UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Yukon community government Sharp, Robert R. 1973

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Ci  by  ROBERT R. SHARP BEd. U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ,  1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  In THE  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s thesis, as conforming required  THE  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1973  ii  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s requirements of B r i t i s h it  for  that  Columbia,  I agree  at the L i b r a r y  shall  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  permission f o r extensive copying  s c h o l a r l y purposes  Department  f u l f i l m e n t of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  freely available  agree  in partial  may  be g r a n t e d  o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  that  copying  gain  shall  or p u b l i c a t i o n  my  further  of t h i s  thesis  by t h e Head o f my I t i s understood  of t h i s t h e s i s  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  I  make  forfinancial  written  S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia V a n c o u v e r 8, B . c i  permission.  i i i  Abstract  Rural  settlements  counterparts tors  such  tlement in  i n t h e Yukon d i f f e r  i n t h a t they  a s : geographic  from t h e i r  southern  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a number o f f a c isolation,  along White-Indian  social  ethnic lines  t h a t many c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e no l o c a l  division  of the set-  and p o l i t i c a l mechanism f o r  isolation formulat-  ing representative inputs t o senior levels  o f government.  c o n d i t i o n s have g i v e n r i s e  i n the administering  of r u r a l  community' a f f a i r s .  pressed  discontent with  cisions  were made w i t h o u t  cies  to difficulties Residents  determining easy  their  involvement.  by i n d i v i d u a l s  with  r e l a t e d de-  Government  conflicting  o r groups from communities  what i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t  agen-  inputs  so that i s not an  task.  The  thesis  the governing mixed r u r a l  addresses  the problems  o f community a f f a i r s  Yukon communities.  and t h e author's  three year  ments s t u d i e d , p r o v i d e d tion acter  of the thesis.  of l o c a l participation i n  i n s i xs i m i l a r ,  A five  d u r i n g w h i c h i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d ded  s e t t l e m e n t s ex-  t h e way i n w h i c h community  on t h e o t h e r h a n d a r e c o n f r o n t e d  formulated  of these  These  ethnically  month r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m and o b s e r v a t i o n s  residency  i n one o f t h e s e t t l e -  the material f o rthe descriptive  Descriptions of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  of s i xsettlements  and t h e i r  recor-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  secchar-  senior  iv government and d e s c r i p t i o n s frequently proposal ties. to  i n t e r a c t of proposed  of l o c a l  questions  governments.  which  A tentative  c i r c u l a t e d among r e s p o n d e n t s i n r u r a l  about t h e e x i s t i n g type  analysis  of l o c a l  communi-;.  i n a d d i t i o n t o responses  o f l o c a l government  conducted i n the t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s that  government w i t h s p e c i f i e d form, f u n c t i o n s ,  not f l e x i b l e  provide  Government allowing  from these  should  findings are that  formulate the guidelines  the s p e c i f i c s  o f each r u r a l  the  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l government  the  socio-political  development  exists  the T e r r i t o r i a l  forlocal  government  t o be w o r k e d o u t b e t w e e n t h e T e r r i t o r i a l  Government a n d t h e r e s i d e n t s  discusses  a type  and r o l e  enough t o encompass t h e d i v e r s i t y w h i c h  among i n f e r e n c e s  the  agencies  f o r the analysis.  The  thesis  local  Responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  a basis  are  o f t h e government  character  settlement  i s perceived  as a p p r o p r i a t e  o f t h e community.  the implications  so that to  In closing,.the  o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s may h o l d f o r  o f l o c a l government  i n general.  V  Table  of Contents Page  Abstract Table  •- •  of Contents  List  of Tables  List  of F i g u r e s  v vii . . . . . . . .  Acknowledgment  Chapter 1  I n t r o d u c t i o n : An H i s t o r i c a l . O v e r v i e w  Chapter 2  The Problem i Methodology ii Modeling Process iii T e n t a t i v e model  Chapter 3  S i x R u r a l Yukon Communities i Ross R i v e r ii Pelly Crossing iii Teslin iv Carmacks v Carcross vi Haines J u n c t i o n  Chapter 4  viii x  . . . .  1 13 17 20 25  . . ; .  Government i n the Yukon . . . . . i T e r r i t o r i a l Government a. T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l b. E x e c u t i v e Committee c. The Commissioner d. Department of E d u c a t i o n . . . e. Department of H e a l t h Welf a r e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . . f . Department of L o c a l Government g. Department of Highways and P u b l i c Works h. Other Departments  30 36 78 93 110 121 135 157 162 165 167 168 170 176 179 184 185  vi  . . .  186 187 188 190  Chapter 5  An A n a l y s i s o f Two Forms o f L o c a l Government , i A s s e s s m e n t 1: The L I D ii A s s e s s m e n t 2: The T e n t a t i v e M o d e l . .  193 198 206  Chapter 6  Conclusions  217  ii  F e d e r a l Government a. Yukon F o r e s t S e r v i c e b . R.C.M.P c . The I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h  a n d Recommendations  Bibliography  227  Appendix A  236  Appendix B  2 6  7  vii  List  of T a b l e s  Table  Page  1  P o p u l a t i o n : Community  by e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n  2  Housing C o n d i t i o n s i n R u r a l Communities  64  3  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Communities t o r i a l Council  166  4  School  5  Assessment of " F i t "  i n the  . . .  Terri-  33  172  Operations . . .  214  VI11  List  Figure  of F i g u r e s  Title  1  Yukon T e r r i t o r y  2  R o s s R i v e r , Y.T  3  Ross R i v e r - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . . . . .  4  Ross R i v e r - I n t e r a c t i o n s Adult Education Issues  5.  Pelly  6  Pelly - Interaction Housing Issues . . . .  7  Pelly Adult  8  Teslin,  9  Teslin - Interactions Housing Issues . . . .  10  Teslin - Interactions Adult Education Issues  11  C a r m a c k s , Y.T.  12  Carmacks - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . .  13  Carmacks - I n t e r a c t i o n s Adult Education Issues  14  C a r c r o s s , Y.T  15  Carcross Interactions Housing Issues . . . .  16  Carcross - Interactions Adult Education Issues  Study  C r o s s i n g , Y.T.  Area  .  - Interactions Education Issues Y.T  . . . .  ix Page 17  H a i n e s J u n c t i o n , Y.T  139  18  Haines J u n c t i o n Housing Issues  -  151  Haines Junction Adult Education  - Interactions Issues  19  Interactions  20  Organizational Chart:  21  N o r t h e r n Economic Development B r a n c h  22  Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l  15^ 160  DIAND  Government  .  163 164  Acknowledgement.:  To the p e o p l e  o f s i x Yukon c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e P r o f e s s o r s  and  f e l l o w students  and  t o my  wife  who  challanged,  a n d f a m i l y ; many  commented a n d a s s i s t e d  thanks.  chapter I  Introduction:  An H i s t o r i c a l  Overview  T h r e e m a j o r i m p a c t s have a l t e r e d t h e c h a r a c t e r Yukon s i n c e three ful  1840.  thousand  The f i r s t  Indians  o f White and M e t i s  (McClelland,  1964).  aged t h e development  of these  whose l i f e traders  Demands  involved  from European f u r markets  of the f u r trade  throughout  of t e c h n i c a l innovations,  the  f u r trade,  a l t e r e d the Indians' the c o l l e c t i n g  change, a l t h o u g h p r i n c i p a l l y social 1964  organization  pp. 10).  ordeal  made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h  pattern  of hunting  of f u r s f o r market.  Athapaskans  of these  of s u r v i v a l i n a country  with  encour-  t h e Yukon.  economic, profoundly  of a l l northern  The a c c e p t a n c e  estimated  who moved i n t o t h e T e r r i t o r y .  acceptance  to include  an  s t y l e was a l t e r e d by a h a n d -  The  gathering  of the  and This  a l t e r e d the (McClelland  innovations,  harsh winters  eased the and s c a r -  2  city  of food.  I t a l s o meant t h a t the frequency  of  between v a r i o u s band groups i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t ing a c t i v i t y . opment of new  of the t r a d -  T h i s i n c r e a s e d exposure r e s u l t e d i n the p a t t e r n s of movement, t r a d e and  ships, (McClelland, Discovery  contacts  social  devel-  relation-  1964).  of g o l d i n the K l o n d i k e  was  the second major  p a c t and marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the Yukon's economy. p o p u l a t i o n r o s e from an estimated  f o u r thousand i n 1895  f o r t y thousand at the peak of the g o l d r u s h .  With the  t i o n of the more a c c e s s i b l e a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s , and  F i r s t World The  t o approximately  to deple-  population  f o u r thousand by the end  of the  War.  t h i r d boom began d u r i n g the Second World War  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway and The  The  the mecha-  n i z a t i o n of p l a c e r mining o p e r a t i o n s , the T e r r i t o r y had decreased  im-  with  the  the C a n o l p i p e l i n e .  development of a year-round t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, which  i n t u r n , p r o v i d e d access i n the s h i f t  The  m i n e r a l developments r e s u l t e d  of the c e n t r e of commerce t o Whitehorse which  the head of n a v i g a b l e Skagway.  t o new  waters and  start  of the r a i l l i n e  was  to  p o p u l a t i o n of the T e r r i t o r y i n c r e a s e d from f i v e  thousand i n 1941  t o e i g h t e e n thousand i n 1971  (S.C., 1 9 7 1 ) .  Through a l l of these changes, the uniqueness of the Yukon has  found e x p r e s s i o n .  T h i s uniqueness i s r e p r e s e n t e d  i n the  3  sparceness of I t s p o p u l a t i o n , i t s harsh c l i m a t e , i t s mountainous t e r r a i n and The  the v a r i e t y and wealth of i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  Yukon has a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of approximately  e i g h t peo-  p l e p e r hundred square m i l e s as compared w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n density  of nine-hundred-eighty people p e r hundred square m i l e s i n  the southern  p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s .  The  i n t e r i o r plateau  of  the Yukon i s surrounded by mountains on a l l s i d e s : t o the West, the S t . E l i a s Mountains which have the h i g h e s t e l e v a t i o n s i n Canada, t o the E a s t , the Logans and the P e l l y range, t o the n o r t h , the O l g i v i e Mountain range and Range.  c l i m a t e probably  presence f e l t .  The  more than any  other element has made i t s  l o n g dark w i n t e r p e r i o d w i t h i t s extreme  c h a r a c t e r , which e f f e c t s a l l a c t i v i t i e s . n a t u r a l resources  The  seasonal  extent  of the T e r r i t o r y has not been f u l l y  ivealth t h a t has  of the examined.  been shown i n l e a d , z i n c , copper and  d e p o s i t e i s being mined i n e i g h t major l o c a t i o n s . f i n d s of o i l and gas  de-  communication i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  c o l d has p l a c e d over the whole of the T e r r i t o r y , a  The  Cassian  These b a r r i e r s have had a profound I n f l u e n c e on the  velopment of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and The  t o the South the  silver  Significant  i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the T e r r i t o r y  g e s t f u r t h e r development i n t h a t r e g i o n .  sug-  Yet p o s s i b l y the  g r e a t e s t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , the T e r r i t o r y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l potent i a l , has  only s t a r t e d t o be e x p l o r e d .  a t e d c h a r a c t e r of the Yukon has  The  climatically  domin-  been d e s c r i b e d by many such as  Robert S e r v i c e , i n h i s poems w r i t t e n seventy  y e a r s ago.  These  4.  a r e c o n d i t i o n s which s t i l l have a profound i n f l u e n c e over the Territory. The  i n f l u e n c e s of these t h r e e economic impacts a r e r e f l e c -  t e d i n the e v o l u t i o n and nature o f the contemporary s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f the Yukon.  Duerden (1971)  asserts that the T e r r i -  t o r y 's s e t t l e m e n t s r e f l e c t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n these stages of development.  Some f u n c t i o n a l types o f s e t t l e -  ments such as t r a d i n g p o s t s have p e r s i s t e d through economic upheavals.  subsequent  Others have grown and d i e d w i t h the d i s -  c o v e r y , development and d e p l e t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e s . A d e v e l o p i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and t h e s c a t t e r e d  loca-  t i o n of ore bodies have r e s u l t e d i n a p i n p o i n t p a t t e r n of s e t tlement.  S m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d by d i s t a n c e s of t h e  o r d e r o f a hundred m i l e s .  Little  or no development has taken  p l a c e i n t h e areas s e p a r a t i n g communities. g e n e r a l l y determined tlement.  Site locations are  by t h e main economic concerns i n t h e s e t -  T h i s i s not t h e case f o r a l l communities however.  Some communities, i n which t h e f o c u s of economic concerns have s h i f t e d , have remained  i n the o r i g i n a l s i t e .  Whether t h e s i t e  of t h e s e t t l e m e n t s h i f t s or n o t , c o n f l i c t s w i l l a r i s e among those groups w i t h d i f f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s .  F o r example, the l o c a -  t i o n may s u i t the government road maintenance crew but be l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the i n t e r e s t s of t h e I n d i a n hunter who neverthel e s s , l i v e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t t o take advantage of a m e n i t i e s  5 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the government's presence A second  i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which emerges i s the h i g h l y t r a n s i t o r y  nature of some Yukon s e t t l e m e n t s .  Duerden (1971  PP. 216)  has  g r a p h i c a l l y demonstrated the f l u c t u a t i n g c h a r a c t e r of s e t t l e ments.  In 1951,  western  Yukon, by 1966  had developed.  t w e n t y - s i x s e t t l e m e n t s e x i s t e d i n the t e n of these had d i e d and two  south-  others  These changes r e f l e c t the d e p l e t i o n of n a t u r a l  r e s o u r c e s o r the s h i f t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes from water t o road t o a i r . The  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l development of the Yukon  has a l s o f l u c t u a t e d i n a p a t t e r n which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s changes i n i t s economy.  The Yukon was  t r a n s f e r r e d from  the Britain  to  Canada, i n IS70 as p a r t of the then North-Western T e r r i t o r y .  In  1897,  the y e a r f o l l o w i n g the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d , i t was  signated a j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t . nada i n 1898 P.B.  By Act of the Parliament  i t became a separate  de-  of Ca-  territory.  F i n g l a n d (1968) a p a s t A s s i s t a n t Commissioner'of the  Yukon d e s c r i b e s the context i n which t h i s a c t was  created:  "... one of the f i r s t t a s k s of C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , the . new (JL&983 M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r , was t o p r e s i d e at the b i r t h of the new T e r r i t o r y . But among S i f t o n ' s i n t e r e s t s , t o quote h i s b i o g r a p h e r , 'the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Yukon was not i n c l u d e d ' . As he informed a correspondent 'the Yukon i s not the same as any other g o l d mining country i n the world, and the d i f f e r e n c e c o n s i s t s i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s good f o r n o t h i n g except mining, which i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l be t e m p o r a r y . As a r e s u l t of t h i s a t t i t u d e , the f i r s t Yukon T e r r i t o r y Act was l i t t l e more than a r e p e t i t i o n of the has1  6:  tily  I m p r o v i s e d T e m p o r a r y Government A c t p a s s e d i n • f o r t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The Yukon Counc i l h a d t h e same m i x e d l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers a s I t s p r e d e c e s s o r , a n d b e c a u s e o f u n c e r t a i n l y about t h e n a t i o n a l i t y and p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e T e r r i t o r y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s a l l s i x members o f t h e Counc i l were t o be a p p o i n t e d . The C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r , or Commissioner (a term chosen from the P o l i c e A c t t o e n h a n c e h i s a u t h o r i t y ) was t o a c t a s a c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l and t a k e h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e M i n i s t e r o f . the I n t e r i o r or the Governor i n C o u n c i l . "  I869  The f o r m o f T e r r i t o r i a l act 1898  government  c r e a t e d by t h e Yukon  a n d i t s s u b s e q u e n t amendments o v e r t h e t e n y e a r s t o 1908  s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e government w h i c h e x i s t s t o -  day i n t h e Y u k o n . torial  government  and l e g i s l a t i v e principles  between  The most  significant  feature  has been t h e c l e a r d i v i s i o n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , patterned  of d i v i s i o n  o f s t a t e powers.  of the t e r r i -  of executive  a f t e r Montesquieu's  The e l e c t e d  council  h a s no c o n t r o l  over t h e e x e c u t i v e branch o f t h e government.  Their function  has been e n t i r e l y  on t h e p a r t  of elected  i960.  of Indian A f f a i r s  been r e s p o n s i b l e  f o ra l l  r e i n f o r c e d when t h e 1908 that  the Council  tion persisted  i960  measure  The  i960  powers  and N o r t h e r n Development, has  amendment  This  division  was  o f t h e Yukon A c t s p e c i f i e d  from t h e Commissioner.  This  situa-  when, a s a member o f t h e c o m m i t t e e  o f t h e w h o l e , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r was a g a i n p e r m i t t e d the C o u n c i l .  Attempts  The C o m m i s s i o n e r , a p p o i n t e d by  e x e c u t i v e powers.  s i t apart  until  one.  c o u n c i l members t o g a i n e x e c u t i v e  were u n s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l the M i n i s t e r  a legislative  t o s i t with  amendment was a n a t t e m p t t o r e s t o r e a  o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n between  legislative  and e x e c u t i v e de-  7 c l s i o n s , a harmony which had been m i s s i n g  f o r the  previous  J . C . Recent changes have, i n e f f e c t ,  f i f t y - t w o years,  The 1970,  t e d t o reduce t h i s d i v i s i o n y e t f u r t h e r . ment c r e a t i n g the E x e c u t i v e  Committee,  attemp-  an amend-  the shadow of what  be a t e r r i t o r i a l c a b i n e t , gave e x e c u t i v e  may  powers t o e l e c t e d mem-  bers f o r the f i r s t time. The p o l i t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e  which t y p i f i e d the e a r l y  of the g o l d r u s h r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d demands f o r a elected council.  C o u n c i l was  e l e c t e d members s e r v i n g two-year terms.  vernment. cil  1919  f o r a f u r t h e r extension  The Act was amended i n 1902  of f i v e e l e c t e d and f i v e appointed  a g a i n i n 1908  wholly  These demands were met, i n p a r t , when the  Yukon Act was amended In 1898.  sidents pressed  stages  t o i n c l u d e a wholly  expanded by  The T e r r i t o r y ' s r e of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to provide  go-  f o r a coun-  members and amended  e l e c t e d c o u n c i l of t e n .  the Act was amended a g a i n t o account f o r the g r e a t  i n the T e r r i t o r i e s p o p u l a t i o n .  two  In  decline  Three e l e c t e d members and the  Commissioner c o n s t i t u t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y the l e g i s l a t i v e and exec u t i v e arms of the Yukon's government The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a  until  1951.  Highway and the p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e a f t e r the Second World War caused a r e b i r t h of the T e r r i t o r y ' s Government.  In 1951  the C o u n c i l was  f i v e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and two years r e v i s e d Yukon Act was p a s s e d .  increased to  later a  completely  The new Act i n c r e a s e d the l e g i s -  8  l a t i v e powers o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r - i n - C o u n c i l c u t i v e powers f i r m l y  not  Committee  granted  deliberate introduce  t o s e v e n e l e c t e d members i n  on F i n a n c e  executive attempt  on t h e p a r t  an embryonic  The  Advisory  Committee  mittee bers  i s purely  t o commit  of the people".  i960. This  nothing  ween C o u n c i l a n d C o m m i s s i o n e r  A f u r t h e r step  toward  ment was t a k e n i n 1970  was a  (Fingland  1968).  no f o r m a l  on t h e C o u n c i l .  change  "The Com-  i n t h e A c t empowers i t s mem-  (Robertson,  to increase  body  Government t o  the C o u n c i l , n o r i s t h e Commissioner  an attempt  An Ad-  i t signified  represented  o f t h e Commissioner advisory;  The  c o m m i t t e e drawn f r o m among  on F i n a n c e  to follow their advice." sented  i n 1961.  of the Federal  executive  elected representatives  the functions  was c r e a t e d  powers b u t " n o n e t h e l e s s  the  in  t h e exe-  i n t h e hands o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r .  C o u n c i l was i n c r e a s e d visory  but l e f t  1963).  the effective on f i n a n c i a l  This  does  repre-  co-ordination  bet-  matters.  "the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  when a n E x e c u t i v e  required  of cabinet  govern-  Committee c o n s i s t i n g  o f two e l e c t e d members, t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r , a n d t h e two a s s i s t a n t c o m m i s s i o n e r s , was c r e a t e d . of the Executive  (Orange  1970).  Committee a r e a p p o i n t e d  of C o u n c i l t o administer  various  E l e c t e d members  on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  government  departments.  The  two  e l e c t e d members on t h e c o m m i t t e e a r e u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f  the  Yukon A c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t s  Health,  W e l f a r e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  of Education  and  9  At t h i s p o i n t i n time, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Yukon's form of government w i l l r e p r e s e n t going process  only a stage i n an a p p a r e n t l y  of p o l i t i c a l and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development.  Change i s imminent as i n d i c a t e d by r e s o l u t i o n s of the r i a l C o u n c i l and  Territo-  the p o l i t i c a l advertisements which appeared  i n the Whitehorse S t a r d u r i n g the 1972 paign.  on-  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n cam-  Over h a l f of these a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ,  a l l p a r t i e s , spoke of governmental reform.  representative  of  Demands f o r a more  r e s p o n s i b l e government, not p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s , have taken a v a r i e t y of forms.  These i n c l u d e expanding the C o u n c i l t o  teen members, r e p l a c i n g the A d v i s o r y a wholly  elected executive  powers of the C o u n c i l .  Committee on Finance  c o u n c i l and  The  expanding the  fifwith  executive  changes r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g the  s i z e of C o u n c i l t o f i f t e e n members have a l r e a d y been approved by the M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and (Whitehorse S t a r Nov., The  Northern Development.  1973).  Yukon government i s a body c r e a t e d and  powers through the Yukon A c t . Parliament  which l e g a l l y may  ment sees f i t .  invested  T h i s i s an a c t of the  Federal  be amended as the F e d e r a l  T e r r i t o r i a l Ordinances are a d m i n i s t e r e d  Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government P u b l i c S e r v i c e as d i s t i n c t F e d e r a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e which a d m i n i s t e r s the F e d e r a l Parliament  has  not  and  use  of lands  Parliaby  the  from  those matters which  i n v e s t e d i n the  Government through the Yukon A c t .  with  Territorial  F o r example, the management  i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which has  been r e t a i n e d  10  by the F e d e r a l government.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of crown  i n the T e r r i t o r y i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the F e d e r a l Service.  No d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  l i n k has e x i s t e d  the agencies of the two s e n i o r governments. i n some c o n f u s i o n ,  land  Public  between  T h i s has r e s u l t e d  c o n f l i c t and d u p l i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s  bet-  ween departments d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t both one l o c a t e d i n Whitehorse.  A r e c e n t l y formed a d v i s o r y  body ( 1 9 7 2 ) c o n s i s t i n g  of department heads from a l l government a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n the Yukon may  rectify  some of the problems which a r i s e out of  those f u n c t i o n s which i n v o l v e more than one agency. The p o l i t i c a l and economic c h a r a c t e r  of the Yukon has chan-  ged s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n c e C l i f f o r d S i f t o n expressed h i s doubts as t o the value  of the T e r r i t o r y ( F i n g l a n d , 1 9 6 8 ) .  The changes  have been from a t y p i c a l boom and bust economy t o one which appears t o have s t a b i l i z e d t o some degree s i n c e the 1 9 5 0 ' s . Demands f o r a more r e s p o n s i b l e government economic  have grown w i t h t h i s  stability.  L o c a l government, developed i n Dawson w i t h the g o l d  rush.  P r i o r t o I 8 9 6 , s m a l l t r a d i n g communities were a d m i n i s t e r e d the companies owning the p o s t s . v i c e c e n t e r t o the K l o n d i k e ; proximately porated  thirty  by  Dawson developed as the s e r -  reaching  thousand i n 1 9 0 0 .  a peak p o p u l a t i o n The settlement  was  of apincor-  i n 1 9 0 2 w i t h a mayor and e l e c t e d c o u n c i l only t o g i v e  up the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of i t s l o c a l a f f a i r s i n 1 9 1 9 .  The i n 1950  T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l passed a new  M u n i c i p a l Ordinance  t o p r o v i d e f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of Whitehorse, Mayo  and Dawson.  Whitehorse had  developed at the p o i n t of mode  change between the White Pass and Yukon Railway and fic  on the Yukon R i v e r and  by 1950  mately 2 5 0 0 .  (Duerden, 1 9 7 1 ) .  r a t e d i n 1950  under the new  traf-  had a p o p u l a t i o n of a p r o x i -  The  community became i n c o r p o -  ordinance.  Mayo, a mining s e r v i c e  c e n t e r had a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 1971).  the  250 i n 1950  (Duerden,  Mayo, which d i d not become i n c o r p o r a t e d under the Mun-  i c i p a l Ordinance, opted i n s t e a d t o become a L o c a l Improvement District The  in  1969.  Area Development Ordinance, formulated  t o ensure  o r d e r l y development of unorganized communities",  represented  a commitment of the t e r r i t o r i a l Government t o the w e l l of the s m a l l e r r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s .  T h i s ordinance  s i b l e f o r almost a l l communities, not  being  made i t pos-  only the l a r g e s t , t o ben-  e f i t from the f i s c a l a s s i s t a n c e of the Yukon Government. munity p l a n n i n g , the development and ment's roads and u t i l i t y  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  Com-  settle-  s e r v i c e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d c e n t e r a l l y  by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. velopment A r e a " were not  "the  Settlement  designated  as  i n c o r p o r a t e d under the M u n i c i p a l  "DeOr-  dinance (ROYT, 1 9 5 8 ) . L e g i s l a t i o n had  been developed t o the b e n i f i t  s e t t l e m e n t s , a c o n d i t i o n which had s i d e r i n g the p i n p o i n t nature  of the l a r g e r  r e s u l t e d i n i n e q u i t i e s con-  of the Yukon's settlement  pattern  12 and the predominance of s m a l l communities.  Smaller settlements  were a t a d i s t i n c t disadvantage i f they wished t o i n c o r p e r a t e as towns under the M u n i c i p a l a c t f o r communities of town s t a tus are r e q u i r e d t o assume s e l f - f i n a n c i n g of some l o c a l vice functions. ficiently  ser-  The t a x base i n s m a l l e r communities was  s m a l l and the demands s u f f i c i e n t l y  a venture e c o n o m i c a l l y i n f e a s l b l e .  suf-  l a r g e t o make such  There was, nonetheless a  demand on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t s of unorganized s e t t l e m e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making of d e c i s i o n s which i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r communities and t h e i r  lives.  The L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s Ordinance of 1 9 6 5 was an attempt a t e a s i n g the t r a n s i t i o n between those s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h l o c a l governments i n c o r p o r a t e d under the M u n i c i p a l Act and those without l o c a l government which were not l a r g e t o i n c o r p o r a t e under the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . provement D i s t r i c t  enough  The L o c a l  Im-  (LID) was designed t o a l l o w s m a l l e r commu-  n i t i e s an i n i t i a l involvement i n l o c a l government.  An incor?  p o r a t e d body c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s , a d v i s e d the Commissioner of the t e r r i t o r y  on the f i n a n c i a l requirement i n -  v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the " l o c a l improvements" i n the community  (ROYT 1 9 7 2 ) .  of the d i s t r i c t  L o c a l improvements  e n t a i l e d the maintenance  r o a d s , water and sewer system, animal c o n t r o l  and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n .  Haines J u n c t i o n , Watson Lake and Mayo  have become LID's and T e s l i n and Carmaks are c u r r e n t l y :-ing becoming LIDs as a means of d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l f o r t h e i r communities.  conslder-  government  c h a p t e r  The Problem The s u i t a b i l i t y of an LID as an i n t r o d u c t o r y form of l o c a l government edgj.  f o r the unorganized r u r a l community may  It i s significant  be q u e s t i o n -  t h a t s i x t e e n of the seventeen s e t t l e -  ments w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s under f i v e hundred people have not y e t become LIDs.  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s approximately f o r t y - f o u r hundred  people o r one q u a r t e r of the T e r r i t o r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . (SC, , The ways i n which the f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of an  LID meet the r u r a l communities' needs f o r l o c a l government be q u e s t i o n e d .  F o r example, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of l o c a l  dents should p o s s i b l y be f o c u s e d on the economic  1971).  may  resi-  development  of the community r a t h e r than on " l o c a l improvements" most ap-  14 p r o p r i a t e l y i n some s e t t l e m e n t s . The degree t o which LIDs are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the people of a settlement may  be q u e s t i o n e d .  r e c t o r of l o c a l government Haines J u n c t i o n LID was  The t r u s t e e s and the D i -  r e p o r t e d t h a t the boundary of the  d e s i g n a t e d t o a v o i d the I n d i a n lands  and hence the I n d i a n p e o p l e .  The I n d i a n p e o p l e , r e s i d e n t s of  Haines J u n c t i o n as a - consequence have been a r b i t r a r i l y ed  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the LID form of l o c a l  exclud-  government.  The p r o c e s s by which u n o r g a n i z e d communities become LIDs may  a l s o be q u e s t i o n e d .  vement D i s t r i c t s  The Ordinance r e s p e c t i n g L o c a l  states that  " d i s t r i c t s may  Impro-  be e s t a b l i s h e d by  order of the Commissioner whenever he i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t unorg a n i z e d areas warrant p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s form of l o c a l ernment".  (ROYT,  1972).  The t e r r i t o r i a l commissioner i n d i c a -  t e s t h a t t h i s has been i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t  communities  which have a s t r o n g i n f o r m a l community government  by way of  p u b l i c meetings or community c l u b s are those c o n s i d e r e d b l e t o become LIDs.  gov-  eligi-  The communities which a r e broken i n t o f a c -  t i o n s or have a weak i n f o r m a l community government  are not con-  s i d e r e d t o be p r e p a r e d t o become LIDs even though i t appears t h a t these are the communities which have the g r e a t e s t need f o r some form of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l government .  This prac-  t i c e has p l a c e d many i s o l a t e d , e t h n i c a l l y mixed, unorganized Yukon communities at a d i s t i n c t d i s a d v a n t a g e .  In order t o be-  15 come an LID,  the community's r e s i d e n t s are r e q u i r e d t o form  strong organizations.  The  d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent  in  attempting  t o i n v o l v e people from a l l e t h n i c s e c t i o n s i n  organizations  have r e s u l t e d i n groups r e p r e s e n t i n g  sector.  may  only one  r e s u l t i n s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s but  i t f a i l s t o account f o r  the needs of the community which cut a c r o s s The  questions  ethnic  sectors.  r a i s e d about the LIDs are c e n t r a l t o the  blems addressed i n t h i s t h e s i s . LIDs and  This  pro-  They examine the r e l e v a n c e  of  suggest a l t e r n a t i v e forms of l o c a l government.  Respondents i n t e r v i e w e d  i n d i c a t e d that unorganized, c u l t u r -  e-ally d i v e r s e r u r a l communities do not have the mechanisms oessary  f o r e f f e c t i v e l y formulating  the two  s e n i o r governments i n the Yukon.  t h e r e has  been l i t t l e  nity affairs.  The  representative inputs T h i s has  ne&to  meant t h a t  l o c a l involvement i n determining  commu-  l a c k of a l o c a l form of government capable  of d e a l i n g w i t h i s s u e s i n a manner r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l c u l t u r v a l groups has may  be.dealt  a l s o r e s t r i c t e d the  scope of a c t i v i t i e s ' w h i c h  w i t h by groups w i t h i n the community.  Functions  which c r o s s e t h n i c l i n e s are d e a l t w i t h by those groups which represent  t h e i r respective sectors i n t e r e s t s .  Inputs r e c e i v e d  by the S e n i o r Government are viewed w i t h some c a u t i o n s i n c e a d e c i s i o n on the recommendations of one d e s i r e d by ed  others.  group may  not be  that  These awkward circumstances are o f t e n a v o i d -  by the government by t a k i n g no a c t i o n a t a l l .  The  net  re-  16  suit i s l i t t l e  community involvement i n the making of commu-  nity related decisions. Most communities o r g a n i z a t i o n s  reported  t h a t , by  either  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l or s o c i a l means, they have r e s t r i c t e d members h i p t o one  ethnic  sector.  Each o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e s of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and t r i c t e d t o t h e i r own served  operates i n sphe-  economic a c t i v i t i e s which are  concerns In the community.  None were  t o d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l y w i t h Issues which  the e n t i r e community and zational interaction.  there  The  a r r i v e at a concensus has  Influence  or no i n t e r - o r g a n i -  on community i s s u e s from  apparent I n a b i l i t y done l i t t l e  one  of communities  t o i n c r e a s e the  dence of government a g e n c i e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e of l o c a l  ob-  As a r e s u l t , s e n i o r governmental agen-  c i e s h e s i t a t e t o accept a d v i c e organization alone.  is little  res-  to  confi-  abilities  residents.  I n d i v i d u a l s i n these communities s t a t e d they were o f t e n aware of the i n a b i l i t y  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o the community. duals  t o i n f l u e n c e government  As a consequence  indivi-  f r e q u e n t l y attempt t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g which  f u r t h e r erodes the c r e d i b i l i t y Community r e s i d e n t s who frequently question tered a c t i v i t i e s .  of l o c a l  organizations.  were i n t e r v i e w e d  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  s t a t e d that  they  of e x t e r n a l l y adminis-  Communities r e c e i v e economic support through  d i r e c t expenditures which are a d m i n i s t e r e d  by  s e n i o r government  17 officials.  As l o n g as a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of adminis-  t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have t o be s u s t a i n e d from  revenues  from the s e n i o r governments, they w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n s i s t  on  e n s u r i n g t h a t the funds are spent i n what they c o n c e i v e t o be the best i n t e r e s t s of the T e r r i t o r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o c a l i s s u e s and the r e c o r d of f a i l u r e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the ways i n which they have been managed, r e p o r t e d by both government employees and r u r a l suggest the v a l u e of examining a l t e r n a t i v e approaches a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a f f a i r s mixed, r u r a l community.  of the u n o r g a n i z e d ,  residents t o the  ethnically  The problem which i s addressed i n t h i s  t h e s i s i s t h a t of coming up w i t h more f u n c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the a d m i n i s t e r i n g of the a f f a i r s of r u r a l  communities.  Methodology A f i v e month r e s e a r c h program was summer of 1 9 7 2 ,  undertaken d u r i n g the  w i t h the i n t e n t of examining  s o c i a t e d w i t h c i t i z e n involvement  the problems as-  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r u -  r a l , e t h n i c a l l y mixed Yukon communities.  P e l l y C r o s s i n g , Ross  R i v e r , Carmacks, C a r c r o s s and T e s l i n were the f i v e communities, LID, was  s e l e c t e d f o r study.  unorganized  Haines J u n c t i o n , which i s an  i n c l u d e d i n the study sample t o p r o v i d e f o r an a s s e s s -  ment of t h i s type of l o c a l government.  Tnis research represen-  t e d a f o r m u l a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the problems the author  18  had  f a c e d i n h i s t h r e e years as a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i n a commu-  n i t y of t h i s n a t u r e .  Needless t o say, much r e t h i n k i n g and  f o r m u l a t i o n of problems became necessary the  re-  d u r i n g the course  of  research. Information  was  obtained  sed upon a s e t of questions  through open ended i n t e r v i e w s designed  to provide  about the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l nature s i x communities i n v o l v e d i n the study between the communities and Territory.  the two  and  ba-  information of each of the  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  s e n i o r governments i n the  Approximately n i n e t y respondents were s e l e c t e d on  the b a s i s of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e s i n the community. c o n s c i e n t i o u s attempt was  A  made t o s e l e c t i n a c t i v e as w e l l as  a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s from each s e c t o r or group w i t h i n the communities.  In a d d i t i o n t o the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s i d e n t s of r u r a l  settlements  S e n i o r Government o f f i c i a l s and  field  s t a f f were  s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s on the b a s i s of t h e i r involvement r u r a l communities. Parliament  T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l o r s and  f o r the Yukon, S e n i o r o f f i c i a l s  the Member of  i n government agen-  c i e s , p o l i t i c a l unions such as the Yukon N a t i v e (YNB)  and  the Yukon A s s o c i a t i o n of Non  members of the E x e c u t i v e  Committee and  i n t e r v i e w e d t o a s c e r t a i n the nature w i t h r u r a l communities and  Status  Brotherhood  Indians  (YANSI),  the Commissioner were  of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t o g a t h e r t h e i r o p i n i o n s as t o  these communities c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  economic terms.  with  how i n so-  T9 The D i r e c t o r o f t h e Yukon L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g t h e author w i t h a c c e s s t o the not-yet-comp l e t e d Yukon Room which holds a body of Yukon l i t e r a t u r e not found elsewhere.  The debates, notes and p r o c e e d i n g s of t h e T e r -  r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l were made a v a i l a b l e on i n t e r - l i b r a r y lowing f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the twenty ver  one volumes t h a t co-  t h e 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 and 1 9 7 2 s e s s i o n o f c o u n c i l . Two m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approaches  problems addressed i n t h e t h e s i s .  a r e used i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e The f i r s t  a n a l y s i s o f regional-community-intra-community of  loan a l -  each of t h e s i x communities.  Comparative  i s a comparative relationships a n a l y s i s , as used  h e r e , r e f e r s t o t h e method o f study d i s c u s s e d by H o l t and Turner ( 1 9 7 0 pp. 5 - 8 ) .  T h i s i s t h e method o f comparing  particular  f u n c t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and subsystems of one system t o those of  another.  These components of a n a l y s i s w i l l be e n l a r g e d upon  l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. Cross t a b u l a t i o n s and c h i squared t e s t s w i l l be a p p l i e d t o s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s as p a r t of the comparative  analysis.  The  second method has been p r e d i c a t e d on an o b s e r v a t i o n o f Hold and Turner ( 1 9 7 1 , P. 7 ) t h a t much r e s e a r c h "... i s not o r i e n t e d t o ward h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g a t a l l , but i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature and i s undertaken  t o a i d i n t h e development o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s " .  T h i s i s t h e nature o f t h i s r e s e a r c h program.  In l i g h t  s i t u a t i o n , a t e n t a t i v e semantic model i s developed.  of t h i s  Copies of  20 the p o l i t i c a l model were c i r c u l a t e d among the respondents of the past  summer's r e s e a r c h .  Comments r e l a t e d t o the model, i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the comparative a n a l y s i s , a i d i n g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e semantic models which a v o i d the flaws v i o u s ones.  This process  e n t a i l s an a n a l y s i s of the present  s i t u a t i o n which, In t u r n , a l l o w s system t o be p o s t u l a t e d . eloped  of the p r e -  f o r a rearrangement of the  An i n t e r p r e t a t i v e model i s then dev-  i n order t o g e n e r a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h  t o o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r communities.  Modeling Process The  objectives In formulating  are t w o - f o l d .  The f i r s t  a t e n t a t i v e semantic model  i s t o d e f i n e the parameters of the po-  l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the r e s i d e n t s of s e l e c t e d r u r a l Yukon Communities and t h e two s e n i o r governments i n the T e r r i tory.  T h i s s e t s the c o n s t r a i n t s , w i t h i n which the problem, cen-  t r a l t o the t h e s i s , w i l l be a p p r a i s e d .  The second o b j e c t i v e i s  t o p r o v i d e a model as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t which may be m o d i f i e d and  improved.  This provides  a basis f o r generating  f a m i l i e s of  models each of which attempts t o eleminate t h e f a i l u r e s o f the previous  by t e s t i n g them a g a i n s t  the r e a c t i o n s of community . •  r e s i d e n t s and government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and by a n a l y s i n g them  a g a i n s t the r e a c t i o n s of community r e s i d e n t s and government adm i n i s t r a t o r s and by a n a l y s i n g them a g a i n s t c r i p t i o n s of each community.  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l des-  21  Schon ( 1 9 7 2 , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 3 7 ) r e f e r s t o the semantic model as a  " P r o j e c t i v e Model".  He d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s from a  "Predic-  t i v e Model" by p o i n t i n g out t h a t p r o j e c t i v e models, as w i t h semantic models,  observe r e l a t i o n s h i p ! n o t i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l c h a r a c -  t e r i s t i c s , as they change over time.  Each change enables a p r o -  g r e s s i v e f o r m u l a t i o n of models which more e f f e c t i v e l y trends.  project  Schon ( 1 9 7 2 ) argues t h a t the P r e d i c t i v e Model bases  i t s d e s c r i p t i v e q u a l i t i e s on the assumption t h a t the r e l a t i o n ships d e f i n e d i n the model w i l l remain s t a b l e . i s an unwarranted  assumption.  T h i s , he  states,  Relationships, i n a socio-poli-  t i c a l context a r e not s t a b l e and modeling systems  should take  t h i s i n t o account. A f i n a l form of l o c a l government i s not i m p l i c i t l y sed i n t h i s modeling p r o c e s s .  T h i s p r o c e s s proposes an  expresinter-  mediate form of community government, which would change i n form and f u n c t i o n as the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f l u e n c e the community  which  change.  In o r d e r t h a t t h i s be a manageable p r o c e s s , the components which c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l p o l i t i c a l  systems w i l l be used t o f o c u s  on the r e l e v a n t s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The  components  t o be used i n the models a r e based on an a d a p t a t i o n of the t e r i a used i n the a n a l y s i s of comparative p o l i t i c a l Janowitz ( 1 9 6 1 , p. 13) adaptation saying,  comments on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  "In the development  cri-  systems. of t h i s  of the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  22  a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r , the study of community t i c a l systems lends i t s e l f t o a comparative more so than the n a t i o n  treatment,  poli-  perhaps  state".  The f o l l o w i n g components of a n a l y s i s were s e l e c t e d  because  of t h e i r dynamic r a t h e r than s t a t i c nature and t h e i r p r e v i o u s use as t o o l s i n the a n a l y s i s of comparative p o l i t i c s .  The d i -  v e r s i t y of cases over which these components have been a p p l i e d (Pye, 1 9 6 6 ;  Janowitz, 1961;  Syed, 1966)  should r e a d i l y accomodate the s u b j e c t A political  indicates that  of t h i s t h e s i s .  system and i t s boundaries r e q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n  p r i o r t o d i s c u s s i o n of the system's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . cal  system r e p r e s e n t s not only governmental  Includes 1966,  they  A politi-  i n s t i t u t i o n s , but  " a l l structures i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l aspects".  p. I B ) .  (Almond  The term system i m p l i e s an interdependence  ween the encompassed components.  bet-  The boundaries of p o l i t i c a l  systems are not r e a d i l y d i s c e r n a b l e .  This  stems from the f a c t  t h a t the fundamental components of p o l i t i c a l systems are r o l e s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s .  The h i g h l y changeable  means t h a t the boundaries of p o l i t i c a l dingly f l e x i b l e .  nature of r o l e s  systems a r e c o r r e s p o n -  I n t e r a c t i n g and r e l a t e d r o l e s make up  subsys-  tems so t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system may  be r e p r e s e n t e d by a s e t  of i n t e r a c t i n g subsystems.  component of a n a l y s i s i s  The f i r s t  then t h a t of d e f i n i n g the boundaries of the p o l i t i c a l at play  i n the f u n c t i o n i n g  of l o c a l government.  systems  This, i n ef-  23  f e e t , d e f i n e s the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l , c h a r a c t e r Political The  systems do not  v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and  of the  settlement.  operate i n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l vacuums.  behaviours of a p o p u l a t i o n which a l -  lows i n s i g h t i n t o the p r o p e n s i t i e s and performances of a t i c a l system are r e f e r r e d t o as i t s p o l i t i c a l culture.  - P o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s and  subcultures  c u l t u r e of subare the f a b r i c  " u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e n s i t i e s of p o l i t i c a l (Almond 1 9 6 6 ,  p. 2 5 ) .  i n c l u d e the p o l i t i c a l Political  of  systems"  such, an a n a l y s i s of a system must  c u l t u r a l dimension.  systems are a c t e d upon by i n p u t s which undergo  a conversion process pes  As  poli-  which i n t u r n generates outputs.  Two  of i n p u t a r i s i n g from w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l environment  tyor  from w i t h i n the system i t s e l f , are i d e n t i f i e d by Easton  (1965).  Demands f o r goods, s e r v i c e s or p r i v i l e g e s c o n s t i t u t e one  class  of i n p u t s , supports which demand s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s through  acti-  v i t i e s such as t a x e s , law and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s are a second type of input the p o l i t i c a l  system d e a l w i t h .  Outputs, on  other hand, c o n s i s t s of c o n t r o l of b e h a v i o u r , the of goods, s e r v i c e s , p r i v i l e g e s , and Outputs r e p r e s e n t  the p o l i t i c a l  ment e x t e r n a l t o the system. s i o n processes  and  distribution  c o l l e c t i o n of t a x or t r i b u t e .  the responses of the p o l i t i c a l  puts from the p o p u l a t i o n ,  the  system t o i n -  l e a d e r s or the  environ-  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n p u t s , conver-  outputs are other components which need t o  be i n c l u d e d i n the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  24 The  i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s of p o l i t i c a l systems may be c o n s i -  dered t o operate a t t h r e e l e v e l s .  These a r e ; forms o r a r r a n g e -  ments by which d e c i s i o n s a r e made, j u r i s d i c t i o n s which may be encompassed i n t h e d e c i s i o n s made and i t s s o c i a l r o l e i n i t s l a r g e r environment (Wichein 1971, t i o n s are r e l a t e d ; together  p. 1 0 ) .  Obviously  they c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o n v e r s i o n  cess which a c t s upon i n p u t s and generates o u t p u t s . i n g p o l i t i c a l systems these t h r e e f u n c t i o n s and  these  (form,  funcpro-  In analysjurisdiction  s o c i a l r o l e ) and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t o be con-  sidered. The  components o f p o l i t i c a l systems as o u t l i n e d above p r o -  v i d e g u i d e l i n e s w i t h i n which t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of t h e s e l e c t e d communities more they p r o v i d e  occurs.  