26. 159 86 These m u s i c i a n s were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B a ' i f ' s Academy. See Y a t e s , French Academies, p p . 19-20, 56. 8 7 C f . below p . 220. 88 Cave, D e v o t i o n a l -Poetry, pp . 74-75, a f f i r m s t h a t t h i s work "must have made a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the growth of r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . " In i b i d . , p p . 249-251, he comments on a t r a n s l a t i o n from Sannazaro of a poem on the p a s s i o n , tha t " i t would be unwise to a t t r i b u t e to i t any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e i n the shaping of the poet ry of the coming g e n e r a t i o n ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which w i l l soon become widespread i n French r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . " 89 C f . Y a t e s , French Academies, p p . 23-25, 36-42, 70-71, f o r a comparable purpose i n the f o r m a t i o n of B a i f ' s Academy of Poe t ry and Mus i c . 90 S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 101-102. 91 See above p . 45 . 92 For the theme of the l i f e of C h r i s t i n the growing body of d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e a t the end of the s i x t e e n t h century i n F r a n c e , see Cave, D e v o t i o n a l P o e t r y , pp . 48-57. 93 94 95 96 97 See Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard, p . 273. See S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p p . 103-110. See below pp. 163 f f . See Y a t e s , French Academies, p p . 34-35, 175-176, The poems i n h i s D i v e r s e s meslanges poet iques which r e f e r to La B o d e r i e ' s own l i f e i n c l u d e : "Le Tombeau de nobles e t ver tueux Gentilz-hommes A n t o i n e V a u q u e l i n . . . et P i e r r e l e Fevre de l a B o d e r i e " ( f o l . 2 r f f . ) , " A Monsieur de C r o i s m a r e , P r i n c e du Puy a Roan. Graces de l ' A u t h e u r pour l a Palme obtenue a u d i t Puy" ( f o l . 48 f f . ) , " L ' E p i t a f e de l ' A u t h e u r q u ' i l f e i s t e s t a n t f o r t malade, et pensant mour i r a L o u v a i n " ( f o l . 1 9 v f f . ) , and " E l e g i e . A l a B o d e r i e l i e u de na issance de l ' A u t h e u r " ( f o l . 6 2 r f f ) . 160 98 The poems i n h i s D i v e r s e s meslanges poSt iques which t r e a t of the a u t h o r ' s purpose i n c l u d e : a sonnet ( f o l . l v ) , " D i s c o u r s presentee a Monseigneur f r e r e du Roy, l ' A u t h e u r e s t a n t revenu de F l a n d r e s " ( f o l . 2 5 v f f . ) , "Ode a une personne desvoyee, a f i n de l ' i n d u i r e a r e t o u r n e r a l ' E g l i s e C a t h o l i q u e " ( f o l . 3 1 r f f . ) , " A C a l l i o p e " ( f o l . 3 7 r ) , and a s e r i e s of s o n n e t s , "Ce n ' e s t pas moy . . . " ( f o l . 107 v f f . ) . 99 See Enea Balmas, Un Poeta d e l Rinasc imento f r a n c e s e , E t ienne  J o d e l l e : l a sua v i t a , i l suo tempo, B i b l i o t e c a d e l l ' "Archivum Romanicum," S e r i e I , v o l . 66 ( F i r e n z e : O l s c h k i , 1962) , p p . 687-691. C f . La B o d e r i e ' s use of the quaternary i n a sonnet c e l e b r a t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the P o l y g l o t B i b l e of A n v e r s , " A u Roy C a t h o l i q u e [ P h i l i p I I of S p a i n ] , sur l ' i m p r e s s i o n des grandes B i b l e s d ' A n v e r s " : L'Homme, l e f o r t L i o n , l e Boeuf et l ' A i g l e en p o i n t e , M a t h i e u , M a r c , L u c , et Jean ores vont accordant L ' O r i e n t , l e M i d i , Le North e t l ' O c c i d e n t , Et N a t u r e , et l a L o y , Grace e t R a i s o n c o n j o i n t e . N i n u s , C y r e , A l e x a n d r e , e t Cesar l e p l u s c o i n t e Ont es te renversez du c h a r i o t a r d e n t : Le C h a l d e , P e r s e , e t Grec , e t l e Rommain prudent Ont cede a l ' A g n e a u q u i a D i e u nous a p o i n t e . Ores l ' A i g l e , e t l e Beuf , e t l e L i o n , e t l'Homme Par l ' H e b r i e u , S y r i e n , G r e c , e t p a r l e r de Romme D ' O c c i d e n t e t du N o r t h , du M i d i e t L e v a n t ; De l ' E u r o p e , e t d ' A s i e , A f r i q u e e t A t l a n t i d e Vont c u e i l l i r l e s E leus du grand Dieu q u i p r e s i d e , En R a i s o n , Grace , Loy et Nature e s c r i v a n t . ( E n c y c l i e , p . 246) See S e c r e t , E s o t e r i s m e , p . 126. 102 Weber, "Y a - t - i l une poes ie h e r m e t i q u e , " p . 54, has a n a l y z e d th s e r i e s of f o u r as f o l l o w s : "Malgre l e s apparences , ce sonnet e s t r e l a t i v e m e n t c l a i r , l e c h i f f r e 4 permet de rassembler l e s d i f f e r e n t s elements c o n s t i t u t i f s de l a v i e r e l i g i e u s e , de l a nature humaine, e t de l ' u n i v e r s : l e s quatre p o i n t s c a r d i n a u x , l e s quatre l i v r e s de l ' A n c i e n Testament, correspondant aux quatre sens de l ' E c r i t u r e , l e s quatre elements de l a nature humaine, c o r p s , ame ( p r i n c i p e v i t a l ) , E s p r i t ( v e h i c u l e p a s s i f de l a Connaissance) e t Pensee ( v e h i c u l e a c t i f ) . P u i s l e s quatre elements t r a d i t i o n n e l s de l a nature physique auxquels correspondent l e s quatre f l e u v e s du P a r a d i s t e r r e s t r e , en f i n l e s quatre E v a n g i l e s avec l e s quatre animaux t r a d i t i o n n e l s , l e s quatre degres de b e a t i t u d e c e l e s t e avec l e s quatre p l a n t e s symboliques q u i l e u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t . " 161 103 C f . Y a t e s , French Academies, p p . 159-176. See a l s o Cave, D e v o t i o n a l P o e t r y , p . 300. 104 C f . below pp. 163 f f . C f . Raymond, I n f l u e n c e de Ronsard, p . 272. See H e n r i Bremond, H i s t o i r e du sentiment r e l i g i e u x en France  depuis l a f i n des guerres de l a r e l i g i o n j u s q u ' a nos j o u r s , I I v o l s , ( P a r i s : B loud et Gay, 1916). See a l s o Cave, D e v o t i o n a l P o e t r y , p p . 294-309. 162 CHAPTER IV THEMATIC CONTENT OF THE WORKS: TRANSLATIONS La Boder ie undertook a l l h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s w i t h the aim of s e r v i n g h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , and e s p e c i a l l y the " d o c t e s " humanists among t h e m . 