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Field-dependence-independence, anxiety and stress : relation to performance on a cognitive-perceptual… Britain, Susan Dorothy 1971

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FIELD-DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE, ANXIETY AND STRESS : RELATION TO PERFORMANCE ON A COGNITIVE-PERCEPTUAL TASK SUSAN DOROTHY BRITAIN M.A. SAN JOSE STATE COLLEGE, 1966 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of Psychology We accept this dissertation as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . n + f PSYCHOLOGY D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a MARCH 1 9 7 1 D a t e ABSTRACT The major purpose of t h i s study was t o explore the moderating r o l e s p l a y e d "by c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and a n x i e t y on the e f f e c t s which s t r e s s f u l events have on c o g n i t i v e performance, This .was attempted by experimentally t e s t i n g c e r t a i n hypotheses d e r i v e d from a c o g n i t i v e -a t t e n t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s , a n x i e t y and performance. An i n t e g r a t i o n of c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l notions of W i t k i n (1965), Wachtel (1968) and Spence and Spence (1966) l e d t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t p r e d i c t i o n s of the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s on complex problem s o l v i n g could be made e f f e c t i v e l y i f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s (field-dependence — FD , field-independence — F l ) were used as i n d i c a t o r s of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h a b i t s a c t i v a t e d d u r i n g s t r e s s . I t was argued t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was more i n f l u e n -t i a l than h i s l e v e l of a n x i e t y i n b i a s i n g tho responses activated.-- • dur i n g s t r e s s . The c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s of field-dependence and f i e l d -independence were r e l a t e d t o a c t i v a t i o n of dominant p e r c e p t u a l -defensive h a b i t s d u r i n g s t r e s s . F I perc e p t u a l - d e f e n s i v e h a b i t s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as compatible w i t h behaviors i n v o l v e d i n the s o l u t i o n of c e r t a i n complex t a s k s . I n c o n t r a s t . FD per c e p t u a l - d e f e n s i v e h a b i t s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as incompatible w i t h adequate performance on these t a s k s . The d i f f e r e n t perceptual-defensive h a b i t s were r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s of a t t e n t i o n t o t a s k - r e l e v a n t or i r r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i d u r i n g s t r e s s . I t was hypothesized t h a t a c t i v a t i o n of these dominant h a b i t p a t t e r n s would l e a d t o the exaggeration o f h a b i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s . I t was expected t h a t a c t i v a t i o n of F I h a b i t s would r e s u l t i n improved performance on a measure of f i e l d -independence; a c t i v a t i o n of FD h a b i t s would r e s u l t i n d e t e r i o r a t e d - i i -performance. In neutral conditions, less differentiation of perfor-mance should result since perceptual-defensive habits would not be activated. A second purpose of this study was to obtain an index of differentiation between FD and FI individuals independent of perfor-mance measures but related to the attentional level of analysis described for FI and FD habit patterns. An integration of Witkin's (1965) theory of field-dependence-independence (FDl) and Lacey's (1967) hypothesis about the relationship between cardiac activity and orien-tation to the environment provided the basis for several predictions. It was hypothesized that FI individuals would show cardiac deceleration during exposure to threatening visual stimuli reflecting an attitude of environmental acceptance. In contrast, i t was predicted that FD individuals would show cardiac acceleration, reflecting rejection of the same stimuli in the environment. Degree of field-independence and level of anxiety were determined for female university student volunteers with the Hidden Figures Test, the Rod-Frame Test and the Activity Preference Questionnaire. High anxious.-FI subjects (Ss), low anxious -FI Ss, high anxious-FD Ss and low anxious-FD Ss comprised four experimental groups. In order to determine the effect of the activation of FD and FI perceptual-defen-sive habits during stress, half of each group was given a modified test of FDI i n stressful, half i n neutral conditions. The stress condition was defined by the interjection of noxious slides of murder victims i n -between slides of items of the test of FDI, The neutral condition was defined by interjection of neutral slides. The findings generally supported the hypotheses about performance - i i i - -and cardiac a c t i v i t y . Although FI Ss tended to perform.at. a higher level, FI and FD Ss did not d i f f e r significantly from each other in performance or i n cardiac activity i n the neutral condition. Only under the stress-• -I, f u l condition was there any significant difference between FI and FD Ss i n either performance or cardiac activity. The tendency for FD performance to deteriorate while FI performance improved on complex items significantly exaggerated the differences i n their performances. There was also a marked difference i n performance v a r i a b i l i t y . F i r s t , FD Ss were more, variable i n both conditions. Second, the variance i n the performance of FI Ss decreased during stress while that of FD Ss did not. Level of anxiety alone affected neither average speed nor v a r i a b i l i t y of performance. The major difference i n cardiac response to the task was the occurrence of greater acceleration to simple items for FD Ss. Cardiac response to noxious slides was different for FD and FI Ss and for high and low anxious Ss, High levels of anxiety were related to i n i t i a l acceleration to noxious slides while low levels were related to i n i t i a l deceleration. Field-dependence was related to continued acceleration, field-independence, to continued deceleration. It was concluded that the differences i n cardiac activity during stress supported both Lacey's notion of the relationship between cardiac ac t i v i t y and environmental orientation and Witkin's theory about the defensive habits of FD and FI individuals. Further, i t was concluded that the increased performance differences between FD and FI Ss during stress supported the argument that the cognitive styles of field-depen-dence and field-independence are exaggerated by the activation of dominant habit patterns during stress. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I. Introduction 1 A. T h e o r e t i c a l Considerations Bo Experimental Hypotheses I I . Method 18 A. Experimental Design B, Subjects C. S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a D. Apparatus . E, Procedure F, Procedure f o r Terminating Subjects G. Dependent Measures H, Analyses of Dependent Measures I I I . Results 31 A. Behavioral Measures B, P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures IV. Discussion 50 A. MEFT, The E f f e c t s of Stress B. Perceptual Task, Cardiac A c t i v i t y C. Noxious V i s u a l S t i m u l i , Cardiac A c t i v i t y D. Post-Stress Observations E. Limitations of the Study F. The Stress Problem G. Summary Page REFERENCES . . 68 APPENDICES . . 7 3 Appendix IA. Mean scores on HFT for a l l groups Appendix IB. Mean scores on the RFT for a l l groups Appendix 1 C . Mean scores on APQ for a l l groups Appendix 2. Description of independent measures Appendix 3, Slides of MEFT instructions Appendix 4 , Detailed task instructions and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of procedure Appendix 5. Sample Post-Stress questionnaire Appendix 6. ANOVA : Solution Latency - MEFT Appendix 7 , ANOVA : Basal heart rate Appendix 8 . ANOVA t Cardiac response - MEFT Appendix 9. ANOVA i Cardiac response - homicide and control slides Appendix 1 0 , Cardiac response - control and homicide slides s means and levels of significance of the differences Appendix 1 1 . ANOVA : Standard deviation of the MEFT solution latency - v i -LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig u r e 1 . MEFT - S o l u t i o n Latency f o r a l l Groups . . . . . ' 3 2 Figure 2. MEFT - S o l u t i o n Latency f o r F I & FD, Two Conditions . 33 Figure 3. MEFT - SL f o r FD & F I , Simple and Complex items . . . 35 Figure 4a. MEFT - SL f o r F I & FD i n "both Conditions -Complex Items 36 Figure 4b. MEFT - SL - Simple Items . 37 Figure 5. MEFT - SL f o r a l l Groups, Both Conditions . . . 38 Figure 6. Beat by Beat Cardiac Response of FI & FD, Simple and Complex Items . . . . . . . . . . . 41 F i g u r e 7. Cardiac Response t o Simple and Complex Items of FI & FD 4-2 F i g u r e 8, ; Cardiac Response t o MEFT, a l l Groups , . . . . . 4 4 F i g u r e 9. Cardiac Response t o Homicide and C o n t r o l S l i d e s of FD & F I . 45 F i g u r e 10. Cardiac Response t o Homicide and N e u t r a l S l i d e s , a l l Groups 47 - v l i -ACKNOWLEDGMENT The task of advising a doctoral candidate and supporting that candidate through the creation of a dissertation can infrequently be accomplished with enthusiasm and i n t e l l i g e n c e . Dr. Robert Hare has accomplished t h i s s e v e r a l times j and I am g r a t e f u l to have been one of those candidates. I am very g r a t e f u l to the members of the doctoral committee who gave of t h e i r time and energy. In p a r t i c u l a r , Dr. Gerry Plum and Dr. Rava Potashin were exceedingly important i n major problems of e d i t i n g and i n c l a r i f y i n g underlying i s s u e s . Both Dr. John Y u i l l e and Dr. Charlotte David made h e l p f u l observations and comments throughout the study. S p e c i a l thanks go to three i n d i v i d u a l s not on t h i s committee. Dr. Juan Pascual-Leone gave f r e e l y of h i s time i n d i s c u s s i o n of his approach to the theory of Field-dependence-independence. Janice F r a z e l l e was t i r e l e s s i n helping me i n s t a t i s t i c a l , matters, E l s i e Eccles gave of her time and energy i n t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n and general support. CHAPTER ONE; INTRODUCTION The research and theoretical literature on cognitive, behavioral and physiological compensatory responses to stressors i s massive (Teichner, 1968), Perhaps more varied than the different levels of analysis of these responses are the terms used to label them, for example, defense mechanism (Freud, 1926), coping style (Israel, 1966), defensive style (Witkin, 1965), breadth of attention (Easterbrook, 1959J Broen, I9661 Wachtel, 1967), defensive patterning of autonomic responses (Sokolov, 1962), and short circuiting of threat (Lazarus, 1966), A major problem in this area of research and conceptualization i s one of predicting the power of certain stimuli to disrupt ongoing cognitive behavior in the individual. There appears to be a tendency for task-oriented cognitive activity to be t o t a l l y disrupted for some individuals, subtly disrupted for others and f a c i l i t a t e d for s t i l l others during the same stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to test certain hypotheses derived from a cognitive-attentional analysis of the relationship between cognitive styles, anxiety and performance. In order to more f u l l y understand this relationship a pa r a l l e l operation of recording cardiac activity was per-formed. The cognitive style variable of field-dependence-independence (Witkin, 1965.) has been conceptualized at an attentional level of analysis j and the work of Lacey (1967) on cardiac activity helps to establish a l i n k between the three factors, cardiac activity, cognitive style and attentional processes. Certain hypotheses related to cognitive style and performance were stated and tested. This allowed for discussion of the results i n terms of the implications of Lacey's (1967) work on cardiac a c t i v i t y for the attentional position presented in this paper. Below i s a presentation of different conceptualizations of the - 2 -relationships between stress and performance. Those positions that traditionally derive from learning theory are discussed i n terms of response hierarchies, relevant and irrelevant stimuli, drive stimuli, response compatibility; and they are considered f i r s t . This i s followed by a discussion of the cognitive style of field-dependence-independence (FDI) and i t s relationship with performance during stress. Finally, a review of Lacey's (1967) work and the implications of that work are followed by the statement of a number of testable hypotheses. Theoretical Considerations Much of the literature concerned with the disruptive effects of stress attempts to relate the individual's emotional state and any dis-ruption i n his performance. Thus, much study was based on a common assumption that other things being equal, anxiety has a straightforward but nonlinear relationship with performance, A close approximation of the assumption i s the empirically.idetermined Yerkes-Dodson Law (Yerkes and Dodson, 1 9 ° 3 ) stated i n terms of drive. It stated that the relationship was curvilinear with optimal learning at moderate levels of drive. Low levels of drive f a c i l i t a t e d learning l i t t l e while high levels disrupted learning. Of course, the optimal drive level depended on task complexity with high levels disruptive for complex but not for simple tasks (Levitt, 1967). The Yerkes-Dodson Law conceptualized- the relationship between drive and performance in a way that was compatible with contemporary learning theory. . Identification of anxiety as an acquired drive (Miller, 195l) re-channelled the study onto the effects of anxiety on performance. At any rate, i t i s obvious from the a v a i l a b i l i t y of comprehensive reviews (Spielberger, I9665 Appley and Tumbull, 1967? Lazarus, 1966) that anxiety - 3 -has played a dominant role i n the study of the effects of psychological stress on cognitive activity, Influential i n determining the focus was a theory put forward "by Taylor and Spence (1952) which stemmed from the Hull-Spence position about the motivational components of drive i n classical conditioning. Basically, the theory assumed that a learned factor (habit strength) combined with a drive factor (generalized drive) and the combination determined the tendency to respond to a stimulus. Drive was conceptualized as a function of the magnitude of a hypothetical emotional response aroused by aversive stimuli. The theory has been widely interpreted, but i t can be stated as the con-ceptualization of a relationship between level of anxiety and Interference of performance. It was hypothesized that interference depends on the number of competing responses e l i c i t e d by a task. If two or more response tendencies were e l i c i t e d simultaneously, the probability that the dominant response occurs was a function of the difference i n strength between dominant and competing response tendencies. In other words, response tendencies e l i c i t e d at the same time were hierarchically ordered. Thus, high anxiety increased differences in habit strengths between the alternate response hierarchies with the result that the probability of dominant tendencies was increased. In order to extend the range of application of the theory to cognitive a c t i v i t i e s , Spence and Spence ( 1 9 6 6 ) developed several hypo-theses independent of the drive factor and focused on the notion of response interference. This formulation emphasized a different aspect of the Hull postulate, the drive stimulus, which could e l i c i t learned and un-learned, covert and overt responses. The intensity of the drive stimulus (and therefore the number and strength of the response tendencies i t e l i c i t s ) was assumed to be a function of anxiety, Whether an increase of drive s t i m u l i f a c i l i t a t e d or d i s r u p t e d performance depended p a r t i a l l y on whether the response tendencies e l i c i t e d by a n x i e t y were compatible or incompatible w i t h the responses r e q u i r e d f o r the t a s k , Incompatible responses were assumed t o be events such as heightened autonomic r e a c t i o n s and covert v e r b a l i z a t i o n s (doubts, s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n , a n g e r or d e s i r e t o escape). In summary, Spence and Spence (1966) hypothesized t h a t i r r e l e v a n t responses which i n t e r f e r e w i t h t a s k r e l e v a n t responses should be more r e a d i l y aroused i n h i g h l y anxious than i n l e s s anxious i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a complex c o n d i t i o n . That i s , performance should be worse f o r very anxious i n d i v i d u a l s i n a complex c o n d i t i o n , Spence and Spence (1966) reviewed the research f o l l o w i n g from t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n s and concluded t h a t the evidence was ambiguous and i n c o n s i s t e n t . They po i n t e d out s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the f o r m u l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the com-p l e x i t y of the nature of a n x i e t y ( s i t u a t i o n a l versus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) and of the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s i n which a n x i e t y can be e l i c i t e d . More r e c e n t l y , S a l t z (1970) r e i n t e r p r e t e d the experimental evidence and suggested t h a t the phenomena c e n t r a l t o the Taylor-Spence a n x i e t y theory may not e x i s t . The data f o l l o w i n g from the o r i g i n a l work of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i g h and low anxious i n d i v i d u a l s may be s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t kinds of s t r e s s o r s (e.g, f a i l u r e v s . p a i n ) , S a l t z suggests t h a t the r o l e of manifest a n x i e t y as a d r i v e v a r i a b l e i s u n c l e a r and t h a t the T a y l o r a n x i e t y s c a l e might best serve t o i n d i c a t e the type of s t r e s s l i k e l y t o d i s r u p