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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Yukon community government Sharp, Robert R. 1973

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Ci by ROBERT R. SHARP -BEd. University of Alberta, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS In THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s thesis, as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 i i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be gra n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be al l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B . c i i i i A b s t r a c t R u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s i n the Yukon d i f f e r from t h e i r southern c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h a t they are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a number of f a c -t o r s such as: geographic i s o l a t i o n , s o c i a l d i v i s i o n of the s e t -tlement along White-Indian e t h n i c l i n e s and p o l i t i c a l i s o l a t i o n i n t h a t many communities have no l o c a l mechanism f o r f o r m u l a t -i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n p u t s t o s e n i o r l e v e l s of government. These c o n d i t i o n s have g i v e n r i s e t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the a d m i n i s t e r i n g of r u r a l community' a f f a i r s . R e s i d e n t s of these s e t t l e m e n t s ex-p r e s s e d d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the way i n which community r e l a t e d de-c i s i o n s were made without t h e i r involvement. Government agen-c i e s on the oth e r hand are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g i n p u t s f o r m u l a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups from communities so t h a t d e t e r m i n i n g what i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the sett l e m e n t i s not an easy t a s k . The t h e s i s addresses the problems of l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the go v e r n i n g of community a f f a i r s i n s i x s i m i l a r , e t h n i c a l l y mixed r u r a l Yukon communities. A f i v e month r e s e a r c h program d u r i n g which i n t e r v i e w s were conducted and o b s e r v a t i o n s r e c o r -ded and the author's t h r e e y e a r r e s i d e n c y i n one of the s e t t l e -ments s t u d i e d , p r o v i d e d the m a t e r i a l f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e s e c -t i o n of the t h e s i s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c har-a c t e r of s i x s e t t l e m e n t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s e n i o r i v government and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the government agencies which f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r a c t of proposed l o c a l governments. A t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s a l of l o c a l c i r c u l a t e d among respondents i n r u r a l communi-;. t i e s . Responses t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o responses t o q u e s t i o n s about the e x i s t i n g type of l o c a l government p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r the a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s i s conducted i n the t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a type of l o c a l government w i t h s p e c i f i e d form, f u n c t i o n s , and r o l e are not f l e x i b l e enough t o encompass the d i v e r s i t y which e x i s t s among i n f e r e n c e s from these f i n d i n g s are t h a t the T e r r i t o r i a l Government should f o r m u l a t e the g u i d e l i n e s f o r l o c a l government a l l o w i n g the s p e c i f i c s t o be worked out between the T e r r i t o r i a l Government and the r e s i d e n t s of each r u r a l settlement so t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l government i s p e r c e i v e d as a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the community. In c l o s i n g , . t h e t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s may h o l d f o r the development of l o c a l government i n g e n e r a l . V Table of Contents Page Abstract •- • Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures . . . . . . . . v i i i Acknowledgment x Chapter 1 Introduction: An Historical.Overview . . . . 1 Chapter 2 The Problem 13 i Methodology 17 i i Modeling Process 20 i i i Tentative model 25 Chapter 3 Six Rural Yukon Communities 30 i Ross River 36 i i P e l l y Crossing 78 i i i T e s l i n . . 93 i v Carmacks ; . 110 v Carcross 121 v i Haines Junction 135 Chapter 4 Government i n the Yukon . . . . . 157 i T e r r i t o r i a l Government 162 a. T e r r i t o r i a l Council 165 b. Executive Committee 167 c. The Commissioner 168 d. Department of Education . . . 170 e. Department of Health Wel-fare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . . 176 f . Department of Local Government 179 g. Department of Highways and Public Works 184 h. Other Departments 185 v i i i F e d e r a l Government 186 a. Yukon F o r e s t S e r v i c e 187 b. R.C.M.P 188 c. The I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch . . . 190 Chapter 5 An A n a l y s i s of Two Forms of L o c a l Government , 193 i Assessment 1: The LID 198 i i Assessment 2: The T e n t a t i v e Model . . 206 Chapter 6 C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 217 B i b l i o g r a p h y 227 Appendix A 236 Appendix B 2 6 7 v i i L i s t of T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1 P o p u l a t i o n : Community by e t h n i c composition . . . 33 2 Housing C o n d i t i o n s i n R u r a l Communities 64 3 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Communities i n the T e r r i -t o r i a l C o u n c i l 166 4 S c h o o l Operations 172 5 Assessment of " F i t " . . . 214 V I 1 1 L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e T i t l e 1 Yukon T e r r i t o r y Study Area 2 Ross R i v e r , Y.T 3 Ross R i v e r - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . . . . . 4 Ross R i v e r - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues 5. P e l l y C r o s s i n g , Y.T. . 6 P e l l y - I n t e r a c t i o n Housing Issues . . . . 7 P e l l y - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues 8 T e s l i n , Y.T 9 T e s l i n - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . . 10 T e s l i n - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues 11 Carmacks, Y.T. . . . . 12 Carmacks - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . . 13 Carmacks - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues 14 C a r c r o s s , Y.T 15 C a r c r o s s I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues . . . . 16 C a r c r o s s - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues i x Page 17 Haines J u n c t i o n , Y.T 139 18 Haines J u n c t i o n - I n t e r a c t i o n s Housing Issues 151 19 Haines J u n c t i o n - I n t e r a c t i o n s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Issues 15^ 20 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart: DIAND 160 21 Northern Economic Development Branch . 163 22 Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government 164 Acknowledgement.: To the people of s i x Yukon communities, the P r o f e s s o r s and f e l l o w students who c h a l l a n g e d , commented and a s s i s t e d and t o my wif e and f a m i l y ; many thanks. chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n : An H i s t o r i c a l Overview Three major impacts have a l t e r e d the c h a r a c t e r of the Yukon s i n c e 1840. The f i r s t of these i n v o l v e d an est i m a t e d t h r e e thousand Indians whose l i f e s t y l e was a l t e r e d by a hand-f u l of White and Metis t r a d e r s who moved i n t o the T e r r i t o r y . ( M c C l e l l a n d , 1964) . Demands from European f u r markets encour-aged the development of the f u r t r a d e throughout the Yukon. The acceptance of t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , made a v a i l a b l e through the f u r t r a d e , a l t e r e d the I n d i a n s ' p a t t e r n of hu n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g t o i n c l u d e the c o l l e c t i n g of f u r s f o r market. T h i s change, although p r i n c i p a l l y economic, p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l n o r t h e r n Athapaskans ( M c C l e l l a n d 1964 pp. 1 0 ) . The acceptance of these i n n o v a t i o n s , eased the o r d e a l of s u r v i v a l i n a country w i t h h a rsh w i n t e r s and s c a r -2 c i t y of food. It also meant that the frequency of contacts between various band groups increased as a r e s u l t of the trad-ing a c t i v i t y . This increased exposure resulted i n the devel-opment of new patterns of movement, trade and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -ships, (McClelland, 1964) . Discovery of gold i n the Klondike was the second major im-pact and marked a turning point i n the Yukon's economy. The population rose from an estimated four thousand i n 1895 to f o r t y thousand at the peak of the gold rush. With the deple-t i o n of the more accessible a l l u v i a l deposits, and the mecha-ni z a t i o n of placer mining operations, the T e r r i t o r y population had decreased to approximately four thousand by the end of the F i r s t World War. The t h i r d boom began during the Second World War with the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Canol p i p e l i n e . The development of a year-round transportation network, which i n turn, provided access to new mineral developments resulted i n the s h i f t of the centre of commerce to Whitehorse which was the head of navigable waters and s t a r t of the r a i l l i n e to Skagway. The population of the T e r r i t o r y increased from f i v e thousand i n 1941 to eighteen thousand i n 1971 (S.C., 1971). Through a l l of these changes, the uniqueness of the Yukon has found expression. This uniqueness i s represented i n the 3 sparceness of Its population, i t s harsh climate, i t s mountainous t e r r a i n and the variety and wealth of i t s natural resources. The Yukon has a population density of approximately eight peo-ple per hundred square miles as compared with a population den-s i t y of nine-hundred-eighty people per hundred square miles i n the southern portion of the provinces. The i n t e r i o r plateau of the Yukon i s surrounded by mountains on a l l sides: to the West, the St. E l i a s Mountains which have the highest elevations i n Canada, to the East, the Logans and the Pell y range, to the north, the O l g i v i e Mountain range and to the South the Cassian Range. These b a r r i e r s have had a profound Influence on the de-velopment of a transportation and communication i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The climate probably more than any other element has made i t s presence f e l t . The long dark winter period with i t s extreme cold has placed over the whole of the T e r r i t o r y , a seasonal character, which e f f e c t s a l l a c t i v i t i e s . The extent of the natural resources of the T e r r i t o r y has not been f u l l y examined. The ivealth that has been shown i n lead, z i n c , copper and s i l v e r deposite i s being mined i n eight major l o c a t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t finds of o i l and gas i n the northern part of the T e r r i t o r y sug-gest further development i n that region. Yet possibly the greatest natural resource, the T e r r i t o r y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l poten-t i a l , has only started to be explored. The c l i m a t i c a l l y domin-ated character of the Yukon has been described by many such as Robert Service, i n his poems written seventy years ago. These 4. are conditions which s t i l l have a profound influence over the T e r r i t o r y . The influences of these three economic impacts are r e f l e c -ted i n the evolution and nature of the contemporary settlement pattern of the Yukon. Duerden (1971) asserts that the T e r r i -tory 's settlements r e f l e c t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t functions within these stages of development. Some fun c t i o n a l types of s e t t l e -ments such as trading posts have pers i s t e d through subsequent economic upheavals. Others have grown and died with the d i s -covery, development and depletion of p a r t i c u l a r resources. A developing transportation system and the scattered l o c a -t i o n of ore bodies have resu l t e d i n a pinpoint pattern of set-tlement. Small settlements are separated by distances of the order of a hundred miles. L i t t l e or no development has taken place i n the areas separating communities. S i t e locations are generally determined by the main economic concerns i n the set-tlement. This i s not the case f o r a l l communities however. Some communities, i n which the focus of economic concerns have s h i f t e d , have remained i n the o r i g i n a l s i t e . Whether the s i t e of the settlement s h i f t s or not, c o n f l i c t s w i l l a r i s e among those groups with d i f f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s . For example, the loc a -t i o n may s u i t the government road maintenance crew but be less appropriate to the int e r e s t s of the Indian hunter who neverthe-l e s s , l i v e s i n the settlement to take advantage of amenities 5 associated with the government's presence i n the settlement. A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which emerges is the highly t r a n s i t o r y nature of some Yukon settlements. Duerden (1971 PP. 216) has graphically demonstrated the f l u c t u a t i n g character of s e t t l e -ments. In 1951, twenty-six settlements existed i n the south-western Yukon, by 1966 ten of these had died and two others had developed. These changes r e f l e c t the depletion of natural resources or the s h i f t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of the transportation modes from water to road to a i r . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l development of the Yukon has also fluctuated i n a pattern which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the changes i n i t s economy. The Yukon was transferred from B r i t a i n to Canada, i n IS70 as part of the then North-Western T e r r i t o r y . In 1897, the year following the discovery of gold, i t was de-signated a j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t . By Act of the Parliament of Ca-nada i n 1898 i t became a separate t e r r i t o r y . P.B. Fingland (1968) a past Assistant Commissioner'of the Yukon describes the context i n which t h i s act was created: "... one of the f i r s t tasks of C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , the . new (JL&983 Minister of the I n t e r i o r , was to preside at the b i r t h of the new T e r r i t o r y . But among Sifton's i n t e r e s t s , to quote his biographer, 'the administra-t i o n of the Yukon was not included'. As he informed a correspondent 'the Yukon i s not the same as any other gold mining country i n the world, and the difference consists i n the fact that i t i s good f o r nothing except mining, which i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l be temporary 1. As a r e s u l t of t h i s a t t i t u d e , the f i r s t Yukon T e r r i -tory Act was l i t t l e more than a r e p e t i t i o n of the has-6: t i l y Improvised Temporary Government Act passed i n • I869 f o r the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The Yukon Coun-c i l had the same mixed l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers as I t s p r e d e c e s s o r , and because of u n c e r t a i n l y about the n a t i o n a l i t y and p o l i t i c a l e xperience of the T e r r i t o r y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s a l l s i x members of the Coun-c i l were t o be ap p o i n t e d . The C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r , or Commissioner (a term chosen from the P o l i c e Act t o enhance h i s a u t h o r i t y ) was t o a c t as a chairman of the C o u n c i l and take h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s from the M i n i s t e r of. the I n t e r i o r or the Governor i n C o u n c i l . " The form of T e r r i t o r i a l government c r e a t e d by the Yukon a c t and i t s subsequent amendments over the t e n years between 1898 t o 1908 s e t the stage f o r the government which e x i s t s t o -day i n the Yukon. The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the t e r r i -t o r i a l government has been the c l e a r d i v i s i o n of e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , p a t t e r n e d a f t e r Montesquieu's p r i n c i p l e s of d i v i s i o n of s t a t e powers. The e l e c t e d c o u n c i l has no c o n t r o l over the e x e c u t i v e branch of the government. T h e i r f u n c t i o n has been e n t i r e l y a l e g i s l a t i v e one. Attempts on the p a r t of e l e c t e d c o u n c i l members t o g a i n e x e c u t i v e powers were u n s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l i960. The Commissioner, appointed by the M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development, has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l e x e c u t i v e powers. T h i s d i v i s i o n was r e i n f o r c e d when the 1908 amendment of the Yukon Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t the C o u n c i l s i t a p a r t from the Commissioner. T h i s s i t u a -t i o n p e r s i s t e d u n t i l i960 when, as a member of the committee of the whole, the Commissioner was a g a i n p e r m i t t e d t o s i t w i t h the C o u n c i l . The i960 amendment was an attempt t o r e s t o r e a measure of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e de-7 c l s i o n s , a harmony which had been missing f o r the previous f i f t y - t w o years, J . C . Recent changes have, i n e f f e c t , attemp-ted to reduce t h i s d i v i s i o n yet further. The 1970, an amend-ment creating the Executive Committee, the shadow of what may be a t e r r i t o r i a l cabinet, gave executive powers to elected mem-bers f o r the f i r s t time. The p o l i t i c a l turbulence which t y p i f i e d the early stages of the gold rush resulted i n increased demands f o r a wholly elected c o u n c i l . These demands were met, i n p a r t , when the Yukon Act was amended In 1898. Council was expanded by two elected members serving two-year terms. The T e r r i t o r y ' s re-sidents pressed f o r a further extension of representative go-vernment. The Act was amended i n 1902 to provide f o r a coun-c i l of f i v e elected and f i v e appointed members and amended again i n 1908 to include a wholly elected c o u n c i l of ten. In 1919 the Act was amended again to account f o r the great decline i n the T e r r i t o r i e s population. Three elected members and the Commissioner constituted respectively the l e g i s l a t i v e and exe-cutive arms of the Yukon's government u n t i l 1951. The construction of the Alaska Highway and the population increase a f t e r the Second World War caused a r e b i r t h of the T e r r i t o r y ' s Government. In 1951 the Council was increased to f i v e elected representatives and two years l a t e r a completely revised Yukon Act was passed. The new Act increased the l e g i s -8 l a t i v e powers of the Commissioner-in-Council but l e f t the exe-c u t i v e powers f i r m l y i n the hands of the Commissioner. The C o u n c i l was i n c r e a s e d t o seven e l e c t e d members i n i 9 6 0 . An Ad-v i s o r y Committee on Finance was c r e a t e d i n 1961. T h i s body was not g r a n t e d e x e c u t i v e powers but "nonetheless i t s i g n i f i e d a d e l i b e r a t e attempt on the p a r t of the F e d e r a l Government t o i n t r o d u c e an embryonic e x e c u t i v e committee drawn from among the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the pe o p l e " . ( F i n g l a n d 1968) . The A d v i s o r y Committee on Finance r e p r e s e n t e d no f o r m a l change i n the f u n c t i o n s of the Commissioner on the C o u n c i l . "The Com-mi t t e e i s p u r e l y a d v i s o r y ; n o t h i n g i n the Act empowers i t s mem-bers t o commit the C o u n c i l , nor i s the Commissioner r e q u i r e d t o f o l l o w t h e i r a d v i c e . " (Robertson, 1963) . T h i s does r e p r e -sented an attempt t o i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n b e t -ween C o u n c i l and Commissioner on f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s . A f u r t h e r step toward "the est a b l i s h m e n t of c a b i n e t govern-ment was taken i n 1970 when an E x e c u t i v e Committee c o n s i s t i n g of two e l e c t e d members, the Commissioner, and the two a s s i s t a n t commissioners, was c r e a t e d . (Orange 1970) . E l e c t e d members of the E x e c u t i v e Committee are app o i n t e d on the recommendation of C o u n c i l t o a d m i n i s t e r v a r i o u s government departments. The two e l e c t e d members on the committee are under the terms of the Yukon Act r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the departments of E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h , Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 9 At t h i s point i n time, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Yukon's form of government w i l l represent only a stage i n an apparently on-going process of p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development. Change i s imminent as indicated by resolutions of the T e r r i t o -r i a l Council and the p o l i t i c a l advertisements which appeared i n the Whitehorse Star during the 1972 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n cam-paign. Over h a l f of these advertisements, representative of a l l p a r t i e s , spoke of governmental reform. Demands f o r a more responsible government, not p r o v i n c i a l status, have taken a variety of forms. These include expanding the Council to f i f -teen members, replacing the Advisory Committee on Finance with a wholly elected executive council and expanding the executive powers of the Council. The changes related to increasing the size of Council to f i f t e e n members have already been approved by the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. (Whitehorse Star Nov., 1 9 7 3 ) . The Yukon government i s a body created and invested with powers through the Yukon Act. This i s an act of the Federal Parliament which l e g a l l y may be amended as the Federal P a r l i a -ment sees f i t . T e r r i t o r i a l Ordinances are administered by the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government Public Service as d i s t i n c t from Federal Public Service which administers those matters which the Federal Parliament has not invested i n the T e r r i t o r i a l Government through the Yukon Act. For example, the management and use of lands i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which has been retained 10 by the Federal government. The administration of crown land i n the T e r r i t o r y i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Federal Public Service. No d i r e c t administrative l i n k has existed between the agencies of the two senior governments. This has resulted i n some confusion, c o n f l i c t and duplication of a c t i v i t i e s bet-ween departments despite the fa c t that both one located i n Whi-tehorse. A recently formed advisory body (1972) consisting of department heads from a l l government agencies active i n the Yukon may r e c t i f y some of the problems which a r i s e out of those functions which involve more than one agency. The p o l i t i c a l and economic character of the Yukon has chan-ged su b s t a n t i a l l y since C l i f f o r d S i f t o n expressed his doubts as to the value of the T e r r i t o r y (Fingland, 1 9 6 8 ) . The changes have been from a t y p i c a l boom and bust economy to one which appears to have s t a b i l i z e d to some degree since the 1950's. Demands f o r a more responsible government have grown with t h i s economic s t a b i l i t y . Local government, developed i n Dawson with the gold rush. P r i o r to I 8 9 6 , small trading communities were administered by the companies owning the posts. Dawson developed as the ser-vice center to the Klondike; reaching a peak population of ap-proximately t h i r t y thousand i n 1900. The settlement was incor-porated i n 1902 with a mayor and elected council only to give up the administration of i t s l o c a l a f f a i r s i n 1919. The T e r r i t o r i a l Council passed a new Municipal Ordinance i n 1950 to provide f o r the incorporation of Whitehorse, Mayo and Dawson. Whitehorse had developed at the point of mode change between the White Pass and Yukon Railway and the t r a f -f i c on the Yukon River and by 1950 had a population of aproxi-mately 2 5 0 0 . (Duerden, 1 9 7 1 ) . The community became incorpo-rated i n 1950 under the new ordinance. Mayo, a mining service center had a population of approximately 250 i n 1950 (Duerden, 1 9 7 1 ) . Mayo, which did not become incorporated under the Mun-i c i p a l Ordinance, opted instead to become a Local Improvement D i s t r i c t i n 1 9 6 9 . The Area Development Ordinance, formulated to ensure "the orderly development of unorganized communities", represented a commitment of the t e r r i t o r i a l Government to the well being of the smaller r u r a l settlements. This ordinance made i t pos-s i b l e f o r almost a l l communities, not only the l a r g e s t , to ben-e f i t from the f i s c a l assistance of the Yukon Government. Com-munity planning, the development and construction of a s e t t l e -ment's roads and u t i l i t y services were administered centerally by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. Settlement designated as "De-velopment Area" were not incorporated under the Municipal Or-dinance (ROYT, 1 9 5 8 ) . L e g i s l a t i o n had been developed to the b e n i f i t of the larger settlements, a condition which had resulted i n i n e q u i t i e s con-sidering the pinpoint nature of the Yukon's settlement pattern 12 and the predominance of small communities. Smaller settlements were at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage i f they wished to incorperate as towns under the Municipal act f o r communities of town sta-tus are required to assume s e l f - f i n a n c i n g of some l o c a l ser-vice functions. The tax base i n smaller communities was suf-f i c i e n t l y small and the demands s u f f i c i e n t l y large to make such a venture economically i n f e a s l b l e . There was, nonetheless a demand on the part of the residents of unorganized settlements to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making of decisions which influenced t h e i r communities and t h e i r l i v e s . The Local Improvement D i s t r i c t s Ordinance of 1 9 6 5 was an attempt at easing the t r a n s i t i o n between those settlements with l o c a l governments incorporated under the Municipal Act and those without l o c a l government which were not large enough to incorporate under the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . The Local Im-provement D i s t r i c t (LID) was designed to allow smaller commu-n i t i e s an i n i t i a l involvement i n l o c a l government. An ?incor-porated body consisting of three elected trustees, advised the Commissioner of the t e r r i t o r y on the f i n a n c i a l requirement i n -volved i n administering the " l o c a l improvements" i n the commu-ni t y (ROYT 1 9 7 2 ) . Local improvements enta i l e d the maintenance of the d i s t r i c t roads, water and sewer system, animal control and f i r e protection. Haines Junction, Watson Lake and Mayo have become LID's and T e s l i n and Carmaks are currently conslder-:-ing becoming LIDs as a means of developing l o c a l government f o r t h e i r communities. c h a p t e r The Problem The s u i t a b i l i t y of an LID as an introductory form of l o c a l government f o r the unorganized r u r a l community may be question-edgj. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that sixteen of the seventeen s e t t l e -ments with populations under f i v e hundred people have not yet become LIDs. This constitutes approximately f o r t y - f o u r hundred people or one quarter of the T e r r i t o r y ' s population. (SC, , 1971). The ways i n which the functions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an LID meet the r u r a l communities' needs f o r l o c a l government may be questioned. For example, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l o c a l r e s i -dents should possibly be focused on the economic development of the community rather than on " l o c a l improvements" most ap-14 p r o p r i a t e l y i n some settlements. The degree to which LIDs are representative of the people of a settlement may be questioned. The trustees and the D i -rector of l o c a l government reported that the boundary of the Haines Junction LID was designated to avoid the Indian lands and hence the Indian people. The Indian people, residents of Haines Junction as a - consequence have been a r b i t r a r i l y exclud-e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the LID form of l o c a l government. The process by which unorganized communities become LIDs may a l s o be questioned. The Ordinance respecting Local Impro-vement D i s t r i c t s states that " d i s t r i c t s may be established by order of the Commissioner whenever he i s s a t i s f i e d that unor-ganized areas warrant p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s form of l o c a l gov-ernment". (ROYT, 1972). The t e r r i t o r i a l commissioner i n d i c a -tes that t h i s has been interpreted to mean that communities which have a strong informal community government by way of public meetings or community clubs are those considered e l i g i -ble to become LIDs. The communities which are broken into fac-tions or have a weak informal community government are not con-sidered to be prepared to become LIDs even though i t appears that these are the communities which have the greatest need f o r some form of representative l o c a l government . This prac-t i c e has placed many i s o l a t e d , e t h n i c a l l y mixed, unorganized Yukon communities at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage. In order to be-15 come an LID, the community's residents are required to form strong organizations. The d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n attempting to involve people from a l l ethnic sections i n organizations have resulted i n groups representing only one sector. This may r e s u l t i n strong organizations but i t f a i l s to account f o r the needs of the community which cut across ethnic sectors. The questions raised about the LIDs are c e n t r a l to the pro-blems addressed i n t h i s t h e s i s . They examine the relevance of LIDs and suggest a l t e r n a t i v e forms of l o c a l government. Respondents interviewed indicated that unorganized, cultur-e-ally diverse r u r a l communities do not have the mechanisms ne&-oessary f o r e f f e c t i v e l y formulating representative inputs to the two senior governments i n the Yukon. This has meant that there has been l i t t l e l o c a l involvement i n determining commu-ni t y a f f a i r s . The lack of a l o c a l form of government capable of dealing with issues i n a manner representative of a l l cultur-val groups has also r e s t r i c t e d the scope of a c t i v i t i e s ' w h i c h may be.dealt with by groups within the community. Functions which cross ethnic l i n e s are dealt with by those groups which represent t h e i r respective sectors i n t e r e s t s . Inputs received by the Senior Government are viewed with some caution since a decision on the recommendations of one group may not be that desired by others. These awkward circumstances are often avoid-ed by the government by taking no action at a l l . The net re-1 6 s u i t i s l i t t l e community involvement i n the making of commu-ni t y r e l a t e d decisions. Most communities organizations reported that, by e i t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l or s o c i a l means, they have r e s t r i c t e d member-ship to one ethnic sector. Each organization operates i n sphe-res of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic a c t i v i t i e s which are res-t r i c t e d to t h e i r own concerns In the community. None were ob-served to deal representatively with Issues which Influence the entire community and there i s l i t t l e or no inter-organi-z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , senior governmental agen-cies hesitate to accept advice on community issues from one organization alone. The apparent I n a b i l i t y of communities to a r r i v e at a concensus has done l i t t l e to increase the c o n f i -dence of government agencies i n the administrative a b i l i t i e s of l o c a l residents. Individuals i n these communities stated they were often aware of the i n a b i l i t y of organizations to influence government decisions related to the community. As a consequence i n d i v i -duals frequently attempt to influence decision-making which further erodes the c r e d i b i l i t y of l o c a l organizations. Community residents who were interviewed stated that they frequently question the appropriateness of externally adminis-tered a c t i v i t i e s . Communities receive economic support through d i r e c t expenditures which are administered by senior government 17 o f f i c i a l s . As long as a substantial proportion of adminis-t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have to be sustained from revenues from the senior governments, they w i l l continue to i n s i s t on ensuring that the funds are spent i n what they conceive to be the best int e r e s t s of the T e r r i t o r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o c a l issues and the record of f a i l u r e s pertaining to the ways i n which they have been mana-ged, reported by both government employees and r u r a l residents suggest the value of examining a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to the administration of the a f f a i r s of the unorganized, e t h n i c a l l y mixed, r u r a l community. The problem which i s addressed i n t h i s thesis i s that of coming up with more fu n c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the administering of the a f f a i r s of r u r a l communities. Methodology A f i v e month research program was undertaken during the summer of 1 9 7 2 , with the intent of examining the problems as-sociated with c i t i z e n involvement i n the administration of ru-r a l , e t h n i c a l l y mixed Yukon communities. P e l l y Crossing, Ross River, Carmacks, Carcross and T e s l i n were the f i v e unorganized communities, selected f o r study. Haines Junction, which i s an LID, was included i n the study sample to provide f o r an assess-ment of t h i s type of l o c a l government. Tnis research represen-ted a formulation and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the problems the author 18 had faced i n his three years as a school p r i n c i p a l i n a commu-ni t y of t h i s nature. Needless to say, much rethinking and re-formulation of problems became necessary during the course of the research. Information was obtained through open ended interviews ba-sed upon a set of questions designed to provide information about the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l nature of each of the s i x communities involved i n the study and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the communities and the two senior governments i n the T e r r i t o r y . Approximately ninety respondents were selected on the basis of t h e i r representative r o l e s i n the community. A conscientious attempt was made to select i n a c t i v e as well as active i n d i v i d u a l s from each sector or group within the commu-n i t i e s . In addition to the interviews with residents of r u r a l settlements Senior Government o f f i c i a l s and f i e l d s t a f f were selected f o r interviews on the basis of t h e i r involvement with r u r a l communities. T e r r i t o r i a l Councilors and the Member of Parliament f o r the Yukon, Senior o f f i c i a l s i n government agen-c i e s , p o l i t i c a l unions such as the Yukon Native Brotherhood (YNB) and the Yukon Association of Non Status Indians (YANSI), members of the Executive Committee and the Commissioner were interviewed to ascertain the nature of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with r u r a l communities and to gather t h e i r opinions as to how these communities could be more e f f e c t i v e l y administered i n so-c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic terms. T9 The Director of the Yukon Library Services was p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n providing the author with access to the not-yet-com-pleted Yukon Room which holds a body of Yukon l i t e r a t u r e not found elsewhere. The debates, notes and proceedings of the Ter-r i t o r i a l Council were made ava i l a b l e on i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan a l -lowing f o r further analysis of the twenty one volumes that co-ver the 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 , 1971 and 1972 session of c o u n c i l . Two methodological approaches are used i n dealing with the problems addressed i n the t h e s i s . The f i r s t i s a comparative analysis of regional-community-intra-community rel a t i o n s h i p s of each of the s i x communities. Comparative a n a l y s i s , as used here, r e f e r s to the method of study discussed by Holt and Tur-ner ( 1 9 7 0 pp. 5 - 8 ) . This i s the method of comparing p a r t i c u l a r functions, r e l a t i o n s h i p s and subsystems of one system to those of another. These components of analysis w i l l be enlarged upon l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. Cross tabulations and ch i squared tests w i l l be applied to selected variables as part of the comparative a n a l y s i s . The second method has been predicated on an observation of Hold and Turner ( 1 9 7 1 , P. 7 ) that much research "... i s not oriented to-ward hypothesis t e s t i n g at a l l , but i s exploratory i n nature and i s undertaken to a i d i n the development of the hypothesis". This i s the nature of t h i s research program. In l i g h t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a tentative semantic model i s developed. Copies of 20 the p o l i t i c a l model were c i r c u l a t e d among the respondents of the past summer's research. Comments related to the model, i n conjunction with the comparative a n a l y s i s , a i d i n generating a l t e r n a t i v e semantic models which avoid the flaws of the pre-vious ones. This process e n t a i l s an analysis of the present s i t u a t i o n which, In turn, allows f o r a rearrangement of the system to be postulated. An i n t e r p r e t a t i v e model i s then dev-eloped i n order to generalize the implications of the research to other s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r communities. Modeling Process The objectives In formulating a tentative semantic model are two-fold. The f i r s t i s to define the parameters of the po-l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the residents of selected r u r a l Yukon Communities and the two senior governments i n the T e r r i -tory. This sets the constraints, within which the problem, cen-t r a l to the t h e s i s , w i l l be appraised. The second objective i s to provide a model as a s t a r t i n g point which may be modified and improved. This provides a basis f o r generating f a m i l i e s of models each of which attempts to eleminate the f a i l u r e s of the previous by t e s t i n g them against the reactions of community . • residents and government administrators and by analysing them against the reactions of community residents and government ad-ministrators and by analysing them against s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l des-c r i p t i o n s of each community. 21 Schon ( 1 9 7 2 , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 3 7 ) r e f e r s to the semantic model as a "Projective Model". He d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s from a "Predic-t i v e Model" by pointing out that p r o j e c t i v e models, as with se-mantic models, observe re l a t i o n s h i p ! noting t h e i r general charac-t e r i s t i c s , as they change over time. Each change enables a pro-gressive formulation of models which more e f f e c t i v e l y project trends. Schon ( 1972) argues that the Predictive Model bases i t s d e s criptive q u a l i t i e s on the assumption that the r e l a t i o n -ships defined i n the model w i l l remain stable. This, he states, i s an unwarranted assumption. Relationships, i n a s o c i o - p o l i -t i c a l context are not stable and modeling systems should take t h i s i n t o account. A f i n a l form of l o c a l government i s not i m p l i c i t l y expres-sed i n t h i s modeling process. This process proposes an i n t e r -mediate form of community government, which would change i n form and function as the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which influence the community change. In order that t h i s be a manageable process, the components which characterize a l l p o l i t i c a l systems w i l l be used to focus on the relevant s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The components to be used i n the models are based on an adaptation of the c r i -t e r i a used i n the analysis of comparative p o l i t i c a l systems. Janowitz ( 1 9 6 1 , p. 13) comments on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s adaptation saying, "In the development of the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y 22 analysis of p o l i t i c a l behaviour, the study of community p o l i -t i c a l systems lends i t s e l f to a comparative treatment, perhaps more so than the nation state". The following components of analysis were selected because of t h e i r dynamic rather than s t a t i c nature and t h e i r previous use as tools i n the analysis of comparative p o l i t i c s . The d i -v e r s i t y of cases over which these components have been applied (Pye, 1 9 6 6 ; Janowitz, 1 9 6 1 ; Syed, 1966) indicates that they should r e a d i l y accomodate the subject of t h i s t h e s i s . A p o l i t i c a l system and i t s boundaries require d e f i n i t i o n p r i o r to discussion of the system's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p o l i t i -c a l system represents not only governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s , but Includes " a l l structures i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l aspects". (Almond 1 9 6 6 , p. IB). The term system implies an interdependence bet-ween the encompassed components. The boundaries of p o l i t i c a l systems are not r e a d i l y discernable. This stems from the fact that the fundamental components of p o l i t i c a l systems are roles rather than i n d i v i d u a l s . The highly changeable nature of roles means that the boundaries of p o l i t i c a l systems are correspon-dingly f l e x i b l e . Interacting and re l a t e d r o l e s make up subsys-tems so that the p o l i t i c a l system may be represented by a set of i n t e r a c t i n g subsystems. The f i r s t component of analysis i s then that of defining the boundaries of the p o l i t i c a l systems at play i n the functioning of l o c a l government. This, i n ef-2 3 f e e t , defines the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l , character of the settlement. P o l i t i c a l systems do not operate i n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l vacuums. The values, attitudes and behaviours of a population which a l -lows insight i n t o the propensities and performances of a p o l i -t i c a l system are referred to as i t s p o l i t i c a l culture of sub-culture. - P o l i t i c a l cultures and subcultures are the f a b r i c of "underlying psychological propensities of p o l i t i c a l systems" (Almond 1 9 6 6 , p. 2 5 ) . As such, an analysis of a system must include the p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r a l dimension. P o l i t i c a l systems are acted upon by inputs which undergo a conversion process which i n turn generates outputs. Two ty-pes of input a r i s i n g from within the p o l i t i c a l environment or from within the system i t s e l f , are i d e n t i f i e d by Easton ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Demands f o r goods, services or p r i v i l e g e s constitute one class of inputs, supports which demand s o c i a l functions through a c t i -v i t i e s such as taxes, law and m i l i t a r y services are a second type of input the p o l i t i c a l system deal with. Outputs, on the other hand, consists of control of behaviour, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods, services, p r i v i l e g e s , and c o l l e c t i o n of tax or t r i b u t e . Outputs represent the responses of the p o l i t i c a l system to i n -puts from the population, the p o l i t i c a l leaders or the environ-ment external to the system. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of inputs, conver-sion processes and outputs are other components which need to be included i n the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . 24 The i n t e r n a l processes of p o l i t i c a l systems may be consi-dered to operate at three l e v e l s . These are; forms or arrange-ments by which decisions are made, j u r i s d i c t i o n s which may be encompassed i n the decisions made and i t s s o c i a l r o l e i n i t s larger environment (Wichein 1971, p. 10). Obviously these func-tions are related; together they constitute the conversion pro-cess which acts upon inputs and generates outputs. In analys-ing p o l i t i c a l systems these three functions (form, j u r i s d i c t i o n and s o c i a l role) and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s are to be con-sidered. The components of p o l i t i c a l systems as outlined above pro-vide guidelines within which the analysis of the s o c i o - p o l i t i -c a l conditions of the selected communities occurs. Further-more they provide insights i n t o the elements which may be cons-t i t u t e d i n l o c a l governing bodies. A preliminary model i s formulated to provide a s t a r t i n g point to obtain reactions from the studyU population. Samples of the preliminary model w i l l be sent to the study's respondents and feedback from them should serve to point out the model's strengths and weaknesses from l o c a l , T e r r i t o r i a l and Federal perspectives. Secondly, a tentative semantic model which i s developed i s analysed against a de t a i l e d s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l des-c r i p t i o n of the communities studied. This points to inconsis-tancies which leds to successive p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r adapting the model. 