Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Descent into the abyss of the unconscious : a Jungian approach to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Fyodor Dostoevsky Loy, Coral Pauline Stenmark 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 L69.pdf [ 6.12MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101502.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101502-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101502-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101502-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101502-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101502-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101502-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101502-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101502.ris

Full Text

DESCENT INTO THE ABYSS OP THE UNCONSCIOUS: A JUNGIAN APPROACH TO E.T.A. HOFFMANN AND FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY by CORAL PAULINE STENMARK LOY B.A., Alaska Methodist University, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the program of Comparative Literature We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September 24, 1973 ft ABSTRACT The mythological writings of C.G. Jung provide the basis for a comparative study of two nineteenth-century authors — E.T.A. Hoffmann and Fyodor Dostoevsky. The hero myth i s the main interpretive tool, although other aspects of Jungian theory are also included in order to expand the concept of psychic growth. The introductory section sets forth Jung's basic ideas, as well as those of his follower, Erich Neumann. The second chapter offers an analysis of Hoffmann's Per Sandmann. The traumatic experience of the young Nathanael Is shown to be the original projection of his psychic dilemma. His development i s characterized by a feeling of Impotence, as manifest in his fear of losing his eyes. This psychic impotence f i n a l l y wins the struggle for control when Nathanael commits suicide. Crime and Punishment i s also examined in light of the hero myth. Raskolnikov's crime i s discussed as a psychic necessity, shifting his motivation from his outer deprivation to his inner impotence. He, too, i s plagued by threatening archetypes, but unlike Nathanael he Is able to overcome them; he f i n a l l y recognizes his psychic situation and through this recognition draws closer to a state of psychic wholeness. The f i n a l chapter e x p l o r e s the advantages and disadvantages o f a Jungian approach to l i t e r a t u r e , as seen i n the a n a l y s e s o f the two works. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter one page 1 Chapter two P a S e 2 5 Chapter three page 57 C o n c l u s i o n . . . . P a S e 1 1 1 B i b l i o g r a p h y page 116 / CHAPTER I C.G. Jung i s a man of many fi e l d s ; not only Is he a renowned psychiatrist, but his writings cover such varied topics as religion, myth, and literature. It Is with the l a t t e r that we are here concerned, for an i n -creasing number of c r i t i c s are trying to determine which of Jung's writings can be used as Interpretive tools in literature. This paper intends to define at least one viable method of Junglan criticism by applying Jung's theories to two authors of the nineteenth century — E.T.A. Hoffmann and Pyodor Dostoevsky. The groundwork for this study was l a i d by many scholars, most of whom were Interested in Hoffmann's influence on Dostoevsky. Charles Passage has written two major works on the topic, The Russian Hoffmannlsts and Dostoevski! the Adapter. Passage attempts to demon-strate what he believes to be Hoffmann's direct Influence on Dostoevsky's work. There i s no doubt that Dostoevsky admired Hoffmann, since he stated that he had read "the whole of Hoffmann in Russian and German"^ " and also praised him lavishly i n the forward to a Russian translation of some of Edgar Allen Poe's works. However, Passage seems to f e e l that Hoffmann had a "copyright" on such established l i t e r a r y patterns as the sensitive hero-arltist, who strives for the beautiful young g i r l , who has a jealous father, who doubles as the wise mage who guides the young man,-^  2 or even such stock characters as semi-supernatural v i l l a i n s . He often bases his proof of "Hoffmannlsm" on just such shaky grounds. Natalie Reber pursues the topic in her analysis of the "double" motif, Studlen zum Motlv des Doppelgangers  bel Dostoevski und E.T.A. Hoffmann. Wisely she defines and demonstrates the different types of doubles Dostoevsky and Hoffmann explore: 1 ) the mentally i l l person with a s p l i t i n his conscious personality, 2) doubles as comple-mentary persons who combine in a mystical union to form a whole Self, 3 ) psychological doubleness as a stage of growth, 4 ) mythological doubleness, and 5 ) animals as s a t i r i c a l doubles. She recognizes that meeting one's double Is an essential step on the way to a state of "Einheit," of wholeness and unity as an individual. She differentiates, though, between the solutions the two authors give to the problem of this "unfolding of the s e l f , " assigning Hoffmann to the realm of aesthetic ideals and Dostoevsky to the 5 comfort of Christian principles. Carl P. Keppler builds upon the work of previous "double" scholars i n his book Llterature of the Second  Self. The major contribution Keppler makes to the study of the Doppelganger i s his precise definition of a true double. He characterizes the second self as having an objective as well as a subjective existence.^ Keppler says that i f a double exists only in the mind, as in the case of Dostoevsky's Golyadkin, then It has only a sub-je c t i v e existence. If, however, there i s an objective, l i v i n g person with whom the protagonist feels a mystical, 3 subjective union, then the conditions for having a true double have been met. As Keppler explains, the second self has "a definite meaning, that of an always contra-dictory being, a paradox of simultaneous outwardness and inwardness, of difference from and identity with the f i r s t s e l f . " 7 Keppler expands his thesis by categorizing various l i t e r a r y examples of these true doubles according to their function in relation to the protagonist. He remarks in his conclusions that as each of Jung's main archetypes (e.g., shadow, anima, animus) i s met in the descent Into the unconscious, the meeting establishes a second self situation i n the conscious ego, "and each(archetype)corre-sponds strikingly to one of the main categories of second self that we have studied. The shadow as Pursuer or Tempter or Vision of Horror, corresponds to the e v i l second self; the wise old man to the second self as Savior; o the anima...to the second self as Beloved." Keppler follows Reber i n recognizing that confrontations with these second selves are a necessary part of the "struggle to satisfy... the imaginative straining after self-realization and s e l f -fulfillment, that i s embodied ln the literature of the second s e l f . " ^ Following these conclusions, this paper concerns I t s e l f with Keppler*s true doubles and the psycho-log i c a l growth they catalyze. This psychological growth can be traced from different theoretical stances. Freud himself was interested in bgth Dostoevsky * n d Hoffmann and even wrote psychoanalytical interpretations of some of their works. He explained Nathanael's preoccupation with eyes and the loss of them in Per Sandmann as a castration complex. 1 0 He pursued Dostoevsky's interest in parricide to the point of stating that Dostoevsky had always wanted to k i l l his own father because he made the murderer in The Brothers Karamazov an epileptic like himself. 1 1 Jung's main argument with Freud i n the f i e l d of literature revolves around this kind of emphasis and app-roach. Freudian doctrine encourages an "exhaustive demon-stration of the influences that reach back into (the) ear-l i e s t childhood jof the author|." 1 2 According to Jung, this Freudian approach treats a work of art as something that can be analysed i n terms of the artist's repressions...But i.f i t i s claimed that such an analysis explains the work of art i t s e l f , then a categorical denial i s called for. The essence of a work of art is not to be found in the personal idiosyncrasies that creep into i t — indeed, the more there are of them, the less i t i s a work of art — but in i t s r i s i n g above the personal and speaking from the mind and heart of the a r t i s t to the mind and heart of mankind.!3 While Jung admits that "the divine frenzy of the a r t i s t comes perilously close to a pathological state," he main-tains that "the two things are not i d e n t i c a l . " 1 ^ In order to do justice to a work of art, analytical psychology must r i d i t s e l f entirely of medical prejudice; for a work of art i s not a disease and consequently requires a different approach from the medical one."1^ insists that Freud' 5 approach to art "far from making a work of art a symbol, merely turns i t Into a symptom." Thus one might argue that Freud's assertion that The Brothers Karamazov i s a symptom of Dostoevsky1s parricidal fantasies does l i t t l e to elucidate the l i t e r a r y work i t s e l f . Even when the Freudian method i s more profitably applied to the work alone, this reader i s often l e f t with the feeling that there i s more to art than the thin layer of Oedlpal icin g which Freud explores. This i s especially true of symbolic works. Jung emphasizes the importance of intuitive feelings toward a symbolic work. He defines a symbol as "an expres-sion of an intuitive idea that cannot yet be formulated in any better way."^ Since the concept cannot be put into words, i t has to be sensed, f e l t , and understood only when the reader as an individual or as a member of a society evolves sufficiently to grasp i t s meaning. When this meaning i s of an archetypal or primordial nature, It evokes a deep response j The moment when this mythological situation reappears i s always characterized by a peculiar emotional intensity; i t i s as though chords In us were struck that had never resounded before, or as though forces whose existence we never suspected were unloosed.1° Thus the reader i n t u i t i v e l y senses that there i s an important message for him in the symbol. Jung also points out that o. there are two kinds of symbols: there are conscious symbols, which the author I n t e n t i o n a l l y places i n a work to give a desired e f f e c t , and there are unconscious symbols, which seem to well up out of the author's unconscious into his work. 1^ jjjg worfcg 0 f Dostoevsky and Hoffmann contain both kinds of symbols, but t h i s paper w i l l deal s o l e l y with the symbols and t h e i r meaning, with l i t t l e emphasis on t h e i r suspected source. In order to explore Jung's ideas on symbols and myth, i t i s f i r s t necessary to explore h i s basic psychological theories. Only those which can be most p r o f i t a b l y applied to l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be dealt with. His theory of the four functions i s a cornerstone to the rest of h i s work. Jung observed that man normally experiences the world through four modes: sensation, thinking, f e e l i n g , and i n t u i t i o n . Sensation i s the r e a l i t y function — i t t e l l s us what something Is. Think-i n g i s the l o g i c a l function — i t t e l l s us what that something i s . Feeling enables us to make a value judgement about the object (whether we l i k e i t ) , while I n t u i t i o n , the method of r e l a t i n g to the world through hunches and guesses, enables us to see the p o s s i b i l i t i e s inherent i n the object. I n t u i t i o n and sensation are c o n f l i c t i n g modes of perceiving the world; thinking and f e e l i n g , which are ways one analyzes the world, also c o n f l i c t . Persons who are strong l n one function tend to be weak i n i t s opposite, but everyone has poten-t i a l f o r a l l four f u n c t i o n s . 2 0 Of course, no one i s s t r i c t l y ruled by one function. "Besides the most d i f f e r e n t i a t e d function, another, l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d function of secondary Importance i s i n v a r i a b l y present i n consciousness and exerts a co-determining I n f l u e n c e . " 2 1 This two-fold conscious o r i e n t a t i o n i s complemented by the 7 repressed, undifferentiated functions i n the unconscious. The degree of repression i s usually correlative to the amount of "backlash" from the unrecognized contents, which develop a defensive counterposltion in the unconscious. "Por i n -stance, conscious rationalism i s opposed by an extreme i r r a t i o n a l i t y , and a sc i e n t i f i c attitude by one that i s archaic and superstitious...Frequently the unconscious counter-position i s embodied in a woman Jby projection^ In my experience this type|j;hinklngj Is found chiefly among men, since, In general, thinking tends more often to be a dominant function in men than in women. When thinking dom-inates in a woman, i t i s usually associated with a predomin-antly intuitive cast of mind." 2 2 To recapitulate, then, there are four basic personality types, but each individual i s consciously ruled by one dominant and one auxiliary function. Also, the more the other two unconscious functions are repres-sed, the more they display themselves in counter attack through Irrational behavior or projection. Projection of these repressed contents i s another impor-tant concept i n Jungian theory. Often i t i s the only means by which repressed contents can demonstrate their existence. The unconscious mind projects the undesired characteristics on to another person, so that the conscious mind sees the embodiment of those characteristics in that person, whether or not they are really there. "The effect of a projection i s to isolate the subject from his environment, since i n -stead of a real relation to i t there i s now only an illuso r y one. Projections change the world in t o the r e p l i c a of one's unknown face. In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , therefore, they lead to an auto-erotic or a u t i s t i c condition i n which one dreams a world whose r e a l i t y remains forever unattainable. The importance of these projections i s seen i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the archetypes, f o r archetypes are not usually recognized u n t i l they are projected on to someone els e . Jung defines archetypes i n t h i s way: The primordial image, or archetype, i s a figure — be i t a daemon, a human being, or a process -- that constantly recurs i n the course of h i s t o r y and appears wherever creative fantasy i s f r e e l y expres-sed. E s s e n t i a l l y , therefore, i t Is a mythological f i g u r e . When we examine these images more c l o s e l y , we f i n d that they give form to countless t y p i c a l experiences of our ancestors. They are, so to speak, the psychic residua of Innumerable experiences of the same type. They present a picture of psychic l i f e i n the average, divided up and projected in t o . the manifold figures of the mythological pantheon. 2* These archetypes spring from the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, another important Jungian concept. In addition to our immediate consciousness, which i s of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even I f we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a c o l l e c t i v e , u n i versal and impersonal nature which Is I d e n t i c a l i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . This c o l l e c t i v e unconscious does not develop I n d i v i d u a l l y but i s i n h e r i t e d . I t con-s i s t s of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give d e f i n i t e form to c e r t a i n psychic contents. 25 The c o l l e c t i v e unconscious seems to be autonomous, completely separate from the conscious mind, and therefore cannot be con-t r o l l e d by an act of w i l l . Hence the importance of dreams, which Jung sees as messages, usually l n archetypal code, from the unconscious to the conscious mind. As the process of individuation takes place and one des-cends into the unconscious, one i s confronted by the archetypes. The f i r s t to be met i s usually the shadow, which i s the type of Doppelganger most commonly encountered in literature. The shadow embodies a l l the e v i l desires and ideas of one's person-a l i t y , which have been repressed for ethical and cultural reasons in the personal unconscious. Occasionally a shadow figure w i l l demonstrate i t s "good qualities — normal instincts and creative impulses" 2^ which were repressed by a particular society — but generally i t displays only the more negative aspects of the personality. These repressed contents are often projected on to someone else, for no one wants to acknowledge his faults. Jung cites two good l i t e r a r y examples of the projected shadow — Goethe's Faust and Hoffmann's The Devil's  E l i x i r s . 2 ^ Recognizing one's shadow and accepting i t as something to be dealt with, i s the f i r s t step towards a union with the unconscious aspects of the s e l f . Accepting, assimilat-ing, and thereby controlling this archetype has been compared to a sort of mental house-cleaning or the "psychological equivalent of the labors of Hercules. This unfortunate hero's f i r s t task...was to clean up in one day the Augean Stables, in which hundreds of cattle had dropped their dung for many decades — a task so enormous that the ordinary mortal would 28 be overcome by discouragement at the mere thought of i t . " Once the shadow i s acknowledged and Is dealt with, one usually becomes acquainted with archetypes even more deeply hidden i n the collective unconscious. Jung posits the existence of two main archetypes i n the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, the anima and the animus. These are d e f i n i t e l y sex-linked i n one sense, f o r the anima i s found i n the unconscious of men and the animus i n the unconscious of women. These archetypes, however, are determined by learned c u l t u r a l r o l e s , not by genes, as i s pointed out by E r i c h pq Neumann, a follower of Jung. ^ Man's o r i g i n a l hermaphroditic d i s p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l l a r g e l y conserved i n the c h i l d . Without the d i s -turbing influences from outside which f o s t e r the v i s i b l e manifestation of sexual differences at an ea r l y date, children would just be ch i l d r e n ; and a c t i v e l y masculine features are i n f a c t as common and e f f e c t i v e i n g i r l s as are passively feminine ones i n boys. I t i s only c u l t u r a l influences, whose d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g tendencies govern the c h i l d ' s e a r l y upbringing, that lead to an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the ego with the monosexual tendencies of the personality and to the suppression, qr repression, of one's con-g e n i t a l c o n t r a s e x u a l i t y . 3 0 The a t t r i b u t e s of the feminine anima and the masculine animus, then, were determined as c u l t u r a l roles evolved, taking into consideration, of course, the genetically-determined role of the mother. Neumann also notes that myth perpetuates these r o l e s , so when one speaks of "masculine" or "feminine" psycho-l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , the terms are "dictated not by caprice but by mythology."-^1 T r a d i t i o n a l concepts of feminine and masculine are characterized as being opposites. Neumann asserts that the woman1s rol e as mother determined many of the feminine a t t r i b u t e s , with the masculine concepts evolving l a t e r . ^ " I t i s consis-tent with the conscious-unconscious structure of the opposites that the unconscious should be regarded predominantly as feminine, and consciousness as predominantly m a s c u l i n e . " ^ perhaps because of the original unconscious prenatal state within the feminine. Since darkness i s associated with the unknown, i t i s logical that the unconscious should be assoc-iated with darkness and consciousness with l i g h t ; this is most clearly expressed In the Chinese symbol of Yin and Yang. Hence the related symbols of the moon of night for women and the sun of day for men. Of course the moon i s also associated with women because of i t s relation to fer-t i l i t y and menses. Other opposites — hot and cold, dry and 34 damp, south and north-^ — may spring from the original assoc-iations with the womb or may come from the later sun-moon symbols. So many levels of experience are part of these traditional symbol patterns, that It i s d i f f i c u l t to explain their source. Por the purposes of this paper, i t i s sufficient to catalogue the characteristics of the masculine and feminine elements of the self. Other associations include theses "Pour signifies the feminine, motherly, physical; three the masculine, fatherly, s p i r i t u a l . " 5 5 The masculine conscious-ness i s associated with clear thinking, while the anima "has 'occult' connections with 'mysteries,' with the world of darkness in general, and for that reason she often has a 36 religious tinge." Again, the masculine tr a i t s are "the qualities of volition, decision and act i v i t y as contrasted with the determinism and blind 'drives'"^ of the feminine unconscious. Thus a masculine person actively determines his fate, while a feminine person i s passively manipulated by fate. Xd. When ei t h e r the anima or animus takes possession of the ego, t h e i r more negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are displayed. In this case "the anima i s f i c k l e , capricious, moody, uncon-t r o l l e d and emotional, sometimes gi f t e d with daemonic i n -t u i t i o n s , ruthless, malicious, untruthful, bitchy, double-faced, and mystical. The animus i s obstinate, harping on p r i n c i p l e s , l a y i n g down the law, dogmatic, world-reforming, 38 theoretic, word-mongerlng, argumentative and domineering."^ In short, then, the more the t r a d i t i o n a l masculine and feminine t r a i t s are denied on a conscious l e v e l , the stronger the tendency i s f o r the appropriate archetype, e i t h e r anima or animus, to take over the ego. Other Inhabitants of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious are the transsexual archetypes of the Great Mother and the Father. Because of t h e i r ambivalent, b i - p o l a r nature, they are quite confusing to trace. Associated with the Great Mother are, "maternal s o l i c i t u d e and sympathy; the magic authority of the female; the wisdom and s p i r i t u a l exaltation that trans-cend reason; any h e l p f u l i n s t i n c t or impulse; a l l that i s benign, a l l that cherishes and sustains, that f o s t e r s growth and f e r t i l i t y . The place of magic transformation and r e b i r t h , together with the underworld and i t s inhabitants, are presided over by the mother. On the negative side the mother arche-type may connote anything secret, hidden, dark; the abyss, the world of the dead, anything that devours, seduces, and 39 poisons, that i s t e r r i f y i n g and Inescapable l i k e f a t e . " Simultaneously she may be v i r g i n and whore, two apparent opposites which form a paradox In the Great Mother. Before the concept of " v i r g i n " was transformed to a sign of ch a s t i t y , i t was understood u n i v e r s a l l y as a woman "who belongs to no man but i s ready to give h e r s e l f to any man. She Is there f o r anybody who, l i k e h e r s e l f , stands i n the service of f e r t i l i t y . " ^ Thus the creative, f e r t i l e element i n woman i s sacred and i s the un i f y i n g aspect of t h i s archetype. Some of the major symbols of the feminine are an enclosed garden, round temple or tower, a gate, w e l l , or fountain, and trees,^ - 1 as well as anything that suggests a womb shape, e.g. a cave or cooking vessel, or any h e l p f u l animal. The negative symbols of this archetype include "the witch, the dragon (or any devouring or entwining animal, such as a large f i s h or a serpent), the grave, the sarcophagus, deep 4P water, death, nightmares and bogies." The father archetype i s also ambivalent i n nature. The Ter r i b l e Father i s a negative, destructive force which stands as "the'bulwark of law and o r d e r , ' " ^ t n e preserver of the old way. T r a d i t i o n a l l y fathers i n i t i a t e and educate t h e i r sons i n the ways of the group; "the advocasy of the canon of values i n h e r i t e d from the fathers and forced by education manifests i t s e l f In the psychic structure of the i n d i v i d u a l • . 