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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationship between leisure activities and satisfaction with a rural fringe location Pounder, Kathryn Elizabeth 1973

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I c- 1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SATISFACTION WITH A RURAL FRINGE LOCATION by KATHRYN ELIZABETH POUNDER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regiona l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s may be granted by the Head of my Department or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community and Reg i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date /f)t ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study i s to explore the r e l a t i o n -ship between residents' l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r physical environment as an aid to understanding th e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with that environment. This i s done with s p e c i f i c reference to Maple Ridge, a fringe area of Vancouver. Three major questions are considered. How do the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the residents a f f e c t the frequency of the i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various leisure, a c t i v i t i e s ? To what extent does, the environment constrain or f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v i t i e s which the residents have an i n t e r e s t i n pursuing? And, to what extent does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d or constrained by the environment influence r e s i d e n t s 1 s a t i s f a c t i o n with that environment? Ten hypotheses and two assumptions were formulated to examine the r e l a t i o n -ships suggested by these questions. The study data consists of 152 responses to a mailed questionnaire which was d i s t r i b u t e d to a random sample of the residents of Maple Ridge. Univariate techniques for comparing percentage differences, means.and co r r e l a t i o n s , and the multivariate techniques of factor analysis, 2 Hotelling's T s t a t i s t i c and discriminant analysis are used to test the hypotheses. i i i I t i s shown t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s who w e r e m o s t i n t e r -e s t e d a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y i n r u r a l r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s p r e f e r r e d a more r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; w h e r e a s , t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n s u c h a c t i v i t i e s p r e f e r r e d a more u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r p l a n n e r s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i m p l y t h a t i t i s v a l i d t o e x a m i n e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s ' l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t t h e f r i n g e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a s a n a r e a o f f e r i n g u n i q u e r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Pa g e L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i C h a p t e r I . INTRODUCTION 1 R e a s o n s f o r t h i s A p p r o a c h 2 P a s t S t u d i e s o f t h e F r i n g e 4 A c t i v i t i e s A p p r o a c h 15 Summary . . . . 3 0 I I . METHODOLOGY 33 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 34 M e t h o d s U s e d i n t h e A n a l y s i s 43 I I I . THE CHARACTERISTICS OF.THE RESIDENTS . . . . 48 G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e P o p u l a t i o n . 4 8 A C o m p a r i s o n of: L o n g t e r m v e r s u s New R e s i d e n t s 55 The E f f e c t s o f t h e P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s o n t h e F r e q u e n c y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n 59 Summary 78 I V . A C T I V I T I E S - ENVIRONMENT - SATISFACTION . . 81 A c t i v i t i e s 81 The P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e F r i n g e 89 V Chapter Page Sa t i s f a c t i o n with the Fringe Environment 9 3 Summary 105 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS HO General Implications HO Further Research . . . 113 Planning Implications 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . ' 118 APPENDICES A. Letter Accompanying the Questionnaire . . . . 124 B. Questionnaire 126 C. Glossary of Terms 130 D. Percentage and Mean Frequency of P a r t i c i -pation i n the A c t i v i t i e s 132 v i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e P age I I . 1 . A C o m p a r i s o n o f A g e G r o u p s f r o m t h e S a m p l e a n d C e n s u s P o p u l a t i o n s ^ I I I . 1. Income 2 ^ 2. O c c u p a t i o n 50 3. E d u c a t i o n 51 4. A g e s 5 2 5. P a s t R e s i d e n c e 53 6. L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e 54 7. L i f e C y c l e by R e s i d e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e . . . 57 8. O c c u p a t i o n b y R e s i d e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e . . . 58 9. P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d e x b y Income 61 10. Mean F r e q u e n c y o f . P a r t i c i p a t i o n b y Income ; 63 1 1 . Income G e n e r a t i n g A c t i v i t i e s b y Income . . 67 12. Mean F r e q u e n c y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n by L i f e C y c l e 1 1 1 3 . Mean F r e q u e n c y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n b y R e s i d e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e . . . ^6 I V . 1 . R o t a t e d F a c t o r L o a d i n g s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . ^ 2. C o r r e l a t i o n between. I n t e r e s t i n a n d P e r f o r m a n c e o f E a c h A c t i v i t y 8 6 3. S i t e R e l a t e d A c t i v i t i e s b y L o t S i z e . . . . 90 4. L o t S i z e b y L o t P r e f e r e n c e 91 5. V i s i t i n g b y D i s t a n c e t o N e i g h b o u r s . . . . 92 v i i T a ble Page IV.6. Mean Frequency of. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by R e s i d e n t i a l P r e f e r e n c e 97 7. D i s c r i m i n a t i n g V a r i a b l e s . . 99 8. Mean Frequency of I n t e r e s t by R e s i -d e n t i a l P r e f e r e n c e 101 V l l l LISTS OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1.1. General Relationships and Variables To Be Considered . . . . ^2 I I I . l . Mean Frequency of P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Income 4^ 2. Mean Frequency of P a r t i c i p a t i o n by L i f e Cycle 7 2 3. Mean Frequency of P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Residential Experience . . I I V . l . Mean Frequency of P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Residential Preference . 2. Mean Frequency of Interest by Residential Preference !02 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The a i m o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n p e o p l e ' s l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s done w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r u r a l f r i n g e . T h r e e m a j o r q u e s t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t l y , how do t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a f f e c t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r r e s i d e n c e , i n c o m e , o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d s t a g e i n l i f e c y c l e . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t o w h a t e x t e n t d o e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t c o n -s t r a i n o r f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g ? A n d , t h i r d l y , t o w h a t e x t e n t d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d o r c o n -s t r a i n e d b y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n f l u e n c e r e s i d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . The a b i l i t y t o a n s w e r t h e l a s t two q u e s t i o n s w i l l d e p e n d on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s e n g a g e i n c a n be c a t e g o r -i z e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n g r u e n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 2 R e a s o n s f o r t h i s A p p r o a c h S t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e i n t h e p a s t a t t e m p t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d p e o p l e 1 s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t h a v e done so b y s u r v e y i n g p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s t o w a r d t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s p r o c e s s h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r i n p l a n n i n g w h e r e t h e demands f o r i n p u t f r o m p e o p l e b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r a r e c o n t i n u a l l y g r o w i n g . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s m e t hod h a s b e e n q u e s t i o n e d by s e v e r a l p e r s o n s ( G o d s t a l k a n d M i l l s , 1 9 6 9 , p . 88; M i c h e l s o n , 1 9 7 0 , p. 204; P e r i n , 1 9 7 0 , p. 45) who h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f p l a n n e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e w a n t t o d o , t h e y s h o u l d l e a r n f r o m w h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y d o ; r a t h e r t h a n f r o m w h a t t h e y s a y t h e y w o u l d do i n a g i v e n s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The s t u d y o f a c t i v i t i e s i s n o t s u g g e s t e d a s a r e p l a c e m e n t o f u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y s ; r a t h e r , i t i s f e l t t h a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p e r s o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s i s v a l u a b l e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g ; o n e , t o t h e d e s i g n o f a n e n v i r o n m e n t s u i t e d t o t h e r e s i d e n t ' s n e e d s ; a n d t w o , i n p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r a n a p p r o a c h t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p e r s o n ' s r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g f i r s t , t h e v a l i d i t y o f s t u d y i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n , M i c h e l s o n ( 1 9 7 0 , p. 204) s t a t e s : " E x p e r i e n t i a l c o n g r u e n c e o f p e o p l e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h n e e d e d t o f o r m s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l p l a n s 3 for the future." E x p e r i e n t i a l congruence he defines as the degree to which the environment a c t u a l l y accommodates the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour of people (1970, p. 31). Thus, i f we can i d e n t i f y a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d by the environment; a c t i v i t i e s , which Perin (1970, p. 45) describes as ". . . everyday a c t i v i t i e s which people gain confidence i n . . . ." Then the attributes of the environment which support those a c t i v i t i e s can be protected and enhanced. Godstalk and M i l l s , (1969) have u t i l i z e d the study of a c t i v i t i e s , with c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a collaborative approach to planning.. As they state: . . . planning must be concerned with the objective analysis of human a c t i v i t i e s . . . Once established within the planning process, a c t i v i t i e s analysis can provide continuing contact with the p l u r a l i s t i c urban context . . . . (pp. 86-87) If a s p e c i f i c physical environment within the metro-p o l i t a n region can be shown to provide unique opportunities to engage i n cert a i n a c t i v i t i e s and that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n those a c t i v i t i e s i s important to the residents" s a t i s f a c t i o n with th e i r environment then support i s more l i k e l y to be avai l a b l e to protect that environment. This approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to the study of r u r a l fringe areas which are continually being threatened with development and the r e s u l t i n g destruction of the e x i s t i n g environment. 4 The b a s i s on w h i c h we p r o p o s e t h a t t h e r u r a l f r i n g e s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d , a ssumes t h a t p e o p l e c h o o s e t o l i v e i n t h e f r i n g e b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h assumes t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r i b u t e s u n i q u e t o t h e r u r a l f r i n g e c a n be m a i n t a i n e d . F o r , a s M e l v i n Webber ( 1 9 6 3 , p . 53) s u g g e s t s i n h i s a r t i c l e " O r d e r i n D i v e r s i t y , " we s h o u l d be p l a n n i n g f o r d i v e r s i t y t o meet t h e n e e d s o f d i s p a r a t e g r o u p s , " . . . one p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t and i t s l a n d u s e i s s u p e r i o r o n l y a s i t b e t t e r a ccommodates on g o i n g s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . . . ." P a s t S t u d i e s o f t h e F r i n g e M o s t s t u d i e s o f t h e f r i n g e h a v e b e e n d e s c r i p t i v e . T h ey h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e i t i n t e r m s o f t h e u r b a n — r u r a l c o n t i n u u m . Thus p a s t s t u d i e s h a v e done l i t t l e t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e f r i n g e . A f t e r a s y s t e m a t i c r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e f r i n g e , F o r d a n d S u t t o n ( 1 9 6 4 , p. 214) c o n c l u d e : " . . . t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s a r e s t a t e m e n t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d when r e s e a r c h i s n o t f o r m u l a t e d i n s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n a l t e r m s i t i s v a i n t o e x p e c t a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o be d e r i v e d f r o m i t . " I n t h i s s e c t i o n , we w i l l v e r y b r i e f l y n o t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f r i n g e w h i c h h a s b e e n s t r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d 5 t h e n we w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s w h i c h m i g h t a f f e c t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e -t w e e n new r e s i d e n t s f r o m u r b a n a r e a s a n d l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s w i l l be r e v i e w e d , i n v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h h a s d e a l t w i t h t h i s t o p i c . A h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be p r o p o s e d t o t e s t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f p a s t f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h i s s t u d y . The e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a n d l i f e c y c l e o n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e n e r a l w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s w i l l be done s i m p l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i n c e we do n o t i n t e n d t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e s e e f f e c t s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e f r i n g e s u g g e s t s t h a t p a s t r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e w i l l a f f e c t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s e n g a g e . We a r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e s i d e n t s c h o o s e t o l i v e i n t h e r u r a l f r i n g e b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t f a c i l i -t a t e s . W h i l e t h e n o t i o n o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o a c t i v i t i e s o r l i f e s t y l e i s o n l y now b e i n g t e s t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a n d s u b u r b i a , t h e g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e 6 s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h new r e s i d e n t s f r o m u r b a n a r e a s a n d r e s i d e n t s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s e n g a g e i n . We a r e c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y r e s i d e n t s who a r e now l i v i n g i n t h e f r i n g e , r e s i d e n t s whose p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e was i n a n u r b a n a r e a w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s " u r b a n r e s i d e n t s " t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s t u d y ; s i m i l a r i l y , t h o s e f r o m r u r a l a r e a s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s " r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . " The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h i s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d w i l l d e p e n d o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r u r a l a n d . u r b a n r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s , o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d p r o v i d e us w i t h a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p e o p l e ( e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e f r o m u r b a n a r e a s ) c h o o s e t o l i v e i n t h e f r i n g e b e c a u s e i t f a c i l i t a t e s a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e y h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g . The N a t u r e o f t h e F r i n g e A g r e a t d e a l o f l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e h a s a c c u m u l a t e d , i n w h i c h a u t h o r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s a r e a . R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e r e v i e w e d p r e v i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s a n d t h e n o f f e r e d o r n o t o f f e r e d d e f i n i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e e d s a n d c o n t e x t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t u d i e s . We s h a l l n o t r e p e a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e h e r e ; e x c e p t , t o s u m m a r i z e t h e f o u r e l e m e n t s , one o r more o f w h i c h , 7 M c K a i n a n d B u r n r i g h t ( 1 9 5 3 , p . 109) i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f some t h i r t y s t u d i e s , n o t e a r e g e n e r a l l y , i n c l u d e d i n d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e f r i n g e . 1. I n t h e r u r a l u r b a n f r i n g e t h e r e a r e b o t h u r b a n a n d r u r a l l a n d u s e s . . . . 2. I n t h e f r i n g e t h e r e i s a m i n g l i n g o f p e o p l e - -some o f whom w o r k i n , a n d a r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d a g r i c u l t u r e — w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e -m a i n d e r p u r s u e u r b a n o c c u p a t i o n s a n d a n u r b a n way o f l i f e . . . . 3. The f r i n g e i s a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a w i t h i t s b o u n d s o f t e n a r b i t r a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by g r a d a t i o n i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d u s e a n d t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o i t . . . . 4. Some a u t h o r s f u r t h e r p o s i t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e a n d s t r e s s t h e a b n o r m a l o r p r o b l e m n a t u r e o f t h e a r e a . . . . The r e a d e r who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e v i e w i n g p a s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f r i n g e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l c o u l d c o n s u l t a r t i c l e s b y F o r d a n d S u t t o n (1964) a n d P r y o r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , who h a v e s y s t e m -a t i c a l l y r e v i e w e d t h e s t u d i e s o n t h e f r i n g e r e v e a l i n g t h e i r i n c o n s i s t a n c i e s a n d i n a d e q u a c i e s . W i s s n i c k ( 1 9 6 2 , p. 211) a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e p a s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f r i n g e i n . s o m e d e t a i l c o n c l u d e s : " I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r a s much w e i g h t s h o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o t h e u n i t a r y c o n c e p t o f t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e a s i t h a s b e e n c o n s t r u e d by s e v e r a l s o c i o l o g i s t s . " D u r r a n i ( 1 9 6 9 ) , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n , c o m p a r e d t h r e e f r i n g e a r e a s w h i c h d i f f e r e d . i n t h e e x t e n t 8 t o w h i c h t h e y w e r e d e v e l o p e d ; f r o m a n a r e a w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o w h a t we a r e c a l l i n g " r u r a l f r i n g e , " t o a n a r e a w h i c h m i g h t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s u b u r b a n . We a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s c r i b i n g t h e f r i n g e i n t e r m s o f a l l o t h e r s u c h a r e a s . We w i l l . b e c o n t e n t t o d e s c r i b e t h e a r e a w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d a s a r u r a l f r i n g e i n v i e w o f t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o t h e a r e a . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e f r i n g e w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a p o i n t o f c o m p a r i s o n f o r t h i s s t u d y . R e s i d e n t s ' C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A s t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e f r i n g e s u g g e s t s at- l e a s t two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s o f p e o p l e c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ; t h o s e who h a v e l i v e d t h e r e f o r many y e a r s a n d t h e n e wcomers. Some s u c h a s S p e c t o r s k y (1955) i n h i s c a s e s t u d y o f a f r i n g e a r e a on t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d h a v e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h e newcomers o r e x u r b a n i t e s ; G i s t (1952) d e a l t w i t h t h e n o n d e c e n t r a l i s t s a n d t h e d e c e n t r a l i s t s o r t h o s e who moved f r o m t h e c i t y . M c K a i n and B u r n r i g h t (1953) a c t u a l l y f o u n d t h a t m o s t o f t h e newcomers w e r e u r b a n . H o w e v e r , R o d e h a v e r ( 1 9 4 6 , p p . 4 9-57) i d e n t i f i e d t h e movement t o t h e f r i n g e a s two d i r e c t i o n a l , f r o m b o t h u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s . He f o u n d t h a t p e o p l e f r o m r u r a l a r e a s came l a t e r i n t h e i r 9 l i f e c y c l e a n d h a d l o w e r i n c o m e s t h a n t h o s e who came f r o m u r b a n a r e a s . D u r r a n i i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e l o n g t e r m r e s i d e n t s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s who w e r e l o w o n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s c a l e a n d t h e u r b a n newcomers who w e r e h i g h . The r u r a l l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s w e r e f o u n d t o h a v e a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e o l d e s t l i f e c y c l e c a t e g o r y , w h i l e u r b a n newcomers h a d a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e y o u n g e s t c a t e g o r i e s . C r o m w e l l (197 0) i n a r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e f r i n g e a r e a i n S u r r e y i d e n t i f i e d two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , — - t h e newcomers h a d h i g h e r i n c o m e s , e d u c a t i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a n t h e l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 i s p r o p o s e d , i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s s t u d y . HYPOTHESIS 1: New r e s i d e n t s f r o m a r e a s w i l l d i f f e r f r o m l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s a n d new r e s i d e n t s f r o m o t h e r r u r a l a r e a s i n t h a t t h e y w i l l h a v e h i g h e r s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s , h i g h e r i n c o m e s , h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d w i l l be i n a y o u n g e r l i f e c y c l e c a t e g o r y . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e , R e i s s m a n ( 1 9 5 4 , p . 