Further-  i n s i g h t s i n t o the elements which may be cons-  t i t u t e d i n l o c a l governing  bodies.  A p r e l i m i n a r y model i s formulated  t o provide  a starting  p o i n t t o o b t a i n r e a c t i o n s from t h e s t u d y U p o p u l a t i o n .  Samples  of t h e p r e l i m i n a r y model w i l l be sent t o t h e study's respondents and  feedback from them should  strengths  serve t o p o i n t out the model's  and weaknesses from l o c a l , T e r r i t o r i a l and F e d e r a l  perspectives.  Secondly, a t e n t a t i v e semantic model which i s  developed i s analysed  a g a i n s t a d e t a i l e d s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l des-  c r i p t i o n of t h e communities s t u d i e d .  This points to inconsis-  t a n c i e s which l e d s t o s u c c e s s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the model.  adapting  25 Postulates Two first  p o s t u l a t e s form the b a s i s t o the proposed model.  The  i s t h a t a form of l o c a l government which i n c r e a s e s  co-  o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between e t h n i c s e c t o r s of communities along  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l or economic l i n e s w i l l f u n c t i o n more  effectively sis.  than those forms which f u n c t i o n on a segregated  Secondly, " l o c a l problems, handled l o c a l l y , run the  chance of being 1966,  s o l v e d e x p e d i t i o u s l y and  Volume 1 p.  ba-  best  a p p r o p r i a t e l y " (DIAND,  190).  T e n t a t i v e Model There i s a developmental sequence i m p l i e d i n the p r o c e s s community f o l l o w s i n becoming a c o r p o r a t e M u n i c i p a l Ordinance. intended  The  body under the Yukon  model proposed here i s one which i s  t o ease the process  community.  of t r a n s i t i o n  T h i s model should  development, which i s intended  from an unorganized  be viewed as a temporary stage of to increase co-operative  a c t i o n among e t h n i c s e c t o r s i n the community and p r o v i d e tical  s t r u c t u r e which may  The  a  handle l o c a l problems  intera poli-  locally.  p o l i t i c a l r o l e of the proposed model of l o c a l government  i s i m p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d by the p o s t u l a t e s .  I t should p r o v i d e  a form of government i n which l o c a l d e c i s i o n s may c a l l y on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b a s i s , and co-operative  for  be made l o -  a t the same time, generate  i n t e r a c t i o n among s e c t o r s of the community  along  26  s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i n e s .  The l o n g range  t i v e s proposed i n t h i s p r o c e s s s t r e s s t h a t t h e I n i t i a l  objecpoli-  t i c a l model only d e f i n e s an Intermediate s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n the e v o l u t i o n of l o c a l government. ned  The f i n a l stage Is e n v i s i o -  as r e q u i r i n g no s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n being  problems o f c o - o p e r a t i v e  g i v e n t o the  i n t e r a c t i o n among e t h n i c  sectors.  Community i s s u e s would be d e a l t w i t h by a board e l e c t e d from the community a t l a r g e .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t h e interm ; phases  of l o c a l government, would prepare i n d i v i d u a l s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r e t h n i c background, t o take p a r t concerns.  i n the g o v e r n i n g of l o c a l  The o b j e c t i v e , i n e f f e c t , i s t o reduce the s o c i a l ,  p o l i t i c a l and economic d i s p a r i t i e s and c o n f l i c t s among e t h n i c sectors while p r o v i d i n g l o c a l access t o l o c a l l y r e l a t e d d e c i sions. The  semantic model which i s being proposed is. a p o l i t i c a l  subsystem o f the l a r g e r system o f T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada.  In the sense t h a t l o c a l governments a r e c r e a t u r e s of  T e r r i t o r i a l Ordinances, t h e i r form, f u n c t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n is  l a r g e l y determined by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government under the  authority invested  i n t h e Yukon by an a c t o f the F e d e r a l  ment - The Yukon A c t .  The F e d e r a l Government i s a l s o  Parlia-  conside-  r e d w i t h i n the bounds of the semantic model i n t h a t , the a f f a i r s of I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s f a l l partment. litical  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a F e d e r a l de-  The scope of the modelled subsystem i n c l u d e s the po-  bodies which a r e c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the making o f  27 community-related d e c i s i o n s . and F e d e r a l governments tem, t o the extent  T h i s means t h a t the T e r r i t o r i a l  a r e w i t h i n the bounds of the model s y s -  t h a t they a r e i n v o l v e d i n making d e c i s i o n s  which a r e of a s p e c i f i c a l l y , l o c a l n a t u r e . The form the i n i t i a l model takes c o n s i s t s of a board comp r i s e d of an agreed-upon  number of e x e c u t i v e  ganizations representing  different  community groups, such as  Band C o u n c i l s and Community A s s o c i a t i o n s . be a p p o i n t e d on a r o t a t i o n a l  members from o r -  The Chairman  basis, shifting  would  from the r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e of one o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , over p e r i o d s  s e t by  the board. One i s not a b l e t o r e f e r tem without r e f e r r i n g  t o the scope o f a p o l i t i c a l  t o the f u n c t i o n s of the system.  sys-  The o r -  d e r i n g of the f u n c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs s e t the scope o f the proposed  model.  These composite boards would have s p e c i f i e d ties.  By f o l l o w i n g the p r i n c i p l e  handled l o c a l l y , a d i v i s i o n  t h a t l o c a l problems a r e best  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  munity and the two s e n i o r governments posed t h a t communities ties  responsibill-  between the com-  may be made.  I t i s pro-  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i d i n g the p r i o r i -  o f spending i n the community, drawing up the community's  budget, e n s u r i n g  t h a t l o c a l programs  suit  l o c a l needs, c a r r y i n g  out l o c a l improvement such as r o a d s , sewers and e l e c t r i c a l v i c e s , and s e t t i n g  up l o c a l programs  f o r the development  ser-  of the  28  community.  Under these arrangements, s e t t l e m e n t s would c o n t i -  nue t o r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from T e r r i t o r i a l and Federal  Governments. Some f u n c t i o n s must remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the T e r r i -  t o r i a l Government.  These a r e t h i n g s which must be s e t t l e d f o r  the T e r r i t o r y as -a whole, •such -as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t e r r i t o r i a l budgets, and a l l o c a t i n g human or t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s which best meet the needs o f the T e r r i t o r y as a whole.  I n these areas of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the composite board would a c t i n an a d v i s o r y capacity.  They would a d v i s e t h e Government  on community  g e t s , l o c a l housing programs, town p l a n n i n g , l o c a l  bud-  education  programs, t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f l o c a l s o c i a l programs and t h e gene r a l d i r e c t i o n of the community's development. r o l e i s e n v i s i o n e d as one i n which a l l  The a d v i s o r y  concerned p a r t i e s a r e  g i v e n a f u l l account of t e n t a t i v e community-related  decisions  and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s b e f o r e they a r e r e s o l v e d by t h e government. Other f u n c t i o n s must be assumed t o remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the F e d e r a l Government w i t h i n the term c o n s i d e r e d i n the t h e sis.  These a r e f u n c t i o n s such as those r e l a t e d t o I n d i a n Af-.... -  f a i r s and I n d i a n lands which have not been g i v e n over t o Bands t o a d m i n i s t e r but have been r e t a i n e d i n p r a c t i c e as r e s p o n s i b i t i e s of t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch.  Those f u n c t i o n s a d m i n i s t e -  r e d by Bands which have an i n f l u e n c e upon the o t h e r s e c t o r o f  29 the settlement  would i n v o l v e the composite board i n an a d v i -  sory c a p a c i t y i n terms of how d e c i s i o n s i n one community may effect  other  sectors.  Generating a s i m p l i s t i c  semantic model a t an e a r l y stage  a l l o w e d t h e author t o c i r c u l a t e the p r o p o s a l dents of t h e summer survey.  This s t a r t i n g point provided  b l e feedback which may be i n c o r p o r a t e d of the model. political  among the respon-  i n successive  valua-  adaptions  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i o -  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s i x communities and how these r e l a t e  t o t h e s e n i o r governments i n the T e r r i t o r y w i l l be used as a basis f o r appraising current as t h e proposed model.  forms o f l o c a l government as w e l l  I n f o r m a t i o n gained i n t h e p r o c e s s o f  the a n a l y s i s may prove t o be of v a l u e successive  models.  i n the development of  c h a p t e r  S i x R u r a l Yukon  Communities  Ross R i v e r , P e l l y C r o s s i n g , Haines J u n c t i o n , T e s l i n , Carc r o s s and Carmacks were the communities s e l e c t e d f o r the study. The t h r e e c r i t e r i a populations  of s e l e c t i o n were t h a t ; a l l communities  have  of l e s s than f i v e hundred; a l l were d i v i d e d i n t o  s e c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g White and I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s ; and a l l had r e s i d e n t s with whom the author was p r e v i o u s l y  acquainted.  The l o c a t i o n of the communities i n the study group are shown i n F i g u r e 1.  Each i s a c c e s s i b l e by a l l weather r o a d s .  Carcross  i s the c l o s e s t , by road, t o Whitehorse a t f o r t y - f i v e m i l e s and Ross R i v e r the f u r t h e s t at two hundred and s i x t y The composition  miles.  of the communities' p o p u l a t i o n s , shown i n  32 T a b l e 1,  range from Haines J u n c t i o n which i s predominatly  t o P e l l y C r o s s i n g which i s predominately  Indian.  White  These e t h n i c  s e c t o r s , when they p e r c e i v e d themselves t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y  lar-  ge, have formed o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o meet t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  s o c i a l needs. and  P e l l y Crossing, with a large Indian  a relatively  and r e p r e s e n t s the other end  s m a l l White p o p u l a t i o n has  one  end  only a Band C o u n c i l  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l spectrum w h i l e  the r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of Whites, Indians  Nonstatus I n d i a n s .  not p a r t i c i p a t e c l a i m t h a t they t h i n g s o r g a n i z a t i o n s do.  inherent  j u s t do not care about  i n organized  areas.  school with resident teachers. RCMP detachments and ment presence i f f e l t  sidents.  stating  However a l l r e s i things  t e r r i t o r i a l government agencies  sent i n a l l the communities s t u d i e d .  agencies  the  should  community.  Both f e d e r a l and  ployees  do  of community t o get away from the  dents, i n c l u d i n g the l a t t e r , want a say i n how be done i n the  Most who  Others a v o i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  l i v e i n t h e i r type  regimentation  and  T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t a l l members of  ethnic sectors p a r t i c i p a t e i n organizations.  t h a t they  at  communities such as Ross R i v e r have o r g a n i z a t i o n s  which r e p r e s e n t  any  population  are  Each community has  prea  A l l but P e l l y C r o s s i n g have  t e r r i t o r i a l P u b l i c Works crews.  A govern-  i n a l o c a l sense i n t h a t government  r e s i d e i n the community and they r e p r e s e n t  day  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the  em" -  are g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d t o the l o c a l r e -  33  Table  1  Population:  Pelly  Community  Crossing  Carmacks Ross R i v e r Teslin Carcross Haines J u n c t i o n  * Includes specific  those ethnic  who  by e t h n i c  composition  White*  Indian*  Total  20  120  l4o  • 100  250  350  70  220  320  100  240  340  90  100  190  140  :40  180  a r e Non  groups.  Status  Indian a s s o c i a t i n g with  34  The  balance of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be g i v e n  over t o a des-  c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s settlement  deemed t o i n f l u e n c e the c h a r a c t e r  ment.  communities w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  The  i n each  of l o c a l govern-  i n tne f o l l o w i n g man-  ner w i t h each subsequent d e s c r i p t i o n drawing comparison from the p r e v i o u s .  A general  d e s c r i p t i o n of the geography of  area w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an h i s t o r i c a l overview. of the g e n e r a l  outline  of the settlement  sets  the  stage f o r d i s c u s s i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  This  last  aspect,  demographic f e a t u r e s  An  the  needs t o be viewed form two  with respect t h e i r being munity and  perspectives;  the f i r s t  t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the context operative  of  e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n the m i l i e u of the com-  the second r e l a t e s t o how  external influences  i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the community. element i n c l u d e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of each settlement l o c a l organizations  is  and  i n d i v i d u a l s and  enter The  last  deal with  the p r o c e s s e s by  which  they attempt t o i n f l u e n c e e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n s which are r e l a t e d t o the  community.  Throughout the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s the p a t t e r n s t u r e and  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e the  North Americian s o c i e t y are r e f e r e d t o as  of  majority  "White" and  those which  have been c l a s s i f i e d by a n t h r o p o l i g i s t s as the c u l t u r e s of people n a t i v e t o North A m e r i c i a distinction  Is based on the l i f e  c u l t u r e he has  have been c a l l e d s t y l e of the  adopted r a t h e r than h i s r a c i a l  cul-  the  "Indian".  i n d i v i d u a l and origin.  This the  35 A number of assumptions r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a n a l y s i s are bodied i n the d e s c r i p t i v e - a n a l y s i s general theories  included  i n the t h e s i s .  emIn  of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s have been accepted as  demonstrated p r i n c i p l e s .  An e x p l i c i t  attempt t o v e r i f y these  assumptions f a l l beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s .  36  Ross R i v e r ;  Geography S e t t i n g  Ross R i v e r i s l o c a t e d a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e Ross R i v e r s .  I t i s approximately  o f t h e P e l l y and  two hundred and s i x t y  road  m i l e s n o r t h east of Whitehorse, at the j u n c t i o n of the Canol Road and t h e Campbell Highway. t h e s o u t h shore  The s e t t l e m e n t i s l o c a t e d a l o n g  of the P e l l y R i v e r .  The P e l l y v a l l e y f o l l o w s  t h e T a t i a n a F a u l t i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Ross R i v e r . the v a l l e y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  In this  area  e i g h t m i l e s wide w i t h a hummocky  f l o o r w h i c h i s d o t t e d w i t h l a k e s and t r a v e r s e d by r i v e r s and c r e e k s f l o w i n g n o r t h from t h e P e l l y M o u n t a i n Range.  The b r o a d  v a l l e y accomodates a r e l a t i v e l y d i v e r s e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f f l o r a and fauna c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s (CGS 1 9 ^ 3 ) .  Ross R i v e r :  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  The p r e s e n c e o f moose, c a r i b o u and some f u r b e a r i n g i n the r e g i o n provided the resources which t r a d i t i o n a l l y ported Indian h a b i t a t i o n .  animals sup-  P r i o r t o t h e l 8 4 0 ' s , t h e I n d i a n peo-  p l e o f t h e Ross and headwaters o f t h e P e l l y f o l l o w e d a nomadic h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g t y p e o f e x i s t e n c e (Honigmann 1 9 5 ^ ) .  The  f u r t r a d e , w h i c h was t r i g g e r e d w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f R o b e r t Campb e l l i n 184-3, had a d r a m a t i c le.  e f f e c t upon t h e I n d i a n s ' l i f e  sty-  The change was one o f expanding s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t o  include the gathering of f u r s t o trade f o r t e c h n i c a l innovations s u c h as t h e g u n , axe and i r o n p o t .  37 A l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of Indians  living  i n t h e drainage  basins  of the Ross and P e l l y R i v e r s , a s u r p l u s of l a b o u r and f a c i l i t i e s t r a n f e r e d from use i n the K l o n d i k e , r i v e r access  t o and  from t h e area and the absence of t r a d i n g p o s t s w i t h i n the area were a l l f a c t o r s which l e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a T a y l o r and Dury t r a d i n g post a t Ross R i v e r i n 1 9 0 5 . and  A p a t t e r n of hunting  t r a p p i n g was adopted i n which the Indians would spend two  weeks t o a month about the p o s t , then r e t u r n t o the "bush" f o r p e r i o d s as long as s i x months.  This s t y l e of l i v i n g  carried  on i n p r e t t y much of an u n i n t e r r u p t e d f a s h i o n u n t i l t h e Canol Road and P i p e l i n e were b u i l t through the community i n 1 9 ^ 2 . The  i n f l u x of some t h r e e thousand American s o l d i e r s and  the much improved access  t o t h e o u t s i d e v i a the road  totally  a l t e r e d t h e c h a r a c t e r of Ross R i v e r f o r a p e r i o d of about two years. oil  The Canol P i p e l i n e P r o j e c t was undertaken t o t r a n s p o r t  from Norman Wells  on t h e Mackenzie t o t i d e w a t e r  i n the event  of t h e war d e v e l o p i n g  i n t h e North P a c i f i c t h e a t e r .  The concen-  t r a t i o n of t h e war i n t h e South P a c i f i c and the r e d u c t i o n of the war  emergency i n the n o r t h r e s u l t e d i n the shut down of t h e op-  eration.  The road l e a d i n g i n t o Ross R i v e r was maintained f o r  s u p p l y i n g the post u n t i l 1 9 5 0 a f t e r which time i t f e l l disrepair. reopening and  into  Salvage i n t e r e s t s i n t h e p i p e l i n e r e s u l t e d i n t h e of t h e road i n 1 9 5 1 which c l o s e d a g a i n a year  remained c l o s e d u n t i l i 9 6 0 .  the m a j o r i t y  During  later  the post war p e r i o d ,  of the community r e s i d e n t s attempted t o r e v e r t  38 back t o a p a t t e r n of l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s . Some i r r e v e r s i b l e changes had occurred t u r n t o the p r e v i o u s  and a complete r e -  s t a t e was not p o s s i b l e .  M o b i l i t y among  the younger members o f the community appears t o have  increased,  s a l a r i e d p o s i t i o n s such as t r u c k d r i v i n g o r c a t s k i n n i n g were taken and a b i g game o u t f i t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d a base camp i n Ross River.  Improved access  and an awareness  of the community on  the p a r t of T e r r i t o r i a l Government o f f i c i a l s t r i g g e r e d the g a t h e r i n g up of s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n who were sent t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s from the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s .  Throughout the l a t e f i f t i e s and  e a r l y s i x t i e s , a few white p r o s p e c t o r s v e r i n the summers. ing.  operated  out of Ross R i -  During t h i s p e r i o d the community was chang-  I t was no l o n g e r e x c l u s i v e l y dependent upon f u r t r a d e as  a few Whites r e l y i n g upon o t h e r r e s o u r c e s the community.  began t o s e t t l e i n  Even though the community was changing, White  and I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s f u n c t i o n e d w e l l t o g e t h e r .  There was a  mutual need t o f u n c t i o n c o o p e r a t i v e l y based on the exchange of resources  h e l d by one group and d e s i r e d by the o t h e r .  i n t e r e s t s though economically  Their  d i f f e r e n t , had many common e l e -  ments such as the need t o be a "good man i n the bush." c o n f i r m a t i o n and development  The  of an ore body along Van Gorder  Creek s i g n i f i e d a t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r Ross R i v e r . The development  of A n v i l Mines, approximately t h i r t y  miles  east of Ross R i v e r , r e s u l t e d i n the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the com-  39  munity's economic base, an expansion i n the r e s i d e n t White pop u l a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e i n the p o l a r i z a t i o n between and Whites w i t h i n the community. room community"  Indians  The s e t t l e m e n t became a "bed-  t o A n v i l mines d u r i n g i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n phase  i n the mid 6 0 ' s .  In the summers of 1964 and 1965 the White po-  p u l a t i o n of Ross R i v e r i n c r e a s e d t o about a hundred as compar e d w i t h approximately two hundred I n d i a n people who about the community.  lived  The White p o p u l a t i o n which was a t t h i s  time, predominately s i n g l e males, droped as w i n t e r s e t i n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a T e r r i t o r i a l road maintenance crew i n 1966 r e s u l t e d i n more White f a m i l i e s s e t t l i n g w i t h i n the community. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Robert Campbell highway P i g . 1)  (shown i n  was completed i n 1968 and A n v i l mines w i t h an a s s o c i a -  t e d new town, F a r o , was ready t o b e g i n o p e r a t i n g i n 1 9 7 0 .  Most  of the f i f t e e n White f a m i l i e s w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the mine and two I n d i a n f a m i l i e s moved from Ross R i v e r t o F a r o . exodus from the community v e l s of government  The major  which had been a n t i c i p a t e d by a l l l e -  d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e .  A l a r g e number of jobs  had been p r e f e r e n t i a l l y a l l o c a t e d t o I n d i a n s , under the s t i p u l a t i o n s of a F e d e r a l government  agreement w i t h A n v i l Mines, but  they were never t a k e n up t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree ( M i l l e r  1972).  An i n c r e a s e i n the number of jobs a v a i l a b l e from 1963 through t o the l a t e s i x t i e s a t t r a c t e d many I n d i a n men who otherwise have c o n t i n u e d t r a p p i n g .  would  Jobs i n e x p l o r a t i o n p r o v i d e d  40 b e t t e r r e t u r n s f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s than d i d hunting and t r a p p i n g . T h i s , combined w i t h the r e s i d e n t i a l and day s c h o o l i n g of c h i l dren s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the p r o c e s s e s  of primary  dary  The options of t h e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e Yukon I n d i a n .  and secon-  youth choosing between a t r a d i t i o n a l bush l i f e and a job w i t h i n t h e context of the North American t e c h n i c i a l s o c i e t y appears as though i t has been made by d e f a u l t . The  t r a d i n g p o s t , which had a c t e d as the nucleus f o r the  f o r m a t i o n of t h e community, had been l o c a t e d on the North of  shore  the P e l l y R i v e r where i t i s j o i n e d by the Ross R i v e r , as  shown i n F i g . 2 .  An I n d i a n settlement had developed  p o s t and a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n was b u i l t 1950. 1942,  about the  i n the settlement i n  When t h e Canol Road and p i p e l i n e reached Ross R i v e r i n the P e l l y R i v e r was b r i d g e d by a suspension  b u i l t t o c a r r y the p i p e l i n e .  foot bridge  T h i s improved access from White-  horse up t o the southern bank o f the P e l l y R i v e r and was one of  t h e main f a c t o r s f o r t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch i n t h e i r  rel-  o c a t i n g the I n d i a n l a n d r e s e r v e and the I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t .  In-  d i a n lands were a l l o c a t e d along the east s i d e of the Canol Road i n the settlement a r e a .  The balance  of the s e t t l e m e n t was sub-  d i v i d e d i n the e a r l y 1960's and was s o l d or l e a s e d t o those who moved i n t o the community.  The predominance o f Whites moving  i n t o the community and occupying i n the geographic nes.  the l o t s a v a i l a b l e  resulted  d i v i s i o n of the settlement a l o n g e t h n i c l i -  An Area Development Ordinance was a p p l i e d t o Ross R i v e r  41 in 1966.  I t ' s Intent was t o p r o v i d e  ment of l a n d use and housing  f o r the o r d e r l y  develop-  w i t h i n the community i n terms s e t  out by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government.  Ross R i v e r : The  Demographics and Settlement  Pattern  1971 p o p u l a t i o n of Ross R i v e r and i t s surrounding  i s 319 of which approximately  2 9 0 l i v e w i t h the community on a  r e g u l a r b a s i s ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1 9 7 1 ) . dents approximately  Of the community  2 2 0 a r e of I n d i a n descent  180 a r e s t a t u s I n d i a n s .  resi-  and of these  about  D i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n by sex, e t h -  n i c background and age are shown i n Appendix 1 . t r a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n and e t h n i c composition comparison w i t h the other s e t t l e m e n t s The  area  Table  1  illus-  a t Ross R i v e r . i n  studied.  l a y out of the community as shown i n P i g . 2 was, by and  l a r g e , determined by the surveyors  i n the p r o c e s s  the community ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s ) .  of d i v i d i n g  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n ap-  pears t o have been g i v e n only t o survey c a t e d by o v e r s i g h t s such as the surveyed  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as i n d i l o t s p l a c e d on the  lower l e v e l s of the P e l l y f l o o d p l a i n , the l o t s p l a c e d on p a t ches of permafrost  and d e p o s i t s of impermeable c l a y and geogra-  p h i c problems r e l a t e d t o water d i s t r i b u t i o n . interviewed  A l l of the people  In Ross R i v e r s a i d t h a t t o t h e i r knowledge, no one  had been c o n s u l t e d on i s s u e s such as the s u r v e y i n g munity.  of the com-  42  The water l i n e was  b u i l t i n 1965  s i n g w i t h running water. in Fig. 2, system.  t o supply government hou-  A stand p i p e was  c o n s t r u c t e d , as shown  t o p r o v i d e p u b l i c access t o the water d i s t r i b u t i o n  Complaints  r e g a r d i n g t h i s arrangement were bought  be-  f o r e the Dept. of E n g i n e e r i n g of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government by some members of the Community A s s o c i a t i o n .  They c l a i m e d  •that the d i s t r i b u t i o n system, as I t e x i s t e d , was d i t i o n a l burden upon most Indians who p o r t water. the problem.  Two  p l a c i n g an  ad-  had no v e h i c l e s t o t r a n s -  e x t e n s i o n s of the water l i n e would overcome  In 1971  the e x t e n s i o n s were completed  and  the  T e r r i t o r i a l Government shut down the o r i g i n a l s t a n d p i p e , a r guing t h a t i t had been p l a c e d t h e r e f o r I n d i a n use and s i n c e they had  improved the system w i t h r e s p e c t t o the needs of the  I n d i a n community, the o t h e r was and I n d i a n community r e a c t e d .  unnecessary.  Members of White  With the o l d system Whites  been a b l e t o d r i v e up t o the stand p i p e and f i l l barrels,  now  t h e i r water  the p r o c e s s had become much more d i f f i c u l t ,  thermore Indians had t o contend w i t h dust from by Whites g e t t i n g water.  The  had  fur-  trafficr"created  d i s t r i b u t i o n system r e v e r t e d back  t o the o r i g i n a l standpipe i n 1972  when the two  extensions f r o z e  and r u p t u r e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  Ross R i v e r ;  Internal Interpersonal Relationships  People i n t e r v i e w e d i n Ross R i v e r s t a t e d t h a t a t l e a s t and i n some cases t h r e e d i s t i n c t groups e x i s t  two  i n the s e t t l e m e n t  44-  The d i v i s i o n between I n d i a n s and Whites was p e r c e i v e d as an element which was p r e s e n t i n a l l t i o n a l group, Non-Status  social relations.  An a d d i -  I n d i a n s , were a t times seen as h a v i n g  i n t e r e s t s and g o a l s which d i f f e r from the o t h e r two groups. T h i s t h i r d d i v i s i o n i s one which appears t o have been  created  by a s e r i e s of e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n t e n d i n g t o l e n d add i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h t o the d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d I n d i a n . the purposes of t h i s p a r t o f the a n a l y s i s t h e s o c i a l  For  interac-  t i o n w i t h i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t may be viewed as o c c u r i n g i n an environment which has two d i v e r s e groups w i t h independent structures.  social  With t h i s type of s o c i a l d i v i s i o n , t h e s e t t l e m e n t  of Ross R i v e r can only be r e f e r r e d t o as a community t o t h e extent t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s from a l l groups use common s e r v i c e s such as s t o r e s , b a r s , r o a d s , water systems, s c h o o l , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , p o l i c e , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , churches and r e c r e a t i o n ities.  There i s l i t t l e  sense of community i n terms  i n t e r a c t i o n s a c r o s s White-Indian e t h n i c  facil-  of"social  lines.  The I n d i a n s e c t o r of the community c o n s i s t s of about  five  f l u i d domestic groupings a s s o c i a t e d through i n t e r m a r r i a g e s and other p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I n d i a n people from  other l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds have become p a r t of these domest i c groupings through m a r r i a g e .  P e l l y Lakes and P e l l y  River  v a r i e t i e s of t h e Tuchone d i a l e c t a r e the most common tongues; a l t h o u g h S l a v e y , T l i n g i t and- Kaska d i a l e c t s a r e a l s o Because  spoken.  of the language mix, many have adopted E n g l i s h as a  4.5  working language; however i n cases where an I n d i a n  dialect  w i l l be understood i t appears t o be p r e f e r r e d ( p e r s o n a l vation).  obser-  D i v i s i o n s between the domestic groups seems t o c o i n -  c i d e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the band c o u n c i l . t h e r c o n t r o l s the band c o u n c i l .  One  group or ano-  Attempts t o overcome t h i s p o l -  a r i z a t i o n seems t o have f a i l e d p a r t l y because of the i n t e r e s t s of those i n p o s i t i o n s of some power but  vested  l a r g e l y be-  cause of a t t i t u d e s of independence which i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a l l o w t o be  compromised.  Independence of the I n d i a n  i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s choice  t i o n s i s a d i s p o s i t i o n which was  are p l a c e d upon the a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l , not f o r m a l i z e d r u l e s and  of  r e g u l a t i o n s , as by  Limits so much by  informal obligations.  As a member of a s m a l l community, a person i s c o n f r o n t e d awareness of a c t i o n s of others of l i v i n g w i t h those around him ces of h i s a c t i o n s .  He  a b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s and  and who  the a s s o c i a t e d see and  the  difficulties  f e e l the  consequen-  i s , i n a s o c i a l sense, h i g h l y accounti s c o n t r o l l e d by a p p r o v a l  p r o v a l as i t i s expressed by  and  disap-  i n d i v i d u a l s or the group he  iden-  with.  D i v i s i o n along two  ac-  observed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e a l -  most a l l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Ross R i v e r .  tifies  not  e t h n i c l i n e s i n Ross R i v e r has  resulted in  d i v e r s e groups each of which i s h e l d p r i m a r i l y  f o r the a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the e t h n i c group.  responsible An  Indian  46  person i s r e s p o n s i b l e not t o the band as a whole but t o the p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n the groups w i t h which he c l o s e l y i d e n tifies.  T h i s case was  demonstrated  i n i n t e r v i e w s i n which r e s -  pondents s t a t e d t h a t they d i d as they personnaly thought  best  but h e s i t a t e d i n make d e c i s i o n s which might i n f l u e n c e some i n d i v i d u a l s and never h e s i t a t e d i n the making of d e c i s i o n r e l a t e d to  others. P e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between White and I n d i a n people  be viewed  as o c c u r r i n g a t two d i s t i n c t  levels.  Routine  may  inter-  a c t i o n s occur i n the course of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s e r v i c e s and goods.  These types of i n t e r a c t i o n s occur i n p l a c e s such  as the s t o r e , bar and post o f f i c e . reserved, l i t t l e  They are  characteristically  i s s a i d and the i n t e r a c t i o n t y p i c a l l y d e a l s  only w i t h the b u s i n e s s at hand. f o l l o w a moderately  These i n t e r a c t i o n s appear t o  formalized pattern.  In the s t o r e , f o r ex-  ample, women do most of the shopping, care seems t o be  taken  by Indians not t o appear rushed and a person e n t e r s i n t o the f i n a l purchase  only when i t appears  t h a t others are not i n c o n -  venienced or are making c o n c e s s i o n s by a l l o w i n g the to  occur when i t does.  business t r a n s a c t i o n s . erficial  White shoppers The  are more h u r r i e d i n t h e i r  s t o r e p r o v i d e s a s e t t i n g f o r a sup-  l e v e l of s o c i a l i z i n g between a c q u a i n t a n c e s .  m a l i z e d p a t t e r n of White-Indian axed i n the b a r .  transaction  This f o r -  i n t e r a c t i o n s becomes more r e l -  I n t e r a c t i o n s are i n i t i a l l y  r e s e r v e d but become  more outgoing and wider spread as the evening p r o g r e s s e s .  Dur-  4-7 i n g the e a r l i e r p a r t of the evening  s p e c i f i c groups c h a r a c t e -  r i z e the p a t t e r n of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . about i n p a t t e r n s r e l a t e d t o domestic g a t h e r about i n s o c i a l c l i q u e s .  I n d i a n patrons  group  r e l a t i o n s w h i l e Whites  I n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s group  li-  nes expand and become more c a s u a l as l i q u o r i s consumed. The  second l e v e l of p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between Indians  and Whites occur among acquaintances  who share a degree of  f r i e n d s h i p i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h mutual b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e s of each o t h e r .  The number of  these c o n t a c t s a r e f a r fewer than those o c c u r r i n g i n r o u t i n e interactions.  Many members, from both e t h n i c s e c t o r s , d i f f e -  r e n t i a t e between the townspeople w i t h r e s p e c t t o who they  will  or w i l l not i n f o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e w i t h on the b a s i s of e t h n i c background.  Those who i n t e r a c t a c r o s s e t h n i c l i n e s appear t o  be viewed by members of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e c t o r s as i n d i v i d u a l s who mediate between groups.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e by and  l a r g e , not of the same o r d e r o f i n t e n s i t y as f r i e n d s h i p w i t h i n ethnic sectors.  P e r s o n a l exposures t o most r e s i d e n t s o f the  settlement a r e d i f f i c u l t The  t o a v o i d i n communities of t h i s  size.  s i x t y White r e s i d e n t s of Ross R i v e r who remain i n the  settlement y e a r round a r e , w i t h only a few e x c e p t i o n s , r e c e n t a r r i v a l s t o the s e t t l e m e n t .  The permanencey of the White sec-  t o r i s i n d i c a t e d by one respondent  who c l a s s i f i e d a "long term  r e s i d e n t " as a White person who had l i v e d t h e r e a t l e a s t  three  48 years.  Most of these people are employed In e i t h e r s u p p l y i n g  the community through governmental  agencies and p r i v a t e  busi-  nesses or i n the mining e x p l o r a t i o n and development i n d u s t r y . The Whites moving i n t o the community have s e t t l e d on the surveyed l o t s along the west s i d e of the Canol Road. t i o h j o f housing was  The  l a r g e l y dependent upon the a v a i l a b l e l a n d  zoned as r e s i d e n t i a l - under the Area Development Ordinance 1966.  loca-  The Yukon Housing  Survey  (YTG  1972)  demonstrates  of  the  d i s p a r i t i e s between I n d i a n and White h o u s i n g .  This disparity  i s g r e a t e r when government h o u s i n g , which was  not i n c l u d e d i n  the survey, i s c o n s i d e r e d .  The  average a s s e s s e d v a l u e of gov-  ernment housing i s approximately t e d $ 5 0 0 0 f o r I n d i a n housing (YTG  $15000 compared t o an estima1972).  The u n s e t t l e d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the White s e c t o r of Ross R i v e r i s due i n p a r t t o the r e c e n t a r r i v a l of most r e s i d e n t s . Too l i t t l e  time has e l a p s e d t o a l l o w f o r the working  s t a b i l i z i n g of the White s e c t o r s ' s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  out  and  Much of  the s t r e s s a r i s i n g from these c o n d i t i o n s Is r e f l e c t e d i n a t tempts at c l a r i f y i n g a p e c k i n g o r d e r among V/hite r e s i d e n t s . T h i s appears  t o have g i v e n r i s e t o a process of q u i c k l y c a t e -  g o r i z i n g people i n t o g e n e r a l t y p e s .  The  extent and nature of  the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h I n d i a n people seems t o r e p r e sent a major component i n t h i s p r o c e s s .  Most Whites r e p o r t e d  t h a t they e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d s h i p s only w i t h other Whites and most  49 of these deny t h a t t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h Indians stem from e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e s  (personal  ormation gathered i n d i s c u s s i o n s  interviews).  Other i n f -  suggests t h a t the b a s i s  of  these r e l a t i o n s are more complex than a r a c i a l answer suggests. The  demand f o r the r a p i d t y p i n g of Whites i n response t o a need  f o r c r y s t a l l i z i n g a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e seems t o be at the  very  .basis of the v s o c i a l - s t a b i l i t y of the White s e c t o r of the community.  Attempts t o i n c l u d e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h I n d i a n s , who  have  f r e q u e n t l y i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the White s e c t o r have been r e j e c t e d . has  been p a r t i a l l y due  t o the mutual r e j e c t i o n of elements of  each o t h e r s ' c u l t u r e s and x i t y and  p a r t l y due  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  t o the a d d i t i o n a l comple-  unmanagable c h a r a c t e r  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e would be r e q u i r e d t o take The  This  the White  on.  s o c i a l groupings of Whites appear t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h i s  generalized typing process. are r e p r e s e n t e d  Groups of d i f f e r i n g  i n d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t a n c e s .  the group which f r e q u e n t s  the bar may  group which r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d  ings t h a t c l i q u e s are formed.  For  example  d i f f e r i n p a r t from  community movies.  not be taken t o mean t h a t i t i s along  composition  This  the  should  the l i n e s of these group-  C l i q u e s are more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  t o f r i e n d s h i p s which develop among i n d i v i d u a l s of somewhat simi l a r i n t e r e s t s and  philosophies.  As  i n f o r m a l groups they have  mechanisms by which members are a c q u i r e d  or r e j e c t e d .  As a r e -  s u l t of t h e i r membership c o n t r o l s , they c a r r y w i t h them an a i r  50  of e x c l u s i v e n e s s .  R e j e c t i o n from a c l i q u e may  result i f a  White p e r s o n extends h i s r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s e t h n i c same may  a l s o apply t o j o i n i n g a c l i q u e .  whose network of i n t e r p e r s o n a l be  The  not  considered a desirable  the  s e n s i t i v i t y which e x i s t s towards e t h n i c  member by  to these differences  f a c t o r i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of Types of employment was  White person  the  lines  clique.  With  differences, becomes an  the  important  cliques. observed t o be  determines the membership of c l i q u e s . individuals  The  r e l a t i o n s crosses ethnic  may  individual's attitude  lines.  The  another f a c t o r which common i n t e r e s t s  s h a r i n g s i m i l a r occupations p r o v i d e s a b a s i s  encourages the  development of f r i e n d s h i p s .  T h i s i s not  t h a t people w i t h s i m i l a r occupations w i l l be members of same c l i q u e s .  When a person a r r i v e s  i n the  which to  say  the  s e t t l e m e n t he  most l i k e l y be a s s e s s e d as a p o t e n t i a l member by  of  those i n  will cli-  ques w i t h members i n s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . There are members of the White community who, ~es or by Those who ily "You  the wishes of others do not choose not  establishing  t o take p a r t  (and  c l o s e t i e s because, as  avoid establishing  close  stance make acquaintances but into friendships  participate  by  t h e i r wish-  in  cliques.  t h i s need not one  necessar-  respondent  t i e s because, as  one  states,  respondent  a v o i d a l l o w i n g these t o develop  r e s u l t i n g i n committments t o a c l i q u e .  second group of independents, those who  are  isolated  The  primarily  51' through r e j e c t i o n by o t h e r s , have p a t t e r n s  of s o c i a l i n t e r a c -  t i o n s which d i f f e r s from the person who has chosen t o be independent. es  The V/hite i n d i v i d u a l who i s i s o l a t e d by those he wish-  t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h , i s due f o r an unpleasant and In most  c a s e s , b r i e f stay i n the community.  L i m i t i n g the White con-  t a c t s of such an i n d i v i d u a l has r e s u l t e d i n e i t h e r his  sources of c o n t a c t s  his  l e a v i n g the community.  Ross R i v e r : The  t o members of the I n d i a n  External Influences  extending  s e c t o r or In  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l  Relationships  next phase of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Ross R i -  v e r d e a l s w i t h t h e ways i n which i n f l u e n c e s , e x t e r n a l t o the community, e f f e c t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The nature of  some o f these e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e d i s c u s s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have developed w i t h i n the community.  For  the purposes o f the a n a l y s i s these o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i dered i n terms of the ways i n which they i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i n teractions. The Personal  Ross R i v e r I n d i a n band i s not a c l o s e l y k n i t group. i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the I n d i a n  s e c t o r of the community  are r e s t r i c t e d on the bases of k i n s h i p , sex, age and the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the I n d i a n  s e c t o r o f t h e community..  T h i s aggreate i s a band only i n t h a t i t has been d e f i n e d as one by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch (IAB).  T h e i r i n t e n t was t o  52 c r e a t e a set of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l  o f f i c e s w i t h which t o d e a l .  I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t some band f u n c t i o n s may external.  The  be viewed as  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the l o c a l band c o u n c i l were  l i m i t e d t o those of p r o v i d i n g a somewhat weak l i a i s o n between members of the band and  the IAB.  I t i s necessary t o note t h a t  t h i s p r o c e s s only Involved  a. few  and  changed w i t h the development  the p r o c e s s i t s e l f has  the Yukon Native The  Indian  of the l o c a l Indian  of  Brotherhood.  community appears t o h o l d the view t h a t the  p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Band C o u n c i l i n no way the r i g h t s and  people  a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l .  res-  exceeds, or c o n t r o l s T h i s p r i n c i p l e was  demonstrated i n i n t e r v i e w s where respondents s a i d t h a t they taken a course of a c t i o n , which was it  c l e a r l y opposed Band C o u n c i l ' s The  eloped  had  t h e i r r i g h t , even though  desires.  Yukon A s s o c i a t i o n of Non-Status I n d i a n s (YANSI) has as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n the Yukon d u r i n g  1971  dev-  1972,  and  A component of the movement i n communities such as Ros~s R i v e r i s r e g a r d e d , f o r the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , as an  external  f o r c e which i n f l u e n c e s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n community.  YANSI was  s t a t u s Indians who Indian  the  r a p i d l y a c c e p t e d i n Ross R i v e r by non-  had p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d  or White on the b a s i s of l i f e  A t h i r d general p o l i t i c a l  s t y l e and  to be  social  either  relation.  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n appears t o have been  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of YANSI's p r e s e n c e .  The  53 e f f e c t has  been a p o l i t i c a l and  r e j e c t i o n of people who  had  i n some i n s t a n c e s , a  social  p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d  a part  of the band. Personal  i n t e r a c t i o n s between Whites and  Indians who  have  j o i n e d YANSI have expanded t o d e a l w i t h the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s ..of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  These i n t e r a c t i o n s have t y p i c a l l y  p l a c e w i t h i n the s e t t i n g of group meetings and  few  taken  of these  c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s appear t o have developed i n t o more i n t e n s i v e friendships.  The  most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p e r s o n a l  relation-  s h i p , r e s u l t i n g from YANSI's a r r i v a l , appears t o have been the r e a c t i o n s of the p o l i t i c a l l y the Community A s s o c i a t i o n . recognized  i n v o l v e d members of the Band  Some non-status Indians were only  as such by the Band s i n c e these i n d i v i d u a l s began  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n YANSI f u n c t i o n s thus s e t t i n g themselves as i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n a p o l i t i c a l t i o n and  and  sense.  This  subsequent r e a c t i o n s have tended t o f u r t h e r  a l i e n a t e the non-status I n d i a n .  T h i s has  t e n s i v e involvement w i t h YANSI which has p o l i t i c a l avenue.  I n d i v i d u a l s who  had  aside  recognipolitically  encouraged a. more i n become t h e i r  p r e v i o u s l y been  strongest conside-  r e d White, p r i o r t o t h e i r j o i n i n g YANSI appear t o have undergone only s m a l l changes i n the scope and sonal i n t e r a c t i o n s .  i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r p e r -  T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n YANSI has  not r e s u l -  ted i n an a l i e n a t i o n from the Community A s s o c i a t i o n but has  ins-  tead p l a c e d  them i n the p o s i t i o n of being used as a source of  information  or mediators i n the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  dealing with  the  54  Band.  T h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s among other YANSI members  have i n c r e a s e d , but t h i s has g e n e r a l l y take p l a c e a t a superficial  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l r a t h e r than a t an i n v o l v e d  friendship  level.  The Ross R i v e r Community A s s o c i a t i o n was c r e a t e d by White members o f the settlement  i n 1966.  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was  n i z e d because l o c a l s ' f e l t  t h a t they  should have i n p u t s i n t o  orga-  the making of d e c i s i o n s which had p r e v i o u s l y been made e x t e r nally.  In t h i s sense the a s s o c i a t i o n was c r e a t e d because of  e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s on the community.  The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s ob-  j e c t i v e s , as s t a t e d under the S o c i e t i e s Ordinance, were: a.  "to p r o v i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r and go f o s t e r c o o p e r a t i o n between the people of Ross R i v e r and the F e d e r a l Government, and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government. b. t o work f o r the advancement, development and w e l f a r e of the people of Ross R i v e r . c. t o c o o r d i n a t e the e f f o r t s of the people of Ross R i v e r and t o a c t f o r them i n matters of common i n t e r e s t . d. t o c o n f e r and cooperate w i t h b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , groups and the o f f i c i a l s . " (Whitehorse' S t a r 1966) The impetus t o develop and s u s t a i n the Association'came a l most e n t i r e l y from the White s e c t o r .  The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s i n t e n t  t o be the p o l i t i c a l body r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l p a r t s of the community has not been r e a l i z e d . t o have been discouraged  P a r t i c i p a t i o n of I n d i a n members appears both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y .  were conducted i n a manner which allowed v o c a l , d i s c o u r a g i n g Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n . predominately  Meetings  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Committees which were  or e x c l u s i v e l y White have been e s t a b l i s h e d t o exe-  55 cute most f u n c t i o n s  of the A s s o c i a t i o n and  the t o p i c s of  c u s s i o n have seldom been of i n t e r e s t t o most Indian and  many White p e o p l e .  cessary but  The  i t has  people,  a s s o c i a t i o n i s thought t o be  t o deal, w i t h the p o l i t i c a l aspects of l o c a l been f a c e d w i t h problems of g e n e r a t i n g  dis-  ne-  issues,  sufficient  i n t e r e s t t o keep i t a l i v e . A s s o c i a t i o n meetings have been attended r e g u l a r l y by a few  White people i n the community.  Most Whites use  i t as  forum t o express t h e i r views on i s s u e s t o which they are t i v e and  only a  sensi-  on which they wish t o see the A s s o c i a t i o n take p a r t i -  c u l a r courses of a c t i o n .  The  few  who  r e g u l a r l y attend  appear  t o express a s t r o n g e r  statement of commitment t o the whole com-  munity than those who  attend  poses.  i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r p a r t i c u l a r pur-  I t i s upon these few  t h a t the White community  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g p a r t l y f o r the g e n e r a l  Association,  w e l l b e i n g of the community but  r i l y as a t o o l f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l C l i q u e s are not  the Community  created  on the b a s i s  personal  of A s s o c i a t i o n  i n the c a u t i o u s  way  group d i r e c t l y .  