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Resource allocation for the median peace river farm in British Columbia Holtby, Robert Gordon 1972

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RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR THE MEDIAN PEACE RIVER FARM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ROBERT GORDON HOLTBY B.S.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n the Department of Agricultural  Economics  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972  "In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e s c h o l a r l y purposes may representative.  be  study.  the Head of my  s h a l l not be  I  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r Department or by  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain permission."  granted by  and  that  allowed without my  written  this  his  ABSTRACT  The  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was  p r o f i t a b l e use  of a g r i c u l t u r a l resource's f o r the median farmer  Peace R i v e r b l o c k of B r i t i s h The  to determine  the most i n the  Columbia.  t o o l to determine  t h i s o b j e c t i v e was  L i n e a r Programming.  F i f t e e n a c t i v i t i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n the program. These were:  f o u r crop r o t a t i o n s ; cow-calf; c o w - y e a r l i n g ; f o u r beef  f e e d l o t a c t i v i t i e s ; p a s t u r e f i n i s h i n g of b e e f ; confinement  r e a r i n g of  lambs; c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a r i n g of lambs; farrow to f i n i s h swine; and r e s t r a i n t s on.these  a c t i v i t i e s were 480  a c r e s of  finish-  i n g swine.  The  cultivated  l a n d , a sum  of c a p i t a l e q u a l to $70,000 l e s s the c o s t of the l a n d , and  f o u r 780 hour labour p e r i o d s . To account  for disparities  i n the a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the r e g i o n ,  nine l i n e a r program m a t r i c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d to r e f l e c t c o n d i t i o n s documented f o r nine d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the Peace R i v e r . Because no c o n s i s t e n t data base was c a r r i e d out a l i t e r a t u r e the purposes  of t h i s  s e a r c h to s e l e c t  r e s u l t s were a n a l y s e d .  f i n i s h i n g beef  the  author  the "best d a t a " a v a i l a b l e f o r  c o n s t r u c t e d and  h i g h moisture  other f e e d s t u f f s .  the  b a r l e y e n s i l e d , purchased  tallow.  The iii  hay,  F i v e of the programs a l s o c a l l e d f o r  c a t t l e on pasture w i t h purchased  r e s t r i c t e d w i t h animal  the programs run,  A l l nine programs c a l l e d f o r the f i n i s h i n g of  c a t t l e u s i n g purchased  supplement, and  to e x i s t  study.  Once the data base was  beef  found  g r a i n f e d f r e e c h o i c e but  Gross Margins r e s u l t i n g from  these  a c t i v i t i e s ranged The  from $19,082. to $33,936.  importance  of these r e s u l t s  lies  i n the f a c t  t h a t a l l crop  a c t i v i t i e s which c u r r e n t l y dominate the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy were r e j e c t e d . Thus, i f the median farmer  i s to achieve o p t i m a l i t y , he must r a d i c a l l y  change h i s technology. The to a c h i e v e .  type of change recommended by t h i s study i s the most I t c a l l s f o r a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by p r o v i n c i a l  extension  p e r s o n n e l to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l programs which encourage and the acceptance  of such change.  iv  difficult  facilitate  PREFACE  The  author wishes  to express h i s thanks  to the chairman  of h i s  committee, Dr. George W i n t e r , and members, Dr. C o o l i e Verner and Mr. Osborne f o r t h e i r  c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and d i r e c t i o n ,  the e a r l y stages of p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s paper.  Ted  particularly in  Appreciation i s also  g i v e n to Dr. Winter f o r h i s c o n t i n u i n g encouragement and support to the author d u r i n g h i s academic c a r e e r . Acknowledgement i s made of the many people who and d i r e c t i o n  d u r i n g the course of t h i s study:  Messrs.  provided material Jack Dobb, Werner  Hooge , Gary Wendel, Jim H a l l , and Ian Came of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; and Messrs. A r n o l d Hennig, Ken Dawley and Leaske  of the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Financial  support f o r t h i s study was  Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l of  John  the S o c i a l  S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee on recommendation  S c i e n c e s Bead Committee.  committees f o r t h e i r A special  p r o v i d e d by the B r i t i s h  A p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to both  support.  thank you i s a l s o accorded to the author's w i f e  f o r her support and encouragement throughout i n the many t a s k s r e q u i r e d to complete  this  t h i s p r o j e c t and her study.  Margaret assistance  CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES  ix  LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I  CHAPTER II  x  THE PEACE RIVER  1  Geographic Description  1  Physical Description and Climate  2  History and Economy  3  The Canada Land Inventory Study  4  Recent Developments  6  Discussion  9  LINEAR PROGRAMMING  1  Assumption of Linear Programming  CHAPTER I I I  0  11  Simplex Procedures  13  Post-Optimal Analysis  18  The Dual  18  The Economic Interpretation of a Resource A l l o c a t i o n Problem . .  20  The UBC LIP Programming Package  24  THE DATA  26  a)  Selection of Target Areas  26  b)  Selection of Production A c t i v i t i e s  27  c)  Selection of Resource Constraints  31  d)  Resource Budgeting  37  . J  i)  Crop Rotations  37  ii)  Cow-Calf  38  vi  Page iii)  Cow-Yearling  . . .  39  iv)  Beef F e e d i n g I - I V  39  v)  Pasture F i n i s h i n g of Beef  40  vi)  Confinement R e a r i n g of Sheep  vii)  C o n v e n t i o n a l R e a r i n g of Sheep  . . . . .  v i i i ) Farrow to F i n i s h Hog P r o d u c t i o n ix) e)  CHAPTER IV  F i n i s h i n g Hog P r o d u c t i o n  The O b j e c t i v e F u n c t i o n s  . . . .  43 43 43  Crop Y i e l d s and P r i c e s  44  ii)  L i v e s t o c k Y i e l d s and P r i c e s  45  iii)  Buy F u n c t i o n s  46  iv)  Summary  46  THE RESULTS  47 Included  47  Iterations  47  Resources  53  Objective Function  54  Stability  54  Summary  55  THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RESULTS D i f f i c u l t i e s Expected of L i v e s t o c k Suggestions  f o r Change  Summary  57  i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n 57 60 62  BIBLIOGRAPHY  6  vii <  42  i)  Activities  CHAPTER V  42  3  Page APPENDIXES A.  A Map  of the Peace R i v e r  B.  Documents of the South Peace Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n  68  C.  Correspondance  78  D.  Input Requirements  E.  Y i e l d s and P r i c e s  162  F.  F i f t e e n Year A c t i v i t y Budgets  171  G.  Linear  243  Program  66  from A. Hennig  . . . . . . .  84  Input and Output  viii  LIST OF TABLES Table II-1  Page A Simplex Tableau  16  III-l  Study Areas i n the Peace R i v e r  28  III-2  B.C.  30  III-3  Crop R o t a t i o n s  III-4  Resource C o n s t r a i n t s and R i g h t Hand S i d e s  35  IV-1  Summary of R e s u l t s  48  IV-2  Iterations  50  Peace R i v e r - S o i l Zones f o r the Peace R i v e r  i n the Peace R i v e r L i n e a r Programs  ix  32  LIST OF FIGURES Figure II-1  Page The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Input and Outputs i n a L i n e a r Programming S i t u a t i o n  x  22  CHAPTER I  THE PEACE RIVER  Geographic D e s c r i p t i o n  1  The Peace R i v e r b l o c k i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h - e a s t corner of Canada's western p r o v i n c e .  I t s b o u n d a r i e s are  the Beaton R i v e r A i r p o r t , 80 m i l e s n o r t h of F o r t S t . John, on the n o r t h , the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia b o r d e r on the e a s t , Tupper, 25 m i l e s south of Dawson Creek, on the s o u t h , and the Rocky Mountains on the west. The Peace R i v e r , from which the d i s t r i c t d i v i d e s the r e g i o n .  r e c e i v e d i t s name,  F o r t S t . John i s the main commercial c e n t e r i n  the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n w h i l e Dawson Creek serves the south.  The  region  i s connected to Vancouver by the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n R a i l r o a d and to Edmonton by the N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a R a i l r o a d . flies  P a c i f i c Western  Airlines  r e g u l a r l y from Dawson Creek; Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s from F o r t  S t . John.  The area i s l i n k e d by roads t o Edmonton, P r i n c e George  John H a r t Highway) and the Yukon and A l a s k a  (the A l a s k a  (the  Highway).  Because a c c e s s t o the south and west i s r e s t r i c t e d by the Rocky Mountains, and because of common economic  l i n k s with A l b e r t a ,  R i v e r appears to many o b s e r v e r s to be more a p a r t of A l b e r t a than B r i t i s h Columbia.  the Peace rather  I t shares the same time zones w i t h A l b e r t a , i t s  f e d e r a l r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s are i n Edmonton r a t h e r than i n Vancouver,  See Appendix A  1  as are commercial headquarters.  I n s h o r t , the r e a l i t y of the g e o g r a p h i c  boundary of the Peace R i v e r i s of more consequence to r e s i d e n t s than the p o l i t i c a l border separating  the area from A l b e r t a .  P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n and Climate  The  land type  2  i s d i v i d e d i n t o two a r e a s .  The e a s t e r n area i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r o l l i n g p l a i n broken by s h a r p l y eroded r i v e r s and streams. The  I n the west, the p r a i r i e s give way to f o o t h i l l s and mountains.  massive Peace R i v e r Dam i s l o c a t e d i n the western r e g i o n . T o t a l acreage i n the area i s 4.3 m i l l i o n a c r e s of which 2.6  m i l l i o n are c o n s i d e r e d  arable.  S o i l orders a r e :  the P a d z o l i c w i t h  1.7 m i l l i o n a c r e s ; the Chernozenius of 1.3 m i l l i o n a c r e s ; o r g a n i c i n 0.25 m i l l i o n a c r e s ; the B r u m s o i l s  of 0.16 m i l l i o n a c r e s ; and 0.89  m i l l i o n a c r e s o f r o c k , water and minor s o i l The  soils  types.  a r e a i s i n the B o r e a l F o r e s t r e g i o n and consequently  the  n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of aspens, balsams, p o p l a r s , white birch,  lodgepole The  p i n e , white spruce,  and tamaracks.  r e g i o n has a c l i m a t e unique i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  are warm and w i n t e r s  are r e l a t i v e l y  above the f i f t y - f i f t h photo-period  b l a c k spruce  during  incidence during  cold.  Because o f i t s p o s i t i o n  l a t i t u d e n o r t h , i t enjoys  the summer months.  Summers  a relatively  long  While r a i n f a l l i s low, i t s  the growing season does not l i m i t  the p o t e n t i a l f o r  agriculture.  ^ C o o l i e Verner, Gary D i c k i n s o n , Bruce Kloosterman, A S o c i o Economic Survey of the Peace R i v e r A r e a , Report #4, A.R.D.A. Canada Land I n v e n t o r y P r o j e c t #49009 (Vancouver : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968) pp. 2-4.  3 H i s t o r y and Economy  3  Land a l i e n a t i o n was d i s g r u n t l e d g o l d seekers. took up  begun at the Many v e t e r a n s  t u r n of the century mainly r e t u r n i n g from World War  land f o l l o w i n g the c l o s e of h o s t i l i t i e s and  many of the s m a l l communities a f t e r b a t t l e s of t h a t The  consequently  by One  named  war.  b u i l d i n g of the A l a s k a Highway d u r i n g the second World  r e s u l t e d i n a boom of the economy and many army and r e t u r n e d a f t e r the war In 1951,  to take up  a i r force  War  personnel  farming.  o i l and n a t u r a l gas were d i s c o v e r e d , p r i m a r i l y i n the  North Peace.  T h i s i n d u s t r i a l development added much to the economy,  thus r e d u c i n g  the dependence on  In 1951, George and  the John Hart Highway was  Dawson Creek.  a l s o connected those significance  agriculture.  I n 1958,  cities.  completed between P r i n c e  the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway  Both of these developments were of g r e a t  to the s e r v i c e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  communication  In s p i t e of these developments, a g r i c u l t u r e s t i l l region.  industries.  dominates the  E l e v a t o r companies such as the A l b e r t a Wheat P o o l , the  G r a i n Growers, N a t i o n a l G r a i n s , and F e d e r a l G r a i n s e x i s t  United  throughout  the a r e a , w i t h e l e v a t o r s i n Pouce Coupe, Dawson Creek, T a y l o r , and F o r t S t . John.  A  l i c e n s e d s t o c k y a r d i s operated  a f e d e r a l l y i n s p e c t e d s l a u g h t e r house. built  i n F o r t S t . John but  to date  a District Agriculturist  A s l a u g h t e r house has  been  has not r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l i n s p e c t i o n .  Government i n f o r m a t i o n a l support sources:  i n Dawson Creek as w e l l as  to a g r i c u l t u r e comes from  i n Dawson Creek and  i n F o r t S t . John;  a Farm C r e d i t C o r p o r a t i o n a d v i s o r i n Dawson Creek; e x t e n s i o n of  I b i d . , pp.  4-5.  five  research  facilities Beaverlodge  from the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Research Farm i n A l b e r t a ; and  the presence  of an a g r i c u l t u r a l department a t  the B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l i n Dawson Creek. Most Farm equipment companies are r e p r e s e n t e d s h i p s throughout  the a r e a .  through  dealer-  However, no p a r t s depot e x i s t s c l o s e r  than  Edmonton. To d a t e , there are no p r i v a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s u l t a n t f i r m s o p e r a t i n g l o c a l l y , a l t h o u g h one the area s p e c i a l i z e s i n farm  The  Canada Land I n v e n t o r y  I n 1967, observed  a c c o u n t i n g f i r m w i t h branches  throughout  accounting.  Study  a survey  team from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  the r u r a l a r e a under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. C o o l i e Verner  with  f u n d i n g from the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y  o p e r a t i n g under the A g r i c u l t u r a l  and R u r a l Development A c t  summary of t h e i r r e s u l t s  serious d i f f i c u l t y Of the 203 i n t e r v i e w e d , 113  (ARDA).  i n the economics of the a g r i c u l t u r a l household  (55.7  was  heads of r u r a l  group was groups was  to 54 year  as farm and  were 90  The median age  c l a s s while  i n the 35 to 44 year  class.  of farm  the median age The  respondants  of the non-farm  l e v e l of l i v i n g of b o t h  c o n s i d e r e d adequate but many homes l a c k e d a telephone  p i p e d - i n water.  r e s i d e n t s had  and  Both groups t r a v e l l e d a median d i s t a n c e of e l e v e n to  f i f t e e n m i l e s f o r e s s e n t i a l goods and miles f o r medical  (44.3  as non-farm s i n c e the v a l u e of t h e i r s a l e a b l e  d i d not exceed $250.00.  i n the 45  indicate  community.  land h o l d i n g s who  per c e n t ) were c l a s s i f i e d  per c e n t ) were c l a s s i f i e d products  The  care and  s e r v i c e s and an average of  twenty m i l e s f o r f o o d and  clothing.  thirty Farm  a g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score than non-farm  5 residents. The median e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was of  the respondants possessed u n i v e r s i t y degrees w h i l e 10.3  functionally i l l i t e r a t e . agriculture toward  course.  Few  The  of the farmers had  farm group  source of employment. semi-skilled  1.5 per cent per cent were  taken a s p e c i a l i z e d  reported a less favourable attitude  change than d i d the non-farm Of the farm group, 45.1  or  a t grade e i g h t .  group.  per cent r e p o r t e d o f f - f a r m work as a  The m a j o r i t y of o f f - f a r m j o b s were i n the u n s k i l l e d  categories.  The p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s o l d by the farm group field  crops.  Beef  c a t t l e was  much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y .  the next h i g h e s t p r o d u c t s o l d but r e p o r t e d  Only 7.1  than e i g h t y animal u n i t s .  was  The  per cent of the farmers m a i n t a i n e d more farmers who  received  l e s s than  fifty  per cent of t h e i r t o t a l f a m i l y income from farming r e p o r t e d a median l a n d h o l d i n g i n the 320  to 639  a c r e s group w i t h the median  a c r e s i n the 100 t o 159 acre group. than h a l f  Those farmers who  improved  r e c e i v e d more  t h e i r t o t a l f a m i l y income from f a r m i n g r e p o r t e d a median  l a n d h o l d i n g of more than 640 a c r e s w h i l e the median improved was  i n the 320  for  the s m a l l e r farm income group was  while was  to 639  a c r e s group.  acres  The median e s t i m a t e d v a l u e of i n the $20,000 to $29,999  farms  group  the median e s t i m a t e d v a l u e f o r those more dependant on a g r i c u l t u r e  i n the $50,000 to $69,999 In  1966,  and f i f t y - f i v e  the average  families  group. t o t a l income f o r farm f a m i l i e s was  (48.7 per cent).were below the p o v e r t y  $4,006 line.  T o t a l farm f a m i l y income tended t o decrease as the p r o p o r t i o n of income d e r i v e d from a g r i c u l t u r e i n c r e a s e d .  N e a r l y s i x t y per cent of those  did  as poor.  no o f f - f a r m work were c l a s s i f i e d  who  6  Recent Developments  In an attempt  to raise farm income by increasing the competence  of the farmers to farm their land, and to present viable alternatives to the high dependance of farmers on f i e l d crops, five developments of significance have taken place i n the area. Because of the density of the uncleared bush lands, summer range which i s of c r i t i c a l importance supply.  to beef and sheep producers i s i n scarce  The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service has recently sought to  correct this problem through the development of community pastures throughout  the region.  Once cleared, these pastures are either allowed  to naturally reseed i n native grasses, or are seeded to tame grass. Overall supervision i s supplied through the Forest Agrologist located i n Dawson Creek. range.  Local personnel are used to supervise while on the  Through this development, farmers who wish to d i v e r s i f y with  beef cattle are no longer forced to use their limited cleared land for summer pasture. Recent interest has also been shown i n the development of specialty crops such as a l f a l f a dehydration.  Investigations as to the  v i a b i l i t y of this enterprise have been carried out by l o c a l producers and o f f i c i a l s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture.  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y of low pressure "sweet" natural gas and economically feasible freight rates to Vancouver indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y of such crop processing becoming a r e a l i t y . In the f a l l of 1970, feeding t r i a l s using high moisture barley ( at 25 per cent moisture  ) were conducted  the B.C. Department of Agriculture, the B.C. the Canada Department of Agriculture.  through the cooperation of Vocational School, and  I n i t i a l results from these  7 demonstrations have proven s u c c e s s f u l and in  the  1971-72 f e e d i n g  period.  to demonstrate the v i a b i l i t y  The  the  are b e i n g r e p e a t e d  major purpose of these t e s t s i s  of e a r l y h a r v e s t  reduced f r o s t or snow r i s k and  trials  of b a r l e y r e s u l t i n g i n  the m a r k e t i n g of  the  crop through beef  production. In order t h a t farmers may feeding  of c a t t l e and  sheep and  to engage i n such o p e r a t i o n s , i n b o t h the N o r t h Peace and  improve t h e i r competence i n  subsequently f i n d the  feeder  f i n a n c i n g necessary  a s s o c i a t i o n s have been o r g a n i z e d  South Peace.  The  feeder  associations  c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e i r members to purchase c a t t l e owned by but  f e d and managed by  c a t t l e , the  the member under s u p e r v i s i o n .  a s s o c i a t i o n deducts i t s investment and  the b a l a n c e to the member. associations  have a l r e a d y  the  the  association  Upon s a l e of  f e e s and  forwards  A l t h o u g h j u s t o r g a n i z e d i n 1970, proven s u c c e s s f u l and  the  these  are expanding to meet  4 the  increase  in interest.  Based on r e s e a r c h  works conducted a t the F a i r v i e w A g r i c u l t u r a l  and  Vocational  School i n F a i r v i e w ,  for  lambs i n the Vancouver market, the  r e c e n t l y been formed. the B.C.  on  Peace R i v e r  the p e r c e i v e d  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s composed of o f f i c i a l s  S c h o o l s , the  producers.  I t s aim  supply of lamb c a r c a s s e s  See  Appendix  the  feasibility  has  of  Alberta local  of p r o v i d i n g  a  to Vancouver on a f i f t y week per year b a s i s .  While t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s s t i l l f o r m a l r e p o r t has  and  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and  i s to i n v e s t i g a t e  demand  Lamb A s s o c i a t i o n  and A l b e r t a Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e , the B.C.  Vocational  no  A l b e r t a and  i n the  i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t a g e , and  although  y e t been made on i t s p r o g r e s s , i t s e a r l y r e s u l t s  B.  8 appear encouraging  to the o b s e r v e r .  In F e b r u a r y  1971,  a s e r i e s of s h o r t courses aimed a t the  i n g of f a r m e r s ' s k i l l s was B.C.  instituted.  These courses were h e l d a t the  V o c a t i o n a l School a t Dawson Creek and  s t a f f e d by v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t y  and government p e r s o n n e l under the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the l o c a l A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and V o c a t i o n a l School s t a f f . Canada Manpower.  Two  h e l d c o v e r i n g a range  c o u r s e s , one  upgrad-  Funding was  District  p r o v i d e d by  f o r l i v e s t o c k and one f o r c r o p s , were  of t o p i c s such as p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , farm  management and marketing  of p r o d u c t s .  I n t e r e s t i n these courses  was  h i g h and p l a n s are p r e s e n t l y underway to r e p e a t them on an annual Other events have a l s o o c c u r r e d which are of s i g n i f i c a n c e the farmer  i n the Peace R i v e r .  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Creek.  U n t i l the summer of 1971,  to  B.C.  l o c a t e d an I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r i n Dawson  However, because of departmental  w i t h the r a d i o s t a t i o n t h i s s e r v i c e was sibilities  the  basis.  readjustment terminated.  and  difficulties  H i s major  respon-  i n c l u d e d p r o d u c t i o n of d a i l y r a d i o r e p o r t s b r o a d c a s t a t noon  and a h a l f hour t e l e v i s i o n show b r o a d c a s t i n prime time on a week day. The ARDA survey which r e p o r t e d t h a t 54.9 o f t e n heard  the r a d i o program and  32.7  per cent of t h e i r  per cent sometimes  respondants listened  p r o v i d e s i n d i c a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p o s i t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work."*  of t h i s r a d i o and  television  communication s e r v i c e w i l l have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on the farm  community,  particularly  Consequently,  the removal  i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t 73.3  per cent of the  r e p o r t no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r l o c a l d i s t r i c t  -'Verner, e t . a l . 6  Ibid.,  p.60.  op.cit  p.61.  farmers  agriculturist.  6  9 Discussion The results of the ARDA survey c l e a r l y demonstrate the  critical  nature of the problem of low farm income i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t . Recent developments i n the area however, also demonstrate the willingness of government and many farmers  to deal with the problem and search out  possible solutions. The conclusions of the ARDA survey recommend improved sources of information and improved methods of disseminating information as possible solutions to the low income problem.^  However, i t does not  deal with the question of whether the high dependence on f i e l d  crops  provides the most economic use of the scarce resources of land and capital. The purpose of this study i s to search out an answer to the question:  "What i s the most economic use of the scarce resources  currently held by the median Peace River farmer?"  The tool to be used  to answer that question i s linear programming as described i n Chapter I I .  7  Ibid. ,  p.93.  CHAPTER I I  LINEAR PROGRAMMING  Linear  Programming i s an e m p i r i c a l  to l o g i s t i c a l needs p e r c e i v e d the  during  t o o l developed i n response  the second w o r l d war.'  I n 1947,  "simplex c o m p u t a t i o n a l method" was developed by George D a n t z i g and  o t h e r s and the technique spread w i d e l y as an i n c r e a s i n g range o f problems were found t o be s o l v e d  through the l i n e a r programming technique.''"  L i k e other economic models, l i n e a r programming i n v o l v e s reality and,  t o a s e r i e s of mathematical e q u a t i o n s which r e p r e s e n t  distilling  reality  when s o l v e d , w i l l p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s to r e a l problems. A  l i n e a r program has three  quantitative  a l t e r n a t e methods by which the o b j e c t i v e  components:  an o b j e c t i v e ,  can be a c h i e v e d , and r e s t r i c t i o n s  2 on  the a l t e r n a t e methods.  M a t h e m a t i c a l l y , i t i s "the a n a l y s i s of  problems which a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of a number of v a r i a b l e s methods) i s t o be maximized or minimized v a r i a b l e s are s u b j e c t the  (the o b j e c t i v e ) when those  3  also: D a n t z i g , G.B., L i n e a r Programming and E x t e n s i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), pp. 12-31.  ^Heady, E.O. and Chandler, W., L i n e a r .(Ames:  alternate  to a number of r e s t r a i n t s (the r e s t r i c t i o n s ) i n  form of l i n e a r i n e q u a l i t i e s .  See (Princeton:.  (the  The Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Programming Methods,  1958), p.2.  3 Analysis,  Dorfman, Samuelson, Solow, L i n e a r Programming and Economic (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1958), p. 8. 10  Algebraically,  Max.  the problem can be r e p r e s e n t e d as:  Z =  I  4  ex.  j=l  J  (1)  3  s u b j e c t to n •Z J= l  and  where  a..x. < b.  x. > o J  ( i = 1, ..., m)  (2)  ( j = 1, ..., n)  (3)  x = s e t of p o s s i b l e p r o d u c t s c = u n i t n e t revenue f o r each p r o d u c t a = input-output  coefficient  b = the f i x e d supply of i n p u t s . I f we  c o n s i d e r a problem where m = 3 and n = 3 the format  would appear as f o l l o w s : Maximize  Z = ^ ^ c  Subject to:  C  +  a  a  and  22  +  x  21 l  +  x  31 l  x  x  l t  Assumptions of L i n e a r  a  +  x , 2  l 2  K  x  a  a  x  2  x 2  2  2  32 2  3  x  °3 3 X  +  +  +  a  +  a  13 3 " x  x 2 3  a  3 ^  33 3 ~ X  b  i  b  ( ) 5  b 2  3  > 0  (6)  Programming  Four assumptions are i n t e g r a l i n the l i n e a r programming These are p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , d i v i s i b i l i t y ,  f i n i t e n e s s , and  model.  single-value  S p i v e y , W.A., L i n e a r Programming, An I n t r o d u c t i o n , The M c M i l l a n Company, 1963), p. 95.  (New  York:  12 expectations.  a)  P r o p o r t i o n a l i t y - "In a l i n e a r programming model, the q u a n t i t i e s  of f l o w of v a r i o u s items  i n t o and  p r o p o r t i o n a l to the a c t i v i t y referred  out of the a c t i v i t y are always  level."-'  In economic terms, t h i s i s  to as " c o n s t a n t r e t u r n s to s c a l e " .  l e v e l are doubled,  the r e s u l t i n g output  I f the i n p u t s i n an  i s also  double.  T h i s assumption causes d i f f i c u l t i e s when phenomena such r o t a t i o n a l e f f e c t s of crops are observed. to aggregate  activity  as  In such cases, i t i s b e t t e r  the a c t i v i t i e s and a l l o w the s i n g l e a c t i v i t y  to be i n c l u d e d  i n the model.  b)  Divisibility  - I t i s assumed i n the model t h a t the f a c t o r s used  and  the p r o d u c t s  produced can occur i n f r a c t i o n a l u n i t s .  While i t i s  p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e a f r a c t i o n of an acre of land or a f r a c t i o n of a ton of f e r t i l i z e r , head of c a t t l e .  i t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t  to produce a f r a c t i o n of a  "Rounding o f f " , however, can e a s i l y  sidestep this  difficulty.  c)  F i n i t e n e s s - I t i s assumed t h a t there i s a l i m i t  a c t i v i t i e s and Otherwise,  d)  to the r e s t r i c t i v e  to the a l t e r n a t e  r e s o u r c e s which need be a p p l i e d .  the program c o u l d never be p r o p e r l y programmed.  S i n g l e - V a l u e E x p e c t a t i o n s - P e r f e c t knowledge i s assumed i n the  a l l o c a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e and p r i c e s .  i  r e s t r i c t i o n s , the i n p u t - o u t p u t  While t h i s assumption can never be  D a n t z i g , o p . c i t . p.  32  Heady and  o p . c i t . p.  Chandler,  18.  coefficients,  truly realized,  as  D a n t z i g so a p t l y It  states:  i s important  models of r e a l  to r e a l i z e i n trying  life  situations,  that  life  to construct seldom, i f  e v e r , p r e s e n t s a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d l i n e a r programming problem, and t h a t certain  Simplex  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and n e g l e c t of  characteristics  of r e a l i t y are as n e c e s s a r y  in  the a p p l i c a t i o n  of l i n e a r programming as they are  in  the use o f any s c i e n t i f i c  t o o l i n problem  solving.  Procedures  As mentioned e a r l i e r , i t was the development of the simplex procedure by George D a n t z i g i n 1947 which brought into  L i n e a r Programming  common usage. Basically,  a "slack  the simplex procedure  variable"  restriction.  i n v o l v e s the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of  r e p r e s e n t i n g an unused q u a n t i t y of each r e s o u r c e  Consequently,  the i n e q u a l i t i e s  i n the i n p u t - o u t p u t m a t r i x  become e q u a l i t i e s . A simplex format of the i n e q u a l i t i e s  i n matrix  (5) would appear  as: a  i l l X  +  3  12 2  +  a  13 3  +  23 3  +  X  3  21 1  +  a  22 2  +  a  a  31 l  +  a  32 2  +  a  X  X  X  x  x  X  X 3 3  3  where x e q u a l s the unused p o r t i o n 4 and x  6  the unused p o r t i o n  Dantzig, op.cit.  of b . 0 3  p. 7.  X  A  =  *5  +  =  X  of b , x 1  5  l  b  6  =  b  b  <> 7  2  3  the unused p o r t i o n  of b„ Z  14 T h i s e q u a t i o n s e t then becomes the b a s i c f e a s i b l e it  satisfies  the n o n - n e g a t i v i t y c r i t e r i a .  To i l l u s t r a t e  of tne simplex procedure from tne b a s i c f e a s i b l e feasible  s o l u t i o n as the movement  s o l u t i o n to tne optimum  s o l u t i o n , i t i s b e s t to borrow an example from B o u l d i n g and  Spivey.^ Suppose the problem i s to maximize  subiect  to  x x X-.  2  + x„  1  and  1  <  4  <  6  <  8  s  0  Z = 2x-^ +  5x  2  2  xj_ > 0  , x  I n t r o d u c i n g s l a c k v a r i a b l e s , the e q u a t i o n system becomes: x, 1 0  +  l  x  0x„ 2  +  x  x,  +  J.  +  2  x K  x„ z  +  x  0 1 1 P 2  +  1  1  The  x  +  0x  which can be w r i t t e n i n v e c t o r 1 0 1 P,  3  ®3  +  +  n  x  +  Ox  Ox^  +  Ox, 4  =  4-  x  = 4  5 6  = 8  J c  form.  x.,  0  2  4  +  n  3  1 0  +  Ox. 4  0 1  + 0  3  P  x 4  P  3  0 0  + 1  5  P  4  x  4 6  = 8  5  l i n e a r programming problem i s then to maximize Z  =  2x^  +  5x  +  2  Ox^  +  Ox^  +  Ox^  s u b j e c t to V l and x  >  +  0  P  2  X  + 2  P  3 3 X  +  V  + 4  P  5  X  = 5  P  0  ( i = 1, .. ., 5 ) .  ^ B o u l d i n g , K.E. and S p i v e y , W.A., L i n e a r Programming and The Theory of the F i r m , (New York: The M c M i l l a n Company, 1960), pp. 90-93.  P C  15 The Simplex Tableau i s represented of the vectors has changed so that the  i n table ( I I - l ) .  The order  appears i n the f i r s t column,  the basis vectors (P^, P^, P ) are i n the next three columns, followed by the s t r u c t u r a l vectors (P^> P ) 2  Within the tableau the c o e f f i c i e n t s are noted as "a ". ij the p r o f i t per enterprise.  Z is 0  Z^ (j = 1, ..., n) i s the opportunity cost  to the program incurred by entering one unit of P  "c " i s the net  price of each P^. The  test f o r the optimal solution i s as follows: (i)  i f a l l Z - C j s 0, an optimal solution has been J reached.  (ii)  i f Z - c. < 0 then j J (a)  the solution i s i n f i n i t e i f a l l the a.. i n that  column are non-positive, or  (b) i f some a  i n that column i s non-negative, further  i t e r a t i o n s are necessary. If a new i t e r a t i o n i s required some structural vector w i l l replace a base vector.  This "replacing" vector i s noted as "k" i n the  i t e r a t i o n and the replaced vector i s noted as " r " . one with the largest negative Z. - c J  value.  The k vector i s that  The replaced vector P i s  J  r  determined from the rule 6 = min.  a. i _, a  0> ( i = 1,2,3)  which means to divide the components of the P^ vector by the corresponding components of the replacing vector.  By following this procedure, the  replaced vector i s the one which places the largest r e s t r i c t i o n onto the introduction of the replacing vector.  TABLE I I - 1 Simplex Tableau  0  c. J Vector  0  P  3  0  P  4  0  P  5  Z. J  z  r j c  0  P  3  5  P  2  0  P  5  Z. J Z -c  j  o  P  3  0  P  4  0  P  5  2  l  P  5  P  2  4  1  0  0  1  0  6  0  1  0  0  1  8  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  -2  -5  4  1  0  0  1  0  6  0  1  0  0  1  2  0  -1  1  1  0  30  0  5  0  0  5  30  0  5  0  -2  0  2  1  1  -1  0  0  6  0  1  0  0  1  2  0  -1  1  1  0  34  0  3  2  2  5  34  0  3  2  0  0  J  0  P  3  5  P  2  2  P  l  Z. J Z c. r  p  0  In the example under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the 0 v a l u e s a a  30  =  defined  32  ^0 a  42  a  50  a  not  are;  _6_  =  6  1  =  8  = 8  1  52  Therefore, only a l l o w 6 u n i t s of P  =  i s chosen as the r e p l a c e d v e c t o r as i t w i l l to be  2  introduced.  P_ would have allowed 5  for  8 u n i t s of P . 2 Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e to move to the simplex  tableau.  d u c t i o n of P^.  The  First, The  second i t e r a t i o n of  the  the v e c t o r s are renamed to a l l o w f o r the  elements of the P  row  elements o f . t h e remaining  are determined by  the  rows are determined by  introformula  the  formula a  f. J L  The of the  =  a  L  J  results  -  a  a - — rk  of these  l  a., k  =  a. . ij  -  (a kj  ) (a.. ) . ik'  c a l c u l a t i o n s are seen i n i t e r a t i o n  two  tableau. Again,  after  c r i t e r i a are a p p l i e d . (P ) and k v  P  the second stage In t h i s case P^  as the r e p l a c e d v e c t o r  5  Once the  and  i s chosen as the r e p l a c i n g v e c t o r  (P ). r  t h i r d s e c t i o n i s completed u s i n g the above formulae,  the c r i t e r i a are a g a i n a p p l i e d . negative  has been completed, the o p t i m a l i t y  optimality i s  I n t h i s case no Z.  achieved.  - c, v a l u e s  are  The value  Z. v a l u e s are a c h i e v e d by summing the p r o d u c t s  i n each row  and  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  c o e f f i c i e n t i n the  of the  c. J  column.  Thus, a t the p o i n t of o p t i m a l i t y the Z. - c value i s - J J (2)  (0)  +  (6)  (5)  +  (2)  (2)  =  34  Post-Optimal A n a l y s i s Once the o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n i s reached, the o p t i m a l v a l u e s of the v a r i a b l e s can be The  i n f o r m a t i o n other  read or d e r i v e d .  p o s i t i v e Z. - c. v a l u e s i n the o p t i m a l t a b l e a u J J  the r e d u c t i o n i n the v a l u e of the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n by of one  u n i t of P..  However, they can a l s o be  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n would i n c r e a s e through  than  indicated  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  seen as the amount the  an e x t r a u n i t of P  b e i n g made j  available. Following o p t i m a l i t y , ranging i s p o s s i b l e . a range f o r each a c t i v i t y  l e v e l of the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n and each r i g h t  hand s i d e ( l e v e l of r e s o u r c e ) . stand  the s e n s i t i v i t y  element w i l l The  Ranging p r o v i d e s  From the range, i t i s p o s s i b l e to under-  of the program; whether a s l i g h t  change i n an  cause the components of the o p t i m a l program to change.  Dual  F o r e v e r y p r i m a l l i n e a r programming problem, there i s a corresponding  " d u a l " problem.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i m a l Q  the d u a l may 1.  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : The  d u a l has  one  v a r i a b l e f o r each c o n s t r a i n t i n the  primal.  ^Dorfman, e t . a l .  o p . c i t . pp.  40-41.  and  The dual has as many constraints as there are variables i n the primal. The dual of a maximizing problem i s a minimizing problem and vice versa. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of the objective function of the primal are the constraints of the dual.  The primal constraints  are the c o e f f i c i e n t s of the objective function of the dual. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of a variable i n the primal are the c o e f f i c i e n t s of a constraint i n the dual. The sense of the i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the dual i s the reverse of the sense of the i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the primal except the non-negativity i n e q u a l i t i e s which are the same i n the dual and primal problems. Thus, the primal problem was represented as: n Max. Z =  n £ j=l  subject to:  and  X j  E j=l  ^  c.x J  j  a..x ^ b J L J  ( i = 1,  ..., m)  1  0  ( j  -  1, . . . , n)  The dual problem i s represented as:  Minimize Z  =  m £  b-U.  i-1 Subject to:  and  m E  i-1 > 0  U j  J  a  U J  > c i  (i =  1,  n)  (j = 1, ..., m)  The  d u a l of example 1 would be Minimize Z  Subject  to:  =  4U  U  solved  6U„  lU^  +U  +  and  +  U  >  1  2  set up  >  3  +1U  2  0, U  +  3  > 0,  as  follows:  8U„  2  * 5  U  3  > 0  accordingly.  The  v a r i a b l e "U."  i s the m a r g i n a l revenue p r o d u c t of the " j t h "  resource.  The  Economic I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a Resource A l l o c a t i o n Problem  The  c o e f f i c i e n t s which d e f i n e  an i s o - r e s o u r c e  line.  ix where x^ i s one iso-resource  I f a resource  +  1  2x  acre  0  2  < S  x  =  1  1  480 2  ,  constraint also  i n e q u a l i t y f o r land i s :  x^  i s the one  head of b e e f , then  as:  -  2x  the m a r g i n a l r a t e of s u b s t i t u t i o n (or slope  of the  l i n e ) of beef f o r  b a r l e y i s 2. S i m i l a r l y , i f the r e s o u r c e lOx the i s o - r e s o u r c e  1  +  6.67x  2  <  line i s defined  lOx x  1 1  = =  inequality for capital i s :  3000 as:  3000 - 6.67x„ 2 300  define  480  of b a r l e y and  line i s defined  a resource  - .667x  2  0  w i t h a m a r g i n a l r a t e of s u b s t i t u t i o n of beef f o r b a r l e y of  .667.  the  These i s o - r e s o u r c e resource  c o n s t r a i n t , are r e p r e s e n t e d  represent  the outer  that barley capital. the  the f u l l use of the II-1.  Since  these  lines  i t i s obvious from the f i g u r e  cannot exceed 300 acres because of the c o n s t r a i n t of cannot exceed 240 head because of  constraint. The  area which allows  Three "corner  Optimality  where Px^ px  i n Figure  l i m i t s of p r o d u c t i o n ,  S i m i l a r l y , beef p r o d u c t i o n  land  graph.  