76) o b s e r v e d t h a t many p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s h a d c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d : 10 . . . t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l c l a s s o n t h e one hand a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d e x t e n t o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y a n d s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . M a r t i n ' s (1953) f i n d i n g s s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s o b s e r -v a t i o n a s f a r a s s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . W h i l e C l a r k ( 1 9 5 8 , p. 207) i n a s t u d y o f " L e i s u r e a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e " i d e n t i f i e d a number o f a c t i v i t i e s n o t r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n ; h u n t i n g , b o w l i n g , w o r k i n g i n t h e g a r d e n , o u t o f town v i s i t i n g a n d r e l a x i n g . D u r r a n i ( 1 9 6 9 , p p . 262-263) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s o c i a l c l a s s . W h i l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e more d e v e l o p e d a r e a s , t h e y w e r e o n l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l e a s t d e v e l o p e d a r e a . We w i l l t e s t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p b y h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t -HYPOTHESIS 2: R e s i d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r i n c o m e s , o r h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , o r h i g h e r s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s i n d i c a t e d b y a n o v e r a l l m e a s u r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h a n t h o s e r e s i d e n t s w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f i n c o m e , o r e d u c a t i o n , o r o c c u p a t i o n . 11 The a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be e x a m i n e d ; e v e n t h o u g h we a r e u n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e how t h e v a r i a b l e s w i l l a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s . We c a n h o w e v e r be more s p e c i f i c w i t h r e g a r d t o s e v e r a l o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s , s i n c e i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d by G i s t ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 329) t h a t p e o p l e a r e a t t r a c t e d t o f r i n g e a r e a s b e c a u s e t h e l a r g e l o t s e n a b l e them t o d o a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w i l l s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r i n c o m e ; s u c h a s v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n i n g , a n d k e e p i n g l i v e s t o c k . W h i t e h e a d (19 68) i n h i s s t u d y o f r u r a l c o u n t r y l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f C a l g a r y n o t e d t h a t 5 1 % o f t h e r e s i d e n t s w e r e u s i n g t h e i r l a n d , 38% a d m i t t e d g e t t i n g some i n c o m e f r o m i t , w h i l e 5 1 % w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o a d m i t t h e i r m o t i v e s . W h i t e h e a d ( 1 9 6 8 , p. 50) s t a t e d t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f C a l g a r y w h e r e 2 0% o f t h e l o t s a r e o v e r 2 0 a c r e s -. . . m o s t p a r c e l s o f s i x a c r e s o r l e s s w e r e s t r i c t l y u r b a n t h a t i s , t h e s p a c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e l a n d was u t i l i z e d . . . . T h e r e i s a t e n d a n c y a s t h e r e s i d e n t s ' i n c o m e l e v e l d e -c l i n e s t o s w i t c h f r o m l a n d u s e s p u r e l y r e c r e a t i o n -a l i n c h a r a c t e r ( e . g . h o r s e s ) t o u s e s f r o m w h i c h some i n c o m e c a n be d e r i v e d . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may n o t b e , a t l e a s t f o r some r e s i d e n t s , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e t h e s e h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d a s -. . . a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t f r o m t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f w o r k , f a m i l y a n d s o c i e t y t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l t u r n s a t w i l l f o r e i t h e r , r e l a x a t i o n , d i v e r s i o n o r b r o a d e n i n g h i s k n o w l e d g e a n d s p o n t a n e o u s s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o r t h e f r e e e x e r c i s e o f h i s c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y . ( D u m a z e d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 16-17) 12 A l t h o u g h , some a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s c l u b m e m b e r s h i p , v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n i n g a nd c a r i n g f o r a n i m a l s may i n v o l v e c o m m i t m e n t s o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y a n d t h u s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s s e m i - l e i s u r e o r n o n - w o r k o b l i g a t i o n s ; b e c a u s e t h e y i n v o l v e d t h e d e s c r e t i o n a r y u s e o f t i m e , t h e y w i l l b e c o n -s i d e r e d as l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s h e r e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n c o m e d o e s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w h a t c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s i n c o m e - g e n e r a t i n g o r i n c o m e -s u p p l e m e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be t e s t e d b y h y p o t h e s i s 3. HYPOTHESIS 3: R e s i d e n t s w i t h l o w i n c o m e s w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e p r o -p o r t i o n a t e l y more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n r e s i d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r i n c o m e s i n i n c o m e - g e n e r a t i n g o r i n c o m e - s u p p l e m e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n i n g a n d t h e k e e p i n g o f l i v e s t o c k . S t a g e i n l i f e c y c l e w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a s a v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h i s r e g a r d i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t -HYPOTHESIS 4: I t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n r e s i d e n t s o v e r 65 a n d r e s i d e n t s u n d e r 65 i n t h a t t h e f o r m e r g r o u p w i l l h a v e a l o w e r mean f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e p h y s i c a l l y d e m a n d i n g . 13 A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s , ( G i s t , 1952; M a r t i n , 1 9 5 3 ; M c K a i n a n d B u r n r i g h t , 19 53; K u r t z a n d S m i t h , 1 9 6 1 ; C r o m w e l l , 1 9 7 0 ; a n d P a h l , 1970) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a f r i n g e d w e l l e r ' s p a s t r e s i d e n c e i n f l u e n c e s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h he e n g a g e s ; e s p e c i a l l y , f o r t h o s e f r o m u r b a n a r e a s . I t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e y r e t u r n t o t h e a r e a o f t h e i r f o r m e r r e s i d e n c e t o e n g a g e i n a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e y h a d d e v e l o p e d a n i n t e r e s t . A s K u r t z and S m i t h ( 1 9 6 1 , p. 38) s t a t e d ; " . . . t h e y a r e ' i n ' b u t n o t ' o f t h e f r i n g e . " M a r t i n ' s ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 690) f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n w h i c h r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r r e s i d e n c e i n t h e f r i n g e a n d t h e i r l a s t r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s , we w o u l d s u p p o s e t h a t r e s i d e n t s f r o m u r b a n a r e a s w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e more f r e q u e n t l y i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e done i n a n u r b a n l o c a t i o n t h a n r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . O n l y , D u r r a n i ' s f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s m i g h t n o t be s o . He ( 1 9 6 9 , p. 8 2) n o t e d t h a t r u r a l r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e more f r e q u e n t l y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y i t i s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t a s u r b a n o r r u r a l . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , Hendee ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 333) n o t e d t h a t w h i l e s e v e r a l r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t u r b a n i t e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d d i s p o r -t i o n a t e l y i n many f o r m s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ; o t h e r s , h a v e shown t h a t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s i n s u c h a c t i v i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , a s w e l l a s i n c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . A number o f e x p l a n a t i o n s a s t o why p e o p l e do p a r t i c i p a t e i n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d . The two m o s t p r o m i n e n t a r e t h a t , p e o p l e s e e k "new e x p e r i e n c e s t h e o t h e r , t h a t t h e y s e e k t h a t w h i c h i s " f a m i l i a r . " I n a n a t t e m p t t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t o r y a p p r o a c h e s Knopp ( 1 9 7 2 , p. 136) somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e l y c o n c l u d e d , " . . . p e o p l e w i l l s e e k new e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g a r e l u c t a n c e t o g i v e up t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e f a m i l i a r t o them." A s was n o t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s e c t i o n t h e a p p r o a c h we a r e p r o p o s i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e u r b a n a n d r u r a l r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e f r i n g e . H y p o t h e s i 5 w i l l t e s t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . The b a s i s f o r m a k i n g t h i s a s s u m p t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n more d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . HYPOTHESIS 5: New u r b a n r e s i d e n t s w i l l n o t be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m l o n g - t e r m r u r a l r e s i d e n t s b y t h e i r l o w e r mean f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A c t i v i t i e s A p p r o a c h A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h e n o t i o n o f s e l f -s e l e c t i o n , i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , we w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d q u e s t i o n p o s e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r . S e l f - S e l e c t i o n I n t h e p a s t , f r i n g e a r e a s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a s a r e a s o f t r a n s i t i o n . The f r i n g e was a n a r e a o f c h e a p h o u s i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a r e a s w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s a n d many p e o p l e c h o o s e t o l i v e t h e r e f o r t h i s r e a s o n . T h i s was g e n e r a l l y t r u e , e x c e p t i n c a s e s , s u c h a s t h e a r e a s w h i c h S p e c t o r s k y C1955) s t u d i e d w h e r e t h e f r i n g e was a n a r e a o f r e t r e a t f o r t h e w e a l t h y e x u r b a n i t e s f r o m t h e u n p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c i t y . E x a m i n a t i o n o f a s t u d y d o n e b y Brademus (1955, p. 78) w h i c h c o m p a r e d c i t y a n d f r i n g e l i v i n g a t t i t u d e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c i t y a n d f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h t h e y g a v e f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r was t h e l a c k o f o t h e r a v a i l a b l e h o u s i n g . A r e c e n t c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e , w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d a n d a n e a r b y t o w n by t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Dewdney A l l o u t t e ( 1 9 7 1 ) ' . r e v e a l e d t h a t w h i l e c o s t , t a x e s a n d h o u s e s p a c e w e r e t h e p r i m a r y l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f t h e u r b a n r e s i d e n t s ; r u r a l s e t t i n g , c o s t a n d l o t s i z e w e r e t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e two g r o u p s c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e c h a n g i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e f r i n g e a r e a — a f u n c t i o n r e l a t e d t o - d a y l e s s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g a l o n e , a n d more t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t u n i q u e w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i t f a c i l i t a t e s . W h i t e h e a d i n h i s s t u d y o f r u r a l c o u n t r y l i v i n g a r o u n d C a l g a r y u s e d a s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h . He ( 1 9 6 8 , p. 14) n o t e d : . . . t h e c o u n t r y r e s i d e n t i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e s u b u r b a n i t e b y m o t i v a t i o n . The s u b u r b a n i t e i s i n t h e f r i n g e b e c a u s e t h e a v a i l a b l e h o u s i n g i s t h e r e ; t h e c o u n t r y r e s i d e n t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d v a l u e s t h e r u r a l l a n d s c a p e a n d h i s a c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i t . The n o t i o n o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e s o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s t s who p r e s e n t e d i t a s a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n w h i c h was b a s e d on e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s m . They a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h 17 d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s w i t h i n t h e c i t y , a n d w h i c h a t t r a c t e d p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f p e o p l e . As R o s s i ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 26) s t a t e d : F o r one t h i n g , r e s i d e n c e i s t o a l a r g e d e g r e e a s e l f - s e l e c t i o n phenomenon: h o u s e h o l d s w h i c h d e s i r e a p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e n d t o l o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n a r e a s w h e r e t h i s a s p e c t i s m a x i m i z e d . O t h e r s , ( B e l l , 1958; F o o t e , 1960; G a n s , 1 9 6 3 , 1967 a n d Z e l a n , 1968) h a v e d o c u m e n t e d t h e e f f o r t s o f p e o p l e c h o o s i n g p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s w i t h i n t h e c i t y i n an e f f o r t t o m a t c h t h e i r n e e d s more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . L i f e c y c l e , r e s i d e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and l i f e s t y l e h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t commonly d e a l t w i t h c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s . B e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y h a s b e e n c r e d i t e d ( M i c h e l s o n , 1 9 6 9 , p. 12) w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n o t i o n o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o l i f e s t y l e . B e l l ( 1 9 6 8 , p. 146) s t a t e s : " T hese i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t r a n d o m l y made. . . . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , s y s t e m a t i c p r e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s . . . . " B e l l s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s p e c i f i c a r e a s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c e r t a i n l i f e s t y l e s when he n o t e s C1968), p . 151, t h a t -. . . t h e move t o t h e s u b u r b s e x p r e s s e s a n a t t e m p t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e m o v e r s t o f i n d a l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h t o c o n d u c t f a m i l y l i f e t h a t i s more s u i t a b l e t h a n t h a t o f f e r e d by t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . 18 T h u s , w h i l e t h e i d e a o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n i s n o t new t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c t i v i t i e s a s a f a c t o r i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t s i s o n l y now b e g i n n i n g t o be t e s t e d . C h a p i n (.1968, p. 12) u s e s t h e n o t i o n o f s e l f -s e l e c t i o n t o a r g u e t h a t " . . . a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y t h o s e t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e way i n w h i c h p e o p l e u s e c i t y s p a c e a n d c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s , a f f e c t t h e i r c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n c e . " C h a p i n (.1968, p. 15) s u g g e s t s t h a t c h o i c e s o f t h e u s e o f t h e i r t i m e a r e b a s e d on t h e i r e f f o r t s t o m a x i m i z e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n c o n s t r a i n t s o f i n c o m e , s t a g e i n l i f e c y c l e and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o p t i o n s o p e n t o p e o p l e . I n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o move, C h a p i n s u g g e s t s p e o p l e a t t e m p t t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r " a c c e s s i b i l i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s " a s d e r i v e d f r o m a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s a n d t h e i r " l i v i b i l i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s " a s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , a n d e d u c a t i o n . I n t h e i r s t u d y o f " H o u s e h o l d A c t i v i t y P a t t e r n s a n d L a n d U s e , " C h a p i n a n d H i g h t o w e r ( 1 9 6 5 , p . 228) i n f e r t h a t -. . . d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s b e t w e e n a r e a s a r e n o t s i m p l y r e f l e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s b e t w e e n a r e a s , b u t m u s t be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t a t l e a s t b y f a c t o r s s p e c i f i c t o t h e a r e a . I n a s t u d y o f h o u s i n g d e s i g n a n d l o c a t i o n M i c h e l s o n n o t e d t h a t w i t h i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e r e s i d e n t s who w e r e m o s t a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e . t h e i r homes, l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s . 19 Michelson i s presently engaged i n a panel study which w i l l t e s t the hypothesis that persons with a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e s e l e c t areas of p a r t i c u l a r housing types and locations. I n i t i a l l y he (1969, p. 25} planned to operation-a l i z e his d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e s t y l e by deriving l i f e s t y l e typologies from choice behaviour—or a c t i v i t y c l u s t e r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of populations. In a preliminary publication of his findings he (1972) reports that while people choose s p e c i f i c environments for a variety of reasons, these can be considered as constraining influences; whereas, reasons associated with l i f e s t y l e , a c t i v i t y patterns and expectations of neighbours c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be considered as determining factors. Most of the studies which have considered the notion of s e l f - s e l e c t i o n have compared differences between those who choose to l i v e i n downtown areas versus those who choose to l i v e i n suburban locations. To study t h i s notion with regards to the r u r a l fringe we must be able to specify the elements of the physical environment which serve to a t t r a c t person's with s p e c i f i c l i f e s t y l e s . This we w i l l attempt to do i n the next section. The.Physical Environment of the Rural Fringe An exception to the lack of a t h e o r e t i c a l approach to the study of the fringe i s Martin's (1953) "The Rural U r b a n F r i n g e - A S t u d y o f A d j u s t m e n t t o R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n . M a r t i n e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e a n d t h e r e s i d e n t ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e i r d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r l o c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , M a r t i n ' f i n d i n g s w e r e i n c o n c l u s i v e a n d i n f a c t he ( p . 79) c o n c l u d e d by s t a t i n g : The p a t t e r n o f l i f e f o u n d i n t h e modern f r i n g e a r e a d i f f e r s s o l i t t l e f r o m t h a t o f l i f e i n t h e c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s c a n a n d do move f r o m t h e c i t y t o f r i n g e t o c i t y r e a d i l y a n d w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n . M i c h e l s o n ( 1 9 7 0 , p. 17) i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h n o t e s : " . . . s p a c e h a s b e e n u t i l i z e d a s a medium i n m o s t o f human e c o l o g y r a t h e r t h a n a s a variable w i t h a p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o f i t s own.". T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s e v i d e n t i n M a r t i n ' s s t u d y . C r i t i c s ( W i s s n i c k , 1 9 6 2 , p. 175) h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e a r e a w h i c h M a r t i n c o n s i d e r e d a f r i n g e ; s u g g e s t i n g i t was i n f a c t s u b u r b a n . I n o r d e r , t o be a b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t we m u s t c o n s i d e r w h a t i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s a r e . T h i s c a n be done a t two l e v e l s ; b y c o n -s i d e r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i t s e l f a n d b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The m o s t o b v i o u s a t t r i b u t e o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f r o m a n u r b a n i z e d f r i n g e a r e a o r s u b u r b i a a r e t h e l a r g e l o t s . Where t h e r e a r e no s a n i t a r y s e w e r s t h e s i z e o f l o t w i l l v a r y f r o m r u r a l f r i n g e t o r u r a l f r i n g e d e p e n d i n g o n l o c a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s ; i n s u c h a r e a s , l o c a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e t h a t t h e l o t s i z e be a d e q u a t e f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f s e p t i c t a n k s . L a r g e l o t s p e r m i t t h e u s e o f t h e l a n d f o r g a r d e n i n g a n d t h e k e e p i n g o f a n i m a l s . The l a r g e l o t s a n d t h e s c a t t e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e mean t h a t d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n n e i g h b o u r s i g r e a t e r t h a n i n a n u r b a n a r e a ; t h e r e b y , i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r i v a c y w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f r i n g e r e s i d e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l a n d s c a p e w i l l h a v e a n e f f e c t on t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n be p u r s u e d , a s w e l l a s r e d u c i ( i n t h e c a s e o f h i l l y wooded l a n d ) o r i n c r e a s i n g ( i n t h e c a s e o f f l a t c l e a r e d l a n d ) t h e a b i l i t y a n d n e e d f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r s t o e x e r c i s e s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s on e a c h o t h e r . The n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , v i e w a n d r e l a t i v e l y u n p o l l u t e d e n v i r o n m e n t o f s u c h a r e a s , make t h e e n j o y m e n t o f n a t u r e a n d h o b b i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e , o b s e r v a t i o n s i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t -HYPOTHESIS 6: Larger l o t s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y associated with the keeping of animals, and vegetable gardening. HYPOTHESIS 7: Residents located further from t h e i r neighbours w i l l v i s i t them less often than those who are located closer to t h e i r neighbours. In comparing the fringe location with alt e r n a t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l locations, i t i s obvious that a c t i v i t i e s i n -volving the use of community f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , stores, recreation f a c i l i t i e s such as movie theatres, concert h a l l s , bowling a l l e y s and hockey rinks would be more conveniently located for an urban resident. This i s true because the number of people required to support these a c t i v i t i e s necessitates that a higher density e x i s t than i s available i n the fringe. A c t i v i t i e s requiring the largest number of people to support them w i l l be located furthest from the fringe. By the same reasoning, location i n the fringe f a c i l i t a t e s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s which require areas of un-developed, sparsely populated land; such as f i s h i n g , hunting, horseback r i d i n g and.hiking. A c t i v i t i e s which are done i n urban areas, we w i l l l a b e l urban-related a c t i v i t i e s ; a c t i v i t i e s which are done i n r u r a l areas 23 w i l l be l a b e l l e d r u r a l f r i n g e ' r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o r r u r a l -r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r s h o r t . The l a t t e r w i l l c o n s i s t o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e r u r a l a r e a a s w e l l a s t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s i t e . The n o t i o n o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t we c a n go b e y o n d t h e l a b e l l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s a s u r b a n o r r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , a n d c o n s i d e r t h a t a p e r s o n w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n be g r o u p e d by t h e i r s i m i l a r d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h a p e r s o n p a r t i c i p a t e s m o s t o f t e n c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s u r b a n o r r u r a l - r e l a t e d . I n o u r a n a l y s i s we w i l l e x a m i n e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h i s a c t u a l l y o c c u r s . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e -d i s t a n c e o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y b e t w e e n a f r i n g e l o c a t i o n a n d a n u r b a n l o c a t i o n may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o be a f a c t o r . I n f a c t C h a p i n ( 1 9 6 5 , p. 229) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t e x c e p t f o r c o n v e n i e n c e s h o p p i n g a n d n e i g h b o u r i n g ". . . p e o p l e t e n d t o w a r d i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t i m e - d i s t a n c e b e l o w some v a l u e a t t h e o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e o f a q u a r t e r t o h a l f a n h o u r . . . . " However M i c h e l s o n ' s ( 1 9 6 9 b , p . 226) f i n d i n g s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e r e s i d e n t s who w e r e m o s t a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e i r home l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s , e n c o u r a g e us t o s u p p o s e t h a t r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l t i m e - d i s t a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d i n f a c t 24 be i m p o r t a n t . K u p e r ( 1 9 5 3 , p . 121) n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a n a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s t r e n g t h o f a n i n t e r e s t a n d a p e r s o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o go o u t s i d e h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d t o p u r s u e t h a t i n t e r e s t , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e a s a f a c t o r i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s . Many r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e now c o n s i d e r i n g a c c e s s -a b i l i t y a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a d d i t i o n , t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e u s e o f f a c i l i t i e s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . G o o d a l e ( 1 9 6 5 , p , 1 0 1 ) , who s t u d i e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s b e t w e e n t w e l v e c e n s u s t r a c t s i n M i n n e a p o l i s c o n c l u d e s : . . . l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r c e n s u s t r a c t d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e i n o t h e r a r e a s a n d some o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e m a i n s e v e n a f t e r age a n d s o c i a l s t a t u s a r e c o n t r o l l e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t e s t i n g t h e d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e f r i n g e a n d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s , a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o e x a m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r e s t s i n p r e f o r m i n g v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y p r e f o r m e d . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n w o u l d be h i g h e r f o r r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n f o r u r b a n -r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . 25 The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t f a c i l i t a t e s o r c o n s t r a i n s t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s p r e f o r m a n d h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n p r e f o r m i n g w i l l be t e s t e d i n d i r e c t l y b y e x a m i n i n g how t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a f f e c t s t h e r e s i d e n t s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e R u r a l F r i n g e I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; we s h o u l d s t a t e f i r s t l y , t h a t we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t a r e s i d e n t g a i n s s a t i s f a c t i o n by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e r e f o r e , we w i l l t e s t t h e i d e a t h a t he w i l l be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h he p a r t i c i p a t e s a r e f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n a s t u d y o f h o u s i n g d e s i g n a n d l o c a t i o n , M i c h e l s o n n o t e d ( 1 9 6 9 , p. 26) a s we m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t r e s i d e n t s who w e r e m o s t a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e o f t h e i r homes l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s , and t h a t t h o s e r e s i d e n t s who w e r e i n t h a t c o n g r u e n t c a t e g o r y w e r e l e s s l i k e l y t o w a n t t o move i n t h e f u t u r e . W h i l e M i c h e l s o n w a r n s t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h e d w i t h c a u t i o n , he c o n c l u d e s : " . . . l e i s u r e l y a c t i v i t y i s a m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e o p e r a t i n g b e t w e e n f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p e r s o n o r h i s s e t t i n g o n t h e one s i d e a n d h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r p r e f e r e n c e s , on t h e o t h e r . " 26 W h i l e G i s t (1952) and M a r t i n (1953). n o t e o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e f r i n g e , W h i t e h e a d n o t e d a h i g h m o b i l i t y r a t e i n t h e a r e a . P l a n n e r s who h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o d i f y i n g t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d who h a v e s o l i c i t e d a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s u i t a b i l -i i t y o f t h e s e r v i c i n g i n t h e f r i n g e a n d g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e a r e a h a v e r e c e i v e d many e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t , ( B r a d e m u s , 195 6; L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1963) . We w o u l d p r o p o s e t h a t much o f t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a s o n why p e o p l e l o c a t e d i n t h e a r e a . I n t h e p a s t when t h e r e a s o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y h o u s e - r e l a t e d , r e s i d e n t s w o u l d n o t h a v e f e l t t h a t t h e c o m p e n s a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t made up f o r t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e s o f g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s t o u r b a n f a c i l i t i e s a n d t h e l a c k o f s e r v i c e s ; (and i n f a c t , many f r i n g e a r e a s w e r e composed o f c i t y - s i z e d l o t s ) u n l e s s , t h e y h a d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w e r e f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . M a r t i n ' s r e s u l t s ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 72) a l t h o u g h , a d m i t t e d l y i n c o n c l u s i v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t h i g h l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . " . . . t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b u y i n g o f a home l o c a t e d o n more t h a n a h a l f a c r e o f l a n d , p a r t o f w h i c h i s d e v o t e d t o a g a r d e n . " I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n i t may be t h a t u r b a n r e s i d e n t s who a r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e r u r a l f r i n g e b e c a u s e o f i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g ; a f t e r h a v i n g r e j e c t e d t h e u r b a n a r e a a s a p l a c e t o l i v e f o u n d t h a t l i v i n g 27 i n t h e f r i n g e t h e y w e r e c o n s t r a i n e d f r o m p u r s u i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e y e n j o y e d and t o o k f o r g r a n t e d i n t h e u r b a n a r e a . One s t u d y w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y r e a s o n s f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n c o n c l u d e d ; " . . . t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o t l i k i n g a l o c a t i o n w e r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f l o c a t i o n i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r l i k i n g a l o c a t i o n w h i c h w e r e p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . " ( B r e w s t e r , 1 9 5 5 , p . 54) W o l p e r t ( 1 9 6 6 , p . 96) i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a m o d e l o f mover b e h a v i o u r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h e m a t c h i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s n e e d s w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h t o g e t h e r , ". . . g e n e r a t e t h e f u l f i l l m e n t , o f n e e d s / o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p l a c e w h i c h s p a r k s t h e m o v e r - s t a y e r d e c i s i o n . " P r e f e r r e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n w i l l be u s e d a s a m e a s u r e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g i n t h e f r i n g e , t h i s w i l l a v o i d t h e c o n s t r a i n t s s u c h a s i n c o m e w h i c h w o u l d e x i s t i f more s p e c i f i c m e a s u r e s w e r e u s e d . The h y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e a c t u a l l y t e s t i n g t h e m e n t a l c o n g r u e n c e o r p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e r e s i d e n t s w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . " M e n t a l c o n g r u e n c e e x i s t s i f a n i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y accommodate h i s p e r s o n n e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v a l u e s , a n d s t y l e o f l i f e . " ( M i c h e l s o n , 197 0, p. 30) A l t h o u g h i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d y o f e x p e r -i e n t i a l c o n g r u e n c e i s more v a l u a b l e t o t h e p l a n n e r , t h a n 28 m e n t a l c o n g r u e n c e we a r e u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d y i n g e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n g r u e n c e , f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , d a t a c o u l d n o t be c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y w h i c h a c t u a l l y showed t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e s i d e n t s r e a c t e d t o t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d b y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A n d s e c o n d l y , w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y h a v e r e g a r d i n g t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r e f o r e we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e a c t u a l l y d e p e n d e n t one o n t h e o t h e r . H y p o t h e s i s 8 w i l l t e s t t o w h a t e x t e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e f r i n g e i s a f a c t o r w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h o s e p e r s o n s who p r e f e r n o t t o l i v e i n t h e r u r a l f r i n g e f r o m t h o s e t h a t d o . HYPOTHESIS 8: R e s i d e n t s who p r e f e r t o l i v e i n u r b a n a r e a s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h o s e who p r e f e r t o r e m a i n w h e r e t h e y a r e a s w e l l a s f r o m t h o s e who p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a more r u r a l a r e a , b y t h e i r h i g h e r mean f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u r b a n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s i d e n t s who p r e f e r t o l i v e i n u r b a n a r e a s m i g h t a l s o b e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e l o w e r mean f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e r u r a l f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t i s p r e c e i v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t a l s o be t e s t e d . 29 HYPOTHESIS 9: R e s i d e n t s who p r e f e r t o l i v e i n more r u r a l a r e a c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h o s e who p r e f e r t o r e m a i n w h e r e t h e y a r e a s w e l l as f r o m t h o s e who p r e f e r t o move t o more u r b a n a r e a s b y t h e i r h i g h e r r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l -r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h a t t h o s e who h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g e n v i r o n m e n t - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n t h o s e who do n o t h a v e s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Dewdney A l l o u e t t e ( 1 9 7 1 , p. 10) i t was n o t e d t h a t -The c o n c e r n o f t h e r u r a l r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g s p a c e f o r l i v e s t o c k a n d g a r d e n i s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t one o f h a v i n g a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l l y u s i n g t h e s p a c e . T a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s 8 a n d 9 w i l l a l s o be t e s t e d u s i n g i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s , r a t h e r t h a n f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h more s t r o n g l y , s i n c e i t c a n n o t be a s d i r e c t l y c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e l a c k o f t i m e a nd money as c a n f r e q u e n c y . F i n a l l y , we w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s who p a r t i c i p a t e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s , 30 s c h o o l s , d i s t a n c e t o s t o r e s , e t c . t h a n t h o s e r e s i d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ; a s s u m i n g t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n g a i n e d f r o m d o i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r h a v i n g i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l be r e l a t e d t o s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . HYPOTHESIS 10: I n t e r e s t i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l b e p o s i t i v e -l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h v a r i a b l e s o f d i s t a n c e t o s t o r e s , s c h o o l s a n d o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t . Summary I n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , we h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c e n t r a l t o t h i s s t u d y w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . The l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e f r i n g e was c o n s i d e r e d ; a s w e l l a s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o t h e i d e a o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s b a s e d on l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s w h i c h may m o d i f y t h i s g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h t o c h o i c e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s was d o n e b e c a u s e we c a n n o t n e g l e c t t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t h e o r y p r o p o s e d b y P a h l w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s i d e n t s may be 31 c o n s t r a i n e d f r o m e x e r c i s i n g f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n o r f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s b y s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s i n c o m e , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s e t c e t e r i a . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n e r s who m u s t c o n s i d e r a s many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a s p o s s i b l e i f t h e y a r e t o h a v e a r e a l i s t i c i d e a o f t h e a r e a w h i c h t h e y a r e s t u d y i n g . I m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r u r a l f r i n g e e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e c o n s i d e r e d ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , l o t s i z e , d i s t a n c e t o n e i g h b o u r s a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; t h u s , e n a b l i n g us t o d e s c r i b e a c t i v i t i e s . a s u r b a n o r r u r a l - r e l a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u r b a n - r e l a t e d v e r s u s r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s was c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e s i d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h w i l l be t e s t e d a r e d e s c r i b e d b y F i g u r e 1.1. The m e t h o d o l o g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 2. C h a p t e r 3 w i l l i n c l u d e f i r s t l y , a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d s e c o n d l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C h a p t e r 4 w i l l i n c l u d e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e r e s i d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e f r i n g e . I n C h a p t e r 5 t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l a n d p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y w i l l be made. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O u t - o f - H o u s e L e i s u r e •* A C T I V I T I E S u r b a n o r r u r a l - r e l a t e d RESIDENTS CHARACTERISTICS S o c i o - E c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s Income O c c u p a t i o n E d u c a t i o n R e s i d e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e L i f e C y c l e THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT L o t S i z e D i s t a n c e t o N e i g h b o u r s SATISFACTION P r e f e r r e d R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c A t t r i b u t e s o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t I n t e r e s t i n A c t i v i t i e s F i g u r e 1.1 GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS AND VARIABLES TO BE CONSIDERED to CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y i t was f e l t t h a t a c t i v i t y t i m e b u d g e t s w o u l d y i e l d t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s . T h e s e w o u l d g i v e a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e amount o f t i m e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p e n t d o i n g p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e t i m e s p e n t g e t t i n g t o a n d f r o m t h e a c t i v i t y . H o w e v e r , t h i s k i n d o f d a t a h a d t o be r e j e c t e d a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , b e c a u s e we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o u t - o f - h o u s e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s e a s o n o f t h e y e a r , ( M i c h e l s o n , 1 9 6 9 c ) , c o l l e c t i o n s o f d a t a d u r i n g a t l e a s t t h e two m a j o r s e a s o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e q u i r e d . S e c o n d l y , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e f e r r a b l e t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a o v e r a f a i r l y l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , s i n c e some a c t i v i t i e s a r e done f a i r l y i n f r e q u e n t l y . T h e s e two c o n s t r a i n t s s u g g e s t t h a t a f a i r l y t i m e c o n s u m i n g and c o s t l y s t u d y w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d . T h u s , i t was f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a more e x p e d i e n t means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n b e f o r e s u c h a s t u d y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d j u s t i f i e d . 34 A s a n a l t e r n a t i v e , i t was t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s be o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e o n a n o r d i n a l s c a l e how f r e q u e n t l y t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s . The a s s u m p t i o n b e i n g t h a t f r e q u e n c y a n d t h e amount o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o a n a c t i v i t y a r e r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . A m e a s u r e o f f r e q u e n c y w i l l i n d i c a t e more d i r e c t l y c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s c o m b i n e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s o r i e n t a t e d t o f i n d i n g o u t w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t o r t h e i r m e n t a l c o n g r u e n c e w i t h i t (as o p p o s e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n g r u e n c e ) w o u l d a l l o w t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d t o be t e s t e d . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m e thod o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e t o s a m p l e c l u s t e r s o f h o u s e h o l d s b e c a u s e o f t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b l e e f f e c t s w h i c h t h e r andom d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a i n l o t s i z e , d i s t a n c e t o t o w n , a n d t o p o g r a p h y m i g h t h a v e o n t h e s a m p l e . T h e r e f o r e , i t was f e l t d e s i r a b l e t o r a n d o m l y s u r v e y a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a r e a . T h i s , p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e f r i n g e h o u s e s a r e q u i t e a d i s t a n c e a p a r t and some f a r f r o m t h e r o a d ; a s w e l l a s t h e n e e d t o o b t a i n a f a i r l y l a r g e number o f c a s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , l e d u s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d be t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e method of c o l l e c t i n g data d e s p i t e the s e r i o u s drawbacks of t h i s method. I t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by s t r a i g h t forward close-ended q u e s t i o n s which c o u l d be e a s i l y and q u i c k l y completed by the r e s i d e n t s . Choice of the Study Area The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r u r a l f r i n g e c o n s i d e r e d as the c r i t e r i a f o r the choice of a s u i t a b l e study area were -1. The area should be w i t h i n commuting d i s t a n c e of Vancouver. 2. The area should be one which i s not l i k e l y to be developed a t urban d e n s i t i e s i n the near f u t u r e . T h i s c r i t e r i o n was proposed to a v o i d sampling s p e c u l a t o r s and persons who would l i k e l y l o c a t e i n an area i f they thought i t was going to develop i n the near f u t u r e . 3. The area should be one i n which there i s a number of new r e s i d e n t s . 4. The area should not be one i n which the main land use i s a g r i c u l t u r a l . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d an important c r i t e r i o n because of the i n c o m p a t i -b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e s i d e n t i a l land uses. 36 The a r e a i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d , o f V a n c o u v e r w h i c h b e s t f i t t h e s e c r i t e r i a was t h e M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t o f M a p l e R i d g e . M a p l e R i d g e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y - f i v e m i n u t e s d r i v i n g t i m e f r o m downtown V a n c o u v e r . The a r e a h a s a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 25,000 i n c l u d i n g t h e s m a l l t o w n s o f Haney a n d Hammond a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s m a l l e r h a m l e t s . D u r i n g t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f M a p l e R i d g e ; h o w e v e r , t h e z o n i n g b y l a w s o f t h e a r e a r e s t r i c t l o t s i z e s t o two a c r e s o r o v e r i n u n s e r v i c e d a r e a s . The p r e s e n t p l a n s f o r t h e e x t e n t i o n o f t h e s a n i t a r y s e w e r s f r o m t h e c o m m e r c i a l u r b a n c e n t r e o f Haney a r e l i m i t e d by t o p o g r a p h y . The l a n d s c a p e o f t h e a r e a t o t h e e a s t o f Haney i s c r i s s c r o s s e d b y a number o f r a v i n e s , w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y wooded. T h e r e a r e a l s o a r e a s o f m o s t l y c l e a r e d f l a t l a n d . W i t h i n M a p l e R i d g e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a w e r e d r a w n t o a v o i d a r e a s d e v e l o p e d a t u r b a n d e n s i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h o s e w h i c h w i l l be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D e s i g n I n f o r m a t i o n c o v e r i n g t h r e e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s was r e q u i r e d ; i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , h i s a c t i v i t i e s a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a . A c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. 37 S a t i s f a c t i o n was m e a s u r e d i n two w a y s . F i r s t , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d w h e r e w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o l i v e . S e c o n d , t h e y w e r e a s k e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i r t e e n e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t i n c l u d i n g t a x , c o s t , o f h o u s e a n d l o t , h o u s e s i z e , o p e n s p a c e , c l e a n a i r , q u i e t n e s s , q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l s , q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e s , n e i g h b o u r s , d i s t a n c e t o s t o r e s a n d s c h o o l s . W i t h r e g a r d t o a c t i v i t i e s , t h r e e t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u i r e d ; f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t y was p r e f o r m e d a n d t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e r e s t t h e r e s p o n d e n t h a d i n t h e a c t i v i t y . I n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e " I n d e x : L e i s u r e , P a r t i c i p a t i o n and E n j o y m e n t . " ^ was u s e d . ( I n M i l l e r , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 2 1 3 - 2 1 6 ) . O u t - o f c h o u s e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e done i n b o t h u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s , a s w e l l a s o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s done o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s i t e a n d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h had b e e n e m p h a s i z e d a s i m p o r t a n t by p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t . The l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s was n o t m eant t o be e x h a u s t i v e , r a t h e r e f f o r t was made t o k e e p t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s s m a l l , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t r e s p o n s e w o u l d be r e c e i v e d . The l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s d one i n a n u r b a n l o c a t i o n a r e c h u r c h r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , g o i n g t o t h e m o v i e s , p l a y s o r c o n c e r t s , a t t e n d i n g c l u b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s , v o l u n t e e r i n g , s h o p p i n g o t h e r t h a n f o r g r o c e r i e s , g o i n g t o r e s t a u r a n t s o r p u b s e t c . , a t t e n d i n g s p o r t s e v e n t s o r p l a y i n g s p o r t s . The r u r a l a r e a a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d e d ; h i k i n g , h u n t i n g o r f i s h i n g , a n d h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g . The r u r a l s i t e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d ; c a r i n g f o r a n i m a l s , v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n i n g , m a i n t e n a n c e o f l a w n o r f l o w e r g a r d e n , m a i n t e n a n c e o f h o u s e o r c a r and r e a d i n g o r r e l a x i n g o u t -d o o r s . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t i e s w e r e done b e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n a l y s e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s g r o u p i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s b y l o c a t i o n was a r e a s o n a b l e o n e . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was m e a s u r e d b y c o d i n g t h e m a l e h o u s e h o l d h e a d s ' t y p e o f e m p l o y m e n t , e i t h e r p r e s e n t o r p a s t 2 on B l i s h e n ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e ( B l i s h e n , 1 9 5 8 ) . S a m p l e S e l e c t i o n I t was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o g a t h e r a r a n d o m s a m p l e f r o m t h e e n t i r e a r e a ; i t was a l s o t h o u g h t t o be i m p o r t a n t t h a t s e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e a r e a be r a n d o m l y c o v e r e d t o i n c l u d e t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t o p o g r a p h y a n d l o t s i z e w h i c h o c c u r w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s a m p l e was d i v i d e d i n t o a r e a s , a n d a p r o p o r t i o n a l s a m p l i n g w i t h i n e a c h was t a k e n . E n g i n e e r i n g maps a t a s c a l e o f 1:200 w e r e o b t a i n e d o n w h i c h e a c h l o t was m a r k e d a nd e a c h h o u s e i n d i c a t e d b y i t s h o u s e number. T h e s e maps d i v i d e d t h e s t u d y a r e a i n t o f o r t y - o n e a r e a s o f e q u a l s i z e ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 39 t h e f i v e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e r i v e r ) . T h e s e a r e a s w e r e u s e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . U s i n g z o n i n g a n d l a n d u s e maps, p r o p e r t i e s i n c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s a m p l e . The number o f e l i g i b l e h o u s e h o l d s was t h e n c o u n t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e a r e a s a n d t h e t o t a l c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s a m p l e s i z e . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t i f e v e r y f o u r t h h o u s e h o l d was c h o s e n t h e s a m p l e s i z e w o u l d be a d e q u a t e ( o v e r 1 0 0 ) , e v e n i f t h e r e was a v e r y l o w r e s p o n s e r a t e . The s a m p l e s i z e was 630 when e v e r y f o u r t h h o u s e h o l d was c h o s e n f r o m e a c h a r e a b e g i n n i n g a t a random p o i n t on e a c h map. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y F i f t y p r e - t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e s e n t on J a n u a r y 1 0 t h . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s p r e t e s t , s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s a i m e d a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e w e r e made. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e d u c e d f r o m f o u r p a g e s t o t h r e e p a g e s i n l e n g t h , q u e s t i o n s w e r e r e w r i t t e n a n d i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t was made t o make t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a w a r e o f t h e g o a l s a n d v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e mayor was a s k e d t o w r i t e t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (See A p p e n d i x A) I n a d d i t i o n , a s h o r t a r t i c l e a p p e a r e d i n t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r i n f o r m i n g . t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s t u d y , i t s g o a l s , a n d c o n t e n t s . 40 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e m a i l e d J a n u a r y 2 9 t h , b y t h e 2 6 t h o f F e b r u a r y when i t was d e c i d e d t h a t no more w o u l d be c o d e d 158 h a d b e e n r e c e i v e d . S i x o f t h o s e w e r e r e j e c t e d a s t o o i n c o m p l e t e t o be i n c l u d e d , 8 a d d i t i o n a l , r e t u r n s w e r e r e c e i v e d t o o l a t e t o be c o d e d . Two h u n d r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e r e t u r n e d w h i c h had n o t b e e n d e l i v e r e d , p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n i n g t h e l o w r e s p o n s e . When t h e s e r e t u r n s w e r e r e c e i v e d , t h e a u t h o r a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a u s e b y d e l i v e r i n g t h e l e t t e r s . I t s o o n became a p p a r e n t t h a t a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e v e n t e d t h e d e l i v e r i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F i r s t l y , w h e n e v e r , a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t was i s s u e d a h o u s e number was i n d i c a t e d o n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g maps; t h u s , t h e r e w e r e some c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e h o u s e was n o t y e t c o m p l e t e d o r was s t i l l v a c a n t . I n o t h e r c a s e s , t h e b u i l d i n g was a n o l d one w h i c h had b e e n a b a n d o n e d o r no h o u s e c o u l d be l o c a t e d a t t h e a d d r e s s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e map. F i n a l l y , some o f t h e h o u s e s h a d r u r a l r o u t e b o x e s , i f t h e b o x h a d a h o u s e number on i t t h e n t h e p o s t m a n w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e a d d r e s s ; o t h e r w i s e , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t d e l i v e r e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g w h a t t o do w i t h t h e s e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e i r a d d r e s s e s w e r e p l o t t e d on a map o f t h e a r e a a n d i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e y w e r e r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a a s w e l l a s w i t h i n e a c h s e c t i o n . S i n c e t h i s was t h e c a s e i t was d e c i d e d n o t t o a t t e m p t t o c h o o s e a l t e r n a t i v e a d d r e s s e s . 41 The r e s p o n s e o f 152 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 35 p e r c e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h w ere d e l i v e r e d . I n a n a t t e m p t t o j u d g e t h e amount o f b i a s w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d b y t h i s r e t u r n r a t e , i t was d e c i d e d t o com p a r e t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e 1971 c e n s u s f i g u r e s . S i n c e t h e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e c e n s u s was a g e g r o u p c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s e w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s a m p l e f o r men and women b e t w e e n t w e n t y - f i v e a n d s i x t y - f i v e . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means o f t h e two g r o u p s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t h e .1 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e man t h e mean a g e s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e s a m p l e f o r t h e women i s s l i g h t l y b i a s e d b y women i n t h e y o u n g e r a ge g r o u p s . When a c h i s q u a r e t e s t was p e r f o r m e d on t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c e n s u s p o p u l a t i o n , n e i t h e r was shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t ; b o t h men a n d women r e s i d e n t s w e r e o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e y o u n g e r age g r o u p s a n d u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p s e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o v e r 65 y e a r s o f ag e . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h e r e a p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s l e s s e d u c a t e d , a n d l e s s m o b i l e , t h u s b i a s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e . TABLE I I . 1 A COMPARISON OF AGE GROUPS FROM THE SAMPLE AND CENSUS POPULATIONS Percent Men Women Age Group Census Study Census Study 25-29 11.5 9.8 13.4 16 .2 30-34 9.9 14.0 11.1 18 .4 35-39 10.8 15.6 10.3 12.8 40-44 10.1 9.8 11.3 12.8 45-49 11.4 8.6 10.5 14.4 50-54 8.4 14.0 9.5 7.2 55-59 9.9 4.7 8.7 4.8 60-64 8.3 7.8 7.3 7.2 65 + 19.7 13.3 17.8 8.0 T o t a l 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean 43.56 42.32* 42.74 40.63 * A comparison o f the mean ages of the men i n d i c a t e d they were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the .1 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 43 M e t h o d s U s e d i n t h i s A n a l y s i s The h y p o t h e s e s a n d a s s u m p t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 w e r e t e s t e d u s i n g a number o f t e c h n i q u e s . M u l t i -v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s w e r e u s e d t o t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a number o f t h e v a r i a b l e s o r two g r o u p s m e a s u r e d on a number o f v a r i a b l e s ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e v e n t e e n a c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s . U n i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s o f s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r c e n t a g e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f means, w i t h c h i s q u a r e and a Z s t a t i s t i c c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e commonly u s e d t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w i l l n o t be commented o n f u r t h e r . H o w e v e r , a d d i t i o n a l comment w i l l be made w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w e r e u s e d . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h u n i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h c o n s i d e r t h e d e p e n d e n c y o f one v a r i a b l e w i t h a n o t h e r , m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s e n a b l e us t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t among v a r i a b l e s , a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s . (Rummel, 1970) T h u s , t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i n w h i c h h y p o t h e s e s w e r e p r o p o s e d t o t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n two g r o u p s o n a s e t o f v a r i a b l e s . The m u l t i v a r i a t e 2 t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s w e r e H o t e l l i n g ' s T s t a t i s t i c , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s a n d m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . 44 F a c t o r a n a l y s i s e n a b l e s us t o r e d u c e a l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s t o a s m a l l e r number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h may be more r e l i a b l e t h a n t h e s i n g l e i n d i c e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d e r i v e d f r o m a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s e a c h o f w h i c h may be a n i m p e r f e c t m e a s u r e o f a n u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n , t o w h a t e x t e n t c a n t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e s i d e n t s e n g a g e i n be c l a s s i f i e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n g r u e n c e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ? I n o t h e r w o r d s , t o w h a t e x t e n t c a n t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e s be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e done i n u r b a n o r r u r a l a r e a s . I n t h i s c a s e , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s b e i n g u s e d t o t e s t a n i n f o r m a l l y s t a t e d h y p o t h e s i s ; a s w e l l a s , b e i n g a u s e f u l t o o l i n r e d u c i n g t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s , g i v i n g a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e amount o f v a r i a t i o n i n . t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n be e x p l a i n e d by g r o u p i n g them a n d i n p r o v i d i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s — a m e a s u r e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s w h e r e e a c h r e s p o n d e n t i s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s o n t h e f a c t o r s c a l e . T h i s m e a s u r e i s u s e f u l i n g r o u p i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t s so t h a t t h e g r o u p s may be c o m p a r e d by o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e s e f a c t o r s c o r e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u s e d a s m e a s u r e s o n t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . F a c t o r s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s w e r e u s e d b e c a u s e i t was f e l t t h a t the h i g h degree of v a r i a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s would r e s u l t i n l i t t l e or no c o r r e l a t i o n ; where as f a c t o r s would i n c l u d e a l l the common v a r i a t i o n and thus be more s t a b l e . In comparison w i t h f a c t o r a n a l y s i s which produces a 2 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s , H o t e l l i n g ' s T s t a t i s t i c and m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s both s t a r t w i t h p r e d e f i n e d 2 groups. H o t e l l i n g ' s T s t a t i s t i c i s used to t e s t the assumption t h a t a s e t of means d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a second s e t of means. T h i s s t a t i s t i c i s used i n a d d i t i o n to o r d i n a r y u n i v a r i a t e s t e s t s of means because when they are preformed f o r many v a r i a b l e s , the a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y 2 becomes m i s l e a d i n g . The H o t e l l i n g ' s T s t a t i s t i c i n d i c a t e s whether or not there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t chance t h a t the means w i l l d i f f e r and i t i n d i c a t e s i f any of the v a r i a b l e s would i n d i v i d u a l l y be s u f f i c i e n t to prove t h a t the o v e r a l l means 3 would be d i f f e r e n t . T h i s s t a t i s t i c was used to t e s t the second h y p o t h e s i s . How t h i s was done w i l l be d e s c r i b e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter 3. In u s i n g the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , groups which we hypothesized w i l l be d i f f e r e n t or s i m i l a r on the a c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e s , w h i l e the a c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . I n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between p r e d e f i n e d groups, d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s answers the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 46 1. I s t h e a p r i o r i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n d e r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n v a l i d i n t e r m s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e b e i n g s u g g e s t e d as r e l e v a n t t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ? 2. I f I t i s v a l i d , w h a t " d i m e n s i o n s " v a l i d a t e t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ? 3. Where do t h e g r o u p s l i e i n t e r m s o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s ? 4. G i v e n t h e s c o r e o f a new s u b j e c t i n t e r m s o f t h e o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h g r o u p d o e s i t f i t b e s t . ( C h e r u k u p a l l e , 1 9 6 9 , p. 3 9 6 ) • M u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s c o m p a r e s t h e amount o f h o m o g e n e i t y w i t h i n g r o u p s t o t h e d e g r e e o f h o m o g e n e i t y b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t h a v e o c c u r r e d by c h a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d by 4 t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e F r a t i o . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e F p r o b a b i l i t y m a t r i x w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t y o u w o u l d be w r o n g i f y o u assumed t h a t t h e g r o u p s w e r e d i f f e r e n t o n t h e d i m e n s i o n . The h y p o t h e s e s f o r w h i c h t h i s t e c h n i q u e was u s e d w i l l be d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n C h a p t e r s 3 a n d 4. 47 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 1 The "Index - L e i s u r e P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Enjoyment" was o r i g i n a l l y designed to demonstrate the d i f f e r e n c e between u n i v e r s i t y graduates and non-graduates, p a r t i c i -p a t i o n and enjoyment of f o r t y - s e v e n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . I t was m o d i f i e d f o r t h i s study by u s i n g o n l y seventeen out-of-house l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . A s p e c i f i c range of f r e q u e n c i e s was used r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of 'never' to ^ f r e q u e n t l y . ' The l i k e c a t e g o r i e s were reduced from f i v e to t h r e e and a t h i r d q u e s t i o n which asked the respondent to i n d i c a t e where the a c t i v i t y was preformed was asked. 2 B l i s h e n ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e groups occupations i n t o seven c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r combined standard sco r e f o r Income and Years of S c h o o l i n g By Sex Using Canadian Census data from 1951. The c l a s s e s can be v e r y g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as l a b o u r e r s . i n c l a s s one, to s e r v i c e workers, semi-s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d t rades c l e r i c a l workers, managers,—and o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c l a s s seven. 3HOTEL ROUTINE, by Jason Halm i n UBC TRIP by James H. B j e r r i n g and P a u l Seagraves, February 1972. 4 A good d e s c r i p t i o n o f . d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s can be found i n Cooley and Lohnes' " M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s . The computer program used was UBC BUD07M, Implemented from UCLA BMDo7M Package by Paul Seagraves, October 1970. CHAPTER 3 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RURAL FRINGE RESIDENTS The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t l y , a p r o f i l e of the sample p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be p r esented. Having d i s c u s s e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l the people, i n the sample, the second s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the d i f f e r -ences between newcomers, urban and r u r a l , and longterm r e s i d e n t s . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n the degree to which the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t s a f f e c t the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' , in - v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . General D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sample P o p u l a t i o n The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the people surveyed can be d e s c r i b e d under three b a s i c dimensions; socio-economic s t a t u s , stage i n l i f e c y c l e , and r e s i d e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e . Socio-economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V a r i a b l e s measuring income, o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n which together y i e l d a measure of socio-economic s t a t u s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d independently. 