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Motif of the prodigal son in Rembrandt's art Kruschen, Franziska Margarete Leopoldine 1973

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THE MOTIF OF THE PRODIGAL SON IN REMBRANDT'S ART  by  FRANZISKA M.L.  KRUSCHEN  M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL THE REQUIREMENTS  FULFILLMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Fine A r t s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  ^r\jr\&  /Vy-tr  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  { \  <XjprJL  {  i973-  ii  ABSTRACT  The f o l l o w i n g study p r e s e n t s a v i s u a l Rembrandt a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P r o d i g a l one of two e p i s o d e s from t h a t s t o r y ;  analysis  Son s t o r y .  Essentially,  the P r o d i g a l  the t a v e r n and h i s r e t u r n to h i s f a t h e r ' s  o f those works by they  depict  Son among the h a r l o t s  in  house.  Tumpel, i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n o f 1968, p a r t s o f which have been p u b l i s h e d i n the the t h e s i s  Nederlands K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h Jaarboek o f 1969, has  t h a t Rembrandt's  interpretation  as had been p r e v i o u s l y supposed, but was,  o f the B i b l e was not as in fact  heavily  presented subjective  dependent on g r a p h i c  works o f the 16th and 17th C e n t u r i e s , which r e p r e s e n t the new Baroque  iconography.  The p a i n t i n g i n the Dresden Gema'ldegalerie, o f h i m s e l f d r e s s e d as a c a v a l i e r w i t h a woman on h i s knee, which at once r e p r e s e n t s a double and a scene o f the P r o d i g a l  Son i n the t a v e r n ,  is  in its  imagery  rooted i n a n o r t h e r n t r a d i t i o n o f m o r a l i s t i c t a v e r n s c e n e s . begins w i t h p a i n t i n g s , such as Lucas van L e y d e n ' s dated c.  1520, o r Van Hemessen's " P r o d i g a l  the B r u s s e l ' s Biblical  Museum.  story,  its  This  portrait  strongly tradition  " C a r d p l a y e r s " , in Munich,  S o n " , s i g n e d and dated 1536, i n  While Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t s a scene from the  importance l i e s  not i n i t s  narrative  a s p e c t , but i n  its  m o r a l i s t i c message. Rembrandt, i n h i s d e p i c t i o n o f the P r o d i g a l 1636 e t c h i n g and i n h i s l a t e r well e s t a b l i s h e d p i c t o r i a l  Son's  r e t u r n , both i n  his  p a i n t i n g i n the Hermitage i s again w i t h i n a  t r a d i t i o n , popular p a r t i c u i a r i l y  a t i o n I t a l y , but found a l s o i n Northern g r a p h i c works.  i n Counter-Reform-  Rembrandt uses a  g r a p h i c example as a d i r e c t p r o t o t y p e f o r h i s e t c h i n g . The changes t h a t he makes i n h i s model a r e , they suggest a c o n s c i o u s attempt  to r e d e f i n e  its  however,  significant,  iconographic i m p l i c a t i o n s .  The Hermitage p a i n t i n g i n c o r p o r a t e s even g r e a t e r changes.  In  it  has p l a c e d a f a r g r e a t e r emphasis on the union o f f a t h e r and s o n , by h i s o f c o m p o s i t i o n , the l i g h t i n g and by the e x p r e s s i o n s o f peace and s e r e n i t y the f a c e s o f the two f i g u r e s .  for  he choice in  He has a l s o p l a c e d an unprecedented importance  on a t h i r d f i g u r e ; a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e , dressed i n r e d , to the r i g h t o f the main g r o u p , whose r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h a t group i s , however, ambiguous.  He i s  possibly  the o l d e r b r o t h e r .  His'attribution  to Rembrandt, as well as t h a t o f  the  o t h e r s u r r o u n d i n g f i g u r e s , has been q u e s t i o n e d . The changes may express Rembrandt's although more d e f i n i t e moment, immature.  personal  c o n c l u s i o n s on the p a i n t i n g ' s  religious subject  orientation,  a r e , at  this  iv  Table of Contents  Page  Introduction and Historical Perspective  1  Chapter I:  Rembrandt's Dresden Painting  8  Chapter II:  "The Return of the Prodigal Son"  24  Footnotes  38  Bibliography  56  Appendix  61  V  L i s t of Abbreviations  B.  Adam B a r t s c h , Catalogue Raisonne de Toutes l e s  Estampes  qui Forment 1 'Oeuvre de Rembrandt, e t Ceux de ses Principaux  I m i t a t e u r s , 2 v o l s . , V i e n n a : 1797.  The numbers o f the works given by B a r t s c h l o c a t e d i n C h r i s t o p h e r White and Karel Rembrandt E t c h i n g s .  can be  G. Boon,  An I l l u s t r a t e d C r i t i c a l  Catalogue,  2 v o l s . Amsterdam: Van Gendt & C o . , 1969.  Bauch  Kurt Bauch, Rembrandt Gema*lde, B e r l i n :  W a l t e r de  G r u y t e r & C o . , 1966. Ben. o r Benesch  O t t o Benesch, The Drawings o f Rembrandt, F i r s t Complete E d i t i o n , 6 v o l s , London: Phaidon P r e s s ,  Bergstrom  1954-57.  Ingvar B e r g s t r o m , "Rembrandt's Double P o r t r a i t o f hims e l f and S a s k i a at the Dresden G a l l e r y " ,  Nederlands Kunst-  h i s t o r i s c h J a a r b o e k , #17, 1966, pp. 143-169. Br.  The P a i n t i n g s  o f Rembrandt, e d . by A. B r e d i u s , V i e n n a :  Phaidon P r e s s , 1936. Bredius-Gerson  A. B r e d i u s , Rembrandt, The Complete E d i t i o n o f the  Paintings,  Revised by H. G e r s o n , London: P h a i d o n , 1969. Gerson  Horst G e r s o n , Rembrandt P a i n t i n g s . Norden, Ed. by Gary Schwartz.  T r a n s l a t e d by Heinz  New Y o r k :  Reynal  in  a s s o c i a t i o n with W. Morrow, 1968. Haak  Bob Haak, Rembrandt, His L i f e , Work and T i m e s , London: Thames & Hudson, 1969.  H. de Groot  C. Hofstede de G r o o t , A Catalogue Raisonne o f the Works  vi  o f the most Eminent Dutch P a i n t e r s o f the Century.  T r a n s l a t e d and E d i t e d by E.G.  Seventeenth  Hawke, 8 v o l s . ,  London: MacMillan and C o . , L t d . , 1916, V o l . Tumpel  VI.  C h r i s t i a n Tumpel, " I k o n o g r a p h i s c h e B e i t r a g e zu Rembrandt zur Deutung und I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  seiner Historien"  Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen X I I I , 1968, pp.  Urkunden  95-126.  Die Urkunden uber Rembrandt 1575-1721 . Hofstede de G r o o t , The Hague:  Valentiner  (1904)  E d i t e d by Cornell's  M. N i j h o f f , 1906.  Rembrandt^ des M e i s t e r s Gem'dlde, S t u t t g a r t :  Deutsche  V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1904. Valentiner  (1908)  Rembrandt des M e i s t e r GemcMde, 3rd E d i t i o n , S t u t t g a r t :  Deutsche,  V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1908. Valentiner  (1925)  Rembrandt des M e i s t e r s Handzeichnungen, 2 v o l s . Deutsche V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1925.  Stuttgart:  vii  I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to P r o f e s s o r G. f o r h i s encouragement and h e l p f u l  criticism.  Rosenberg  1.  Introduction  !  and H i s t o r i c a l  Perspective  A number o f works i n the Rembrandt corpus have, a t v a r i o u s  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the theme of the P r o d i g a l  Son.  These a r e :  times,  1) a p a i n t i n g  now i n the Dresden G e m S l d e g a l e r i e ^ , which over the y e a r s has been  variously 2  titled,  and which i n the l a t e s t  complete c a t a l o g u e o f Rembrandt's works  been given as "Rembrandt and S a s k i a " It  i s s i g n e d "Rembrandt f"  ("The  on the l e f t  no documentary b a s i s f o r i t s  Prodigal  has  Son i n the T a v e r n ? " ) .  at 1/2 h e i g h t a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e  dating, i t  i s p l a c e d by most s c h o l a r s  is  somewhere  3 between the y e a r s 1634-1636 . 2)  A p a i n t i n g i n the Hermitage, s i g n e d "R v Ryn f"  b e s i d e the s o n ' s l e f t  a t the lower  left  f o o t , i n an unusual f a s h i o n , which makes Bredius-Gerson 4  q u e s t i o n the a u t h e n t i c i t y Its  o f the s i g n a t u r e , although not t h a t o f the p a i n t i n g  t i t l e has u s u a l l y been g i v e n as "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Son".  Its 5  date i s  a l s o not f i x e d , but i s g e n e r a l l y 3)  the  p l a c e d near the end o f the 1660's .  An e t c h i n g , s i g n e d and dated 1636, r e p r e s e n t i n g "The Return  of  Son" . 6  4)  A number o f d r a w i n g s ,  5)  The p a i n t i n g , u s u a l l y c a l l e d "The P o l i s h R i d e r " , which has been  7  and  i n t e r p r e t e d by C o l i n Cambell as the P r o d i g a l  S o n ' s d e p a r t u r e from h i s  father's  house . The p a r a b l e o f the P r o d i g a l  Son i s taken from S t .  Luke 15: 11-32:  11  i*  12 And he s a i d , "There was a man who had two s o n s ; and the younger o f them s a i d to h i s f a t h e r , " F a t h e r g i v e me the share o f p r o p e r t y t h a t f a l l s to me". And he d i v i d e d h i s l i v i n g between t h e m . ' Not many days l a t e r , the younger son gathered a l l he had and took h i s j o u r n e y i n t o a f a r c o u n t r y , and t h e r e he squandered h i s p r o p e r t y i n l o o s e l i v i n g . 14 And when he had spent e v e r y t h i n g , a ^ r e a t famine * Note: A l l B i b l i c a l t e x t s c i t e d are taken from the Revised Standard v e r s i o n . 3  .  2.  arose i n t h a t c o u n t r y , and he began to be i n want. So he went and j o i n e d h i m s e l f to one of the c i t i z e n s o f t h a t c o u n t r y , who sent him i n t o h i s f i e l d s to feed swine. ^ A n d he would g l a d l y have fed on the pods that the swine a t e ; and no one gave him a n y t h i n g . ^ B u t when he came to h i m s e l f he s a i d , "How many o f my f a t h e r ' s h i r e d s e r v a n t s have bread enough and to s p a r e , but I p e r i s h here w i t h h u n g e r " . 18l w i l l a r i s e and go to my f a t h e r , and I w i l l say to him, " F a t h e r , I have sinned a g a i n s t heaven and b e f o r e y o u ; 19I am no l o n g e r worthy to be c a l l e d your s o n ; t r e a t me as one o f your h i r e d s e r v a n t s " " . 2D/\ | arose and came to h i s father. But w h i l e he was y e t at a d i s t a n c e , h i s f a t h e r saw him and had compassion, and ran and embraced him and k i s s e d him. 2lAnd the son s a i d to h i m , " F a t h e r , I have sinned a g a i n s t heaven and b e f o r e y o u ; I am no l o n g e r worthy to be c a l l e d your s o n " . 22gut the f a t h e r s a i d to h i s s e r v a n t s , " B r i n g q u i c k l y the best r o b e , and put i t on h i m ; and put a r i n q on h i s hand, and shoes on h i s f e e t ; l e t us eat and make merry; 2 4 f t h i s my son was d e a d , and i s a l i v e a g a i n ; he was l o s t , and i s f o u n d " . And they began to make merry. 25 Now h i s e l d e r son was i n the f i e l d ; and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and d a n c i n g . 26And he c a l l e d one of the servants and asked what t h i s meant. 27And he s a i d to him, "Your b r o t h e r has come, and your f a t h e r has k i l l e d the f a t t e d c a l f , because he has r e c e i v e d him safe and s o u n d " . 28But he was angry and r e f u s e d to go i n . His f a t h e r came out and e n t r e a t e d him, 29but he answered h i s f a t h e r , " L o , these many y e a r s I have served y o u , and I never disobeyed your command; y e t you never gave me a k i d , t h a t I might make merry with my f r i e n d s . %ut when t h i s son of yours came, who has devoured your l i v i n g with h a r l o t s , you k i l l e d f o r him the f a t t e d c a l f " . 3lAnd he s a i d to him, " S o n , you are always with me, and a l l t h a t i s mine i s y o u r s . 3 2 i t was f i t t i n g to make merry and be g l a d , f o r t h i s your b r o t h e r was d e a d , and i s a l i v e ; he was l o s t , and i s f o u n d " . nc  n  e  o r  3  T h i s well parables  known s t o r y was t o l d by C h r i s t as one o f a s e r i e s  of  i n response to the contemptuous remarks made by the P h a r i s e e s  and  \  s c r i b e s about h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with s i n n e r s and p u b l i c a n s . Parables  (Luke 15: 4-7)  tells  coins and, l i k e w i s e ,  tells  searched everywhere  T h i s time i t  is  house and goes i n t o the w o r l d , who i s back to God. from  God.  until  he had found i t ,  the  and the  of the woman who had l o s t one of her ten  continues with the s t o r y o f the P r o d i g a l what has been l o s t .  of  the s t o r y o f the shepherd who had 100 s h e e p , and  when he l o s t one of them, searched everywhere second (Luke 15: 8-9)  The f i r s t  until  she had found i t .  silver  Christ  S o n , which i s a g a i n a s t o r y o f  the young man, who leaves  his  then finding  father's  l o s t and i n need of being found and brought  His s e p a r a t i o n from h i s f a t h e r ' s  house r e p r e s e n t s  his  separation  3.  It  i s not u n t i l  house, t h a t i s ,  he r e c o g n i z e s h i s need to go back to h i s  by a n a l o g y , h i s need f o r God, and repents  God, t h a t he can be taken back.  In t h i s  father's  his separation  from  sense being found means being with  God. (  The " R e t u r n "  to God has w i t h i n  a c t i v e r e t u r n and the o t h e r i s  it  two a s p e c t s .  God's w i l l i n g  The one i s  acceptance of him.  Man's  On the one  hand, Man must r e c o g n i z e h i s need f o r God and repent h i s g o d l e s s ways and then g i v e h i m s e l f to God. therefore,  it  On the other  hand, Man can never be worthy  i s o n l y because of God's i n f i n i t e  of God a n d ,  love and kindness t h a t he  takes Man back. These two aspects o f C h r i s t ' s message are C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s two c h u r c h e s .  and r e s u l t  i n major dogmatic d i f f e r e n c e s  this  have r e j e c t e d  this  by  between  While the C a t h o l i c s have p l a c e d a g r e a t emphasis on the  o f Man's r e p e n t a n c e , embodied d o c t r i n a l l y Protestants  interpreted d i f f e r e n t l y  the  aspect  in the sacrament of penance,  the  s t r o n g emphasis on Man's a c t i o n a n d , with  it,  sacrament. As Emile Male points o u t , the d o c t r i n a l  and the P r o t e s t a n t s ,  d i f f e r e n c e between the  at a time when the church was s t i l l  Catholics  an important  patron  g o f the a r t s , expressed themselves  in art  the sacrament o f penance was r e f l e c t e d  .  The P r o t e s t a n t  i n an i n c r e a s e d emphasis i n  a r t on the theme of r e p e n t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  after  f u n c t i o n o f a r t which s a i d t h a t a r t was to i n s t r u c t their  faith^.  Frequently  hostility  the formal  this  on the  and c o n f i r m the people  r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , were the repentance o f Son.  who were themselves  such as Rubens  12  C a t h o l i c , or who had a s t r o n g l y  , Anthony van Dyck  13  , Guercino  14  , or M u r i l l o  in St.  1 1  c o n n e c t i o n , we may see the numerous works on the s u b j e c t  Penance by a r t i s t s clientele,  Catholic  statements  P e t e r , the p e n i t e n t Magdalen, the p s a l m i s t , D a v i d , and the P r o d i g a l In  towards  of  Catholic 15  .  4. The p a r a b l e has been i n t e r p r e t e d \  since i t s  first  purpose i s  i n a number o f ways i n p i c t o r i a l  art  appearance i n 11th century Byzantine manuscripts i n which  its  narrative.  The i l l u s t r a t i o n s  serve to c l a r i f y ,  The m i n i a t u r e s of the G o s l a r Evangelium from the f i r s t emphasize the r i t u a l  visually,  the  text^ . 7  h a l f o f the 13th century  and symbolic a s p e c t of the p a r a b l e i n which the  feast  18 becomes the f o c a l  p o i n t o f the s t o r y  .  The 13th century B i b l i a  Pauperum used  19 the p a r a b l e i n a t y p o l o g i c a l  sense  chose the scene o f the P r o d i g a l moment of the s t o r y  , w h i l e Dtfrer, i n h i s e n g r a v i n g o f c . 1 4 9 6 ,  Son among the swine as the most  significant  i n which the son r e c o g n i z e s h i s need f o r God.  This  is  20 r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s gaze at  the church s t e e p l e b e f o r e him  In the N o r t h , by the mid-16th c e n t u r y , extensively S.  .  the p a r a b l e was  i n the g r a p h i c a r t s , o f t e n i n the form o f a s e r i e s  Beham, f o r example, i n f o u r b l o c k s dated 1540, i l l u s t r a t e s ,  of the P r o d i g a l  S o n " , 2,  "The P r o d i g a l  illustrated of s c e n e s . 1, "The  Son L i v i n g with H a r l o t s " , 3,  Hans  Departure  "The 21  Prodigal  Son Among the Swine" and 4 , "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  aspect o f the P r o d i g a l  Son s t o r y most f r e q u e n t l y  o f the 16th and i n the 17th c e n t u r y scene d e p i c t i n g the P r o d i g a l a l l u d e d to i n the B i b l i c a l  illustrated  Son"  .  i n the l a t t e r  i n the g r a p h i c a r t s and p a i n t i n g , was  Son's adventures  t e x t with the words, "and the son took h i s  1 3 ) , and the e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s  later  half the  i n the t a v e r n , an episode only journey  i n t o a f a r c o u n t r y , and there he squandered h i s p r o p e r t y i n l o o s e l i v i n g " 15:  The  a c c u s a t i o n o f the P r o d i g a l  (Luke  Son having  22 devoured, with h a r l o t s ,  his f a t h e r ' s  living  (Luke 15: 30)  .  Turnpel  illustrates  23 a s e r i e s o f f o u r scenes by the monogramist M.T. , and two 1543, e l a b o r a t i n g on the P r o d i g a l h i s subsequent e x p u l s i o n from i t . story  two of which are dated 1541  Son's e x p e r i e n c e s i n the t a v e r n  Other r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h i s  and  episode of  the  i n the g r a p h i c a r t s show, a l s o , i n s u b s i d i a r y s c e n e s , other moments from  the P r o d i g a l  Son's  story,  but the tavern  scene o c c u p i e s the major p o s i t i o n .  5.  Gerhard de J o d e , f o r example, made an e n g r a v i n g o f "The P r o d i g a l It  Son i n  Luxury".  was designed by Marten de Cleve and d e p i c t s two c o u p l e s seated outdoors  a t a b l e , w h i l e a m u s i c i a n p l a y s at the l e f t .  at  One o f the young men has h i s hand  r a i s e d h o l d i n g a g l a s s , which i s being f i l l e d by a b a r e - b r e a s t e d woman, w h i l e another s e r v i n g maid keeps t r a c k from a t r e e . i n the l e f t •  o f the d r i n k s consumed on a s c o r e b o a r d hanging  In the r i g h t background i s the P r o d i g a l  Son among the s w i n e , and  b a c k g r o u n d , he i s shown on h i s knees b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r .  \  scene i s f u r t h e r  i d e n t i f i e d by the t e x t at the bottom, " D e l i t y s  The  fruiter  tavern veneris  24 patrisque l i e i  p r o d i g u i s a t p r e m i t u r nox miser ecce fame.  Luc. 1 5 . "  somewhat l a t e r  e t c h i n g by Frans  "Loose l i v i n g " ,  Francken, likewise  time i n s i d e the t a v e r n , w h i l e the P r o d i g a l  depicts  Son among the swine i s  .  A this  indicated  in  25 the n g h t h a n d c o r n e r , i n the d i s t a n c e  ,  P a i n t e d examples are a l s o numerous.  A p a i n t i n g i n the Rijksmuseum,  Amsterdam, a l s o by Frans  F r a n c k e n , again shows t h i s  s c e n e , f o r he makes t h i s  the s u b j e c t o f a l a r g e c e n t r a l  surrounded by e i g h t s m a l l e r r e c t a n g u l a r the s t o r y .  fields  p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the f i e l d , which i s  illustrating  i n h e r i t a n c e , the s o n ' s d e p a r t u r e , h i s e x p u l s i o n from the t a v e r n ,  home, the s l a y i n g o f the c a l f , of t h i s  f o r while tavern  share o f his  and the c e l e b r a t i o n o f the f e a s t  .  