UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conrad's style in the Nigger of the 'Narcissus' and the Rover Stape, John Henry 1973

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CONRAD'S STYLE I N THE NIGGER OF THE "NARCISSUS" AND THE f ^ V E R by JOHN HENRY STAPE B.A., Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  that  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  permission.  Department of  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  May  12,  1973  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  Columbia  s h a l l not be  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT This thesis explores s t y l i s t i c  f e a t u r e s i n two n o v e l s by Joseph  Conrad--The N i g g e r o f the " N a r c i s s u s " p u b l i s h e d i n 1897 and The Rover p u b l i s h e d i n 1923. The main f o c u s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f these  novels  i s t h e way i n w h i c h form and meaning a r e i n t e g r a t e d , t h a t i s , how s t y l e c r e a t e s and a f f e c t s theme and s u b j e c t .  I n p a r t i c u l a r , the v a r i o u s  l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s t h a t c r e a t e s t y l e - - t h e i n d i v i d u a l word, t h e s e n t e n c e , and l a r g e r elements such as m e t a p h o r i c and metonymic p a t t e r n s — a r e d e a l t w i t h . These elements a r e c o n s i d e r e d under t h r e e headings: and imagery.  dialogue, narrative,  The m i m e t i c c h a r a c t e r o f d i a l o g u e , i t s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a  t e x t , t h e v a r i o u s types o f d i a l o g u e such as r e p o r t e d speech and d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , and v a r i a t i o n s o f d i a l o g u e such as i n t e r i o r monologue and f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o theme.  Secondly, n a r r a t i v e ,  the l a r g e r frame i n t o w h i c h d i a l o g u e f i t s , i s t r e a t e d a t l e n g t h , w i t h n a r r a t i v e method, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n a r r a t i v e prose i n b o t h  novels,  and the e f f e c t s produced by Conrad's a t t e n t i o n t o rhythm and v o c a b u l a r y forming the c e n t r a l concerns o f t h i s s e c t i o n .  L a s t l y , metaphor and  s i m i l e a r e d i s c u s s e d as s t y l i s t i c elements not c o n f i n e d t o i n d i v i d u a l sentences  o r passages b u t e x t e n d i n g over an e n t i r e work, and as t h e means  by w h i c h v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y i m p r e s s i o n s a r e conveyed t o t h e r e a d e r .  The  t r a d i t i o n a l types o f s i m i l e and metaphor, "as i f " and "as though" c l a u s e s f u n c t i o n i n g as s i m i l e s , and metonymic images a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f demonstrating  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n i q u e  and v i s i o n .  , Supervisor  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I.  Introduction  1  II.  I n d i r e c t and D i r e c t D i s c o u r s e  7  III.  Narrative  IV.  "Above a l l t o make you s e e : " M e t a p h o r i c and Metonymic  36  Imagery  56  V.  Conclusions  88  VI.  L i s t o f Works C i t e d  95  ii  A NOTE ON REFERENCES  The e d i t i o n o f Conrad's works c i t e d " t h r o u g h o u t i s t h a t o f the C o l l e c t e d E d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d by J.M. Dent and Sons, L t d .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h t o thank Dr. D o r i s F r a n k l i n o f Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Kent, Ohio f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s from the Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , and t o thank a l s o t h e M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o the McLennan L i b r a r y . Most e s p e c i a l l y , I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e i n s i g h t and p a t i e n t guidance g i v e n t o me by my d i r e c t o r , Mr. Andrew B u s z a .  iii  Chapter  I  Introduction Edward G a r n e t t , a r e l i a b l e source on Conrad's i d e a s about a e s t h e t i c theory, wrote t h a t : Conrad worked by i n t u i t i o n a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y m e d i t a t i o n , j u s t as h i s c r i t i c i s m o f o t h e r men's work was i n t u i t i v e and not t h e f r u i t o f c o n s i d e r e d t h e o r y . He was, o f c o u r s e , always i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a r y t e c h n i q u e and good c r a f t s manship, such as F l a u b e r t ' s and Maupassant's. . . . But he never t h e o r i z e d about t e c h n i q u e and many y e a r s l a t e r , on a s k i n g me why I had never w r i t t e n on t h e a r t o f f i c t i o n and r e c e i v i n g my r e p l y t h a t i t was t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r my b r a i n s , he d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was a l s o too* d i f f i c u l t f o r h i s and t h a t Ijie had never f o r m u l a t e d any r u l e s f o r h i s own practice. S i m i l a r i l y , Conrad's i d e a s about s t y l e , s c a t t e r e d i n v a r i o u s essays and l e t t e r s , v a g u e l y h i n t e d a t i n some o f t h e n o v e l s , do not add up t o a consistent theory.  But such was n o t h i s aim. I n a r e a d i n g o f h i s  n o v e l s , however, one does become aware o f h i s a e s t h e t i c concerns and p r e o c c u p a t i o n s ; one p e r c e i v e s a c a r e f u l c r a f t s m a n ever c o n s c i o u s o f t h e way  i n w h i c h words p r e s e n t o r obscure r e a l i t y , and o f t h e way i n w h i c h  they form and l i m i t a w o r l d .  Conrad's v i s i o n o f man's l i f e and h i s  c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t r e s u l t e d i n t h e use and development o f c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l devices; h i s s t y l e o r i g i n a t e d i n h i s diverse experience, h i s unique s e n s i b i l i t y , and i n h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d around him. I n t h i s essay t h e s t y l e o f Conrad's f i r s t mature n o v e l , The N i g g e r o f the " N a r c i s s u s , " and t h e s t y l e o f The R o v e r , h i s l a s t completed n o v e l ,  1  2  are c l o s e l y examined i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how and v i s i o n are i n s e p a r a b l e , and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , how  style  style gives  form t o v i s i o n and r e f l e c t s changes i n i t . A comparison o f these two n o v e l s f o r i t s own unrewarding,  sake would be  relatively  but p u t t i n g them i n t o j u x t a p o s i t i o n a l l o w s one t o see Conrad's  development and d e c l i n e as an a r t i s t p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h s t y l e . The  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f h i s w o r l d v i e w , as seen i n the l a t e r w o r k s , a f f e c t s  v e r y b a s i c elements o f s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e .  The  s t r u c t u r e o f The Rover i s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y r e a l i s t i c a p a r t from one t i m e - s h i f t ; the s t r u c t u r e o f N i g g e r , on the o t h e r hand, i s complex, a p p r o a c h i n g counterpoint.  the  a type o f  The  thematic  I n the major m i d d l e - p e r i o d w o r k s , L o r d J i m , The  Secret Agent,  and Nostromo, c o m p l e x i t y o f s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s the c o m p l e x i t y o f theme and v i s i o n .  The m o r a l u n i v e r s e e x p l o r e d i n Conrad's f i c t i o n o f t h i s  p e r i o d i s ambiguous a t i t s v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s , the e t h i c a l s i t u a t i o n s complex i n the extreme, the heroes a s s a u l t e d by a b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y o f c h o i c e s most o f w h i c h are i l l u s o r y .  What r e a l i t y c o n s i s t s o f , i s never d e f i n i t e l y  e s t a b l i s h e d except as a p e r s p e c t i v e .  Theme i s e x p l o r e d through  patterns  o f images and symbols; and the sensory u n i v e r s e c r e a t e d by metaphor and simile.  I n The Rover Conrad completes the phase o f h i s c a r e e r begun w i t h  V i c t o r y w i t h l o v e and s a c r i f i c e r e p l a c i n g moral a m b i g u i t y .  Both theme and  form have been e s t a b l i s h e d l o n g b e f o r e and what o c c u r s i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n The N i g g e r one  sees Conrad f i n d i n g h i s themes a t the same time as he i s  d i s c o v e r i n g the t e c h n i q u e s w i t h w h i c h t o p r e s e n t them; the r e a d e r , t h e n , d i s c o v e r s w i t h the a u t h o r , w h i l e i n The Rover he i s shown what the has a l r e a d y found.  author  The exuberance and o c c a s i o n a l over-exuberance o f s t y l e  3  i n The N i g g e r i s , perhaps,  an end product o f the new  artist's  search  f o r f o r m and meaning; the l a g g i n g prose i n The Rover b e t r a y s the r e e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r ground. Conrad's a e s t h e t i c c r e d o , s e t f o r t h most s u c c i n c t l y i n the w e l l known " P r e f a c e t o The N i g g e r , " i s not d i s s i m i l a r from the credos  of  F l a u b e r t and Maupassant, and a l s o has s i m i l a r i t i e s t o James's i d e a s i n "The  Art of F i c t i o n . "  But Conrad's unique temperament and  the  v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s on h i s i m a g i n a t i o n from E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , and  Polish  l i t e r a t u r e c o a l e s c e i n t o a p e r s o n a l w o r l d view w h i c h h i s h i g h l y i n d i v i d -  2 u a l s t y l e g i v e s form t o .  H i s a r t i s t i c aims l e d t o p a r t i c u l a r  d e v i c e s and emphases, d e a l t w i t h i n the body o f t h i s e s s a y .  stylistic  His  impre-  s s i o n i s m , f o r example, i s p a r t l y grounded i n h i s c o n c e r n w i t h the seemingly  u n r e a l q u a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e and w i t h the n e c e s s a r i l y i m p e r f e c t  and i n c o m p l e t e a p p r e h e n s i o n  o f an e x p e r i e n c e .  I n seeking to capture  these q u a l i t i e s and to embody an a l l - t o o - f l e e t i n g r e a l i t y h i s s t y l e i s based upon p r e c i s e and c o n c r e t e v o c a b u l a r y . he  I n 1905  i n an essay on James  wrote: A c t i o n i n i t s essence, the c r e a t i v e a r t o f a w r i t e r o f f i c t i o n may be compared t o rescue work . . . . It is r e s c u e work, t h i s s n a t c h i n g o f v a n i s h i n g phrases o f t u r b u l e n c e , d i s g u i s e d i n f a i r w o r d s , out o f the n a t i v e o b s c u r i t y i n t o a l i g h t where the s t r u g g l i n g forms may be seen, s e i z e d upon, endowed w i t h the o n l y p o s s i b l e form o f permanence i n t h e ^ w o r l d o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e s - the permanence o f memory.  T h i s f i x a t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y and i t s t r a n s i t o r i n e s s l e a d s t o an attempt d e s c r i b e e x a c t l y the s u r f a c e o f t h i n g s - - c o l o u r , m o t i o n ,  form,  to  tone.  R e l a t e d to t h i s i s an emphasis on the w o r l d o f the senses, a c c o r d i n g to Conrad the p r i m a r y avenue o f d i s c o v e r i n g the t r u t h o f an e x p e r i e n c e .  His  4  p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e use of the t r a d i t i o n a l devices of metaphor and simile also owes i t s o r i g i n to this passion for p a r t i c u l a r i t y and for vividness. It i s Conrad's concern with r e a l i t y that also leads him to employ distancing techniques and multiple perspective, an obvious example where v i s i o n determines and becomes form. Various points of view impinge upon the reader both to c l a r i f y the d i f f i c u l t y  (perhaps, i m p o s s i b i l i t y ) of  a r r i v i n g at the " r e a l " and, further, to give a sense of the inherent limitations of any one perspective.  Obviously, narrative technique  shapes and modifies narrative prose; i n The Nigger the narrative technique i s of especial interest i n determining the meaning of the novel. Conrad's concern with reality, equally colours and determines h i s use of dialogue.  Realizing the importance of dialogue i n creating a  v i v i d f i c t i o n a l world, he pays p a r t i c u l a r attention to i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g and s t y l i z i n g a character's utterance.  Through the careful use of  dialogue he also d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the moral q u a l i t i e s of characters . Hardly an i d l e or decorative device, dialogue presents the reader with a dramatized  s i t u a t i o n which often presents or expands themes.  In part,  the allotment of dialogue to characters h i g h l i g h t s one character i n p a r t i c u l a r and gives to others merely supporting r o l e s .  In this essay  the various types of dialogue are analyzed i n order to discover t h e i r relationship to the presentation of theme. Symbolism, often integrated into a novel through metaphor and s i m i l e , i s not only a technical device giving cohesion to f i c t i o n , but with  5  C o n r a d was as  a matter  symbolic  reflect  o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n and v i s i o n .  He  saw  o f v a r i o u s s p i t i t u a l and m o r a l s t a t e s , and  an a r t i s t ' s r e s p o n s e  t o B a r r e t H.  C l a r k i n 1918  of symbolism i n  to the r e a l w o r l d .  actualities  thus h i s  novels  In a letter written  Conrad acknowledged the primary  importance  fiction:  ... I w i s h a t f i r s t t o put b e f o r e you a g e n e r a l proposition: t h a t a work o f a r t i s v e r y seldom l i m i t e d t o one e x c l u s i v e m e a n i n g and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t e n d i n g t o a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n . And t h i s f o r the reason t h a t the nearer i t approaches a r t , the more i t a c q u i r e s a s y m b o l i c c h a r a c t e r . . . . So I w i l l o n l y c a l l y o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t the s y m b o l i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a work o f a r t has t h i s a d v a n t a g e , t h a t i t makes a t r i p l e a p p e a l c o v e r i n g the whole f i e l d o f l i f e . A l l the great c r e a t i o n s o f l i t e r a t u r e h a v e b e e n s y m b o l i c , and i n t h a t way h a v e g a i n e d i n c o m p l e x i t y , i n p o w e r , i n d e p t h and i n b e a u t y . The to  stylistic  d e v i c e s o f m e t a p h o r and  t h e c r e a t i o n and  these  simile  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f symbol.  c o n t r i b u t e most i m p o r t a n t l y For example, i t i s  d e v i c e s t h a t t h e a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c u n i v e r s e i s c r e a t e d i n The  t h a t James W a i t becomes a f i g u r e o f d a r k p o w e r , and. i n The w o r l d o f Escampobar becomes a s y m b o l i c w a s t e l a n d e m p h a s i s on  s y m b o l may  i n V i c t o r y and The In  t h i s essay  a l s o be  o n l y by  Nigger,  Rover t h a t  i n need o f r e n e w a l .  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  the An  tendency to a l l e g o r y  R o v e r . ~* the reader's  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e two Therefore,  through  quotations  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Conrad's canon,  n o v e l s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , has  f r o m The  Nigger  and The  and  been assumed.  Rover have been i n d i c a t e d  page n u m b e r , as e i t h e r t h e n o v e l u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s c l e a r l y  i n d i c a t e d i n the  t e x t o r t h e name o f a c h a r a c t e r s u f f i c i e n t l y  the s p e c i f i c work r e f e r r e d t o .  identifies  6  Footnotes  1 " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " L e t t e r s from Joseph Conrad 1895-1924. ed. Edward G a r n e t t ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1928), pp. 24-25. 2  , See Morton D. Z a b e l ' s " E d i t o r ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The P o r t a b l e Conrad, ed. Morton D. Z a b e l ; r e v . F r e d e r i c k R. K a r l (New York: V i k i n g , 1947; r p t . 1969), pp. 30-47 f o r a b r i e f summary o f F r e n c h and E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e s . F o r P o l i s h i n f l u e n c e s see A n d r z e j Busza's Conrad's P o l i s h L i t e r a r y Background and Some I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the I n f l u e n c e o f P o l i s h L i t e r a t u r e on H i s Work (Rome: P o l i s h H i s t o r i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1966). 3 "Henry James: An A p p r e c i a t i o n , " Dent, 1949), p. 13.  Notes on L-;fe and L e t t e r s  (London:  4 G. Jean-Aubry, Joseph Conrad: L i f e and L e t t e r s V o l . 2 (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1927), p. 205. 5 See R o b e r t W. S t a l l m a n ' s "The S t r u c t u r e and Symbolism o f Conrad's V i c t o r y , " Western Rev, 13(1949), 146-57, and George H. Thomson's "Conrad's L a t e r F i c t i o n , " ELT, 12 (1969), 165-74.  Chapter  II  D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t  Discourse  Conrad's heavy r e l i a n c e on d i a l o g u e f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , development of p l o t , and dramatic e f f e c t i s obvious r e a d e r , and i n the few  to the most c a s u a l  though B r i t i s h and American s c h o l a r s seen to o v e r l o o k s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s e s w r i t t e n on Conrad, i t deserves  and minute a t t e n t i o n as an aspect o f h i s s t y l e . mimetic aspect o f f i c t i o n , drama, i s used the  the  the one  this  special  D i a l o g u e , the most  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the form shares w i t h  i n the words o f the f a m i l i a r  ' N a r c i s s u s ' " "to make you h e a r " ( x ) .  " P r e f a c e to The Nigger  of  T h i s n e g l e c t e d aspect o f  Conrad's a r t i s as much a p a r t o f h i s " i m p r e s s i o n i s m , " o f h i s emphasis on the w o r l d o f the senses, as i t i s o f the dramatic w o r l d o f the n o v e l . Through a d i s c u s s i o n o f the v a r i o u s types o f d i s c o u r s e i n The Nigger The Rover t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l  e x p l o r e the f u n c t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e , i t s  thematic c o n t r i b u t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l s , and i n c r e a t i n g a dramatized  and  i t s fundamental  effect  world.  Although F o r d Madox Ford's r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Conrad are not an a l t o g e t h e r r e l i a b l e Conrad's method and  artistic  source o f i n f o r m a t i o n about  c o n c e r n s , one  ought not d i s m i s s e n t i r e l y  what F o r d has to say r e g a r d i n g h i s and Conrad's p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d i a l o g u e , something t h a t g i v e them "more t r o u b l e than any o t h e r department o f the novel.""'"  F o r d h i n t s t h a t Conrad's p r e f e r e n c e f o r d i a l o g u e  7  8  i n a t e x t , f o r what he c a l l s " c o n v e r s a t i o n s , " i s a p a n d e r i n g  t o the  l e s s c u l t i v a t e d r e a d e r , b u t he o v e r l o o k s the e f f e c t o b t a i n e d - - a more dramatic  and r e a l i s t i c  r e n d e r i n g o f speech, something t h a t  corresponds  more c l o s e l y t o a c t u a l l i f e than any o f the o t h e r c o n v e n t i o n s novel.  Ford f u r t h e r confesses  o f the  t h a t " i t seemed t o him (Ford) t h a t you  c o u l d employ the words 'he s a i d ' as o f t e n as you l i k e , a c c e p t i n g them  2 as b e i n g u n n o t i c e a b l e  . . ." ; i n d e e d , he i s c o r r e c t i n h i s c o n t e n t i o n  t h a t t h i s i n d i c a t o r has become " u n n o t i c e a b l e , " and what Conrad does i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a v o i d t h i s phrase i s t o g i v e meaning t o i n d i c a t o r s and t o d i s p e n s e w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l and hackneyed phrase t h a t u s u a l l y r e c e i v e s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from a r e a d e r . c o n v e r s a t i o n an i m p o r t a n t  As Conrad p e r c e i v e d the r e n d e r i n g o f  and d i f f i c u l t aspect o f h i s a r t , the i n t e g r a -  t i o n o f d i a l o g u e i n t o the t e x t o f h i s n o v e l s , may be c o n s i d e r e d as a facet of h i s s t y l e . The problem o f i n t e g r a t i n g u t t e r a n c e s i n t o a t e x t i s s o l v e d i n d i r e c t d i a l o g u e by c o n v e n t i o n a l a c c i d e n t a l s ; q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , i n E n g l i s h the c o n v e n t i o n s  o f o f f s e t t i n g and the use o f q u o t a t i o n marks s e r v e as  i n d i c a t o r s t o a r e a d e r t h a t a c h a r a c t e r ' s a c t u a l speech i s d r a m a t i c a l l y rendered.  The N i g g e r o f f e r s a n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e t o t h i s c o n v e n t i o n by  the a d d i t i o n o f a dash predeeding  d i r e c t d i a l o g u e , a French  convention  t h a t o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y i n the n o v e l and g i v e s t h e p r i n t e d t e x t a nonEnglish texture: Mr. Baker, s p e a k i n g up t o the man above him, asked:-"Are a l l the hands aboard, Knowles?"(3). Conrad f u r t h e r adapted the c o n v e n t i o n a l use o f q u o t a t i o n marks so t h a t a character's thoughts,  a v a r i a n t o f d i a l o g u e , are a l s o contained w i t h i n  9  them, thus c o n t r i b u t i n g a v a r i e d t e x t u r e t o a passage o f n a r r a t i v e : He went away from t h e r e , w a l k e d to the end o f the b u i l d i n g , spun round and w a l k e d back a g a i n t o the o t h e r end; and i t was as i f he had been a f r a i d o f g o i n g beyond the w a l l a g a i n s t w h i c h he r e e l e d sometimes. " C o n s p i r a c y , c o n s p i r a c y , " he t h o u g h t . He was now abs o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t the l i e u t e n a n t was s t i l l h i d i n g i n t h a t t a r t a n e , and was o n l y w a i t i n g t i l l a l l was q u i e t t o sneak back t o h i s room i n w h i c h S c e v o l a had p r o o f p o s i t i v e t h a t A r l e t t e was i n the h a b i t o f making h e r s e l f at home(183). The  a c c i d e n t a l s here f a c i l i t a t e  the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m the o m n i s c i e n t  n a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e t o S c e v o l a ' s mind and p r o v i d e otherwise unavailable.  a s h i f t i n texture  F o r a moment the r e a d e r i s a s h a r e r  S c e v o l a ' s t h o u g h t s , a t r a n s i t i o n t h a t i s not o n l y economic dramatic,  of and  but more e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s the r e a d e r i n S c e v o l a ' s  paranoia. Beyond the f u n c t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i n g d i r e c t d i a l o g u e and  into a text  s e t t i n g o f f thought ;from n a r r a t i v e , Conrad f r e q u e n t l y uses  a c c i d e n t a l s t o emphasize the manner i n w h i c h one spoken speech, as i n W a i t ' s f i n a l l a b o u r e d the lamp . . . and  . . . go,'  a c t u a l l y hears  sentence:  b r e a t h e d out W a i t " ( 1 5 4 ) .  "'Light He  f r e q u e n t l y uses e l l i p s e s , f o r example, to i n d i c a t e t h a t a utterance  . . .  also character's  does not c o n c l u d e , but t r a i l s o f f o r i s i n t e r r u p t e d :  "Yes, I u n d e r s t a n d you," drawled the l i e u t e n a n t . " I t h i n k I know you p r e t t y w e l l . I suppose an E n g l i s h prison. "That i s a h o r r i b l e s u b j e c t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , " i n t e r r u p t e d Peyrol i n a loud, emotional tone(73-74). The  a c c i d e n t a l s h e r e , as i n W a i t ' s f i n a l s e n t e n c e , support the  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  inquit,  phrase p r e f a c i n g a t r a n s i t i o n from n a r r a t i v e t o a  speaker's u t t e r a n c e .  The  e l l i p s e s used t o mark pauses o r h a l t s i n  10 speech l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w from an i n q u i t such as "stammered" o r mumbled": Knowles t u r n e d about b e w i l d e r e d ; stammered f i r s t a t one, then a t another.--"No! . . . I never! . . . c a n ' t t a l k s e n s i b l e sense m i d s t you . . . . Always on the k i d " ( 1 0 9 ) . Wait's d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s imprisonment i n the bulkhead is  s i m i l a r l y r e n d e r e d , the e l l i p s e s i n d i c a t i n g  d u r i n g the  storm  the b r o k e n manner i n  w h i c h h i s u t t e r a n c e i s d e l i v e r e d t o h i s crewmates: He spoke s p a s m o d i c a l l y , i n f a s t rushes w i t h l o n g pauses between, as a t i p s y man w a l k s . . . . "Cook had j u s t g i v e n me a p a n n i k i n o f hot c o f f e e . . . . Slapped i t down t h e r e , on my chest--banged the door t o . . . .1 f e l t a heavy r o l l coming; t r i e d to save my c o f f e e , b u r n t my f i n g e r s . . . and f e l l out o f my bunk. . . . She went o v e r so q u i c k . . . . Water came i n through the v e n t i l a t o r . . . . " ( 1 0 6 ) . An e x t r e m e l y complex i n q u i t . l i k e the one p r e f a c i n g t h i s sentence  of  S i n g l e t o n ' s , i s a l s o supported by a c c i d e n t a l s : There was a n o i s e i n the o l d seaman's t h r o a t , as though the words had been r a t t l i n g t o g e t h e r b e f o r e they c o u l d come o u t . - - " S t e e r s . . . l i k e a l i t t l e b o a t , " he s a i d , at l a s t , w i t h hoarse t e n d e r n e s s , w i t h o u t g i v i n g the master as much as h a l f a g l a n c e - t h e n , w a t c h f u l l y , spun the wheel down, s t e a d i e d , f l u n g i t back a g a i n ( 9 1 ) . The In  e f f e c t o f h e s i t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by the e l l i p s e s i n t h i s the p a s s i o n a t e scene between A r l e t t e and R e a l i n R e a l ' s  sentence.  moonlit  bedroom, the l i e u t e n a n t says t o A r l e t t e : "But what d i d you t h i n k o f my conduct a t times? You see, I d i d not know what was g o i n g t o be. I . . . I was a f r a i d , " he added under h i s b r e a t h ( 2 1 7 ) . The  e l l i p s e s here g i v e the r e a d e r an i n d i c a t i o n o f the manner i n w h i c h  R e a l u t t e r s t h i s s e n t e n c e ; and the r e p e a t e d pronoun as w e l l as the  inquit  f u r t h e r demonstrate Conrad's m e t i c u l o u s c o n c e r n f o r the i n t o n a t i o n o f a character's dialogue.  He a l s o uses e l l i p s e s t o g i v e the e f f e c t o f an  afterthought to a phrase:  "There was nearly a score of us Brothers of  the Coast in the same predicament . . . (73).  in consequence of a shipwreck"  Numerous other instances of this attempt to reproduce mimetically  the pattern and intonation of actual speech justify Professor Harkness's conclusion that accidentals have a definite effect on the texture of a work. Unlike accidentals the inquit has the potential of being semantically meaningful, though the most common inquit--"he said"—has through overuse been rendered relatively meaningless semantically.  