49 In the sample p o p u l a t i o n 38.2 p e r c e n t of the r e s i d e n t s have incomes between $8,000 and $12,000, 14 p e r c e n t have incomes of l e s s than $4,000, w h i l e o n l y 4.4 p e r c e n t are i n the over $16,000 c a t e g o r y . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the sample i n the lowest income range i s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t 13.9 p e r c e n t of the male household heads are r e t i r e d . The t o t a l f a m i l y income r e p o r t e d i n c l u d e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the female household heads 33 p e r c e n t of whom were working e i t h e r f u l l or p a r t - t i m e . TABLE I I I . l INCOME T o t a l Y e a r l y Income Percent Under $4,000 14 .0 $4,000 to $7,999 22.1 $8,000 to $11,999 38.2 $12,000 to $15,999 21.3 Over $16,000 4.4 Refused 5.6 TOTAL 100.0 An examination of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the sample i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i v e l y high, percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n ; 11 p e r c e n t i n the C l a s s 1 category,''" t h a t i s engaged i n re s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s as lumbermen or f i s h e r m e n . C l a s s 3, w h i c h d e s c r i b e s s e m i - s k i l l e d w o r k e r s and e m p l o y e e s i n s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s c o n t a i n e d t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s c a n be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f a l a r g e p r o v i n c i a l h o s p i t a l a n d s e v e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o r n e a r b y . C l a s s 5 and 7 w h i c h d e s c r i b e s o f f i c e w o r k e r s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s a m p l e a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ( B l i s h e n , 1 9 5 8 , p . 5 2 3 ) . TABLE I I I . 2 OCCUPATION O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y P e r c e n t C l a s s 1 11.0 C l a s s 2 17 .5 C l a s s 3 40.5 C l a s s 4 9.5 C l a s s 5 7.9 C l a s s 6 14.3 C l a s s 7 1.6 R e f u s e d 12.5 TOTAL 100.0 A s T a b l e I I I . 3 i n d i c a t e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i s g e n e r a l l y l o w . O n l y 42 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a l e h o u s e h o l d h e a d s a n d 43.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e 51 household heads i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had completed h i g h s c h o o l . TABLE I I I . 3 EDUCATION Ed u c a t i o n L e v e l P e r c e n t Male Female Some Elementary 3.0 1.5 Elementary Grad 14.2 9.6 Some High School 25.4 31.9 High School Grad 27 .6 36.3 Other 7.5 11.1 Some U n i v e r s i t y 6.7 3.7 U n i v e r s i t y Grad 13.4 4 . 4 Graduate or P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g 2.2 1.5 Refused 6.9 6.2 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 L i f e C y c l e The mean age of the male respondents i s 44.5 y e a r s , w h i l e f o r the women i t i s 41.05 y e a r s . The ages of the male household heads w i l l be used as the i n d i c a t o r s of the 52 stage i n the l i f e c y c l e of the respondents. S l i g h t l y , over h a l f o f the men are under 45 years of age. Although, no i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained on m a r t i a l s t a t u s ; i t can be s a i d t h a t except f o r the e l d e r l y , who may be l i v i n g a l one, there are few s i n g l e persons i n the area while a response was r e c e i v e d from a group of s i n g l e men s h a r i n g a r e n t e d house, o n l y 6.9 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l sample, were r e n t i n g . G e n e r a l l y , then the p o p u l a t i o n i s one of f a m i l i e s although, the m a j o r i t y are not f a m i l i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n as i n d i c a t e d by other s t u d i e s . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of persons are i n the 45 to 65 year age category. TABLE III . 4 AGES Age L e v e l P e r c e n t Male Female Under 25 4.5 5.2 25 to 34 24.0 30.1 35 to 44 25.4 23.6 45 to 65 33.6 24.2 Over 65 17 .7 12.5 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 53 R e s i d e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e When t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s l a s t r e s i d e n c e i s e x a m i n e d , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n -t a g e , 37.5 o f t h e s a m p l e came f r o m a n u r b a n a r e a . By c o m p a r i s o n , w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s o f t h e f r i n g e w h i c h f o u n d t h a t t h e number o f t h e r e s i d e n t s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s was n e g l i g i b l e , 22.9 p e r c e n t o f t h i s s a m p l e s t a t e d t h a t t h e y come f r o m a r u r a l a r e a . TABLE I I I . 5 PAST RESIDENCE L o c a t i o n P e r c e n t U r b a n 37.5 S u b u r b a n 14.6 S m a l l Town 25.0 R u r a l 2 2.9 TOTAL 100.0 When t h e v a r i a b l e - l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d , s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s f r i n g e i s r e v e a l e d . F i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n t h e i r r e s i d e n c e l e s s t h a n s i x y e a r s , a n d a s much a s 2 0 p e r c e n t h a v e l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e f o r l e s s t h a n o ne y e a r . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e amount o f . r e c e n t d e v e l o p -54 ment i n the area even though as was noted previously the sample, i s biased by younger residents. The median length of residence i s 5.08 years. TABLE III.6 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE Number of Years Percent 0 to 5.9 50.0 6 to 9.9 11.4 More than 10 38.6 TOTAL 100.0 Mean 8.42 The time i t takes the working male household head to t r a v e l to work indicates the degree to which the Maple Ridge can be considered as a community, independent of Vancouver. Twenty-one percent of the workers are within 15 minutes d r i v i n g time of their work place, indicating the employment opportunities av a i l a b l e within Maple Ridge. However, 26 percent of the sample population indicated that they spent over 45 minutes getting to work, suggesting a work place l o c a t i o n within Greater Vancouver. In f a c t , a special commuter bus service operates between Haney and Vancouver. 55 Summary The s o c i a l composition of the r e s i d e n t s a l l o w s us to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s f r i n g e a r e a , as has been done i n the p a s t . Observations which can be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e , the i n c r e a s i n g number of new r e s i d e n t s , the m a j o r i t y of whom are from urban areas; the percentage of persons who commute more than 45 minutes to work, and the o c c u p a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s . By comparison w i t h p a s t s t u d i e s the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s sample i s o l d e r . I t i s p a r t i a l l y f o r t h i s reason t h a t we f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n c o n s i d e r -i n g t h i s area as a ' r u r a l ' f r i n g e . The reasons f o r t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the environment of the area are covered i n the next chapter. P a s t s t u d i e s have i d e n t i f i e d important d i f f e r e n c e s i n socio-economic s t a t u s between the long-term and new r e s i d e n t s , which are s a i d to c o n t r i b u t e to c o n f l i c t i n g l i f e s t y l e s of the two groups. In the next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter the e x t e n t of these d i f f e r e n c e s are examined. A Comparison of Long-Term Residents Versus New R e s i d e n t s In t h i s s e c t i o n the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of Hypothesis 1 w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . Hypothesis 1 proposes t h a t the new r e s i d e n t s from urban areas d i f f e r from the new r e s i d e n t s from r u r a l areas as w e l l as from long-term 56 r e s i d e n t s by having higher socio-economic s t a t u s and a younger l i f e c y c l e category. Percentage comparisons were used to t e s t the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s . Chi-square t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were c a l c u l a t e d between the new r e s i d e n t s (of l e s s than 10 years) from urban areas and the new r e s i d e n t s from r u r a l areas; and between.long-term r e s i d e n t s (regard-l e s s of the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e ) and the newcomers from urban a r e a s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found when the new r e s i d e n t s from urban areas were compared to the new r e s i d e n t s from r u r a l areas u s i n g any o f the socio-economic v a r i a b l e s , income, o c c u p a t i o n , or e d u c a t i o n ; or u s i n g l i f e c y c l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s which were observed i n d i c a t e d the tendency f o r the r u r a l r e s i d e n t s to be o l d e r and lower i n socio-economic s t a t u s . These d i f f e r e n c e s are comparable to the d i f f e r e n c e s which Rodehauver observed. However, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the r u r a l newcomers and urban newcomers proposed i n Hypothesis 1 c o u l d not be v a l i d a t e d . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were however, found between the urban newcomers and the long-term r e s i d e n t s w i t h regards to the age of the male household head (at the .001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ) and the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s of the male household head (at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . With regards to these two v a r i a b l e s Hypothesis 1 i s v e r i f i e d ; i n t h a t p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , more urban newcomers had higher prestige occupations and were younger than the long-term residents. Although, these relationships were confirmed the differences which existed on income and education variables were not shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Table III.7 and III.8 indicate the s i g n i f i c a n t r elationships between the newcomers from urban areas and the long-term residents as well as the differences which e x i s t between the urban newcomers and the r u r a l newcomers. Testing Hypothesis 1 confirms past observations, that there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the long-term residents and new residents; although, differences TABLE III.7 LIFE CYCLE.BY RESIDENTIAL EXPERIENCE L i f e Cycle Measure Percent Years Newcomers Long-term Residents Urban Rural Less than 35 47.7 52.4 11.6 36 to 50 31.8 38.1 30.2 50 to 65 17.0 4.8 34.9 More than 65 3.4 4.8 23.3 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 * The difference between the Urban Newcomers and the Long-term residents i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l . 58 TABLE III.8 OCCUPATION BY RESIDENTIAL EXPERIENCE Percent Newcomers Long-term Residents Occupation Urban Rural Class 1 1.3 5.3 25.0 Class 2 16.9 15.8 16.7 Class 3 42.9 52.6 36.1 Class 4 10.4 5.3 8.3 Class 5 9.1 5.3 2.8 Class 6 15 .6 15 .8 11.1 Class 7 3.9 - -TOTAL 10 0.0 100.0 100.0 * The difference between the Urban Newcomer/the Long-term residents i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . between residents from urban and r u r a l areas were not con-firmed. The f a c t that neither income or education s i g n i f i -cantly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the new urban residents and the long-term residents reaffirms the observation that the fringe population with which t h i s study i s concerned i s not comparable to Spectorsky's "exurbanites" or Pahl's (1965) "Urbs i n Rure" representing wealthy persons seeking refuge i n the f r i n g e . 59 The importance of the differences which e x i s t between the residents with regard to the a c t i v i t i e s which they pursue w i l l be considered aft e r the e f f e c t s on the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various a c t i v i t i e s , by the predictor variables has been considered i n d i v i d u a l l y . The E f f e c t s of the Predictor Variables on the Frequency  of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A c t i v i t i e s The predictor variables considered i n t h i s section include the three measures of socio-economic status, l i f e cycle and the r e s i d e n t i a l experience vari a b l e s . Socio-Economic Variables Hypothesis 2 suggested that the variables of either income or occupation or education could be used to d i s t i n g u i s h between groups who had a higher o v e r a l l frequency of p a r t i c i -pation i n the a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t method used to t e s t the e f f e c t s of the socio-economic variables, which were postulated as important in Hypothesis 2, involved constructing an index of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for.each person. The index was calculated by simply adding the code which was given to the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y . Thus the size of the index gives a measure of frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The 60 indices were c l a s s i f i e d into three groups; those below, around and above the mean scores on the index. When these groups of indices were considered with regard, to the variables of socio-economic status, only-income was shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n index. The r e l a t i o n s h i p which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , indicated that the higher income group pa r t i c i p a t e d more frequently than the lower income groups. This substantiated Reissman' s findings, and allows us to accept Hypothesis 2 with regard to income. A second method of analysis was used to attempt to i d e n t i f y differences i n o v e r - a l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n related to the predictor v a r i a b l e s . For each of the predictor variables the means of two groups were calculated for each a c i t i v i t y . Two groups were created by regrouping the classes previously i d e n t i f i e d and comparing only those who were high and those who were .low on the v a r i a b l e s . 2 Hotelling's T s t a t i s t i c was computed to indicate whether the two groups of means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y 2 d i f f e r e n t . Again, only income resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (at the .001 level), being i d e n t i f i e d between the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of those below $8,000 i n income and those above $8,000. 2 Since, the Hotelling's T s t a t i s t i c indicated that the means of none of the a c t i v i t y variables were s u f f i c i e n t l y TABLE I I I . 9 P A R T I C I P A T I O N INDEX BY INCOME P e r c e n t i n Income C a t e g o r i e s C 0 0 0 1 s o f d o l l a r s ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e U n d e r 4.0 4 . 0 - 7 . 9 8 . 0 - 1 1 . 9 1 2 . 0 - 1 5 . 9 O v e r 1.60 Low 66.7 53.3 Medium 28.6 36.7 H i g h 4.8 10.0 32.7 33.3 28.6 30.9 36.7 28.6 36.4 30.0 42.9 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 62 d i f f e r e n t to i n d i v i d u a l l y r e s u l t i n the difference between the groups of means, Z s t a t i s t i c s were calculated to indicate which a c t i v i t i e s contributed to the differences. The higher income group have higher mean frequencies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for most of the a c t i v i t i e s which are not done on the resident's s i t e as well as for vegetable garden-ing and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s done on the residents s i t e . The lower income group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean f r e -quencies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n caring for animals and flower gardening and relaxing. These r e s u l t s are consistent with Havigenhurst's and Feigenbaum's (1959, p. 397) findings i n which they indicate that the upper class f a l l s into a l i f e s t y l e category which i s community-centred; where as lower class groups are more home-centred. This does not however, account for the higher means for the high income group i n maintence of house or car i For several a c t i v i t i e s no difference between the two groups can be i d e n t i f i e d . These a c t i v i t i e s include working as a volunteer, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n church related a c t i v i t i e s , going to plays, hunting or f i s h i n g and vegetable gardening. Kaplan (1960) has suggested that class differences are becoming less important. Although, he indicates that income may r e s t r i c t purchase of equipment or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s which.are expensive. Horseback r i d i n g i s one a c t i v i t y which may be r e s t r i c t e d by income, although; 63 TABLE I I I . 10 MEAN FREQUENCY OF P A R T I C I P A T I O N BY INCOME Income G r o u p Means A c t i v i t i e s U n d e r $8,000 O v e r $8,0 00 L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e C h u r c h 1.8 2.0 M o v i e 1.7 2.0 .05 P l a y 1.5 1.7 C l u b 1.9. 2.2 .10 V o l u n t e e r 1.5 1.8 S h o p p i n g 3.2 3.7 .05 Pub 2.7 3.0 .10 A t t e n d i n g S p o r t s 1.7 2.1 .05 P l a y i n g S p o r t s 1.5 2.2 .05 H u n t i n g 1.8 2.0 R i d i n g 1.2 1.7 .05 H i k i n g 1.7 2.7 C a r i n g f o r A n i m a l s 3.5 2.3 .05 V e g e t a b l e G a r d e n i n g 4.5 4.7 F l o w e r G a r d e n i n g 5.0 4.4 .05 M a i n t e n a n c e 4.4 4.9 .05 R e l a x i n g O u t d o o r s 4.9 4.4 .05 H o t e l l i n g l a T s t a t i s t i c , F v a l u e 6.739, L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e .001. A p p e n d i x C c o n t a i n s a G l o s s a r y o f Terms w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e A c t i v i t i e s more f u l l y . M e a n c h u r c h m o v i e m a i n t . r e l a x L 03 m ua < AN ure ON n 00 — O m <J D m c m 2 O -< o TI TJ > 30 H O TJ > H O 2 79 65 i t may also be a factor to a lesser extent i n r e s t r i c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sports, attending movies and the frequency of shopping. This does not account for the lack of difference between the frequency that the two income groups attend plays or concerts, an a c t i v i t y which has i n the past been associated with higher s o c i a l c l a s s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis indicate that i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to suggest the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a simple one. I t may be that what differences do e x i s t can be attributed to variables which are related to income such as l i f e cycle. While the lack of significance of income i n the frequency of vegetable gardening has already been demon-strated; the importance of income.in the keeping of l i v e -stock, as well as gardening w i l l be considered more c l o s e l y for those who "do," as compared to those who "do not do" the a c t i v i t y . Income-Supplementing and Income-Generating A c t i v i t i e s Again the r e s u l t s indicate that.there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n income-generating or income-supplementing a c t i v i t i e s and l e v e l of income. When a chi-square t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was calculated for each var i a b l e , only the keeping of horses proved to be s i g n i f i -cant C.01 level).. Hypothesis 3, which suggested that 66 residents with lower incomes would p a r t i c i p a t e proportion-ately more frequently i n income-generating a c t i v i t i e s than residents with higher incomes, must therefore be rejected. Only when the 'other' category of animals i s con-sidered, do the lower income groups p a r t i c i p a t e proportion-ately more frequently. These animals included ducks, goats as well as bees, most of which can not be considered as income generating a c t i v i t i e s ; although, some of them may be used as income supplementing a c t i v i t i e s , i t would appear that they are i n the majority of cases kept as pets. Thus, i t i s concluded that these a c t i v i t i e s are not done out of any necessity or need but as l e i s u r e or semi-leisure a c t i v i t i e s . However, the f a c t that the low income residents do not keep horses as frequently as the higher income residents, suggests that income may be a constraining factor, as horses are generally kept for purely r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes and involve a considerable expense. From these observations i t would appear that we are j u s t i f i e d i n stating that people do not l i v e i n t h i s fringe area because the fringe f a c i l i t a t e s income-generating or income-supplementing a c t i v i t i e s ; rather, i t may be that these a c t i v i t i e s are valued as l e i s u r e time pursuits. TABLE III.11 INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES BY INCOME Income L e v e l Percent of Residents Who Keep/Have a Horses Cows Chickens Hogs Other Vegetable Garden Less $4,000 9.5 23.8 19.0 4.8 28.6 18.3 $4,000 - $7,999 6.7 16 .7 26.7 6.7 6.7 26.8 $8,000 - $11,999 25.5 25.5 23.6 7.3 1.8 45 .0 $12,000 - $15,999 30 .0 20.0 36.7 6.7 3.3 15.5 Over $16,000 14.3 26.6 28.6 - - 8.5 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 * Horses by Income i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . CTl 68 L i f e Cycle Hypothesis 4 tests the assumption that older persons may not p a r t i c i p a t e as frequently i n p h y s i c a l l y demanding a c t i v i t i e s . In order to test the v a l i d i t y of t h i s assumption a 4 discriminant analysis was preformed. The two groups were composed of those under 6 5 and those above 65; the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the seventeen a c t i v i t y variables was used as the discriminating variable set. I f , the hypothesis i s to be v e r i f i e d i t would be expected that the variables which are indicated as s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n -ators would involve physical exertion. This.was not the case. The variables which were chosen were shopping Csignificance l e v e l .005), going to the movies (significance l e v e l .02), and r i d i n g (significance l e v e l .04). The importance of these variables i s indicated by the f a c t that i n each case i f we assumed that the means of the groups were d i f f e r e n t on that variable, we would be wrong less than 1 percent of the time. Another t e s t of the v a l i d i t y of the discriminant function i s the degree to which the cases can be c o r r e c t l y r e c l a s s i f i e d into the appropriate groups. Using a Cooley and Lohnes c l a s s i f i c a t i o n we can c o r r e c t l y r e c l a s s i f y 86.84 percent of the cases. Since the variables which are correlated to those which are chosen decline i n importance a f t e r each step 69 3 of the analysis; i t i s important that they be considered, as well as those which are chosen. Variables which were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the f i r s t step were playing sports, and caring for animals. In the second step attending sports events was correlated with going to the movies. The r e s u l t s of th i s analysis suggest that we would not be j u s t i f i e d i n accepting the hypothesis as i t was stated, since the discriminating variables cannot be considered to be ph y s i c a l l y demanding with the possible exception of r i d i n g . The f a c t that hiking, gardenings and playing sports were not selected as discriminating v a r i a b l e s , indicates that another explanation must be sought for the va r i a t i o n which e x i s t s . The means of each a c t i v i t y were compared for each group and Z s t a t i s t i c s were calculated to indicate on which a c t i v i t i e s the groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In addition to the a c t i v i t i e s chosen i n the step-wise discriminant analysis, and the a c t i v i t i e s which i t was noted were related to those a c t i v i t i e s , attending sports events and maintenance were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l . While physical exertion may be important i n r i d i n g and playing sports, this does not account for the differences i n passive spectator a c t i v i t i e s . As Chart III.2 indicates the older l i f e cycle group has a lower mean p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate except for church attendance, vegetable gardening and flower gardening. Their lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban 70 related a c t i v i t i e s may be explained by their desire to do a c t i v i t i e s i n and around the home or i t may be that they are constrained from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n other a c t i v i t i e s by the d i f f i c u l t y of getting to the a c t i v i t y . I t may also be that t h e i r lower income r e s t r i c t s them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g as frequently i n a c t i v i t i e s such as shopping, attending sports events and movies. Residential Experience Having considered the e f f e c t s of variables of income and age separately; and having i d e n t i f i e d age and occupation as variables which d i s t i n g u i s h between the groups based on r e s i d e n t i a l experience, we w i l l now consider the r e s u l t s of testing Hypothesis 5. This hypothesis stated that there w i l l be no difference i n the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s which are related to the environment between long-term r u r a l residents and new urban residents. I t w i l l be remembered that l i t e r a t u r e was s i t e d which suggested that t h i s would not be the case; however, i t was proposed that residents from urban areas would choose to l i v e i n the area because they were interested i n pursuing a c t i v i t i e s r elated to the environment and they would therefore p a r t i c i p a t e as frequently as the indiginous residents. The f i r s t method used to test t h i s hypothesis was discriminant analysis. In order to be able to accept the 71 TABLE I I I . 