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Village Lake Louise : a study of public planning O'Brien, John Joseph 1973

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VILLAGE LAKE LOUISE - A STUDY OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING by e JOHN JOSEPH O'BRIEN i B.A. University of Toronto, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard " -THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may he granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 1 May* !973 ABSTRACT Public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one of the most i n s i s t e n t pressures facing planners as they attempt to draw into t h e i r plans the values and perceptions of t h e i r c l i e n t s . In recog-n i t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the public playing a role i n the planning and management of the National Parks, the Minister introduced the public hearings programme i n 1970. While the public hearing was o r i g i n a l l y used as a forum f o r public review of the Provisional Master Plans developed f o r each park as a whole, i t was also the mechanism av a i l a b l e when i t was decided to give the public an opportunity to comment on the master plan f o r V i l l a g e Lake Louise. Subsequent to that hearing, the Minister rejected the V i l l a g e proposal. The methodology pursued i n t h i s study has been to postulate a set of c r i t e r i a upon which one might wish to base a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. The role of the public i n the planning of V i l l a g e Lake Louise was then analyzed from the perspective of adherence to these c r i t e r i a . The arguments raised at the Provisional Master Plan hearings about the V i l l a g e as well as those put forward during the V i l l a g e Lake Louise hearing were reviewed as a basis upon which t h i s analysis could proceed. The r e j e c t i o n of V i l l a g e Lake Louise was a negative v i c t o r y f o r public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n that an unacceptable plan - i i -was stopped but the mechanism of p a r t i c i p a t i o n was incapable of producing any a l t e r n a t i v e solution. The hearing was a con-fr o n t a t i o n s i t u a t i o n between opponents and proponents of the development. The former were faced with accepting, r e j e c t i n g or proposing modifications to a_ solution, rather than reviewing a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s from which they might develop an accept-able resolution to the problem confronted. Only by fo r c i n g such a confrontation could the opponents expect a l t e r n a t i v e s to be considered. A public hearing must be supplemented by other techniques of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n which would allow f o r t e s t i n g plans as they develop from the obje c t i v e s - s e t t i n g stage onward. Indeed, problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i t s e l f i s a task to be shared by affected i n t e r e s t s and planners. A multi-faceted programme which would allow f o r a progressively more refined i n t e r a c t i o n between the public and the planners, rather than a single e f f o r t approach i s necessary. Such a programme would include a mix of techniques adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r planning stage, f o r example, advisory committee(s), workshop/seminars and continuous information flows. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f Tables v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgements i x CHAPTER ONE - APPROACH TO STUDY 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Issue 2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6 METHODOLOGY 7 CHAPTER TWO - PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING 9 WHY PUBLIC PARTICIPATION? 9 VALUES 16 CRITERIA FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION . . 19 Op p o r t u n i t y to P a r t i c i p a t e . . . . . 20 I n f o r m a t i o n System 22 Timing 26 C a p a c i t y to Act 27 Choices 2& Values 28 B a r g a i n i n g O p p o r t u n i t y 29 E f f i c a c y 29 E f f i c i e n c y 29 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangement 30 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES~OF PARTICIPATION . . . . . . . 31 CHAPTER THREE - BACKGROUND TO THE VILLAGE LAKE LOUISE PUBLIC HEARING 46 INTRODUCTION 46 I n c r e a s i n g V i s i t o r Pressure - 46 Pl a n n i n g f o r V i s i t o r s 1963-1970 43 THE PLANNING PROCESS 50 Terms o f Reference - V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d . 50 - i v -Planning L i a i s o n : N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and the Company 54 Role of the P u b l i c Before March, 1972 54 Input i n t o the Planning Process 54 The P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans P u b l i c Hearings . . 55 The N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada Campaign 72 The V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited Campaign . . . . 76 CHAPTER FOUR - THE PUBLIC HEARING, MARCH 9-11, 1972 . . . 78 INTRODUCTION: THE PUBLIC HEARING AS A TECHNIQUE . . . 78 THE VILLAGE LAKE LOUISE HEARING 79 Purpose and Procedure . . . . . 79 The Case f o r Development: The Government and Company Pr e s e n t a t i o n s . . . . . 80 I n t e r e s t s Represented . . . . . . . . . . 95 ARGUMENTS PRESENTED 97 N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y and Purpose 98 Area/Site C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 99 Character of the Development 99 Economics of S k i i n g F a c i l i t y Development 101 Other Comments 103 Purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks 105 P o l i c y and L e g i s l a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Proposal 109 Character of the Development I l l Planning and Support Studies 114 General R a m i f i c a t i o n s of the Development . . . . . 117 A l t e r n a t i v e S o l u t i o n s to the Problem 118 The P u b l i c Hearing as a P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Forum 121 CHAPTER FIVE - EVALUATION AND CONCLUSIONS 125 INTRODUCTION 125 The M i n i s t e r ' s D e c i s i o n 128 THE PARTICIPATORY MODE 131 Opportunity to P a r t i c i p a t e 131 Information System 134 Timing 142 - v -"1 C a p a c i t y t o Act 143 Choices , . . . . . 144 Values . 145 B a r g a i n i n g O p p o r t u n i t y 146 E f f i c a c y ' 146 E f f i c i e n c y 147 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangement 149 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY * 157 APPENDICES 165 - v i -LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 1 V i s i t o r s to National Parks i n Alberta 49 1960-1971 2 Table of Contents: Development Plan - 94 V i l l a g e Lake Louise - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE 1 Stages i n the Planning Process With Public Involvement Functional Orientations Indicated PAGE 25a Portion of Lake Louise Planning Area, Banff National Park, Showing Proposed Sites of V i l l a g e Lake Louise 52 - v i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Professor Irving K. Fox, I wish to express my most sincere appreciation f o r his guidance and advice, not merely during the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s , but throughout the past year and a half of our association through the School of Planning and the Westwater Research Centre. I t i s a p r i v i l e g e f o r a graduate student to work with him and I am very g r a t e f u l . To Professor Gordon W. Stead, my thanks are given f o r his many comments and suggestions and also f o r his general open and sincere approach to students. While Professors Fox and Stead were my advisers, others offered advice or supplied information. Steve Kun and Jim Rouse of the National and Hi s t o r i c Parks Branch and Dr. Steve Herrero of the University of Calgary were p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . The National and Hi s t o r i c Parks Branch, Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Canadian University Service Overseas and the Westwater Research Centre a l l contributed to make my tenure i n the School of Community and Regional Planning f i n a n c i a l l y possible. F i n a l l y , to Gisela, John and Kyna. - i x -CHAPTER ONE APPROACH TO THE STUDY INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o examine the r o l e played * by p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g f o r the V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre i n Banff N a t i o n a l Park. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be approached from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y as an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n o f p l a n n i n g w h i l e at the same time r e c o g n i z i n g the n e c e s s i t y to get on w i t h the job w i t h l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h and debate. E f f i c i e n c y thus looms as a key c r i t e r i o n throughout t h i s study. A s e t o f c r i -t e r i a are suggested as standards a g a i n s t which a p u b l i c par-t i c i p a t i o n programme can be eval u a t e d and the r o l e o f the p u b l i c i n the V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e case i s an a l y z e d i n t h i s l i g h t . From t h i s case study an attempt w i l l be made to draw l e s s o n s and propose c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which might be a p p l i c a b l e to s i m i l a r issue-oriented''" p l a n n i n g endeavours. The V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e c o n t r o v e r s y was a unique i s s u e i n a s p e c i f i c park; thus 1. " I s s u e - o r i e n t e d " i s used i n the sense t h a t a s p e c i f i c • a c t i o n p r o p o s a l i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n and upon completion o f the p a r t i c i p a t i o n f u n c t i o n t h e r e are immediate a c t i o n r a m i f i c a -t i o n s . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Master Plans which are p r o v i s i o n a l . more g e n e r a l and which e s t a b l i s h a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r development i n t o the long range f u t u r e . - 2 -no attempt i s made to insinuate the lessons drawn from t h i s controversy into an evaluation of the Provisional Master Plans public hearings programme. The issues at stake and the subjects of discussion are q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t and d i r e c t i n f e r e n t i a l comparisons would require the substantiation of a d i s t i n c t and separate analysis. Moreover, the planning of the V i l l a g e Lake Louise development was a j o i n t e f f o r t of the National and Hist-o r i c Parks Branch and V i l l a g e Lake Louise Ltd. whereas the Pro-v i s i o n a l Master Plans were developed by the Branch alone. The context of planning was thus quite d i f f e r e n t . On March 25, 1970, a Memorandum of Intent was signed between the Crown and V i l l a g e Lake Louise Ltd. f o r the con-str u c t i o n of an "incorporated a l l season mountain v i l l a g e ..." (Development Plan - V i l l a g e Lake Louise, 1971, p. 6). At the public hearings on the Provisional Master Plans f o r Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks held i n A p r i l , 1971, i n Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver, concern was expressed by various i n t e r e s t s and i n d i v i d u a l s about the proposed develop-ment f o r the Lake Louise area. Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e was the c r i t i c i s m voiced of the A p r i l &, 1971, memorandum from the National and Hi s t o r i c Parks Branch i n d i c a t i n g that When the o v e r a l l plan f o r the development of V i l l a g e Lake Louise has been approved i n p r i n c i p l e , a public presentation(s) of the plan w i l l be made. At that time, there w i l l be opportunity f o r further public comment and constructive c r i t i c i s m i n order that a l l points of view are taken Into account i n the development plan ... (Appendix A). The Chairman of the public hearings, Senior Assistant Deputy - 3 -M i n i s t e r , J.H. Gordon confirmed t h a t a p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n would be made when an o v e r a l l plan was r e c e i v e d f o r V i l l a g e 2 Lake Louise "which appears acceptable to the Department." I t was, of course, the reference to "approved i n p r i n c i p l e " which was of concern to - some speakers. This p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n was the subject o f a p u b l i c hearing held from March 9 to 11, 1972, at Calgary and i n h i s opening remarks, Mr. Gordon commented t h a t the planning f o r the centre had been v i r t u a l l y continuous over the previous two years w i t h many m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the plans on the b a s i s of ad-v i c e r e c e i v e d from the Company's "own experts and on the b a s i s of suggestions by our o f f i c i a l s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4-5). Out of t h i s continuous planning process, came the Nation-a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch recommendation to the M i n i s t e r t h a t the proposal of V i l l a g e Lake Louise meets the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a f o r a s e r v i c e s centre at t h i s p o i n t , and t h a t i t be pre-sented f o r examination and f o r review at t h i s hearing ... (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4-5). The M i n i s t e r , the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n , accepted the recommendation but reserved h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n "as to whether the p r o j e c t should go ahead, and i f so, what changes might be r e q u i r e d " u n t i l the p u b l i c hearing had been held and he had a 2. Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern De-velopment, N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 1971, T r a n s c r i p t  of Proceedings of P u b l i c Hearings on Banff, Jasper, Yoho and  Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks. A p r i l 19 to 26, 1971 at Calgary, Ed- monton and Vancouver" Ottawa, V o l . T~, p. 2. (Henceforth the Pro- ceedings of the v a r i o u s p u b l i c hearings which are quoted i n t h i s t h e s i s - 1970, Kejimkujik N a t i o n a l Park; 1971, Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks; 1972, V i l l a g e Lake Louise -w i l l be referenced i n the t e x t as: N.H.P.B., year, volume, page). - 4 -chance to study the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , both w r i t t e n and o r a l , (N.H.P.B., 1972, I, 5). The M i n i s t e r c a r r i e d out h i s review and on J u l y 12, 1972, i n C a l g a r y , he announced: I have come to A l b e r t a to announce the government's d e c i s i o n t h a t the p r o p o s a l by V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L i m i t e d f o r the V i s i t o r s ' S e r v i c e Centre a t Lake Louise i n B a n f f Na-t i o n a l Park w i l l not be approved. A V i s i t o r s 1 S e r v i c e Centre o f the s i z e , type and l o c a t i o n proposed would have f a r r e a c h i n g consequences f o r Banff N a t i o n a l Park. I t i s our judgement t h a t the p r o j e c t as planned i s too l a r g e and c o u l d r e s u l t i n an undue con-c e n t r a t i o n of v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s a r e a. At present no r e l i a b l e o b j e c t i v e mea-surement has been developed which w i l l pre-d i c t w i t h c e r t a i n t y the impact o f human use. Where th e r e i s room f o r doubt p r i o r i t y must be g i v e n to park v a l u e s ; and we must e r r on the s i d e o f park p r o t e c t i o n . I t has not been e s t a b l i s h e d to our s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t a pro-j e c t o f t h i s nature would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of environmental i m p a i r -ment (Appendix B). T h i s study r e s t s upon a b a s i c assumption: t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n v o i c e d a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n C a l -gary and contained i n the b r i e f s submitted d i r e c t l y t o the P u b l i c Hearings O f f i c e were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n to r e j e c t the development as proposed. Upon t h i s assump-t i o n i s developed the hypothesis t h a t had the p l a n n i n g p rocess, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r o l e t h e r e i n , pro-v i d e d f o r a broader scope and more continuous programme of p u b l i c involvement, the f i n a l d e c i s i o n , which l e f t the problem o f accom-modation requirements a t Lake L o u i s e u n r e s o l v e d , c o u l d have been p o s i t i v e . T h i s i s not to suggest t h a t p u b l i c involvement - 5 -would have r e s u l t e d i n approval o f the s p e c i f i c V i l l a g e scheme; r a t h e r , the i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t an a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l would have been evolved. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s based upon the premise t h a t the d e c i -s i o n was, i n e f f e c t , a response to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; however, i t was a n e g a t i v e achievement because the problem addressed by the p l a n n i n g process, namely, a r e s o l u t i o n to the inadequacy o f v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s f a c i l i t i e s a t Lake L o u i s e , remained u n r e s o l v e d . I f one were to take the more b a s i c p o s i t i o n t h a t the problem i t -s e l f r e q u i r e d r e d e f i n i t i o n , then the achievement was e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e i n t h a t no such r e d e f i n i t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . No concrete a l t e r n a t i v e s were presented to the p u b l i c by the proponents of V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e ; nor was th e r e any s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the m e r i t s o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s e i t h e r a l l u d e d to o r s p e c i f i c a l l y s p e l l e d out by opponents o f the development. In e f f e c t , the p u b l i c was i n v o l v e d not so much i n the p l a n n i n g process as i t was i n the decision-making. T h i s r e s u l t e d , I would suggest, because of the nature o f the s u b j e c t : a s p e c i f i c i s s u e , w i t h immediate a c t i o n r a m i f i c a t i o n s i f approved, as compared, f o r example, w i t h the much broader, c o n c e p t u a l P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans; and, secondly, because the p u b l i c h e a r i n g d e v i c e has a v e r y l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . In e f f e c t , the p u b l i c hear-i n g i s a l i s t e n i n g forum where a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s can s t a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and the sponsors o f the p l a n under r e -view r e t i r e to t h e i r p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s to c o n s i d e r the m e r i t s o f the arguments presented. Indeed, the Chairman o f the h e a r i n g - 6 -confirmed t h i s when e x p l a i n i n g the need f o r time c o n s t r a i n t s on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' remarks: T h e i r purpose -- t h e r e i s o n l y one purpose — t h a t everyone may have a chance to r e g i s t e r h i s p o i n t o f view (N.H.P.B., 1972, I, 6). The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s e t s up a r e a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n : here i s the p l a n , what do you t h i n k o f i t ? As a d e v i c e f o r o b t a i n i n g t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n from a wide d i s p a r a t e spectrum o f i n t e r e s t s , the p u b l i c h e a r i n g has a v a l u a b l e r o l e to p l a y . How-ever, i t s l i m i t a t i o n s demand supplementary d e v i c e s o r opportun-i t i e s i f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s to d e r i v e optimum b e n e f i t s from p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r involvement. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The case study and l i t e r a t u r e review upon which t h i s t h e s i s i s based suggest a d i r e c t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n which h o p e f u l l y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding o f the r o l e played by p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g o f V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e . No attempt a t h y p o t h e s i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s made as the d i r e c t i o n and method o f i n q u i r y do not l e n d i t s e l f to such. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the aims o f t h i s study a r e : 1. To develop a s e t o f c r i t e r i a f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2. To review a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e d e v i c e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n which could be used to supplement a p u b l i c hear-i n g s programme; 3. To a n a l y z e the r o l e played by the p u b l i c i n the p l a n n i n g o f V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the c r i t e r i a developed. METHODOLOGY The methodology pursued i n t h i s thesis i s to postulate on the basis of a l i t e r a t u r e review, a set of c r i t e r i a which might be used as a basis upon which a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme could be developed. These c r i t e r i a w i l l be set out and j u s t i f i e d as reasonable and meaningful standards. Then, a case study, the V i l l a g e Lake Louise controversy, w i l l serve to apply these c r i t e r i a to an actual planning programme. The case study has been developed around the following broad subject areas: 1. Background to the V i l l a g e concept (a) the increasing v i s i t o r pressure (b) Planning f o r v i s i t o r s , 1963-1970 2. The Planning Process (a) The Terms of Reference set out f o r the Company (b) The National Parks/Village Lake Louise Limited planning l i a i s o n (c) The role of the public p r i o r to March, 1972 3. The Public Hearing; March 9-11, 1972 (a) Introduction: the public hearing as a technique (b) The V i l l a g e Lake Louise public hearing Sources used f o r the development of the case study were the Proceedings of the public hearings, memoranda, l e t t e r s and c i r c u l a r s relevant to the controversy, the V i l l a g e Lake Louise public hearing "Information K i t " and several i n t e r -views. The National and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch analysis of public opinion was based upon 2,532 "Records" (each record equalled one b r i e f , not necessarily one signature) submitted on the proposal. No systematic analysis of these was attempted i n - g -t h i s study on the premise t h a t the Proceedings supply a s a t i s f a c t o r y sample of the p o s i t i o n s taken by the p u b l i c . Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s c o n c l u s i o n s and lessons w i t h p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y to s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be drawn. CHAPTER TWO PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING The phenomenon of d i r e c t c i t i z e n involvement i n p l a n -ning has become one of the most i n s i s t e n t pressures c o n f r o n t -i n g p u b l i c planning agencies. The Ontario Government Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y (1972) stud i e d the nature, o r i g i n and pressures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the phenomenon; the Canadian C o u n c i l on Rural Development (1972, pp.7-8) has c a l l e d upon government to adopt "the p a r t i c i p a t o r y mode" b u i l d i n g upon the precedental steps taken by such agencies as Canada A g r i -c u l t u r e , the Canadian Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Commission and the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch; the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t i s sponsoring the L i v e a b l e Region Program of c i t i z e n involvement; groups concerned w i t h environmental p o l l u t i o n , community a c t i o n groups and many others have r a i s e d t h e i r v o i c e s i n quest of a g r e a t e r say i n government a c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g them. This i n f u s i o n of expressed p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i s by no means a novel concept; but the i n t e n s i t y and scope of the phenomenon has given i t a new s i g n i f i c a n c e . WHY PUBLIC PARTICIPATION? Just as there i s no u n i v e r s a l "appropriate l e v e l " of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , so too, there i s no s i n g l e reason why the p u b l i c should be i n v o l v e d i n pla n n i n g . Nevertheless, - 10 -one can develop a s e r i e s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which can be taken to demonstrate the d e s i r a b i l i t y , even the n e c e s s i t y , of such involvement. Attuned p o l i t i c i a n s and informed p r o f e s s i o n a l s are able, i n the short run, to make reasonably accurate assess-ments of the current preferences of v a r i o u s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s and to determine a c t i o n programmes to s a t i s f y them. Bogart (1972), i n S i l e n t P o l i t i c s , suggests t h a t feedback of some kind has always been part of the p o l i t i c a l process, the government i d e a l being a government whose l e a d e r s h i p i s s t r o n g -l y responsive to such feedback as i n t e r p r e t i n g the p u b l i c ' s wants and needs. However, he claims, wants and needs are con-s t a n t l y changing and what people at any given moment want may w e l l be d i f f e r e n t from what p o l i t i c i a n s t h i n k they need. One might a l s o add that the government's responsiveness i s o f t e n biased by the undue i n f l u e n c e of w e l l - o r g a n i z e d l o b b y i n g i n -t e r e s t s , l e a v i n g the a s p i r a t i o n s of the general p u b l i c o f t e n unrecognized and/or u n s a t i s f i e d . Another p e r s p e c t i v e , encountered o f t e n i n the l i t e r a -t u r e , i s t h a t the modern growth of technology, the adminis-t r a t i v e c o n t r o l o f communications systems and the expanding s o c i a l and f i s c a l e f f i c i e n c y of the s t a t e a l l reduce the r e a l independence of the c i t i z e n at a time when he i s more d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by s t a t e a c t i o n i n many d i v e r s e areas of h i s a c t i v i t y than ever before. As Dion (1968, p.442) puts i t , "the absence of r e a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f a r more o f a d e p r i v a t i o n than i t was i n the past when the s t a t e operated at the margins of s o c i a l - 11 -l i f e . " Another r e c u r r i n g theme i s the spectre t h a t the power of p u b l i c o p i n i o n outside of government w i l l succumb to the power of mass communication and the secrecy of b u r e a u c r a t i c d e c i s i o n i f b a l a n c i n g methods are not invented. Only thus can the democratic power of p u b l i c o p i n i o n hold the p o l i t i c a l balance. The very concept of s o c i a l j u s t i c e r i s i n g from the governed provides the " p r e - c o n d i t i o n of l e g i t i m a c y " f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Wilson, 1962). In essence, a l l these authors are s t r i v i n g f o r ways of making our democratic system more responsive to the p u b l i c w i l l . In a recent paper, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements f o r Deal-i n g w i t h the Environmental E f f e c t s of Energy Production and Use", Fox (1972) w r i t e s of e f f o r t s to come to g r i p s w i t h the problem t h a t ... the c o m p l e x i t i e s of modern technology and b i g government are so great t h a t govern-mental processes have become quite undemo-c r a t i c because the understanding of i s s u e s and the i n f l u e n c i n g of governmental a c t i o n s r e q u i r e s a degree of e x p e r t i s e u n a v a i l a b l e to the unorganized members of the general p u b l i c (p.16). Without the resources, i n terms of both money and knowledge, i n t e r e s t s t h a t are not w e l l organized tend to be ignored w h i l e those p a r t i e s which perceive a v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r government d e c i s i o n s i n v e s t considerable e f f o r t i n promoting t h e i r views. Other reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n are c i t e d throughout the l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d i n g the c o n d i t i o n that every i n d i v i d u a l - 12 -has an inherent r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d e c i s i o n which a f f e c t s him. Whether he chooses to p a r t i c i p a t e or not, i t i s incumbent upon p u b l i c agencies to provide the o p p o r t u n i t y . A c o n s t r a i n t , of course, i s the d i f f i c u l t y of determining who i s a f f e c t e d and to what extent by given d e c i s i o n s . One means of coping w i t h t h i s c o n s t r a i n t i s the development, i n the par-t i c u l a r area of c o n s i d e r a t i o n , of a p u b l i c c o n s t i t u e n c y which i s kept continuously informed, 9 A very pragmatic reason i s expressed by the Canadian C o u n c i l on Rural Development (1972, p.14) which j u s t i f i e s i t s c a l l f o r the " p a r t i c i p a t o r y mode" on the b a s i s of two assump-t i o n s : 1. ... i f the people whom i t concerns p a r t i c i p a t e i n the shaping of a development s t r a t e g y they w i l l accept i t , get behind i t , and do what they can to make i t work; and 2. ... p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l augment r a t h e r than d i l u t e the e x p e r t i s e going i n t o t h a t s t r a t e g y . One of the key s t i m u l a n t s to the demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been the i n c r e a s i n g power and i n f l u e n c e of the bureaucracy o p e r a t i n g under an ever expanding umbrella of delegated l e g i s l a t i o n over which the p u b l i c have no, or l i t t l e c o n t r o l . Today, p o l i t i c i a n - c o n s t i t u e n t communication has be-come i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t as government has increased i n complexity and as the "Ne\\r Despotism" (Lane, 1972, Part V I I I ) provides p u b l i c servants w i t h expanded a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and delegated powers to seek s o l u t i o n s to the many s t r e s s e s and requirements of our modern s o c i e t y . A c t i v e p u b l i c i n v o l v e -- 13 -ment i s a means o f c o u n t e r - b a l a n c i n g t h e "New Despotism" and p r o v i d i n g t h e p o l i t i c i a n (and a l s o the b u r e a u c r a t ) w i t h the b a l a n c e d i n p u t s n e c e s s a r y f o r an e n l i g h t e n e d e x e r c i s e o f h i s judgement. John Graham, i n " R e f l e c t i o n s on a P l a n n i n g F a i l u r e " , d i s c u s s e s t h e l a c k o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f modern government when he s e t s out f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h have g i v e n r i s e t o what he con-s i d e r s '"an a u t h o r i t y c r i s i s " . He sees t h i s c r i s i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f the l e g i t i m a c y o f b o t h t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s o f making d e c i s i o n s . W h i l e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n and i n -c r e a s i n g m a t e r i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n p a r t l y e x p l a i n t h e g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o c r i t i c i z e and t o c o n f r o n t p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -makers, he s t r e s s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (p.4): 1. I n c r e a s i n g c r i t i c i s m o f t h e growth e t h i c , o r t h e emphasis on s c a r c i t y as the main problem; 2. R e a c t i o n a g a i n s t a p e r c e i v e d narrow u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c o r d w e i g h t and s i g n i f i c a n c e t o human and s o c i e t a l w e l l - b e i n g ; 3. As i n s t i t u t i o n s become i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r v a s i v e , the 'con-s e r v a t i v e d r a g ' i n p e o p l e r e a c t s t o r e s i s t u n i l a t e r a l change; 4 . Doubts a r e i n c r e a s i n g about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r a d i t i o n -a l mechanisms f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h o s e who govern us. A p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme w h i c h g e n e r a t e s p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s and d e v e l o p s a c o n f i d e n c e t h a t p l a n n e r s and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a r e r e s p o n s i v e t o the p u b l i c ' s w i s h e s would h e l p t o d i s p e l Graham's " a u t h o r i t y c r i s i s . " - 14 -In " P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the P o l i t i c a l Process," Dion (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n f l i c t between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as the foundations of democracy. He holds ... t h a t a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l involvement i s necessary f o r the f u l l development of man as a c i t i z e n ; t h a t i t permits the f u n c t i o n -i n g of i n t e r m e d i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s and government which are i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r the smooth oper a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l system; and, f i n a l l y , t h a t i t i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e con-t r o l of p o l i c y makers (p, 433). What i s more, an absence of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a time of i n c r e a s i n g government i n f l u e n c e might lead to a c t u a l a l i e n a t i o n of the c i t i z e n r y . Such a l i e n a t i o n could lead to o v e r t l y expressed h o s t i l i t y or to resigned apathy, n e i t h e r of which are d e s i r a b l e i n a healthy democratic system. Countering t h i s view are the " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s t s " who contend t h a t geographic, demographic and other " p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s " , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Canada, r e l e g a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n to a secondary and perhaps i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . P u b l i c p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , as perceived i n t h i s paper, would not usurp the rep-r e s e n t a t i v e system; r a t h e r i t would strengthen i t s responsive-ness to our s o c i e t y by opening up the planning process to broader and more ri g o r o u s p u b l i c e v a l u a t i o n thus p r o v i d i n g f o r a more accurate and complete r e f l e c t i o n of what are the c o n s t i t u e n c y ' s preferences. In f i n e l a i s s e z - f a i r e f a s h i o n , Dion suggests, i t was assumed " t h a t optimum p a r t i c i p a t i o n would a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t from the absence of i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l motivations to p a r t i c i p a t e , " However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s has not occurred. - 15 -Optimum p a r t i c i p a t i o n has not come about at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y because our p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have evolved i n a form which tends to discourage d i r e c t p u b l i c involvement. In f a c t , our system was never intended to approximate " d i r e c t democracy" because of the remoteness of many c i t i z e n s and the p r i m i t i v e s t a t e of communications. However, says Dion, a new awareness i s about, one which r e f u t e s the long held view t h a t d e f i c i e n -c i e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be compensated f o r by improvements i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e devices. While current e f f o r t s to achieve a more d i r e c t p u b l i c i n p u t are l a u d a t o r y , Dion emphasizes t h a t proposals f o r reforming p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n which are aimed s o l e l y at s t i m u l a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s are inadequate; one must at the same time t r y to modify the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i -t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e the nature of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Analyzing motivations to p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Dion a l l e g e s t h a t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a cumulative phenomenon: those who are i n v o l v e d i n one form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n tend to be more i n v o l v e d i n other forms as w e l l . This observation has been borne out by other researchers i n c l u d i n g Eourassa (1969) i n h i s Study  on Regional P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Planning i n which he studied f i v e r e g i o n a l development c o u n c i l s i n New Brunswick, Quebec and Ont-a r i o . The i n t e n s i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , found Dion, i s a f u n c t i o n of personal i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s which, i n t u r n , i s a f f e c t e d by such f a c t o r s as access to i n f o r m a t i o n and sense of e f f i c a c y . A f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o t h i s o b s e r vation was a l l u d e d to by Dion and emphasized by Martin's (1973) f i n d i n g s i n h i s study of urban p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns i n Vancouver. Martin's study suggested t h a t w h i l e the cumulative nature of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) - 16 -may be true i n the aggregate, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w when a n a l y z i n g the d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s of p u b l i c involvement. For example, persons without f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s may p a r t i c -i p a t e i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s from which l a c k of funds excludes o t h e r s ; some p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l i n v o l v e themselves only i n a c t -i v i t i e s which preserve t h e i r anonymity. The d i s t r i b u t i v e nature of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a necessary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n planning a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. Before t u r n i n g to the question of values I would l i k e to quote from a recent i s s u e of Queen's Q u a r t e r l y (1972) which contains a comment concerning David Anderson, a former M. P. and now L i b e r a l Leader i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Anderson's unhappiness w i t h the present p o l i c y -making process was addressed mainly to i t s s e c r e t i v e n e s s , i t s mania f o r h i d i n g from p u b l i c view a l l but the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . He argued th a t t h i s arouses and keeps a l i v e s e r i o u s pub-l i c doubts about the responsiveness of the p o l i t i c a l system, and a l s o allows f a r too much room f o r e r r o r s caused by b u r e a u c r a t i c i g n o r -ance about a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n or about the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s considered (p. 511 ). I t i s the reference to ignorance of a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and consequences f o r which the balance of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s proposed. VALUES Because values loom so l a r g e i n personal perceptions and behaviour, a few remarks w i l l be made about t h e i r r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . No c l a i m i s made to compre-- 17 -hensiveness i n t h i s short review; r a t h e r , the l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e i s to set values i n t o a r e l a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e . Deutsch (1970), i n P o l i t i c s and Government, contends t h a t the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of p u b l i c goals and p r a c t i c e s w i t h the p r i v a t e values of c i t i z e n s provides a l e g i t i m a c y to government which maintains s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . As there i s no s i n g l e , i d e n t -i f i a b l e or permanent value c o n f i g u r a t i o n m o t i v a t i n g s o c i e t y , p u b l i c agencies must be able to provide f o r the expression and s a t i s f a c t i o n of the complex range of values which motivate people. Fox (1971) maintains t h a t while d i f f e r e n t values may w e l l be given d i f f e r e n t weights by i n d i v i d u a l s , "... members of a s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y accept t h a t c e r t a i n values should govern a l l i n d i v i d u a l behaviour" (p. 6 ) . I t i s t h i s acceptance which a l l o w s the s o c i a l harmony and o r g a n i z a t i o n which are e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p u r s u i t of h i s own range o f valu e s . Value judgments are ever present i n planning (a f a c t a t t e s t e d to by Davidof f and Reiner, 1962 and by Reiner, 1967) . In h i s study on the Middle Fork Controversy, Parker, 1971, emphasizes the p o i n t made by Fox tha t the governmental d e c i s i o n -making framework should i n c o r p o r a t e " u n i t s which can be expected to r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g values and as a consequence opposing p o i n t s of view" (p. 37 ) . I would suggest t h a t a b u i l t - i n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b a r g a i n i n g amongst p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t i n t e r e s t s would be a step towards s a t i s f y i n g t h i s g o a l . As a c r i t e r i o n f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the p r o v i s i o n f o r b a r g a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. - 18 -While accepting the importance of values as determin-ants of p u b l i c behaviour and r e a c t i o n to p u b l i c p o l i c i e s , one i s , however, constrained to ask the c r i t i c a l question: how are value preferences measured? Perhaps even more germane to the subject matter of t h i s t h e s i s , how can one generate a l t e r n a t i v e s based upon d i f f e r e n t perceptions? This l a t t e r question w i l l be addressed l a t e r . Michael C a r r o l l (1970) i n "Human Values as Planning P o l i c y Determinants" analyzes t h i s problem of values measure-ment w i t h abundant references to other authors on the same t o p i c . He acknowledges t h a t the " p i t f a l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of human values are p a i n f u l l y evident"; however, he perceives the d e s i r a b i l i t y of developing a value h i e r a r c h y t h a t w i l l provide a framework i n which the values i d e n t i f i e d by means of any of a number of m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y techniques and methods ( p o l l i n g and a t t i t u d i n a l surveys, a n a l y s i s of choice s i t u a t i o n s , content a n a l y s i s , budget s t u d i e s and others) might be ordered n... and i n the context of which, p r i o r i t i e s among goals and c r i t e r i a might be e s t a b l i s h e d " (p. 11). This i s no easy t a s k and, indeed, many authors maintain t h a t v a l u e s , being s u b j e c t i v e , cannot be measured or p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner. The problem of i d e n t i f y i n g c i t i z e n s T preferences, which are a f f e c t e d by t h e i r values systems, i s made even more d i f f i c u l t i n t h a t the planner seldom r e c e i v e s c l e a r expressions of what the p u b l i c wants. The degree of concern t h a t the p u b l i c w i l l express on any i s s u e may w e l l be dependent upon simultaneous - 19 -pressures on other i s s u e s ; thus i t can be d i f f i c u l t to assess a c c u r a t e l y p u b l i c o p i n i o n on a given i s s u e . For t h i s reason, an ongoing p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme i s e s s e n t i a l . Another problem c i t e d o f t e n i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of people are aroused only when a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n develops, t h a t i s , one which s e r i o u s l y and c l e a r l y a f f e c t s t h e i r immediate s e l f - i n t e r e s t . T h i s , combined w i t h the l a c k of c l a r i t y i n p u b l i c expression of preferences mentioned above, and the f a c t t h a t personal preferences w i l l change over time make a n t i c i p a t o r y a c t i o n , which i s an e s s e n t i a l component of planning, d i f f i c u l t to achieve. Nonetheless, the planner i s o b l i g e d t o con-s i d e r the p o t e n t i a l value i m p i c a t i o n s of h i s programme proposals and, what i s more, he must cont i n u o u s l y d i s t i n g u i s h h i s own personal values and goals from those of h i s c l i e n t s . I s o l a t i o n of p u b l i c s ' values i s very much an imperfect " s c i e n c e " ; never-t h e l e s s , a c o n t i n u i n g respect f o r the importance of values should be a p r i o r i t y t h r u s t i n any planning process concerned to i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n a meaningful way. CRITERIA FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION As stated e a r l i e r , the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n respect t o a given i s s u e w i l l depend.on the circumstances p e c u l i a r to t h a t i s s u e . There are, however, c e r t a i n normative c r i t e r i a which can be p o s i t e d as standards against which a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme can be evaluated i n l i g h t of the goal t h a t every c i t i z e n has the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s which a f f e c t h i s i n t e r e s t s . These c r i t e r i a are set up - 20 -as i d e a l s o r concepts, t h a t i s , they are not p r e c i s e terms but do have recognizable p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . The suggestion t h a t they can serve as standards i s not meant to imply t h a t they are absolutes; r a t h e r , they can serve as bases f o r questioning whether c e r t a i n planning d e c i s i o n s are e f f i c i e n t , t h a t i s , i n terms of maximizing net r e t u r n s - s o c i a l as w e l l as economic. No s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n can be pursued to i t s u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n i n i s o l a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a are presented as i n t e r -r e l a t e d , w i t h e f f i c i e n c y being the r e s u l t of interdependent a p p l i c a t i o n . 1. Opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e 2 . Information system 3. Timing 4. Capacity to act 5. Choices 6. Values 7. Bargaining o p p o r t u n i t y 8 . E f f i c a c y 9. E f f i c i e n c y 10. I n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement Each of these c r i t e r i a w i l l now be discussed w i t h a view to gaining, an understanding of t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a -b i l i t y . Opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e ... although p u b l i c business i s my main - 21 -i n t e r e s t and I giv e most of my time t o watching i t , I cannot f i n d time to do what i s expected of me i n the theory of democracy; that i s , to know what i s going on and to have an opi n i o n worth expressing on every question which confronts a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g community. Thus wrote the American j o u r n a l i s t , Walter lippman, i n The  Phantom P u b l i c (p. 20). I f such a person, dedicated to i n v o l v -i n g -himself i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s perceives h i m s e l f so con s t r a i n e d , what then, one might resonably ask, i s the point of p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m a r g i n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c planning? I f one maintains a l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s goal of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , then statements such as Lippman fs t h a t he has f a i l e d to d i s c o v e r anyone "who came near to embodying the accepted i d e a l of the sovereign and omnicompetent c i t i z e n " i n no way negates an approach to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n based upon p r a c t i c a l and l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e : 1. the i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n w i l l have the op p o r t u n i t y to present h i s reasons f o r or ag a i n s t the planning approach and/or programme proposal f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the planners and decision-makers r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t i o n ; 2. the planner w i l l have the opportunity to s t a t e h i s reasons f o r the approach under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; 3. there w i l l be a l i b e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of those c i t i z e n s who can demonstrate an i n t e r e s t ; 4. there w i l l be an o p p o r t u n i t y to challenge the assumptions of the planner and to assess opposing arguments; 5. there w i l l be a means o f knowing what d e c i s i o n s have been made i n l i g h t of p u b l i c i n p u t s and why. Senator Richard Stanbury, P r e s i d e n t arthe L i b e r a l - 22 -Party, summed up the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportun i t y as f o l l o w s : The whole idea i s t h a t c r e a t i v e e f f o r t of experts, no matter how t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound, must not become i n s t a n t l e g i s l a t i o n . There must be a .chance and a channel f o r the o r d i n a r y i n d i v i d u a l who i s going to l i v e under the law to p o i n t out t h a t i t won't work i n p r a c t i c a l terms or that he i s not prepared to accept a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s of i t even i f i t w i l l work (Toronto Globe  and M a i l . September 13, 1971). Senator Stanbury was speaking s p e c i f i c a l l y of l e g i s l a t i o n but h i s comments are e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to government programmes o r p r o j e c t s which a f f e c t v a r i o u s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s . Information System Government must p r o g r e s s i v e l y take on the nature of an open process r a t h e r than a closed one. I t should operate on the b a s i c assumption that the vast range of informa-t i o n i t has put together at p u b l i c expense i s p u b l i c property, except i n rare s i t u a t i o n s where ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ' can be j u s t i f i e d , r a t h e r than opera t i n g on the converse assump-t i o n , as i t now tends t o , that government i n f o r m a t i o n i s , by d e f i n i t i o n , c o n f i d e n t i a l unless e x p r e s s l y designated as s u i t a b l e f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . The above statement, expressed by the Canadian C o u n c i l on Rural Development (1972, p. 8), the e a r l i e r - m e n t i o n e d assump-t i o n t h a t any person a f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by a government a c t i o n should be able to p a r t i c i p a t e or be f a i r l y represented i n d e c i s i o n s a u t h o r i z i n g such a c t i o n , and the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s tend to have d i f f e r i n g preferences because of d i f f e r i n g values and/or d i f f e r e n t perceptions of the impact - 23 -of a given a c t i o n (V/ible, 1971), are a l l major determinants of i n f o r m a t i o n generation requirements. I d e a l l y , V/ible perceives an i n f o r m a t i o n system which w i l l a l l o w f o r each i n d i v i d u a l to apply h i s own system of value preferences to e v a l u a t i n g a proposal. He v i s u a l i z e s an i t e r a t i v e process w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s generated, r e a c t i o n s r e -ceiv e d , and a l t e r n a t i v e s regenerated i n terms of expressed preferences. Thus, c i t i z e n s can make t h e i r own t r a d e o f f s as they apply t h e i r system of values and preferences to an evalua-t i o n of these a l t e r n a t i v e s . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n requirements i n c l u d e the f o l l o w -i n g : 1. the i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n w i l l be made aware of i s s u e s and t h e i r consequences - p r e r e q u i s i t e s to h i s e x e r c i s i n g choice as to whether to p a r t i c i p a t e ; 2. there w i l l be f u l l d i s c l o s u r e of a l l r e l e v a n t data and analyses, i n c l u d i n g the government's own analyses of the problem and a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s ; 3. concerned p a r t i e s w i l l command, as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , s u f f i c i e n t resources to be able to generate i n f o r m a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t f o r i n t e l l i g e n t e v a l u a t i o n ; 4. there w i l l be a wid e l y disseminated and continuous f l o w of in f o r m a t i o n throughout the v a r i o u s stages of planning from goals f o r m u l a t i o n to implementation - a s i n g l e e f f o r t ap-proach at one stage, e i t h e r e a r l y or l a t e , i s i n s u f f i c i e n t ; 5. the i n f o r m a t i o n ' f l o w w i l l be two-way i n v o l v i n g r e a l dialogue and debate; 6. there w i l l be d i s c u s s i o n of questions of value judgment, not j u s t t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s ; 7. t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be generated i n such a way t h a t the r i s k s , costs and u n c e r t a i n t i e s are simply and c l e a r l y expressed to a l l o w the p u b l i c to understand the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a l t e r n a t i v e s presented - 24 -Before t u r n i n g to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the impediments to a f r e e f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n , a few comments e l a b o r a t i n g some of the above p o i n t s are i n order. In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s contended t h a t only through a c l e a r e x p o s i t i o n of p l a n -ning s t r a t e g i e s arid o b j e c t i v e s can groups and i n d i v i d u a l s assess the impacts of p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c i e s and/or p r o j e c t s as w e l l as t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s . An important theme, c i t e d by the Canadian C o u n c i l on Rural Development (1972), i s th a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y of r u r a l f a m i l i e s depends on t h e i r a b i l i t y to plan f o r the f u t u r e and t h i s demands th a t govern-ment plans be c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d p u b l i c l y , not merely formu-l a t e d . Such a need i s by no means r e s t r i c t e d to r u r a l people. With reference to the c a l l f o r dialogue and debate, t h i s i s not to suggest t h a t there i s no scope i n the planning process f o r simple i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n o r r e a c t i v e feed-back techniques. Rather, t o t a l r e l i a n c e on one-way methods i s meant to be discouraged. For, not only does an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r dialogue o r debate give the c i t i z e n the chance to develop h i s arguments, but the planner who i s a l s o a b e n e f i c i a r y of such an exchange, can seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the c i t i z e n s ' views, can argue the p o i n t s put forward and thus i s able b e t t e r to assess and understand the p u b l i c s ' preferences. I n t u r n , h i s own t h i n k i n g can be sharpened, h i s premises s t a t e d and h i s plan subjected to more ri g o r o u s s c r u t i n y . One author who t r i e s " to come to g r i p s w i t h j u s t such an a l l o c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r o l e s i s Katherine Warner (1971, p. 39). Her conception of a mix of f u n c t i o n a l p u b l i c involvement p r i o r i t i e s i s set out i n - 25 -Figure 1, From the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s , one major q u a l i -f i c a t i o n of such a concept i s r e q u i r e d , t h a t i s , the stages o u t l i n e d connote a l i n e a r process. A continuous feedback model i s p r e f e r r e d which would a l l o w f o r r e d e f i n i t i o n of even b a s i c goals a f t e r data c o l l e c t i o n or a l t e r n a t i v e s generation has been underway. Data c o l l e c t i o n may w e l l have to run beyond the s t a r t of a p r o j e c t , then feed back on i t . F i n a l l y , cognizance must be given to some of the imped-iments to the f r e e f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n , a concern which Thompson (1972) addressed i n h i s paper "Freedom of Information." For decision-makers, he pointed out, i n f o r m a t i o n may be i n a c c e s s i b l e due to an i n e f f e c t i v e c o l l a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l system; they may be i s o l a t e d from v a r i o u s sources of i n f o r m a t i o n or there may be l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n f o r m a t i o n flow. For those i n t e r e s t s w i t h a r i g h t to query or challenge d e c i s i o n s , there may be p s y c h o l o g i c a l impediments such as condescension or s e l f - i n t e r e s t on the part of the expert, which leads to s e c r e t i v e n e s s ; p o l i t -i c a l impediments such as p o l i t i c a l l y motivated suppression of i n f o r m a t i o n ; l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on the r e v e l a t i o n of c e r t a i n kinds of data; an i n a b i l i t y to assess the relevance or under-stand t e c h n i c a l data; the cost of using i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d ; and, f i n a l l y , the element of t i m e l i n e s s which i s the next c r i t e r i o n reviewed. Before c l o s i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , one f u r t h e r p o i n t : power tends to concentrate i n the hands of those who are informed. Indeed, the complex process of s e l e c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y becomes even more complicated when var i o u s groups pursuing d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s , based upon FIGURE 1 - STAGES IN THE PLANNING PROCESS WITH PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATIONS INDICATED [ C i r c l e d code l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e the primary f u n c t i o n a l emphasis; a d d i t i o n a l l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e very  important secondary f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( s ) ] SB Code f o r Flow Diagram F u n c t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s Designations A - Informational/Educational (Informing) B - Reaction/ Response (Feedback) C - Interaction/Dialogue (Informational Exchange) - 26 -d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , do not a l l have access to the same i n f o r -mation and, consequently, do not p a r t i c i p a t e on an even f o o t i n g (Canadian C o u n c i l on Rural Development, 1972). In sum, i n f o r m a t i o n requirements are c r i t i c a l f o r an e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. There are impediments, some of which can be overcome w i t h g o o d w i l l but others which pose very r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Nevertheless, both the planners and the p u b l i c stand to gain from a l l steps which improve the f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n between them. Timing Timing can be s a i d to have two aspects: i ) t i m i n g of o p p o r t u n i t y , and i i ) t i m i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . E a r l y o p p o r t u n i t y i s r e q u i r e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the i n i t i a l stage of i d e n t i f y i n g o b j e c t i v e s based upon per c e p t i o n of a problem(s). Indeed, the very i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of problem areas or development p o t e n t i a l are as v a l i d areas f o r seeking p u b l i c i n p u t as are the p l a n development and imple-mentation stages. I t i s necessary to be able to assess the \ assumptions upon which a p a r t i c u l a r planning programme i s based. In the case of a s p e c i f i c development p r o p o s a l , c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s o r s t i p u l a t i o n s w i l l have been agreed upon by the a p p l i c a n t o r developer and the r e s p o n s i b l e p u b l i c agency. These g u i d e l i n e s should be the subject of p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . With regard to the second aspect, i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s not d i s c l o s e d a t the proper time, i t s use may be n e g l i g i b l e . F a i l u r e to acquire i n f o r m a t i o n e a r l y i n the planning process can - 27 -sev e r e l y handicap i n t e r e s t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r concerns and preparing t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , Moreover, i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s not disseminated u n t i l l a t e i n the planning process, a f t e r sub-s t a n t i a l investments have been made i n t e c h n i c a l and other s t u d i e s by p a r t i e s to a proposal, the p r o j e c t can gain a momentum which " e f f e c t i v e l y prevents r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s m e r i t s " (Thompson et a l . , 1972). An advantage t o delay-i n g the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l a plan or f a i r l y s o l i d proposal i s ready i s t h a t the p u b l i c then has something con-cre t e to assess. However, i t i s suggested t h a t t h i s advantage does not compensate f o r the c r e a t i o n of a vested i n t e r e s t of the planners i n v o l v e d i n minimal change. F i n a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g , a n a l y s i s and d i s t r i b u -t i o n should be a continuous process, thus a s s u r i n g the p u b l i c i n v o l v e d of the e f f i c a c y of t h e i r endeavours. Feedback to the p u b l i c showing the r e s u l t s of t h e i r i n p u t to the planning process, and i n v i t i n g t h e i r opinions on e v a l u a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a t o r y process w i t h a view to con t i n u o u s l y e v o l v i n g the p a r t i c i p a t o r y mode, i s important as a motivator of con-tinued p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The Capacity to Act I f the range of views held by a spectrum of i n t e r e s t s and i n d i v i d u a l s i s to be considered, such p a r t i e s must have • the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y not only to evaluate proposals but to generate t h e i r own a l t e r n a t i v e s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r values and perceptions. S a t i s f a c t i o n of t h i s - 2S -c r i t e r i o n i s c l o s e l y dependent upon an adequate i n f o r m a t i o n system; however, i t i s suggested as s u f f i c i e n t l y important a f a c t o r to be set out s e p a r a t e l y . Concerned p u b l i c s must have the resources to prepare t h e i r case. Choices I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the planning process consider a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to a given problem and expose these along with* t h e i r analyses f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , A p u b l i c presented w i t h one proposal has o n l y the l i m i t e d choice of accepting, r e j e c t i n g or recommending m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Such a s i t u a t i o n tends to e s t a b l i s h a r e a c t i v e , defensive con-f r o n t a t i o n , whereas generation of a l t e r n a t i v e s and the perceived consequences thereof provides a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h a b a s i s f o r choice. Values Opportunity must be provided f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of questions of value judgment, not merely t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . I n t e r e s t s which can be expected to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t values must be allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e . A l so, the procedural arrange-ments e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning must be respon-s i v e to expressed changes i n value preferences over time and as new i n t e r e s t s become i n v o l v e d . They must have a f l e x i b i l i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e new d i r e c t i o n s and g o a l s . - 29 -B a r g a i n i n g O p p o r t u n i t y An a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t must have the o p p o r t u n i t y to see and rebut opposing arguments - i t must be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o know and to understand the case a g a i n s t i t . A c c e p t i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to power, then the r u l e s governing the kind o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e - i n essence, an a s p e c t o f the r u l e s governing b a r g a i n i n g are c r u c i a l . " T h i s i s " Schmid (1971) p o i n t s out i n h i s monograph, " p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the i n t e r e s t s o f l a t e n t , d i f f u s e and r e l a t i v e l y unorganized groups" (p. 88). In a d d i t i o n , there must be a means f o r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s to know what d e c i s i o n s have been made and why. Planners must be w i l l i n g t o respond to p u b l i c i n p u t . Where p r e f e r e n c e s c o n f l i c t , procedures must be a v a i l a b l e to a l l o w f o r a r e s o l u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s . E f f i c a c y P a r t i c i p a t o r s must know t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s are o f some v a l u e . E f f i c i e n c y The above-mentioned c r i t e r i a are p o s i t e d as standards which, i f s a t i s f i e d , would a l l o w f o r an e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. However, o f a l l c r i t e r i a to be c o n s i d e r e d , e f f i c i e n c y may perhaps be viewed as the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . A l l o t h e r c r i t e r i a can help to improve a programme but i f they do not c o n t r i b u t e to the e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f the normal pr o c e s s e s o f government, then the programme i s un-- 30 -acceptable. I t i s e f f i c i e n c y , the optimum d i s t r i b u t i o n of net b e n e f i t s and r e t u r n s , which I s the u l t i m a t e g o a l of and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the planning process. "Today" wrote Harold Greer, a Vancouver Sun p o l i t i c a l columnist on October 10, 1972, "the a s c e r t a i n i n g o f what the p u b l i c wants i s not o n l y popular but endemic." Greer goes on to emphasize th a t i f c a r r i e d to extremes, the e f f o r t to a s c e r -t a i n p u b l i c wants before government a c t i o n s c a r r i e s the t h r e a t o f " l e s s competent, l e s s e f f i c i e n t and l e s s r e l e v a n t government." Thus, two aspects to the c r i t e r i o n of e f f i c i e n c y should be s t r e s s e d . F i r s t , the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme must oper-ate e f f i c i e n t l y i n t h a t i t does not unduly hamper the f u n c t i o n i n g of the normal processes of government. Secondly, i t must operate i n a f a s h i o n t h a t aims to produce the most e f f i c i e n t p l a n . P o l i t i c i a n s are e l e c t e d to govern, to l e a d . P u b l i c serv-ants are employed to devote t h e i r energies to a s s i s t i n g e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s to govern I n the best i n t e r e s t s of the p u b l i c . A reasonable p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme w i l l aim t o support these goals not to usurp them. C i t i z e n involvement i n the planning process bears costs and b e n e f i t s which w i l l determine the success or c o l l a p s e of a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangement I f the p r i n c i p l e of genuine p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of government programmes and p o l i c i e s i s to be respected i n p r a c t i c e , p u b l i c agencies must set up proced-ures whereby t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n can a c t u a l l y take place. - 31 -METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF PARTICIPATION By way of i n t r o d u c t i o n to the question of techniques and methods of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a few comments about t i m i n g or s t a g i n g . w i l l be made. This i s s u e was introduced above when d i s c u s s i n g c r i t e r i a ; however, some e l a b o r a t i o n i s warranted. One of the biggest hindrances to s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c i n p u t to planning and d e c i s i o n s i s the absence of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c involvement i n the e a r l y stages of planning. Such opp o r t u n i t y has been set out above as a c r i t e r i o n and i t i s on t h i s question t h a t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d procedures f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are needed. I t i s important to remember, however, t h a t d e s p i t e the most c a r e f u l l y planned procedures, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a f u l l e r p u b l i c input can be s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d . For example, impact statements can be meaningless and p u b l i c hearings a mockery i f d e c i s i o n s have been i r r e v e r s i b l y made. Advisory committees can be n e u t r a l i z e d by the w i t h h o l d i n g of i n f o r -mation. Thus, a t t i t u d e and conscious commitment on the pa r t o f the planning and decision-making a u t h o r i t i e s are p r e r e q u i -s i t e s to r e a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y planning. Parker addressed the i s s u e of t i m i n g i n r a i s i n g the caution that w h i l e e a r l y involvement seems l o g i c a l , i t i s not t o t a l l y r e a l i s t i c since s p e c i f i c proposals must g e n e r a l l y e x i s t before the p u b l i c can i d e n t i f y i t s i n t e r e s t s . One must, t h e r e f o r e , r e s o l v e the apparent c o n f l i c t between the need f o r e a r l y involvement i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s to be meaningful and c o n s t r u c t i v e and the c o n v i c t i o n of many w r i t e r s that the - 3 2 -p u b l i c can only be stimulated when i t recognizes some t h r e a t to i t s personal i n t e r e s t . The question of what motivates per-sonal involvement i s d e a l t w i t h i n considerable depth by Kan-cur Olson who concluded t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s the prime moti-v a t o r . He analyzed trade union a c t i v i t y and general group be-haviour examples to show th a t apathy i s a general c o n d i t i o n i n human involvement behaviour. How to s t i m u l a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s , thus, a c e n t r a l i s s u e and perhaps one of the p r i n c i p a l weaknesses of o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e surveys which are hampered by the l i m i t e d number of people i n v o l v e d and by the f a c t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i s one way. The i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o u s u a l l y p r o j e c t o r i e n t e d and f a i l s to emphasize c o n t i n u i n g p u b l i c i n -volvement. In h i s paper, " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P r a c t i c e " , Shelton (1971) deals w i t h t h i s matter of s t i m u l a t i o n by de-s c r i b i n g the mechanics of a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t i n the Clarendon Park area (pop. c. 5000) i n L e i c e s t e r , England. In t h i s case, i n t e n s i v e p u b l i c i t y and a c t i v e e f f o r t s to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n were used over an eigh t month p e r i o d . Continuous encouragement of home improvement along w i t h the planning of neighbourhood environmental a c t i o n (eg. open spaces, t r a f f i c p atterns) were c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d . Whereas, i n other improve-ment schemes, the p u b l i c had been brought i n at the survey stage, the approach i n t h i s i nstance was to present the people w i t h what the planners perceived to be the proolems and how they thought such should be handled. With t h i s as a debating foundation, they then s o l i c i t e d p u b l i c views. Information - 33 -brochures, a l o c a l e x h i b i t i o n and d i r e c t contact w i t h c i t i z e n s were techniques used. General sessions were seen, i n r e t r o -spect, as of l i m i t e d value because of the tendency of a v o c a l m i n o r i t y to dominate. The more e f f e c t i v e technique was the acceptance of vol u n t e e r s e n l i s t e d to c o l l e c t and rep o r t the views of the r e s i d e n t s of a l i m i t e d part of the neighbourhood. In e v a l u a t i n g the relevance of the e x e r c i s e , Shelton concluded t h a t the f i n a l scheme contained an e x t r a element of common sense more i n tune w i t h l o c a l preferences w i t h the r e -s u l t t h a t implementation would be more e f f e c t i v e . Two d i r e c t b e n e f i t s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d seemed apparent: 1. Residents discovered t h a t the bureaucracy was not com-p l e t e l y f a c e l e s s ; 2. Planners were taught more about the consequences of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and the needs and values of the people they work f o r - no small d i v i d e n d s . Another researcher who attempted to dea l w i t h the problem of one way i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i n c i t i z e n involvement techniques was F u l t o n (1971) i n h i s mailed contact-response programme p e r t a i n i n g to an i n l a n d l a k e s study i n Michigan. In a d d i t i o n to mailed response forms, h i s team provided a flow of i n f o r m a t i o n to i n l a n d lake r e s i d e n t s to a s s i s t them i n understanding the i n l a n d lake e c o l o g i c a l community and the resource management a l t e r n a t i v e s p o s s i b l e . Community meetings were planned as a follow-up technique. Another d e t a i l e d paper on techniques i s the "Report of the Committee on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Planning" (1969), which looked at the subject f o r the Government of the United - 34 -Kingdom. While the comments made do not r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n resources planning, they are i n -cluded f o r t h e i r general a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the su b j e c t . A f a i l u r e to communicate p r o g r e s s i v e l y w i t h the p u b l i c , s a i d the Committee, serves to r e i n f o r c e the separation that so e a s i l y appears between a u t h o r i t y and c i t i z e n . In t u r n , an onus l i e s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t o r y groups not to s.ustain..a.position, which i s narrow and " i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y h o s t i l e " viewing s o l e l y i n the l i g h t of s e c t i o n a l o r l o c a l i n t e r e s t , problems which a f f e c t a much broader community. This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e l e s s o n f o r those i n t e r e s t s desirous of having inp u t to the planning of a n a t i o n a l sytem of parks. The Committee i d e n t i f i e s two s e c t o r s i n a community whose c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r e s t must be i n v o l v e d : the organized a c t i v i s t s and the non-joiners and i n a r t i c u l a t e from whom a response must be drawn. Since involvement of these s e c t o r s w i l l mean a d d i t i o n a l delays i n the planning process, which alr e a d y r e c e i v e s much c r i t i c i s m f o r i t s l e n g t h i n e s s , a time-t a b l e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e . Such must not, however, introduce too great a sense of f o r m a l i t y or r i g i d i t y which i s d e s t r u c t i v e of communication. People must not have to measure t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s s o l e l y by the developments they have stopped. They should take equal p r i d e i n framing c o n s t r u c t i v e proposals f o r change. More-over, p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s should be prepared to a s s i s t i n the cre a -t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e . The Commission goes on to suggest t h a t a community forum of l o c a l community groups - 35 -and a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s might be a v e h i c l e f o r such approaches. I t a l s o s t r o n g l y recommends p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a c t i v i t i e s . For example, l o c a l i n t e r e s t s can arrange meetings and organize p u b l i c i t y , a s s i s t i n some survey work, help i n arranging and s t a f f i n g e x h i b i t i o n s . The Commission a l s o makes s e v e r a l recommendations r e l e v a n t to i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n . As a technique and a s t r a t e g y , i t suggests a steady f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n to the l o c a l press and broadcasting media along w i t h meetings to b u i l d up a dialogue w i t h the media and through them w i t h the p u b l i c . I f done s u c c e s s f u l l y , the climate f o r l o c a l p a r t i c i -p a t i o n would be improved. Methods of the o p e r a t i o n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n by means of communications processes, " i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , feedback, and decision-making" are considered i n d e t a i l i n Bishop's study f o r the United S t a t e s Corps of Engineers (1970). Viewing planning as "a process of s o c i a l changes", an approach which may a l l o w the engineer, f o r example, to cope b e t t e r w i t h the i l l - d e f i n e d aspects of a pro-p o s a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the value impacts, i n s t i t u t i o n a l methods -from planning i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h no p u b l i c involvement to refer> enda - are considered, A number of s p e c i f i c techniques and methods of f o s t e r i n g co-operation and a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r com-p a r i s o n between a l t e r n a t i v e s are a l s o surveyed. Another study c a r r i e d out f o r the Corps of Engineers was by Borton et a l . (1970) which concentrated on b u i l d i n g contacts between planners and " l o c a l o p i n i o n l e a d e r s " as a - 3 6 -means of improving the communication-participation process. A combination o f i n t e r v i e w s , i n f o r m a t i o n brochures, workshops and forum meetings was u t i l i z e d . The planner-community l e a d e r workshops were deemed most u s e f u l f o r meaningful debate and communication, a technique that o f f e r s many adaptations. In h i s book, P u b l i c Opinion and American Democracy, Key (1964) i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of the r o l e pressure groups play as a form of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . While r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the concept of p u b l i c o p i n i o n and the degree of impact on such of p u b l i c i t y campaigns are very complex s u b j e c t s , he nevertheless attempts to handle the i s s u e . F i r s t , he says, pressure groups o r d i n a r i l y concern themselves w i t h o n l y a narrow range of p o l i -c i e s , those r e l a t e d to t h e i r s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t . One of t h e i r aims i s to a f f e c t p u b l i c p o l i c y as i t a f f e c t s t h a t i n t e r e s t . Secondly, the impact of such groups on mass op i n i o n i s very l i m i t e d because the s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n necessary to have such an impact i s beyond the resources of most groups. There may be some success i n a c t i v a t i n g l a t e n t p u b l i c o p i n i o n congenial to t h e i r cause; however, t h e i r l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to manage p u b l i c o p i n i o n independently leads Key to conclude t h a t t h e i r causes are more l i k e l y to be advanced "by confederacy w i t h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s than by independent a c t i o n . " One could c e r t a i n l y q u a r r e l w i t h the u t i l i t y of t h i s route as ab s o r p t i o n (or confederacy) might w e l l l e ad to subservience. There i s ho "doubt however, th a t s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t groups working as l o b b y i s t s i n the p o l i t i c a l system have proven q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n advanc-i n g t h e i r views. The s c a l e of support t h a t such l o b b i e s - 3 7 -command ( i e . p o l i t i c a l o r economic) has a major e f f e c t on t h e i r success. Another f e a t u r e of pressure groups i s that w h i l e weak i n i s o l a t i o n , a c o a l i t i o n can exert a more powerful v o i c e on a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . Deutsch (1970) a l s o deals w i t h pressure groups when he d e f i n e s the p o l i t i c a l process as being, i n one sense, the r e s u l t of b a r g a i n i n g among d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s . He suggests t h a t the widespread o r g a n i z a t i o n of almost every s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t group does pose s e r i o u s problems, namely: 1. the unorganized r e s i d u a l p u b l i c gets the worst of p o l i t i c a l b a r g a i n i n g ; 2. s o c i e t y reaches the p o i n t where almost nothing can be done as groups, each w i t h a l i m i t e d power and d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s , f i n d i t e a s i e r to veto another's proposal than to propound p o s i t i v e programmes of t h e i r own; the r e s u l t i s "negative p o l i t i c s " . While the theory of p o l i t i c s becoming a c y c l e of a l t e r -n a t i n g s t a t e s of i m m o b i l i t y i s h y p o t h e t i c a l , the l a t e n t dangers i n i n t e r e s t group p o l i t i c s , which we do have today, should be kept i n mind i n a n a l y z i n g p o t e n t i a l r o l e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . Parker a l s o turns h i s a t t e n t i o n to i n t e r e s t group p o l i t i c s i n planning. M a i n t a i n i n g _ t h a t the m a j o r i t y of plans r e f l e c t a very narrow range of perception concerning f u t u r e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a region., he r e a s s e r t s the advocate planner's view t h a t any plan i s the "embodiment of p a r t i c u l a r group i n t e r e s t s " , and t h a t as such i t must a l l o w f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of views held by any group w i t h i n t e r e s t s at stake. Such - 3 8 -p l a n n e r s r e j e c t the view o f any "best s o l u t i o n " and the i d e a o f a g e n e r a l w e l f a r e which such a s o l u t i o n might serve. Haefele (1971) i n "A U t i l i t y Theory o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government" r e -l a t e s to t h i s t o p i c when he a f f i r m s the i d e a o f who b e n e f i t s and who pays as c e n t r a l to the q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c goods. Welfare economics, he d e c l a r e s , has not found any answer to the i n t e r -p e r s o n a l comparisons o f u t i l i t y i n the absence o f a s o c i a l wel-f a r e f u n c t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s , the g e n e r a t i o n o f such a f u n c t i o n has been d e l e g a t e d to the p o l i t i c a l p r ocess because i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t i s the s o c i a l c h o i ce mechanism. The v a l u e s which people pursue w i l l be f a i r l y c o n s i d e r e d o r i g n o r e d a c c o r d i n g to the o p e r a t i o n s o f t h i s mechanism. A f u r t h e r p o i n t r a i s e d by Parker t h a t should be noted i s t h a t by g e n e r a t i n g p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y , an advocate can r e l e a s e o r s t i m u l a t e government departments, which might otherwise be c o n s t r a i n e d , to become i n v o l v e d . His study demonstrates t h i s r e s u l t . Before l e a v i n g the s u b j e c t of advocacy, mention might be made o f the technique adopted i n E n g l i s h p l a n n i n g where an advocate i s appointed to r e p r e s e n t those s u f f e r i n g a disamen-i t y as a r e s u l t o f some p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l (Wolpert, 1972). Rein (1969) i n " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g : The Search f o r L e g i t i m a c y , " advocates t h a t p a r t i c i p a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s o r methods be viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e c t i f y i n g a m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . Two o b j e c t i v e s are p o s s i b l e , he says: 1. to win c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t i n g mechanisms; - 39 -2. to e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e p o i n t s i n o r d e r to change ways i n which r e s o u r c e s are a l l o c a t e d . Rein i s a l l u d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to poverty s i t u a t i o n s i n the United S t a t e s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , the o b j e c t i v e s might w e l l be con-s i d e r e d b r o a d l y . While the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i m p r a c t i c a l w i t h regard to N a t i o n a l Parks p l a n n i n g , and indeed i s g e n e r a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o u r ' p o l i t i c a l system o f r e s p o n s i -b l e . government , the second i s a normal f e a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l man-oeu v r i n g . He a l s o a d v i s e s those t h i n k i n g about techniques to a p p r e c i a t e t h a t the e l i t i s t approach assumes t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s change by p e r s u a s i o n and e d u c a t i o n w h i l e low income groups tend to view i n s t i t u t i o n s as r e s p o n s i v e o n l y to naked power and p r e s -sure. Looking a t the s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r e s t l o b b i e s and govern-ment, and r e c o g n i z i n g the pressure o f workload which p r a c t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t government to r e a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , one may w e l l agree t h a t the l e s s w e l l o r g a n i z e d have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . The r o l e o f the informed p l a n n e r i s thus c r i t i c a l . As f o r the phenomenon o f p r o t e s t , Rein quotes L i p s k y ' s ( P r o t e s t as a P o l i t i c a l Resource) view t h a t groups which use s i t - i n demonstrations, mass marches and the l i k e , are u n i q u e l y capable o f r a i s i n g the s a l i e n c y o f i s s u e s ; however, they are i l l - e q u i p p e d due to the l a c k o f organ-i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f s o l u -t i o n s to the problems they dramatize. A p u b l i c agency concerned to develop a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme would evolve t e c h -niques which would p r e c l u d e the n e c e s s i t y o f the p u b l i c a d opting such methods. - 40 --A p a r t i c u l a r technique t h a t ought to render dividends i s r a i s e d by s e v e r a l authors, t h a t i s , government funding f o r p u b l i c research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . E f f o r d , w r i t i n g i n The  Future of the Skagit V a l l e y by Adams et a l . (1971) s t a t e s : A proposal to develop or use an environmental resource i s accompanied by a powerful argu-ment supported by expert testimony which i s both funded and e d i t e d by the developer. Ar-guments that the n a t u r a l resource might be b e t t e r used i n other ways or j u s t l e f t untouch-ed - as an investment i n the f u t u r e - are u s u a l l y presented by amateurs and r a r e l y funded by more than a few d o l l a r s . I t i s l i t t l e wonder th a t the d e c i s i o n i s u s u a l l y made to develop whether o r not tha t i s the best use of the land. How strong would t h i s argument have been i f i t had been prepared w i t h the f u l l resources of the st a t e ? " Edmund Burke (1968) i n " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s " analyses the c o n f l i c t between p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e . While many hold an i d e a l i z e d value premise concerning p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , he notes, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make such work i n p o l i c y making. For, Burke p o i n t s out, "arrayed a g a i n s t the o b j e c t i v e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are those of exp e r t s " He views c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y , or more a c c u r a t e l y , s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s defined i n terms of s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s . F i v e s t r a t e g i e s are i d e n t i f i e d : 1. Education-therapy: p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s viewed as a form of c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g which strengthens l o c a l govern-ment, encourages community development and b u i l d s a sense of community. I t i s , to a degree, an end i n - 41 -i t s e l f and thus d i f f i c u l t to accomodate to o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l demands o r i e n t e d to the accomplishment of goals. 2. Behavioural Change: the o b j e c t i v e i s change i n a system by changing the behaviour of the system's members or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the system. The focus i s the task and helping the group accomplish the t a s k g o a l . Information r e l a t e d to the need f o r change, .plans f o r change and consequences of change must be shared by a l l the group. Planning agencies, faced w i t h other demands such as budget c o n s t r a i n t s or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i o r i t y adjustments have d i f f i -c u l t y i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g such f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l s o , s i n c e i t i s r a r e l y p o s s i b l e to i n v o l v e a l l members of a system i n community planning, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group must be not only a medium of change but a l s o an agent of change which can i n f l u e n c e much l a r g e r systems. 3. S t a f f Supplement: t h i s i s the p r i n c i p l e of v o l u n t e e r -ism, the recruitment of c i t i z e n s to c a r r y out o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l tasks f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n l a c k i n g the s t a f f resources to c a r r y them out i t s e l f . Techniques f o r r e c r u i t i n g and hold i n g volunteers become c r i t i c a l . 4. Cooptation: t h i s i s the involvement of c i t i z e n s i n order to prevent a n t i c i p a t e d o b s t r u c t i o n i s m . While i t has obvious advantages, i t a l s o has a p r i c e be-cause those coopted w i l l want a say i n i n f l u e n c i n g p o l i c y . S t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y may be the reward; shared c o n t r o l of power f o r d e f i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y i s the p r i c e . 