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A cinephotographic study of coarticulation of lip rounding in English and French Roberts, Margaret E. L. 1972

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A CINEPHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY OF COARTICULATION OF L I P ROUNDING IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH by Margaret E. L. Rob e r t s B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1967. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of P a e d i a t r i c s D i v i s i o n of A u d i o l o g y and Speech S c i e n c e s We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1972 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in part i al fu 1 f i lmen t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department.of Paediatrics, Division of Audiology and Speech-Sciences The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date June 2, 1972 ABSTRACT In t h i s study t h e dynamics o f l i p r o u n d i n g a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . Lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n was measured i n a frame-by-frame a n a l y s i s o f s i x h i g h - s p e e d (66 f r a m e s / s e c ) c i n e p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m s : t h r e e f o r E n g l i s h (with one spe a k e r ) and t h r e e f o r F r e n c h (with t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s ) . A corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each f i l m s e p -a r a t e l y u s i n g r e s u l t s and h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d f r o m p r e v i o u s f i l m ( s ) . With t h e t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d i n t h i s s t u d y , no r e l i a b l e method o f d e t e r -m i n i n g o n s e t o f r o u n d i n g c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r E n g l i s h and t h u s t h e e f f e c t o f s y l l a b l e and word boundary p o s i t i o n on c o a r t i c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s c o u l d not be determined. Consonant c o n t e x t appeared t o have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t i m i n g of extremum p r o t r u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c o u s -t i c o nset o f t h e vowel, t h a n d i d degree o f s t r e s s . F o r F r e n c h , t h e r e was e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f r o u n d i n g may be phonemic. A l t h o u g h t h e data were l i m i t e d , i t was o b s e r v e d ( f o r one p a i r o f " m i n i m a l " sequences s a i d by one s u b j e c t ) t h a t t h e on s e t o f r o u n d i n g o c c u r r e d l a t e r t h a n r e p o r t e d by D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) f o r E n g l i s h o r by Kozhevnikov and C h i s t o v i c h (1965) f o r R u s s i a n . As i n t h e case o f t h e E n g l i s h d a t a , no o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n was found f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r e s s f o r t h e F r e n c h d a t a . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r both E n g l i s h and F r e n c h some of t h e b a s i c assumptions o f t h e experiment were u n t e n a b l e . In p a r t i c u l a r , i i i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t a p o i n t o f onset of r o u n d i n g b e f o r e , d u r i n g , o r a f t e r a consonant c l u s t e r can be s p e c i f i e d w i t h o u t f i r s t s y s t e m a t -i c a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount of p r o t r u s i o n which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each consonant i n i s o l a t i o n and t h e n i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s . I t i s apparent from t h e data t h a t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f r o u n d i n g i s l i k e l y t o be i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r parameters such as i n t o n a t i o n , s t r e s s and p h o n e t i c ( i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n s o n a n t a l ) c o n t e x t . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d attempt t o c o n t r o l as many o f t h e s e parameters as p o s s i b l e b e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s ( i f they e x i s t ) can be o b s e r v e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i A CKNOWLE DGME NT i x Ch a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r 2 SURVEY OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 5 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 2.1 The Concept of t h e S y l l a b l e 5 2.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s A t t e m p t i n g t o D e l i m i t Speech P r o d u c t i o n U n i t s 10 2.3 P h o n o l o g i c a l U n i t s O t h e r Than t h e S y l l a b l e 15 2.4 Parameters f o r D e f i n i n g "Rounding" 17 2.5 T e c h n i q u e s f o r O b s e r v i n g Rounding o f t h e L i p s 19 C h a p t e r 3 AIMS OF THE INVESTIGATION 23 C h a p t e r 4 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES 24 4.1 S u b j e c t s 24 4.2 F i l m i n g , Sound R e c o r d i n g and Time Alignment . 24 4.3 A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data 27 4.31 Sound 27 4.32 F i l m 28 4.4 A c c u r a c y and R e p e a t a b i l i t y o f Measurements 36 i v Page C h a p t e r 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38 5.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 38 5.1 The E n g l i s h F i l m s 38 5.11 Steady S t a t e Vowels 39 5.12 F i l m s #1 and #2 41 5.13 F i l m #3 50 5.14 C o n c l u s i o n 55 5.2 The F r e n c h F i l m s 57 5.21 Steady S t a t e Vowels 58 5.22 F i l m #1 5 8 5.23 F i l m #2 . 64 5.24 F i l m #3 66 5.25 C o n c l u s i o n s 74 C h a p t e r 6 SUMMARY 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 79 APPENDIX 83 v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 5.1 Summary o f Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s C a l c u l a t e d on Subs e t s o f t h e Frame Sequence "and t h e . . . " (/ anSA / ) 47 5.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s between Change i n P r o t r u s i o n f r o m t ^ t o t 3 ; D u r a t i o n o f U t t e r a n c e ; and V e l o c i t y of P r o t r u s t i o n G e s t u r e , Measured on R e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e Frame Sequence "and t h e . . ." (/ aenSA / ) 49 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 4.1 B l o c k Diagram of I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r F i l m i n g and R e c o r d i n g 25 4.2 Photographs o f ' H o l d i n g ' Frame Used t o P o s i t i o n S u b j e c t 26 4.3 Mingogram I l l u s t r a t i n g S egmentation and F i l m A l i g n m e n t P r o c e d u r e 29 4.4 Schematic of P r o j e c t o r and Measurement T a b l e 30 4.5 L i p Dimensions Measured on P r o j e c t e d Image 32 4.6 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) and Area o f L i p Opening (A) Measurements Made f o r t h e F r e n c h Sequence " l a d e x t r e i n i m i t a b l e " 35 5.1 A r e a o f L i p Opening (A) V e r s u s Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r S t e a d y - S t a t e E n g l i s h Vowels (r - -0.6577) 40 5.2 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r Sequences Comparing Rounded and S p r e a d Vowels. ( E n g l i s h f i l m #1) 44 5.3 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n Measurements of t h e Sequence / aen&A /, A l i g n e d w i t h Respect t o t h e P r o t r u s i o n at t h e Onset o f V o i c i n g o f /as / 46 5.4 Vowel Onset and O f f s e t P l o t t e d w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o Extremum P r o t r u s i o n . Arrows I n d i c a t e P o i n t s o f R e t r a c t i o n from Extremum P r o t r u s i o n 51 5.5 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r Sequences Comparing P r i m a r y and Secondary S t r e s s . ( E n g l i s h f i l m #3) 53 5.6 P r o t r u s i o n Measurements Made on Sequences Comparing t h e E f f e c t o f Emphatic S t r e s s . ( E n g l i s h f i l m #3) 54 5.7 Area o f L i p Opening (A) V e r s u s Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r S t e a d y - S t a t e F r e n c h Vowels. (Speaker 3, r = -0.8167) 59 5.8 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r t h e Sequence "un complexe truque". I l l u s t r a t i n g P o s i t i o n o f Extremum P r o t r u s i o n Found i n Most of t h e F r e n c h Sequences A n a l y z e d on F i l m #1 60 v i i F i g u r e Page 5.9 Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) I l l u s t r a t i n g Time of Vowel w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o t h e Extremum o f P r o t r u s i o n . (French F i l m #1) 62 5.10 Onset and O f f s e t o f Vowels P l o t t e d w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o t h e Extremum of P r o t r u s i o n o f Each S y l l a b l e . (French F i l m £1) 63 5.11 Comparison of Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r Two S i m i l a r Sequences, One With R i s i n g I n t o n a t i o n , t h e O t h e r With F a l l i n g I n t o n a t i o n . (French F i l m #2) 67 5.12 Comparison of Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r F r e n c h Sequences S a i d W i t h I n c r e a s i n g Emphatic S t r e s s . (French F i l m #2) 68 5.13 Comparison of Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r t h e Two Sequences "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e " . (French F i l m #3) 70 5.14 Comparison of Lower L i p P r o t r u s i o n (p) f o r Two S i m i l a r Sequences, One With R i s i n g I n t o n a t i o n , t h e O t h e r With F a l l i n g I n t o n a t i o n . (French F i l m #3) 72 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w i s h t o acknowledge my debt and ex p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a l l those who may f i n d a l i t t l e b i t of t h e m s e l v e s — t h e i r i n t e r e s t , t h e i r i d e a s or t h e i r l a b o u r s — i n t h i s f i n i s h e d work. Wit h o u t you t h i s t h e s i s would have been i m p o s s i b l e . E s p e c i a l l y I'd l i k e t o thank: A n d r e - P i e r r e B e n g u e r e l - my t h e s i s a d v i s o r and f r i e n d , f o r h i s e n d l e s s p a t i e n c e , a d v i c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . John G i l b e r t - not o n l y f o r b e i n g on my t h e s i s committee, but p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the i d e a l s he has s e t f o r the D i v i s i o n of A u d i o l o g y and Speech S c i e n c e s . Dr. R. Gregg - f o r s e r v i n g on my t h e s i s committee and f o r commenting on the d r a f t s o f the t h e s i s . J o y c e Edwards - my c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h e r b o u n d l e s s e n t h u s i a s m i n a l l t h i n g s . My s u b j e c t s - f o r t h e i r time and c o o p e r a t i o n . Gord M c C o n n e l l - f o r k e e p i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l equipment i n r u n n i n g o r d e r . M a d e l e i n e H o l b r o o k - f o r t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t . My f a m i l y and f r i e n d s - f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and encouragement throughout my M a s t e r ' s program, and f i n a l l y : C o l l e e n and B a r b a r a - f o r the l a u g h t e r and l o y a l t y we sha r e d t h e s e p a s t two y e a r s . i x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The s t u d y o f language and i t s s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s of how f i n i t e u n i t s o f speech a r e combined and o r g a n i z e d . Two appro a c h e s , one i n t u i t i v e , the o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l , have been u s e d t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and t h e u n i t s o f which i t i s composed. A l t h o u g h t h e two approaches a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y h e r e , i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f both methods must e v e n t u a l l y be brought t o g e t h e r and l e a d t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n s i f s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about speech i s t o be r e v e a l e d . The two approaches cannot be c o n s i d e r e d independent from each o t h e r f o r i n i t i a l l y a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s e s a r e based on i n t r o s p e c t i o n and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y a l l t h e o r i e s must be e x p e r i m e n t a l l y v e r i f i e d b e f o r e t h e y can be a c c e p t e d as t r u t h s . In t h e i n t u i t i v e a pproach, l i n g u i s t s p o s t u l a t e " r u l e s " based on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f language. They a b s t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m what t h e y know about language and expand t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o form a s e t of r u l e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e h i e r a r c h y of commands which appear t o be i n v o l v e d i n speech p r o d u c t i o n . In terms o f t h e l e v e l s o f adequacy o f a t h e o r y p r o p o s e d by Chomsky (1965) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f g e n e r a t i v e gram-mars, t h i s i n t u i t i v e approach may be c o n s i d e r e d t o have r e a c h e d t h e f i r s t , o r d e s c r i p t i v e , l e v e l of adequacy. A c c o r d i n g t o Chomsky's d e f i n i t i o n , i t can be s a i d t o be j u s t i f i e d on e x t e r n a l grounds t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e s t h e phenomenon. The aim, t h e n , o f - 1 -- 2 -an i n t u i t i v e approach t o t h e s t u d y o f l anguage o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o p r o g -r e s s f rom t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l t o a deepe r e x p l a n a t o r y l e v e l wh i ch i n c l u d e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t he r u l e s on i n t e r n a l , r a t h e r t h a n e x t e r n a l , g r o u n d s . The s e c o n d way o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f speech i s an e x p e r i m e n t a l o n e . In t h i s a p p r o a c h an a t t empt i s made t o de t e rm ine what o c c u r s d u r i n g speech p r o d u c t i o n by o b s e r v i n g s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e speech p r o c e s s t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r i m e n t s . By i n c o r p o r a t i n g the r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s o f such r e s e a r c h i n t o a s i n g l e t h e o r y , an o v e r -a l l p i c t u r e o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f speech s h o u l d emerge. C o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t one a r ea o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g . the dynamic a s p e c t s o f speech p r o d u c t i o n . The s t udy of n o n - s t a t i c pa r ame te r s o f speech has i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e i n t he l a s t decade as i t has become o b v i o u s t h a t t he i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n v a r i a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e v e a l s l i t t l e about r e l a t i o n s h i p s wh i ch u n i t e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r u n n i n g s p e e c h . Speech s y n t h e s i s s t u d i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , have shown t h a t i t i s not enough t o s i m p l y s p e c i f y s t a t i c pa r ame te r s o f speech s o u n d s , r a t h e r i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e l i m i t how t h e pa r ame te r s change and i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e , s p e a k i n g r a t e and s t r e s s , e t c . C o a r t i c u l a t i o n r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o s p e c i f y t h e s e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . By o b s e r v -i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of a speech s o u n d , v a r i a t i o n s of t h a t f e a t u r e can be d e t e r m i n e d i n the o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i o n o f a speech s amp l e . In t h i s way, l a r g e r p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s can be d e l i n e a t e d and i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p o s s i b l e h i e r a r c h y o f commands which s e r v e t o c o o r d i n a t e speech p r o d u c t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d . The dynamics o f a r t i c u l a t i o n a r e most p r o f i t a b l y i n v e s t i g a t e d at - 3 -t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l l e v e l . Such s t u d i e s i n v o l v e t h e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and measurement of t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e main a r t i c u l a t o r s , tongue, velum, t e e t h and jaw, and l i p s . A c t i v i t y o f i n t e r n a l a r t i c u l a t o r s may b e s t be o b s e r v e d by means of X-ray cinematography, a p r o c e d u r e which has two major d i s a d v a n t a g e s which l i m i t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a r e s e a r c h t o o l . The main drawback t o t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t o n l y s m a l l amounts o f data can be o b t a i n e d per s u b j e c t because each p e r s o n can be exposed t o o n l y a l i m i t e d amount of r a d i a t i o n . The s e c o n d drawback i s t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s a slow and t e d i o u s frame-by-frame a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . In s p i t e o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , c i n e r a d i o g r a p h y s t i l l remains t h e most e f f e c t i v e way o f o b s e r v i n g movement of i n t e r n a l a r t i c u l a t o r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e x t e r n a l a r t i c u l a t o r s , i . e . , t h e jaw and l i p s , may be o b s e r v e d more d i r e c t l y by c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c and p h o t o - o s c i l l o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . F u j i m u r a (1961), f o r example, used t h e f o r m e r method i n h i s study o f l i p movement, w h i l e Kozhevnikov, C h i s t o v i c h et a l . (1965) used t h e l a t t e r i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e dynamic b e h a v i o u r of t h e l i p s . The i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f c i n e r a d i o g r a p h i c equipment and c o n s i d e r a -t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e X-ray p r o c e d u r e mentioned above, l e d t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e f i l m i n g o f t h e l i p s as t h e r e s e a r c h method f o r t h e p r e s e n t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d y . The purpose of t h e p r o j e c t i s t o i n v e s t i -g ate t h e p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e " r o u n d i n g " as i t i s e v i d e n c e d i n c e r t a i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g rounded vowels. Changes i n h e i g h t , w i d t h and area o f mouth o p e n i n g , p l u s lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n as p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of " l i p r o u n d i n g " can a l l be o b s e r v e d and meas-u r e d by a frame-by-frame a n a l y s i s o f h i g h - s p e e d movies. S i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t s examining l i p r o u n d i n g have been c a r r i e d out by Kozhevnikov and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1965) and by D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968). - 4 -In t h e i r study of R u s s i a n , Kozhevnikov, et a l . , r e p o r t e d l y e s t a b l i s h e d a c o a r t i c u l a t o r y u n i t o v e r which t h e vowel /u/ appeared t o have an i n f l u e n c e . They p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h i s u n i t i s not c o n s t r a i n e d by s o -c a l l e d " s y l l a b l e " o r "word" b o u n d a r i e s . D a n i l o f f and M o l l , u s i n g a c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c method , extended t h e e a r l i e r s t u d y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r -mine how many phones a r e c o a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e vowel /u/ i n E n g l i s h . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e experiment r e p o r t e d i n t h i s paper i s t o i n v e s -t i g a t e f u r t h e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l i p r o u n d i n g on a d j a c e n t phones. The study i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s o f both E n g l i s h and F r e n c h data and a t t e m p t s t o s p e c i f y l i m i t s f o r t h e e x t e n t of t h i s i n f l u e n c e . The o b s e r v e d b o u n d a r i e s of l i p r o u n d i n g may o r may not c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e o f e s t a b -l i s h e d p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s but t h e y must, n e v e r t h e l e s s , be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o them. Such u n i t s as t h e s y l l a b l e , t h e word and t h e b r e a t h group, w i l l t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d , a n d d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s . * (a c i n e r a d i o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e which d e c r e a s e s t h e amount of r a d i a t i o n s a s u b j e c t i s s u b m i t t e d t o ) . CHAPTER 2 SURVEY OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The s u r v e y of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e x p e r i -ment i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i v e s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n 2.1 i s an •overview o f some d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s y l l a b l e u n i t . S e c t i o n 2.2 d i s c u s s e s t h e i d e a o f th e s y l l a b l e as a u n i t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d and d e f i n e d by e x a m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s . I n c l u d e d i s a summary of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f such r e s e a r c h t o t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . S e c t i o n 2.3 d i s c u s s e s and d e f i n e s p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s l a r g e r t h a n t h e s y l l a b l e which may be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s . S e c t i o n 2.4 d i s c u s s e s t h e parameters used t o d e f i n e " r o u n d -i n g " and S e c t i o n 2.5 i s a r e v i e w o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r o b s e r v i n g l i p r o u n d i n g . 2.1 The Concept o f t h e S y l l a b l e The purpose of t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s t o s u r v e y some of t h e d e f i n i t i o n s which have been a p p l i e d t o the term " s y l l a b l e " i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y and a m b i g u i t y which a r i s e s when one attempts t o d e l i m i t speech p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s aimed a t e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e domain of i n f l u e n c e , i f any, of one p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e o f a vowel ( l i p r o u n d i n g ) , on o t h e r sounds i n a sequence. The u n i t p o s s i b l y d e l i n e a t e d by t h i s "domain o f i n f l u e n c e " may be d i r e c t l y - 5 -6 -r e l a t e d t o p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s such as s y l l a b l e s . The s y l l a b l e has, how-e v e r , been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t some o f t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e term i n t h i s c o -a r t i c u l a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t . I n t u i t i v e l y most s p e a k e r s of a language have a n o t i o n o f what a s y l l a b l e i s . G i v e n a p o s s i b l e sequence of phones i n h i s language, a s p e a k e r can u s u a l l y s t a t e how many s y l l a b l e s t h e r e a r e i n t h a t s t r i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e p e r s o n r e a l i z e s t h a t such u n i t s e x i s t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o s p e c i f y what c r i t e r i a he uses t o come t o h i s c o n c l u s i o n s . To t h e n a i v e s p e a k e r t h e s y l l a b l e i s merely a u n i t l a r g e r t h a n a s i n g l e speech sound but s m a l l e r t h a n a word. The number of vowel sounds i s l i k e l y t o i n d i c a t e t h e number of s y l l a b l e s . He may r e a s o n t h a t h i s " f e e l i n g " f o r t h e speech s y l l a b l e c o r r e l a t e s w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e t h e meter o r p a t t e r n o f p o e t r y : i n p o e t r y each vowel c a r r i e s a major o r minor s t r e s s , i n speech each v o c a l i c element r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t of one s y l l a b l e . The s p e a k e r of E n g l i s h r e l i e s s o l e l y on h i s i n t u i t i v e a b i l i t y t o l o c a t e s y l l a b l e s f o r t h e r e a r e no e x p l i c i t r u l e s which s p e c i f y how such a d e c i s i o n i s t o be made. T h i s i n t u i t i o n has been u s e d i n such speech r e s e a r c h as t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g s y l l a b l e t i m i n g and s t r e s s . A l l e n (1970), f o r example, r e v i e w e d some of t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a and examined the v a l i d i t y of u s i n g s u b j e c t i n t u i -t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h s t r e s s t i m i n g i n a g i v e n language. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t u i t i v e n o t i o n of t h e r o l e o f t h e s y l l a b l e i n t h e rhythm of the u t t e r a n c e and t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o t a p at t h e o c c u r r e n c e of each s y l l a b l e . That i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r maximally s t r e s s e d u n i t s i n t h e u t t e r a n c e , t h e s u b j e c t ' s t a p p i n g marks f e l l c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . 7 -A p r e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e i n some languages supplements t h e i n t u i t i v e n o t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. Speakers of F r e n c h , f o r example, a r e t a u g h t " r u l e s " f o r d i v i d i n g words i n t o s y l l a b l e s . G i v e n a s t r i n g , CVCVCV, t h e F r e n c h speaker would d i v i d e i t i n t o t h e s e r i e s o f open s y l l a b l e s , CV-CV-CV. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a r e r u l e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g which consonants o f a c l u s t e r b e l o n g t o which s y l l a b l e . In t h e sequence CVCCV, f o r example, i f t h e consonant c l u s t e r i s a p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l word c l u s t e r t h e n i t i s not s p l i t and t h e s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n y i e l d s CV-CCV. I f , however, a c l u s t e r cannot be f o u n d i n i -t i a l l y i n a word, t h e n i t i s s p l i t t o g i v e CVC-CV. The l i n g u i s t i c approach t o d e f i n i n g t h e s y l l a b l e has been t o s p e c i f y f e a t u r e s a t e i t h e r t h e c e n t r e of such u n i t s o r a t t h e boundary between c o n s e c u t i v e ones. DeSaussure (1915), f o r example, d e f i n e s t h e s y l l a b l e i n terms of t h e p o i n t marked by p a s s i n g from i m p l o s i o n t o e x p l o s i o n i n a c h a i n of sounds. Here h i s use of t h e word ' i m p l o s i o n ' i s not t h e same as t h a t i n normal p h o n e t i c use where i t u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o consonants formed on an i n g r e s s i v e a i r stream. DeSaussure a p p l i e s t h e terms i m p l o s i o n and e x p l o s i o n t o t h e c l o s u r e and r e l e a s e of sounds. In the sequence appa, f o r example, t h e f i r s t /p/ r e s u l t s from c l o s u r e , t h e second /p/ from r e l e a s e . A c c o r d i n g t o deSaussure, t h e s y l l a b l e boundary, t h e r e f o r e , l i e s between t h e s e movements. S t e t s o n (1945) i n t e r p r e t s and summarizes deSaussure's p o i n t o f view t h u s : S aussure t a u g h t t h a t t h e s y l l a b l e i s a b a s i c u n i t i n which t h e phoneme has a f u n c t i o n . The e x p l o s i v e phase of t h e s y l l a b l e c o n s i s t e d of t h e p r o g r e s s i v e o p e n i n g of t h e v o c a l c a n a l by one o r more phonemes. The i m p l o s i v e phase t h e n b e g i n s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e c l o s u r e o f t h e v o c a l c a n a l by one o r more phonemes. Sa u s s u r e d e s c r i b e s the phoneme i n a u d i t o r y terras but i n h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y they a r e a r t i c u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s . (p. 1 7 ) . R o s e t t i (1959), S t e t s o n (1945), and P i k e (1943) d e s c r i b e d c e n t r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s y l l a b l e i n d e f i n i n g t h i s u n i t o f speech p r o d u c t i o n . To R o s e t t i t h e s y l l a b l e was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a i r s t r e a m — t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s y l l a b l e b e i n g t h a t p a r t i n which t h e r e was movement of a i r . A s e r i e s o f s t o p consonants c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , form a s y l l a b l e , w h i l e a s e r i e s o f c o n s o n a n t s , i n which a t l e a s t one was a c o n t i n u a n t , c o u l d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e vowel p o r t i o n o f a sequence would c o n s t i t u t e t h e c e n t r a l d i s t i n g u i s h -i n g s y l l a b i c f e a t u r e o f t h a t sequence. S t e t s o n (1945) s t u d i e d t h e r e s p i r a t o r y muscles i n v o l v e d i n speech and u sed h i s data t o d e f i n e a s y l l a b l e . He s a i d t h a t : The s y l l a b l e i s a f u s i o n , a c o n c u r r e n c e o f movements and not a mere s e r i e s o f sounds, (p. 4 7 ) . S t e t s o n s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t : The b a s i c e l e m e n t a r y movement of speech i s t h e c h e s t p u l s e o f t h e s y l l a b l e ; and t h e s e r i e s o f t h e s e p u l s e s grouped i n t o f e e t , i n t o b r e a t h groups and i n t o p h r a s e s make up t h e t r a i n o f s y l l a b l e s . (p. 5 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o S t e t s o n , t h e s y l l a b l e so formed i s made a u d i b l e by a vowel and i s s t a r t e d ( r e l e a s e d ) and s t o p p e d ( a r r e s t e d ) by t h e i n t e r c o s t a l muscles o f t h e c h e s t o r by complete o r l e a k y c l o s u r e o f a consonant a r t i c u l a t i o n . (p. 52). P i k e ' s (1943) a r t i c u l a t o r y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e was ba s e d on S t e t s o n ' s c h e s t p u l s e t h e o r y but emphasized s t r i c t u r a l f u n c t i o n s . S t r i c t u r e s were d e f i n e d as p a r t i a l o r complete c l o s u r e s o f an a i r p a s -sage. He s t a t e d t h a t : A s y l l a b l e i s a s i n g l e u n i t of movement of t h e l u n g i n i t i a t o r which i n c l u d e s but one c r e s t o f speed. E v e r y o c c u r r e n c e o f an i n -i t i a t o r time b u l g e f o l l o w e d by renewed speed of t h e i n i t i a t o r movement i s a t r o u g h o r b o r d e r between two s y l l a b l e s . P h y s i o l o g i c -a l l y , s y l l a b l e s may a l s o be c a l l e d c h e s t p u l s e s , (p. 116). - 9 -He e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s t h e o r y i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s y l -l a b l e : The segment d u r i n g which t h e speed o f t h e i n i t i a t i n g movement i s g r e a t e s t i n t h e s y l -l a b l e i s t h e s y l l a b i c a l l o t h e r s e g -ments i n t h e s y l l a b l e a r e n o n s y l l a b i c s . The s y l l a b i c may be c o n s i d e r e d t h e f u n c -t i o n a l c e n t r e , n u c l e u s o r c r e s t o f t h e s y l -l a b l e , (p. 117). The l i n g u i s t i c s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e s y l l a b l e d i s c u s s e d above have been d i v i d e d i n t o two groups depending on whether t h e t h e o r i s t emphasized c e n t r a l o r t e r m i n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e u n i t under c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . From a n o t h e r p o i n t o f view, however, t h e d e f i n i t i o n s b e l o n g i n a s i n g l e group s i n c e t h e y a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t a l l d e f i n e t h e s y l l a b l e i n terms o f s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s . The f e a t u r e s d i f f e r i n each case ( i n t e n s i t y , a i r f l o w , e t c . ) , and thus t h e u n i t which i s e s t a b l i s h e d d i f f e r s depending on which f e a t u r e i s s p e c i f i e d , but t h e p r i n c i p l e remains t h e same. That i s , a l t h o u g h , deSaussure, P i k e , S t e t s o n and R o s e t t i d e f i n e t h e s y l l a b l e i n terms o f p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e u n i t ( b e g i n -n i n g , m i d d l e , o r end), th e y can a l s o be seen t o d e f i n e t h e s y l l a b l e i n terms of t h e e x t e n t of i n f l u e n c e of a s i n g l e parameter. The r e s u l t i n g u n i t s ( " s y l l a b l e s " ) a r e u n l i k e l y t o be t h e same f o r a l l c r i t e r i a used. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f d e f i n i n g u n i t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o dynamic parameters i s p r e s e n t l y an i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h . T h e r e a r e many s t u d i e s which have attempted t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e l i m i t u n i t s o f speech p r o d u c t i o n by o b s e r v i n g one f e a t u r e and e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s b o u n d a r i e s , i t s onset and o f f s e t , w i t h i n l a r g e r p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s . Some of t h i s r e s e a r c h and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t experiment i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h . I - 10 -2.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s A t t e m p t i n g t o D e l i m i t Speech P r o d u c t i o n U n i t s Many approaches have been used i n attempts t o d e l i m i t " u n i t s of speech p r o d u c t i o n " . Temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e s , s t u d i e s o f speech e r r o r s and c o a r t i c u l a t i o n r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t some o f t h e a r e a s o f l i n g u i s t i c endeavour r e l e v a n t t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and w i l l thus be s u r v e y e d below. F i r s t , however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o no t e t h e d i s t i n c -t i o n between a p h o n e t i c and a phonemic u n i t . A p h o n e t i c s y l l a b l e ( i f such a u n i t e x i s t s ) i s a s y l l a b l e i n which t h e u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s d e f i n e d by t h e same c r i t e r i a f o r a l l languages i n v e s t i g a t e d . I f , how-eve r , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e " s y l l a b l e " l i m i t s o r d e f i n i n g parameters a r e not independent o f t h e language under s t u d y , t h e n one must assume t h a t " s y l l a b i c i t y " i s phonemic. I t may be seen f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d below t h a t s y l l a b l e u n i t s a r e l a n -guage s p e c i f i c r a t h e r t h a n language u n i v e r s a l . The t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n m o n o s y l l a b i c and d i s y l l a b i c E n g l i s h words were i n v e s t i g a t e d by L e h i s t e (1971) who e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t e m p o r a l compensation e x i s t s between p a i r s o f segments as w e l l as w i t h i n t h e segments t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e word. T h i s i n t e r n a l c o h e s i v e -ness o f component p a r t s of words l e a d s L e h i s t e t o s u p p o r t a t h e o r y t h a t words may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a n t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d by r e f e r e n c e t o word b o u n d a r i e s . The o b s e r v e d i n t e r n a l c o h e s i v e n e s s i s an im p o r t a n t p o i n t f o r d e p a r t u r e when s t u d y i n g t h e component f e a t u r e s which make up p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s as a whole. Thus i t i s r e l e v a n t t o mo n i t o r one parameter, such as " r o u n d i n g " , and determ i n e i f i t has any p r e d i c t a b l e b o u n d a r i e s o r e x t e n t o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n c o n t i n u o u s speech. - 11 -Fromkin (1971) c o l l e c t e d numerous speech e r r o r s and, r a t h e r than c l a s s i f y them, e x p l a i n e d them i n terms of u n i t s o f l i n g u i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e . In p a r t i c u l a r , she f o u n d t h a t when e r r o r s o c c u r by sub-s t i t u t i o n t h e r e i s a c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e p l a c e m e n t — i n i t i a l segments r e p l a c e i n i t i a l , f i n a l r e p l a c e f i n a l , e t c . A c c o r d i n g t o Fromkin, h e r data s u p p o r t a concept of t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e . She s t a t e s t h a t : In a s t r i n g CVC#VC...CV#CVC, one n e v e r f i n d s i n e r r o r s a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f i n a l consonant o f t h e f i r s t word f o r th e i n i t i a l consonant o f t h e f i n a l word ( t h i s ) seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n by Kozhevnikov and C h i s t o v i c h , 1965, where t h e s u g g e s t i o n i s made t h a t i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f Rus-s i a n u t t e r a n c e s a CVC#VC sequence i s r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o a r t i c u l a t o r y programs f o r each CV sequence. (p. 39). The work by Kozhevnikov, et a l . , (1965) ( r e f e r r e d t o by Fromkin) c o n t a i n s c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j -e c t . K ozhevnikov and h i s c o l l e a g u e s used v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h y , photography and dynamic p a l a t o g r a p h y , i n an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f an " a r t i c u l a t o r y program" and t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a s y l l a b l e . T h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o v e r e d such phenomena as t h e movements o f t h e l i p s i n p r o t r u s i o n , t h e time r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n a complex o f consonants and t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n which o c c u r under c o n d i t i o n s o f d e l a y e d a u d i t o r y f e e d b a c k . Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s an experiment i n which they o b s e r v e d movements of t h e l i p s i n s t r i n g s o f consonants p r e c e d i n g rounded v o w e l s . From t h e data a n a l y z e d i n t h i s , and o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s , t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t an a r t i c u l a t o r y program i s c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a t y p e of open s y l l a b l e o f t h e CV t y p e . - 12 -In an e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a r t i c u l a t o r y phenomena Fromkin (1965) s t u d i e d t h e a c t i o n o f t h e o r b i c u l a r i s o r i s muscle d u r i n g p r o d u c -• J t i o n o f s p e c i f i c CVC m o n o s y l l a b l e s . She s t a t e d t h a t t h e aim o f h e r p r o j e c t was: t o t e s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o r r e l a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s such as phonemes o r d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w i t h n e u r o m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y . (p. 118). Her f i n d i n g t h a t c e r t a i n p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s ( i . e . , r o u n d i n g ; t e n s e / l a x ) can be d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o ne u r o m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y i s of i n t e r e s t h e r e i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f u n i t s of speech p r o d u c t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , F r omkin c o n c l u d e d t h a t : T h i s s t u d y o f j u s t one muscle, l e a d s one t o imagine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a l l t h e muscles i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f any one speech sound may p r o v i d e a means o f s e g m e n t a t i o n o f an u t t e r a n c e i n t o phonemes. (p. 169). T h i s concept o f s e g m e n t a t i o n of u n i t s by means o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a r a -meters has been used i n o t h e r c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s t o group i n d i v i d u a l phonemes i n t o l a r g e r p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s . Ohman (1966) r e p o r t e d a s p e c t r o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f Swedish, Amer-i c a n and R u s s i a n VCV c l u s t e r s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t such u t t e r a n c e s a r e not s i m p l y l i n e a r sequences o f s u c c e s s i v e g e s t u r e s . The vowel c o n t e x t i n f l u e n c e d each u t t e r a n c e , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e VC p a r t depending on t h e f i n a l vowel o f t h e VCV sequence w h i l e t h e CV p o r t i o n was dependent upon t h e p r e c e d i n g vowel. The a u t h o r s t a t e d : We have c l e a r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s t o p c o n -sonant g e s t u r e s a r e a c t u a l l y superimposed on a con t e x t - d e p e n d e n t vowel s u b s t r a t e t h a t i s p r e s e n t d u r i n g a l l o f t h e co n -sonant g e s t u r e . (p. 165). - 13 -Carney and M o l l (1972) r e p o r t e d t h e same c o n c l u s i o n when they extended t h e study t o i n c l u d e f r i c a t i v e consonant-vowel c o a r t i c u l a -t i o n s . M acNeilage (1969) e v a l u a t e d a model of speech p r o d u c t i o n based on d i s c r e t e phoneme commands by i n v e s t i g a t i n g e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c and c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c data of 36 CVC s y l l a b l e s . H i s r e s u l t s d i d not show any e f f e c t s o f i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants on each o t h e r but h i s data i n d i c a t e d c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t s between a d j a c e n t phonemes. He c o n c l u d e d : T h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n some a s p e c t s o f t h e motor c o n t r o l o f e v e r y vowel and f i n a l consonant i n t h e s t u d y depending on which of t h e p o s s i b l e phonemes p r e c e d e d i t . (p. 1222). A l t h o u g h l e s s f r e q u e n t , t h e r e were s i m i l a r r i g h t t o l e f t e f f e c t s , t h o s e o b s e r v e d i n t h e i n i t i a l consonant b e i n g g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e i n t h e vowel. He p o s t u l a t e d a " c o m p a t i b i l i t y " and gamma l o o p mechanism t o e x p l a i n t h e l e f t t o r i g h t e f f e c t s and an a n t i c i p a t o r y mechanism f o r t h e r i g h t t o l e f t e f f e c t . I n t h i s l a t t e r d i s c u s s i o n he c o n s i d e r s t h a t because t h e e f f e c t o f t h e vowel on t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e f i n a l consonant on t h e vowel, a t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n can be made t h a t i n E n g l i s h : i n t h i s t y p e of s y l l a b l e , t h e CV component i s a somewhat more c o h e s i v e o r i n t e r d e p e n d -ent p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l command s t r u c t u r e t h a n i s t h e VC component. (p. 1233). In t h i s b e l i e f he i s i n agreement w i t h s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s by Kozhevnikov, et a l . , (1965) about R u s s i a n s y l l a b l e s . He s t a t e d , however, t h a t he does not agree w i t h : th e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e consonant and t h e vowel as independent commands c o a r t i c u l a t e d by means of mechanisms of r e c i p r o c a l i n n e r v a t i o n . (p. 1233). He p o s t u l a t e d t h a t : - 14 -t h e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r freedom and perhaps g r e a t e r n e c e s s i t y t o b e g i n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f th e vowel d u r i n g t h e consonant may be c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n t h e development o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y c o h e s i v e command s t r u c t u r e of t h e CV s e -quence, (p. 1233). A l t h o u g h M a c N e i l a g e ' s d a t a , l i k e t h e R u s s i a n r e s e a r c h , shows t h a t CV i s a c o h e s i v e u n i t , i t must be n o t e d t h a t h i s data i s not i n agreement w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e same language ( E n g l i s h ) t h a t he was i n v e s t i g a t i n g . L e h i s t e (1971), f o r example, f o u n d a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between VC t h a n between CV sequences i n h e r t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e s . D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1965) have r e p o r t e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l i p r o u n d i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r e s e n t e d h e r e . They t o o k as t h e i r b a s i s t h e r e f e r e n c e t o " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e s " made by Kozhevnikov, et a l . (1965). They s t a t e d t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e i r c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f l i p p r o t r u s i o n was: t o determine o v e r how many phones i n a s t r i n g c o a r t i c u l a t o r y l i p - r o u n d i n g g e s t u r e s c o u l d be o b s e r v e d and t o study t h e e f f e c t s of r a t e o f u t t e r a n c e , word and s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r i e s , and p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e on such c o a r t i c u l a t i o n . (p. 709). T h e i r r e s u l t s a g r e e w i t h t h o s e o f Kozhevnikov, et a l . , i . e . , t h a t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l i p p r o t r u s i o n was e v i d e n t i n up t o as many as f o u r consonants p r e c e d i n g t h e vowel. I t must be n o t e d , however, t h a t i n a l l of t h e speech samples i n which f o u r consonants p r e c e d e d t h e vowel, a "rounded" consonant, / r / , i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e s t h e vowel and p o s s i b l y a f f e c t e d t h e d a t a . D a n i l o f f and M o l l d i s c u s s t h e i r data i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e " p o s t u l a t e d by t h e R u s s i a n a u t h o r s . They suggest t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r work on E n g l i s h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e model - 15 -pro p o s e d by Kozhevnikov, et a l . , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y w i t h o t h e r " a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d f e a t u r e s " i n o r d e r t o determine t h e b o u n d a r i e s of such f e a t u r e s . They a r e not c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r data e s t a b l i s h e s a boundary o f t h e r o u n d i n g e f f e c t o f t h e vowel. They s t a t e t h a t : The f a c t t h a t l i p r o u n d i n g has been f o u n d t o e x t e n d back o n l y t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p r e v o c a l i c consonant sequence does not imply n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t t h i s t i m e p o i n t marks t h e boundary o f some u n i t , (p. 720). D a n i l o f f was l e d t o h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f K o z h e v n i k o v ' s " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e " because h i s r e c o r d o f on s e t o f t h e l i p p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n i t i a l consonant was not e x a c t l y t h e same as t h a t o f t h e R u s s i a n s . He says t h a t : Kozhevnikov and C h i s t o v i c h d e s c r i b e d t h i s g e s t u r e as b e g i n n i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e c l o s u r e phase o f t h e f i r s t consonant i n t h e sequence. In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , most o f t h e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e s o b s e r v e d began b e f o r e t h e f i r s t consonant c o n t a c t , n e a r t h e p o i n t i n ti m e a t which a r t i c u l a t o r y movement toward t h e c o n t a c t was i n i t i a t e d , (p. 717). The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s an attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r t h e c o a r t i c u l a t o r y e f f e c t o f l i p r o u n d i n g s t u d i e d by D a n i l o f f and M o l l . Both E n g l i s h and F r e n c h a r e used i n t h i s e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t o r r e j e c t K o zhevnikov's " u n i t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n " . 2.3 P h o n o l o g i c a l U n i t s O t h e r Than The S y l l a b l e The purpose o f t h e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e " s y l l a b l e " i n t h e p r e v i o u s S e c t i o n was t o d e f i n e t h i s term and i l l u s t r a t e i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i f t h e f e a t u r e " r o u n d i n g " has an i n f l u e n c e on p r e c e d i n g phones, th e n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e i s l i k e l y t o be of s y l l a b l e s i z e . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , - 16 -Kozhevnikov, et a l . , (1965) have i n f a c t p o s t u l a t e d a u n i t c a l l e d an " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e " . However, the p o s s i b l e c o a r t i c u l a t o r y i n f l u e n c e o v e r l a r g e r p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s cannot be i g n o r e d . Some u n i t s which may be r e l e v a n t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e immediate e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s i n c l u d e t h e word, t h e s t r e s s group and t h e b r e a t h group. Only a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n o f each of t h e s e terms i s g i v e n below as t h e i r meaning i s not as o b s c u r e as t h a t of t h e s y l l a b l e . Words a r e minimal f r e e forms which have s e m a n t i c meaning. They a r e u n i t s s p e c i f i e d by s e m a n t i c r a t h e r t h a n a r t i c u l a t o r y o r a c o u s t i c c r i t e r i a . The form o f a word may v a r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e number of phones of which i t i s composed, w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s p a t t e r n o f s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n and w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s i t i o n and amount of s t r e s s . Because words v a r y so much i n form i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y a r e t h e u n i t o v e r which c o a r t i c u l a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . They a r e , however, of i n t e r e s t t o a c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d y i f t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c o a r t i c -u l a t o r y p a t t e r n s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f word b o u n d a r i e s w i t h i n a sequence of phones under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P i k e (1969) has l i s t e d t h e " s t r e s s group" as one of t h e t h r e e " n a t u r a l u n i t s o f sound". The o t h e r two were t h e segment (phone) and t h e s y l l a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o him: a s t r e s s group i s a sequence of s e v e r a l s y l l a b l e s one of which, t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , has a much s t r o n g e r i n i t i a t o r p r e s s u r e t h a n do t h e o t h e r s . (p. 119). H e f f n e r (1949) r e f e r r e d e a r l i e r t o t h e s e s t r e s s u n i t s as "speech measures, phrase groups o r sense groups". He c o n tended t h a t t h e s e u n i t s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p h r a s i n g o f even l a r g e r " b r e a t h g r o u p s " — t h a t i s , u n i t s between which a b r e a t h i s , o r may be, t a k e n i n - 17 -(p. 173). S i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d more r e c e n t l y by Moses (1964). He s t a t e d t h a t : A speech measure (or r h y t h m i c group) c o n s i s t s o f one o r two (seldom more) s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , u s u a l l y accompanied by s e v e r a l s e mi-or u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , and ' d e l i m i t e d by f a c u l t a t i v e p auses'. A b r e a t h group i s made up of one o r more speech measures between pauses, a t which b r e a t h i s t a k e n . (p. 1 2 9 ) . 2.4 Parameters f o r D e f i n i n g "Rounding" In o r d e r t o use t h e t e r m " r o u n d i n g " t o d e s c r i b e an e n t i t y whose v a r i a t i o n t h r o u g h t i m e can be b o t h o b s e r v e d and measured, i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e r m and t h e parameters used t o s p e c i f y i t . T h i s s e c t i o n attempts t o d e f i n e t h e t e r m as i t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t experiment and s u r v e y s some o f t h e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d a t d e t e r m i n i n g parameters o f " r o u n d i n g " . Two k i n d s o f " r o u n d i n g " have been r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and each has been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d . Terms such as i n n e r r o u n d i n g v e r s u s o u t e r r o u n d i n g (Sweet, 1908), h o r i z o n t a l l i p r o u n d i n g v e r s u s v e r t i c a l l i p r o u n d i n g ( H e f f n e r , 1950) and l i p r o u n d i n g v e r s u s l i p c o m p r e s s i o n (Ladefoged, 1970) have a l l been used t o d e s c r i b e l a b i a l a c t i v i t y . I t i s not t h e purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t experiment t o attempt t o examine o r v e r i f y t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e two t y p e s of r o u n d i n g which have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . R a t h e r t h e aim of t h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n , l i k e o t h e r c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s , i s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y examine one a s p e c t of speech i n an e f f o r t t o determine some i n f o r m a t i o n about how i t changes as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . The speech aspect, of. i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t experiment i s h e r e termed " r o u n d i n g " . In p a r t i c u l a r " r o u n d i n g " w i l l r e f e r t o t h a t a c t i v i t y o f t h e l i p s which i s o b s e r v e d as " l i p p r o t r u s i o n " . - 18 A number of s t u d i e s r e p o r t a t t e m p t s t o d e l i m i t parameters which a d e q u a t e l y s p e c i f y l a b i a l a c t i v i t y . F u j i m u r a (1961) used measurements o f mouth ope n i n g t o q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y movements under s t u d y i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b i l a b i a l s t o p and n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s . M i d s a g i t t a l l i p s e p a r a t i o n and h o r i z o n t a l e x t e n t of l i p s e p a r a t i o n were measured as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . These measurements were t h e n u s e d t o p r o v i d e data f o r e s t i m a t i n g a r e a of l i p o p e n i n g . L i n d b l o m (1965 a, b, c) has p r o p o s e d a " d i f f e r e n c e c u r v e " t o r e p r e s e n t l i p a c t i v i t y . He computed jaw-dependent n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a b i a l p arameters and from t h e s e p o s i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e amount of l a b i a l a c t i v i t y by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . These m a t h e m a t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f l i p a c t i v i t y c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o show t h e v a r i a t i o n , as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e , o f parameters such as " s p r e a d i n g " . In t h e case of t h e sequence / adod /, f o r example, t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i p s changes from a s p r e a d (+ "spread") t o a rounded (- "spread") c o n d i t i o n as t h e vowel changes from / a / t o / o / . Fromkin (1964) r e p o r t e d on p h o t o g r a p h i c , x-ray and p l a s t e r c a s t data used t o d e t e r m i n e some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c parameters of l i p p o s i t i o n s i n American E n g l i s h vowels. She c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e t of rounded vowels can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from non-rounded vowels by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f l i p h e i g h t , l i p w i d t h , and lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . She a l s o n o t e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e s e t of "rounded" vowels so e s t a b l i s h e d , / u / always has t h e minimum v a l u e on both h e i g h t and w i d t h d i m e n s i o n s . In a l a t e r study (1965), Fromkin i n v e s t i g a t e d c e r t a i n p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s t h r o u g h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n of m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , she r e c o r d e d t h e o n s e t o f e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e o r b i c u l a r i s o r i s muscle, i n o r d e r t o determine i t s f u n c t i o n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f 12 - 19 -v o c a l i c and t h r e e c o n s o n a n t a l phonemes of American E n g l i s h . She f o u n d t h a t degrees of muscular t e n s i o n d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e d rounded and un-rounded vowels. In c h o o s i n g t h e rounded/unrounded d i s t i n c t i o n she n o t e d t h a t : The term "rounded" i n r e f e r e n c e t o American E n g l i s h vowels i s m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e f o r t h e most p a r t o n l y p r o t r u s i o n o f (the) lower l i p i s i n v o l v e d . (p. 121). P e r k e l l (1969) r e f e r s t o Fromkin's f i n d i n g s i n h i s r e p o r t of a c i n e r a d i o g r a p h i c study of c e r t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of speech p r o d u c t i o n . T h r ee of t h e measurements he made were upper l i p p r o t r u s i o n , lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n and h e i g h t of l i p a p e r t u r e . H i s data show t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g between l i p p r o t r u s i o n and a p e r t u r e c o n s t r i c t i o n f o r /u/ and / of. He c o n c l u d e s , t h e r e f o r e ( i n agreement w i t h F r o m k i n ) , t h a t t h e two a c t i v i t i e s have independent f u n c t i o n s . L i p p r o t r u s i o n was a l s o t h e parameter used by K o z h e v n i k o v , e t a l . , (1965) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e s " . They a l s o used e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s t o r e c o r d .the a c t i v i t y o f t h e o r b i c u l a r i s o r i s muscle of the l ower l i p and so o b t a i n measurements f o r t h e amount and t i m e of l i p p r o t r u s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) i n t h e i r c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s o f l i p r o u n d i n g measured o n l y l i p p r o t r u s i o n . To them, t h i s parameter p r o v i d e d an adequate i n d i c a t i o n of t h e p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e b e i n g s t u d i e d and was t h e r e f o r e used' synonomously w i t h t h e t e r m " l i p r o u n d i n g " . 