25 Postulates Two postulates form the basis to the proposed model. The f i r s t i s that a form of l o c a l government which increases co-operative i n t e r a c t i o n between ethnic sectors of communities along s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l or economic l i n e s w i l l function more e f f e c t i v e l y than those forms which function on a segregated ba-s i s . Secondly, " l o c a l problems, handled l o c a l l y , run the best chance of being solved expeditiously and appropriately" (DIAND, 1 9 6 6 , Volume 1 p. 1 9 0 ) . Tentative Model There i s a developmental sequence implied i n the process a community follows i n becoming a corporate body under the Yukon Municipal Ordinance. The model proposed here i s one which i s intended to ease the process of t r a n s i t i o n from an unorganized community. This model should be viewed as a temporary stage of development, which i s intended to increase co-operative i n t e r -action among ethnic sectors i n the community and provide a p o l i -t i c a l structure which may handle l o c a l problems l o c a l l y . The p o l i t i c a l role of the proposed model of l o c a l government i s i m p l i c i t l y defined by the postulates. It should provide f o r a form of government i n which l o c a l decisions may be made l o -c a l l y on a representative basis, and at the same time, generate co-operative i n t e r a c t i o n among sectors of the community along 26 s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . The long range objec-t i v e s proposed i n t h i s process stress that the I n i t i a l p o l i -t i c a l model only defines an Intermediate state of a f f a i r s i n the evolution of l o c a l government. The f i n a l stage Is en v i s i o -ned as requiring no s p e c i a l consideration being given to the problems of co-operative i n t e r a c t i o n among ethnic sectors. Community issues would be dealt with by a board elected from the community at large. P a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n the interm ; phases of l o c a l government, would prepare i n d i v i d u a l s , regardless of t h e i r ethnic background, to take part i n the governing of l o c a l concerns. The objective, i n e f f e c t , i s to reduce the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic d i s p a r i t i e s and c o n f l i c t s among ethnic sectors while providing l o c a l access to l o c a l l y r e l a t e d d e c i -sions. The semantic model which i s being proposed is. a p o l i t i c a l subsystem of the la r g e r system of T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada. In the sense that l o c a l governments are creatures of T e r r i t o r i a l Ordinances, t h e i r form, function and j u r i s d i c t i o n i s l a r g e l y determined by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government under the authority invested i n the Yukon by an act of the Federal P a r l i a -ment - The Yukon Act. The Federal Government i s also conside-red within the bounds of the semantic model i n that, the a f f a i r s of Indian residents f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a Federal de-partment. The scope of the modelled subsystem includes the po-l i t i c a l bodies which are currently involved i n the making of 27 community-related decisions. This means that the T e r r i t o r i a l and Federal governments are within the bounds of the model sys-tem, to the extent that they are involved i n making decisions which are of a s p e c i f i c a l l y , l o c a l nature. The form the i n i t i a l model takes consists of a board com-prised of an agreed-upon number of executive members from or-ganizations representing d i f f e r e n t community groups, such as Band Councils and Community Associations. The Chairman would be appointed on a r o t a t i o n a l basis, s h i f t i n g from the repre-sentative of one organization to another, over periods set by the board. One i s not able to r e f e r to the scope of a p o l i t i c a l sys-tem without r e f e r r i n g to the functions of the system. The or-dering of the functions i n the following paragraphs set the scope of the proposed model. These composite boards would have s p e c i f i e d r e s p o n s i b i l l -t i e s . By following the p r i n c i p l e that l o c a l problems are best handled l o c a l l y , a d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the com-munity and the two senior governments may be made. It i s pro-posed that communities be responsible f o r deciding the p r i o r i -t i e s of spending i n the community, drawing up the community's budget, ensuring that l o c a l programs s u i t l o c a l needs, carrying out l o c a l improvement such as roads, sewers and e l e c t r i c a l ser-vices, and setting up l o c a l programs f o r the development of the 28 community. Under these arrangements, settlements would c o n t i -nue to receive f i n a n c i a l assistance from T e r r i t o r i a l and Fede-r a l Governments. Some functions must remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the T e r r i -t o r i a l Government. These are things which must be s e t t l e d f o r the T e r r i t o r y as -a whole, •such -as determining the t e r r i t o r i a l budgets, and a l l o c a t i n g human or tec h n i c a l resources which best meet the needs of the T e r r i t o r y as a whole. In these areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the composite board would act i n an advisory capacity. They would advise the Government on community bud-gets, l o c a l housing programs, town planning, l o c a l education programs, the supervision of l o c a l s o c i a l programs and the gen-e r a l d i r e c t i o n of the community's development. The advisory r o l e i s envisioned as one i n which a l l concerned par t i e s are given a f u l l account of tentative community-related decisions and an opportunity to state t h e i r opinions before they are re-solved by the government. Other functions must be assumed to remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Federal Government within the term considered i n the the-s i s . These are functions such as those r e l a t e d to Indian Af-.... -f a i r s and Indian lands which have not been given over to Bands to administer but have been retained i n pr a c t i c e as responsibi-t i e s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Those functions administe-red by Bands which have an influence upon the other sector of 29 the settlement would involve the composite board i n an advi-sory capacity i n terms of how decisions i n one community may effe c t other sectors. Generating a s i m p l i s t i c semantic model at an early stage allowed the author to c i r c u l a t e the proposal among the respon-dents of the summer survey. This s t a r t i n g point provided valua-ble feedback which may be incorporated i n successive adaptions of the model. The following d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the socio-p o l i t i c a l organization of s i x communities and how these r e l a t e to the senior governments i n the T e r r i t o r y w i l l be used as a basis f o r appraising current forms of l o c a l government as well as the proposed model. Information gained i n the process of the analysis may prove t o be of value i n the development of successive models. c h a p t e r Six Rural Yukon Communities Ross River, Pelly Crossing, Haines Junction, T e s l i n , Car-cross and Carmacks were the communities selected f o r the study. The three c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n were that; a l l communities have populations of less than f i v e hundred; a l l were divided into sectors representing White and Indian i n t e r e s t s ; and a l l had residents with whom the author was previously acquainted. The location of the communities i n the study group are shown i n Figure 1. Each i s accessible by a l l weather roads. Carcross i s the c l o s e s t , by road, to Whitehorse at f o r t y - f i v e miles and Ross River the furthest at two hundred and sixty miles. The composition of the communities' populations, shown i n 32 Table 1, range from Haines Junction which i s predominatly White to Pell y Crossing which i s predominately Indian. These ethnic sectors, when they perceived themselves to be s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r -ge, have formed organizations to meet t h e i r administrative and s o c i a l needs. Pelly Crossing, with a large Indian population and a r e l a t i v e l y small White population has only a Band Council and represents one end of the organizational spectrum while at the other end communities such as Ross River have organizations which represent the respective i n t e r e s t s of Whites, Indians and Nonstatus Indians. This i s not to suggest that a l l members of any ethnic sectors p a r t i c i p a t e i n organizations. Most who do not p a r t i c i p a t e claim that they just do not care about the things organizations do. Others avoid p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s t a t i n g that they l i v e i n t h e i r type of community to get away from the regimentation inherent i n organized areas. However a l l r e s i -dents, including the l a t t e r , want a say i n how things should be done i n the community. Both federal and t e r r i t o r i a l government agencies are pre-sent i n a l l the communities studied. Each community has a day school with resident teachers. A l l but P e l l y Crossing have RCMP detachments and t e r r i t o r i a l Public Works crews. A govern-ment presence i f f e l t i n a l o c a l sense i n that government em-ployees reside i n the community and services offered by the " -agencies they represent are generally directed to the l o c a l re-sidents. 33 Table 1 P o p u l a t i o n : Community by e t h n i c composition White* I n d i a n * T o t a l P e l l y C r o s s i n g 20 120 l4o Carmacks • 100 250 350 Ross R i v e r 70 220 320 T e s l i n 100 240 340 C a r c r o s s 9 0 100 190 Haines J u n c t i o n 140 :40 180 * In c l u d e s those who are Non S t a t u s I n d i a n a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups. 34 The balance of t h i s chapter w i l l be given over to a des-c r i p t i v e analysis of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l conditions i n each settlement deemed to influence the character of l o c a l govern-ment. The communities w i l l be described i n tne following man-ner with each subsequent description drawing comparison from the previous. A general description of the geography of the area w i l l be followed by an h i s t o r i c a l overview. An outline of the general demographic features of the settlement sets the stage f o r discussion of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This l a s t aspect, needs to be viewed form two perspectives; the f i r s t i s with respect to interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the context of t h e i r being operative exclusively within the m i l i e u of the com-munity and the second re l a t e s to how external influences enter i n t o interpersonal relationships within the community. The l a s t element included i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of each settlement deal with l o c a l organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s and the processes by which they attempt to influence external decisions which are related to the community. Throughout the following descriptions the patterns of c u l -ture and s o c i a l organization which characterize the majority North Americian society are refered to as "White" and those which have been c l a s s i f i e d by anthropoligists as the cultures of the people native to North Americia have been c a l l e d "Indian". This d i s t i n c t i o n Is based on the l i f e s t y l e of the i n d i v i d u a l and the culture he has adopted rather than his r a c i a l o r i g i n . 35 A number of assumptions re l a t e d to s o c i a l analysis are em-bodied i n the descriptive-analysis included i n the t h e s i s . In general theories of s o c i a l interactions have been accepted as demonstrated p r i n c i p l e s . An e x p l i c i t attempt to v e r i f y these assumptions f a l l beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . 36 Ross R i v e r ; Geography S e t t i n g Ross R i v e r i s l o c a t e d at the confluence of the P e l l y and Ross R i v e r s . I t i s approximately two hundred and s i x t y road m i l e s n o r t h east of Whitehorse, at the j u n c t i o n of the Canol Road and the Campbell Highway. The settlement i s l o c a t e d along the south shore of the P e l l y R i v e r . The P e l l y v a l l e y f o l l o w s the Tatiana F a u l t i n the v i c i n i t y of Ross R i v e r . I n t h i s area the v a l l e y i s approximately e i g h t miles wide w i t h a hummocky f l o o r which i s dotted w i t h lakes and t r a v e r s e d by r i v e r s and creeks f l o w i n g n o r t h from the P e l l y Mountain Range. The broad v a l l e y accomodates a r e l a t i v e l y d i v e r s e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of f l o r a and fauna c o n s i d e r i n g the northern l a t i t u d e s (CGS 1 9 ^ 3 ) . Ross R i v e r : H i s t o r i c a l Overview The presence of moose, c a r i b o u and some f u r bearing animals i n the r e g i o n provided the resources which t r a d i t i o n a l l y sup-ported Indian h a b i t a t i o n . P r i o r t o the l 8 4 0 ' s , the Indian peo-p l e of the Ross and headwaters of the P e l l y f o l l o w e d a nomadic hunting and gather i n g type of ex i s t e n c e (Honigmann 1 9 5 ^ ) . The f u r t r a d e , which was t r i g g e r e d w i t h the a r r i v a l of Robert Camp-b e l l i n 184-3, had a dramatic e f f e c t upon the Ind i a n s ' l i f e s t y -l e . The change was one of expanding subsistence a c t i v i t i e s t o in c l u d e the gat h e r i n g of f u r s t o trade f o r t e c h n i c a l innovations such as the gun, axe and i r o n pot. 37 A large population of Indians l i v i n g i n the drainage basins of the Ross and Pelly Rivers, a surplus of labour and f a c i l i -t i e s tranfered from use i n the Klondike, r i v e r access to and from the area and the absence of trading posts within the area were a l l factors which led to the construction of a Taylor and Dury trading post at Ross River i n 1 9 0 5 . A pattern of hunting and trapping was adopted i n which the Indians would spend two weeks to a month about the post, then return to the "bush" f o r periods as long as s i x months. This s t y l e of l i v i n g c a r r i e d on i n pretty much of an uninterrupted fashion u n t i l the Canol Road and Pipeline were b u i l t through the community i n 19^2. The i n f l u x of some three thousand American sold i e r s and the much improved access to the outside v i a the road t o t a l l y a l t e r e d the character of Ross River f o r a period of about two years. The Canol Pipeline Project was undertaken to transport o i l from Norman Wells on the Mackenzie to tidewater i n the event of the war developing i n the North P a c i f i c theater. The concen-t r a t i o n of the war i n the South P a c i f i c and the reduction of the war emergency i n the north resulted i n the shut down of the op-eration. The road leading i n t o Ross River was maintained f o r supplying the post u n t i l 1950 a f t e r which time i t f e l l i n t o d i s r e p a i r . Salvage i n t e r e s t s i n the pip e l i n e resulted i n the reopening of the road i n 1951 which closed again a year l a t e r and remained closed u n t i l i 9 6 0 . During the post war period, the majority of the community residents attempted to revert 38 back to a pattern of l i v i n g characterized i n the early 1 9 0 0 's. Some i r r e v e r s i b l e changes had occurred and a complete re-turn to the previous state was not possible. Mobility among the younger members of the community appears to have increased, s a l a r i e d positions such as truck d r i v i n g or cat skinning were taken and a big game o u t f i t t e r established a base camp i n Ross River. Improved access and an awareness of the community on the part of T e r r i t o r i a l Government o f f i c i a l s triggered the gat-hering up of school aged c h i l d r e n who were sent to r e s i d e n t i a l schools from the early 1950's. Throughout the l a t e f i f t i e s and early s i x t i e s , a few white prospectors operated out of Ross R i -ver i n the summers. During t h i s period the community was chang-ing. I t was no longer exclusively dependent upon f u r trade as a few Whites r e l y i n g upon other resources began to s e t t l e i n the community. Even though the community was changing, White and Indian residents functioned well together. There was a mutual need to function cooperatively based on the exchange of resources held by one group and desired by the other. Their i n t e r e s t s though economically d i f f e r e n t , had many common el e -ments such as the need to be a "good man i n the bush." The confirmation and development of an ore body along Van Gorder Creek s i g n i f i e d a turning point f o r Ross River. The development of A n v i l Mines, approximately t h i r t y miles east of Ross River, resulted i n the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the com-39 munity's economic base, an expansion i n the resident White po-pulation and an increase i n the p o l a r i z a t i o n between Indians and Whites within the community. The settlement became a "bed-room community" to A n v i l mines during i t s construction phase i n the mid 6 0's. In the summers of 1964 and 1965 the White po-pulation of Ross River increased to about a hundred as compa-red with approximately two hundred Indian people who l i v e d about the community. The White population which was at t h i s time, predominately single males, droped as winter set i n . The establishment of a T e r r i t o r i a l road maintenance crew i n 1966 resulted i n more White fa m i l i e s s e t t l i n g within the com-munity. -The construction of the Robert Campbell highway (shown i n Pig. 1) was completed i n 1968 and A n v i l mines with an associa-ted new town, Faro, was ready to begin operating i n 1 9 7 0 . Most of the f i f t e e n White fa m i l i e s with i n t e r e s t s i n the mine and two Indian families moved from Ross River to Faro. The major exodus from the community which had been antic i p a t e d by a l l l e -vels of government did not mat e r i a l i z e . A large number of jobs had been p r e f e r e n t i a l l y a l l o c a t e d to Indians, under the s t i p u -l a t i o n s of a Federal government agreement with A n v i l Mines, but they were never taken up to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree ( M i l l e r 1 9 7 2 ) . An increase i n the number of jobs avai l a b l e from 1963 through to the l a t e s i x t i e s attracted many Indian men who would otherwise have continued trapping. Jobs i n exploration provided 40 better returns f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s than did hunting and trapping. This, combined with the r e s i d e n t i a l and day schooling of c h i l -dren s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the processes of primary and secon-dary s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the Yukon Indian. The options of the youth choosing between a t r a d i t i o n a l bush l i f e and a job wi-th i n the context of the North American t e c h n i c i a l society ap-pears as though i t has been made by default. The trading post, which had acted as the nucleus f o r the formation of the community, had been located on the North shore of the Pelly River where i t i s joined by the Ross River, as shown i n F i g . 2 . An Indian settlement had developed about the post and a Catholic mission was b u i l t i n the settlement i n 1 9 5 0 . When the Canol Road and p i p e l i n e reached Ross River i n 1 9 4 2 , the Pelly River was bridged by a suspension foot bridge b u i l t to carry the p i p e l i n e . This improved access from White-horse up to the southern bank of the Pelly River and was one of the main factors f o r the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i n t h e i r r e l -ocating the Indian land reserve and the Indian settlement. In-dian lands were allocated along the east side of the Canol Road i n the settlement area. The balance of the settlement was sub-divided i n the early 1960's and was sold or leased to those who moved i n t o the community. The predominance of Whites moving into the community and occupying the l o t s a v a i l a b l e resulted i n the geographic d i v i s i o n of the settlement along ethnic l i -nes. An Area Development Ordinance was applied to Ross River 41 i n 1 9 6 6 . It's Intent was to provide f o r the orderly develop-ment of land use and housing within the community i n terms set out by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. Ross River: Demographics and Settlement Pattern The 1971 population of Ross River and i t s surrounding area i s 319 of which approximately 290 l i v e with the community on a regular basis ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1 9 7 1 ) . Of the community r e s i -dents approximately 2 2 0 are of Indian descent and of these about 180 are status Indians. D i s t r i b u t i o n of population by sex, eth-nic background and age are shown i n Appendix 1 . Table 1 i l l u s -t rates the population and ethnic composition at Ross R i v e r . i n comparison with the other settlements studied. The lay out of the community as shown i n Pig. 2 was, by and large, determined by the surveyors i n the process of d i v i d i n g the community (personal interviews). P a r t i c u l a r attention ap-pears to have been given only to survey considerations as i n d i -cated by oversights such as the surveyed l o t s placed on the lower l e v e l s of the Pelly flood p l a i n , the l o t s placed on pat-ches of permafrost and deposits of impermeable clay and geogra-phic problems related to water d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l l of the people interviewed In Ross River said that to t h e i r knowledge, no one had been consulted on issues such as the surveying of the com-munity. 42 The water l i n e was b u i l t i n 1965 to supply government hou-sing with running water. A stand pipe was constructed, as shown i n F i g . 2 , to provide public access to the water d i s t r i b u t i o n system. Complaints regarding t h i s arrangement were bought be-fore the Dept. of Engineering of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government by some members of the Community Association. They claimed •that the d i s t r i b u t i o n system, as It existed, was placing an ad-d i t i o n a l burden upon most Indians who had no vehicles to trans-port water. Two extensions of the water l i n e would overcome the problem. In 1971 the extensions were completed and the T e r r i t o r i a l Government shut down the o r i g i n a l standpipe, ar-guing that i t had been placed there f o r Indian use and since they had improved the system with respect to the needs of the Indian community, the other was unnecessary. Members of White and Indian community reacted. With the old system Whites had been able to drive up to the stand pipe and f i l l t h e i r water b a r r e l s , now the process had become much more d i f f i c u l t , f u r -thermore Indians had to contend with dust from trafficr"created by Whites getting water. The d i s t r i b u t i o n system reverted back to the o r i g i n a l standpipe i n 1972 when the two extensions froze and ruptured during the winter. Ross River; Internal Interpersonal Relationships People interviewed i n Ross River stated that at least two and i n some cases three d i s t i n c t groups exist i n the settlement 44-The d i v i s i o n between Indians and Whites was perceived as an element which was present i n a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . An addi-t i o n a l group, Non-Status Indians, were at times seen as having in t e r e s t s and goals which d i f f e r from the other two groups. This t h i r d d i v i s i o n i s one which appears to have been created by a series of external p o l i t i c a l forces intending to lend ad-d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l strength to the disenfranchised Indian. For the purposes of t h i s part of the analysis the s o c i a l interac-t i o n within the settlement may be viewed as occuring i n an env-ironment which has two diverse groups with independent s o c i a l structures. With t h i s type of s o c i a l d i v i s i o n , the settlement of Ross River can only be referred to as a community to the extent that indi v i d u a l s from a l l groups use common services such as stores, bars, roads, water systems, school, health ser-v i c e s , p o l i c e , f i r e protection, churches and recreation f a c i l -i t i e s . There i s l i t t l e sense of community i n terms o f " s o c i a l interactions across White-Indian ethnic l i n e s . The Indian sector of the community consists of about f i v e f l u i d domestic groupings associated through intermarriages and other patterns of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Indian people from other l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds have become part of these domes-t i c groupings through marriage. Pelly Lakes and Pelly River v a r i e t i e s of the Tuchone d i a l e c t are the most common tongues; although Slavey, T l i n g i t and- Kaska d i a l e c t s are also spoken. Because of the language mix, many have adopted English as a 4.5 working language; however i n cases where an Indian d i a l e c t w i l l be understood i t appears to be preferred (personal obser-va t i o n ) . Divisions between the domestic groups seems to coin-cide with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the band c o u n c i l . One group or ano-ther controls the band c o u n c i l . Attempts to overcome t h i s p o l -a r i z a t i o n seems to have f a i l e d p a r t l y because of the vested i n t e r e s t s of those i n positions of some power but l a r g e l y be-cause of attitudes of independence which in d i v i d u a l s w i l l not allow to be compromised. Independence of the Indian i n d i v i d u a l i n his choice of ac-tions i s a d i s p o s i t i o n which was observed to characterize a l -most a l l interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Ross River. Limits are placed upon the actions of the i n d i v i d u a l , not so much by formalized rules and regulations, as by informal obligations. As a member of a small community, a person i s confronted the awareness of actions of others and the associated d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g with those around him who see and f e e l the consequen-ces of his actions. He i s , i n a s o c i a l sense, highly account-able f o r his actions and i s c o n t r o l l e d by approval and disap-proval as i t i s expressed by i n d i v i d u a l s or the group he iden-t i f i e s with. D i v i s i o n along ethnic l i n e s i n Ross River has resulted i n two diverse groups each of which i s held primarily responsible f o r the actions of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the ethnic group. An Indian 4 6 person i s responsible not to the band as a whole but to the powerful individuals' i n the groups with which he c l o s e l y iden-t i f i e s . This case was demonstrated i n interviews i n which res-pondents stated that they did as they personnaly thought best but hesitated i n make decisions which might influence some ind-i v i d u a l s and never hesitated i n the making of decision related to others. Personal interactions between White and Indian people may be viewed as occurring at two d i s t i n c t l e v e l s . Routine i n t e r -actions occur i n the course of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of services and goods. These types of interactions occur i n places such as the store, bar and post o f f i c e . They are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y reserved, l i t t l e i s said and the i n t e r a c t i o n t y p i c a l l y deals only with the business at hand. These interactions appear to follow a moderately formalized pattern. In the store, f o r ex-ample, women do most of the shopping, care seems to be taken by Indians not to appear rushed and a person enters into the f i n a l purchase only when i t appears that others are not incon-venienced or are making concessions by allowing the transaction to occur when i t does. White shoppers are more hurried i n t h e i r business transactions. The store provides a s e t t i n g f o r a sup-e r f i c i a l l e v e l of s o c i a l i z i n g between acquaintances. This f o r -malized pattern of White-Indian interactions becomes more r e l -axed i n the bar. Interactions are i n i t i a l l y reserved but become more outgoing and wider spread as the evening progresses. Dur-4-7 ing the e a r l i e r part of the evening s p e c i f i c groups characte-r i z e the pattern of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Indian patrons group about i n patterns related to domestic r e l a t i o n s while Whites gather about i n s o c i a l c l i q u e s . Interaction across group l i -nes expand and become more casual as l i q u o r i s consumed. The second l e v e l of personal interactions between Indians and Whites occur among acquaintances who share a degree of friendship i n conjunction with mutual benefits derived from the u t i l i z a t i o n of the resources of each other. The number of these contacts are f a r fewer than those occurring i n routine i n t e r a c t i o n s . Many members, from both ethnic sectors, d i f f e -r e n tiate between the townspeople with respect to who they w i l l or w i l l not informally associate with on the basis of ethnic background. Those who intera c t across ethnic l i n e s appear to be viewed by members of t h e i r respective sectors as ind i v i d u a l s who mediate between groups. These relationships are by and large, not of the same order of i n t e n s i t y as friendship within ethnic sectors. Personal exposures to most residents of the settlement are d i f f i c u l t to avoid i n communities of t h i s s i z e . The six t y White residents of Ross River who remain i n the settlement year round are, with only a few exceptions, recent a r r i v a l s to the settlement. The permanencey of the White sec-tor i s indicated by one respondent who c l a s s i f i e d a "long term resident" as a White person who had l i v e d there at least three 48 years. Most of these people are employed In e i t h e r supplying the community through governmental agencies and private busi-nesses or i n the mining exploration and development industry. The Whites moving int o the community have s e t t l e d on the surveyed l o t s along the west side of the Canol Road. The loca-t i o h j o f housing was l a r g e l y dependent upon the available land zoned as r e s i d e n t i a l - under the Area Development Ordinance of 1 9 6 6 . The Yukon Housing Survey (YTG 1972) demonstrates the d i s p a r i t i e s between Indian and White housing. This d i s p a r i t y i s greater when government housing, which was not included i n the survey, i s considered. The average assessed value of gov-ernment housing i s approximately $15000 compared to an estima-ted $5000 f o r Indian housing (YTG 1 9 7 2 ) . The unsettled s o c i a l character of the White sector of Ross River i s due i n part to the recent a r r i v a l of most residents. Too l i t t l e time has elapsed to allow f o r the working out and s t a b i l i z i n g of the White sectors' s o c i a l structure. Much of the stress a r i s i n g from these conditions Is r e f l e c t e d i n at-tempts at c l a r i f y i n g a pecking order among V/hite residents. This appears to have given r i s e to a process of quickly cate-go r i z i n g people into general types. The extent and nature of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t i o n with Indian people seems to repre-sent a major component i n t h i s process. Most Whites reported that they e s t a b l i s h friendships only with other Whites and most 49 of these deny that t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d friendships with Indians stem from ethnic prejudices (personal interviews). Other i n f -ormation gathered i n discussions suggests that the basis of these r e l a t i o n s are more complex than a r a c i a l answer suggests. The demand f o r the rapid typing of Whites i n response to a need f o r c r y s t a l l i z i n g a s o c i a l structure seems to be at the very .basis of the vsocial - s t a b i l i t y of the White sector of the commu-n i t y . Attempts to include interactions with Indians, who have frequently indicated t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l structure of the White sector have been rejected. This has been p a r t i a l l y due to the mutual r e j e c t i o n of elements of each others' cultures and p a r t l y due to the a d d i t i o n a l comple-x i t y and the correspondingly unmanagable character the White s o c i a l structure would be required to take on. The s o c i a l groupings of Whites appear to coincide with t h i s generalized typing process. Groups of d i f f e r i n g composition are represented i n d i f f e r e n t types of instances. For example the group which frequents the bar may d i f f e r i n part from the group which regularly attend community movies. This should not be taken to mean that i t i s along the l i n e s of these group-ings that cliques are formed. Cliques are more cl o s e l y r e l a t e d to friendships which develop among individuals of somewhat sim-i l a r i n t e r e s t s and philosophies. As informal groups they have mechanisms by which members are acquired or rejected. As a re-s u l t of t h e i r membership con t r o l s , they carry with them an a i r 5 0 of exclusiveness. Rejection from a clique may r e s u l t i f a White person extends his r e l a t i o n s across ethnic l i n e s . The same may also apply to j o i n i n g a c l i q u e . The White person whose network of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s crosses ethnic l i n e s may not be considered a desirable member by the c l i q u e . With the s e n s i t i v i t y which exists towards ethnic d i f f e r e n c e s , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s attitude to these differences becomes an important f a c t o r i n the composition of c l i q u e s . Types of employment was observed to be another f a c t o r which determines the membership of c l i q u e s . The common int e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s sharing s i m i l a r occupations provides a basis which encourages the development of friendships. This i s not to say that people with s i m i l a r occupations w i l l be members of the same c l i q u e s . When a person a r r i v e s i n the settlement he w i l l most l i k e l y be assessed as a p o t e n t i a l member by those i n c l i -ques with members i n s i m i l a r occupations. There are members of the White community who, by t h e i r wish-~es or by the wishes of others do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l i q u e s . Those who choose not to take part (and t h i s need not necessar-i l y e s tablishing close t i e s because, as one respondent states , "You avoid establishing close t i e s because, as one respondent stance make acquaintances but avoid allowing these to develop int o friendships r e s u l t i n g i n committments to a c l i q u e . The second group of independents, those who are i s o l a t e d primarily 51' through r e j e c t i o n by others, have patterns of s o c i a l interac-tions which d i f f e r s from the person who has chosen to be inde-pendent. The V/hite i n d i v i d u a l who i s i s o l a t e d by those he wish-e s to associate with, i s due f o r an unpleasant and In most cases, b r i e f stay i n the community. Limiting the White con-tacts of such an i n d i v i d u a l has resulted i n ei t h e r extending his sources of contacts to members of the Indian sector or In his leaving the community. Ross River: External Influences on Interpersonal Relationships The next phase of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l analysis of Ross R i -ver deals with the ways i n which influences, external to the community, e f f e c t interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The nature of some of these external influences w i l l necessitate discussing organizations which have developed within the community. For the purposes of the analysis these organizations w i l l be consi-dered i n terms of the ways i n which they influence personal i n -teractio n s . The Ross River Indian band i s not a c l o s e l y k n i t group. Personal interactions within the Indian sector of the community are r e s t r i c t e d on the bases of kinship, sex, age and the role of the i n d i v i d u a l within the Indian sector of the community.. This aggreate i s a band only i n that i t has been defined as one by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch (IAB). Their intent was to 52 create a set of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s with which to deal. I t i s i n t h i s sense that some band functions may be viewed as external. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the l o c a l band council were li m i t e d to those of providing a somewhat weak l i a i s o n between members of the band and the IAB. It i s necessary to note that t h i s process only Involved a. few of the l o c a l Indian people and the process i t s e l f has changed with the development of the Yukon Native Brotherhood. The Indian community appears to hold the view that the res-p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Band Council i n no way exceeds, or controls the r i g h t s and actions of the i n d i v i d u a l . This p r i n c i p l e was demonstrated i n interviews where respondents said that they had taken a course of action, which was t h e i r r i g h t , even though i t c l e a r l y opposed Band Council's desires. The Yukon Association of Non-Status Indians (YANSI) has dev-eloped as a p o l i t i c a l force i n the Yukon during 1971 and 1 9 7 2 , A component of the movement i n communities such as Ros~s River i s regarded, f o r the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , as an external force which influences interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s within the community. YANSI was ra p i d l y accepted i n Ross River by non-status Indians who had previously been considered to be e i t h e r Indian or White on the basis of l i f e s t y l e and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . A t h i r d general p o l i t i c a l categorization appears to have been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d primarily as a r e s u l t of YANSI's presence. The 53 e f f e c t has been a p o l i t i c a l and i n some instances, a s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n of people who had previously been considered a part of the band. Personal interactions between Whites and Indians who have joined YANSI have expanded to deal with the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s ..of the association. These interactions have t y p i c a l l y taken place within the s e t t i n g of group meetings and few of these casual r e l a t i o n s appear to have developed i n t o more intensive f r i e n d s h i p s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n personal r e l a t i o n -ship, r e s u l t i n g from YANSI's a r r i v a l , appears to have been the reactions of the p o l i t i c a l l y involved members of the Band and the Community Association. Some non-status Indians were only recognized as such by the Band since these i n d i v i d u a l s began to p a r t i c i p a t e i n YANSI functions thus s e t t i n g themselves aside as i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n a p o l i t i c a l sense. This recogni-t i o n and subsequent reactions have tended to further p o l i t i c a l l y alienate the non-status Indian. This has encouraged a. more i n -tensive involvement with YANSI which has become t h e i r strongest p o l i t i c a l avenue. Individuals who had previously been conside-red White, p r i o r to t h e i r j o i n i n g YANSI appear to have under-gone only small changes i n the scope and i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r per-sonal i n t e r a c t i o n s . Their p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n YANSI has not r e s u l -ted i n an a l i e n a t i o n from the Community Association but has i n s -tead placed them i n the p o s i t i o n of being used as a source of information or mediators i n the Association's dealing with the 5 4 Band. Their personal interactions among other YANSI members have increased, but t h i s has generally take place at a super-f i c i a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l rather than at an involved friendship l e v e l . The Ross River Community Association was created by White members of the settlement i n 1966. This association was orga-nized because locals' f e l t that they should have inputs into the making of decisions which had previously been made exter-n a l l y . In t h i s sense the association was created because of external influences on the community. The Association's ob-j e c t i v e s , as stated under the Societies Ordinance, were: a. "to provide representation f o r and go f o s t e r cooperation between the people of Ross River and the Federal Govern-ment, and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government. b. to work f o r the advancement, development and welfare of the people of Ross River. c. to coordinate the e f f o r t s of the people of Ross River and to act f o r them i n matters of common i n t e r e s t . d. to confer and cooperate with business organizations, groups and the o f f i c i a l s . " (Whitehorse' Star 1966) The impetus to develop and sustain the Association'came a l -most e n t i r e l y from the White sector. The Association's intent to be the p o l i t i c a l body representing a l l parts of the community has not been r e a l i z e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Indian members appears to have been discouraged both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y . Meetings were conducted i n a manner which allowed representation of the vocal, discouraging Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Committees which were predominately or exclusively White have been established to exe-55 cute most functions of the Association and the topics of d i s -cussion have seldom been of i n t e r e s t to most Indian people, and many White people. The association i s thought to be ne-cessary to deal, with the p o l i t i c a l aspects of l o c a l issues, but i t has been faced with problems of generating s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t to keep i t a l i v e . Association meetings have been attended reg u l a r l y by only a few White people i n the community. Most Whites use i t as a forum to express t h e i r views on issues to which they are sensi-t i v e and on which they wish to see the Association take p a r t i -cular courses of action. The few who r e g u l a r l y attend appear to express a stronger statement of commitment to the whole com-munity than those who attend intermittently f o r p a r t i c u l a r pur-poses. It i s upon these few that the White community places the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r maintaining the Community Association, p a r t l y f o r the general well being of the community but prima-r i l y as a t o o l f o r t h e i r personal p o l i t i c a l purposes. Cliques are not created on the basis of Association p a r t i -c i p a t i o n , however clique membership does a f f e c t the a c t i v i t i e s of the Association, personal interactions extend beyond ind-i v i d u a l cliques i n community meetings. Caution i s taken not to oppose anyone or any group d i r e c t l y . This i s demonstrated i n the cautious way i n which l o c a l issues are resolved, compa-red to the rather bold d i r e c t i v e s sent to the T e r r i t o r i a l Gov-ernment to resolve external issues. 