Semantically meaning-  ful inquits serve the double function of introducing dialogue into a text and of presenting information about the speaker, the manner and intonation of his utterance, and, often, the narrator's attitude toward him.  According  to Ford, Conrad consistently sought to avoid the hackneyed and meaningless "he said," though, df course, this and i t s qualified variations occur almost inevitably."'  In an effort to produce an aural impression  on his reader while at the same time providing variety, Conrad modifies the basic inquit with phrases that add significantly to the dramatization of character as well as qualifying a speaker's utterance.  In The Nigger,  for example, the inquit introducing the utterances of Wait and Donkin differs significantly from those used to introduce the statements of Allistoun and Old Singleton. Donkin's entrance into the forecastle is met by the curious question of his fellow seamen, and significantly, his i n i t i a l utterances are rendered "in a tone that meant to be hearty but was impudent,"(11) and by a snarl(11). A remark addressed to Charley in what becomes his characteristic tone firmly establishes his personality at the very  12  beginning  o f t h e n o v e l : - - " 1 1 1 make you keep t h i s 1  young f e l l e r , ' he s n a r l e d v i c i o u s l y . you t o be c i v i l  'ere f o ' c ' s l e c l e a n ,  'Never you f e a r .  I will  t o an a b l e seaman, you i g n e r a n t a s s ' " ( 1 3 ) .  s i m i l a r manner, W a i t ' s e n t r a n c e i s d r a m a t i z e d duce and m o d i f y t h e p o r t e n t o u s  learn  In a  by i n q u i t s used t o i n t r o -  s i n g l e s y l l a b l e o f h i s name:  "'Wait'.'  c r i e d a deep, r i n g i n g v o i c e " and "Then a g a i n t h e sonorous v o i c e s a i d w i t h insistence:--'Wait'.'"(17) . up t h e d i s c r e p a n c y  The s o n o r i t y o f t h i s v o i c e l a t e r  points  between t h e s k e l e t a l f i g u r e w h i c h p o s s e s s e s i t and  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l power t h a t i t has over t h e crew o f t h e N a r c i s s u s .  The  c o n f u s i o n caused by W a i t ' s v o i c e , t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s meaning, and t h e command t h a t i t h o l d s over t h e crew, a l l themes e l a b o r a t e d i n the c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l , f i n d i n i t i a l  impact t h r o u g h c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d  inquits. F o r O l d S i n g l e t o n a c t i o n , n o t words, d e t e r m i n e s t h e m o r a l q u a l i t y o f a man, and f o r h i m an u t t e r a n c e must be s i g n i f i c a n t i n o r d e r t o be made a t a l l .  R e p l y i n g t o Donkin's i n q u i r y about t h e f o r e c a s t l e ' s w a t e r -  cask, " S i n g l e t o n , without  a word, p o i n t e d w i t h a b i g hand t h a t h e l d a  short smouldering pipe"(22).  C l e a r l y , h i s s i l e n c e has .the n a r r a t o r ' s  a p p r o v a l ; as one o f t h e few r e m a i n i n g tor  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f what the n a r r a -  p o r t r a y s as a g o l d e n age o f seamanship, he i s among t h o s e who a r e  " s t r o n g and mute," o f a g e n e r a t i o n o f seamen t h a t " l i v e d i n a r t i c u l a t e and indispensable"(25).  D o n k i n , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e p r e s e n t s  t h e new genera-  t i o n o f seamen who " i f they had l e a r n e d how t o speak they have a l s o l e a r n e d how t o w h i n e " ( 2 5 ) . way  S i n g l e t o n ' s few u t t e r a n c e s  that the narrator's approval  a r e q u a l i f i e d i n such a  o f them i s e x p l i c i t ; a n d , as w i t h Wait  and D o n k i n , t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o a r e a d e r ' s  o v e r a l l sense o f  13 character.  Singleton's question, for example, regarding Wait's i l l n e s s  purposely lacks drama because of h i s calmness, i t s method of delivery being consistent with his personality as the reader has come to know i t : "The old man, addressing Jimmy, asked:--'Are you dying? "'(42). admonition to "'get on with your dying'" i s "said with venerable  And h i s mild-  ness" (42), a further economic statement conveying both character and tone.  Altogether, this i s a far cry from Donkin's g a r r u l i t y and Wait's  imperiousness. Singleton's only moment of v o l u b i l i t y occurs after h i s prophecy regarding Wait as the cause of the calm i s f u l f i l l e d : And for the f i r s t time that voyage, the o l d seaman became quite cheery and garrulous, explaining and i l l u s t r a t i n g from the stores of experience how, i n sickness, the sight of an island (even a very small one) i s generally more f a t a l than the view of a continent. But he couldn't explain why(156). This c l i m a c t i c moment e l i c i t s the only gratuitous utterances Singleton makes during the course of the voyage.  His other moments of speech are  prophetic or a challenge to the elements, giving "back y e l l for y e l l to a westerly gale"(173), as he does at the s i g n i f i c a n t conclusion of the f i r s t chapter, an address to the ship i t s e l f , prefaced with an inquit that suggests the magnitude of the struggle and Singleton's view of h i s position:  "'You hold . . . hold!' he growled at i t masterfully, i n the  i n c u l t tangle of h i s white  beard"(26).  Not unlike Singleton's, Captain A l l i s t o u n ' s utterances are infrequent and usually s i g n i f i c a n t , introduced by indicators that suggest authority and calm, though h i s commands during the storm are rendered shou.ts.  i n y e l l s and  His utterances i n his confrontation with Wait are authoritative  14  but  subdued: "You have been shamming s i c k , " r e t o r t e d C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n with severity(120) . . . C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n shook a f o r e f i n g e r at the angry b r o n z e d face o f the speaker.--"You--you h o l d y o u r tongue," he s a i d , w a r n i n g l y " ( 1 2 0 ) C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n s a i d s h a r p l y to the second mate: "Keep q u i e t , Mr. C r e i g h t o n , " and s t o o d composed i n the tumult . . .(121).  Only when he r e a s s e r t s a u t h o r i t y o v e r the crew do h i s u t t e r a n c e s on an e m o t i o n a l  t o n e , a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, however, f o r the s t r u g g l e  between him and Donkin i s one Narcissus.  take  t h a t i n v o l v e s the l i f e o r death o f  the  A l l i s t o u n must f o r c e f u l l y r e g a i n an ascendant p o s i t i o n o v e r  h i s crew by p u t t i n g D o n k i n i n h i s p l a c e , and on t h i s o c c a s i o n he c r i e s out a command, and threatening gestures.  "orders,"  ".urges" D o n k i n , accompanying h i s words w i t h  D o n k i n s r e a c t i o n s are p r e f a c e d w i t h i n q u i t s t h a t 1  r e v e a l h i s meanness and cowardice:  he answers " w i t h cheeky t r e p i d a t i o n , "  mumbles a response " w i t h e f f o r t , " screams "at the s i l e n t crowd" about h i s mistreatment,  and screams h i s revenge " a t the s h i p a t  large"(136-37).  The n o n - i n d i v i d u a l i z e d crew members appear o n l y as v o i c e s , o f t e n i n cacophony, commenting, g r u m b l i n g ,  o r p a s s i n g time i n c o n v e r s a t i o n .  Conrad  d i s p e n s e s w i t h i n q u i t s on the o c c a s i o n o f the crew's a r r i v a l i n the f o r e c a s t l e i n order to achieve  the r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t o f q u i c k l y spoken i n t e r -  j e c t i o n s among a group o f men  moving en masse i n t o new  quarters:  "Here, sonny, t a k e t h a t bunk! . . . Don't you do i t ! . . . What's y o u r l a s t s h i p ? . . . I know h e r . Three y e a r s ago, The  dramatic  . . .  i n Puget Sound. . . . " ( 5 ) .  r e n d e r i n g o f d i r e c t u t t e r a n c e s , l i k e these by the  non-  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d members o f the crew, p r o v i d e s a human background a g a i n s t w h i c h the c o n f l i c t between the f o r c e s o f Donkin-Wait, and  Allistoun,  S i n g l e t o n , and the s h i p i s worked o u t . however, deserve l i t t l e  The i n q u i t s o f the crew,  s c r u t i n y as they are l a r g e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n d i c a t o r s d e s c r i b i n g the tone i n w h i c h u t t e r a n c e s are made. Conrad's  Again,  i n t e n t i o n t o make h i s r e a d e r s hear i s c e n t r a l , and even w i t h  n o n - i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s o r a c o l l e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r he i s c a r e f u l to o b t a i n t h i s  effect.  Having c o n s i d e r e d the problem o f i n t e g r a t i n g d i a l o g u e i n t o a t e x t , one must a l s o examine the q u a l i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s , t h a t i s , the c o n v e n t i o n s and v o c a b u l a r y used i n o r d e r " t o make you h e a r . "  I n Almayer's  Folly,  Conrad's d r a m a t i c opening w i t h the words "Kaspar! Makan!" i n t r o d u c e s a c o n v e n t i o n used i n numerous o t h e r n o v e l s - - t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f the language o f h i s s e t t i n g i n t o the u t t e r a n c e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s .  Dialogue, i n f a c t ,  almost always i n Conrad's n o v e l s r e f l e c t s the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f the s t o r y , the background o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s , and their beliefs.  The numerous F r e n c h p h r a s e s o f The Rover are almost  e x c l u s i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d to the u t t e r a n c e s o f c h a r a c t e r s , w h i l e the t h i r d p e r s o n n a r r a t o r i s a p p a r e n t l y an E n g l i s h m a n .  The p e c u l i a r d i f f i c u l t y o f  g i v i n g F r e n c h f l a v o u r to an E n g l i s h n o v e l i n w h i c h the major c h a r a c t e r s speak e n t i r e l y i n F r e n c h ( a s i d e from P e y r o l who  speaks E n g l i s h w i t h  Symons) i s p a r t i a l l y and most e a s i l y s o l v e d by the i n c l u s i o n o f F r e n c h words and p h r a s e s ; on a l e s s o b v i o u s and more s u b t l e l e v e l , however, i s the t e c h n i q u e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g E n g l i s h sentences i n t o F r e n c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s , such as R e a l ' s response on one o c c a s i o n t o P e y r o l :  "'No,  my  gunner'"  (114) o r P e y r o l ' s "'Where i s he, t h a t honest man?'"(229). The F r e n c h words and phrases t h a t pepper the d i a l o g u e i n The  Rover  a r e by no means l i m i t e d t o the s i m p l e F r e n c h an o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  16 r e a d e r would know, and hence Conrad sometimes s u p p l i e s h i s r e a d e r w i t h a t r a n s l a t i o n when t h e c o n t e x t may n o t make t h e words s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . C a t h e r i n e ' s t w i c e - r e p e a t e d " E c o u t e z " t o R e a l meets w i t h h i s "'Yes, I hear y o u ' " ( 2 2 5 ) . English translated into  response  On o c c a s i o n the p r o c e s s i s r e v e r s e d w i t h t h e French:  "AhJ b u t he i s a cunning one." A f t e r e x p r e s s i n g t h a t o p i n i o n the o l d r o v e r p u l l e d o u t a r e d bandana h a n d k e r c h i e f and a f t e r rubbing h i s face w i t h i t repeated h i s o p i n i o n deliberately: " C e l u i - l a e s t un m a l i n " ( 1 1 2 ) . Phrases  t h a t would be awkward i n E n g l i s h , such as P e y r o l ' s h e a r t y o a t h s ,  are g e n e r a l l y l e f t u n t r a n s l a t e d , the c o n t e x t making them c l e a r enough. More o f t e n than n o t , however, forms o f address  a r e put i n t o  " A m i r a l " ( 1 1 3 ) , " n o t r e m a i t r e " ( 1 8 9 ) , "ma chere amie"(284),  French:  "camarade"(263),  o r t h e f r e q u e n t " c i t o y e n . " A n o t h e r l e v e l o f language i s suggested by French  slang:  "caboche" f o r head ( 1 1 4 ) , " b l a n c b e c " f o r greenhorn ( 1 1 5 ) ,  o r the e x p r e s s i o n s " h e i n " o r "he," a use o f language t h a t c l e a r l y evokes s o c i a l s t a t u s j u s t as much as P e y r o l ' s oaths r e v e a l h i s s a i l o r background. S i m i l a r l y , t h e p o l i t i c a l s e t t i n g o f t h e n o v e l i s p r e s e n t e d through  dialogue.  F o r i n s t a n c e , S c e v o l a , t h e u n r e l e n t i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y , r e t a i n s the address " c i t o y e n " l o n g a f t e r t h e i d e a l s and customs o f the R e v o l u t i o n have d i e d , and P e y r o l , perhaps m o c k i n g l y , a l s o does, but i n E n g l i s h .  r e f e r s t o h i m as " C i t o y e n " as t h e n a r r a t o r  The n a r r a t o r s e t s t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e and  the time a t t h e o u t s e t o f The Rover by h i s r e f e r r i n g t o " C i t i z e n P e y r o l " ; and t h e s h i f t i n the p o l i t i c a l to t h e c i - d e v a n t " M a d e m o i s e l l e " "Monsieur."  scene i s p o r t r a y e d by P e y r o l ' s r e v e r s i o n f o r C a t h e r i n e j u s t as she c a l l s h i m  A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e n o v e l A r l e t t e and R e a l  (no l o n g e r a  l i e u t e n a n t b u t a c a p t a i n ) a r e r e f e r r e d t o as Madame and Monsieur R e a l ,  i n d i c a t i n g how c o m p l e t e l y  s o c i e t y has r e v e r t e d t o i t s o l d e s t a b l i s h e d  customs as w e l l as how much A r l e t t e and R e a l have become a p a r t o f t h a t society.  Moreover, Conrad's b e l i e f t h a t r e v o l u t i o n does n o t e f f e c t t r u e  change i s once a g a i n p r e s e n t e d  t o t h e r e a d e r even i n so s e e m i n g l y unimpor-  t a n t a m a t t e r as t h e forms o f a d d r e s s .  What he says o f r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e  "Author's N o t e " t o Under Western Eyes h o l d s t r u e as w e l l f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l theme o f The Rover: The f e r o c i t y and i m b e c i l i t y o f an a u t o c r a t i c r u l e r e j e c t i n g a l l l e g a l i t y and i n f a c t b a s i n g i t s e l f upon complete m o r a l a n a r c h i s m provokes t h e no l e s s i m b e c i l e and a t r o c i o u s answer o f a p u r e l y U t o p i a n r e v o l u t i o n i s m encompassing d e s t r u c t i o n by'the f i r s t means t o hand, i n the s t r a n g e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a fundamental change o f h e a r t s must f o l l o w t h e downf a l l o f any g i v e n human i n s t i t u t i o n s . These people are unable t o see t h a t a l l they can e f f e c t i s m e r e l y a change o f names(x). S c e v o l a , t h e n , i s y e t another o f Conrad's p a t h o l o g i c a l cases who f i n d s his  t r u e s t s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h a c t s o f v i o l e n c e and d e s t r u c t i o n .  H i s i d e e f i x e w i l l n o t , i n f a c t , a l l o w h i m t o become a s s i m i l a t e d t o the "new" ways, w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y o n l y t h e o l d i n a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e . Other forms o f address i n the d i a l o g u e c o n t r i b u t e t o an unders t a n d i n g o f c h a r a c t e r and d e s i g n a t e characters.  t h e n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  Michel's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c "maltre" f o r Peyrol i s a sign of  r e s p e c t and a f f e c t i o n a t e esteem, and P e y r o l ' s a d d r e s s i n g M i c h e l as "camarade" on t h e t a r t a n e i n d i c a t e s h i s fondness and r e g a r d f o r h i m . A r l e t t e ' s c o a x i n g , b u t s l i g h t l y f r a n t i c q u e s t i o n t o P e y r o l about  Real's  whereabouts i s p r e f a c e d by terms o f endearment and j o c u l a r e p i t h e t s d e s i g n e d t o s o f t e n and a p p e a l t o the o l d s a i l o r : Papa P e y r o l , o l d gunner, you h o r r i d s e a - w o l f ,  "'Monsieur P e y r o l ,  be an a n g e l and t e l l  me  18 where he i s " ' ( 1 7 5 ) .  Catherine's  sense o f s e r i o u s n e s s and her  anxiety  f o r A r l e t t e a f t e r o r d e r i n g R e a l t o l e a v e the farm causes h e r t o drop the o r d i n a r y s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s  and to respond to P e y r o l ' s j o k i n g tone  w i t h an u t t e r a n c e p r e f a c e d o n l y by h i s surname:  "Catherine, with  back t o him and c a l l i n g him, n o t ' M o n s i e u r , ' but  her  'Peyrol,' tout court,  remarked, not e x a c t l y w i t h d i s p l e a s u r e , but r a t h e r w i t h an ominous t h a t t h i s was priest  no time f o r i d l e t a l k " ( 2 3 5 - 6 ) .  accent  D u r i n g h e r v i s i t t o the  (a scene t h a t r e c a l l s and perhaps i s an echo o f Emma's m e e t i n g w i t h  the . e q u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e p r i e s t o f Madame B o v a r y ) ^ A r l e t t e a d d r e s s e s the abbe f o r m a l l y as "Monsieur l e Cure" and u s i n g the more f a m i l i a r mon  pere.  "Monsieur l'Abbe" r a t h e r t h a n  Her f o r m a l address may  underscore her  p o s i t i o n as an o u t s i d e r i n the p a r i s h and i n d i c a t e s a f o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the I n her essay on "The The  priest.  D e f i n i n g F u n c t i o n o f Vocabulary  R o v e r, " E l i z a b e t h Cox W r i g h t sees P e y r o l ' s v o c a b u l a r y  three c a t e g o r i e s :  "Words and p h r a s e s from the F r e n c h ,  o f seamanship, and pungent c o l l o q u i a l i s m . . . ."^  i n Conrad's as f a l l i n g  into  the t e c h n i c a l t e r m  A l l three of  the  c a t e g o r i e s t o g e t h e r form a w o r l d i n w h i c h the a c t i o n o f the n o v e l  takes  shape, and each o f the d i s t i n c t v o c a b u l a r i e s c r e a t e s — n o t m e r e l y g i v e s a sense o f — P e y r o l as Frenchman, as seaman, and as an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i d i o s y n c r a t i c .habits o f speech and t h o u g h t .  Perhaps, because o f  the  v a r i e t y o f P e y r o l ' s speech, a m i r r o r o f h i s v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e , he becomes the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l who,  i n F o r s t e r ' s sense, i s round.  As language c r e a t e s the e n t i r e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d , the v o c a b u l a r y  of  d i r e c t d i a l o g u e f l e s h e s out o r l e a v e s undeveloped the f i g u r e s o f t h a t world.  B o t h Wait and  S i n g l e t o n i n The N i g g e r ,  f o r example, say comparia-  19  tively  little,  context  of  character,  and thus C o n r a d a t t a i n s  the n o v e l as a w h o l e .  The a i m o f  of  a t t e n t i o n between the p a r a l l e l g a r r u l o u s D o n k i n does not  as w e l l  stories  become t h e d o m i n a n t  p r e c i s e l y because the r a n g e and c o n t e n t Moreover, his vocabularly f u l l pronounced i n a tone of  inquits  in direct  h e n c e he s p e a k s o f the  character  for  patriots  R e p u b l i c " ( 2 7 ) , the  and the  Revolution replaces religion  of  fire"(81).  liberty,  equality  S i n c e he i s  appropriately  " s l a v e s of  and i s r e f e r r e d  priest,  and f r a t e r n i t y  his counterpart  the v o c a b u l a r y of  of  irony  limited.  oaths, figure  as  partly  serves  to  on v o c a b u l a r y of  id6e f i x e ,  tyranny"(33),  dogs"(81).  d e f i n e d o n l y by h i s  m o s t commonly a n d w i t h a h i n t  a r e so  The v o c a b u l a r y  the R e v o l u t i o n , h i s  c a l l s him "the p a t r i o t " ( 3 3 ) ,  reader  nim.  the  M o r e o v e r , as  and "enemies the  t o by C a t h e r i n e i n terms  t h e A p o c a l y p s e , S c e v o l a o r a t e s on " c i v i c v i r t u e " ( 2 7 ) , ciples"  The e v e r the  by h i s C o c k n e y d i a l e c t ,  "reactionary  by  reader's  and v u l g a r  characters, then, r e l i e s  jargon of  the  tone as w e l l , c r e a t e d  d i a l o g u e or on s t y l i z a t i o n and d i a l e c t .  Scevola d e r i v e s from the  of  His scoffing  individual  ship.  him as a dominating  the r e a d e r ' s negative response to  The c r e a t i o n o f  and the  abusive epithets  and p a r t l y  the  of h i s u t t e r a n c e s  scorn, nullifies  much a s a n y o f h i s a c t i o n s . by t h e q u a l i f y i n g  of  central  achieved, then,  as by d i v i d i n g  of Wait  the  i n the preface to  the n o v e l , i s p a r t i a l l y  dialogue proportionately  determine  n o t h a v i n g one  s o m e t h i n g C o n r a d draws a t t e n t i o n t o  1914 D o u b l e d a y e d i t i o n alloting  a b a l a n c e between them i n  (166),  "the  and " t h e  o b s e s s i o n , the the  in post-Revolutionary France, uses,  h i s c a l l i n g when h e s p e a k s :  sacred p r i n sacred narrator  "sans-culotte"(81),  "Citizen Scevola."  of  or  The  village  of  course,  "my f l o c k " ( 1 5 0 ) ,  "divine  2b j u s t i c e " ( 1 5 0 ) , "the s a c r i s t y " ( 1 5 7 ) , and through manipulating  "vespers"(158).  i n t o n a t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y  Conrad  makes him a b e l i e v a b l e  c h a r a c t e r ; the abbe preaches r a t h e r t h a n speaks t o A r l e t t e : "Withdraw from the w o r l d . Descend w i t h i n y o u r s e l f and abandon the v a i n thoughts o f what people c a l l h a p p i n e s s . Be an example t o y o u r s e l f o f the s i n f u l n e s s o f our n a t u r e and o f the weaknesses o f our h u m a n i t y " ( 1 5 6 ) . Real's  p a r t i c u l a r j a r g o n i s t h a t o f the m i l i t a r y , and he i s r e f e r r e d  t o by the n a r r a t o r as "the o f f i c e r " and  "the l i e u t e n a n t " ; o n l y A r l e t t e  c a l l s him by h i s f i r s t name, Eugene, endowing i n t h i s way p e r s o n a l i t y t o a man o f duty and  whose o n l y e x i s t e n c e p r e v i o u s  life  and  t o her l o v e c o n s i s t e d  certificates.  I n The N i g g e r o f the " N a r c i s s u s " d i a l e c t p r o v i d e s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of characters.  a means f o r the  A g a i n , the emphasis i s a u r a l ; Donkin's  Cockney, u n p l e a s a n t t o the e a r , i n d i c a t e s s o c i a l s t a t u s j u s t as much as P e y r o l ' s "ere nom  de nom"  and  "hein."  A r c h i e ' s Scots d i a l e c t and B e l f a s t ' s  I r i s h a c c e n t g i v e i d e n t i t y , and a t the same time f u r t h e r the  reader's  sense o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l crew, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l humanity, aboard the N a r c i s s u s .  Moreover, Conrad's use o f d i a l e c t and a c c e n t i s an  attempt to g i v e the reader  an i m p r e s s i o n o f an a c t u a l speech p a t t e r n  d e v i a t i n g from the norm s u f f i c i e n t l y t o be r e c o g n i z e d p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic o r n a t i o n a l o r i g i n . and e x p r e s s i o n s  The  as h a v i n g  a  use o f d i a l e c t words  support t h i s attempt; A r c h i e ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of  Jimmy, f o r example, r e l i e s on Lowlands v o c a b u l a r y "--'Yon's an uncanny j o k e r .  I d i n n a ken what's wrang w i  something v e r r a wrang, v e r r a wrang. I won't p l a y ' " ( 3 6 ) .  for i t s vividness: 1  him, but  I t ' s nae manner of use a s k i n g  there's me.  S i m i l a r l y , B e l f a s t ' s "'Beggin' y e r pardon, s o r r ' " ( 8 )  21 i s i n t e n d e d as u n i q u e l y I r i s h .  The  language o f C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n ,  Mr.  C r e i g h t o n , and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Mr. Baker i n i t s approach t o the grammatically  c o r r e c t E n g l i s h o f a h i g h e r s o c i a l c l a s s than the crew  s e t s them a p a r t .  I n the humourous c o n v e r s a t i o n on the  characteristics  o f a gentleman, one o f the crew members notes t h a t ' " i t ' s the way speak'" t h a t "'does i t ' " ( 3 2 ) .  they  V a r i o u s i d i o s y n c r a t i c h a b i t s o f speech,  such as Mr. Baker's grunt and Donkin's Cockney mannerism o f  dropping  h i s "h," are a l s o used t o g i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o the c h a r a c t e r s . R e p o r t e d speech, o f t e n used t o p r e s e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y a c h a r a c t e r ' s u t t e r a n c e o r , i n e f f e c t , t o summarize i t , p l a c e s d i s c o u r s e i n t o v o i c e o f the n a r r a t o r .  The  the  f o c u s i s s t i l l on the speaker, but t h e r e i s  no attempt t o reproduce h i s tone o r i n t o n a t i o n , u s u a l l y o n l y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s type o f d i s c o u r s e .  The  sentence s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y  are t e c h -  n i c a l l y the n a r r a t o r ' s ; a l t h o u g h a t times the manner i n w h i c h the u t t e r ance i s r e l a t e d , b o r d e r s  so c l o s e l y on d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e t h a t i t i s ,  pronouns and q u o t a t i o n marks a s i d e , v i r t u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from i t . Catherine's s t o r y , a b o u t  the a r r i v a l o f S c e v o l a and A r l e t t e a t Escampobar  i s a m i x t u r e o f d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e and r e p o r t e d speech: N e a r l y a week l a t e r she was d o z i n g by the f i r e when v o i c e s o u t s i d e woke her up, and she b e h e l d s t a n d i n g i n the m i d d l e o f the s a l l e , p a l e l i k e a corpse out o f a g r a v e , w i t h a b l o o d - s o a k e d b l a n k e t over her s h o u l d e r s and a r e d cap on her head, a g h a s t l y l o o k i n g young g i r l i n whom she suddenly r e c o g n i z e d her n i e c e . She screamed i n her t e r r o r : " F r a n c o i s , F r a n c o i s ! " T h i s was h e r b r o t h e r ' s name, and she thought he was o u t s i d e . Her scream s c a r e d the g i r l , who r a n out o f the door. ... " I r e c o g n i z e d the son B r o n , " went on Catherine(91).  22  The  language and syntax a r e c l e a r l y the n a r r a t o r ' s ; t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o  d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , however, i s e a s i l y accomplished as the i n q u i t "went on C a t h e r i n e " and the q u o t a t i o n marks a t t e s t .  A r l e t t e ' s story of the  death o f h e r f a t h e r and mother and o f h e r own f a t e d u r i n g t h e t u r m o i l in  T o u l o n i s more completely  t h a t o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s than t h e s t o r y o f  Catherine: L a t e r , on many other n i g h t s when a l l the band l a y a s l e e p on benches and on the f l o o r , Perose would s t e a l i n t o t h e room, f a l l on h e r knees by the bed on which A r l e t t e s a t u p r i g h t , openeyed, and r a v i n g s i l e n t l y t o h e r s e l f , embrace her f e e t and c r y h e r s e l f t o s l e e p (154). The  tone here i s d i s t i n c t l y t h a t o f the n a r r a t o r , and no easy t r a n s i t i o n  to  direct discourse i s l i k e l y .  