the  wanderings  Son among the s w i n e , the  c h o i c e o f scene seems to have been a p a r t i c u l a r l y  then  o t h e r episodes from  These i n c l u d e ; the f a t h e r g i v i n g h i s son h i s r i g h t f u l  as a b e g g a r , h i s search f o r work, the P r o d i g a l  tavern  return  The p o p u l a r i t y  Northern phenomenon,  scenes were being done i n I t a l y , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r  Caravaggio,  27 they had l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n with the P r o d i g a l  Son p a r a b l e  The o t h e r scene from the p a r a b l e f r e q u e n t l y and 17th c e n t u r i e s , e i t h e r scene of the P r o d i g a l history.  .  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  16th  i n a p o s i t i o n o f importance o r i n i s o l a t i o n , was  S o n ' s r e t u r n to h i s f a t h e r ' s  house.  It  the  has a d i f f e r e n t  6.  It  was a p o p u l a r s u b j e c t  that a c t u a l l y  in Catholic countries  embodies the P r o d i g a l  Son's  repentance.  for i t  is  the  "Return"  He has a l r e a d y ,  earlier  i n the s t o r y when he was among the swine, made up h i s mind to go back to father's  house.  It  i s , however,  h i s knees b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r  t h i s moment when he a c t u a l l y  t h a t he f i n a l l y  of -the world i n h i s submission to God. tance.  It  The s u b j e c t appears p a r t i c u l a r l y  falls  his  down on  breaks h i m s e l f away from the is  the a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f h i s  things  repen-  i n the works of I t a l i a n a r t i s t s  of  28 the second h a l f of the 16th and 17th century  .  Domenico F e t t i ,  f o r example,  who p a i n t e d a s e r i e s o f scenes from the p a r a b l e s of C h r i s t chose t h i s  episode  29 i n the P r o d i g a l tecture,  Son s t o r y  .  The s e t t i n g  s i m i l a r to the a r c h i t e c t u r e  is  t h a t o f 16th c e n t u r y palace  in Veronese's p a i n t i n g , "Alexander  archibefore  30 the Family o f D a r i u s " set.  The f a t h e r ,  , w h i l e the f i g u r e s are l i k e  embracing h i s k n e e l i n g s o n , leans s l i g h t l y  looks c o m p a s s i o n a t e l y down at him. Askew i d e n t i f i e s  on a l a r g e  stage  forward as he  The bearded man behind them, whom Pamela  as the e l d e r b r o t h e r , i s g e s t u r i n g a g i t a t e d l y  f i g u r e s come out o f the l a r g e doorway at the r i g h t . The f a t h e r  the a c t o r s  as two o t h e r  A c u r i o u s dog f o l l o w s .  and son h a l f hide two younger f i g u r e s , one of whom holds a  p i g which may a l l u d e to the s o n ' s former l i f e  as a swineherd.  fatted  The l e f t  hand  group c o n s i s t s of a beggar, who, l e a n i n g on a s t i c k , makes a broad gesture towards  the r e u n i t e d p a i r , w h i l e a seated c h i l d i s  S o n ' s bare f e e t .  the  Prodigal  A peasant has come to view the scene w h i l e a mother with her  c h i l d expresses the theme o f f a m i l y A work by Guercino i n T u r i n , before his f a t h e r ,  p o i n t i n g at  who, t h i s  love and p r o t e c t i o n . similarly  represents  the k n e e l i n g son  t i m e , welcomes him with open arms.  In the  back-  ground, s m a l l e r f i g u r e s dressed i n contemporary costume are l o o k i n g on a r r o g a n t l y , 31 one o f them p o i n t i n g at the r e p e n t a n t son  .  7.  G u e r c i n o , i n two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s , r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the Prodigal  S o n ' s r e t u r n home, i n which the i d e a o f repentance no l o n g e r plays a  major r o l e .  Both p a i n t i n g s r e p r e s e n t the c l o t h i n g anew o f the s o n , a gesture  32 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the f a t h e r has taken him back as h i s lawful It  i s a symbolic gesture o f the s o n ' s new s p i r i t u a l  of subject  life.  son and h e i r Rembrandt's  choice  i n both the Dresden and the Hermitage p a i n t i n g and i n the e t c h i n g ,  c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be seen i n the l i g h t o f a very s t r o n g p i c t o r i a l the l a t t e r  .  h a l f o f the 16th and the 17th c e n t u r y .  tradition  in  Chapter  Rembrandt's  I  Dresden  Painting  A young man, d r e s s e d i n a red t u n i c w i t h g o l d t h r e a d women i n t o and white r u f f s on h i s l e f t  s l e e v e with the buttons on the o t h e r s l e e v e undone  and a l a r g e b l a c k plumed h a t , a sideways  i s seated with h i s l e g s p a r a l l e l  p o s i t i o n to the p i c t u r e p l a n e .  f r i n g e and heavy b o o t s ; a t h i s w a i s t i s  he i s  arm l i e s  (fluit),  He has turned h i s head t o  is  r a i s e d as i f  proposing a  His  She has her body turned c o m p l e t e l y i n t o the p i c t u r e , but her head i s s h e , t o o , f a c e s out at the v i e w e r .  right  toast,  a c r o s s the b a c k s i d e o f the woman s e a t e d on h i s  around i n such a way t h a t  knee.  twisted  The woman  wears a pale blue gown and a s h o r t dark v e l v e t bodice o f the s o r t worn i n North i n the 16th c e n t u r y among the more common c l a s s e s . decorating i t ,  in  t i e d a p r i n t e d sash covered by a wide  l o o k i n g out o f the p i c t u r e at the s p e c t a t o r .  hand, h o l d i n g a d r i n k i n g g l a s s while his l e f t  to a t a b l e ,  He a l s o wears red pants w i t h a g o l d  g o l d b e l t from which hangs a g i l t - h a n d l e d r a p i e r . the s i d e so t h a t  it  The j e w e l l e d  the  chain  as w e l l as the golden h a i r d e c o r a t i o n and the p e a r l s hanging from  her e a r s , suggest modest w e a l t h . between her c a l m , s t a t i c her male c o m p a n i o n . 1  A t t e n t i o n has o f t e n been drawn to the  contrast  nature and the dynamic open g e s t u r e and exuberance o f  The t a b l e at which the p a i r are seated has been covered  w i t h a t h i c k r u g , on which i s p l a c e d , i n such a p o s i t i o n t h a t  they are c u t  by the edge o f the p a i n t i n g , a k n i f e , a p l a t e , a g l a s s and a rumpled  off  serviette.  There i s , posed p r o u d l y above these u t e n s i l s , a peacock, i n the form o f a p a s t r y . Its  tail  feathers  extend a c r o s s most o f the p a i n t i n g ' s w i d t h , s p r e a d i n g them-  2 selves  out i n g l o r y behind the young man's plumed hat and the upheld g l a s s  .  On the c o u p l e ' s l e f t ,  protrudes p a r t o f a p i e c e o f f u r n i t u r e which has been  3 suggested as a bed by Tumpel  , and above i t  which may be a s s o c i a t e d , a t l e a s t the top l e f t  in its  hangs a heavy p i e c e o f drapery  c o l o u r i n g , w i t h the bed below.  In  hand c o r n e r , c u t i n h a l f by the edge o f the p a i n t i n g , hangs what  4 has been i d e n t i f i e d by Weisbach, i n 1926 , as a s c o r e b o a r d , i d e n t i f y i n g a as the l o c a t i o n o f the  scene.  One of the f i r s t the s u b j e c t .  Its  tavern  problems with t h i s  p a i n t i n g , i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  t i t l e h a s , over the y e a r s ,  we have no r e c o r d o f i t  been v a r i o u s l y  given.  of  Unfortunately,  b e f o r e 1749, when i t was bought f o r the Dresden G a l l e r y  5 by Le Leu i n P a r i s Dresden G a l l e r y , caresfiert,  .  Ttlmpel p o i n t s out t h a t  i n der Handein Glas mit B i e r h a l t e n d " .  as the a r t i s t .  1  It  art  historians  as a s e l f p o r t r a i t  1899, g i v e s  and i d e n t i f i e s  the  was, a c c o r d i n g to S m i t h , engraved by Riedel and etched by S.  under  Fessard as "Les Oeuvres de  .  Later seeing i t  John S m i t h , i n h i s 1836  6  the p a i n t i n g "Love and Wine"  the t i t l e o f " L a Double J o u i s a n c e " la Vigne"  the  i t was c a l l e d " E i n O f f i z i e r s i t z e n d welcher e i n Frauenzimmer  Catalogue R a i s o n n g , c a l l s "cavalier"  i n the 1754 i n v e n t o r y o f  it  the t i t l e  have e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by S m i t h ,  o f the a r t i s t w i t h h i s w i f e ,  "Rembrandt e t S a s k i a a T a b l e "  o  Saskia.  Bode,  in  , and V a l e n t i n e r ,  in  g  1904, c a l l s  it  " S e l b s t b i l d n i s des K u n s t l e r s mit s e i n e r G a t t i n S a s k i a "  Hofstede de G r o o t , i n 1916, l i k e w i s e i n 1925, V a l e n t i n e r Erbe"  1 1  .  Bauch  restates  (1965),  "Rembrandt und S a s k i a  entitles  1 2  .  "Rembrandt and S a s k i a " ,  and  1 0  the s u b j e c t as "Der V e r l o r e n e Sohn V e r p r a s s t  seems to i g n o r e the B i b l i c a l  allusion, calling  sein  it  i n h i s t o r i s c h e n Kostumen an der T a f e l " and Menz, i n a  r e c e n t c a t a l o g u e o f the Dresden G a l l e r y , Saskia"  it  .  Gerson c a l l s  it  lists  "The P r o d i g a l  it  as " S e l f  Portrait  Son i n the T a v e r n "  1 3  .  with If  the  two  10.  f i g u r e s are i d e n t i f i e d as Rembrandt and h i s w i f e , r e p r e s e n t the tavern as the P r o d i g a l reconcile  scene i n the P r o d i g a l  Son s t o r y ,  Again, various  interpretations  c a t e g o r i e s ; the happy and i d y l l i c an i l l u s t r a t i o n  Rembrandt  How can we  and what c o u l d Rembrandt have meant by such have been s u g g e s t e d , a  s e l e c t i o n of which Bergstrom has r e p r o d u c e d .  life;  f o r i f we accept  Son, we must see h i s w i f e as one of the h a r l o t s .  these two i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  a painting?  S a s k i a , can the p a i n t i n g also  He summarizes them i n  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Rembrandt's  of the l i b e r t i n e  representative these  newly  manners of bohemian a r t i s t ' s  married  life  meant  as a c h a l l e n g e to the b u r g h e r s ; o r , i n c o n n e c t i o n with the P r o d i g a l  Son's  meaning e i t h e r  of the  t h a t Rembrandt and S a s k i a  are p l a y i n g the c h a r a c t e r s  story, story,  14 or t h a t a m o r a l i z i n g content of a more general The problem o f p o s i t i v e l y painting's it  is  identifying  kind has been i m p l i e d the scene i s  present, perhaps, incomplete c o n d i t i o n .  p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a i n t i n g has been c u t down.  compounded by the  F o r , as Tumpel p o i n t s For t h i s  s u g g e s t i o n , he  p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e , p o i n t i n g to a shadow of some s o r t f a l l i n g a c r o s s still  visible  out,  bottom of the s c o r e b o a r d , and the fragmentary p l a t e ,  the  k n i f e and  15 g l a s s on the t a b l e transferred  .  Dr. Mayer-Meintschel  to a new canvas  i n an 1860 r e s t o r a t i o n , so t h a t i t  i m p o s s i b l e to determine on t e c h n i c a l 1g been c u t down  .  has noted t h a t the p a i n t i n g was  p r e s e n t s t a t e to  original  originally,  conception.  The x-ray r e v e a l s  a naked female l u t e n i s t was p o r t r a y e d .  that, 1  to the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a P r o d i g a l  q u e s t i o n here i s whether was done by a l a t e r were three  figures  today,  Evidence p r o v i d e d by an x-ray of the p a i n t i n g , may,  g i v e some c l u e s as to the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i t s  weight  is  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , whether the p a i n t i n g has  hand.  7  however,  Rembrandt's  i n the background  T h i s e v i d e n c e would g i v e  further  Son i n the Tavern was i n t e n d e d .  The  Rembrandt p a i n t e d over the t h i r d f i g u r e , or whether Does t h i s mean t h a t i n the o r i g i n a l  i n s t e a d o f o n l y two?  it  c o n c e p t i o n , there  11.  In a d r a w i n g , "The P r o d i g a l  Son with the Loose Women" dated by Benesch  18 c.  1642-1643  , we have the appearance o f a naked female f i g u r e with a l u t e ,  whq, s t a n d i n g behind the t a b l e engaged couple beneath h e r .  i n a r a i s e d p o s i t i o n , looks down on the amorously  The young man, w i t h a moustache and a l a r g e  over h i s l o o s e l y c u r l e d s h o u l d e r - l e n g t h h a i r , is  is  seated a t a t a b l e .  cap  The c h a i r  pushed back from the t a b l e so t h a t he i s s i t t i n g w i t h h i s l e g s almost  to i t  and h i s body i s  turned outwards  toward the s p e c t a t o r .  a s h i r t with wide s l e e v e s which come t o g e t h e r t i g h t l y  parallel  He i s d r e s s e d i n  a t the c u f f and square  c u t t r o u s e r s which reach over the knees and p o s s i b l y b o o t s , a l t h o u g h t h i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t  to make o u t .  the woman who, i n a r a t h e r  A sword hangs from h i s w a i s t .  inelegant  pose, is  s i t t i n g on h i s l e f t  are l o o k i n g at each o t h e r w i t h s m i l i n g f a c e s .  her b r e a s t s  a n d , i n her l e f t  on her r a i s e d knee.  The two  The h a i r o f the woman i s  fastened  i n t o her f a c e .  h a n d , she holds a d r i n k i n g g l a s s balanced  A r a p i e r , or walking s t a f f ,  carrying  this  painting  c o n t e x t , as c . 1634.  s t a t e m e n t , V a l e n t i n e r would not have been aware o f the p o s s i b l e  t h i r d figure which, i f least  emerges a f i g u r e  i t within  and  has turned her head  V a l e n t i n e r sees t h i s drawing as a study f o r the  which has then been much s i m p l i f i e d , and dates In making t h i s  partially  leans up a g a i n s t the t a b l e  From the background on the l e f t ,  a great p l a t t e r of food.  Small  Her dress has a low-cut b o d i c e e x p o s i n g  a woman s i t t i n g behind the t a b l e , her arm r e s t i n g on i t , towards the c o u p l e .  caressing  knee.  t o g e t h e r at the top o f her h e a d , but s t r a y c u r l s f a l l d r o p - l i k e eairings hang from her e a r s .  He i s  is  not a c t u a l l y  planned i n the p r e l i m i n a r y  p a r t of the f i n i s h e d c o m p o s i t i o n , was  at  stages.  20 Meder, on the o t h e r hand, a t t r i b u t e s In t h i s  the drawing t o Rembrandt's school  c o n t e x t , i t might r e p r e s e n t a copy a f t e r  Both s u g g e s t i o n s seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t ,  another study made by Rembrandt.  a t some t i m e , Rembrandt must have  c o n c e i v e d a work o f an amorous c o u p l e i n the presence o f a half-naked f i g u r e ; which may, p e r h a p s , r e f e r  to the Dresden p a i n t i n g .  It,  female  and the  x-ray  .  12.  e v i d e n c e , may, t h e r e f o r e , g i v e some c l u e s as to the o r i g i n a l  nature o f  the  painting. Both Bergstrom and Tumpel have attempted to secure the o f the p a i n t i n g as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the P r o d i g a l o g r a p h i c a l l y by comparison with works t h a t without from the p a r a b l e .  They both draw up a l i s t  to the Dresden p a i n t i n g and o t h e r works  identification  Son i n the Tavern  icon-  doubt, represent this  scene  of those elements which are common  illustrating  the p a r a b l e .  For compar-  i s o n Tumpel uses an e n g r a v i n g by the Amsterdam e n g r a v e r , done under the name 21 of  "P.P.  Rubbens"  painting.  , which i n c l u d e s a l l  A young man i s  a t a b l e so t h a t  he i s  to one s i d e of i t . In h i s l e f t  woman i s  not a c t u a l l y  s i t t i n g at the t a b l e ,  is  but r a t h e r ,  a  little  he holds a t a l l  drinking  placed around the w a i s t o f the woman seated on  Her low-cut dress r e v e a l s  o f the t a b l e  away from  He wears a plumed b e r e t and the c l o t h e s o f a J u n k e r .  hand, h i s elbow r e s t i n g on the t a b l e ,  tallying  found i n the Dresden  seated at a c h a i r which i s pushed s l i g h t l y  g l a s s , w h i l e h i s r i g h t arm i s h i s knee.  the elements  her bare b r e a s t s .  Behind them, a  servant  up the d r i n k s on a s c o r e b o a r d hanging from the w a l l .  seated a woman, who w h i l e p l a y i n g her l u t e ,  couple.  On the wall  feathers  spread o u t .  In  looks over at  beside the s c o r e b o a r d i s d i s p l a y e d a p e a c o c k , h i s  The s i m i l a r i t y  of t h i s  e n g r a v i n g to the drawing suggested by  front the  tail  Valentiner  22 as a study f o r the Dresden p a i n t i n g is  very  strong.  and a l s o to the Dresden p a i n t i n g  The J u n k e r , the woman on h i s knee, the r a i s e d l e f t  arm h o l d i n g  the g l a s s , the marked s c o r e b o a r d , the peacock and the p o s s i b l e female all  itself,  lutenist  appear. Another d r a w i n g ,  "The P r o d i g a l  Son with the Loose Women", suggested by 23  TUmpel as a copy a f t e r  Rembrandt, again e x h i b i t s many of the same elements.  Here, we have a b a r e - b r e a s t e d woman, t h i s  time i n a plumed c a p , seated on a  13.  young man's knee b e s i d e a covered t a b l e , w h i l e a woman w r i t e s on the s c o r e board i n the background. Tumpel f u r t h e r p o i n t s out the s i m i l a r i t i e s and examples o f the P r o d i g a l an example, a P r o d i g a l  between Rembrandt's  Son b e l o n g i n g to the U t r e c h t S c h o o l .  Son by Jan  van B i j l e r t  painting  He uses as  "festgelag van de V e r l o r e n z o o n " ,  24 which i s dated 1629.  This painting represents  the P r o d i g a l  by the l a r g e plumed hat which he holds i n h i s l e f t which he holds i n h i s r i g h t , like structure.  Son,  identified  hand and the r a i s e d  glass  i n a s e m i - r e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n on a draped bench-  He wears be-ribboned shoes and a s t y l i s h j a c k e t .  h o l d i n g a p i p e and wearing a low-cut dress s i t s woman approaches him from the r e a r .  Separated  A woman  down behind h i m , w h i l e from the P r o d i g a l  b e n c h - l i k e s t r u c t u r e are t h r e e m u s i c i a n s , p l a y i n g t h e i r  another  Son by the  instruments.  Behind  the two women, i n the upper r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r , stands another young man, h i s body turned i n t o the p i c t u r e but h i s head t w i s t e d out o f i t eye.  While t h i s  p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s the p a r a b l e s c e n e , i t s  have been reduced to a minimum; o n l y the plumed h a t , the e l e g a n t c l o t h e s , i d e n t i f y  t o c a t c h the  viewer's  r e c o g n i z a b l e elements  the r a i s e d g l a s s a n d , p e r h a p s ,  the young man as the P r o d i g a l  Son.  The  Prodigal  Son seems to be sometimes r e p r e s e n t e d as a y o u n g , s t y l i s h dandy a n d , sometimes, particularly details  i n the U t r e c h t S c h o o l , i n a more m i l i t a r y  d e p i c t simply a scene o f " l o o s e l i v i n g "  costume.  The o t h e r  such as t h a t found i n  the  25 "Musicerend G e z e l s c h a p " , a l s o by Jan p l a y i n g musical  van B i j l e r t  , which shows f i v e  figures  i n s t r u m e n t s , haphazardly grouped b e s i d e a t a b l e on which  abandoned p i p e s .  On the l e f t ,  at the end o f the t a b l e , s i t s  lie  a young man d r e s s e d  i n the costume o f a c a v a l r y m a n , a r a p i e r hanging from h i s s i d e and spurs on h i s high b o o t s .  Across from him i s seated a b a r e - b r e a s t e d woman who i s  to get h i s a t t e n t i o n , w h i l e b e s i d e him a f i g u r e into a glass.  T h i s i s a scene a l l u d i n g to a l l  is  gesturing  p o u r i n g wine from a f l a s k  the elements o f immoral l i v i n g -  14.  