activities  C a u t i o n i s taken This  red t o the r a t h e r b o l d d i r e c t i v e s sent issues.  not  i s demonstrated  i n which l o c a l i s s u e s are r e s o l v e d ,  ernment t o r e s o l v e e x t e r n a l  parti-  i n t e r a c t i o n s extend beyond i n d -  i v i d u a l c l i q u e s i n community meetings. t o oppose anyone or any  prima-  p o l i t i c a l purposes.  c i p a t i o n , however c l i q u e membership does a f f e c t the of the A s s o c i a t i o n ,  places  compa-  t o the T e r r i t o r i a l Gov-  56 Many e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , other than those r e l a t e d t o l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n between the r e s i d e n t s of Ross R i v e r .  Government  s e r v i c e agencies  the s c h o o l , RCMP, Welfare  and P u b l i c Works a l o n g w i t h  such as busines-  ses r e l a t e d t o the mining i n d u s t r y have a l l p l a y e d a p a r t i n a l t e r i n g the arrangements of i n t e r a c t i o n s between All  of these have added - s k i l l e d or s e m i s k i l l e d p e r s o n e l t o the  community's p o p u l a t i o n s , most of which come from It  individuals.  is difficult  'outside'.  t o a s s e s s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o n t a c t s  between these new a r r i v a l s t o the community had been t h e r e b e f o r e .  w i t h those  None the l e s s , one may  h i g h Incomes and good housing  expect  that that  tend t o p o i n t out the d i s p a r i -  t i e s between the employed and unemployed. A day s c h o o l was b u i l t  i n Ross R i v e r i n - 1 9 6 6 .  Prior to  t h i s c h i l d r e n were sent t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s which were adm i n i s t e r e d by C a t h o l i c or A n g l i c a n r e l i g i o u s order i n Whiteh o r s e , C a r c r o s s and Lower P o s t .  The opening of a  day-school -in*-  has had d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t I n f l u e n c e s on the types and f r e quency of c o n t a c t s between i n d i v i d u a l s . altered. experience  Peer r e l a t i o n s have  F o r most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l .  the f i r s t  I t a l s o was the f i r s t  op-  p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from Ross R i v e r area t o gat h e r as a group.  The c r o s s i n g of domestic groupings  l i n e s appears t o have been of l i t t l e concern dent i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g .  and e t h n i c  i n organizing stu-  A second s e t of i n -  57 t e r a c t i o n s stemming d i r e c t l y from the presence of the s c h o o l , are the c o n t a c t s generated a community  between p a r e n t s  and t e a c h e r s .  the s i z e of Ross R i v e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s i n g  various perceptions are r e c o g n i z e d . t l y the source  of the r o l e t e a c h e r s a r e expected  In  from t o play  D i s p a r i t i e s i n these e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n of c o n t r o v e r s y .  These c o n t r o v e r s i e s have, a t  times p o l a r i z e d the communities i n manners which have i n f l u e n ced the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  individuals.  The s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s has been used t o accomodate r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs, community meet i n g s , p u b l i c showers and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as s e r v i n g i t s b a s i s f u n c t i o n as a day s c h o o l . ility  In providing a fac-  f o r a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s c h o o l has i n d i r e c t l y  caused i n c r e a s e s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s between  individuals.  The o p e r a t i o n of a day s c h o o l has r e q u i r e d t h a t c h i l d r e n l i v e a t home i n the s e t t l e m e n t . d i t i o n a l l y accepted the I n d i a n s .  T h i s requirement  by Whites i n the community  P r i o r t o 1966,  w i t h i n the Ross R i v e r r e g i o n .  I n d i a n people  has been t r a -  but not so w i t h  were h i g h l y mobile  T h e i r m o b i l i t y r e f l e c t e d a pat-  t e r n of l i v i n g which was p r i m a r i l y dependent upon h u n t i n g and trapping a c t i v i t i e s . these people  The a r r i v a l of a day s c h o o l  t o remain i n the settlement  so t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n  c o u l d a t t e n d the s c h o o l while s t a y i n g a t home. e f f e c t s of t h i s process  compelled  The i n d i r e c t  a r e d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o a s -  58 sess.  A shift i n life  s t y l e and the Increase  i n personal i n -  t e r a c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e p r o x i m i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o each other i n the settlement would appear t o i n f l u e n c e p a t t e r n s of social The  interaction. RCMP opened a detachment i n 1966 i n Ross R i v e r .  They  brought w i t h them the laws o f the " o u t s i d e " and t h e mandate t o e n f o r c e these laws w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e people T h e i r presence p r e s e n t e d  l i t t l e difficulty  i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  t o White  people  s i n c e most had p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s  before  but i t d i d r e p r e s e n t major changed i n the I n d i a n p a t t e r n s o f social relations.  The RCMP have attempted t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e  c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e law which a r i s e from c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s by i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l means r a t h e r than through p o l i c e a c tion.  I n p r a c t i c e t h i s i s a most d i f f i c u l t t a s k .  In a small  town where everyone knows o r r e c o g n i z e d everyone e l s e , t h e RCMP c o n s t a b l e i s not c o n s i d e r e d the "cop" b u t i s r e f e r r e d t o on a f i r s t  name b a s i s .  In such a s i t u a t i o n p e r s o n a l  s h i p and antagonisms develop  friend-  and i n doing so b i a s e s a r e c r e a t e d .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e law w i t h a f r i e n d takes  on a d i f f e r e n t  c h a r a c t e r when a p p l i e d t o someone who i s d i s l i k e d .  I n terms o f  p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s the RCMP appear t o have p o l a r i z e d t h r e e s e t s of c o n t a c t s ; those attempting  t o avoid a l l contact.with  the RCMP, those who are a l i e n a t e d from the RCMP and those who develop  f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h the RCMP.  Even though these a t t i t u d e s  e x i s t the RCMP a r e f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d on t o a c t as an untimate  59 d e c i s i o n maker i n s e t t l i n g s o c i a l l y  sensitive issues.  This  r o l e i s one the RCMP a r e h e s i t a n t t o a c c e p t , f o r i t b r i n g s w i t h i t a l l the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i l l s  of e x t e r n a l l y s e t -  t l i n g disputes. Welfare  s e r v i c e s , p r o v i d e d under the Dept. of H e a l t h and  W e l f a r e , a r e a l s o r e c e n t a r r i v a l s t o Ross R i v e r .  Personnel of  t h i s agency a r e p l a c e d i n an awkward s i t u a t i o n f o r they have powers r a n g i n g from i n t e r v e n i n g i n cases o f p e r c e i v e d c h i l d abuse by removing the c h i l d from the home t o d i s t r i b u t i n g for  funds  food and housing t o those who are b e l i e v e d t o r e q u i r e such  assistance. actions. midating  T h i s d u a l r o l e has an i n f l u e n c e on p e r s o n a l  inter-  In one Instance a person may view the agency as i n t i i n t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n may be taken from them but on  the other hand w e l f a r e may be viewed as a r e s o u r c e t h a t may be tapped.  The t a p p i n g of w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s has been i n e f f e c t  s i n c e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch a c t i v e l y began t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n housing and grub s t a k i n g of Indians i n the e a r l y 6 0 ' s .  It i s  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t w e l f a r e from both agencies has had an i n f l u e n c e on- the ways i n which r e s o u r c e s , necessary  f o r food and s h e l t e r ,  which has i n t u r n reduced  the extend  t o which I n d i a n people a r e  dependent upon the l a n d .  Such changes are expected  t o have i n -  d i r e c t e f f e c t s upon p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the community. The  competition f o r l i m i t e d resources s t i l l  the sources  e x i s t s even though  of the r e s o u r c e s has changed.  The T e r r i t o r i a l Dept. of P u b l i c Works i s not i n v o l v e d i n  60 d e a l i n g w i t h many community r e s i d e n t s i n the course  of p e r f o r -  ming i t s f u n c t i o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s Department i n f l u e n c e s the p a t t e r n s of p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n Ross R i v e r . t i o n of a P u b l i c work depot i n 1965  Construc-  bought w i t h i t a crew of  government employed equipment o p e r a t o r s .  Seven, steady  employ-  ees, and an a d d i t i o n seven t o t e n seasonal employees draw ap$80000 of the government money i n t o the community.  proximately Seasonal  jobs have been taken up by both White and  idents.  The  Indian r e s -  i n f l u x of a r e l a t i v e l y large" number of people  p l o y e d i n one t r a d e and employing l o c a l s has t i o n s among the employees and has i n v o l v i n g these men  Increased  lead to s o c i a l  em-  interac-  interactions  r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r e t h n i c background.  Mining e x p l o r a t i o n and development a c t i v i t i e s have been o p e r a t i n g out of Ross R i v e r s i n c e the e a r l y  '60's.  Since  time t h e r e has been a c o n s i s t a n t l y h i g h demand f o r l o c a l d u r i n g the summer months.  The  s i t u a t i o n at these times  be d e s c r i b e d as an employees markets s i n c e t h e r e i s a  this labour  could  shortage -ii?'  of men  who  are adept at working i n the bush.  T h i s demand has  l e d t o s h o r t terms of employment at h i g h wages. most f r e q u e n t l y go t o I n d i a n men.  These jobs  Leaving t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n  the community when they take a job r e p r e s e n t s a departure the more t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of hunting w i t h l a r g e r groups.  from  domestic  Acceptance of these  jobs has a l t e r e d the arrangement  of these groups i n the bush.  The money brought i n t o the com-  munity by way  of l o c a l employees a l s o encourages people  to re-  6T main i n town where food and goods may Increased  be purchased.  l a b o u r demands of the mining s e c t o r and  f i c i e n t l o c a l l a b o u r p o o l t o meet these needs has ploying  "outsiders".  During  t e s i n c r e a s e s by approximately  an i n s u f -  l e d to  em-  the summer the p o p u l a t i o n of Whia hundred t r a n s i e n t men  and  the  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n decreases because of movement i n t o the bush. These demographic changes have d i r e c t l y a l t e r e d p a t t e r n s i n t e r - p e r s o n a l contacts  i n the community.  Recreation  t i e s expand t o i n c l u d e the e n l a r g e d White p o p u l a t i o n .  of  activiThe  com-  munity d u r i n g the summer p e r i o d p r o j e c t s a white image whereas i t becomes c o n s i d e r a b l y more I n d i a n i n c h a r a c t e r throughout  the  winter. Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as churches, p o s t a l s e r v i c e s , l o c a l s t o r e s and bars a l s o i n f l u e n c e the p a t t e r n s between p e o p l e .  These may  a l s o be viewed as. e x e r c i s i n g e x t e r -  n a l i n f l u e n c e s upon the community. l a r study it  of r e l a t i o n s  d i d not encompass these  The  scope of t h i s p a r t i c u -  elements d i r e c t l y  although  i s assumed t h a t the presence of such o r g a n i z a t i o n s  ces the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the  Ross R i v e r : The  last  Regional stage  influen-  settlement.  P o l i t i c a l Interactions  of the community a n a l y s i s examines the  i t i c a l r o l e s l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s and  pol-  o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y i n attemp-  t i n g t o i n f l u e n c e government decision-making  r e l a t e d to l o c a l  62 affairs.  Because of the nature of the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l  cess i t i s necessary t o examine how ganizations  these i n d i v i d u a l s and  proor-  i n t e r a c t w i t h r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s as w e l l as among  themselves.  I n d i v i d u a l s , groups and  organizations i n t e r a c t i n g ,  g e n e r a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y , w i t h a l a r g e number of government p o l i t i c a l a g e n c i e s are bound t o c r e a t e  s i t u a t i o n s which c l o u d  •issues r a t h e r than l e a d t o t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . examples d e s c r i b e two  the p o l i t i c a l  i s s u e s ; housing and  The -following  i n t e r a c t i o n s which occur about  adult education.  s e l e c t e d because they were t o p i c a l and  These two  i s s u e s were  controversial in a l l  the communities i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. c a l p r o f i l e s and  and  Both had  high  politi-  i n v o l v e d a l l l e v e l s of government i n the  Ter-  ritory. White r e s i d e n t s of Ross R i v e r represent  themselves p o l i t i -  c a l l y as i n d i v i d u a l s or through Ross R i v e r Community tion.  The  choice  of o p e r a t i n g  these mediums appears t o be  i n one  or the  other  Associa-  or both of  l a r g e l y dependent upon the r o l e the  i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s w i t h i n the community; the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s i tivity ter  and  and  commitment t o the  issue i n question,  and  the  charac-  temperament of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Generally  s p e a k i n g , i s s u e s are handled through the Commu-  n i t y A s s o c i a t i o n i f they apply  t o the community as a whole  i f the i s s u e s are not p a r t i c u l a r i l y T h i s should  not  suggest t h a t there  and  s e n s i t i v e t o an i n d i v i d u a l . i s frequent., concensus, bet-  63 ween White community members on how  i s s u e s should be  C l e a r concensus seems t o occur only when i s s u e s are  handled. sufficien-  t l y low key or when t h e r e are i s s u e s which have been c l e a r l y p o l a r i z e d between the community and v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government i n Whitehorse. may  attempt  In the second  of the c a s e s , i n d i v i d u a l s  t o a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n both on t h e i r own  as through the Community A s s o c i a t i o n . thought  as w e l l  Individual action  was  t o be the most e f f e c t i v e means of c r e a t i n g change on  a l l but those i s s u e s which were of such a g e n e r a l community nature t h a t a person's motives would be regarded w i t h s u s p i c i o n by s e n i o r l e v e l s of government. f o l l o w an independent  The  r i g h t of an i n d i v i d u a l t o  course of a c t i o n was  s a n c t i o n e d by  community at l a r g e i n cases where the i n d i v i d u a l was by an  effected  issue.  A program w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of improving housing out the Yukon was 1972.  the  approved  through-  by the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l i n e a r l y  A number of housing u n i t s , which would be s u b s i d i z e d on  the b a s i s of a s l i d i n g s c a l e dependent upon income and f a m i l y . s i z e , were t o be b u i l t new  i n those s e t t l e m e n t s p r e c e i v e d t o need  housing most a c u t e l y .  demands f o r housing was  A survey t o determine  conducted  the needs and  some f i v e months a f t e r . t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the scheme and a f t e r some communities had been scheduled f o r housing developments i n 1 9 7 2 . r e s u l t s of the surveys assessments.  T a b l e 2 shows the  Ross R i v e r was  evaluated  as h a v i n g 64% of the houses i n the s e t t l e m e n t i n poor  condition,  Table 2 Housing  C o n d i t i o n s i n R u r a l Communities  Pelly  Ross River  % of housing Poor  57$  64%  24%  28%  43%  16%  % of housing Fair  33#  22%  22%  33$  20%  4l%  % of housing Good  1%  14%  45%  33#  32%  35#  Not s t a t e d i n survey  3$  0%  9%  6%  5#  8%  1.78  2.21  Community Housing Statistic  Average housing a quality Poor 1 Fair 2 Good 3 Number of househ o l d s surveyed % of p o p u l a t i o n covered i n survey  1.48  1.50  Haines Jnt.  carcross:Carmacks  2.23  2.05  Teslin  30  55  54  42  60  71  ' 95$  76%  87%  74%  70%  89%  Totals  312  65  one of the p o o r e s t r a t i n g s of the communities  studied.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase scheme t o Ross R i v e r was  viewed  Housing  as an i s s u e by VJhite members  of the community f o r two reasons; i t c o u l d l e a d t o  improved  housing f o r some white r e s i d e n t s and the p a t t e r n i n which the "houses were l o c a t e d c o u l d a l t e r the c h a r a c t e r of the community (see P i g . 2 f o r approximate  locations).  Five individuals  were i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t they wished der the program.  who  t o o b t a i n a house un-  The schematic diagram, P i g . 3 , r e p r e s e n t s  the c o n t a c t s which have o c c u r r e d about  the housing i s s u e .  Cau-  t i o n needs t o be e x e r c i s e d i n r e a d i n g these g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r they may  make the s i t u a t i o n s appear more complica-  t e d than they a c t u a l l y are f o r they do not show the time over which the c o n t a c t s occur.  span  The White people i n t h i s c a t e -  gory a l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had c o n t a c t e d the housing, administ r a t i o n , by l e t t e r and/or  i n person, to state t h e i r  i n a c q u i r i n g housing under the program.  interests  These p e o p l e - s a i d t h a t  they were concerned t h a t they wouldn't get housing i f a board c o n s i s t i n g of those r e s i d e n t s who  a l s o wanted a low  house would determine among themselves who The reason g i v e n was  local cost  would .get housing.  t h a t most of the people w i s h i n g housing  were I n d i a n and i t was  felt  c o u l d and would monopolize  t h a t the I n d i a n p e o p l e , as a the houses.  group,  P a r t l y i n response t o  these f e a r s of being l o c k e d out of l o c a l h o u s i n g , these White people have appealed t o the Department of L o c a l Government i n  66. ROSS RIVER.  FIGURE 3  INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES  INDIAN...INTERACTIONS  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES EXECU1  COMMITI  DUCAT 10  1  .-  •' •  :  LOCAL SCHOOL  PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT  rfHITE RESIDENTS  YANSI COMMU JITY CLUB  NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT!  ROSS  RIVER.  FIGURE  INTERACTIONS HOUSING  3  ISSUES  WHITE.  FEDERAL  INTERACTIONS  GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES HI  EXECUTIVE COMMITT1  •  •z. CO CC LU LU <_J 3: — h- > o r  O Z  CO LU o£ c o l o  CO  "XL  CC  \—  1— —  UJ  s:  1  co LU  <  •  NORTHERN I I . A. B DEVELOPMENT!  LU CO  11  —  CC  co  o  LU h-  o  1—  CO  <  V  z  CC  <  _J  3  — 1 >|  o  >-  LU. col  <  z  o  CD CO LU LU ce  o  CO  u .  <  u .  —  o  o  CD _ J CO < h-  —  z  Di LU O 1-  I—  —  CC  CC  CL.  cC <  LU UJ I— Q  DUCAT I O i  WHITEHORSE  ROSS  RIVER  LOCAL SCHOOL  MITE  RES ID  MONS ATUS RES.  BAND COUNCI  INDIAN  RESIDENT  67  attempting t o ensure t h a t they would get a house under the C o s t Rental-Purchase ,rogram.  There was  t  time,.that  t h i s aspect  The was  The  remained t h a t  l o c a t i o n of l o t s and  objected  i n d i c a t i o n , at  of the housing i s s u e was  Community A s s o c i a t i o n meetings. h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , and  no  a i r e d i n the  way.  the proposed c l e a r i n g of a l l t r e e s This action  i n i t i a t e d by a s m a l l e r group of White people who  were  t o the l o t s which were t o be completing c l e a r e d and  personal  effected.  In t h i s i n s t a n c e  appeals t o the Commissioner and  adjacent  hence would  the D i r e c t o r of  Dept. of L o c a l Government was  ing  the  land s l a t e d f o r new  supported by a l l s e c t o r s of the I n d i v i d u a l s who  the case a g a i n s t  housing.  politically  as pos-  appeals, a p e t i t i o n to  c i r c u l a t e d among the  r e s i d e n t s t o f u r t h e r strengthen  the  contractor,  In c l e a r i n g the l a n d , would leave as many t r e e s s t a n d i n g In a d d i t i o n t o the p e r s o n a l  was  these people made  Department of L o c a l Government t o ensure t h a t the  sible.  any  i s s u e s were viewed as  t o by the community a s s o c i a t i o n .  be most a d v e r s l y  Low-  The  the  settlement's  totally clear-  p e t i t i o n was  strongly  community. a l i g n w i t h YANSI were of mixed o  opinions was  about the housing program.  While most f e l t  a l o c a l need f o r b e t t e r housing and  der t h i s scheme they a l s o f e l t Housing Program was need.  there  some wanted a house  un-  t h a t the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase  not n e c e s s a r i l y the best way  T e r r i t o r i a l and  that  of meeting  l o c a l branches of YANSI had  hoped t o  this dev-  68 elop  their  own  maintenance sis,  housing program  so t h a t  o f t h e h o u s i n g w o u l d be  keeping  t h e money p a i d  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  done m o s t l y  f o r housing  and  i n a locas  ba-  developments w i t h i n  the  community.  O b j e c t i o n s and which arose  from  recommendations about  the  local  r e g i o n a l YANSI o f f i c e s Government. lowed  because  the  Local  one  is sic  fol-  o f a l l YANSI g r o u p s  were members o f YANSI and  scheme a l s o a p p l i e d  fact  that  not viewed housing  territorial t o attempt needs and,  In t h i s  the  Local  was  than d i s j o i n t e d statements  an  directly  who  would  from i n -  took p a r t  in  t o the Department  of  as  With  r e s o u r c e s open t o t h e  to acquire  t h e most e x p e d i e n t  at a secondary  criticizing  under i t i s r e a l l y  the  the  only  scheme  they  course  of  the  min-  can a l action  u n d e r t h e p r o g r a m t o meet  level,  attempt  the  l i m i t e d nature  perceive  by w h i c h e v e r means a r e p e r c e i v e d sense  the  i n d i v i d u a l and  residents  housing  the  i n t h e same p r o g r a m on  inconsistant.  decisions  Rental-Purchase  i n d i v i d u a l would c r i t i c i z e  e x t e n t t o w h i c h community  decision  to  of  t h i s procedure  statement  hand t h e n a p p l y t o t a k e p a r t  of l o c a l  ter  the  The  o t h e r was  imal  that  Government f o r h o u s i n g u n d e r t h e Low-Cost  program. on  were r e f e r e d  groups.  I n d i v i d u a l s , who critizing  weight  scheme  than t o the Department  stated  suggested  c a r r y more p o l i t i c a l dependent  YANSI m e e t i n g s  rather  A respondent  the housing  to a l t e r  ba-  external  t o be most e f f e c t i v e .  scheme, y e t a p p l y i n g  f o r housing  v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r those  who  69  are attempting they may The  t o make the community a b e t t e r p l a c e i n xvhich  live. Ross R i v e r Band C o u n c i l s t r o n g l y o b j e c t e d t o the  intro-  d u c t i o n of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program. did  so on a number of bases.  t r u c t e d and maintained  An e x t e r n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d ,  housing  It cons-  program would draw l i t t l e  i n the way  of economic a c t i v i t y  i n t o the band.  The  generative  e f f e c t s of a l a r g e housing  recognized  by the community i f the program were handled  i f any  economic  program would only  Band C o u n c i l s are a l l o c a t e d funds through the IAB  be locally.  f o r the  m i n i s t r a t i o n of a number of f u n c t i o n s , some of which d e a l housing  maintenance, and  the housing  construction.  program removes housing  effect  with  E x t e r n a l conduct of  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  nance .from the bands arrangements of f i s c a l The  ad-  mainte-  responsibilities.  of t h i s i s a f a i l u r e t o i n c r e a s e the net budget  of  the band which r e s u l t s i n l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h i t s d i v e r s e needs. the housing  Indian people i n t e r e s t e d i n accomodations under  scheme would be r e q u i r e d t o l e a s e the house and l o t  p r i o r to purchasing. l a n d may tlement  .To I n d i a n people,, paying  w e l l c o n t r a d i c t the Yukon Indians p r o p o s a l s of lands c l a i m s .  of  f o r a set-  U n t i l the i s s u e s are r e s o l v e d such  a c t i o n s on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l Indians bly  f o r the use  d e t r i m e n t a l t o the settlement  are viewed as p o s s i -  of c l a i m s .  White and  Indian  communities are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n Ross R i v e r .  Prom the  Indian p e r s p e c t i v e t h i s a i d s i n e n s u r i n g the p o l i t i c a l  and  soc-  70 ial  independence and s o l i d a r i t y  of the I n d i a n p e o p l e .  The  h o u s i n g , as i n d i c a t e d i n P i g . 2, w i l l be l o c a t e d w i t h i n the white s e c t o r of the community.  An I n d i a n household which mo-  ves i n t o the a r e a , i n e f f e c t , i s o l a t e s i t s e l f from the domest i c group of which i t Is a member.  I t i s thought t h a t  this  would f u r t h e r complicate the Band C o u n c i l s attempts i n o b t a i n i n g concensus and s o l i d a r i t y i n r e s o l v i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d the Indian  community.  The Band C o u n c i l expresses t h e i r d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the housi n g program t o the IAB and a l s o t o t h e YNB f o r t h e i r support of c o l l e c t i v e g r i e v e n c e s . e c t l y t o the Department  political  They have not appealed d i r -  of L o c a l Government  i n attempts t o  change t h e housing program but.have r a t h e r r e s t e d t h e i r  poli-  t i c a l case w i t h the Brotherhood. I n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s have a p p l i e d f o r housing even i n s p i t e of s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from the band.  A shortage of hous-  i n g , of a q u a l i t y comparable t o t h a t a v a i l a b l e under the scheme, and the r i g h t s of an i n d i v i d u a l t o s e l e c t what i s p e r c e i v e d as the most a p p r o p r i a t e course of a c t i o n appears to be the b a s i s upon which i n d i v i d u a l s seek a house.  These people have made  t h e i r appeals d i r e c t l y t o members of L o c a l Government ner which they f e e l w i l l y i e l d the best  i n a man-  results.  Many of the c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s which have developed about the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase program have been c r e a t e d ,  71'. i n a l a r g e p a r t , by the f a i l u r e of the T e r r i t o r i a l t o seek the c o n s u l t a t i o n and a d v i c e of l o c a l s .  Government  Such c o n s u l t a -  t i o n may have avoided some of the problems which have a r i s e n i n the p r o c e s s of i n i t i a t i n g , f o r m u l a t i n g and implementing the housing program. The second s e t of i s s u e s have developed about a d u l t educat i o n programs i n Ross R i v e r shown i n F i g . 4 .  These programs  have e i t h e r been v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g such as a course i n mini n g e x p l o r a t i o n or t e a c h i n g of b a s i s s k i l l s and w r i t i n g .  The f i r s t  such as r e a d i n g  of these two types of programs are sup-  p o r t e d by Canada Manpower and men who a t t e n d the courses are p a i d a s u p p o r t i n g l i v i n g allowance.  These courses have been  conducted over the w i n t e r s of 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 and 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 .  The cour-  ses were i n i t i a t e d , f o r m u l a t e d and conducted i n an uneasy p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the White and I n d i a n people of Ross R i v e r .  The  i n i t i a t i o n phase was t r i g g e r e d by the Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n when they attempted t o determine why men from the com' munity d i d not a t t e n d V o c a t i o n a l courses i n Whitehorse. response, which r e p r e s e n t e d the p o l l e d o p i n i o n s of a l l yed I n d i a n and White males i n the community  clearly  unemplo-  indicated  the n e c e s s i t y of d e v e l o p i n g a l o c a l t r a i n i n g program.  Upon the  b a s i s of the p o l l , the Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n mulated a program f o r the community. not w e l l r e c e i v e d .  The  for-  The suggested program was  The proposed c o u r s e , c a r p e n t r y , was of l i t -  t l e i n t e r e s t and value t o the men  i n the community  who, by and  ROSS R I V E R . . .  INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION  FIGURE k ISSUES  INDIAN...INTERACTIONS  GO MM I SS I ONE-R-  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENC1ES  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  NORTHERN I I . A. B DEVELOPMENT!  h <  CO  _J  I  UJ y-  C O C £ x: — o h- > co c_> a: C O IE .  cu•  2  UJ  —  oUJ  CC  h-  •  cC  O  ce UJ  —  2  DUC'ff I  LOCAL SCHOOL!  VHITE  RESIDENTS  RESIDENT  COMMU COUNCI .  no  no  73 l a r g e , had  a f a i r i d e a of the type of t r a i n i n g t h a t would l e a d  t o l o c a l employment.  These sentiments were sent to Whitehorse .  along w i t h a r e j e c t i o n of the p r e s c r i b e d course and t h a t a more a p p r o p r i a t e  course would i n v o l v e t r u c k d r i v i n g  t r a i n i n g or p r o s p e c t i n g .  In response the Department of Vocat-  i o n a l E d u c a t i o n combined the two course c a l l e d mining  suggestion  suggested s u b j e c t s  into  one  exploration.  Teachers were sought f o r the c o u r s e . c i f i e d t h a t the c a n d i d a t e should  The  jobs l i s t i n g  have academic and  practical  e x p e r i e n c e s as w e l l as a background of working i n r u r a l , n i c a l l y - m i x e d communities.  Three or f o u r men  the p r a c t i c a l f i e l d experience i n the i n t e g r a l parts  of the community.  ence r e g a r d l e s s of b o y c o t t i n g teacher  On t h i s b a s i s  l o c a l men.  man,  white s e c t o r of the community, was three week t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .  The  who  another t e a c h e r  ary b a s i s .  prefer-  Threats studentEduca-  a member of g i v e n an  the  intensive  i t became apparent t h a t The  a f r i e n d of the f i r s t , was  A f t e r two  already  opening of the course drew an  would have t o be h i r e d .  Indian and  was  h i r e d and  unexpectedly l a r g e number of a d u l t s and  was  be g i v e n  f e a r s of u n c o o p e r a t i v e  One  had  representatives  r e l a t i o n s o b l i g e d the Department of V o c a t i o n a l  t i o n t o h i r e two  who  and were  of t h e i r weak academic backgrounds.  the program and  eth-  i n Ross R i v e r  subjects  of the community argued t h a t r e s i d e n t s should  spe-  second i n s t r u c t o r , h i r e d on a tempor-  months of the program the Department  V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n announced t h a t they had  contacted  and  of  74 agreed  t o h i r e a second permanent i n s t r u c t o r .  The a d u l t s  were a t t e n d i n g the course had by t h i s time become a f a i r l y h e s i v e group r e g a r d l e s s of e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s . The  who co-  suggestion  of r e p l a c i n g the I n d i a n i n s t r u c t o r s u r p r i s e d and annoyed the group.  They threatened t o b o y c o t t the program i f any  such  change o c c u r r e d . In the w i n t e r of' 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 the second type of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program, a b a s i s s k i l l c o u r s e , was s i n c e the f i r s t mining  initiated.  In the p e r i o d ,  e x p l o r a t i o n c o u r s e s , the p o l i t i c a l  a c t e r of the community had  changed c o n s i d e r a b l y .  char-  YANSI had •  come i n t o e x i s t e n c e and the Band C o u n c i l had d r a m a t i c a l l y s h i f t e d i t s focus from i n d i v i d u a l , h i g h l y s p e c i f i c problems t o broader p o l i c y problems.  The  e f f e c t s of t h i s  politicization  p r o c e s s had been t o f u r t h e r p o l a r i z e the e t h n i c s e c t o r s of the community.  The Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , i n r e a l i z -  ing t h i s , presented  t h e i r p r o p o s a l f o r a b a s i c s k i l l s program  t o a group c o n s i s t i n g of e x e c u t i v e members from a l l three organizations.  local  The meeting i t s e l f and the outcome of the meet-  i n g are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n c e they r e p r e s e n t the  first  s i t u a t i o n , to the knowledge of the author, i n which a l l three p o l i t i c a l bodies a c t i v e i n the community have d i s c u s s e d commun i t y a f f a i r s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r . The form of t h i s meeting w i l l be assessed  i n terms of i t s a p p l i c -  a b i l i t y as type at l o c a l government i n the f i f t h c h a p t e r of the thesis.  75 The  meeting was  attended by  about t e n p e o p l e .  The  Educa-  t i o n people p r e s e n t e d the p r i n c i p l e s of the b a s i s s k i l l s gram which were d i s c u s s e d  by a l l s e c t o r s .  pro-  Questions were d i r -  e c t e d by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government people so t h a t  conflicts  were r e s o l v e d at t h a t p o i n t , i f at a l l p o s s i b l e .  The  f e c t s were m o d i f i c a t i o n s  suggested  t o the program i n i t i a l l y  the Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and support of the r e v i s e d scheme by  an acceptance  each group which had,  f e e t , become proponents of a program they had, sed.  The  p r o c e s s of open c o n s u l t a t i o n at the  course a m e l i o r a t e d  l o c a l problems and  t r o d u c t i o n of a more a c c e p t a b l e The  l o c a l school played  r o l e i n the f i r s t t o n i z e d between  'we',  sent  and  i n ef-.  of  the  made f o r the smooth i n -  courses.  political  C o n f l i c t s were  The  s c h o o l , which was two  way  dicho'them',  responsi-  communications:  degree t o which e t h n i c s e c t o r s were p o l a r i z e d i n 1969  s u f f i c e n t l y low key the p r o p o s a l s  t o a l l o w the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and  to  was pre-  g a t h e r r e a c t i o n s f o r the Department  E d u c a t i o n from a l l people i n the sensitive p o l i t i c a l positions.  by  course.  b l e t o b o t h , attempted t o f a c i l i t a t e The  outset  the r e s i d e n t s of Ross R i v e r , and  the Government i n Whitehorse.  ef-  i n part, devi-  a much more s i g n i f i c a n t  of these two  net  settlement The  without  offending  contemporary s i t u a t i o n  pears t o make t h i s a much more d i f f i c u l t  of  ap-  process.  White members of the community have, by and  l a r g e , been .  76 very r e c e p t i v e t o both l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  programs.  nessmen  of c a p i t a l coming  i n t e r p r e t them as a s u b s t a n t i a l flow  i n t o the community,  Busi-  t o those i n v o l v e d i n the course i t means  a steady income, and t o those who were not d i r e c t l y by the program i t was seen as p o s s i b l y p r o v i d i n g  effected  future  em-  ployment t o those who were c u r r e n t l y unemployed In the community. White r e s i d e n t s p r e s e n t e d t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s ,  a r i s i n g from  the mining e x p l o r a t i o n course t o t h e i r l o c a l c o u n c i l o r , the Commissioner, and the Department of E d u c a t i o n i n person and in letter.  The e x e c u t i v e  and l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l s of the T e r r i -  t o r i a l Government were c o n t a c t e d requests  as a means of e n s u r i n g  these  t o the Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n would r e -  ceive t h e i r attention. o Non-status Indian r e s i d e n t s of Ross R i v e r have been organized since l a t e 1971.  YANSI members p l a y e d  an important media-  - t i n g r o l e i n the l o c a l d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d by the Department of Education i n reference  t o the b a s i s s k i l l s programs.  The  eth-  n i c mix of YANSI allowed i t t o p l a y a r o l e i n these meetings somewhat analogous t o a t h i r d p a r t y  i n a minority  government.  The compromises which were worked out were agreeable t o a l l . The Band C o u n c i l ' s p o l i t i c a l r o l e has undergone major changes over the p e r i o d spanned by the two c o u r s e s . i n i t i a t i o n and f o r m u l a t i o n  In 1 9 6 9 , when  of the mining e x p l o r a t i o n course be-  77 gan,  the Band C o u n c i l was an o r g a n i z a t i o n which f u n c t i o n e d  p r i m a r i l y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e n e f i t of the IAB. t i o n s , beyond g e n e r a l  Few ac-  statements of need f o r t r a i n i n g , and ac-  cess t o l o c a l j o b s , were f o r t h coming from the Band C o u n c i l . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t r a s t s d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h the r o l e the Band Council played  i n developing  the b a s i c s k i l l s course.  The Ross  R i v e r C o u n c i l had, w i t h i n a b r i e f p e r i o d of two y e a r s , gathered a great  d e a l of p o l i t i c a l  w i t h the YNB.  Adult Education  s t r e n g t h through i t ' s a f f i l i a t i o n s programs had been d i s c u s s e d  ween the Band, the YNB, and the IAB some time b e f o r e  bet-  the p r o -  p o s a l f o r a b a s i c s k i l l s program was made t o the community. The p o l i t i c a l muscle gained  i n having  a close a s s o c i a t i o n with  the Brotherhood has allowed  the band t o e x e r c i s e  i n f l u e n c e over e x t e r n a l l y made d e c i s i o n s . formally represents  considerable  The Band C o u n c i l  the I n d i a n people of the Community.  now  The  IAB no l o n g e r d e a l s w i t h band problems on an i n d i v i d u a l band member b a s i s , but r a t h e r d e a l s through the Band C o u n c i l . change appears t o have been t h e r e s u l t at  of p o l i t i c a l  the t e r r i t o r i a l and F e d e r a l l e v e l s of government.  This  pressures The IAB's  d e a l i n g through the Band C o u n c i l has subsequently i n c r e a s e d the l o c a l importance of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I n d i v i d u a l band members per-  c e i v e t h a t a c t i o n through the Band C o u n c i l i s more l i k e l y t o achieve  favourable  exceptions  r e s u l t s t h a t independent a c t i o n .  are taken t o t h i s , as c i t e d  There are  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the  Low Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program.  78 Pelly:  Geographic  setting  P e l l y C r o s s i n g ( P e l l y ) i s l o c a t e d along the P e l l y R i v e r where i t i s b r i d g e d by the K l o n d i k e highway, as shown i n P i g . 1.  The  P e l l y v a l l e y i s wide and  t a b l e spruce was til  1970,  open i n t h i s a r e a .  a v a i l a b l e i n the v i c i n i t y  Merchan-  of the community  un-  when most of the a c c e s s i b l e stands were d e s t r o y e d i n  a large forest f i r e , i n g animals  Moose, c a r i b o u , beaver and  o t h e r f u r bear-  i n h a b i t the r o l l i n g v a l l e y and have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  p r o v i d e d the mainstay t o the I n d i a n hunting and g a t h e r i n g economy,  Pelly:  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  M c C l e l l a n d (1964) types the e a r l y h i s t o r i c of the r e g i o n as Western Tutchone,  Indian  people  P r e - c o n t a c t p a t t e r n s of dom-  e s t i c and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s resemble those of the I n d i a n of Ross R i v e r , ences preceded  M c C l e l l a n d (1964) d e s c r i b e s how the Hudsons Bay  Co,  decade v i a T l i n g i t middlemen who  1848  European i n f l u -  i n t o the a r e a by alirtost a  t r a d e d between Russians  the P a c i f i c coast and the Tutchone and Robert  people  Campbell b u i l t a Hudsons Bay  along  Kutchin. post, Fort S e l k i r k , i n  a t the c o n f l u e n c e of the P e l l y and Yukon R i v e r s , t h i r t y  m i l e s from the present l o c a t i o n of P e l l y . garded  the Bay's presence  The T l i n g i t , who  re-~  i n the area as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r t r a d e  monopoly over the r e g i o n , d e s t r o y e d the post i n 1851  and  block-  79 aded I n l a n d movement from the coast u n t i l the g o l d r u s h  In  189b. The  g o l d - r u s h brought w i t h i t the development of a t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n network i n the Yukon.  T r a v e l , v i a the White Pass  Yukon R i v e r to Dawson c r e a t e d the demand f o r s e r v i c e s and p l i e s along the r o u t e .  The  sup-  p o p u l a t i o n of P o r t S e l k i r k , which  had reopened i n I 8 8 3 i n response t o i n c r e a s e d t r a d e up  the  Yukon R i v e r , exploded t o 5 0 0 0 people s e r v i c i n g the t r a f f i c e r a t e d by the g o l d The  d e c l i n e of the g o l d r u s h o b l i g e d companies w i t h  A r i c h f u r market p r o v i d e d  opened throughout the Yukon.  subs-  resour-  an a l t e r n a t i v e and p o s t s were  A post was  S e l k i r k ' s p o p u l a t i o n r a p i d l y d e c l i n e d , so t h a t by  Yukon.  witnessed  little  Trading posts represented  p r i s e s during t h i s period. ween the Indians  and  Port  1911,only  f o r t y people l i v e d i n the community (Duerden 1 9 7 1 ) . t o 19^2  1911  b u i l t at Minto i n  i n response t o the change i n the r e g i o n ' s economic base.  from 1920  gen-  rush.  t a n t i a l investments i n the T e r r i t o r y t o t u r n t o other ces.  and  The  period  economic a c t i v i t y i n the one  of the few  stable enter-  A mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b e t -  the t r a d e r s dependent upon the exchange of  f u r s c o l l e c t e d by I n d i a n people f o r the commercial goods of the trader.  -  •  C o n s t r u c t i o n of the K l o n d i k e amount of goods shipped  by l a n d .  Highway i n 1950  increased  Water t r a n s p o r t was  the  unable t o  80  compete e c o n o m i c a l l y continued.  by  1955  P o r t S e l k i r k and  g o o d s by  r i v e r , and  in  traffic  river  and  f r e i g h t i n g by  M i n t o had  provided  fuel  r e s u l t e d i n the  r i v e r was  received their  f o r r i v e r boats. c l o s u r e of both  I n d i a n communities a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these p o s t s 1956  The  opening  o f a s t o r e , gas  -the - P e l l y R i v e r was  the 1971. in  A day  1966.  ing nity  s i m i l a r t o those  detailed  b u t i o n by The on  the death  collected  Settlement i n 1961  bar,  people  Table  in Pelly  1 provides  ethnic grouping  p a t t e r n of the Indian lands  where  i n the  In-  area. opened i n  of the p r o p r i e t o r i n  as  constructed  opposed t o  effects  on t h e  send-  commu-  Pattern  and  1971  f r o m 137  shows t h a t " P e l l y ' s  to l 4 l  were e t h n i c a l l y  d e m o g r a p h i c b r e a k d o w n by  A p p e n d i x A.  The  deserted.  s t a t i o n c o m p l e x was  s c h o o l s , had  increased s l i g h t l y , l4l  decline  i n Ross R i v e r .  D e m o g r a p h i c s and  ty., o f t h e  gas  settlements  school f a c i l i t i e s ,  children to residential  population  were  s c h o o l w i t h t e a c h e r a c c o m o d a t i o n s were  Census data  ses  s t o r e and  Providing local  Pelly:  The  posts.  s t a t i o n , h o t e l and  declining  1960's t o c l o s e w i t h  early  trade  c r o s s e d "by t h e h i g h w a y , a t t r a c t e d t h e  d i a n p o p u l a t i o n from the Another h o t e l ,  dis-  age  sex  i n the  i s given  study  i s shown i n P i g . 5 . the  shaded a r e a  Twen-  A more  of p o p u l a t i o n  f o r e a c h community  i n d i c a t e d by  White.  g r o u p and  a comparison  settlement  residents.  The  in  distrigroup. hou-  on P i g . 5 f o l -  82  low a b l u f f o v e r l o o k i n g the P e l l y R i v e r . i n the settlement t i o n apparently One  area were surveyed  The  In 1968  Territorial with l i t t l e  b e i n g g i v e n t o e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of  respondent noted t h a t a survey  l i n e was  lands  atten-  settlement.  l o c a t e d so t h a t i t  cut through a neighbours's house.  Appendix A o u t l i n e s the  v i c e f a c i l i t i e s found i n P e l l y and  shows i t t o be p o o r l y  ced -in -comparison w i t h the other communities i n the study The  highway i s c e n t r a l t o the economic w e l l being  nesses l o c a t e d i n the community.  may  be  ser-  servigroup.  of the b u s i -  They are a l l l o c a t e d  t o i t i n order t o o b t a i n whatever b u s i n e s s  1  adjacent  transacted  by persons t r a v e l l i n g through.  In t h i s sense P e l l y  s u b s t a n t i a l l y from Ross R i v e r .  T r a v e l l e r s who  differs  come i n t o Ross  R i v e r , have done so i n t e n t i o n a l l y whereas people t r a v e l l i n g n o r t h - south along the K l o n d i k e Highway pass through P e l l y incidentally  Pelly;  on route  elsewhere.  Internal Interpersonal Relationships  S o c i a l d i v i s i o n , along e t h n i c l i n e s , e x i s t s i n P e l l y t o a l e s s e r extent ses t o i n t e r v i e w s . dency binds ces has  than i n Ross R i v e r , as i n d i c a t e d In responA g r e a t e r degree of economic  the community; the s h a r i n g and  apparently  inter-depen-  exchanging of  reduced t e n s i o n s in--.contrast t o those  have developed between Indian and White'ethnic River.  but  resourwhich  s e c t o r s i n Ross  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e P e l l y has more of a sense of com-  munity than Ross R i v e r .  83 The  Indian people  of P e l l y have p a t t e r n s of domestic  n i z a t i o n s i m i l a r t o those  of the Ross R i v e r I n d i a n s .  seems t o be d i v i s i o n among Indian people coming from P o r t S e l k i r k o r Minto.  orga-  There  on the b a s i s of t h e i r  The author was unable t o  determine the degree t o which t h i s d i v i s i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h d i v i s i o n amoung domestic g r o u p i n g s .  Most I n d i a n people  spoke a Western'Tutchone d i a l e c t although  i n Pelly  t h e r e were S l a v e y ,  T l i n g i t and K u t c h i n d i a l e c t s r e p o r t e d t o be spoken by some band members. P e l l y i s much more o f an I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n than Ross R i v e r .  i n i t s patterns  T h i s seems t o stem  from the s m a l l White p o p u l a t i o n , t h e i r dependency upon I n d i a n t r a d e , and/or t h e i r d e s i r e t o remain i s o l a t e d from r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which t y p i f y i n t e r a c t i o n s i n l a r g e r White communities. I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a l l y operate d e c e n t r a l i z e d atomized l e v e l .  a t a much more  Attempts t o f o r m a l i z e a c t i v i t i e s  and g a t h e r concensus about Band i s s u e s appears t o have met w i t h i s s u e s of p e r s o n a l importance on t h e i r own terms and i n the manner they f e l l w i l l produce the best  results.  Indian-White i n t e r a c t i o n s f o l l o w p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r t o those of Ross R i v e r i n t h a t two l e v e l s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s can be differentiated.  However r o u t i n e i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e o f a more  p e r s o n a l i z e d nature  i n Pelly.  The Whites w i t h i n the settlement  are r e f e r e d t o on an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d b a s i s by Indians and v i c e -  84  versa.  There appears t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y  l e s s importance p l a -  ced on the e t h n i c background of the i n d i v i d u a l than on h i s sonality.  This s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s  per-.  somewhat from Ross R i v e r where  d i s t i n c t i o n s appear t o be made more on the b a s i s of e t h n i c background than on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . White r e s i d e n t s of P e l l y do not appear t o form c l i q u e s which are as s o c i a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e  as those i n Ross R i v e r .  people who  i d e n t i f i e d with  were i n t e r v i e w e d  The  White  s m a l l groups of  f r i e n d s , vrhich i n some cases i n c l u d e d members from both e t h n i c sectors.  These groups were not  w i t h i n the community.  seen as being p o l i t i c a l  forces  In terms of community a c t i o n among White  r e s i d e n t s , many r e f u s e t o take p a r t at a l l ,  c l a i m i n g t h a t they  are i n P e l l y t o a v o i d such community o b l i g a t i o n s and  involve-  ment s. Most White p e o p l e , a s i d e from the h o t e l owners, have l i v e d i n P e l l y f o r f i v e to ten years. employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s has  The  s e a s o n a l nature of  local  r e s u l t e d i n long p e r i o d s -of unem-  ployment f o r many, but n o n e t h e l e s s these people remain i n the settlement  because i t p r o v i d e s  a r u r a l atmosphere c h a r a c t e r i -  zed by the minding of one's own The  ' t y p i n g ' of new  Ross R i v e r .  The  comers i s a much slower p r o c e s s  community has, by and  i n g o r d e r , " so t h a t the need f o r less intense.  business. than i n  l a r g e , s e t t l e d i t s "peck-  'typing' a person s o c i a l l y i s  D i v i s i o n among Whites seems t o be more a matter  85  of p e r s o n a l i t y than  Pelly:  occupations.  External Influences  The s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , settlement  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l  Relationship  l i t t l e government involvement i n the  and the l i m i t e d econimic base of P e l l y have r e s u l t e d  i n infrequent  e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s on the community, but these  f a c t o r s a l s o mean t h a t the i n f l u e n c e s when they occour, have had  s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s upon the c h a r a c t e r  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l  relations. The Band C o u n c i l , as i n Ross R i v e r , was c r e a t e d by the IAB, t o a c t as a l i a i s o n between the Band and IAB a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Band C o u n c i l had been f u l f i l l i n g  the r o l e s i n c e 1961  which time the same man had h e l d the c h i e f ' s o f f i c e . standing  during  H i s long  acquaintance w i t h a l l members o f the band, h i s know-  ledge of l o c a l problems and h i s a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y by both band members and IAB p e r s o n e l  a l l r e s u l t e d i n , what r e s i d e n t s  d e r , an e f f e c t i v e tenure of o f f i c e  (personal  interviews).  i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i s s u e s were t r e a t e d i n a p e r s o n a l the Band C o u n c i l was t h e r e , not t o change t h i n g s  consiDur-  manner and  i n the whole  community, but r a t h e r t o a i d those i n d i v i d u a l s who wished a s sistance i n resolving personal  issues.  The YNB's a r r i v a l i n the community character  i n 1971-72 changed the  of these p o l i t i c a l arrangements.  t h a t of coping  The s h i f t was from  w i t h problems on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s t o d e a l i n g  86 w i t h i s s u e s on a c o l l e c t i v e resigned his  e a r l y i n 1972,  "Indian" b a s i s .  arguing  older chief  that h i s i l l i t e r a c y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the  i s s u e s t h a t were the s u b j e c t s  The  Increasingly  hindered important  of the Band-YNB i n t e r a c t i o n s .  