l i n e s , representing  2  If  f o r f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n s i s shaded on the  p o i n t s " are d e p i c t e d  i s achieved  when:  t&l  Px 2  A*  Fx 1  2  =  Net Return of B a r l e y  =  Net Return of Beef.  the c o n d i t i o n i s such t h a t  Ax ^ ^ P x — i - <£ 2 2  X  substitute x  as p o s s i b l e optimum s o l u t i o n s ,  PI1  then we  f o r x^ u n t i l o p t i m a l i t y i s a c h i e v e d .  2  In F i g u r e are e q u i v a l e n t  I I - 1 , the p o i n t B i s l o c a t e d where b a r l e y and beef  i n both  functions.  Thus, i t may be d e f i n e d a s : 480 - 2x„ 2  =  - 1.33x x x  The  should  !  300 - .667x  2  = -180 2  = =  135 2  1  0  •  m a r g i n a l r a t e of s u b s t i t u t i o n i s such t h a t : ,667  s: MRS < 2.  22  BEEF ( Head)  x  FIGURE I I - l :  2  The Relationship between Inputs and Outputs i n a Linear Programming Situation  23 Thus, i f the r e t u r n f o r b a r l e y per  i s $25 p e r acre  and beef i s $30  head the p r i c e r a t i o i s :  Px =  2  P  x  30  l  2  Optimality land nor labour At  =  1.20  5  i s thus a c h i e v e d  x^Px  )  +  x  =  210(25)  +  135 (30)  =  5250 + 4050  =  9300 '  (Px )  2  2  i f we i n c r e a s e  Marginal  value  p r o d u c t of a resource M.V.P.  1  the amount of e i t h e r land or c a p i t a l  a v a i l a b l e , i t i s possible to obtain  the m a r g i n a l value  product i s defined  =  MRyX MPP^  =  p  as the m a r g i n a l p h y s i c a l  Ax  I f an a d d i t i o n a l u n i t of c a p i t a l i s s u p p l i e d p o i n t w i l l move t o p o i n t E on F i g u r e  -  2x 2  301  x  2  =  x  x  = 211.5  -  134.25  t o the program,  II-1.  x, and x a r e : 1 2 480  p r o d u c t f o r each  times the m a r g i n a l revenue o f the p r o d u c t .  y  the o p t i m a l  neither  of the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i s :  =  Further,  resource.  A t that point,  i s i n excess.  t h a t p o i n t , the value Z  a t p o i n t B.  .667x„ 2  Values f o r  The i n c r e a s e i n revenue i s :  ^ c  to  =  ^1 Ac  =  M  +  (Px )  Z  2  Ac  =  1.5(25)  =  20  -  .75(30)  S i m i l a r l y , i f l a n d were i n c r e a s e d by one u n i t , program would s h i f t 481  -  to D. 2x  2  =  300  x  2  =  135.75  =  209.5  =  __L  x  and  The v a l u e s f o r x-^ and x -  .667x  optimum  would be:  2  the change i n revenue M^l  If  =  0*  )  +  AL  Consequently, and  2  the  AX2  (Px.)  AL  =  -.5(25)  =  10  +  .75(30)  the problem i s s o l v e d , optimum revenue i s a c h i e v e d ,  the m a r g i n a l value p r o d u c t s  are known.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the above to the simplex the optimum  tableau i s that  l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i o n are l i s t e d under the P^ column, the  optimum revenue are o p p o s i t e  the Z - c . row i n the P column, and the j J ' 0 m a r g i n a l v a l u e p r o d u c t s , or "shadow p r i c e s " of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , are l i s t e d under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e P The UBC  LIP Programming  j  column i n the Z - c . row. J J  Package  In 1970 the Computing Center Columbia developed  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  a packaged l i n e a r program known as UBC LIP.  25 The  i n p u t to LIP i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  " s l a c k v a r i a b l e s " by 300  x  the program.  the automatic e n t r y of a l l  I t s maximum a l l o w a b l e m a t r i x i s  300. On  c a l c u l a t i o n of the d a t a , LIP p r o v i d e s  an i t e r a t i o n l o g r e c o r d i n g the p r o c e s s program p r o c e e d s ; the o p t i m a l value  the f o l l o w i n g output  of e n t r i e s and  e x i t s as  :  the  of the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n ; the  p r i m a l s o l u t i o n v e c t o r ; the reduced c o s t s  (shadow c o s t s ) of  activities  not i n the p r i m a l s o l u t i o n v e c t o r ; the d u a l s o l u t i o n v e c t o r ; the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ranging;  and  the r i g h t hand s i d e  Because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y i n e n t r y and program was  chosen as the computer t o o l i n the  ranging.  f u l l n e s s of output, study.  this  CHAPTER III THE DATA  In the discussion of the data used to form the matrices for the linear programs, the following outline i s to be used: target areas, b) selection of production  a) s e l e c t i o n of  a c t i v i t i e s , c) selection of  the resource constraints, d) the derivation of the budgets of each resource for each a c t i v i t y and e) the derivation of the objective function. a)  Selection of Target Areas An early investigation by the author on the economics of  a g r i c u l t u r a l production observations.  The  i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t resulted i n two  f i r s t was  that there were d i s p a r i t i e s i n the  Land prices were found to vary, land productivity varied, and was  found i n production  techniques.  The  second observation  area.  variance  came i n the  lack of any empirical data available on the costs and returns of production. Consequently, the author chose to f a l l back on what l i t t l e empirical data was  available.  The prime source of this data was  survey conducted i n the summer, 1971,  on A l f a l f a production  a  costs by  the Farm Economics Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture. This study was  divided into nine areas of the region and covered a  s u f f i c i e n t number of areas to account for the d i s p a r i t i e s which e x i s t within the  region.  26  T h e r e f o r e , i t was the r e g i o n .  decided  Each program was  to do nine  l i n e a r programs w i t h i n  to account f o r the r e s o u r c e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n each of the areas  and p r o v i d e  and  i n f o r m a t i o n as  production  to  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i o n programs r e s u l t i n g from the r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n . The  areas  s e l e c t e d are d e s c r i b e d i n Table  f a c t o r s which c r e a t e v a r i a t i o n such as: land c o s t , taxes and by Table  geographic  productivity classification.  I I I - l along  location, s o i l  type,  This table i s followed  I I I - 2 which p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n as to c r i t e r i a f o r  the a l l o c a t i o n of land to a p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t  b)  with  can be  S e l e c t i o n of P r o d u c t i o n  found  A map  of  the  i n Appendix A.  Activities  In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o f f i c i a l s of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e r e s i d e n t i n the Peace R i v e r a r e a , the f o l l o w i n g p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) All  4 crop r o t a t i o n s cow-calf cow-yearling 4 feeder pasture  beef finished  beef  confinement r e a r i n g of sheep c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a r i n g of sheep farrow  to f i n i s h hogs  f i n i s h i n g hogs  a c t i v i t i e s except  the crop r o t a t i o n s and  the  pasture  Statements by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 21, 9  1971.  1 2 '  Statements by Werner Hooge, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September  1971. 22,  TABLE  III-l  Study Areas i n the Peace R i v e r  Area  Location  S o i l Type  (2)  (1)  Average Improved Land Costs  Land Taxes  Productivity Classification  $/acre/year (5)  (6)  100.  1.75  B  $/acre (4)  (3)  RollaBoundary  15 m i l e s n o r t h of Dawson Creek  Landry:  Doe R i v e r  25 m i l e s n o r t h  Arras: dark-grey-wooded s o l o d s i l t loam and s i l t y c l a y loam.  80  1.50  C  Progress  20 m i l e s west of Dawson Creek  Devereau: dark greywooded s i l t loam and s i l t y c l a y loam.  80  - 1.70  D  Groundbirch  30 m i l e s west of Dawson Creek  Beryl-Bisequa; greywooded f i n e sandy loam and s i l t loam.  100  1.25  D  Sunset Prairie  30 m i l e s n o r t h west of Dawson Creek.  Sloane: o r t h i c greywooded f i n e sandy loam and s i l t loam.  80  1.25  D  Baldonnel Two-Rims  15 m i l e s southe a s t of F o r t S t . John.  Kathben: orthic greywooded s i l t loam and s i l t y c l a y loam.  75  1.25  C  Cecil  15 m i l e s n o r t h west of F o r t S t . John.  Donnelly: greywooded s o l o d loam and c l a y loam.  70  1.00  C  Lake  black  solid  1  TABLE I I I - l  Area  Location  Soil  (Continued)  Type  Average Improved Land Costs $/acre  (1)  (2)  (3)  Productivity Classification  Land Taxes $/acre/year  (4)  (5)  (6) B  Montenay  30 m i l e s n o r t h of F o r t S t . John  Murdale: dark grey s o l i d loam and c l a y loam.  90  2.00  Halfway River  40 m i l e s west of F o r t St. John  Lynx - B r u n i s o l i c : greywooded f i n e sandy loam and c l a y loam.  100  1.75  Sources: Column 3: L. F a r s t a d , T.M. L o r d , A.S. Green and H.S. H o r t i e , S o i l Survey of the Peace R i v e r A r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Report No. 8 B r i t i s h Columbia S o i l Survey (Ottawa; Queen's P r i n t e r 1965) Columns 4 and 5: "Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay", of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1971) mimeographed.  (Victoria:  B r i t i s h Columbia  Column 6: "B.C. Peace R i v e r - S o i l Zones, G r a i n Crop I n s u r a n c e " , ( V i c t o r i a ; Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ) undated mimeograph. See a l s o Table I I I - 2 .  British  Department  Columbia  30  TABLE III-2  B.C. Peace River - S o i l Zones  Classification  Description  B  Degraded black and best types of grey wooded soils. Classes I and II a g r i c u l t u r a l land.  C  Average grey wooded. land. 1  Class I I I a g r i c u l t u r a l  C  Average grey-wooded. Class I I I a g r i c u l t u r a l land with some climatic l i m i t a t i o n s .  D  Grey wooded s o i l s . Class I I I a g r i c u l t u r a l land with limitations concerning s o i l structure, f e r t i l i t y - moisture or s a l i n i t y .  E  Class IV a g r i c u l t u r a l  lands.  Source: "B.C. Peace River S o i l Zones, Grain Crop Insurance" V i c t o r i a ; B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture undated mimeograph.  31 f i n i s h i n g of beef were deemed to be constant throughout the region since they are b a s i c a l l y unaffected  by climatic or productivity v a r i a t i o n .  This v a r i a t i o n , however, did r e s u l t i n selecting the four rotations on the basis of what production area.  programs are generally recommended for each  The breakdown of the rotations can be found i n Table III-3. The  l i s t of productive  a c t i v i t i e s was expended by the i n c l u s i o n  of nine "buy" a c t i v i t i e s which would allow for the purchase of resources. These "buy" a c t i v i t i e s are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)  Buy  Buy Rapeseed Buy Oats Buy Hay Buy Wheat Buy  (vii) (viii) (ix) c)  January - March Labour  Buy A p r i l - June Labour Buy July - September Labour Buy  Selection of Resource The  Barley  October - December Labour Constraints  three main factors of production, .capital, land and labour  were selected as the p r i n c i p a l resource constraints.  Added to them were  five crops brought i n at zero levels to t i e together the possible crop production  i n the rotation a c t i v i t i e s and the possible crop use i n the  livestock enterprises. The  s e l e c t i o n of the "right hand sides" or the maximum l e v e l  of the resources was made using the following guidelines:  the l e v e l of  c a p i t a l available i n each linear program was the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l less  TABLE I I I - 3 Crop R o t a t i o n s f o r the Peace  Area Groundbirch Sunset Prairie Progress Halfway River  Year of Rotation  Rotation 1  Rotation 2  B a r l e y and e s t a b l i s h Brome A l f a l f a B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay and f a l l o w Barley Wheat  B a r l e y and e s t a b l i s h Brome A l f a l f a B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay and f a l l o w Barley Oats  B a r l e y and e s t a b l i s h Brome A l f a l f a B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay and f a l l o w Barley Barley  B a r l e y and e s t a b l : Brome A l f a l f a B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay and F a l l o w Barley Rapeseed  B a r l e y underseeded to A l s i k e A l s i k e Seed A l s i k e Seed and f a l l o w Rapeseed Oats Barley  B a r l e y underseeded to A l s i k e A l s i k e Seed A l s i k e Seed and f a l l o w Oats Oats Barley  E s t a b l i s h Brome Alfalfa B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay  4 5 6  B a r l e y underseeded to A l s i k e A l s i k e Seed A l s i k e Seed and fallow Oats Barley Barley  1  Fescue  Fescue  Fescue  2 3  Fescue Seed Fescue Seed and f a l l o w Rapeseed Barley Barley  E s t a b l i s h BromeAlfalfa B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay  1 2 3 4 5 6  BaldonnelTwo R i v e r s C e c i l Lake  1 2 3  Doe R i v e r  River  4 5 6  Seed  Seed  Fescue Seed Fescue Seed and f a l l o w Barley Barley Oats  Rotation 3  Seed  Fescue Seed Fescue Seed and f a l l o w Rapeseed Barley Rapeseed  Rotation 4  B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay  B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay  TABLE I I I - 3  Year of Rotation  Area RollaBoundary Montenay  Source:  Rotation 1  (Continued)  Rotation 2  Rotation 3  1  Wheat  Rapeseed  Rapeseed  2 3 4 5 6  Wheat Wheat Wheat Barley Fallow  Wheat Wheat Wheat Barley Fallow  Wheat Wheat Barley Barley Fallow  Rotation 4  E s t a b l i s h BromeAlfalfa B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay B r o m e - A l f a l f a Hay Br.ome-Alf a l f a Hay  ——  Based on p e r s o n a l correspondence between A.A.F. Hennig, S o i l Management, Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Research S t a t i o n , Beaverlodge, A l b e r t a and the w r i t e r . See Appendix C  CO  34 the c o s t of the l a n d .  Labour f o r each  p o r t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Research Verner's  labour p e r i o d was  s e t as an e q u a l  C o u n c i l Standard.  study i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the median g r o s s c a p i t a l  available  3 was  from $50,000 to $69,000  from 320 their  to 639  acres  and  the median number of improved  f o r those farmers who  4  t o t a l income from farming.  The  the developmental  h o l d i n g of from purposes  160  s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h i s group were  stage of f a r m i n g . to 319  The  those who  were  still  study a l s o r e v e a l e d a median  a c r e s i n u n c l e a r e d bush or timber.  of t h i s study, i t was  was  earned more than 50% of  s e l e c t e d to e l i m i n a t e those i n p a r t - t i m e farming and in  acres  For  the  d e c i d e d to i g n o r e the u n c l e a r e d land as  i t s dense nature would not a l l o w any d i r e c t b e n e f i t to accrue from i t . The w r i t e r a r b i t r a r i l y  s e l e c t e d the f i g u r e s of $70,000 as the g r o s s  c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e and 480 Labour was  a c r e s as the improved  divided into four sections:  to June, J u l y to September, and October  land a v a i l a b l e . January  to December, a l l groups  These d i v i s i o n s were s e l e c t e d as they corresponded d i v i s i o n s i n crop and  livestock production.  C o u n c i l standard of 312  to March, A p r i l  - 10 hour days was  The  inclusive.  to the normal  N a t i o n a l Research  taken as the maximum amount of  labour a v a i l a b l e and d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r 780 hour p e r i o d s . Crops hay and wheat. of crop  selected  to e n t e r the program were b a r l e y , rapeseed, o a t s ,  Each crop was  l i s t e d a t zero l e v e l s assuming no  holdovers  supplies. The  r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s and  program can be found i n Table  the " r i g h t hand s i d e s " f o r the  III-4.  V e r n e r , o p . c i t . pg. 57, Table I b i d , pg. 82 - Table  58.  42.  TABLE I I I - 4 Resource C o n s t r a i n t s and R i g h t Hand Sides  Resource Constraints  (1)  Right Hand S i d e s RollaBoundary  Doe River  Progress  Groundbirch (5)  (2)  (3)  (4)  220  316  316  480  480  480  Sunset Prairie (6)  BaldonnelTwo R i v e r s  Cecil Lake  Montenay  Halfway River  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  Capital ($00) Land  (Acres)  Labour  I  (Hrs.)  "'  a  Labour I I  780  316  350  364  268  220  480  480  480  480  480  480  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  780  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  780  3  (Hrs.) Labour  780  220  III  780  780  780  780  780  780  3  (Hrs.) a Labour IV (Hrs.)  780  780  780  (Tons)  0  0  0  Oats  0  0  0  0  0  0  Barley  (Tons)  Rapeseed (Tons)  TABLE II1-4 (Continued)  Right Hand Sides Resource Constraints  (1) Hay  (Tons)  Wheat (Tons)  Labour Labour Labour Labour  I II III IV  RollaBoundary  Doe River  Progress  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  0  0  0  0  0  0  January to March A p r i l to June J u l y to September October to December  BaldonnelTwo R i v e r s  Cecil Lake  Montenay  Halfway River  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  •0  Groundbirch  Sunset Prairie  d)  Resource  Budgeting  Determining  the r e s o u r c e budget i n L i n e a r Programming terms i s  to d e f i n e the c o e f f i c i e n t s of the L i n e a r Programming m a t r i x .  The  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the m a t r i c e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r e s e n t problem were most difficult and  to o b t a i n because of l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the data a v a i l a b l e  the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s to determine  accuracy  them w i t h any more  than p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . Consequently,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  s e a r c h to determine  c o e f f i c i e n t s the f o l l o w i n g approach was.taken:  the  t h a t data which  was  deemed "the b e s t d a t a a v a i l a b l e " , i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r and from whom he  sought  a d v i c e , was  s e l e c t e d as the d a t a used  H o p e f u l l y , then, the d a t a i s an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of  (i)  those  i n the m a t r i c e s .  reality.  Crop R o t a t i o n s  Because c r o p p i n g p r a c t i c e s and y i e l d s v a r i e d from d i s t r i c t d i s t r i c t , i t was  necessary  to  to d e f i n e i n d i v i d u a l c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each  crop r o t a t i o n f o r each d i s t r i c t . M a t e r i a l f o r these c o e f f i c i e n t s was  o b t a i n e d from two  budget 5 6  s t u d i e s undertaken A 1971  by  the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  study on a l f a l f a p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the l a b o u r ,  c a p i t a l and m a t e r i a l i n p u t s and other c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s .  costs f o r s o i l  I t was  tillage,  seeding  and  assumed t h a t a farmer would use  the  same b a s i c methods f o r g r a i n or forage seed crops as he would f o r the  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs Produce A l f a l f a Hay, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  to  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs Produce Wheat, Oats, Bar l e v , ("Victoria, 1969).  to  '  particular was  forage crops under study.  used to p r o v i d e  1969  study  on g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n on the h a r v e s t i n g l a b o u r , c a p i t a l  m a t e r i a l i n p u t s and  costs.  The  the e n t i r e r e g i o n as i t was  latter  felt  are much more l i k e l y  to be  found  h a r v e s t as d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l  study was  t h a t i t was  of the d i f f e r e n c e s between d i s t r i c t s .  the  A  not extended to  and cover  lacking i n i t s definitions  D i f f e r e n c e s i n farming p r a c t i c e s  i n crop p r e p a r a t i o n r a t h e r than  crop  type have l e s s e f f e c t on the l a t t e r  than  former. In the case  of rapeseed,  used to determine the i n p u t s and The  m a t e r i a l was  i n Appendix D. while  G r a i n Grower^  was  outputs.  assembled i n T a b l e s  From these  the c o s t data was  m a t e r i a l from The  1 to 62 which can be  found  T a b l e s , the labour c o e f f i c i e n t s were d e r i v e d  h e l d over f o r use  i n d e r i v i n g the o b j e c t i v e  function. Crop Y i e l d s were determined f o r each a r e a from m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d by  the Crop Insurance  Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e  f o r o a t s , b a r l e y and wheat.  (ii)  These y i e l d s are found  i n Appendix E.  e n t e r p r i s e budget was  taken from The  Cow-Calf  Data f o r the cow-calf  Grain  g Grower .  A 90 per  assumed.  I t was  cent c a l f  crop w i t h  16 per  cent replacements  a l s o assumed t h a t the cows and  on summer range i n a community p a s t u r e  was  c a l v e s would be  at a c o s t of 60 cents  per  ' F o r r e s t H e t l a n d , "How I Grow Q u a l i t y Rapeseed", The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1970), p.143.125. " E n t e r p r i s e Budgets f o r Three Cow-Calf Systems", The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1969), p.420.818. 8  animal u n i t month.  Any g r a z i n g past  assumed to be on stubble  the community p a s t u r e p e r i o d was  and t h e r e f o r e  f r e e to the cow-calf  activity.  A s i x month w i n t e r f e e d i n g p e r i o d was f u r t h e r assumed.  (iii)  Cow-Yearling  Data f o r t h i s e n t e r p r i s e was taken from the same source as the Cow-Calf e n t e r p r i s e .  A d d i t i o n a l c o s t s , feed  added to the cow-calf budget to p r o v i d e  (iv)  Beef F e e d i n g I-IV  and labour  the r e l e v a n t  i n p u t s were  coefficients.  I  Data f o r these e n t e r p r i s e s were taken from a r e p o r t made on 9 feeder  demonstrations i n Dawson Creek d u r i n g  Each f e e d i n g e n t e r p r i s e d i f f e r e d the  steers.  the w i n t e r of 1970-71.  only w i t h r e g a r d  These r a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d  of:  low q u a l i t y b a r l e y  per b u s h e l ) and rapeseed; h i g h moisture; b a r l e y dry b a r l e y  (14.5 p e r cent m o i s t u r e ) ;  cent m o i s t u r e ) t r e a t e d w i t h v o l i t i l e  to the r a t i o n s f e d (41 pounds  (30 per c e n t ) e n s i l e d ;  and h i g h m o i s t u r e b a r l e y f a t t y acids  (20 per  (VFA) of 70 p e r cent  a c e t i c a c i d and 30 per cent p r o p i o n i c a c i d added a t 1.2 p e r cent by weight. The  s t e e r s on t e s t a t t h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n had not been t r e a t e d  with d i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l  (DES), a growth promoting hormone which i s a  common p r a c t i c e i n beef f e e d i n g . to assume i n c r e a s e d  Consequently, these budgets were  d a i l y r a t e of g a i n  through use o f D.E.S.  adjusted  An A l b e r t a  B.C. V o c a t i o n a l School and B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , 1970-71, Beef F e e d i n g Demonstration, (Dawson Creek, 1971. )  study 1  0  pounds.  i n d i c a t e d t h a t D.E.S. i n c r e a s e d average d a i l y g a i n by Thus, the average d a i l y gains r e p o r t e d from the  0.40  demonstration  trials  of 2.41  pounds, 2.32  pounds, 2.20  pounds, and  2.28  pounds were  raised  to 2.81  pounds, 2.72  pounds, 2.60  pounds, and  2.68  pounds f o r  Pens 1,2,3, and by  119  4 respectively.  days to determine the  s t e e r s had been implanted The  These r e v i s e d gains were then m u l t i p l i e d  t o t a l g a i n f o r each pen  of s t e e r s i f the  w i t h D.E.S.  requirements f o r b a r l e y were expressed  i n terms of  low  moisture b a r l e y . I t was  assumed t h a t there would be  the f e e d l o t d u r i n g  the y e a r .  I t was  problem i n o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t would l a s t for  119  the new  Grain  assumed t h a t there would be  cattle  throughout the year.  days w i t h e x t r a days a l l o c a t e d to c l e a n up and  run.  no  Each run preparation  Data on equipment and b u i l d i n g s were d e r i v e d from  The  Grower.^ The  e x i s t e n c e of Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s has  c a p i t a l which the farmer was steers.  Since  l i v e s t o c k to be considered  (v)  three " r u n s " of c a t t l e i n  r e q u i r e d to a l l o c a t e to the purchase of  the A s s o c i a t i o n s r e q u i r e 10 per submitted  reduced the amount of  cent of the c o s t of  the  as a d e p o s i t from the farmer, t h a t amount  was  the c a p i t a l requirement f o r the h o l d i n g of s t e e r s .  Pasture  F i n i s h i n g of Beef  R a i s i n g beef to f i n i s h e d weight on p a s t u r e  is a relatively  • ^ A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pasture C a t t l e , [ b y A.W.N. ErichsenQ,(Edmonton, 1971), p. 6  new  F a t t e n i n g of Beef  •^"Equipment Costs f o r D i f f e r e n t S i z e C a t t l e F e e d l o t s " , G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg : The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1965) p. 420.824.  The  program i n a g r i c u l t u r e and reflect to be  as  such, no budgets are  a v a i l a b l e which  a c t u a l farm e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e .  However, i t appears  an upcoming program which m e r i t e d i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . .  main source of budget i n f o r m a t i o n  was  an A l b e r t a  Department of  The  Agriculture  12 publication was  which summarized c u r r e n t  supplied  by Mr.  Ken  research.  Alberta  study i n d i c a t e d  f i n i s h i n g program was per  one  equivalents  equivalent  required  requirement was  areas to determine the f u r t h e r assumed t h a t stand had  a life The  of the  hay  by  c o n v e r t e d from a per  the  crop r o t a t i o n s  T h i s hay  f o r f e e d l o t f i n i s h i n g would a l s o be  time of  target  It  was  a pasture  planting.  crop r o t a t i o n s and  to e s t a b l i s h the acre b a s i s  f o r hay,  -  from land were determined by  to a per  use  r e s t r i c t e d to  f o r a g e stand o n l y .  a l s o assumed t h a t f i n a n c i n g  This  input  head b a s i s . arrangements s i m i l a r to those  a v a i l a b l e f o r pasture f i n i s h i n g .  c a p i t a l requirement f o r s t e e r s was  10  per  steers.  •^Alberta  amount of p a s t u r e  y i e l d s i n the nine  c y c l e of f i v e y e a r s from the  i n the  intake.  study.  land requirement f o r each area.  s i m i l a r to the  t h a t machinery r e q u i r e d  of the  amount of g r a i n  i n t h i s program.  compared to hay  d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r hay  That i s , the  the  George s u p p l i e d  steers  10  s t e e r s were f e d g r a i n w i t h  c a p i t a l requirements apart  I t was  the most p r o f i t a b l e p a s t u r e  used i n the p r e s e n t  I n f o r m a t i o n from P r i n c e  was  that  i n which the  Consequently, t h i s r a t i o n was  of  George.  cent animal t a l l o w added to r e s t r i c t  i n hay  information  Dawley, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Canada Department  A g r i c u l t u r e , E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, P r i n c e The  Additional  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  op.cit.  cent of the  cost  42 (vi)  Confinement R e a r i n g of Sheep  The  r e a r i n g of lambs i n confinement  the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y .  i s a r e c e n t development i n  Much of the r e s e a r c h work f o r t h i s program has  been c a r r i e d out at the F a i r v i e w V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l a t F a i r v i e w A l b e r t a i n the A l b e r t a b l o c k of the Peace R i v e r and consequently i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. Budget data f o r t h i s program was  accumulated, from two  Alberta  13 X ^\ Department of A g r i c u l t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n s .  '  Since one  o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s program i s to spread the marketing the y e a r , i t was  lambing  i n January  170 per c e n t , and  throughout  Lambing would occur i n January,  September w i t h o n e - h a l f the f l o c k lambing  half  of lamb  assumed t h a t the " t h r e e lamb crops i n two y e a r s " program  would be f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study. and  of the p r i n c i p a l  and September.  d u r i n g May  and  May  the o t h e r  Lamb crops of 150 per  cent,  100 per cent were assumed f o r the three r e s p e c t i v e  periods. After  lambing,  at 30 to 80 days.  the lambs would be f e d a creep f e e d u n t i l weaned  As soon as the lambs were weaned they would be p l a c e d  on r a i s e d , s l o t t e d f l o o r e d pens and f i n i s h e d (vii)  to market  weight.  C o n v e n t i o n a l R e a r i n g of Sheep  Budget data f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a r i n g of sheep was from an A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e  1970  Cby  also  gathered  publication-. s  A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sheep P r o d u c t i o n Budgets V.M. Gleddie],(Edmonton, 1970).  l ^ A L b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report Confinement Sheep Production,(Edmonton, 1970).  on  I t was  assumed t h a t lambing would occur  w i t h a lambing percentage of 150 per turned  out i n t o community p a s t u r e s  per a c r e .  Any  cent.  The  d u r i n g A p r i l and lambs and  on tame g r a s s e s  f u r t h e r p a s t u r i n g was  assumed to be  May  ewes would  be  a t a r a t e of 4 ewes on g r a i n s t u b b l e  and  t h e r e f o r e at no c o s t to the e n t e r p r i s e .  (viii)  Farrow to F i n i s h Hog  Farrow to f i n i s h hog but  there  Production.  e n t e r p r i s e s are common i n the Peace R i v e r  i s no budget d a t a a v a i l a b l e to date p a r t i c u l a r  Consequently, budget data f o r g e n e r a l hog taken from The I t was  Grain  each l i t t e r would produce 8 w e a n l i n g s .  200  pounds l i v e weight and  The  a 3 per  (e)  per  The  as the farrow  cent death  Objective  l i t t e r s per  hogs would be  cent death l o s s was  year  sold at  assumed.  o p e r a t i o n was  to f i n i s h o p e r a t i o n . s o l d a t 200  Again,  taken from i t was  pounds l i v e weight and  sustain  loss.  Functions  Once the a c t i v i t y budgets were d e r i v e d f o r the p h y s i c a l and c a p i t a l i n p u t s , d e r i v i n g the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n was  a straightforward  procedure.  -^Costs (Winnipeg: The  was  Production  assumed t h a t the hogs would be a 1.5  The  i n p u t data f o r the f i n i s h i n g hog  the same source  i n the p r a i r i e s  assumed t h a t each sow would produce two  F i n i s h i n g Hog  region.  Grower.^  and  (ix)  production  to t h i s  to Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Grower, U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1967) p.440.818.  44 Because  of the l a r g e number of assumptions made i n d e r i v i n g the  a c t i v i t y budgets and because  l i t t l e was  known about the nature of the  f i x e d c o s t s f a c i n g farmers i n the Peace R i v e r , the d e c i s i o n was made to maximize the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n terms of the g r o s s margin of each activity.  Thus, only one assumption, t h a t the g r o s s margin was  p r o p o r t i o n a t e to net income, was  r e q u i r e d r a t h e r than a number of assump-  t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the nature of f i x e d c o s t s on long term l i a b i l i t i e s , I t was  directly  (depreciation rates,  interest  taxes or r e n t s ) .  assumed t h a t a t any g i v e n y e a r , a farmer would be f a c e d  w i t h y i e l d s and p r i c e s which would v a r y from year to y e a r .  I t was  also  assumed t h a t some r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between p r i c e s and between y i e l d s and p r i c e s which was each a c t i v i t y ing  not known.  Consequently, t a b l e s were d e r i v e d f o r  f o r each t a r g e t area which produced a g r o s s margin  from y i e l d s and p r i c e s f o r t h a t y e a r .  margins was  to 1965  (i)  Y i e l d s and p r i c e s  i n c l u s i v e were used i n t h i s study.  c o s t s , such as the c o s t of f e r t i l i z e r , supplements,  The mean of these g r o s s  then e n t e r e d i n t o the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n .  from the y e a r s 1951  veterinarian services,  Other ration  l a b o u r , were assumed to be c o n s t a n t throughout t h i s  Crop Y i e l d s and  result-  period.  Prices  E s t i m a t e s f o r the b a r l e y , wheat and oats y i e l d s f o r each area for  each year were d e r i v e d from m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e from the Crop  Insurance Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . was  Information  a v a i l a b l e on the a c t u a l average y i e l d f o r the r e g i o n f o r each year and  on the expected y i e l d by assuming  of each area i n the r e g i o n f o r any g i v e n y e a r .  that the y i e l d s i n each a r e a v a r i e d each year i n d i r e c t  p r o p o r t i o n to the average y i e l d  f o r the r e g i o n , e s t i m a t e s were d e r i v e d  Thus,  45 for  the y e a r l y y i e l d  f o r each a r e a i n the r e g i o n .  These e s t i m a t e s can  be found i n Appendix E. In  a s i m i l a r manner, y e a r l y hay y i e l d s were d e r i v e d .  c a s e , however, the y e a r l y average y i e l d f o r the r e g i o n was Statistics by  In  found  this through  Canada i n f o r m a t i o n and expected Sample Costs d a t a p r o v i d e d  the Farm Economics Branch, B.C. L i t t l e p r o d u c t i o n data was  the expected y i e l d was of b a r l e y .  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . a v a i l a b l e on rapeseed.  Consequently,  assumed to v a r y d i r e c t l y w i t h the expected  Annual v a r i a t i o n and expected p r i c e s were taken from  yield Statistics  Canada i n f o r m a t i o n . A l s i k e and Fescue  seed p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n was  However, by assuming an expected y i e l d  of 300 pounds per acre f o r each  crop i n the three a r e a s i n which they were budgeted, their  yields varied d i r e c t l y  derived.  w i t h hay,  also scarce.  annual y i e l d  and assuming  that  f i g u r e s c o u l d be  P r i c e s t a t i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e from S t a t i s t i c s  Canada i n the  relevant years.  (ii)  L i v e s t o c k Y i e l d s and  In is,  Prices  the case of l i v e s t o c k , i t was  the average  daily  g a i n ) was  assumed t h a t the y i e l d  (that  c o n s t a n t and o n l y the p r i c e v a r i e d  from  year to y e a r . The p r i c e base f o r l i v e s t o c k i n the Peace R i v e r was to be  the Edmonton market.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s to t h i s market were n o t  c o n s i d e r e d to v a r y between d i s t r i c t s i n the r e g i o n . p r i c e s was Livestock  the L i v e s t o c k Market Branch.  considered  The  source f o r these  Review, Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  46 (iii)  "Buy"  Functions  In order to impute a c o s t buy  o a t s , buy  t h a t the to the  hay,  buy  these i n p u t s does not i s considered  "buy"  functions  wheat and include  i n the a c t i v i t y  The  general  a c o s t of 10 cents  buy  the  f e a s i b l e , i t was  ( i . e . buy  labour).  c o s t of the  i n which the  b a r l e y , buy  The  necessary rapeseed,  c o s t of purchase  input i t s e l f .  That  to assume a 60 m i l e  per m i l e , and  Thus, a f i g u r e of $1.20  was  i n p u t i s used.  round t r i p  the  to purchase the  an average of 5 tons c a r r i e d each  used i n the  of  cost  f o r m u l a f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of e x t r a c o s t f o r  purchase of f e e d was  of a ton of  l i n e a r programs be  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n f o r the  feed, trip. purchase  feed.  For  the purchase of l a b o u r ,  would t r a v e l 60 m i l e s 10 hour day. program 24  per day  i t was  assumed t h a t each  a t a c o s t of 4 cents per m i l e  labourer  to work a  Thus, the purchase of an hour of labour would c o s t  the  cents. i  (iv)  Summary  While there crops and  are a number of d i f f e r e n t sources of d a t a f o r  l i v e s t o c k f u n c t i o n s and  estimates,  i t is s t i l l  felt  r e a l i t y of the p r i c e s and The  y i e l d s f a c e d by  of the g r o s s margins f o r the  i n this  study.  are  some d e r i v a t i o n s of  yield  t h a t t h i s data most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s  calculations required  Appendix G p r o v i d e s  there  the  the Peace R i v e r farmer,.  to a r r i v e at the  t a r g e t areas can be  a copy of the m a t r i c e s  the  objective  functions  found i n Appendix F.  used i n the  l i n e a r programs  CHAPTER IV  THE  Once the d a t a was l i n e a r program, i t was  RESULTS  f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e m a t r i c e s f o r the  then run on the I.B.M. 360  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Centre.  computer a t the The  r e s u l t s of  these  c a l c u l a t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix G and are summarized i n Table  IV-1.  A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of these i s a p p r o p r i a t e .  Activities  All  Included  l i n e a r programs c a l l e d f o r the i n c l u s i o n of Feeder  ( f e e d l o t f i n i s h i n g using high moisture b a r l e y and Doe  the purchase  of hay.  R i v e r , P r o g r e s s , Sunset  b a r l e y e n s i l e d ) , the purchase  F i v e of the programs  of  (Rolla-Boundary,  P r a i r i e , and Halfway R i v e r ) a l s o i n c l u d e d  the p a s t u r e f i n i s h i n g of beef. f i n i s h i n g of beef  Beef 2  Those areas which d i d -not i n c l u d e p a s t u r e  (Groundbirch, B a l d o n n e l  Montenay) h e l d land as a " s l a c k "  - Two  R i v e r s , C e c i l Lake  and  activity.  Iterations  The  i n t e r a t i o n s by which the l i n e a r programs achieved  are summarized i n Table IV-2.^  optimality  The p r i n c i p a l o b s e r v a t i o n from Table  IV-2  •'•It should be noted t h a t some "Buy" f u n c t i o n s were e n t e r e d i n t o the optimum s o l u t i o n a t such a low l e v e l t h a t they can s a f e l y be i g n o r e d . F u r t h e r i t e r a t i o n s would s u b s t i t u t e a s l a c k r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e f o r these buy f u n c t i o n s but would have no e f f e c t on the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n .  