w i n e , women, tobacco and music - and i t s m o r a l i z i n g i n t e n t i o n i s very Bijlert's  "Prodigal  the smoking.  Son" l i k e w i s e  In t h i s  be o v e r l o o k e d .  latter  d e p i c t s the w i n e ,  strong.  the women, the music and  painting, therefore, a moralizing intention  cannot  The lone f i g u r e i n the background l o o k i n g out at the viewer may  serve as a commentator on the scene b e f o r e him. A comparison of the Dresden p a i n t i n g w i t h a work g i v e n f o r t h i s by Bergstrom as an u n d i s p u t a b l e scene from the p a r a b l e r e v e a l s clusions. de P a s s e ,  He i l l u s t r a t e s  a c i r c u l a r engraving a f t e r  similar  con-  Marten de Vos from C.  "Parabolarum Evangelicarum Typi E l e g a n t i s s i m e " , dated 1604  The t h r e e minor scenes i n the background i l l u s t r a t i n g  purpose  the P r o d i g a l  van  .  Son's  expul-  s i o n from the t a v e r n , h i s work as a swineherd and the r e t u r n o f the son to his f a t h e r ' s  house, i d e n t i f y  arbour o f a t a v e r n  the s t o r y .  The main scene takes  place in  the  i n which f i v e f i g u r e s are seated around a t a b l e , t h r e e  them p l a y i n g musical  of  instruments and the o t h e r two forming an amorous c o u p l e .  The young man, d r e s s e d i n a contemporary costume o f e l e g a n c e , i s c a r e s s i n g woman, who holds a g o b l e t i n her l e f t  hand, and i n the shadows i n the  g r o u n d , a woman i s w r i t i n g on a s c o r e b o a r d . around the n a r r a t i v e  s c e n e s , reads  "In  the  back-  The i n s c r i p t i o n , forming a band  g r a v i a es l a p s u s d e l i c t a !  Revertere  27 soldes:  moneterum ad mores e s t v i a  understanding o f t h i s e n g r a v i n g . refers d i r e c t l y  s e r a bonos"  For w h i l e i t s  to the outcome o f the B i b l i c a l  a more general way as a warning a g a i n s t  immoral  , p r o v i d i n g the key t o reference story,  "revertere  the  soldes"  i t must a l s o be read  living.  The t e x t o f an emblem from Theodor de B r y ' s Emblemata, p u b l i s h e d i n 1592 i n F r a n k f u r t a.m.  28  again b r i n g s out the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  Son p a r a b l e to a general m o r a l i z i n g statement.  It  Prodigal  reads:  Die Y i p p i g k e i t wie s i c h d i e Jugendt b r i n g zu s p o t , und komt, i n Armut, Angst und Not Wenn s i e durch a l l e Y i p p i g k e i t , s i c h s e l b e r  in  15.  b r i n g t i n H e r t z e n l e i d t , s o l c h s l e h r t das Exempel s c h o n , In der s c h r i f f t vom V e r l o h r n e n Son. Drumb l e h r n h e i r a u s s e i n j e d e r wol. Wie er verwan s e i n Jugendt s o l . 2 9 It's  message i s o b v i o u s . Lucas van L e y d e n ' s woodcut o f c.  i n the t a v e r n ,  bears with i t  1519, d e p i c t i n g the P r o d i g a l  a s t r o n g m o r a l i z i n g o v e r t o n e , beyond the  Son narrative  30 c o n f i n e s o f the s t o r y a small  circular  platter  with f r u i t ,  is  .  The a r t i s t  t a b l e on which i s  has minimized the n a r r a t i v e  elements  to  placed a c u p , a g l a s s , some bread and a  i n c l u d i n g an a p p l e , a pear and some c h e r r i e s .  At the  table  seated an o l d e r woman i n the a c t o f d r i n k i n g from a g l a s s w h i l e beside her  sit  a young couple engaged i n p l a y f u l  costume of a j e s t e r  fal.".  A f i g u r e dressed i n  l i n k i n g the j e s t e r  with the scene i n s i d e , reads  is  Prodigal it  Son s t o r y  s t r o n g moral  istic  changes.  is  in simply a n a r r a t i v e  the h a r l o t P.P.  knee i s  sense of the word, but c a r r i e s  h i s m i n i m i z a t i o n o f the t a v e r n  with formal-  atmosphere.  no l o n g e r dressed i n the s e d u c t i v e costume of  i n the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d p a i n t i n g o f B i j l e r t or the engraving of  Rubbens on the same s u b j e c t .  She h a s , f u r t h e r m o r e , turned her body away  from the viewer who sees o n l y her back and from her companion. ing i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the scene does take p l a c e i n a t a v e r n , exposed s c o r e b o a r d . then t h i s  these  scene from the  Rembrandt h a s , however, made s i g n i f i c a n t  The most obvious i s  The f i g u r e on the Son's  i n the l i g h t o f  not a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t a v e r n  implications.  living  avoidance.  Rembrandt's Dresden p a i n t i n g must be i n t e r p r e t e d It  the  "acht.  These words serve as a warning a g a i n s t such immoral  from which the only s a l v a t i o n  previous works.  the  looks through the window and p o i n t s a f i n g e r down at  couple, while a s c r o l l y o n . waren.  love-making.  If  is a further  was not u n i n t e n t i o n a l .  it  is  The o n l y r e m a i n the  partially  was Rembrandt's d e c i s i o n to exclude the naked  i n d i c a t i o n that his l i m i t e d reference  lutenist,  to the tavern  His c h o i c e of c o m p o s i t i o n h a s , i n f a c t ,  setting  been r e l a t e d  to  16.  a p a i n t i n g by Terbruggen d e p i c t i n g a " V i o l i n i s t and G i r l  with a G l a s s " ,  which  32 makes no r e f e r e n c e  to the B i b l i c a l  story  .  The p a i n t i n g i n K r e f e l d  and dated 1624, and i s a genre scene i n which two l a r g e , placed c l o s e to the p i c t u r e p l a n e , are shown t o g e t h e r .  half-length  The young man holds a her  Both f i g u r e s are  out at the viewer i n the same way t h a t Rembarndt's two f i g u r e s a r e . violinist  p a i n t i n g , and the l a r g e p u f f e d s l e e v e  of his t u n i c plays  visual  Was t h i s  Whether or not he d i d a c t u a l l y ing i s an open q u e s t i o n , but i t of the scene was w i t h i n and not s t r i c t l y  The  similarity  Rembrandt  the same r o l e o f a coincidental?  use the Terbruggen as a model f o r h i s own p a i n t serves  to show t h a t Rembrandt's  visualization  the m o r a l i z i n g genre t r a d i t i o n of the U t r e c h t  a c c o r d i n g to o t h e r p r o t o t y p e s o f the P r o d i g a l  A most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e  of the Dresden p a i n t i n g i s  and the massive spread o f peacock f e a t h e r s . Prodigal  looking  a l s o wears a l a r g e plumed b e r e t , as does the young man i n the  l i n k between the two f i g u r e s .  signed  figures  v i o l i n w h i l e h i s female companion, whose c l o t h e s are p u l l e d back o f f shoulders r e v e a l i n g her b r e a s t s , holds up the g l a s s .  is  Son  school  story.  the peacock head  T h i s m o t i f occurs i n a number o f  Son r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , given both by Tumpel and B e r g s t r o m , as well  as  33 i n some examples of m o r a l i z i n g genre scenes  .  Bergstrom p o i n t s to the pea-  j cock as a symbol o f p r i d e  (and v o l u p t u o u s n e s s ) , r e p r o d u c i n g i n t h i s  connection  a drawing by Jacques de Gheyn o f " S u p e r b i a " , i n the Leiden P r e n t e n k a b i n e t b e f o r e 1604, i n . w h i c h the f i g u r e o f S u p e r b i a , who r e p r e s e n t s P r i d e ,  dated  holds a  34 m i r r o r decorated with the head and t a i l would c e r t a i n l y  feathers  have been f a m i l i a r with t h i s  of a peacock  .  Rembrandt  association. 35  As Panofsky  has a l r e a d y  shown, i n c o n n e c t i o n with Rembrandt's  which was a work begun i n the m i d - 3 0 ' s , emblematic m o t i f s , at t h i s to p l a y a key r o l e i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  "Dana'e"  p e r i o d , seem  o f some of Rembrandt's works  .  To  17.  look at the peacock i n terms of i t ' s therefore,  prove s i g n i f i c a n t , as Henkel and Schone show.  "Verderbliche Leidenschaft",  that is destructive  p l e a s u r e which b r i n g s with i t a beautiful message i s  wider emblematic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  tail  sorrow.  It  also  may,  represents  or p e r i s h a b l e p a s s i o n , or  The peacock, the b i r d of Juno, shows  with many e y e s , but b e n e a t h , i t  hides a m o n s t e r ' s head.  t h a t i f you choose a woman f o r her beauty and purchase her  f o r much g o l d and g i f t s , you w i l l  It's  favours  alway be preyed upon by the ugly s i d e of  37 her  character A second to t h i s  peacock, i s  "Schwacheit  has b e a u t i f u l  tail  ness o f h i s f e e t ,  study, relevant,  emblematic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  the  des Menschens", o r the weakness of man, f o r the peacock  feathers, his t a i l  but ugly f e e t .  feathers  As soon as he r e c o g n i z e s the  ugli-  f a l l ; t h a t i s , as soon as man r e c o g n i z e s 38  h i s weakness, h i s p r i d e and m a g n i f i c e n c e d i s a p p e a r p o i n t to the f u t i l i t y is  .  Both  and p e r i s h a b i l i t y of man's e a r t h l y  interpretations  pursuits.  This  warning  i n keeping with the m o r a l i s t i c aspect of Rembrandt's Dresden p a i n t i n g . Why has Rembrandt r e p r e s e n t e d only two f i g u r e s  f i g u r e d scene?  T h i s q u e s t i o n has a l r e a d y  a s s o c i a t i o n with works from the U t r e c h t  from the normally many  been p a r t i a l l y  answered by  school, especially  o u t , with the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d Terbruggen.  as Tumpel has pointed  With regard to t h i s  the p o s s i b l e t h i r d f i g u r e must not be f o r g o t t e n .  it's  question,  A plausible explanation,  again g i v e n by Tumpel, i s the concept of " H e r a u s l o s u n g " , a d e v i c e which  Rembrandt  uses i n a number o f works, and which appears i n the medieval  picture.  It  involves  devotional  the i s o l a t i o n of the main f i g u r e s o f the s t o r y and the l i f t i n g  these f i g u r e s out o f i t s m u l t i - f i g u r e d n a r r a t i v e - c o n t e x t . phenomenon by which Rembrandt has r e p r e s e n t e d h i s  of  He p o i n t s to a s i m i l a r  "Danae" i n the  Hermitage,  39 without  her shower o f g o l d  , and h i s  "Andromeda" i n the M a u r i t s h i u s  without  40 her h e r o , Perseus  .  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n l y on the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e ,  Rembrandt  18.  increases  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l content o f the p i c t u r e  h e , i n t h i s way,  .  In the Dresden p a i n t i n g  b r i n g s the f i g u r e s c l o s e r to the viewer and i n c r e a s e s  r a p p o r t with him.  It  a l s o r a i s e s more v i v i d l y  the q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y  two f i g u r e s , who are no l o n g e r simply two c h a r a c t e r s a c t i n g out t h e i r  narrative  p a r t , but r e a l  their  people.  from a B i b l i c a l  The p o r t r a i t  of  the  drama,  aspect i s  very  s t r o n g , f o r although the bodies have been turned i n d i r e c t i o n s away from the viewer, t h e i r  heads are so p l a c e d to show t h e i r  view - i n s p i t e o f ,  faces  i n the case of the woman, i t s  i n an almost  apparent  frontal  unnaturalness.  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f i g u r e s as Rembrandt and S a s k i a , which has 42  been s u g g e s t e d ,  must be made by a v i s u a l  s e c u r e l y based p o r t r a i t s  of the a r t i s t  comparison with a number of  and h i s w i f e .  This is  other  u s u a l l y made on  43 the b a s i s of an e t c h i n g s i g n e d and dated 1636  , i n which Rembrandt  h i m s e l f i n the f o r e g r o u n d , h i s face f r o n t a l , l o o k i n g with s e v e r i t y picture directly  at the v i e w e r .  between h i s f i n g e r s , as i f  His l e f t  o n l y momentarily l o o k i n g up.  he appears to be wearing a f u r v e s t .  writing  table,  covered i n a v e i l falls is  His w i f e s i t s  out o f the p i c t u r e at the v i e w e r .  s e r i o u s and somewhat heavy.  Rembrandt, but her f a c e  also  Her h a i r i s combed back and  The tone o f the e t c h i n g i s  f r i n g e o f bangs  Her e x p r e s s i o n , t o o , very d i f f e r e n t  from  types of the two f i g u r e s , w h i c h ,  the e t c h i n g , are much c o a r s e r and h e a v i e r . same high forehead and l o o s e l y c u r l i n g h a i r , sad, rather  Over  on a c h a i r behind the  s t r a n d s frame her f a c e .  t h a t o f the p a i n t i n g , as are the c h a r a c t e r  still  He wears a d a r k , wide  which hangs over her s h o u l d e r s w h i l e a small  onto her forehead and s t r a y  the  and a l a r g e white c o l l a r .  her body turned at an angle towards  looking d i r e c t l y  out of  arm r e s t s on a t a b l e , h i s pen  brimmed hat and a s h i r t with wide p u f f e d s l e e v e s it  represents  The two women, however,  in  have the  the same e l o n g a t e d n o s e , the same  inward l o o k i n g e y e s , p u f f y cheeks and double c h i n , and the two male  f i g u r e s both have a square face w i t h , a g a i n , a s l i g h t l y double c h i n , a moustache,  19.  lumpy contours i n t h e i r cheeks and c u r l e d , s h o u l d e r l e n g t h h a i r . therefore, a "family" the p a i n t i n g .  is,  l i k e n e s s between the f i g u r e s o f the e t c h i n g and those o f  Rembrandt h a s , p e r h a p s , r e f i n e d h i s f i g u r e s  p a i n t i n g to s u i t h i s n a r r a t i v e  subject.  It  i n the p a i n t i n g are not d i r e c t s t u d i e s a f t e r with the e a r l i e r  There  is  i n the Dresden  a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the  life,  figures  as the e t c h i n g , i n comparison  s e r i e s o f small etched heads executed i n the e a r l y  30's,  in 44  which Rembrandt a l s o r e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f more c o a r s e l y , seems to have been The f l e x i b i l i t y o f Rembrandt's adoption o f a f i g u r e can be seen i n a comparison of two works,-both r e p r e s e n t i n g S a s k i a i n d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s . Rembrandt has changed the f e a t u r e s Saskia i s  clearly  In  both,  somewhat to serve d i f f e r e n t e n d s , although  r e c o g n i z a b l e i n them.  They a r e :  the p o r t r a i t o f S a s k i a  in  45 Dresden, s i g n e d and dated 1633  , and the p a i n t i n g o f " S a s k i a as F l o r a " i n  the  46 Hermitage, again signed and dated 1634 young, though not na'ive, g i r l ,  The Dresden p o r t r a i t  her f a c e shown at t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  out c o y l y at the v i e w e r , o r , i n t h i s artist.  .  She wears an e l e g a n t l y  a tiny  plumed h a t , t i l t e d  c o q u e t t i s h l y , a s t r i n g of Her s o f t l y curved mouth i s  p a r t of her f r o n t t e e t h .  with rounded c h e e k s , but the general  shape o f i t  is oval.  forming t i n y c r e a s e s at the edges and her whole f a c e i s Her nose i s In t h i s  view, looking  case we may suppose a t her husband the  p e a r l s around her n e c k , and gloves on her hands. opened s l i g h t l y to r e v e a l  represents a  lit  Her face  i s plump  Her eyes are  wrinkled  up with a s m i l e .  long and s l i g h t l y rounded at the e n d , and she has a double c h i n .  portrait,  Rembrandt has s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y and d e l i c a t e l y  r e p r e s e n t e d the  woman he l o v e s as an o u t g o i n g woman o f the w o r l d , d r e s s e d , however, not  in  47 contemporary f a s h i o n but i n t h a t o f Lucas van L e y d e n ' s day The s l i g h t l y l a t e r very d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t . viewer, retains  p o r t r a i t o f S a s k i a as F l o r a , r e p r e s e n t s her i n a  Her f a c e , turned again at a t h r e e - q u a r t e r angle to  the same s l i g h t l y plump oval  s h a p e , but i t s  the  l i n e s are much  smoother and the f e a t u r e s are much more r e g u l a r and g e o m e t r i c a l .  Her double  20.  c h i n i s formed by two s o f t l y c u r v i n g a r c s , w h i l e the upper l i n e o f the c h i n the p r e v i o u s p o r t r a i t a straight different  line,  is  r e g u l a r and the shadow a c r o s s her face f a l l s  unbroken by any s u r f a c e  irregularities.  This is  from the shadows f a l l i n g a c r o s s the Dresden p o r t r a i t .  in  i n almost  quite Her eyes  are  much l a r g e r and more o p e n , g i v i n g her the naive appearance o f a young g i r l l o o k i n g out s h y l y from under the costume.  Her h a i r , a g a i n , f a l l s  over her s h o u l d e r s and she wears a p e a r l - d r o p e a r i n g . l a r g e , b r i g h t l y coloured flowers,  is  curls  garlanded with  i n keeping with her d e p i c t i o n as F l o r a ,  Roman goddess o f s p r i n g and f l o w e r s . her f a c e adds to the d e s i r e d e f f e c t  Her h a i r ,  in loose  The geometric s i m p l i c i t y o f the l i n e s of a s i m p l e , u n a f f e c t e d , p o t e n t i a l l y  the of  fruitful  girl. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e o f concept i s again expressed i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n Saskia  i n the Dresden p a i n t i n g , which i n i t s  with the o t h e r two p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s again to s u i t  it's  mouth, r e v e a l i n g  pictorial  details  reveals  a strong  of  affinity  d i s c u s s e d , but which has been manipulated  context.  She has a w i d e , oval  her t e e t h as i n the Dresden p o r t r a i t ,  f a c e , a s l i g h t l y open  a double c h i n and long  nose s l i g h t l y rounded at the e n d , a high forehead and c u r l s  l o o s e l y framing her  face.  i n the  A g a i n , she wears p e a r l - d r o p e a r i n g s , w h i l e her h a i r ,  i s t i e d back and h e l d i n p l a c e by the t i a r a  a d o r n i n g her head.  more g e o m e t r i c i z e d and r e g u l a r i z e d as i n her p o r t r a i t e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t  that,  T h i s may be  p e r s o n ' s p o r t r a i t , to d i s t i n g u i s h i t  p o r t r a i t which has no l i t e r a r y  With Rembrandt, the s i t u a t i o n portraits  Her f e a t u r e s  i n both c a s e s , an i m a g i n a r y , f i c t i t i o u s  being r e p r e s e n t e d v i a an a c t u a l more r e a l i s t i c  as F l o r a .  portrait,  he h a s , throughout h i s l i f e ,  is  person  is  from the  associations.  somewhat d i f f e r e n t , f o r i n h i s  self-  very o f t e n d r e s s e d h i m s e l f up f o r a  48 particular  role  .  In a " S e l f - P o r t r a i t " s i g n e d  and dated 1661, f o r example,  49 he r e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f as S t . St.  Paul,  Paul  .  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t  i s based on h i s costume and a t t r i b u t e s .  It  as  has been suggested t h a t  are  21.  the t u r b a n - l i k e head dress r e f e r s born o f Jewish parents attribute,  i n T a r s u s . The h i l t  o f the sword, P a u l ' s  traditional  can be seen from under h i s c l o a k , w h i l e the book, a l s o  a s s o c i a t e d with S t . word " E f e s i s "  Paul,  self-portrait,  traditionally  has been r e p l a c e d by a bundle o f l e t t e r s  can be made o u t , r e f e r r i n g to P a u l ' s E p i s t l e  The s e l f - p o r t r a i t  Portrait"  to h i s " o r i e n t a l " background, as he was  element o f t h i s  traditionally  on which  the  to the Ephesians  5  0  .  p a i n t i n g i s shown by a comparison with another  accepted as s u c h , from the same p e r i o d .  The " S e l f -  s i g n e d and dated 1660 i n the New York M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, whose 51  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has not been q u e s t i o n e d to t h a t o f the " S t . similar facial  Paul".  , represents a physical  type  Both f i g u r e s are seen from the same angle and wear  e x p r e s s i o n s - r a i s e d eyebrows, a w r i n k l e d f o r e h e a d , hard-set  c h i n and t i g h t l y  sealed l i p s .  Both men have the same square f a c e ,  sagging  cheek muscles and c h i n , and the same l a r g e n o s e , wide at the base and curved so t h a t i t length h a i r ,  identical  appears c r o o k e d .  Likewise,  b u l g i n g out from under t h e i r  slightly  both f i g u r e s have the same ear-  respective  head g e a r .  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the young man i n the Dresden p a i n t i n g can be likewise mid 3 0 ' s .  secured by a comparison with a g e n e r a l l y accepted s e l f - p o r t r a i t o f The " S e l f - P o r t r a i t "  dated 1634  5  2  i n B e r l i n e x h i b i t s the same broad  n o s e , curved somewhat i n t o a p o i n t at the t i p , high cheek-bones, s l i g h t l y  are s i m i l a r enough to j u s t i f y  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Rembrandt h a s , i n some way, Prodigal  Son p a i n t i n g .  very d i f f e r e n t  His e x p r e s s i o n i n the B i b l i c a l  reveals,  in f a c t ,  With the  used h i m s e l f as the model f o r  from t h a t o f the s e l f - p o r t r a i t .  seems more o p e n , i t  l a r g e mouth, square f a c e with  f l e s h y double c h i n and l o o s e l y c u r l e d h a i r .  Rembrandt, as with S a s k i a , the f e a t u r e s  the  painting i s ,  A l t h o u g h , at f i r s t  the  however, glance,  l e s s o f h i s s t a t e o f mind and appears  almost f l a t and mask-like i n comparison to the 1634 s e l f - p o r t r a i t .  It  is a  it  22.  r e c o l l e c t i o n of his features of his c o n d i t i o n .  rather  than a study o f h i m s e l f o r a  reflection  N e v e r t h e l e s s , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the two f i g u r e s  Dresden p a i n t i n g under d i s c u s s i o n can be made, r e v e a l i n g p o r t r a i t o f the a r t i s t  and h i s w i f e ,  it  in  the  to be a double  i n the g u i s e of the P r o d i g a l  Son i n  the  tavern. The phenomenon o f a p o r t r a i t or h i s t o r i c a l  i n the g u i s e o f a B i b l i c a l  allegorical  personage, was not an i n n o v a t i o n i n the work o f Rembrandt,  but  53 rather,  a traditional  feature  of Dutch 16th and 17th c e n t u r y a r t  allegorical  p o r t r a i t was made f o r C h a r l e s  London.  represents  It  which C h a r l e s I  is  . A n  I by Honthorst i n 1628 on a t r i p  a l a r g e c o u r t l y a l l e g o r y of " A p o l l o and D i a n a " ,  shown as A p o l l o and H e n r i e t t a Maria i s  Lucy P e r c y , Countess o f C a r l i s l e , i n  attendance  in  seen as D i a n a , with  54  C o r n e i l l e de V o s , a noted Flemish p o r t r a i t i s t , "The Return o f the Sacred T r e a s u r y of S t .  to  in a painting  Norbert a f t e r  called  55  the Heresy o f T r a u c h e l n "  56 i s s a i d to have r e p r e s e n t e d the people i n the form o f p o r t r a i t s  .  The p a i n t i n g  was, a c c o r d i n g t o W i s h n e v s k i , done f o r the Funerary Chapel of the Snoeck  family  in St.  in  M i c h a e l ' s Church i n Antwerp, and r e p r e s e n t s members o f the f a m i l y  the  57 g u i s e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s v  Wishnevski  Santvoort  .in the 12th c e n t u r y event  .  a l s o p o i n t s to a p a i n t i n g by the p o r t r a i t i s t  Dirck Direksz  o f "Jacob and R a c h e l " , which r e p r e s e n t s a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t  of B i b l i c a l  characters  .  It's  scriptural  identification  i n the  i s made on the  guise basis  59 o f a comparison with a drawing i n C h r i s t C h u r c h , O x f o r d , by Hugo van der Goes i n which the same s e t t i n g and poses o f the main f i g u r e s are used.  The  nature o f the p a i n t i n g i s suggested by the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f e a t u r e s  o f the main  couple and the two c h i l d r e n and i s emphasised by t h e i r b r i g h t l i g h t f a l l i n g on t h e i r  frontal  attitude  portrait  and the  faces.  Rembrandt's "Jewish B r i d e " f a l l s i n t o the same c a t e g o r y as the p a i n t ing by D.D. S a n t v o o r t , p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. Rosenberg, among o t h e r s , sees t h i s 6  0  ,  23.  p a i n t i n g as a double p o r t r a i t a Biblical  pair  fil  .  commissioned by an a c t u a l  c o u p l e , a l l u d i n g to  T h e i r costumes, which are not those of the 17th c e n t u r y ,  support such a s u g g e s t i o n .  Several  people have been suggested as p o s s i b l e 62  models, although no p o s i t i v e  identification  has been made  From the l a s t y e a r s o f h i s Leiden p e r i o d , a number of g e n e r a l l y  small  e t c h i n g s e x i s t which show t h a t Rembrandt, by using h i s own face as a model,  ft *3 s t u d i e d many f a c e t s  of human emotions  .  He appears to have been b u i l d i n g  up a vocabulary o f e x p r e s s i o n s to be used i n the i m a g i n a t i v e his narrative  paintings.  The m a j o r i t y  study o f e x p r e s s i o n was, at one t i m e ,  f o r Rembrandt a very c o n s c i o u s u n d e r t a k i n g . subjective  of  of these e t c h i n g s are signed and dated  i n monogram, 1630, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s  very  characters  He used the r e s u l t s  of  this  study as a b a s i s f o r a more u n i v e r s a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t ;  that  is  a u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n of h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . In the same way,  Rembrandt s t u d i e d the f a c e s o f o t h e r people around  him as c o n c r e t e models f o r the otherwise in his n a r r a t i v e  a b s t r a c t emotions o f the  s c e n e s , using p a r t i c u l a r l y  characters  those i n the immediate e n v i r o n 64  ment of h i s f a m i l y as models f o r the p a i n t e d The s e l f - p o r t r a i t l i g h t of t h i s and of h i s  characters  aspect of the Dresden p a i n t i n g must be seen in  the  a s p e c t o f Rembrandt's concept o f p o r t r a i t u r e , o f both h i m s e l f ,  immediate f a m i l y .  Rembrandt i s  and h i s w i f e i n the g u i s e of the P r o d i g a l h i s own s i t u a t i o n or c h a r a c t e r , form of B i b l i c a l ,  allegorical  not simply r e p r e s e n t i n g h i m s e l f Son i n the Tavern as a comment on  as the other examples o f p o r t r a i t s  or h i s t o r i c a l  persons have done.  in  He i s ,  the rather,  using h i m s e l f i n a more g e n e r a l i z e d sense as a model to convey a moral message It  is  the message which i s the most important a s p e c t o f the p a i n t i n g .  Rembrandt and S a s k i a , as the P r o d i g a l message, they are at the same time i t s  Son with the h a r l o t ,  While  are the butt of  most eloquent s p o k e s p e o p l e .  the  24. Chapter  II  "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Son"  i The e t c h i n g o f the "Return o f the P r o d i g a l 1636, i l l u s t r a t e s Although i t  S o n " , s i g n e d and dated  the o t h e r contemporaneously popular a s p e c t o f the p a r a b l e .  r e p r e s e n t s a scene from the same s t o r y as t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d  Dresden p a i n t i n g , i t s  i m p l i c a t i o n s as a scene on i t s  been shown, very d i f f e r e n t .  It  in  the  own a r e , as has a l r e a d y  may seem more than c o i n c i d e n t a l  t h a t Rembrandt  has chosen to r e p r e s e n t two scenes from the same s t o r y w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y time span i n h i s c a r e e r , is  but to l i n k them i n any way more than  to d i s t o r t t h e i r independent i c o n o g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e .  has not t r i e d to u n i t e the two works v i s u a l l y  superficially,  Rembrandt h i m s e l f  by the use o f any u n i f y i n g  f e a t u r e , such as i n the type o f the Prodigan Son. have e x p l o r e d the p o t e n t i a l  short  He seems, d e l i b e r a t e l y ,  o f each e p i s o d e o f the s t o r y  to  independently,  i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r mutual o r i g i n s . Although the m o t i f o f the P r o d i g a l  S o n ' s r e t u r n was not as popular  i n the North as i n I t a l y , an e n g r a v i n g by Lucas van Leyden p r o v i d e s an important 16th c e n t u r y v i s u a l i z a t i o n - o f the scene ^.  Rembrandt, who owned a book o f  2 p r i n t s by Lucas van L e y d e n , was c e r t a i n l y )  f a m i l i a r with t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r work  .  The scene takes p l a c e i n the wide expanse o f the c o u n t r y s i d e , on a  promontory o f b r o k e n , rocky e a r t h , b e f o r e a p a l a t i a l the o l d man to g r e e t h i s son who, walking s t i c k a r r i v e d home.  He kneels b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r  bare f e e t and t a t t e r e d he has been l i v i n g .  still  Out o f i t  has come  under h i s arm, has  i n a s t a t e l y way,  h a i r and c l o t h e s , v i s i b l e  in spite of  his son.  his that  arm and h i s hands are  He p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r  to be taken i n .  The o l d man, h i s eyes c l o s e d , t o u c h i n g l y bends forward and s t r e t c h e s out hands to r e c e i v e  just  s i g n s o f the " l o o s e " l i f e  His hat i s tucked under h i s l e f t  folded in s u p p l i c a t i o n .  house.  his  Behind the main group a number o f f i g u r e s look o n .  25.  One o f them, wearing a turban and a b e a r d , d i s p l a y s a g e s t u r e o f as he exchanges comments with another  3  .  annoyance  In the f o r e g r o u n d , w e l l - d r e s s e d  townspeople have gathered to watch the event w h i l e two f i g u r e s , the one h i s  i jaw hard s e t and robes draped over h i s arm, come out o f the b u i l d i n g . f i g u r e peers out o f the window.  A  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a t h e r and son seems  to be formal and somewhat s t r a i n e d , and the s u r r o u n d i n g f i g u r e s are  interested  but not s y m p a t h e t i c .  barren  The P r o d i g a l  Son has come home, but the rocky  land and the f o r m a l i t y o f the scene suggest t h a t l i f e  there  is  In the background, a farmyard i s d e p i c t e d i n which a f i g u r e i s a calf, feast  not p r o m i s i n g . seen  slaying  w h i l e another f i g u r e looks o n ; a p o s s i b l e a l l u s i o n to the coming  i n honour o f the s o n ' s r e t u r n , w h i l e i n the r i g h t c o r n e r , below  promontory, a f a r m e r , s t i c k  in hand, i s  seen walking a l o n g s i d e h i s h e r d .  Rembrandt's e t c h i n g , both i n c o m p o s i t i o n and i n s p i r i t , bears little  the  very  resemblance to the Lucas van Leyden p r i n t , which i s more s i m i l a r to  I t a l i a n v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f the s c e n e . indirectly  Rembrandt h a s , however, d i r e c t l y  i n c o r p o r a t e d some o f the elements o f the p r i n t  A c c o r d i n g t o A r t h u r Hind illustration  4  the  or  into his etching.  , Rembrandt has used another 16th c e n t u r y  o f the s c e n e . a s a p r o t o t y p e ; a woodcut of the same s u b j e c t  by  5 Maerten van Heemskerck s e t t i n g with i t ' s  .  There are s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n the  architectural  steps l e a d i n g up to an arched doorway, out o f which  are coming; i n the arched v i s t a  to the l e f t  of i t  figures  through which background  a c t i o n on a m i n i a t u r e s c a l e can be seen and which l e a d s the eye back i n t o d i s t a n c e to landscape and b u i l d i n g s .  The b a s i c p o s i t i o n i n g o f the  the  two  p r o t a g o n i s t s , the f a t h e r and son and the abandoned walking s t i c k b e s i d e  the  k n e e l i n g f i g u r e , are s i m i l a r as are the types o f the two son f i g u r e s , although the h a i r o f the son i n Heemskerck's work i s  shorter.  They are both d r e s s e d  i n a p i e c e o f c l o t h wrapped around t h e i r w a i s t s and they wear no s h o e s . hold t h e i r  hands t o g e t h e r i n f r o n t o f t h e i r  faces  i n an a t t i t u d e  Both  o f p r a y e r and  26.  supplication.  In  the Heemskerck, the f a t h e r  is  i n the act of s t e p p i n g down  from the top to the second step to reach h i s s o n . o f motion which i s etching.  likewise  There i s a strong element  p r e s e n t , although to a l e s s e r d e g r e e , i n  The movement r e p r e s e n t e d by Rembrandt i s a f r a c t i o n o f a second  than t h a t shown by Heemskerck, f o r the f a t h e r  has a l r e a d y  In b o t h , the p o s i t i o n i n g of the hands of the f a t h e r hold of the s o n ' s r i g h t arm with h i s  left  bare s h o u l d e r s of the r e s p e c t i v e i n Heemskerck's woodcut, i s the emerging male f i g u r e  son.  hand, although i n Rembrandt's  placed around the  i n the s p a t i a l  more atmospheric q u a l i t y . main f i g u r e s and i n t h e i r  It  shoes as w e l l as r o b e s .  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two works  are  can a l s o be seen i n the placement o f the  a triangular  shape.  arch on the l e f t ,  The steps have been e n l a r g e d triangular  apex, the shoulders o f the f a t h e r e n c l o s i n g the s o n . balanced with the open doorway on the r i g h t ,  s t r o n g base h o r i z o n t a l s , g i v e the whole a c l a s s i c a l not p r e s e n t i n Heemskerck's p r o t o t y p e .  The sense of motion i n the f a t h e r ,  The  t o g e t h e r with the  s t a t i c composition.  p r e s e n t , has been  greatly  Instead o f r u s h i n g out to meet the son as i n the Heemskerck, the  as a l r e a d y  indicated, is  significant  there with the s o n .  is  seems to be an almost  i n t o an otherwise  although s t i l l  form  s t r e n g t h and harmony t h a t  The walking s t i c k  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s attempt to i n t r o d u c e a diagonal  two  The p r o t a g o n i s t s now form  and emphasized so t h a t they form a s o l i d base s u p p o r t i n g t h i s it's  is  o r g a n i z a t i o n producing a l e s s compact and  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the whole.  an i n t e r l o c k i n g u n i t w i t h i n  reduced.  etching,  A t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n Rembrandt's work has taken p l a c e , which  e s p e c i a l l y evident  which h a s , at  etching  A female f i g u r e coming out o f the door  carries  D e s p i t e these s i m i l a r i t i e s , significant.  reached h i s s o n .  h o l d i n g a p a i r o f shoes and i n Rembrandt's  likewise  later  i s the same as he takes  the c o n t a c t i s not y e t q u i t e made, w h i l e the other hand i s  are very  Rembrandt's  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s  father,  change  to the message, f o r i n Heemskerck's woodcut the son i s  still  27.  begging h i s f a t h e r ' s  acceptance o f him as h i r e d h e l p , w h i l e the son i n  e t c h i n g , no l o n g e r has the need to ask - h i s f a t h e r h i s arms and accepted him. the B i b l i c a l  In  this  has a l r e a d y  Rembrandt i s more t e x t u a l l y  s t o r y the son does not have to a c t u a l l y  n e s s ; he does s o , but o n l y a f t e r  the f a t h e r  taken him into correct,  ask h i s f a t h e r  has a l r e a d y  Rembrandt's  for  for  in  forgive-  had compassion on him  and embraced him ^. Rembrandt has changed the types o f the f i g u r e s coming out o f  the  doorway, showing them as s h o r t and squat types who rush out e a g e r l y with the robes and shoes f o r the s o n .  He has a l s o p l a c e d a t h i r d f i g u r e  i n a p o s i t i o n of  immediacy and i m p o r t a n c e , at an open window above the main group. appears to have j u s t  opened the window,  s i g n s of resentment towards f o r while i t ' s  l o o k i n g with c u r i o s i t y ,  the scene below.  The f i g u r e ' s  The f i g u r e  but showing  identity  is  uncertain,  dress resembles t h a t o f a woman, the s h o r t h a i r and hat suggest  t h a t he i s a m a n .  7  Both Rembrandt and Heemskerck have k a l e i d e s c o p e d i n t o one s c e n e , two c o n s e c u t i v e e v e n t s , by showing the s e r v a n t s  c a r r y i n g out the c l o t h e s , w h i l e  the  o two f i g u r e s s t i l l Leyden's  print.  embrance each o t h e r  .  This is already  By i n t r o d u c i n g the o l d e r b r o t h e r , they have a l l u d e d to  another moment i n the B i b l i c a l  with a s t i c k  clearly  van  yet  story.  Rembrandt has a l s o changed the small Heemskerck i s  p r e s e n t i n Lucas  background s c e n e , which  the s l a u g h t e r i n g o f the c a l f  i n h i s hand, l e a d i n g h i s h e r d .  f o r the f e a s t ,  This, too, recalls  in  the  to show a man  a minor scene  9 from the Lucas van Leyden p r i n t  .  These changes i n the Heemskerck p r o t o t y p e are not a c c i d e n t a l , but express Rembrandt's d i f f e r e n t concept o f the theme. emphasis from the s o n ' s search f o r f o r g i v e n e s s of h i s wayward s o n .  They embody a change  to the f a t h e r ' s  ready  rather in  acceptance  Rembrandt's e t c h i n g i s not simply a copy of the o r i g i n a l ,  but an a d a p t a t i o n o f the m o t i f which uses Heemskerck's woodcut as a s t a r t i n g point.  28. Hind sees a drawing in Haarlem (Ben. 641, cat. no. 519), as a study for the 1636 etching It's ]  1 0  .  Benesch, however, dates i t 1644 on s t y l i s t i c grounds  1 1  .  possible relationship to the etching must, therefore, be examined c r i t i c a l l y  on .purely visual grounds. ship to the Heemskerck? graphic works?  If i t is a study for the etching, what is i t ' s relationDoes i t , in any way, serve as a link between the two  The arched doorway and the steps leading up to i t are a constant  in all three works.  So, likewise, is the beard of the old man, the bare feet  of the son and the abandoned walking stick.  The composition of the drawing is  however, very different from either of the two finished versions:  In the  placement of the figures - the old man placed frontally and the son seen from the back at a slight angle; in the visible remains of the son's clothes, including a shirt with loose sleeves; in the positioning of the father's hands on the head, and the son's head on the lap of his father; in the monumentality of the two figures and in their calm and static nature.  The walking stick in the drawing  has been relegated to a position of non-compositional importance. On purely visual grounds, therefore, the drawing should be seen as a further development of Rembrandt's conception of the Prodigal Son's return, after 12  the 1636 etching and not a study for i t  .  It i s , in fact, more closely related  in spirit in the composition of the main group, to the Hermitage painting of the same subject, done many years later.  The youthful figure, leaning against  the wall in the background who looks on with a quiet expression of curiousity, but acceptance, prefigures a similar figure in the background of the Hermitage painting. The drawing in Rotterdam (Ben. 695, cat. no. 562) dated by Benesch c. 1644-5, represents another experimental stage in Rembrandt's attempts to •13'  arrive at a personal conception of the "Return of the Prodigal Son"  .  The  father is hurrying forward, his: hands stretched out in anticipation, to reach  29.  the son who has f a l l e n down on h i s knees b e f o r e him.  