to  the p a t t e r n o f d i r e c t  my t e r r o r :  The p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d example lends  speech a f t e r t h e f i r s t  'Frangois, Frangois.'  1  sentence:  itself  "I screamed i n  T h i s was my b r o t h e r ' s name, and I  thought he was o u t s i d e .  My scream s c a r e d t h e g i r l , who r a n out o f t h e  door. . . . I r e c o g n i z e d  the son Bron, went on C a t h e r i n e . "  T h i s passage  does n o t . Still Mr.  f u r t h e r removed from t h e p a t t e r n o f a c h a r a c t e r ' s  speech i s  B o l t ' s account o f h i s e x c u r s i o n t o Escampobar: The f a m i l i a r aspect o f the b u i l d i n g s , t o t a l l y unchanged from the time when he had p l a y e d h i s p a r t i n what appeared as a most s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e war, i n s p i r e d B o l t w i t h g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e i n the success o f h i s p r e s e n t e n t e r p r i s e , vague as i t was, but the g r e a t charm o f which l a y , no doubt, i n mental a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h h i s younger y e a r s ( 5 9 - 6 0 ) .  There i s no attempt here t o i m i t a t e t h e p a t t e r n o r tone o f spoken speech, and both v o c a b u l a r y to  and syntax belong  t o t h e n a r r a t o r , who i s thus  comment q u i t e u n o b t r u s i v e l y on B o l t ' s c o n c e p t i o n  permitted  o f the s i t u a t i o n .  23 R e p o r t e d speech has the f u n c t i o n o f summarizing from o v e r - u s i n g d i a l o g u e ; Conrad t a k e s advantage  and p e r m i t s the author o f b o t h o f these  functions. F r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e , another type o f d i s c o u r s e embedded i n n a r r a t i v e p e r m i t s u n l i k e s i m p l e r e p o r t e d speech, the n a r r a t o r ' s s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n and judgment o f a speaker's u t t e r a n c e .  Stephen Ullman i n  S t y l e i n the F r e n c h N o v e l e l u c i d a t e s the v i e w o f f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e as r e p o r t e d speech masquerading  as n a r r a t i v e w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c a p a c i t y f o r  i r o n y and a m b i g u i t y ; i t r e t a i n s emotive f e a t u r e s w h i l e a v o i d i n g the e x a c t g r e p r o d u c t i o n o f speech o r t h o u g h t .  P i e r r e G u i r a r d d i s c e r n s t h i s type o f  d i s c o u r s e as s u p e r i m p o s i n g the i n t o n a t i o n s o f two s p e a k e r s , the p r i m a r y one b e i n g the n a r r a t o r , and the secondary, the c h a r a c t e r ; here the n a r r a t o r ' s judgment o f what he p r e s e n t s becomes the c e n t r a l f o c u s . ^ i n d i r e c t s t y l e may  Free  i n c o r p o r a t e e i t h e r the words o r the tone and a t t i t u d e  o f a s p e a k e r , and Conrad e x p l o i t s b o t h p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  I n t h i s way,  the  n a r r a t o r seems to t a k e on a c h a r a c t e r ' s i d e n t i t y , s u b t l y moving from o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t i n g o r from h i s own v i e w p o i n t to t h a t o f the c h a r a c t e r . The o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r o f The Rover f r e q u e n t l y moves i n t o a c h a r a c t e r ' s mind p r e s e n t i n g h i s thoughts and emotions o f t e n i n f r e e i n d i r e c t  style,  and the n a r r a t o r o f The N i g g e r , though he uses t h i s type o f d i s c o u r s e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , a c h i e v e s the same e f f e c t . The type o f f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e i n c o r p o r a t i n g the words o f a s p e a k e r ' s u t t e r a n c e b o r d e r s on s i m p l e r e p o r t e d speech as Conrad uses i t . example, i n the passage  For  s e t at the P o r t O f f i c e o f T o u l o n r e l a t i n g  Peyrol's  r e c e n t adventures a t s e a , the n a r r a t o r r e p o r t s h i s u t t e r a n c e s i n the t h i r d p e r s o n , s l i p p i n g i n t o P e y r o l ' s words o n l y  once:  24 He had been o r d e r e d t o make f o r Dunkerque b u t , s a i d he, h a v i n g been chased by the s a c r e s A n g l a i s t h r e e times i n a f o r t n i g h t between Cape Verde and Cape S p a r t e l , he. had made up h i s mind t o r u n i n t o t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n where, he had understood from a D a n i s h b r i g he had met a t sea, t h e r e were no E n g l i s h men-ofwar j u s t then. And here he was; and t h e r e were h i s s h i p ' s papers and h i s own papers and e v e r y t h i n g i n order(3). The  phrase " s a c r e s A n g l a i s " i s n o t t h a t o f the n a r r a t o r , b u t o f P e y r o l  h i m s e l f , and hence n o t o n l y suggests the F r e n c h c o n t e x t r e p o r t i s d e l i v e r e d , but also colours the reference a manner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a F r e n c h seaman.  i n w h i c h the  to the E n g l i s h i n  W i t h o u t u s i n g h i s words,  the second sentence reproduces t h e tone o f P e y r o l ; he does n o t say "And  here I am and here a r e my s h i p ' s papers and e v e r y t h i n g  i n order,"  but announces r a t h e r through h i s a c t i o n s and i n t o n a t i o n t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s d u t i e s as s a i l o r , a c o n c l u s i o n made e x p l i c i t i n t h e next sentence: "He mentioned a l s o t h a t he was t i r e d o f r o l l i n g about t h e s e a s , and t h a t he longed f o r a p e r i o d o f repose on s h o r e . "  I n t o n a t i o n , t h e n , as much  as what Graham Hough c a l l s " t h e a c t u a l mode o f e x p r e s s i o n , verba o f a f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , " ^ 1  the i p s i s s i m a  forms t h e f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e adapted  by Conrad. The  n a r r a t o r o f The N i g g e r i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e a s p e a k e r ' s  i n t o n a t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y  by r e c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s language and by e n c l o s i n g  fragments o f an u t t e r a n c e  i n q u o t a t i o n marks.  Donkin's p e r o r a t i o n s t o  the crew a f t e r t h e storm meet with.contempt and s c o r n ; t h e n a r r a t o r presents  the crew's a t t i t u d e p a r t l y through f r e e , i n d i r e c t s t y l e :  He made us f o r g e t t h a t h e , a t any r a t e , had l o s t n o t h i n g o f h i s own. The younger men l i s t e n e d , t h i n k i n g - - t h i s 'ere Donkin's a long-headed chap, though no k i n d o f man, a n y h o w ( 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 ) .  25 The  o m i s s i o n o f q u o t a t i o n marks denotes the absence o f a s i n g l e s p e a k e r ,  and i n d i c a t e s r a t h e r a c o l l e c t i v e speaker whose thoughts t h e n a r r a t o r r e n d e r s by a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c spoken i d i o m .  The  dropped " h " i s a common f e a t u r e o f t h e crew's speech as i s a phrase l i k e "long-headed chap"; t h e c o l l o q u i a l tone i s u n d e r s c o r e d by t h e f i n a l "anyhow."  What marks t h i s passage as b e i n g i n f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e i s t h e  r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e tone, i d i o m , and v o c a b u l a r y  o f t h e s p e a k e r , w h i l e none  o f these a r e p r e s e n t e d  Podmbrek and D o n k i n s  i n a d r a m a t i z e d manner.  b e w a i l i n g o f the crew's i m m o r a l i t y  i s presented  1  t o t h e reader  i n a. s i m i l a r  fashion:  "There c o u l d be no g r e a t e r c r i m i n a l s than we, who by o u r l i e s  conspired  t o send t h e unprepared s o u l o f a poor i g n o r a n t b l a c k man t o  everlasting perdition"(144). excerpt  The phrase "poor i g n o r a n t b l a c k man" i s an  i n f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e from t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o f D o n k i n and Podmore;  the a t t i t u d e i s o b v i o u s l y t h e r e l i g i o u s cook's and the words as w e l l have the f l a v o u r o f h i s e x h o r t a t i o n t o Jimmy, t h e i n f l a t e d  circumlocution  " e v e r l a s t i n g p e r d i t i o n " b e i n g t y p i c a l o f t h e s t y l i z e d j a r g o n used by Podmore on t h a t o c c a s i o n . r e f e r s t o as r e p o r t e d  Here, one most c l e a r l y d i s c e r n s what U l l m a n  speech masquerading as n a r r a t i v e .  Moreover, Conrad  makes use i n t h i s passage o f t h e i r o n i c p o t e n t i a l o f f r e e i n d i r e c t Fragments o f u t t e r a n c e s  style.  i n q u o t a t i o n marks may on o c c a s i o n be t a k e n  as t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e n d e r i n g o f an u t t e r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n i t s p r e c i s e w o r d i n g as i n :  "Sighs were h e a r d , as men, p e r c e i v i n g t h a t they were n o t t o be  'drowned i n a h u r r y , ' t r i e d e a s i e r p o s i t i o n s " ( 6 2 ) .  The phrase "drowned  i n a h u r r y " i s n o t something d i r e c t l y from t h e mind o f a s i n g l e o r c o l l e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r , b u t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an a t t i t u d e common t o the crew i n language they themselves would use to a r t i c u l a t e  their  26  situation.  I n t h i s way,  l e t t e r i s presented:  t o o , the b o a t s w a i n ' s remembrance o f h i s w i f e ' s  "The  long-armed and a t h l e t i c b o a t s w a i n swung q u i c k l y ,  g r i p p i n g t h i n g s w i t h a f i s t h a r d as i r o n , and remembering snatches o f the l a s t l e t t e r from, h i s  ' o l d woman'" (65).  suddenly This d i f f e r s  from s n a t c h e s o f r e p o r t e d speech p r e f a c e d by an i n q u i t , where, c l e a r l y , the words i n q u o t a t i o n marks i n d i c a t e the p r e c i s e w o r d i n g o f an u t t e r ance : L i t t l e B e l f a s t scrambled i n a rage s p l u t t e r i n g "cursed nigger"(65) One o r two, p a s s i n g d r y tongues on t h e i r s a l t l i p s , m u t t e r e d something about a " d r i n k o f water"(62) He swore, as he a l i g h t e d h e a v i l y on h i s h e e l s , t h a t he would n e v e r , never any more a s s o c i a t e w i t h any f o o l t h a t "hadn't savee enough to know h i s knee from h i s e l b o w " ( 6 8 ) . I n the n o v e l a c h a r a c t e r ' s thoughts are v e r b a l i z e d i n such a way t h a t they may  be c o n s i d e r e d as a type o f d i s c o u r s e , consonant w i t h  Ullman's above d e f i n i t i o n o f f r e e i n d i r e c t  style.  The n a r r a t o r whose  i d e n t i t y and s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the crew i s e x p r e s s e d by the f i r s t p l u r a l pronoun, the c o l l e c t i v e "we,"  person  g i v e s form t o the crew's thoughts  and o p i n i o n s by p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i n t h e i r language.  W h i l e the  N a r c i s s u s f l o u n d e r s d u r i n g the storm: . . . the b o a t s w a i n o b s e r v e d w i t h marked annoyance, w h i l e we were s p l a s h i n g about i n a body t o t r y and save a w o r t h l e s s wash-tub:--"Every blooming t h i n g i n the s h i p i s g o i n g o v e r b o a r d t h i s a f t e r n o o n " ( 5 2 - 5 3 ) . The phrase " w o r t h l e s s wash-tub" b e l o n g s t o the crew r a t h e r t h a n t o the n a r r a t o r ; i t e x p r e s s e s a c o l l e c t i v e r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n , and i s , w i t h o u t b e i n g an e x a c t r e p r o d u c t i o n , a w o r d i n g t h a t the crew may w e l l have  27  taken.  I n a s i m i l a r way, K n o w l e s  1  comment t h a t " t h e s e e d y - l o o k i n g  chaps" about the-docked s h i p were p r o b a b l y l o o k i n g f o r something t o s t e a l r a t h e r than a j o b , i s met w i t h the n a r r a t o r ' s "Poor b e g g a r s . Who c a r e d ?  Weren't we home!"(165).  a t t i t u d e d i f f e r s from simple speaker's i n t o n a t i o n . tures s i m i l a r to i t , comment.  T h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f the crew's  narration i n i t s reproduction  W h i l e not d i r e c t d i a l o g u e , the wording being  of a  i t yet r e t a i n s fea-  a p o s s i b l e response t o Knowles'  I t i s u n l i k e the o b j e c t i v e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e crew's f e e l i n g s :  "We d i d not know t i l l delusions.  then how much f a i t h we had put i n h i s  (Wait's)  We had t a k e n h i s chances o f l i f e so much a t h i s own  v a l u a t i o n t h a t h i s d e a t h , l i k e the death o f an o l d b e l i e f , shook the foundations The  o f our s o c i e t y " ( 1 5 5 ) .  narrator also reconstructs  i n free i n d i r e c t s t y l e .  the thoughts o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s  Mr. Baker's s o l i t a r y r e f l e c t i o n s on g o i n g ashore  are. p a r t l y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s way: No one w a i t e d f o r him ashore. Mother dead; f a t h e r and two b r o t h e r s , Yarmouth f i s h e r m a n , drowned t o g e t h e r on the Dogger Bank; s i s t e r m a r r i e d and unf r i e n d l y . Quite a lady. Married to the leading t a i l o r o f a l i t t l e town, and i t s l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n , who d i d not t h i n k h i s s a i l o r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w q u i t e r e s p e c t a b l e enough f o r him. Q u i t e a l a d y , q u i t e a l a d y , he t h o u g h t , s i t t i n g down f o r a moment's r e s t on the q u a r t e r - h a t c h . . . . - - " I haven't somehow the c u t o f a s k i p p e r about me," he m e d i t a t e d , p l a c i d l y . . .(166-67). The  t r a n s i t i o n from o b j e c t i v e n a r r a t i o n t o i n d i r e c t i n t e r i o r monologue"' ''" -  i s f a c i l i t a t e d by f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e .  The q u o t a t i o n marks i n d i c a t e Mr.  Baker's p r e c i s e thoughts j u s t as they s i g n i f y the e x a c t words o f a s p e a k e r ; t h e absence o f q u o t a t i o n marks around " Q u i t e a l a d y " i s d e l i berate,  the n a r r a t o r p r e s e n t i n g Mr. Baker's thought t o the r e a d e r by  28  m o m e n t a r i l y t a k i n g on h i s i d e n t i t y . enough" has  The  the q u a l i t y o f speech, and  phrase " q u i t e r e s p e c t a b l e  suggests a s l i g h t l y con-  d e s c e n d i n g tone on the p a r t o f the s p e a k e r .  S i m i l a r to t h i s passage  i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n ' s thoughts a f t e r the nearmutiny: D i d n ' t he know them! D i d n ' t he! In past y e a r s . B e t t e r men, t o o . R e a l men t o stand by one i n a t i g h t p l a c e . Worse than d e v i l s too sometimes-d o w n r i g h t , horned d e v i l s . Pah! This—nothing. A miss as good as a m i l e . . . . (126). Here a g a i n the n a r r a t o r e n t e r s i n t o the mind o f a c h a r a c t e r and h i s thoughts, The  reads  r e c o n s t r u c t i n g or i m a g i n i n g what the C a p t a i n i s t h i n k i n g .  pronominal r e f e r e n t "he" makes c l e a r t h a t the statement i s the  n a r r a t o r ' s , and  the absence o f q u o t a t i o n marks may  i n d i c a t e also that  the i n t e r i o r monologue i s a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n f r e e i n d i r e c t  style  r a t h e r than a d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what i s o c c u r i n g i n the mind o f the c h a r a c t e r .  The monologue i s t y p i c a l o f Conrad i n t h a t i t i s  i n d i r e c t , as the "he" d e n o t e s . i s an i n d i c a t o r such as "he  However, even more common i n Conrad  thought."  The  emotive q u a l i t y o f  the  passage i s a p p a r e n t , the e x c l a m a t i o n marks and the r e p e t i t i o n as w e l l as the e x p r e s s i o n "Pah!" i n d i c a t e tone. how  T h i s e x p r e s s i o n demonstrates  c l o s e l y Conrad models i n t e r i o r monologue on spoken speech, a v o i d i n g ,  however, a too c l o s e . r e s e m b l a n c e  by s h o r t s u g g e s t i v e  p h r a s i n g t h a t demands  the r e a d e r to s i m p l i f y the statement from h i s knowledge o f s i t u a t i o n  and  character. Donkin's i n t e r i o r monologue i s a l s o a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s p s y c h i c contents  and e m o t i o n a l  attitude.  Neither h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c intonation  nor i d i o m i s used, but the attempt to r e p r e s e n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s  i s clear:  29 H e r e was l a n d a l r e a d y - - h o m e v e r y s o o n - - a b a d p a y day—no clothes—more hard work. How o f f e n s i v e a l l this was. Land. The l a n d t h a t d r a w s away l i f e from s i c k s a i l o r s . T h a t n i g g e r t h e r e h a d money - c l o t h e s - - e a s y t i m e s ; and w o u l d n o t d i e . Land draws l i f e away. . . . He f e l t t e m p t e d t o go and s e e w h e t h e r it did. Perhaps a l r e a d y . . . I t w o u l d be a b i t o f luck. T h e r e was money i n t h e b e g g a r ' s c h e s t ( 1 4 7 ) . If  this  were  a direct  interior  monologue,  D o n k i n ' s C o c k n e y a c c e n t and d i s t i n c t l y s u c h a s "How o f f e n s i v e life"  could not  all  of  syntactical  to  Rather,  reproduce  complexity  the d r a m a t i c the  reader i s  tempted  .  .  it  first  the  responsible  interior  pattern  of  for  nigger  an o b j e c t i v e  this  and u s e s the narration  Phrases away interior  thought.  The  reader  a sense  impelled  into  there."  Nonetheless,  p r e s e n c e , t h e p h r a s e "He  felt  awareness.  monologue d i f f e r s  b e g i n s w i t h an i n q u i t  s o o n moves i n t o  indirect  the  in  tone.  in this  o c c u r s , and he i s  author's  in  be  l a n d t h a t draws  dashes g i v e  by t h e p h r a s e " T h a t  conscious of  . "being  Wait's that  situation  the  and t h e  the q u i c k n e s s w i t h which thought  would probably  less literary  w a s " and " t h e  come f r o m D o n k i n .  monologue Conrad a t t e m p t s lack of  this  it  from those c i t e d  first  above  person pronoun,  of W a i t ' s  s e n s a t i o n s and  in  but imagined  experiences: He t h o u g h t : - - T h a t l u n a t i c B e l f a s t w i l l b r i n g me . some w a t e r i f I a s k . Fool. I am v e r y t h i r s t y . . . . I t was v e r y h o t i n t h e c a b i n , and i t seemed t o t u r n s l o w l y r o u n d , d e t a c h i t s e l f f r o m t h e s h i p , and s w i n g out smoothly i n t o a l u m i n o u s , a r i d space where a b l a c k sun shone, s p i n n i n g v e r y f a s t . A p l a c e w i t h o u t any water I No w a t e r ! . . . He w h i r l e d a l o n g w i t h t h e h u s k s v e r y t i r e d and l i g h t . A l l h i s i n s i d e was g o n e . He f e l t l i g h t e r t h a n t h e h u s k s - - a n d more d r y ( 1 1 3 ) . The r e a d e r ' s d i r e c t  c o n t a c t w i t h W a i t ' s mind i s  sentences,  of  unlike  the  rest  the r e p o r t  of  the  confined  passage being a r e p o r t  Podmore's v i s i o n s of  of  his  to o n l y  a few  delirium,  h e a v e n and h e l l .  not  The o c c a s i o n a l  30 breaks i n t o f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e , t h e n , are few, the most e x t e n s i v e being:  "A p l a c e w i t h o u t any w a t e r !  No w a t e r ! " and the s i g h o f  r e l i e f when W a i t r e t u r n s to f u l l consciousness:.  "Ah!  A l l right!".  To be s u r e , the passage remains a v i o l a t i o n o f the o s t e n s i b l e f i r s t p e r s o n p o i n t o f v i e w , as are some o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n s and a l l o f the u n u t t e r e d thoughts o f the c h a r a c t e r s , but the v i o l a t i o n o f p o i n t o f v i e w i s not as s e r i o u s as Guerard  contends, a r g u i n g t h a t Wait's  f u n c t i o n " s h o u l d exempt him from the b a n a l i t i e s o f everyday monologue."  symbolic  interior  I n p a r t , t h i s monologue s e r v e s to a p p r i s e the r e a d e r o f  the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f W a i t s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n o r d e r to make h i s 1  l a t e r death b o t h p l a u s i b l e and e x p e c t e d . by p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e s :  " H i s f a c e was  arms h e a v i e r t h a n l e a d " ( 1 1 3 ) .  The d e l i r i u m i s accompanied  streaming w i t h p e r s p i r a t i o n , h i s  Moreover, i n t h i s way,  t o o , the r e a d e r  comes to f e e l a sympathy w i t h the s e l f - d e c e i v e d d y i n g man; r e p o r t t h a t Wait was  the mere  d e l i r i o u s would not a c h i e v e the same e f f e c t  t h i s dramatic rendering of h i s d e l i r i u m .  Wait's  second  as  interior  monologue i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e because o f i t s d r a m a t i c q u a l i t y , the  lines  of d i a l o g u e s p e c i f i c a l l y y i e l d i n g a v i v i d and p r e c i s e i m p r e s s i o n : He was swaggering up the E a s t I n d i a Dock Road; s a y i n g k i n d l y , "Come a l o n g f o r a t r e a t , " p u s h i n g g l a s s swing-doors, p o s i n g w i t h superb assurance i n the g a s l i g h t above a mahogany c o u n t e r ( 1 4 9 ) . The n a r r a t o r i s a g a i n r e p o r t i n g an i m a g i n a r y v i s i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n W a i t ' s mind, as i f he were r e l a t i n g a daydream w i t h d i a l o g u e . f a u l t w i t h the passage,  The  i f t h e r e by any, l i e s i n the n a r r a t o r ' s omni-  s c i e n c e - - i n the f a c t t h a t he can p r e s e n t the c o n t e n t s o f Wait's mind; but i n a scene w h i c h has an o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r a l r e a d y (Donkin and Wait  31 are a l o n e ) , Guerard's p o i n t seems t o be even more a m i s p l a c e d  emphasis.  F r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e here i s r e p l a c e d by d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , p e r m i t t i n g the reader  t o be a w i t n e s s  t o W a i t ' s thoughts w i t h o u t  a f i l t e r i n g narrative  device. F r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e a l s o o c c u r s i n s i t u a t i o n s where a c h a r a c t e r ' s thoughts a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n The Rover.  I n a type o f i n d i r e c t  interior  monologue t h e n a r r a t o r p r e s e n t s a c h a r a c t e r ' s i d e a s and o p i n i o n s moving back from a s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p l a c e the c h a r a c t e r i n t o r e l i e f .  The  movement from n a r r a t i v e v o i c e t o a c h a r a c t e r ' s mind i s most o f t e n without  achieved  t r a n s i t i o n s o r i n d i c a t o r s as i n t h i s passage: The l i e u t e n a n t , as he s a t t h e r e , unaware o f P e y r o l ' s survey o f h i s p e r s o n , gave no n o t i o n o f s l i p p e r i n e s s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , he l o o k e d r a t h e r immovably e s t a b l i s h e d . Very much a t home. Too much a t home. Even a f t e r P e y r o l s a t down by h i s s i d e he c o n t i n u e d t o l o o k i m m o v a b l e — o r at l e a s t d i f f i c u l t t o g e t r i d of(104).  Here,, one has the b i - f o c a l method d i s c e r n e d by G u i r a r d :  the n a r r a t o r  o b s e r v e s P e y r o l o b s e r v i n g L i e u t e n a n t R e a l , b u t t h e n s t e p s back s l i g h t l y , m o m e n t a r i l y s h i f t i n g the f o c u s s o l e l y on t o P e y r o l who t h i n k s t h a t R e a l l o o k s " t o o much a t home" a t Escampobar, and then, r e t u r n s t o o b s e r v e a g a i n b o t h P e y r o l and R e a l .  D i c t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s h i f t ,  " r a t h e r immovably e s t a b l i s h e d " b e l o n g i n g w h i l e the simple  "Very much a t home.  t o the v o i c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r ,  Too much a t home" r e f l e c t s  thought and language, w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r a m p l i f i e s by the phrase to get r i d o f . "  Peyrol's "difficult  Another instance o f t h i s a d a p t a t i o n o f f r e e i n d i r e c t  s t y l e , but without  s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n , w i l l serve t o c l a r i f y t h e manner i n  w h i c h Conrad adapts t h i s type o f d i s c o u r s e t o a c h a r a c t e r ' s  thought.  A l o n e on t h e t a r t a n e , M i c h e l guards Symons, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t he i s t e r r i f i e d o f " t h i s bewitched  corpse":  The "You t h e r e , M i c h e l , " pronounced i n an u n d e r t o n e , a c t e d l i k e a m o r a l t o n i c . T h i s then was not the doing o f the E v i l One; i t was no s o r c e r y ! And even i f i t had been, now t h a t P e y r o l was t h e r e , M i c h e l had l o s t a l l fear(123). The  phrase "doing o f the E v i l One"  than being presented "he  b e l o n g s to M i c h e l ' s mind, and  rather  d i r e c t l y by means o f an i n d i c a t o r , f o r example,  t h o u g h t , " t h a t n a r r a t o r e f f a c e s h i m s e l f so t h a t the r e a d e r  may  p e r c e i v e d i r e c t l y the. r e a c t i o n o f M i c h e l t o P e y r o l ' s appearance on scene.  Moreover, the thought has  the e f f e c t o f s p o n t a n e i t y  framework, something t h a t would be h i n d e r e d  the  i n this  or e n t i r e l y p r e v e n t e d by  an i n d i c a t o r i n f o r m i n g the r e a d e r o f a s h i f t i n f o c u s .  The  focus here  changes s p o n t a n e o u s l y , a p p r o p r i a t e l y p o r t r a y i n g the immediate u p l i f t of Michel's morale. The  i l l u s i o n of n a r r a t i v e i s maintained  a t p o i n t s where the  from n a r r a t o r t o c h a r a c t e r i s b a r e l y p e r c e p t i b l e , b e t r a y e d words, as w i t h Symons' l o c k i n g S c e v o l a  shift  o n l y by a  i n t o the c a b i n o f the  few  tartane:  H i s f i r s t a c t i o n was to get p o s s e s s i o n o f the s t a b l e f o r k . At once he f e l t h i m s e l f a match f o r any s i n g l e man o r even two men u n l e s s they had f i r e a r m s . He had no hope, however, of b e i n g a b l e t o r e s i s t the s o l d i e r s . . . . He e x p e c t e d to see them appear a t any moment l e d by t h a t confounded marinero(198). The  phrase "counfounded m a r i n e r o " r e v e a l s the s h i f t o f f o c u s ;  third  p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e t a k i n g on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a s t o f Symons' speech so c o m p l e t e l y  t h a t h i s o p i n i o n o f P e y r o l might be t a k e n as t h a t of  the  narrator. The  f u n c t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e i n The  Rover and The  N i g g e r might be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as e s s e n t i a l l y a u r a l i n emphasis, and Conrad h i m s e l f  felt  t h a t h i s a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d might have p e r m i t t e d him to w r i t e f o r the s t a g e , something he e v e n t u a l l y t u r n e d  to l a t e i n h i s c a r e e r .  