12 MEAN FREQUENCY, OF PARTICIPATION BY LIFE CYCLE A c t i v i t i e s L i f e C y c l e Group Means Under 65 Over 65 L e v e l of S i g n i f i c a n c e Church Movie P l a y C l ub V o l u n t e e r Shopping Pub A t t e n d i n g S p o r t s P l a y i n g S p o r t s Hunting R i d i n g H i k i n g C a r i n g f o r Animals Vegetable Gardening Flower Gardening Maintenance R e l a x i n g Outdoors 1.99 2.05 1.70 2.27 1.87 3.77 2.96 2.11 2.16 2.03 1.60 2.16 4.45 4.47 5.09 4.58 5. 00 2.13 1.40 ,05 1. 1, 60 85 1.57 2.53 2.73 1.33 1.07 1.71 1.00 1.92 3.18 4.60 5.18 3.81 4.73 05 05 05 ,05 ,05 05 c h u r c h m o v i e p l a y c l u b v o l u n t . s h o p p u b a s p o r t s M e a n N> co en mamt. r e l a x L O C < 3 CD Q. -< CD CT> CD Ul (J! HI 3 1 03 m <a •< > 5 _ 2 « O < O ED r- 2 m O -< O TI 33 H O TJ > 30 • m M p c 73 hypothesis, the re s u l t s should indicate that none of the a c t i v i t i e s which are environment related should discriminate between the groups. Four groups were used i n the analysis; old r u r a l and urban and new r u r a l and urban. Only one variable was designated as a s i g n i f i c a n t discriminator between the groups, that variable was relaxing (significance l e v e l of .025). The F p r o b a b i l i t y matrix for th i s variable indicates that there i s a .2 percent chance of being wrong i f we assumed that the means of the old r u r a l and new urban groups were d i f f e r e n t on the variable relaxing, t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y was only s l i g h t l y . higher when the F p r o b a b i l i t y for the o l d . r u r a l residents i s compared to the other two groups. The p r o b a b i l i t y that we would make an incorrect assumption i f we assumed that the mean for the old urban group d i f f e r e d from that of the new urban group increased to 21 percent, and this increased even higher when the other groups are compared. This suggests the dictonomous nature of the re l a t i o n s h i p which exists between the o l d r u r a l group and the new urban group, with the old urban group being closer to the new residents. The r e s u l t s indicated that a l l three groups had a higher mean frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for relaxing out-of-doors than did the old r u r a l residents. The a b i l i t y to r e c l a s s i f y the cases into groups was quite low, only 51.39 percent suggesting the low r e l i a b i l i t y of th i s variable as a discriminator. Unlike the previous analysis no other 74 variables were correlated with relaxing. These re s u l t s indicate that we are correct i n assum-ing that there i s l i t t l e difference i n the urban newcomers from the long-term r u r a l residents p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environment related a c t i v i t i e s , with the exception of r e -laxing i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e more frequently. In order to be able to consider the differences between the groups i n more d e t a i l , the mean frequencies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for each a c t i v i t y were compared for the two groups, old r u r a l and new urban and the l e v e l of s i g n i f i -cance of their differences compared. When z s t a t i s t i c s were calculated for each of the variables, several more were shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t as compared to the discriminant analysis. This i s because i n the former case we were considering only the two most important groups; and also each variable i s tested i n d i v i d -u a l l y so that the degree to which they are r e l a t e d to the other variables i s not considered. The findings i n the l i t e r a t u r e suggested that the new urban residents would p a r t i c i p a t e more frequently i n urban related a c t i v i t i e s . Although, the urban newcomers have higher mean p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates i n attending movies, shopping and playing sports,.the new r u r a l residents had a higher mean frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n than the new urban residents i n attending movies. With regard to shopping 75 the old urban residents continued to maintain a mean f r e -quency rate as high as the new urban residents. With regard to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n clubs and organiza-tions and volunteer work, a c t i v i t i e s which would be done i n urban areas, the old r u r a l residents had a s l i g h t l y higher mean p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate than did the urban newcomers. This i s consistent with Durrani's findings. (1969, p. 82) that long-term r u r a l residents p a r t i c i p a t e d more frequently i n organizational a c t i v i t i e s . Where there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban-related a c t i v i t i e s the a c t i v i t i e s were those which also discriminated between age groups. Since we.have already demonstrated that the urban newcomers d i f f e r e d i n age s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the long-term residents, t h i s may p a r t i a l l y explain the differences noted here. The urban residents p a r t i c i p a t e more frequently i n a l l the r u r a l and area oriented a c t i v i t i e s except gardening; although, not a l l the differences were shown to be s i g n i f i -cant. . This supports our hypothesis that the urban residents chose to l i v e i n the fringe areas to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s which are related to the environment. 76 TABLE III.13 MEAN FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION BY RESIDENTIAL EXPERIENCE A c t i v i t i e s R e s i d e n t i a l Experience Group Means Ol d R u r a l New..Urban L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e Church Movie P l a y Club V o l u n t e e r Shopping Pub A t t e n d i n g Sports P l a y i n g S p o r t s Hunting R i d i n g H i k i n g C a r i n g f o r Animals Vegetable Gardening Flower Gardening Maintenance R e l a x i n g Outdoors 2.07 1.71 1.78 2.28 1.84 3.14 2.85 2.35 1.21 1.71 1.14 1.80 3.35 4.73 4.92 3.71 4.00 1.77 2.09 1.61 2.14 1.61 3.87 2.98 2.03 2.22 1. 97 1.52 2.35 4. 64 4.27 5.15 4.61 5.25 . 1 05 05 10 05 05 05 M e a n c h u r c h m o v i e _ p l a y c l u b v o l u n t . s h o p p u b a s p o r t s p s p o r t s h u n t i n g r i d i n g h i k i n g a n i m a l v e g . |__ f l o w e r m a i n t . z CD CD 3 CL 30 m co' m > c —t TJ CO Z CD c —I • " T I _ SL m 1 1 TJ — Z H !EQ 00 > C r- EN m X AO PE O TJ TI m TJ z > ICE RTI 2 H O Z 00 -< r e l a x L IL 78 Summary In t h i s chapter the sample population was described by t h e i r socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i f e cycle and r e s i d e n t i a l experience, and then f i v e hypotheses were tested which considered the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and between them and the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s . In most cases the analysis included either a Hotellings 2 T test or discriminant analysis to indicate the v a l i d i t y of the difference between groups measured on the same set of variables, and a number of Z s t a t i s t i c ' s to measure the i n d i v i d u a l differences between the various a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s indicated that there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the new urban residents and the long-term residents based on age and occupation. The new urban residents were sub s t a n t i a l l y younger and i n a higher occupational category, than the long-term residents. Income was.found to be the only socio-economic variable s i g n i f i -cantly related to frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s . Those whose income was over $8,000 incomes had a higher mean frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n than those under $8,000. Age was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to attend-ing movies, shopping, playing sports and attending sports events, caring for animals and maintenance. These a c t i v i t i e s can not generally be described as p h y s i c a l l y demanding or urban or r u r a l related a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , i t was shown that although, there are d i f f e r -ences between the a c t i v i t i e s which long-term residents and urban newcomers p a r t i c i p a t e i n newcomers p a r t i c i p a t e as frequently or more frequently i n r u r a l related a c t i v i t i e s as do the other groups. The differences which did e x i s t included a l l the a c t i v i t i e s that the over 65 age par t i c i p a t e d less frequently i n as well as relaxing. In those a c t i v i t i e s the urban newcomers participated more frequently suggesting that the differences which were observed could be attr i b u t e d to differences i n age rather than r e s i d e n t i a l experience. 80 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 2 Differences w i l l be considered s i g n i f i c a n t i f there i s a 95 percent or greater chance that we w i l l be correct i n assuming that they a c t u a l l y occur. This l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be used through out t h i s analysis except where i t i s noted otherwise. 2 HOTEL Routine, by Jason Halm, in UBC TRIP by James H. Bjerring and Paul Seagraves, February 1972. 3 Z s t a t i s t i c s were used to test the s i g n i f i c a n c e between the means of the a c t i v i t y v a r i a b l e s . The standard deviation of the largest group was used as an estimator of the population standard deviation. Because the largest group was very close to the population i n s i z e , t h i s was not f e l t to introduce any s i g n i f i c a n t error into the t e s t . Two-t a i l e d tests of significance were preformed i n each case. (Blalock, 1960) 4 2 Hotelling's T s t a t i s t i c could not be computed for these two groups because of the difference i n t h e i r s i z e . Therefore the discriminant analysis program UBC BMD07M, Implemented from the. UCLA BMD Package by Paul Seagram, October 197 0 was used. This program performs multiple discriminant analysis i n a step wise manner. At each step, one variable usually the one with the highest l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s entered into the set of discriminating v a r i a b l e s . If none of the variables are s i g n i f i c a n t , none w i l l be entered. CHAPTER 4 ACTIVITIES - ENVIRONMENT - SATISFACTION This chapter i s divided into three major parts; i n each a general group of relationships i s considered. In the f i r s t part, assumptions which have been made with regard to the relationships between the a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be considered; i n addition the degree of co r r e l a t i o n which exists between the i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be explored. In the second, the hypotheses concerning d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the physical environment w i l l be examined with regards to the a c t i v i t i e s they f a c i l i t a t e . In the l a s t part, the relationships between performing a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d or constrained by the environment and the residents' s a t i s f a c t i o n with that environment w i l l be considered. A c t i v i t i e s — ^ In the previous chapter i t was shown that the hypothesis which stated that urban residents p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s which are done i n the fringe as frequently or more frequently than long-term residents was v a l i d . In the discussion of the reasons why thi s i s so i t was 82 suggested that people may choose to locate i n an area be-cause they have an in t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d by the environment. This explanation i s based on the assumption that a c t i v i t i e s can be categorized to r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g degrees of congruence with the environ-ment; and that there i s some pattern to the a c t i v i t i e s people p a r t i c i p a t e i n based on t h i s categorization. We w i l l therefore.examine the degree to which the a c t i v i t i e s that a resident p a r t i c i p a t e s i n can be c l a s s i f i e d into groups, and the extent to which these groups are based on a similar degree of congruence with the environment. The second assumption which we have made i s that i n t e r e s t i n performing a c t i v i t i e s i s correlated with actual performance of those a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s to be expected that the c o r r e l a t i o n between a c t i v i t i e s which are not environment related w i l l be lower than those which are f a c i l i t a t e d by the environment. This assumption w i l l be tested i n the second section of this part. Factor Analysis - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A c t i v i t i e s A factor analysis was performed to test the f i r s t assumption. For t h i s assumption to be proven correct, the r e s u l t s of the factor analysis should y i e l d several factors which can be described as urban or r u r a l r e l a t e d . The degree to which the factors account for the common variance smong the a c t i v i t y variables w i l l indicate the 83 a b i l i t y of the factors to explain the degree to which the a c t i v i t i e s i n which residents p a r t i c i p a t e , vary i n a l i k e manner. The factor analysis technique used to describe the factors was c l a s s i c a l factor analysis, with an oblique rotation of the reference axis.''" As was to be expected the c o r r e l a t i o n between the a c t i v i t y variables was very low. The only variables which were correlated over .4 were attending plays with attending clubs, both urban related a c t i v i t i e s ; and flower gardening with vegetable gardening. When three factors were defined they accounted for only 2 3 percent of the t o t a l variance among the va r i a b l e s . While th i s i s very low compared to other studies i t i s consistent with studies of l e i s u r e behaviour. Goodale's (1965) r e s u l t s indicated that 70 percent of the variance of the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s between residents of twelve census t r a c t s was unique. V i s i t i n g , r i d i n g , and caring for animals are a c t i v i t i e s whose variance i s p a r t i c u l a r l y unrelated to the factor pattern. This suggests that regardless of the orientation of t h e i r other a c t i v i t i e s residents engage or do not engage i n these a c t i v i t i e s . Whereas, flower and vegetable gardening, are strongly related to the factor pattern. The matrix of rotated factor loadings e a s i l y describes d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r s of variables so that the factors can be named. 84 TABLE IV.1 ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES A c t i v i t i e s Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Sit e Area Urban Flower gardening .87 -.09 .08 Vegetable gardening .65 -.14 .13 Maintenance .34 .26 -.13 Riding .09 .09 .05 V i s i t i n g .07 .17 -.05 Hunting .02 .32 .03 Movies -.17 .35 .15 Shopping -.06 .37 .17 Relaxing .25 .39_ -.08 Pub -.17 .47 -.02 Hiking .03 .49 .02 Caring for Animals .13 .11 .20 Church .07 .20 .34 Plays -.11 -.01 .37 Asports .05 .25 .38 Club .00 .00 • i i Volunteering .10 .03 .54 COMMON VARIANCE .36 .30 .32 85 The f i r s t f a c t o r — " r u r a l s i t e - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s " loads strongly on vegetable and flower gardening and maintenance and p o s i t i v e l y on a l l the other r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , but negatively on the urban-related a c t i v i t i e s of attending plays, movies, shopping, and going to pubs or restaurants. The t h i r d factor l i s t e d can be labe l l e d — " u r b a n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s " since i t loads heavily on attending club meet-ings, volunteering, playing sports, and attending plays. The second factor i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t to inte r p r e t i n the l i g h t of our hypothesis because of the high loadings on going to pubs or restaurants, hiking and to a lesser extent relaxing, hunting, going to the movies and shopping. When the location of these a c t i v i t i e s i s examined they are characterized by being less centralized than either the r u r a l s i t e a c t i v i t i e s , or the urban a c t i v i t i e s which are generally done i n either Haney or Vancouver. A c t i v i t i e s loading highly on factor two were quite often done i n the "elsewhere" location category. Therefore, factor two w i l l be named "area-related a c t i v i t i e s . " Summarizing;, the re s u l t s of thi s analysis indicates that we are generally j u s t i f i e d i n grouping a c t i v i t i e s by their congruence with the environment as measured by the location i n which the a c t i v i t i e s are performed. Thfs pattern accounts for the small degree of common congruence exis t i n g between the a c t i v i t i e s which were included i n the analysis.^ 86 Interest i n and Performance of A c t i v i t i e s The second r e l a t i o n s h i p considered i n t h i s section i s the degree of association between the residents expressed i n t e r e s t i n an a c t i v i t y and the frequency with which the a c t i v i t y was performed. A simple c o r r e l a t i o n was performed between these two variab l e s . TABLE IV.2 CORRELATION BETWEEN INTEREST IN AND PERFORMANCE OF EACH ACTIVITY Correlation A c t i v i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Church .511 Movie .357 Play .294 Club .555 Volunteer .517 Shopping .097 Pub .045 Attending Sports .464 Playing Sports .719 Hunting .454 Riding .585 Hiking .550 Caring for Animals .566 Vegetable Gardening .479 Flower Gardening .241 Maintenance .340 Relaxing Outdoors .284 87 The a c t i v i t y with the.highest p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s playing sports, i n d i c a t i n g that those who engage f r e -quently i n sports, are interested i n the a c t i v i t y and those who are interested i n the a c t i v i t y are not constrained from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . This i s also true, although, to a lesser extent for hiking, attending club meetings, working as a volunteer, hunting, r i d i n g , hiking and caring for animals. There appears to be no systematic difference between a c t i v i t i e s which are done i n urban areas and those done i n r u r a l areas, nor. i s the assumption supported that distance may act i n constraining performance of a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s which have f a i r l y high correlations are those which require a ce r t a i n degree of physical e f f o r t and/or investment of money as well as an undefinable (as compared to movies) amount of time. A c t i v i t i e s which are done on the s i t e are performed by a much greater percentage of the sample population, (see Appendix D) than are the other a c t i v i t i e s . There i s therefore, a lower degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between interests and frequency for these a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s such as attending movies and plays may be examples of a c t i v i t i e s which although they are well l i k e d by those that do them are done infrequently because of the constraints of a v a i l a b i l i t y ; although, both of these a c t i v i t i e s are av a i l a b l e i n Haney, the plays are 88 infrequent and the choice of movies extremely l i m i t e d . Thus for these a c t i v i t i e s distance may be a factor. The f a i r l y high degree of c o r r e l a t i o n i n vegetable gardening and caring for animals indicates the importance of these a c t i v i t i e s compared to the other s i t e - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ; since although, these a c t i v i t i e s are performed frequently by a high proportion of the residents, a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of i n t e r e s t i s also expressed i n these a c t i v i t i e s . Generally, the correlations are much lower than expected. For both shopping and pubing the relationships are not even s i g n i f i c a n t , suggesting that these a c t i v i t i e s may not have been responded to as l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . Since the co r r e l a t i o n between i n t e r e s t and frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s i s generally higher or as high for the urban-related a c t i v i t i e s of church related a c t i v i t i e s , attending clubs, volunteering and playing sports as for the r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ; the former cannot be considered to be constrained by the environment as i t was thought that they might be.. Since the correlations are so low, a more rigorous examination of the constraints which do e x i s t must be made before any conclusions could be drawn with regards to the extent to which a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a constraining factor. 89 The Physical Environment of the Fringe In considering the physical environment of the fr i n g e , the two most obvious differences between th i s area and a more urban one i s the l o t size and the distance between neighbours. In t h i s sample, the mean l o t size i s 4.39 acres. Just under a t h i r d of the sample population indicated that they were beyond shouting distance from t h e i r neighbours. Lot Size The purpose of t h i s section i s to determine to what extent increasing the l o t size f a c i l i t a t e s a c t i v i t i e s which are related to i t . The hypothesis tested states that larger l o t s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y associated with the keeping of animals and vegetable gardening. The extent of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Table IV.3 which indicates the l o t size of those who indicated that they kept p a r t i c u l a r animals or had a vegetable garden. The hypothesis i s v e r i f i e d for both horses and cows; the larger animals are s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with larger l o t s (at the .01 l e v e l ) . However, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between either keeping smaller animals or vegetable gardening and l o t s i z e . TABLE IV.3 SITE RELATED ACTIVITIES BY LOT SIZE L o t S i z e Percent of Residents Who Keep/Have Ac r e s Horses Cows Chickens Hogs Other Vegetable Garden Less than 1.9 2.0 10.2 14.3 2.0 12.2 31.4 2 to 4.9 27 .3 21.8 25 .5 5.5 5.5 38.6 5 to 9.9 24.1 40.3 41.4 17.5 6.9 17.7 More than 10 31.6 21.1 31.6 5.3 - 1.2.9 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 R e l a t i o n s h i p between L o t S i z e and Horses and Cows i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . 91 Lots 5 to 9.9 acres i n si z e have the largest percen-tage of cows, chickens and hogs while vegetable gardening i s most frequently done on l o t s less than 5 acres. The preference for l o t si z e shows that l o t s of 2 to 5 acres are preferred, although> perference no doubt varies with the a c t i v i t i e s which are performed. Over 40 percent of the persons with l o t s 2 to 5 acres indicated that they were too small. TABLE IV .4 LOT SIZE BY LOT PREFERENCE Lot Size Lot Preference Acres Too Small Just Right Too Large Less than 2 37.5 35.2 12.5 2 to 4.9 40.6 37.5 25.0 5 to 9.9 21.9 18.2 20.8 More than 10 - 9.1 41.7 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100 .0 S i g n i f i c a n t .001 l e v e l . 