T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n on h i s p a r t , appears t o have been encouraged by  one  of the young l i t e r a t e c o u n c i l l o r s who  y e t g r e a t e r changes i n P e l l y .  of  i s capable of d e a l i n g w i t h  Port S e l k i r k w i t h a s i m i l a r degree  cooperation. YANSI has  had  non-status Indian s e l y organized in  see  D i f f i c u l t i e s have developed i n  attempting t o f i n d another c h i e f who people from both Minto and  'would l i k e t o  little  influence i n Pelly.  The  three  f a m i l i e s are too s m a l l a group and  to exercise a s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l  community a f f a i r s .  The  contacts  or  too  four  loo-  influence  which are generated through  the presence of YANSI i n P e l l y are s u f f i c i e n t l y - l i m i t e d , i n comparison t o Ross R i v e r ; t h a t they are p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r A community c l u b was but went out  of e x i s t e n c e  of the  I n i t i a t e d i n 1966  pears t o be n e i t h e r the i n t e r e s t nor a l o c a l l y  in  has  little  community.  by a t e a c h e r  a y e a r l a t e r when he  o r g a n i z a t i o n which c o u l d r e p r e s e n t  t o have  left.  in Pelly  There  ap-  f e l t need f o r an  the needs of the  community  a c o l l e c t i v e manner. Pelly differs  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Ross R i v e r i n t h a t P e l l y  comparatively  few  s e r v i c e s and  government employees.  The  87 RCMP, S c h o o l , and P u b l i c Works depot alone employ f o u r t e e n people  i n Ross R i v e r whereas the P e l l y S c h o o l , w i t h two t e a c h e r s ,  i s the only government employer i n the community.  Because t h e r e  are few government employees i n P e l l y the governments e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i s not as s t r o n g l y f e l t , although the day s c h o o l h a s , i n e f f e c t , reduced  the t r a d i t i o n a l m o b i l i t y of I n d i a n  as has been the case i n Ross R i v e r . has had the e f f e c t of a t t r a c t i n g tricity  from a d i e s e l  people  Locating a school i n P e l l y  other s e r v i c e s , such as e l e c -  generator.  Small sawmills have operated i n the v i c i n i t y ment s i n c e the e a r l y s i x t i e s .  of the s e t t l e -  During t h e i r w i n t e r c u t t i n g and  sawing p e r i o d s , the o p e r a t i o n s have drawn most of t h e i r crew from P e l l y although some men a r e p i c k e d up throughout ritory.  the T e r -  The w i n t e r camps accomodated some f a m i l i e s from P e l l y .  The l a s t camp was c l o s e d when a major f o r e s t f i r e many good stands  i n 1971.  destroyed  The l o g g i n g , a l t h o u g h short  lived,  had an i n f l u e n c e upon the men from P e l l y i n t h a t they were exposed t o and worked w i t h others from o u t s i d e the s e t t l e m e n t . A r e l i g i o u s movement r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d i n P e l l y whose i n f l u e n c e was q u i t e u n l i k e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the churches R i v e r warrants  d i s c u s s i o n i n terms of the impact  i n Ross  i t has had  upon the p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the community.  The  movement, appears t o be an I n d i a n a d a p t a t i o n of a P e n t e c o s t a l denomination and advocates  t o t a l abstinence.  The I n d i a n commu-.  88 n i t y d i v i d e d among those who  adhered  " C h r i s t i a n s " , and those who  d i d not,  mancy of the up  t o the r e l i g i o n , the "the d r i n k e r s " .  " c o n v e r s i o n s " i s a moot p o i n t .  "the r e l i g i o n " i n the summer of 1972,  they had been  Pelly: The  The  per-  Some had g i v e n  only s i x months a f t e r  "converted".  Regional P o l i t i c a l Interactions d i f f e r e n c e s between. Ross R i v e r and P e l l y are most p r o -  nounced i n the sphere The presence acceptance  of community-government  of only one  interactions.  o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l body, the g e n e r a l  of r u r a l p r i v a c y and independence,  and low  expecta-  t i o n s r e g a r d i n g government s e r v i c e s have a l l combined t o make for In  an atmosphere i n which p o l i t i c a l Pelly.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r change r e s t almost  w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l . ing  I n t e r a c t i o n s are avoided  D e s c r i p t i o n s of the i n t e r a c t i o n s  entirely result-  from housing i s s u e s or a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs, as shown  s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 6 and 7.  are i n d i c a t i v e of the  r e s t shown i n the community's p o l i t i c a l  inte-  Involvements.  The need and demand survey conducted f o r the Low-Cost Rent a l - P u r c h a s e Housing program i n d i c a t e s that 51$ i n B e l l y were a s s e s s e d as poor y e t only 50$  of  of the  ders wanted houses under the scheme, see Table 2.  households householThe Band'  Council.have based t h e i r arguments i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the t e r r i t o r i a l housing scheme a l o n g l i n e s c o n s i s t a n t w i t h the YNB  and  PELLY..,  INTERACTIONS HOUSING  FIGURE 6  ISSUES  SETTLEMENT...INTERACTIONS  COMMISSIONER  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES  EXECUTIVE COMMITTE4  o  _l CO — z LU <  I-  CC  O I— H -  — o£ Oi <  _ LUQQ LU CC  I—  EDUCATIC  LOCAL SCHOOL  WHITE RESID MTS  NONl INDIAN RESIDENTS BAND COU  NORTHERN J L A . B DFVFI OPMFN  90  giai|MI»mkMwm PELLY...  FIGURE  INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION  7  ISSUES  SETTLEMENT...INTERACTIONS  COMMISSIONER EXECUTI 'C'OMM IT]  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AfiENCIES  ID I AN RESIDENTS  BAND  COUNCILi  91  o t h e r Band C o u n c i l s as d e s c r i b e d i n the s e c t i o n of Ross R i v e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s many band members have a p p l i e d f o r the housing little,  i n comparison  done t o persuade  and  w i t h the Ross R i v e r s i t u a t i o n , has been  these people form t a k i n g the h o u s i n g .  Others  i n the community, both Indians and Whites, d i d not wish t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the scheme f o r i t r e p r e s e n t e d a commitment t o the government which they thought would r e s u l t i n an  unacceptable  l o s s of p e r s o n a l freedom. The Band C o u n c i l has had l i m i t e d success i n a housing and c o n s t r u c t i o n program they developed and conducted.  repair  Their  annual r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e have been no houses b u i l t over the p a s t f o u r or f i v e y e a r s and t h a t a number of the ex- i s t i n g houses were i n poor c o n d i t i o n .  A w i n t e r works program  had renovated e l e v e n of the houses but, because of poor m a t e r i a l s , the r e p a i r s were not e f f e c t i v e .  R e p a i r and  nance of housing seemed t o be a main source of l o c a l f o r band members.  quality mainte-  employment ^  Most members of the band d i r e c t e d appeals f o r Improved or new  housing t o the IAB agent, who  dom  and when he does "has always got h i s f o o t on the gas,  t o go a g a i n " ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w ) .  i s said to v i s i t  The  Pelly  selready  agent g e n e r a l l y d e a l s  w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s d i r e c t l y r a t h e r than through the Band C o u n c i l . O b j e c t i o n s have been r a i s e d by the band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and ges, i f they occur, may  i n c r e a s e the p o l i t i c a l importance  chanof the  92 Band C o u n c i l . The i n i t i a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o gram i n P e l l y b e a r s l i t t l e resemblance t o t h e p r o c e d u r e f o l l o wed i n Ross R i v e r .  The T e r r i t o r i a l Government's v i e w t h a t t h e  m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n c o u r s e w h i c h was conducted i n Ross R i v e r was a s u c c e s s , t h a t t h e c o u r s e had l e d t o employment, t h a t i t has added t o t h e s o c i a l c o h e s i o n o f t h e community and t h a t t h e peop l e o f P e l l y \tfould p r o f i t f r o m a s i m i l a r program r e s u l t e d i n t h e employment o f t h e same two i n s t r u c t o r s course i n P e l l y .  t o conduct a s i m i l a r  There appears t o have been l i t t l e  t i o n w i t h t h e community i n any phase o f t h e program. p r i n c i p a l discussed  consultaThe s c h o o l  t h e c o u r s e and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e community  b u t , by and l a r g e , t h e program a p p e a r s t o have been p r e s c r i b e d by t h e government t o c u r e some community i l l s w h i c h seem t o be closely related  t o t h e economic m a r g i n a l i t y o f t h e community.  The program was a s u c c e s s i n terms o f a t t e n d e n c e however P e l l y residents reported  t h a t o n l y one man o f t h e e i g h t e e n t a k i n g t h e  c o u r s e t o o k a j o b stemming f r o m t h e t r a i n i n g .  93  Teslin:  Geographic S e t t i n g .  T e s l i n i s l o c a t e d at m i l e 804 i t b r i d g e s N i s u t l i n Bay,  on the A l a s k a Highway where  as shown i n P i g . 1.  ment i s s i t u a t e d at the mouth of N i s u t l i n Bay T e s l i n Lake.  The  m i l e s , supports  of which t r o u t , pike-, w h i t e f i s h and P o p l a r , b i r c h and  last  of which occurs  Morley, T e s l i n and  where i t j o i n s  spruce  long  with  e l e v e n s p e c i e s of  fish,  inconnu are the most com-  grow i n the l a k e v a l l e y ,  i n merchantable stands.  The  the  Nisutlin, .  S w i f t R i v e r s flow i n t o the l a k e which i s  d r a i n e d by the T e s l i n R i v e r which i n t u r n flows  Teslin:  main s e t t l e -  Lake,,approximately e i g h t y m i l e s  an average width of two  mon.  The  i n t o the Yukon.  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  Russian  f u r t r a d e r s began t r a d i n g with the T l i n g i t  of the P a c i f i c Coast i n the 1940's. people.with  a h i g h l y organized  and  The  Indians  T l i n g i t s , a sea-faring  s t r u c t u r e d p a t t e r n of  social  r e l a t i o n s , began t o p l a y a middlemen t r a d i n g r o l e between the Apathacian coast  Indians  (Krause 1956,  of the i n t e r i o r and M c C l e l l a n 1964).  the Taku R i v e r from Taka Arm  and  the Russians of the The  Tl°ingits movep up  c r o s s e d the height  of l a n d  i n t o the South T e s l i n R i v e r which flows n o r t h i n t o T e s l i n Lake, a t r a d e route The  of about 160 m i l e s  i n length.  S t i k i n e Route which j o i n e d with the o l d e r T l i n g i t  route along the South T e s l i n R i v e r was  one  trade  of the many r o u t e s  95 taken by the stampeders of 1898 of the K l o n d i k e . Teslin  i n t h e i r p u r s u i t f o r the g o l d  A community developed  Lake, c e n t e r e d about a HEC  sawmill which produced  at the south end  of  t r a d i n g post and a s m a l l  lumber f o r boat c o n s t r u c t i o n .  In the  summer of I89B the p o p u l a t i o n of the settlement Increased  from  s i x t y ; t o t h r e e hundred w i t h the a r r i v a l of an army detachment, the Yukon F i e l d F o r c e , on r o u t e t o a s s i s t  the Northwest Moun1972).  ted  P o l i c e i n the K l o n d i k e ( T e s l i n Womens I n s t i t u t e  The  e q u a l l y r a p i d departure of the K l o n d i k e r s l e f t a s m a l l  t r a d i n g community served by A new  paddlesteamers.  post opened near the mouth of N i s u t l i n  when the Bay post c l o s e d .  T a y l o r and Drury  post i n the area i n 1905.  The  Bay  opened a  s e t t l e m e n t remained  in  1903  second  relatively  unchanged u n t i l the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway i n  1942.  The highway improved access t o the community and gave r i s e t o the need f o r maintenance camps which, from 1942  t o 1964  operated by the Canadian and American Army and was sibility  the  were respon-  of the F e d e r a l Government's Department of P u b l i c Works  (DPW). The a i r s t r i p , b u i l t i n 1942  j u s t n o r t h of the main s e t t l e -  ment, as shown i n F i g . 8 has been operated by men  who  l i v e In  the D.P.W. housing complex w i t h the highway maintenance crews. A s c h o o l has been o p e r a t i n g i n the community s i n c e 1945 the U.S.  Army Highway Maintenance crews and r e s i d e n t s of the  when  96 settlement  shared  the c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g a s c h o o l and t e a c h e r  f o r the community.  I n 1 9 5 1 a school-teacherage  complex was  b u i l t and expanded i n i 9 6 0 t o accomodate i n c r e a s e d student enrollment.  A completely  new s c h o o l was c o n s t r u c t e d on Indian  Lands i n 1 9 6 5 , I n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e 8, renovated additional  p o r t a b l e classrooms  men's I n s t i t u t e  i n 1967 and two  were added i n 1 9 7 2 .  (Teslin  Wo-  1972).  A community h a l l , c u r l i n g r i n k complex was b u i l t i n 1 9 6 6 u s i n g l o c a l v o l u n t e e r l a b o u r which c o n s i s t e d o f members from both White and Indian s e c t o r s of the community.  Teslin:  Demographics and Settlement  Patterns  T e s l i n has a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately forty Band.  t h r e e hundred and  of which about two hundred a r e members of the T e s l i n The age-sex breakdown o f the communities t o t a l  popula-  t i o n i s g i v e n i n Appendix A. The map, F i g . 8, showing the settlement p a t t e r n of T e s l i n i l l u s t r a t e s some geographic  p a t t e r n s which d i f f e r  substantially  i n c h a r a c t e r from the p a t t e r n s of Ross R i v e r or P e l l y . d i a n and "town" s e c t o r of T e s l i n a r e c l o s e l y g r a p h i c terms. r i t o r i a l lands.  adjacent  The I n i n geo-  There a r e no roads which d i v i d e Indian and T e r There i s , on the other hand, a d i s t i n c t geo-  g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the white s e c t o r .  The DPW compound i s  almost a mile from the r e s i d e n t i a l and b u s i n e s s areas  of the  97  settlement.  B u s i n e s s e s have developed along the highway t o  serve both l o c a l and  transient t r a f f i c .  other hand i s l o c a t e d part  s t o r e , on  In comparison t o P e l l y and  Ross  h i g h l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y t h a t i s due  l a r g e p a r t t o an a c t i v e summer t o u r i s t t r a d e . i t s l o c a t i o n enhances these b u s i n e s s e s and elopments have been p l a c e d  Teslin:  Interpersonal  The  in a  beauty of  t o c a p i t a l i z e on these p o i n t s .  Relations l i n e s i n Tes-  Ross R i v e r , yet the a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d  t h i s d i v i s i o n d i f f e r from the two  other communities..  ganizational structure  s o c i e t y , the  of T l i n g i t  dence of both Whites and standing  River,  the t o u r i s t dev-  S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s are d i v i d e d along e t h n i c l i n as i n P e l l y and  the  i n a p o s i t i o n c e n t r a l t o the r e s i d e n t i a l  of the community.  T e s l i n . has  The  The  to or-  lengthy r e s i - . . -  Indians i n the community and  the  long  mutual dependencies which have e x i s t e d between both  s e c t o r s have been f a c t o r s which appear t o have r e s u l t e d i n a more equable r e l a t i o n between s e c t o r s c l a l , p o l i t i c a l and The  than t h a t  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  more than one  of the T e s l i n T l i n g i t  of the Tutchone.  which was  to his personal  r e l a t e d to the  a b i l i t i e s and  c h i e f of whom-one was  i s f a r more  Krause (1956)  of bands i n the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s .  systems of l e a d e r s h i p d i v i d u a l and  so^-  economic terms.  s o c i a l organization  structured  of the community i n  Each band  had  c l a n of the i n -  wealth.  considered  describes  Bands  the head.  had The  98;  power o f l e a d e r s h i p was and  the  ily  h e a d was  fringe in  free  upon the' r i g h t s  and  basic  the T l i n g i t  bands, such  i n the T e s l i n  t r a d e by  Ross R i v e r .  producing  and  Some p e o p l e  company  profitable  atomized  selling  owned by traplines  private  neigh-  changing their  Indian on  fishermen, businesses  main-  Band.  relinguishing  the  h a n d i c r a f t s , s u c h as and  the  f o r the  t o the  the  In-  Athapaskans  the T e s l i n  than  fam-  found  among t h e i r  Many have c a p i t a l i z e d  j o b s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t and  munity.  t o move i n t o  band h a v e a d a p t e d  mucklucks, or g u i d i n g hunters  catch  as  o f t h e Yukon's economy w i t h o u t  and  power  of the Athapaskan a l l o w e d  Tlingit  the  i t d i d not  collective  I n d i a n h e r i t a g e w i t h more s u c c e s s  Pelly  taken  The  l o n g as  to trade. . Intermarriages  of i n l a n d  character  ing  w i s h e d as  of o t h e r s .  acculturation  Individuals  and  as he  undertakings  i n a l l other cases  o f t h e h i g h l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d and  s e a r c h of f u r s  tenance  in  t o do  t h e band s t r u c t u r e a l l o w e d  bours  to co-operative  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o u n c i l ;  territory in  limited  people tourist  snowshoes  others  have  i n the  com-  i n t h e b a n d have i n v e s t e d i n a game g u i d b a n d members. through  Many I n d i a n p e o p l e  the w i n t e r t u r n i n g p a r t of  run their  into handicrafts.  Indian-White equable  than  I n t e r a c t i o n s a p p e a r t o be  i n Ross R i v e r or P e l l y .  ween e t h n i c s e c t o r s ' o c c u r a more c a s u a l manner.  For  over  a wider  more e x t e n s i v e  Routine scope  interactions of a c t i v i t i e s  example, t h e r e a r e f r e q u e n t  and betin  interac-  99  t i o n s among a l l people i n the bar.  The f o r m a l i t y and s t i f f -  ness found i n Ross R i v e r appeared t o be absent i n T e s l i n . Friendships  between Whites and Indians i n T e s l i n a l s o ap-  peared t o be wide spread and i n t e n s i v e .  Intermarriages  more commonly i n T e s l i n than i n t h e other communities and  occur studied  some groups or c l i q u e s a r e made up of members from both  e t h n i c s e c t o r s of the community. t e r a c t i o n s which c r o s s e d  The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n -  e t h n i c l i n e s seemed t o express a p r i d e  i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s , an a t t i t u d e not as p r e v i l a n t i n the Tutchone Indian  communities.  White people have l i v e d i n T e s l i n s i n c e the g o l d r u s h and t h e i r population  has been on the i n c r e a s e  s i n c e World War I I .  The  e s t a b l i s h e d nature of a l a r g e segment of the white  has  added a s t a b i l i t y t o community r e l a t i o n s found n e i t h e r i n  Ross R i v e r or P e l l y .  sector  Many of these people have b u s i n e s s e s and  homes i n the community and they have been a c t i v e i n community a f f a i r s f o r many y e a r s . and  C l i q u e s appear t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  memberships a r e f a i r l y  residence considered  c l e a r l y defined.  Longer terms of  i n the community are r e q u i r e d b e f o r e  the newcomer i s  as a permanent member of the community i n comparison  w i t h Ross R i v e r .  T h i s has g i v e n r i s e t o a slower  ' t y p i n g ' of  those who come i n t o the community. Some White people i n T e s l i n s t a t e d t h a t p o l i t i c a l and soc i a l d i v i s i o n e x i s t s between the approximately s i x t y permanent  100 and  forty transient residents.  Permanents, d e s c r i b e d  as peo-  p l e who had made a commitment t o t h e community by p u r c h a s i n g l a n d and a home, were o b l i g e d t o l i v e w i t h the consequences of d e c i s i o n s made by t r a n s i e n t r e s i d e n t s , who a r e p r i m a r i l y government employees. out  Some permanent r e s i d e n t s have opted t o drop  of community a f f a i r s , s t a t i n g t h a t they f e l t t h a t there was  little  they c o u l d do t o a l t e r t h e s i t u a t i o n beyond keeping out  of i t ( p e r s o n a l  interview).  The geographic d i v i s i o n of the p e r -  manent r e s i d e n t s and the DPW compound have done l i t t l e  t o im-  prove these r e l a t i o n s . Not  a l l permanent white r e s i d e n t s of T e s l i n p e r c e i v e  d i v i s i o n among Whites.  Some view the community i n terms of  f l u i d arrangements of i n t e r a c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  These p e o p l e ,  by and l a r g e have remained a c t i v e i n community a f f a i r s . have commented on the changing s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r n i t y g i v i n g such examples as the recent ing in  volunteers  Some  of the commu-  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n muster-  t o work on t h e new s k a t i n g r i n k , a d i f f i c u l t y  r a i s i n g volunteers  Teslin:  this  External  which d i d not e x i s t t e n years  Influences  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l  earlier.  Relations  T e s l i n has been exposed t o e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s s i n c e the e a r l y 1900's, making i t d i f f i c u l t  t o assess what changes have  occured i n s o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n as the r e s u l t of these impacts. The  stability  o f the community, however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t  these  101 i n f l u e n c e s have been accomodated without c r e a t i n g major d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s on the The ening  settlement.  development of a Band C o u n c i l and  The  Band C o u n c i l seems t o  have used the c o n f l i c t s between the YNB benefit.  nomy not  of  appears t o have been adopted more r e a d i l y i n T e s l i n  than i n the Tutchone communities.  The  observed elsewhere.  and  YANSI has  Resolutions  sent t o the YNB.  not r e c e i v e d , followup  of the YNB  the IAB  their  sent t o the IAB were  a c t i o n , such as seeking  the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r , was developed i n t o a f a i r l y  large population  to  If satisfactory action  strong  about 3 0 members i n T e s l i n s i n c e i t was  has p r o v i d e d  and  band demonstrates a l e v e l of economy auto-  f o l l o w e d by c o p i e s was  strength-  of the band o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the p o l i t i c a l support  the YNB  own  subsequent  of non-status Indians  the  taken.  organization  created i n 1 9 7 1 . with stong  T h i s does not  of A  leadership  the b a s i s f o r the i n c r e a s i n g p o l i t i c a l  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  support  strength  appear t o be c r e a t i n g a  t h i r d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n the community as i t i s i n Ross R i v e r . Less s o c i a l and  economic d i s p a r i t i e s between e t h n i c  c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s across  e t h n i c l i n e s and  sectors,  the broader  repre-  s e n t a t i v e base of the Community Club are f a c t o r s which have g i v e n r i s e t o the view t h a t YANSI i s s t r e n g t h e n i n g  the commu-  n i t y i n i t s r e l a t i o n s -with the T e r r i t o r i a l Government r a t h e r than c r e a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the  settlement.  102  The  T e s l i n Community Club was  activities  of the settlement  a number of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  created  t o promote s o c i a l  but, by d e f a u l t , i t has  and  assumed  l e g i s l a t i v e functions.  Some  members of the Band C o u n c i l , YANSI members, people from DPW  the  compound and permanent white r e s i d e n t s a t t e n d Club meetings.  Over the past  ten y e a r s , a c t i v i t i e s  of the Community Club have  g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d the Whites' p r e f e r e n c e s a c t i v i t i e s such as c u r l i n g and  dances.  for recreational  I t has  a l s o been the  sounding board f o r i s s u e s which i n v o l v e the community w i t h  the  s e n i o r governments. Government s e r v i c e s such as the s c h o o l , RCMP, Northern H e a l t h , MOT  and  DPW  have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n T e s l i n f o r a  time r e l a t i v e t o those i n P e l l y and of the settlement  have a d j u s t e d  Ross R i v e r .  The  residents  t o the presences of these agen-  c i e s i n t h a t the p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s they perform appear t o w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t h n i c s e c t o r s of the community. nent appears t o be The  The  of the  be  respective  major d i s r u p t i v e ^ compo-  i n the p e r s o n n e l employed i n these s e r v i c e s .  r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e of government p e r s o n n e l ,  d e s i r e t o get along w e l l w i t h community r e s i d e n t s , and ersity  long  their  the  div-  of e x p e r i e n c e s t y p i c a l of mobile employees have been  f a c t o r s which, when c o n s i d e r e d  c o l l e c t i v e l y , have l e d t o  short term a c t i v e involvement i n community a f f a i r s . vement has  This  their invol-  been viewed w i t h some s k e p t i c i s m by permanent white  r e s i d e n t s because, as one  respondent s t a t e d ,  "we  are the  ones  103 t h a t have t o l i v e w i t h and pay f o r the t h i n g s the t r a n s i e n t s s t a r t " (personal The  interview).  impact of government s e r v i c e s upon the Indian  sector  of the community has been l e s s d i s r u p t i v e i n T e s l i n than i n Ross R i v e r or P e l l y .  T h i s i s p o s s i b l y accounted f o r i n the  d i f f e r e n c e s between Tutchone and T l i n g i t Settlement p a t t e r n s some extent  social  organization.  do not seem t o have been a l t e r e d t o t h e  by the presence of the s c h o o l and the changing  economic base of the community.  Teslin:  Regional P o l i t i c a l  Interactions  T e s l i n a l s o d i f f e r s from P e l l y and Ross R i v e r i n the types and  extent  of c o n t a c t s  i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  have e s t a -  b l i s h e d i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government.  The lengthy  White and I n d i a n ,  tenure of many community r e s i d e n t s , both  the monthly and a t times weekly c o n t a c t s  government agencies and p o l i t i c a l  with  o f f i c e s , the p r o x i m i t y of  T e s l i n t o Whitehorse, and a c l o s e rapport  with t h e i r  Territorial  C o u n c i l l o r who v i s i t s T e s l i n on approximately a monthly basis„ have g i v e n r i s e t o the a t t i t u d e among T e s l i n r e s i d e n t s t h a t r e g i o n a l d e c i s i o n makers a r e approachable.  However t h i s does not  mean that people who approached these d e c i s i o n s makers f e e l they had an i n f l u e n c e upon d e c i s i o n s . of the people i n t e r v i e w e d puts had l i t t l e  The study s'hows t h a t 80$  i n T e s l i n i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r I n -  t o no e f f e c t .  ,((94  (\oz  105  The  Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Program, Needs  Demands Survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t only 15% i n t e r e s t e d i n the program.  The  and  of householders were  survey d e s c r i b e s  housing i n  T e s l i n as g e n e r a l l y i n much b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n than i n P e l l y or Ross, only 16% i n Table 2 .  T h i s may  p r e s s e d , but  i t appears that the  and  4 l % i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n as shown  In poor shape and  account f o r p a r t of the low opposition  demand  ex-  of the Band, "YANSI  many members of the permanent White community a l s o i n f l u e n -  ced the  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r decision to consider  F i g u r e 9 shows the types of c o n t a c t  such h o u s i n g .  between the community  and  the government about the i s s u e of the housing scheme. The  Band C o u n c i l has  i n the same way which was  viewed the t e r r i t o r i a l housing scheme  as the P e l l y and Ross R i v e r bands and  t h a t i t would e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y  becoming i n v o l v e d i n b u i l d i n g and ing.  Removing t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y  maintaining  was  the  of the band  t h e i r own  hous-  seen as another step which  would, i n e f f e c t , l o c k the band i n t o p o s i t i o n of economic endency upon the IAB.  with supporting  dep-  Band l e a d e r s have attempted t o i n f l u e n c e  d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o the housing program by a p p e a l i n g IAB,  YNB,  l e t t e r s t o the YNB.  to  the  They have a l s o made  i n p u t s t o the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r In hopes of changing  the  program t o encompass other band o b j e c t i v e s .  of  being  involved  The  benefits  i n l o c a l housing were i n p a r t r e a l i z e d over the  p a s t y e a r , when the band p a r t i c i p a t e d In a w i n t e r works program t o renovate houses.  S i x t e e n men  from the band w ere employed 7  In  TERRITORIAL  o O 2 3:  GOVERNMENT  DEPARTMENTS  -  0 0  >  TO  RE  I H X  -  < —  —I  z  -n o •  TO  m >  CO  CES  > >  SE  i  HE  r  1 WE  X  m X m o  c: TO  -<  o m  TO >  CD  O  > -n  R.C.M.P. NORTHERN SERVICES  HEALTH  HISTORIC  SITES  LANDS  cr> m m o ~ZL m o TO —  >  m r~ co  m  O  73  <  WATER YUKON FOREST SERVJ_CES IAB REGIONAL OFFICES  m —I r - oc O m  T> 3: 2: TO  CO  106  •mum TiihnrMWiiiyttsBainaa  TESLIN...  INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES  FIGURE  107 the p r o j e c t . The l o c a l branch of YANSI has opposed the housing program on grounds s i m i l a r t o those used by the band.  The housing  scheme, as i t has been d e s c r i b e d , w i l l e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i lity  of YANSI a c q u i r i n g working c a p i t a l and employing  members through t h e i r own housing program.  local  YANSI has made i n -  puts through i n d i v i d u a l members and the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o the YANSI r e g i o n a l o f f i c e , T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r the Commissioner and  t o the Dept. of L o c a l Government.  L i t t l e effective  feed-  back was r e p o r t e d t o be r e c e i v e d by any, other than the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r and the YANSI r e g i o n a l  offices.  Members of the permanent White s e c t o r o f T e s l i n have  objec-  t e d t o the t e r r i t o r i a l housing scheme on the grounds that i t a r b i t r a r i l y a l t e r s the c h a r a c t e r its  settlement  pattern.  of the community  i n terms of  These o b j e c t i o n s have been expressed  t o the government by i n d i v i d u a l s and through the Community Club.  Inputs have gone t o the Commissioner, T e r r i t o r i a l  c i l l o r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of the Department of L o c a l  the Department which was i n i t i a l l y Guiding twice  Coun-  Government,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the program.  t r a i n i n g courses f o r game o u t f i t t e r s have been h e l d  in Teslin.  U n l i k e the mining e x p l o r a t i o n courses h e l d  i n Ross R i v e r and P e l l y C r o s s i n g , these courses were f o r a l l i n t e r e s t e d Yukon r e s i d e n t s .  Those who were from o u t s i d e  were b i l l e t e d i n the settlement  Teslin  f o r the s h o r t p e r i o d the course  108 TESLIN.  INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION  sBBossEssasszasa  FIGURE  10  ISSUES  SETTLEMENT...INTERACTIONS  COMMU ^ I TY CLUB  jgggBSBBE  BANC COUNl  j  109  was i n the community.  Most of the course time was spent i n  bush camps some d i s t a n c e from T e s l i n . a c t i o n w i t h the community  Little,  i f any, i n t e r -  a t l a r g e seems t o have been  encoura-  ged or r e c e i v e d . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses i n b a s i s r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and i n h a n d i c r a f t s have been attempted to  be l i t t l e  success.  but w i t h what  skills  appears  The format f o r a b a s i c s k i l l s program  has u s u a l l y been recommended by the Department of V o c a t i o n a l Education.  Few e n r o l l e d i n the program and those t h a t d i d  were s a i d t o a t t e n d f o r only a s h o r t p e r i o d . ( P e r s o n a l i n t e r views).  The h a n d i c r a f t programs have had more s u c c e s s .  courses a r e g e n e r a l l y f o r m u l a t e d by a l o c a l r e s i d e n t who  The tea-  ches the course w i t h a s s i s t a n c e , upon r e q u e s t , from the Department's p e r s o n n e l .  A beading course w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s from a l l  s e c t o r s of the community  was r e p o r t e d t o have been q u i t e  suc-  cessful. The Inputs about  these programs have been kept at a r e l a t i -  v e l y low key, most have been generated by i n d i v i d u a l s , most quently those i n s t r u c t i n g i n the c o u r s e . t h a t the c o n t a c t s generated about been r e l a t i v e l y It ing  Figure 1 0 indicates  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s have  simple when comparedJ t o those i n Ross R i v e r .  seemed t h a t the more s e n s i t i v e p o l i t i c a l generated a wider range  profile"  issues.  fre-  Issues such as hous-  of c o n t a c t s than d i d the more "low  110  Carmacks:  Geographical S e t t i n g  Carmacks Is l o c a t e d along the Yukon R i v e r where i t i s b r i d g e d by the K l o n d i k e Highway, as shown i n P i g . 1.  The  c o n f l u e n c e o f the N o r d e n s k i o l d and Yukon R i v e r s l i e s approxi m a t e l y a m i l e west of the main s e t t l e m e n t , as i n d i c a t e d i n Pig. 11.  The settlement  broad v a l l e y  Carmacks:  i s l o c a t e d on the f l o o d p l a i n of the  of the meandering Yukon R i v e r .  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  The p r e - c o n t a c t Indians of the Carmacks area were Western Tutchone.  McClelland (1964)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was through t h i s  region that early T l i n g i t trade i n i t i a l l y  extended out of the  l a k e s of the Upper Yukon i n response t o demands f o r f u r from the R u s s i a n t r a d e r s on t h e P a c i f i c  Coast.  Duerden ( 1 9 7 1 ) r e p o r t s t h a t George Carmacks had b u i l t a t r a d i n g post i n 1896 i n the v i c i n i t y tlement.  of the contemporary s e t -  The post p r o v i d e d a l o c a l c e n t e r f o r f u r t r a d e and  served the t r a f f i c  of the D a l t o n T r a i l , which f o l l o w e d the Nor-  denskiold River. The g o l d rush a f f e c t e d Carmacks as i t d i d the other ments on routes t o the K l o n d i k e . activity  settle-  There was a s h o r t b u r s t of  s e r v i c i n g the needs of the stampeders along the r o u t e .  A f t e r the d e c l i n e of the g o l d r u s h , the economy of Carmacks  111 s t a b i l i z e d more so than t h a t of s e t t l e m e n t s such as T e s l i n Fort S e l k i r k .  The  settlement s e r v i c e d r i v e r t r a f f i c  or  during-  the summer and p r o v i d e d road house f a c i l i t i e s f o r those t r a v elling  a l o n g the D a l t o n T r a i l .  C o a l which was  mined a t T a n t a l a s Butte approximately Carmacks, was ers .  two  discovered  miles northeast  bank of the Yukon d u r i n g the e a r l y  ted  by G. T a y l o r ( 1 9 ^ )  and  16  i n 1944;  indica-  c i t e s p o p u l a t i o n s of 32 i n  1921,  the community r e t a i n e d a t l e a s t some of i t s  r e s i d e n t s throughout the Yukon ceased  who  south  1900's.  The p o p u l a t i o n of the settlement remained s m a l l as  new  of  s o l d i n Dawson C i t y and l o c a l l y f o r r i v e r steam-  A T a y l o r and Drury T r a d i n g Post opened a l o n g the  The  and  the p e r i o d when o t h e r communities along  to e x i s t .  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the K l o n d i k e Highway i n 1950  l i f e t o the s e t t l e m e n t , changing  from s e r v i c i n g - r i v e r t r a f f i c  brought  i t s economic f u n c t i o n  t o s e r v i c i n g highway  traffic.  Increased p r o d u c t i o n of the n o r t h , m i n e r a l f i n d s i n the a r e a and the development of a road from A n v i l mines which j o i n s  the  K l o n d i k e Highway a m i l e n o r t h of Carmacks have a l l s t a b i l i z e d the community's economy. The  I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t , which v;as l o c a t e d on the  a l o n g the south shore i n the mid  of the r i v e r , was  flood  plain  moved t o the n o r t h bank  1950's because of h e a l t h problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g , a t h r e a t which has  s i n c e been reduced  with  112  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a dam on the Yukon R i v e r a t Whitehorse. The movement of t h e Indian s e c t o r of the settlement t o the n o r t h shore, where i t was l e s s s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g , was not f o l l o w e d by government agencies the s e t t l e m e n t .  or p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s  from  As a consequence, the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s of the  community and the White r e s i d e n t s a r e separated from the I n d i a n lands by the r i v e r as shown i n F i g . 1 1 .  Carmacks:  Demographics and Settlement  Pattern  'The p o p u l a t i o n of Carmacks was g i v e n as 3 5 0 i n 1 9 7 1 census of whom 2 5 0 a r e members of the Carmacks Band.  This represents  a steady p o p u l a t i o n growth from ikti i n 1 9 5 3 t o 2 1 8 i n 1 9 6 1 , and 3 1 1 i n 1 9 6 6 (Duerden 1 9 ? T ) . 1971  An age-sex breakdown of the  community's p o p u l a t i o n i s g i v e n i n Appendix A. An o v e r r i d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the settlement p a t t e r n of  Carmacks i s the extent t o which I n d i a n and White s e c t o r s of the community a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y separated as i n d i c a t e d i n Fig.  11.  The b u s i n e s s s e c t o r o f the community i s l o c a t e d ad-  j a c e n t t o the highway, south o f the b r i d g e .  The s c h o o l , t e r -  r i t o r i a l maintenance depot, RCMP, and other government s e r v i c e s are a l l c l u s t e r e d i n one p a r t of the s e t t l e m e n t . i s i n essence a l i n e a r settlement approximately  The community two and one  h a l f m i l e s i n l e n g t h running along both s i d e s of the Yukon R i ver.  The l o c a t i o n of businesses  along the highway r e f l e c t s -  114  the s e t t l e m e n t ' s  Carmacks: All  economic dependence upon highway  Interpersonal Relationships  of the people i n t e r v i e w e d  settlement  traffic.  i n Carmacks s t a t e d t h a t the  was d i v i d e d along White-Indian e t h n i c l i n e s .  The  Tutchone I n d i a n c u l t u r e and the d i v i d e d c h a r a c t e r of the community are s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Ross R i v e r and P e l l y  Crossing  and r e f l e c t many f e a t u r e s common t o both of t h e s e . The  patterns  of domestic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n  peopl  i n Carmacks was observed t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Ross R i ver Indians. a separate  The l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of Indian people l i v i n g i n  p a r t of t h e settlement  has reduced i n t e r a c t i o n s  a c r o s s e t h n i c l i n e s , and encouraged the view t h a t there a r e two  d i s t i n c t settlements  g r e a t e r extent  - one White and one I n d i a n - t o a  than i n Ross R i v e r .  White-Indian i n t e r a c t i o n occurs  '". l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , and ap-  peared t o the author t o be ' s t i f f e r ' and more f o r m a l i z e d than i n Ross R i v e r and much more so than i n T e s l i n .  These i n t e r a c  t i o n s seemed t o be based more on the ' t y p i n g ' of an aggregate e t h n i c group r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l , as was observed t o be the case i n P e l l y . White r e s i d e n t s of Carmacks grouped t h e i r s e c t o r of the settlement  i n t o three g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s ; the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s  115  the  t r a n s i e n t o r government  Ten  of t h e f i f t e e n White respondents  not  members o f t h e c l i q u e s w h i c h r e g u l a t e d  however, t h e s e excluded  employees; and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s .  o f t h e t r a n s i e n t s i n community lin.  During  going  conflicts  sent  that  The  between t h e s e  t h e sense  External Influences  geographic  settlement  the a c t i v e  were r e p o r t s  of the white  found  role  o f on-  sector,  indi-  i n T e s l i n was n o t p r e -  separation  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l of Indian  Moving t h e I n d i a n  t o have been t h e i d e a  t h e C a t h o l i c Church i n Carmacks. added t o t h e s o c i a l  t h a n any o t h e r  recent  Relations  and White  appears t o have been l a r g e l y  r i v e r was r e p o r t e d  bly  The  i n Carmacks, as i n T e s -  there  groups  o f community  of e x t e r n a l agencies.  by  of research  groups.  who h a d  i n Carmacks.  Carmacks:  the  the period  affairs  with  were  affairs;  a l l of those  t h e m s e l v e s a s a c t i v e members o f t h e s e a discontent  t h a t they  community  same i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r e d  permanent groups e x p r e s s e d  cating  Indicated  sectors of  due t o t h e e f f o r t s  population  across the  of t h e IAB.  This  move h a s q u i t e p o s s i -  d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the settlement  factor.  supported  I t has been a g g r a v a t e d  more further  by  t h e l o c a t i o n of a l l government  s e r v i c e s , such as t h e s c h o o l ,  on  t h e "White s i d e " o f t h e r i v e r ,  away f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y o f  the  settlement's  As  population.  i n the other  settlements  described,  t h e YNB h a s h a d t h e  116  effect thin  of strengthening  t h e community.  t h e Band C o u n c i l ' s  The i n f l u e n c e  to substantially a l t e r  political  o f t h e YNB was n o t o b s e r v e d  the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l t o a c t i n -  d e p e n d e n t l y , w h i c h seemed t o t y p i f y  a l l Tutchone i n t e r a c t i o n s .  YANSI's p r e s e n c e was j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be f e l t t h e summer o f 1 9 7 2 .  during the  community's p o l i t i c a l  difficulties The  settlement.  attended red  of  s t r u c t u r e a p p e a r e d t o be c r e a t i n g i n gathering  f o r social  i n affairs  local  support.  settlements,  f u n c t i o n s , b u t by d e f a u l t  r e l a t e d t o the administration  Respondents  the meetings  i n Carmacks  fragmented character  Carmacks Community C l u b , a s i n t h e o t h e r  was i n i t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d  the  The h i g h l y  f o r the Association  became i n v o l v e d  role wi-  indicated that  no I n d i a n  of  people  o f t h e C l u b , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y were  bar-  f r o m t h e m e e t i n g s , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y were n o t i n t e r e s t e d .  Indian  residents  informed ings  interviewed  indicated that  o f t h e m e e t i n g s n o r made t o f e e l  t h e y were ' n e i t h e r  welcome a t t h e meet-  t h e y h a d a t t e n d e d a few y e a r s a g o .  The  l o c a t i o n of government  been an i s s u e facilities  of contention  services  i n the settlement  f o r some t i m e .  s u c h a s a swimming p o o l  The l o c a t i o n o f  on t h e 'White s i d e ' o f t h e  r i v e r was v i e w e d a s i n e q u i t a b l e by t h e I n d i a n dian White  respondent  indicated that  s e c t o r would ensure t h a t  continue  t o go i n t h e i r  favour  has  the p o l i t i c a l decisions  people. strength  such as t h i s ,  One I n of the would  as they have i n t h e p a s t , and  1.17 t h a t the only s o l u t i o n was t o d u p l i c a t e s e r v i c e s on each s i d e of the r i v e r .  In t h i s sense, every l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n made by  an agency, e x t e r n a l t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t , going c o n f l i c t which c r o s s e s  Carmacks: The  ethnic  The R e g i o n a l P o l i t i c a l  p e r p e t u a t e s t h i s on-  lines.  Interactions  highly polarized character  of Carmacks has appeared t o  i n f l u e n c e a l l p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e settlement and s e n i o r l e v e l s of government. i n g the extent  Government a g e n c i e s ,  of the e t h n i c d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the s e t t l e m e n t ,  are apprehensive about a c c e p t i n g one  i n recogniz-  community source.  information  which comes from  As a consequence, a l l but one of the  f i f t e e n white respondents s a i d t h a t t h e i r c o n t a c t s al  o f f i c e s had l i t t l e  members i n t e r v i e w e d reat t o favourable  e f f e c t s , whereas t h r e e  with region-  of t h e f o u r band  i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r contacts  had a mode-  i n f l u e n c e upon d e c i s i o n s of the IAB.  Approximately 35$ of the households i n t e r v i e w e d  Irx the Low-  Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Survey i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. cated  Of these 21 households, 10 i n d i -  that they would l i k e a house l o c a t e d on the n o r t h  of the r i v e r , a request  side  which c o u l d not be met under the terms  of the housing program which s t i p u l a t e d that the housing was t o be  l o c a t e d on T e r r i t o r i a l l o t s .  Carmacks, i l l u s t r a t e d  The c o n d i t i o n of housing i n  i n Table 2, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t  118  p r o p o r t i o n of houses i n the settlement F i g u r e 12  were c l a s s i f i e d as poor.  i n d i c a t e s the community-government  by t h i s housing  contacts  generated  program.  The Carmacks Band C o u n c i l argued i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the housi n g , i n l i n e w i t h the YNB  s t a n c e , but w i t h a p p a r e n t l y  only mod-  e r a t e i n f l u e n c e upon band members, a number of whom i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program t o members of the housing  survey  team.  The Band C o u n c i l r e p o r t e d o b t a i n i n g as-  s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e from the YNB t h e i r own housing,  in. f o r m u l a t i n g a p r o p o s a l f o r  which was sent t o the IAB.  Members of the white s e c t o r d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r about the housing  program.  c a t e d so t o both the survey ment of L o c a l Government  Some favoured  opinions  the scheme and  indi-  team and t o members of the Depart-  i n Whitehorse.  o b j e c t e d t o the program s a i d t h a t he had  One respondent  who  " l e t the Commissio-  ner know" t h a t he was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the program. The housing  program d i d not appear t o be as s e n s i t i v e an  i s s u e t o r e s i d e n t s of Carmacks as i t was  i n Ross R i v e r , appa-  r e n t l y because no houses had been scheduled f o r the f a l l  of  f o r the  settlement  1972.  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs which have been h e l d i n Carmacks have a l s o been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e t h n i c d i v i s i o n among who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the programs.  The V o c a t i o n a l  those  Education  CARMACKS,  FIGURE 12  INTERACTIONS HOUSING  ISSUES  INDIAN.  SCHOOL  PUBLfC WORKS DEPOT  WHITE RESIDENTS  COMMUNITY CLUB  INTERACTIONS  CARMACKS  INTERACTIONS HOUSING  FIGURE  12  ISSUES  NONSTATUS...INTERACTIONS  CARMACKS  INTERACTIONS  FIGURE 12  HOUSING ISSUES  WHITE...INTERACTIONS  &  WHITE R  fab  Mill  ,  120  121  Branch p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t o r s t o work i n c o n j u n c t i o n itfith a L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s Program grant r e c e i v e d by the Band C o u n c i l t o cons-t r u c t a community h a l l .  The i n s t r u c t o r taught  a carpentry  c o u r s e , u s i n g as a t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the hall's interior.  I n d i a n men were r e p o r t e d t o be the only mem-  bers o f the settlement who p a r t i c i p a t e d I n the program.  Mem-  bers o f the Band C o u n c i l , the YNB, the IAB, and r e p r e s e n t a t i ves of the V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Branch worked out the  arrange-  ments f o r the c o u r s e , as I n d i c a t e d i n P i g . 13. C r a f t courses were r e p o r t e d t o have been h e l d by members of the White community.  These were g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of the e f f o r t s of a s m a l l i n t e r e s t group and t h e i r  lifespans  were s h o r t , f r e q u e n t l y not l a s t i n g the d u r a t i o n o f the w i n t e r . Contacts w i t h government agencies were r e p o r t e d t o occur a t a p e r s o n a l l e v e l i n these  Carcross:  cases.  Geographic S e t t i n g  C a r c r o s s i s l o c a t e d a t the n o r t h e a s t e r n t i p o f Bennett Lake where i t i s d r a i n e d through Nares Lake.  a short r i v e r flowing i n t o  The settlement i s l o c a t e d approximately  forty- v  f i v e m i l e s southest o f Whitehorse, as i n d i c a t e d i n Pig.. 1. The Whitepass and Yukon Railway  runs through  Carcross, cros-  s i n g the narrows a t the n o r t h e r n t i p of Lake Bennett, i c a t e d i n P i g . l4.  The settlement  as i n d -  i s l o c a t e d a t the j u n c t i o n  123  of f o u r v a l l e y s .  Two  highways j o i n C a r c r o s s w i t h the A l a s k a  Highway, one near Whitehorse and  the other a t Jakes  the j u n c t i o n of the road south t o A t l i n ,  Carcross:  Historical  Corner,  B.C.  Overview  The T a g i s h I n d i a n i n h a b i t e d the C a r c r o s s r e g i o n p r i o r the p e r i o d of White c o n t a c t .  McClelland ( 1 9 5 0 )  p a t t e r n s between the T a g i s h and  to  describes trade  the T l i n g i t on the c o a s t which  p r e d a t e d the a r r i v a l of the Russians  i n the mid  1700's.  She  d e s c r i b e s these i n t e r a c t i o n s as T l i n g i t dominated; the T a g i s h tended  t o become b i l i n g u a l , almost  as t r a d e i n t e n s i f i e d ;  g i v i n g up t h e i r  own  the T a g i s h adopted the T l i n g i t  o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and the T a g i s h were overcharged which they, i n t u r n , overcharged  tongue  social  f o r goods f o r  the i n t e r i o r Athapaskans.  The T a g i s h , as w i t h o t h e r Athapaskan groups, were probably semi-nomadic moving w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of food r e s o u r c e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t some type of temporary s e t t l e m e n t  ocpured  i n the area of C a r c r o s s f o r f o o d g a t h e r i n g as w e l l as t r a d e . The  narrows between the two  l a k e s was  r e p o r t e d as the  area  where c a r i b o u c r o s s e d the l a k e s , hence the o r i g i n a l name of the s e t t l e m e n t ; C a r i b o u C r o s s i n g . • The r e p o r t e d as a good f i s h i n g ted  from  one l a k e t o the  same narrows was  area d u r i n g the p e r i o d s f i s h  also migra-  other.  Permanent White settlement at C a r c r o s s developed  \tfith the  124  g o l d r u s h of 1898 Railway  i n 1899.  and the advent  of the Whitepass and Yukon  C a r c r o s s developed  Conrad Mine l o c a t e d on Windy Arm  as a s e r v i c e c e n t e r f o r  of T a g i s h Lake and a break of  mode p o i n t f o r mining a c t i v i t i e s going t o A t l i n , B.C.  Docks,  l o c a t e d i n the narrows a d j a c e n t t o the r a i l w a y , served steamers  s u p p o r t i n g the mining  activities  t o the  south.  A l a r g e mink farm which operated from about 1910 e a r l y 1930's i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r a i l a c t i v i t i e s kept  t o the Carcross  a c t i v e d u r i n g the p e r i o d most of the s e t t l e m e n t s i n the tory declined. rail facilities. way  T o u r i s t t r a d e had developed A  "turnabout  Terri-  i n conjunction with  t o u r " took passengers  a c r o s s the Whitepass t o C a r c r o s s and back a g a i n .  