33 W r i t i n g t o J.B. P i n k e r i n 1916, he s a i d : You w i l l admit I have some f a c u l t y o f d i a l o g u e . Also dramatic i n t e r e s t . ( I e x p e c t "Youth," "Typhoon" and g e n e r a l l y the p u r e l y s e a - t h i n g s . ) But the b u l k i s dramatic. And i f I can o n l y l e a r n t o adapt my f a c u l t y f o r d i a l o g u e and drama t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the s t a g e , t h e n . . . . 13 Though h i s b r i e f stage e x p e r i e n c e  was u n s u c c e s s f u l , Conrad's i m a g i -  n a t i v e f a c u l t i e s were d e c i d e l y v i s u a l and a u r a l and d r a m a t i c n o v e l s demonstrate.  as h i s  I n c r e a t i n g a f i c t i o n a l u n i v e r s e , he drew upon  the r e a l w o r l d o f t h e senses,  and hence one has i n r e a d i n g h i m a w o r l d  f u l l y - r e a l i z e d - - w i t h b o t h i t s smooth and rough edges, i t s c o l l o q u i a l language, and hence, i t s v i v i d c h a r a c t e r s .  The tendency towards drama  i s , o f c o u r s e , most o b v i o u s i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , b u t even i n i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e and f r e e i n d i r e c t s t y l e , one notes h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p i t c h and tone o f speech, f o r i n t o n a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l speech p a t t e r n s . Thus, Conrad obeys the d i c t u m about s t y l e t h a t he and F o r d to:  subscribed  "The f i r s t b u s i n e s s o f s t y l e i s t o make a work i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e  second b u s i n e s s o f s t y l e i s t o make a work i n t e r e s t i n g , business o f s t y l e  . . . ,  u L  ^  the t h i r d  Footnotes 1 Joseph Conrad: A P e r s o n a l Remembrance (1924; r p t . New Octagon Books, 1965), p. 198.  York:  2 F o r d , p. 200. 3  The term i n q u i t i s used here as i n Peer H u l t b e r g ' s S t y l Wczesne j Prozy F a b u l a r n e i Waclawa B e r e n t a (Warsaw: I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a r y S t u d i e s o f the P o l i s h Academy o f S c i e n c e s , 1969). 4 " T e x t u a l Note," Conrad's "Heart o f D a r k n e s s " and the C r i t i c s , ed. Bruce Harkness (Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth, 1960), p. 165. 5 F o r d , p.  200.  6 See Madame Bovary  II.vi.  7 "The D e f i n i n g F u n c t i o n o f V o c a b u l a r y i n Conrad's The R o v e r , " SoAtQ, 59 ( S p r i n g 1960), p. 268. 8 S t y l e i n the F r e n c h Nove1 (Cambridge: 1957), pp. 117-118.  Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s ,  9 "Modern L i n g u i s t i c s Looks a t R h e t o r i c : F r e e I n d i r e c t S t y l e , " P a t t e r n s o f L i t e r a r y S t y l e . ed. Joseph S t r e l k a ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , Penn.: U n i v . o f P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e P r e s s , 1971), p. 85. 10 " N a r r a t i v e and D i a l o g u e i n Jane A u s t e n , " C r i t Q , 12 (Autumn 1970), p. 205. 11 See Robert Humphrey's Stream o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s i n the Modern N o v e l (Berkeley, C a l i f . : U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1954), pp. 24-29.  12 Albert J . Guerard, Conrad the Novelist (Cambridge, Mass.: Univ. Press, 1958), p. 107.  Harvard  13 G. Jean-Aubry, Joseph Conrad: L i f e and Letters V o l . 2 (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1927), p. 173. 14 Ford, p. 207.  Chapter I I I  Narrative  N a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e and method i n Conrad's c l o s e r s c r u t i n y by c r i t i c s to  n o v e l s have been g i v e n  than h i s use of d i a l o g u e , y e t the a t t e n t i o n  s t y l e i n n a r r a t i v e remains  slight.  Conrad's  h a n d l i n g o f p o i n t of view  i n The Nigger of the " N a r c i s s u s " has been a d e q u a t e l y defended by Ian Watt and j u s t as r e a s o n a b l y a t t a c k e d by M a r v i n Mudrick; t h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y to r e v i e w t h e i r work h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e i r essays are not oriented.''"  P o i n t of view c o n s i d e r e d s t y l i s t i c a l l y  stylistically  concerns such matters  as the c o n s i s t e n c y of language, and an a n a l y s i s of t h a t language, the  including  n a r r a t o r ' s i d i o s y n c r a t i c d i c t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y . In  h i s monograph Conrad  the N o v e l i s t , A l b e r t J . Guerard w r i t i n g of  The Nigger a s s e r t s t h a t "with the second c h a p t e r . . . the prose takes on 2 poetic q u a l i t i e s "  ; q u a l i t i e s t h a t F r e d e r i c k R. K a r l r e l a t e s t o f i n de  s i e c l e p o e t r y , borrowing i t s rhythms and mannerisms, though more a c u t e l y  3 i n Almayer's critics  F o l l y and An O u t c a s t of the I s l a n d s .  The N i g g e r , as most  judge i t , r e p r e s e n t s a b o l d s t r i k i n g - o u t i n new  directions for  Conrad, and an i n d i c a t i o n o f both maturing t e c h n i q u e and v i s i o n . p o e t r y r e l i e s on a n a r r a t o r whose language and s e n s i b i l i t y are  Its  clearly  not  that of the o r d i n a r y seaman; and however d i s t u r b i n g f o r some r e a d e r s  the  change from "we"  death scene may  to " I " , or the e n t i r e l y absent n a r r a t o r of Wait's  be, the language a t t a i n s a c o n s i s t e n c y throughout, t h a t  37  u l t i m a t e l y makes t h e s h i f t o f pronouns and t h e absence o f an o b s e r v e r minor flaws.  As I a n Watt p o i n t s o u t , p l a c i n g t h e work i n an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  some o f t h e s c r u p u l o u s c r i t i c s o f t h e n o v e l r e f l e c t an o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o 4 point of view.  D e s p i t e i t s t e c h n i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , t h e n o v e l succeeds a t  the s i m p l e s t l e v e l i n c r e a t i n g t h e i l l u s i o n o f a seaman's r e m i n i s c e n c e , an i l l u s i o n t h a t d e r i v e s from l i n g u i s t i c r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r a l  elements.  W r i t i n g i n 1936, Edward Crankshaw c o u l d s i m p l y s a y , a f t e r a s s e r t i n g  that  "the s t o r y i s t o l d i n f i r s t person throughout by one o f t h e s a i l o r s  concerned"  t h a t "the whole f i r s t p e r s o n c o n v e n t i o n i n 'The N i g g e r o f t h e N a r c i s s u s ' i s s e v e r a l times misused.""' Perhaps t h e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p r o s e s t y l e o f The N i g g e r and o f the e a r l y works i n g e n e r a l i s t h e almost o r a t o r i c a l e f f e c t o f b a l a n c e — the l a y e r i n g o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s , g i v i n g t h e p r o s e a movement a t once l y r i c a l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e , as i n t h i s t y p i c a l passage: The men who c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d h i s s i l e n c e were g o n e — those men who knew how t o e x i s t beyond t h e p a l e o f l i f e and w i t h i n s i g h t o f e t e r n i t y . They had been s t r o n g , as those a r e s t r o n g who know n e i t h e r doubts n o r hopes. They had been i m p a t i e n t and e n d u r i n g , t u r b u l e n t and d e v o t e d , u n r u l y and f a i t h f u l . Well-meaning p e o p l e had t r i e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h o s e men as w h i n i n g o v e r e v e r y m o u t h f u l o f t h e i r f o o d ; as g o i n g about t h e i r work i n f e a r o f t h e i r l i v e s . . . . Men h a r d t o manage, b u t easy t o i n s p i r e ; v o i c e l e s s m e n — b u t men enough t o scorn i n t h e i r hearts the sentimental v o i c e s that b e w a i l e d t h e hardness o f t h e i r f a t e ( 2 5 ) . The r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s passage r e l i e s e s s e n t i a l l y on t h e s i m p l e p r i n c i p l e o f r e p e t i t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l words. A n t i t h e s i s i s equally important:  "beyond . . . w i t h i n , " "doubts  . . .hopes,"  "hard . . . e a s y , " as i s redundance on t h e semantic l e v e l , " t u r b u l e n t " and " u n r u l y " and "devoted" and " f a i t h f u l " b e i n g v i r t u a l l y synonymous.  The  •38 rhetorical effect c e r t a i n words:  a l s o d e r i v e s from the vague and g r a n d i o s e q u a l i t y  "life,"  "eternity,"  "fate."  of  A d m i t t e d l y , the language does  not c o r r e s p o n d to o n e ' s n o t i o n of how a s a i l o r s p e a k s , or t h i n k s , or even w r i t e s , but Conrad seems unconcerned w i t h b e i n g " r e a l i s t i c " on t h i s  level:  The N i g g e r i s not s i m p l y a d r a m a t i c monologue from the mind of a s a i l o r . I n o t h e r w a y s , however, the language l u l l s the r e a d e r i n t o a c c e p t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of the n a r r a t o r ' s  identity  as s a i l o r - - t h e n a u t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y ,  the s e n s i t i v e and c o n c r e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e p r a i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the storm c o n t r i b u t e  at s e a , and e s p e c i a l l y the much  to t h i s a c c e p t a n c e .  Robert  F o u l k e , however, s e e k i n g t o demonstrate t h a t the l a n d and sea dichotomy a r e not e n t i r e l y c l e a r , c l a i m s t h a t the " i n c a n t a t o r y p r o s e b o l s t e r s up the n a r r a t o r ' s unsteady v i e w of l i f e , " ^ a p o s i t i o n not w e l l s u p p o r t e d on c l o s e r s c r u t i n y , as a m b i g u i t y seems as much a theme and t e c h n i q u e here as i n L o r d J i m , though a d m i t t e d l y not as c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d .  M i c h a e l P.  G a l l a g h e r i n a r e c e n t essay sees Conrad i n t h i s n o v e l " g r o p i n g toward  this  s p e c i a l u n i o n of theme and t e c h n i q u e " - - t h e u n i o n of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theme w i t h e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o r m , a l t h o u g h he u l t i m a t e l y  judges the n a r r a t i v e  tech-  n i q u e " r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d " w i t h the e x p l o r a t i o n of p e r s p e c t i v i s m l e f t g incomplete u n t i l Lord J i m .  To some degree t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n h o l d s t r u e ;  w a v e r i n g p o i n t of v i e w , as F o u l k e p o i n t s o u t , poses a problem of  the  authority  9  f o r the r e a d e r ;  the scene of W a i t ' s death b e i n g a s t r i k i n g i n s t a n c e i n  w h i c h the n a r r a t o r  is totally  absent.  Y e t one presumes t h a t the  narrative  remains c o n f i n e d to a s i n g l e o b s e r v e r - p a r t i c i p a n t who on more t h a n t h i s occasion i s omniscient.  T h i s p r e s u m p t i o n r e l i e s on a l i n g u i s t i c r a t h e r  than  s t r u c t u r a l p r e m i s e — t h e c o n s i s t e n c y of sentence s t r u c t u r e , v o c a b u l a r y , and n a r r a t i v e tone overcomes most o b j e c t i o n s t o an i n c o n s i s t e n t  narrator.  39  The eloquent aspects of s t y l e :  tone of much of The Nigger r e l i e s e s s e n t i a l l y on three a meticulous concern for modification and for p r e c i s i o n  leading to a heavy reliance on adjectives, an i n t e r e s t i n cadence, less f o r i t s own sake than for i t s contribution to meaning, and a vocabulary  that  permits excursion into the vague world of human psychology. Two types of a d j e c t i v a l modification add v a r i e t y and emphasis while tightening the texture of the prose; the French convention  of modification  after the noun, and delayed modification with the substantive and i t s modif i e r s being separated by one or more clauses.  The l a t t e r gives added weight  to the adjectives because they are not i n their "normal" p o s i t i o n i n English prose as, for example, i n this sentence: Archie, with compressed l i p s , drew himself i n , seemed to shrink into a smaller space, and sewed s t e a d i l y , industrious and dumb(8). Not only do the adjectives "industrious and dumb" receive emphasis here, but their p o s i t i o n after an adverb r e s u l t s i n ambiguous reference, r e f e r r i n g as much to Archie as to his method of sewing.  This type of modification  increases the range of structure beyond that usually found i n English: The days raced after one another, b r i l l i a n t and quick l i k e the flashes of a lighthouse, and the nights, eventful and short, resembled f l e e t i n g dreams (30). This sentence has two r h e t o r i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e types of modification for the f i r s t clause; i t could have been "The days, b r i l l i a n t and quick l i k e the flashes o f a lighthouse, raced after one another," or i t could remain as i t i s above.  Another possible a l t e r n a t i v e , although grammatically  i s clumsy and i n e f f e c t i v e :  correct,  "Like the b r i l l i a n t and quick flashes of a  lighthouse, the days raced after one another."  The balance of the construe-  40  t i o n " b r i l l i a n t and quick" and "eventful and short" necessitates the mofif i c a t i o n as Conrad constructed i t ; moreover, the antithesis between day and night, a motif i n the novel, finds expression i n a form that poses them as equally potent grammatical  structures.  The structural p a r a l l e l i s m provides  the integration of content and form. The a d j e c t i v a l density, almost a d j e c t i v a l excess, of Conrad has i t s major appeal i n The Nigger to the senses — to the eye and ear e s p e c i a l l y . This passage i s not untypical i n i t s reliance on numerous adjectives for v i s u a l and aural e f f e c t , and carried to extremes, p r e c i s e l y this type of modification, c a r e f u l l y cadenced, led to Conradese: The feverish and s h r i l l babble of Eastern language struggled against the masterful tones of tipsy seamen, who argued against brazen claims and dishonest hopes by profane shouts. The resplendent and bestarred peace of the East was torn into squalid tatters by howls of rage and shrieks of lament raised over sums ranging from f i v e annas to half a rupee; and every soul afloat i n Bombay Harbour became aware that the new hands were joining the Narcissus(4). Nearly every noun i s q u a l i f i e d by an adjective, and some nouns are modified by two; here the modification i s e f f e c t i v e i n i t s creation of vividness, and there i s not as great a need for the pruning that would have improved e a r l i e r works.  the  The impression given i s notable for i t s exactness, for i t s  f i d e l i t y to what must have been Conrad's own experience as a s a i l o r i n the Eastern oceans.  At times, however, he seems unsure of his a b i l i t y to conjure  up an image of sound, as i f language were inadequate for the precise impression intended.  Wait, for example, i s described as "calm, cool, towering,  superb"(18), and the ship i n the storm as "devastated, battered, and wounded"(94); the s t r i n g of adjectives attempts a grand e f f e c t , but such constructions quickly become tiresome, j u s t i f y i n g Joseph Warren Beach's  contention tendency,  that  "Conrad had o f t e n the  according to  Beach,  t e n d e n c y t o u s e t o o many w o r d s " — a  learned from the F l a u b e r t  of  Salammbo a n d  10 La T e n t a t i o n  de s a i n t  Antoine.  Quite often adjectives  i n The N i g g e r a r e u s e d o r c h o s e n t o  fill  out  cadence, an a s p e c t of in Flaubert Folly  t h e n o v e l i s t ' s a r t t h a t C o n r a d and F o r d a p p r e c i a t e d 11 12 and M a u p a s s a n t . The " e x c e s s i v e l y a d j e c t i v a l " Almayer 's  and An O u t c a s t o f  the I s l a n d s betray  by F l a u b e r t ,  imitating  transferable  to E n g l i s h ; but  Conrad as too h e a v i l y  too c l o s e l y a French use of  language only  t h e c a d e n c e and r h y t h m s  of  t i m e s he l a p s e s i n t o h i s  former  habits.  an a s s e t ,  The o p e n i n g o f  the  first  i n s t a n c e , demonstrate  o v e r - c o n c e r n w i t h the rhythms almost encrust appropriate  of h i s p r o s e .  substantives  they modify,  that  effects  of  Conrad's  in  but  a cadence  effect  statement  these passages  g i v e rhythm to  literary  entirely  Conrad makes.  F r y e i n h i s Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m summarizes b r i e f l y combine t o  The  artistically  Adjectives  to the grandiose perhaps, i n f l a t e d ,  Northrop qualities  the  the negative  although  Chapter IV of  N i g g e r and t h e p a s s a g e e n v i s a g i n g E n g l a n d a s a s h i p ( 1 6 2 - 6 3 ) , weak i n  partly  "The L a g o o n , "  p a r o d i e d so w e l l by B e e r b o h m , become, as C o n r a d m a t u r e s , at  influenced  the  prose:  A t e n d e n c y t o l o n g s e n t e n c e s made up o f s h o r t p h r a s e s and c o o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s , to emphatic r e p e t i t i o n combined w i t h a d r i v i n g l i n e a r rhythm, to i n v e c t i v e , to exhaustive c a t a l o g u e s , and t o e x p r e s s i n g - t h e p r o c e s s o r movement o f t h o u g h t i n s t e a d o f t h e l o g i c a l w o r ^ o r d e r o f a c h i e v e d t h o u g h t , a r e among t h e s i g n s of prose m e l o s . The c o n c l u s i o n t o C h a p t e r I I I discerns  as a component  of  p h r a s e s and c o o r d i n a t e  the  short  chapter  of  the  of  of  storm,  rhythm—"a  sums up t h e  tendency  clauses."  to  c l e a r l y what  long p e r i o d i c  c h a r a c t e r of  Frye  l o n g s e n t e n c e s made up  The c o n c l u s i o n o f  shows C o n r a d ' s c o n s c i o u s r h e t o r i c a l  e l e v a t e d tone p r o v i d e d by t h e sentence that  The N i g g e r d e m o n s t r a t e s  this  chapter,  aims;  sentences climaxes i n a  the short  S i n g l e t o n , and p e r h a p s , C o n r a d ' s  42 view of e t h i c a l  goodness:  A p a r t , f a r a f t , and a l o n e by t h e h e l m , o l d S i n g l e t o n had d e l i b e r a t e l y t u c k e d h i s w h i t e b e a r d under the top button of h i s g l i s t e n i n g coat. Swaying upon the d i n and t u m u l t o f t h e s e a s , w i t h t h e w h o l e b a t t e r e d l e n g t h of the s h i p launched forward i n a r o l l i n g r u s h b e f o r e h i s s t e a d y o l d e y e s , he s t o o d r i g i d l y s t i l l , f o r g o t t e n by a l l , and w i t h an a t t e n t i v e f a c e . I n f r o n t o f h i s e r e c t f i g u r e o n l y t h e two a r m s moved c r o s s w i s e w i t h a s w i f t and sudden r e a d i n e s s , t o c h e c k or urge a g a i n the r a p i d s t i r o f c i r c l i n g spokes. He steered with care(89). Guerard, novel's  mentioning  this  passage, t a l k s  structure" citing  about the " s o l i d  " t h e c a r e w i t h w h i c h he  artistry  of  the  (Conrad) modulates h i s  n a r r a t i v e downward f r o m t h e e l e v a t e d r h e t o r i c o f S i n g l e t o n a t t h e w h e e l the p r o s a i c l i f e the dramatic  of e v e r y d a y . "  This modulation  1 4  of tone  c h a r a c t e r of the n o v e l — the sense of a r i s i n g  contributes to and  falling  a c t i o n w i t h a c l i m a x and  an a n t i - c l i m a x i s formed p a r t l y by C o n r a d ' s  cern w i t h prose  The  nature  rhythm.  i n chaos i s developed  w o r l d , t h e N a r c i s s u s , on at  last  by  December 1897  i n The  The New  chapter.  The  reader  solely  from  has  the  s e r i a l v e r s i o n of the novel p u b l i s h e d from August R e v i e w ^ might have even g i v e n the and  achievement a f t e r  of the novel  o f t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r , and  the t h i r d  chapter  W a i t and  microcosmic  S i m i l a r l y , that calm  i t s crew i s apparent  beginning  s u r v i v e d the t r i a l  con-  to the v i o l e n c e of  c a d e n c e s t h a t show a  t h e edge o f d e s t r u c t i o n .  a g r e a t e r sense of completion third  images and  come t o t h e w e a r y s h i p a n d  cadence of the prose. to  b u i l d - u p t o t h e s t o r m and  to  i s s l i g h t l y muted.  first  a r e a d i n g of the  i n v o l u m e f o r m i s met  readers hectic  w i t h the  t h e r e f o r e the e f f e c t of the ending Nonetheless,  one  knows t h a t man  flaccid of has  of h o s t i l e nature; the moral c r i s i s — the s t r u g g l e w i t h  self--is still  t o come.  43  Cadence on a s m a l l e r s c a l e has a t times an onomatopoeic sound of a sentence and the way its  contents.  cribed: fell  "We  hail  a sentence i s s t r u c t u r e d combining  A sentence l i k e t h i s reproduces by cadence  to support  the a c t i o n  s t a g g e r e d away from the door, and, alarmed by a sudden  down i n a b u n c h " ( 7 1 ) , as does t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f h a i l  Narcissus:  f u n c t i o n , the  "Out  of the abysmal  desroll,  f a l l i n g on the  darkness o f the b l a c k c l o u d overhead  white  streamed on h e r , r a t t l e d on the r i g g i n g , l e a p e d i n h a n d f u l s o f f the  y a r d s , rebounded  on the deck . .  ."(53).  S i m i l a r l y , the cadence  of t h i s  passage, d e s c r i b i n g the s h i p d u r i n g the storm, p o r t r a y s the s h i p ' s movements: At times she soared up s w i f t l y as i f to l e a v e t h i s e a r t h f o r e v e r , then d u r i n g i n t e r m i n a b l e moments f e l l through a v o i d w i t h a l l the h e a r t s on board of her s t a n d ing s t i l l , t i l l a f r i g h t f u l shock, expected and sudden, s t a r t e d them o f f a g a i n w i t h a b i g t h u m p ( 5 4 ) . The  first  c l a u s e o f t h i s sentence w i t h i t s a l l i t e r a t i v e phrase "she soared  up s w i f t l y " quickens the pace and g i v e s the e f f e c t  of an upward movement.  The pause a f t e r the phrase "then d u r i n g i n t e r m i n a b l e moments" c r e a t e s a u r a l l y the f a l l  t h a t the s h i p t a k e s ; the shock i s a l s o r e p r o d u c e d , the words  "expected and sudden," s e t o f f by commas w i t h a pause b e f o r e and a f t e r , r u p t the f l o w of the sentence u n t i l itself  does.  g r e a t e s t emphasis. in  i t a g a i n b e g i n s t o move, as the s h i p  L a s t l y , the phrase "with a b i g thump" has obvious  q u a l i t i e s ; the l i n e b e i n g scanned  i t s structure:  The  inter-  t h u s : — ' ' , the l a s t  onomatopoeic  syllable receiving  f o l l o w i n g passage has the same onomatopoeic  quality  "A c r e s t e d r o l l e r broke w i t h a l o u d h i s s i n g r o a r , and  sun, as i f put o u t , d i s a p p e a r e d . t o g e t h e r w i t h the l i g h t " ( 7 5 ) .  the  the  The c h a t t e r i n g v o i c e f a l t e r e d , went out  The pause a f t e r the f i r s t  clause l i t e r a l l y  breaks the s e n t e n c e , and the d e l a y i n g phrase "as i f put o u t " adds emphasis  44 to the  final  word, " d i s a p p e a r e d . "  The second sentence w i t h i t s  coordinating conjunction provides for a greater and  sense; the c o n j u n c t i o n , which would a l t e r  l e a v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n of a v o i c e swiftly  as the sun does.  p e r c e i v e d as c o n s i s t i n g  i n t e g r a t i o n between sound  the cadence,  best  omitted,  f a l t e r i n g and then d i s a p p e a r i n g as  of two p a r t s ; here i t  is  p e r c e i v e d as  simultaneous  Onomatopoeic words such as  " h i s s i n g " c o n t r i b u t e to the o v e r - a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Cadence i n ' The N i g g e r i s  is  A c o n j u n c t i o n would a l s o cause the a c t i o n to be  and u n i f i e d because of the s y n t a x . and  l a c k of a  not merely d e c o r a t i v e ,  through sound the d e s c r i p t i o n of an a c t i o n .  It  but i s is  of the  "chattering" passage.  an attempt  thus  to render  t h a t Conrad a c h i e v e s  h i s aim of making h i s r e a d e r " f e e l " and " h e a r . " S t y l e coupe,  d e f i n e d by Ren6 G e o r g i n i n Les S e c r e t s  du s t y l e  as:  . . . f o r m £ de p r o p o s i t i o n s independantes generalement j u x t a p o s e e s , d e t a i l l e l e s gestes et l e s a c t i o n s dans ^ l a n a r r a t i o n et l e s a s p e c t s dans l a d e s c r i p t i o n . . . . is  an important a s p e c t of cadence  i n The N i g g e r .  G e o r g i n g i v e s the  following  example of s t y l e coupe from F l a u b e r t from whom Conrad l e a r n e d the v a l u e  of  cadence: Les m £ t a i r i e s des p a t r i c i e n s se s u c c e d a i e n t sur l e bord de l a r o u t e ; des r i g o l e s c o u l a i e n t dans des b o i s de p a l m i e r s ; l e s o l i v i e r s f a i s a i e n t de longues l i g n e s v e r t e s ; des vapeurs r o s e s f l o t t a i e n t dans l e s c o l l i n e s ; des montagnes b l e u e s se d r e s s a i e n t par derri&re. Conrad uses s t y l e coupe most o f t e n shifting  focus  to g i v e a sense of movement and of  and r e p o r t i n g a c t i o n or thought w i t h the s w i f t n e s s of  occurence as i n these passages: They stamped w i t h both f e e t ; they turned t h e i r s h o u t i n g f a c e s to the sky; many, s p l u t t e r i n g , s l a p p e d t h e i r t h i g h s ; w h i l e one or two, bent d o u b l e , gasped, hugging themselves w i t h both arms l i k e men i n pain(33).  speed, their  45  He h a d p a n t e d i n s u n s h i n e , s h i v e r e d i n t h e c o l d ; suffered hunger, t h i r s t , debauch; passed through many t r i a l s — k n o w n a l l t h e f u r i e s . Old! It seemed t o h i m he was b r o k e n a t l a s t ( 9 9 ) . He s t i f f e n e d h i m s e l f , a n d M r . B a k e r , e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , l e t him go. He s t a g g e r e d a p a c e o r t w o ; C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n watched him w i t h a q u i e t and p e n e t r a t i n g gaze; B e l f a s t ran to h i s support(119). By u s i n g t h i s  effect  Conrad obtains  r h y t h m and sound not  only contribute  The v o c a b u l a r y o f sionistic  technique.  The N i g g e r i s I a n Watt  the  integration  to  sense but  of  content  effect  an i m p o r t a n t  facet  and  it. of Conrad'  defends vague v o c a b u l a r y a g a i n s t  c h a r g e s as r i g h t l y vague s i n c e e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e i s  form;  impres-  Mudrick's  often blurred  and  18 indefinite. i n a recent  Imprecise essay,  is  and vague l a n g u a g e , as S t e p h e n U l l m a n p o i n t s  a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of. s t y l e ,  at  times  out  "preferable  19  to  precise formulation."  S u c h l a n g u a g e a p p e a r s most  i n passages of  a p h i l o s o p h i c and r e f l e c t i v e  w h e r e movement  and a c t i o n a r e major  Chapter IV  is  .  .  concerns.  rather  the  incantatory  . by t h e v a s t  imprecise.  The o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h  The p i l i n g  tone produced by p a r a l l e l i s m  silence  . . .  