44 as conscience.'" Thus the Te r r i b l e Father, by dogmatically i n s i s t i n g on the r i g h t of the old order to stand, prevents the s t r u g g l i n g ego from breaking away from the " r e l i g i o u s , e t h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l structure of the c o l l e c t i v e . " ^ There i s a higher, creative and p o s i t i v e f i g u r e , however, I t which does aid the ego. It is characterized by i t s "greater 46 co-ordination of s p i r i t , ego, consciousness and w i l l . " Because i t i s associated with mental and spi r i t u a l processes, a c t i v i t i e s of the head, "this higher masculinity i s cor-47 related with l i g h t , the sun, the eye and consciousness." Tangible symbols for the masculine are not as common as for the feminine principle, for i t s realm Is located mostly in the abstract world of thought. This representative of higher masculinity appears as an archetype in the form of the Wise Old Man. "The old man thus represents knowledge, reflection, insight, wisdom, cleverness, and intuition on the one hand, and on the other, moral qualities such as goodwill and readiness to help, which make his 's p i r i t u a l ' character suff i c i e n t l y p l a i n . " * 9 This figure, then, i s Joined with the Terrible Father i n one archetype, resulting in confusion as to the figure's intent. In literature there Is often a figure which appears e v i l to the hero, but which turns out to be a helper-teacher in disguise. Such can be the case with the Terrible Father-Wise Old Man archetype. There i s also an archetypal pattern which seems to be of particular significance to the psyche. — the hero myth cycle. Jung, Neumann, and Joseph Campbell are chief among those who have explored this pattern In relation-ship to psychological growth. Jung has a name for the process involved i n the hero motif — individuation. There Is a destination, a possible goal...That i s the way of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . Individuation means becoming an ' i n - d i v i d u a l , 1 and, i n so f a r as ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y ' embraces our innermost, l a s t and incomparable uniqueness, i t also implies becoming one's own s e l f . We could therefore translate i n d i v i d u a t i o n as 'coming to selfhood' or ' s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . ' 5 0 The s e l f can be compared to a "sphere with a bright f i e l d on i t s surface, representing consciousness. The ego i s the f i e l d ' s center...The s e l f i s at once the nucleus and the whole sphere." 5 1 Obviously a r e a l i z a t i o n of the s e l f involves more than the conscious knowledge of the ego; i t c a l l s f o r the recognition of contents i n both the personal and c o l l e c t i v e unconscious. The hero myth depicts the p l i g h t of the germ of consciousness as i t struggles towards i t s goal — past the archetypes of the shadow, mother and father towards i t s f i n a l transformation to a r a i s e d consciousness. Individuation i s characterized by c e r t a i n stages of development, the f i r s t of which Is the uroboric stage. The main symbol of t h i s stage i s the c i r c l e ; the uroboros, a snake b i t i n g i t s own t a i l , i s a universal variant of the c i r c l e . 5 2 This symbol represents the o r i g i n a l perfection of the womb, containing a l l the opposites of man's world, masculine and feminine elemonts i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t i s also s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t : " I t slay s , weds and impregnates i t s e l f . I t i s man and woman, begetting and conceiving, devouring and giving b i r t h , active and passive, above and below, at once." 5 5 T ^ I S i s the paradise of creation myths, " f o r the state of being contained l n the whole, with-out r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or e f f o r t , with no doubts and no d i v i s i o n of the world into two, i s pa r a d l s a l , and can never again be r e a l i z e d i n Its p r i s t i n e happy-go-lucklness i n adult l i f e . " 5 * i s the germ of consciousness develops, i t i s under the influence of the maternal side of the uroboros. " I l l the p o s i t i v e maternal t r a i t s are i n evidence at thi s stage, when the ego i s s t i l l embryonic and has no a c t i v i t y of i t s own...it gives nourishment and pleasure, protects and warms, comforts and f o r g i v e s . " 5 5 Because of the grav-i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n t h i s paradlsal state exerts, man i s constantly being dragged back toward a state of unconscious-ness. But th i s force i s counter-balanced by another, the desire to become conscious, which i s a "ver i t a b l e i n s t i n c t i m p e l l ing man"5^ to r i s e above the state of the animals. The c o n f l i c t between these two forces Is seen i n the embryo-child stage, e s p e c i a l l y i n the willingness of the newly-developing ego to lapse back into an unconscious st a t e . While the ego experiences dread at th i s state of a f f a i r s , I t also f e e l s the urge to submit i t s e l f to the paradlsal womb again. This desire to go back to the womb i s seen as "uroborlc i n c e s t , " a term "to be understood symbolically, not c o n c r e t i s t i c a l l y or s e x u a l l y . " 5 7 Uroborlc i n c e s t i s a form of entry in t o the mother, of union with her, and i t stands i n sharp contrast to other and l a t e r forms of i n -cest. In uroborlc incest, the emphasis on pleasure and love i s In no sense a c t i v e , i t i s more a desire to be dissolved and absorbed; passively one l e t s oneself be taken...5o A f t e r the embryo-child stage has been passed and adolescence has been reached, the ego can be seen as a son-lover to the mother. Its fear of being dragged back to the womb i s now understood as a form of c a s t r a t i o n . I t i s "the n a r c i s s i s t i c nature of the phallus-obsessed adoles-cent |whichjconstelates a connection between sexuality and the fear of c a s t r a t i o n , " 5 9 though the same general f e e l i n g of impotence can occur at any stage of development. By "castration we mean a symbolic c a s t r a t i o n , and never a p e r s o n a l i s t i c c a s t r a t i o n complex acquired i n childhood 6( and having c o n c r e t l s t i c references to the male g e n i t a l i a . " This stage, termed "matriarchal i n c e s t , " i s marked by "complete impotence against the uroborlc mother and the overwhelming power of f a t e , as we s t i l l f i n d i t i n Greek tragedy and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the figure of Oedipus."^ 1 Later on as the ego becomes more deeply involved i n i t s heroic struggles, ...the masculinity and ego of the hero are no longer i d e n t i c a l with the phallus and sexuality. On t h i s l e v e l , another part of the body erects i t s e l f symbolically as the 'higher phallus' or the 'higher masculinity': the head, the symbol of consciousness, with the eye f o r i t s r u l i n g organ -r 0and with t h i s the ego now i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f . 0 ^ I t i s therefore correct to i n t e r p r e t beheading and b l i n d i n g as c a s t r a t i o n , but the c a s t r a t i o n occurs above, not below."3 The f i r s t two forms of i n c e s t were e s s e n t i a l l y passive: uroborlc i n c e s t , In which the germinal ego was extinguished, and matriarchal i n c e s t , i n which the son was seduced by the mother and the i n c e s t ended i n matriarchal c a s t r a t i o n . But what distinguishes, the hero i s an active i n c e s t , the deliberate, conscious exposure of himself to the dangerous influence of the female, and the overcoming of man's immemorial fear of woman. To overcome fear of c a s t r a t i o n i s to overcome fear of the mother's power which, f o r man, i s associated with the danger of c a s t r a t i o n . 0 4 I t i s the T e r r i b l e Mother archetype which i s attempting to drag the ego back, hence a l l her c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as some-thing devouring, entwining or confining. In the hero-myth cycle, t h i s struggle i s portrayed as the s l a y i n g of the dragon. There are v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme, of course, i n c l u d i n g being swallowed by a large f i s h , or descending i n t o a cave or to the underworld. The dragon f i g h t has three main components: the hero, the dragon and the treasure. By vanquishing the dragon the hero gains the treasure, which i s the end-product of the process symbolized by the f i g h t . 6 5 The process, as Jung points out, i s i n d i v i d u a t i o n , and the goal i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . Thus the hero's t r i a l s are a necessary part of h i s growth, for he must w i l l i n g l y submit to them and overcome them i n order to win the treasure. The dragon f i g h t involves not only the T e r r i b l e Mother archetype, but also the Terr i b l e Father. "This dragon bears a l l the marks of the uroboros. I t i s masculine and fem-inine at once. The f i g h t with the dragon i s thus the f i g h t with the F i r s t Parents, a f i g h t l n which the murders of both father and mother, but not of one alone, have t h e i r r i t u a l l y prescribed place."^^ These "murders" must take place i n order to release the captive consciousness. "The hero's f i g h t i s always concerned with the threat to the s p i r i t u a l , masculine p r i n c i p l e from the uroborlc dragon..."^ The hero wants to release his higher s p i r i t u a l consciousness from tha realm of the uroboros, but cannot because of a fear of c a s t r a t i o n by the T e r r i b l e Mother and her p h a l l i c consort, the T e r r i b l e Father. The l a t t e r helps retard the hero's development by trapping him i n dogma and t r a d i t i o n , thereby denying him the use of his creative and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s . To overcome t h i s t e r r i b l e p a i r , the hero must a c t i v e l y search out the mother i n the unconscious, and unite with her there i n order to conquer her. By k i l l i n g the " t e r r i b l e female aspect^he]liberates the f r u i t -f u l and b o u n t i f u l a s p e c t . " 6 8 This i s quite often done with the a i d of the Wise Old Man, the creative p r i n c i p l e of consciousness. Thus the good sides of both the father and the mother come together, j o i n i n g the unconscious c r e a t i v i t y of the Great Mother with the conscious c r e a t i v i t y of higher masculinity. From the union of the hero's ego consciousness with the creative side of the soul, when he 'knows' and r e a l i z e s both the world and the anima, there i s begotten the true b i r t h , the synthesis of b o t h . 6 9 Thus transformed through union with the unconscious, the hero i s reborn a more complete man. A p p l i c a t i o n of these Jungian theories to the l i t e r a r y works of Hoffmann and Dostoevsky make i t apparent that the protagonists are involved i n a quest f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n . Each story may not demonstrate the entire cycle of the hero myth. Rather each may show only one segment of the pattern and the hero's reaction to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r stage of development. 21 FOOTNOTES - Chapter I •'•Charles Passage, Dostoevskil the Adapter, Chapel H i l l , 1954, p. 7. 2Ijbid., pp. 191-2. ^Charles Passage, The Russian Hoffmannlsts, The Hague, 1963, pp. 201 and 236. 4 I b i d . , pp. 201-2. •^Natalie Reber, "Studien Zum Motiv des Doppelgangers bei E.T.A. Hoffmann," i n Marburger Abhandluns;en zur  Geschichte und Kultur Osteuropas, Band 6, Giessen, 1964,' pp". 197-8. C F . Keppler, The Literature of the Second S e l f . Tucson, 1972, pp. 9-11. 7 I b i d . , p. 10. 8 X b i d . , p. 204. 9 I b i d . , p. 210. 1 0Sigmund Freud, "The Uncanny," i n Collected Papers, v o l . IV, no. 10, Ernest Jones, ed., London, 1956. ^Sigmund Freud, "Dostoevsky and P a r r i c i d e , " i n Dostoevsky; A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays, Rene Wellek, ed., Englewood C l i f f s , 1962, pp. 107-8. 12 C.G. Jung, The S p i r i t i n Man, Art and L i t e r a t u r e , London, 1969, p. 68T~ Due to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of Freud's and Jung's works i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l German, to both the author and others, i t was decided that the standard English translations of t h e i r works would be used. Both publishers of Jung's c o l l e c t e d works, the Bollingen Foundation and Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., maintained the same pagination throughout the various editions which have been printed, so any hardcover e d i t i o n i s interchangeable with another. 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 100-101. l 4 I b i d . , p. 78 22 FOOTNOTES Continued  1 5 I b l d . , p. 71 l 6 I b l d . , p. 80. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 70 1 8 I b i d . , p. 81. 1 9 I b l d . , pp. 72-73. 20 Harriet Mann and others, "Four Types of Pe r s o n a l i t i e s and Four Ways of Perceiving Time," i n Psychology Today, v o l . 6, no. 7, December 1972, p. 76. C.G. Jung, Psychological Types. London, 1969, p. 405. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 351. 23 C.G.. Jung, Mon: Researches into the Phenomenology of the S e l f . London, 1969, p. 9. 24 Jung, The S p i r i t In Man, Art and L i t e r a t u r e , p. 81. 25 C.G. Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Uncons-cious, London, 19o9T~P. 4-3. 2 6 J o s e p h Henderson, "Ancient Myths and Modern Man," i n Man and His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed., Garden C i t y , 1964, p. TIB". 27 Jung, The Archetypes and the Co l l e c t i v e Unconscious, p. 284. M.L. von Franz, "The process of Individuation," In Man and His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed., Garden C i t y , 1964, p. 168. 29 As Jung points out i n the Forward to Neumann s book, The Or l s i n s and History of Consciousness, Neumann has woven together a l l the threads which Jung touched upon i n his pioneer works. Since Neumann's works o f f e r us conclusions which are, according to Jung, the l o g i c a l extensions of his ideas, Neumann w i l l often be c i t e d as the reference f o r Jungian theory. FOOTNOTES Continued 30 ; E r i c h Neumann, The Origins and History of Consciousness. Princeton, 1971, p. 1T2. 31Neumann, p. 125n. 3 2 I b l d . . pp. 47-8. 3 3 I b i d . . p. 125. 34 C.G. Jung, Psychology and .Alchemy. London, 1969, p. 152. 3 5 I b l d . . p. 126. 36 Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious. P. 199. " 37 'Neumann, p. 125. 38 Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious, p. 124. 3 9 I b l d . . p. 82. 40 Neumann, p. 52. 41 Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, p. 72. 42 Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious, pp. 81-2. ' 43 ^Neumann, p. 142. 44 Ibid ., p. 173. 4 5 I b l d . 46 Ib i d . , p. 143. 47 f I b i d . . p. 92. ^Neumann never s p e c i f i c a l l y names Jung's Wise Old Man as the father archetype, but i t seems apparent that that i s what he i s t a l k i n g about. The characterization of the two FOOTNOTES Continued the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i g h e r m a s c u l i n i t y and the wise o l d man — i s the same and they perform the i d e n t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n the hero myth. 49 ^Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious, p. 222. — 50 C.G. Jung, Two Essays on A n a l y t i c a l Psychology. London, 1969, p. 1?T7 (51 von Franz , p. 161. 5 2Neuman , P . 10. 5 3 I b i d . 5 4 I b i d . , P. 15. 5 5 I b i d . 5 6 I b i d . , P. 16. 5 7 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , P. 17. 5 9 I b l d . t P. 158. 6 o I b i d . , P. 53n. P. 88. 6 2 I b i d . , P. 158. 6 5 I b i d . , P. 159. 6 4 I b i d . , P. 156. 6 5 I b i d . , . P. 152. 6 6 I b i d . , P. 153. 6 7 I b i d . , P. 160. 6 8 I b i d . , P. 163. 6 9 I b i d . , P. 243. 25 CHAPTER II Hoffmann's Der Sandmann Is f a r more than a f a n t a s t i c story about a unique I n d i v i d u a l . As Hoffmann suggests through the professor of poetry, "Das Ganze i s t elne A l l e -gorle — eine fortgeflihrte Metapher!" 1 Lest there be any doubt about the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the allegory, the narrator discusses inner v i s i o n s and the methods one may choose In order to convey these vi s i o n s to others. One could paint the bare outlines of a p i c t u r e , he says, and then add more and more color and form u n t i l everyone understood the v i s i o n . ...so trugst du mit l e i c h t e r Muhe immer glffhender und gltfhender die Parben auf, und das lebendige Gewuhl mannigfacher Gestalten r i B die Preunde f o r t , und s i e sahen, wie du, s i c h s e l b s t mitten im B i l d e , das aus delnem Gemut hervorgegangen! (p. 18) He continues to point the reader In an Inner d i r e c t i o n when he s t a t e s : V i e l l e i c h t g e l ingt es mir, manche Gestalt wie ein guter Portratmaler so aufzufassen, daB du s i e Shnlich f i n d e s t , ohne das O r i g i n a l zu kennen, ja daB es d i r i s t , a l s hattest du die Person recht o f t schon mit/ielbnaftigen Augen gesehen. V i e l -l e i c h t wirst du, o mein Leser! dann glauben, daB nichts wunderlicher und t o l l e r s e i a l s das w i r k l l c h e Leben, und daB dieses der Dichter doch nur, wie i n eines matt geschliffnen Spiegels dunklem Widerschein, auffassen kbnne. (p. 19) The a l l e g o r y , then, i s a psychological one; we, the readers, are to seek the o r i g i n a l image i n the mirror of our souls. Preud knew this when he wrote hi s psychological p i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Per Sandmann7 However, he centered his discussion on the Oedipal c o n f l i c t , e s p e c i a l l y fear of c a s t r a t i o n , which he postulates as a universal experience. Jung and Neumann would agree that a fear of castration i s a part of every male's psychological structure, but not i n the personal way Freud' p o s i t s . "The c o n f l i c t i s never personal, but i s always transpersonal. Even when the personal parents play a part - and i n practice they always do so - t h e i r personal share i s r e l a t i v e l y small, while that of the transpersonal parental imagos acting through them i s enormously important."3 Thus Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would s t a r t where the Freudian one does, but would take Into account the pertinent archetype as well as the hero myth. A Freudian would n a t u r a l l y s t a r t by delving into the i n d i v i d u a l ' s background. Nathanael's f i r s t l e t t e r gives a l l the appropriate biographical information, but i t also indicates much more than just the Oedipal symptoms Freud draws from i t . I t i s obvious from the associations drawn between the nurse's tale of the sandman and Ooppelius, that much of the information given i n the f i r s t l e t t e r came only from Nathanael's mind. Clara says as much: Geradeheraus w i l l i c h es Dir nur gestehen, daB, wie i c h melne, a l l e s Entsetzliche und Schreck-l i c h e , wovon du s p r i c h s t , nur, In Deinem Innem vorging, die wahre wirkllche AuBenwelt aber daran wohl wenig t e i l h a t t e . (p. 13) This casts suspicion on Nathanael's description of the sandman Incidents. Nathanael's f i r s t confrontation with the sandman Involves some highly suspicious actions on the part of Coppellus, which lead the reader to the conclusion 27 that the unconscious Imagination of a neurotic i s at work here. At one moment he i s p u l l i n g coals from the f i r e with metal tongs; at the next moment, he suddenly has the super-human a b i l i t y to p u l l coals from the f i r e with his bare hands. Next he unscrews Nathanael's hands and f e e t . Immediately a f t e r t h i s experience, Nathanael f a l l s into a v i o l e n t fever which l a s t s f o r weeks. I f one looks at t h i s episode o b j e c t i v e l y , i t becomes apparent that Nathanael i s superimposing h i s imagined version onto r e a l i t y , something which Clara accuses him of and which he denies vehemently. An objective, r a t i o n a l explanation of t h i s i n c i d e n t i s . g i v e n i n a statement Nathanael l a t e r makes to Lothar: " i c h war bei der Lauscherei entdeckt und von Coppelius gemiBhandelt worden." (p. 10) His imag-i n a t i o n and the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious supply the r e s t of the story and throw him into a chaotic mental state. The reader now wonders whether Nathanael's accusation that Coppola i s Coppelius i s true. We are t o l d l i t t l e of the f i r s t encounter between the two, but the second provides Information which casts even more doubt on the r e l i a b i l i t y of Nathanael's statements. When Coppola enters Nathanael's room and t r i e s to s e l l him some eyeglasses, Nathanael moves quickly i n t o a world of f e a r f u l fantasy. As Coppola p u l l s out h i s samples, Nathanael becomes hypnotized with the sight of so many shiny surfaces. Instead of seeing them as glasses, however, he sees them as r e a l eyes, b l i n k i n g and s t a r i n g at him. In his horror he grabs Coppola's arm i n an attempt to prevent him from bringing out more samples. As a r e s u l t , Coppola puts them a l l away. Sowie die B r i l l e n nur f o r t waren, wurde Nathanel ganz ruhlg und, an Clara denkend, sah er wohl e i n , daB der entsetzliche Spuk nur aus seinem Innern hervorgegangen, sowie daB Coppola ein ho'chst e h r l i c h e r Mechanikus und Optikus, keines wegs aber C o p e l i i v a r f l u c h t e r Doppeltganger und revenant sein konne. (p. 27) His strange mental state i s c l a r i f i e d by C i r l o t ' s assertion rr that multiple faces and eyes imply d i s i n t e g r a t i o n or psychic 4 decomposition." Thus i t i s seen that Nathanael has moments of complete I r r a t i o n a l i t y juxtaposed with moments of r e l a t i v e normality. The t h i r d incident which i s worthy of c a r e f u l examination i s Nathanael's f i n a l encounter with Coppola and Spalanzani. The reader i s immediately given a clue to indicate that fantasy i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y involved: although the f i g h t -ing voices are said to be those of Spalanzani and Coppelius, when Nathanael rushes i n he sees the professor and Coppola arguing. Coppola i s also twisting and turning Olimpia's f e e t , much as Coppelius did to the young Nathanael. Even Olimpia's eyes, burning into Nathanael's breast, remind the reader of Coppelius and his glowing coals. Therefore at l e a s t part of thi s i ncident i s imagined by Nathanael before he 13 driven i n t o a state of i l l n e s s s i m i l a r to that he experienced a f t e r his childhood confrontation with "the sandman." I t i s d i f f i c u l t l n th i s story to determine what i s fan-tasy and what i s r e a l i t y . As with other Hoffmann s t o r i e s , ' 29 Der Sandmann i s a delicate balance of both q u a l i t i e s . Hoff-mann achieves t h i s balance by developing many d i f f e r e n t per-spectives on the characters and t h e i r actions. Even the narrator, because he i s also a character, cannot be con-sidered to be t o t a l l y objective. His r a t i o n a l opinions must not weigh any more heavily than Nathanael's " i r r a t i o n a l " ones. So the reader i s l e f t i n the uncomfortable p o s i t i o n of not knowing whether or not an objective view i s presented. Hoffmann walks the borderline of fantasy and r e a l i t y by making sure that I r r a t i o n a l actions have a r a t i o n a l explanation. For example, when Nathanael goes to Spalanzani's house and observes his f i g h t with Coppola, there are some aspects of the Incident which would seem to be, as was mentioned e a r l i e r , Nathanael's private associations with "the sandmann." These include the following: 1) he hears Coppelius' voice instead of Coppola's, 2) Coppola twists and turns Olimpla's feet,' as Coppelius once did to Nathanael, 3) the bloody eyes burn into his breast as Coppelius' hot coals would, 4) Spalanzani says, "die Augen d i r gestohlen" and "da hast du die Augen!" (p. 38) Obviously these aspects of the i n c i -dent are l i n k e d with "the sandman," but the narrator does not c l e a r l y indicate that they are products of Nathanael's imagination. He hints at t h i s when he states, "Nun sah Nathanael, wie ein Paar blutige Augen, auf dem Boden liegend..." (p. 38) This leaves open the p o s s i b i l i t y that only Nathanael saw them, i n h i s mind's eye. Hoffmann also Indicates that t h i s Is fantasy by the p a r a l l e l structure of the story;" 30 the f i r s t time Nathanael lapses into madness i s immediately a f t e r his suspicious Ooppeilus-sandmann confrontation. On the other hand, Hoffmann maintains the r e a l i s t i c aspects of the story, even down to Olimpia's bloody eyes. While I t would seem that t h i s , too, was part of his own fantasies, since d o l l s don't have blood, Hoffmann has covered himself by s t a t i n g that Spalanzani was wounded. Therefore I t could have been the blood from his wounds which Nathanael saw on Olimpia's eyes. Perhaps Hoffmann's main point throughout a l l t h i s i s that In matters of the psyche, "nlchts wunder-l i c h e r und t o l l e r s e i , als das wirkliche Leben." (p. 1 9 ) Fantasy is, r e a l . No matter what his theory, Hoffmann c e r t a i n l y gives enough evidence to demonstrate Nathanael's precarious mental state and the importance of h i s visions i n determin-ing his actions. Now that we can recognize the p o s s i b i l i t y that Nathanael has I r r a t i o n a l f a n t a s i e s , I t i s necessary to determine the source of these disturbing nightmares. Perhaps here Freud can be of use. He includes his Interpretation of Per Sand-mann In a discussion of uncanny (unheimlich) phenomena. He states that "an uncanny experience occurs...when repressed i n f a n t i l e complexes have been revived by some impression..."