from  Skag-  Carcross,  as the turnabout p o i n t , served meals and s o l d goods t o the tourists. I n d i a n p e o p l e , p r i m a r i l y T a g i s h and T l i n g i t , were a t t r a c t e d to s e t t l e  i n the area because of the amenities a v a i l a b l e at the  C a r c r o s s Post.  T h e i r p a t t e r n of l i v i n g was  s i m i l a r t o ' t h e Tut-  chone i n t h a t they spent the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of t h e i r  time i n  the bush, v i s i t i n g the settlement f o r a s m a l l p a r t of the y e a r , e v e n t u a l l y b u i l d i n g homes about the town s i t e and most r e c e n t l y spending  the g r e a t e s t p a r t of t h e i r  Government f a c i l i t i e s ,  such as a s c h o o l , have been s i t u a t e d  i n the s e t t l e m e n t p r i o r t o World War horse was  time i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  II.  A road n o r t h t o White-  b u i l t a l o n g s i d e the Skagway-Whitehorse o i l p i p e l i n e  125 and a r o a d maintenance depot was the e a r l y 195° 's.  opened i n the s e t t l e m e n t  A community h a l l and  in  c u r l i n g r i n k were b u i l t  i n t h e 1960's w i t h the i n t e n t o f s e r v i n g b o t h White and  Indian  s e c t o r s of the community.  Carcross: The  Demographics and S e t t l e m e n t  Patterns  p o p u l a t i o n of C a r c r o s s has remained q u i t e s t a b l e s i n c e  the e a r l y 1900»s, w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s of 165 184  i n 1951,  175  i n 1961  188  and  i n 1971  Indian people c o n s t i t u t e approximately r e s i d e n t s counted i n 1 9 7 1 .  The  i n 1911,  113  in  1921,  census (Duerden 1 9 7 1 ) . one hundred o f the  188  age-sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e  community's p o p u l a t i o n a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x A. The p a t t e r n of the s e t t l e m e n t , i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 14, C a r c r o s s t o be more compact t h a n any I n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y .  The  of the o t h e r  shows  settlements  I n d i a n s e c t o r o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t , as  i n most of the o t h e r communities examined, i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y separated The Fig.  from the W h i t e and b u s i n e s s  southern 14,  s e c t o r of the s e t t l e m e n t . ,  shore of the n a r r o w s , shown as a shaded a r e a  In  i s l a n d w h i c h has been s e t a s i d e by t h e F e d e r a l Govern-  ment f o r I n d i a n use. i n the settlement.  There i s no d i s t i n c t government compound Most of the houses a r e s q u a t t i n g on crown  l a n d a l o n g the n o r t h e r n s h o r e .  Some of t h e s e b u i l d i n g s were  r e p o r t e d t o have been b u i l t h e r e b e f o r e the community was veyed and b e f o r e r e q u i r e m e n t s  sur-  r e g a r d i n g the d i s t a n c e a s t r u c -  t u r e s h o u l d be p l a c e d back from a body of w a t e r were  enforced.  126  A l a r g e a r e a west  o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t was  surveyed i n the  1 9 6 0 s t o a c c o m o d a t e an a n t i c i p a t e d g r o w t h f  in  r e s p o n s e t o two  from the s t r o n g p r e v a i l i n g The  commercial  way  depot  tel  and b a r has  of the settlement  mines d e v e l o p i n g I n t h e a r e a .  c o v e r e d by u n d u l a t i n g s a n d dunes w h i c h northerly  sector  is tightly  the Whitehorse generated  winds o f f Lake clustered  p r o p o s e d by t h e F e d e r a l  Carcross:  junction  Highway i n a n t i c i p a t i o n  i f the Whitehorse  This area i s  are constantly  a r e a a l t h o u g h another development, opened n e a r t h e  early  Bennett.  about  a gas  shifting  the  rail-  station,  mo-  o f t h e T a g i s h Road  and  of t r a f f i c  Highway i s e x t e n d e d  itfhich w i l l  t o Skagway  be  as  Government.  Interpersonal  Relations  Seventy p e r c e n t of the respondents from C a r c r o s s r e p o r t e d that nic  t h e community was lines.  ethnic  religious  d i s t i n c t i o n s , was  sectors a highly  fragmented  along r e l i g i o u s  division, said  of the s e t t l e m e n t .  independent has  The  divided  These  divisions  and  group by  away by r o a d and  ment f o r C a r c r o s s r e s i d e n t s . allowed people t o look outside  eth-  apparent  t o a p p l y t o b o t h White  f u r t h e r m o r e been f a c i l i t a t e d  l e s s t h a n an h o u r  although less  community, c l o s e  in individual  as w e l l i a s  and  than  Indian  have r e s u l t e d i n  i n p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y but actions.  This  independence  the presence of a ready  source of  Whitehorse; entertain-  Ready a c c e s s t o W h i t e h o r s e of t h e i r  has  community f o r r e c r e a - -  127 t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n which i s not f e a s i b l e i n t h e other communit i e s i n which r e s i d e n t s  o f t e n t u r n t h e i r energies  i n t o the s e t -  tlement f o r t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n . The  Tagish  I n d i a n people o f C a r c r o s s  have adopted much o f  the T l i n g i t ' s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n y e t they d i f f e r from the Tesl i n Band .in t h a t there appears t o be l e s s u n i t y w i t h i n the Carc r o s s Band.  Three band members r e p o r t e d  that the d i v i s i o n  among the group r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s views which most commonly found e x p r e s s i o n individual. whlla  i n the d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s  The B a p t i s t and Bahai members a b s t a i n  t h e others  of the  completely  drank.  Indian-White i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o those o f T e s l i n i n t h a t they a r e i n f o r m a l i t y y e t d i f f e r i n t h a t they a r e q u i t e atomized.  F a i r l y extensive  i n t e r a c t i o n s have developed  ween the s t a b l e White p o p u l a t i o n , the settlement  bet-  many of whom have l i v e d i n  f o r more than f i f t e e n years and the r e s i d e n t  Indian p o p u l a t i o n . l i n e s as i n T e s l i n .  A number of marriages have c r o s s e d Routine i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s  ethnic  ethnic lines  are commonplace, p a r t l y due t o the compact nature o f the community . White people have l i v e d i n C a r c r o s s some of whom s t i l l  s i n c e the e a r l y 190.0's,  l i v e i n the settlement.  The White  sector  has,been d i v i d e d i n t o o l d e r permanent r e s i d e n t s , the government  128 employees o r t r a n s i e n t s and those  who r e m a i n i n d e p e n d e n t  community a f f a i r s  "older" settlements.  as i n t h e o t h e r  breakdown i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d a l o n g itical  religious  This  so that  pol-  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e W h i t e s e c t o r o f t h e community  are complex and h i g h l y fragmented. same t y p e s flicts  Respondents expressed  of resentments about t h e permanent-transient  the  con-:  as were v o i c e d i n T e s l i n .  Carcross: The  External Influences  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s  e f f e c t s of external Influences  are d i f f i c u l t  because o f t h e l e n g t h of time t h e settlement to  lines  from  these  reported itical  impacts.  t o assess  has been exposed  Some o f t h e more c o n t e m p o r a r y c h a n g e s w e r e  o r o b s e r v e d t o have had an e f f e c t upon t h e s o c i o - p o l -  structure of Carcross.  The  increasing p o l i t i c a l  s t r e n g t h o f t h e YNB a p p e a r s t o  have c r e a t e d few b e n e f i t s f o r t h e C a r c r o s s with councils i n the other f i v e  settlements.  lems have p l a g u e d t h e Band, I n d i a n a f f a i r s w i t h b a n d members l a r g e l y without  Band i n c o m p a r i s o n Leadership  agents s t i l l  probdeal  on a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , f r e q u e n t l y  e v e n s e e i n g t h e c o u n c i l members a n d I n d i a n  respondents  c i t e d a n t a g o n i s m s w h i c h e x i s t e d b e t w e e n members o f t h e c o u n c i l and  t h e YNB.  ectly and  Two b a n d members s t a t e d t h a t t h e y  t o the IAB, f o r attempting  t h e YNB was e v e n more f u t i l e  Affairs  (personal interview).  still  went ' d i r -  t o work t h r o u g h t h e c o u n c i l than going  d i r e c t i n g t o Indian  129  YANSI has  developed i n t o a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n of  approxi-  mately twenty a c t i v e members which i s b e g i n n i n g t o occupy a p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the character  settlement.  of both White and  Indian  The  highly  key  fragmented  s e c t o r s of the community  c r e a t e d a p o l i t i c a l vacuum YANSI appears t o be f i l l i n g .  has  Be-  cause of t h e i r dual e t h n i c a l l e g i e n c e , they have been able i n t e r a c t across  e t h n i c l i n e s p l a y i n g a mediating r o l e between  s e c t o r s as w e l l as have the e f f e c t of encouraging g r e a t e r p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n these Executive the  to  sectors.  members of the C a r c r o s s  o r g a n i z a t i o n had  coo-  Community Club s a i d that  become almost i n o p e r a t i v e at times because  of p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s which e x i s t e d among i t s membership. respondent went as f a r as t o say  t h a t the c l u b was  as a p o l i t i c a l forum f o r l o c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  there  i n p r a c t i c e w i t h only which the settlement  few is  had  been  administrative in  administered.  l o c a t e d i n the community f o r some time and  RCMP have been  have become r e l a t i v -  e l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o community a f f a i r s .  The  reopening of  R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l promises t o i n t r o d u c e  changes i n t o the settlement e c t i o n or extent  organiza-  successes i n i n f l u e n c i n g the way  Government s e r v i c e s such as the s c h o o l and  the C a r c r o s s  only  Nev.etheless a  survey of the c l u b ' s proceedings i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t i o n s , although r e c r e a t i o n a l i n design,  One  but  any  comment r e g a r d i n g  would be h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e at t h i s  some ' the  dir-  stage.  130 The  last  s e t of e x t e r n a l l y generated Impacts t o be c o n s i d e -  r e d i s r e l a t e d t o mining.  T h i s has p o s s i b l y had the g r e a t e s t  s i n g l e i n f l u e n c e upon the community i n the l a s t t e n y e a r s .  Two  mines near C a r c r o s s were d i s c o v e r e d , developed, opened, operat e d and c l o s e d over t h i s time p e r i o d . it  Each mine brought  a boom i n the l o c a l economy c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s e d  with land  s p e c u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t r a n s i e n t s i n community affairs.  The busts  f o l l o w i n g trie mine c l o s u r e s were  characte-  r i z e d by a s u r p l u s labour p o o l , s u r p l u s s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and t o a l i m i t e d extent tlement  a r e d u c t i o n i n community a f f a i r s .  appears t o have weathered these  The s e t -  changes f a i r l y w e l l ,  p o s s i b l y because many of the changes which accompanied the peop l e who came i n with the boom a l s o l e f t when the mines shut down.  Carcross: The  Regional  relatively  P o l i t i c a l Interaction short d i s t a n c e between Whitehorse and Car-  c r o s s appears t o have had as many disadvantages as advantages i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s between the community and the s e n i o r governments i n the Yukon. from the settlement  A l l but three of the f o u r t e e n respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t people In the community  dom saw the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l o r f o r t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c y though he l i v e d i n Whitehorse.  One person expressed  that the government f e l t t h a t most of C a r c r o s s met  seleven  the view  needs c o u l d be  i n Whitehorse, a view which has c r e a t e d a dependency upon  131  the  resources  of the r e g i o n a l  the Carcross respondents inputs on  to senior levels  that  of government  Low-Cost R e n t a l - P u r c h a s e  approximately terested  forty  percent  i n housing  as a s s e s s e d by  they  had  felt  slight  the  under the survey  housing  The received appears an  extent  Housing  scheme.  that  of  their  t o no  effect  The  The  indicated  quality  F i g u r e 15  shape.  that  s a m p l e d were i n of  shown i n T a b l e 2 ,  team and  housing indicates  illustrates  o f t h e c o n t a c t s w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d  the  about  the  program.  Territorial  Housing  i n Carcross than to l i e ,  program appears  any  survey  In p a r t , w i t h the  was  needs  through  the  acceptance program  a l s o a member o f  t o be  o b j e c t t o t h e p r o g r a m and  of the  efforts  p r o g r a m as a way  Similarly  better  the  team.  members f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g . housing  This  support g i v e n t o the  C a r c r o s s Band C o u n c i l a p p e a r s  which d i d not  t o have been  other settlement.  e x e c u t i v e member o f YANSI who  housing  survey  of the households  of the houses a r e i n poor  t y p e s and  by  indicated  Ninety-five percent  t h e ways i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s were made. The  29%  center.  A council  Indian people of e i t h e r  of meeting  the  this  the  attempt  only  t o keep  member s a i d  o f C a r c r o s s had IAB  o r YNB  and  council  he  that not  band the been  viewed  need.  members o f t h e w h i t e  s e c t o r of the  settlement  met the  132  15?  ^5935 CARCROSS.  INTERACTIONS  FIGURE  15  HOUSING ISSUES  NDIAN.  INTERACTIONS  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COMMISSIONER  FEDERAL AGENCIES  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  zn t— _i  TREASURY  o CD  _ J to < h— 2 CC LU  HEALTH WELFARE REHAB.  o z: i - t— or a: < cc a. LU LU  EDUCATIC  LOCAL SCHOOL  PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT  WHITE RESIDENTS  COMMUhi I TY LUB  <  CO LU h-  nz  co  •z to <_) CL. CC LU — • LU <_) CC HZ — o  .  INFO. SERVICES  NORTHERN I I .A. B DEVELOPMENT!  (> co fCC CC  O CC 2  LU CO  —  —  •5  13g FIGURE  15  W H I T E . . . I N T E R A C T IONS  FEDERAL AGENC I ES  NORTHERN I I .A. B DEVELOPMENT!  HI  CO LU  < LU  . . in o . or QL.  z:  to  LU  LU (_>  CC  IO 2  CO  .o _u  CJ  3  —  —  CC  — o > 1— CO cc LU CO  •z.  CO LU CJ  I  o—  I  CD LU  —I  CO  Q  <  I— <  p^ > a: LU  >- CO  I  CO LU  —  m u. LL. — o  <  WHITEHORSE CARCROSS  NONSTATUS RES. YANSI.  BAND COUNCI  INDIAN RESIDENTS  133  viewed  t h e p r o g r a m a s a way  idents  f o r housing.  and t h o s e  scheme i n d i c a t e d  they  t o the housing  Department  interested  had e x p r e s s e d  survey  i n housing  their  team a n d t h e y  t o have b e e n c o n d u c t e d  resulted  i n a short l i f e  ated at a personal l e v e l E d u c a t i o n Branch program. ernment  about  would c o n t a c t t h e  similar  A lack  repor-  of i n t e r e s t  Contacts  b e t w e e n members  of the V o c a t i o n a l  were  gener-  I n s t r u c t o r who was t o r u n t h e  the extent  o f t h e community-gov-  a n d shows them t o be r e l a t i v e l y  with the interactions issues.  was a p p r o p r i a t e .  e d u c a t i o n program  i n Carcross.  and t h e l o c a l  interactions  to partici-  t o the course.  P i g . 16 i n d i c a t e s  i n compairison  res-  under the  intent  o f L o c a l Government when t h e t i m e  C r a f t s p r o g r a m was t h e o n l y a d u l t ted  t h e n e e d s o f some  Pew o b j e c t i o n s were v o i c e d i n i n t e r v i e w s  with respondents  pate  of meeting  generated  simple  i n Ross R i v e r  134 CARCROSS...  INTERACTIONS ADULT  FIGURE  16  EDU( - -'^ —'-<^I.I.CC_ tA  T  11  SETTLEMENT...INTERACTIONS  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COMMISSIONER  FEDERAL AGENCIES  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  X  CO LU  _l 1<  1—  LU X  TREASURY  CO (_> CL. CC LU — • LU O X — o •  o  CD  —  z  CC LU  CC  1— LU>co1— CC CC  O Z  —  CO  X  HEALTH WELFARE REHAB.  o 2: I— h-  — CC CC < CC CL.  LU LU  \— Q  EDUCATIO  LOCAL GOVT.  PUBLIC WORKS  WHITEHORSE CARCROSS LOCA SCHOfl  PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT  <  —  Z  z  .  INFO. SERVICES  NORTHERN T I .A. B DEVELOPMENT!  co Q  or LU  CO LU O CC  LU  co  o CD CO LU LU CC O CO U_ < U-  135 Haines J u n c t i o n :  Geographic S e t t i n g  Haines J u n c t i o n i s l o c a t e d a l o n g the n o r t h bank of the Dezadeash R i v e r at the j u n c t i o n of the Haines Road and A l a s k a Highway.  the  Kluane Game p r e s e r v e , which has r e c e n t l y  become a n a t i o n a l park, l i e s t o the south and t o the west of the two  highways.  Large and  S t . E l l a s range a l s o borders  rugges mountains, the edge of the the settlement t o the south  west.  • '•  The  and  '  community i s one hundred t e n m i l e s from Whitehorse  one hundred f o r t y m i l e s from t i d e w a t e r a t Haines,  Haines J u n c t i o n :  and  Alaska.  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  Haines J u n c t i o n area does not appear t o have been t e r r i t o rially  dominated by one group of I n d i a n people  contact p e r i o d .  T l i n g i t s undoubtly  d u r i n g .the p r e -  moved through  the r e g i o n ,  although areas t o the e a s t , near A i s h i k i k Lake were more e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d e r o u t e s w i t h more abundant and d i v e r s e food supplies. A review  Tutchone and T a g i s h a l s o have i n h a b i t e d the r e g i o n . of the l i t e r a t u r e  ( M c C l e l l a n d , 1964;  and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h respondents, h i g h l y t r a n s i t o r y , and was  Osgood, 1936)  i n d i c a t e t h a t the area  most r e c e n t l y s e t t l e d by the  . was  Tlingit  d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h . Canyon, the n e a r e s t settlement t o Haines J u n c t i o n , d e v e l o -  136  ped around a road house along the Kluane wagon road which  was  b u i l t t o p r o v i d e access t o mining areas on the southern end Kluane Lake.  The  of  19^2  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway i n  r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s u r e of the road houses and the development of  s e t t l e m e n t s at other nodes. The  J u n c t i o n of the Haines Road, which ran p a r a l l e l t o an  o i l p i p e l i n e , w i t h the A l a s k a highway was for  an i d e a l  location  a communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c i n g c e n t e r .  s e t t l e m e n t of Haines those s e r v i c e s .  Junction i n i t i a l l y  As highway t r a f f i c  developed  to provide  i n c r e a s e d a f t e r the  the s e t t l e m e n t began t o develop t o u r i s t  the community's l a b o u r f o r c e was  tenance  and t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s i n  Haines  J u n c t i o n was  war,  oriented services to  the extent that Duerden (1971) e s t i m a t e d t h a t s i x t y of  The  percent  employed i n highway main-  1963.  predominately  out the f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s .  a White community  I t was  through-  only i n the mid  fif-  t i e s t h a t a permanent I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n began t o l i v e ~ " i n the vicinity  of the s e t t l e m e n t , when l a n d t o the east of the com-  munity was  r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n use, as shown i n P i g . 17.  White  r e s i d e n t s , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of the community's development, were g e n e r a l l y employed by the government as Army road maintenance crews, c i v i l ing  s e r v a n t s working on the p i p e l i n e or p r o v i d -  community s e r v i c e s .  Some of these people have'remained i n  the community and taken up other b u s i n e s s e s a f t e r l e a v i n g  the  137 government. An  e x p e r i m e n t a l f a r m o p e r a t e d by  of  A g r i c u l t u r e was  to  1970.  The  t i o n , was  The  farm, l o c a t e d  phased  centralize  d e v e l o p e d and  were f i r s t  their  t h r e e m i l e s west  own  and  recreation  character.  facilities,  i n t h e words o f one  transient  created  of ongoing  respondent,  by b u c k i n g W h i t e h o r s e  Kluane  and  i t s resbuilt  service  community  activi-  " l e a r n e d how learning stay  org-  to  from  do the  i n t h e commu-  interview).  H a i n e s J u n c t i o n became a L o c a l Under the LID  Improvement D i s t r i c t  o r d i n a n c e , an e l e c t e d b o a r d  trustees  a d m i n i s t e r t h e o p e r a t i o n and  services  and recommend t o t h e T e r r i t o r i a l  requirements r e l a t e d the r e v i s e d  session  Servi-  They have  active  government employees d u r i n g t h e i r  n i t y " (personal  tains  Alberta.  of Haines J u n c t i o n ' s development,  have shown an i n d e p e n d e n t  1968,  to  Park.  a l o t of things  in  Junc-  a s s i g n e d t o t h e Yukon F o r e s t  a n i z a t i o n s , generated a v a r i e t y ties  of Haines  became p a r k h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r t h e new  From t h e o u t s e t idents  1950's  o p e r a t e d from the l a t e  out i n t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t e m p t  then, i n 1972,  National  Department  northern farming operations i n Beaverlodge,  facilities  ces,  the F e d e r a l  LID  t o community  maintenance  of t h r e e  of  Government  services.  Appendix  community capital B  o r d i n a n c e as ammended i n t h e 1972  of the T e r r i t o r i a l  Legislature.  (LID)  confall  138  One  of the  most r e c e n t  changes r e l a t e d t o the ernment d e s i g n a t e d  and  p o s s i b l y the  settlement  much o f t h e  occured  Kluane  nal  Park.  had  b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d f o r some t i m e and  that  A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s  i t hadn't happened  Haines J u n c t i o n both Federal ted  and  t o Haines  people  i n 1956  stable  over the  ated  fifty  are  Territory,  shows an  abrupt  i n 1961.  subsequent  increase The  ten years.  and east  the  of the  settlement  t o be  Indian  p e o p l e who  live  and  settlement  sex  i s given  pattern  commercial area bulk  of t h i s  developing  National  Park,  commit-  piece'.  As  had  b e e n made  avail-  199,  1971  remained  fairly  census^ shows  o f w h i c h an  population  i n Appendix  estim-  t o the  development  year  characte-  A.  of Haines J u n c t i o n  z o n e ; h o w e v e r , s e w e r and  seventy-four  i n Haines J u n c t i o n  runs p a r a l l e l  of r e s i d e n t i a l  Patterns  from  The  by  The  action  b e e n a v a i l a b l e to  population  ristics  17.  Natio-  not  Settlement  A more d e t a i l e d b r e a k d o w n o f t h e  The  'show,  Gov--  regretable  i n t e n t of  a  round.  age  the  i t was  f o r the  a  o f g o v e r n m e n t have  settlement  D e m o g r a p h i c and  t o 187  population  Federal  Junction.  Haines J u n c t i o n : Census data  that  With the  levels  i n the  when t h e  indicated that  a s s i s t a n c e w h i c h had  communities  significant  Game R e s e r v e as  main s e r v i c e a r e a  Territorial  financial  most s m a l l  the  the  t h e m s e l v e s t o making the  a result,  able  as  sooner.  most  i s shown i n F i g . Alaska  Highway  i s situated to  water f a c i l i t i e s  the have  T4-0  been p r o v i d e d  f o r the blocks  working f o r R u s s e l l s The T e r r i t o r i a l g a r a g e s and  Transport,  itrarily  o f t h e highway  quarters  (as. on P i g . 17)  f o r employees. stated  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  The D i r e c t o r  that  Haines J u n c t i o n  and  b a s i s , has a l e v e l w h i t h was  of p u b l i c  much h i g h e r  t h e community, on a  of the other  was  arb-  Appen-  available i n percapita  s e r v i c e s and economic  t h a n any  which  lands.  t h e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  area.  of L o c a l  of the Board of Trustees  shown t h a t  crew,  contains  t h e LID boundary  drawn I n t e n t i o n a l l y t o e x c l u d e I n d i a n  dix A also describes  and a  r e c e n t l y moved i n t o t h i s  Government compound  Government and a T r u s t e e delineates  west  vitality  communities  stu-  died.  Haines Junction; The g e n e r a l differs sector  Internal Interpersonal socio-political  from the other  communities  the Indian  idents  of the settlement  ficant  cultural  the  Indian  different, social  The  character studied  o f t h e community has b e e n w e l l  t i m e , and t h a t  Relations  p e o p l e who  of Haines i n that  established  f o r some recent  and a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d a l e s s  sector  o f t h e community  a d i f f e r e n c e which Is r e f l e c t e d  and p o l i t i c a l  t h e White  are r e l a t i v e l y  i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e community.  and White  Junction  actions  res-  signi-  Nevertheless, are  i n the  culturally divergent  o f t h e members o f e a c h g r o u p .  C h a m p a g n e / A i s h i h i k band membership i s s c a t t e r e d  between  A i s h i h i k , Champagne, Canyon Creek, S i l v e r Creek, K l o o Lake and Kluskshu w i t h the band o f f i c e s and main v i l l a g e i n Haines J u n c t i o n .  The t o t a l band membership  located  as of May 1972  was 179 people approximately a t h i r d of whom a r e year round r e s i d e n t s of Haines J u n c t i o n . The band, predominately T l i n g i t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y have had forms of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which more e f f e c t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r d e a l i n g w i t h i n the V/hite c u l t u r e w i t h out l o s i n g t h e i r I n d i a n heritage„than those bands of Athapaskan extraction.  The geographic d i s p e r s a l of the band h a s , however,  appeared t o c r e a t e problems of d i v i s i o n between the band admin i s t r a t i o n and i t s members.  The author was unable t o determine  the extent t o which d i v i s i o n of domestic -groups was r e f l e c t e d i n the geographic f r a g m e n t a t i o n of the band.  T h i s band, u n l i k e  many o t h e r s , has a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n members who have t r a d e s or a r e s k i l l e d workers and a r e s t e a d i l y employed i n the v i c i n i t y of Haines J u n c t i o n .  The band, as i n T e s l i n , i s viewed, as hav-  i n g a u t h o r i t y only i n the domain of " p u b l i c " band i s s u e s .  Ind-  i v i d u a l s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own a c t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d by one respondent, a c o u n c i l member, when he i n d i c a t e d that he would take a house under the T e r r i t o r i a l Low-Cost R e n t a l - P u r chase Housing scheme even, though the band c o u n c i l was attempti n g t o d i s c o u r a g e members from t a k i n g the housing. The settlement of the I n d i a n s e c t o r i n Haines J u n c t i o n a f -  142 t e r W h i t e s had members who pation  developed the  are  employed w i t h  I n community  the  construction  ded  t o minimize the  and  have g i v e n  any  of the  should  not  option in  perceived community  of b e i n g  giance  character  between the  s u c h as  a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h have  included that their  t o chose f r e e l y  In the  the  the  developing  b u s h and  the  i n t e r a c t i o n s are  j o b " seem t o i n v o l v e  considered  a category  and  personal  friendships.  nes  on  a routine  a p p e a r t o be One  patronized  by  basis  "Indian  community  they  to develop a  a type  of d u a l of  two  Indian  bars  other  comThe  live quite  alle-  settlements  settlements  to  studied.  and  relaxed  i n the  occouring  other  was bar.  ethnic  i n the  than observed  community  p e o p l e than the  Into  interactions  I n t e r a c t i o n s which cross those  categorize  enough band members  i n addition to routine  s u c h as  more c a s u a l  of the  The  lifestyle.  more d i f f i c u l t  teractions  the  Cham-  .1  than i n the  "on  than  traditions.  town t y p i c a l  i n Haines J u n c t i o n  ver.  members o f t h e  Indian  ten-  This  Ross R i v e r .  Indian-White  be  study.  In  sectors  "White c h a r a c t e r "  each settlement  without  partici-  or volunteering  o r g a n i z a t i o n , economy and  a p p e a r s t o have a l l o w e d  different  Indian's  s u c h as K l u k s h u h a v e r e m a i n e d  able  band  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  band have l o s t  in their  number o f  the  dances  more o f a  settlements  communities  munities"  s u c h as  taken t o suggest  pagne/Aishihik smaller  affairs  W h i t e s and  of a b u i l d i n g are  the  other be  community, t h e  more  l i -  store,  i n Ross R i frequently  Relations  bet-  14-3  ween Whites and Indians in Teslin.  i n t h i s bar were r e l a x e d as they were  The f o r m a l i t y , apparent i n Ross R i v e r , was  missing.  Contacts which have developed between Whites and Indians  who  are employed by the same employer appear t o have i n c r e a s e d understanding  and t o l e r a n c e a c r o s s  ethnic l i n e s ;  these i n t e r a c t i o n s seem t o have p r o v i d e d  furthermore,  members of the Indian  s e c t o r with a working knowledge of the p o l i t i c a l and economic nature of white s o c i e t y .  F r i e n d s h i p s between Indian and White  r e s i d e n t s are more frequent  and r e p o r t e d l y more c a s u a l .  Mem-  bers of both s e c t o r s do not appear t o view these r e l a t i o n s i n the p o l a r i z e d manner as i n Ross R i v e r , Many of the White r e s i d e n t s of Haines J u n c t i o n have i n the community  f o r more .than t e n y e a r s ;  been i n the community  some of them have  s i n c e i t was s e t t l e d i n the l a t e 40's.  Throughout t h i s p e r i o d many s k i l l e d p e o p l e , a s s o c i a t e d the experimental  lived  with  farm, p i p e l i n e , game r e s e r v e , government s e r -  v i c e s and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s have l i v e d i n the community put t h e i r ideas and e n e r g i e s these people s t i l l idence  i n t o community  l i v e i n Haines J u n c t i o n .  affairs.  and  Some of  The l e n g t h of r e s -  of many Whites has been a f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l  s t a b i l i t y u n l i k e the v o l a t i l e  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Ross River.  The i n n o v a t i v e ideas of the t r a n s i e n t r e s i d e n t s have g i v e n the more permanent members of the community  a fund  they may r e f e r t o f o r f u t u r e courses of a c t i o n .  of  experiences  w The  'typing*  of new  residents  i n Haines J u n c t i o n  is a  slower, more c a s u a l p r o c e s s i n comparison w i t h the somewhat urgent a t t i t u d e towards newcomers which c h a r a c t e r i z e d Ross R i ver residents.  A l l but  one White respondent s t a t e d t h a t  s e c t o r of the community was There was,  d i v i d e d i n t o groups or c l i q u e s .  however, l i t t l e agreement as t o who  members, how  difficult  i t was  were c l i q u e  t o become a member and  the r o l e of the c l i q u e s i n the community. and  their  The  what were  inconsistencies  d i v e r s i t y of these views along w i t h the f a c t t h a t most of  the respondents f e l t t h a t they were o u t s i d e  the c l i q u e s they  claimed e x i s t e d , l e d the author t o b e l i e v e t h a t the are g e n e r a l l y  cliques  s m a l l groups of c l o s e f r i e n d s which, from  o u t s i d e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , are l a r g e r and  the  more encompassing than  they are i n f a c t . A fairly  steady l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y has  white r e s i d e n t s  of Haines J u n c t i o n  the more economically t o enjoy. for  T h i s may  the scarce  freedoms which members of  m a r g i n a l communities have not been able be the r e s u l t  resources  of more i n t e n s e  This  ap-  atmosphere i n d e a l i n g w i t h  affairs.  Haines J u n c t i o n :  Since  competition  of the m a r g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t .  pears t o decrease the c o - o p e r a t i v e community  allowed  External Influences ships  the 1920's the s o c i a l and  on I n t e r p e r s o n a l  political  character  Relation-  of H a l -  nes  J u n c t i o n has been d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d  of e x t e r n a l l y still  having  elopment  generated an e f f e c t  the proposed  paving  in  t h e impact changes a r e  The p o l i t i c a l  dev-  the d e s i g n a t i o n of the settlement  and c l o s i n g  of the Haines  of the experimental Road a n d t h e A l a s k a  the settlement t o the Alaska Border  a n a t i o n a l park the  Contemporary  upon t h e community.  o f t h e band c o u n c i l ,  as an L I D , t h e o p e n i n g  from  influences.  through  out o f t h e Kluane  farm, Highway  and t h e c r e a t i o n o f  Game P r e s e r v e a r e some o f  e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h have c h a n g e d t h e community b u t t h e same p r o c e s s , t h e s e  e x t e r n a l f o r c e s have tended  t o draw  t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t t o g e t h e r when d e a l i n g w i t h "outside pressures".  The  IAB h a s t r e a t e d  t h e C h a m p a g n e / A i s h i h i k Band a s two  s e p a r a t e bands w i t h members 1971  scattered  a band c o u n c i l was e l e c t e d  of these p e o p l e . band I n overcoming fairs  of a widely  degree reached  The Y u k o n N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d problems  In  affairs  assisted the  inherent i n administering thea f -  d i s p e r s e d band.  Through these  o f c o - o p e r a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h community  efforts  a  i s s u e s was  among band members.  local  employment, r e m e d i e d  to the s o c i a l ties  area.  t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e band  A w i n t e r works p r o g r a m t o r e p a i r ided  over a l a r g e  cohesiveness  and r e n o v a t e  some h o u s i n g  of the group.  houses  prov-  p r o b l e m s and a d d e d  Even though  difficul-  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e programs, such as d e l a y s i n p a y i n g  146  the  workers, r e f l e c t e d n e g a t i v e l y  net  e f f e c t s were b e n e f i c i a l  demonstrated the  strengths  upon t h e  t o the and  band c o u n c i l ,  administration  possibilities  of  the  i n that i t  collective  band a c t i o n . YANSI i s r e p r e s e n t e d k n i t group. community local 1972  Members o f t h e  organizations  YANSI g r o u p was but  1972)  more r e c e n t  i n d i c a t e that  within  the  i n Haines J u n c t i o n  as  not  w e l l as clearly  their defined  organization  1950's the  P a r t l y i n r e a c t i o n t o the  v  and  has  p a r t l y i n response t o the the  munity, c i v i l i a n  residents  created  t i m e i t was  created  functioned  trative  the  of  (Feb.,  and  up  role  the  The  of the  club  some a d m i n i s -  community. social LID  and  was  to a l i m i t e d extent,  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968,  the  characteristically  activities  com-  From  LID,  the  scope of c l u b  organiza-  Community C l u b .  formation  the  needs of the  i n many r o l e s ; some p o l i t i c a l ,  The  Army  recrea-  n e e d f o r an  administrative  t o the  some r e c r e a t i o n a l .  the  i n community  i n r e s p o n s e t o s e n i o r government d e c i s i o n s which  when t h e  summer  taken a stronger  ted  tional,  the  Army's d o m i n a t i n g r o l e i n  deal with  club  during  r o l e of  members o f N.C.O. Mess w i t h  t i o n which c o u l d  the  The  from the Whitehorse S t a r  Highway M a i n t e n a n c e - c r e w became i n v o l v e d  activities  own.  other  community.  D u r i n g the  tion.  a small c l o s e l y  association participate in  articles the  by  included  political  ac-  influenced recrea-  functions  Respondents from  Haines  147  Junction ved  indicated that  i n club  followed  i s s u e s were g e n e r a l l y  m e e t i n g s , as opposed t o t h e p r o c e d u r e  i n communities  groups d i s c u s s  issues  such as Ross R i v e r  Issues.  g a i n e d about  the functioning  co-operation  and c o h e s i o n i n t h e f a c e  Council  the  as an experiment government  Yukon i n 1 9 6 8 .  ted Trustees  impression was one o f organiza-  acting  t o play  formalized  role  o f t h e community  were d e s i g n a t e d  of the D i s t r i c t  club  of e l e c operate  own o r h a v e  o f the Commissioner.  i n determining  procedures.  Junc-  i n A p p e n d i x B,  member b o a r d  the designated  from the D i s t r i c t ' s  decisions.  Haines  improvement D i s t r i c t i n  improvements which they  nity  attempts  local  t o manage on b e h a l f  a large  responsibilities  communities.  as t h e e x e c u t i v e  o f t h e L I D , has a l l o w e d  successful,  some  The L I D o r d i n a n c e , i n c l u d e d  maintain the l o c a l  following  i n 1965 by t h e T e r r i t o r i a l  t o unorganized  form  out  club  of external  a d i s t r i c t i n which a three  been a u t h o r i z e d  tal  The g e n e r a l  i n allocating  was t o become t h e t h i r d  established  and  a n d Carmacks where  o f t h e community  L I D o r d i n a n c e was p a s s e d  local  tion  grequently  a c t i n g upon t h e community.  The  of  resol-  among t h e m s e l v e s a n d came t o m e e t i n g s  w i t h p o l a r i z e d p o s i t i o n s about  tions  a i r e d and  This  area  The  o f t h e commu-  i t s own a f f a i r s  by  h a s p r o v e n t o be more  perspective, to influence  t h a n t h e ad-hoc senior  governmen-  The b o u n d a r i e s  o f t h e L I D , as shown i n F i g . 1?  such t h a t  excluded  they  the Indian  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e band c o u n c i l ( p e r s o n a l  lands  with-  interviews).  148  A n t i c i p a t e d problems i n working out the s h a r i n g of c o s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a scheme which would i n v o l v e Indian and T e r r i t o r i a l lands under an LID, appears t o have encouraged the government tehorse  t o shy away from such an arrangement.  S t a r (Feb, 1973)  The Whi-  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the band resented t h e  LID's p r o p o s a l t o change t h e name of Haines J u n c t i o n t h e i r v o t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which has been excluded  without s i n c e the  i s s u e was t o be decided by t h e people w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . The LID has' p r o v i d e d  l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h what i s viewed  as a d i r e c t l i n e t o t h e d e c i s i o n makers.  The monthly meeting  of the board a r e seldom attended  by observers  but two of the  t r u s t e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t requests  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s came t o  them most f r e q u e n t l y on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s which i n t u r n would be d i s c u s s e d a t board meetings.  The LID appears t o have i n -  f l u e n c e d the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the s e t t l e m e n t .  It  has g i v e n freedoms and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which have been w e l l managed, l a r g e l y because of the d e d i c a t e d nature  o f the l o c a l  trustees. Haines J u n c t i o n i s the home of the Carmacks-Kluane member of the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l who a l s o holds a p o s i t i o n on the T e r r i t o r i a l Executive  Committee,  Her r e c e p t i v e manner and  w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n has encouraged many r e s i d e n t s of the community weight.  t o f e e l t h a t t h e i r v o i c e on i s s u e s c a r r i e s some Her husband i s the Chairman of the LID so there i s  a great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n and Ideas exchanged on i s s u e s r e l -  149 ated to local  The by  government.  Haines  the F e d e r a l  an e x t e r n a l  J u n c t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, owned and  operated  Government D e p a r t m e n t  exercised  influence  i n the a f f a i r s  f a r m , when o p e r a t i n g , employed a s a g r o n o m i s t s who affairs in  men  settlements.  The  The  resulting  decision  Closing  the farm r e s u l t e d  b e r s who  had p a r t i c i p a t e d  of l o c a l  employment  feed  had  acquired  from  well  community working  enough  game o u t f i t t e r s ' h e r d o f h o r -  to centralize  d e c i s i o n which  deal to  farm a l s o produced  .  northern experimental farms,  i n the p h a s i n g out t h e H a i n e s  level  The  f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t as  were a b l e t o o f f e r a g r e a t  f e e d t o meet t h e n e e d s o f l o c a l  senior  o f t h e community.  t h r o u g h the e x p e r i e n c e s they had  other r u r a l  ses.  of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  an  J u n c t i o n f a r m , was  impact  upon t h e  a  community.  i n t h e d e p a r t u r e o f many s t a f f memi n community  opportunities  and  affairs,  the  reduction  the e l i m i n a t i o n  of  local  supplies.  The Services  f a r m i s no acquired  longer actively the s i t e  of d e v e l o p i n g a f o r e s t r y when t h e N a t i o n a l quarters  The  t o Kluane  Federal  s e r v e would  worked.  f o r a short  Yukon"Forest  p e r i o d w i t h the  management d e p o t  Parks Branch a c q u i r e d National  The  but  this  was  the farm f o r a  intent changed head-  Park.  Government's  statement  that  the Kluane  Game  become a n a t i o n a l p a r k r e p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r s e t o f  e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n s which  have  influenced  the  socio-political  Re-  150 character cussions tion  of Haines J u n c t i o n . i n the T e r r i t o r i a l  o f developments  Plans  These d e c i s i o n s generated  Council regarding  i n Haines J u n c t i o n  f o r t h e community were b e i n g  of r e f e r e n c e  apparently  being  s e t without  N e n e t h e l e s s most r e s i d e n t s l o o k park i s expected  The  settlement  support  maintenance c o s t s  The  LID r e c e i v e d  and  maintenance  local  of other  o f community  communities  such as $ 5 , 4 5 4  u n d e r t h e Low-Cost  These d e c i s i o n s a r e i n d i c a t i v e  f o r operation  f o r similar three  character  Haines J u n c t i o n :  Regional  communi-  of the i n t e r e s t se-  the  m u n i t y h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by  servi-  Rental-Purchase  and they  t o which the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  com-  i n t h e same  n i o r g o v e r n m e n t have i n H a i n e s J u n c t i o n extent  sizes.  s e r v i c e s i n comparison with  or $5,890 f o r Carcross  t o r e c e i v e housing  the operation  o f $ 2 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1971  of s i m i l a r populations,  program.  terms  consultation.  of s i m i l a r  H a i n e s J u n c t i o n was a l s o among t h e f i r s t  ties  their  t o the prosperity the  when compared w i t h  i n the order  f o r Ross R i v e r  ces.  with  a p p e a r s t o have r e c e i v e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  and  year  by t h e p a r k .  to attract.  amount o f f i n a n c i a l  munities  forward  the c e n t r a l i z a -  created  prepared  dis-  also  reflect  o f t h e com-  "outside" forces.  Political  Interactions  o The dents  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s the extent  t o which  resi-  o f Haines J u n c t i o n have been p o l i t i c a l l y  involved  with  151  BaraBBiSsssa  HAINES  JUNCTION.  INTERACTIONS HOUSING  FIGURE  18  ISSUES N O N S T A T U S . . . INTERACTIONS  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT GOMMISSI ONER  NORTHERN I 1 .A.B DEVELOPMENT!  FEDERAL AGENCIES  EXECUTIVE  zc  OO  COMMITTEE  LU  < LJL) X  TREASURY CL.  •  .  INFO.  z CC  co  LU  CJ —  X  1-  1—  J-  OO  LU  CC  o  CJ  LU  cc: a: O  LU  CC  2  OO  CO  i LU o z — o > CC y  o  1-  >  oa  <  00  OO  oo  —  o z  CC LU  t-  <  <  r>  LU  >- oo  z o  CD C O LU  CC CO <  LU O  u. LL.  — o  SERVICES  z CC  o  HEALTH  CD  < — CC o i— — CC CC  hz LU s: i— cc < a.  LU  LU  WELFARE REHAB.  LOCAL GOVT.  DUCATIOf  PUBLIC WORKS WHITEHORSE  HAINES LOCAL SCHOOL  VHITE  JUNCTION  PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT  RESIDENTS  ATUS  INDIAN  RES. YANSI COMMU MITY  CLUB  BAND COUNCI_  RESIDENT  152 s e n i o r government a g e n c i e s .  The  involvements of Haines  Junc-  t i o n r e s i d e n t s w i t h e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n makers has d i f f e r e d  from  other communities i n t h a t t h e i r i n p u t s t o s e n i o r governments are viewed, by over h a l d of these people surveyed as having an i n f l u e n c e on the nature of community r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s . The Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t about t h i r t y p e r c e n t of the householders i n Haines J u n c t i o n were i n t e r e s t e d i n and e l e g i b l e f o r housing under the scheme.  Contacts generated by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the hous-  i n g program as shown i n P i g . 1 8 ,  appear t o have been l o c a l l y  channeled .more so i n Haines J u n c t i o n munities studied.  As mentioned  d e s i g n a t e d as one of the f i r s t  than i n the other com-  e a r l i e r , the s e t t l e m e n t  was  t o take p a r t i n the program,  yet the survey r e s u l t s as o u t l i n e d i n Table 2 i n d i c a t e t h a t the q u a l i t y of housing i n Haines J u n c t i o n  i s generally, b e t t e r  than that of the other communities s t u d i e d .  I t appears  as  though the d e c i s i o n t o i n i t i a t e the housing program in^ Haines J u n c t i o n was  not based on need and demand as much as on p a r -  t i s a n p o l i t i c a l grounds.  T h i s p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n seems t o  have gained support from a l l l e v e l s of government i n l i g h t of Haines J u n c t i o n d e s i g n a t i o n C o u n c i l Votes and Proceedings  The Champagne/Aishihik sed the housing scheme.  a "growth c e n t e r "  (Territorial  1972).  Eand C o u n c i l s t a t e d t h a t they oppoThey argued  that such a program would  153  r e s t r i c t t h e scope of a c t i v i t i e s i n which the band c o u l d gene r a t e the c a p i t a l necessary t o i n v e s t i n o t h e r v e n t u r e s .  There  was not concensus among band members i n r e f u s i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e program.  Many would l i k e t o support the Band C o u n c i l ' s  economic g o a l s , but t h e i r p e r s o n a l housing needs outweigh t h i s concern.  The C h i e f of the band i s a l s o an e x e c u t i v e member o f  the YNB.  In t h i s d u a l r o l e , the Band c o u n c i l has d i r e c t  access  t o and support from the YNB on r e s o l u t i o n s which a r e sent t o the IAB.  Furthermore, a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p between and LID  t r u s t e e and band c h i e f a l l o w s f o r more f r e q u e n t l o c a l  resolu-  t i o n o f i s s u e s between t h e band and the white s e c t o r o f the community. YANSI members were r e p o r t e d t o d e a l through t h e community a s s o c i a t i o n on s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n i s s u e s , the LID f o r l o c a l improvements and YANSI f o r i s s u e s which r e q u i r e p o l i t i c a l support.  Members i n t e r e s t e d i n housing d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h the  people c o n d u c t i n g the s u r v e y , the LID and the department of L o c a l Government  t o ensure t h a t they o b t a i n e d a house.  Most White members o f the community  a p p l y i n g f o r housing  under the program a p p l i e d t o the Department of L o c a l Government, a f t e r e x p r e s s i n g an i n t e r e s t t o the Housing Need and Demands survey team.  The LID has been c o n t a c t e d by l o c a l  resi-  dents r e g a r d i n g the l o c a t i o n o f houses t o be b u i l t i n the community under the housing scheme.  The LID has d i r e c t e d i t s ad-  QHHBBOQKSSBB5!  HAINES  JUNCTION.  154 INTERACTIONS  FIGURE  ADULT EDUCATION  19  ISSUES  SETTLEMENT. . . I INTERACTIONS  FEDERAL COMMISSIONER  GOVERNMENT FEDERAL . AGENCIES  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  X l_i  CO LU  <  t-  co  X  TREASURY  z.  •  o•  cc  INFO. SERVICES  LU  CO LU O  h-  >  OC X  —  OC OC O  NORTHERN I .A. B DEVELOPME NTl  LU  z. co  o  —  oc  o h— CO —  X  HEALTH WELFARE REHAB.  LOCAL GOVJ  UNCTION P^L C WORK 5 DEPF VHITE RES I  ATUS RES. YANS I COMMU  BANC COW  NDIAN  RESIDENT  T55  rainistrative  i n p u t s t o the Department of L o c a l Government and  i t s p o l i t i c a l comments appear t o have gone t o the E x e c u t i v e m i t t e e v i a the l o c a l c o u n c i l member.  The c l o s e c o n t a c t s  Com-  bet-  ween the Chairman of the LID and the r e s i d e n t C o u n c i l l o r have allowed f o r a great  d e a l of c o - o p e r a t i v e  i n t e r a c t i o n among the  l o c a l and t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s of government on Issues p e r t a i n i n g t o community  administration  functions.  Two types of a d u l t t r a i n i n g programs have been conducted F i g . 19 i n d i c a t e s t h a t few c o n t a c t s  a t Haines J u n c t i o n .  been generated about a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  t o p i c s , and t h a t , by and  l a r g e , they are low p r o f i l e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . have been g i v e n when a t e a c h e r  have  C r a f t programs  i s a v a i l a b l e and s u f f i c i e n t i n -  t e r e s t i s expressed i n the c r a f t t o warrant the Department of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n ' s endorsement of the program and employment of the i n s t r u c t o r .  Programs of t h i s nature have been ad-  v e r t i s e d through the community  c l u b and arrangements t o admin-  i s t e r and conduct the courses have been made between the p a r t i e s involved.  The Department of E d u c a t i o n appears t o have  encouraged community groups t o take a f r e e hand i n d e s i g n i n g c o u r s e s s u i t e d t o the community, p l a c i n g few c o n s t r a i n t s on the endorsed program. A T e r r i t o r i a l adult education  program which t r a i n s guides  t o work f o r game o u t f i t t e r s was h e l d i n Haines J u n c t i o n the summer of 1 9 7 2 .  during  The program was conducted i n c o - o p e r a t i o n  156 w i t h l o c a l o u t f i t t e r s and, n a t u r e , was The  because of i t s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d  of i n t e r e s t t o only a few  members of the  community.  study i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t an a d u l t  education  program i n Haines J u n c t i o n w i l l r e c e i v e the k i n d of i n t e r e s t p a i d t o the courses conducted i n P e l l y and er  Ross R i v e r .  great-  percentage of employable a d u l t s were employed i n Haines  Junction ployed  i n comparison w i t h other communities.  people t h e r e  i d e n t s who general  i s a correspondingly  With fewer unem-  s m a l l e r number of r e s -  a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , hence l e s s  i n t e r e s t i n such programs.  Both band members and White r e s i d e n t s of Haines who  A  Junction  d e s i r e d f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g of a s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e , attended  courses i n Whitehorse i n order t o a c q u i r e  the d e s i r e d  L i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n appears t o have been g i v e n t o  skills.  holding  these programs l o c a l l y , p r i m a r i l y because of the l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t s a s p e c i a l type of c o u r s e , such as b u s i n e s s management, h o l d s f o r most community r e s i d e n t s .  c h a p t e r  4  Government i n the Yukon The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Canadian T e r r i t o r i e s i s d e s i g n a t e d as a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under s e c t i o n 42 of the 1871 r e v ( i s i o n o f the BNA A c t which reads; " 4 . The Parliament of Canada may from time t o t i m e ^ make p r o v i s i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , peace o r d e r and good government of any t e r r i t o r y not f o r the time being i n c l u d e d i n any P r o v i n c e . " ; ' ^ 1  as such, the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government i s a c r e a t u r e of the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t , w i t h only those f u n c t i o n s of government which have been d e l e g a t e d Yukon A c t . egated  specifically  ( t o the Yukon) by the  Because the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l has only  del-  a u t h o r i t y and because these f u n c t i o n s a r e p r i m a r i l y of  a s o c i a l n a t u r e , the F e d e r a l Government has a more e x t e n s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e i n the Yukon than i t has i n the p r o v i n c e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the F e d e r a l Government's con-  159  t r o l over t e r r i t o r i a l l a n d s ; a p r o v i n c i a l f u n c t i o n i n a province.  