The s t i c k , which seems  to be i n m o t i o n , forms a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i n k between the f a t h e r and s o n . element o f m o t i o n , f i r s t i n the 1636 e t c h i n g , i s static  The  seen i n the Heemskerck and c a r r i e d over to-some e x t e n t i n t e n s i f i e d which makes i t  very d i f f e r e n t from the  q u a l i t y o f the Haarlem drawing and the f i n a l  painting.  The b r o a d e r ,  more e l a b o r a t e s e t t i n g , g i v e s the drawing a more panoramic f e e l i n g , a l t h o u g h the s p a t i a l  d e f i n i t i o n i s more ambiguous than i n e i t h e r the Haarlem drawing  o r the e t c h i n g . spatial  areas.  A wall p i e r c e d by an arched opening c r e a t e s While the f a t h e r ,  coming from the i n s i d e , i t  two  separate  r u s h i n g out to g r e e t h i s son i s most c e r t a i n l y  i s d i f f i c u l t to determine from the angle o f the  s o n ' s body, from which d i r e c t i o n he has come, which l e a v e s space on the o t h e r s i d e o f the wall w i t n e s s i n g the scene d e v i a t e s  in question.  the nature o f  The g r e a t e r number o f  the figures  from the two p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d works by  Rembrandt, but i s a m o t i f which o c c u r s i n the van Leyden woodcut and i n Italian representations.  The k n e e l i n g woman i n the f o r e g r o u n d i s , a c c o r d i n g 13  to V a l e n t i n e r , i n the a c t o f s l a y i n g a c a l f  ( i n d o o r s ? ) , a m o t i f a g a i n found  i n the woodcuts o f Heemskerck and van L e y d e n , w h i l e the f i g u r e i n the broad brimmed f l a t hat behind the arched o p e n i n g , has been i n t e r p r e t e d as the o l d e r brother  14  .  V a l e n t i n e r p o i n t s to the u n c e r t a i n t y o f the drawing i n p l a c e s and 15  to the many c o r r e c t i o n s made i n If  it  we a c c e p t the drawing as genuine and t h e r e seems to be no s e r i o u s  questioning of i t ' s  authenticity,  then we must see i t  as another attempt by  Rembrandt to work out a s u i t a b l e form f o r t h i s e p i s o d e o f the P r o d i g a l Two f u r t h e r drawings  (Ben.  1231, c a t .  no. 1017 and Ben.  Son s t o r y .  1252, c a t .  no.  1 fi 1037) are a s s o c i a t e d , by Benesch w i t h the Hermitage p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t the f a t h e r and son as a s i n g l e , i n t e r l o c k i n g v i s u a l p o i n t i n an expansive s p a c e ; the a r c h i t e c t u r a l being f l a t and u n s t r u c t u r a l , so t h a t i t  .  Both drawings  u n i t as the  focal  s e t t i n g o f the drawing i n Dresden  s e r v e s merely as a backdrop to the two  figures in front.  T h i s i n t e r l o c k i n g o f the f i g u r e s , which was  already  attempted by Rembrandt i n the 1636 e t c h i n g , p r o v i d e s the key v e c h i c l e psychological  e x p r e s s i o n so important to the Hermitage p a i n t i n g .  The m o t i f  of the woman a t the h a l f opened door to form a window, reappears i n p a i n t i n g as do the steps l e a d i n g up to the d o o r .  of  the  The w a l k i n g s t i c k , which was  so important c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y to the 1636 e t c h i n g and p r e s e n t i n the Haarlem and Rotterdam d r a w i n g s , i s now very s i m p l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t o t a l i n the Dresden drawing i t the Vienna d r a w i n g , i t  l i e s on the ground p a r a l l e l  leans v e r t i c a l l y  opment has taken p l a c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y an important l i n k w i t h the f i n a l  space;  to the s t e p s and i n  a g a i n s t the w a l l .  A further devel-  i n the Vienna d r a w i n g , which serves  painting.  as  The youth i s f u l l y d r e s s e d i n  a r o b e , r e a c h i n g down to h i s ankles and t i e d t o g e t h e r a t the w a i s t , and the f a t h e r wears a small  cap.  Another drawing g i v e n by Benesch (Ben.1193, c a t . q u e s t i o n e d as a scene from the P r o d i g a l  no. 983)  1  7  must be  Son s t o r y , f o r the young man i n  it  i s dressed i n the costume o f a t r a v e l l e r  and not i n the rags o f one who has  l i v e d among the swine.  between the p r e s e n t drawing and t h a t  The s i m i l a r i t i e s  r e p r e s e n t i n g "Raguel Welcomes T o b i a s "  , are too s t r i k i n g to be o v e r l o o k e d :  i n g e s t u r e , i n the costume o f the youth and i n h i s s h o r t , b o y i s h h a i r . o l d e r man i n both c a s e s , c a r r i e s  The  a w a l k i n g s t i c k and wears the same s o r t o f  h a t , although i n the T o b i a s drawing the hat seems to be an a f t e r t h o u g h t . c o m p a r i s o n , as V a l e n t i n e r has done, with the " D e p a r t u r e o f T o b i a s " i n  A  the  19 Vienna A l b e r t i n a  may l i k e w i s e be made, i n which the o l d man r e p r e s e n t s  T o b i t , the f a t h e r o f T o b i a s . While none o f the drawings c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be seen as an a c t u a l f o r the e t c h i n g o r the l a t e r Hermitage p a i n t i n g , they do r e v e a l  Rembrandt's  p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the m o t i f and h i s attempts to a r r i v e a t a s u i t a b l e resentation of i t .  They e x h i b i t v a r i o u s aspects which w i l l  study  rep-  be developed to  31.  their final  c o n c l u s i o n i n the p a i n t i n g , so t h a t i t  concept o f the P r o d i g a l  The Hermitage  Son's  r e t u r n to t h a t expressed i n the 1636 e t c h i n g .  falls  on the f a c e of a bearded o l d man w i t h grey  whisps of h a i r coming out from under a t i g h t l y red c l o a k , with blue l i n i n g and red t a s s l e s coat with a p l e a t e d s k i r t  Under the coat i s wrists.  different  Painting  L i g h t from the l e f t  yellow  presents a very  fitting  cap.  He wears a  vibrant  hanging from the c o r n e r s , over a  t i e d t o g e t h e r at the w a i s t with a s a s h .  a t e x t u r e d white blouse with small  His body, turned to face the v i e w e r , i s  the young man k n e e l i n g at h i s f e e t .  rows o f r u f f l e s  bent s l i g h t l y  at  forward  The o l d man's s h o u l d e r s are  the over  silhouetted  a g a i n s t the dark background i n a diamond shape with h i s head forming the apex and h i s hands meeting at the bottom. within  this  The head o f the younger man i s  enclosed  shape and h i s body i n enveloped by the s t a n d i n g f i g u r e .  The l i g h t  i l l u m i n a t i n g the o l d man a l s o f a l l s  across the young man's  s h o u l d e r s and b a c k , c r e a t i n g an aura o f r a d i a n c e and warmth around the  kneeling  20 figure.  He wears a l o o s e l y f i t t i n g  over a red s h i r t .  Tied together  coarse l i n e n garment  at the w a i s t with a c o r d , i t  the s h o u l d e r below the o l d e r man's l e f t his s i d e .  His head i s  the s t u b b l e o f a b e a r d . t h a t on h i s It  left  shaven l i k e  thumb.  A knife  is  gold,  patched on  i n a sheath hangs  at  t h a t o f a monk and h i s c h i n i s covered with  The shoe on h i s r i g h t  has f a l l e n  i n tones of  foot is  tattered  and worn, w h i l e  to the ground exposing the s o l e o f h i s f o o t  completely  i s cut and b l e e d i n g . The o l d man's e x p r e s s i o n i s calm and h i s f a c e  kindness.  is  f i l l e d with  He i s the f a t h e r who i s welcoming home h i s wayward s o n .  •  C o l o u r i s t i c a l l y , as well as c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y , the two f i g u r e s visual  whole f o r they both r e f l e c t  t h e i r own.  great  form a  the red and g o l d of each o t h e r ' s c l o t h i n g  They stand on a two stepped d i a s , i l l u m i n a t e d by the warm golden  in light  32.  In the background i s  a wall e x t e n d i n g h a l f way i n t o the p i c t u r e .  i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f h o r i z o n t a l bands, the h i g h e s t o f which i s  It  covered  21 with s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n s o f vegetal  m o t i f s and r e l i e f  sculpture  and i s  broken by a l a r g e arch f i l l i n g the o t h e r h a l f o f the p i c t u r e ' s w i d t h .  then  The  open arch leads the eye back to a second wall which i s again p i e r c e d by a 22 window, probably forming the open h a l f o f a door  .  The v i s a b l e  r e a r wall  is  shaded i n such a way that i t suggests s u r f a c e a c t i v i t y of some s o r t - perhaps 23 24 s c u l p t u r a l niches . The facade i n d i c a t e s an e d i f i c e o f some importance Four f i g u r e s w i t n e s s  the scene.  A v e i l e d woman i n the shadows behind  the arch looks out o f the open window (or doorway).  She wears a low-cut  dress  with a scooped neck -and a black neckband from which hangs a s h i n i n g pendant. She seems p e r t u r b e d .  A young boy whose body i s almost l o s t  leans a g a i n s t a p r o t r u d i n g w a l l .  His head and eyes are s l i g h t l y  t h a t i n view o f the ambiguous s p a c e , h i s eyes would f a l l figures.  His e x p r e s s i o n i s  i n t o the background, i s  on h i s knee and h i s  left  interested  on the embracing  his l e f t  hand h o l d i n g the edge of h i s c o a t .  i n the scene before him.  face.  His body, which  appears n o n - s t r u c t u r a l  so t h a t h i s  size.  He i s  resting  His hat and pants  His face has a v a c a n t , mask-like  quality  rounded m o d e l l i n g of  i s done i n an even c r u d e r way than the head, left  s h o u l d e r i s almost n o n - e x i s t a n t and  h i s hands are l a r g e , f l a t and e x p r e s s i o n l e s s . life  leg  He l o o k s t h o u g h t f u l , but not deeply  made up o f forms very much more b l o c k - l i k e than the s o f t l y the f a t h e r ' s  Haarlem  A f i g u r e , again b l e n d i n g c o l o u r -  seated to the r i g h t ,  are of a type contemporary to Rembrandt.  shadows  l o w e r e d , so  comparable to t h a t of the youth i n the  d r a w i n g ; c u r i o u s and p u z z l e d , but a c c e p t i n g . istically  i n the  Beside  i l l u m i n a t e d by the l i g h t which f a l l s  In c o n t r a s t to the o t h e r o n l o o k e r s , he i s He i s dressed i n a long red c l o a k so t h a t ,  clearly  him stands a f i g u r e i n  full  on the f a t h e r and s o n .  visible  and modelled with  c o l o u r i s t i c a l l y and i n the s t y l e  care. of  33. h i s costume, he belongs to the group o f the f a t h e r and s o n . i n f r o n t o f h i m , r e s t on the walking s t i c k . brown s h o u l d e r l e n g t h h a i r which flows slightly  His hands, f o l d e d  A f l a t cap p a r t i a l l y  i n t o a long b e a r d .  covers  His head i s  his  bent  forward and h i s gaze i s d i r e c t e d downwards at the two main f i g u r e s .  The s t r o n g l i g h t on h i s f a c e r e v e a l s  hollow cheeks and deeply sunken e y e s .  He i s moved by what he s e e s , but h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s t r o u b l e d . between h i s f a c e and the s e r e n i t y  The c o n t r a s t  i n the f a c e o f the k n e e l i n g f i g u r e ,  is  striking. 25 There are many problems w i t h t h i s  painting  .  It  was  bought by  P r i n c e Dmitry G o l i t s y n , the Russian ambassador to P a r i s and The Hague, f o r Catherine  11's p i c t u r e g a l l e r y  i n 1766  .  No x-ray data on the p a i n t i n g  has,  to my knowledge, been p u b l i s h e d . A s t r i p of a p p r o x i m a t e l y ten c e n t i m e t r e s  has been added t o the  right  27 and to the bottom of the p a i n t i n g  .  The l i n e c o n n e c t i n g the added p a r t  the main p a r t o f the p a i n t i n g , i s c l e a r l y  visible  although there  to  i s no marked  change i n the c o l o u r i n g o f the added p a r t i n the p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e .  The  change has a l t e r e d the c o m p o s i t i o n , f o r i t means t h a t the s t a n d i n g o n l o o k e r i n r e d , has been g i v e n more volume and t h a t h i s back has been p a r t i a l l y  freed  from the p i c t u r e ' s e d g e , so t h a t he has become a more independent and f u l l y rounded f i g u r e .  The added space i n f r o n t o f the f e e t o f the  f i g u r e , adds depth to the p i c t u r e .  genuflected  A comparison with "The A p o s t l e P e t e r Denying  28 Christ"  i n which the person i n the extreme l e f t  is  cut h a l f o f f and the  seated s o l d i e r i s very c l o s e to the p i c t u r e p l a n e , makes i t  less d i f f i c u l t  v i s u a l i z e the Hermitage p a i n t i n g without the added ten c e n t i m e t r e s . however,  still  left  with the q u e s t i o n whether  to the e d g e , o r whether It  We a r e ,  Rembrandt added the two p i e c e s  i t was done by someone e l s e a n d , i f  was suggested by the P a r i s s c u l p t o r , F a l c o n e t ,  C a t h e r i n e II,  to  s o , by whom or why?  in a l e t t e r  o f 1772 to  as a companion p i e c e to "Mordecai at the Feast o f E s t h e r and  34.  Anasuerus",  which  i s now c a l l e d  "The Condemnation o f Haman",  but a  comparison o f measurements o f the two p a i n t i n g s does not e x p l a i n the added ten 31 centimetres  .  The added s t r i p s may i n d i c a t e a process o f r e s t o r a t i o n , but  we have no documentary m a t e r i a l  for  verification.  The second problem i s one of q u a l i t y . s p e c t a t o r s , which to him are q u a l i t a t i v e l y  Bob Haak has suggested t h a t  so much p o o r e r , were not  by Rembrandt, but were completed by another hand. an a s s u m p t i o n , he c i t e s  the unusual  the  painted  As f u r t h e r evidence f o r such  s i g n a t u r e whose a u t h e n t i c i t y  has been  q u e s t i o n e d , and which he suggests might have been done by the same hand that 32 completed Rembrandt's  painting.  T h i s would assume t h a t Rembrandt had  left  the p a i n t i n g i n c o m p l e t e . The presence o f the s p e c t a t o r s The eyes of a l l different  states  is  interpretatively  f o u r r e s t on the scene b e f o r e them, a l l of mind i n r e l a t i o n to the scene.  Rembrandt's d r a w i n g s , at  least  in t h e i r  problematic.  seeming to embody  They have no precedence  in  p r e s e n t e n i g m a t i c f o r m , and no t e x t u a l  explanation. The r e l i e f  work on the w a l l s o f the b u i l d i n g , which cannot be p r e s e n t l y  r e a d , may p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l A number o f v i s u a l erences between t h i s spiritually  f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n , however,  be made f o r the  diff-  p a i n t i n g and the 1636 e t c h i n g , i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y and  are c o n s i d e r a b l e , p o i n t i n g to the change which has taken p l a c e  Rembrandt's c o n c e p t i o n o f the P r o d i g a l  Son's  f i g u r e group i n the e t c h i n g , are very sense o f movement s t i l l  in  return.  The s t r o n g geometric forms of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  a static  of the p a i n t i n g .  s e t t i n g and the main  important to the p a i n t i n g , w h i l e  found i n the e t c h i n g i s  now a b s e n t .  This results  c o m p o s i t i o n , s u g g e s t i v e o f c a l m , unwavering s t r e n g t h .  o f the f a t h e r and son no l o n g e r forms a t r i a n g l e  the in  The main group  i n which the backs o f  the two f i g u r e s make up the two s i d e s , i n d i c a t i n g a more e q u a l i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two f i g u r e s , with the head and s h o u l d e r s o f the f a t h e r  forming  it's  35.  apex.  The f a t h e r ' s  hands across h i s s h o u l d e r s are e x p r e s s i v e o f the s t r o n g  33 emotion which he f e e l s  towards  h i s son  .  While the landscape i n the e t c h i n g c a r r i e s distance  i n t o a d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t , there  beyond t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n  the p i c t u r e .  the eye f a r  into  the  i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a space The r e f e r e n c e  to the b u i l d i n g  i n the background serves merely as a s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e , a v i s i b l e  sign of  the  s o l i d i t y and s e c u r i t y of the "home" to which the son has come. The o n l y d i r e c t a l l u s i o n s  to the s o n ' s former l i f e ,  that i s ,  the  time o u t s i d e t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p i c t u r e , are the worn out shoes and cut f e e t and the k n i f e hanging on h i s s i d e , which was used i n the of p i g s .  The son has not a r r i v e d  slaughtering  i n the rags o f a swineherd, but with  shaven head and garment of a p e n i t e n t .  He i s  no l o n g e r bare  foot.  Rembrandt's c h o i c e i n h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the footwear ficant  iconographical  only wearing one. his f o o t .  implications.  the  has  signi-  Although the son has both s h o e s , he  is  The o t h e r has been c o n s c i o u s l y taken o f f and placed beside  T h i s may be i n t e r p r e t e d  i n a number of ways.  the idea t h a t the " l o o s e n e d s a n d a l " i s  Ewald V e t t e r  presents  an antique symbol of one s e a r c h i n g  s h e l t e r and suggests t h a t the " l o o s e n i n g " o f one shoe i n d i c a t e s  the  for  son's  34 need f o r the s a f e t y  and s e c u r i t y o f the home  read as one bare and one covered f o o t .  H.S.  .  It  may, however,  Beham has shown h i s  a l s o be  returning  35 Prodigal  Son i n t h i s manner,  the l i f e  of poverty.  In  " R i c h Man's K i t c h e n " i s  this  which i n popular iconography was a s s o c i a t e d with c o n n e c t i o n the vagabond i n P e t e r  shown wearing o n l y one shoe  P i e t e r C o r n e l i s z Kunst o f the " P r o d i g a l p e d l a r s t a n d i n g at  the t a b l e  Son P l a y i n g  .  A print ascribed  to  a Game o f D i c e " shows a  p l a y i n g d i c e with the P r o d i g a l  with a shoe o n l y on h i s r i g h t f o o t , w h i l e h i s l e f t  Breugel's  Son.  He i s  shown  l e g and f o o t i s c o m p l e t e l y  bare  36. The meaning of the s o n ' s f o o t w e a r ,  however, may l i e  i n another d i r e c t i o n ,  f o r w h i l e the son i s wearing o n l y one s h o e , the o t h e r shoe i s c l e a r l y  present  and seems to suggest t h a t the e x p h a s i s i s on the t a k i n g o f f o f the shoe. book of Exodus speaks o f the removal  The  o f the shoes i n c o n n e c t i o n with holy ground.  For the L o r d , speaking to Moses out of the burning b u s h , s a i d " . . . p u t  o f f your  38 shoes from your f e e t ,  f o r the p l a c e on which you are s t a n d i n g i s  holy g r o u n d " .  The ground on which the son kneels may be seen as h o l y ground f o r , with his f a t h e r ,  he i s ,  s y m b o l i c a l l y , i n the presence of God.  in his  presence  The problem,  39 however,  still  a r i s e s why he has o n l y taken o f f one shoe  The s t a n d i n g f i g u r e  i n red a l s o presents  iconographic d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The prominence given to him suggests that he i s a f i g u r e o f some importance. Qualitatively,  he i s , l i k e  the other s p e c t a t o r s , poorer than the main two  and may, t h e r e f o r e , not have been done by Rembrandt, a l t h o u g h t h i s  does not  exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he was p a r t of Rembrandt's c o n c e p t i o n a n d , i n accordance with the p a i n t i n g s t o t a l  iconographic  figures  therefore,  statement.  