47  48  TABLE IV-1 Summary of  Results  Activity Area (1)  Resources  Recommended  Level  Used  Value  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  Value of Objective Function (6)  RollaBoundary  Feeder Beef 2 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  457 407 798 182  Hd. Hd. Ton Ton  Capital Land Barley Hay  $86.74 3.59 1.20 1.2.0  $20,804.69  Doe River  Feeder Beef 2 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  700 407 1081 202  Hd. Hd. Ton Ton  Capital Land Barley Hay  $86.74 13.59 1.20 1.20  $33,955.35  Progress  Feeder Beef 2 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  754 325 1091 218  Hd. Hd. Ton Ton  Capital Land Barley Hay  $86.73 1.22 1.20 1.2.0  $27,995.15  Ground Birch  Feeder Beef 2 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  Capital Barley Hay  $86.74 1.20 1.20  $19,082.32  Sunse t Prairie  Feeder Beef 2 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  772 325 1112 223  Hd. Hd. Ton Ton  Capital Land Barley Hay  $86.74 7.30 1.20 1.20  $30,915.92  BaldonnelTwo R i v e r s  Feeder Beef 2 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  1269 Hd. 1479 Ton 366 Ton  Capital Barley Hay  $86.74 1.20 1.20  $30,360.40  Cecil Lake  Feeder Beef 2 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  1320 Hd. 1539 Ton 381 Ton  Capital Barley Hay  $86.74 1.20 1.20  $31,574.77  798 Hd. 930 Ton 230 Ton '  49 TABLE IV-1 (Continued)  Activity  "Resources ;  Area (1)  Recommended (2)  Montenay  Feeder Beef 2 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  Halfway River  Feeder Beef 2 P a s t u r e Beef Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  Level (3)  Used ,  972 Hd. 1133 Ton 280 Ton  406 488 791 117  Hd. Hd. Ton Ton  i  (4)  —~Value (5)  Value of Objective Function (6)  Capital Barley Hay  $86.74 1.20 1.20  $23,247.35  Capital Land Barley Hay  $86.74 16.99 1.20 1.20  $27,237.36  50 TABLE IV-2 Iterations  i n the Peace R i v e r L i n e a r Programs  Area  Iteration Number  Variable In  Variable Out  Value of Objective Function  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  RollaBoundary  Doe River  Progress  Rotation 1 Beef F e e d i n g 1 Buy Rapeseed Rotation 4 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay Pasture Beef Beef F e e d i n g 2  Slack C a p i t a l S l a c k Rapeseed S l a c k Hay Slack Barley Rotation 1 Rotation 4 S l a c k Land Beef F e e d i n g 1  3441.18 3441.18 3441.18 9029.92 15378.50 18490.20 20464.90 20804.69  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  Rotation 1 Pasture Beef Cow-Yearling Rotation 2 Hog-Farrow-Finish Buy Oats Buy Wheat S l a c k Hay Buy B a r l e y Beef F e e d i n g 1 Rotation 4 Buy Rapeseed  9549.58 13855.10 13855.10 14251.60 14251.60 14251.60 14740.10 14740.10 22526.30 22526.30 22526.30 28095.90  13 14  Buy Hay Beef F e e d i n g 2  Slack C a p i t a l S l a c k Land S l a c k Hay Slack Barley S l a c k Oats S l a c k Wheat Rotation 4 Cow-Yearling Rotation 1 S l a c k Hay S l a c k Rapeseed Hog-FarrowFinish Rotation 4 Beef F e e d i n g 1  1 2 3 4 5 6  Cow-Yearling Rotation 3 Beef Feeder 1 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay Pasture Beef  Slack Barley S l a c k Hay Slack C a p i t a l Cow-Yearling Rotation 3 S l a c k Land  0.0 0.0 1832.76 11667.20 27409.10 27995.10  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  32745.90 33935.35  51  TABLE IV-2  (Continued)  Value of Objective Function  (4)  (5)  Area (1)  (2)  (3)  1 2 3 4 5  Cow-Yearling Rotation 3 Beef Feeding 2 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay  Slack Barley S l a c k Hay Slack C a p i t a l Cow-Yearling Rotation 3  0.0 0.0 1305.63 7588.02 19082.30  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Rotation 1 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Cow-Yearling Beef F e e d i n g 1 Buy Rapeseed Buy Hay Buy Wheat Beef F e e d i n g 2  Slack C a p i t a l Slack Barley S l a c k Land S l a c k Hay S l a c k Rapeseed Cow-Yearling S l a c k Wheat Rotation 1 Beef F e e d i n g 1  2629.,98 4874.,33 9817.,00 12256.,80 12256.,80 19305. 00 29603.,50 29603.,60 30915.,92  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Rotation 1 Beef F e e d i n g 1 Buy Rapeseed Rotation 4 Buy Hay Buy B a r l e y Buy Oats Beef Feeder 2  Slack C a p i t a l S l a c k Rapeseed S l a c k Hay Slack Barley Rotation 4 S l a c k Oats Rotation 1 Beef Feeder 1  9077.,59 9077.,59 9077.,59 11673,,60 12352.,60 28203.,90 28203..90 30360.,40  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Rotation 1 Beef F e e d i n g 1 Buy Rapeseed Rotation 4 Buy Hay Buy B a r l e y Beef F e e d i n g 2 S l a c k Rapeseed  Slack C a p i t a l S l a c k Rapeseed S l a c k Hay Slack Barley Rotation 4 Rotation 1 Buy Rapeseed Beef Feeder 1  8358.,68 8358. 68 8358.,68 10703.,40 11421., 70 29332,.10 31574.,80 31574,,80  Ground Birch  Variable In  Variable Out  Iteration Number  Sunset  1  Baldonnel-  52  TABLE IV-2 (Continued)  Area (1)  Iteration Number (2)  Variable In  Variable Out  Value of Objective Function  (3)  (A)  (5)  Montenay  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Rotation 1 Feeding Beef 1 Buy Rapeseed Rotation 4 Buy B a r l e y Buy Hay Feeding Beef 2 S l a c k Rapeseed  Slack C a p i t a l S l a c k Rapeseed S l a c k Hay Slack Barley Rotation 1 Rotation 4 Buy Rapeseed F e e d i n g Beef 1  3073.58 3073.58 3073.58 3864.00 14361.80 21596.10 23247.40 23247.40  Halfway River  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Rotation 1 Pasture Beef Buy B a r l e y Cow-Yearling F e e d i n g Beef 1 Buy Rapeseed Buy Hay Feeder Beef 2  Slack C a p i t a l Slack Barley S l a c k Land S l a c k Hay S l a c k Rapeseed Cow-Yearling Rotation 1 Feeder Beef 1  2389.07 3624.55 15678.30 17443.30 17443.30 21874.30 26547.40 27239.36  53 is  t h a t no two programs a c h i e v e d  optimality identically  Lake and Montenay merely r e v e r s e d i t e r a t i o n s uniformity  leads one to conclude  Cecil  T h i s l a c k of observed  f o r by the i n p u t f o r the l i n e a r  programs even though the r e s u l t s were diversity  5 and 6).  t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s  i n the Peace R i v e r might be accounted  The  (although  similar.  of the i t e r a t i o n  l o g a l s o removes q u e s t i o n s  r e g a r d i n g b i a s of the a c t i v i t y budgets w i t h i n the program.  That i s ,  most groups of a c t i v i t i e s ( e x c l u d i n g sheep) were c o n s i d e r e d by the program b e f o r e  rejection.  Resources  The  spent r e s o u r c e  f i v e programs which c a l l e d land was used. inclusion  common t o a l l programs was c a p i t a l . f o r pasture  I t i s interesting  of pasture  finishing  finishing  to note  of beef  I n the  cattle, a l l  t h a t the " c u t - o f f "  f o r the  of beef and t h e r e f o r e the use of the land  r e s o u r c e was w i t h i n the areas a c h i e v i n g a hay y i e l d of 2 tons per a c r e . Of t h a t group, two a r e a s , Progress and Sunset P r a i r i e w h i l e Groundbirch  d i d not.  Areas a c h i e v i n g l e s s  included this  activity  than a 2 t o n per acre  y i e l d h e l d land s l a c k w h i l e  those above the 2 ton per acre y i e l d i n c l u d e d  pasture f i n i s h i n g  No f o r m a l c o r r e l a t i o n ,  underscore  this  o f beef.  observation.  Of i n t e r e s t slack resource.  too, i s the f a c t  that a l l areas h e l d labour as a  N e i t h e r the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of a labour p e r i o d nor "the  purchase of l a b o u r was i n c l u d e d i n the i t e r a t i o n s optimum  however, was made t o  used t o d e r i v e the  solution. The  selection  of the most r e s t r i c t i n g resource  comparing the m a r g i n a l v a l u e products  can be made by  (M.V.P.) of the r e s o u r c e s .  These  M.V.P. can be found  i n columns 4 and 5 of Table IV-1.  The M.V.P. f o r c a p i t a l i s c o n s t a n t a t $86.74 p e r $100 (with allowance  f o r rounding e r r o r s of one c e n t ) .  The c o n s t a n t nature  M.V.P. f o r c a p i t a l i s , of c o u r s e , due to the p r e v i o u s assumption  of the that  the budgets f o r the beef f e e d e r a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s t a n t throughout the region. Still, ranges  t h i s v a l u e i s much h i g h e r than the M.V.P. f o r land which  from $1.22 t o $16.99 p e r acre w i t h a mean of $8.34 p e r acre f o r  those areas which used  the land r e s o u r c e .  The M.V.P. f o r b a r l e y purchase both cases. of  and hay purchase  T h i s v a l u e i s the e x t r a c o s t a t t r i b u t e d  i s $1.20 i n  to the purchase  these feeds compared to the use of home grown f e e d s .  Objective Function  As  can be seen from column 6 of Table IV-1,  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n ranged  the v a l u e of the  from $19,082.32 to $33,935.55 w i t h a mean of  $27,239.28. It be  i s i m p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t what f i x e d expenses would have t o  s u b t r a c t e d from the gross margins determined  to a c q u i r e an. e s t i m a t e of n e t farm incomes. t h a t t h i s income would be a d e f i n i t e  by the o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n  Still,  one c o u l d assume  improvement over the t o t a l f a m i l y  farm income of $4,006. as r e p o r t e d i n Chapter I .  Stability  The  use of the UBC-LIP l i n e a r program package has p r o v i d e d  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t r a n g i n g and r i g h t hand s i d e r a n g i n g . These rangings p r o v i d e the range w i t h i n which the c o e f f i c i e n t s  or the  55 r i g h t hand s i d e e s t i m a t e s can move w i t h o u t f o r c i n g solution of  of o p t i m a l a c t i v i t i e s .  the f i n a l The  solution.  a change i n the  As such, r a n g i n g i n d i c a t e s  the s t a b i l i t y  2  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s which f a l l w i t h i n the c l o s e s t  range are those f o r a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d complementary to a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n the program. 1,  3 and 4.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , these a c t i v i t i e s are beef  I t i s safe t o assume t h a t there would be l i t t l e  feeding  likelihood  of a change i n the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r beef f e e d i n g 2 without a s i m i l a r o c c u r r i n g f o r the c o e f f i c i e n t s The  coefficients  of i t s complements.  f o r a l l other a c t i v i t i e s f a l l w e l l w i t h i n  range, p a r t i c u l a r i l y the crop  their  rotations.  Most of the r i g h t hand s i d e s a l s o The  change  f a l l well within their  ranges.  e x c e p t i o n , h e r e , i s Montenay where the supply of c a p i t a l i s a t i t s  upper l i m i t . Still,  i t i s safe to assume t h a t the o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n s  Such s t a b i l i t y a l l o w s f o r s m a l l e r r o r s  i n the c o e f f i c i e n t e s t i m a t e s t o  e x i s t w i t h o u t concern as to whether they would have any e f f e c t final  solution.  are s t a b l e .  on the  T h i s p o i n t i s important i n t h i s study because of the  l a c k of complete d a t a and the n e c e s s i t y f o r a l a r g e number of assumptions which were made i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c o e f f i c i e n t s .  Summary  These r e s u l t s ,  then, lead  to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t g i v e n the  r e s o u r c e s t h a t the median l e v e l farmer has a t hand, and g i v e n the d i s p a r i t i e s which e x i s t w i t h i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , the median l e v e l farmer  See  Appendix H.  would f i n d  the most economical use  of h i s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s  p r o d u c t i o n of l i v e s t o c k and purchase of f e e d .  Specifically,  s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e deemed most economic i n each of the areas the f i n i s h i n g of beef base.  u s i n g e n s i l e d h i g h moisture  Some areas would a l s o f i n d economic use  combining t h a t a c t i v i t y w i t h  cent animal  and  b a r l e y as a r a t i o n  cattle  on  by  pasture per  tallow.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these  seen i n the  chapter.  l i g h t of c u r r e n t  f i n d i n g s to the c u r r e n t  the c o m p l i c a t i o n s which they i n v o l v e s h a l l be  final  live-  studied i s  through the i n c l u s i o n of 10  However, such a c o n c l u s i o n must be practices.  the  of t h e i r r e s o u r c e s  the f i n i s h i n g of beef  w i t h g r a i n f r e e c h o i c e but r e s t r i c t e d  i n the  situation  the s u b j e c t of  the  CHAPTER V  THE  IMPORTANCE OF THE RESULTS  Perhaps the most important  aspect  of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  i s not that a recommendation was reached r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c l i v e s t o c k a c t i v i t y , but that i n every r e j e c t e d as an economic use o f r e s o u r c e s However, these data  the employment of a  case,  as a program of change but as  i n d i v i d u a l farmers.  change, the change agent must c o n s i d e r farmer and then make the n e c e s s a r y  crop p r o d u c t i o n was  f o r the median l e v e l farm.  f i n d i n g s cannot be construed  t o be used i n p l a n n i n g w i t h  study  When p l a n n i n g f o r  the needs and o b j e c t i v e s o f the  adjustments t o the optimum program.  D i f f i c u l t i e s Expected i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n of L i v e s t o c k  T h i s w r i t e r f i n d s no reason  to concur w i t h  the statement i n the  ARDA r e p o r t that:" " 1  "The Peace R i v e r i s g e n e r a l l y u n s u i t e d f o r l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n because of severe w i n t e r weather c o n d i t i o n s which n e c e s s i t a t e a long f e e d i n g p e r i o d , poor n a t u r a l g r a z i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and great d i s t a n c e s t o markets." The  present  existence  slaughterhouses,  of l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s ,  and the economic v i a b i l i t y  i n t h i s study make t h i s statement no longer  the e x i s t a n c e  of l o c a l  of l i v e s t o c k as demonstrated true.  2  ^Verner, e t . a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 53-54 2  B.C.  V o c a t i o n a l School  and B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  op.cit. 57  58 If,  then, there are no c l i m a t i c or economic b a r r i e r s  to a v i a b l e  l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y f o r the median l e v e l farm, what d i f f i c u l t i e s seen  to e x i s t  i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from f i e l d  answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n l i e i n the nature  crops to l i v e s t o c k ?  of  The  there i s i n i t s  g r a d i e n t which r e l a t e s the type of change to the  a d o p t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s :  speed  3  (1)  Change i n m a t e r i a l s and equipment o n l y , without a change i n techniques or o p e r a t i o n s (e.g., new v a r i e t i e s of seed);  (2)  Change i n e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s w i t h or w i t h o u t a change i n m a t e r i a l s or equipment (e.g., change i n r o t a t i o n of c r o p s ) ;  (3)  Change i n v o l v i n g new cropping);  (4)  Change i n t o t a l e n t e r p r i s e (e.g., from crop to farming).  techniques or o p e r a t i o n s (e.g.,  contour  livestock  F u r t h e r , c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made about farm rates.  The  of change.  The more complex a change i s , the more d i f f i c u l t y adoption.  can be  adoption  4 (1)  P r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g l a r g e c a p i t a l o u t l a y w i l l be adopted more s l o w l y then those r e q u i r i n g s m a l l amounts of c a p i t a l ;  (2)  The more compatible a p r a c t i c e w i t h e x i s t i n g farming o p e r a t i o n s , the more l i k e l y i t w i l l be adopted;  (3)  T r a i t s or p r a c t i c e s r e a d i l y communicated by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods used by farmers w i l l be adopted more r e a d i l y than those which are n o t ;  (4)  The more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to r e t r a c t a d e c i s i o n and the subsequent consequences, the slower a d o p t i o n i s l i k e l y to be;  (5)  C o s t l y and complex p r a c t i c e s t h a t can be taken a l i t t l e at a time w i l l l i k e l y be adopted more q u i c k l y than where t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e .  H e r b e r t F. L i o n b u r g e r , A d o p t i o n of New Ideas and (Ames : Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 104. 4  I b i d . , p.  105.  Practices,  59 The for  change  (field  crops to l i v e s t o c k ) recommended by  this  study  the median l e v e l farm i s the c l a s s i c example of a type 4 change  i n t o t a l e n t e r p r i s e ) , the slowest and most d i f f i c u l t  to a c h i e v e .  when compared to the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about change made e a r l i e r , i n v o l v e s l a r g e c a p i t a l o u t l a y i n b u i l d i n g s and w i t h the e x i s t i n g f i e l d  Further, t h i s change  l i v e s t o c k ; i t i s incompatible  crop dominated o p e r a t i o n s ; c o n v e n t i o n a l , " a c r o s s  the f e n c e " communications w i l l not a s s i s t to r e t r a c t  (change  the change; and  the d e c i s i o n to c o n v e r t once i t has been made.  i t is difficult Perhaps the o n l y  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which t h i s change does f i t i s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to b e g i n w i t h a few head of l i v e s t o c k and  i n c r e a s e the number as competence i n c r e a s e s .  There are a number of socio-economic used and  i n d i c a t o r s which have been  t o demonstrate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n f a c t o r s and consequently  change.  education  G e n e r a l l y , the o l d e r a person i s , the l e s s income  he has, the lower h i s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , the l e s s exposure he has had c o n t i n u i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , the l e s s  l i k e l y he  i s to p a r t i c i p a t e  to  i n the  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r change to take p l a c e . ^ The  f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from Chapter  of these f a c t o r s i n the Peace R i v e r : p o p u l a t i o n was  i n the 45  farm f a m i l i e s was 73.3  the median age  and  grade e i g h t ;  r e p o r t e d no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h  their  the farm group r e p o r t e d a l e s s f a v o u r a b l e  toward change than d i d the non-farm group.  of the farmers were below the p o v e r t y l i n e and functionally i l l i t e r a t e .  farm  t o t a l income of  $4,006; the median e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was  District Agriculturist;  the nature  l e v e l of the  to 54 year c l a s s ; the average  per cent of the farmers  attitude  I indicate  10.3  F u r t h e r 48.7  per  cent  per cent were  None of these s t a t i s t i c s g i v e s evidence  C o o l i e Verner and A l a n Booth, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , (New York: Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n E d u c a t i o n I n c . , 1964) pp.26-29.  that  The  60 the Peace R i v e r farmer w i l l r e a d i l y a c q u i r e the recommended change More simply  to take  the e d u c a t i o n  place.  s t a t e d , t h i s i s the dilemma  farm i n the Peace R i v e r :  necessary f o r  f a c i n g the median  level  on the one hand, the c u r r e n t e n t e r p r i s e  has been r e j e c t e d as an uneconomical use of r e s o u r c e s while  (crops)  on the o t h e r ,  the recommended t a r g e t ( l i v e s t o c k ) i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t to implement.  I n order t o e f f e c t  the change from crops  t o l i v e s t o c k a most  c a r e f u l s t r a t e g y f o r change must be c o n s t r u c t e d .  Suggestions f o r Change  The problem of change i s a problem of e d u c a t i o n . education  i n Canada  government  Agricultural  l i e s w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l  or i n t h i s  case the B r i t i s h Columbia Department  of A g r i c u l t u r e  (B.C.D.A.). The p r e s e n t  s t a f f of the B.C.D.A. i n the Peace R i v e r c o n s i s t s  of two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , two A s s i s t a n t D i s t r i c t and an A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r .  Agriculturists,  The development of the r e q u i r e d  educational  program would n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t the s t a f f be i n c r e a s e d by a R e g i o n a l stock S p e c i a l i s t , a Regional Technicians  Economist, a number of Farm Management  and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  the p o s i t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n  increase i n s e c r e t a r i a l  Officer  Once t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f specifically  to e f f e c t  Live-  should be r e t u r n e d  staff.  Further,  t o the Peace R i v e r .  i s assembled, i t should be t r a i n e d  the change i n farming  and o r g a n i z e d  into self  d i r e c t i n g u n i t s so t h a t time consuming a u t h o r i t y c o n f l i c t s would be removed.  The p r e s e n t  s e p a r a t i o n of f i e l d p e r s o n n e l  w i t h i n the v a r i o u s  branches of the B.C.D.A. c r e a t e s f a r too many a u t h o r i t y c o n f l i c t s and consequently  reduces the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p e r s o n n e l .  A clinic  i s organized  61 so t h a t a l l p e r s o n n e l r e p o r t to the head of the c l i n i c . r e p o r t s to head o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a . be r e s o l v e d a t the l o c a l The  Consequently,  i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s can  level.  Canada Manpower s h o r t c o u r s e s , which have proved  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , should be f u r t h e r encouraged of  He, i n t u r n ,  these courses appears  and developed.  their The advantage  to be t h a t by p a y i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s to take  the course , farmers who would n o t n o r m a l l y e n r o l l i n such a course v o l u n t a r i l y do so when they r e c e i v e an allowance The  f e e d e r a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the n o r t h and south Peace R i v e r should  be encouraged able  f o r enrollment.  and supported.  Care  should be taken t h a t a farmer i s  to develop h i s own means o f f i n a n c i n g a f e e d e r o p e r a t i o n once he  passes the maximum l e v e l a l l o w e d by the a s s o c i a t i o n s . The and  f e e d e r t r i a l s which have been c a r r i e d out by the B.C.D.A.  the B.C. V o c a t i o n a l School i n Dawson Creek have proven  Expansion  of these t r i a l s  successful.  should take p l a c e moving them away from the  V o c a t i o n a l School farm and onto a number of farms i n the a r e a .  By  doing s o , farmer r e c o g n i t i o n of the v a l u e of the t r i a l s would be increased. If prise  the Peace R i v e r farmers are to move from a f i e l d  structure  to a l i v e s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e  t r a n s f o r m the nature of t h e i r a s s e t s . of  crops e n t e r -  s t r u c t u r e , they w i l l need to  Specifically,  they would s e l l much  t h e i r machinery and use the r e c o v e r e d cash f o r the e r e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e  livestock shelters.  Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n might become n e c e s s a r y a t  t h i s p o i n t to ensure  a f a i r p r i c e f o r h i s d i s p o s e d a s s e t s and a minimum  cost f o r h i s a d d i t i o n s .  Whether government should be i n v o l v e d i n a  "buy-back" program c o u l d be the s u b j e c t of some The  debate.  above s u g g e s t i o n s a r e , of c o u r s e , incomplete but do p o i n t i n  the of  d i r e c t i o n of the c l i m a t e r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l change.  c o u r s e , only come i f the e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l are a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y  perceive and  Change w i l l ,  the needs of the area as w e l l as t h e i r own r o l e as change agents  act accordingly.  Summary  T h i s study has been d i r e c t e d use  the most economical  of r e s o u r c e s f o r the median l e v e l farmer i n the Peace R i v e r  of B r i t i s h Columbia. for  toward d e f i n i n g  region  I n d o i n g so, i t has developed a recommendation  a complete c o n v e r s i o n of e n t e r p r i s e s .  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  that  implementing such a recommendation would encounter have been noted and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a s o l u t i o n have been made.  A more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of  a s t r a t e g y f o r change i s , of c o u r s e , scope f o r f u r t h e r  research.  However, i t i s the o p i n i o n of t h i s w r i t e r t h a t u n l e s s a c t i o n i s taken on these recommendations, the problems f a c i n g farmer i n the Peace R i v e r w i l l  intensify.  the median  level  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1969 A l b e r t a Beef Feeder E n t e r p r i s e A n a l y s i s , . [by R.G. Wiens] . [Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 821-422-1, 1970. A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . A l b e r t a Hog E n t e r p r i s e [by B.A. Hackett and A. Reddon]. [Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. '816/440-2, 1966.  Analysis,  A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g of Beef C a t t l e , [by A.W.N. E r i c h s e n ] . [Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 420-62-1, 1971. A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . P r o g r e s s Report on Confinement Sheep Production. [Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 430-23-1, 1970. ' A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Sheep P r o d u c t i o n : [by V.M. G l e d d i e ] . [Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 430-90, 1970.  Budgets-1970,  " B a r l e y - B.C. Peace R i v e r " . V i c t o r i a , Crop Insurance Branch, B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . (Mimeographed) B o u l d i n g , Kenneth E. and W. A l l e n S p i v e y . L i n e a r Programming and the Theory of the F i r m . New York: The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1960. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . A l f a l f a Hay. [Victoria]: 1971.  Sample .Costs to Produce  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, or Oats, or B a r l e y . [Victoria]: 1971 "B.C. Peace R i v e r S o i l Zones, G r a i n Crop Insurance". Victoria: Crop Insurance Branch, B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . (Mimeographed) B.C. V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l and B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . P r o g r e s s Rep,or-t._ 1970-1971-,j Beef F e e d i n g D e m o n s t r a t i o n . -[Dawson-Creek]: 'n.n., '1971. '  «  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Economics of Beef P r o d u c t i o n , [by I.F. F u r n i s s and V.W. Y o r g a s o n ] . [Ottawa]: P u b l i c a t i o n N o / 1 3 5 6 , 1971. Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Machinery Costs on P r a i r i e Wheat Farms i n West C e n t r a l Saskatchewan, [by L.M. J o h n s o n ] . [Ottawa]:-.. P u b l i c a t i o n No. 71/1, 1971. 63  *  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Swine P r o d u c t i o n : [by J.M. B e l l and B.D. Owen]. [Ottawa]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1442.  Feeding,  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Swine P r o d u c t i o n : Routine Care and Management, [by L.A. B l a i r and A. C a s t e l l ] . P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1442.  [Ottawa]  "Costs to Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Grower. Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1967. D a n t z i g , George B. L i n e a r Programming and E x t e n s i o n s . N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Dorfman, R o b e r t , P a u l A. Samuelson, and Robert Solow. Programming and Economic A n a l y s i s . New York: Book Co. I n c . , 1958.  Princeton,  Linear McGraw-Hill  " E n t e r p r i s e Budgets f o r Three Cow-Calf Systems", The G r a i n Grower. Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1969.  i  "Equipment Costs f o r D i f f e r e n t S i z e C a t t l e F e e d l o t s " , The G r a i n Grower. Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1965. F a r s t a d , L., T.M. L o r d , A . J . Green, and H.J. H o r t i e . S o i l Survey of the Peace R i v e r Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Report No. 8 of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o i l Survey. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture. Ottawa; 1965. G a l e , David. The Theory of L i n e a r Economic Models. McGraw H i l l Book Co. I n c . , 1960.  New York:  Heady, E a r l 0., and W i l f r e d Chandler. L i n e a r Programming Methods. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Hetland, F o r r e s t . Winnipeg:  "How I Grow Q u a l i t y Rapeseed", The G r a i n Grower. The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1970.  L i o n s b e r g e r , H e r b e r t F. A d o p t i o n of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s . Iowa: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960.  Ames,  N i s b e t , Thomas George. A Study of Resource Use on a S e l e c t e d Farm i n the Peace R i v e r Area of B r i t i s h Columbia U s i n g the Simplex' Method of L i n e a r Programming. Unpublished Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. "Oats - B.C. Peace R i v e r " . Victoria: Crop Insurance Branch, B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . (Mimeographed).  Rapeseed A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, Rapeseed - Canada's " C i n d e r e l l a " [by R.K. Downey, S.H. Pawlowski, and J . McAnsh]. [Saskatoon]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 8, 1970. S p i v e y , W. A l l e n . L i n e a r Programming: The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1963.  An I n t r o d u c t i o n .  New  Crop,  York:  " S p r i n g Wheat - B.C. Peace R i v e r " . Victoria; Crop Insurance Branch, B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . (Mimeographed) Verner, C o o l i e and A l a n Booth. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New York: The Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n E d u c a t i o n I n c . , 1964. V e r n e r , C o o l i e , Gary D i c k i n s o n , and Bruce Kloosterman. A Socio-economic Survey of the Peace R i v e r A r e a . Report #4, A.R.D.A. - Canada Land I n v e n t o r y P r o j e c t # 49009 [ V a n c o u v e r ] : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968.  APPENDIX A A Map of the Peace R i v e r  66  APPENDIX B Documents of the South Pe Feeder  Association  68  69 CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS GOVERNING THE AS SET FORTH IN SCHEDULES A AND  SQUTH PEACE FEEDERS' ASSOCIATION B OF THE SOCIETIES ACT  CONSTITUTION 1.  The  name of the S o c i e t y i s the South Peace F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n .  2.  The o b j e c t of the S o c i e t y i s to borrow money f o r the purpose of promoting the f e e d i n g and f i n i s h i n g , i n the South Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , of c a t t l e and lambs f o r the s l a u g h t e r market.  3.  The o p e r a t i o n s of the S o c i e t y are to be an area bound on the North by the Peace shore of W i l l i s t o n Lake; on the West by the South by the 55th p a r a l l e l ; and, on B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  c h i e f l y c a r r i e d on i n R i v e r and the South the P a r s n i p R i v e r ; on the E a s t by the A l b e r t a -  BY-LAWS Here s e t f o r t h i n numbered c l a u s e s r e f e r r e d to i n Schedule B. A.  the by-laws p r o v i d i n g f o r the m a t t e r s  1.  Membership i n a Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l only be made a v a i l a b l e to a b o n a - f i d e farmer and the l o a n s h a l l only be made to members who have s u i t a b l e feed f o r l i v e s t o c k f e e d i n g operations.  2.  A b o n a - f i d e farmer i s a p e r s o n 19 y e a r s or over, who i s i n p o s s e s s i o n of a farm and whose p r i n c i p a l income (over 50%) and o c c u p a t i o n c o n s i s t s of farming such a farm.  3.  A w i f e of a b o n a - f i d e farmer i s not e l i g i b l e l o a n through an A s s o c i a t i o n .  4.  A l l members a p p l y i n g f o r c a t t l e or lambs must be approved by the S u p e r v i s o r and the m a j o r i t y of the board of d i r e c t o r s .  to o b t a i n a  B.  A d i r e c t o r to h o l d o f f i c e must have made s e t t l e m e n t i n f u l l the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r any p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s o p e r a t i o n s .  C.  The Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l upon 'organization and a n n u a l l y t h e r e a f t e r p r i o r to commencement of each y e a r ' s o p e r a t i o n , a p p o i n t a l o c a l s u p e r v i s o r , and a s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r , s a l a r i e s expenses of such appointees to be p a i d by the A s s o c i a t i o n .  D.  with  and  The Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l c o n s i d e r o n l y a p p l i c a t i o n s from members who are a u t h o r i z e d to f e e d i n a custom f e e d l o t , or have a s u r p l u s of s u i t a b l e feed f o r l i v e s t o c k f e e d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and a l l such a p p l i c a t i o n s s h a l l be accompanied by d e p o s i t i n l a w f u l money of Canada, c a l c u l a t e d as 10%, of the amount of the l o a n application. The minimum d e p o s i t w i l l be $200.00.  70 2.  Membership ceases when a member s t a t e s i n w r i t i n g t h a t he no longer wishes to a v a i l h i m s e l f to the s e r v i c e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and r e q u e s t s the r e t u r n of h i s d e p o s i t . The amount of the r e t u r n a b l e d e p o s i t w i l l depend on the e x t e n t of overdue accounts t h a t have been charged on a p r o - r a t a b a s i s a g a i n s t the d e p o s i t s of a l l members. T h i s amount w i l l be p a i d i n s i x months a f t e r written application.  3.  The annual g e n e r a l meeting w i l l be h e l d i n September. Notices of the annual g e n e r a l meeting s h a l l be by m a i l to the members at l e a s t 7 days p r i o r to the meeting date. A l l other g e n e r a l meetings s h a l l be by 7 days n o t i c e by m a i l . S p e c i a l meetings s h a l l be by 48 hours n o t i c e . At a l l g e n e r a l meetings a quorum s h a l l c o n s i s t of 307 of the members. A quorum f o r d i r e c t o r s ' meetings s h a l l be 4 d i r e c t o r s of the 7 d i r e c t o r s . o  The r i g h t to vote the f i r s t year i s r e s t r i c t e d have p a i d a $5.00 membership f e e .  to persons  who  The r i g h t to v o t e at a l l meetings a f t e r the f i r s t year w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to members who have a v a i l e d themselves to the S e r v i c e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and have a l o a n d e p o s i t w i t h the Association. 4.  F i r s t d i r e c t o r s were e l e c t e d at a g e n e r a l meeting. A f t e r the f i r s t y e a r d i r e c t o r s w i l l be e l e c t e d at the annual g e n e r a l meeting, 4 of which w i l l be e l e c t e d f o r a two year term and 3 e l e c t e d f o r a one year term. A l l second year and subsequent d i r e c t o r s s h a l l be people who have a v a i l e d themselves to the s e r v i c e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and have a l o a n d e p o s i t w i t h the Association. A d i r e c t o r may be removed by unanimous vote of a l l other d i r e c t o r s f o r conduct c o n s i d e r e d d e r o g a t o r y to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ten days n o t i c e of a meeting which w i l l c o n s i d e r such a vote s h a l l be g i v e n to s a i d d i r e c t o r to give him time to prepare a defence.  5.  A t the annual g e n e r a l meeting the membership w i l l a u t h o r i z e a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y the maximum amount of money that the d i r e c t o r s may borrow on b e h a l f of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  by  6.  An a u d i t o r w i l l be appointed each >year by the d i r e c t o r s who w i l l make a r e p o r t at the annual meeting. The a u d i t o r ' s r e p o r t b e i n g a v a i l a b l e to a l l members and the Bank from which the money i s borrowed.  7.  The s e a l s h a l l be i n custody of the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r f o r use on a l l l e g a l documents and c o n t r a c t s on the a u t h o r i t y of the m a j o r i t y of the d i r e c t o r s .  8.  A l t e r a t i o n of by-laws by e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e s o l u t i o n at one annual g e n e r a l meeting s h a l l be voted on at the f o l l o w i n g annual g e n e r a l meeting and w i l l r e q u i r e t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y to c a r r y .  REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SOUTH PEACE FEEDERS' ASSOCIATION 1.  Upon a p p r o v a l of the member's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l o a n f o r c a t t l e or lambs by the A s s o c i a t i o n , to the member, the d e p o s i t accompanying the s a i d a p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l form p a r t of the c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y account which w i l l be i n d e p o s i t i n the bank w i t h which the A s s o c i a t i o n i s f i n a n c e d .  2.  The Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l apply w i t h i n 12 months o f the date an account becomes overdue the whole or any p a r t of the d e p o s i t of the c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y account p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y on any one or more of i t s unpaid overdue a c c o u n t s , a f t e r f i r s t a p p l y i n g the f u l l d e p o s i t of any member (or members) whose account i s overdue.  1.  The maximum l o a n o f c a t t l e or lambs f o r a f i r s t year member s h a l l be $5,000.00 except i n s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the D i r e c t o r s where the f a c i l i t i e s and p r e v i o u s f e e d i n g e x p e r i e n c e are e v i d e n t t h i s can be i n c r e a s e d to $7,500.00.  2.  The maximum l o a n of c a t t l e or lambs f o r a second year member s h a l l be $10,000.00.  3.  The maximum l o a n o f c a t t l e o r lambs f o r a member i n good s t a n d i n g who has completed more than two years "shall be $15,000.00.  4.  The d i r e c t o r s may l i m i t the amount of a l o a n of c a t t l e or lambs to a member t o l e s s than the maximum.  1.  A l l s a l e s o f A s s o c i a t i o n l i v e s t o c k s h a l l be a u t h o r i z e d by the l o c a l S u p e r v i s o r .  2.  The A s s o c i a t i o n may s e l l a t any time l i v e s t o c k , which, i n the o p i n i o n o f the l o c a l S u p e r v i s o r , i s not b e i n g p r o p e r l y cared f o r .  1.  The A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l n o t purchase cows, or h e i f e r s over 1 y e a r of age.  2.  Minimum number of l i v e s t o c k f o r which a l o a n may be r e q u e s t e d s h a l l not be l e s s than 50 lambs, or l e s s than 10 head of c a t t l e .  3.  The Feeder A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l o b t a i n a r e g i s t e r e d c a t t l e brand r e g i s t e r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n a l l s i x p o s i t i o n s , and a l l c a t t l e purchased by the A s s o c i a t i o n and loaned f o r f e e d i n g to members s h a l l be branded i n a permanently l e g i b l e manner w i t h t h i s brand.  73 4.  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any other r e g u l a t i o n s , an A s s o c i a t i o n may purchase feeder l i v e s t o c k from a member, t o be f e d by such member i f : Purchase p r i c e o f such l i v e s t o c k does n o t exceed 75% of the e s t i m a t e d v a l u e of the l i v e s t o c k a t time of purchase. A l l c a t t l e l i s t e d i n the c o n t r a c t are d i s t i n c t l y and permanently branded w i t h the A s s o c i a t i o n brand b e f o r e they are p a i d f o r by the A s s o c i a t i o n .  5. An A s s o c i a t i o n may purchase feeder l i v e s t o c k f o r loan member to f e e d i n a custom f e e d l o t , i f : :  to a  That member agrees to pay a l l yardage i n c u r r e d and a l l feed consumed on a monthly b a s i s . A l l c a t t l e l i s t e d i n the c o n t r a c t are d i s t i n c t l y and permanently branded w i t h the A s s o c i a t i o n brand b e f o r e they are p a i d f o r by the A s s o c i a t i o n . The custom f e e d l o t o p e r a t o r s h a l l submit to the Secretary-Treasurer of the A s s o c i a t i o n not l a t e r than the 10th of each month a statement c o v e r i n g the p r e v i o u s month's o p e r a t i o n . 6.  The A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l o b t a i n completed copies of the Feeder Agreement signed by the f e e d e r a t the time he r e c e i v e s l i v e s t o c k . One copy of the agreement s h a l l be r e t a i n e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n and one copy s h a l l be forwarded to the bank w i t h which the Association i s financed.  7.  The A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l o b t a i n a vendor statement or b i l l of s a l e f o r each l o t o f c a t t l e or sheep purchased.  8.  N o t i c e s g i v i n g d e t a i l s of the r e g i s t e r e d brand w i l l be f i l e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a l l l i v e s t o c k markets and p r i v a t e bonded livestock dealers. N o t i c e s s h a l l c o n s i s t of a statement g i v i n g d e t a i l s of the brand and i n d i c a t i n g that a l l payment f o r c a t t l e must be made payable to the F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n u n l e s s the consignee has a l e t t e r of a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a l l o w i n g d i r e c t payment.  