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of each  of these l e v e l s of government i n r e l a t i o n .to t h e i r  involve-  ments and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h r u r a l Yukon communities.  A gen-  e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of the f e d e r a l and t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s of government and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be lowed by more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the T e r r i t o r i a l  fol-  Council,  the Commissioner and E x e c u t i v e Committee and the v a r i o u s departments of the t e r r i t o r i a l government.  An examination of the  d i v i s i o n s and agencies of the F e d e r a l Government d i r e c t l y  inv-  o l v e d w i t h r u r a l communities w i l l conclude the c h a p t e r .  Federal - T e r r i t o r i a l Roles: The Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development (DIAND), under the d i r e c t i o n of i t s m i n i s t e r , has a mandate t o a d m i n i s t e r the Yukon Act and o t h e r f u n c t i o n s of Government i n the Yukon.  DIAND i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i v i s i o n s as shown i n  F i g . 20, each of which i s a g a i n d i v i d e d i n t o a number of branches.  The Northern Development D i v i s i o n and the I n d i a n and  Eskimo A f f a i r s D i v i s i o n s study.  aret  of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s  The two branches of the Northern Development D i v i s i o n ;  the Northern Economic Development Branch and the T e r r i t o r i a l A f f a i r s Branch, are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r governing the Yukon d i r e c t l y through f u n c t i o n s they a d m i n i s t e r o r I n d i r e c t l y  either through  the l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which have been d e l e g a t e d t o  ORGANIZATIONAL  NATIONAL PARKS  HISTORIC  CHART:  AFFAIRS  FIGURE  20  CONSERVATION INFORMATION ADVISOR  EDUCATION INDIAN AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? ESKIMO A F F A I R S RESEARCH AND LA ISI ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  TERRITORIAL  DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN A F F A I R S AND NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT  NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT  NORTHERN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION  DEPUTY MINISTER  LANGUAGES  N.C.P.C.  \ MINISTER  161  the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l . Development Branch and  The  D i r e c t o r of the Northern Economic  the Commissioner of the Yukon r e p o r t  d i r e c t l y t o the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of the D i v i s i o n . These Branches i n t e r a c t and territorial  coordinate  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s at  l e v e l through an i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l  committee, c h a i r e d by the Commissioner, and artment and  Federal  coordination  c o n s i s t i n g of dep-  d i v i s i o n heads from a l l t e r r i t o r i a l and  agencies operating  the  federal  i n the Yukon.  Functions:  A s i d e from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i m p l i c i t and the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the Yukon A c t , the F e d e r a l  has  retained  "the c o n t r o l , management and  all  lands  The  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r (Resources) and  s i t u a t e d i n the  explicit  Government  administration  ... Yukon T e r r i t o r y " (RSC,  i n Whitehorse i n i t i a t e , develop and  in  of  1967).  the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r  implement p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d  t o the e f f e c t i v e management of o i l , gas, m i n e r a l , water, f o r e s t and  land resources  i n the Yukon.  Balanced developmental p o l -  i c i e s which ensure a r a t e of economic growth compatible w i t h the a s p i r a t i o n s of the t e r r i t o r i a l r e s i d e n t s , u n d e r l i e management s t r a t e g i e s (DIAND, 1 9 7 0 ) . ween the Water, F o r e s t and Government have p e r m i t t e d  I n f o r m a l agreements  Lands D i v i s i o n and designated  communities t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  resource  lands  the  bet-  Territorial  i n the v i c i n i t y  of  by the Department of L o c a l Gov-  ernment, thus p r o v i d i n g a degree of t e r r i t o r i a l c o n t r o l over  162  the development of settlement this  Branch i s i l l u s t r a t e d  Territorial  patterns.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of  i n P i g . 21.  Functions;  Territorial  f u n c t i o n s are those which have been  delegated  t o the Commissioner or Commissioner-in-Council under the terms of the Yukon A c t . The T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l i s composed of seven e l e c t e d bers r e p r e s e n t i n g  the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s  C o u n c i l has only l e g i s l a t i v e range of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l trative  and e x e c u t i v e  of the Yukon.  powers of government  delegated  by the Yukon A c t , and i s  of the F e d e r a l Government.  f u n c t i o n s of government  when an experiment i n extending  i n the Yukon was  implemented.  The  w i t h i n the  Adminis-  were r e t a i n e d by  the F e d e r a l Government a c t i n g through the Commissioner 1970,  mem-  responsible  The E x e c u t i v e  until  government  Committee,  which  c o n s i s t s of the Commissioner, two A s s i s t a n t Commissioners and two e l e c t e d members of C o u n c i l recommended by C o u n c i l , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s e v e r a l departments of the T e r r i t o r i a l  Government,  departments i s d i r e c t l y w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  as shown i n F i g . 22.  involved i n rural  Each of the  communities.  They  i n some l e n g t h , f o l l o w i n g a more d e t a i l e d  d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n s r i a l C o u n c i l , Executive  Committee  of the T e r r i t o -  and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  r NORTHERN ECONOMIC  WATERS  r  SECTION  J LANDS 8  ••Il-.l1.il—.1  DEVELOPMENT BRANCH  •™  _ j  YUKON FOREST SERVICES  SECTION i.  Ln  FIGURE 21  .  1  A D M I N I S T R A T I V E SUPPORT SERVICES  JP  1  DEPT. OF HIGHWAYS PUBLIC WORKS  AND m x m o  DEPT.  OF LOCAL  cz  GOVERNMENT  o  o ESSSEB  DEPT. OF TREASURY  7N  O  TERRITORIAL  73 73  O  DEPT.  OF  73  EDUCATION  C3  O m  73  DEPT. OF H E A L T H , WELFARE AND R E H A B I L I T A T I O N  DEPT.  OF TOURISM,CONSERVATIOJ NFORMATION SERVICES  O  —H  CZ =Z O  73 73 —  O > m -u x -o m o o  DEPT.  OF LEGAL  AFFAIRS  1/9 U  I  I—  m  1 O  73  165  E x e c u t i v e branches of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l puts forward  l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the ap-  p r o v a l of t h e Commissioner a c t i n g as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e F e d e r a l Government. ceedings  A content  a n a l y s i s of the Votes and Pro-  of the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l and of t h e Committee of  the Whole, which i s the C o u n c i l w i t h t h e Commissioner, d u r i n g the 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 and 1 9 7 2 s e s s i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h e extent t o which t h e s i x communities i n the study group were r e f e r r e d t o i n c o u n c i l and t h e content representatives.  o f t h e r e f e r a l s by t h e i r e l e c t e d  While i t i s r e c o g n i z e d  that a c o u n c i l o r ' s -  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c o n s t i t u e n c y extends w e l l beyond r e f e r r i n g t o t h e needs and demands of t h e community i n the c o u n c i l chamb e r s , the Votes and Proceedings do r e f l e c t  some o f t h e i n t e r e s t s  and a t t i t u d e s o f C o u n c i l o r s toward the r u r a l communities. the f o u r years  surveyed  Over  27% o f the r e f e r e n c e s t o r u r a l commu-  n i t i e s were made by one c o u n c i l o r ! ' from a r u r a l  constituency,  as compared t o 5 $ of t h e r e f e r e n c e s by another c o u n c i l o r a l s o from a r u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y .  T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s the number of  times each o f the s i x communities were d i s c u s s e d , the number of times the statement r e f l e c t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n with the commun i t y , and the i s s u e s most f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o these settlements.  These r e p r e s e n t  about one hundred pages of d i s -  c u s s i o n r e l a t e d t o r u r a l communities i n some 6 , 0 0 0 pages of Vot e s and Proceedings.  Table 3 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Communities i n the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l Number o f times settlement i s refered t o i n Votes and Proceedings Ross  River  Pelly Haines  Crossing Junction  92  % of statements reflecting. consultation  .' 24%  Issues d i s c u s s e d more than 10% of time i n relation to particul a r settlement health services TV, communications housing program  22  7.7*  electrical servicing health services  146  18.9*  school health other LIDs  services  Teslin  63  25.6%  other TV, communications health services  Carmacks  88  29.4%  a i r service e l e c t r i c a l services health services sewer s e r v i c e s  Carcross  50  26.7%  roads community  Total  461  zoning  167  Statements from c o u n c i l o r s r e f l e c t e d a range of views on the forms of l o c a l government and t h e degree t o which sibilities of  should be d e l e g a t e d t o a l o c a l l e v e l .  respon-  A l l approved  some degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e i n g d e l e g a t e d t o the com-  munity, but t h e r e was disagreement on the extent t o which t h i s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d and the form of government r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  There was a l s o l i t t l e  agreement  among the communities s t u d i e d on t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature o f their councilor.Respondents  i n some communities such as  T e s l i n and Haines J u n c t i o n : ; c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  felt  they were being w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i r e l e c t e d member, whereas people  i n o t h e r communities were i n agreement i n s t a t i n g  t h a t they were p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d from t h e i r c o u n c i l o r .  Some  councilors.', were r e p o r t e d t o v i s i t p a r t i c u l a r s e t t l e m e n t s  fre-  q u e n t l y , e n q u i r i n g about l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and e x p l a i n i n g what the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l was d o i n g , whereas others v i s t e d f r e q u e n t l y and d i d not e l a b o r a t e upon t h e proceedings  less  o f coun-  cil. The E x e c u t i v e Committee was c r e a t e d by order of the M i n i s ter  of DIAND i n 1969 i n o r d e r t o " b r i n g the e x e c u t i v e and l e g -  i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f government i n t o c l o s e r harmony" (Yukon Territory 1971).  The E x e c u t i v e  committee:  " a s s i s t s the Commissioner i n two c a p a c i t i e s : A d v i s o r y ; by recommending broad p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the conduct of government business and c o o r d i n a t i o n of government a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s u l t a t i v e ; by t e n d e r i n g a d v i c e  168 t o the Commissioner i n c a r r y i n g out h i s d u t i e s as set down i n the Yukon A c t . The members of the Exec u t i v e Committee a l s o make recommendations respect-.: i n g p o l i c y on a l l l e g i s l a t i o n p l a c e d b e f o r e C o u n c i l '•• by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and, through the Subcommittee on f i n a n c e , recommend the f i n a l l e g i s l a t i v e and budg e t a r y requirements t o be t a b l e f o r c o u n c i l s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y i n d i v i d u a l members of the Exec u t i v e Committee have d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the management of one o r more departments of government, s u b j e c t t o the d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l of the Commiss i o n e r " (YTG . 1 9 6 3 ) . The Committee, shown i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t P i g . 22, has c r e a t e d a p a r t y d i v i s i o n w i t h i n C o u n c i l . who s i t on the E x e c u t i v e  The c o u n c i l l o r s  Committee have been e l e c t e d by Coun-  c i l and, In a sense view themselves as a shadow c a b i n e t . two e l e c t e d members of the E x e c u t i v e the two most p o l i t i c a l l y  settlements Executive  Committee have been g i v e n  s e n s i t i v e p o r t f o l i o s ; Education,  H e a l t h , Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  The  and  Some r e s i d e n t s of r u r a l  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Committee were more r e c e p t i v e t o t h e i r i d e a s  on the than  were the government employees p r e v i o u s l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these departments. The Commissioner p l a y s an awkward d u a l r o l e as a f e d e r a l government employee who Government.  i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o and f o r the Yukon  The A s s i s t a n t Commissioner ( E x e c u t i v e )  e r a l employee w h i l e the A s s i s t a n t Commissioner  i s a fed-  (Administrative)  i s a Yukon Government employee. . The d u a l a l l e g i a n c e of the Commissioner appears t o have r e s u l t e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n of i s sues which may have otherwise become c o n f r o n t a t i o n s .  F o r exam-  169  p i e , problems which would have c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s government departments o r agencies  a t both l e v e l s o f government  a r e s e t t l e d i n t e r n a l l y s i n c e the T e r r i t o r i a l E x e c u t i v e a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t o both l e v e l s of Government.  The demands o f  t h i s p o s i t i o n have made the Commissioner more a t t u n e d i o u s c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e Yukon.  officers  t o var-  As such he i s more a b l e t o p e r -  form one o f h i s main f u n c t i o n s , t h a t of c o o r d i n a t i n g government a c t i v i t i e s i n the T e r r i t o r y . I t has been the p r a c t i c e o f t h e c u r r e n t Commissioner t o •keep h i s door open' t o hear g r i e v a n c e s r u r a l communities. i n t e r v i e w e d i n these was  the l a s t appeal  from t h e r e s i d e n t s o f  Approximately f i f t y p e r c e n t settlements  of t h e people  s a i d t h a t the Commissioner  i n t h e i r attempts a t r e c t i f y i n g l o c a l gov-  ernment a c t i o n s w i t h which they d i d not agree.  The Commissio-  ner,v/though r e c e p t i v e t o these comments, i n s i s t s t h a t t h e p r o pre channel be f o l l o w e d b e f o r e he w i l l a c t upon appeals  (per-  sonel interviews). When t h e s i z e of t h e T e r r i t o r i a l government, i n terms of numbers of employees and budget, i s compared w i t h those the provinces  on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s , t h e Yukon appears t o be 'top  heavy' w i t h government p e r s o n n e l , but t h i s i s m i s l e a d i n g .  If  s i m i l a r comparisons a r e made on t h e b a s i s of t h e area governed, the apparent d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d by the Yukon take  on more e q u i t a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s .  The s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n of  170  r u r a l communities has a l l o w e d government p e r s o n n e l t o know p e r s o n n a l l y many of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n these s e t t l e m e n t s .  While  these p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s have a l l o w e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o become more s e n s i t i v e t o the a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s of  the r u r a l communities, they have a l s o made the a d m i n i s t r a t o r  t o become more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e r u r a l communities, they have a l s o made t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r more a c c o u n t a b l e t o the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , a s i t u a t i o n not found t o the same extent i n l a r g e r c e n t e r s . The v a r i o u s departments of t h e t e r r i t o r i a l government a r e arranged i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework, r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 22.  L i a i s o n s between these departments occur a t two l e v e l s ;  i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which a r i s e d a l l y i n the course o f adm i n i s t e r i n g departmental b u s i n e s s and i n f o r m a l meetings o f department heads a t which government p o l i c i e s and procedures are discussed.  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s d e a l w i t h the ways  i n which some departments i n t e r a c t w i t h r u r a l communities er then each o t h e r . artments  rath-  The a n a l y s i s w i l l be l i m i t e d t o those dep-  a c t i v e l y and d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the communities  i n c l u d e d i n t h e study.  The Department of E d u c a t i o n ; The Yukon Department of E d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e branches; General E d u c a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and the Recrea-  171 tIon-.Branch.  A l l t h r e e f a l l w i t h i n the purview o f the S u p e r i n -  tendent of E d u c a t i o n who i n t u r n r e p o r t s t o t h e e l e c t e d member of t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e d u c a t i o n . e r a l E d u c a t i o n Branch a d m i n i s t e r s and  The gen-  a l l k i n d e r g a r t e n , primary  secondary s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s i n t h e T e r r i t o r y .  Table 4 i l l u s -  t r a t e s s c h o o l enrolment, t e a c h i n g s t a f f and c o s t f o r each of the communities s t u d i e d .  The Department o f E d u c a t i o n  provides  i n s t r u c t i o n a l and c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e t o s c h o o l s , i n a d d i tion to i t s overall administrative functions.  The V o c a t i o n a l  E d u c a t i o n Branch p r o v i d e s programs i n a d u l t upgrading and community c r a f t s as w e l l as f u l f i l l i n g t h a t of conducting  i t s primary o b j e c t i v e ,  t r a i n i n g programs which l e a d t o employment.  These c o u r s e s , g e n e r a l l y o f f e r e d i n Whitehorse, have been extended t o other communities, as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . c r e a t i o n Branch o r g a n i z e s  and a d m i n i s t e r s  The Re-  t r a i n i n g programs i n  a wide v a r i e t y of s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n funds f o r t e r r i t o r i a l a t h l e t i c  events.  Because o f i t s l i n k a g e s w i t h r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s  through t h e  t e a c h i n g s t a f f , a d v i s o r y committees and p a r e n t s , t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n has been i n v o l v e d i n a two-way exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o l o c a l s c h o o l programs.  Relationships are  e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e Department and community members on both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l b a s i s .  Parents  c o n t a c t i n g the r e g i o n a l  o f f i c e most f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t t h e i r comments t o t h e Superintende n t , A s s i s t a n t Superintendent  o r t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee member  Table School  Operations  School  4  (YTG D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t  Enrollment  1972)  Number S t u d e n t / A v e r a g e Grades of Teacher .yearly enrollTeach- R a t i o c o s t s p e r ment student ers  70  71  72  71-72  34  32  32  2  16:1  $1073.00  1-7  59  63  63  3  21:1  $ 824.00  1-9  15  Teslin  98  103  104  5  21:1  $ 849.00  1-9  11  Carmacks  97  93  87  5  17:1  .$ 9 2 2 . 0 0  1-9  11  Carcross  50  52  47  3  16:1  $1353.00  1-9  no p r o g r a m ; closed i n  Pelly  Ross  Crossing  River  71-7 o  71-72  Kindergarten enrollment  71-72 no p r o g r a m  1971 Haines  Junction  62  73  6l  5  12:1  $1196.00  1-10  7  -o ro  173 i n charge of e d u c a t i o n ,  and  i n f a i l i n g to receive a  t o r y response a t t h i s l e v e l , may  address t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s  the Commissioner or t h e i r T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r . the Department of E d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e preference to higher The  satisfac-  f o r s e t t l i n g such g r i e v a n c e s  In a l l c a s e s ,  s t a f f expressed a  without having them go  l e v e l s of government.  c l o s e s t regional-community r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between  the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and These c o n t a c t s  the Department's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to 3  s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and an i n f o r m a l component, the of which i s determined by p e r s o n a l  friendships.  t h a t where f r i e n d s h i p s e x i s t e d , the f o r m a l  conducted i n a more r e l a x e d and administrative  staff.  have a n e c e s s a r i l y l a r g e formal component, cons-  i s t i n g of exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n  ved  to  extent  I t was  obser-  r e l a t i o n s were  i n f o r m a l manner.  Much of  s t a f f ' s time i s spent i n t r a v e l among the  the rural  communities throughout the T e r r i t o r y . CChanges i n s c h o o l programs are i n i t i a t e d a t both "the r i t o r i a l and  l o c a l l e v e l s , but a p p r o v a l  of the Department  E d u c a t i o n i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o i n t r o d u c i n g any changes i n t o the s c h o o l ' s  program.  The  terof  significant  c u r r i c u l a f o r both  primary and  secondary l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n  so t h a t any  changes r e q u i r e d are o f t e n changes i n approach r a t -  her than c o n t e n t . ing teachers  of any  The  are q u i t e  flexible,  Department c i r c u l a t e s d i r e c t i v e s inform-  curriculum  changes made.  Such changes have  174  g e n e r a l l y been w e l l t e s t e d by e d u c a t i o n  r e s e a r c h e r s , so t h a t  r e a c t i o n s from t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e communities a r e u s u a l l y f a v orable.  Programs emanating from the r u r a l communities r e q u i r e  the a p p r o v a l  of the Department o f E d u c a t i o n .  Respondents rep-  o r t e d t h a t p r o p o s a l s a r e o f t e n not t e s t e d beforehand and app e a r , i n the authors some c a s e s .  o p i n i o n , t o be p o o r l y thought through i n  Some parents  and t e a c h e r s  d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the l a c k of support  r e p o r t e d t h a t they were  g i v e n t o i n n o v a t i o n s by the  r e g i o n a l o f f i c e , a r g u i n g t h a t the f i n a l a p p r o v a l  of a d a p t a t i o n s  t o the c u r r i c u l u m t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s should be a l o c a l d e c i s ion. Each of the schools  i n the communities s t u d i e d had an ap-  p o i n t e d p r i n c i p a l who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the day-to-day operat i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l , as w e l l as c a r r y i n g a f u l l time t e a c h i n g l o a d . had A d v i s o r y  A l l of these  communities except  Pelly  Committees c o n s i s t i n g o f a t l e a s t t h r e e members  e l e c t e d from the p o p u l a t i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t .  I t was,their  f u n c t i o n t o a d v i s e the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the Department of E d u c a t i o n  of t h e i r views on the l o c a l s c h o o l program.  l y the A d v i s o r y  Ideal-  Committee and the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l were t o meet  t o g e t h e r , with the l a t t e r ' s r o l e b e i n g t h a t of a c t i n g i n a t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y by g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o the board i n order t o o b t a i n t h e i r views on s c h o o l matters. t o happen i n p r a c t i c e .  T h i s does not appear  The h i g h l y p e r s o n a l nature  e r c a t i o n between a l l those  o f the i n t -  i n v o l v e d and the r e a c t i v e r o l e i n  175 which A d v i s o r y Committees have been c a s t has r e s u l t e d i n e i t h e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between the p r i n c i p a l and  the A d v i s o r y Committee  o r attempts on the p r i n c i p a l ' s p a r t t o use the A d v i s o r y Committee t o g a i n p o l i t i c a l support f o r programs he wishes t o  conduct.  Contacts a r i s i n g from the A d v i s o r y Committees were r e p o r t e d t o be a r e a c t i v e nature i n a l l but T e s l i n .  The  i n p u t s of these  committees were g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d t o the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of the Department or t o the E x e c u t i v e Committee member responsible f o r education. ed themselves as powerless fectiveness.  A l l of the a d v i s o r y committees viewand unable  t o f u n c t i o n w i t h any  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on these committees has  ef-  typically  been white a l t h o u g h some members of the I n d i a n community have been made i n some communities t o ensure t h a t these committees are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of both I n d i a n and White  interests.  Most f o r m a l communications between r e g i o n a l and  community  o f f i c e s occurs by l e t t e r ; however, more e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a l cont a c t s by phone or i n person communications through  seemed t o r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e  e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r m a l p r o c e s s e s .  T h i s seems t o demonstrate the gap which develops  between p r a c -  t i c e and p o l i c y i w h e n p e r s o n a l i t i e s p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n the r e g ional-community  interactions.  During the summer of 1972 h e l d throughout  p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on E d u c a t i o n were  the T e r r i t o r y w i t h the i n t e n t of c o l l e c t i n g  views of the Yukon's r e s i d e n t s f o r a r e p o r t which was  the  to a s s i s t  176 i n the d r a f t i n g of the Yukon E d u c a t i o n Ordinance. paper on t h i s Ordinance was r e a c t i o n s which w i l l  A position  r e l e a s e d i n March 1973  a i d i n formulating a f i n a l  to e l i c i t  proposal.  The  p o s i t i o n paper proposes r e v i s i o n s of the procedures which govern  the I n t e r a c t i o n s between the Department of E d u c a t i o n and  r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s , w i t h a view t o i n c r e a s i n g the and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of community  involvement  residents.  The Department of H e a l t h . Welfare and  Rehabilitation;  The Departments of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n were combined w i t h some s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s over the Department of H e a l t h i n t o one Department i n 1 9 7 0 under a major government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The Department i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o , and  r e c e i v e s broad g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n from, the e l e c t e d member of the E x e c u t i v e Committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r H e a l t h , Welfare  and  Rehabilitation. The S o c i a l Welfare Branch d e a l s w i t h f i v e major f u n c t i o n s ; s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; s e r v i c e s f o r the c a r e of the aged; f a m i l y and c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ; p u b l i c housing programs; and care f a c i l i t i e s .  child-  In the course of p e r f o r m i n g these f u n c t i o n s  the s t a f f of the S o c i a l Welfare branch comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h r e s i d e n t s of r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s through t h e i r f i e l d  personnel  i n the community and through t h e i r r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e c e n t e r s . The f i e l d  s t a f f of t h i s branch operate out of Dawson C i t y ,  Wat-  177 son Lake, Whitehorse and field  Ross R i v e r , as of l a t e 1 9 7 2 ,  o f f i c e i s responsible  f o r dealing with s o c i a l  i s s u e s i n a number of s u r r o u n d i n g The  field  each  welfare  communities.  s o c i a l workers of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch are  r e q u i r e d t o p l a y d i f f i c u l t and They are a b l e t o p r o v i d e on one  and  frequently c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s .  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and p u b l i c housing  hand, y e t have the a u t h o r i t y t o remove a c h i l d from a  home on the o t h e r .  These c o n f l i c t i n g d u t i e s have r e s u l t e d i n  r a t h e r awkard r e l a t i o n s w i t h many i n d i v i d u a l s who i a l a s s i s t a n c e , yet f e a r recriminations impoverished s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . upon t h e i r c o n t a c t s  The  require  r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r  field  staff rely  heavily  w i t h other government p e r s o n n e l who  i n the communities, such as t e a c h e r s  soc-  and  live  the RCMP, t o g a i n  the  overview of community a f f a i r s which i s necessary i n f u l f i l l i n g their functions.  S o c i a l Workers, v i s i t s t o the  range from a weekly t o a bi-monthly b a s i s . g e n e r a l l y b r i e f , a few  communities  These v i s i t s  hours t o a couple of days so t h a t  are cases  which r e q u i r e ongoing or continuous i n t e r a c t i o n s cannot be w i t h i n an a p p r o p r i a t e The  dealt  fashion.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the  operation  of the Yukon C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , J u v e n i l e t r a i n i n g homes and probation  services.  The  Yukon C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , l o c a t e d  i n Whitehorse, i s a s h o r t term d e t e n t i o n which i s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e Yukon o f f e n d e r s .  c e n t e r , the purpose of Probation  personnel  178 w i t h i n the Branch v i s i t their duties.  r u r a l communities i n t h e course o f  R e c e n t l y , p r o b a t i o n p e r s o n n e l have encouraged  r e s i d e n t s i n r u r a l communities such as Ross R i v e r t o accept v o l u n t a r i l y some p r o b a t i o n a r y d u t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o j u v e n i l e s . The v i s i t s  o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a r e i n f r e q u e n t and s h o r t - t e r m  d u r i n g which time the RCMP and School s t a f f a r e g e n e r a l l y conta c t e d i n a d d i t i o n t o c l i e n t s and c i t i z e n v o l u n t e e r p r o b a t i o n officers. The H e a l t h Branch i s s t a f f e d by Northern H e a l t h S e r v i c e s p e r s o n n e l , a d i v i s i o n o f the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , which i s a branch  of t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e ,  and r e c e i v e s broad g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e E x e c u t i v e Comm i t t e e members r e s p o n s i b l e f o r H e a l t h and Welfare itation.  and R e h a b i l -  H e a l t h s e r v i c e s a r e j o i n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , w i t h cap-  i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s shared between t h e T e r r i t o r i a l and F e d e r a l governments.  The d i r e c t i n g p h y s i c i a n r e p o r t s t o both  the Yukon E x e c u t i v e Committee and the R e g i o n a l o f f i c e s ^ of e m Health Services.  North-  The Branch i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u b l i c h e a l t h  programs, mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , v i s i t i n g s p e c i a l i s t s programs, a l c o h o l i s m and o t h e r h e a l t h programs, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e Northe r n H e a l t h zone r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g F e d e r a l h o s p i t a l s . i n the T e r r i t o r y , p r o v i d i n g P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurses and o p e r a t i n g t h e Yukon H e a l t h P l a n . A l l the communities i n c l u d e d i n t h e study have emergency  179  medical f a c i l i t i e s ; sonnel  h e a l t h s t a t i o n s served by l a y m e d i c a l per-  or r e s i d e n t P u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s .  T e s l i n , Carmacks  Haines J u n c t i o n have r e s i d e n t p u b l i c h e a l t h nurses who serve  surrounding  communities.  also  Public health functions  include  both treatment and p r e v e n t a t i v e p r a c t i c e s which i n v o l v e nurse i n frequent i n t h e i r own  homes, as w e l l as c o n t a c t s w i t h s c h o o l  The  the  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h most community r e s i d e n t s  a r i s i n g from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l h e a l t h programs.  and  services provided  personnel  education  by the P u b l i c H e a l t h  Branch  do not appear t o encounter the same degree of d i f f i c u l t y  of  c o n f l i c t from e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s as other governmental s e r v i c e s . A l l e t h n i c s e c t o r s seem t o agree on the e s s e n t i a l and nature of both t h e i r treatment and p r e v e n t a t i v e  beneficial  services.  The  Northern H e a l t h S e r v i c e s s t a r t e d a community h e a l t h worker p r o gram i n 1970  which employed and  i n t h e i r own  communities.  t r a i n e d I n d i a n people t o work  T h e i r f u n c t i o n s and  responsibilities  have been p r i m a r l y r e l a t e d t o p r o v i d i n g ongoing h e a l t h i n cooperation  The  w i t h the v i s i t i n g P u b l i c H e a l t h  education  Nurse.~"  Department of L o c a l Government: The  Department of L o c a l Government, c r e a t e d i n 1970  under  the governmental r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e p o r t s t o the A s s i s t a n t Commissioner  (Executive)  on the E x e c u t i v e  Committee.  The  Depart-  ment c o n s i s t s of f o u r branches: the L o c a l Government Branch, the Accomodation S e r v i c e s Branch, the Lands and  Assessment  180 Branch and "The  the P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s and  I n s p e c t i o n Branch.  primary f u n c t i o n of the L o c a l Government Branch i s  a s s i s t i n g unorganized communities t o become m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as soon as economically tory 1972). isions  The  p o s s i b l e " (Government of the Yukon T e r r i -  Branch performs t h i s f u n c t i o n under the prov-  of the M u n i c i p a l Ordinance and  the L o c a l Improvement  D i s t r i c t Ordinance, s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n s of which are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B.  The  L o c a l Government Branch was  also responsible  f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program u n t i l December 1972  when t h i s f u n c t i o n was  t o the Yukon Housing C o r p o r a t i o n .  turned  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s submit budgets which are  over  organized approved  by the Department of L o c a l Government p r i o r t o submission t o the E x e c u t i v e  Committee f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n .  C o n t a c t s between the L o c a l Government Branch and  the  rural  unorganized communities i n the study group, which i n c l u d e d a l l but Haines J u n c t i o n , were r e p o r t e d t o be both i n f r e q u e n t irregular.  The  and  reported contacts, c i t e d i n r e l a t i o n to l o c a l  government, i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Branch dressed  t h e i r comments and  community.  e n q u i r i e s t o the white s e c t o r of  None of the Band C o u n c i l members i n t e r v i e w e d  a b l e t o r e c a l l any  ad-  discussions with representatives  the  were  of the  Local  Government Branch i n r e l a t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of L o c a l Government i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  The  a u t h o r observed a meeting of  the T e s l i n Community Club, attended  by the D i r e c t o r of the  Dep-  1BT artment o f L o c a l Government, who d e s c r i b e d  the LID Ordinance  w i t h a view t o encouraging the members t o apply t i o n of the settlement t i o n , he d e s c r i b e d t o the d e s i g n a t e d  under the Ordinance.  f o r incorpora-  In h i s  presenta-  the p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t s which would accrue d i s t r i c t , a s s u r i n g r e s i d e n t s t h a t the a d d i t -  i o n a l money s u p p l i e d t o the LID f o r l o c a l s e r v i c e s would not r e s u l t i n increased be  taxes.  There was no mention of who would  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the D i s t r i c t d u r i n g The  these  discussions.  D i r e c t o r o f L o c a l Government and the A c t i n g  Regional  D i r e c t o r o f the Indian A f f a i r Branch both i n d i c a t e d , a t d i f f e r ent t i m e s , t h a t Band C o u n c i l s  had not been asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n LID's because of the a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n sharing  c o s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g  Indian  lands w i t h i n a D i s t r i c t . These i n t e r m i t t e n t c o n t a c t s  between t h e community and the  L o c a l Government Branch c o n t r a s t s w i t h the f r e q u e n t Interactions reported and  the Department.  d e a l of c o - o p e r a t i o n  t o occur between  and r e g u l a r  the Haines J u n c t i o n LID  R e s i d e n t s of t h i s LID s t a t e d t h a t a g r e a t and a s s i s t a n c e was f o r t h c o m i n g from the  L o c a l Government Branch, and a l l other Government Departments, upon t h e i r r e q u e s t .  One t r u s t e e put i t t h i s way;  "The government i s very approchable and h e l p f u l , as a consequence we g e t t h i n g s done" ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w ) . The  Department o f L o c a l Government d i d not c o n t a c t  organi-  1:82 z a t i o n s i n r u r a l communities i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e Low-Cost R e n t a l Purchase Housing  Program.  The team employed t o conduct  the s u r -  vey i n t e r a c t e d w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e community's popul a t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d i n Appendix A.  Some of t h e Ross R i v e r r e s -  pondents s a i d t h a t t h e community had not been informed t h a t t h e housing program was s l a t e d f o r t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t i n 1972 u n t i l they r e a d the t e n d e r l i s t i n g s f o r houses.  D e c i s i o n s about the  l o c a t i o n and number o f houses t o be b u i l t had been made w e l l b e f o r e any f o r m a l survey had been conducted t a t i o n w i t h r e s i d e n t s o f Ross R i v e r .  and without c o n s u l -  This c o n t r a s t s dramati-  c a l l y w i t h t h e p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d i n Haines J u n c t i o n .  The LID  r e p o r t e d t h a t they were i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Department of L o c a l Government throughout  the i n i t i a t i o n and implementation  phases of t h e program. The h i g h l y p o l i t i c a l nature o f the Low-Cost Housing  Program was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r .  Rental-Purchase  Table 2 indicates  that  the two communities s e l e c t e d f o r housing i n 1 9 7 2 i n c l u d e d the one w i t h the p o o r e s t housing and t h e one w i t h t h e b e s t h o u s i n g , i n d i c a t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e housing survey. Rental-Purchase  The Low-Cost  Program s t a t e s :  " p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Tenants i s v i t a l t o t h e success of t h i s type of program. A Housing A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be formed f o r each p r o j e c t or community t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n , s i t i n g , assessment and c o l l e c t i o n of r e n t s , maintenance of b u i l d i n g s and g e n e r a l l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the program." (OYT 1 9 7 2 ) There had been no apparent  attempts  t o implement the p u b l i c a s -  183 pect  of the program by September 1 9 7 2 ,  program had  been  f i v e months a f t e r the  initiated.  These Instances  c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n  t h a t the Department  of L o c a l Government r e q u i r e s more f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d such as an LID,  w i t h which t o d e a l .  bodies,  I t seems h e s i t a n t t o  i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r types of community  organizations  which have i n p r a c t i c e and by d e f a u l t been a d m i n i s t e r i n g munity a f f a i r s , i n some cases f o r y e a r s .  The  enter  problem can  combe  viewed as an attempt on the p a r t of the Department of L o c a l Government t o ensure t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n i t addresses i s r e presentative  of the community, and not a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  group. The  Accomodation S e r v i c e s Branch p r o v i d e s  and  administers  housing f o r T e r r i t o r i a l employees i n r u r a l communities. a c t i o n s between t h i s branch and  i n d i v i d u a l s i n housing  Interoperate  almost e x c l u s i v e l y on an independent, i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The property  Lands and  Assessment Branch i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g  subject to T e r r i t o r i a l Taxation  l a n d under T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of s e t t l e m e n t s ,  organized  the d i s p o s a l of  Lands i n the  and u n o r g a n i z e d , have been  over from F e d e r a l t o T e r r i t o r i a l i g n a t e s g e n e r a l community z o n i n g , by F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s , and  and  jurisdiction. apparently  the settlement  I n t e r a c t i o n s between t h i s branch and  vicinity turned  T h i s Branch des-  based on  p a t t e r n i n the  r u r a l settlements  surveys community. have, by  184  and  l a r g e , occurred The  on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  Protective Services  and I n s p e c t i o n  f i r e protection service with a marshall and  Branch i n c l u d e d a  who d i r e c t s t r a i n i n g  i n s p e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r and an e l e c t r i -  c a l Inspector. lands.  T h i s branch i n s p e c t s  structures  on T e r r i t o r i a l  A l l t h e communities s t u d i e d , except P e l l y , have v o l u n -  t e e r f i r e b r i g a d e s and pump t r u c k s w i t h p a i d , p a r t time c h i e f s who h o l d t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s  f o r the brigade.  I n t e r a c t i o n s oc-  c u r between t h i s branch and r u r a l r e s i d e n t s whose b u i l d i n g s a r e inspected.  The  Department of Highways and P u b l i c Works; The  Department o f Highways and P u b l i c Works* performs  four  f u n c t i o n s ; highway maintenance, b u i l d i n g maintenance, road const r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , and government b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . A l l the s e t t l e m e n t s i n the study group, except P e l l y , have permanent maintenance camps which a r e r e s p o n s i b l e government building;:.maintenance.  f o r highway and  Construction  r a l l y develop s p e c i a l camps which l a s t t h e l i f e jects.  programs geneof s p e c i f i c  pro-  As w e l l as p e r f o r m i n g these d e s i g n a t e d f u n c t i o n s , t h e  department i s a l s o m a i n t a i n s a i r s t r i p s f o r t h e MOT i n r u r a l comm u n i t i e s and o p e r a t i n g  f e r r i e s a t Dawson C i t y and Ross R i v e r .  * The Department of Highways and P u b l i c works has been r e f e r e d t o as the "DPW" or the "Government Maintenance Camp" by r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . The term "DPW" w i l l be used through t o r e f e r t o the T e r r i t o r i a l Department of Highways and P u b l i c works.  185 The  Department r e p o r t s t o the E x e c u t i v e  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the DPW; The  Committee member  the A s s i s t a n t Commissioner ( E x e c u t i v e ) .  foreman a t each permanent camp m a i n t a i n s r e g u l a r d a i l y  t a c t s with r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s r e l a t i n g weather i n f o r m a t i o n , and  operations  conroad  r e p o r t s and r e c e i v i n g o p e r a t i n g d i r e c t i v e s .  a l l the communities w i t h a permanent camp, the r e l a t i v e l y  In large  number of people employed by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government has an i n f l u e n c e upon t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e community, as d e s c r i b e d  i n some d e t a i l i n the p r e c e d i n g  chapter.  Further-  more, d i v i s i o n s between those employed by the government and p r i v a t e employees a r e h i g h l i g h t e d by the f a s h i o n i n which the DPW  "takes care  o f i t s own" though b u i l d i n g maintenance  others a r e r e q u i r e d t o fend f o r themselves. g e n e r a l l y expand t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s l o c a l l y whenever p o s s i b l e .  while  Permanant camps  i n the summer months, h i r i n g  Throughout t h i s p e r i o d many  local  people a r e employed i n a v a r i e t y o f jobs w i t h the DPW. Other Departments such as the Department of Tourism, Cons e r v a t i o n , and I n f o r m a t i o n  Services, Administrative  and L e g i s -  l a t i v e Support S e r v i c e s , and the Department o f the T e r r i t o r i a l Treasurer, and  shown i n F i g . 22, a l l have had i n f l u e n c e s , d i r e c t  i n d i r e c t , upon t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f r u r a l communities.  e v e r , t h e extent  How-  of t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than  t h a t of other departments d e s c r i b e d . by both the p e r s o n a l  observations  T h i s has been borne out  of the a u t h o r and the content  a n a l y s i s of the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l Votes and P r o c e e d i n g s , i n  186 which the i s s u e s r e l a t e d i n t o the  t o the communities c i t e d seldom  j u r i s d i c t i o n of these departments.  say t h a t agencies involved.  T h i s i s not  such as the L i b r a r y S e r v i c e Branch are  This p a r t i c u l a r  branch p r o v i d e s  library  fell to not  materials  t o a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s as w e l l as s u p p l y i n g book d e p o s i t o r i e s throughout the Yukon. the extent  These programs have an i n f l u e n c e , but  t o which they a f f e c t  the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  character  of the communities i n the study group i s s m a l l i n comparison w i t h the o t h e r t e r r i t o r i a l departments d e s c r i b e d .  Federal The  Involvement; F e d e r a l Government has  the T e r r i t o r y  j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l lands i n  e x c e p t i n g those areas  i n the v i c i n i t y of s e t t l e -  ments over which the Yukon Government has been d e l e g a t e d i s t r a t i v e powers. Government has  In r e t a i n i n g  this  j u r i s d i c t i o n , the  a l s o r e t a i n e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  admin-  Federal  of managing  of the Yukon.  Figures  20 and 21 c o l l e c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which a d m i n i s t e r s  these r e s o u r c e s .  F o r e s t S e r v i c e s , i s of p a r t i c u l a r has p l a y e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e  One  d i v i s i o n , the Yukon  concern t o t h i s study f o r i t  i n the a f f a i r s of r u r a l  ments; t h i s r o l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below.  The  other  settle-  divisions,  w h i l e i n f l u e n c i n g the economic c h a r a c t e r of the Yukon, have e f fects  on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s  only an i n d i r e c t  manner.  in  187 The  RCMP p r o v i d e  p o l i c e s e r v i c e s throughout t h e Yukon on  a c o n t r a c t u a l : b a s i s w i t h the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. of the RCMP i n r u r a l communities i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  The r o l e  influential to  warrant f u r t h e r examination. The  Indian  A f f a i r s Branch, a l s o shown on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c h a r t , P i g . 20, operates a r e g i o n a l o f f i c e out of Whitehorse t o serve  the Yukon r e g i o n .  i b l e f o r the execution  The Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s responso f the o v e r a l l Indian and Eskimo A f f a i r s  program through i t s f o u r d i v i s i o n s ; e d u c a t i o n ,  Indian and E s -  kimo economic development, community a f f a i r s and c o n s u l t a t i o n and  negotiation.  Under these programs, the IAB has p r o v i d e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and development funds t o l o c a l band c o u n c i l s and  t o t h e YNB.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s have had a l a r g e  influence  on t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f r u r a l communities and f o r t h i s reason w i l l be examined i n more depth.  The  Yukon F o r e s t The  Services:  Yukon F o r e s t S e r v i c e s  i s a d i v i s i o n o f the Northern  Economic Development Branch, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 21.  Tes-  l i n , Ross R i v e r , Carmacks and Haines J u n c t i o n have F o r e s t  Ser-  v i c e S t a t i o n s s t a f f e d by permanent employees, and P e l l y and Carcross three  have f i r e p r o t e c t i o n caches.  functions; f o r e s t resources  t e c t i o n f o r settlements,  The d i v i s i o n  serves  management, f o r e s t f i r e  and p u b l i c education  pro-  about f o r e s t man-  188 agement and p r o t e c t i o n . ing  The g e n e r a l p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s govern-  the management o f these f u n c t i o n s a r e s e t by the r e g i o n a l  o f f i c e i n Whitehorse and appear t o a l l o w the l o c a l r e s o u r c e management o f f i c e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . The  l a r g e s t s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the department i s t h e  c o n t r o l of f o r e s t f i r e s .  T h i s was borne out i n the community  r e p o r t s of t h e D i v i s i o n s l o c a l p e r s o n n e l and i n t h e D i v i s i o n ' s budget; the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f which was a l l o c a t e d t o f i r e suppression.  Forest f i r e  s u p p r e s s i o n d u r i g t h e p e r i o d o f ex-  treme f i r e hazard p r o v i d e s an important  source o f l o c a l employ-  ment.  s u p p r e s s i o n under the  Men c a n be c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o f i r e  a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Yukon Lands A c t , thus d u r i n g extreme p e r i o d s most unemployed men i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s e i t h e r v o l u n t e e r o r a r e "picked up" t o f i g h t f o r e s t f i r e s . of  The d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers  the l o c a l r e s o u r c e management o f f i c e r t o c o n s c r i p t people  g i v e s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l almost  complete c o n t r o l over a community  i n p e r i o d s when s e t t l e m e n t s a r e threatened by f o r e s t The  fires.  