The o l d e r b r o t h e r , although a more minor f i g u r e  in previously  cited  40 pictorial Biblical  works of t h i s  subject  s t o r y seen as a whole.  , is.nevertheless It  o l d e r b r o t h e r , who i n the B i b l i c a l  is  an important f i g u r e  p o s s i b l e t h a t he does r e p r e s e n t  s t o r y a c t s as a f o i l  to h i s younger  f o r w h i l e h i s b r o t h e r had separated h i m s e l f from h i s f a t h e r , faithful  to him and had worked hard f o r him throughout the A l t h o u g h , i n l i g h t o f the many t e c h n i c a l  ambiguities,  it  is  meaning, i t may, p e r h a p s , be i n t e r p r e t e d s o l e l y on the v i s u a l  "Prodigal"  son back so f r e e l y  the brother,  years.  difficulties  concept o f " g r a c e " .  the  he had remained  and i c o n o g r a p h i c a l  perhaps dangerous to make any statement as to the  as an e x p r e s s i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t  in  material  painting's at hand,  The f a t h e r takes  his  and c o m p l e t e l y t h a t they have become o n e , even  37  before the son has had a chance to express h i s r e p e n t a n c e , w h i l e the o l d e r b r o t h e r who, through h i s s e r v i c e able p o s i t i o n in his f a t h e r ' s further  investigation.  and f i d e l i t y ,  had hoped to win a more f a v o u r -  e y e s , now stands a p a r t .  This,  however,  requires  38.  Footnotes  Introduction  and H i s t o r i c a l  1.  Br.  2.  Breduis-Gerson.  3.  Valentiner  Perspective  #30; H. de Groot #334; Bauch #535.  feels  (1904)  p . 6 8 , dates  it  c.  1636-37; V a l e n t i n e r  (1908)  t h a t h i s p r e v i o u s d a t i n g i s too l a t e and suggests an  date o f c. 483 c a t .  1634, which he bases on a B e r l i n  p.133,  earlier  drawing o f 1633  (Benesch  no. 437) and a study f o r Rembrandt's head o f the same y e a r  at Warneck  (Valentiner,  1908, p.  142 l e f t ) .  H. de Groot #334 p.192  it  c.  1634-35; Bauch, Anmerkungen p.27 dates i t  c.  p.  145 suggests a date o f 1636; Breduis-Gerson p.549 g i v e s  dates  1636; B e r g s t r o m , no d a t e .  The-' p r e s e n t author has no b a s i s f o r d i s p u t i n g a mid 3 0 ' s d a t i n g . The p o r t r a i t  c h a r a c t e r o f the p a i n t i n g r e v e a l s  with other p o r t r a i t s this,  in i t s e l f ,  o f the a r t i s t  strong  affinities  and h i s w i f e of t h a t p e r i o d ,  i s f a r from c o n c l u s i v e as e v i d e n c e .  The dramatic  hand gesture e x h i b i t e d by the man can be seen as a f e a t u r e of works o f the. p e r i o d (see  also Br.  #497; Br.  #498; B r .  The c a l l i g r a p h i c l i n e of the young man's cap and the curved f e a t h e r  coming from i t ,  o f a number  #499).  dramatically  are f e a t u r e s which may be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h h i s Baroque p e r i o d o f the mid-30's (compare the e l a b o r a t e o f Br.  drapery  #474).  4.  Br..#598;  5.  Valentiner c.  although  H. de Groot #113; Bauch (1908)  p.471 dates i t  #94. c.  1668-69; H. de G r o o t , p . 9 0 ,  1669; The H e r m i t a g e , L e n i n g r a d , Dutch and Flemish Masters  (London:  Paul Hamlyn, 1964)* p.88 suggests a 1663 d a t i n g by comparing i t a related family p o r t r a i t p. 7, c. Brunswick  1668 ( ? ) ; portrait  i n Brunswick  #417);  Breduis-Gerson, p.612, gives i s not i t s e l f  Bauch, Anmerkungen  no d a t e .  dated and s i n c e i t ' s  the Hermitage p a i n t i n g remains u n c l e a r , substantial  (Br.  it  Since  the  relationship  to  cannot be c o n s i d e r e d  evidence as a b a s i s f o r the d a t i n g o f the Hermitage  Compositionally, i t  with  belongs to the l a t e 1660's  painting.  (c.1668-69).  *N0TE: Throughout t h i s study l i t e r a t u r e f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d o n l y once and l a t e r r e f e r r e d to by the a u t h o r ' s name, the y e a r o f p u b l i c a t i o n and, i n b r a c k e t s , the number o f the f o o t n o t e where the t i t l e i s f i r s t g i v e n .  39.  6.  B.  #91.  7.  Benesch i n h i s c a t a l o g u e o f Drawings g i v e s a number o f r e l a t e d t o the P r o d i g a l  Son theme.  Departure o f the P r o d i g a l dated by Benesch c.  Ben. 8 5 , c a t .  drawings  no. 8 1 , "The  Son" i n D r e s d e n , K u p f e r s t i c h  1632^33.  Valentiner  (1925)  Kabinett  p . 3 8 3 , sees  drawing as a study f o r the Dresden p a i n t i n g and dates i t  this  1633-34.  Sumowski, i n "Bemerkungen zu Otto Beneschs Corpus der Rembrandt Zeichnungen I", Universitat Reihe, VI,  Wissenschafliche Z e i t s c h r i f t  zu B e r l i n .  Ben.  108, c a t .  in B e r l i n ,  G e s s e l s c h a f t s und S p r a c h w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e  (1956-7), VII  evidence f o r i t s  (1957-58), p . 2 6 0 , b r i n g s c o n v i n c i n g  a t t r i b u t i o n to P h i l i p s  Koninck.  no. 100 verso "3 Couples o f S o l d i e r s and Women"  K u p f e r s t i c h K a b i n e t t , dated by B e n e s c h , 1635, and  a s s o c i a t e d by him with the P r o d i g a l Ben.  Der Humboldt -  788, c a t .  Son i n the t a v e r n  no. 651 " D e p a r t u r e o f the P r o d i g a l  Gronigen Museum.  Benesch dates i t  c.  Son" i n  Ben.  732, c a t .  British  it  this  to be the work o f a good p u p i l .  no. 6 0 1 , " P r o d i g a l  Son among the Swine" i n  the  Museum, which Benesch dates 1647-48 w h i l e V a l e n t i n e r  p . 3 8 7 , g i v e s a date o f c. Ben. 6 5 5 , c a t . a copy a f t e r  (1925)  1635-40.  no. 528a, " P r o d i g a l  O r l e a n s , dated by Benesch c.  Son with the Loose Women" i n  1642-43.  Tumpel, p . 1 1 8 , sees i t  as  Rembrandt.  Ben. 6 5 8 , c a t .  no. 529, " P r o d i g a l  B a s e l , Benesch dates i t it  Valentiner  p . 3 8 4 , does not r e c o g n i z e the hand o f Rembrandt i n  drawing and b e l i e v e s  the  1649-50 and sees the washes,  which weaken the drawings as being by another hand. (1925)  scene.  c.  Son with the Loose Women" i n  1642-43; V a l e n t i n e r  (1925)  as a study f o r the Dresden p a i n t i n g and dates i t  Ben. 6 4 1 , c a t .  no. 519, "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Benesch dates i t  p.386 sees  c. 1634. Son" i n Haarlem.  1644 and says t h a t the washes, a r c h i t e c t u r e  s e t t i n g are by another hand, an i d e a which Haverkamp-Begemann  and in  "Review o f Otto B e n e s c h , The Drawings o f Rembrandt, F i r s t Complete Edition",  Kunstchronik v o l .  #388 dates i t Ben. 6 9 5 , c a t .  c.  XIV,  1961, r e f u t e s . V a l e n t i n e r  1635, r e l a t i n g i t  t o the e t c h i n g on the same s u b j e c t .  no. 5 6 2 , "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Benesch dates i t  1644-45.  (1925)  Valentiner  (1925)  S o n " , i n Rotterdam,  p . 3 8 9 , p o i n t s out t h a t  40. the e x e c u t i o n has many c o r r e c t i o n s and i s , i n p l a c e s , somewhat u n c e r t a i n . Haverkamp Begemann, (loc- c i t . ) s a y s t h a t another hand d i d the green and gray washes. Ben.  1193, c a t .  no. 983, "Return of the P r o d i g a l  dated by Benesch 1655-56.  Valentiner  "Departure o f T o b i a s " (Ben. Ben.  1225, c a t .  727, c a t .  (1925)  Son" i n the Hague,  p.228 sees i t  no. 597) and dates i t 1645.  no. 1011, "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Son" i n  V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum i s dated by Benesch 1656, w h i l e (1925) Ben.  p . 3 9 2 , dates  1231, c a t .  it  i s dated by Benesch 1656-57.  Valentiner  (1925)  works from the m i d - 5 0 ' s , on the grounds o f i t s that  in i t s  Ben.  Valentiner  S o n " , i n Dresden  p.391, relates severe  simplicity it  the Hermitage p a i n t i n g o f the same s u b j e c t place i t  the  1664, on the b a s i s o f c o m p o s i t i o n .  no. 1017, "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  c o m p o s i t i o n , but f e e l s  as a  (Br.  it  to  architectonic  may a l s o r e l a t e #598) and t h a t  to  would  i n the l a t e 1 6 6 0 ' s .  1252, c a t .  no. 1037, "The Return o f the P r o d i g a l  Son", in  the  A l b e r t i n a , i s r e l a t e d , a c c o r d i n g to Benesch, t o the Hermitage p a i n t i n g (Br. 8.  C o l i n C a m p b e l l , "Rembrandt's  "Polish Rider"  (1925)  p.390.  and the P r o d i g a l  Son",  3 3 , 1970, pp.292-303.  For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s a r t i c l e  I.  see Appendix  # 279.  Emile MSle, L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x Apres l e C o n c i l e de T r e n t e , A. C o l i n ,  10.  Valentiner  J o u r n a l o f the Warburg & C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , Br. 9.  #598) and i s dated by him 1658-59.  R.  1932), p.  65-71.  K l e i n and H. Z e r n e r ,  Italian  (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J e r s e y :  A r t 1500-1600, Sources and Documents, Prentice  Hall  Inc.,  Canos & Decrees o f the C o u n c i l o f T r e n t ( t r a n s , London, 1941).  (Paris:  1966) pp. 120-21.  by J . J .  The 25th S e s s i o n , Dec. 3 & 4 , 1563  Schroeder, on the  i n v o c a t i o n , v e n e r a t i o n and r e l i c s o f the s a i n t s and on sacred images. "Moreover, l e t  the bishops d i l i g e n t l y teach t h a t by means o f  the  s t o r i e s o f the m y s t e r i e s o f our redemption p o r t r a y e d i n p a i n t i n g s and o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s the people are i n s t r u c t e d and confirmed i n articles  o f f a i t h which ought to be borne i n mind and c o n s t a n t l y  r e f l e c t e d upon*  ".  the  41.  11.  MSle, 1932 (9)  pp. 66-70 g i v e s a number o f examples o f p a i n t i n g s done  i n the 17th c e n t u r y on themes o f 12.  Rudolph O l d e n b o u r g , P.P.  Rubens^  Deutsche V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , Penitents  and S a i n t s " ,  nd.)  p. 13.  104, " S t .  Des M e i s t e r s Gem'alde  (Stuttgart:  p. 129, "The Madonna Adored by Four  1615-17.  the author c i t e d i n each case) Anthony van Dyck; p.  penitence.  (NOTE: The dates are those g i v e n by The e x e c u t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d  176, " C h r i s t and the Four P e n i t e n t s " ,  Magdalen R e p e n t a n t " ,  c.  10;  "St.  Mary Magdalene i n Penance",  Magdalene i n Penance", "St.  p. 218; " S t .  Mary Magdalene i n P e n a n c e " ,  c.  1618;  1635-38.  Gustav G l u c k , Van Dyck; Des M e i s t e r s Gem'alde (New York: 1931), p.  to  p.  F.  Kleinburger,  144; " S t .  Mary  Mary Magdalene i n P e n a n c e " ,  p. 6 2 ; " C h r i s t and the  p. 226;  Penitent  Sinners". 14.  Nefta G r i m a l d i , II  G u e r c i n o ; Gian Francesco B a r b i e r i ; 1591-1666  (Bologna:  E d i z i o n i G.R.,  Piangente  con due A n g i o l i " ,  15.  (pref.  1968) p.  1622; p.  136.  212.  "S.  "David".  M u r i H o * , L'Oeuvre du Mai t r e Hachette  & C i e . , 1913) p.  Maria Maddalena  (Paris:  36 "Le R e p e n t i r de S a i n t e M a d e l a i n e " ,  1650-65; p. 100. "Le R e p e n t i r de S a i n t e M a d e l a i n e " , *  16.  Ewald V e t t e r , Ikonographie extensively  Der V e r l o r e n e Sohn, Lukas Bucherei v o l . VII  (Dusseldorf:  i n t o the i n t e r p r e t i v e  V e r l a g L.  m i c r o f i l m , Univ.  Schwann, 1955) goes The p a r a b l e ' s  of N. C a r o l i n a , Chapel H i l l ,  literary  century.  The scenes of the s t o r y are i l l u s t r a t e d  Grec. 74, P a r i s ,  Bibl.  Nat.  f o l i o 143r. 11th  i n two  narrative  the son a s k i n g h i s f a t h e r f o r money; the son  s t a n d i n g among the s w i n e ; he r e t u r n s before h i s ' f a t h e r ;  Prodigal  1966).  from the M.S.  bands and i n c l u d e :  visual  to 1910. (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n on  Miniature  is  zur Christlichen  i s d i s c u s s e d i n A l i s o n Mary T u r n e r , The M o t i f o f the  Son i n French and German L i t e r a t u r e  17.  1665-75.  h i s t o r y o f the p a r a b l e i n the  a r t s and to a l e s s e r degree i n l i t e r a t u r e . history  Librairie  home and p r o s t r a t e s  himself  the two, s t a n d i n g , embrace each o t h e r ; the son  being d r e s s e d i n new c l o t h e s .  Vetter,  1955 (16)  pi.  I,  p. 38.  42.  18.  The F.  initial  o f the Lukas evangelium o f the G o s l a r Evangelary  715, i n c l u d e s w i t h i n son's arrival !  19.  of his  two scenes from the P r o d i g a l  at h i s f a t h e r ' s  house and above i t ,  Son s t o r y ;  the f e a s t  the  i n honour  return.  Vetter,  1955(16)  Vetter,  1955 (16)  pi.  p. 16.  In  Ill,  p. 38.  p. 3 6 , f o o t n o t e 45 suggests H. C o r n e l l . B i b l i a  Pauperum (Stockholm: cit.)  it  folio  1925) p i . 12 f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n .  the B i b l i a  Vetter  Pauperum, the Return o f the  (loc.  Prodigal  Son i s j u x t a p o s e d with the r e u n i o n o f Joseph and h i s b r o t h e r s and the appearance of the r i s e n C h r i s t to h i s d i s c i p l e s . 20.  K a r l - A d o l f Knappe, P u r e r , Woodcuts,  (London: Thames and Hudson, 1965) p. 7,  Son amid the S w i n e " , c. 21.  The Complete E n g r a v i n g s , E t c h i n g s "The  and  Prodigal  1496.  F.W.H. H o l l s t e i n , German E n g r a v i n g s , E t c h i n g s and Woodcuts, c. 14001700 (Amsterdam: M. H e r t z b e r g e r , 1954) V o l . I l l H.S.  Beham, p l a t e s  pp. 30-31.  1-4, dated 1540.  F.W.H. H o l l s t e i n Dutch and Flemish E t c h i n g s Engravings and Woodcuts, c.  1450-1700 (Amsterdam: M. H e r t z b e r g e r , 1949 --)  hereafter, Philip  H o l l s t e i n , Dutch and Flemish)  Galle  produced s i x p l a t e s  V o l . VII  (abbreviated p. 77.  from the s t o r y a f t e r  d e s i g n s by  Heemskerck, dated 1562. H o l l s t e i n , Dutch and F l e m i s h , V o l . IX,  p. 4 9 .  Rombout van der Hoeye executed f o u r p l a t e s designed by August Braun. 22.  T h i s scene appears f r e q u e n t l y 13th c e n t u r y . Chartes  L'Abbe y .  (Chartres:  E.  i n the p i c t o r i a l  Houvet, 1926) PI.  CL-CLII shows t h a t s i x  out o f twenty nine i n the " P r o d i g a l  Son" window i n C h a r t r e s  were devoted to t h i s e p i s o d e o f the  parable.  Tumpel, 1968, p.  24.  H o l l s t e i n , Dutch and F l e m i s h , 1949 (21) b.  1509 (or  Ibid.,  VII,  the  D e l a p o r t e , Les V i t r a u x de l a C a t h e d r a l e de  23.  25.  t r a d i t i o n since  120, f i g s .  fields  Cathedral  27-30. IX,  p. 200.  Gerard de Jode  1517) at Nymegen, d . 1591 i n Antwerp. p.  9. Frans  Francken the Younger's dates are  1581-1642.  43.  26.  Kurt Bauch, Der Fruhe Rembrandt und s e i n e Z e i t Mann, 1960) p.  27.  32 i l l u s t r .  "The C a l l i n g o f S t .  c.  (see  His L i f e , 38, c a t . figures  His Legend, His Works (London: as a p r o t o t y p e  occupied i n v a r i o u s  were done by a r t i s t s "Mahlzeit",  pursuits style.  Florence, U f f i z i ,  die Niederlander  Florence 2 vols. I.  p.  28.  cit.)  p.  Annibale C a r r a c c i :  Israel,  1967) p i .  2, b;  des Barock  Press,  "Musical", of  "Konversationstuck",  Palace,  i)  "Return  (London:  cit.)  o f the P r o d i g a l  Son"  Mattia 1656.  (Naples:  Louvre,  are:-  It  hung i n the Zambeccari  s o l d to See  early  Chapel the  Donald  i n the Reform i n I t a l i a n  Painting  i n the 1743 Inventory o f  the  as g i v e n by Rudolph Wittkower,  i n the C o l l e c t i o n o f her Majesty  (London: P h a i d o n , 1952)  p i . 30, cat.  Bernardo C a v a l l i n o :  M o i r , 1967 (27)  c.  Paris  p.  112.  the  iii)  Two  at Windsor c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the engraving are by A g o s t i n o .  Wittkower ( l o c .  3.  p i . 103,  P h a i d o n , 1971) p. 62 and p i . 161, note  or Casa Sampieri  Queen at Windsor C a s t l e ,  2.  II.  A p a i n t i n g , now l o s t , was recorded i n  The Drawings of the C a r r a c c i drawings  Caravaggio,  100 and p. 453.  A p a i n t i n g by A n n i b a l e l i s t e d  Zambeccari  Propylaen  1967)  In 1786, the p a i n t i n g was engraved.  around 1590, 2 v o l s .  Walter  i n Rom, ( B e r l i n :  University  P o s n e r , A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i , A Study ii)  These  P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n , Germany,  i n the church o f Corpus Domini i n Bologna and was l a t e r  32.  of  Caravaggio und  as a work by A n n i b a l e .  Duke o f O r l e a n s .  PI.  see A r t h u r von S c h n e i d e r ,  pp. 86-88; V a l e n t i n de Boulogne,  literature  1953)  seated around a t a b l e .  see A l f r e d M o i r , The I t a l i a n F o l l o w e r s  Examples of the m o t i f o f the 1.  Faber and F a b e r ,  van H o n t h o r s t ,  (Cambridge, Mass. Harvard  see Voss ( l o c .  da Caravaggio -  135 and p. 470; Bartolomeo M a n f r e d i ,  Uffizi,  Francesi,  f o r a number of works  C r a b e t h , "Der F a l s c h s p i e l e r " ,  (1924)  de  For example: G e r r i t t  (Amsterdam: B.M.  see Hermann V o s s , Die Malerei Verlag  i n San L u i g i  both i n I t a l y and i n the N o r t h , who were s t r o n g l y  i n f l u e n c e d by C a r a v a g g i o ' s  Pietersz  Matthew"  Roger H i n k s , M i c h e l a n g e l o M e r i s i  no. 29, serves  V e r l a g Gebr.  #19.  Caravaggio's, 1598-1601,  (Berlin:  II  Preti:  A painting  no. 95 and f i g .  12, c a t .  no. 96 v e r s o .  i n N a p l e s , Capodimonte.  See  no. 220. A painting  i n the Palazzo Reale i n N a p l e s ,  See Caravaggio e C a r a v a g g e s c h i . C a t a l o g o Palazzo Reale,  1963).  dated  d e l l a mostra,  44.  4.  Murillo:  A s e r i e s o f scenes from the P r o d i g a l  are dated 1660-80. Hachette  i  See M u r i l l o ; L'Oeuvre du M a i t r e  & C i e . , 1913) nos. 109-115. cit)  5.  A sketch f o r the " R e t u r n "  i)  P h a i d o n , 1948) no. 73. i i ) Inquisitori  Tietze (loc.  cit.)  Jacopo T i n t o r e t t o  (Paris:  Librairie Son"  no. 126.  See Hans T i e t z e , T i n t o r e t t o , The P a i n t i n g s Sala degli  All  A "Return o f the P r o d i g a l  dated 1671-74, ( l o c . Tintoretto:  Son s t o r y .  i n the U f f i z i ,  and Drawings,  Florence.  (New  York:  A c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g i n an octagon o f  i n the Ducal  Palace i n V e n i c e , dated c.  the 1560.  no. 74.  E r i c h von der B e r c k e n , Die Gem'alde des  (Munich:  R.  P i p e r & C o . , 1942) g i v e s  it  as a  c e i l i n g d e c o r a t i o n o f the R e t r o s t a n z a dei Capi del C o n s i g l i o dei  Dieci,  Palazzo Ducale. 6.  B o n i f a c i o Veronese:  A p a i n t i n g i n the V i l l a Borghese, Rome.  E v e l y n P h i l i p s , The Venetian School  of Painting,  (London:  See  MacMillan  & C o . , 1912) p. 211. 29.  Pamela Askew, "The P a r a b l e P a i n t i n g s  o f Domenico F e t t i " ,  Art  Bulletin  4 3 , 1961, pp. 21-45. 30.  Cecil  G o u l d , The S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  Catalogues (London: The N a t i o n a l date at the end o f 31.  Gallery,  1570's. pi.  Askew, 1961 (29)  3 1 , note 2 9 , connects G u e r c h i n o ' s T u r i n  108, T u r i n ,  Son" with F e t t i ' s  a date o f c.  1618.  Grimaldi, (loc. dated c .  p.  Gallery  1959) n o . 2 9 4 , suggests a  G r i m a l d i , 1968.(14) "Prodigal  32.  Venetian S c h o o l , N a t i o n a l  r e n d e r i n g o f the same s u b j e c t .  For i l l u s t r a t i o n  cit.)  Pinacoteca. She suggests  see G r i m a l d i , 1968 (14)  f i g . 103, a p a i n t i n g i n the Borghese  1618 and f i g . 137, a p a i n t i n g i n a p r i v a t e  f i g . 108.  Gallery  c o l l e c t i o n i n Rome  c. 1621. Chapter 1.  I  B e r g s t r o m , pg. 145, "However a r h y t h m i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the two s i t t e r s . enclosed in i t s e l f , triangle.  Saskia  dualism reigns i n  is s t i f f  and s t a t i c ,  which c o u l d be i n s c r i b e d w i t h i n  Rembrandt, on the o t h e r hand, i s a c t i v e ,  ment, space demanding and o p e n " .  the a figure  an i s o s c e l e s a f i g u r e i n move-  45.  