9.  T h i s F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l not supply l i v e s t o c k t o a member who i s i n d e b t e d t o any other F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n .  THIS AGREEMENT made on the day of , A.D. 19 at the C i t y of Dawson Creek, i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. BETWEEN:  SOUTH PEACE FEEDER'S ASSOCIATION, a S o c i e t y formed pursuant to the Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h i t s head o f f i c e at Dawson Creek, B.C. and h a v i n g a p o s t a l address a t Box 993, i n the C i t y of Dawson Creek, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. ( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d "the A s s o c i a t i o n " ) . OF THE FIRST PART AND: of i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, ( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d "the F e e d e r " ) . OF THE SECOND PART  WHEREAS the A s s o c i a t i o n l i v e s t o c k s p e c i f i c a l l y described  Livestock No.  Kind  (hereinafter referred NOW consideration  as f o l l o w s :  Brand  Location of Brand  Total Cost  t o as "the s a i d l i v e s t o c k " ) .  THEREFORE THIS AGREEMENT WITNESSETH  o f the A s s o c i a t i o n  to be d e l i v e r e d  i s the owner of c e r t a i n  to the Feeder  hereby admit and acknowledge),  that i n  h a v i n g caused the s a i d  livestock  (the r e c e i p t whereof the Feeder does the Feeder does hereby covenant and  agree as f o l l o w s : 1.  To f e e d  market under supervisor  the s a i d l i v e s t o c k and make the s a i d l i v e s t o c k ready f o r the d i r e c t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n  a p p o i n t e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n .  and advice of the l o c a l  2.  To m a i n t a i n the h e a l t h  veterinary 3.  services  a t h i s own  expense.  To n o t i f y the l o c a l s u p e r v i s o r immediately  dead, o r c r i p p l e d be  of the s a i d l i v e s t o c k and to f u r n i s h  c o n c e r n i n g any  animals so t h a t n e c e s s a r y h e a l t h  p r e c a u t i o n s may  taken.  4.  F o r t h w i t h on o b t a i n i n g  p o s s e s s i o n of any  l i v e s t o c k hereunder  have a l l of the s a i d l i v e s t o c k branded w i t h the A s s o c i a t i o n h i s own  expense and i f the s a i d  Association  5.  the  To cause  the s a i d  livestock  covenants  and  the d i r e c t i o n  to be dehorned,  To arrange that  the t o t a l sum  d i r e c t l y to the  19 r e a l i z e d from the s a l e  s u s t a i n e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n  from the sum  any l o s s  as a r e s u l t of a s a l e  that may  of the  the amount of such l o s s s h a l l be c a l c u l a t e d  the t o t a l sum t o which  received  of the  Association.  To pay upon demand to the A s s o c i a t i o n  subtracting  shall  the s a i d l i v e s t o c k p r i o r to the  , A.D.  l i v e s t o c k , and  or  expense.  To d e l i v e r f o r m a r k e t i n g  l i v e s t o c k be p a i d  inoculated  by the l o c a l s u p e r v i s o r , a l l of which  day of  8.  brand a t  Association.  be done a t h i s own  7.  to him, he f u r t h e r  of the s a i d b r a n d i n g done under  vaccinated, i f required  6.  to  l i v e s t o c k has been branded w i t h the  brand b e f o r e d e l i v e r y  agrees to pay the c o s t of  sick,  from the s a l e  the A s s o c i a t i o n  be  said by  of the s a i d  livestock  i s otherwise e n t i t l e d t o  receive  pursuant to the terms of t h i s Agreement. 9. for  To waive and hereby does waive any the s a i d c a t t l e .  l i e n or charge f o r agistment  76 THE ASSOCIATION HEREBY COVENANTS AND AGREES to pay t o the Feeder  out of the sums i t r e c e i v e s  the s a i d l i v e s t o c k the s u r p l u s has r e t a i n e d  as a r e s u l t of the s a l e of  sum remaining a f t e r the A s s o c i a t i o n  the sum of  ($  ) Dollars,  t o g e t h e r w i t h i n t e r e s t thereon a t the r a t e  of  (  per cent p e r annum from the date of t h i s Agreement u n t i l  %)  final  S e t t l e m e n t i s made between the A s s o c i a t i o n and the Feeder and any a d d i t i o n a l sum which the A s s o c i a t i o n Feeder  i s e n t i t l e d to charge the  i n accordance w i t h t h i s agreement and the by-laws of the  Association. I T IS FURTHER UNDERSTOOD AND AGREED BY THE A s s o c i a t i o n and 1.  the Feeder as f o l l o w s : Where, i n the o p i n i o n  of the l o c a l  supervisor,  the s a i d  l i v e s t o c k are b e i n g i m p r o p e r l y cared f o r or f e d by the Feeder, o r the Feeder has not complied w i t h paragraph 6 above, then the Feeder s h a l l permit the A s s o c i a t i o n  t o take d e l i v e r y of and s e l l  the s a i d  l i v e s t o c k , a t the s o l e expense of the f e e d e r , and i n such case the Feeder be  s h a l l pay on demand to the A s s o c i a t i o n  sustained  by the A s s o c i a t i o n and such l o s s s h a l l be c a l c u l a t e d  by s u b t r a c t i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n entitled 2.  any l o s s t h a t may  e i t h e r the v a l u e of the s a i d l i v e s t o c k arranged by from the sum to which the A s s o c i a t i o n  to r e c e i v e  i s otherwise  pursuant to the terms of t h i s Agreement.  Where the Feeder r e f u s e s  t o p e r m i t the A s s o c i a t i o n  to take  d e l i v e r y of the s a i d l i v e s t o c k , then the A s s o c i a t i o n may e n t e r upon the land i n q u e s t i o n to remove and s e l l  the s a i d l i v e s t o c k and the  77 Feeder does hereby covenant and agree to assume the f i n a n c i a l  obligations  as s e t out i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph hereof and the Feeder does  further  covenant and agree to save harmless the A s s o c i a t i o n from any and a l l manner of a c t i o n and a c t i o n s , c l a i m s , and demands, whatsoever equity 3.  that may a r i s e as a r e s u l t  T h i s Agreement and e v e r y t h i n g  to and be b i n d i n g 4.  of the s a i d  a t law or i n  removal.  contained therein s h a l l  ensure  upon the s u c c e s s o r s and a s s i g n s of the Feeder.  The A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l not be bound by any v e r b a l  representation  of any agent or employee c o n c e r n i n g the terms of t h i s Agreement. 5.  T h i s Agreement s h a l l be s u b j e c t  t o every r e g u l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by  the South Peace F e e d e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n has hereunto a f f i x e d s e a l a t t e s t e d t o by the proper o f f i c e r s on i t s b e h a l f first  i t s corporate the day and year  above w r i t t e n . SOUTH PEACE FEEDERS ASSOCIATION  Per: President  Per: Secretary I T WITNESS WHEREOF THE Feeder has hereunto s e t h i s hand the day and year f i r s t  above w r i t t e n .  SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED i n the presence o f :  ) )  Feeder (as to the s i g n a t u r e  o f the F e e d e r )  APPENDIX C Correspondence  from A.  Hennig  78  i  C O P Y CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE / MINISTERE DE L'AGRICULTURE DU CANADA Research S t a t i o n Box 29 Beaverlodge, A l b e r t a October 5, 1971 Mr. R.G. H o l t b y Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Economics U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Mr. H o l t b y : In r e p l y to your l e t t e r r e c e i v e d September 27 r e c r o p p i n g systems f o r nine s o i l areas we have grouped the areas i n t o 4 groups namely: Group  1 - Groundbirch;  B e r y l - B i s e q u a , Gray wooded, F.S.L.  Sunset P r a i r i e : Halfway:  C e c i l Lake: Group  3 - Doe R i v e r : Montney:  Sioane - O r t h i c Gray Wooded, F.S.L. & S i . L .  Lynx - B r u n i s o l i c Gray Wooded, F.S.L.  Group 2 - Two R i v e r s :  & Si.L.  & Si.L.  K a t h l e e n - O r t h i c Gray Wooded, S i . L . & S i . C . L . D o n n e l l y - Gray Wooded s o l o d L. & C.L. A r r a s - Dark Gray Wooded s o l o d s i l t  Murdale - Dark Gray s o l o d  loam & c l a y  loam & S i . C . L . loam  These g r o u p i n g s are a r b i t r a r y and may not be a c c o r d i n g to f a m i l y groupings b u t more or l e s s f a l l i n t o t e x t u r e d and the broad s o i l r a t i n g groups. F o r each o f these groups we have proposed a workable r o t a t i o n w i t h suggested a l t e r n a t e s . The K a t h l e e n s o l o d c o u l d be grouped.with Group 1, the D o n n e l l y w i t h A r r a s i n Group 3 and the Murdale w i t h Landry i n Group 4, thus r e d u c i n g the number of groups by 1. We t r u s t t h a t our p r o p o s a l s w i l l be of some a s s i s t a n c e economic study. Yours  truly,  A.M.F. Hennig S o i l Management AMFH:es  t o you i n your  80 (COPY) CROPPING SYSTEMS  October  Group I  Year  1 - B a r l e y underseeded  Alfalfa  1,  1971  or Brome A l f a l f a  2 - Hay  - 2 cuts  3 - Hay  - 2 cuts  4 - Hay  - 1 cut and break &. p a r t i a l  fallow  5 - Wheat, oats or b a r l e y or rape 6 - B a r l e y or  flax  Where c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are more severe b a r l e y c o u l d be  the  c e r e a l crop i n such a 6-year r o t a t i o n w i t h b a r l e y and  sole  Alfalfa  or B r o m e - A l f a l f a . Rape would be a good crop a f t e r B r o m e - A l f a l f a b r e a k i n g . F l a x should be  seeded  i n g r a i n s t u b b l e p r e f e r a b l y f a l l worked -  sprayed f o r weeds i n s p r i n g .  Could a l s o be  a g a i n f a l l worked s t u b b l e and  sprayed.  I f b a r l e y i s used be used  seeded  i n year 6 then e i t h e r wheat, oats or rape  i n year 5, i f rape  i n year 5.  Alfalfa  B r o m e g r a s s - A l f a l f a g i v e s s t r o n g e r stands i f seeded e a r l y s p r i n g and may  p o s s i b l y be  c o u l d then be broken  cropped  should  i s used as the companion crop  b a r l e y , wheat or oats should be used  field  a f t e r rape -  t o f l a x or b a r l e y i n year  or  alone i n  cut f o r hay by f a l l .  a f t e r the second  then  The  hay  cut i n year 3 and  4.  Thus i n the above r o t a t i o n you have a number of d i f f e r e n t  possibilities.  81 Group I I Year 1 - B a r l e y  underseeded to A l s i k e  2 - Alsike  seed  3 - A l s i k e seed & b r e a k i n g 4 - Oats or rape 5 - Barley,  oats or f l a x  6 - Barley Where c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s  permit wheat could be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r b a r l e y  i n y e a r s 5 or 6. The  r o t a t i o n f o r Group I c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the above p a r t i c u l a r l y for  the K a t h l e e n s o i l  type.  for  the D o n n e l l y s o i l  area.  Group I I I Year 1 - Fescue s p r i n g 2 -Fescue  Group I I I r o t a t i o n c o u l d be used  seeded without companion crop  seed  3 - Fescue seed & b r e a k i n g 4 - Flax  (fall  5 - Barley,  c u l t i v a t i o n when  rape or oats  6 - Rape or b a r l e y Where c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , Fescue w i l l quite left  possible)  or oats  (fall  permit wheat c o u l d be used i n year 5 o r 6.  r e - e s t a b l i s h when broken i n the f a l l strongly  cultivation-stubble)  and may come back  i f n o t c u l t i v a t e d out i n the f a l l  of year 4.  to come back 2 a d d i t i o n a l y e a r s c o u l d precede b r e a k i n g &  f a l l o w - cropped to g r a i n f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and reseeded to fescue.  If  82 Where o c c a s i o n a l f a l l o w i n g i s r e q u i r e d fescue c o u l d be seeded on F a l l o w i n Year  1 f o l l o w e d by 2 y e a r s of seed - f a l l broken, F l a x 2  y e a r s of g r a i n and f a l l o w i n y e a r 7 f o r a 7-year  rotation.  Another v a r i a t i o n c o u l d be: 1 - Fescue w i t h companion crop of f l a x , e a r l y b a r l e y or rape 2 - Fescue  seed  (maybe)  3 - Fescue  seed  4 - Fescue  seed and f a l l  break  5 - Fallow 6 - Rape, wheat or b a r l e y 7 - Oats, wheat or b a r l e y  Group IV Year 1 - Wheat  or rape on f a l l o w .  r e s i d u e s and f a l l  R e t u r n a l l crop  work.  2 - Wheat 3 - Wheat 4 - Wheat, b a r l e y or f l a x 5 - F l a x or b a r l e y 6 - Fallow We have on s i m i l a r s o i l a t Beaverlodge for  c o n t i n u o u s l y cropped  12 y e a r s w i t h o u t any r e d u c t i o n s i n y i e l d where  were used.  There may, however, be d i f f i c u l t i e s  of weeds a l t h o u g h w i t h annual s p r a y i n g and f a l l  to wheat  fertilizers  with a build-up c u l t i v a t i o n of  s t u b b l e t h i s c o u l d p r o b a b l y be overcome. The above 6 y e a r r o t a t i o n c o u l d be extended  to 10 by f o l l o w i n g the 6 t h  y e a r f a l l o w w i t h seeding to b r o m e g r a s s - a l f a l f a f o r hay, t a k i n g  3 y e a r s of hay and b r e a k i n g a f t e r the f i r s t y e a r and p a r t i a l l y  hay  crop i n the 3rd  f a l l o w i n g b e f o r e going back to year 1 of the  above r o t a t i o n . Another v a r i a t i o n would be  to seed  to fescue a f t e r f a l l o w w i t h 2 y e a r s  of g r a s s and a p a r t i a l f a l l o w a f t e r the second back to 1 f o r a 9 year r o t a t i o n w i t h 1 f a l l o w  A.M.F. Hennig  seed h a r v e s t , year.  then  APPENDIX D Input Requirements  84  85  TABLE 1 Crop Labour Costs  Area  Skilled (per  Rolla-Boundary Doe R i v e r Progress Groundbirch Sunset P r a i r i e Baldonne1-Two R i v e r s C e c i l Lake Montenay Halfway R i v e r  Source:  Labour  hour)  $3.50 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.50 5.00 3.50 4.00 3.50  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Produce A l f a l f a Hay, ( V i c t o r i a ,  Unskilled (per  hour)  $2.00 2.00 2.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.50 2.00  Sample Costs to 1971)  Labour  TABLE 2 Machinery Requirements F o r Crop R o t a t i o n s Rolla  Machinery  Replacement Cost  Acres  (1)  (2)  T r a c t o r 50 H.P.D. $7000 D i s c 10' 1500 Harrow - 4. S e c t . - 20' • 500 Seeder A t t a c h . 200 Swather C o n d i t i o n e r - 12' (PTO) 3600 Rake 800 Baler 2800 Wagon 500 F r o n t End Loader % 500 Sprayer 45' 650 F e r t i l i z e r Spreader 200 Combiner 14' S.P. 1500 Auger 500 Truck 5000  480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480  Boundary  Cost per Acre (3) $14.58 3.13 1.04 .41 7.50 1.66 5.83 1.04 1.04 1.354 .417 31.20 1.04 10.41  Fuel Costs per hour (4)  Repair Costs per hour (5)  $ .71  1.00 (10c  $ .70 .72 .24 .17 1.44 .32 .90 .10 .12 .52 .20 4.05 .05 /mile)  Rotations' Used (6) 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 4 4 4 4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3  Machinery Cost - R o t a t i o n 1,2,3 = 71.08 p e r a c r e Rotation 4 =38.00 per acre Sources:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a H a y — R o l l a Boundary, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971)B r . i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 3 Storage Requirements F o r Crop Rolla  Crop  Rotation Number  (2) -  (1)  Barley Wheat  1  2  3  4 Sources:  Column Column Column Column  Rotations  Boundary  Expected Yield  Cost per Unit  Cost p e r Item  Cost f o r Rotation  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $ 13.80 34.80  $•$48.60  46 bus. 116 bus.  $  .30 .30  Barley Wheat Rapeseed  46 bus. 87 bus. 19.5 bus.  .30 .30 .30  1.3.80 . 26.10 5.85  45.75  Barley Wheat Rapeseed  92 bus. 58 bus. 19.5 bus.  .30 .30 .30  27.60 . 17.40 5.85  50.85  Hay  10 t o n  3: 4: 5: 6:  10.38  103.80  See Appendix E Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 20, 1971 Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (4) S u b t o t a l o f Column (5)  103.80  TABLE 4 Per A c r e A c t i v i t y Requirements and -Costs Rolla-Boundary • Wheat  Activity Disc Harrowing Seeding & F e r t i l i z e r Spray Swathing Combining Trucking Auger  Miles per Hour  Times  2 1/2 4 .5 3 2 1/2 6 5.7 M  2 3 1 .57 1 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  .800 .390 .170 .066 .400 .120 . 120 .094  $2.80 1.37 .70 .23 1.40 .42 .24 . 188  $.57 .28 . 12 .05 .29 .12 .57 .035  2.160  Source:  Hrs.  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  $.56 .27 .12 .05 .28  $.58 .09 .06 .03 .58 .49  Materials  Total Cost $  $4.81 $2.75 2.57  .045  4.51 2.01 8.56 2.93 2.55 1.03 .81 .27  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of Cash C o s t s )  $22.67 1.13  Total  $23.80  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Rolla-Boundary, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  TABLE 5 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Rolla  Boundary  Barley. Activity  M i l e s per Hour  Disc Harrowing Seed & F e r t Spray Swathing Combining Trucking Auger  ih 4 5 3  .  ih 6 6.8 M  Times  2 3 1 .57 1 1  Hours per Acre .800 .390 .170 .066 ' .400 .120 .120 .094  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  $2.80 1.37 .70 .23 1.40 .42 .24 .188  $.57 .28 .12 .05 .29 .12 .68 .035  2.160FHrs.  Sources:  B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  Tractor Repairs 3 $.56 .27 .12 .05 .28  Implement Repairs $.58 . .09 .06 .03 . .58 . .49 -  Materials  Total Cost $  $2.50 & 4.80 2.57  .045  4.51 2.01 8.30 2.93 2.55 1.03 .92 .27  Sub T o t a l Overhead (5% of Cash C o s t s )  $22.52 1.13  Total  $23.65  Sample C o s t s to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - R o l l a Boundaryj Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y ,  00  VD  TABLE 6 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Rolla  Boundary  Rapeseed  Activity  Disc Harrowing Spraying Seeding & F e r t . Swathing Combining Trucking Augering  M i l e s per Hour  Times  2h.  2 3 1 1 1 1 1  4 3 5  2h 6 6.8  M  Hours per Acre .80 .39 .11 .17 .40 .12 .12 .05 2.16  Sources:. B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  Labour Costs $2.80 1.37 .39 .70 1.40 .42 .24 .10  Hrs  Fuel Costs $.57 .28 .09 .12 .29 .12 .68 .03  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  $.56 .27 • .09 .12 .28  $.58 .09 .06 .06 .58 .49  Materials  Total Cost $  $4.50 $2.75 + 1.50  .01  4.51 2.01 5.13 5.25 2.55 1.03 .92 .14  Sub T o t a l Overhead (5% of Cash C o s t s )  $21.54 1.08  Total  $22.62  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - R o l l a  Boundary,  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y ,  VO  o  TABLE 7 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Rolla  Boundary  Fallow  Activity  M i l e s per Hour  Times  Hours per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Total Cost  Disc  23s"  2  .80  $2.50  $.57  $.56  $.58  $4.51  Harrowing  4  3  .39  1.37  .28  .27  .09  2.01  1.19  Source:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department (Victoria, 1971)  Hrs.  Subtotal Overhead (5% o f Cash Costs)  $6.52  Total  $6.85  of A g r i c u l t u r e , ' Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - R o l l a  .33  Boundary,  TABLE 8 Machinery  Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s Doe  Replacement Cost  Machinery  Tractor 70 H.P.D. D i s c 10' Harrows 20' Seeder A t t a c h F e r t . Spreader Swather 12' SP Baler B a l e Stooker F r o n t End Loader Wagon Bale Elevator Combine 14' SP Auger Truck Sprayer 50'  9800 1500 500 300 200 5000 3000 350 1000 400 300 15000 500 5000 650  Acreage  480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480  River  Cost p e r Acre $20.42 3.13 1.04 .63 .42 10.42 6.25 .73 2.08 .83 .63 31.25 1.04 10.41  F u e l Costs per Hour $ .89  .51  1.00  R e p a i r Cost per Hour $ .98 .72 .24 .25 .20 2.00 .96 .07 .24 .08 .06 4.05 .05  10c / m i l e .52  Rotations Used 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 4 4 4 4 4 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3  Machinery  Cost:  R o t a t i o n s 1,2,3:=-78.76 per a c r e Rotation 4 =46.58 per a c r e  Sources:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Doe R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 9 Storage Requirements For Crop  Rotations  Doe R i v e r  Crop  Rotation Number  (2)  (1)  Expected Yield  Cost per Crop  Cost F o r Rotation  (4). .  (5)  (6)  .30 .30  $ 26.40 5.57  Cost per Unit  (3) $  Barley Rapeseed  88 bus. 18r58 bus.  Barley Oats  88 bus. 56 bus.  .30 .30  26.40 16.80  43.20  3  Barley Rapeseed  44 bus. 37.16 bus.  .30 .30  13.20 11.15  24.35  4  Hay  10 Ton  10.38  103.80  103.80  1  .2  Sources:  Column Column Column Column  3: 4: 5: 6:  See Appendix'E Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 20, 1971 Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (4) S u b t o t a l s of Column (5)  $ 31.97 .  TABLE 10 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements  and  Costs  Doe R i v e r Establish  Activity  M i l e s per  Times  Hour  Hours per Acre  Fescue  Labour  Fuel  Tractor  Implement  Costs  Costs  Repairs  Repairs  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31  $.59  $.65  $.48  Harrowing  5  2  .20  .70  .18  .20  .05  Seeding & F e r t .  4  1  .74  .19  Sources:  .21 1.07 Hrs.  Materials  Total Cost $  4.03 1.13  .20. .05 $2.25 + 2 . 0 0 Subtotal Overhead (5% o f C o s t s )  5.43 $10.49 .53  Total  $11.12  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  - Doe R i v e r ,  TABLE 11 Per A c r e A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Doe R i v e r Harvest Fescue Seed  Hours per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  $.46  $.13  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  M i l e s per Hour  Times  Fertilizing  4  1  .130  Swathing  6.5  1  .130  .46.  .07  .26  .79  Combining  5.5  1  .130  .46  .13  .53  1.12  Trucking  6.8 M  .130  .2.6  .68  .188  .035  Activity  Augering  .094  ,  .614 H r s .  Sources:  $.13  $.03  $2.00  $2.75  .94 .045  .27  Subtotal Overhead (5% of Costs)  $5.87 .29  Total  $6.16  Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September  21, 1971  TABLE 12 Per  A c r e A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Doe R i v e r Rapeseed  Activity  Discing Harrowing Spraying Seed & F e r t . Swathing Combining Truck Auger  M i l e s per Hour  Times  3 5 3 4  2 2 1 1 1 1  kh 6 6.8 M  Hours per Acre .660 .200 .066 .210 .190 .120 .120 .094 1.660 H r s .  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  $2.31 .70 .23 .74 .67 .42 . .24 .188  $.59 .18 .06 .19 .10 .12 .68 .035  $.65 .20 . .07 .20  $.48 .05 .04 .05 .38 .49  Materials  Total Cost $  $4.50 $2.75 + 1.50  .045 Subtotal Overhead Total  Sources:  Implement Repairs  (5%  of C o s t s )  4.03 1.13 4.90 5.43 1.14 1.03 .92 .27  $18.85 .94 $19.79  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Doe R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department, of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  VD ON  TABLE 13 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirement and Costs Doe River Barley Activity, Discing Harrowing Seed & Fert. Swathing Combining Truck Auger  Miles per Hour 3 5 4 4^ 6 6.8 M  Times 2 2 1 1 1  Hours per Acre .660 .200 .210 .190 .120 .120 .094 1.594 Hrs.  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  $2.31 .70 .74 .67 .42 .24 .188  $.59 .18 .19 .10 .12 .68 .035  $.65 .20 .20  Materials  Implement Repairs $.48 .05 .05 .38 .49  $2.50 =4.80  .045  Total Cost $$4.03 1.13 8.48 1.14 1.03 .92 .27  Subtotal Overhead (5% of Costs)  $17.00 .85  .Total  $17.85  Sources: . B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Doe River, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs, to Produce Wheat, Oats and Barley, (Victoria, 1969)  TABLE 14 Machinery  Requirements For Crop R o t a t i o n s ' Progress  Replacement Cost  Machinery  Tractor 60 H.P.D. D i s c 10' Harrows 20' Seeder A t t a c h Swather PTO 12 * Rake Baler Stooker Front'End Loader (%) Wagon Elevator P l a s t i c (2.4 R o l l s ) Spray 45' F e r t . Spreader 20 Combine 14' SP Auger Truck 2T  8400 1500 500 200 3600 700 3000 200 500 400 250 48 650 200 15000 500 5000  T o t a l f o r R o t a t i o n s ' 1,2,3,4 Sources:'  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of (Victoria,  1969)  Acres  480 480 480 480 480 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 480 480 240 240 480  Cost per Acre $  17.50 3.125 1.041 .416 7.50 2.92 12.50 .83 . 2.08 11.67 1.04 .20 1.354 .417 62.50 2.08 10.416  F u e l Cost per Hour  R e p a i r Cost per Hour  $ .79  $:. .84 .72 .24 .17 1.44 .28 .96 . 06 .12 .08 . 05 .00 .52 .20 4.05 .05  1.00 10c  /mile  127.59 A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce A l f a l f a Hay  - Progress,  A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, Oats and B a r l e y ,  TABLE 15 Storage Requirements f o r Crop  Rotations  Progress  Rotation Number  Crop  Expected Yield  .30 .30 10.38  $13.85 6.00 62.28  $82.13  46.5 bus. . 41 bus, 6 ton  .30 .30 10.38  13.85 12.30 62.28  88.43  Barley Hay  77.5 bus. 6 ton  .30 10.38  23.25 62.28  85.53  Barley Rapeseed Hay  46.5 bus. 13.16 bus. 6 ton  .30 .30 10.38  13.85 3.95 62.28  80.08  1  Barley Wheat Hay  46.5 bus. 20 bus. 6 ton  Barley Oats Hay  4  Sources:  Cost f o r Rotation  (5)  (2)  3  Cost p e r Crop  (4)  (3)  (1)  2  Cost per • Unit  Column 3: Column 4: Column 5:  $  See Appendix E Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 20, 1971 Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (4)  (6)  TABLE 16 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 Groundbirch Input Costs Year  Acre  1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20 17. 20  Acre 2-4  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre 6  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $5.,02 5..02 5..02 5,,02 5.,02 5.,02 5.,02 5,,02 5, ,02 5.,02 5.,02 5.,02 5.,02 5.,02 5.,02  $13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90 13. 90  $16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68 16. 68  $77..17 77. 17 77..17 77.,17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77. 17 77.,17 77. 17 77. 17  Tot. Var. Costs  Barley Return  Rape Return  Hay Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $45.45 50. 22 39. 38 31. 59 29. 63 42. 12 26. 91 27. 30 21. 42 36. 00 54. 72 49. 63 30. 71 51. 46 57. 00  $28.32 :.2i:56 25. 70 19.93 15. 72 25.69 18.69 12.60 28. 76 20.26 24:26 27.63 37.95 36.55 31.64  (7) $129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. 129.  97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97  $120.35 99. 90 92. 63 79. 38 142. 56 87. 42 77. 85 86. 43 90. 09 92. 16 105. 00 101. 99 93. 60 104. 88 115. 68  $194. 171. 157. 130. 187. 155. 123. 126. 140. 148. 183. 173. 162. 192. 204.  12 68 71 90 91 23 15 33 27 42 98 75 26 89 32  $64.15 41. 71 27. 74 .93 57.94 25.26 6.52 3.64 10.30 18.45 54.01 43. 78 32.29 62.92 74.35  Average Net Return = $33.58 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7) r-'  o o  TABLE 17 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Progress Barley Mi l e s per Hour  Activity Disc Harrow Seeding & F e r t i l i z e r Spray Swathing Combine Truck Auger  3 5 6 3 2.33 6 6.8 M  Times 2 2 1 .57 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  .660 .200 .110 .042 .400 .120 .120 .094  $2.64 .80 .44 .17 1.60 .48 .30 .235  $.52 .16 .09 .03 .32 . 12 .68 .035  1.756 Source:  B.C.  Hours  Tractor Repairs $-55 . 17 .09 .04 .34  -  Implement Repairs $.48 .05 .04 .02 .58 .49 .045  Materials  Total Cost $  $2.50 + 2.75 2.57  4.19 1.18 5.95 2.83 2.82 1.09 .98 .32  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s )  $19.36 .97  Total  $20.33  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay P r o g r e s s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  TABLE 18 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements and Costs  Progress Wheat Miles per Hour  Activity Disc Harrow Seeding & F e r t i l i z e r Spray Swathing Combine Truck Auger  3 5 6 3 2.33 6 5.77  Times 2 2 1 .57 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  .660 .200 .110 .042 .400 .120 .120 .094  $2.64 .80 .44 . . 17 1.60 .48 .30 .235  $.52 .16 .09 .03 .32 .12 .57 .035  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  $.55 .17 .09 .04 .34  $.48 .05 .04 .02 .58 .49 .045  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s ) 1.746 Source:  Hours  Total  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay P r o g r e s s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  Total Cost  Materials $ .$4.81 + 4.51 2.57  4.19 1.18 9.98 2.83 2.82 1.09 .87 .32  $23.28 1.16 24.44  TABLE Per Acre A c t i v i t y  19  Requirements and Costs  Progress Oats Miles per Hour  Activity Disc Harrow Seeding & F e r t i l i z e r Spray Swathing Combining Truck Auger  3 5 6  3 2 .33 6 6,.8 M  Times  2 2 1 .57 1 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  Tractor Repairs  .660 .200 . no .042 .400 . 120 . 120 .094  $2.64 .80 .44 .17 1.60 .48 .30 .235  $.52 . 16 .09 .03 .32 .12 .68 .035  $.55 . 17 .09 .04 .54  Implement Repairs  $.48 .05 .04 .02 .58 .49 .045  Sub T o t a l Overhead (5% 1.746 Source:  Hours  of C o s t s )  Materials  $7.30 2.57  Total Cost  $ 4.19 1. 18 7.96 2.83 2.82 1.09 .98 .32 $21.37 1.07 $22.44  Total  -  B .C. Department of A;j r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay P r o g r e s s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B .C. Department of A;j r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  TABLE 20 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements and Costs  Progress Rapeseed Miles per Hour  Activity Disc Harrow Spray Seeding & F e r t i l i z e r Swathing Combine Truck Auger  3 5 3 6 2.33 6 6.8 M  Times 2 2 1 1 1 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  .660 .200 .074 .110 .400 .120 .120 .094  $2.64 .80 .30 .44 1.60 .48 .30 .235  $.52 . 16 .06 .09 .32 .12 .68 .035  1.778 Hours Source:  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  $.35 . 17 .06 .09 .54  $.48 .05 .04 .04 .58 .49 .045  Materials  Total Cost $  $4.50 4.25  4.19 1.18 4.96 4.91 2.82 1.09 .98 .32  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s )  $20.45 1.02  Total  $21.47  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay P r o g r e s s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  TABLE 21 Machinery  Requirements  f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s  Groundbirch  Machinery ' T r a c t o r - 70 HPD D i s c - 10' Harrows - 4 S e c t i o n 20' SP Swathers - 12' Mower 7' Rake Baler 2 Wagons (@ 400) T r a c t o r - 50 HPD Bale E l e v a t o r F e r t i l i z e r Spreader 20' Spray A t t a c h 45' Seeder A t t a c h Combine - 14' SP Auger Truck - 2T T o t a l f o r R o t a t i o n s 1,2,3,4 = Source:  Replacement Cost  Acres  10,400 1,500 500 4,000 900 800 2,800 800 7,000 700 200 650 200 15,000 500 5,000  480 480 480 480 240 240 240 480 480 240 480 480 480 240 240 480  Cost per Acre 21 .875 3 .125 1 .042 8 .333 3.. 75 3 .33 11 .667 1 .667 14 .583 2 .917 .417 1 .354 .417 62.,50 2,,08 10.,417  F u e l Costs per Hour  R e p a i r Costs per Hour  .96  1,,05 , 72 ,24 1,,60 .54 ,32 .90 , 16 , 70 , 14 .20 52 , 17 4. 05 05  -  .51  -  -  .69  -  -  -  1.00  149.47  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  (lOc/mi)  106  TABLE 22 Storage Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s Groundbirch  Rotation Number (1) 1  2  :  3  4  Sources:  Crop (2)  Expected Yield  Cost per Unit  (3)  (4)  Barley Wheat Hay  46 . 5 bus bus 20 Ton 6  Barley Oats Hay  Cost per Crop  Cost f o r Rotation  (5)  (6)  30 30 10. 38  $13.,85 6.,00 62.,28  $82.13  46 . 5 bus bus 41 Ton 6  30 30 10. 38  13.,85 12.,30 62.,28  88.43  Barley Hay  77 . 5 bus Ton 6  30 10. 38  23,,25 62..28  85.53  Barley Rapeseed Hay  46 . 5 bus 13 .16 bus Ton 6  30 30 10. 38  13,,85 3,,95 62,,28  80.08  Column 3: Column 4: Column 5:  $  .  See Appendix E Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 20, 1971 Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (4)  TABLE 23 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements  and  Costs  Groundbirch B a r l e y and E s t a b l i s h B r o m e - A l f a l f a Miles per Hour  Activity Discing Harrowing Seeding Swathing (12*) Combine (14') Truck Auger  Times  4.5 5 4.5 6 2.85  M  2 2 1 .5 .5 .5  Hours per Acre .440 .200 .170 .085 .060 .060 .025  1.040 Source:  Labour Cost 1.54 .70 .60 .333 .21 .12 .05  Hours  Fuel Cost  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  .42 .19  .46 .21  .32 .04 .03  .049 .06 .285 .015  .152 .24  -  .005  Materials  Total Cost $  10.35  -  -  2.74 1.14 10.98 .53 .51 .405 . 707  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s )  $16,385 . 819  Total  $17.20  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 24 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements and Costs  Groundbirch Barley  Activity Disc Seed & Harrow Spray Swather (12') Combine (14') Truck Auger  Miles per Hour  Times  4 1/2 4 1/2 3 4 1/2 6 6.8 M  1 1 .57 1 1 1  Hours per Acre  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  .220 .110 .036 . 19 . 120 .120 .094  .77 .385 .133 .665 .42 .24 .188  .21 .106 .036 .097 .12 .68 .035  .892 Source:  Tractor Repairs .23 .116 .04 0 .49  Implement Repairs . 158 .045 .02 .304  .045  Materials  Total Cost $  5.25 2.57  1.36 5.902 2. 799 1.066 1.03 .92 .21  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s )  613.237 .663  Total  $13.90  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 25 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements  and  Costs  Groundbirch Wheat  Activity Disc Harrowing & Seed Spray Swather (12') Combine (14') Trucking Augering  Miles per Hour  Times  4 1/2 4 1/2 2 1/2 4 1/2 6 5.7 M  2 1 1/4 1 1 1  Hours per Acre .4400 .1100 .0375 .1900 .1200 .1200 .0500  1.0675  Source:  Labour Cost 1.54 .39 ..1312 .665 .42 .24 .10  Fuel Cost .42 .11 .036 .097 .12 .57 .03  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  .46 . 12 .039 .304 .49  .32 .05 .0195 0  .01  Materials  Total Cost $  9.40 1. 17  2.74 10.07 1.40 1.07 1.03 .81 . 19  Sub T o t a l Overhead ( 5 % of C o s t s )  $17,310 .866  Total  $18,176  >  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 26 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements  and  Costs  Groundbirch Oats  Miles per Hour  Activity Discing Cultivating Harrow Seed Spray Swathing Combine Truck Auger  4.5 4.5 5 3 4 1/2 6 6.8  Times 2 1 2 1 .57 1 1  Hours per Acre .440 . 166 .200 .100 .066 .190 .120 . 120 .094  1.496  Source:  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  Tractor Repair  Implement Repair  $1.54 .58 .7  $.42 .159 .192  $.46 . 17 .21  .06 .097 . 12 .68 .07  .069  -  $.32 . 12 .048 .03 .03 .304 .486  -  .09  -  .23 .665 .42 .24 .329  -  Hours  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971)  -  Total Cost  Materials  -  5.25 2.57  -  -  -  -  $  2.74 1.03 1.15 5.28 2.96 1.07 1.03 ,92 .49  Sub T o t a l Overhead (5% of C o s t s )  $16.67 .83  Total  $17.50  A l f a l f a Hay  -  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  TABLE 27 Per Acre A c t i v i t y  Requirements  and  Costs  Groundbirch Rapeseed Miles per Hour  Activity Discing Spray Harrow & Seed Swathing Combine Truck Auger  4.5 3 5 4.5 6 6.8  M  Times 2 1 1 1 1 1 1  Hours per Acre .44 .11 .11 .19 .12 .12 .05  1.04 Source:  Hours  Labour Cost  Fuel Cost  $1.54 .39 .385 .665 .42 .24 . 10  $.42 . 11 .01 .097 . 12 .68 .03  Tractor Repair  Implement Repair  $.46 . 12 . 116  $.32 .06 .045 .304 .486  -  -  .01  Sub T o t a l Overhead (5% of C o s t s ) Total  B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay Groundbirch, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats , B a r l e y ( V i c t o r i a , 1969)  Materials _  $4.50 4.25  -  -  Total Cost $  2.74 5. 18 4.81 1.07 1.03 .92 . 14  $15.89 . 79 $16.68  112 TABLE 28 Machinery Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s Sunset P r a i r i e  Acres  Cost Per Acre  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  $8400  480  $17.50  $ .794  1100  480  2.29  .53  Harrows (20')  400  480  .83  .19  Seeder A t t a c h .  200  480  .41  .17  F e r t . Spreader  200  480  .41  .20  Swather (12')  4000  480  8.33  Baler  3000  240  12.50  .96  Stooker  200  240  .83  .06  Wagon  500  240  2.08  .10  500  240  2.08  .20  650  480  1.354  .52  15000  240  62.50  500  240  2.08  5000  480  10.417  Replacement Cost  Machinery  (1) T r a c t o r 60 HPD Cultivator ( l l ) 1  F r o n t End Loader  (^)  Spray A t t a c h . (45') Combine (14'-SP) Auger Truck 2T  T o t a l f o r R o t a t i o n s 1,2,3,4  Fuel Costs/Hr.  Repair Costs/Hr.  (6) $ .84  .51  1.00  1.60  4.05 .05  (lOc/Mile)  $123.61  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Sunset P r a i r i e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  'Sample Costs t o  113 TABLE 29 Storage Requirements f o r Crop Sunset P r a i r i e  Rotation Number  Crop  Expected Yield  Cost Per U n i t  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1  Barley  46.5 bus  Wheat Hay  2  (5)  .30  $13.85 •  20 bus  .30  60.00  6 ton  10.38  62.28  $  .30 •  13.85  Oats  41.0 bus  .30  12.30 .  6.0 t o n  10.38  62.28  77.5 bus  .30  23.25  6 ton  10.38  62.28  Barley  46.5 bus  .30  13.85  Rapeseed  13.16 bus  .30  3.95  10.38  62.28  Barley  Hay  6 ton  Cost f o r Rotation  (6)  46.5 bus  Hay  4 •  Cost Per Crop  Barley  Hay  3  Rotations  82.13  88.43  85.53  80.08  Sources: Column 3:  See Appendix E.  Column 4: Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l September 20, 1971. Column 5:  Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d  interview,  by Column ( 4 ) .  TABLE 30 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Sunset P r a i r i e B a r l e y and E s t a b l i s h Brome - A l f a l f a  Activity  Miles  Times  Hours  Per Hour  Cultivating  Labour,  Per Acre  hh  Harrowing  Fuel  Costs  Costs  $  .70  $ .16 .18  1  .20  2  .22  .77  Tractor  Implement  Repairs  Repairs  $  .17  119  $  Materials  Total Cost  $  .11  1.14 1.18  .04  Seed & F e r t .  kh  1  .18  .63  Swathing  4%  .5-  .085  .333  .049  .152  .53  Combining  6  .5  .06  .21  .06  .24  .51  .06  .12  .025  .05  Truck  2.85  Auger  .07  $9.08  .285  .41 .005  .015  9.78  .07  13.62 Overhead .830 h r s Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Sunset P r a i r i e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley, ( V i c t o r L ^ i g e g f f  P  e  P  a  r  t  m  e  n  t  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay -  o  f  .68  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  Total  14.30  TABLE 31 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Sunset P r a i r i e B a r l e y on F a l l o w Land  Activity  Miles Per  Times  Hour  Hours Per Acre  Fuel  Tractor  Implement  Costs  Costs  Repairs  Repairs  $  .38  $ .09  Labour  $  Materials  .02  Total Cost  Harrowing  4%  1  •11  Seed & F e r t .  4%  1  .18  .63  .14  .15  .07  $5.25  6.24  Spraying  4*2  1  .066  .23  .05  .06  .03  2.57  2.94  Swathing  4*2  1  .19  .665  .097  .304  1.07  Combining  6  1  .14  .49  .14  .57  1.20  6.8  1  .14  .28  .68  .094  .19  .07  Truck Auger  $  .095  $  .59 •  .96 .35  .09  13.35 Overhead  (5% o f Cash Costs)  .920 h r s  .67 Total  14.02  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Sunset P r a i r i e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats,  -  i-  1  TABLE 32 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Sunset P r a i r i e . B a r l e y on Stubble  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Cultivating  4%  1  .20  $ .70 .  $ .16 .  Harrowing  4%  2  .22  .77  .18  .19  .04  1  .18  .63  .14  .15  .07  $5.25  6.24  .58  .066  .23  .05 -  .06  .03  2.57  2.94  .19  .665  .097  .304  1.07  .57  1.20  Seed & F e r t . Spraying  4*s  Hours Per Acre  Swathing  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Combining  6  1  .14  .49  .14  Trucking  6.8  1  .14  .28  .68  .094  .19  .07  Augering  Tractor Repairs  $  .17  Implement Repairs  $  Materials  Total Cost  $  .11  1.14 1.18  .96 .35  .09  15.08 Overhead (5% of Cash C o s t s ) 1.230 h r s  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  Sunset P r a i r i e ,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .75  -  15.83  TABLE 33 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Sunset P r a i r i e Wheat  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Hours Per A c r e  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs.  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  Cultivating  4%  1  .20  Harrowing  4%  2  .22  .77  .18  .19  .04  Seed & F e r t .  hh  1  .18  .63  .14 •  .15  .07  $9.40  Spraying  2%  h  .038  .13  .03  .03 •  .02  1.17  Swathing  4%  l  .19  .665  .097  .304  1.07  Combining  6  l  .14  .49  .14  .57  1.20 .  Truck  5.7  l  .14  .28  .57  .094  .19  r°3  Auger  $  .70  $  .16  $  ,17  $  .11  $  1.14 1.18  10.39 1.38  .85 .01  .23 17.44  Overhead 1.232  (5% o f Cash Costs)  hrs.  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Sunset P r a i r i e ,  (Victoria,  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce A l f a l f a Hay  1971).  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .87  -  18.31  TABLE-34 Per  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs. Sunset P r a i r i e Oats  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs $  Tractor Repairs  .16  $  .17  Implement Repairs $  Materials  $  .11  Cultivating  1  .20 .  $ .70 .  Harrowing  2  .22 -  .77  .18  .19  .04 •  Seed & F e r t .  1  .18  .63  .14  .15  .07-  .07  .05  Total Cost 1.14 1.18  $7.30  8.29  2.57  3.06  Spraying  2k  .57  .086  .30  .07  Swathing  4%  1  .19  .665  .097  .304  1,07  Combining  6  1  .14  .49  .14  •57  1.20 .  