1 The themes r e l a t e p r i n c i p a l l y to a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of d i v e r s e r e l i g i o u s concepts i n the t r a d i t i o n of the s y n c r e t i z i n g F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s , or to P o s t e l l i a n m i l l e n a r i a n p r e d i c t i o n s . A . LE TRAICTE DU NOUVEAU COMETE The appearance over P a r i s i n November 1572 of a new comet was the o c c a s i o n f o r L a B o d e r i e ' s f i r s t p r o p h e t i c work i n the s p i r i t of h i s master P o s t e l . With h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1574, of the Traicte"  du nouveau comete . . . by the Spanish h e b r a ' i c i s t and mathematic ian 163 J . Mugnoz, L a Boder ie p u b l i s h e d h i s "Cant ique s u r l a n o u v e l l e E s t o i l l e , ou Apparence Lumineuse q u i s ' e s t monstree au C i e l depuis l ' o n z e ou douzieme de Novembre 1572, jusques a present 20. de J a n v i e r 1574 . " In t h i s l o n g poem h i s compatr io ts are admonished to prepare f o r r e s t i t u t i o n to t h e i r o r i g i n a l wholeness and p u r i t y a t the second coming of C h r i s t , and P a r i s i s p r a i s e d as the new Jerusalem and seat of the u n i v e r s a l , 2 monarch. The great comet was cons idered the phenomenon of the age by f i g u r e s as d i v e r s e as the astronomer Tycho Brahe; the P r o t e s t a n t Theodore de Beze; and a p r o f e s s o r of mathematics at the C o l l e g e des l e c t e u r s 3 royaux , C o r n e l i u s Gemma (1535-1578) . For the l a t t e r two the comet was a s i g n a l of a new coming of C h r i s t ; f o r Gui l laume P o s t e l i t was a c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s m i l l e n a r i a n and n a t i o n a l prophec ies c o n c e r n i n g the new age of man to be founded by 4 h i m s e l f as "Pape A n g e l i k e " and by the French k i n g as u n i v e r s a l monarch. P o s t e l ' s " g m i t h o l o g i e " p e r m i t t e d him to d e r i v e Casso ipaea , the c o n -s t e l l a t i o n i n which the new comet appeared, from Cus , . engendered by Ham i n Noah's A r c i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the law of a b s t i n e n c e . Cus was thus the legendary f o r e f a t h e r not o n l y of a l l the d a r k - s k i n n e d A f r i c a n s marked by Noah's curse but a l s o of the d a r k - s o u l e d t y r a n t s of the Monarchies about whom D a n i e l had p r o p h e s i e d . The appearance of the new s t a r i n tha t c o n s t e l l a t i o n s i g n i f i e d that the r e i g n of C h r i s t " I n t r a Nos"^ was to succeed the former r e i g n of the t y r a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y inasmuch as the new s t a r j u s t preceded the seventh and supposedly f i n a l great c o n j u n c t i o n which was to occur i n the s i g n of A r i e s s i g n i f y i n g a renewal 164 of r e i g n s . The appearance of the new comet i s thus l i n k e d w i t h the K a b b a l i s t i c theme of the Great J u b i l e e , the Great Sabbath whose date P o s t e l c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to E l i j a h ' s prophecy of the 6000 years of the w o r l d , as i n 1581. La Boder ie s t r e s s e s t h i s P o s t e l l i a n prophecy. A p r e l i m i n a r y sonnet addressed to " M . Desprez , C a p p i t a i n e des Enfans de P a r i s " 7 j u s t i f i e s the r e a d i n g of c e l e s t i a l phenomena as s i g n s of God's w i l l , a s s i g n i n g to man the c o s m o l o g i c a l r o l e suggested i n P i c o ' s o r a t i o n on the d i g n i t y of man: D ' a u t a n t que Dieu a mis 1'homme en ce temple rond A i n s i comme au m i l i e u , a f i n q u ' i l y contemple Sa haute M a j e s t e , l ' o u v r i e r e de ce temple , Et l e s e f f e t s d i v e r s q u i de nouveau s ' y f o n t Et l e sage i c y has es t G r e f f i e r de n a t u r e . ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) Another sonnet j u s t i f i e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of heavenly " s i g n s " by r e f e r e n c e to Orpheus and the d o c t r i n e of v e i l e d t r u t h , w h i l e a f f i r m i n g once more L a B o d e r i e ' s d e s i r e to serve h i s people by showing the way to a harmony of i n t e r e s t s : On d i e t que l e premier Orfee e n t r e l e s Grecs A remarque du C i e l l e s Signes et images Lesquels i l a v o y l e z dessous obscurs nuages Pour ne p r o f a n e r p o i n t au peuple ses s e c r e t z : Pource quand i l f u t mort avec t r i s t e s r e g r e t s On m i s t sa L y r e au c i e l , e t a i n s i qu 'aux ombrages E l l e a v o i t f a i t danser boys et bestes saulvages A i n s i f e i s t e l l ' b a i l e r l e s A s t r e s par degrez . Avec l ' A s t r e nouAtau de nouveau peust Orfee Sous l a L y r e a sept tons de sept n e r f s es to fee S i b i e n mener cy bas l e s hommes a l a danse Qu'ayans d ' e n t r e eux c h a s s e ' l e s no i ses et d i s c o r s Et du Phebus d i v i n entendans l e s accors I l s peussent tous d ' u n pas v e n i r a l a cadance. L ' U N GUIDE ORFEE ( T r a i c t g , n . p . ) 165 The "Cant ique s u r l a n o u v e l l e E s t o i l l e " r e c a l l s the s t a r which announced to the three k ings the f i r s t i n c a r n a t i o n of C h r i s t . I t i s seen as a p r e f i g u r a t i o n of the new s t a r which announces to the three g French p r i n c e s the second coming of C h r i s t i n the h e a r t of every man, f o r every man was to be r e s t o r e d to h i s o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d i v i n e A r c h e t y p e : J a d i s en Perse apparut a t r o i s Roys Un A s t r e neuf , q u i par d i v e r s endro is Les amena d r o i t a l a propre p l a c e Ou e s t o i t ng l e doux autheur de grace : Et maintenant a nos P r i n c e s tous t r o i s D ' u n r o y a l coeur f i l s e t f r e r e s de Roys Se monstre au C i e l un A s t r e q u i d o i t e s t r e Signe c e r t a i n que Jesus C h r i s t veut n a i s t r e Dedans noz c o e u r s , e t comme n o s t r e Chef Son Tabernacle y p l a n t e r derechef Logeant en nous sa l u m i e r e fdconde L ' A s t r e nouveau q u i redore l e Monde. ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) L a Boder ie uses the o c c a s i o n to r e f u t e A r i s t o t e l i a n p h y s i c s : S i l e s Cieux sont d 'une essence e t e r n e l l e Sy p e u t - i l f a i r e une E s t o i l l e n o u v e l l e ? ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) and to o f f e r a more p o e t i c image c u l l e d from the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a : N ' a u r o i t p o i n t l i e u 1 ' o p i n i o n des v i e u x Peres C a l d e z , q u i racontent qu'aux Cieux Y a des t r o u s , par ou l e s Anges dardent Flammes de f e u aux yeux q u i l e s regardent? ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) But h i s main theme i s the P o s t e l l i a n prophecy of the new r e i g n of peace under a French k i n g d i v i n e l y d e s t i n e d to l e a d h i s people d i v i n e l y e l e c t e d to complete the h i s t o r i c a l c i r c l e of the chosen t r i b e s of I s r a e l i n a r e t u r n of humanity to God: 166 Le nouve l A s t r e es t d ' u n regne nouveau Le Signe heureux, regne p a i s l b l e et beau Dessous l e q u e l l a h a u l t e H i e r a r c h i e R e p l a n t e r a cy bas l a Monarehie Du Roy des Roys, quand l u y de tout va inqueur A u r a fiche" son A s t r e dans l e coeur D ' u n peuple e l e u , . . . Le C i e l nouveau et l a n o u v e l l e Terre Que v i d j a d i s l ' u n des f i l s du Tonnerre Es t l e beau C i e l q u i 1 ' e s p r i t me r a v i t Le P a v i l i o n redresse de David En t e r r e v i e r g e , ou e c l a i r e e t habonde L ' A s t r e nouveau q u i redore l e Monde. ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) The comet over P a r i s des ignates i t as the new Jerusa lem: L ' A s t r e nouveau q u i tout nouvel lement S ' e s t demonstre l u y s a n t au firmament Demonstre encor l a s a i n t e C i t e b e l l e Qui v i e n t de D i e u , JERUSALEM n o u v e l l e . ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) I t s appearance s h o u l d be a spur to the French monarch's r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s r o l e : 0 toy q u i es de l a C i t e f lambeau, 0 des E s p r i t s l e S o l e i l t r o i s f o i s beau Qui de tes r a i z entoures ton E g l i s e , Fay que mon Roy au C i e l son A s t r e e l i s e , Qui l e remene avec tous ses Soudars C r o i s e z a b l a n c p l a n t e r l e s Estendars Dessus l e s murs de l a grand v i l l e s a i n c t e Ou l a C i t e en l u m i e r e depe in te Se d e c o u v r i t dedans l ' a i r maintes f o i s Auparavant q u ' o n eust ouy l e s v o i x Des Anges s a i n t s d i sans en compagnie Cherchon a i l l e u r s une C i t e b e n i e P a r i s sans p a i r s o i t l a s a i n t e C i t e S o i t son p o u v o i r tant du C i e l e x c i t e Qu'en tout l e Rond l a v i c t o i r e en redonde Sous 1 ' A s t r e neuf q u i redore l e Monde. ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) There f o l l o w admonit ions to the p o e t ' s contemporar ies : 167 D & p o u i l l e z done l e v i e l homme cache Et s u r v e s t e z 1'Homme nouveau cache Qui chacun j o u r p l u s beau se r e n o u v e l l e Tant p l u s en Dieu sa cognoissance es t b e l l e . Chassez-moy done toutes v i e i l l e s humeurs, Et vous ornez tous de n o u v e l l e s meurs P r i n c e s , P r e l a t s , P r e s t r e s , Peuple e t P o l i c e , Et a t t i r e z du h a u l t C i e l l a j u s t i c e Pour s u r - v e s t i r sur v o s t r e n u d i t e . ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) La B o d e r i e ' s p r e d i c a t i o n i s addressed e s p e c i a l l y to the k i n g whose r o l e i n the body p o l i t i c i s l i k e t h a t of the c o n s c i e n c e , m o o n - l i k e " m i r o i r de l ' a m e " i n the microcosm. He i s c a l l e d upon to embrace j u s t i c e i n d e v o t i o n to God's purpose i n order to s h i n e i n the w o r l d w i t h the i n f u s e d s o l a r g l o r y of the K i n g of k i n g s : Et vous mon Roy, q u i avec l e S o l e i l De l a P r e s t r i s e estes l e second o e i l Du corps m y s t i c , e t du C i e l o r d i n a i r e L a b e l l e Lune, et moindre L u m i n a i r e , Redonnez-nous en ces te o b s c u r i t e De tous e s t a t s l a premiere c l a r t e Que dedans vous l e S o l e i l de J u s t i c e Se l e v e t o s t , a f f i n q u ' i l e c l a r c i s s e Toute v o s t r e Ame en p a r f a i c t e Rondeur Pour redonner a l a t e r r e s p l e n d e u r . 0 s ' i l a d v i e n t que par a f f e c t i o n La Lune a r r i v e a l a C o n j u n c t i o n Du grand S o l e i l , et que v o s t r e Ame epo in te D ' u n s a i n t amour au Roy d'Amour s o i t j o i n t e , La Lune a l o r s aura mesme sp lendeur Que l a sp lendeur du S o l e i l p l e i n d ' a r d e u r , Et du S o l e i l l a c l a r t e r e p l i e e Septante f o i s s e r a m u l t i p l i e e : Son throne a l o r s aura ses degrez s i x Et l e grand Roy dedans l e Roy a s s i s Triomphera de ses hayneux n u i s i b l e s Tant des non-veus que mesmes des v i s i b l e s . ( T r a i c t e , n . p . ) The "Cant ique s u r l a n o u v e l l e E s t o i l l e " stands out among La 168 B o d e r i e ' s s h o r t e r works both f o r i t s p o e t i c v a l u e and f o r i t s announcement of m i l l e n a r i a n n a t i o n a l i s t themes to be developed i n L a G a l l i a d e . LA CONFUSION DE LA SECTE DE MUHAMED The c r u s a d i n g s p i r i t which informs much of L a B o d e r i e ' s l a t e r admonit ions to Henry I I I i s apparent i n h i s e a r l y t r a n s l a t i o n of a work d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Mohammedan T u r k s , the C o n f u s i o n de l a sec te de  Muhamed p u b l i s h e d i n 1574. The d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r to Rene de V o y e r ^ echoes the f a m i l i a r anguish of the C h r i s t i a n humanist confronted w i t h c i v i l r e l i g i o u s wars i n the golden age of l e t t e r s , and at the same time suggests the a p o c a l y p t i c message which La Boder ie was to t r a n s m i t from P o s t e l : M o n s i e u r , s o u v e n t e s f o i s c o n s i d e r a n t en moymesme combien d'une p a r t ce present s i e c l e aborde en f e l i c i t e de connoissance de tous bons a r t s , toutes langues et d i s c i p l i n e s : et d ' a u t r e p a r t voyant combien de j o u r en j o u r sourdent e t f o u r m i l l e n t de sec tes et d ' h e r e s i e s n o u v e l l e s . . . . Je ne puis a u t r e chose penser s i n o n que v o i c y l e d e r n i e r e t p l u s aspre combat de l ' E t e r n e l l e e t d i v i n e Sapience a l ' e n c o n t r e de 1 ' e s p r i t de mensonge et d ' e r r e u r . ( C o n f u s i o n , n . p . ) Fur thermore , i n such a time of c i v i l s t r i f e the p r i n c e s c o u l d not u n i t e 169 to combat t h e i r common pagan enemy, the T u r k s : Desquels l a L o y , ou p l u t o s t l ' e x e c r a b l e biasfeme