*' Although he mentions that Olimpia evokes t h i s response, too, his emphasis i s on the sandman and the repressed emotions he brings to the surface. This information i s quite valuable to the psychological c r i t i c . But while Freud concludes that Nathanael's uncanny f e e l i n g s , i . e . , his fear that the aandmann w i l l castrate him by destroying his eyes, arise from an incest conflict with his personal father, a Jungian would conclude that Nathanael i s involved in a different kind of incest — a longing for the paradise of the Great Mother. He has a great fear of this castrating situation, but i s inexplicably drawn towards It. The specific type of incest involved can be determined by following Neumann's c l a s s i f i -cations. Since Nathanael actively pursues a confrontation with the sandman by sneaking into his father's room, and since his concern i s with his eyes, not his phallus, he would seem to be involved in a state of heroic Incest. In the hero cycle, the fight with the Terrible Mother i s often seen as the night sea Journey or the descent into darkness. In order to make Nathanael's stage of development clear, Hoffmann employs parall e l foreshadowing. Freud sees the death of Nathanael's father as a fulfillment of Nathanael' Jealous death wish,^ but i t i s something far more relevant to the story's structure than this. In the father's death i s foreshadowed the son's, for the father also dies while pursuing the Great Mother, i n alchemical experiments. Jung, Eliade and others make It quite clear that alchemy is not simply a cheap way of making gold. In performing their chemical experiments, alchemists were simply projecting their inner unconscious contents on to the physical materials and processes. There i s "an identity between the behavior of matter and the events/of thelpsyche. But...this identity 32 i s unconscious."' "What the symbolism of alchemy expresses i s the whole problem of the evolution of personality...the g so-called Individuation process." There are three main alchemical stages which are symbolized by c o l o r s : black, white and red. When the blackness has been transformed to whiteness, "the f i r s t main goal has been reached, namely... the s i l v e r or moon condition, which s t i l l has to be r a i s e d to the sun condition...The red follows from the white as a r e s u l t of r a i s i n g the heat of the f i r e to i t s highest i n t e n -s i t y . " 9 During the actual chemical experiments, there i s one stage during which there i s most l i k e l y to be an explosion, and that one i s the black one, "'the preparation f o r dark-, ness'...There are many instances of alchemists being s e r i o u s l y burned or k i l l e d , f o r the explosions that occur under these conditions are p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t and engender temperatures which would l o g i c a l l y seem quite improbable." 1 0 Nathanael's father, therefore, i s probably k i l l e d during h i s descent into darkness i n pursuit of the Great Mother archetype. And so, t h i s paper Intends to show, i s Nathanael. In order to explore t h i s proposition, however, the sym-bols of the Great Mother must f i r s t be demonstrated. I t must be understood at the beginning that there are two l e v e l s of meaning f o r each symbolic character: 1) the role the character plays on the p l o t l e v e l , and 2) the role the character plays on the symbolic, archetypal l e v e l . Because i t i s only through Nathanael's unconscious projections that the archetypes gain l i f e , I t i s e n t i r e l y possible f o r him to project some of the most f r i g h t e n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Great Mother on to his beloved sweetheart. And t h i s Is exactly what he does, f o r i n t h i s story, Clara i s the person-i f i c a t i o n of the Great Mother. The reader would get a very unbalanced view of her, i f Nathanael's u n r e l i a b l e opinion were the only source of Information about her. Nathanael's unconscious s e l e c t i v e l y censors Clara's q u a l i t i e s so that he consciously acknowledges only a l i m i t e d view of her. This view coincides with the connotative meaning of her name: Clara - k l a r - cle a r - t h i n k i n g , unclouded, etc...exactly the opposite of Nathanael. Nathanael i s consciously ruled by the two i r r a t i o n a l psychic functions of f e e l i n g and i n -t u i t i o n , so the repressed functions of thinking and sen-sation can only gain conscious recognition through means of pro j e c t i o n . Nathanael's projection of these functions on to Clara culminates i n his condemnation of her, "Du l e -bloses, verdammtes Automat!" (p. 24) He highly resents her a n a l y t i c a l objections to his occultism, as well as her "kaltes, prosaisches Gemut." (p. 22) Thus he sees only those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which substantiate his projection of her. We are t o l d by the narrator, however, that Clara i s a well-rounded person. Indeed, her c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are so balanced that she i s seen as the uroborlc container of a l l , the Great Mother. The narrator points out diverse q u a l i t i e s which others have commented on: 3 4 Doch lobten die Architekten die reinen Verhalt-nisse ihres Wuchses, die Maler fanden Nacken, Schultern, und Brust belnahe zu keusch geformt, verl i e b t e n s i c h dagegen samtlich i n das wunderbare Magdalenenhaar und faselten uberhaupt v i e l von Battonischem K o l o r i t . (p. 20) A union of contrasting images becomes apparent when one understands that the p a i n t i n g referred to i s "The Repentent Magdalen," by Pompeo Battoni." The painters see Clara as almost too chaste, v i r g i n , or maidenly i n form (keusch), yet at the same time they associate her with Mary Magdalen, the p r o s t i t u t e . This union of v i r g i n and p r o s t i t u t e q u a l i t i e s i n one Is reminiscent of Neumann's comments on th i s paradox of the Great Mother i n chapter one. To further balance the reader's view of Clara, the narrator introduces the masculine equivalent of the creative " v i r g i n " mentioned above. Heaven, "because i t stands at the opposite pole from the feminine earth," i s the realm of the s p i r i t u a l and therefore creative, T O masculine p r i n c i p l e . One romantic, we are t o l d , says that Clara's eyes are l i k e a lake that r e f l e c t s heaven, while an-other asserts that heavenly music flows from her glance, (p.20) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the verb used to describe how the music comes from her i s "entgegenstrahlen." In the f i r s t l i n e of the story the theme of rays of sunshine (Sonnenstrahl) being blocked by unfriendly clouds i s established. Rays of sun-shine are t r a d i t i o n a l l y represent!tives of the masculine sun. This concept, combined with Clara's eyes and the word "heaven," suggests the cr e a t i v e , s p i r i t u a l aspect of man-kind, which Is embodied i n the Great Mother. He underscore* 35 this once more when Nathanael calls Olara, "mein holdes Engelsblld" (p. 3) and Clara refers to herself as Nathanael's "Schutzgeist," (p. 15) both heavenly references. While the good characteristics of the Great Mother have now been established as belonging to Clara, the question now arises: where are the regressive, negative qualities needed to balance out the progressive, sp i r i t u a l qualities we have seen? Neumann points out that as the masculine consciousness develops and evolves, i t s concept of the Great Mother changes. "The young hero's growing masculinity now experiences the destructive side of the Great Mother as some-thing masculine...In mythology this side manifests i t s e l f as a dark, homicidal male force, a savage animal...but later i t manifests I t s e l f as her masculine warrior consort M 1 3 or as the priest who performs the castration. The figure of the Great Mother sp l i t s into a positive half and a nega-tive half, and both halves can have more than one symbolic representative. Clara, as well as Nathanael's mother, repre-sents a l l the good qualities, while the negative aspects of the Great Mother are displayed by one main Terrible Father -Coppelius. He i s the embodiment of Nathanael's projected fears. F i r s t of a l l , he i s a lawyer by profession. No job could be more appropriate, for as was learned In chapter one, an evolving ego i s most effectively prevented from growing by a dogmatic father, who maintains tradition by s t r i c t adherence to law and order. In the description we are given, other l i n k s are established. For Instance, Coppelius has "Katzenaugen," Instead of human eyes. This Is s i g n i f i c a n t , because cats have always been associated with women and the moon.A^ He Is also said to have a b i g nose that curves over his upper l i p , a description reminiscent of the owl-l i k e beaks of the sandman's children. His likeness to the sandman himself Is seen immediately by Nathanael, and Hoff-mann makes i t quite evident where the sandman comes from. The nurse t e l l s Nathanael that when stubborn children refuse to go to sleep, or, i n Jungian terms, when a developing ego refuses to be drawn back to the sleep-state of the uroboros, the sandman (Te r r i b l e Father) comes and castrates the growing consciousness by destroying i t s eyes. Then he throws the childre n i n a sack, s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e a womb, and takes them to the moon, a d e f i n i t e symbol of the feminine p r i n c i p l e . The owl-like q u a l i t i e s of h i s own childr e n also f i t the pat-tern, f o r "the owl symbolizes death, night, cold and pas-s i v i t y . I t also pertains to the realm of the dead sun, that i s , of the sun which has set below the horizon and which i s crossing the lake or sea of darkness." 1^ This symbol gives many clues, because death, night, cold and pas-s i v i t y are a l l associated with the feminine. The myth of the sun sinking each night to r i s e again i n the morning i s the prototype of the hero myth; i t Is the night sea journey during which the ego f i g h t s with the Great Mother f o r dom-inance. Thus a l l the symbols connected with Coppelius and the sandman create a web which traps Nathanael's st r u g g l i n g ego and drags I t back towards the Great Mother. 37 Nathanael consciously voices other symbol patterns which revolve around Coppelius. He i s linked with h e l l when Nathanael ref e r s to him as the "teuflischen Coppelius" as well as when he discovers his dead father and c r i e s , "Cop-p e l i u s , verruchter Satan, du hast den Vater erschlagen!" (p.12) As Neumann makes c l e a r , "Mother, womb, the p i t and h e l l are a l l i d e n t i c a l , " so once again Coppelius i s seen as a hench-man of the Mother. Pate, as well as the d e v i l , plays a role i n Nathanael's l i f e . ...immer sprach er davon, wie jeder Mensch, s i c h f r e l wahnend, nur dunklen Machten zum grausamen S p i e l diene, vergebllch lehne man s i c h dagegen auf, demutig musse man s i c h dem fugen, was das Schlcksal verhangt habe. (p. 21) Since fate Is another symbol of the power the Great Mother has to manipulate the young ego, Nathanael i s j u s t i f i a b l y f e a r f u l . "Pate" does seem to play a role i n t h i s s t o r y — when Nathanael 1s house burns down, he just happens to get a new room opposite Professor Spalanzani; Coppola's name just happens to be s i m i l a r to "Coppelius" and he just happens to s e l l "eyes," etc. With such a profusion of r e l a t e d sym-bols, the Great Mother archetype must be at work i n Nathanael's mind, developing and encouraging these symbol patterns. Olimpia i s the most awkward of the a l l e g o r i c a l figures to define. Her role i s p a r t i c u l a r l y confusing, because she has two d i s t i n c t sides, which can never be l o g i c a l l y r e c o n c i l e d : 1) there i s what she r e a l l y i s — an automaton, and 2) what Nathanael would l i k e to see her as — a represen-t a t i v e of masculine, s p i r i t u a l c r e a t i v i t y . Nathanael con-s i s t e n t l y projects s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s on to her, i n spite 38 of the fact that his friends t e l l him that she i s only a d o l l . It i s when he uses Coppola's spyglass that she f i r s t comes into focus, allowing him to see her "real," i .e., her projected, qualities. The spyglass i s only a tem-porary aid, though, since Nathanael later manages to see her qualities without i t . The introduction of the spyglass Is necessary, be-cause i t i s part of a major theme within the work — narcissism. Instead of looking at his reflection in a pool, Nathanael sees into himself with the aid of various reflective glass surfaces. And what he sees within himself i s Olimpia. The very f i r s t time he sees her i s through a "Glasture," while after he moves across the street from her, he spies on her through the window. Only when he buys a small spyglass from Coppola Is he able to see her clearly. "Noch In Leben war ihm kein Glas vorgekommen, das sie Gegenstande so rein, scharf und deutlich dicht vor die Augen ruckte." (p. 28) Since the word "Glas" Is used here Instead of "Perspektiv," i t i s more than a hint that the spyglass acts as a mirror and that Nathanael i s looking into himself. Nathanael unconsciously states as much when he declares, "0 du herr-liche, himmlische Prau! — du Strahl aus dem verheiBenen Jenseits der Liebe — du tiefes Gemut, in dem sich meln ganzes Sein spiegelt..." (p. 32) The narrator even agrees that Olimpia's source i s found in Nathanaelj ...es schien ihm, als habe Olimpia u'ber seine Werke, uber seine Dichtergabe uberhaupt recht t i e f aus seinem Innern gesprochen, Ja als habe die^ Stlmme aus seinem Innern selbst heraus-getctat. Das muBte denn wohl auch sein; denn mehr Worte als vorhin erwahnt sprach Olimpia niemals. (p. 36) Since a l l that Olimpia can say i s , "Ach, ach," i t becomes apparent that Nathanael is_ p r o j e c t i n g aspects of h i s own S e l f on to her. The nature of t h i s projection i s made cl e a r through the use of psychological symbols. Olimpia represents the masculine, s p i r i t u a l aspect of his ego, the part that Is s t r i v i n g f o r development. Nathanael c a l l s her "himmlische" over and over again, and backs this up by a s s o c i a t i n g the word " S t r a h l " with her. As was shown e a r l i e r , rays come from the masculine sun. Her name gives another i n d i c a t i o n of her q u a l i t i e s since Mt. Olympus i s the home of the gods. She i s also r e f e r r e d to twice as a "Liebesstern." 'Ja, du mein holder, h e r r l i c h e r Liebesstern,' sprach Nathanael, ' b i s t mir aufgegangen und w i r s t leuchten, wirst verklaren mein Inneres immerdar!1 (p. 33) Jung explains i n Symbols of Transformation 'that romantic love may be a surrogate f o r s p i r i t u a l love, and stars are one of the main clues to t h i s transference. In Nathanael's case there i s no doubt that h i s love f o r Olimpia i s r e a l l y a longing f o r things of the s p i r i t , f o r she i s to him the projected essence of that s p i r i t . On the other hand, however, she i s an automaton, with-out consciousness or w i l l . There are constant hints that even Nathanael's projection of her i s two-sided, f o r uncon-s c i o u s l y he knows that she i s s p i r i t u a l l y castrated. In t h i s sense, too, she i s a true r e f l e c t i o n of Nathanael; while he does t r u l y long f o r emancipation of his ego, h i s w i l l to act has been castrated. He projects both the good, heavenly 40 q u a l i t i e s onto her, as well as the negative ca s t r a t i o n symbols, but he refuses to recognize the l a t t e r on a conscious l e v e l . His great fear of Impotence prevents him from understanding that Olimpia is_ his castrated s p i r i t u a l i t y , that he, too, i s a puppet manipulated by the Great Mother. The symbols of Olimpia's ca s t r a t i o n are consistent with the r e s t of the work. Most important are her weak and l i f e l e s s eyes. The f i r s t time Nathanael sees Olimpia through the "Glasture," he notes, Sie schien mich nieht zu bemerken, und uberhaupt hatten ihre Augen etwas Starres, beinahe mocht i c h sagen, keine Sehkraft, es war mir so, a l s sohl i e f e s i e mit offnen Augen. Mir wurde ganz unhelmlich...(p. 16) Siegmund also notes t h i s when he t r i e s to explain to Nathanael that Olimpia i s only a d o l l . Sie kb'nnte f u r schb*n gelten, wenn i h r B l i c k nicht so ganz ohne Lebenstrahl, i c h mb'chte sagen, ohne Sehkraft ware. (p. 34) The former i s a hint from Nathanael's unconscious that Olimpia has weak eyes, a symbolic way of pinpointing her cas t r a t i o n as s p i r i t u a l . I t i s Interesting that Nathanael refe r s to his own "Augen B l o d i g k e l t " (p. 11) when speaking about h i s experience with Coppelius. Nathanael begins to look at Olimpia d i f f e r e n t l y when, with the aid of Coppola's spyglass, a transformation takes place. Nur die Augen schienen ihm gar seltsam s t a r r und t o t . Doch wie er lmmer scharfer und scharfer durch das Glas hlnschaute, war es, als gingen i n Olimpias Augen feuchte Mondesstrahlen auf. Es schien, a l s wenn nun e r s t die Sehkraft entzundet wurde; lmmer lebendiger und lebendiger flammten die B l i c k e . (p. 28) The moist moonbeams identify her with the Great Mother, yet the verb "flammen" associates her with the realm of the spir-i t u a l , since f i r e i s often a symbol of transformational growth.' Is has been demonstrated, this association i s only a projected one, and this Is borne out by Nathanael's observations of her. At the dance, he grasps her hand. Eiskalt war Olimpias Hand, er fuhlte sich durchbebt von grausigem Todesfrost, er starrte Olimpia ins Auge, das strahlte ihm v o l l Liebe und Sehnsucht entgegen, und in dem Augenblick war es auch, als fingen an in der kaiten Hand Pulse zu schlagen und des Lebensblutes Strb'me zu gluhen. Und auch in Nathanaels Innerm gliihte hoher auf die Liebes-lust...(p. 32) Again note the significant use of such verbs as "strahlen" and "gluhen." Nathanael's subconscious continues to warn him of his f o l l y when he kisses her. ...elskalte LIppen begegneten seinen gluhenden^ So wie, als er Olimpias kalte Hand beriihrte, fuhlte er sich von innerem Grausen erfaBt, die legende von der Toten Braut ging ihm pltftzllch durch den Sinn; aber fest hatte ihn Olimpia an sich gedruckt, und in dem KuB schienen die LIppen zum Leben zu erwarmen. (p. 33) The allusion to the dead bride i s "a reference to Goethe's ballad, 'Braut von Korinth,' i n which the hero unwittingly makes love to a revenant and must d i e . " 1 9 Thus he knows unconsciously th&t she i s dead and he soon w i l l be, since she Is the allegorical equal of his castrated consciousness. This foreshadowing of his eventual death i s supported by other incidents involving Olimpia. When he pays Coppola three ducats for the spyglass, he worries about having over-paid him. A deep sigh, "ein ti e f e r Todesseufzer," (p. 28) echoes through the room, and he Immediately recognizes It as his own. Yes, he has overpaid, f o r the price i s death, i s was quoted e a r l i e r , when he touches her hand, a deathly c h i l l passes through him. Just so the reader w i l l r e a l i z e that the Great Mother i s also associated with h i s death, there are references to Clara and death together. When Nathanael has the v i s i o n from which he writes h i s poem, he experiences at the end a t o t a l return to Clara: "Das i s t Clara, und i c h bin i h r eigen ewiglich." Immediately the c i r c l e of f i r e stops spinning and he looks Clara i n the eye, "aber es i s t der Tod, der mit Claras Augen inn f r e u n d l i c h . anschaut." (p. 23) Thus Nathanael's death and those repon-s i b l e f o r i t , i . e . , the Great Mother and the T e r r i b l e Father, are hinted at throughout the story. The a l l e g o r i c a l roles of the characters have now been determined; a l l are archetypes within Nathanael's own psyche. As can be seen, Nathanael's psychic l i f e i s a series of f l u c t u a t i o n s . Instead of e x h i b i t i n g the smooth, gradual growth of the normal psyche, he shows an e r r a t i c pattern of development and regression. There are sym-b o l i c associations which mark c e r t a i n stages i n develop-ment. For example, the Image of s t a i r s i s repeated whenever a psychic change i s about to occur. S t a i r s and ladders are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a symbol of s p i r i t u a l ascent. How-ever, i n t h i s case, they are integrated with the symbol of a house, which a l t e r s t h e i r meaning somewhat. "The human body i s often represented as a house," 2 0 with the basement or lower f l o o r s corresponding to the unconscious and the a t t i c representing the head, the seat of conscious-ness. St a i r s are thus the means of getting from one l e v e l 21 of consciousness to another. They are usually mentioned at the appearance of Coppelius or Coppola, but also i n con-nection with Olimpia and Nathanael's f i n a l ascent into the c i t y h a l l tower. Coppola i s always mentioned going down the s t a i r s . For example, twice he suddenly appears i n Nathanael' room; the f i r s t time he i s almost thrown down the s t a i r s by the Irate Nathanael, the second time he descends laughing a f t e r s e l l i n g Nathanael a spyglass. S i m i l a r l y Coppelius makes a negative impression on Nathanael by clumping heavily up the s t a i r s . In both cases, the emphasis on the s t a i r s and the f a c t that both Coppelius and Coppola come from or return to a lower place, indicates that t h e i r source i s the unconscious. Olimpia obviously cannot climb s t a i r s h e r s e l f , but i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough she i s seen f o r the f i r s t time when Nathanael i s going up the s t a i r s to Spalanzani's lecture room. The entire metaphor of man as a house i s better under-stood when the passage about Nathanael's student lodgings i s examined. Nathanael, i t i s sai d , had been l i v i n g In a room on an upper f l o o r before he went home. As a student he had developed his consciousness and was generally guided by the conscious segment of his mind; he was l i v i n g i n the "upper f l o o r " of his psyche. When Coppola v i s i t s him, he i s re-introduced to his repressed, unconscious side. His 44 quick glimpse of Olimpia reinforces t h i s , as does his t r i p home to r e - e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s with Olara. I t i s pointed out that he doesn't just return home, but s p e c i f i c a l l y to his mother's room ("ins zlmmer der Mutter e i n t r a t " - p. 21). C e r t a i n l y there Is no need to emphasize such a s p e c i f i c l o -cation, f o r no action Is described as taking place In t h i s room...unless i t Is meeting Clara. I t Is she, not his mother, whom he sees f i r s t a f t e r his mother's room i s mentioned. This would seem to indicate that there Is a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Clara and his mother. The purpose of the juxta-p o s i t i o n of the mother's room with Clara, then, i s to symbol-i c a l l y explain what his return home means: i t i s a return to the womb of the Great Mother. That a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Clara and the mother image does e x i s t i s fur t h e r reinforced by the structure of the story. In two places Nathanael i s taken i l l with a "brain" fever and awakens to f i n d a woman bending over him; the f i r s t time i t Is his mother, the second, Clara . In both cases Nathanael's r e a l mother must not be understood on a p e r s o n a l i s t l c basis, but rather as part of the Great Mother image. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of his t r i p home and h i s struggle f o r consciousness becomes more apparent now. His proposed duel with Lothar i s perhaps the climax of the story i n terms i of h i s psychological growth, f o r i t i s the l a s t time he a c t i v e l y stands up against the Great Mother. Lothar Is a minor Terr i b l e Father figure here, f o r he i s upholding the non-creative aspects of the Great Mother. Nathanael's f a i l u r e to win thi s b a t t l e seals h i s fate, and the r e s u l t s of t h i s f a i l u r e are shown i n the metaphor of the student lodgings. When he returns to the u n i v e r s i t y town, he discovers that the inner rooms of the b u i l d i n g have been burned out; only the charred outer walls of his persona remain. The f i r e had started In the chemist's shop on the f i r s t f l o o r , down i n the lower realms of the psyche, and had spread upwards, eventually engulfing the whole house. This i s symbolic of the state of Nathanael' soul. He has f a i l e d i n his attempts to repress his g r a v i t a -t i o n a l longing f o r the Great Mother, and as a r e s u l t , his inner being has been destroyed. F i r e , too, obviously plays an Important symbolic r o l e . As i n the case of s t a i r s , i t can be more e a s i l y understood when correlated with Nathanael's psychic f l u c t u a t i o n s . In t r a d i t i o n a l mythology f i r e has two aspects: 1) the p o s i t i v e side of p u r i f i c a t i o n and i t s attendant s p i r i t u a l growth, and 2) the negative, destructive side. This story can be con-fusing u n t i l one r e a l i z e s that a l l the f i r e imagery has only a negative q u a l i t y about i t . We are introduced to f i r e i n the alchemical experiments of Coppelius and Nathanael father. Coppelius controls f i r e , which Immediately gives i t a negative cast, f o r a l l he has to do i s walk to the f i r e -place "und eine blaue Flamme kn i s t e r t e auf dem Herde empor." (p. 9) We are also t o l d of the transformation the f i r e makes on the father's face; he begins to look l i k e Coppelius and even assumes a " T e u f l l s b i l d e . " (p. 9) Later we are t o l d that f i r e destroys Nathanael's student lodgings. 