56 Many external f a c t o r s , other than those r e l a t e d to l o c a l organizations, influence patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n between the residents of Ross River. Government service agencies such as the school, RCMP, Welfare and Public Works along with busines-ses r e l a t e d to the mining industry have a l l played a part i n a l t e r i n g the arrangements of interactions between i n d i v i d u a l s . A l l of these have added -s k i l l e d or semiskilled personel to the community's populations, most of which come from 'outside'. It i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the contacts between these new a r r i v a l s to the community with those that had been there before. None the l e s s , one may expect that high Incomes and good housing tend to point out the d i s p a r i -t i e s between the employed and unemployed. A day school was b u i l t i n Ross River in -1966 . P r i o r to t h i s c h i l d r e n were sent to r e s i d e n t i a l schools which were ad-ministered by Catholic or Anglican r e l i g i o u s order i n White-horse, Carcross and Lower Post. The opening of a day-school -in*-has had d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t Influences on the types and f r e -quency of contacts between i n d i v i d u a l s . Peer r e l a t i o n s have a l t e r e d . For most Indian c h i l d r e n t h i s represented the f i r s t experience i n an integrated school. It also was the f i r s t op-portunity f o r a l l Indian children from Ross River area to ga-ther as a group. The crossing of domestic groupings and ethnic l i n e s appears to have been of l i t t l e concern i n organizing stu-dent interactions i n the school s e t t i n g . A second set of i n -57 teractions stemming d i r e c t l y from the presence of the school, are the contacts generated between parents and teachers. In a community the size of Ross River differences a r i s i n g from various perceptions of the role teachers are expected to play are recognized. D i s p a r i t i e s i n these expectations are frequen-t l y the source of controversy. These controversies have, at times polarized the communities i n manners which have i n f l u e n -ced the relationships between i n d i v i d u a l s . The school f a c i l i t i e s has been used to accomodate recrea-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , adult education programs, community mee-ti n g s , public showers and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s as well as ser-ving i t s basis function as a day school. In providing a fac-i l i t y f o r a variety of a c t i v i t i e s , the school has i n d i r e c t l y caused increases i n the interactions between i n d i v i d u a l s . The operation of a day school has required that c h i l d r e n l i v e at home i n the settlement. This requirement has been t r a -d i t i o n a l l y accepted by Whites i n the community but not so with the Indians. P r i o r to 1966, Indian people were highly mobile within the Ross River region. Their mobility r e f l e c t e d a pat-tern of l i v i n g which was primarily dependent upon hunting and trapping a c t i v i t i e s . The a r r i v a l of a day school compelled these people to remain i n the settlement so that t h e i r c h i l d r e n could attend the school while staying at home. The i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of t h i s process are d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible to as-58 sess. A s h i f t i n l i f e s t y l e and the Increase i n personal i n -teractions r e s u l t i n g from the proximity of in d i v i d u a l s to each other i n the settlement would appear to influence patterns of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The RCMP opened a detachment i n 1966 i n Ross River. They brought with them the laws of the "outside" and the mandate to enforce these laws with respect to the people i n the settlement. Their presence presented l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y to White people since most had previously l i v e d i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s before but i t did represent major changed i n the Indian patterns of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The RCMP have attempted to ameliorate the c o n f l i c t s with the law which a r i s e from c u l t u r a l differences by informal educational means rather than through p o l i c e ac-t i o n . In pra c t i c e t h i s i s a most d i f f i c u l t task. In a small town where everyone knows or recognized everyone e l s e , the RCMP constable i s not considered the "cop" but i s referred to on a f i r s t name basis. In such a s i t u a t i o n personal f r i e n d -ship and antagonisms develop and i n doing so biases are created. Interpretation of the law with a f r i e n d takes on a d i f f e r e n t character when applied to someone who i s d i s l i k e d . In terms of personal interactions the RCMP appear to have polarized three sets of contacts; those attempting to avoid a l l contact.with the RCMP, those who are alienated from the RCMP and those who develop friendships with the RCMP. Even though these attitudes exist the RCMP are frequently c a l l e d on to act as an untimate 59 decision maker i n s e t t l i n g s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e issues. This role i s one the RCMP are hesitant to accept, f o r i t brings with i t a l l the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i l l s of externally set-t l i n g disputes. Welfare services, provided under the Dept. of Health and Welfare, are also recent a r r i v a l s to Ross River. Personnel of th i s agency are placed i n an awkward s i t u a t i o n f o r they have powers ranging from intervening i n cases of perceived c h i l d abuse by removing the c h i l d from the home to d i s t r i b u t i n g funds f o r food and housing to those who are believed to require such assistance. This dual role has an influence on personal i n t e r -actions. In one Instance a person may view the agency as i n t i -midating i n that t h e i r c h i l d r e n may be taken from them but on the other hand welfare may be viewed as a resource that may be tapped. The tapping of welfare resources has been i n e f f e c t since Indian A f f a i r s Branch a c t i v e l y began to p a r t i c i p a t e i n housing and grub staking of Indians i n the early 60's. It i s anticipated that welfare from both agencies has had an influence on- the ways i n which resources, necessary f o r food and she l t e r , which has i n turn reduced the extend to which Indian people are dependent upon the land. Such changes are expected to have i n -d i r e c t e f f e c t s upon personal interactions within the community. The competition f o r l i m i t e d resources s t i l l e x ists even though the sources of the resources has changed. The T e r r i t o r i a l Dept. of Public Works i s not involved i n 60 dealing with many community residents i n the course of perfor-ming i t s functions, nevertheless, t h i s Department influences the patterns of personal interactions i n Ross River. Construc-t i o n of a Public work depot i n 1965 bought with i t a crew of government employed equipment operators. Seven, steady employ-ees, and an addition seven to ten seasonal employees draw ap-proximately $80000 of the government money into the community. Seasonal jobs have been taken up by both White and Indian res-idents. The i n f l u x of a r e l a t i v e l y large" number of people em-ployed i n one trade and employing l o c a l s has Increased in t e r a c -tions among the employees and has lead to s o c i a l interactions involving these men regardless of t h e i r ethnic background. Mining exploration and development a c t i v i t i e s have been operating out of Ross River since the early '60's. Since t h i s time there has been a consistantly high demand f o r l o c a l labour during the summer months. The s i t u a t i o n at these times could be described as an employees markets since there i s a shortage - i i ? ' of men who are adept at working i n the bush. This demand has led to short terms of employment at high wages. These jobs most frequently go to Indian men. Leaving t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n the community when they take a job represents a departure from the more t r a d i t i o n a l pattern of hunting with larger domestic groups. Acceptance of these jobs has al t e r e d the arrangement of these groups i n the bush. The money brought into the com-munity by way of l o c a l employees also encourages people to re-6T main i n town where food and goods may be purchased. Increased labour demands of the mining sector and an insuf-f i c i e n t l o c a l labour pool to meet these needs has l e d to em-ploying "outsiders". During the summer the population of Whi-tes increases by approximately a hundred transient men and the Indian population decreases because of movement into the bush. These demographic changes have d i r e c t l y a l t e r e d patterns of inter-personal contacts i n the community. Recreation a c t i v i -t i e s expand to include the enlarged White population. The com-munity during the summer period projects a white image whereas i t becomes considerably more Indian i n character throughout the winter. Other organizations such as churches, postal services, l o -c a l stores and bars also influence the patterns of r e l a t i o n s between people. These may also be viewed as. exercising exter-n a l influences upon the community. The scope of t h i s p a r t i c u -l a r study did not encompass these elements d i r e c t l y although i t i s assumed that the presence of such organizations i n f l u e n -ces the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the settlement. Ross River: Regional P o l i t i c a l Interactions The l a s t stage of the community analysis examines the p o l -i t i c a l roles l o c a l i ndividuals and organizations play i n attemp-ti n g to influence government decision-making related to l o c a l 62 a f f a i r s . Because of the nature of the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l pro-cess i t i s necessary to examine how these i n d i v i d u a l s and or-ganizations i n t e r a c t with regional o f f i c e s as well as among themselves. Individuals, groups and organizations i n t e r a c t i n g , generally independently, with a large number of government and p o l i t i c a l agencies are bound to create situations which cloud •issues rather than lead to t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . The -following examples describe the p o l i t i c a l interactions which occur about two issues; housing and adult education. These two issues were selected because they were t o p i c a l and controversial i n a l l the communities included i n t h i s study. Both had high p o l i t i -c a l p r o f i l e s and involved a l l l e v e l s of government i n the Ter-r i t o r y . White residents of Ross River represent themselves p o l i t i -c a l l y as i n d i v i d u a l s or through Ross River Community Associa-t i o n . The choice of operating i n one or the other or both of these mediums appears to be l a r g e l y dependent upon the role the i n d i v i d u a l plays within the community; the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sensi-t i v i t y and commitment to the issue i n question, and the charac-t e r and temperament of the i n d i v i d u a l . Generally speaking, issues are handled through the Commu-nit y Association i f they apply to the community as a whole and i f the issues are not p a r t i c u l a r i l y sensitive to an i n d i v i d u a l . This should not suggest that there i s frequent., concensus, bet-63 ween White community members on how issues should be handled. Clear concensus seems to occur only when issues are s u f f i c i e n -t l y low key or when there are issues which have been c l e a r l y polarized between the community and various l e v e l s of govern-ment i n Whitehorse. In the second of the cases, indiv i d u a l s may attempt to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n both on t h e i r own as well as through the Community Association. Individual action was thought to be the most e f f e c t i v e means of creating change on a l l but those issues which were of such a general community nature that a person's motives would be regarded with suspicion by senior l e v e l s of government. The r i g h t of an i n d i v i d u a l to follow an independent course of action was sanctioned by the community at large i n cases where the i n d i v i d u a l was effected by an issue. A program with the objective of improving housing through-out the Yukon was approved by the T e r r i t o r i a l Council i n early 1 9 7 2 . A number of housing u n i t s , which would be subsidized on the basis of a s l i d i n g scale dependent upon income and family . s i z e , were to be b u i l t i n those settlements preceived to need new housing most acutely. A survey to determine the needs and demands f o r housing was conducted some f i v e months after.the introduction of the scheme and a f t e r some communities had been scheduled f o r housing developments i n 1 9 7 2 . Table 2 shows the r e s u l t s of the surveys assessments. Ross River was evaluated as having 64% of the houses i n the settlement i n poor condition, Community Housing S t a t i s t i c Table 2 Housing Conditions i n Rural Communities Ross Haines Pe l l y River Jnt. carcross:Carmacks T e s l i n Totals % of housing 57$ 64% 24% 28% 43% 16% Poor % of housing 33# 22% 22% 33$ 20% 4 l % F a i r % of housing 1% 14% 45% 33# 32% 35# Good Not stated 3$ 0% 9% 6% 5# 8% i n survey Average housing a quality Poor 1 F a i r 2 Good 3 Number of house- 30 55 54 42 60 7 1 holds surveyed % of population ' 95$ 76% 87% 74% 70% 89% covered i n survey 1 . 4 8 1 . 5 0 2 . 2 3 2 . 0 5 1 . 7 8 2 . 2 1 312 65 one of the poorest ratings of the communities studied. The introduction of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing scheme to Ross River was viewed as an issue by VJhite members of the community f o r two reasons; i t could lead to improved housing f o r some white residents and the pattern i n which the "houses were located could a l t e r the character of the community (see Pig. 2 f o r approximate l o c a t i o n s ) . Five i n d i v i d u a l s who were interviewed stated that they wished to obtain a house un-der the program. The schematic diagram, Pig. 3 , represents the contacts which have occurred about the housing issue. Cau-t i o n needs to be exercised i n reading these graphical represen-tations f o r they may make the situations appear more complica-ted than they actually are f o r they do not show the time span over which the contacts occur. The White people i n t h i s cate-gory a l l indicated that they had contacted the housing, adminis-t r a t i o n , by l e t t e r and/or i n person, to state t h e i r interests i n acquiring housing under the program. These people-said that they were concerned that they wouldn't get housing i f a l o c a l board consisting of those residents who also wanted a low cost house would determine among themselves who would .get housing. The reason given was that most of the people wishing housing were Indian and i t was f e l t that the Indian people, as a group, could and would monopolize the houses. Partly i n response to these fears of being locked out of l o c a l housing, these White people have appealed to the Department of Local Government i n 66. ROSS RIVER. INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 3 INDIAN...INTERACTIONS EXECU1 COMMITI FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! DUCAT 10 1 .- •' • : LOCAL SCHOOL PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT rfHITE RESIDENTS COMMU JITY CLUB YANSI ROSS R IVER . INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 3 WHITE. INTERACTIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITT1 o CD _ J CO < h-— z Di LU O 1 - I — — CC cC < CC CL. LU UJ I — Q DUCAT I O i LOCAL SCHOOL M I T E RES ID FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES HI co LU < 1— UJ — "XL CO •z. CO CC LU — • LU <_J CC s: 3: — o h- > 1— o r CO • O LU CC Z CO V NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! I . A . B \— 1 CO LU o£  11 col co CC z — 1 o LU o >| h-< < LU. _ J 3 >- col < z o CD CO LU LU c e o CO u . < u . — o WHITEHORSE ROSS RIVER MONS ATUS RES . BAND COUNCI INDIAN RESIDENT 67 attempting to ensure that they would get a house under the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase t,rogram. There was no i n d i c a t i o n , at any time,.that t h i s aspect of the housing issue was a i r e d i n the Community Association meetings. The issues were viewed as highly personal, and remained that way. The l o c a t i o n of l o t s and the proposed c l e a r i n g of a l l trees was objected to by the community association. This action was i n i t i a t e d by a smaller group of White people who were adjacent to the l o t s which were to be completing cleared and hence would be most adversly effected. In t h i s instance these people made personal appeals to the Commissioner and the Director of the Department of Local Government to ensure that the contractor, In c l e a r i n g the land, would leave as many trees standing as pos-s i b l e . In addition to the personal appeals, a p e t i t i o n to the Dept. of Local Government was c i r c u l a t e d among the settlement's residents to further strengthen the case against t o t a l l y c l e a r -ing the land slated f o r new housing. The p e t i t i o n was strongly supported by a l l sectors of the community. Individuals who p o l i t i c a l l y a l i g n with YANSI were of mixed o opinions about the housing program. While most f e l t that there was a l o c a l need fo r better housing and some wanted a house un-der t h i s scheme they also f e l t that the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Program was not necessarily the best way of meeting t h i s need. T e r r i t o r i a l and l o c a l branches of YANSI had hoped to dev-68 e l o p t h e i r own housing program so t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of the housing would be done mostly i n a l o c a s ba-s i s , keeping the money p a i d f o r housing developments w i t h i n the community. O b j e c t i o n s and recommendations about the housing scheme which arose from the l o c a l YANSI meetings were r e f e r e d t o the r e g i o n a l YANSI o f f i c e s r a t h e r than t o the Department of L o c a l Government. A respondent s t a t e d t h a t t h i s procedure was f o l -lowed because the suggested statement of a l l YANSI groups would c a r r y more p o l i t i c a l weight than d i s j o i n t e d statements from i n -dependent groups. I n d i v i d u a l s , who were members of YANSI and who took p a r t i n c r i t i z i n g the scheme a l s o a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o the Department of L o c a l Government f o r housing under the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase program. The f a c t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l would c r i t i c i z e the scheme on one hand then apply t o take p a r t i n the same program on the o t h e r was not viewed as i n c o n s i s t a n t . With the l i m i t e d nature of l o c a l housing r e s o u r c e s open t o the i n d i v i d u a l and the min-im a l extent t o which community r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e they can a l -t e r t e r r i t o r i a l d e c i s i o n s the most expedient course of a c t i o n i s t o attempt t o a c q u i r e housing under the program t o meet ba-s i c needs and, at a secondary l e v e l , attempt t o a l t e r e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n by which ever means are p e r c e i v e d t o be most e f f e c t i v e . In t h i s sense c r i t i c i z i n g the scheme, yet a p p l y i n g f o r housing under i t i s r e a l l y the only v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r those who 69 are attempting to make the community a better place i n xvhich they may l i v e . The Ross River Band Council strongly objected to the i n t r o -duction of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program. It did so on a number of bases. An externally introduced, cons-tructed and maintained housing program would draw l i t t l e i f any i n the way of economic a c t i v i t y into the band. The economic generative e f f e c t s of a large housing program would only be recognized by the community i f the program were handled l o c a l l y . Band Councils are allocated funds through the IAB f o r the ad-ministration of a number of functions, some of which deal with housing maintenance, and construction. External conduct of the housing program removes housing construction and mainte-nance .from the bands arrangements of f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The e f f e c t of t h i s i s a f a i l u r e to increase the net budget of the band which r e s u l t s i n l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y i n dealing with i t s diverse needs. Indian people interested i n accomodations under the housing scheme would be required to lease the house and l o t p r i o r to purchasing. .To Indian people,, paying f o r the use of land may well contradict the Yukon Indians proposals f o r a set-tlement of lands claims. U n t i l the issues are resolved such actions on the part of i n d i v i d u a l Indians are viewed as p o s s i -bly detrimental to the settlement of claims. White and Indian communities are geographically divided i n Ross River. Prom the Indian perspective t h i s aids i n ensuring the p o l i t i c a l and soc-70 i a l independence and s o l i d a r i t y of the Indian people. The housing, as indicated i n Pig. 2, w i l l be located within the white sector of the community. An Indian household which mo-ves into the area, i n e f f e c t , i s o l a t e s i t s e l f from the domes-t i c group of which i t Is a member. It i s thought that t h i s would further complicate the Band Councils attempts i n obtain-ing concensus and s o l i d a r i t y i n resolving issues related the Indian community. The Band Council expresses t h e i r discontent with the hous-ing program to the IAB and also to the YNB f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l support of c o l l e c t i v e grievences. They have not appealed d i r -e c t l y to the Department of Local Government i n attempts to change the housing program but.have rather rested t h e i r p o l i -t i c a l case with the Brotherhood. Individual Indian residents have applied f o r housing even i n spite of strong opposition from the band. A shortage of hous-ing, of a quality comparable to that available under the scheme, and the ri g h t s of an i n d i v i d u a l to select what i s perceived as the most appropriate course of action appears to be the basis upon which indivi d u a l s seek a house. These people have made t h e i r appeals d i r e c t l y to members of Local Government i n a man-ner which they f e e l w i l l y i e l d the best r e s u l t s . Many of the c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s which have developed about the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase program have been created, 71'. i n a large part, by the f a i l u r e of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government to seek the consultation and advice of l o c a l s . Such consulta-t i o n may have avoided some of the problems which have arisen i n the process of i n i t i a t i n g , formulating and implementing the housing program. The second set of issues have developed about adult educa-t i o n programs i n Ross River shown i n F i g . 4 . These programs have either been vocational t r a i n i n g such as a course i n min-ing exploration or teaching of basis s k i l l s such as reading and wr i t i n g . The f i r s t of these two types of programs are sup-ported by Canada Manpower and men who attend the courses are paid a supporting l i v i n g allowance. These courses have been conducted over the winters of 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 and 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 . The cour-ses were i n i t i a t e d , formulated and conducted i n an uneasy part-nership with the White and Indian people of Ross River. The i n i t i a t i o n phase was triggered by the Department of Vocational Education when they attempted to determine why men from the com' munity did not attend Vocational courses i n Whitehorse. The response, which represented the p o l l e d opinions of a l l unemplo-yed Indian and White males i n the community c l e a r l y indicated the necessity of developing a l o c a l t r a i n i n g program. Upon the basis of the p o l l , the Department of Vocational Education f o r -mulated a program f o r the community. The suggested program was not well received. The proposed course, carpentry, was of l i t -t l e i n t e r e s t and value to the men i n the community who, by and ROSS R I V E R . . . INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION ISSUES FIGURE k I N D I A N . . . I N T E R A C T I O N S GO MM I SS I ONE-R-FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENC1ES h- CO _J UJ < y-. 2 CO cu C£ UJ — • UJ o CC x: — o h- > h-c_> a: ce co • O UJ — cC 2 CO IE NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! I . A . B EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE DUC'ff I LOCAL SCHOOL! VHITE RESIDENTS C O M M U I RESIDENT COUNCI . no n o 73 large, had a f a i r idea of the type of t r a i n i n g that would lead to l o c a l employment. These sentiments were sent to Whitehorse . along with a r e j e c t i o n of the prescribed course and suggestion that a more appropriate course would involve truck d r i v i n g t r a i n i n g or prospecting. In response the Department of Vocat-i o n a l Education combined the two suggested subjects into one course c a l l e d mining exploration. Teachers were sought f o r the course. The jobs l i s t i n g spe-c i f i e d that the candidate should have academic and p r a c t i c a l experiences as well as a background of working i n r u r a l , eth-nically-mixed communities. Three or four men i n Ross River had the p r a c t i c a l f i e l d experience i n the subjects and were already i n t e g r a l parts of the community. On t h i s basis representatives of the community argued that residents should be given prefer-ence regardless of t h e i r weak academic backgrounds. Threats of boycotting the program and fears of uncooperative student-teacher r e l a t i o n s obliged the Department of Vocational Educa-t i o n to h i r e two l o c a l men. One man, who was a member of the white sector of the community, was h i r e d and given an intensive three week t r a i n i n g course. The opening of the course drew an unexpectedly large number of adults and i t became apparent that another teacher would have to be h i r e d . The second i n s t r u c t o r , who was Indian and a f r i e n d of the f i r s t , was hired on a tempor-ary basis. After two months of the program the Department of Vocational Education announced that they had contacted and 74 agreed to hire a second permanent i n s t r u c t o r . The adults who were attending the course had by t h i s time become a f a i r l y co-hesive group regardless of ethnic differences. The suggestion of replacing the Indian i n s t r u c t o r surprised and annoyed the group. They threatened to boycott the program i f any such change occurred. In the winter of' 1972-73 the second type of adult education program, a basis s k i l l course, was i n i t i a t e d . In the period, since the f i r s t mining exploration courses, the p o l i t i c a l char-acter of the community had changed considerably. YANSI had • come into existence and the Band Council had dramatically s h i f -ted i t s focus from i n d i v i d u a l , highly s p e c i f i c problems to broader p o l i c y problems. The e f f e c t s of t h i s p o l i t i c i z a t i o n process had been to further p o l a r i z e the ethnic sectors of the community. The Department of Vocational Education, i n r e a l i z -ing t h i s , presented t h e i r proposal f o r a basic s k i l l s program to a group consisting of executive members from a l l three l o c a l organizations. The meeting i t s e l f and the outcome of the meet-ing are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t since they represent the f i r s t s i t u a t i o n , to the knowledge of the author, i n which a l l three p o l i t i c a l bodies active i n the community have discussed commu-nity a f f a i r s i n consultation and cooperation with each other. The form of t h i s meeting w i l l be assessed i n terms of i t s a p p l i c -a b i l i t y as type at l o c a l government i n the f i f t h chapter of the t h e s i s . 75 The meeting was attended by about ten people. The Educa-t i o n people presented the p r i n c i p l e s of the basis s k i l l s p r o -gram which were discussed by a l l sectors. Questions were d i r -ected by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government people so that c o n f l i c t s were resolved at that point, i f at a l l possible. The net ef-fects were modifications to the program i n i t i a l l y suggested by the Department of Vocational Education and an acceptance and support of the revised scheme by each group which had, i n ef-. f e e t , become proponents of a program they had, i n part, devi-sed. The process of open consultation at the outset of the course ameliorated l o c a l problems and made f o r the smooth i n -troduction of a more acceptable course. The l o c a l school played a much more s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l r o le i n the f i r s t of these two courses. C o n f l i c t s were dicho-tonized between 'we', the residents of Ross River, and 'them', the Government i n Whitehorse. The school, which was responsi-ble to both, attempted to f a c i l i t a t e two way communications: The degree to which ethnic sectors were polarized i n 1969 was s u f f i c e n t l y low key to allow the school administrator to pre-sent the proposals and gather reactions f o r the Department of Education from a l l people i n the settlement without offending sensitive p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . The contemporary s i t u a t i o n ap-pears to make t h i s a much more d i f f i c u l t process. White members of the community have, by and large, been . 76 very receptive to both l o c a l adult education programs. Busi-nessmen interpret them as a substantial flow of c a p i t a l coming int o the community, to those involved i n the course i t means a steady income, and to those who were not d i r e c t l y effected by the program i t was seen as possibly providing future em-ployment to those who were currently unemployed In the commu-n i t y . White residents presented t h e i r grievances, a r i s i n g from the mining exploration course to t h e i r l o c a l councilor, the Commissioner, and the Department of Education i n person and i n l e t t e r . The executive and l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l s of the T e r r i -t o r i a l Government were contacted as a means of ensuring these requests to the Department of Vocational Education would re-ceive t h e i r attention. o Non-status Indian residents of Ross River have been organ-ized since l a t e 1 9 7 1 . YANSI members played an important media-- t i n g r o l e i n the l o c a l discussions held by the Department of Education i n reference to the basis s k i l l s programs. The eth-nic mix of YANSI allowed i t to play a r o l e i n these meetings somewhat analogous to a t h i r d party i n a minority government. The compromises which were worked out were agreeable to a l l . The Band Council's p o l i t i c a l r o l e has undergone major chan-ges over the period spanned by the two courses. In 1 9 6 9 , when i n i t i a t i o n and formulation of the mining exploration course be-77 gan, the Band Council was an organization which functioned primarily f o r the administrative benefit of the IAB. Few ac-t i o n s , beyond general statements of need f o r t r a i n i n g , and ac-cess to l o c a l jobs, were f o r t h coming from the Band Council. This s i t u a t i o n contrasts dramatically with the r o l e the Band Council played i n developing the basic s k i l l s course. The Ross River Council had, within a b r i e f period of two years, gathe-red a great deal of p o l i t i c a l strength through i t ' s a f f i l i a t i o n s with the YNB. Adult Education programs had been discussed bet-ween the Band, the YNB, and the IAB some time before the pro-posal f o r a basic s k i l l s program was made to the community. The p o l i t i c a l muscle gained i n having a close association with the Brotherhood has allowed the band to exercise considerable influence over externally made decisions. The Band Council now formally represents the Indian people of the Community. The IAB no longer deals with band problems on an i n d i v i d u a l band member basi s , but rather deals through the Band Council. This change appears to have been the r e s u l t of p o l i t i c a l pressures at the t e r r i t o r i a l and Federal l e v e l s of government. The IAB's dealing through the Band Council has subsequently increased the l o c a l importance of organization. Individual band members per-ceive that action through the Band Council i s more l i k e l y to achieve favourable r e s u l t s that independent action. There are exceptions are taken to t h i s , as c i t e d i n the discussion of the Low Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program. 7 8 P e l l y : Geographic setting P e l l y Crossing (Pelly) i s located along the P e l l y River where i t i s bridged by the Klondike highway, as shown i n Pig. 1. The Pell y v a l l e y i s wide and open i n t h i s area. Merchan-table spruce was available i n the v i c i n i t y of the community un-t i l 1970, when most of the accessible stands were destroyed i n a large forest f i r e , - Moose, caribou, beaver and other f u r bear-ing animals inhabit the r o l l i n g v a l l e y and have t r a d i t i o n a l l y provided the mainstay to the Indian hunting and gathering econ-omy, P e l l y : H i s t o r i c a l Overview McClelland (1964) types the early h i s t o r i c Indian people of the region as Western Tutchone, Pre-contact patterns of dom-es t i c and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s resemble those of the Indian people of Ross River, McClelland (1964) describes how European i n f l u -ences preceded the Hudsons Bay Co, into the area by alirtost a decade v i a T l i n g i t middlemen who traded between Russians along the P a c i f i c coast and the Tutchone and Kutchin. Robert Campbell b u i l t a Hudsons Bay post, Fort S e l k i r k , i n 1848 at the confluence of the P e l l y and Yukon Rivers, t h i r t y miles from the present l o c a t i o n of P e l l y . The T l i n g i t , who re-~ garded the Bay's presence i n the area as a threat to t h e i r trade monopoly over the region, destroyed the post i n 1851 and block-79 aded Inland movement from the coast u n t i l the gold rush In 1 8 9 b . The gold-rush brought with i t the development of a trans-portation network i n the Yukon. Tr a v e l , v i a the White Pass and Yukon River to Dawson created the demand f o r services and sup-p l i e s along the route. The population of Port S e l k i r k , which had reopened i n I 8 8 3 i n response to increased trade up the Yukon River, exploded to 5 0 0 0 people se r v i c i n g the t r a f f i c gen-erated by the gold rush. The decline of the gold rush obliged companies with subs-t a n t i a l investments i n the T e r r i t o r y to turn to other resour-ces. A r i c h f u r market provided an a l t e r n a t i v e and posts were opened throughout the Yukon. A post was b u i l t at Minto i n 1911 i n response to the change i n the region's economic base. Port Selkirk's population r a p i d l y declined, so that by 1911,only fort y people l i v e d i n the community (Duerden 1 9 7 1 ) . The period from 1920 to 19^2 witnessed l i t t l e economic a c t i v i t y i n the Yukon. Trading posts represented one of the few stable enter-prises during t h i s period. A mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p existed bet-ween the Indians and the traders dependent upon the exchange of furs c o l l e c t e d by Indian people f o r the commercial goods of the trader. - • Construction of the Klondike Highway i n 1950 increased the amount of goods shipped by land. Water transport was unable to 80 compete e c o n o m i c a l l y and by 1955 f r e i g h t i n g by r i v e r was d i s -c o n t i n u e d . P o r t S e l k i r k and Minto had r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a d e goods by r i v e r , and p r o v i d e d f u e l f o r r i v e r b o a t s . The d e c l i n e i n r i v e r t r a f f i c r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s u r e of both p o s t s . The I n d i a n communities a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these p o s t s were d e s e r t e d . The 1956 opening of a s t o r e , gas s t a t i o n , h o t e l and b a r , where -the -Pelly R i v e r was c r o s s e d "by the highway, a t t r a c t e d the In-d i a n p o p u l a t i o n from the d e c l i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t s i n the a r e a . Another h o t e l , s t o r e and gas s t a t i o n complex was opened i n the e a r l y 1960's t o c l o s e w i t h the death of the p r o p r i e t o r i n 1 9 7 1 . A day s c h o o l w i t h t e a c h e r accomodations were c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1 9 6 6 . P r o v i d i n g l o c a l s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s , as opposed t o send-i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , had e f f e c t s on the commu-n i t y s i m i l a r t o those i n Ross R i v e r . P e l l y : Demographics and Settlement P a t t e r n Census data c o l l e c t e d i n 1961 and 1971 shows t h a t " P e l l y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , from 137 t o l 4 l r e s i d e n t s . Twen-ty., of the l 4 l people i n P e l l y were e t h n i c a l l y White. A more d e t a i l e d demographic breakdown by age group and sex i s g i v e n i n Appendix A. Table 1 p r o v i d e s a comparison of p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i -b u t i o n by e t h n i c grouping f o r each community i n the study group. The p a t t e r n of the s e t t l e m e n t i s shown i n P i g . 5 . The hou-ses on I n d i a n lands i n d i c a t e d by the shaded area on P i g . 5 f o l -82 low a b l u f f overlooking the P e l l y River. The T e r r i t o r i a l lands 1 i n the settlement area were surveyed In 1968 with l i t t l e atten-t i o n apparently being given to e x i s t i n g patterns of settlement. One respondent noted that a survey l i n e was located so that i t cut through a neighbours's house. Appendix A outlines the ser-vice f a c i l i t i e s found i n Pelly and shows i t to be poorly s e r v i -ced -in -comparison with the other communities i n the study group. The highway i s central to the economic well being of the busi-nesses located i n the community. They are a l l located adjacent to i t i n order to obtain whatever business may be transacted by persons t r a v e l l i n g through. In t h i s sense P e l l y d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from Ross River. T r a v e l l e r s who come into Ross River, have done so i n t e n t i o n a l l y whereas people t r a v e l l i n g north - south along the Klondike Highway pass through Pelly i n c i d e n t a l l y on route elsewhere. Pelly; Internal Interpersonal Relationships S o c i a l d i v i s i o n , along ethnic l i n e s , exists i n Pelly but to a l e s s e r extent than i n Ross River, as indicated In respon-ses to interviews. A greater degree of economic inter-depen-dency binds the community; the sharing and exchanging of resour-ces has apparently reduced tensions in--.contrast to those which have developed between Indian and White'ethnic sectors i n Ross River. From t h i s perspective Pell y has more of a sense of com-munity than Ross River. 83 The Indian people of Pelly have patterns of domestic orga-n i z a t i o n s i m i l a r to those of the Ross River Indians. There seems to be d i v i s i o n among Indian people on the basis of t h e i r coming from Port S e l k i r k or Minto. The author was unable to determine the degree to which t h i s d i v i s i o n coincides with div-i s i o n amoung domestic groupings. Most Indian people i n Pelly spoke a Western'Tutchone d i a l e c t although there were Slavey, T l i n g i t and Kutchin d i a l e c t s reported to be spoken by some band members. Pelly i s much more of an Indian settlement i n i t s patterns of s o c i a l organization than Ross River. This seems to stem from the small White population, t h e i r dependency upon Indian trade, and/or t h e i r desire to remain i s o l a t e d from responsibi-l i t i e s which t y p i f y interactions i n larger White communities. Interpersonal relationships generally operate at a much more decentralized atomized l e v e l . Attempts to formalize a c t i v i t i e s and gather concensus about Band issues appears to have met with issues of personal importance on t h e i r own terms and i n the man-ner they f e l l w i l l produce the best r e s u l t s . Indian-White interactions follow patterns s i m i l a r to those of Ross River i n that two le v e l s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . However routine interactions are of a more personalized nature i n P e l l y . The Whites within the settlement are refered to on an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d basis by Indians and vi c e -84 versa. There appears to be considerably l e s s importance p l a -ced on the ethnic background of the i n d i v i d u a l than on his per-. s o n a l i t y . This s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s somewhat from Ross River where d i s t i n c t i o n s appear to be made more on the basis of ethnic back-ground than on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. White residents of Pell y do not appear to form cliques which are as s o c i a l l y competitive as those i n Ross River. The White people who were interviewed i d e n t i f i e d with small groups of f r i e n d s , vrhich i n some cases included members from both ethnic sectors. These groups were not seen as being p o l i t i c a l forces within the community. In terms of community action among White residents, many refuse to take part at a l l , claiming that they are i n P e l l y to avoid such community obligations and involve-ment s. Most White people, aside from the hotel owners, have l i v e d i n P e l l y f o r f i v e to ten years. The seasonal nature of l o c a l employment opportunities has resulted i n long periods -of unem-ployment f o r many, but nonetheless these people remain i n the settlement because i t provides a r u r a l atmosphere c h a r a c t e r i -zed by the minding of one's own business. The 'typing' of new comers i s a much slower process than i n Ross River. The community has, by and large, s e t t l e d i t s "peck-ing order," so that the need f o r 'typing' a person s o c i a l l y i s less intense. D i v i s i o n among Whites seems to be more a matter 85 of personality than occupations. P e l l y : External Influences on Interpersonal Relationship The small population, l i t t l e government involvement i n the settlement and the l i m i t e d econimic base of Pe l l y have resulted i n infrequent external influences on the community, but these factors also mean that the influences when they occour, have had substantial e f f e c t s upon the character of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s . The Band Council, as i n Ross River, was created by the IAB, to act as a l i a i s o n between the Band and IAB administration. The Band Council had been f u l f i l l i n g the ro l e since 1961 during which time the same man had held the chief's o f f i c e . His long standing acquaintance with a l l members of the band, his know-ledge of l o c a l problems and h i s approachability by both band members and IAB personel a l l resulted i n , what residents consi-der, an e f f e c t i v e tenure of o f f i c e (personal interviews). Dur-ing t h i s period, issues were treated i n a personal manner and the Band Council was there, not to change things i n the whole community, but rather to aid those i n d i v i d u a l s who wished as-sistance i n resolving personal issues. The YNB's a r r i v a l i n the community i n 1971-72 changed the character of these p o l i t i c a l arrangements. The s h i f t was from that of coping with problems on an i n d i v i d u a l basis to dealing 86 with issues on a c o l l e c t i v e "Indian" basis. The older chief resigned early i n 1972, arguing that his i l l i t e r a c y hindered his effectiveness i n dealing with the Increasingly important issues that were the subjects of the Band-YNB in t e r a c t i o n s . This r e a l i z a t i o n on his part, appears to have been encouraged by one of the young l i t e r a t e c o u n c i l l o r s who 'would l i k e to see yet greater changes i n P e l l y . D i f f i c u l t i e s have developed i n attempting to f i n d another chief who i s capable of dealing with people from both Minto and Port S e l k i r k with a s i m i l a r degree of cooperation. YANSI has had l i t t l e influence i n P e l l y . The three or four non-status Indian families are too small a group and too loo-sely organized to exercise a substantial p o l i t i c a l influence i n community a f f a i r s . The contacts which are generated through the presence of YANSI i n Pel l y are s u f f i c i e n t l y - l i m i t e d , i n comparison to Ross River; that they are perceived to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the community. A community club was I n i t i a t e d i n 1966 by a teacher i n P e l l y but went out of existence a year l a t e r when he l e f t . There ap-pears to be neither the i n t e r e s t nor a l o c a l l y f e l t need f o r an organization which could represent the needs of the community i n a c o l l e c t i v e manner. Pelly d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Ross River i n that P e l l y has comparatively few services and government employees. The 87 RCMP, School, and Public Works depot alone employ fourteen peo-ple i n Ross River whereas the P e l l y School, with two teachers, i s the only government employer i n the community. Because there are few government employees i n Pelly the governments external influence i s not as strongly f e l t , although the day school has, i n e f f e c t , reduced the t r a d i t i o n a l mobility of Indian people as has been the case i n Ross River. Locating a school i n Pelly has had the ef f e c t of a t t r a c t i n g other services, such as elec-t r i c i t y from a d i e s e l generator. Small sawmills have operated i n the v i c i n i t y of the s e t t l e -ment since the early s i x t i e s . During t h e i r winter cutting and sawing periods, the operations have drawn most of t h e i r crew from Pelly although some men are picked up throughout the Ter-r i t o r y . The winter camps accomodated some fa m i l i e s from P e l l y . The l a s t camp was closed when a major forest f i r e destroyed many good stands i n 1971. The logging, although short l i v e d , had an influence upon the men from P e l l y i n that they were ex-posed to and worked with others from outside the settlement. A r e l i g i o u s movement recently introduced i n Pelly whose i n -fluence was quite unlike the influence of the churches i n Ross River warrants discussion i n terms of the impact i t has had upon the patterns of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the community. The movement, appears to be an Indian adaptation of a Pentecostal denomination and advocates t o t a l abstinence. The Indian commu-. 88 n i t y divided among those who adhered to the r e l i g i o n , the "Christians", and those who did not, "the drinkers". The per-mancy of the "conversions" i s a moot point. Some had given up "the r e l i g i o n " i n the summer of 1972, only s i x months a f t e r they had been "converted". P e l l y : Regional P o l i t i c a l Interactions The differences between. Ross River and P e l l y are most pro-nounced i n the sphere of community-government i n t e r a c t i o n s . The presence of only one organized p o l i t i c a l body, the general acceptance of r u r a l privacy and independence, and low expecta-tions regarding government services have a l l combined to make fo r an atmosphere i n which p o l i t i c a l Interactions are avoided In P e l l y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r change re s t almost e n t i r e l y with the i n d i v i d u a l . Descriptions of the interactions r e s u l t -ing from housing issues or adult education programs, as shown schematically i n Figures 6 and 7 . are i n d i c a t i v e of the i n t e -rest shown i n the community's p o l i t i c a l Involvements. The need and demand survey conducted f o r the Low-Cost Ren-tal-Purchase Housing program indicates that 51$ of households i n Belly were assessed as poor yet only 50$ of the househol-ders wanted houses under the scheme, see Table 2. The Band' Council.have based t h e i r arguments i n opposition to the t e r r i -t o r i a l housing scheme along l i n e s consistant with the YNB and P E L L Y . . , INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 6 SETTLEMENT. . . INTERACTIONS COMMISSIONER EXECUTIVE COMMITTE4 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT o _l CO < I -— z CC LU O I— H -— Oi o£ < CC Q_ LU LU I— Q FEDERAL AGENCIES NORTHERN DFVFI OPMFN J L A . B EDUCATIC LOCAL SCHOOL WHITE RESID MTS NONl INDIAN RESIDENTS BAND COU giai|MI»mkMwm 90 P E L L Y . . . INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION ISSUES FIGURE 7 SETTLEMENT. . . INTERACTIONS COMMISSIONER EXECUTI 'C'OMM IT] FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AfiENCIES ID I AN RESIDENTS BAND COUNCILi 91 other Band Councils as described i n the section of Ross River. Nevertheless many band members have applied f o r the housing and l i t t l e , i n comparison with the Ross River s i t u a t i o n , has been done to persuade these people form taking the housing. Others i n the community, both Indians and Whites, did not wish to par-t i c i p a t e i n the scheme f o r i t represented a commitment to the government which they thought would r e s u l t i n an unacceptable loss of personal freedom. The Band Council has had l i m i t e d success i n a housing re p a i r and construction program they developed and conducted. Their annual report indicates that there have been no houses b u i l t over the past four or f i v e years and that a number of the ex- -i s t i n g houses were i n poor condition. A winter works program had renovated eleven of the houses but, because of poor quality materials, the repairs were not e f f e c t i v e . Repair and mainte-nance of housing seemed to be a main source of l o c a l employment f o r band members. ^ Most members of the band directed appeals f o r Improved or new housing to the IAB agent, who i s said to v i s i t P e l l y s e l -dom and when he does "has always got his foot on the gas, ready to go again" (personal interview). The agent generally deals with indiv i d u a l s d i r e c t l y rather than through the Band Council. Objections have been raised by the band administration and chan-ges, i f they occur, may increase the p o l i t i c a l importance of the 92 Band C o u n c i l . The i n i t i a t i o n and implementation of an ad u l t education pro-gram i n P e l l y bears l i t t l e resemblance t o the procedure f o l l o -wed i n Ross R i v e r . The T e r r i t o r i a l Government's view t h a t the mining e x p l o r a t i o n course which was conducted i n Ross R i v e r was a success, that the course had l e d t o employment, t h a t i t has added t o the s o c i a l cohesion of the community and that the peo-p l e of P e l l y \tfould p r o f i t from a s i m i l a r program r e s u l t e d i n the employment of the same two i n s t r u c t o r s t o conduct a s i m i l a r course i n P e l l y . There appears t o have been l i t t l e c o n s u l t a -t i o n w i t h the community i n any phase of the program. The school p r i n c i p a l discussed the course and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the community but, by and l a r g e , the program appears t o have been p r e s c r i b e d by the government t o cure some community i l l s which seem t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the economic m a r g i n a l i t y of the community. The program was a success i n terms of attendence however P e l l y r e s i d e n t s reported that only one man of the eighteen t a k i n g the course took a job stemming from the t r a i n i n g . 