n ' e s t fondee en r a i s o n , ny appuyee d'aucune a u t h o r i t y d i v i n e . . . ( C o n f u s i o n , n . p . ) L a B o d e r i e ' s dream of harmony and h i s d e s i r e to serve the t rue f a i t h are p r e s e r v e d , f o r he would shun the "hommes t u r b u l e n t s , tenebreux et a f f e c t e u r s de nouveautez" to be among the C h r i s t i a n humanis t s : . . . hommes p a i s i b l e s , . f i l s de l u m i e r e , et admirateurs de l a venerable a n t i q u i t y se mettent en tout d e v o i r de l e s combattre et r e f u t e r , e t de r e t e n i r et garder l a s a c r e s a i n t e un ion de l a j o y i n v i o l e e . ( C o n f u s i o n , n . p . ) C. L'HARMONIE DU MONDE The most important of La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s i s undoubtedly 12 tha t of the De harmonia mundi (1525) by F r a n c i s c o G i o r g i o (1460-1540). I t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1578 as L 'Harmonie du monde together w i t h N i c o l a s Le Fevre de L a B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of P i c o ' s Heptaplus i s s a i d to mark " t h e h igh-watershed of the i n t e n s e i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d 13 w i t h the French A cademi es . " L a B o d e r i e h i m s e l f a t t e s t s to i t s re levance to h i s l i f e work . Having r e f e r r e d to h i s own e l a b o r a t i o n of the Tabernacle theme i n 170 1 ' E n c y c l i e and to h i s h a r m o n i z i n g of C h r i s t i a n and Jewish h i s t o r y i n the " t h g o l o g i e r e s o l u t i v e " o f L a G a l l i a d e , La Boder ie d e c l a r e s i n h i s " E p i s t r e en forme de P r e f a c e " tha t G i o r g i o ' s re - s ta tement of h i s own ideas induced him to devote three years to t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i n order to " t o u s j o u r s c o n t i n u e r l e s e r v i c e que j e veux rendre a l ' E g l i s e C a t h o l i q u e e t a ce royaume." (Harmonie, n . p . ) L 'Harmonie du monde i s i n f a c t a compendium of themes from the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a , c h i e f l y from the Kabba lah , adapted to C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s . This accumulat ion of d i v e r s e themes, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i f not the coherence of which was suggested i n the contex t of m u s i c a l harmony, demonstrated a purpose a l l i e d to L a B o d e r i e ' s . He saw i n i t the primacy of Mosaic " s e c r e t r e v e l a t i o n " and h i s own p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y : Br ie fvement q u i c o n s i d e r e r a b i e n ces t ouvrage i l l u y semblera v e o i r un beau grand t a b l e a u d 'oeuvre de marqueter ie f a i c t a l a Musaique, ou p l u s t o s t a l a Mosaique, auquel l e s P e t i t e s p ieces de d i v e r s e s f i g u r e s e t couleurs sont s i b i e n j o i n c t e s et r a p p o r t e e s , que l e tout semble e s t r e d 'une s e u l e p i e c e de p l u s i e u r s p e i n t u r e s a r t i s t e m e n t e m b e l l i e e t d i s t i n g u e e . (Harmonie, n . p . ) In a l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t o r y d e d i c a t i o n to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n La B o d e r i e r e a f f i r m s h i s own c o n v i c t i o n of the u n i t y of t r u t h , whatever i t s s o u r c e : "comme a d i e t S. Ambroise , et apres l u y S. Thomas, l a v e r i t e de quiconque e l l e s o i t d i c t e es t de 1 ' E s p r i t S . " G i o r g i o ' s work i s i n the s y n c r e t i z i n g t r a d i t i o n of the Neo-P l a t o n i s t s and the C h r i s t i a n K a b b a l i s t s . I t a s s i m i l a t e s , as do L a 171 B o d e r i e ' s own.works, the N e o - P l a t o n i c f i x e d h i e r a r c h y to the K a b b a l i s t i c cont inuous emanation of S e p h i r o t h i n p r o v i n g the supreme U n i t y of the C h r i s t i a n T r i n i t y i n the unders tanding of whom a l l apparent dissonance 14 i s harmonized. God i s the source and the p r i n c i p l e of the d i s c o r d i a concors of w o r l d m u s i c . La B o d e r i e ' s pre face "summarise[s] and u n d e r l i n e [ s ] the re levance of cosmic s t r u c t u r e to p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . " 1 " ' The b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n i s tha t of correspondences between God and h i s c r e a t i o n 16 such tha t " t o u t e s choses sont en toutes c h o s e s . " The h a r m o n i z i n g u n i t y of God i s conf i rmed i n c r e a t i o n through contempla t ion of " l ' O u v r i e r en l ' O u v r a g e " and by a n a l y s i s of correspondences i n " l ' l d e e et n o t i o n u n i v e r s e l l e en l a chaine e t e n t r e s u i t e des choses s e l o n l e u r s estapes et degrez , et en l a correspondance des causes l e u r s e f f e c t s , et des e f f e c t s envers l e u r s c a u s e s . " Thus f o r example a s tudy of a s t r o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s teaches man both to know h i m s e l f and to devine God's p r o v i d e n c e . Furthermore G i o r g i o uses K a b b a l i s t i c number s p e c u l a t i o n s and Pythagorean mathemat ica l m u s i c a l theory to prove the supreme u n i t y of God and the harmony of h i s c r e a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e of L 'Harmonie du monde i s e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g to the p a t t e r n of the u n i v e r s e . God i s the supreme a r c h i t e c t of " l e Monde unique e t t r i p l e , " descending from the I n t e l l i g i b l e , " l e monde A n g e l i q u e , " through the c e l e s t i a l , " l e monde des S f e r e s , " to the t e r r e s t r i a l , " l e monde E l e m e n t a i r e . " The f o u r t h w o r l d i s that of man the microcosm, c a l l e d by the Hebrews " l e P e t i t - M o n d e , ou monde de l a S e p a r a t i o n " because he both i s separate from the o ther w o r l d s , and 172 a l s o conta ins them i n m i n i a t u r e a t the same time as he i s conta ined by them. Thus the work i s composed of three " C a n t i q u e s , " each of which i s d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t " T o n s , " as m u s i c a l i n t e r v a l s , which develop the correspondences , consonances, or "convenances" of the u n i v e r s e both d i v i n e and human. I n the f i r s t " C a n t i q u e " an approach to unders t anding of the supreme harmony of God the c r