operations of t h i s D i v i s i o n i n v o l v e extensive contact  with Indian people.  As a consequence they have a system o f  h i r i n g permanent employees which g i v e s p r e f e r e n t i a l c o n s i d e r ation  t o a p p l i c a n t s o f I n d i a n backgrounds.  The RCMP: The RCMP p r o v i d e p o l i c e s e r v i c e s t o the Yukon under a con-  189 t r a c t arrangement. offences law  against  T h e i r o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o prevent and d e t e c t  Federal Statutes, t o provide  enforcement i n f o r m a t i o n  l i c e agencies and t o enforce The  an i n t e r g r a t e d  s e r v i c e f o r a l l other Canadian pothe Ordinances o f the T e r r i t o r y .  Yukon R e g i o n a l Headquarters and the l o c a l detachments i n  the communities s t u d i e d operate s t r i c t l y under the r e g u l a t i o n s and  p o l i c i e s developed i n the F e d e r a l RCMP Headquarters.  The  Yukon D i v i s i o n headquarters conducts ongoing i n s p e c t i o n p r o grams t o ensure t h a t l o c a l detachments a r e o p e r a t i n g as w e l l as e n s u r i n g  smoothly,  t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s and p o l i c i e s a r e being  f o l l o w e d . D e t a c h m e n t s r e p o r t r e g u l a r l y by both r a d i o and m a i l i n the course o f f o l l o w i n g p o l i c e procedures p r e s c r i b e d by regulation.  D i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the f o r c e i s of a m i l i t a r y nat-  ure and men a r e expected t o conduct themselves i n a manner appropriate t o their The  responsibilities.  RCMP have o f t e n been p l a c e d  i n awkard p o s i t i o n s because  of the e t h n i c d i v i s i o n which e x i s t s i n t h e settlements consideration.  T h e i r r o l e has been one o f e n f o r c i n g the laws  of Canada, which o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h Indian instances  under  t r a d i t i o n s . In  o f t h i s n a t u r e , the l o c a l c o n s t a b l e  has some d i s c r e -  t i o n a r y powers and may i n t e r p r e t h i s r o l e as one o f an educator r a t h e r than an e n f o r c e r ,  i n attempts t o minimize the c o n f l i c t s  between the RCMP and the Indian tables avoid enforcing  s e c t o r o f t h e community, cons-  some ordinances which aggravate the s i t -  u a t i o n , such as those r e l a t e d t o dog c o n t r o l .  F o r example,  190 s h o o t i n g a number of l o o s e dogs would only make c o n d i t i o n s worse.  Short p o s t i n g s a l l o w t h e o f f i c e r t o perform  t i o n , without  h i s func-  becoming t o o i n v o l v e d i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s which  are bound t o develop  with other community r e s i d e n t s .  Because  of these p r e s s u r e s , RCMP a r e encouraged t o remain out of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of community a f f a i r s , but p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e settlement  (personal interviews).  The  D i v i s i o n Headquarters remains i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the l o c a l detachment p e r s o n n e l , as much f o r t h e p e r s o n a l s t a b i l i t y o f f i c e r as the f o r m a l  The  of the  requirements.  Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Yukon Region: The  o b j e c t i v e s embodied i n t h e I n d i a n A c t have been i n a  s t a t e of dramatic  change s i n c e t h e F e d e r a l governments 19^9  White Paper on I n d i a n a f f a i r s .  In r e a c t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y  tement, I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the YNB developed  sta-  with  the a s s i s t a n c e of F e d e r a l f u n d i n g , and o r g a n i z a t i o n of I n d i a n people  a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n began t o formulate  (Waubageshig,1970).  viable alternative  The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e IAB, as s t a t e d i n  the 1973-1974- F e d e r a l E s t i m a t e s , a r e i n essence, d i a n people society.  t o enable In-  t o r e a l i z e t h e i r many a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h i n Canadian  The Indian A f f a i r s Branch performs i t s f u n c t i o n s  through f o u r d i v i s i o n s each of which i s r e p r e s e n t e d offices.  i n regional  The D i r e c t o r of t h e Yukon r e g i o n a l o f f i c e , l o c a t e d i n  Whitehorse, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g , managing and admin-  191'  i s t e r i n g a l l matters r e l a t e d t o I n d i a n programs. i n v o l v e d i n the f o u r d i v i s i o n s c o o r d i n a t e a t i o n s w i t h each other and  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u l l time employees s t a t i o n e d i n any  n i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n the study. lar  bands so t h a t t h e r e may  even though they do not The  over the p a s t  two  years.  field  The  agents  Branch does  of the commu-  be c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r programs community.  agents i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the  t i e s s t u d i e d were r e p o r t e d  oper-  Agents are a l l o c a t e d t o p a r t i c u -  l i v e i n the  ways i n which IAB  people  their specific  under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r . not have any  The  communi-  t o have undergone a dramatic change P r i o r t o 1 9 7 1 an agent would g e n e r a l l y  d e a l w i t h band members on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , a s s e s s i n g and  recommending courses of a c t i o n on t h i s b a s i s .  development of the YNB Councils  has  to a greater extent.  depends upon the community. Councils  r e q u i r e d him The  The  needs  political  t o d e a l through Band  degree t o which t h i s  In s e t t l e m e n t s  applies  w i t h s t r o n g Band  such as T e s l i n or Haines J u n c t i o n , agents were  repor-  t e d t o d e a l through the l o c a l c o u n c i l , d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s on the b a s i s of C o u n c i l r e f e r a l s , whereas i n those communities w i t h Band C o u n c i l s which have l i t t l e a u t h o r i t y , such as P e l l y or C a r c r o s s ,  agents were r e p o r t e d  an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , circumventing  t o d e a l w i t h band members on the Band C o u n c i l .  F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e under some of the programs of the Community A f f a i r s d i v i s i o n and  the Indian and  Eskimo  Economic Development d i v i s i o n have not been tapped by the  rural  192 communities i n the study group.  IAB p e r s o n n e l , r e c o g n i z i n g  t h a t community development does not f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i f only one s e c t o r of a community develops i r r e s p e c t i v e of the o t h e r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t funds f o r economic developemnt c o u l d be c h a n n e l l e d t o f u n c t i o n s which i n v o l v e d non-Indian as w e l l as I n d i a n people ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s ) . the  There was h e s i t a t i o n on  lAB's p a r t t o i n t r o d u c e these programs and encourage the  c r e a t i o n of community economic development committees t o manage development f u n d i n g b e f o r e communities demonstrate the s k i l l s necessary t o make these programs f u n c t i o n  effectively.  The IAB has become much more f l e x i b l e i n i t s programming i n response t o p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s from the YNB and v a r i o u s band c o u n c i l s , so much so t h a t a member of an I n d i a n  political  o r g a n i z a t i o n complained t h a t the submissive r o l e of the IAB had made the p r o c e s s of encouraging c o l l e c t i v e I n d i a n a c t i o n much more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e t h e r e were no major i s s u e s about which .:• such a c t i o n c o u l d p o l a r i z e .  chapter* S  An A n a l y s i s of Two Forms of L o c a l The p r e c e e d i n g  Government  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s  w i t h i n communities and between communities and the s e n i o r governments i n the Yukon i l l u s t r a t e the e x t e n s i v e t h r e e r e l a t e d problems of l o c a l government.  i n f l u e n c e of  The f i r s t  of these  problems i s one f a c e d by government agencies i n attempting determine who those i n v o l v e d i n community-government t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i n the community. ernments r e g a r d w e l l as a c r o s s  to  interac-  The s e n i o r gov-  communities as d i v i d e d w i t h i n e t h n i c groups as ethnic l i n e s .  C o n s t r a i n t s i n time and money,  the geographic d i s t a n c e s between settlements  and a committment  t o the p r i n c i p l e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government have made the c o n t a c t i n g of a l l i n t e r e s t groups w i t h i n communities an i n f e a s i b l e t a s k f o r the s e n i o r governments.  v  F o r s i m i l a r reasons gov-  194 ernment agencies have been h e s i t a n t t o accept the a d v i c e o f any  one community group as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  ment.  of the e n t i r e s e t t l e -  T h i s h e s i t a t i o n appears t o be w e l l founded i f one exam-  i n e s the diagrams i n d i c a t i n g government-community c o n t a c t s and r e a l i z e s t h a t government o f f i c i a l s have f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e r s of c o n f l i c t i n g messages. many sources r e a c h i n g  been.the  Many i n p u t s , generated from  a p a r t i c u l a r government agency through  many d i f f e r e n t channels have o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n a c o n f l i c t i n g array  of i n p u t s about s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s .  Confronted w i t h t h i s  s i t u a t i o n , y e t having the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the community, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the i n i t i a t i o n , imp l e m e n t a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of community a f f a i r s , without  the c o n s u l t a t i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t ,  has f r e q u e n t l y appeared t o  be t h e government's most expedient course of a c t i o n . The  second problem which appears throughout the d e s c r i p t i v e  a n a l y s i s of the communities and government a g e n c i e s , which a r i s e s from the p r e c e e d i n g i s s u e . implimented and a d m i n i s t e r e d been p o o r l y  Government  i s one initiated,  l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s have f r e q u e n t l y  r e c e i v e d by community r e s i d e n t s and have e i t h e r  f a i l e d t o meet the program's o b j e c t i v e s or have c r e a t e d problems i n so d o i n g .  other  R u r a l r e s i d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h i s type of  government a c t i o n t r e a t e d them as though they were d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d and had a p p a r e n t l y  ignored  the p r i n c i p l e s o f l o c a l  i c i p a t i o n i n t h e making of l o c a l d e c i s i o n s . ted,  One person  part-  repor-  " i t ' s as though t h e government i s pushing s t u f f down our  throats". The  t h i r d problem i s r e l a t e d t o the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n  between the v a r i o u s government agencies i n t h e i r separate  rel-  a t i o n s w i t h r u r a l communities, and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a c k of coord i n a t i o n a t the community l e v e l , as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d munity-government c o n t a c t community s t u d i e s .  i n the com-  diagrams i n c l u d e d w i t h each of the  Some of the redundancy and c o n f l i c t s , more  apparent at the community l e v e l than a t the r e g i o n a l seem t o stem from a c o o r d i n a t i o n  level,  o f r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which  f a i l s t o i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a n t s from r u r a l communities. grams - i n d i c a t i n g the community-government c o n t a c t s  The d i a -  and the des-  c r i p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t s between and w i t h i n e t h n i c s e c t o r s of e each settlement ing  suggests t h a t many messages, p r o b a b l y  i n t h e i r contents,  conflict-  a r e sent t o r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s but what  the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e t h i n k s best  f o r the community and does may  be an o p t i o n no one i n the community d e s i r e s .  The a l t e r n a t i v e ,  t h a t o f r e s o l v i n g i s s u e s l o c a l l y and i s s u i n g communications which a r e c o n s i s t a n t i n t h e i r requests  f o r the s e t t l e m e n t ,  ap-  pears t o be a more reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e .  These problems p o i n t t o the need f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e  form  of  l o c a l government capable of meeting the demands o f both the community and the s e n i o r governments i n the Yukon. they g i v e a d d i t i o n a l weight t o t h e v a l i d i t y tes,  Furthermore  of the two p o s t u l a -  which were; t h a t a form of l o c a l government which i n c r e a -  196  ses  c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between e t h n i c s e c t o r s of communi-  t i e s on s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l or economic grounds w i l l  function  more e f f e c t i v e l y than those forms which do not encourage  inter-  a c t i o n a c r o s s e t h n i c l i n e s j . a n d t h a t l o c a l problems, i f handled l o c a l l y run the best chance of b e i n g s o l v e d  expeditiously.and  appropriately. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a n a l y s e two forms of l o c a l the  government;  L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t and the model of a composite  board, as proposed i n Chapter 1, i n terms of t h e i r " f i t " t o each of the s i x communities.  This  hypothetical  " f i t " w i l l be a s -  sessed i n terms of t h r e e f u n c t i o n s : 1.  Scope: The degree t o which d e l e g a t e d  responsibilities  w i l l a l l o w r e s i d e n t s t o d e a l w i t h a range of i s s u e s a t e d t o the community's g e n e r a l  rel-  development.  2. C o o p e r a t i o n : The degree t o which c o o p e r a t i v e  interaction  between e t h n i c s e c t o r s i n enhanced and encouraged. 3.  S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l : The degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the e x i s t i n g s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the community.  These assessments w i l l be e x p r e s s e d i n terms of the g e n e r a l degree t o which each of the f u n c t i o n s may ate  t o each of the communities  be a n t i c i p a t e d t o r e l -  on the b a s i s of the forms func-  t i o n s and r o l e s of the l o c a l governments' t o be a n a l y s e d . the  For  sake of s i m p l i c i t y , the t h r e e f u n c t i o n s w i l l be s e t out i n  p o i n t form f o r each community, i n d i c a t i n g the degree of " f i t "  197 as p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e f o r each of the p o i n t s without attempting  t o q u a n t i f y them.  These p o i n t s a r e those v a r i a b l e s  which  appear r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n from an examination of the community case s t u d i e s , the responses of r u r a l  residents  t o the p a r t i c u l a r forms of l o c a l government and the responses of government o f f i c i a l s t o each of the two forms of l o c a l government.  The a n a l y s i s a n t i c i p a t e s how  each of the l o c a l govern-  ments w i l l h y p o t h e t i c i a l l y f i t i n each community, except f o r the  LID i n Haines J u n c t i o n and the model of the composite board  i n Ross R i v e r .  The a n a l y s i s , i n the case of these two except-  i o n s 5 w i l l be based on the ways i n which these types of government were observed t o f u n c t i o n i n each s e t t l e m e n t . A one word a p p r a i s a l i n d i c a t i n g whether there i s a LARGE, MODERATE, or SLIGHT degree of " f i t " w i l l p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l assessment are  of each f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o each community.  These  p l o t t e d on T a b l e 5 t o show a net a p p r a i s a l f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  form of government i n r e l a t i o n t o a l l the s e t t l e m e n t s s t u d i e d . A number, i n d i c a t i n g e x t e n t , i s g i v e n t o each of these app r a i s a l s ( L a r g e - 2 , moderate =*1, of r e l a t i v e aggerate v a l u e may  s l i g h t ^ 0) be o b t a i n e d .  so t h a t some sense Any attempts a t  a s s e s s i n g the net b e n e f i t s of one form of government over anot h e r i s bound t o run i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n quantifying  variables.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the three main c a t e g o r i e s of a n a l y s i s are of e q u a l importance.  T h i s i s not  198 l i k e l y t o be the case.  The t a b l e s a l s o l e d one t o t a b u l a t e  the (+) and (-) v a l u e s f o r a g e n e r a l s c o r e , assuming t h a t they are o f s i m i l a r magnitudes, t h i s a l s o may be m i s l e a d i n g . The  v a l u e ladden nature  of a p p r a i s i n g how the two types o f  l o c a l government d e s c r i b e d may h y p o t h e t i c a l l y f i t each s e t t l e ment must be emphasised b e f o r e hand. t o minimize t h i s dimension i n t e r v i e w s and responses  The author has attempted  by c i t i n g arguments from the t e x t s ,  t o q u e s t i o n s about t h e two types of  l o c a l government, however, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o remain v a l u e f r e e i n t h e aggerate  assessment phase.  T h i s stage r e q u i r e s  a r e l a t i v e importance i s a s s i g n e d t o each of the arguments put forward.  Assessment 1: The  The L o c a l Improvement  t h r e e member board  District  of e l e c t e d T r u s t e e s who a d m i n i s t e r  the L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t  r e c e i v e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y from the  L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t Ordinance.  The LID Ordinance was  i n i t i a t e d i n 1965 by t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l as an experiment i n d e v e l o p i n g a form of l o c a l government which would provi d e a t r a n s i t i o n a r y s t e p f o r t h e unorganized a municipality.  area i n becoming  I t g i v e s t o the Board of T r u s t e e s the a u t h o r i t y  t o operate and m a i n t a i n any l o c a l improvements i n the D i s t r i c t on b e h a l f o f the Commissioner.  Subject t o t h e a p p r o v a l of the  Commissioner the board may make bylaws a c q u i r i n g lands o r b u i l d -  1:99 ings t o be used f o r the o p e r a t i o n o r maintenance of l o c a l improvements; p r e s c r i b i n g charges which s h a l l be l e v i e d f o r l o c a l improvements;  and l i c e n s i n g and c o n t r o l of a n i m a l s .  A more e x t -  e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the LID i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. 5  Table  shows a summary of the h y p o t h e t i c a l f i t f o r each community  considered. The h y p o t h e t i c a l f i t o f the LID t o each s e t t l e m e n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t a b l e 5, i n terms of v a r i a b l e s drawn from the commun i t y d e s c r i p t i o n s , the comments of the r u r a l respondents and the  comments o f government  the  "SCOPE" c r i t e r i a more a p p r o p r i a t e l y than the o t h e r two c r i -  teria.  officials.  T h i s , form of l o c a l government  i n terms of the "COOPERATION" c r i t e r i a . criteria  The LID i s shown t o f i t  appears t o o f f e r  little  The s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  i s shown t o have a moderate f i t on the aggerate b a s i s .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s n a t u r e do say something about the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o c a l government, but they do not g i v e an adequate p i c t u r e o f how a type of government ate  i n p a r t i c u l a r a settlement.  may oper-  The LID appears t o be q u i t e  a p p r o p r i a t e t o T e s l i n , however, i n terms of the assessment, i t seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y River.  l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e t o Carmacks  o r Ross  Ross R i v e r : (LID  hypothetical)  Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  - d i s t r i c t l i k e l y t o exclude Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n LID hence d e a l with only p a r t of settlements population.  - LID d i s t r i c t l i k e l y t o exclude Indians and would d i s courage c o o p e r a t i o n .  - LID f u n c t i o n s not r e l a t e d t o community's c a p a c i t y t o u t i l i z e economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n mining s e c tor. + would c o n s t i t u t e a commun i t y government t o s e n i o r governments.  (slight)  - LID o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t ures most a p p r o p r i a t e and known t o white s e c t o r but f o r e i g n t o Tutchone s o c i a l organization. - would l i k e l y form a more p o l a r i z e d set of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n groups.  Socio-political  (moderate)  + Compatible w i t h White s o c i o p o l i t i c a l organization. - l i m i t e d s t a b i l i t y and s h o r t r e s i d e n c e of white s e c t o r hinders s e l e c t i n g t r u s t e e s . - l i m i t e d understanding of territorial politics. - does not account f o r i n creasing p o l i t i c a l strength of band.  Pelly:  (LID h y p o t h e t i c a l )  Scope ( l a r g e )  Cooperation  + d i s t r i c t boundaries l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e whole s e t t l e m e n t .  + s e t t l e m e n t s m a l l and char a c t e r i z e d by p e r s o n a l r e l a tions. L i k e l y t h a t LID would i n c l u d e a l l people a t i n d ividual level.  + LID a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ; few e x i s t and some are needed i n P e l l y . + p r o v i d e some agency which can f u n c t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t of the s e t t l e m e n t . - f a i l s t o d e a l w i t h broader economic development i s s u e s , which may generate l o c a l employment .  (moderate)  Socio-political  (slight)  - no government d e s i r e d i n the settlement and by white sector.  - LID t o o f o r m a l i z e d a form of l o c a l government f o r both - form of government f o r e i g n , Indians and Whites and would r e p r e s e n t g r e a t e r government f a v o u r s p a r t i c i p a t i o n of involvement i n s e t t l e m e n t . white s e c t o r more so than the I n d i a n s e c t o r . - LID o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r e i g n - may cause some p o l a r i z a t t o Tutchone p a t t e r n of soci o n about p a r t i c u l a r p e r s i a l structure. o n a l i t y and form a commun i t y power group when one - would weaken the d e v e l o p i n g does not c u r r e n t l y e x i s t . p o l i t i c a l r o l e of the band.  T e s l i n (LID h y p o t h e t i c a l ) Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  + would g i v e r i s e t o l o c a l s e r v i c e developments needed t o promote t o u r i s t s e c t o r of economy.  + would l i k e l y i n c l u d e both Indian and White s e c t o r s .  + would c o n s t i t u t e a form of l o c a l government r e c o g n i z e d by s e n i o r governments.  (large)  • would l i k e l y be r e p r e s e n t ed by b o t h Indian and White t r u s t e e s on the board.  - would l i k e l y be White domi n a t e d a t t h e outset as r e - would not be capable of be- f l e c t e d i n p a t t e r n s of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the coming i n v o l v e d i n on-going settlement c l u b . l o c a l job c r e a t i n g d i r e c t l y i n f u n c t i o n s such as t o u r i s t promotion e t c o r development • w i l l r e s u l t i n improvements agencies. to s e r v i c e s i n both sectors. - would l i k e l y not i n c l u d e d DPW compound and hence would exclude a l a r g e p a r t of government s e c t o r i n l o c a l a f fairs . + would p r o v i d e needed s e r v i ces i n densely p o p u l a t e d area of s e t t l e m e n t .  Socio-political  (large)  + both White and Indian r e s i d e n t s a r e p o l i t i c a l l y knowledgable. - would weaken o r negate p o i i t i c a l s t r e n g t h of e x i s t i n g organizations. +• LID l e g i t i m i z e d i n p u t s des i r e d by r e s i d e n t s so that they may soon have some say i n t h e i r own a f f a i r s .  Carmacks:  (LID h y p o t h e t i c a l )  Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  + would p r o v i d e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a p o l i t i c a l body which would be r e c o g n i z e d by the s e n i o r government .  - only white s e c t o r would l i k e l y be i n c l u d e d i n LID.  + l a r g e number of permanent White r e s i d e n t s c o u l d provi d e c o n t i n u i t y t o program.  - c o u l d not d e a l w i t h f u n c t i o n s which i n v o l v e whole s e t t l e m e n t p o p u l a t i o n , only those r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t would be involved i n decisions.  - would f u r t h e r a l i e n , ate ethnic sectors r e i n f o r c i n g Indians i m p r e s s i o n of White economic and p o l i t i c a l control.  - would l i k e l y i n t e n s i f y permanent-transient conflicts.  + would p r o v i d e u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s f o r the c e n t r a l area i n t h e D i s t rict,  - form i s f o r e i g n t o Tutchone s o c i a l organization.  - competition f o r c o n t r o l over economic o p p o r t u n i t y l i k e l y to increase intern a l c o m p e t i t i o n r a t h e r than c o o p e r a t i o n because o f s p l i t along e t h n i c l i n e s .  - would l i k e l y not serve t h e r e s i d e n t s i n western p a r t of s e t t l e ment . - no f u n c t i o n s which a l l o w s d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e t t l e m e n t s economic base i n mining. + poor t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s but good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s c e n t e r potentials hence f a i r economic development p o s s i b i l i t i e s e n s u r i n g T e r r i t o r i a l investments i n s e t t l e ment LID ensure l o c a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r these programs.  (slight)  Socio-political  (moderate)  + some White r e s i d e n t s fami l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i tics.  Carcross:  (LID h y p o t h e t i c a l )  Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  * a c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l body s e n i o r governments would deal with.  would l i k e l y i n c l u d e I n d i a n lands w i t h i n d i s t r i c t .  + would a s s e r t community needs and d i s t i n g u i s h them from Whitehorse c o n d i t i o n s .  (moderate)  - u n l i k e l y t o have Indian t r u s t e e i n l i g h t of Band's d i s o r g a n i z e d s t a t e and l a c k p o s s i b l e candidates.  - i f Indian lands i n c l u d e d u n l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d pendi n g Band's p a r t i c i p a t i o n on land r e l a t e d issues i n l i g h t of Bands o r g a n i z a t i o n . - d i f f i c u l t i n p r o v i d i n g • :. .• s e r v i c e s t o s q u a t t e r s along t YANSI's r o l e l i k e l y t o soon n o r t h shore of Lake. generate g r e a t e r Indian i n puts . - l i m i t e d settlement development p o s s i b i l i t i e s because of no development f u n c t i o n s and because of Whitepass land holdings.  - does not have a u t h o r i t y t o d e a l w i t h improving t o u r i s t trade f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o Lake.  Socio-political  (slight)  - few w i t h e x t e n s i v e i n t e r ests i n p o l i t i c s of s e t t l e ment . - many respondents opposed to any form of l o c a l government, viewed as another i n fringment on i n d i v i d u a l rights. •t- some White and non-status Indian r e s i d e n t s f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . - atomized c h a r a c t e r of s e t tlement not a p p r o p r i a t e t o one settlement government.  Haines  J u n c t i o n (LID, observed)  Scope ( l a r g e )  Cooperation  + an e x t e n s i v e c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n e x i s t s w i t h the s e n i o r government.  - band lands had been a r b i t r a r i l y excluded from the LID.  + growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N a t i o n a l Park have allowed the LID a d d i t i o n a l advisory functions.  - I n d i a n people not i n d i s t r i c t a r e excluded from d i r ect p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s ions which may i n f l u e n c e them, ( i . e . animal c o n t r o l ) .  + the c u r r e n t t r u s t e e s have broad p e r s p e c t i v e s and are p o l i t i c a l l y aware.  + White s e c t o r f a m i l i a r w i t h + close personal r e l a t i o n Territorial politics. s h i p s e x i s t between LID t r u s tee and band c h i e f . + r e l a t i v e s i z e d of e t h n i c groups and comparatively respondents from both sec- r e c e n t a r r i v a l of the band t o r s expressed l i t t l e d e s i r e have allowed Whites t o d e t f o r I n d i a n involvement i n ermine community p o l i t i c s . LID. . + f a v o u r a b l e economic o u t l o o k has allowed f o r an o p t i m i s t i c view which f a c i l i t a t e s LID actions.  - unable t o d e a l adequately • w i t h Issues which extend ' v beyond the d i s t r i c t boundaries. - unable t o d e a l e x p l i c i t l y with issues d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o community's economic base i n tourism. + LID has seemed t o be used as a model f o r o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s , as such i t seems to receive p r e f e r e n t i a l assistance .  (slight)  Socio-political (large) +• s t r o n g and c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d White community which has f u n c t i o n e d as a cooperative u n i t . + only minimal s o c i a l d i v i s i o n between t r a n s i e n t and permanent Whites.  Assessment 2:  The  206 T e n t a t i v e Model; A Composite Board  A t e n t a t i v e model was  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter two  of the t h e s i s  w i t h a view t o d e s c r i b i n g a type of l o c a l government t o the needs and  appropriate  a s p i r a t i o n s of the r u r a l communities.  An  sessment of the model w i l l be made on the bases of two t i o n s ; t h a t the case s t u d i e s r e f l e c t  assump-  the v a l u e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s  the r e s i d e n t s h o l d of the r e s p e c t i v e communities; and author has reference  as-  that  the  i n t e r p r e t e d the comments of these r e s i d e n t s , both i n t o the community and  the proposed model, as they were  intended. The  model proposes a composite board composed of  members from each o r g a n i z a t i o n s which r e p r e s e n t s political  the  executive distinct  i n t e r e s t s of e t h n i c groups i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  chairman i s appointed  The  on a r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s , s h i f t i n g from  t o the next a f t e r designated  periods  of time.  The  one  proposed  model i n c l u d e d a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o those  func-  t i o n s f o r which the board would be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e .  The  composite board would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l o c a l improvements and  formulating  which, i n t h e i r view, r e p r e s e n t a l l o c a t e d t o the settlement  of  l o c a l development programs  the best expenditure  of  finances  by the T e r r i t o r i a l government.  The  composite boards a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s would i n v o l v e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the two  s e n i o r l e v e l s of government about community  t e d f u n c t i o n s and w i t h the Band c o u n c i l s i n r e l a t i o n t o a t i n g plans 5 provides  compatiable t o a l l s e c t o r s of the s e t t l e m e n t . an overview of the a n a l y s e s  relaformulTable  of the h y p o t h e t i c a l f i t  of t h i s model of l o c a l government f o r the communities  included  20?  i n the study. A board, s i m i l a r t o the proposed model, was developed i n Ross R i v e r i n order t o formulate the community.  an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program f o r  Although t h i s board was assembled only once,.un-  der the encouragement of the D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l it  does g i v e weight t o the f e a s i b i l i t y  the board was c o n s i d e r e d a success  Education,  of such a program.  That  by a l l those who took p a r t  gives a d d i t i o n a l strength to t h i s p o s i t i o n . T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the t e n t a t i v e model, i n c r e a s e s t h e "COOPERATION" c r i t e r i a but a n t i c i p a t e d a r e d u c t i o n i n the SCOPE c r i t e r i a r e l a t i v e t o t h e LID assessment.  Both forms o f l o c a l  government demonstrate s i m i l a r degrees of f i t t o the SOCIOPOLITICAL c r i t e r i a .  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should not be read t o  mean t h a t the t h r e e c r i t e r i a a r e independent o r a r e of equal importance.  One may argue t h a t a type  o f l o c a l government which  i s compatiable w i t h the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f a community w i l l be a b l e t o d e f i n e much of i t s own scope o f a c t i v i t i e s , conv e r s l y the f u n c t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l government may generate a form of l o c a l government a p p r o p r i a t e t o the c h a r a c t e r of the  settlement. The  most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e demonstrated when comp-  a r i n g the assessment f o r each o f the forms of government i n each of the s e t t l e m e n t s .  The a p p r a i s a l s o f the LID and the model  were q u i t e s i m i l a r f o r t h r e e s e t t l e m e n t s :  P e l l y , Carmacks and  Ross R i v e r (Composite Board, observed) Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  + accomodates p o s s i b i l i t i e s of involvement i n a broad scope of d i s c u s s i o n s and participation i n relation to the community's economic opp o r t u n i t i e s through t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f the s t r u c t u r e .  + framework t o c o o r d i n a t e f u n c t i o n s between three r e l a t i v e l y strong l o c a l organizations.  * p r o p o s a l of board viewed f a v o u r a b l y by respondents and by those i n v o l v e d i n a s i m i l a r meeting.  +• i n v o l v e s a l l groups p o l i t i c a l l y i n a common forum r a t h e r than i s o l a t e s each.  + most people expressed need f o r coordination across ethn i c l i n e s t o more e f f e c t i v ely deal with external pressures on s e t t l e m e n t .  + d e a l s w i t h f u n c t i o n s as they r e l a t e t o a l l s e t t l e m e n t / r e s i d e n t s , not only one sector.  (large)  Soclo-poiitical  (large)  + a l l o w s Band t o s e t p a r t of the format f o r the org- t f l e x i b l e form accommodates a n i z a t i o n t o be compatiable I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system - d i v i s i o n of i n t e r e s t s a c r o s s w i t h Tutchone s o c i a l s t r u c - more a p p r o p r i a t e l y . e t h n i c l i n e s may tend t o r e s t - t u r e . - a meeting s i m i l a r i n form r i c t scope t o only those f u n c - c o o p e r a t i o n d e s i r e d only t o the proposed board r e q u i t i o n s a l l can agree upon. i n c e r t a i n areas with the r e d an e x t e r n a l body t o i n i t + p r o v i d e s a form of l o c a l gov- r i g h t r e s e r v e d t o opt out i a t e . i f these bounds are c r o s ernment r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of ent i r e settlement t o government sed. - l i k e l y that cooperation agencies. among e t h n i c s e c t o r s would only occur on i s s u e s which i n + more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on - f l e x i b l e form would p o s s i b l y b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n of e t h - no way would compromise one of the groups. nic sectors. make s e n i o r governments h e s i tant t o delegate r e s p o n s i b i l + r e i n f o r c e s developing p o l i t ities locally. i c a l r o l e of the Band and YANSI through broader r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on i s s u e s which a f f e c t them.  P e l l y C r o s s i n g (Composite Board, h y p o t h e t i c a l ) * Scope ( l a r g e )  Cooperation  would p r o v i d e the s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a l o c a l government which c o u l d d e a l w i t h s e n i o r governments .  + a format i n which i s s u e s influencing a l l residents may be a i r e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e sectors.  + r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l o c a l s t o have an i n f l u e n c e over the a f f a i r s they i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t In.  - form does not a l l o w f o r the r o l e p e r s o n a l i t i e s p l a y i n these i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h i s s m a l l a community and hence may r e s u l t In confilets.  - r e p r e s e n t s a form of government r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d they wish t o a v o i d ,  i- would p r o v i d e a forum f o r e x p r e s s i n g community needs and. aspirations. Settlement would be more d i f f i c u l t f o r s e n i o r government t o o v e r l o o k . + i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l human and economic r e s o u r c e s of community planning. - f l e x i b i l i t y o f membership may Create h e s i t a n c y of s e n i o r government t o a l l o w board management of f i s c a l powers.  (moderate)  Socio-political  (moderate)  - most people not f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . + board would a l l o w p o l i t i c s of the settlement t o develop at i t s own r a t e .  * I n order f o r the model t o apply t o P e l l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n s + would l i k e l y make more money r e p r e s e n t i n g the white and non s t a t u s Indian would have a v a i l a b l e t o s e t t l e m e n t through t o be formed and demonstrate some i n d i c a t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e . The model i s a p p l i e d , assuming these c o n d i l o c a l government. t i o n s are met. + would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n improved s e r v i c e s i n community.  ro o  T e s l i n (Composite Board, h y p o t h e t i c a l ) Scope ( l a r g e )  Cooperation  + would allow g e n e r a l view of development p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t o u r i s m and o t h e r economic p o t e n t i a l s f o r the community.  + a forum which ensures equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the three e x i s t i n g organizat i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g respective' i v e s e c t o r s of the settlement,  + included settlement's population.  + r e l a t e s f a v o u r a b l y t o both White and Indian forms of s o c i a l organization.  entire  + would p r o v i d e government s t r u c t u r e s capable of g a i n ing assistance i n developing community s e r v i c e s . + p r o v i d e s a forum i n which c o n f l i c t s between s e t t l e m e n t and s e n i o r governments may be d i s c u s s e d or r e s o l v e d .  (large)  + p r o v i d e s a forum i n which c o n f l i c t s crossing ethnic l i n e s may be d i s c u s s e d or resolved.  Socio-political  (large)  •»- corresponds t o e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l format and a c t s t o l e g i t i m i z e them t o s e n i o r governments. - pressures to obtain a form of l o c a l government w i l l enrourage a c c e p t ance of LID r a t h e r than attempting t o a l t e r s i tuation. + residents f a m i l i a r with ro Territorial politics. o  + cohesive c h a r a c t e r of community lends i t s e l f t o t h i s form of government. + p r o p o s a l of board was r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l y by respondents.  Carmacks (Composite Board, h y p o t h e t i c a l ) Scope  (slight)  Cooperation  (moderate)  + may p r o v i d e some avenue f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic and human r e s o u r c e s of the s e t t l e ment i n a c o l l e c t i v e f a s h i o n t o c a p i t a l i z e on developmental possibilities.  + would p r o v i d e the format f o r cooperative i n t e r a c t i o n however i t i s l i k e l y t h a t form would be used only on a token b a s i s i n l i g h t of community d i v i s i o n s .  - f l e x i b l e format may l e a d t o early c o n f l i c t s across ethnic l i n e s since t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n a r e not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  - f l e x i b l e format would l i kely r e s u l t i n a short l i f e , not l i k e l y t o remain i n <}.•. e x i s t e n c e c o n s i d e r i n g the degree of antagonism a c r o s s ethnic l i n e s .  - would p r o b a b l y not d e a l w i t h a l l o c a t i o n of u t i l i t i e s since would serve only s m a l l densely p o p u l a t e d a r e a of s e t t l e m e n t .  + would i n i t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t a forum which c o u l d be used t o reduce t e n s i o n s a c r o s s ethnic l i n e s .  Socio-political  (moderate)  - not compatible w i t h e x i s t ing p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n along ethnic l i n e s . - l i k e l y t o widen d i v i s i o n between t r a n s i e n t s and permanent Whites. compatible w i t h t h e a s p i r ations f o r increased control over settlement a f f a i r s expressed by both e t h n i c groups. + some o l d e r r e s i d e n t s a r e quite f a m i l i a r with T e r r i torial politics.  + r e p r e s e n t s a form o f l o c a l + p r o p o s a l a t composite government which would be consi d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t a l l r e s i d - + would represent an attempt board was f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i at r e d u c i n g the extent of ved by respondents. ents of t h e s e t t l e m e n t . the d i v i s i o n between e t h n i c - c r o s s s e c t o r c o n f l i c t s would s e c t o r s . l i k e l y l i m i t f u n c t i o n s of board t o those not s e n s i t i v e t o e i t h e r group.  Carcross  (Composite Board,  hypothetical)  Scope (moderate)  Cooperation  + would f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n v o l vement of a l l community r e s i d ents i n t o u r i s m and mining opp o r t u n i t i e s which may be open to the settlement.  t close interpersonal r e l a t i o n s and r o l e of YANSI i n d i c a t e s t h a t a cooperat i v e atmosphere would be generated i n t h i s s e t t l e ment .  - p o s s i b l y not f o r m a l i z e d .-c enough t o ensure they a r e •. t r e a t e d as a body d i s t i n c t from a Whitehorse suburb. - may pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g t r u s t e e s who can operate e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h a l l soci a l factions.  (large)  - weak band o r g a n i z a t i o n may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n developing i n t e r n a l s o l i d a r i t y i f i n a board s i t u a tion. problems common t o a l l r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be d i s c u s sed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l y .  + would p r o v i d e format i n which r e s i d e n t s c o u l d b e g i n t o d e v e l - + may have net a f f e c t of op c h a r a c t e r of settlement d i s - adding a s o l i d a r i t y t o community hence improving t h e i r t i n c t from Whitehorse. i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l Whitehorse.  Socio-political  (moderate)  - atomized c h a r a c t e r not s u i t e d t o l o c a l government which would be i n v o l v e d i n general f u n c t i o n s . + some i n d i v i d u a l s f a m i l i a r w i t h T e r r i t o r i a l Government. - l i t t l e concern i n d i c a t e d about any form o f l o c a l government w i t h most people i n d i c a t e d they wished not t o be i n v o l v e d i n community a f fairs. + p r o p o s a l of model was f a v ourably r e c e i v e d by respondents .  Haines J u n c t i o n  (Composite Board, h y p o t h e t i c a l ) *  Scope ( s l i g h t )  C o o p e r a t i o n (moderate)  Socio-political (slight)  +• would i n v o l v e a l l lands i n the area of s e t t l e m e n t , not only those i n core a r e a .  - problems of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h widespread band.  - residents attached to e x i s t i n g form of government.  - would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n l o s s of f i s c a l powers due t o i n c r e a sed f l e x a b i l i t y i n board membership. They have l e s s opport u n i t y t o demonstrate committrr;.. ments t o community. - would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n some l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h s e n i o r government. - would l i k e l y a l l o w f o r d i r e c t involvement i n economic a c t i v i t i e s which i n f l u e n c e the s e t t l e ment .  + form adaptable t o s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s of both Indian and White s e c t o r s .  - not a p p r o p r i a t e t o existing p o l i t i c a l structure.  - may be p e r c e i v e d as lesseni n g the developing p o l i t i c a l - r e s i d e n t s g e n e r a l l y w e l l s t r e n g t h of both the Board a informed about T e r r i t o r i a l and YANSI. politics. + p r o v i d e s a forum i n which issues crossing ethnic l i nes may be d i s c u s s e d .  - i n c r e a s e d membership may l e a d to c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n board, as apposed t o coope r a t i o n c u r r e n t l y found i n LID. - the proposed model was r e j e c t e d by a l l respondents.  •Attempting t o a s s e s s how the model would " f i t " i n Haines J u n c t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t and unr e a l i s t i c i n the l i g h t of the committment of the r e s i d e n t s of the D i s t r i c t t o the LID and the capable performance of the board both w i t h i n i t s f u n c t i o n s and i n an a d v i s o r y capacity.  Table 5 Assessment of " P i t " Community Ross River  Pelly Crossing  Teslin  Carmacks  C a r c r o s s Haines Totals Junction  Function The LID:  Assessment of " F i t "  Scope Cooperation  moderate  large  moderate  1  2  1  slight  0  moderate  1  2  moderate  1  moderate  large  1  2  large  slight  moderate  1  0  large  moderate  slight  large  0  slight  8 4 ro  Socio-political  Totals  moderate s l i g h t  1  Cooperation Socio-political  3  2  The Composite Board: Scope  0  2  5  1  2  0  2  2  4  j£  6 18  Assessment of " F i t "  moderate  large  large  slight  moderate  .slight  0,  2  2  0  1  0  large  moderate I l a r g e  moderate  large  moderate  2  1  1  2  1  large  moderate  large  moderate  2..  1  2  1  2  1  moderate  5  9  slight  0  7  215  Teslin.  The LID was assessed  as the most a p p r o p r i a t e  J u n c t i o n and the model was assessed  i n Haines  as the more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  Ross R i v e r and C a r c r o s s . Two p o i n t s become apparent throughout t h i s a n a l y s i s . first  i s t h a t the process  laden r e g a r d l e s s  The  of e v a l u a t i o n and assessment i s value  of who performs the a p p r a i s a l , a l b e i t the com-  munity member, the T e r r i t o r i a l government  or a researcher  who  i s once removed from the community-government i n t e r a c t i o n s . With t h i s i n mind i t seems t h a t t h i s assessment should  f o r the  g r e a t e r p a r t , be a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i n c e i t i s the commun i t y ' s r e s i d e n t s who a r e t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the l o c a l  system.  The second p o i n t i s t h a t the LID o r t h e model a r e not e q u a l l y compatible t o a l l the s e t t l e m e n t s . i n a p a r t i c u l a r context  Where they a r e a p p r o p r i a t e  i n one community they may be  p r i a t e i n the same context  i n t h e next community.  inappro-  A survey of  t a b l e 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e s t h a t one model g e n e r a l l y performs some f u n c t i o n s more adequately than the o t h e r . r a i s e the q u e s t i o n  These d i f f e r e n c e s  " i s t h e r e a form of l o c a l government which  minimized d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and f a c i l i t a t e s a g r e a t e r degree of " f i t " t o the needs and c h a r a c t e r  The a d a p t i v e  o f a l l the settlements"?  f e a t u r e of the t e n t a t i v e semantic model  allows  f o r a whole f a m i l y of models t o be g e n e r a t e d , keeping w i t h i n the d i r e c t i o n s , i m p l i e d and e x p l i c i t , of the two p o s t u l a t e s . responses t o the p r o p o s a l  Soma  d e s c r i b i n g the model suggested ways  216  of a d a p t i n g i t t o correspond of p a r t i c u l a r One  more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o the needs  settlements.  such s u g g e s t i o n proposes a combining of some f e a t u r e s  of the LID and the model.  One  respondent  suggests  a represent-  a t i v e from each community group i n a d d i t i o n t o t h r e e t r u s t e e s e l e c t e d from the s e t t l e m e n t ' s e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . members would r e p r e s e n t the settlement  Two  of these  on a T e r r i t o r i a l Board  which would p r o v i d e the government w i t h a d v i c e r e l a t e d t o the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s .  The  fea-  t u r e of a r o t a t i o n a l chairman proposed i n the model, would be o b t a i n e d i n the r e v i s e d form. This proposal i l l u s t r a t e s  only one  of t e n responses  which  recommend v a r i o u s degrees of m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the LID and  the  proposed model. A s s e s s i n g each of these i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , however i t i s worth noting;; t h a t each of the prop o s a l s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the community i t come  from.  can a n t i c i p a t e agreement i n one  One  agreement i n another  settlement and  dis-  on the b a s i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s among the  communities i f on no o t h e r c r i t e r i a .  The  extent and  character  of these d i f f e r e n c e s , which have been o u t l i n e d i n some d e t a i l f o r the s i x communities, s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t t h e r e i s no c o r r e c t form of l o c a l government.  I f t h i s assessment of the  s i t u a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , what then should the Yukon Government the unorganized  s e t t l e m e n t s do i n order t h a t they may  ved i n determining how  one  l o c a l a f f a i r s are managed?  be  and  invol-  c h a p t e r  Conclusions In the  and  order  settlements This be  decision  of the Yukon  t o adopt  requires  viewed  Recommendations  t o improve  government  that  the form,  of  local  rial  Council  been  one  ganized Annual  The  indicates,  government  roles  settlement cited  analysis  the  form and  of l o c a l  functions  level.  As  of  government  a p a r t i c u l a r form  Govern-  the descriptive  largely a function  as i n d i c a t e d  government.  l e v e l s ; the T e r r i t o r i a l  the process of defining  has been  territory  encouraging unorganized  and t h e e x i s t i n g L I D ' s .  of s e l l i n g  Report  has been  a t two  ment l e v e l a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y the thesis  making w i t h i n  an a p p r o p r i a t e  as a p p r o p r i a t e  of  B  The  the  character  of the T e r r i t o -  Government's  of government  i n t h e Yukon  section  task  has  t o t h e unor-  Government's  1971  earlier.  i n the thesis  indicates  that  the LID would  not  2-18  suit  a l l unorganized  cepted  then  the question  ernment  do?" s t i l l  problem  involved  government  The  demonstrated  ions que. a  made m o s t  wide  the settlements,  range  of factors  community  the  d i f f e r e n t economic  the  different social  of  exist  iduals  The  demands  stem from and  account no  these  explicit  considered  of the  of local  they  opportunities  i n each  settlement  governments'  each community  and  interact i s unicover  have upon i t s  character;  a v a i l a b l e t o t h e community;  available t o the residents of relationships  and i n d i v i d u a l groups  which  and t h e senior  of the several  indiv-  community.  