9 3 T e s l i n : Geographic Setting . T e s l i n i s located at mile 804 on the Alaska Highway where i t bridges N i s u t l i n Bay, as shown i n Pig. 1. The main s e t t l e -ment i s situated at the mouth of N i s u t l i n Bay where i t joins T e s l i n Lake. The Lake,,approximately eighty miles long with an average width of two miles, supports eleven species of f i s h , of which trout, pike-, whitefish and inconnu are the most com-mon. Poplar, b i r c h and spruce grow i n the lake v a l l e y , the l a s t of which occurs i n merchantable stands. The N i s u t l i n , . Morley, T e s l i n and Swift Rivers flow into the lake which i s drained by the T e s l i n River which i n turn flows i n t o the Yukon. T e s l i n : H i s t o r i c a l Overview Russian fur traders began trading with the T l i n g i t Indians of the P a c i f i c Coast i n the 1940's. The T l i n g i t s , a sea-faring people.with a highly organized and structured pattern of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , began to play a middlemen trading r o l e between the Apathacian Indians of the i n t e r i o r and the Russians of the coast (Krause 1956, McClellan 1964). The Tl°ingits movep up the Taku River from Taka Arm and crossed the height of land into the South T e s l i n River which flows north into T e s l i n Lake, a trade route of about 160 miles i n length. The Stikine Route which joined with the older T l i n g i t trade route along the South T e s l i n River was one of the many routes 95 taken by the stampeders of 1898 i n t h e i r pursuit f o r the gold of the Klondike. A community developed at the south end of T e s l i n Lake, centered about a HEC trading post and a small sawmill which produced lumber f o r boat construction. In the summer of I89B the population of the settlement Increased from s i x t y ; to three hundred with the a r r i v a l of an army detachment, the Yukon F i e l d Force, on route to a s s i s t the Northwest Moun-ted Police i n the Klondike ( T e s l i n Womens In s t i t u t e 1972). The equally rapid departure of the Klondikers l e f t a small trading community served by paddlesteamers. A new post opened near the mouth of N i s u t l i n Bay i n 1903 when the Bay post closed. Taylor and Drury opened a second post i n the area i n 1905. The settlement remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged u n t i l the construction of the Alaska Highway i n 1942. The highway improved access to the community and gave r i s e to the need f o r maintenance camps which, from 1942 to 1964 were operated by the Canadian and American Army and was the respon-s i b i l i t y of the Federal Government's Department of Public Works (DPW). The a i r s t r i p , b u i l t i n 1942 just north of the main s e t t l e -ment, as shown i n F i g . 8 has been operated by men who l i v e In the D.P.W. housing complex with the highway maintenance crews. A school has been operating i n the community since 1945 when the U.S. Army Highway Maintenance crews and residents of the 96 settlement shared the costs of providing a school and teacher f o r the community. In 1951 a school-teacherage complex was b u i l t and expanded i n i 9 6 0 to accomodate increased student en-rollment. A completely new school was constructed on Indian Lands i n 1 9 6 5 , Indicated on Figure 8, renovated i n 1967 and two add i t i o n a l portable classrooms were added i n 1 9 7 2 . ( T e s l i n Wo-men's In s t i t u t e 1 9 7 2 ) . A community h a l l , c u r l i n g rink complex was b u i l t i n 1966 using l o c a l volunteer labour which consisted of members from both White and Indian sectors of the community. T e s l i n : Demographics and Settlement Patterns T e s l i n has a population of approximately three hundred and fort y of which about two hundred are members of the T e s l i n Band. The age-sex breakdown of the communities t o t a l popula-t i o n i s given i n Appendix A. The map, F i g . 8, showing the settlement pattern of T e s l i n i l l u s t r a t e s some geographic patterns which d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n character from the patterns of Ross River or P e l l y . The In-dian and "town" sector of T e s l i n are clos e l y adjacent i n geo-graphic terms. There are no roads which divide Indian and Ter-r i t o r i a l lands. There i s , on the other hand, a d i s t i n c t geo-graphic d i v i s i o n within the white sector. The DPW compound i s almost a mile from the r e s i d e n t i a l and business areas of the 9 7 settlement. Businesses have developed along the highway to serve both l o c a l and transient t r a f f i c . The store, on the other hand i s located i n a p o s i t i o n c e n t r a l to the r e s i d e n t i a l part of the community. In comparison to Pe l l y and Ross River, Teslin. has high l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y that i s due i n a large part to an active summer t o u r i s t trade. The beauty of i t s l o c a t i o n enhances these businesses and the t o u r i s t dev-elopments have been placed to c a p i t a l i z e on these points. T e s l i n : Interpersonal Relations S o c i a l interactions are divided along ethnic l i n e s i n Tes-l i n as i n Pelly and Ross River, yet the attitudes related to t h i s d i v i s i o n d i f f e r from the two other communities.. The or-ganizational structure of T l i n g i t society, the lengthy resi-..-dence of both Whites and Indians i n the community and the long standing mutual dependencies which have existed between both sectors have been factors which appear to have resulted i n a more equable r e l a t i o n between sectors of the community i n so^-c l a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic terms. The s o c i a l organization of the T e s l i n T l i n g i t i s f a r more structured than that of the Tutchone. Krause (1956) describes the organization of bands i n the early 1900 's. Each band had systems of leadership which was related to the clan of the i n -d i v i d u a l and to his personal a b i l i t i e s and wealth. Bands had more than one chief of whom-one was considered the head. The 9 8 ; power of l e a d e r s h i p was l i m i t e d t o c o - o p e r a t i v e undertakings and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o u n c i l ; i n a l l o t h e r cases the fam-i l y head was f r e e t o do as he wished as long as i t d i d not In-f r i n g e upon the' r i g h t s of o t h e r s . The c o l l e c t i v e power found i n the band s t r u c t u r e allowed the T l i n g i t t o move i n t o the t e r r i t o r y of the h i g h l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d and atomized Athapaskans i n s e a r c h of f u r s t o t r a d e . . I n t e r m a r r i a g e s among t h e i r n e i g h -bours and a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the Athapaskan a l l o w e d f o r the main-tenance of i n l a n d T l i n g i t bands, such as the T e s l i n Band. I n d i v i d u a l s i n the T e s l i n band have adapted t o the changing c h a r a c t e r of the Yukon's economy without r e l i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r b a s i c I n d i a n h e r i t a g e w i t h more success than the I n d i a n people i n P e l l y and Ross R i v e r . Many have c a p i t a l i z e d on the t o u r i s t t r a d e by p r o d u c i n g and s e l l i n g h a n d i c r a f t s , such as snowshoes and mucklucks, or g u i d i n g hunters and f i s h e r m e n , others have taken jobs w i t h government and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s i n the com-munity. Some people i n the band have i n v e s t e d i n a game g u i d -i n g company owned by band members. Many In d i a n people run p r o f i t a b l e t r a p l i n e s through the w i n t e r t u r n i n g p a r t of t h e i r c a t c h i n t o h a n d i c r a f t s . Indian-White I n t e r a c t i o n s appear t o be more e x t e n s i v e and equable than i n Ross R i v e r or P e l l y . Routine i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t -ween e t h n i c s e c t o r s ' occur over a wider scope of a c t i v i t i e s i n a more c a s u a l manner. Fo r example, there are f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c -9 9 tions among a l l people i n the bar. The formality and s t i f f -ness found i n Ross River appeared to be absent i n T e s l i n . Friendships between Whites and Indians i n T e s l i n also ap-peared to be wide spread and intensive. Intermarriages occur more commonly i n T e s l i n than i n the other communities studied and some groups or cliques are made up of members from both ethnic sectors of the community. The pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n -teractions which crossed ethnic l i n e s seemed to express a pride i n t h e i r respective cultures, an attitude not as prev i l a n t i n the Tutchone Indian communities. White people have l i v e d i n T e s l i n since the gold rush and t h e i r population has been on the increase since World War I I . The established nature of a large segment of the white sector has added a s t a b i l i t y to community r e l a t i o n s found neither i n Ross River or P e l l y . Many of these people have businesses and homes i n the community and they have been active i n community a f f a i r s f o r many years. Cliques appear to be well established and memberships are f a i r l y c l e a r l y defined. Longer terms of residence i n the community are required before the newcomer i s considered as a permanent member of the community i n comparison with Ross River. This has given r i s e to a slower 'typing' of those who come into the community. Some White people i n T e s l i n stated that p o l i t i c a l and so-c i a l d i v i s i o n exists between the approximately sixty permanent 100 and f o r t y transient residents. Permanents, described as peo-ple who had made a commitment to the community by purchasing land and a home, were obliged to l i v e with the consequences of decisions made by transient residents, who are primarily gov-ernment employees. Some permanent residents have opted to drop out of community a f f a i r s , s t a t i n g that they f e l t that there was l i t t l e they could do to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n beyond keeping out of i t (personal interview). The geographic d i v i s i o n of the per-manent residents and the DPW compound have done l i t t l e to im-prove these r e l a t i o n s . Not a l l permanent white residents of T e s l i n perceive t h i s d i v i s i o n among Whites. Some view the community i n terms of f l u i d arrangements of in t e r a c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . These people, by and large have remained active i n community a f f a i r s . Some have commented on the changing s o c i a l character of the commu-ni t y g i v i n g such examples as the recent d i f f i c u l t i e s i n muster-ing volunteers to work on the new skating r i n k , a d i f f i c u l t y i n r a i s i n g volunteers which did not exist ten years e a r l i e r . T e s l i n : External Influences on Interpersonal Relations T e s l i n has been exposed to external influences since the early 1900's, making i t d i f f i c u l t to assess what changes have occured i n s o c i a l Interaction as the re s u l t of these impacts. The s t a b i l i t y of the community, however, indicates that these 101 influences have been accomodated without creating major d i s -ruptive e f f e c t s on the settlement. The development of a Band Council and subsequent strength-ening of the band organization with the p o l i t i c a l support of the YNB appears to have been adopted more r e a d i l y i n T e s l i n than i n the Tutchone communities. The Band Council seems to have used the c o n f l i c t s between the YNB and the IAB to t h e i r own benefit. The band demonstrates a l e v e l of economy auto-nomy not observed elsewhere. Resolutions sent to the IAB were followed by copies sent to the YNB. I f s a t i s f a c t o r y action was not received, followup a c t i o n , such as seeking the support of the YNB and the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r , was taken. YANSI has developed into a f a i r l y strong organization of about 3 0 members i n T e s l i n since i t was created i n 1 9 7 1 . A large population of non-status Indians with stong leadership has provided the basis f o r the increasing p o l i t i c a l strength of the organization. This does not appear to be creating a t h i r d p o l i t i c a l force i n the community as i t i s i n Ross River. Less s o c i a l and economic d i s p a r i t i e s between ethnic sectors, c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s across ethnic l i n e s and the broader repre-sentative base of the Community Club are factors which have given r i s e to the view that YANSI i s strengthening the commu-nity i n i t s r e l a t i o n s -with the T e r r i t o r i a l Government rather than creating a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s within the settlement. 1 0 2 The T e s l i n Community Club was created to promote s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the settlement but, by default, i t has assumed a number of administrative and l e g i s l a t i v e functions. Some members of the Band Council, YANSI members, people from the DPW compound and permanent white residents attend Club meetings. Over the past ten years, a c t i v i t i e s of the Community Club have generally r e f l e c t e d the Whites' preferences f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as c u r l i n g and dances. It has also been the sounding board f o r issues which involve the community with the senior governments. Government services such as the school, RCMP, Northern Health, MOT and DPW have been established i n T e s l i n f o r a long time r e l a t i v e to those i n P e l l y and Ross River. The residents of the settlement have adjusted to the presences of these agen-cies i n that the public functions they perform appear to be well integrated into the s o c i a l organizations of the respective ethnic sectors of the community. The major disruptive^ compo-nent appears to be i n the personnel employed i n these services. The r e l a t i v e l y transient nature of government personnel, t h e i r desire to get along well with community residents, and the div-e r s i t y of experiences t y p i c a l of mobile employees have been factors which, when considered c o l l e c t i v e l y , have led to t h e i r short term active involvement i n community a f f a i r s . This i n v o l -vement has been viewed with some skepticism by permanent white residents because, as one respondent stated, "we are the ones 103 that have to l i v e with and pay f o r the things the transients s t a r t " (personal interview). The impact of government services upon the Indian sector of the community has been less disruptive i n T e s l i n than i n Ross River or P e l l y . This i s possibly accounted f o r i n the differences between Tutchone and T l i n g i t s o c i a l organization. Settlement patterns do not seem to have been alt e r e d to the some extent by the presence of the school and the changing economic base of the community. T e s l i n : Regional P o l i t i c a l Interactions T e s l i n also d i f f e r s from Pell y and Ross River i n the types and extent of contacts i n d i v i d u a l s and organizations have esta-blished i n p o l i t i c a l i nteractions with senior l e v e l s of gover-nment. The lengthy tenure of many community residents, both White and Indian, the monthly and at times weekly contacts with government agencies and p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s , the proximity of T e s l i n to Whitehorse, and a close rapport with t h e i r T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r who v i s i t s T e s l i n on approximately a monthly basis„ have given r i s e to the attitude among T e s l i n residents that re-gional decision makers are approachable. However t h i s does not mean that people who approached these decisions makers f e e l they had an influence upon decisions. The study s'hows that 80$ of the people interviewed i n T e s l i n indicated that t h e i r In-puts had l i t t l e to no e f f e c t . (\oz ,((94 1 0 5 The Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Program, Needs and Demands Survey indicated that only 15% of householders were interested i n the program. The survey describes housing i n T e s l i n as generally i n much better condition than i n P e l l y or Ross, only 16% In poor shape and 4 l % i n f a i r condition as shown i n Table 2 . This may account f o r part of the low demand ex-pressed, but i t appears that the opposition of the Band, "YANSI and many members of the permanent White community also i n f l u e n -ced the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r decision to consider such housing. Figure 9 shows the types of contact between the community and the government about the issue of the housing scheme. The Band Council has viewed the t e r r i t o r i a l housing scheme i n the same way as the P e l l y and Ross River bands and the YNB, which was that i t would eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y of the band becoming involved i n building and maintaining t h e i r own hous-ing. Removing t h i s opportunity was seen as another step which would, i n e f f e c t , lock the band in t o p o s i t i o n of economic dep-endency upon the IAB. Band leaders have attempted to influence decisions related to the housing program by appealing to the IAB, with supporting l e t t e r s to the YNB. They have also made inputs to the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n cillor In hopes of changing the program to encompass other band objectives. The benefits of being involved i n l o c a l housing were i n part r e a l i z e d over the past year, when the band p a r t i c i p a t e d In a winter works program to renovate houses. Sixteen men from the band w7ere employed In TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 1 WE HE SE z X i - > TO - n > I - < o r 0 0 > H — • RE X CES —I TO m > CO c: TO -< o m O X 2 m 3 : o R.C.M.P. NORTHERN HEALTH SERVICES HISTORIC S ITES LANDS WATER YUKON FOREST SERVJ_CES IAB REGIONAL OFFICES o m TO > CD O > -n cr> m m o ~ZL m o TO — > m r~ co m O < 73 m —I r - oc O m T> TO 3: 2: CO 106 •mum TiihnrMWiiiyttsBainaa TESLIN... INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 107 the project. The l o c a l branch of YANSI has opposed the housing program on grounds s i m i l a r to those used by the band. The housing scheme, as i t has been described, w i l l eliminate the p o s s i b i -l i t y of YANSI acquiring working c a p i t a l and employing l o c a l members through t h e i r own housing program. YANSI has made i n -puts through i n d i v i d u a l members and the organization to the YANSI regional o f f i c e , T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n cillor the Commissioner and to the Dept. of Local Government. L i t t l e e f f e c t i v e feed-back was reported to be received by any, other than the T e r r i -t o r i a l C o u n cillor and the YANSI regional o f f i c e s . Members of the permanent White sector of T e s l i n have objec-ted to the t e r r i t o r i a l housing scheme on the grounds that i t a r b i t r a r i l y a l t e r s the character of the community i n terms of i t s settlement pattern. These objections have been expressed to the government by i n d i v i d u a l s and through the Community Club. Inputs have gone to the Commissioner, T e r r i t o r i a l Coun-c i l l o r and administrators of the Department of Local Government, the Department which was i n i t i a l l y responsible f o r the program. Guiding t r a i n i n g courses f o r game o u t f i t t e r s have been held twice i n T e s l i n . Unlike the mining exploration courses held i n Ross River and Pelly Crossing, these courses were f o r a l l interested Yukon residents. Those who were from outside T e s l i n were b i l l e t e d i n the settlement f o r the short period the course T E S L I N . 108 INTERACTIONS ADULT EDUCATION ISSUES sBBossEssasszasa FIGURE 10 SETTLEMENT. . . INTERACTIONS COMMU ^ I TY CLUB BANC COUNl jgggBSBBE j 109 was i n the community. Most of the course time was spent i n bush camps some distance from T e s l i n . L i t t l e , i f any, i n t e r -action with the community at large seems to have been encoura-ged or received. Adult education courses i n basis reading and writing s k i l l s and i n handicrafts have been attempted but with what appears to be l i t t l e success. The format f o r a basic s k i l l s program has usually been recommended by the Department of Vocational Education. Few enrolled i n the program and those that did were said to attend f o r only a short period. (Personal i n t e r -views). The handicraft programs have had more success. The courses are generally formulated by a l o c a l resident who tea-ches the course with assistance, upon request, from the Depart-ment's personnel. A beading course with p a r t i c i p a n t s from a l l sectors of the community was reported to have been quite suc-c e s s f u l . The Inputs about these programs have been kept at a r e l a t i -vely low key, most have been generated by i n d i v i d u a l s , most f r e -quently those i n s t r u c t i n g i n the course. Figure 1 0 indicates that the contacts generated about adult education issues have been r e l a t i v e l y simple when comparedJ to those i n Ross River. It seemed that the more sensi t i v e p o l i t i c a l Issues such as hous-ing generated a wider range of contacts than did the more "low p r o f i l e " issues. 110 Carmacks: Geographical Setting Carmacks Is located along the Yukon River where i t i s bridged by the Klondike Highway, as shown i n Pig. 1 . The confluence of the Nordenskiold and Yukon Rivers l i e s approx-imately a mile west of the main settlement, as indicated i n Pig. 1 1 . The settlement i s located on the f l o o d p l a i n of the broad v a l l e y of the meandering Yukon River. Carmacks: H i s t o r i c a l Overview The pre-contact Indians of the Carmacks area were Western Tutchone. McClelland ( 1 9 6 4 ) indicates that i t was through t h i s region that early T l i n g i t trade i n i t i a l l y extended out of the lakes of the Upper Yukon i n response to demands f o r fur from the Russian traders on the P a c i f i c Coast. Duerden ( 1971) reports that George Carmacks had b u i l t a trading post i n 1896 i n the v i c i n i t y of the contemporary set-tlement. The post provided a l o c a l center f o r f u r trade and served the t r a f f i c of the Dalton T r a i l , which followed the Nor-denskiold River. The gold rush affected Carmacks as i t did the other s e t t l e -ments on routes to the Klondike. There was a short burst of a c t i v i t y s e r v i c i n g the needs of the stampeders along the route. A f t e r the decline of the gold rush, the economy of Carmacks 111 s t a b i l i z e d more so than that of settlements such as T e s l i n or Fort S e l k i r k . The settlement serviced r i v e r t r a f f i c during-the summer and provided road house f a c i l i t i e s f o r those trav-e l l i n g along the Dalton T r a i l . Coal which was discovered and mined at Tantalas Butte approximately two miles northeast of Carmacks, was sold i n Dawson City and l o c a l l y f o r r i v e r steam-er s . A Taylor and Drury Trading Post opened along the south bank of the Yukon during the early 1900's. The population of the settlement remained small as i n d i c a -ted by G. Taylor ( 1 9 ^ ) who c i t e s populations of 32 i n 1 9 2 1 , and 16 i n 1 9 4 4 ; the community retained at l e a s t some of i t s residents throughout the period when other communities along the Yukon ceased to e x i s t . The construction of the Klondike Highway i n 1950 brought new l i f e to the settlement, changing i t s economic function from s e r v i c i n g - r i v e r t r a f f i c to s e r v i c i n g highway t r a f f i c . Increased production of the north, mineral finds i n the area and the development of a road from A n v i l mines which joins the Klondike Highway a mile north of Carmacks have a l l s t a b i l i z e d the community's economy. The Indian settlement, which v;as located on the fl o o d p l a i n along the south shore of the r i v e r , was moved to the north bank i n the mid 1950's because of health problems associated with periodic flooding, a threat which has since been reduced with 112 the construction of a dam on the Yukon River at Whitehorse. The movement of the Indian sector of the settlement to the north shore, where i t was less subject to flooding, was not followed by government agencies or private businesses from the settlement. As a consequence, the public services of the community and the White residents are separated from the In-dian lands by the r i v e r as shown i n F i g . 1 1 . Carmacks: Demographics and Settlement Pattern 'The population of Carmacks was given as 350 i n 1971 census of whom 250 are members of the Carmacks Band. This represents a steady population growth from ikti i n 1953 to 218 i n 1 9 6 1 , and 311 i n 1966 (Duerden 1 9 ? T ) . An age-sex breakdown of the 1971 community's population i s given i n Appendix A. An overriding consideration of the settlement pattern of Carmacks i s the extent to which Indian and White sectors of the community are geographically separated as indicated i n F i g . 1 1 . The business sector of the community i s located ad-jacent to the highway, south of the bridge. The school, t e r -r i t o r i a l maintenance depot, RCMP, and other government services are a l l clustered i n one part of the settlement. The community i s i n essence a l i n e a r settlement approximately two and one hal f miles i n length running along both sides of the Yukon Ri-ver. The loc a t i o n of businesses along the highway r e f l e c t s -114 the settlement's economic dependence upon highway t r a f f i c . Carmacks: Interpersonal Relationships A l l of the people interviewed i n Carmacks stated that the settlement was divided along White-Indian ethnic l i n e s . The Tutchone Indian culture and the divided character of the com-munity are s i m i l a r to that of Ross River and Pe l l y Crossing and r e f l e c t many features common to both of these. The patterns of domestic organization of the Indian peopl i n Carmacks was observed to be s i m i l a r to that of the Ross Ri ver Indians. The large population of Indian people l i v i n g i n a separate part of the settlement has reduced interactions across ethnic l i n e s , and encouraged the view that there are two d i s t i n c t settlements - one White and one Indian - to a greater extent than i n Ross River. '". White-Indian i n t e r a c t i o n occurs less frequently, and ap-peared to the author to be ' s t i f f e r ' and more formalized than i n Ross River and much more so than i n T e s l i n . These interac tions seemed to be based more on the 'typing' of an aggregate ethnic group rather than on the basis of the i n d i v i d u a l , as was observed to be the case i n P e l l y . White residents of Carmacks grouped t h e i r sector of the settlement into three general categories; the older residents 115 the t r a n s i e n t or government employees; and the independents. Ten of the f i f t e e n White respondents I n d i c a t e d t h a t they were not members of the c l i q u e s which r e g u l a t e d community a f f a i r s ; however, these same i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r e d a l l of those who had excluded themselves as a c t i v e members of these groups. The permanent groups expressed a d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the a c t i v e r o l e of the t r a n s i e n t s i n community a f f a i r s i n Carmacks, as i n Tes-l i n . D uring the p e r i o d of r e s e a r c h t h e r e were r e p o r t s of on-going c o n f l i c t s between these groups of the white s e c t o r , i n d i -c a t i n g t h a t the sense of community found i n T e s l i n was not p r e -sent i n Carmacks. Carmacks: E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e s on I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s The geographic s e p a r a t i o n of In d i a n and White s e c t o r s of the s e t t l e m e n t appears t o have been l a r g e l y due t o the e f f o r t s of e x t e r n a l a g e n c i e s . Moving the Indian p o p u l a t i o n a c r o s s the r i v e r was r e p o r t e d t o have been the i d e a of the IAB. supported by the C a t h o l i c Church i n Carmacks. T h i s move has q u i t e p o s s i -b l y added t o the s o c i a l d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the settlement more than any other r e c e n t f a c t o r . I t has been aggravated f u r t h e r by the l o c a t i o n of a l l government s e r v i c e s , such as the s c h o o l , on the "White s i d e " of the r i v e r , away from the m a j o r i t y of the s e t t l e m e n t ' s p o p u l a t i o n . As i n the other s e t t l e m e n t s d e s c r i b e d , the YNB has had the 116 e f f e c t of s t r e n g t h e n i n g the Band C o u n c i l ' s p o l i t i c a l r o l e wi-t h i n the community. The i n f l u e n c e of the YNB was not observed t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l t o a c t i n -dependently, which seemed t o t y p i f y a l l Tutchone i n t e r a c t i o n s . YANSI's presence was j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be f e l t i n Carmacks d u r i n g the summer of 1 9 7 2 . The h i g h l y fragmented c h a r a c t e r of the community's p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e appeared t o be c r e a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n i n g a t h e r i n g l o c a l support. The Carmacks Community C l u b , as i n the oth e r s e t t l e m e n t s , was i n i t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d f o r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , but by d e f a u l t became i n v o l v e d i n a f f a i r s r e l a t e d t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t . Respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t no I n d i a n people attended the meetings of the Clu b , not because they were bar-r e d from the meetings, but because they were not i n t e r e s t e d . I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were 'neither informed of the meetings nor made t o f e e l welcome a t the meet-ings they had attended a few years ago. The l o c a t i o n of government s e r v i c e s i n the sett l e m e n t has been an i s s u e of c o n t e n t i o n f o r some time. The l o c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s such as a swimming p o o l on the 'White s i d e ' of the r i v e r was viewed as i n e q u i t a b l e by the Ind i a n p e o p l e . One I n -d i a n respondent i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h of the White s e c t o r would ensure t h a t d e c i s i o n s such as t h i s , would con t i n u e t o go i n t h e i r f a v o u r as they have i n the p a s t , and 1.17 that the only solution was to duplicate services on each side of the r i v e r . In t h i s sense, every l o c a t i o n decision made by an agency, external to the settlement, perpetuates t h i s on-going c o n f l i c t which crosses ethnic l i n e s . Carmacks: The Regional P o l i t i c a l Interactions The highly p o l a r i z e d character of Carmacks has appeared to influence a l l p o l i t i c a l interactions between the settlement and senior l e v e l s of government. Government agencies, i n recogniz-ing the extent of the ethnic d i v i s i o n within the settlement, are apprehensive about accepting information which comes from one community source. As a consequence, a l l but one of the f i f t e e n white respondents said that t h e i r contacts with region-a l o f f i c e s had l i t t l e e f f e c t s , whereas three of the four band members interviewed indicated that t h e i r contacts had a mode-reat to favourable influence upon decisions of the IAB. Approximately 35$ of the households interviewed Irx the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Survey indicated an in t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. Of these 21 households, 10 i n d i -cated that they would l i k e a house located on the north side of the r i v e r , a request which could not be met under the terms of the housing program which s t i p u l a t e d that the housing was to be located on T e r r i t o r i a l l o t s . The condition of housing i n Carmacks, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 2, indicates that the greatest 118 proportion of houses i n the settlement were c l a s s i f i e d as poor. Figure 12 indicates the community-government contacts generated by t h i s housing program. The Carmacks Band Council argued i n opposition to the hous-ing, i n l i n e with the YNB stance, but with apparently only mod-erate influence upon band members, a number of whom indicated a willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program to members of the housing survey team. The Band Council reported obtaining as-sistance and advice from the YNB in. formulating a proposal f o r t h e i r own housing, which was sent to the IAB. Members of the white sector d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r opinions about the housing program. Some favoured the scheme and i n d i -cated so to both the survey team and to members of the Depart-ment of Local Government i n Whitehorse. One respondent who objected to the program said that he had " l e t the Commissio-ner know" that he was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the program. The housing program did not appear to be as s e n s i t i v e an issue to residents of Carmacks as i t was i n Ross River, appa-rently because no houses had been scheduled f o r the settlement f o r the f a l l of 1972. Adult education programs which have been held i n Carmacks have also been characterized by an ethnic d i v i s i o n among those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the programs. The Vocational Education CARMACKS, INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 12 INDIAN. INTERACTIONS SCHOOL PUBL fC WORKS DEPOT WHITE RESIDENTS COMMUNITY CLUB CARMACKS INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 12 NONSTATUS. . . INTERACTIONS CARMACKS INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 12 WHITE. . . INTERACTIONS WHITE R & fab Mill , 120 121 Branch provided instru c t o r s to work i n conjunction itfith a Local I n i t i a t i v e s Program grant received by the Band Council to cons--t r u c t a community h a l l . The in s t r u c t o r taught a carpentry course, using as a t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t , the construction of the h a l l ' s i n t e r i o r . Indian men were reported to be the only mem-bers of the settlement who pa r t i c i p a t e d In the program. Mem-bers of the Band Council, the YNB, the IAB, and representati-ves of the Vocational Education Branch worked out the arrange-ments f o r the course, as Indicated i n Pig. 13. Craft courses were reported to have been held by members of the White community. These were generally representative of the e f f o r t s of a small i n t e r e s t group and t h e i r lifespans were short, frequently not l a s t i n g the duration of the winter. Contacts with government agencies were reported to occur at a personal l e v e l i n these cases. Carcross: Geographic Setting Carcross i s located at the northeastern t i p of Bennett Lake where i t i s drained through a short r i v e r flowing into Nares Lake. The settlement i s located approximately f o r t y - v f i v e miles southest of Whitehorse, as indicated i n Pig.. 1. The Whitepass and Yukon Railway runs through Carcross, cros-sing the narrows at the northern t i p of Lake Bennett, as ind-icated i n Pig. l4. The settlement i s located at the junction 123 of four v a l l e y s . Two highways j o i n Carcross with the Alaska Highway, one near Whitehorse and the other at Jakes Corner, the junction of the road south to A t l i n , B.C. Carcross: H i s t o r i c a l Overview The Tagish Indian inhabited the Carcross region p r i o r to the period of White contact. McClelland ( 1 9 5 0 ) describes trade patterns between the Tagish and the T l i n g i t on the coast which predated the a r r i v a l of the Russians i n the mid 1 7 0 0 ' s . She describes these interactions as T l i n g i t dominated; the Tagish tended to become b i l i n g u a l , almost giving up t h e i r own tongue as trade i n t e n s i f i e d ; the Tagish adopted the T l i n g i t s o c i a l organization; and the Tagish were overcharged f o r goods f o r which they, i n turn, overcharged the i n t e r i o r Athapaskans. The Tagish, as with other Athapaskan groups, were probably semi-nomadic moving with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of food resources. It i s l i k e l y that some type of temporary settlement ocpured i n the area of Carcross f o r food gathering as well as trade. -The narrows between the two lakes was reported as the area where caribou crossed the lakes, hence the o r i g i n a l name of the settlement; Caribou Crossing. • The same narrows was also reported as a good f i s h i n g area during the periods f i s h migra-ted from one lake to the other. Permanent White settlement at Carcross developed \tfith the 124 gold rush of 1898 and the advent of the Whitepass and Yukon Railway i n 1 8 9 9 . Carcross developed as a service center f o r Conrad Mine located on Windy Arm of Tagish Lake and a break of mode point f o r mining a c t i v i t i e s going to A t l i n , B.C. Docks, located i n the narrows adjacent to the railway, served steam-ers supporting the mining a c t i v i t i e s to the south. A large mink farm which operated from about 1910 to the early 1930's i n conjunction with r a i l a c t i v i t i e s kept Carcross active during the period most of the settlements i n the T e r r i -tory declined. Tourist trade had developed i n conjunction with r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . A "turnabout tour" took passengers from Skag-way across the Whitepass to Carcross and back again. Carcross, as the turnabout point, served meals and sold goods to the t o u r i s t s . Indian people, primarily Tagish and T l i n g i t , were attracted to s e t t l e i n the area because of the amenities available at the Carcross Post. Their pattern of l i v i n g was s i m i l a r to'the Tut-chone i n that they spent the largest portion of t h e i r time i n the bush, v i s i t i n g the settlement f o r a small part of the year, eventually b u i l d i n g homes about the town s i t e and most recently spending the greatest part of t h e i r time i n the settlement. Government f a c i l i t i e s , such as a school, have been situated i n the settlement p r i o r to World War I I . A road north to White-horse was b u i l t alongside the Skagway-Whitehorse o i l p i p e l i n e 125 and a road maintenance depot was opened i n the settlement i n the e a r l y 1 9 5 ° 's. A community h a l l and c u r l i n g r i n k were b u i l t i n the 1960's w i t h the i n t e n t of s e r v i n g both White and Indian s e c t o r s of the community. Carcross: Demographics and Settlement Patterns The p o p u l a t i o n of Carcross has remained q u i t e s t a b l e s i n c e the e a r l y 1900»s, w i t h populations of 165 i n 1 9 1 1 , 113 i n 1 9 2 1 , 184 i n 1 9 5 1 , 175 i n 1961 and 188 i n 1971 census (Duerden 1 9 7 1 ) . Indian people c o n s t i t u t e approximately one hundred of the 188 r e s i d e n t s counted i n 1 9 7 1 . The age-sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community's p o p u l a t i o n are shown i n Appendix A. The p a t t e r n of the s e t t l e m e n t , i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 14, shows Carcross t o be more compact than any of the other settlements Included i n the study. The Indian s e c t o r of the settlement, as i n most of the other communities examined, i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y separated from the White and business s e c t o r of the settlement. , The southern shore of the narrows, shown as a shaded area In F i g . 14, i s land which has been set aside by the F e d e r a l Govern-ment f o r Indian use. There i s no d i s t i n c t government compound i n the settlement. Most of the houses are s q u a t t i n g on crown land along the northern shore. Some of these b u i l d i n g s were reported to have been b u i l t here before the community was sur-veyed and before requirements regarding the d i s t a n c e a s t r u c -ture should be placed back from a body of water were enforced. 126 A l a r g e area west of the s e t t l e m e n t was surveyed i n the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 fs t o accomodate an a n t i c i p a t e d growth of the settlement i n response t o two mines d e v e l o p i n g In the a r e a . T h i s a r e a i s covered by u n d u l a t i n g sand dunes which are c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g from the s t r o n g p r e v a i l i n g n o r t h e r l y winds o f f Lake Bennett. The commercial s e c t o r i s t i g h t l y c l u s t e r e d about the r a i l -way depot area although another development, a gas s t a t i o n , mo-t e l and bar has opened near the j u n c t i o n of the T a g i s h Road and the Whitehorse Highway i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t r a f f i c itfhich w i l l be generated i f the Whitehorse Highway i s extended t o Skagway as proposed by the F e d e r a l Government. C a r c r o s s : I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s Seventy p e r c e n t of the respondents from C a r c r o s s r e p o r t e d t h a t the community was d i v i d e d along r e l i g i o u s as w e l l i a s e t h -n i c l i n e s . The r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n , a l t h o u g h l e s s apparent than e t h n i c d i s t i n c t i o n s , was s a i d t o apply t o both White and I n d i a n s e c t o r s of the s e t t l e m e n t . These d i v i s i o n s have r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h l y fragmented community, c l o s e i n p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y but independent i n i n d i v i d u a l and group a c t i o n s . T h i s independence has furthermore been f a c i l i t a t e d by the presence of Whitehorse; l e s s than an hour away by road and a ready source of e n t e r t a i n -ment f o r C a r c r o s s r e s i d e n t s . Ready access t o Whitehorse has allowed people t o l o o k o u t s i d e of t h e i r community f o r r e c r e a - -127 t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n which i s not f e a s i b l e i n the other communi-t i e s i n which residents often turn t h e i r energies i n t o the set-tlement f o r t h e i r own recreation. The Tagish Indian people of Carcross have adopted much of the T l i n g i t ' s s o c i a l organization yet they d i f f e r from the Tes-l i n Band .in that there appears to be less unity within the Car-cross Band. Three band members reported that the d i v i s i o n among the group resulted from d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s views which most commonly found expression i n the drinking patterns of the i n d i v i d u a l . The Baptist and Bahai members abstain completely whlla the others drank. Indian-White interactions are s i m i l a r to those of T e s l i n i n that they are informality yet d i f f e r i n that they are quite atomized. F a i r l y extensive interactions have developed bet-ween the stable White population, many of whom have l i v e d i n the settlement f o r more than f i f t e e n years and the resident Indian population. A number of marriages have crossed ethnic l i n e s as i n T e s l i n . Routine i n t e r a c t i o n across ethnic l i n e s are commonplace, p a r t l y due to the compact nature of the com-munity . White people have l i v e d i n Carcross since the early 190.0's, some of whom s t i l l l i v e i n the settlement. The White sector has,been divided into older permanent residents, the government 128 employees o r t r a n s i e n t s and t h o s e who remai n independent from community a f f a i r s as i n t h e o t h e r " o l d e r " s e t t l e m e n t s . T h i s breakdown i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d a l o n g r e l i g i o u s l i n e s so t h a t p o l -i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e White s e c t o r of t h e community a r e complex and h i g h l y f r a g m e n t e d . Respondents e x p r e s s e d t h e same t y p e s of re s e n t m e n t s about t h e p e r m a n e n t - t r a n s i e n t con-: f l i c t s as were v o i c e d i n T e s l i n . C a r c r o s s : E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e s on I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s The e f f e c t s o f e x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s because o f t h e l e n g t h of time t h e s e t t l e m e n t has been exposed t o t h e s e i m p a c t s . Some of t h e more contemporary changes were r e p o r t e d o r o b s e r v e d t o have had an e f f e c t upon t h e s o c i o - p o l -i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f C a r c r o s s . The i n c r e a s i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h of t h e YNB appears t o have c r e a t e d few b e n e f i t s f o r t h e C a r c r o s s Band i n co m p a r i s o n w i t h c o u n c i l s i n the o t h e r f i v e s e t t l e m e n t s . L e a d e r s h i p p r o b -lems have p l a g u e d t h e Band, I n d i a n a f f a i r s a g e n t s s t i l l d e a l w i t h band members l a r g e l y on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , f r e q u e n t l y w i t h o u t even s e e i n g t h e c o u n c i l members and I n d i a n r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d antagonisms w h i c h e x i s t e d between members of t h e c o u n c i l and t h e YNB. Two band members s t a t e d t h a t t h e y s t i l l went ' d i r -e c t l y t o t h e IAB, f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o work t h r o u g h t h e c o u n c i l and t h e YNB was even more f u t i l e t h a n g o i n g d i r e c t i n g t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w ) . 1 2 9 YANSI has developed into a strong association of approxi-mately twenty active members which i s beginning to occupy a key p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the settlement. The highly fragmented character of both White and Indian sectors of the community has created a p o l i t i c a l vacuum YANSI appears to be f i l l i n g . Be-cause of t h e i r dual ethnic a l l e g i e n c e , they have been able to i n t e r a c t across ethnic l i n e s playing a mediating r o l e between sectors as well as have the e f f e c t of encouraging greater coo-perative interactions within these sectors. Executive members of the Carcross Community Club said that the organization had become almost inoperative at times because of p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s which existed among i t s membership. One respondent went as f a r as to say that the club was there only as a p o l i t i c a l forum f o r l o c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Nev.etheless a survey of the club's proceedings indicated that the organiza-t i o n s , although r e c r e a t i o n a l i n design, had been administrative i n p r actice with only few successes i n influencing the way i n which the settlement i s administered. Government services such as the school and RCMP have been located i n the community fo r some time and have become r e l a t i v -e l y well integrated into community a f f a i r s . The reopening of the Carcross Residential school promises to introduce some ' changes into the settlement but any comment regarding the d i r -ection or extent would be highly speculative at t h i s stage. 