5. Community Power: change i s foreseen by c o n f r o n t i n g e x i s t i n g power centres w i t h the power of numbers. A new centre of power i s thus created using the methods of demonstrations, boycotts and p i c k e t i n g . Negot-i a t i o n from a p o s i t i o n of st r e n g t h i s the o b j e c t i v e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s s t r a t e g y tends to be s h o r t -l i v e d because of the d i f f i c u l t y of maintaining c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t , a p o i n t , as already mentioned, a l s o made by Li p s k y . In concluding t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of techniques, Burke suggests t h a t a p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t y i s adapting a s t r a t e g y t o the demands of the p a r t i c u l a r type of o r g a n i z a t i o n and the environment w i t h i n which i t f u n c t i o n s . Each has i t s - 42 -strengths; each i t s weaknesses. Moreover, the a b i l i t y of s t a f f to work w i t h c i t i z e n groups i s a s a l i e n t f a c t o r . For example, the behavioural change and s t a f f supplement s t r a t e g i e s r e q u i r e s k i l l i n handling the dynamics of i n d i v i d u a l and group beha-v i o u r w h i l e cooptation r e q u i r e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l t o . smoothly i n c o r p o r a t e p o t e n t i a l embarrassment. What degrees of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are p o s s i b l e ? In her a r t i c l e "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A r n s t e i n (1969) develops a very s i m p l i s t i c concept of l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, t h i s very s i m p l i c i t y , she a s s e r t s , serves to empha-s i z e her key p o i n t : " t h a t there are gradations of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " - s e l f - e v i d e n t , perhaps, but are the r a m i f i -c a t i o n s ? A r n s t e i n contends t h a t almost u n i v e r s a l l i p - s e r v i c e i s paid to the democratic i d e a l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n but when the crunch comes, then the consensus s p l i t s i n t o many shades of " o u t r i g h t r a c i a l , e t h n i c , i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n " A r n s t e i n i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the American urban poor and t h e i r impotence i n the face of e s t a b l i s h e d power s t r u c t u r e s . No matter, her ideas about p u b l i c p a r t i c -i p a t i o n c a r r y lessons f o r the p r a c t i c e of the phenomenon i n any environment. To her, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s synonymous w i t h c i t i z e n power and she repeats the oft-encountered theme that there i s a v i t a l d i f f e r e n c e between going through the empty r i t u a l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and having the r e a l power needed to a f f e c t d e c i s i o n s . Her ladder i s set up as f o l l o w s : - 43 -C i t i z e n C o n t r o l Degrees of c i t i z e n power Delegated Power P a r t n e r s h i p P l a c a t i o n Degrees of tokenism C o n s u l t a t i o n Informing Therapy N o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n M a n i p u l a t i o n M a n i p u l a t i o n and Therapy have been c o n t r i v e d as sub-s t i t u t e s f o r genuine p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e i r r e a l o b j e c t i v e i s to enable powerholders to "educate" o r "cure" p a r t i c i p a n t s by, f o r example, i n v o l v i n g them on rubber stamp a d v i s o r y committees. Informing and c o n s u l t a t i o n a l l o w the have-nots to hear and to have a v o i c e but they l a c k any power, to ensure t h a t t h e i r views w i l l be heeded. P l a c a t i o n i s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f tokenism, a l l o w i n g a d v i c e but r e t a i n i n g f o r the powerholders the r i g h t to d e c i d e . The f i n a l t h r e e l e v e l s i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s i n g degrees o f decision-making i n f l u e n c e . P a r t n e r s h i p p r o v i d e s f o r n e g o t i a t i n g and engaging i n t r a d e - o f f s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l powerholders. With delegated powers and c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , c i t i z e n s a c t u a l l y o b t a i n the c o n t r o l over decision-making i n a p a r t i a l o r complete sense depending on the nature o f the programme i n q u e s t i o n . A r n s t e i n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t she does not attempt to analyze roadblocks to achievement o f genuine p a r t i c i p a t i o n nor i s the a c t u a l i t y o f l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n so cut and. d r i e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , her approach i s a v a l u a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e f o r s t i m u l a t i n g , as she puts i t , "a more e n l i g h t e n e d d i a l o g u e " r a t h e r than the heated c o n t r o v e r s y waged i n terms o f " a s c e r -- 4 4 -bated r h e t o r i c and m i s l e a d i n g euphenisms" so o f t e n encountered (p. 2 1 6 ) . I t i s e v i d e n t from much o f the pre c e d i n g review t h a t many authors are seeking means o f t r a n s f e r r i n g a c t u a l power and decision-making to i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c groups. T h i s i s not an o b j e c t i v e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as understood i n t h i s t h e s i s ; r a t h e r , the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e t a i n s h i s t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and uses p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means o f g a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a more informed understanding o f p u b l i c v a l u e s . A good d e a l o f comment has been set out about the need f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n to be f r e e d from tokenism. Here again, perhaps some e x p l a n a t i o n i s i n o r d e r . A r n s t e i n , f o r whom c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n means c i t i z e n power, d e f i n e s p l a c a t i o n as a h i g h e r form o f tokenism, and i n so doing perhaps l e a v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t i s an unworthy o b j e c t i v e . F o r the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s j u s t t h a t very l e v e l o f " ... a l l o w i n g a d v i c e but r e t a i n i n g f o r the powerholders the r i g h t to d e c i d e " around which the r o l e o f c i t i z e n involvement i s conceived as most u s e f u l . To expect a l l d e c i s i o n s o f government to be f i r s t s u b j e c t e d t o the r i g o u r s o f i n t e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d pub-l i c s c r u t i n y o r even to gi v e the v a r i o u s p u b l i c s (assuming they can a l l be i d e n t i f i e d ) veto power, would r e s u l t i n the i n -e v i t a b l e l i m i t e d p u b l i c response, v e r y l i t t l e a c t i o n and undoubtedly a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f chaos. While there may be o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r shared a u t h o r i t y i n s p e c i f i c communities and f o r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s o f o t h e r agencies, the N a t i o n a l - 4 5 -Parks system which serves a n a t i o n a l , heterogeneous and o f t e n u n i d e n t i f i e d c o n s t i t u e n c y , i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s u i t a b l e c a n d i -date f o r c i t i z e n power. Government has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to govern e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y and i t s a b i l i t y to do so i s improved by an e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme. What must be rec o g -n i z e d i s t h a t i n the processes of p l a n n i n g and governing t h e r e are many avenues f o r p u b l i c i n p u t , the g o a l of which i s to ensure t h a t the M i n i s t e r o r o t h e r decision-maker, when he de-c i d e s h i s course of a c t i o n , i s as w e l l aware as p o s s i b l e o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f h i s d e c i s i o n . CHAPTER THREE BACKGROUND TO THE VILLAGE LAKE LOUISE PUBLIC HEARING INTRODUCTION Inc r e a s i n g V i s i t o r Pressure In h i s study, "Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks: Some Aspects of Winter Use, 1967-68", T h o r s e l l (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d attendance pa t t e r n s at f o u r s k i areas (Lake Louise, Mt. Norquay, and Sun-shine i n Banff N a t i o n a l Park, Marmot Basin i n Jasper) and noted t h a t s k i e r v i s i t s had r i s e n from 17,000 i n 1958 to 242,000 i n 1967 (p.8). At t h a t time he commented t h a t s k i i n g was "the f a s t e s t growing r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the Mountain Parks". More recent f i g u r e s , s u p p l i e d by the Superintendent of Banff N a t i o n a l Park i n d i c a t e 1967-68 s k i e r days i n t h a t park to have been 201,890 i n c r e a s i n g t o 385,080 i n 1971-72. This 90.7% i n c r e a s e i s p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to p a r t i c u l a r l y good s k i i n g c o n d i -t i o n s i n 1971-72; nonetheless, T h o r s e l l ' s a p p r a i s a l i s obvious-l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d . A l p i n e s k i i n g i s a r e l a t i v e l y modern r e c r e a t i o n a l phenomenon i n the Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks. While s k i t o u r i n g has long been an a c t i v i t y i n the Lake Louise area, the f i r s t l i f t s were erected i n 1955. F u r t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i f t s and expansion of accommodation f a c i l i t i e s at Lower Lake Louise during the 1960's a t t e s t e d t o the growing i n t e r e s t i n a l p i n e - 47 -s k i i n g . T h i s s u r g i n g i n t e r e s t added to the d i f f i c u l t y o f r e -c o n c i l i n g the dua l use/ p r e s e r v a t i o n mandate provided f o r i n S e c t i o n 4 o f the N a t i o n a l Parks Act (R.S.C., 1952, c. 189): 4. The parks are hereby d e d i c a t e d to the people o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and en-joyment, s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act and the r e g u l a t i o n s , and such parks s h a l l be maintained and made use o f so as to l e a v e them unimpaired f o r the enjoyment o f f u t u r e genera-t i o n s . Indeed, much o f the c o n t r o v e r s y which came to surround the V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e p r o p o s a l p i t t e d . t h o s e o f the s k i i n g f r a -t e r n i t y d e s i r o u s o f having a l l the proper f a c i l i t i e s n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s k i i n g , i n c l u d i n g a p r e s - s k i a m e n i t i e s , supported by those who, wh i l e not s k i e r s , approved the p r o p o s a l as a q u a l i t y s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s , a g a i n s t the p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t element demanding t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s be expand-ed o u t s i d e N a t i o n a l Park boundaries. T h i s fundamental c o n f l i c t o f p e r c e p t i o n o f the purpose o f N a t i o n a l Parks i s the background a g a i n s t which the V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e c o n t r o v e r s y ought to be viewed. L e s t the im p r e s s i o n be l e f t t h a t the p l a n n i n g f o r the Lake Lou i s e area was an e f f o r t designed s o l e l y to s a t i s f y the s k i i n g v i s i t o r , i t i s important to p o i n t out t h a t the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and the Company were both anxious to provide f o r year round v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s . For the Branch had attempted to address the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r mandate p a r t l y by zoning combined w i t h the concept o f the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre which would avoid tne s c a t t e r i n g o f v i s i t o r - 48 -s e r v i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s throughout a park. The p o l i c y , as set out i n the 1969 R a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y , i s t h a t ... the extent of the s e r v i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n s needed f o r the p a r t i c u l a r park should f i r s t be determined. They should then be grouped, i n t o one or more planned areas chosen and l a i d out i n harmony w i t h the c h a r a c t e r and purpose of the park. (p.16). Faced w i t h the increased pressure of w i n t e r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , combined w i t h the massive summer i n f l u x of v i s i t o r s (Table 1), the Branch evolved the s e r v i c e s centre concept and a p p l i e d i t to the Lake Louise area. Planning f o r V i s i t o r s 1963-1970 Responding to the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r f a c i l i t i e s , the Branch contracted the f i r m P r o j e c t Planning A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d to prepare a Master Development Plan f o r a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lower Lake Louise (Appendix C"). On the b a s i s of t h i s i n t e g r a t e d conceptual plan submitted on J u l y 19, 1963, the Branch set out to a t t r a c t commercial e n t e r p r i s e to i n v e s t i n the required f a c i l i t i e s . For t h e i r p a r t , the Branch in v e s t e d some $1.8 m i l l i o n i n b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - sewer, water and roads (Rouse, 1973). However, the e f f o r t s to a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l operators met w i t h l i m i t e d success, the Mountaineer Motel and the King's Domain being the only new developments. The former •. has completed the f i r s t of a proposed three stage development, the l a t t e r i s now t w o - t h i r d s complete on i t s three stage pro-gramme. I t seemed Obvious t h a t commercial f a c i l i t i e s at Lower TABLE 1 VISITORS TO NATIONAI , PARKS IN ALBERTA - I960 - 1971 Year Banff E l k I s l a n d Jasper Waterton Lakes T o t a l I960 1,016,775 191,341 354,179 349,496 1,911,791 1961 1,050,895 193,254 354,099 420,865 2,019,113 1962 1,282,418 174,360 354,390 444,752 2,255,920 1963 1,551,001 209,319 427,598 441,803 2,629,721 1964 1,592,140 176,433 444,406 371,258 2,584,237 1965 1,705,010 195,947 481,456 393,425 2,775,838 1966 1,966,365 206,658 551,803 487,589 3,212,415 1967 2,038,328 224,139 605,271 503,729 3,371,467 1968 2,136,832 279,451 789,239 516,112 3,721,634 1969 2,239,016 302,833 1,056,997 472,850 4,071,696 1970 2,297,275 304,984 1,285,298 520,321 • 4,407,878 1971 2,465,856 313,800 1,365,604 554,627 4,699,887 INDEX NUMBER 0? VISITORS TO NATIONAL PARKS IM ALBERTA, I960 - 1971  I960 = 100.0 Year Banff E l k I s l a n d Jasper Waterton Lakes T o t a l I 9 6 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 9 6 1 1 0 3 . 4 1 0 1 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 4 1 0 5 . 6 1 9 6 2 1 2 6 . 1 91 . 1 1 0 0 . 1 127/3 118 .0 1 9 6 3 152.5 109 .4 1 2 0 . 8 1 2 6 . 4 137.6 1 9 6 4 1 5 6 . 6 9 2 . 2 125 .5 1 0 6 . 2 1 3 5 . 2 1 9 6 5 1 6 7 . 7 1 0 2 . 4 1 3 6 . 0 1 1 2 . 6 145 .2 1 9 6 6 1 9 3 . 4 108.0 1 5 5 . 8 1 3 9 . 5 1 6 8 . 0 1 9 6 7 2 0 0 . 5 117 .1 1 7 0 . 9 1 4 4 . 1 1 7 6 . 4 1 9 6 8 2 1 0 . 2 1 4 6 . 0 2 2 2 . 9 147.7 194.7 1 9 6 9 2 2 0 . 2 158 .3 298 .4 1 3 5 . 3 2 1 3 . 0 1 9 7 0 225.9 1 5 9 . 4 3 6 2 . 9 148.9 2 3 0 . 6 1971 242.5 1 6 4 . 0 385.6 158 .7 245 .8 Source: N a t i o n a l Parks D i v i s i o n Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development S.R.B. 3-7-72 - 50 -Lake Louise d i d not o f f e r the best economic o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a v a i l a b l e investment d o l l a r s i n the mid - 1 9 6 0 's and the balance of the accommodation/services requirements was not s a t i s f i e d . This i n i t i a l e f f o r t having proven of l i m i t e d success, the Branch adopted the concept of a t o t a l s e r v i c e s development t h a t i s , a Head Lease which would c a r r y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o v e r a l l development of the necessary s e r v i c e s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r through sub-lease. A Montreal c o n s u l t i n g f i r m was contracted t o undertake a market research and provide the Branch w i t h a l i s t of p a r t i e s who would l i k e l y be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g on such a development. On t h i s b a s i s , a. s e r i e s of i n -v i t a t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s were mailed out. Several responses were received i n the s p r i n g of 1969 but o n l y one proved w i l l -i n g and f i n a n c i a l l y capable of f o l l o w i n g through. This was V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d , a company formed by the Lake Louise L i f t s L i m i t e d , who were already e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Park, and I m p e r i a l O i l of Canada L i m i t e d , who were w i l l i n g to pro-vide the necessary investment c a p i t a l . THE PLANNING PROCESS Terms of Reference - V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d The Company and the Parks Branch entered i n t o n e g o t i a -t i o n s i n 1969 and on March 25, 1970, they signed a Memorandum of Intent g i v i n g the Company e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to prepare a plan f o r a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre and s e t t i n g out c e r t a i n - 51 -terms under which the Company would proceed (Rouse, 1973). One of the changes from the 1963 Master Development Plan which came out of the n e g o t i a t i o n s was the proposal t h a t an Upper V i l l a g e would be e s t a b l i s h e d on the e x i s t i n g parking l o t s at the base of the Whitehorn s k i slopes (Figure 2). Erickson-Massey had surveyed the area and determined t h a t the v a l l e y f l o o r was l e s s than i d e a l f o r the development o f a centre which would c a t e r p r i m a r i l y to s k i e r s but which a l s o was l e s s a t t r a c t i v e f o r v i s i t o r s i n g e n e r a l . The noise f a c t o r a r i s i n g from the presence of the C.P.R. main l i n e and the pr o x i m i t y of the Trans-Canada Highway was undoubtedly a con-s i d e r a t i o n . The N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch explained i n the A p r i l 8, 1971 memorandum tha t the d e c i s i o n to d i s t r i b u t f a c i l i t i e s between the v a l l e y f l o o r and the e x i s t i n g Whitehorn parking l o t s had been made f o r s e v e r a l reasons i n c l u d i n g : 1. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l massing created by the 1963 proposal ' i s not now considered appropriate to the s i t e ' ; 2. Meeting the t r a f f i c needs and ' b u i l d i n g the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e centre as o r i g i n a l l y proposed would add up to a s c a l e of de velopment which would create an i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l of im-pairment to the v a l l e y f l o o r ' ; . A reduced d e n s i t y o f development would do 'much to r e h a b i l i t a t e the developed area'; 3. The development of the Whitehorn parking l o t would'enhance i t s appearance'; 4. The Department would a l l o w no f u r t h e r development of the s e r v i c e s centre outside of the v a l l e y f l o o r and Whitehorn parking l o t . As N a t i o n a l Parks Planning had been pr e d i c a t e d upon the Pro-j e c t Planning Associates concept, i n support of which they - 53 -had i n v e s t e d considerable funds i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development, the Upper V i l l a g e concept was a major new o r i e n t a t i o n i n p l a n -ning f o r the area. Another major p o i n t of n e g o t i a t i o n s must have been the condominium aspect of the proposed v i l l a g e which was to e l i c i t the statement from the Chairman of the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan P u b l i c Hearings t h a t as f a r as we are concerned the concept of condominium c a r r i e s w i t h i t the same con-cept as i n d i v i d u a l holdings w i t h i n parks, w i t h a r i g h t f o r some i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d on i n t o the f u t u r e without the n e c e s s i t y to be i n the park to s e r v i c e the park or i t s v i s i t o r s , and i t ' s quite c o n t r a r y to our p o l i c y (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 49). S t i l l , i t was to be part of the plan presented to the p u b l i c i n 1972. (Further comment on the r o l e of condominiums w i l l be made i n Chapter 4). An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t to t h i s i s s u e i s t h a t the A l b e r t a Condominium Act which would apply i n the Na-t i o n a l Parks, would have had to be amended to a l l o w condominium developments on a leasehold property because the c l e a r t i t l e provided f o r i n the P r o v i n c i a l Act would not have been p o s s i b l e i n the N a t i o n a l Park. V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d were i n touch w i t h the A l b e r t a Government seeking the necessary amendment but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p o i n t f o r t h i s study i s t h a t the pro-v i n c i a l government was one more i n t e r e s t concerned w i t h the p l a n -ning process. One f i n a l word on the Memorandum of I n t e n t : i t made the whole p r o j e c t subject to the M i n i s t e r ' s approval of the p l a n (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 83). - 54 -Planning L i a i s o n : N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and the  Company Throughout the planning period from the Company's i n i t i a l submission to the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch i n the s p r i n g of 1969 to the January 25, 1972 Press Conference i n Calgary when the model of V i l l a g e Lake Louise was u n v e i l e d , the Company planners had c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l Parks planning d i v i s i o n ; indeed, one Parks planner spent a major por-t i o n of h i s time i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s and e v o l u t i o n of the p l a n . The Parks Branch o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s l i a i s o n was to a r r i v e at an o v e r a l l plan f o r V i l l a g e Lake Louise which would be acceptable to the Department and could be exposed to the " f u l l f o r c e of p u b l i c debate, p u b l i c d i a l o g u e , before d e c i s i o n s are taken" (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , p. 2). V/hen the plan was presented p u b l i c l y , the Chairman of the p u b l i c hearings remarked t h a t "many modi-f i c a t i o n s " had been accepted throughout the planning process on the b a s i s of advice from the N a t i o n a l Parks o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as from the Company's own experts (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4). Role of the P u b l i c Before March. 1972 a) Input i n t o the Planning Process During the planning phase of the V i l l a g e Lake Louise development, there was no formal o p p o r t u n i t y provided f o r i n t e r e s t s outside of the company and the Government to p a r t i c i -pate i n the e v o l u t i o n of the p l a n . However, i t was expected t h a t the p u b l i c would have some inpu t i n t o the proposal by means of the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans p u b l i c hearings. The - 55 -N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch p o s i t i o n as of e a r l y 1971 was set out i n a l e t t e r dated February 2 3 , 1971 from the A c t i n g Regional D i r e c t o r to the Pre s i d e n t of the A l b e r t a W i l d e r -ness A s s o c i a t i o n : The f a c i l i t y , the development of which V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . , are planning, i s designated i n the p u b l i c hearing document f o r Banff Na-t i o n a l Park as a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre. As a r e s u l t , while the townsites w i l l be the sub-j e c t of separate hearings, the development of a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre at Lake Louise f a l l s w i t h i n the parameters of the P u b l i c Hearings scheduled f o r A p r i l of t h i s year. A l l b r i e f s or comments on the proposal to l o c a t e a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre at Lake Louise should t h e r e -f o r e be submitted at these hearings. I t i s not our i n t e n t i o n to hold the same kind or s c a l e of P u b l i c Hearing per se on the f i n a l V i l l a g e Lake Louise development proposal. Ra-ther., when the submitted Master Plan has been f u l l y assessed and has received approval i n p r i n c i p l e w i t h i n the Department, we would then propose a p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Plan by the Company at a s i t e or s i t e s to be determined. At t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n we would c e r t a i n l y i n -v i t e p u b l i c comment and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m which might serve to f u r t h e r enhance the q u a l i t y of the Master P l a n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the Department intended to gauge p u b l i c r e a c t i o n ; i t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r such p a r t i c i p a t i o n was perceived as having a very s p e c i f i c r o l e and t i m i n g . b) The P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan P u b l i c Hearings Before a s s e s s i n g V i l l a g e Lake Louise as an i s s u e at the Mountain Park P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings which were held i n Calgary ( A p r i l 19-20, 1971), Edmonton ( A p r i l 21-22,1971), - 5b -and Vancouver ( A p r i l 26, 1971), a few comments about the o r i g i n and purpose of the Master Plans and hearings are i n order. The f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of p u b l i c hearings on the Pro-v i s i o n a l Master Plans f o r the N a t i o n a l Parks was held on A p r i l 1, 1970 to review -the plan f o r Ke j i m k u j i k N a t i o n a l Park. In h i s opening remarks at that hearing, the Chairman, Mr. Gordon, c a l l e d the p u b l i c hearings o n l y the beginning "of a process of c o n s u l t a t i o n which must be continuous" (N.H.P.B., 1970, 3 ) . The focus f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t i c i p a t o r y mode was the Pro-v i s i o n a l Master Plan which represents the view of our planners and of our department as to what the K e j i m k u j i k Park should o f f e r to the people of Canada, to the Province and to the region i n which i t i s l o -cated (N.H.P.B., 1970, 2 ) . The Chairman went on to e x p l a i n t h a t the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan i s a concept which i s not yet f i r m ; i t i s an Idea; there are suggestions f o r the f u t u r e . I t i s out of t h i s process of c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i a -logue t h a t we hope to develop the master p l a n i n i t s f i n a l shape (N.H.P.B., 1970,3). The K e j i m k u j i k hearings were fo l l o w e d by hearings on Cape Breton Highlands and Fundy N a t i o n a l Parks and then the scene s h i f t e d to Calgary f o r the opening of the hearings on the f o u r contiguous Mountain Parks. In the forward to the Banff N a t i o n a l Park P r o v i s i o n a l  Master P l a n , the plan was defined as an assessment of Banff N a t i o n a l Park i n i t s - 57 -present s t a t e and as i t may appear i n the f u t u r e . I t s purpose i s to provide a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the f u t u r e develop-ment and op e r a t i o n of the park (p.2), The plan was considered to be the f i r s t phase i n a co n t i n u i n g planning process and was presented to the p u b l i c on t h i s b a s i s . Turning now to the s p e c i f i c s u b ject of V i l l a g e Lake Louise, the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s w i l l t r y to demonstrate the degree to which i t was an iss u e i n the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings. On A p r i l 8, 1971, as mentioned above (p.2), the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch r e l e a s e d , as part of i t s preparatory m a t e r i a l f o r the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan p u b l i c hearings, a memorandum w i t h attached i n f o r m a t i o n about the plann i n g f o r the Lake Louise area. This m a t e r i a l , the f i r s t p u b l i c r e l e a s e of i n f o r m a t i o n since the Branch had concluded i t s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d on March 25, 1970, gave a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Lake Louise area and explained the planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and proposals f o r the area. Of p a r t i c u -l a r . s i g n i f i c a n c e was the j u s t i f i c a t i o n s et out f o r the d i s t r i b u -t i o n of development between two s i t e s - the o r i g i n a l v a l l e y bottom s i t e and the Whitehorn parking l o t . The reasons advanced have a l r e a d y been set out (p.51). In t h i s memorandum, scope f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of the V i l l a g e Lake Louise proposal was defined as f o l l o w s : P u b l i c hearings on p r o v i s i o n a l master plans ... w i l l provide an op p o r t u n i t y f o r the p u b l i c to comment on the r o l e and f u n c t i o n s of a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lake Louise. Where p o s s i b l e , - 58 -co n s i d e r i n g the commitments a l r e a d y made, the Department w i l l take these submissions i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i t s continued p l a n -ning and n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the development of the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. When the o v e r a l l plan f o r development of V i l l a g e Lake Louise has been approved i n p r i n c i p l e , a p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n ( s ) of the plan w i l l be made. At t h a t time, there w i l l be op p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r p u b l i c comment and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m i n order that a l l p o i n t s of view are taken i n t o account i n the approved development p l a n , a plan which w i l l be designed to provide f o r the needs of v i s i t o r s to the park i n a manner which w i l l be s e n s i t i v e and responsive to eco-l o g i c a l i m p eratives (p. 3) . In h i s opening address at the p u b l i c hearing i n Calgary on A p r i l 19, 1971, the Chairman, J . G. Gordon, s p e l l e d out the Department's p o s i t i o n on the planning f o r the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. At the same time, he acknowledged t h a t the Department was aware t h a t "... there has been much concern and i n t e r e s t expressed i n plans f o r a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre to be estab-l i s h e d at Lake Louise" (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 2). The Department's p o s i t i o n on p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the proposal was explained as f o l l o w s : While these hearings do provide an op p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c comment onthe r o l e and f u n c t i o n of s e r v i c e centres and of course the s e r v i c e cen-t r e at Lake Louise, I would l i k e to make i t c l e a r ... tha t when an o v e r a l l plan f o r V i l l a g e Lake Louise which appears acceptable to the department, has been r e c e i v e d , there w i l l be a p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n . A p u b l i c exposure of these p l a n s , and the plans w i l l be open to the f u l l f o r c e of p u b l i c debate, p u b l i c d i a l o g u e , before d e c i s i o n s are taken. The i s s u e of v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres was a major subject of the proceedings w i t h the f i r s t speaker, the Honourable Gordon - 59 -Taylor r e p r e s e n t i n g the Government of A l b e r t a , supporting the plans to have v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres throughout Banff Nation-a l Park (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 26). He was immediately f o l l o w e d by a speaker recommending t h a t " A d d i t i o n a l centres to provide s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s f o r park v i s i t o r s should be constructed outside of park boundaries (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 3 D . Thus were the p u b l i c c o n f r o n t i n g the use versus p r e s e r v a t i o n c o n f l i c t which was the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e throughout the hearings and, indeed which i s perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t i s s u e f a c i n g the planners and managers of the N a t i o n a l Parks system. Reference has a l r e a d y been made to Mr. Gordon's e x p l i c i t comments concern-i n g the d u a l mandate contained i n the N a t i o n a l Parks Act and these should be kept i n mind i n t r y i n g to understand the controversy which b e d e v i l l e d the V i l l a g e Lake Louise proposal. Dr. Robert Scace, U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, one of three spokesmen f o r the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada (NPPAC) opened a d i r e c t a t t a c k upon the development plans and planning procedures of the government and V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d . He s t r e s s e d the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s alarm over the mysteries surrounding the development of V i l l a g e Lake Louise, and the V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre g e n e r a l l y , and the attendant rumours and unsubstan-t i a t e d s t o r i e s about the magnitude of the p r o j e c t (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 78). He commented tha t the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s to o b t a i n concrete i n f o r m a t i o n about the proposal from the government had proven f r u i t l e s s and f u r t h e r complained t h a t the A p r i l 8, 1971 memo-- 60 -randum d i d " l i t t l e to e n l i g h t e n the reader," i n the sense t h a t i t provided no new i n f o r m a t i o n to supplement t h a t already-compiled and d i s t r i b u t e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the plans developed i n the 1960 Ts f o r s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s at Lower Lake Loui s e , Dr. Scace ex-pressed concern about a p o s s i b l e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of these f a c i l -i t i e s to i n c l u d e c o n s t r u c t i o n on the t e r r a c e , c u r r e n t l y parking l o t s , at the f o o t of the Whitehorn s l o p e s . "What e x a c t l y w i l l take place i s s t i l l very u n c e r t a i n , " he s a i d , suggesting t h a t the d e t a i l s of the development were not p u b l i c knowledge (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 81). He was, of course, aware of the f a c t of r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and reasons as explained i n the A p r i l 8 memorandum. Dr. Scace went on to repeat the rumour t h a t the new development would " c o n s i s t l a r g e l y of condominiums" i m p l y i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o any such p r i v a t e r i g h t s i n a N a t i o n a l Park. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the establishment of new f a c i l i t i e s on the t e r r a c e would enhance i t s appearance by e r a s i n g a " s c a r r e d area used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r p a r k i n g , " he scorned as a " r a t h e r remarkable procedure when a few t r e e s would s u f f i c e " and because such l o g i c could lead to "a nightmare sequence of developments" to hide s i m i l a r impairments (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 81). Moreover, he wondered i f a d d i t i o n a l parking l o t s would not have to be prepared at Whitehorn to replace those e l i m i n a t e d , a p o i n t r a i s e d by other speakers as w e l l (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 156, I I , 41). Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s about which he expressed concern - 61 -were the p o s s i b l e establishment of schools, h o s p i t a l s , churches and other municipal-type f a c i l i t i e s at Lake Louise and the rumoured resettlement of r e s i d e n t s from F i e l d to the new centre. Such development, he contended presented the prospect of a new townsite, not merely a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre, o n l y 30 ( s i c ) miles d i s t a n t from Banff. Another poi n t c r i t i c i z e d was t h a t the Memorandum of I n t e n t between the government arid V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d had been signed subsequent to the commitment to hold p u b l i c hearings on the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan f o r Banff. That the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the V i l l a g e proposal would not take place u n t i l the master plan hearings were completed, he suggested was i l l - t i m e d . In concluding h i s remarks, Dr. Scace expressed the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s stand on the p r o j e c t as undecided "because of the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n . " He suggested t h a t the scope of the development " t h a t seems to be envisioned by the developers and the government" might not be d e s i r a b l e . F i n a l l y , he c a l l e d f o r " f a i r and proper" procedures f o r p u b l i c expression of views about the proposal before the government decided on any course of development of a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lake Louise (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 82). On t h i s stand, the A s s o c i a t i o n was s t r o n g l y supported by the A l b e r t a Wilderness A s s o c i a t i o n . Breaking from the standard p a t t e r n of not commenting on b r i e f s , the Chairman r e i t e r a t e d h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y statement t h a t when the plans f o r the V i l l a g e ... have been developed by the Company to the - 62 -p o i n t where they appear to be s a t i s f a c t o r y to the department or acceptable, as a b a s i s f o r a p r e s e n t a t i o n to the p u b l i c , they w i l l be so presented .., and no f i n a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l be taken u n t i l t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y has been provided (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 83). As f o r ' D r . Scace's a l l u s i o n t o secrecy o r mystery i n pl a n n i n g , Mr. Gordon denied t h a t there was any such attempt. He e x p l a i n -ed t h a t the Company was i n v o l v e d i n the plan development w i t h the best a r c h i t e c t u r a l and e c o l o g i c a l advice a v a i l a b l e and when t h i s p l a n reached the stage where they f e l t i t could be presented, then i t would be presented. Rather than a d i s c r e t e stage, Mr, Gordon presented the V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d involvement i n planning f o r the area as p a r t of a continuous process which had been underway f o r many years. The NPPAC was i n the f o r e f r o n t of out s i d e i n t e r e s t s expressing concerns about the plans f o r the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. However, other expressions of d i s c o n t e n t were a l s o voiced at the 1971 hearings. The Canadian Youth Hostels A s s o c i a t i o n expressed support f o r the establishment of v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres "but only inasmuch as they f u r t h e r the a p p r e c i a t i o n of accept-ed park values and do not become an a t t r a c t i o n i n themselves" (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 116). This question of s e l f - a t t r a c t i o n was r a i s e d by others and would be heard o f t e n at the 1972 .. hearing on the development proposal. The question of e f f i c a c y , e s t a b l i s h e d as a c r i t e r i o n i n Chapter Two, was h i g h l i g h t e d by the comment t h a t the V i l l a g e Lake Louise plans "... w i l l be discussed o n l y a f t e r the govern-- 63 -ment has approved the plans, at l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e " (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 1 2 6 ) . The speaker, Mr. E r i k Laerz, contended on t h i s b a s i s t h a t ... the remarks at t h i s time are h i g h l y r e l e v a n t , even though they may be based on news l e a k s and other sources, which are not e x a c t l y formal. The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t parameters r i g h t now are being decided by the government to form the b a s i s f o r e i t h e r the acceptance or the r e j e c t i o n of those proposals. I f we commented now we might be able to i n f l u -ence them i n some way. I f we do not comment noxv, they w i l l be accepted before we have a chance to comment (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 126). This comment b r i n g s to mind the oft-quoted c o n d i t i o n f o r f a i r procedures: "not o n l y must j u s t i c e be done, i t must appear to be done." The question of developing r e s o r t v i l l a g e s , r e c r e a t i o n and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s o u t s i d e of park boundaries was r a i s e d on s e v e r a l occasions and evoked a sympathetic response from the Chairman who perceived such development as one means of r e l i e v i n g the pressures on the N a t i o n a l Parks (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 110-111; I , 129). Two other p o i n t s r a i s e d on the opening day of the hearings: one speaker's impression t h a t the promise to hold p u b l i c hearings on V i l l a g e Lake Louise had been conceded by d i n t of f o r c e f u l p u b l i c pressure r a t h e r than as a natural-step i n the planning process (N.H.P.B., 1971, I , 132); and the concern as to the comprehensiveness of approach to planning at Lake Louise. This l a t t e r concern was expressed because of - 64 -the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investment already l a i d out at Lower Lake Louise i n a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t i t would be the s i t e of the v i s -i t o r s e r v i c e s centre, a r o l e x^hich i t was now o n l y p a r t i a l l y to f i l l . I n speaking about the master plan proposals on the second day of the hearings, one speaker complained t h a t the r a t i o n a l e f o r c e r t a i n proposals i n the master plans were not explained. For example, he asked where the s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s were to back up v a r i o u s road proposals. I t was h i s o p i n i o n t h a t proposals f o r roads and other f a c i l i t i e s were not support-ed by the s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d to generate r a t i o n a l e f o r them and V i l l a g e Lake Louise he c i t e d as a s p e c i f i c , s i m i l a r l y premature proposal (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 21). Another p o s i t i o n s t r e s s e d was t h a t the growth of centres outside park boundaries would be more r e a l i s a b l e i f a l i m i t a t i o n t o growth was adopted w i t h i n Banff Park. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s speaker objected to "any p r o l i f e r a t i o n of condominiums i n the Lake Louise area" as such would simply be "encouraging a new type of cottage development which i s e n t i r e l y opposed by N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y " (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 27). R e s t r i c t i o n of growth to the v a l l e y f l o o r at Lake Louise was recommended. The Banff-Lake Louise Chamber of Commerce and the Banff Advisory C o u n c i l c a l l e d f o r r e s t r a i n t i n developing the Lake Louise v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. "The c o n t r o l of the number of parks v i s i t o r s , " they a s s e r t e d , "would be d i f f i c u l t and t h e r e -f o r e o n l y e s s e n t i a l v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s should be developed so as not to a t t r a c t persons who would not normally come to the park" (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 30). The Lake Louise development scheme - 65 -appeared to them to be " f a r i n excess of the present demand" and they commented: I t seems ludicrous to t a l k of control when Lake Louise i s apparently about to be developed to develop an a r t i f i c i a l market. We must not tolerate any over-development s i t u a t i o n which would encour-age pressure advertising not i n keeping with National Parks (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 30). The Canadian W i l d l i f e Federation representative repeated the question heard e a r l i e r of-whether the proposal had gone so f a r that there would be no point arguing about i t . Are we going to be given a chance to say something on Lake Louise before the f i n a l plans have been drawn or are we going to get a set of f i n a l plans delivered to us and say 'Well there i t i s fellows, i f you want to make some comments, go ahead, but the construction s t a r t s tomorrow'(N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 40-41). Another i n d i v i d u a l who questioned the degree of commitment of the government to the V i l l a g e Lake Louise plans commented: ,.. reading through the memorandum on public hearings ( A p r i l 8, 1971) ... I notice the Department have admitted to strong commitments made i n regard to the Lake Louise v i s i t o r services centre. I wonder how many more vignettes of com-mitment w i l l come to l i g h t before t h i s business i s s e t t l e d (N.H.P.B., 1971, 11,66). The recurrence of t h i s expression of fear that the V i l l a g e Lake Louise proposal would be irrevocable demonstrates the d i f f i c u l t y , despite repeated assurances from the senior Departmental rep-resentative, of convincing people that no decisions would be - 66 -made before p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the plan. This f e a r s p r i n g s p a r t l y from a sense of f r u s t r a t i o n or perhaps j u s t a l a c k of knowledge of what was a c t u a l l y going on i n the planning process. While t h i s was the f e e l i n g of some persons at the hearings, i t i s important to r e a l i z e that the m a j o r i t y d i d not address t h i s s u b ject and, t h e r e f o r e , were presumably s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Chairman's assurances of p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n or were simply not s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d to make i t an i s s u e . Nonetheless, the theme i s brought out because i t i s a s i g n i f i -cant f a c t o r i n p u b l i c perceptions of the u t i l i t y of t h e i r p a r t -i c i p a t i o n and i n d i c a t e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n which planners must take i n t o account when determining the t i m i n g of p u b l i c p a r t -i c i p a t i o n . The Conservation Committee of the Calgary s e c t i o n of the A l p i n e Club of Canada revealed at l e a s t one i s s u e upon which i t would stand adamantly opposed: "... we consider any condominium p r o j e c t to be a f l a g r a n t breach of park p o l i c y regarding i n d i v i d u a l ownership of v a c a t i o n homes i n the parks" (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 49). One of the speakers who supported the planning f o r development at Lake Louise represented the Petroleum S k i Club: "... i f there i s to be any f u r t h e r development w i t h i n the park then the Lake Louise Townsite should be the second nucleus of development ..." (N.H.P.B., 1971, IT, 63). There was no great d e a l of support expressed at these hearings f o r the V i l l a g e proposal but t h i s i s understandable because those i n favour no doubt assumed the p r o j e c t was going ahead and would see no - 67 -need f o r expressing t h e i r views. The i s s u e of environmental impact of the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre was emphasized by s e v e r a l speakers. A re-examination of the need f o r "such a r e s o r t " along w i t h impact s t u d i e s would i n d i c a t e "a commitment to the park i t s e l f r a t h e r than to the company" s a i d one ind i v i d u a l . ( N . H . P . B . , 1971, I I , 97). Information shortcomings were advanced by a represent-a t i v e of the Calgary Eco-Centre. His comments are set out at t h i s time as an i n d i c a t o r of the range of i n f o r m a t i o n expected by at l e a s t some i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s o u t s i d e the planning process i f they were to f e e l capable of adequately a s s e s s i n g proposals. A d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l requested i n c l u d e d : 1. Maps of v e g e t a t i o n and f a u n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the parks; 2. D e t a i l s on the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of park areas; 3. Information on the cha r a c t e r and management of land sur-rounding the parks; 4. More complete d e t a i l s of major developments, as at Lake Loui s e ; 5. An improved b i b l i o g r a p h y concerning the areas i n question. Such i n f o r m a t i o n must be provided i n adequate time to enable thorough study. The p r o v i s i o n of few scanty d e t a i l s concerning development of Lake Louise l e s s than a week p r i o r to the hearings, when a l r e a d y over one hundred b r i e f s had been completed, i s t o t a l l y i n e x -cusable (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 102). In summing h i s comments,, the speaker s a i d t h a t i f v i s i t o r pressure was the o n l y guide when contemplating the development of f a c i l i t i e s , then there could be no end to incre a s e d 'urban' - 68 -and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . In h i s c l o s i n g remarks at the Calgary hearings, the Chairman emphasized t h a t the Department had not at any time undertaken to put the V i l l a g e Lake Louise plans before the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings. The department was i n no p o s i t i o n to put such plans forward as such had not yet been agreed upon by the Company. He repeated h i s guarantee t h a t these would be presented when they were ready "and the f i n a l plans as they emerge w i l l take f u l l account" of the p u b l i c s ' i n p u t s (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I , 116). The two days of hearings i n Calgary evoked the widest i n t e r e s t i n V i l l a g e Lake Lo u i s e . However, s e v e r a l speakers at the Edmonton and Vancouver hearings a l s o addressed the i s s u e . Once again the NPPAC through i t s Edmonton Chapter voiced i t s concern. Another speaker repeated the concern, expressed a t Calgary, t h a t no f u r t h e r v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the parks; r a t h e r encouragement and i n t e r -governmental co-operation should be given towards f a c i l i t i e s o u t side the park boundaries. The most d e t a i l e d commentary heard i n Edmonton came from J.G. A d l e r and J.T. Semple, two i n d i v i d u a l s who expressed apprehension about the proposal based upon the "... scant i n f o r m a t i o n which was released by the Parks Branch" (N.H.P.B., 1971, H I , 87). They t i e d i n the V i l l a g e scheme w i t h the pro-posed twinning of the Trans-Canada Highway and the r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n of Highway 1A, recommending t h a t no a c t i o n be taken on - 69 -highway improvement " u n t i l the business of the Lake Louise V i s i t o r Centre i s i n f a c t concluded, one way or the other." Other concerns which they r a i s e d i n c l u d e d sewage treatment, the ' l e a p - f r o g e f f e c t ' of b u i l d i n g on parking l o t s thus n e c e s s i t a t i n g more parking areas, and f i n a l l y , the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the proposal f o r V i l l a g e Lake Louise w i l l be decided upon, and then the p u b l i c w i l l be allowed to make a l i t t l e b i t of m o d i f i -c a t i o n on i t , as d i s t i n c t from being able to have any say t h a t t h i s w i l l come to pass at a l l (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I I , 88-89). Again the Chairman explained the Department's p o s i t i o n . I n a subsequent exchange w i t h Dr. A d l e r over the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the whole scheme be r e j e c t e d i n favour of no f u r t h e r develop-ment, the Chairman explained t h a t the Department had f e l t f o r some time "... t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g number of v i s i t a t i o n s i n t o the park should be accommodated by r e l i e v i n g some of the pressures on Banff and Jasper" and one means of doing so was to develop new v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I I , 89). The plans to develop Lake Louise as one o f these centres had been on the "drawing boards" and w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d at l e a s t as f a r back as the e a r l y 1960's. On the b a s i s of t h i s planning, "an i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investment has been made, on the v a l l e y f l o o r to accommodate t h i s . " There was thus what Mr. Gordon r e f e r r e d to as "...' a very s u b s t a n t i a l n a t u r a l commitment to a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e centre." However, - 70 -What t h a t s e r v i c e should look l i k e , how b i g i t should be, where i t should be l o -cated, i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l motif — v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s ne g o t i a b l e i n t h i s kind of a dia l o g u e . And I wouldn't deny the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an