92 D i s t a n c e t o N e i g h b o u r s The s e c o n d a t t r i b u t e o f t h e f r i n g e w h i c h w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h e d i s t a n c e t o n e i g h b o u r s . A h y p o t h e s i s was p r o p o s e d t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v i s i t i n g a nd t h e d i s t a n c e t o n e i g h b o u r s . I f d i s t a n c e was i n f a c t a c o n s t r a i n t we w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d t h a t t h o s e l o c a t e d f u r t h e r f r o m t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s v i s i t e d them l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . The m e a s u r e o f d i s t a n c e , u s e d was w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i r c l o s e s t n e i g h b o u r was w i t h i n c a l l i n g d i s t a n c e . TABLE I V . 5 V I S I T I N G BY DISTANCE TO NEIGHBOURS F r e q u e n c y o f V i s i t i n g D i s t a n c e t o N e i g h b o u r s W i t h i n C a l l i n g D i s t a n c e N o t W i t h i n C a l l i n g D i s t a n c e A t L e a s t Once a Week 28.6 27.5 2 t o 3 T i m e s a M o n t h 20.4 19.6 Once a M o n t h 22.4 11.8 L e s s O f t e n o r N e v e r 28.6 41.2 TOTAL 100 .0 100.0 The r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e f r e q u e n c y of v i s i t i n g and the distance to neighbours, and therefore the hypothesis i s rejected. However, i t should be noted that the distance to the neighbours i s important for those who v i s i t once a month or less often. Where the neighbours are not within c a l l i n g distance a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (.01 level) higher percentage v i s i t less often or never than those who are within c a l l i n g distance. Thus i t can be seen that for those who have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n . v i s i t i n g t h e i r neighbours distance w i l l be a constraining factor. Thus i t i s a p o s i t i v e factor f a c i l -i t a t i n g privacy. I t may however also be that those who are not interested i n v i s i t i n g t h e i r neighbours have located further from them recognizing the constraining e f f e c t of distance. S a t i s f a c t i o n with the Fringe Environment The question to be considered i n t h i s f i n a l part i s "To what extent does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d or constrained by the environment influence the residents' s a t i s f a c t i o n with the environment?" Hypothesis 9 and 10 suggest that i t w i l l be possible to discriminate between those residents who prefer an urban or r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l environment by the a c t i v i t i e s i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e . These two hypotheses w i l l also be tested using the degree of i n t e r e s t which residents 94 expressed i n the a c t i v i t i e s , as the discriminating set of variables. The extent to which p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various a c t i v i t i e s i s correlated with the residents' s a t i s f a c t i o n with p a r t i c u l a r elements of the environment w i l l also be examined. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A c t i v i t i e s In order to test hypothesis 9 and 10 a discriminant analysis was done between the three r e s i d e n t i a l preference groups, urban, r u r a l and those who preferred to stay where they were. According to the hypotheses, urban-related a c t i v i t i e s should discriminate between the urban preference group and others; and s i m i l a r i l y , r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s should discriminate between the r u r a l preference group and the others. The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis were inconclusive. The two variables which were chosen as discriminators were volunteering (significance l e v e l of .0035) and attending clubs (significance l e v e l of . 0 4 8 0 ) . The F p r o b a b i l i t y matrix suggests that we w i l l be wrong less than 1.5 percent of the time i f we assume that the r u r a l and stay groups and urban and stay groups were d i f f e r e n t on a c t i v i t y volunteering. However, t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y increases to 88 percent i f we assume that the urban and r u r a l groups are d i f f e r e n t on th i s a c t i v i t y . The variable attending clubs distinguishes between the groups i n a similar manner. The f a c t that the urban and r u r a l groups are the most similar groups i s not at a l l consistent with the hypotheses which were proposed. I t should be noted that the analysis accounts for only 11 percent of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n among the variables. This i s evident from the a b i l i t y of these variables to be used to r e c l a s s i f y the cases; although, 73.8 percent of the cases were co r r e c t l y r e c l a s s i f i e d ; none of the urban and less than a t h i r d of the r u r a l cases were co r r e c t l y r e c l a s s i f i e d . If i t can be shown that the differences which were hypothesized do e x i s t , then the r e s u l t s of th i s analysis simply suggest that the residents who engaged i n urban related a c t i v i t i e s do not anticipate being constrained by the increased distances between t h e i r preferred location further from town, and the urban lo c a t i o n i n which these a c t i v i t i e s occur. This has further implications regarding our assumption" that persons engaged i n urban-related a c t i v i t i e s would prefer a urban l o c a t i o n . Simply not being interested i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s may be the more important var i a b l e . In view of these r e s u l t s we s h a l l consider the differences of means between the urban and stay group, and between the r u r a l and stay group. 96 Although, the urban preference groups means are higher on most of the urban a c t i v i t i e s than the other groups, most of the differences were not shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The only urban a c t i v i t i e s i n which there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference are attending movies, and volunteer-ing. With regard to the r u r a l versus stay groups, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference on shopping, attending movies, volunteering, and hiking, caring for animals and vegetable gardening; a c t i v i t i e s i n which the r u r a l group means are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher. These re s u l t s do suggest that there i s evidence that the r u r a l preference group do p a r t i c i p a t e more i n r u r a l -related a c t i v i t i e s than the stay group, and that the urban preference group do p a r t i c i p a t e more than the stay group i n urban related a c t i v i t i e s and less i n r u r a l r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . I t may be that the degree of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a better predictor of th i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Interests i n A c t i v i t i e s The r e s u l t s are more comprehensive, when i n t e r e s t in a c t i v i t i e s i s used .as the discriminating variable set. Four discriminating variables were indicated to be s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE IV.6 MEAN FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION BY RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCE R e s i d e n t i a l Preference Groups Urban L e v e l of Stay L e v e l o f R u r a l Means S i g n i f i c a n c e Means S i g n i f i c a n c e Means A c t i v i t i e s Urban-Stay Rural-Stay Church 1.93 2.00 2.04 Movie 2.26 .1 1.91 .05 2.18 P l a y 1.64 1.66 1.90 Club 2.35 2.26 .05 1.95 V o l u n t e e r 2.50 . 05 1.63 .05 2.45 Shopping 3.36 3.49 .05 4.27 Pub 2.86 2.98 2.77 A t t e n d i n g S p o r t s 1.78 2.04 2.14 P l a y i n g 2.47 Sports 2.42 1.93 Hunting 1.50 2.00 .05 2.38 R i d i n g 1.35 1.59 .05 1.47 H i k i n g 2.28 2.00 .05 2.73 C a r i n g f o r Animals 3.93 4 .20 .05 5.25 Vegetable Gardening 4.06 4.38 .05 5.27 Flower Gardening 4.66 5.11 5.33 Maintenance 3.80 .05 4.65 4.22 R e l a x i n g Outdoors 4.86 4.92 5.26 Mean church movie play club volunt. shop pub asports psports hunting riding hiking animal veg. flower maint. relax cn 1 -H 30 m <£ E > $ cn o 86 99 TABLE I V . 7 DISCRIMINATING VARIABLES V a r i a b l e s F - V a l u e S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l R i d i n g 17.24 .0000 P l a y 6.99 .0014 P l a y i n g S p o r t s 5.31 .0061 F l o w e r G a r d e n i n g 9.00 .0003 F o r e a c h o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s t h e F p r o b a b i l i t y m a t r i x i n d i c a t e s t h a t we w o u l d be r i g h t 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , i f we a s s u m e d t h a t t h e u r b a n a n d r u r a l g r o u p s w e r e d i f f e r e n t o n t h e v a r i a b l e a n d w r o n g l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e i f we assumed t h a t t h e u r b a n g r o u p d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e s t a y g r o u p o r t h e r u r a l g r o u p . d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e s t a y g r o u p . U s i n g a C o o l e y a n d L o h n e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c a s e s , 76.47 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s w e r e c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d ; a l t h o u g h , none o f t h e r e s i d e n t s p r e f e r r i n g a n u r b a n l o c a t i o n w e r e c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . F o r t h e f i r s t v a r i a b l e r i d i n g , t h e p a t t e r n i s c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r u r a l g r o u p h a s a h i g h e r mean i n t e r e s t i n r i d i n g t h a n t h e s t a y g r o u p o r t h e u r b a n g r o u p l t h i s p a t t e r n i s m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . T h us none o f t h e v a r i a b l e s c h o s e n a s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s 100 indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the urban and stay groups. If the means are examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , the variables which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between the urban and stay groups are i n t e r e s t .in .. plays and movies with the stay group having higher -means . and r i d i n g i n which the urban.group i s lower. If the general tendancy of the differences i s examined i t can be seen that the urban preference group have higher mean interests i n clubs, volunteering, shopping and watching sports and means lower than the stay group i n a l l the r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s but maintenance. While th i s tendency does not permit us to accept the hypothesis i t does suggest that a more detailed examination of these relationships might prove them to be s i g n i f i c a n t . An examination of the differences of the means of the r u r a l and stay group on inte r e s t s i n a c t i v i t i e s supports our hypothesis. For a l l the a c t i v i t i e s which are r u r a l -related except maintenance and relaxing the r u r a l prefer-ence group has s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher means. I t should be noted that except on pubing and attending movies the r u r a l group has a higher mean score i n a l l the other a c t i v i t i e s ; but i t i s th e i r i n t e r e s t i n the r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s which i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t and which i n fa c t i s rela t e d to t h e i r . r e s i d e n t i a l preference. TABLE IV.8 MEAN FREQUENCY OF INTEREST IN ACTIVITIES BY RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCE R e s i d e n t i a l Preference Groups Urban L e v e l of Stay L e v e l of R u r a l Means S i g n i f i c a n c e Means S i g n i f i c a n c e Means A c t i v i t i e s Urban-Stay Rural-Stay Church 1.58 1.88 1.90 Movie 1.83 .05 2.07 .05 1.90 Play 1.54 .05 2.16 2.16 Club 2. 00 1.89 1.76 Volunteer 1.80 1.78 .05 2.14 Shopping 2.07 1.92 2.00 Pub 2.23 2.25 2.20 At t e n d i n g Sports 2.25 2.02 :.05 2.30 P l a y i n g Sports 1.87 1.94 .05 2.54 Hunting 2.18 2.23 .05 2.73 R i d i n g 1.50 .05 1.98. .05 2.54 H i k i n g 2.08 2.20 .05 2.60 Ca r i n g f o r Animals 2.27 2.29 .05 2.57 Vegetable Gardening 2.15 2.17 .05 2.63 Flower Gardening 2.00 2.24 .05 2.72 Maintenance 2.13 2.08 2.19 Re l a x i n g Outdoors 2.38 2.66 2.77 Figure IV. 2 M E A N F R E Q U E N C Y OF INTEREST BY RESIDENTIAL P R E F E R E N C E Urban Stay Rural 103 The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis suggest that for those who have the strongest i n t e r e s t i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s the fringe area of Maple Ridge i s not f a c i l i t a t i n g those a c t i v i t i e s to the extent which they would l i k e i t and therefore, they would prefer a more r u r a l environment. This i s emphasized by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between preferred l o t size and preferred r e s i d e n t i a l location. The r e l a t i o n s h i p which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l indicated that a greater proportion of those preferring an urban location thought th e i r l o t s were too large, whereas a greater proportion of those preferring a r u r a l location thought that t h e i r l o t s were too small. S a t i s f a c t i o n with S p e c i f i c Attributes of the Environment In t h i s section, we consider whether s a t i s f a c t i o n with s p e c i f i c elements of the environment can be re l a t e d to the a c t i v i t i e s i n which the residents p a r t i c i p a t e . In order to do t h i s factor scores were obtained.from a factor analysis of the i n t e r e s t which residents had i n performing the j 3 a c t i v i t i e s . These factor scores enable us to i d e n t i f y how each person measured on a reduced number of factors (in t h i s case f i v e factors were used). These factor scores were then correlated with the twelve variables on which measures of s a t i s f a c t i o n were obtained. 104 Most of the correlations which resulted from t h i s analysis were very low and not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, the several highest correlations deserve some comment. The f i f t h factor which loaded highest on church attendance and negatively on shopping was correlated to a s l i g h t extent (the co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was .28) with the desire.to l i v e further from their neighbours. This corresponds to the previous observation that residents who had the highest mean score on i n t e r e s t i n church attendance were those who preferred a r u r a l location while those having the highest mean on shopping preferred an urban locat i o n . Interest i n r i d i n g and other a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the r u r a l area versus low i n t e r e s t i n clubs was correlated (correlation c o e f f i c i e n t of .13) to s a t i s f a c t i o n with neighbours to a small extent. F i n a l l y , the factor which described a low i n t e r e s t i n club membership and a pos i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n caring for animals was correlated with s a t i s f a c t i o n with schools and services (correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s of .119 and .117 respec-t i v e l y ) . Again these correlations are very low but suggest that there i s a certa i n degree of rel a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n the d i r e c t i o n which was hypothesized. The. variables of s a t i s f a c t i o n which had the highest correlations were cross tabulated by the r e s i d e n t i a l 105 preference varia b l e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis indicated that those who were s a t i s f i e d with the open space were the urban and stay groups, while those who were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the amount of open space to the greatest extent were those who preferred a r u r a l location ( s i g n i f i c a n t at the .02 l e v e l ) . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with neighbours was shown to be related to a preference for an urban location (at the .02 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the environ-ment which i t was thought would be re l a t e d to a c t i v i t i e s was s a t i s f a c t i o n with services; however, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. There was however a tendency for those pr e f e r r i n g a urban location to be the most d i s s a t i s f i e d with the services provided while those pr e f e r r i n g a r u r a l location were the most s a t i s f i e d . Thus while these r e s u l t s are not conclusive they do suggest that a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d by the environment and s a t i s f a c t i o n with the environment does e x i s t for some of the variables; e s p e c i a l l y for s a t i s f a c t i o n with neighbours and the amount of open space that i s av a i l a b l e . Summary Three areas of relationships were considered i n t h i s chapter, and the assumptions and s p e c i f i c hypotheses which were formulated regarding each were analysed. Each w i l l be considered i n turn i n t h i s summary. 106 A c t i v i t i e s A factor analysis of the seventeen a c t i v i t y variables for which frequency measures were obtained resulted i n three factors which described the a c t i v i t y groupings which i t had been assumed would e x i s t , based on the degree to which the a c t i v i t i e s were related to the r u r a l s i t e , the area including both urban and r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s or the urban environment. Secondly, a c o r r e l a t i o n between the respondents' i n t e r e s t i n and frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s was obtained. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s which resulted from t h i s analysis indicated the r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n which existed between these two measures, as well as suggesting that no one reason could be used to explain t h i s r e s u l t . A c c e s s i b i l i t y was not shown to be a constraining factor at l e a s t for those a c t i v i t i e s which were available i n the nearest urban area. A c t i v i t i e s for which the c o r r e l a t i o n were the highest were those a c t i v i t i e s i n which few residents participated or those a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d by the r u r a l environment; caring for animals and vegetable gardening. 107 Physical Environment In t h i s section, the si z e of l o t and distance to neighbours was examined for th e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the a c t i v i t i e s which they f a c i l i t a t e d . In the case of the f i r s t , large l o t s , over 10 acres was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the keeping of horses; whereas l o t s from f i v e to ten acres were more often associated with cows, the keeping of chickens and hogs. Gardening and the keeping of other animals was associated with smaller l o t s . Increased distance to neighbours did not constrain v i s i t i n g as i t was hypothes-ized i t would; however, i t was associated with a larger proportion of persons who indicated they r a r e l y or never v i s i t e d their neighbours. S a t i s f a c t i o n Discriminant analysis and Z s t a t i s t i c s were used to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n with the environment, as expressed by r e s i d e n t i a l preference and p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of this analysis were inconclusive; although, the urban preference group participated i n or were interested i n urban related a c t i v i t i e s to a greater extent than the group who preferred to stay where they were. As far as the r u r a l preference group was" concerned the hypothesis was however v e r i f i e d . 108 A c o r r e l a t i o n of the factors describing i n t e r e s t s i n various a c t i v i t i e s with s a t i s f a c t i o n variables did not indicate any strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s , although several c o r r e l -ations were described which f i t the pattern which had been observed previously, between r e s i d e n t i a l preference and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n cert a i n a c t i v i t i e s . 109 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 4 UBC FAN Factor Analysis by Jason Halm, October 1971. This program provides for the use of either p r i n c i p a l components factor analysis or c l a s s i c a l factor analysis. The difference between the two models i s that i n the second we are replacing the l ' s i n the diagonal of the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix by estimates of the communalities. The implication of doing t h i s i s that we are recognizing the f a c t that there i s unique variance of the variables not involved with any other variables, and therefore we are analysing only the portion of the variance which each variable has i n common with the other vari a b l e s . This seems to be the most l o g i c a l and r e a l i s t i c method to use i n t h i s analysis when our purpose i s to describe the variance which exists among the v a r i a b l e s . In order to achieve simple structure and the c l e a r e s t picture of the patterns, an oblique r o t a t i o n of the reference axis with a gamma value of .5 was preformed. This type of r o t a t i o n y i e l d s the best d e f i n i t i o n of correlated and un-correlated factors necessary to d e l i n i a t e c l u s t e r s of variables. 2 An important l i m i t a t i o n of this data i s that a f u l l range of the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n which an i n d i v i d u a l might p a r t i c i p a t e was not included i n the analysis. As Van de Geer (1971, p. 145) states -". . . i f we add more observed variables; portions of what i s now c a l l e d error might then appear to be t i e d to common factors that at f i r s t remained hidden because the data was too r e s t r i c t i v e to reveal t h e i r r o l e . . . . " 3 In order to obtain/.; factor scores which would give the best explanation of the variance.between the variables common factor analysis was used. This resulted i n f i v e factors which accounted for 56 percent of the t o t a l variance. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e o b s e r -v a t i o n s made i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l be s u m m a r i z e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be e x a m i n e d . A n d , f i n a l l y , t h e p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . G e n e r a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g t h e t e n h y p o t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n s u m m a r i z e d a n d t h e r e f o r e , w i l l n o t be r e v i e w e d i n d e t a i l . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r a n a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e s u l t s o f C h a p t e r s 3 an d 4 t o g e t h e r , by r e v i e w i n g t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h a p t e r 1. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n a s k e d w a s — " H o w do t h e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a f f e c t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ? " The r e s u l t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t o t e s t t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h o s e w i t h i n c o m e s o v e r $8,000 p a r t i c i p a t e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h o s e whose i n c o m e s w e r e l o w e r , i n m o s t a c t i v i t i e s I l l except flower gardening and relaxing. L i f e cycle as measured by the husbands age was also shown to be a factor which influenced the frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various a c t i v i t i e s . With regards to r e s i d e n t i a l experience i t was shown that new residents participated as frequently or more frequently i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , as well as i n most urban-related a c t i v i t i e s . What differences there were between the groups could be attributed to the s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n age between the long-term r u r a l residents and the new urban resident. The second question which was considered was—"To what extent does the environment constrain or f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v i t i e s ? " This question was approached i n two ways; f i r s t , s p e c i f i c attributes of the fringe were examined, l o t size and distance to neighbours, i n order to see what e f f e c t s , variations i n these would have. When interests were correlated with p a r t i c i p a t i o n , some f a i r l y low correlations resulted, e s p e c i a l l y for the a c t i v i t i e s i n which the greatest proportion of the sample p a r t i c i p a t e d . This r e s u l t suggested the absence of constraining e f f e c t which was the r e s u l t of a c t i v i t i e s being done i n the urban area, as well as suggesting the r e l a t i v e l y low degree of i n t e r e s t there i s i n the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s which are done regularly by many people. Respondents were not asked the degree of i n t e r e s t which they had i n a c t i v i t i e s that they did not p a r t i c i p a t e i n , thus the extent of a l l the 112 constraining variables was not considered. These r e s u l t s suggest that a more detailed examination of the degree to which various constraints are important i n contributing to these low correlations would be of i n t e r e s t . F i n a l l y i n order to consider the implications of this question more f u l l y , i t was approached i n d i r e c t l y by con-sidering the t h i r d question—"To what extent does p a r t i c i -pation i n a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d or constrained by the environment a f f e c t the residents' s a t i s f a c t i o n with the environment?" Although, the r e s u l t s of t h i s examination were some what inconclusive i t was shown that the urban preference group participated more frequently i n urban a c t i v i t i e s of attending club meetings, volunteering, shopping and attending movies and had a higher i n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s . The association between the r u r a l preference group i n r u r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s was shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the residents 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and preferred r e s i d e n t i a l location was examined to see i f these might help to explain the f a c t that the r e s u l t s were inconclusive. The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis showed that length of residence, socio-economic variables and past r e s i d e n t i a l experience were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to r e s i d e n t i a l preference. However, when employment status was considered, retirement was shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r elated to urban preference. I t appears that i t i s not so much i n t e r e s t i n pursuing a c t i v i t i e s that are urban-113 related which i s s i g n i f i c a n t here but the lack of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the f r i n g e . Although, these r e s u l t s are not conclusive, the idea that e x p e r i e n t i a l congruence i s a factor i n r e s i d e n t i a l location should not be overlooked i n consideration of fringe areas has been shown. People.located i n the fringe do engage i n a c t i v i t i e s which are f a c i l i t a t e d by the area; 73.6 percent of the residents have a vegetable garden, or keep animals or do both. Horses, cows, chickens are kept by 18.1, 24.3, and 25 percent of the residents respectively. In the past, the fringe has been considered i n various ways. The approach taken here suggests that there are fringe areas within the metropolitan region which should be recognized as unique r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n that the persons who are there are engaged i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s which describe a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e . Further Research Before considering s p e c i f i c recommendations for further research, the l i m i t a t i o n s of this study w i l l be noted. The nature of the data c o l l e c t e d on the frequency with which a c t i v i t i e s were preformed, conformed to the t y p i c a l a c t i v i t y curve i n which a high proportion of the respondents either did or did not do the a c t i v i t y , the 114 use of t h i s non-normal data was further complicated by having ord i n a l measures of variables. Because of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the data, the analysis concentrated on examining the differences of means between groups of the sample, omitting the e f f e c t s which more exact descriptions of the groups might have had and ignoring the variations of the groups around the means except to the extent that they were included in, the analysis of the s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, the r e s u l t s have indicated some s i g n i f i c a n t relationships and where these were not proven, associations have been suggested. Thus the use of the a c t i v i t y time budgets are suggested as the most appropriate next step i n examining these relationships and others suggested by th i s analysis. I t may be that with the increasing i n t e r e s t i n such tools of analysis, that t h i s type of data w i l l be co l l e c t e d routinely i n the near future by government agencies. If this type of data i s available several directions could be suggested for i t s use. 1. A detailed examination of the importance of the constraints of income, time, employment status, distance on the correlations between interests i n and frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s . 2. A consideration of the c o r r e l a t i o n between a f u l l range of a c t i v i t i e s related to the environment and s a t i s f a c t i o n with p a r t i c u l a r attributes of that environment. 115 3. Comparative studies between the le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s of persons l i v i n g i n the fringe as compared to other areas i n order to determine to what extent they d i f f e r and to what extent the fringe areas have experienced suburbanization; and a consideration of a c t i v i t i e s to see to what extent physical attributes of the fringe are important i n f a c i l i t a t i n g them. Planning Implications The implications of these r e s u l t s are important to planning at two l e v e l s . With regards f i r s t l y to the design of s p e c i f i c environments, a number of res u l t s are s i g n i f i c a n t . I t may be said that distance was not shown to be a constrain-ing factor r e s t r i c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban located l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , except possibly for the e l d e r l y . In-creased distance to neighbours was not shown to s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e s t r i c t v i s i t i n g except for those who v i s i t e d infrequently anyway. The l o t sizes associated with the keeping of p a r t i c u l a r animals and gardening were examined and t h i s information may be valuable i n establishing minimum l o t sizes on a functional rather than purely service-oriented basis. Taking a larger perspective and examining the fringe area i n a regional context, these r e s u l t s become more important i n the planning approach which i s taken to such 116 areas. We have not considered problems of speculation, s e r v i c i n g , disappearing farmland with regards to fringe areas, nor was i t our intention to do so. These problems must be dealt with before the approach which we are suggesting w i l l be of any value. As Gertler (1972, p. 44) points out i n his consideration of urban growth- -. . . as long as shadow areas e x i s t , the debate about urban form i s of academic i n t e r e s t only. If c i t i e s extend i r r e s i s t i b l y towards the envelop-ing shadow areas, then the continuation of the present agglomerating tendancies i s assured. The search for alternatives i s confined5,to the realm of theory. Assuming then, that we can control the l i m i t l e s s urban growth, the value of t h i s study l i e s i n understanding residen-t i a l l ocation so that functional areas can be provided, as compared to endless suburbia. Examination of the a c t i v i t i e s i n which residents of the fringe engage, as well as an understanding of who those persons are i n terms of age, income, l i f e cycle, enable us to be better prepared to make decisions regarding future land uses of areas such as these. The re s u l t s of th i s study indicate that keeping livestock, vegetable gardening are indeed l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . Thus we are encouraged to ask — Can we provide areas for these a c t i v i t i e s more economically, by creating gardens on the outskirts of c i t i e s , or by other such means; or i s there more to the l i f e i n the fringe that could not be 117 duplicated i n this way? Once again the answer to t h i s question must await a more comprehensive study of the l i f e s t y l e of the f r i n g e . However, the purpose of t h i s study has been f u l f i l l e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g the extent to which residents 1 a c t i v i t i e s can be characterized by th e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the environment and i n suggesting their importance i n determining r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n preference. BIBLIOGRAPHY B e l l , Wendell, 1958. "Social Choice, L i f e Styles and Suburban Residences." i n The Suburban Community, Ed., by William M. Dobriner, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 225-240. , 1968. "The C i t y , the Suburb and a Theory of Social Choice." i n The New Urbanization, Ed. by Scott Greer et a l . , New York: St. Martin's Press, 132-167 . Blalock, Herbert M., J r . , 1960. So c i a l S t a t i s t i c s . New York: McGraw H i l l Book Comp. Inc. Brademus, Thomas B., 1956. "Fringe L i v i n g Attitudes." Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Spring, 75-82. Brewster, Maurice; F l i n n , William, A., and Jurkat, Ernest H., 1955. "How to Make and Interpret Locational  Studies of the Housing Market. Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce. Blishen, Bernard R., 1958. "The Construction and Use of An Occupational Class Scale." Canadian Journal of  Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, XXIV, 519-531. Chapin, F., Stuart, and Hightower, Henry C , 1965. "House-hold A c t i v i t y Patterns and Land Use." Journal of  the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXXV, 221-231. Chapin, F., Stuart, 1968. " A c t i v i t y Systems and Urban Structure: A Working Scheme." Journal of the  American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXXV, 411-417. Cherukupalle, Nirmala devi, 1970. " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Techniques i n Planning Analysis." Socio-Economic  Planning Science, IV, 395-405. Clark, A l f r e d C , 1958. "Leisure and Occupational Prestige„ i n Mass Leisure, Ed. by E r i c Larrabee and Rolf Meyersoln, Glencoe: Free Press, 205-214. Id 9 Cooley, William W. and Lohnes• , Paul R., 1971. M u l t i -variate Data Analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cromwell, James, 1970. "Social Space i n the Rural Urban Fringe: A Study of Fleetwood, B.C." Unpublished M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Simon Fraser. Dumazedier, J o f f r e , 1962. Toward A Society of Leisure. Translated by Stewart McClure, New York: The Free Press. Durrani, Tario Masid, 1969. "The Influence i f Urban Rural Orientation, Length of Residence and Level of Community Development of So c i a l Interaction i n the Urban-Rural Fringe i n Upstate New York." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Cornell University. Foote, Nelson N. et a l . , 1960. Housing Choices and Housing Constraints. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ford, T. and Sutton, W i l l i s A. J r . , 1964. "The Impact of Change on Rural Communities and Fringe Areas: Review of a Decade's Research." i n Our Changing  Rural Society Perspectives and Trends, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. Gans, Herbert J . , 1963. "Effects of the Move from C i t y to Suburb." i n The Urban Condition, Ed. by Leonard Duhl, New York: Basic Books. ., 19 67. The Levittowners. New York: Patheon Books. Gertler, L.O., 1972. Regional Planning i n Canada: A Planners Testament. Montreal: Harvest House. Geer, John P. van de, 1971. Introduction to Multivariate  Analysis for the Social Sciences. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company. Gis t , Noel P., 1952. "Ecological Decentralization and The Rural-Urban Fringe." Rural Sociology, XVII, 328-355. Godstalk, David R. and M i l l s , W.E., 1969. "A Collaborative Approach to Planning through Urban A c t i v i t i e s . " Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXXII, 86-94. 120 Goodale, Thomas Lester, 1965. "An Analysis of Leisure Behaviour and Attitudes i n Selected Minneapolis Census Tracts." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s . Havighurst, Robert J . and Fergenbaum, K., 1959. "Leisure and L i f e Style." American Journal of Sociology, LXIV, 396-404. Hendee, John C , 1969. "Rural-Urban Differences Reflected i n Outdoor Recreational P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Journal of  Leisure Research, I I , 333-341. Kuper, Leo, et a l . , 1953. Living i n Towns. London: Cresset Press. Kaplan, Max, 1960. Leisure i n America: A S o c i a l Inquiry. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Knopp, Timothy B., 1972. "Environmental Determinants of Recreational Behaviour." Journal of Leisure  Research, IV, 129-138. Kurtz, Richard A. and Smith, J o e l , 1961. "Social L i f e i n the Rural-Urban Fringe." Rural Sociology, XXVI, 24-38. Martin, Walter, T., 1952. "A Consideration of Differences i n the Extent and Location of the Forma'l Associa-t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s of Rural-Urban Fringe Residents." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, XVII, 687-694. 1953. The Rural-Urban Fringe: A Study of Adjust-ment to Residential Location. Eugene, Oregon: University Press. McKain, Walter D., J r . and Burnright, Robert B., 1953. "The S o c i o l o g i c a l Significance of the Rural-Urban Fringe: From the Rural Point of View." Rural  Sociology, XVIII, 108-115. Michelson, William, 1969a. "The Physical Environment As A t t r a c t i o n and Determinator: Social E f f e c t s i n Housing." Research Paper No. 22, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto. 121 Michelson, William, 1969b. "Analytic Sampling: A Survey of Housing Experience for Design Information." Research Paper No. 21, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto. _, 1969c. "Space as a Variable i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Enquiry: Serendipitous Findings on the Macro-Environment." Research Paper No. 20, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto. 197 0a. Man and His Urban Environment: A Socio-l o g i c a l Approach. Don M i l l s , Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Michelson, William and Reed, Paul, 1970b. "The Theoretical Status and Operational Usage of L i f e Style i n Environment Research." Research Paper No. 36, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto. Michelson, William, 1972. "Environmental Choice: A Draft Report on the S o c i a l Basis of Family Decisions on Housing Type and Location i n Greater Toronto." Ministry of State for Urban A f f a i r s and the Univer-s i t y of Toronto. M i l l e r , Delbert C , 1964. Handbook of Research Design  and S o c i a l Measurement. New York: David McKay Company Inc. Pahl, Raymond E., 1965. "Urbs i n Rure." Geographical  Papers No. 2, London School of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, London. , 1970. Whose City? And Other Essays of Sociology and Planning. London: Longmans. Perin, Constance, 197 0. With Man i n Mind an I n t e r d i s i -p l i n a r y Prospectus for Environmental Design. Cambridge: M1I.T. Press. Pryor, Robin J . , 1971. "Defining the Rural-Urban Fringe, i n Internal Structure of the C i t y Readings on  Space and Environment, Ed. by Larry Bourne, New York: Oxford University Press, 59-68. 122 Regional D i s t r i c t of Dewdney Allo u e t t e , 1971. "Non-Farm Rural Settlement Study." (Typewritten). Reissman, Leonard, 1954. "Class, and Leisure and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, XIX, 76-84. Rodehaver, M.W., 1947. "Fringe Settlement as a Two D i r e c t i o n a l Movement." Rural Sociology, XII, 49-57. Rossi, Peter, 1955. Why Families Move? Glencoe: The Free Press. Rummel, R.J., 1970. Applied Factor Analysis. Evanston: North Western University Press. Spectorsky, A.C., 1955. The Exurbanites. New York: Lippincott Company. Webber, Melvin, M., 1963. "Order i n D i v e r s i t y . " i n C i t i e s and Space, Ed. by Lowdon Wingo J r . , Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, Ltd., 23-57. Wissnick, G.A., 1962. American C i t i e s i n Perspective. Assen: Royal Van Gorcum Ltd. Whitehead, J . C a r l , 1968. "Country Residential Growth i n the Calgary Region: A Study of Exuburbanization." Unpublished M.A, d i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Wolpert, J u l i a n , 1966. "Migration as an Adjustment to Environmental Stress," Journal of S o c i a l Issures, XXII, 92-102. Zelan, Joseph, 1968. "Does Suburbia Make a Difference: An Exercise i n Secondary Analysis." i n Urbanism  i n World Perspective, Ed. by Sylvia Fava, New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell Co., 401-408. 123 A P P E N D I C E S 124 A P P E N D I X A 126 A P P E N D I X B QUESTIONNAIRE RURAL FRINGE STUDY Please put a check in the appropriate squares and f i l l in the b1anks How long have you lived in this house ? Years Where was your previous residence ? in a large ci ty (over 100,000) in a suburban area in a small city or town in a rural area Do you think you wil l move in the next f ive years ? No Which of these animals, if any do you keep ? Horses Cows Chi ckens Other, please specify, Do you own or rent ? I | Own | jRent If houses were equally available through-out the Lower Mainland where would you prefer to l ive ? in Vancouver in a suburban area in a small town or ci ty where you are now What size is your lot ? feet by feet or acres Is your lot size suited to your needs Too large Just Right Too sma11 How do each of the following contribute to your feelings of sat isfact ion or dissat isfact ion with this area ? Taxes Los t of House & Lot House Size Open Space Clean Air Quietness Qua 1i ty of Schools Qua 1i ty of Serv i ces Ne ighbours , Distance to Stores Distance to Schools VFRY VERY NOT SATISFIED SATISFIED DISSATISFIED DISSATISFIED IMPORTANT Here is a l i s t of leisure ac t iv i t ies done outside the home. On the left side of the page put a c i r c l e around the number that te l ls how often you do the act iv i ty IN SEASON. In the columns on the right side of the page; f i r s t , c i rc le the number that te l ls how wel1 you like the ac t iv i ty ; in the second column c i rc le the number that te l ls where you most often do the ac t iv i ty . Please do not skip any ac t iv i ty . (If you never do the ac t iv i ty , leave the columns on the right blank.) HOW OFTEN DO YOU DO THESE ACTIVITIES ? HOW WELL DO YOU LIKE THEM ? WHERE DO YOU DO DO THEM ? c o E 0) 03 o c m r O d) <U E c C c a> — o <o II j 4J E u •w ro m fD O i_ <D 0) 1- CD VI <D i- O O O in > O C C <D 0) z: o OJ o _) z •—• CNI -3" lAvO 1 2 3 4 5 6 a. 1 2 3 4 5 6 b. 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 c. 1 2 3 4 5 6 d. 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 e. 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 f. 1 2 3 4 5 6 g. 1 2 3 4 5 6 h. 1 2 3 4 5 6 i . 1 2 3 4 5 6 j . 1 2 3 4 5 6 k. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 m. 1 2 3 4 5 6 n. 1 2 3 4 5 6 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 p. 1 2 3 4 5 6 q. 1_ 0 O E 4J <U C 0) en >- 0) J * XI O) i_ u . — CD — i_ (U CD I — > cc cu cu > <4- 1/1 Z3 E J-<4- .— >- O <a 0 3 . — XI 0) O — -C <U c C a. .— .— c fD ro ro -M '— _ J 1 in > 2: < LU CM CM LA church related act iv i ty 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 going to movies 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 going to plays, concerts 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 club or organization meetings 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 volunteer work 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 shopping other than for groceries . . . . 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 4 5 going to restaurants, pubs e t c . , 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 attending sports events . . 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 playing sports 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 hunting or f ishing 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 horseback riding 1 2'3 1 2 3 4 5 hiking 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 caring for animals 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 vegetable gardening 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 maintenance of lawn or flower garden . 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 maintenance of house or car 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 4 5' reading or relaxing outdoors 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 I f y o u r n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r was s t a n d i n g i n h i s y a r d , c o u l d you h e a r h im i f he c a l l e d t o you f r o m h i s d o o r s t e p ? Yes | j No P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t he ages o f t h e members o f y o u r f a m i l y l i v i n g a t home ? • Husband C h i I d r e n W i f e Would you p r e f e r t o be c l o s e r o r f u r t h e r f rom y o u r n e i g h b o u r s , o r a r e you j u s t r i g h t ? What i s t he h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n r e a c h e d by : C l o s e r J u s t R i g h t F u r t h e r Husband W i f e About how o f t e n do you v i s i t w i t h y o u r n e i g h b o u r s ? Is t h e husband o f t h e f a m i l y : A t l e a s t o n c e a week 2 o r 3 t i m e s a month Once a month L e s s o f t e n o r n e v e r Employed Ret i r ed O t h e r C o u l d you p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i n w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g income g r o u p s y o u r t o t a l f a m i l y income f a l l s ? Under $4 ,000 $4 ,000 t o $7,999 $ 8 , 0 0 0 t o $11 , 9 9 9 $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 t o $15 , 9 9 9 $ 1 6 , 0 0 0 t o $19,999 Over $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 I f e m p l o y e d , how l o n g does i t t a k e t h e husband t o g e t t o w o r k ? M i n u t e s What i s o r was t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t he husband ? Does t h e w i f e o f t h e f a m i l y w o r k o u t s i d e t he home ? Has t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e been c o m p l e t e d b y : F u l l t i m e P a r t t i m e Nei t h e r • Husband W i f e Do you have any f u r t h e r comments a b o u t y o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h 1 i v i n g i n t h i s a r e a ? THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION ! ! V P P E N D I X C GLOSSARY OF TERMS 131 APPENDIX C GLOSSARY OF TERMS Church Movie Play Club Volunteer Shop Pub Asports Psports Hunting Riding Hiking Animal Vegetable Flower Maintenance Relax Church Related A c t i v i t i e s Going to the Movies Going to Plays or Concerts Club or Organization Meetings Volunteer Work Shopping other than for Groceries Going to Restaurants or Pubs etc. Attending Sports Events Playing Sports Hunting or Fishing Horseback Riding Hiking Caring for Animals Vegetable Gardening Maintenance of Lawn or Flower Garden Maintenance of House or Car Reading or Relaxing Outdoors A P P E N D I X D PERCENTAGE AND MEAN FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION IN THE ACTIVITIES APPENDIX D PERCENTAGE AND MEAN.FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION IN THE ACTIVITIES A c t i v i t i e s Mean Never Less than Once a 2 or 3 Once a More than Total Once a Month Times Week Once a Month a Month Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Church 1.9 62 14 2 3 7 7 - i i 100 Movie 1.9 27 50 16 2 1 1 100 Play- 1.6 44 45 4 - 1 1 100 Club 2.1 45 . 16 14 14 4 1 100 Volunteer 1.7 58 20 * .. 4 5 5 1 100 Shop 3.5 7 11 24 27 18 9 100 Pub 2.8 13 32 22 16 10 3 100 Asports 1.9 47 27 11 2 4 4 100 Psports 1.9 63 11 3 4 9 5 100 Hunting 1.9 43 30 10 5 2 3 100 Riding 1.4 75 11 7 1 2 5 100 Hiking 2.0 43 27 9 6 4 5 100 Animals 4.2 27 6 1 - 1 61 100 Vegetable 4.4 15 10 2 4 12 52 100 Flower 4.9 2 4 4 8 25 52 100 Maintenance 4.4 3 10 15 10 22 36 100 Relax 4.8 4 7 4 9 13 57 100 CO Co 

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