o f demands f o r a l o c a l  differences  are implicit  i n the responses  of r u r a l  differences government  i n the study.  the thesis;  as; the different personalities i n  the d i f f e r e n t types  of local  Gov-  d i s t i n g u i s h one f r o m t h e o t h e r  opportunities  of lack  f o r these  elements  of each  and t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p i r a t i o n s  and groups  types  throughout  of the senior  such  between t h e community  governments;  frequently  and t h e i n f l u e n c e  t h e community;  i s ac-  the T e r r i t o r i a l  of appropriate  has been t h a t  which  the  I f this  of the parameters  i n the descriptive analysis  The d i f f e r e n c e s  well.  some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n .  i n the descriptions  with  should  A review  i n the design  may p r o v i d e  equally  o f "what  remains.  observation  restated  settlements  should  government  throughout  residents. not imply  the analysis Attempts t o  that  common t o a l l d f t h e  The need  f o rl o c a l  which  there are settlements  management  of local  219 problems nic  and  lines  nities. rences  the  need  a p p e a r as What  ever  the  at  a  a  of  the  great  should  deal be  taken  ween e a c h  of  about  specific  two  16,  18,  fused.  An  ent  the  19)  communities  inputs  sources  settlement  out  as  should  of  community  the  contacts  and  so  the  two  4,  5,  commu-  the  diffe-  as  being  an  effective  tend  as  to  eliminate  t o whose  senior 7,  8,  a  bet-  governments 9,  10,  12,  13,  c o m p l e x and  i s that  of  emanating  single input  provide  advise  which develop  con-  sorting  that, rather than having  community, a  eth-  related decisions.  government  s e n i o r governments  a w h o l e may  led to  i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be local  locally  to the  i n the  a  recognized  which would  (Figures  show t h e s e  to a l l the  at Whitehorse  illustrate  across  i n assessing  m u s t be  level  making  issues  used  process  confusion  o b j e c t i v e of  matters  fifteen  they  community  diagrams which  these  processes  i n the  interaction  f a c t o r s which apply  Secondly, the  coordination  15,  two  among s e t t l e m e n t s ,  value-laden.  The  for cooperative  ten  from  differ-  representing  c l e a r guide  for  to  the  government  action. With  this  Territorial for  the  operate the  i n mind, the  Government  unorganized w i t h i n the  to  most a p p r o p r i a t e adopt  settlement broad  function, ations  and  and  role  advice  of of  the the  i n developing appears  guidelines  postulates, formulating  the  local  approach  to  such  be as  specifics government  particular  local  for  government  one  which  those  set  will out  r e l a t e d to the under the  settlement.  the  in forms,  recommend-  220  If  this  w o u l d be  procedure  were a d o p t e d  cast i n a different  unorganized  settlement.  role  Rather  ment p a c k a g e , ' t h e T e r r i t o r i a l general directions tlement  the T e r r i t o r i a l  Government  in i t s interactions  than  offering  a  'local  Government w o u l d be  specific  aspects  the  govern-  offering  o r g u i d e l i n e s which would a s s i s t  i n f o r m u l a t i n g the  with  each  of t h e i r  set-  own  local  government. The 1.  f o l l o w i n g recommendations f l o w The  Territorial  Government  Improvement D i s t r i c t a  statement  specifics  the  and  the  F e d e r a l Governments. c o u l d be p a t t e r e n e d  group are  role  may  after  the  of the  while  Territorrevised  Societies  f u n c t i o n s of a  i n the L e t t e r s  the  worked"out  F o r example; t h e  o b j e c t i v e s and  s e t out  be  s e n i o r government  larger responsibilities  nance i n t h a t the cular  w i t h a view t o making i t  o f f o r m , f u n c t i o n , and  recognizing  ordinance  Local  of the g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s w i t h i n which  settlement  and  these c o n c l u s i o n s ;  should r e a p p r a i s e the  Ordinance  between t h e  ial  from  Patent  ordi-  parti-  of  each  body.  2.  The  Territorial  guidelines  for local  the p r i n c i p l e s  or  should e s t a b l i s h  government  of l o c a l  the unorganized anizations  Government  these  only a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g  government w i t h a l l s e c t o r s o f  s e t t l e m e n t s , whether r e p r e s e n t e d  not.  general  by  org-  221 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e u n o r g a n i z e d ments s h o u l d f o r m u l a t e  t h e i r v i e w s on t h e t y p e  settleof form,  r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n s a l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d embody t o meet most a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r In  the f i n a l  process  a n a l y s i s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of developing  tlements  r e s t s w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of these  communities.  functions  set-  It  undertaken  t h e r e s i d e n t s o f a s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d be t h a t o f d e s i g n i n g  the e x p l i c i t ility ing  of ensuring the  l o c a l government f o r t h e u n o r g a n i z e d  seems a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t one o f t h e f i r s t by  settlement.  c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r l o c a l government.  o f s u c h a s y s t e m may a d d t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y  the overall a f f a i r s  of L o c a l Government.  The  flexib-  of administer-  o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s by t h e D e p a r t m e n t  This howeverrshould  deterent t o accepting the proposal. c u l t i e s w h i c h may a r i s e t h r o u g h  not i n i t s e l f  be a  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i -  the adoption  of these  princi-  p l e s may w e l l be d i m i n i s h e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e o f ative  i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e community and s e n i o r government.  Implications  o f t h e T h e s i s f o r L o c a l Government i n Canada  What i m p l i c a t i o n s • f o r o t h e r p a r t s o f C a n a d a may be from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  thesis?  t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i t i s necessary the types which,  cooper-  infered  I n o r d e r t o answer t h i s  ques-  t o r e a l i z e the d i v e r s i t y i n  l o c a l governments which e x i s t a c r o s s Canada, a t a s k  in itself,  I s w e l l beyond t h e scope o f t h e t h e s i s .  222  One ions  may be t e m p t e d  for local  development opinion  t o draw p a r a l l e l s  government  o f urban  as e x p r e s s e d  neibourhood  i t i s doubtful that  between t h e  i n the t h e s i s  government.  these  suggest-  I n the  i n f e r e n c e s are  and the authors  warrented.  D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two a r e ones o f m a g n i t u d e a n d e x t e n t . Population  sizes,  the p e r s o n a l nature  of social  the sense  o f community, t h e i n d i v i d u a l s '  residents  and l o c a t i o n  rural it  and urban  may n o t  sis  setting  involved  outline  the f i n d i n g s  t h e N.W.T.  between that  o f the  the-  t o involve  i n t h e making o f l o c a l  s t u d y b y compargovernments f o r  i n a p r o v i n c e , B.C., a n d i n o f the procedure  o f t h e two a r e a s w i l l  o f t h e methods u s e d  community  areas  A comparison  with those  the  i ndeveloping l o c a l  unincorporated.or unorganized  the t h e s i s  differ  t o s u c h a n e x t e n t as t o s u g g e s t  may, h o w e v e r , draw i n f e r e n c e s f r o m  a territory,  t o community  scene.:  ing the p r i n c i p l e s  in  exposure  o f employment  be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t r a n s l a t e  t o the urban One  and sources  organizations,  follow  a general  the unorganized  decisions  proposed  rural  i n B.C. a n d t h e  N.W.T., r e s p e c t i v e l y .  L o c a l government  i n B.C. c o n s i s t s  porated municipalities B.C.  towns, v i l l a g e s  has Involved the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d r u r a l  making from  (cities,  o f many l e v e l s  of local  decisions  through p l a c i n g  t h e s e a r e a s , on B o a r d s  trict.  Regional D i s t r i c t s  of incor-  and d i s t r i c t s ) .  settlements i n the elected  representative,  which a d m i n i s t e r the R e g i o n a l  Dis-  p r o v i d e f o r a f e d e r a t e d approach t o  223  l o c a l c o n t r o l , however the f u n c t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s they may assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon a p p l i c a t i o n .  over a r e g r a n t e d t o t h e governing  boards  The v o t i n g s t r e n g t h of the Board members a r e  roughly p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the p o p u l a t i o n o f member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or the unorganized a r e a s , r e f e r r e d t o as e l e c t o r a l a r e a s .  Most  of the powers o f the board are s e t out i n L e t t e r s Patent and d i f f e r from one r e g i o n t o the n e x t . The  ( P r o v i n c e of B.C., 1 9 7 2 )  1973 amendments t o t h e B.C. M u n i c i p a l A c t g i v e s the Regio-  n a l D i s t r i c t s access t o e s s e n t i a l l y a l l the powers of a c i t y municipality. The problems o f the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas which a r e unable t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over l o c a l f u n c t i o n s s t i l l  remains  even  through these i s s u e s may be r a i s e d by the l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who s i t s on the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board.  Where the p r o p o s a l  i n the t h e s i s d i f f e r s from the p r i n c i p l e of g r a d u a l i s m b u i l t i n t o extending f u n c t i o n s t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p r i n c i p l e i s extended  i s that  this  t o i n c l u d e a changing form o f government  as w e l l as a changing r o l e i n the community a l o c a l government would t a k e .  The f i n d i n g s o f the t h e s i s correspond w i t h the  B.C. p r a c t i c e o f the i n s i s t i n g t h a t a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s are a l l o c a t e d t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board quest.  only upon t h e i r r e -  The t h e s i s a l s o suggests t h a t unorganized areas would,  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government and t h e i r a l D i s t r i c t , d e s i g n a system  Region-  of l o c a l government which would  meet t h e i r l o c a l needs a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h the o p t i o n open t o  224 change the type of l o c a l government  as demands on the community  change. L o c a l government a transition  i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  over the past f i v e y e a r s .  Department  of L o c a l Government.  undergone  Formerly, unorganized  s e t t l e m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by government the  has  personnel within .  These communities  have  been encouraged t o form s e t t l e m e n t c o u n c i l s which a r e e l e c t e d from the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  The government  administrators  assume more of a managerial r o l e w h i l e l o c a l d e c i s i o n s have become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of the c o u n c i l s .  As c o u n c i l s dem-  onstrate t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g l o c a l a f f a i r s they  become e l i g i b l e f o r hamlet s t a t u s i n which the c o u n c i l has an even l a r g e r hand i n s e t t i n g l o c a l contracts.  budgets, h i r i n g  s t a f f and awarding  The p r o c e s s of expanding l o c a l f u n c t i o n s upon  l o c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s p r a c t i c e d on the b a s i s of expanding l o c a l f u n c t i o n s upon the request of s e t t l e m e n t c o u n c i l s as the f e e l both the need and a b i l i t y t o handle a d d i t i o n a l  functions.  The Commissioner of the N.W.T. i m p l i e d i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the  Canadian Magazine t h a t some of the new  under the weight of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  c o u n c i l s are sagging He c i t e s a number  of i n c i d e n t s which o c c u r r e d i n Tuktoyaktuk when the settlement became a hamlet. they r e a l i z e d the  D e v e l o p e r s , businessmen and r e s e a r c h e r s , when,  t h e r e was a l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body  flooded  c o u n c i l s w i t h p r o p o s a l s which exceeded i t s a b i l i t y t o cope  effectively.  The Commissioner s t a t e d t h a t they have had t o  225  slow down the process o f d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l governments  "until  we've had a b i t more e x p e r i e n c e " (Canadian Magazine, Jan. 6 ,  1972). The p r i n c i p l e s expressed  i n the t h e s i s would seem t o suggest  t h a t the development of l o c a l government i n the N.W.T. should not only be based  on the p r i n c i p l e o f g r a d u a l l y expanding  func-  t i o n s a t the request of the settlement but should a l s o b e g i n by d e s i g n i n g an i n i t i a l form and r o l e o f government i n c o n s u l t a t i o n s between the community and the T e r r i t o r i a l  Government.  These a s p e c t s o f l o c a l government c o u l d a l s o be a d j u s t e d a t the request of the s e t t l e m e n t .  I t would seem, from the a n a l y -  s i s i n t h i s study t h a t from f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e d the  differ-  ences which e x i s t between communities by p l a c i n g a common form of l o c a l government, the s e t t l e m e n t c o u n c i l , i n a l l communities.  The t h e s i s suggests t h a t t h i s should be o f fundamental  importance In  t o the N.W.T. as w e l l as the Yukon.  summary, the t h e s i s has l i n k e d the extent o f the  divers-  i t y among s i x r u r a l Yukon s e t t l e m e n t s t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s s e n i o r governments i n the T e r r i t o r y encounter nity affairs.  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g commu-  Two p o s t u l a t e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the governmental  needs o r r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s were developed  with the o b j e c t i v e s  of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g those f u n c t i o n s o f government which would most efficiently level  and e x p e d i t i o u s l y be administered, a t the settlement  and f o r m u l a t i n g a system o f l o c a l government which would  226 encourage c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s a c r o s s e t h n i c r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s i n tne  lines.  t h e s i s suggests t h a t the  ences among the communities were so e x t e n s i v e as t o t h a t no  one  t i o n s and  differ-  indicate  type of l o c a l government w i t h s p e c i f i c form, f u n c -  r o l e would s a t i s f y the p o s t u l a t e s  each of the  The  settlements.  In l i g h t  of the  appropriately  for  f i n d i n g the  author  recommends t h a t the T e r r i t o r i a l Government develop an  ordin-  ance f o r l o c a l government which has  flexibility  and  the  itities  of expanding i t s form and  tions.  Such a course of a c t i o n would p o s s i b l y r e s o l v e  the  r o l e i n a d d i t i o n to i t s func-  c e n t r a l - v e r s u s - l o c a l i s s u e s which develop w i t h i n  i n g framework and expeditious  may  possib-  many of  the  l e a d t o a more e f f i c i e n t , equable,  administration  of Yukon a f f a i r s .  existand  b i b l i o g r a p h y  228  Bibliography  Brown  P a r t 1;  Political  History  o f t h e Yukon  J.N.E., 1 9 0 7 . "The E v o l u t i o n o f Law a n d Government i n t h e Y u k o n . T e r r i t o r y . " , M u n i c i p a l Government o f T o r o n t o . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  Fingland F.B., 1 9 6 8 . 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Warren, R.L.. 1 9 5 6 . "Toward a Typology of Extra-Community Cont r o l l L i m i t i n g L o c a l Community Autonomy." S o c i a l F o r c e s . Wichern, P.H. Kunta, G. and Waddell, D., 1 9 7 1 . The P r o d u c t i o n and T e s t i n g of a Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Resource F r o n t i e r Communities. Winnipeg: U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. o  *Source: Yukon Government:  Need and Demand Housing Survey;  1972  237  September 1 9 7 2  Data f o r Ross R i v e r :  6l°59'N.  Location:  132°51W - M i l e 2 2 0 Campbell  Highway, j u n c t i o n of North Canol Highway. Population:  1971:  3 1 7 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada).  Ross R i v e r i s a v i l l a g e s i t u a t e d a t t h e j u n c t i o n of t h e Ross R i v e r and P e l l y R i v e r s . t h e i r l i v i n g by h u n t i n g ,  I t s p e o p l e , many I n d i a n s ,  t r a p p i n g , and g u i d i n g b i g game  earn hunting  p a r t i e s , and more r e c e n t l y on work r e l a t e d t o mining.  Community  and Government Contacts  Local.Council:  Elected/  Community  Club p r e s i d e n t - Don  McKay. Band C h i e f :  C l i f f o r d McLeod.  Gov't of Y/.T;;  Garage and Grader S t a t i o n - Ron E d z e r z a , Foreman.  I n f l u e n t i a l People:  Don McKay C l i f f o r d McLeod - C h i e f W.C. Carson.  Infrastructure; Water:  From an i n f i l t r a t i o n w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d un-  238 c h l o r i n a t e d ; p r i v a t e w e l l s a l s o used. Disposed  Sewage: Garbage:  of by i n d i v i d u a l  cesspools.  Open dump. Power s u p p l i e d by Yukon E l e c t r i c a l  Electricity:  Ltd  from d i e s e l  generators.  A l l weather road - Campbell Hwy.  Main Re-supply:  Rd.  Territorial  Rv.  g i v e s access  Co.  & Canol  Gov't, f e r r y across t o North  Canol.  Marine F a c i l i t i e s :  Territorial  Gov't. F e r r y a c r o s s P e l l y  Air  Airport 61°  58'N.  Facilities:  2408',  132°  Pelly  26'W.  River.  F i e l d Evev.  g r a v e l s t r i p 3 6 O O ' l o n g , no l i g h t s -  no n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s . Carson, 6 v o l u n t e e r s .  F i r e Department:  C h i e f W.  Police:  RCMP Detachment; 1 C o n s t a b l e ;  equipped  with a car.  Facillcites Air  and  Transport:  Based A i r c r a f t :  Services Territorial  Airways L i m i t e d .  Territorial  A i r Co. L t d . - bush p i l o t  services. Water Transport:  F e r r y system by T e r r i t o r i a l  Gov't, a c r o s s  239 Pelly River Road T r a n s p o r t :  daily.  Yukon Bus L i n e s from Whitehorse 3 times a week, passenger, cargo and f r e i g h t and mail.  Fules A v a i l a b l e :  Cost  (contract p r i c e per g a l ) Gasoline  .3540 , fuel. oil..3410 v  d i e s e l .3410  1 n u r s i n g s t a t i o n f o r emergency f i r s t a i d  Medical:  only - no beds, 1 Doctor attends  bi-month-  l y , nursing a s s i s t a n t a v a i l a b l e . 4 room s c h o o l - grades 1 t o 9 , c a p a c i t y -  Education:  80 students, 4 teachers. C a t h o l i c Church - F. P. V e y r a t .  Churches:  Anglica  Church P. G. A s b i l . Community  Hall:  Yes.  Library:  Deposit  S t a t i o n - Mr. D. McKay i n charge.  Communications:  No r a d i o , T.V. o r t e l e g r a p h s e r v i c e s .  Tel-  ephone CNT. Post  Office:  In s t o r e - m a i l t r u c k e d i n 3 times a week.  Bank:  None.  Recreation:  Community  Club, C u r l i n g Club.  240  P u b l i c Accomodation:  Ross R i v e r H o t e l .  Meals:  Ross R i v e r H o t e l - meals.  Liquor:  Ross R i v e r H o t e l - c o c k t a i l s - t a v e r n .  Industry and Commerce: Ross R i v e r H o t e l Ed's  Department  Store  Margaret's General  Store  Ross R i v e r Motors Par F r o n t i e r S e r v i c e s T e r r i t o r i a l A i r Co. L t d . T e r r i t o r i a l Road Maintenance .Camp, Woody's T a x i  Number o f persons c o n t i n u o u s l y engaged i n t h e above e n t e r p r i ses:  15  Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Ross R i v e r P o p u l a t i o n covered  by survey  241  Number of f a m i l i e s  60  Number o f d w e l l i n g s  55  Average number of persons p e r f a m i l y Average number o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y Percentage o f p o p u l a t i o n covered  4.C2 3 76$  241  Age  Groups Sex  Sex Age  M  F  Total  Age  F Total  44  yrs  7  8  15  54  yrs  14  13  27  30  55-64  yrs  5  3  8  11  19  65  -  69  yrs  2  1  3  11  ;.4  15  70  -  75  yrs  1  2  2  20  19  39  75  -  80  yrs  1  3  -  4 yrs  16.  24  40  35  -  •5 -  9 yrs  21  18  39  45  -  10  - 14 y r s  12  18.  15  - 19  yrs  ;,8  20  - 24 y r s  25  - 34  yrs  00  M :  80 y r s & o v e r  1  242  Data f o r P e l l y C r o s s i n g :  September  1972  Location:  M i l e 168 - Whitehorse - Mayo Highway  Population:  1971  -  1^1  (Statistics  Canada)  Community and Government Contacts Local Council:  None  Band C h i e f :  Danny Joe  Gov't of the Y.T.:  None  Influential  Ed. Wolven  People:  W a l t e r Delhach  Infrastructure W e l l - p r e s s u r e system  Water: Sewage:  Garbage:  Electricity:  Garbage dump D i e s e l - Yukon E l e c t r i c a l back-up  Main Re-supply:  3 0 0 KWH  @ 5.0  $)  A l l weather road - Whitehorse - Mayo Highway.  Marine F a c i l i t i e s :  (first  Co. - 100$  None  Pelly  River  243  Air  Facilities:  F i r e Department:  Forestry S t r i p - doubtful conditions F i r e cache l o c a t e d i n Wash house, I n d i a n Village  Police:  P o l i c e d by Carmacks u n i t Detachment  F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s Based A i r c r a f t :  None  Local  None  Road  Transport: Transport:  Yukon Bus L i n e s - 3 times a week f o r passenger, cargo and f r e i g h t Whitepass & Yukon Route  Fules Available:  Fuel o i l cost (contract p r i c e per gal.) .3550  Medical:  Nursing  Station  Education:  Elementary S c h o o l , 2 rooms, grades one t o e i g h t , 2 teachers  Churches:  C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n - Rev. J . Guilbaud, A n g l i c a n M i s s i o n - Rev. D.F. N i c h o l l s  Community H a l l :  None  Library:  None  (Mayo)  244  Coraraunications:  Telephone CNT  Post  M a i l t r u c k e d i n twice a week  Office:  Bank:.  None  P u b l i c Accomodation:  P e l l y R i v e r Lodge - 8 rooms  Meals:  P e l l y R i v e r Lodge r e s t a u r a n t  Liquor:  P e l l y R i v e r Lodge - t a v e r n  Industry and Commerce P e l l y R i v e r Lodge - S t o r e , S e r v i c e S t a t i o n  Number of persons c o n t i n u o u s l y ses:  engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i -  4  Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r P e l l y P o p u l a t i o n covered  Crossing  by survey  134  Number o f f a m i l i e s  33  Number of d w e l l i n g s  30  Average number of persons p e r f a m i l y  4  Average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y  2  Percentage o f p o p u l a t i o n covered  95%  245 Age Groups Sex  Sex Age  M  F  Total  M  Age  1 -  4 yrs  18  19  37  35 -  44 y r s  5  9 yrs  10  10  20  45 -  10 - 14 y r s  8  6  15 - 19 y r s  4  20 - 24 y r s - 34 y r s  25  -  Total  F  10  7  17  54 y r s  2  2  14  55 - 64 y r s  2  2  7  11  65 -  69 y r s  1  2  1  3  70 -  75 y r s  2  3  5  11  8  19  1  1  2  1  7 6 - 80 y r s 80 y r s and over  246  September 1972  Data f o r T e s l i n :  Location:  M i l e 8 0 4 A l a s k a Highway  Population:  1971-340  At m i l e 8 0 4 - 8 0 7  of the  (Statistics  Canada)  A l a s k a Highway i s a p i o n e e r v i l l a g e  on T e s l i n Lake, a b e a u t i f u l 86 m i l e waterway on the B.C. - Yukon border.  I t i s a very p o p u l a r f i s h i n g s p o t , w i t h  guides and boats  accomodations,  available.  Community and Government Contacts Local Council:  Elected/appointed  P r e s i d e n t - H. Tucker  Band C h i e f :  Sam  Gov't of the Y.T.:  Grader S t a t i o n ; C l i f f o r d Lawrence, Foreman  I n f l u e n t i a l People:  Ted Geddes  Johnston  Bob Flemming C h i e f Sam  Johnston  Infrastructure Water:  Wells  Sewage, garbage:  S e p t i c Tank d i s p o s a l i n t o weeping t i l e f i e l d , garbage d i s p o s a l i n an open dump  247  Diesel-Yukon  Main Re-supply:  A l l weather r o a d A l a s k a Highway  Marine F a c i l i t i e s :  Sea plane base - T e s l i n Lake  Air  Gravel s t r i p  Facilities:  ter  by DPW  horse. F i r e Department:  Electrical  Co. 1 0 0 $ back-up  Electricity:  - maintained  summer and win-  as emergency s t r i p  f o r White-  Co-ordinates.  C h i e f W. Whimp J r .  10 v o l u n t e e r s , I - I 9 6 9  GPM pumper 2 man detachment, 1 c o r p o r a l , 1 c o n s t a b l e ,  Police:  C o r p o r a l A. W. Berg  Facilities Air  and S e r v i c e s  Transport:  Local  Transport:  Road T r a n s p o r t :  Only emergency and p r i v a t e  flights  T e s l i n Taxi Coachways System 3 times weekly t o Dawson Creek from Whitehorse, a v a i l a b l e f o r passengers,  c a r g o , f r e i g h t , L o i s e l l Q , White-  p a s s , Cam. Freightways  Ltd. Northline  Transport. Fuels  available:  Medical:  Cost  (Contract price/Gal)  N u r s i n g S t a t i o n - n u r s e based  .3230 - fuel o i l here.  248  Education:  Elementary 1-10,  & Secondary  s c h o o l , grades  7 rooms, 7 t e a c h e r s ,  Nash P r i n -  cipal Churches:  C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n - F r . J . Tanquay. can Church - Rev.  Angli-  J.D.E.. Watts  Community H a l l :  Yes  Library:  D e p o s i t S t a t i o n - Mrs. E. Cope  Communication:  CNT  Post O f f i c e :  Trucked i n 3 times weekly  Bank:  None  Recreation:  Community C l u b , C u r l i n g  P u b l i c Accomodation:  T e s l i n Lake M o t e l , Yukon Motel  Meals:  T e s l i n Lake Motel - r e s t a u r a n t - Yukon  Club.  Motel r e s t a u r a n t Liquor:  T e s l i n Lake Motel - Tavern  Industry and Commerce:Eagle  Bay Lumber Co. Geddes & Fleming  C o n s t r u c t i o n , T i m b e r l i n e Development Servi c e s L t d . , Usher L.E. T r a d i n g Post & Post O f f i c e , Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Tourism:  Commercial  Fishing  Co.  249 Number o f persons c o n t i n u o u s l y engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i 25  ses:  Housing Survey  Statistics 304  P o p u l a t i o n covered by survey Number of f a m i l i e s  77  Number o f d w e l l i n g s  73  Average number o f persons p e r f a m i l y  4  Average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y  2  Percentage o f p o p u l a t i o n covered  Age Groups Sex Age ;  Sex  M.  F  Total  Age  M  F  Total  0 -  4 yrs  22  21  43  35  - 44 y r s  19  15  34  5  9 yrs  30  32  62  45  - 54 yrs  15  5  20  yrs  15  19  35  55  -  64 y r s  3  6  9  - 19 y r s  13  5  18  65  - 69 y r s  5  4  9  2 0 - 24 y r s  10  8  18  70  - 75 y r s  2  1  3  - 34 y r s  12  17  29  75  - 80 y r s  2  1  3  -  10 15  25  14  80 y r s & over  250  Data f o r the Community of C a r c r o s s :  September  T h i r t y - o n e m i l e s south of A l a s k a Highway  Location:  from M i l e 866 or M i l e 9 0 4 . 8  w i t h access 1971  Population:  -  188  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada)  An H i s t o r i c town s i t u a t e d at the n o r t h end which s t r a d d l e s the Yukon-B.C. b o r d e r . i b o u C r o s s i n g , i t was the K l o n d i k e was  1972  an important  of Lake Bennett,  Formerly known as Car-  transportation center  during  g o l d r u s h , when White Pass & Yukon Route r a i l w a y  b u i l t from Skagway A l a s k a , through C a r c r o s s  t o Whitehorse.  In i t s cemetary are b u r i e d some of the o r i g i n a l d i s c o v e r e r s of g o l d i n the K l o n d i k e  - Kate Carmacks, Skookum Jim and  Tagish  Charlie.  Community and  Government  Local Council:  Contacts:  Elected  Community C l u b , e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t  Mr.  D.  Harder  Band C h i e f :  Dan  Johnson  Gov't of the Y.T.:  Garage & Grader S t a t i o n - Edgar Bear Foreman  Influential  People:  Edgar Bear Dorothy Hopcott  Bobby Watson Dan Johnson - C h i e f  Infrastructure Water:  W e l l s - f r e s h water from r i v e r  Sewage, garbage:  S e p t i c t a n k s , p r i v a t e garbage t r u c k s e r v i c e by C a r l W e a t h e r h a l l once a week  Electricity:  Power s u p p l i e d by Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. L t d . from Whitehorse  Main Re-supply:  A l l weather r o a d , t r a i n  Marine  Whitepass dock a t s t a t i o n .  Facilities:  facilities Loading ramp  n o r t h of new b r i d g e Air  Facilities:  C o - o r d i n a t e s : 60° 11'N - 1 3 4 ° 42'W., g r a vel surface.  2,800' X 1 3 5 ' emergency use  only Fire  Department:  C h i e f W. Parsons, 8 v o l u n t e e r s o  Police:  P o l i c e d by summer detachment May 1 t o October 3 1 .  Rest of y e a r p o l i c e d  by the Whitehorse detachment. J.A. Card i n charge  - 1 man from  Constable  252  F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s Air  Transport:  None  Based A i r c r a f t :  Simmons Northern  Airways  Water T r a n s p o r t :  None  Local Transport:  U.S. T a x i  Road T r a n s p o r t :  Grant W i l l i a m T r u c k i n g L t d . , Whitepass Thursday, r a i l f r e i g h t , Yukon Bus l i n e s t w i c e a week, passenger,  Fuels available:  Cost  cargo and f r e i g h t  (contract price per gal) .3010 - f u e l  oil N u r s i n g s t a t i o n - Lay d i s p e n s e r - P u b l i c  Medical:  H e a l t h nurse v i s i t s  monthly  Three room s c h o o l , grades one t o n i n e ,  Education:  t h r e e t e a c h e r s , S. B e c k e t t ,  Principal  One C a t h o l i c , (Rev. R. P l a i n e ) , one A n g l i -  Churches:  can, (Rev. I.D.E. Watts) Community  Hall:  Yes  Library:  D e p o s i t S t a t i o n - Henry W i l k i n s o n i n charge  Communications:  CNT  253 Post  M a i l d e l i v e r y t r u c k e d i n twice a week  Office:  Bank:  None  Recreation:  Community h a l l , c u r l i n g  P u b l i c Accomodation:  C a r i b o u H o t e l - 22  Meals:  C a r i b o u H o t e l , Nelson's  rink  rooms Pine Grove Serv-  ices C a r i b o u i H o t e l - Tavern, Pine Grove Cafe  Liquor:  Industry and Commerce Nelson's  Pine Grove S e r v i c e s  Watson's & Matthew General  Store  Caribou Hotel White Pass & Yukon Route - t r a i n depot  Number of persons ses:  service  c o n t i n u o u s l y engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i -  25  Housing ..  and  Survey  S t a t i s t i c s f o r Carcross  P o p u l a t i o n covered by survey  140  Number of f a m i l i e s  48  Number of d w e l l i n g s  42  Average number of persons per f a m i l y  3  254  Average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y Percentage  2 7*$  of p o p u l a t i o n covered  Age Groups Sex Age  Sex  M  F  Total  Age  M  F  Total  0  -  4 yrs  11  10  21  35  _ 44; y r s  7  3  10  5  -  9 yrs  10  6  16  45 - 5 ^ y r s  7  8  15  10  - l " yrs  7  5  12  55  - 64 y r s  7  6  13  15  - 19 y r s  6  5  11  65 - 69 y r s  2  7  9  2 0 - 24 y r s  9  4  13  7 0 - 75 y r s  5  4 yrs  9  3  12  75 - 8 0 y r s  1  25  2  -  3  8 0 y r s & over  2  5 1 2  255. Data f o r Community of Carmacks:  September  6 2 ° 7'N,  Location:  136°  1972  18'W.  M i l e 103  at  the j u n c t i o n of K l o n d i k e Highway and Campbell Highway 1971  Population: Here was station  -  3^8  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada)  l o c a t e d a T r a d i n g p o s t , N.W.P.T. p o s t , t e l e g r a p h  and T a n t a l u s C o a l Mine 1^ m i l e s from the post which has  been operated from the e a r l y days. road passed  through Carmacks.  The  o l d Dawson Stage Coach  A p o r t i o n of i t can s t i l l be  seen  near the F o r e s t r y S t a t i o n .  Community and Government Local Council:  Contacts E l e c t e d President - Walter Community  Y.T.:  Garage and Grader S t a t i o n - Jim O'Connell  Influential  Club  George B i l l y  Band C h i e f : Gov't of t h e  Isreal,  People:  Walter Mr.  - Foreman  Isreal  Liden  Doug Colen Howard Tracy  256  Infrastructure I n d i v i d u a l w e l l s , New well house w i t h  Water:  1000 g a l . water tank.  B u i l t 1972 i n  Indian V i l l a g e Sewage, garbage:  D i s p o s a l i s done through s e p t i c and l e a c h i n g p i t .  tank  Garbage d i s p o s a l  i s an open dump Electricity:  Power purchased by Yukon E l e c t r i c from N.C.P.C. w i t h a u x i l i a r y stand by  Main Re-supply:  diesels.  A l l weather road K l o n d i k e Highway and Campbell Highway.  Yukon R i v e r  summer Marine Air  Services:  Facilities:  V i a t h e Yukon R i v e r A i r p o r t 62° 6'N. 1 3 6  0  18»W p e r a t e d  by T e r r i t o r i a l Government - f i e l d e l e v a t i o n 1800 f t . gravaL s t r i p 265O' not Fire  Department:  Police:  lighted  C h i e f W. Brown, 10 v o l u n t e e r s RCMP Detachment, 1 C o r p o r a l , 1 Consta b l e equipped w i t h one car, C o r p o r a l Murphy i n charge  257 F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s Air  Transport:  No scheduled  flights  Based A i r c r a f t :  None  Water Transport:  None  L o c a l Transport:  Carmacks H o t e l t a x i  Road T r a n s p o r t :  WhitePass, Yukon F r e i g h t L i n e s , Yukon Bus l i n e s r u n from Whitehorse t o Dawson, Mayo t o Carmacks 3 times week, passenger,  Fules available;  Cost  cargo,  freight  ( C o n t r a c t p r i c e p e r g a l ) .3120  fuel o i l Medical:  H e a l t h s t a t i o n operated by a n u r s i n g a s s i s t a n t f o r emergency use o n l y . H o s p i t a l cases a r e taken t o Whitehorse  Education:  One 6 room s c h o o l - k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade t e n , c a p a c i t y of approx. 100 students, s i x teachers, p r i n c i p a l B.A. Greene  Churches:  A n g l i c a n Church R e c t o r y , Rev. P.? Asbil,,: Catholic Mission, F r . J .  258  Guilbaud Community H a l l :  Yes  Library:  D e p o s i t S t a t i o n - Mrs.  Greene i n  charge Communications:  Radio CBC  5 7 0 from Whitehorse.  CNT  RCMP, F o r e s t r y , T e r r i t o r i a l Government Post  Office:  Truck d e l i v e r y twice a week  Bank:  None  Recreation:  C u r l i n g C l u b , Community Club  P u b l i c Accomodation:  C a r l e n e ' s M o t e l , Sunset Motel -  21  roome, Carmacks H o t e l 10 rooms, K l o n d i k e Lodge - 6 rooms Carmacks H o t e l , - c a f e , K l o n d i k e /  Meals:  Lodge - r e s t a u r a n t Sunset  Liquor:  Motel - C o c k t a i l s , Carmacks  Hotel - tavern  Industry and Commerce C a r l e n e ' s S e r v i c e S t a t i o n & Motel Sunset  Motel  259 Carmacks H o t e l Klondike  Lodge  A n v i l Mining Corp - C o a l mine Roxy T r a d i n g  Post  T a y l o r & Drury L t d Carmacks H o t e l T a x i  Number of persons c o n t i n u o u s l y engaged i n the above e n t r e p r i ses:  30  Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Carmacks P o p u l a t i o n covered by survey  235  Number o f f a m i l i e s  68  Number o f d w e l l i n g s  60  Average number of persons p e r f a m i l y  4  Average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y  2  Percentage of p o p u l a t i o n covered  70%  260 Age Groups Sex  Sex Ace  M  P  Total  Age  M  P  Total  0 -  4 yrs  14  16  30  35 -  44 y r s  19  15  34  5  9 yrs  21  25 •  46  45 - 5 4 y r s  7  5  12  10 - 14 y r s  15  19  34  55 - 64 y r s  2  2  4  - 19 y r s  9  11  20  65 -  69 y r s  3  2  5  2 0 - 24 y r s  5  4  9  7 0 - 75 y r s  2  2  4  8 0 y r s & over  1  15  -  1  261  Data f o r Haines J u n c t i o n :  Location:  60° 47*N.  September 1972  137° 33'W.  M i l e 1016, A l a s k a  Highway, M i l e 156 Haines Road Population:  1971 - 179 ( S t a t i s t i c s  Canada)  M i l e 1016 on t h e A l a s k a Highway i s a t the j u n c t i o n of t h e highway and the Haines Road, which l e a d s t o Haines A l a s k a , on the  coast.  The road was b u i l t by t h e U.S. Army engineers dur-  ing  t h e war t o p r o v i d e access t o t h e i n t e r i o r .  nearby a r e the S t . E l l a s est  The mountains  Range, c o n t a i n i n g North Americans  high-  peaks, i n c l u d i n g Mount ..Logan- Canada's h i g h e s t (18,850) f t ) .  Haines J u n c t i o n i s the .headquarters f o r the Kluane Park Game Warden.  ada  The Kluane game p r e s e r v e i s one of the l a r g e s t i n Can-  (10,000 sq. m i . ) .  Community and Government C o n t a c t s Local Council:  E l e c t e d / a p p o i n t e d Ron Watson - Chairman LID., Mrs. P. S c h u l m e i s t e r rer,  Sec. t r e a s u -  R. McKinnon, J , Brewster - T r u s t e e  Band C h i e f :  Ray Jackson  Gov't of t h e Y.T.:  T e r r i t o r i a l Agent - Mr. H.D. Brabant, Game Branch - Terr. Grader S t a t i o n . - Ken A l w i n , Foreman  262  I n f l u e n t i a l People:  The Brewster Family Tod  Backe  Ron Watson and Mrs. H. Watson - T e r r i t o r ial  Councillor  C h i e f Raymond Jackson Bob McKinnon  Infrastructure Water:  From 4 main w e l l s  - chlorinated & deliv-  ered by tank t r u c k s . have p r i v a t e Sewage, garbage:  Those not s e r v i c e d  wells.  Disposed by s e p t i c tank u n i t s , a l s o nona r e a t e d l a g o o n s , drainage i n t o Dezadeash R i v e r , garbage d i s p o s a l i n t o open p i t  Electricity:  Power i s s u p p l i e d by Yukon E l e c t r i c by d i e s e l p l a n t w i t h 100% back-up  Main Re-supply:  A l l weather roads A l a s k a Highway and Halnes  Road.  Marine F a c i l i t i e s :  None  F i r e Department:  C h i e f A. T o m l i n , 8 v o l u n t e e r s .  1-1965-500  GPM pumper Air  Facilities:  A i r p o r t - 6 0 ° 47'N. 1 3 7 ° 33 'W operated by  263 T e r r i t o r i a l Government. RCMP Detachment - 1 C o r p o r a l , 1 C o n s t a b l e ,  Police:  equipped  Facilities Air  and S e r v i c e s  Transport:  Based  w i t h one p a t r o l c a r  Aircrafti  Road T r a n s p o r t :  None (emergency  only)  Trans North Turbo - H e l i c o p t e r Brewster & R u s s e l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Coachways System d a i l y r u n t o A l a s k a , Whitepass - Mon. t o Thurs. each week, t r u c k f r e i g h t  Medical:  One h e a l t h c e n t r e operated by a p u b l i c n u r s e , monthly v i s i t s by a d o c t o r  Education:  5 room s c h o o l - grades 1 - 1 0 , 5 t e a c h e r s , 65  Churches:  students  C a t h o l i c Rectory - F r . C. D e c a n d i g n n e i l l e s , A n g l i c a n M i s s i o n - Rev. J.H.E. P h i l l potts  Community H a l l :  Yes  Library:  Branch L i b r a r y - Grace D e s j a r d i n g i n charge  Communications:  Radio;  CBC. CFWH, Frequency 5 7 0 KHZ.  264,  Post O f f i c e :  M a i l t r u c k e d twice  Bank:  None  Recreation:  Community Club, C u r l i n g Club  P u b l i c Accomodation:  Blue Mountain M o t e l , Brewster's Lodge 13  weekly  rooms, C o r t i n o Lodge L t d . , Dezadeash  Lodge, Haines J u n c t i o n Inn - 17 Kathleen  Lk. Lodge.  rooms,  S t a r Dust M o t e l -  6 rooms Haines J u n c t i o n I n n - r e s t a u r a n t ,  Meals:  Dezadeash  Lodge-meals, C o r t i n o Lodge L t d . - meals, Kathleen  Ld. L o d g e — meals, Blue Mt.  Motel  - meals, Cozy-Corner - r e s t a u r a n t Haines J u n c t i o n I n n - c o c k t a i l lounge, Brews-  Liquor:  t e r ' s Lodge-tavern, Dezadeash Lodge-cocktail  lounge, C o r t i n o Lodge L t d .  vendor-cocktail  Industry  and  Liquor  lounge  Commerce  Backe's S e r v i c e , Brewster's Service,..'Fairdale S t o r e f o o d , O i l of Canada, Marvin & Sons C o n s t r u c t i o n  Co.  Gulf  L t d . , Yukon E l e c -  t r i c a l S e r v i c e , Blue Mountain M o t e l , Brewster's Lodge, Haines J u n c t i o n Inn, S t a r Dust M o t e l , Cozy Corner -  restaurant.  265 Number of persons c o n t i n u o u s l y engaged In the above e n t e r p r i ses:  40  Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Haines J u n c t i o n i  156  P o p u l a t i o n covered by survey Number of f a m i l i e s  56  Number of d w e l l i n g s  51  Average number of persons p e r f a m i l y  3  Average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y  2  Percentage of p o p u l a t i o n covered  87$  Age Groups Sex  Sex Age  M  F  Total  Age  M  F  Total  0 -  4 yrs  ;8  8  16  35 - 44 y r s  11  7  18  5 -  9 yrs  7  10  17  45 - 5 4 y r s  8  9  17  10 - 14 y r s  12  5  17  55 - 64 y r s  7  5  12  - 19 y r s  9  5  14  65 - 69 y r s  1  1  2 0 - 24 y r s  44  4  8  7 0 - 75 y r s  1  - 34 y r s  13  13  26  75 - 8 0 y r s  3  4  7  8 0 y r s & over  1  1  2  15  25  1  appendix  B  267  Selected Respecting  Sections Local  (Revised  This  of the Ordinance  Improvement  1972  Fall  O r d i n a n c e may be c i t e d  District  Session)  as t h e L o c a l  Improvement  District  Ordinance. Interpretation  In t h i s (a)  Ordinance,  "administrator"  means a p e r s o n a p p o i n t e d  as  administra-  tor;  (b)  (c)  " d i s t r i c t " means a n a r e a a Local  Improvement  "fiscal  year"  of the T e r r i t o r y  District  under t h i s  means t h e t w e l v e months  e s t a b l i s h e d as  Ordinance  ending  t h e 31 day  of March;  (d)  "land" includes  lands,  tenements, h e r e d i t a m e n t s , and b u i l d  ings; (e)  "local  i m p r o v e m e n t " means any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g works o f  any  combination  (i)  opening, widening, s t r a i g h t e n i n g , extending, levelling,  (ii)  o f them;  d i v e r t i n g or paving  a  grading,  street;  constructing a sidewalk, footcrossing,  curbing,  268  b r i d g e , c u l v e r t o r embankment forming p a r t of a s t r e e t o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a system of storm  drainage;  ( i i i ) making, deepening, e n l a r g i n g or l e n g t h e n i n g  a com-  mon sewer o r water main; (iv)  making sewer o r water s e r v i c e connections  t o the  s t r e e t l i n e on l a n d a b u t t i n g a main; (v)  c o n s t r u c t i n g a conduit  f o r wires or p i p e s along or  under a s t r e e t ; (vi)  p r o v i d i n g other s e r v i c e s normally  found i n organiz.  ed communities; and ( v i i ) r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o r r e p l a c i n g any of the works mentioned; (f)  "occupant" i n c l u d e s the r e s i d e n t o c c u p i e r  of l a n d o r , i f  t h e r e i s no r e s i d e n t o c c u p i e r , the owner o r l e a s e h o l d e r thereof; (g)  "taxpayer" means a person whose name appears on the Tax R o l l pursuant t o the T a x a t i o n property  (h)  within a D i s t r i c t  Ordinance, i n r e s p e c t of  or a proposed D i s t r i c t ; and  " t r u s t e e " means any person e l e c t e d or appointed  a trus-  t e e of a D i s t r i c t under t h i s Ordinance.  Establishment  of D i s t r i c t s  ( 1 ) Where the Commissioner r e c e i v e s a p e t i t i o n i n the p r e s -  269 c r i b e d form signed i n any area  by not l e s s than t e n persons  living  of the T e r r i t o r y who would, i f a L o c a l Im-  provement D i s t r i c t  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t a r e a , be  v o t e r s , he may be Order g i v e n o t i c e of h i s i n t e n t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i n t h a t area a L o c a l Improvement  District.  (2) The Commissioner s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e of h i s i n t e n t i o n t o establish a District (a) by p o s t i n g p u b l i c n o t i c e s i n f o u r conspicuous p l a ces w i t h i n the proposed D i s t r i c t , and (b) by p u b l i c a t i o n i n a t l e a s t one i s s u e of the Yukon Gazette. (3)  Any t e n persons who would be v o t e r s  i n the proposed D i s -  t r i c t may w i t h i n t h r e e weeks from the date of t h e n o t i c e r e f e r r e d t o In paragraph (2) ( b ) , appeal i n w r i t i n g i n the p r e s c r i b e d form t o the Commissioner a g a i n s t tablishment (4)  of t h e D i s t r i c t .  The Commissioner s h a l l , w i t h i n two weeks of the r e c e i p t of t h e appeal mentioned i n s u b s e c t i o n son t o conduct a h e a r i n g make a r e p o r t  An  the e s -  order  ( 3 ) , appoint  a per-  i n the proposed D i s t r i c t and  of h i s f i n d i n g s and recommendations."  e s t a b l i s h i n g a L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t  ify (a) the name and boundaries o f the D i s t r i c t ;  shall  spec  270, (b) the date and l o c a t i o n of t h e f i r s t  annual g e n e r a l meeting  of the D i s t r i c t ; ( c ) the name o f the f i r s t  t h r e e t r u s t e e s appointed by the  Commissioner;; and (d) the terms o f o f f i c e  o f the f i r s t  (1) The v o t e r s o f the D i s t r i c t  appointed t r u s t e e s .  e s t a b l i s h e d under s e c t i o n 3  s h a l l be a body c o r p o r a t e having as i t s c o r p o r a t e name the name s p e c i f i e d by t h e Commissioner i n the order e s t a b l i s h i n g the D i s t r i c t . " (2) The D i s t r i c t  s h a l l have the power t o purchase,  and h o l d l a n d f o r the purpose o f t h i s  (1) Each D i s t r i c t  acquire  Ordinance.  s h a l l have a Board o f T r u s t e e s  consisting  of t h r e e t r u s t e e s . (2) The Commissioner s h a l l appoint the f i r s t of a D i s t r i c t  three trustees  as f o l l o w s :  (a) one t o h o l d o f f i c e  u n t i l the f i r s t  annual  general  meeting of t h e D i s t r i c t ; (b) one t o h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l the second annual  general  meeting; and ( c ) one t o h o l d o f f i c e meeting.  u n t i l the t h i r d  annual  general  27T  (3)  Except f o r the f i r s t  a p p o i n t e e s , each t r u s t e e s h a l l be  e l e c t e d t o h o l d o f f i c e f o r a term of t h r e e y e a r s . (4) One t r u s t e e s h a l l be e l e c t e d a t each annual g e n e r a l meeting.  Annual General Meeting of D i s t r i c t (1) An annual g e n e r a l meeting i n each D i s t r i c t s h a l l be h e l d d u r i n g the f i r s t  week i n A p r i l i n each y e a r .  (2) The Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l f i x the time and p l a c e of each annual g e n e r a l meeting subsequent t o t h e f i r s t meeting. (3)  The Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f the time and p l a c e o f the annual g e n e r a l meeting. "(a)  by p o s t i n g n o t i c e s i n a t l e a s t f o u r conspicuous p l a ces  i n the D i s t r i c t ; and  (b) by a d v e r t i s i n g i n t h r e e i s s u e s of a newspaper c i r c u l a t i n g i n the D i s t r i c t b e g i n n i n g w i t h an i s s u e p u b l i s h ed not more than t h r e e weeks and not l e s s than two weeks b e f o r e the time s e t f o r the meeting.*' (4) The Chairman of the Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l be the c h a i r man of the annual g e n e r a l meeting and, i n the absence of the  Chairman, the t r u s t e e s s h a l l appoint one of t h e i r  number t o a c t as chairman of the meeting.  272.  "(5) A t t h e a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , t h e B o a r d s h a l l present a report past  fiscal  of t h e i r  of Trustees  activities  y e a r and p l a n s f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g Budget  Y e a r a n d t h e m e e t i n g may p a s s r e s o l u t i o n s ance  of Trustees s h a l l  meet  openly at l e a s t  once  a month and no p e r s o n s h a l l  be e x c l u d e d f r o m any open  meeting  conduct."  except f o r improper  ( 2 ) The B o a r d in  of Trustees s h a l l  each f i s c a l  the  held.  ( 1 ) The C o m m i s s i o n e r  shall  to that  ( 2 ) The B o a r d  (3) The C o m m i s s i o n e r essary  than t h i r t y  local  days  after  of the  improvements  in a  i n that shall  o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n any  loc-  District. supply the trustees including  and e x p e n d i t u r e s and f i n a n c i a l  Commissioner  meeting  District.  accounting information  revenues  respect  transfer  of Trustees s h a l l  improvements  its first  the annual g e n e r a l meeting  was  District  hold  year not l a t e r  day on w h i c h  District  the  f o r the guid-  of the t r u s t e e s . "  "(1) The B o a r d  al  during the  with a l l nec-  statements of projections  that  h a s o r c a n r e a s o n a b l y make a v a i l a b l e i n  of the D i s t r i c t  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e T r u s t e e . " '  273 D u t i e s and Powers of T r u s t e e s 11. The Board  of T r u s t e e s are the e x e c u t i v e of a D i s t r i c t  and  s h a l l operate and m a i n t a i n any l o c a l improvements i n t h a t D i s t r i c t which are owned by the D i s t r i c t  or which they have  been a u t h o r i z e d t o operate and m a i n t a i n on b e h a l f of the  Com  missioner.  12. S u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l of the Commissioner, the Board  of  T r u s t e e s s h a l l have power t o make by-laws (a) adopting procedures f o r the e l e c t i o n  of t r u s t e e s ;  (b) r e g u l a t i n g proceedings and p r e s e r v i n g order a t the meeti n g s of the Board  of T r u s t e e s and at the annual g e n e r a l  meetingj (c) p r o v i d i n g f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n  of any  b u i l d i n g s or works necessary f o r the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance  of any l o c a l improvement i n . t h e i r  District;  (d) p r e s c r i b i n g the f e e s and charges t h a t s h a l l be for local  improvements;  (e) p r o v i d i n g f o r the c o l l e c t i o n ( f ) adopting such procedures  of the f e e s and  charges;  as are necessary t o enable i t  t o perform i t s f u n c t i o n s as s e t f o r t h and  levied  i n this  Ordinance;  274  (g) The Board may adopt by-laws p r o v i d i n g f o r the l i c e n s i n g and  c o n t r o l of animals w i t h i n t h e i r D i s t r i c t and f o r ap-  p o i n t i n g an Animal C o n t r o l  14. The Board of T r u s t e e s at the request  Officer.  s h a l l a c t as an A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l and,  of the Commissioner, s h a l l a d v i s e him on l o c -  a l improvements and other matters concerning  the D i s t r i c t .  14.1(1) Where the Commissioner deem i t i s i n the best  inter-  e s t s of the D i s t r i c t t h a t i t s a f f a i r s be conducted by an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e Commissioner may, by o r d e r , appoint  a person as the a d m i n i s t r a t o r  of the D i s -  trict. (2) On the appointment of an a d m i n i s t r a t o r  of a D i s t r i c t ,  the Board s h a l l be deemed t o have r e t i r e d and  t o be no l o n g e r q u a l i f i e d  from  office  t o a c t f o r or on b e h a l f  of the D i s t r i c t o r t o e x e r c i s e any of the powers and d u t i e s vested  i n the Board by t h i s  or any other  Ordi-  nance. 14.2(1) The a d m i n i s t r a t o r have, p o s s e s s , and  s h a l l , subject t o t h i s  Ordinance,  enjoy and may e x e r c i s e a l l the powers  d u t i e s o f a duly c o n s t i t u t e d Board.  14.3(1) The a d m i n i s t r a t o r may demand and i s e n t i t l e d e i v e from o f f i c e r s  to rec-  of the D i s t r i c t a l l monies, s e c -  2?5 u r i t i e s , e v i d e n c e o f t i t l e , b o o k s , assessment r o o l s , tax  r o l l s , b y - l a w s , papers and documents o f o r r e l -  a t i n g t o t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e D i s t r i c t i n t h e i r poss e s s i o n o r under t h e i r  control.  General 15. The Board o f T r u s t e e s may i n c u r d e b t s i n t h e c o u r s e o f opera t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l o c a l improvements t h a t s h a l l n o t exceed f i v e thousand d o l l a r s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d by the  Commissioner.  16. The B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s s h a l l c a r r y i n s u r a n c e t o t h e e x t e n t r e q u i r e d by t h e Commissioner t o c o v e r p r o p e r t y damage and public l i a b i l i t y  arising  out o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t .  17. ( l ) The Commissioner may a p p o i n t an I n s p e c t o r o f L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s who s h a l l have s u c h powers and dut i e s as t h e Commissioner may a s s i g n t o him.  IB.  ( 1 ) Upon r e c e i p t o f a p e t i t i o n (a)  s i g n e d by  a majority of the persons i n a D i s t r i c t e l i g i b l e t o v o t e a t an e l e c t i o n o f t r u s t e e s f o r t h a t D i s t r i c t , or  (V'  ( b ) t h e I n s p e c t o r o f L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s , t h e Commissioner may, by o r d e r p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Yukon  276  Gazette, dissolve that  District.  ( 2 ) A p e t i t i o n f o r d i s s o l u t i o n of a D i s t r i c t  s h a l l provide  t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Commissioner f o r the windingup of the c o r p o r a t i o n and f o r t h e payment and d i s c h a r g e of a l l debts and o b l i g a t i o n s of the D i s t r i c t . (3) Upon the d i s s o l u t i o n of a D i s t r i c t s e t s of t h a t D i s t r i c t  a l l p r o p e r t y and as-  s h a l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Commis-  s i o n e r of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y under such terms and conditions  as the Commissioner c o n s i d e r n e c e s s a r y .  (4) The Commissioner may make such r e g u l a t i o n s as he  considers  necessary f o r the d i s s o l u t i o n and winding-up of a D i s t r i c t .  20.  ( 1 ) The Commissioner may make such r e g u l a t i o n s and p r e s c r i b e such forms as he deems n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out the purposes and p r o v i s i o n s  of t h i s Ordinance."  

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