argument powerful enough to draw back from the whole concept of a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e centre at Lake Louise could conceivably be mounted, but i t would need to be a powerful one (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I I , 90). A d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d p o i n t r a i s e d by another speaker was: When the plans f o r t h i s development were beginning to be formulated i n the 1960's the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of the development may not have been apparent. I t i s q u i t e c l e a r now the development w i l l be d e t r i m e n t a l to the park and tha t the plans f o r i t should be c a n c e l l e d ; f o r t h i s should be done i r r e s p e c t i v e of the commitments to the developer. The Department's commit-ment to the Canadian people i s paramount and p r i o r to that to the developer. The needs of nature w i t h i n the parks should become the prime concern of the Parks Branch. P r o v i s i o n f o r the v i s i t o r needs can be met very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by the p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e outside the boundaries of the n a t i o n a l parks (N.H.P.B., 1971, I I I , 94). Another contentious p o i n t , which would be heard repeat-e d l y during the 1972 hearing was the expressed concern over f o r e i g n involvement i n the p r o j e c t . The r o l e of I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , a s u b s i d i a r y of Standard O i l , was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d both because of i t s American c o n t r o l and i t s corporate power. The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks ... would be a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r o r i g i n a l purpose i f they were made a place i n which m u l t i -n a t i o n a l foreign-owned c o r p o r a t i o n s would s p i n o f f l a r g e ' p r o f i t s (N.H.P.B., 1971, IV, 95). - 71 -In the f i f t h , and l a s t day of hearings, held i n Vancouver on A p r i l 26, the NPPAC again emphasized i t s opposi-t i o n , s t r e s s i n g i t s "grave doubts whether the c o n s u l t a n t s ... gave any c o n s i d e r a t i o n whatever to the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the area f o r the v i l l a g e r s " (N.H.P.B., 1971, V, 49). The S i e r r a Club of B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o s t a t e d i t s o p p o s i t i o n to any expansion In e i t h e r Banff or Lake Louise. Downhill s k i developments were c r i t i c i z e d as b r i n g i n g the "worst kind of a r t i f i c i a l a t t r a c t i o n s " to the N a t i o n a l Parks (N.H.P.B., 1971, V, 79). In i t s o p p o s i t i o n to the V i l l a g e , i t re c e i v e d the support of the Federation of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s . A t h i r d prominent o r g a n i z a t i o n which pr o t e s t e d the proposal was the Canadian S o c i e t y of W i l d l i f e and F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t s , T h e i r spokesman expressed the S o c i e t y ' s dismay tha t the p u b l i c would be given an op p o r t u n i t y "to respond to an o v e r a l l plan of V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e , which has been approv-ed i n p r i n c i p l e and i s 'on the approved development p l a n ' " (N.H.P.B., 1971, V, 98). The above summary sets out the major arguments advanced during the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings on the s p e c i f i c s u b j ect of V i l l a g e Lake Louise. They are deemed important i n the planning context under study p a r t l y because of t h e i r i n -herent and immediate relevance, but a l s o because they would be r a i s e d again, much more d e c i s i v e l y , some eleven months l a t e r when the V i l l a g e Lake Louise hearing was held. The Master Plan hearings gave the planners an i n d i c a t i o n of the nature of the arguments which would be r a i s e d a g a i n s t the proposal i n 1972. - 7 2 -c) The N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada Campaign The N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n d e s c r i b e s i t s e l f as "the o n l y n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada geared s p e c i f i c a l l y to provide" support f o r the expansion of park-lands and to serve as a v e h i c l e f o r p u b l i c i n p u t to parks management. I t i s a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n which operates through a n a t i o n a l o f f i c e i n Toronto and p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l chapters or committees. Although i t s Board of Trustees was not unanimous i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n to V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e , w i t h strong f e e l i n g s generat-ed both pro and con on the i s s u e , the m a j o r i t y objected and the A s s o c i a t i o n was one of the l e a d i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t i n t e r e s t s opposing the p r o p o s a l . In a l e t t e r to the Globe and M a i l on February 4, 1972, the Executive D i r e c t o r , Mr. Gavin Henderson, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the NPPAC viewed t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to V i l l a g e Lake Louise as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the s t r u g g l e i n which they had engaged against the e f f o r t s to b r i n g the 1972 Olympics to Banff. He c r i t i c i z e d what he considered to be an attempt by the govern-ment and the company "to f o i s t t h i s development on the people of Canada without adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n from the outset of every p o i n t of view and a l l p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . " As f o r the p u b l i c hearing, i t was Mr. Henderson's o p i n i o n t h a t "while the M i n i s t e r ... has w i s e l y agreed to a l l o w the p u b l i c to have i t s say at hearings ... i t was o n l y at our i n s i s t e n c e a year ago t h a t t h i s concession was won over the company's o b j e c t i o n s . " The essence of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s stand was, he s a i d , t h a t the - o -emphasis on t h e c a r e f o r e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and v i s u a l e f f e c t s was m e r e l y a " r e d h e r r i n g " having, n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e fundamental q u e s t i o n o f whether a n o t h e r t o w n s i t e was " e i t h e r d e s i r a b l e o r n e c e s s a r y " . F i n a l l y , he argued: Had r e s p o n s i b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s been c o n s u l t e d a t t h e s t a r t as t o how b e s t t o f i n d an answer t o t h e problem o f p r o -v i d i n g accommodation f o r t h e massive p r o -j e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n the number o f summer and w i n t e r v i s i t o r s t o .Banff o t h e r t h a n t h e ' s o l u t i o n ' now p r o p o s e d , i t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r we c o u l d have found i t . The i n i t i a l e f f o r t s o f the NPPAC, as demonstrated a t t h e P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s h e a r i n g s , were t o e l i c i t more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p r o p o s a l , t h e n , when the model was u n v e i l e d i n Calgary', J a n u a r y 25, 1972, t h e i r campaign t o o r g a n i z e o p p o s i t i o n moved i n t o h i g h g e a r spearheaded by t h e C a l g a r y and Edmonton C h a p t e r s . The NPPAC s t r a t e g y c o n t a i n e d t h r e e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s : 1. An a t t a c k on I m p e r i a l O i l ' s p u b l i c image as an e c o l o g i c a l l y concerned company; 2. An e f f o r t t o m o b i l i z e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n ; 3. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l o c a l ( p r i m a r i l y u n i v e r s i t y ) s t u d y committees and p r o j e c t groups t o a n a l y z e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t a r e a s o f the p r o p o s a l ( H e r r e r o , S., December 21, 1971). Thus the NPPAC seemed t o be a i m i n g a t two f r o n t s : t h e l o c a l and t h e n a t i o n a l / i n t e r n a t i o n a l . F o r example, the Edmonton C h a p t e r , as e a r l y as November 24, 1971, wrote t o c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Edmonton a r e a s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r h e l p and i n v i t i n g a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s t o a p u b l i c m e e t i n g on - 74 -December 7, 1971 (Appendix D). C e r t a i n f a c u l t y members and s t u -dents at the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary were o r g a n i z i n g a campaign i n t h a t c i t y . Open l i n e r a d i o shows, newspaper a r t i c l e s , p u b l i c forums - a l l served as media f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s . A r t -i c l e s were sent to conservation j o u r n a l s such as the S i e r r a Club  B u l l e t i n ("Downhill at Lake Louise," A p r i l , 1972), B.C. Outdoors ("For Sale: Our N a t i o n a l Parks," August, 1972), and, of course, -Park News, the NPPAC j o u r n a l campaigned agai n s t the proposal. One of the t a c t i c s pursued was the approach made to the I n t e r n a -t i o n a l Union f o r the Conservation o f Nature and N a t u r a l Resources (IUCN) and to a group of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known e c o l o g i s t s and parks experts (Appendix E). While the IUCN response i n d i c a t e d "a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n on the proposed V i l l a g e Lake Louise and a s s o c i a t e d plans" (Appendix F ) , responses from s e v e r a l of the i n d i v i d u a l s contacted were q u i t e negative. In g e n e r a l , the respondents were adverse to t h i s type of development w i t h i n a N a t i o n a l Park and s e v e r a l , i n c l u d i n g Kai C u r r y - L i n d a h l , V i c e -Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Parks, IUCN, Dr. Maria Buchinger and Ing. I t a l o N. Costantino of Argentina, and Superintendent Franco Tassi of Abruzzo N a t i o n a l Park i n I t a l y , s t r e s s e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of such a development. T h e i r concern was t h a t approval of the proposal would be viewed as a precedent and set back the i n t e r n a t i o n a l parks f r a t e r n i t y ' s e f f o r t s to emphasize and maintain the n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of the N a t i o n a l Parks. Before t u r n i n g to the concurrent V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d campaign to generate support, a summary of the A s s o c i a -- 75 -t i o n ' s " A c t i o n Plan" to c a r r y out t h e i r s t r a t e g y , serves to b r i n g i n t o focus the range of t h e i r e f f o r t s . The steps which they were prepared to f o l l o w and the r e s u l t s i n c l u d e d (Kerrero, 1973a): 1. P r e p a r a t i o n of an a l t e r n a t e development proposal; t h i s was done only c o n c e p t u a l l y ; 2. Contacting I m p e r i a l O i l Limited requesting t h e i r withdrawal from the scheme. F a i l i n g t h a t , an Esso c r e d i t card m a i l - i n campaign would "be -organized; the A s s o c i a t i o n considered the campaign s u c c e s s f u l (Herrero, 1973b); 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n of o p p o s i t i o n by prominent d o w n h i l l s k i e r s ; there were s k i e r s who supported the scheme and others who d i d not; 4. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of the proposal; the Calgary chapter of the NPPAC submitted a b r i e f on t h i s aspect to the A l b e r t a Government; 5. C i r c u l a t i o n of an a n t i - p r o p o s a l p e t i t i o n across Canada; 28,000 signatures were obtained (Kerrero, 1973b); 6 . C o - o r d i n a t i o n of o p p o s i t i o n w i t h a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s ; 7. Co-ordination of the media campaign; 8. P r e p a r a t i o n of an environmental impact statement; t h i s was done to "the best of our a b i l i t y " but data was inadeauate (Herrero, 1973b); 9. Study of p o s s i b l e l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the proposal and attempting to b l o c k the development i n court i f necessary; the A s s o c i a t i o n supported such e f f o r t s by ot h e r s . While the NPPAC worked hard a g a i n s t the development, other con-s e r v a t i o n groups across Canada were a l s o t a k i n g p o s i t i o n s . For example, the Canadian Nature Federation s o l i c i t e d input f o r i t s p o s i t i o n paper from i t s d i r e c t o r s and others across the country. - 76 -d) The V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d Campaign While the NPPAC, A l b e r t a Wilderness A s s o c i a t i o n , and other conservation i n t e r e s t s campaigned to m o b i l i z e p u b l i c o p i n -i o n a g a i n s t the development, V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d was adve r t i s i n g , the merits of the proposal and s t r i v i n g to b r i n g out expressions of support from those groups and i n d i v i d u a l s which favoured the proposals. Through the media, V i l l a g e Lake Louise was p u b l i c i z e d as a r e c r e a t i o n a l complex w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r everyone. Press r e l e a s e s and c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s were used to pre-sent the Company's p e r s p e c t i v e . For example, i n February, 1972, w i t h the support of the Canadian S k i A s s o c i a t i o n , the Company wrote to a l l members of the A s s o c i a t i o n encouraging them t o be-come informed by purchasing the "complete k i t of i n f o r m a t i o n " a v a i l a b l e from the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and to ex-press t h e i r support by w r i t i n g to the P u b l i c Hearings O f f i c e , to t h e i r l o c a l newspaper e d i t o r and by attending the p u b l i c hearing i n Calgary. The professed o b j e c t i v e of t h i s campaign was to help ensure "th a t the hearings do r e f l e c t p u b l i c o p i n i o n as a whole and not j u s t the v o i c e of a r a d i c a l m i n o r i t y " (Appendix G). A more i n t e n s i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t was the "Dear F r i e n d " l e t t e r of February 18, 1972 (Appendix H) sent to i n d i v i d u a l s "at the request of e i t h e r one of our d i r e c t o r s or a f r i e n d who supports our p r o j e c t . " Enclosed w i t h t h i s l e t t e r was the i n f o r m a t i o n k i t made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and which i n c l u d e d the p u b l i c a t i o n "Development P l a n - V i l l a g e Lake Lo u i s e , " December, - 7 7 -1971, and the "Departmental Statement: Lake Louise Planning Area Banff N a t i o n a l Park." F u r t h e r supporting t h e i r campaign was the l e t t e r of February 23, 1972, sent to the shareholders of I m p e r i a l O i l i n A l b e r t a (Appendix I ) . The r e s u l t s of these campaigns, combined w i t h the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch e f f o r t s to generate p u b l i c i n t e r e s t were impressive. A t o t a l of 2,532 b r i e f s were sub-mitted to the Branch (Rouse, 1973), an estimated 900 persons attended and 191 spoke duri n g the three-day p u b l i c hearing i n Calgary. The p u b l i c hearing opened on March 9, 1972. CHAPTER FOUR THE PUBLIC HEARINGS, MARCH 9 - 1 1 , 1972 INTRODUCTION: THE PUBLIC HEARING/ AS A TECHNIQUE P u b l i c hearings are a well-known but o f t e n abused technique of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Abused because they are o f t e n expected to serve a f a r g r e a t e r purpose than they p o s s i b -l y can, r a t h e r than being used f o r what they can reasonably be expected t o achieve. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch perceived a l i m i t e d r o l e f o r the p u b l i c hearing i n the repeated emphasis t h a t t h e i r purpose was simply to a l l o w a l l who wished to express t h e i r views, to do so. These views would then be given c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g the Branch's evalua-t i o n of t h e i r plans i n l i g h t of the p u b l i c i n p u t . However,this s i n g l e mechanism, even supported by mailed b r i e f s , f a l l s short of a programme which could be expected to meet the c r i t e r i a set out i n Chapter Two of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s a cumbersome mechanism, r e l a t i v e l y f o r m a l , and i s not conducive to d i s c u s s i o n of the advantages and disadvantages of a given proposal. Ra-t h e r , i t provides f o r a one-way flow of i n f o r m a t i o n . As a l i s t e n i n g forum i t i s one means.' of t e s t i n g the r e a c t i o n of a wide spectrum of concerned p a r t i e s although the most v o c a l and best organized i n t e r e s t s may seem to monopolize the proceedings. I t a l s o tends to a t t r a c t opponents to any given p l a n , the pro-- 79 -ponents o f t e n being s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e i r views w i l l be w e l l represented by the agency presen t i n g the proposals. One ad-vantage t h a t i t has over w r i t t e n submissions i s i t s "regen-e r a t i v e e f f e c t " , t h a t i s , p o i n t s may be picked up by other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , r e i t e r a t e d , emphasized o r expanded. I t a l s o serves to emphasize a w e l l thought out b r i e f to o f f i c i a l s conducting the hearing. F i n a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n to f o c u s i n g concerns, face to face•encounters are p r e f e r a b l e to impersonal w r i t t e n b r i e f s i f the p u b l i c are to s u s t a i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . THE VILLAGE LAKE LOUISE HEARING Purpose and Procedure In h i s opening remarks, the Chairman, Mr. Gordon, described the purpose of the p u b l i c hearings programme as: ... to secure the help and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l i n t e r e s t e d groups of c i t i z e n s i n d e c i d i n g how the N a t i o n a l Parks l e g i s l a -t i o n and p o l i c i e s should be i n t e r p r e t e d and a p p l i e d i n s p e c i f i c parks and major i s s u e s . This p a r t i c u l a r hearing i s unique i n the sense t h a t i t i s the f i r s t hearing to d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h a s p e c i f i c i s s u e i n one park ... (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 1 ) . Mr. Gordon went on to express the M i n i s t e r ' s wish " t h a t oppor-t u n i t i e s are provided f o r a l l p o i n t s o f view to be heard" so that " a l l Canadians who wish to do so can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s which must be taken" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 3). While the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch were s a t i s f i e d - 30 -t h a t the proposal "meets the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a f o r a S e r v i c e s Centre at t h i s p o i n t " and t h e r e f o r e was acceptable f o r p u b l i c examination and review, the Chairman s t r e s s e d t h a t the M i n i s t e r ' s f i n a l d e c i s i o n ... as to whether the p r o j e c t should go ahead, and i f so, what changes might be r e q u i r e d , would be reserved u n t i l t h i s hearing has taken place and he has had a chance to study-a l l the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w r i t t e n and o r a l (N.H.P.B., 1972 , I , 5 ) . In o u t l i n i n g the procedures to be followed through-out the three day hearing, the Chairman explained t h a t the p u b l i c response on the i s s u e was extremely heavy; i n order to give everyone a chance "to r e g i s t e r h i s p o i n t of view", each speaker was to have ten minutes to d e l i v e r h i s statement (N.H.P.B., 1972 , I , 6 ) . Evening sessions were i n c l u d e d i n the f i r s t two days and an open question p e r i o d was scheduled every afternoon from 5 : 0 0 to 5 : 3 0 . The Case f o r Development: The Government and Company  Pre s e n t a t i o n s There i s no question t h a t the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch was w e l l aware of the amalgam of concepts and ideas from which the c r i t e r i a have been synthesized e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . As evidence of t h i s , a remark made by the C h a i r -man i n opening the p u b l i c hearing i s germane. The N a t i o n a l Parks system, t h e r e f o r e , must be s e n s i t i v e to the r a p i d changes i n the Canadian way of l i f e , i t s v a l u e s , s o c i a l context, the economic entrapment of people - 81 -w i t h i n the concrete confines o f our b i g c i t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the a s p i r a t i o n s , s p e c i a l needs and viewpoints of the Cana-d i a n young people (N.H.P.B., 1 9 7 2 , I , 2 ) . He went on to suggest t h a t any balance e s t a b l i s h e d i n respect to these changes at one p a r t i c u l a r time could not be expected to continue to be s a t i s f a c t o r y . That t h i s i d e a l was apparently l e s s than achieved i s i n d i c a t i v e of the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of planning i n accord w i t h the range of changing p u b l i c values and p e r c e p t i o n s . The f o u r contiguous mountain parks c o n s i s t of 7 , 8 0 3 square m i l e s . As a r e s u l t of t h e i r extent, the Department be-l i e v e d t h a t "the use of f a c i l i t i e s o u t s i d e the park complex ... must be supplemented by f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the park area" (N.H.P.B., 1 9 7 2 , I , 3 ) . The unappealing a l t e r n a t i v e s to the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre they perceived.to be continued growth of Banff and Jasper townsites or ribbon development of s e r v i c e s throughout the parks plus increased t r a f f i c by v i s i t o r s f o rced to commute i n t o the parks. The Department a l s o recognized a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Canadians of a l l ages, both f a r o f f v i s i t o r s and nearby commuters, to use the parks i n w i n t e r as w e l l as i n summer. Lake Louise was s e l e c t e d as a s e r v i c e s centre because of the convergence of roads, the p r o x i m i t y of r e g i o n a l a t t r a c -t i o n s and the f a c t of e x i s t i n g development which, consequently, minimized the need f o r f u r t h e r disturbance of the l a n d . More-over, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and redevelopment v/ere u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d at Lake Louise, a need st r e s s e d by the planners and supported - 82 -by the p u b l i c , both opponents and proponents, during the hearing. Precedental i m p l i c a t i o n s , which appeared to concern many opponents of V i l l a g e Lake Louise, were e l i m i n a t e d , a s s e r t -ed the planners, by the zoning system and by the M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n t h a t the three v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres (Banff, Jasper and Lake Louise) and the f o u r d o w n h i l l s k i areas would not be supplemented elsewhere i n the f o u r parks. "Future pressures," emphasized Mr. Gordon,•"will have to be met outside these parks" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4 ) . From t h i s p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e , the Department had addressed a number of questions, the r e s o l u t i o n of which would e s t a b l i s h parameters f o r the planning of the pro j e c t e d centre. These were (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4): What kind of centre should be considered? Where loc a t e d ? How to p r o t e c t e c o l o g i c a l imperatives and the a e s t h e t i c s ? How to compact the f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the sm a l l e s t p o s s i b l e area? How to ensure q u a l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n , a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y , s i t e c o m p a t i b i l i t y ? How to make sure that the accommodation meets the needs of va r i o u s income l e v e l s ? How to make the wint e r , f a l l and s p r i n g beauty of the parks • a v a i l a b l e to Canadians who do not have the good fortune to l i v e adjacent to them? How to ensure u n i t y throughout the Centre, and s t r i c t q u a l i t y c o n t r o l without i n s t a l l i n g a massive bureaucracy? How to avoid municipal sprawl and growth and yet stay w i t h i n the Canadian t r a d i t i o n of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and l o c a l govern-ment? - 83 -The Chairman expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t while no one could ex-pect t h a t each of these c r i t e r i a would be met to the s a t i s f a c -t i o n of a l l , the plan presented " i s a good response". The p l a n -ning had been done, he continued, "with p a i n s t a k i n g care and on the b a s i s of expert advice" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 1+). In the Department's view, the plans were compatible w i t h the N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y governing "Permnent V i s i t o r Accommodation", (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 3). The agreement wi t h the Company, Mr. Gordon ex p l a i n e d , " s t i p u l a t e s M i n i s t e r i a l approval f o r each development stage, w i t h i n a framework of approval i n p r i n c i p l e of the t o t a l approach". With regard to the s i z e of the p r o j e c t , he i n d i c a -ted t h a t such was ... d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the study and the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the s k i slopes, which are themselves subject to s t r i c t and c l e a r -l y defined p h y s i c a l l i m i t s w i t h i n our zoning system (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 5). Mr. Harold S i d s v i k , Chief of N a t i o n a l Parks Planning, who spoke a f t e r Mr. Gordon, explained that overnight accommodation i n the Centre had been proposed at approximately one h a l f the s k i e r c a p a c i t y of 8500 to ensure " a d e s i r a b l e r a t i o between day s k i e r s and v a c a t i o n e r s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 11). As f o r the condominium concept which, Mr. Gordon ac-knowledged, had e l i c i t e d a great d e a l of i n t e r e s t , the Depart-ment's stand was that the "managed u n i t s " could not be equated w i t h the normal urban concept of a condominium. The i n v e s t o r gained the r i g h t to l i m i t e d occupancy on a r e s e r v a t i o n b a s i s - 84 -and at a l l other times, the accommdation would be a v a i l a b l e f o r r e n t a l i n the normal way. Mr. Gordon went on to say t h a t " i f t h i s p a r t of the plan i s accepted", the number of managed u n i t s could not exceed a c e r t a i n percentage of the t o t a l u n i t s to be made a v a i l a b l e as r e n t a l u n i t s . Moreover, a "proper d i s -t r i b u t i o n of managed u n i t s i n each of the c l a s s e s of accommo-d a t i o n would be necessary". F i n a l l y , investment i n the u n i t s would be l i m i t e d to r e s i d e n t s of Canada (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 5 ) . Harold E i d s v i k went on to elaborate the planning con-cepts which had d i r e c t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s . In a d d i t i o n to r e i t e r a -t i n g s e v e r a l of Kir. Gordon's remarks, he emphasized a number of other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Tourism, he a s s e r t e d , was recognized as a l e g i t i m a t e N a t i o n a l Parks purpose - both i n Canada and by the IUCN - and was an e s s e n t i a l b a r g a i n i n g p o i n t i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of new park lands. Without tourism, the N a t i o n a l Parks system would be u n l i k e l y to expand. In planning v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e s , the purpose of which i s to provide accommodation, food and r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s c o n s o l i d a t e d i n s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s , he continued, development i s allowed "only on s i t e s which do not i n c o r p o r a t e unique park values and o n l y i f f a c i l i t i e s outside the park do not meet the needs from a park p o i n t of view" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 9 ) . Moreover, the s i t e s e l e c t e d had been shown to be s u i t a b l e by s o i l , groundwater and topographic s t u d i e s , Mr. E i d s v i k r e -vealed. A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the zoning system a p p l i e d to the 750 - 85 -square mile Lake Louise Planning Area, Mr. E i d s v i k explained the o v e r a l l planning d i r e c t i o n s f o r the three s i t e s : the v i c i n i t y of the lake which would e v e n t u a l l y become a day-user area, Lower Lake Louise where the emphasis was put on " o r d e r l y redevelopment a n d . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r a t h e r than opening up new development areas", and the Upper V i l l a g e which was designated f o r development "to provide f o r more i n t i m a t e enjoyment of the park s e t t i n g than can be obtained by the v i s i t o r whose main a c t i v i t i e s are s i g h t s e e i n g by auto". Two fundamental concerns guided them i n developing these concepts he s a i d : "environmen-t a l p r o t e c t i o n through zoning r e g u l a t i o n s and a c o n t i n u i n g programme of monitoring and research" and "the enjoyment of the park s e t t i n g through the p r o v i s i o n of v i s i t o r f a c i l i t i e s i n keeping w i t h the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the l a n d s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 12). The N a t i o n a l Parks Planning D i v i s i o n ' s p o s i t i o n was st a t e d as f o l l o w s : ... as planners we are convinced t h a t the d e d i c a t i o n of a small percent of park lands to i n t e n s i v e v i s i t o r use i s the most e f f e c t -i v e means we have of ensuring the preserva-t i o n of e x i s t i n g park values and continued expansion of the n a t i o n a l parks system. With regard to the s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l : In the context of long-range planning f o r N a t i o n a l Parks we b e l i e v e t h i s proposal i s i n harmony w i t h our purposes and o b j e c t i v e s . The i s s u e s are not b l a c k or white. They are complex. We seek p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e i n a r r i v -i n g at sound s o l u t i o n s . Thorough, compre-hensive and c a r e f u l l y considered suggestions and recommendations w i l l a i d us f a r more than a simple yes or no (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 12-13). - 86 -Thus ended the Department's p r e s e n t a t i o n . The Company spokes-men then put f o r t h t h e i r views. C e r t a i n comments by Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan r e v e a l the reasoning, behind the place of e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the p l a n -ning process. In h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks, he commented on the f a c t t h a t when the N a t i o n a l Parks Branch announced i n the mid-1960 T s t h a t expanded v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s f a c i l i t i e s would be developed at Lake Loui s e , "there was no expressed disagreement" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 17). However, he made no a l l u s i o n to the strenuous comments made at the 1971 hearings. In e x p l a i n i n g the approach to e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , Dr. Cowan s a i d : At t h i s p o i n t i n time very l i t t l e of the research needed to provide e c o l o g i c a l working data, has been done. This comes l a t e r i n the planning process, a f t e r general concepts have been e s t a b l i s h e d (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 18). Dr, Cowan acknowledged t h a t e c o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s must compete w i t h a e s t h e t i c , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the decision-making process. He a l s o expressed h i s own op i n i o n t h a t i n a N a t i o n a l Park major e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s "should probably be the d e c i d i n g ones i n most i n s t a n c e s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 19). With regard to Lower Lake Louise, he emphasized th a t apart from Banff t o w n s i t e , t h i s area was the most a l t e r e d i n the Bow C o r r i d o r . In t h i s l a y the r a t i o n a l e f o r development and t i d y i n g up, he asse r t e d . With regard to the s e l e c t i o n of the upper s i t e , he - S7 -explained t h a t the f a c t o r s i n s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d i t s proxim-i t y to the s k i f a c i l i t i e s , thus negating the n e c e s s i t y f o r l o c a l t r a n s p o r t ; i t was already a d i s t u r b e d s i t e so t h a t new f a c i l i t i e s could be introduced w i t h minimal a d d i t i o n a l removal of v e g e t a t i o n ; it'was not i n a unique f o r e s t community; and i t was not an important area f o r l a r g e w i l d l i f e i n that i t d i d not contain e s s e n t i a l w i n t e r range f o r l a r g e r ungulates. The s i t e would be expensive to revegetate, he s t a t e d . Severe design c o n s t r a i n t s to be developed during the next stage of planning would be r e q u i r e d to d e a l w i t h the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the Pipestone canyon slopes. The prevalence of some d e l i c a t e p l a n t communities would r e q u i r e p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to t r a i l design and l a y o u t . A d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y of p l a n t species and a s s o c i a t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d , a l s o p a r t o f the next stage of planning. The V i l l a g e was to be designed w i t h a hard edge to confine egress to a r e l a t i v e l y few p laces s e l e c t e d as most s u i t a b l e as t a k e - o f f p o i n t s onto a t r a i l system. General s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i t h regard to garbage, sewage and surface r u n o f f , he continued, had been already provided and an e n t i r e re-examination of the question of garbage d i s p o s a l i n Banff Park was provided f o r . Sewage would be given the most advanced treatment, he s a i d , " i n c l u d i n g as needed the p r e c i p i -t a t i o n of phosphates and t h e i r removal" (N.H.P.3., 1972, I , 20). Other environmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s included the p r o v i s i o n t h a t no e x o t i c p l a n t s were to be used i n landscaping and r i g i d o p e r a t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s would be imposed on c o n s t r u c t i o n crews. - 8 8 -Research on the e f f e c t s of snow compaction on the under-snow environment would be r e q u i r e d . Dr. Cowan emphasized h i s remarks about environmental impact by s t a t i n g t h a t "much more s e n s i t i v e s t u d i e s of potent-i a l t r a i l use must be a v a i l a b l e before f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on V i l l a g e c a p a c i t y are a r r i v e d a t . " 'While t e n t a t i v e f i g u r e s on t r a i l use impacts i n d i c a t e d to him t h a t the use emanating from a peak of 3000 v i s i t o r s at the upper V i l l a g e "may be accom-modatable," a programme of research would be necessary before a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n could be drawn. Dr. Cowan r a i s e d a number of questions which confronted the parks planners such as d e n s i t y concerns, range of experience o f f e r e d i n a N a t i o n a l Park and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of expanding s k i f a c i l i t i e s . He s t r e s s e d the need f o r extensive o f f - s i t e as w e l l as o n - s i t e research and suggested t h a t the f u l l three stages of proposed development might not be c a r r i e d through f o r e c o l o g i c a l reasons. V i s i t o r c a p a c i t y , the focus of the concept and how best to achieve a. unique and compatible f a c i l i t y were a l l c e n t r a l i s s u e s yet to be decided, he pointed out. He considered an independent and o b j e c t i v e monitoring group to a c t w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks personnel as "environmental i n s p e c t o r s " to be an imperative and i n t e g r a l part of the staged development programme which would be designed to a l l o w f o r constant refinement of knowledge about e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l terms. The environmental impact assessment aspects of the p l a n -ning began w i t h the assumption t h a t a need had been determined f o r a given number of places f o r people to stay w i t h i n the park. - 89 -Thus, l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of such f a c i l i t i e s were the d e c i s i o n s to be e c o l o g i c a l l y determined (N.H.P.B., 1972, 1 , 2 3 ) . . These comments r e v e a l t h a t e c o l o g i c a l advice at the master plan stage was advanced p r i m a r i l y as p r i n c i p l e s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r study needs. An example of the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i -c a t i o n of t h i s s t r a t e g y was Dr. Cowan's remark: E a r l i e r thoughts were t h a t storm water could be channelled i n t o an e x i s t i n g water course but more recent e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s throw doubt upon t h i s and i t w i l l r e q u i r e restudy of the most appropriate route (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 20). I t was apparently t h i s kind of planning readjustment which was envisaged as the phasing of development and the phasing of e c o l o g i c a l research evolved simultaneously. E c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were to be i n t e g r a l l y p a r t of development pla n n i n g , not a v a i l a b l e background before a general approval to develop was granted. In concluding, Dr. Cowan commented t h a t some of the d i f f i c u l t e c o l o g i c a l questions had emerged only as the i n i t i a l plans had been conceptualized and they would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r study. Arthur E r i c k s o n spoke a f t e r Dr. Cowan and described the "process of thought which evolved our present master pl a n , " He emphasized t h a t the plan was not an a r c h i t e c t u r a l design but a long-term l o o k at goals and r e s t r a i n t s . I t would " e s t a b l i s h p r i n c i p l e s and l i m i t s f o r growth, and suggest the c r i t e r i a and c o n t r o l s necessary to ensure conformity w i t h the i d e a l s of - 90 -p r e s e r v a t i o n " (N.H.P.3., 1972, I , 27). He and Mr. A f f l e c k , who worked w i t h him i n developing the master p l a n , described t h e i r approach to e v o l v i n g the master plan, the general concept of development, the c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n which the development must conform and the b a s i c f e a t u r e s f o r which s p e c i f i c design would be c a r r i e d out. As d i d Dr. Cowan, they s t r e s s e d the challenge they recognized i n planning f o r human enjoyment c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment and presented a p e r s p e c t i v e on the research and planning which had yet to be done. Their p r o p o s a l , Mr. A f f l e c k e x p l a i n e d , was i n e f f e c t a growth system to be developed over three stages w i t h constant review and monitoring and the " a b i l i t y to r e s t r a i n growth at any time, or to r e d i r e c t i t , but not beyond the p o i n t of the hard-edged s i t e t h a t we have i n d i c a t e d " (N.H.P.B., 1972, 1,-33). Mr. Ronald R i t c h i e of I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d and P r e s i d e n t of V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d , addressed the questions of why V i l l a g e Lake Louise was to be an a l l - s e a s o n r e s o r t and what had determined i t s u l t i m a t e s i z e , and secondly, the ownership and managerial r o l e of V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d and the i n v e s t -ment and operating o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r other p a r t i e s . He s a i d t h a t reasonably p r i c e d accommodation could not be provided on the b a s i s of summer operations alone. The v a c a t i o n (week-long) s k i e r was described as the key to year-round use and, economi-c a l l y , the essence of the V i l l a g e was to provide only those f a c i l i t i e s which would c a t e r to a year-round c l i e n t e l e . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Upper V i l l a g e had already been scaled down - 9 1 -by h a l f on the advice of the e c o l o g i c a l consultant and i n view of the recognized c a p a c i t y f o r s k i development which the Parks Branch had s e t . He went on to emphasize th a t the Crown c o n t r o l over the development through the lease meant t h a t no a c t u a l land ownership was i n v o l v e d on the part of the Company. Moreover, when the lease terminated (42 years w i t h a 10 year management extension) a l l improvements would r e v e r t t o the Crown f r e e of cost. He a l s o explained the company's goal of a t t r a c t i n g i n v e s t o r s to provide such i n d i v i d u a l elements as h o t e l s and motels and a l s o s t r e s s e d the o p p o r t u n i t y which Canadians would have to i n v e s t i n i n d i v i d u a l managed u n i t s . "Without such an arrangement" to r a i s e f i n a n c i n g f o r the V i l l a g e s a i d Mr. R i t c h i e , " i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t the t o t a l p r o j e c t would be f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 38). Mr. R i t c h i e concluded by emphasizing, as had others before him, t h a t a "range of s e r v i c e s and accommodation matched to the income l e v e l s of a l l park v i s i t o r s " would be provided. He r e f e r r e d to the r e n t a l revenues which would accrue to the Crown on the b a s i s of a formula r e l a t e d to gross revenues of the Company. He s t r e s s e d the c o n t r o l maintained by the Crown w i t h i t s s p e c i f i c approval r e q u i r e d f o r the c h a r a c t e r , design, s i z e , t i m i n g of each f a c i l i t y created and f o r each tenant to whom i t l e a s e s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 39). There were two other major sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c : the i n f o r m a t i o n k i t provided i n advance of the hearing and the question periods held during the hearing. - 92 -The i n f o r m a t i o n k i t contained the f o l l o w i n g items: 1. Covering l e t t e r from the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n (Appendix J); 2. Notice of P u b l i c Hearing; 3. I n t e r i m Statement on Decisions R e l a t i n g to Zoning, Roads and V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centres Reached as a Result of P u b l i c Hearings on Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks; 4 . Departmental Statement: Lake Louise Planning Area Banff N a t i o n a l Park; 5. Development Plan - V i l l a g e Lake Louise, prepared by V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d ; 6. Three maps showing zoning and designated v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s areas i n the Lake Louise Planning Area and the l o c a t i o n of the Lake Louise Planning Area i n r e l a t i o n to the f o u r contiguous mountain N a t i o n a l Parks; 7. A postage paid post card to be sent to the P u b l i c Hearings O f f i c e i f one planned to attend the p u b l i c hearing, wished to be i n c l u d e d on the speakers' l i s t or intended to submit a w r i t t e n b r i e f on the pl a n . The Departmental Statement r e f e r r e d t o above provided much the same s o r t of overview, but i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , as was given i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks at the hearing by the govern-ment r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Areas covered i n c l u d e d the purpose and need f o r v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e s , the reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g Lake Louise as such a centre, the three sub-areas w i t h i n the V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre, t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n and the develop-ment proposal - i t s main f e a t u r e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Parks Branch and Lease arrangements. Also of i n t e r e s t , because i t presented the p u b l i c w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e of general planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the 750 square mile Planning Area was the Appendix which discussed c u r r e n t v i s i t o r a c t i v i t i e s from the - 93 -p o i n t s of view of the a b i l i t y of the area to absorb continued i n c r e a s i n g pressures and planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the face of such use pressures. Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n attempting to evaluate the p u b l i c hearing, because i t revealed the Department's p o s i t i o n , was the comment i n the Departmental Statement t h a t : These conceptual proposals are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h planning o b j e c t i v e s developed over the years by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch ... They r e l a t e to environmental p r o t e c t i o n , a r c h i t e c t u r a l and design compa-t i b i l i t y and high standards of s e r v i c e s w i t h i n reach of v a r i o u s income l e v e l s . They con t a i n safeguards necessary f o r these and other purposes. The M i n i s t e r , as Mr, Gordon emphasized repeatedly, had made no commitment to approve the development. I t appeared, however, t h a t the Parks Branch had decided i n favour of the proposal and were a c t i n g as advocates f o r the development at the hearing, i f not i n t h e i r own eyes, c e r t a i n l y i n the eyes of many i n attendance. The second major p u b l i c a t i o n i n the k i t was the Development Plan - V i l l a g e Lake Louise which i n c l u d e d the conceptual master plan prepared by the Company. The scope of t h i s booklet i s shown i n Table 2. As f o r the d a i l y question p e r i o d , i t provided the only o p p o r t u n i t y during the p u b l i c hearing f o r dialogue between the p u b l i c and the N a t i o n a l Parks and Company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . How-ever, i t s comprehensiveness was l i m i t e d as such exchanges tended to d e a l more w i t h answering questions seeking i n f o r m a t i o n T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S P R E F A C E 6 S T U D Y O B J E C T I V E S 9 BASIS FOR P L A N National Parks goals and policy 10 Background 10 A. The Village Lake Louise area 10 B. History of Development 12 C. Existing Development 12 Environmental Characteristics A. Geographic 14 B. Geological 16 C. Ecological D. Climatological 20 Recreational Potential 21 Development Program A. Introduction 22 B. User Characteristics 22 C. Comparable Developments in North America and Europe 22 D. Facilities Program 27 V I L L A G E SITE S E L E C T I O N Method of Analysis 28 Conclusions 35 D E V E L O P M E N T P L A N — LOWER VILLAGE Program 37 Objectives 37 Existing Development 38 Development Plan 40 A. Vehicular Movement System 40 B. Pedestrian Circulation 42 C. Built Form 44 D. Landscape 46 E. Character 48 F. Expansion and Phasing 50 D E V E L O P M E N T P L A N — U P P E R V ILLAGE Objectives 56 Site Characteristics 57 A. Topography 57 B. Micro-climate 57 C. Views from site 58 D. Existing movement systems 58 E. Boundaries of site 59 Principles of development 60 A. Movement systems 60 B. Built Form 60 C. Orientation 60 D. Scale 61 E. Central Core 61 F. Composite 61 Development Plan 62 A. Movement Systems 62 B. Service Systems 68 C. Built Form 72 D. Character 78 E. Landscape 80 F. Expansion and Phasing 82 First Stage Development 84 Development Controls 86 IMPLEMENTATION 89 APPENDIX 91 - 95 -or c l a r i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than a l l o w any d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of merits or disadvantages of the p r o j e c t as a whole or of v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of i t . There were ins t a n c e s when c e r t a i n p o i n t s were emphasized. For example, Dr. Cowan confirmed t h a t the s t r a t e g y of the planning team was to phase e c o l o g i c a l research i n t o the general plans development. For, even though he revealed t h a t he had wanted e c o l o g i c a l research to have been underway i n 1971 "but f o r some reason or other i t d i d n ' t get s t a r t e d , " he nevertheless remained confide n t t h a t a develop ment compatible w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the N a t i o n a l Parks could be developed i n t h i s area" and t h a t " i f anybody can do i t , these men (the a r c h i t e c t s / p l a n n e r s ) can do i t " (N.H.P.B,, 1972, I , 154). He went on to repeat h i s o f f e r to a s s i s t i n developing the necessary research, an o f f e r q u i c k l y accepted by-Mr. Gordon " i f the d e c i s i o n i s to go ahead w i t h t h i s ..." (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 154). The question p e r i o d i s one way of broadening the scope of the p u b l i c hearing forum. I t does have, however, very l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l f o r the a c t u a l give and take one would want f o r vigorous planning a n a l y s i s . When the Company's presentation-had concluded, the ten minute statements by i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s commenced. I n t e r e s t s Represented Some 191 speakers took advantage of the p u b l i c hearing. These represented s k i i n g i n t e r e s t s , Chambers of Commerce, - 96 -tourism- o r t r a v e l - o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , conservation assoc-i a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l elements, u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y , students, p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which do not f i t these c a t e g o r i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : a) S k i i n g I n t e r e s t s S k i Club of the Canadian Rockies Ontario S k i C o u n c i l Canadian S k i A s s o c i a t i o n Calgary S k i Club Petroleum S k i Club Lake Louise S k i School D i r e c t o r Canadian S k i I n s t r u c t o r s A l l i a n c e Curlew S k i Club ( H u n t s v i l l e , Ontario) Lake Louise S k i Club S k i m e i s t e r s of Calgary b) Chambers of Commerce Calgary Golden Windermere Waterton c) T r a v e l Organizations T r a v e l Industry A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada Tr a v e l Industry Branch, Department of Ind u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, Government of Canada Trav e l Industry A s s o c i a t i o n of A l b e r t a d) Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n s N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada: N a t i o n a l and Edmonton, Jasper, Calgary-Banff Chapters Federation of Ontario N a t u r a l i s t s F e d e r a t i o n of A l b e r t a N a t u r a l i s t s Columbia V a l l e y N a t u r a l i s t s Calgary F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t s S o c i e t y A l b e r t a F i s h and Game A s s o c i a t i o n Canadian S o c i e t y of F i s h and W i l d l i f e B i o l o g i s t s Canadian W i l d l i f e Federation A l b e r t a Wilderness A s s o c i a t i o n - 97 -Canadian Parks/Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n Canadian Nature Fed e r a t i o n e) P o l i t i c a l Elements L i b e r a l Party of A l b e r t a New Democratic P a r t y of A l b e r t a Committee f o r an Independent Canada PACE (N.D.P. Calgary Metro Council) Mayor of Golden Of the s i x t e e n f a c u l t y / g r a d u a t e student r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who spoke, f o u r t e e n were from the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. The "other" i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d such i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s as: Calgary I n t e r f a i t h Community A c t i o n Committee Environmental Law A s s o c i a t i o n Mr. V. Emery, D i r e c t o r of Lake Louise L i f t s L i m i t e d Humans on Welfare A l b e r t a A s s o c i a t i o n of Landscape A r c h i t e c t s Kings Domain Hotels L i m i t e d The i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s ranked as "other" a l s o i n c l u d e d those w i t h some clo s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the plan, f o r example i n a consultant c a p a c i t y . ARGUMENTS PRESENTED A wide range of arguments, both a g a i n s t and i n favour of V i l l a g e Lake Louise were r a i s e d during, the three days of the p u b l i c hearing. These are summarized below, not to debate t h e i r merits but to e s t a b l i s h a base f o r the a n a l y s i s of how the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme was s u i t e d to r e s o l v i n g them. A summary of the arguments presented by the p u b l i c i n - 98 -support of the development w i l l be set out f i r s t , f o l lowed by the co n t r a r y views. N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y and Purpose There was no doubt i n the minds of the supporters t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of the development conformed w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y and co n t r i b u t e d to a bala n c i n g of the mandate of use and p r e s e r v a t i o n s et down i n the N a t i o n a l Parks Act. Indeed, one speaker contended t h a t no l e g a l b a s i s e x i s t e d f o r the s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n e t h i c . Any human use, argued o t h e r s , could be s t r i c t l y termed impairment, an "absurd" stance, thus a balance needed to be reached and V i l l a g e Lake Louise was con-t r i b u t i n g to such. "This park as pr o j e c t e d by the environ-m e n t a l i s t s , " opined another, "sounds l i m i t e d , inadequate, geared f o r the i n t e r e s t of a few and f o r the discomfort of many" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 99). Another p o i n t s t r e s s e d was t h a t the three other v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres i n Banff and Jasper had been dropped and V i l l a g e Lake Louise scaled down from i t s o r i g i n a l s i z e ; moreover, i t was to be the l a s t v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre i n the mountain parks. Some of the other s p e c i f i c comments made on p o l i c y w i l l be in c l u d e d w i t h the views of the opponents i n the l a t e r s e c t i o n s under "Purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks" and " P o l i c y and L e g i s l a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Pr o p o s a l " i n order to j u x t a -pose the c o n t r a s t i n g p o s i t i o n s . - 99 -Area/Site C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S e v e r a l proponents spoke to the f a c t t h a t the Lake Louise area was already p a r t i a l l y developed, that the proposal was in. e f f e c t a re-development, and the area was part of the Bow V a l l e y n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d e r a l r e a d y t r a v e r s e d by the C.P.R. and the Trans-Canada Highway. I t was suggested t h a t increased development i n the Bow V a l l e y was i n e v i t a b l e ; thus the time, money and energy being spent to oppose V i l l a g e Lake Louise might b e t t e r go to the r e s e r v a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s areas e l s e -where. Lake Louise could not be considered a w i l d e r n e s s area. The a c t u a l UHiite horn-Temple s k i area was held up as having the advantage of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , c l i m a t e and topography necessary f o r e x c e l l e n t s k i development; i n f a c t , i t was one of o n l y three areas i n Canada meeting the F.I.S. standards f o r d o w n h i l l courses s u i t a b l e f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l races. As f o r year-round use, Lake Louise was c i t e d as a natur-a l hub f o r the f o u r mountain parks: Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay, I t was emphasized by s e v e r a l speakers t h a t the zoning system adopted f o r the N a t i o n a l Parks would ensure the preser-v a t i o n of p l e n t i f u l undeveloped n a t u r a l areas, thus guarantee-i n g room f o r both r e c r e a t i o n a l and wildern e s s a c t i v i t i e s . V i l l a g e Lake Louise was to be s i t e d i n a confined area, a l i e n -a t i n g l e s s than 1% of Banff N a t i o n a l Park, w h i l e the improve-ments a n t i c i p a t e d f o r Lower Lake Louise would t u r n t h a t s i t e i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e complex. Character of the Development The o p i n i o n was s t r o n g l y and wid e l y held among sup-- 100 -p o r t e r s t h a t a well-planned and o r d e r l y development was f a r s u p e r i o r to a random, e v o l u t i o n a r y b u i l d u p of s e r v i c e f a c i l i -t i e s . V i l l a g e Lake Louise, i t emphasized, was based on care-f u l l y researched plans by knowledgeable people and would be subject to r u l e s which would guarantee a development q u i t e compatible w i t h the N a t i o n a l Parks goal of r e t a i n i n g the Parks unimpaired f o r f u t u r e generations. Present environmental knowledge, i t was a l l e g e d , was capable of producing an e n v i r o n -mentally sound development and i n any event no severe ecolo-g i c a l damage had occurred at the other s k i s i t e s . There was no question, remarked some, t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d would f u l f i l l a l l commitments and confidence was expressed i n the a b i l i t y of the National.Parks s t a f f to oversee a compatible development. Moreover, the plans i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n f o r an i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n centre which would have a c a p t i v e audience and which would c o n t r i b u t e to education of v i s i t o r s about the s p e c i a l values of the Parks (the p r o v i s i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s seemed to r e f e r to the proposed nature study amphitheatre on the edge of Pipestone Gorge). Pressure was i n e v i t a b l e and co n c e n t r a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s would reduce the impact on the n a t u r a l scene. The m a j o r i t y of v i s i t o r s to the V i l l a g e would not s t r a y f a r from the s i t e , thus minimizing , " s p i n o f f 1 1 environmental impact. Moreover, the c a p a c i t y of the designated s k i area and l i f t s would be f i n i t e . Undirected f o r a y s , as opposed to a c a r e f u l l y designed t r a i l network, were viewed as a considerable problem which the design would d i s -courage. The poi n t was made that the developers were merely at the beginning of t h e i r research, not the end; what was more, - 101 -went another o p i n i o n , I m p e r i a l O i l would not a l l o w i t s image to be marred by a c a r e l e s s l y planned development. P r a i s e was given to the design goal of minimizing auto-mobile impact and emphasizing p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y i n the Upper V i l l a g e complex. Other favourable comments were made about the s i t e because the V i l l a g e would not be v i s i b l e from the highway and because Lower Lake Louise i s subject to considerable r a i l -way and highway t r a f f i c n oise. Economics of S k i i n g F a c i l i t y Development The mid-week s k i i n g a c t i v i t y , which would r e s u l t from the amenities provided by the development, was req u i r e d f o r the economic v i a b i l i t y of a f i r s t - c l a s s s k i o p e r a t i o n . Indeed, i t was suggested, the present f a c i l i t i e s would l i k e l y d e t e r i o r -ate i f a more secure ope r a t i o n was not provided. Unless the government intended to p r o h i b i t a l p i n e s k i i n g a l t o g e t h e r , one speaker remarked, i t had an o b l i g a t i o n to a l l o w the operator to complete development to the l e v e l of economic v i a b i l i t y s u f f i c i e n t to support an adequate l e v e l of s e r v i c e . I t was pointed out on s e v e r a l occasions t h a t s k i developments east of Banff Park had e i t h e r gone bankrupt or were i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s . I n f e r i o r snow c o n d i t i o n s and the l a c k of summer b u s i -ness were c i t e d as causal f a c t o r s . A l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n s , one speaker went so f a r as to suggest, were a myth and another argued t h a t p o t e n t i a l developments to the west of the Park could not at present generate s u f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c to be economic a l l y v i a b l e . . However, i f V i l l a g e Lake Louise went ahead, then - 102 -s e v e r a l years hence when i t had e s t a b l i s h e d c l i e n t e l e and had set the pat t e r n f o r week-long s k i i n g , any crowding could stimu-l a t e the generation of new r e s o r t s to the west i n the Columbia V a l l e y . I t was a l l e g e d that the developers had i n v e s t i g a t e d out-side s i t e s and found none s u i t a b l e . Moreover, Banff was too la r g e a park to s e r v i c e completely from o u t s i d e . The p o i n t was made tha t the development of a f i r s t -c l a s s s k i area, capable of competing w i t h western United States and European r e s o r t s , required the f i n a n c i a l resources of a company such as Im p e r i a l O i l , I n t e r n a t i o n a l t o u r i s m was viewed as a competitive business and Banff was a marketable commodity. Moreover, i t was suggested, the promotion of t r a v e l i n Canada would c o n t r i b u t e to n a t i o n a l u n i t y . I t was a l s o argued t h a t the development was no great p r o f i t e n t e r p r i s e as evidenced by the f a c t t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise alone had made an acceptable r e -sponse to the Branch's search f o r a developer to provide v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s at Lake Louise. I m p e r i a l O i l was applauded f o r a c t i n g l i k e a good corporate c i t i z e n , c o n t r i b u t i n g to a p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and i t was suggested that the Company's e q u i t y would d e c l i n e through sub-leases; moreover, r e g a r d l e s s of l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t , the u l t i m a t e ownership and c o n t r o l r e s t e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, which would a l s o have the r i g h t to r e -possess the development at the end of the l e a s e . That s k i i n g was an important generator of revenue "to the economy was another p o i n t made i n support of development. V i l l a g e Lake Louise would add to t h i s revenue by a t t r a c t i n g s k i e r s who would otherwise t r a v e l to f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . Apres-- 103 -s k i f a c i l i t i e s were recognized as the great revenue-generators and were supported as e s s e n t i a l to the economics of develop-ment. More l i f t s were u r g e n t l y needed but, contended a represen-t a t i v e of Lake Louise L i f t s L i m i t e d , the Company was i n no p o s i t i o n to b u i l d more without the o n - h i l l support f a c i l i t i e s envisaged i n the plans. F i n a l l y , government/private i n d u s t r y p a r t n e r s h i p was favoured as government.involvement was important to guarantee reasonably p r i c e d s e r v i c e s f o r the average Canadian. Being a f r e e e n t e r p r i s e economy, the involvement of p r i v a t e investment was viewed as q u i t e n a t u r a l and healthy. Land r e n t a l s and tax revenues would ensure a f a i r r e t u r n to the taxpayer f o r the Company's use of the land and the f o r e i g n exchange earnings expected would c o n t r i b u t e to the n a t i o n a l revenue. Other Comments In the i n t e r e s t of n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n needs, the r e -mark was made t h a t Canadian mountains ought to be developed f o r general r e c r e a t i o n and f i t n e s s . There was p l e n t y of room i n the back country f o r more people, contended one speaker. Re-peated reference was made to increased r e c r e a t i o n a l demand, i n -c l u d i n g t h a t which would r e s u l t i f the f o u r day work week were introduced. C u r r e n t l y , h o l i d a y e r s who were not w i t h i n commuting dis t a n c e of Lake Louise were being deprived of l e g i t i m a t e oppor-t u n i t y and Banff was not s u b s i d i z e d by the Canadian taxpayer s o l e l y f o r the b e n e f i t of r e s i d e n t s of nearb}/ communities. As f o r the idea of commuting from accommodation s i t u a t e d j u s t out-- 104 -side the Park boundaries, o p p o s i t i o n was voiced because such would decrease the enjoyment derived from l i v i n g at the s k i h i l l ; long l i n e s of automobiles would plug the highway morning and evening; and the increased t r a f f i c would mean more a c c i -dents, e s p e c i a l l y at times of treacherous road c o n d i t i o n s . S k i e r s , maintained s e v e r a l speakers, were as e n t i t l e d to c o n s i d e r a t i o n as other park users, p a r t i c u l a r l y when they were as concerned f o r n a t u r a l beauty as any n a t u r a l i s t o r wilderness devotee. S k i e r s represented every age and income l e v e l and s k i i n g was p i c t u r e d as a l e g i t i m a t e outdoor a c t i v i t y c l o s e l y dependent f o r the q u a l i t y of the experience on the q u a l i t y of the n a t u r a l environment. Planners were admonished to take i n t o account the needs of the present as w e l l as f u t u r e generations. Also, i t was suggested t h a t i f V i l l a g e Lake Louise were approved, support f o r the conservation i n t e r e s t s would i n -crease. Other remarks i n c l u d e d the statement t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise would provide many employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the de-cent l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r workers as w e l l as year-round f a c i l i -t i e s would a t t r a c t competent s e r v i c e and maintenance s t a f f . B e t t e r s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s would spread out use and r e s u l t i n im-proved c o n d i t i o n s f o r weekend s k i e r s . F i n a l l y , the development would provide necessary t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r Canadian i n t e r -i n a t i o n a l s k i e r s . Turning now to the views of the opponents, these can be ca t e g o r i z e d under the f o l l o w i n g subject headings: - 105 -Purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks Policy,. L e g i s l a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Proposal Character of the Development Planning and Support Studies General R a m i f i c a t i o n s of the Development A l t e r n a t i v e S o l u t i o n s of the Development The P u b l i c Hearing as a P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Forum As already mentioned, some po i n t s by supporters of the develop-ment w i l l be i n c l u d e d w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n remarks to help c l a r i -f y the c o n f l i c t i n g p o s i t i o n s . Purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks Throughout the p u b l i c hearing, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n per-c e p t i o n as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the development proposal r e -f l e c t e d the divergence of views as to the purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks. From the s c i e n t i f i c viewpoint the most s i g n i f i c a n t value of our N a t i o n a l Parks i s t h a t they serve as environmental con-t r o l s which enables the measurements of the degree to which mankind i s modify-i n g h i s n a t u r a l environment (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 117). On t h i s reasoning, suggested the Canadian S o c i e t y of W i l d l i f e and F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t s , the most r i g o r o u s study of p o t e n t i a l e c o l o g i c a l or environmental impacts are u r e r e q u i s i t e s to any development proposal i n a N a t i o n a l Park. Another speaker asser-ted t h a t r a t h e r than expand the f a c i l i t i e s i n the Lake Louise area, "most man-made f a c i l i t i e s should be "removed ... and only - 106 -leave small t e n t campgrounds, h i k i n g t r a i l s and snowshoeing cross-country t r a i l s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I, 132). P r e s e r v a t i o n was argued f o r c e f u l l y as the primary purpose of the N a t i o n a l Parks w i t h man-made f a c i l i t i e s to be se v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n s c a l e , s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and purpose i n order that they would not p r o l i f e r a t e to the point where they i m p a i r r a t h e r than comple-ment "the experience these parks can provide" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 86). In support of t h i s t h i n k i n g was the oft-expressed view th a t the value and p o p u l a r i t y of the wil d e r n e s s experience i s i n c r e a s i n g and the views of a m i n o r i t y today would become i n -c r e a s i n g l y w i d e l y held. I t was of t e n s t r e s s e d that r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ought not to be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r own sake but "only as they may enhance the enjoyment of the n a t u r a l environment of the park" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , A). For the true value of the Na t i o n a l Parks was suggested to be t h e i r p r o v i s i o n of a r e s p i t e from urban l i f e ; they are the " a n t i t h e s i s of c i t i e s " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 187). The parks have a unique c a p a b i l i t y to support t h i s f u n c t i o n because they alone "have the advantage of perma-nence and p r o t e c t i o n i n the N a t i o n a l Parks Act"; they are "the only few small patches ... reserved f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of na-tu r e ..." (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 111). On the other hand, i t was contended by many who sup-ported the proposal, not a l l Canadians can p a r t i c i p a t e i n vigorous, outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . To quote one speaker: ... there i s l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l merit or b e n e f i t i n c r e a t i n g and maintaining a - 107 -N a t i o n a l Park i f the use ... i s c u r t a i l e d to r e s t r i c t enjoyment to people who ... are able to get out w i t h the advantage of youth, and h e a l t h and experience and en-joy i t i n i t s w i l d e r n e s s s t a t e . There are a l a r g e number of Canadians, not r e s i d e n t c l o s e to the Darks, who cannot do t h i s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 143). Or as another put i t : ... i t ' s time t h a t we q u i t running the parks as i f everyone i n Canada i s some s o r t of Edmond H i l l a r y , a Mark T r a i l , or a super b o t a n i s t , and l e t ' s d e a l i n r e a l i t i e s and p r a c t i c a l i t i e s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 117). Others s t r e s s e d that both use and p r e s e r v a t i o n can be accommo-dated through the zoning system; what i s more, argued Dr. James T h o r s e l l , E c o l o g i c a l c o nsultant to the Company, ... we have to have the f a c i l i t i e s (be they i n s i d e or out) i n order to s a t i s -f y the major p o r t i o n of population's demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I t h i n k our chances of preserving t h i s 92 per cent (of park as w i l d e r n e s s ) are much b e t t e r i f we have these other f a c i l i t i e s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 202). Some speakers expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t w i t h such vast mountain ranges, "one mountain" could be o f f e r e d to development; f u r t h e r -more, wi l d e r n e s s areas o u t s i d e of N a t i o n a l Parks were to some no d i f f e r e n t than those w i t h i n . Perhaps the most emphatic statement of supporting use was: ... s i n c e there i s no democratic way the number of Canadians wishing to enter t h e i r own park can be l i m i t e d , expansion - 108 -" of the f a c i l i t i e s must occur, and they must be as d i v e r s e as the people who come to the park (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 47). Perhaps the comment which most g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d the opinions of those - present was that the parks are dedicated f o r the use of the people of Canada but not f o r t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n by overuse. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there was no meeting of minds as to the meaning of overuse nor as to what a c t i v i t i e s would c o n t r i -bute to " d e s t r u c t i o n by overuse." I s d o w n h i l l s k i i n g , w i t h i t s attendant l i f t s and s t r u c t u r e s a use which i m p a i r s , an a r t i f i -c i a l a c t i v i t y ? Do those w i l d e r n e s s - o r i e n t e d v i s i t o r s have a case who contend t h a t the development of f a c i l i t i e s f o r s k i e r s i s s e r ving a m i n o r i t y , as opposed to a general i n t e r e s t ? Are the w i l d e r n e s s devoteees themselves more than a m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t ? Are b e n e f i t , education and enjoyment, the goals set out i n the N a t i o n a l Parks Act, a s s o c i a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h the products of nature? I f so, what does t h i s mean i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s - no a r t i f i c i a l c ontrivances such as s k i l i f t s ? What then about roads - are they not "man-made con t r i v a n c e s ? " I t i s the l a c k of c l e a r and p r e c i s e l y defined parameters f o r a s sessing the s u i t a b i l i t y of a c t i v i t i e s i n the N a t i o n a l Parks which makes i t so d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n c i l e the range of perceptions of concerned c i t i z e n s . "The parks should not be intended t o f i l l every r e c r e a t i o n a l need or i n t e r e s t " was a w i d e l y expressed or i m p l i e d b e l i e f and, indeed, one which had the support of the N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y Statement (1969, p.4): - 109 -Being dedicated to a l l of the people of Canada cannot p o s s i b l y mean tha t N a t i o n a l Parks are required to provide f o r every kind of use requested by the p u b l i c . But there i s no p r e c i s e measurement of j u s t which a c t i v i t i e s do apply. P o l i c y and L e g i s l a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Proposal I n d i c a t i v e of the i m p r e c i s i o n , or f l e x i b i l i t y , of the N a t i o n a l Parks Act and the P o l i c y Statement were the diamet-r i c a l l y opposed views expressed about the conformity of the development. E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, i t was pointed out th a t proponents saw the scheme as q u i t e compatible w i t h both the l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y . On the other s i d e , "the p o l i c y document makes i t quite c l e a r , " maintained the Federation of Canadian N a t u r a l i s t s i n support of t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n ... t h a t the words ' b e n e f i t ' , 'education', and 'enjoyment' were not intended to mean anything more than the b e n e f i t , education and enjoyment which i s as s o c i a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h the products of nature or h i s t o r y (N.H.P.B., 1 9 7 2 , I , 4 1 ) . The s c a l e of development was c r i t i c i z e d as not conform-i n g w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y as was i t s "urban c h a r a c t e r " which ran co n t r a r y to the p o l i c y t h a t "the p r o v i s i o n of urban type r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s not part of the basic purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks" ( N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y , 1969, p.5). A v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre, i t was argued, should provide e s s e n t i a l s ; t h e a t r e s , bars, g i f t and s p e c i a l t y shops, t e n n i s - 110 -courts and skating, r i n k s were r e j e c t e d as not p r o v i d i n g such b a s i c needs (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 51,116). A p o l i c y was i n c o n -s i s t e n t , declared one speaker, which phases out an accommoda-t i o n f a c i l i t y i n P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l Park wh i l e at the same time sponsoring new ones i n Banff (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 122). Repeatedly the remark was made t h a t no d e c i s i o n should be taken on V i l l a g e Lake Louise u n t i l the expected n a t i o n a l p u b l i c hearings on N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y were held. The problem of managing the parks i n such a way tha t the optimum numbers of v i s i t o r s could be received without i m p a i r i n g t h e i r value f o r f u t u r e generations was suggested as the r e a l i s s u e , not the V i l l a g e proposal per se (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 116). Approval of the development, i t was suggested, would reduce the o p t i o n s , l i m i t the number of p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s and hinder the government's e f f o r t s to review and r e v i s e the p o l i c y . As f o r the l e a s i n g arrangements being considered be-tween the government and the Company, the remark was made tha t i n e f f e c t a perpetual lease s i t u a t i o n would l i k e l y r e s u l t as i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the government to take over the m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s i n c a p i t a l a s s e t s at the end of the lease term. The proponents, as has already been noted, j u s t as s t r o n g l y emphasized t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise was i n complete conformity w i t h the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e of c a t e r i n g to both wilderness a c t i v i t y and " l i m i t e d development" r e c r e a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y s k i i n g . S e v e r a l maintained t h a t unless the Department was prepared to a l l o w the upgrading of s k i i n g - I l l -f a c i l i t i e s i n r e c o g n i t i o n of e x i s t i n g p a r t i a l development and i n c r e a s i n g pressure then i t ought to buy out the present operators. The Department's stand was q u i t e c l e a r : "These plans are, we b e l i e v e , compatible w i t h the p o l i c y set out at pages 8 and 9 of the N a t i o n a l Parks P o l i c y ..." (N.H.P.B., 1972, I, 3 ) . One f i n a l comment: i f the p r o j e c t were approved, the Environmental Law A s s o c i a t i o n , a " n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n supported by i n d i v i d u a l s who are concerned to have laws e x i s t t o p r o t e c t the n a t u r a l environment enforced," d e c l a r e d i t would challenge i t s l e g a l i t y i n the courts (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 49). Character of the Development The main f e a t u r e s or i m p l i c a t i o n s of V i l l a g e Lake Louise which provoked o p p o s i t i o n were argued to be the f o l l o w i n g . a) S e l f - a t t r a c t i o n V i l l a g e Lake Louise would not be a mere v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre; r a t h e r , i t would be a r e s o r t , a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t o r s by i t s own e x c e l l e n c e i n design and s e t t i n g and by pro-v i s i o n of a v a r i e t y of indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a p r e s - s k i " n i g h t l i f e " . That i t was l o c a t e d i n a N a t i o n a l Park provided a scenic backdrop but i t d i d not depend on or e x c l u s i v e l y a l l o w f o r experiences unique to and emanating from the p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s of the N a t i o n a l Park. How much emphasis would be put on the convention centre aspect, queried one speaker? V i l l a g e Lake Louise, many b e l i e v e d , went f a r beyond the o r i g i n a l concept of the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. -. 112 -b) Non-conforming Recreation This po i n t of view questioned the s u i t a b i l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n which r e l i e s h e a v i l y on elaborate mechanical devices or extensive commercial support f a c i l i t i e s . The V i l l a g e " n i g h t c l u b atmosphere" was seen as a magnet f o r evening commuters not at a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n n a t u r e - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y . The l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n emphasis was c r i t i c i z e d ' . c) Urban Extension The a c t i v i t i e s envisaged to take place i n the V i l l a g e complex were c r i t i c i z e d as extensions of the urban c u l t u r e . The urban atmosphere created would not encourage the furtherance of r e l a t i o n s between v i s i t o r s and the n a t u r a l environment. The p r o j e c t was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r f o s t e r i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n d e l i b e r a t e l y whereas Banff and Jasper townsites were h i s t o r i c a l l e g a c i e s . Bid such a p o l i c y presage the death of n a t u r a l environment parks? (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 62). d) E l i t i s m S o c i a l costs were foreseen as r e s u l t i n g from the p r i v a t e b e n e f i t s which would accrue to a m i n o r i t y of Canadian and f o r e i g n high-income -earners as w e l l as to the Company. Be-cause s k i e r s g e n e r a l l y have higher than average incomes, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who would be t a k i n g mid-week advantage of the V i l l a g e , the charge of development f o r e l i t i s m was l e v i e d . Why, the question was put, were only 700 parking spaces envisioned f o r weekend s k i e r s , the more general type of s k i e r , when c u r r e n t l y 700 to 900 cars were parked i n the Whitehorn parking l o t s ? Such d i s c r i m i n a t o r y planning, as some c a l l e d i t , was objected to as r e g r e s s i v e . e) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Resort V i l l a g e Lake Louise would c a t e r l a r g e l y to an i n t e r n a t i o n a l j e t - s e t c l i e n t e l e r a t h e r than p r o v i d i n g f o r the needs of the average Canadian. Few Canadians, t h i s argument continued, could a f f o r d to i n v e s t 315,000 to -145,000 reputed to be the p r i c e f o r a condominium u n i t . Moreover, t h a t p r i c e would only a l l o w occupancy f o r 45 days per year w i t h no more than 30 days consecutive residence and a s i x t y day gap between successive periods of residence. One speaker r a i s e d the spec-t r e of Canadians being squeezed out of p a r t s of the N a t i o n a l Parks by wealthy f o r e i g n e r s . What degree of c o n t r o l would Canadians have i n management, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and expansion d e c i s i o n s ? f ) American Corporate Investment Many opponents l e v e l l e d c r i t i c i s m at the r o l e of I m p e r i a l - 113 -O i l L i m i t e d as a 50 per cent p a r t n e r i n V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d . Many opposed t h i s American i n f l u e n c e i n a N a t i o n a l Park wh i l e others expressed f e a r t h a t such a c o r p o r a t i o n , once allowed i n t o the Park, would exert a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y because of i t s corporate i n f l u e n c e and power. I t was s t r e s s e d that p r i v a t e e n t r e -preneurs can become very strong pressure groups and the p r o f i t motive, i t was suggested, might come to have an undue i n f l u e n c e on Parks p o l i c y . g) Monopoly The proposal showed monopolistic overtones, a l l e g e d other speakers, i n t h a t no other company had an o p p o r t u n i t y to b i d on the development scheme under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . h) P r o f i t Venture The scheme was censured as being designed to generate the highest r a t e of r e t u r n to the developer r a t h e r than to provide p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . I t was perceived by some as a s h o r t - s i g h t e d i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t f o r commercial p r o f i t . S p e c u l a t i o n i n the managed u n i t s (condominiums) was f o r e c a s t . I) Tax Subsidy The government would be s u b s i d i z i n g a p r i v a t e , commercial venture by p r o v i s i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e r v i c e s . Would the b e n e f i t s expected to accrue to the Canadian economy be s i m i l a r l y r e a l i z e d i f the V i l l a g e was b u i l t o u t s i d e the Park? j) P r i v a t e Investment: the Managed U n i t s Concept The question was asked whether a N a t i o n a l Park should be open f o r p r i v a t e investment, e i t h e r i n p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s or, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n i n d i v i d u a l r e s o r t u n i t s . The managed u n i t s proposal, conceived to i n v o l v e some 70 per cent of the accommodation of Upper V i l l a g e Lake Louise, was condemned by some opponents and, indeed, q u a l i f i e d the support of some who g e n e r a l l y favoured the scheme. The argument th a t such i n d i v i d u a l investment would i n c r e a s e Canadian c o n t r o l was countered by the argument t h a t no stock ownership or v o t i n g r i g h t s went w i t h the investment, k) High Cost Accommodation In a d d i t i o n to the aforementioned high cost of purchasing condominium u n i t s , the p r e d i c t i o n was made t h a t l e a s i n g and r e n t a l p r i c e s would be set as the Company deemed necessary to i t s corporate advantage and, t h e r e f o r e , - 114 -expensive. While the promoters s a i d t h a t there would be a f u l l range of accommodation provided, o b j e c t i o n was taken to the f a c t t h a t no range of p r i c e s was e s t a b l i s h e d to support the c l a i m , nor, i n place of such, any guarantee of such a range other than v e r b a l assurance. 1) P o p u l a t i o n Concentration I t was predicted t h a t g r e a t e r numbers of v i s i t o r s would come w i t h thousands massed at the V i l l a g e s i t e at peak times once the t h i r d and f i n a l stage of development was completed. The image of such a densely packed a c t i v i t y area was f o r e c a s t as a severe impairment on the n a t u r a l environment. I f the N a t i o n a l Parks were to be maintained unimpaired f o r f u t u r e generations, then v i s i t o r concentra-t i o n s as w e l l as p r o l i f e r a t i o n must be l i m i t e d . One step towards t h i s end would be t o prevent the establishment of a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . m) V i s i b i l i t y Impact The p h y s i c a l complex was seen by some as an i m p o s i t i o n on the landscape. In p a r t i c u l a r , the proposed twelve storey s t r u c t u r e would adv e r s e l y a f f e c t the v i s u a l , n a t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r of the s i t e . n) E x t e r n a l o r " S p i n - o f f " E f f e c t s 'What e c o l o g i c a l damage might occur i n nearby wilderness areas such as Skoki and the Upper Red Deer V a l l e y as a r e s u l t of the increased pressure which would emanate from V i l l a g e Lake Louise? S p e c i f i c concern was al s o expressed f o r the Pipestone Gorge and f o r Mud Lake which the devel o p e r s T plans perceived as o f f e r i n g f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r guests. 'What was the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of th a t s m a l l lake? Worn t r a i l s ought to be restored before a d d i t i o n a l use demands were placed upon them. I t was contended t h a t the whole 750 square mile Lake Louise Planning Area would be drawn i n t o the o r b i t of V i l l a g e Lake Louise pressure, not merely the 1 .5 to 2 square miles of the a c t u a l s i t e area. The V/hitehorn-Temple area was envisaged as t u r n i n g i n t o an i n t e n s i v e use area and the question was put as to whether the V i l l a g e would be a stimulus to the twinning of the Trans-Canada Highway. A moratorium on change was c a l l e d f o r u n t i l the e f f e c t s of such could be p r e d i c t e d . Planning and Support Studies There was a c o n v i c t i o n among some of the speakers t h a t - 115 -the planning f o r the Lake Louise area was predicated on conditions which existed ten years e a r l i e r when there was broader support f o r f a c i l i t i e s development; however, conditions and attitudes had changed since then and the objectives f o r planning ought to"have been reassessed, they suggested. Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e was deemed to be the change i n public attitudes towards environmental management and control of the Canadian economy. Repeatedly, statements were made that there were too many ecolo g i c a l and economic unknowns, that no accurate and complete inventory of species d i v e r s i t y , density or ecological importance existed, that unreasonable carrying capacities were intimated f o r several areas and that more basic research must be carried out over a number of years before the government committed i t s e l f on V i l l a g e Lake Louise. Considerable concern was expressed f o r the g r i z z l y population, f o r v/hich, i t was alleged, the area of Lake Louise was an important seasonal habitat. I t was suggested that wilderness species, p a r t i c u l a r l y the g r i z z l y , would be forced to retreat further, and speakers ca l l e d f o r the involvement of the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service i n further environmental assessment. One speaker referred to a 1971 W i l d l i f e Service report which stated: Studies of the b i o t i c community w i l l be extended to the basic problem of the ef f e c t s of human developments on the wilderness biota. Encroaching develop-ment and a phenomenal increase i n park v i s i t o r s are f a s t reducing the wilderness - 116 -areas. Humans can so overrun the w i l d e r -ness th a t i t can be incapable of f u n c t i o n -i n g as an e c o l o g i c a l e n t i t y , and we must, t h e r e f o r e , d e f i n e the point at which t h i s can occur and ensure t h a t our a c t i v i t i e s do not destroy the wildern e s s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 107). Government c o s t - b e n e f i t analyses were c a l l e d f o r to present a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h those s t u d i e s upon which the Company must have assessed p r o f i t a b i l i t y and pre d i c a t e d i t s planning. Where were the government's economic and f i n a n c i a l e v a l u a t i o n s ? Market i n f o r m a t i o n as to o r i g i n of p o t e n t i a l v i s i t o r s and p r o f i t a b i l i t y were requested. Complete i n f o r m a t i o n was asked f o r on the t o t a l p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t , land fees and r e n t a l s , a n t i c i p a t e d tax y i e l d s , p r o f i t s and rat e s which would i n e f f e c t r e v e a l the socio-economic groups to be favoured o r d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . A l t e r n a t e s i t e s contiguous to Banff Park might be of g r e a t e r s o c i a l b e n e f i t to Canadians " i n terms of the nature and extent of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a e s t h e t i c , e c o l o g i c and other values. P r e c l u s i o n of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s and valu e s , " continued the speaker, "represent i r r e v e r s i b l e s o c i a l costs i n c u r r e d " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 232). Others expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a n a l y s i s of the impact of V i l l a g e Lake Louise. For example, upon what s t u d i e s was the d e c i s i o n made tha t Lake Louise "except f o r a wide v a r i e t y of sm a l l mammals and b i r d s , i s not an important w i l d l i f e area?" Some suggested t h a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n was open to question. Further, i t was. pointed out t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s - 117 -was s e r i o u s l y hampered because of the i n a b i l i t y of s m a l l e r i n t e r e s t groups or c i t i z e n s to compete w i t h the Company's resources to f i n a n c e s t u d i e s . The s e l e c t i o n of e i g h t i n t e r n a -t i o n a l r e s o r t s as models f o r basing the planning of V i l l a g e Lake Louise was disparaged because none of the e i g h t were i n a N a t i o n a l Park. In sum, considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was voiced t h a t many f a c t o r s of environmental concern had not been adequately researched making impo s s i b l e an accurate assessment of the c o n f l i c t of the V i l l a g e and a s s o c i a t e d use p a t t e r n s w i t h p l a n t and animal l i f e i n the Park. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such environmental impact statements was a t t r i b u t e d to the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch as the danger e x i s t e d of the N a t i o n a l Parks system being undercut by gradual i n c u r s i o n s upon n a t u r a l values through a succession of i s o l a t e d developments such as V i l l a g e Lake Louise. General R a m i f i c a t i o n s of the Development a) Precedent V i l l a g e Lake Louise would e s t a b l i s h a precedent f o r s i m i l a r developments throughout the N a t i o n a l Parks system i n Canada, and indeed, on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene as w e l l . I t was suggested t h a t other provinces would exert pressure f o r s i m i l a r short term economic advantages. Because the M i n i s t e r of the day could not bind h i s successors, the Parks Branch's o b j e c t i v e of no f u r t h e r developments could not be assured. Within the mountain Parks, would the three other designated s k i s i t e s be e l i g i b l e f o r s i m i l a r improvements i n order to compete w i t h V i l l a g e Lake Louise? b) Demand-Supply Cycle The proposed, f a c i l i t i e s would not r e s o l v e the problem of accommodating the increased v i s i t o r pressure because the - 118 -increased supply would lead to an even g r e a t e r demand thus, a never -ending c y c l e would occur. The sought-f o r e q u i l i b r i u m , which some suggested was the Depart-ment's g o a l , was considered to be unachievable and the upward s p i r a l would cease only when the n a t u r a l environment was destroyed. The dynamics of supply and demand were i n s i n u a t e d to make the proposal defeat i t s own purpose. c) Olympics R e a l i z a t i o n of V i l l a g e Lake Louise would lead to r e v i v e d e f f o r t s to a t t r a c t the Winter Olympics to Banff, some p r e d i c t e d , e f f o r t s which had been defeated i n the past. d) Other E f f e c t s Concerns were expressed about increased o v e r a l l s k i use rendering f a l l a c i o u s the foreseen decrease i n weekend pressure, the e f f e c t on j u n i o r amateur s k i i n g programmes at Lake Louise and the p o s s i b l e c u r t a i l m e n t of camping f a c i l i t i e s i n the area to f o r c e v i s i t o r s i n t o higher cost accommodation. The establishment of a second pressure centre ( a f t e r Banff) would generate i t s own demands f o r expansion thus negating the argument t h a t the development would r e l i e v e some of the pressure c u r r e n t l y on Banff. Reference was made to the economic i n t e r e s t of the C.P.R. i n promoting t r a v e l to Banff over the years by widespread a d v e r t i s i n g . A i r Canada i n t e n s i v e l y promoted w i n t e r s k i i n g e xcursions. Would V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d launch s i m i l a r campaigns r e s u l t i n g i n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g pressure? I f V i l l a g e Lake Louise went ahead, i t was hypothesized, and the Trans Canada Highway was twinned, then pressure would soon b u i l d up f o r paving the David Thompson High-way to the Banff-Jasper, f o r twinning the Banff-Jasper from Saskatchewan Crossing and u l t i m a t e l y f o r removing these c o r r i d o r s from the Park. F i n a l l y , the comment that when v i s i t o r s had been educated to a p preciate e c o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s , Lake Louise might be able to t o l e r a t e a V i l l a g e Lake Louise - not yet. A l t e r n a t i v e S o l u t i o n s to the Problem There was an o p i n i o n among opponents t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louis e was not p o o r l y planned i n i t s e l f , but that i t belonged - 119 -o u t s i d e , not i n s i d e a N a t i o n a l Park. This b e l i e f was supported by the contention t h a t e x i s t i n g centres outside the Park and Banff, o n l y 35 miles d i s t a n t , could provide the necessary s e r v i c e s f o r the Park v i s i t o r . Indeed, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e n d , as w e l l as'the N a t i o n a l Parks' own p r a c t i c e elsewhere, were c i t e d as support f o r t h i s argument. R e j e c t i o n of the V i l l a g e , some thought, combined w i t h government a s s i s t a n c e such as low i n t e r e s t , long term loans o r s u b s i d i z e d access route c o n s t r u c t i o n , would s t i m u l a t e development i n such centres as Radium, Golden, Windermere, Canmore and Hinton. Such expanded a c t i v i t y would c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the economic base and r e g r e t was expressed t h a t the o r i g i n a l planning terms of r e f e r e n c e , so f a r as i t was known, d i d not r e q u i r e the exam-i n a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s . Conversely, the f e a r was revealed t h a t i f the V i l l a g e was b u i l t , a l r eady e s t a b l i s h e d operators outside the Park would i n c u r l o s s e s because of the c r e a t i o n of short-term o v e r - c a p a c i t y . There was considerable comment to the e f f e c t t h a t N a t i o n a l Parks should not be used f o r purposes t h a t could be e q u a l l y w e l l f u l f i l l e d o u t s i d e . Indeed, there was some question as to j u s t what was the purpose of the development: ... the proposal f o r the Upper V i l l a g e i s nothing more than ... attempt to e s t a b l i s h a very e x c l u s i v e , commercial, i n t e r n a t i o n a l s k i r e s o r t under the guise of p r o v i d i n g e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the average park v i s i t o r (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 83). - A./.U -The r e a l o b j e c t i v e , added another, was not to e s t a b l i s h a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre but to develop commercial f a c i l i t i e s \vhich would augment the Company's cash f l o w to a l l o w i t to upgrade s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 216). Recommendations x'or a l t e r n a t i v e development at Lake Louise i n c l u d e d a s m a l l e r v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre w i t h a strong focus on nature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the maximum s c a l e to be d e t e r -mined by e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . Canadian p u b l i c investment i n f a c i l i t i e s was recommended as an a l t e r -n a t i v e t o p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . A r e s t r i c t e d expansion of s k i l i f t s w i t h a modest i n c r e a s e i n accommodation u n i t s , automobile s e r v i c i n g and d i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s were a l s o suggested. Another thoughtwas the a l t e r a t i o n of the boundaries of Banff N a t i o n a l Park, to e x c i s e the Bow C o r r i d e r and to i n c l u d e p a r t s of the c u r r e n t l y p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t reserve lands to the east of the Park. Yet another suggestion was t h a t the §30, 000,000 proposed to be spent at Lake Louise might be b e t t e r used f o r a team of s k i l l e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y designers t o improve Banff townsite to meet pr o j e c t e d demands f o r v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the Park. However, such an a l t e r n a t i v e d i d not provide f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the problem of c o n t r o l l i n g growth and r e h a b i l i t a -t i n g development at Lake Louise. F i n a l l y , the question was posed as to why a l t e r n a t i v e plans were not presented to the p u b l i c as f a i l u r e to do so engendered some doubt as t o how s e r i o u s l y , such a l t e r n a t i v e s had been considered. While the p u b l i c had been t o l d t h a t no s u i t a b l e s i t e s e x i s t e d elsewhere, they were - 121 -given "no hard evidence or d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s proving t h a t no adequate or even e x c e p t i o n a l s i t e s e x i s t along the Great Di v i d e outside the parks" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 181). The P u b l i c Hearing as a P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Forum There were a number of comments about the expectations value and procedures of the p u b l i c hearing. I f the purpose was to reach a j u s t and i m p a r t i a l d e c i s i o n , asserted one speaker, then why was not equal o p p o r t u n i t y given to outside concerned p a r t i e s i n terms of preparatory time and access to i n f o r m a t i o n Background i n f o r m a t i o n was viewed by s e v e r a l as incomplete and biased i n t h a t the Branch had already approved the development " i n p r i n c i p l e " ; I t was suggested t h a t the p u b l i c hearing, was not designed "to e i t h e r inform the p u b l i c adequately or ensure a f a i r assessment of the proposals" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 229). The absence of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the p u b l i c to s c r u t i n i z e was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d . S e veral questioned the u t i l i t y of the p u b l i c hearing, wondering i f i t was a mere f o r m a l i t y . F u l l d i s c l o s u r e of any commitments contained i n the 1970 Memorandum of I n t e n t o r othe wise made were requested as necessary f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of ade-quate assessments of the p r o j e c t . The scheduling and l o c a t i o n of the hearing were deemed r e s t r i c t i v e f o r many working people or those l i v i n g elsewhere i n Canada. As f o r the t i m i n g of the hearing i n the planning process one element argued that i t was premature be.cause the 1971 hearings had not yet been f u l l y evaluated nor had the - 122 -general p o l i c y hearings been held. On the other hand, the ti m i n g was c r i t i c i z e d as too l a t e , r e s u l t i n g i n the Branch being out of touch w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n as evidenced by i t s commitment to a d i r e c t i o n " c ontrary to l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l informed o p i n i o n on N a t i o n a l Parks Planning" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 68). P a r t i c i p a t i o n should have been en-couraged at an e a r l i e r stage "to evaluate p u b l i c o p i n i o n on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of a development i n a N a t i o n a l Park, as en-visaged by the department before b i d l e t t e r s were sent out to promoters" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 173). As f o r the speaking arrangements, there was some c r i t i c i s m t h a t the developers had "two hours" to present t h e i r case, the p u b l i c only ten minutes each. D i f f i c u l t i e s were a l s o encountered by some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n g e t t i n g on the speaker's l i s t . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of one of the shareholders of the Company, the f o l l o w i n g comment r e f l e c t s upon the p u b l i c hearing as a p a r t i c i p a t i o n mechanism from the p o i n t of view of audience composition: I asked them (the media) to co n s i d e r s e r i o u s l y ... the concept of the V i l l a g e , the r a t i o n a l e behind i t , the q u a l i t y and the characters of the submissions, where they came from, how many people they represent, how many more o b v i o u s l y w i l l not be heard i n t h i s forum, and w i l l have to go d i r e c t l y to the p u b l i c hearings o f f i c e ; the l o c a l e of the hearing i t s e l f , the f a c t t h a t we have a l o t of s k i e r s here and a l o t of people from the education-a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ... of course has an e f f e c t on the nature of the p a r t i c i p a n t s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 182). - 123 -Recommendations f o r improvement in c l u d e d the suggestion t h a t f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l o r a d v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e from govern-ment be provided f o r p a r t i e s preparing t h e i r cases as w e l l as a longer lead time to prepare such cases. Others asked t h a t f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s be provided f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , perhaps i n the form of more l i m i t e d "round-table" d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u d i n g developers, c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s and N a t i o n a l Parks o f f i c i a l s (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 64). I f the V i l l a g e proposal were ap-proved, followup p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s were r e -quested to s c r u t i n i z e the a c t u a l s p e c i f i c s of development f o r without such the value of the p u b l i c hearing would be open to question (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 83, 151, 183). Perhaps one of the most s e r i o u s shortcomings of the p u b l i c hearing forum was revealed by the Chairman himself when, at one p o i n t during the proceedings, he f e l t constrained to admonish some elements i n the audience t h a t "booing, laugh-i n g , and so on" was no s u b s t i t u t e f o r reasoned argument (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 176). On other occasions he had to c a l l f o r order to a l l o w speakers to complete t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s . To be f a i r , one must poin t out t h a t other speakers, both i n favour o f and against the p a r t i c u l a r proposal under review, expressed t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y to make t h e i r views known and acknowledged t h a t the recent amendments to the mountain parks P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans i n response to the 1971 hearings was i n d i c a t i v e t h a t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to the p u b l i c i n p u t . I n d i c a t i v e of the Chairman's e f f o r t s to a l l o w as much f l e x i b i l i t y as p r a c t i c a l were h i s e f f o r t s t o - 124 -.accommodate u n r e g i s t e r e d speakers and to a l l o w l i m i t e d ex-tensions of time f o r some speakers when i t seemed the general wish of the audience to do so. CHAPTER FIVE EVALUATION AND CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION The planning e f f o r t i s o f t e n considered complete when economic f e a s i b i l i t y i s determined; the l i m i t s of s o c i a l , environmental and p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y , w h i l e not e n t i r e l y ignored are l a r g e l y l e f t to others to be determined a f t e r the plan i s complete. More o f t e n than not these missing i n g r e d i e n t s are the u l t i m a t e cause of planning f a i l u r e s . A survey of the i n f o r m a t i o n k i t d i s t r i b u t e d by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch and of the i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of N a t i o n a l Parks and V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d r e v e a l s t h a t the range of v a r i a b l e s h i g h l i g h t e d by Bishop (1970, p. 4) above were indeed considered by the planners. However, the method by which they were con-sid e r e d might be questioned f o r a review of the M i n i s t e r ' s statement i n r e j e c t i n g the development suggests t h a t i t was at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y j u s t such "missing i n g r e d i e n t s " which s c u t t l e d V i l l a g e Lake Louise. Thus, the contention i s put forward t h a t the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process could have been more e f f e c t i v e l y broadened. S u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be attempted i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . - l k ! 0 -The v a r i e t y of arguments r a i s e d d u r i n g the hearing might be c a t e g o r i z e d as h y p o t h e t i c a l , r e f u t a b l e or m e r i t i n g d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n and thorough review f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the plans put forward. The f i r s t category could i n c l u d e , f o r example, the i n s i n u a t i o n t h a t the t i m i n g of the hearing was r e l a t e d to the impending f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , the accusation t h a t there would be s p e c u l a t i o n i n the managed u n i t s , t h a t camping f a c i l i t i e s would be c u r t a i l e d to f o r c e v i s i t o r s i n t o higher cost accommodation, t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d (or I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d ) , would come to have an undue i n f l u -ence on N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y , t h a t there would be renewed e f f o r t s to a t t r a c t the w i n t e r Olympic Games, or th a t the V i l l a g e would present a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b s t r u c t i o n to the enjoyment of the N a t i o n a l Park. These are the s o r t of specu-l a t i v e o r s u b j e c t i v e arguments w i t h which i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to d e a l no matter what the nature of the p a r t i c i p -a t o r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s . One can s t a t e t h a t i n t e n t i o n s would be not to favour c e r t a i n trends or a c t i o n s but short of l e g i s -l a t i n g at a very m i c r o - l e v e l , which b u i l d s up a r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e o p e r a t i n g framework no f a c t u a l , c o n c l u s i v e response i s p o s s i b l e . The second set of arguments one can d i s t i n g u i s h , and these are not n e c e s s a r i l y completely d i s t i n c t from e i t h e r of the other two c a t e g o r i e s , might be termed r e f u t a b l e . These-would' be p o i n t s which are c l e a r l y at odds w i t h the p u b l i c l y known f a c t s , or perhaps i n some cases i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n t e r n a l - 127 -departmental i n f o r m a t i o n which might, i n the process of r e f u t a t i o n , be made p u b l i c . Examples would be the exaggerated claims about a c t u a l numbers who would be r e s i d e n t i n the V i l l a g e , the contention t h a t sewage p l a n t e f f l u e n t impact on the Bow R i v e r was " t o t a l l y ignored", t h a t a l l development i n the Lake Louise area over the preceding few years had been stopped pending completion of the master plan (the V i l l a g e proposal was the end product of years of continuous e f f o r t to a t t r a c t development), t h a t the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e put i n t o Lower Lake Louise would become redundant by the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s to the upper s i t e , t h a t the company had been given a favoured m o n o p o l i s t i c p o s i t i o n i n t h a t no one e l s e had been given an oppotunity t o " b i d " f o r the development and t h a t the m a j o r i t y of shares i n Lake Louise L i f t s L i m i t e d were i n d i -r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d . F i n a l l y , the t h i r d group of arguments are those which merit c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the e v o l u t i o n of the plan and the p l a n -ning process. These may not, i n the end, deserve i n c l u s i o n i n the plan or cause any change i n proposals; on the other hand, t h e i r m e r i t s , having stood up under r i g o r o u s examination and thorough d i s c u s s i o n might be i n c o r p o r a t e d by way of amendment to the plan or to the process by which i t i s being developed. These arguments are suggested as m e r i t i n g thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n because they have the e f f e c t of c h a l l e n g i n g and t h e r e f o r e demanding j u s t i f i c a t i o n of c e r t a i n assumptions, goals, s t r u c t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s or r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the plan. - 128 -Presumably such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were thought through dur i n g the planning process but i t i s maintained t h a t in-camera a n a l y s i s of t h i s s o r t , l a c k i n g the f u l l e s t exposure to a range of out-side values and perceptions can f a l l short and stands to be weaker f o r want of such supplementary i n p u t s and e v a l u a t i o n s . I t i s very much a value judgment as to which arguments an outside researcher might suggest would have had any amend-i n g e f f e c t on the plan.as a r e s u l t of pre-hearing, o u t s i d e review. This i s even more d i f f i c u l t when the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n -making process i s not being i n v e s t i g a t e d i n depth. However, one means of s e l e c t i n g such subjects would be to review the M i n i s t e r ' s statement f o r evidence of those f a c t o r s which appeared to be given the g r e a t e s t weight i n the d e c i s i o n to r e j e c t the scheme, and a l s o to make a judgment as to which p o i n t s were r a i s e d d u r i n g the hearing w i t h the g r e a t e s t reason. The M i n i s t e r ' s D e c i s i o n A review of the M i n i s t e r ' s statement supporting h i s d e c i s i o n r e v e a l s f i v e elements which were of s u f f i c i e n t quest-i o n a b i l i t y to support r e j e c t i o n . These were s i z e , type and l o c a t i o n of the development, the l a c k of c e r t a i n t y about the p o t e n t i a l environmental impact and the p o i n t t h a t " t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n " to the recognized problem was not accept-ab l e . Four of these reasons might be c l a s s i f i e d as i s s u e s -which demand e v a l u a t i o n i n the planning process, the f i f t h r e f l e c t s upon the a c t u a l planning process i t s e l f , t h a t i s , i t s method of d e a l i n g w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to the problem. - 129 -R e f l e c t i n g on the 1971 P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings, a l l f i v e of these p o i n t s were e i t h e r r a i s e d d i r e c t l y or a l l u d e d t o . P r o j e c t magnitude and the suggestion t h a t the development scheme was f a r i n excess of present demand; the question of s e l f - a t t r a c t i o n and c r i t i c i s m of the condominium concept; expressed concern about " s u b s t a n t i a l changes ... i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s " (N.H.P.B., 1971, I, 81); and a c a l l f o r re-examination of the need f o r such a r e s o r t along w i t h s t u d i e s of i t s long-term e f f e c t s on the park environment were a l l r a i s e d , i n d i c a t i n g the same concerns among members of the p u b l i c which the M i n i s t e r u l t i m a t e l y expressed. The argument t h a t v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s might b e t t e r be provided out-side the N a t i o n a l Park was r a i s e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n . While the Parks planners had reasons f o r S e l e c t i n g Lake Louise f o r development and c l e a r l y s p e l l e d these out, one might suggest t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s very evident concern about s e r v i c e s f a c i l i t i e s could have r e s u l t e d i n more i n t e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the supportive or s u b s t i t u t e r o l e of outside centres as w e l l as the p o s s i b i l i t y of a scaled-down centre a t Lake Louise. However, o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c involvement i n a debate over b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s was not e x p r e s s l y provided. As was noted i n the review of arguments r a i s e d at the 1972 hearing (Chapter Four), these same concerns, as w e l l as othe r s , were repeated. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance was the i s s u e of the managed u n i t s . While the M i n i s t e r d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l u d e to t h i s aspect i n h i s p u b l i c statement, he d i d i n f o r m - 130 -the A l b e r t a M i n i s t e r of Fed e r a l and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s t h a t "had the p r o j e c t been otherwise acceptable," he "would have i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e (the condominiums) be dropped" (Chr e t i e n , 1972a). In a d d i t i o n to those c i t e d above, the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s appeared to merit debate and c o n s i d e r a t i o n : a) the range of a c t i v i t i e s a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h i n the V i l l a g e were not i n accord w i t h the purpose of N a t i o n a l Parks and i n e f f e c t would r e s u l t i n u r b a n i z a t i o n of the s i t e ; b) no d e c i s i o n ought to be made u n t i l the 1971 P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings had been f u l l y evaluated nor u n t i l the expected n a t i o n a l hearings on Parks P o l i c y were held; c) the p o l i c y of l o c a t i n g expanded f a c i l i t i e s a t Lake Louise w h i l e removing e s t a b l i s h e d accommodation from other Parks was i n c o n s i s t e n t ; d) economic b e n e f i t s to the Canadian economy, one of the arguments i n favour of the development, would e q u a l l y w e l l accrue from s i t e s developed outside the park; e) Marmot Basin, the s k i area i n Jasper, had s u f f e r e d adverse environmental e f f e c t s ; f ) expansion of f a c i l i t i e s at both Sunshine and Norquay had not e l i m i n a t e d crowding at the l i f t l i n e s . These and other i s s u e s , i t i s suggested, would have been f r u i t f u l s u b jects f o r examination i n a forum which would a l l o w f o r t e s t i n g at a more exacting l e v e l than d i d the p u b l i c hearing. As i t turned out, the M i n i s t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Company d i d propose a number of changes which ".went a long way to meet many of the v a l i d c r i t i c i s m s of the p r o j e c t " ( C h r e t i e n , 1972b). One could suggest from the evidence t h a t V i l l a g e Lake Louise was a symbol of the r e a l problem, not the problem i t -- 131 -s e l f . I t was the basic i s s u e of use versus p r e s e r v a t i o n and the r o l e of v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres which were at stake. Indeed, t h i s seems to be the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n N a t i o n a l Parks planning confirmed by the r e s u l t s of the previous p u b l i c hearings. As Mr. Cordon put i t : ... most of the i s s u e s r a i s e d at the hearings so f a r have come back to the need to f i n d an equation between the need on the one hand to p r o t e c t and conserve these parks f o r the f u t u r e and on the other, the need to make the same areas and t h e i r n a t u r a l beauty a c c e s s i b l e to Canadians f o r whom they are dedicated. As populations i n c r e a s e and concentrate i n the c i t i e s , and as parks v i s i t o r r a t e s grow, the r e s o l u -t i o n of these c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s be-comes both more d i f f i c u l t and more urgent to achieve (N.H.P.B., 1972, 1,2). THE PARTICIPATORY MODE Taking i n t u r n each of the c r i t e r i a e a r l i e r set up, the f o l l o w i n g assessment i s o f f e r e d . Opportunity The planning process as i t operated i n developing the plan presented to the p u b l i c i n January, 1972, was viewed by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of e f f o r t s i n i t i a t e d i n the e a r l y 1960 Ts to develop a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lake Louise. The s t r a t e g y apparently adopted was t o negotiate a Memorandum of I n t e n t w i t h V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d , then a l l o w the Company to assume the primary r o l e i n - 132 -p l a n development w i t h c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the Depart-ment presumably to a l l o w the l a t t e r to achieve i t s g o a l o f coming up w i t h a master p l a n f o r p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n which they would have approved i n p r i n c i p l e as conforming w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks p o l i c y and as meeting "the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a f o r a s e r v i c e s c e n t r e a t t h i s p o i n t " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4 ) . The f i r m o f Erickson-Massey and a number o f c o n s u l t a n t s ( p l a n -n i n g , e c o l o g i c a l , economic, t r a f f i c , m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and s o i l ) formed the Company p l a n n i n g team which worked w i t h the N a t i o n a l Parks p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n . Outside i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s were not i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h i s stage o f the p l a n n i n g (June, 1969 to March, 1970 - n e g o t i a t i o n o f the Memorandum o f I n t e n t ; and March, 1970 to January 1972 - development of the master p l a n . The one o p p o r t u n i t y which arose f o r i n p u t was the A p r i l , 1971 p r o v i s i o n a l master p l a n h e a r i n g s which have a l r e a d y been des-c r i b e d . As mentioned, V i l l a g e Lake Louise was pla y e d down a t t h a t h e a r i n g as a s u b j e c t f o r i n q u i r y p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the Chairman's i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a f u t u r e h e a r i n g would be held s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d i s c u s s the s u b j e c t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the promise to hold t h i s f u t u r e h e a r i n g was a p p a r e n t l y a response to the evidence o f wide p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c . T h i s assumption a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t i n February, 1971, the P r e s i d e n t o f the A l b e r t a Wilderness A s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the A c t i n g R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks i n f o r m i n g him t h a t the Department was not t h i n k -i n g o f h o l d i n g a r e g u l a r p u b l i c h e a r i n g on the V i l l a g e Lake - 133 -Louise F a s t e r Plan. In t h i s l e t t e r the f o l l o w i n g comments were made: The f a c i l i t y , the development of which V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . are planning, i s designated i n the P u b l i c Hearing document f o r Banff N a t i o n a l Park as a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre. As a r e s u l t w h i l e the townsites w i l l be the sub-j e c t of separate hearings, the develop-ment of a V i s i t o r S e r vices Centre at Lake Louise f a l l s w i t h i n the parameters of the P u b l i c Hearings sceduled f o r A p r i l of t h i s year. A l l b r i e f s o r com-ments on the proposal to l o c a t e a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre at Lake Louise should t h e r e f o r e be submitted at these hearings. I t i s not our i n t e n t i o n to hold the same kind or sc a l e of P u b l i c Hearing per se on the f i n a l V i l l a g e Lake Lou-i s e development.proposal. Rather, when the submitted Master Plan has been f u l l y assessed and received approval i n p r i n c i p l e w i t h i n the Department, we would then propose a p u b l i c pre-s e n t a t i o n of the Pla n by the Com-pany at a s i t e o r s i t e s to be de-termined. At t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n we would c e r t a i n l y i n v i t e p u b l i c com-ment and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m which might serve to f u r t h e r enhance the q u a l i t y of the Master Plan ( M a l i s , R.P., February 23, 1971). I t i s evident t h a t the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch d i d not a n t i c i p a t e at t h a t time t h a t they would hold a p u b l i c hearing designed to t e s t the p u b l i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lake Louise or the bas i c t h r u s t of the .pro-posal under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; r a t h e r , c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestions about p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s of the plan were a l l t h a t were expected. - 134 -The c r i t e r i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d upon f i v e " p r a c t i c a l and l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s " ( p . 2 1 ) . T a k i n g each o f t h e s e i n t u r n , the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d : 1. The " i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n " d i d i n d e e d "have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t h i s r e a s o n s f o r o r a g a i n s t the p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h and/or programme p r o p o s a l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n ... ". The o p p o r t u n i t i e s were t w o f o l d : a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r -i n g and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an o r a l b r i e f and s u b m i s s i o n o f a w r i t t e n b r i e f t o t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g s O f f i c e , 2. The p l a n n e r s had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a t e t h e i r " r e a s o n s f o r t h e approach under c o n s i d e r a t i o n " d u r i n g t h e i r i n t r o -d u c t o r y remarks a t t h e op e n i n g o f t h e h e a r i n g . 3. There was "a l i b e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f those c i t i z e n s who ( c o u l d ) demonstrate an i n t e r e s t " i n t h a t t h e r e was no r e -s t r i c t i o n on who might p a r t i c i p a t e . The " N o t i c e o f P u b l i c H e a r i n g " i n v i t e d " I n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r groups ... t o submit w r i t t e n b r i e f s ... e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r v i e w s on the p r o p o s a l s " . The i n v i t a t i o n was u n q u a l i f i e d as t o who c o u l d "demonstrate an i n t e r e s t " . 4. The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t " t h e r e w i l l be an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e p l a n n e r and t o a s s e s s o p p o s i n g arguments" was s a t i s f i e d , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , i n t h a t such c h a l l e n g e s and assessments c o u l d be s t a t e d e i t h e r p u b l i c l y o r i n the w r i t t e n b r i e f . 5. The d e c i s i o n made was r e v e a l e d t o t h e p u b l i c and r e a s o n s w h i c h c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the p u b l i c s ' i n p u t were g i v e n . Thus, one can co n c l u d e t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n o f oppor-t u n i t y was met. I n f o r m a t i o n System The i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n was s p o r a d i c . The f i r s t o f f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n was g i v e n out i n a g e n e r a l memorandum d a t e d A p r i l 8, 1971, p r i o r t o t he P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n h e a r i n g s . F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n - 135 -was provided at the fester Plan hearings themselves partly-through discussion but no d e t a i l s of the plans f o r the V i l l a g e were revealed. Other than informal contacts and discussions with i n d i v i d u a l National Parks o f f i c i a l s there was no public dissemination of information u n t i l the Press Conference of January, 1972, when the model of V i l l a g e Lake Louise was un-ve i l e d . The information k i t released by the National and His-t o r i c Parks Branch was the major source of information and the f i n a l release of information was the presentation made by the Company and Government representatives at the public hearing. There was a wide difference i n the reaction to the information supplied by the Department about the proposal with some suggesting that seldom had such a development proposal been so well documented, others contending that the information provided was quite unsatisfactory, lacked depth and comprehen-siveness, did not demonstrate an understanding of the ecosystem rela t i o n s h i p s between s o i l s , plants, w i l d l i f e and development, and was an inadequate basis f o r meaningful public assessment of the ramifications of the development. The fundamental c r i t i c i s m seemed to be levi e d against the nature of the information pro-vided, that i s , in-depth, supporting e c o l o g i c a l and economic studies were not made avai l a b l e . The c o n f l i c t i n perception be-tween the public opposition and the Company and Government rep-resentatives as to the kinds of information warranted appeared to spring from d i f f e r i n g perceptions of the purpose and function of the hearing, of the nature of the plans presented and of the planning process i t s e l f . - 136 -On one s i d e , i t i s f a i r l y evident t h a t the planning team d i d not d e s i r e any challenge to the b a s i c reasoning be-hind the plan. They were seeking c o n s t r u c t i v e i n p u t s which could lead to improvements i n the s o l u t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . On the other s i d e , many of the opponents were c h a l l e n g i n g the v a l i d i t y of the- very conceptual b a s i s of the whole approach, some demanding t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s be provided outside the Park, not at Lake Louise at a l l , others seeking a r a d i c a l l y s caled down development. The planning team emphasized the conceptual aspect of the master p l a n ; the opponents were con-cerned w i t h the s p e c i f i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the d e t a i l s of development and o p e r a t i o n . The former were p r e s e n t i n g an approach f o r review, i n c l u d i n g a proposal f o r e c o l o g i c a l r e -search and monitoring which would be "phased and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the phasing of the development i t s e l f " (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 192); the l a t t e r demanded d e t a i l e d environmental s t u d i e s and exposure of the economic e v a l u a t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s of market and p r o f i t analyses before any commitment to proceed could be given by the government. The planners had estimates of general c o m p a t i b i l i t y of at l e a s t the f i r s t stage of develop' ment and had i d e n t i f i e d areas of p o t e n t i a l concern which would r e q u i r e the most c a r e f u l research and monitoring; the opposi-t i o n demanded evidence t h a t s t u d i e s were a v a i l a b l e to j u s t i f y such a stance. The planners were op e r a t i n g from the^premise t h a t . t h e v a c a t i o n s k i e r was the source of economic v i a b i l i t y f o r a f i r s t c l a s s s k i r e s o r t and year round v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre; the - 137 -o p p o s i t i o n were c h a l l e n g i n g the very purpose and focus of the V i l l a g e s k i e r o r i e n t a t i o n . The planners were seeking a degree of commitment on the b a s i s of e x c e l l e n c e of concept and i n -t e g r i t y of design l e g i t i m i z e d by the well-known e x p e r t i s e of such c o n s u l t a n t s as McTaggart-Cowan, Srickson/Massey and A f f l e c k ; the o p p o s i t i o n were accepting no promises of s t u d i e s to be c a r r i e d out nor expressions of environmental concern. The s t u d i e s demanded by the opponents were f o r the most p a r t simply not a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r because they were of a confiden-t i a l nature (corporate f i n a n c i a l and economic analyses, l e g a l documents or i n t e r n a l government memoranda) or because they had not yet been done. Moreover, some questioned the c o - o r d i n -ated government/company i n f o r m a t i o n package, d e c l a r i n g t h a t i t was important f o r the Department to have e c o l o g i c a l impact s t u d i e s c a r r i e d ,out independent of the Company's c o n s u l t a n t s . Indeed, even i n the event t h a t more extensive environmental impact s t u d i e s had been completed there i s no guarantee t h a t they would have been p u b l i c l y r e l e a s e d . This p o s s i b i l i t y i s based on the experience of the L i b r a r i a n of the Archives of the Canadian Rockies i n Banff who requested s e v e r a l of the s t u d i e s l i s t e d on page o of the Departmental Statement: Lake  Louise Planning Area but was informed t h a t they were not i n published form hence could not be s u p p l i e d . She was t o l d , however, that any s p e c i f i c questions would be responded t o , i n c l u d i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n which might be contained i n such s t u d i e s . The T h o r s e l l correspondence on "Environmental - 13 8 -Research C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Lake Louise Area," a l s o l i s t e d i n the Statement, she was informed, was c o n f i d e n t i a l ( F i n l e y , 1972) . The second reference to these s p e c i f i c pieces of i n f o r m a t i o n was made by the Chairman of the hearings when, i n response to a statement t h a t an e f f o r t to acquire the "seven or e i g h t background s t u d i e s t h a t were supposed to be a v a i l a b l e " had been u n s u c c e s s f u l , he i n d i c a t e d : "... one f e l l o w w r i t e s down the references t h a t are going to be i n the book, and f a i l s to check w i t h the f e l l o w as to whether they're a v a i l a b l e or not." He went on to say t h a t the Department • "weren rt prepared to c a r r y i t (make the referenced s t u d i e s a v a i l a b l e ) out" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I I , 193) . The question of the p u b l i c a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n t e r n a l governmental m a t e r i a l i s extremely s e n s i t i v e . General p u b l i c access to such m a t e r i a l i s not allowed as a matter of p o l i c y and the r e l e a s e of most i n f o r m a t i o n must be c l e a r e d w i t h e i t h e r the M i n i s t e r or one of h i s s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s (Adams, 1972). This i s a major o b s t r u c t i o n when attempting to address the i s s u e of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y as a c r i t e r i o n of e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Without access to such s t u d i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how the p u b l i c can be expected to accept government assurances t h a t a l l costs and b e n e f i t s of a given proposal have been assessed and the s o l u t i o n presented i s the most e f f i c i e n t . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of i n f o r m a t i o n f e e d - i n to the planners, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the p u b l i c hearing, supplemented by the l a r g e number of b r i e f s submitted by m a i l , provided them w i t h abundant evidence of p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the develop-- 139 -ment proposal. Indeed, the M i n i s t e r announced that " w i t h the help of the i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i c hearings the N a t i o n a l Parks Branch i s now c o n s i d e r i n g what long-term development might be p o s s i b l e i n the Lake Louise a r e a " ( C h r e t i e n , 1972b). Obviously, new d i r e c t i o n s were i n progress, s t i m u l a t e d by the p u b l i c i n p u t . In r e l a t i n g the a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n system to the c r i t e r i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n requirements (p. 22 supra), the f o l l o w i n g comments are made; 1, The i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n was made aware of the i s s u e by means of the Press Conference and u n v e i l i n g of the model i n January, 1972. P r i o r to t h a t , the A p r i l 8 , 1971 memorandum and comments made about V i l l a g e Lake Louise a t the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan p u b l i c hearings gave some i n d i c a t i o n of what was i n v o l v e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n k i t s u p p l i e d , and the March, 1972 hearing, revealed the consequences of the i s s u e i n a p o s i t i v e sense; t h a t i s , the reasons f o r the proposed development and the b e n e f i t s thereof were emphasized. However, one looks i n v a i n f o r mention of disadvantages or costs of the proposal i n the p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l or, indeed, i n the remarks of the planning team at the hearing. Rather than s p e c i f i c responses to c r i t i c i s m s r a i s e d at the 1971 hearings, or elsewhere, by opponents, the i n f o r m a t i o n was designed to s t r e s s the b e n e f i t s of the proposal as conceived. 2. The i n f o r m a t i o n provided was c l e a r l y designed to s e l l V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e , No background s t u d i e s , c o n t r a c t s or other o r i g i n a l data were made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y e i t h e r because such d i s c l o s u r e was i l l e g a l o r c o n t r a r y to government or company p o l i c y , or because the data had not yet been c o l l e c t e d . What was made a v a i l a b l e was a package deriv e d from background work but compiled to show the advantages of the scheme i n c l u d i n g the l o c a t i o n chosen among s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the Lake Louise area. As f o r government analyses of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , there was not evidence of such; r a t h e r , p o s i t i v e reasons were given f o r a v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre at Lake Louise as c o n s i s t e n t w i t h planning goals f o r the Park, - 140 -In supplying the i n f o r m a t i o n k i t , the Department was c o n t r i b u t i n g to the o b j e c t i v e t h a t " s u f f i c i e n t resources" be a v a i l a b l e to concerned p a r t i e s "to be able to generate i n f o r m a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t f o r i n t e l l i g e n t e v a l u a t i o n . " However, as mentioned above, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was e d i t e d and of l i m i t e d scope. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n of "as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e " i s a d i f f i c u l t one to evaluate and there i s no p r e c i s e standard of what would c o n s t i t u t e s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h i s o b j e c t i v e . There was no s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n of a s s i s t a n c e to p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n generating t h e i r own i n f o r m a t i o n . Information f l o w was, to a l l i n t e n t s , a ' s i n g l e - e f f o r t ' approach. In 1965, P r o j e c t Planning A s s o c i a t e s Master Development Pl a n f o r the Lake Louise V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre was made p u b l i c and e f f o r t s were made through to the s p r i n g of 1969 to a t t r a c t i n v e s t o r s . However, the a c t u a l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d and the r e s u l t a n t Memorandum of I n t e n t were not open to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . The proposed V i l l a g e development was of a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r and s c a l e than the P r o j e c t ' P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s master plan, thus the goals of development had been a l t e r e d . Information f l o w from 1969 was not continuous but took the form of the A p r i l 8, 1971, memorandum and, some nine months l a t e r , the u n v e i l i n g of the conceptual master plan. Information f l o w was .not two-way i n the sense of dialogue or debate. P.ather, i n f o r m a t i o n was r e l e a s e d to the p u b l i c at v a r i o u s times and the p u b l i c r e a c t i o n flowed to the planners v i a the w r i t t e n b r i e f s and p u b l i c hearings. The purpose of the p u b l i c hearing as s t a t e d i n the "Notice of P u b l i c Hearing" was "... to inform the p u b l i c about the planning proposals f o r the Lake Louise area, to r e c e i v e w r i t t e n and o r a l comments on them, and to hear recommend-a t i o n s f o r other approaches." There was "no i n t e n t to review each b r i e f o r to d i s c u s s i t i n d e t a i l d u r i n g the proceedings. Rather, the o b j e c t i v e (was) to r e c e i v e and record a l l m a t e r i a l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n immediately f o l l o w i n g the hearing." As f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of dialogue: To ensure t h a t a l l who wish to speak may do so, general d i s c u s s i o n , debate or q u e s t i o n i n g between members of the audience or w i t h the panel w i l l not be p o s s i b l e . However, speakers may be questioned by the Chairman should any p o i n t s r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n . I f the e x pectation set out under the preceding c r i t e r i o n t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y "to challenge the assumptions of the planner and to assess opposing arguments" were to be taken to mean more - 141 -than mere statements to the Cha i r , then t h a t c r i t e r i o n could not be s a i d to be s a t i s f i e d i n l i g h t of the above-mentioned r e s t r i c t i o n . I t should be repeated here t h a t the Chairman d i d introduce question p e r i o d s , but no extensive dialogue or debate was allowed. 6. As f o r " d i s c u s s i o n of questions of value judgment, not j u s t t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s " two observations are made. F i r s t , the purpose of'the hearing was not d i s c u s s i o n . Second, the time f o r d i s c u s s i n g value judgments i s during the fo r m u l a t i o n of goals, o b j e c t i v e s and parameters f o r ev a l u a t i o n of a given programme. Information provided d i d not i n v i t e such d i s c u s s i o n . 7. 'The i n f o r m a t i o n was generated i n a way which would c l e a r l y emphasize b e n e f i t s . Costs, r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s were evaluated and resolved to the planners' s a t i s f a c t i o n d uring the planning process, thus a l l o w i n g them to present - what they considered to be the best s o l u t i o n . Information on these cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and b e n e f i t - c o s t e v a l u a t i o n s of a l t e r n a t i v e s were not a v a i l a b l e . To conclude, i t w i l l remain d i f f i c u l t to take f u l l e s t advantage of the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e planning i n p u t e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e the planning agency i f : a) the p a r t i e s expected to co-operate are not p r i v y to the b a s i c terms of reference upon which the planning e f f o r t i s based; indeed, t h e i r involvement i n develop-i n g such i s c a l l e d f o r ; b) these p a r t i e s are not i n v o l v e d as i n f o r m a t i o n i s generated and accumulated, a process which, i n i t s e l f , a l l ows f o r continuous r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f the goals and development o b j e c t i v e s of the planning process; indeed, such r e - e v a l u a t i o n i s o f t e n not p o s s i b l e u n t i l data has been p r o g r e s s i v e l y developed; c) the comprehensiveness of i n f o r m a t i o n made p u b l i c i s not s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w f o r an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the scope and degree of r a m i f i c a t i o n s or impacts, negative and p o s i t i v e , or of a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to r e s o l u t i o n of the perceived problem. P o l i t i c a l pressures i n our " r e s p o n s i b l e " system of government, wherein the M i n i s t e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the people - 142 -f o r the a c t i o n s of h i s department, have r e s u l t e d i n p o l i c i e s designed to maximize c o n t r o l of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t may be t h a t such c o n t r o l minimizes the c r i t i c i s m of government a c t i o n or i n a c t i o n , f o r v/hich the M i n i s t e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the people; on the other hand, f r e e r access to government s t u d i e s and data, i n e f f e c t a more open bureaucracy, would, i t i s suggested, generate more p u b l i c l y acceptable p o l i c i e s and programmes and reduce such c r i t i c i s m . This l a t t e r c l a i m i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the current growth of p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to and resentment of v a r i o u s government a c t i o n s i n a f a s h i o n r a r e not many years ago. As mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , there are impediments to f r e e r f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n . However, a strong moral and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i s at stake. The p u b l i c pays f o r government research and i n c r e a s i n g numbers of the p u b l i c are expressing an i n t e r e s t i n u t i l i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . Frequently, the government has a monopoly on i n f o r m a t i o n about a c t i o n s w i t h immediate and important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s p u b l i c s ; moreover, seldom can o u t s i d e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s generate a l t e r -n a t i v e s to government proposals, or, of t h e i r own resources, assess the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a given p r o p o s a l . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e , f o r example, of the unorganized or f i n a n -c i a l l y l i m i t e d elements of the N a t i o n a l Parks c o n s t i t u e n c y . I t i s incumbent upon government to r e c t i f y t h i s shortcoming. Timing Timing has been designated as an important c r i t e r i o n i n two contexts: the t i m i n g of o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e , - 143 -and the tim i n g of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n . As already i n d i c a t e d , the s t r a t e g y adopted by the Department was to await the completion of a conceptual master plan and then present i t p u b l i c l y . This i s , of course,a l e g i t i m a t e s t r a t e g y but i t precludes the f u l l e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other i n p u t s during the i n i t i a l planning phase. I t al s o prevents any opp o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c e v a l u a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s , premises and parameters which e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c context of the plan and to a great extent determine the d i r e c t i o n the planning w i l l take and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s upon which the Department would accept " i n p r i n c i p l e " a conceptual plan from the Company. There i s , a d d i t i o n a l l y , the danger t h a t the planning e f f o r t a l r e a d y committed i n the plan development would make those r e s p o n s i b l e very r e l u c t a n t t o consider major c r i t i c i s m s . In l i n e w i t h t h e i r o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y on op p o r t u n i t y and scope f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the Department r e s t r i c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n output a c c o r d i n g l y , to the two occasions when out-side p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n v i t e d : the 1 9 7 1 P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings, preceded by the i n f o r m a t i o n memorandum some eleven days e a r l i e r , and the V i l l a g e Lake Louise hearing preceded by the January 25 press conference and the i n f o r m a t i o n k i t . There was e v i d e n t l y no attempt to keep any outside i n t e r e s t posted as i n f o r m a t i o n was generated and developed from the e a r l i e s t stages of plan n i n g . Capacity to Act The l i m i t a t i o n s on i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w were a r e s t r a i n i n g - 144 -f a c t o r on the c a p a c i t y of outside i n t e r e s t s to a c t . The NPPAC had resources, both f i n a n c i a l and human, the l a t t e r p r i m a r i l y v o l u n t a r y , t o launch i t s f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e campaign against the proposal but i t d i d not have the resources to develop convincing a l t e r n a t i v e proposals which would stand up to the q u a l i t y of the Company's scheme. This was revealed i n t h a t one of the goals of i t s campaign, the " p r e p a r a t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e development p l a n , " was only done c o n c e p t u a l l y (Herrero, 1973b). While i n f o r m a l contacts w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks o f f i c i a l s were not uncommon, there were no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s made by the Department to a i d out s i d e i n t e r e s t s t o prepare t h e i r cases. I t i s suggested t h a t the resources the planning agency i s w i l l i n g to commit should i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r a cl o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s (perhaps a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d y ? ) p o s s i b l y i n v o l v i n g the secondment of s t a f f to the e x c l u s i v e purpose of p r o v i d i n g advice and l i a i s o n w i t h such i n t e r e s t s . Choices Only one s o l u t i o n was presented to the p u b l i c f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . V/hile adjustments to aspects of the master plan would be considered by the Department, any s u c c e s s f u l fundamental challenge to the approach presented could r e s u l t only i n r e j e c t i o n of the s i n g l e proposal. I t was not a choice s i t u a t i o n even i f one were to agree w i t h the comment tha t "a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n s have been proposed over the years" (N.H.P.B., 1972, I , 4). I t i s imp e r a t i v e , i f such an accept/ - 145 -r e j e c t s i t u a t i o n i s to be avoided, t h a t the p u b l i c i n v o l v e d have an op p o r t u n i t y to assess the e v a l u a t i o n of the range of a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Such assessment serves a l s o the f u n c t i o n of a l l o w i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e v a l u a t i o n of the p l a n -ning o b j e c t i v e s . The statement i n the "Notice of P u b l i c Hearing" t h a t the Department would "hear recommendations f o r other approaches" cannot be construed to s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n of "Choices," Values While p u b l i c values as determinants of perceptions of the r o l e of N a t i o n a l Parks were undoubtedly taken i n t o account by the planning team (reference Mr. Gordon's comment to t h i s e f f e c t on page 80 above), and indeed about which N a t i o n a l Parks planners g e n e r a l l y , g r a p p l i n g as they do w i t h the balance of t h e i r dual mandate, are very conscious, no ove r t o p p o r t u n i t i e s were provided f o r t e s t i n g the change i n values over time ( s i n c e 1965) o r f o r t e s t i n g p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the planning premises and o b j e c t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g the Memorandum of I n t e n t , Over time, such i n t e r a c t i o n as r e f e r r e d t o i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s allows the planners to keep abreast of changing values and perceptions of the p u b l i c f o r whom they are planning - assuming t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i n g outside i n t e r e s t s are s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to present a balanced p i c t u r e of p u b l i c views. As mentioned during the d i s c u s s i o n of values i n Chapter Two, there are methods, a l b e i t not d e f i n i t i v e , upon which an agency can develop an ongoing - 146 -values research programme. A combination of such s p e c i f i c methods, d i s c u s s i o n s about a l t e r n a t i v e s as explained above which allows the p u b l i c to r e v e a l t h e i r values and perceptions by r e l a t i n g to v a r i o u s plans, and s e n s i t i v e planners could be expected to generate the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary to plan i n accord w i t h p u b l i c values. As a l s o mentioned e a r l i e r , oppor-t u n i t i e s to question planning o b j e c t i v e s provide an avenue f o r the r e v e l a t i o n of values and, consequently, t h e i r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n . The p u b l i c hearing was not meant to a l l o w f o r such questioning of o b j e c t i v e s . Bargaining Opportunity The V i l l a g e Lake Louise p u b l i c hearing was not intended to operate as a d i s c u s s i o n forum f o r the interchange and debate of concepts and i d e a s . I t d i d not, nor i s i t s u i t e d to such a t a s k , provide f o r b a r g a i n i n g i n an e f f e c t i v e way. I t does provide a v e h i c l e f o r b a r g a i n i n g i n the l i m i t e d sense t h a t views, both pro and con, are a i r e d and p u b l i c i z e d so t h a t d e c i s i o n -makers are made more aware of them. I t i s suggested t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n mechanisms which a l l o w planners to e x p l a i n and defend t h e i r planning assumptions and goals i n an atmosphere conducive to dialogue and debate - i n e f f e c t , a working group -would meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n . E f f i c a c y I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to assess the depth of con-v i c t i o n as regards one's f e e l i n g of e f f i c a c y i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g - 1 4 7 -i n the p u b l i c hearing; however, s e v e r a l comments made give at l e a s t an i n d i c a t i o n of the variance of a t t i t u d e . There was considerable a p p r e c i a t i o n expressed f o r a c t i o n s taken .by the Department i n reponse to p u b l i c i n p u t at the P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plan hearings about v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of those p l a n s . These i n c l u d e d f o r example, r e d u c t i o n i n the number of v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centres, c a n c e l l i n g of s e v e r a l road construc-t i o n proposals and m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the Park zoning scheme. However, at the V i l l a g e Lake Louise hearing, a number of opponents t o the development s t r o n g l y questioned whether t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n could serve any r e a l purpose as they b e l i e v e d a d e c i s i o n had already been made to proceed, as evidenced by the Parks Branch's expression of approval i n p r i n c i p l e , the closed nature of the planning process and the f a c t t h a t the Memorandum of Int e n t would not be released to the p u b l i c . The charge t h a t the hearing was merely a f o r m a l i t y as f a r as ba s i c changes i n the development or even t o t a l r e j e c t i o n were concerned, was expressed on s e v e r a l occasions d e s p i t e the Chairman's emphatic a s s e r t i o n s t h a t the M i n i s t e r had made no commitment to proceed and would not do so before a n a l y z i n g the p u b l i c i n p u t through the hearing. E f f i c i e n c y The problem which the planners i n i t i a l l y set out to de a l w i t h remained unresolved. A great d e a l of work had gone i n t o some two years of planning e f f o r t without any t a n g i b l e - 148 -evidence of an e f f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n . As the M i n i s t e r s a i d i n h i s statement of J u l y 12, 1972, "But the b a s i c problem of meet-i n g the e s s e n t i a l needs of the i n c r e a s i n g number of v i s i t o r s t o t h i s area i n a s e n s i b l e , coordinated, o r d e r l y and compatible manner remains." E f f i c i e n c y i s a key f a c t o r i n e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . Conversely, i t i s impossible to determine the most e f f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n to a problem without e v a l u a t i n g a range of a l t e r n a -t i v e s , a process which r e q u i r e s a defined set of goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r planning. While i t may be i m p r a c t i c a l l y i d e a l -i s t i c t o hope f o r optimal s o l u t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as agreement w i l l never be reached as to what c o n s t i t u t e s the optimal (that i s , the s o l u t i o n which y i e l d s the g r e a t e s t net s o c i a l b e n e f i t s ) , i t i s suggested t h a t p u b l i c i n p u t and evalua-t i o n of planning a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l take d e c i s i o n s a step c l o s e r to tha t i d e a l . In the V i l l a g e Lake Louise controversy, the planning team developed what they conceived to be the most e f f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n ; the p u b l i c hearing demonstrated t h a t t h i s conception was by no means u n i v e r s a l l y shared and t h a t o p t i m i s t i c estimates of b e n e f i t s , incomplete assessment of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o s t s and the f a i l u r e to e q u a l l y thoroughly evaluate p o s s i b l y l e s s c o s t l y a l t e r n a t i v e s c a l l e d i n t o question the e f f i c i e n c y of the s o l u t i o n proposed. Because b e n e f i t - c o s t analyses were not a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c , i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r them to determine whether the sc a l e of the p r o j e c t was designed to maximize net b e n e f i t s . - 149 -The N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch agreed i n p r i n -c i p l e t h a t new v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s f a c i l i t i e s should be l o c a t e d outside the mountain N a t i o n a l Parks and t h a t Lake Louise was an exception. However, the Branch d i d not produce s t u d i e s to demonstrate the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s p o s s i b l e . As Mr. Gordon s a i d i n answer to the question of whether the same economic b e n e f i t s would accrue to the Canadian economy from a development outside the Park: ... we're comparing something t h a t has been studied against something which has not been stud i e d ... we would have to do a study of t h a t before we could give any kind of a f a i r answer (N.H.P.B., 1972, I I , 181). On J u l y 12, 1972, the M i n i s t e r confirmed t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n had not been s a t i s f i e d . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangement The N a t i o n a l Parks p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme was based upon the p u b l i c hearing. No other i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y recognized arrangements other than normal responses to p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s , e i t h e r w r i t t e n or o r a l , were i n evidence. Indeed, the Chairman of the hearing i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Department was w r e s t l i n g w i t h the r e s t r i c t e d scope of the p u b l i c hearings programme and was i n t e r e s t e d i n developing methods of c o n t i n u i n g and e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n w i t h the p u b l i c . - 150 -SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g o f V i l l a g e Lake Louise has been s t u d i e d w i t h the g o a l o f i l l u s t r a t i n g the r o l e , the nature o f the-mechanisms used, the kinds o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n which r e s u l t e d and the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t s on the programme. In any p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g context, a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s would have to be c o n s i d e r e d i n attempting to determine what would c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These would i n c l u d e organ-i z a t i o n a l g o a l s , the f o c u s and scope o f the p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g i s s u e , the background and c u r r e n t nature o f the i s s u e , the r e -sources a v a i l a b l e to the p l a n n e r s and to the p u b l i c , the types o f i n t e r e s t s who are l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e and the r o l e o f the balance o f the p u b l i c . Indeed, one of the most d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s how to encourage l a t e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s to develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the i s s u e s a t stake and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s open to them to express t h e i r views and have them taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s i s important f o r N a t i o n a l Parks planners who have a mandate to p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w hile a t the same time p r e s e r v i n g o p t i o n s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . I t s c l i e n t i s the n a t i o n a l p u b l i c whose i n t e r e s t s , c u r r e n t as w e l l as f u t u r e , i t must balance i n the f a c e o f p r e s s u r e s from s t r i d e n t i n t e r e s t groups and i n d i v i d u a l u s e rs demanding more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u r s u i t of the p a r t i c -u l a r a c t i v i t i e s they c u r r e n t l y enjoy. I t was s t a t e d i n Chapter Two t h a t , i n p r a c t i c e , one could r e a s o n a b l y hope to i n v o l v e i n p l a n n i n g those i n d i v i d u a l s I I - 151 -w i t h s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n N a t i o n a l Parks to j o i n an organ-i z a t i o n or make the e f f o r t as an i n d i v i d u a l to express t h e i r views a t meetings open to the p u b l i c o r v i a submission o f l e t t e r s o r b r i e f s . The approach to i n v o l v i n g such i n t e r e s t s would d i f f e r from ' e f f o r t s to g a i n an understanding o f the p e r c e p t i o n s of the l a t e n t i n t e r e s t s who could perhaps be ex-pected to p l a y a r e a c t i v e as opposed to a c t i v e involvement r o l e . They might be r e p r e s e n t e d on an a d v i s o r y committee(s) o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n workshops o r p u b l i c meetings. I f N a t i o n a l Parks p l a n n i n g i s not to r e f l e c t merely the v a l u e s of a narrow range of the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , the unorganized, c u r r e n t l y non-user elements must be c o n s i d e r e d . Overt e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y these elements would be one step, i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s would be a subsequent stage. With the o b j e c t i v e o f e v o l v i n g p l a n s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to p u b l i c d e s i r e s , the Department e s t a b l i s h e d i t s p u b l i c hear-i n g s programme i n 1970. The f i v e days o f h e a r i n g s held between A p r i l 19 and 26, 1971, a t t r a c t e d 333 w r i t t e n b r i e f s and i n v o l v e d 150 speakers. The V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e hearing l a s t e d three days and drew 191 speakers. 2532 "Records" ( b r i e f s and statements) were submitted to the P u b l i c Hearings O f f i c e e i t h e r d i r e c t o r by way o f the h e a r i n g . T h i s tremendous upsurge i n i n t e r e s t may have been i n d i c a t i v e of growing p u b l i c awareness and i n t e r e s t i n the N a t i o n a l Parks o r may have been more d i r e c t l y due to the o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n groups on one s i d e and the Company on the o t h e r . I t can a l s o be taken as - r § 2 -i n d i c a t i v e o f how p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e when faced w i t h a c o n c r e t e i s s u e (and, c o n v e r s e l y , emphasizes the d i f f i c u l t y o f a t t r a c t i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n l e s s issue-dominated p l a n n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) . I t a l s o s e r v e s to s t r e s s the importance o f i n f o r -mation d i s s e m i n a t i o n whether by the p l a n n i n g agency o r by i n t e r - -e s t groups, i n s t i m u l a t i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The purpose o f any i n f o r m a t i o n system cannot be to i n f o r m every c i t i z e n on a g i v e n s u b j e c t f o r the simple reason t h a t most o f the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l have o t h e r concerns which more immediately a f f e c t t h e i r s e l f -i n t e r e s t . Nonetheless, i t i s important not o n l y to maintain continuous p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s but a l s o a complementary i n f o r m a t i o n system. Many p u b l i c involvement t e c h n i q u e s e x i s t ; f o r example, a d v i s o r y boards, p u b l i c meetings, i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s , workshops, gaming-simulation, media communication, c i t i z e n t a s k f o r c e s , and v a r i o u s kinds o f p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The methods used can be v a r i e d and must be adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g stage as w e l l as to the p l a n n i n g context. The p a r t i c i p a t o r y programme should be developed as a m u l t i - f a c e t e d approach. P u b l i c h e a r i n g s and b r i e f s submissions could be supplemented by s m a l l groups workshops or, as mentioned, a d v i s o r y committee(s). Survey r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , i n which the Parks Branch i s a l r e a d y h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d , serve to i n f o r m the p l a n n e r o f p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and l e v e l s o f awareness thus h e l p i n g t o p r e d i c t the impacts o f p a r t i c u l a r ' p o l i c i e s by i d e n t i f y i n g elements l i k e l y to be a f f e c t e d . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g has the disadvantage o f being u s u a l l y - ,153 -a s i n g l e e f f o r t approach which f a i l s to a l l o w f o r p r o g r e s s i v e l y -more r e f i n e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the p u b l i c and p l a n n e r s . I t a l s o tends to set up an adversary s i t u a t i o n , one which was r e i n f o r c e d i n the case under study when the government and the company had the f i r s t and l o n g e s t o p p o r t u n i t y to p r e s e n t and j u s t i f y what they considered to be the s o l u t i o n . T h i s s o l u t i o n was advanced as s a t i s f y i n g the range of concerns -e c o l o g i c a l t o i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l - i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g i n a N a t i o n a l Park. I f a l t e r n a t i v e s , as opposed to m o d i f i c a -t i o n s , were to be c o n s i d e r e d , the opponents had to e s t a b l i s h a c o n f r o n t a t i o n s i t u a t i o n . By d e c i d i n g not to proceed w i t h V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e , some two years o f p l a n n i n g e f f o r t was rendered unproductive, the problem remained un r e s o l v e d and a p a r t o f the N a t i o n a l Parks c o n s t i t u e n c y stood t o be a l i e n a t e d p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f the t a c t i c s which the c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s f e l t compelled to take t o d e f e a t the development p r o p o s a l . That " r a d i c a l m i n o r i t y " had been s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r o b j e c t i v e , but t h a t o b j e c t i v e , i n the absence of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s presented, was a b a s i c a l l y n e g a t i v e one: stop V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t had the d e c i s i o n been to pro-ceed, the environmental and long-range p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the N a t i o n a l Parks, as p e r c e i v e d by a number o f c i t i z e n s , would have been d i s a s t r o u s . The p u b l i c hearing d i d not serve to b r i n g t o g e t h e r the composite elements o f the N a t i o n a l Parks c o n s t i t u e n c y i n an atmosphere o f mutual o b j e c t i v e s : the development o f p o l i c y - c o n s i s t e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s to meet the problems c o n f r o n t e d . - 154 » No p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n could be expected to be i d e a l ; each would undoubtedly have i t s shortcomings and indeed, a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h i n the park - d i s p e r s a l o f accom-modation f a c i l i t i e s , expansion of Banff townsite - had been con s i d e r e d by the p l a n n e r s and d i s c a r d e d as more damaging than a c o n c e n t r a t e d v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e at Lake L o u i s e . The c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a t V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e was not d i r e c t e d a t the concept o f the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e . T h i s seemed g e n e r a l l y accepted as a sound p l a n n i n g approach. What was contended by the opponents to the development was t h a t V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e was much more than a mere v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e and i t was the s c a l e and scope o f a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o p o s a l which were most s e v e r e l y condemned. As was mentioned e a r l i e r , the N a t i o n a l Parks p l a n n e r s a l s o s t u d i e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e r v i n g park v i s i t o r s from o u t s i d e ; however, t h i s i d e a had been r e j e c t e d as i m p r a c t i c a l . I t i s suggested t h a t an import-ant l a c k i n the r o l e played by p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i t s e x c l u s i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the process o f making the t r a d e -o f f s i n v o l v e d i n d e c i d i n g upon the s i n g l e a l t e r n a t i v e u l t i m a t e l y presented to the p u b l i c . The extreme p o s i t i o n s o f t e n taken by competing i n t e r e s t s i n r e s o u r c e s c o n t r o v e r s i e s are p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f c l e a r l y exposing the v a l u e s o f these v a r i o u s groups. Planners are w r e s t l i n g w i t h the problem of i n c l u d i n g v a l u e s i n what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been l a r g e l y a t e c h n i c a l process w i t h r e l a t i v e l y simple o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The value systems o f the planners and decision-makers are i n h e r e n t i n \ - 155 -the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; the v a l u e s o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s can be f e d i n v i a i n p u t s and r e a c t i o n s to a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . The completeness o f the l a t t e r w i l l depend on t h e i r under-s t a n d i n g of the problem and the p e r c e i v e d impacts o f the a l t e r -n a t i v e s . The V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e h e a r i n g i n v o l v e d two diamet-r i c a l l y ODposed i n t e r e s t s , each i n t e r p r e t i n g the a v a i l a b l e data to b o l s t e r i t s own case, and a l e s s committed, middle group see k i n g changes, compromise and a l t e r n a t i v e s . The l a t t e r group saw shortcomings i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the p r o p o s a l but t h e i r p o s i t i o n s were overshadowed d u r i n g the h e a r i n g . The N a t i o n a l Parks o f f i c i a l s found themselves i n the p o s i t i o n o f e v a l u a t i n g these two c o n f l i c t i n g s e t s of v a l u e s to determine which most c l o s e l y conformed w i t h N a t i o n a l Parks g o a l s . While the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch had approved the master p l a n i n p r i n c i p l e , they maintained a stance o f non-committance as t o whether the p l a n would a c t u a l l y go ahead. They p r o f e s s e d a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n so f a r as the h e a r i n g was concerned and a l s o w i t h regard to the subsequent e v a l u a t i o n o f the p u b l i c i n p u t . The N a t i o n a l Parks p u b l i c hearings programme has generated c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t a c r o s s the country and o b v i o u s l y a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of good w i l l as a r e s u l t o f i t s e v i d e n t w i l l i n g n e s s to accept and to a c t upon p u b l i c i n p u t . I t i s an e v o l v i n g programme and no doubt the s t i m u l u s o f the V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e c o n t r o v e r s y w i l l l e a d the Branch c l o s e r to i t s * - 156 -g o a l o f d e v e l o p i n g d e v i c e s f o r continuous l i a i s o n . The approach taken i n p l a n n i n g V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e was not to i n v o l v e the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups d u r i n g the development o f the master p l a n . The Company co n s i d e r e d the involvement o f c o n s u l t a n t s " w e l l known to be independent i n t h e i r views and d e d i c a t e d to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the use o f N a t i o n a l Parks" a l o n g w i t h the r o l e , a s p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , o f the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch to be, i n f a c t , " o u t s i d e involvement" (Appendix L ) . As f o r c r i t i c i s m s , any adverse comments would be r e f u t e d , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d , by the f i n i s h e d c o n c e p t u a l master p l a n ( R i t c h i e , 1 9 7 1 ) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L i m i t e d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f "out-s i d e i n t e r e s t s " was somewhat more r e s t r i c t e d than the term means as used throughout t h i s study. Moreover, i t i s suggested t h a t the mechanisms f o r i n v o l v i n g o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s i n a f a s h i o n t h a t would s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a p o s t u l a t e d were not p a r t o f the e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme be s u b j e c t e d to continuous assessment by both the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s and the pl a n n e r s as to i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 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P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s i n  Resources Management. E d i t e d by W.R.D. Sewell and I . Burton. In f o r m a t i o n Canada. Ottawa. Parker, J.F. 1971. " A l t e r n a t i v e s i n F l o o d P r o t e c t i o n : The Middle F o r k Cont r o v e r s y . " Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin. P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d . 1963. N a t i o n a l Parks: Lower Lake Louise Development - A Master  Development P l a n . Rein, M. 1969. " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g : The Search f o r L e g i t i m a c y . " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . V o l . 35, No. 4. Pp. 233-244. - 163 -Reiner, T.A. 1967. "The Planner as a Value T e c h n i c i a n . " In Taming M e g a l o p o l i s . E d i t e d by H.W. E l d r i d g e , New York. V o l . I . R i t c h i e , R.S. 1971. L e t t e r to Dr. A r t h u r M. Lower. December 23, 1971. Rouse, J . 1973. I n t e r v i e w . C a l g a r y . 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" The A r c h i t e c t ' s J o u r n a l . V o l . 154, No. 41. Pp. 805-808. Thompson, A.R. 1972a."Freedom o f I n f o r m a t i o n . " Unpublished Paper D e l i v e r e d a t the Environmental Law Workshop, Banff. . 1972b. " L e g a l Responses to P o l l u t i o n Problems -T h e i r Strengths and Weaknesses." N a t u r a l Resources  J o u r n a l . R e p r i n t . V o l . 12, No. 2. , R. Franson and A.R. Lucas. 1972. L e g a l Problems i n the Canadian North. Prepared f o r the Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee N a t i o n a l Workshop on People, Resources and the Environrrent North o f '60. T h o r s e l l , James W. 1968. "Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks: Some Aspects o f Winter Use, 1967-68." R e c r e a t i o n Resources Report 38. N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch. Ottawa. . "On Planning Canada's Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks." Xerox, n,p., n.d. - 164 -United Kingdom. M i n i s t r y o f Housing and L o c a l Government. S c o t t i s h Development Department. Welsh O f f i c e . 1969. People and P l a n n i n g . Report o f the Committee on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g . London. V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e L i m i t e d . 1971. Development Plan - , V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e . Warner, Katherine P. 1971. P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Water Resources P l a n n i n g . Prepared f o r the N a t i o n a l Water Commission. Ann Arbor, Michigan. Wible, L.F. 1971. " I n f o r m a t i o n f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g Water Q u a l i t y L e v e l s . " Water Resources P o l i c y i n  Wisconsin: General Supporting S t u d i e s . Madison, Wisconsin. V o l . I I , S e c t i o n D. Wilson, F.G. A Theory o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n . Chicago. - 165 -APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE A Memorandum on P u b l i c Hearings on P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans f o r Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks, A p r i l 8, 1971 B Speech Notes f o r the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n , M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Concerning The V i l l a g e Lake Louise Proposal, Calgary, A l b e r t a , J u l y 12, 1972 C P r o j e c t Planning A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , Master Development P l a n , V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre, Lower Lake Louise, Banff N a t i o n a l Park D L e t t e r From the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n , Edmonton Chapter, to "Fellow C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s " , November 2 4 , 1971 E L e t t e r From the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n , Calgary/Banff Chapter, to a Number of I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - k n o w n E c o l o g i s t s and Parks Experts, February 18, 1972 F Statement by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r Con-s e r v a t i o n of Nature and N a t u r a l Resources on the Proposed Development Plan f o r Lake Louise i n Banff N a t i o n a l Park, Canada, February 25 , 1972 G L e t t e r From V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . to " S k i e r s across Canada", February, 1972 H L e t t e r From V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . to "Dear F r i e n d " , February 18, 1972 I L e t t e r From I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d to the Company's A l b e r t a Shareholders, February 23, 1972 J Covering L e t t e r From the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n Accompanying the Information K i t Provided to the P u b l i c by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch - 166 -APPENDIX TITLE K L e t t e r to Mr. Ronald S. R i t c h i e , S e n i o r V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and D i r e c t o r , I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , Concerning the A t t i t u d e o f V i l l a g e Lake Louise L i m i t e d to P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , February 2 5 , 1973 L L e t t e r From Mr. Ronald S. R i t c h i e , S e n i o r V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and D i r e c t o r , I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , Concerning the A t t i t u d e o f V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L i m i t e d to P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , A p r i l 9, 1973 M Sketches o f the Conceptual Master Plans o f V i l l a g e Lake Louise - Upper and Lower V i l l a g e s 0 APPENDIX A Memorandum on P u b l i c Hearings on P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans f o r Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Parks, A p r i l 8, 1971 Background Information on: Lake Louise V i s i t o r Services Centre and V i l l a g e Lake Louise Ltd. Development Proposals BACKGROUND . • During the 1950's, the Department undertook a major land a c q u i s i t i o n and expropriation program i n the Lake Louise area. This i n i t i a t i v e stemmed from the need to provide increased accommodation and se r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s to cater to a growing number of v i s i t o r s a r i s i n g from the redevelopment of the Banff-Jasner Highway and the opening of the Trans-Canada Highway. Also, the Department concluded that an integrated development of v i s i t o r f a c i l i t i e s i n the Lower Lake Louise area was necessary to meet t h i s grow-ing v i s i t o r demand and, at the same time, safeguard the natural environ-ment of the area which was already«being threatened through the fragmented growth of ser v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . In 1963, the Department retained consultants to prepare an o v e r a l l develop-ment plan for a v i s i t o r services centre at Lake Louise. The consultants' plan was subsequently made p u b l i c . E f f o r t s were also made to arouse i n t e r e s t amongst i n d i v i d u a l s who would provide the necessary commercial f a c i l i t i e s . The plan envisioned further development of day-use f a c i l i t i e s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of Lake Louise i t s e l f , but with the major emphasis being placed on construction of motels, restaurants, departmental o f f i c e s , a campground and other f a c i l i t i e s at Lower Lake Louise. The announced development was also designed to t i e i n with the adjacent s k i areas. A Winter Recreation P o l i c y was announced i n March 1965. I t provided f o r the l i m i t a t i o n of winter r e c r e a t i o n development to three s i t e s i n Banff National Park - Mount Norquay, Sunshine and Whitehorn-Temple. In the l a t t e r case, Lake Louise was to be considered as a v i s i t o r s ervices centre for Whitehorn-Temple, with the Department encouraging development of overnight accommodation f o r s k i e r s . GENERAL PLANNING CON'S IDE RAT IONS - LAKE LOUISE Two important factors now a f f e c t plans f o r the Lake Louise v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. The Trans-Canada Highaay i s four-laned i n Alberta to the east gate of Banff National Park and the two-lane section through the park i s inadequate both i n terms of i t s t r a f f i c , c a p a b i l i t y and the park experience which i t affords to v i s i t o r s , '.'/hen twinned, the highway w i l l provide more .-iJequately for through t r a f f i c but w i l l do l i t t l e to improve the park experi-ence. It thus becomes both d e s i r a b l e and necessary to r e h a b i l i t a t e the present: Highway 1A to parkway standard i n order to provide, f o r the park v i s i t o r , a more intimate connection with the park environment. 2. To make allowance f o r t h i s e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t y f o r the park v i s i t o r , a new t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n plan i s needed. This new plan w i l l a f f e c t the o v e r a l l design of the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. Secondly, a d e c i s i o n was made two years ago to hold p u b l i c hearings on p r o v i s i o n a l or t e n t a t i v e master plans f o r each of the national parks. Hearings on three parks i n the A t l a n t i c Region have been held to date, and hearings on Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks are now before us. The pu b l i c hearings have met a favourable public r e a c t i o n . They have also been very h e l p f u l to the Department i n i t s planning • r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . But the program has posed some questions a f f e c t i n g park administration and development. In p a r t i c u l a r , should the Depart-ment freeze a l l development i n each park u n t i l the p u b l i c hearing on the pr o v i s i o n a l master plan f o r that park has been held? It w i l l take several years to cover a l l parks and i t w i l l be impossible to maintain even the present l e v e l of s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c i f a l l planned projects are stopped. The Department has concluded that when a p r o v i s i o n a l master plan has been prepared and a pu b l i c hearing scheduled, only those major development f o r which p r i o r commitments have been made w i l l proceed. Other developments w i l l await announcement of the Department's decisions i n response to the pu b l i c hearing. This i s the procedure being followed. In the case of the Lake Louise V i s i t o r Services Centre, commitments have been made i n accordance with the o r i g i n a l consultants plan of 1963. This plan made p r o v i s i o n f o r 1200 units of v i s i t o r accommodation (equivalent to a maximum v i s i t o r capacity of 4,200), accommodation for s t a f f , and a t o t a l of approximately 84,000 square feet of retail/commercial/ a d m i n i s t r a t i o n space. The Department e a r l i e r i n s t a l l e d water, sewer and road systems to accommodate i t s new campground f a c i l i t i e s and the proposed s e r v i c e s centre. Two hotel/motel parcels have since been leased and development of f a c i l i t i e s commenced (Mountaineer Hotel and King's Domain). Present development i n these two cases i s the f i r s t stage of approved o v e r a l l plans f o r a t o t a l of 204 u n i t s of v i s i t o r accommodation plus s t a f f quarters. PLANNING PROPOSALS -VILLAGE LAKH LOUISE LTD. The proposal of V i l l a g e Lake Louise Ltd. i s the r e s u l t of neg o t i a t i o n s s t a r t e d during the mid-1960's with several p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s . I t would complement e x i s t i n g developments and bring the sc a l e of the t o t a l develop-ment up to the l e v e l proposed by the consultants' plan i n 1963. The only s i g n i f i c a n t change would be in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the development between two s i t e s - the o r i g i n a l v a l l e y s i t e and the e x i s t i n g Whitehorn parking l o t . A change is considered d e s i r a b l e because of the following f a c t o r s : 1. The o r i g i n a l plan c a l l e d f o r two h i g h - r i s e and two medium-rise buildings i n the v a l l e y f l o o r . The a r c h i t e c t u r a l massing created by the proposal i s not now considered appropriate to the s i t e . 3 2. The v a l l e y f l o o r area already has c e r t a i n very r e a l planning and development constraints as a r e s u l t of the Trans-Canada Highway, r a i l l i n e s , p i p e l i n e and bridges. These " c o n s t r a i n t s " have had the e f f e c t of s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r i n g the o r i g i n a l and natural character of the land-scape i n t h i s area. N Detailed requirements for adequate t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n at Lower Lake Louise are now known. Meeting these t r a f f i c needs and b u i l d i n g the v i s i t o r services centre as o r i g i n a l l y proposed would add up to a scale of develop-ment which would create an i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l of impairment to the v a l l e y f l o o r . A reduction i n the o r i g i n a l l y proposed density o f develop-ment, combined with aesthetic treatment of v i s i t o r f a c i l i -t i e s , w i l l do much to r e h a b i l i t a t e the developed area; t o r e s t r i c t the t o t a l s i z e of the developed area; and to preserve s i g n i f i c a n t parts of the e s s e n t i a l character of the v a l l e y . 3. The Whitehorn parking l o t was b u i l t several years ago. Impairment to t h i s s i t e therefore e x i s t s . I t s use as a development s i t e , subjected to sympathetic a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n , w i l l enhance i t s appearance. I f not developed, i t w i l l remain a scarred area used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r parking. 