46 To Nathanael, then, f i r e has no p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s . The s p i r i t u a l growth normally catalyzed hy f i r e ends i n disas-ter f o r his father, so Nathanael fears i t a l l the more. I r o n i c a l l y , I t i s th i s repressed flame of psychic energy which f l a r e s up and destroys him. The main l i n k between f i r e and ca s t r a t i o n i s found i n the nurse's story of the sandman. Pire i s never mentioned i n the o r i g i n a l story; sand i s the agent used to make c h i l d -ren's eyes pop out. Nathanael quickly superimposes his own fear of f i r e on to the story, the f i r s t h i n t of which i s seen when Coppelius s t i r s the lumps of coal i n the f i r e . A f t e r he i s discovered, Coppelius singes Nathanael's h a i r , 22 a t r a d i t i o n a l method of secondary c a s t r a t i o n . Then he attempts to place glowing embers from the f i r e i n Nathanael's eyes i n order to make them pop out, i n t h i s case the primary means of s p r i t u a l c a s t r a t i o n . He follows t h i s up by un-screwing his hands and f e e t , yet another form of secondary pic c a s t r a t i o n . ^ Thus f i r e i s associated with the most f r i g h t -ening Incident of his l i f e , so Nathanael continues to superimpose i t s negative aspects onto a l l of h i s fantasies. Nathanael's poem makes the next major a l l u s i o n s to f i r e . This poem i s very important, f o r i t i s a message from Nathanael's c o l l e c t i v e unconscious warning him about his mental st a t e . I t s source Is demonstrated by the f a c t that Nathanael does not recognize I t as something he has con-s c i o u s l y written. "Wessen grauenvolle Stlmme i s t das?" he cries with'horror, (p. 23) This poem, then, f a l l s i n Jung's t r category of l i t e r a t u r e which r i s e s up from the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious and overwhelms the poet; obviously i t s warning i s an Important one. S t r u c t u r a l l y the poem foreshadows Nathanael's second mental breakdown at Spalanzani 1s, as well as his ultimate downfall, through the motif of the r i n g of f i r e . This "Peuerkreis," we are t o l d , Is l i k e a whirlwind i n that i t "dreht mit der S c h n e l l i g k e l t des Sturmes." (p. 23) I t also makes a rage l i k e a hurricane (Orkan), and c a r r i e s Nathanael away as such a story would do. The c i r c u l a r , w h i r l i n g action of the wind Implies psychic transformation, 24 as does f i r e . This transformation has the power to be eith e r progressive or regressive; I f the hero meets the challenge s u c c e s s f u l l y , he w i l l grow, i f not, he must die. Hurricanes and whirlwinds are very complex symbols, as are c i r c l e s and rings. One thing which a l l of them have i n common i s the basic concept of psychic development: a l l are syntheses of the four basic elements, earth, a i r , water and f i r e , and therefore contain a l l . 2 5 What adds to the confusion i s that t h i s u n i t y i s found at both the beginning and the end of psychic development — at the beginning i n the p a r a d i s i c a l uroboros, the womb of the Great Mother, and at the end In heaven, the equivalent masculine paradise. Once one has l e f t the uroboros, one's goal as a hero i s to a t t a i n consciousness and then work through t h i s medium to-wards u n i f y i n g the psyche again. When forced into a stage of transformation, one may move forward or backward to a t t a i n 48 this unity; regression, however, i f unchecked, leads to madness and death. Therein l i e s the problem i n understanding c i r c l e imagery: i s Nathanael fs f l r e y - c i r c l e - w h i r l w i n d a symbol of progression or regression? Since we can only judge from the r e s u l t s , i t must be concluded that i t i s regressive i n nature. He lapses i n t o madness a f t e r two out of three confrontations with the c i r c l e of f i r e , and i n the one exception, we are t o l d that his r e s u l t a n t state of mind i s associated with the Great-Mother. In the poem the winds die down and a l l i s calm when Nathanael declares that he w i l l be with Clara eter-n a l l y . He comments that he Is i n a black abyss ("im schwarzen Abgrund" - p. 2 3 ) when I t becomes calm. Clara, as the Great Mother, draws him to her realm down l n the dark abyss.^° This seems to indicate that the regression foreshadowed i n the poem and f u l f i l l e d l n h i s s u i c i d e i s manipulated by the Great Mother and her helpers. Thus whenever the w h i r l i n g c i r c l e of f i r e appears, i t Is an i n -dica t i o n that Nathanael i s being confronted with a challenge he cannot meet — to leave the uroboros behind and move to-wards greater consciousness. One f i n a l negative example of f i r e i s seen i n the pattern of symbols i n v o l v i n g eyes, breast, blood, and f i r e . There i s a transformation of the elements from one incident to another which a l e r t s the reader to psychic change. 1) The f i r s t a ssociation of eyes and f i r e i s a tan-ge n t i a l one — Coppelius i s seen smashing red-hot lumps i n the f i r e . 2) In Nathanael's poem, Coppelius simply touches C l a r a 1 eyes and they spring to Nathanael's breast, "wie blutige Funken sengend und brennend." (p. 23) 3) When Coppola comes to s e l l h is wares to Nathanael, he sets several p a i r s of glasses out on the table. They catch the l i g h t and i t appears to Nathanael that flaming glances spring from the lenses and shoot "blutrote Strahlen" into his breast.(p. 26) 4) Nathanael's v i s i t to Spalanzani reaches a climax when Spalanzani picks up a p a i r of bloody eyes and throws them on to Nathanael*s breast. 5) F i n a l l y , up on the tower, Nathanael's eyes take on the q u a l i t i e s of f i r e ; i n f a c t , as he looks through his spyglass, streams of f i r e begin to shoot from his eyes. Eyes are always associated with f i r e , but they also develop the l i n k with blood and the breast. To make any sense of t h i s association, the word "Brust" must be taken i n a poetic rather than l i t e r a l sense. This i s not hard to j u s t i f y , since Clara indicates i n the poem that the burning Nathanael f e e l s i n h i s breast i s r e a l l y blood from h i s own heart: das waren ja nicht meine Augen, wdie so i n deiner Brust brannten, das waren Ja gluhende Tropfen deines elgenen Herzbluts...(p. 23) This statement l i n k s a l l the elements of Nathanael's psychic 50 transformation: eyes, f i r e (brannten, gluhende), breast or heart, and blood. As has been demonstrated, Nathanael has an altogether negative attitude towards f i r e , because he associates I t with the death of his father and c a s t r a t i o n . He also greatly fears the c i r c l e of f i r e , because i t forces him to decide between the Great Mother and ego development. Obviously, the s a c r i f i c e of his own l i f e , of his very "Herz-b l u t , " i s present i n his unconscious mind as a threatened end. Therefore, as t h i s Idea takes a firmer and firmer grip on h i s soul, his fear of associated symbols ne c e s s a r i l y i n -creases. There i s a mythological pattern of s a c r i f i c e which must be explored i n order to understand Nathanael's confusing stance. The bloody nature of the Great Mother and her demand f o r masculine s a c r i f i c e s i s well-established on the c u l t u r a l n 28 l e v e l . on a psychological l e v e l the demands are Just as great, f o r the ego must ei t h e r develop enough strenth to be equal to the Great Mother's g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l , or i t must submit to cast r a t i o n , s a c r i f i c e and death. The l a t t e r can be achieved by passively c a p i t u l a t i n g or by a c t i v e l y admitting defeat and carrying out the s a c r i f i c e oneself. Nathanael i s not the f i r s t to s a c r i f i c e himself through s p i r i t u a l c astration or s u i c i d e , rather than passively give In to the p u l l of the Great Mother. Some famous mythological precedents can be found i n Oedipus, Narcissus and H i p p o l y t u s . 2 9 Although Nathanael's ego consciously rebels against such a s a c r i f i c e , his unconscious i s very much aware that t h i s i s his fated end. This Is seen not only i n the foreshadowing of the poem and references to death (the dead bride, e t c . ) , but simply i n his tremendous fear of f i r e and c a s t r a t i o n . Besides by his experiences with Coppelius, t h i s fear may be engendered by the natural fear of growth and change; i . e . , he may be a f r a i d of the transformative, creative aspects of f i r e and therefore dwells on i t s negative aspects. I r o n i c a l l y i t i s f i x a t i o n on th i s fear which assures that the Great Mother w i l l be v i c t o r i o u s . In order to understand the mass of symbols which have thus f a r been accumulated, i t i s necessary to review Nathanael's whole psychic development as I t i s shown i n Per Sandmann. Because of the emphasis on eyes, Nathanael was e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i e d as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n heroic i n c e s t . He a c t i v e l y seeks a confrontation with the sandman, the Ter r i b l e Father, i n order to assert his independence. But he i s s u c c e s s f u l l y castrated and thus returns to the realm of the Great Mother, and a l l l a t e r attempts to emancipate his ego r e s u l t i n the same end. The t r a n s i t i o n between matriarchal and heroic i n c e s t i s c a l l e d the stage of the "strugglers." In th i s stage, "fear of the Great Mother Is the f i r s t sign of controversion, self-formation, and ego s t a b i l i t y . This fear expresses i t s e l f i n various forms of f l i g h t and reslstence. The primary expression of f l i g h t , whloh i s s t i l l under the dominance of the Great Mother, i s 52 30 s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n and suicide.""^ Neumann makes t h i s process most e x p l i c i t when he divides i t into two categories: "the f i r s t , when the doomed and sorrowful hero succumbs to the Great Mother; the second, when his resistence increases and he f i n d s himself i n a hopeless s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t . The second stage of mounting resistence corresponds to a nar-c i s s i s t i c turning away from the Great Mother, and i t i s at this point that the passive fate of being castrated and driven mad i s superseded by active s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n and s u i c i d e . " 3 1 Nathanael probably entered the second stage while away at u n i v e r s i t y ; h i s ego was d e f i n i t e l y developing strength, f o r we are t o l d that he was l i v i n g i n the "upper f l o o r " of his lodgings. He t r i e s to r e v i t a l i z e himself, to gain the ground he l o s t when he vowed eternal devotion to Olara, through a n a r c i s s i s t i c turning away from the Great Mother. Hence the theme of mirrors and glasses. The tendency of an ego consciousness that i s be-coming aware of i t s e l f , the tendency of a l l s e l f -consciousness, a l l r e f l e c t i o n , to see i t s e l f as i n a mirror, i s a necessary and e s s e n t i a l feature at t h i s stage...It i s a necessary phase of human knowledge, and i t Is only persistence i n t h i s phase that has f a t a l e f f e c t s . The breaking of the Great Mother f i x a t i o n through s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n i s not a symbol of autoeroticism, but of controversion. 32 But as we have seen, Nathanael's attempts at s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n are a l l to no a v a i l , f o r Olimpia, the symbol of his p o t e n t i a l consciousness, has already been s p i r i t u a l l y castrated; she has no eyes. This i s a c l e a r r e f l e c t i o n of Nathanael, too, f o r once he refuses to complete the duel with Lothar, he 53 has sealed his fate, when Nathanael begins to r e a l i z e h is p l i g h t at Professor Spalanzani's, he goes mad. The f i n a l ascent of the tower explains Nathanael's p o s i t i o n c l e a r l y . When he glimpses the distant mountains, which, as C l r l o t points o u t , 3 3 are another symbol of what he has l o s t , they Indicate i n general terms that he could yet ascend to the heights of consciousness. Neumann esta-b l i s h e s , however, another symbolic aspect of mountains. They represent the protective part of the archetypal feminine, just as a womb-like vessel does. To Nathanael, then, the mountains are a double-edged symbol, f o r they remind him of what he has l o s t , and at the same time beckon him towards the p r o t e c t i v e , a l l - c o n t a i n i n g Mother. Clara, i n her role as Great Mother, i s manipulating him towards t h i s end. I t i s she who suggests climbing the tower f o r one l a s t look at the mountains. Once on top she spots a "kleinen, grauen Busch," (p. 41) which reminds Nathanael subconsciously of Coppelius, whom he had described as having "buschichten grauen Augenbrauen. 1 1 (p. 7) Here Freud's theory of the uncanny i s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant, f o r a l l the fears Nathanael has so long repressed, come fl o o d i n g to the surface. F i r s t Clara establishes the r i g h t frame of mind f o r her work, I.e., she compels him to climb the s t a i r s and look at the mountains once more, and then she resurrects a repressed association — the grey, bushy eyebrows of Coppelius. This uncanny experience Is too much f o r Nathanael to bear. Just as he f i n a l l y understood that Olimpia was only a manipulated d o l l , he now r e a l i z e s t h a t he, too; i s merely a puppet. The puppeteer i s h i s own repressed l i b i d o and the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, which sought o u t l e t s through pro-j e c t i o n of the v a r i o u s archetypes. The c i r c l e of f i r e s t a r t s to t u r n and Nathanael i s swept i n t o an a n i m a l - l i k e f r e n z y . He t r i e s to k i l l the Great Mother once and f o r a l l by throw-i n g C l a r a o f f the tower, but L o t h e r , as T e r r i b l e Father, rescues her. Nathanael i s not s t r o n g enough to f i g h t them both, so he i s faced w i t h the two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : 1) passive r e g r e s s i o n to madness or 2) s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n and s u i c i d e . His f i n a l w i l d c r y o f "Skone Oke" ( p r e t t y eyes) r e l a t e s back to Coppelius' statement by the a l c h e m i c a l h e a r t h : "Nun haben w i r Augen - Augen - e i n schon Paar Kinderaugen." (p. 10) With the jump from the tower, the s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n and s u i c i d e are complete. Nathanael's head, the symbol o f consciousness, l i e s s h a t t e r e d on the pavement. 55 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER II ^E.T.A. Hoffmann, "Der Sandmann," In Poetlsche Werke. D r i t t e r Band, B e r l i n , 1957, p. 40. A l l f u r t h e r quotations f o r "Der Sandmann" w i l l be taken from th i s reference and w i l l be referre d to only v J i t h l n the body of the text by means of parentheses. 2 Sigmund Freud, "The Uncanny," In Collected Papers, v o l . Iv, no. 10, Ernest Jones, ed., London, 1956. •5 -'Erich Neumann, The Orlgins and History of Consciousness. Princeton, 1971, p. 190. h J.E. C i r l o t , A Dictionary of Symbols. London, 1962, P. 96. 5Freud, p. 403. I t should be noted here that the t r a n s l a t i o n of "unheim-l i c h " to "uncanny" i s a rather weak one. The f i r s t part of Freud's work deals with the word "unheimlich" i t s e l f . He concludes that an "unheimlich" experience i s one that i s both f a m i l i a r (helm)and foreign (unheim) and therefore a l l the more f r i g h t e n i n g when I t occurs. 6 I b l d . . p. 384. n • C.G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy. London, 1969, pp. 299-301. 8 I b i d . , P. 35. 9 I M d . , pp. 229-32. 1 0 L o u i s Pauwels and Jacques Bergier, The Morning of the  Magicians. London, 1971, p. 85. 1 1E.T.A. Hoffmann, Tales of E.T.A. Hoffmann, Chicago, 1972, p. 106 (tra n s l a t o r ' s fooTSiote). 12 Neumann, p. 142. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 179. l 4 C i r l o t , p. 38. 1 5 I b l d . . p. 235-6. FOOTNOTES Continued 1 c Neumann, p. 153. 1 7C.G. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, London, 1969, pp. 39-78. l 8 0 i r l o t , pp. 100-101. 1 9Hoffmann, Tales of E.T.A. Hoffmann, p. 116 (trans-l a t o r ' s footnote). 20 C.G. Jung, "Approaching the Unconscious," i n Man and  His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed., Garden City, 1964, p. 78. 2 1 C i r l o t , p. 146. 22 Neumann, p. 59. p i 8 5 ^ C i r l o t » 1 0 ^ » a n d J u n S » Symbols of Transformation, OA * I b i d . , p. 38 and p. 100. 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 44-46, p. 147, p. 282. 2^Neumann, pp. 36-37. 27Jung, Symbols of Transformation, p. 355. 28 Neumann, pp. 54-55. 2 9 I b l d . , pp. 88-96. 3°Ibld., p. 88. 3 1 I b l d . t pp. 178-79. 3 2 I b i d . . p. 89. 3 3 C i r l o t , pp. 208-211, p. 299. 34 E r i c h Neumann, The Great Mother. Princeton, 1972, pp. 45-46. CHAPTER III Crime and Punishment, which at f i r s t might appear to be l e s s sophisticated and a r t i s t i c than other of Dostoevsky 1s major novels, Is i n r e a l i t y quite complex and a e s t h e t i c a l l y balanced. I t may take more than one reading f o r the reader to appreciate that the "suddenness" of Raskolnikov's Chris-t i a n conversion i n the l a s t two pages i s a c t u a l l y w e l l -prepared f o r , and that this conversion i s not as t r a d l t i o n -1 2 a l l y C h r i s t i a n as i t seems. George Gibian, Leonard Kent, and Alexandra Rudiclna 3 have established that Dostoevsky 1s c a r e f u l use of the subconscious does prepare the reader f o r Raskolnikov 1s s u f f e r i n g and s a l v a t i o n ; there i s no sudden reversal from stubborn i n t e l l e c t u a l to meek C h r i s t i a n . Others, too, have commented on the subconscious and even the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious i n Crime and Punishment. C.F. Keppler ^ s not the f i r s t to recognize that Svidrigaylov i s the embodiment of the e v i l side of Raskolnikov 1s personality, but he i s among the f i r s t to place Svidrigaylov i n a Jungian 4 mold and l a b e l him as the Shadow. He thereby explains the s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two, the "something i n common" (p. 302) 5 which extends f a r beyond t h e i r f e e l i n g s f o r Dunya. But there are many other times during which thi s same kind of psychic awe i s experienced — towards an i n d i v i d u a l , towards a l o c a t i o n , towards a s i t u a t i o n — yet c r i t i c s seem u n w i l l i n g to explore these occurrences. I t i s 58 exactly t h i s kind of experience which a Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seeks to deal with. I t i s therefore this author's conten-tion that a Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not only quite approp-r i a t e l y applied to thi s novel, but that I t deals with such important problems as Raskolnikov's motivation for commit-t i n g the murders. This Is a rather important accomplishment, since the question of motivation becomes the central issue of the novel. Many reasons are established f o r the transgression of moral and s o c i a l laws, but each one i s slowly eroded away u n t i l Raskolnikov a c t u a l l y denies the very r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s he had previously given. The f i r s t h i n t of motivation i s given i n the f i r s t l i n e of the novel; we are t o l d that I t i s a "very hot evening at the beginning of Jul y . " (p. 19) The narrator builds on thi s i n i t i a l comment u n t i l the reader does f e e l an appreciation of Petersburg's p e c u l i a r climate. I t was t e r r i b l y hot In the st r e e t , and the s t i f l i n g a i r , the crowds of the people...the dust and that p e c u l i a r summer stench which Is so f a m i l i a r to everyone who l i v e s i n Petersburg... a l l that had a most unfortunate e f f e c t on the young man's already overwrought nerves, (p. 20) And no place i s hotter or s t u f f i e r than Raskolnikov's small room. I t i s as though the weather were the f i n a l straw which forced Raskolnikov to commit the murders. But the narrator does not push t h i s conclusion f a r ; the heat Is a contributing f a c t o r , but I t alone could not p r e c i p i t a t e Raskolnikov's crime. 59 Another possible explanation i s introduced on the second page: "f o r two days ^ Raskolnikov}had had hardly anything to eat." (p. 20) Razumikhin and Nastasya promote thi s theory, and again i t i s a contributing f a c t o r . A man who does not eat for long periods i s subject to h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , f a i n t i n g s p e l l s , and i r r a t i o n a l actions, a l l of which plague Raskolnikov. Lack of food, cramped, s t u f f y l i v i n g quarters — these ideas are further examined i n the s o c i a l i s t arguments put f o r t h . Razumikhin reports the s o c i a l i s t stance as t h i s : Crime i s a protest against bad and abnormal s o c i a l conditions and nothing more...They reduce everything to thi s one cause — environ-ment. Environment i s the root of a l l e v i l . . . (P. 272) But t h i s argument i s not allowed to stand, f o r Razumikhin bla s t s t h e i r theories by exclaiming that "human nature i s n ' t taken i n t o account at a l l . " (p. 273) When the importance of environment i s stressed l a t e r by Lebezyatnikov (p. 383), the argument i s undercut simply by the f a c t that i t i s Lebezyatnikov, the caricature of the s o c i a l i s t , who mouths i t . Dostoevsky indicates that he i s not e n t i r e l y unsympathetic to the "environment" question simply by giving I t the emphasis that he does. But when Raskolnikov i s con-f e s s i n g to Sonia he says, And do you r e a l i z e , Sonia, that low c e i l i n g s and small pokey l i t t l e rooms warp both mind and soul? Oh, how I loathed that hovel of mine! And yet I wouldn't leave i t . Wouldn't leave I t on purpose. Didn't go out f o r days. Didn't want to work. Didn't want to eat, even. Just l a y about. I f Nastasya happened to bring me something to eat, I'd eat; i f not-, a whole day would pasts without my t a s t i n g anything. I wouldn't ask f o r anything d e l i b e r a t e l y , out of s p i t e , (p. 431) Dostoevsky thus makes i t clea r that while the s o c i a l i s t argument might have some v a l i d i t y i n general, I t i s not applicable i n t h i s s p e c i f i c case. I t Is human nature which i s all-important here. Raskolnikov chooses not to rescue himself from the Influence of his room and he chooses not to eat, even, as i s demonstrated In other places, whenNastfesya does bring him food. No, i t Is not something from outside Raskolnikov, a force from his environment, which dictates his actions; rather, i t i s something from i n s i d e him which manipulates his so u l . Another r e l a t e d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s the economic issue. Raskolnikov implies to Sonla that without money his mother would die of g r i e f and his s i s t e r would be forced i n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n , i n marriage or otherwise. Also, his own plans are dependent on more money. Well, so — so I decided to get hold of the old woman's money and to use i t to see me through the u n i v e r s i t y without worrying my mother, and to help me with my career during the f i r s t few years a f t e r the u n i v e r s i t y , and do i t a l l In a b i g way, thorough-l y , so as to assure my success i n the career I had chosen and make me completely independent. Well — w e l l , that's a l l there Is to i t . (p. 429) But his actions b e l i e t h i s excuse, as Sonla points out. "But why i f , as you said, you did i t Just to rob, didn't you take anything?" (p. 427) He v a s c l l l a t e s w i l d l y between concern f o r his mother and Dunya, and complete disregard f o r them i n money matters. When his mother sends him money she has borrowed, he gives i t away: he gives some to a policeman to help a rape-victim home; he contributes to a str e e t singer and even a p r o s t i t u t e and f i n a l l y he gives the bulk of i t to the Marmeladovs. He also takes the alms given him on the bridge and throws them into the Neva. Obviously he i s not concerned with the money and he even admits th i s to Sonia. "And i t was not the money, Sonia, I was a f t e r when I did i t . " (p. 432) He knows i t i s not a v a l i d excuse and as proof he \cites the f a c t that Razumikhin i s also poor, yet he does not succumb to economic pressures and use them as an excuse f o r robbery and murder. "He