2.5 T e c h n i q u e s f o r O b s e r v i n g Rounding of t h e L i p s been S e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e t e c h n i q u e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e have p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e " r o u n d i n g " . The one most - 20 -v. p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e proposed experiment from t h e p o i n t of v iew of a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f equipment i s t h a t of d i r e c t cinematography. In a s t u d y o f t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y movements i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of b i l a b i a l s t o p s and n a s a l ! c o n s o n a n t s , F u j i m u r a (1961) t o o k motion p i c t u r e s o f t h e l i p s a t 240 frames per second. A s t r o b o s c o p i c l i g h t p r o v i d e d a s y n -c h r o n i z e d f l a s h f o r each frame. U t t e r a n c e s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e c o r d e d on one t r a c k of a magnetic t a p e w h i l e a p u l s e t r a i n , s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e f l a s h e s , was r e c o r d e d on t h e second t r a c k . The c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e has s e v e r a l drawbacks, t h e most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g t h a t i t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o s a c r i f i c e a c c u r a c y of o b s e r v a t i o n of f a s t v a r y i n g phenomena because of th e l i m i t e d frame r a t e of t h e camera. In a d d i t i o n , p h o t o g r a p h i c data must be p r o c e s s e d by hand, a f a c t o r which must be c o n s i d e r e d when d e c i d i n g upon t h e f i l m i n g speed t o be u s e d and when d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f human e r r o r a f f e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . T a k i n g i n t o account t h e drawbacks of F u j i m u r a ' s p h o t o g r a p h i c method, Kozhevnikov, et a l . , (1965) d e v i s e d a p h o t o - o s c i l l o g r a p h i c d e v i c e f o r o b s e r v i n g l i p movement. In t h i s method t h e moving o b j e c t , t h e l i p s , were photographed t h r o u g h a narrow s l i t on a f i l m which moved c o n t i n u o u s l y at a c o n s t a n t r a t e . A d h e s i v e t a p e o r t h e a t r i c a l p a i n t was p l a c e d on s u b j e c t ' s l i p s f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l dimensions of l i p movement and, depending upon which d i m e n s i o n was b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d , t h e p h o t o r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e was p l a c e d so t h a t t h e f i l m moved i n a h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n . D i s p l a c e m e n t s of t h r e a d s a t t a c h e d t o t h e l i p s by a d h e s i v e tape were s i m i l a r l y p h otographed and used t o r e c o r d movement i n t h e s a g i t t a l p l a n e . The o s c i l l o g r a m s , which were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y made, were m a g n i f i e d o r c o p i e d o n t o g r i d paper and a n a l y z e d t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on l i p movement i n - 21 -t h e t h r e e p l a n e s . D a n i l o f f (1968) used c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h y i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l i p r o u n d i n g . L a t e r a l X - r a y s were made at a camera speed o f 150 f r a m e s -p e r - s e c o n d . A s t r i p o f t h i n aluminum f o i l was a f f i x e d t o t h e m i d l i n e of t h e tongue t i p , and t h e m i d l i n e o f t h e tongue and h a r d p a l a t e were c o a t e d w i t h a barium s y l p h a t e s o l u t i o n i n o r d e r t o a i d i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s . L i p p r o t r u s i o n measurements were o b t a i n e d by s u p e r -imposing f i l m t r a c i n g s on a t e m p l a t e c o n t a i n i n g t h e lower jaw o u t l i n e and p e r p e n d i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e l i n e s . E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h y i s t h e method most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d i n t h e r e c e n t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d i e s o f l i p movement, (Kozhevnikov, et a l . , 1965; Fromkin, 1965; Tatham, 1968; MacNe i l a g e , 1969). B i p o l a r e l e c t r o d e s a r e u s ed i n t h i s method t o r e g i s t e r e l e c t r i c a l a c t i v i t y o f muscle u n i t s . The s u r f a c e e l e c t r o d e s used by Fromkin (1965), f o r example, i n h e r stud y of t h e o r b i c u l a r i s o r i s muscle, c o n s i s t e d o f h a l f a h o l l o w s i l v e r bead c o n n e c t e d t o a s u c t i o n pump which m a i n t a i n e d a n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e t o e n a b l e t h e bead t o adhere t o t h e l i p s . The e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c s i g n a l s r e c o r d e d by t h e e l e c t r o d e s used by Fromkin were f i r s t a m p l i f i e d and t h e n d i s p l a y e d on an o s c i l l o s c o p e . The a u d i o and e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c s i g n a l s were r e c o r d e d on a m u l t i c h a n n e l t a p e r e c o r d e r . These r e c o r d -i n g s were t h e n p l a y e d back and d i s p l a y e d by means o f a g r a p h i c r e c o r d e r f o r measurement and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . The measurement of e l e c t r i c a l impedance changes between e l e c t r o d e s p l a c e d on t h e l i p s i s a n o t h e r r e c e n t method o f o b s e r v i n g t h e i r a c t i o n . V a r i o u s p i c k u p d e v i c e s were e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h by Kozhevnikov, e t a l . , (1965) and used t o r e c o r d t h e movements o f l i p c l o s u r e r a t h e r t h a n l i p r o u n d i n g . The most s u c c e s s f u l method they d e s c r i b e d was made of a round - 22 p l e x i g l a s s clamp a t t a c h e d t o t h e lower l i p . A n e e d l e - l i k e g o l d c o n t a c t was f a s t e n e d t o t h e clamp and a f i n e s t e e l r i n g mounted above. The s m a l l c o n t a c t c l e a r a n c e and the f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s p r i n g a s s u r e d t h a t t h e c o n t a c t s t o u c h e d when a s l i g h t p r e s s u r e was e x e r t e d on t h e l i p p i c k u p . The c o n t a c t c l o s e d t h e c i r c u i t and a s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l was f e d t o t h e r e c o r d i n g system. (p. 2 5 ) . Some p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s have been made by L u d v i g s e n (1968) u s i n g h i g h f r e q u e n c y e l e c t r i c a l impedance measurements t o r e g i s t e r l i p p r e s s u r e and r o u n d i n g . He p l a c e d f o u r e l e c t r o d e s on t h e l i p s — o n e a t t h e m i d l i n e o f each l i p and one i n each c o r n e r of t h e m o u t h — a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e c o r d e d t h e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l impedances by means o f two e l e c t r o g l o t t o g r a p h s . N e i t h e r l a b i o g r a m gave r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a -t i o n about t h e d e s i r e d p a r a m e t e r s . He c o n c l u d e d , however, t h a t : The l a b i o g r a m s g i v e a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a -t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n and movements o f t h e l i p s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n might be used t o throw l i g h t on o t h e r f e a t u r e s t h a n l i p p r e s s u r e and r o u n d i n g o f t h e l i p s . (p. 6 ) . CHAPTER 3 AIMS OF THE INVESTIGATION The r e s e a r c h experiment r e p o r t e d h e r e was d e s i g n e d t o d e l i m i t parameters o f l i p movement which a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e " r o u n d i n g " and t o o b s e r v e t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s e parameters as a f u n c t i o n o f ti m e i n s p e c i f i c E n g l i s h and F r e n c h u t t e r a n c e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e aims o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. To determine i f t h e f e a t u r e r o u n d i n g can be q u a n t i f i e d i n terms of some measurable parameter (s) and i f so which one ( s ) . 2. To d e v e l o p a r e l i a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e t o i n v e s t i g a t e c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l i p r o u n d -i n g . 3. To attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a u n i t o v e r which t h e p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e " r o u n d i n g " has an i n f l u e n c e . Such a' p o s t u l a t e d u n i t i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n terms o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f o t h e r p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s such as s y l -l a b l e s , words and b r e a t h g r o u p s . 4. To compare t h e e f f e c t of r o u n d i n g between s e l e c t e d F r e n c h and E n g l i s h speech samples. - 23 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES 4.1 S u b j e c t s T h e r e were f o u r s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t — o n e f o r E n g l i s h , t h r e e f o r F r e n c h . A l l were c o n s i d e r e d t o have normal speech. The E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t was a n a t i v e o f V a n c o u v e r , Canada. F r e n c h Speaker #1 was a n a t i v e of G r e n o b l e , F r a n c e , who h a d been a r e s i d e n t of B.C. f o r t h e past two y e a r s . Her d i a l e c t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be c l o s e s t t o " s t a n d a r d F r e n c h " . F r e n c h Speaker #2 was a n a t i v e of Lausanne, S w i t z e r l a n d , who had been i n N o r t h America f o r 12 y e a r s . F r e n c h Speaker #3 was a n a t i v e o f South c e n t r a l F r a n c e who had r e s i d e d i n N o r t h America f o r seven y e a r s . A l l f o u r s u b j e c t s had had a t l e a s t an i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e i n l i n g u i s t i c s and p h o n e t i c s and i t was t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e a l t h e n a t u r e o f t h e experiment i n which t h e y were p a r t i c i p a t i n g . T h i s knowledge was not c o n s i d e r e d t o i n v a l i d a t e t h e data c o l l e c t e d . 4.2 F i l m i n g , Sound R e c o r d i n g and Time Al i g n m e n t F i g u r e 4 .1 shows a s c h e m a t i c diagram of t h e a p p a r a t u s used f o r f i l m -i n g and r e c o r d i n g t h e speech samples. S u b j e c t s were p l a c e d i n a " h o l d -i n g " frame d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i z e head movement ( F i g u r e 4.2). The head was p o s i t i o n e d by r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s at t h e t i p of t h e nose and on each temple, and by a f l a t b o a r d a t t h e back. Major movements were impeded by t h e a p p a r a t u s but s m a l l r o t a t i o n a l movements were not i m p o s s i b l e and - 24 -Remote on/off control CAMERA ^ ~7K 4.5* Pulse train - 1 per second Window MIKE \ MIRROR -> SUBJECT Light wire PULSE COUNTER S INTENSIFIER STROBE FLASH 7 v TAPE RECORDER Chan. 1 Chan. 2 Figure 4.1. Block diagram of instrumentation for filming and recording. Figure 4.2. Photographs of "holding 1 frame used to position subject. - 27 -s u b j e c t s had t o be asked t o r e f r a i n from such a c t i v i t y . A 5" x 5" m i r r o r h i n g e d v e r t i c a l l y t o t h e wooden frame c o u l d be a d j u s t e d t o p r o v i d e a l a t e r a l view o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s f a c e . A l s o s e c u r e d t o t h i s " h o l d i n g " a p p a r a t u s were a microphone, two s w i v e l lamps w i t h 500 watt b u l b s and w h i t e r e f l e c t o r s . The f o c a l p l a n e o f t h e camera ( B e a u l i e u R16) was 4.5' f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ' s l i p s . F i l m s were made at a speed of 66 frames p e r second (maximum a v a i l a b l e ) w i t h a l e n s h a v i n g a f o c a l l e n g t h of 68 mm. The s u b j e c t c o n t r o l l e d t h e camera's motor v i a a remote c o n t r o l o n / o f f s w i t c h . T h i s p r o c e d u r e , m i n i m i z e d f i l m wastage by r e d u c i n g t h e time between the s t a r t o f t h e f i l m and t h e onset of speech. IT ! T Speech samples were r e c o r d e d w i t h a 1 B r u e l and K j a e r c o ndenser microphone a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one t r a c k of a h a l f - t r a c k two-channel Revox t a p e r e c o r d e r . A p u l s e t r a i n , g e n e r a t e d by t h e camera at a r a t e o f one per frame, p r o v i d e d a means of a l i g n m e n t between f i l m and r e c o r d -i n g . The t r a i n of p u l s e s from t h e camera was sent t o a c o u n t e r h a v i n g two o u t p u t s . From one of t h e s e o u t p u t s every 50th p u l s e was i n t e n s i f i e d , and t r i g g e r e d a s t r o b e l i g h t which p r o d u c e d an i d e n t i f y i n g f l a s h on every 50th frame. The second o u t p u t (with every 50th p u l s e i n t e n s i f i e d ) was sent t o t h e second t r a c k of t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r . In t h i s way, every 50th p u l s e c o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g frame on the f i l m . 4.3 A n a l y s i s of t h e Data 4.31 Sound The s i g n a l s r e c o r d e d on t h e t a p e were d i s p l a y e d g r a p h i c a l l y on a s i x c h a n n e l Siemens O s c i l l o m i n k l i q u i d j e t r e c o r d e r . The f o l l o w i n g - 28 o u t p u t s i g n a l s were d i s p l a y e d : Channel 1 - speech wave - from t r a c k 1 o f t a p e Channel 2 - duplex o s c i l l o g r a m - from t r a c k 1 o f t a p e Channel 3 - p u l s e t r a i n - from t r a c k 2 of t a p e Channel 4 - fundamental f r e q u e n c y of speech wave Channel 5 - l o g i n t e n s i t y of speech wave Channel 6 - time p u l s e - 1 per second A FrcSkjaer-Jensen t r a n s p i t c h m e t e r p r o v i d e d t h e i n p u t s t o Channels 2 and 4. The i n t e n s i t y o r speech power d e t e c t o r (Channel 5) was s i m i l a r t o t h e one d e v e l o p e d by P e t e r s o n and McKinney (1961). Mingograms d i s p l a y i n g t h e above s i x s i g n a l s were used t o s e g -ment t h e speech u t t e r a n c e s and t o determine t h e number of the c o r r e s p o n d -i n g f i l m frames. Spectrograms were needed i n some c a s e s t o v e r i f y t h e mingogram segmentations but f o r t h e most p a r t i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e l i a b l y i d e n t i f y t h e speech sounds under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by s t u d y i n g t h e m i n g o g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s o f Channels 1 and 2. Once a speech sample was segmented (see F i g u r e 4.3) t h e frames f e a t u r i n g each p a r t i c u l a r sound were d e t e r m i n e d from the numbers o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u l s e s . O n l y t h o s e frames r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i m p o r t a n t to' t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were t h e n measured. 