1 3 0 The l a s t set of externally generated Impacts to be conside-red i s related to mining. This has possibly had the greatest single influence upon the community i n the l a s t ten years. Two mines near Carcross were discovered, developed, opened, opera-ted and closed over t h i s time period. Each mine brought with i t a boom i n the l o c a l economy characterized by increased land speculation, increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of transients i n community a f f a i r s . The busts following trie mine closures were characte-r i z e d by a surplus labour pool, surplus service f a c i l i t i e s and to a l i m i t e d extent a reduction i n community a f f a i r s . The set-tlement appears to have weathered these changes f a i r l y w e l l , possibly because many of the changes which accompanied the peo-ple who came i n with the boom also l e f t when the mines shut down. Carcross: Regional P o l i t i c a l Interaction The r e l a t i v e l y short distance between Whitehorse and Car-cross appears to have had as many disadvantages as advantages in the interactions between the community and the senior govern-ments i n the Yukon. A l l but three of the fourteen respondents from the settlement reported that people In the community s e l -dom saw the T e r r i t o r i a l Councilor for t h e i r constituency even though he l i v e d i n Whitehorse. One person expressed the view that the government f e l t that most of Carcross needs could be met i n Whitehorse, a view which has created a dependency upon 131 the r e s o u r c e s of the r e g i o n a l c e n t e r . N i n e t y - f i v e percent of the C a r c r o s s respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t t h a t t h e i r i n p u t s t o s e n i o r l e v e l s of government had s l i g h t t o no e f f e c t on the ways i n which d e c i s i o n s were made. The Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t approximately f o r t y p ercent of the households sampled were i n -t e r e s t e d i n housing under the scheme. The q u a l i t y of housing as assessed by the survey team and shown i n T a b l e 2 , i n d i c a t e s 29% of the houses are i n poor shape. F i g u r e 15 i l l u s t r a t e s the types and extent of the c o n t a c t s which have developed about the housing program. The T e r r i t o r i a l Housing program appears t o have been b e t t e r r e c e i v e d i n C a r c r o s s than any other s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s acceptance appears t o l i e , In p a r t , w i t h the support g i v e n t o the program by an e x e c u t i v e member of YANSI who was a l s o a member of the housing survey team. The C a r c r o s s Band C o u n c i l appears t o be the only c o u n c i l which d i d not o b j e c t t o the program and attempt t o keep band members from p a r t i c i p a t i n g . A c o u n c i l member s a i d t h a t the housing needs of the Indian people of C a r c r o s s had not been met through the e f f o r t s of e i t h e r the IAB or YNB and he viewed the program as a way of meeting t h i s need. S i m i l a r l y members of the white s e c t o r of the settlement 132 5^935 15? CARCROSS. INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 15 NDIAN. INTERACTIONS COMMISSIONER EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TREASURY INFO. SERVICES o CD _J to < h-— 2 CC LU o z: i - t-— or a: < cc a. LU LU HEALTH WELFARE REHAB. EDUCATIC FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES zn t— CO _ i LU < h-nz co •z to <_) CL. CC LU — • LU <_) CC HZ — o . (- > f-CC CC co O LU — CC 2 CO NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! I .A . B — •5 LOCAL SCHOOL PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT WHITE RESIDENTS COMMU hi I TY LUB 13g FIGURE 15 W H I T E . . . I N T E R A C T IONS FEDERAL AGENC I ES HI CO L U < L U — CO . z: to CJ QL. CC L U — . L U (_> CC in — o . I- > 1 — o or cc CO O L U 2 CO NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! I .A . B CO Q I— < < •z. o .o _u 3 CO I — L U CD CO C J I L U L U — I p > — ^ a: I m u. L U < LL. >- CO — o WHITEHORSE CARCROSS NONSTATUS Y A N S I . R E S . BAND COUNCI INDIAN RESIDENTS 133 viewed the program as a way of meeting the needs of some r e s -i d e n t s f o r housing. Pew o b j e c t i o n s were v o i c e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h respondents and those i n t e r e s t e d i n housing under the scheme i n d i c a t e d they had expressed t h e i r i n t e n t t o p a r t i c i -pate t o the housing survey team and they would c o n t a c t the Department of L o c a l Government when the time was a p p r o p r i a t e . C r a f t s program was the only a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program r e p o r -t e d t o have been conducted i n C a r c r o s s . A l a c k of i n t e r e s t r e s u l t e d i n a short l i f e t o the course. Contacts were gener-a t e d at a p e r s o n a l l e v e l between members of the V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Branch and the l o c a l I n s t r u c t o r who was t o run the program. P i g . 16 i n d i c a t e s the extent of the community-gov-ernment i n t e r a c t i o n s and shows them t o be r e l a t i v e l y simple i n c ompairison w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n s generated i n Ross R i v e r about s i m i l a r i s s u e s . 134 C A R C R O S S . . . INTERACTIONS ADULT EDU( tA-T-'^11—'-<^I.I.CC_ FIGURE 16 SETTLEMENT. . . INTERACTIONS COMMISSIONER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AGENCIES X 1- CO _ l LU < 1— LU — X z CO (_> CL. CC LU — • LU O X — o . 1— > 1— CC CC co • O LU — CC Z CO X NORTHERN T DEVELOPMENT! I . A . B EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TREASURY o CD — z CC LU o 2: I— h-— CC CC < CC CL. LU LU \— Q INFO. SERVICES co Q or LU CO LU O CC LU co < Z o CD CO LU LU CC O CO U_ < U-HEALTH WELFARE REHAB. LOCAL GOVT. EDUCATIO LOCA SCHOfl PUBLIC WORKS WHITEHORSE CARCROSS PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT 135 Haines Junction: Geographic Setting Haines Junction i s located along the north bank of the Dezadeash River at the junction of the Haines Road and the Alaska Highway. Kluane Game preserve, which has recently become a national park, l i e s to the south and to the west of the two highways. Large and rugges mountains, the edge of the St. E l l a s range also borders the settlement to the south and west. • '• ' The community i s one hundred ten miles from Whitehorse and one hundred for t y miles from tidewater at Haines, Alaska. Haines Junction: H i s t o r i c a l Overview Haines Junction area does not appear to have been t e r r i t o -r i a l l y dominated by one group of Indian people during .the pre-contact period. T l i n g i t s undoubtly moved through the region, although areas to the east, near A i s h i k i k Lake were more esta-blished trade routes with more abundant and diverse food sup-p l i e s . Tutchone and Tagish also have inhabited the region. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e (McClelland, 1964; Osgood, 1936) . and discussions with respondents, indicate that the area was highly t r a n s i t o r y , and was most recently s e t t l e d by the T l i n g i t during the gold rush. Canyon, the nearest settlement to Haines Junction, develo-136 ped around a road house along the Kluane wagon road which was b u i l t to provide access to mining areas on the southern end of Kluane Lake. The construction of the Alaska Highway i n 19^2 resulted i n the closure of the road houses and the development of settlements at other nodes. The Junction of the Haines Road, which ran p a r a l l e l to an o i l p i p e l i n e , with the Alaska highway was an i d e a l l o c a t i o n for a communication and transportation s e r v i c i n g center. The settlement of Haines Junction i n i t i a l l y developed to provide those services. As highway t r a f f i c increased a f t e r the war, the settlement began to develop t o u r i s t oriented services to the extent that Duerden (1971) estimated that six t y percent of the community's labour force was employed i n highway main-tenance and t o u r i s t services i n 1963. Haines Junction was predominately a White community through-out the f o r t i e s and early f i f t i e s . It was only i n the mid f i f -t i e s that a permanent Indian population began to live~"in the v i c i n i t y of the settlement, when land to the east of the com-munity was reserved f o r Indian use, as shown i n Pig. 17. White residents, during t h i s period of the community's development, were generally employed by the government as Army road mainte-nance crews, c i v i l servants working on the p i p e l i n e or provid-ing community services. Some of these people have'remained i n the community and taken up other businesses a f t e r leaving the 137 government. An experimental farm operated by the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was developed and operated from the l a t e 1950's t o 1 9 7 0 . The farm, l o c a t e d t h r e e m i l e s west of Haines Junc-t i o n , was phased out i n the F e d e r a l Government's attempt t o c e n t r a l i z e n o r t h e r n farming o p e r a t i o n s i n Beaverlodge, A l b e r t a . The f a c i l i t i e s were f i r s t a s s i g n e d t o the Yukon F o r e s t S e r v i -c e s , then, i n 1 9 7 2 , became park headquarters f o r the new Kluane N a t i o n a l Park. From the outset of Haines J u n c t i o n ' s development, i t s r e s -i d e n t s have shown an independent c h a r a c t e r . They have b u i l t t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , c r e a t e d a c t i v e s e r v i c e org-a n i z a t i o n s , generated a v a r i e t y of ongoing community a c t i v i -t i e s and i n the words of one respondent, "learned how t o do a l o t of t h i n g s by bucking Whitehorse and l e a r n i n g from the t r a n s i e n t government employees d u r i n g t h e i r s tay i n the commu-n i t y " ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w ) . Haines J u n c t i o n became a L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t (LID) i n 1 9 6 8 , Under the LID o r d i n a n c e , an e l e c t e d board of three t r u s t e e s a d m i n i s t e r the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of community s e r v i c e s and recommend t o the T e r r i t o r i a l Government c a p i t a l requirements r e l a t e d t o community s e r v i c e s . Appendix B con-t a i n s the r e v i s e d LID ordinance as ammended i n the 1972 f a l l s e s s i o n of the T e r r i t o r i a l L e g i s l a t u r e . 138 One of the most re c e n t and p o s s i b l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t changes r e l a t e d t o the s e t t l e m e n t occured when the F e d e r a l Gov--ernment de s i g n a t e d much of the Kluane Game Reserve as a N a t i o -n a l Park. A number of respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a c t i o n had been a n t i c i p a t e d f o r some time and t h a t i t was r e g r e t a b l e t h a t i t hadn't happened sooner. With the i n t e n t of d e v e l o p i n g Haines J u n c t i o n as the main s e r v i c e area f o r the N a t i o n a l Park, both F e d e r a l and T e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s of government have commit-te d themselves t o making the settlement a 'show, p i e c e ' . As a r e s u l t , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e which had not been a v a i l a b l e to most s m a l l communities i n the T e r r i t o r y , had been made a v a i l -a b l e t o Haines J u n c t i o n . Haines J u n c t i o n : Demographic and Settlement P a t t e r n s Census data shows an abrupt i n c r e a s e from s e v e n t y - f o u r people i n 1956 t o 187 i n 1 9 6 1 . The p o p u l a t i o n remained f a i r l y s t a b l e over the subsequent t e n y e a r s . The 1971 census^ shows the p o p u l a t i o n of the settlement t o be 1 9 9 , of which an estim-ated f i f t y are I n d i a n people who l i v e i n Haines J u n c t i o n year round. A more d e t a i l e d breakdown of the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e -r i s t i c s by age and sex i s g i v e n i n Appendix A. The s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n of Haines J u n c t i o n i s shown i n F i g . 17. The commercial area runs p a r a l l e l t o the A l a s k a Highway and the b u l k of r e s i d e n t i a l development i s s i t u a t e d t o the east of t h i s zone; however, sewer and water f a c i l i t i e s have T4-0 been p r o v i d e d f o r the b l o c k s west of the highway and a crew, working f o r R u s s e l l s T r a n s p o r t , r e c e n t l y moved i n t o t h i s a r e a . The T e r r i t o r i a l Government compound (as. on P i g . 17) c o n t a i n s garages and q u a r t e r s f o r employees. The D i r e c t o r of L o c a l Government and a T r u s t e e s t a t e d t h a t the LID boundary which d e l i n e a t e s the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board of T r u s t e e s was arb-i t r a r i l y drawn I n t e n t i o n a l l y t o exclude I n d i a n l a n d s . Appen-d i x A a l s o d e s c r i b e s the s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n Haines J u n c t i o n and shown t h a t the community, on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s , has a l e v e l of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and economic v i t a l i t y whith was much h i g h e r than any of the other communities s t u -d i e d . Haines J u n c t i o n ; I n t e r n a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s The g e n e r a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of Haines J u n c t i o n d i f f e r s from the other communities s t u d i e d i n t h a t the White s e c t o r of the community has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r some time, and t h a t the I n d i a n people who are r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t r e s -i d e n t s of the settlement and appear t o have had a l e s s s i g n i -f i c a n t c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e upon the community. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the I n d i a n and White s e c t o r of the community are c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t , a d i f f e r e n c e which Is r e f l e c t e d i n the d i v e r g e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s of the members of each group. The Champagne/Aishihik band membership i s s c a t t e r e d between A i s h i h i k , Champagne, Canyon Creek, S i l v e r Creek, Kloo Lake and Kluskshu with the band o f f i c e s and main v i l l a g e located i n Haines Junction. The t o t a l band membership as of May 1972 was 179 people approximately a t h i r d of whom are year round residents of Haines Junction. The band, predominately T l i n g i t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y have had forms of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l organizations which more effe c -t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r dealing within the V/hite culture with-out losing t h e i r Indian heritage„than those bands of Athapaskan extraction. The geographic d i s p e r s a l of the band has, however, appeared to create problems of d i v i s i o n between the band admi-n i s t r a t i o n and i t s members. The author was unable to determine the extent to which d i v i s i o n of domestic -groups was r e f l e c t e d i n the geographic fragmentation of the band. This band, unlike many others, has a large proportion members who have trades or are s k i l l e d workers and are stea d i l y employed i n the v i c i n i t y of Haines Junction. The band, as i n T e s l i n , i s viewed, as hav-ing authority only i n the domain of "public" band issues. Ind-iv i d u a l s are responsible f o r t h e i r own actions as indicated by one respondent, a council member, when he indicated that he would take a house under the T e r r i t o r i a l Low-Cost Rental-Pur-chase Housing scheme even, though the band council was attempt-ing to discourage members from taking the housing. The settlement of the Indian sector i n Haines Junction af-142 t e r Whites had developed the community, the number of band members who are employed w i t h Whites and the Indian's p a r t i c i -p a t i o n In community a f f a i r s such as dances or v o l u n t e e r i n g In the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g are a l l f a c t o r s which have t e n -ded t o minimize the p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e c t o r s and have g i v e n the community more of a "White c h a r a c t e r " than any of the other s e t t l e m e n t s i n c l u d e d In the study. T h i s should not be taken t o suggest t h a t the members of the Cham-p a g n e / A i s h i h i k band have l o s t t h e i r I ndian t r a d i t i o n s . The s m a l l e r communities such as Klukshu have remained "Indian com-m u n i t i e s " i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , economy and l i f e s t y l e . The o p t i o n of b e i n g a b l e t o chose f r e e l y the community they l i v e i n appears t o have allowed each set t l e m e n t t o develop a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r without d e v e l o p i n g a type of d u a l a l l e -g i a n c e between the bush and the town t y p i c a l of s e t t l e m e n t s such as Ross R i v e r . .1 Indian-White i n t e r a c t i o n s are more d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i z e i n Haines J u n c t i o n than i n the other s e t t l e m e n t s s t u d i e d . In-t e r a c t i o n s "on the j o b " seem to i n v o l v e enough band members t o be c o n s i d e r e d a category i n a d d i t i o n t o r o u t i n e i n t e r a c t i o n s and p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s . I n t e r a c t i o n s which c r o s s e t h n i c l i -nes on a r o u t i n e b a s i s such as those o c c o u r i n g i n the s t o r e , appear t o be more c a s u a l and r e l a x e d than observed i n Ross R i -v e r . One of the two bars i n the community was more f r e q u e n t l y p a t r o n i z e d by I n d i a n people than the other b a r . R e l a t i o n s bet-14-3 ween Whites and Indians i n t h i s bar were relaxed as they were i n T e s l i n . The formality, apparent i n Ross River, was missing. Contacts which have developed between Whites and Indians who are employed by the same employer appear to have increased un-derstanding and tolerance across ethnic l i n e s ; furthermore, these interactions seem to have provided members of the Indian sector with a working knowledge of the p o l i t i c a l and economic nature of white society. Friendships between Indian and White residents are more frequent and reportedly more casual. Mem-bers of both sectors do not appear to view these r e l a t i o n s i n the polarized manner as i n Ross River, Many of the White residents of Haines Junction have l i v e d i n the community f o r more .than ten years; some of them have been i n the community since i t was s e t t l e d i n the l a t e 40's. Throughout t h i s period many s k i l l e d people, associated with the experimental farm, p i p e l i n e , game reserve, government ser-vices and private enterprises have l i v e d i n the community and put t h e i r ideas and energies into community a f f a i r s . Some of these people s t i l l l i v e i n Haines Junction. The length of res-idence of many Whites has been a fa c t o r i n creating a s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y unlike the v o l a t i l e s o c i a l conditions i n Ross River. The innovative ideas of the transient residents have given the more permanent members of the community a fund of experiences they may r e f e r to f o r future courses of action. w The 'typing* of new residents i n Haines Junction i s a slower, more casual process i n comparison with the somewhat urgent attitude towards newcomers which characterized Ross R i -ver residents. A l l but one White respondent stated that t h e i r sector of the community was divided into groups or c l i q u e s . There was, however, l i t t l e agreement as to who were clique members, how d i f f i c u l t i t was to become a member and what were the r o l e of the cliques i n the community. The inconsistencies and d i v e r s i t y of these views along with the fact that most of the respondents f e l t that they were outside the cliques they claimed existed, led the author to believe that the cliques are generally small groups of close friends which, from the outsiders' perspective, are larger and more encompassing than they are i n f a c t . A f a i r l y steady l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y has allowed white residents of Haines Junction freedoms which members of the more economically marginal communities have not been able to enjoy. This may be the r e s u l t of more intense competition f o r the scarce resources of the marginal settlement. This ap-pears to decrease the co-operative atmosphere i n dealing with community a f f a i r s . Haines Junction: External Influences on Interpersonal Relation-ships Since the 1920's the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l character of Hal-nes J u n c t i o n has been d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d through the impact of e x t e r n a l l y generated i n f l u e n c e s . Contemporary changes are s t i l l having an e f f e c t upon the community. The p o l i t i c a l dev-elopment of the band c o u n c i l , the d e s i g n a t i o n of the settlement as an LID, the opening and c l o s i n g of the ex p e r i m e n t a l farm, the proposed p a v i n g of the Haines Road and the A l a s k a Highway from the settlement t o the A l a s k a Border and the c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l park out of the Kluane Game Preserve are some of the e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s which have changed the community but i n the same p r o c e s s , these e x t e r n a l f o r c e s have tended t o draw the r e s i d e n t s of the sett l e m e n t t o g e t h e r when d e a l i n g w i t h " o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e s " . The IAB has t r e a t e d the Champagne/Aishihik Band as two separate bands wi t h members s c a t t e r e d over a l a r g e a r e a . In 1971 a band c o u n c i l was e l e c t e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the band a f f a i r s of these people. The Yukon Native Brotherhood a s s i s t e d the band In overcoming problems i n h e r e n t i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the a f -f a i r s of a widely d i s p e r s e d band. Through these e f f o r t s a degree of c o - o p e r a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h community i s s u e s was reached among band members. A w i n t e r works program t o r e p a i r and renovate houses prov-i d e d l o c a l employment, remedied some housing problems and added t o the s o c i a l cohesiveness of the group. Even though d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the programs, such as d e l a y s i n pa y i n g 146 the workers, r e f l e c t e d n e g a t i v e l y upon the band c o u n c i l , the net e f f e c t s were b e n e f i c i a l t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h a t i t demonstrated the s t r e n g t h s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c o l l e c t i v e band a c t i o n . YANSI i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Haines J u n c t i o n by a s m a l l c l o s e l y k n i t group. Members of the a s s o c i a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e i n other community o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r own. The r o l e of the l o c a l YANSI group was not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d u r i n g the summer of 1972 but more rec e n t a r t i c l e s from the Whitehorse S t a r (Feb., 1972) i n d i c a t e t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n has taken a s t r o n g e r r o l e w i t h i n the community. During the 1950's the members of N.C.O. Mess w i t h the Army Highway Maintenance-crew became i n v o l v e d i n community r e c r e a -t i o n . P a r t l y i n r e a c t i o n t o the Army's dominating r o l e i n the a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t l y i n response t o the need f o r an o r g a n i z a -t i o n which c o u l d d e a l w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e needs of the com-munity, c i v i l i a n r e s i d e n t s c r e a t e d the Community Club. From the time i t was c r e a t e d up t o the f o r m a t i o n of the LID, the c l u b f u n c t i o n e d i n many r o l e s ; some p o l i t i c a l , some adminis-v t r a t i v e and some r e c r e a t i o n a l . The c l u b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ac-t e d i n response t o s e n i o r government d e c i s i o n s which i n f l u e n c e d the community. The scope of c l u b a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d r e c r e a -t i o n a l , s o c i a l and to a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s when the LID was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 8 , Respondents from Haines 147 J u n c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t i s s u e s were g e n e r a l l y a i r e d and r e s o l -ved i n c l u b meetings, as opposed t o the procedure g r e q u e n t l y f o l l o w e d i n communities such as Ross R i v e r and Carmacks where groups d i s c u s s i s s u e s among themselves and came t o meetings w i t h p o l a r i z e d p o s i t i o n s about I s s u e s . The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n gained about the f u n c t i o n i n g of the community c l u b was one of c o - o p e r a t i o n and co h e s i o n i n the f a c e of e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s a c t i n g upon the community. The LID ordinance was passed i n 1965 by the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l as an experiment i n a l l o c a t i n g some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l o c a l government t o unorganized communities. Haines Junc-t i o n was to become the t h i r d l o c a l improvement D i s t r i c t i n the Yukon i n 1968. The LID ord i n a n c e , i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B, e s t a b l i s h e d a d i s t r i c t i n which a th r e e member board of e l e c -t e d T r u s t e e s a c t i n g as the e x e c u t i v e of the D i s t r i c t operate and m a i n t a i n the l o c a l improvements which they own or have been a u t h o r i z e d t o manage on b e h a l f of the Commissioner. The form of the LID, has allowed the de s i g n a t e d area of the commu-n i t y t o p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n determining i t s own a f f a i r s by f o l l o w i n g f o r m a l i z e d p rocedures. T h i s has proven t o be more s u c c e s s f u l , from the D i s t r i c t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , than the ad-hoc attempts of the community c l u b t o i n f l u e n c e s e n i o r governmen-t a l d e c i s i o n s . The boundaries of the LID, as shown i n F i g . 1? were de s i g n a t e d such t h a t they excluded the Ind i a n lands w i t h -out c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the band c o u n c i l ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s ) . 148 Anticipated problems i n working out the sharing of costs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a scheme which would involve Indian and T e r r i t o r i a l lands under an LID, appears to have encouraged the government to shy away from such an arrangement. The Whi-tehorse Star (Feb, 1973) indicated that the band resented the LID's proposal to change the name of Haines Junction without t h e i r voting p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which has been excluded since the issue was to be decided by the people within the d i s t r i c t . The LID has' provided l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s with what i s viewed as a d i r e c t l i n e to the decision makers. The monthly meeting of the board are seldom attended by observers but two of the trustees indicated that requests and representations came to them most frequently on a personal basis which i n turn would be discussed at board meetings. The LID appears to have i n -fluenced the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the settlement. It has given freedoms and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which have been well managed, largely because of the dedicated nature of the l o c a l trustees. Haines Junction i s the home of the Carmacks-Kluane member of the T e r r i t o r i a l Council who also holds a p o s i t i o n on the T e r r i t o r i a l Executive Committee, Her receptive manner and willingness to l i s t e n has encouraged many residents of the community to f e e l that t h e i r voice on issues c a r r i e s some weight. Her husband i s the Chairman of the LID so there i s a great deal of information and Ideas exchanged on issues r e l -149 a t e d t o l o c a l government. The Haines J u n c t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, owned and operated by the F e d e r a l Government Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , e x e r c i s e d an e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of the community. The farm, when o p e r a t i n g , employed men from the s e t t l e m e n t as w e l l as agronomists who were a b l e t o o f f e r a g r e a t d e a l t o community a f f a i r s through the experiences they had a c q u i r e d from working i n o ther r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s . The farm a l s o produced enough f e e d t o meet the needs of l o c a l game o u t f i t t e r s ' herd of hor- . se s . The d e c i s i o n t o c e n t r a l i z e n o r t h e r n e x p e r i m e n t a l farms, r e s u l t i n g i n the phasing out the Haines J u n c t i o n farm, was a s e n i o r l e v e l d e c i s i o n which had an impact upon the community. C l o s i n g the farm r e s u l t e d i n the departure of many s t a f f mem-bers who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n community a f f a i r s , the r e d u c t i o n of l o c a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the e l i m i n a t i o n of l o c a l f e e d s u p p l i e s . The farm i s no l o n g e r a c t i v e l y worked. The Yukon"Forest S e r v i c e s a c q u i r e d the s i t e f o r a sho r t p e r i o d w i t h the i n t e n t of d e v e l o p i n g a f o r e s t r y management depot but t h i s was changed when the N a t i o n a l Parks Branch a c q u i r e d the farm f o r a head-q u a r t e r s t o Kluane N a t i o n a l Park. The F e d e r a l Government's statement t h a t the Kluane Game Re-serve would become a n a t i o n a l park r e p r e s e n t s another set of e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n s which have i n f l u e n c e d the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l 150 c h a r a c t e r of Haines J u n c t i o n . These d e c i s i o n s generated d i s -c u s s i o n s i n the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g the c e n t r a l i z a -t i o n of developments i n Haines J u n c t i o n c r e a t e d by the park. Plans f o r the community were b e i n g prepared w i t h t h e i r terms of r e f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t l y being s et without l o c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n . Nenetheless most r e s i d e n t s l o o k forward t o the p r o s p e r i t y the park i s expected t o a t t r a c t . The s e t t l e m e n t appears t o have r e c e i v e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of f i n a n c i a l support when compared w i t h the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance c o s t s of oth e r communities of s i m i l a r s i z e s . The LID r e c e i v e d i n the order of $ 2 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1971 f o r o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of community s e r v i c e s i n comparison w i t h com-munitie s of s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n s , such as $ 5 , 4 5 4 i n the same year f o r Ross R i v e r or $ 5 , 8 9 0 f o r C a r c r o s s f o r s i m i l a r s e r v i -c e s . Haines J u n c t i o n was a l s o among the f i r s t t h r e e communi-t i e s t o r e c e i v e housing under the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase program. These d e c i s i o n s are i n d i c a t i v e of the i n t e r e s t se-n i o r government have i n Haines J u n c t i o n and they a l s o r e f l e c t the extent t o which the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the com-munity has been i n f l u e n c e d by " o u t s i d e " f o r c e s . Haines J u n c t i o n : R e g i o n a l P o l i t i c a l I n t e r a c t i o n s o The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s the extent t o which r e s i -dents of Haines J u n c t i o n have been p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h 151 BaraBBiSsssa HAINES JUNCTION. INTERACTIONS HOUSING ISSUES FIGURE 18 N O N S T A T U S . . . INTERACTIONS GOMMISSI ONER EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TREASURY z CC o CD < h-— z CC L U o s: i— i— — cc CC < CC a. L U L U INFO. SERVICES HEALTH WELFARE REHAB. LOCAL GOVT. DUCATIOf PUBLIC WORKS LOCAL SCHOOL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PUBLIC WORKS DEPOT VHITE RESIDENTS FEDERAL AGENCIES zc OO L U < LJL) 1— X OO z c o C J C L . CC L U • L U C J X — o . 1- > 1-o cc: a: oo a O L U — CC 2 OO NORTHERN I DEVELOPMENT! 1 . A . B J-00 L U CC o y i C O L U o OO CC z — o L U o > z t- CC < < r> L U >- oo < z o CD C O L U L U CC O C O u. < L L . — o WHITEHORSE HAINES JUNCTION COMMU MITY CLUB YANSI ATUS RES. BAND COUNCI_ INDIAN RESIDENT 152 senior government agencies. The involvements of Haines Junc-t i o n residents with external decision makers has d i f f e r e d from other communities i n that t h e i r inputs to senior governments are viewed, by over hald of these people surveyed as having an influence on the nature of community related decisions. The Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program survey i n d i c a -ted that about t h i r t y percent of the householders i n Haines Junction were interested i n and e l e g i b l e f o r housing under the scheme. Contacts generated by the introduction of the hous-ing program as shown i n Pig. 1 8 , appear to have been l o c a l l y channeled .more so i n Haines Junction than i n the other com-munities studied. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the settlement was designated as one of the f i r s t to take part i n the program, yet the survey r e s u l t s as outlined i n Table 2 indicate that the quality of housing i n Haines Junction i s generally, better than that of the other communities studied. It appears as though the decision to i n i t i a t e the housing program in^ Haines Junction was not based on need and demand as much as on par-t i s a n p o l i t i c a l grounds. This p o l i t i c a l decision seems to have gained support from a l l l e v e l s of government i n l i g h t of Haines Junction designation a "growth center" ( T e r r i t o r i a l Council Votes and Proceedings 1 9 7 2 ) . The Champagne/Aishihik Eand Council stated that they oppo-sed the housing scheme. They argued that such a program would 153 r e s t r i c t the scope of a c t i v i t i e s i n which the band could gen-erate the c a p i t a l necessary to invest i n other ventures. There was not concensus among band members i n refusing to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program. Many would l i k e to support the Band Council's economic goals, but t h e i r personal housing needs outweigh t h i s concern. The Chief of the band i s also an executive member of the YNB. In t h i s dual r o l e , the Band council has d i r e c t access to and support from the YNB on resolutions which are sent to the IAB. Furthermore, a personal friendship between and LID trustee and band chief allows f o r more frequent l o c a l resolu-t i o n of issues between the band and the white sector of the community. YANSI members were reported to deal through the community association on s o c i a l and recreation issues, the LID f o r l o c a l improvements and YANSI f o r issues which require p o l i t i c a l sup-port. Members interested i n housing dealt d i r e c t l y with the people conducting the survey, the LID and the department of Local Government to ensure that they obtained a house. Most White members of the community applying f o r housing under the program applied to the Department of Local Govern-ment, a f t e r expressing an i n t e r e s t to the Housing Need and De-mands survey team. The LID has been contacted by l o c a l r e s i -dents regarding the lo c a t i o n of houses to be b u i l t i n the com-munity under the housing scheme. The LID has directed i t s ad-QHHBBOQKSSBB5! 154 HAINES JUNCTION. INTERACTIONS FIGURE 19 ADULT EDUCATION ISSUES SETTLEMENT. . . I INTERACTIONS COMMISSIONER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FEDERAL . AGENCIES X l - CO _ i LU < t-X co z. CO o OC LU — • LU O oc X — o h - > h— o OC OC CO • O LU — cc z. co X NORTHERN DEVELOPME NTl I . A . B EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TREASURY INFO. SERVICES HEALTH WELFARE REHAB. LOCAL GOVJ P ^ L C WORK 5 D E P F VHITE RES I COMMU YANS I ATUS RES. BANC COW UNCTION NDIAN RESIDENT T 5 5 rainistrative inputs to the Department of Local Government and i t s p o l i t i c a l comments appear to have gone to the Executive Com-mittee v i a the l o c a l council member. The close contacts bet-ween the Chairman of the LID and the resident C o u n c i l l o r have allowed f o r a great deal of co-operative i n t e r a c t i o n among the l o c a l and t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s of government on Issues p e r t a i n -ing to community administration functions. Two types of adult t r a i n i n g programs have been conducted at Haines Junction. F i g . 19 indicates that few contacts have been generated about adult education t o p i c s , and that, by and large, they are low p r o f i l e p o l i t i c a l issues. Craft programs have been given when a teacher i s avai l a b l e and s u f f i c i e n t i n -terest i s expressed i n the c r a f t to warrant the Department of Vocational Education's endorsement of the program and employ-ment of the i n s t r u c t o r . Programs of t h i s nature have been ad-v e r t i s e d through the community club and arrangements to admin-i s t e r and conduct the courses have been made between the par-t i e s involved. The Department of Education appears to have encouraged community groups to take a free hand i n designing courses suited to the community, placing few constraints on the endorsed program. A T e r r i t o r i a l adult education program which t r a i n s guides to work f o r game o u t f i t t e r s was held i n Haines Junction during the summer of 1 9 7 2 . The program was conducted i n co-operation 156 with l o c a l o u t f i t t e r s and, because of i t s highly s p e c i a l i z e d nature, was of i n t e r e s t to only a few members of the community. The study indicated that i t i s u n l i k e l y that an adult education program i n Haines Junction w i l l receive the kind of i n t e r e s t paid to the courses conducted i n P e l l y and Ross River. A great-e r percentage of employable adults were employed i n Haines Junction i n comparison with other communities. With fewer unem-ployed people there i s a correspondingly smaller number of res-idents who are interested i n vocational t r a i n i n g , hence less general i n t e r e s t i n such programs. Both band members and White residents of Haines Junction who desired further t r a i n i n g of a s p e c i a l i z e d nature, attended courses i n Whitehorse i n order to acquire the desired s k i l l s . L i t t l e consideration appears to have been given to holding these programs l o c a l l y , p r i m a r i l y because of the l i m i t e d i n t e r -ests a s p e c i a l type of course, such as business management, holds f o r most community residents. c h a p t e r 4 Government i n the Yukon The administration of Canadian T e r r i t o r i e s i s designated as a federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under section 42 of the 1871 rev-( i s i o n of the BNA Act which reads; " 4 . The Parliament of Canada may from time to time 1 ^ make provi s i o n f o r the administration, peace order and good government of any t e r r i t o r y not f o r the time being included i n any Province."; ' ^ as such, the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government i s a creature of the Federal Parliament, with only those functions of government which have been delegated s p e c i f i c a l l y (to the Yukon) by the Yukon Act. Because the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Council has only d e l -egated authority and because these functions are primarily of a s o c i a l nature, the Federal Government has a more extensive administrative r o l e i n the Yukon than i t has i n the provinces. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference l i e s i n the Federal Government's con-159 t r o l over t e r r i t o r i a l lands; a p r o v i n c i a l function i n a prov-ince. This chapter w i l l examine the respective roles of each of these l e v e l s of government i n r e l a t i o n .to t h e i r involve-ments and interactions with r u r a l Yukon communities. A gen-e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the functions of the federal and t e r r i t o -r i a l l e v e l s of government and t h e i r interactions w i l l be f o l -lowed by more de t a i l e d analysis of the T e r r i t o r i a l Council, the Commissioner and Executive Committee and the various dep-artments of the t e r r i t o r i a l government. An examination of the d i v i s i o n s and agencies of the Federal Government d i r e c t l y inv-olved with r u r a l communities w i l l conclude the chapter. Federal - T e r r i t o r i a l Roles: The Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development (DIAND), under the d i r e c t i o n of i t s minister, has a mandate to administer the Yukon Act and other functions of Government i n the Yukon. DIAND i s divided into four d i v i s i o n s as shown i n F i g . 20, each of which i s again divided i n t o a number of bran-ches. The Northern Development D i v i s i o n and the Indian and Eskimo A f f a i r s Divisions a r e t of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s study. The two branches of the Northern Development D i v i s i o n ; the Northern Economic Development Branch and the T e r r i t o r i a l A f f a i r s Branch, are responsible f o r governing the Yukon e i t h e r d i r e c t l y through functions they administer or I n d i r e c t l y through the l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which have been delegated to ORGANIZATIONAL CHART: DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT FIGURE 20 NATIONAL HISTORIC PARKS CONSERVATION EDUCATION COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? RESEARCH AND LA ISI ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INDIAN AND ESKIMO AFFAIRS TERRITORIAL AFFAIRS NORTHERN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION ADVISOR LANGUAGES DEPUTY MINISTER \ MINISTER N . C . P . C . 161 the T e r r i t o r i a l Council. The Director of the Northern Economic Development Branch and the Commissioner of the Yukon report d i r e c t l y to the Assistant Deputy Minister of the D i v i s i o n . These Branches i n t e r a c t and coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s at the t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l through an interdepartmental coordination committee, chaired by the Commissioner, and consisting of dep-artment and d i v i s i o n heads from a l l t e r r i t o r i a l and f e d e r a l agencies operating i n the Yukon. Federal Functions: Aside from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t i n the Administration of the Yukon Act, the Federal Government has retained "the c o n t r o l , management and administration of a l l lands situated i n the ... Yukon T e r r i t o r y " (RSC, 1 9 6 7 ) . The Assistant Director (Resources) and the Regional Director i n Whitehorse i n i t i a t e , develop and implement p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d to the e f f e c t i v e management of o i l , gas, mineral, water, forest and land resources i n the Yukon. Balanced developmental p o l -i c i e s which ensure a rate of economic growth compatible with the aspirations of the t e r r i t o r i a l residents, underlie resource management strategies (DIAND, 1 9 7 0 ) . Informal agreements bet-ween the Water, Forest and Lands D i v i s i o n and the T e r r i t o r i a l Government have permitted designated lands i n the v i c i n i t y of communities to be administered by the Department of Local Gov-ernment, thus providing a degree of t e r r i t o r i a l c ontrol over 162 the development of settlement patterns. The organization of t h i s Branch i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Pig. 21. T e r r i t o r i a l Functions; T e r r i t o r i a l functions are those which have been delegated to the Commissioner or Commissioner-in-Council under the terms of the Yukon Act. The T e r r i t o r i a l Council i s composed of seven elected mem-bers representing the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s of the Yukon. The Council has only l e g i s l a t i v e powers of government within the range of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s delegated by the Yukon Act, and i s subject to the approval of the Federal Government. Adminis-t r a t i v e and executive functions of government were retained by the Federal Government acting through the Commissioner u n t i l 1970, when an experiment i n extending responsible government i n the Yukon was implemented. The Executive Committee, which consists of the Commissioner, two Assistant Commissioners and two elected members of Council recommended by Council, i s res-ponsible f o r the administration of the several departments of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government, as shown i n F i g . 22. Each of the departments i s d i r e c t l y involved i n r u r a l communities. They w i l l be described i n some length, following a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the organization and operations of the T e r r i t o -r i a l Council, Executive Committee and the Administrative and r NORTHERN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BRANCH FIGURE 21 WATERS SECTION r J LANDS SECTION 8 i. . •™ Ln _ j YUKON FOREST SERVICES 1 • • I l - . l 1 . i l — . 