e a t o r i s e f f e c t e d through a study of the correspondences of h i s w o r k s , both c e l e s t i a l and human, n o t a b l y through the K a b b a l i s t i c a n a l o g i e s of these w i t h the d i v i n e as demonstrated i n the symbolism of the Tabernac le . I n the second " C a n t i q u e " C h r i s t i s he i n whom " t o u t e s choses respondent . . . en d i v e r s e consonance." He i s at once the f i r s t -c r e a t e d C r e a t o r comparable to the P l a t o n i c demiurge, " l a Sapience de Dieu et son Verbe contenant toutes choses en r a i s o n I d e a l l e ou n o t i o n n e l l e , " and the a r c h e t y p a l masterpiece of c r e a t i o n , the m y s t i c Adam, " l e grand Homme Archetype comprenant de f a i c t en soy-mesme toutes l e s choses i n f e r i e u r e s . " I n the t h i r d " C a n t i q u e " the author se ts f o r t h the means to man's s p i r i t u a l and b o d i l y harmony through v i r t u e and i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , h i s c a p a b i l i t y of s p i r i t u a l harmony w i t h the h i g h e r w o r l d , and h i s governing r o l e on e a r t h as a b e i n g whole of body and of s o u l thus i n accord w i t h h i s own nature and w i t h the c e l e s t i a l w o r l d . The c o n c l u s i o n to La B o d e r i e ' s e x p l a n a t o r y d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r 173 i s i n e f f e c t a hymn to the u n i v e r s a l harmony which was h i s own i n s p i r a t i o n as w e l l as the theme and substance of G i o r g i o ' s work. Echoes of David and of Orpheus sound w i t h v a r i a t i o n s on K a b b a l i s t i c and c l a s s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t numbers (seven, s e v e n t y - t w o , and nine) and a symphony of m u s i c a l ins t ruments both pagan and C h r i s t i a n resounds i n p r a i s e of God m a n i f e s t through the S e p h i r o t h and of C h r i s t h i s " S a p i e n c e " and the a r c h e t y p a l M e d i a t o r . The whole i s brought to a c l o s e w i t h La B o d e r i e ' s prayer f o r a h a r m o n i s a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s d i s c o r d through an unders tanding of the u n i t y of t r u t h which i t was h i s constant purpose to p r e s e n t : Toute Pensee donnera louange au Se igneur , au repos e t e r n e l , auquel nous v u e i l l e conduire l e P e r e , l e F i l s et l e S. E s p r i t : Et non seulement nous, mais tous l e s h a b i t a n s dessus l e r o n i de l a t e r r e , s i que tous d ' u n coeur et d 'une bouche l e confessent . . . et en mesme d i v i n s e r v i c e , a d o r a t i o n et r e l i -g i o n , estans toutes sectes e t d i s c o u r s a b o l i s en t re tous Royaumes, P r i n c i p a u t e z , e t P r o v i n c e s , a f i n que par tout e t en t re tous s ' entende en p a r f a i c t s accords l a g r a n d ' Harmonie du Monde. (Harmonie, n . p . ) La B o d e r i e takes o c c a s i o n , i n h i s summary to L 'Harmonie du monde, to adduce re ferences to the Zohar and to the p r i s c i t h e o l o g i i n c o n f i r m a t i o n of themes he had developed i n h i s own w o r k s . Foremost among those themes i s that of the Tabernacle commissioned by God from Moses and i n which i s to be seen by analogy the " s e c r e t r e v e l a t i o n " of c o s m o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . L a B o d e r i e i n s i s t s on the o r i g i n a l i t y of h i s own treatment of the theme i n the E n c y c l i e : " l e q u e l j e p u i s d i r e et temoigner en v e r i t e a v o i r d e s s e i g n e , f a i t , et compose'avant que j ' e u s s e l e u ny l ' u n ny l ' a u t r e des d e r n i e r s nommez." 174 The p a r a l l e l s are c l e a r , however. The e lementa l w o r l d i s r e l a t e d to the " q u a t r e t a p i s " of the Tabernac le , or to Raymond Sebond's " E s c h e l l e de N a t u r e " of " l ' e s t r e , l e v i v r e , l e s e n t i r , et l ' e n t e n d r e , " or to the Hebrew " l e muet, l e v e g e t a b l e , l e v i v a n t et l e p a r l a n t . " The c e l e s t i a l w o r l d i s r e l a t e d to the " d i x c o u r t i n e s " of the Tabernacle and thus to the t e n S e p h i r o t h or "S fe res s p i r i t u e l l e s " of the Kabbalah seven of which are r e l a t e d the p l a n e t s , the three h i g h e s t of the S e p h i r o t h b e i n g the f i r s t mover, " l a S fere t o u r n o y a n t e , " and the m e d i a t i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e , " l a S fere d ' I n t e l l i g e n c e , comme moyenne ent re l a m a t i e r e e t l a forme, entre l e mouvement e t r e p o s , et en t re l e temps et l ' E t e r n i t e \ " The i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r l d i s tha t of the t r i n i t y r e l a t e d to the Ark of the Tabernac le . I t i s " 1 ' A r c h e t y p e , monde i n t e l l i g i b l e , supreme t a b e r n a c l e , s a c r a i r e du Temple u n i v e r s e l , Arche d ' a l l i a n c e , s u r - c e l e s t e J e r u s a l e m , p o u r p r i s A n g e l i q u e , s e j o u r des e s p r i t s b i e n - h e u r e u x , ou de quelque a u t r e nom qu 'on l e v u e i l l e a p p e l l e r . " La B o d e r i e presents the T r i n i t y as common to the "Sages H e b r i e u x " and the A p o s t l e s and "hommes A p o s t o l i q u e s " as " P e r e , F i l s et S. E s p r i t , " " l a T o u t e - P u i s s a n c e , Toute-Sagesse , et Toute-b i e n v u e i l l a n c e , " " l ' E n t e n d a n t , l ' E n t e n d u , et 1 ' I n t e l l i g e n c e de s o y -mesme (1 'Entendement ) , " " l ' U n i t e , l a V e r i t e , l a Bonte" or " l e s t r o i s supremes, Abraham, Isaac et J a c o b . " The supreme u n i t y of the T r i n i t y emanating through the ten S e p h i r o t h i s a f f i r m e d i n a m i x t u r e of K a b b a l i s t i c metaphors: 175 Tout sourgeonne d'une f o n t a i n e , e t combien que nous ne t r o u v i o n s pas t r e i z e S e p h i r o t h , l e s e c r e t de c e l a es t pource q u ' i l y a t r o i s M i r o i r s ou l u m i n a i r e s supresmes au dessus des d i x S e p h i r o t h , l e s q u e l z [the l u m i n a r i e s ] n ' o n t p o i n t de commencement, car i l s sont nom et substance a l a r a c i n e des r a c i n e s . (Harmonie, n . p . ) Numerous exact r e f e r e n c e s to the Zohar support La B o d e r i e ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s of the ana log ies of the Tabernac le . A n a l y s i s of