4.32 F i l m P r o j e c t i o n Set-Up A s c h e m a t i c diagram o f t h e v i e w i n g t a b l e u s ed f o r t h e frame-by-frame a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i l m i s shown i n F i g u r e 4 M . The f i l m i s p r o j e c t e d by an L & W m o d i f i e d Kodak A n a l y s t P r o j e c t o r , v i a a m i r r o r , onto a h o r i z o n t a l ground g l a s s p l a t e . The h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e makes i t p o s s i b l e t o e a s i l y measure each frame d i r e c t l y . A l l parameters, i n c l u d i n g a r e a o b t a i n e d by a p l a n i m e t e r , can be made w i t h o u t f i r s t t r a c -i n g t h e image, a p r o c e d u r e which would i n t r o d u c e an added s o u r c e o f - 29 -Channel 1 Speech wave Duplex oscillogram Pulse train frame 100 Fundamental frequency Log intensity Time pulse - 1 Hz. Figure 4.3. Mingogram illustrating segmentation and film alignment procedure. Figure 4.4. Schematic o f p r o j e c t o r and measurement t a b l e . - 31 -e r r o r i n t h e d a t a . Parameters Measured H e i g h t , w i d t h and area of mouth o p e n i n g , p l u s lower l i p p r o t r u -s i o n can a l l be measured on the p r o j e c t e d image. D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e experiment a l l f o u r parameters were measured f o r each frame under s t u d y . As w i l l be seen below, o n l y lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n was used f o r most of t h e c o a r t i c u l a t i o n s t u d y . The f o u r parameters a r e diagrammed i n F i g u r e 4.5. A l s o i l -l u s t r a t e d i s t h e p a t t e r n of r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s which was drawn on each s u b j e c t and u s e d t o a i d i n measurement p r o c e d u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r h e i g h t and w i d t h p a r a m e t e r s . The t e c h n i q u e s u s e d f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e data can be summarized as f o l l o w s : (1) C a l i b r a t i o n . S e v e r a l frames of a c a l i b r a t i o n c a r d were t a k e n at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each f i l m . The c a r d , on which a square g r i d was drawn, was photographed i n a p o s i t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f i l m i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s l i p s . P r i o r t o e v e r y measuring s e s s i o n t h e c a l i b r a -t i o n frames were measured i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a c o n -s t a n t degree of m a g n i f i c a t i o n f r o m s i t t i n g t o s i t t i n g . The optimum p i c t u r e q u a l i t y was f o u n d t o be a t a m a g n i f i c a t i o n of one and one h a l f t i m e s t h e o r i g i n a l . A l l parameters have been measured a t t h i s m a g n i f i c a -t i o n ; a l l numbers c i t e d h e r e a f t e r c o n t a i n t h i s 1.5 f a c t o r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t m a g n i f i c a -t i o n of t h e image reduces t h e measurement e r r o r d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n S e c t i o n 4.4. W h i l e m a g n i f i c a t i o n Figure 4.5. Lip dimensions measured on projected image. p = lower lip protrusion h = height of mouth opening w = width of mouth opening - 33 -may de c r e a s e t h e sh a r p n e s s of t h e a c t u a l image, t h e p r o c e s s of r e a d i n g t h e r u l e r i s not a f f e c t e d . Each measurement i s made t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.5 mm whether the image i s l i f e s i z e o r 1.5 ti m e s l i f e s i z e . The l a r g e r t h e image i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s m a l l e r i s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e e r r o r (-0.5 mm) on t h e t o t a l measure-ment p r o c e d u r e . L a t e r a l P h o tographs. Lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n (p) was t a k e n as t h e maximum d i s t a n c e between t h e edge o f t h e m i r r o r and th e outermost ( i n a f o r w a r d d i r e c t i o n ) p o i n t o f t h e lower l i p . F r o n t a l P h o tographs. 1. H e i g h t o f l i p o p e n i n g (h) was measured as t h e d i s t a n c e between two h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s drawn t h r o u g h t h e mi d p o i n t o f t h e i n n e r edge of t h e upper l i p and t h r o u g h th e l o west p o i n t of t h e lower l i p . 2. Width of mouth o p e n i n g (w) was d e f i n e d as t h e d i s t a n c e between two v e r t i c a l l i n e s drawn t h r o u g h t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e l i p s . 3. Area of l i p o p e n i n g (A) was de t e r m i n e d i n two ways. In t h e f i r s t , a p l a n i m e t e r was used t o measure the area d i r e c t l y . In t h e second, on t h e assumption t h a t t h e shape of t h e mouth o p e n i n g i s ne a r enough t h a t o f an e l l i p s e , the area was - 34 c a l c u l a t e d from t h e f o r m u l a A = TT ab where a = h/2 b = w/2 Repeated measurements u s i n g both methods were made on a s e r i e s o f frames. I t was f o u n d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y was l a r g e r when u s i n g t h e p l a n i m e t e r . S i n c e t h e e l l i p s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n method was not o n l y l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e d i r e c t a r e a measurement but was a l s o much f a s t e r , t h i s p r o c e d u r e was chosen when measurements of (A) were r e q u i r e d i n t h e s t u d y . Once r e l i a b l e p r o c e d u r e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d , a l l frame measure-ments were p l o t t e d d i r e c t l y onto s p e c i a l graph paper d e s i g n e d such t h a t t h e time s c a l e was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t on t h e mingogram d i s p l a y . An example of a r e a (A) and p r o t r u s i o n (p) measurements f o r one sequence a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 4.6. A comparison o f t h e two graphs i n -d i c a t e s t h a t p r o t r u s i o n p r o v i d e s more i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h i s c o -a r t i c u l a t i o n e x p eriment. In p a r t i c u l a r i t i s ap p a r e n t t h a t , because a r e a o f l i p o p e n i n g f o r b i l a b i a l c onsonants i s i n v a r i a n t ( i . e . , i s a l -ways z e r o ) , t h e c o a r t i c u l a t o r y e f f e c t of r o u n d i n g cannot be o b s e r v e d i n sequences i n which such consonants a r e i n c l u d e d . Lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n i s a b e t t e r means of d i s p l a y i n g t h e " r o u n d i n g " f e a t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , and was thus used as t h e p r i m a r y parameter i n t h i s s t u d y . H e r e a f t e r p r o t r u -s i o n i s synonomous w i t h r o u n d i n g . - 35 lower l i p protrusion (p) • area of l i p opening (A) Figure 4.6. Lower l i p protrusion Cp) and area o: l i p opening (A) made for the French sequence " l a dextre immtable". 36 -4.4 A c c u r a c y and R e p e a t a b i l i t y of Measurements An e s t i m a t e o f t h e s o u r c e s of e r r o r made i n the c o l l e c t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f any body of data must be d e t e r m i n e d b e f o r e one can d i s c u s s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e data may r e v e a l . The e r r o r i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y o c c u r s as a r e s u l t o f p r o j e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , measuring t e c h n i q u e and t h e c u r v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s u s e d when r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e same u t t e r a n c e were a v e r a g e d . The o p t i c a l t e c h n i q u e n e c e s s a r i l y i n t r o d u c e s d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e image t o be measured. T h i s d i s t o r t i o n i s c o n s t a n t , however, and i s not c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e of e r r o r i n t h i s s t u d y where t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f a parameter r a t h e r t h a n i t s a b s o l u t e v a l u e a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . A p a r a l l a x e r r o r i s made when d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o i n t t o be measured. An attempt was made t o m i n i m i z e t h i s e r r o r by r e a d i n g each measurement w i t h t h e eye v e r t i c a l l y above t h e p o i n t i n q u e s t i o n . The major s o u r c e of e r r o r i s i n t h e a c t u a l frame-by-frame measurement of each parameter. A l l measurements were made t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.5 mm. P r o t r u s i o n v a r i e d o v e r a range of 15 mm and r e l a t i v e e r r o r was t h e r e f o r e e q u a l t o 0.5 o r 3.33%. An e s t i m a t e of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e measurement p r o c e d u r e was d e t e r m i n e d by computing the d i f f e r e n c e between r e p e a t e d measurements of t h e same frames. In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e b i a s i n t r o d u c e d by a n a l y z i n g c o n s e c u t i v e frames, a t o t a l of 60 frames, each 15 frames a p a r t , were remeasured and t h e r e s u l t s compared w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l meas-urements made. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was c a r r i e d out on one b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e f i l m and one c o l o u r f i l m . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was f o u n d t o be 0.356 mm and 0.440 mm f o r t h e c o l o u r and b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e f i l m s r e s p e c t i v e l y . -r 37 The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two t y p e s o f f i l m was th u s m i n i m a l . F o r economic r e a s o n s a l o n e b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e f i l m s were u s e d f o r t h e b u l k of t h e ex p e r i m e n t . In summary, t h e t o t a l average e r r o r f o r t h e e n t i r e measuring p r o c e s s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5 mm. T h i s e r r o r i s o f t h e same o r d e r r e p o r t e d by Houde (1968) f o r a s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e and i s c o n s i d e r e d t o p r o v i d e u s e a b l e r e s u l t s . I n i t i a l l y two r e p e t i t i o n s o f each u t t e r a n c e were f i l m e d and r e c o r d e d i n o r d e r t o determine t h e amount o f i n t r a - s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l -i t y . A c u r v e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e average o f t h e two measured c u r v e s was d e t e r m i n e d and used f o r t h e c o a r t i c u l a t i o n c o mparisons. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e s e e s t i m a t e d average c u r v e s was f o u n d t o be 0.458 mm f o r t h e i n i t i a l F r e n c h f i l m and 0.488 mm f o r / t h e E n g l i s h f i l m . S i n c e t h e d e v i a t i o n s were s m a l l , o n l y one r e p e t i -t i o n was made o f each u t t e r a n c e on subsequent f i l m s , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f a g r e a t e r number of d i f f e r e n t u t t e r a n c e s . CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n R e s u l t s of t h e p r e s e n t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n experiment a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was chosen because i t f o l l o w s t h e p r o c e s s u sed t o study t h e data d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i -ment. That i s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t each f i l m was t a k e n , a n a l y z e d and t h e r e s u l t s i n t e r p r e t e d b e f o r e a s u c c e e d i n g f i l m was made. By p r o c e e d i n g i n t h i s way, t h e corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s f o r ev e r y f i l m c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o modify t h e hy p o t h e s e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s made on p r e v i o u s f i l m s . In t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s below, t h e f i l m s f o r each language a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e -quence i n which t h e y were made. The data o b t a i n e d f o r E n g l i s h and F r e n c h a r e g i v e n i n S e c t i o n s 5.1 and 5.2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 5.1 The E n g l i s h F i l m s S e v e r a l p i l o t f i l m s u s i n g spoken E n g l i s h were t a k e n and a n a l y z e d t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about f i l m i n g and measurement p r o c e -dures. These f i l m s produced few r e s u l t s r e l e v a n t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but d i d y i e l d i m p o r t a n t and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o u t l i n e . These r e s u l t s have been summarized i n C h a p t e r 4 and w i l l not be r e p e a t e d h e r e J Sub-s e q u e n t l y , t h r e e E n g l i s h f i l m s were made. At t h e f i r s t s i t t i n g , two - 38 -- 39 -f i l m s , one b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e ( f i l m #1), and one c o l o u r ( f i l m #2), were t a k e n , t h e same corpus b e i n g used f o r b o t h (See A p p e n d i x ) . The s e -quence o f u t t e r a n c e s f o r f i l m #3 (See Appendix) was i n t e n d e d t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s made from r e s u l t s o f f i l m s #1 and #2. 5.11 Steady S t a t e Vowels A l l f i l m s s t a r t e d w i t h a sequence of s t e a d y s t a t e vowels which was a n a l y z e d t o ensure t h a t rounded vowels c o u l d i n f a c t be d i s t i n -g u i s h e d from unrounded vowels by some a r t i c u l a t o r y parameter such as lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . R e s u l t s were s i m i l a r f o r a l l such sequences. F i g u r e 5.1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f vowels when a r e a o f l i p open-i n g i s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n r between t h e two parameters p and A was 0.6577. T h i s r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s of Fromkin's (1964) study of l i p p o s i t i o n s i n American E n g l i s h vowels. She c o n c l u d e d t h a t h e i g h t and w i d t h measurements (which were used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o c a l c u l a t e a r e a o f l i p o p e n i n g A ) a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e movement o f t h e same muscles which produce lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . Two independent systems a r e i n a c t i o n . On t h e one hand, f o r /u/, t h e o r b i c u l a r i s o r i s muscle pushes t h e l i p s f o r w a r d at t h e same time as p u l l i n g them t o g e t h e r t o d e c r e a s e w i d t h and h e i g h t . In t h a t case t h e one parameter, A, can be used t o app r o x -imate t h e o t h e r , p. F o r / / and /of, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e lower l i p i s p u l l e d down and f o r w a r d by t h e d e p r e s s o r l a b i i i n f e r i o r i s muscle, thus p r o d u c i n g a - d i f f e r e n c e i n degree of lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n but l i t t l e change i n w i d t h and h e i g h t dimensions (p. 223). I t i s e v i d e n t from F i g u r e 5.1 t h a t /u/ (the vowel used i n t h e A (mm2) 2200 • T -2000 1800 __ 1600 --1400 --1200 --1000 800 600 --400 --200 --0 Lo-ci o o r p (mm) Figure 5.1. Area of lip opening (A) versus lower l i p protrusion (p) for steady-state English vowels. (r=-0.6577) - 41 p r e s e n t E n g l i s h study as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a "rounded" vowel) can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r vowels by h a v i n g t h e maximum p r o t r u s i o n and t h e minimum a r e a . 5.12 F i l m s g l and #2 The corpus of u t t e r a n c e s used i n t h e f i r s t two E n g l i s h f i l m s was composed of sequences i n which t h e consonant c l u s t e r p r e c e d i n g t h e vowel under c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g e t t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y l o n g e r . A l t h o u g h an attempt was made t o use r e a l words, i t was not always p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s r e q u i rement and s t i l l m a i n t a i n a "minimal p a i r i n g " between rounded and unrounded sequences. Words used f o r comparison a r e shown i n t h e Appendix. A l l of t h e s e words were s a i d i n t h e c o n t e x t "and t h e . . . " (/ aenSA /) . The frame s e n t e n c e / asnSA /, was used because, i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y f i l m s , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e u t t e r a n c e s under s t u d y were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e phones i n t h e i r immediate environment. The c o n s t a n t frame not o n l y p r o v i d e d an unchanging environment from which t h e sequence o f i n t e r e s t c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d , but a l s o p r o v i d e d a means of t e s t i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y of a l a r g e s e t of i d e n t i c a l p h r a s e s spoken by t h e same s u b j e c t . T h i r t y - t w o r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e frame were a n a l y z e d f o r t h i s purpose and a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e words, a group of u t t e r a n c e s were i n c l u d e d t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t of t h e p r e s e n c e of s y l l a b l e and word b o u n d a r i e s on the c o a r t i c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s under s t u d y . These u t t e r a n c e s a r e g i v e n i n the Appendix. * By (un)rounded sequence we w i l l h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r t o a s e -quence i n which t h e vowel r e l e v a n t t o our study i s (un)rounded. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e graphs made o f t h e p r o t r u s i o n measure-ments was d i f f i c u l t and no r e l i a b l e method o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e onset of r o u n d i n g c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d from t h e p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h i s s t u d y . S i m i l a r l y no c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be drawn c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r e s e n c e of s y l l a b l e and word b o u n d a r i e s w i t h i n a p r e c e d i n g consonant sequence. With t h e s e n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s i n mind, i t i s r e l e v a n t t o q u e s t i o n some of t h e h y p o t h e s e s and c o n c l u s i o n s made by D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) which formed t h e b a s i s f o r some of t h e assumptions i n t h e p r e s e n t experiment. They p l o t t e d , as i n t h e p r e s -ent s t u d y , l o w e r l i p p r o t r u s i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . Segmentation of t h e u t t e r a n c e was a c h i e v e d by d e t e r m i n i n g , on t h e c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c f i l m , t h e frame number at which i d e n t i f y i n g a r t i c u l a t o r y c o n t a c t s were made. In a d d i t i o n t o measuring p r o t r u s i o n , t h e a u t h o r s a l s o r e c o r d e d : (1) t h e p o i n t s a t which a r t i c u l a t o r s began move-ment toward o r away from a c o n s o n a n t a l c l o s u r e o r s t e a d y s t a t e , (2) t h e p o i n t s at which c o n s o n a n t a l c l o s u r e s o r st e a d y s t a t e s were a c h i e v e d , (3) t h e p o i n t s a t which t h e velum began t o r i s e o r lower, and (4) t h e p o i n t s at which a s t e a d y - s t a t e p o s i t i o n f o r /u/ was a c h i e v e d , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e min-imum t o n g u e - p a l a t e d i s t a n c e . ( D a n i l o f f and M o l l , 1968, p. 711). These p o i n t s were th e n marked on t h e p l o t s o f l i p p r o t r u s i o n v e r s u s t i m e . In D a n i l o f f and M o l l ' s s t u d y t h e p o i n t o f on s e t o f - 43 -r o u n d i n g was dete r m i n e d as t h a t p o i n t on t h e graph of lower l i p p r o t r u -s i o n v e r s u s time where the p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e became p o s i t i v e . A l t h o u g h i t i s apparent t h a t t h i s p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e onset of r o u n d i n g , i t i s not o b v i o u s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s r o u n d i n g due t o t h e vowel r a t h e r t h a n r o u n d i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d j a c e n t c o n s o n a n t s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r -mine i f a d j a c e n t consonants d i d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r o u n d i n g g e s t u r e , D a n i l o f f and M o l l made measurements of p r o t r u s i o n i n u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n -i n g / r / , / l / , /m/, / s / , and /p/ p r e c e d i n g unrounded vowels. They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was e s s e n t i a l l y no changes i n t h e measurement o f l i p p r o t r u s i o n f o r /m/, / s / , and /p/, and p r o t r u s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h / r / and / l / were s m a l l and i n c o n s i s t e n t . From t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e a u t h o r s were unable t o e x p l a i n t h e s e p a r a t e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e s o b s e r v e d f o r / l / and / r / i n some of t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l sequences. They s t a t e d t h a t : i t i s p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , t h a t l i p p r o t r u -s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s e consonants and i s i n c r e a s e d i n magnitude i n rounded vowel c o n t e x t s . (p. 717). I t appears from t h e r e s u l t s of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t t h e above statement i s most l i k e l y c o r r e c t , f o r i t was not p o s s i b l e t o de t e r m i n e a s p e c i f i c p o i n t on t h e graph which r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o n s e t of r o u n d i n g due t o t h e vowel r a t h e r than t h e combined i n f l u e n c e o f consonants and vowel. As seen i n F i g u r e 5.2, d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s a r e e v i d e n t depend-i n g on whether a rounded o r an unrounded vowel i s p r e s e n t i n t h e s e -quence, but t h e a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e cannot be dete r m i n e d . From t h e graphs i t a l s o appears t h a t t h e "rounded" consonant / r / has a compounding i n f l u e n c e when combined w i t h a rounded vowel but' no c o n c l u -s i v e statement can be made from t h e s e d a t a . As n o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h i r t y - t w o r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e - 44 -onset of vowel Figure 5.2. Lower l i p protrusion (p) for sequences comparing rounded • and spread vowels. (English ' film #1) u t t e r a n c e / sn&A / were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o determ i n e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e sequence when i t was f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t words. F o r compar-a t i v e purpose s t h e u t t e r a n c e s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e t s a c c o r d i n g t o th e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : (A) a l l i t ems c o n s i d e r e d (n = 32). (B) items p r e c e d e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n = 19) (C) items f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n = 18) (D) i tems f o l l o w e d by a s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e s p r e a d vowel / i / . (n = 1 4 ) . Three measurements o f p r o t r u s i o n were made on each r e p e t i t i o n : p ( t ^ ) at t h e onset o f v o i c i n g o f / £ /. p ( t g ) a t t h e p o i n t of change i n i n t e n s i t y between / a / and / n / as seen on t r a c e 1 o f t h e mingogram d i s p l a y . ( T h i s p o i n t was not used i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s but was needed t o determi n e t h e shapes o f t h e c u r v e s shown i n F i g u r e 5.3). p ( t g ) at t h e m i d p o i n t o f f r i c a t i o n o f / & /. Some of t h e r e s u l t i n g graphs a r e shown i n F i g u r e 5.3 The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of pOt^), p ( t ^ ) , p ( t g ) - p ( t ^ ) , d u r a t i o n and v e l o c i t y were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each o f t h e f o u r s u b s e t s . A summary o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 5.1. As seen i n the t a b l e t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f o u r s u b s e t s i n t h e average amount o f p r o t r u s i o n a t time one. The wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r o t r u s i o n at t i m e one (49.19 mm t o 57.25 mm f o r subset A) s u g g e s t s an absence o f a " t a r g e t " p o s i t i o n f o r t h e vowel / a /. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not i n f o r m -a t i v e t o compare t h e v a l u e o f p ( t ^ ) w i t h o t h e r measurements made l a t e r i n t h e utterance^. I t does appear, however, t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e change - 46 -/skru/ 0.5 onset of voicing of /*/ 2mm Imm / s k r i / •* / k r i / /skid/ / s k i / -A / k i / onset of voicing of /&/ t (sec) Figure 5.3. Protrusion measurements of the sequence /aen6A/ aligned with respect to the protrusion at the onset of voicing of /a/. A) items followed by rounded vowel /u/ B) items folia-zed by spread vowel Ixl - 47 -TABLE 5.1 SUMMARY OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS CALCULATED ON SUBSETS OF THE FRAME SEQUENCE "AND THE..." (/ a n O A / ) P ( t x ) (mm) p ( t g ) p ( t g ) - p ( t j _ ) D u r a t i o n V e l o c i t y (mm) (mm) (sec) (mrn/sec) M SD 53.22 1.34 56.66 1.21 3.38 1.29 0.27 0.02 12.85 5.13 M SD 53.47 1.27 56.68 1.22 21 26 0.27 0.03 11. 92 4 .70 M SD 53.14 1.52 56.90 1.26 80 37 0.27 0.02 14.26 5.38 D M SD 53.32 1.12 56.29 1.09 2.82 0. 95 0.27 0.03 11.06 4.33 S = su b s e t of items c o n s i d e r e d (A) a l l items c o n s i d e r e d (n = 3 2 ) . (B) items p r e c e d e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n = 1 9 ) . (C) i t e m s f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n = 1 8 ) . (D) items f o l l o w e d by a s p r e a d vowel s y l l a b l e (n = 1 4 ) . - 48 i n p r o t r u s i o n , (p(tg) - p ( t ^ ) ) , p r o v i d e s more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e g e s t u r e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r i t appears from T a b l e 5.1 t h a t t h e a v e r age change i n p r o t r u s i o n i s 1 mm g r e a t e r when "and t h e . . . " i s f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel sequence t h a n when i t i s f o l -lowed by a s p r e a d vowel sequence. The t - v a l u e (t = 0.7385, df = 30) c a l c u l a t e d between the means i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . S i m i l a r l y t h e a v e r age v e l o c i t y o f t h e g e s t u r e appears t o be g r e a t e r f o r t h e subset f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel sequence, as opposed t o a s p r e a d vowel sequence. The t - v a l u e between t h e mean v e l o c i t i e s (t = 0.6292, df = 30) i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . In o r d e r t o determine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e l o c i t y , d u r a -t i o n and change i n amount o f p r o t r u s i o n , P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between t h e s e measurements f o r each o f the s u b s e t s . R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5.2. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e v i d e n t between change i n amount o f p r o t r u s i o n and d u r a t i o n , o r between d u r a t i o n and v e l o c i t y . In a l l f o u r s e t s t h e r e i s a h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e change i n amount of p r o t r u s i o n ( p ( t 3 ) - p ( t 1 ) ) and t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . T hat i s , v e l o c i t y o f l i p p r o t r u s i o n (or movement towards an extreme p o s i t i o n ) i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o t r u s i o n between t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of t h e u t t e r a n c e . A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t e d by MacNeilage (1972) i n a d i s c u s s i o n of jaw movement d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f vowels. He r e p o r t e d t h a t : ....maximum v e l o c i t y of jaw o p e n i n g and c l o s i n g movements i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount of jaw o p e n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r t h e vowel i n the s e t ( i ) , (e ) , ' ( 2 )• (p. 30). - 49 -TABLE 5.2 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHANGE IN PROTRUSION FROM t ± TO t 3 ; DURATION OF UTTERANCE; AND VELOCITY OF PROTRUSION GESTURE, MEASURED ON REPETITIONS OF THE FRAME SEQUENCE "AND THE. . ." (/ senOA /) S D u r a t i o n V e l o c i t y A 0.186 0.950*** B 0.073 0.982*** p ( t 3 ) - p ( t 1 ) C -0.095 0.982*** D -0.050 0.871*** A -0.352 B -0.235 D u r a t i o n C -0.254 D -0.474 S = s u b s e t o f items c o n s i d e r e d (A) a l l items c o n s i d e r e d (n = 32). (B) items p r e c e d e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n (C) items f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n (D) items f o l l o w e d by a rounded vowel s y l l a b l e (n *** s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e 0.001% l e v e l = 19) . = 18) . = 1 4 ) . - 50 -The r e was some e v i d e n c e t h a t s t r e s s i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d when t h e c o n c u r r e n t study o f F r e n c h f i l m s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t r e s s a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n s under study i n t h a t l anguage. When t h e onset and o f f s e t o f / u / was p l o t t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o i n t o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t , i f t h e s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e rounded vowel was s t r e s s e d , t h e n extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e ons e t o f t h e vowel and was m a i n t a i n e d t o a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e vowel. When, however, t h e rounded-v o w e l - s y l l a b l e was u n s t r e s s e d , t h e extremum p o i n t was r e a c h e d and th e l i p s r e t r a c t e d b e f o r e t h e vowel began. The vowel d u r a t i o n p l o t s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 5.4. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n a l l c a s e s i n which the sequence under c o n s i d e r a t i o n was s a i d as a s t r e s s e d word i n t h e frame "and t h e . . . " , t h e extremum was r e a c h e d d u r i n g /u/. In t h e case o f / A n s k r u ./, / n A n s k r u ./, and / hsenskru /, when t h e s t r e s s o c c u r r e d on t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e , t h e extremum o c c u r r e d b e f o r e /u/. The f i r s t r e p e t i t i o n of t h e sequence /Anskru / had emphasis on t h e second s y l -l a b l e and t h e graph f o r t h i s sequence l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s t r e s s i n f l u e n c e s t h e form and f u n c t i o n of t h e vowel. 5.13 F i l m #3 The corpus of u t t e r a n c e s f o r f i l m #3 (See Appendix) was d e s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f s t r e s s o b s e r v e d i n f i l m s #1 and #2. S e v e r a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s o c c u r when attemp t s a r e made t o study t h e e f f e c t s of changes i n s t r e s s on E n g l i s h words, p a r t i c u l a r l y * H e r e a f t e r extremum p r o t r u s i o n w i l l mean maximum p r o t r u s i o n f o r rounded vowel sequences, minimum p r o t r u s i o n f o r unrounded vowel s e -quences. - 51 -T T T" f 1— t — r t T t Doint of extremum protrusion /ku/ /sku/ /skud/ /kru/ /skru/ T "f" /Anskru/ /Anskru/ /nAnskru/ /hsnskru/ Figure 5.4. Vowel onset and offset plotted with reference to extremum protrusion. Arrows indicate points of retraction from extremum protrusion. - 52 -i n s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g /u/. I t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d minimal p a i r s o f u t t e r a n c e s d i f f e r i n g o n l y by s t r e s s (not t o speak of the d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g consonant c l u s t e r s which do not have an a s s o c i a t e d p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e which o b s c u r e s t h e g e s t u r e under i n v e s t i g a -t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n , /u/ i s n e a r l y always s t r e s s e d and when u n s t r e s s e d i s r e d u c e d t o / o / . A s i m i l a r r e d u c t i o n t o /(./ o c c u r s w i t h / i / , t h e vowel one would use t o compare t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t o f s t r e s s between t h e maximally rounded vowel and t h e maximally s p r e a d vowel. In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s problem, two t y p e s o f s t r e s s p a t t e r n s were chosen. The l i s t g i v e n i n t h e Appendix i n c l u d e s words i n which s t r e s s on t h e vowel under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( / i / , / ( , / , /u/, / o /) s h i f t s f rom secondary t o p r i m a r y ( /HA 111tud/ t o /mA111 t u d i n a s / ) . The s e n -t e n c e s i n t h e Appendix were d e s i g n e d t o t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n vowel e f f e c t when emphatic s t r e s s i s p r e s e n t . In f i l m s £1 and #2 i t appeared t h a t extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e vowel under c o n s i d e r a t i o n when t h e vowel was s t r e s s e d , but when t h e vowel was i n an u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n , as i n / n A n s k r u ./, extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e on s e t o f t h e vowel. R e s u l t s of f i l m #3 c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n (See F i g u r e s 5.5 and 5.6). In a l l c a s e s extremum p r o t r u s i o n was r e t a i n e d t o a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e vowel. T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t when /u/ was m i n i m a l l y s t r e s s e d , p r o t r u s i o n r e t r a c t e d from t h e t a r g e t p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t h e onset o f t h e vowel. An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e s u l t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s f i l m may be t h a t t h e consonant c o n t e x t o f the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e had a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e t h a n t h e s t r e s s p a t t e r n i t s e l f . I t was f i r s t h y p o t h -e s i z e d t h a t p rimary s t r e s s on an i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e p roduced t h e d i f f e r -ence i n t h e p o s i t i o n of extremum p r o t r u s i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o vowel - 53 -Figure 5.5. Lower l i p protrusion (p) for sequences comparing primary and secondary stress. (English film #3) Figure 5.6. Protrusion measurements made on sentences comparing the effect of emphatic stress. (English film #3) - 55 -o n s e t . T h i s was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d , however, when s t r e s s was p u r p o s e -f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f i l m #3. The o n l y o t h e r a s p e c t which made t h e t h r e e u t t e r a n c e s / Anskru/, / nAnskru/ and / hanskru./ d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e comparable / aancAskru / sequence was t h e pr e s e n c e of t h e consonant /n / p r e c e d i n g t h e / s k r / c l u s t e r . As mentioned above, D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) a l l u d e d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l i p p r o t r u s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h consonants / l / and / r / may be i n c r e a s e d i n rounded vowel c o n t e x t s . O b s e r v a t i o n s made i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t / n/ i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e p r o t r u s i o n o f /u/, and i s a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e f o r r e j e c t i n g t h e assumption t h a t consonants do not a f f e c t t h e c o a r t i c u l a -t i o n o f p r o t r u s i o n . I t was n o t e d above t h a t s p r e a d vowel sequences ( / i / , A/) were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o r p u s . The i n t e r f e r e n c e o f a d j a c e n t consonants w i t h s p r e a d vowels make c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s about t h e onset o f p r o t r u s i o n i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s t i m e . Thus comparisons w i t h t h e rounded s e t o f u t t e r a n c e s c o u l d be made o n l y i n t h e e m p h a t i c - s t r e s s s h i f t c o n d i t i o n . In t h a t c a s e , f o r both rounded and s p r e a d v o w e l s , emphatic s t r e s s c o n d i -t i o n s p r o d u c e d a more extreme p r o t r u s i o n by an average o f 2 mm. 5.14 C o n c l u s i o n Few c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h e E n g l i s h data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s apparent t h a t more r e s e a r c h needs t o be c o n d u c t e d b e f o r e c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l i p r o u n d i n g can be a d e q u a t e l y d i s c u s s e d . Assumptions were made a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , some o f which, b a s e d on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , p r o v e d u n t e n a b l e . As i n d i c a t e d above, the assumption (made h e r e and i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ) t h a t a p o i n t o f o n s e t of p r o t r u s i o n can be e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d i s now p a r t i c u l a r l y - 56 -q u e s t i o n a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n has not been g i v e n t o t h e n a t u r e of consonant g r o u p i n g i n E n g l i s h . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h must d e a l w i t h t h e l a t t e r problem b e f o r e an answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t i m i n g of l ower l i p p r o t r u s i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d . In t h e c o a r t i c u l a t i o n experiment r e p o r t e d by D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968), the a u t h o r s used E n g l i s h consonant c l u s t e r s which a supplementary experiment showed, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , t o have no d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e o n s e t of t h e p r o t r u -s i o n g e s t u r e . R e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n . C e r t a i n phones, i n c l u d i n g / r / , / s / and / l / , d i d appear t o i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a d j a c e n t vowel, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e vowel was rounded. The two component p a r t s of t h e r o u n d i n g g e s t u r e , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e vowel and consonant c o n t e x t s , c o u l d not be s e p -a r a t e d . In E n g l i s h , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d rounded vowel u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g c l u s t e r s o f two o r more consonants which do not i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one of t h e consonants which p o s s e s s a p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e apparent t h a t s p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s w i l l need t o be p e r f o r m e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h when, and t o what degree lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n i s p r e s e n t when t h e s e sounds a r e produced. A s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of t h e s e consonants b e f o r e , a f t e r and between both rounded and unrounded vowels may r e v e a l i n f o r m a t i o n which can be a p p l i e d t o a study o f a p a r t i c u l a r consonant's f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a consonant c l u s t e r i n comparable rounded/ unrounded cont ext s. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l a r g e r sequences t h a n the a c t u a l CC...V p o r t i o n s . D a n i l o f f and M o l l p l o t t e d measurements for, o n l y t h o s e frames which i n c l u d e d t h e immediate c o n -sonants and vowels of i n t e r e s t t o t h e i r s t u d y . A g r e a t e r awareness of t h e c o n s o n a n t a l i n f l u e n c e might have been a c h i e v e d i f t h e a n a l y s e s had 57 i n c l u d e d more o f t h e u t t e r a n c e . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , when l a r g e r segments were examined, i t was apparent t h a t many f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g s t r e s s , a f f e c t e d t h e t i m i n g and amount o f lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e judgments were not c o m p l e t e l y q u a n t i f i a b l e , t h e y were s u f f i c i e n t l y so t o r e v e a l t h e c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d i n s o l v i n g t h e problem of d e t e r m i n i n g s p e c i f i c b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d " a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e " . 5.2 The F r e n c h F i l m s T h r e e f i l m s , one f o r each of t h r e e s u b j e c t s , were made u s i n g F r e n c h . As w i l l be seen from t h e d i s c u s s i o n , few c o n s i s t e n t o r p r e d i c t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be made from t h e data of f i l m #1. In o r d e r t o determine i f t h e i n i t i a l r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t s p e c i f i c o r whether t h e y a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t e d c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l i p r o u n d i n g i n F r e n c h , two a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were f i l m e d . I n t e r s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d on F r e n c h r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h because i t was e a s i e r t o d e s i g n a F r e n c h c o r p u s t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T hat i s , f o r F r e n c h , a corpus can be c o n s t r u c t e d t o compare rounded and unrounded sequences p r e c e d e d by c o n s t a n t consonant c o n t e x t s , whereas i n E n g l i s h i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o f i n d rounded vowel u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g c l u s t e r s o f two o r more consonants which do not i n c l u d e at l e a s t one o f t h e con -s o n a n t s which p o s s e s s a p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . The corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s f o r each o f t h e t h r e e F r e n c h f i l m s i s g i v e n i n t h e Appendix. - 58 -5.21 Steady S t a t e Vowels Steady s t a t e vowels were f i l m e d f o r each s u b j e c t . Vowel s e p a r a -t i o n f o r Speaker 3, on a graph showing a r e a of l i p o p e n i n g v e r s u s lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5.7. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e o t h e r two s p e a k e r s . The P earson r c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e vowels i n F i g u r e 5.7 was-0.8168. The a v e r age r f o r t h e t h r e e s u b j e c t s was 0.8630. T h i s v a l u e i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e E n g l i s h vowels d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 5.11 (r = -0.6577). The d i s c r e p a n c y between E n g l i s h and F r e n c h r v a l u e s may be due t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n sample s i z e - 15 F r e n c h vowels as compared t o seven E n g l i s h vowels. When n a s a l vowels were e x c l u d e d from t h e F r e n c h sample, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was -0.6156, -0.9322, and -0.5174, f o r Speakers 1, 2, and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 5.22 F i l m #1 The corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s used i n f i l m #1 (See Appendix) was c o n s t r u c t e d t o : 1) compare t h e e f f e c t o f vowels / i / , /u/, and / y / on t h e p r e c e d i n g c o n s t a n t consonant sequence / k s t r / , and 2) d e t e r m i n e i f word boundary p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e above consonant c l u s t e r i n f l u e n c e s t h e o n s e t of lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n . As i n t h e case of t h e E n g l i s h data , no r e l i a b l e method of d e t e r m i n -i n g a p o i n t of onset o f lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n due t o t h e rounded vowel c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e data of f i l m #1. In f i l m #1 t h e r e was ev-i d e n c e t h a t extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d i n t h e same p l a c e ( w i t h i n /s/) f o r a l l t h e consonant sequences examined, but t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a u n i t o f c o a r t i c u l a t i o n c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d o r , i f so, then the word boundary d i d not appear t o have a d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e (See F i g u r e 5.8). Many r e p e t i t i o n s of t h e same sequence may p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n about A (mm2) 900 800 .. a 700 .. 600 j e e 500 •• 400 02 300 + i ce 200 100 4- o o 0 a e oi CD 0 y 1 1 \ 1 » \ 1 1 1 1 — 1 r - p (mm) Figure 5.7. Area of l i p opening (A) versus lower lip protrusion (p) for steady-state French vowels. (Speaker 3, r = -0.8167) - 60 -P (mm) un complexe truque t (sec) Figure 5.8. Lower l i p protrusion (p) for the sequence "un complexe truque" illustrating position of extremum protrusion found in most of the French sequences analyzed on film #1. - 61 -such a u n i t , but even t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n l i k e l y s i n c e l i t t l e v a r i a -t i o n was o b s e r v e d between t h e two r e p e t i t i o n s of t h e sequences "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e " . S i n c e no i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from t h e data w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a u n i t o f s y l l a b l e s i z e , a t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s was made t h a t a u n i t l a r g e r t h a n t h e s y l l a b l e may be i n o p e r a t i o n . When t h e cor p u s was a n a l y z e d from t h i s p o i n t o f view, i t appeared t h a t s t r e s s had an e f f e c t on t h e time o f t h e extremum p r o t r u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e vowel. F i g u r e 5.9 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e extremum p o s i t i o n f o r each vowel ( t h a t i s t h e maximum p r o t r u s i o n r e c o r d e d f o r / y / , t h e minimum f o r / i / ) does not o c c u r d u r i n g t h e vowel but i m m e d i a t e l y precedes o r succeeds t h e vowel. In o r d e r t o examine t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n more c l o s e l y , t h r e e vowels f o r each u t t e r a n c e were p l o t t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e time of extremum p r o t r u s i o n o f each s y l l a b l e as f o l l o w s : (See F i g u r e 5.10) vowel 1 - vowel p r e c e d i n g / k s t r / sequence vowel 2 - vowel f o l l o w i n g / k s t r / sequence vowel 3 - f i n a l vowel o f u t t e r a n c e . In a l l sequences (except "une c o n t e x t e r u s s e " ) shown i n F i g u r e 5.10, vowel 1 i s t h e l a s t vowel i n a r h y t h m i c group which had r i s i n g i n t o n a -t i o n . Vowels 2 and 3 a r e t h e next t o l a s t and l a s t vowels r e s p e c t i v e l y i n a r h y t h m i c group which had f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n . From F i g u r e 5.10 i t appears t h a t t h e r e i s a t r e n d f o r extremum p r o t r u s i o n t o o c c u r b e f o r e the vowel when t h e vowel i s u n s t r e s s e d ( i n a l l cases but one t h e s y l -l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g vowel 2 ) . When t h e vowel i s s t r e s s e d ( i . e . , i s the l a s t vowel o f t h e r h y t h m i c group) t h e extremum p o i n t t e n ds t o o c c u r w i t h i n o r a f t e r t h e vowel. A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e - 62 -Figure 5.9. Lower l i p protrusion (p) illustrating time of vowel with reference to the extremum of protrusion. (French film #1) - 63 -/ l a d e k s t r u j asen£_str7-< / 1 a d E k s t r y n i v e r s e j A^-—-- — / l a d e k s t r i n imi tab I / — — /cskop I e_kstrv_ky la/-/cekop I e_kst ry_ke/'-^r^ /cekop I E_kst r_i_kro_m/-=r— /ceko t £_ks t ryd i ma t £_r A.^..... /Sskotekst rys/ : /aikotekst rj_d i ky_l /-^ -- . /ynbibl i jotekstrv_ktyre_/^. \ /ynbibl i jote_kstr_i_ktyre_/^ /ynb i b I i jot£_kstrj_ktema ^ persone I /-^— t l t2 Figure 5.10. Onset and offset of vowels plotted with reference to the extremum of protrusion of each syllable. (French film #1) t-j_ = time of extremum of protrusion of the syllable containing the vowel preceding the /kstr/ sequence. t2 = time of extremum of protrusion of the syllable containing the vowel following the /kstr/ sequence. t3 = time of extremum of protrusion of the syllable containing the final vowel. - 64 -dependence between s t r e s s and p r o t r u s i o n i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n i n t h e sequence "une c o n t e x t e r u s s e " . Vowel 2 was s t r e s s e d i n t h i s sequence and extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d a f t e r t h e vowel. I t a l s o appears t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n between f i n a l vowels o f r h y t h m i c groups w i t h r i s i n g v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , i n sequences i n which i n t o n a t i o n i s r i s i n g (vowel 1) extremum tends t o o c c u r r e l a t i v e l y e a r l i e r t h a n i n sequences i n which i n t o n a t i o n i s f a l l i n g . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n may be t h e dependence between i n t o n a t i o n and l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e l a s t vowel o f a r h y t h m i c group r e l a t i v e t o t h e p e n u l t i m a t e vowel ( B e n g u e r e l , 1971). B e n g u e r e l f o u n d t h a t ( i n F r e n c h ) w i t h f a l l i n g i n t o n a -t i o n t h e r a t i o between d u r a t i o n o f t h e vowel i n t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e and d u r a t i o n o f t h e vowel i n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e s y l l a b l e i s most o f t h e time g r e a t e r t h a n 1.5, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s . In s e -quences w i t h r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n , t h i s r a t i o t e n d s t o be l e s s t h a n 1.5, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case o f open s y l l a b l e s . I f t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n depends on vowel l e n g t h e n i n g t h e n i t may be t h a t extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r s l a t e r as vowel d u r a t i o n (due t o l e n g t h e n i n g ) i n c r e a s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was e v i d e n c e t h a t i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s a f f e c t t h e t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n i n t h e way d e s c r i b e d above, c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s cannot be made from t h e data o f f i l m #1 s i n c e t h e s e parameters were not c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e c o r p u s . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s f u r t h e r , a second, more s p e c i f i c c orpus was made f o r f i l m #2. 5.23 F i l m £2 The corpus o f f i l m #2 was c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o : 1) o b s e r v e i n t e r s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y on r e p e t i t i o n s of u t t e r a n c e s from f i l m £1, and - 65 2) t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s d e r i v e d from f i l m #1 t h a t i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s a f f e c t t i m i n g o f l i p r o u n d i n g i n some way. Two s e t s o f u t t e r a n c e s (See Appendix) were i n c l u d e d i n the corpus o f f i l m #2 t o stu d y t h e l a t t e r h y p o t h e s i s . One s e t of u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n e d rounded and s p r e a d sequences i n which emphatic s t r e s s was g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d . R e p e t i t i o n 1 was s a i d w i t h no emphatic s t r e s s . R e p e t i t i o n 2 was s a i d w i t h moderate emphatic s t r e s s and r e p e t i t i o n 3 was s a i d w i t h s t r o n g emphatic s t r e s s . The second s e t o f u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n e d p a i r s o f u t t e r a n c e s i n which one had r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n , t h e o t h e r f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n , o v e r t h e sequence o f i n t e r e s t . In o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e r e s u l t s o f B e n g u e r e l ' s s t u d y (1971) c o n c e r n i n g l e n g t h e n i n g o f f i n a l vowels w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e n u l t i m a t e vowels, sequences were c o n s t r u c t e d i n which t h e two vowels were t h e same. In a d d i t i o n , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f consonants on vowel l e n g t h e n i n g i n t h e case o f c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s , t h e consonants f o l l o w i n g t h e s e two vowels were i d e n t i c a l . Lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n and area o f l i p o p e n i n g were p l o t t e d f o r sequences "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e " and compared w i t h s i m i l a r p l o t s f o r Speaker 1. T h e r e was g r e a t e r agreement between t h e two s u b j e c t s on t h e area graphs t h a n on t h o s e o f p r o t r u s i o n . I t appeared t h a t , on t h e p r o t r u s i o n graphs t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n amount o f p r o t r u s i o n between t h e rounded vowel / y / and t h e s p r e a d vowel / i / was l a r g e r f o r Speaker 2 t h a n f o r Speaker 1. In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h vowels a r e s e p a r a b l e on t h e b a s i s of p r o t r u s i o n when t h e y a r e s a i d i n i s o l a t i o n (See F i g u r e 5.7), t h e r e i s o n l y a s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n both area and p r o t r u s i o n between t h e vowels when th e y o c c u r i n t h e r u n n i n g speech o f Speaker 1. Because t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made between rounded and s p r e a d vowels i n r u n n i n g speech i s so s m a l l f o r Speaker 1, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f - 66 -p r o t r u s i o n graphs on u t t e r a n c e s made by t h i s s p eaker i s more d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h a t o f comparable graphs of u t t e r a n c e s s a i d by Speaker 2. R e s u l t s o f t h e s e t of sequences i n which p a i r s o f u t t e r a n c e s d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o r i s i n g v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n were d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t because t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s o n a n t a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . S i n c e , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was o n l y a l i m i t e d amount of d a t a , t h e p l o t comparable t o t h a t shown i n F i g u r e 5.10 f o r f i l m #1 was not r e v e a l i n g and was t h e r e f o r e not p r e s e n t e d . From t h e data t h a t was a v a i l a b l e , i t appeared t h a t extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n o r b e f o r e t h e vowel f o r both vowels of t h e r h y t h m i c group (See F i g u r e 5.11). T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o su g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f -f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g of extremum p r o t r u s i o n between sequences w i t h r i s i n g v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n . An example of t h e p a t t e r n o f p r o t r u s i o n o b s e r v e d f o r u t t e r a n c e s s a i d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphatic s t r e s s i s shown i n F i g u r e 5.12. T h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p o i n t o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n s h i f t e d i n r e l a -t i o n t o t h e o n s e t o f t h e vowel as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s . As seen i n F i g u r e 5.12, t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s i s an i n c r e a s e i n amount of p r o t r u s i o n r a t h e r t h a n a change i n t h e ti m e o f o c c u r r e n c e o f the extremum p o i n t of p r o t r u s i o n . 5.24 F i l m £3 I n t e r s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y and t h e e f f e c t o f i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s on t i m i n g o f l i p r o u n d i n g were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f i l m -3. The corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s i n c l u d e d sequences w i t h r i s i n g and f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n , and sequences w i t h v a r i a t i o n i n degree o f emphatic s t r e s s . The emphatic s t r e s s sequences were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e used i n f i l m #2. In t h e r i s i n g - 67 -Figure 5.11. Comparison of lower l i p protrusion (p) for two similar sequences, one with rising intonation, the other with falling intonation. (French film #2) - 68 -P (mm) • • • c'est outrageux c'est OUtrageux c'est OUtrageux t (sec) Figure 5.12. Comparison of lower lip protrusion (p) for French sequences said with increasing emphatic stress. (French film #2) - 69 -v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n sequences, t h e same vowel and f i n a l c o n -s o n a n t s were a g a i n used i n both s y l l a b l e s o f t h e r h y t h m i c group o f i n t e r e s t . In f i l m #3, however, c a r e was t a k e n t o m i n i m i z e t h e co n -s o n a n t a l i n f l u e n c e o b s e r v e d i n f i l m #2, by a v o i d i n g t h e use of co n -sonants which appear t o have an a s s o c i a t e d p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e , p a r t i c -u l a r l y b i l a b i a l c o n s o n ants. A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e corpus were t h e u t t e r a n c e s "une s i n i s t r (e) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e " which were used on t h e p r e v i o u s two f i l m s . The graphs o f l o w e r l i p p r o t r u s i o n f o r sequences "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e " showed g r e a t e r agreement between t h e two sequences when s a i d by Sp e a k e r 3 t h a n when s a i d by e i t h e r of t h e two o t h e r F r e n c h s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s . In p a r t i c u l a r i t can be seen from F i g u r e 5.13 t h a t i n i t i a l l y t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e s p o n d -ence between t h e two graphs. The s i m i l a r i t y extends t o a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e consonant c l u s t e r / k s t r / where i t appears t h a t t h e vowel i n f l u e n c e t a k e s e f f e c t . From t h e s e graphs i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t , f o r F r e n c h , r o u n d i n g does not s t a r t at t h e f i r s t consonant o f t h e c l u s t e r p r e c e d i n g t h e vowel but a t some p o i n t w i t h i n t h e c l u s t e r . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n d i f f e r s from t h a t made by Kozhevnikov, e t a l . , (1965) and D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) who found t h a t f o r R u s s i a n and E n g l i s h r e s p e c -t i v e l y , t h e c o a r t i c u l a t o r y u n i t i n c l u d e s t h e whole CC...V complex. The p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g of p r o t r u s i o n o b s e r v e d f o r E n g l i s h and R u s s i a n on t h e one hand, and F r e n c h on t h e o t h e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t c o a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l i p r o u n d i n g may be phonemic r a t h e r t h a n p h o n e t i c . The o b s e r v a t i o n on F r e n c h , however, was e v i d e n t f o r o n l y one p a i r o f sequences f o r one sp e a k e r i n t h i s study and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e b e f o r e any s t r o n g c l a i m can be made. - 70 -Figure 5.13. Comparison of lower l i p protrusion (p) for the two sequences "une sinistr(e) structure" and "une sinistr(e) stricture". (French film #3) - 71 -No c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s were e v i d e n t on t h e p r o t r u s i o n graphs of sequences i n which i n t o n a t i o n was v a r i e d . I t a p peared t h a t extremum p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n ( r a t h e r t h a n b e f o r e o r a f t e r ) one o f t h e vowels o f t h e r h y t h m i c group (See F i g u r e 5.14) but extremum p r o t r u s i o n d i d not o c c u r w i t h any r e g u l a r i t y on one vowel r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r . In a d d i t i o n , i n most cases two extrema (one f o r each o f t h e vowels i n t h e r h y t h m i c group) c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d . T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be, i n s t e a d , a s i n g l e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e f o r t h o s e sequences i n which t h e i n t e r v e n i n g consonant p r e s e n t e d no a r t i c u l a t o r y o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e g e s t u r e . The o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be t e s t e d from t h e c o r p u s of f i l m #3 and t h e data c o u l d not be compared t o t h a t d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 5.10. In o r d e r t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, between t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n and one o r a l l o f fundamental f r e q u e n c y , i n t e n s i t y and vowel d u r a t i o n , each parameter was measured f o r b o t h vowels i n t h e r h y t h m i c group of i n t e r e s t . The u t t e r a n c e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two s a m p l e s — o n e compared sequences w i t h r i s i n g v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n , t h e o t h e r compared sequences w i t h rounded v e r s u s unrounded vowels. F o r each o f t h e sequences, each o f t h e parameters were p a i r e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h extremum p r o t r u s i o n t o see i f extremum p r o t r u s i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e extremum of any one of t h e o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s . T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t such an h y p o t h e s i s . F i l m #3 u t t e r a n c e s which were s a i d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphatic s t r e s s had t h e same p o i n t of extremum p r o t r u s i o n ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e onset of t h e vowel) as seen i n f i l m #2 ( i . e . , extremum o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e v o w e l ) . In o r d e r t o study t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, between s t r e s s , vowel d u r a t i o n and amount and t i m i n g of p r o t r u s i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g - 72 -Figure 5.14. Comparison of lover l i p protrusion (p) for two similar sequences, one with rising intonation, the other with falling intonation. (French film #3) - 73 parameter v a l u e s were compared i n m i s c e l l a n e o u s p a i r i n g s : (1) d u r a t i o n of s t r e s s e d vowel (2) d u r a t i o n o f f i n a l vowel (3) r a t i o between (1) and (2) (4) change i n p r o t r u s i o n between minimum and maximum p o i n t s o f t h e g e s t u r e (A p = P - P . ) ^ & " max mm (5) d u r a t i o n o f p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e (a) f r o m minimum p o i n t o f p r o t r u s i o n t o maximum p o i n t of p r o t r u s i o n (b) from minimum p o i n t of p r o t r u s i o n t o t h e f i r s t minimum p o i n t (on t h e graph) a f t e r t h e maximum p o i n t (6) a v e r age v e l o c i t y between minimum and maximum p o i n t s o f p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e . I t appears t h a t , f o r rounded vowel sequences, an i n c r e a s e i n s t r e s s produces an i n c r e a s e i n amount o f p r o t r u s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o t r u -s i o n ( A p ) between minimum and maximum f o r t h e mo d e r a t e l y s t r e s s e d c a s e ( r e p e t i t i o n 2) i s on t h e average 1.5 mm g r e a t e r t h a n t h e u n s t r e s s e d c ase ( r e p e t i t i o n 1 ) . The s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d c a s e ( r e p e t i t i o n 3) i s on t h e a v e rage 2.5 mm g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s sequence ( r e p e t i t i o n 2 ) . As e x p e c t e d t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e vowel when i t i s e m p h a t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d . The r a t i o between t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e e m p h a t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d vowel and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l vowel i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d . S i m i l a r l y t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e p r o t r u s i o n g e s t u r e i s g r e a t e r f o r the two e m p h a t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d c a s e s ( r e p e t i t i o n s 2 and 3) compared t o t h e non e m p h a t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d case ( r e p e t i t i o n 1 ) . T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d emphatic s t r e s s . - 74 -5.25 C o n c l u s i o n s With one e x c e p t i o n , a p o i n t of onset o f l ower l i p p r o t r u s i o n f o r F r e n c h sequences c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d from t h e p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h i s e xperiment. The one e x c e p t i o n was o b s e r v e d f o r th e sequences "une s i n i s t r (e) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r (e) s t r i c t u r e " spoken by Speaker 3. In t h i s c ase i t appeared t h a t t h e o n s e t of p r o t r u s i o n o c c u r r e d at a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant c l u s t e r r a t h e r t h a n at t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e c l u s t e r as h y p o t h e s i z e d by K o z h e v n i k o v , C h i s t o v i c h , et a l . , (1965) and D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968). S i n c e t h e method used was not f o u n d t o be a r e l i a b l e means o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s ( i . e . , t h a t " c o a r t i c u l a t o r y s y l l a b l e " e x i s t s and can be d e l i m i t e d ) t h e data was i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s on t h e t i m i n g o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n . R e s u l t s , however, were i n c o n c l u s i v e . I t i s a pparent from the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t , i n o r d e r t o s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o t r u s i o n and i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s more e f f e c -t i v e l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l corpus s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis on m i n i m i z i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h a l l f i l m s were a n a l y z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s , f o r example, t h e s e f a c t o r s were c o n t r o l l e d i n f i l m s #2 and #3, but were u n c o n t r o l l e d i n f i l m £1. In f i l m =1, however, sequences were i n c l u d e d which had a c o n s t a n t consonant c l u s t e r . In a l l f i l m s t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d parameter a f f e c t e d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . A t e s t which was beyond the t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y but which may p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e h y p o t h e s i s s t u d i e d would be t o compare r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e corpus used on f i l m #1 s a i d w i t h r i s i n g and f a l l i n g - 75 -i n t o n a t i o n . As was recommended above f o r E n g l i s h , a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of consonants b e f o r e , a f t e r and between rounded and unrounded vowels would p r o v i d e c e r t a i n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on c o a r t i c u l a t i o n of l i p r o u n d i n g i n F r e n c h . CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY' The s t u d y o f l i p r o u n d i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper i s an a n a l y s i s o f s i x h i g h - s p e e d (66 f r a m e s / s e c ) c i n e p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m s : t h r e e o f spoken E n g l i s h and t h r e e of spoken F r e n c h . One E n g l i s h s p e a k e r and t h r e e F r e n c h s p e a k e r s were used f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t was f o u n d t h a t , w i t h some l i m i t a t i o n s , lower l i p p r o t r u s i o n p r o v i d e d an adequate measure-ment o f l i p " r o u n d i n g " and was t h e r e f o r e u s e d synonomously w i t h i t thro u g h o u t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e experiment. Frame-by-frame measure-ments o f p r o t r u s i o n were made d i r e c t l y from t h e p r o j e c t e d image f o r t h e sequences o f i n t e r e s t . A corpus of u t t e r a n c e s was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each f i l m s e p a r a t e l y u s i n g r e s u l t s and h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d f r o m p r e v i o u s f i l m ( s ) . The o r i g i n a l E n g l i s h corpus ( f i l m s #1 and #2) sought t o compare t h e i n f l u e n c e o f rounded v e r s u s unrounded vowels on a p r o g r e s s i v e l y l o n g e r p r e c e d i n g c o n -sonant c l u s t e r . In a d d i t i o n , the e f f e c t o f s y l l a b l e and word b o u n d a r i e s on c o a r t i c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s was s t u d i e d . No r e l i a b l e method of d e t e r m i n -i n g t h e onset o f r o u n d i n g c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e d e s c r i b e d above. T h e r e was some e v i d e n c e t h a t s t r e s s i n f l u e n c e d t h e t i m i n g of extremum p r o t r u s i o n . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d i n f i l m ~3 as w e l l as i n t h e F r e n c h f i l m s . The corpus f o r f i l m #3 i n c l u d e d : 1) p a i r s o f words i n which s t r e s s on t h e f i r s t vowel o f i n t e r e s t s h i f t e d from s e c o n d a r y t o p r i m a r y s t r e s s , and v i c e v e r s a on t h e second vowel of i n t e r e s t , and 2) s e n t e n c e s i n which p o s i t i o n o f emphatic s t r e s s v a r i e d . - 76 -- 77 -R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t i m -i n g o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o vowel o n s e t when s t r e s s c h a n g e d — i n a l l cases extremum o c c u r r e d at a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e vowel. I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n changes o b s e r v e d i n f i l m s #1 and #2 were a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n s o n a n t a l c o n t e x t r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e degree of s t r e s s on t h e vowel. The f i r s t F r e n c h corpus i n c l u d e d u t t e r a n c e s t o compare t h e i n -f l u e n c e o f rounded v e r s u s unrounded vowels on a p r e c e d i n g c o n s t a n t f o u r - c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r . Word boundary p o s i t i o n was a l s o v a r i e d w i t h i n t h e consonant c l u s t e r . I t was apparent t h a t t i m i n g o f p r o t r u s i o n c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d by means of t h e methods used i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . T h e r e was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p o s i t i o n o f extremum p r o t r u s i o n (with r e f -e r e n c e t o vowel o n s e t ) v a r i e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e vowel w i t h i n t h e r h y t h m i c g r o u p — i . e . , extremum o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r ( i n g e n e r a l b e f o r e vowel o n s e t ) when t h e vowel d i d not c a r r y any unemphatic s t r e s s ("accent t o n i q u e " ) . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y two s e t s o f sequences (one c o n t a i n i n g p a i r s o f u t t e r a n c e s w i t h r i s i n g v e r s u s f a l l i n g i n t o n a -t i o n , t h e o t h e r c o n t a i n i n g u t t e r a n c e s s a i d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphatic s t r e s s ) were i n c l u d e d i n t h e corpus o f f i l m s #2 and #3. Two d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s were used. A n a l y s e s o f t h e s e f i l m s r e v e a l e d t h e r e was no o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g of extremum p r o t r u s i o n f o r any of t h e s t r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n s . I n c l u d e d on a l l t h e F r e n c h f i l m s were t h e sequences "une s i n i s t r (e) s t r u c t u r e " and "une s i n i s t r (e) s t r i c t u r e . " F o r Speaker 3 i t appeared t h a t t h e onset of r o u n d i n g c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d at a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant c l u s t e r , an o b s e r v a t i o n which c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s made by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s (Kozhevnikov, C h i s t o v i c h , et a l . , (1965) and D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968) f o r languages - 78 -o t h e r t h a n F r e n c h . S i n c e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n was made o n l y once i n t h e p r e s e n t study i t r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R e search on t h e s e two sequences as w e l l as o t h e r p a i r s d i f f e r i n g i n o n l y one parameter, namely, t h e vowel, appears t o be t h e most u s e f u l d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r both E n g l i s h and F r e n c h t h e b a s i c assumptions o f t h e experiment (which were based on c o n c l u s i o n s made by D a n i l o f f and M o l l (1968)) were u n t e n a b l e . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t a p o i n t o f onset o f r o u n d i n g w i t h i n o r at t h e on s e t of a consonant c l u s t e r can be s p e c i f i e d w i t h o u t f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount of p r o t r u s i o n which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each consonant i n i s o l a t i o n and t h e n i n v a r i o u s vowel c o n t e x t s . 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" i n s t r u m e n t a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f A r t i c u l a t o r y P h o n e t i c s : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y , " E d i n b u r g h Univ. Dept. of L i n g u i s t i c s Work i n P r o g r e s s No. 4, 1-43. - 83 -APPENDIX - 84 -Corpus of u t t e r a n c e s used f o r E n g l i s h f i l m s #1 and #2 and the koo and the key and the crew and the c r e e and the skoo and the s k i and the screw and the s c r e e and the skud and the s k i e d and t h i s crew and t h i s c r e e and unscrew and none screw and Hans' crew - 85 -Corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s used f o r E n g l i s h f i l m #3 say m u l t i t u d e now say h y g i e n e now say l u c i d now say f e c u n d i t y now say p l a t i t u d e now ! say m u l t i t u d i n o u s now say h y g i e n i c now . say c a l v i n i s t i c now say p l a c i d now say c a l v i n i s t now say l u c i d i t y now say fecund now say p l a c i d i t y now say p l a t i t u d i n o u s now D i d you say he was kidnapped? I'd r a t h e r have a k i d s i s t e r . I s a i d cooed a l r e a d y . I s a i d cooed a l r e a d y . No, I'm not keyed up. No, I'm not keyed up. What c o u l d come next? What c o u l d come next? When c o u l d they come? When c o u l d they come? - 86 -Corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s used f o r F r e n c h f i l m #1 une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e l a d e x t r e ou l a s e n e s t r e l a d e x t r e u n i v e r s e l l e l a d e x t r e i n i m i t a b l e une b i b l i o t h e q u e s t r u c t u r e e une b i b l i o t h e q u e s t r i c t u r e e une b i b l i o t h e q u e s t r i c t e m e n t p e r s o n n e l l e un compexe t r u c u l e n t un complexe truque un complexe t r i c h o m e un c o n t e x t e r u d i m e n t a i r e un c o n t e x t e r u s s e un c o n t e x t e r i d i c u l e - 87 -Corpus of u t t e r a n c e s used f o r F r e n c h f i l m #2 une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e l e p o u r t o u r n ' e s t pas f o r t i f i e i l y en s u r t o u t l e p o u r t o u r l e s douze b l o u s e s v o n t a r r i v e r e l l e v i e n t d ' a c h e t e r douze b l o u s e s que D e n i s ( e ) l i s ( e ) peut t o u t changer j e n(e) c r o i s pas que D e n i s ( e ) l i s ( e ) s a t i r e - l i r e n ' e s t pas p l e i n e i l 1'a mis dans s a t i r e - l i r e ou c ' e s t outrageux ou c ' e s t i r r i t a n t ou c ' e s t courageux ou c ' e s t e n q u i q u i n q n t c ' e s t OUtrageux c ' e s t I r r i t a n t c ' e s t COUrageux c ' e s t enQUIquinant c ' e s t OUtrageux c ' e s t I r r i t a n t c ' e s t COUrageux c ' e s t enQUIquinant - 88 -Corpus of u t t e r a n c e s used f o r F r e n c h f i l m #3 une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r u c t u r e une s i n i s t r ( e ) s t r i c t u r e ce doux t o u t o u s ' a p p e l l ( e ) T o t o r j ' a i m ( e ) beaucoup ce doux t o u t o u c e t t ( e ) goug(e) ro u g ( e ) l u i a p p a r t i e n t j e v o u d r a i s c e t t ( e ) goug(e) r o u g ( e ) un couscous s e r a i t d e l i c i e u x nous avons mange un couscous ce o u i s t i t i e s t t r e s p e t i t i l a t r o u v e ce o u i s t i t i que D e n i s ( e ) l i s ( e ) me s u r p r e n d j e n(e) c r o i s pas que D e n i s ( e ) l i s ( e ) une c o u l i s s ( e ) l i s s ( e ) f a c i l i t e r a i t l e s choses j ' a i b e s o i n d'une c o u l i s s ( e ) l i s s ( e ) ou c ' e s t o utrageux ou c ' e s t courageux c ' e s t OUtrageux c ' e s t COUrageux ou c ' e s t i r r i t a n t ou c ' e s t e n q u i q i u n a n t c ' e s t I r r i t a n t c ' e s t enQUIquinant c ' e s t OUtrageux c ' e s t COUrageux c' e s t c' es t I r r i t a n t enQUIquinant 

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