C h r i s t o p h e r W h i t e , Rembrandt and h i s World 1964) p.  34.  "Her ( S a s k i a ' s ) e x p r e s s i o n  (London: Thames and Hudson,  i s d e c i d e d l y d i g n i f i e d and  i n marked c o n t r a s t to t h a t o f her husband, whose c o a r s e !  features  !  and temperament are c l e a r l y  2.  are wreathed i n a g r i n . . .  B e r g s t r o m , p.  is  ebullient  Their differences o f upbringing  stated".  143, f o o t n o t e 3, i d e n t i f i e s  the peacock f e a t h e r s  behind  the man's head and arm as p a r t s o f an enormous fan h e l d by the woman, a l t h o u g h on P.  145, f o o t n o t e 4 , he says t h a t t h e r e has been some  d i s c u s s i o n about the w h e e l , as to whether d e c o r a t i o n o f the p a s t r y . but l e a v e s  The p r e s e n t w r i t e r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a peacock f a n , as w e l l to the peacock on the 3.  Tumpel, p.  118, r e f e r s  i s a fan o r p a r t o f  He seems to p r e f e r the f i r s t  the q u e s t i o n u n s e t t l e d .  be redundant and t h a t a l l  it  the  alternative, feels  that  the  as the peacock p a s t r y , would  the peacock f e a t h e r s  i n the p a i n t i n g belong  pastry. to i t  as a bed.  On i c o n o g r a p h i c grounds  it  l o g i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a b e d , f o r a bed i s a customary a c c e s s o r y i n tavern scene.  Compare the e t c h i n g by Jan  o f Rembrandt, f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Georg van V l i e t ,  See Tumpel, p.  f o o t n o t e 4 0 , f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f V l i e t ' s 4.  Werner Weisbach, Rembrandt  5.  Henner Menz, The Dresden G a l l e r y Gallery  (Berlin:  119, c f .  work t o  W. de G r u y t e r ,  the  a pupil p. 1 2 1 ,  Rembrant's.  1926) p. 172.  (London: Thames and Hudson, 1962)  no. 1559, p. 208.  6.  Tumpel, p.  123, f o o t n o t e 88a.  7.  John S m i t h , A Catalogue Raisonne o f the Works o f the Most Eminent D u t c h , Flemish and French P a i n t e r s , 1836) V I I ,  8.  10.  (London: Smith & S o n s ,  p. 69.  Wilhelm von Bode and C. Hofstede de G r o o t , L'Oeuvre 8 vols.  9.  8 v o l s . , suppl.  ( P a r i s : C. Sedelmeyer  Valentiner  (1904)  p. 68.  Valentiner  (1908)  p. 133.  H. de G r o o t , p. 192.  1879-1906) III,  Complet de Rembrandt,  p. 5 9 , #157.  46.  11.  Valentiner  (1925)  p. 488, (no.  3 8 3 ) , says t h a t t h i s  e n t i n g the "Departure of the P r o d i g a l the drawing of the " P r o d i g a l i  drawing,  S o n " , Ben. 8 5 , c a t .  repres-  no. 81 and  Son w i t h the Loose Women", Ben. 6 5 8 , c a t .  no. 5 2 9 , were done at the same time as the Dresden p a i n t i n g . drawing embodies the t y p e ' o f the P r o d i g a l  This  Son which Rembrandt uses  in  the p a i n t i n g and the o t h e r drawing p r o v i d e s the b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n for that p a i n t i n g . represents  By a l l  the P r o d i g a l  l o g i c , t h e r e f o r e , the Dresden p a i n t i n g  Son theme.  12.  Menz, 1962, ( 5 ) ,  p. 208.  13.  G e r s o n , p. 323.  14.  B e r g s t r o m , pp. 145-150.  15.  Tumpel, p. 116.  16.  Tumpel, p.  126, note 97.  A comparison o f measurements, based s o l e l y on the a v a i l a b l e suggests t h a t the p a i n t i n g has been c u t down. and Gerson (approx. dimensions.  63 1/4" x 51 1/2")  John S m i t h , 1836 ( 7 ) ,  b e f o r e the 1860 r e s t a u r a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e o f c.  H. de Groot (64" x 52")  approximate each o t h e r i n  however,  g i v e s the dimension as 69" x 5 6 " . 5 3/4" x 4 1/2"  i n the two s e t s  of  C h r i s t i a n Tumpel, " I k o n o g r a p h i s c h e B e i t r a g e zu Rembrandt z u r Deutung e i n z e l n e r Werke ( I I ) " , Jahrbuch  Kunstsammlungen, v o l . Meintschel  1 6 , 1971, p.  p r e s e n t e d the r e s u l t s  2 0 , note 2.  der Hammburger  D r . A n n e l i s e Mayer-  o f an x-ray at the Rembrandt Congress  i n Amsterdam i n 1969.  19.  This  (  und I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  18.  their  in his catalogue written  dimensions. 17.  literature,  Ben. 6 5 8 , c a t .  no. 529 ( 7 ,  Introd.).  Ibid.  20.  A c c o r d i n g to B e n e s c h ,  21.  T u m p e l , p.  22.  See note 1 8 , above.  23.  Ben. 6 5 5 , c a t .  ibid.  118, note 73.  Active c.  no. 528a ( 7 ,  Introd).  1620-30 i n Amsterdam.  47.  24.  G.J.  Hoogewerff,  Fig.  19, Kerncat.  Jan  "Jan  van B i j l e r t , fig.  van B i j l e r t " ,  Pud H o l l a n d , 8 0 , 1965, p. 2-33.  no. 15. an U t r e c h t  25.  Ibid,  1 7 , Kerncat  26.  B e r g s t r o m , p. 156.  27.  "You have f a l l e n  painter  (1598-1671).  no. 38 s'Gravenhage,  i n t o grave  crime!  Gemeentemuseum.  Return 0 s o l d i e r !  f o r there  is  no l a s t minute road to good m o r a l s " . 28.  B e r g s t r o m , pp. 160-61.  29.  "The Extravagence  w i t h which youth b r i n g s i t s e l f  comes to p o v e r t y ,  fear  agence b r i n g s i t s e l f Son has a l r e a d y  to r i d i c u l e  and n e e d , when youth through a l l  a troubled heart.  taught u s .  Let  this,  its  and extrav-  T h i s the s t o r y of the therefore,  Prodigal  be a warning to  each  one i n h i s y o u t h " . 30.  Jacques L a v a l l e y e , Engravings,  Peter Breugel  Etchings  and Lucas van Leyden:  and Woodcuts,  (New York:  The Complete  H.N. Abrams, 1967),  No. 214. 31.  Beware,  32.  Benedict  (your),  35a, c a t .  true  fall.  N i c h o l s o n , Hendrick Terbruggen (London: Lund Humphries, 1958) no. A 2 0 , p. 60.  He makes the comparison between  genre scene and Rembrandt's  p a i n t i n g ; Tumpel, p.  as a formal p r o t o t y p e which  i n s p i r e d Rembrandt  scene to the two p r i n c i p l e 33.  126 sees the Terbruggen  i n h i s r e d u c t i o n of  Bol  They i n c l u d e , f o r example:  i n A l b e r t i n a , signed and dated 1588, p.  158; the a l r e a d y  1616/17, see E.  Menno H e r t z b e r g e r ,  155; a  "Musizierende Gesel1schaft"  no. II;  dated  d i s c u s s e d engraving by  P.P.  "Biutenpartij"  Haverkamp-Begemann, Willem Buytewech  1959), c a t .  moral-  Museum from a s e r i e s  Rubbens; a p a i n t i n g by Willem Buytewech i n B e r l i n dated c.  representing  a drawing by Hans  see B e r g s t r o m , p.  drawing by David Vinckboons i n the B r i t i s h 1608, see B e r g s t r o m ,  sources,  Son i n the T a v e r n " but a l s o more general  i z i n g and genre s c e n e s .  the  figures.  Works i n which t h i s m o t i f occurs come from v a r y i n g not o n l y the " P r o d i g a l  Terbruggen's  (Amsterdam:  and a p a i n t i n g by Jacob van  i n the National  Gallery  Velsen  i n London, signed  48.  and dated 1631.  J  Jahrhunderts.  See Walter B e r n t , Die N i e d e r l a n d i s c h e n Maler des 17.  4 vols.  (Munich: V e r l a g , B i s h e r  F.  Bruckmann, 1962)  III,  No. 893. 34. 1  B e r g s t r o m , p. Tumpel, p.  159, f i g .  124, l i k e w i s e  35.  Br.  36.  Erwin P a n o f s k y ,  sees the peacock i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h " s u p e r b i a " .  #474; s i g n e d and dated  "Danae")", 37.  8.  16(3)6.  "Der G e f e s s e l t e E r o s ,  (Zur Genealogie von  Pud H o l l a n d , 3 0 , 1933, p a r t i c u l a r l y  Rembrandt's  pp. 193-99 and 215-17.  A r t h u r Henkel and A l b r e c h t Schone, Emblemata:Handbuch zur S i n n b i l d k u n s t des XVI  und XVII J a h r h u n d e r t s ,  (Stuttgart: T.B.  Metzlersche Verlags-  buchhandlung, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 808-809, "Empta Dolore V o l u p t a s " . S t e l l a t a n o s t e n t a t caudam Iunonius a l e s , Sed n a t i b u s monstrum c a e l a t , i n e s t q u e v o r a x . D u c i t u r a t e r g o v i n c t u s qui p a s c i t edacem, Q u i c q u i d e r a t l u c r i p r o d i d i t inque feram. Cui m e r e t r i x forma p l a c e t , utque c o l a t u r i n e s c a t , Per petuo ad t u r p e s l o g e r i s esse n a t e s . Has a l i s , e t semper v e n e r a r i ' s donee abundas: P a u p e r i o r cum f i s , p e l l i t arnica f o r a s . Heus fuge s c o r t a p r o c u l , nocet empta d o l o r e v o l u p t a s . E venere e t Baccho, semina m o r t i s e u n t . 38.  Ibid.,  p. 8 0 9 , "Nosce te  ipsum"  A l e s , Juno tuus gemmantes e x p l i c a t a l a s , Conspectis vero, d e j i c i t nas, pedibus. Dotibus i n g e n i j f i s u s s i c t o ! l i t i n altum C r i s t a s ! at m e d i t a n s , d e p r i m i t h a s , homo, humum. 39.  Br.  #474.  40.  Br.  #462  41.  Tiimpel, " S t u d i e n z u r Ikonographie der H i s t o r i e n Rembrandts" K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h J a a r b o e k , 1969, pp. 160-61.  42.  See pp. 9-10 o f  43.  B. 1 9 ; G e r s o n , p. 232 j u x t a p o s e s the e t c h i n g w i t h the Dresden p a i n t i n g ; Tiimpel, p. 125, a l s o reproduces t h i s e t c h i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Dresden p a i n t i n g .  44.  In p a r t i c u l a r  Nederlands  text.  two etched s e l f - p o r t r a i t s  With a F a l l i n g C o l l a r " and B.  17, " S e l f  B.  15 " S e l f  P o r t r a i t i n a Cloak  P o r t r a i t i n a Heavy Fur Cap"  are s i g n e d i n monogram and dated 1631. 45.  Br.  #97.  T h i s has not been q u e s t i o n e d as a p o r t r a i t  Bredius-Gerson p. 555 d e s c r i b e s i t  of  Saskia.  as being i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n .  49.  46.  Br.  47.  Otto Benesch, Rembrandt,(Skira,  48.  A s t r i k i n g example c l o s e to the Dresden p a i n t i n g i n d a t e ,  1  Br.  #102.  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as S a s k i a has not been q u e s t i o n e d . 1957), p. 47.  #31, " S e l f - P o r t r a i t with a Dead B i t t e r n "  i n Dresden, Gemaldegalerie.  is  s i g n e d and d a t e d , 1639;  Rembrandt has d r e s s e d h i m s e l f up as a  hunter and holds i n f r o n t o f h i m , a g r e a t dead b i r d . 49.  Br.  #59. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, s i g n e d and dated 1661.  B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. St.  Paul  552, p l a c e s t h i s  self-portrait  i n the s e r i e s of a p o s t l e s to which B r .  Bartholomew"  as a " d i s g u i s e d "  #615 "The A p o s t l e  a l s o s i g n e d and dated 1661, a l s o b e l o n g s .  p. 6 1 3 , he q u e s t i o n s the genuineness o f t h i s  latter  H. de G r o o t , no. 5 7 5 , " P o r t r a i t o f the P a i n t e r " to the B i b l i c a l  However, on  painting.  makes no r e f e r e n c e  association.  50.  Rijsksmuseum, Rembrandt 1669-1969, (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1969) p. 94.  51.  Br.  #54.  52.  Br.  #21.  B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. 548.  although the l a s t d i g i t i s 53.  Rose Wishnevsky,  not very  The p a i n t i n g i s clear.  S t u d i e n zum " P o r t r a i t H i s t o i r e "  (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Munich, 1967) c a l l s historie" P.  and t r a c e s  5, she d e f i n e s  it  its  s i g n e d and d a t e d ,  this  i n den N i e d e r l a n d e n ,  phenomenon  "portrait  o r i g i n s , thematic p o s s i b i l i t i e s and development.  as " d i e Synthese  von B i l d n i s  und H i s t o r i e n b i l d  (Sammelname f u r b i b l i s c h e , m y t h o l o g i s c h e und h i s t o r i s c h e S u j e t s ) " .  She  sees the e x i s t e n c e o f a pure autonomous l i k e n e s s as the b a s i c premise and the r o l e i n t o which the person has been p l a c e d , as s e c o n d a r y . r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the p o r t r a i t  to the r o l e , however,  to be a more f l u c t u a t i n g o n e , so t h a t i t determine which o f the two a s p e c t s the Dresden double p o r t r a i t , t h a t the two c h a r a c t e r s 54.  Oliver M i l l e r ,  Queen's s t a i r c a s e  The  )  seems, to my m i n d , > v  sometimes d i f f i c u l t  i s more i m p o r t a n t .  to  The emphasis  under d i s c u s s i o n , seems to be on the  in  role  have assumed.  " C h a r l e s I,  9 6 , 1954, pp. 36-42.  is  •  Honthorst and van D y c k " , B u r l i n g t o n Magazine,  The p a i n t i n g i s  signed and dated and hangs i n  at Hampton C o u r t .  )  the  50.  Joachim von S a n d r a r t ,  who accompanied Henthorst t o E n g l a n d , mentions  the p a i n t i n g i n Joachim von S a n d r a r t ' s Mahlerey-Kunste A.G., !  1925) p.  von 1675, (Ed. 173.  der Konig C a r l  A.R.  Acadamie der Bau-,  Peltzer)  "Seen Rhum wurde j e  Bild-und  (Munich: G. H i r t h ' s  verlag  l a n g e r j e g r o s s e r , desswegen  S t u a r t i n England im zu s i c h b e r u f f e n , urn e i n  sehr  g r o s s e s werk z i e mahlen, wie nahmlich A p p o l l o und Diana (denen e r des Konigs und der K o n i g i n B i l d n i s s e gegeben)  beysammen hoch auf den  Wolken s i t z e n und Zusehen, wie Mercurius von der E r d e n , i n des Herzogs von Buckingham, d i e s i e b e n f r e y e und den Konig v o r s t e u t 55.  32.  Painting  des Beaux A r t s Wishnevsky Royal  fuhret  La L i b r a i r i e  Encyclopedique,  i s s i g n e d and dated 1630, i n the Musee  Royal  in Anvers;  (53)  p.  172, no. 3 0 ; however, p l a c e s the p a i n t i n g i n  the  Museum i n Antwerp.  Greindl  (loc.  cit.)  painting until  G r e i n d l , 1944 ( 5 5 ) ,  57.  Wishnevsky,  58.  Ibid.,  p.  p.  32,  The p r e s e n t t i t l e was not g i v e n t o  the end o f the 18th  56.  Life  Kunste mit s i c h  ".  E d i t h G r e i n d l , C o r n e i l l e de Vos ( B r u s s e l s : 1944) p.  Gestalt  the  century.  p. 32.  1967 ( 5 3 ) ,  153, No. 1;  p. 32. For i l l u s t r a t i o n  see Jakob Rosenberg, Rembrandt,  and Work (London: P h a i d o n , 1968), p. 127.  59.  For i l l u s t r a t i o n  60.  Br.  see Rosenberg ( l o c .  cit.),  p. 127.  #416, Rijksmuseum.  B r e d u i s - G e r s o n , p.  586.  he c l a i m s Sumowski dates  "The Jewish B r i d e 1666.  to the c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s  ( I s a a c and Rebecca?)"which  Tumpel, 1969 ( 4 1 ) ,  p a i n t i n g and a drawing  988) and then compares the two with a Raphael the V a t i c a n  (via  pp. 163-167, p o i n t s  an e n g r a v i n g by S.  which  represents  On the b a s i s o f t h i s  i s o n and the evidence p r o v i d e d by an x - r a y , o f the p a i n t i n g as " I s a a c and R e b e c c a " .  he e s t a b l i s h e s the  Rosenberg, 1968 ( 5 8 ) ,  130, sees the s u b j e c t as "Jacob and R a c h e l " and r e l a t e s  it  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned "Jacob and R a c h e l " by D.D. S a n t v o o r t der Goes. H. de G r o o t , No. 9 2 9 , c a l l s  it  1202, C a t . No.  f r e s c o i n the Loggia o f  Badalocchio)  " I s a a c and Rebecca Watched by A b i m e l e c h " .  (Ben  s i m p l y "A M a r r i e d C o u p l e " .  to  comparsubject pp. 128-  the  and Hugo van  51  61.  Jacob Rosenberg, Seymour S l i v e and E.H. Architecture, 1966), p.  62.  T e r K u i l e , Dutch A r t and  1600-1800, (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books,  269, f n . 21.  There have been a number of attempts made to i d e n t i f y B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. to Br.  586, g i v e s  the c o u p l e .  some o f the s u g g e s t i o n s made.  He p o i n t s  #296, "Young Man i n a Red Coat" signed and dated 1659, i n  New York M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , as a p o s s i b l e source f o r tification  to Rembrandt of the New York p a i n t i n g .  pp. 482-483, suggests Br.  "Jewish B r i d e "  as well  as Br.  They i n c l u d e , f o r example: B . 9 ;  of h i s female  B.10;  B.13;  Rembrandt and His C r i t i c s ,  1953), pp. 30-31, t o o , r e f e r s  of the model f o r  the  #401, "A Woman H o l d i n g a C a r n a t i o n "  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n as a p o r t r a i t  Seymour S l i v e ,  Valentiner  #326, "A Man with a Magnifying G l a s s "  a g a i n i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, as a p o r t r a i t  63.  iden-  o f the man i n the Rijksmuseum. p a i n t i n g , but he q u e s t i o n s  the a t t r i b u t i o n (1908),  the  counterpart.  B.316; B.319;  B.320;  (The Hague: H a r t i n u s  B.336.  Nijhoff,  to these e t c h i n g s as examples of the vogue  t h a t e x i s t e d f o r Rembrandt's work i n the 1 6 3 0 ' s , s a y i n g t h a t they were p r o b a b l y c o l l e c t e d by a r t i s t s  as w e l l as p r i n t c o n n o i s s e u r s as sources  f o r the study o f the branch of p a i n t i n g c a l l e d e x p r e s s i o n . 64.  Bauch, 1960 ( 2 6 ,  I n t r o . ) , p. 168.  Ludwig Munz, "Rembrandt's B i l d von Mutter und V a t e r " ,  Jahrbuch  K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen, Wien.  141 f f ,  he g i v e s  a Biblical  Prophetess  and dated 1631. J.A.  character.  See Br.  i n which  h i s mother, as a d i r e c t  #69,""Rembrandt's  Mother"  as  (Hannah?)", i n Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, signed  Tumpel, 1971 ( 4 1 ) ,  Emmens, Rembrandt en de Reqels  Dekker and Gumbert, 1968), p. this  1 4 , 1955, p.  a number o f examples e s p e c i a l l y o f  model f o r a B i b l i c a l  65.  N.F.  der  p a i n t i n g , but o v e r l o o k s i t ' s  p. 31. von de K u n s t ,  (Utrecht:  Haentjens  s t r e s s e s the m o r a l i z i n g aspect of biblical  allusion.  52  Chapter  II  1.  La V a l l e y e ,  1967 (30.1) no. 47 & 4 8 , dated 1510.  2.  Urkunden, no. 169, p.  200, item no. 198 "Een d i t o met Kopere  van Leyde soo d u b b e l t a l s p o s s i b l y the o l d e r  printen  enkelt".  3.  He i s  brother.  4.  A r t h u r H i n d , A Catalogue of Rembrandt's E t c h i n g s C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y Arranged and Completely I l l u s t r a t e d , no.  5.  (London: Methuen & C o . , 1924)  147, p.  Hollstein  (21, Introd.)  VIII p.  235, nos. 1-4.  Rembrandt has chosen  one p l a t e from a s e r i e s of f o u r d e p i c t i n g scenes from the Son s t o r y :  The Departure o f the P r o d i g a l  L i v i n g With H a r l o t s ; Return of the P r o d i g a l  The P r o d i g a l  Son;  Prodigal  The P r o d i g a l  Son  Son E a t i n g With the Swine;  The  Son.  A c c o r d i n g to the 1656 Inventory Rembrandt possessed p r i n t s o f Heemsk e r c k ' s work.  See Urkunden, no. 169, p.  van Heemskerk, synde a l l 6.  St.  7.  The look on the f i g u r e ' s  201, item no. 227, "Een  dito  werk van den s e l v e n " .  Luke 1 5 : 2 0 . face r e f l e c t s  the f e e l i n g expressed i n Luke  15:28-30, which would suggest t h a t the f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s The d r a w i n g s , Ben.  1231, c a t .  no. 1017 and Ben.  the  1252, c a t .  no. 1037,  and the Hermitage p a i n t i n g , however, d e p i c t a s i m i l a r f i g u r e at a window, which i s c l e a r l y we see the f i g u r e  i n the small  female.  In  brother. standing  s p i t e of the a m b i g u i t y ,  if  background scene as the b r o t h e r with  h i s h e r d , the f i g u r e at the window must be f e m a l e . 8.  C h r i s t i a n Tumpel, Rembrandt Legt d i e B i b e l  Aus ( B e r l i n :  Verlag  Bruno  H e s s l i n g , 1970) p. 85,says t h a t Rembrandt wanted to i n d i c a t e a l l events  of this  p a r t o f the P r o d i g a l  the  Son s t o r y as Heemskerck had done  b e f o r e h i m , by r e p r e s e n t i n g the s e r v a n t s w i t h the new c l o t h e s as well as the o l d e r b r o t h e r .  Rembrandt has taken over both these e l e m e n t s .  The f i g u r e , who coming out o f the doorway i n the Heemskerck, has turned h i s head away from the main scene and p o i n t s h i s f i n g e r , represents  possibly  the o l d e r b r o t h e r , f o r i n the Lucas van Leyden p r i n t ,  o l d e r b r o t h e r makes a s i m i l a r  gesture.  the  53.  The m o t i f o f the f i g u r e a t the window appears i n the van Leyden woodcut. H i n d , 1924 (4) See note 7,  no. 147.  Introd.  