the d i v i n e name i n the Tetragrammaton "YHWH" r e l a t e s C h r i s t to the f i r s t - c r e a t e d Crea tor whose second coming was announced by D a v i d : Et tout a i n s i ( d i s e n t l e s Hebrieux) que l e Monde f u t cree par . . . Hg . . . c ' e s t a d i r e par l e f i l s , l e Verbe et l a Sapience e t e r n e l l e du Pere . . . a u s s i l i s o n s nous du Tabernac le , Et l a g l o i r e de l ' E t e r n e l r e m p l i t l e Taber-n a c l e . Car l a he" designee e s t l a g l o i r e du Seigneur . . . . E t c ' e s t ce q u ' a chantg l e d i v i n Harpeur . . . Pour h a b i t e r l a g l o i r e en n o s t r e t e r r e : C ' e s t a d i r e , a f i n que l e t a b e r n a c l e de Dieu h a b i t e en l a t e r r e de nos c o e u r s . (Harmonie, n . p . ) A g a i n , s tudy of the names of God proves the K a b b a l i s t i c theme of the a p o c a l y p t i c great Sabbath. The f u l l name "Jehovah E l o h i m " i m p l i e s the two q u a l i t i e s of judgment and mercy, r e l a t e d to the two a r t i s a n s of the T a b e r n a c l e . Thus: En somme ne p lus ne moins ( d i s e n t - i l s ) que l e monde a es te c r e e , e t d o i b t e s t r e d i s s o u l s , p u i s renouvele apres l e Sabbath: A i n s i l e t abernac le e t l e s a n c t u a i r e d e v o i t e s t r e d i s s o u l s e t d e s t r u i t , e t depuis r e n o u v e l e . (Harmonie, n . p . ) Second i n importance on ly to the Tabernacle and i t s r e l a t e d themes i s La B o d e r i e ' s c y c l i c a l h i s t o r i c a l and p r o p h e t i c " T h e o l o g i e 176 r e v o l u t i v e et p r o p h e t i c " which was developed i n the episode of the p e o p l i n g of the e a r t h i n the f i r s t C i r c l e of the G a l l i a d e . In G i o r g i o he r e c o g n i z e s a s i m i l a r d e s i r e to r e c o n c i l e the Old Testament w i t h the New, to r e l a t e Jewish and C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y and prophecy, and to show the correspondences between a s t r a l s i g n s and e a r t h l y e v e n t s : Et en o u t r e pour harmoniser l e C i e l avec l a T e r r e , e t l e v i e i l Testament avec l e nouveau 11 y chante encor l 'Hymenee ou chant N u p t i a l de l a Terre avec l e C i e l m a r i a n t l e s reg ions et p r o v i n c e s de l a t e r r e h a b i t a b l e avec l e s 12 Signes du C i e l q u i l e u r commandent, et ensemble t r a i c t a n t l a Concorde de l a f a m i l l e d ' I s r a e l avec 1 ' A p o s t o l i q u e de J e s u s c h r i s t e s l e i i e , e t des deux ensemble avec l e C i e l et l a t e r r e . (Harmonie, n . p . ) The i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p of B i b l i c a l exegesis w i t h a s t r o n o m i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s i n La B o d e r i e ' s h i s t o r i c a l and p r o p h e t i c G a l l i a d e i s thus j u s t i f i e d by G i o r g i o and by r e f e r e n c e n o t a b l y to the Abbe Joachim, to P i c o and to N i c o l a s of Cusa, f o r b a s i c to a l l of these i s the concept of " f i g u r a , " the p r e f i g u r a t i o n of f u t u r e events i n the h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y of the p a s t . 1 7 Thus the h i s t o r y of I s r a e l as found i n the Old Testament i s bo th v a l i d h i s t o r y and p r e f i g u r a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l pas t and the prophes ied f u t u r e of the C a t h o l i c Church as found i n the New Testament: Car en l i s a n t l e s P r o f e t e s Canoniques des Hebr ieux et remarquant l e s menaces ou promesses q u i sont f a i c t e s au peuple d ' I s r a e l , peuple p e c u l i e r e t c h o i s i de 1 ' E t e r n e l pour son partage d ' e n t r e toutes l e s n a t i o n s , l e q u e l e s t vraye f i g u r e de l ' E g l i s e C a t h o l i q u e , p u i s estendant l e p o u r p r i s de l a Judge ou t e r r e s a i n c t e s u r toute l a t e r r e h a b i t a b l e d i v i s C e (par maniere de d i r e ) en douze P a t r i a r c h e s , comme l a Judee l ' e s t o i t en 12. 177 T r i b u s , on t r o u v e r a f a c i l e m e n t . . . a u s s i des evenemens f u t u r s q u i s ' y t rouvent s i g n i f i e z et depeins soubs l e v o i s l e des p a r o l e s obscures et m y s t e r i e u s e s . Et comme l e S. E s p r i t procede du Pere et du F i l s , a i n s i du v i e i l Testament f i g u r a t i f , et du nouveau, ou l a v e r i t e de l a f i g u r e es t exh ibee , r e s u l t e r a l e sens s p i r i t u e l de l ' u n et de 1 ' a u t r e . . . . (Harmonie, n . p . ) The important theme of the necessary harmoniz ing of man the microcosm which La Boder ie was to emphasize w i t h h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of F i c i n o ' s Les T r o i s l i v r e s de l a , v i e i s here developed a l s o . Here the number f o u r i s fundamental as i n La B o d e r i e ' s sonnet on the "Grand 18 Q u a t e r n a i e " ( E n c y c l i e , p . 246) . Not o n l y must the f o u r humours be r e g u l a t e d f o r good b o d i l y h e a l t h , but the body must be put i n accord w i t h the " Q u a t e r n a i r e de l ' a m e , q u i e s t l a Tetracorde de l'homme i n t e r i e u r , " and an even more complex harmony must be r e a l i s e d w i t h G o d . i n the Tetragrammaton " l a supreme et d i v i n e T e t r a c t y d e , s i e s t l e grand E s p r i t harmonieux" whose j u s t i c e and mercy are harmonised through C h r i s t the Archetype and who oversees the harmonious music and movement of the Spheres . Love and order are the p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n harmony i n 19 " c e s t E s p r i t d'amour e t d ' u n i o n . " Through harmonious music-making man must g l o r i f y the supreme p r i n c i p l e of w o r l d harmony. Thus i t f o l l o w s tha t the u l t i m a t e goa l of man, tha t i s to say h i s u n i o n w i t h the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e of harmony, i s most n e a r l y a t t a i n e d through the song and v e r s e of which the Psalms are the h i g h e s t example: . . . c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t nous devons Psa lmodier d ' e s p r i t e t de pensee, chanter de coeur et 178 de bouche, e t c e l e b r e r en vers nombreux et harmonisez pour rendre graces a c e l u y dond procede toute vraye concorde et harmonle . . . (Harmonie, n . p . ) 2 ^ In c o n c l u s i o n i t i s c l e a r tha t La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of G i o r g