t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior. The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n t h a t has been di s c u s s e d up t o t h i s p o i n t r e f l e c t s a t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g theory approach which was found t o be l i m i t e d i n p r e d i c t i n g the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s on the performance on i n d i v i d u a l s . I n ' recent, years there has been an attempt t o formulate explanations of the - 5 -relationship between stress and performance within a cognitive framework. In the late nineteen f i f t i e s , Easterbrook (1959) attempted to explain the disruption and f a c i l i t a t i o n of performance under stress at an attentional level. After reviewing the empirical evidence about the effects of stress on performance he concluded that arousal consistently reduces the range of cues that an organism uses. Further, he suggested that the reduction could either organize or disorganize behavior depending on the level of arousal and the task demand characteristics, or as Easterbrook states: On some tasks reduction i n the range of cue u t i l i z a t i o n improves performance. Irrelevant cues are excluded and drive i s said to be organizing or motivating. In other tasks, proficiency demands the use of a wide range of cues and drive i s disorganizing.... There seems to be an optimal range of cue u t i l i z a t i o n and hence an optimal level of arousal for each task (1959, pp. 197-198). In other words, Easterbrook had formulated the Yerkes-Dodson Law i n the attentional framework. He c l a r i f i e d that position by adding the following: For any task... provided that i n i t i a l l y a certain proportion of the cues i n use are irrelevant,.., the reduction ,.. w i l l reduce the proportion of irrelevant cues employed and so improve performance. When a l l irrelevant cues have been excluded,..further reduction i n the number of cues employed can only affect relevant cues, and proficiency w i l l f a i l (1959, P. 193). Thus ,*3asterbrook interpreted changes i n performance as being the result of alterations i n the number of relevant and irrelevant cues to which an individual attended, Lazarus (1966) reviewed the position of Easterbrook and that of Spence and Spence. He considers these positions not so much mutually exclusive as incomplete because they f a i l to consider events intervening between threat and response (e.g. cognitive coping processes). Similarly, Wachtel (1967), following Klein (195^) and in response to Easterbrook , suggested that the effects of anxiety and stress cannot be described without - 6 -considering individual differences in control processes. He described the a b i l i t y to maintain a span of attention "appropriate" to task demands during stress as an adaptive feature. Given Easterbrook's formulation of the reduction of cue use during stress, Wachtel suggested that individual differences i n processes allowing a redistribution (deployment) of attention to different types of cues could modify the process of cue reduction. Such differences might be related to cognitive style and control of anxiety. Both Wachtel (1967) and Lazarus (1966) implied that certain cognitive control or coping processes are related to the changes in attention and per-formance during stress. Others (Gardner et a l . , i960, 19§9 ) have discussed this i n different terms and have pointed to the relevance of the cognitive style of field-dependence-independence (FDl) because of i t s relation to attention and f i e l d articulation. Following from their comments, i t seems reasonable that FDI could be related to performance changes where task d i f f i c u l t y and stress were also being studied. The FDI dimension was originally considered as a continuum of the degrees to which individuals have differentiated themselves from their environments (Werner, 1965; Witkin, et a l , , 1962), The extremes of the FDI continuum were described i n a perceptual framework by Witkin as follows: In a field-dependent mode of perceiving, perception is strongly doiromaifced by the overall organization of the f i e l d , and parts of the f i e l d are experienced as 'fused', In a field-independent mode of perceiving parts of the f i e l d are experienced as discrete from organized background. There i s now considerable evidence that a tendency towards one or the other ways of perceiving i s a consistent, pervasive characteristic of an individual's perception (1965, p. 18). Witkin used a range of correlated perceptual tests to classify individuals along the FDI dimension (Witkin, et a l . , 1962). Most of the tests rBquire the subject to break down a contextual structure and to dlsembed an aspect of the organized f i e l d . The Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and i t s various modifications (Hidden Figures Test or HFT) require the a b i l i t y to extract a simple geometric figure from an embedding context (i. e . , a larger complex geometric design). Perception of the larger figure and perception of the simple one are mutually exclusive responses} each aspect of the simple figure i s part of the complex one. Another of the majbr tools, the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) requires the a b i l i t y to determine body positions of v e r t i c a l i t y i n relation to a mis-leading nonvertical visual f i e l d . That i s , i n a completely dark room, an individual must adjust a luminous t i l t e d rod to a true vertical position when i t i s presented within a misleading t i l t e d luminous frame. The only cues available to the individual are internal ones related to his body position. He must compare these internal cues with the rod. The t i l t e d frame serves as a contextual f i e l d exerting a force to "p u l l " perception of v e r t i c a l i t y towards the t i l t of the frame. Field-dependence implies a tendency to perceive the contextual aspect of the EFT and to be strongly influenced by the " f i e l d forces" exerted by the frame i n the RFT, A recent theoretical formulation considers FDI to be a moderator variable. Pascual-Leone (1970) presents a model of cognitive functioning i n which individual differences with respect to the weight of the f i e l d effects ( i . e . degree of f i e l d sensitivity) play an important part. Individual differences i n "weight" appear as the relative dominance of both sensorial and structural f i e l d weightings within the individual's system. He reviews recent evidence to suggest that FD individuals are more sensitive (readily excitable or responsive) to the f i e l d with regard to sensorial qualities. Therefore, a relatively strong control of overt responding by f i e l d weightings is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t individuals. Pascual-Leone has argued that the FI Individuals, - 8 -i n contrast, tend to be high mediators who attend to input and process i t thoroughly before overt responses occur. Thus, the position of an individual along the FDI dimension i s a particular state of balance of the f i e l d and mediational processes. This formulation of a weighting process permits FDI to be described as a response-biasing factor which moderates the probability of any response. In summary, field-independence has been defined by high levels of cognitive activity (high mediators) and a b i l i t y to overcome " f i e l d effects". FI individuals tend to articulate their environment and are able to disembed cues relevant to complex tasks. They can be characterized as having the a b i l i t y to inhibit or reduce response to irrelevant cues, contextual or otherwise (Gardner, Jackson & Messick, i960). It i s possible that differences i n the a b i l i t y to maintain attention to articulated, task-relevant cues i s related to the direction and degree of change i n cognitive performance during stress. While there has been some theoretical consideration about the relationship between FDI, stress and performance, there has been l i t t l e research performed i n this area. Research reviewed below suggests that changes i n performance during stress are a function of the moderating role of FDI. In a pilot study, Britain and Hare found that differences i n per-formance on the RFT between field-dependent (FD) and field-independent (FJ[)) subjects (Ss) were greater after a stressful experiment that before i t . FI Ss who had been classified as highly anxious (Lykken and Katsenmeyer, I968: Activity Preference Questionnaire) and as sensitisors (Byrne, 1964: Repression-Sensitization Scale) improved on the RFT following stress. In contrast, the performance of FD Ss classified as highly anxious and as sensitizors deteriorated after stress. That i s , individuals with similar _ 9 -high levels of anxiety differed i n the direction of change in performance on a measure of PDI depending on their cognitive style. No reliable change i n performance was found for either FD or FI Ss who were classified as low in anxiety and as repressors, These data suggest that cognitive styles of some FI and FD individuals may be exaggerated by a stressful experience. H i l l and Feigenbaus (1966) provide data which partially support that sugges-tion. They found that although performance of both FD and FI adults on the RFT tended to deteriorate following verbal harassment, performance of the FD Ss deteriorated more. Another study (Steele, 1969) supportive of the above found changes in performance on the EFT during stress which were different for psychasthenics and hysterics (MMPI classification). Following Witkin (1965), Steele related hysteria to field-dependence and psychasthenia to field-independence, The direction of changes i n performance found by Steele was similar to that found by Britain and Hare in the pilot study, Steele had predicted that psychasthenics would improve on a complex task during stress because their defensive style was compatible with task requirements. Hysterics were ex-pected to do worse during stress because their defensive style was described as incompatible with task requirements. While there were no differences i n performance in non-stress conditions, stressful instructions differentiated the performance of the hysterics and psychasthenics. Presumably, the stress increased the defensive habits and thereby magnified performance differences. Each of the studies reviewed above in part support the idea that FDI may be a significant factor in predicting performance on certain complex tasks during stress. The study by Steele suggests that Ss who would have been cla s s i f i e d by Spence and Spence (1966) as low i n anxiety (hysterics) - 10 -d i d more p o o r l y on the EFT during s t r e s s than those who would have been c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h l y anxious (psychasthenics). S t e e l e ' s data suggest t h a t c o g n i t i v e s t y l e r a t h e r than l e v e l of a n x i e t y i s the dominant f a c t o r i n the p r e d i c t i o n of performance changes d u r i n g s t r e s s . The p i l o t study by B r i t a i n and Hare support t h i s suggestion i n t h a t Ss w i t h s i m i l a r h i g h l e v e l s of a n x i e t y d i f f e r e d i n performance d u r i n g s t r e s s due t o t h e i r degree of f i e l d -dependence. As noted i n the e a r l i e r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Wachtel (1967) suggested t h a t the range of cues used by an i n d i v i d u a l d u r i n g s t r e s s may be l i m i t e d i n a q u a l i t a t i v e way. I n c o n t r a s t , Easterbrook (1959) suggested t h a t r e s t r i c t i o n occurs i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e way and i n the e x t e r n a l f i e l d . From these views and the above r e s e a r c h , the author suggests t h a t cue r e s t r i c t i o n i s moderated by the FDI f a c t o r and t h e r e f o r e may not occur i n the same way f o r FD and FI i n d i v i d u a l s . E x t e r n a l r e s t r i c t i o n c o u l d r e s u l t from a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n t o task-competing, i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l cues a c t i v a t e d d u r i n g s t r e s s . The t o t a l range of cues ( i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l ) may not change from non-threat t o t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n s . However, the range of cues might be dominated by t h r e a t - r e l a t e d cues f o r FD Ss because they cannot i n h i b i t response t o s a l i e n t s t i m u l i . Assuming t h a t F I Ss u s u a l l y a t t e n d t o t a s k - r e l e v a n t cues (while i n h i b i t i n g response t o i r r e l e v a n t ones), a d i f f e r e n t r e s t r i c t i o n of e x t e r n a l cues could r e s u l t f o r them du r i n g s t r e s s . Even-though t h r e a t - r e l a t e d cues may enter the f i e l d , the FI .person has a r e l a -t i v e l y g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o i n h i b i t response t o these while a t t e n d i n g t o a r e l a t i v e l y more adequate range of t a s k - r e l a t e d cues. This f o r m u l a t i o n accounts f o r a q u a l i t a t i v e "narrowing" of the range of cues and accounts f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n . I t only touches on the n o t i o n of a c t i v a t i o n of competing responses and i n t e r n a l l y cued s t i m u l i , I t can be assumed t h a t c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s r e f l e c t enduring response tendencies (Broverman, I960) and t h a t a n x i e t y a c t i v a t e s dominant h a b i t s (Spence, 196O5 Brown, 1953). Such assumptions suggest t h a t d u r i n g s t r e s s an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l show evidence of an a c t i v a t e d c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . I f t h i s s t y l e f a c i l i t a t e s performance on c e r t a i n complex t a s k s , the*' i n d i v i d u a l should perform b e t t e r on such t a s k s i f s t r e s s r e s u l t s i n a c t i v a t i o n of h a b i t s comprising h i s s t y l e . In e f f e c t , F I performance should be augmented. I f s e v e r a l response tendencies are a c t i v a t e d , the tendency t o at t e n d t o t a s k - r e l e v a n t cues should be dominant f o r the F I person. Responses incompatible w i t h per-formance (e.g. l o o k i n g f o r escape r o u t e , f e e l i n g s of p o s s i b l e f a i l u r e ) should occur l e s s f r e q u e n t l y f o r F I than f o r FD i n d i v i d u a l s . I n summary, i t i s suggested t h a t d u r i n g s t r e s s there i s a r e -d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n the a v a i l a b l e range of cues, A l s o , t h r e a t or a n x i e t y - r e l a t e d s t i m u l i w i l l a c t i v a t e dominant response tendencies d u r i n g s t r e s s which may be e i t h e r compatible or incompatible w i t h performance on complex t a s k s . The FD or F I q u a l i t y of these response tendencies should account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y t o atte n d t o t a s k - r e l e v a n t cues and t o maintain an adequate performance d u r i n g s t r e s s . The degree t o which F I performance i s f a c i l i t a t e d and FD performance d i s r u p t e d should be a f u n c t i o n of the inc r e a s e d s t r e n g t h of dominant response tendencies balanced a g a i n s t the s t r e n g t h of t h r e a t - r e l a t e d cues. On the b a s i s of the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n a number of experimental hypotheses have been formulated and are presented at the end of ifake-.-chapter. This study has been conc e p t u a l i z e d i n l a r g e on the b a s i s of a t t e n t i o n a l t h e o r i e s . As a means of g a i n i n g c o l l a b o r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the a t t e n t i o n a l process, c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y was monitoured throughout the - 12 -experimental sessions of the present study. T h i s was done because of recent evidence of the correspondence between c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y and a t t e n t i o n deployment (Lacey, 1967). Some of the research and r e l e v a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s are presented below. As e a r l y as the nineteen twenties a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s was summarized by Darrdw (1929) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i ( v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y ) was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r d i a c d e c e l e r a t i o n . A c c e l e r -a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y and unpleasant e x t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n , Lacey and as s o c i a t e s (1963) r e p l i c a t e d these e a r l y f i n d i n g s by s t u d y i n g c a r d i a c response t o a v a r i e t y of s t i m u l i and s i t u a t i o n s (e.g., F l a s h i n g l i g h t , a r i t h m e t i c problems). Beyond the b a s i c r e p l i c a t i o n s of the d e c e l e r a t i o n phenomena, Lacey (1959) provided data supportive of a connection between d e c e l e r a t i o n and c e r t a i n simple responses. He found a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t beat-by-beat d e c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g an i n t e r v a l from a ready s i g n a l t o on of a stimulus r e q u i r i n g a key-release response, Lacey suggested t h a t d e c e l e r a t i o n r e s u l t e d from a t t e n t i o n t o the l o c a t i o n of the expected s t i m u l u s . Most important i s the f i n d i n g t h a t d e c e l e r a t i o n was concomitant w i t h f a s t e r r e a c t i o n times and sensori-motor r e a d i n e s s . High heart r a t e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o s s of motor-readiness. The f i n d i n g s of B i r r e n , Cardon and P h i l l i p s (1963) supported Lacey's c o n c l u s i o n s . They demonstrated t h a t systematic v a r i a t i o n s i n r e a c t i o n time t o a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i were r e l a t e d t o the c a r d i a c c y c l e , F a s t e s t r e a c t i o n times occurred j u s t before the heart a t r i a c o ntracted. S i m i l a r l y , Calloway and Layne (1964) found f a s t r e a c t i o n times t o v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n the slow p a r t of the c a r d i a c c y c l e , Lacey's use of these data has been t o present evidence against over-s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the concept of a r o u s a l . However, the data a l s o suggest - 13 -an extension of h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n the FDI framework, Lacey (1967) states that the cardiovascular system i s " . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y , . . r e s p o n s i v e to the i n t e n t i o n . , . t o note and detect external s t i m u l i , , . a t t e n t i v e observation of the external environment i s productive of cardiac deceleration,,," In other words, cardiac response may r e f l e c t set or expectation; and f u r t h e r , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c differences i n set or intent might be r e f l e c t e d i n cardiac a c t i v i t y . This i m p l i c a t i o n can be drawn from Lacey's d e s c r i p t i o n of the "decelerator" as open to the environment. An accelerator, i n contrast, might be h a b i t u a l l y attempting to f i l t e r out impinging external s t i m u l i . Most important here i s Lacey's c h a r a c t e r i z -a t i o n of "intent to detect" external s t i m u l i as the determining f a c t o r of the decelerative response. Such a process might be r e l a t e d to the a t t e n t i o n deployment involved i n f i e l d a r t i c u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of FI i n d i v i d u a l s . The common element i n the formulations of Witkin and Lacey i s " i n t e n t " , described broadly as s e t , tendency or ha b i t . Ax (196?) suggested that i n t e n t i o n i s composed of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of opportunities and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a s i t u a t i o n and h i s a b i l i t i e s to handle i t . The l a t t e r seems an appropriate d e s c r i p t i o n of a defensive s t y l e . I t i s possible that intent to attend to external s t i m u l i serves a some-what s o p h i s t i c a t e d defensive function, allowing f o r the modification of d i s t u r b i n g cognitive processes accompanying a c c e l e r a t i o n . That i s , there may be an i n t e n t i o n a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n from i n t e r n a l to external events. The s h i f t should be r e f l e c t e d i n cardiac response. The defensive s t y l e of FI i n d i v i d u a l s (Witkin, 19^5 ) appears to allow them to remain i n threatening s i t u a t i o n s and modify those s i t u a t i o n s . Their basic defense may be a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f i e l d ( c f . notion of i s o l a t i o n ) . The defensive s t y l e of FD i n d i v i d u a l s appears to be much l e s s - I n -a c t i v e , centering on a simpler mode of avoidance. T h e i r basic defense may be a f a i l u r e to a r t i c u l a t e the f i e l d ( e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s threatening). The i m p l i c a t i o n drawn from t h i s consideration i s that a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f i e l d should be associated with decelerative cardiac a c t i v i t y , whereas a (defensive) l a c k of a t t e n t i o n to and a r t i c u l a t i o n of the external f i e l d should be associated with a c c e l e r a t i v e cardiac a c t i v i t y . I t should be r e c a l l e d that under normal circumstances the FI i n d i -v i d u a l tends t o act on the environment, a r t i c u l a t i n g i t and reducing i t i n t o component p a r t s . He must attend to the environment i n order to act on i t . Under s t r e s s f u l conditions such as presentation of a noxious v i s u a l stimulus, the FI i n d i v i d u a l should attend to the stimulus i n order to modify the threatening aspects of i t . In other words, he may i s o l a t e or attend to l e s s s t r e s s f u l aspects of the f i e l d ( c f , i s o l a t i o n as a defense mechanism). In such a s i t u a t i o n he could be described as Lacey's "decelerator" ready to receive s p e c i f i c input. The FD i n d i v i d u a l , i n contrast, avoids or r e j e c t s the external f i e l d when i t involves threatening aspects. His perceptual responses are biased i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way ( c f . notion of dominance of f i e l d weighting). Although he i s often described as "compelled" by s a l i e n t s t i m u l i (or the dominant organization of the f i e l d ) , the FD person may be attending to s a l i e n t i n t e r n a l s t i m u l i ( c f c the drive stimulus); and he may never be ready to attend to some input, threatening or otherwise. Under threatening conditions, the FD i n d i v i d u a l might be characterised more by ac c e l e r a t i v e than decelerative cardiac responses. L i t t l e research has been done to explore the above speculation. However, Cohen's ( 1 9 6 7 ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data of Culver e t a l , ( 1 9 6 4 ) suggests a s i m i l a r hypothetical l i n k between cardiac a c t i v i t y and FDI, Culver et a l . found that FD and FI Ss responded d i f f e r e n t l y to low sensory - 15 -input. The e f f e c t was due to the degree of c e r t a i n t y of the Ss about the i s o l a t i o n experiments. Uncertain FD Ss appeared more aroused and un-comfortable than e i t h e r informed FD or uninformed FI Ss, The mean heart rate and mean number of nonspecific galvanic s k i n responses of FD Ss were s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater when the s i t u a t i o n was l e f t unstructured than when i t was structured f o r them, A measure of galvanic s k i n response i n d i c a t e d that a l l Ss were r e l a t i v e l y more aroused and a l e r t when the s i t u a t i o n was l e f t unstructured. However, an important d i f f e r e n c e involved the cardiac response i n the two conditions. FI Ss had lower heart rates i n the un-c e r t a i n than i n the c e r t a i n condition while the reverse was true of FD Ss. Cohen (1967) suggested that d i f f e r e n t cognitive processes associated with FDI accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s . In an i s o l a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , the FI S who lacks information about that experiment w i l l be a l e r t and aroused but s u f f i c i e n t l y comfortable to passi v e l y take i n the procedure (deceleration). FI Ss given information (less uncertainty and s t r e s s ) are l i k e l y to become occupied with cognitive processes ( a c c e l e r a t i o n ) . An extension of Cohen's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that uninformed FI Ss a c t i v e l y attend to the procedure i n order to structure i t and to discover the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the external environment. I t i s the' FD S who pa s s i v e l y attends, accepting imposed external s t r u c t u r e . Without an imposed structure he i s u n l i k e l y to a r t i c u l a t e a v a i l a b l e cues or to provide a structure by other means. In an uncertain s i t u a t i o n l a c k i n g external, s a l i e n t s t i m u l i , acceleratory cardiac a c t i v i t y might be expected from FD Ss because they have few perceptual or defensive habits to deal with the s i t u a t i o n . The s t i m u l i that FD Ss more l i k e l y attend to i n such a s i t u a t i o n are influenced by the dominant weighting of the f i e l d f a c t o r , i n t h i s case, the i n t e r n a l f i e l d ( f e e l i n g s of uneasiness and wishes to escape the s i t u a t i o n ) . In contrast, - 16 -FI Ss w i l l more l i k e l y t r y to a r t i c u l a t e the a v a i l a b l e external s t i m u l i . Culver et a l . ' s data support such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . What-ever the explanation, we are l e f t with the find i n g s of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l cardiac a c t i v i t y f o r FD and FI Ss, i n the uncertain s i t u a t i o n . FI Ss c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y decelerated compared with t h e i r response i n the c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . FD Ss c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y accelerated compared with t h e i r response i n the c e r t a i n condition. In summary, the above t h e o r e t i c a l considerations lead to the formulation of several hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g to the e f f e c t s of stress on performance and on cardiac a c t i v i t y as a fun c t i o n of FDI, I t should be noted that, to some extent, t h i s study was exploratory i n nature, e s p e c i a l l y i n the attempt to f i n d f u r t h e r evidence r e l a t i n g cardiac a c t i v i t y and FDI. Experimental Hypotheses The underlying purpose of t h i s study i s to f i n d support f o r the formulation that the cognitive s t y l e s of field-dependence and f i e l d - i n -dependence act as dominant perceptual-defensive habit patterns which are activat e d during psychological s t r e s s . I f t h i s i s the case, then during s t r e s s , performance on tasks r e q u i r i n g FI a t t e n t i o n a l habits should be f a c i l i t a t e d f o r FI Ss but disrupted f o r FD Ss. Further, since a t t e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y has been r e l a t e d to cardiac a c t i v i t y , d ifferences i n the a t t e n t i o n a l responses of FI arid FD Ss should be r e f l e c t e d i n measures of cardiac a c t i v i t y . These hypotheses can be stated more s p e c i f i c a l l y as follows; Behavioral Hypotheses; F i r s t , i t i s hypothesised that FI Ss w i l l be more able than FD Ss to remain i n a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n and maintain"'' t h e i r performance on a task r e q u i r i n g minimal FI perceptual habits. - 17 -Second, i t i s hypothesized that the performance of FI Ss should not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of FD Ss when the s i t u a t i o n does not act i v a t e perceptual-defensive habits. When threat activates these habits, performance of FI Ss should improve while that of FD Ss should d e t e r i o r a t e . T h i r d , the main p r e d i c t i o n regarding anxiety i s that FDI w i l l be the dominant f a c t o r and should moderate the influence of anxiety on performance. P h y s i o l o g i c a l Hypotheses; F i r s t , i t i s hypothesized that FI Ss w i l l be characterized by deployment of att e n t i o n to any ex t e r n a l l y presented threat stimulus; and t h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n cardiac deceleration. FD Ss should, only i n i t i a l l y attend, to such s t i m u l i and should show l e s s cardiac deceleration. Second, i t i s hypothesized that l e s s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l occur i n cardiac response between FD and FI Ss during presentation of neutral s t i m u l i ^ when perceptual-defensive habits are not ac t i v a t e d . Certain t h e o r e t i c a l considerations suggested that FI Ss might show more cardiac deceleration during presentation of any s t i m u l i . One of the purposes of the present study i s to gather some c l a r i f y i n g evidence on t h i s matter, Lacey's (1967) d e s c r i p t i o n of the complex determinants of cardiac a c t i v i t y provide f o r no c l e a r p r e d i c t i o n of cardiac response of FI and FD during the presentation of simple and complex v i s u a l tasks. Another purpose of t h i s study i s to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p • between FDI, cardiao a c t i v i t y , and perceptual task demands. CHAPTER TWO ; METHOD Experimental Design; In order to test the experimental hypotheses i t was necessary to provide a situation i n which FD and FI subjects (Ss) could be expected to solve a task similar to the EFT i n either threatening (stress) or non-threatening (control) conditions during which cardiac activity could be monitored. Because of the theoretical implication of the factor of anxiety, level of anxiety (high versus low) of FD and FI Ss was determined. The factors Involved were FDI, Condition, Anxiety, Trials and D i f f i c u l t y level of the task. Subjects; The Ss were 150 female undergraduate volunteers from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, They were enrolled i n a wide variety of academic areas and ranged i n age from 18 to 45 years (mean age of 20 years). Partly because of the lengthy.experimental procedure and the nature of the stress Condition, a number of Ss did not fin i s h the experiment, Of the original Ss, 30 did not arrange for sessions or did not keep appointments. Ten Ss were dropped from the experiment due to equipment failure. Two refused to participate i n the stress Condition. Selection Criteria; The experimental design called for 4 groups of 16 Ss . The groups were comprised bf FI, low anxious Ss (FI-L), FI, high anxious Ss (FI-H), FD, low anxious Ss (FD-L), and FD, high anxious Ss (FD-H). Half of each group received a stress treatment, half a control treatment. - 19 -The Ss were tested i n d i v i d u a l l y with a battery of tes t s and were assigned to groups according to the following c r i t e r i a . The FDI dimension was defined by a combination of scores. Ss with a score above 12 correct on the Hidden Figures Test (HFT) and a score of l e s s than 4 degrees d e v i a t i o n on the RFT were c l a s s i f i e d as FI. Those Ss with scores of l e s s than 12 on HFT and more than 4 degrees deviation on RFT were c l a s s i f i e d as FD. The HFT i s a paper and p e n c i l form of the EFT (French, et a l . 1963). High and low anxiety were defined by scores above or below 49 ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) on the Anxiety Preference Scale (APQ, Lykken and Katzenmeyer, 1968). The c u t t i n g scores were based on avalable norms f o r U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia female undergraduate students. The APQ was used because i t had been previously shown to be an e f f e c t i v e index of anxiety proneness unrelated to FDI (Hare, et a l . 19?0). The APQ was a l s o of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to c e r t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c e s of anxiety (Lykken and Katzenmeyer, 1968* V a l i n s , I967). Determination of s t r e s s or c o n t r o l Condition f o r any S was dependent on the status of the S groups (4 groups X 2 Conditions) at the time of h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . An attempt was made to equalize the number i n each group at each session. Apparatus; Coloured s l i d e s were used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the s t r e s s and con t r o l Conditions. Noxious s l i d e s were obtained from the p o l i c e department with the understanding that they be used i n research. These s l i d e s were unretouched pic t u r e s of - 20 -i n d i v i d u a l s who had been b r u t a l l y murdered (Homicide s l i d e s ) . Control s l i d e s were pictures of i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n everyday a c t i v i t i e s such as reading, A' Beckman Type R Dynograph was used to obtain simultaneous recordings of heart r a t e , r e s p i r a t i o n r ate, s k i n r e s i s t a n c e , d i g i t a l and cephalic vasomotor a c t i v i t y , and eye movements. Heart rate was continuously recorded i n beats per minute by p l a c i n g Beckman b i o p o t e n t i a l electodes on the r i g h t wrist and l e f t l e g with a ground lead on the r i g h t l e g (standard lead I I , Venables and Martin, 1967). and passing a s i g n a l through a Beckman Type 9857 cardiotachometer coupler. The output was expressed i n beats per minute, A strain-gauge b e l t secured around the lower chest was used to measure r e s p i r a t o r y c y c l e . Skin resistance was measured by passing a constant current of lOua through Beckman h i o p o t e n t i a l electrodes attached to the f i r s t and t h i r d d i g i t s of the r i g h t hand. Two s p e c i a l l y constructed p h o t o e l e c t r i c transducers were taped to the mid forehead and the thumb of the r i g h t hand and were used to monitor vasomotor a c t i v i t y . The s i g n a l s were fed i n t o a Type 481B input coupler with a time constant of . 