manages to get work," Raskolnikov says. "But I got b i t t e r , and I didn't want to work." (p. 430J_ Money f o r himself, then, i s not his motivation. Nor i s money f o r humanitarian purposes a r e l i a b l e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . Raskolnikov states that immediately a f t e r his f i r s t v i s i t to l l y o n a Ivanovna, he happened to overhear two men discussing her i n a cafe. One even went so f a r as to propose k i l l i n g her, since her l i f e "...amounts to no more than the l i f e of a louse or a black beetle, I f that, f o r the old hag Is r e a l l y harmful." (pp. 84-5) The r e s t of the proposal was to take her money and do good deeds with i t to a i d poor students, the s i c k , etc. "...that one l i t t l e crime could be expiated and wiped out by thousands of good 62 deeds..." (p. 84) he says. Raskolnikov had not yet worked out such a plan i n d e t a i l , f o r we are t o l d that p r i o r to the overheard conversation, only "A strange idea was hatch-ing In his brain, l i k e a chick i n an egg..." (p. 82) To him I t seems amazing that "he happened to overhear that con-versation just at the moment when he himself had brought the germ of the same Idea from the old woman." (p. 85) (Under-l i n i n g mine) And the narrator t e l l s us, "This i d l e t a l k at a restaurant was to exert a very great Influence on him as the whole thing grew and developed." (p. 85) These statements seem to indicate that Raskolnikov had only begun to think i n terms of k i l l i n g the woman, and perhaps. to j u s t i f y these thoughts In terms of a U t i l i t a r i a n e t h i c . Judging by his l a t e r actions, however, i t seems pla u s i b l e that t h i s conversation only encouraged the murder, since the idea was already there, but a c t u a l l y provided the excuse Raskolnikov was looking f o r . That he had no excuse u n t i l then Is evident from the f a c t that he did not think to use his own published theory on crime as a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . While there i s much i n common between Raskolnikov 1s "great man" theory and the U t i l i t a r i a n ethic espoused by the student, there i s one e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e : the great man, i n order to J u s t i f y his crimes, must have a new and valuable idea, one which would help the world much more than d i s t r i b u t i n g the old hag's few thousand roubles to the poor would. The great man can step over obstacles, "but only i f i t i s abso- -63 l u t e l y necessary f o r tne r u i r i l l m e n t or t i l s Idea on which  q u i t e p o s s i b l y the welfare of a l l mankind may depend." (p. 276) ( u n d e r l i n i n g mine) Raskolnikov never claims to have such an i d e a . In f a c t , he grasps a t the excuse o f f e r e d him i n the overheard conversation and probably decides o n l y then t h a t he w i l l spend the money f o r humanitarian p r o j e c t s . His concern f o r people i s amply demonstrated i n the book, but so i s h i s a l i e n a t i o n from humanity. In f a c t , R askolnikov " v a s c l l l a t e s s h a r p l y between sympathy and contempt f o r the people f o r whom he is...presumably s a c r i f i c i n g the moneylender and h i m s e l f . " ^ As Wasiolek p o i n t s out l n The Notebooks f o r Grime and Punishment, there are two d i f f e r e n t motive p a t t e r n s behind R a s k o l n i k o v 1 s a c t i o n s , and they seem to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The f i r s t i s the humanitarian motive, i n v o l v i n g h i s f a m i l y and a l l the poor and s i c k he c o u l d h e l p . The second i s the " e x t r a -o r d i n a r y " man and s e l f - w i l l e d motive, which would a l l o w him to commit crimes f o r the sake of h i s f u t u r e g o a l . "And i t would seem tha t the motive of s a c r i f i c i n g one's s e l f f o r humanity or s a c r i f i c i n g humanity f o r one's s e l f are c o n t r a d i c t o r y . " 7 But Wasiolek goes on to p o i n t out what he sees as the " r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " between these two motive p a t t e r n s : The ' p r e t t y ' humanitarian motive I s f l a t t e r i n g to Raskolnikov's ego, e v a s i v e l y presented to the con-s c i o u s mind as a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r an u g l y truth...These two motives are not c o n t r a d i c t o r y because they are not e q u a l l y r e a l . One i s b e l i e v e d I n , even though we may know o n l y I t s 64 manifestations i n the superman theory and the s e l f - w i l l e d r e j e c t i o n s of the family; the other Is not believed i n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dramatic and psychological, not l o g i c a l . 8 That Raskolnikov Is grasping f o r a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s evidenced by the f a c t that he hears only what he wants to of the cafe conversation. A f t e r the student outlines his j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r murdering the old hag, his f r i e n d asks whether he would a c t u a l l y k i l l Alyona Ivanovna himself. 'Of course not! I was merely discussing the ques-tion from the point of view of j u s t i c e . Personally, I'd have nothing to do with i t . ' 'Well, In my opinion, I f you are not ready to do i t yourself, i t ' s not a question of ju s t i c e at a l l . ' (p. 85) Raskolnikov ignores the Implications of these l a t t e r com-ments and grasps only at the humanitarian j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the murder. In order to underline the correctness of th i s J u s t i f i c a t i o n , he emphasizes to himself how s i g n i f i c a n t i t i s that he overheard these ideas when he was beginning to think them himself. " I t was as though there had r e a l l y been something pre-ordained here, a kind of si g n . . . " (p. 85) By making i t "pre-ordained," he f e e l s 1) that he has no choice about committing the act, and 2) the project there-fore has the approval of whoever or whatever pre-ordains such things. He has sought a conscious j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the murder, and he has found one. His a l t e r n a t i n g feelings of sympathy and d i s l i k e f o r people are demonstrated most dramatically when Raskolnikov Is t r y i n g to protect the drunken g i r l from the lecherous 65 man following her. At f i r s t he pleads with a policeman to do something about i t and even gives him money from his severely l i m i t e d funds to pay f o r a cab to take her home. Then suddenly he reverses his stance. At that moment something seemed to s t i n g Raskol-nikov; i n an instant he became quite a d i f f e r e n t man. He shouts a f t e r the policeman, Leave them alone! I t ' s not your business! And he thinks, And what the h e l l made me i n t e r f e r e ? Who am I to help her? Have I any r i g h t to help anyone? Let them devour each other f o r a l l I care. What business i s i t of mine? (p. 68) His desire f o r non-involvement i s mirrored i n the "remarkable f a c t that at the u n i v e r s i t y Raskolnikov had scarcely any f r i e n d s . He kept away from everyone, did not v i s i t anyone, and f e l t very i l l at ease when anyone came to v i s i t him." (P. 69) In The Notebooks f o r Prime and Punishment i t Is e v i -dent that Dostoevsky had at one time planned to make Raskol-nikov' s a l i e n a t i o n so pronounced that i t bordered on misanthropy. He remarks more than once, "How disgusting Q people are!" In one case t h i s statement occurs Just p r i o r to the l e t t e r from his mother (presumably the one which r e l a t e s Dunya's problems with Svidrigaylov and Luzhln) and to the encounter with the drunken g i r l mentioned above. His misanthropy, i n t h i s case, l n s p e c i f i c a l l y directed toward middle-aged men who long f o r sexual ad-66 ventures with innocent young women. He l a t e r comments, How low and v i l e people are...No gather them up i n one's hands and then do good f o r them. But instead to perish before t h e i r eyes and i n s p i r e only sneers.10 His own sense of f a i l u r e and Impotence i s involved here, f o r when he f a i l s while t r y i n g to do good, he i n s p i r e s sneers, not celebrated martyrdom. Obviously he has mixed fee l i n g s about people, so his humanitarian motives must also be tainted with t h i s v a s c l l l a t l n g a t t i t u d e . Raskolnikov, then, i n adopting the humanitarian motive that he does, makes a poor choice i n terms of his psycho-l o g i c a l state at t h i s time. Certainly he has humanitarian impulses, but t h i s aspect of his p e r s o n a l i t y i s presently overshadowed by a stronger, more dynamic aspect, which manifests i t s e l f i n the "great man" theory, h i s r e j e c t i o n of family, his desperate need to be master of his own f a t e , i . e . to dare..., and f i n a l l y his actual a l i e n a t i o n from humanity. No matter how much he rejects humanity, however, he cannot r i d himself of i t s hold. His s u f f e r i n g i s his strongest l i n k with humanity, and t h i s displays I t s e l f most intensely i n his I l l n e s s . For Dostoevsky, physical and mental i l l n e s s are inseparable. We are t o l d that Raskolnikov hasn't had proper l i v i n g conditions nor enough to eat, but there Is a more important fa c t o r which deter-mines his fevers, c h i l l s and delirium. I t soon becomes apparent that his physical problems occur i n d i r e c t cor-67 r e l a t i o n with his psychic well-being. Even before the murder, when he i s only contemplating i t , he spends most of his time l y i n g i n bed; the closer his thoughts come to the murder, the more fe v e r i s h he becomes. This c o r r e l a -tion i s most c l e a r l y manifested i n his four-day delirium, accompanied by fever and c h i l l s , which follows his crime. But he also displays other psychic symptoms, in c l u d i n g f a i n t i n g whenever the discussion centers on the murder. The theme of i l l n e s s was inse r t e d i n the story p a r t i a l l y to gain sympathy f o r Raskolnikov, and thereby provide another excuse f o r h i s actions: he was d e l i r i o u s and didn't know what he was doing when he murdered the two women. How-ever, Dostoevsky s k i l l f u l l y makes i t c l e a r that Raskolnikov's physical i l l n e s s i s brought on by his mental i l l n e s s , and not vice versa. While Razumikhin t r i e s to j u s t i f y his actions on the opposite grounds, i . e . that his physical i l l n e s s l e d to his mental confusion, the reader i s made to r e a l i z e that Raskolnikov did know what he was doing, that he chose to do I t , that he dared to do i t . Thus this excuse, l i k e a l l the others, crumbles out from under Raskolnikov. The same mental and physical reactions which t i p o f f Zamyotov and P o r f i r y also indicate to the reader the source of Raskolnikov's problems. I f the story were approached only on the l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n between ta l k of the murder and Raskolnikov's mental and physical reactions, one might simply conclude that Raskolnikov was s u f f e r i n g from a g u i l t y conscience. But Dostoevsky did not create just a simple morality t a l e ; he also gave the c r i t i c deep psychological material to work with, i n c l u d i n g Raskolnikov 1s contradictory tions and statements, and his subconsciously-i n s p i r e d dreams. With the aid of Jungian theory, the novel can be seen i n terms of archetypal patterns, which i n turn generate a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the work. Of course, Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not stand i s o l a t e d . Konstantin Kochulsky, f o r example, touches on the basic pattern e s s e n t i a l to the Jungian approach --the hero myth. He points out that through means of the murder: a new consciousness i s born — the consciousness of a strong personality, f i e n d i s h l y proud and s o l i t a r y . . . H i s fear, his faint-heartedness, the sickness have passed. The hero senses a t e r -r i b l e energy that has been aroused within him... 11 The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s new "strong i n d i v i d u a l " i s h i s " w i l l and strength." Ruth Mortimer states that Dostoevsky's "chief characters" often f i n d themselves l n a state of d u a l i t y and that they then f e e l compelled to exorcise the components of th i s d u a l i t y by some form of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , to resolve the ambiguity l n t h e i r natures through an act of w i l l . Freedom of the w i l l , the power to e f f e c t this s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and to j u s t i f y I t , once effected, i s a fundamental necessity for these tortured individuals.12 69 This problem then, i s at the core of the "strong individual" or hero. In Jungian terms, this person would be descending into the unconscious In order to come to terms with the archetypes. Because such an individual feels manipulated by the archetypes, he has to assert himself through means of an act of w i l l . Mochulsky continues his chronicle of the hero by exam-ining part three. This section "relates the course of the strong individual's struggle. The author intensifies our new impression of the hero by means of various Indirect characterizations." 1 3 When the artisan accuses him of being a murderer, however, Raskolnikov himself questions his heroic qualities and decides that he Is "worse and nastier than the louse^he) k i l l e d . . . " (p. 292) Part four "carries Raskolnikov's struggle to i t s ultimate climax." 1 4 Svidrigaylov appears as the embodiment of one of Raskolnikov's possible ends: i f Raskolnikov continues to negate a l l human values, then he w i l l Join Svidrigaylov in an amoral exis-tence. "This meeting with his double marks a new stage in ther hero's consciousness. Being convinced of his defeat ('Not a Napoleon, but a. louse') he begins to lose his sense of r e a l i t y . " 1 5 He meets with Sonla, but does not come away a Christian. Instead he restates his at-titude towards personal Power, which stands in opposition to Sonla*s humility. The figure of the man-god opposes the image of the God-man."16 The interrogation scene with 70 P o r f i r y only lends support to his f e e l i n g of control, f o r the painter confesses to the murder, leaving Raskolnikov l e g a l l y f r e e . During the course of part f i v e , "the strong i n d i v i d u a l a r r i v e s at the f i n a l stage of his self-know-ledge..."1''' He recognizes that the crime was committed f o r himself alone. "He performed an experiment; he was -1 Q r e s o l v i n g the enigma of his own p e r s o n a l i t y . " In t a l k i n g to Sonla, he wavers In accepting that he Is a louse, hut f i n a l l y concludes, Perhaps I am a man and not a louse. I may have been i n too great a hurry to condemn myself. I ' l l give them a good run f o r t h e i r money, (p. 434) i s a r e s u l t , he does not r e j e c t his theory of personal power. Part f i v e , according to Mochulsky, "depicts the p a r a l -l e l r u i n of the two 'strong i n d i v i d u a l s ' — Raskolnikov and S v i d r i g a y l o v . " 1 9 Svidrigaylov k i l l s himself and R askolnikov gives himself up to the p o l i c e . But even i n S i b e r i a , Raskolnikov refuses to give up his personal-power theory, and even states, "My conscience i s c l e a r . " (p. 552) Moch-ulsky goes on to i n t e r p r e t Raskolnikov's p e r s o n a l i t y through t h i s statement: What he was ashamed of was that he, Raskolnikov, should have perished so u t t e r l y , so hopelessly, and so s t u p i d l y because of some b l i n d decision of fate...(p. 550) Thus Mochulsky writes, ...he has but one single enemy — f a t e . Raskol-nikov has been brought to destruction l i k e a t r a g i c  hero i n battle with b l i n d Destiny. But how could the author present this bold truth about the new man to the readers of Katkov's well-meaning-jour-nal i n the 1860's? He had to cover i t by throwing an innocent v e i l over I t . He did t h i s , however, hurriedly, c a r e l e s s l y , 'just before the f i n a l curtain'...The novel ends with a vague a n t i c i -pation of the hero's 'renewal,' I t i s promised, 71 but i t Is not shown. We know Raskolnikov too well to believe this pious l i e . 2 0 Por further emphasis, Mochulsky adds, Raskolnikov's story Is a new embodiment of the myth of Prometheus revolt and the tragic hero's destruction in the course of his struggle with Pate.21 His f i n a l conclusion stands as this: After having traced the course of aesthetic freedom, the author leads us to the religious basis of his world outlook: there i s no freedom  other than freedom in Christ:"*^e who does not  Wlleve in Christ stands subject to the power  of Destiny.22 There i s much i n this interpretation with which a Jungian would not argue. Mochulsky has placed the novel within the pattern of the hero myth and has declared that Raskolnikov 1s quarrel Is really with Pate, not bad housing, hot weather, lack of food, economic deprivation, or any of the other external rationalizations put forth. He dared to commit the murders In order to "master his fate." However, the dissatisfaction Mochulsky and others feel for the ending i s explained by the fact that Dostoevsky i s deal-ing with only one segment of the hero myth. His suggestion of a new story about Raskolnikov's rebirth i s well-grounded in the psyche, for It i s the f i n a l and necessary part of the hero myth. F i r s t , the hero must descend into the abyss of the unconscious, then k i l l the Great Mother by uniting with her, and f i n a l l y , he must emerge reborn a hero. If he is not successful ln this, his fate Is that of the tragic hero. Raskolnikov has grappled with the unconscious, but It i s not until "Just before the f i n a l curtain" that he 72 realizes why he has been' unable to emerge a hero. With the aid of his last dream, Raskolnikov realizes that he must put his theory of power i n Its proper perspective and balance his own personality with attributes of Sonia's in order to be reborn. This recognition i s the crucial step in rebirth. To go into the details of his salvation any deeper than Dostoevsky does, would make the story rather unaesthetlc. In oral mythological tradition there i s a definite need for the hero pattern to be completed, in order for. the primitive psyche to have a paradigm to follow. But i n the modern novel, the sophistication of the reader demands that endings be "penultimate," i.e. that the reader be forced to Imagine what takes place after the novel "ends." Thus Dostoevsky has to stop where he does in the hero myth; only in the epilogue does Raskolnikov free himself from the influence of the Mother and the Shadow and thereby allow himself to be reborn. Since the pattern of rebirth i s established archetypally In every psyche, the reader should in t u i t the va l i d i t y of the promise of rebirth. Mochulsky's charge that the ending i s a compromise with society Is simply a naive denial of the last and most important segment of the hero cycle. To explore further Raskolnikov*s position as hero, i t i s f i r s t necessary to examine some of the main symbols of the work. Ralph Matlaw's ar t i c l e on insect Imagery .explores one of the most important of these symbols. Matlaw remarks that "the clearest proof of a fundamental 73 kinship among Dostoevsky 1s demonically dissolute characters i s found i n the f a c t that each i s associated with the image of a s p i d e r . " 2 3 Svidrigaylov i s c l e a r l y l i n k e d with them in Prime and Punishment when he describes e t e r n i t y as "a l i t t l e room...something l i k e a v i l l a g e bath-house, grimy and spiders i n every corner..." (p. 305) I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Raskolnikov i s also l i n k e d with spiders. I sat skulking i n my room l i k e a spider, (p. 430) I did not care a damn whether I would become the benefactor of someone or would spend the r e s t of my l i f e l i k e a spider catching them a l l In my web and sucking the l i v i n g juices out of them. (p. 432) He also r e f e r s to Alyona Ivanovna as having s p i d e r - l i k e q u a l i t i e s , although he c o n s i s t e n t l y c a l l s her a "louse." The louse has d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s at d i f f e r e n t times...When Raskolnikov ascribes loathsomeness and vileness to the louse, we recognize the same emotional and e t h i c a l connotations ascribed to the insect by the underground man, as well as those of spider imagery.25 Thus Dostoevsky l i n k s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a spider with Svidrigaylov, Alyona Ivanovna, and even Raskolnikov. The main function of a spider, i . e . to weave a web and trap other i n s e c t s , takes on new s i g n i f i c a n c e In t h i s context. Matlaw comments on Dostoevsky's "use of insects to characterize i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . His spiders'webs, as i t were, do not merely hang: they trap, and they are w e l l -populated." One conclusion he draws Is that Dostoevsky's characters attempt "to project i n s i g n i f i c a n c e i n / t h e i r ) That old moneylender, no good to anybody, who sucked the l i f e - b l o o d of the poor...24 As Matlaw points out: 74 c r i t i c i s m of others." ' In c a l l i n g the o l d woman a louse, Raskolnikov i s projecting his fe e l i n g s about himself on to her; he f e e l s , as he admits l a t e r , l i k e an i n s i g n i f i c a n t louse. When he att r i b u t e s s p i d e r - l i k e q u a l i t i e s to Svidrigaylov and Alyona Ivanovna, i t Is because he recognizes that he i s just as bad as they when he murders: he, too, "ruins" l i v e s , and not merely through mental or economic manipulation. He a c t u a l l y murders. However, there i s another l e v e l of projection concerning the spiders. Raskolnikov f e e l s i n s i g n i f i c a n t because he fe e l s as though he were trapped l n the web of a spider him-s e l f . I renetypally, t h i s image of the spider and her web symbolize the c l i n g i n g , entrapping aspects of the T e r r i b l e Mother. This archetype manipulates and controls the ego so completely that I t i s overwhelmed with a sense of i n s i g n i -ficance and f u t i l i t y . The only way out of the web seems to be by . k i l l i n g the spider and defying her r i g h t to c o n t r o l . As Raskolnikov learns, though, the act of w i l l which saves the hero might also prove h i s "Waterloo," f o r i f he l n turn steps outside the boundaries of human law, and goes so f a r as to i n f r i n g e upon the rights of others, then he Is just as bad as the o r i g i n a l spider. He, too, would then be trapping and manipulating others. When Raskolnikov c a l l s himself a louse and a spider, then, he i s beginning to achieve the Insight which ultimately frees him. Matlaw seems to substantiate Jung's thesis that the 75 spider represents the most manipulative aspects of the un-conscious 2^ when he c i t e s t h i s passage from The Idiot; The picture (Holbein's 'Dead Christjj seems to give expression to the idea of a dark, in s o l e n t , and senselessly eternal power, to which everything i s subordinated and this idea i s suggested to you unconsciously...Can anything appear i n a v i v i d image that has no image? But at times I did imagine that I saw, i n a sort of strange and impossible form, that I n f i n i t e power, that dark, deaf-and-dumb creature. I remember that someone seemed to lead me by the hand, with a l i g h t e d candle, and show me some huge and h o r r i b l e tarantula, assuring me that that was the dark, deaf-and-dumb, and all-powerful creature. 2 9 This dark power, then, within the context of a Jungian an a l y s i s , would be the T e r r i b l e Mother aspect of the Great Mother archetype. Is was explained In chapter one, the s t r u g g l i n g ego i s torn between the unconscious state of the uroboros and the consciousness he i s experiencing. When a c e r t a i n l e v e l of consciousness i s reached, the ego develops a hate-love attitude towards the uroboros: i t i s s t i l l at times drawn towards the pleasant state of unconsciousness, but i t fears being drawn i n completely and trapped forever In t h i s state. The T e r r i b l e Mother looms large as the dark power which would force the ego back to submission, so i t tends to dominate the l i f e of whomever i t "attacks." Another form which t h i s power takes Is that of Fate (see chapter one). "The psychological rule says that when an Inner s i t u a t i o n i s not made conscious, I t happens outside, as f a t e . " 3 0 A l l the d e t a i l s of the crime, from i t s i n -ception i n the overheard cafe conversation, to i t s amazingly successful execution, are a t t r i b u t e d to unknown forces 76 guiding the scene. It i s "predetermined," i t i s "chance," i t Is " f a t e . " Even Raskolnikov 1s actions a f t e r the crime are seemingly manipulated by this unknown power. When he goes to confess to Sonla, f o r instance, he hesitates outside her door. 