i o ' s Harmonie du monde was i n s p i r e d i n l a r g e p a r t by the concordance of t h e i r views and the common b a s i s of t h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r those v i e w s . I n G i o r g i o La B o d e r i e found an echo of h i s s p a t i a l w o r l d v iew based on the analogy of the Tabernacle and a l s o of h i s temporal w o r l d view based on the Jewish r e v e l a t i o n as " f i g u r a " of C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y and e s c h a t o l o g y . Above a l l , i n the m u s i c a l form of G i o r g i o ' s work as i n i t s harmonis ing purpose La Boder ie d i s c e r n e d not o n l y the m o t i v a t i o n of h i s own l i f e work but a l s o an e x a l t a t i o n of the supreme r o l e among men which he ass igned to the poet and which he a s p i r e d to f i l l as the new Orpheus /David , prophet and poet of d i v i n e harmony. H i s consciousness of the importance of the renewal of man to be e f f e c t e d through the p o e t ' s d i s c l o s u r e of a n c i e n t wisdom as found i n the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a and here i n t e r p r e t e d by G i o r g i o i s suggested by s e v e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s from the Psalms and from the Hermetic Pimander. The p o e t ' s motto i n Greek here f o l l o w s the t r a n s l a t o r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n : "May Holy David s p r o u t f o r t h as one O r p h i c a l l y . " D. 179 Two t r a n s l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d together i n 1578 are w i t n e s s to La B o d e r i e ' s debt to the foremost F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t s . F i c i n o ' s De C h r i s t i a n a r e l i g i o n e (De l a r e l i g i o n c h r e s t i e n n e , 1578) and P ico's De d i g n i t a t i s homine (La harangue de l a d i g n i t e de 1'homme, 1578) are at the c e n t r e of the s y n c r e t i s t t r a d i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s . La B o d e r i e i s f a i t h f u l to h i s o r i g i n a l purpose , enuncia ted i n L ' E n c y c l i e , to " p r o f i t e r l e peuple de France" i n t r a n s l a t i n g the work of F i c i n o ' s which he esteems i n h i s p r e f a c e : . . . une oeuvre t r e s docte et f o r t n e c e s s a i r e pour l a r a d r e s s e de p l u s i e u r s devoyes et c o n f i r m a t i o n des f i d e l l e s Chretiens e t bons c a t h o l i q u e s . ( n . p . ) 21 Secret has noted t h a t at l e a s t three themes i n F i c i n o are of p a r t i c u l i n t e r e s t i n the s tudy of L a B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n : the a s s i m i l a t i o n of C h r i s t to the f i r s t - c r e a t e d " S a p i e n c e , " the prophecy of 6000 years of 22 the w o r l d , and the d e n u n c i a t i o n of Mahomet. Even c l o s e r to the s p i r i t of L a B o d e r i e ' s work was the theory of v e i l e d t r u t h which had been enunciated by Denys the A r e o p a g i t e and 23 which under lay P i c o ' s " p o e t i c t h e o l o g y . " Thus from P i c o ' s Harangue La Boder ie t r a n s l a t e d : Mais comme c 1 e s t o i t l a coustume des v i e u x , a i n s i Orfee c o u v r i t de v o i l e s fabuleus l e s mysteres de sa d o c t r i n e , et sous l e guimple poet ique l e s d i s s i m u l a . . . . and: . . . q u e l l abeur que j ' a y e u , et q u e l l e d i f f i c u l t e ce m'a es te de t i r e r l e s sens cacher de l a s e c r e t e p h i l o s o p h i e de dessous l e s a f f e c t e z obscui r i tez des enigmes e t des cachet tes des f a b l e s . . . (Harangue, p . 437) 180 S e v e r a l themes developed by La Boder ie are suggested i n the Harangue: man as p a r t a k i n g of the A r c h e t y p e , the mors o s c u l i , the symbolism of the T a b e r n a c l e , and the uses of r a t i o n a l knowledge as 24 an approach to knowing God. Above a l l , i n the Harangue L a Boder ie found e x p l i c i t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e f e r e n c e to the p r i s c a t h e o l o g i a as a b a s i s f o r C h r i s t i a n a p o l o g e t i c s . One of the p r e f a t o r y sonnets to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n demonstrates h i s a d o p t i o n of tha t h e r i t a g e i n h i s 25 c y c l i c a l v i s i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the G a l l i a d e . Another p r e f a t o r y sonnet expresses the t r a n s l a t o r ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r P i c o , the phenix of h i s age, who as "Count of Concord" embodied La B o d e r i e ' s v i s i o n of u n i v e r s a l : Admirable P h e n i x , Comte de l a M i r a n d e , En v i v a n t t u compris tout ce que peut comprendre Le monde e l e m e n t a i r e e t l e monde des c i e u x , Le monde i n t e l l i g i b l e , et du grand Dieu des d ieux L ' e s p r i t q u i l e s e s p r i t s de ton coeur f a i t e s t e n d r e . (Harangue, n . p . ) E. DISCOURS DE L'HONNESTE AMOUR A t the request of M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s , Queen of N a v a r r e , La Boder ie t r a n s l a t e d F i c i n o ' s De amore (Discours de l ' h o n n e s t e amour 26 sur l e Banquet de P l a t o n , 1578). The d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r addressed to M a r g u e r i t e , " f i l l e , soeur e t espouse de r o y , " r e c a l l s La B o d e r i e ' s concern to e l e v a t e the tone 181 of French p o e t r y : Quant a l 'Amour v u l g a i r e , c ' e s t un s u b j e t s i commun^ et tant demene par noz Po'etes, q u ' i l semble, comme a b i e n d i t quelcun d ' e n t r e eux, que jusques i c y c ' a i t es te l a P h i l o s o p h i e de France chacun a q u i mieux mieux s 'employant a y appor ter du tout l e s b e l l e s et g e n t i l l e s concept ions de son e s p r i t . Mais j ' e s p e r e que desormais t e l l e s v iandes l e u r appor teront ennuy, et chercheront de ragouster en t e l s mets que ceux q u i sont presentez en ce f e s t i n , quand i l s v e r r o n t que v o s t r e majeste se p l a i s t e t d e l e c t e aux p l u s douces e t s a v o u -reuses v iandes de l ' ame . . . . ( D i s c o u r s , n . p . ) , The d e d i c a t i o n suggests a l s o s e v e r a l themes i n F i c i n o ' s work which 27 i n t e r e s t e d La Boder ie p a r t i c u l a r l y . These themes i n c l u d e C h r i s t as " l a Sapience e t e r n e l l e de D i e u , " .the " e m i t h o l o g i z i n g " of the name of the V i r g i n Mary to "AYMER" r e l a t e d to p e r f e c t l o v e consummated i n the mors o s c u l i , and the image of the c i r c l e as e v e r l a s t i n g emanation from and r e t u r n to God. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s thus i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to La B o d e r i e ' s 28 p o e t i c works to which M a r g u e r i t e was seemingly not i n s e n s i t i v e . I n an e legy addressed to her and i n c l u d e d w i t h the t r a n s l a t i o n , La Boder ie indeed asks h e r , l i k e Juno f o r Orpheus, to i n t e r c e d e f o r him w i t h her b r o t h e r s i n order to make them r e c e p t i v e to h i s e n c o m i a s t i c p r o p h e t i c v e r s e . F . LES TROIS LIVRES DE LA VIE 182 La B o d e r i e ' s d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r to "Monsieur de V a u m e s n i l , C o n s e i l l e r e t m a i s t r e d ' h o s t e l " of the Due d ' A l e n c o n , f i x e s h i s t r a n s -l a t i o n of F i c i n o ' s De t r i p l i c i v i t a (Les t r o i s l i v r e s de l a v i e , 1581) i n the context of h i s constant p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h harmony. As man must s t r i v e to r e s t o r e h i s o r i g i n a l a r c h e t y p a l p u r i t y by a r e t u r n to C h r i s t , so he must assure concord of the m i c r o - and macrocosmic w o r l d s , f o r which purpose he must a t tune harmoniously h i s own microcosmic b e i n g : Car tout a i n s i que pour b i e n accorder e t harmoniser l ' A m e , l ' A n i m e , 1 ' E s p r i t e t l a Pensde ( q u i e s t n o s t r e homme i n t g r i e u r ) avec l e grand homme A r c h e t y p e , ou l 'homme-Dieu n o s t r e Sauveur et Redempteur Jesus C h r i s t , i l e s t de b e s o i n que par bonnes moeurs, p a t i e n c e , h u m i l i t e , esperance e t c h a r i t e e t i m i t a t i o n de sa bonne v i e e t esquises v e r t u s , t e l l e Consonance e t Harmonie se maint ienne e t conserve : a u s s i pour m a i n t e n i r n o s t r e corps ou homme e x t e r i e u r q u i se corrompt de j o u r en j o u r , et pour l ' u n i r et harmoniser aveques l e grand Monde, i l e s t b e s o i n de t e n i r en p a r f a i t s accords l e s quatre humeurs, ou pour d i r e a i n s i , l e s quatre cordes et n e r f s de l ' h u m a i n T e t r a c h o r d e , pour conserver en bonne et deue temperature , et ramener comme a 1 ' u n i s o n l a p a r f a i t e consonance e t harmonie de l a Sante . ( T r o i s l i v r e s , n . p . ) The m e d i c a l and a s t r o l o g i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s found i n t h i s work of F i c i n o ' s are r e l a t e d p r i n c i p a l l y to P l a t o and to Pythagorean t h e o r i e s of music as a c a t h a r t i c as w e l l as a sympathet ic and cohes ive a r t which renders 29 not o n l y the body but a l s o the s o u l harmonious and t h e r e f o r e h e a l t h y . Thus: C e l a p o s s i b l e a donne o c c a s i o n a l a M y t h o l o g i e des ant iques Poetes de f e i n d r e en l e u r s f a b l e s , un mesme Dieu p r e s i d e r a l a Musique , 183 e t a l a M e d i c i n e , pour monstrer l e r a p p o r t , p r o p o r t i o n e t a n a l o g i e q u i e s t en t re l e s deux d i s c i p l i n e s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c P o s t e l l i a n v o c a b u l a r l y of h i s pre face suggests La B o d e r i e ' s r e a d i n g of t h i s N e o - P l a t o n i s t work i n the l i g h t of h i s K a b b a l i s t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the Tetragrammaton and the "Grand 30 Q u a t e r n a i e " which i n c l u d e s here the f o u r humours, the f o u r e lements , the f o u r q u a l i t i e s , the f o u r s t r i n g s of the l u t e as man the microcosm, 31 and " l ' A m e , l ' A n i m e , l ' E s p r i t e t l a Pensee . " S i x sonnets i n c l u d e d w i t h the T r o i s l i v r e s de l a v i e have been 32 q u a l i f i e d as "cer ta inement au nombre des m e i l l e u r s de ce p o e t e . " L a B o d e r i e ' s i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n to " p r o f f i t e r . . . aux doctes et v e r t u e u x " i s e l a b o r a t e d i n the sonnets . They are addressed to the " N o u r r i c o n s des neuf S o e u r s , " poets f o r whom L a Boder ie expresses 33 none of the b i t t e r n e s s heard i n former v e r s e s , but r a t h e r a tender concern and a deep r e v e r e n c e . Because he c h e r i s h e s t h e i r good h e a l t h he has t r a n s l a t e d F i c i n o ' s work . Inasmuch as the poets breathe l i f e i n t o the dead and r e s t o r e time p a s t , La B o d e r i e ' s good counse l i s a s s i m i l a t e d to p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y as he a f f i r m s tha t " v i v r e vous f a i s a n t , j e f a i s v i v r e l e Monde." (Sonnet 1) The poet must be d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d , " d ' h u i l e s a i n t a r r o u s e e , " but he must a l s o be i n good h e a l t h , "1 'Harmonie en v o s t r e Luth p o s e e , " i n order that he may perform h i s C h r i s t - l i k e m i s s i o n of c o n f e r r i n g i m m o r t a l i t y (Sonnet 2 ) . The p o e t ' s r o l e i n the S ta te i s supreme, f o r not on ly l i k e David does he charm p r i n c e s ' cares but a l s o he serves as C h r i s t - l i k e mediator and fur thermore 184 he guides the body p o l i t i c by h i s l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s counse l (Sonnet 3 ) . Under the i n f l u e n c e of Phebus A p o l l o , god of music and of medecine, the poets have the power to b r i n g harmony to t h e i r d i v e r s e e lements , humours and p l a n e t a r y i n f l u e n c e s (Sonnet 4 ) . God h i m s e l f , " l e S o l e i l de v i e , " w i l l assure to the poet who i s pure i n body and i n s o u l bo th a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e and l o n g l i f e (Sonnet 5 ) . Thus the poet who has the g i f t of b r i n g i n g l i f e and a r e l a t i v e i m m o r t a l i t y to both k i n g and commoner i s g e n t l y caut ioned to conserve h i s v i r t u e w i t h h i s good h e a l t h i n order to preserve man's d i g n i t y and h i s joy (Sonnet 6 ) . G. DE LA NATURE DES DIEUX La B o d e r i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of C i c e r o ' s De deorum n a t u r a (De l a nature des d i e u x , 1581) was undertaken at the request of Henry I I I i n order to confound the f r e e - t h i n