by the  novel  than i n passages  a most v i s i b l e example where vague emotions and i d e a s  expressed i n language e q u a l l y and the  nature  often in  dumb f e a r  up o f  ("by  the  abstract obstinate  a n d t h e dumb  of are nouns clamour  courage,"(90))  c o m b i n e t o make t h e p a s s a g e a n u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t a t m a g n i l o q u e n c e . t h a n u s i n g vagueness as an a r t i s t i c only confused his passage i s  i d e a s and f r u s t r a t e d  some d e g r e e g r a n d i o s e :  h a p p i n e s s ; the i l l u s i o n  sunshine of heaven f e l l  like  of  splendour  a gift  of  statement,  his reader.  t h e one d e s c r i b i n g t h e c r e w b e f o r e  e q u a l l y vague and t o mirth,  device for  Conrad here has  A more s u c c e s s f u l  the M i n t . "the  Rather  The l a n g u a g e  illusions  and p o e t r y  of  g r a c e o n t h e mud o f  of  is  strength,  life"(171), the e a r t h ,  "The on  the  46. remembering and mute stones, on greed, selfishness"(172).  Nonetheless,  this passage i s e f f e c t i v e and powerful, partly because of the predominantly elegiac tone which allows Conrad to use a more eloquent vocabulary, and p a r t l y because the passage i s never wholly immersed i n abstraction but documents precisely the f i n a l movements of the crew as a group of men with a common experience. One feels that the narrator i s saying something d e f i n i t e about l i f e and human destiny; the manupulation of language and tone and the  reliance on words of large meaning, what Gide c a l l e d " l e s mots qui 20  laissent a 1 imagination pleine l i c e n c e , " 1  though i t i s not completely correct.  permit this impression, even  Forster's well-known and often c i t e d 21  opinion that Conrad was "misty i n the middle as well as at the edges" derives i n part from overlooking vagueness of vocabulary as an a r t i s t i c device which r e f l e c t s the r e a l vagueness and uncertainty at the centre of the  human psyche. Royal Roussel writing about The Rover i n his Metaphysics of Darkness:  A Study i n the Unity and Development  of Conrad's F i c t i o n says of the narrative  technique: Here a l l the vestiges of a detached perspective have disappeared. The novel i s characterized by the same s i m p l i c i t y of point of view which underlies Almayer's F o l l y . Like the narrator of Almayer's F o l l y , the narrator of The Rover has the a b i l i t y to move from one consciousness to another, and l i k e the narrator of Conrad's f i r s t novel his tone i s the calm, secure2^ tone of one whose i d e n t i t y i s assured by these acts. Precisely i n the chameleon-like a b i l i t y "to move from one consciousness to another" the narrator seems to lose rather than gain i d e n t i t y , becoming l a r g e l y a device through which action and speech are reported.  The narrator  of The Secret Agent, however, through consistent irony, simultaneously  47.  presenting and undercutting,  gives the reader a sense of an i d e n t i t y ,  while one can only say of the narrator of The Rover that h i s tone i s calm and secure.  Albert J . Guerard, however, goes so far as to say that  there  i s neither a narrator nor a narrative method i n the novel, and discerns that though there are problems with point of view, Conrad seems unaware of 22 them.  . His contention does not hold up under s c r u t i n y — t o be sure, there  i s a narrator, however minimal the sense of i d e n t i t y , and there i s as well a narrative method and movement, however simple or unsatisfactory these may be to Guerard.  The return to the narrative method of the early works 23  represents a decline well-documented by Moser,  and despite Avrom F l e i s h -  man's attempt to redeem The Rover on the grounds of " i t s thoroughness of execution and consistency of theme," the calmness of tone and merely funct i o n a l narrator negate the extravagant claim that Conrad's l a s t novel may by put " i n the same camp with his finest achievements, and b e l i e any generalizations about his late f a l l i n g - o f f . " Although c r i t i c a l judgment of the novel i s decidedly mixed, the majority of c r i t i c s contend that i t i s poorly written, the narrative method slack, the style frequently careless.  Only the chase scene and Peyrol's  death scene receive high praise from most c r i t i c s , and even Guerard, the most severe c r i t i c of the novel, finds that "the recovery at the end of The Rover, after two hundred and f i f t y pages of extreme dullness and ineptitude, provides a very moving experience for the lover of Conrad's 25  work." He goes on to praise "the good narrative and descriptive prose" i n the chase scene, and judges that "the style remains evocative and under 26 firm c o n t r o l " i n Peyrol's death scene.  A close analysis of the best  passages of The Rover w i l l serve as an introduction to a discussion of the  48  narrative  style  i n the n o v e l as a w h o l e .  T h e c h a s e s c e n e h a s a v i v i d n e s s a n d movement e l s e i n the n o v e l ; i t dramatic  sense i s  throughout  the  actions  Peyrol,  of  actions of  is  scene. 2)  T h i s scene has f o u r the  thoughts  the A m e l i a , a n d , 4)  shooting of  i s viewed through  and s y n t a c t i c  foci:  and a c t i o n s  the a c t i o n s of  the other Peyrol is  and C o n r a d ' s  1) t h e  the chase.  and the  and  o f C a p t a i n V i n c e n t , 3) the  tartane.  The  scene gains f l u i d i t y  tartane  section.  d e s c r i b e d by the n a r r a t o r  the  distancing  on the  ship complicates this  For  o n l y as  it  The c o m p l e x  in its  mimetic  Conrad's metaphoric powers, p r e c i s e  complexity help to v i v i f y  tension  thoughts  the eyes of C a p t a i n V i n c e n t and h i s c r e w .  focus changes c o n t i n u a l l y , p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the e n t i r e work,  a c t i o n o c c u r r i n g on the A m e l i a or  the p e r c e p t i o n of  example, the  of  nowhere  i n e v i d e n c e i n the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of  technique of r e p o r t i n g through  the c u l m i n a t i o n  that occurs  the a c t i o n and thought  modification of  Peyrol:  He h a d meant t o p l a y t h a t man a t r i c k , a n d now t h e t r i c k h a d b e e n p l a y e d . P l a y e d by h i m b e t t e r t h a n b y a n y o t h e r o l d man o n whom age had s t o l e n , u n n o t i c e d , t i l l t h e v e i l o f p e a c e was t o r n down b y t h e t o u c h o f a s e n t i m e n t u n e x p e c t e d l i k e an i n t r u d e r and c r u e l l i k e an enemy(267-268). U n d e r t h a t g r e y s k y t h e r e was n o t h i n g f o r h i m but the s w i s h o f b r e a k i n g seas and the c e a s e l e s s f u r i o u s b e a t i n g of the t a r t a n e ' s foresail. H i s p l a y t h i n g was k n o c k i n g a b o u t t e r r i b l y under h i m , w i t h her t i l l e r flying madly to and f r o j u s t c l e a r of h i s h e a d , and s o l i d lumps o f w a t e r coming on b o a r d over h i s p r o s t r a t e body(268). In  the  first  passage the  c r e a t e d by the content sense of  sense of  t e n s e ; the  gradually,  almost  an e n d i n g ; t h e  finality  syntax further slowly.  frequent  and t h e  adds t o  The r h y t h m o f  tone of  this  completion  are  tone by r e v e a l i n g  the passage c r e a t e s  b r e a k s s l o w down t h e r e a d e r ,  giving  the  the  49 emphasis, and, perhaps, solemnity passage r e t u r n s depicting  the reader  Peyrol lying  s e r v i c e of  France.  at h i s best;  the  reader's visual  tartane.  reporting  of  description Conrad i s  t h e moment,  p a s s i v e l y on h i s  The h i g h l y  substantives  like  has i t s  the  tartan's  fullest  sailor.  sufficient great  ending h i s  present life  in  presented here i s  so t h a t  the Conrad  the appeal i s  to  the  e x p r e s s i o n when t h e A m e l i a f i r e s  ground i n  this  on  exact similar  "The S e c r e t S h a r e r , " and The N i g g e r . s c e n e , and t h e v o c a b u l a r y i n i n the  sea b u r i a l  T h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y t o m u l t i p l y  i n themselves.  and t h e  movements r e c a l l n u m e r o u s p a s s a g e s o f  specialized vocabularies, nautical  virtue  The s e c o n d  continuous  the n a u t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y  "Typhoon," Lord J i m ,  on f i m i l i a r  other  the  tartane  are q u a l i f i e d  a c c u r a c y p r e s e n t s e x a c t l y what he wants faithful  to  concrete picture  The p r e c i s i o n o f  in  the phrases.  imagination.  Concrete d e t a i l the  to  to each of  terms  E l i z a b e t h Cox W r i g h t  an o l d  and  adjectives because, are p r e c i s e  notes  o f The R o v e r t h a t C o n r a d i s h e r e i n  of  its  that:  command o f  and  "It  is  a less  the idio-  27 s y n c r a t i c and more p r e c i s e v o c a b u l a r y . " w r i t i n g heightens aim of  rendering  the o v e r - a l l truth  effect;  The v i s u a l q u a l i t y a n d one i s  reminded of  of the  such conscious  visible:  Then s u d d e n l y above the t o p g a l l a n t r a i l of t h e Amelia appeared the upper curve of a l a t e e n y a r d w i t h the t r i c o l o u r drooping from the p o i n t . . . . A t t h e same t i m e C a p t a i n V i n c e n t o r d e r e d t h e l i n e h o l d i n g t h e t a r t a n e a l o n g s i d e t o be c a s t o f f and t h e m a i n y a r d o f t h e A m e l i a t o be swung r o u n d . The s l o o p s h o o t i n g a h e a d o f h e r p r i z e l e f t h e r s t a t i o n a r y on t h e s e a , t h e n p u t t i n g the helm up, ran back abreast of her on t h e o t h e r s i d e ( 2 8 0 ) . Beyond the of  two g r e a t  the c o n s i s t e n t l y  Problems of  set p i e c e s , n a r r a t i v e  high quality  i d i o m and s y n t a x ,  of  prose i n  Conrad's early  t h o u g h t h e y do n o t  the novel i s  and m i d d l e  not  periods.  abound, weaken the  writing.  50  Some p a s s a g e s a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r  o n l y be a s t r i n g i n g  weak c o n n e c t i v e s r a t h e r  than through  thought.  passage, a k i n d of u n o b t r u s i v e  ness,  The f o l l o w i n g  is rather  r e c o r d i n g the  loosely structured,  thoughts  the elements of  together  of  relatively  tone, rhythm,  or  stream of c o n s c i o u s -  and s e r v e s w e l l C o n r a d ' s i n t e n t i o n  that pass through  of  P e y r o l ' s mind:  L o o t b i g o r l i t t l e was a n a t u r a l f a c t o f h i s freebooter's l i f e . A n d now when b y t h e f o r c e o f t h i n g s he h a d become a m a s t e r - g u n n e r o f t h e N a v y he was n o t g o i n g t o g i v e up h i s f i n d t o c o n f o u n d e d l a n d s m e n . . . who w o u l d p u t i t in t h e i r own p o c k e t s . As to i m p a r t i n g the i n t e l l i g e n c e t o h i s c r e w ( a l l b a d c h a r a c t e r s ) , he was much t o o w i s e t o do a n y t h i n g o f -the k i n d . . . .So a t odd t i m e s , w h i l e a t s e a , he h a d b u s i e d h i m s e l f w i t h i n the p r i v a c y of h i s c a b i n i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the i n g e n i o u s c a n v a s w a i s t c o a t i n w h i c h he c o u l d take h i s treasure ashore s e c r e t l y ( 1 3 - 1 4 ) . Numerous s e c t i o n s l i k e flaccidity,  perhaps even of  c o n c e r n by i t s e l f . of  thought,  for  what  carelessness;  though c e r t a i n l y  "interesting,"  t h e mot  juste.  c e a s e s t o be a n adequate for  some o f  its  the  The f a c t  an o v e r - a l l  to devote to a p r o j e c t  criteria  t h a t C o n r a d was n o t the novel  the  in  partially Seeing  t h a t h e no l o n g e r h a d t h e  which would have been g r e a t e r  i n a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n The R o v e r i n  expression  slackening  w e a k n e s s e s , o f w h i c h he h i m s e l f was a w a r e . to Garnett  artistic  one o f C o n r a d ' s p r i m a r y  g o o d h e a l t h a n d h a d t o d i c t a t e much o f  c o u l d have b e e n , he w r o t e  greater  style  E v e n t u a l l y , these problems b e t r a y  i n Conrad's search for  explains  h o w e v e r , g i v e the r e a d e r an i m p r e s s i o n of  The w o r d s ,  are s i m p l y not  good a r t .  particularly  this,  energy  i n s c o p e , and p e r h a p s  f o r m i n w h i c h we now h a v e  I know t h a t y o u w i l l b e l i e v e me when I t e l l y o u t h a t I had a momentary v i s i o n o f q u i t e a g r e a t f i g u r e worthy of P e y r o l ; the n o t i o n of a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e two m e n . But I d i d d e l i b e r a t e l y shut my e y e s t o i t . I t would have r e q u i r e d another canvas. No u s e t a l k i n g a b o u t i t . How l o n g  it:  51 would I have had t o w a i t f o r t h a t mood?--and the mood o f t h e o t h e r was t h e r e , more i n a c c o r d w i t h my temperament, more a l s o w i t h my s e c r e t d e s i r e to a c h i e v e a f e a t o f a r t i s t i c b r e v i t y , once a t l e a s t , b e f o r e I d i e d . And on those grounds I b e l i e v e you w i l l f o r g i v e me f o r h a v i n g r e j e c t e d p r o b a b l y a g r e a t e r t h i n g - - o r perhaps o n l y a d i f f e r e n t one. ** 2  The n a r r a t i v e might  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o n s i d e r a b l y more c o l l o q u i a l  i n tone than t h a t of The N i g g e r .  C o n t r a c t i o n s occur o f t e n , t h e r e a d e r i s  o c c a s i o n a l l y addressed where one might a conscious l i t e r a r y e f f e c t  expect t h e more l i t e r a r y  i s as a r u l e a v o i d e d .  "one," and  These a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y  weaknesses, but one notes t h a t the l o n g , c a r e f u l l y cadenced  and b a l a n c e d  sentences o f Conrad's e a r l y p e r i o d a r e abandoned f o r more c o n v e n t i o n a l and less idiosyncratic structures.  Two p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e  prose  t h a t may d e r i v e from a c o n s c i o u s l y l e s s l i t e r a r y endeavour a r e t h e too f r e q u e n t l y used "and" a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a sentence, and the over-use o f the "as t o " c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The l a t t e r might  conceivably indicate a f a l l i n g  away from E n g l i s h i d i o m , f o r a l t h o u g h a c c e p t a b l e i n E n g l i s h , i t i s more common i n F r e n c h .  F o r d r e p o r t s t h a t Conrad  had t o l d him t h a t " . . . when  I express myself w i t h c a r e I do i t i n F r e n c h .  When I w r i t e I t h i n k i n 29  French and then t r a n s l a t e t h e words o f my thoughts i n t o E n g l i s h . "  Writing  of Conrad's F r e n c h , Rene R a p i n observes t h a t t h e two r e p r o a c h e s most o f t e n addressed t o Conrad  as an E n g l i s h w r i t e r a r e based on h i s thorough  of F r e n c h : . . . que l a c o n s t r u c t i o n de s a phrase n ' e s t pas a n g l a i s e t que s a langue e s t p a r f o i s imp r o p r e , s ' e x p l i q u e n t , dans neuf c a s sur d i x par l e f a i t que l a phrase de Conrad e s t c a l quee sur c e l l e de F l a u b e r t e t l e s i m p r o p r i a t e s de termes ou de t o u r n u r e qu'on y t r o u v e sont generalement des g a l l i c i s m e s .  knowledge  52 A l a c k of idiomatic in  the  tight  flaws  "of  concatenation of  sentence l i k e  o v e r h i s medium i s  such as the phrase " o f  sense of  amiably vacant  control  face"(138). this:  "It  as i f  so  or i n the  that describe M i c h e l ' s face:,  terms  for  though r e l a t i v e l y  their  "his  habitual  away f r o m i d i o m i n  convulsed, face"(147),  and " I t  i n modifying  a  lend  relative  a person.  a l s o mars the p r o s e o f  such as these are c l u m s y :  to  a s s i s t a n c e " ( 9 7 ) ; the  than " t h a t " rare,  much"(134)  awkward  was he t h a t h a d p e r s u a d e d t h e v i l l a g e r s  p r o n o u n " w h o " w o u l d be more l i k e l y  Constructions  so w e l l , "  One a l s o n o t e s a f a l l i n g  a hand and had a r r a n g e d the  Awkward s y n t a x ,  whom e v e r y b o d y t h o u g h t  whom e v e r y b o d y t h o u g h t  adjectives  shown i n C o n r a d ' s m i n o r  the  novel.  " H e was a g a u n t man w i t h a l o n g ,  was e q u a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t  s h o u l d have been on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r  night  and k n o c k h i m on the head so n e a t l y  as not  there  men r e a d y t o p o u n c e u p o n Symons to  let  him give a groan  even"  (63-64). The n a r r a t i v e achievements,  is  prose of  g e n e r a l l y competent,  t o r t u r e d v i s i o n than that t h a t has as i t s likely  The R o v e r , a l t h o u g h n o t  subject  t o be l e s s  of  ambiguous e t h i c a l  in  problems.  towards  The d i s c o v e r y o f  of Conrad's c o n c e r n - - f i n d s  close  to V i c t o r y  in its  f o c u s on i d e n t i t y  it  w i t h the  having found h i m s e l f , to  conclude his  self  life  search for Peyrol, and to  less  A work is  self  like  and m o r a l  and m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . the  Congo o f  the Ulysses  journey  the Malay  i n one's native  complete h i s  education--so  here a complete e x p l o r a t i o n  i n d e e d , c a l m and s e c u r e , f o r  documents l e a v e s b e h i n d the e x o t i c - - t h e replaces  complex and  f o r m t h a n one t h a t e x p l o r e s c o m p l e x a n d  the centre  tone i s ,  greatest  peace and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  often  narrative  form to a l e s s  the e a r l y and m i d d l e p e r i o d n o v e l s .  a movement  turbulent  giving  among C o n r a d ' s  that  The  the  novel  jungle--and  environment.  But,  o f D a n t e , m u s t embark  wisdom.  coming  again  Footnotes 1 See W a t t ' s " C o n r a d C r i t i c i s m and The N i g g e r o f t h e ' N a r c i s s u s , " N C F , 12 ( M a r c h 1 9 5 8 ) , 2 5 7 - 8 3 , e s p e c i a l l y p p . 2 5 8 - 6 1 , a n d M u d r i c k ' s " T h e A r t i s t ' s C o n s c i e n c e a n d The N i g g e r o f t h e ' N a r c i s s u s , " N C F , 11 ( M a r c h 1 9 5 7 ) , 2 8 8 - 9 7 . 1  1  2 Conrad the N o v e l i s t 1958), p. 106.  (Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard Univ.  Press,  3 " J o s e p h C o n r a d : A f i n de s i e c l e N o v e l i s t - - A S t u d y i n S t y l e a n d Method," L i t R e v , 2(Summer 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 5 6 5 - 6 6 . 4 Watt, p. 259. 5 Joseph Conrad: Some A s p e c t s o f t h e A r t o f t h e N o v e l John Lane, 1936), pp. 148, 151.  (London:  6 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , I . P . P u l c ' s "Two P o r t r a y a l s o f a S t o r m : Some N o t e s o n C o n r a d ' s D e s c r i p t i v e S t y l e i n The N i g g e r o f t h e ' N a r c i s s u s ' and ' T y p h o o n , ' " S t y l e , 4 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 0 ) , 4 9 - 5 7 . 7 " P o s t u r e s o f B e l i e f i n T h e N i g g e r o f t h e ' N a r c i s s u s , ' " M F S , 17 (Summer 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 5 6 - 5 7 . 8 "The N i g g e r of t h e ' N a r c i s s u s ' : Conrlidiana7~3~~( 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 ) , 5 1 - 6 0 .  Two W o r l d s  of P e r s p e c t i v e , "  9 F o u l k e , p. 255. 10 The T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y N o v e l : S t u d i e s i n T e c h n i q u e (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n , 1932), p. 341. 11 F o r d M a d o x F o r d , J o s e p h C o n r a d : A P e r s o n a l Remembrance ( 1 9 2 4 ; r p t . New Y o r k : Ocatagon Books, 1965), p. 208. 12 The p h r a s e i s F . R . L e a v i s ' s . S e e T h e G r e a t T r a d i t i o n ( 1 9 4 8 ; Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : Peregrine Books, 1962; r p t . 1967), p. 210.  13 Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays Univ. Press, 1957), p.266.  (Princeton, N . J . :  14 " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Heart of Darkness, Almayer's F o l l y , L a g o o n (New Y o r k : D e l l Books, 1960), p.15.  Princeton  The  15 F o r p u b l i c a t i o n d e t a i l s and s e r i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s as w e l l as f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s e e J o h n D. G o r d o n ' s Joseph Conrad: T h e M a k i n g o f a. N o v e l i s t ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1940), pp. 226-240. 16 L e s S e c r e t s du s t y l e 1964),p.215.  (Paris:  Editions  Sociales Francaises,  17 Georgin,  p.215.  18 W a t t , p.  264.  19 " S t y l i s t i c s and S e m a n t i c s , " L i t e r a r y S t y l e : A Symposium, e d . Seymour C h a t m a n (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v . P r e s s , 1971), p. 20 Si  le  g r a i n ne m e u r t ,  37th ed.  ( P a r i s , 1928),  p.  246.  21 Quoted from A b i n g e r Harvest  i n L e a v i s , p.  192.  22 Guerard, Conrad the N o v e l i s t ,  pp.  284,  286.  23 S e e Thomas M o s e r ' s J o s e p h C o n r a d : A c h i e v e m e n t a n d D e c l i n e (Hamden, C o n n . : Archon Books, 1957; r p t . 1966), e s p e c i a l l y pp. 198-202. 24  " C o n r a d ' s L a s t N o v e l , " E L T , 12 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 25 G u e r a r d , p.  287.  26 G u e r a r d , p.  287.  p.194.  138.  55 27 " T h e D e f i n i n g F u n c t i o n o f V o c a b u l a r y i n C o n r a d ' s The R o v e r . " S o A t Q , 59 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 6 8 . 28 L e t t e r s from Joseph Conrad 1895-1924, e d . Edward G a r n e t t (Indianapolis: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1928), p.300. L e t t e r of 4 December 1 9 2 3 . 29 Ford,  p.  32.  30 " L e f r a n g a i s de J o s e p h C o n r a d , " L e t t r e s de J o s e p h C o n r a d a M a r g u e r i t e P o r a d o w s k a , e d . Rene R a p i n (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1966), p.20"  Chapter  "Above  all  Art the  'must  colour  which  is  (ix).  t o make y o u  of  the  strenuously painting,  art  of  The a i m o f  the method  of  Metaphor  and s i m i l e ,  not  an a s p e c t  Nigger  of  that  "perfect  too  ture is  of  tically  influence  his to by  too worked  but  to  the  desperate the  closely  of  content  attempt  morally  at  chaotic  cadence  first  he  images  poetry  two n o v e l s ,  attention escape  from  jungle:  56  The  approach sought.  Conrad  over-  his  into  image  the  tex-  Folly,  for  exampl  laden with meaning,  too  empha-  as  A l m a y e r 's  are  to  ardently  integrated  of  in  attempt  and o f t e n imagery  they  Through an  will  so  and  senses.  significance—  poorly  and  truth,  the  towards  that  Nigger"  of meaning;  chapter  substance"  consistently  r e a d e r 's  The  as w e l l .  movement  in his  to  and metonymic  this  their  music—  reveal to  to  of  seeks metaphoric  The j u n g l e and t o o  to  an a p p e a l  metaphors,  and  out,  aim through him,  Imagery  sculpture,  "Preface  a primary vehicle  in  obtrusively  overwrought  of  form  too  narrative.  brought  and N i n a ' s  become  novels  of  Flaubert  florid,  highly  actualized  of  suggestiveness  Conrad i n h i s  according  similes,  and Metonymic  plasticity  the magic  technique,  blending  and t o o  the  is, is  how C o n r a d ' s  consciously  the  Conrad meets  then,  of  to  " N a r c i s s u s " and The R o v e r  Following  are  art  Conrad's  the  demonstrate  and t o  revelation  of  aspire  terms,  metaphor.  exploration  Metaphoric  arts" writes  In p r a c t i c a l  only  see":  IV  in this the  passage  violence  and  imaging  Dain  corruptive  57  . . . a l l a r o u n d them i n a r i n g o f luxuriant v e g e t a t i o n b a t h e d i n t h e warm a i r c h a r g e d w i t h s t r o n g and h a r s h p e r f u m e s , the i n t e n s e work of t r o p i c a l n a t u r e went o n : plants shooting upward, entwined, interlaced i n i n e x t r i c a b l e confusion, c l i m b i n g m a d l y and b r u t a l l y o v e r e a c h o t h e r i n the t e r r i b l e s i l e n c e of a desperate s t r u g g l e towards the l i f e - g i v i n g sunshine a b o v e - - a s i f s t r u c k w i t h s u d d e n h o r r o r a t t h e s e e t h i n g mass of c o r r u p t i o n b e l o w , a t the d e a t h and decay f r o m which they sprang(71). B u t w i t h The N i g g e r C o n r a d ' s s t y l e conscious,  less  florid,  a n d i m a g e r y become g e n e r a l l y  and more f u n c t i o n a l .  to H.G. W e l l s '  r e v i e w or An Outcast of  and " a g r e a t l y  sharpened awareness of  p h o r and s i m i l e " i n in  the works  that  throughout h i s adjectives  to  imply  fails  Conrad's is  to  e x p l a i n , however,  creative  and s u g g e s t ,  verbiage  images  his  observable from Almayer's F o l l y to Lord Jim followed  t h r o u g h N o s t r o m o t o The S e c r e t A g e n t .  There i s  another  Under Western Eyes to Chance,  by a n o t h e r  in  by a  to  meta-  and d e c l i n e t h e o r y a sharp r i s e  and  ability  the average frequency i n  powers; Y e l t o n d i s c e r n s that  meta-  although  b a c k on a s t o r e o f  the achievement  followed  of  apprenticeship  e m p h a t i c a l l y when h e seemed u n s u r e o f  c o n v e y w h a t he h a d i n t e n d e d . A g r a p h o f phor  Conrad's  1  self-  attributes  the e s p r e s s i v e r e s o u r c e s of  c a r e e r he o c c a s i o n a l l y f e l l state  Donald C. Y e l t o n  the Islands a pruning  followed.  t h e n o v e l e n d e d when he l e a r n e d t o  less  of  metaphor  decline  increase  d e c l i n e i n the  from novels  2 from V i c t o r y  t o The R o v e r .  novels revolve  about  W i l f r e d S . Dowden's a s s e r t i o n t h a t  a central  i m a g e seems a s u p p o r t e d c l a i m , i f  the  best  one 3  a c c e p t s a s i n g l e image as C o n r a d ' s p r i m a r y is  relatively  S a n Tome m i n e ,  easy to or  S e c r e t Agent; but  assert  concern i n a given n o v e l .  t h a t Nostromo r e v o l v e s about  t h a t London as d e v o u r e r  is  the  silver  the major metaphor  one h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y  It of  of  The  i n agreeing that  the  58 central  image of  The N i g g e r i s b r i g h t  light,  a s Dowden s u g g e s t s .  o n e w o u l d b e on p r e c a r i o u s g r o u n d , i n d e e d , i f  he w e r e t o  C o n r a d ' s b e s t n o v e l s are those i n which metaphor predominant  technique,  tendency towards  for  irony  and s i m i l e a r e s u r e l y b e t t e r Folly  and A n O u t c a s t o f  than metaphor intuitive  restraint  the  the I s l a n d s .  What f o r m s  is  rather  or not  significant  text  o n e ' s judgment  that  and i n  s i d e r a t i o n of metaphor as an a s p e c t of  a r e u s e d by an a u t h o r The p r i m a r y "Narcissus" i s ,  as m i g h t  imagery that holds  important  for  experience. of h i s  for  a definite  its  is  effect,  or and  of  it.  is  Con-  consonant w i t h M i c h a e l  t h e y become u n i t s  be e x p e c t e d from a r e a d i n g of  "The  language  of h i s  style . "  the  Preface",  a n d d e v e l o p s i n t o a s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d c o m p l e x web thematic  import.  