'Must I t e l l her who k i l l e d l i s a v e t a ? ' The ques-tion was strange because he f e l t suddenly and almost at the same moment that he not only couldn't help t e l l i n g her, but that he couldn't possibly post-pone h i s confession even f o r a short time. He did not as yet know why i t was impossible: he only f e l t i t , and t h i s agonizing r e a l i z a t i o n of his own impotence before the i n e v i t a b l e almost crushed him. (pp. 419-20) The theme of impotence and f a i l u r e i s a strong one, yet one which i s d e l i c a t e l y treated by Dostoevsky. Ras-kolnikov considers himself a f a i l u r e because he i s poor, because he has had to quit school, and because he cannot support his mother and s i s t e r , and thereby prevent Dunya's " p r o s t i t u t i o n . " Raskolnikov does not r e a l i z e that h i s sense of f a i l u r e Is responsible for his decision to k i l l the o l d woman. He does not k i l l her f o r money, because he never uses i t , but rather because he has directed his sense of impotence Into an economic channel and has projected the, archetype of the T e r r i b l e Mother on to her; she i s the worst example of economic suppression that he knows, so he unconsciously makes her the archetypal symbol of a l l suppression. In k i l l i n g her he hopes to stop suppression In a l l forms, not just economic, and above a l l to r i d himself of his overwhelming sense of impotence. 77 That his struggle i s r e a l l y on an archetypal l e v e l Is indicated by many things. Most important i s Raskolnikov's own in d e c i s i o n as to why he committed the crime. As was pointed out e a r l i e r , his reasons are many but he eventually denies a l l of them, eithe r through word or action. F i n a l l y , he himself i s able to verbalize to Sonia what he had previously only been able to f e e l : I wanted to murder, Sonia, to murder without casuistry, to murder f o r my own s a t i s f a c t i o n , f o r myself alone...I did not commit murder to become, the benefactor of humanity by gaining wealth and power — that, too, i s nonsense. I just did i t ; I did i t f o r myself alone...It was something else I wanted to fin d out, i t was something else that goaded me on: I had to f i n d out then...whether I was a louse l i k e the rest or a man. Whether I can step over or not. (pp. 432-3) I wanted to dare and — and I committed murder. I only wanted to dare, Sonla, i t was my only motive." (p. 431) In t h i s moment of i n s i g h t , Raskolnikov r e a l i z e s that 1) he murdered only f o r himself, 2) something he can only p a r t i a l l y name goaded him on, 3) thi s something was simply the need to dare. But to dare what or whom? He cannot say; he can only f e e l h is impotence and know that he must overcome I t through an act of w i l l . Other men who do not f i g h t to get free of the web are "vermin" and " l i c e " simply because they don't dare to throw o f f the oppressive forces which manipulate them. What Raskolnikov hates and fears most In himself ("Yes, I r e a l l y am a louse." - p. 291) i s manifested i n t h i s c r i t i c i s m of others. Certainly I t i s f a i r to say, then, that since Raskolnikov cannot e s t a b l i s h an external j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r his crime, his motivation must have come from within. He wants to dare the Terrib l e Mother and thereby free himself from a l l the dark forces which manipulate him. Another i n d i c a t i o n that he i s being ruled by this p a r t i c u l a r archetype i s that he projects i t on to another important figure i n his l i f e — hi s mother. As his notebooks i n d i c a t e , Dostoevsky's o r i g i n a l conception of Mrs. Raskolnikov i s much d i f f e r e n t from the woman we see i n the f i n a l work. On several occasions Dostoevsky writes, 'His mother' caresses are a burden,' and once he writes, 'Even thoughts of his mother are p a i n f u l . ' The mother i s not very admirable i n the notebooks, nor f o r that matter i n the novel, although her negative t r a i t s are v e i l e d and obscured. In the notebooks, she i s conscious of how Raskolnikov has hurt her; she loses her temper with him, reminds him of his duty towards her, and i n general f i l l s him with feelings of g u i l t and shame. His feeli n g s toward her, as a consequence, are contradictory and un-cle a r , a compound of love, duty, anguish, fear and agression...Sometimes the agression becomes bald and open, as i n the following quotations, where his violence i s directed at s i s t e r and mother:' He s e l l s his s i s t e r to a dandy from K boulevard. He beats h i s s i s t e r and takes everything from her.' And, 'He beats his mother.' 31 Obviously, Raskolnikov's characterization would have been quite d i f f e r e n t i f Dostoevsky had continued with his o r i g i n a l conception of Mrs. Raskolnikov. In the f i n a l work i t i s only hinted that Mrs. Raskolnikov plays upon her son's well-deve-loped sense of g u i l t i n order to get her way. The e x p l i c i t e -ness of his love-hate r e l a t i o n s h i p with her i s dropped a l t o -gether, probably f o r aesthetic reasons. This softening of the mother/son r e l a t i o n s h i p might have come about for another reason, however; perhaps Dostoevsky himself began to r e a l i z e that I t was not his mother and his s i s t e r whom Raskolnikov r e a l l y wanted to beat, just as i t was not Alyona Ivanovna whom 79 he wanted to murder. Mrs. R a s k o l n i k o v and Dunya are sometimes clumped t o g e t h e r i n R a s k o l n i k o v ' s mind, f o r when h i s p r o j e c t i o n s of the T e r r i b l e Mother i s most a c t i v e , he r e f e r s to them as a c o n c e p t u a l u n i t . There are two scenes of great importance where he r e f e r s c r y p t i c a l l y to them, thereby i m p l y i n g t h e i r symbolic dimension. Both scenes w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . His m u l t i - p r o j e c t i o n s , then, do i n d i c a t e the a r c h e t y p a l b a s i s o f h i s s i t u a t i o n . Besides i d e n t i f y i n g the p r o j e c t e d archetypes on the p l o t l e v e l , t here i s y e t another means o f p u r s u i n g a Jungian i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n — through R a s k o l n i k o v ' s dreams. There are f o u r main dreams, the f i r s t o f which r e v o l v e s around the beaten h o r s e . AB Ruth Mortimer p o i n t s out, there are f o u r examples of " p r o s t i t u t e d " women a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s dream by p u r e l y mechanical means. 3 2 S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s dream, R a s k o l n i k o v counts the money he has s p e n t : he gave money to the Marmelodovs, thus l i n k i n g S o n i a to the dream; he gave money to Nastasya f o r h i s mother's l e t t e r , which t e l l s him o f Dunya's r e l a t i o n s w i t h S v i d r i g a y l o v and L u z h i n ; f i n a l l y , he remembers t h a t he gave money to the policeman to save the drunken g i r l on the s t r e e t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted by c r i t i c s t h a t the horse r e p r e s e n t s the poor c r e a t u r e s , t y p i c a l o f those most crushed by the w o r l d . These examples symbolize "a whole c l a s s o f s a c r i f i c i a l women...animals f o r h i r e . " 3 3 T h i s theme i s c a r r i e d through the work by means o f r e f e r e n c e s to h o r s e s . R a s k o l n i k o v Is l a t e r t r e a t e d l i k e a horse h i m s e l f when he Is beaten by the cabman w i t h h i s whip. Thus he, too, i s f i g h t i n g f o r h i s l i f e against Mikolka, who on t h i s l e v e l simply represents the s o c i a l e v i l s and In j u s t i c e s of t h i s world. On another l e v e l , Mikolka " i s Raskolnikov himself, and the mare his v i c t i m . 1 , 5 4 A f t e r the dream, Raskolnikov con-s c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t s the dream i n t h i s way himself when he says, Good God!...is i t possible that I w i l l r e a l l y take a hatchet, h i t her on the head with i t , crack her s k u l l , s l i t h e r around i n warm, s t i c k y blood...Good God! i s i t possible?! (p. 78) This Is the second l e v e l of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r this dream. The t h i r d Interpretation involves Raskolnikov's personal unconscious and therefore i s l e g i t i m a t e l y approached from a Freudian point of view. The hcrse i s a known symbol of sexual l i b i d o . ^ This natural i n s t i n c t i s being repressed and k i l l e d , perhaps by an element best recognized i n the Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the dream. Mikolka i n t h i s case represents a l l the e v i l aspects of the personal unconscious, i . e . the Shadow. He Is link e d to Svidrigaylov, who has pre-v i o u s l y been acknowledged by Jungian c r i t i c s as the Shadow,5^ by the f a c t that Svidrigaylov beats his wife and peasants with a whip. The anima i s here l i n k e d with Sonia through the " s a c r i f i c i a l woman" theme, and i t w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r that she i s the projected anima. The hero must recognize and unite with the anima i f he i s to be s p i r i t u a l l y reborn. But as Raskolnikov's dream points out, his anima doesn't have a chance to express i t s e l f . The shadow i s i n control of the S e l f and Is c a s t r a t i n g the anima by whipping her across the eyes and u l t i m a t e l y k i l l i n g her. As was 81 d e m o n s t r a t e d i n c h a p t e r two, eyes r e p r e s e n t t h e h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; thus the emphasis on b e i n g b e a t e n on the eyes t a k e s on meaning. R a s k o l n i k o v ' s c a s t r a t i o n , t h e n , i s s p i r i t u a l ; h i s I n s t i n c t towards h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a t i o n i s b e i n g t h w a r t e d by h i s run-away Shadow. The f a c t t h a t R a s k o l n i k o v appears i n the dream as a c h i l d i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t : One o f the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f the c h i l d m o t i f i s i t s f u t u r i t y . The c h i l d i s p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e . Hence the o c c u r r e n c e o f the c h i l d . m o t i f . . . s i g n i f i e s as a r u l e an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f f u t u r e e v e n t s . 3 7 Not o n l y does the dream " f o r e t e l l " the murder o f the o l d woman on the p l o t l e v e l , b u t i t a l s o I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a second death — t h a t o f R a s k o l n i k o v ' s s p i r i t u a l s e l f — on the a r c h e t y p a l l e v e l . T h i s , t h e n , I s the s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f L I z a v e t a ' s d e a t h . Throughout t h e book she i s l i n k e d w i t h S o n i a : b o t h a r e meek and g e n t l e c r e a t u r e s , b o t h e x t r e m e l y r e l i g i o u s , b o t h t a k e n advantage o f , e s p e c i a l l y by men. She, t o o , i s a p r o j e c t e d symbol o f the anima. When she d i e s j S o does the flame o f s p i r i t u a l i t y i n R a s k o l n i k o v . T h i s f l a m e c a n n o t be r e k i n d l e d u n t i l he overcomes the Shadow w h i c h i s c o n t r o l l i n g him and u n i t e s w i t h the anima a g a i n . One more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s dream I s t h a t a crowd i s i n v o l v e d . The symbol o f a crowd, and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f a s t r e a m i n g mass o f pe o p l e i n m o t i o n , e x p r e s s e s v i o l e n t motions o f the u n c o n s c i o u s . Such symbols always i n d i c a t e a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s and an i n c i p i e n t d i s s o c i a t i o n between i t and the ego.38-82 H i s u n c o n s c i o u s has been s e t i n m o t i o n , t h e n , and t h e s e dreams a r e messages from the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i e n c e t o h i s c o n s c i o u s ego, w a r n i n g him o f the dangers w h i c h a w a i t him i f he c o n t i n u e s on h i s p e r i l o u s p a t h . H i s second dream i s a l s o o f an e x p l i c i t s y m b o l i c n a t u r e . S h o r t l y before t h i s dream, R a s k o l n i k o v i s b e a t e n by the cabman and g i v e n money by a woman who m i s t a k e s him f o r a beggar. W h i l e l o o k i n g a t a c h u r c h b a t h e d I n s u n l i g h t , a symbol o f the h i g h e s t s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s , he throws the money away, even though he d e s p e r a t e l y needs i t . To him money i s the symbol o f the economic m a n i p u l a t i o n he i s t r y i n g t o escape. Water i s a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol o f the f e m i n i n e u n c o n s c i o u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the Gre a t M other. I n e f f e c t , t h e n , he I s d e f y i n g the Gre a t Mother -T e r r i b l e M other by t h r o w i n g back a t h e r the symbol o f t h e h o l d she has on him. H i s dream s u p p o r t s h i s c o n t i n u i n g f e e l i n g s o f Impotence i n r e l a t i o n t o the T e r r i b l e M other. D o s t o e v s k y wants t o make I t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t R a s k o l n i k o v f e e l s l i k e the " s a c r i -f i c i a l women," t h a t he f e e l s t o t a l l y c r u s h e d and m a n i p u l a t e d by the w o r l d , so he p o i n t s o u t t h a t R a s k o l n i k o v l a y down to s l e e p , " t r e m b l i n g l i k e a winded h o r s e . " ( p . 133) T h i s s t a t e m e n t e s t a b l i s h e s the s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t o f t h i s dream: R a s k o l n i k o v i s the l a n d l a d y . She i s b e i n g be a t e n unmer-c i f u l l y by the a s s i s t a n t p o l i c e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r no ap-p a r e n t r e a s o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r crowd i n t h i s dream, b u t even more i m p o r t a n t i s the f a c t 83 that Raskolnikov wants to lock himself away from i t . He does not want to acknowledge his present psychic s i t u a t i o n . Whether the police superintendent here represents the Shadow or just the unconscious In general doesn't matter. The important thing to recognize Is that Raskolnikov i s being assaulted by his unconscious, yet he does not want to acknow-ledge t h i s , l e t alone do anything about i t . His t h i r d dream i s highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t i s a statement of h i s s p e c i f i c psychic problem. The material on both sides of the dream i s also important, f o r i t gives a clue to the Interpretation of the dream. F i r s t , Raskol-nikov has a moment of Insight and recognizes that he i s a "louse" and that he knew t h i s before the murder, (p. 292) He Is beginning to recognize the e v i l elements of his own pe r s o n a l i t y when he admits that his motives were not "the magnificent and praiseworthy aim" he had made them out to be. This Is the f i r s t Important step In a s s i m i l a t i n g the Shadow archetype. In the dream Dostoevsky works within the framework of the Romantic "double" In creating Raskolnikov's Shadow. Suddenly he heard a sudden sharp crack, as though someone had snapped a twig i n two...A f l y , wakened, suddenly knocked v i o l e n t l y against a window pane i n Its f l i g h t , and began to buzz p l a i n t i v e l y , (p. 294) Svidrigaylov appears even before Raskolnikov has properly awakened from t h i s dream, causing Raskolnikov to wonder i f this Isn't simply a continuation of his dream. Svidrigaylov-becomes the projected Shadow, or "double," which up u n t i l t h i s time has manifested i t s e l f i n Raskolnikov 1s i r r a t i o n a l behavior and his dreams. Raskolnikov had to meet someone who embodied the contents of his own repressed personal unconscious before he could project the Shadow archetype; hence Svidrigaylov's comments that they have "something in common" (p. 302) and are "birds of a feather" (p. 305) are quite v a l i d . Much of Raskolnikov's repression may be of a sexual nature. Dostoevsky's many references to women or g i r l s who are forced into p r o s t i t u t i o n are c e r t a i n l y part of h i s attempt to explore one of the burning issues of the 1860's. Yet at the same time, the r i s e i n p r o s t i t u t i o n was p a r t i a l l y a reaction to the prudish a t t i t u d e of the times, i . e . , love was something that occurred on an elevated plane and did not include sex. Hence i t i s easier to under-stand Raskolnikov's a t t r a c t i o n to the landlady's c r i p p l e d daughter; he could love her on a pure, i d e a l i s t i c , sexually-repressed plane. Svidrigaylov obviously l i v e s out some of the sexual themes which must haunt Raskolnikov's personal unconscious; Raskolnikov i s so disturbed by Svidrigaylov's r e l a t i o n s h i p with Dunya that he casts him as a conscious symbol of the amoral sensualist long before he even meets him.59 There i s another aspect of the Shadow which i s i n s t r u -mental i n manipulating Raskolnikov's actions. Raskolnikov thinks of himself as a f a i l u r e , he has no confidence i n him-s e l f . He therefore does not r e a l l y stand up f o r himself or _ try to better his p o s i t i o n , i s a r e s u l t , a sense of pride and b e l i e f i n himself, i s also completely absent. These 85 s t i f l e d f e e l i n g s e v e n t u a l l y r i s e up from t h e i r p r i s o n i n the p e r s o n a l u n c o n s c i o u s ; the form t h e y t a k e i s e x a g g e r a t e d , f o r t h e y come o u t as e x c e s s i v e p r i d e . I n f a c t , t h i s r e a c t i o n from the u n c o n s c i o u s forms the c o r n e r s t o n e o f H a s k o l n i k o v ' s " g r e a t man" t h e o r y ; a t t i m e s he b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s a Napoleon, even though he has no " g r e a t i d e a " t o match h i s a m b i t i o n . I t i s an easy s t e p , t h e n , t o s e t h i m s e l f up as a God-man, o u t s i d e the m o r a l d i c t a t e s o f s o c i e t y . He has t o answer t o no one, because he has the r i g h t t o " s t e p o v e r . " There a r e two m a j o r components o f R a s k o l n i k o v ' s Shadow, t h e n , w h i c h have been d e t e r m i n e d b o t h by the a t t i t u d e s o f h i s s o c i e t y and h i s own p e r s o n a l r e p r e s s i o n s . He r e p r e s s e s h i s own s e x u a l i t y and h i s sense o f s e l f w o r t h , so the Shadow e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f as the extreme o p p o s i t e o f t h e s e two co n -c e p t s . S v i d r i g a y l o v , as the am o r a l s e n s u a l i s t , embodies the s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , so the a r c h e t y p e i s p r o j e c t e d on to him. H i s appearance a t the end o f R a s k o l n i k o v ' s dream s i g n a l s the s t a r t o f a new s t r u g g l e . The s n a p p i n g o f t h e t w i g i n two, however, connotes more than the c r e a t i o n o f R a s k o l n i k o v ' s " d o u b l e , " h i s Shadow: I t i s a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f h i s p s y c h i c p r o b l e m s . Up u n t i l t h i s p o i n t he f e l t as i f g e t t i n g r i d o f A l y o n a Ivanovna would ease h i s sense o f Impotence. B u t t h i s dream comes to e x p l a i n t h a t n o t j u s t one a r c h e t y p e , but two, a r e c o n t r o l l i n g him. R a s k o l n i k o v ' s sense o f impotence i n the f a c e o f t h e T e r r i b l e Mother I s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y mixed w i t h h i s impotence towards t h i s dark and shadowy f o r c e . T his i s shown by the f a c t t h a t both archetypes appear i n t h i s dream. To s e t the scene w i t h i n the realm o f the unconscious, Dostoevsky r e f e r s s i x times to the moon i t s e l f or to the moonlight f l o o d i n g i n t o the room. When R a s k o l n i k o v s t r i k e s the o l d woman moneylender, she r e f u s e s to d i e , even when R a s k o l n i k o v , shamed by the crowd because he cannot k i l l her, hacks away a t h e r w i t h the h a t c h e t . She laughs a t him, the crowd laughs at him, and he t r i e s f u t i l y to run away. K i l l i n g the o l d woman, who i s merely a p r o j e c t i o n o f the ar c h e t y p e , doesn't work. He begins to r e c o n g i z e t h a t the o l d woman Is a symbol even b e f o r e the dream. He t a l k s o f her and how he hates her, then he suddenly says, "Mother, s i s t e r — how I l o v e d them! Why do I hate them now?" (p. 292) The dream attempts to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n by showing him t h a t k i l l i n g the moneylender d i d not s t i l l h i s f e e l i n g s o f f e a r and impotence: the f e e l i n g won't d i e . He hates h i s mother and s i s t e r now, because they became the p r o j e c t i o n s o f the T e r r i b l e Mother when the o l d woman d i e d . The woman i n the dream i s a t f i r s t f a c e l e s s , i m p l y i n g t h a t i t doesn't matter to whom the pro-j e c t i o n I s a t t a c h e d , because p h y s i c a l l y murdering t h a t person i s not going to remove the arc h e t y p e . R a s k o l n i k o v ' s p s y c h i c s i t u a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to h i s dreams, seems to be t h i s : h i s ge n e r a l f e e l i n g i s one o f impotence. Por some time now he has f e l t manipulated by dark f o r c e s , and i n an attempt to stop t h i s s i t u a t i o n , he dares to k i l l the o l d woman. Ins t e a d o f f e e l i n g r e l i e f a t b e i n g f r e e , h i s r e a c t i o n i s to draw i n to h i m s e l f , to s l e e p , to t r y to 87 f o r g e t ; but i n t h i s attempt to r i d h i m s e l f o f one archetype, he a l l o w s h l m s l e f to be taken over by another. He chooses such a c o l d , inhuman, s e l f i s h " act o f w i l l , " because h i s Shadow has been s t e a d i l y g a i n i n g the s t r e n g t h to c o n t r o l h i s ego. Any sense o f growing s p i r i t u a l i t y which he possesses i s squelched when he commits h i s h o r r i b l e crime. Even a f t e r S v i d r i g a y l o v k i l l s h i m s e l f , the Shadow s t i l l m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l o f R a s k o l n i k o v on the a r c h e t y p a l l e v e l . E x c e s s i v e p r i d e and stubbornness keep him from a d m i t t i n g h i s e v i l deeds even a f t e r he has c o n f e s s e d , been t r i e d , and sent to S i b e r i a . He c o n f e s s e s the deed, but claims no c u l p a b i l i t y when he s a y s : 'My conscience i s c l e a r . No doubt I have com-m i t t e d a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e , no doubt I v i o l a t e d the l e t t e r o f the law and b l o o d was shed. A l l r i g h t , execute me f o r the l e t t e r o f the law and have done w i t h i t ! ! Of course, i n t h a t case many of the b e n e f a c t o r s o f mankind, who s e i z e d power i n s t e a d o f i n h e r i t i n g i t , should have been executed a t the v e r y s t a r t of t h e i r c a r e e r s . But those men were s u c c e s s f u l and so they were r i g h t , and I was not s u c c e s s f u l and t h e r e f o r e I had no r i g h t to p ermit myself such a s t e p . " I t was t h a t alone he c o n s i d e r e d to have been h i s crime: n o t h a v i n g been s u c c e s s f u l In i t and h a v i n g c o n f e s s e d i t . (p. 552) His f o u r t h dream a r i s e s i n response to t h i s a t t i t u d e . While R a s k o l n i k o v i s i n the h o s p i t a l w i t h a h i g h temperature, h i s " f e v e r i s h " dream i n d i c a t e s the source o f h i s p s y c h i c (and q u i t e p o s s i b l y p h y s i c a l ) malady. Germs take over the world, but they are "endowed w i t h reason and w i l l . " (p. 5 5 5 ) J u s t l i k e R a s k o l n i k o v , the people I n f e c t e d w i t h these bugs c o n s i d e r themselves the source o f t r u t h and m o r a l i t y . 