Truck  6.8  1  .14  .28  .68  .094  .19  .03  Auger.  .96 .23  .01  17.13 Overhead ([57o o f Cash C o s t s )  .86 Total  1.250 h r s Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Sunset P r a i r i e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce A l f a l f a Hay  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample  Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  -  17.99  TABLE 35 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Sunset P r a i r i e Rapeseed  Activity  Miles Per  Times  Hour  Hours  Labour  Per Acre  Fuel  Tractor  Implement  Costs  Costs .  Repairs  Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  Cultivating  4Js  1  .20  $ .70  $ .16  $ .17  $ .11  $ 1.14  Harrowing  4%  2  .22  .77  .18  .19  .04  1.18  Spraying  3  1  .11  .39 •  .09  .09  .06  Seed & F e r t .  4%  1  .18  .63  .14  •15  .07  Swathing  4%  1  .19  .665  .097,  .304  1.07  Combining  6  1  .12  .42  .12  .486  1.03  Truck  6.8  1  .12  .24  .68  .05  .10  .03  Auger  $4.50 4.25 .  5.13 5.24 -  .92 .14  .01  15.85 Overhead 1.19  (5% o f Cash Costs)  hrs.  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Sunset P r a i r i e , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .79  -  16.64  120 TABLE 36 Machinery Requirements for Crop Rotations Baldonnel - Two Rivers  Machinery  Replacement Cost  Acres  (1)  (2)  (3)  $9000  Tractor 70 HPD  Cost Fuel Repair Rotations Per Acre Costs/Hr. Costs/Hf Used  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  480 $18.75  $ .89  $ .90  1,2,3,4  .62  2.00  1,2,3,4  Swather (15'-SP)  5000  480  10.41  Disc (10*)  1500  480  3.12  .72  1,2,3,4  Harrows (20')  500  480  1.04  .24  1,2,3,4  Seeder Attach.  300  480  .62  .25  1,2,3,4  Fert. Spreader  200  480  .41  .20  1,2,3,4  Mower (7')  900  480  1.87  .56  4  Rake  800  480  1.66  .32  4  Baler  3000  480  6.25  .96  4  Bale Stooker  350  480  .72  .07 ,  4  Wagons (2)  800  480  .16  4  Bale Elevator  200  480  • 41  .04  4  15000  480  31.25  4.05  1,2,3  Auger  500  480  1.04  .05  1,2,3  Truck  5000  480  10.41  Combine (14*-SP)  1.66  1.00  (10c/Mile)  Rotations 1,2,3 = $77.05/acre Rotation  4  = $46.92/acre  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Baldonnel -Two Rivers, (Victoria, 1971). B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs.to Produce Wheat, Oats, Barley, (Victoria, 1969).  1,2,3  121  TABLE 37 Storage Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s B a l d o n n e l -r Two R i v e r s  Rotation Number  Crop  Expected Yield  Cost Per U n i t  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1  Barley  132 bus  2  4  (5)  Cost f o r Rotation  (6)  .30  $39.60  Oats  56 bus  .30  16.80  Barley  88 bus  .30  26.40  Oats  56 bus  .30  16.80  .30  5.57  88 bus  .30  26.40  Oats  112 bus  .30  33.60  60.00  Hay  6.5 t o n  10.38  67.47  67.47  Rapeseed  3  $  Cost Per Crop  Barley  18.58 bus  56.40  48.77  Sources: Column 3:  See Appendix E.  Column 4: Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l September 20, 1971. Column 5:  interview,  Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column ( 4 ) .  TABLE 38 Per  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Baldonnel - Two R i v e r s B a r l e y Underseeded to A l s i k e C l o v e r  Activity  Times  Hours Per Acre .  Discing  3  2  .66  $3.30  Harrowing  5  2  .20  1.00  .18  1  .12 -  .60  .11  .05 •  Seed & F e r t .  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Miles Per Hour  $  .59  Tractor Repairs  $  .59 .18  Implement Repairs  $  Materials  .48  Total Cost  $  4.96 1.41  .05 $6.25  7.12  Swathing  2  1  .53  1.65  .20  .66  2.51  Combining  6  1  .12  .60  .12  .49  1.21  Truck  6.8  1  .12  .24  .68  .094  .188  .035  Auger  .92 .045  •27  18.40 Overhead 1.644  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  .92 19.32  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  ro  M  TABLE 39 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s A l s i k e C l o v e r Seed  Miles Per Hour  Times  Swathing  3.5  1  .19  Combining  2  1  .36  1.79  .36  Trucking  6.8  .36  .72  .68  .094  .188  .035  Activity  Augering  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  $  .95  Fuel Costs  $  Tractor Repairs  .12  Implement Repairs  $  Materials  .38 1.45 •  Total Cost  $  1.45 3.60 1.40  .045  .27  6.72 Overhead 1.004  hrs.  .34 7.06  Source: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  21,  1971.  TABLE 40 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Baldonnel - Two R i v e r s Barley  Activity  Miles Per  Times  Hour  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel  Tractor Repairs  Costs  Implement Repairs  Discing  3  2  .66  Harrowing  5  2  .20  1.00  .18  .18  .05  Seed & F e r t .  5  1  .12  .60  .11  .11  .05  Swathing  2  1  .53  1.65 -  Combining  6  1  .12  Truck  6.8  Auger  $3.30 .  $ -5? -  •  $ .59 •  $  Materials  .48  Total Cost  $  4.96 1.41  $7.30.  8.17  .20 .  .66  2.51  .60  .12  .49  1.21  .12  .24  .68  .094  .188  .035  .92 .045  .27  18.24Overhead 1.844  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  .91 Total  19.15 .  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s . t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  -  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs i o Produce Wheat, O a t s , " ~ :  ;  fo ^  TABLE 41 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s Oats  Labour' Costs  Fuel Costs .  .66  $3.30.  $ .59 ,  2  .20  1.00  5  1  .12  Swathing  2  1  Comb i n i n g  6  1  Truck  6.8  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  3  2  Harrowing  5  Seed & F e r t .  Hours Per Acre  Auger  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  $  4.96  .59  $ .48 .  .18  .18  .05 .  .60  .11  .11  .05  .53  1.65  .20  .66 .  2.51  .12  .60  .12  .49  1.21  .12  .24  .094  .188  1  $  1.41 $2,50 + 2.57  5.94  .92  .68 .035  .045  .27  16.01 Overhead 1.844  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  16.81  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .80  -  TABLE 42 Per  Activity  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s Rapeseed  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  3  2  .66  $3.30  Harrowing  5  2  .20  1.00  Spraying  3  1  .11 .  .55  Seed & F e r t  4  1  .12  Swathing  2  1  Combining.  6  Trucking  6.8  Fuel Costs $  .59  Tractor Repairs $  Implement Repairs  .59  $  Materials  Total Cost $  .48  4.96 1.41  .18  .18  .05  .10  .10  .05  .60  .11  .11  .05 •  .53  1.65  .20  .66  2.51  1  .12  .60  .12  .49  1.21  1  .12  .24  .68  .094  .188 1  .035  Augering  J  $4.50 $2.75 +  5.30 1.50  5.12  .92  •  . 045  .27 21.70  Overhead 1.954  ( 5 % o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia B a l d o n n e l - .Two Barley,  Department of  Rivers, (Victoria,  A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs, t o Produce A l f a l f a 1971).  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  1.09  Hay-  A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, O a t s ,  22.79  127  TABLE 43 Machinery Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s C e c i l Lake  Cost Replacement' A c r e s Fuel Repair Rotations Used Cost Per A c r e Costs/Hr. C o s t s / H r .  Machinery  (2)  (1)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $ .79  $ .84  1,2,3,4  <7)  $8900  480  $17.50  1500  480  3.12  •72  1,2,3,4  Harrows (20')  500  480  1.04  .24  1,2,3,4  Seeder A t t a c h .  200  480  .41  .17  1,2,3,4  F e r t . Spreader (20')  200  480  .41  .20  1,2,3,4  3600  480  7.50  1.44  1,2,3,4  700  480  1.45 .  .28  4  3000  480  6.25  .96  4  Stooker  200  480  .41  .06  4  Wagon  400  480  .83  .08  4•  15000  480  31.25  Auger  500  480  1.04  Truck  5000  480  10.41  T r a c t o r 60 HPD D i s c (10')  Swather  (15'-PT0)  Rake Baler  Combine  (14'-SP)  1.00  4.05  1,2,3  .05  1,2,3  (lOc/Mile)  R o t a t i o n s 1,2,3 = $72-68 Rotation  4  = $38.92  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay - C e c i l Lake, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  1,2,3  128 TABLE 44 Storage Requirements f o r Crop C e c i l Lake  Rotation Number  Crop  Expected Yield  Cost Per U n i t  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  Barley  102 bus  $  Rotations,  Cost P e r Crop  Cost f o r Rotation  (6)  .30  $30.60  Oats  46 bus  .30  13.80  Barley  68 bus  .30  20.40  Oats  46 bus  .30  13.80  14*4 bus  .30  4.32  Barley  68 bus  .30  20.40  Oats  92 bus  .30  27.60  48.00  4 ton  10.38  41.52  41.52  Rapeseed  Hay  $43.40  38.52  Sources: Column 3:  See Appendix E.  Column 4: Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l September 20,, 1971. Column 5:  interview,  Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column ( 4 ) .  TABLE 45 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s C e c i l Lake B a r l e y Underseeded t o A l s i k e C l o v e r  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  3  Harrowing  Fuel Costs  Hours  Labour Costs  2  .66  $2.31  5  3  .30  1.05  .24  Seed & F e r t .  4.  1  .21  .74  Swathing  3  1  .25  Combining  6  1  Truck  6.8  Per Acre  Auger  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  .48  $ 4.05 .  .25 •  .07  1.61  .17  .18  .08  .88  .20  .21  .36  1.65 .  .12  .42  • 12  .49  1.03  .12  .24  .68  .094  .188  .035  $  .52  $  .74  $  7.42  $6.25  .92 .025  .27  -  16.95 Overhead 1.754  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Cecil Lake,(Victoria,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department Barley,  (Victoria,  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  1971).  1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  -  ,  .85 17.80  TABLE 46 Per A c r e , A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s C e c i l Lake A l s i k e Clover. Seed  Activity  Times  Hours Per A c r e '  Swathing  3.5  1  •19  Combining  2  1  .36  1.26  .36  Truck  6.87  .36  .72  .68  .094  .188  .035  Auger  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Miles Per Hour  $  .67  $  .15  Tractor Repairs  $  .16  Implement Repairs  $  Materials  Total Cost  $  .27 1.45  1.25 3.07 1.40  .045  .27  5.99 Overhead 1.004  .30 Total  Source: Statement by J . Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September  (5% o f Cash Costs)  21,  1971.  6.29  TABLE 47 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s C e c i l Lake Oats  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  .52  $ .74 -  $ .48 •  Materials  Total Cost  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31 .  Harrowing  5  3  .30  1.05  .24  .25  .07.  Seed & F e r t .  4  1  .21  .74  .17  .18  .08  Swathing  3  1  .25  .88 •  .20  .21  .36  1.65  Combining  6  1  .12 .  -.42  .12  .49 •  1.03  Truck  6.8  .12  .24  .68  .094  ,188  .035  Auger  $  $  4.05 1.61  $5.07  6.24 .  •92 .025  .27  15.77 Overhead  (5% o f Cash Costs)  1.744 h r s . Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department C e c i l Lake, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs, t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .79 Total  16.56  TABLE 48 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs C e c i l Lake Barley  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31  Harrowing  5  3  .30  Seed & F e r t .  4  1  .21  Swathing  3  1  .25  Combining  6  1  .12  .42  .12  1.03  Truck  6.8  .12  .24  .68  .92  .094  .188  .035  .27  Hours Per Acre  Auger  Labour Costs  .  Fuel Costs  Implement Repairs  .52  $ .74 •  1.05  .24  .25  .07  .74  .17  .18  .08  .20  .21  .36  .88  $  Tractor Repairs  $  Materials  .48  Total Cost  $  4.05 1.61  $4.80.  8.47 1.65  18.00 Overhead ([5% o f Cash C o s t s ) 1.744  hrs.  T  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department C e c i l Lake,  (Victoria,  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  1971).  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  .90  -  o  t  a  l  18.90 .  TABLE 49 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs C e c i l Lake Rapeseed  Activity  Labour Costs  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31  Harrowing  5  2  .30  1.05  3  1  .14 •  Seed & F e r t .  4  1  Swathing  3  Combining  6  Hours Per Acre  Fuel Costs $  .52  Tractor Repairs $  .74  Implement Repairs ,$  Materials  Total Cost $  .48  4.05 1.61  .24 .  • 25  .07  .39  .09  .09  .05 •  $4.50  5.12  .21 .  .74  .17  .18  .08 -.  4.25  5.42  1  .25  .88  .20  .21  .36  1.65  1  .12  .42  .12  .49 ,  1.03  Truck  .12  .24  .68  Auger.  . 094 •  .188  .035  ^Spraying  .92 .27  . 045  20.07 Overhead 1.864  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  Total.  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department C e c i l Lake, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  1.00  -  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, O a t s ,  21.07  134  TABLE 50 Machinery Requirements f o r Crop Rotations Montenay  Machinery  Replacement Cost  Acres  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  $6000  480  $12.50  1500  480  Harrows ( 2 0 ' )  500  Seeder Attach.  Tractor 50 HPD  Cost Fuel Repair Rotations Per Acre Costs/Hr. Costs/Hr. Used (6)  (5)  (7)  $ .60  1,2,3,4  3.12  .72  1,2,3,4  480  1.04  .24  1,2,3,4  400  480  .83  .33  1,2,3,4  5000  480  2.00  1,2,3,4  Fert. Spreader ( 2 0 ' )  200  480  .417  Sprayer (45')  650  480  Rake  700  Disc (10*)  Swather  (12'-SP)  10.41  $ .57  .50  .20 .  1,2,3,4  1.354  .52  1,2,3,4  480  .41  .28  4  3000  480  1.45  .96  4  Bale Stooker  250  480  .52  .05  4  Wagon  400  480  .83  .08  4  Bale Elevator  300  480  .62  .06  4  15000  480  31.20  Auger  500  480  1.04  Truck  5000  480  10.41  Baler  (PTO)  Combine (14'-SP)  1.00  4.05 .  1,2,3  .05  1,2,3  (10c/Mile)  Taxes = $2.00/acre Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Montenay, ( V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 1 ) . B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats, Barley, ( V i c t o r i a , 1 9 6 9 ) .  1,2,3  135  TABLE 51 Storage Requirements f o r Crop Montenay  Rotations  Rotation Number  Crop  Expected Yield  Cost Per U n i t  Cost Per Crop  Cost f o r Rotation  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  1  Wheat  116 bus  2  $34.80.  46 bus  .30  13.80  Barley  46 bus  .30  13.80  Wheat  87 bus  .30  26.10  19.5 bus  .30  5.85  Barley  92 bus  .30  27.60  Wheat  58 bus  .30  17.40  19.5 bus  .30  5.85  50.85  10.38  41.52  41.52  Rapeseed  4  .30  Barley  Rapeseed  3  $  Hay  4 ton.  $48.60  45.75  Sources: Column 3:  See Appendix E.  Column 4: Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l September 20, 1971. Column 5:  Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d  interview,  by Column ( 4 ) .  TABLE 52 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Montenay Wheat  Activity  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Miles Per Hour  Times.  Discing  2k  2  .80  $3.20  Harrowing  5  2  .20  .80  .11  .12  .05  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .07  .28  .04 •  .04  .04  $7.56  7.96  Spraying  3  .57  .066  •26  .04  .04  .03  2.57  2.94  Swathing  2  1  .42 •  1.68 •  .21  .84  2.73  Combining  6  1  .12  .48  .12  .49  1.09  Truck  5.7  • 12  .30  ^1  .094  .24  .035  Auger  $ .46'.  $  .48  $  Materials  Total . Cost  $  .58  4.72 1.08  .87 .045  .33  21.72 Overhead  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  1.820 h r s .  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Montenay, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  1.07  -  22.81  TABLE 53 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Montenay Barley  Fuel Costs  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  2k  2  .80  $3.20.  $ .46 .  Harrowing  5  2  .20  .80  41  .12 -  .05  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .07  .28  .04  .04  .04  Spraying  3  .5? ,  .066  .26  .04  .04  .03  Swathing  2  1.  .42  1.68  .21  .84  2.73  Combining  6  1  .12  .48  .12  .49  1.09  Truck  6.8  .12  .30 •  .68  .094  .24  .035  Activity  Hours Per Acre  Auger  Labour Costs  Tractor Repairs $  .48  Implement Repairs $  Materials  Total Cost $  .58  4.72 1.08  $2.50 +  4.80  2.57  7.70 . 2.94 •  .98 .33  .045  21.57 Overhead  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  1.890 h r s .  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Montenay,, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) .  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  B r i t i s h Columbia Department B a r l e y , . ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  1.08  -  22.65  TABLE- .54 Per  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Montenay Rapeseed  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  .80  $3.20  $ .46  2  .20  .80  .11  .12  .05  3  1  .11  .44  .06  .07  .06  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .07  .28  .04  .04  .04  Swathing  2  1  .42  1.68  Combining  6  1  .12 •  Truck  6.8  Miles Per Hour  Times  Discing  2*2  2  Harrowing  5  Spraying  Activity  Hours Per Acre  Auger  Tractor Repairs $  .48  Implement Repairs $  Materials  Total Cost $  .58  4.72 1.08  $4.50 . 2.75  +1.50.  5.13 • 4.65  .21 .  .89  2.73  •48  .12  .49  1.09  .12  .30  .68  .094  .24  .035  .98 .045  .33 20.71  Overhead 1.934  (5% of Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Montenay, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  .1.04  Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats,  -  21.75  139 TABLE 55 Machinery Requirements f o r Crop R o t a t i o n s Halfway R i v e r  Acres  Cost Per A c r e "  Fuel Costs/Hr.  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $8400  480  $17.50  $ .79  $ .84  1500  480  3.12  .72  Harrows (20')  500  480  1.04  .24  Seeder  200  480  .41  .17  3600  480  7.50  1.44  3000  240  12.50  .96  Stooker  200  240  .83  .06  Wagon  500  240  2.08  .10  Elevator  500  240  2.08  .10  500  240  2.08  .12  650  480  1.354  .52  15000  240  Auger  500  240  2.08 •  Truck  5000  480  10.417  Replacement Cost  Machinery  (1) T r a c t o r 60 HPD D i s c (10')  Swather  (12'-PT0)  Baler  F r o n t End Loader Sprayer (50') Combine  (14 -SP) 1  (h)  T o t a l f o r A l l Rotations  62.50  Repair Costs/Hr.  1.00  4.05 .05  (IOC/Mile)  $125.50  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs, t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Halfway R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats, B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  140 TABLE 56 S t o r a g e Requirements f o r Crop Halfway R i v e r  Rotation Number  (1) 1  Crop  Expected Yield  (2) Barley  40.5 bus  (5)  (6)  16 bus  .30  4.80  9 ton  10.38  93.42  40.5 bus  .30  12.15  34 bus  .30  10.20  9 ton  10.38  93.42  .30  20.25  9 ton  10.38  93.42  Barley  40.5 bus  .30  12.15  Rape seed  11.46 bus  .30  3.44  10.38  93.42  Oats Hay  Barley  67.5 b u s .  Hay  4  Cost f o r Rotation  $12.15  Barley  Hay  9 ton  $  Cost Per Crop  .30  Hay  3  Cost Unit  (4)  (3)  Wheat  2  Per  Rotations  $110.37  115.77  113.67  109.01  Sources: Column 3:  See Appendix E.  Column 4: Statement by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l September 20, 1971. Column 5:  interview,  Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column ( 4 ) .  TABLE 57 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Halfway R i v e r B a r l e y and Establishment of Brome A l f a l f a  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Materials  Times  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31  Harrowing  5  2  .20  .70  .16 .  .17  .05  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .11  .39 ,  .09  .09  .02  Swathing  4  .5"  .125  .438  .10 .  .105  .09  .73  Combining  6  .5  .06  .21  .06  • 24  .51  .06  .12  .285  .025  .05  .015  Truck  Hours Per Acre  2.85  Auger  $  .52  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Miles Per Hour  Activity  $  .55  $  Total . Cost  $  .48  3.86 1.08  $7.84  6.59  .41 .005  .07  13.25 . Overhead  ( 5 % of Cash Costs)  1.240 h r s .  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Halfway.River, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, Oats,  .66  -  13.92  TABLE 58 Per  Activity ,  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Halfway R i v e r B a r l e y on Summer F a l l o w  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  $ .26  $ .275  Implement Repairs  Materials  Times  Discing  3  1  .33  Harrowing  5  1  .10  .35  .08  .085  .025  Seed & F e r t .  6  , 1  •11  .39  .09  .09  .02  Spraying  3  • 57  .066  ,231  .05  .055  .034  Swathing  4  1  .25  .875  .20  •21  .18 •  1.46 .  Comb i n i n g  6  1  .12  .42  .12  .49  1.03  6.8  1  .12  • 24  .68  .094  .188  .035  Truck  Hours Per. Acre  Labour Costs  Miles Per Hour  Auger  $1,155  $ .24  Total Cost $ 1.93 .54  $5.25  5.84  2.57  2.94  .92 .045  •27 .  14.93 Overhead  (5%  .75  o f Cash Costs)  1.190 h r s  Total  15.68  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Halfway R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay £ o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  TABLE 59 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Halfway R i v e r B a r l e y on Stubble  Activity  Times  Discing  3  2  .66  $2.31  Harrowing  5  2  .20  .70  .16  .17  .05  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .11  .39  .09  .09  .02  Spraying  3  • 57  .066  .231  .05  .055  .034  Swathing  4  1  .25  .875  .20  .21  .18  1.46  Combining  6  1  .12  .42  •  .49  1.03  .12  .24 •  .68  .094  .188  .035  Truck  Hours Per Acre  6.8  Auger  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  Miles Per Hour  $ .52 •  1  Tractor Repairs $  .55  2  Implement Repairs $  Materials  Total Cost $  .48  3.86 1.08  $2.50 + 4.80 . 2.57  7.89 2.94  .92 .045  .27 19.45  Overhead  (5% o f Cash Costs  1.720  .97 Total  20.42  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay Halfway.River , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). Barley,  B r i t i s h Columbia Department (Victoria, 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  i o  TABLE 60 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Halfway R i v e r Wheat  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Hours Per Acre  Discing  3  2  .660  Harrowing  5  2  Seed & F e r t .  6  Spraying  Labour Costs •..  Fuel Costs  Tractor Repairs  Implement Repairs  Total Cost $  $ .52 ,  .20  .70  .16 .  • 17  .05  1  • 11  .39 •  .09  .09  .02  3  .157  .066  .231  .05  .055  .034  Swathing  4  1  .250  .875  .20 .  .21  .18  1.46  Combining  6  1  .12  .42  .12  .49  1.03  5.7  1  .12  .24  .57  .094  .188  .035  Truck Auger  .48  3.86  $2.31  $ ,55 •  $  Materials  1.08 $2.62 +  4.80  2.57  8.01 2.94  .81 .045  .27 19.46  Overhead 1.620  (5% o f Cash Costs)  hrs.  .97 Total  20.43  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Halfway R i v e r , Barley,  (Victoria,  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  -  1971).  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample C o s t s to Produce Wheat, Oats,  £ ^  TABLE 61 Per Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and Costs Halfway R i v e r Oats  Implement Repairs  Times  Discing  3  2  .66 .  $2.31  Harrowing  5  2  .20.  .70  .16  •  7  .05  Seed & F e r t .  6  1  .11  .39  .09  .09 •  .02  Spraying  3  .57  .066  .23  .05  .06  .03  Swathing  4  1  .25  . 875  .20  .21 .  .18  1.46  Combining  6  1  .12  .42 .  .12  ,49  1.03  Truck & Auger  6.8  1  .12  .24  .68  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel. Costs  Miles Per Hour  Activity  $  .52  Tractor Repairs  $  .55 1  $  Materials  Total Cost  $  .48  3.86 1.08  $2.50 +  4.80  2.57  7.89 2.94  .92  19.18 Overhead 1.526  hrs.  Total  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Halfway R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). British Barley,  Columbia Department  (Victoria,  1969).  .96  (5% Of Cash Costs)  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce Wheat, Oats,  -  20.14  TABLE 62 Per  Activity  Miles Per Hour  Times  Acre A c t i v i t y Requirements and C o s t s Halfway R i v e r Rapeseed  Hours Per Acre  Labour Costs  Fuel Costs  .52  Implement Repairs  Materials  Total Cost  Discing  3  2 .  .66  $2.31  Spraying  3  1  .11  .39  .09  .09  .06  Harrow & Seed  6  1  .11  .39  .09  .09  .02  Swathing  4  1  .25  .875  .20  .21  .18 •  1.46 .  Combining  6  1  • 12  .42  .12  .49  1.03  Truck  6.8  .12  .24  .68  .094  .188  .035  Auger  $  Tractor Repairs  $ .55.  $  .48  $ $4.50 2.75  +1.50  3.86 5.13 5,65  .92 .045  .27  18.22 Overhead 1.464  (5% o f Cash C o s t s )  hrs.  .91 Total  19.31  Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia Department Halfway - R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971). :  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs, t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay  .  British Columbia Department B a r l e y , ( V i c t o r i a , 1969).  -  •  of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce Wheat, O a t s ,  r-  1  147  TABLE 63 Per Head C a p i t a l Requirements Cow-Calf and Cow Y e a r l i n g All  Districts  Item  Cow-Calf  Cow-Yearling  Cow Replacement H e i f e r Bull  $240.00 60.00 24.00  $240.00 60.00 24.00  Sub t o t a l L i v e s t o c k  $324.00  $324.00  92.38 34.70  117.38 49.93  $451.08  $491.31  Buildings Equipment Total  Source:  " E n t e r p r i s e Budgets f o r 3 Cow-Calf Systems", The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The UnLted G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1969), p.420.818.  148  TABLE 64 Per Head C a p i t a l Requirements Feeder All  Activity  1-4  Districts  Item (2)  (1) Feeder 1  Hay Storage Grain Storage Buildings Equipment^  3  3  [  Size  Price  Cost  (3)  (4)  (5)  2.6006 sq. f t . 53.74 bus. 25 s q . f t .  -  $1.20/sq.ft. .30/bus 1.75/sq.ft.  Total  Feeder 2  Hay S t o r a g e S i l a g e Storage Buildings Equipment* 3  3  2.4981 sq. f t . 1.6662 Ton 25 s q . f t .  80.00 1.20/sq.ft. 1540/350 Ton 1.75/sq.ft.  3  Total Feeder 3  Hay S t o r a g e Grain Storage Buildings Equipment* 3  3  3  2.5492 sq. f t . 38.50 bus 25 s q . f t .  1.20/sq.ft. .30/bus 1.75/sq.ft.  Total Hay Storage Grain Storage Buildings Equipment' 3  3  2.5492 sq. f t . 42 bus 25 s q . f t .  3  Total Source:  Columns 2-4  3.06 11.55 43. 75 17.02 75.38  1.20/sq.ft. .30/bus 1.75/sq.ft.  3.06 12.60 43.75 17.02 76.43  S t a t e m e n t by Gary Wendel, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , September 19. "Equipment Costs f o r D i f f e r e n t S i z e C a t t l e F e e d l o t s " , The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d Growers L i m i t e d , 1965) p.420.824. Column (3) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (4) 3  b  Column 5:  3.00 5.13 43. 75 17.02 68.90  3  Feeder 4  $ 3.12 16.12 43'. 75 17.02  149  TABLE 65 Per  Head Feed Input C o s t s Feeder 1 All  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Districts  Barley  Rapeseed  Hay  (2)  (3)  (4)  9.,54 9.,54 9.,54 9. 54 9. 54 8. 18 7. 20 6. 00 9. 61 7. 926 8. 887 10. 165 12. 202 13. 211 12. 010  3 .213 3 .2.13 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213 3 .213  37.,839 34.,842 28,.099 30.,346 29.,597 26.,974 25..850 26,,225 25.,476 28.,098 35.,966 31.,845 33.,343 36., 715 37.,464  Minerals Vitamins (5) 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57 2 .57  Starter Hay (6) 2,,80 2..80 2,.80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2,,80 2.,80 2.,80 2..80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80  Feed Costs (7) 55.962 52.965 46.222 48.467 47. 72 43.737 41.633 40.808 43.669 44.607 53.436 50.593 54.128 58.509 58.057  Sources: Column 2: 1.0055 Ton x .95 x P r i c e of B a r l e y Column 3: .1249 Ton x P r i c e of Rapeseed Columns 4,5,6: B.C. V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report, 1970-1971, Beef F e e d i n g Demonstration (Dawson Creek, 1971) Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6.  150  TABLE 66 Per Head Feed Input C o s t s Feeder 2 All  Year (1)  Barley  Hay  (2)  (3)  Districts  Protein Supplement (4)  1951  39.262  2.976  7,.735  1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  36.152 29.155 31.487 30.710 27.989 26.823 27.211 26.434 29.155 37.318 33.042 34.597 38.096 38.873  2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976 2.976  7. 735 7., 735 ' 7.,735 7., 735 7.,735 7.,735 7.,735 7.,735 7., 735 7.,735 7.,735 7.,735 7.,735 7. 735  Minerals Vitamins  Starter Hay  Total.  (5)  (6)  (7)  2.8  53.343  2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8  52.233 45.236 47.568 46.791 44.070 42.904 43.292 42.515 45.236 53.399 49.123 50.678 54.177 54.954  2,.57 2.,57 2,.57 2,,57 2,,57 2,,57 2..57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2,,57 . 2,,57 2,,57 2,,57 2.,57  Sources: Column 2: 1.1662 Ton x .85 x P r i c e of B a r l e y Columns 3-6: B.C. V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report, 1970-1971, Beef F e e d i n g Demonstration (Dawson Creek, 1971) Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6  151  TABLE 67 Per Head Feed Input  Costs  Feeder 3 All  Year  Barley  Districts  Hay  Protein Supplement  Minerals Vitamins  Starter Hay  Total  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (1)  (2)  (3)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  38 .887 35 .807 28 .876 31 .187 30 .417 27 .721 26 .566 26 .951 26 .181 28 .876 36 .962 32 .727 34 .267 37 . 732 38 .502  3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094  9 .52 9..52 9..52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52 9 .52  2,.57 2..57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2..57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2..57 2..57 2.,57 2,,57 2.,57 2.,57  2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 •2.80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80 2 .80  56.872 53.792 46.861 49.172 48.402 45.706 44.551 44.936 44.166 46.861 54.947 50.712 52.252 55.717 56.487  Sources: Column 2: .9818 Tons x P r i c e of B a r l e y Columns 3-6: B.C. V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report, 1970-1971, Beef F e e d i n g Demonstration (Dawson Creek, 1971) Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6  152  TABLE 68 Per Head Feed Input  Costs  Feeding 4 All  Districts  Year  Barley  Hay  Protein Supplement  Minerals Vitamins  Starter Hay  Total  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  ( )  8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925 8.925  2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57 2,,57 2.,57 2.,57 2. 57 2.,57 2.,57 2.,57  2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 ' 2.,80 2.,80 2..80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80 2.,80  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  46., 104 43.,344 35.,784 38.,304 37.,464 34.,524 33.,264 33..684 32.,844 35.,784 44.,604 39.,984 41.,664 45.,445 46.,284  3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094 3.094  ,  c  ?  64.093 60.733 53.173 55.693 54.853 51.913 50.653 51.073 50.233 53.173 61.993 57.373 59.053 62.833 63.673  Source: Column 2: 1.071 Ton x P r i c e of B a r l e y Columns 3-6: B.C. V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report, 1970-1971, Beef F e e d i n g Demonstration (Dawson Creek, 1971) Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6  153 TABLE 69 Per Head C a p i t a l Requirements Pastured All  Beef  Districts — .  District (1) RollaBoundary  Doe R i v e r  Progress  Groundbirch  Sunset Prairie  Baldonnel Two R i v e r s  Item (2)  Cost  Total Cost  Cost p e r Acre  Acres per Head  Cost p e r Head  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  1.1806  $23.12  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  $7,000 1,500 500 200 200  $ 9,400  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  9,800 1,500 500 300 200  12,300  25.625  1.1806  30.23  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  8,400 1,500 500 200 200  10,800  22.50  1.4759  33.21  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  9,800 1,500 500 200 200  12,900  26.875  1.4759  39.66  Tractor Cultivator Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  8,400 1,100 400 200 200  10,300  21.438  1.4759  31.67  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  9,000 1,500 500 300 200  11,500  23.96  2.3614  56.57  $19.58  154 TABLE 69 (Continued) Total • Cost  Cost per Acre  Acres per head  Cost p e r Head  (5)  (6)  (7)  Item  Cost  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  C e c i l Lake  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  8,400 1,500 500 200 200  10,800  22.50  2.9519  66.42  Tractor Disc : Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  6,000 1,500 500 400 200  8,600  17.91  2.9519  52.89  Tractor Disc Harrows Seeder F e r t . Spr.  8,400 1,500 500 200 200  10,800  22.50  .9839  22.13  District  Montenay  Halfway River  Sources: Columns 2,3:  Column 4: Column 5:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) Sub t o t a l of Column (3) Column (4) d i v i d e d by 480 a c r e s  Column 6 Column 7:  1.25 x 2.36 Tons x Y i e l d (Tons p e r A c r e ) (Appendix E) Column (5) m u l t i p l i e d by Column (6)  155  TABLE 70 Per Head Pasture  Costs  Pastured Beef All  Hay E q u i v a l e n t Required  District  (2)  (1) RollaBoundary Doe R i v e r Progress Groundbirch Sunset P r a i r i e BaldonnelTwo R i v e r s C e c i l Lake Montenay Halfway R i v e r  Sources:  Districts  Column 2:  Hay Yield (3)  2.36 Ton 2.36 2.36 2.36 2.36  2.5 Ton 2.5 2 2 2  2.36 2.36 2.36 2.36  1.25 1 1 3  Hay Cost  Pasture Cost  (4)  (5)  $40.49 21.42 27.03 28.63 20.55  $38.22 20.23 31.90 33.80 24.26  20.07 16.17 16.71 22.53  37.92 38. 19 39.46 33.80  Statement by Ken Dawley, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 3,4: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay (Standing C r o p ) , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) Column 5: Column (2) times Column (4) d i v i d e d by Column ( 3 ) .  TABLE 71 Per Ewe C a p i t a l Requirement Confinement Sheep and C o n v e n t i o n a l Sheep All  Item  Districts  Confinement Sheep  C o n v e n t i o n a l Sheep  B u i l d i n g s and Equipment Ewes Rams  $32.20 25.00 1.88  $25.00 25.00 1.88  Total  $59.08  $51.88  Source:  A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sheep P r o d u c t i o n : Budgets - 1970, by V.M. G l e d d i e , ( Edmonton : P u b l i c a t i o n 430-90, 1970) p.3  157  TABLE 72 Per Ewe R a t i o n Requirements Starter  Ration  Confinement Sheep All  Districts  Year  Barley  Wheat  Other  T o t a l Cost  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  1.348 1.242 1.001 1.081 1.055 .961 .921 .935 .908 1.001 1.282 1.135 1.188 1.308 1.335  .8859 .8697 .724 . 761 . 726 . 715 . 725 . 718 .736 .859 .937 .899 .951 .881 .932  1.128 1. 128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128 1.128  3.362 3.'240 2.853 2.97 2.909 2.804 2.774 2. 781 2. 772 2.988 3.347 3.162 3.267 3.317 3.395  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Source: Column 2: Column 3: Column 4:  B a r l e y = 64.09 l b . x bus/48 l b x p r i c e of b a r l e y Wheat = 32.413 l b . x bus/60 l b x p r i c e of wheat A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report on Confinement Sheep P r o d u c t i o n ( Edmonton : P u b l i c a t i o n No. 430-23-1, 1970) p.9  158  TABLE 73 Per Ewe R a t i o n Finishing  Requirements Ration  Confinement Sheep All  Barley  Year  (2)  (1)  7.00 6.44 5.20 5.61 5.47 4.99 4.78 9.85 4.71 5.20 6.65 5.89 6.17 6.79 6.93  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Source:  Column 2: Column 3:  Districts  Pellets  Total Cost  (3)  (4)  1. 75 1.75 - 1.75 1.75 1. 75 1. 75 1. 75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1. 75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75  8. 75 8.19 6.95 7.36 7.22 6. 74 6.53 6.60 6.46 6.95 8.40 7.64 7.92 8.54 8.68  B a r l e y = . 91 x 365.4 l b x bus/48 l b x p r i c e of B a r l e y . A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o g r e s s Report on Confinement Sheep P r o d u c t i o n , ( Edmonton : P u b l i c a t i o n No. 430-23-1, 1970) p.15  TABLE 74 Per Ewe Feed  Requirements  Confinement  Sheep  All Districts Ewe  Ewe  Year  Grain  Hay and Straw  Starter  (1)  (2)  (3)  (A)  (5)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  7.78 7.16 5.78 6.28 6.09 5.55 5.32 5.39 5.24 5.78 7.39 6.55 6.86 7.55 7.70  11 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11 89 11 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89 11. 89  3 .36 3 .24 2 .85 2 .97 2 .91 2 .80 2 .77 2 . 78 2 .77 2 .99 3 .35 3 .16 3 .27 3 .32 3 .40  8 . 75 8 . 19 6 .95 7 .36 7 .22 6 . 74 6 .53 6 .60 6 .46 6 ;95 8 .40 7 .64 7 .92 8 .54 8 .68  Source:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4 Column 5 Column 6  Lamb  Lamb Finish  Total  Cost  (6) 31. 78 30. 48 ' 27.47 28. 50 28. 11 26. 98 26. 51 26. 66 26. 36 27. 61 31. 03 29. 24 29. 94 31. 30 31. 67  369.75 l b x bus/48 l b x p r i c e o f B a r l e y Hay: 1123 l b x Ton/2000 l b x $20/Ton = 11.22 Straw: 268 l b x Ton/2000 l b x $5/Ton = .67 Table 72 Table 73 Sum of Columns 2-5.  160  TABLE 75 Per  Hog Sow Feed  Requirements  Farrow t o F i n i s h Swine All Districts  Oats  Year  Barley  Wheat  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  39.12 36.02 29.05 31.37 30.60 27.89 26.73 27.11 26.34 27.05 37.18 32.92 34.47 37.96 38.73  3.51 3.45 2.87 3.01 2.87 2.83 2.87 2.85 2.91 3.40 3.71 3.56 3. 77 3.49 3.69  7.88 6.75 6.48 7.09 7.09 5.71 5.47 6.11 7.05 6.87 7.28 6.67 6.33 7.33 8.19  Sources:  Column Column Column Column  35% Supp.  Alfalfa Meal  Bran  Total Feed  Feed Cost Per Hog  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42 12.42  12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99 12.99  1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 U46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46  77.38 73.09 65.27 68.34 67.43 63.30 61.94 62.94 63.17 66.19 75.04 70.02 71.44 75.65 77.48  4.83 4.56 4.07 4.27 4.21 3.95 3.87 3.93 3.94 4.13 4.69 4.37 4.96 4.72 4.89  2: 1859 l b s x bu/2000 l b s x p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E ) 3: 120 l b s x bu/56 l b s x p r i c e o f wheat (Appendix E) 4: 410 l b s x bu/34 l b s x p r i c e of Oats (Appendix E) 5-7: "Costs to Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1967) p.440.818. Column 8: Sum o f Columns 2-7 Column 9: Column 8 d i v i d e d by 16  161  TABLE 76 Feed Costs p e r Hog Farrow to F i n i s h Swine All Districts  Year  Wheat  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  44.97 44.15 36.74 38.61 36.83 36.30 36.80 36.47 37.35 43.60 47.55 45.65 48.26 44.69 47.33  Sources:  Barley (3) 43.09 39.68. 32.00 34.56 33.71 30.72, 29.44 29.87 20.01 32.00 40.96 36.27 37.97 41.81 42.67  Oats  357„ Supp.  Sugar  Min.  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  112.06 95.91. 92.08 100.77 100.77 81.14 74.87 86.87 100.25 97.64 103.55 94.86 90.00 104.24 116.41  63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04 63.04  6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40  8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96 8.96  Total Feed Cost (8) 278.52 258.14 239.22 252.34 249.71 226.56 219.51 231.61 245.01 251.64 270.46 251.18 254.63 269.14 284.81  Column 2: 96 l b s x bu/56 l b x p r i c e of wheat (Appendix E Column 3: 128 l b s x bu/48 l b x p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E ) Column 4: 369 l b s x bu/34 l b s x p r i c e of Oats (Appendix E ) Columns 5-7: "Costs to Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Grower, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1967/), p.440.818 Column 8: Sum o f Columns 2-7  APPENDIX E Y i e l d s and  162  Prices  163  TABLE 1 Simulation  of B a r l e y  Y i e l d s Per Acre f o r F i v e  Zones i n  Year  Average Y i e l d (bus)  Insurance  the Peace R i v e r  Insurance Zones B  C  C  D  E  Price  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8) $1.01 .93 .75 .81 .77 .72 .69 . 70 .68 .75 .96 .85 .89 .98 1.00  l  (1)  (2)  (3)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  30 36 35 26 25 39 26 26 21 32 38 35 23 35 38  45 51 50 41 40 59 41 41 36 47 53 50 38 50 53  43 49 48 39 38 52 39 39 34 45 51 48 36 48 51  33 39 38 29 28 42 29 29 24 35 41 38 26 38 41  30 36 35 26 25 39 26 26 21 32 38 35 23 35 38  26 32 31 22 L 21 35 22 22 17 28 34 31 19 31 34  Average  31  46  44  34  31  27  Sources:  Crop Insurance Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Agriculture.  Department of  164  TABLE 2 Simulation  of Oats Y i e l d s Per Acre f o r F i v e Insurance Zones i n the Peace  Average Year  Yield  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Average  Sources:  River  Insurance Zones  (bus)  B  C  C  D  E  Price  37 50 55 32 35 53 41 43 34 45 55 50 31 48 55  50.75 63.73 68.73 45.73 48.73 66.73 54.73 56.73 47.73 58.73 68.73 63.73 44.73 61.73 68.73  48. 73 61.73 66. 73 43.73 46.73 64.73 52.73 54.73 45.73 56.73 66.73 61.73 42.73 59.73 66. 73  38. 73 51. 73 66. 73 33. 73 46. 73 54. 73 42. 73 44. 73 35. 73 46. 73 56. 73 51. 73 32. 73 49. 73 56. 23  33. 73 46. 73 61. 73 28. 73 41. 73 49. 73 37. 73 39. 73 30. 73 41. 73 51. 73 46. 73 27. 73 44. 73 51. 73  26. 73 39. 73 54. 73 21. 73 34. 73 42. 73 30. 73 32. 73 23. 73 34. 73 44. 73 39. 73 20. 73 37. 73 44. 73  $.645 .552 .53 .58 .58 .467 .448 .50 .577 .562 .596 .546 .518 .60 .67  44.27  58  56  46  41  34  L  Crop Insurance B r a n c h , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture.  :  165  TABLE 3 Simulation  of Wheat Y i e l d s Per Acre f o r F i v e Insurance Zones i n the Peace  Year 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Average Y i e l d (bus) 24 20.6 25.8 19.6 19 24.9 19.1 17.0 17.1 23. 