03 seconds. Horizontal and v e r t i c a l eye movements were separately recorded using the following placements of electrode p a i r s . Beckman b i o p o t e n t i a l electrodes, one cm. i n diameter, were placed at the outside corner of each eye. The other p a i r was placed above the mid eyebrow and below mid-eye of the r i g h t eye. The s i g n a l s were fed i n t o a Type 481B input coupler with a time constant of 1.0 sec-onds. A l l electrodes were f i l l e d with Beckman electrode paste - 21 -and attached to the s k i n with Beckman adhesive.collars. Skin areas involved i n the measurement of cardiac a c t i v i t y and eye movements were prepared with Redex paste. The S sat i n an e l e c t r i c a l l y shielded, sound-dampened room equipped with an intercom system. A telegraph key was secured t o the l e f t arm of the c h a i r . The key closure produced a mark on the polygraph recording paper. A screen approximately 8 feet i n f r o n t of S allowed f o r the p r o j e c t i o n of 3 x 4 foot images from an adjoining room by a Kodak Carousel s l i d e p r o j e c t o r . A white noise (45 db) was transmitted i n t o the shielded room i n order to mask noises from the p r o j e c t i o n room. A portable model of the RFT (see Witk i n t e t al.,1962 f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of o r i g i n a l model) was adapted f o r use i n t h i s experiment, The 2 foot square frame and the 1 fo o t , 9 inch rod could be moved independently by the experimenter (E). The surfaces were coated with luminous pai n t . The RFT was placed beside the screen, 8 feet from S's seated p o s i t i o n . Procedure; The experiment consisted of 2 sessions. The f i r s t involved the administration of a battery of t e s t s to each S i n d i v i d u a l l y . The HFT was administered f i r s t and was followed by the APQ. Then sev e r a l other scales were administered i n random order; these included the Manifest Anxiety Scale (Taylor and Spence, 1952), the Repression-Sensitization Scale (Bryne, 1964), and the Eysenck Per s o n a l i t y Questionnaire (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1963). Instructions and a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of HFT and APQ can be found i n Appendix 2. - 22 -During the second session each S was t o l d that she could be requested to do some perceptual tasks while her p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses were being monitored. The S_ was then brought i n t o the shielded room and the RFT was administered. (Instructions and d e t a i l s of the RFT are a l s o i n Appendix 2.) Following administration of the RFT, S was given a b r i e f explanation of the general procedure, task i n s t r u c t i o n s and equipment involved i n the study. Detailed i n s t r u c t i o n s can be found i n Appendix 3 ; however, they are summarized as f o l l o w s j -The S was t o l d that electrodes would be attached so that p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses could be monitored. I f S was i n the s t r e s s Condition she was t o l d that as w e l l as being asked to t r y to solve each item of the task, she would be required t o look at some pos s i b l y d i s t u r b i n g s l i d e s , a c t u a l p o l i c e colour s l i d e s of people b r u t a l l y murdered. Each S was asked i f she had any objection to seeing such s l i d e s and was t o l d that she could terminate her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experiment at any time. She was also t o l d that she would be able to communicate with E through an intercom throughout the experiment. I f S was i n the c o n t r o l Condition she was t o l d that Tas''well as t r y i n g to solve the task items, she would be required to look at some s l i d e s of people engaged i n everyday a c t i v i t i e s . She was al s o t o l d that she could terminate at any time and could communicate with E during the experiment. The differences i n i n s t r u c t i o n and i n the s l i d e s presented constituted the only differences between the treatments of the str e s s and c o n t r o l Conditions, - 23 -Following these introductory statements, E attached electrodes t o S and b r i e f l y explained t h e i r f u n c t i o n . At t h i s point E a l s o explained the perceptual task. EachS_ was t o l d that i t was a s i m p l i f i e d version of the HFT which she had done previously, that i t would be presented by s l i d e and that she WAS. to answer by means of a telegraph key on her l e f t . The latency of her answer (the time from onset of a task item to the e l e c t r i c a l impulse caused by depression of the key) was recorded on the polygraph paper along with the indices of p h y s i o l o g i c a l response. The S was shown s l i d e s of d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s about the task and sample items to accustom her to s l i d e presentation and to answering by means of the key. These can be found i n Appendix 4, When i t was apparent that S understood what was expected of her, she was asked to r e s t while E took recordings of her r e s t i n g l e v e l s of physiologic?.! a c t i v i t y . Following t h i s rest period, a warning s l i d e s t a t i n g "ONE MINUTE" was presented informing S that the f i r s t task item would be presented i n one minute. Twenty items were then presented with simple and complex items alternated. Depending on the S's group, homicide or control s l i d e s were i n t e r j e c t e d i n t h i s s e r i e s of 20 items i n the 4th, 5th, 8th, 10th, 18th and 24th p o s i t i o n s of the 26 s l i d e s e r i e s . The order war constant across subjects. Homicide or control s l i d e s preceded and followed approximately equal numbers of simple and complex items while having the appearance of randomization to Ss. Each task s l i d e was shown f o r 2u seconds. The i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ( i T l ) between o f f s e t of any s l i d e and onset of the next v a r i e d from 20 to 35 seconds. A s l i d e followed s t a t i n g "REST TWO - 24 -MINUTES", indicating that the major part of the experiment was over. Following this period i n which resting levels of physiological response were recorded, E entered the room, administered the RFT, removed the electrodes and debriefed the Ss i n an unstructured interview situation. A l l Ss i n the stress Condition were asked to f i l l in a questionnaire concerning their reactions to the experiment and to other threatening events. This questionnaire i s i n Appendix 5« Procedure for Terminating Subjects: If during the experiment S spoke to E (via the intercom), E acted with consideration of the type of slide presented at that time. If i t was a homicide slide and i f S sounded as i f she wanted to terminate, E manually advanced the programme to an ITI un t i l a decision was made. If the problem occurred during any other phase, the time was noted and the issue of S's continuing' was discussed. If S wanted to continue after a brief pause or after removal of the remaining homicide slides, she was encouraged to attempt the remaining items as a means of securing as much data as possible on terminating Ss. Dependent Measures; The task designed to test the behavioral hypothesis was a modification of the EFT for slide presentation. The new test (MEFT) involved new items which were less complex than, but similar to, EFT items. The MEFT consisted of 10 simple items which had an average solution latency of 5 seconds and of 10 complex items which had an average solution latency of 15 seconds. Latency of solution for a l l items had been determined i n a pilo t study using an unselected sample of university students. The relationship between HFT and MEFT i n this study should be c l a r i f i e d . Although the HFT was used to select FD and TI Ss, i t was advantageous to use as the main dependent measure a simple indicant of FDI which required minimal FI perceptual s k i l l s , Ss were selected as FD and FI on the basis of the more complex measure of FDIj complex items was assumed to differentiate FD and FI Ss more readily than simple ones. Differences i n performance on a similar but much simpler measure of FDI can more easily be attributed to an interaction between FDI and treatment effects. The simpler test alone should f a i l to differentiate FD and FI Ss unless a situation activates FD and FI perceptual-defensive habits. Therefore, i t was advisable to test each S on a standard index of FDI i n order to determine his position along the FDI dimension and, further, to test her on the simpler MEFT with the assumption that a stress condition would either disrupt or f a c i l i t a t e the performance of certain subjects. Each S was required to try to solve the 10 simple and 10 complex items of the MEFT. Several scores derived from this test were available. The time interval from onset of a task slide u n t i l the i n i t i a t i o n of an answer i s referred to as Solution Latency (SL), SL was measured from polygraph pen deflection marks, on chart paper travelling at a speed of 1 cm. per second. The distance from a mark instigated by the projector to a mark instigated by the telegraph key used to answer was converted into time to the nearest half second. The SL could vary from 0 to 30 - 2 6 -seconds - although items were presented for only 25 seconds, Ss were to answer after slide offset. However, answers given after the 30 second maximum were scored as 3° seconds. Since answers given more than 5 seconds after offset would probably be guesses, allowing a longer maximum would have only spuriously decreased the latencies of those who correctly guessed and increased latencies of those who did not guess. Items had been preselected so that there would be no significant overlap i n the distribution of SL for simple as compared with complex items. Simple and complex items were alternated i n the procedure with 10 t r i a l s of each type. In addition to SL the number of correct, incorrect and omitted responses was scored. Incorrect and omitted items were assigned the maximum score. Data from a terminated S were included i n analyses of SL only i f she had completed 14 of the task items. Two such Ss were included i n the analyses. A total of 8 Ss terminated at some point during the experiment, the majority after seeing 2 or 3 homicide slides. Those who terminated early provided l i t t l e reliable data. Inclusion of these Ss would have biased the results in favour of the hypothesis because a l l were field-dependent S_s. It had been hypothesized that such Ss would perform more poorly i n stress than i n control conditions i n contrast to FI Ss. That FD Ss tended to terminate tends to support the hypothesis at a gross level of analysis} however, to give these Ss maximum scores on each item not attempted and to include them for analysis would have weighted the data favourably. For those terminated Ss included, a mean SL for simple and f o r complex items attempted was determined. These means were assigned t o the task items not attempted because of t e r m i n a t i o n . Although these scores were assigned mean SL, they were scored as omitted items. S e v e r a l measures of c a r d i a c response were taken. Other i n d i c e s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l response were a l s o recorded. However, f a i l u r e of the Biomedical Data A c q u i s i t i o n System used r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s of much of the ele c t r o d e r m a l data; and si n c e c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y was the v a r i a b l e of major i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study j only i t was scored and analysed. I n order t o compare Ss and groups on measures of r e s t i n g l e v e l heart r a t e , t o n i c heart r a t e was monitored before and a f t e r the experimental treatment. Measures were taken a f t e r approximately 10 minutes of r e s t f o l l o w i n g attachment of e l e c t r o d e s . For each S the mean r a t e of 30 heart beats d u r i n g the f i r s t r e s t p e r i o d was determined. A s i m i l a r measure was taken during the second r e s t p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g experimental treatment. I n an attempt t o c l a r i f y the remaining measures of c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y , i t i s necessary t o e x p l i c a t e the system used t o d e r i v e the sco r e s . A s c o r i n g system was designed* t o moderate c e r t a i n d i s t o r t i o n s w i t h i n grouped heart r a t e data engendered by non-treatment i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n heart r a t e and beat t o beat v a r i a b i l i t y . This procedure considers the heart r a t e of a S i n response t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t i mulus i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s own r e s t i n g l e v e l heart r a t e and t o h i s beat t o beat v a r i a b i l i t y , * by J a n i c e F r a z e l l e , Psychology Department, U.B.C. - 28 -The r e s u l t a n t standardized scores avoid some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n analysis of grouped heart rate data. The procedure can be b r i e f l y explained as follows! a s l i d e presented f o r a given i n t e r v a l i s preceded and followed by an ITI where no s l i d e i s shown. Heart rate i s continuously recorded on a beat to beat b a s i s . Mean heart rate (Pre x) and standard deviation (Pre SD) of the 10 beats immediately p r i o r to s l i d e onset are determined, providing 2 measures f o r each p r e - s l i d e ITI. Then the rate of each of the f i r s t 10 beats (^l-lo) during s l i d e presentation i s determined. Pre X i s subtracted from each beat ( B ^ _ ] _ Q ) i n d i v i d u a l l y and the d i f f e r e n c e (Di-io) i s divided by the Pre SD. Therefore, f o r any s l i d e - o n beat ( l ) B n - Pre X - D n (z) D n = Standard Deviation Unit Pre SD For any s l i d e there are 10 i n d i v i d u a l scores derived from the above formula. Each represents a s l i d e - o n beat i n terms of i t s a c c e l e r a t i o n or deceleration from the p r e - s l i d e ITI mean rate. The degree of change i s stated as a standard score, i . e . , i n u n i t s d e v i a t i o n from the p r e - s l i d e ITI. A p o s i t i v e s i g n i n d i c a t e s a c c e l e r a t i o n , a negative, deceleration. For example, i f S has a Pre X of 70 with a Pre SD of 10 and the rate of the f i r s t beat during s l i d e presentation i s 65 beats a minute, D_ i s equal to - 5 . The D_ divided by Pre SD i s equal to - . 5 0 . This score indicates that the f i r s t s l i d e - o n beat i s ,50 standard d e v i a t i o n units away from (decelerated from) the p r e - s l i d e moan. - 2 9 -This technique was applied to a l l types of s l i d e s . Each S had 1 0 scores f o r each of 26 s l i d e s ( 2 6 0 t o t a l scores), A sample of each s l i d e type presented at the beginning of the experiment was taken since cardiac 'records"of terminated Ss were much shorter and often showed numerous a r t i f a c t s caused by muscle tension and voluntary arm and l e g movement.. In general, records of FD§_S i n the str e s s Condition tended to show an increase i n such a r t i f a c t s over time making such records d i f f i c u l t to score r e l i a b l y f o r later* t r i a l s ; , Therefore, the f i r s t 2 s l i d e s of each s l i d e category provided a 'sample of i n i t i a l cardiac response. In summary, 1 0 scores f o r each of 6 s l i d e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r each S. Data reduction was accomplished by taking a mean of the two scores a v a i l a b l e f o r each beat f o r the 2 s l i d e s of each type (simple, complex, homicide or c o n t r o l ) . This reduction r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l of 3 0 scores f o r each S, 1 0 f o r each s l i d e type, A f i n a l dependent measure involved r e l a t i v e l y informal interview data. The nature of the str e s s Condition made i t necessary to debrief each S i n order to a s c e r t a i n the degree of stre s s experienced and t o help each S overcome any continuing f e e l i n g of discomfort. The E made informal observations of each S i n the str e s s Condition, during the d e b r i e f i n g session. Then S was asked to f i l l i n a questionnaire regarding her s p e c i f i c reactions t o tho horricide s l i d e s and her general reactions to everyday s t r e s s e s . Because of the open-ended nature of both the questionnaire and the observations, only general measures were - 30 -taken. These w i l l be r e f e r r e d to only i n support of the more formal dependent measures. Analysis of Dependent Measures; Dependent measures were subjected to Analysis of Variance (Winer, 1962), The fa c t o r s involved, were Condition- (control or s t r e s s ) , FDI (FD or F l ) , Anxiety (high or low), D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l (simple or complex items), and T r i a l s (1-10) f o r the Latency measures, or Beats ( l - l O ) f o r the cardiac measures. Due to some unexpected patterns of cardiac response within the FD groups during s t r e s s , f u r t h e r analysis based on new categorizations of Ss were c a r r i e d out on the homicide and co n t r o l s l i d e data. These w i l l be described i n d e t a i l i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n . CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS In general, analyses of variance (ANOVA) f o r multiple factors were computed f o r each dependent measure previously described. The s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y generally accepted as s i g n i f i c a n t was the . 0 5 l e v e l . . Due to the exploratory nature of the study, e f f e c t s approaching t h i s l e v e l were also discussed. Behavioral Measures The MEFT, Sol u t i o n Latency: The ANOVA of the di f f e r e n c e s f o r s o l u t i o n l a t e n c i e s of MEFT items i s summarized i n Appendix 6,1 ', The d i s t r i -bution of MEFT scores can be seen i n Figure 1 . FD Ss performed c o n s i s t e n t l y slower than FI Ss with means of 1 3 . 5 and 8 . 6 seconds r e s p e c t i v e l y ( F = 4 4 . 3 , df = l / 5 6 , p < .01).; C o n s i s t e n t l y ^ simple items were solved •' """7"/ f a s t e r than.complex ones. Simple items were solved i n an average of 7 . 3 seconds, complex items i n an average of 14.8 seconds. The s i g n i f i c a n t FDI X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 4 . 6 , df = l / 5 6 , p < .04) showed that the differences between FD and. FI Ss were greater on complex items than on simple items. Although there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two Conditions, the Condition X FDI i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 3 . 1 6 , df = 1 / 5 6 , p < .08) approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . ANOVA of the simple e f f e c t s indicated, that FD and FI Ss tended to d i f f e r from each other only i n the st r e s s Condition (F = 3 . 5 9 , df = I / 5 6 , p < . 0 7 ) . FI Ss tended to perform f a s t e r i n the st r e s s than i n the con t r o l Condition. FD Ss tended to perform slower i n the st r e s s Condition. The means are shown i n Figure 2a, The Condition X FDI X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n approached s i g -n i f i c a n c e (F = 3 . 3 4 , df = I / 5 6 , p < . 0 7 ) (see Figure 2b). ANOVA of the simple-e f f e c t s indicated, that FD and FI Ss' d i d not d i f f e r from each other on e i t h e r the simple or complex items i n the c o n t r o l Condition. However, FD and FI Ss 30 25 v V o V o Fl-H c • • • • i i Fi-H s V V V V o o FI - L c Figure 1. MEFT s o l u t i o n la tency f a r al l g r o u p s FI v • V V V V V V V o o 8 o o o o T T s 3 • • o FD- H FD-H FD - L FD-L c s c s v = complex-- coinrol • = complex —stress o =simo|e --control • =simple — stress 2 0 10 0 0 FD >FI r -- FI • -- FD - - - -COMPLEX - SIMPLE — •-- COMBINED FD FI FD • FI c o n t r o l s t r e s s con t ro l s ! r e s s CONDITION ure 2.. a & b M E F T solution latency for FI & FD in both conditions - 34 -d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the s t r e s s Condition f o r the complex items (F = 9.17, df = l / 5 6 , p < .01). They also tended to d i f f e r on the simple items i n the stress Condition (F = 3 .03, df = 9/504, p < 10). The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r T r i a l s (P= 9.07, df = 9/504, p < .01) i n d i c a t e d that there was a general decrease i n the SL across t r i a l s . The s i g n i f i c a n t T r i a l s X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 24 .45, df = 9/504, p < .01) i n d i c a t e d that differences between simple and complex items increased across t r i a l s . The s i g n i f i c a n t FDI X T r i a l s X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (f =3.64, df = 9/504, p < ,01) was of more i n t e r e s t . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences between FD and FI groups f o r nearly a l l complex and some simple items are shown i n Figure ANOVA f o r simple e f f e c t s i n d i c a t e d that FI and FD groups f a i l e d to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other on f i v e simple items, but d i f f e r e d on a l l but one complex item. The Condition X FDI X T r i a l s i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, Figures 4a and 4b suggest that c e r t a i n items tended to d i f f e r e n t i a t e FD and FI groups i n the l a t t e r part of the s t r e s s Condition but not i n the c o n t r o l Condition, Performance tended to improve f o r FI Ss and to d e t e r i o r a t e f o r FD Ss. Means f o r T r i a l s f o r FD and FI groups under the two Conditions (Figure 4) i n d i c a t e s that the FD group performed l e s s c o n s i s t e n t l y from t r i a l to t r i a l than d i d the FI group. The FI group seemed more consistent i n the s t r e s s than i n the c o n t r o l Condition. In the c o n t r o l Condition FD Ss occasionally per-formed as r a p i d l y as FI Ss, There was a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t tendency f o r highly Anxious Ss to perform' f a s t e r than low Anxious Ss (F = 2 .63 , df = 1/56, p < .10). In general, l e v e l of anxiety d i d not i n t e r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h any other f a c t o r . Figure 5 i showing the Solution Latencies f o r high and low Anxious FD and FI groups i l l u s t r a t e s a tendency f o r f a s t e r performance by highly Anxious Ss, o= FD-SIMPLE —- v = FI SIMPLE — • - FD-COMPLEX — • =FI COMPLEX 1 - 2 3 t 3 6 7 8 9 10 TRIALS Figure 3. MEFT SL for FD & FI , simple and complex items * • • — , • • • • : • , — • : L 1 2 3 * 5 6 7 8 . 9 10 TRIALS Figure 4 a . MEFT SL for FI & FD jn both Condions - complex items 6 7 g 9 10 TRIALS Figure 4b- MEFT SL - simple items 20 CO o z o o LU CO CO 10 0 JL FD FD rontrol stress CONDITION • = F|- HIGH v =FI-L0W • =FD-HI6H o =FD-L0W = COMPLEX --- = SIMPLE Figure 5. MEFT SL for all groups, both conditions - 39 -A post hoc ANOVA of the standard d e v i a t i o n of SL (Appendix l l j) i n d i c a t e d that both Condition and FDI had s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the standard deviations. FI Ss were l e s s v a r i a b l e than FD Ss (F = 3^.13, df «= l/56 , p. < .01). FI Ss were l e s s v a r i a b l e during s t r e s s than FI Ss during c o n t r o l or'than FD Ss during both Conditions (F - 3.73, df = 1/56, p. < .06). FD Ss were equally v a r i a b l e during both Conditions. In each, they were more va r i a b l e than FI Ss. MEFT, Items Correct; Comparison of di f f e r e n c e s i n number of MEFT items solved indicated, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between FD and FI Ss (F= 20.3^, df = l/56 , p. < .01). FI Ss solved an average of 18.7 items; FD Ss, 16.3 items. Summary of Behavioral Data. The data i n d i c a t e consistent, but small, di f f e r e n c e s i n performances of FD and FI groups during s t r e s s . Only l a t e n c i e s of complex items were effected by st r e s s when FI Ss tended to perform f a s t e r , FD, slower. Although FI Ss solved more items, Condition had not e f f e c t on number solved f o r FD or FI Ss. FD and FI Ss d i f f e r e d i n the expected d i r e c t i o n i n the c o n t r o l Condition, but neither as c o n s i s t e n t l y nor as much as during s t r e s s . FD Ss tended to vary from item to item i n the c o n t r o l Condition sometimes surpassing FI performance. Although t h i s type of variance occurred during s t r e s s , here FD Ss were con-s i s t e n t l y worse than FI Ss. FI performance tended to be consistent i n both Conditions, but s l i g h t l y more consistent during s t r e s s . Findings of small disturbances i n performance f o r FD Ss must be cons i f dered with the observation that c e r t a i n indices of disturbance were not r e f l e c -ted i n the group latency scores. Eight FD Ss refused to continue during the stre s s Condition. Of these, s i x were dropped as Ss. Two FD Ss refused to p a r t i c i p a t e when informed about the s l i d e s of homicide v i c t i m s . ~ 40 -Phy-plnl o.n-j.ca!- Measures Bcjgs.l Heart F^.te: Mean heart rate during pre- and post- treatment r e s t i n t e r v a l s was compared f o r a l l groups. The r e s u l t s of the ANOVA are summarised in' Appendix 7 . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean heart rate between any groups f o r e i t h e r Condition. Cardiac Rr.^onse to Simple and Complex S l i d e s ; Means derived from the scoring system previously described were submitted to ANOVA. The r e s u l t s are summarized i n Appendix 8. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r Condition, Anxiety, D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l , or FDI, The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r heart be^.+s i n d i c a t e d that there were.significant d i f f e r e n c e s between some beats regardless of other f a c t o r s (F = 21.45, df = 9/504, p < .Ol). The s i g n i f i c a n t Condition X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 5.20, df = l/56, p < .05) showed that there was more a c c e l e r a t i o n to simple items during s t r e s s , but more a c c e l e r a t i o n to complex items during the c o n t r o l Condition. The FDI X ' D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l X Beats i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 2.02, df = 9/504, p <- .05) was s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 6 shows that FD and FI groups d i f f e r e d l i t t l e i n response to the complex task. FI Ss tended to i n i t i a l l y decelerate more and to peak at a higher l e v e l than d i d FD Ss.• FI Ss a l s o tended to i n i t i a l l y decelerate more to the simple task; however, FD Ss reached a higher acceleratory peak and maintained, the r e l a t i v e l y higher l e v e l . The FI group d i f f e r e d l i t t l e i n cardiac response to the two d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s . In contrast, the FD group reached much higher l e v e l s of a c c e l e r a t i o n to the simple task than to the complex one. The s i g n i f i c a n t Condition X FDI X D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 2.20, df = 9/504, p < .05) helps to c l a r i f y these f i n d i n g s . Figure 7 shows that the acceleratory peaking of FD Ss occurred only i n the s t r e s s Condition f o r simple items. A return to a l e s s - a c c e l e r a t i v e mode occurred i n both Conditions f o r FI Ss. They showed l e s s a c c e l e r a t i o n to the complex items i n the stress as V T = FI ° • = FD • • = SIMPLE o v = COMPLEX + 1.00 50 00 =3 Z CD - 5 0 §+100 o — - .50 00 - 50 1 FI FD -f f—f ? 1 J J 1 IB-BEATS Figure 6. Beat by beat Cardiac response of FI&FD, simple and complex items • = CONTROL • = STRESS + i - o d .0 ol 1 .0 c • 1.0 M . 0 0 • 1.0 0 • 1-00 .1-0 • 1.0 -1.0 0 FI simple J L J L • FI complex 1 BEATS -rfr Figure 7. Cardiac response to simple and complex items of F I & F D - 43 -compared t o the c o n t r o l Condition. The Condition X FDI X Anxiety X Beats i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not reach an acceptable l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, Figure 8 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n t e r -a c t i o n and shows the p o s s i b i l i t y that at l e a s t the FI-H and FD-L groups tended t o show more a c c e l e r a t i o n during s t r e s s . The FD-H group seemed to d i f f e r l e s s between Conditions than d i d the other groups i . Also i n contrast to the others i s the FI-L group which tended to show more a c c e l e r a t i o n i n the control Condition. In summary, there were dif f e r e n c e s i n cardiac response t o the percep-t u a l task between FD and FI groups. The differences occurred l a r g e l y i n r e s -ponse to the simple items. FD Ss showed a peak of a c c e l e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y to simple items during s t r e s s ; and FI Ss showed more r a p i d returns to deceler-a t i v e a c t i v i t y during the c o n t r o l Condition. Cardiac Response to Control and Homicide S l i d e s ; A summary of the r e s u l t s of the ANOVA concerning cardiac response to the non-task s l i d e s i s presented i n Appendix 9. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r FDI (F = 4.32, df = l/56, p < ,05) which can be i n f e r r e d from Figure 9. For a l l s l i d e - o n Beats considered together, FD Ss showed l e s s decelerative a c t i v i t y than d i d FI Ss. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r heart Beats (F = 1,98, df = 9/504, p < .05) i n d i c a t e d that f o r a l l Ss there were s i g n i f i c a n t changes from beat t o beat. Figure 9 i l l u s t r a t e s a general i n i t i a l d eceleration which returns to p r e - s l i d e l e v e l s by the 4th beat. This i s followed by a secondary decel e r a t i o n maintained through the 10th beat. No i n t e r a c t i o n reached an acceptable l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Inspection of the raw data suggested that s e v e r a l low Anxious, FD Ss showed extremely e r r a t i c cardiac a c t i v i t y during s t r e s s . The e r a t i c q u a l i t y of the response of a few Ss might p a r t i a l l y account f o r the large e r r o r variance leading to non-+ 1-0 0 .0 0 5 0 + 1.0 0 0 0 o CO 1. 0 0 + 1 . 0 0 0 0 — 1 .00 + 1 . 0 0 0 0 - . 5 0 •:CONTROL • -STBESS ^ " 7 a. i F l - H - a F D - L • t — * • 1 — i — y BEATS ftr Figure 8 . Cardiac response lo MEFT, all groups + .50 .00 CO -.50 o CO -IJO O -1.50 F D * - • • > F I 10 BEATS Figure 9 . Cardiac response to homicide and control slides of FD&FI - 46 -s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the ANOVA. The curves of the FD and FI groups shown i n Figure 9 -.represent i n d i v i d u a l curves f a i r l y accurately except f o r the few e r r a t i c responders. Inspection of i n d i v i d u a l curves suggested con-s i s t e n c i e s not drawn out by the o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s . The curves i n Figure 10 a c t u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e these consistencies. During s t r e s s , FDI and Anxiety seemed to i n t e r a c t i n a very complex way. High anxiety seemed to be r e l a t e d to i n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n at the onset of homicide s l i d e s j but i t was not r e l a t e d to e i t h e r a pontinued a c c e l e r a t i o n or deceleration. The response f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l one d i d r e l a t e to FDI. In general, maintained a c c e l e r a t i o n occurred f o r FD Ss only. These observations l e d to a method of subject r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n permitting an appropriate a n a l y s i s . R e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Cardiac Response to Control and Homicide S l i d e s ; Two major variables were determined as most u s e f u l i n r e - c l a s s i f y i n g a l l Ss. F i r s t , an attempt was made to determine whether a given S_ decelerated or accelerated (from p r e - s l i d e mean) immediately a f t e r a homicide or c o n t r o l s l i d e was shown. There were 10 " i n i t i a l a c c e lerators" and 22 " i n i t i a l derjelerators" i n the c o n t r o l groupf the s t r e s s group contained 13 " i n i t i a l accelerators" and 19 " i n i t i a l decelerators', Second, Ss were c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of whether they maintained deceler-a t i v e or a c c e l e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y . The l a t t e r was defined by the occurrence of at l e a s t 4 of the 10 beats being accelerated above the p r e - s l i d e mean. There were 14 Ss who could be c l a s s i f i e d as "continued accelerators" i n the c o n t r o l group, 17 Ss i n the stress group. The remaining 18 and 15 Ss (respectively) were c l a s s i f i e d as "continued decelerators". A one way ANOVA f o r unequal groups was computed to analyze differences between these groups on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s were HFT, RFT, SL of simple and complex items of the MEFT, and the sub-scales and t o t a l score of APQ. Means f o r a l l comparisons are shown in Appendix 10 . • H^OMICIDE • * NEUTRAL - 0 0 BEATS Figure 10. Cardiac response to homicide and neutral slides, all groups • - 48 -In the s t r e s s Condition, the ANOVA indic a t e d tha4 i n i t i a l d e c e l e r -a t i o n was associated with FDI as. measured by the RFT, I n i t i a l decelerators scored c o n s i s t e n t l y lower on the RFT (F = 9.42, df - l/30, p < .Ol). They tended t o score higher on HFT, but there were no diffe r e n c e s i n the perform-ances of i n i t i a l decelerators and accelerators on any part of the MEFT i n the s t r e s s Condition. Differences on indices of anxiety were somewhat c l e a r e r , I n i t i a l decelerators scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the S o c i a l (F = 6.95» df = l/30, p < .01), Ph y s i c a l (F = 6.16, df - 1/30, p < .02), and T o t a l scales (F - 9.56, df «= l/30, p < ,0l) of the Anxiety Preference Questionnaire. There were no differences on the Ego Anxiety Scale. None of the above differences was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the groups i n the c o n t r o l Condition. I t appears that i n i t i a l cardiac response to the noxious s l i d e of a homicide v i c t i m i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y associated with low l e v e l s of anxiety, while tending to be associated with field-independent performance. S i m i l a r analyses were computed on the groups,. dominant dece l e r a t c r vs,accelerator showing no s i g n i f i c a n t differences on the indices of anxiety; however, there were differences on a l l measures of FDI f o r groups i n the s t r e s s Condition, Those Ss who maintained accelerated beats f o r at l e a s t 4Cf£ of the cardiac response to the homicide s l i d e s appeared to be field-dependent. The accelerators scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on RFT (F =4,69, df = l/30, p < .03), s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on HFT (F = 6,84, df = l/30, p < .01), and tended to have longer l a t e n c i e s f o r the complex items of the modified,,:'-EFT i n the stress Condition, (F = 3.1-1, df = 1/30, p < .09), These differences were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r Ss i n the c o n t r o l Condition, The combined data suggest that i n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n to the noxious s l i d e s was r e l a t e d to high l e v e l s of anxiety; however, continued a c c e l e r -- 4 9 -a t i o n was r e l a t e d only to field-dependence. Likewise, i n i t i a l d eceleration was r e l a t e d to low l e v e l s of anxiety; and those who maintained deceleration tended to be field-independent. These tendencies a l s o can be i n f e r r e d from Figure 10 which shows the cardiac response to homicide and c o n t r o l s l i d e s of the o r i g i n a l groups. Continuous a c c e l e r a t i o n occurred to homicide s l i d e s only f o r the field-dependent groups, I n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n tended to occur only f o r high anxious groups. Summary of Cnrdiac Measures; The combined data concerning cardiac a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between FD and FI groups and between high and low anxiety group."