own s a k e a s f o r  its  T h i s emphasis i s not ability  to  r e v e a l the  M o r e o v e r , C o n r a d ' s emphasis on t h e v i s u a l i s  concern for  concern  contribution  "as soon as elements f r o m a l i t e r a r y  precision, for  propounded by Maupassant i n h i s Jean,  style  their  emphasis o f m e t a p h o r and s i m i l e i n The N i g g e r o f  v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y , of  that  metaphor  how m e t a p h o r  and w h e t h e r  contention  their  a more l e g i t i m a t e  s i m i l e operate i n a s i n g l e t e x t ,  Riffaterre's  his  technique or a s t a t i s t i c a l  frequency of metaphor  i n a reading of  that  and s i m i l e f o r m  i n the use of  And  n o v e l s than the h e a v i l y metaphoric Almayer 's  and s i m i l e as p r e d o m i n a n t  grasp of  assert  The S e c r e t A g e n t a n d N o s t r o m o w i t h  and a t t e n d a n t  4  t h e F l a u b e r t i a n mot  essay  s o much truth  of  an e x t e n s i o n  juste  eloquently  "Le roman" that prefaces P i e r r e  a n o v e l C o n r a d knew w e l l : Q u e l l e que s o i t l a c h o s e q u ' o n v e u t d i r e , i l n ' y a q u ' u n mot p o u r 1 ' e x p r i m e r , q u ' u n v e r b e p o u r 1 ' a n i m e r et qu'un a d j e c t i f pour l a q u a l i f i e r . I l f a u t done c h e r c h e r j u s q u 'a. c e q u ' o n l e s a i t d e c o u v e r t s , c e m o t , ce v e r b e e t c e t a d j e c t i f , e t ne j a m a i s se c o n t e n t e r de 1 ' a p e u p r e s , n e j a m a i s a v o i r r e c o u r s a d e s s u p e r c h e r i e s , meme h e u r e u s e s , a d e s c l o w n e r i e s d e langage pour e v i t e r l a difficulty.^  et  59  Conrad's  s i m i l e s d e s c r i b i n g the  sea v i v i d l y  create  b a c k g r o u n d a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e a c t i o n o f The N i g g e r i s out of  on i t s  voyage, the N a r c i s s u s t r a v e r s e s water  jewels,  a n d a s empty a s t h e  "upon a smooth s e a t h a t this  the  the  i n a t t e n t i o n from W a i t ,  one o f  them t o W a i t ,  the h i g h p o i n t s  an image o f  of  is  achieved.  the n o v e l — the p l a s t i c i t y ,  the o i l s k i n s hang i n the  forecastle  the  "like  an e n e r g e t i c  sailors, is  a madman w i t h a n a x e " ( 5 7 )  and t o w e r s  Conrad's s i m i l e s r e v e a l i n g not  assists  i n the  waves a r e  " a h i s s i n g whiteness  Donkin, (61);  ship.  t h e y become m u t e  imprecations  a  of  of  that  and t h e  The s e a ,  and lie"  storm  is  sensuous  White  Baker amidst  above t he N a r c i s s u s " l i k e  an example o f only  the h i g h l y  c o l o u r but a raging  texture.  hail pearls" of  torrents already  to  the  sea " i n  sombre  s e a a r e now c u r s e d b y i t  gale"(61).  a wall  visual  of  quality  Sound a l s o  storm.  as of b o i l i n g m i l k " ( 7 8 )  listening  the  demands ship  reckless ghosts  Mr.  floor  but  "sentimental  The  while  Where t h e men h a d b e e n g a r r u l o u s ,  t h o s e who h a d c u r s e d t h e  horrible  the  a shower of  porpoise"(56).  i m p r e s s i o n Conrad g i v e s of  n o i s e s " a s s a i l the  like  s e e n "as m i s c h i e v i o u s and d i s c o m p o s i n g as  g r e e n g l a s s t o p p e d w i t h snow " ( 5 7 ) of  like  "like  seamen d a n c i n g i n a t e m p e s t " ( 5 4 ) ;  for  Setting  equator  t h e e y e and e a r .  (53);  personified  the  The d e s c r i p t i o n  " r o u n d and g l e a m i n g i n t h e murky t u r m o i l  splutters  towards  from the  falls  of water  "sparkling  themselves, to  distinct  i m p r e s s i o n b e i n g c r e a t e d by an a p p e a l t o  decapitated  played.  crew e x p e r i e n c e s a storm t h a t  sea whereby t r u e s o l i d a r i t y ,  that binds  moving  physical  resembled a sheet of ground g l a s s " ( 1 0 3 ) ;  image i s u s e d o n l y a f t e r  a shift to  sky"(27)  the  foaming "fiendish  especially  thoughtfulness" as t h e y h e a r  "the  60 T h e two p o l a r i t i e s storm scene. crew,  The s t o r m ,  t a k e s on h i s  the glowing  sun"(75)  m e a n i n g when t h e that  storm begins:  attention  "'Where's Jimmy?'"(63). supporting  -  the  to  just  flee.  An e a r l i e r  and l i f e ,  the  is  a hurricane.  of  the  "towards as does  .  roaring,  ."(24).  rattling  the moral order  of  a n anonymous v o i c e c r i e s  references that  U s i n g the N a r c i s s u s myth as a b a s i s f o r Donald T. Tbrchiana suggests that Wait  link  Wait  to  to  the  out  the  "'divvle'"  satanic powers.^  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  the  novel,  s e r v e s as t h e r e f l e c t i n g m i r r o r  which the crew, a c o l l e c t i v e N a r c i s s u s ,  for  the  r i g h t e d by the a v e n g i n g s t o r m , as  ship u n t i l  full  Competing  Mr. Baker consigns the rescue party  a range of  tests  the  s i m i l e t a k e s on i t s  "James W a i t had a f i t  order  as W a i t  " b l a c k s e a s " l e a p i n g up  s h i p and s e a , W a i t d e s t r o y s this  s e a - become one i n  for moral t r i a l  tossed him l i k e  microcosmic Narcissus;  (64),  and t h e  extinguish both l i g h t  s u n seems t o  owed t o  men t u r n t h e i r  a metaphor  attempt to  shook h i m ,  the a t t e n t i o n  the novel - Wait  characteristics  W a i t b e f o r e whom t h e  cough,  of  s e e s and a d m i r e s i t s  in  image; the  ship  g according to h i s  interpretation  W a i t may s e r v e a s m i r r o r , value.  The  own m o r t a l  'immortal  is  so the  "the r e j e c t e d  sea g i v e s back a r e f l e c t i o n  s e a , " not Wait,  i m a g e and e n l i g h t e n s h i m :  the burden of h i s  female, Echo."  gives to "—'I  "completed wisdom" a f t e r  one's  moral  Singleton a reflection  am g e t t i n g the  of  J u s t as  old.  .  .  of  his  old'"(98),is  t h i r t y h o u r s he h a s s p e n t  at  9 the wheel.  Most of  the crew p r e f e r s  shamming a s much a s h e d o e s r a t h e r fickle, bond.  though t u r n i n g  again to  Donkin, s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to  glittering  the  than f a c i n g the  that Wait g i v e s to  truth.  h i s own, n e i t h e r  s e a , "immense and h a z y , l i k e  s u r f a c e and l i g h t l e s s  They a r e  s e a when W a i t ' s d e a t h e n d s t h e i r  dressed i n black rags(12),  m o r a l b l a c k n e s s and r e f l e c t i n g neither  the  the r e f l e c t i o n  teaches nor  t h e image o f  depths"(155),  linking  nor  life,  ultimately deluding  him to  learns;  them,  Wait's  loyal  with a  t o W a i t whom he m o c k s  61 a n d r o b s , he f i n d s and  "long d r i f t s T y p i c a l of  simile  of  smoky  out  H i s hand i s  (105);  tells  and d u r i n g (128). bird to  is  the  the a p p l i c a t i o n  characters.  and even t h e  s t o r m he  chatter  of  casual reader  particular  is  e s p e c i a l l y those that are ugly  "like  the  claw of  a dirty.white  through  and  a snipe"  cockatoo"(110);  "resembled a s i c k v u l t u r e w i t h r u f f l e d  land, since birds the  a  can d i s c e r n ,  Beyond making D o n k i n a p h y s i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e  nourishment  walls"(164)  D o n k i n , as numerous  " h a r d and f l e s h l e s s l i k e  him to  "begrimed  vapours"(163).  imagery— conveyed l a r g e l y  the  land— in its  associated with birds,  repellent. Wait  the  s i m i l e s to h i s  have p o i n t e d  particularly  image i n  Conrad's technique  or range of  critics  his  plumes"  character,  s i m i l e — serves to  the  connect  him  are land c r e a t u r e s , needing the p r o t e c t i o n  land provides.  imaged as a s e a - b i r d r i d i n g  The N a r c i s s u s ,  a wave d u r i n g  the  on t h e o t h e r  hand,  and is  storm:  The s h i p r o s e t o i t a s t h o u g h s h e h a d s o a r e d o n w i n g s , a n d f o r a moment r e s t e d p o i s e d u p o n t h e foaming c r e s t as i f she had been a g r e a t s e a bird(57). OnMand, Donkin i s clerk,  a t home a t  with his hair  the Board of Trade where  parted i n  the m i d d l e ,  and t h e v i v a c i o u s , j e r k y movements o f  had the q u i c k ,  a caged b i r d " ( 1 6 7 )  " A n o t h e r B o a r d o f T r a d e b i r d was p e r c h i n g on a h i g h an o l d b i r d obtaining  t h a t d i d not mind the c h a f f  a heightened v i s u a l effect  same t i m e p r e s e n t s h i s statement  that  imagery." ^ 1  Wait,  for  The b i r d  it  them.  "a r e l a t i v e  demands.  of  the  One o f  sailors"(168).  of  land, disdainful of  curious  recurrent  else, of  eyes  and where  s t o o l near the  One f i n d s  paucity  the i r o n i e s  glittering  door: While  these images, Conrad at  i m a g e s , a s much a s a n y t h i n g  both are creatures  "obscure t o i l "  elated  through  themes t h r o u g h  the n o v e l has  of  "a pasty-faced  Yelton's or  thematic  l i n k Donkin the  the n o v e l  the  to  s e a and o f is,  of  the  course,  62 that Wait dies i n sight comes i n t o h i s  own.  of  land, while  As w i t h the  it  l i k e D o n k i n , has i t s  evaluate their  moral worth.  guous i n h i s a t t i t u d e , experience i n his light  reflecting of  i n t o darkness again i n  the course of similes mutiny  share of  group of  set  them.  the n a r r a t o r  the journey  reflection  they are not  of  "Worse t h a n d e v i l s  (126)  explicitly  world  and t h e i r  links  the  the crew i s  the crew i s  disruptive  Their  Wait's .  .  lie,  they are l a t e r  . profoundly  immediately lighted  after  deck are  berths  the  moral state after  The  described "like  narrator's  In  the  laughed  excitedly"  horned  devils"  demonic  only his colour,  a community  like the  that  of banded  e n l a r g e s on n u m e r o u s s i m i l e s  graves tenanted by uneasy c o r p s e s " ( 2 2 ) .  and evil"''"''" - r e m a i n s u n c l e a r ;  for  as the  in  criminals  t h e c r e w s l e e p i n g on  they have passed through  but  To D o n k i n ' s e y e s  " a w h i t e w a s h e d and l i g h t e d m o r t u a r y " ( 8 )  tests  they  Implicated  " s h a p e l e s s d a r k mounds t h a t h a d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a metaphor  during  p o r t r a y e d as a  nature under D o n k i n ' s u r g i n g s .  W a i t ' s d e a t h , t h e members o f  f o r e c a s t l e as  as " b l a c k ,  into  i s u n d e r l i n e d when  s c a n d a l i s e d w i t h each o t h e r " ( 1 5 6 ) .  lected graves"(155), cribing  crew's  repeated  f u r t h e r a l l i a n c e to the  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Wait  and e g o t i s t i c  the  t h e damned t o w h i c h C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n ' s  a r e d e s c r i b e d as " a d a r k m a s s " ( 1 2 2 ) , t a k i n g on n o t his  of  ship i t s e l f .  too sometimes—downright,  them.  particular  i s more a m b i -  ambiguous s i t u a t i o n .  at n i g h t ,  unlike  the  reader  T h e movement f r o m d a r k n e s s  " g e s t i c u l a t i n g shadows t h a t g r o w l e d , h i s s e d ,  clearly,  Donkin  s i m i l e s making the  the mustering of  significantly  that  the e s s e n t i a l ambiguity  assist in presenting a morally scene,  (121);  the n o v e l i n  there  function.  Here, however,  judgment  only  " a q u a t i c b l a c k b e e t l e , " the t u g ,  l a n d g i v e s D o n k i n h i s d u b i o u s w o r t h and The c r e w ,  is  -  "death,  sunshine f a l l s  the neg-  desand  the  Their disorder,  on " t h e w a l l s  of  63 grimy h o u s e s " the crew i s  s e e n as a " d a r k k n o t o f  "The s u n s h i n e o f h e a v e n f e l l  like  a gift  of  e a r t h " and c l e a n s e s t h e M i n t ,  the crew forms  That s a l v a t i o n i s  the  embodied i n  seems a m i s r e a d i n g ; i t  lightens  s e a m e n " ( 1 7 2 ) , and a s  g r a c e on t h e mud o f a "dark  the  group"(172).  sunshine, according to W.R. M a r t i n ,  not  t h e m s o much a s i t  does the  Mint 12  and t h e w a l l s , as t h e y move, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Their  journey,  u n l i k e W a i t ' s and t h a t  r e m a i n s u n r e s o l v e d , and t h e must be f a c e d a g a i n u n t i l Old S i n g l e t o n , l i k e both prophet fication  and s a g e .  wisdom, l i k e  stature.  semi-religious  Pelham r e s e m b l i n g  to  collapse to  "like  castle. the is  is  by h i s  that of  that of  "an  "Father uprooted  S i n g l e t o n ' s magnitude.  and ; g i v e S i n g l e t o n  l i n k him— through  in a world  of h i s poop"(31),  correct  implied through  judgments.  simile.  His in  is  other  something  stature—  above t h a t of  The m i c r o c o s m o v e r w h i c h A l l i s t o u n r e i g n s  affirmed  world  Moreover, they  t h e o f f i c e r s , who e x i s t  Olympain h e i g h t s  f o r c e , h i s monu-  emphasize t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between him and the  epic proportions.  the realm of  chief,"  an o r a c l e b e h i n d a v e i l " ( 1 3 0 ) .  crew members, e s p e c i a l l y D o n k i n and W a i t , like  to  of  magni-  as a t o u c h s t o n e f o r m o r a l w o r t h a l l o w s h i m  h i s w i s d o n t o p r o n o u n c e on W a i t Such s i m i l e s f u r t h e r  trial,  " a l e a r n e d and s a v a g e  l i k e n h i s age t o  simile appropriate  his  a cannibal  and s p i r i t u a l  and t o compare h i s  function  and  S i n g l e t o n ' s becomes c o m p l e t e .  "Tattooed l i k e  A t once b o t h t e m p o r a l  a classical  conflict  S i m i l e s are l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e for  mental aspect leads the n a r r a t o r  tree,"(97)  for  death—  C a t h e r i n e i n The R o v e r , e m b o d i e s t h e p o w e r s  he p o r e s o v e r B u l w e r L y t t o n ' s  Time h i m s e l f " ( 2 4 ) ,  the B l a c k Horse.  the N a r c i s s u s — both to  storm, t h a t metaphor  their  to n e a r l y T i t a n i c  patriarch"(6).  of  towards  the  supervised  and h i s p o s i t i o n a s " t h e S i n g l e t o n ' s connection to  to fore-  "from master" this  64  Wait,  "the  centre of  the  s h i p ' s c o l l e c t i v e p s y c h o l o g y and  the  13 pivot  of  level;  the a c t i o n , "  but  realistic  e x i s t s on b o t h a r e a l i s t i c  Ted E . B o y l e ' s s t a t e m e n t level  t h a t he c o u l d w e l l  t h a t he i s  and m e t a p h o r i c  "so well  be a p r i v a t e  drawn on  i n a modern  the  infantry  14 company"  is  s u r e l y an unsupported v i e w p o i n t .  Conrad e x p l o i t s  for  metaphoric  importance i n the n o v e l . a n d The N i g g e r o f racial  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e , gives Wait h i s  M.J.C.  Echuero i n h i s  ' N a r c i s s u s ' " goes so f a r  background w i t h h i s moral e f f e c t  Conrad of r a c i s m i n h i s  His blackness, which  exploitation  of  symbolic  e s s a y "James Wait as to  link  Wait's  on the N a r c i s s u s , a c c u s i n g a traditional,  however  in-  c o r r e c t , Western concept of b l a c k n e s s : The symbol o f d e a t h w h i c h W a i t i s s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t i s merely the consequence of C o n r a d ' s f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of an appearance w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o h i m , l i t e r a l l y b r u t a l , t r a g i c and s i n i s t e r . I f we m u s t c a l l W a i t a d e v i l , we m u s t mean t h e name t o be a m e a s u r e o f C o n r a d ' s r e v u l s i o n ^ from these aspects of W a i t ' s physiognomy-- h i s n e g r i t u d e . Wait's tude  connection to  the metaphysical e v i l  the u n i v e r s e gains  f r o m h i s b l a c k n e s s , t o be s u r e , b u t n o e x p l i c i t  derives  Wait's  the  power i s  fact first  a t by h i s cough t h a t  t h e u n i v e r s e , r e s o u n d i n g so l o u d l y and t h e i r o n p l a t e s o f (18-19). tiality  that  "the  s h i p ' s bulwarks  dome o f  contentions  black.  literally  the  evil  disturbs  sky rang to  seemed t o v i b r a t e  it,  in unison"  W a i t ' s moral h o l l o w n e s s , suggested by h i s p h y s i c a l i n s u b s t a n and e s p e c i a l l y by h i s c o u g h , p r o v i d e s  a number o f  self-deception. sawdust"(72), (138);  the  such  t h a t W a i t ' s h i s t o r i c a l m o d e l was hinted  ampli-  or even i m p l i e d  from Wait because of h i s being a Negro; moreover,  seem t o o v e r l o o k  for  of  s i m i l e s intended to He i s v a r i o u s l y  "like  the n a r r a t o r  suggest the enormity  seen "as a d o l l  a b l a c k buoy c h a i n e d t o  and as becoming " i m m a t e r i a l  like  an  of  opportunity  the  t h a t had l o s t  the bottom of  crew's half  its  a muddy s t r e a m "  an a p p a r i t i o n " ( 1 3 9 ) ;  all  appeal,  65 like  the  fact  Finally, to him  of W a i t ' s b l a c k n e s s , to  he becomes a " b l a c k p h a n t o m " ( 1 5 1 )  " ' Y e r nobody.  narrator's  Y e r n o one a t  reflection  t h a t he i s  inhuman c o u l d b e " ( 1 3 9 ) . not of  interpret  no j u s t i f i c a t i o n also related observation  for  to  death,  that his  like Wait,  cabin idol  "had, i n .  rescuers during  .  out w i t h e x c i t e m e n t " ( 6 5 ) , that  situation  in  although  of  the  of  common " l i k e " o r  the b r i l l i a n c e  fiend  This simile  is  typical  o n l y Wamibo's p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n  at  t h a t moment b u t  a lot  of  simultaneously.  their As the  exploit  c a b i n , they  rebirth  of W a i t ' s  influence  over  its  the  a  silver  group  to  both  of  "tongue  hung  barks"(66), The  over the of  for  more  the  over extra-  typical  economy  appear  indicating  that implicates  ship wallows  a d e a d man i n s i d e a g r a v e " ( 6 9 ) ,  in  "damned" a t t e m p t i n g  o f m a n i a c s t i e d up o n a w a l l " ( 6 4 )  serious nature  of  excitement.  gloating  is  way t o r e s c u e h i m f r o m h i s  is  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t he s t o o d  it  on t h e i r  is  homage"(105).  "resembling" substituting  are the  end  narrator's  'made n o i s e s r e s e m b l i n g l o u d  the damned"(66).  they  Wait  Wamibo a p p e a r s a s a d o g — h i s  " a s " ; moreover,  rescuers efforts—  by t h e  l a n d , and t h e r e  s u g g e s t s h i s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e and h i s  agitation  one n e e d  storm scene have a s i g n i f i c a n t  i s h e i g h t e n e d by the n a r r a t o r ' s  the  something  s h i p as w e l l  sight  the n i g h t ,  . r e c e i v e d our  and he  i n the n o v e l , the p a r t i c i p l e  not  as o n l y  the n o v e l by the  t h e m " r e s e m b l i n g a n amazed a n d h a l f - w i t t e d ordinary  the  yells  elaborating  s h i p as D e a t h p e r s o n i f i e d .  theme o f  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them.  a simile  "as f a s c i n a t i n g  imagination.  as D o n k i n  all.''"(151) , further  images d e a t h as w e l l ,  seeing the  the r e l i g i o u s  s h r i n e where a b l a c k Wait's  Wait  and a t h i n g  s u c h an image a l l e g o r i c a l l y ;  the n o v e l meets i t s  similes  the r e a d e r ' s v i s u a l  Conrad  revealing  the nature  of  the  save W a i t .  While  'wild-eyed,  like  the comic  b o t h b i r t h and  " l i f e l e s s l y " and W a i t  is  and  death "as  quiet  r e s c u e r s , t h o s e who make p o s s i b l e  the crew, appear  " l i k e men  standing  the  66  above a grave  . . .  and m i d w i v e s .  on t h e v e r g e o f  tears"(69);  Conrad's concern for  acute v i s u a l q u a l i t y  of  Beyond g i v i n g  precision is  such a c a r e f u l l y  s i m i l e s , more t h a n any o t h e r  element,  sive  cough, for  like  example, i s  a gong"(39).  the q u a l i t y  reader)  to  like  render  sea,  of  the  its  are r e s p o n s i b l e for  an i n d i s t i n c t  F i x i n g the r i g g i n g s ,  situations  s o much o f  broken wave"(129).  Allistoun, in  its  is  insubordination  storm at he  storm at  those i c y  degeneration i s  his  along the  it:  fact,  that  the n a r r a t o r  when r e p r i m a n d i n g  d e s c r i b e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n terms of  them c o l d l y ,  i n gusts v i o l e n t  w i t h C a p t a i n A l l i s t o u n the n a r r a t o r  a dog a f t e r  a run i n  as " a sound l i k e  smooth sand o f  images a for  sound of  a  a reprimand:  Wait's  the  physical  breathing;  reports  t h a t Wait  s u n s h i n e " ( 1 2 2 ) , and D o n k i n h e a r s  the r u s t l e  a beach"(154).  The  and c u t t i n g l i k e  sound— that of h i s  deck:  intended  the crew the  the  and  "The n o i s e s u b s i d e d l i k e  a l s o rendered i n terms of  like  death r a t t l e  (and  a s a i l o r would a c u t a l l y have.  s e a s t h a t h a d known h i s y o u t h " ( 1 3 4 ) .  in his confrontation "panted f a s t  regard  a simile  s e a , a metaphor t h a t Conrad a l r e a d y used to r e p r e s e n t  "began to  g a l e s of  in  s e a ' s remoteness h i g h above the  a sailor's life  and e v e n t s t h r o u g h  both  as a c h a r a c t e r  the s a i l o r s  n o i s e from another w o r l d " ( 9 2 ) ,  the a u r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  to  and e x p l o -  a t t e n t i o n from the n a r r a t o r  the  impact.  r e a d e r h e a r and f e e l ,  The s e a , w h i c h i n a s e n s e f u n c t i o n s  sounds.  which  symbolic  s e a s s e e t h i n g f a r b e l o w them sounded c o n t i n u o u s  i n d e e d , forms  other  the  s c e n e , one i n  d e s c r i b e d e x a c t l y as ' m e t a l l i c  r e c e i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f  "the roar faint  of  once mourners  i n t e n s e v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s and s y m b o l i c i m p o r t  i n the n o v e l , r e c e i v e s p a r t i c u l a r to  are at  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  constructed  c h a r a c t e r a n d s c e n e , C o n r a d ' s s i m i l e s make h i s wait's  they  of  a s i n g l e dry  leaf  driven  67 M e t a p h o r i n The N i g g e r h a s b o t h l o c a l and l a r g e r  effect  within  the  16 narrative. effect  The s i m i l e , a l i n g u i s t i c  in creating  particular is  relying in its  linguistic  cumulative e f f e c t ,  imply that  one a n o t h e r .  for  its  central  phoric,  i n a sense,  less  Writing not, of  of  1 7  ;  core of  largely  he i s  largely  constitute correct,  effected  contribute  for  the  meaning.  to,  The s e a s o n a l  the N a r c i s s u s c l e a r l y of,  almost i n  s t o r m do n o t  again t r a d i t i o n a l  antagonism relies and  alone  give  associations,  The R o v e r i s  l o c a l and l a r g e  less meta-  scale,  and h e n c e ,  main c o u r s e .  does feature  a l t h o u g h C o n r a d draws on a f u n d  or c o h e r e n t l y  to  of  artistic  theme.  The  h o w e v e r , a s i n L o r d J i m o r The N i g g e r , s i m i l e , or symbolic a c t i o n ,  c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n . would, i n  "It  a n i m p o s i n g and i n e s c a p a b l e  effectively  through metaphor,  complex image p a t t e r n s complex i n i t s  however,  or c o n t r i b u t i o n  i n e a r l i e r w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y a n i m a l and  the n o v e l ' s meaning i s n o t ,  through  Simile,  i m a g e r y i n The R o v e r , D o n a l d C . Y e l t o n s a y s t h a t  they r a r e l y  primarily  occasionally  as m e t a p h o r . of  a  vivid.  images used f o r c e f u l l y similes,  effect  s i m i l e on b o t h t h e  as i n t h e m a j o r w o r k s ,  style"  broadest  associations with burial  symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e , but  l e s s given to  sense,  its  r e s c u e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  on t r a d i t i o n a l  fallacy,  in  creation of,  the s i m i l e s p e r s o n i f y i n g  the p a t h e t i c  to  significance.  the journey  The s c e n e o f W a i t ' s  Similarly,  including  in its  the course of  meaning p a r t i a l l y  rebirth.  that i s ,  its  local  symbolic import  and c o n t e n t ,  t h e l a n d and s e a o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  to,  its  structures  i m a g e s , may h a v e t h e same r e s u l t  changes marked d u r i n g  it  s i t u a t i o n , while metaphor,  on a r c h e t y p e and t r a d i t i o n f o r  a p a t t e r n of  tends toward  sensory impression or i n g i v i n g  c h a r a c t e r or  a composite of  structure,  fact,  but  Elaborate symbolic situations u n n e c e s s a r i l y encumber a s t o r y  An a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  and not  character  68  leads  to  t h e dominance o f P e y r o l and h i s v i e w p o i n t  and P e y r o l i s no maker of metaphors practical  throughout  l i k e Marlow, but  and s i m p l e s a i l o r w h o s e m a j o r  a  c i n a t i n g n o r d e l a y i n g by s o p h i s t r y . character— a relative action the  e s p e c i a l l y of paucity  a character  of metaphor  part,  of  fiction.  The c e n t r a l  S c e v o l a and t h e a b n o r m a l i t y dramatized,  and, i n  fact,  love relationship  conflict  is  that  partly  also responsible for  the n o v e l gets  just  ratio-  the dominance leads  as t h e n a t u r e  of to  of  the  latter  represents  and R e a l .  a lack of  in  between P e y r o l and R e a l  obscured by the  of A r l e t t e  neither  acts  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y — t h a n  conflict the  then,  include  Peyrol  Peyrol's nature—  and s i m i l e ,  seems l e s s a m b i g u o u s — e t h i c a l l y  earlier  by the  In  often  complexities.  b e c a u s e h e m u s t do s o , a n d h e d o e s s o u n h e s i t a t i n g l y ,  novel,  relatively  c o n c e r n s do n o t  p s y c h o l o g i c a l or m e t a p h y s i c a l and e t h i c a l  the  i s never  theme o f  with  clearly  rebirth  and  The F r e n c h and E n g l i s h  clear  c a u g h t up b y a p o l i t i c a l - m i l i t a r y  f o c u s , a n d much conflict  of  t h a t has  few  reverberations. Rather than f i n d i n g unites  the d i s p a r a t e  t r a t i o n on P e y r o l — relatively aim,  consistently nically,  the  This i s not this  l a c k of  i n order  then,  to  to  n o v e l , but  leaves the fault  or  rather  e x p l o r e theme i n h i s  simile,  excessive concen-  other  to attempt a  the  later  characters  partial  d e v i c e s he had used so  earlier  fiction.  C o n r a d moves away f r o m i m a g e r y and m e t a p h o r  in  Conrad  s e v e r e l y Conrad's method,  symbol and m e t a p h o r ,  c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n a s p r i m a r y replaces poetry  imagery, metaphor,  excessive because i t  or achievement i n for  in  e l e m e n t s and t h e m e s b y a n a l m o s t  undeveloped.  explanation  unity  in  Techfavour  of  v e h i c l e s of meaning; drama, i n a sense,  work.  69 Avrom F l e i s h m a n i n h i s central  e s s a y " C o n r a d ' s L a s t N o v e l " d i s c e r n s as a  s y m b o l i c and t h e m a t i c  observation, thematic  and p e r c e p t i o n ,  center  focus of finding  the n o v e l the  importance  visual activities  t h a t deepens t h e o t h e r w i s e  of  vision,  and images  hackneyed a c t i o n of  "the  the  18 protagonists." technical  S i g h t , however,  concern i n  the n o v e l .  