7 35.7 22.3 20.7 25.5 25.8  River  Insurance i C  B  Zones C  D  E  30.28 26.88 32.08 25.88 25.28 31.18 25.38 23.28 23.38 29.98 41.98 28.58 26.98 31.78 32.08  29.28 25.88 31.08 24.88 24.28 30.18 24.38 22.28 22.38 28.98 40.98 27.58 25.98 30.78 31.08  23.28 19.88 25.08 19.88 19.28 24.18 18.38 16.28 16.38 22.98 34.98 21.58 19.98 24.78 25.08  21..28 17.,88 23.,08 17.,88 17.,28 22.,18' 16..38 14.,28 16.,38 21.,98 32.,98 19.,58 17.,98 22.,78 23.,08  17,,28 13.,88 19,,08 13.,88 13.,28 18,,18 12,,38 10.,28 12.,38 17.,98 28..98 15.,58 13.,98 18.,78 19.,08  29  28  22  20  16  Price  !  Average  22.72  Sources:  Crop Insurance Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Agriculture  $1.64 1.61 1.39 1.408 1.343 1.324 1.342 1.33 1.362 1.59 1.734 1.665 1.76 1.63 1.726  166  TABLE 4 S i m u l a t i o n of Rapeseed Y i e l d s Per Acre f o r F i v e  Insurance  Zones i n the Peace R i v e r  Year 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Average  Average Y i e l d (bus) 18.5 15.0 16.6 14.4 11.3 17.0 14.0 12.4 .16.7 14.6 15.8 15.8 17.5 16.7 15.9 15.48  Insurance Zones B  C  C  A  D  E  Price $1.75 1.70 1.80 1.65 1.75 1.75 1.60 1.25 2.00 1.65 1.80 2.05 2.50 2.54 2.33  22.52 19.02 20.62 18.42 15.32 21.02 18.02 16.42 20. 72 18.62 19.82 19.82 21.52 20.72 19.92  21.6 18.1 19.7 17.5 14.4 20.1 17.1 15.5 19.8 17.7 18.9 18.9 20.6 19.8 19.0  17.42 13.92 15.52 13.32 10.22 15.92 12.92 11.32 15.62 13.52 14.72 14.72 16.42 15.62 14.82  16.18 12.68 14.28 12.08 8.98 14.68 11.68 10.08 14.38 12.28 13.48 13.48 15.18 14.38 13.58  14.48 10.98 12.58 10.38 7.28 12.98 9.98 8.38 12.68 10.58 11.78 11.78 13.48 12.68 11.88  19.5  18.58  14.40  13.16  11.46 j  Sources:  Columns 2 and 8  D.B.S. Yearbook 1952-66  TABLE 5 Expected Hay  Y i e l d s and P r i c e s f o r Nine A r e a s of the Peace R i v e r  Year  (Tons) Average  Rolla Boundary  Doe River  Progress  Groundbirch  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  Sunset Prairie  Baldonne1Two R i v e r s  Cecil Lake  Montenay  (8)  (9)  (10)  (7)  Halfway (ID  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  1.79 1.75 2.00 1.49 1.69 1.41 1.26 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.28 1.52 1.48 1.37 1.94  2.76 2.72 2.97 2.46 2.66 2.38 2.23 2.22 2.32 2.42 2.25 2.49 2.45 2.34 2.91  2.76 2.72 2.97 2.46 2.66 2.38 2.23 2.22 2.32 2.42 2.25 2.49 2.45 2.34 2.91  2.26 2.22 2.47 1.96. 2.16 1.88 1.73 1.72 1.82 1.92 1.75 1.99 1.95 1.84 2.41  2.26 2.22 2.47 1.96 2.16 1.88 1.73 1.72 1.82 1.92 1.75 1.99 1.95 1.84 2.41  2.26 2.22 2.47 1.96 2.16 1.88 1.73 1.72 1.82 1.92 1.75 1.99 1.95 1.84 2.41  1.89 1.85 2.10 1.59 1.79 1.51 1.36 1.35 1.45 1.55 1.38 1.62 1.58 1.47 2.04  1.26 1.22 1.47 .96 1.16 .88 . 73 . 72 .82 .92 .75 .99 .95 .84 1.41  1.26 1.22 1.47 .96 1.16 .88 .73 .72 .82 .92 .75 .99 .95 .84 1.41  3.,26 3.,22 3.,47 2,,96 3., 16 2.,88 2.,73 2.,72 2,,82 2.,92 2.,75 2.,99 2.,95 2.,84 3,,41  Avg.  1.53  2.51  2.5  2  2  2  1.625  1  1  3  Source :  Columns 3-11 Averages: Column 2 and 12:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department Hay, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971).  of Agriculture  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Yearbook  (Ottawa,  Price (12) $17.75 15.00 12.50 13.50 22.00 15.50 15.00 16. 75 16.50 16.00 20.00 17.00 16.00 19.00 16.00  Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f , 1952-66).  TABLE 6 P r i c e s and Y i e l d s A l s i k e C l o v e r Seed and Fescue Seed  Year  Average Yield (lbs)  Fescue Seed Price  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  $.50 . 28>; .30 . 15 .105 .30 .19 .16 .16 .07 .12 .10 .28 .32 .27  $.40 .20: .08 .23 . 141 .28 .10 .14 .10 .11 .10 . 11 .11 .16 .08  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  350.9.7 343.11 392.13 292.14 331.35 276.45 247.05 245.07 264.69 284.31 250.98 298.02 290.19 268.62 380.37  Average  300  Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Yearbook  Alsike  (Ottawa, 1952-1966)  C l o v e r Seed Price  169  TABLE 7 Beef P r i c e s (per cwt)  Year  Steer Calves  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  30.60 20.60 15.54 14.95 15.53 15.10 16.12 25.47 22.75 21.09 23.52 25.83 24.85 21.14 22.29  a  Heifer Calve s (3) 26.22 17.02 12.05 10.85 11.19 • 10.86 12.06 21.47 18.75 17.09 19.52 21.83 20.60 17.61 17.25  Feeder Steers  Common Cows  Choice Steers  (5)  (6)  (7)  26.22 17.02 12.50 10.85 11.19 10.86 12.06 16.61 18.21 15.45 15.94 18.49 18.54 16.40 15. 74  21.44 13.16 8.16 7.96 8.50 7.79 9.20 13.46 13.28 12.10 12.47 13.23 14.51 13.02 11.99  33.11 24.67 19.60 19.39 19.20 18.82 18.10 22.09 23.69 21.68 21.65 25.10 22.75 21.65 23.10  Feeder Heifers  (4) 30.60 20.60 15.54 14.95 15.53 15.10 16.12 21.23 22.62 20.16 20. 75 23.45 22.65 20.40 21.40  A l l p r i c e s are a t the Edmonton S t o c k y a r d s  Source:  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , L i v e s t o c k Market Review (Ottawa, 1951-1965).  170  TABLE 8 Other L i v e s t o c k P r i c e s and Y i e l d s  3  Grade "B" Hogs Year  Price $/cwt  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  32.70 24.60 28.78 28.05 22.20 23.40 27.55 24.59 20.46 20.63 23.80 25.40 25.40 22.85 27.35  a  Dressed Weight (lbs) 163.09 162.11 161.50 168.48 161.08 161.11 163.41 163.81 160.02 159.09 161.51 160.71 161.69 160.70 160.99  Feeder Hogs $/cwt 27.00 18.76 21.00 24.00 16.00 17.50 30.50 18.76 15.26 17.62 21.36 21.50 22.06 20.06 22.24  A l l p r i c e s are a t the Edmonton S t o c k y a r d s  Source:  Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , L i v e s t o c k Market Review (Ottawa, 1951-1965).  Good Lambs $/cwt 31.45 22.45 20.19 18.95 17.70 18.25 18. 76 19.80 17.54 17.33 16.55 17.00 17.80 18.10 20.70  APPENDIX F F i f t e e n Year A c t i v i t y  171  Budgets  TABLE 1 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r R o t a t i o n 1 R o l l a Boundary  Acre 1  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  (2) $23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 23,80 23.80 23.80 23.80  Input Costs Acre 5 Acre 2-4 (3) $77.55 77.55 , 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55 77.55  (4) $23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65 23.65  Acre 6 (5) $6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85  Tot. Var. Costs  Wheat Return  Barley Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (6) $132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 , 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85 132.85  $198.69 173.11  171.95 145.76 135.80 165.13 136.24 123.85 127.38 190.67 291.17 190.34 189.94 . 207.20 221.48  $45.45 47.43 37.50 33.21 30.80 38.88 28.29 28.70 24.48 35.25 50.88 42.50 33.82 49.00 . 53.00  $244.09 220.54 • 209.45 178.97 166.60 203.97 164.53 152.55 151.86 225.92 342.05 232.84 223.76 256.20 274.48  $112.24 88.69 77.60 47.12 34.75 72.12 32.68 20.70 20.01 94.07 209.20 100.99 91.91 124.35 142.63  Average Net Return = $84. 67 Sources:  a,  Columns 2-5: Appendix D Column 6: Sum of Columns 1-5 Columns 7 and 8: Appendix E Column 9: Column ( 7 ) , p l u s Column (8) Column 10: Column ( 9 ) , minus Column (6)  "Net R e t u r n " as used' i n the above and f o l l o w i n g budgets does not i n c l u d e f i x e d c o s t s . would be s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d as the "Gross Margin".  Consequently, i t  TABLE 2 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 2 Rolla  Year (1)  Acre 1  Input Costs Acre 2-4 Acre 5 (3)  (2)  (4)  Return  Net Return  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (ID  $148.98 129.83 128.96  30.39 26.81 36.79  109.32  6.85  130.67 130.67 130.67  $45.45 47.43 37.50 33.21  101.85 123.85  23.65 23.65 23.65  6.85 6.85 6.85  130.67 130.67 130.67  28.83 20.53 41.44  77.55 77.55  23.65 23.65  6.85 6.85  77.55  23.65  6.85  130.67 130.67 130.67  77.55 77.55  23.65 23.65  6.85 6.85  130.67 130.67  77.55  23.65  6.85  130.67  1953  $23.65 23.65 23.65  $6.85 6.85 6.85  1954 1955 1956  22.62 22.62 22,62  77.55 77.55 77.55  23.65 23.65 23.65  6.85 6.85  1957 1958  22.62 22.62 22.62  77.55 77.55 77.55  22.62 22.62 22.62  1963 1964  22.62 22.62  1965  22.62  $130.67 130.67 ' 130.67  Average Net Sources:  Var.  $39.41 32.33 37,12  $77.55 77.55 77.55  1959 1960 1961 1962  Gross  Return  (5)  $22.62 22.62 22.62  1951 1952  Wheat Return  Barley  Costs  Rape Return  Tot. Acre 6  Boundary  Columns 1-5:  Appendix D  Column 6: Sum o f Columns 1-5 Column 7-r9: Appendix E Column 1 0 : Column 1 1 :  Sum of Columns 7-9 Column ( 1 0 ) minus Column ( 6 )  Return =  $233.84 209.59 203.58  $103.17 78.92  172.92  42.25  30.80 38.88  159.46 199.52 .  28.79 68.85  102.18 92.89 95.54  28.29 28.70 24.48  159.30 142.12 161.46  30.72 35.67 40.63  143.00 218.38 142.76  208.97 304.93  53.80  142.46 155.40  35.25 50.88 42.50 33.82 49.00  257.03 265.52  52.63 46.41  $80.27  166.11  53.00  255.89 230.08  72.91  28.63 11.45 30.79 78.30 174.26 125.22 99.41 126.36 134.85  TABLE 3 Fifteen Year Budget For Rotation 3 Rolla Boundary  Year  Acre 1  (1)  (2)  $22.62 1951 1952 22.62 22.62 1953 22.62 1954 1955 22.62 22.62 1956 1957 22.62 1958 22.62 1959 . 22.62 1960 22.6.2 1961 22.62 1962 22.62 22.62 1963 22.62 1964 22.62 1965  Input Costs Acre 4-5 Acre 2-3 (4)  (3)  $47,30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30. 47.30 47.30 47.30 47.30  $51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70 51.70  Acre 6  Tot. Var. Costs (6)  (5) $6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85 6.85  $128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47 128.47  .  .  -  .  Rape Return  Wheat Return  Barley Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  $39.41 32.33 37.12 30.39 26.81 36.79 28.83 20.53 41.44 30.72 35.67 40.63 53.80 52.63 46.41  Average Net Return = $74.77 Sources:  Columns 2-5: Appendix D Column 6: Sum of Columns 2-5 Columns 7-9 ? Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 7-9 Column 11: . Column (10) minus Column (6) ;  :  $ 99.32 . $ 90.90 $229.63 86.56 94.84 213.73 85.98 75.00 198.10 72.88 66.42 • 169.69 67.90 61.60 156.31 197.12 82.57 77.76 68.12 56.58 153.53 61.93 57.40 139.86 48.96 63.69 159.09 95 .34 71.00 197.06 283.02 145.59 101.76 85.00 220.80 95.17 94.87 . 67,64 216.31 103.60 98.00 259.23 110.74 263.15 106.00  $101.16 85.26 69.63 41.22 27.84 68.65 25.06 11.39 26.62 70.59 154.55 91.33 87.84 125.76 134.68  TABLE 4 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r R o t a t i o n 4 R o l l a Boundary  Input Costs Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre 1  Acre 2-5  (2)  (3)  $17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98 17.98  $93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 ' 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60 93.60  Tot. V a r . Costs (4) $111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 111.58 . 111.58 111,58  Hay Return (5) $195.96 . 163.20. 148.52 132.84 234.08 147.56 133.80 148.76 153.12 154.88 180.00 169.32 156.80 177.84 186.24  Net Return (6) . $ 84.38 51.62 36.94 21.26 122.50 35.98 22.22 • 37.18 41.54 43.30 68.42 57.74 . 45.22 66.26 74.66  Average Net Return = $54.66 Sources:  Columns 2-4: Column 5:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department ,of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay R o l l a Boundary, ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) Appendix E  Column 6:  Column (5) minus Column (4)  TABLE 5 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r R o t a t i o n 1 Doe R i v e r  Year  Acre 1  Acre 2  (2)  (3)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21  $6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16  Input Costs Acre 3 Acre 4 (4) $11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11,58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58  Acre 5-6 (6)  (5) $19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79 19.79  $35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70 35 .70  Tot. V a r . Fescue Return Costs  $84.81 84.81 84.81. 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81 84.81  Average Net R e t u r n — Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-1: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  (8)  (7)  $350.97 . 192.14 235.28 87.64 69.58 165.87 93.88 78.42 84.70 39.80 60.24 59.60 162.51 171.92 205.40  $161.47  Rape Return  Barley Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $37.80 30.77 35.46 28.88 25.20 35.18 27.36 19.38 39.60 29.21 34.02 38.75 51.50 50.29 44.27  $ 86.86 91.14 72.00 63.18 58.52 74.88 53.82 . 54.60 46.24 67.50 97.92 81.60 64.08 94.08 102.00  $475.63 314.35 342.74 179.70 153.30 275.93 175.06 152.40 170.59 135.51 192.18 179.95 278.09 316.29 351.67  $390.82 229.54 257.93 94.87 68.49 191.12 90.25 67.59 85.73 51.70 107.37 95.14 193.28 231.48 266.86  TABLE 6 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r R o t a t i o n 2 Doe R i v e r  Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $11.21 . 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 - 11.21  Input Costs Acre 4-5 Acre 2 Acre 3 (3) $6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16  (4) $11.58 • 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58 11.58  (5) $35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70 35.70  Acre 6  Tot; V a r . Fescue Return Costs  (6)  (7)  $17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85  $82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 . 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50  (8) $350.97 192.14 235.28 • 87.64 69.58 165.87 93.98 78.42 84.70 39.80 60.24 59.60 162.51 17.1.92 205.40  Average Net Return = $159.84 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7:- Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Barley Return  Oats Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $ 86.86 $31.43 91.14 34.07 72.00 35.37 63.18 25.36 58.52 27.10 74.88 30.23 53.82 23.62 54.60 27.37 46.24 26.39 67.50 31.88 97.92 39.77 81.60 . 33.70 64.08 22.13 94.08 35.84 102,00 44.71  $469.26 $386.76 317.35 234.85 342.65 260.15 176.18 93.68 155.20 72.70 270.98 188.48 171.32 88.82 161.39 78.89 156.87 74.37 139.18 56.68 197.25 114.75 92.40 174.90 248.72 166.22 301.84 219.34 352.11 269.61  TABLE 7 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Rotation 3 Doe River  Year  Acre 1  Acre 2  (1)  (2)  (3)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 11.21 .11.21 11.21 -11.21 11.21 11.21  $6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16  Input Costs Acre 3 Acre 4+6  (4)  (5)  $39.58 $11.58 ' 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 . 39.58 11.58 39.58 11.58 39.58  Acre 5  (6) $17.85 17.85 17.785 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17.85 17,85 17.85 17.85  Tot.1 Var. Fescue Return Costs  (7)  (8)  $86.38 $350.97 86.38 192.14 86.38 235.28 86.38 87.64 86.38 • 69.58 86.38 165.87 86.38 93.88 86.38 78.42 86.38 84.70 86.38 39.80 86.38 60.24 86.38 • 59.60 86.38 162.51 86.38 171.92 86.38 205,40  Average Net Return = $158.12 Sources:' Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10.: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Barley Return  Rape Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (ID  (12)  $43.43 $75.60 $470.00 $383.62 45.57 . 61.54 299.25 212.87 36.00 70.92 342.20 255.82 31.59 57.76 176.99 90.61 29.26 50.40 149.24 62.86 37.44 70.36 273.67 187.29 26.91 54.72 175.51 89.13 27.30 58.76 144.48 58.10 23.12 79.20 187.02 100.64 33.75 58.42 131.97 45.59 48.96 68.04 . 177.24 90.86 40.80 77.50 177.90 91.52 32.04 103.00 297.55 211.17 47.04 100.58 319.54 233.16 51.00 88.54 . 344.94 258.56  TABLE 8 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 4 Doe R i v e r  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre 1 (2)  Input Costs A c r e s 2-5  (4)  (3)  $12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12,85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85 12.85  Tot. V a r . Costs  $101.76 101.76 101.76 101.76 101.76 101.76 101.76 101.76  101.76 101.76 101.76 101,76 101.76 101.76 101.76  $114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61 114.61  Hay Return  Net Return  (5)  (6)  $195.96 163.20 148.50 132.84 234.08 147.56 133.80 148.74 153.12 154.88 180.00 169.32 156.80  177.84 186.24  $81.35 48.59 33.89 18.23 19.47 32.95 19.19 24.-13 38.51 40.27 65.39 54.71 42.19 63.23 71.63  Average Net Return = $44.24 Sources:  Columns 2-3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs t o Produce A l f a l f a Hay Doe R i v e r , ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) Column (2) p l u s Column (3) Appendix E Column (5) minus Column (4)  TABLE 9 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 1 Progress  Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 .18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17  Input C o s t s Acre 5 A c r e 2-4 Acre 4 (3) $68.58. 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58  (4) $5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 . 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 •  Acre 6  (5)  (6)  $20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33  $24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 . 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44 24.44  Tot. V a r . B a r l e y Return Costs . (7) $137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16 137.16  (8) $45.95 50.22 39.38 31.59 29.63 42.12 26.91 27.30 21.42 36.00 54.72 44.63 30.71 51.45 57.00  Average Net Return = $32.65 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Wheat Return  Hay Return  Gross Return-  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $34.90 . $120.35 $200.70 28.75 99.90 178.87 162.92 30.93 92.63 79.38 136.15 25.18 23.21 195.40 142.56 87.42 29.37 158.91 21.98 126.74 77.85 86.43 . 132.72 18.99 133.82 22.31 90.09 92.16 34.95 163.11 105.00 216.91 57.19 178.72 32.60 101.49 31.64 93.60 155.95 104.88 193.46 37.13 115.68 212.52 39.84  $63.51 41.71 25.78 1.01 58.24 21.75 - 10.42 4.42 3.24 25.95 79.75 41.56 18.79 56.30 75.36  TABLE 10 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 2 Progress  Year  Acre 1 (2)  (3)  $18.17 18.17 18.17 .18.17 18.17 .18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17  $68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Input Costs Acres 2-4 Acre 4 (4) $5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64  Acre 5  Acre 6  (5)  (6)  $20.33 • 20.33 20.33 . 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 . 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33  Tot. V a r . Costs  Barley Return  Oats Return  Hay Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  (7)  $24.44 $133.16 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 133.16 24.44 24.44 • 133.16 133.16 24.44 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 133.16 24.44 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.16 24.44 133.161  $45.45 50.22 39.38 31.59 29.63 42.12 26.91 27.30 21.42 36.00 54.72 44.63 30.71 51.46 57.00  Average Net Return = $27.02 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column.11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12": Column (11) minus Column (7)  $21.76 25.79 32.72 16.66 24.20 23.22 16.90 19.87 17.73 23.45 30.83 25.51 14.36 26,84 34.66  $187.56 $120.35 99.90 175.91 92.63 164.73 79.38 127.63 142.56 196.39 87.42 152.76 121.66 77.85 133.60 86.43 90.09 129.24 92.16 151.91 105.00 190.55 171.63 101.49 93.60 . 138.67 104.88 183.18 115.68 207.34  $52.40 40.75 29.57 7.53 61.23 17.60 - 13.50 1.56 5.92 16.75 55.39 36.37 3.51 48.02 72.18  TABLE 11 F i f t e e n Year Budget.For  Rotation 3  Progress  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre 1  Acre 2-4  (2)  (3)  $18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17  $68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58  Input Costs Acre 4 Acre 5 (4) $5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64  Acre 6  (5) $20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 . 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33  (6) $22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44 . 22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44 • 22.44 22.44 22.44 22.44  Tot; V a r . Costs (7) $135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16 135.16  Average Net Return = $29.53 Sources:  Column 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-9: Appendix-E Column 10: Sum.of Columns 8 & 9 Column 11: Column (10) minus Column (7)  Barley Return  Hay Return  Gross ' Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  $75.75 83.70 65.63 52.65 49.38 70.20 44.85 45.50 35.70 60.00 91.20 . 74.38 51.18 85.77 95.00  $120.35 99.90 92.63 79.38 142.56 87.42 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 101.49 . 93.60 104.88 115.68  $196.10 183.60 158.26 132.03 191.94 157.62 122.70 131.93 125.79 152.16 196.20 175.87 144.78 190.65210.68  $60.94 48.44 23.10 3.13 56.78 22.46 - 12.46 3.23 9.37 18.00 61.04 40.71 9.62 55.49 75.52  TABLE 12 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r R o t a t i o n 4 Progress  Year  Acre 1  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  (2) $18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17 18.17  Input Costs 2-4 Acre 4  Acres (3)  $68.58 . 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68. 58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 68.58 :  (4) $5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64 5.64  Acre 5  Acre 6  (5)  (6)  $20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33 20.33  $21.47 21.47 . 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47 21.47  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 "134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19 134.19  Barley Return  Rape Return  Hay Return  Gross' Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $45.45 50.22 39.38 31.59 29.63 42.12 26.91 27.30 21.42 36.00 54.72 44.63 30.71 51.46 57.00  Average Net Return = $29.35 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10.:. Appendix E Column 11: Sum.of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $28.32 21.56 25.70 19.93 15.72 25.69 18.69 12.60 28.76 20.26 24.26 27.63 37.95 36.55 31.64  $120.35 99.90 92.63 79.38 142.56 8>7.42 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 101.99 93.60 104.88 115.68  $194.12 171.68 157.71 130.90 187.91 155.23 123.45 126.33 140.27 148.42 183.98 173.75 162.26 192.89 204.32  $59.93 37.49 23.52 3.29 53.72 21.04 - 10.74 7.86 6.08 14.23 59.78 49.56 28.07 56.70 70.13  TABLE 13 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 1 Groundbirch  Year  Acre 1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955' 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $17.20 17,20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20  Input Costs Acres 2-4 A c r e 4 (3) $77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 ,77.17 77.17 . 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17  (4.)  Acre 5  Acre 6  (5)  (6)  $50.02 $13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13,90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 . 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 . 13.90 50.02 13.90 50.02 13.90  $18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18 18.18  Tot. Var. Barley Costs Return (7)  (8)  $131.47 $45.45 131.47 50.22 131.47 39.38 131.47 31.59 131.47 29.63 131.47 42.12 131.47 . 26.91 131.47 27.30 21.42 131.47 131.47 36.00 54.72 131.47 131.47 44.63 131.47 30.71 131.47 51.45 131.47 57.00  Average Net Return = $381.32 Sources: . Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Wheat Return  Hay Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $34.90 28.75 30.93 25.18 23.21 29.37 21.98 18.99 22.31 34.95 57.19 32.60 . 31.64 37.15 39.84  $120.35 . 99.90 92.63 779*38 142.56 87.92 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 . 101.49 93.60 104.88 115.68  $200.70 178.87 162.92 136.15 195.40. 158.71 126.74 132.72 133.82 163.11 216,91 178.72 155.95 193.46 212.52  $69.23 47.40 31.45 4.68 63.93 27.44 4.73 1.25 2.35 31.64 85.44 47.25 24.48 61.99 81.05  TABLE 14 F i f t e e n Year Budget For R o t a t i o n 2 Groundbirch  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre 1 (2)  Input Costs Acre 5 A c r e s 2--4 Acre 4 (3)  $17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20 17.20  $77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17 77.17  (4) $5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02  Acre 6 (6)  (5) $13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90  $17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $130.79 . 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 . 130.79 . 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79 130.79  Barley Return  Oats Return  Hay. Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $21.76 $45.45 50.22 25.79 39,38 32.72 16.16 31.59 29.63 24.20 42.12 23.22 16.90 26.91 27.30 19.87. 21.42 . 17.73 36.00 . 23.45 54.72 30.83 44.63 25.51 30.71 - 14.36 51.46 26.84 57.00 39.66  Average Net Return.= $31.39 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $120.35 99.90 92.. 63 779138 142.56 87.42 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 1101449 93.60 104.88 115.68  $187,56 175.91 164.73 127.63 . 196.39 152.76 121.66 133.60 129.24 151.91 190.55 171.63 138.67 183.18 207.34  $61.73 45.12 33.94. 3.16. 65.60 21.97 9.13 2.81 1.55 21.12 59.76 40.84 7.88 52.39 76.55  TABLE 15 Fifteen Year Budget For Rotation 3 Groundbirch  Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre 1 (2). $18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45 18.45  Input Costs Acre 2-4 Acre 4 (3) $80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92 . 80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92 . 80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92 80.92  (4) $5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 • 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02  Acre 5  Acre 6  (5)  (6)  $13.90 13.90 . 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90  $14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 14.26 '  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55 127.55  Average Net Return = $37.14 . Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of'Columns 2-6 Columns 8-9: Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 8 and 9 Column.11: Column (10) minus Column (7)  Barley Return  Hay Return  Total Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  $196.10 183.60 158.26 132.03 191.94 157.62 122.70 131.93 125.79 152.16 196.20 175.85 144.78 190.65 210.68  $68.55 56.05 30.71 4.48 64.39 - 15.07 - 4.85 4.38 - 1.76 24.61 68.65 48.32 17.23 63.10 83.13  $75.75 83.70 65.63 52.651 49.38 70.20 44.85 45.50 35.70 60.00 91.20 74.38 51.18 85.77 95.00  $120.35 99.90 92.63 779?38 142.56 87.42 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 101.49 93.60 104.88 115.65  TABLE 16 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 Groundbirch  Year  Acre 1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,,20 17,,20 17,,20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20 17,.20  Input Costs Acres : 2--4 Acre 4 (4)  (3) $77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77. 77.  17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17  $5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02 5.02  Acre 5 (5) $13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90 13.90  Acre 6 (6) $16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68 16 .68  Tot. Var., B a r l e y Return Costs (7) $129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97 129.97  (8) $45.,45 50.,22 39.,38 31.,59 29,,63 42.,12 26.,91 27,.30 21.,42 36,,00 54.,72 49,,63 30.,71 51,,46 57.,00  Average Net Return = $33.58 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum o f Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Wheat Return  Hay Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $28, .32 21,,56 25.,70 19,,93 15., 72 25,,69 18,,69 12,,60 28,,76 20.,26 24.,26 27..63 37.,95 36.,55 31.,64  $120.35 99.90 92.63 79.38 142.56 87.42 77.85 86.43 90.09 92.16 105.00 101.49 93.60 104.88 115.68  $194. ,12 171. 68 157. 71 130.,90 187.,91 155.,23 123.,45 126.,33 140.,27 148.,42 183.,98 173. 75 162.,26 192.,89 204. ,32  $64.15 41.71 27. 74 .93 57.94 25.26 6.52 3.64 10.30 18.45 54.01 43. 78 32.29 62.92 74.35  TABLE 17 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 1 Sunset Input Costs Year  Acre 1  Acre 2-•4  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre ! 6  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $14.30 1951 14.30 1952 14.30 1953 14.30 1954 14.30 1955 1956 14.30 1957 14.30 1958 14.30 14.30 1959 1960 14.30 14.30 1961 1962 14.30 1963 14.30 1964 . 14.30 14.30 1965  $45.27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45.,27 45.,27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27  $1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82  $14.02. 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02  $18.31 18. 31 18.31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31 18. 31  Prairie Tot.. Var. Costs  Barley Re t u r n  Wheat Return  Hay Re t u r n  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $45.45 50.22 39.38 31.59 29.63 42.12 26.91 27.30 21.42 36.00 54.72 44.63 30.71 51.45 57.00  $34.90 28. 75 30.93 25.18 23.21 29.37 21.98 18.99 22.31 34.95 57.19 52.60 31.64 37.13 39.84  (7) $93.,72 93. 72 93. 72 93. 72 93. 72 93. 72 93. 72 93.,72 93.,72 93. 72 93.,72 93.,72 93. 72 93.,72 93. 72  Average Net Return = $76.07 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $120. 35 99. 90 92. 63 79. 58 142. 56 87. 42 77. 85 86. 43 90. 09 92. 16 105. 00 101. 49 93. 60 104. 88 115. 68  $200. 70 178. 87 162. 92 136. 15 195. 40 158. 91 126. 74 132. 72 133. 82 163. 11 216. 91 178. 72 155. 95 193. 46 212. 52  $106.98 85. 15 69.20 42.43 101.68 65. 19 33.02 39.00 40.10 69.39 123.19 85.00 62. 13 99. 74 118.80  TABLE 18 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 2 Sunset Input Costs Year  Acre 1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30  Acre  2-4  (3) $45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45..27 45.,27 45..27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45.,27  Acre 4  Acre ! 5  Acre 6  (4)  (5)  (6)  $1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82  $14.02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02  $17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99 17.99  Prairie  Tot,. Var. Costs (7) $93,.40 93,.40 93,.40 93..40 93,.40 93,.40 93,.40 93,,40 93,,40 93,.40 93,.40 93,,40 93,,40 93,,40 93,.40  Barley Re t u r n  Oats Return  Hay Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  $21.26 25. 79 32. 72 16. 16 24. 20 23. 22 16. 90 19. 87 17. 73 23. 45 30. 83 25. 51 14. 36 26. 84 34. 66  $120.35 99.,90 92. 63 79. 38 142. 56 87. 42 77. 85 86. 43 90. 09 92. 16 105. 00 101. 49 93. 60 104. 88 115. 68  $45.45 50. 22 39. 38 31. 59 29. 63 42. 12 26..91 27. 30 21. 42 36. 00 54. 72 44. 63 30. 71 51. 46 57. 00  Average Net Return = $69.12 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Gross Re t u r n  Net Return  (11)  (12)  $182.56 175.91 169.73 127.63 196.39 152.76 121.66 133.60 129.24 151.91 190.55 171.63 138.67 188.18 207.34  $ 94., 16 82.,51 71.,33 34.,23 102.,99 59.,36 28.,26 40.,20 35.,84 58,,51 97., 15 78.,23 45. 27 94.,78 113.,94  TABLE 19 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 3 Sunset  iiiyui.  Year  Acre 1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 .14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30  Acre 2-4  wbLb  Prairie  T  o  t  >  V  a  r  >  Barley  Gross  Net  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre 6  Costs  Return  Return  Return  Return  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (ID  $45.,27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45.,27 45. 27 45.,27 45. 27 45. 27 45. 27 45.,27 45. 27 45. 27 45.,27 45. 27  $1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82 1.,82  $14.02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02 14. 02  $15.,83 15. 83 15. 83 15.,83 15.,83 15. 83 15.,83 15.,83 15. 83 15. 83 15.,83 15.,83 15. 83 15. 83 15. 83  $91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24 91.24  $75. 75 83. 70 65. 63 52. 65 49. 38 70. 20 44. 85 45. 50 35. 70 60. 00 91. 20 74. 38 51. 18 85. 77 95. 00  Average Net Return = $73.45 Sources:  Hay  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-9: Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 8 + 9 Column 11: Column (10) minus Column (7)  $120.35 99.,90 92.,63 79.,38 142.,56 .87.,42 '77.;<85 46..43 90.,09 92,,16 105,,00 101,,49 93,,60 104,,88 115,,68  $196. 183. 158. 132. 191. 157. 122. 131. 125. 152. 196. 175. 144. 190. 210.  10 60 26 03 94 62 70 93 99 16 20 87 78 65 68  $104.86 92.36 67.02 40. 79 100.70 66.38 31.46 40.69 34.55 60.92 104.96 84.63 53.54 99.41 119.44  TABLE 20 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 Sunset P r a i r i e Input Costs Year  Acre  1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30  Acre 2-4 (3) $45.,27 45.,27 45.,27 45,,27 45.,27 45,,27 45,,27 45,,27 45,.27 45,,27 45,,27 45,,27 45,,27 45,,27 45,,27  T  t  >  V a r  _  B  arley  Rape  Hay  Gross  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre 6  Costs  Return  Return  Return  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  $1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82 1.82  $14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02  $16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64 16. 64  $45.45 50. 22 39.,38 31.,59 29.,63 42., 12 26.,91 27.,30 21.,42 36.,00 54., 72 44.,63 30., 71 51.,46 57.,00  $28.32 21.,56 25. 70 19. 93 15. 72 25. 69 18.,69 12. 60 28. 76 20.,26 24.,26 27.,63 37. 95 36.,55 31.,64  $120.,35 99.,90 92. 63 79. 38 142.,56 87. 42 77.,85 86.,43 90.,09 92.,16 105.,00 101.,49 95. 60 104.,88 115. 68  Average Sources:  o  $91.,94 91. 94 91. 94 91. 94 91. 94 91. 94 91. 94 91.,94 91.,94 91.,94 91.,94 91. 94 91.,94 91.,94 91. 94  Net Return = $71.61  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Return (11)  Net Return (12)  $194., 12 $102. 18 171.,68 79. 74 157. 71 65,, 77 130. 90 38. 96 187. 91 95. 97 155.,23 63. 29 123.,45 31.,51 126.,33 34. 39 48. 33 140,,27 56. 48 148.,42 183.,98 92. 04 173., 75 81. 81 162,,26 70. 32 192.,89 100. 95 112. 38 204.,32  TABLE 21 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 1 Baldonnel-Two R i v e r s Input Costs Year  Acre 1  (1)  :(2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $19.32 19.32  19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32 19.32  Acre 2 (3) $7 .06 7 .06 7..06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06  Acre 3 (4) $13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74  Acre : 4  Acre 5-6 (6)  (5) $16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81  $38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30 38.30  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $95. 23 95. 23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95..23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95..23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23  Alsike Return  Barley Return  Oats Return  Gross Re t u r n  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $280., 78 $130.29 136.,71 137.,24 62. 74 108. 00 134..38 94.. 77 93..44 87., 78 154..81. 117.,32 80., 73 49.,41 68.,62 81.,90 52.,94 68.,36 62. 55 101.,25 146.,88 50.,20 122.,40 65.,56 96., 12 63.,89 141., 12 85.,99 60.,86 153.,00  Average Net Return = $142.03 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $31.43 $442. 50 34. 07 308. 02 35.,37 206. 11 25.,36 254. 51 27., 10 208. 32 302. 36 30.,23 23.,62 153. 76 27.,37 177. 89 26.,39 147. 69 31.,88 195. 68 236. 85 39.,77 33.,70 221. 66 22., 13 182. 14 35.,84 262. 95 44.,71 258. 57  $347.27 212.79 110.88 159.28 113.09 207.13 58.53 82.66 52.46 100.45 141.62 126.43 86.91 167.72 163.34  TABLE 22 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 2 B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s  Year  Acre 1  Input Costs Acre Acre Acre 2 4 3  Acre 5  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $19.32 19.,32 19.,32 19.,32 19. 32 19.,32 19.,32 19.,32 19.,32 19..32 19.,32 19. 32 19..32 19..32 19..32  $7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06 7. 06  $13.,74 13.,74 13.,74 13.,74 13.,74 13,,74 13.,74 13. 74 13.,74 13.,74 13.,74 13. 74 13. 74 13.,74 13. 74  $22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79 22. 79  $16,,81 16,,81 16,,81 16.,81 16.,81 16,,81 16,,81 16,,81 16,.81 16,,81 16,,81 16,,81 16,,81 16.,81 16,,81  Acre 6 (7)  Barley Return  Oats Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  $19. 15 $98. 87 98. 87 19. 15 19. 15 98. 87 98. 87 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 19. 15 98. 87 19. 15 . 98.87 98. 87 19. 15 15 98. 87 19. 98. 87 19. 15 19. 15 98. 87  Average Sources:  Tot. Var. Costs  $86. 86 91. 14 72. 00 63. 18 58. 52 74. 88 53. 22 54. 60 46. 24 67. 50, 97. 92 81. 60 64. 08 94. 08 102. 00  Net Return = $136.32  Columns 2-7: Appendix D Column 8: Sum of Columns 2-7 Columns 9-12: Appendix E Column 13: Sum of Columns 9-12 Column 14: Column (13) minus Column (8)  Alsike Return (11)  Rape Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (12)  (13)  (14)  $31.43 $280., 75 $37.,80 137..24 30.,77 34.,07 62.,79 35.,46 35.,37 134.,38 28.,88 25. 36 93.,44 25. 20 27., 10 154.,81 30.,23 35., 18. 23.,62 49.,41 27.,36 68.,62 19,,38 27.,37 26..39 52.,94 39..60 62.,55 31.,88 29,,21 50.,20 34. 02 39. 77 38.,75 33. 70 65.,56 63.,89 22.. 13 51.,50 .84 50. 35. 85.,99 ,29 60.,86 44. 27 44. 71  $436. 87 293. 22 205. 57 251. 80 204. 26 295. 10 153. 61 169. 97 165. 17 191. 14 221. 19 219. 61 201. 60 266. 20 251. 84  $338.00 194.35 106.70 152.93 105.39 196.23 54. 74 71. 10 66.30 92.27 123.04 120.74 102.73 167.33 152.97  TABLE 23 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 3 B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s  Input Costs Year  Acre ! 1  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32 19. 32  Acre 2 (3) $7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7..06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06 7 .06  Acre : 3 (4) $13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. 74 13. •74 13. 74  Acre ! 4 (5) $16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81 16. 81  Acre 5 (6) $19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15  Acre 6 (7) $19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15  Tot. Var. Costs (8) $95.23 95,,23 95,,23 95..23 95,,23 95,,23 95,,23 95,,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23 95.,23  Return  Return  Re t u r n  Return  Re t u r n  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  (13)  $ 86,,86 91., 14 72.,00 63., 18 58.,52 74,,88 53.,82 54.,60 46.,24 67.,50 97.,92 81.,60 64.,08 94.,08 102. 00  Average Net Return = $136.08 Sources:  Columns 2-7: Appendix D Column 8: Sum of Columns 2-7 Columns 9-11: Appendix E Column 12: Sum of Columns 9-11 Column 13: Column (12) minus Column (8)  $62,,86 68,,14 70., 74 50,.72 54.,20 60.,46 47.,24 54., 73 52., 78 63., 76 79,,54 67.,40 44.,26 71..68 89.,42  $280. 78 137. 24 62. 74 134. 38 93. 44 154. 81 49. 41 68. 62 52. 94 62. 55 50. 20 65. 56 63. 89 85. 99 60. 86  $430. 50 296. 52 205. 48 248. 28 206. 16 290. 15 150. 47 177. 95 151. 96 193. 81 227. 66 214. 56 172. 23 251. 75 252. 28  $335.27 201.29 110.25 153.05 110.93 194.92 55.24 82. 72 56. 73 98.58 132.43 119.33 77.00 156.52 157.05  TABLE 24 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s  Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50  Acre  2-5  (3) $79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36 79.36  Tot. Var. Costs (4) $90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86 90.86  Hay Return (5) $134 111 105 85 157 93 81 90 95 99 110 110 101 111 130  Average Net Return = $17.01 Sources:  Columns 2-3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  B r i t i sh Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Baldonne1-Two R i v e r s ( V i c t o r i a , 1971)  Sum of Columns 2 and 3 Appendix E Column (5) minus Column (4)  Net Return (6)  19 00 00 86 52 62 60 45 70 20 40 16 12 72 56  $43.33 20. 14 14. 14 - 5.00 66.66 2. 76 - 9.26 .41 4.84 8.34 19.54 19.30 10.26 20.86 39. 70  TABLE 25 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 1 C e c i l Lake Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80  Acre 2 (3) $6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29  Acre 3 (4)  Acre ! 4 (5)  $12.23 $16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23' 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56 12.23 16. 56  Acre 5-6  Tot. Var. Costs  (6)  (7)  $37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80 37. 80  $90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68 90.68  Barley Return (8) $ 99.99 108.81 85.50 70.47 64.68 90.72 60.03 60.90 48.96 78. 75 118.08 96.90 69.42 111.72 123.00  Average Net Return - $116.50 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Oats Re t u r n  Alsike Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $24.98 28. 56 35. 36 19. 56 27. 10 25. 56 19. 14 22. 36 20. 62 26. 26 33. 81 28. 25 16. 95 29. 84 38. 01  $280.. 78 $405., 75 137. 24 274. ,61 183.,60 62.,74 134.,38 224. ,41 93.,44 185. 22 271. 09 154.,81 128.,58 49.,41 151. 88 58.,62 52. 94 122.,52 62.,55 167.,56 202. 09 50.,20 190. 71 65. 66 63.,84 150.,21 227.,55 85.,99 221. 87 60.,86  $315.07 183.93 92.92 133.73 94.54 180.41 37.90 61.20 31.84 76.88 111.44 100.03 59.53 136.87 131.19  TABLE 2 6 Fifteen Year Budget for Rotation 2 C e c i l Lake Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951  (3)  $ 1 7 .. 8 0  1952 1953  17. 80  1954  17. 80  1955 1956  17. 80  1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  17. 80  17. 80 1 7 . 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 17. 17. 17.  Acre 2  80 80 80 80  Acre 3 (4)  i  Acre 4 . Acre 5 (5)  Acre 6 (7)  (6)  $ 6 .. 2 9 6 ., 2 9  $ 1 2 ., 2 3 1 2 ., 2 3  $ 2 1 . 07  $ 1 6 . 56  $18.90  2 1 . 07  1 6 . 56  18.90  6 ,, 2 9 6 ., 2 9  1 2 .. 2 3  2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07  1 6 . 56  2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07  16. 16. 16. 16.  6 ., 2 9 6 ,, 2 9 6 ,, 2 9 6 ., 2 9 6 ., 2 9  1 2 . 23 1 2 .. 2 3 1 2 .. 2 3 1 2 ., 2 3 1 2 . 23 1 2 . 23  6 .; 2 9 6 ., 2 9 6 .. 