?j Certain nonsignificant tendencies were taken i n t o consideration due t o the exploratory nature of the study and the need f o r f l e x i b l e analyses. There were obvious and consistent differences between FD and FI groups and between high and low Anxiety groups i n cardiac response to homi-cide s l i d e s but not to c o n t r o l s l i d e s . Field-dependence and high l e v e l s of anxiety were r e l a t e d to acceleratory responses. Field-independence and. low l e v e l s of anxiety were r e l a t e d to deceleratory a c t i v i t y . With reference to the task s l i d e , s i m i l a r but more subtle r e l a t i o n s h i p s occurred f o r the field-independent, low anxious Ss and the field-dependent, high anxious Ss. CHAPTER FOUR ; DISCUSSION The data from this study provide support for the hypothesis that a threatening situation activates different classes of habits i n FD and FI individuals. These differences were reflected i n performance on a perceptual task, i n cardiac activity and i n the statements made by individuals following exposure to the stress Condition. Anxiety had a significant effect i n the case of one measure of cardiac activity only. As hypothesized, FDI was found to be the more potent response-biasing factor; i t was related, to the type and. efficacy of perceptual- defensive responses activated, during stress. That i s , FDI influenced the kind of habit activated, and the effectiveness of the habits i n f a c i l i t a t i n g or disrupting performance. MEFT ; The Effects of Stress ! The kind of stress experienced i n this study did not seem more or less f a c i l i t a t i v e or disruptive for either high or low anxious Ss ori MEFT performance. However, there was a nonsigni-ficant tendency for low anxious Ss to perform more slowly than high anxious Ss. The stress was disruptive to both high and low anxious Ss only i f they happened, to be field-dependent. Performance of FD Ss on the complex items tended to deteriorate during stress. In contrast, FI Ss maintained a high level of performance during stress as they had during the control Condition. However, during stress FI Ss tended to perform more rapidly and more con-sistently from item to item than did. FI Ss i n the control Condition. One of the more interesting findings was that FI Ss showed only • a nonsignificant tendency to perform faster than FD Ss i n the control Con-dition. FD Ss occassionally performed as fast as did FI Ss. In effect, the MEFT fai l e d to discriminate between FD and FI groups i n the non-threatening situation. Considered, in the light of the significant differences between - 51 -FD and FI performances during s t r e s s , the above f i n d i n g supports the hy-pothesis that a c t i v a t i o n of dominant perceptual-defensive habits during s t r e s s exaggerates differences i n FD and FI performance. In the c o n t r o l Condition, designed not to a c t i v a t e such habits, differences i n performance were extremely small. The occasional r a p i d solutions of FD Ss and slow solutions of FI Ss could account f o r the l a c k of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a p o s s i b i l i t y r e f l e c t e d by the variance of s o l u t i o n l a t e n c i e s . The MEFT data showed c e r t a i n consistent d i f f e r e n c e s i n item to item v a r i -ance between FD and FI Ss. Along with generally poorer performance, FD Ss were more v a r i a b l e than were FI Ss..In the c o n t r o l Condition, the FD group sometimes surpassed the performance of the FI group. One assumption about FI i n d i v i d u a l s i s that they can i n h i b i t response to t a s k - i r r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i while maintaining a t t e n t i o n to task demands. Consistency of a t t e n t i o n to a task should be r e f l e c t e d i n consistency i n item to item performance } and consistency should increase when task-relevant habits are a c t i v a t e d . Ran-dom f l u c t u a t i o n of a t t e n t i o n to s a l i e n t , t a s k - i r r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i (expected f o r FD Ss) should be r e f l e c t e d i n v a r i a b l e or inconsistent performance. The data i n d i c a t e d l e s s variance f o r FI Ss; and t h e i r performance variance decreased during stress while that of FD Ss d i d not. It i s probable that the varfemce of FD Ss would, have been greater had. not c e i l i i g scores been assigned. These scores were the maximum values assigned to i n c o r r e c t or omitted items. The f i n d i n g of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the performance of FI Ss and the reduction of that v a r i a b i l i t y during s t r e s s supports the hypo-thesis that a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n occurred f o r FI Ss due to a c t i -v ation of task-relevant habits. Attention to task-relevant s t i m u l i may have increased during stress decreasing the v a r i a b i l i t y of performance. - 5 2 -Equal variances for FD Ss i n the two Conditions suggests that the greater fluctuation of FD attention was at least as large during stress as i t was during the control Condition. Perhaps the large fluctuation of attention i n the control Condition allowed for occasional attention to task-relevant stimuli because of a lack of highly salient stimuli i n that Condi-tion. Attention to task-relevant stimuli when salient .(threat-related) stimuli enter the f i e l d i s unlikely in FD Ss. Anxiety had l i t t l e effect on the variance of solutions of task items. The lack of s t a t i s t i c a l significance i n the differences between high and low anxious Ss may be interpreted as further support for the hypothesis that FDI i s the more dominant moderator variable. It should be emphasized that the lack of large differences i n per-formance between FD and FI Ss probably resulted from the termination of 8 FD Ss. Originally, 16 FD Ss began the stress Condition,* 8 did not continue and were replaced. Thus, of a total of 24 FD Ss attempting the stress Con-dition, one third of them terminated. If the original 16 FD Ss had been used in the data analysis and i f grosser measures of performance had been considered, the differences on the MEFT would have been highly significant. It would be valuable to explore the quality of performance and the person-a l i t y of terminating Ss, Quitting responses often occur in a stressful . and permissive situation, For ethical reasons Ss participating i n this study were assured that termination was an acceptable response. Perceptual Task, Cardiac Activity : There were few differences i n cardiac activity during the perceptual task between FD and FI Ss, A sig-nificant difference between the two Conditions for simple items was due largely to a sharp increase in the heart rate of FD Ss in response to simple items during stress. This did not occur for FI Ss at either level of d i f f i c u l t y . A similar increase i n heart rate to simple versus complex tasks during stress was found by Kaufman et a l , (1967). They related the finding to the possibility that cardiovascular augmentation occurs i n proportion to a need to exclude "noise" from the cortex. They suggested that the extent to which the autonomic nervous system f a c i l i t a t e s f i l t e r -ing of task-irrelevant stimuli i s inversely related to the attention de-mands of a task — the more attention demand, the less the need to f i l t e r noise by cardiac activity. In the present study, the higher heart rate response to simple items during stress and the tendency for heart rate to be lower for simple items in the control Condition support the Kaufman et a l . findings. That the differences i n the present study are due to the performance of FD Ss i s understandable. FI Ss probably have less need to augment the f i l t e r i n g of task-irrelevant stimuli during stress while FD Ss tend to be more susceptible to distraction ("noise"). During stress, the FD defensive style f a c i l i t a t e s activation of task-irrelevant habits which, in turn. allow for attention to increasing numbers of task-irrelevant stim-u l i . To maintain performance on a task, the FD S would need to augment any f i l t e r i n g process available to him. Another difference between FD and FI Ss in cardiac activity was the tendency of the lat t e r to return rapidly to pre-slide heart rate levels during simple items. This tendency does not reflect faster solution laten-cies of FI Ss since there was no difference between groups in solution latency for simple items. An alternate possibility i s that FI Ss were more confident i n their accuracy and that this allowed them to discontinue task-related cognitive activity directly after solution. Several FD Ss verbalized doubt about .their solutions after the experiment. Perhaps these uncertain Ss continued to explore items after they had solved them. - 54 -Greater confidence i n certain judgements i n FI as compared with FD Ss was found by Sangiuliano (l95l) and Gross (1959). There was only a slight tendency for anxiety to affect, cardiac activity during the task. The accelerative activity during the task was intensified i n the stress Condition for high anxious, FI Ss and low anxious, FD Ss, Otherwise, FDI stands as the more potent factor. Noxious Visual Stimuli, Cardiac Activity s The data indicate that FI Ss responded differently than did FD Ss i n cardiac activity during exposure to an unpleasant visual stimulus. FI Ss maintained patterns of cardiac deceleration to noxious as well as to neutral visual stimuli. In contrast, FD Ss showed some cardiac acceleratory activity to the noxious stimuli (homicide slides). There were no significant differences between groups i n cardiac activity during neutral slides. Both FD and FI groups tended to decelerate sl i g h t l y to the neutral slides. Individual response curves indicate that FI Ss tended to decelerate sl i g h t l y more to both neutral and noxious slides than did FD Ss. These data give some support to the hypothesis that i n one sense field-independence may be more strongly associated with a receptive (but independent) orientation to the environment than i s field-dependence. The accelerative activity of FD Ss during noxious slides supports, the hypothesis that these Ss tend to reject external threat-related stimuli and attend to internal threat-related stimuli. Post-stress Interview data tend to support this specu-lation. With regard to the factor of anxiety, i t w i l l be recalled that the effects of anxiety on MEFT performance were negligible thereby supporting the position that perceptual-defensive style i s more Important than and possibly overrides the effects of anxiety. With regard to the effects of - 55 -a n x i e t y on c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y , responses were not so c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d "by FDI alone. A n x i e t y l e v e l had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the i n i t i a l c a r d i a c response t o the homicide s l i d e s but not on the i n i t i a l response t o n e u t r a l s l i d e s . The most dramatic e f f e c t of a n x i e t y was found f o r h i g h l y anxious, FD Ss, T h e i r a n x i e t y - r e l a t e d , i n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n t o the homicides was maintained across the measured response t o the s l i d e . These Ss might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " a c c e l e r a t o r s " . No other group had both i n i t i a l and maintained a c c e l e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y t o the noxious s l i d e s , F I Ss who were h i g h l y anxious a l s o a c c e l e r a t e d at onset of the homicide s l i d e s ; but they d i d not maintain a c c e l e r a t i o n and showed d e c e l e r a t i o n c across the measured response. Low anxious FD and F I Ss tended t o d e c e l -erate a t the onset of homicide s l i d e s . F I Ss maintained t h a t d e c e l e r a t i o n w h i l e FD Ss tended t o a c c e l e r a t e a f t e r an i n i t i a l d e c e l e r a t i o n , The FI low anxious S could be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a " d e c e l e r a t o r " , I t i s c l e a r t h a t a n x i e t y l e v e l determined i n i t i a l c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n of the homicide s l i d e s ; but FDI determined the maintained response. N e i t h e r f a c t o r seemed t o s t r o n g l y determine c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the p e r c e p t u a l t a s k , However, i n most cases of the measured c a r d i a c responses there were tendencies f o r FI Ss t o a c c e l e r a t e l e s s than FD Ss when a c c e l e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y occurred f o r a l l Ss. A l s o , there were tenden-c i e s f o r FI Ss t o de c e l e r a t e more than FD Ss when d e c e l e r a t i o n occurred f o r a l l S s , The data tend t o support the hypothesis t h a t c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y of F I Ss i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a more r e c e p t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o the en v i r o n -ment i n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . I t was suggested t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n and d e c e l e r a t i o n r e f l e c t cogni-t i v e a c t i v i t y i n i t i a t e d by the t h r e a t e n i n g nature of a s i t u a t i o n . I f the - 56 -findings of p h y s i o g i c a l differences during exposure to a threatening v i s u a l stimulus are inte r p r e t e d i n Lacey's terms, i t may be s a i d that an i n t e n t i o n to r e j e c t the external environment (or i n i t i a t i o n of a crude f i l t e r i n g process) was a c t i v a t e d i n FD Ss. In contrast, a recep-t i v e i n t e n t i o n to take i n the environment was ac t i v a t e d i n FI Ss, That these processes d i f f e r f o r FD and FI Ss was r e l a t e d to l ) the tendencies of FI Ss to a r t i c u l a t e experience and to r e d i s t r i b u t e a t t e n t i o n to non-threatening aspects of s t i m u l i and 2) the tendency of FD Ss to experience a stimulus configuration as fused and the FD i n a b i l i t y to r e d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n to non-threatening aspects of such a configuration. Anxiety i s probably r e l a t e d t o i n i t i a t i o n of the f a c i l i t a t i n g or r e j e c t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , High l e v e l s of anxiety may be associated with more r a p i d a c t i v a t i o n of a n t i c i p a t o r y responses which play a part i n the i n -h i b i t i o n of the intake of s t i m u l i . I n i t i a l cardiac a c c e l e r a t i o n to homi-cide s l i d e s i n highly anxious Ss could r e f l e c t an i n h i b i t o r y process. Low l e v e l s of anxiety were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d to i n i t i a l d e celeration associated with r e c e p t i v i t y . The simple absense of a n t i c i p a t o r y anxiety-r e l a t e d processes could f a c i l i t a t e intake before a c t i v a t i o n of any i n h i b i t o r y responses. For highly anxious Ss, proneness to a n t i c i p a t e threat may pro-duce the responses which i n h i b i t i n i t i a l intake of a stimulus. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of high l e v e l s of anxiety and field-dependence to cardiac acceleratory a c t i v i t y might r e f l e c t some process other than an i n t e n -t i o n or a defensive a c t i v i t y . A c c e l e r a t i o n could r e f l e c t increased arousal ( c f . Malmo, 1966) r e s u l t i n g from the f a i l u r e of a S to have adaptive responses a v a i l a b l e or to cope with a s i t u a t i o n . S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n of f a i l u r e or expectation of f a i l u r e may increase arousal.. FD Ss d i d report more d i s t r e s s during and fo l l o w i n g the str e s s Condition than d i d FI Ss. Observations i n d i c a t e d that f o r FD Ss " d i s t r e s s " was associated with - 57 -intentional avoidant behaviors, cognitive and overt. The relationship between distress or negatively toned arousal and avoidant behaviors was unclear. Distribution of attention to internal distress cues might function i n part to f i l t e r out potentially threatening external cues, This self-induced distress could be related to hysteria, a possibility discussed with reference to the exaggeration of cognitive-defensive styles in psychopathology ( Witkin, 1 9 6 5 ; Silverman, 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 6 7). An individual may attend to internal stimuli because they serve a defensive function, The habitual response of assuming a stimulus to be threaten-ing and that one cannot cope with this threat before the actual stimulus i s explored might be characteristic of the hysterical personality. These behaviors were characteristic of those Ss who terminated and some FD Ss who managed to continue i n the stress Condition, The slides were never explored i n detail and. could only be considered a potential threat to these Ss. They often mentioned that the unpredictable occurrence of the homicide slides was distressing. Statements made by Ss following the stress Condition suggested a source of variance i n the cardiac data. Several FD Ss stated that they sometimes closed there eyes or looked at the edge of the slides when a slide came on. If peripheral cues (i.e. red color) suggested a homicide slide they continued, avoiding a direct exploration of the slide. Such strategies may pa r t i a l l y explain the erratic cardiac activity of certain FD Ss and the large error variance of the original analysis. In considering the cardiac data, i t should be recalled that the analyses were confined to the f i r s t two slides of each type. Therefore, the data would not reflect any di f f e r e n t i a l habituation of cardiac responses. Whether the differences i n responsivity between FD and FI Ss would increase - 58 -or decrease with repeated stimulation i s not known. Post-Stress Observations s Interview data and observations made by the experimenter following the s t r e s s Condition lend support to the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the defensive-perceptual s t y l e s of FD and FI Ss. It was not uncommon f o r FD Ss t o want t o discuss the a f f e c t i v e connota-ti o n s of the homicide s l i d e s and concepts r e l a t e d to the idea of "man's inhumanity to man", Mention of any p a r t i c u l a r s l i d e or i t s contents was infrequent f o r these Ss. They also tended to mention d i r e c t avoid-ance of d i s t u r b i n g t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m and news media content. The f o l l o w i n g statements were common f o r extremely FD Ss | "My stomach got so heavy, I wanted to f a i n t j but I coundn't make myself because I was s i t t i n g down." "My head f e l t l i k e i t would burst." " I couldn't b e l i e v e anyone would k i l l someone l i k e that," "The only way I could acoept i t was to think t h e i r soul was released from t h e i r body," "I could f e e l my s k i n crawl.""I kept t h i n k i n g about asking you t o stop." Statements of t h i s sort may r e f l e c t a h y s t e r i c a l conversion of anxiety to b o d i l y sensations more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of FD Ss ( c f . Witkin, 1965). These statements were generally absent i n extremely FI Ss, For some FD Ss minimal exposure to the homicide s l i d e s seemed to a c t i v a t e the kind of responses (verbalizations and thoughts) which i n t e r f e r r e d with v i s u a l exploration of the s l i d e s . The 8 FD Ss who terminated responded afterwards as i f they had attended more to s e l f -produced s t i m u l i than to s l i d e content. These Ss tended to show dramatic cardiac a c t i v i t y during st r e s s and immediately before terminating (heart rates up t o 160 beats per minute); and they tended to v e r b a l i z e psychologi-c a l and p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s . The pattern of t h e i r responses seemed to proceed from a t t e n t i o n to g l o b a l a f f e c t i v e aspects to ideas r e l a t e d to - 59 -d i r e c t avoidance. They infrequently reported focusing on d e t a i l or concrete content. Probably, the kind of d i s t r a c t i n g responses r e p o r t -ed by terminating Ss also occurred i n FD Ss who stayed i n the stress Condition, though to a l e s s o r degree. These l a t t e r were the Ss whose performance was somewhat disrupted and who showed accelerated cardiac a c t i v i t y during the homicide s l i d e s . The comments of FI Ss frequently contrasted with those of FD Ss, It was not uncommon f o r