Benesch i n h i s d a t i n g o f the drawing a f t e r  the e t c h i n g , comes c l o s e r  to the t r u t h , although i t would take a more thorough a n a l y s i s o f drawing both on i t ' s  own m e r i t s and i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s t o f  corpus o f Rembrandt drawings to e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t e date f o r  the  the the  drawing. See note 7, Valentiner  Introd. (1925)  no. 389, p.  Ibid. Ben. (loc.  1231 c a t .  no. 1017 ( 7 ,  I n t r o d . ) and Ben.  1252, c a t .  no. 1037  cit.).  Ben.  1193, c a t .  no. 983, ( l o c .  cit.).  Ben.  1082, c a t .  no. 8 7 1 , Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, dated by Benesch,  c. 1651. Ben. 7 2 7 , c a t . H. de G r o o t , p.  no. 597, V i e n n a , A l b e r t i n a , dated by Benesch, c. 1 0 , no. 113.  The d e t a i l s , however, are u n c l e a r and r e q u i r e more p r e c i s e material It  visual  f o r a thorough a n a l y s i s .  i s d i f f i c u l t to make out the lower boundaries o f the window.  e x i s t on i t s and Ben.  1647-48.  own, but more l i k e l y  i n l i g h t o f the drawings  (Ben.  It  may  1231  1252) i n which a woman stands a t open h a l f o f a d o o r , the  p a i n t i n g too r e p r e s e n t s a d o o r . T h i s i s , a g a i n , d i f f i c u l t to make out i n the a v a i l a b l e r e p r o d u c t i o n s . Urkunden, no. 169, p. 202, item no. 240 "Een d i t o vol  teeckeningen van  a l l e Roomsche gebouwen en g e s i c h t e n van a l l e de voornaemsche m a e s t e r s " . p.  203, no. 248, "Een d i t o vol  p r i n t e n van a r c h i t e c t u r e " .  p.  203, no. 253, "Een d i t o vol  p r i n t e n van de a r c h i t e c t u r e " .  Kenneth C l a r k , Rembrandt and the I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , New York U n i v e r s i t y  (New York:  P r e s s , 1966) p. 204, note 240; suggests these above  54.  entries  by H. de Groot as p o s s i b l e sources f o r the e l a b o r a t e  which appears i n the background o f s e v e r a l as the Hermitage 25.  G e r s o n , p. E.  "Return o f the P r o d i g a l  o f Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g s  such  Son".  507, B i b l i o g r a p h y no. 170, l i s t s  F e c h n e r , Rembrandt: The P r o d i g a l  architecture  a work,  i n R u s s i a n , by  S o n , Leningrad-Moscow, 1964, which  may, i n f a c t , deal with some o f the problems of the Hermitage p a i n t i n g . 26.  V.F.  L e v i s o n - L e s s i n g , The Hermitage L e n i n g r a d , Dutch and Flemish Masters  (London: Paul Hamlyn, 1964) p. VII 27.  B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. 612.  28.  Br.  and p. 8 9 .  #594; B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. 6 1 1 , signed and dated 1660 i n  the  Rijksmuseum. 29.  L e v i s o n - L e s s i n g , 1964 (26)  30.  Br.  p.  VIII.  #522; B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. 601.  The a u t h o r s h i p o f the p a i n t i n g has  been r e p e a t e d l y q u e s t i o n e d and has been a t t r i b u t e d by Bredius-Gerson to Rembrandt's p u p i l , J . 31.  Br.  Victors.  #522, i s 235 cm. x 190 c m . ;  The Hermitage p a i n t i n g i s  262 cm. x ,.  206 cm. 32.  Haak, p. 328.  33.  For hands with a s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y Br.  see "The Jewish  Bride".  #416 (note 6 0 , 1 ) .  34.  Vetter,  1955 ( 1 6 ,  Introd.)  35.  See I n t r o d u c t i o n ,  36.  Lavalleye,  37.  Konrad Regner "Versuch e i n e r neuen Deutung von Hieronymus  p.  p.  XXXIV.  4.  1967, (30,1) no. 118, dated 1563.  Rotterdamer T o n d o " , Pud H o l l a n d , 8 4 , 1969, p. i n Basel  Bosch's  7 0 , f i g . no 3;  print  Kunstmuseum dated c. 1517.  38.  Exodus 3 : 5 .  39.  A comparison w i t h Rembrandt's p a i n t i n g o f "The A p o s t l e Paul i n P r i s o n " (Br.  601), S t u t t g a r t ,  a similar situation  Staatsgalerie,  i n which Paul  i n t h i s case h i s l e f t  is  s i g n e d and dated 1627, r e v e a l s l i k e w i s e wearing o n l y one s h o e ,  s h o e , w h i l e h i s bare r i g h t f o o t r e s t s on the  shoe l y i n g to the s i d e o f i t .  The rock on which Paul has p l a c e d  his  f o o t may, l i k e w i s e ,  be seen as holy g r o u n d , f o r s c r i p t u r a l l y  has been a s s o c i a t e d with the church o f C h r i s t .  See Matthew. 16:18.  The same problem o f only one bared f o o t i s p r e s e n t i n t h i s For I t a l i a n examples see p.6 o f I n t r o d u c t i o n , Northern p r o t o t y p e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y finally,  Rembrandt's  1636 e t c h i n g .  the rock  see a l s o  painting.  Rembrandt's  Lucas van Leyden and Heemskerck and  56.  Bibliography  Askew, Pamela, "The P a r a b l e P a i n t i n g s i  of Domenico F e t t i " ,  Art  Bulletin,  4 3 , 1961 , pp. 21-45.  Bauch, K u r t ,  Der Friihe Rembrandt und Seine Z e i t ,  Berlin:  V e r l a g Gebr. Mann,  1960. Bauch, K u r t ,  Rembrandt Gema'lde, B e r l i n :  Benesch, O t t o , R e m b r a n d t , B i o g r a p h i c a l J.  W. de G r u y t e r & C o . , 1966.  and C r i t i c a l  Study:  Translated-, by  Emmons), S k i r a , 1957.  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G o u l d , C e c i l , The S i x t e e n t h Century V e n e t i a n S c h o o l , C a t a l o g u e s , London:  The N a t i o n a l  E d i t i o n s de l a L i b r a i r i e  Flamande  (1581-1651),  E n c y c l o p e d i q u e , 1944.  G l u c k , G u s t a v , Van Dyck; Des M e i s t e r s Genial d e , New York: Grimaldi, Nefta, Edizioni  II  G u e r c h i n o ; Gian Francesco B a r b i e r i  G.R.  Gallery  G a l l e r y , 1959.  G r e i n d l , E d i t h , C o r n e i l l e de V o s ; P o r t r a i t i s t e Brussels:  National  F.  K l e i n b u r g e r , 1913.  1591-1666, B o l o g n a :  (1968).  Haak, Bob, Rembrandt, His L i f e , Work and T i m e s , London: Thames and Hudson, 1969. Haverkamp-Begemann, E . , First  "Review of O t t o Benesch, The Drawings o f  Complete E d i t i o n " , K u n s t c h r o n i k V o l . XIV  (1961),  Rembrandt,  pp. 10-14,  18-29, 4 8 , 50-57, 85- 91. 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T r a n s l a t e d and E d i t e d  Hawke, 8 v o l s . , London: MacMillan & C o . , L t d . , 1916.  Hofstede de G r o o t , C o r n e l i s ,  Die Urkunden fiber Rembrandt, 1575-1721, The Hague:  M. N i j h o f f , 1906. Hollstein,  F . W . H . , Dutch & Flemish E t c h i n g s , Engravings and Woodcuts c. 1450-  1700, Amsterdam: Menno H e r t z b e r g e r , 1949 Hollstein,  F . W . H . , German E n g r a v i n g s , E t c h i n g s and Woodcuts, 1400-1700,  Amsterdam: Menno H e r t z b e r g e r , 1954. Hoogewerff, G . J . , Judson, J . R . ,  "Jan  Gerrit  S'Gravenhage,  van B i j l e r t " , Pud H o l l a n d , 8 0 , 1965, pp. 2-33.  van H o n t h o r s t A D i s c u s s i o n o f h i s P o s i t i o n M. N i j h o f f , 1956.  i n Dutch A r t ,  58.  K l e i n , R.  & Zerner, H.,  Cliffs,  N. J e r s e y :  Landsberger, F., ,  I t a l i a n A r t 1500-1600, Sources & Documents, Englewood Prentice  Hall  Inc.,  1966.  Rembrandt: The Jews and the B i b l e .  T r a n s l a t e d by F.N. G e r s o n ,  P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Jewish P u b l i c a t i o n s S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , 1946.  Laval 1 e y e , J a c q u e s ,  P e t e r Breugel  the E l d e r and Lucas van Leyden: The  Complete E n g r a v i n g s , E t c h i n g s and Woodcuts, New Y o r k : H.N. Abrams, 1967. L e v i n s o n - L e s s i n g , V . F . , The Hermitage L e n i n g r a d Dutch and F l e m i s h M a s t e r s , London: Paul Hamlyn, 1964. M S l e , E m i l e , L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x apres l e C o n c i l e de T r e n t e , Etude s u r 1'Icono g r a p h i e de l a F i n du X V I Paris: Mander, Carel  e  Si§cle,  Italie-Franco-Espagne-Flanders,  A. C o l i n , 1932. v a n , Dutch and Flemish P a i n t i n g , New Y o r k : Arno P r e s s , 1969.  Menz, Henner, The Dresden G a l l e r y , London: Thames & Hudson, 1962. Miller, Oliver,  " C h a r l e s I,  Honthorst & Van D y c k " , B u r l i n g t o n Magazine,  9 6 , 1954, pp. 36-42. Munz, Ludwig, "Rembrandt's B i l d Von Mutter und V a t e r , " h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen, Wien, N.F.  Jahrbuch der Kunst-  14, 1955, pp. 141 -  N i c h o l s o n , B e n e d i c t , Hendrick T e r b r u g g e n , London: Lund Humphries, 1958. O l d e n b o u r g , R u d o l p h , P.P.  Rubens; Des M e i s t e r s Gem'alde, Deutsche V e r l a g s  Anstalt, Stuttgart, Palazzo Reale,  n.d.  Caravaggio E C a r a v a g g e s c h i , Catalogo d e l l a M o s t r a , N a p l e s :  P a l a z z o R e a l e , 1963. Panofsky, Erwin,  "Der G e f e s s e l t e Eros  (Zur Genealogie von Rembrandt's  Danae)"  Pud H o l l a n d , 5 0 , 1933, pp. 193-217. Phillips,  E.V.,  The V e n e t i a n School o f P a i n t i n g , London: MacMillan & C o . , 1912.  Posner, Donald, Annibale C a r r a c c i :  A Study i n the Reform o f I t a l i a n  Painting  Around 1590, 2 v o l s . , London: P h a i d o n , 1971. Regner, K.,  "Versuch e i n e r neuen Deutung von Rieronymus B o s c h ' s  T o n d o " , Pud H o l l a n d , 8 4 , 1969. Rijksmuseum, Rembrandt 1669-1969, Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1969.  Rotterdamer  59. Rosenberg, J a c o b , Rembrandt L i f e  and Work, London: P h a i d o n , 1968.  Rosenberg, J a c o b , S l i v e , Seymour, T e r K u i l e , E . H . ,  Dutch A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  1600-1800, Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Penquin Books, 1966. Sa'ndrart,  Joachim v o n , Academie der B a u - B i l d und Mahlerey-Kunste von 1675,  E d i t e d by A.R.  Peltzer,  Munich:  G. H i r t h ' s V e r l a g A . G . , 1925.  S c h n e i d e r , ARthur v o n , Caravaggio und d i e N i e d e r l a n d e r , Amsterdam: B.M. Slatkes,  I s r a e l , 1967.  L.J.,  D i r c k van Baburen c .  1595-1624, U t r e c h t :  Haentjens  Dekker &  Gumbert, 1965. S l i v e , Seymour, Rembrandt and h i s C r i t i c s , 1630-1730,  The Hague: M.  Nijhoff,  1953. S m i t h , J o h n , A Catalogue Raisonne of the Works o f the Most Eminent D u t c h , F l e m i s h and French P a i n t e r s .  V o l . 7, London:  Smith & S o n s , 1836.  Sumowski, "Bemerkungen zu Otto Beneschs Corpus der Rembrandt Zeichnungen Wissenschaftliche  Zeitschrift  der Humboldt U n i v e r s i t a t  G e s s e l s c h a f t und S p r a c h w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e VII  (1957-58)  R e i h e , VI  zur  I",  Berlin,  (1956-57);  p. 260.  T i e t z e , Hans, T i n t o r e t t o : T h e P a i n t i n g s  and Drawings, New Y o r k :  P h a i d o n , 1948.  Tumpel, C h r i s t i a n , " I k o n o g r a p h i s c h e B e i t r a g e zu Rembrandt z u r Deutung und Interpretation  S e i n e r H i s t o r i e n " , Jahrbuch  der Hamburger Kunst-  sammlungen, X I I I , 1968, pp. 95-126. Tumpel, C h r i s t i a n , "Studffen z u r Ikonographie  der H i s t o r i e n  Rembrandts",  Nederlands K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h J a a r b o e k , 1969, pp. 160-61. Tumpel, C h r i s t i a n , Rembrandt Legt d i e Bi be! A u s , B e r l i n :  V e r l a g Bruno H e s s l i n g ,  1970. Tumpel, C h r i s t i a n , Ikonographische B e i t r a g e zu Rembrandt zur Deutung und Interpretation  e i n z e l n e r Werke ( I I ) "  sammlungen, XVI,  Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunst-  1971, pp. 20-38.  T u r n e r , A l l i s o n , M . , The M o t i f o f the P r o d i g a l Literature  Son i n French and German  to 1910, Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y  C a r o l i n a a t Chapel H i l l , 1966. V a l e n t i n e r , W.R.,  Rembrandt; Des M e i s t e r s Gemalde, S t u t t g a r t :  V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1904.  Deutche  o f North  60.  Valentiner,  W.R.  Rembrandt; Des M e i s t e r s Gemalde, (3rd e d . ) ,  Stuttgart:  ^Deutsche V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1908. Valentiner,  W.R.,  Rembrandt; Des M e i s t e r s  Radierungen, (2nd e d . )  Stuttgart:  Deutsche V e r l a g s A n s t a l t , 1910. 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Wittkower, R.,  Rembrandt's E t c h i n g s , An I l l u s t r a t e d  The Drawings of the C a r r a c c i  Rose,  Critical  Amsterdam: Van Gendt & C o . , 1969.  the Queen at Windsor C a s t l e , London: Wishnevsky,  a Study o f the A r t i s t at Work,  i n the C o l l e c t i o n o f her  Majesty  P h a i d o n , 1971  S t u d i e n zum " P o r t r a i t H i s t o i r e "  i n den N i e d e r l a n d e n ,  U n p u b l i s h e d , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , M u n i c h , 1967. Zygulski, Zdzislaw, Jr., de V a r s o v i e V I ,  "Rembrandt's L i s o w c z y k " . 1965, pp. 43-65.  Bulletin  du Musee N a t i o n a l  Appendix  The s u b j e c t o f Rembrandt's s c h o l a r s f o r many y e a r s .  "Polish Rider"  1  has been a p u z z l e to  A number o f attempts at an e x p l a n a t i o n h a v e ,  however,  been made. A. B r e d i u s , r e f l e c t i n g o f the t i m e , i n t e r p r e t e d 2 v i s i t i n g Holland . In  it,  the o p i n i o n o f most Dutch and German s c h o l a r s  i n 1910, as an e q u e s t r i a n p o r t r a i t  1944, J u l i u s Held argued a g a i n s t i t ' s  suggesting that i t  o f a Pole  interpretation  as a  r e p r e s e n t e d the u n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f a c e o f an " i d e a l  portrait, 3 hero" .  He p o i n t s to the E a s t European o r i g i n o f the costume o f the r i d e r w h i c h , homogeneous i n i t ' s of a p a r t i c u l a r for i t  impression, is  nation.  indicates  likewise  g e n e r a l i z e d and not  The importance o f the costume i s 4  t h a t the man wearing  it  is a soldier  .  representative  in i t ' s  military  He concludes  6  t o o , expresses the i d e a o f the " M i l e s  the " g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l Valentiner,  Christianus;"  courage and d e d i c a t i o n t o a worthy  end" .  and weapons, concluded i n 1965 t h a t they were, historical  portrait  8  founder o f Amsterdam i n the Middle Ages .  Z y g u l s k i , on the b a s i s o f a thorough study o f the r i d e r ' s their  7  i n 1948, suggests the p a i n t i n g as a h i s t o r i c a l  o f G i s b r e c h t van A m s t e l , the m y t h i c a l  nature  Held compares him to  Du'rers " K n i g h t , Death and the D e v i l " and to the "Bamburg R i d e r " . t h a t Rembrandt's r i d e r ,  although  costume  i n d e e d , o f P o l i s h o r i g i n and t h a t  f i d e l i t y must have been the r e s u l t o f a d i r e c t study o f a r e a l 9  person; a Polish r i d e r In  .  1969, B i a l o s t o c k i , used H e l d ' s and Z y g u l s k i ' s c o n c l u s i o n s as  s t a r t i n g p o i n t , a s k i n g why Rembrandt has e x p r e s s e d the i d e a l Christianus"  o f the  through the image o f an "Eques P o l o n u s " o r P o l i s h r i d e r  he e x p l a i n s i n terms o f Rembrandt's r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n .  his  "Miles 1 0  .  This,  The r i d e r i s  an  e x p r e s s i o n o f Rembrandt's sympathies f o r S o c i n i a n i d e a s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n  the  S o c i n i a n t h e o l o g i a n Jonasz S z l i c h t y n g , who was o f P o l i s h o r i g i n , not i n  the  portrait  s e n s e , but as an embodiment o f the s p i r i t u a l C o l i n Campbell's a r t i c l e ,  this  background o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  "Polish Rider"  represents  hero.  p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 0 , must be seen a g a i n s t 1 1  o f the p a i n t i n g .  the p r o d i g a l s o n ' s j o u r n e y  He suggests t h a t  the 12  into a f a r country  .  He  13 d i s m i s s e s the n a t i o n a l i s t i c  importance a t t a c h e d to the r i d e r ' s  uses two d r a w i n g s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y  i d e n t i f i e d with the P r o d i g a l  costume  , and  Son theme, as  14 his s t a r t i n g  p o i n t ; the one a s t u d e n t ' s work  and the o t h e r r e j e c t e d  by Benesch  62.  as not authentic  .  From the two drawings, he cites elements which re-appear  in the paintings: a sword, a slightly curved weapon, a quiver of arrows implying a bow, the rider's three-quarter length coat - all come from the f i r s t drawing, while the saddle cloth running over the horse's shoulders which re-appears in the painting as a leopard skin, comes from the second. He sees an anonymous Dutch painting of c. 1520, depicting the "Prodigal Son's Journey to a Far Country" painting.  16  as an iconographic prototype for Rembrandt's  The two works correspond in the passage of the horse from left to  right, i t ' s gait, the direction faced by the rider and his pose ; the landscape 18 19 setting and the direction of the light which illuminates the horseman . 17  The horse's head is comparable to that represented in an engraving by P. Galle after Heemskerck, of the "Prodigal Son's Departure" 21  feels Rembrandt knew  20  , which Campbell  .  He sees the building in the background of the painting, which has 22  been identified as Hagia Sophia  , as Rembrandt's visualization of a "far  country". Although Campbell draws from a number of sources to give weight to his suggestion of the "Polish Rider" as an episode from the Prodigal Son story, they do not, without further evidence, point to the conclusion that he has made.  63.  Footnotes f o r Appendix  1.  Br.  #279, B r e d i u s - G e r s o n , p. 571, i n the F r i c k C o l l e c t i o n .  has been cut at the r i g h t edge, so t h a t o n l y the "Re_"  The p a i n t i n g  o f the  signature  remains. 2.  A. B r e d i u s ,  3.  J u l i u s H e l d , "Rembrandt's pp.  " R e m b r a n d t i a n a " , Pud H o l l a n d , 2 8 , 1910, p. 194.  Ibid.,  5.  Knappe, 1965, ( 2 0 ) ,  6.  H e l d , 1944 ( 3 ) ,  7.  Ibid.,  8.  W.R.  p.256.  p. 246.  Valentiner,  "Rembrandt's Concept o f H i s t o r i c a l  "Rembrandt's L i s o w c z y k " , B u l l e t i n  de V a r s o v i e V I ,  "Eques P o l o n u s " " , Pud H o l l a n d , 1969.  163-176, e s p . p. 169.  C o l i n C a m p b e l l , "Rembrandt's " P o l i s h R i d e r " Warburg & C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l ,  12.  Luke 1 5 : 1 3 .  13.  C a m p b e l l , 1970 ( 1 1 ) ,  14.  Ben.  788, c a t .  Valentiner  (1925)  16.  C a m p b e l l , 1970 (11)  Son",  3 3 , 1970, pp. 292-303.  no. 6 5 1 , "The Departure o f the P r o d i g a l  15.  Koninck (see  p. 384. PI.  note 7,  Son" i n G r o n i g e n ,  Introd.).  "The Departure o f the P r o d i g a l  38d.  Its  Son".  p r e s e n t whereabouts are unknown.  forms a p a i r with an e x t a n t p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g "The P r o d i g a l  Son R e c e i v i n g h i s 17.  and the P r o d i g a l  p. 294.  a t t r i b u t e d to P h i l i p s  It  du Musee  1965, pp. 43-65.  Jan B i a l o s t o c k i , "Rembrandt's pp.  Portraiture"  1948, pp. 116-135.  Zdzislaw Z y g u l s k i , J r . , National  11.  no. 7 2 , dated 1513.  p. 246.  Art Q u a r t e r l y , XI,  10.  2 6 , 1944.  246-65, e s p . p. 253.  4.  9.  "Polish R i d e r " " , Art B u l l e t i n ,  Ibid.,  p. 298.  Inheritance",  (loc.  cit.)  PI.  39b.  64.  18.  Ibid.,  p.298.  19.  Ibid.,  p. 298.  20.  H o l l s t e i n , Dutch and Flemish ( 2 1 , I n t r o d ) , V I I ,  21.  Rembrandt possessed a book o f p r i n t s by Heemskerck (see note 5,  22.  C a m p b e l l , 1970 (11)  p.  298 and f n . 26 i d e n t i f i e s  comparison with t h a t shown i n a p r i n t M e l c h i o r L o r s c h which i s dated c. sity Library  s i n c e 1595 and i t  saw L o r s c h ' s p r i n t .  p. 77. II).  the b u i l d i n g by a  "View o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e " by  1559.  It  has been i n the Leyden  Univer-  i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e t h a t Rembrandt  For i l l u s t r a t i o n see ( l o c .  cit.)  p i . 39a.  

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