2 9  1 2 . 23  6 ., 2 9 6 .. 2 9 6 ., 2 9  1 2 ., 2 3 1 2 ., 2 3 1 2 .. 2 3  1 2 ., 2 3 1 2 .. 2 3  2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07 2 1 . 07  U  W  i  Var. Costs (8)  (10) $ 2 4 ., 9 8  9 2 . 85  72.54  2 8 ..56  18.90  9 2 . 85  57.00  1 6 . 56 1 6 . 56  18.90  9 2 . 85  46.98  3 5 ., 3 6 1 9 ., 5 6  18.90 18.90 18.90 18.90 18.90  9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85  43.12  56 56 56  18.90 18.90  9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85  7 8 . 72 64.60  18.90 18.90  9 2 . 85 9 2 . 85  1 6 . 56 1 6 . 56 1 6 . 56  18.90 18.90  Average Net Return = Sources:  (9)  Oats Return  $66.66  56 1 6 . 56 1 6 . 56 1 6 . 56  $ 9 2 .,85  Barley Return  Columns 2 - 7 : Appendix D Column 8 : Sum of Columns 2 - 7 Columns 9 - 1 2 : Appendix E Column 1 3 : Sum of Columns 9 - 1 2 Column 1 4 : Column ( 1 3 ) minus Column ( 8 )  60.48, 40.02 40.60 32.64 52.50  48.28 74.48 82.00 $113.34  2 7 ., 10 2 5 .. 5 6 1 9 ., 1 4 2 2 . 36  Rape Return  Alsike Return  Gross Return  ( I D  (12)  (13)  $30.49 2 3 . 66  $ 2 8 0 . , 78 137. 24  $ 4 0 2 ,, 9 1 2 6 2 ., 0 0  2 7 . 94  6 2 . 74  1 8 3 ., 0 4  90.19  2 1 . 98  1 3 4 ., 3 8 9 3 ., 4 4  2 2 2 ., 9 0  130.05  1 8 1 .,55 2 6 8 ., 7 1  175.86  1 7 . 89 86 67 15 24 31  2 0 . 62 2 6 . 26  27. 20. 14. 36. 22.  1 5 4 ., 8 1 4 9 ., 4 1 6 8 .,22 5 2 . 95  3 3 .. 8 1  2 6 . 50  2 8 . 25 1 6 ., 9 5 2 9 . 84 3 8 .. 0 1  3 0 . 18 38. 55 39. 68 3 6 ; 86  Net Return (14) $310.06 169.15  8 8 . 70 36.39 52.48  : 5 0 ..20  1 2 9 ., 2 4 1 4 5 .. 3 3 1 4 2 ,, 4 4 1 6 3 ., 6 2 1 8 9 ., 2 3  6 5 .,56 6 3 ..84 8 5 . 99 6 0 .,86  1 8 8 ., 5 9 1 6 5 ,, 6 2 2 2 9 .,99 2 1 7 . , 73  95.74  6 2 .,55  99.59 70.77 96.38 72.77 137.14 124.88  TABLE 27 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 3 C e c i l Lake  - x u  F  u u . i , u  B  Acre 6  Tot.Var. Costs  Barley Return  Oats Return  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  $35.46 35.,46 35.,46 35.,46 35.,46 35. 46 35. 46 35. 46 35.,46 35.:46 35. 46 35. 46 35. 46 35. 46 35. 46  $18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90 18. 90  $66. 66 72. 54 57. 00 46. 98 43. 12 60. 48 40. 02 40. 60 32. 64 52. 50 78. 72 64. 60 46. 28 74. 48 82. 00  $49.96 57.12 70.02 39.12 54.20 51.12 38.28 44.72 41.24 52.50 67.62 56.50 33.90 59.68 76.02  i . »  Year  Acre 1  Acre 2  Acre 3  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80 17. 80  $6,.29 6,.29 6,.29 6..29 6,,29 6..29 6,.29 6..29 6.,29 6..29 6,.29 6,,29 6.,29 6.,29 6.,29  $12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33 12. 33  Acre 4-5  $98.,78 98. 78 98.,78 98. 78 98.,78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78 98. 78  Average Net Return = $114.17 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  Alsike Return (10) $280., 75 137.,24 62,,74 134,,38 93.,44 154, ,81 49'.,41 68,,22 52,,94 62.,55 50.,20 65.,56 63.,84 85.,99 60.,86  Gross Return  Net Return  (11)  (12)  $397.37 266.90 190.46 220.48 190.76 266.41 127.71 153.54 126.82 167.55 196.54 186.66 144.02 220.15 218.88  $306. 59 176. 12 99. 68 129. 70 99. 98 175. 63 36. 93 62. 76 36. 04 76. 77 105. 76 95. 88 53. 24 129. 37 128. 10  TABLE 28 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 (5 a c r e s ) Baldonne1 - Two R i v e r s Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 .1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01 12.01  Acre 2-6 (3) $44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60 44.60  Tot. Var, Costs (4) $61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91 61.91  Hay Re t u r n  Net Re t u r n  (5)  (6)  $ 89.46 73.20 73. 50 51.84 102.08 54.56 43.80 48.24 54.12 58.88 60.00 67.32 60.80 63.84 90.24  $32.85 16.59 16.89 - 4. 77 45.47 - 2.05 -12.81 - 8.37 - 2.49 2.27 3.39 10.71 4. 19 7.23 33.63  Average Net Return = $9.52 Sources:  Columns 2-3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - B a l d o n n e l - Two R i v e r s ( V i c t o r i a , Sum of Columns 2 and 3 Appendix E Column (5) minus Column (4)  1971)  ro O O  TABLE 29 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 1 Montenay  Input Costs Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre ! 1 (2) $22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81 22. 81  Acre  2-4  (3) $74.58 7.4.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58  Acre ! 5  Acre 6  (4)  (5)  $22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65  $6,.09 6..09 6..09 6,,09 6.,09 6..09 6..09 6,.09 6.,09 6,.09 6,,09 6,.09 6,.09 6..09 6..09  Tot. Var. Costs (6) $126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. 126. .126.  13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13  Wheat Re t u r n (7)  (8)  $ 98.64 73.11 71.95 145.76 135.80 165.13 136.24 123.85 127.38 190.67 291.17 190.34 189.94 207.20 221.48  $ 45.45 47. 43 37. 50 33. 21 30. 80 38. 88 28. 29 28. 70 24. 48 35. 25 50. 88 42. 50 33. 82 49. 00 53. 00  Average Net Return = $90.39 Sources:  Columns 2-5: Appendix D Column 6: Sum of Columns 2-5 Columns 7-8: Appendix B Column 9: Sum of Columns 7-8 Column 10: Column (9) minus Column (6)  Barley Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  $244. 09 220. 54 209. 45 178. 97 166. 60 203. 93 164. 53 152. 55 151. 86 225. 92 342. 05 232. 84 223. 76 256. 20 274. 48  $117.96 94.41 83.32 82.84 40.47 77.80 38.40 26.42 25.73 99. 79 215.92 106.71 97.63 130.07 148.35  TABLE 30 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 2 Montenay  Input Costs Year  Acre 1  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  (2) $21.75 21.75 21. 75 21.75 21. 75 21. 75 21.75 21.75 21.75 21.75 21. 75 21. 75 21.75 21.75 21.75  Acre  2-4  (3) $74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58 74.58  Acre : 5 (4) $22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65 22. 65  Acre 6  Tot. Var. Costs  Rape Return  Wheat Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (10)  (11)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  $6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6..09 6.,09 6.,09 6,,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09  $125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 07 125. 077 125.07 125. 07  $39.41 32.33 37.12 30.39 26.81 36.79 28.83 20.53 41.44 30. 72 35.67 40.63 53.80 52.63 46.41  $148. 98 129. 83 128. 96 109. 32 101. 85 123. 85 102. 18 92. 89 95. 54 143. 00 218. 38 142. 76 142. 46 155. 40 166. 11  $45.45 47. 43 37. 50 33. 21 30. 80 38. 88 28. 29 28. 70 24. 48 35. 25 50. 88 42. 50 33. 82 49. 00 53. 00  Average Net Return = $83.88 Sources:  Barley Return  Columns 2-5: Appendix D Column 6: Sum of Columns 2-5 Columns 7-9: Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 7-9 Column 11: Column (10) minus Column (6)  $233. 84 209. 59 203. 58 172. 92 159. 46 199. 52 159. 30 142. 12 161. 46 208. 97 304. 93 255. 89 230. 08 257. 03 265. 52  $108.77 84.52 78.51 47.85 34.39 74.45 34.23 17.05 36.39 83.90 179.86 100.82 105.01 131.96 140.45  TABLE 31 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 3 Montenay  Input Costs Year  Acre i 1  (1)  (2)  (3)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $21. 75 21. 75  $49.,72 49.,72 49.,72 49.,72 49. 72 49., 72 49.,72 49., 72 49.,72 49.,72 49. 72 49.,72 49. 72 49. 72 49.,72  21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.  75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75  Acre 2-3  Acre 4-5 (4) $45..30 45.,30 45.,30 45,.30 45,,30 45,.30 45,,30 45,.30 45,.30 45,,30 45,,30 45,,30 45,.30 45,,30 45,.30  Acre 6  Tot.Var. Costs  Rape Return  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  $39. 41 32. 33 37. 12 30. 39 26. 81 36. 79 28. 83 20. 53 41. 44 30. 72 35. 67 40. 63 53. 80 52. 63 46. 41  $ 99.32 86.56 85.98 72.88 67.90 82.57 68.12 61.93 63.69 95.34 145.59 95.17 94.87 103.60 110.74  $6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6. 09 6.,09 6..09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09 6. 09 6.,09 6.,09 6.,09  $122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122. 122.  86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86  Wheat Re t u r n  Average Net Return = $80.24 Sources:  Columns 2-5: Appendix D Column 6: Sum of Columns 2-5 Columns 7-9: Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 7-8 Column 11: Column (10) minus Column (6)  Barley Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  (ID  $ 90.,90 94.,84 75.,00 66.,42 61.,60 77.,76 56,,58 57.,40 48,,96 71.,00 101.,76 85,,00 67.,64 98..00 106.,00  $229. 63 213. 73 198. 10 169. 69 156. 31 197. 12 153. 53 139. 86 154. 09 197. 06 283. 02 220. 80 216. 31 254. 23 263. 15  $106.77 90.87 63.24 46.83 33.45 74.26 30.67 17.00 31.23 74.20 160.16 97.94 93.45 131.37 140.29  TABLE 32 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 4 Montenay  Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69 12.69  Acre 2-6 (3) $48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80 48.80  Tot. Var. Costs (4) $61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49 61.49  Average Net Return = $4.64 Sources:  Columns 2-3:  Column 4 Column 5 Column 6  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sample Costs to Produce A l f a l f a Hay - Montenay ( V i c t o r i a , 1971) Sum of Columns 2-3 Appendix E Column (6) minus Column (4)  Hay Re t u r n  Net Return  (5)  (6)  $ 89.46 73.20 73.50 51.84 102.08 54.56 43.80 48.24 54.12 58.88 60.00 67.32 60.80 63.84 90.24  $27.97 11. 71 12.01 9.65 40.59 6.93 - 17.69 - 13.25 7.37 2.61 1.49 5.83 .69 2.35 28.75  TABLE 33 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 1 Halfway  Input Costs Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre  1  (2) $13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92  Acre ! 2-4  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre ! 6  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  $4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62  $15.68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68  $20.43 20.43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43 20. 43  $47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47.  91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91  River  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102. 102.  56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56  Barley Return  Hay Re t u r n  Wheat Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $39. 39 44. 64 34. 88 26. 73 24. 26 37. 80 22. 77 23. 10 17. 34 31. 50 48. 96 39. 53 25. 37 45. 57 51. 00  Average Net Return = $105.90 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $173. ,60 144. ,90 130., 13 119.,88 208. ,56 133.,92 122.,85 136. ,68 139. 59 140..16 165.,00 152. ,49 141.,60 161.,88 163.,68  $28.34 22.,35 25. 56 19.,54 17.,84 24.,07 17.,29 13.,67 17. 54 28. 59 50.,25 25.,94 24.,61 30. 61 32.,93  $241. 211. 190. 166. 250. 195. 162. 173. 174. 200. 264. 217. 191. 238. 247.  53 89 57 15 66 79 91 45 47 25 21 96 58 06 61  $138.77 109.33 88.01 63.59 148.10 93.23 60.35 70.89 71.91 97.69 161.65 115.40 89.02 135.50 145.05  TABLE 34 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 2 Halfway  Input Costs Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Acre  1  (2)  Acre  2-4  (3)  $13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92 13. 92  $47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47. 91 47'. 91  Acre 4  Acre ! 5  (4)  (5)  $4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 . 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62  $15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68  Acre 6  Barley Re t u r n  Oats Return  Hay Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (ID  (12)  $102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27 102. 27  $39. 39 44. 64 34. 88 26. 73 24. 26 37. 80 22. 77 23. 10 17. 34 31. 50 48. 96 39. 53 25. 37 75. 57 51. 00  $17. 24 21. 93 29. 01 12. 60 20. 14 19. 95 13. 77 16. 37 13. 69 19. 52 26. 66 21. 69 10. 74 22. 64 29. 97  Tot. Var. Costs  (6) $50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14 50. 14  River  Average Net Return = $100.64 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11; Sum of Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  $173. 60 144. 90 130. 13 119. 88 208. 56 133. 92 122. 85 136. 68 139. 59 140. 16 165. 00 152. 49 141. 60 161. 88 163. 68  $230. 23 211. 47 194. 02 159. 21 252. 96 191. 67 159. 39 176. 15 170. 62 191. 18 240. 62 213. 71 177. 71 230. 09 244. 65  $127.96 109.20 91. 75 56.94 150.69 89.40 57.12 73.88 68.35 88.91 138.35 111.44 75.44 127.82 142.38  TABLE 35 F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n 3 Halfway  Input Costs Year  Acre 1  Acre 2-•4  Acre 4  Acre i 5  Acre 6  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92  $4.62 4..62 4.,62 4.,62 4.,62 4,.62 4,,62 4.,62 4..62 4,.62 4,.62 4,,62 4.,62 4.,62 4.,62  $15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68 15. 68  $20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42 20.42  $47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47. 47.  91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91  River  Barley Return  Hay Return  Gross Re t u r n  Net Re t u r n  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  $102. ,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.;55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55 102.,55  $65. 65 74. 40 58. 13 44. 55 40. 43 63. 00 37. 95 38. 50 28. 90 52. 50 81. 60 65. 88 42. 28 75. 95 85. 00  Tot. Var. Costs  Average Net Return = $103.13 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-9: Appendix E Column 10: Sum of Columns 8-9 Column 11: Column (10) minus Column (7)  $173. ,60 144.,90 130.13 119, ,88 208, ,56 133,,92 122.,85 136.,68 139,,59 140,, 16 165,,00 152, ,49 141.,60 161,,88 163.,68  $239. 25 219. 30 188. 26 164. 43 248. 99 196. 92 160. 80 175. 18 168. 49 192. 66 246. 60 218. 37 183. 88 237. 83 248. 68  $136.70 116.75 85. 71 61.88 146.44 94.37 58.25 72.63 65.94 90.11 144.05 115.82 81.33 135.28 144.13  TABLE 36  F i f t e e n Year Budget f o r R o t a t i o n Halfway  Input Costs Year  Acre 1 (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13. 92 13.92 13.92 13.92 13.92  A c r e 2-•4 (3) $47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91 47 .91  Acre 4  Acre 5  Acre 6  (4)  (5)  (6)  $4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62 4.62  $15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68 15.68  $19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31 19.31  River  Barley Re t u r n  Rape Re t u r n  Hay Re t u r n  Gross Return  Net Re t u r n  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)  $101.26 101. 26 101. 26 101. 26 101.,26 101. 26 101. 26 101.,26 101. 26 101. 26 101.,26 101. 26 101. 26 101.,26 101. 26  $39. 39 44. 64 34. 88 26. 75 24. 26 37. 80 22. 77 23. 10 17. 34 31. 50 48. 96 39. 53 25. 37 45. 57 51. 00  $25.34 18.66 22.64 17.13 12. 74 22. 72 15.97 10.48 25.36 17.46 21.20 24.15 33. 70 32.20 27.68  Tot. Var. Costs  Average Net Return = $103.75 Sources:  Columns 2-6: Appendix D Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Columns 8-10: Appendix E Column 11: Sum o f Columns 8-10 Column 12: Column (11) minus Column (7)  4  $173. ,60 144. 90 130. 13 119. 88 208. 56 133. 92 122. 85 136. 68 139. 59 140. 16 165. 00 152. 49 141. 60 161. 88 163. 68  $238. 33 208. 20 187. 65 163. 74 245. 56 194. 44 161. 59 170. 26 182. 29 189. 12 235. 16 216. 00 200. 67 237. 66 242. 36  $137.07 106.94 86.39 62.48 144.30 93.08 60.33 69.00 81.03 87.86 133.90 114.91 99.41 138.40 141.10  TABLE 37 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Cow-Calf O p e r a t i o n All Year  '  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  .  Barley Cost  Other Costs  Misc. Expenses  (2)  (3)  (4)  $47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23 47.23  $1.90 1.24 .89 .83 .87 .83 .92 1.47 1.34 1.23 1.35 1.48 1.46 1.26 1.26  $5.05 4.65 3.75 4.05 3.95 3.60 3.45. 3.50 3.40 3.75 4.80 4.25 4.45 4.90 5.00  Districts  Tot. Var. Costs (5) $54.18 55.12 51.87 52.11 52.05 51.66 51.60 52.20 51.97 52.21 53.38 52.96 53.14 53.39 53.49  Steer Return  Heifer Return  Cow Return  Gross Return  Net Return  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (6) $61.97 41.72 31.47 30.27 31.45 30.58 32.64 51.58 46 ..07 42.71 47.63 52.31 50.32 42.81 45.42  $30.42 19.74 14.50 12.59 12.98 12.60 13.99 24.91 21.75 19.82 22.64 25.32 23.90 20.43 20.01  $34.40 21.06 13.06 12.74 13.60 12.46 14.72 21.54 21.25 19.36 19.95 21.17 23.22 20.83 19.18  $126.79 82.52 59.03 55.60 58.03 55.64 61.35 98.03 89.07 81.89 90.22 98,80 97.44 84.07 84.33  $69.61 29.40 7.16 3.49 5.98 3.89 9.75 45.83 37.10 29.68 36.84 45.84 44.30 30.68 30.84  Average Net Return = $28.69 Sources:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4 Column 5 Column 6  5 b u s h e l s x p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) " E n t e r p r i s e Budgets f o r 3 Cow-Calf Systems" - The G r a i n Growers, U n i f e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1969) p 420.818 1.5 per cent of Gross Return (Column 9) Sum of Columns 2-4 450 l b s . x .45 x p r i c e of Steer Calves (Appendix E)  (Winnipeg:  The  TABLE 37  Sources:  Column Column Column Column  (continued)  7: 400 l b s . x .29 x p r i c e of H e i f e r Calves 8: 1000 l b s x .16 x p r i c e of Common Calves 9: Slim of-Columns 6-8 10: Column (9) minus Column (5)  (Appendix E) (Appendix,E)  to  O  TABLE 38 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Cow-rYearling O p e r a t i o n All Year  CD 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Barley Cost  Other  (2)  (3)  $20.00 18.41 14.85 16.04 15.64 14.26 13:66 13.86 13.46 14.85 19.01 16.83 17.62 19.40 19.80  Cost  $62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65 62.65  Misc. Costs (4) $2.77 1.82 1.32 . 1.24 1.29 . 1.24 1.36 1.84 1.95 1.72 1.78 2.00 1.99 1.78 1.79  Tot. V a r . Costs (5) $85.42 82.88 78;82 79.93 79.58 78.15 7.7.67 78.35 78.06 79.22 83.44 81.48 82.59 83.83 84.24  Districts Steer Return  Heifer Return  Cow Return  Tot. Return  Net Return  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  $100.52 67.67 51.05 49.11 51.02 49.60 52.95 69.74 74.31 66.23 68.16 77.03 74.41 67.01 70.30  $49.80 32.33 23.74 20.61 21.26 20.63 22.91 31.55 34.59 29.35 30.28 35.12 35.22 31.15 29.90  $34.40 21.06 13.06 12.74 13.60 12.46 14.72 21.54 21.25 19.36 19.95 21.17 23.22 . 20.83 19.18  $184.72 121.06 87.85. 82.46 85.88 82.69 90.58 122,83 130.15 114.94 118.39 133.32 132.85 118.99 119 .'38  $99.30 38.18 9.03 2.53 6.30 4.54 12.91 44.48 52.09 35.72 34.95 51.84 50.59 35.16 35.14  Average Net Return = $34.18 Sources:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4 Column 5 Column 6  19.8 b u s h e l s x p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) " E n t e r p r i s e Budgets f o r 3•Cow-Calf Systems" - T h e / G r a i n Growers, U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1969) p 420.818 1,5 per cent of Gross Returns (Column 9) Sum of Columns 2-4 730 l b s . x .45 x p r i c e o f Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E)  (Winnipeg  The  TABLE 38  Sources:  Column Column Column Column  (continued)  7: . 655 l b s . x .29 x p r i c e of Feeder H e i f e r s . ( A p p e n d i x E) 8: 1000 l b s . x .16 x p r i c e of Common Cows (Appendix E) 9: Sum of Columns 6-8 10: Column (9) minus Column (5)  to r-  1  to  TABLE 39 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Feeder # 1 All Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Cost  Feed Cost  Other Cost'  Labour  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $55.16 51.92 45.68 47.18 46.92 43.74 41.63 • 40.81 43.67 44.61 53.44 50.59 54.13 58.51 58.51  $2,27" 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27  2.27 2.27 2.27  2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27  Districts Interest  Cost  $7.79 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.79 7,79 7.79 7,79 7.79 7.79 7.79 • 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.79  Tot. V a r . Costs  (6)  (7)  $4.07 . 4.07. 4.07 4.07 4.07. 4.07 4.07  $283.49 210.25 168.59 165.96 169.76 163.57 168.60 203.55 216.14 199.86 212.82 228.87 226.81 215.44 222.44  4.07 •  4.07 . 4.07 . 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $342.49 255.18 202.74 200.57 198.60 194.67 187.23 228.50 245.05 224.26 223.95 259.74 235.32 223.95 238.94  $59.00 44.93 34.15 34.68 28.84 31.10 18.63 24.95 28.91 24.40 11.13 30.87 8.51 8.51 16.50  Average Net Return = $26.98 Sources:  Column 2: 700 l b s . x p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 3: Appendix D Column 4 and 5:' A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e j 1969 A l b e r t a Beef Feeder E n t e r p r i s e A n a l y s i s , [by'R.A. Wiens] ([Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 821-422-1, 1970) p 13 Column 6: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Column 8: 1034.39 l b s . x p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 9:. Column (8) minus Column (7)  TABLE 40 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Feeder // 2 All Year  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Cost 700 l b . '  (2) $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 . 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  Districts  Feed Cost  Other Costs  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  $6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43 6.43  $7.54 . 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.54 , 7.54 7.54 . 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.54 . 7.54  $4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07  $285.58 206.24 163.83 162.03 165.31 159.58 165.55 201.71 210.67 • 196.18 206.46 223.09 219.04 206.79 214.57  $53.34 52.23 45.236 47.568 46.791 44.070 42.904 43.292 42.515 45.236 53.399 49.123 50.678 54.177 54.954  Labour Costs  Average Net Return Sources:  Interest  Tot. Var. Costs  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $338.94 251.825 200.64 198.49 196.55 192.65 185.29 226.13 242.51 221.93 221.62 256.94 232.89 221.63 236.47  $53.36 45.58 36.81 36.46 31.24 33.07 19.74 24.42 31.85 25.76 15.16 33.85 13.85 14.84 21.90  = $25.67  Column 2: 700Hbs. x p r i c e of Feeder Steers (Appendix E) Column 3: Appendix D Column 4 and 5: A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1969 A l b e r t a Beef Feeder E n t e r p r i s e [by R.A. Wiens] ([Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n NO. -821-422-1, 1970) p 13 Column 6: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971  Analysis,  TABLE 40 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1023.68 l b s . x p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  r-  1  TABLE 41 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Feeder # 3 All Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Feed Cost'  Init. Cost (2)  .  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  (3) $56,872 53,792 46.861 49.172 48.402 45.706 44.551 44.936 44.166 46.861 54.947 50.712 52.252 55,717 56.487  Districts  Other Cost  Labour Cost  Interest  Tot.. Cost  Gross Return  Net Return  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  $2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.2-7, 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27  $7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21 7.21  $4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 • 4.07 . 4.07 4.07. 4.07 •  $280.57 207.47 165.11 163.30 164.59 160.88 166.87' 203.02 211.89 197.46 209.68 224.34 220.29 • 213.40 215.76  $339.21 249.02 197.84 195.72 193.80 189.97 182.70 222.98 239.13 218,84 218.54 253.36 229.64 218.54  233.17  $53.66 41.54 32.73 32.42 27.21 29.09 15.83 19.95 27.14 21.38 8.86 29.01 9.35 5.14 17.41  Average Net Return = $20.64 Sources:  Column 2: 700 l b s . x p r i c e o f Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 3: Appendix Column 4 and 5:. A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1969 A l b e r t a Beef Feeder E n t e r p r i s e A n a l y s i s , [by R.A. Wiens] ([Edmonton:!: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 821-422-1, 1970) P 13 Column 6: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Column 8: 1009.4 l b s . x p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 9: Column (8) minus Column (7)  TABLE - 42 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Feeder # 4 All  Districts  Year  Initi Cost  Feed Cost  Other  Labour Cost'  Interest  Cost  . (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $214.20. 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 . 149.80  $59.81 56,. 45 48.89 51.41 50.57 • 47.63 46.37 46.79 45.95 . 48.89 57.71 53.09 54.77 58.55 59.39  $2;27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.27  $7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 7.43 . 7.43 7.43 7.43 . 7.43 7.43 7.43  $4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 ' 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07 4.07  Tot. Var. Cost (7) $283.71 210.35 167.37 • 165,76 168.98 163.03 168.91 205.10 213.99 199.71 212.66 226.94 223.02 211.05 218.88  Gross. Return  Net Return  (8)  (9).  $337.36 251.37 199.71 197.57 195.63 191.76 184.42 225.08 241.38 220.90 220.60 255.75 231.80 220.60 235.37  $53.65 41.02 32.34 31.81 26.65 28.73 15.51 19.98 27.39 21.19 7.94 28.81 8.78 9.55 16.48  Average Net Return = $20.58 Sources:  Column 2: 700 l b s .x p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 3: Appendix D Column 4 and 5: Alberta Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1969 A l b e r t a Beef Feeder E n t e r p r i s e A n a l y s [by R.A, Wiens] ([Edmonton]: P u b l i c a t i o n No. 821-422-1, 1970) p 13 Column 6: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 7: Sum of Columns 2-6 Column 8: 10018.92 l b s . x p r i c e of Choice Steers (Appendix, E) Column 9: Column (8) minus Column (7)  TABLE 43 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r P a s t u r e d  Beef  R o l l a Boundary Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Costs (2) $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  Interest Costs ,  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  (3)  (4)  (5)  $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4,95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  $27.41 27.14 . 20.35 21.98 21.44 19.54" 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  Pasture Costs (6) $38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 . 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22 38.22  Tot, Var. Costs (7) $288.99 218.72 176.51 174.01 177.53 172.-62 178.94 214.98 224.17 208.55 218.68 234.87 . 230.08 216.77 224.32  Gross V a r . Costs  Net Return (9)  (8) $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  .  $60.73 43.76 30.52 30.80 25.28 26.17 12.24 18.35 26.06 20.15 10.00 30.25 10.22 11.91 19.67  Average Net Return = $ 2 5 . 0 7 Sources: • Column 2: Column 3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton o f B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g of Beef C a t t l e , [ b y A.W.N. E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October 1971 See Appendix D  TABLE 43 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  TABLE 44 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r P a s t u r e d  Beef  Doe R i v e r Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Costs  Barley Costs  (2)  (3)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.20 112.89 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  Tallow Costs (4) $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  J  Interest Costs (5) $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  Pasture Costs  Tot. Var. Costs  Gross Return  Net Return  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  $20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 . 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23 20.23  $271.00 200.73 158.52 156.02 159.54 154.63 160.95 196.99 206.18 190.56 200.69 216.88 212.09 ' 198.28 206.33  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $78.72 61.95 48.51 48.79 43.27 44.16 30.23 36.34 44.05 38.14 27.99 48.24 28.21 29.90 37.66  Average Net Return = $43.06 Sources:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g of Beef C a t t l e , [ b y A.W.N. E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by.Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D  TABLE 44 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8:Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r t i m e s - p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  txi  TABLE 45 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r P a s t u r e d  Beef  Progress Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init, Costs  Barley Costs  (2)  (3)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65' 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  Tallow Costs • (4) $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  Interest Costs (5) $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.-21 4.21  Pasture Costs (6) $31.90 31.90 31,90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.90 31.9.0 31.90  Tot; V a r . Costs (7) $282.67 212.40 170.19 167.69 171.21 166.30 172.62 208.66 217.85 202.23 212.36 228.55 223.76 210.45 218.00  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $69.05 50.08 36.84 37.12 31 ."60. 32.49 18.56 24.67 32.38 26.47 16.32 36.57 16.54 18.23 25.99  Average Net Return = $31.39 Sources :  Column 2: 700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) Column 3: .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) Column 4: . A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g o f Beef C a t t l e , E r i c h s e n l (Edmonton , 1971) Column 5: Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 6: See.Appendix D  Iby A.W.N.  TABLE 45 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per steer times price of Choice Steers (Appendix E) Column (8) minus Column (7)  ho ro U>  TABLE 46 F i f t e e n Year Budget.For  Pastured  Beef  Groundbirch Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Costs  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  Interest Costs  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  $241.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 21.44 • 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 .  Pasture Costs  Tot. Var. Costs  (6)  (7)  $33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80 33.80  $284.57 214.30 172.09 169.59 . 173.11 168.20 174.52 210.56 219.75 204.13 . 214.26 230.45 225.66 212.35 219.90  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $65.15 48.18 34.94 35.22 29.70 30.59 16.66 32.77 30.48 24.57 14.42 34.67 14.64 16.33 24.09  Average Net Return = $30.16 ources:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s • ( A p p e n d i x E) .6512 Ton.of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pasture F a t t e n i n g o f Beef C a t t l e , [ by A.W.N. . E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D  TABLE 46 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  TABLE 47 F i f t e e n Year Budget For P a s t u r e d Beef Sunset  Prairie  Init. Costs  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  Interest Costs  Pasture Costs  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 ' 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.844 148,61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  $24.26 224.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26 24.26  Year  $27.41 27.14 20.35 " 21.98 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 . 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  $4.95 5.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  Tot. Var. Costs. (7) $275.03 204.76 162.55 160.05 163.57 158.66 164.98 201.02 210.21 194.59 204.72 220.91 216.12 202.81 210.36  Gross Return (8) $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 . 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  Net Return (9) $74.69 57.72 44.40 44.76 39.24 40.13 ' 26.20 32.31 40.02 34.11 23.96 44.21 .24.18 25.87 33.63  Average Net Return = $39,03 Sources:  Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , . P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g of Beef C a t t l e , [ b y A.W.N. Erichsen] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D  TABLE 47 (continued)  Sources:  Column^: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 Lbs. per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  TABLE 48 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r P a s t u r e d  Beef  Baldonnel - Two R i v e r s Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Costs  Barley Costs  (2)  (3)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  Tallow Costs  Interest . Costs-  (4) $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95.  Pasture Costs  (5)  (6)  $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  $37.92 37.92 . 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92 37.92  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $288.69 218,42 176.21 173.71 177.23 172.32 178.64 . 214.68 223.87 208.25 218.38 . 234.57 229.78 • 216.47 224.02 .  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $61.04 44.07 30.83 31.11 25.59 26.48 12.55 18.66 26.37 20.46 10.31 30.56 10.53 12.22 19.98  Average Net Return = $25.38 Sources:  Column Column Column Column Column  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton o f B a r l e y times the .price o f B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g of Beef C a t t l e , Erichsen] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D 1  [by A.W.N.  TABLE 48 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Slim of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times price" of. Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  ro ro  VD  TABLE 49 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Pastured  Beef  C e c i l Lake Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. Costs  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  (2)  (3)  (4)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.89 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  Interest Costs . (5)  $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 . 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 • 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  Pasture Costs .. (6) $38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 . 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19 38.19  T o t . .Var, Costs (7) $288.96 218.69 176.48 . 173.98 177.50 172.59 178.91 214.95 212.14 208.52 218.65 234.84 . 230.05 216.14 244.29  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $60.76 43.79 30.55 30.83 25.31 26.20 12.27 • 18.38 26.09 20.18 10.03 30.28 10.25 11.94 19.70  Average Net Return = $25.10 Sources:  Column 2: Column 3: Column 4: Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r t i m e s . p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g o f Beef C a t t l e , [ by A.W.N. E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D  TABLE 49 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Sunioof Columns 2-6 Column 8: .1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column 9: Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  Lo  TABLE 50 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Pastured  Beef  Montenay Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init.. Costs  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  (2)  (3)  (4)  $214.20 144.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 . 21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 • 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  Interest Costs (5) $4.21 4.21, 4.211 4.2l' 4.21 * 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21  Pasture• Costs (6) $39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46 39.46  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $290.23 219.96 177.75 175.25 178.7.7 173.86 180.18 • 216.22 225.41 209.79 219.92 . 236.11 231.32 218.01. 225.56  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.03 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  $59.49 42.52 29.28 29.56 24.04 24.93 11.00 17.11 24.82 18.91 8.76 29.01 8.98 10.67 18.43  Average Net Return = $23. 16 Sources: • Column 2 700 Lbs. per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) Column 3 Column. 4 : , A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pasture F a t t e n i n g o f Beef . C a t t l e , [by .A.W.N. E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton , 1971) Column 5 Statement by Jack Dobb,. p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 Column 6 See Appendix D  TABLE 50 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  ro  TABLE 51 F i f t e e n -Year Budget For P a s t u r e d  Beef  Halfway R i v e r Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Init. ' Costs  Barley Costs  Tallow Costs  (2)  (3)  (4)  $27.41 27.14 20.35 21.98 .21.44 19.54 18.72 18.99 18.45 20.35 26.05 23.35 24.15 26.59 27.14  $4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95. 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95  $214.20 114.20 108.78 104.65 108.71 105.70 112.84 148.61 158.34 141.12 145.25 164.15 158.55 142.80 149.80  Interest Costs (5) $4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.21 4.2-1 4.21 4.21 4.21. 4.21  Pasture Costs . (6) $26.59 26.59 26.59 • 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59 . 26.59 26.59 26.59 26.59  Tot. Var. Costs (7) $277.36 207.09 164.88 162.38 165.90 160.99 167.31 203.35 212.54 196.92 207.05 223.24 218.45 205.14 212.69  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $349.72 262.48 207.33 204.81 202.80 198.79 191.18 233.33 250.23 229.00 228.68 265.12 240.30 228.68 243.99  Average Net Return = $35.70 Sources:  Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5: Column 6:  700 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Feeder S t e e r s (Appendix E) .6512 Ton of B a r l e y times the p r i c e of Barley" (Appendix E) A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P a s t u r e F a t t e n i n g o f Beef C a t t l e , [by A.W.N.- E r i c h s e n ] (Edmonton, 1971) Statement by Jack Dobb, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , October, 1971 See Appendix D  $72.36 55.39 42.15 42.43 36.91 37.80 23.87 29.98 37.69 31.78 21.63 41.88 21.85 23.54 31.30  TABLE 51 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 1056.25 l b s . per s t e e r times p r i c e of Choice S t e e r s (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  N3  Co Cn  TABLE 52 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Confinement All Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Feed (2) $31.78 30.48 27.47 28.50 28.11 26.98 26.51 26.66 26.36 27.61 31.03 29.24 29.94 31.30 31.67  Other Costs • (3) $13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82  Sheep  Districts  Total Costs  Lamb Return  Other Return  Total Return  Net Return  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  $5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95  $75.84 55.84 50.82 48.06 45.29 46.51 47.64 49.95 44.93 44.46 42.73 43.73 45.51 46.18 51.95  $45.60 44.30 41.29 42.32 41.93 40.80 40.33 40.48 40.18 41.43 44.85 43 .06 43.76 45.12 45.49  $69.89 49.89 44.87 42.11 39.34 40.56 41.69 44.00 38.98 38.51 36.78 37.78 39.56 40.23 46.00  Averag e Net Return = $6.54 Sources:  Column 2: T a b l e 74, Appendix D Column 3 and 6 : A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sheep P r o d u c t i o n : Budgets - 1970, [by V.M. G l e d d i e ] , ([ Edmonton] : P u b l i c a t i o n 430-90, 1970) p 3 Column 4: Sum of Column 2 and 3 Column 5: 10546/Lamb x 2 .1 Lamb x p r i c e of Lamb Column 7: Sum of Columns 5 and 6 Column 8: Column (7) minus Column (4)  $30.24 11.54 9.53 5.74 3.36 5.71 7.31 9.10 4.75 3.03 - .2.12 .67 1.75 1.06 6.46  TABLE 53 F i f t e e n Year Budget For C o n v e n t i o n a l Sheep All BarleyCosts  Year  (2)  (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  !  $3.54 3.26 2.63 2.84 2.77 2.52 2.42 2.45 2.38 2.63 3.36 2.98 3.12 3.43 3.-50  Other Feed Costs (3) $7.48 7.48 7.48 . 7.48 7.48 7.48 • 7.48 7.48 • 7.48 7.48 7.48 7.48 7.48 7.48 7.48  Other Costs (4) $12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33 12.33  Districts Tot. V a r . Costs (5) $23.35 23.07 22.44 22.65 22.58 22.33 22.23 22.26 22.19 22.44 23.17 . 22.79 22.93 23.24 23.31  Lamb Return  Other Return  Gross' Return  Net Return  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  $5.95 5.95 5.95, 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95 5.95  $55.48 41.31 37.75 35.80 33.83 34.69 35.50 37.14 33.24 32.02 32.73 33.99 34.46 38.55 40.60  $32.13 18.25 15.31 13.15 11.25 12.36 13.27 14.88 11.05 9.58 10.55 11.20 11.53 15.31 17.29  $49.53 35.36 31.80 29.85 27.88 28.74 . 29.55 31.19 27.29 26.07 26.78 28.04 28.51 32.60 34.65  Average Net Return = $14.50 Sources:  Column 2: 168 l b . x bu./48 l b . x p r i c e o f B a r l e y Column 3: . Hay: 705 l b . x Ton/2000 l b . x $20/Ton Straw: , 170 l b . x Ton/2000 l b . x $5/Ton Columns 4 and 7: A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Sheep P r o d u c t i o n : Budgets,- 1970, [BY V.M. G l e d d i e ] , ([Edmonton] : P u b l i c a t i o n 430-90, 1970) p 3  TABLE 53  Sources:  Column. 5 Column 6 Column 8 Column 9  (continued)  Sum of Columns 2-4 105 lbs./Lamb x 1.5 Lambs x p r i c e o f Lambs Sum of Columns 6 and 7 Column (8) minus Column (5)  00  TABLE 54 F i f t e e n Year Budget F o r Farrow - F i n i s h Swine All Year (1) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  Districts  Sow Feed  Hog Feed  Med. Vet  Other Costs  Death Loss  Tot. V a r . Costs  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  $4.83 4.56 4.07 4.27 4.21 3.95 3.87 3.93 3.94 4.13 4.69 4.37 4.46 4.72 4.84  $17.40 16.13 14.95 15.77 15.60 14.16 13.71 14.47 15.31 15.72 16.90 15.69 15.91 16.82 17.80  $.52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52 .52  $3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93 3.93  $1.60 1.20 1.39 1.42 1.07 1.13 1.35 1.21 .98 .