4. The Department has made i t c l e a r i t w i l l not accept development of the services centre outside of the v a l l e y f l o o r except within the confines of the Whitehorn parking l o t . There w i l l , therefore, be no a d d i t i o n a l impairment of natural values i n the area. SUMMARY Public hearings on p r o v i s i o n a l master plans f o r Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks w i l l provide an opportunity f o r the p u b l i c to comment on the r o l e and functions of a v i s i t o r s ervices centre at Lake Louise. Where p o s s i b l e , considering the commitments already made, the Department w i l l take these submissions i n t o consideration i n i t s con-tinued planning and negotiations for development of the v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s centre. When the o v e r a l l plan for development of V i l l a g e Lake Louise has been approved i n p r i n c i p l e , a p u b l i c presentation(s) of the plan w i l l be made. At that time, there w i l l be opportunity f o r f u r t h e r p u b l i c comment and constructive c r i t i c i s m i n order that a l l points of view are taken into account i n the approved development plan, a plan which w i l l be designed to provide for the needs of v i s i t o r s to the park i n a manner which w i l l be s e n s i t i v e and responsive to e c o l o g i c a l imperatives. APPENDIX B Speech Notes f o r the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n , M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Concerning The V i l l a g e Lake Lou i s e P r o p o s a l , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , J u l y 12, 1972 APPENDIX B I have come to Alberta to announce the government's d e c i s i o n that the proposal by V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited for the V i s i t o r s ' Service Centre at Lake Louise i n Banff National Park w i l l not be approved. We have studied c a r e f u l l y the conceptual plans submitted by V i l l a g e Lake Louise i n response to the i n v i t a t i o n of the National Parks Branch, as well as the many b r i e f s , l e t t e r s and representations received as a r e s u l t of the public hearings held here i n Calgary i n March of 1972. The government gave f u l l consideration to the constructive and imaginative modifications of these plans proposed by the company since the public hearings. A V i s i t o r s ' Service Centre of the s i z e , type and l o c a t i o n proposed would have far reaching consequences for Banff National Park. I t i s our judgement that the project as planned i s too large and could r e s u l t i n an undue concentration of v i s i t o r s and residents i n t h i s area. At present no r e l i a b l e objective measurement has been developed which w i l l p r edict with c e r t a i n t y the impact of human use. Where there i s room for doubt p r i o r i t y must be given to park values; and we must e r r on the side of park protection. I t has not been es t a b l i s h e d to our s a t i s f a c t i o n that a project of t h i s nature would be consistent with an acceptable l e v e l of environmental impairement. - 2 -I have, therefore, informed V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited, that I cannot approve the modified plans submitted by them. Any enterprise undertaken by the private sector must o f f e r the prospect of a f a i r and reasonable return. The plans proposed by V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited, therefore, had to stand the tes t of economic v i a b i l i t y . The company proposed several changes which went a long way to meet many of the v a l i d c r i t i c i s m s of the project. However, the further r e s t r a i n t s I would have imposed upon the s i z e , l o c a t i o n , timing and other aspects of the project made i t necessary for me to r e j e c t the en t i r e proposal. The record shows that V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited has been motivated by a sincere desire to provide a much-needed service of the best possible standard. In t h i s i t has acted as a good corporate c i t i z e n . The company also deserves commen-dation for the q u a l i t y of t h e i r design and planning. I would l i k e to thank the 2,500 Canadians who recorded t h e i r views i n b r i e f s and l e t t e r s i n response to our public hearings held e a r l i e r t h i s year. Over 900 people attended the three-day hearings i n Calgary. This i s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Canadians have a r i g h t to expect the governments they e l e c t to make decisions and to stand accountable for t h e i r decisions. But people have a r i g h t to be heard and to have t h e i r views respected. - 3 -I n r e j e c t i n g t h e company's p l a n s , t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a G o v e r n -m e n t n o t t o s u p p o r t t h e V i l l a g e L a k e L o u i s e p r o p o s a l was f u l l y c o n s i -d e r e d . I s h o u l d make i t c l e a r h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s e r v e s t h e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k s a n d t o a d m i n i s t e r them o n b e h a l f o f a l l C a n a d i a n s . The p r o p o s a l b y V i l l a g e L a k e L o u i s e L i m i t e d was s u g g e s t e d a s a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o p r o b l e m s a t L a k e L o u i s e a n d i n B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k . I h a v e i n d i c a t e d I c a n n o t a c c e p t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n . B u t t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m o f m e e t i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l n e e d s o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g number of v i s i t o r s t o t h i s a r e a i n a s e n s i b l e , c o o r d i n a t e d , o r d e r l y a n d c o m p a t i b l e manner r e m a i n s . L a k e L o u i s e h a s b e e n a v i s i t o r s ' s e r v i c e c e n t r e s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . I t i s a n u n t i d y s p r a w l o f f e r i n g i n a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e s t o t h e p u b l i c . The a r e a i s a l r e a d y h e a v i l y c o m m i t t e d b y v i r t u e o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s , a s w e l l a s by t h e r a i l w a y a n d t h e h i g h w a y . The. s k i s l o p e s of M o u n t W h i t e h o r n w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d s i n c e t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o a t t r a c t w i n t e r v i s i t o r s . O v e r 20,000 p e r s o n s p e r d a y p a s s t h r o u g h o r s t o p i n t h e L a k e L o u i s e a r e a i n t h e summer m o n t h s . I n 1951 t h e r e w e r e l e s s t h a n h a l f a m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s t o B a n f f ; i n 1 9 6 1 , o n e m i l l i o n ; i n 1 9 7 1 , two and a h a l f m i l l i o n a n d we e x p e c t t h i s f i g u r e t o d o u b l e t o f i v e m i l l i o n s i n a n o t h e r s e v e n y e a r s . O b v i o u s l y B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k c a n n o t c o n t i n u e t o a b s o r b s u c h i n c r e a s e s i n d e f i n i t e l y . - 4 -The Lake Louise area, along with Banff and Jasper, have been i d e n t i f i e d as the only three areas to be used as V i s i t o r s ' Service Centres within the 8,500 square miles of the Mountain Parks. With the help of the information from the public hearings the National Parks Branch i s now considering what long term development might be p o s s i b l e i n the ;Lake Louise area. Meanwhile, the most urgent services required to meet e s s e n t i a l needs w i l l be provided through c o n t r o l l e d development on the v a l l e y f l o o r . My o f f i c i a l s are now exploring the p o s s i b l e ways of providing these s e r v i c e s . Whatever i s done at Lake Louise, I s h a l l continue to i n s i s t that there be services and accommodation within the reach of the Canadian family of modest means. I am pleased to note that the Alberta Government i s now i n t e r e s t e d i n the development of adjacent p r o v i n c i a l parks and i n centres such as Hinton, Grande Cache and Canmore. Such suggestions which f a l l e n t i r e l y within p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are most welcome. I f they could be implemented they would obviously a f f e c t the demand fo r s e r v i c e s w i t h i n Banff National Park and Jasper National Park. In a l l our national parks we are confronted with a fundamental c o n f l i c t between the objectives of preservation and enjoyment under the pressure of ever-increasing v i s i t a t i o n . Since 1968 we have faced the problem squarely. - 5 -New n a t i o n a l p a r k s h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o t h e s y s t e m t o r e l i e v e t h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e e x i s t i n g o n e s . A s y o u know we h a v e c r e a t e d 10 new N a t i o n a l P a r k s , a s many a s i n t h e l a s t 50 y e a r s . A n d I h o p e t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t s h o r t l y o n two more. We h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e t o t a l a r e a w i t h i n C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l P a r k s b y 5 0 % . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e we h a v e t h e b a s i s o f a t r u l y n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s - e v e r y p r o v i n c e and b o t h n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t we m u s t c o n t i n u e t o e x p a n d o u r n a t i o n a l p a r k s s y s t e m . We m u s t a l s o c o n t i n u e t o p r o t e c t e x i s t i n g p a r k s . C o n t r o l s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s a r e n e e d e d . Z o n i n g p o l i c i e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d a r e now i n . f o r c e . P a r k z o n i n g p l a n s f o r t h e M o u n t a i n P a r k s w e r e s e t o u t i n t h e 1 9 7 1 h e a r i n g s , t h e n m o d i f i e d a n d p r e s e n t e d a g a i n i n t h e C a l g a r y h e a r i n g s t h i s y e a r . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s a n d t h e t y p e o f u s e t h a t c a n b e p e r m i t t e d i n v a r i o u s z o n e s . R e g u l a r a n d e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g o f u s e w i l l b e r e q u i r e d . P e r h a p s we w i l l h a v e t o f i n d a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o o v e r c r o w d e d p a r k s . We m u s t a l s o b e a r i n m i n d t h a t some a r e a s w i t h i n t h e p a r k s s h o u l d b e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h o s e C a n a d i a n s who h a v e n e i t h e r t h e h e a l t h , t h e a d v a n t a g e o f l o c a t i o n , t h e . p h y s i c a l s t a m i n a , t h e t i m e o r t h e money t o e x p l o r e v a s t r o a d l e s s w i l d e r n e s s z o n e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 750 s q u a r e m i l e a r e a t o b e s e r v e d f r o m L a k e L o u i s e , t h e z o n i n g s y s t e m s e t s a s i d e 735 s q u a r e m i l e s t o b e r e t a i n e d i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e a n d w h e r e a c c e s s c a n be h a d o n l y by f o o t , s k i o r s n o w s h o e . The r e m a i n i n g 15 s q u a r e - 6 -m i l e s a c c o m m o d a t e s t h e r o a d s , s k i s l o p e s a n d l i f t s , t h e r a i l r o a d s a n d t h e l a n d i n t e n d e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The d e l i b e r a t e d e n i a l o f a c c e s s t o e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h o s e u s i n g t h e p a r k s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a n a c c e p t a b l e c o n t r o l d e v i c e . A s t h e M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l P a r k s I h a v e a d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o a c q u i r i n g new p a r k l a n d s , I m u s t make d o u b l y s u r e t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s r e c e i v e f u l l p r o t e c t i o n * My d e c i s i o n t o r e j e c t t h e V i l l a g e L a k e L o u i s e p r o p o s a l r e f l e c t s t h e w e i g h t I g i v e t h i s p a r t o f my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3-729 APPENDIX C P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , iMaster Development Plan, V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centre, Lower Lake L o u i s e , Banff N a t i o n a l Park APPENDIX D L e t t e r From the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n , Edmonton Chapter, to "Fellow C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s " , November 24, 1971 i\a:.o"o; ana Prcv.ncia! Porks C 3 r . c ; 0 3 des p.. 'c? .- Jtion.iux oi pr-jvinc;aux du Canada 13715-'.l»i AveniiC: Edmc/ito.v Alberta APPENDIX D overaber 24-, 1971'. F e l l o w C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s : In the next week o r so the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ar.i N orthern Development i s expected to i«=s>'"a a p r e s s r e l e a s e - c o n c e r n i n g the new V i s i t o r S e r v i c e C e n t e r a t Laxe L o u i s e . P r o v i s i o n a l master p l a n s w i l l be made a v a i l a o l e to the p u b l i c sometime i n December. Humor has Iz tr.at p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on zhis development w i l l Lake p l a c e a t t i l e r ' a l l i s e r H o t e l i n C a l g a r y sometime i n February. The e x e c u t i v e oi* the Edmonton Chapter o f the N a t i o n a l ana P r o v i n c i a l .farms A s s o c i a t i o n i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t zhe proposed development r e q u i r e s urgent study and a c t i o n by a l l c o n s e r v a t i o n and environment groups. We a n t i c i p a t e your concern and i n v i t e your h e l p . Although the Canadian p u b l i c has been kept v e r y much i n the dark, the f o l l o w i n g - i n f o r m a t i o n has been gathered by concerned i n d i v i d u a l s . An o r g a n i z a t i o n known as V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L t d . has developed p l a n s f o r a V i s i t o r S e r v i c e C e nter which w i l l accomodate 3000 paying guests and 2500 employees. I n c l u d e d i n the p l a n s are the c o n s b r a c t i o n o f a s m a l l h o s p i t a l , a s c n o o i and a church. I n f a c t , the new development w i l l amount to a t o w n s i t e of 5500 p e o p l e . ( Tennis c o u r t s , swimming p o o l s e t c . w i l l a l s o be a p a r t of the town. Presumably f o r those v i s i t o r s who are heard to mutter, "Very p r e t t y , but one mountain l o o k s the same as the next to me! What's t h e r e to do i n t h i s p l a c e ? " ) I t i s important to note t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s of t h i s new town w i l l amount to over S20 m i l l i o n . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t - the I m p e r i a l O i l Company i s a 50% p a r t n e r i n V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L t d . -2-Due to the extreme secrecy which has surrounded the government's d e a l i n g s w i t h the developers, i t has been impossible to a s c e r t a i n what committments have been made to the company. C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s must r i g o r o u s l y question the approach which the government has taken on a development which has such f a r reaching i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canada's N a t i o n a l Parks which a f t e r a l l belong to a l l Canadians not j u s t a few businessmen and government o f f i c i a l s . The Executive of the Edmonton Chapter of the N.P.P.A.C. b e l i e v e s t h a t the expansion of commercial i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l parks i s a d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n and negation of the N a t i o n a l Parks Act passed i n 1930 which s t a t e s t h a t "... such Parks s h a l l be main-t a i n e d and made use of so as to leave them unimpaired f o r the enjoyment of f u t u r e generations". ( S e c t i o n 4, N a t i o n a l Parks A c t ) , The i d e a t h a t the n a t i o n a l parks e x i s t to generate p r o f i t s f o r the few must be f i r m l y opposed at t h i s time. The p r o v i n c i a l government here i n A l b e r t a must a l s o be c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s a t t i t u d e s concerning t o u r i s m i n the n a t i o n a l parks. The A l b e r t a Government Travel Bureau i s mounting an expensive promotion program to encourage U.S. s k i e r s to v i s i t the Canadian Rockies. A i r Canada and the A l b e r t a Government T r a v e l Bureau are o f f e r i n g a new low-cost s k i v a c a t i o n package c a l l e d , " A i r Canada's S k i f a r i , the Canadian Rockies- Banff, Sunshine, Lake Louise, Jasper". I t seems s t r a n g e l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t h a t the s k i r e s o r t s outside the n a t i o n a l parks (Snowridge and S i l v e r Summit) are not i n c l u d e d i n the " S k i f a r i " d e a l . Businessmen t r y i n g to operate s k i r e s o r t s outside the .national parks are r e c e i v i n g no help from any government. Those operating i n s i d e the parks are being h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d by the Canadian taxpayer e.g. road c o n s t r u c t i o n , road maintenance and snow removal i s done by the parks employees. Both l e v e l s of government should encourage the development of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s outside of the n a t i o n a l parks. -3-The A l b e r t a Government i s promoting our n a t i o n a l parks f o r commercial ptirposes i n the f o l l o w i n g American c i t i e s : Chicago, D e t r o i t , New York, Cleveland, Boston, Milwaukee, B u f f a l o , Rochester, P i t t s b u r g , Columbus, S a l t Lake C i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , and Minneapolis, A l l i n c l u s i v e r a t e s f o r a s k i week begin as low as $261,50 from Toronto, The government expects 10,000 s k i e r s to take advantage of " S k i f a r i " i n the f i r s t season. As w e l l 4000 s k i e r s are coming to our n a t i o n a l parks t h i s w i n t e r from Japan- the r e s u l t of government promotion] Such com m e r c i a l i z a t i o n can o n l y lead to the complete d e t e r i o r a t i o n of our n a t i o n a l parks as n a t u r a l museums and wil d e r n e s s areas f o r t h i s and f u t u r e generations. Another f r i g h t e n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n : once c a p a c i t y crowds f i l l e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , the Canadian people w i l l be t o l d that due to high demands a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are r e q u i r e d . I t ' s a v i c i o u s c i r c l e . Canadians of t h i s and f u t u r e generations are being asked to pay huge s o c i a l costs through the l o s s of q u a l i t y i n the n a t u r a l environment found w i t h i n our n a t i o n a l parks i n order to b e n e f i t a very small segment of our s o c i e t y -namely the businessmen and vested i n t e r e s t s a l ready e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the parks. I f your o r g a n i z a t i o n i s concerned, please contact Maureen Sbel. (address of the Edmonton Chapter above) Perhaps i f enough groups i n the Edmonton area show concern the Hon. Jean Chretien can be persuaded to hold a session of the p u b l i c hearing i n Edmonton. Our o r g a n i z a t i o n has scheduled a general meeting concerning V i l l a g e Lake Louise. I t w i l l be held at the P r o v i n c i a l Museum Auditorium at S p.m. Tuesday, December 7. V/e hope th a t your o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . APPENDIX E L e t t e r From the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n , Calgary/Banff Chapter, to a Number of I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - k n o w n E c o l o g i s t s and Parks Experts, February 18, 1972 APPENDIX E National and Provincial Parks Association of Canada [.'association des pares nationaux et provinciaux du Canada Calgary/Banff Chapter P.O. Box 608, sub. P.O. 91 The University of Calgary Calgary 44, Alberta February 18, 1972 We have taken the l i b e r t y of sending to you v i a a i r m a i l a copy of the proposed development plan f o r Lake Louise i n Banff N a t i o n a l Park, Canada. A l s o enclosed i s a copy of an i n i t i a l statement by the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n on t h i s proposed development. Because of the nature of t h i s proposed development, and i t s f a r reaching i m p l i c a t i o n s , we are approaching you as one of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known group of e c o l o g i s t s and parks experts. We are very concerned about many aspects of the proposed development and would l i k e to request that you c a r e f u l l y read the plan and then consider submitting a b r i e f w r i t t e n a n a l y s i s of your own to Mr. John I. N i c o l , D i r e c t o r , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, 400 L a u r i e r Avenue West, Ottawa, Canada. We would very much appreciate a copy of your comments as these would a i d us i n our continuing a n a l y s i s of the plan (National and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n , Box 608, Sub. P.O. 91, Calgary 44, A l b e r t a ) . A very prompt, r e p l y w i l l be appreciated since analyses must be submitted to the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch of Canada by March 9th when the p u b l i c hearings w i l l be held i n Calgary on t h i s proposal. We apologize f o r making t h i s serious demand on your time. However, we s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e that both n a t i o n a l and i n t e r -n a t i o n a l precedent could be set here. I f you would l i k e to have any of your colleagues analyze t h i s plan, please send us t h e i r names and we w i l l a i r m a i l them a copy of t h i s information. A s i m i l a r l e t t e r and a copy of the plan have been sent to the persons l i s t e d on the f o l l o w i n g page: Boord of Trustees Bryan M. Benilz, Toronto,Ont. Arthur Downs. Surrey. B.C. Norman A. M. MacKenzie . William O. Pruitl. Jr. Maxwni! Bruco Toronto, Ont. Alfred P. Framo. Toronto, Ont. Vancouver, B.C. Winnipeg, Man. APPENDIX F Statement by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union F o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Nature and N a t u r a l Resources on the Proposed Development Plan f o r Lake Lou i s e i n B a n f f N a t i o n a l Park, Canada, February 25, 1972 APPENDIX F INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES Proposed Development P l a n f o r Lake L o u i s e i n Banff N a t i o n a l Park, Canada IUCN f a v o u r s the concept of l o c a t i n g major developments o u t s i d e the boundaries o f n a t i o n a l parks. Such developments i n c l u d e v i s i t o r l o d g i n g and accommodation c e n t r e s , i n t e n s i v e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas such as d o w n h i l l s k i runs w i t h a s s o c i a t e d l i f t s , major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , and a l l o t h e r s which i n t e r f e r e w i t h the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the park, and wi t h the primary f u n c t i o n o f nature p r e s e r v a t i o n . However, a s t r i c t r u l e i n regard to such developments i s both u n r e a l i s t i c and unworkable. In some areas n a t i o n a l parks have grown up around major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , i n ot h e r s p r e - e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s and developments o c c u r i n areas t h a t a r e , i n g e n e r a l , o f n a t i o n a l park q u a l i t y , e l s e -where the need to make the park a c c e s s i b l e to v i s i t o r s and the absence o f s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r accommodation o u t s i d e the park l e a d s to the s a c r i f i c e o f areas w i t h i n the park bound-a r i e s f o r v i s i t o r accommodation and. i n t e n s i v e use. I t has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c a r e f u l zoning w i t h i n n a t i o n a l parks i s a d e v i c e t h a t permits l i m i t e d development f o r the b e n e f i t o f v i s i t o r s w h i le s t i l l p r o v i d i n g the degree o f p r o t e c t i o n o f nature t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . F o r the Canadian mountain n a t i o n a l parks, Banff, Jasper, Yoho and Kootenay i t i s e s s e n t i a l to r e c o g n i z e t h a t development i n some areas preceded the es t a b l i s h m e n t o f the n a t i o n a l park. Furthermore the park system l i e s a s t r i d e a major t r a n s c o n t i n -e n t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r . Although most of the 8,000 square m i l e r e g i o n i s r e t a i n e d i n a w i l d e r n e s s c o n d i t i o n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n has been and i n e v i t a b l y must continue to be devoted to v a r i o u s types o f i n t e n s i v e use. Zoning o f the parks has provided an answer to t h i s problem. From these p o i n t s o f view the proposed V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e development as a major v i s i t o r accommodation c e n t r e must be examined. I d e a l l y one could wish t h a t the e x i s t i n g d e v elop-ments a t Lake L o u i s e , Banff and Jasper d i d not e x i s t or were l o c a t e d w e l l o u t s i d e the n a t i o n a l parks. However, they do e x i s t and i t i s to cope wi t h the r e a l i t i e s o f t h i s e x i s t e n c e t h a t the pl a n n i n g f o r f u r t h e r development near Lake Lou i s e and i n a few o t h e r areas needs to be examined. Lake L o u i s e was developed as a t o u r i s t c e n t r e b e f o r e 1900 f o l l o w i n g on the opening o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. I t i s a t present the s i t e o f a major h o t e l (Chateau Lake L o u i s e ) and v a r i o u s s m a l l e r s t r u c t u r e s and developments. The nearby Bow V a l l e y f o r which V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e i s proposed i s now the s i t e o f the Trans-Canada highway, the r a i l w a y , and many l o d g i n g s , o t h e r b u i l d i n g s and v a r i o u s i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The area to be a f f e c t e d i s t h e r e f o r e not i n a n a t u r a l or u n d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n but r a t h e r a centre of human, a c t i v i t y . The problem o f f i n d i n g some s o l u t i o n t o the v a r i o u s uses and p r e s s u r e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n t h i s area i s one t h a t c o n f r o n t s the n a t i o n a l park system o f Canada. One answer proposed i s the development o f V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e i n the Bow V a l l e y accompanied by removal of developments from the immediate v i c i n i t y o f Lake L o u i s e . Were the area i n v o l v e d one p r e v i o u s l y untouched by development, i t would be the duty of IUCN to recommend s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t such development. I f t h e r e were a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y f o r r e s t o r i n g n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n , i t would a l s o be n e c e s s a r y to recommend a g a i n s t . f u r t h e r development. I f the development were c o n s i d e r e d an opening wedge f o r f u t u r e growth and urban expansion w i t h i n the park, i t should be opposed. Since, however, none of these c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , and i n view o f the dilemma w i t h which the n a t i o n a l park a u t h o r i t i e s o f Canada are c o n f r o n t e d , IUCN must take a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n on the proposed V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e and a s s o c i a t e d p l a n s . 25 February 1972 Morges, S w i t z e r l a n d APPENDIX G L e t t e r From V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . t o " S k i e r s a c r o s s Canada", February, 1972 APPENDIX G F e b r u a r y 1972 D e a r S k i e r : . . . E n c l o s e d y o u w i l l f i n d a N o t i c e o f P u b l i c H e a r i n g f o r t h e V i l l a g e L a k e L o u i s e p r o p o s a l a s w e l l a s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i v e b r o c h u r e o f t h e V i l l a g e p r o p o s a l a n d t h e men r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o j e c t . -The V i l l a g e Company w e l c o m e s t h e c h a n c e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e a p p r o a c h i n g h e a r i n g s . H o w e v e r , t h e company i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s do r e f l e c t p u b l i c o p i n i o n a s a w h o l e and n o t j u s t t h e v o i c e o f a r a d i c a l m i n o r i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n S k i A s s o c i a t i o n , w e a r e w r i t i n g t o S k i e r s a c r o s s C a n a d a . We w o u l d l i k e t o a n s w e r some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s y o u , a s a d a y s k i e r , may h a v e : QUESTION ( 1 ) I s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a v i l l a g e a c c o m m o d a t i n g t o u r i s t s i n t h e summer and s k i e r s i n t h e w i n t e r a v i o l a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s c o n c e r n i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s ? ANSWER: E m p h a t i c a l l y n o t . F i r s t l y , t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t r e q u e s t e d p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s t o f o r w a r d p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g s e r v i c e . c e n t r e s a t L a k e L o u i s e . S e c o n d l y , c o n c e r n i n g s k i e r u s a g e , t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t o f 1969 comments i n t h e S e c t i o n on " S p e c i a l E v e n t s and F a c i l i t i e s R e l a t e d t o T o w n s i t e s " : A p a r t f r o m a n y n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t a p a r k may h a v e t o be h o s t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s k i i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s , t h e r e i s an o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r C a n a d i a n s . P a r k s c o n t a i n c e r t a i n a r e a s t h a t a r e a c c e s s -i b l e and w h i c h p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t s k i i n g . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e i n many c a s e s o t h e r t h a n i n P a r k s . I n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p r o v i d i n g h e a l t h f u l r e c r e a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , s k i i n g s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d and e n c o u r a g e d i n P a r k s h a v i n g t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t t h e e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be on mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s k i i n g f o r t h e a v e r a g e s k i e r i n f a m i l y g r o u p s . T h i r d l y , c o n c e r n i n g t o u r i s m u s a g e , i n 1969 t h e E n q u i r y o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s on N a t i o n a l P a r k s and E q u i v a l e n t R e s e r v e s i n i t s Memorandum s e c t i o n P r o t e c t i v e S t a t u s s t a t e s : Among t h o s e e x c e p t i o n s w h i c h may be a d m i t t e d t o t h e r u l e o f a b s o l u t e p r o t e c t i o n a r e ' a l l o w a n c e s w h i c h a r e made n e c e s s a r y by f a c i l i t i e s f o r t o u r i s i n , a s t h i s i s one o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e - c o n s t r u c t i o n and . m a i n t e n a n c e o f n e t w o r k s o f r o a d s and t h e mo r e o r l e s s l a r g e a r e a s o c c u p i e d by h o t e l s o r o t h e r l o d g e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f v e g e t -a b l e s and o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t s and i n g e n e r a l , a l l t h e ' d i s t u r b a n c e a r i s i n g f r o m s u c h e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( a e r o d r o m e , r a i l -r o a d , power l i n e s , t e l e p h o n e l i n e s , p l e a s u r e p o r t s , s p o r t s g r o u n d s , g o l f l i n k s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , e t c . ) . QUESTION (2) How w i l l I a s a weekend s k i e r b e n e f i t ? ANSWER: QUESTION ( 3 ) ANSWER: A p p r o v a l o f t h e V i l l a g e p r o p o s a l w i l l mean a p p r o v a l t o e x p a n d t h e S k i A r e a t o accommodate 8500 s k i e r s p e r d a y - - f r o m d o u b l e to t r e b l e , t h e p r e s e n t a r e a c a p a c i t y . Tin's w i l l a l s o mean new r u n s , c h a i r l i f t s , d a y l o d g e s , i m p r o v e d g r o o m i n g and t h e l i k e . I n i t s f i n a l p h a s e , e s t i m a t e d a s 8 t o 9 y e a r s f r o m t h e s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e V i l l a g e Company w i l l p r o v i d e 3 0 0 0 v i s i t o r b e d s f o r summer t o u r i s t s and w i n t e r s k i e r s , d o r m i t o r y s p a c e t o q u a l i t y h o t e l s and m o t e l s , i n an a r e a o f 100 a c r e s now usee! for t h e m o s t p a r t , a s a p a r k i n g l o t . The V i l l a g e Company w i l l p r o v i d e a f u r t h e r 500 beds i n t h e l o w e r V i l l a g e s i t e a d j a c e n t to t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y . On t h e w e e k e n d s , w i l l t h i s mean 3000 t o 4000 more s k i e r s on t h e s l o p e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e Weekend s k i e r s ? No, i t w i l l n o t . S t u d i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l s k i v a c a t i o n a r e a s , f o r e x a m p l e , Sun V a l l e y , A s p e n , Snow M a s s , and V a i l show a h i g h e r m i d week t h a n weekend u t i l i z a t i o n o f s l o p e s . T h e same s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s k i v a c a t i o n e r s buy s k i - w e e k p a c k a g e s f r o m a S u n d a y e v e n i n g t o a F r i d a y e v e n i n g . T h e i r a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e p a t t e r n s l e a v e t h e m a j o r i t y o f a c c o m -m o d a t i o n and s k i - h i l l c a p a c i t y o p e n and a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e week-end s k i e r . QUESTION ( 4 ) ANSWER: I f y o u e r e c t b u i l d i n g s on t h e P a r k i n g l o t s w h e r e w i l l t h e c a r s be p a r k e d ? P a r k i n g s p a c e f o r e a c h g u e s t w i l l be a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a n y b u i l d i n g e r e c t e d on t h e s i t e . F o r t h e d a y s k i e r a f u r t h e r 700 s p a c e s o f o n - g r a d e p a r k i n g w i l l be p r o v i d e d . ' T h e s e s p a c e s w i l l become d e c k e d p a r k i n g a s t h e n e e d a r i s e s . 2 QUESTION ( 5 ) Why c a n ' t t h e L a k e L o u i s e S k i A r e a e x p a n d t o meet t h e w e e k e n d n e e d s w i t h o u t a V i l l a a e ? ANSWER: E x p a n s i o n w i t h o u t a V i l l a g e i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y i m p o s s i b l e . T h e weekend s k i e r s i m p l y c a n n o t pa y t h e e n t i r e d e b t b u r d e n f o r t h e u p g r a d i n g o f ' o l d , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new, s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; The S k i s e a s o n f r o m December 1 8 t h t o May 1 s t has 135 d a y s - - o n l y 52 o r 3 3 . 5 % o f w h i c h a r e w e e k e n d s an d h o l i d a y s . The L a k e L o u i s e S k i A r e a , i f o p e r a t e d a t 1 0 0 % c a p a c i t y f o r t h i s 3 8 . 5 % ( w h i c h i t c a n n o t ) and o n l y a t 7.7% o f c a p a c i t y f o r t h e o t h e r 6 1 . 5 % o f i t s o p e r a t i n g s e a s o n ( w h i c h i t d o e s ) , w i l l be u n a b l e t o g e n e r a t e s u f f i c i e n t p r o f i t s t o f i n a n c e t h e up-g r a d i n g o f e x i s t i n g s k i a r e a f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new s e r v i c e s . The weekend s k i e r w i l l ' b e f a c e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d c r o w d i n g and g r a d u a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . A l o w , t o n o n - e x i s t e n t r e t u r n o n c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i s n o t u n u s u a l i n weekend s k i a r e a s . ( M e l B o r g e r s e n i n t h e 1968 s t u d y "A F i n a n c i a l S t u d y o f P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t S k i A r e a s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e P r o p o s e d G r a d u a t e d R a t e Fee S y s t e m " n o t e s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l r e t u r n on i n v e s t -ment f r o m 1963 t o 1967 a f t e r i n t e r e s t and b e f o r e t a x e s o f a r e a s w i t h o v e r $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . i n g r o s s f i x e d a s s e t s was o n l y 2 . 0 2 % f o r • t h e 12 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e a s . ) M a s s i v e p r i c e i n c r e a s e s a r e no s o l u t i o n as s k i e r s w o u l d s i m p l y go e l s e w h e r e . The o n l y p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n i s t o f i l l t h e s k i a r e a s on t h e empty d a y s . T h e r e f o r e , on t h e s i t e a c c o m m o d a t i o n and t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f s k i - w e e k c l i e n t e l e i s a n e c e s s i t y . QUESTION ( 6 ) W i l l t h e V i l l a g e Company t h i n k " s k i e r s " o r be t o t a l l y o r i e n t e d t o commerce? ANSWER: Vie f e e l t h a t we t h i n k " s k i e r " b u t t o c o n t i n u e o u r e x i s t e n c e and t o g r o w we m u s t show a p r o f i t on i n v e s t m e n t . We f e e l t h i s y e a r ' s r e c o r d s p e a k s f o r i t s e l f : ( a ) The new E a g l e c h a i r and more s k i i n g on E a g l e . ( b ) Two new F l e x - T r a c N o d w e l l snow m a c h i n e s and i m p r o v e d g r o o m i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . ( c ) I m p r o v e d c a f e t e r i a and w a s h r o o m f a c i l i t i e s a t W h i t e h o r n and L i t t l e h o r n . ( d ) A l i f t s t a t u s n o t i f i c a t i o n b o a r d a l l o w i n g s k i e r s t o make t h e i r c h o i c e o f l i f t s o r s k i a r e a b e f o r e t h e y b u y t h e i r t i c k e t s . We f e e l t h e s e i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s , u n a c c o m p a n i e d by p r i c e i n -c r e a s e s , show t h a t we t h i n k " s k i e r " and t h a t o u r company c a n t h i n k i n t e r m s o f l o n g t e r m g a i n r a t h e r t h a n s h o r t t e r m p r o f i t . 3 N o t i c e of P u b l i c Mearinq L a k e L o u i s e A r e a B a n f f . N a t i o n a l P a r k A public hearing will be held in Calgary to hear comments on planning proposals for the Lake Louise area of Banff National Park, in particular on the development proposals of Village Lake Louise Ltd. The hearing will take place at the Holiday inn, March 9th and 10th (also March 11th if necessary), 1972, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. Purpose of the hearing Purpose of the hearing is to inform the public about the planning proposals for the Lake Louise area of Banff National Park, to receive written and oral comments on them, and to hear recommendations for other approaches. Interested individuals and representatives of organizations or groups are invited to submit written briefs, in either official language, expressing their views on the proposals. A brief may take the form of a simple narrative statement, a letter or any other format. Authors are requested to submit briefs prior to, at the hearing or by March 24 at the latest. There is no intent to review each brief or to discuss it in detail during the proceedings. Rather, the objective is to receive and record all material for consideration immediately .following the hearing. Conduct of the hearing • The hearing will begin with a presentation of the key features of the planning proposals. Speakers will then be heard. They may address the meeting in either official language. Speakers who submit written briefs are requested to confine their remarks to a summary of their briefs. Those wishing to speak without submitting a written brief may do so subject to the number of requests received. Time limitations may make it necessary to restrict organizations to one speaker each. Each speaker will be allowed a maximum of 10 minutes. To ensure that all who wish to speak may do so, general discussion, debate or questioning between members of the audience or with the panel will not be possible. However, speakers may be questioned by the Chairman should any points require clarification. Report of the hearing . Following the hearing contents of written briefs and statements, as well as transcripts of the proceedings, will be thoroughly evaluated before any decisions are made. Al l who participate in the hearing will receive a copy of the report containing decisions made as a result of the hearing. Copies of Departmental Statement and of the Villnge Lake Louise Ltd. proposal Copies of the information kit containing these documents can be obtained for S1.00 per kit (money order or cheque payable to the Receiver General of Canada). Requests for these or ' for additional information (including copies of the National Parks Act and National Parks Policy), which may be required for the preparation of briefs are to be mailed to: Briefs The Regional Director, Western Region, National and Historic Parks Branch, 131 Customs Building, 1 1 tit Avenue and 1st Street S.E., Calgary 21, Alberta. Registration Written brief* and requests to speak at the hearings are to be mailed to: Public Hearings Office. Nations! and Historic Parks Branch, 400 Laurier Avenue West,* Ottawa. Ontario K I A 0114 hiucj b\ i t i c N j t u . t i i j i 4i>j H i s t o r i c P a r k s [ W a n c h APPENDIX H L e t t e r From V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . t o "Dear F r i e n d " , February 18, 1972 ( Contents o.f package - Rece ived Februa ry 25, 1972 B l u e Book - V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e Green Book - Dept . S ta tement : Lake L o u i s e P l a n n i n g Area Ban f f N a t i o n a l Park Jean C h r e t i e n l e t t e r - " I n 1965 a p l a n f o r N o t i c e o f P u b l i c Hea r i ng Pamphlet - " T h i s i s V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e (Note : Lake L o u i s e photo backvra.rds) Bahen l e t t e r "Ue a r e send ing you (No maps i n c l u d e d ) APPENDIX I Lette r From Imperial O i l Limited to the Company's Alberta Shareholders, February 23, 1972 APPENDIX I I AI I' K K J A I . O i l . I. I A l I "I I' I * 111 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto,"Canada R O N A L D S . R I T C H I E s . n t ^ P ^ ^ n t c ^ D i ^ February 23, 1972 V i l l a g e Lake Louise You w i l l no doubt have heard or read of Imperial's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the proposed Lake Louise development and I thought i t might be appropriate to send you, as one of our A l b e r t a shareholders, some b r i e f corrments. There i s considerable p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n about the proposal and, of course, soma organized o p p o s i t i o n from groups who oppose f a c i l i t a t i n g use of National Parks by the s i g n i f i c a n t number of Canadians who have shown t h e i r d e s i r e to v i s i t them. I t was because of the needs of these s e v e r a l m i l l i o n s of v i s i t o r s annually to Banff N a t i o n a l Park that the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch of the Federal Government began i n the m i d - s i x t i e s to seek a proper redevelopment plan f o r the Lake Louise area. In due course, they i n v i t e d proposals , and your company, i n partnership with Lake Louise L i f t s L i mited responded. (Lake Louise L i f t s Limited has f o r many years operated the s k i area at Lake Louise.) Since then a d e t a i l e d proposal has been worked out i n c l o s e conformity with the g u i d e l i n e s the Parks Branch has had In mind. Imperial b e l i e v e s that the completed concept w i l l g r e a t l y improve the p r e s e n t townsite on the v a l l e y f l o o r "at Lake Louise. I t w i l l r e s t o r e much of the s i t e to i t s more n a t u r a l s t a t e . An upper v i l l a g e Is projected f o r the s i t e of the p r e s e n t s k i area p a r k i n g l o t , thereby a v o i d i n g new encroachment on the environment. ..2 ( ( From the National Parks P o l i c y Statement of 1969 i n the s e c t i o n on " S p e c i a l Events and F a c i l i t i e s Related to Townsites." Apart from'any n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s that a park may have to be host to i n t e r n a t i o n a l s k i i n g competitions, there i s an o b l i g a t i o n to provide s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r Canadians. Parks c o n t a i n c e r t a i n areas that are a c c e s s i b l e and which provide e x c e l l e n t s k i i n g . These c o n d i t i o n s are not a v a i l a b l e i n many cases other than i n Parks, xn the i n t e r e s t of p r o v i d i n g h e a l t h f u l x e c x e a t i o n ; j and o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , s k i i n g should be permitted and encouraged i n Parks having those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but the emphasis should be on mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s k i i n g f o r the average s k i e r i n family groups. From the 1969 Enquiry of the United Nations on Nat i o n a l Parks and Equivalent Reserves i n i t s Memorandum s e c t i o n " P r o t e c t i v e S t a t u s . " • i . Among those exceptions which may be admitted to the r u l e of absolute p r o t e c t i o n are allowances which are made necessary by f a c i l i t i e s f o r tourism, as t h i s is-one of the main reasons f o r the exis t e n c e ; < of n a t i o n a l parks. These include the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of networks of roads and the more or l e s s l a rge areas occupied by h o t e l s or other lodges, and consequently the c u l t i v a t i o n of vegetables and ornamental plants and, i n general, a l l the disturbance a r i s i n g from such economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the n a t u r a l environment (aerodrome, r a i l r o a d , power l i n e s , telephone l i n e s , pleasure p o r t s , sports grounds, g o l f l i n k s , tennis c o u r t s , e t c . ) . APPENDIX J Covering L e t t e r From the Honourable Jean C h r e t i e n Accompanying the I n f o r m a t i o n K i t P r o v i d e d to the P u b l i c by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch APPENDIX K L e t t e r t o Mr. Ronald S. R i t c h i e , S e n i o r V i c e -P r e s i d e n t and D i r e c t o r , I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , Concerning the A t t i t u d e o f V i l l a g e Lake Loui s e L i m i t e d to P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , F ebruary 25, 1973 APPENDIX K Mr. Ronald S. R i t c h i e , Senior Vice-President and D i r e c t o r , Imperial O i l Limited, Dear Mr. R i t c h i e : I am a graduate student i n the School of Community and Regional Planning at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r e n t l y working towards my M.A. At present I am developing a t h e s i s on the subject of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the V i l l a g e Lake Louise proposal. In looking at the V i l l a g e concept, I am not attempting to debate the pros or cons of the proposal nor the f i n a l d e c i s i o n ; rather, I am t r y i n g to derive from my a n a l y s i s lessons which can be learned and possibly applied to s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n future. I am assuming that the p u b l i c hearings and submitted b r i e f s were instrumental i n a f f e c t i n g the f i n a l d e c i s i o n ; however, I do not see the case as a triumph for p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n because the problem i n i t i a l l y confronted - the p r o v i s i o n of a v i s i t o r s ervices centre - remains unresolved. It i s my understanding that V i l l a g e Lake Louise L t d . adopted the strategy of not i n v o l v i n g various i n t e r e s t groups during the planning process p r i o r to the January 25, 1972, press conference and u n v e i l i n g of the model. I have noted that during the A p r i l , 1971, p u b l i c hearings on the Mountain Parks P r o v i s i o n a l Master Plans, several questions were r a i s e d about the V i l l a g e proposal and c e r t a i n reasons for opposition were given. These reasons were r e i t e r a t e d at the March, 1972, p u b l i c hearing, a forum which I consider to have serious inherent weaknesses as a mechanism for reasoned public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any planning s i t u a t i o n . I would be very g r a t e f u l i f you could inform me of the c o n s t r a i n t s which V i l l a g e Lake Louise Limited considered i t faced i n deciding not to seek outside involvement i n the planning of the v i s i t o r services centre, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the fact that i n t e r e s t had been expressed about the V i l l a g e proposal at the Master Plan hearings. I b e l i e v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can sometimes be a u s e f u l element i n planning; however, I also recognize some of the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of such involvement - one of the most c r i t i c a l a r i s i n g - 2 -from the need f or e f f i c i e n c y i n planning which a poorly designed p u b l i c involvement programme could s e r i o u s l y hinder. I would very much appreciate any c l a r i f i c a t i o n you might be able to provide on the issue which I have r a i s e d . I r e a l i z e that there are many demands upon your time but any information or advice you can provide me on the Company's perspective v i s a v i s pu b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e i t h e r as i t operated or might have operated would be very h e l p f u l . Yours s i n c e r e l y , John J . O'Brien APPENDIX L L e t t e r From Mr. Ronald S. R i t c h i e , S e n i o r V i c e -P r e s i d e n t and D i r e c t o r , I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , Concerning the A t t i t u d e o f V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L i m i t e d to P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , A p r i l 9, 1973 APPENDIX L I M P E R I A L O I L L I M I T E D R O N A L D S. RITCHIE Senior Vice-President and Director A p r i l 9, 1973 Mr. John J . O ' B r i e n , Dear Mr. O ' B r i e n : P l e a s e a c c e p t my a p o l o g i e s f o r t h e l o n g d e l a y i n r e p l y i n g t o you r l e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 25 r a i s i n g some q u e s t i o n s about p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e p r o j e c t . T r a v e l commitments have k e p t me p r e t t y s t e a d i l y away f r o m T o r o n t o o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l weeks. I must a g r e e w i t h you t h a t t h e k i n d o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g h e l d i n C a l g a r y on t h e V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e p r o p o s a l s i n March 1972 i s not t h e most c o n s t r u c t i v e forum f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, I have no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t some s u c h p u b l i c forum i s not n e c e s s a r y . Indeed, some v e r y u s e f u l p u r p o s e s were s e r v e d and, had t h e p r o j e c t gone ahead, i t would have been a l t e r e d i n some r e s p e c t s t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f i d e a s b r o u g h t out a t t h e h e a r i n g . I am somewhat a t a l o s s as t o how t o r e s p o n d t o y o u r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e L i m i t e d f a c e d " c o n s t r a i n t s . . . i n d e c i d i n g not t o seek o u t s i d e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s c e n t r e . . " . F i r s t o f a l l , we d i d se e k t h e b e s t c o n s u l t i n g a d v i c e we c o u l d g e t on q u e s t i o n s h a v i n g t o do w i t h e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e whole e n v i r o n m e n t o f the P a r k ' s s e t t i n g . Those who a d v i s e d us were w e l l known t o be i n d e p e n d e n t i n t h e i r v i e w s and d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e use o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s . Some o f them were i n c l o s e c o n s u l -t a t i o n w i t h c r i t i c s o f t h e whole p r o j e c t . The a d v i c e C o n t ' d . . . . APPENDIX M Sketches o f the Conceptual Master Plans o f V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e - Upper and Lower V i l l a g e s . 

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