1 ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT SERVICES JP1 DEPT. OF HIGHWAYS AND PUBLIC WORKS DEPT. OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ESSSEB DEPT. OF TERRITORIAL TREASURY DEPT. OF EDUCATION DEPT. OF HEALTH, WELFARE AND REHABILITATION DEPT. OF TOURISM,CONSERVATIOJ NFORMATION SERVICES DEPT. OF LEGAL AFFAIRS > m -u x I -o m o o m x m o cz o o 1/9 U 7N O 73 73 O 73 C3 O m 73 O —H O m CZ 73 =Z 73 O — 1 I— O 73 1 6 5 Executive branches of the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. T e r r i t o r i a l Council puts forward l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the ap-proval of the Commissioner acting as the representation of the Federal Government. A content analysis of the Votes and Pro-ceedings of the T e r r i t o r i a l Council and of the Committee of the Whole, which i s the Council with the Commissioner, during the 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 , 1971 and 1972 sessions indicates the extent to which the s i x communities i n the study group were referre d to i n council and the content of the r e f e r a l s by t h e i r elected representatives. While i t i s recognized that a councilor's-representation of a constituency extends well beyond r e f e r r i n g to the needs and demands of the community i n the council cham-bers, the Votes and Proceedings do r e f l e c t some of the in t e r e s t s and attitudes of Councilors toward the r u r a l communities. Over the four years surveyed 27% of the references to r u r a l commu-n i t i e s were made by one councilor!' from a r u r a l constituency, as compared to 5 $ of the references by another councilor also from a r u r a l constituency. Table 3 indicates the number of times each of the s i x communities were discussed, the number of times the statement r e f l e c t e d consultation with the commu-n i t y , and the issues most frequently raised with regard to these settlements. These represent about one hundred pages of d i s -cussion r e l a t e d to r u r a l communities i n some 6 , 0 0 0 pages of Vo-tes and Proceedings. Table 3 Representation of Communities i n the T e r r i t o r i a l Council Number of times settlement i s ref-ered to i n Votes and Proceedings % of statements r e f l e c t i n g . consultation Issues discussed more than 10% of time i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c u -l a r settlement Ross River P e l l y Crossing Haines Junction T e s l i n Carmacks Carcross T o t a l 92 22 146 63 88 5 0 461 .' 24% 7 . 7 * 1 8 . 9 * 2 5 . 6 % 29.4% 26.7% health services TV, communications housing program e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g health services school health services other LIDs other TV, communications health services a i r service e l e c t r i c a l services health services sewer services roads community zoning 167 Statements from c o u n c i l o r s r e f l e c t e d a range of views on the forms of l o c a l government and the degree to which respon-s i b i l i t i e s should be delegated to a l o c a l l e v e l . A l l approved of some degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s being delegated to the com-munity, but there was disagreement on the extent to which t h i s should be followed and the form of government required to deal with these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There was also l i t t l e agreement among the communities studied on the representative nature of t h e i r c o u n c i l o r . R e s p o n d e n t s i n some communities such as T e s l i n and Haines Junction:;clearly indicated that they f e l t they were being well represented by t h e i r elected member, wher-eas people i n other communities were i n agreement i n stat i n g that they were poorly represented from t h e i r councilor. Some councilors.', were reported to v i s i t p a r t i c u l a r settlements f r e -quently, enquiring about l o c a l conditions and explaining what the T e r r i t o r i a l Council was doing, whereas others v i s t e d less frequently and d i d not elaborate upon the proceedings of coun-c i l . The Executive Committee was created by order of the Minis-t e r of DIAND i n 1969 i n order to "bring the executive and leg-i s l a t i v e functions of government into c l o s e r harmony" (Yukon T e r r i t o r y 1 9 7 1 ) . The Executive committee: "assists the Commissioner i n two ca p a c i t i e s : Advisory; by recommending broad p o l i c y guidelines f o r the con-duct of government business and coordination of gov-ernment a c t i v i t i e s . Consultative; by tendering advice 168 to the Commissioner i n carrying out his duties as set down i n the Yukon Act. The members of the Exe-cutive Committee also make recommendations respect-.: ing p o l i c y on a l l l e g i s l a t i o n placed before Council '•  by the Administration and, through the Subcommittee on finance, recommend the f i n a l l e g i s l a t i v e and bud-getary requirements to be table f o r councils consider-ations. A d d i t i o n a l l y i n d i v i d u a l members of the Exe-cutive Committee have d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the management of one or more departments of government, subject to the d i r e c t i o n and control of the Commis-sioner" (YTG . 1 9 6 3 ) . The Committee, shown i n the organizational chart P ig. 22, has created a party d i v i s i o n within Council. The c o u n c i l l o r s who s i t on the Executive Committee have been elected by Coun-c i l and, In a sense view themselves as a shadow cabinet. The two elected members of the Executive Committee have been given the two most p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e p o r t f o l i o s ; Education, and Health, Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Some residents of r u r a l settlements indicated that the elected representatives on the Executive Committee were more receptive to t h e i r ideas than were the government employees previously responsible f o r these departments. The Commissioner plays an awkward dual r o l e as a f e d e r a l government employee who i s responsible to and f o r the Yukon Government. The Assistant Commissioner (Executive) i s a fed-e r a l employee while the Assistant Commissioner (Administrative) i s a Yukon Government employee. . The dual allegiance of the Commissioner appears to have resulted i n the r e s o l u t i o n of i s -sues which may have otherwise become confrontations. For exam-169 p i e , problems which would have created c o n f l i c t s between various government departments or agencies at both l e v e l s of government are s e t t l e d i n t e r n a l l y since the T e r r i t o r i a l Executive o f f i c e r s are responsible to both l e v e l s of Government. The demands of t h i s p o s i t i o n have made the Commissioner more attuned to var-ious conditions i n the Yukon. As such he i s more able to per-form one of his main functions, that of coordinating government a c t i v i t i e s i n the T e r r i t o r y . I t has been the pra c t i c e of the current Commissioner to •keep his door open' to hear grievances from the residents of r u r a l communities. Approximately f i f t y percent of the people interviewed i n these settlements said that the Commissioner was the l a s t appeal i n t h e i r attempts at r e c t i f y i n g l o c a l gov-ernment actions with which they d i d not agree. The Commissio-ner,v/though receptive to these comments, i n s i s t s that the pro-pre channel be followed before he w i l l act upon appeals (per-sonel interviews). When the size of the T e r r i t o r i a l government, i n terms of numbers of employees and budget, i s compared with those the provinces on a per capita b a s i s , the Yukon appears to be 'top heavy' with government personnel, but t h i s i s misleading. I f s i m i l a r comparisons are made on the basis of the area governed, the apparent disproportionate benefits received by the Yukon take on more equitable proportions. The small population of 170 r u r a l communities has allowed government personnel to know pers-onnally many of the in d i v i d u a l s i n these settlements. While these personal r e l a t i o n s have allowed administrators to become more sensi t i v e to the attitudes and aspirations of the residents of the r u r a l communities, they have a l s o made the administrator to become more sensi t i v e to the attitudes and aspirations of the residents of the r u r a l communities, they have also made the administrator more accountable to the l o c a l residents, a s i t u a -t i o n not found to the same extent i n larger centers. The various departments of the t e r r i t o r i a l government are arranged i n the organizational framework, represented i n F i g . 22. Liaisons between these departments occur at two l e v e l s ; informal interactions which a r i s e d a l l y i n the course of ad-ministering departmental business and i n formal meetings of department heads at which government p o l i c i e s and procedures are discussed. The following descriptions deal with the ways i n which some departments i n t e r a c t with r u r a l communities rath-er then each other. The analysis w i l l be li m i t e d to those dep-artments a c t i v e l y and d i r e c t l y involved with the communities included i n the study. The Department of Education; The Yukon Department of Education consists of three bran-ches; General Education, Vocational Education and the Recrea-171 tIon-.Branch. A l l three f a l l within the purview of the Superin-tendent of Education who i n turn reports to the elected member of the Executive Committee responsible f o r education. The gen-e r a l Education Branch administers a l l kindergarten, primary and secondary school functions i n the T e r r i t o r y . Table 4 i l l u s -t rates school enrolment, teaching s t a f f and cost f o r each of the communities studied. The Department of Education provides i n s t r u c t i o n a l and curriculum assistance to schools, i n addi-t i o n to i t s o v e r a l l administrative functions. The Vocational Education Branch provides programs i n adult upgrading and com-munity c r a f t s as well as f u l f i l l i n g i t s primary objective, that of conducting t r a i n i n g programs which lead to employment. These courses, generally offered i n Whitehorse, have been ex-tended to other communities, as previously described. The Re-creation Branch organizes and administers t r a i n i n g programs i n a wide variety of sports a c t i v i t i e s as well as providing trans-portation funds f o r t e r r i t o r i a l a t h l e t i c events. Because of i t s linkages with r u r a l settlements through the teaching s t a f f , advisory committees and parents, the Department of Education has been involved i n a two-way exchange of inform-ation pertaining to l o c a l school programs. Relationships are established between the Department and community members on both formal and informal basis. Parents contacting the regional o f f i c e most frequently d i r e c t t h e i r comments to the Superintend-ent, Assistant Superintendent or the Executive Committee member Table 4 School Operations (YTG Dept. of Educat i o n Report 1972) S c h o o l E n r o l l m e n t Number Student/ Average Grades K i n d e r g a r t e n of Teacher .yearly e n r o l l - enrollment Teach- R a t i o c o s t s per ment ers 70 71 72 71-72 student 71-7 o 71-72 71-72 P e l l y C r o s s i n g 34 32 32 2 1 6 : 1 $ 1 0 7 3 . 0 0 1-7 no program Ross R i v e r T e s l i n 59 63 63 3 2 1 : 1 $ 824.00 1-9 98 103 104 5 2 1 : 1 $ 849 . 0 0 1-9 15 11 -o ro Carmacks C a r c r o s s 97 93 87 5 17 :1 .$ 9 2 2 . 0 0 1-9 11 5 0 52 47 3 1 6 : 1 $ 1 3 5 3 . 0 0 1-9 no program; c l o s e d i n 1971 Haines J u n c t i o n 62 73 6 l 5 1 2 : 1 $ 1 1 9 6 . 0 0 1-10 7 173 i n charge of education, and i n f a i l i n g to receive a s a t i s f a c -tory response at t h i s l e v e l , may address t h e i r grievances to the Commissioner or t h e i r T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r . In a l l cases, the Department of Education administrative s t a f f expressed a preference f o r s e t t l i n g such grievances without having them go to higher l e v e l s of government. The closest regional-community rel a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between the school p r i n c i p a l s and the Department's administrative s t a f f . These contacts have a necessarily large formal component, cons-i s t i n g of exchanges of information s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to 3 school administration, and an informal component, the extent of which i s determined by personal friendships. I t was obser-ved that where friendships existed, the formal r e l a t i o n s were conducted i n a more relaxed and informal manner. Much of the administrative s t a f f ' s time i s spent i n t r a v e l among the r u r a l communities throughout the T e r r i t o r y . CChanges i n school programs are i n i t i a t e d at both "the t e r -r i t o r i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s , but approval of the Department of Education i s a pre-requisite to introducing any s i g n i f i c a n t changes in t o the school's program. The c u r r i c u l a f o r both primary and secondary l e v e l s of education are quite f l e x i b l e , so that any changes required are often changes i n approach r a t -her than content. The Department c i r c u l a t e s d i r e c t i v e s inform-ing teachers of any curriculum changes made. Such changes have 1 7 4 generally been well tested by education researchers, so that reactions from teachers within the communities are usually fav-orable. Programs emanating from the r u r a l communities require the approval of the Department of Education. Respondents rep-orted that proposals are often not tested beforehand and ap-pear, i n the authors opinion, to be poorly thought through i n some cases. Some parents and teachers reported that they were disappointed i n the lack of support given to innovations by the regional o f f i c e , arguing that the f i n a l approval of adaptations to the curriculum to l o c a l conditions should be a l o c a l decis-ion. Each of the schools i n the communities studied had an ap-pointed p r i n c i p a l who i s responsible f o r the day-to-day opera-tions and administration of the school, as well as carrying a f u l l time teaching load. A l l of these communities except P e l l y had Advisory Committees consisting of at least three members elected from the population of the settlement. It was,their function to advise the school administrator and the Department of Education of t h e i r views on the l o c a l school program. Ideal-ly the Advisory Committee and the school p r i n c i p a l were to meet together, with the l a t t e r ' s r o l e being that of acting i n a techni c a l capacity by giving information to the board i n order to obtain t h e i r views on school matters. This does not appear to happen i n p r a c t i c e . The highly personal nature of the i n t -ercation between a l l those involved and the reactive r o l e i n 175 which Advisory Committees have been cast has resulted i n eit h e r confrontations between the p r i n c i p a l and the Advisory Committee or attempts on the p r i n c i p a l ' s part to use the Advisory Commit-tee to gain p o l i t i c a l support f o r programs he wishes to conduct. Contacts a r i s i n g from the Advisory Committees were reported to be a reactive nature i n a l l but T e s l i n . The inputs of these committees were generally directed to the senior administrative s t a f f of the Department or to the Executive Committee member responsible f o r education. A l l of the advisory committees view-ed themselves as powerless and unable to function with any ef-fectiveness. Representation on these committees has t y p i c a l l y been white although some members of the Indian community have been made i n some communities to ensure that these committees are representative of both Indian and White i n t e r e s t s . Most formal communications between regional and community o f f i c e s occurs by l e t t e r ; however, more extensive informal con-tacts by phone or i n person seemed to r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e communications through e s s e n t i a l l y the same formal processes. This seems to demonstrate the gap which develops between prac-t i c e and policyiwhen p e r s o n a l i t i e s play a large r o l e i n the reg-ional-community i n t e r a c t i o n s . During the summer of 1972 public hearings on Education were held throughout the T e r r i t o r y with the intent of c o l l e c t i n g the views of the Yukon's residents f o r a report which was to a s s i s t 176 i n the d r a f t i n g of the Yukon Education Ordinance. A p o s i t i o n paper on t h i s Ordinance was released i n March 1973 to e l i c i t reactions which w i l l a i d i n formulating a f i n a l proposal. The p o s i t i o n paper proposes revisions of the procedures which gov-ern the Interactions between the Department of Education and r u r a l settlements, with a view to increasing the involvement and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of community residents. The Department of Health. Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; The Departments of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n were combined with some supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s over the Depart-ment of Health in t o one Department i n 1970 under a major gov-ernment reorganization. The Department i s responsible to, and receives broad general supervision from, the elected member of the Executive Committee responsible f o r Health, Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The S o c i a l Welfare Branch deals with f i v e major functions; s o c i a l assistance; services f o r the care of the aged; family and c h i l d welfare services; public housing programs; and c h i l d -care f a c i l i t i e s . In the course of performing these functions the s t a f f of the S o c i a l Welfare branch comes i n t o contact with residents of r u r a l settlements through t h e i r f i e l d personnel i n the community and through t h e i r regional service centers. The f i e l d s t a f f of t h i s branch operate out of Dawson C i t y , Wat-177 son Lake, Whitehorse and Ross River, as of l a t e 1 9 7 2 , and each f i e l d o f f i c e i s responsible f o r dealing with s o c i a l welfare issues i n a number of surrounding communities. The f i e l d s o c i a l workers of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch are required to play d i f f i c u l t and frequently c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s . They are able to provide s o c i a l assistance and public housing on one hand, yet have the authority to remove a c h i l d from a home on the other. These c o n f l i c t i n g duties have resulted i n rather awkard r e l a t i o n s with many in d i v i d u a l s who require soc-i a l assistance, yet fear recriminations r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r impoverished s o c i a l conditions. The f i e l d s t a f f r e l y heavily upon t h e i r contacts with other government personnel who l i v e i n the communities, such as teachers and the RCMP, to gain the overview of community a f f a i r s which i s necessary i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r functions. S o c i a l Workers, v i s i t s to the communities range from a weekly to a bi-monthly basis. These v i s i t s are generally b r i e f , a few hours to a couple of days so that cases which require ongoing or continuous interactions cannot be dealt with i n an appropriate fashion. The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch i s responsible f o r the operation of the Yukon Correctional I n s t i t u t e , Juvenile t r a i n i n g homes and probation services. The Yukon Correctional I n s t i t u t e , located i n Whitehorse, i s a short term detention center, the purpose of which i s to r e h a b i l i t a t e Yukon offenders. Probation personnel 178 within the Branch v i s i t r u r a l communities i n the course of t h e i r duties. Recently, probation personnel have encouraged residents i n r u r a l communities such as Ross River to accept v o l u n t a r i l y some probationary duties i n r e l a t i o n to juveniles. The v i s i t s of probation o f f i c e r s are infrequent and short-term during which time the RCMP and School s t a f f are generally cont-acted i n addition to c l i e n t s and c i t i z e n volunteer probation o f f i c e r s . The Health Branch i s st a f f e d by Northern Health Services personnel, a d i v i s i o n of the National Health Services, which i s a branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare, and receives broad general supervision by the Executive Com-mittee members responsible f o r Health and Welfare and Rehabil-i t a t i o n . Health services are j o i n t l y administered, with cap-i t a l and operating costs shared between the T e r r i t o r i a l and Federal governments. The d i r e c t i n g physician reports to both the Yukon Executive Committee and the Regional o f f i c e s ^ of North-e m Health Services. The Branch i s responsible f o r public health programs, mental health services, v i s i t i n g s p e c i a l i s t s programs, alcoholism and other health programs, i n addition to the North-ern Health zone r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of operating and maintaining Federal h o s p i t a l s . i n the T e r r i t o r y , providing Public Health Nurses and operating the Yukon Health Plan. A l l the communities included i n the study have emergency 179 medical f a c i l i t i e s ; health stations served by lay medical per-sonnel or resident Public health nurses. T e s l i n , Carmacks and Haines Junction have resident public health nurses who also serve surrounding communities. Public health functions include both treatment and preventative practices which involve the nurse i n frequent interactions with most community residents i n t h e i r own homes, as well as contacts with school personnel a r i s i n g from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school health education programs. The services provided by the Public Health Branch do not appear to encounter the same degree of d i f f i c u l t y of c o n f l i c t from ethnic differences as other governmental services. A l l ethnic sectors seem to agree on the e s s e n t i a l and b e n e f i c i a l nature of both t h e i r treatment and preventative services. The Northern Health Services started a community health worker pro-gram i n 1970 which employed and trained Indian people to work i n t h e i r own communities. Their functions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been primarly r e l a t e d to providing ongoing health education i n cooperation with the v i s i t i n g Public Health Nurse.~" The Department of Local Government: The Department of Local Government, created i n 1970 under the governmental reorganization, reports to the Assistant Com-missioner (Executive) on the Executive Committee. The Depart-ment consists of four branches: the Local Government Branch, the Accomodation Services Branch, the Lands and Assessment 180 Branch and the Protective Services and Inspection Branch. "The primary function of the Local Government Branch i s a s s i s t i n g unorganized communities to become mun i c i p a l i t i e s as soon as economically p o s s i b l e " (Government of the Yukon T e r r i -tory 1 9 7 2 ) . The Branch performs t h i s function under the prov-i s i o n s of the Municipal Ordinance and the Local Improvement D i s t r i c t Ordinance, selected sections of which are included i n Appendix B. The Local Government Branch was also responsible f o r the administration of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing program u n t i l December 1972 when t h i s function was turned over to the Yukon Housing Corporation. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and organized Local Improvement D i s t r i c t s submit budgets which are approved by the Department of Local Government p r i o r to submission to the Executive Committee f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . Contacts between the Local Government Branch and the r u r a l unorganized communities i n the study group, which included a l l but Haines Junction, were reported to be both infrequent and i r r e g u l a r . The reported contacts, c i t e d i n r e l a t i o n to l o c a l government, indicated that representatives from the Branch ad-dressed t h e i r comments and enquiries to the white sector of the community. None of the Band Council members interviewed were able to r e c a l l any discussions with representatives of the Local Government Branch i n r e l a t i o n to the organization of Local Gov-ernment i n the settlement. The author observed a meeting of the T e s l i n Community Club, attended by the Director of the Dep-1BT artment of Local Government, who described the LID Ordinance with a view to encouraging the members to apply f o r incorpora-t i o n of the settlement under the Ordinance. In his presenta-t i o n , he described the p a r t i c u l a r benefits which would accrue to the designated d i s t r i c t , assuring residents that the addit-i o n a l money supplied to the LID f o r l o c a l services would not re s u l t i n increased taxes. There was no mention of who would be included within the D i s t r i c t during these discussions. The Director of Local Government and the Acting Regional Director of the Indian A f f a i r Branch both indicated, at d i f f e r -ent times, that Band Councils had not been asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n LID's because of the antic i p a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n sharing costs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s involved i n incorporating Indian lands within a D i s t r i c t . These intermittent contacts between the community and the Local Government Branch contrasts with the frequent and regular Interactions reported to occur between the Haines Junction LID and the Department. Residents of t h i s LID stated that a great deal of co-operation and assistance was forthcoming from the Local Government Branch, and a l l other Government Departments, upon t h e i r request. One trustee put i t t h i s way; "The government i s very approchable and h e l p f u l , as a consequence we get things done" (personal interview). The Department of Local Government did not contact organi-1:82 zations i n r u r a l communities i n r e l a t i o n to the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Program. The team employed to conduct the sur-vey interacted with a large proportion of the community's popu-l a t i o n s as indicated i n Appendix A. Some of the Ross River res-pondents said that the community had not been informed that the housing program was slated f o r t h e i r settlement i n 1972 u n t i l they read the tender l i s t i n g s f o r houses. Decisions about the loc a t i o n and number of houses to be b u i l t had been made well before any formal survey had been conducted and without consul-t a t i o n with residents of Ross River. This contrasts dramati-c a l l y with the process followed i n Haines Junction. The LID reported that they were i n consultation with the Department of Local Government throughout the i n i t i a t i o n and implementation phases of the program. The highly p o l i t i c a l nature of the Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Housing Program was discussed e a r l i e r . Table 2 indicates that the two communities selected f o r housing i n 1972 included the one with the poorest housing and the one with the best housing, indicated on the basis of the housing survey. The Low-Cost Rental-Purchase Program states: " p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Tenants i s v i t a l to the success of t h i s type of program. A Housing Association w i l l be formed f o r each project or community to be responsi-ble f o r a l l o c a t i o n , s i t i n g , assessment and c o l l e c t i o n of rents, maintenance of buildings and general l o c a l administration of the program." (OYT 1972) There had been no apparent attempts to implement the public as-183 pect of the program by September 1 9 7 2 , f i v e months a f t e r the program had been i n i t i a t e d . These Instances create the impression that the Department of Local Government requires more formally constituted bodies, such as an LID, with which to deal. It seems hesitant to enter in t o discussions with other types of community organizations which have i n p r a c t i c e and by default been administering com-munity a f f a i r s , i n some cases f o r years. The problem can be viewed as an attempt on the part of the Department of Local Government to ensure that the organization i t addresses i s re-presentative of the community, and not a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group. The Accomodation Services Branch provides and administers housing f o r T e r r i t o r i a l employees i n r u r a l communities. Inter-actions between t h i s branch and i n d i v i d u a l s i n housing operate almost exclusively on an independent, i n d i v i d u a l basis. The Lands and Assessment Branch i s responsible f o r assessing property subject to T e r r i t o r i a l Taxation and the disposal of land under T e r r i t o r i a l administration. Lands i n the v i c i n i t y of settlements, organized and unorganized, have been turned over from Federal to T e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . This Branch des-ignates general community zoning, apparently based on surveys by Federal Agencies, and the settlement pattern i n the community. Interactions between t h i s branch and r u r a l settlements have, by 184 and large, occurred on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. The Protective Services and Inspection Branch included a f i r e protection service with a marshall who d i r e c t s t r a i n i n g and inspection a c t i v i t i e s , a bu i l d i n g inspector and an e l e c t r i -c a l Inspector. This branch inspects structures on T e r r i t o r i a l lands. A l l the communities studied, except P e l l y , have volun-teer f i r e brigades and pump trucks with paid, part time chiefs who hold t r a i n i n g sessions f o r the brigade. Interactions oc-cur between t h i s branch and r u r a l residents whose buildings are inspected. The Department of Highways and Public Works; The Department of Highways and Public Works* performs four functions; highway maintenance, building maintenance, road cons-t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , and government bu i l d i n g construction. A l l the settlements i n the study group, except P e l l y , have perma-nent maintenance camps which are responsible f o r highway and government building;:.maintenance. Construction programs gene-r a l l y develop s p e c i a l camps which l a s t the l i f e of s p e c i f i c pro-j e c t s . As well as performing these designated functions, the department i s also maintains a i r s t r i p s f o r the MOT i n r u r a l com-munities and operating f e r r i e s at Dawson City and Ross River. * The Department of Highways and Public works has been refered to as the "DPW" or the "Government Maintenance Camp" by r u r a l residents. The term "DPW" w i l l be used through to r e f e r to the T e r r i t o r i a l Department of Highways and Public works. 185 The Department reports to the Executive Committee member responsible f o r the DPW; the Assistant Commissioner (Executive). The foreman at each permanent camp maintains regular d a i l y con-tacts with regional o f f i c e s r e l a t i n g weather information, road and operations reports and receiving operating d i r e c t i v e s . In a l l the communities with a permanent camp, the r e l a t i v e l y large number of people employed by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government has an influence upon the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the community, as described i n some d e t a i l i n the preceding chapter. Further-more, d i v i s i o n s between those employed by the government and private employees are highlighted by the fashion i n which the DPW "takes care of i t s own" though b u i l d i n g maintenance while others are required to fend f o r themselves. Permanant camps generally expand t h e i r operations i n the summer months, h i r i n g l o c a l l y whenever po s s i b l e . Throughout t h i s period many l o c a l people are employed i n a variety of jobs with the DPW. Other Departments such as the Department of Tourism, Con-servation, and Information Services, Administrative and Legis-l a t i v e Support Services, and the Department of the T e r r i t o r i a l Treasurer, shown i n F i g . 22, a l l have had influences, d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , upon the functioning of r u r a l communities. How-ever, the extent of t h i s influence i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than that of other departments described. This has been borne out by both the personal observations of the author and the content analysis of the T e r r i t o r i a l Council Votes and Proceedings, i n 186 which the issues re l a t e d to the communities c i t e d seldom f e l l i n t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n of these departments. This i s not to say that agencies such as the Library Service Branch are not involved. This p a r t i c u l a r branch provides l i b r a r y materials to a l l r u r a l schools as well as supplying book depositories throughout the Yukon. These programs have an influence, but the extent to which they a f f e c t the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the communities i n the study group i s small i n comparison with the other t e r r i t o r i a l departments described. Federal Involvement; The Federal Government has j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l lands i n the T e r r i t o r y excepting those areas i n the v i c i n i t y of s e t t l e -ments over which the Yukon Government has been delegated admin-i s t r a t i v e powers. In r e t a i n i n g t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , the Federal Government has also retained the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of managing and administering the natural resources of the Yukon. Figures 20 and 21 c o l l e c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e the organizational structure which administers these resources. One d i v i s i o n , the Yukon Forest Services, i s of p a r t i c u l a r concern to t h i s study f o r i t has played an i n f l u e n t i a l role i n the a f f a i r s of r u r a l s e t t l e -ments; t h i s r o l e w i l l be discussed below. The other d i v i s i o n s , while influencing the economic character of the Yukon, have ef-f e c t s on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of r u r a l settlements i n only an i n d i r e c t manner. 187 The RCMP provide p o l i c e services throughout the Yukon on a contractual:basis with the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. The role of the RCMP i n r u r a l communities i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l to warrant further examination. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch, also shown on the organizational chart, Pig. 20, operates a regional o f f i c e out of Whitehorse to serve the Yukon region. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s respons-i b l e f o r the execution of the o v e r a l l Indian and Eskimo A f f a i r s program through i t s four d i v i s i o n s ; education, Indian and Es-kimo economic development, community a f f a i r s and consultation and negotiation. Under these programs, the IAB has provided administration and development funds to l o c a l band councils and to the YNB. These relationships have had a large influence on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l structure of r u r a l communities and f o r t h i s reason w i l l be examined i n more depth. The Yukon Forest Services: The Yukon Forest Services i s a d i v i s i o n of the Northern Economic Development Branch, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 21. Tes-l i n , Ross River, Carmacks and Haines Junction have Forest Ser-vice Stations s t a f f e d by permanent employees, and Pelly and Carcross have f i r e protection caches. The d i v i s i o n serves three functions; forest resources management, forest f i r e pro-t e c t i o n f o r settlements, and public education about forest man-188 agement and protection. The general p o l i c y guidelines govern-ing the management of these functions are set by the regional o f f i c e i n Whitehorse and appear to allow the l o c a l resource man-agement o f f i c e r s considerable l a t i t u d e i n t h e i r operations. The largest single r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the department i s the control of forest f i r e s . This was borne out i n the community reports of the Divisions l o c a l personnel and i n the Division's budget; the greatest proportion of which was allocated to f i r e suppression. Forest f i r e suppression durig the period of ex-treme f i r e hazard provides an important source of l o c a l employ-ment. Men can be conscripted into f i r e suppression under the authority of the Yukon Lands Act, thus during extreme periods most unemployed men i n the settlements either volunteer or are "picked up" to f i g h t f orest f i r e s . The discretionary powers of the l o c a l resource management o f f i c e r to conscript people gives t h i s i n d i v i d u a l almost complete control over a community i n periods when settlements are threatened by forest f i r e s . The operations of t h i s D i v i s i o n involve extensive contact with Indian people. As a consequence they have a system of h i r i n g permanent employees which gives p r e f e r e n t i a l consider-ation to applicants of Indian backgrounds. The RCMP: The RCMP provide p o l i c e services to the Yukon under a con-189 t r a c t arrangement. Their objectives are to prevent and detect offences against Federal Statutes, to provide an intergrated law enforcement information service f o r a l l other Canadian po-l i c e agencies and to enforce the Ordinances of the T e r r i t o r y . The Yukon Regional Headquarters and the l o c a l detachments i n the communities studied operate s t r i c t l y under the regulations and p o l i c i e s developed i n the Federal RCMP Headquarters. The Yukon D i v i s i o n headquarters conducts ongoing inspection pro-grams to ensure that l o c a l detachments are operating smoothly, as well as ensuring that regulations and p o l i c i e s are being followed.Detachments report r e g u l a r l y by both radio and mail i n the course of following p o l i c e procedures prescribed by regulation. D i s c i p l i n e within the force i s of a m i l i t a r y nat-ure and men are expected to conduct themselves i n a manner ap-propriate to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The RCMP have often been placed i n awkard positions because of the ethnic d i v i s i o n which exists i n the settlements under consideration. Their r o l e has been one of enforcing the laws of Canada, which often c o n f l i c t with Indian t r a d i t i o n s . In instances of t h i s nature, the l o c a l constable has some discre-tionary powers and may interpret his role as one of an educator rather than an enforcer, i n attempts to minimize the c o n f l i c t s between the RCMP and the Indian sector of the community, cons-tables avoid enforcing some ordinances which aggravate the s i t -uation, such as those r e l a t e d to dog co n t r o l . For example, 190 shooting a number of loose dogs would only make conditions worse. Short postings allow the o f f i c e r to perform his func-t i o n , without becoming too involved i n personal r e l a t i o n s which are bound to develop with other community residents. Because of these pressures, RCMP are encouraged to remain out of the administration of community a f f a i r s , but p a r t i c i p a t e i n recrea-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the settlement (personal interviews). The D i v i s i o n Headquarters remains i n close contact with the l o c a l detachment personnel, as much f o r the personal s t a b i l i t y of the o f f i c e r as the formal requirements. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Yukon Region: The objectives embodied i n the Indian Act have been i n a state of dramatic change since the Federal governments 19^9 White Paper on Indian a f f a i r s . In reaction to t h i s p o l i c y sta-tement, Indian organizations such as the YNB developed with the assistance of Federal funding, and organization of Indian people across the nation began to formulate viable a l t e r n a t i v e (Waubageshig ,1970). The objectives of the IAB, as stated i n the 1973-1974- Federal Estimates, are i n essence, to enable In-dian people to r e a l i z e t h e i r many aspirations within Canadian society. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch performs i t s functions through four d i v i s i o n s each of which i s represented i n regional o f f i c e s . The Director of the Yukon regional o f f i c e , located i n Whitehorse, i s responsible f o r coordinating, managing and admin-1 9 1 ' i s t e r i n g a l l matters re l a t e d to Indian programs. The people involved i n the four d i v i s i o n s coordinate t h e i r s p e c i f i c oper-ations with each other and with the administrative f i e l d agents under the supervision of the regional d i r e c t o r . The Branch does not have any f u l l time employees stationed i n any of the commu-n i t i e s included i n the study. Agents are a l l o c a t e d to p a r t i c u -l a r bands so that there may be continuity i n t h e i r programs even though they do not l i v e i n the community. The ways i n which IAB agents i n t e r a c t within the communi-t i e s studied were reported to have undergone a dramatic change over the past two years. P r i o r to 1971 an agent would generally deal with band members on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , assessing needs and recommending courses of action on t h i s basis. The p o l i t i c a l development of the YNB has required him to deal through Band Councils to a greater extent. The degree to which t h i s applies depends upon the community. In settlements with strong Band Councils such as T e s l i n or Haines Junction, agents were repor-ted to deal through the l o c a l c o u n c i l , dealing with i n d i v i d u a l s on the basis of Council r e f e r a l s , whereas i n those communities with Band Councils which have l i t t l e authority, such as P e l l y or Carcross, agents were reported to deal with band members on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , circumventing the Band Council. F i n a n c i a l assistance a v a i l a b l e under some of the programs of the Community A f f a i r s d i v i s i o n and the Indian and Eskimo Economic Development d i v i s i o n have not been tapped by the r u r a l 1 9 2 communities i n the study group. IAB personnel, recognizing that community development does not function e f f e c t i v e l y i f only one sector of a community develops i r r e s p e c t i v e of the other, indicated that funds f o r economic developemnt could be channelled to functions which involved non-Indian as well as Indian people (personal interviews). There was h e s i t a t i o n on the lAB's part to introduce these programs and encourage the creation of community economic development committees to man-age development funding before communities demonstrate the s k i l l s necessary to make these programs function e f f e c t i v e l y . The IAB has become much more f l e x i b l e i n i t s programming i n response to p o l i t i c a l pressures from the YNB and various band cou n c i l s , so much so that a member of an Indian p o l i t i c a l organization complained that the submissive r o l e of the IAB had made the process of encouraging c o l l e c t i v e Indian action much more d i f f i c u l t since there were no major issues about which .:• such action could p o l a r i z e . chapter* S An Analysis of Two Forms of Local Government The preceeding descriptions of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s within communities and between communities and the senior gov-ernments i n the Yukon i l l u s t r a t e the extensive influence of three r e l a t e d problems of l o c a l government. The f i r s t of these problems i s one faced by government agencies i n attempting to determine who those involved i n community-government int e r a c -tions are representative of i n the community. The senior gov-ernments regard communities as divided within ethnic groups as well as across ethnic l i n e s . Constraints i n time and money, the geographic distances between settlements and a committment to the p r i n c i p l e s of representative government have made the contacting of a l l i n t e r e s t groups within communities an infeas-i b l e task f o r the senior governments. For s i m i l a r reasons gov-v 194 ernment agencies have been hesitant to accept the advice of any one community group as representative of the entir e s e t t l e -ment. This h e s i t a t i o n appears to be well founded i f one exam-ines the diagrams i n d i c a t i n g government-community contacts and r e a l i z e s that government o f f i c i a l s have frequently been.the receivers of c o n f l i c t i n g messages. Many inputs, generated from many sources reaching a p a r t i c u l a r government agency through many d i f f e r e n t channels have often resulted i n a c o n f l i c t i n g array of inputs about s e n s i t i v e issues. Confronted with t h i s s i t u a t i o n , yet having the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the administration of the community, i t i s not su r p r i s i n g that the i n i t i a t i o n , im-plementation and administration of community a f f a i r s , without the consultation of the settlement, has frequently appeared to be the government's most expedient course of action. The second problem which appears throughout the des c r i p t i v e analysis of the communities and government agencies, i s one which arises from the preceeding issue. Government i n i t i a t e d , implimented and administered l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s have frequently been poorly received by community residents and have eith e r f a i l e d to meet the program's objectives or have created other problems i n so doing. Rural residents stated that t h i s type of government action treated them as though they were disenfran-chised and had apparently ignored the p r i n c i p l e s of l o c a l part-i c i p a t i o n i n the making of l o c a l decisions. One person repor-ted, " i t ' s as though the government i s pushing s t u f f down our throats". The t h i r d problem i s rel a t e d to the lack of coordination between the various government agencies i n t h e i r separate r e l -ations with r u r a l communities, and a corresponding lack of coor-dination at the community l e v e l , as conceptualized i n the com-munity-government contact diagrams included with each of the community studies. Some of the redundancy and c o n f l i c t s , more apparent at the community l e v e l than at the regional l e v e l , seem to stem from a coordination of regional a c t i v i t i e s which f a i l s to involve p a r t i c i p a n t s from r u r a l communities. The d i a -grams -indicating the community-government contacts and the des-c r i p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t s between and within ethnic sectors of e each settlement suggests that many messages, probably c o n f l i c t -ing i n t h e i r contents, are sent to regional o f f i c e s but what the regional o f f i c e thinks best f o r the community and does may be an option no one i n the community desires. The a l t e r n a t i v e , that of resolving issues l o c a l l y and issuing communications which are consistant i n t h e i r requests f o r the settlement, ap-pears to be a more reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e . These problems point to the need f o r an appropriate form of l o c a l government capable of meeting the demands of both the com-munity and the senior governments i n the Yukon. Furthermore they give a d d i t i o n a l weight to the v a l i d i t y of the two postula-tes, which were; that a form of l o c a l government which increa-196 ses cooperative i n t e r a c t i o n between ethnic sectors of communi-t i e s on s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l or economic grounds w i l l function more e f f e c t i v e l y than those forms which do not encourage i n t e r -action across ethnic l i n e s j . a n d that l o c a l problems, i f handled l o c a l l y run the best chance of being solved expeditiously.and appropriately. This chapter w i l l analyse two forms of l o c a l government; the Local Improvement D i s t r i c t and the model of a composite board, as proposed i n Chapter 1, i n terms of t h e i r hypothetical " f i t " to each of the s i x communities. This " f i t " w i l l be as-sessed i n terms of three functions: 1. Scope: The degree to which delegated r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l allow residents to deal with a range of issues r e l -ated to the community's general development. 