an extremely FI S to mention enjoyment of the task despite the unpleasant nature of the homicide s l i d e s ( c f . notion of i s o l a t i o n ) . Several FI Ss s a i d they thought the homicide s l i d e s were upsetting but part of l i f e with which they had to de a l . I t was t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to cope with t h i s event given the opportunity. I m p l i c i t i n t h e i r i n t e n t i o n was a degree of confidence i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope with the threatening aspects and a plan to explore the s t i m u l i presented. Limitations of the Study t Hare et a l , (1970) in d i c a t e d that there were s i g n i f i c a n t sex differences i n the patterns of autonomic response to homicide s l i d e s . Therefore, p o s s i b l y the present r e s u l t s could not be r e p l i c a t e d with a male sample. This study had a r e l a - . t i v e l y s e l e c t sample of adult females who tended, to score at the extremes on measures of anxiety and FDI, Sampling from a u n i v e r s i t y population probably influenced the range of scores. Despite wide sampling, FI Ss scoring as low anxious and FD Ss scoring as high anxious seldom volun-teered. E i t h e r there are fewer of these i n d i v i d u a l s i n the u n i v e r s i t y population or they tend not to volunteer f o r experiments. In other research t h i s sampling bias may be exaggerated by the common use of male volunteers or the use of equal numbers of male and female volunteers. Males are t y p i c a l l y more field-independent than females (Witkin et a l . , - 60 -I962){ and u n i v e r s i t y males may show a narrower range of FDI scores than u n i v e r s i t y females (Hare et a l , , 1970). With regard to the present s-ample, sev e r a l FD Ss sometimes performed as r a p i d l y on the MEFT as d i d FI Ss, Witkin suggested: To say that a person i s r e l a t i v e l y d i f f e r -e ntiated means that he i s capable of opera-t i n g at a high l e v e l of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . He may sometimes operate at a lower l e v e l , how-ever, whether or not he operates at h i s high-est possible l e v e l may depend upon motivation-a l f a c t o r s and/or upon the demands of a p a r t i -c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (1962, p. 5^), This statement casts doubt on the a c t u a l degree of field-dependence of those who scored as field-dependent (HFT and RFT). C e r t a i n l y some were not p a r t i c u l a r l y field-dependent since they demonstrated occasional use of FI h a b i t s . I f these Ss were capable of FI perceptual a c t i v i t y , the r e l a t i v e l y small d i s r u p t i o n of MEFT performance f o r the FD group as a whole might be explainable. The extreme d i s r u p t i o n of performance of the FD Ss who terminated i s probably more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of extreme field-dependence and. r e l a t e d to very d i r e c t avoidant s t r a t e g i e s ( h a b i t s ) , A t e s t of the above notion could use Ss selected with an addi-t i o n a l measure of FDI, one l e s s subject to motivational f a c t o r s than are EFT, HFT or RFT. Pascual-Leone (1970) i n d i c a t e d that the Water-Level Test i s an adequate measure of the lower l e v e l s of field-depen-dence. F a i l u r e on t h i s r e l a t i v e l y simple task i s more a function of dominance of the f i e l d f a c t o r than the s p o r a d i c a l l y low use of mediation-a l capacity. The Water-Level Test can best be used along with the more t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t s of FDI i n order to c l e a r l y determine the p o s i t i o n of any S along the FDI dimension. C e r t a i n l y , research would benefit from the use of w e l l selected .samples. - 61 -A l i m i t a t i o n r e l a t e d to the above suggests c e r t a i n modifica-tions i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n between FDI and anxiety. There was an attempt i n t h i s study to match Ss on two p u t a t i v e l y inde-pendent f a c t o r s , FDI and anxiety. I f the underlying f a c t o r s are indepen-dent, scores on t e s t s designed to measure these f a c t o r s may not be independent. In t h i s study, performance on a measure of FDI was pre-d i c t a b l y changed during s t r e s s , though not as a function of s e l f - r e p o r t e d anxiety. The study does not show whether performance on the independent measures of FDI (HFT, RFT) was modified by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c anxiety l e v e l when the t e s t s were administered i n neutral circumstances. The tendency f o r volunteers to score as low anxious and FD or as high anxious and FI suggests a c o r r e l a t i o n between the independent measures of FDI and anxiety f o r volunteer samples at, l e a s t . Possibly a minimal degree of anxiety i s required f o r the con-s i s t e n t a c t i v a t i o n of FI habits; otherwise a FI S may receive scores on t e s t s such as the HFT s i m i l a r to those obtained by FD Ss, I t was observed that Ss who scored as low anxious on the APQ and as FD sporadi-c a l l y performed at a l e v e l suggestive of the use of FI h a b i t s . These Ss were often d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y along the FDI dimension with the HFT and RFT because t h e i r performance between and within t e s t s of FDI tended to beevnratic. Several extremely low anxious, apparently FD Ss v e r b a l i z e d boredom and i r r i t a t i o n i n the c o n t r o l Condition. Complaints about the long ITI may have r e f l e c t e d a low tolerance f o r moderate and low l e v e l s of stimulation shown to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of FD i n d i v i d u a l s (Cohen, 1967) Cohen reviewed evidence which indicated, that ",..neurosensory character-i s t i c s were r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y to t o l e r a t e environments i n which there was a decrease i n stimulation of v i s u a l and auditory sense modalities, or that integrate n e u r o l o g i c a l and somatosensory c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — or other perceptual, neurophysiological or p e r s o n a l i t y dimensions —were p a r t i a l determinants of the subject "'s r eaction" (Cohen, 196?, p. 8l). Cohen's observations lead to f u r t h e r speculation. The i n t e r n a l responses associated with high l e v e l s of anxiety may produce s u f f i c i e n t c o r t i c a l arousal f o r optimum performance ( a c t i v a t i o n of FI habits) even i n neu-t r a l conditions. FI, low anxious Ss tended to change more i n v a r i a b i l i t y of item to item performance than d i d high anxious FI Ss during s t r e s s . Extremely low anxious, FI Ss may require more external s t i m u l a t i o n to maintain optimum l e v e l s of arousal ( c f . Berlyne, i960) or the s t a b i l i t y of t h e i r psychological organization. That i s , external cues may be moro necessary to a c t i v a t e cognitive-perceptual habits regardless of the l e v e l of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of these habits. Thse low anxious, FI Ss are probably more v a r i a b l e or f l e x i b l e i n cognitive s t l e ( c f . Witkin, 1965. the dimension of f i x i t y - m o b i l i t y of FDl) and more s e n s i t i v e to the f i e l d than are highly anxious Ss, They may f u n c t i o n at l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l e v e l s (as a FD S) than they are a c t u a l l y capable of when FI habits are a c t i v a t e d . The occasional FD q u a l i t y of t h e i r performance p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t s a t r a n s i t o r y dominance of the f i e l d f a c t o r over the mediational f a c t o r . This dominance of the f i e l d f a c t o r could r e s u l t from low c o r t i c a l arousal and temporary low usage of mediational capacity ( c f . Pascual-Leone, 19?0). Whether t h i s hypothetical variance i n FDI i s r e l a t e d to the f a c t o r s of anxiety, f l e x i b i l i t y , a d a p t a b i l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , " i n t e n t i o n " , psychopathology and so f o r t h i s unclear ( c f . Witkin, 1965; Wachtel, 1967» 1968; Pascual-Leone, 1970). C e r t a i n l y the f a c t o r of f i x i t y - m o b i l i t y of FDI postulated by Witkin should be considered i n research focusing on FDI, Analysis of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s variance across several measures of FDI and - 63 -across s i t u a t i o n s could be the f i r s t step i n approaching t h i s problem. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r - t e s t variance to h i s usual l e v e l of anxiety may be another step. The measures used i n t h i s study may be susceptible to various sources of variance unaccounted f o r or not r e a d i l y c o n t r o l l e d . The i n t e r a c t i o n between anxiety and FDI i s probably more complex than suggested by the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, The Stress Problem, i F i n a l comment involves use of stressors i n research. The noxious s t i m u l i used i n t h i s study may a c t u a l l y be l e s s d i s t u r b i n g than c e r t a i n mass media communications (war nezs, v i o l e n t f i l m s ) , These s t i m u l i contain aspects r e l a t e d to the v u n e r a b i l i t y of l i f e and the human p o t e n t i a l f o r violence. Despite d a i l y presentations of s t r e s s f u l communications, there are i n d i v i d u a l s who avoid these but submit themselves to a novel experi-ment. They may avoid d a i l y stress d e l i b e r a t e l y or be protected from them; i n e i t h e r case, a l i m i t e d h i s t o r y of dealing with stressors r e s u l t s . They are of i n t e r e s t to a researcher because they have not developed adequate defensive habits other than crude avoidance. When subjected to a s t r e s s condition, they may become extremely disturbed. Despite t h e i r voluntary status, an experimenter has an e t h i c a l problem of allowing these Ss to continue. The present reseach i s , i n p a r t , an attempt to increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g such i n d i v i d u a l s by determining the f a c t o r s which moderate performance during s t r e s s f u l conditions. Field-dependence appears to be one of the dominant f a c t o r s that should be considered with regard to changes i n ongoing adaptive functioning during s t r e s s . Further extension of these findings may eventually be applied to the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of maladaptive behaviors. - 64 -'Summary : The problem of p r e d i c t i n g the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s on cognitive performance l e d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of two iir-cortant f a c t o r s , anxiety and the cognitive s t y l e s of field-dependence-indepen-4©nce (FDl) , which might act as potent moderator v a r i a b l e s . The a v a i l a b l e experimental l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that anxiety and FDI should moderate the a c t i v a t i o n of habits which could e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e or d i s -rupt performance on c e r t a i n complex tasks. However, recent evidence ind i c a t e d that the influence of anxiety on performance was unpredictable at best. This l e d to a consideration of FDI as the more consistent and dominant f a c t o r b i a s i n g responses acti v a t e d during s t r e s s . FDI was shown to act as a weighting f a c t o r making c e r t a i n responses more probable i n a s i t u a t i o n designed to a c t i v a t e dominant habits. The major purpose of t h i s study was to f i n d support f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l l y derived hypothesis that during s t r e s s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c perceptual-defensive habit patterns of field-dependent (FD) and f i e l d -independent ( F l ) i n d i v i d u a l s are a c t i v a t e d because they are dominant, and they appear to be exaggerated forms of those habit patterns occurring i n n e u tral conditions. This hypothesis was derived from a c o g n i t i v e -a t t e n t i o n a l analysis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between FDI, anxiety and performance which was based on an i n t e g r a t i o n of the theories of Witkin ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Wachtel ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Easterbrook ( 1 9 5 9 ) and Spence and Spence (1966:) The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of FI dominant perceptual-defensive habits as being compatible with habits required f o r s o l u t i o n of c e r t a i n complex task, while FD habits were characterized as incompatible, l e d to the following expectations. It was hypothesized that i f dominant habits are a c t i v a t e d during s t r e s s and i f they are compatible with s o l u t i o n of a task, then an i n d i v i d u a l i n which those habits are a c t i v a t e d w i l l show improved - 65 -performance during s t r e s s . Improvement should be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of FI i n d i v i d u a l s . However, i f those habits are incompatible with s o l u t i o n , t h e i r a c t i v a t i o n should r e s u l t i n d e t s r i o r i z a t i o n of performance, /This should be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the • FD i n d i v i d u a l . A second purpose of t h i s study was to obtain a non-performance index of differences between FD and FI i n d i v i d u a l s during s t r e s s which would, be r e l a t e d to the a t t e n t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s . . Lacey's (1967) theory regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p of cardiac a c t i v i t y to o r i e n t a t i o n to the environment was r e l a t e d to Witkin's (1965) theory of FDI. An i n t e g r a t i o n of the theories l e d to the expectations that FI i n d i v i d u a l s would tend to be receptive to the environment during s t r e s s and would show cardiac deceleration during the presentation of a noxious v i s u a l stimulus. In contrast, i t was expected that FD i n d i -v iduals would tend to r e j e c t the same environmental stimulus and show cardiac a c c e l e r a t i o n to some extent. In order to t e s t these hypotheses, l e v e l of anxiety and p o s i t i o n along the FDI dimension were determined f o r adult, female volunteers. Four experimental groups were formed using , as much as p o s s i b l e , ex-treme scores on these two v a r i a b l e s . Half of each group was tested on a complex perceptual t e s t of FDI i n s t r e s s f u l conditions, h a l f i n neutral conditions. The s t r e s s f u l condition involved the uncertain presentation of unpleasant s l i d e s of victims of murder inbetween the s l i d e s of the perceptual task. Only during the s t r e s s f u l condition were there any s i g n i f i -cant differences between FD and FI i n d i v i d u a l s i n e i t h e r performance or cardiac a c t i v i t y , FI i n d i v i d u a l s tended t o improve, FD, to deter i o r a t e i n performance on the perceptual task, FI Ss were les s v a r i a b l e i n - 66 -t h e i r performance than were FD Ss i n e i t h e r condition; however, t h e i r v a r i a b i l i t y decreased during s t r e s s while that of FD Ss d i d not. Level of anxiety a f f e c t e d neither average speed nor v a r i a b i l i t y of performance on the perceptual task. FDI stood as the more i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r . The major differences between FD and FI Ss and between high and low anxious Ss with regard to cardiac a c t i v i t y occurred during presenta-t i o n of the noxious s l i d e s . High l e v e l s of anxiety wese r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y to i n i t i a l cardiac a c c e l e r a t i o n at onset of a noxious s l i d e . Low l e v e l s of anxiety were r e l a t e d t o i n i t i a l d e celeration. Field-dependence was r e l a t e d to the maintainance of a c c e l e r a t i o n across the measured response to the noxious s l i d e . Field-independence was r e l a t e d to maintained d s c e l e r a t i o n . From these f i n d i n g s , FI -low anxious Ss were characterized as "decelerators" while FD-high anxious Ss were characterized as "accelerators". One of the more dramatic findings of d i f f e r e n c e i n the behaviors of FD and FI Ss during s t r e s s was the high incidence of q u i t t i n g res 1-ponses i n FD Ss, No FI S quit during s t r e s s ; yet 50% of the o r i g i n a l number of FD Ss i n the s t r e s s condition ended t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at some poin t . The FD i n d i v i d u a l ' s use of extremely d i r e c t avoidant s t a t e -gies such as escape was also r e f l e c t e d i n comments made by FD Ss a f t e r the s t r e s s condition. FD Ss who remained i n the experiment throughout the s t r e s s condition tended to report p h y s i c a l symptoms of d i s t r e s s such as pressure on the head, f a i n t n e s s , uneasy stomach. They also reported having thoughts of escape or of asking the experimenter to stop the pro-cedure. Much of t h i s informal data supported the notions of Witkin (1965.2 concerning the p r i m i t i v e and often h y s t e r i c a l defensive s t y l e of FD Ss. - 6 7 -The finding of small "but consistent behavioral and physiolog-i c a l differences between FD and FI individuals during stressful con-ditions but not during neutral conditions supported the main hypoth-eses of this study. The cognitive styles of field-dependence and f i e l d -independence were shown to be the more influential factors determining disruption or f a c i l i t a t i o n of performance when compared to high and low levels of anxiety. Anxiety beoame an important variable only i n consideration of i n i t i a l cardiac response to noxious visual stimuli. Certainly, more global measures of disruption and verbal reports of distress indicated that FD individuals were generally more disrupted in the stressful conditions that were FI individuals. FDI, in general, was the more dominant moderator variable; that i s , the individual's cognitive style tended to bias the responses activated during stress; and these responses could be characterized as either compatible or incompatible with cognitive-perceptual performance. With concern for the validity of the conclusions, certain limitations of the sample used in this study were discussed. 