88 "Each of them believed that the turth resided only l n him..." (p. 555) Raskolnikov f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s that i f everyone were to follow his example, moral chaos would r e s u l t . The dream troubles Raskolnikov, but he i s yet unable to understand the archetypal implications i t holds. Instead of dealing with the part of his Shadow which the dream Is concerned with, his excessive pride, Raskolnikov goes to work on changing his attitude toward the other aspect of the Shadow — his repressed sexuality. He looks out the h o s p i t a l window and sees Sonia standing by the gate. "Some-thing seemed to stab him to the heart at that moment." (p. 556) Immediately a f t e r t h i s the reader i s given the f i r s t i n d i c a -t i o n that Raskolnikov has begun to assimilate his Shadow: he begins to worry about Sonia, e s p e c i a l l y when he discovers that she i s i l l . Up to t h i s point he has been only c r u e l and d i s d a i n f u l to her; now, suddenly he misses her and worries about her. His care f o r Sonia i s the f i r s t normal f e e l i n g he has had f o r a woman (his previous engagement to h i s landlady's daughter was f a r from normal). No more does he have to repress h i s masculinity; he can develop i t i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Sonia. Raskolnikov's problems with the Shadow are f a r from over, but he has met his "double," acknowledged t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , and that gives him the power to eventually over-come t h i s archetype. Now that Raskolnikov has passed the " f i r s t stage of the a n a l y t i c process,"* 0 he can move on to 89 the r e c o g n i t i o n of the anima. The p s y c h i c groundwork f o r t h i s has been w e l l - l a i d , f o r he r e c o g n i z e s something o f symbolic value i n Sonia even before he meets he r . In regards to h i s c o n f e s s i o n to h e r he says, "Long ago I chose you to t e l l you t h i s , when your f a t h e r t o l d me about you and L i s a -v e t a was s t i l l a l i v e . " (p. 345) C o n s c i o u s l y he would say t h a t he chose her because o f her g r e a t s u f f e r i n g , and t h i s i s p a r t i a l l y t r u e . But even b e f o r e he met h e r he saw t h a t she d i d indeed, embody many o f h i s own undeveloped c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , so he began to p r o j e c t the archetype o f the anima on to her. George G l b a i n p o i n t s out t h a t l i k e many o f Dostoevsky's c h a r a c t e r s ' names, "Sonia" o r "Sophia" has a v e r y important symbolic meaning. I t s d e n o t a t i v e meaning i s "wisdom," but there are c o n n o t a t i o n s which extend t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . The concept o f Sophia supplemented t h a t o f the d i v i n e t r i n i t y . . . I n orthodox thought Sophia has come c l o s e to b e i n g regarded as something s i m i l a r to a f o u r t h d i v i n e person...Sophia i s b l i s s f u l meeting o f God and n a t u r e , the c r e a t o r and the c r e a t u r e . . . L o v e f o r Sophia i s g e n e r a l i z e d e c s t a t i c l o v e o f a l l c r e a t i o n , so t h a t the images of f l o w e r s , greeness, l a n d s c a p e , the r i v e r , a i r , the sun and water throughout Crime and Punishment can be r e -garded as b e i n g subsumed i n the concept o f Sophia and f i g u r a t i v e l y In the person o f S o n i a , the em-bodiment o f the concept.41 There I s a mixture here of orthodox and Pagan b e l i e f s ; the v e g e t a t i o n and l o v e - o f - n a t u r e m o t i f s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the n o n - C h r i s t i a n concept o f Mother E a r t h . G l b i a n notes t h a t there are two b i g scenes o f s p i r i t u a l change which c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s to Mother E a r t h . When 9 0 R a s k o l n i k o v f i n a l l y k i s s e s the ground, as Sonia had suggested, he r e c o g n i s e s a t l e a s t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , t h a t t h i s symbolic a c t i s o f great s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him. Dostoevsky's notebooks show t h a t he i n t e n d e d t h i s to be a r e t u r n to humanity; he bows to the people. c But I t i s something more than t h i s , f o r R a s k o l n i k o v i s "overcome by an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e i m p u l s e — a sudden f e e l i n g took complete p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s body and soul...he simply plunged head over h e e l s i n t o t h i s new and overwhelming s e n s a t i o n . I t seemed to come upon him as though i t were some nervous f i t : I t glimmered l i k e a spark i n h i s s o u l , and then sud-denly spread l i k e a c o n f l a g r a t i o n through him. E v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n him grew s o f t a l l a t once, and t e a r s gushed from h i s eyes. He f e l l to the ground j u s t where he stood . He k n e l t down i n the middle o f the square, bowed down to the e a r t h , and k i s s e d the f i l t h y e a r t h w i t h joy and r a p t u r e . Then he got up and bowed down once more. (p. 536-7) I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h i s i n s i g h t comes upon R a s k o l n i k o v l i k e a f i t , f o r to Dostoevsky, e p i l e p s y Is " o f t e n the h i g h e s t form o f the i r r a t i o n a l . " 4 5 The scene i m p l i e s , then, t h a t t h i s i s a ve r y b i g s p i r i t u a l step f o r R a s k o l n i k o v , because he ex p e r i e n c e s i t as a f i t . As G l b i a n says, "A f o r c e g r e a t e r than R a s k o l n i k o v begins to a c t w i t h i n him, the p o s i t i v e and unconscious f o r c e which Dostoevsky chose to symbolize here by the a n c i e n t 44 goddess E a r t h . " The second step towards r e g e n e r a t i o n takes p l a c e i n S i b e r i a , next to the "wide, d e s e r t e d expanse o f the r i v e r . " (p 557) Again "something seemed to s e i z e him and throw him a t her f e e t . He embraced h e r knees and wept. At f i r s t she was t e r r i b l y f r i g h t e n e d . . ./but thenlshe understood everything...he loved her, loved her I n f i n i t e l y . . . " (p. 557) Dostoevsky implies that t h i s uncontrolled impulse r i s e s out of Raskolnikov's meditation on the scene on the f a r side of the r i v e r . There i n the vast steppe, flooded with sunlight, he could see the black tents of the nomads which appeared just l i k e dots i n the distance. There there was freedom, there other people were l i v i n g , people who were not a b i t l i k e the people he knew; there time i t s e l f seemed to stand s t i l l as though the age of Abraham and his flocks had not passed. Raskolnikov sat there looking.without moving and without taking his eyes o f f the vast landscape before him; his thoughts passed Into daydreams, into contemplation; he thought of nothing, but a f e e l i n g of great desolation came over him and troubled him. (p. 557) Abraham, the s p i r i t u a l father of C h r i s t i a n i t y , i s a paradigm of the man of f a i t h and acti o n . In his strong b e l i e f i s found the freedom which Raskolnikov desires, the freedom to act as a man of w i l l , not as a manipulated "vermin." This i s not the f i r s t time Raskolnikov has experienced t h i s yearning, nor the f i r s t he has f e l t such desolation. We are t o l d that he has often f e l t this way while standing on Nlkolayevsky bridge, gazing at the cathedral, which " g l i t t e r e d i n the sunshine." (p. 132) In both scenes Raskolnikov looks at the opposite shore of the r i v e r and fe e l s depressed, desolate, " f i l l e d with blank despair." (p. 132) Besides the r i v e r , there Is another element these scenes share — the sunshine which Illuminates the church i n one scene, and the father of the Church i n another. Raskolnikov's attitude towards the r i v e r changes, though. And Glblan notes that his "reaction to water i s a gauge of his inner s t a t e . " 4 5 I t l s n o l o n g e r threatening to him, f o r he has begun to r e a l i z e that the water, as symbol of the unconscious, i s also showing him the means to his r e b i r t h . In the l a t t e r scene, then, Sonia comes up beside Raskolnikov and, as the projection of the anima, i n s p i r e s the f i r s t step of Raskolnikov's "gradual r e b i r t h . " (p. 559) The conscious thought of Abraham's freedom, the symbols of Mother Earth ( r i v e r and sunshine), and the projected anima — a l l are with him during his "enlightenment." This scene marks the end of archetypal dominance and the beginning.of a new, integrated personality. I t Is towards t h i s goal that the whole book Is oriented. In Jungian terms, R askolnikov i s undergoing the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n : he i s s t r i v i n g to know himself, to r e a l i z e his complete " s e l f . " Raskolnikov's confrontations with the T e r r i b l e Mother and the Shadow are part of the struggle to know himself. So i s his projection of the anima on to Sonia, f o r only through recognition of the undeveloped qual-t i e s she represents can he be made whole. Since the anima can only be recognized through projection on to a female partner, i t Is necessary for Raskolnikov to overcome his problem with sexuality f i r s t . He has to be drawn to a woman as a woman, not merely as a symbol, 4^ i n order to "rescue the captive princess" and complete the hero myth. But always the captive to be set free i s personal and hence a possible partner f o r the man, while the p e r i l s he has to overcome are transpersonal forces which, o b j e c t i v e l y , hinder the hero's r e l a t i o n s h i p to. her.* 6 93 For Sonia, too, there i s important growth i n this area: she develops her f i r s t "non-professional" r e l a t i o n s h i p with a man. While she does follow Raskolnikov to S i b e r i a p a r t i a l l y of a desire to save him, would that motivation have been enought i f he were a woman? I t i s doubtful. Afte r Raskolnikov's i l l n e s s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p loses i t s one-sideness as Raskolnikov begins to acknowledge his f e e l i n g s towards her, too. There Is another element of Sonla's personality, however, which Is quite pertinent thematically. Some hero myths show the hero being aided i n his endeavors by a f r i e n d l y female figure...who shows us the h e l p f u l , s i s t e r l y side of woman, standing shoulder to shoul-der with the hero as his beloved, helpmate, and companion, or as the Eternal Feminine who leads him to redemption... The s i s t e r l y side of a man-woman re l a t i o n s h i p i s that part of i t which stresses the common human element; consequently I t gives man a picture of woman that i s closer to his ego and more f r i e n d l y to h i s consciousness than the sexual slde.^o At f i r s t Raskolnikov i s drawn more towards t h i s side of Sonia's character. The theme of i s o l a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n from humanity i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with t h i s aspect of her personality; by following Sonia's di r e c t i o n s f o r salvation, Raskolnikov comes to r e a l i z e the value of a sense of humanity. Much of Sonla's sense of humanity comes from her C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s . In his e f f o r t s to understand these b e l i e f s , Raskolnikov himself p a r a l l e l s Christ's s u f f e r i n g . Sonia, P o r f l r y and Marmelodov a l l believe that s u f f e r i n g i s the way to s a l v a t i o n . And Raskolnikov finds that only through a personal Christ-experience can he r e a l l y develop a unity with humanity as a whole. Raskolnikov becomes conscious of his Christ-experience mostly through his r e l a t i o n s with Sonia. This note of impending doom i s C h r i s t - l i k e i n i t s character; he knows he w i l l have to s u f f e r punishment i n the future. He also t e l l s Sonia that i t Is the d e v i l who made him com-mit his e v i l deeds and that he "always imagined that Satan was temptingjhimj" (p. 432) This temptation theme i s car r i e d through when the narrator remarks that Raskolnikov " f e l t l i k e a man about to Jump o f f a high church tower." (p. 424) Jumping o f f a temple pinnacle i s one of three temptations presented to C h r i s t by the d e v i l . Raskolnikov further r e i n -forces his conscious C h r i s t image when he accepts a cross from Sonia. "This, I suppose, i s the symbol of my taking up the cross, ha, ha! As though I had not suffered enough already!" (p. 534) Later he makes another a l l u s i o n to Jesus when he says, " ' I f I have to drain t h i s b i t t e r cup, then what difference does i t make? The n a s t i e r the b e t t e r ' . . . I f IJ must drain i t , then l e t jme] drain i t a l l at one gulp!" (P. 538) To him and to others his s u f f e r i n g seems to be part of a preordained pattern, just as Chr i s t ' s s u f f e r i n g was. "This, I am t o l d , Is necessary f o r me as a t e s t . . . , " he says, a test which w i l l supposedly give him a "better under-standing of l i f e . " (p. 531) Sonia, too, f e e l s that h i s 'I've come to you f o r the l a s t time, 1 Raskolnikov went on gloomily, though i t was only the f i r s t time he had c a l l e d . 'Perhaps I w i l l never see you. again.' (p. 331) 95 s u f f e r i n g i s necessary, but i r o n i c a l l y i t i s P o r f i r y who best explains to him what the test i s about. "Seek and ye s h a l l f i n d , " he says. "Perhaps that i s God's way of leading you to him." (p. 471) "Perhaps God Is keeping you for some-thing...Or are you frightened of the great act of f u l f i l l -ment before you?...Be a sun and everyone w i l l see you. The sun must f i r s t of a l l be a sun." (p. 472) He, too, sees Raskolnikov 1s s u f f e r i n g as a preordained plan which God has l a i d out f o r him. His symbolic comment about the sun em-phasizes the archetypal nature of the plan; the ultimate goal i s to "be a sun." P o r f i r y i s unconsciously aware that the "plan" i s i n d i v i d u a t i o n . The sun i s the highest form of l i g h t , In f a c t the symbolic source of l i g h t and conscious-ness; i n order to become a "sun," Raskolnikov must complete the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n and recognize h i s own godliness. He uses another archetypal image when he says, "don't worry, l i f e w i l l carry you out s t r a i g h t on the shore and put you on your feet, what shore? How do I know? I Just believe that you've many years of l i f e before you." (p. 471) Arche-t y p a l l y the shore Is the one reached by the hero a f t e r his night sea journey through the waters of the unconscious. P o r f i r y expands on another Dostoevsky theme here and when he states that " l i f e w i l l p u l l you through." (p. 472) He uses the word " l i f e " almost as a synonym f o r the natural " p u l l " of the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process; to him t h i s process is_ l i f e . His awareness of the lure of i n d i v i d u a t i o n Is established 96 i n yet another image. He describes the c r i m i n a l to Raskolnikov: He won't run away from me...because of a law of nature. Ever watched a moth before a l i g h t e d candle? W e l l , he, too, w i l l be c i r c l i n g round and round me l i k e a moth around a candle. H e ' l l get s i c k o f h i s freedom...And he'll keep on des-c r i b i n g around me, s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r c i r c l e s , t i l l — bang! h e ' l l f l y s t r a i g h t i n t o my mouth and I ' l l swallow him." (p. 355) The l a t t e r image i s p a r t o f P o r f i r y ' s conscious attempt to make Raskolnikov r e a l i z e t h a t he w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be trapped. But the p s y c h o l o g i c a l source of the "law o f n a t u r e " which w i l l f o r c e him i n t o the l e g a l t r a p I s i n d i c a t e d by the moth, a creature of darkness, c i r c l i n g round the l i g h t . J u s t as the moth cannot help being drawn towards the l i g h t , n e i t h e r can Raskolnikov a v o i d being drawn towards the l i g h t of consciousness. He i s a t t r a c t e d to P o r f i r y because he represents the means to the end: the punishment and s u f f e r i n g he metes out are e s s e n t i a l f o r s p i r i t u a l growth. And P o r f i r y knows t h i s . Of a l l the characters i n the book, he seems to be the most knowledgeable of s p i r i t u a l matters, although he may not be able to put t h i s knowledge to use f o r h i s own growth. To P o r f i r y , then, Raskolnikov's " b i t t e r cup" i s pre-ordained i n the I n d i v i d u a t i o n process; t h e r e f o r e R a s k o l n i k o v must have h i s own C h r i s t - e x p e r i e n c e . Jung agrees w i t h t h i s completely, because to him " C h r i s t e x e m p l i f i e s the archetype  of the s e l f . " 4 9 " C h r i s t i s the true image of God, a f t e r whose l i k e n e s s our Inner man i s made..." 5 0 97 The God-image i n man was not destroyed by the F a l l but was only damaged and corrupted ('deformed'), and can be restored through God's grace. The scope of the i n t e g r a t i o n i s suggested by...the descent of Christ's soul to h e l l , i t s work of redemption embracing even the dead. The psychological equi-valent of this i s the integration of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious which forms an e s s e n t i a l part of the individuation process.51 Raskolnikov i s descending Into the " h e l l " of his uncon-scious i n order to integrate the archetypes with his conscious mind. He must renew his state of wholeness, that of the complete s e l f , which "cannot i n practice be distinguished from a God-image." 5 2 As did a l l other men, Raskolnikov l o s t this image because of "the F a l l , " a symbol of the ascension of the conscious ego away from the wholeness of the womb. He states at one point, though, that he believes i n the New Jerusalem (p. 278). This basic b e l i e f i n a Golden Age guides him towards a new paradise, the renewal of the state of wholeness that he once had. But Raskolnikov i s slow to recognize the Importance of t h i s symbol f o r him. This Is i n exact agreement with the empirical findings of psychology, that there i s an ever-present archetype of wholeness which may e a s i l y disappear from the purview of consciousness or may never be perceived at a l l u n t i l a conscious-ness Illuminated by conversion recognizes i t i n the figure of C h r i s t . As a r e s u l t of this 'anamnesis' the o r i g i n a l state of oneness with the God-image i s restored. It brings about an integration, a b r i d -ging of the s p l i t i n the personality caused by the I n s t i n c t s s t r i v i n g apart In d i f f e r e n t and mutually contradictory directions.54 Thus Raskolnikov's apparent conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y can be seen i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . The c r i t i c s who d i s l i k e the suddenness of t h i s conversion are probably j u s t i f i e d i n s o f a r 98 as they o b j e c t to h i s e v i d e n t embrace of r e l i g i o n . A f t e r a l l , R a s k o l n i k o v never does repent h i s e v i l deed or become a meek C h r i s t i a n , and t h i s would seem to be In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y as r e l i g i o n . However, Jung's statement makes i t c l e a r t h a t i t ls_ n e c e s s a r y f o r R a s k o l n i k o v to r e c o g n i z e the p a t t e r n of I n d i v i d u a t i o n and the archetype of the s e l f ; h i s choice of C h r i s t i a n i t y as the v e h i c l e i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s d i s c o v e r y o f the u n c o n s c i o u s . I t i s n o t the r e l i g i o n i t s e l f which he embraces, f o r he s t i l l does not open the B i b l e (p. 558) o r repent, but r a t h e r the symbol o f C h r i s t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s e l f . T h i s l a c k of repentence marks an important d i f f e r e n c e between C h r i s t as the c o r n e r s t o n e of a r e l i g i o n and C h r i s t as an a r c h e t y p a l symbol o f the s e l f . The archetype o f the s e l f r e p r e s e n t s the balance a c h i e v e d when the f o u r f u n c t i o n s ( T h i n k i n g , P e e l i n g , I n t u i t i o n , and S e n s a t i o n ) , as w e l l as the c o n s c i o u s and the p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s , are a l l completely i n t e g r a t e d . But the C h r i s t o f modern C h r i s t i a n i t y r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t i o n , and there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between p e r f e c t i o n and completeness. The Christ-image i s as good as p e r f e c t ( a t l e a s t i t i s meant to be s o ) , while the archetype (so f a r as known) denotes completeness but i s f a r from b e i n g p e r f e c t . I t i s a p a r a -dox, a statement about something i n d e s c r i b a b l e and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l . 5 5 There can be no doubt t h a t the o r i g i n a l C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n of the Imago Del embodied i n C h r i s t meant an a l l - e m b r a c i n g t o t a l i t y t h a t even I n c l u d e s the animal s i d e o f man." N e v e r t h e l e s s the C h r i s t -symbol l a c k s wholeness l n the modern p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense, s i n c e i t does not I n c l u d e the dark s i d e o f t h i n g s but s p e c i f i c a l l y excludes i t i n the form o f L u c i f e r i a n opponent.56 99 Thus Raskolnikov i s not aiming f o r perfection but f o r balan-ced wholeness. He embraces the archetype of the s e l f , with Christ as Its symbol, not just C h r i s t i a n i t y as r e l i g i o n . His lack of repentance i s bound up i n this difference. C h r i s t i a n i t y would demand that he repent his crime. But Raskolnikov cannot and need not do t h i s , f o r while k i l l i n g the old woman was wrong from a l e g a l and humanitarian point of view, the crime or some psychic equivalent, was a neces-s i t y on a psychic l e v e l . Dostoevsky emphasizes the s p i r i t u a l importance of the crime i n his notebooks when he says, His moral development begins from the crime I t s e l f ; the p o s s i b i l i t y of such questions arises which would not have existed previously. In the l a s t chapter, i n prison, he says that without the crime he would not have reached the point of asking himself such questions and experi-encing such desires, f e e l i n g s , needs, s t r i v i n g s , and development.57 Wasiolek points out that "Dostoevsky i s r e f e r r i n g here surely to the good that comes from Raskolnikov 1s s u f f e r i n g , but he may also have In mind that ambiguous good that comes from the criminal act because i t i s a free a c t . " 5 8 He Is r i g h t i n both cases. Certainly the C h r i s t - l i k e s u f f e r i n g i s important, but so Is the defiance of established order and the need f o r personal strength. Jung and Neumann both remark that t h i s i s the very basis of the hero myth, and both c i t e Jesus as an example of a hero who severs a l l t i e s with the old order i n order to present his new message to the w o r l d . 5 9 What Is most i n t e r e s t i n g to the readers of Crime and Punishment i s that Neumann states that the 100 most f a m i l i a r example of this c o n f l i c t between new and old i s from the Old Testament, where Jehovah commands Abraham to break t i e s with his family and country so that he can st a r t a new r e l i g i o n . Perhaps t h i s i s the a f f i n i t y which Raskolnikov f e e l s f o r Abraham when he associates him with freedom. As paradigms of the hero, Abraham and Jesus "stepped over" t r a d i t i o n a l boundaries i n order to present t h e i r ideas, "they were successful and so they were r i g h t . " (p. 552) Raskolnikov f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s that he, too i s " r i g h t " — not to k i l l anyone he wants, but to be free enough and strong enough to do i t . Ultimately there i s nothing to prevent him from doing what he wants; he has free w i l l . The core of h i s "great man" theory l£ v a l i d . This knowledge leads him to a renewal of the Ohrist archetype, but not to Chris-t i a n i t y i t s e l f . C h r i s t i a n i t y is_ the old order, and he, . while wise enough to assimilate the best of the t r a d i t i o n a l , does have a new message f o r the w o r l d : 6 0 "Freedom and power — power above all . . . T h a t ' s our goal." (p. 359) Placed within the context of the i n d i v i d u a l psyche, this i s an important message indeed. The Christ-myth i s continued i n the theme of r e b i r t h . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Dostoevsky o r i g i n a l l y planned a chap-t e r where Raskolnikov was to have a v i s i o n of Chr i s t , juxta-posed with such symbols of s p i r i t u a l transformation as a whirlwind and f i r e , a f t e r which he would begin his regen-eration as a s p i r i t u a l b e i n g . 