2. Cooperation: The degree to which cooperative i n t e r a c t i o n between ethnic sectors i n enhanced and encouraged. 3. S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l : The degree of compatibility with the e x i s t i n g s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of the community. These assessments w i l l be expressed i n terms of the general degree to which each of the functions may be anticipated to r e l -ate to each of the communities on the basis of the forms func-tions and roles of the l o c a l governments' to be analysed. For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , the three functions w i l l be set out i n point form f o r each community, i n d i c a t i n g the degree of " f i t " 197 as p o s i t i v e or negative f o r each of the points without attempt-ing to quantify them. These points are those variables which appear r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r function from an examination of the community case studies, the responses of r u r a l residents to the p a r t i c u l a r forms of l o c a l government and the responses of government o f f i c i a l s to each of the two forms of l o c a l gov-ernment. The analysis anticipates how each of the l o c a l govern-ments w i l l h y p o t h e t i c i a l l y f i t i n each community, except f o r the LID i n Haines Junction and the model of the composite board i n Ross River. The a n a l y s i s , i n the case of these two except-ions 5 w i l l be based on the ways i n which these types of govern-ment were observed to function i n each settlement. A one word appraisal i n d i c a t i n g whether there i s a LARGE, MODERATE, or SLIGHT degree of " f i t " w i l l provide an o v e r a l l as-sessment of each function i n r e l a t i o n to each community. These are p l o t t e d on Table 5 to show a net appraisal f o r the p a r t i c u l a r form of government i n r e l a t i o n to a l l the settlements studied. A number, i n d i c a t i n g extent, i s given to each of these ap-p r a i s a l s ( L a r g e - 2 , moderate =*1, s l i g h t ^ 0) so that some sense of r e l a t i v e aggerate value may be obtained. Any attempts at assessing the net benefits of one form of government over ano-ther i s bound to run into d i f f i c u l t i e s i n quantifying var i a b l e s . The following tables create the impression that the three main categories of analysis are of equal importance. This i s not 198 l i k e l y to be the case. The tables also led one to tabulate the (+) and (-) values f o r a general score, assuming that they are of s i m i l a r magnitudes, t h i s also may be misleading. The value ladden nature of appraising how the two types of l o c a l government described may hypothetically f i t each s e t t l e -ment must be emphasised before hand. The author has attempted to minimize t h i s dimension by c i t i n g arguments from the tex t s , interviews and responses to questions about the two types of l o c a l government, however, i t i s impossible to remain value free i n the aggerate assessment phase. This stage requires a r e l a t i v e importance i s assigned to each of the arguments put forward. Assessment 1: The Local Improvement D i s t r i c t The three member board of elected Trustees who administer the Local Improvement D i s t r i c t receive t h e i r authority from the Local Improvement D i s t r i c t Ordinance. The LID Ordinance was i n i t i a t e d i n 1965 by the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Council as an exper-iment i n developing a form of l o c a l government which would prov-ide a tr a n s i t i o n a r y step f o r the unorganized area i n becoming a municipality. It gives to the Board of Trustees the authority to operate and maintain any l o c a l improvements i n the D i s t r i c t on behalf of the Commissioner. Subject to the approval of the Commissioner the board may make bylaws acquiring lands or b u i l d -1:99 ings to be used f o r the operation or maintenance of l o c a l im-provements; prescribing charges which s h a l l be l e v i e d f o r l o c a l improvements; and l i c e n s i n g and con t r o l of animals. A more ext-ensive de s c r i p t i o n of the LID i s included i n Appendix B. Table 5 shows a summary of the hypothetical f i t f o r each community considered. The hypothetical f i t of the LID to each settlement i s i l l u s -t r ated i n table 5, i n terms of variables drawn from the commu-nity descriptions, the comments of the r u r a l respondents and the comments of government o f f i c i a l s . The LID i s shown to f i t the "SCOPE" c r i t e r i a more appropriately than the other two c r i -t e r i a . This, form of l o c a l government appears to o f f e r l i t t l e i n terms of the "COOPERATION" c r i t e r i a . The s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c r i t e r i a i s shown to have a moderate f i t on the aggerate basis. Interpretations of t h i s nature do say something about the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o c a l government, but they do not give an adequate picture of how a type of government may oper-ate i n p a r t i c u l a r a settlement. The LID appears to be quite appropriate to T e s l i n , however, i n terms of the assessment, i t seems to be r e l a t i v e l y less appropriate to Carmacks or Ross River. Ross River: (LID hypothetical) Scope (moderate) - d i s t r i c t l i k e l y to exclude Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n LID hence deal with only part of settlements population. - LID functions not r e l a t e d to community's capacity to u t i l i z e economic development opportunities i n mining sec-t o r . + would constitute a commu-n i t y government to senior governments. Cooperation ( s l i g h t ) - LID d i s t r i c t l i k e l y to ex-clude Indians and would d i s -courage cooperation. - LID organizational s t r u c t -ures most appropriate and known to white sector but foreign to Tutchone s o c i a l organization. - would l i k e l y form a more polarized set of p o l i t i c a l a c t ion groups. S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (moderate) + Compatible with White socio-p o l i t i c a l organization. - l i m i t e d s t a b i l i t y and short residence of white sector hinders selecting trustees. - l i m i t e d understanding of t e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . - does not account f o r i n -creasing p o l i t i c a l strength of band. P e l l y : (LID hypothetical) Scope (large) + d i s t r i c t boundaries l i k e l y to include whole settlement. + LID a l l o c a t i o n of public services; few exis t and some are needed i n P e l l y . + provide some agency which can function i n the i n t e r e s t of the settlement. - f a i l s to deal with broader economic development issues, which may generate l o c a l em-ployment . Cooperation (moderate) + settlement small and cha-r a c t e r i z e d by personal r e l a -t i o n s . L i k e l y that LID would include a l l people at ind-i v i d u a l l e v e l . - form of government foreign, favours p a r t i c i p a t i o n of white sector more so than the Indian sector. - may cause some p o l a r i z a t -ion about p a r t i c u l a r pers-onality and form a commu-ni t y power group when one does not currently e x i s t . S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ( s l i g h t ) - no government desired i n the settlement and by white sector. - LID too formalized a form of l o c a l government f o r both Indians and Whites and would represent greater government involvement in settlement. - LID organization foreig n to Tutchone pattern of soc-i a l structure. - would weaken the developing p o l i t i c a l role of the band. T e s l i n (LID hypothetical) Scope (moderate) + would give r i s e to l o c a l service developments needed to promote t o u r i s t sector of economy. + would constitute a form of l o c a l government recognized by senior governments. - would not be capable of be-coming involved i n on-going l o c a l job creating d i r e c t l y i n functions such as t o u r i s t promotion etc or development agencies. - would l i k e l y not included DPW compound and hence would exclude a large part of gov-ernment sector i n l o c a l af-f a i r s . + would provide needed s e r v i -ces i n densely populated area of settlement. Cooperation (large) + would l i k e l y include both Indian and White sectors. • would l i k e l y be represent-ed by both Indian and White trustees on the board. - would l i k e l y be White dom-inated at the outset as re-f l e c t e d i n patterns of p o l i -t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the settlement club. • w i l l r e s u l t i n improvements to services i n both sectors. S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (large) + both White and Indian res-idents are p o l i t i c a l l y know-ledgable. - would weaken or negate poi i t i c a l strength of e x i s t i n g organizations. +• LID legitimized inputs des ir e d by residents so that they may soon have some say i n t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Carmacks: (LID hypothetical) Scope (moderate) + would provide settlement with a p o l i t i c a l body which would be recognized by the senior gov-ernment . - could not deal with functions which involve whole settlement population, only those residents within the d i s t r i c t would be involved i n decisions. + would provide u t i l i t y services f o r the c e n t r a l area i n the D i s t -r i c t , - would l i k e l y not serve the res-idents i n western part of s e t t l e -ment . - no functions which allows d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n settlements econ-omic base i n mining. + poor tourism p o t e n t i a l s but good transportation services center pot-en t i a l s hence f a i r economic dev-elopment p o s s i b i l i t i e s ensuring T e r r i t o r i a l investments i n s e t t l e -ment LID ensure l o c a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r these programs. Cooperation ( s l i g h t ) - only white sector would l i k e l y be i n c -luded i n LID. - would further alien, ate ethnic sectors r e i n f o r c i n g Indians impression of White economic and p o l i t i c -a l c o n t r o l . - form i s foreign to Tutchone s o c i a l org-anization. S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (moderate) + large number of permanent White residents could prov-ide continuity to program. - would l i k e l y i n t e n s i f y permanent-transient c o n f l i c t s . + some White residents fam-i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i -t i c s . - competition f o r con t r o l over economic opportunity l i k e l y to increase i n t e r -nal competition rather than cooperation because of s p l i t along ethnic l i n e s . Carcross: (LID hypothetical) Scope (moderate) Cooperation (moderate) S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ( s l i g h t ) * a c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l bo-dy senior governments would deal with. + would assert community needs and d i s t i n g u i s h them from Whitehorse conditions. - does not have authority to deal with improving t o u r i s t trade f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t e d to Lake. - d i f f i c u l t i n providing • :. .• services to squatters along north shore of Lake. - l i m i t e d settlement develop-ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s because of no development functions and because of Whitepass land holdings. would l i k e l y include In-dian lands within d i s t r i c t . - u n l i k e l y to have Indian trustee i n l i g h t of Band's disorganized state and lack possible candidates. - i f Indian lands included u n l i k e l y to be involved pend-ing Band's p a r t i c i p a t i o n on land related issues i n l i g h t of Bands organization. - few with extensive i n t e r -ests i n p o l i t i c s of s e t t l e -ment . - many respondents opposed to any form of l o c a l govern-ment, viewed as another i n -fringment on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . •t- some White and non-status Indian residents f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . t YANSI's role l i k e l y to soon generate greater Indian i n -puts . - atomized character of set-tlement not appropriate to one settlement government. Haines Junction (LID, observed) Scope (large) + an extensive cooperative r e l a t i o n exists with the senior government. + growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s asso-ciated with National Park have allowed the LID addit-i o n a l advisory functions. + the current trustees have broad perspectives and are p o l i t i c a l l y aware. - unable to deal adequately • with Issues which extend ' v beyond the d i s t r i c t bounda-r i e s . - unable to deal e x p l i c i t l y with issues d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to community's economic base i n tourism. + LID has seemed to be used as a model f o r other set-tlements, as such i t seems to receive p r e f e r e n t i a l as-sistance . Cooperation ( s l i g h t ) - band lands had been a r b i -t r a r i l y excluded from the LID. - Indian people not i n d i s -t r i c t are excluded from d i r -ect p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decis-ions which may influence them, ( i . e . animal c o n t r o l ) . + close personal r e l a t i o n -ships e x i s t between LID trus-tee and band chie f . respondents from both sec-tors expressed l i t t l e desire f o r Indian involvement i n LID. . S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (large) +• strong and c l e a r l y estab-l i s h e d White community which has functioned as a cooperative unit . + only minimal s o c i a l div-i s i o n between transient and permanent Whites. + White sector f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . + r e l a t i v e sized of ethnic groups and comparatively recent a r r i v a l of the band have allowed Whites to det-ermine community p o l i t i c s . + favourable economic outlook has allowed f o r an optimistic view which f a c i l i t a t e s LID actions. 206 Assessment 2: The Tentative Model; A Composite Board A tentative model was outlined i n Chapter two of the thesis with a view to describing a type of l o c a l government appropriate to the needs and aspirations of the r u r a l communities. An as-sessment of the model w i l l be made on the bases of two assump-tions; that the case studies r e f l e c t the values, and aspirations the residents hold of the respective communities; and that the author has interpreted the comments of these residents, both i n reference to the community and the proposed model, as they were intended. The model proposes a composite board composed of executive members from each organizations which represents the d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of ethnic groups i n the settlement. The chairman i s appointed on a r o t a t i o n a l basis, s h i f t i n g from one to the next a f t e r designated periods of time. The proposed model included advisory functions i n addition to those func-tions f o r which the board would be d i r e c t l y responsible. The composite board would be responsible f o r the administration of l o c a l improvements and formulating l o c a l development programs which, i n t h e i r view, represent the best expenditure of finances a l l o c a t e d to the settlement by the T e r r i t o r i a l government. The composite boards advisory functions would involve consultation with the two senior l e v e l s of government about community r e l a -ted functions and with the Band councils i n r e l a t i o n to formul-ating plans compatiable to a l l sectors of the settlement. Table 5 provides an overview of the analyses of the hypothetical f i t of t h i s model of l o c a l government f o r the communities included 20? i n the study. A board, s i m i l a r to the proposed model, was developed i n Ross River i n order to formulate an adult education program f o r the community. Although t h i s board was assembled only once,.un-der the encouragement of the Director of Vocational Education, i t does give weight to the f e a s i b i l i t y of such a program. That the board was considered a success by a l l those who took part gives a d d i t i o n a l strength to t h i s p o s i t i o n . Table 5 i l l u s t r a t e s that the tentative model, increases the "COOPERATION" c r i t e r i a but anticipated a reduction i n the SCOPE c r i t e r i a r e l a t i v e to the LID assessment. Both forms of l o c a l government demonstrate s i m i l a r degrees of f i t to the SOCIO-POLITICAL c r i t e r i a . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should not be read to mean that the three c r i t e r i a are independent or are of equal importance. One may argue that a type of l o c a l government which i s compatiable with the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l character of a community w i l l be able to define much of i t s own scope of a c t i v i t i e s , con-versly the functions of a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l government may gener-ate a form of l o c a l government appropriate to the character of the settlement. The most s i g n i f i c a n t differences are demonstrated when comp-aring the assessment f o r each of the forms of government i n each of the settlements. The appraisals of the LID and the model were quite s i m i l a r f o r three settlements: P e l l y , Carmacks and Ross River (Composite Board, observed) Scope (moderate) + accomodates p o s s i b i l i t i e s of involvement i n a broad scope of discussions and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the community's economic op-por t u n i t i e s through the f l e x -i b i l i t y of the structure. + deals with functions as they r e l a t e to a l l s e t t l e -ment/residents, not only one sector. - d i v i s i o n of i n t e r e s t s across ethnic l i n e s may tend to r e s t -r i c t scope to only those func-tions a l l can agree upon. + provides a form of l o c a l gov-ernment representative of en-t i r e settlement to government agencies. - f l e x i b l e form would possibly make senior governments h e s i -tant to delegate r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s l o c a l l y . Cooperation (large) + framework to coordinate functions between three r e l a t i v e l y strong l o c a l organizations. +• involves a l l groups p o l i t i c a l l y i n a common forum rather than i s o l a -tes each. + allows Band to set part of the format f o r the org-anization to be compatiable with Tutchone s o c i a l struc-ture. - cooperation desired only i n c e r t a i n areas with the rig h t reserved to opt out i f these bounds are cros-sed. + more representative on basis of population of eth-nic sectors. S o c l o - p o i i t i c a l (large) * proposal of board viewed favourably by respondents and by those involved i n a si m i l a r meeting. + most people expressed need f o r coordination across eth-nic l i n e s to more e f f e c t i v -ely deal with external pres-sures on settlement. t f l e x i b l e form accommodates Indian organizational system more appropriately. - a meeting s i m i l a r i n form to the proposed board requi-red an external body to i n i t -i a t e . - l i k e l y that cooperation among ethnic sectors would only occur on issues which i n no way would compromise one of the groups. + reinforces developing p o l i t -i c a l r o le of the Band and YANSI through broader representation on issues which a f f e c t them. P e l l y Crossing (Composite Board, hypothetical)* Scope (large) Cooperation (moderate) S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (moderate) would provide the settlement with a l o c a l government which could deal with senior govern-ments . i- would provide a forum f o r expressing community needs and. asp i r a t i o n s . Settlement would be more d i f f i c u l t f o r senior government to overlook. + incorporates a l l human and economic resources of community planning. - f l e x i b i l i t y of membership may Create hesitancy of senior gov-ernment to allow board manage-ment of f i s c a l powers. + would l i k e l y make more money avai l a b l e to settlement through l o c a l government. + would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n impro-ved services i n community. + a format i n which issues infl u e n c i n g a l l residents may be aired by represent-atives of t h e i r respective sectors. + represents an opportunity f o r l o c a l s to have an i n -fluence over the a f f a i r s they indicated an i n t e r e s t In. - form does not allow f o r - represents a form of gov-the r o l e p e r s o n a l i t i e s play ernment residents indicated i n these interactions i n they wish to avoid, t h i s small a community and hence may resu l t In con- - most people not f a m i l i a r f i l e t s . with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . + board would allow p o l i t i c s of the settlement to develop at i t s own rate. *In order f o r the model to apply to P e l l y , organizations representing the white and non status Indian would have to be formed and demonstrate some i n d i c a t i o n of continued existence. The model i s applied, assuming these condi-tions are met. ro o T e s l i n (Composite Board, hypothetical) Scope (large) Cooperation (large) S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (large) + would allow general view of development p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d to tourism and other economic potentials f o r the community. + included settlement's e n t i r e population. + would provide government structures capable of gain-ing assistance i n developing community services. + provides a forum i n which c o n f l i c t s between settlement and senior governments may be discussed or resolved. + a forum which ensures equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the three e x i s t i n g organiza-tions representing respective' ive sectors of the settlement, + relates favourably to both White and Indian forms of s o c i a l organization. + provides a forum i n which c o n f l i c t s crossing ethnic l i n e s may be discussed or resolved. •»- corresponds to e x i s t -ing p o l i t i c a l format and acts to l e g i t i m i z e them to senior governments. - pressures to obtain a form of l o c a l government w i l l enrourage accept-ance of LID rather than attempting to a l t e r s i -tuation. + residents f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . + cohesive character of community lends i t s e l f to t h i s form of govern-ment. ro o + proposal of board was received favourably by respondents. Carmacks (Composite Board, hypothetical) Scope ( s l i g h t ) + may provide some avenue f o r consideration of economic and human resources of the s e t t l e -ment i n a c o l l e c t i v e fashion to c a p i t a l i z e on developmental p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Cooperation (moderate) + would provide the format f o r cooperative i n t e r a c t i o n however i t i s l i k e l y that form would be used only on a token basis i n l i g h t of community d i v i s i o n s . S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (moderate) - not compatible with e x i s t -ing p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n along ethnic l i n e s . - l i k e l y to widen d i v i s i o n between transients and perm-anent Whites. compatible with the a s p i r -ations f o r increased c o n t r o l over settlement a f f a i r s ex-pressed by both ethnic groups. + some older residents are quite f a m i l i a r with T e r r i -t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . + proposal at composite board was favourably r e c e i -ved by respondents. - f l e x i b l e format may lead to early c o n f l i c t s across ethnic l i n e s since topics of discus-sion are not c l e a r l y defined. - would probably not deal with a l l o c a t i o n of u t i l i t i e s since would serve only small densely populated area of settlement. + represents a form of l o c a l government which would be cons-idered to represent a l l r e s i d -ents of the settlement. - cross sector c o n f l i c t s would l i k e l y l i m i t functions of board to those not s e n s i t i v e to e i t h -er group. - f l e x i b l e format would l i -kely r e s u l t i n a short l i f e , not l i k e l y to remain i n <}.•. existence considering the degree of antagonism across ethnic l i n e s . + would i n i t i a l l y represent a forum which could be used to reduce tensions across ethnic l i n e s . + would represent an attempt at reducing the extent of the d i v i s i o n between ethnic sectors. Carcross (Composite Board, hypothetical) Scope (moderate) + would f a c i l i t a t e the i n v o l -vement of a l l community r e s i d -ents i n tourism and mining op-po r t u n i t i e s which may be open to the settlement. - possibly not formalized .-c enough to ensure they are •. treated as a body d i s t i n c t from a Whitehorse suburb. - may pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n fi n d i n g trustees who can oper-ate e f f e c t i v e l y with a l l soc-i a l f a c t i o n s . + would provide format i n which residents could begin to devel-op character of settlement d i s -t i n c t from Whitehorse. Cooperation (large) t close interpersonal r e l -ations and role of YANSI indicates that a coopera-t i v e atmosphere would be generated i n t h i s s e t t l e -ment . - weak band organization may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n developing i n t e r n a l s o l i d -a r i t y i f i n a board s i t u a -t i o n . problems common to a l l residents could be discus-sed representatively. + may have net a f f e c t of adding a s o l i d a r i t y to com-munity hence improving t h e i r interactions w i l l White-horse. S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l (moderate) - atomized character not suited to l o c a l government which would be involved i n general functions. + some in d i v i d u a l s f a m i l i a r with T e r r i t o r i a l Government. - l i t t l e concern indicated about any form of l o c a l gov-ernment with most people indicated they wished not to be involved i n community af-f a i r s . + proposal of model was fav-ourably received by respond-ents . Haines Junction (Composite Board, hypothetical)* Scope ( s l i g h t ) Cooperation (moderate) S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ( s l i g h t ) +• would involve a l l lands i n the area of settlement, not only those i n core area. - would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n loss of f i s c a l powers due to increa-sed f l e x a b i l i t y i n board mem-bership. They have le s s oppor-tunity to demonstrate committrr;.. ments to community. - would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n some loss of c r e d i b i l i t y with senior government. - would l i k e l y allow f o r d i r e c t involvement i n economic a c t i v i t -i e s which influence the s e t t l e -ment . - problems of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with widespread band. + form adaptable to s o c i a l structures of both Indian and White sectors. - may be perceived as lessen-ing the developing p o l i t i c a l strength of both the Board a and YANSI. + provides a forum i n which issues crossing ethnic l i -nes may be discussed. - residents attached to e x i s t i n g form of govern-ment. - not appropriate to ex i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s truc-ture. - residents generally well informed about T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i t i c s . - increased membership may lead to c o n f l i c t s within board, as apposed to coop-eration currently found i n LID. - the proposed model was rejected by a l l respond-ents. •Attempting to assess how the model would " f i t " i n Haines Junction i s d i f f i c u l t and un-r e a l i s t i c i n the l i g h t of the committment of the residents of the D i s t r i c t to the LID and the capable performance of the board both within i t s functions and i n an advisory capacity. Table 5 Assessment of " P i t " Community Ross P e l l y T e s l i n Carmacks Carcross Haines Totals River Crossing Junction Function The LID: Assessment of " F i t " Scope moderate large moderate moderate moderate large 1 2 1 1 1 2 8 Cooperation s l i g h t moderate large s l i g h t moderate s l i g h t 0 1 2 0 1 0 4 ro S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l moderate s l i g h t large moderate s l i g h t large j£ 1 0 2 1 0 2 6 Totals 2 3 5 2 2 4 18 The Composite Board: Assessment of " F i t "  Scope moderate large large s l i g h t moderate .slight 0, 2 2 0 1 0 5 Cooperation large moderate Ilarge moderate large moderate 2 1 2 1 2 1 9 S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l large moderate large moderate moderate s l i g h t 2.. 1 2 1 1 0 7 2 1 5 T e s l i n . The LID was assessed as the most appropriate i n Haines Junction and the model was assessed as the more appropriate f o r Ross River and Carcross. Two points become apparent throughout t h i s a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t i s that the process of evaluation and assessment i s value  laden regardless of who performs the a p p r a i s a l , a l b e i t the com-munity member, the T e r r i t o r i a l government or a researcher who i s once removed from the community-government i n t e r a c t i o n s . With t h i s i n mind i t seems that t h i s assessment should f o r the greater part, be a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y since i t i s the commu-nity' s residents who are to function within the l o c a l system. The second point i s that the LID or the model are not equally  compatible to a l l the settlements. Where they are appropriate i n a p a r t i c u l a r context i n one community they may be inappro-p r i a t e i n the same context i n the next community. A survey of table 5 and 6 indicates that one model generally performs some functions more adequately than the other. These differences r a i s e the question " i s there a form of l o c a l government which minimized d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and f a c i l i t a t e s a greater degree of " f i t " to the needs and character of a l l the settlements"? The adaptive feature of the tentative semantic model allows f o r a whole family of models to be generated, keeping within the d i r e c t i o n s , implied and e x p l i c i t , of the two postulates. Soma responses to the proposal describing the model suggested ways 216 of adapting i t to correspond more appropriately to the needs of p a r t i c u l a r settlements. One such suggestion proposes a combining of some features of the LID and the model. One respondent suggests a represent-at i v e from each community group i n addition to three trustees elected from the settlement's en t i r e population. Two of these members would represent the settlement on a T e r r i t o r i a l Board which would provide the government with advice re l a t e d to the general administration of Local Improvement D i s t r i c t s . The fea-ture of a r o t a t i o n a l chairman proposed i n the model, would be obtained i n the revised form. This proposal i l l u s t r a t e s only one of ten responses which recommend various degrees of modification to the LID and the proposed model. Assessing each of these i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , however i t i s worth noting;; that each of the pro-posals was p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to the community i t come from. One can an t i c i p a t e agreement i n one settlement and d i s -agreement i n another on the basis of the differences among the communities i f on no other c r i t e r i a . The extent and character of these differences, which have been outlined i n some d e t a i l f o r the s i x communities, strongly suggests that there i s no one correct form of l o c a l government. I f t h i s assessment of the s i t u a t i o n i s correct, what then should the Yukon Government and the unorganized settlements do i n order that they may be i n v o l -ved i n determining how l o c a l a f f a i r s are managed? c h a p t e r B C o n c l u s i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s I n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r y t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e Y u k o n h a s b e e n e n c o u r a g i n g u n o r g a n i z e d s e t t l e m e n t s t o a d o p t an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e f o r m , r o l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t be v i e w e d a s a p p r o p r i a t e a t two l e v e l s ; t h e T e r r i t o r i a l G o v e r n -ment l e v e l a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y l e v e l . As t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s , t h e p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s b e e n l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o -r i a l C o u n c i l a n d t h e e x i s t i n g L I D ' s . The G o v e r n m e n t ' s t a s k h a s b e e n one o f s e l l i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e unor-g a n i z e d s e t t l e m e n t a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e Y u k o n G o v e r n m e n t ' s 1971 A n n u a l R e p o r t c i t e d e a r l i e r . The a n a l y s i s i n t h e t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e L I D w o u l d n o t 2-18 s u i t a l l u n o r g a n i z e d s e t t l e m e n t s e q u a l l y w e l l . I f t h i s i s a c -c e p t e d t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f "what s h o u l d t h e T e r r i t o r i a l Gov-e r n m e n t d o ? " s t i l l r e m a i n s . A r e v i e w o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t may p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n . The o b s e r v a t i o n made most f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s ; d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f e a c h s e t t l e m e n t a n d r e s t a t e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t s , h a s b e e n t h a t e a c h c o m m u n i t y i s u n i -que. The d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h one f r o m t h e o t h e r c o v e r a w i d e r a n g e o f f a c t o r s s u c h a s ; t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e t h e y h a v e u p o n i t s c h a r a c t e r ; t h e d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y ; t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ; t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e c o m m u n i t y a nd i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s a n d t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s ; a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e s e v e r a l i n d i v -i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s i n e a c h c o m m u n i t y . The demands o f l a c k o f demands f o r a l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h s t e m f r o m t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i m p l i c i t t h r o u g h o u t t h e a n a l y s i s a n d e x p l i c i t i n t h e r e s p o n s e s o f r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . A t t e m p t s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e r e a r e no e l e m e n t s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t common t o a l l d f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s t u d y . The n e e d f o r l o c a l management o f l o c a l 219 p r o b l e m s a n d t h e n e e d f o r c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s e t h -n i c l i n e s a p p e a r a s two f a c t o r s w h i c h a p p l y t o a l l t h e commu-n i t i e s . What e v e r t h e p r o c e s s e s u s e d i n a s s e s s i n g t h e d i f f e -r e n c e s among s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e y must be r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g v a l u e - l a d e n . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d l e d t o a n e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n a t a c o m m u n i t y l e v e l w h i c h w o u l d t e n d t o e l i m i n a t e a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e c o n f u s i o n a t W h i t e h o r s e a s t o whose a d v i s e s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t h e m a k i n g o f c o m m u n i t y r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s . The d i a g r a m s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n t a c t s w h i c h d e v e l o p b e t -ween e a c h o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a n d t h e t w o s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s a b o u t two s p e c i f i c i s s u e s ( F i g u r e s 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 1 3 , 15 , 16 , 1 8 , 19) show t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be c o m p l e x a n d c o n -f u s e d . An o b j e c t i v e o f a l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i s t h a t o f s o r t i n g t h e s e m a t t e r s o u t l o c a l l y s o t h a t , r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t e n t o f i f t e e n i n p u t s t o t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s e m a n a t i n g f r o m d i f f e r -e n t s o u r c e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , a s i n g l e i n p u t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t a s a w h o l e may p r o v i d e a c l e a r g u i d e f o r g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h f o r t h e T e r r i t o r i a l G o v e r n m e n t t o a d o p t i n d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e u n o r g a n i z e d s e t t l e m e n t a p p e a r s t o be one w h i c h w i l l o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s s u c h a s t h o s e s e t o u t i n t h e p o s t u l a t e s , f o r m u l a t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m s , f u n c t i o n , and r o l e o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r t h e recommend-a t i o n s a n d a d v i c e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t t l e m e n t . 220 I f t h i s procedure were adopted the T e r r i t o r i a l Government would be c a s t i n a d i f f e r e n t r o l e i n i t s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the unorganized s e t t l e m e n t . Rather than o f f e r i n g a ' l o c a l govern-ment package, ' the T e r r i t o r i a l Government would be o f f e r i n g g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s or g u i d e l i n e s which would a s s i s t each s e t -tlement i n f o r m u l a t i n g the s p e c i f i c a spects of t h e i r own l o c a l government. The f o l l o w i n g recommendations f l o w from these c o n c l u s i o n s ; 1. The T e r r i t o r i a l Government should r e a p p r a i s e the L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t Ordinance w i t h a view t o making i t a statement of the g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s w i t h i n which the s p e c i f i c s of form, f u n c t i o n , and r o l e may be worked"out between the s e t t l e m e n t and the s e n i o r government while r e c o g n i z i n g the l a r g e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the T e r r i t o r -i a l and F e d e r a l Governments. For example; the r e v i s e d ordinance c o u l d be p a t t e r e n e d a f t e r the S o c i e t i e s o r d i -nance i n t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n s of a p a r t i -c u l a r group are s e t out i n the L e t t e r s Patent of each body. 2. The T e r r i t o r i a l Government should e s t a b l i s h these g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r l o c a l government only a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of l o c a l government w i t h a l l s e c t o r s of the unorganized s e t t l e m e n t s , whether r e p r e s e n t e d by org-a n i z a t i o n s or not. 221 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups w i t h i n t h e u n o r g a n i z e d s e t t l e -ments s h o u l d f o r m u l a t e t h e i r v iews on t h e t y p e o f fo r m , r o l e and f u n c t i o n s a l o c a l government would embody t o meet most a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e needs of t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e n s u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l government f o r t h e u n o r g a n i z e d s e t -t l e m e n t s r e s t s w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t one of t h e f i r s t f u n c t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e r e s i d e n t s of a s e t t l e m e n t would be t h a t of d e s i g n i n g t h e e x p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r l o c a l government. The f l e x i b -i l i t y of such a system may add t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r -i n g t h e o v e r a l l a f f a i r s of l o c a l governments by t h e Department o f L o c a l Government. T h i s h o w e v e r r s h o u l d not i n i t s e l f be a d e t e r e n t t o a c c e p t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i -c u l t i e s w h i c h may a r i s e t h r o u g h t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e s e p r i n c i -p l e s may w e l l be d i m i n i s h e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d degree of co o p e r -a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e community and s e n i o r government. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e T h e s i s f o r L o c a l Government i n Canada What i m p l i c a t i o n s • f o r o t h e r p a r t s of Canada may be i n f e r e d f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s ? I n o r d e r t o answer t h i s ques-t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e a l i z e the d i v e r s i t y i n the t y p e s l o c a l governments w h i c h e x i s t a c r o s s Canada, a t a s k w h i c h , i n i t s e l f , I s w e l l beyond t h e scope of t h e t h e s i s . 222 One may be tempted t o draw p a r a l l e l s between the suggest-i o n s f o r l o c a l government as expressed i n the t h e s i s and the development of urban neibourhood government. In the authors o p i n i o n i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t these i n f e r e n c e s are warrented. D i f f e r e n c e s between the two are ones of magnitude and ex t e n t . P o p u l a t i o n s i z e s , the p e r s o n a l nature of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the sense of community, the i n d i v i d u a l s ' exposure t o community r e s i d e n t s and l o c a t i o n and sources of employment d i f f e r between r u r a l and urban s e t t i n g t o such an extent as t o suggest t h a t i t may not be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t r a n s l a t e the f i n d i n g s of the the-s i s t o the urban scene.: One may, however, draw i n f e r e n c e s from the study by compar-i n g the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l governments f o r u n i n c o r p o r a t e d . o r unorganized areas i n a p r o v i n c e , B.C., and i n a t e r r i t o r y , the N.W.T. A comparison of the procedure proposed i n the t h e s i s w i t h those of the two areas w i l l f o l l o w a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the methods used t o i n v o l v e the unorganized r u r a l community i n the making of l o c a l d e c i s i o n s i n B.C. and the N.W.T., r e s p e c t i v e l y . L o c a l government i n B.C. c o n s i s t s of many l e v e l s of i n c o r -p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( c i t i e s , towns, v i l l a g e s and d i s t r i c t s ) . B.C. has Inv o l v e d the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s i n the making of l o c a l d e c i s i o n s through p l a c i n g e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , from these a r e a s , on Boards which a d m i n i s t e r the R e g i o n a l D i s -t r i c t . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s p r o v i d e f o r a f e d e r a t e d approach t o 223 l o c a l c o n t r o l , however the functions or a c t i v i t i e s they may assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over are granted to the governing boards upon a p p l i c a t i o n . The voting strength of the Board members are roughly proportional to the population of member muni c i p a l i t i e s or the unorganized areas, r e f e r r e d to as e l e c t o r a l areas. Most of the powers of the board are set out i n Letters Patent and d i f f e r from one region to the next. (Province of B.C., 1972) The 1973 amendments to the B.C. Municipal Act gives the Regio-nal D i s t r i c t s access to e s s e n t i a l l y a l l the powers of a c i t y municipality. The problems of the unincorporated areas which are unable to exercise co n t r o l over l o c a l functions s t i l l remains even through these issues may be raised by the l o c a l representative who s i t s on the Regional D i s t r i c t Board. Where the proposal i n the thesis d i f f e r s from the p r i n c i p l e of gradualism b u i l t i n t o extending functions to the Regional D i s t r i c t i s that t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s extended to include a changing form of government as well as a changing r o l e i n the community a l o c a l government would take. The findings of the thesis correspond with the B.C. pra c t i c e of the i n s i s t i n g that a d d i t i o n a l functions are all o c a t e d to the Regional D i s t r i c t Board only upon t h e i r re-quest. The thesis also suggests that unorganized areas would, i n consultation with the P r o v i n c i a l Government and t h e i r Region-a l D i s t r i c t , design a system of l o c a l government which would meet t h e i r l o c a l needs appropriately with the option open to 224 change the type of l o c a l government as demands on the community change. Local government i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s has undergone a t r a n s i t i o n over the past f i v e years. Formerly, unorganized settlements were administered by government personnel within . the Department of Local Government. These communities have been encouraged to form settlement councils which are elected from the resident population. The government administrators assume more of a managerial ro l e while l o c a l decisions have become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the councils. As councils dem-onstrate t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s i n administering l o c a l a f f a i r s they become e l i g i b l e f o r hamlet status i n which the council has an even lar g e r hand i n set t i n g budgets, h i r i n g s t a f f and awarding l o c a l contracts. The process of expanding l o c a l functions upon l o c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s practiced on the basis of expanding l o c a l functions upon the request of settlement councils as the f e e l both the need and a b i l i t y to handle ad d i t i o n a l functions. The Commissioner of the N.W.T. implied i n an interview with the Canadian Magazine that some of the new councils are sagging under the weight of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . He c i t e s a number of incidents which occurred i n Tuktoyaktuk when the settlement became a hamlet. Developers, businessmen and researchers, when, they r e a l i z e d there was a l o c a l decision-making body flooded the councils with proposals which exceeded i t s a b i l i t y to cope e f f e c t i v e l y . The Commissioner stated that they have had to 225 slow down the process of developing l o c a l governments " u n t i l we've had a b i t more experience" (Canadian Magazine, Jan. 6 , 1972). The p r i n c i p l e s expressed i n the thesis would seem to suggest that the development of l o c a l government i n the N.W.T. should not only be based on the p r i n c i p l e of gradually expanding func-tions at the request of the settlement but should also begin by designing an i n i t i a l form and r o l e of government i n consul-tations between the community and the T e r r i t o r i a l Government. These aspects of l o c a l government could also be adjusted at the request of the settlement. It would seem, from the analy-s i s i n t h i s study that from f a i l i n g to recognized the d i f f e r -ences which exi s t between communities by placing a common form of l o c a l government, the settlement c o u n c i l , i n a l l communi-t i e s . The thesis suggests that t h i s should be of fundamental importance to the N.W.T. as well as the Yukon. In summary, the thesis has linked the extent of the divers-i t y among s i x r u r a l Yukon settlements to the d i f f i c u l t i e s senior governments i n the T e r r i t o r y encounter i n administering commu-ni t y a f f a i r s . Two postulates pertaining to the governmental needs or r u r a l settlements were developed with the objectives of d e centralizing those functions of government which would most e f f i c i e n t l y and expeditiously be administered, at the settlement l e v e l and formulating a system of l o c a l government which would 226 encourage cooperative in t e r a c t i o n s across ethnic l i n e s . The r e s u l t s of the analysis i n tne thesis suggests that the d i f f e r -ences among the communities were so extensive as to indicate that no one type of l o c a l government with s p e c i f i c form, func-tions and r o l e would s a t i s f y the postulates appropriately f o r each of the settlements. In l i g h t of the f i n d i n g the author recommends that the T e r r i t o r i a l Government develop an ordin-ance f o r l o c a l government which has f l e x i b i l i t y and the possib-i t i t i e s of expanding i t s form and r o l e i n addition to i t s func-t i o n s . Such a course of action would possibly resolve many of the c e n t r a l - v e r s u s - l o c a l issues which develop within the e x i s t -ing framework and may lead to a more e f f i c i e n t , equable, and expeditious administration of Yukon a f f a i r s . b i b l i o g r a p h y 228 B i b l i o g r a p h y P a r t 1; P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y of the Yukon Brown J.N.E., 1 9 0 7 . "The E v o l u t i o n of Law and Government i n the Y u k o n . T e r r i t o r y . " , M u n i c i p a l Government of Toronto. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . F i n g l a n d F.B., 1 9 6 8 . C r i t i c a l Review of C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  P o l i t i c a l Development i n Northwestern North America. <vUnpublished a r t i c l e ; F i n g l a n d , F.B., 1 9 6 4 . "Recent C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Development i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y T " ^ U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l m : — ; Judy, R.D., 1 9 5 9 . T e r r i t o r i a l Government; The Canadian NWT and  Yukon. B e r k l e y : u n i v e r s i t y or C a l i f o r n i a PHD d i s s e r t a t i o n . L i n g a r d , C., 1 9 4 6 . " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Canadian N o r t h l a n d . " Canadian J o u r n a l of Economic and P o l i t i c a l S c i e nce X I I . M o r r i s o n , D.R., 1 9 6 8 . The P o l i t i c s of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . T oronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . Rea K.J., 1 9 6 8 . The P o l i t i c a l Economy of the Canadian North. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of l'or onto t r e s s . Robertson, R.C., 1 9 6 3 . "The E v o l u t i o n of T e r r i t o r i a l Govern-ment In Canada." The P o l i t i c a l Process i n Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . Robertson G., i 9 6 0 . " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Development i n North-er n Canada." Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T a y l o r , A. 1 9 4 4 . "A Yukon Domesday." The New Northwest. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . Thompson, A., 1 9 0 8 . "Government of the Yukon." A l a s k a Yukon Magazine. 229 Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, 1 9 6 8 . Yukon T e r r i t o r y . White-horse Department of Tourism and Information. Zaslow, M., 1 9 6 7 . "Recent C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Developments i n Ca-nada's Northern T e r r i t o r i e s . " Canadian Public Admlnistra-t i o n . Bibliography Part 2: Ethnography of Yukon Indians B a l i k c i , A., 1 9 6 3 . Vaunta Kutchln S o c i a l Change. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Chance, N.A. 1 9 6 8 . C o n f l i c t i n Culture: Problems of Develop-mental Change Among the Creel Ottawa: Canadian Research Center f o r Anthropology. F r i e d , J . , 1 9 6 4 . "Urbanization and Ecology i n the Canadian Northwest T e r r i t o r y . " A r c t i c Anthropology I I . Fr i e d J . , 1 9 6 4 . "Contact Situations and t h e i r Consequences i n A r c t i c and Subarctic North America." A r c t i c Anthropol-ogy I I . Honigmann, J . J . 1 9 6 5 . Eskimo Townsmen. Ottawa: Canada Re-search Center f o r Anthropology. Honingmann, J . J . , 1 9 6 5 . "Social D i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n Five North-ern Canadian Communities. "The Canadian Review of S o c i o l -ogy and Anthropology.. Honingmann J . J . , 195^. Ethnographic Reconstruction of Kaska  Society. New Haven: Yale University Press. Honingmann, J . J . , 19^9. Culture and Ethos of Kaska Society. New Havan: Yale University Press. 2J0 Krause, A., 1 9 5 6 . The T l i n g i t Indian. (Translation by E. Gun-l t e r ) . Seattle: University of Washington Press. McClelland C., 1 9 6 4 . "Culture Contacts i n the Early H i s t o r i c Period i n Northwestern North America." A r c t i c Anthropology I I . McClelland, C , 1 9 5 0 . Culture Change and Native Trade i n South-ern Yukon T e r r i t o r y ^ Berkley: {unpublished PHD d i s s e r t a -t i o n ; University of C a l i f o r n i a . Osgood, C , 1 9 3 6 . The D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Northern Athapaskan  Indians. New Haven: Yale University Press. Osgood, C , 1 9 5 8 . Ingalik S o c i a l Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press. Ridington, R., 1 9 6 8 . The Environmental Context of Beaver Indian  Behaviour. Harvard (unpublished PHD d i s s e r t a t i o n ) . Harvard Univ e r s i t y . VanStone, J.W., 1 9 6 5 . The Changing Culture of the Snowdrift Chipewyan. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Bibliography Part 3* The Contemporary Yukon Canada. Canadian Geologic Survey 19^3. The Flora and Fauna  of the Canol Road. Ottawa: Queens Pri n t e r . Canada. Carrothers Commission 1 9 6 6 . Development of Government i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Ottawa: Queens Pr i n t e r . Canada. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and Natural Resources, 1 9 5 9 . "Resource Development In the North." Northern Af-f a i r s B u l l e t i n , May-June. 231 Canada. Northern Development Branch, 1 9 7 2 . Canada's North  1 9 7 0 . Ottawa: (presented to the Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development• (Queens P r i n t e r . Canada. Northern Development Branch, 1969 to 1 9 7 1 . Government  A c t i v i t i e s i n the North. Ottawa: Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Canada. Northern Development Branch, 1 9 6 5 . Northern Roads Net-work Program. Ottawa: Department of Indian A f f a i r s and -Northern Development. Canada. Indian A f f a i r s Branch, 1 9 7 2 . Housing f o r Yukon Indians. Whitehorse: (unpublished reports c i r c u l a t e d to Yukon Bands) Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Canada. Yukon Forest Services, 1 9 7 2 . Community Reports. (un-published reports of Resource Management O f f i c e r s ) Canada, 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 . Budget Estimates. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Canada 1 9 7 2 . Revised Statutes of the Government of Canada. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Canada 1 9 7 1 . Yukon Population Data. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Canada 1 9 6 5 . The Amendment of the Constitution of Canada. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Carr, D.W., 1 9 6 8 . Yukon Economy. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . 'The Human Factors i n the North, it Duerden, F., 1 9 7 1 . The Evolution and Nature of the Contempo- rary Settlement pattern i n a s e l e c t e d A r e a of t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. 232 E r v i n A. 1 9 6 9 . " C o n f l i c t i n g Styles i n a Northern Canadian Town. "Arctic Vol 2 2 . Pried J . , 1 9 6 3 . "White Dominant Settlements i n the Canadian Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . " Anthropologica Vol 5. Honigmann, J . J . , 1 9 7 0 . A r c t i c Townsmen. Ethnic Backgrounds and Modernization. "Ottawa: Canadian Research Center f o r Anthropology. Kargbo, M.J.T., 19&5. Musqueam Indian Reserve: A Case Study f o r Community Development Purposes. Vancouver: Unpublish-<l ed MA Thesis U.B.C. King, R.A., 1 9 6 7 . The School at Mopass. Toronto: Holt, Rine-hart and Winston. Lotz, J.R., 1 9 7 0 . Northern R e a l i t i e s . Toronto: New Press. Lotz J.R., 1 9 6 6 . "The Yukon Pattern - Yesterday and Tomorrow." North V o l 3 No. 1 . Lotz, J.R . , " 1 9 6 9 . "Whither Community Development i n Canada." Community Development Journal IV A p r i l . M i l l e r G., 1 9 7 1 . The Economic Acculturation of an Indian Band. Ottawa: (unpublished report submitted to the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development). Naysmith, J.K. 1 9 7 1 . Canada North - Man and the Land. Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r . Orange B. 1 9 7 0 . Presentation to the Standing Committee on In-dian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Ottawa. Queens Pr i n t e r . P h i l l i p s R.J.A., 1 9 6 7 . Canada's North. Toronto: MacMillan Ltd. 233 Robinson, I.M., 1 9 7 0 . New I n d u s t r i a l Towns on Canada's Resource  Fr o n t i e r . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. T e s l i n Womens1 I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 2 . T e s l i n . T e s l i n ; printed a r t i -c l e . Touche Ross, Bailey and Smart 1 9 6 8 . Yukon Taxation Study. (Report submitted to the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development.) Waubageshig, ed., 1 9 7 0 . The Only Good Indian. Toronto: New Press. Whitehorse Star, 1968 to 1 9 7 3 . Whitehorse. Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1 9 7 3 . Together Today f o r Our Children  Tomorrow. Whitehorse: (A Report submitted to the Commis-sioner on Indian Claims and the Government of Canada). Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1 9 7 2 . Annual Reports and Band Reports. Whitehorse: Unpublished reports. Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 7 3 . Revised Ordinances of  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . Whitehorse: Queens P r i n t e r . Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government. 1969 to 1 9 7 2 . Votes and Proceed-ings of the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Council. Whitehorse; Queens Prin t e r . Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, 1 9 7 2 . Summary: Housing Need and Demand Survey. Whitehorse: Unpublished report. Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government 1 9 7 2 . T e r r i t o r i a l Accounts. Whitehorse: Queens P r i n t e r . Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, 1 9 7 2 . Education Report. White-horse: (Unpublished report.) yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, 1969 to 1 9 7 2 . Annual Report of the Commissioner. Whitehorse: Queens P r i n t e r . 234 B i b l i o g r a p h y Part 4: Community P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e Almond, D.K. and P o w e l l , P.L., 1966. Comparative P o l i t i c s : A Developmental Approach. Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown and Company. Cahn, E.S. and P a s s e t t B.A., 1971. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E f f e c t i n g Community Change. New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , C l a r k T.N., 1968. ' Community S t r u c t u r e and Decision-making. San F r a n c i s c o : Cnandler P u b l i s h e d Company. Dean, L., 1967. F i v e Towns: A Comparative Community Study. New York: Random House. Diamant, A., 1966. The Temporal Dimensions i n Models of Ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n and O r g a n i z a t i o n , (paper presented] Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Draper, J.A., 1971. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canada. Toronto: New P r e s s . E a s t o n , D. 196*5. A Framework f o r P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . E n g l e -wood C l i f f s N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l . Goodenough, W.H., 1963. C o - o p e r a t i o n i n Change. New York: R a s s e l Sage Foundation. H o l s t i , O.R., 1969. Content A n a l y s i s f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities. London: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company. H o l t , R.T. and Turner, J.E., 1970. The Methodology of Compara-t i v e Research. New York: Free P r e s s . Ja n o w i t z , M. ( e d . ) , 1961. Community P o l i t i c a l Systems. I l l i -n o i s : Free P r e s s . Kaplan, A., 1964. The Conduct of I n q u i r y . San F r a n c i s c o : 2-35 Chandler Publishing Co. Pye, C.L. 1 9 6 6 . Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Development. Boston: L i t t l e Brown Co. ; .' Pye, C.L. 1 9 5 8 . "Community Development as a Part of P o l i t i c a l Development." Community Development Review. March. Robinson, I.M., 1 9 6 2 . New I n d u s t r i a l Towns and Canadas Resource  Fr o n t i e r . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Schon D.A., 1 9 7 2 . Beyond the Stable State. London: Temple Smith. Smith B.C., 1 9 6 9 . "The J u s t i f i c a t i o n of Local Government." P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada. Toronto: Methuen. Syed, A.H., 1 9 5 6 . The P o l i t i c a l Theory of American Local Gov-ernment . New York: Random House. Warren, R.L.. 1 9 5 6 . "Toward a Typology of Extra-Community Con-t r o l l Limiting Local Community Autonomy." S o c i a l Forces. Wichern, P.H. Kunta, G. and Waddell, D., 1 9 7 1 . The Production  and Testing of a Model of P o l i t i c a l Development i n Resource Fro n t i e r Communities. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. o *Source: Yukon Government: Need and Demand Housing Survey; 1972 237 Data f o r Ross River: September 1972 Location: 6l°59'N. 132°51W - Mile 2 2 0 Campbell Highway, junction of North Canol Highway. Population: 1 9 7 1 : 317 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada). Ross River i s a v i l l a g e situated at the junction of the Ross River and Pelly Rivers. Its people, many Indians, earn t h e i r l i v i n g by hunting, trapping, and guiding big game hunting p a r t i e s , and more recently on work r e l a t e d to mining. Community and Government Contacts Local.Council: E l e c t e d / Community Club president - Don McKay. Band Chief: C l i f f o r d McLeod. Gov't of Y/.T;; Garage and Grader Station - Ron Edzerza, Foreman. I n f l u e n t i a l People: Don McKay C l i f f o r d McLeod - Chief W.C. Carson. Infrastructure; Water: From an i n f i l t r a t i o n well d i s t r i b u t e d un-238 Sewage: Garbage: E l e c t r i c i t y : Main Re-supply: Marine F a c i l i t i e s : A i r F a c i l i t i e s : F i r e Department: Police: chlorinated; private wells a l s o used. Disposed of by i n d i v i d u a l cesspools. Open dump. Power supplied by Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. Ltd from d i e s e l generators. A l l weather road - Campbell Hwy. & Canol Rd. T e r r i t o r i a l Gov't, f e r r y across Pell y Rv. gives access to North Canol. T e r r i t o r i a l Gov't. Ferry across Pell y River. Airport 6 1 ° 58'N. 1 3 2 ° 26'W. F i e l d Evev. 2 4 0 8 ' , gravel s t r i p 3 6 O O ' long, no l i g h t s -no navigational aids. Chief W. Carson, 6 volunteers. RCMP Detachment; 1 Constable; equipped with a car. F a c i l l c i t e s and Services A i r Transport: Based A i r c r a f t : Water Transport: T e r r i t o r i a l Airways Limited. T e r r i t o r i a l A i r Co. Ltd. - bush p i l o t s ervices. Ferry system by T e r r i t o r i a l Gov't, across 239 Road Transport: Fules Available: Medical: Education: Churches: Community H a l l : Library: Communications: Post O f f i c e : Bank: Recreation: Pelly River d a i l y . Yukon Bus Lines from Whitehorse 3 times a week, passenger, cargo and f r e i g h t and mail. Cost (contract p r i c e per gal) Gasoline . 3 5 4 0 v, fu e l . oil..3410 d i e s e l .3410 1 nursing s t a t i o n f o r emergency f i r s t a i d only - no beds, 1 Doctor attends bi-month-l y , nursing assistant a v a i l a b l e . 4 room school - grades 1 to 9 , capacity -8 0 students, 4 teachers. Catholic Church - F. P. Veyrat. Anglica Church P. G. A s b i l . Yes. Deposit Station - Mr. D. McKay i n charge. No radio, T.V. or telegraph services. Tel-ephone CNT. In store - mail trucked i n 3 times a week. None. Community Club, Curling Club. 240 Public Accomodation: Ross River Hotel. Meals: Ross River Hotel - meals. Liquor: Ross River Hotel - c o c k t a i l s - tavern. Industry and Commerce: Ross River Hotel Ed's Department Store Margaret's General Store Ross River Motors Par F r o n t i e r Services T e r r i t o r i a l A i r Co. Ltd. T e r r i t o r i a l Road Maintenance .Camp, Woody's Taxi Number of persons continuously engaged i n the above enterpri ses: 15 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Ross River Population covered by survey 241 Number of fam i l i e s 60 Number of dwellings 55 Average number of persons per family 4.C2 Average number of children per family 3 Percentage of population covered 76$ 241 Age Groups Sex Age M F T o t a l 00 - 4 y r s 16. 24 40 •5 - 9 y r s 21 18 39 10 - 14 y r s 12 18 . 30 15 - 19 y r s ;,8 11 19 2 0 - 24 y r s 11 ;.4 15 25 - 34 y r s 20 19 39 Sex Age M F T o t a l 35 - : 44 y r s 7 8 15 45 - 54 y r s 14 13 27 5 5 - 6 4 y r s 5 3 8 65 - 69 y r s 2 1 3 7 0 - 75 y r s 1 2 2 75 - 8 0 y r s 1 3 8 0 y r s & over 1 242 Data f o r Pelly Crossing: September 1972 Location: Population: Mile 168 - Whitehorse - Mayo Highway 1971 - 1^1 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) Community and Government Contacts Local Council: Band Chief: None Danny Joe Gov't of the Y.T.: None I n f l u e n t i a l People: Ed. Wolven Walter Delhach Infrastructure Water: Sewage: Garbage: E l e c t r i c i t y : Main Re-supply: Well-pressure system Garbage dump Dies e l - Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. - 100$ back-up ( f i r s t 300 KWH @ 5 . 0 $) A l l weather road - Whitehorse - Mayo Highway. Pe l l y River Marine F a c i l i t i e s : None 243 A i r F a c i l i t i e s : Forestry S t r i p - doubtful conditions F i r e Department: F i r e cache located i n Wash house, Indian V i l l a g e P o l i c e : Policed by Carmacks unit Detachment F a c i l i t i e s and Services Based A i r c r a f t : None Local Transport: None Road Transport: Fules Available: Yukon Bus Lines - 3 times a week f o r pas-senger, cargo and f r e i g h t Whitepass & Yukon Route Fuel o i l cost (contract p r i c e per gal.) . 3 5 5 0 Medical: Education: Churches: Community H a l l : Library: Nursing Station Elementary School, 2 rooms, grades one to eight, 2 teachers Catholic Mission - Rev. J . Guilbaud, (Mayo) Anglican Mission - Rev. D.F. Ni c h o l l s None None 244 Coraraunications: Telephone CNT Post O f f i c e : Mail trucked i n twice a week Bank:. None Public Accomodation: Pelly River Lodge - 8 rooms Meals: Pelly River Lodge restaurant Liquor: P e l l y River Lodge - tavern Industry and Commerce Pel l y River Lodge - Store, Service Station Number of persons continuously engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i -ses: 4 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r P e l l y Crossing Population covered by survey 134 Number of families 33 Number of dwellings 30 Average number of persons per family 4 Average number of children per family 2 Percentage of population covered 95% 245 Age Groups Sex Age M F To t a l 1 - 4 yrs 18 19 37 5 - 9 yrs 10 10 20 10 - 14 yrs 8 6 14 15 - 19 yrs 4 7 11 20 - 24 yrs 2 1 3 25 - 34 yrs 11 8 19 Sex Age M F Total 35 - 44 yrs 10 7 17 45 - 54 yrs 2 2 55 - 64 yrs 2 2 65 - 69 yrs 1 1 70 - 75 yrs 2 3 5 76 - 80 yrs 80 yrs and over 1 1 2 246 Data f o r T e s l i n : September 1972 Location: Mile 804 Alaska Highway Population: 1971-340 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) At mile 8 0 4 - 8 0 7 of the Alaska Highway i s a pioneer v i l l a g e on T e s l i n Lake, a b e a u t i f u l 86 mile waterway on the B.C. - Yukon border. It i s a very popular f i s h i n g spot, with accomodations, guides and boats a v a i l a b l e . Community and Government Contacts Local Council: Elected/appointed President - H. Tucker Band Chief: Sam Johnston Gov't of the Y.T.: Grader Station; C l i f f o r d Lawrence, Foreman I n f l u e n t i a l People: Ted Geddes Bob Flemming Chief Sam Johnston Infrastructure Water: Wells Sewage, garbage: Septic Tank disposal i n t o weeping t i l e f i e l d , garbage disposal i n an open dump 247 E l e c t r i c i t y : Diesel-Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. 100$ back-up Main Re-supply: A l l weather road Alaska Highway Marine F a c i l i t i e s : Sea plane base - T e s l i n Lake A i r F a c i l i t i e s : F i r e Department: Police: Gravel s t r i p - maintained summer and win-t e r by DPW as emergency s t r i p f o r White-horse. Co-ordinates. Chief W. Whimp J r . 10 volunteers, I - I 9 6 9 GPM pumper 2 man detachment, 1 corporal, 1 constable, Corporal A. W. Berg F a c i l i t i e s and Services A i r Transport: Local Transport: Road Transport: Fuels available: Medical: Only emergency and private f l i g h t s T e s l i n Taxi Coachways System 3 times weekly to Dawson Creek from Whitehorse, available f o r pas-sengers, cargo, f r e i g h t , L o i s e l l Q , White-pass, Cam. Freightways Ltd. Northline Transport. Cost (Contract price/Gal) . 3 2 3 0 - f u e l o i l Nursing Station-nurse based here. 248 Education: Churches: Elementary & Secondary school, grades 1-10, 7 rooms, 7 teachers, Nash Pr i n -c i p a l Catholic Mission - Fr. J . Tanquay. Angli-can Church - Rev. J.D.E.. Watts Community H a l l : Yes Library: Deposit Station - Mrs. E. Cope Communication: CNT Post O f f i c e : Bank: Trucked i n 3 times weekly None Recreation: Community Club, Curling Club. Public Accomodation: T e s l i n Lake Motel, Yukon Motel Meals: T e s l i n Lake Motel - restaurant - Yukon Motel restaurant Liquor: T e s l i n Lake Motel - Tavern Industry and Commerce:Eagle Bay Lumber Co. Geddes & Fleming Construction, Timberline Development Serv-ices Ltd., Usher L.E. Trading Post & Post O f f i c e , Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. Tourism: Commercial Fishing 249 Number of persons continuously engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i -ses: 25 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s Population covered by survey 304 Number of fam i l i e s 77 Number of dwellings 73 Average number of persons per family 4 Average number of children per family 2 Percentage of population covered Age Groups Sex Sex Age ; M. F To t a l Age M F T o t a l 0 - 4 yrs 22 21 43 35 - 44 yrs 19 15 34 5 - 9 yrs 30 32 62 45 - 5 4 yrs 15 5 2 0 10 - 14 yrs 15 19 35 55 - 64 yrs 3 6 9 15 - 19 yrs 13 5 18 65 - 69 yrs 5 4 9 2 0 - 24 yrs 10 8 18 70 - 75 yrs 2 1 3 25 - 34 yrs 12 17 29 75 - 8 0 yrs 2 1 3 80 yrs & over 2 5 0 Data f o r the Community of Carcross: September 1972 Location: Thirty-one miles south of Alaska Highway with access from Mile 866 or Mile 9 0 4 . 8 Population: 1971 - 188 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) An H i s t o r i c town situated at the north end of Lake Bennett, which straddles the Yukon-B.C. border. Formerly known as Car-ibou Crossing, i t was an important transportation center during the Klondike gold rush, when White Pass & Yukon Route railway was b u i l t from Skagway Alaska, through Carcross to Whitehorse. In i t s cemetary are buried some of the o r i g i n a l discoverers of gold i n the Klondike - Kate Carmacks, Skookum Jim and Tagish C h a r l i e . Community and Government Contacts: Local Council: Elected Community Club, elected president Gov't of the Y.T.: Garage & Grader Station - Edgar Bear Foreman Mr. D. Harder Band Chief: Dan Johnson I n f l u e n t i a l People: Edgar Bear Dorothy Hopcott Infrastructure Water: Sewage, garbage: E l e c t r i c i t y : Main Re-supply: Marine F a c i l i t i e s : A i r F a c i l i t i e s : F i r e Department: Police: Bobby Watson Dan Johnson - Chief Wells - f r e s h water from r i v e r Septic tanks, private garbage truck serv-ice by Carl Weatherhall once a week Power supplied by Yukon E l e c t r i c a l Co. Ltd. from Whitehorse A l l weather road, t r a i n f a c i l i t i e s Whitepass dock at st a t i o n . Loading ramp north of new bridge Co-ordinates: 60° 11'N - 1 3 4 ° 42'W., gra-v e l surface. 2,800' X 1 3 5 ' emergency use only Chief W. Parsons, 8 volunteers o Policed by summer detachment - 1 man from May 1 to October 3 1 . Rest of year policed by the Whitehorse detachment. Constable J.A. Card i n charge 252 F a c i l i t i e s and Services A i r Transport: None Based A i r c r a f t : Simmons Northern Airways Water Transport: None Local Transport: U.S. Taxi Road Transport: Fuels a v a i l a b l e : Medical: Education: Churches: Community H a l l : Library: Communications: Grant William Trucking Ltd., Whitepass -Thursday, r a i l f r e i g h t , Yukon Bus l i n e s -twice a week, passenger, cargo and f r e i g h t Cost (contract p r i c e per gal) . 3 0 1 0 - f u e l o i l Nursing s t a t i o n - Lay dispenser - Public Health nurse v i s i t s monthly Three room school, grades one to nine, three teachers, S. Beckett, P r i n c i p a l One Cat h o l i c , (Rev. R. P l a i n e ) , one A n g l i -can, (Rev. I.D.E. Watts) Yes Deposit Station - Henry Wilkinson i n charge CNT 2 5 3 Post O f f i c e : Mail delivery trucked i n twice a week Bank: None Recreation: Community h a l l , c u r l i n g rink Public Accomodation: Caribou Hotel - 22 rooms Meals: Caribou Hotel, Nelson's Pine Grove Serv-ices Liquor: CaribouiHotel - Tavern, Pine Grove Cafe Industry and Commerce Nelson's Pine Grove Services Watson's & Matthew General Store Caribou Hotel White Pass & Yukon Route - t r a i n depot and service Number of persons continuously engaged i n the above e n t e r p r i -ses: 25 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Carcross .. Population covered by survey 140 Number of fa m i l i e s 48 Number of dwellings 42 Average number of persons per family 3 254 Average number of ch i l d r e n per family 2 Percentage of population covered 7*$ Age Groups Sex Age M F Total 0 - 4 yrs 11 10 21 5 - 9 yrs 10 6 16 10 - l 2 " yrs 7 5 12 15 - 19 yrs 6 5 11 20 - 24 yrs 9 4 13 25 - 34 yrs 9 3 12 Sex Age M F T o t a l 35 _ 44; yrs 7 3 10 45 - 5^ yrs 7 8 15 55 - 64 yrs 7 6 13 65 - 69 yrs 2 7 9 70 - 75 yrs 5 - 5 75 - 80 yrs 1 - 1 8 0 yrs & over 2 2 255. Data f o r Community of Carmacks: September 1972 Location: 6 2 ° 7'N, 1 3 6 ° 18'W. Mile 103 at the junction of Klondike Highway and Campbell Highway Population: 1971 - 3^8 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) Here was located a Trading post, N.W.P.T. post, telegraph s t a t i o n and Tantalus Coal Mine 1^ miles from the post which has been operated from the early days. The old Dawson Stage Coach road passed through Carmacks. A portion of i t can s t i l l be seen near the Forestry Station. Community and Government Contacts Local Council: Elected President - Walter I s r e a l , Community Club Band Chief: George B i l l y Gov't of the Y.T.: Garage and Grader Station - Jim O'Connell - Foreman I n f l u e n t i a l People: Walter I s r e a l Mr. Liden Doug Colen Howard Tracy 2 5 6 Infrastructure Water: Sewage, garbage: E l e c t r i c i t y : Main Re-supply: Marine Services: A i r F a c i l i t i e s : F i r e Department: Police: Individual wells, New well house with 1000 g a l . water tank. B u i l t 1972 i n Indian V i l l a g e Disposal i s done through septic tank and leaching p i t . Garbage disposal i s an open dump Power purchased by Yukon E l e c t r i c from N.C.P.C. with a u x i l i a r y stand by d i e s e l s . A l l weather road Klondike Highway and Campbell Highway. Yukon River summer V i a the Yukon River Airport 62° 6'N. 1 3 6 0 18»W perated by T e r r i t o r i a l Government - f i e l d elevation 1800 f t . gravaL s t r i p 265O' not l i g h t e d Chief W. Brown, 10 volunteers RCMP Detachment, 1 Corporal, 1 Const-able equipped with one car, Corporal Murphy i n charge 257 F a c i l i t i e s and Services A i r Transport: No scheduled f l i g h t s Based A i r c r a f t : None Water Transport: Local Transport: Road Transport: Fules available; None Carmacks Hotel t a x i WhitePass, Yukon Freight Lines, Yukon Bus l i n e s run from Whitehorse to Dawson, Mayo to Carmacks 3 times week, passenger, cargo, f r e i g h t Cost (Contract p r i c e per gal) .3120 f u e l o i l Medical: Education: Churches: Health s t a t i o n operated by a nursing as s i s t a n t f o r emergency use only. Hospital cases are taken to White-horse One 6 room school - kindergarten to grade ten, capacity of approx. 100 students, s i x teachers, p r i n c i p a l B.A. Greene Anglican Church Rectory, Rev. P.? Asbil,,: Catholic Mission, Fr. J . 2 5 8 Community H a l l : Library: Communications: Post O f f i c e : Bank: Recreation: Public Accomodation: Meals: Liquor: Industry and Commerce Guilbaud Yes Deposit Station - Mrs. Greene i n charge Radio CBC 5 7 0 from Whitehorse. CNT RCMP, Forestry, T e r r i t o r i a l Govern-ment Truck delivery twice a week None Curling Club, Community Club Carlene's Motel, Sunset Motel - 21 roome, Carmacks Hotel 10 rooms, Klondike Lodge - 6 rooms Carmacks Hotel, -cafe, Klondike / Lodge - restaurant Sunset Motel - C o c k t a i l s , Carmacks Hotel - tavern Carlene's Service Station & Motel Sunset Motel 259 Carmacks Hotel Klondike Lodge A n v i l Mining Corp - Coal mine Roxy Trading Post Taylor & Drury Ltd Carmacks Hotel Taxi Number of persons continuously engaged i n the above e n t r e p r i -ses: 30 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Carmacks Population covered by survey 235 Number of fam i l i e s 68 Number of dwellings 60 Average number of persons per family 4 Average number of chi l d r e n per family 2 Percentage of population covered 70% 260 Age Groups Sex Ace M P Tot a l 0 - 4 yrs 14 16 30 5 - 9 yrs 21 25 • 46 10 - 14 yrs 15 19 34 15 - 19 yrs 9 11 2 0 2 0 - 24 yrs 5 4 9 Sex Age M P To t a l 35 - 44 yrs 19 15 34 45 - 54 yrs 7 5 12 55 - 64 yrs 2 2 4 65 - 69 yrs 3 2 5 7 0 - 75 yrs 2 2 4 8 0 yrs & over 1 1 261 Data f o r Haines Junction: September 1972 Location: 60° 47*N. 137° 33'W. Mile 1016, Alaska Highway, Mile 156 Haines Road Population: 1971 - 179 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) Mile 1016 on the Alaska Highway i s at the junction of the highway and the Haines Road, which leads to Haines Alaska, on the coast. The road was b u i l t by the U.S. Army engineers dur-ing the war to provide access to the i n t e r i o r . The mountains nearby are the St. E l l a s Range, containing North Americans high-est peaks, including Mount ..Logan- Canada's highest (18,850) f t ) . Haines Junction i s the .headquarters f o r the Kluane Park Game Warden. The Kluane game preserve i s one of the largest i n Can-ada (10,000 sq. mi.). Community and Government Contacts Local Council: Elected/appointed Ron Watson - Chairman LID., Mrs. P. Schulmeister Sec. treasu-r e r , R. McKinnon, J , Brewster - Trustee Band Chief: Ray Jackson Gov't of the Y.T.: T e r r i t o r i a l Agent - Mr. H.D. Brabant, Game Branch - Terr. Grader Station. - Ken Alwin, Foreman 262 I n f l u e n t i a l People: The Brewster Family Tod Backe Ron Watson and Mrs. H. Watson - T e r r i t o r -i a l C o u n c i l l o r Chief Raymond Jackson Bob McKinnon Infrastructure Water: Sewage, garbage: E l e c t r i c i t y : From 4 main wells - chlorinated & d e l i v -ered by tank trucks. Those not serviced have private wells. Disposed by septic tank u n i t s , also non-areated lagoons, drainage i n t o Dezadeash River, garbage disposal into open p i t Power i s supplied by Yukon E l e c t r i c by d i e s e l plant with 100% back-up Main Re-supply: A l l weather roads Alaska Highway and Hal-nes Road. Marine F a c i l i t i e s : None F i r e Department: Chief A. Tomlin, 8 volunteers. 1 - 1 9 6 5 - 5 0 0 GPM pumper A i r F a c i l i t i e s : Airport - 6 0 ° 47'N. 1 3 7 ° 33 'W operated by 263 P o l i c e : T e r r i t o r i a l Government. RCMP Detachment - 1 Corporal, 1 Constable, equipped with one p a t r o l car F a c i l i t i e s and Services A i r Transport: Based A i r c r a f t i Road Transport: Medical: Education: Churches: Community H a l l : Library: Communications: None (emergency only) Trans North Turbo - Helicopter Brewster & Russel Transportation, Coach-ways System d a i l y run to Alaska, Whitepass - Mon. to Thurs. each week, truck f r e i g h t One health centre operated by a public nurse, monthly v i s i t s by a doctor 5 room school - grades 1 - 1 0 , 5 teachers, 65 students Catholic Rectory - Fr. C. Decandignneil-l e s , Anglican Mission - Rev. J.H.E. P h i l l -potts Yes Branch Library - Grace Desjarding i n charge Radio; CBC. CFWH, Frequency 5 7 0 KHZ. 264, Post O f f i c e : Mail trucked twice weekly Bank: None Recreation: Community Club, Curling Club Public Accomodation: Blue Mountain Motel, Brewster's Lodge -13 rooms, Cortino Lodge Ltd., Dezadeash Lodge, Haines Junction Inn - 17 rooms, Kathleen Lk. Lodge. Star Dust Motel -6 rooms Haines Junction Inn-restaurant, Dezadeash Lodge-meals, Cortino Lodge Ltd. - meals, Kathleen Ld. Lodge— meals, Blue Mt. Motel - meals, Cozy-Corner - restaurant Haines Junction Inn-cocktail lounge, Brews-ter's Lodge-tavern, Dezadeash Lodge-cock-t a i l lounge, Cortino Lodge Ltd. Liquor vendor-cocktail lounge Industry and Commerce Backe's Service, Brewster's Service,..'Fairdale Storefood, Gulf O i l of Canada, Marvin & Sons Construction Co. Ltd., Yukon Elec-t r i c a l Service, Blue Mountain Motel, Brewster's Lodge, Haines Junction Inn, Star Dust Motel, Cozy Corner - restaurant. Meals: Liquor: 265 Number of persons continuously engaged In the above en t e r p r i -ses: 40 Housing Survey S t a t i s t i c s f o r Haines Junction i Population covered by survey 156 Number of fam i l i e s 5 6 Number of dwellings 5 1 Average number of persons per family 3 Average number of children per family 2 Percentage of population covered 87$ Age Groups Sex Age M F T o t a l 0 - 4 yrs ; 8 8 16 5 - 9 yrs 7 10 17 10 - 14 yrs 12 5 17 15 - 19 yrs 9 5 14 20 - 24 yrs 44 4 8 25 - 34 yrs 13 13 26 Sex Age M F Total 35 - 44 yrs 11 7 18 45 - 54 yrs 8 9 17 55 - 64 yrs 7 5 12 65 - 69 yrs 1 1 70 - 75 yrs 1 1 75 - 80 yrs 3 4 7 8 0 yrs & over 1 1 2 appendix B 267 S e l e c t e d S e c t i o n s of the Ordinance R e s p e c t i n g L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t ( R e v i s e d 1972 F a l l S e s sion) T h i s Ordinance may be c i t e d as the L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t  Ordinance. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In t h i s Ordinance, (a) " a d m i n i s t r a t o r " means a person appointed as a d m i n i s t r a -t o r ; (b) " d i s t r i c t " means an area of the T e r r i t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d as a L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t under t h i s Ordinance (c ) " f i s c a l y e a r " means the twelve months ending the 31 day of March; (d) " l a n d " i n c l u d e s l a n d s , tenements, hereditaments, and b u i l d i n g s ; (e) " l o c a l improvement" means any of the f o l l o w i n g works of any combination of them; ( i ) opening, widening, s t r a i g h t e n i n g , e x t e n d i n g , g r a d i n g , l e v e l l i n g , d i v e r t i n g or paving a s t r e e t ; ( i i ) c o n s t r u c t i n g a sidewalk, f o o t c r o s s i n g , c u r b i n g , 268 bridge, culvert or embankment forming part of a street or constructing a system of storm drainage; ( i i i ) making, deepening, enlarging or lengthening a com-mon sewer or water main; ( i v ) making sewer or water service connections to the street l i n e on land abutting a main; (v) constructing a conduit f o r wires or pipes along or under a street; ( v i ) providing other services normally found i n organiz. ed communities; and ( v i i ) reconstructing or replacing any of the works ment-ioned; ( f ) "occupant" includes the resident occupier of land or, i f there i s no resident occupier, the owner or leaseholder thereof; (g) "taxpayer" means a person whose name appears on the Tax R o l l pursuant to the Taxation Ordinance, i n respect of property within a D i s t r i c t or a proposed D i s t r i c t ; and (h) "trustee" means any person elected or appointed a trus-tee of a D i s t r i c t under t h i s Ordinance. Establishment of D i s t r i c t s ( 1 ) Where the Commissioner receives a p e t i t i o n i n the pres-2 6 9 cribed form signed by not less than ten persons l i v i n g i n any area of the T e r r i t o r y who would, i f a Local Im-provement D i s t r i c t were established i n that area, be voters, he may be Order give notice of his intention to es t a b l i s h i n that area a Local Improvement D i s t r i c t . (2) The Commissioner s h a l l give notice of his intention to es t a b l i s h a D i s t r i c t (a) by posting public notices i n four conspicuous p l a -ces within the proposed D i s t r i c t , and (b) by p u b l i c a t i o n i n at least one issue of the Yukon Gazette. ( 3 ) Any ten persons who would be voters i n the proposed Dis-t r i c t may within three weeks from the date of the notice referred to In paragraph (2) (b), appeal i n writing i n the prescribed form to the Commissioner against the es-tablishment of the D i s t r i c t . ( 4 ) The Commissioner s h a l l , within two weeks of the receipt of the appeal mentioned i n subsection ( 3 ) , appoint a per-son to conduct a hearing i n the proposed D i s t r i c t and make a report of his findings and recommendations." An order establishing a Local Improvement D i s t r i c t s h a l l spec i f y (a) the name and boundaries of the D i s t r i c t ; 270, (b) the date and loc a t i o n of the f i r s t annual general meeting of the D i s t r i c t ; (c) the name of the f i r s t three trustees appointed by the Commissioner;; and (d) the terms of o f f i c e of the f i r s t appointed trustees. (1) The voters of the D i s t r i c t established under section 3 s h a l l be a body corporate having as i t s corporate name the name s p e c i f i e d by the Commissioner i n the order es-ta b l i s h i n g the D i s t r i c t . " (2) The D i s t r i c t s h a l l have the power to purchase, acquire and hold land f o r the purpose of th i s Ordinance. (1) Each D i s t r i c t s h a l l have a Board of Trustees consisting of three trustees. (2) The Commissioner s h a l l appoint the f i r s t three trustees of a D i s t r i c t as follows: (a) one to hold o f f i c e u n t i l the f i r s t annual general meeting of the D i s t r i c t ; (b) one to hold o f f i c e u n t i l the second annual general meeting; and (c) one to hold o f f i c e u n t i l the t h i r d annual general meeting. 27T ( 3 ) Except f o r the f i r s t appointees, each trustee s h a l l be elected to hold o f f i c e f o r a term of three years. (4) One trustee s h a l l be elected at each annual general meet-ing. Annual General Meeting of D i s t r i c t (1) An annual general meeting i n each D i s t r i c t s h a l l be held during the f i r s t week i n A p r i l i n each year. (2) The Board of Trustees s h a l l f i x the time and place of each annual general meeting subsequent to the f i r s t meet-ing. ( 3 ) The Board of Trustees s h a l l give notice of the time and place of the annual general meeting. "(a) by posting notices i n at least four conspicuous p l a -ces i n the D i s t r i c t ; and (b) by advertising i n three issues of a newspaper c i r c u l -ating i n the D i s t r i c t beginning with an issue publish-ed not more than three weeks and not less than two weeks before the time set f o r the meeting.*' (4) The Chairman of the Board of Trustees s h a l l be the cha i r -man of the annual general meeting and, i n the absence of the Chairman, the trustees s h a l l appoint one of t h e i r number to act as chairman of the meeting. 272. "(5) At the annual g e n e r a l meeting, the Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l p r e s e n t a r e p o r t of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the past f i s c a l y e a r and p l a n s f o r the forthcoming Budget Year and the meeting may pass r e s o l u t i o n s f o r the g u i d -ance of the t r u s t e e s . " "(1) The Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l meet openly at l e a s t once a month and no person s h a l l be excluded from any open meeting except f o r improper conduct." (2) The Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l h o l d i t s f i r s t meeting i n each f i s c a l y e a r not l a t e r than t h i r t y days a f t e r the day on which the annual g e n e r a l meeting of the D i s t r i c t was h e l d . (1) The Commissioner s h a l l t r a n s f e r l o c a l improvements i n a D i s t r i c t t o t h a t D i s t r i c t . (2) The Board of T r u s t e e s s h a l l operate and m a i n t a i n any l o c -a l improvements i n t h a t D i s t r i c t . (3) The Commissioner s h a l l supply the t r u s t e e s w i t h a l l nec-e s s a r y a c c o u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g statements of revenues and expend i t u r e s and f i n a n c i a l p r o j e c t i o n s t h a t the Commissioner has or can reasonably make a v a i l a b l e i n r e s p e c t of the D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t e d by the Trustee."' 273 Duties and Powers of Trustees 11. The Board of Trustees are the executive of a D i s t r i c t and s h a l l operate and maintain any l o c a l improvements i n that D i s t r i c t which are owned by the D i s t r i c t or which they have been authorized to operate and maintain on behalf of the Com missioner. 12. Subject to the approval of the Commissioner, the Board of Trustees s h a l l have power to make by-laws (a) adopting procedures f o r the e l e c t i o n of trustees; (b) regulating proceedings and preserving order at the meet-ings of the Board of Trustees and at the annual general meetingj (c) providing f o r the construction or a c q u i s i t i o n of any buildings or works necessary f o r the operation and main-tenance of any l o c a l improvement i n . t h e i r D i s t r i c t ; (d) prescribing the fees and charges that s h a l l be l e v i e d f o r l o c a l improvements; (e) providing f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of the fees and charges; (f ) adopting such procedures as are necessary to enable i t to perform i t s functions as set f o r t h i n t h i s Ordinance; and 274 (g) The Board may adopt by-laws providing f o r the li c e n s i n g and control of animals within t h e i r D i s t r i c t and f o r ap-pointing an Animal Control O f f i c e r . 14. The Board of Trustees s h a l l act as an Advisory Council and, at the request of the Commissioner, s h a l l advise him on l o c -a l improvements and other matters concerning the D i s t r i c t . 14.1(1) Where the Commissioner deem i t i s i n the best i n t e r -ests of the D i s t r i c t that i t s a f f a i r s be conducted by an administrator, the Commissioner may, by order, appoint a person as the administrator of the Dis-t r i c t . (2) On the appointment of an administrator of a D i s t r i c t , the Board s h a l l be deemed to have r e t i r e d from o f f i c e and to be no longer q u a l i f i e d to act f o r or on behalf of the D i s t r i c t or to exercise any of the powers and duties vested i n the Board by t h i s or any other Ordi-nance. 14.2(1) The administrator s h a l l , subject to t h i s Ordinance, have, possess, enjoy and may exercise a l l the powers and duties of a duly constituted Board. 14.3(1) The administrator may demand and i s e n t i t l e d to rec-eive from o f f i c e r s of the D i s t r i c t a l l monies, sec-2?5 u r i t i e s , evidence of t i t l e , books, assessment r o o l s , t a x r o l l s , by-laws, papers and documents of or r e l -a t i n g t o the a f f a i r s of the D i s t r i c t i n t h e i r pos-s e s s i o n or under t h e i r c o n t r o l . General 15. The Board of Trustees may i n c u r debts i n the course of oper-a t i n g and mai n t a i n i n g l o c a l improvements that s h a l l not ex-ceed f i v e thousand d o l l a r s unless otherwise a u t h o r i z e d by the Commissioner. 16. The Board of Trustees s h a l l c a r r y insurance t o the extent r e q u i r e d by the Commissioner t o cover property damage and p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y a r i s i n g out of the operation of the D i s t r i c t . 17. ( l ) The Commissioner may appoint an Inspector of L o c a l Im-provement D i s t r i c t s who s h a l l have such powers and du-t i e s as the Commissioner may a s s i g n t o him. IB. (1) Upon r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n signed by (a) a m a j o r i t y of the persons i n a D i s t r i c t e l i g i b l e t o vote at an e l e c t i o n of t r u s t e e s f o r that D i s t r i c t , or (V' (b) the Inspector of L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t s , the Commissioner may, by order p u b l i s h e d i n the Yukon 276 Gazette, dissolve that D i s t r i c t . ( 2 ) A p e t i t i o n f o r d i s s o l u t i o n of a D i s t r i c t s h a l l provide to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Commissioner f o r the winding-up of the corporation and f o r the payment and discharge of a l l debts and obligations of the D i s t r i c t . (3) Upon the d i s s o l u t i o n of a D i s t r i c t a l l property and as-sets of that D i s t r i c t s h a l l be transferred to the Commis-sioner of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y under such terms and cond-i t i o n s as the Commissioner consider necessary. (4) The Commissioner may make such regulations as he considers necessary f o r the d i s s o l u t i o n and winding-up of a D i s t r i c t . 2 0 . ( 1 ) The Commissioner may make such regulations and prescribe such forms as he deems necessary f o r carrying out the purposes and provisions of t h i s Ordinance." 

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