•?981.15 1.22 1.23 1.10 1.32  $28.28 26.34 24.86 25.91 25.33 23.69 23.38 24.06 24.68 25.28 27.19 25.73 26.05 27.09 28.41  Gross Return  Net Return  (8)  (9)  $53.33 39.88 46.48 47.26 35.76 37.70 45 .02 40.28 • 32.74 32.82 38.44 40.82 41.07 36.72 44.03  $25.05 13.54 21.62 21.35 10.43 14.01 21.64 16.22 8.06 7.54 11.25 15.09 15.02 9.63 15.62  Average Net Return = $15.07 Sources:  Column 2: Appendix D, T a b l e 75 Column 3: Appendix D, Table 76 Columns 4 and 5: "Costs t o Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Growers, (Winnipeg: U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , 1967) p 440.818 Column 6: 3 per cent of Gross Return (Column 8)  The  IS)  u>  TABLE 54 (continued)  Sources:  Column 7: Column 8: Column 9:  Sum of Columns 2-6 Dressed Weight x Hog P r i c e (Appendix Column (8) minus Column (7)  E)  4>  o  TABLE 55 F i f t e e n Year Budget For Feeder Swine All Year  Purchase Price  (1)  (2)  1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  $13.50 9.38 10.50 12.00 8.00 8.75 15.25 9.38 7.63 8.81 10.68 10.75 11.03 10.03 11.12  Districts  OatCost  Barley Cost  Mineral & 35% Supp,  (3)  (4)  (5)  $6.64 5.68 5.46 5.97 5.97 4.81 4.61 5.15 5.94 5.79 6.14 5.62 5.33 6.18 6.90  $3.96 3.64 2.94 3.17 3.09 2.82 2.70 2.74 2.66 2.94 3.76 3.33 3.49 3.84 3.92  $3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3 .46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46 3.46  Other Costs  Death Loss  Tot. Var. Cost  (6)  (7)  (8)  $3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74 3.74-  $.80 .60 .70 .71 .54 .57 .68 .60 .49 . .49 .58 .61 .62 .55 .66  $32.10 26.51 26.80 29.05 24.80 24.15 30.47 25.07 23.92 25.23 28.36 27.51 27.67 27.80 29.80  :  Gross Return  Net Return  (9)  (10)  $53.33 39.88 46.48 47.26 35.76 37.70 45.02 40.28 32.74 32.82 38.44 40.82 41.07 36.72 44.03  $21.23 13.37 19.68 18.21 10.96 13.55 14.55 15.21 8.82 7.59 10.08 13.31 13.40 8.92 14.23  Average Net Return = $13.54 Sources:  Column Column Column Column  2: 50 l b s . x p r i c e of Feeder Hogs 3: 350 l b s . x bu./34 l b s .x p r i c e of Oats (Appendix E) 4: 148 l b s . x bu./48 l b s . x p r i c e of B a r l e y (Appendix E) 5 and 6: " Costs to Use f o r a Swine P a r t i a l Budget", The G r a i n Growers, (Winnipeg: The U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d , 1967) p 440.818  TABLE 55 (continued) Sources:  Column Column Column Column  7: 1.5 per cent of Gross Returns (Column 9) 8: Sum of Columns 2-7 9: Dressed Weights x Hog P r i c e (Appendix B) 10: Column (9) minus Column (8)  APPENDIX G Linear Program Input and Output .  243  244  Constraint  Codes i n Matrix  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  a  Used  Codes Used i n the Computer Output  Codes i n Analysis  3  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  in:  Dual S o l u t i o n V e c t o r R i g h t Hand Side Ranging  Constraints  O b j e c t i v e F u n c t i o n (Gross Margin) F i x e d C a p i t a l ($100) Land ( A c r e s ) Labour - Jan. - Mar. (Hrs) Labour - A p r i l - June (Hrs) Labour - J u l y - Sept. (Hrs) Labour - Oct. - Dec. (Hrs) B a r l e y A v a i l a b l e (Ton) Rapeseed A v a i l a b l e (Ton) Oats A v a i l a b l e (Ton) Hay A v a i l a b l e (Ton) Wheat A v a i l a b l e (Ton)  245  Activity  Codes i n Matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Codes Used i n the Computer Output  Codes i n Analysis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35  Used i n ;  Activities  2  Rotation 1 Rotation 2 Rotation 3 Rotation 4 Cow-Calf (Cow) Cow-Yearling (Cow) Beef F e e d i n g #1 ( S t e e r ) Beef F e e d i n g #2 ( S t e e r ) Beef F e e d i n g #3 ( S t e e r ) Beef F e e d i n g #4 ( S t e e r ) Beef-Pasture F i n i s h ( S t e e r ) Sheep-Confinement (Ewe) Sheep-Regular (Ewe) Hog-Farrow-Finish (Sow) Hog-Feeder (Hog) Buy B a r l e y (Ton) Buy Rapeseed (Ton) Buy Oats (Ton) Buy Hay (Ton) Buy Wheat (Ton) Buy Labour (Jan.-Mar.) (Hrs) Buy Labour ( A p r i l - J u n e ) (Hrs) Buy Labour ( J u l y - S e p t . ) (Hrs) Buy Labour (Oct.-Dec.) (Hrs) R i g h t Hand Side ( C o n s t r a i n t Le S l a c k 1 - C a p i t a l ($100) S l a c k 2 - Acerage (Acres) S l a c k 3 - Labour (Jan.-Mar.) ( S l a c k 4 - Labour ( A p r i l - J u n e ) S l a c k 5 - Labour ( J u l y - S e p t . ) S l a c k 6 - Labour (Oct.-Dec.) ( S l a c k 7 - B a r l e y (Ton) S l a c k 8 - Rapeseed (Ton) S l a c k 9 - Oats (Ton) S l a c k 10 - Hay (Ton) S l a c k 11 - Wheat (Ton)  I t e r a t i o n Log P r i m a l ..Solution V e c t o r The Reduced Costs O b j e c t i v e F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Ranging  .-I V: • si  o  '.v  o-  O  O c- o c c; c , o o c ~~-' c. O  i r . I f r/\  CJ O  O  rv *  <> <"•>  C  O  INJ  o  o  o  —t • » O c> i O O  o o  i". 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'480.0990 3 9 3. 799 3 . • INF IN If Y - • •'.'.700.0000 '•".:.'" fcO.CA'jb + 1 N h I I'-i 1 ' Y . 393 .0371 . -.-.7--0.0000 . + IN9 INI TY. ',. 3 9 3. 3C>iL ' .' '. 7 30 .0000 ' •• ' • " •• + INFINITY •' 0 . 0 ."•'..'••' ' -0 . j 16ft 5 a 3£ 19o . o •.. • . --; • •> • • : .•' ; o . o • . 930.1 ,<?-.''. '•;'••• ' o . o ' . '• 0. 0 • "• ' •. ' + INF IMI TY.' ..'' .•• • •+239.3500 I N F I '-; I T Y -9.9 it3<-.:3l0 9 o. o 0.0 :, + IMF INITY.. " • ' _ ': . 0.0 .  -0.457762 7 5-OA."  d  I:'-  - -.o:,:-,.:..-'..c, .,  C  ;  ••  ;V  ;-9--;-9- --.-9:;H---;i .^>,.^™'..-^;; . ; ' !  :  •  s !  i. .-  3  'v'v'  C  ;  ;  •{:••-' '  r  RIGHT HAN 0 SI 05 RAN01 NO: . i . •' L0WC3 EO-J'-IC '  :  UPPER' .'ROUND -'';'  29. 6 />:G'J . +1NF!NI9Y . 20.6,900 0 ' • 2 7. 3;-'?7 0 •. '-'99 : ' '7.7.-1 N F I N I '! Y •• ' 3 (.!. 15 999 . , 3 9-133 6^ '•'.."."-' A"- ? " - I .. F IM I 7 r . ' •'. 6 -MOOOO , ' 92. 36063 ' ' • ' ; . ' '""•;.••-• "•- IiMF INITY" 1 9 . o r o o o . 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" • ' " T T ' 2 M.'.'!' 99 9 • ' - ' •"• . 394 .14 05 , • '. IN I TV ' 4 30. 1^23. ..•'.'•' 34 - 1.7 99 • .'.-(\F ! NI FY '••28.799:'!/;,••: •''.•'' ••; '• -' • 26'.'9.W-fi ' ' '• .24. 1)39".  lO W  '  ; :  AA[.-A ,9  •  -.'•-• -r-c  :  - IMF 10 I TY  - l-t li -  ;"' ;  :  5 . V • .  -  1  .., co. 73775 . • ... • '.- 1. 2C 0030 ' • i .2000 27 - /'  7  'i  , -'  9-- ' -  ;-'o--."  • ; '. :..v',9  - - •;•';•-;•'-?  ;  ' ' ' • « -  A"  ••.'"'  •  i-i-  ' •' .-• •-. . .-'-..  IJ1  oo  .  PARA-'.ETER CARD ECHO:  0ATA LOAOEO -  NU^OER OF I N E Q U A L I T I E S ' MJV.:3 = R OF EQUAL I T I ES = M X 3 E R CF A C T I V I T I E S ' :TOLERANCE•LEVFL= ' MAXIMIZING  o  11 0 24 C. C 0 C 0 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 9  ...  INPUT TABLEAU'S « ;. F I R S T ROW CONTAINS: O B J E C T I V E . F U N C T I O N : ". N EXT 11 ROWS CONTAIN ^ E Q U A L I T Y CONST R A I NT S  ROW ROW  i.  2 3 4  ROW Z) ROW £l ROW ROW T RO* 8 ROW . 9 R03 10 RO.-; 1 1 ROW  ROW  ROW ROW ROW ROW ROW RO W ROW 9 ROW lO ROW 1 1 ROW i.2  COL. .'. 9. , - coi.. io . . : COL • i. .-• COL. 2 - - COL . 3 '.. COL. 4 '• ' COL. 5 .-. : C C L . 6 ' - COL ... 7 0 •-. COL . 8 28. 6 9 0 ' 2 0 . 6 4 0 •" 25.670 ••' 2 0 . 5 80 •• ' •' "r '• : 71.6100 . 34.180 26.930' 73. 190076. 070069.1200- ' 0.27580 .-4.9131 0.3 0 1 2 0 3.JO 19 8.2184. 0.31350 . . 0. 2981 0 . 3. 2 7 1 9 4 . 5 1 0 8 •• . s . 23 89 .0.0 " 0.0 0.0 •' O.O 0.0 ' . 6.0 0 0 0 -•' 6 . C C C 0 ' 6. 00.00 ".'' 6. 0 0 0 0 • o.o' 0.50000 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 '• ' 0 . 50000' ''. 7.7000. ' 8. 9 5 0 0 '' 0.50000 0.0 .0.0 0.0 ... 0 .0 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 • . .0. 50000** 3.6 750 3.6750 0.5 0 0 0 0 0.50000 I. 3 940 .1.3420 • 1 . 9660 T 92 2 0 0.50000 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 "• 8.5540 1.0500 ..' 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 .: ' 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 ' . 3 . 6 ? 30 . •. 1.0500 '• 3. 6 3 3 0 s1 . • 63 80 6. 3 2 50 0.50000 C. 5 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 5.0750 " 0. 5 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0.0 6. 50coo • 0.12000 1.1662 • 0.93180 1. 0 7 1 0 •-. •:.' - 1 . 8600 -1.1160 • 0.47520 - 1 . 1 160 - i . 1160 - i.005 5 0.0 . 0.0 O.C 0 .0 : 0.0 - . ; ' 0.3 2 4 9 0 . 0.0 . 0.0 -0.32900 ' 0 .0 0. 0 .0.0 O.C . • . 0.0 0.0 O.C \ .. 0.0 -C.65700 . 0 .0 0.0 .0.28830 . •'•.-. 0 . 2 9 4 7 0 ' - 2 .8500, • 0.29470 .COOO 2.2 0 0 0 " 0.30070 - 6. 0 0 0 0 - ' - 6 . 0 0 0 0 00 oo'' 0.0 0.0 C .0 0. 0 . . 0.0 0.0. 9.0 0.0 0.0 0000 . :  ;  C C L . 1139 .030' •0.3 1670 1.4759 0.0 0.79520; 0'.5.00 C 0. 0.3 . . 0.65 120' 0.0 0.0' 0.0 0.0  C C L . 12 -.6 .5 400 0.59030 1.0063 1 . ) 6 13 1 . 0 6 63. 0.4 7680 0 . 36730 0. 0 O.C 0.56150 O.C .  CO L , . 13 . 14.5 00. 0. 513 60 0. 0 -0. 5 0000' - 1.3800 ... 0. 0 • 0. 3 5 5 0 0 .0. 840OOE-01 0 . 00 . 0 .35250. 0. 0  COL. 15 COL."14 13.540 15.070 . 0. 5 0 2 6 0 0.52900 0.0 0.0 0.-75000 '0.45000 • . 0.75000 0.45000 . 0.75000 .. 0..45000 0.75000 0. 4 5 0 0 0 0 .1.22 10 0.94000E-01 0.0 0.0 0.19740 0.17500 0.0 0.0 0.51800E-G1 0.0 :  COL. 16' -1 .2000 CO ' . 0.0 0.0 0. 0 . . 0.0 0/0.0 -1.00000.0 0. 0 0.0 . 0.0  COL. 17 -1 .2000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 •0.0 -1.0000 :  o.o. • . 0.0  o.o  •  •  COL. . 18 -1.2000 0 .0 ' _ J _ : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0000 C. 0 . 0.0 -  COL.. 19. -1.2000 0.0 .'' ;  o.o. o.o'-. •o.o ..-..' o. o • • o.o ••'; o.o' ' •o.o 0.0 -1.0000 0.0- '"•'•  C C L . 20 -1.2000 0.0 0.0 0.0 ;  o.o.. -,.'::. . o. o 0.0  : : :  o.o • o.o o.o . o.o . ,"; ;  -1.0000 — _ ^ — : . . [.j Ul  VD  ROW ROW ROW  1 2 3  C C L . '21; -0.2 4 0 0 0 0.0' ; 0.0 . •  COL. 22 -C.2 4000 0.0 0 .0  COL. 2 3 -0.24000 0. 0 0.0  COL. 24 ... -0.24000 0.0 0,0  COL..25 0.0 -316.00 480.00  • "i  CO  - rO A- 4  - - cc •  — —  — - o.o - - • -0-0 1. 0 i0 —- - -1.0 000 . 0 .0 0.0 5 0 ir0 ' 0.0 -1 .0000 ROW 6 o.o • ! •0.0 • 0.0 7 0.0 • -1.0000 PO . .-J • 0.0 .' .0.0 ROW 3 . o.o ' •! ,• 0 .0 ; -' sow 9 o.o •• o.o '•• • - o.o •'•' 0.0 Ru A I 0 o.o ; . . 0.0 0.0 0.0 ROW 11 0.0 J 0.0. ... 0.0 ROW 12 -..  ROW  O.C  CO O.C  •o.o  o.o..  "•  I-Tc3. AT  i':;  HV- LOG:  i TE"uT I Or-  OBJ.  F UN.  ' •  PHAS t I I BEG INS j i ••  .1.9 — .':. FEASI SLE '  •  " '• ••••'•  • .'.  i > •• • •• 3 " ." - '  . - ' < - " v . •' S  J  ' VAR.IN  9.;...'2.._....,.,.  2 6 2 9 . 9 3 ' "' 4374.33 ' 9 61 1, 00 12254. 3 12256.5 19305 .0 2 5603.5 2 960 3.6 30915.9  .... /  VAR.OUT '  7P,0;00 • 780. 00 • 780.00 780.00 ....• 0.0  . --  . ., .  . . > -9 • .'. '9 - '•'  ' •  ;T  Wv  0 .0 0.0  —  o.o • •; .o.o  •'->.-.'••'• -.. ; ;:;  --------r--;'---''  i .. ^  .  -  .  •••••  •,  1 25 i i - "-• 31\b . • •'' 26 34 9 ' v 6 7. 32 6 '; 1... 17 . 19 35 . 20 1 7 8  OPTICAL."VALUE.OF! THE OBJECTIVE .-.FUNCTION^'  - — ------•  •  ' ' •: :  o l  1.;;..9  .  .... -  • - *  . - ; . ' . ; . • / ...'..' ., ;..  ;  ; 9  .•-.:.'..;.-,,  • \' • ' . '• ; -9;.-  -  .. ' .' 3 0 9 1 5 . 9 2  . : .:. o : 9  :  -i'  -., •'  -"...9.  9  9  .  ' v  -'-•?  9_ •  ' .9  :  ...99  ''' / '  ''.:-''" -9'. o o \ -  •  ' •  ...9V. .  '  .;  •  9  ''.'  '  /";'•. " :  ;  -••:-;•.• • ' - V - S '  . '  :  9.'/9. .-  .. . '  |  -- •  PR I M A i . SO LOT (ON VFCTOR: VARIABLE ; VALUE • - '. 772. 3C2 7 •325.2244 : 1112.4 45  0  ": • 1 i  -. i i ' " :  " •  ,  :  2J 27  y:--' ". 23  .  --' '•''• • ' 29 3J 3a  .  0. 1 9.SC5 7 9E-04 SLACK 3 • 39 3 . 64 Si ; 135 .2295 . • SLACK -4 -"" •2'•3 1 . 2 3 5 3 SLACK 5 '393.3473 ' SLACK 6 ' SLACK 9 ' o.o  .. .  r  ;  - •  0. 106-31 159-03 ''22 3.04 0 7  - 17  .-  i .'9J.' V , V  . '-9 . • -~ •"  :  •;:•.,'''-,••••,• 9°/vi--'. ..;••>.-;  .  - - ^ p i V f e : ; . ; , : ^  ^ 9 ; - ; '  1  ^ . ; ; :  • .  /  .-.  THE .<EDUCEC. COSTS: V A \ [ A b LS .  ...  ;  . '-.-."  9 673.1567 ' 6 3 6 . 2893 .. .'676.7249  i 9'0-9 ' "• .3  •  .--••9 - - 6 7 6 . 1 6 2 6  9 ; ' : ",.9 .*';.. '9 :•';•  5 5 7 ..-. •  . . VALUE  •"'••••  • ' j 9  i J . i> '-• ' 13 ''.'i>  • , ' ' . ' .... .  99•  9'.:-99--.-. ;  l  36 5 . 37 79 ''.•-•-' 3 35,99 12 • ' •  V-  .-,1. 931 566  . .v.  ••  •' • - . •^-;'-9.  :  '  6. 7 5 0 1 3 5 ' '•;'• "" ;7. 13614 4 .; .'•-," ^.5. 3234 1 ' . ' .'„••'. 9 '-• "31. 0 26 5 0. " 3 1 . 0262 3 ' " ' '•• :  .'''';.•" •  .' ''.'.'  - ' A.--" •.  :  :  :  ;  "  '•' • •  v 9 9 . %y---9 «  S  ' 9: •; ;.•«,;...-;>;.-.  ---^o,:.-•  ,  • '•• ro. •• • o  '  .  •  .... ..  .  15 13 21s.- . 22 . 23 24  i 30-17024 ' 1. 20CC00 .•• 0.230999 9 ' 0.2399993. ,0.2 5 9999 9 , 0.2399999 '  DUAL SOLUTION VECTOR: .. VARIANCE •1 VALUE ; '.  • 36. 74 3 83 ; . 7. 30 1783 • . ••• 2 . .: •'. 1. 2000 2 2 '. 7 , •: 3 :., •.. . .;' \ 1.200173 .'..'. .v/ •• -,v 1 . 1 999 73 1J • ' • .; 1.20046S . :• i i "'  • • - -  :  ^  •-  •.-.'-.  '•'\*  ;  •  i-  ",' \ :  '• ;  .  ' ,  - -..'.ki'  ., . ...,„ . 0'..:;.,.^::-;2.,'  » • 2 3  • •  i J ii 12 . ,.'..'  :  .  ••  ;  U '  • : •  •  ' - 'It 13 '• • lo • • •  '  .  a  19 ' • ' 20 . 2i ' ' ' 22 ' .' 23 . ....'.,'. 24 ... • ..... ...'  "  -.  .'  -INFINITY , -Iy-INITt ; -IVFINITY , -INF INI T/ -INFINI T Y . - INF INI TY -INFINITY . 23. 9706 7 - INF INITY -INFINITY . Zi. 25230 -INFINITY -INF IM TY • -INF INI TY . - IN F IN I T Y ,- 7. 234071 -20 79.16S j — INFINITE -52.45779 - i l 3 5 . 626 -INFINITY -INF IM11 - INFINITY ;  ';.. 'INFINITY.,.., -  •.  :  " •;•'• '-  i i  .. . .'. " .;•  •  ..  >  • 7 ' .' 3 9 .10' H  ' ' .  :  . . .  -\ 'O",  - -  " 0  '• '•'}'•' • • '  •'. -0'  '•' 749. 2266 o; ;. :.r . 755.4097 :' 7 51.91^0 747.7725 394 .0679 430.1711 28.91153 25.05493 :  20 .57999 27.76613 3 9. 03COO ". 5427853.. 6.540000, ';''[;.. .•.:•;'.'.. . , : ' : - C '• " - ' ' ,'. ."• ? ^ r . ..• 5 2.36340 '; '.-.: ,•• . 14 .50000 45. 52650 , '." -; 15.07000 46.09622 . .' " •' ; ' . •;- • 43. 71024 •'• . " ' •'. . • • • '• 13.5 400 0 0.2288813E-04 . ....... . . -I.200000 . -1. 200000 0. 1697540C-03 ' •' - ' " • -...*,' • .. , - . •'. • • ... -1 .200000 .„ ,.' ..... ....;.'....:.. ...::..'... .:."..•".•:".'.''....-.,;. •'.'• ... :.;0:;.; . c. o . ; ;:..;.oij..:.. ' -0.267028BE-04 . ••'';. " -1 .200000 • . : • ' \\; ;• '.. '••'. . ' ".;.,';• .0 .-• .-. - • . -1. 200000 0 -0.468254i.F-03 -' •'• ' . Vw 0.0.-•••'.••• ' - A •'•'" -0. 2399999. 0. •-0.2399999 ,. ,.'••'•.' • ' ''.'";'/**'•'."."'" ' -0.2399999 0.0 :'••;•:'. • • ..-0.2399999... •-...o.o../-.'.zs::X-.'..--.'..\i.-.---.'. . . .^v:r 0v':v'-.o-:.':. • :^;V" A - ' .'..';.0 ••• ; - ^'v'"'''^'' ^ :  ;  ;  v  :  . ....  ;  ;  o.o  R HS  ,  :  UPPER 50UND .'.'.-'  '•'•''.'•'  . 316.0000 390.5925 '• :. •';'• '; . 136.acco V Oo ;o.:, . 0.2197266c- 02 ;.,'•. .... 480. COCO . 138 2. 38 7 •".'•,... ' . .... .. -':; • . •?. I ;„..;!..;2.-L!O :; + INF INIT'.' ' . '•-,••'•..." ... • - • . •"• • • •. 780.0000 • • • 33 J . 1519 7.80. 0000 '••'.;' '.' 644.77Ci •••'. ' C ' . ; - ' ; ; . , - . - . +1MFiNITv + INFINITY ' •"' ' ••'..••"•• 54 1. 7 64 4 • - 0" .•:•.''.' •• ' ro - • • •• 780.00 00 ' ' a>. 33 5. 1521 7 80.0000 • '+ I N F I N I T Y '. i . . •'*"'.• 1112.443 ,, . • 0. 0 -13 2 91.23 0.0 -0.93459075 0 3 ';'..-....' . , ' . . \ o. 1C68U5E-03. '.; :"•'.••'...•: .0.0 • +INFIN ITY • "'. '•:'., .: '• " :•' '.•••'"''•.•'-•:•'••'. V. <'.'..:: ••;[.'•, 0".. 0'. • v'' ' " = 223 .Q'-Ol •"••.••'-• 0. 0 -1120690. 0.198O570F-04 0.0 -0.1422492E 0 3 ;  ;  ' •'••:•',•'• ' - -.- ,'  ;  •  .  76.06999' 69.1-2000 73.18999 " 71.60999 2 8.68909 34. 17999 26.9 8000 2 5.6 7 000  LOWER 3CUMD  NUMdE R  ... i ' ". .• - :. ' '  .  UPPER.BOUND .  ;  .RIGHT HAND S IDE RANG I NG : ' -  . ' ; ••• • '  '• .',-.' -  OBJECT IVE FUNCTION COEFFICIENT RANGING: • LOWER BOUND • COE-F. COST/PROF IT ;'  ''  •'•  v  :  :  • •  .o.o  .•'.••  :  :  !  ;  .341 D U N N E L -TWO  RIVERS  NLM'3Sa.  PARAMETER  0 ?  NJ -13E'R  CA»0 S C H ) : .  '  ••' '  TABLEAU:  FIRST  ROW  o..-W- - i - i  —  0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 ' ?  cioc?  l..£Vt!. = '  :.,M:'9.c;;  . ' M A X I M ! Z I N G "',  .. •  1 0 A 0 E 0 _ •'".-•..•'''••".• 0'-. ' 9  • N2X7  -jz  .st'i.>.of Aen-vn IF.S = •  INPUf  • d;  £OU\LITIES»  • TOt E R A N C C  DATA  11  I NEOUALI TI FS = OF  ;  y  ' . '  -. \ - y  " ' • • ' . ; • ' '  C O NT A I N 5 , 0 S3 J E C T-1V E CC'NT A I N  11 R O W S  •y.' Yi}h  . ' 9, :'• .,9= '• .. v.:.'.:. - y y - r  FUNCTION  i IN ;; 0 0 A L ! T Y  "•. 9 : " 9  9:^990;  .  .'9 -v.  : -',''yvl y y . :  ;  C 0 9 ? T R A I.NTS '  ' r CO!. .  1  COL.•  R O W R O W . ••. 6.JO R 0 9 R O W R O W' 3.2C 3 R O W R O WJ W R R O W R O W R O W R O W 1-42.03  " F  i  2  COL.  6.90  9.12 90  JO  6  6. O O O O : .0-  •V. 9 9 0 0  3.°209  5.1240  6. 1 3 4,0  5. O O O O  0.7tf0  0.0  0.0  0.0-  0 .0  - 2 .1I2 J  - 2. 11 2 0  o.o  9 •  0.0  -1  0.0  10  -0.9  i .1  0.0  12.  O.O  5200  •'•'.'•  -C. 9 5 2 0 0 0-0  :'o.o  o  0.0  •'  . •"  -6.5000  0."  0.0  2.9 0.0 77 05 00 0 ; 3. 6 1.0750 5' 00 . 5.0  • 4.9131  0.0  '7  'COL.9  -  0.  .0.0  3.6 7 50  "0. 5 0 0 0 0  1 .0 5 0 0 '  0 .50000. :  "  .  0 . 0 •,  0.0  0 . .0  0.0'-  - •  o.o ••  . 0. 0  0 .30070  u .28 380  :  0.0 -  0.0 0.500^0' ' 0. 5 " 0 0 0 0.50000  t.ono  0 . •••1''-0  1.1662  ..  '0.0  0 . o.  0.0  o.o-  9 f  :-•  •.•••'  C 2 9 - 7 0  0.29470  .-•0.0  30  0 . 3 0 1 "  .0.50900  0 .Sf'O^O  ": 0 . 5 0 0 0 0  0.129 90  -2.8500  0.9 '  0 . 5 0000'.'  •  '  '0 Q.5. 05 00 00 000 0.50000  • 0 .50009  C.50000  20.5  .0.2995.0  275cV7T  0.5 0 3 0 0  0 .,4 7 5 2 0  C O L . ,10..  9  .0.0 '  .0. 5 0 0 0 0  6.32 50  CO 2L0..:640  8  . 2 5.670  0.31350  8.95 0 0  0.0 -  COL -  9 •' 2 6 . 9 8 0  0.0'  0. 0 '  2.?noO  .  34.1 30'  7.  0. 0 o.o.  ".  o .o;.  .90 4 0 '  C O L . ••' 6 69 0  4 7 ITUTT  0.0 ' ' ' ' 1 . 2 4 00  -3.1600  n.  ' '  . 3.0 2 O 7  6  -0.'-,6i59  COL  4  17.01  5.21 15  T-.iTnr  099 0  0 . 0 'Q  COL."  3  136.02  136.32  ! 0."  V  COL. 11 • C "C L5 .40002.'. 14 C. O5 L . 13COL .. '14' COI.. .i5 .CO • L '• . "' 16•'C0.0 O L . " 17 COL" . 13 ' 'COL. A"".-'•' y C OL. 20' 6 . 9 0 " 1 . 2 0 0 0 2 "R R O W • . 2 5 , 3 0 . 1 5 . C 7 C y. 1 3 . 5 4 9 . ' 1 . 2 0 0 0 • : • • • • ] . 2 0 0 0 , . . 1 . 2 0 0 0 , : • ' 9 . 1 .2 0 0 0 O W •?•• - '0.5 651•)'0.5 . 5 0 2 9 0 0 . : ' C o0 . o.o. -...-•. --o.o .. . .• •• : • '; 1309 0. .0 5 '1890. -.C 5290C 0 9.0' ' • . 0 . • . . 0 . 0 . 9 Q.i--,::>:•'}• • '•'•-;." - ' 0 •y -o.o ;•• -y... .- 0.0 - . "."-R 'WR O W ''-0.0-2.3614' ' 1 . 0 . 0 - - o.o O -0 0. . •'."•.' '' .0 c o - - -•"o.o i '-•• ' . . O 0 . 6 5 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 7 5 0 0 0 ' C O ' '0.0 9'""•'•999 9 o.o '' "-' o.o.; '.' r:.o-.o .. .R ' O ' W 5 ' ' 9 1 . 0 8 5 6 ' 9 1 3 1 . 3 3 0 0 . 0 . • 7 5 0 O ' O • • 0 . 4 5 . 0 Q O . ; • ' . • • ' 0...0 : . ' : " 9 ' . 9 0 R O W 6 0'" 0.4 5 -• O" r -o 0 oO . o5 .O "C '- ' '. . •-' •O .o •." . , . 9 O. y.. "0 -. 14 ./)6!h1• 50C.O 33'. 0 . 7 5 0 . 0 0 ' . ' ' . O ; • 9.00 "• .. '90 9. 9--,.' '0 " " . R O W.7 o. 5 5 0 0 0 . 7 5 0 0 0 "0 0 . 4 5 0 0 0 0 . 0 . " • ' • • ' O . o : . •:';• I.. .0•"' •-"•*' 0 1 2 2 10-.9 0.40'90E-01-1.0000 ."- 0. 0 ''"o.0.0 U. . O ' • ' " •RO-W 0 ' O . b 5 1 2 0 . 0 . 3 J • 7 3 . V 0 . 8 4 9 1 0 0 5 0 1 • ' 0 . 3 i •• ' .'O.O9 U.O O.U .0 o.o y. .o 0 -. o •o •... . 0 ;R R O W9 U .O.. u 0 . 01 .•00 0 .0;.'' . -•'..•.'.o.o-1.•0•' '•'.-"•• JOO . O W 1 . 0 0 0 0 o.o. o.o: ;, o.o; :•'• : . 0 . 0 . . C ' . . ' . " ' 0 . 0 . , 0 ' . ' " . ' 1 9 7 4 0 C . • • 7 5 • '•y- . ROW 1 0.0. 9'yo'.o0 '.'". c• .'c. -.o.o0 •5 ;o.o "!•'"".-'•' '7"o.o"-.'••" '..-9 • ' • • ' • ' • 0 ' . ' 5 5.'15• •0 .3 25•'".'• 0' .0 0. 0 "•-•' ,1-300E ' -1. "'99 ROW 9.0.00.0 . 5 -0O 1.C •' •' 0.0- '""•"'•" .'."0.0 '000.0 9•-. .:•'•-.1. '0000 ;  9  1-  3  C O  •  -  0.0  •'•  4•  :  ;  ;  :  n  ;  :  •  n  i O  :  :  C  u  '  --  ;  . .  :  i  ;  ii 2  COL . . 21 - 0 . 2^000 -0.242 02 39 0..0 CCL.  R O W  • ROW  '  0.0  0.0  C C  CGI'.  2.3  - 0 . 2 4:000 C O 0.0  ' -.  • COL.,24 O.C 7 5 -6 .24O00 "0.0-9. O . O ' 350.CO COL.  -  N3 N3.  ROW . 9 ROW 5 ROW . o ROW 7 F, OW 3 RO 9  -FToboo  -1 .0000  JkJL_ 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 '  • ROW i i ROW.i 2 ITERATION ITERATION  LOG:  o.O O.C 0.0 •C. r  "T7o~  03 J. •ON,  TT7T77F 122 5,2.6 2t-2 13'. ? '2a2")'!. 9' 30 i 5 0.9  VALUE OF  PR H A L SOLUTION VAR 1.4 ii L F 3 io 17 19 19 29 2 / 2o 2J 30 3-J  . 780..00. 700. 00 —7«Q-„-0-0* 79 0,. 00 0.o • ' 0 .0  0.0  -G-H3-1 . 0000 'CO 0 .o 0,0;  "TTTTT  o. n  0.0 0. r  Pt'WSt I I 3COINS . f EA 3 i 0 L F 907 7.0 9 • i 9077 .59 .2 9CT7.59 • '• 3  OPTIMAL  "oTo"  0.0 0 ,n ^ 1 .00 00. CO. 0 .n 0 .0 OT"  0.0 0 .0  0.0 VAR.IN . VAR.CUT  ... 1 • 7 17  32 34 .. u  1-5 16. 1 "  33' '•1 ' ' 7  TH F '• CO JEC T I VR FUt\CT!ON =  2 0 3 6 0 .'* 0  VECTOR: VLLU7.  >' ->..v  129 9.3 3 7 14 "9.959 0 .5 103 5 169- )9 0.9-9' ; ' !9- ;4 99'- 9 T r r r ; " ' '"rj9~ '9 LACK 3' SLACK i 3 , 4? 1 7 4 ' SLACK l'(5. 40 17 9 3 i'i ' 5 SL ACK 14 1, 431 1 6 SLACK 0.0 ' SI.AC K' 11 c  —  .THE <i.OUCFO COSTS •VALUE • VARIABLE  - 9 ••.-.'  . '  "  u 12 IJ 14  •  •302.9673_ "302.8464 311.2268 237.2176 3 :; '>.')/ .3 * 395. 99 1 ') 1 . -) 3 1. z 7 \ 6. 759 17 i 7. 1851 3 9 ' •' • '29.93)97 -9 • '• 9-5 . "O • 9 ? ' 3 1 . 0 7 55 7 2 1. -9 19 ,  9  •  .7-  ;;^49/r:c 9>. ;  ,  .-•'.'.,":. '  .,:  '  ..  •  . - ' • • ' • . ' .  • ' •• 9 9 ;  '  . . . '• •  \- " 9  •'  ' • •'•..  ,..  ;  . .  '  '  :  •  ?  "  .  ••'  •  :"'  '  '  '  9  ;.  - - .  -  ,  •:•:•••>•'  . •• .J  •"'  ,."'..•'  "•  I  ,'c  '-r  -  ,  •,  '  •  •. N>  ^  / " - ' . 9 9 : 9 .  .9  •'  V  \  '  "•  :  39. 13035  i-J  2021 2i 23 24  •:• -,-  0.2 3 555-59 0 . 2 3-3999 } 0-239995 } 0.2 3^9999  DUAL SOLUTION VFCT01 : • , V AH I A. li L E . • onLU'l  ,3 ' 9 10.  ;  1  ;  l i  19 20. 21 ' 24  -16 3.5)34 -24. 395^ 3 -INFINI TY-IN'-IN I TY -1 «N - I M T y -.IN-IN I IY -INF IN ITY  UPPER OOUND  142.0300." • A44 . '7-l •'•••V.'o •' : ' ; '•: %]'' " AA^.:M ' '".'439. 1663 ' 136.3200 ' • • . ^47 -2466 ' • 136.0200 -' • '•'.' .25^.2276- iT.oiooo. ^ r A - ' A ' A ^ i :?A"A26.60'./9- • • . . A . ;• . • • • ••"'••. , 34 . !-7'-'99 - " '-30. 1719•' • 26.93000 .••'•':'••..•.. ;, 23. 9 1 1 56 • '••.; A. •*• : A. A • A A A „ :AA:./ A A . A . . . i-'z ifAAA.:,A ;>5.67000- V"-" "'"•' •""-'o. 16205300 CS -'••.--..• • -.-..'", • - '" : .-.;' ' .'•, ' :' -i ' .>''"• •"''•••••' ••' . 20. 64000 ' '• " . . . 27.39017 " ?. . 57999 • •" 27. 766 3 1 2 5.3790'.; 49.HOC 46 • ••'•'., . ••'.'.. 6.54 COCO .- .' • 52.3^-351 '• • • . • . • ' .-. •'•:...'•"•. i " •'"• .', ' •;••.•.• 45.52657 14.-5000 0 - ...A'.... ", , ' 15. 07000" " " '"-. ' " '46 . 27 0'" i ' ; A\ • '••j.A '•:':"••'•'••-..'•' ". ':• :'C • ••':•:'! '•••.'/• ' 0 ••".';'"'"'"'. • '.' 13. 54!i00 •'•3. 92032 ' " . •• ' '- '."•/•.' • ' '•' :• j'. '• :• •"• .>':'• , -1 .2 00-^00 . '. -C.9530''43F- 06 . " . CC  :  :  o  •'.••' -INFINITY ' -; \-~ r -1 N' I Ni TY • ".' •• " '•' •••"•+ • 0 - INF IN TTY ' . . -IN-IMTY • • 6 '; • - I " i .0'! 17 • -INF I ''j I TY . ' '" • 3 23.9 7 }"3 • • • 9 ••-INFINITY ' .' -IN'tN.ITY .'" l i '" ii - I N - I \ KM . • ,- 12 -IN-I'NITY •• -INF IN I TY • '.'••''•13 .' ' ' i » "" :" ' - I N - I N t T Y • . ' -'INF IN [ ! y • • ' VJ .• ib -7.23-;:> 5•> • • ; .  :  .  re--  ''OBJECT IV E FU.N0T ION OOF F F IC I EM T'•R ANGI MO :' • LOWER 3GJNO ' COST/PROFIT CU:.r r- .  1 !  co.744 CO 1. 199999 : i .200004 1 .200463 •1.200032  •;c  •7  :  :  n  :  1  :  :  :  ;  - 1. 2C0CC0 -1 -2.00000 -1 . 2 0000 0 0.2399999 0 . 7 399 59 9 .0.2.3 9999 9 •0 . 2399999  46S2541F-03' 3242493E-04 0 •  -  •;o o,i ,.;r :  n. 0  "oTo  -  L\ 0  >•...:'•- ' • • . '. - • :  ....... .,.  RIGHT. WAMD SIOE RAN ;iNG : .' . NUMBER'., . • • ".' • LOWER 30UNO '  h  . LPPER BOUND:  A  A  >  -.•  :oro.'3^^r:.'i:-^:'  .0  . . ••  .  . ...  ;  . C.O06/43  3 • 4  • /  • k ; 9 10 'ii-  0.0. ' •634 .5 1:3 3 ' : 634.5181 ' 624.5131 63 V'.5 1 3 3 - 1 '. 61 . . ': - 3 2 23.54 7 -0*731562 2 E 03 - 0. 9 7 6 7259E09 0 .0 ' z  — 3 6 0 .f:0(,O  .. 4 30. 0000 •• 780.0000 "'• 7 00.0000 780.0000 780.^000  TfTTT0.0 0.0  • • '•• • '.  0 .0 •. '.  .430.24775 ~ +INFINITY + INFINITY ' . • + INFINITY ""•" + I NF I NI TY +INFINITY T4A779 6 0 . • C. 6 1035 16E-04 0.470 5'522E-C4 366-.^9 71 . + 1 NFINITY :  :  —  -Ki-  c^  •  -  I; '  j _ '' '  -  . ^; '  1 " -  '  . '  '-•'J '.'  1  \  O  •  m f  C  •- <~i IS-"v  ^  JV... '  ' 1'  Cl  C:'  —« •  o  •  c* o in *  o"  o Cc* o m • o  o  (~.  o  f*-  O m o  cz *  •  . • e  * c*  —*  o  "  nj o  *  <  c  .  »•;:.  o o «*NJ o ' c • f • •c  c-  1 o  • U  c. o o O o • • « • • • • o o a o  •  °  i  C; *  • •'  " j V  • ••  i."  .  ..-.-U • "  -  •"•V  .  <  ^  o .>r sC X'<  O  \  •  o 7 c; O  •  o o c()"• f  cr,  O  -' f  «  O  •- '  l  ; ..•K;- ;.:  c:.' co o i n un o • • * » • o o o o  CM  o o o  o o o o ir. • • • • Q o o  Z~J  co r\ ^ :^ - • •  . : '•. •;' • '. '., f  - •  o  C". L_ C'  IO  _J  • z  ;  o r*:n — •c •  v..  cr •  •  O " f o  •  • o  • cr c-. — o . ; • c~ «  _I  -C u  -C.  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CO -.1- I- I —  r  I I I  >- >-  o  c c c: o  a-  o r-j <- I  U. cc. ^ . — rr, •_, + + +  c. o o c  o  o  o  :i° c. c-  r-J r- CO rr;ci' cc) T. cc:  ~< 'c\ ifJ ir\ :ri • 0- -0 -0  •~* .N:  I  I  I  T. u:  _J  -•J -.-\  <r\ ..-)r i  .  IJ-  o  J  I  V  U- U. U- Li. ;r x z ^  c  o  i.'.- r-- <3- -_. cj- o r- c* i.-. • . . r\i o c-j ~. ^ y. :r. • • <3" u" cc-  iri j .  I'-  o  o e C> :. o o o c- oo o o :• o o o c- c; '.. C ( . "- O O *- -CC o -  CJ  .|.-r  V-  c<-. o  c_- o  O O' C-  r—  t  r— c  CJ  -C  1-  r-J ~ ^ - IC.  —( 4  ...»  r\l  o  CN| CJ  '  1  —  O '  -< .-\! -r, i- .rv  n  1. -1  o o o  r-^  PARA -St T E R C A R O  •  OATA  •J  N U M B E R OF I N E Q U A L ! TI ES = . 11 NUMBER' CF A C T I V I T I E S ' . ' •-. 24 T O L E R A N C E L E V E L = •. 0. C00000999999 9 ..' ... , . - M A X I M I Z I N G • 9 . . .' . •• . ' N .H 8 E R OF EQUAL I T I F ? - ••• • ••• 0  v  1  -p < ' -., .'•' .\ . .  LOADED  FUST  • INPJI •  ECHJ:  TA3LEAU: ' . ROW C O N T A I N S O B J E C T I V E F U N C T I O N NEXT 111 ROWS C O N T A I N I N E Q U A L I T Y CONSTRAINTS 1  •COL. 1 9 •• . C O L . 2 ' • 3 3.83090.3 903 3 52 •' 6 . 3 1 3 ? ' ' 6.-00 0 0 : 6 . 0 COO . 0.0 . ,0*0 6 . 6 3 0 0 •'. ' . 6 . 7 2 4 0 . , • ROW s : 3 . 7 7 00 ; 3. 7700 : ROW 7 0.0 0.0 9 • ROW ROW £ - 1. 0 3 2 0 , - 1 . 3 3 20 R0W 0.3 . .-'•-0.4 3 7 50 . ROW i 0 . • i • •C O i . o.-c ' -• K'J W 1 1 -3.4800 I • -2.6100 P. Of.' 1 2  ' ROW .... ROW '';•'• ROW  ' i  ;  6.  - -6  .0.0  COL. - 3 SO.240 . 6 . 9 0 77 6 . OOOO • .0.0 ." 6.7240 .- 3 . 7 7 0 0 -0.0 - 2 . 064 0 -0.48750 ' 0 . 0 • .. .:. 0.0 ' ' "•''. - 1.7400 . :  COL. 5. CCL. 4 28.690 4.6400 4.5108 . 2.0902 .0.0 5.0000 : . 7 . 7 0 0 0 '.. . C O . 3.6750 . . :' •• 1 . 0 7 0 0 • •• •.1.0500 . • - 1 . 4 3 00 5.0 50 ' -'..0.0 • O.C 0.12000 0.0 .0.0 . o.o , . •. •;.. o.o2.2000 .-' -4.0000. 0. 0 • C O  7  V  . COL . - 3 COL. 6 ;.<•: COl . 7 1- 2 5 . 6 7 0 ' 34.180 -.-•'- 2 6 . 9 8 0 ' .0.31350 90.27580 4.9131 • 0.0 ' -o.o 0.50000 c o • ."--', • .- - 0 . 5 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 5 0 0 C 0 ".. '.'•''•'p. 5 0 0 0 0 : •.' -9 8 . 9 5 0 0 '3 . 6 7 5 0 .'•• .':;...0 . 5 0 0 0 0 .= - ' 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 . •'.' c'50ooc 9 0.50000 ' 1 . 0 5 0 0 ' . '0 . 4 7 5 2 302 0 ": • 1 . 0 0 5 5 1.1662 0.0 ..'-;.- -,- C I 2 A 9 0 •''• 0. 0 . o.0 ; . 9 C O "' ... • 0 . 2 3 3 8 0 ' •'• •••::'• C . 3 CO 7 0 .2.3506 ' 0.0 0.0- ' 0.0 y ;  9.  6.  r  :  C O L . . 9 r-. C C L . 10 20.640 20 . 5 80 0.2.981 C . 0.30120 ••• 0.0- ' "". •' ." ' 0 . 0 ''"':9V0 . 5 0 0 0 0 '. -.. 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 • 9;;9. ^9, 0 . 5 0 0 - 0 0 .'• •-. 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 - •. o ' o • 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 .•" - ' - . '. . 0.50000 '. 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 '""'• .'• '0.50-000 0. 98180 . 1. 0 7 1 0 0.0 . . - 0,0 -y 9 . C O 9 9.5 • - 0 . 0 ' .. 9.';-. C O . 0. 29470 ". 0 . 2 9 4 7 0 .-'9-' ".'• 0.0 - •.-,' 0.0 •  •  .  .  •  • . .  .  11 CC L. .5 4 10 2 0CO1L4..500 13....CO1L5..017 40 CO L3..540 15 CO L..2 1 6 ' .CO1 L. 1 7 9'•'-COL1 ..201 8 CO L..2000 19 ' C1 O. L2 .000,20 1 . , 1 R , 0 2 3 W . 1 6 0 , , 6 1 0 0 . 0 ' C . 2 0 0 0 0 0 • : 1 : 2ROW0 .5 2390- -0.590 300,5 1380 0 0. .0 52Q00 0 0. .0 50260 CO 0.0 O • ' •'• . -0.-00. 0 C 0 .0 •-.•-:•••'•'. -' R R O W 3 • • 2 . 9 5 1 9 C . C C O • 0 . 0 ' • : ' • . 0 . 0 ; . ' 0 • . • " 0 OW 4' 0.0 "•; '' 1613 . .0 • 0 "631. 03 .3 ;00 5 0000 .750 70 50 000. 0 . 4 5 000O . C0 '' . -o.o0.0 ," "','0C O . CO- • 0 . 0 . 4 5 0 0 0 . C O ' • ' . • ; R O W 1 . 2 3 1 7 ; 0 . , . 0 , 663 : CO O0' ''•"• ;•ROW6 R O-. 00.. 50000 0:' .1.0 0 . 7 5 0 0C 0 9 •0,0 . 4 5 0 00 C - - 0.0 ,'-•'.-. '.-/'* 7 0 . 7 5 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 . ':ROW 0 0 . 4 7 3 3 9 0 0 . 3 5 5 0 0 0 . 0 . . ' • ' • • 9 0 . 0 8 C 9 4 0 0 0 E ' C 1 ' -.0 ' . 35.• 70 3. 0 3O 400•0 E-00 1 122 10 0.0• 0.0 -0. 0.0 - '-.. ROW- 0.6 51 20 C. O -.-' - I.OOOO • • ' 0 . 0 C 0 . 0 ; • 0 0.17500 0. 0 0-9 -1.0000 ' O.0' ;.0;6•---""'- -:'-'. R 01 0 . 0 • : • O . C 0 . 1 9 7 4 0 OO 0 . 0 : ' " " " ' " ' • ' , . 0 . 5 . 5 1 5 0 0 . 0 . . ' , 9 0 . 0 : 9 . ' , ..; o.o :'• • :• :0 . 3 5250 .9. 0 . '; O.C .'. '; , -. -1.0000.5 r\OW 2 . O 0.. 00..-., CC . • .00 . 0 . 0 . 5180CE-00C 1.. .0.0 0.0 '.'.... ' • - 1. 0000 ''-: CQL.  1  9"',  :9-  9  c  9  i .)  ... 9  •o.o  •90.0  OOOO"  , •••}..  ••••' o . o  i J "  si  i  i  9  j -  ' ' 1  COL . 2 1 - 0 . 2 4 0 0 0 -;  0.0  ....  ' ' • • ' . '  C O L . 22 -C24000 C.C'' n  1  COL . 2 3 C O L . 24 -0.24000 - -0.24CC0 0.0 '. 0 . 0 r>.ft  • o . o '•'  .  •  • •  n.o  '  ; :  ••  •'  25  COL. 0.0 268.00-'  •  9r": '.:. o . o -..'V . '.9---'' -- - •  , .'. 9-.;.-9  9.-9  --  :  -,, o . o  •-• •  .'-  "  •'  V;-:"-"-.o.;-'-  : 9 -c.r. '.,'-;. •-•••".9y-y" '..-92 :'. CO 9';' J . 9 . ; 9 - ; ' ; . . ; _ . •  - o . o •-,.,-.-' .  9-;,  9  9  ROW  9-  ..'o.o-  w  •'  : . • o . o . •'.-  o.o  :  -'• .••C:o.'o•.';•-,•:• K-' -9,-'-„.'-v-9-9 O 9-.-=9-9-9 9;,, ;; :  •.. -  . •,-* 9 "•  :  •- •9'"-  oo  69.  o o o o O'O o o • • « • o o o o 0 0 CC' CO CO o o o o r- r~ r- r- • o o . O o  o o  t-  o . o  oj rri CM  o o O • O co o o • « • »-M « • « • « O O o I o c o o o i n oo . j - c\i m m  O C  o o o o  2T  O •C O  • • •  o c o o  • • r~l • • • o o  O Q  CJ  I  O O  f-  o  r-  *t  NO  c r ao o j  r-< .-i  ro  in -o co cy* r—i  I— o z:  -Xt.  CJ c; ' J  3  O  O Ci o c O o o • • « . • < . I O O O C3 o o o  ^) fO ro O in m m  —i  .-4  ~K ::c 7fC T! 3 3 S r i ."J o o o o a '*? <y o> a: rv IT: a: fr.' Or".  *—(  O O  o  LU  _J  c£  s:'2:  CJ  h-  vt ^ .-o m r\i r\| ou  oo  • *•  e  T5  o  *— UJ . i—> _ J :u :-0  ;n ,  < • r l.U  . 1—t ^  u.  m  •»  or  in  o  *r> r - o -,r .c i - -4- - r i — .n (*i ir\ r^i (M  rT> o  • o o o oo o O « 4 • • • » o o o o o o o  .CC  1~.  o > li. •  o  ::> •_i < >  o  r\; . j .  <*- -1!^ •>  17-  O'  i  K j OJ OJ OJ  O H ( O CO • >fl O in  O r n -T M u; CO O- r CXT n i • • • H -n v-1 r~ .o in rn  H cr.  ir-  ( A  X  f - ( " l  o ^(  K-  NJ  ( N  1  f  IV  •  in r> :n  -H  »  o  c> 3 cu o _i  00 lU  _J  «  a  *—(  >  co ^  * i  ,—  n  OJ  ft . 1 ^ . ~) (NI rs! ; \ ]  OJ  <Y_ -1  :A  rn - n :n  oi  IJ.I  «  O U\  r-) n vO —i O c f\» J C : ii. o' i p c r o t r r - r*i , . • «- -O !A ^ * > (NJ -f rO  . iu'  <r <-r  O  O  rri CO CM • H O in  -r .-o -j-  O o  _J -o  i— a.  (  U  .fl -o o cr c>  >  a  -n r - cn-.  M ^1 r c HN n ro H ji o rro s  U O C! U  < <- < < < <I J J. J J J J V I V ] I f l t/1 ! f l l / l  <3  o j - n J* : n . n o-  ^ - i —1  —*  : 17  1. 2CO002 1 . 2 COCO 3 1.30Of 3) i0.2 }S9S9; 0.2 3059S;  ".  21  :  • ' 2 2 . 2 3 •  •.  1  .'  1J  9.:. -w;  9 0  ••••.'...,-•.•••... ':' -V •<:•'•' ' .-  ......  : 0.2355999  .-'•''•  0 .  :  ';Jp'j; :' :  r  ; ."59-:'*  VECTOR: • • VALUE  . .: />  :  '  ;  '.  : 5'i 9 9 ' " - 9 -'  ..,  -"  :  '•'  ••,•••-•••• •••-:[  '•>'•.  36.74390  ;  .  . :.  .  .  , : ,;• ' - \  .9  v , ..;. .  1.2 0003 7 1.200C27  :;  .  v9  . •.•  ;  -  ••v-9 9....-  -••." '.  :- ; • : . . -.••-;.;  95.9'y^  ::  :  :.: - . -•'•"oWyr'i;  r  ,  ,  ...  • - .'  !••".. -2 " 3 ':  O-  :  " -  . i  . •  : - INF IN I  ';-INFINITY -INFINITY ' : - I N F I N I T Y .. .. : 24.10257 - I N F I N I TY 9 ' -INFINITY  3 • 7 3  •' '  •.9 .10  "" -'•' ' • • ' • ' •  12 13  . - I OF I N r ;  i i .,  ?  '-6.755306 •-INFINITY  a .  2i '•''"••'•  ,  21 '  •' .;• ••  • . Zi 24  - I N F I N I T Y •-INFINITY  •  .'-[ N-I N I TY  •  SIDE  RIGHT HAND •.NUMBER  RAN3ING: •• LOWER 30JNO  0.75242  3  '  •  L  "' •  19E-03 .  4 3 5 . =55 9  " ••"-•'  . • •  9  -0.152465 0.0  •  . .;. .  O.O • ?  •  176.5123  9-  •'  JE-03  .  ...  ' • i . J '  • ;-•  ....••. .-. ;...•  ' •'-  • •• '•  ,  •  .. xy:.  •  ;  :  •  9  •  :9'-,''  ;  -9"  '  :.s..O-.  £  '-; -  ;  .'  '•••-•>"•• C  .'  ••  , . o - 9 9.:;-'..;.;o •'•'••  •'  •'  -  ... 9  •'  43. 71024  C. 0  .  ' •  '••  •-  ;•:' .. . . . .  :  . ' :  9 - ".' 9 9  -  0.2765656F-04 •  •  '••'  + INF :  •.  5-;  '.  BOUND  •;• ' " '  .  •  •  • • -V? ' :  :  :  :  l  . 5'  " 59 •'  9'0  ' "^:' '7v''-'9 '' 9 ;  '  :  :  59  :  ..-..•.' ' .  5  '  •'•: •' . . -  :•  "* • 1  i  ;  i  ITY  + 1 NF I N I T Y . • ro  ,'  •INFINITY 0.0 , + INFINITY...  . • ' •  .. •  . 9 : ;•' 9  .-.•INFINITY  •INFINITY. ••'•.:.'  • - ••  INITY  ' +INFIN  • INFINITY  . . . . .  •7^.-.,:,: 9,9 : • •  0.0  0.0  '••';••  ' x C ^ - ^ X  • ,  268.0000 . .,..y  '  • • • :.. . .  0.0  UPPER  '  . 9 . 5 ' ' ;  • •  C O .  • -  •  C O 0,0 0.0  . 730.0000 • • 0. 0  . o.o  • • ••  C . l 9073.4 9 E - 0 5 •.,.-;•'. . . ..' .. ':. ••  RHS  0. 0  '•..  45.52650  2399999  . 0 . 0 .  ' •  52. 3634 5  ;  -0.2399999  780.0000 09  ..  46.03398  ••' tao.coo'o ..  .  '•  0.3710350E-C4  730.0000  .,  •  ,-2562.050  1 j  ;  04  435.£554  -0.7573953E  7  "  • 268 .0000 . 480.0000  435.559* 43 5 . 3 6  3  i  14 . 5 0 0 0 0  ••:•  0.2441496E-03  :  '  - 0 . •  TY  ' • '  4 6 . 6 6 0 26  6.540000  . - i . 2 00000 • - 1.200000 -1.2 00000 • . - 1 .200000' •"• - 0 . 2 3 9 9 9 9 9 -0.2399999  .:-INFINITY ' - INF I M  ,  ::  .  394.0684 ' 430.1714 • 2 8 . 7 6 1 6 7 ,.•-•.. .. ' ';'•' • , . ... + I N F I N I T Y • 27.39017-., • 27.76611'  13.54000  -33.63771  . .  .-.  5 9 6 . 722.9  -1.200000  • -  2d r  "  15.C7 000  '"-INF IN I T /  19  •  •' •  23.15999 • .  591.6753  5  ;  2 5.6 7 000 . 20.64000 . " 20.57999  \. - I N F I N I 7 Y  17  :  •"  i  B O U N D "-.'  590.2415  .... ..'.,,.•;. 2 6 . 9 8 0 0 0 • .  i-  it.  :'  .' '.  ' •• •  2 8.68999 34. 17999  • . ' . - I N - i NT 7Y '.  . UPPER  "  90.23999 4. 64000  ;-INFINITY  .  H  ...  .  •  :-INFINITY  •'  • IT- .  ••  :  5 . .;C '• -•• .-.  :  M ..  • •; - I N F I M T /  "  ...-..'  83.87999  INITY  +  -  •'•:"•'••'-  90.39000  - I N F IN I T /  •': - I N F  ' • ' '•'.'  • ..':••;•. • • 9.'  O.i 9  ,,,-9..,.. . 7 , . . : j 9 ; 9 , . . . ..;.;•; .y".--9.^  :  n f l . i r " . r i v F FD NOT I ( I N 919 F 9 F T 9. T F NT R A N O T N O : COST/PROFIT '•." • C 3 . . - F . • • . . • LOWER BG'JNO '  : :  :  - 9 > V  ;.'•:. •/ '- '/,,.".•: •'•  ••  7 -' ••;•' -  •  • 0 . 2 3 999 9 }  •••  ' •;,  DUAL S O L U T I O N VARIABLE  . -'•• '•'  9  • 24  - I--.'  :—  :  1  iJ •  :  • ..  13 . •  :  O  -  -  HALFrfAY-  R- TA'f. R r - 0 I S T R I £T  PARAMETER . -  CARD  ECHO: :  ' N U K S E R O F I N ECU At. IT I E S = .- - , 1 1 . VC'-IBER O F E Q U A L ! T I F S = • ' 0 NUM 3 ER OF A C T I V I T I E S = . 24 . • TCLERANCE L E V E L = ,'..'' ,0 .00000099999.9 MA XI MI Z I KG  .  ';•  '•; -  •':'". :  :.' '"  ;  -  ;  OAT A LOADED INPUT TABLEAU: I < S T ROW CONTAINS O S J E C T I V E FUNCTION N ;<T 11 ROWS CONT AIM INEOOALI TY CONSTRAINTS'  • •  '  '..•  ' •  • COL. .1 ROW 1. 1 0 5 . 9 0 0 0 ROW 3.7 3 5 0 2 3 . ROW . 6 . 0 0 00 4 .: ROW 0.0 ' ROW 2.6120 3 . " ROW 6 7. 39 30 ' ROW 70.0 ' ROW 8 -0.97200 ROW 0.0 9 . ; ROW 1 0 0.0 -9.0000 ' K'O-W L i . • ROW 12 . - 0 . 4 3 0 0 0 •  V  :  >  COL . 11 . 25,700 ROW 1 0.2 2140 • ROW 2 • ROW 0.93340'.. j , ..•'.'•' - ROW . 4 .' o.o ''••'.• ROW 5 . , .0.6 9 0 9 0 a. 0.5 0000 ROW ROW 7 0.0 • , 0.05120 • ROW c* 9 0.0 •; ROW • * ROW 10 •' 0.0 • . i ROW i l ' . 0.0 • '• .- . ROWi I 0.0 " ' ••• i • . •' • •. ..' .  ;  COL. 2 . 100.6400 .3.6=77 . 6 .0 000 0.0 2 . 6 120 7. 3 " , 0 -0 .0 -0 . 9 7 2 0 0 0.0 - 0 . 57-800 - 9 .0 0 00 • 0. 0  COL ." 3 COL. 4 103.7500 • 1.03.4300 e.66 67 6.6200 6.0000 6.00-0 0 •0.0 0.0 ' 2.4560 .2.6120 ' 7.8980 . 7.89P.0 • 0.0 0.0 - -0.97200 . -1.6200 -0.2 8 650 0.0 0.0 . 0.0. -9.0000 -9.0000 0. 0 •0.0  ?  C O L . 12 COL. 1.3 •". ' C O L . 14 ; 14.500 15.070 6 .5403' C.51880 0. 52 900 0 . 59C .0 . 0.0 0.0 . • - O.n 1.0060 '•• • 0.50300 0.75000 0.750C0 1.3800 1.0613 0.0 0.75000 1 .066.0 . • • 0.75000 C.4 7 8 30 ' 0.35500 0.367c0 0 . 8 4 0 0 0 E - 01 0.122 10 0.0 0 .0 •• o.o • 0.19740 -0.0 0.0 . 0.56150 . 0. 35250 .; ..... 0.0 0.0 ., ;•' 0 . 5 1 8 0 0 E - 0 1 0.0 -  COL. 7 COL. 8 • ' COL. '. 9 C O L . '5 .COL. 6 34.180 25.670 • -20. 640 23..690 - 26.930 0 .27580 4.5103 - . 4.9131 : 0.31350 0.29310 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 • 3 . 9 5 0 0 ' .' . 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 ' 7 . 7 0 00 '• . • .. 0.50000 .-. , C. 5 0 0 0 0 :.; 3.6 7 5 0 3.6750 0.50000 0.50000 0 .50000 0.50000 0.5C000 . 0.50OCO • 1.0-500 . • . 1 . 0 5 0 0 • 6.3250 "''•' " 0.5 0 0 0 0 0.50000 : 0.50000 5. 0 75 0 0.4 7520 1.0055. 0.93 ISO 0.12000 1 . 1.662,' 0.12490 . 0.0 0.0 .0.0' 0.0. 0.0 0.0 .0.0 .'0.0 "co : 0.30070 0.29470 2.2000 2.3 5O0 0.2 8330 . 0. 0 0.0 •' 0.0 0.0 ' ;.•• 0.0 '  COL.' io . :•:"".'  20.5 30 0.30120 .0.0 ':"' 0- 50000 0.50000 , 0.50000 0.50000 •-. 1.0710  V. 0o.o .0  :  , COL. 21 : ... C C L . 2-2 . .. COL. 2 3 - C . 2 40 00, -0.2 40 00- .. - 0 . 2 4 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 o.o : 0. 0 0.0 0.0 :  . ... COL. . 2 4 -. - 0 . 2 4 0 C O '.. CO 0.0  ':] '•' '•'-" •"'-• . .  ' ... •• - .  C.29 470  o. o  . '  .-••'.:.:•':  COL. 19. . COL. 2 6 ' COL. 17 ' . COL. 13 . C O L . 20 ", COL. 15 13.540' -1.2000 '.-1.2 000 . -1.2000 •".'• -1 .2000 • "- -1 .2000 ' 0.0 0.0 •0.0 0.50 26-0 0.0 CO 0. 0 0.0 .0.0 .0.0 : , - 0.0 •0.0 0.0 '..- . •o.o..: 0.45000 " ",..0.0 .'-" ' .."-'. ' '.• o.o ".;•'. - 0.0 0.45000 .: 0.0 .';'':/ o.o .../;•.; ;.o0 . 0 o.o ...:....:.'-. 0.0 . : -0.0 :.'-•. ••'•'.; 0. 0 ' ... 0.0 .. 0. 45000 o.o ; - o.o ; 0.0 0.45000 0.0 0. 0 0.0 ' 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 • '".".' 0.0 0.0 0 . 9 4 0001:-01 -1 .0000"-O.C 0.0 0.0. - 1 . 0000 ". 0.0 • o.o • .0.0 . - -1.0000 0.0 '" 0.17500 0.0 0.0 "'. 0.0 ; ..-'-.• ..' O.o . .0.0 . , ':.- .. .-1 .0000 '•; O.C. '.- .:. -.. ... . :. ' 0.0 C O ,, ' - 1 . 0 0 0 0 '-• v0.0 • 0.0 - 0.0 .-o.o ;  ;  1 .... "... .• . . ROW • X ROW z I. • ROW • 3  "  COL. 25 .. '._ 0.0 220.00 480.00  '  k>  ROW ROW ROW ROW ROW  -4  5 6 7  -Sow.  3  ROW 10 ROW i l ROW 12  -1.OOOO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 . o.o ;  :  - O'.O 0.0 -1.CCGO 0.0 0.0 - 1.0000 0.0 0.0 o.o. ;. • 0. 0 0 .0 . 0.0 O.C 0.0., .0.0 .0.0 0.0 0.0  ITERATION LOG: ITERATION OBJ . FUN . • • ; PHASE I I BEG IMS 1 . • .....FEASIBLE . 2 38-7.07 1 : 3 6 2'-.. 5 5 \ ..'.'"'.. 2 15573.3 i 1744 3. 3 .. .•'•-, 4 17443.3 ;5 2 1 8 1 4 . 3 ..', 265 4 7.4 272 37.4 • 8  "' :  0.0 . 780.-00 0.0 - 780.00 0.0 780.00 780.00 -l.COOO 0.0 ' 0.0 . • 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ', r - 0 , ... '0.0 .. o.c ..; . '.. ; ... 0.0 • : . '  . V AR. I N VAR .OUT  1 .•  . •  ;. • .  ;  1 .'-25 • 11 31 ' 16 26 •" 6 . . 34 . - 7 ' 32 ... 6 .... 17 • ' 19'. 1 8 . • 7  O P T I M A L V A L U E OF. THE O B J E C T I V E  FUNCTION*  ,'.-;'• .  '.-  -''••: ' . , ;  '.  ..  'I-  •  ' '•• •  .• •'.:'•  '  v . • • ••  • " • ••••• '• . ••  .  -• ..  .... •  • ' '" ,.  . .  .  ...  ...  -...  :  •  '  . :• . .  9-  . . . . .  • .  -:  2 ••••'.•:.  . •  . . . .  ....  27237.36  •406.0510 4 3 7 . 8 5 30 ' 791.22 63 0.61035itE-C4  19  27. 23 27 30 33  _12_  576.9735 '239 .9 15 3 .. 33 3 .0464 • 57.6. 9 7 3 9 0 .0 0 .5360403E-05 1  SLACK 3 SLACK 4 SLACK 5 SLACK 6 SLACK 9 SLACK 11  .THE' RLOUCc 0 COSTS: VARIABLE VALUE 746.1001 742.9192 ',: 7 3 7 . 5300 •! 7 3 3 . 5933 ' 26 5 . 37 7 5 •395.9912  1 '^LoOl  9 13 12 . 13 ii  6. 7 501 7 6 7.186144 45 .32333 .31. 0 2652 30.96399 3 0 . 170 20  :  .  PRIMAL SOLUTION VECTOR: VARIAbL= VALUE • 6 11 16 17  1  to  ;  13 20 21 - 2 2 . ' 2 3 •• - •  i  :  ?\  .  1. 200OCC 1.200000 0.2399999 0.2399959 0 .2399999 0.2 199999 ' ' •'•  . DU AL .SO LUT ION VECTOR: VARi abLE , . VALUE  ,  7 - 3 13.  .  ..:.„•.....: ...... ..  ...  . ..-INFINITY .-IN-INITY '•' i • •' -INF INI TY l -INFINITY - • •t -•INFINITY • 3 . , -TNE INITY a • ' — INF I MTV ;9 7 . 23.9 ?0i7 •a •-INFINITY - "• . 9 -INFINITY 10 19.9 36 5 7 Ii -INFINITY .'-13 -IN-INITY • i i - INF INI fY 19 • . -INFINITY ij - 7. 2 34 1 5 5 Ii, • •• -25)3.324 • 1? • -INF INI TY - . Ii -45.95110 ii • -INF IN I TY • , ZJ -INF I M T Y " "• 21 -INFINITY 22 - INFINITY • 23 -INFINITY 21 ;  •  RIGHT HAND SIDE RANGING: .. .: . NUMscR LOWER BO.JNG :  >  ''" r  3  • .: 7 a •  • ,ii  .-•~  .'.••:...: .. .  5  i  ' i . '  "  :  - no. ]- ; r i Fi) vP NC. T T nN Oficrctr T = \S TA M G T N O : COST/PROF IT ' LOilER '3 C UNO - COEE P . .  :  '  36.74384 .- 16..93592 1.200024 . 1.2CC123 1.2000 12  -i z •  ••  —«--•• ' 9;  .. '105. 89999 5 100.64000 ' • • 103.42999 103.75000 "'• 2 8 . 6 8999 ... 34. 17999 .. . 26.93000 2 5.67000 20.64000 2.0.57999 36.70CC0 6.540000 . 14.50000 . 15.C7000 13.54000 -1 .2 00000 -• - 1 .200000 -1.2 0000 0 -1 .2 OOOOO ' ' - 1 ..200CCO -0.2399999 -0. 23 99999 • -0.23^9959 -0.2399999 :  '  UPPER SOUND •  • .' 852.0000 „'•; ... ' '.. .'. 843.55 91 ' ' '' • 840.9600 5 '. ••' 837.3433 394.06 79 430. 1711 • . 28.91 159 .. '•.: 46.49007 • 27.39017• 27.76613 C 1011 474E 03 . . 5.2.26337 • 45.52652 46.03398 43.71015  •  -• .... " . '-  •  • '• .  '. • .' ;  1  5•  0.23S4.186F-04  :  •  C. 1230240E-03 O.C 0. 1335I44E-04 . 0. 0 . ' ..•. ; 0.0 0.0 ' ; CO' • c o  • - ;  UPPER BOUND  RHS  . 220.OOOO 1J3.0112 480.00.00 0.1464344E-02 .. 780.OOOO . •.' . • 20 3.02 61 780. o c c o .':. 540.C845. 780.0000 " " 445 .95 36 780.0000 • 20 3.0261 ... -0. 52403239 09 0.0 . '-0.8356362E 03 0.0 . 0.0 0. 0 . . -0 .3.7 4 5 7 2 6 E 09. 0. 0 . -0.5360403E-05 • 0.0 ••  .  . -. • ' . •  • •".•"'•••'•'' • •'•  352.3374 . 977.6772 .. + INFIN!TY " .';..';:..; .: ...•/„.•..9....: +TNF IN l"TY. ' '.'• ' +INFINITY ' + INFIN IT 7 • 791.2263 0.6103516E-04 ;. .... +INFIN:TY - ......, .. ,•..-,. . . . 5 . • 117.2675 •' ' +INFINITY  :  9 • < .  -^.;0;;.,-9 :  r  ro  ...  . .  •,.••..' .  •-"  

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