6 1 In the f i n a l version, how-ever, the story of Lazarus takes i t s place. The substitution i s an important one, f o r I t sets the stage f o r Raskolnikov's 101 r e b i r t h . The v i s i o n of Christ apparently did not express a l l that Dosteovsky wanted to say. Since the emphasis i s not on C h r i s t i a n i t y but on Christ as a symbol of the s e l f , i t i s important that the archetypal nature of the scene not be confused with the r e l i g i o n . Recognition of the archetype of the s e l f i s an important step towards r e b i r t h , and r e b i r t h , not submersion i n C h r i s t i a n dogma, i s the ultimate goal. In order to stress t h i s aspect of the hero myth, Dostoevsky de-emphasizes Christ's divine image by pointing out that mere mortals, too, i . e . Lazarus, can also be reborn. Certainly i t takes the aid of God f o r t h i s miracle to take place, but l n Jungian terms t h i s would simply mean that i t would take help from the god-self within us a l l . Thus Raskolnikov or anyone else can be s p i r i t u a l l y reborn; Christ does not have exclusive r i g h t s to t h i s phenomenon. To be reborn, one must f i r s t "die." Raskolnikov dies s p i r i t u a l l y when he commits his crime. "Was i t the old hag I k i l l e d ? No, I k i l l e d myself, and not the old hag." (p. 433) Just as Lazarus l a y dead f o r four days, so does Raskolnikov; thus Dostoevsky c l e v e r l y establishes the theme of r e b i r t h l n the structure of the book. Raskolnikov "comes to l i f e " again on the fourth day when he confesses to Sonia. She presents him with the means to his s a l v a t i o n : s u f f e r i n g . And he begins to understand his motivation: power. Most important, though, i s the f a c t that his "gradual r e b i r t h " (p. 559) s t a r t s when he recognizes himself as a hero: "Perhaps I am a man, and not a louse." (p. 43 A) Although he has l a t e r , more dramatic moments of i n s i g h t , t h i s i s the point at which the tide turns. He comes back to humanity through the act of confession, and comes back to " l i f e " by declaring himself a man, not a louse. His r e b i r t h , l i k e a l l s p i r i t u a l transformations, wavers i n i t s strength and i n t e n s i t y . But Raskolnikov never changes his mind about his r i g h t to "step over;" a hero has that r i g h t inherently. Two major steps towards his s p i r i t u a l develop-ment — k i s s i n g the Mother Earth and embracing Sonia i n S i b e r i a — have already been discussed, as has his assimi-l a t i o n of the Shadow. The Shadow represents c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c repressions, e.g. concepts of good and e v i l and sexual mores. But there i s yet another seri e s of undeveloped t r a i t s which s t i l l languish i n the unconscious. The anima represents these undeveloped c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , so she and they must be recognized and assimilated i n the process of r e b i r t h . Jung's theory of the four functions i s e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i -nent here, because r e b i r t h cannot take place u n t i l the four functions are i n balance. Although Raskolnikov's psychic imbalance had previously been discussed within t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Jungian framework, t h i s f a c t was not discovered u n t i l l a t e i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Dauner's a r t i c l e , 6 2 while covering the topic, does not do justice to the Jungian method. She s u p e r f i c i a l l y attacks the problem of the balance of the four functions without going Into the depths of psychic material behind i t . She discusses Raskolnikov's i n t e g r a t i o n 103 of these f u n c t i o n s i n Jung's p s y c h o a n a l y t i c , as opposed to m y t h o l o g i c a l , terms, so the hero myth's r e l a t i o n to the "great man" theory I s never explored. The a r t i c l e i s good as f a r as i t goes, but i n t h i s author's o p i n i o n , i t does not present any r e a l understanding of Raskolnikov's m o t i v a t i o n s f o r com-m i t t i n g the crime. Dauner does shed l i g h t on the s e l f -h e a l i n g process of r e b i r t h , however, and does see "Raskol-63 nlkov's coming to him-Self {as} the theme of the n o v e l . " I t must be agreed t h a t these are, u l t i m a t e l y , the major Ideas which Dostoevsky presented. In terms of the f u n c t i o n s , Dauner agrees t h a t Raskolnikov I s c o n s c i o u s l y r u l e d by Thinkin g . His f o u r t h dream about the i l l n e s s caused by the over-use of Reason, demonstrates h i s p a r t i c u l a r imbalance to h i s conscious mind; thuB t h i s dream Is compensatory i n the Jungian sense. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the dream does not.recommend d e s t r o y i n g the source of the disease. Instead, I t s s o l u t i o n i s to " s t a r t a new race o f men and a new l i f e . . . " (p. 556) P a r t of the reason Raskolnikov never repents h i s crime i s because he cannot completely repudiate h i s theory nor the over-use of reason which c r e a t e d i t . Nor does the dream t e l l him to give up Thinking as a g u i d i n g f o r c e . I t simply t e l l s him to s t a r t over again and put t h i s f u n c t i o n i n p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h the ot h e r s . The opposite of Thinking i s P e e l i n g , so t h i s i s the f u n c t i o n i n which Raskolnikov i s the weakest. Throughout the novel i t i s Sonia who i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s concept; 104 her actions are guided by i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g s , not by the use of reason. This f a c t i s shown by her i n a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e her Ideas; they are not true ideas, but f e e l i n g s . Since t h i s i s Raskolnikov's undeveloped function, i t i s proper that Sonia, as projection of the anima, embody these charac-t e r i s t i c s . According to Jungian theory, Raskolnikov and Sonia should also have a u x i l i a r y functions. Sonia's i s d e f i n i t e l y I n t u i t i o n , while Raskolnikov leans towards Sensation. The l a t t e r i s brought out i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p to Svidrigaylov, who i s dominantly ruled by Sensation. I f Raskolnikov, too, has a tendency towards t h i s function, but his society t e l l s him I t i s wrong to be a sensualist, he n a t u r a l l y represses t h i s tendency so that i t i s forced i n t o the position of Shadow. Therefore, i n order to balance his four functions, Raskolnikov must 1) decrease his use of Thinking by increasing his awareness of I n t u i t i o n and Feeling, and 2) assimilate the sensation q u a l i t i e s he repressed as Shadow. Every step Raskolnikov takes towards accomplishing this tremendous task i s part of his "gradual regeneration" and r e b i r t h . No psychic process occurs suddenly and Dostoevsky does not imply that Raskolnikov's "enlightenment" by the r i v e r i s the end of his transformation. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the number "seven" i s mentioned at the end of the novel, that Raskolnikov and Sonia looked upon his seven-year sen-tence as seven days. "In the language of i n i t i a t i o n , 'seven' stands f o r the highest stage of i l l u m i n a t i o n . . . " 6 4 Perhaps th i s i s an Indication that completion of the trans-formation w i l l be sometime i n the future.. 105 Thus Raskolnikov, the i n t e l l e c t u a l r e b e l , slowly a l t e r s his personality. He accepts C h r i s t as an archetype, but not as a Savior; he has to save himself. And he does t h i s by becoming a hero and taking on the archetypes of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious. He conquers the T e r r i b l e Mother and the Shadow and proceeds to unite with the anima, a l l as a r e s u l t of one desperate crime. His r e b i r t h s t a r t s with the recognition that he i s a man of w i l l and strength and that he can do whatever he wants to do. He has freedom because he r e a l i z e s that l i f e i s n ' t governed by fate or chance. But Sonla helps him r e a l i z e that Reason alone cannot ru l e ; a sense of humanity must help him balance his sense of power, so that freedom i s v o l u n t a r i l y channelled into humanitarian actions. But t h i s must be done v o l u n t a r i l y , f o r i f one i s forced to conform to society's laws, the Image of the Terr i b l e Mother Is resurrected, "fate" takes over, and there i s no longer any freedom of w i l l . Mochulsky's conclusion about Dostoevsky fs message now takes on new meaning: there i s no freedom other than freedom i n C h r i s t :  ne who does not believe i n Ohrlst stands subject to  the power or Destiny. This i s exactly what Raskolnikov discovers i n arche-typal terms. U n t i l one recognizes the archetype of the s e l f , whether as C h r i s t or i n some other symbol, one w i l l be trapped In the abyss of the unconscious, ruled by fate and destiny. In the knowledge of the C h r i s t - s e l f l i e s the strength of the hero, one of the pure and chosen ones, d e s t i n e d to s t a r t a new race o f man and a new l i f e , to renew and p u r i f y the e a r t h . . . ( p . 556) And R a s k o l n i k o v i s a hero, f o r we are t o l d t h a t the new l i f e was not given him f o r n o t h i n g , t h a t he would have to pay a great p r i c e f o r i t , t h a t he would have to pay f o r i t by a great a c t of heroism i n the f u t u r e . . . ( p . 559) FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER THREE 1George Glbian, "Traditional Symbolism in Crime and  Punishment." in PMLA. LXX, December 1955, p. 992. 2 Leonard J. Kent, The Subconscious in Gogol and Dostoev-s k i l and i t s Antecedents, The Hague, 1969. •^Alexandra Rudicina, "Crime and Myth: The Archetypal Pattern of Rebirth in Three Novels of Dostoevsky," in PMLA. vol. 87, no. 5, October 1972, p. 1067. 4 CF. Keppler, The Literature of the Second Self. Tucson, 1972. 5 Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, Baltimore, • 1967. A l l further references to the text w i l l be taken from this source. Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Notebooks for Grime and Punish-ment. Edward Wasiolke, ed., Chicago, 1967, p. 13. 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . . pp. 13-14. 9 I b l d . . p. 80. 1 0 I b l d . , p. 81. ^Konstantin Mochulsky, Dostoevsky: His Llfe and Work, Princeton, 1967, p. 304. 12 Ruth Mortimer, "Dostoevski and the Dream," in Prime and Punishment, George Gibian, ed., New York, 1964, p. 642. 13 ^Mochulsky, p. 304. l 4 I b l d . , p. 306. 1 3 I b l d . , p. 307. l 6 I b i d . , p. 308. FOOTNOTES Continued 1 7 I b i d . , P. 309. l 8 I b i d . , 1 9 I b i d . , p. 310. 2 0 I b i d . , P. 312. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 312-13. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 313. 03 y R a l p h Matlaw, "Recurrent Imagery Harvard S l a v i c S t u d i e s , v o l . 3, 1957, p. 202. 24 Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment. George G i b i a n , ed., New York, 1964, p. 49B7 2 5 M a t l a w , p. 210. 2 6 M a t l a w , p. 208. 2 7 M a t l a w , p. 209. 2 8 E r i c h Neumann, The O r l g i n s and H i s t o r y o f Conscious-ness. P r i n c e t o n , 1971, pp. 87-8. 2 9 F y o d o r Dostoevsky, The I d i o t . M i ddlesex, 1970, pp. 447 30 C.G. Jung. A l o n : Researches Into the Phenomenology o f the S e l f . London, 1969, p. 71. 31 Dostoevsky, The Notebooks f o r Crime and Punishment, pp. 11-12. 3 2 M o r t i m e r , p. 645. 3 3 I b i d . , p, 646. 3 4 I b l d . , p. 647. 109 FOOTNOTES Continued 3 5C.G. Jung, Symbols o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , London, 1969, p. 277. 3 6 K e p p l e r , pp. 91-98 and p. 204. 3 7C.G. Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Uncons-ciou s . London, I 9 6 9 , p. 164. 3 8 J u n g , Symbols o f Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n, p. 207. 3 9When Ra s k o l n i k o v sees the man f o l l o w i n g the drunken g i r l , he r e f e r s to him as S v i d r i g a y l o v , o b v i o u s l y making the l a t t e r a symbol o f l u s t . 40 Jung, M o n , p. 22. 4 l G i b i a n , p. 9 8 5 . 4? Dostoevsky, The Notebooks f o r Crime and Punishment, p. 84. 4 5 K e n t , p. 88. 4 4 G e o r g e G i b i a n , "Dostoevsky's Use o f Russian F o l k l o r e , " i n J o u r n a l o f American F o l k l o r e , V o l . 6 9 , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1956, p. 232". 4 5 G i b i a n , ' ' T r a d i t i o n a l Symbolism i n Crime and Punishment," p. 985. 46 Neumann, p. 203. 4 7 I b i d . , p. 201. 48 49 ^Jung, A i o n , p. 37. 5 0 I b i d . , pp. 37-8. 5 1 I b i d . , p. 39. 110 FOOTNOTES Continued  5 2 I b l d . , p. 40. -^Neumann, pp. 114-5. 54 . Jung, Aion, p. 40. 5 5 r b i d . , pp. 68-9. 5 6 I b l d . , p. 41. 5 7Dostoevsky, The Notebooks f o r Crime and Punishment, p. 64. 5 8 I b l d . , p. 46. 59 ( *tei 6 1 ] >1 -62, Jung, Symbols of Transformation, p. 311, and Neumann, p. 174. 5Part of t h i s message i s what was l a t e r to be termed " e x i s n t i a l i s m . " •Dostoevsky, The Notebooks f o r Crime and Punishment, pp. 5 and 64. "Louise Dauner, "Raskolnikov i n Search of a Soul," i n Modern F i c t i o n Studies, v o l . LV, no. 3, Autumn 1958, pp. 159-210: : 6 3 I b l d . t p. 209. 64 r C.G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy. London, 1969, p. 63. I l l CONCLUSION In the foregoing analyses of Per Sandmann and Crime  and Punishment, one Jungian method of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m has been defined and applied. Many of Jung's other writings, e s p e c i a l l y h i s p s y c h i a t r i c works, could also form the base of a viable c r i t i c a l approach; however, th i s thesis deals almost e x c l u s i v e l y with Jung's mythological theories, because i t i s f e l t by this author that the pattern of the hero Is as pervasive i n l i t e r a t u r e as i t i s i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n . I t must be recognized, of course, that this p a r t i c u l a r mythological motif, no matter how u n i v e r s a l , w i l l not often be the blatant theme of a l i t e r a r y work of a r t . I t Is more l i k e l y that the work w i l l deal with only one segment of the hero myth and that t h i s segment w i l l therefore be hard to discern since i t w i l l lack i t s t r a d i t i o n a l supportive material. This does not mean, however, that digging out the pattern i s not worthwhile to the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c . On the contrary, once one recognizes the p a r t i c u l a r stage of psychic development of the "hero," one w i l l better understand the reasons behind his actions. Another area of concern to the c r i t i c i s pro-jection of the archetypes, f o r an important aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two characters i s often the "something i n common" involved In the process of p r o j e c t i o n . Thus each work places a varying degree of emphasis on the hero myth. Some authors present the myth i n i t s 112 e n t i r e t y , but most w r i t e r s c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y use o n l y one segment o f the p a t t e r n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the myth pr e s e n t s many problems f o r those w i s h i n g to a p p l y Jung's t h e o r i e s as a methodology. I f the author i s not aware that he i s " u s i n g " the p a t t e r n , then the Jungian c r i t i c must decide whether or not s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of the myth on to the work w i l l l e a d toward an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which i s compatible w i t h the c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t of the author. T h i s problem can be seen to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Hoffmann's and Dostoevsky's works. Dostoevsky c o n s c i o u s l y worked w i t h the theme o f r e b i r t h ; h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e s t o f the hero myth, however, was p r o b a b l y more i n t u i t i v e i n n a t u r e . H o f f -mann, i t would seem, p r o b a b l y had l i t t l e c o n s c i o u s knowledge of the myth p a t t e r n he was u s i n g ; h i s works are f r a u g h t w i t h symbols, but t h i s author would s p e c u l a t e t h a t few of them were c o n s c i o u s l y p l a c e d t h e r e . The m o t i f o f the l o s s o f eyes, f o r example, p r o b a b l y s t r u c k a chord o f a r c h e t y p a l resonance i n Hoffmann; but i t Is d o u b t f u l t h a t he ever s a i d to h i m s e l f , " B l i n d i n g i s equal to s p i r i t u a l c a s t r a t i o n . Therefore I w i l l use I t as a symbol." S p e c u l a t i o n about the con s c i o u s o r unconscious source of the author's symbols u s u a l l y does l i t t l e to e l u c i d a t e a work, but i n t h i s case i t does p o i n t out the problems In p u r s u i n g a Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a work which p r o b a b l y was not c o n s c i o u s l y c o n c e i v e d as the hero myth. The main concern o f Der Sandmann i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l development, but 113 the hero myth i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w s i n c e the s t o r y supposedly takes p l a c e d u r i n g two time phases of Nathanael's l i f e — c h i l d h o o d and adulthood. I f one c o u l d e x t r a c t the pure mythic elements and p l a c e them a l l i n a compact time p e r i o d , the a p p l i c a t i o n of Jungian t h e o r y would d e f i n i t e l y be e a s i e r . C e r t a i n l y the p a t t e r n of the t r a g i c hero i s e v e r - p r e s e n t In the s t o r y , but i f one works too hard a t superimposing the myth o r i n c r e a t i n g a one-to-one analogy between archetypes and c h a r a c t e r s , then one might e a s i l y d e s t r o y the a r t i s t i c balance Hoffmann u n c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e d . Dostoevsky's n o v e l , on the o t h e r hand, c r i e s out f o r a Jungian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Since he i s c o n s c i o u s o f a t l e a s t p a r t o f the hero myth, the symbol p a t t e r n s are more s e l e c -t i v e and t h e r e f o r e e a s i e r to d e f i n e . Of course, the l e n g t h o f Crime and Punishment a l s o a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r development of the hero myth p a t t e r n . A p p l i c a t i o n o f Jungian theory, then, does a i d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Der Sandmann and Crime and Punishment. Although the s t r u c t u r e o f Hoffmann's t a l e p r e s e n t s i n t e r p r e -t i v e problems, a Jungian approach does enable one to see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the eye m o t i f i n r e l a t i o n to s p i r i t u a l c a s -t r a t i o n . The same sense o f Impotence and c a s t r a t i o n i s a l s o seen to be the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind R a s k o l n i k o v ' s a c t i o n s . The s t o r i e s are l i n k e d , then, i n the most b a s i c o f ways — both "heroes" are f i g h t i n g w i t h the T e r r i b l e Mother arche-type f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l freedom. However, Nathanael v a s c i l -l a t e s back and f o r t h so much t h a t the e a s i e s t s o l u t i o n f o r 114 him i s si m p l y to remove h i m s e l f from the c o n f l i c t ; he i s t h e r e f o r e a t r a g i c h e r o . 1 Raskolnikov, on the oth e r hand, f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s c o n f l i c t i s an i n t e r n a l one. With the a i d of Sonia he comes to the c r u c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t he can overcome h i s s p i r i t u a l c a s t r a t i o n and be reborn; he i s t h e r e f o r e a s u c c e s s f u l hero. The p e r s o n a l freedom which Nathanael and R a s k o l n i k o v are s t r i v i n g f o r i s e x i s t e n t i a l i n n a t u r e : the freedom to choose whatever path of a c t i o n they d e s i r e . T h i s author contends t h a t the hero myth i s o r i e n t e d towards the attainment o f t h i s f r e e -dom; i f one s u c c e s s f u l l y b a t t l e s the T e r r i b l e Mother and F a t h e r , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t r a d i t i o n and law, then one becomes a " c r i m i n a l , " a "lawbreaker," — a hero. Once the t i e s w i t h out-s i d e f o r c e s are broken, one may a t t a i n the awesome freedom o f the e x i s t e n t i a l man. Only then can one complete the hero p a t -t e r n by p u r s u i n g the goal o f an i n t e g r a t e d s e l f , unhindered by e x t e r n a l r e s t r a i n t s . Thus the Jungian approach to l i t e r a t u r e does not r e v e a l a new p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem, f o r the q u e s t i o n o f p e r s o n a l f r e e -dom Is an o l d dilemma. What i t does do, however, i s p r e s e n t t h e p r o b i e m l n m y t h i c a l form, thereby s i m p l i f y i n g I t and c l a r i f y -i n g i t . . T h i s element o f the hero myth, then, g i v e s many works another c r i t i c a l dimension — one which might not be understood u n l e s s placed w i t h i n the realm o f the T e r r i b l e Mother. Of c o u r s e , t h i s q u e s t i o n o f p e r s o n a l freedom i s not the o n l y one d e a l t w i t h by the Jungian method. As a r e s u l t , the descent i n t o the abyss o f the unconscious i s a rewarding endeavor, even I f i t i s o n l y on a l i t e r a r y l e v e l , f o r the journey r e v e a l s the many f a c e t s o f man's c r e a t i v e s p i r i t . 115 FOOTNOTE - CONCLUSION I t must be recognized t h a t t h i s i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n of the t r a g i c hero. However, i t i s t h i s author's contention t h a t t h i s type of psychic c o n f l i c t , and the i n -a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e i t , i s shared by t r a d i t i o n a l t r a g i c heroes. 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY """Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968. p C i r l o t , J.E. A Dictionary of Symbols. London: Routledge and Kegan~Paul, Ltd., 1962. -^Dauner, Louise. "Raskolnikov In Search of a Soul." Modern  F i c t i o n Studies, v o l . IV, no. 3, Autumn 1958, pp. 199-4 Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Baltimaore: . Penguin Books, I96Y. 5 6 Crime and Punishment. George Glblan, ed. New York: W.tf. Norton and Co., Inc., 1964. . The I d i o t . Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1970. The Notebooks for Crime and Punishment. Edward tfasiolek, edT Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. 8 E l i a d e , Mercea. Myths. Dreams and Mysteries. London: H a r v i l l Press, 1960: *" o ^Freud, Sigmund. "Dostoevsky and P a r r i c i d e , " i n Dostoevsky: A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays. Rene Wellek, ed. Shglewood C l i f T s I P r e n t l s s - h a i l Inc., 1962. 1 0 . "The Uncanny," i n Collected Papers, v o l . 4, no. 10. Ernest Jones, ed. London: Hogarth Press, 1956. 1 : L G i b i a n , George. "Dostoevsky's Use of Russian F o l k l o r e . " Journal of American Folklore, v o l . 69, July, 1956, pp.239-253. 12 . " T r a d i t i o n a l Symbolism In Crime and Punishment." PMLA, v o l . LXX, December, 1955, pp. 979-9c"c~ 13 ^Henderson, J 0seph L. "Ancient Myths and Modern Man," i n Man and His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed. Garden C i t y : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964, pp. 104-157. 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY Continued l 4 H o f f m a n n , E.T.A. "Der Sandmann," i n P o e t l s c h e Werke, D r i t t e r Band, B e r l i n : Walter De G r u y t e r and Co., 1957, pp. 3-44. 1 5 . Tales of E.T.A. Hoffmann. Leonard J . Kent and E l i z a b e t h C. K n i g h t , e d i t o r s and t r a n s l a t o r s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1972. l 6 J u n g , C.G. A l o n : Researches i n t o the Phenomenology o f  the S e l f . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. 1 7 ."Approaching the Unconscious," i n Man and His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed. Garden C i t y : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964, 18-103. 18 The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. 1 9 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Types. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969. 2 0 . Psychology and Alchemy. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. 21 22 . The S p i r i t i n Man, A r t and L i t e r a t u r e . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. . Symbols o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 19697 23 Two Essays on A n a l y t l Routledge ana" Kegan P a u l , 1969. c a l Psychology. London: 24 Kent, Leonard. The Subconscious In Gogol and Dostoevsky and i t s Antecedents. The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1969. 2 5 K e p p l e r , C.P. The L i t e r a t u r e o f the Second S e l f . Tucson: U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1972. 26 Mann, H a r r i e t , and o t h e r s . "Pour Types o f P e r s o n a l i t i e s and Pour Ways o f P e r c e i v i n g Time." Psychology Today, v o l . 6, no. 7, December 1972, pp. 76-84. 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY Continued 27 Matlaw, Ralph E. "Recurrent Imagery i n Dostoevsky." Harvard Sla v i c Studies, v o l . 3, Cambridge: Harvard Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 201-226. 28 Mochulsky, Konstantin. Dostoevsky: His L i f e and Work. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. 2 9Mortimer, Ruth. "Dostoevski and the Dream." Crime and Punishment. George Gibian, ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1964, pp. 641-654. •^Neumann, E r i c h . The Oreat Mother. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972. 31 The Origins and History of Consciousness, Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. 32 Passage, Charles. Dostoevskil the Adapter. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North Carolina Press, 1954. 33 The Russian Hoffmannlsts. The Hague: Mouton and Co.7~T963. 34 Pauwels, Louis, and Jacques Bergier. The Morning of the  Magicians. London: Granada Publishing, Ltd., 1971. 3 5Reber, Natalie. "Studien zum Motif des Doppelga'ngers bei Dostojevski und E.T.A. Hoffmann," i n Marburger  Abhadlungen zur Geschichte und Kultur Osteuropas. Band 6. Giessenl Wilhelm Schmitz Verlag, 1964. -^Rudicina, Alexandra P. "The Archetypal Pattern of Rebirth i n Three Novels of Dostoevsky." PMLA. v o l . 87, no. 5, October, 1972, pp. 1065-1072. 37 ""Von Pranz, M.L. "The Process of Individuation," i n Man and His Symbols. C.G. Jung, ed. Garden C i t y : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964, pp. 158-299. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101502/manifest

Comment

Related Items