and s i m i l e s do d i m i n i s h t o as a w h o l e , b u t  i s not  Conrad's r e l a t i v e l y  concrete details  compensate f o r  see.  bytery  p r e c i s i o n and  typical  in its  but  also a  infrequent  some d e g r e e t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n e s s o f  aim of making the r e a d e r is  only a thematic  Arlette's  the  metaphors  the  novel  l o s s and p u r s u e  entrance i n t o the  abbe's  the  pres-  detail:  She p u s h e d o p e n t h e l i t t l e g a t e w i t h t h e b r o k e n l a t c h . The h u m b l e b u i l d i n g o f r o u g h s t o n e s , f r o m b e t w e e n w h i c h much m o r t a r h a d c r u m b l e d o u t , l o o k e d a s t h o u g h i t h a d been s i n k i n g s l o w l y i n t o the ground. The b e d s o f t h e p l o t i n f r o n t w e r e c h o k e d w i t h w e e d s , b e c a u s e t h e abbe had no t a s t e f o r g a r d e n i n g ( 1 4 7 ) . The c a r e f u l in  the  early  the n o v e l . especially on h i m ,  and p a i n s t a k i n g  establishment  of  setting  and  atmosphere  c h a p t e r s g a i n s power f r o m s i m i l e s , so u n e n e r g e t i c Both curious  receptive  to  and t h e n a r r a t o r  and, in a sense, the v i s u a l  foreign,  impressions his  in parts  P e y r o l ' s mind  is  " n a t i v e " a r e a makes  renders these impressions with  considerable  19 a t t e n t i o n to of  the d e t a i l s  colour,  tone,  the i n n near H y e r e s , P e y r o l sees t h a t  t h e r e was t h e  sea of  landscape changes: had assumed t h e one p o i n t  i s l a n d of  "far  away, l i k e  "the  Porquerolles"(6).  small r i s e  appearance of  efflorescent  at  the  end o f  a black cloud"(9).  compared t o a d e s e r t  "with patches of  and t e x t u r e .  From t h e a blue  t h e H y e r e s r o a d s t e a d w i t h a lumpy i n d i g o  b e y o n d — w h i c h was t h e  at  of  salt  yard  thread,  swelling  As dusk comes,  the  the Giens p e n i n s u l a E x p l o r i n g the  i s l a n d , Peyrol travels  land,  across a  a s w h i t e a s snow b e t w e e n t h e  track  tufts  of  of  70  wiry  g r a s s and t h e p a r t i c u l a r l y  i m p l i e d by the d e s c r i p t i o n s  is  dead-looking bushes"(15). that  the  l a n d , and b y e x t e n s i o n  F r a n c e , h a s become t h e W a s t e l a n d t h r o u g h sacrifice life,  i s what i s  needed i n o r d e r  the R e v o l u t i o n ;  increasingly interior worthy u n t i l finds  the c l i m a c t i c  something  chase scene;  all  and  Arlette.  landscape of  and e x t e r n a l v i s u a l  is  P e y r o l 's  to b r i n g back f e r t i l i t y  s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e u n i o n o f Re"al a n d As t h e n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , t h e  What  its  c o n c e r n becomes  i m p r e s s i o n s become l e s s  on o c c a s i o n , h o w e v e r ,  the  notenarrator  striking:  . . . the r o a d s t e a d , w i t h i t s p l a y of g r e y and b r i g h t gleams, looked l i k e a plaque of m o t h e r - o f - p e a r l i n a f r a m e o f y e l l o w r o c k s and d a r k g r e e n r a v i n e s s e t o f f i n l a n d by the masses of the h i l l s d i s p l a y i n g the t i n t of the f i n e s t p u r p l e ; w h i l e above h i s ( P e y r o l ' s ) head t h e s u n , b e h i n d a c l o u d - v e i l , hung l i k e a s i l v e r d i s c (144). Colour,  as the  narrator,  and most a r e p r i m a r y  is  dressed i n  of  Toulon.  grey  the  colours of  Arlette  l e v e l of  Her r e t u r n t o noticeable  above p a s s a g e d e m o n s t r a t e s ,  the  l o o k i n g over  the  salt  life  is  i n her  rather  apprehended v i s u a l l y ,  facial  colouring:  snow"(175).  Distant  s i z e and c o l o u r  Similes attached  like  and t h e  faintest  rosy l i k e  of  of  at  the  example,  Port  Office  flat  blue-  spirit  is  p o s s i b l e f l u s h had appeared  the  light of  silver  of  light  "two  a distant changing  specks very  and t h e  c h a r a c t e r a r e , as i n  flame the  on t h e deck o f  other  ink"(278). to a p a r t i c u l a r  the  lead"(147).  change i n h e r  the B r i t i s h F l e e t : a bit  Peyrol for  a s l a b of  i s n o t e d as C a p t a i n V i n c e n t  o f w h i c h one s h o n e w h i t e l i k e a drop of  "the  concern of  " j u s t beyond the  p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e p l a y  A m e l i a o b s e r v e s two s t r a g g l e r s  like  sees  l a g o o n , smooth and d u l l  on t h e  black  when h e a r r i v e s  the v i l l a g e  c h e e k s , p l a y e d on them f a i n t l y  apart,  than shades or t i n t s ;  tricolour  on h e r  perception of  seems a p a r t i c u l a r  Conrad's  the far  appeared  71  other  n o v e l s , used to give dimension, p e r s o n a l i t y ,  The r a n g e o f a basic  s i m i l e s i n The R o v e r i s ,  text.  C a t h e r i n e h a s a number o f m e t a p h o r s  intent  attached  she i s  o l d s i b y l r i s e n from the t r i p o d (170); of  her p r o f i l e  some d e s e r t  warns R e a l to before  that of  tribe"(174);  the b r e a k f a s t i n g  a sort  of  regal  and w a i t i n g  the  a senator  fate"(247). perhaps,  "attitude  "a sharp c a r v i n g of  and a f t e r  an o l d  a cruel  giving  results  in his  . like  curule  chair awaiting  The s i m i l e s and m e t a p h o r s  slightly  flight  too portentous  man" i s ment  incorrect(225).  that  "there  b l o o d about her for  it  is  death i n the  feet"(225),  important  her p r o t e c t i n g  little  However,  but  folds this  related  alegorically  to  for  Arlette  sees her  a  of her  Real,  from S c e v o l a . the  as an a n c i e n t  she  sits  a barbarous seem,  somewhat m i n o r she i s  a  is  (Arlette's)  i s mistakenly the  "with  tribe"(169);  accurate i n her  role  slightly  "for  no  pronounceskirt  directed  sake of A r l e t t e .  her past r e l a t i o n s h i p  the burden of  a peasant-  describing Catherine  she i s  stands  rebirth  to Real that A r l e t t e  P e y r o l who m e e t s d e a t h f o r  Catherine i s for  is  Her w a r n i n g  disasters"  prophetess  the blow of  i n t h e n o v e l ; h e r moment o f p r o p h e c y d o e s c o m e , b u t misguided prophetess.  of  after  considering her  an  that warning,  a chieftainess  of A r l e t t e ' s  of  f a t e " when s h e  she apeaks w i t h P e y r o l about A r l e t t e ' s .  similar  to prophesy calmly a t r o c i o u s  she s p e a k s " l i k e  .  the  and s i m i l e s w i t h  P e y r o l " i m p o s i n g and solemn l i k e  composure  for  large—  throughout  seen as h a v i n g the  leave Arlette(225)  priestess"(228);  "like  is  identity.  on t h e w h o l e , n o t  comparison being repeated w i t h v a r i a t i o n s  to her:  and  to  and Real,  Indeed,  with a priest  and  These r o l e s , however,  similes given to her, prophetess  or votary  unless of  are one  a goddess,  Arlette,  whom one c r i t i c  sees as " t h e F r a n c e t h a t S c e v o l a has  taken  20 i l l e g a l possession of." Fate-like; about  to  Arlette  herself  is  also related  the  h e r c a l l a n d a p p e a r a n c e t o P e y r o l when t h e t a r t a n e  set  out  is  c o n s c i o u s l y r e c a l l s a V a l k y r i e ' s appearance to  doomed T e u t o n i c c h i f t a i n — s h e  appears as i f  i n a v i s i o n , the  r a i n a l s o f o r e s h a d o w i n g t h e o n c o m i n g moment o f S i m i l e s used i n d e s c r i b i n g A r l e t t e but  to  seem t o h a v e l i t t l e  death(247).  as l i m i t e d  in  range,  except for  the  shadow m e t a p h o r w h i c h s u g g e s t s h e r i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y  before her  return  to  to t h i s  bird  through  Perhaps r e l a t e d  perhaps even her t i m i d i t y ;  a sea-bird—not  elusiveness  are  t o be g r a s p e d " ( 2 2 ) .  (80 a n d 1 1 6 )  immobile, while A r l e t t e the chain of by R e a l ' s  the  or stone e f f i g i e s ( 1 1 9 ) ;  roams A r i e l - l i k e a b o u t  images s u g g e s t i n g l i g h t n e s s  r e c a l l i n g the A c i s  disruption,  d i r e c t e d towards rather  that  " s h e was  Such i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y  the  for  Animal imagery i s  to rest  of  a  disrupted picture"(212),  but  this  is  such an a l l u s i o n i s  spiritually  of  mainly  Arlette,  of  characters  these images  t h a n t h o s e i n The S e c r e t A g e n t , a n d t h e y significance.  only  and p h y s i c a l l y .  the r a n g e and t h e i m p o r t  than thematic  are  Curiously,  once a g a i n used to d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s  the n o v e l , although both  have l o c a l r a t h e r  "as at 21  and G a l a t e a m y t h ;  the i n t e n t  farm.  L a b e l l e dame s a n s m e r c i q u a l i t y  than her i n a b i l i t y  i s more r e s t r i c t e d  the  and  are  they  and movement i s  c o n f e s s i o n t h a t he l o o k s a t A r l e t t e  consciously a partial  Peyrol thinks  c o n t r a s t s m a r k e d l y w i t h P e y r o l a n d C a t h e r i n e who  imaged as c a r v i n g s  in  love.  s i m i l e s s u g g e s t i n g b o t h h e r p h y s i c a l d i m i n u t i v e n e s s and h e r  instability, like  t h e power o f  or  are not  symbolic  symbolic import  life  thematic  Peyrol's  a  largely  Peyrol describes  S c e v o l a e s c a p i n g f r o m a n a n g r y mob i n a s i m i l e f r o m e v e r y d a y  speech—  73  he  " b o l t e d up t h e h i l l ,  leaps  "from boulder  like  to boulder  mind a l s o S c e v o l a has a g r i n some s m a l l w i l d  a hare"(41); like  that  animal a f r a i d  the p r i e s t  who s a v e s h i m  a blessed goat"(42).  To P e y r o l ' s  "resembled the d e f e n s i v e g r i n  of being cornered"(80).  And a f t e r  of h i s customary h a r a n g u e s , P e y r o l warns S c e v o l a t h a t  and s y m p a t h i e s w i l l  y o u down l i k e  as n o t e d a b o v e , i s  d e s c r i b e d as b i r d - l i k e h i s bench " l i k e living  "like  describes  a lonely crow"(177).  is  bounding  suggesting a mighty Scevola angrily  "like  a goat"(186).  "an enormous v o i c e l i k e of  these s i m i l e s i s  force  like  the r e p o s e f u l  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  in  a s human b e i n g s a r e o f t e n  seas"(269),  small boat  attributes and f o r  tartane  "tumbled  a simile clearly  like  mirror  effect.  i n The R o v e r ,  through  the p a t h e t i c  fallacy.  simile, After  c o r p s e amongst  suggesting the importance  as an image o r e x t e n s i o n o f  however,  a simpler  a lifeless  figures  or d e f i c i e n c i e s ,  seen i n animal terms  use of  in  verisimi-  No l o n g e r ,  o c c a s i o n a l l y become a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c  Peyrol 's death, h i s  exploit  t h e a n i m a l image as a  b u t u s e s them r a t h e r w i t h a s i m p l e r i n t e n t  Conrad's frequent  attitude  The  a c h a r a c t e r 's d i a l o g u e and t h o u g h t  of  the  curs"(150).  they r e a l i s t i c a l l y  interested  an e x t e n s i o n o f  Arlette  an angry s e a - l i o n " ( 2 6 9 ) .  two-fold;  a character's spiritual  on  d e s c r i b e d as  The f i n a l w o r d P e y r o l h e a r s i s  d o e s C o n r a d seem p r i m a r i l y  inanimate objects  alone  "his massive aspect,  and t h e y add v i v i d n e s s t o a d e s c r i p t i o n .  Just  frequently  reprimanding M i c h e l reproaches him  the r o a r of  f r o m common s p e e c h g i v i n g litude,  is  "hunt  the R e v o l u t i o n ( 1 4 8 ) .  seen by h e r i n a n i m a l t e r m s —  a lion"(146).  effect  The p r i e s t  the crowd c h a s i n g S c e v o l a as " y e l p i n g l i k e  his deliberation  for  b y P e y r o l who a l s o s e e s R e a l s i t t i n g  a hunted w i l d b e a s t " during  Peyrol himself  of  Arlette,  one  t h e p e o p l e now  disenchanted with Revolutionary rhetoric a mad d o g " ( 1 6 6 ) .  of  Peyrol himself.  of  the  Similarly  74 humanized i s  the mulberry  the y a r d " ; i t  tree  "standing l i k e  also "sighed f a i n t l y  .  .  a sentinel  . as i f  regretting  t h e C o a s t , t h e man o f  dark deeds, but  of  day w o u l d l i e  sleep under i t s  shade"(286).  down t o  large heart,  b e i n g s o f t e n become i n h u m a n i n t h e n o v e l . similes,  other  s i m i l e s have t h i s  Peyrol befriends for  the  local  first  effect  is  the  making l i t t l e  S i m i l e s making thematic  his  laboured.  room a t Escampobar i s  visages  the  sea,  a s h i p t o me a n d a l l  like  '"I  d e a r t o h i m E s c a m p o b a r may b e , h i s  his  tartane fering is  dead.  to the  to i t s  as w e l l ,  finding  on s h o r e .  in  theirs, it  the  s e a , a n d he p r e preparing  s l e e p on  fulfillment  and p e a c e he had so a r d e n t l y is  Peyrol the  and R e a l d o ;  complete,  out,  for  During  he u n d e r g o e s  the pre-  ' " W e l l , perhaps o l d  as A r l e t t e  his  death sought  i n The R o v e r " t h e  inevitable  22 p r i c e of  the true  A very similes  self."  l a r g e number o f  " a s t h o u g h " and " a s i f "  i n The N i g g e r and T h e R o v e r ( a s w e l l  at  However  however, i s  D e a t h , as R o y a l R o u s s e l p o i n t s  to  as a house a s h o r e " ( 9 9 ) ,  life  that  s e a , he e n -  "as though he had been  farm where he says of h i m s e l f :  experience, unlike  example,  shipmates"(44).  Peyrol then begins to  t h e n o v e l P e y r o l moves t o w a r d s  tend  inhabitants  A t any r a t e he h a s b u r i e d h i m s e l f h e r e " ( 1 0 6 - 1 0 7 ) .  course of  and  p l a c e , as l o n e l y as a s h i p  are l i k e  now " a s s a f e f r o m t h e t e m p e s t s t h e r e it  A t home o n l y a t  t r u e home r e m a i n s t h e  escape from a desert i s l a n d " ( 8 8 ) .  preparations  such s i m i l e s have  notices, for  fidelity  p a r e s a n d mends t h e b l o o d - d r e n c h e d t a r t a n e  final  to the novel are few,  am o l d P e y r o l a n d t h i s in it  animal  theme.  frequently  farm as a s h i p , d e c l a r i n g h i s Real:  noon-  C o n v e r s e l y , human  As b e f o r e ,  a lighthouse.  the o u t s i d e r is  to  contributions  like  at  of  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c r i p p l e whom  tartane(97).  Peyrol too  of  the Brother  A s i d e from the r e c u r r e n t  effect.  contribution  the gate  who o f t e n  imaged as a b e a c o n as he w a t c h e s t h e  launching of  t o be s l i g h t l y  at  clauses functions  as i n C o n r a d ' s o t h e r  as  works)  75  in  that  terms  they  of  serve to  another.  render  Like similes, too,  of  Conrad's impressionistic  or  "as t h o u g h " a r e s i m i l a r  for  instance, that  as i f like  one a c t i o n ,  similarity with its  l o s e " or  action in  the  subjunctive;  of  the  "as".  if"  To s a y , "x bounds  "x bounds  "as i f "  the  three  replacing  "He a c t e d a s i f  same r e l a t i o n s h i p  instances i n which  t h e manner o f  than another;  a goat.  the word  clause  this  along  i n e v e r y d a y s p e e c h "He a c t e d l i k e he w e r e t r y i n g  "x" is  Difference  he  to  lose."  between tenor  the p r e c i s i o n or intended i m p r e c i s i o n that rather  "as  same a s s a y i n g t h a t  "He a c t e d a s t h o u g h h e w e r e t r y i n g t o  in all  part  " x b o u n d s a s t h o u g h he w e r e a g o a t " o r  lose" is  Approximately exists  " l i k e " and  in  I n f o r m a l A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h seems t o a c k n o w l e d g e  mandatory to  The i n t r o d u c t o r y  i n meaning to  by the g r a d u a l p h a s i n g o u t  was t r y i n g  or t h i n g  these clauses are a  technique.  he were a g o a t " i s n e a r l y a goat."  situation,  and v e h i c l e  seen as p e r f o r m i n g  r e s i d e s i n the  an  economy a n d  one c l a u s e m i g h t  have  " d o o r " and S a m u e l J o h n s o n ' s " t h e  wooden  23 gaurdian of  our p r i v a c y " r e f e r  to p r e c i s e l y the  t h e manner i n w h i c h t h a t o b j e c t  is  comparison using  advantage of  no v e r b ) ,  " l i k e " has the  a comparison using the  same o b j e c t ,  d e s c r i b e d forms  "as i f "  or  style.  economy  but  Whereas a  (since i t  "as though" c l a u s e  requires leads  t o a g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n b e t w e e n t e n o r and v e h i c l e a n d i s m o r e d y n a m i c . A p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e "as i f " and " a s t h o u g h " c l a u s e s functioning  as s i m i l e s i n The N i g g e r i s  a construction  d i s p l a y s the n a r r a t o r ' s  He s e e s n a t u r e  i n human t e r m s ,  personification; state  d i s p l a y i n g the  o f mind and function  of  moreover,  such  sensibility. simile  as  76 m a k i n g a n a n a l o g y b e t w e e n two d i s s i m i l a r o b j e c t s . the n a r r a t o r  During the  d e s c r i b e s the N a r c i s s u s i n d i f f i c u l t y :  as though she had been b l i n d deliberately  or weary of  life,  "Twice  she put  storm  running,  her nose  i n t o a b i g w a v e and s w e p t t h e d e c k s f r o m end t o  end"(52).  The " a s t h o u g h " c l a u s e s u g g e s t s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m o t i v a t e d  action  the mind of  the narrator  and, hence,  humanizes.  In  ship  grateful  "as i f  weather of  l i k e manner, a f t e r for  it"(56).  "The s h i p , as i f making e x p l i c i t  the  off  ship i s  to a t t r i b u t e motive,  the crew has f i x e d  our e f f o r t s ,  state  a n d made  the n a r r a t o r  overcome w i t h d e s p a i r , w a l l o w e d the  the r i g g i n g s ,  p l u c k e d up h e a r t  While rescuing Wait,  powers he stands f o r . of  who a t t e m p t s  records  of  the  ship i n r e l a t i o n  After  the  storm has been weathered, the  t o W a i t and  last  "as t h o u g h i n s p i r e d by t h e Wait  from the  courage of  d e a d and t h e c a l m e n d i n g , t h e  unfair  burden"(160),  sary i n order throughout  to  completing the  l i n k W a i t and t h e  the novel l i k e  storm,  she d r i v e s  "rolled  sequence of ship.  as i f  look into their  of  the n a r r a t o r ' s  (the belief  when h e r e m a r k s o f basked voluptuously our  life  faces"(74).  i n humanized nature  the calm:  "the g l i t t e r i n g  i n the great  and t r o u b l e " ( 1 4 3 ) .  "the  " l o w as i f  neces-  setting and  b e n d i n g down  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s best  an  a l s o humanized  cast  shown, however,  s e a , touched by the b r e e z e ,  s u n s h i n e , as though i t  To t h e n a r r a t o r ,  t h e men  r e l i e v e d of  t h e s e a and t h e N a r c i s s u s :  crew's)  progress  And w i t h  sun d i p p e d s h a r p l y , as t h o u g h f l e e i n g b e f o r e o u r n i g g e r " ( 3 4 ) ,  to  the  clauses that are  The s u n i s  "A s u n e n o r m o u s , u n c l o u d e d a n d r e d , " d e c l i n e s  that  northward  a high endeavour"(94).  ship  better  "She went  s l o w l y as t h o u g h she had been weary and d i s h e a r t e n e d l i k e Free at  the  lifelessly"(69),  a g a i n r e n d e r e d i n s p e c i f i c a l l y human t e r m s :  she c a r r i e d " ( 8 7 ) .  in  had  then, nature  forgotten is  vital—  77  the  stars  himself,  "glittered, it  as i f  a l i v e above t h e  has both malevolent  at Wait's b u r i a l  "as i f  b r i d g e opens b e f o r e  novel—  the harbouring  the  c r e a t i o n of like  course, a central  The r e s u l t  of  this  Mr. Baker, t i r e d  duality  "The r i m s o f h i s  from the  more p o w e r f u l l y  india-rubber"(57).  than the  as though he had been t a l k i n g inarticulateness is  h i s mouth had been f u l l further  the r e a d e r ' s  statement  conflict,  sounds  described a n d he moved  to  imagination  that Mr. Baker  'moved also  and D o n k i n ' s  d e s c r i b e d — " h e mumbled w i t h of  effort  dough"(136).  s e r v e s t o e m p h a s i z e m a n n e r — t h e way  example, reproaches Real for  as i f  the  " h i s v o i c e r a n g , h o l l o w and l o u d ,  y o u w e r e made o f  a particular  h i s h a u g h t y manner  " ' Y o u have a n a s t y t o n g u e , ' he s a i d ,  talking  well  as though he had been m a s t i -  i n w h i c h an o b s e r v e r p e r c e i v e s t h e o c c u r e n c e o f  of  storm i s  i n a n empty c a v e r n " ( 3 5 ) ,  also vividly  This construction  speech:  as  The l o u d n e s s o f W a i t ' s v o i c e i s  emphasized by s u c h a c o n s t r u c t i o n :  for  the  The " a s t h o u g h " c l a u s e s e r v e s  somewhat f l a t  jaw u n c e a s i n g l y w i t h e f f o r t . "  Peyrol,  is  e y e l i d s were s c a r l e t ,  the v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n , a p p e a l i n g to  and as i f  theme o f  This  mutiny.  jaw i n c e a s i n g l y w i t h a slow e f f o r t ,  heighten  by enchantment"(164).  and "as t h o u g h " c l a u s e s s e r v e as s i m i l e s a l s o i n  something e l s e .  c a t i n g a lump o f  his  of  rush  o u r J i m m y " ( 1 5 9 ) , and a  a v i s u a l or a u r a l i m p r e s s i o n : something looks or  by the n a r r a t o r : his  at  the waters  i n man o f b o t h a d a r k a n d e v i l n a t u r e  s t o r m and t h e n e a r  The " a s i f "  to get  the N a r c i s s u s "as i f  as a b e n i g n and m o r a l o n e . seen i n  and b e n i g n a s p e c t s :  impatient  dual aspect of nature m i r r o r s ,  s e a " ( 2 9 ) , a n d l i k e man  different  action. of  ' w i t h y o u r damned  clay '"(106).  trick  Removing  78  herself  f r o m a c o n v e r s a t i o n between P e y r o l and S c e v o l a ,  c l e a r i n g the  table bore h e r s e l f  The e m p h a s i s on manner o f t e n visual  as i f  she had been c o m p l e t e l y  functions  as an a m p l i f i c a t i o n  i m p r e s s i o n s a n d a l s o s e r v e s t o make v i v i d  being described.  C o n r a d ' s a i m t o make h i s  hear i s  by the  the  furthered  simile  rendering  i n the of  consistently over,  "as i f "  traditional  aware of  implications  of  a work,  metonymic guity,"  a type of  whereas metaphor  is  or  is  that  are subject  person  and  the  exact  reader  can only r e s u l t .  to the  More-  s y m b o l i c and  to the  or  As w i t h  same t i m e m a k i n g t h e  as c o n v e n t i o n a l  Conrad's style  imagery,  the  aural  see, f e e l ,  aim, in part,  also contribute  as they  t i t i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n An a s p e c t o f  at  the approximation  these constructions  the object  reader  deaf"(80).  of  and "as t h o u g h " c l a u s e s .  sense, his  impressions, while  "Catherine  thematic  same t y p e o f  repe-  and metaphor  is  similes.  related  to  simile  i m a g e r y b a s e d on " a s s o c i a t i o n by "grounded i n " s i m i l a r i t y  or  conti-  analogy  24 b e t w e e n two t e r m s . "  Fleishman, noting  i n The R o v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t or noteworthy  of  themselves, but 25  accumulated m a s s , " Arlette's  a way o f  them a r e n o t  saying that  the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n  meets P e y r o l ,  change i n h e r  it  i s noted that  they  to  their  the n o v e l ,  them m e t o n y m i c a l l y .  "without gaiety  the  empty r o o m a s  w h i c h had s t e a d i e d , began t o wander a g a i n a l l  remarks  that  and  When s h e  S h a d e s " ( 2 1 ) , and w h i l e  the n a r r a t o r  interest  form a metonymic p a t t e r n .  she s m i l e s  P e y r o l h a d come i n a t t e n d e d b y a mob o f  concerns  particular  images o f  r e s t l e s s eyes t h a t roamed about  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h him c o n t i n u e s ,  of  " d e v e l o p s y m b o l i c f o r c e by  e y e s a r e among t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t  Conrad d i r e c t s first  some o f  the numerous v i s u a l  or  any  though her  "Her e y e s ,  r o u n d and about  the  79  motionless  Peyrol"(22).  Reflecting later  farmhouse, P e y r o l ' s thoughts cance of A r l e t t e ' s  roaming  underline  on h i s r e c e p t i o n a t  for  the reader the  the  signifi-  eyes:  H e . . . w a s met a t t h e d o o r o f t h e f a r m h o u s e i t s e l f b y t h e y o u n g woman w i t h t h e p a l e f a c e a n d w a n d e r i n g eyes. Nothing could hold her attention for long amongst h e r f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . R i g h t and l e f t and f a r b e y o n d y o u , s h e seemed t o b e l o o k i n g f o r something w h i l e you were t a l k i n g t o h e r , so t h a t y o u d o u b t e d w h e t h e r she c o u l d f o l l o w what you s a i d . B u t as a m a t t e r o f f a c t she had a l l h e r w i t s about her(34). The f i r s t  explicit  c o n n e c t i o n , t h e n , between A r l e t t e ' s eyes and h e r  s t a t e o f m i n d i s made r e l a t i v e l y  e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l , and t h e c a u s e  o f h e r d i s t u r b a n c e and o f h e r u n s t a b l e p e r c e p t i o n i s  c l e a r l y her  c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n , which she h e r s e l f discerns  as the c a u s e of  suffered(155). first  the h o l l o w l i f e  Peyrol's effect  i n connection with her  and l i v i n g  d e a t h she has  on h e r r e v i v i f i c a t i o n  i s a l s o noted  eyes:  P e y r o l c a l l e d i t t r y i n g not t o see something t h a t was n o t t h e r e ; a n d t h i s e v a s i v e y e t f r a n k m o b i l i t y was so much a p a r t o f h e r b e i n g t h a t t h e s t e a d i n e s s w i t h w h i c h s h e met h i s i n q u i s i t i v e g l a n c e s u r p r i s e d o l d P e y r o l f o r a moment(49). As the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s and A r l e t t e 's a f f e c t i o n Peyrol i s  transformed i n t o  towards r e b i r t h herself  tells  has i t s  the  I  the  couldn't  of m e ' " ( 1 5 5 ) .  h e r movement  look at  "'I  saw t h i n g s  anything for  long.  Arlette  r o u n d me Something  As she l e a v e s t h e c h u r c h and r e - e n t e r s l o v e , h e r eyes s h i n e , and  " t h e g l e a m o f h e r eyes swimming i n t e a r s " ( 1 5 8 )  the reader her r e t u r n to  fatherly  c l i m a x i n the scene w i t h the abbe.  s a c r i s t y , r e a l i z i n g t h e power o f  abbe sees  Lieutenant Real,  him of her wandering eyes:  h e r e and t h e r e , b u t was g o n e o u t  love for  for  life.  Peyrol,  the  signaling  t o o , n o t i c e s the change i n  to her  80 as r e c o r d e d i n h e r e y e s : of her eyes, her (175).  and a p p r o p r i a t i n g  c h a i n of  reposeful  references to  images: like  sight  a .lighthouse,  than through as s p i t i t u a l  to p r o t e c t  a theme d e v e l o p e d , i n p a r t ,  in  the novel g i v e f o r c e  by a  structure  him from S c e v o l a .  v i s i o n or i n s i g h t ,  and p r o v i d e s u n i t y ,  this  watches  The i m p o r t a n c e  of  established in various metaphoric  though t h e s e , t o o ,  implications  of  scenes  equivalents cannot be  Conrad's v i s u a l  are developed w i t h i n the t e x t repetition. content  Such a d e v i c e  w i t h one a n o t h e r  in  disimages eyes  through  tightens  As i t s  basis is  imagery tends to p l a c e scenes the r e a d e r ' s mind;  only a v e h i c l e f o r meaning, but  of  and form m e e t i n g i n a c o h e r e n t  and manner a r e i n s e p a r a b l e .  c o n t i g u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p , metonymic juxtaposition  to  t h e i m p o r t a n c e and m e a n i n g o f A r l e t t e ' s  device of  whole i n which matter  sight.  