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Cognitive development and cognitive s t y l e : a general psychological i n t e g r a t i o n . Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Geneva, Switzerland, 1970. S a l t z , E. Manifest anxiety: have we misread the data? Psychol.  Review, 1970, 77, 568-573. Sangiuliano, I.A. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the perception of the upright i n space and s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n p e r s o n a l i t y organization. Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , I95I, Fordham U n i v e r s i t y . C i t e d i n Witkin, H.A., Dyk, R.B., Faterson, H.F., Goodenough, D.R. and Karp, S.A. Psychological  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . New York: John Wiley & Sons, Selye, H. The str e s s of l i f e . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. - 71 -Silverman, J . The problem of attention i n research and. theory i n schizophrenia. Psychol. 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APPENDICES - 74 -APPENDIX IA MEAN SCORES ON HFT FOR ALL GROUPS CONDITION C .......13 FDI * FI ..... 19 CON X FDI -1C-FI 18 C-FD .... 6 ANXIETY - H 13 CON X ANX C-H . ...12 C-L .... 13 FDI X ANX FI-H .....18 FI-L 19 CON X FDI X MX - - C-FI-H . .17 C-FI-L ..19 C-FD-H . . .6 C-FD-L ...7 S 12 FD . . . 6 S-FI 19 S-FD 6 L 13 S-H 13 S-L 13 FD-H 7 FD-L 6 S-FI-H :.i9 S-FI-L 20 S-FD-H 7 S-FD-L 5 scores correspond to number For a l l Appendices C =• cont r o l Condition S = str e s s Condition ( FI = field-independent FD = field-dependent H --  high anxiety L = low anxiety correct on HFT * = p < .01 ** = p < .05 *** = p < .10 - 75 -APPENDIX IB MEAN SCORES ON THE RFT FOR ALL GROUPS CONDITION C . . . . . . . 4 S .........4 FDI * - - FD 5 FI 3 CON X FDI - - - - t- - - C-FD ... 5 S-FD ..... 6 C-FI . . . 3 C-FI .... 3 ANXIETY H 5 L 4 CON X ANX C-H ... 4 S-H 5 O-L .... 4 S-L ...... 4 FDI X ANX - -FD^ .H . . . . 6 FI-H ...... 3 FD-L . . . . .5 FI-L ...... 3 CON X FDI X ANX C-FD-H... 6 S-FD-H ..... 6 C-FD-L.. 5 S-FD-L .... 5. C-FI-H , 3 S-FI-H . . . . ' . 4 C-FI-L.. 4 S-FI-L 2 scores i n d i c a t e degrees de v i a t i o n from v e r t i c a l - 76 - . APPENDIX IC MEAN SCORES ON APQ FOR ALL GROUPS CONDITION ** 49 . 45 FDI 48 46 CON X FDI - - — C—FI .,,. 50 S-FI • . . 46 C-FD .... 47 S-FD • . . 47 ANXIETY * - - 55 L . CON X ANX - - 57 S-H . 40 S-L , FDI X ANX - —FI—H ... 56 FD-H . . 54 40 FD-L • » . . 37 CON X FDI X A - C-FI-H ... 58 S-FI-•H. . . 54 C-FI-L.... 42 S-FI--L . . 38 C-FD-H ... 55 S-FD-H 54 C-FD-L ... 39 S-FD-L . . 36 h i g h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s h i g h a n x i e t y l e v e l - 77 -APPENDIX 2 DESCRIPTION OF INDEPENDENT MEASURES THE HFT : The Hidden Figures Test (form Cf - l ) i s de s c r i b e d i n f u l l by French, E l s t r o m and Leighton (1963). I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Embedded Figures t e s t was explored by Jackson, Messick and Myers (1964), I n ge n e r a l j i t can be d e s c r i b e d as a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the Embedded Figures Test used f o r group or i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g , The HFT i s timed and r e q u i r e s minimal S -E i n t e r a c t i o n . Sample items f o l l o w t h i s s e c t i o n . The APQ : The sta n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and a sample item of the Activity Preference Questionnaire f o l l o w . This t e s t has been d e s c r i b e d i n f u l l by Lykken and Katzenmeyer elsewhere (1968). The RFT ; The procedure f o r the Rod-Frame Test was as f o l l o w s - The S was seated and the experimental room was completely darkened except f o r the luminous rod and frame of the RFT apparatus. The S was t o l d the f o l l o w i n g : O.K. Then t e l l me when the r o d i s v e r t i c a l as I move i t s l o w l y . Now, each time I r e s e t t h i s I want you t o c l o s e your eyes. 1*11 t e l l you when. Open your eyes when I say "O.K." and I w i l l begin t o move the rod. You t e l l me when t o stop - when i t i s v e r t i c a l . For the f i r s t 4 t r i a l s the frame was set away f r o v e r t i c a l 20 degrees l e f t . For these t r i a l s the rod was set 15 degrees l e f t , 20 degrees r i g h t , 25 degrees l e f t , 10 degrees r i g h t . This procedure was' reversed f o r 4 a d d i t i o n a l t r i a l s . The e n t i r e procedure was r e p l i c a t e d a f t e r the experimental sessions when i t was administered immediately before removal of electrbd.es. - 79 -APPENDIX 2 (continued) STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS : ACTIVITY PREFERENCE QUESTIONNAIRE FORM A DIRECTIONS — READ CAREFULLY One way of understanding a person better i s by studying the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s or experiences he l i k e s or enjoys. This t e s t employs the similar'approach of studying the pattern of your d i s l i k e s . In each of the items on the following pages — and i n the sample item below — two a c t i v i t i e s or experiences•are described which most people would consider at l e a s t midly unpleasant, Some of them are very unpleasant indeed. In some instances, you w i l l f i n d that s i m i l a r things have a c t u a l l y happened to youj i n the others, you can at l e a s t imagine what they would be l i k e . Your task i s to t r y to imagine yourself i n each of the two s i t u a t i o n s and then, pretending that e i t h e r one or the other had to happen to you, to decide which one you would pr e f e r — which of the two you would take as the l e s s e r o f e v i l s ' , SAMPLE ITEM ( ) Having to work l a t e one night ( ) Being run over by a t r a i n . In t h i s case there i s n ' t much doubt that, i f one of these things had to happen to you, you would pr e f e r the a l t e r n a t e on the l e f t (working l a t e at night) as the l e s s o r e v i l than the one on the r i g h t (being run over by a t r a i n ) ! Therefore, you would check the bracket (/) next to "having to work l a t e one night." Check the alternate you would p r e f e r (the l e s s o r of two e v i l s ) . Answer every item on the t e s t . Work r a p i d l y but consider both a l t e r n a t i v e s i n each item c a r e f u l l y . Imagine how you would f e e l about each a l t e r n a t i v e , decide which of the two would seem l e a s t unpleasant, and check the one you p r e f e r . - - -Remember; Indicate the a l t e r n a t e that you p r e f e r . 100 separate items followed these i n s t r u c t i o n s - 80 -APPENDIX 3 SLIDES OF MEFT INSTRUCTIONS Two s l i d e s of task i n s t r u c t i o n s were presented to Ss. These were followed by nine sample items which increased i n d i f f i c u l t y i n 3 l e v e l s . Three alternate solutions were presented f o r each sample, one being the correct s o l u t i o n . Alternates were the same across samples and t e s t items. Instructions and sample items follow, SLIDE ONE : Just r e l a x while you read these i n s t r u c t i o n s . I am going to show you some designs s i m i l a r to some you have seen before. Alongside the designs are three simple figures,- one of these i s hidden i n the design. Choose which f i g u r e i t i s ; and press the telegraph key at your side the number of times corresponding to the number of the correct f i g u r e . I f number three i s hidden, press the key 3 times. I f number 2 i s hidden, press 2 times. Make your choice and press as r a p i d l y as you can without guessing. I f you make an er r o r , indicate your second choice i n the same way. SLIDE TWO : The f i g u r e hidden i n the design i s always the same s i z e as the f i g u r e at the s i d e . Also, i t i s not turned on i t s side or upside down. There i s always a f i g u r e hidden as i n the example on the r i g h t . Remember, do not guess, but answer as r a p i d l y as you can. When you press the key, keep a l l presses together i n a short span of time. Try your key now by pressing once and then three times r a p i d l y . In a few seconds I w i l l show you some examples beginning with some easy items. MEFT Test Samples The three alternate scl.utions were presented alongside each complex design as shown i n the example above. - 81 -APPENDIX 4 DETAILED TASK INSTRUCTION AND CLARIFICATION OF PROCEDURE The following i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to a l l Ss following the RFT. As I t o l d you before, we are taking p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures i n t h i s experiment. So I w i l l attach electrodes to you which carry your body s i g n a l s to my machine i n the other room. I ' l l t e l l you what each i s f o r as I attach them. (To Ss i n the s t r e s s Condition) Before I do t h a t , I want to ask you something e l s e . You already know that y o u ' l l be seeing s l i d e s of the task. What I want to know jiow i s how you would f e e l about seeing some rather unpleasant s l i d e s during the experiment. I want to be sure t h i s i s O.K. with you before I show them to you. The s l i d e s were taken by the p o l i c e ; and are pi c t u r e s of homicide v i c t i m s . Do you have any objection to seeing these? Feel free to say so. We want you to stay; but you are a volunteer and t h i s i s up to you. I f you choose to continue, you can stop at any time i f necessary; and you can t a l k to me through t h i s intercom. I can hear you at a l l times, (electrode attachment) I want you to re l a x and get very comfortable while I explain the task. I t i s important to remain f a i r l y s t i l l because of the equip-ment. Now, look at the telegraph key on your l e f t and press i t . This i s how you can answer the problems you w i l l see on the s l i d e s . The f i r s t s l i d e s you see w i l l have more i n s t r u c t i o n s . ( c l a r i f i c a t i o n of any questions of S) Are you sure you understand? I ' l l go to the other room and s h o r t l y the f i r s t s l i d e s w i l l come on. I t w i l l be a few minutes because I must adjust the equipment. So, j u s t r e l a x f o r a while. (sample s l i d e s shown) Through Intercom ; Did you understand? O.K. Now would you just r e s t again while I record your body sig n a l s while you are r e s t i n g . In about 10 minutes a s l i d e w i l l come on that says "ONE MINUTE". This i s to l e t you know exactly when we w i l l begin. (To Ss i n the c o n t r o l Condition) Before I attach these electrodes, I want you to know that you w i l l be shown some s l i d e s of people doing ordinary things as w e l l as the s l i d e s of the task. Do you have any objection t o any of t h i s pro-cedure? Feel free to say so. We can t a l k to each other through t h i s intercom during the experiment. I can hear you at a l l times. O.K.? There were no other d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n s to Ss i n the two Conditions. Instructions sometimes var i e d due to questions by Ss. - 82 -APPENDIX 5 • SAMPLE - POST-STRESS QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONSs As you can imagine, i t i s not easy to discover how and why individuals respond differently to the same kind of anxiety producing situation, You have already f i l l e d out some questionnaires, nonwof which asked you directly how you respond i n anxiety producing situations. This one i s directed mainly at the experiment. Please f i l l i t out and add any comments about the experiment or anything else, 1. Briefly describe any plan or way of dealing with the unpleasantness i n this experiment which you might have devised. 2. On a 5 point scale, rate the degree of uncertainty i n this experiment, 1 2 3 k 5 predictable extremely uncertain 3• The uncertainty involved was ... 1 2 3 ^ 5 elating tolerable extremely distressing k. I respond to uncertain and small crises in daily l i f e with ,,, 1 2 3 4 5 elation panic, leave 5» 1 respond to uncertainty when i t involves the possi b i l i t y of future unpleasantness i n general by,...., 6, Did you fee l any marked change in your physical responses during the experiment Describe them. 7. The worst part of the experiment was..., (choose answer from The next most distressing part was,,,,.^ 10 alternates) The least distressing w a s . 1. actually viewing the homicide slides 2. one particular slide 3. my own thoughts set off by the slides 4. trying to solve the problems and worrying about slides 5. not knowing how many slides there were 6. waiting for the next slide 7. fear that next homicide slide would be worse 8. not knowing when homicide slides would be shown 9. feeling I would have to leave 10, other - 83 -APPENDIX 5 (continued) 8.Did you feel any r e l i e f during the experiment, temporarily or other-wise, from any original feeling of dread of the slides? When? 9.In general, i n looking at the homicide slides I found myself (circle one anser i n each set of 3 p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) 1. concentrating on many small details 2. looking at a few details 3. looking vaguely at the whole slide 1, thinking about details, figuring out what happened 2, thinking about some detail sometimes 3, purposefully missing details and noticing large parts 1. doing several things mentally to keep watching the slides 2. thinking about the slide and what i t represented most of the time 3. finding i t hard not to look at the slides by staring 1, thinking the slides were not as shocking as things I see on T.V, 2, feeling they were shocking mainly because I knew they were real 3, thinking they were more shocking than anything I had seen on T.V, 10. What happens to you i n an important exam? Are you a good or poor exam taker? 11. What do you do i f something unpleasant is due the next week and you need to plan how to handle the situation? 12. If there i s anything common i n stressful events i n l i f e that makes them anxiety producing, i t can be described as follows,.... 13. I fe e l the amount and kind of violence on T.V. and films 14, I respond to such violence usually by 15. If I had to coin a phrase to describe what i s expressed about our society by the degree and quality of violence which I witness, I would say.......... - S 4 -'APPENDIX 6 ANOVA : SOLUTION LATENCY - MEFT SUMMARY SOURCE df CONDITION (C) 1 FDI (F) 1 Anxiety (A) 1 C X F 1 C X A 1 F X A 1 C X F X A 1 ERROR 56 DIFFICULTY LEVEL (D) 1 D X C 1 D X F 1 D X A 1 D X C X F 1 D X C X A 1 D X F X A 1 D X C X F X A 1 ERROR 56 TRIALS (T) 9 T X C 9 T X F .9 T X A 9 T X C X F 9 T X C X A 9 T X F X A 9 T X F X C X A 9 ERROR 5 0 4 T X D Q T X D X C 9 T X F X D 9 T X A X D 9 T X C X F X D 9 T X C X A X D 9 T X F X A X D 9 T X C X F X A X D 9 ERROR 504 TOTAL 1279 ? ANALYSIS MS . F 4399 . 2 6 759Q90 44,32 * 45089 2.63 54249 3 . 1 6 * * * 906 . 0 5 16553 .97 3116 .18 17145 1831400 3 4 3 . 0 3 * 8804 I . 6 5 24526 4.59 * * 3896 .73 17828 3,34 *** 6721 1.26 2962 .55 354 .07 5339 54904 9.07 * 9230 1.52 4418 .73 6676 1.10 476O . . 7 9 3664 .61 8290 1.37 2971 . 4 9 6055 109940 24.45 * 4994 1.11 16346 3 .64 * . 9 2 4128 1802 ' .40 3478 :??. 3463 4889 1 . 0 9 4496 * P. < . 0 1 ** p. < . 0 5 *** p. < . 1 0 - 85 -APPENDIX 7 ANOVA 5 BASAL HEART RATE SUMMERY OF ANALYSIS SOURCE df MS F CONDITION (C) 1 124750 .05 FDI (F) 1 587260 .25 ANXIETY (A) 1 857720 ,37 C X F 1 852490 .36 C X A 1 3123100 1.33 F X A 1 5137600 2.20 C X F X A 1 1741000 .74 ERROR 56 2339600 TRIALS (T) 1 5100 .03 T X C 1 4950 .03 T X F 1 181350 .98 T X A 1 153600 .83 T X C X F 1 9488 .05 T X C X A 1 94070 .51 T X F X A 1 349450 1.89 T X C X F X A 1 138600 .75 ERROR WITHIN 56 184900 TOTAL 127 APPENDIX 8 ANOVA : CARDIAC RESPONSE - MEFT SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS SOURCE df MS F C 1 5.39 .48 F 1 1.50 .14 A 1 .01 .00 C X F 1 .62 .06 C X A 1 .00 .00 F X A 1 5.93 .54 C X F X A 1 22.59 2.05 ERROR 56 10.99 D 1 .10 .02 D X C 1 22.93 5.20 * * D X F 1 2.35 .53 D X A 1 11.00 2.50 D X C X F 1 ,49 .11 D X C X A 1 .44 .10 D X F X A 1 2.19 .50 D X C X F X A 1 12.85 2.91 ERROR 56 4.41 BEATS (B) 9 28.27 21.45 * B X C 9 2.06 1.57 B X F 9 .28 .21 B X A 9 1.31 .99 B X C X F 9 .39 .30 B X C X A 9 .90 .69 B X F X A 9 2.05 1.54 B X C X F X A 9 1.92 1.45 ERROR 504 1.32 B X D 9 .90 1.31 B X C X D 9 .91 1.33 B X F X D 9 1.39 2.02 ** B X A * D ' 9 .73 1.06 B X C X F X D 9 1.51 2.20 ** B X C X A X D 9 .33 .48 B X F X A D 9 .92 1.34 B X C X F X A X D a .43 .69 .62 ERROR 504 TOTAL 1279 ANOVA - 87 -APPENDIX 9 CARDIAC RESPONSE - HOMICIDE AND CONTROL SLIDES SOURCE SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS df MS c F A C X F C X A F X A C X F X A ERROR B B X C B X F B X A B X C X F B X C X A B X F X A B X C X F X A ERROR TOTAL 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 56 9 9 9 9 9 504 639 1.19 4.32 1.09 .37 .00 .08 1.98 1.05 •71 .96 .2' - 88 -APPENDIX 10 CARDIAC RESPONSE TO CONTROL AND HOMICIDE SLIDES s MEANS AND LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES INITIAL CARDIAC RESPONSE CONTINUED CARDIAC RESPONSE CONTROL STRESS CONTROL STRESS DEC. ACC. DEC. ACC. DEC. ACC. DEC- ACC. HFT 12 12 j 14 10 | 16 9 * | 12 11 RFT 4 4 I 3 6 3 5 *# 4 5 SL-s 7 8 1 • 7 7 7 8 7 7 SL-c 14 1 5 i 14 14 13 16 *** ! 15 14 SL-C 10 11 • 10 11 10 i 12 11 11 MEFT 17 17 | 18 18 18 17 17 17 APQ-T 47 50 i 41 52 * 44 47 48 50 APQ-S 19 20 ! 17 22* 1 • x 9 20 19 19 APQ-P 21 21 i j 16 21 17 18 20 22 APQ-E 9 9 ! 8 9 8 9 9 9 • - i -* = P. < .01 • ** = p. < .05 * * * r= p, < ,])0 HFT = the number correct on HFT RFT = the degrees deviation from v e r t i c a l on RFT SL-s = s o l u t i o n latency i n seconds on simple items SL-c <= s o l u t i o n latency i n seconds on complex items SL-C = s o l u t i o n latency i n seconds on combined items MEFT = number correct on MEFT APQ-T = score on T o t a l scales of APQ APQ-S = score on S o c i a l scale of APQ APQ-P = score on Physical scale of APQ APQ-E = score on Ego scale of APQ DEC. = decelerator ACC. = accelerator - 89 -APPENDIX 11 ANOVA : STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE MEFT SOLUTION LATENCY SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS SOURCE df MN F C 1 875 2,79 *** F 1 10699 34.13 * C X F 1 1168 3.73 *** A 1 38 .12 C X A 1 15 .05 F X A 1 00 .00 C X F X A 1 23 .07 ERROR 56 313 TOTAL 63 

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