the E n g l i s h s h i p , P e y r o l ' s  a r e l i a n c e on t r a d i t i o n a l  example, the lookout,  the b a s i c s t y l i s t i c  not  toward  the E n g l i s h watch the c o a s t , A r l e t t e  i n the n o v e l . ' But l a r g e l y , for  passion  J u s t a s P e y r o l moves  P e y r o l and R e a l watch f o r  counted i n a s s e s s i n g the thematic  or,  of  s a t i s f a c t i o n , with a searching  i s developed through r e l a t i o n s h i p s  rather sight  of  so does A r l e t t e ,  over Real i n order sight  a halo"  images r e n d e r i n g her coming to c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h  Numerous o t h e r  room i s  out  scene i n R e a l ' s bedroom "her b l a c k e y e s ,  expression"(215-216).  peace and r e b i r t h ,  like  looked i n t o h i s , not w i t h a transport  f e a r but w i t h a sort  c h a i n of  streamed  l o v e makes h e r m i n d s t a b l e , h e r e y e s c e a s e t o  the moonlit  immensely p r o f o u n d , or  Vitality  l i p s , her whole p e r s o n , enveloped her  As A r l e t t e ' s  r o a m , and i n  "She d a z z l e d h i m .  a s s i s t s i n the  i n a sense,  structuring  a  in it  of  is  a  text. In  The N i g g e r o f  the  " N a r c i s s u s , " a s i m i l a r metonymic p a t t e r n  to  81  t h e one i n The R o v e r c a n be d i s c e r n e d — e y e s a g a i n a r e a n image;  Conrad, i n  particular  fact,  aspect of  often  sight  seems t o  or  sound; i n  v o i c e more t h a n K u r t z h i m s e l f Both sight  Jim.  seems t o  and sound a r e o f p r i m a r y  Western Eyes,  structure "Heart  of  thematic  and u n c l e a r n e s s o f v i s i o n i s  land;  Wait,  is  a central  Marlow.  in  Under  theme i n  e y e s h e was s t i l l  holding  effort  o c c u r s some e i g h t y  variations  of  t i t i o n alone i s not  the  around or emanates from W a i t .  thought  of  of  Much o f  short  n o v e l , not  Wait;  if  "eye"  counting  " s a w , " and a l t h o u g h  repe-  device, a purpose-  the v i s u a l concern  His eyes, l i k e A r l e t t e ' s ,  a child  sight  "with  The w o r d  e x c e p t as a u n i f y i n g  death, Wait  d e s o l a t e d and a p p e a l i n g , o f  eyes—  endeavour"(74).  a n d p e r c e p t i o n ; when D o n k i n e n v i s a g e s W a i t ' s b u r i a l him w i t h the  sight  s h i p u p , h e e d i n g no o n e , as  " s t a r e d " or  seems i n e v i d e n c e .  the  a n d h e a v e n when he l o o k s a t  times w i t h i n the  significant  Lord  Old S i n g l e t o n , must d i e w i t h i n  that  such as " g l a n c e d " o r  pattern  love w i t h the  s u g g e s t e d , i s h e l d up b y A l l i s t o u n ' s  i n the unearthly  itself  ful  according to  Podmore s e e s v i s i o n s o f h e l l  ship, it  living lost  importance  in  a  of D a r k n e s s " K u r t z ' s  C o n s t a n t l y p l a y i n g i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f The N i g g e r i s  own i m a g e .  the  a n o v e l around  c o n t a i n meaning f o r  N a r c i s s u s m y t h i n w h i c h a y o u n g man f a l l s his  important  at  centres  record  s e a and  emotion taunts  looks at h i m — " a gaze u n b e l i e v i n g , frightened  by t h e menace o f  being  And as h i s  condition worsens,  26 shut  up a l o n e i n  the d a r k " ( 1 5 3 ) .  seems t o D o n k i n t h a t  "only his  eyes appeared a l i v e " ( 1 5 4 ) ;  Donkin s t a r t s  the door,  he t u r n s  toward  b l a z e up a n d go o u t  at  sweeping b l o w " ( 1 5 4 - 5 5 ) .  once, l i k e  "just  i n time  to  two l a m p s o v e r t u r n e d  To some e x t e n t  the eye imagery  lastly  it as  see W a i t ' s  together  eyes  by a  i n The N i g g e r  82  s u g g e s t s t h a t W a i t does n o t own d e c l i n e ; w h i l e visions  of  s e e , or r a t h e r  prefers not  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , S i n g l e t o n h a s t h e  an o r a c l e , and Podmore t h o s e o f  a fanatic.  alternately  sees i t s e l f  i n W a i t and i n  sees almost  everything,  even p e r c e i v i n g W a i t ' s  the  the  ship.  his  enigmatic  Ironically,  Donkin  true condition,  but  t h i n g s he sees a r e c o n s t a n t l y m i s a p p r e h e n d e d , as he f i l t e r s Donkin, then,  i n terms of h i m s e l f ;  example, e f f e c t s  an image of h i s  the  light  of  Wait's death, for  own i n e v i t a b l e  Also linked to of  see,  The c r e w  perception through h i s anarchic z e a l .  is  to  the  sight  i n the novel i s  l a n d and t h e l i g h t  of  light  that never h e s i t a t e d i n  of  the great  light  b e i n g p a i d , the crew goes o u t —  as i f  b l i n d e d by the  equivalent appears  strange q u a l i t y  suggests the i n a b i l i t y  l a n d where the  "small p i l e  to what the  solidarity  Wait  of  distorted here;  "his  the  of  the hazy l i g h t " ( 1 7 0 ) . function  considered the  a good c r e w a t  to  sea does i n knowledge of  sea.  s i m p l y o n e e l e m e n t on l a n d : s i g h t moves t o w a r d s  marked  hardly  clumsily, The  adequately  Mint tale"(172).  the c a p i t a l i s t  ethic,  self,  the  endeavour supplant  The m o r a l p o l a r i t i e s  n o r does  the true aboard the  soliNarcissus—  S i n g l e t o n and A l l i s t o u n — a r e r e d u c e d Donkin i s  triumphant.  on  sufficient  a marble palace i n a f a i r y a monument  quality  shore"(168).  "they b l i n k e d , h e s i t a t e d  gold" is  p r o v i d e d by c a p i t a l i s t  it  hands,  t h e open s e a , c o u l d  the crew to  the M i n t ,  and D o n k i n opposed t o  crew's  h i s wages:  s e a g i v e s and t e a c h e s , and where t h e  cannot remunerate as the  darity  of  of  " d a z z l i n g and w h i t e l i k e  Vision is  and d a r k n e s s , t h e  gold i n the profound darkness of  After  narrator  only  h i m o n l y as  the sea being c l e a r l y  for  of  sees things  end.  when S i n g l e t o n a p p r o a c h e s t h e p a y - t a b l e  f i n d the small p i l e  his  to  Whether or not  the  S i n g l e t o n ' s o r D o n k i n ' s i s u n r e s o l v e d , and  83 the n a r r a t o r ' s  a m b i g u o u s and e l e g i a c f a r e w e l l  key to the meaning of  their  Marvin Mudrick i n his Nigger of phor:  the  insufficient  experience. e s s a y "The A r t i s t ' s  'Narcissus '" faults  " o c c a s i o n a l l y , at  remains an  C o n s c i e n c e and The  Conrad f o r merely d e c o r a t i v e m e t a -  least, his  c h o i c e o f m e p a p h o r seems c a l c u l a t e d  2 rather  t o i m p r e s s us w i t h h i s  Mudrick i s  in part  more f l o r i d  style  d i s a p p e a r e d by t h e ful  work of  correctly  the  correct—  ingenuity there  discerned.  In p a r t ,  c o l o u r and m o t i o n ,  l o u d n e s s and q u a l i t y Nigger are greater thematic lacks  at  of  least,  sound.  t h e more m a s t e r -  t h a t M u d r i c k and o t h e r s  of v i s u a l elements w i t h a  more i m a g i n a t i v e  of  lively  a good c r i t i c a l  s h o r t c o m i n g s and w r o t e t o G a r n e t t o f  the The  and e n e r g e t i c ,  the e a r l i e r n o v e l .  The R o v e r - a n d e a g e r f o r  have  the mastery Conrad d i s p l a y s  The s i m i l e s a n d m e t a p h o r s o f  in variety,  and  altogether  i n e m p h a s i s t h a n t h o s e i n The R o v e r , w h i c h , a l t h o u g h  though :fond of  subject";  and a u r a l t o n e s w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o  t h e e n e r g y and e x c i t e m e n t  nized its  The N i g g e r i s  d e s p i t e the f a u l t s  his  Conrad's early  remnants t h a t have  t i m e o f The R o v e r .  resides p r e c i s e l y i n the p o r t r a y a l sense of  are remnants of  i n The N i g g e r , b u t  two,  than to i l l u m i n a t e  its  more competent,  Conrad h i m s e l f , reception,  recog-  weaknesses, e s p e c i a l l y  28 i n regard to c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . To B r u n o W i n a v e r , who h a d s u g g e s t e d a d r a m a b a s e d on t h e n o v e l , h e s p o k e o f i t s l a c k o f v i s u a l e f f e c t s . A s t o i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r t h e s t a g e , I was a t f i r s t surprised. B u t on t h i n k i n g i t o v e r I s e e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , t h o u g h o f c o u r s e I do n o t s e e t h e way i n w h i c h i t c o u l d b e v i s i b l y p r e s e n t e d and s p i r i t u a l l y r e n d e r e d i n s p o k e n w o r d s . But i t i s a f a c t t h a t the book has got v e r y l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n , v e r y f e w d i s q u i s i t i o n s , and i s 29 f o r t h e most p a r t i n d i a l o g u e en forme p a r l e e . But the n o v e l , i f  not  as s t r i k i n g  v i s u a l l y a s The N i g g e r a n d some o f  e a r l y w o r k s , a p p e a l s t o o n e ' s emotions and s e n t i m e n t s , a canon t h a t  the  Conrad a p p l i e d to to  Garnett  sentiments.  art.  in a letter  In  a slightly  that:  it  was  e l e g i a c t o n e he had "A t h i n g  of  remarked  sentiment—of  many  Footnotes  1 M i m e s i s and M e t a p h o r : An I n q u i r y i n t o the G e n e s i s and Scope o f C o n r a d ' s S y m b o l i c I m a g e r y (The H a g u e : Mouton, 1967), p. 112. 2 Yelton,  p.  111.  3 Joseph Conrad: The I m a g e d S t y l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1970), p. 9.  (Nashville,  Tenn.:  Vanderbilt  4 Dowden, p.  51.  5 " C r i t e r i a f o r S t y l e A n a l y s i s , " W o r d , 15 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 1 5 6 . F o r an o p p o s i t e p o i n t o f v i e w s e e R i c h a r d O h m a n n ' s " G e n e r a t i v e Grammars a n d t h e C o n c e p t o f L i t e r a r y S t y l e , " W o r d , 20 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 4 2 3 - 3 9 . 6 Guy de M a u p a s s a n t , " L e r o m a n , " P i e r r e e t J e a n ( 1 8 9 0 ; r p t . P a r i s : C o n r a d , 1 9 2 9 ) , p. x x v . See a l s o George J . W o r t h ' s " C o n r a d ' s D e b t t o M a u p a s s a n t i n t h e P r e f a c e t o The N i g g e r o f t h e ' N a r c i s s u s , ' " J E G P , 54 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 7 0 0 - 0 4 . 7 See W . R . M a r t i n ' s "The C a p t a i n o f t h e N a r c i s s u s , " E S A , 6 (September 1 9 6 3 ) , 191-97 f o r an a l l e g o r i c a l r e a d i n g o f W a i t and A l l i s t o u n . 8 "The N i g g e r of the ' N a r c i s s u s ' : M y t h , M i r r o r , Wascana R e v , 2 N o . 2 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 29.  and  Metropolis,"  9 K e n n e t h B e r n a r d i n " C o n r a d ' s F o o l s o f I n n o c e n c e i n The N i g g e r o f the ' N a r c i s s u s , ' " C o n r a d i a n a , 2 ( F a l l 1969), 49-57 contends e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e , t h a t " I t i s W a i t a n d w h a t he r e p r e s e n t s t h a t h a s b r o k e n " S i n g l e t o n , p. 54. 10 Yelton,  p.  155.  11 R o b e r t F . H a u g h , " D e a t h and C o n s e q u e n c e s : J o s e p h C o n r a d ' s A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s F a t e , " U n i v . o f K a n s a s C i t y R e v , 18 ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 197. 12 Martin,  p.  196.  13 J o s e p h C o n r a d , " T o My R e a d e r s i n A m e r i c a , " The P o r t a b l e C o n r a d , e d . M o r t o n D. Z a b e l ; r e v . F r e d e r i c k R . K a r l (New Y o r k : Viking, 1947; r p t . 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 292. 14 Symbol and M e a n i n g i n Mouton, 1965), p. 39.  the F i c t i o n  of  J o s e p h C o n r a d (The H a g u e :  15 " J a m e s W a i t a n d The N i g g e r 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 179.  of  the  ' N a r c i s s u s , ' " ESA, 8  (September  16 See M a r i a G r z e d z i e l s k a ' s "Grande e t p e t i t e m e t a p h o r e , " R o d z a j o w L i t e r a c k i c h , 14 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 6 3 - 7 3 .  Zagadnienia  17 Yelton,  p.  209.  18 " C o n r a d ' s L a s t N o v e l , " E L T , 12  (1969),  p.  194.  19 J e a n - A u b r y i n h i s essay i n George T . K e a t i n g ' s A Conrad Memorial L i b r a r y (Garden C i t y , N . Y . : Doubleday, 1 9 2 9 ) , p p . 326-36 notes t h a t C o n r a d s p e n t some w e e k s i n C o r s i c a a n d S o u t h e r n F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1921 i n o r d e r t o g e t n e a r t h e s c e n e o f S u s p e n s e . The v i s i t i n c l u d e d a c a r r i d e f r o m N i c e t o T o u l o n w h e r e C o n r a d spent a n i g h t . The p r e c i s i o n o f C o n r a d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s i n The R o v e r i s a t t e s t e d t o b y J e a n - A u b r y who t r a v e l l e d t o t h e T o u l o n a r e a , E s c a m p o b a r i o u , and to the G i e n s P e n i n s u l a w i t h t h a t n o v e l s p e c i f i c a l l y i n mind. 20 W.R. M a r t i n , " A l l e g o r y 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 189.  i n C o n r a d ' s The R o v e r , " E S A , 10  (September  21 F o r a r e a d i n g o f t h e n o v e l b a s e d on t h i s myth see D a v i d L e o n H i g d o n ' s " C o n r a d ' s The R o v e r : The Grammar o f a M y t h , " S N N T S , 1 (Spring 1969), 17-26. 22 The M e t a p h y s i c s o f D a r k n e s s : of Conrad's F i c t i o n (Baltimore, p. 182.  A, S t u d y i n t h e U n i t y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Md.: Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1971),  23 T h i s e x a m p l e comes f r o m Seymour C h a t m a n ' s " O n t h e T h e o r y L i t e r a r y S t y l e , " L i n g u i s t i c s , 27 (November 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 7 .  of  24 Stephen U l l m a n , S t y l e i n the French Novel U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 196.  (Cambridge:  Cambridge  25 F l e i s h m a n , p.  194.  26 See P a u l M. K i r s c h n e r ' s C o n r a d : The P s y c h o l o g i s t (Edinburgh: O l i v e r and B o y d , 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 200-06 f o r debt to M a u p a s s a n t ' s B e l - A m i i n t h i s s c e n e .  as A r t i s t Conrad's  27 " T h e A r t i s t ' s C o n s c i e n c e a n d The N i g g e r N C F , 11 ( M a r c h 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 2 9 3 .  of  the  'Narcissus,'"  28 S e e t h e l e t t e r o f 4 December 1923 i n L e t t e r s f r o m J o s e p h Conrad 1895-1924, e d . Edward G a r n e t t ( I n d i a n o p o l i s : BobbsM e r r i l l , 1928), pp. 297-301. 29 G. Jean-Aubry, Joseph Conrad: L i f e and L e t t e r s City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1927), p. 335. 30 Garnett,  p.  296. L e t t e r  of  21 November  1921.  Vol.  2  (Garden  Chapter V Conclusions Having presented a detailed analyses of a number of s t y l i s t i c features i n Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus" and The Rover, certain general conclusions about the integration of form and content in these particular novels and about the value of a study of style as related to an understanding of theme can be offered: 1) Conrad's attitude towards and interest in style i s demonstrably different i n the early and later parts of his career. At the beginning, the occasionally tortured syntax, over-conscious rhythms, and overmodified substantives are perhaps due to too close an imitation of his French models, Flaubert and Maupassant. Although these flaws are most apparent i n the two novels written before The Nigger, they s t i l l appear in that work and occasionally mar later productions, even Lord Jim. Towards the later part of Conrad's career there i s a notable decline i n the interest i n s t y l i s t i c virtuosity as an element i n i t s e l f and a movement towards a generally less-complex and less self-conscious style. 2) A movement towards more conventional structure and style, suggesting, perhaps  a more conventional world view, i s discernable i n the fiction of  the later period. Although the style i s competent, often.assured, i t i s 88  89  at  times  l a c k i n g i n e n e r g y and f r e s h n e s s .  the  same s i m i l e s and m e t a p h o r s  the  effectiveness  3)  The r e l i a n c e  c h a r a c t e r s does not works. alive  or f a i l s  is  not  of  this  style  to  apparent  it  do s o .  the  appreciably in  in  theatre  the  the  art.  relationship figures  influenced this " e n forme  4)  in  of  dialogue  the  e a r l y and  later  dialogue  of  again in  to  Victory firm  control  as a f a c e t  of  d r a m a a n d t h e n o v e l more  a r e t h o s e who a r e m o s t  alloted  comes  a r e of  particular  a work i s , them.  frequently  then,  importance;  partially  Conrad's brief  interest  p r e c e d i n g The R o v e r seem t o as b e i n g l a r g e l y  a  a  have dialogue  parlee."  the  "as i f "  to  as t r a d i t i o n a l  and e s p e c i a l l y i n consistently  similes  and a c t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d .  simile,  those of  o c c u r s so f r e q u e n t l y  the e a r l y  p e r c e i v e d the u n i v e r s e  The s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l  a technical  and " a s t h o u g h "  seems t o  t h e manner i n w h i c h an a c t i o n i s  t h e way i n w h i c h o b j e c t s  gested.  between the  n o v e l , w h i c h Conrad spoke of  C o n r a d ' s use of  as w e l l  novels.  analyzing dialogue  dominate  the y e a r s d i r e c t l y  a special sensitivity to  In  a u d i e n c e o r whose u t t e r a n c e s  amount  that  t h e means b y w h i c h a n o v e l e i t h e r  t h e way i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s come t o of  example,  individualizing  The h e a v i l y m e l o d r a m a t i c  As i n drama, major  result  early  v i v i d n e s s and f o r  the n o v e l i s t ' s  one a l s o s e e s t h e  presented to  is  i n the  i n The R o v e r , s h o w i n g t h a t C o n r a d i s  aspect of  clearly.  for  those  seem t o d i f f e r  Used e f f e c t i v e l y ,  for  are e n c o u n t e r e d a g a i n and a g a i n w i t h o u t  and v i v i d n e s s o f  on d i a l o g u e  One n o t e s ,  of  d e v i c e p e r m i t t i n g the  period, i n terms  performed  T h i s type  of  simile,  of mind  which  a n a l o g y seems t o be  a c t i o n s and e v e n t s t r a n s m i s s i o n of  and  i n Conrad's novels,  that a state of  indicate  this  finds  sug-  expression  uniquely  in  personal  90 vision  to  others.  i n many o f  The a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c  the n o v e l s , i s  a n a l o g y , and i s  often  v i d u a l metaphors  and  5)  The n a r r a t i v e  a v o i d s the Nostromo, insight  the  result  method,  and p r o f u n d i t y  other,  afforded  skirts  organized narrative method i s  6)  If  novel's though  at  the  and e q u a l l y d i s a l l o w s  on t h e  method.  solutions  For i t s  of  e m p h a s i s on c h a r a c t e r  of  the  to  of  deal with worlds  in  relative  more p e r s o n a l a n d d o m e s t i c . particularly  in  in  types  complexly  its  narrative  In  of  the  and p e r s o n a l i t y . these  Indeed, are  or w i t h i n a  The N i g g e r c h a r a c t e r of  Although both  the  per  work  novels  one s e n s e s t h a t The N i g g e r h a s  The R o v e r i s more c o n f i n e d ,  Needless to  the  Victory,  a result  symbolic implications  isolation,  the  a n d e m p h a s i s on  conflicts,  consciousness.  greater universal concerns, while  brilliant  show.  a social unit,  and R e a l ' s .  reader's  the  aims, however,  i n The R o v e r i s  de-emphasized w i t h the  of  The R o v e r  p r e s e n t e d b y a more  with interior  context  such as A r l e t t e ' s  of vague grandeur  indi-  Lord J i m ,  the n a r r a t i v e  limited  have a t t e m p t e d  forefront  perceptible  of  one h a n d The R o v e r a v o i d s  possibilities  r e s o l v e d w i t h i n the  slightly  simple  prose, of  s u c h a s The N i g g e r ,  preoccupation with P e y r o l ' s perceptions  relationship,  the  effect  by the e x p l o r a t i o n  the n o v e l concerns i t s e l f  largely  se i s  the  s u c c e s s f u l , as I  A greater  cumulative  and hence the n a r r a t i v e  those works.  it  the  present  similes.  c l u m s i n e s s and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y on t h e  of  and Under W e s t e r n E y e s ,  in  so c l e a r l y  a v e r s i o n on a g r a n d s c a l e o f  d a n g e r s c o u r t e d by works  perspective  universe,  say, the e f f e c t  of v o c a b u l a r y u s e d .  f o u n d i n The N i g g e r a n d t h e  rhetorical  slightly  on s t y l e  is  The p a s s a g e s flourishes  91 a c h i e v e d b y means o f v e r y c a r e f u l l y m o d u l a t e d r h y t h m s  are absent  from  The R o v e r .  7)  A s shown b y C o n r a d ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n  and by h i s lutionary  p r e s e n t a t i o n of politics  Scevola,  forth in  b o t h The N i g g e r a n d The R o v e r i s c h a r a c t e r s who r e p r e s e n t  the e a r l y n o v e l s .  the e x p l o r a t i o n  on p o l i t i c s b u t  between t h e i r  on t h e  stylistic  of  substantially  A common p o i n t themes t h r o u g h  and S c e v o l a ,  novel returns  concerns of h i s e a r l y  to  the  In  a sense,  I n The N i g g e r , a n d p r e - e m i n e n t l y  and s i m i l e convey theme, w h i l e these elements are e i t h e r  precept  themes, i n c l u d i n g  to b o t h .  the  a change i n w o r l d - v i e w ,  and  of  two  two  solidarity.  theme o f  i n the middle  badly botched, as, I  in  think, This  completed  t o The R o v e r  t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e of  o t h e r n o v e l s , n o t a b l y The N i g g e r a n d L o r d J i m .  metaphor  or  less  seems t o b e r e l a t e d  to  narrative  e x i s t e n c e l e s s and l e s s  s t a s i s that appear f r e q u e n t l y  been s e t t l e d . u p o n .  last  in Victory,  i n The R o v e r i n -  d i c a t e a more s e c u r e w o r l d , m o r e s o l i d a n d l e s s m y s t e r i o u s  have d e f i n i t e l y  d e a t h and  period novels,  i n the n o v e l s from V i c t o r y  also reflected  In  work.  method, w i t h C o n r a d ' s concern w i t h the r e a l i t y The i m a g e s o f  of  Conrad i n h i s  h e a v i l y r e l i e d upon as v e h i c l e s f o r m e a n i n g .  the  revo-  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , one d i s c o v e r s a  resurrection central  evident.  towards  l a s t novel d i d not  s o c i a l anarchy, Wait  these novels f o r  relationship  8)  a d d r e s s i n The R o v e r  P e y r o l and O l d S i n g l e t o n , who a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g a b a l a n c e d  s o c i e t y — b a s e d not juxtaposing  direct  Conrad's attitudes  as e x p r e s s e d i n h i s  change from t h e v i e w s put  characters,  of  than i n  What i s  real  some o f seems  to  92  9)  A stylistic  matic  for  the  a p p r o a c h t o The N i g g e r t e n d s t o make l e s s  r e a d e r t h e much d e b a t e d q u e s t i o n o f  Considered s t y l i s t i c a l l y , the  are not  One o f  i s h i s use of  the e a r l y  modulation  the n a r r a t o r ' s  effectiveness  the of  constructed;  voice giving  problems w i t h p o i n t  rhythm  stories,  effect.  it  the d e s c r i p t i v e  type  "The L a g o o n . "  passages,  speed or g r a v i t y .  In  of  p r o s e known a s  The N i g g e r  and a l l o w s f o r  the  confined to  it  i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t  i n d i c a t i n g h i s growth  r i c a l novel—may i n part  cause f o r  succeeds i n  self-exploration with this  novel place l i m i t a t i o n s setting  feature  of h i s  in a traditional  be t h e  style,  on b o t h t h e  the  that  perhaps in  style.  genre—that  of  the  The R o v e r ' s c o n s e r v a t i v e  fusing ethical  genre,  the n o v e l i n  interest  t h e w o r k s up t o N o s t r o m o ; a f t e r  and l e s s i d i o s y n c r a t i c  Conrad's desire to write  creation  Conrad's  away f r o m F r e n c h m o d e l s a n d a n i n t e r e s t  c r e a t i n g a more i d i o m a t i c  A l t h o u g h he p a r t i a l l y  the  the  A n e m p h a s i s on r h y t h m i s a c c o m -  rhythm i s  largely  on  p a s s a g e s i n The N i g g e r a n d some  a l s o l e d to the in  Conrad's  Although a concentration  in  in  view  p r o s e p e r m i t s emphasis and d e - e m p h a s i s , h e i g h t e n s  the i m p r e s s i o n of  Clearly,  of  for  onomatopoeic words and p h r a s e s .  of  the  l e a s t d i s c u s s e d a s p e c t s of  panied by the use of  11)  view.  but  e s p e c i a l l y evident  of  of  approach, they are minimized.  t h e w r i t i n g o f many f i n e short  "Conradese",  i s harmoniously  Though t h e  the most i m p o r t a n t  rhythm l e d to  of  consistency.  e l i m i n a t e d by t h i s  technique  of  text  c r e a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f  impression of  10)  the  point  proble-  c o n c e r n s and the  conventions of  form and c o n t e n t  the  style. novel  histroical  o f The R o v e r .  post-Revolutionary France  histo-  certain  93  stylistic  effects  are almost  required,  for  example, the  use o f F r e n c h p h r a s e s , e x p r e s s i o n s , and forms o f l i s h mood a n d t o a l s o to  provide couleur l o c a l e .  demand a f a i r l y  stylistic  effects  12)  conventional narrative  method,  and  dialogue,  the h i g h l y  complex f r e e  relationship  tend to  permit greater  subtlety  a more d r a m a t i c q u a l i t y  A stylistic  themes of  stylistic  thematic  to  study of  leads i n e v i t a b l y ,  the  indirect  between d i a l o g u e and  p r o s e and a l s o e m p h a s i z e s the i m p o r t a n c e  types of  as t h i s  the n o v e l s .  features  content.  of  tone.  and c o m p l e x i t y of  the  These t e c h n i q u e s structure  and  The N i g g e r o f  the  " N a r c i s s u s " a n d The R o v e r  essay demonstrates, In  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of  a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n and  learns  o n l y i n d i c a t e s a way b y w h i c h one d e a l s  Most c l e a r l y ,  i n d i s c u s s i n g imagery and the  one i s  between a p a r t i c u l a r  style  it  the  presents.  of C o n r a d ' s  e m p h a s i s on t h e v i s u a l , a u r a l , a n d t a c t i l e As Conrad h i m s e l f  of  discussing  t e c h n i q u e and the c o n t e n t the  with  types  l e d to o b s e r v a t i o n s about  have t r i e d t o emphasize what i s u n i q u e about  physical universe.  give  narrative.  d i a l o g u e and n a r r a t i v e  novels with their  and  narrative  one e n c o u n t e r s t h e w o r k s a s a w h o l e ,  tag " s t y l i s t i c "  relationship  the  high-  style  i m a g e r y one d e a l s w i t h p a t t e r n s w h i c h r e v e a l t h e m e , a n d i n  of  instead  features  m o n o l o g u e i n The N i g g e r a n d The R o v e r d e m o n s t r a t e s  c l o s e and i n t r i c a t e  I  virtuoso  i n The R o v e r .  interior  that  estab-  The h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l seems  c h a r a c t e r and r e a l i s t i c  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the  address to  are a l s o de-emphasized w i t h a s t r e s s placed  on t h e c r e a t i o n o f lighted  frequent  qualities  r e a l i z e d , t h e way one  describes truth i s  dependent  on t h e way one s e e s i t ,  one s e e s i s  dependent  Conrad t h i s  is  appreciates  i n Conrad--a f a i t h f u l  experience fullness  of  on o n e ' s means o f  primarily  through  through  a style  the experience  that  the  itself.  apprehension,  senses.  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